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Savages of an entirely unknown tribe; living in the depths 
of the forest near volcano Apo 











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To th^. Presideiyt, 

Sir: We have the honor to transmit to you herewith Volumes III 
and IV, together with the accompanying- atlas of the Philippine 
Islands, being the final volumes of the report to you of this commission. 
Very respectfully, yours, 

Jacob Gould Schurmann, 
George Dewey, 
Elwell S. Otis, 
Charles Denby, 
Dean C. Worcester, 

John R. Mac Arthur, 

Secretary and Counsel. 
December 20, 1900. 


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Paper I. — Chorography _ 8 

II.— Orography _. 129 

III.— Hydrography _ .. .. . . 153 

Part first— Marine Hydrography. . 157 

Part second— Terrestrial Hydrography. 201 

IV.— Mineral Resources and Geology 229 

v.— Botany _. .._. 241 

VI.— Timber and Fine Woods.. 285 

VII.— Zoography .._ _ 305 

VIII.— Ethnography 329 

Part first — Origin of the Philippine Peoples 333 

Part second— Characteristics of the Races Inhabiting the 

Philippines 347 

IX.— Ethology _.. 387 

X. — Idiomography 395 

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It was proposed in the beginning simply to reproduce in this collec- 
tion of papers the chorography of the Philippines by P. Beranaria 
(Society of Jesus), judging it to be the best of all published up to the 
present time; but considering the resulting size of the last parts of the 
physical geography — that is to say, the orography, the hydrography, 
and the climatology, which were simply mentioned in the geography 
of this author — it was deemed best to amplify the present treatise on 
chorography. In the composition of this paper we have made use of 
the most recent work;^ that is to say, the last volume of the Official 
Guide of the Philippines, published in 1898, the Spanish-American 
Encyclopedic Dictionary, and several memoirs and articles relating to 
the Philippines, written by persons acquainted with the country. 

We have found marked discrepancies among the various authors who 
have written upon the chorography of the Philippines in three points: 
First, in geodetic measurements and measurements of areas and the 
census of the various islands, cities, towns, and of the various races, 
and in the spelling or orthography of the names of islands, towns, 
mountains, rivers, etc. In regard to measurements we have generally 
accepted those published by the Geographical Institute of Madrid. 
In regard to census we have given the preference to the data found in 
the most recent parochial books of registry, they seeming to us the 
truest sources of exact information in this matter. In regard to 
orthography of proper names we have adopted that which seemed to 
us most generally accepted and correct, consulting in doubtful cases 
the pronunciation of the natives, who, however, do not always seem 
to be in accord. The only recourse seems to be to use that orthogra- 
phy which agrees best with the tendencies of the dialects or languages 
spoken in the regions, towns, or islands where doubtful orthography 

The chorographic data relative to civil, military, and ecclesiastical 
organizations which existed before the 1st of May, 1898, have been 
united in the introduction, not alone to avoid repetition in the partial 
chorographic descriptions of each region, but because they no longer 
exist at the present time on account of the change of sovereignty in 
the islands. 

Observatory of Manila, 
December 8, 1899, 

^The data in reference to the Visayas, Mindanao, and Jolo we owe in large part to 
the diligence of Padre Baltazar Ferrer, S. J., of the Observatory of Manila. 


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The Philippine Archipelago is a group composed of many islands 
situated in the most northern part of the great Asiatic archipelago, 
within the North Torrid Zone, between 4*^ 4' and 20^ 8' north lati- 
tude and 116^ 4' and 126^ 34' east longitude from the meridian of 
Greenwich. It is surrounded on th6 north and west by the China 
Sea, on the east by the Pacific Ocean, and on the south b}^ the Sea of 
Celebes. From the extreme point of land on the northeast to the China 
coast is a distance of 630 kilometers. The nearest land on the north 
is the island of Formosa, on the east the Palaos Islands, on the south- 
east the Molucca Archipelago, on the south the island of Ceh^bes, on 
the southwest the island of Borneo, and on the west Cochin China. 

The AYaters Avhic^i surround it are very deep, not far from the east 
coast the Pacific being from 4,000 to 6,000 meters in depth. 'Die Jolo 
Sea, between Mindanao and flolo, reac^hes a depth of 4,069 mc^ters, oil 
the Celebes 3,750 to 4,755, and not far from the south coast of Min- 
danao the depth reaches 5,000 meters; nevertheless, the Philippin(\s 
are united to the Asiatic archipelago at three points whc^'e the straits 
tilled with islands reach ]>ut little depth, namely, north of P>()rneo by 
the islands of J^alabac and Paragua, on the northeast of Borneo by the 
Jolo group, and on th<3 northeast of Celebes by the islands of Sanguir 
and Talut. Without dou!)t, therefore, the whole of the Philippine 
Archipelago belongs to the same geographical region as Born(H), 
Sumatra, Java, and the rest of the islands of the great Asiatic archi- 
pelago, and in consequence to Asia rather than to Oceania. Con- 
sidering, therefore, only geographical reasons, it is sufficient to note 
the analogy which the situation of the Sunda Islands, the Celebes, the 
Moluccas, and the Philippines ])ear to Asia and that which the Antilles 
bear to America. The former bound the interior China and Sunda 
seas, the latter the Mexican and Caribbean seas, bathing, respectively, 
the Asiatic and American coasts. According to this analogy, there- 
fore, if the latter belong to America the former belong to Asia. 


It is believed that the number of islands exceeds 1,400, although in 
truth up to the present time no one can state the exact number. For 
greater clearness and system in that which is to be said in this paper, 
we shall consider the archipelago divided into the following parts or 

First. Luzon and the contiguous islands.^ 

Second. The principal islands adjacent to Luzon. 

Third. The Visayan Islands and those adjacent to them. 

Fourth. Mindanao and the adjacent islands. 

^ Spanish- American Encyclopoedic Dictionary, vol. VIII, p. 371. 


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Fifth. The eTolo group. 

Sixth. Paragua, Dumaran, and Balabac, and the islands adjacent to 


We take the data in regard to the territorial division, area, and 
number of inhabitants from the corresponding volume of the census 
of the population of Spain, according to the official census made 
December 31, 1887, and published in 1891 by the Institute of Geogra- 
phy and Statistics, conforming thus to the division already given. 
This data is at the present time but relative in regard to the census. 

Geographical situation. 

I'roviiioes, districts, and 

Cagayan and Palani Islands. . 

Uocos, north 


Uocos, south 



Lepanto a 

Nueva Vizcaya 






Nueva Ecija 






Morong and Calim 

Infanta and adjacent islands. 

La Laguna and Laguna dc Bay 

Tayabas and adjacent islands 

Batangas, Laguna, and adja- 
cent islands 

Ambos Camarines and adja- 
cent islands 

Cavite and Corregidor 

Albay, Catanduanes, and ad- 
jacent islands 



Archipelago of Batanes and 

Babuyanes d 

Mindoro and adjacent islands: 

L^bang, Bugayao, Uing, 

MarinduQue, Semerara, 

Sibay ana Caluya 


Masbate and Ticao e 

Archipelago of Calamia- 
nes and of Cuyos d 

Latitude north. 

From — 


o / 

o / 

17 4 
17 () 
17 1 
IG 9 

17 1 
IG 7 
IG 1 
IG 1 
IG 1 

14 7 

15 G 
15 7 
15 2 
15 2 
14 8 
14 G 
14 4 
14 3 
14 2 
14 3 
13 8 
13 2 

18 G 
IG «; 

17 9 
17 5 
17 4 
17 3 
17 1 
IG 9 
IG 9 
IG 4 
IG 3 
IG 2 
IG 1 
15 8 
15 3 
15 3 
14 9 
14 8 
14 8 
14 7 
14 7 
14 G 

13 G 

14 2 

13 2 

14 G 

14 2 
14 1 

12 8 
12 5 

13 5 
13 2 

18 8 


12 2 
12 7 
11 7 

13 5 
13 2 
12 7 

10 7 

12 3 

Fjougitude east of 

120 9 

120 4 

120 4 

120 3 

121 3 
120 9 
120 6 
120 8 
120 2 

120 4 

119 7 

121 2 

120 5 
120 1 
120 3 

120 G 


120 9 

121 2 

121 2 

120 5 

122 2 
120 G 

123 2 
123 8 

120 3 

122 9 

123 1 

119 7 

122 2 

120 9 

121 5 

120 7 

121 9 
121 4 

120 G 

121 1 
121 5 
121 7 
121 G 

122 8 

12:] 9 

124 1 


121 2 

Area in 

3, 328 
2, 837 

2, G90 
4, 384 
2, 229 
h 5, 3G3 
2, 208 
2, 9{)5 
2, G03 
5, 893 

3, 130 


4, 123 

10, 1G7 
6 508 
3, 897 


l*opu la- 

tion per 
of i>opu- 

9G, 357 



178, 258 

48, 302 

13, 985 

23, 945 

19, 379 

110, 0G4 

15, 734 

87, 275 

4, 198 

302, 178 


89, 339 

223, 902 

239, 221 

50, 781 


4G, 940 


1G9, 983 

109, 780 

311, 180 


195, 129 
98, 650 

10, 517 

G7, 656 








10. G 



6. 5 

105. 9 




99. 7 


6 7 


a We include data in regard to the comandancia of Tiagan, the same in regard to the ooman- 
dancias included in the other provinces. 

b There is probably an error in these numbers. The number given by Padre Baranera is prob- 
ably more correct — ^2,277 square kilometers. 

c This number is actually considerably greater. 

d Including all the group. 

e There must be an error in this number. We adopt the number published in the treatise on 
orography — 720 square kilometers. 

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Geolog leal aituatloi i — C( )i i tinned . 

rroviuces, diHtricts and 

Tanay and adjat;ont islands: 

Antique and Oagayan 

Capiz,Calaguan, (iigantcs, 

Sicogon and ('arabao... 

lloilo, Gulmanls, Hampu- 

lugA,n, Malagaban, J'an 

de Azucar, Cagabanjan, 

Cagu, etc 

Bohol and adjacent islands 
(Bohol, Minoco, Pinigan or 
Lapinig, I'anglao or Danls, 

Siquijor or Inegos) 

Cebii and adjacent islands 
(Cebii, Bantaydn, Guinta- 
cjin, Mactdn, Malapascua 

and Olango) 


Sdmar and adjacent islands 
(S^mar, Balicuatro, Batag 
Capul, Dalupirit or Puercos, 
Tamonjol or Malhon, Sa- 
guan or Lavang or Calainu- 
tang, Mauiconi, Parasjin, 
Buad Los Naranjos Mesa, 
Cagapula, and Limbancau- 


Leyte and adjacent islands 
( Leyte, Bilirjiii, ('iilunnagrm , 
Linmsua, Camotes, Carnasa, 
Gigantagan, Maripipi, I'a- 

naon, etc.) 

^ombl6n and adjacent islands 
(Ronibl6n, Banton, Maestre 
de Campo, Sibuyan, Simara, 
Tablas, and adjacent is- 
lands) 6 

Latitude north. 



Surigao and adjacent islands 
(Bucos, Dinagat, Hinatuan, 
Guipoo, Siargao, Sibunga, 
and various islands) 

Misamis and adpacent islands 
(Camaguin, Silina, and two 

Zamboanga and adjacent is- 
lands (Malinipa, Olutanga, 
Santa Cruz, Tigtauan, and 

Cottabato and Bongo 

Davao and adjacent islands 
(S^mal, Malipano, Talicud, 
Sarangani, and various is- 

Basilan and adjacent islands 
(Basilan group) 



First group— Balanguigui 
islands, 7 deserted. 

Second group— Jolo: 13 is- 
lands, 7 uninhabited 

Third group — Recuapons6n: 
8 islands, almost all deserted 

Fourth group — Panguratdn : 
23 islands, 12 deserted 

Fifth group— Tagbabas: 14 is- 
lands, deserted 

Sixth group— Tawitawl: 42 
islands, 30 deserted c 

Paragua and Dumaran 


9 4 
9 1 

6 8 
6 3 

5 6 

6 4 

4 5 

8 3 
7 8 

11 3 

11 6 

13 1 

9 8 
9 1 

8 1 

7 8 
6 8 

Longitude east of 


6 4 119 

11 5 
8 2 

123 3 
122 4 

125 1 
122 2 

121 9 
123 2 

123 9 

117 1 
116 8 

Area in 

124 G . 3,628 

124 fy 
123 6 

125 3 

126 6 
125 4 

123 3 
125 2 

126 3 
6 122 3 

121 4 

119 7 
117 1 

6, 582 

9, 976 







13,538 '■ 


194, 8<K) 

221, 9(i5 

504, 076 
rt 242, 433 

185, 386 

270, 491 

34, 828 

f 67,760 





tion per 
of popu- 





oThe number of inhabitants is actually much greater— according to the last oflacial guide 372,001. 
b Including all the Islands of the group. 
cSome reduce these six groups to four. 

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In regard to the number of inhabitants, which, according to the pre- 
vious statistics, reaches 5,985,124, it is necessary to observe that these 
statistics treat only of the inhabitants recorded in some way or other 
in civil records; in the parochial records, verified by greater time, there 
appears a larger number than in the civil census — differences due in 
part to the greater or less number of omissions, and to the more oi- less 
perfect knowledge of the number of pagans. It should be taken into 
account that this includes the number of inhabitants in the variotis 
islands and provinces. In an examination finished the latter part of 
1894 it appears that the population of the various islands included 
in the general government of the Philippinc^s is formed as follows: 

Population according to the parochial records (>, 414, 373 

Omissions and absentees (2 per cent) 1 23, 237 

Clergy 2, 051 

MiUUry 13, 640 

Navy - 3, 459 

C'arbineers (coast and cnstoms guard) 440 

Civil guard 3, 561 

Veteran civil guard 413 

Inmates of asylums 689 

Convicts - 702 


Chinese, registered ^ 49, ()96 

Absentees. 24, 848 

Europeans, Americans, and others 1 , 000 


Paragua and J olo Archipelago 1 00, 000 

Mindanao and Basilan 209, 000 

Pagans in Philippines: 

Subjugated 138, 000 

Independent tribes 692, 000 

Total 7, 782, 759 

This number, however, seems to l)e very near to the truth, even if 
it is reduced on account of omissions, al)sentees, iMoros, and pagans, who 
do not appear in the official census. There would have been a very 
slight increase in the population from 1877 to 1894, but, as the archbishop 
noted in 1887, the preceding ten years were full of calamities for the 
Philippines, so that the total annual increase was about eight-tenths of 
1 per cent, and from that time until 1894, inclusive, the archipelago 
has likewise suffered serious misfortunes, among which should be 
recorded epidemics of cholera, influenza, and smallpox. It is to be 
noted likewise, in regard to the political civil divisions of Luzon, that 
in certain of the provinces or districts mentioned there have recently 
been formed politico-military comandancias, which are briefly enume- 
rated to complete the list. 


Apayaos, situated to the north of the province of Cagayan de Luzon. 
Cabugaoan, likewise in the north of Luzon, is situated to the east of 
the comandancia of Apayaos. 

^ According to the data in the office of the secretary of the archbishop of Manila, 
at the beginning of the year 1898 the population estimated by the parochial priests 
was 6,559,998, according to which the sum total would be 7,928,384. 

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Amburavan, situated between the districts of Beiigiiet, Tiag-aii, 
l.epaiito, and the provinces of South Ilocos and Union. 

Itaves, ])etween the provinces of Cagayan and Isabela. 

Binatangan, on the east (^oastof the Island of Luzon, between Isabela 
and the district of Principe. 

Saltan, in the province of Isabehi. 

Llavac. likewise in the province of Isa))ela. 

Caya])a, (treated in 181)1, in thc^. island of Ijuzou, nc^ar tlu^ River Am- 
])ayan, near the provinces of Nueva Viscaya. 

Quiaiigan, just to the west of Li^panto. 

T\w area of thes(> coniandancias, and the niunber of inhabitants 
inclu(kHl in the area, are included in the pi-ovinces or districts in which 
they ai'(^ foiuid. 

We shall now take u\) the choroo;ra])hy of. each of tlu^ aforementioned 
islands, pro\ inces, and districts, allowitio- tlu^n space proportionally to 
their iinportanci^; o'ivino-, tirst, a general description of the island, its 
o'eogiapliical situation, its area, and treatino' brietly the nuni])er and 
chara( t(M' of its iidiabitaiits and its politico-civil division into provinc(^s, 
districts, and comandaiicias: afterwards, if tlie island is a laro\^ one, 
Ave shall divide it into various re,i>'ions, discussing" tliese individually, 
be^innino- with those found farthest to the north, and continuino- 
to follow this plan accoi'dinu to the atlas of the Fhilippiiuvs. We 
shall leaA'c out hydrooraphic and orooraphic descriptions, which the 
reach^r will iind in thv papers on hydrography and orography, con- 
fining ourselves especially to what may be called the politico-civil cho- 
rography, without omitting the data, and physical geography, which is 
not especially discussed in the other ])apers. such as the g(M:)graph- 
ical situations, dial(H*ts, or languages of the inhabitants, industries and 
products of the ditl'erent islands of the ])rovinces. 

M 1LI1 AK Y ( ) K(; AMZ A^J^ION . 


Th(^ army of the Philippines was com])osed of infantry, cav^alry, 
artillery, engineers, the civil guard, and the coast guard. There 
existed also the exinaitive branches of the sanitary and veterinar}^ 
de])artments of e(|uitation, the auxiliaries of the military offic^es, and 
tlu^ military clergy. For the organization and control of these forces 
there were a captain-genei'al and various d(»])artments, as follows: 
Infantry, cavalry, c\\\\ guard, artillery, engiiunu's, and that of army 
sanitation, togetluM* with an administrative body from the army, and 
military clergy. At the beginning of the yc^ar l.SJKS there existed the 
following divisions of operations: Mindanao, under the command of a 
general of division, the brigades Iligan and Jolo, the general coman- 
dancia of Manila and Moi'ong, and that of Laguna and Batangas, that 
of Cavite, and various flying coliunns which operated in other parts of 
the archipelago, commanded by generals of brigades or by colonels. 


The naval forces of the archipelago comprised the naval station and 
a squadi'on. The immediate commander of both of these was the gen- 
eral connnandant of the dockyard and fleet, a position held by a rear- 


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admiral of the navy. The naval station and its various branches and 
departments assumed direction of all affairs of this branch. The fleet 
had charge of the inspection, vigilance, and defense of the waters and 
coasts of the islands. The archipelago was divided into naval districts, 
at the head of which there was a commandant of varying rank, accord- 
ing to the importance of the district, who exercised at the same time 
the duties of harbor master of the most important port in his jurisdic- 
tion. The naval station included all necessary branches, with an 
arsenal established at Cavite, another in construction at Subig (Olon- 
gapo), a dry dock in Isabela de Basilan, and a dock at PoUok equipped 
with the necessary machine shops. The command of the naval station 
of the Philippines was held by a rear-admiral of the navy, who had 
at his order a general staff for the naval districts and one for the fleet. 
The next in command of the naval station was a captain of the navy of 
the first class, who was at the same time commandant of the arsenal at 
Cavite. The commandant was assisted by a captain of the navy of the 
economic board, composed of the leading officers of each branch, and 
the auditor's department, whic^h assisted in all matters of justice. 


The general board of the navy, composed of chiefs and oflicers who 
exercised command either in the naval station or on ships of the fleet; 
the engineering corps of the navy, represented by a chief engineer 
and two other officers of that body ; the corps of the artillery of the navy, 
in command of a commandant or lieutenant-colonel; the administrative 
board, composed of a deputy of the navy, the comptroller, and the 
accountants of the navy; the marine infantry, commanded by a 
lieutenant-colonel, composed of disembarking forces and companies; 
arsenal guards; the sanitary department of the navy, at the head of which 
there was a subinspector of the first class; the ecclesiastical corps of 
the navy; the judge-advocate's corps of the navy, which was formed 
of the auditor and the attorney and four assistants; the naval forces, 
composed of the ships' fleet, the comandancias of the navy, which were 
those of Manila and Iloilo, and depending upon those the districts of 
Pangasinan, Ilocos, Aparri, Marianas, the Caroline Islands, and Leyte, 
and the comandancia of the naval division of the south, and depending 
upon these the divisions and districts of Mindanao and Isabela. 


The fleet was composed of the following vessels: 

Two cruisers of the first class — the Reina Cristina and the Costilla, 

Two protected cruisers of the second class — Isla de Luzon and Isla 
de Cvba. 

Three cruisers of the second class — the Velasco^ the Don Jvxin de 
Austria,^ and the Don Antonio de Ulloa, 

Three cruisers of the third class — Ma/rques del Duero^ Elcano^ and 
General Lezo, 

Two gunboats of the first class — Quiros and Villalobos. 

Three transports — Mam^ila^ Oebu^ and General Alava. 

One steamer of the hydrographic commission — the Argos, 

Thirteen gunboats of the second class — Calamiam^s^ Parag^ta^ Sama/r^ 
Leyte^ Dvlusan^ Mariveles^ Arayat^ Pampanga^ Albay^ Manileno^ 
IBndoro^ Pana/y,, Callao^ and Mindanao, 

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Four gunboats of the third class — Otalora^ Urdaneta^ Basco^ and 

Four armed steam launches — Qyrcuera^ Almonte^ Lanao^ and General 

One tug — Rdpido, 

Three steam launches and two others for the exclusive use of the 
conunander in chief and the arsenal of Cavite, without counting those 
which were at Yap and at Isabela de Basilan. 

The marine infantry force of the station was as follows: 

A colonel (subinspector), a lieutenant-colonel of the first class, and 
the other chiefs and officers who formed the second battalion of the 
tirst regiment of this archipelago; also the company of arsenal guards 
who garrisoned Cavite and Subig. 

P C — VOL 3 — 01 2 

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Luzon, the largest and most northern of the islands of the Philip- 
pine Archipelago, is situated between latitude V2^ 82' and 18"^ 39' north 
and longitude 11 9"^ 42' and 124° 8' east from Greenwich. In form it is 
very irregular, elongated fi'om north to south and southeast, much 
wider at the north than at the south. It narrows very much at 14° 30'. 
where the Bay of Manila is situated; and very much more at 14°, where 
a narrow isthmus unites the larger and western part of the island witl 
the eastern. 


The coast of Luzon ^ presents a great number of irregularities. 
There is near the center and on the south, where there are large bays, 
excellent ports and harbors. From Point Negra, at the extreme north- 
west of the island, the const extends southwest to Cape Bojeador; it 
then turns to the south southeast and south southwest, and continues 
in this direction as far as Point Dile. In all of this part, of approxi- 
mately 1°— Cape Bojeador being 18 30' and Point Dile being 17° 34' — 
is found the Bay of Dirique, the ])ar of Cauit, Point Culili, Port Cur- 
rimao, the Gulf of (ian, the island of Badoc, and Point Solot, all 
belonging to the coast of the province of North llocos. The island and 
port of Salomague and the island of Pinget belong to the coast of the 
province of South llocos. 

At Point Dile the coast begins to form a curve toward the east, in 
which are the I)ay of Sol bet and ports San Estaban and Santiago. 
The coast contiiuKvs toward the south with a slight deviation as far as 
Point Darigayos almost in the same meridian as Point Dile. 

Before reaching Darigayos, at th(^. mouth of the river Am])urayan^ 
the province of South llocos c^ids and that of Union begins and 
extends almost in a straight line to the south, with a slight inclination 
toward the west, terminating at Point San Fernando. Here the east- 
ern coast of the (iulf of Lingayen begins. Toward the eastern end 
of this gulf, and near the mouth of the river Kabong, the province 
of Pangasinan begins. The provincial boundary between Pangasinan 
and Zam bales starts opposite the island of Cabalitian . From the vicinity 
of the island of Santiago or Purra the coast advances to the west and 
southwest, forming Cape Bolinao, and then continues toward the south 
without other notable varration than Point Arenas, the Bay of Agno, and 
Point Tambobo. At Point Caiman, somewhat to the south of the six- 
teenth parallel, and fronting Cuelbra Island it turns to the east to form 
the Bay of Dazol, on whose coast are seen points Bayamban, Banop, 

^ Encyclopedic Dictionary, Spanish and English, Vol. XI. 

Hosted by 



and Santa Cruz, in front of the islands Older and Younger Sisters. 
South of the shoal of Sabalay are Points Arenas and Bani, Port 
Masinfoe, the San Salvador and Macalabo Islands, and the points and 
reefs of Palaing. From here it inclines to the southeast and south - 
southeast as far as the mountainous peninsula which is hemmed in on 
the west by the Capones, Tabones, and Frail(\s Islands, which likewise 
includes on the west the Port of Subi^r. On the southeast of this pen- 
insula is the Port of Silanguin. 

Within the port of Subig is Alongapo, where the province of 
Bataan begins, forming, with the peninsula which limits it on the west, 
the Bay of Manila, whose coasts belong to the provinces of Bataan, 
Pampanga, Bulacan, Manila, and Cavite. , Leaving the Bay of Manila, 
toward the south is found the Gulf of Patungan, witli thc^. Carabao 
and Limbones Islands. At the head -of this bay the provinc^^ of 
Batangas begins. Farther to the south Port Jameto, Point Fuego, 
Fortun Island, Point San Diego, Talin, and Cape Santiago an* found. 
Fi-om this point, about 18^ 45' north latitude, the southern coast of 
Luzon presents the Gulf of Papagas, the I^ay of Balayan, Point 
Cazador, the island of Marica])an, the Bay of Batangas, Points Malocot, 
Arenas, Talajib, Rosario, Malabrigo, Puno, Malagundi, and Locoloco, 
and the little Gulf of Coloconto. At Point Puna tlu^ coast turns 
toward north-northeast, and east to form the gi'eat Gulf of Tayabas. 
At the north of San Juan de Bog])og, at the bar of Nay on, the*, coast 
of the province of Tayabas begins. From here it stretch (\s to the 
southeast and south, and Point Tuguian, the Bay of Catananan, the 
island of Mompog, the Port of Mulanay, the (julf of Agoin, Aguasa 
Bay, and Point Bondog, this being the extreme southcM'ii point of the 
great peninsula which bounds the Bay of Ragay on the west, at which 
point to the north and east the coast of Tayabas ends and that of 
South Camarines begins. The eastern coast of this bay advances to 
the south nearly to the thii'teenth parallel at Point Cad ouranan, where 
to the noi'th, and not far from Point Talo, is the boundary between 
South Camarines and Albay. After (lou})ling this point, Cadburanan, 
called also Point Panganiran, the coast extends to the east and south- 
east and forms an irregular peninsula, whose southern end is the 
extreme southern point of the island, 12^ 82'. 

Along this coast are the islands of Lanmyon and Solitario, the prom- 
ontory of (yatandalan, the port of Putiao, the great port of Sorsogon, 
and s(weral small bays. Doubling Points Langao and Babulgan, in the 
Strait of San Bernardino, the eastern coast of Luzon ])egins. The 
islands of (3alinton, laac, and Tictin are first seen, and to the north 
the prominent point of Binorongan and others, as far as Bingay, 
where the coast turns to the west to form the Bay of Albay, shut in on 
the north by the islands of Rapu-Rapu, Batan, and Cacraray. This, 
with the island of San Miguel and the coast north of the peninsula, 
which bounds the northern part of this bay, forms the Bay of Tobaco. 
Again the coast takes a direction north and northwest, and at Punta 
Gorda, somewhat to the south of the island of Atalayan, is the eastern 
boundary of the provinces of Albay and South Camarines. The coast 
then turns in a semicircle to form the Bay of Lagonoy and continues 
to the east as far as the Straits of Maqueda and Tacbun, where the 
Bay of Lugon and the Canaguan Islands are seen. 

At Point Panahonga, near the Pitogo Islands, the coast inclines 
toward the west and continues in this direction of west-northwest, with 

Hosted by 



great irregularities, as far as the Bay of Lamon. Along this distance 
are curved successively the islands of Matatarad, Lanquipao, Luesu- 
hin, Lahuy, and Quinabugan, Point Tinajuagan, the port of Sisiran, 
the islands of Quinalasag, Bacacay, Lamit, Sibanan, and Paniqui, the 
Point and port of Tanibang, Point Quinabucasan, the islands of Siruna, 
Canton, Caringo, Camino, and others, at the entrance to the great 
Bay of San Miguel. Along the western coast of this bay is the bound- 
ary between North and South Camarines and the island of Quinama- 
nucan, the Calagnas Islands, Cape Baluagan, and Point Pinagdungan, 
Paranquiran, and Tailon, Pulunibato and I'unco islands, the Bay of 
Mambulao, and various small islands; also the island of Jaulo and the 
Bay of Sugot, at the head of which is the boundary ])etween North 
Camarines and Tayabas. Much to the north are the island of elomalig, 
the peninsula which terminates in Point Dappal, the Balegin, Pasig, 
and Alabat islands, and the Bay of Apal. 

From the bay of Lamon, fronting the island of Calbalete, the coast 
of Luzon continues from south to north with some inclination to north 
northeast. It is tlu^ least known of any part of the island. Its coast 
line corresponds to the district or province of Infanta, and the most 
notable features of it are the royal port of Lampon and Point Inagui- 
can, fronting the southern part of the island of Polillo. Passing the 
northern boundary of Infanta, along the coast of Nueva Ecija, the Bay 
of Dingala is found; to the north of which, not far from Point Sua, the 
province of Principe begins. Here the coast begins to incline more 
to the northeast, and along it are seen Point Diotoring, the Bay of 
Dibut, Point Encanto, the Bay of Baler, the Bay of Casiguran, and 
the strait and long peninsula which terminate with the cape of San 

Somewhat to the north of this peninsula the coast of the province 
of Isabela begins. Here are seen the i^ay of Uilasac, or port of 
Tumango, and the Bay of Palanan. After describing the curve 
which forms this bay it goes almost due north, interrupted only by 
the small peninsula of Point Aubarade. Doubling quickly to the 
northwest and west, it forms the port of Dunalanson and the Bay of 
Divilican, and again takes the direction north and north northwest as 
far as 17^ 8(y north latitude, whi^re the province of Isabela ends and 
Cagayan begins. Without notable variation it passes latitude 18, 
turns to the northeast to form a curve, and takes a westerly direction 
at Point Escarpada. On the coast of North Luzon, from this point, 
are passed the island of Palani and Cape Engano, forming a great bay 
or curve towards the south, where the mouth of the river Cagayan is, 
and further to the- northwest the mouth of the river Pamplona is 
seen. It continues to the northeast as far as Point Cabiumgan, and 
at that point to Mayraira, farther to the west, which are the most 
northern points of Luzon. Between these two points, somewhat 
nearer the former, is the boundary between Cagayan and North Ilo- 
cos. Farther on, between points Dialao and Negra. is seen the Bay 
of Bangui. 


The total area, including the nearest adjacent islands, is 106,631 
square kilometers, and the number of inhabitants 3,432,424, according 
to the table which will be seen in the introduction. 

Hosted by 





The north of Luzon includes the provinces of Cagayan, near to 
the island of Palani, and the comandancias of Apayaos, Cabagaoan, 
and Itaves; North Ilocos and South Ilocos, with the comandancias of 
Amburayan and Tiagan; Abra, with the comandancia of Bontoc; Isa- 
bela, with the comandancias of Saltan and Lavac; Lepanto, with the 
comandancia of Quiangan; Union, Benguet, Nueva Viscaya, with the 
comandancia of Cayapa; and the district of Principe, with the c^oman- 
dancia of Binatangan. These provinces and districts, marked out on 
map No. 7 of the atlas of the Philippines, constitute the subject- 
matter of Chapter II. 


Includes the provinces of Zambales, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, 
Tarlac, Pampanga, Bulacan, and the district of Infanta, near to the 
island of Polillo. They are included in maps Nos. 8 and 12 of the atlas 
of the Philippines and are discussed in Chapter III. 


Includes the provinces of Bataan, Manila, Cavite, Morong, Laguna, 
and Batangas, and are indicated in map No. 9 and discussed in Chap- 
ter IV. 


Includes the provinces of Tayabas and North Camarines, shown in 
map No. 10 and described in Chapter V. 


Includes the provinces of South Camarines, Albay, and Sorsogon, 
indicated in map No. 11 and described in Chapter V. 


In the discussion of each one of the groups of provinces something 
is said of the nearest islands, leaving to Chapter VI the full discussion 
of the so-called ''adjacent islands," which are, in the order of their 
situation from north to south, the Batanes and Babuyanes Groups, 
Mindoro and its adjacent islands, Burias, Masbate and Ticao, the 
Calamianes Group, and Cuyos Group. Of the races which inhabit these 
islands and their languages brief mention will be made in the discus- 
sion of the various provinces, but only by way of description, with- 
out taking up philological or other considerations, which the reader 
will hnd in Paper 7, where the ethnology of the Filipinos is treated 
in full. As the products of these islands are so varied, as also the 
industry and commerce of the various provinces, these points will be 
touched upon in the description of each separate province, the reader 
being refeiTed to the special paper- on the commerce and industries of 
the Philippines, Paper II. 

Hosted by 




[Map No. 7 (>r the atlas of the Philippines.] 



This province is v^ery large and rich, and is one of the oldest in the 
archipelago. On the north it is bathed by the China Sea, })()unded on 
the south by Isabela, on the east by the Pacific Ocean, and on the west 
l)y Itaves and Apayaos and North Ilocos. The country is broken with 
high mountains covered with vt^getation. Between the low mountains 
and the elevated chains there are extensive but irregidar valleys, with 
calcareous and c-^iy or granite^ soil. There are about iifty rivers and 
creeks, which water th(>se valleys. There is a notaT)le grotto in the 
island of Quira. 


The area of this province is 13,9()8 scpiare kilometers. Thc^ inhabit- 
ants iuun])er 1)(),8^)T. The province is inhabited })v various races, the 
pagans usually occupying the mountains and the more inaccessibk> 
coast of the Pacific. The Aetas, or Negrito race, inhabit the eastern 
chain of the Sierra Madre Mountains on the Pacific side. The Irayas 
occupy the western side of this chain. The (xadanes occupy the 
country 1)etween the Chico and Magat rivers. The Calingas^ are 
found between the Kio (Irande and the Apayao River and Mount 
Abulug. The Apayaos are found in the great central chain of Luzon; 
the Itaves toward the south of the province. The Calanas, Naba- 
guyanes, Catalanganes, Itetapanes, and I^ayadas are found in the 
mountain regions. The (xumaanes live in the highest mountains 
between Abra and Cagayan. T'he Christian natives are called Caga- 
yanes. A certain number of immigrants from Ilocos are also found. 
Many of the civilized inhabitants are descendants of this race; others 
come from other races and provinces of the archipelago, and consti- 
tute, with the Cagayanes, the nucleus of the population of the towns. 
The natives are pacific and afi'able, and are considerate of their guests. 

The capital is Tuguegarao, situated near the Rio Grande, toward the 
south of the province, and numbers 17,358 inhabitants. The church and 
government houses are of stone, and the public scjuare is one of the 
largest in the entire archipelago. The principal town is Aparri, with a 

^Calinga in the Ibanag language means ''enemy," and is applied at times to the 
savages of the valley of the Rio Grande de (Cagayan. This word is usually used 
to indicate the pagans, who inhabit this zone. 

Hosted by 



population of 11,665, situated at the mouth of the Rio Grande, the port 
of which is very shallow, and only small steamers can enter the mouth 
of the river with safety during the months from Novemhc^r to January. 
From Aparri, going up the riv^er, the following towns are successively 
encountered: Camalanigan, with a population of 5,171; Lal-lo, which 
formerly was the P]piscopal see of Nueva Segovia, with 5,707 inhabit- 
ants; Gattaran, with 2, .'AS inhabitants; Nassiping, with 885; Aicala, 
with 6,087; Amulung, v^jth 6,498, and Iguig, with 4j)It>. All of 
these towns arc^, found on the eastern side of the ri\'(vr. On the west- 
ern side, almost in the southern limit of the proA ince, is found the 
town of Enrile, with a population of 6,000. To the north of Enrile is 
Solana, with a population of 5,000, andTuao, on the })anks of the River 
Chico, with a population of •1:,025. Toward tiie north thc^ towns of 
greatest importance are Pamplona, with 8,4+1 inhabitants, and Cla- 
veria, with about 2,000. The total numb^M* of towns is 22, there being 
also 180 villages or hamlets and 148 hamh^ts of subjugated intidels. 

In the vi(^inity of Tuguegarao, Ibanag is commonly spokiui. T'he 
people of the town its(4f speak Itaves, and the Negritos spends Idayan, 
or Acta. On the opposite side of the river from 4'uguegarao, in the 
vicinity of P]nrile, the Gaddane language is spoken. In Aicala, as most 
of the families constituting the population have inuuigrated from 
Tlocos, the Ilocos language is spoken almost exclusively. In the north 
and on the eastern bank of the Rio Grande. Ibanag is generally 
spoken, and is considered to be the language^ of the most cultivated 
people, and is the same as the Gagayan, which is spoken in many parts 
of the province. In the hamlets on the west(M*n side of the river, 
Itaves, Apayao, and Mandayo are spoken, and Maiudeg is spoken in 
the southern part. 


The principal and most valuable product is to})acco, of which 800,000 
bales, valued at more than $1,000,000, are aniuially exported. The 
best quality is produced in the vicinity of Itaves, where there still 
remain large uncultivated areas, whose cultivation could easily double 
the production of this valuable commodit3\ There are most excellent 
woods, but on account of the bi'oken and mountainous character of 
the country they are difficult to obtain. The natives take a certain 
amount to the towns, dragging it along with carabaos as far as the 
rivers or creeks, from whence it is taken down in rafts or baranga- 
yanes.^ The principal kinds are camalayad, brenga, })amalalian, and 
alin, which is employed in the construction of small boats, molave, 
ipil, narra, camagon, cedro, ebano, palo-maria, and others, which are 
eiriployed in the construction of houses and furniture. In addition to 
tobacco, rice, corn, and nipa are cultivated. It is, however, necessary 
to import rice and other food stuffs, because that raised is not suf- 
ficient to maintain the inhabitants. The industries are represented 

^ See plate 1, which represents a pontoon bridge over the river Tinacanacian, on 
the plantation of San Antonio. We are indebted for this photograph and others in 
this chapter to the kindness of Don Arnando Villenier, chief of the Compania General 
de Tobacos de Filipinas. 

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by blacksmith and carpenter shops; distilleries for the distillation 
of wine from nipa; fisheries; salt-making establishments; rice mills; 
and a few ordinary looms for the weavin^^ of fabrics, which are used 
in the manufacture of clothing and the manufacture of mats from 
buri. There are in the province about 80,000 head of live stock, of 
which 32,000 are carabaos, 21,000 cattle, 14,000 hogs, and 13,000 
horses. Some stone quarries are worked, and it is said that there are 
copper mines in the volcanic chain of Magnipit. 

The roads which lead from Tuguegarao to Cabagan, in Isabela; from 
Llao to Aparri; from Llao to Alcala and to Tuguegarao; from Tugue- 
garao to Carig; from Tuao to Piat, and from Piat to Tabang are always 
in good condition and permit of the passage of carriages. Those 
which unite the other towns with each other can be used only by 
horses. These paths and roads are impassable during the rainy sea- 
son. Rivers are crossed by means of bridges of balsas or rafts. 


The island of Palani, separated from the northeastern extremity of 
Cagayan by a narrow strait, is of medium height and with very rugged 
coasts; it is about 5 miles long from north to south and 2^ miles wide. 
Cape Engano, formed by its northeastern extremity, is of medium 
elevation, and its southern point, which is at the same time the point 
west of Point San Vicente, is an elevated and rounded mountain. 
The point which forms Cape Engano has in front a short coral reef, 
from which are visible two rocks called the ''Two Sisters." The larger 
and most northern of these is about one-quarter of a mile wide and 
about one-half mile from the cape. The coast to the west of the 
island is rugged and inaccessible to the point. To the northeast are 
two islands, the largest and most distant being called the Isla del Cabo, 
or BigLaja, and which is an inaccessible square of lava, approximately 
one-half mile long, and can be seen at a distance of 27 miles. The 
water in sight of this island is from 15 to 20 meters deep. There is 
at Cape Engano a light-house of the first class, showing groups of 
white lights. 


This politico-military comandancia, situated on the eastern side of 
the grand central chain of mountains of the north, is bounded on the 
north by Claveria, Pamplona, and Abulug; on the east by Llao and 
Gattaran, as far as the junction of the Kio Chico with the Cagayan 
River; on the south by the left bank of the Rio Chico, and on the 
west by the slopes of the grand mountain chain of the north. The 
population is about 16,000, and includes about 40 villages. The prin- 
cipal towns are Fotol and Capinatan. 


The plitico-military comandancia is bounded on the north by the 
towns of Pamplona, Claveria, and Abulug; on the east by the coman- 
dancia of Apayaos; on the south by Abra, and on the west by North 

Hosted by 




This politico-military comandancia, organized in 1889, is bounded on 
the north by the legal limits of the Apayaos tribe, and on the east by 
the limits of the towns of Reina Mercedes, Gamu, Ilagan, Hacienda 
de Santa Isabel, Fumanin, Cabagan Nueva, and Viejo, Santa Maria, 
p]nrik>, Solana, Fuao, Piat, and Manaleg in its western mountains, 
which join with the Apayaos tribe on the south at the legal boundary, 
along the watershed north of the mountains of Bunginan, on the west 
by the boundaries of the provinces of Albay and Bontoc. It contains 
more than 15,000 inhabitants. The principal town is Magogao. 
There are in Itaves more than 126 villages, formed for the most part 
by the Calanas, who speak the Itaves language.^ 


This province is bounded on the north and west by the China Sea, on 
the south by South Ilocos, on the east by the central mountain chain, 
as far as its termination at the China Sea, which separates it from 
Gagayan and from Abra. Its greatest length from north to south is 19 
leagues. The country is mountainous and much broken, with excel- 
lent and varied vegetation. 


The area of this province is 3,324 square kilometers, inhabited by 
some 163,349 persons, according to the civil census. A certain nuni- 
ber of the Apayaos tribe, Tinguianes, and Igorrotes also inhabit this 
province, but the majority of the population is composed of Indians, 
called Ilocanos. 


Laoag, which means "clearness," because the sky and atmosphere 
are always clear, is the capital, has a population of 28,122, and extends 
for about 3 miles along the seashore and along the river of the 
same name, on an extensive plain, having some hills. About the center 
is an excellent church and hospital and many houses well constructed. 
San Nicolas, to the south of Laoag, on the opposite bank of the river, 
has 9,584 inhabitants. San Miguel, farther in the interior, on the 
bank of the same river, has 8,993 inhabitants. Dingras, still farther 
in the interior, but also near to the river, has 11,547 inhabitants. 
Piddig, to the north of Dingras, has a population of 10,579. Bacarra, 
not far from the sea, on the bank of the river of the same name, has a 
population of 12,343. To the south of San Nicolas is the important 
town of Batac, containing more than 19,000 inhabitants; and to the 
south of Batac, on the seacoast, is the port of Currimao. Pasay, 
between Batac and Currimao, has a population of 12,153. Farther to 
the south, and on the seacoast, is the town of Badoc, with a popula- 
tion of 9,000. The principal town of the north is Bangin, with a 

^ Plates 2, 3, 4, and 5 will give some idea of the general aspect of the country in 
the extreme north of Luzon. They all come from the plantation owned by the 
Compania General de Tobacos, called San Antonio, situated not far from Tuguegarao. 

Hosted by 



population of 6,177. The province has a total of 15 towns, situated 
generally at a short distance from the sea, about 119 villages and 
hamlets, and 51 hamlets of subjugated pagans. 


Ilocano is spoken generally throughout the province, and the Tin- 
guianes, living in the hamlets near the principal towns, although they 
have their own dialects, understand and speak Ilocano. 

AOKKair/rintK, industry, commkik^e, and ways of oommunkution. 

Wheat and other products of the temperate zone, especially vege- 
tables, can be cultivated in this province, in the mountains are found 
the best of the indigenous woods, and in the north, in the interior, the 
pine, the oak, and othei* similar woods are found. In the mountains, 
pitch, hon(\v, and wax are found in abundance, also wild cara])aos, 
boars, deer, and jungle fowl, pigeons, and many other kinds of birds. 
In all of the towns of the pi'ovinces rice of superioi- quality is grown; 
corn, a good (piality of cotton, sugar cane, and a fair grade of tobacco 
are raised. In the town of Bangui a considerable amount of coffee 
and chocolate is grown. Th(^. mc^i occupy themselves for the most 
part in agricultuie, and the women in spimiing and weaving, the 
town of Pasay being especially noted, as here are made the famous 
blankets of Ilocos. Horse raising is notable, as is also catth^ raising. 
Fish are found in abundance in tlie rivers and along th(^ coast. The 
soil lacks nothing in natural richness, abounding in iron. 

The province is traversed from noi*th to south by an excellent high- 
way which crosses the towns of Bangui, the most northei'n, Nagpartian, 
Panguin, Bacarra, Ijaoag, San Nicolas, Batac, and Badoc. The road 
then runs into the province of South Ilocos, whose first town is Sinait. 
From the town of Batac a highway runs to Pasay, all situated to the 
west, and to the port of Currimao, the best in the province. From 
west to east, starting from the head town, is another highway which, 
after passing through the town of San Miguel, divides into two; one 
of- these leads to Piddig and Solsona and the other to Dingras and 
Banna. Another highway connects the principal town with the town 
of Vintar, from which it passes to Bacarra, there uniting with the 
main road from north to south. 



This province is bounded on the north by North Ilocos, on the south 
by Union, on the east by Abra and the districts of Tiagan and 
Lepanto, and on the west by the China Sea. It has a length of 18 
leagues from north to south, and is about 5 leagues wide. The 
country is flat rather than mountainous, and is separated from the 
province of Union by the Kio Grande de Amburayan. 


It reaches in area 1,424 square kilometers, of which some 534 are 
under cultivation and about 700 in forests. The number of inhabit- 
ants is more than 178,000, the greater part of these being Ilocanos; 

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there are some hamlets of Tin^uianes, especially in the mDuntaiiunis 
region. The Tloeanos aiw frank and active in character, which makes 
them greatly appreciated in all regions. 


The capital or head town, Vigan, founded by the intrepid Salcedo, was 
formerly called Villa Fernandino, and has a population of 12,000. The 
city is the Episcopal see of the Hishop of Nueva Segovia. It is situated 
near the river Abra, on the right bank, and not far from the coast. Jt 
has line streets and a beautiful driveway, and many buildings of 
excellent construction, among these being the cathcHlral, the Episcopal 
palace, the seminary, the government houses tim house of the tax 
department, the city hall, the normal s(^h(iol for girls, the native town 
hall, the barracks, the prison, and many other structures which aid in 
giving it the aspect of a city. 

The towns of greatest importance are Sinait, to the south of Bodoe, 
in North Ilocos, the most northern town, with a population of 7,20J). 
Next, to the south, is Cabugao, with 11,000; Lapo, with 4,()Si^; Magsin- 
gal, with 10,441; Santo Domingo, with 5,855; San Ild(>fonso, with 
8,361; San Vicente, with 4,000; Bantay, with 8,300, and Santa Cat i- 
lina, with 8,737 inhabitants. Contimiiiig farther to the south is found 
the largest city of the province, Narvacan, with 10,882 inhabitants; 
Santa Maria, with 11,720, and Candon, the third in population, with 
14,035 inhabitants. The most southc^rn town, Tagudin, has a popula- 
tion of 7,864. All of these towns arc^, situated near to the coast, and 
are named in their order of latitud(^ from north to south. There is a 
total of 21 towns, 587 villages or hamlets, and 55 hand(^ls of subju- 
gat(Hl pagans. ^ 


Ilocano is generally spoken, Tinguian in some of the handets, and 
other dialects among the pagans of the mountains. 



Panorapin, palochina, casisguis, deran, banaba, aculao, ".nd busilis- 
ing are woods found in relative abundance. Of the 434 square kilo- 
meters under cultivation in the province, 30 are of the highest class. 
Of the land under cultivation, 282 square kilometers are in rice, 55 in 
corn, 1 in wheat, 34 in indigo, 29 in sugar cane, 2 in chocolate, 2 in 
the celebrated maguey fiber, 65 in vegetables, and 64 in peanuts. 

In regard to industry, it is sufficient to say that looms are found in 
every town, these being managed by the women, who weave cotton 
cloth for domestic use. The towns most noted for this industry are 
San Ildefonso, Bantay, Cavayan, and San Vincente. In the latter 
town are several furniture shops. In Vigan, the head town of this 
province, is a carriage shop, which maimfactures carriages of all 
classes and prices. Almost all of the towns have one day of the 

Q) Other pagans found in the province are BrisaoH, Igorroten, Quinanos, and 
Negritos, who are found in the mountains to the east, sharing the country with the 
Itetapanes, Mayoyaos, Sitipanes, and t)thers. 

Hosted by 



week set apart as a market day, and on those days vegetables and 
fruits of the country, cloth of silk and cotton made in the province, 
pottery, cloth made in China, and the various agricultural products of 
the province, are bought and sold. The articles of export are indigo, 
cocoanut, sugar, brown sugar, sweet potatoes, cotton, and the maguey 
fiber. The imports are large quantities of rice, inasnuich as the pro- 
duction of this article in the province is not equal to the consun^ption; 
preserves from Europe, dried fish, iron (manufactured and unmaim- 
factured), oil, alcohol, and indigo seed. 

The ways of communication, although they leave a great deal to be 
desired, are nevertheless the best in the archipelago; and as the level 
part of the country comprises almost all the cultivated agricultural 
zone, all of the towns are well provided with roads throughout the 
country districts, which facilitate the transportation of the products 
of the country. Along the line of road which traverses the country 
from north to south between Vigan and Sinait there are bridges of 
wood and brick in good condition. From Vigan toward the south, as 
far as the boundary of the province of Union, gullies and rivers of 
little depth are lacking in bridges, and those carrying considerable water 
have daring the dry season light bridges of wood and bamboo 
which are carried oft' by the first flood, the passage of the river from 
that time being made on rafts made from bamboo. Salomague, to the 
north of the Bay of Masingat and the Bay of Lapuag, is a port of 
some importance. 


The nearest islands of importance are Pinget and Salomague. Pin- 
get, situated near and to the northwest of Point Santo Domingo, is 
very low, covered with forests, has beaches of sand, and is surrounded 
with reefs which are very precipitous on the west, inasmuch as less 
than half a mile distant the water is more than 50 meters deep. This 
point and island form a small anchorage, to which there is but one 
entrance on the south, as the coast to the north is surrounded by reefs, 
which almost unite with the coast on the east of the island, and would 
be very difficult to avoid. 


At approximately a distance of 1 mile to the northwest of the point 
north of the port of this name there is an island of moderate height 
surrounded by a reef which extends scarcely a cable's length ^ to the 
southwest and forms with the coast a passage in which there is a depth 
of from 28 to 30 meters in the center, surrounded on both sides by a 
reef which starts 2 cables' length from the coast in the middle of the 


This comandancia is situated between Abra, Amburayan, Lepanco, 
and South Ilocos. It has 7,793 inhabitants, divided among 25 hamlets 
and 53 villages. The principal town is San Emilio, with a population 
of 1,658. 

^ A cable equals 120 fathoms. 

Hosted by VjOOQIC 



Hosted by 


Hosted by 




The IgoiTotes of the mountains and the tribes called Burie and 
Busao cultivate rice, coffee, chocolate, corn, su^ar cane, sweet pota- 
toes, cotton, and vegetables. Industry is limited to the weaving of 
cloth and the making of baskets, hats, cardcases, and pipes. 


is bounded on the north by Tiagan and South Ilocos, on the south by 
Union, on the east by I^epanto, and on the west by the province of 
South Ilocos and Union. The population is made up of 80, ()()() pagans, 
mostly Igorrotes, and 150 Christians, distributed among 34 towns and 
76 hamlets. The town of most importance is Alilem, the capital. 
Cancanay and Tinginan are the languages spoken. The other towns 
are Luyo and Cabacan. 


Limited to the making of cotton cloth and other artich^s used by 
these pagans. 


This province takes its name from the large river which runs through 
its center. It is boimded on the north by North Ilocos, on the east by 
Cagayan and Isabela, on the west 1)}^ South Ilocos, and on the south 
by Bontoc and Lepanto. From north to south it is about 20 
leagues in length, and from east to west about 8. The entire 
province is very rugged, and is crossed in every direction by small 
mountain chains. Its vegetation is robust and vigorous, and the 
moimtains are covered with forests of large trees, some noted for their 
size, others for the finnness and hardness of their woods, and almost 
all of them for their exquisite fruits. The country is volcanic in 
general, Avith silicious rocks and alluvial deposits. 


It has ati area of t4,837 scpiare kilometers and a po})ulation of 
41,300, according to the civil census. In the mountains are found 
some Negritos and Guinaanes. The greater part of tlu^ province is 
occupied by Tinguianes. Most of the civilized inhabitants are Iloca- 
nos. There are likewise about 2,000 Igorrotes.* 


The principal town is Bangued, on the left bank of the river Abra, 
toward the west of the province, which has a population of 13,500. 
This town is situated about four hours' drive from Vigan. Tayum, to 
the east of Bangued, has 11,237 inhabitants. Bucay, also on the left 

^ We judge that the modern opinion of certain ethnogrophists is correct that the 
word '' Igorrote " is not a generic name for various races, but rather for one special 
race, and it is with this understanding that we use it. 

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bank of the river, has 4,995; Villavieja, in the southern part of the 
province, 2,331; La Paz, to the north of Tayum, 2,000; Pidigan, to 
the southwest of Bangued, on the left bank of the river, 2,295; San 
Gregorio, between La Paz and Tavuni, 3,262. There is a total of 11 
towns and 30 villages. 


Tiie Ilocano language is generally spoken in the towns, and th(^ 
Igorrote language in certain villages. The other pagans speak their 
respective dialects, Tinginan, Basiao, and Guinnan. 


Agriculture is well advanced, considering the area under cultivation, 
some 13 square kilometers, and the limited number of laborers obtain- 
able. The principal products are tobacco, rice, corn, of which three 
crops are harvested each year, sugar cane, and vegetables. On the tops 
of the mountain ranges are found the pine, oak, strawberry tree, and 
other trees of the temperate zone. The above-mentioned products, 
together with cotton, which is now cultivated, rattan, honey, and wax 
constitute the principal articles of export. It should be added that 
prospecting for mines of copper in the region of Gambang, between 
Vigan and Bangued, and for coal, of which there are indications near 
the village of Pagano toward the east, toward the village of La Paz, 
and iron pyrites, found in various situations, promises returns. Large 
game, such as buffalo, boars, and deer is abundant in the mountains, and 
the number of species of monkeys inhabiting the various islands is 
almost innumerable. The only industry is the weaving of cotton cloth 
of various kinds, many of these being notable for their firmness, even- 
ness, and durability. The towns are united by various roads, suitable 
for animals, which likewise connect this province with Lepanto, 
Cagayan, and South Ilocos. 


It is ])ounded on the north by Isabela, on the south by Lepanto, on 
the east by the district of Principe and Nueva Viscaya, and on the 
west by Abra. It measures from north to south some 50 kilometers, 
and from east to west 27. The country is mountainous and not very 
fertile, probabl}^ of volcanic nature; the climate is temperate and 


It measures 1,322 square kilometers and has 13,985 inha})itants reg- 
istered in the civil census. Of the pagan inhabitants some are Ifugaos, 
others Igorrotes and Busaos; there are also Itetapanes, Calingas, Gad- 
danes, and Dayadas. Some authors, in consideration of the number of 
races scattered over this territory, place the total number of inhabit- 
ants at 82,500. 

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The most important and almost the only town is the head town, hav- 
ing the same name as the province. It has a population of 10,751. 
The villages of Sagasa, Sacasacan, and Basao, recently organized, are 
worthy of mention. 


llocano, Sutlim and Itctapan, Igorrote, and other analogou.s dialects 
are spoken. 


The only cultivated lands lie along the banks of the river. The onl}^ 
industry of the few pagans is the manufacture of salt from the springs 
of Mainit, to the southeast of Bontoc. The water of these springs 
is clear, hot, without odor, and salty. In Dalican, to the west of 
Bontoc, there is an abundance of iron pyrites; and at Tanolo there 
is a bed of ore supposed to be argentiferous galena. There is no 




It is bounded on the north by Cagayan and Itaves, on the south by 
Nueva Viscaya and Principe, on the east by the Pacific Ocean, and on the 
west by Lepanto, Bontoc, and Abra. The country is covered from 
north to south by the Rio Grande de Cagayan, and from southwest to 
northeast by its large tributary, the Magat. The eastern zone, along 
the coast of the Pacific, is mountainous and rugged, as through it, 
running from north to south, is the Sierra Madre Range. The zone 
which extends from the west of the Sierra Madre Mountains is very 
extensive, and presents plains and valleys fertilized by the Rio Grande 
and the Magat. 


It measures about 14,234 square kilometers, and is the largest prov- 
ince in Luzon. It has 48,302 registered inhabitants. In some of the 
eastern mountains Negritos are found. The other pagan inhabitants 
are of various races. Igorrotes, Togades, who live between Echagiie 
and Angadanan, Gaddanes, Mayaoaos, Ilongotes or Ibilaos, Bujuanes, 
Silipianes, Binanganes, Bunginanes, the Isanayas, the Ilongotes, the 
Buay as, who inhabit the Defim country, and the Catalanganes. Among 
the civilized Indians there are a great many Tagalogs. This is prob- 
ably the province in which there is the largest number of pagan races. ^ 


The principal town is Ilagan, the capital, about the center of the 
province, situated on an elevation and surrounded by the Rio Grande 
de Cagayan and Pinacananan rivers. The climate is temperate and 

^ Plate 7 shows a group of native laborers on the Santa Isabel plantation, 
p c — VOL 3 — 01 3 

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mild. This town has been several times destroyed by fire. It has a 
population of 18,049 and is a twenty-four hours' drive from Aparri. 
Cabagan Viejo and Cabagan Nueva are situated in the north of the prov- 
ince on the right bank of the Rio Grande, and have a population of 9,000. 
Following the right bank of the Rio Grande toward the south the 
following towns are found: Balasag and Tumauini, the ancient capital, 
with 4,500 inhabitants; (lamu, to the south of lligan and on the left 
bank of the river, with 5,820; Canayan, 2,167; Angadanan, 3,900; 
Echagi'ie, r),638, and Carig, between the Rio Grande and the Magat, 
with 2,()51. There are 22 towns, 25 villages or hamlets, and 88 villages 
of conquered pagans. 


Ilocano, Ibanag, Cagayan, Gaddan, and Tagalog are spoken. 
PRODUcrrs, agriculture, industry, commerce, and ways of 


Rice, sugar cane, chocolate, and coffee grow almost without the care 
of the planter; it being about the same with all kinds of vegetables, 
which in flavor and size can compete with those of Spain. But all this 
production does not meet the necessities of the inhabitants, because the 
area under cultivation is small. The corn crop is the object of consid- 
erable care on the part of the natives, because when rice becomes high 
it constitutes the principal food supply. The principal and most 
important product is tobacco, which is gathered in large quantities and 
is considered the best in the Philippines. It is the principal article of 
export and constitutes the wealth of the country. A few cattle^ are 
raised. The forests, for the great part unexplored, are rich in valuable 
woods suitable for the manufacture of furniture. There is an abun- 
dance of molave, ipil, narra, camagon, and other excellent woods for 
building. There are but two ways of communication with the interior, 
that afforded by the Rio Grande, and the cart road which runs from 
north to south through the center of the province. 


This comandancia takes its name from the branch of the Rio Chico de 
Cagayan, and extends along the bend which this river forms in the 
comandancia of Bon toe. The inhabitants number about 14,000, 
mostly pagans and subjugated Gaddanes, who speak the Ibanag and 
Gaddan, the Yaga, and the Iraya languages. 


This military comandancia was located in the Province of Isabela 
with the object of restraining the inroads of the Igorrotes and other 

^ See plate 8, which represents one of the stock farms of the Compania General de 
Tobacos, on Santa Isabel plantation. 

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It is })ounded on the north by Abra and Bon toe, on the south by 
Benguet and Nueva Viscaya, on the east by Bontoc and Quiangan, and 
on the west by Tiagan and Ain})urayan. It measures from north to 
south 55 kilometers and from east to west 49. The country is 


It has an area of t^,U)T S([uare k'dometers, and is occupied by vari- 
ous races.' There are 1(),152 I'egistered inhabitants of various races, 
Ifugaos and the Busaos Igorrotes being- the most numerous. 

The principal towns are Cervantes, the capital, situated in the center 
of the district, about twelve hours' drive from Vigan, Cayan, the old 
capital, to the northeast, and very near Cervantes, and iVlancayan, to 
the southeast of the capital, famous for its copper mines. There is a 
total of five towns and 40 villages. 


Ilocano, Cataoan, Igorrote, Ifugao, and other dialects are spoken. 


This district has about 70 square kilometers, cultivated by a few 
Indians and 8,000 Igorrotes. The products are rice, tobacco, sugar 
cane, and a small amount of corn and garden stutf . In the forest there 
is an abundance of molave, banal)a, pine, oak, sabine, elm, strawberry 
trees, cedar, and casilang. At one time the mines of Mancayan were 
in operation, producing annually more than 4,000 quintals of fine 
copper. A road starting from Vigan crosses the district from north- 
west to southeast, uniting the towns of Tiagan, Lepanto, Cervantes, 
and Mancayan, facilitating importation and exportation. 


This comandancia is bounded on the north by Bontoc, on the south 
by Nueva Viscaya, on the east by Nueva Viscaj^a and Isabela, and on 
the west by Lepanto. It has an area of about 80 square kilometers, 
and a population of about 30,000, divided among a multitude of hamlets, 
of which at least 218 are known. The principal town is Quiangan, 
situated in the valley of the same name, which runs from north to 
south from Lepanto to Nueva Viscaya, following along the river 
Abulao, a branch of the river Magat. Other important towns are 
Magulang, Nangaoa, Lagan i, Sapao, and Bonaue. 

^ The general records of the Augustinian order for 1897 give 21,745 inhabitants, and, 
according to the same records, the most recent population of Saabangan is 10,085. 

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This proviiK-e is hounded on the north Iry South llocos, on the south 
by Pangasinan, on the east })y J^epanto and Beng^uet, and on the west 
by the China Sea. Jt is 16 k^.agues in length from north to south, and 
5 in width from (Hist to west. The eountry is flat along the coast and 
very mountainous a short distance from the sea. 


It has an area of "2^0{)S scjuare kih)meters, and is Inliabited ])v 1 lo, l()4 
registerc^d })e()pU% beh)nging for the most part to the Hoeos and Pan- 
gasinan races. There are many viUages of Jgorrotes In the mountains. 


The principal toAvn is the capital, San Fernando, situated near the 
port of the same name, which has a popidation of 14,542. Bangar, the 
most northern town, has a population of 10,700. From Bangar, going 
southward, the following towns are found: Mamacpacan, with a popu- 
lation of 10,000; Bacnotan,w^ith 8,311; San Juan, with 11,189; Baoang, 
wdth 9,079; Caba, with 8,849; Agoo, with more than 11,000; Santo 
Tomas and Rosario, with 8,507. There is a total of 14 towns, 240 
villages and hamlets, and a midtitude of little handets within the 
jurisdiction of Christian towns. 


llocano and Pangasinan are spoken and, in the mountains, various 
Igorrote dialects. 


The mountains produce a lai-ge cjuantity of sel)ucao. The c ultivated 
area, 64 s(]uare kilometers, is in the care of 45,000 people. The prod- 
ucts are tobacco, rice, corn, cotton, sugar cane, chocolate, fruits, and 
fai'inacious roots. There are about 47,800 live stock in the province; 
21,i^00 carabaos, 8,200 c^attle, and 5,500 horses. A carriage road in fair 
condition runs parallel to the coast, and unites all of the towns above 
mentioned with one another, and with south llocos by way of Tagudin, 
and with Pangasinan by way of San Fabian, from which point Manila 
mav be reached by carriage. 


This is an interior comandancia in the province of Union. It is 
bounded on the north by I^epanto and Union, on the south by Pan- 
gasinan, on the east by Nueva Viscaya and Lepanto, and on the west 
by Union. The country is mountainous and hemmed in between the 
offshoots of the great Caraballo chain. The altitude and mountainous 
character of the country aid in giving it a climate somewhat like that 
of the temperate zone. 

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It has an area of 24 square kilometers. There are 15,784 registered 
inhabitants, the greater number of these living in the mountains. The 
number of Christian inhabitants does not exceed 1,000. The pagans 
ar(^. mostly Jgorrotes, called Ben(|uetanos. 


The principal town is the capital, called La Trinidad, with a popula- 
tion of 2,980. It is a new and picturescjui^ place, situated in a b(»autiful 
and extensive plain, not far from a small lake some 5 kilometcis in 
circumference. Other important towiis art* Oaliano, to the west of 
La Trinidad, having a very fertile and productive soil; Agno and 
Ta(piian, celebrated for their excellent potatoes, equal to those of 
Europe, and their beans; Carao, w^here bags and hats are manufactured; 
Tavio, Sudab, and Bagnio, where mines are found. 


The Catholic inhabitants speak llocano, and the Igorrotes, although 
they speak Henguetano, understand and speak th(^ llocano language. 



There are extensive areas of pine lands, and in the forests oak, 
camagon, and narra. The rush, from w'hose pith the Chinese manu- 
facture the wicks for cocoanut-oil lamps, known in the Philippines as 
'"Hinisn," grows in great abundance. Gigantic ferns are found here. 
Potatoes, beans, and other vegetables grown here are quite equal to those 
produced in the tempei'ate zone. Wheat and chicpeas are produced. 
In the mountains are found sarsaparilla, wild nmlberry, and even 
strawberries. The pineapples, mangoes, and l)ananas are of excellent 



This province is bounded on the north and east by Lepanto, Bontoc, 
Quiangan, Isabela, and Principe, on the south by Nueva Ecija and 
Pangasinan, and on the west by Pangasinan and Benguet. From 
nortn to south it is 17 leagues in length, and from east to west 8 
leagues in width. The country is in general mountainous. On the south 
is the South Caraballo Range. The province is crossed almost from 
southwest to northeast by the river Magat, which fertilizes the great 
central valley. This flat and cultivated valley is almost all under 
irrigation. The eastern bank of the Magat is of sandy soil, the west- 
ern being clayey and the most productive. 


It has an area of 4,384 square kilometers, inhabited by 19,379 regis- 
tered people. The pagans are very numerous, in the mountains of the 
nortli there being no less than 12,000 Igorrotes. The Tinguanes, who 

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inhabit the northeast, a very small part of whom have been subjugated, 
are estimated to lunnber 13,000. The Ilongotes or Ibilaos mimber not 
less than 4,000; and finally the Isinayas, who inhabit the country to 
the west and south, are divided amongst 14 villages and number not 
less than 10,000. 


The principal town, Bayombong, on the left bank of the Magat, ha 
a population of 8,550. Ahnost all the towns of greatest importance 
are found in tlie great vaHev of the Magat. Connnencing with the 
most northern, they are in the following order: Diadi, somewhat 
distant from the right bank, has a population of 2,114; Bagabag, on 
the left bank, 1,(100; I bung, to the west of Bagabag, 1,097; Salano, on 
the left bank, to the north of Bayombong, 4,411; Bambang, to the 
right of the river, 3,000; Dupax, to the south of Bambang, 3,000; 
and finally Aritao, to the west of Dupax and on the opposite ])ank of 
the adjacent branch, the Minoli, 1,000. 


The following languages are spoken: (jaddan, Tsinay, Ilongote or 
Ibilao, and the languages of the various I'aces of Tfugaos, who inhabit 
the coiuitry between Solano and the great central chain. 


Rice is almost the only crop harvested. The soil also produces sugar 
cane, chocolate, coffee, and tobacco, but of an inferior quality, and in 
quantity insufficient to meet the needs of the inhabitants. The woods 
in the forest are of excellent quality, prominent among them l)eing 
narra, molave, canutan, and baticulan. These are difficult to export 
on account of the character of the country. Resins and gums are also 
found, but they are not gathered. Fine stone quarries exist. Game 
is abundant. Thei-e is scarcely any industry worthy of mention. 
There is but little commerce, on account of the difficulty of conuuuni- 
cating with the (wterior. In the interior there is a fair carriage road, 
which unites the towns above mentioned with one another. This 
road is well cared for and permits of the passage of carriages during 
the year, except in the rainy season, when, on account of floods and 
the difficulty of managing the rafts because of the strong currents in 
the river, Bayombong, Dupax, and Aritao can not communicate with 
each other. The capital, Solano, and Bagabag have open communica- 
tion even during the rain}^ season, because the above difficulties do not 


This comandancia is situated along the slopes of the River Ambay- 
anan, near the province of Nueva Viscaya. Its area is about 660 
square kilometers. It is inhabited by various races of the pagan 
Ifugaos. The towns are San Miguel Arcangel, with a population of 
2,249, and Santa Cruz de Ana. 

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It is bounded on the north by Nueva Viscaya and Isa])ela, on the 
south by Infanta, on the east by the Pacific Ocean, and on the west 
by Nueva Viscaya, from which it is separated by the South Caraballo 
Range. The country is an uninterrupted succession of lofty moun- 
tains, all inaccessible and covered with dense vegetation. 


It has an area of 3,051 square kilometers and 4,100 registered 
inhabitants. The greater part of the pagans are Ilongotes, with some 
Negritos. The savage and traitorous Italones, descendants of the 
Ilongotes, live in the northern part. 


The head town is Baler, situated on level, muddy ground; it has 
2,100 inhabitants. The Bay of Baler is large and wide. Casiguran 
has 1,800 inhabitants, and Carignan 200. The Bay of Casiguran is one 
of the most sheltered of Luzon. Dilasag is a little tow n near the bay 
of the first name. It is situated to the north, between the Sierra Madre 
Mountains and the boundary of Isabela. There is a total of four towns 
and a number of pagan handets. 


The civilized inhabitants speak Tagalog and Ilocano; the pagans 


In the vicinity of the towns rice, corn, sweet potatoes, vegetables 
and fruits are cultivated. But little coffee, cotton, sugar cane, tobacco, 
and chocolate are raised, probably because of lack of communication 
with the exterior. This difficulty, together Avith the natural indolence 
of the inhabitants, accounts for the existence of immense virgin forests 
which might become excellent land for cultivation. The forest woods 
are of excellent quality and in abundaru'C. Among these are bati- 
culin, banaba, catmon, yellow narra, tuyad, and otliers. Although no 
scientific exploration has been made in this country, there is reason to 
believe that gold and copper mines and deposits of ciystallized quartz 
exist. Along the coast fish are found in prodigious abundance, and in 
the Bay of Casiguran during the north monsoon hundreds of tons of 
fish are caught. The inhabitants, especially those of Baler, are veiy 
fond of hunting, game being most abundant. There is almost no com- 
merce, merely the exchange of food stuffs between the pagans of the 
mountains and the subjugated natives and Christians. The ways of 
communication with other provinces are very scarce. On land there 
are a few poor paths, which with the greatest difficulty can be trav- 
eled on horse back or in hammocks. Ships never visit the coast 
regularly, on account of lack of trade, and during the north and east 
monsoon navigation in small boats is most dangerous. 

Hosted by 




It is bounded north by Isabela, on the east by the district of Prin- 
cipe, on the south by Nueva Ecija, and on the west by Nueva Viscaya. 
It is composed of villages of Ilongotes (Italones or Ibilaos) and some 
wandering Negritos. There are about 6,000 pagans and less than 370 
Christians in the district 


Ilongote is generally spoken by the pagans and Ilocano and Taga- 
log by the Christians. In the town of Munqiiia there are 4,182 inhal)- 
itants, counting Christians and subjugated pagans. 


To the south of Point Encanta, in the Bay of Baler, between Points 
Dimayabay and Dicapinisan, is situated the small island and point of 
Distoring and several smaller islands. Between Point Encanto and 
the mouth of the river, near Baler, there is found a series of little 
islands running almost parallel with the coast; thev are called ''Los 

Hosted by 


Hosted by 


Hosted by 



CF^I^TKK OF L.TTZ01sr (A). 

[Maps Nos. S and 12 of the Atlas of tlie Philippines.] 



This province is situated on the west coast and in the widest part of 
Luzon. It is bounded on the north, northwest, and west by the China 
Sea, on the south by the province of Bataan, and on the west by the 
provinces of Pangasinan, Tarlac, and Pampanga. It is 32 leagues long 
and 7 wide. The country is mountainous and generally covered with 
vegetation. The low lands are fertile and almost the only ones culti- 
vated. The coast is not clear, on account of the many stones and rocks 
and the abundance of reefs and banks. 


It has an area of 2,229 square kilometers and 87,295 registered 
inhabitants. The pagan inhabitants are revengeful and warlike, inhab- 
iting the mountains. The rest of the inhabitants are almost all of the 
Zambal race, including those called the Igorrotes of Zambales, or the 
savages of Zambales. 


Iba, the capital town, is situated on the left bank and 2i miles from 
the river, which bounds it on the western side on the level plain. It 
has a population of 3,060, occupied principally in the cultivation of 
the soil, in hunting, iishing, and the raising of animals, such as cattle, 
carabaos, horses, and hogs. Some of the inhabitants and some of the 
people along the coast are occupied in the collection ot amber, which 
is usually found along the coast. The most important towns, begin- 
ning with those of the north, are: Bolinao, with 6,200 inhabitants (the 
light-house and semaphore, of the first class, are situated on the cape 
near this town); Alaminos, near the coast of the bay of Lingayen, has 
8,202 inhabitants; Bani has 4,295; Agno, 5,294; Santa Cruz, 5,319; 
Masinloo, 2,847; Botalan and San Felipe, 5,000; San Narciso, 7,600; 
San Antonio, about 4,668. In the magnificent port of Subig, one of 
the best in the archipelago, are situated the towns of Subig and 
Olonagapo. The total number of towns is 25, not counting the numer- 
ous hamlets of pagans. Besides the port of Subig there are several 
ports of some importance along the coast of Zambales. 


Zambal and Ilocano are spoken in the southern part, and Zambal, 
Ilocano, and Tagalog in the northern part. In the region of Iba and 
Batolan, Zambal and Pampanga are used, and in the region between 


Hosted by 



Alammos and Bolincaguin, Ilocano and Pangasinan. The Negritos 
speak Aeta, but have some understanding of the most common lan- 
guages of the province, such as Zambal and Ilocano. 


Besides the products common to Luzon, the province furnishes a 
large quantity of building material, which is abundant in the pi-ovince 
and would form a part of its wealth if the ways of communication were 
better. It produces also pitch, resins, rattan, honey, wax, and amber, 
which is collected along the shores. Wheat is grown, and excellent 
rice, in large quantities. In the mountains sweet pineapple is grown, 
which in quality compares well with that of Java and Singapore. So 
many cattle are raised that with suitable means of communication they 
would be sufficient to furnish meat for all of Luzon. There is no lack 
of mineral springs, the most notable ones being those of Iba, Dosol, 
Polanig, and Subig. There are mines of copper and pit coal, some of 
importance in Agno, and between Balincaguin and San Isidro. 

Industries are few. In some towns there are wood-working indus- 
tries, and in others iron mills. Ways of communication in this province 
are very poor, and those that exist are almost impassable during the rainy 
season. There is a road from Bolinao parallel to the coast as far as 
Moron, in the province of Bataan, passing through all of the towns 
which are situated near the sea as far as San Narciso, from which point 
it crosses the province from northwest to southeast to Moron. This 
road branches at Botolan to O'Donnell, in Tarlac, and from Agno to 
Alaminos and Sual and San Isidro, in Pangasinan, passing through 


Within the port of Subig, near to the entrance of the bay, is Isla 
Grande or Pulo Malaqui. It is of medium height, covered with trees, 
and surrounded by reefs and shoals. To the south of this island is a 
smaller one, to which it is united by a sand spit and reef. Entirely 
within the Bay of Subig are the Mayanga and Monti islands. On 
leaving the Bay of Subig, toward the north are found the islands 
called Frailes, which are six rocks close together, and among them 
the Tabones, Lajos, and Capones Islands, where a light-house is situ- 
ated, almost directly west of San Antonio. From the Capones, as far 
as the Bay of Masinloc, there is no island found worthy of mention. 
Within the Bay of Masinloc is the Salvador Island, of medium height, 
covered with trees, and distinguishableat some distance from the port; 
also Luan Island, near Salvador Malacaba, an island of circular form; 
Mataloi Island, of medium height, covered with trees and surrounded 
by mangroves, and the Island of Pulapir, surrounded with reefs. 
From the Bay of Masinloc toward the north are found, first, Putipot; 
then Hermana Menor, or Macaliza, an island of about a mile in diame- 
ter, low, and covered with trees. Then Hermana Mayor, some 3 
miles to the north-northwest of the Lesser Culebra Island, and the 
little island Raton are found, respectively, to the north, one-fourth 
northwest, and to the east of Hermana Mayor in the Bay of Donsol. 
Northeast of Cape Bolinao is the little island of Silaqui. South- 
southeast of this is Santiago, an island surrounded by reefs and rocks; 
it IS of about medium height. Its inhabitants are almost all united in 

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the town of Binabalian, which looks toward the port of Bolinao. To 
the south of Santiago is found the well-populated island of Cabar- 
ruyan. Anda, its chief town, has a population of 3,200. The island 
is quite high and covered with forests. Between Santiago and Cabar- 
ruyan are several small islands of little importance, all surrounded by 
banks and reefs of coral. Near to the southeastern extremity of the 
large island of Cabarruyan is a group of small, round, high islands, 
covered with vegetation, called Cien Islas, Mongosmongos, and 
Capulupuluam. To the west of this gi'oup is Comas Island, and to 
the south of this Cabalitian. 


This province is bounded on the north ])v thi^ (lulf of Langayen and 
the provinces of Union and Benguet, on the northeast by Nueva Vis- 
caya, on the southeast by Tarlac and Nueva Ecija, and on the west by 
Zambales. The country is mountainous on the west, northeast, and 
east, flat toward the central and southern part, in the vicinity of the 
Kiver Agno. The country generally slopes from the mountains to the 
sea in easy undulations, and near the coast is very low, thus giving 
rise to frequent floods, because, on account of tiie flatness of the 
country, the rivers during abundant rains are unable to iMiipty them- 
selves. The soil is fertile and favorable for the growth of all products. 


It has an area of 2,854 square kilometers, inha])ited by 302,178 
people, the greater part of Avhom belong to the Pangasinan race. Some 
wandering Negritos live in the mountains which separate this province 
from Zambales. There are also some Ilocanos in the province, and 
along the boundary to the northeast and east a few Igorrotes. 


The capital is Langayem, with a population of 14,120. It has a flne 
church and a large number of well-constructed buildings. Sual, a sea- 
port on the western coast of the bay of Langayen, has a population of 
3,000; San Fabian, on the western coast of the ba\, 10,200; Mangaldan, 
to the south of San Fabian, about 15,600; Dagupan, a seaport, 16,6111; 
Binmale}^, likewise a port, 16,100; Calasiao, to the southeast of Dagu- 
pan, 13,800; San Carlos, 23,931; Malasiqui, 10,770; Urdaneta, 16,600; 
Mangatarem, 11,000; IJrbiztondo and Bayambang, to the south of 
Malasiqui, 5,278 and 14,111, respectively. There are othei- towns of 
more than 6,000 inhabitants too numerous to mention. The total num- 
ber of towns is 29 and of villages 364. 


Pangasinan is generally spoken. In some towns in the north, north- 
east, and southeast Ilocano is spoken. The Negritos speak Acta, but 
understand Pangasinan, as do the Igorrotes who trade with the 

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Rice is most extensively cultivated and is harvested in abundance, not- 
withstanding the fact that in certain years there is a total loss of the 
crop in some low-lying towns on account of floods. Sugar cane, corn, 
tobacco, and cocoanuts are cultivated. The production of indigo, cof- 
fee, and chocolate is insignificant, although the natural conditions for 
the production of the first of these are superior. But few provinces 
have more extensive areas covered with the nipa palm than has Panga- 
sinan, and probably not one has them in such a pitiable condition of 
neglect, notwithstanding the importance of this product to the native 
and the acknowledged danger to health which its neglect involves. 
This abundance of the nipa gives origin to the trade of distillation for 
obtaining alcohol. The industry is but small and at the present time 
is much neglected. Another industry which is carried on on a small 
scale is that of the weaving of buri, from which sleeping mats, hats, 
sacks, etc., are made. The delicacy of the work required in the manu- 
facture of these articles and the firmness of texture are truly admira- 
ble. The industries which are without doubt of greatest importance 
are the production of rice, wines, and sugar. Commerce, wholesale 
and retail, is carried on by the Chinese, as in the rest of the archipel- 
ago, and this industry necessitates the employment of a large number 
of small boats engaged in transportation. The province of Panga- 
sinan is rich in gum. In its forests are an abundance of woods, some of 
very fine quality and useful for the construction of ships, as is shown 
in the small boats constructed there, which, according to the best opin- 
ion, are most seaworthy. This province is not less favored by nature 
in the matter of minerals. Common salt is so abundant that it has 
given its name to the province, as ' ' Pangasinan" signifies the place 
where salt is made. Gold and copper are obtained by the Igorrotes, 
who market these products in the towns. 

The railroad from Manila to Dagupan traverses this province, pass- 
ing through the important towns of Ba3^ambang, Malasiqui, San 
Carlos, Calasiao, and Dagupan. Roads traverse the province in all 
directions and unite the towns with each other and with Nueva Ecija 
by way of San Quintin, with Union by way of San Fabian and Santo 
Tomas, with Tarlac by way of Paniqui and Bayatin, and finally with 
Zambales by way of Sual and Alos. 



The province of Nueva Ecija is bounded on the north by the province 
of Nueva Viscaya and the district or comandancia of Principe, on the 
south by the provinces of Bulacan and Morong, on the east by the 
Pacific and the district of Infanta, and on the west by the provinces 
of Pampanga, Tarlac, and Pangasinan. The country is somewhat 
broken, and all is fertile, making it suitable to the cultivation of all 
kinds of products on account of the great variety of mountains and 


It has an area of 6,610 square kilometers, inhabited by 156,610 
registered people. Both the civilized and pagan inhabitants are of 
various races. Among the former the greater part are Tagalog, 

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especially in the southern part; toward the north and northeast there 
are a great many Pangasinanes and Ilocanos; in the west, a large 
number of Pampangos. The pagans, not registered, inhabit the central 
part of the heights of the Caraballo Mountains, and are Igorrotes, 
Balugas or Negritos, Ibilaos or Ilongotes. 


The head town is San Isidro, situated on the right bank of the Rio 
Grande de Pampanga, and has a population of 6,900; it has a good 
church and some well-built houses. Commencing on the north, the 
towns of most importance are as follows: San Quintin, near the Panga- 
sinan boundary, with a population of 6,892; Carranglan, near thesource 
of the Rio Grande de Pampanga, 1,000; Viningan, to the south of San 
Quintin, 8,502; Rosales, to the west of Viningan, 5,016; Pantabangan, 
to the southeast of Carranglan, 1,200; Cuyapo, to the south of Rosales, 
16,325; Bongabon, on the left bank of the Rio Grande, 5,707; Talavera, 
to the west of Bongabon, 7,400; Cabanatuan, to the south of Talavera, 
near the left bank of the Rio Grande, 11,500; Aliaga, to the west of 
Cabanatuan, 23,890; Taen, a short distance from San Isidro, toward 
the northeast, 5,524; Gapan, east of San Isidro, 20,000 (the largest 
town of the province, famous for the excellent quality of the tobacco 
which is grown in the vicinity); San Antonio, west of San Isidro, 
7,000; Penaranda, northeast of Gapan, 5,600; Cabiao, toward the 
south, on the left bank of the Rio Grande, 8,000. There is a total of 
25 towns and 118 villages. Many of the pagans who dwell in the 
mountains are absolutely independent, without any sort of civil control. 


In the south Tagalog is spoken ; in the north and northwest Pangasi- 
nan and Ilocano; in the west Pampango and Pangasinan, although 
Ilocano and Tagalog are somewhat known. The pagans speak their 
respective languages, and only those who trade with the Christian 
natives understand Tagalog, or Ilocano, or Pangasinan. 


The waters diverted from the mountains form a multitude of creeks, 
which by themselves, and united i^n large rivers, such as the Coronel 
Grande, Chico, Managsac, etc. , flooS during their frequent overflows and 
fertilize the fields with the mud brought down by their currents. The 
soil is fertile and well suited to the cultivation of the best and richest 
products of the country. In the central part and to the south rice 
is raised in abundance, more than 500,000 ca vanes being exported 
annually. This constitutes the principal product; also large quantities 
of corn are raised. Along the river banks tobacco is cultivated, 
although in less quantity than formerly, on account of the deprecia- 
tion in price which the renowned tobacco of Gapan has suffered since 
the monopoly, although it has the highest price among the natives. 
Su^ar cane is easily produced, and some plantations, where its culti- 
vation is of genuine importance, are provided with steam machinery 
for manufacturing and refining, and with stills for the extraction of 

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In the north there are some magnificent lands under irrigation, 
where rice is cultivated; others are suitable for chocolate an*d coffee, 
the fine quality of the latter being shown by that which is gathered in 
the village of Mariquit; and, finally, in the central part of the province, 
there are magnificent grazing lands, where the greater part of the 
cattle, which constitute the peculiar wealth of the province, are pas- 
tured. Along the Pacific coast hemp grows spontaneously in abundance 
and is of superior quality. The forests in the level part of the coun- 
try are almost all cut off, but in the mountainous regions are rich in 
the number and variety of their woods, those useful in cabinetmaking 
being as abundant as those ordinarily used in the construction of the 
modest dwellings of the natives. During the diy season almost the 
entire province can be traveled over in carriages. There is connnunica- 
tion with the province of Bulacan by means of the road to San Isidro, 
and Gapan to Balnarte, in Bulacan, and Penaranda and Mayonloc, in 
Bulacan; with Nueva Viscaya by way of Carranglan to Aritao, in 
Nueva Viscaya; with Pangasinan from Rosales to Villasis, and from 
San Quintin to Tayug; with Tar lac from Cuyapo to Paniqui, from 
Aliaga to LaPaz, and from San Juan to Victoria. 


Boundaries and General Conditions of the Country. Area and Inhabi- 
tants, Towns, Languages, Products, Industry, Commerce and Ways of 


This province is bounded on the north by Pangasinan, on the south 
by Pampanga, on the east by Nueva Ecija, and on the west by Zain- 
bales. The countiy is level near the sea and mountainous on the west, 
and in part volcanic, where it is calcareous, argillaceous, sandy, and 
capped with loam; and on the west of the mountain chain of Zambales 
calcareous and fossil if erous, hav^ing considerable elevation above the 
level of the sea. 


The province has an area of 2,277 square kilometers, and a regis- 
tered population of 89,839. The inhabitants, for the greater part, 
belong to the same races as those in Pangasinam and Pampanga. 


The capital is Tarlac, situated not far from the source of the river of 
this name, a branch of the Agno. It has a population of 12,700. The 
towns of most importance are: Paniqui, on the right bank of the river 
Agno, with 11,200 inhabitants; Gerona, to the north of Tarlac, with 
9,600; Victoria, to the northeast of Tarlac, near Lake Canaren, with 
12,645; LaPaz, near the Rio Chico de la Pampanga, to the southeast 
of Tarlac, with 1,721; Concepcion, to the south of Tarlac, with 18,671, 
and Capas, near to Concepcion, with about 8,865 inhabitants. San 
Miguel de Camiligg, Santa Ignacia, and Mariones are towns situated 
between the Tarlac River and the mountain chain of Zambales, and are 
well populated, especially San Miguel, which, according to some 
authors, has a population of 18,000. The total number of towns is 
17, and of villages, 59. 

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Pampanga is spoken in the south and Pangasinan in the north. In 
the vicinity of Gerona, Ilocano is spoken a great deal. 

This province contains forest wealth of a great deal of importance, 
and very easy to utilize, on account of the proximity of the rivers to 
the forests containing useful trees. La Paz and Concepcion contain 
more than 150 square kilometers of very valuable woods, such as narra, 
acle, ambiongo, juyo, ipil, and others. Near the mountain towns of 
Camiling and Morriones, near the mountain chain of Zambales, there is 
an abundance of molave and other building woods. Agricultural prod- 
ucts form the principal richness of this province, the most important 
being rice. Next in importance comes sugar, above all in the vicinity 
of Concepcion. The main road of the north traverses the province 
from north to south, branching toward the principal towns. The rail- 
road traverses the country also, almost parallel to the road, passing 
through the towns of Bam ban, Capas, Tarlac, Gerona, Paniqui, and 
Moncada. The province is connected with Nueva Ecija by the road 
from Concepcion to Arayan, that from Tarlac to San Vicinte, that 
from Victoria to San Juan de Guimba, and that from Paniqui to 
Cayapo. It is connected with Pangasinan by the road from Painiqui 
to Bayambong, by both the road and the railroad; by the latter from 
Camiling to Mangatorem and Bayambong; and with Pampanga by the 
railroad and the wagon road from Capas and Concepcion to Masapinit. 


This province is bounded on the north by Tarlac and Nueva Ecija, 
on the south by the bay of Manila and the province of Bataan, on 
the east by the province of Bulacan, and on the west by Zambales. 
The country is mountainous in the western part and near the boundary 
of Zambales, where, besides the dividing range, is that of Mabanga, 
just east of Porac. There are other mountain groups to the east of 
Magalang, near the boundary of Tarlac. The central part of the 
province is flat. To the south is a multitude of canals and estuaries, 
which may be seen in detail in map No. 25 of the Atlas of the Philip- 


Pampanga has an area of about 2,208 square kilometers, inhabited 
by 223,902 registered people. The great majority of these are Pam- 
pangos, a peculiar and distinguished race among all of those in the 
archipelago. There are a few Ilocanos; in the mountains there are 
some Negritos or Aetas, called Balugas in the language of Pampanga. 


The capital is Bacolor, situated on a plane on the right bank 
of the Elver Betis, and has a population of 17,100. It has some 
well-constructed houses, such as the church, the convent, the gov- 

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ernment house, and the magnificent court-house. It has a simple 
monument erected to the memory of Anda y Salazar. There are other 
towns which compare favorably with the capital in population and in 
the number and beauty of its buildings, such as San Fernando, Lubao, 
Arayat, Macabebe, San Luis, Mexico, and Candaba, which each have 
more than 14,000 inhabitants; Apalit, Mabalacat, which exceed 1,000 
each; Angeles, Guagua, Magalang, which exceed 9,000 each; Porac, 
San Simon, and Santa Ana, which exceed 7,000, and, finally, Betis, 
Santa Rita, Santo Tomas, and Minalin, which each have more than 
5,000 inhabitants. There is a total of 25 towns, 328 villages, and 297 


Pampango, their own language, is used exclusive!}^ in the province. 
The few natives of other races in the province, and also the Balugas, 
who come down to the towns to trade, understand and speak Pampango. 


The principal products of the province are sugar, rice, corn, some 
indigo, sweet potatoes, gabe, tobacco, and cotton. The value of these 
products is estimated at 11,210,000, more or less. Woods are scarce; 
nevertheless the towns of Floridablanca, Porac, Magalang, and Arayat 
produce some, and their value, with bamboo and palms, reaches $182,- 
380. There are no mines. Statistics in regard to industries were as 
follows a few years ago: Steam machinery for evaporating sugar, 1; 
alcohol stills, 8; sugar mills, hydraulic, 31; steam, 177; hand-power, 
445; stone mills, 365; pottery factories, 9; looms, 12,577; belt fac- 
tories, 1; carriage shops, 15; shoe shops, 6; carpenter shops, 8. In 
Bacolor, San Fernando, Guagua, Angeles, Apalit, and Arayat whole- 
sale and retail groceries exist, and in San Fernando and Guagua, drug 
stores. In all the towns of the province carriages may be hired. 
Commerce is carried on in manufactured nipa, firewood (called bacuan), 
sugar, hone}^, indigo, woods, sacks, sleeping mats, lime, tobacco., and 
rice. Grazing is an industry very much neglected in this province, 
not because of lack of land, but on account of the lack of pasturage. 
Fisheries^ are of value, and if in this province this branch has not 
reached the point of importance that it has in other provinces, it is 
growing, and has a value already of $13,950. And finally it should be 
added that there exist two telegraph stations — one in San Fernando 
and one in Bacolor, the first with limited service and the second with 
complete service, the chief of the line residing in the latter place. To 
the port of Guagua a steamer runs every day. 

The province is divided into two parts — the high and the low — in the 
first of which the air is very pure and the water excellent, the tempera- 
ture being cool and healthful. In the lowlands, where rice is by prefer- 
ence grown, there is much humidity, greater heat, and it is less healthful. 
This is especially true of towns located in sandy regions, these includ- 
ing the principal towns of the province. All of the towns have inte- 
rior communication by wagon road and paths, and water communication 
between the towns of Bacolor, Betis, Guagua, Sexinoan, Lubao, San 
Miguel, Macabebe, Minalin, Santo Tomas, Apalit, San Simeon, 

^ Plate 9 represents the methods used by the natives in fishing in the rivers. 

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San Luis, Arrayat, Candaba, and San Fernando, and also with the 
provinces of Manila, Cavite, Bulacan, Tarlac, Niieva Ecija, and Batuan; 
and by the aforesaid wagon roads with the same provinces, with the 
exception of Cavite. The railroad cuts the province from south- 
east to northwest, and has been the cause of a notable development of 
its industry and commerce. The line passes through important towns, 
such as Apalit, Santo Tomas, San Fernando, Calulut, Angeles, and 
Mabalacat, near the boundary of Tarlac. 


This province is bounded on the north by Nueva Ecija, on the south 
by Manila and the Bay of Manila, on the east by the districts of Morong 
and Infanta, and on the west by Pampanga. The country is m great 
part flat, covered with a rich vegetation, which forms extensive forests 
of fruit trees. These form an arch over many roads. Some call this 
province ''the garden of the Philippines." This province was for- 
merly called Neicanayan, because the town of that name was the capital. 
The cave of Biac-na-bato, of which a good idea is given in plate 12, is 
very famous. 


The province has an area of 2,965 square kilometers. There are 
239,221 registered inhabitants, almost all of them being of the Tagalog 


The capital, Bulacan, has a population of 14,000. It contains well- 
constructed houses and a beautiful church. There is a monument 
dedicated to the memory of the celebrated botanist, P. Blanco, of the 
order of Saint Augustine. Its streets and driveways are both beautiful 
and wide. One of the most beautiful towns is Baliuag, which has a 
population of about 20,000. It is traversed by the river Quingua, has 
wide streets and in the square has a celebrated market weekly. At 
this place hats and patacas of the finest quality are made. Qumgua, to 
the north of Bulacan, with a population of 6,714, is a celebrated health 
resort, noted for the baths in the crystal waters of the river. Angat, 
to the northeast of Bulacan, has a population of 6,630. In the moun- 
tains are found abundant iron mines and beautiful building woods- 
ebony, palotinto, sivucao, etc. The iron pots and kettles so much 
used in the country are manufactured here. San Miguel de Mayumo, 
with 16,865 inhabitants, is noted for its iron mines and the famous 
springs of Sibul, where so many are cured of their infirmities. Malolos, 
in the northwest of Bulacan, has a population of 13,426. ^ Hagonoy, on 
the seacoast near the boundary Pampanga, has a population of 20,900. 
Calumpit has a population of 15,900. Maria, San Eafael, and ban 
Isidro are towns of more than 10,000. Meycauayan, Polo, Obando, 
and SantL Isabel have more than 9,000 inhabitants. There is a total 
of 25 towns, 360 villages, and 365 hamlets. 


Tagalog is generally spoken. 

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This province is under perfect cultivation and produces abundant 
crops of rice and corn, large quantities of sugar, indigo, beneseed, 
chocolate, coffee, and all kinds of fruits and vegetables. There are 
excellent woods in the mountains, among these sibucao. Besides 
these there are gum, ginger, tingantaangan, from which oil for lamps 
is extracted; the castor bean, for the manufacture of oil for medicinal 
purposes; balao, from which varnish is made, and large numbers of 
nipa palms, for the manufacture of alcohol. Hat making is the prin- 
cipal industry, there being an extensive hat market in Baliuag. The 
finest quality of petacas de nito, which have been given premiums in 
international expositions and which are celebrated in all the principal 
cities of Europe, are manufactured here. Cotton cloth, sinamay, and 
other fabrics are also manufactured. 

In the town of Angat there is an abundance of iron ore quite unde- 
velopedr Magnetic ore, coal, copper, lead, and silver are found, and 
in the beds of the rivers some gold. There are good quarries where 
slate and flint are found. The province is but 5 leagues from Manila. 
There is a daily steamer direct to Manila and a well-preserved road 
going by land. From Bulacan to Baliuag it is 30 kilometers, to Hago- 
noi 18, to San Miguel de Mayumo 17, to San Jose 28, to Meycauayan 
about 20. The province communicates by railroad and wagon road 
with Pampanga, by wagon road from San Miguel to Polo in Nueva 
Ecija, and also to Peiiaranda, also in Nueva Ecija. Both the railroad 
and wagon road connect it with Manila. The railroad runs through 
the western part of the province, passing through the towns of Polo, 
Meycauayan, Marillao, Bocaue, Bigaa, (luiguinto, Malolos, and 


This comandancia is bounded on the north by Nueva Ecija and the 
district of Principe, on the south by Tayabas, on the east by the 
Pacific, and on the west by the provinces of Morong, Laguna, and 
Manila. It is a strip of country very narrow, especially toward the 
south, in the region between the sea and the mountain chain of Bana- 
tangan, which separates it from Buacan and Morong. This mountain 
range throws off spurs toward the sea, and between these are small 
rivers. Along the coast east of Binangonan there is a peninsula, the 
coasts of which are almost unknown. A canal separates this from the 
mainland, thus converting it into an island, which terminates in Point 
Inaguican. To the south there is another peninsula, which terminates 
in Point Tactigan, to the west of which is the famous royal port, 


The total area, including Polillo and the adjacent islands, is 2,194 
square kilometers. There are 7,100 registered inhabitants, the greater 

Sart being Tagalog. In the mountains there are some hamlets of 
[egritos, who, refusing to be subdued, wander about in the mountains 
of Binangonan. 

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The principal and almost the only town, Binangonan de Lampon, is 
situated about 3 kilometers from the sea. It has an excellent port, 
called the royal port, and is the ancient Lampon so well known in the 
seventeenth century, because it was then the depository of the galleons 
and the wealth of Manila, as it was considered a safer way of communica- 
tion with new Spain than by way of the narrow strait of San Bernardino. 
There are two other ports, Santa Monica and Misna, completely neg- 
lected at the present time, the same being true of the royal port. 
Binangonan has a population of 9,096. 


Tagalog is spoken, and is understood and spoken also by the few 
Negritos who wander about in the mountains and come down to the 
plains to trade. 


There are fine woods in the mountains, but they are not worked, on 
account of the difficulty in transporting them. The area of land under 
cultivation is less than 1 square kilometer, this being devoted to rice. 
Other products are the cocoanut, chocolate, and coffee. The only 
industry is the manufacture of nipa wine at Binangonan. There were 
formerly other establishments of this kind and factories for the manu- 
facture of cocoanut oil, but these industries were paralyzed by the 
injuries wrought by the hurricane of 1882. The precipitous character 
of the country, and the mountains and rivers which must be crossed, 
render the construction of good roads impossible, except at a cost not 
warranted by the commerce of this region. The footpath which leads 
to the town of Sinaloan, in the Laguna province, is the only one which 
exists for the use of mail carriers and travelers. 



The island, which is situated in front of the comandancia of Infanta 
is formed of a central mountain of medium height and is covered with 
forests. It has the shape of a right-angle triangle whose sides north 
and east, broken by bays and openings, are on the north unbroken and 
inaccessible. The east coast is fringed with islands and dangerous 
reefs. On the west coast the water is deep, except in front of the 
port of Polillo, where there is an extensive reef, which, extending 
from southeast to southwest parallel with the island, forms a narrow 
canal, open on the northwest with a depth from 25 to 28 meters, which 
leads to the port of Polillo. 


The town of Polillo is a fair port, but little used and dangerous on 
account of the reefs. It has a population of 1,700, almost all of 
the Tagalog race. 

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The commerce of the island of Polillois confined to the sale of balate 
and wax, which are collected in considerable quantities. Coal and other 
minerals are found in this island, but on account of the cost of extrac- 
tion they are not worked. 


The rocky island of Tumalic, to the southeast of Polillo, is of no 
importance and is uninhabited. To the south of Polillo is Baleguin, a 
little island of no importance. To the east of Polillo there is a group 
of uninhabited islands. The principal of these are Palasan, Malagui- 
nan, Cadungeoen, Iguicon, and Patnanonagan, the largest of the group. 

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[Map No. 9 of the Atlas of the Philippines.] 



This province is a peninsula, united on the north with Zambales and 
Pampanga. It is bounded on the west by the Bay of Manila, on the 
southeast by the Boca-chica of this bay, and on the west and south- 
west by the China Sea. The country is mountainous, but in the 
southern extremity, where the Mariveles Range rises, there are exten- 
sive plains. The rivers are of small size and navigable only for small 
boats. The province is 10 leagues in length from north to south and 
8 in width from east to west. Only one-sixth of the area of the prov- 
ince is under cultivation. 


The area is 1,264 square kilometers. There are 50,761 registered 
inhabitants, the most of them Tagalogs. In the towns to the north- 
east there are many Pampangos. In the mountains there are many 
Negritos, the most of them leading an erratic life. Very few of these 
live in villages, and fewer still are registered in the civil records. 


The capital is Balanga, a beautiful place with an excellent church. 
The public square is beautiful and the streets straight and wide. The 
principal buildings are the government house, the city hall, and the 
prison. The population is 9,000. Other important towns are Moron, 
to the extreme west, with a population of 3,000; Dinalupijan, to the 
north, 2,600; Hermosa, to the south of Dinalupijan, 3,000; Oreni, to 
the south of Hermosa, 6,600; Samal, to the south of Oreni, 4,500; 
Albucay, to the north of Balanga, 7,000; Orion, to the south-southeast 
of Balanga, 7,600; Mariveles, on the port of the same name near the 
entrance of the bay, 2,000. There are 12 towns and 8 Negrito villages. 


Most of the civilized natives speak Tagalog, although some speak 
Pampango. The Negritos, who come down to trade, understand and 
speak either one or the other of these languages. 

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The products are rice in abundance, sugar cane, indigo, beneseed, and 
different kinds of fruits. There are but few industries. In the town of 
Oreni there is a pottery shop, where jars for sugar and alcohol are made. 
In Abucay, a brickyard; in Balanga, two alcohol distilleries, and 
another in Pilar. On the road from Oreni to Hermosa there is a place 
called Lamina, where bolos (knives) are made. In the mountains 
there are quarries of valuable marble and white and red jasper marked 
with wavy lines. As the forests constitute one of the principal sources 
of wealth, Manila, Bulacan, and other adjacent provinces look to this 
province for woods for the construction uf large and small boats and 
for building. The towns of the province are united by wagon roads. 
The principal one of these runs along the coast of the bay from 
Dinalupijan to Mariveles, bifurcating at Balanga in the direction of 
Moron and Bagac, on the coast of the China Sea. Communication 
with Manila is by water; with Zambales by land; from Moron and 
Dinalupijan to Santa Rita, and with Pampanga by way of Florida- 


At the mouth of the Orani River is the island of Tuba-tuba. ^ This 
island is covered with trees and is often overflowed by the tide. There 
are other small islands in the same vicinity. The islands at the entrance 
of the bay will be described when the island of Correjidor is discussed. 


As this is the most important province of the archipelago, it will be 
discussed at length. This province, which was formerly called Pondo, 
IS in central Luzon, and is bounded on the north by Bulacan, on the 
south by Cavite, on the east by the province and lake of Laguna, 
and on the west by the bay of Manila. Although one of the smallest 
of the provinces, having a circumference of not more than 98 kilo- 
meters, it is, nevertheless, one of the most populous, having 500,000 ^ 
inhabitants, divided among 28 parishes. 


The city of Manila, founded in 1571, is the capital of the province 
and of the archipelago. Here are located the residence of the gov- 
ernor-general, that of the archbishop, the metropolitan of all the 
islands, the supreme court of Manila, the departments of dvil 
administration and of the treasury, the civil governor and municipal 
government of Manila, the military department, the department of 
military and civil engineers, the*^ council of administration, the 
reasury, the post-ofSce and telegraph departments, the customs- 
house, where the treasury has its offices, and the town corporation. 
The population is 14,000. The city has been fortified since 1590, its 
houses all being of solid construction. The streets are quite wide and 
built on the plan in accordance with the idea of its immortal founder, 

' Consult the introduction in regard to the census. 

2 In plates 11 and 12 we give a view of Manila taken from the bay, and of the 
walled city taken the day after the terrible fire of September 27, 1897. 

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Legaspi, with such art that one side of the street is always in the 
shade. The public squares and the neighborhood are adorned with 
beautiful gardens, constantly watered by fountains, and thanks to the 
immortal Carriedo, who died in 1743, there is hardly a street in the 
entire municipal district which does not have its own standpipe to 
furnish an abundance of water to the people living^ in the vicinity. 
Communication between the most distant points within the municipal 
radius and the city is facilitated by the telephone system, having 
436,549 metres of 'wire, and the street railway system, which runs 
through the principal streets of the city and its suburbs, covering a 
distance of about 17,200 meters. 


The cathedral has been restored, following the Komano-Byzantine 
style of architecture. There are also in Manila four convents, with 
spacious churches, belonging to the religious orders of San Augustin, 
San Francisco, Santo Domingo, and the Recoletos of San Augustin. 
Also the residence and church of San Ignatio, belonging to the Jesuits, 
the mission church of the Capuchins, the convent and church belong- 
ing to the religious order of Santa Clara, and the Church of the Third 


There is a seminary in charge of the Faulist friars. A university in 
charge of the Domhiicans confers the degrees of licentiate and doctor in 
theology, and of licentiate in civil law, medicine, and pharmacy. The 
college of San Juan de Letran, in charge of the Dominicans, is an 
institution of primary and secondary instruction. Another subsidized 
by the civil government, called the Ateneo Municipal, is in charge of the 
Jesuits. In both of these studies applicable to commerce and industry 
are pursued and degrees are given as bachelor of arts or mercantile or 
mechanical experts. A normal school for teachers, founded by royal 
order in 1865, and elevated to higher grade by royal order of 1894, is 
an institution of primary instruction and is in the care of the Jesuits. 
In all of these colleges the pupils are divided into two classes, resident 
and nonresident, except in the seminary, where they are all residents. 
There are besides in the capital the Naval School, the School of Arts 
and Trades, which has combined with it the old Academy of Design, 
and the School of Agriculture. This institution publishes the Official 
Gazette, the Ecclesiastical Bulletin of the archbishopric of Manila, 
and various daily papers and reviews. For the education of girls there 
are, first, the College of Santa Isabel, which has united with the old 
College of Santa Potenciana, both of remote foundation; second, the 
College of Santa Rosa and the Municipal School, under the care of the 
Sisters of San Vicente de Paul; third, the College of Santa Catalina, in 
charge of the Dominican sisters, and, fourth, the Beaterio of the Jesuits. 
Just on the edge of the city is the College of the Concepcion, called the 
Concordia, and that of Loban, both in charge of the Sisters of San 
Vicente de Paul: and about a league from Manila is the orphan asylum 
of Nandaloyan, under the direction of the Augustin nuns. 

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Within the walled city is a large civil hospital; outside a military 
hospital and the Hospicio of San Jose. The Sisters of Charity serve 
in all of these. There is also a leper hospital; also a government 
pawn shop. There is a large jail and a penitentiary having 800 
inmates, and in both of these useful trades are taught. 


Three bridges — the bridge of Spain, the Suspension bridge, and the 
Ayala bridge — span the Pasig River and unite the city with its popu- 
lous suburbs. 


This is the most important suburb, and in it domestic and foreign 
commerce are centralized. It has some fine buildings, among which 
may be mentioned the church, the Hotel de Oriente, the Spanish bank, 
the post-ofiice, the stores along the Escolta, and others. Its streets are 
wide and well cared for. 

This populous suburb is situated to the north of Binondo. Although 
it has many nipa houses, their construction is no longer permitted 
within the area bounded by Divisoria street. Plate 18 gives a good 
idea of this suburb and the traffic on one of its canals. 

The other suburbs within the municipal radius are: Trozo or San 
Jose, Santa Cruz, Sampalog, Quiapo, San Miguel, Ermita, Paco, or 
San Fernando de Dilao, and Arroceros. San Miguel and San Sebas- 
tian are noted for the elegance of their residences. The magnificent 
church of the Recoletos of San Augustin is located in San Sebastian. 
San Anton and Sampalog contain many beautiful houses and wide 
streets, among the latter being the wide avenues of Iris and of Alix. 
Ermita also should be mentioned because of its elegant houses of 
modern construction, and the magnificent building of the Normal 
School and the observatory. The population of Manila and its suburbs 
is about 300,000. 


Among the most important are the following: Malabon, with a pop- 
ulation of 20,000, which is connected with Manila by a steam tramway 
having hourly trains. The church is very large; it has two fine 
towers. A sugar refinery is located here. The orphan asylum is 
under the direction of the Augustin friars. The principal wealth of 
the town is in its fisheries. Pasig, a town of 20,900 inhabitants, has, 
besides its church and convent, many fine houses and a school for the 
education of young girls. Bateros, with 9,200 inhabitants, is notable 
for the peculiar industry of duck raising. Immense flocks of ducks 
are raised for the purpose of obtaining their eggs, which are much 
esteemed by the natives. Mariquina, with a population of 11,000, is 
celebrated because of an iron spring, known as the Chorrillo, whose 
waters have cured many invalids. Malate, with a population of 6,100, 
is noted for its many beautiful houses recently constructed. Santa 

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Anna, with a population of 6,000, is known on account of the fine 
laces manufactured by the native woiiien. San Pedro Macati occupies 
a picturesque position on the banks of the Pasig. 


Besides the ordinary products of the country, such as rice, sugar 
cane, corn, etc., this province cultivates and e^xports large quantities 
of betel, a plaAt whose aromatic leaf forms the principal part of the 
buyo. Pasay is a town which devotes itself almost entirely to this 
branch of agriculture. 


In Manila and its towns there are many establishments for the man- 
ufacture of tobacco, ice, thread, cord, and rope, iron factories, steam 
sawmills, etc. Commerce in copra, which promises a great deal in 
the future, consists in exporting to Europe the dried meat of the 
cocoanut, from which the*^ oil is afterwards extracted. Almost all 
the commerce of the Philippines, domestic as well as foreign, is car- 
ried on through Manila, there are many Spanish and foreign houses 
which have branches inthe provinces. 


In the port are ships from all the nations of the world Many of 
the smaller craft anchor within the river in order to facilitate unload- 
ing. Daily steamers leave for various parts on the island of Luzon 
and weekly steamers to the distant provinces and to China. Thei e are 
Sonthty subsidized mail steamers for all points in the archipelago 
and for Europe. Manila is in communication by wagon road and rail- 
road with the provinces of Bulacan, Pampanga, farloc, and Pan 
gasina^; by water with the Laguna De Bayand the provinces bor- 
dering on it, and by sea with all of the provinces of the islands. 


The province is bounded on the north by the Bay of Manila, on the 
south by Batangas, on the east by Batangas and Mam a and on the 
west bv the China Sea. The country is mountainous at some 8 kilo- 
mSL's'fiom the":oast, rising gradually fiw the sea. ^ The ™ost -oun^ 
tainous part of the province is the southwest and south, where the 
mountain slopes of Sungay are found. 


The province has an area of 1,348 square kilometers and a popula- 
tion of 134,569, the most of these Tagalogs. 


The capital is Cavite, a seaport and ortified towm Th« Tagalos 
call it Cauit: that is to say, fishhook, which is the shape ^ken by the 
bay It is united to the island by a narrow isthmus, w^ich appears to 

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be artificial. Cavite is also called " the port. " The streets are quite 
straight, although somewhat narrow. The houses are of masonry. 
There is a fine parochial church, two convents, and a fine large hospital. 
There is also the Sanctuary of Nuestra Senora, called Porta Baga, a 
well-equipped arsenal, a dockyard, and a fair dry dock, where the 
shipping of the archipelago is repaired and cleaned. There are some 
tobacco factories of importance; steam, hydraulic, and handmills for 
the manufacture of sugar, sawmills, soap and oil factories, and distill- 
eries. The city has a population of 3,000. 

Other towns of importance are Bacoor, Cavite Vicjo, San Roque, 
and Caridad, all situated on the Bay of Bacoor. Caridada has a popu- 
lation of more than 6,000, San Roque 11,500, Cavite Vicjo 9,800, and 
Bacoor 13,600. On the western coast are Rosario with 6,600, Santa 
Cruz with 7,600, Naic with 7,400, and Ternate with 2,200 inhabitants. 

In the interior toward the north the towns of most importance tare 
Imus with 14,000, Carmona with 3,167, San Francisco de Malabon 
with 8,700 inhabitants; in the central part of the province, Dasnari- 
mas with 3,500, Silan with 9,100, Maragonbon with 10,400, Indan with 
14,700 inhabitants, and in the south, Bailin with 4,189 and Alfonso with 
7,089. There is a total of 22 towns and 108 villages. 


Spanish is spoken in the port of Cavite, Estanzuela, and San Roque, 
and Tagalog in the other towns. 


The soil in the vicinity of the lowland towns produces rice of an excel- 
lent quality, which is greatly esteemed in the archipelago. Coffee of 
the best quality is gathered in Indan, Silan, and Alfonso. The area 
under cultivation is increasing steadily. Corn, sugar cane, and choco- 
late are also grown. In the southwestern region there are fine forests 
of large and well-grown trees, whose wood is serviceable for the •con- 
struction of ships and for making furniture. There is excellent hunt- 
ing in the province. The live stock in the province includes 15,000 
buffalo (carabaos), 9,000 cattle, 6,000 hogs, and 5,000 horses. The 
principal industries of this province consist, in the elevated towns, in 
the manufacture of cloth from hemp and cotton and the production of 
sugar, there being more than 160 sugar mills; in the coast towns the 
fisheries, the manufacture of salt, and the cultivation of rice. Com- 
nierce is not much developed. Cloth and hardware are imported, and 
rice, coffee, sugar, and fish exported. There are good roads in the 
province, uniting the coast towns, but many of these are impassable 
during the rainy season. Other roads cross in all directions, uniting 
the principal towns and villages. Communication with Manila is by 
the bay and by land along the road following the coast; with Batangas 
by the road from Alfonso to Tuy, and with the Laguna by the road 
from Carmona to Binan. 




The island of Corregidor, lying at the entrance to the bay of 
Manila, has on the north the strait called Boca-chica, which separates 

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it from Bataan; on the southeast the Boca-grande, fronting on the 
southwest Cavite. The island of Corregidor extends from west-south- 
west to east-northeast from Point Horadada to Point Buri for a dis- 
tance of 4 miles in greatest length, its breadth being very unequal on 
account of the irregularity in form. Tt is 2()i miles distant from the 
mouth of the river Pasig of Manila. At al)out one-third of its length 
there is a low-lying, narrow, sandy isthnuis which unites two high 
mountains. The eastern partis high, while the western part g-radually 
rises to form an extensive plateau, which is the highest part of the 
island. On this are the semaphore and light-house of the port of 
Manila. In general all of the western part of the island is composed of 
elevated crests and ])luffs, frequently cut by deep fissures, whose bot- 
toms during the rainy season are converted into so many ponds. 
Toward the northern part of the isthnuts, on a little bay formed by 
the coast, is situated the town of San Jose. This ba,y offers a deep 
and well-protected anchorage for all classes of ships during the south- 
west and northeast monsoons. There is a good anchorage almost 
entirely inclosed formed by this island and Pulo Caballo, which is a 
small island situated to the northeast of the central part of Corregidor. 

This island also has a light-house. On all of the western part of 
the island there is an abundant supply of excellent water filtering" 
through from the mountains, and three springs, which at all times 
furnish pure water, are located near the anchorage, so that it is very 
easy for ships to procure water here. The climate is even, temper- 
ate, and in general very healthful, many of the natives reaching old 
age. This island, on account of its isolated situation and its healthful 
conditions, seems more suitable for the estal)lishment of a sanitarium 
or leper hospital. From a military view point it may be considered 
the only base of defense of the iinportant bay of Manila, being as 
suitable for a torpedo station as for a shelter for ships designated to 
defend the entrance, its elevation making it a good outlook station. 
The soil is red clay, covered with great rocks, rendering its cultivation 
very difficult. The subsoil is a sandy clay rock, soft in some places 
and in others hard, white, and of a slaty appearance, disposed in diag- 
onal layers of little thickness, which are easily broken up. In other 
parts it is sandy granite, uniformly hard. The few small regions 
where the soil on account of its situation and quality is favorable for 
cultivation are cleared off and sown to rice, bananas, corn, sweet 
potatoes, etc. 

As -the character of the ground demands incessant work, and this is 
distasteful to the native, who is accustomed to plant in virgin soil and 
then leave the crop to the care of Providence, these cultivated areas 
are but few and do not produce as much as they should, or sufficient 
to provide a small number of irdiabitants. Another reason why these 
lands are not cultivated is the prevalence of the winds, which are quite 
violent during thp monsoons, particularly that from the north, which, 
in addition to being strong, are very dry. The island pastures about 
200 head of cattle. The inhabitants have no other occupation than 
fishing, which is not carried on to any great extent. There is no com- 
merce, articles of prime necessity coming from Cavite and the adjacent 
coast of Bataan and Cavite. The only town is San Jose, with 420 


As in Cavite, both Spanish and Tagalog are spoken. 

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Pulo Caballo, situated to the south, is the largest of the islands 
which surround Corregidor. It is very rocky, and possesses limited veg- 
itation; there are but few inhabitants. On the northeastern extrem- 
ity there is a light-house showing a white light. La Monja is a conical 
rock 40 meters In height, situated 2i miles to the west southwest of 
the western part of the island of Corregidor. El Fraile is a rugged 
rock, rising clear of the water, almost to the south of the light-house 
on the Pulo Caballo and to the northwest of Punta Restinga in Cavite. 
Los Cochinos or Lechones are five low rocks visible one-half mile to 
the south of the point southwest of the port of Mariveles. The most 
eastern of these is called Pulo Monti. To the northeast of Corregidor 
are two little islands smaller than La Monja, called Horadadas and 
Santa Amalia. 




This province or district is bounded on the north by Bulacan, on the 
south by the Laguna de Bay, on the east by the district of Infanta and 
Laguna, and on the west by Manila. The country, although broken 
in some parts, has many extensive plains, which would be excellent for 
cultivation were it not for the floods from the lake, which often destroy 
the crops. 


The area, including Talin, is 1,656 square kilometers, and the popula- 
tion 46,940, almost all Tagalogs. In the mountain chain of San Mateo a 
few Negritos are found. 


The capital, Morong, has a population of 10,000. It has some fine 
buildings, such as the church, the convent, and the town hall. The 
principal towns, almost all situated near the lake, are: fJala Jala, with 
15,000 inhabitants; Tanay, with 4,774; Bares, with 1,500; Binangonan, 
with 7,801; Cardona, with 10,000; Taytay, with 6,684, and Cainta, with 
2,417. In the interior is Antipolo, with a population of 3,700. This 
place is famous throughout the Philippines as the sanctuary of the 
miraculous image of Nuestra Seiiora de la Paz. There is a total of 14 
towns and 5 villages. 


Tagalog is used almost exclusively, even by the Negritos, who 
come down to trade with the Tagalogs. 


This province is not well adapted to agriculture, but nevertheless rice 
and sugar cane are cultivated in considerable quantities; also corn, 
tobacco, and bamboo. In the mountains molave, narra, acle, banaba, 
baticulin, dongon, calamansanay, tindalo, and a small variety of bamboo 

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and rattan are found. The region about San Guillermo de Bosoboso, 
Jala Jala, Tanay, Baras, and Pililla abounds in large game. The indus- 
tries of this district consist mainly in the manufacture of lime, rush 
mats, and clothing for the natives. Most of the commerce is in sugar, 
lime, cattle, and deer; bamboo, wood, and fish as articles of export; 
and in the interior of the district rice, corn, cattle, fowls, fish, fruit, 
and tobacco. The towns are united by roads and paths, and the dis- 
trict is in communication with the adjacent provinces by land and with 
the rest of the archipelago by the Laguna de Bay. The connection 
with the province of Manila by land is along the road from Cainta to 
Mariquina, and with the province of Laguna from Pililla to Santa 


The island of Talim, situated to the south of and very near to Pomt 
Quinabulasan, extends from north to south in the form of an elongated 
oval. It is 14 kilometers long and about 6 kilometers broad at the 
widest part. A mountain range runs from north to south in the island. 
From these mountains a fine stone is obtained, which during the last 
few years has been used for construction in the new works of the 
port. Its area is about 40 square kilometers. It has but few inhabit- 
ants, who occupy small villages or hamlets along the shore. Many of 
these inhabitants are employed in the quarries of the works of the 
port. The principal villages are: Banla, Tabong, Quinagatang, Subag,. 
and Aanosa. Along the south coast are several small islands of little 
importance, the largest of these being Olagitan. To the west of the 
strait which separates Talim from Morong is the little island of Tusan. 


The large lake or bay, having a circumference of 165 kilometers, gives 
its name fo this province. It is bounded on the north by the district 
of Morong and Bulacan, on the east by the mountain range which 
separates it from the Pacific, on the south by the provinces of Tabayas 
and Batangas, and on the west by Cavite and Manila. The country is 
nuich broken toward the boundaries of Morong, but on account of the 
multitude of rivers is very fertile, especially in the northwest and east, 
where it is quite level, the province is 14 leagues in length and the 
same in breadth, including the lake. The lake sometimes becomes 
very rough, almost like the ocean, causing the shipwreck at times of 
boats of good size. The shape of Mount Banajao and the waterfall at 
Bocotan are worthy of mention. The latter will be described in speak- 
ing of the town of Majayjay. The hot mineral baths of Aguas Santas 
and the grotto of Maquiling are also worthy of mention. 


The province has an area of 2,603 square kilometers, and a popula- 
tion of 169,983, almost all of whom belong to the Tagalog race. 

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The capital, Santa Cruz, has a population of 13,800.^ It has a 
magnificent church and hospital belonging; to the Franciscans, and 
many notable public and private buildings. The principal towns 
in the vicinity of the eastern shore of the lake are: Siniloan, 
with 6,400 inhabitants; Pangil, with 2,481; Paete, with 3,000; Pila, 
with 5,600; Bay, on the southern shore, with 2,400; Los Banos, with 
2,850, and Calamba, with 11,470. On the west coast, Cabuyao, with 
11,181; Santa Rosa, with 9,300; Binang, with 18,000; San Pedro de 
Tunasan, with 3,800 inhabitants. In the interior, Pagsanjan, to the 
east of Santa Cruz, with 6,300, and Majayjay, to the south of Pag- 
sanjan, with 6,634. This town is famous for being in the vicmity of 
the waterfall of Botocan, formed by the river Camatian. ^ This river, 
having its source to the east of the great mountain Banajao, receives 
during its course of nine miles the waters of sevei-al large branches, 
runs through the mountainous country, which at times forms canyons, 
until it reaches Salto, where there is an abyss of 140 meters deep. 
There the waters, extending themselves to a width of 90 feet deep, 
fall perpendicularly. The water in its fall is dashed into spray, 
presenting the appearance of a cloud of vapor, Avhich, being pierced 
by the rays of the sun, presents a thousand color illusions, the 
appearance being sometimes like that of a distant tire. To the south 
of Santa Cruz and southwest of Mayjayjay is the town Nagcarlang, 
famous for its cemetery, which is, perhaps, the best in the Philip- 
pines. The town has a popvdation of 12,97r). The province has a 
total of 33 towns, 15 villages, and about 400 hamlets. 


Tagalog is the only language spoken. 


This province may be considered the garden of the Philippines. 
Its soil produces every kind of tropical plant and tree. Among the 
products are sugar cane, rice, the betel nut, corn, coffee, and the 
cocoanut, there being a flourishing trade in cocoanut oil. The area 
of cultivated land exceeds 423 square kilometers. There are in the 
province more than 45,000 head of live stock, including horses, cattle, 
sheep, goats, hogs, and buffaloes. There are large cocoanut wine dis- 
tilleries, cabinet shops, and blacksmith shops, the latter celebrated for 
the bolos (large knives) which they make. There are more than 210 mills 
for the extraction of cocoanut oil. The fruits grown in this province 
are exquisite. They are mostly exported to Manila. The lanzon and 
the chicomame are worthy of mention. The province communicates 
with the adjacent provinces by cart roads. One from San Paglo runs 
to Dolores and Tidon, in Tayabas; another from Calamba to Santo 
Tomas, in Batangas; another from Binan to Muntinlupa, in Manila; 
another from Santa Maria to Pililla, in Morong. The waterway to 
Manila and the bay of Manila by the Eiver Pasig is excellent. 

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This rich and well-cultivated province is bounded on the north by 
Cavite and La Laguna, on the south and west by the sea, and on the 
east by the province and bay of Tayabas. It was formerly known as 
Balayan, Comintan, and Taal province. It measures 12 leagues from 
north to south and 20 from east to west. The country is in general 
uneven. From the great mountain chain of Sungay the country grad- 
ually slopes to the sea, forming wide valleys between the small spurs 
and ridges, which generally disappear before reaching the coast. 
Point Santiago and Point Cagador are the terminal points of moun- 
tainous land. The latter of these separates the magnificent bays of 
Balayan and Batangas. The eastern part is more mountainous. The 
grottos of the town of San Juan are of great depth and almost 


The province has an area of 3,130 square kilometers and a popula- 
tion of 311,180, almost all Tagalogs. 


The capital, Batangas, situated on the bay of the same name, in the 
south central part of the province, has a population of 37,400. It has 
some fine buildings, such as the church, the convent, the government 
house, the city hall, the prison, and many private residences. The 
cemetery is located in a well-kept open space, and is worthy of a peo- 
ple so religious and wealthy. This province contains the most popu- 
lous towns of the archipelago. The most important along the southern 
coast are: Balayan, a port on the bay of the same name, with 22,126 
inhabitants; Calaca, on the same bay, with 11,715; Lemerey, on the 
same bay, and near the Mansipit River, with 13,000; Taal, near Leme 
rey, on the opposite bank of the same river, with 15,921; Battang, 
on the bay of Batangas, one of the most populous of the towns, with 
a population of 38,300. The towns in the eastern part of the province 
are: San Juan de Bocdoc, with a population of 13,456, and Lobo, with 
6,202. On the western coast are: Lian and Nasugbu, with 3,889 and 
8,263, respectively. To the north of Lake Taal are: Talasay, with 
8,200 inhabitants, and near the boundary of the province of Laguna, 
Santo Tomas, with a population of 10,607, and Tanauan, with a popu- 
lation of 21,513. In the interior are: Lipa, with 39,559 inhabitants; 
Rosario, with 13,606; San Jose, with 10,455; Ibaan and Taisan, each 
with more than 9,000. There are in all 22 towns, 720 villages, and 7 


Tagalog is exclusively spoken. 


About 100,000 piculs of coffee are produced annually and 150,000 
piculs of sugar. Rice, chocolate, and various other articles are also 

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Many kinds of cloth of the finest texture are produced in looms of 
the most simple construction and at very slight cost. These fabrics 

are made of silk, hemp, and cotton, and brightly dyed. The value of 
the exports of this province is double that of the imports. In the 
early part of February in each year there is a notable fair held in the 
capital town, which attracts large numbers of people. It is in the 
nature of an agricultural and industrial exposition, and offers premiums, 
both honorary and in money, for the best exhibits. The fair held in 
Taal the 8th of December is also one of importance. 

There are 146,576 head of live stock in the province, whose value is 
estimated at $1,691,282. In the mountains of San Juan, Santo 'I'omas, 
and Rosario there are many fine woods suitable for building purposes 
and the manufacture of furniture. To reach Batangas from Manila by 
sea it is necessary to cross the bay of Manila and follow the coast of 
Cavite. There are three steamers on this line. The roads are all good 
during the dry season, but during the rainy season many of them 
become impassable on account of the character of the soil, which is 
clay. From the capital town there are two main cart roads, one to the 
northeast and one to the north. There is communication by sea with 
the entire archipelago. By land there are cart roads to Laguna by 
way of Santo Tomas and Calamba, to Tayabas by way of Eosario and 
Tindon, and to Cavite from Balayan by footpath to the village of 

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Plate XXVI. 


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j> C — VOL 3 

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The irregular shape of this province makes it difficult to indicate the 
boundaries with precision. It may be said that the north boundary is 
formed by the province of Laguna and the Pacific Ocean. On the 
east it is bounded by Ambos Camarines, on the south by the sea of 
Mindoro, and on the west by Batangas and La Laguna. The country 
is exceedingly mountainous, and the configuration very irregular. The 
distance from Gumaca, on the north, to Laguimanoc, on the south, is 
6 leagues; from Point Dapdap, on the north, to the head of Bondoc, 
on the south, more than 20 leagues, and from Batangas to the head of 
Bondoc more than 30. That part of the country between Gumaca and 
Laguimanoc is a kind of isthmus, which divides the province into two 
parts. Throughout the length of the province, as far as Bondoc, there 
is a central mountain chain, which sends out smaller chains of less 
importance into the interior. These are covered with vegetation, and 
send out in all directions a large number of rivers and streams. 


The area of this province is 5,893 square kilometers and the popu- 
lation 109,780. Of these the inhabitants of the western part and on 
the western slope of the peninsula of Tayabas, which terminates in 
Point Bondoc (or Cabeza Bondoc), are almost all Tagalogs. Those who 
inhabit the country near Camarines and the eastern slope of the penin- 
sula are Vicols. 


The capital, Tayabas, has a population of 16,900. A century ago 
Calanag, on the coast of the Pacific, was the capital. The towns of 
most importance are: Near the Laguna boundary, Mauban, with 10,288 
inhabitants; Lucban, with 11,560; Dolores, with 2,500, and Tiaon, 
with 5,979. On the Pacific coast are: Antimonan, or Lanoon, a town 
situated on an excellent port, with a population of 10,712; Gumaca, 
with 7,431 inhabitants; Calanag, with 2,671, situated on the western 
coast of the peninsula; Guiangan, with 2,216; San Narciso, near the 
southern coast, with 2,064; Mulanay, with 2,464; Catanoan, with 
3,754; Nacalelon, with 3,473; Pitogo, with 2,500; Pagabilao, near 
Tayabas, with 6,152. This province has a totalof 20 towns, 425 
villages, and 5 hamlets. 


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Tagalog is spoken in the western part and Vicol in the eastern part 
of the peninsula of Tayabas. 


The forests produce a great variety of excellent woods, especially 
those suitable for shipbuilding. These are sent to the various parts 
of the Philippines and also to foreign countries. The forests also 
produce large quantities of wax, pitch, tar, rosin, and cobonegro 
wood. There are thousands of head of live stock grazing m the fields. 
Cocoanut oil is manufactured in large quantities. The rice which is 
grown is of excellent quality. The natives manufacture a great many 
hats, boxes, and various kinds of cloth. The inhabitants of Tayabas 
grow a special kind of seed called lumban, which produces an excellent 
dry oil containing a large amount of oleaginous substance. There are 
a number of dock and ship yards where large numbers of boats for 
the coast trade are built. From dumgal, an exceedingly bitter wood, 
cups are made, in which in a few hours water takes a taste similar to 
quinine, and whose effects are identical with those produced by this 
plant. There are about 300 looms where hemp and pineapple fiber 
cloth are woven. There are about 40 cocoanut oil mills in the prov- 
ince. This province has communication with all the rest of the 
archipelago by sea; bv land with the Laguna province by way of 
Lucban, Dolores, and Tiaon; with Camarines by way of Calanag 
and Guinayangan. There is much trade along the coasts. 



In front of Point Salag, in the most northern part of the peninsula, 
is the little island of Cabalete, traversed from northwest to southeast 
by a little mountain range, which is covered with trees and vegetation. 


To the southeast of Cabalete, in the great bay of Malaon, there is an 
island called Alabat, extending from northwest to southeast, likewise 
traversed by a range of mountains covered with vegetation. Here are 
found many kinds of woods most suitable for building purposes and 
furniture making. The exportation of these woods would undoubtedly 
have been greater were it not that the place is little known, as boats 
seldom go to this coast, as it is very dangerous during a part of the 
year. This island is inhabited by a few Tagalog families, who live m 
villages and hamlets along the western coast. The principal of these 
is Sangirin in the north. In the mountains to the north of this village 
coal is found. In the central part of the island the valuable wood 
known as camagon is found, and in the southern part silangon. 


Near Point Panjan, to the east of Alabat, is the little island of Pasig, 
united to Luzon by means of a reef. 

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This island is almost united to the coast of Luzon at Point Puaya 
and forms with this coast the anchorages of Pagdilao on the west and 
that between the islands on the south and the island of Laguimanoo on 
the east. It is triangular in shape, extenduig about 4 miles trom 
north to south and ^ miles from east to west, Mount Mitra kw- 
ering above the rest of the islands. It is surrounded by a little island 
and huge rocks, the most of which are above water at high tide. 


This island is situated to the east of Pagdilao Grande and is united 
to it by a narrow sand bar, in which the island termmates on the 


R-cently the two provinces of North Camarines and^ South Cama- 
rines were united into a single province called Ainbos Camarines. it 
is bounded on the north by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by Min- 
doro Sea, onthe west by Tavabas, and on the east by Albay and the 
Pacific Ocean or Bay of Lagonov. The northern part ot the province 
is crossed by manv large rivers and covered by high mountains having 
luxuriant vegetation on them. These mountains form a chain, which 
is a continuation of that traversing the province of layabas. ihe 
southern part is likewise mountainous, its extensive valleys being 
watered by rivers and creeks which frequently flood the lowlands and 
destroy the crops. There are 48 rivers and 296 creeks in this region. 
The 53 waterfalls, some of them having a fall of 15 meters, piT)ve 
the rugged character of this region. Near the town of Kuba, south ot 
the Grotto of Orocosoc, there is a lake having a perimeter of 5,184 
meters and a depth of 3.34 meters. There is another lake on Mount 
Hanti from which the waters filter into the Grotto of Calangitan. 


The area of Ambos Camarines, including the adjacent islands, is 7,897 
square kilometers, and has a registered population of 19'1,022. The 
most of these are Vicols, indigenous and ancient people of this region. 
Two tribes of Negritos are found in this province; one m the north, 
not far from the boundaries of Tayabas, in the mountainous region ot 
Capolonga, the other in the vicinity of Triga. On the tops of the 
Isarog Mountains there dwell certain savages called Cimarromes del 
Isarog (wild men of Isarog). Some of these are also found in the spurs 
of these mountains, which extend into the so-called peninsula of Cama- 
rines. There are a few Igorrotes on Mount Triga, to the south-south- 
east of Isarog. 


The capital is Nueva Caceres, with a population of 7,395. This was 
formerly the seat of the Episcopal see of these islands and is now the 
residence of civil and ecclesiastical authority. It has some fine build - 

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ings, such as the cathedral, the Episcopal palace, the government 
house, the town hall, the seminary, the hospital, and the girls' school. 
This school is at the same time a normal school for female teachers and 
was founded by His Excellency Senor Gainza O. P. The^ most impor- 
tant towns are Daet, the former capital of North Camarines, situated 
about a mile and a half from the sea between the Daet River and one 
of its branches, having a population of 10,332; Talisay, to the north- 
west of Daet, has a population of 3,600; Labo, farther inland and also 
to the northwest of Daet, 4,200; Paracale, celebrated for its ancient 
mines, 3,824. In North Camarines the most important towns are Cara- 
moan, with 6,100 inhabitants; Tinambac, on the southern part of the 
Bay of San Miguel; Laganoy, on the eastern coast of the peninsula, 
with 3,549 inhabitants; San Jose, to the south of Laganoy, with 9,212, 
and Goa, west-northwest of San Jose, with 7,608. Along the coastto 
the south are Ragay, with 900, and Pasacao, with 1,183 inhabitants. 
In the interior, along the banks of the large river Vicol, there are 
towns of importance, among which may be mentioned Bato,with 5,035 
inhabitants; Minaladac, with 3,869; San Fernando, with 2,844; Camali- 
gan, with 5,050; Canaman, with 5,248; Magarao, with 5,293, andCab- 
alanga, not far from the coast and south of the great Bay of San 
Miguel. There are in the province 44 towns, 180 villages, and 221 


Vicol is generally spoken, though in some places Tagalog is used. 
The savages and various tribes of Negritos speak their own peculiar 
dialects, although those who come down to the towns to trade under- 
stand and speak Vicol. 


The forest products are woods of excellent quality suitable for 
building, such as baticuHn, molave, and narra in the northern part, 
and. anajan, cedro, mangachapuy, naya, palo-maria, tindole, acle, 
balete, bagainto, camagon, jaral, and also narra and molave in the 
southern part. The forests also produce resins, pitch, tar, and large 
quantities of wax and honey. Among mineral products are gold, 
silver, iron, lead, and copper, which are found in the mines worked at 
Mambulao and those at Taracale. In the southern part there are 
mines of pit coal. Marble and gypsum quarries are also found. In 
the southern part there are no mines known, but many of the rivers 
carry gold. Agriculture is well advanced, hemp being the especial 
object of cultivation. Rice and sugar are produced, and are articles 
of export. In the center of the peninsula of Camarines is the majestic 
mountain of Isarog, inhabited by pagans. 

To the south and west of this mountain are extensive and fertile 
valleys, where excellent rice, chocolate superior to that from the 
Moluccas, corn, hemp, sugar cane, and all kinds of bananas are grown. 
There are alcohol distilleries, sugar mills, and refineries ; distilleries 
for the manuf aeture of the essence of ilang-ilang ; silversmiths' shops, 
shoe shops, and looms, especially those for the manufacture of sinamay 
and guinaras. There are lao hemp presses, brickyards, and fisheries. 
There is an abundance of live stock of all kinds, particularly bujffalos 
and hogs. Ways of communication in the interior are very few, espe- 

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cially in the north, where there are four cart roads. One of these 
runs parallel to the coast of the Bay of Ragay and communicates with 
the province of Tayabas. It continues as far as Daet, on the Facilic 
coast, and from there goes to Indan. There is communication by sea 
with the entire archipelago. In the south the ways of communication 
between the towns and with the rest of the archipelago are better and 
more numerous. From Port Pasacao one can easily go to JNueva 
Caceres, and from there in every direction, there being communication 
with Albay from Triga to Polonguy, and from Tigaon to Sangay. 


There are many islands adjacent to the coast of this provinc^e, 
especially on the north. The principal ones are as follows: To the 
north of Daet are the Calagnas islands, a group composed ot various 
inhabited islands covered with vegetation. The largest of these 4 
kilometers long by li kilometers wide, is 22 kilometers from the 
coast. The islands which border this island, known as Tinaga, are 
Pinasruapan, Samar, Maculad, Ingatan, Siata, Cagbalisan, and Calagua. 
To the north of Mambulao and of Capalonga there is a multitude ot 
islands and rock, which render navigation along this coast most dilti- 
cult. To the northeast of Indan is the small island of Quinamanocan, 
which is covered with vegetation. Canino, Canton, and a multitude 
of other small islands constitute a group to the east of Daet at the 
entrance of the Bay of San Miguel. The little island of Canit is found 
at the head of this bay, and near its eastern coast, to the north, is the 
small island of San Miguel. The coast of the peninsula ot South 
Camarines is bordered by as many small islands, as may be seen m 
Chapter I, which discusses the configuration of Luzon. 



The modern and commercial province of Albay, near the extreme 
southeast of Luzon, is bounded on the north by Camarines, on the 
east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by Sorsogon and the Mindoro 
Sea and on the west by the Mindoro Sea and Ambos Camarines. Ihe 
country is rugged and volcanic. A chain of mountains traverses the 
province from east to west, the majestic volcano of May on or Albay 
rising not far from the eastern coast of the Bay of Albay. It is situ- 
ated about 20 miles from the sea. From the mountains arise number- 
less rivers which fertilize the valleys and plains. 


The area of this province, including the island of Catanduanes and 
those contiguous to Luzon, is 4,123 kilometers. There are 195,129 
inhabitants, the great majority being Vicols. 


The capital, Albay, situated on the bay of the same name not far 
from Mayon volcano, has a population of 10,600. It has fine houses, 
with a church, town hall, parochial residence, and other well-con- 

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structed public buildings. On the eastern coast the towns of most 
importance, beginning at the north, are: Tivi, noted for its springs, 
has a population of 10,447; Malinao, to the south of the great Bay of 
Lagonoy and to the southeast of Tivi, with a population of 11,849. 
Tobaco,' to the southeast of Malinao, with a population of 18,000, is 
situated on the bay of the same name. It is a much used port, and 
has on its shores the towns of Malilipot, with a population of 5,858, 
and Bagacay, with a population of 11,379. On the northern coast of 
the Bay of Albay is Libog, with a population of 5,751. It is just 
south of the port called Sula and is very well protected. Legaspi, to 
the northeast of Albay, with a population of 6,830, is also a much fre- 
quented port. Manito, on the eastern coast of the Bay of Paliqui, has 
a population of 2,369. Near the boundary of Ambos Camarines are 
the ports of Libong, with a populatibn of 5,449; Polangui, with 10,047; 
Ligao, to the southeast of Polangui and farther in the interior, has a 
papulation of 17,900. Between Ligao and Polangui is the important 
town of Oas, with 15,987 inhabitants. Guinobatan, to the southeast of 
Ligao and to the west of Legaspi, with 20,414; Cagsaua, just to the 
west of Albay, 22,000; Camalig, west of Cagsaua, 15,853. There is a 
total of 23 towns and 260 villages. 


Vicol is spoken almost exclusively. 


A great advance has been made by this province on account of its 
richness in hemp, which is cultivated here in a special manner. The 
value of the annual product is about $4,750,217. The ordinary fruits 
of the countrv are produced here. The industries are the production 
of cloth f rom^^abaca and oil from the cocoanut. The principal part of 
the commerce consists in the exportation of the hemp fiber, there being 
370,400 piculs exported, whose value is about $3,700,000, this having 
risen within a few years from a value of $2,000,000. A considerable 
amount of sinamay cloth is made here, and there are besides other 
industries of minor importance. There are several shipyards, which 
manufacture small coasting vessels, and where a large amount of the 
valuable woods produced by the forests is utilized. There are besides 
. some coal mines and gold, silver, and iron mines in operation, and 
some abandoned quicksilver mines. The principal ways of comnmni- 
cation are by the carriage roads which extend from Albay to all of 
the important towns of the province. There are four telegraph 


Speaking of the configuration of the Island of Luzon in the first 
chapter, we indicated certain islands adjacent to the coast of this great 
island; we will now speak briefly of some of the principal ones of these 
situated to the east of the bays of Albay and Tobaco: 


This is an island of considerable elevation, and triangular in shape. 
The village of Santo Florentina is located about the center of the south 
coast, and is the only town on the island. Coal is found here. 

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This island, like Rapurapu, is about 2 miles wide at its broadest 
part. The only important town which is worth naming is Batan, on 
the western coast. There are several coal mines here. 


This island, situated to the west of Batan, is very similar to the two 
already described. There is no town of importance. 


This is the smallest of the named islands, situated to the east of 
Tobaco, and is surrounded by reefs, like all the rest. 


This island, situated to the east of the peninsula of Ambos Cama- 
rines, extends from north to south, and is surrounded by the waters ot 
the Pacific Ocean. On the west is the channel or strait of Maqueda, 
which separates it from Luzon. The soil is very much broken and 
mountainous and very fertile, being watered by many small rivers. 
From east to west in its greatest breadth it measures about 40 kilo- 
meters and from north to south about 70 kilometers. 


Its area is 1,676 square kilometers, and its population 33,310, the 
greater part of whom present many points in common with the 
Visayas, according to the testirnony of the first missionaries who con- 
verted them to the Christian faith. 


The capital is Virac, situated on the south coast of the Bay of 
Cabagas, which has a population of 6,843. Calolbon, also on the south 
coast? has a population of 4,201. Pandan, in the extreme north of the 
island, has 2,500 inhabitants. Payo, to the south of the bay called 
"The South Anchorage," and Biga, near Payo, have together a popula- 
tion of some 3,252. There is a total of 29 towns and 10 established 


Vicol is spoken. 


The principal products are rice, corn, hemp, indigo, cocoanuts, and 
fine building woods. The natives wash a considerable amount ot gold 
from the sands of the rivers. There is communication between the 
towns of Virac and Cololbon with Bato. 

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The most important of these are Panay, in the Bay of Payo; Biga 
and Tambongon, to the north; also Balumbanes, with the small group 
of islands. In the front of Carao, toward the north, there is a small 
island of little imDortance. 


The new province of Sorsogon is situated in the southeastern extrem- 
ity of the island of Luzon, and is bounded on the north by the province 
of Albay and the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Strait of San 
Bernardino, on the east by the Pacific Ocean and the Oton or interior 
sea of the archpielago. The character of the country is similar to 
that in the province of Albay. The most southern part forms a 
peninsula, irom the center of which rises the volcano of Bulusan, 
which is the origin of many small mountain ranges, which form the 
sources of the rivers which water the extensive and fertile valleys. 


Ther area is 1,954 square kilometers, the population 98,650, almost 
all of the Vicol race. 


Sorsogon is the capital of this new province. The port of Sorsogon 
is the best of all those found between the Strait of Verdi Islands and 
that of San Bernardino, and is suitable for all kinds of ships. It is 
an excellent refuge for ships which in the Marinduque Sea have been 
surprised by squalls or typhoons, which usually pass to the north of 
the Strait of Ticao, and for ships which have been damaged in passing 
through the Strait of San Bernardino. The entrance to the bay lying 
between Point Bantique on the west and that of Bagatao on the east 
contains the islands of Bagatao and Malamahuan, which divide it into 
three channels, the one between the two islands, being the principal 
one, and the only practicable one for all kinds of ships. That which is 
called the Boco-chica, to the east of the island of Bagatao, is very 
narrow, having a rock located on the southern side, and to pass this 
even with small steam launches it is necessary to run very close to the 
shore of Bagatao, which is clear and with a depth of from 13 to 15 
meters of water, this not being true of the opposite side. The channel 
found between the island of Luzon and Malamahuan, although having 
a depth of from 5 to 8 meters, is very narrow, and still worse than the 
one already mentioned. The coast and islands on the other side are 
clear, and the islands which appear on the north abrupt, especially 
on the outer side, so that navigation through the middle of the channel 
is free from all danger. 

The Bay of Sorsogon, which is entered after passing the entrance, 
is spacious and 19 miles in width from the east-northeast to the vicinity 
of the town of Sorsogon. Soundings diminish progressively from 17 
to 5 meters, the bottom being muddy. To the the north of this bay 

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there is a fine gulf, having a depth of 7i meters, with muddy bottom 
all over. The coast of Casiguran, to the south of Sorsogon, is notable 
for the malformation, which is seen, according to the best data obtama- 
ble, for a long while. It has sunk about eighty-four one-hundredths ot 
a meter annually. The population is 10,700. .^u ^ ^^^ • u u-^ 

Around the Bay of Sorsogon are situated Tuban, with 5,555 inhabit- 
ants: Catilla, with 2,069; Magallanes, at the entrance of the ba}^ with 
2 928- Pilar, or Port Putiao, on the western coast, with a population ot 
9' 127; Donsol,near to the boundaries of Albay, with 4,682; Bulan, 
near the southern part of the peninsula, with S;,545; Matnog, on the 
Pacific coast, with 2,320; Bulusan, with 5,413; Barcelona with 4,947, 
and Cubat, one of the finest towns of the province, with 12,590. ihere 
is a total of 16 towns, 131 villages, and numerous hamlets. 


The language is Vicol. 


The principal products, apart from building woods, which are found 
in the mountains, are hemp and copra, both articles of exportation. 
The industries are in about the same condition as m the province ot 
Albay. There are various mines, not worked. The principal towns 
are connected by cart roads and paths; one leads to Labay from Pilar. 


The islands near to the coast of this province are of little importance. 
Several are seen to the southeast of the central part of the province 
north of the Strait of San Bernardino. The others are enumerated 
and described in Chapter T, 

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[Maps Nos. 13, 15, and 17, of the Atlas of the Philix)pmes.] 



To the north of Luzon and south-southeast of Formosa are the two 
groups of islands called the Batanes and the Babuyanes, the latter 
nearest to the north of Luzon. 


The most important islands of this group are Basay or Batan, Saptan, 
and Itbayat. The northern islands near Formosa, called Jamia and 
Norte, terminate the group. There are other islands of little impor- 
tance, or uninhabited, such as Siayan, Diogo, Misanga, Dequez, 
Mabudis, and Diamis, or the Diami rocks. 


The second group consists of the islands of Calayan, the largest of 
all, the name which has been given to the group on account of the 
abundance of hogs (babuyes in Tagalog meaning hogs). 

Other islands of fair size are Camiguin, Dalupiri, Fuga, and Font. 
Those farthest distant from Luzon are the two called Balingtan, which 
give name to the channel, which is between the Babuyanes and the 
island of Saptan, the most southern of the Batanes. Some authors 
include Balington with the Batanes. 


The most important of the Batanes measures 20 kilometers from 
north to south and 4 kilometers from east to west. In the northern 
part rises Mount Irada, which seems to be volcanic. The country is 
mountainous, but has large cultivated plains. 


At about 6 kilometers to the southwest of Basay rises the island of 
Saptan, which has an area of about half that of the preceding island. 
It nas the same general conditions of country. 

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This island is situated to the northwest of Basay at a distance of about 
20 miles; it is a very fertile island, and the largest of the Batanes, 
almost a half larger than Basay. 


This is the most western of the Babuyanes Islands, and is situated 
about 25 miles northeast of Point Cabicungan, of Luzon. It is regular 
in asx)ect and about 8 miles long. 


This island is situated 9 miles to the south-southeast of Dalupiri, is 
also flatter than that island, and extends from east to west a distance of 
lOi miles. This island is known on account of the port of Musa, 
situated on the western side. 


This island is situated 13 miles to the east of Dalupiri, and is larger 
and of greater elevation than the island of Fuga. It is composed ot 
mountainous and low lands, and its greatest elevation is m the center 
of the island. It is cut in certain places by deep valleys. It extends 
from east to west a distance of about 10 miles. There is a fan' bay on 
the south coast. 




This island lies farthest to the northeast, and is the highest of all the 
roup. It is situated about 25 miles east-northeast from Calayan. 
'here is a volcano situated at the western extremity of the island. 


This island is very mountainous and high, especially on the north- 
east. It is about 12 miles long from north-northeast to south-south- 
west, and is situated about 32 miles south one-fourth southwest of 
Claro Babuyan. It is known on account of the volcano, called Caini- 
guin. Seven and a half miles to the east, one-fourth southeast of the 
northeastern point of Camiguin, arise the two rocks called Guinapac. 
They present the appearance of two towers, and are surrounded by 
various little islands. To the northeast of these rocks are four others 
called Didicas, more elevated than the preceding and surrounded by 
various smaller rocks, and a little island about 60 meters m height, and 
less than a mile in circumference, forms a group with these rocks. On 
the northern coast there is an active volcano. 


This island has a diameter of U miles; it is high and very rugged 
on the west, and uninhabited the greater part of the year. 

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The towns of greatest importance in the Batanes are Santo Domingo 
de Baseo, the head town, with a population of 2,652. It is situated at 
the foot of Mount Irraya, and is surrounded by the best land in the 
Batanes, this being level and picturesque. It contains some fine 
buildings. The port is excellent and very safe, except during the 
west monsoon. To the south of Santo Domingo, about 5 kilometers 
distant, is Magatao, a town of 1,195 inhabitants; it has the best church 
in the Batanes, and a port suitable for small vessels. At a distance of 
2 kilometers from this town is Ibana, with a population of 1,914; San 
Vincente, with a population of 1,935, is the only town on the island of 
Saptan, although the entire island is bordered with little villages. 
Maya, the only town of Itbayat, with a population of 1,080, is situ- 
ated on most fertile ground, and not far from forests containing 
excellent woods for furniture making, but of little value for building 

In the Babuyanes the principal towns are Musa, on the island of 
Juga, and Calayan, on the island of the same name, situated near to 
the east of the center of the coast, and which has a population of 584. 
On Camiguin Island there are several small hamlets. 


The native inhabitants speak their own language, Batan, which must 
not be confounded with Ibanag, although it is somewhat similar to it. 


The Batanes, with the exception of Itbayat, are lacking in building 
woods; on the other hand, there is an abundance of lime, sand, and 
stone for building materials. The principal products are ube, sweet 
potatoes, corn, a little rice, and some sugar cane, which is used for the 
manufacture of the wine known as "palec." There is not a great 
variety of fruits, although the pineapples of Batanes are so fine that 
they are superior in size and quality to those produced in other parts 
of the archipelago. Potatoes, rice, and vegetables found in Spain grow 
well here. The principal industry is grazing, which assumes large 
proportions. Goats, horses, and hogs are raised and exported in large 
numbers. There is a large exportation of lard. In the vicinity of the 
towns are large cocoanut groves, especially near to Itbayat, the oil 
being exported to Manila. 

Communication between the various islands is most difficult on 
account of the strong currents in the channels and the lack of anchor- 
ages. Communication with the rest of the archipelago is still more 


These constitute a little group of islands to the north. They are 
very small in size and are truly isles. The principal ones, commenc- 
ing with those nearest to the Batanes, are Siayam, Mabudis Tanem, 
Maysanga, and Jami* All of these islands, with the exception of the 
last, are within sight of the Batanes. The most important of them is 
Jami, inhabited, according to the Batanes, by savages and pagans of 

Hosted by 



the Vaschi race. It is not known whether the language spoken is 
derived from the Batan language or is peculiar to the inhabitants. In 
the northwest the inhabitants of the Batanes and of the Vaschi Islands 
understand each other, perhaps on account of certain words in com- 
mon. No Spanish officer or missionary has ever visited these islands. 


This island is the sixth in size of the islands of the Philippine Archi- 
pelago. It is situated to the south of Luzon. On the western coast 
it is bounded by the China Sea, forming, with the Calamianes, the 
strait of Mindoro, which is divided into two channels by the Apo 
banks; toward the north it is separated from the coast of Luzon by 
the Isla Verdi Strait, and is bounded on the east by the Visayas Sea, 
and on the south by the sea of Mindoro. The country is mountainous 
and the vegetation ^exuberant. It produces excellent building woods 
and contains also copper mines and sulphur. It is the least exploited 
in the interior of all the islands. 


The area, including the adjacent islands, is 10,167 kilometers. There 
are 67,656 registered inhabitants, including unconquered pagans, who 
inhabit the interior, whose population would, without doubt, exceed 
106,200. The principal race inhabiting the interior is the Manginanes, 
whose customs are very savage and primitive. Some suppose that the 
Manguianes are only those pagans who dwell in the mountains near 
Mangarin, and that the rest of the inhabitants of the interior belong 
to the Bangot, Buguil, Tadianan, Durugmunan Beribi, Buctulan, Tiron, 
and Lactan tribes. There are some authors, among them Blumentritt, 
who believe that Negritos live in the vicinity of Halcon. 


The capital town is Calapan, situated on the north coast, on the little 
peninsula, and has a population of 5,953. On the same coast is Puerto 
Galera, which is famous on account of its safe harbor, and has a popu- 
lation of 1,700. Naujan has a population of 5,200; Pola,on the west- 
ern coast, northeast of Mangarin and Tabayan, is situated at the head 
of a magnificent bay, and has a population of 2,000; Manaburao and 
Paluan, on the western coast, toward the northwest of the islands, are 
also towns of importance. All the towns in the island are situated 
near the coast. 


Tagalog is spoken in the northern part, Visayan in the southern, 
and Manguian in the central part of the island. 

1 The greater part of the data in reference to the Batanes and Vaschi islands is 
taken from a letter from Father Anastasio Idigoras, O. P., published m Nos. 138, 139, 
140, 141, and 142 of the " Policy of Spain in the Philippines." 

Hosted by 




The immense forests of this island contain all kinds of woods, palms, 
and bamboos, although but little profit is derived from them on account 
of the lack of people to work them. Among the trees found may be 
mentioned calinga, a species of cinnamon. Near the principal towns 
woodcutting is carried on in the adjacent forests, and during the last 
few years a « considerable quantity of wood has been exported to 
Manila. Most of the wood is cut near the towns of Paluan, Mam- 
burao, Itirum, Bulalacao, Pola, Pinamalayan, Naujan, and the capital; 
and the traffic is carried on by a small number of ships running to 
Manila and Batangas. The town of Pola has extensive nipa groves, 
whose products are exported to the provinces of Batangas, Tayabas, 
and the island of Marinduque. Rattan, diliman, rajas, buri, and wax, 
which is obtained from the towns of Puerto Galera, Paluan, and Mam- 
burao; tortoise shell, which is obtained from the little bordering 
islands; large canoes, made from a single piece of wood, which are 
constructed in the towns of Baco and Sabuaan; sibucao, which is 
exported from Puerto Galera; balao oil, pitch, nigui, and cabonegro 
are the principal articles of export. The cultivation of hemp is 
increasing rapidly, although at the present time but little is gathered; 
and within the last few years some attention has been given to the 
cultivation of sugar cane in the vicinity of Calapan. Abra de Hog 
and Mamburao have given good results in the cultivation of this 
article, as last vear 1,200 piculs were exported. The cultivation of 
tobacco, long established in the towns of Sablayan and Santa Cruz, 
produces a good quality similar to that of the Igorrotes. Cotton is 
quite abundantly produced, but is utilized only by the natives them- 
selves, no exportation taking place, except to the island of Itmg. 
Grazing in Mindoro is scarcely worthy of mention, except that it 
exists in the towns of Abra de Hog, Naujan, and Mangarin. The live 
stock raised is used only for home consumption, perhaps on account 
of lack of suitable ships for exportation. 

There is found in the forests of Mindoro an indigenous animal 
called the tamarao— a species of buffalo or carabao, but smaller and 
very ferocious. Its horns are straight and not semilunar, as in the 
carabao. It is hunted with lassoes and lances, and in the attack a 
thrust is made for the eyes or the chest. But any method of hunting 
this animal is very dangerous, and the natives do not expose them- 
selves to it, except when it is necessary to protect their crops. 

Of the mineral products of this island nothing is known except in 
regard to sulphur, which is found in large quantities in the town of 
Subaan, and gypsum, which is found at Naujan, and flint, which is 
exported from Baco. ^ 

The ways of communication are almost all by sea, and are danger- 
ous, although it is possible to go by land from the head town to the 
towns on the eastern coast of the island. It is preferable, however, 
to go by sea, as the rugged character of the country and the many 
rivers, which are crossed only with danger on account of the croco- 
diles, and the mountains make the journey by land exceedingly diffi- 
cult. The towns of the north and west can communicate with the 
capital only by sea, as no roads by land exist on account of the rugged 
mountain chains between Puerto Galera and Subaan. 

Hosted by 




The principal islands adjacent to Mindoro are, on the northwest, the 
Luban^ ^roup; on the northeast, the Maranduque group; on the 
southwest, thelling group; and, on the south, the Semaraza group. 


The island of Lubang is the largest, most important, and only 
inhal)ited one of this group. It is 16 miles in length f roni northwest 
to southeast and 4 miles in breadth, and has many mdentations on the 
coast, among them the safe harbor of Tilig and several bays more or 
less protected. The land in the interior as far north as the parallel ot 
Tilig is low and level, and from this point south broken and moun- 
tainous, the highest mountain being near Gontin, on the western 
coast, south-southeast of the town of Lubang. 


This town, situated on the northern coast 2 miles from Point Sala, 
has a population of 6,51(3. The inhabitants are mostly Tagalogs, 
engaged in agricultural pursuits, hunting, and tishmg. Durmg certain 
sejSsonsof the vear a large number of turtles' eggs and eggs of the 
brush turkey are found along the shores. These are used as tood by the 
natives. The other islands of the group are Ambil, to the east of 
Lubang; the Talinas islands, to the south of the Imy of Loog, on the 
southeastern part of the island; Mandani, a mile to the north ot Ambil; 
Malabatuan, a little island also to the north of Ambil; Cabra, the most 
western of the group, having a length of 2 miles from northwest^to 
southeast, where a light-house of the lirst class is situated, and Uolo, 
the most eastern island. 

marinduque: group. 

The principal island is Marinduque, situated to the northeast^ of 
Mindoro and south of Luzon. It is almost circular in shape, 25 miles 
in diameter, mountainous, and quite high, having a range on its eastern 
side which runs from north to south, formed by the Tapian, ban Anto- 
nio, 'and Marlanga mountains. The land is fertile, although watered 
by small rivers only. The principal product of the island is rice. 
There are two ports, San Andreas on the northwest, and banta Cruz 
on the northeast, and a few bays on the southeastern and western 
coasts, which offer fairly safe anchorages, according to the prevailing 
monsoon and the condition of the sea. ,^ . k aaa 

The most important towns are Boac, with a population ot 15,UUU, 
and Santa Cruz de Napo, with a population of 15,600. Large quanti- 
ties of rice are exported. The inhabitants are almost all Tagalogs. 

The principal of the adjacent islands are the group Tres Reyes to the 
southwest of Mompog, Maninayan to the northeast, and ban Andreas 
and some smaller islands to the northwest. 


Iling, the principal island of the group, has a length of 10 miles 
from the northwest to the southeast, and is shaped like an elongated 
triangle. The land is high and mountainous. All of the eastern coast 

Hosted by 



is high and covered with trees and extensive mangrove swamps, which 
reach to the shore, except at the point on the southeast just opposite 
a rough and jagged rock. The only town, called Iling, has a popula- 
tion of 500 Tagalogs and Visayans engaged in fishing. Their food is 
mostly fish, turtle, and bolate (sea cucumbers). 

Just in front of the middle of the eastern coast is the island of 
Ambolan, which is of medium height and surrounded with reefs. 


These islands include the islands of Semerara, Nagubat, Libagao, 
Sibolon, Sibaton, Caluya, Sibay, and Panagatan. Semerara, situated 
8 miles southeast of Point Burancan, southern extremity of Mindoro, 
is 8i miles in length from north-northwest to south-southeast and 4^ 
miles wide on the south, its point of greatest breadth. The island is 
mountainous, but of medium height, and has irregular coasts. It has 
one town or village situated in the northeastern part, inhabited by 150 
people, who iire engaged in collecting the sea cucumbers from the 
shallows which surround the bay. The channel between this island 
and Mindoro is free from rocks, and deep, according to the testimony 
of Captain Villavicincio, who was chief of the hydrographic commis- 
sion of the Philippines. Coal is found in these islands near the shore 
at a depth of 1 foot. In the northern part it is of good quality; in the 
southern part of but medium grade. 

This is a small island situated a mile northeast of Semerara, and is 
of medium height. 


This island is Si miles to the east of Semerara, and 4 miles long 
from north to south and li miles broad. The southern part is quite 
elevated, reaching a height of 190 meters above the sea level. 

The island of Sibolon is lOi miles east of Semerara and 6 miles north 
of Sibato and is surrounded by reefs. 

Sibay, 7i miles to the southeast of Semerara and 2^ miles from 
Caluya, is a small island 65 meters in height. 


These are little isles and reefs south-southwest of Semerara and 7 
miles from Cebu. The channel between the most eastern islands of 
this group, Semerara, and the northwestern extremity of Panay is 19 
miles wide and very deep. 



This island forms a comandancia. It is narrow and long, extending 
from north-northwest to south-southeast, and is situated in the strait 
which separates Masbate from Ambos Camarines. To the north and 

Hosted by 



northeast is the island of Luzon and to the southeast the island of 
Ticao. The interior is mountainous and craggy, and froni the center 
rises Mount Enganoso. A mountain range traverses the island from 
northwest to southeast. Toward the southwest is the little island of 
Gorion, which seems to be a continuation of this mountain range. 
On the northeastern and western coasts there are some level lands 
which are under cultivation. 


The island has an area of 292 square kilometers, and a population of 
1,703, almost all Vicols. At the beginning of the century this island 
was inhabited by Moros. 


The only town is San Pascual, on^he northwestern extremity of the 
island. It has a port fronting the little island of Busin, and is sur- 
rounded by a multitude of islands and shoals, forming narrow chan- 
nels. It has, together with the village of Claveria, a population of 
1,600, who, with the few others in the five little villages not far dis- 
tant, constitute the total population of the island. 


The extensive forests of this island produce fine building woods, but 
on account of the difficulty of getting them out they are not worked. 
Tobacco is produced in small quantities; also hemp, sugar cane, choco- 
late, rice, and cocoanuts. There is an abundance of live stock, which is 
exported to Manila. The only industry is the manufacture of bay ones, 
sugar sacks of buri, a palm which is very abundant in the forest, and 
which has given its name to the island. 


The island of Masbate is bounded on the north by the Strait of San 
Bernardino and by the seas which bathe the shores of Burias, Cebu, 
Panay , and Romblon. It extends from northwest to southeast for a dis- 
tance^ of 72 miles, and is triangular in shape. It is very mountainous, 
there being a high central chain which follows a semicircular direction 
and terminates in the .southwestern and southeastern points of the 
island, throwing out spurs to the northwest, which go to form Point 
Bugni. Other points of less importance are likewise formed by spurs 
from this chain. 


Is 24 miles in length from northwest to southeast and 4 miles wide. 
It is situated to the west of the coast of Albay. The land is covered 
with vegetation aiid is very fertile. Its principal ports, although none 
of them are good, are San Miguel and San Jacinto. Ticao divides the 
channel of the same name into two channels— that on the west, formed 
with Masbate, 65 miles wide in its narrowest point, and that on the west 
of Luzon, which is 8i miles wide and is most frequented by ships. 

Hosted by 




Masbate and Ticao have an area of 3,897 square kilometers and 
21,366 registered inhabitants. Those in the central part are Vicols 
and those in the south Visayans. 


Palanoc, situated on the bay of the same name, is the capital; it has a 
population of 2,900. BakMio, on the eastern coast, 3 miles northwest ot 
the port of Magdalena, has a population of 2,500. On the bays ot 
Uson and Nara there are towns of medium size, as well as on the bay 
or port of Calingan on the eastern coast. Milagros is another small 
town, having a population of 3,441. There are but few inhabitants 
on the south and west of the island. ^ . ^.u 

In Ticao the principal town is San Jacinto, on the port ot the 
same name; it has a population of 2,824, and is a fairly good port. 


Althoucrh the population is fairly homogeneous, the same can not 
be said of the language. Vicol, Tagolog, and Visaya are spoken 
according to the distances of the towns from the mother provinces ot 
these dialects. Thus, in Baleno and Luang, Tagalog is spoken by 
preference; in Ticao and Uson, Vicol; and in Palanac, Calmgan and 
Milagros Visaya. 


The agricultural products, although in general like those of the rest 
of the archipelago, are very few; this being especially true ot rice, 
which has to be imported, sugar cane, cotton, chocolate, and hemp. 
In Magdalena, Masbate, Calingan, and San eJacinto tobacco is produced; 
in quality it is very strong, and, though much valued by the Vicols 
brings but a low price in Manila. One of the chief sources of wealth 
is grazing, which has increased greatly during the last few years. 
Industry is limited to the gathering of forest products, to hshenes, 
hunting, weaving, and the manufacture of palm mats, which, on account 
of the excellence of the work and the durability of the colors, have 
attracted attention from European expositions. Commerce is limited 
to the exportation of agricultural and forest products and cattle, and 
the importation of rice and groceries from Europe. The natives col- 
lect some gold from the sands in the rivers. 


San Miguel and Mataban are, respectively, northwest and southeasjt 
of Ticao. There is a small island in the port of Barrera, m the north 
of Masbate; also the island of Deagais, in the Bay of Nara; the 
island of Bugton, in the port of Calaingan; the island ot JNara 
at the entrance of the bay of the same name; Asid to the south ot 
Masbate; the Zapato and Imtotolo Islands, to the southwest ot Fomt 
Pulanduta. On the western coast are the islands of the Bay ot JNm, 
Mapayagnan, and Majaba. 

Hosted by 




The Calamianes and Cuyos islands are usually grouped by authors 
under the name of '' Calamianes." According to this, the Calamianes 
include a group of more than 100 islands, situated between Paragua 
on the southeast, Mindoro on the north, Panay on the east, and the 
Mindoro Sea on the south. All of these islands are, m general, 
mountainous and rugged and covered with vegetation. 


The total area of these groups is 1,600 square miles, and the total 
number of registered inhabitants 14,291. They are for the most part 
Visayans and the Calamianes, or Tagbanuas. The mountains ot the 
lar^e islands of Calimian and Busuanga are inhabited by pagans, 
probably of the Negrito race. The island of Agutaya, in the Cuyos 
group, is inhabited by the Agutainos, a special Malayan race. 


The principal islands are: Calibangbagan, situated 8 miles east of the 
northern point of Paragua; it is 2i miles long from northwest to 


This is the largest of the numerous group, situated between the 
northeast coast of Paragua and the island of Calimian, at a distance ot 
12 miles from the latter; it is 10 miles in length from north to south, 
and its north coast forms two deep bays. On the eastern side are seen 
various bold conical-formed points. In an angle to the southwest 
there is the little town of San Nicolas. 


This is a little group situated to the southeast, 14 miles from the 
point northeast of Linacapan. It is composed of two large islands 
and a number of small islands and rocks. 


To the northeast of Cabualauan, is of medium height and is formed 
of a central hill. 


Is situated 10 miles to the east northeast of the island of Culili and 
is the most northwestern of the Linacapan Islands. 


Is situated between the islands of Malubut and Calibangbagan. 
p c— VOL 3—01 10 

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the largest one of the Calamianes Group, is about 34 miles long from 
northwest, one-fourth west to southeast, one-fourth east, and is 18 
miles wide in its broadest part. It is very irregular m shape, and its 
coasts are indented by numerous deep gulfs and bays. Its northeast 
coast, with the multitude of little islands near it, forms the west coast 
of the channel west of Apo. The island is mountainous, little populated, 
and little cultivated, although its soil is fertile and suitable for the 
cultivation of the usual products of the archipelago, but its inhabit- 
ants, almost all united in the town of Busuanga, occupy themselves 
principally in gathering sea cucumbers and collecting nests of saian- 


This island is situated at the western entrance of the strait of Coron 
and extends from east to west a distance of 4 miles, being 1| miles 
broad at its^ widest part. It is surrounded by little islands and reefs. 


This island is situated to the southwest of Busuanga; it is very high, 
rocky, and without vegetation. It measures 11 miles from north to 
south and 4^ miles from east to west. 

This island, also called Calamian, is situated southwest of Busuanga, 
from which it is separated by a channel 3 or 4 miles wide. The 
chief town is Culion, situated on the northeast coast, on a point 
north of a good port, and has a population of 2,100. The soil is very 
fertile, but the inhabitants cultivate it but little, raising only a small 
amount of rice and occupying themselves almost exclusively m gath- 
ering sea cucumbers, birds' nests, and wax, which latter is of superior 
quality. All of the islands of the Calamianes Group abound in rep- 
tiles, deer, wild hogs, and birds, which destroy the crops. The bamboo 
of this island is of a special kind. 


These islands are situated to the south of Mindoro, halfway 
between the west coast of Panay and the northeast coast of Paragua. 
They form a group composed of a multitude of high and rocky islands 
and isles which occupy a sea space approximately circular and 45 
miles in diameter. 


This island is also called ''Gran Cuyo;" it extends from northeast to 
southwest a distance of 7i miles, being 4 miles in breadth; a little 
mountain chain divides it longitudinally. On the western coast is 
situated the town of Cuyo, the capital of all the Calamianes, considered 
politically. It has a population of 6,300. These people are occupied 
principally in the collecting of sea cucumbers, turtles, and pearls, and 

igpme details concerning these nests may be found in the article on zoology. 

Hosted by VrrOOQiC 



Hosted by 


Hosted by 



the ^atherino- of birds' nests in the islands of Faragua and Culion, 
where they are ordinarily found in the greatest abundance; they also 
raise hogs and various kinds of fowls. 


is situated 6i miles northwest of the island of Cuyo, and is small, clean, 
and precipitous, and formed of a central mountain. Near by, to the 
northeast of Cuyo, are the little islands of Siparay Tuebuque and the 
isles of I'ayanayan and Cocoro, these two being almost united. 


This island is situated almost in the conter of the group, and is 8 
miles long from north to south; it is bold and precipitous on all side^ 
except the southwest, and is surrounded by various small islands, such 
as Diton the north-northwest, Maracanao on the northeast, Mataza- 
bis to the east-southeast, Guinla])o, Paya, Patunga, Pamitman, and 
Lubic on the southwest, Oco, Imaranan, and Sean on the west, ihe 
town of Agutaya has a population of 2,064: inhabitants. 


Calamian, Vicol, and Visava are spoken, the latter especially on the 
Cuvos Islands, which are nearest to Panay. After Calamian and iag- 
})anua, it is the language most generally spoken m the Calamianes. 
In the island of Agutaya a special dialect called Agutiano is spoken. 
Coyuno is spoken in the islands nearest to Paragua. 


These have already been indicated in speaking of the towns. In 
general, it mav be said that the inhabitants of these islands are occu- 
pied more in fishing and hunting than in agriculture. They cultivate 
the land only for the production of articles of food of prime necessity 
which are used in the islands themselves. They export bamboo wax, 
and during the past few years, chocolate, the cultivation ot which is 
increasing, and some cattle. The industries are limited to the manu- 
facture of wine and cloth, especially that made from hemp. In some 
of the islands gold is found. 

Hosted by 




[Maps Nos. 16 and 20 of the Atlas of the Philippines.] 


The Visayan Islands, formerly called Islas de Pintados (islands of 
the painted men), occupy the central part of the archipelago, between 
Luzon on the north, Mindoro on the south, the Pacific on the east, and 
Paragua on the west. They are situated between 9^ 2' and :* 2° 39' 
north latitude, and between 121^ 48' and 125^ 50' west longitude from 

The total area of the Visayas is 57,714 square kilometers, and the 
number of inhabitants 2,202,565. The group may be divided into 
three parts, which will be treated of in three chapters, as follows: 
First, Romblon and Panay; second, Negros, Cebu, and Bohol; third, 
Samar and Leyte. 

Something will be said of the islands adjacent to the principal 
islands as these are spoken of. 



The Romblon group includes the islands of Romblon, Bantan, 
Maestre de Campo, Sibuyan, Simara, Tablas, and the small adjoin- 
ing islands. On the north are Marinduque, Luzon, and Burias; on 
the south Panay, on the east Masbate, and on the west Mindoro. 
They are situated between the parallels of 12^ 3' and 13^ 14' north 
latitude, and 121^ 34' and 122^ 50' east longitude from Greenwich. 

They have an area of 1,278 square kilometers, and a population of 
34,828, the greater part of whom are Visayans. In the island of 
Tablas there are some pagans of the Negrito race, and in the same 
island and in Romblon some Manguianes. 


The most northern group is formed of the islands of Maestre de 
Campo, Banton, Bantoncillo, and Simara, which form, with the coasts 
of Mindoro on the west, Marinduque on the north, and Tablas on the 
south, very deep and clear channels. These are well-known and much 
frequented by Philippine boats, which pass through the Strait of Isla 
Verde on their way from Manila to Iloilo, Negros, Cebu, and the 
southern part of the archipelago. 

Hosted by 




This island is situated 11 miles southeast of the nearest land; the 
elevated hill formed by Mount Dumali in Mmdoro It is circular m 
form 3i miles in diameter and very mountainous and high. 1 be pi in- 
ci^S anchorages are Concepcion and Sibali on the southern coast of 
the island. 


are two small, level islands, 42 meters in height and very close 
together, Sated 5 miles northeast one-quarter east of Maestre de 
Campo; the western one is called Carlota. 


This island is situated 18 miles east of Maestre de Campo and 7 miles 
to the siuthea t of the island called Isabel, to the east of Dos Hermanas. 
It s about Tmiles from north to south, and the same from east to wes ; 
it is S and precipitous, except on the southern side, where there is 
a small rocky reef. On the eastern coast there is a smal bay, where 
the town of Banton is situated. The soil of the entire island is quite 
sterile The town has a population of 4,063 A small quantity of 
tobacco of poor quality, is produced here. There is a mine of gyp- 
sum of excellent qualit/ 'and another of almager of very poor quality. 


a little island situated to the southwest of Banton is very narrow and 
about three-quarters of a mile long, from north to south. 


This island is situated approximately in the middle of the channel 
betw"e"Banton and the n^o^th of Tablas There is one small town 
called Corcuera, which has a population ot 2,064. 


This long, narrow island, extending from north to south between 
the little gfJup of Banton and Bantoncillo on the north and the north- 
western eltremity of the island of Panay on the south separates the 
diannel southeast of Mindoro called Tablazo from that of Capiz, 
wMch will be spoken of later. It is 35 miles long, from north to south, 
Tnd ab^ut 10 miles wide in its broadest part. The country is moun^ 
tainous in the extreme north there being a mountain called Cabeza 
de TTbks, 733 meters high, which dominates the entire ^^^A J) 
the southwestern coast there is a town and port of Looc the best in 
the island The town has a population of 6,463. iheie are inree 
othe towns on the island, as follows: Odiongan, on the eastern coast 
with a population of 5,661; Badajoz, with 9,461, and Salado, with 


This island divides the strait between Panay and Tablas. It is quite 


This island is situated 6 miles to the east of the northeastern part of 
Tab?::; lus similes long, from north to south and 4i miles in ^ts 
(greatest breadth. It is very rich in quartz, marble, and slate, ine 
P of RomWon, in the upper part of the western coast of the island, 

Hosted by VjOOQIC 


although small, is one of the best in the Visayas. In front of the port 
is the small island of Lubung. On point Sobang there is a light- 
house, as a guide to the entrance of the harbor. At the foot of a high 
mountain, just at the head of the bay, is the principal town of the 
island, Romblon, which has a population of 7,268. 

This island is situated to the north of Lubung, 7i ca})les length from 
the northwest coast of Romblon. 


This island is situated a mile north northwest of Alad. 


This island is quite mountainous, and almost in the center there 
arises from among others the peak called " Sibuyan," which dominates 
the entire island. The island is 17 miles long, from northwest to 
southeast, and 9i miles broad, from northeast to southwest. There 
are three principal rivers. The Mabalog rises on the highest peak of 
the island on the southwestern side and falls in beautiful cascades into 
an extensive valley, which, along with several smaller streams, it 
waters, finally discharging on an extensive sand beach but a short dis- 
tance to the east of Point Mabalog, from which it takes its name. 
The Cambulayan has its source on the western side of Sibuyan, winds 
its way around several mountains which it encounters in its course, 
and, increasing its volume from several small rivers, empties to the 
east of the island a short distance to the south of Point Cambulayan. 
The Nailog has its source on the heights of one of the highest peaks 
of the northwest. After receiving the waters of several small rivers, 
it flows through the most extensive valley of the island and empties 
on the north over a sandy beach, about the center of a bay situated 
between points Balaring and Pagdulog. 

There are, besides, many smaller rivers or creeks, all containing as 
fine drinking water as is found in the archipelago. The island is 
extremely fertile, and has beautiful lowlands suitable for the cultiva- 
tion of different articles, but its inhabitants live in the greatest misery 
and plant only such things as are absolutely necessary for their exist- 
ence, being engaged in the collection of sea cucumbers and tortoise 
shell, and also in the collection of gold from the placer mines of the 
Nailog River. The Manguianes, who live in the mountains, are quite 
pacific, but not at all addicted to work and so dirty that the most of 
them go naked and are covered with all kinds of repugnant cutaneous 
eruptions. The island has three towns belonging to the district of 
Romblon — Capdiocan, on the eastern coast, with a population of 3,797; 
Magallanes, on the northern coast, with 1,744, and Azagra, with 3,798. 
There are also several villages scattered along the coast. In the 
interior there are tribes of Manguianes who have never been subju- 
gated. The sea space between Romblon, Sibuyan and its adjacent 
islands, and Panay is called by seafaring men the Tablazo de Capiz. 


Visayo is generally spoken, except by the Manguianes, who use 
their own language. 

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In the towns of this group various products are produced sufficient 
to satisfy the wants of the inhabitants. Some tobacco of rather infe- 
rior quality is raised. During- the last few years the exportation of 
copra from Romblon has assumed respectable proportions. A certain 
amount 3f gum mastic is exported from Romblon and Sibuyan. The 
marble quarries of Romblon are also worked to some extent. 



The island of Panay, belonging to the Visayan group, is situated 
between parallels of latitude 11^ 55' and 10^ 24' north, and longitude 
121° 49' and 123° 9' east from Greenwich.' To the north extends the 
Tablazo de Capiz, or little inland sea, included between the islands of 
Tablas, Romblon, Sibuyan, and Masbate. As has been said, on the 
east the Straits of Concepcion and Iloilo separate it from the numerous 
adjacent islands and the island of Negros, and on the south and west 
extends the important inland sea known as the Sea of Jolo or of Min- 
doro, which separates it from Negros, Paragua, the Cagayanes group, 
and the Cuy OS and Calamianes groups. Ail of the islands and isles 
adjacent, and some of those farther away, belong to the civil govern- 
ment of the districts into which this island is divided. It may be said, 
in a general way, that the shape of the island is triangular, the three 
sides extending from west-northwest to east-southeast, from northeast 
to southwest, and from northwest to south-southwest. In general the 
island is mountainous, although there are many extensive and very 
fertile valleys. 


The total area, including the adjacent islands, is 13,583 square kilo- 
meters; the population, 756,786, the most of whom are Visayans. 
There are several thousand pagans, called Mundos, dwelling in the 
mountains, and also some Negritos in some of the mountain chains. 


The mountain ranges form natural divisions for the provinces or 
districts of the island. These are Antique, Capiz, Iloilo, and the 
comandancia, or district of Concepcion. 


The fertility of the soil of Panay is well known. Among the various 
woods may be mentioned molave, ebony, and sibucao, of which large 
quantities are annually exported to China. So, too, in the mountain- 
ous parts of Iloilo, in the comandancia of Concepcion and in Gui- 
maras, fine woods are found in large quantities, but the province most 
celebrated for the richness of its forest products is Capiz, where as 
many as 87 varieties of excellent building woods are known. From 
the forests large quantities of honey, wax, and pitch are gathered. 
The mineral resources of this island are of little importance. Quick- 
silver is believed to exist; so, too, with copper, although its situation is 
unknown. It is probable that beds of iron ore exist in some of the 
mountains, and there are many places in which gold is or may be 
worked, such as the vicinity of Dumarao, Binatusan and Lausan, etc. 
There are indications of coal or lignite in Busuanga, Balate, Valder- 

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rama, and other points. Several quarries are worked, such as those 
of Morobozo, Gutujan, Timunan, and Igan. There are also hne mar- 
bles found, and a beautiful tonalite, which may be substituted. Lame 
of most excellent quality is abundant in the district of Iloilo, where 
various quarries of excellent quality and hardness are found, particu- 
larly in Igbaras and in Mount Tinicoan. Cotton, corn, chocolate pep- 
per, coffee, tobacco, sugar cane and rice are cultivated with much suc- 
cess; the last two of excellent quality and in large quantities. On its 
mazing lands, which cover a great part of its area, much live stock is 
raised, in the district of Capiz alone there being more than 50,000 
head, the greater part of them carabaos. The horses of Iloilo are 
greatly prized. W ild animals are very abundant, especially hiiiialo, 
deer, wild hogs, etc. Crocodiles abound in the rivers, and Ifeh and 
shells in the waters of the sea; tortoise shell is also found. 


The principal of these are: On the north coast, Borocay, the little 
islands of Mobay, and Tuat, Ocutaya, the little Zapatos, the JNorth 
and South Gigantes or Sibuluac, Cabay and Sibuluac Lalaque. On 
the east coast, Maninigo, Nabunut, Balbagan, Tumumalayum, Gigan- 
tes, Binnluanganan, Calaguan, Sigocon, Canaz, Luginut, Bayas, Fan- 
de-Azucar, Culebra, Tagil, Malangaban, Danao, Sombrero Bagalri, 
Fagubanhan, the little islands of Bal and Seite Pecados, Guimaras, 
Nalunga and Nadulao, and Unison. On the western coast, Mangium, 
Balbatan, Maralison Islands, and the reefs of Cagayanes, or the seas 
of Cagayan, Cagancillo, Calija, and Caville. 

We will speak briefly of some of the more important. 


This island is near the coast of Panay and is the largest of the five 
northern islands which are found at the north entrance of the channel 
to Iloilo. It is about 5 miles long, and of the two notable peaks 
which are seen the highest has an elevation of 621 meters above sea 
level. There are various smaller islands in the vicinity. 


This is a group of seven islands, or rather large rocks, situated in the 
middle of the channel from the Iguana bank and a little before reaching 
the sheltered water formed by the northern point of Guimaras and the 
coast of Panay. The highest of these is about 8 meters above the 
water, and all of them are precipitous. 


This island is situated at the southern entrance of the strait which 
separates Panay and Negros; it is very flat in front of the .coast of 
Iloilo, with which it forms the channel of this name. The soil is fertile, 
and produces rice, hemp, cotton, corn, and tobacco in small quantities. 
The most important towns are Buenavista, with 4,383 inhabitants; 
Nagaba, with 6,297, besides a large number of small villages. The 
inhabitants of this island are occupied only in agriculture. They also 
engage in hunting and fishing, and in the manufacture of the ordinary 
and finer fabrics. 

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Toward the southeast of Guiraaras are the little islands of Nadulao, 
Lalunga, Inampulugan, Nanoy Guinanon, and Panabulon, and other 
smaller islands of little importance. 



The district or province of Antique is bounded on the north by the 
district of Capiz, on the east by that of Iloilo, and on the south and 
west by the sea. 


The total area of this district is 472 square kilometers, 27 of these 
belonging to the adjacent islands. The number of registered inhabit- 
ants is 115,434. 


A somewhat modified form of Visayan is spoken. 


There are 19 towns having a population of over 10,000, among which 
are Sibolam, Culasi, and Pandan. Antique itself has 10,929; ban J ose 
de Buenavista, the capital, has a population of 6 000; it is situated to 
the south of Point Dalipe, on level ground, and presents a beautitul 
appearance, as is indicated by its name. Besides the capital town are 
the following: Anmuy, with a population of 5,000; Antique, 10,929; 
Barbaza, 6,334; Bugason, 12,097; CaganciUo, 2 316; Culasi, 10,382 
Dao, 7,635, Egana and Guisijan, 3,086; Malupa, 2,534; Pandan, 8,837; 
Patnongon and San Remigio, 2,976; San Pedro, 6,190; Sebaste and 
Sibolam, 13,493; Tibiao, Valderrama, and Caritan. Among these 
Sibolam with a population of 15,000, Pulasi, Pandaii, and Antique 
the former capital, figure as the most important. Ihe number ot 
villages is 63 and of hamlets 5. There are, besides, many hamlets ot 
conquered pagans. 


Within a few years this region has begun to develop agriculturally, 
and now produces considerable quantities of rice and sugar cane and 
lesser quantities of subacao, coffee, chocolate, and tobacco ot excellent 
quality. In addition to agriculture, grazing is carried on, likewise 
the manufacture of sugar. Industries are confined to the manufacture 
of fabrics from pineapple fiber, jusi, and sinamay, which gives employ- 
ment to some 12,000 women in about 7,000 shops. 1 here is but little 
commerce in the interior. The export trade is carried on by nieans of 
small boats, which carry to Iloilo and Manila sugar, hemp, rice, and 
manufactured goods in large quantities, and sibacao, hides, etc., in 
smaller quantities. The importation in 1870 was 87,478 piculs, and 
the exportation 197,809. The forests contain a great variety of excel- 
lent building and cabinet woods, such as molave, ipil, banaba, durigon, 
alintatao, narra, etc.; an abundance of pitch, resin gum, mastic wax, 
and honey is also obtained in the forests. In the vicinity of the town 
of Antique there are also found immense beds of marble ot various 

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colors and structure, more or less fine, but these have not been 
worked. In the island of Nagas seashells are found in abundance. 
During the dry season the roads can be traversed without difficulty, 
but during the wet season they become impassable for carriages. 
There are two cart roads which communicate with the adjacent dis- 
tricts; one starts from the town of San Jose, passing through all of 
the towns to the north and unites with the road in the district of 
Capiz, at Navas. The other, starting from San Jose, follows along 
through Antique and joins with a road in the province of Iloilo, at the 
town of San Joakin. These roads are interrupted by the mountains 
to the north and south, being reduced to paths more or less inacces- 
sible, according to the time of the year. 



This district is in the northern part of Panay, and is bounded on 
the north and east from Point Bulacali to Point Naso by the sea, on 
the southeast by the mountain chain which separates it from Iloilo, 
and on the southwest by the mountain which separates it from the dis- 
trict of Antique. Included in this province are the islands of Carabes 
and Busacay and the smaller islands of Tabon, Malaya, Marava, 
Mahabangpulo, Masuleg, Fued, Batongbagni, Matalinga, Olutaya, 
Magotalipan, JSIegtig, Nasanda, Manapao, Banagay, and some others. 

The area of the province is 4,547 square kilometers, and of the 
islands 55 square kilometers. 


The country for the most part is flat and low, and exposed to 
frequent floods, except in the towns of Banga, Buruanga, Jamindang, 
and Sapian, which are situated in the mountains. All of the others 
occupy extensive lowlands, which are exceedingly fertile because of 
the large number of rivers and creeks which water them. 


The population is about 224,000, although it is not easy to estimate 
this exactly on account of the large number of people scattered 
throughout the mountains of Balate, Ibajay, Libacao, Madalag, and 
Tapas, who acknowledge no other authority than that of their head 


The capital, Capiz, situated on the bank of the river Panay, has a 
population of 22,000. Its appearance is very beautiful, the level 
land being traversed by broad highways, which offer communication 
with Iloilo and Antique. For its defense it has a small fort, contain- 
ing a garrison. It is a telegraph station. Other towns are Balete, 
Banga, Bitan, Buruanga, Calivo, Cuartero, Dao, Dumalag, Dumaras, 
Ibajay, Ivisan, Jimeno, Jamindang, Jagnaya, Lezo, Libacao, Loctu- 
£Can, Ma-Ayon, Macato, Madalag, Malinao, Mambusao, Navas, Numan- 
cia, Panay, 16,672; Pilar, 14,448; Pontevedra, 11,800; Panitan, Sapian, 
Sigma, Tangalan, and Tapaz. 

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The forest products are very abundant, there being not less than 87 
species of building woods. They are, however, very scarce near the 
capital and the coast towns. Pitch and resins of various kinds are 
obtained. Agriculture has advanced greatly during the last few years, 
among the products being rice, sugar, tobacco, hemp, indigo, choco- 
late, and corn. The manufacture of alcohol is of special importance, 
and includes some very large distilleries, the total annual product being 
more than 500,000 liters. Among other industries may be mentioned the 
manufacture of sugar sacks, hats of palm leaf, and baskets, and fabrics 
of silk, cotton, and hemp. These industries are common throughout 
the province. Commerce is not very flourishing. Trade is carried on 
at the weekly fairs, held on indicated days in .all towns, the principal 
articles of trade being rice, hemp, pineapple fiber cloth, and dry fish. 
The export trade is carried on in small coasting vessels. Live stock 
figures among the wealth of the district, there being 45,624 head, 
having an approximate value of $324,504. The highways are in good 
condition during the dry season, but are almost impassable for car- 
riages during the wet season. In certain parts of the district there are 
mines of gold and other metals. 



This district includes all of the southeastern coast of the island of 
Panay, from Point Bula Gate, in latitude 11° 34' north on the northeast, 
to Point Nasog, in latitude 10° 24' north on the south. It has a coast 
line of 140 miles. It is bounded north by the district of Capiz, on the 
east by the strait and island of Guimaras, on the west by the province 
of Antique, and on the south by the Mindoro Sea. The following 
islands pertain to the district of Iloilo: Guimaras and Inampulugan 
and the little islands of Nadules, Palinga, Nanay, Nalibas, Nagarao, 
Susan, Guianon, Panabulon, Lugaran, Tandog, Babalod, Tungmban, 
and the group of Siete Pecados, and others mere insignificant still. 

The general aspect of the district is that of a well cultivated and 
planted park, dotted with well-built and commodious houses, which 
are shaded by beautiful fruit trees. The towns are almost all large, 
clean, ana well built. In no other province or district are there so 
many beautiful churches; they are all of stone, their architecture being 
pleasing. The cemetery of laninay is especially notable. No other 
province is crossed by as many well-built roads and byways. 


The area is 3,755 square kilometers, not counting the 806 square 
kilometers of the comandancia of Concepcion, which in reality belongs 
to this district. The area of the islands belonging to it is 598 square 
kilometers. After Manila this province is the most populous of the 
archipelago, having, according to the official census of 1887, 423,462 
inhabitants. In all of the towns, especially those of the coast, there 
are many European and Chinese half-castes, and in this province many 
Chinese are found. In the mountains separating the province from 
Capiz and Antique there are many families of Negritos of Aetas. 

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These lead a miserable existence and are rapidly diminishing. More 
numerous and important are the tribes and iamilies of natives living 
in the mountains. These are in reality, in race, language, and customs, 
Visayans, the most of them being refugees from the towns. 


As in other parts of the island, Visaya is spoken. 


The capital of the province is of the same name, Iloilo, and is situ- 
ated on the southeastern coast of Panay, on an excellent and well- 
protected port suitable for ships of 15-foot draft. The city is built 
on an irregular plan, its two principal streets following the course of 
the river. Its houses are excellent and of good construction, there 
being constant improvement in this direction. According to the Offi- 
cial Guide for 1887 it had a population of 11,884. It is, next to 
Manila, the^most important commercial town in the Philippines, as 
well in exports as in imports. It has, like Manila, an ayuntamiento, 
established by decree, and banking houses. It has a city and^ sub- 
urban police force. Among the important buildings may be mentioned 
the government house, the church, the office of the captain of the 
port, the convent, and the jail. The river Iloilo is an arm of the sea, 
which, after passing through the capital and the towns of Iloilo, Ari- 
valo, and Otorca, empties into the ocean. It allows of the entrance at 
all times of ships of good size and offers excellent protection against 
storms. Oil, vinegar, cocoa wine, lime, mats, and various articles of 
palm wood are manufactured. Jaro, formerly Santa Isabel, with a 
population of 13,070, is situated on flat land along the right bank of 
the large river of the same name. This river is navigable for boats of 
considerable size, and has a commodious port for such shipping. A 
stone bridge crosses it. This town, located about 4 miles from Iloilo, 
was founded in 1584 or 1585. It was made an episcopal see, separat- 
ing it from that of Cebu, by bull of Pius IX, 1865. It has a fine 
cathedral, episcopal palace, seminary, and some fine private houses. 
Like Iloilo, it has its ayuntamiento. 

Other towns of the district are: Alimadian, Anilao, Arivalo, Bara- 
tae Nueva, Baratae Viejo, Banate, Buenavista, Cabatuan, with 20,035 
inhabitants; Calinog, Cordoba, Dingke, with 12,098 Duenas; Diman- 
ges, with 15,178; Guimbal, Igbaras, with 11,359; Janinay, with 26,460; 
La Pax, Lambunao, Leganes, Leon, with 14,714; Lucena, Maasin, 
Mandurriao Miagao, Mina, Molo, Nagaba, Oton, with 13,883; Passi, 
with 14,688; Pavia, with 6,328; Pototan, with 15,939; San Enrique, 
San Miguel, San Joaquin, with 13,649; Santa Barbara, with 19,717; 
Tigbanan, with 16,850; Tubungan, Zarraga, and Novales. 


The principal products of this province are sugar cane, wheat, corn, 
rice, coffee, chocolate, tobacco, hemp, and other agricultural products. 
There are 37,552 farm hands. Mines of gold and other metals and 
quarries of fine stone are found in the province. The inhabitants 
make excellent fabrics of pineapple fiber, jusi, sinamay, and cotton. 
As the province has abundant pasture land, cattle, carabaos, sheep. 

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and horses of fine grade are raised in all the towns. There is a total 
of 153,439 head of live stock, the greater part being cattle. The poiit 
of Iloilo, the second in the archipelago in commercial activity, both 
foreign and domestic, was thrown open to commerce m 1855. There 
are 30,000 looms in the province. 



This comandancia and dependency of the district of Iloilo is situated 
in the extreme northeast of Panay. 

The following islands are dependencies of this district: Binnbuangan, 
Calagnan, Sicogon, Pan de Azucar, Tago, Bulibadiangan, andTaguban- 
han, and the little islands of Calabazas, Baybang, Nasichuan Point 
Brin, Salog, Binassan, Ananayan, Bagabu, Sombrero, Dunao, Manga- 
ban, Builag, Bitad, Naburat, Magoise, Culebra, Panganoncolangan, 
Bayas Tumugum, Canaz, Luginut, Adialayo, Tabugun Pulupmta 
• Taiunanaim, Balbagan, Nabunut, Manigonigo, Gigante Norte or 
Sibulnacbabay, Gigante Sur or Sibuluaclalaqui, Uaidajon, Bantiqui, 
Cabayao, Antonio, and others still smaller. 


The number of inhabitants, according to the Official Guide of the 
Philippines for 1897, is 38,982. 


Concepcion, the capital, located on an excellent anchorage, has a 
population of more than 4,000. Ajui, with the village of Bolasi, has 
a population of 6,228. Other towns are Balasan, Carlos, Limery, b. 
Dionisio, Sara, with 11,746; Batad, and Estancia, with 12,564. 


The products are those common to all of Panay. The principal 
industry is the manufacture of sugar. 

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[Maps Nos. 21, 22, and 23 of the Atlas of the Philippines.] 



The island of Negros, belonging to the Visayan group, is situated 
between Panay on the west and Cebu on the east. It is m shape elon- 
gated from north to south, presenting an extensive, high and rounded 
appearance on the southwestern part, where the mountain chain ot 
Soiatas, dominated by the highest of its peaks, is found. Its bound- 
aries are, on the north the Visayan Sea, on the south the sea which 
separates it from Mindoro, on the east the channel separating it from 
Cebu, and on the west the Jolo Sea. 


The spurs from the central dividing mountain chain of the island 
have beautiful, large vallevs, which are inhabited only on the western 
side from Sajotasto Silay, on the north and northeast, where extensive 
plains cut by rivers of good size are found. Although the land is 
somewhat rugged, it is very fertile in the cultivated part, because ot 
the numerous rivers which water it. The central part of the island is 
unexplored. The coast is fairly regular and on the south and east 
rather bold, presenting few bays and no ports. 


The island is 220 kilometers in length by 87 in breadth at Sajotas, 
and has an area of 9,341 square kilometers. The population is 240,000. 
Some of them are Visayans and others Panayanos. 

The island has recently been divided into two provinces. Western 
and Eastern Negros. 


The language commonly used is Visaya, the pagans and mountain 
people using fanayano. 


The island produces in abundance the best quality of chocolate in 
the Visayas, also wax, rice, wheat, corn, sugar cane, coffee, tobacco, 
cotton, hemp, bago, and sibucao, etc. Cattle, horses, hogs, and cara- 
baos are found in abundance. The forests produce an abundance ot 
fine building woods, among these being teak. Fish, tortoise shell, sea 

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cucumbers, gulaman, sea shells, lagan, etc., are found in abundance 
along the shores, but the inhabitants, little given to work, do not pay 
much attention to this industry. Along the western coast, near the 
mountains of Uling and Alpaco, good coal mines have recently been 
found. The industries are limited to the weaving of hemp and palm. 



This district is bounded on the north by the islands of Sibuyan and 
Romblon, on the east by the province of Eastern Negros, on the south 
by Mindanao, and on the west by the island of Panay, occupying, 
therefore, as is indicated by its name, the western part of the island 
from the east to the watershed of the central mountain range. 


This province is very fertile, and, thanks to constant work and the 
improvements introduced by the many Europeans who have estab- 
lished themselves there, it can be placed in the front rank of all the 
provinces of the archipelago. Hydraulic and steam machinery is 
abundant, as is apparatus for the working and cultivation of the soil 
and the extraction of sugar. A broad carriage road uniting the vari- 
ous towns contributes to the development of commerce. 


The area is 5,800 square kilometers. 


There is a population of 231,512. 

Bacolod, situated on uneven ground near the seacoast, has a popula- 
tion of 11,624, and is the capital. It has some fine public and private 
buildings, among them being the church and convent, the government 
house, the town hall, and others. Other towns are Arguelles, Bajo, with 
13,390; Binalbagan, Cabangcalan, Cadiz Nueva, Calatrava, Canayan, 
Dancalan, Escalante Granada, Guinigaran, 13,620; Ginjungan, Guimba^ 
laon, 11,670; Hog, Isabela, 12,310; Isin, Jinamalayan, La Carlota, 
12,117; Manapla, Minuluan, 12,132; Murcia, Pontevedra, 10,901; San 
Enrique, Saravia, Silay, 13,780; Suay, Suinag, and Valladolid. 



This district is bounded on the north and west by Western Negros, 
on the east by the islands of Cebu and Bohol, and on the south by 

It has an area of 3,541 square kilometers. 
P C— VOL 3—01 11 

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According to the last census the population was 140.489. This 
district is not so fertile as the previous one, but, nevertheless, native 
labor, stimulated by Europeans, produces crops of sugar cane, hemp, 
rice, chocolate, coffee, and cotton. The industries consist of the man- 
ufacture of sugar and of the sacks in which the sugar is packed. The 
manufacture of cotton pillows is notable, as they are carried m large 
numbers to all parts by steamers. 


Dumaguete is situated on level ground, on the southeastern coast 
of the island, near the mouth of the river of the same name. It is 
the capital town and has a population of 14,352. Other towns are 
Amblan, Ayungan, Bacong, with 10,129; Bais, Bayanan, Canoan, 
Dauin, Guijuhugan, Jimalalud, Lacy, Manjuyed, Maria, Nueva Valen- 
cia, San Juan, Siaton, Sibulan, Siguijoc, Tangay, 11,743; Tayason, 
Tolon, and Zamboanguita. 


There is almost no island of importance near Negros. Bacabac is a 
little island, half a mile long, situated 2i miles to the northeast of Point 
Sagay, and divides Tanon Strait into two channels. In Tanon Strait, 
near the eastern coast of Negros, is the little island and anchorage of 
Refugio, a mile from the coast in front of Tabon. It is high m the 
northern part and is H miles long from north to south and 1 mile 
wide from east to west. The Bais Islands are but little islands in the 
bay of the same name. Apo Island is situated 3i miles south, 77° 
east of Point Zamboanguita. On the southeast there are two little 
islands, Dajugan and Agutian. 


This island forms part of the Visayan Group and is situated exactly 
in the center of it. It is included between the parallels of 9° 26' 46'' 
and 11^ 16' 37" north latitude. To the north is the island of Masbate, 
to the south Siquijor, to the east Leyte, Camotes, Maston, and Bohol, 
and to the west Batayan and Negros. The eastern coast is washed by 
the Sea of Cebu and the western by the Strait of Tanon, which sepa- 
rates it from Negros. Its outlines are irregular, the island being 
elongated and narrow in the direction of north-northeast to south- 


, it is 216 kilometers in length and 36 in width at it^ broadest part. 
Its area is 6,582 square kilometers, including the adjacent islands. 


According to the data published in the Bulletin de Cebu, the popu- 
lation at the beginning of 1888 was 518,032, distributed among 52 
towns. The population for each square mile, therefore, reaches the 
respectable figure of 123. 

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Hosted by 


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The capital, Cebu, is situated on the eastern coast of the island; the 
climate is hot, but even and healthful. It has a magnificent port 
formed by the two islands of Mactan and Opon, which protect it from 
all winds. The country in the vicinity is level, but stony and sandy; 
the town contains about 2,000 buildings, and has a population of 
14,300; the streets are laid out on a regular plan; are wide and free 
from stones. The government house is a fairly good building; the 
episcopal palace, although small, is likewise worthy of mention on 
account of its interior decorations. The cathedral, finished toward 
the end of the last century, is a magnificent temple; in it is preserved 
the cross which, according to tradition, was planted by Magellan in 
Cebu on taking possession of the island. The Augustin Church is 
magnificent, while the Recolleto Convent and the Seminary of San 
Carlos, formerly the Jesuit College, are worthy of mention. The city 
is cut by a small river of little importance, but well supplied with 
water. In front of the city, to the east, is the little island of Mactan, 
where the illustrious Magellan, a victim of his valor, terminated his 
days. Just outside of the town are located a fine cemetery; a large 
leper hospital and an artillery fort, with a garrison of troops (see 
plate 27). The towns included in this district are Alcantara, Alcoy, 
Alegria, Aloguinsan, Argao, with 34,252: Asturias, Badian, Barili, 
Balangbang, Bantayan, Bago, Boljoon, Borbon, Carcar, 34,096; Car- 
men, Catmon, Compestela, Consolarion, Cordoba, Daan, Bantayan, 
Dalaguese, 20,257; Danao, Dumanjug, El Pardo, 10,007; Gintalin, 
Liloan, Madrilejos, Malaboyoc, Mandane, Medellin, Moalboal, Ming- 
lanilla, 10,767; Naga, 16,519; Nueva Caceres, Oslob, Pilar, Pinamun- 

§ajan, Poro, Ronda, Samboan, Santander, San Fernando, 18,811; 
anta Fe, San Francisco, San Nicolas, Sogod, San Renugio, Sibongan, 
24,934; Tagobon, Tudela, Talamban, Talisay, 19,229; Toledo, and 


The forests in the mountains produce excellent building woods. 
Birds, reptiles, deer, and wild hogs abound in them. The principal 
products are rice, excellent chocolate, corn, a fair grade of sugar, 
cotton, vegetables, and fruits, but the scarcity of rains and of land 
suitable for cultivation prevents the development of agriculture to 
the same degree as in other districts. In the waters along the coast 
are found the celebrated regadera de Cebu (euplectella, glas sponge, 
or Venus flower basket), the only one of its genus, and the rare and 
much sought shell gloria maris. Coal beds were discovered here in 
1827, before they were found in any other part of the archipelago. 
The principal deposits are those of Alpaco, Uling, Guylaguyla, Noga, 
Dapano, and Campostela. The numerous experiments made with this 
coal render it certain that, although it is inferior to English coal, it is 
quite suitable for the use of steamboats and industries, it being con- 
sidered superior to that from Australia. Gold and silver-bearing lead 
ores are found in the central part of the island at Panapag, Consalacion, 
Acsubing, and Budtam. There is also some auriferous soil which still 
shows traces of ancient washings. 

The industries of Cebu are limited to the manufacture of sugar, of 
cocoanut wine, salt, pottery, fabrics of silk, and sinamay hemp, and 

Hosted by 



cotton and sugar sacks. The cake and cheese of Cebu are also well 
known. Cebu carries on important domestic commerce with Manila, 
Camaguin, Bohol, Negros, Surigao, and Cagayan de Misamis. The 
most important ports are Bago, Carmen, Danao, Cebu, Carcar and 
Argao, on the east, and Bantayan, Tuburan Balangbang, and Barila, on 
the west. Along the eastern coast there is a highway that unites 21 
towns with the capital, and on the west an excellent road uniting the 
various towns. 


On the east coast is the little island of Capitancillo, situated 2i miles to 
the east of Point Saac; it is circular in form and has some trees grow- 
ing on it. The little island of Calangaman is situated 12 miles east 
northeast of Point Nailon and almost west northwest of the entrance 
of Port Palompon, in the island of Leyte, and has a fixed white light 
situated on Point Bagacay. 


This island, famous in history, is situated in front of the city of 
Cebu; it is very flat and almost entirely covered with mangrove 
swamps, which are flooded during high tide, so that but little land is 
above water. It is covered with cocoanut groves. On this island is 
the town of Opon, with a population of 12,745. The inhabitants are 
engaged in fisheries or in the manufacture of salt. 


Is a small kland east of Mactan of little importance. 

This island is situated 3 miles to the east northeast of Point Tanon, 
and about U miles from the mainland; it is about two-thirds of a mile 
in length and about 54 meters high. It is clean and rugged, having 
sandy beaches and rocky bluffs along the coast. 


Bmtman.— This island is situated west of the northern point of 
Cebu and more than 17 miles to the northwest of the northeastern point 
of Negros; it is rather low, the highest part being about the middle of 
the eastern coast; it is lOi miles long from north northwest to south 
southeast, and about 4 miles broad. The nine islands which compose 
the group about Bantayan are surrounded by shoals, which are dry at 
low tide and permit a passage on foot from one to the other. Ihe 
Gilantagnan islands are two in number, the largest of which is situated 
2i miles to the north of Point Ogton, and the smaller between this and 
the coast. The town of Bantayan is the most important on the island 
and is situated on the southwestern coast on a little tongue of sandy 
land; including the inhabitants of the villages of Ogton and Lams, it 
has a population of 14,400, all of whom are engaged m the collection 
of pearls, mother of pearl, tortoise shell, sea cucumbers, gumalon, and 

Hosted by 



The Doong Island^,— These islands extend for 10 miles to the south- 
west from Point Pasil de Bantayan in the direction of Point Sagal, on 
the island of Negros. They are of little importance. 


Guiantacan,— This island is situated between Lanis, the northern 
extremity of the island of Bantayan, and Point Candaya. It is covered 
with trees, and is low, narrow, and long, being 6i miles from north to 
south. . 

TihiniL— This island is situated a mile in front of Point Canit. it is 
of medium height and about 2 miles in length from north to south. 

Malapascua.— This island is called by the natives ''Lugon." It is 
situated 3 miles to the northeast of Point Bulalaqui. Sea cucumbers 
and tortoise shells are abundant along the coast. The shores are covered 
with juniper trees, known in this country by the name of ^'agojos." 


This island belongs to the Visayan group, and is situated between 
Cebu on the west and Leyte on the northeast. 


The interior of the island is mountainous. The coasts are low and 
sandy, and as a general rule do not offer security to ships, although 
there are some good ports or bays, which will not, however, admit ships 
of much draft. The caves of the center of the island are worthy of 
mention. They are very large, with great subterranean galleries 
adorned with fanciful stalagmites and stalactites. 

United to the district of Boholare the islands of Siguijorand Dams. 


The area of the district is 2,380 square kilometers. 


The number of people in the district is 260,000. The Bohol people 
are quite active and initiative, being distinguished from the rest of the 
inhabitants of the archipelago. The skill of these people m the use 
of the lance is as famous as that of the Moros in the use of the campi- 
lan. The Moros have at all times held their valor in great respect. 


Visaya is spoken, although there are so many local modifications that 
it has been called Boholano or Bohol- Visayan. 


The capital, Tagbilaran, situated in the southwestern part in front of 
the island of Panglao, from which it is separated by a narrow strait, 
has a population of 9,471. The other towns are: Anda, Antequera, 

Hosted by 



with 11,254; Badayon, Balilijan, Batuanan, Calapa, with 10,100; Can- 
dijay, Carmen, Catigbian, Cosella, Corres, Danis, Duniao, Duero, 
Garcia, Hernandez, Getafe, Guinduhnan, Inabanga, with 10,543; Ipil, 
Jagna, with 12,700; Lila, Loay, Loboc, with 10,900; Loan, with 
19,006; Maribojoc, with 10,700; Manglao, Sevilla, Sierra Bullones, 
Talibong, Tubigan, with 14,272; Ubay, Valencia, and Villar. 


The soil is not very fertile, but with good care produces considerable 
quantities of rice, coffee, tobacco, cotton, corn, millet, sweet potatoes, 
and other useful agricultural products. Building woods are quite 
abundant. There are indications of the existence of phosphate and 
iron, copper, and coal. Many mineral springs are found. The indus- 
tries are confined to the weaving of various fabrics, such as silk, pine- 
apple, and cotton, and the making of very serviceable blankets and nap- 
kins, and of sinamay. Valuable mats are made from the rush called 
"ticay." They manufacture most delicious bread and biscuits. The 
exports are cocoanuts, sea cucumbers, wax, seashells, and pearls. The 
towns of the interior communicate with one another by means of paths. 
All of the others are united by cart roads suitable for carriages. 



In front of this coast are situated Pandan and Cabulan, to the north- 
northwest of Point Lanis; Manacan, Bahanay, and Tambu, and a very 
large number of little islands, rocks, and reefs. 

Toward the northeast is the island of Lapinig or Minoc, separated 
from Bohol by a narrow channel. It is very low, covered with scrubby 
brush, and is about 8 miles long. Timibo is a little island situated 
southeast of its northern end. Lapinig Chico is almost united to the 
larger island on the southwest coast. 


The little islands of Tintiman, Lumites, and Tabon are situated on 
this coast, 


This coast is very much cleaner than the northern coast, having but 
one island, Pamilacan, toward the southeast channel of Tagbilaran. 


Panglao.—Th\^ is a little island very close to the southwestern 
coast of Bohol, from which it is separated by the channel of Tagbila- 
ran. During low tide one can pass on foot from one island to the 
other in the southeastern part of the channel. It contains two towns, 
Panglao, on the eastern coast, with a population of 6,865, and Danis, 
on the western, with a population of 7,985. The coast is unprotected, 

Hosted by 




and has no place where boats may anchor. To the southeast of 
Panglao rises the little island of Balicasag. The little islands of bandi- 
gan, Cabilao, and Capalape are situated along the coast between 
Loon and Calape. 

Seguijor,-— This island is the most important and populous ot those 
around Bohol. It is situated southeast of the lower part of iSfegros 
and almost south of the strait which separates Cebu and Bohol, a dis- 
tance of 23 kilometers southeast of the southern entrance of Tanon 
Strait. The island is of but little altitude, very much broken and is 
formed of the central mountain, from whose sides flow m all direc- 
tions the little streams which fertilize the island. Northeast of the 
central mountain is Mount Gudringan, whose sides on the north and 
east form Points Sandugan and Daquit. This island measures 27 kilo- 
meters from west-northwest to east-southeast and 20 kilometers from 
north to south. v^. • 

The products of the island are tobacco of excellent quality, rice, 
corn (scarcely sufficient for the wants of the people of the island), 
hemp, and chocolate, which is exchanged for wax and cotton. A con- 
siderable amount of rough hemp cloth is exported. Tortoise shell, 
sea cucumbers, and birds' nests of inferior quality are collected. 

The principal towns are Sequijor, on the best port of the island, 
with a population of 11,695; Canoan, with 10,695; Lasay, with 7,629; 
San Juan, with 6,171, and Maria, with 5,556. This is the most densely 
populated island of its size, it having 88 inhabitants to the square 

Hosted by 




[Maps Nos. 18, 19, and 30 of the Atlas of the Philippines.] 


This large island, formerly called Iba.bao, is the most eastern of the 
Visayas. It is situated southeast of the eastern part of the island of 
Luzon, from which it is separated by the Strait of San Bernardino. 
Toward the southwest it is separated from the island of Leyte by the 
narrow Strait of San Juanico, which runs from north to south, lying 
between the southwestern coast of Samar and the northeastern coast oi 
Leyte, and uniting that arm of the sea called the Western Sea of Samai 
on the north and the bay of San Pedro and San Pablo on the south. 
The Western Sea of Samar is the body of water lying between the 
western coast of the island of Samar, the northern coast of Leyte, and 
the eastern coast of Masbate. In it are situated the islands of Biliran, 
IParesan, Buad, Maripipi, Canahahuan, Libucan, Mesa, Sibugay Taga- 
pula, and others of lesser importance. It is a part of the sea not well 
known, and is still quite dangerous to navigate. In general the coasts 
of Samar still require detailed exploration, in particular the eastern 
coast, which is irregular, mountainous, and bordered with small islands 
and large rocks. 

The district of Samar, in addition to the island of this name, includes 
the small islands adjacent to its coast, among which may be mentioned 
as most important Bolicuatro, Bateg, Capul, Dalupiri or Puercos, 
Jomayol or Malhon, Laguan or Lavang, or Calamutanay, Manican, 
Parasan, Buadlos, Nazanjos, Mesa, Tagapula, and Limbacanayan. 

The shape of this island is that of an oblong square, but is very 
irregular in the southwestern part. It is about 20 leagues long in a 
straight line from north to south, and about 20 leagues wide in the 
northern part from east to west. The country is mountainous, although 
there are many fine valleys under cultivation. 


The area of the island of Samar and the adjacent islands is estimated 
to be 13,471 square kilometers, and its population 185,386. In the 
mountains there are about 10,000 native refugees who live an inde- 
pendent and almost savage life. 

Hosted by 



About the middle of the western coast of the island is the town of 
Catbalogan, the capital of the district. It is a much frequented port. 
Its population is 6,072. Other towns are Balangiga, with 4,130; Basey , 
with 12,852; Bobon, Borongan, with 12,663; Calbayog, with 20,725; 
Calviga, Capul, Catarman, with 9,495; Catubig, with 11,517; Gandara, 
with 11,101; Guiuan, with 12,872; Ilernani, Jiabon, La Granja, Lanan, 
Oras, Palapag, Pambujan, Palanes, Paric, Pinabigdao, Qumapundan, 
San Julian, Saliedo, San Sebastian, Santa Rita, Sutat, Taranguan, 
Tubig, Villareal, Tumarraga, Santa Margarita, Santo Nmo, and Weyler. 


The products of the island are such as are found in all the archi- 
pelago. There are many fine kinds of wood, especially those suitable 
for shipbuilding, many varieties of wild fruits, various kinds of 
bamboo, roots suitable for food, rattan, game, and fish. Wax and 
honey, abundant in the extensive forests, are much prized by the 
inhabitants; cocoanuts are abundant, and many of the inhabitants are 
engaged in extracting the oil, particularly in the vicinity ot Guman. 
At the present time the three most important products are rice, cocoa- 
nuts and hemp. Among the medicinal plants grown m this island the 
most famous is the seed called ^'isigud" or the fruit of San Ignacio 
known also as Catbalogan seed, because it is grown in the vicinity ot 
that town. It has many excellent properties and is claimed by some 
to be an antidote for certain kinds of poisons. (1) Father Murillo, b. J . , 
in his historical geography, speaking of these seeds, says that m 
Peking they are much sought after by the Chinese, because they proved 
so efficacious in an epidemic of cholera, no one dying who took this 
remedy. There are, besides, many other plants having well-known 
medicinal value. 


There are perhaps 300 islands bordering Samar, of which only the 
most important will be mentioned. 


The Balicuatro Islands, situated on the northern coast of Samar, lie 
between Points Balicuatro and Babon, about 18 miles to the east ot the 
former. They form two groups with Viri on the west.^ composed ot 4 
islands, and the group of Cabauan Grande on the east. 

Viri group.— The principal island, Viri, is situated 3i miles from 
Balicuatro Point. It is about 4 miles long and 3 miles broad Its 
two towns are Enriqueta and Viri. Quimagaligan Island is situated 
between Viri and Samar, and has one town of the same name as the 

Oabaulan Grande group is situated to the east of Viri and near to 
the coast of Samar. The principal island of the group is Oabaulan 

Alon^ the same northern coast are found the islands of Laguan 
Bata^, and Cahagayan, which form and shelter the famous port ot 
of Paiapag. The island of Bacan is about 3 miles to the east ot Port 

Hosted by 



Palapag and very near to the coast of Samar. In general the northern 
coast of Samar is bordered with islands, shoals, and rocks, which render 
navigation very difficult. 


Caput. — This island lies southeast of the Ticlines group, with which 
it forms the Strait of San Bernardino. It is of medium altitude, the 
highest lands being in the vicinity of Abac, which lies on the western 
coast, 2J miles from the southern point of the islands. The town of 
Abac has a population of 6,834. In the northern part of the island 
is the bay known as Puerta de Galeras. Copper is found in the 


This group, composed of three islands, called Calintan, Tuac, and 
Ticlin, forms, with the coast of Luzon, the Strait of Ticlines, which 
runs from northeast to southwest. 

Calintan.-^IMi^ island lies about 5 cables' length to the southeast 
of Point Culasi; it is the most southern of the Ticlines and about a 
mile in length. Its forests abound in ebony. 

TuoM.^ an island near to and south of Calintan, having a length of 
\\ miles from north to south and a breadth of one-half a mile from 
east to west, is likewise mountainous and covered with ebony trees. 

Ticlin, — This island is situated two-thirds of a mile from Point 

JSFaranjos Islands. — This group, situated 7 miles to the south of 
Tajiran on the coast of Luzon, is formed by the six little islands called 
San Anreas, Rosa, Del Medio, De la Darsena, De la Aguada, and 

Datupiri^ or Hog Island^ is situated between the island of Capul and 
the western coast of Samar; it is low, covered with trees, and sur- 
rounded by a rock-strewn beach. It has two towns or villages, Dalupiri 
and El Pilar. Game is very abundant, especially wild hogs. In the 
central part there is a lake containing large numbers of crocodiles. 

Tagapula. — This island, in the southern part of the Naranjos group, 
is mountainous and has but one small village. 

Mesa^ a small island southeast of Tagapula, is also mountainous. 

Limhancanayan is situated east of Mesa or Talajit; it is quite flat 
and has one town, Santo Nino, with a population of 5,640, and one 

Camandag {Sihugay)^ an island to the east-northeast of Mesa, is cir- 
cular in form, of medium elevation, and about 2 miles in diameter. 

Libucan group. — This is a little group, composed of three islands 
and various isles, 4^ miles west of Point Traguan. 

Lihitcan-Daco^ about 2 miles in length, is the largest of the group 
and has a good anchorage. 

Tangad-Libiocan is a small island 1 mile northwest of Libucan-Daco. 
To the southwest of the principal island of the group are the little 
islands of Maraquit-Daquit, and to the southeast the Lalaya isles. 

Buri. — This island is 2f miles to the northwest of Ca.balogan; it 
has two anchorages, one to the east and the other to the north. 

In some of these former islands there are villages or hamlets. 

Canahammy Islands. — These islands are situated near the western 
coast of Samar, 8 miles to the southwest of Catbalogan. They include 

Hosted by 



various islands and isles, as follows: Timpasan, Canalinan-daco, Canali- 
nan-gutiay, Boloang, Cavantiguianes, Balading-daco, and Batgongon. 
These islands lie in the form of an ellipse, 4i miles long in the direction 
west, northwest, south, southeast, and 2i miles in breadth, in the center 
of which is a fine anchorage, protected against all the monsoons. 

The great Bay of Maqueda is formed by the coast south of Catbalo- 
gan and the islands of Parasan and Buad. 

Parasan.— This island, lying at the entrance of the Bay of Maqueda, 
is 10 miles long from north to south, 5 miles wide, very low, and has 
some sandy beaches. It has one town, of the same name as the island. 

Btcad, an island lying to the east of Parasan, at the entrance of the 
Bay of Maqueda, is almost circular in shape, about 4i miles in diameter, 
and has but little elevation. The town of Buad is of little importance. 
The town of Zumarraga, on the west coast, has a population of 6,404. 
There are several villages. 

Baran.— This is the largest of the islands bordering Samar, and 
extends irregularly from north to south, forming two peninsulas of 
almost equal size. It is low and has extensive mangrove swamps. It 
is situated west of Parasan and Buad and is surrounded by little 
islands. Along the shore there are some villages and hamlets of little 

Lintarcaii is an island to the south of the bay of Maqueda, in the 
northern part of the entrance to the strait formed by the island of 
Daran, on the coast of Samar. It has a few villages or hamlets along 
the coast. 

Canal de Tanatabas is in the west, northwest extremity of the strait 
of San Juanico, which separates Samar and Leyte. 

Tanaban and Tanabaay. —Th^s^ island are situated in the middle of 
the channel. 

Talualla,— This island is situated above the rounded point which 
terminates the narrow entrance of the channel on the north coast. 

Tanahon lies southeast of Jabualla and Tanabaay; it is triangular in 
shape and elongated from northwest to southeast. Many rocks lie 
along the coast. At the northern entrance of the famous channel of San 
Juanico is the so-called strait of Santa Rita, the name being that of 
a town of 3,014 inhabitants, situated on the western coast of Samar. 


This strait is one of the most attractive natural scenes in the archi- 
pelago. It has an average width of 6 cables length, but in certain 
places is not over 2 cables in width. It is neither regular in depth 
nor in the character of the bottom, the soundings varying from 9 
meters to 20 meters in the middle of the channel. In general, the bot- 
tom is covered with shells in the north and sand in the south, some 
places being rocky. Many little islands and shoals render this pic- 
turesque channel still narrower. The currents in the channel and the 
character of the coasts render navigation very difficult. In the low 
caves in the bluffs along the coasts on the Samar side of this channel 
the remains of human skeletons have been found which in size are 
much superior to those of the actual inhabitants of the neighboring 
islands. .• 

Hosted by 




The strait of San Juanico terminates on the south in the bay of San 
Pedro and San Pablo. The town of Guintuhan is at the head of this 
bay, on the most western of the two arms, into which the Cadann or 
Vasey Eiver enters. 


The tide water of this river, as indicated by the nipa groves, reaches 
several miles inland ; from there the river is very shallow and rapid, 
presently passing a natural arch formed by two fallen rocks support- 
ing each other and surrounded by limestone rocks from 10 to 12 
meters high. In front, and opening like a mouth, rises a sort of 
portal of rocks of beautiful appearance ; they are 8 or 10 meters m 
height, and through the opening a part of the river may be seen. In 
the wall on the left of this oval court, 11 meters above the water, a 
cave opens, guite easy of access. This cave is about 28 meters in 
depth and terminates in a narrow part, where a species of table or 
altar is formed of the limestone rock. There is found an open space, 
and the grouping of the rocks shows them to be the remains of a 
stalactite cavern, whose roof has fallen in. This is the place called 
"Cuevas de Sojoton." 

In a little indentation to the east of the bay, about 5 miles from the 
Vasey, is the little town of Pansignican, and about a mile and a half 
south of this town is Basiao. Between them is a series of picturesque 
rocks, reaching an altitude of 28 meters ; they are rounded and their 
summits covered with vegetation, and worn away on their bases by 
the action of the water, appearing to rise as gigantic mushrooms 
above the waves. In ancient times the inhabitants buried their heroes 
and .old people on these rocks, placing- in the coffins all of the objects 
which were most valued during life. 


This little island, situated at the head of the bay and in front of the 
river Vasey, is regular in outline, high, and formed on a table. 


Manicani,— This island is situated 4i miles to the southwest of the 
town of Guinan; it is almost circular, 2i miles in diameter, and has a 
central mountain of medium height. It is surrounded on all sides, 
except the northwest, by a reef about 3 cables in length. ^ It has a 
roomy anchorage between the bluflfs on the north of this island and 
the coast. Various small islands extend in all directions in front of 
this anchorage. The point south of Samar terminates in a little 
island very close to the shore. 


This coast is very little known. While on an expedition to the 
southern part of Samar we had occasion to admire the magnificent nat- 
ural port of Pambujan, which, in our opinion, is the best in all the 
islands. It is situated between points Maritiano and Buri, and is easy 

Hosted by 



of entrance, clear and deep, having in its interior a channel called 
Tangbab, which is well protected from all winds. It is formed by a 
series of small islands extending parallel to the coast between Pambu- 
jan and Hernani. 

A few miles to the north of Pambujan is the famous port of Boron- 
gon, at the entrance of which are the islands of Audis and Davinnbo. 

To the north of Salat are the islands of Catalaban and Anchao. 

More to the north, in front of the port or bay of Oray, lie the 
islands of Hilaban and Tubabao. To the south-southeast of Hilaban 
there extends a series of islands in the form of a semicircle, terminat- 
ing in the little island of Pasig, in front of the town of Dolores. 


The important islands here are as follows: 

Laguan. — This island forms, with the island of Samar, a narrow chan- 
nel, which unites the bay of Lagnan with the strait of Calomatan. 
The town of Lagnan, situated in the southwestern part, has a popula- 
tion of 7,773. There are several villages on this well-populated island. 

Batag.—Thi^ island is situated to the north- northeast of Lagnan. It 
is rather low, and aids in sheltering Port Palapag. There are but few 
inhabitants, the only important village being Mahinog. 

Cahagayan. — This is the smallest of the islands which form the port 
of Palai3ag; it is surrounded by rocks. 

Bacon. — This island lies 3 miles east of the port of Palapag, and 
very near to the coast of Samar; it is formed of high, rocky land. 
All* the coast of the north offers but little security to shipping, on 
account of the reefs and little islands which rise close to it. 



This island, belonging to the Visayas, is situated between Samar, 
Dinagat, and Mindanao on the southeast, Bohol on the southwest, and 
Masbate on the northwest. It is elongated in shape, very irregular, and 
much wider on the north and south than at the center. It has a length 
of 160 kilometers from north to south, and is 76 kilometers wide at its 
broadest part. On the northern extremity of Leyte, forming with it 
a little channel, is the island of Gingantagan. To the south of the bay 
of Ornoc lie the Camotes Islands, and near to the coast, and in front 
of Mount Sacripante, lies a group of four little islands. The eastern 
coast of Leyte is separated on the northeast from the island of Samar 
by the narrow strait of San Juanico, this island being almost united 
to it by a tongue of land, which forms the northwestern point of Leyte. 
To the east of the island is the island of Biliran, with which it forms a 
narrow channel of the same name. Toward the east exists the channel 
of Tanabatas in the west-northwest extremity of San Juanico, formed 
by the islands of Jabualla, Janabon, and Tanabaay. 

To the north of the bay of Guinatungan lie the little islands of 
Cabugan. In the southeast the sharp point in which this island termi- 
nates forms, with the adjacent island of Panaon, the strait of this 
name and the port of Liloan. The interior of the island is mountainous, 
there being a number of craters of extinct volcanoes. In these 

Hosted by 



mountains are found large numbers of shells, which indicate that great 
physical disturbances have been suffered by this island. At one time 
the water dominated its mountains, and probably caused the separation 
of this land from Samar, with which it undoubtedly in ancient times 
was joined. The large valleys of the island are cultivated by the 
natives. There are two lakes, one called Bito, and the other, a small 
one, in the region of Jaro, to the north, this comi^unicating with the sea 
through the Leyte River. 


The province, including the adjacent islands, has an area of 9,976 
square kilometers and 270,491 registered inhabitants. 


Visaya is the language spoken. 

The capital, Tacloban, is a beautiful town, situated at the entrance 
of the strait of San Juanico, on the bay of San Pedro and San Pablo. 
It is a well-known port. The town has some fine buildings, both pub- 
lic and private. Other towns of importance are: Abuyoc, with 9,534 
inhabitants; Alanggalang, with 2,038; Albuera, Bato, Babatungan, 
Barugo, with 12,755; Baybay, Buranen, with 21,200; Cabalian, Capoo- 
can, Cajaguaan, Carigara, 13,099; Caibiran, Dagami, with 12,220; 
Dulag, with 13,557; Hitongos, Hinunangan, Hindang, Inopacan, Jaro, 
with 10,422; Hinimdayan, Leyte, Ma-asim, Macrohon, Malibago, Mal- 
itbog, Maripipi, Matalom, Merida, Ormoc, Palos, with 18,297; Palom- 
pon, Pastrana, Quiot, San Isidro de Campo, San Miguel, Sogod Tan- 
anan, with 17,046; Tolosa, Tabonstabon, and Villaba. 


The mountains are covered with forests; from these are obtained 
pitch, honey, sugar, and many varieties of building woods. There 
are mines of gold, lead, and silver, and mines of sulphur. The 
exports of the island are important, among these being hemp of the 
value of 15,000,000, sugar of the value of $50,000, and chocolate, 
cofl'ee, oil, corn, cattle, horses, and hogs to the value of $63,000. 
Wax, honey, bird's nests, shells, sponges, and pearls are exported in 
small quantities. The most important product is hemp, no other 

Erovince being able to compete with Leyte, because its plantations 
ave been under cultivation for forty years. These plantations require 
very little work, the crop being permanent, abundant, and of excel- 
lent quality. There are but four interior towns. The important 
ports are Tacloban and Carrigari on the east coast, and Ormoc, 
Baybay, Uongos, Ma-asim, and Malitbog on the west coast. The 
land within the jurisdiction of the province is 572,000 hectares, of 
which 250,000 are under cultivation, the remainder of the land being 
mountain or grazing land. In some of the towns of the eastern coast 
the women are very skillful in the manufacture of fabrics and in 
embroidering. The eastern coast of Leyte has many good roads suit- 
able for carriages at all times of the year. The western coast has but 

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few such, and others suitable for horses. Communication by sea is 
more frequent, as the large number of gulfs and bays, although they 
may cause breaks in the roads, furnish good interior waterways. 



Mari/pipi. — This, the most northern island, is a rounded mountain^ 
covered with vegetation, and having an elevation of 911 meters above 
sea level. 

Samhabuas. — These are small islands or rocks very close together and 
surrounded b}^ a sandy shoal. 

Balizan. — This important island lies to the extreme northwest of the 
island of Le3^te, and has approximately a length of 20 miles from north- 
west to southeast and a breadth of 10 miles. It is mountainous, quite 
high, and in the north is seen the beginning of the small mountain chain 
which divides it longitudinally. The highest peak of this chain is in the 
western part. The most important towns are Almeria, Naval, and 
Bilizan on the western coast, and Caibizan on the eastern coast. There 
is a multitude of little villages along the coast. This island is noted for 
the sulphur springs in the mountains. 

Calwnpijan. — This little island lies about a mile from the shore, east 
of the sharp mountain peak called Pacduhuuan. The little islands of 
Polo and Calajit lie in the middle of the little channel formed by the 
island of Bilizan on the north coast of Negros. 


Gigantangan. — This island lies li miles from Point Taglanigan, north- 
west of Leyte, and is 2 miles long from north-northwest to south-south- 
east and 1 mile wide. 

Calangaman, — This is a little island 7 miles west of Vantay. From 
Villaba to Ormoc nothing but very small islands and reefs are found. 

Camotes. — This is the name given to some small islands which form 
a group united by little reefs. They are called Pacijan, Poro, and 
Poson, there being a little island to the north of Poicajon called Talong. 
They are situated to the north of the Bay of Ormoc and of Pozios, 
which is the most northern of the group, and 5^ miles from Point 
Catunangan, which forms a wide and deep pass. The islands are 
inhabited and have some small towns and villages. 

Cuatro Mas group, — These are about the only islands found near 
the coast between Ormoc and Inopacan. The most northern of the 
islands is the smallest, and is called Duquio. The largest, south- 
southwest, is Mahabas; another, nearer the coast, Apit, and that 
faithest to the south, Himaquitan. 

Canigao. — This is an island of little importance, and is about the 
only one found between Inopacan and Ma-asim. 


Lamasana, — This island is situated 2 miles southeast of the south- 
ern point of Leyte, is long and narrow, 4^ miles from north to south 
and 1 mile in breadth. It has two little towns, San Bernado and 

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Pauaon, — This island is separated from the southeastern part of 
Leyte by the little strait of the same name; it is mountainous, long 
and narrowband extends over I7i miles from north -northwest to south- 
southeast. It is 5 miles wide in the northern part. The eastern coast 
has a picturesque appearance, presenting from time to time beautiful 
cascades and large numbers of little creeks. It is well populated, the 
principal towns being Silvan in the north and San Ricardo in the south. 
Gold is found near Point Pinutan. 

There are no islands of importance on the eastern coast, except those 
already mentioned in connection with Samar. 

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[Maps Nos. 26, 27, and 28 of the Atlas of the Philippines.] 



The island of Mindanao, the most southern in all the archipelago, 
is situated between the parallels of latitude 5^ 36^ and 9*^ 49^ north and 
longitude 125^ 30' and 130^ east from Madrid. It is, next to Luzon, 
the largest island in the archipelago. According to the data of the 
Institute of Geography and Statistics, its area, including the small 
adjacent islands, is 99,450 square kilometers, which is a little less than 
that given by Fathers Buceta and Bravo in their dictionaries of the 


The population, according to the census of 1887, was 209,087, but 
this figure did not include the natives of the interior. 


The following languages are spoken: Spanish, somewhat corrupted; 
Moro and its dialects, Joloano, Samal, Yacam, Maguindanao, and the 
dialect of the coast of Davao, Visaya, Cebuano, and Bagobo, Tagaca- 
olo, Bilan, Montes, Mamanna, Tiruray, Tagabili, and Dulangan. 


The great island of Mindanao is divided into seven districts, as fol- 
lows: First, Zamboanga; second, Misamis; third, Surigao; fourth, 
Davao; fifth, Catobato; sixth, Basilan, and seventh, Lanao. Ecclesias- 
tically, one part of it belongs to the bishopric of Jaro and the other to 
that of Cebu. 


The mineral products of the island of Mindanao are not well known^ 
For many years the natives have gathered some gold, which they pre- 
sent for exchange in the provinces of the north, where some experi- 
ments have been carried on. For many years the auriferous deposits 
of the district of Misamis have had great renown. According to Don 
Enrique Abella, the auriferous zone is situated between the Caturan 
River to the east and the Iligan River on the west, and along the beds 
of the Bulalacao Iparan, Cagayan, Bigaan, and Catman rivers. Coal 
deposits exist in the vicinity of Sibugney, Surigao, and Mati. Sul- 


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phur is plentiful in the vicinity of the various volcanoes of the island, 
and mineral waters are abundant at Catobato and other points. 

On account of the excellent quality of the soil, the abundant rains, 
and the influence of the climate the entire island is covered with veg- 
etation, generally by forests. Many kinds of wood are found in the 
forests, those useful for naval construction and building purposes 
being abundant; among these may be mentioned guijo, molave narra, 
ipil, malatumbaga, lanan, camagon, manconi or ironwood, camuning, 
mangasinoso, palo-maria, teak, pagatpat, mangachapuy, sibucao, ban- 
cal, etc., and other similar plants, such as grasses and the sun juniper, 
and some cypress and cogan or reed grass. The bamboo known as 
boja, rattan,"^ and other trailers form impenetrable jungles. The cocoa- 
nut, the betel nut, the betel pepper, and bananas grow* abundantly. 
Hemp is grown, and the chocolate and coffee bushes grow very lux- 
uriantly and very rapidly. Other products are cabonegro, cotton, 
indigo, pineapple, sugar cane, rice, and tobacco. Cloves and nutmegs 
are found on the Bay of Sibuguey, where the cinnamon tree spon- 
taneously grows. Corn, sweet potatoes, nami, ube, gabe, and analo- 
gous products grow abundantly in all districts, as well as all kinds of 
fruits, among them the delicious mangosteen. Gums and resins are 
obtained from the forests of the interior. In short, the vegetable 
wealth of Mindanao not only equals, but surpasses, that of Luzon and 
the Visayas, although, in truth, not so extensively exploited. 

Nor is Mindanao behind the other islands in the animal kingdom. 
All kinds of monkeys are found in every part. There are large num- 
bers of cattle, horses, and buff'alos, the most of these being domesti- 
cated or owned b}^ some known individual. Domestic hogs are found 
and wild hogs are more abundant, because the Mohammedan inhabitants 
do not use them. On the other hand, deer, which are found in all the 
forests, are much sought after. Many reptiles and insects, some of 
them poisonous, are found, such as snakes, scorpions; lizards, and large 
numbers of leeches are found in the rivers and on the trees. A large 
species of lizard, called the ''iguana," sometimes reaches a length of 
2 meters Snakes of the boa family attain extraordinar}^ size. Croco- 
diles of large size are found in the rivers. A large variety of birds 
is found, the calao or horn bill being abundant in the forests. There 
are many varieties of pigeons and doves, among these being the so- 
called punalada, on account of a bright red spot which is on its breast. 
Parrots, cockatoos, jungle fowd, kingfishers, etc., are very numerous. 
Among animals should be mentioned monke3^s and the caguang, an 
animal somewhat resembling a monkey and somewhat resembling a bat. 
Among the birds may be mentioned the salangana, which makes the 
valuable nests found in the caves of Mindanao and the adjacent islands. 



This district is bounded on the north by Point Maraleg, in the prov- 
ince of Misamis; on the east by the district of Cottabato; on the south 
by the island of Basilan, and on the west by the sea of Celebes. It 
has an area of 29,846.96 square kilometers, the greater part of which 
is forest land, with the exception of the country around the capital 
town, where the inhabitants cultivate some rice. 

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Concerning the rest of the country but little is known, though it is 
supposed that in the region of Sibuguey, which has a population of 
80,000, there are extensive areas of land under cultivation. 


According to the general statistics of the bishopric of Jaro f or 1897, 
there are 19,903 Christian inhabitants in Zamboanga and the surround- 
ing towns, 8,000 Mohammedans, and in the unexplored region of Sibu- 
guey there is a population of 90,000 pagan Subanos. 


The following languages are spoken: Spanish, Moro, Samal, Subano, 
and Chavacano (which is a mixture of Spanish), Tagalog, Visayan, and 


Zamboanga is the capital town of Mindanao. It is beautifully 
situated on an extensive plain covered with cocoanut groves and 
innumerable rice fields. Many of its buildings are of masonry, and 
others of boards, with galvanized zinc or nipa roofs. Prominent 
among these are the church and convent, the government house, the 
house of the governor of the district, and those of the naval commander 
and of the chief of engineers. The military hospital is a commodious 
and elegant building recentty constructed. The Fortress of Pilar, with 
its strong stone walls, barracks, storehouses, etc. , constructed under 
the direction of P. Melehoz de Vera, S. J., was of the greatest value 
during the invasions of piratical Moros in ancient times. The port, 
although open to the sea if the wind is from the south or southwest, is 
protected against the winds from the north and east; while in the river 
of Masinlog, 3 miles to the southeast, there is an anchorage protected 
against all winds. There is a beautiful quay, and a light-house of the 
sixth class (starry) showing a fixed red light. Belonging to the town 
of Zamboanga, which has a population of 7,634, are the villages of 
Santa Maria, Gusu, and Tipong, or San Roque. The towns belonging 
to this province are Tetuan, and the villages of Putig and Talontalon, 
with a population of 5,572; Mercedes, with the villages of Manicahan, 
Catumbal, and Boalan, with a population of 3,839; Bolong, with the 
villages of Curuan, Taguite, and Tamion, with a population of 1,144; 
and lyala, with the villages of Talisayan, Erenas, or Malayal, with a 
population of 1,655, Sinonong, and the penal colony of San Ramon. 


This district includes the northern part of Mindanao, the island of 
Camiguin, Silina, and various smaller islands. It is bounded on the 
north by the sea, which bathes the coast of Negros, Siquijor, and 
Bohol; on the south by the interior of Mindanao; on the east by the 
district of Surigao; and on the west by the district of Zamboanga. The 
coast line from the li'arcielagos Islands to Point Dimata is 102 leagues 
in length. It has an area of about 1,136.95 square kilometers. 

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The population, according to the census of 1887, is 116,024, but 
considering the number of unknown villages in the interior it is prob- 
ably much greater. According to the general statistics of the bish- 
opric of Cebu, published in 1897, the number of inhabitants in this 
district is 169,256. 


The languages are Visaya-Cebuano, Montes, and Malay-Moro. 


The capital town is Cagayan de Misamis, which, with the adjoining 
village of Gura, has a population of 11,029. It is situated on level land 
on the bank of the river of the same name. Its public buildings, and 
some of the private buildings, are well constructed. The towns of this 
district are Tagoloan, with a population of 8,498, and with the village 
of Agusan, situated on the northern coast on the Bay of Macajalar, or 
Macabalan; San Martin, Minsoro, Malitbog, Pamploma, Siloo, Santa 
Ana, Jasaan, which, with the villages of Canajanan, Solana, Villanueva, 
Patrocinio, Claveria, and Bubuntigan, have a population of 4,564; and 
Baliiigasag, with the villages of Casulag, Canal, San Roque, Rosario, 
Lagonlong, Salay, and Concepcion, has a population of 9,330. Talisayan 
has a population of 5,877, and adjoining it the hamlets of Balinguan, 
Quinugeritan, Santa Inez, San Miguel, and Portolin. Gingoog has a 
population of 4,615, and adjoining it the hamlets of Medina, Minlagas, 
Odyungan, Linugus. San Juan, Consuelo, San Roque, and Asturias. 
Other towns are Guinsilitan, Sagay, Catarman, Manbajao, Mahinog, 
Iponan, Opol, Molugan, Salvador, with a population of 6,640; Alubijid, 
Initao, Naanan, Iligan, with a population of 2,466; and Misamis, with a 

Eopulation of 6,313. The latter town is situated on the west shore of the 
iay of Panguil, having an anchorage included between Point Fuerte, 
on the north, and Point Pubut, the eastern termination of Mount 
Bucayan, which is situated 1 mile southwest of Point Fuerte. It is 
a land-locked port, protected against wind and sea. It is suitable for 
all kinds of shipping, and all kinds of boats can tie up close to the 
shore in front of the old town, a single plank serving to make connec- 
tion with the land. For a distance of 8 miles the bottom is sandy. 
The town is situated on the northern side of the port on a little tongue 
of land cut by a canal, which empties to the northwest of the fort. 
Other towns are Loculan, Jiminez, Aloran, Oroquieta, with a popula- 
tion of 12,200; Layanan, Langaran, with a population of 12,219; Bali- 
angao, and Sumilao, with a population of 4,122. There are also the 
hamlets of Tagmalusag, Calipayan, Sancanan, Tanculan, Balao, Guila- 
bong, San Juan, Maluco, Impasugong, and Silipon, the town of 
Sevilla, with a population of 4,145, and the hamlets of Calasungay, 
Linabao, Bugcaon, Valencia, Covadonga, Monserrat, Oroquieta, and 

Pertaining to this district is the comandancia of Dapitan, which is 
bounded on the north by the Visayan Sea, on the east by Misamis, on 
the south by Zamboanga, and on the west also by the Visaya Sea. It 
has an area of about 1,056 square kilometers. Among its towns are 
Dapitan, the capital, with a population of 7,627, having as adjacent 

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villages La Conquista, Barcelona, Dampolan, Ilaya, and Libay; Dipo- 
log, with a population of 5,090, with its dependent villages Polanco 
and Sianib; and Lubungan, having a population of 4,556, and the 
dependent villages of Duhinop, Langitian, Manocan, Matan, Miatan, 
Labao, Toocaan, apd Sera. 


This province is situated in the northeastern and eastern part of the 
province of Mindanao, and includes the islands of Bucas, Binagat, 
Ginatuan, Gipdo, Siargao, Sibunga, and various small islands. It is 
bounded on the north by the strait of Surigao, on the east by the 
ocean, on the south by the district of Davao, and on the west by the 
district of Misamis. It is 124.25 kilometers in length from north to 
south and 97.98 kilometers in breadth from east to west m its widest 
part, its area being, according to official figures, 1,070,190 hectares, of 
which less than 10,000 are under cultivation. 


The official census of 1887 gives a population of 67,760; the official 
guide for 1898, 85,125. According to the official statistics of the 
Bishopric of Cebu, published in 1897, the number of inhabitants m 
this district reaches 113,105. 


The languages are Visaya, Mamama, Manobo, and Mandaya. 


The capital town, Surigao, with the village of Ananaon, has a pop- 
ulation of 9,251. It is situated on the right bank of the river in the 
extreme northern part of the island of Mindanao, four miles southeast 
of Point Bilaa. This district, until 1858 called Caraga, was the site of 
the first Spanish mission in these islands. The important towns m this 
district, not enumerating small villages, are: Dinagat, with 6,228 
inhabitants; Cantilan, with 12,210; Placer and Taganaan, with 4,713; 
Gigaquit, with 9,997; Nuinancia, with 4,328; Cabuntog, with 5,129; 
Tanday, with 8,345; Lianga, with 5,350; Bislig, with 7,217; La Esper- 
anza, with 2,4G0; Talacogon with 3,560; Prosperidad, with 3,144; 
Veruela, with 4,597; Tativa, with 1,343, and Maynit, with a popula- 
tion of 4,607. Pertaining to this district is the comandancia of Butuan, 
situated on the bay of the same name in the northern part of Min- 
danao, and bounded on the north by the bay and district of Surigao, 
on the east and south by the aforesaid point, and on the west by the 
district of Misamis. It is one of the finest districts, and has a popula- 
tion of 12,013. In 1872 a monument of Hernando de Magallanes was 
erected to commemorate the place where the first mass was said in the 
Philippines. It is of stone, in two parts, and surmounted by a trun- 
cated pyramid. The inscription is in gold letters on an Italian marble 
slab. Besides Maynit and its villages, all of the towns and villages 
situated on the banks of the river Agusan belong to this comandancia. 

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This district or province is situated in the southeastern part of Min- 
danoa. It occupies the territory formerly known as Nueva Guipuzcoa, 
and extends from the Bay of Ma^^o, on the Pacific Ocean, to Point 
Malaluna, near the Gulf of Tuna, on the south coast of Mindanao. It 
is bounded on the north by the district of Surigao, on the south by 
Cottabato, between these two bein^ Lake Buluan and the country 
called BoaA^en, or Buha^^en; and on the southeast by the Pacific Ocean, 
where the port of Balete and the Bay of Pujaga are found. The islands 
of Samal, Talicud, Pujaga, Saranginas, Sirangan, Moleron, Limbal, 
and the little islands of Malipano and Sigabo}^ belong to this district. 
The distance from Point Tagobon, south of the Bay of Mayo, to Cape 
San Augustin is 48.23 kilometers; from the center of the bay north- 
west to the tQwn of Rosario, at the mouth of the River Hijo, 102.09 
kilometers, and from this town to Point Sarangani, on the east coast 
of the district, 161.53 kilometers. The widest part of the western 
coast from Point Gorda to the interior is 57.70 kilometers. 


Although this is a very fertile district it has but few inhabitants, the 
oflicial census of 1897 giving 3,966. According to the ofiicial register 
of the Bishopric of Jaro, to which this district belongs, and which was 
published in 1895, the population, excluding Caraga, Catel, and 
Bazanga, was 4,810. 


The languages are Bisaya, Bagobo, Guianga, Tagabana, Tagacaolo, 
Ata, Calagan, Manobo, Moro, Tagabili, Bilan, and Sanguil. 


The town of Davao, the capital, has broad, well laid-out streets. The 
parish house is one of the best in Mindanao. There are many other 
large, well-built houses. Santa Cruz and Malalae are situated on one 
of the finest ports in the archipelago. It is of good depth, sheltered 
from all winds, and easy of entrance even in bad weather. 

Among the principal towns of this district are Davao, the capital, 
with a population of 13,874, which has a large number of small towns 
dependent upon it, and Penaplata, with a population of 1,848, which 
also includes a large number of small hamlets. 

Pertaining to this district is the comandancia of Mati, which has the 
largest area of any in the archipelago, 9,034 square kilometers. The 
principal towns are Mati, with a population of 2,475; Sigaboy, with a 
population of 2,217; Caraga, with a population of 4,054; Nanay, with 
a population of 2,649, and Cateel, with a population of 6,561. ^ There 
is a large number of small villages and hamlets. 

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This district is bounded on the north by the great mountain ranges, 
which separate it from Misamis and Surigao; on the east by the Bay 
of liana and Zamboanga from Point Fleches; in the interior by the dis- 
trict of Davao, and on the south and west by the Sea of Celebes. As 
the interior of this province is almost entirely unknown, it is almost 
imDossible to determine its exact area. It is estimated to be about 
28,293.97 square kilometers. 


The census of 1887 gives a population of 4,148, and the records of 
the diocese of Jaro, published in 1895, of but 3,014. 


The languages spoken are Spanish, Moro-Maguindanao, Tiruray, 
Dulangan, Manobo, Ata, Bilan, and Tagabili. 


Cottabato, the capital, has a population of 1,012. It is situated on 
the left bank of the Pulangui, or Rio Grande, whose banks are inhab- 
ited by Moros. There is a magnificent fort, or castle, situated on the 
hill, and here is established a semaphore for the guidance of boats 
crossing the bar at the entrance. Part of the town is flooded during 
high tide. The commerce is in the hands of a large number of Chinese, 
who have established themselves here. Polloc, with a population of 
472, is situated on the south coast, east of the great bay of Illana. Its 
port is well sheltered, clean, and deep, and although open on the west, 
it is protected by the island of Bongos, which lies just in front of the 
entrance. It is a military comandancia, belonging to Cottabato, and 
has a naval station established in the aforesaid town. It has a dry 
dock for the use of gunboats. At Tamontaca, which has a population 
of 2,420, there is an orphan asylum for Moro children, under the care 
of the Jesuit priests. In the bay of Illana there is a military station 
at Parang-parang, on the other side of the bay of Polloc. The forts 
of Malabang, Baras, and Tucusan are under the command of the chief 
military officer of Parang-parang. A military hospital, and a supply 
depot are located at Parang-parang. There is a fort, and a fine church 
of gothic architecture. The town is abundantly supplied with clear, 
cool water. The notable Reina Regente fort is situated in the center 
of the Moro country. (See Pis. XL VI, XLVII, and XLVIIL) At 
Point Pola, within the jurisdiction of Cottabato, is the military station 
of Lebac, established to restrain piracy, and the insolence of the 
Moros. (See PI. XLIX.) 


The beautiful island of Basilan is situated in the extreme southern 
part of the Philippine Archipelago. It is bounded on the north by 

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the strait of Basilan, on the south and west by the sea of Jolo, and on 
the east by the sea of Celebes. It is 12 leagues long from east to west 
and 8 broad from north to south. 


The official census gives a population of 1,119; the records of the 
bishopric of Jaro for 1895, 1,424. 


In the capital town Spanish is spoken, the natives usinp- their own 
languages, Moro, Samal, and Moro-Jacan. 


The capital town is Isabela. At the naval station there is a dry 
dock lor gunboats, a crane capable of lifting 20 tons, carpenter 
and iron shqps, an iron and bronze foundry, a magazine, and machin> 
ery worked by steam. The port is a beautiful strait, 3i miles Ioup- 
having an average width of 600 meters, and is formed by the islands 
ot Basilan and Malamaui. It is capable of sheltering a good-sized 
fleet. On the island of Malamaui, in front of the quay, is a larg-e 
coaling station, which is used by all of the ships of the naval division 
of the south. A small stream called the Chorrillo furnishes an 
abundance ot cool, healthful water, which is carried to the station by 
a pipe. At the most strategic point of the town there is a fort called 
Isabel 11 It IS composed of 4 bulwarks, occupying the 4 angles and 
is entirely surrounded by a moat. This fort not only dominates the 
narrow channel, but serves as a defense against the Moros, who mi^ht 
come down from the mountains or along the river Pasajan The 
^avy has a hospital situated at the mouth of the Pasaian, iust in 
front of the station. (See PL LXI.) Six small villages are included 
in the town of Isabela. The Pilas Islands, situated to the west of 
Basilan, are the following : Pilas, Mamangat, Balug, Calug, Sangboy, 
Tinga, Mataja, Dasalan, Caludlud, Cujangan, Palajanfan, Minis 
Mamanac and Pasig-Posilan. Other adjacent islands are : Bubuan 
balupin, Lalanan, Tapiantana, and Buentua. ' 


This district includes all of the territory of Lanao, extending on the 
north as far as Lumbayanequi, and on the south as far as the watershed 
between the laguna and the bay of Illana. 


As this district has been but recently created, and as it has not been 
completely dominated by Spanish arms, it has not been possible to form 
towns nor to take a census of its inhabitants, the floating population 
being composed of those in camp. There are large numbers of pa^an 
Moros, of the Malanaoc tribe, the town of Bato alone having a popu- 
lation of 4,000. All of the inhabitants of the towns and villages about 
the lake number more than 100,000. 

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The lang-uagc spoken in this district is Moro, of the Melanao dialects. 


There are no organized towns or villages — only garrisons and forts — 
the principal of these being Marahui. The most noticeable feature of 
this district is the lake from which it has taken its name — Lanoa. The 
extreme northern part of this lake lies at about the eighth degree of 
north latitude, and the center about 124° 19' east longitude from 
Greenwich — that is to say, about the meridian of Iligan. It is there- 
fore in the eastern and widest part of the isthmus, which separates the 
bays of Iligan and Illana. The principal Moro towns on the lake are 
Ganasi and Taraca, on the eastern shore. The lake is quite deep, in 
some places from 3 to 5 fathoms. The lake is about 8 leagues in length 
and contains 6 islands, on the larger of which — Nuza — there are more 
than 500 houses. The lake is surrounded by towns and little villages, 
these being more than 60 in number. The lake empties by a waterfall 
into the river Iligan. 


Something has alread3M)een said of the adjacent islands, particularly 
of the most important one Basilan. Others of some importance are 
on the south coast. 


Olutanga, — This island forms, with the coast of Mindanao, a channel 
which connects the bays of Sibuguey and Dumanquilas. 

Qiddahun Group. — This group is composed of the islands of Muda, 
Bacula, and Baya. 

Ticala and Sagarayan. — These islands are situated south of the 
point north of the bay of Dinas. 

Bongo. — This island is situated in f ront Qf the port of Polloc, its 
northern extremity being li miles to the west-southwest of Point 
Tugapangan. It is covered with forests and is rather low. It is not 

Timaco. — This island is formed of a hill entirely covered with for- 
ests, the trees reaching to the water. It is situated at the mouth of the 
Rio Grande, scarcely a mile to the south. This hill of Timaco and that 
of Pico, Cogonal, more to the south, serve as excellent landmarks to 
the mouth of the river. 

Sarangani. — This is the name given to two islands and a little isle 
situated 6 miles south of the point of Mindanao. The natives call 
the larger one Balut-marila and the smaller one Balut-parida. Balut- 
marila, which is quite high and covered with vegetation, is inhabited 
by a considerable number of Sanguiles and Bilanes. In the center of 
the island is a volcano, from which smoke occasionally rises. 

In the interior of the bay of Davao is found the island of Tres 
Arbores, near the mouth of the river Hijo; the islands of Pandasan 
and Copiat; the Cruz Islands, near the coast of Samar; the island of 
Sigaboy and the island of Samar, the largest and most important, 
which has a perimeter of 42 miles. The land is quite fertile and pro- 

p c— VOL 3—01 — 14 ; ' ^ ' ? ;» 

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duces excellent chocolate, which, if cultivated on a lar^e scale, would 
prove a source of great wealth. The principal towns are situated on 
the western coast. 

Malipano is a picturesque little island to the east of Samar. 

Taliout^ or Guisoc^ is situated to the southwest of Samar. It is low 
and covered with forests, having some marshy spots, and is uninhab- 
ited, as no fresh water is to be found. According to the Samales, 
excellent tobacco can be raised there. 

On the east coast: 

This is a little island situated at the entrance of the bay of this name, 
in front of the town of Mati. 

To the south-southwest of Point Batiano is a little semicircular island 
with this Qxpressive name. From Point Cauit there is no island of 
importance. Davis lies in front of the bay of Bislig. Arangasa lies 
just beyond the bay of Lianga, and Macangoni and other little islands 
to the northeast of Tandag. 

Beyond Point Cauit, northeast of the peninsula of Surigao, are sev- 
eral larger and more important islands. 

On the north coast: 


This island lies 10 miles south, 38 degrees east of the southern point 
of Samar. It is a little island about a mile long, rather elevated, and 
quite bold in outline. 

This island is situated 9 miles west of the southern point of Samar, 
and is also called Tomonjol. It is irregular in outline and of but slight 

This island is situated north of the northern point of Mindanao, 
from which it is separated by a narrow channel. It is long and nar- 
row, and extends 36i miles from north to south from Point Desola- 
cion to the point south of Gabo, and is 12i miles in greatest breadth. 
It is traversed by a little mountain chain, and is well settled along 
the coasts. Above the point south of Dinagat, and very close to the 
western part, there are two islands, from 5 to 6i miles long, separated 
from each other and from the main island by two narrow channels. 
The inhabitants of Dinagat are occupied in the collection of gold and 
also in the collection of natural products, such as wax, honey, etc. 

This narrow island, having an altitude of 314 meters, is situated 5 
miles southwest of the point near the town of Dinagat. 

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This island is situated 3^ miles east of the northern extremity of 
Gipdo, and 5i miles north of Point Bilaa. 


In front of the bay which opens southwest of the island of Dinagat 
lies the Onip Group, composed of Sibanag, Unip, Tabucaya, and vari- 
ous smaller islands. 

The northern coast of this island is about 9i miles west of Point 

This island is southeast of Dinagat, to which it seems to be united by 
a submerged bank. It lies 16 miles north of the nearest coast of Min- 
danao, is irregular in outline, and 18 miles long from north to south. 
A little mountain chain runs from north to south. There are various 
small towns and little ports. About Siargao are various small islands 
and isles, all of little importance, with the exception of the Bucas 
Group. This is situated south-southwest of Siargao, and is composed 
of three small islands lying close together. To the west-northwest of 
this group is Guinatuan and the island of Cabusuan to the south of it. 

CAMIGUIN (plate LXlIl) . 

This island lies 5i miles north of Point Bagacay, and has a length of 
12 miles from north to south, and a breadth of 8 miles from east to 
west, being very mountainous and rugged. It is formed of a central 
mountain which reaches an altitude of 1,627 meters above sea level. 
The island produces rice, good tobacco, wax, and chocolate in abun- 
dance. It has a population of 24,122, most of them engaged in agricul- 
ture or fishing. Along the rest of the coast from Point Bagacay to 
Point Gorda only shoals and little islands are found. Two, however, 
are worth mentioning: Sipaca, a little island formed by a conical 
mountain, and the island of Lapinag, which forms channels with the 
coast and which is very picturesque. (See Plate LXIV.) 

This island is situated almost east of the southern point of Zambo- 
anga, and extends from east-northeast to west-southwest a distance of 
2i miles. It is low, covered with vegetation, and bordered on the 
southwest, south, and east by coral reefs. 

This island lies a short distance northeast of the preceding, and 
extends for 7 miles from northwest to southeast, being widest and 
highest at the northern end. 

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These islands are 3i and 2f miles, respectively, from the northeast- 
ern extremity of Sacol. They are quite small, the former being- quite 


This island is situated south of Sacol and north of the eastern entraiu^e 
of the strait of Basilan. 


That which is called the Basilan Group is composed of various 
islands, the most of them scattered over the region south and west of 
Isabela. The principal ones are as follows : 

This is the most northern island of the group; lies 18 miles north- 
west of Basilan, and is small, low, and covered with trees. 


This is the most southern of the group and lies south of the most 
southern point of Basilan. 


^ This is the largest of the islands adjacent to Basilan, and has a con- 
siderable number of Moro inhabitants, as do all the important islands 
of this group. West of Pilas there are various small islands, which 
form with it good anchorages. 


These islands are 8 miles south-southwest of Teinga, and have an 
elevation of 178 and 256 meters, respectively. The islands are quite 
notable, especially the mountain on the southern island. This appears 
like a cupola, from which the flat lands extend. 

This island rises in front of the western coast of Basilan, northwest 
of Tatcantana. 


This island is situated north of Tatcantana, and is very similar to it. 


This island is very near the north coast of Basilan, with which it 
forms an excellent anchorage suitable for large ships. It lies in front 
of the town of Isabela, and forms with the coast of Basilan the famous 
strait of Isabela. 

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[Maps Nos. 2G and 28 of the Atlas of the Philippines.] 


Authors have not been entirely in accord in regard to the boundaries 
and area of the Archipelago of Jolo. The Derrotero del Archipielago 
Filipino (Nautical Guide to the Philippines) considers as belonging to 
it the long chain of islands which extends for 180 miles and divides it 
into three principal groups — Basilan on the east, Jolo in the center, 
and Tawi Tawi on the west. The official guide, following Antonio 
Garin, limits the group to the islands lying between Balanan, in longi- 
tude 121^ 52' east of Greenwich, and Tumindo, on the west, lying 
119^ 15' east of Greenwich. This excludes the island of Basilan and 
its adjacent islands, including in the archipelago those islands lying 
between the parallels of 4^^ iW and 6^ 25' north latitude. This seems 
to be the most acceptable boundary, although in reality Basilan and its 
adjacent islands form a separate province of the Jolo Archipelago. 
The seas bathing the coasts of the Jolo Archipelago are those of Jolo 
or Mindoro on the north and Celebes on the south. The islands con- 
stituting the Archipelago of Jolo may be divided into four groups. 


The Balanguingi Group is situated between the parallels of latitude 
5^ 59' and Q'' 17' north, and longitude 121° 29' and 121 ^ 51' east froni 
Greenwich. It is composed of eighteen islands, of which seven are of 
medium size and the rest only isles. The most northern are Balauan 
and Buartia, which are separated from each other by a very narrow 
channel. To the east are the two islands called Dipsilut, which has 
close to it the little isle of Mamud, and Tonguil. To the southwest 
are the islands of Mamanoc, Tarol, Tuncolan, Sipal, and the principal 
island Balanguingi, the famous pirate resort. Between this island and 
the eastern extremity of Jolo are the little islands of Bongao and 


The Jolo Group is situated between the parallels of latitude 5° 46' 
and 6^ 14' north, and longitude 120° 50' and 121° 17' east from Green- 
wich. The principal island is Jolo. North of the eastern extremity 
of Jolo is Capual, with an area of 20 square kilometers, and Bitinan. 
To the northeast lies the low level island of Tulayan, which forms with 
the coast of Jolo the port of this name. Farther to the west lie 
Gujanjan and various small isles. North of the anchorage of eJolo lie 


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the island of Tulian and the group composed of the islands of Pan- 
gasinan, Marongas, Cabmuan, Biibuan, Hegad, Mimo, Pantocunan, 
and Termabal. The islands of Salude, Termabal, Patian, Lumbian, 
and Pata, with an area of 58 square kilometers, lie to the south. 


The Tapul Group lies between the parallels of latitude 5^ 24' and 
5° 46' north, and longitude 120 ' liV and 120° 4' east from (Greenwich. 
It is composed of the islands of Tapul, with an area of 84 square kilo- 
meters and circumference of 28 kilometers; Lugus, a low island cov- 
ered with trees and having an area of 51 square kilometers; the Cobin- 
gan Islands; Siassi, the most important of the group, covered with 
forests and with an area of 82 square kilometers; Lapac, very similar 
to Lugus in size and shape; Tara, Lamenusa, Selim, Manubot, and 


The Tawi Tawi Group lies between the parallels of latitude 4° 47' 
and 5^^ 29' north, and longitude 119^43' andl280 33' east from Green- 
wich. It includes, besides the island of Tawi Tawi, about forty others, 
of which fourteen are of some size. Tawi Tawi is situated about 50 
kilometers southeast of the peninsula of ITsang, on the island of 
Borneo. It extends from east-northeast to west-southwest for a dis- 
tance of 55 kilometers, and is about 25 kilometers wide at the broadest 
part near the eastern end. The general appearance of the island is 
much varied, there appearing among masses of clear green a multitude 
of groves with trees close together or widely separated. 

The islands bordering it are but little inhabited, and in inaccessible 
corners in them the most incorrigible pirates have their hiding places. 
^ Among other islands may l)e mentioned Manicolat, Bubuan, Cinatusan, 
Cacataan, Sigboye, Tambagan, Basbas, Panjumojan, Tabulunga, Dalu- 
man, Tancan, Tandubato, Tarue, Simaluk, Luran, Banaran, Bilatan, 
Simonos, Manue, Manca, Laa, Sanga-Sanga, Buan, Sibutu, Tuul, 
Usada, Cunilan, Pangutarang, Panducan, Laparan, Bilanguan, Bam- 
banan, Mamanuk, and the small group of islands of Tataan, which 
extend for 8 miles from northeast to southwest almost parallel to and 
at a distance of li miles from the coast north of Tawi Tawi. 

Among the principal ports of the Archipelago of Jolo may be men- 
tioned Jolo, between points Dinangapit and Belan on the northwest, 
which has a depth of 18 to 20 fathoms, Luban, on the southeast; 
Punungan, on the southwest, south of Cabunant on the southern part 
of Lubbac; Itua, on the north of this island; the anchorage of Caron- 
dong, and the Bay of Patogo, between Sang and Point Tandican, on 
the southeast of the island. On the northwestern coast is the island 
of Kapual, with which it forms a narrow strait. 


According to the official guide of the Philippines for 1897 the popu- 
lation of this archipelago is 22,630, but considering how little is known 
of many of the islands, and of the population of innumerable little 
villages on them, this number is probably only approximate. Accord- 
ing to Ferreiro the number of men in the various groups of islands 

Hosted by 


Hosted by 


Hosted by 


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governed by Datos or Panlimanes, serviceable for war, is, in Balan- 
guingui, 335; Jolo, 14,415; Tapul, 1,300; Tawi Tawi and Pangutaran, 
1,815, making a total of 17,865. It would therefore seem reasonable 
to suppose that the population is not less than 200,000 in all the archi- 

lelago. According to the general registry of the diocese of Jaro, pub- 

ished in 1895, there are 1,424 Christians. 

Four races having different customs may be distinguished in the 
archipelago: First, the Quinbajanos, or inhabitants of the mountains, 
who are the indigenes; second the Mala}^ and Visayan slaves, whose 
descendents have intermarried with the other inhabitants; third, the 
the Samales, an inferior race, though not slaves; and fourth, the true 
Moros, who trace their origin from the Mohammedan invaders, and 
who dominate the other inhabitants. 


The languages of the inhabitants are Moro-Joloano and Moro- 
Samal, the latter containing many Visayan words. 


The points occupied by the Spaniards are Jolo and the military gar- 
risons of Siassi, Bongao (Tawi Tawi), and Tataan. 

Jolo, situated on the island of this name, was the ancient residence 
of the sultans. It has wide, straight, and well-shaded streets, being 
without doubt the cleanest town in the archipelago. The houses are 
all painted or whitewashed on the outside, not one having the nipa 
roof so common in the rest of the archipelago. It has a large hos- 
pital and a good barracks for infantry. There are beaches and gar- 
dens, and a water supply to both private and public buildings. Its 
newly constructed market is of fair size and well arranged for the 
large number of neighboring Moros, who come here with fruits and 
other merchandise. A brick wall surrounds the town, thus making 
it a fortiiied place. The defenses, Alfonso XII blockhouse and 
Puerta Espagna, and the forts of Torre de la Reina and Princesa de 
Asturias on the neighboring hill, serve for offensive and defensive 
purposes. On account of being a free port it is in direct communi- 
cation with Singapore by means of two English steamers, each one 
of which makes a round trip every twenty-eight days, and it is like- 
wise in communication with Manila by means of the bimonthly mail 
steamers. A stone pier, extending for a considerable distance out, 
facilitates loading and unloading. On this pier is a light-house of the 
sixth class, with a fixed red light. Pertaining to Jolo are the three 
garrisons already mentioned, which are constituted in the form of 
politico-military comandancias. Jolo belongs to the bishopric of Jaro. 
There is a Liissionary priest there who has charge of the villages of 
Siassi, Tataan, and Bongao. 


The flora of this archipelago is similar to that of Mindanao. There 
is an abundance of teak, camuning, molava, narra, mangachapuy, ipil, 
cedro, palohierro, and other equally prized woods^ as well as cocoanut 
groves, the cabonegro, burl and nipa palms. Gum mastic, all kinds of 

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resins, and other analogous products are found. Rice, corn, hemp, 
saffron, indigo, sesamo, cotton, the magosteen, the jack fruit, etc., are 
all produced. Coffee and chocolate grow well on the shaded hillsides 
and hemp grows without cultivation on the lowlands. Horses, cattle' 
buffaloes, and goats are abundant. Many species of birds are found. 
Ihe Jolo people manufacture chisels (patu), long knives with sharp 
edges and points (lagut), ordinary hatchets (capa), and gauges (licut). 
Ihe pearl fisheries are very important in this archipelago, althougli 
ot greater importance on account of their intrinsic value, greater abun- 
dance, and better market are the conch shells (mother-of-pearl), which 
sell well m the markets of Singapore and Manila. 



The island formerly called Palawan, and bv the Spaniards called 
Paragua, is situated between the parallels of latitude S'' 22' and 11 ^ 25' 
J'.^S^. Vl'l 1^^'^^t^^^ 117^ 8' and 119^ 40' east from Greenwich. 
(Umcial Catalogue of the Exposition of Madrid.) 

On the northeast is the island of Mindoro. On the east are the 
islands ot Panay, Negros, and Mindanao. On the southeast is the 
Jolo archipelago, and on the south the island of Borneo. The China 
Sea separates it on the west from southern Indo-China. It is con- 
sidered the third largest of all the islands of the Philippine Archipelago. 
In shape it js very long and relatively narrow, having the greatest 
length from northeast to southwest, 445 kilometers, and an average 
width of 22 kilometers. Its total area, including the adjacent islands 
IS 14,534 square kilometers. ' 


^ According to the official census of 1887 the population of Paraima, 
in the towns ot Danlig, IXunaran, Puerto Princesa, Tatindan, luid 
laytay, is 5,985. According to Seiior Canga Arguelles, who was form- 
erly governor of this province, the Christian inhabitants occupying 
the northern part of the island do not exceed 10,000, and the Moham- 
medans dwelhng on both coasts of the southern part, number less than 
b,O00. Other authors give a total population of from 28,000 to 30,000. 
.ihe native population can be divided into four well-defined groups- 
i^irst, the lagbanuas, the most numerous of all, who are distinguished 
on account of their sociable and peaceful natures. They live in ham- 
lets along the banks of the rivers, and somewhat resemble the Moham- 
medan Malays of Mindanao, though not professing the same religious 
beliets. They inhabit the part of the island between Inagahuan and 
Dalig on the eastern coast and that between Uluagan and Apusahuan 
on the western coast. They are about 6,000 in number. Second, the 
JNegritos, who can be distinguished on account of their darker com- 
plexion, curly hair, and better physical development. They inhabit 
the mountainous regions lying between Babuyan and Bubacan on the 
eastern coast, and number about 1,500 individuals. Third the Man- 
guianes, a little-known people, who inhabit the territory of the Moros 
and prevent them from trading with the outside world. Physically 


Hosted by VrrOOQiC 


they are more like the Tagbanuas, but in matters of custom more like 
the Moros. They number about 4,000 individuals. Fourth, the Tan- 
dulanos, who inhabit the eastern coast between the bays of Malampaya 
and Caruray. They are believed to number about 1,500. 


Spanish is spoken only by the few Spaniards living in the island. 
Moro-Joloano is most generally used in Paragua, though each one of 
the four groups cited has its own special language. 


There are three towns in this comandancia: Puerto Princesa, Taytay, 
and Dumaran. Puerto Princesa, with a population of 3,181, is the 
capital. Its port, called in the English nautical chart Port Royalist, 
is a magnificent natural port, well sheltered and easy of entrance. 
The deep water is about 1} miles across. On the eastern coast, very 
near to the shore, there is a depth of from 10 to 12 meters. A light- 
house of the sixth class, with a fixed white light, is situated at the 
entrance of the bay. There is a little dockyard for the use of small 
gunboats. There is a penal colony at Puerto Princesa composed of 
convicts of both sexes and of deported individuals. On account of the 
forced labor of this penal colony it has been possible to beautify the 
town and better its sanitary conditions by cutting off the mangrove 
swamps. Rain water is used, as the town lacks a good water supply. 
During the rainy season some people use well water, in spite of the 
fact that it is very poor, while others bring water from the Iguahit 
River just across the bay. There are 24 villages and hamlets belong- 
ing to the towns of Puerto Princesa, Taytay, and Dumaran. 

This island pertains to the diocese of Jaro. The following are clas- 
sified as active missions: Puerto Princesa, with 3,121 parishoners; 
Tinitian, with 1,197; Dumaran, with 2,128; Taytay, with 1,733; 
Inignan, with 279, and Baenit, with 1,257. 


On account of its geographical position, Paragua is one of the most 
important islands of the Philippine Archipelago. It is not less impor- 
tant from a commercial view point, as it forms with the island of 
Balabac the strait of the same name, through which at certain times of 
the year sailing ships are compelled to pass. The island has the 
following ports: Puerto Princesa and Bininsulian, on the eastern coast; 
Ulugan, on the bay of the same name; and the Bay of Malinpaya, 
which, according to some authorities, has no rival in the world. 

A great mountain chain extending from northeast to southwest 
divides the island of Paragua into two halves. Its terminal peaks are 
Mount Montalingahan, with an elevation of 2,080 meters, on the south, 
and Mount Victoria, with an elevation of 1,372 meters, on the north. 
Among the mountain ranges which arise from the principal one are 
the Malanit Range, which, beginning near Tagbayu^, extends to the 
south; the Pulote Range, which, arising about the middle of the pre- 
vious range, extends perpendicularly to it for a distance of 20 miles to 
the south, after which it inclines to the west, and the Bulanjao Range, 

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which arises near Coral Bay and extends to the northeast a distance of 
more than 40 kilometers. On account of the peculiar shape of the 
island the rivers are all short, but are of much importance, as they 
furnish ways of communication between the two coasts. The Iguahit 
River, which probably has its source on the slopes of the Aldea Range, 
passes through the village of the same name and empties into the bay. 
The Cururay, having its source on the eastern side of the central 
mountains, empties into the China Sea near the Bay of Magdanan. 
The Campan River empties into the bay of the same name, and the 
Pirata River into the Bay of San Antonio. 


All of the mountain sides are covered with abundant vegetation, 
forming extensive forests, which contain large numbers of excellent 
building woods. Among these may be mentioned narra, calandas (a 
species of cedar), ipil (which attains great size), camagon, molave, 
banaba, alopai, amuguis, arsonan, apiay (unknown in Luzon), cisbi, 
mansalanguin, and many others. The Fragosa-peregrina, known to 
the natives under the name of uring, from which gum mastic is 
obtained, was, until a short time ago, unknown in the Philippines. 
The forest wealth of this island is very great,, and many species of 
trees not found in the rest of the archipelago grow here. ^ There are 
many mangrove swamps, of which the natives utilize the three princi- 
pal species — the bacanan, the tangal, and the langhoray. The produc- 
tion of rattan on this island is truly astonishing, an uninterrupted 
trade in this article being carried on between Puerto Princesa and 
Manila. The nipa palm, so useful and necessary to the natives, com- 
pletely covers the banks of the rivers and estuaries. The cocoanut 
palm grows well. An abundance of gum mastic, copal, and other 
resins exist. Excellent tobacco, rice, and all kinds of fruits and 
vegetables can be grown. The island of Paragua is second to none 
in the wealth of its vegetable kingdom. The fine pasture lands of 
the island sustain large numbers of cattle, buffaloes, goats, and hogs. 
The famous nests made by the little swift (called salangana) are found 
in abundance in the deep caves around the coast. These nests are so 
highly prized by the Chinese that they have at times paid as much as 
14,000 a picul for them; that is to say, twice their weight in silver. 

As this island has not been well explored, its mineral wealth is not 
known. Lead and antimony are found in the form of pyrites, and 
there are indications of iron and copper. The hard, even slate shows 
some indications of iron and sulphur. Granite is found in abundance, 
but is soft and porous. Coral rock, which the natives utilize in the 
manufacture of lime, is found in abundance. 


This island, situated south of Paragua, is bounded on the east by the 
Jolo Sea and on the west by the China Sea. On the south there is a 
strait having the same name as this island, which separates it from the 
islands of Banguey and Balanbagan, bordermg Borneo. It is 36 miles 
in length, 8 or 10 in breadth, and has an area of 370 square kilometers. 

Hosted by 




According to the official census of 1887 there are 2,110 inhabitants, 
of whom but 408 are Christians. According to the general registry 
of the Recoleto Friars for 1897 the natives are Moros, living in the 
villages of Dalanan, Pasig, Catagupan, Sabos, Agutayan, Tucanigalo, 
Pancan, Cabulaigan, Carandurin, and Singalo. 

Language. — ^The ordinary language in this island is Moro-Joloano. 


Balabac is the only town. It has an excellent port during the south- 
west monsoon. There is one other port, at Calandaran. At the entrance 
of the port of Balabac there is a light-hous.e of the sixth class, show- 
ing a fixed white light. At Point Melville, at the southern extremity 
of the island, there is a light-house of the first class. The only parish 
in the island is that of Balabac. 


As in the neighboring island of Palawan, there are many excellent 
tropical woods, gums, resins, dyestutfs, fibers, and medicinal plants, 
wax, honey, etc. 

The peculiar little mouse deer called pelandoc, which is unknown in 
the rest of the archipelago, is found here. 

There is an abundant deposit of coal of excellent quality 11.14 kilo- 
meters from the town. It is said that in the territory occupied by 
the Moros there is a deposit of native mercury. 


This, the largest island of the Balanguingui group, which formerly 
was a part of the Jolo Archipelago, was a short time ago attached to 
the comandancia of Balabac. It is situated 45 leagues to the north- 
west of Tawi Tawi, has a perimeter of 41 kilometers and an area of 
68 square kilometers. It has two peculiar lakes — one of fresh water 
and the other of salt water. 



This low-lying island, covered with scrub, is situated 6 miles north 
of Cape Buliluyan, about a mile from the shore. 


These islands are situated southwest of the Bay of Marasi and in 
the same parallel as Puerta Princesa. They are surrounded by little 
islands, reefs, and rocks. 


This island is situated 3 miles west and one-fourth of a mile south- 
west of Point Hununock, and li miles from the coast of Paragua. It 
is of medium height and covered with forests. 

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The coast, 2i miles from Point Hununock, forms a little bay, in 
which are the islands of Manglar and Hierba. They are low and of 
little area. The most northern of these has to the northeast of it a 
little island called Macoda, which terminates in a little conical cape. 
Near this cape rises the little island of Sepulero. 


These names are given to several scattered islands lying in front of 
the bay, just north of Mount Hersechel. 


This island, also called Camungyan, lies li miles north -northeast of 
the cape, on the northwestern extremity of Paragua. 

An island west of the Bay of Ulugan. 


A little island situated at the entrance of the Bay of Cruz de Mayo. 

An island situated 3i miles northeast of Caanipa. It is very irregu- 
lar in outline, 5 miles long from east to west and 3i miles wide from 
north-northeast to south-southwest. 

There are innumerable small islands found between the Bay of Cruz 
de Mayo and the northern point of Paragua. 

This island is situated at the entrance of the port of Malambaya. 


An island in front of the Bay of Bolalo. 


Situated just inside of the Strait of Bloqueo. 


This island has the most vegetation on it of any of the Calizas Esca- 
brosas group. 


This island is situated east of Tapintan. 


This island lies just northeast of Masmloc. 

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i— I 


llli lilllllill 

■ilill PI 

iitiill 11 












P C — YOL 3 — 01 15 

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This island forms a group with several others of little importance 
just at the entrance of the Bay of Bacnit. 

This island is situated on the eastern coast ofthe Bay of Bacnit. 


On the western coast of the same bay. 


Situated northwest of the peninsula of Bacnit. 


These islands are north of Cadlao. 


This island is situated east of the channel between Canayan and 

Cadlao. , . , i <. r i r^- 

Near the northern end of Paragua are the islands of Jemelos, JJia- 

pila, Calitan, and Cabidi. 



A little island near the northern point of Bugsuc. 


A little island east of Bowen. 


An island northwest of Urzula. 


Called thus on account of the multitude of islands which border :t 
on the east. 


An island situated east-northeast of Point Divaque. 


This island, very similar to Rasa and of the same size, lies south- 
east of the bay of A Idea. 


A little island in front of the larger bay north of Puerta Princesa. 

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These islands, together with a large number of small islands in rocks, 
lie in front of Honda Bay, north of the bay of Puerta Princesa. 


A group of islands south of Point Flecha is called Verdes. 


This is the largest of all the islands adjacent to Paragua. It is 42 
miles in circumference, and its mountains rise to a height of 182 
meters above sea level. It is quite irregular in form, well peopled, 
and has a good deal of arable land; goats and hogs are abundant, and 
all kinds of Philippine fruits are produced. 

From Dumaran to the northern point of Paragua there is a very 
large number of islands and of isles. Among these may be mentioned 
Mayabacon, Pales, Dala, Ganem, Carandaga, Icadambamcan, or Tay- 
tay, famous for its bay; Silongas, Malabuctin, Bagamdagan, Busuml- 
bulan, Bunul, and many others. 


In the strait north of Balabac are the following islands: Secam, at 
the western entrance of the strait; Bancalan, 5 miles northeast of 
Secam; Matangul, 3 miles southeast of Bancalan; Pandanan, 8i miles 
northeast of Bancalan. It is 6i miles in length from northeast to 
southwest and 2i miles wide. 

This, the largest of all the islands about Balabac, is situated east of 
the island of Pandanan. 

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Situated at the east of the Asiatic Continent there arises from the 
sea a large group of islands known by the name of the Philippine 
Archipelago, a name which was given to them by Ruiz Lopez de VU- 
lalobos, who was one of the first discoverers and who gave the name 
in memory of the Prince of Asturias, afterwards King Philip of bpam. 

These islands form one of the richest groups of islands i^ the i^ar 
East, and are situated between the meridians 116^ t^ ^"^ 126 34 ot 
longitude east of Greenwich and between the parallels of north lati- 
tude 4^ 40' and 21^ e^', counting from the extreme southern point ot 
the small island of Sarangani (to the south of Mindanao) to the most 
northerly point of the island Batanes. The distance from this south- 
ern point to the northern is 320 leagues, whereas that from east to 
west is 180. This archipelago is bounded on the north and west by 
the China Sea, on the south by the Sea of Celebes, and on the east 
by the Pacific Ocean. (See maps Nos. 1 and 2 of the Atlas ot the 

Philippines.) , „ i ^ ^x x- 

Omitting those islands of small area, we shall devote our attention 

principally to the islands of Luzon, Mindoro, Marinduque, Polillo, 

Tablas, Romblon, Burias, Masbate, Ticao, Catanduanes, Batanes, 

Paragua, Panay, Negros, Cebu, Samar, Leyte, Bohol, and Mindanao. 
In another paper— that on chorography -the geographical conditions 

of these several islands are treated. , . i -x x- 

The following is a table setting forth the geographical situation, 

together with the superficial area in kilometers of each of the islands, 

given in the order of their size: 

Names of islands. 






Mindoro (2).. 












Extreme lati- 
tudes north. 

Extreme longi- 
tudes east of 

12. 5 to 18. 7 

















12, 246 

10, 167 












Maps in 
Atlas of the 



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Add to the superficial area, as given in the preceding table, the area 
of the many small islands of the archipelago, there results a total area 
of some 290,437 square kilometers, amounting to about two-thirds of 
the extent of area of the peninsula of Spain. The total number of 
the islands exceeds 1,400. 

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Plate I. 

/^/ r^'/i^ r/iAl ( BATA NGAS. L UZOfif) 


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The mountain system of Luzon, the most important island of the 
whole Philippine archipelago, is composed principally of three large 
ranges, whose springs form the sources of four full rivers, which, 
flowing through the island in various directions, irrigate it so richly 
and so fertilize it with their abundant waters that there is scarcely a 
province which does not produce in abundance the fruits natural to it. 
The nucleus of this mountain system is called Caraballo 8ur, whose 
highest peak (1,400 meters) is situated at latitude 16^ 9' north, longi- 
tude 12r^ 4:' east from Greenwich. 

C(M'iil)aU(>s Occident ales. ---Thid first of these ridges, called Caraballos 
Occidentales, runs approximately north and is divided into two parts, 
that of the central range, which runs three-fourths of its length before 
it separates between the provinces of Abra, Ilocos Norte, and Caga- 
yan, and that of the north range, which runs from the division men- 
tioned to the most northern part of Luzon, called Point Pata. Its 
total length is about 50 leagues. It separates the provinces of Pan- 
gasinan. Union, Abra, and the district of Benguet from those of Nueva 
Viscaya, Isabela, and Cagayan. Departing from Cabalisian, near 
Caraballos Sur toward the north, the district of Benguet, in which 
rise the ridges of Pinos and Bayabas, is left to the west of the prin- 
cipal range. 

In one range of hills of little importance there rise the rivers Abra 
and Agno Grande, which, taking opposite directions, flow, the former 
toward the north, the latter toward the south. 

The mountains Biumaca, Tapan, Cabuman, Tonglon (2,261 meters), 
Lugsen, and the peak of Bayabas (1,520 meters) are the most important 
of the heights between Union and Benguet. To the north of Cara- 
ballos Sur and at a distance equal to one-half that from this mountain 
to the Gulf of Casiguran is found Mount Data (2,500 meters), one of 
the most conspicuous of the whole region. Its branches run in the 
general direction of north and south. Among them rises the range 
of mountains Sabagan, which extends toward the district of Bontoc 
to the east, and also the chain called Polls, the highest region of all 
that country. From the ridge of Polis, giving place to the valley of 
Sapan, there arise in turn other branches, which, with a northeastern 
trend, extend to Bontoc and Cagayan, and unite with the second prin- 
cipal range. In this range are the sources of several tributaries to 


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the river of the same name. At the western boundary of the district 
of Lepanto, and forming the division between it and the province of 
llocos Sur, there extend the ranges of Tila and Malaya, which run 
southeast, entering the district of Benguet, where they join a spur of 
the Data. The boundary between the provinces of Abra and llocos 
Sur consists of a range which runs parallel to the principal one from 
south to north, thus holding the province of Abra between two large 
ranges. On account of the roughness and wildness of these two ranges 
numerous tribes of Igorrotes find safe shelter in them. From the 
Caraballos Norte, which forms the extreme northern point of the great 
range, there starts toward the west a branch called the Caraballo Chico. 
From these last extend two ranges of mountains, which, running 
parallel toward the south, enter the province of llocos Sur, and give 
to it a varied scenery. 

Sierra. Madre. — The important range called Sierra Madre begins at 
the Caraballos de Baler, situated southeast from the Caraballos Sur. 
It extends in the general direction of northeast, and altogether forms 
a continuous chain of mountains which extend from the Caraballos 
de Baler to the cape Engano, in the northern point of the island, 
crossing the district of Principe and the provinces of Isabela and 
Cagayan. Its length is somewhat greater than that of the Caraballos 
Occidentales. The length of this range, the largest of the archipelago, 
is not known, nor has it been possible to determine the height of its 
principal mountains. One smaller branch runs to the bay of Palanan, 
the principal one continuing parallel to the coast and very near it. 

From the Caraballos Sur and from the countries between the Cara- 
ballos Occidentales and the Sierra Madre springs another branch 
called Mamparan, which, running toward the north, extends to the 
province of Nueva Viscaya. The branches of this mountain range 
extend to the right from the point of deviation from the two main 
ranges, while farther south several branches of the Caraballos de Baler 
extend into the province of Nueva Ecija. 

Range of the east and southeast. — The third important range, 
beginning at the Caraballos Sur, presents less height than the two 
others; also its direction is more irregular, and its length twice that 
of the Caraballos Occidentales. It extends from the Caraballos de 
Baler to the Strait of San Bernardino. Its trend from its point of 
separation to the boundary of the provinces of Laguna and Tayabas is 
north and south. 

From Banahao the range turns to the southeast, which direction it 
maintains invariably until near Guinayangan, in the province of Taya- 
bas, where it divides into two spurs, which extend, respectively, one 
more toward the south into the above-mentioned province to Point 
Bondog, where it ends, and the other toward the northeast, only to 
turn later again to the east in the end of Calagua, cross the province 
of Camarines Norte,^ turn again toward the southeast, enter the prov- 
inces of Camarines Sur and Albay, until it ends in the spurs of the 
volcano Bulusan facing the Strait of San Bernardino. 

Among the branches of this great range there merit special atten- 
tion, besides the division of Tayabas, which, separating from the Cara- 

^ Although for several years the provinces of Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur 
have constituted only one province, called Ambos (both) Camarines, still in describ- 
ing the mountain ranges we adhere, for greater clearness, to the division into two 

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hallos de Baler, takes the direction of northeast until it ends in the 
point Encento, on the south side of the bay of Baler, those which 
extend through the province of Bulacan and the district of Morong, 
and those of Colasi and Bacaray, in the province of Camarines Norte. 

The most vmportant mouMaims. — The most impoi'tant mountains of 
the system of the Caraballos, aside from the Caraballos Sur, are the 

In the range of the northwest, or Caraballos Occidentales, the peaks 
of Sagsig Cabalisian, Salacsa, Dalandem, Mingolit, and Saluan, between 
the provinces of Nueva Viscaya, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, and the dis- 
trict of Benguet; those of Data (2,500 meters), Tila (1,355 meters), 
Mitra (1,737 meters), and Tantaguan (1,914 meters), in the district of 
Lepanto; those of Caburtanga, Gabaon, Dilaso, Danao, Dayos, Narapi- 
jan, and the craggy Andang, in the province of Ilocos Norte; those 
of Posdey (1,430 meters), Mamagued, Mabulusa, Liputen, Abra, 
Colango, Bumuragan, Balatinan, Molinga, Pico, and Calos, within the 
limits of Abra; those of Balago (1,606 meters), Cabatingan, Diablo, 
Maguinalem, Tibangran, and Burnay (1,913 meters), within the prov- 
inces of Abra and Ilocos Su. ; and in the ridges of Ilocos Norte, from 
the extreme south to Point Pata on the northern coast, those of Agau- 
mala (1,410 meters). Pan de Azucar (762 meters), Bimungan (1,183 
meters), and that of Quebrada (927 meters), with the line of heights 
which form the Caraballos Norte. 

The elevation of the peaks of the Sierra Madre is estimated as fol- 
lows: The Dos Cuernos (1,204 meters), the Morses (1,283 meters), the 
volcano Cana (1,195 meters), and several others whose elevation, like 
that of others which we have mentioned, it has not yet been possible 
to determine. 

Following the range of the east and of thti southeast are the Cara- 
ballos de Baler and Subani, in the province of Nueva Ecija; Silas, 
Angat, Pahalang, Orion, and Tayabasan, in that of Bulacan; Simuten, 
Camunay, and Duyo, in the district of Morong; Malagion, Malang, 
Maquiling (1,133 meters), and San Cristobal, in Laguna, until we 
reach the Banahaa. And from the Banahaa to the district of San Ber- 
nardino those of Masalacay and Bondog, in the province of Tayabas; 
those of Colasi, Calungun, Bayabas, Sabro (1,552 meters), Baao, 
Puliamey, Paratucan, and Caramuan, in those of the two Camarines; 
and in that of Albay those of Buhi or Malinao, Masaraga (1,354 meters), 
Mayon or volcano of Albay (2,522 meters), Pocdol, Calangalan, and 
of the volcano Bulusan. 


Head of the system. — Taking as the point of origin the mountain 
Hal con (2,700 meters), situated in the northern part of the island at 
an equal distance from the eastern and western cor 's, the system is 
divided into three large ranges, which run, one in tiie direction from 
northwest to southeast and the other two from the north to the south. 

The northern range is nearly perpendicular to the other two. The 
latter ranges, on account of being parallel not only to the coast but 
also to each other, make room for a large central plane, which extends 
between them, running north and south. This interior portion of the 
island is very little known as yet, on account of the absolute lack of 
communication across the mountains between the fishing villages on 
the opposite coasts. 

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The noTthern range. — The northern range, which, as has already 
been stated, runs northwest and southeast, is probably the most impor- 
tant of the whole system. From Mount Halcon to the hill Calavite, 
situated at a very short distance from the point of the same name, it 
changes its direction many times and numerous spurs extend not only 
to the north toward the coast but also toward the interior of the island. 
There are many peaks. Among the highest are Calavite, Abra de 
Hog, and those of Bacoo. In the neighborhood of the town of Nanjan 
there is a large spur or chain of mountains, which at first follows the 
direction of the principal range, but later turns toward the south and 
joins the range of the eastern coast. 

77^6^ eastern range. — From the spur of Nanjan, above mentioned, 
extends another range, running to the west from a lake called also 
Nanjan. It turns to the southeast to the series of mountains which 
run between the towns of Nanjan and Pola. It changes its direction to 
the south and forms the hills of Bamtat, Bahaynatubig, and Natabang, 
between the towns of Pola and Socol; those of Tangot, Bongabon, and 
Batangan, betyreen Socol and Tiding; and those of Mabajo, Agun, and 
Taitican, between Mamalay and Bulalacao, and finally, in the southern 
part of the island, joins the western range. 

The^ imstern ra?^ge.— The Abra de Hog, near the Halcon, is the point 
at which rises the chain of mountains running parallel to the western 
coast. With numerous and important branches extending to the west, 
until they are lost in the sea, it encounters in its course the town of 
Sablayan, in whose vicinity it is interrupted, to reappear in the neigh- 
borhood of Trurum and continue in the same direction, from north to 
south, until it ends in the point Rumban, to the northeast of Point 
Bugsanga, one of those which forms the bay of Mangarin. 


The moimitain system of Negros. — The frame of the mountain system 
of the island of Negros is formed by a large range, which crosses the 
island from the northwest to the southwest, and by various spurs, 
separating from it and running in opposite directions, ending on both 
eastern and western coasts of the island. The situation of this range 
causes the general division by which the island is div'ded into eastern 
and western Negros, the former being the part on the east of the 
range toward Cebu, and the latter all that region on the west toward 
Panay. Of the branches of this central range there merit special 
attention those of eastern Negros, which extend toward the east and 
end, respectively, in the points of San Jose and Manjuyoc, and the one 
running toward the west, which ends in the point Sojoton. The peaks 
most notable on account of their height are Solitario, facing Silay; 
the volcano Canlaon, or Malaspina, whose height is more than 1,200 
meters, situated at about the middle point of the range; Tipasi, toward 
the south, and the ridge of Dumaguete, in the southeastern extremity 
of the island. 

The principal range of Panay. — It can be said that there is only one 
mountain range in the island of Panay. This range runs north and 
south from the little peninsula of Buranga, in the extreme northwest 
of the island, to the point Siaran in the southwest, and separates the 
district of Antique from those of Capiz and Iloilo. The highest 
point of the range is undoubtedly the mountain Madia-as, which 
reaches the altitude of 2,180 meters. It is situated east-southeast 

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from the town of Colasi, in latitude ll"^ 24' north and longitude 122° 
10' east from Greenwich. From the Madia-as to the point of Pucio, 
in the peninsula of Buruanga, this chain runs with many variations in 
direction and altitude. At first its direction is north until it reaches 
latitude 11'^ 45' north, after which it runs east and west until it ends 
in Point Pucio. During its course to the west it serves as the 
boundary between the provinces of Capiz and Antique. In the north 
this range becomes merely a large number of low alkali hills, and ends 
in the points Sabongcogon, Naisog, and Pucio. Like all hills of this 
formation, they are very irregular. 

From the mountain Madia-as the range runs toward the south, tak- 
ing the general direction south-southeast until it reaches the mountain 
Llorente, in latitude 10° 59' north and longitude 122° 19' east, from 
which point it takes the direction south-southwest to the mountain 
Nagsucubang, situated in the extreme southwest of the island, where 
it ends. It reappears as four spurs riuming to the points Sagdam, 
Ani-ui-y, Cadugdula, and Naisog. This part of the range also descends, 
but not so aljruptly as the northern part. In this whole chain of moun- 
tains it may be observed that the western sides are nmch more craggy 
than those of the east, especially so in that part in which are situated 
its highest peaks. Finally from the Madia-as to the mountain Baloy, 
in latitude 11° 9' north, it marks the boundary between the provinces 
of Capiz and Antique, and from the Baloy to Point Naisog it sepa- 
rates that of Antique from that of Iloilo. 

Character of its hranchcs.—N dLviova^ are the branches which run off 
from the range of Panay. There are two principal ones: One, start- 
ing from the mountain Madia-as, extends through Antique, in the 
direction southwest, to the town of Tibiao on the western coast. The 
other starts from Baloy and crosses the whole island in the direction, 
first from west to east, and later from southwest to northeast, to the 
mountains Lating and Alapasco, which are the last spurs of this branch, 
in the extreme northeast of the island. It serves along its entire length 
as the boundary of the provinces of Capiz and Iloilo. The others are, 
in general, of slight elevation and serve onl}^ to determine the source 
of the tributaries which go to form the three principal rivers of the 
island, Aclan, Jalauz, and Panay. 

In the north, between Batan and Capiz, there is also a group of sev- 
eral mountains in the form of a semicircle, opening toward the north 
and forming the shore of the Gulf of Sapian. Altogether they form 
a watershed for the springs of the rivers Aclan and Panay. 

The most notable peaks, — We have already indicated that the most 
notable peak of the principal range is the Madia-as (2,180 meters). 
Besides that mountain there deserve special mention among those sit- 
uated to the north of the Madia-as, Usigan (1,290 meters), Balabac 
(1,300 meters), Agotay (1,130 meters), and the mountains Toctocon 
(1,400 meters). Among those situated to the south there appear the 
Nangtud (2,050 meters), the Baloy (1,730 meters), the Tuno (1,110 
meters), the Igbanig (1,303 meters), the Llorente (1,340 meters), the 
Tiguran (1,470 meters), the Congcong (1,070 meters), and the Ticbayat 
(1,010 meters). 

In the branches of this range there rise the following mountains: 
Lacaon, Nansang, Nacuran, Lating and Alapasco.^ 

^See " Descripcion Fisica, Goiogica y Minera en Bosquejo de la Made Panay," by 
D. Enrique Abella y Casariego. 

P C— VOL 3—01 16 

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DiviHion of the system into ranges. — The iiioiintain system of Min- 
danao, on account of the ^reat changes which that island has experi- 
enced through the eruption of volcanoes and the destructive action of 
earthquakes, is not easily defined. The mountains Apo and Matutum 
constitute, among others, the nucleus from which rise two of its prin- 
cipal ranges. Apart from the rest of the system, which is not clearly 
defined, there can be distinguished four ranges called, on account 
of the position which they occupy with relation to the island, eastern, 
central-eastern, central-western, and western. Altogether they give 
rise to rich rivers, which, flowing through the island in all directions, 
fertilize it w^ith the tribute of their waters. 

Easterii range,— The first of the ranges indicated and the one best 
defined of all is that running from Lurigao, in the most northern part 
of the island, to the cape San Agustin, in its southern extremity. 
This range runs from its origin at no great distance from the coast in 
the direction south-southeast, until it meets the mountain Agtunganon. 
It takes later a trend to the south, always in a direction parallel to the 
coast, to the mountains of Manuligao. In these mountains it under- 
goes another change to the direction south-southeast and forms on one 
side the spurs of Mandadagsa, and oa the other those of Tagdalit, 
Campalili, and Tapas, containing the sources of the rivers Guinonoan 
and Buguan. It ends at the mountains of Magsubay, Tagopo, and 
Capungunan, where rises the river Agusan. It suddenly turns from 
here to the south and, forming the mountains of Mayo, Amiguitan, and 
Sigaboy, ends in the promontory of San Agustin, after having run, 
throughout its whole length, more than 80 leagues. 

Padre Pablo Pastello, from whom we have taken the preceding 
data about the eastern range, says in his explanatory note of the map 
of the mountains of Mindanao, published May 20, 1887, the following: 

The eastern range gives rise to the rivers of the eastern coast of the island, to those 
flowing to the right of Agusan, and the httle rivers of Qiiinquin, Matiao, and Lumhig, 
which deposit their waters in the eastern side of the Gulf of Darao. Their sources 
are found in the opposite sides of the mountains, which give rise to tlie same Agusan. 
There are, besides this range, hranches whose many spurs extend toward both 
sides, sending their waters to the streams that empty into the Pacific, and to those 
running into the Agusan from its right bank. 

The central eastern range, — The central eastern range runs from the 
point Dinata, facing the bay of San Butuan and the mountain of Gin- 
goog, on the west of the mouth of the river Agusan on the northern 
coast. With a direction almost entirely parallel to the eastern range, 
it runs to the south-southwest and separates the watershed on the left 
of the Agusan from that on the right of the Tagoloan, and turns to- 
ward the south until it meets Mount Apo, after having run two-thirds 
of its course, in about latitude 7^^ north, and at the height of Davao, not 
very distant from the lake Liguasan. At the Apo it divides into two 
branches, the principal one running to the southeast and ending in the 
southern extremity of the island, in point Sarangani; the other turns 
gradually to the west and ends in the western part of the bay, called 
also Sarangani. The general direction of this range is, as we have indi- 
cated, parallel to the eastern range, although it undergoes several 
depressions and elevations. Among the most important elevations is 
the volcano Apo, whose height, more than 3,300 meters, is the greatest 

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of the whole archipelago. It is also the watershed of the Pulangui 
or Rio Grande and of the Agusan, following for the greater part of its 
course very near the former. 

The two eastern ranges and central eastern are united in the form 
of an angle, which, separating from the mountains that give rise on 
one side to the Agusan and on the other to the Libaganon, has for its 
highest point the peaks of Oloagusan. The angle formed by these two 
ranges forms a perfectly marked system of waters. That which rises 
in the eastern chain runs into the river Hijo and the tributaries on the 
left of the Agusan and of the Salug, and that which proceeds from the 
central eastern to the tributaries on the right of the Salug on one side, 
and on the other to those on the left of the Agusan, especially to the 
Manat and to the Baobo. 

Finally, from the central eastern range there extends a very impor- 
tant branch, considered by some a distinct range. It runs from the 
Matutum, facing the Bay of Sarangani, and taking the direction gen- 
erally from east to west, afterwards turns from the southeast to the 
northwest, continues parallel to the southern coast of the island to 
Cotabato, forming part of the right water shed of the Pulangui and 
those of the rivers which empty directly into the sea between the bay 
Ulana and the Gulf of Sarangani. 

77^6' cerdral western range. — The third, which ought to be called a 
group rather than a range of mountains, is exceedingly difficult to 
describe. In the first place, its origin is not easily determined. Some 
suppose it to come from the volcano Apo, but that supposition, 
although it at first sight seems acceptable, is not correct. The great 
difficulty is that it encounters the Pulangui, or Rio Grande, which 
with its swift current opposes a serious obstacle to the continuance of 
the range. Let its origin be whatever it may, it is certainly not far from 
the Apo, and on the side opposite the Pulangui it becomes a range of 
not insignificent mountains, which, dividing and subdividing into very 
many branches, give rise to numerous tributaries that on the western 
slope go to enlarge with their waters the broad current of that great 

Three chains of this range of mountains rvm to the northwest. The 
nearest to the central eastern range is that which ends on the north 
side of the bay of Macajalar, in tbc point Lipaca. Its most notable 
mountains are the Balatocan, facing the Balingasac, Sobrac, Numanlog, 
and Quimanquil. The second, whose direction inclines more to the 
west than the former and which is not so high, ends in Cagayan de 
Misamis, its principal mountains being the Quitanglag and the Musuan. 
The last and most important of the former runs from the southwest to 
the northwest, with a still more open angle than the preceding ones of 
the central eastern range, passing on the north of Lake Lanao and 
ending to the northwest of the bay Macajalar, in point Salanang. 

The fourth range of the same series runs from the north of Lake 
Liguasan, not far from the three which we have just described in Piquit, 
and with direction west-northwest. It passes to the south of the Lake 
Lanao and ends in the bay of Panguil, with branches to the bay lUana. 

Western range, — The fourth range of Mindanao, better defined than 
those preceding, takes its origin in the spurs of the mountain Malin- 
dang in the comandancia p. m. of Dapitan. It runs, with two short 
ranges, to the northwest and northeast. From the mountain Malin- 
dang this range extends to the south, turns toward the west, and runs 

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parallel to the coast to the shore of the Gulf of SiiidaDgan to the 
mountain Sibuyan. There it returns to its first direction of north and 
south, runs to the central part of the peninsula, where it extends from 
the Gulf of Libuguey to the China Sea, ending in the place where was 
the ancient fort of the Caldera, near Ayala in Zamboanga. 

The higher mountains, — The mountains which reach* the greatest 
height in Mindanao are divided according to their ranges in the fol- 
lowing order: 

In the eastern range there are the Dinata, Atunganan, Bayombong, 
Bungadon, Lucatan, Tagdilit, Campalili, Tapao, Tagopo, Capungunan, 
and Magsuibay; in the central-eastern, besides Apo (3,300 meters), are 
those of Sinalayao, Lagsadon, Panambuyan, Bululanan, and Matutum; 
in the central-western, following the order of its four branches, are 
the Balatocan, the Sobrac, the Numanlog, and the Quimanquil; the 
Quitanglag, and the Musuan; those of Panisian, Col col, Calatungan, 
and, and those of Tiniptiban, Palanabahay, Pinangayonan, 
Sugut, Picos de Ganasi, Guran, Dagambal, Caromata, and Masibay; 
and m the western those of Silingan, Tres Reyes, and Malindang (2,609 

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MouisrTAiiy KAi^oEs OF tiie: skcokb akj> third order. 



• Next in importance to the Caraballos system, already described, 
is the Zam bales range, in the western part of the island of Luzon. 
Starting at Cape Bolinao, in latitude 16° 23' north and longitude 119° 
40' east from Greenwich, the range runs north and south close to 
and parallel with the western coast. It serves as the boundary between 
Zambales and Pangasinan, then as the boundary between Zambales 
and Tarlac, and finally divides Pampanga and Zambales. Then it 
enters the province of Bataan, running its entire length from north 
to south, and disappears in front of the island of Corregidor at the 
entrance of the Bay of Manila. It is divided into three principal 
ranges, that of Zambales proper in the north, that of Cabusilan in the 
central part, and that of Mariveles in the province of Bataan, in the 
south. Among other peaks of some elevation are Iba, Masiloc, Lanad, 
Sual, and Calvario, in the Zambales range; Agudo (1,038 meters), 
Alto (1,127 meters). Lingo (1,659 meters), Abu (1,662 meters), and 
Pinalobo (1,811 meters), in the Cabusilan range, and Binlana and 
Butilao (1,324 meters) in the Mariveles range. 


The range of this name, Tagaytay, traverses the province of Cavite 
along the boundary which separates Cavite and Batangas, first from 
northwest to southeast, and then from east to west. If it is considered 
as forming a single system with the Maquiling range, it is of equal 
importance with the Zambales range. Considered thus as a single 
range the directions taken are very capricious. Beginning at Point 
Restinga, the last of the Pico de Loro hills, which extend as far as 
the entrance to the Bay of Manila, this range runs from northwest to 
southeast, with various ramifications on both sides, as far as the south- 
ern boundary of the province of Cavite, where the Masalaysay moun- 
tains are situated. It then curves to the northeast until it meets the 
Sungay range, serving throughout this distance as the boundary 
between the provinces of Cavite and Batangas. Here the Laguna 
range begins and runs north and south until it unites with the Maquil- 
ing range, which, continuing in the same direction, north and south, 
between the provinces of Batangas, Laguna, and Tayabas, forms, 
with the Sosomcambing and Malarayat ranges, various chains in the 
southern part of the province of Batangas. The most important peaks 
between Cavite and Batangas are Masalaysay (842 meters) and Sungay 
(764 meters); between Batangas and Laguna, Maquiling (1,435 nifeters), 
Sosomcambing, and Malarayat; in the southern part of Batangas, 


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Toinbol, Loboo (1,052 meters), and others. Among these, although 
widely separated from them, is the Macalod peak (960 meters), situated 
in front of the Taal volcano on the western coast of Lake Bonbon. 


The Batanes and Babuyanes are two groups of small islands, situ- 
ated north of Luzon, which are separated from each other by the 
Balintang Channel. In the Batanes, the most northern islands, are 
the peaks of Batan and Itbayat. In the island of Bataan is Mount 
Irada, which rises to a height of 1,100 meters above sea level, and 
appears to be an extinct volcano. To the west of this is Mount 
Inaya. Itbayat, 14 miles north northwest of Bataan, has two peaks 
of medium height — Santa Rosa (206 meters), situated in the extreme 
northeast, and Riposet (243 meters), in the extreme southeast. The 
other mountains in these islands are of little importance. 

Camiguin, having an altitude of 838 meters, is the only peak in the 
Babuyanes group worthy of mention. 


The mountain system of this island consists of a principal range 
running from north to south along the eastern coast, from the most 
northern part. Point San Andres, to Dumali, in the extreme southern 
part. From Mount San Antonio, situated in the center of the range, 
there are A^arious spurs running east and west, one of which termi- 
nates at the Ba}^ of Sayao. The principal peaks are Marlanga, or 
Tablazo, Catala, Gasan, Picos, Tapian, and Pubun. 

This island has a central mountain chain running its entire length 
from northwest to southeast — from Point Cueva on the north to the 
most southern extremity. About the middle of this range r'ses the 
cloud-covered peak called Enganoso. 

The land of this island is much broken. The axis of its principal 
range takes the form of a semicircle, which, beginning at the extreme 
southwest, runs north and terminates in the southeast. The numerous 
and tortuous spurs thrown off from this range terminate near the 
shore, the only region in the island having level land suitable for culti- 
vation. The highest peaks of the main range are Bagasimbahan, 
Cavanan, and Bagalayag. 

This island is traversed from northwest to southeast throughout its 
length by a mountain chain, somewhat broken by gaps. 

From the central elevation of this island spurs radiate in all direc- 
tions* The most notable peaks are found in the central part and are 
called Malalod and Capote. 

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The mountain system of this island consists of three ranges starting 
from the center. These run respectively, one toward the north, as 
far as Point Yot; another toward the southeast, as far as Point Nagum- 
buayan, and the third toward the southeast, as far as Points Agoto and 


These islands are in general mountainous and rugged, this being 
especially true of Busuanga. The two principal peaks on Busuanga 
are Culion and Tundalara (65 meters). 


Although the orographic system of the island of Samar is some- 
what similar to that of Panay, or, at least, to that of Negros, so that 
its description might form a part of the preceding chapter, neverthe- 
less it seems advisable to treat it separately, as it is not yet well known. 
In general, it is known that the island is very rough, especially in the 
central part. A mountain chain traverses its length from northwest 
to southeast, although this is divided by the valley of the river Ulut, 
which traverses it from the Bay of Maqueda, on the west, to its mouth 
near Tubig, on the eastei'n coast. Apart from this chain there is in 
the northwest a group of mountains concentrically arranged and situ- 
ated near the Panros Mountains, which separate the western branches 
of the river Hibatan from those which empty to the north between 
Lavezares and Mondragon. The most notable peate of the central 
chain are, Curao, Capotoan, Palapa, toward the north in the vicinity of 
Catubig, and Matiganao, near the Ungajon, toward the south. Mount 
Nabubusog, near the town of Paranas, may be seen for a long distance, 
because of the whiteness of its rocks, the same being true of the Vasey 
Mountains, situated farther to the south. 

Leyte is also very rugged. In the center of the island there is a 
mountain chain running its entire length from northwest to southeast, 
which is at the same time the watershed. There is another chain of 
minor importance in the northeast, between the Strait of San Juanico 
and the valley of the Cabayungan and Palo rivers. This chain extends 
from Point Baluarte, in the extreme north, to the mouth of the river 
Palo in front of the bay of San Pedro and San Pablo, on the eastern 
coast. The highest mountains in these islands are: In the north, Culasi; 
in the west, Magsanga, near Palompon; Mandirin, Caprocan, Aslum, 
and Sibugay, almost in the center. The volcanic peak Caolangojan is 
in Burauen, to the east, while in the south is Sacripante. Southeast of 
Leyte, and but little separated from it, is the island of Panaon, in whose 
southern extremity is found Mount Malangcauan, which has an altitude 
of 706 meters above sea level. 

The mountain system of this island begins in the north, where two 
peaks of considerable altitude arise — Panamao and Mabuy. These, 

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with others of minor importance, form a chain throughout the length 
of the island, as far as point Pauican, in the extreme southeast. This 
chain forms the watershed of the island. 

The orography of this island is very simple. A mountain chain runs 
from northeast to southwest, somewhat nearer the eastern than the 
western coast, throughout the entire length of the island. This chain 
becomes wider or narrower, according to the configuration of the 
island. These mountains are of little altitude, and do not prevent 
communication between the two coasts. The principal peaks are Tesu- 
big, Mangilao, Uling, Balila, Nagtagug, Moaangid, Ungas, and Tanaoan 
(458 meters). 


The mountain chain traversing the length of this island is much more 
noticeable in the south than in the north, where the country is quite 
flat. The highest peaks are Alimario and Bunucan, in the vicinity of 
Tobigan; Mahanguin and Lunday, in the vicinity of Giiindalman; 
Carabahol and Caloyhuan, in the vicinity of Nagua, and Campusa and 
Canlobo, m the vicinity of Catigbian. The highest mountain, Copton 
having an elevation of e309 meters, is in the northeast. ' 


This island is very rugged in character. Northeast of the central 
mountain is Mount Cudtingan, which terminates in two peaks, Sandu- 
gan and Daquit. • 


The principal peaks lie along the eastern coast of the island. They 
are Zaljat, Pandan, and Acdan. 

Two ranges almost parallel to the coast and to each other traverse 
this island from northeast to southwest. In the northern part of the 
eastern chain is Mount Cabeza de Tablas, having an elevation of 738 
meters, and in the central part the peak called Palaopao. 


A single central mountain range traverses the island of Romblon 
from north to south, from Point Tongo to Point Apunan. From this 
range various spurs are thrown off to the right and left, the most 
important being that which terminates at Point Sablayan. The prin- 
cipal peaks are Romblon, Santiago, and Tagaytay. 


This island is quite mountainous. Among other peaks in the central 
part IS Sibuyan, having an altitude of 1,958 meters, which dominates 
the island. 

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From Point Desolacion, in the extreme north, to a point south of 
Gabo the island is traversed throughout its length b}^ a mountain 
range, which runs nearer to the eastern coast than to the western. 
Some of the peaks are of medium elevation. The highest, Mount 
Kedondo, lying in the northern part of the island, has an elevation of 
1,017 meters. Other mountain peaks are Cumbre (730 meters), Picudo 
(526 meters), Caballette (546 meters), and Tristan (632 meters). The 
eastern slope of this mountain forms Point Penascales. 

This island is traversed by a little range running from north to south. 


This island is very mountainous and rugged, having a central peak 
rising to a height of 1,627 meters above the level of the sea. 

In the island of Basilan there are several mountains more or less 
connected with each other which form a mountain system of little 
importance, Mount (luibanan or Lamutun ])eing the most important. 
It extends from Avest to east, l:)eginning near the capital town, Isabela, 
nearly to Mount Panocol)on. Mount Matangal, which is situated in 
the extreme pastern part of the island, serves as a landmark for ships 
running from Cotobato to Davao. I'oward the west are the peaks 
called Tres Picos, which serve as a landmark to ])oats leaving the port 
of Zamboanga. 


Among the islands which form the Jolo group the only one worthy 
of mention is the island from which the group takes its name. Three 
chains of mountains almost parallel to each other traverse the island 
in the general direction east-northeast to west-southwest. The most 
elevated of these chains is that which begins at Point Tuctuc, on the 
northern coast, and extends to Point Silangan, on the western extrem- 
ity of the island. Its highest peaks are Bahu (813 meters) and Tuma- 
tanguis (882 meters). The second chain of importance is the central 
range, which runs tirst parallel to the southwestern coast, then turns 
toward the east, and terminates in the western part of the island in a 
mountain called Tumahu, which has an elevation of 472 meters. Other 
peaks in this range are Tulipan (632 meters), Mabintan (492 meters), 
and Mahuja (337 meters). The peaks of the third range, which runs 
parallel to the southeastern coast, are of little importance. 


Tawi Tawi, the largest of the group of this name, has a mountain 
chain running from east-northeast to west-southwest throughout its 
length. Mount Santiago, rising in the southeast, has an elevation of 

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354 meters, and Mount Dromedario, rising in the center of the island, 
has an elevation of 568 meters. One of the spurs of this mountain 
terminates in Point Balimbin. 


This island is traversed by various mountain ranges of considerable 
elevation, which cross it in all directions, principally in the direction 
of its greatest length, which is from northeast to southwest. The 
highest peak is Mantalingahan, which has an elevation of 2,080 meters. 
Other peaks are Landargun (1,040 meters), Gantuang (1,783 meters), 
Victoria (1,726 meters), and Calibugon (544 meters). 

This island is quite mountainous, especially in the southern part. 
The highest peak is Balabac, which has an elevation of 575 meters. 
The range called Sierra Empinada is in the form of a semicircle, hav- 
ing its convexity toward the sea. 

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Judging from the geologic and orographic appearances seen in many 
regions in the Philippine Archipelago, volcanoes with their great 
dynamic force have exercised a marked influence. Thus it is easy to 
understand why, in addition to the numerous rocks of pure volcanic 
structure, there should appear so many mountains purely conical in 
form, which are found in almost all of the mountain ranges, and why 
seismic disturbances, more or less violent, are so frequent. But to 
what point does this influence extend? Geologically speaking, what 
regions are purely volcanic ? What belong to other formations ? What 
areas do they occupy ? The science of geology has not been able to solve 
all these problems with regard to the Philippines. For the present 
we know but some isolated facts, with which as a basis the two volcanic 
systems of Taal and of Mayon have been outlined. 


According to some authors, this system begins in the chain called 
Caraballos Occidentales, passing by lakes Mangabol, Canaran, and 
Candaba, all of which were probably of volcanic origin, crosses by 
Mount Arayat, the mountain in Pampanga, following along the Sierra 
de Mariveles, the island of Corregidor, and the mountain called Pico 
de Loro, until it reaches the nucleus of the system, which is the active 
volcano Taal, where it unites with Mount Banaho and other peaks of 
volcanic origin. On leaving Taal and the adjacent peaks, Tombol and 
^ alarayat, the volcanic formation disappears beneath the waters of 
the Mindoro Sea, to appear again in the island of Negros, in the 
center of which rises Canlaon, or Malaspina. It then continues in 
Camiguin and terminates in Mindanao, at the end of the lUana chain, 
among whose western peaks is found the volcano of Macaturin. 


The second volcanic system is that of Mayon, which is of much 
greater importance than the preceding, as containing the most impor- 
tant volcano, that of Mayon, or Albay, from which it takes its name. 
This system runs in a direction approximately parallel to that of the 
preceding. It contains, besides Mayon, all of the extinct volcanoes 
in the provinces of Ambos, Camarines, and Albay. It disappears 
beneath the sea between the islands of Masbate and Samar, manifests 
itself by large deposits of sulphur in Leyte, and, continuing on to 


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Mindanao, communicates by means of Mount Apo and Matutum with 
the volcano of Sanguir, and through this with the remaining volcanoes 
in the southern islands. 


The theory which introduces these two systems of volcanoes in the 
Philippines is not, according to certain authors, sufficiently well 
founded. They maintain that the Mayon system does not hold the 
parallelism which is claimed for it, but that on the contrary the one 
begins where the other leaves off, and that there is no difference except 
that the Taal system begins in the northwest, and runs presently to 
the east, where it encounters the Mayon system, thus forming united 
with each other a single system, which wjth various inflexions traverses 
the different lands which form the Philippine Archipelago. 


There are 23 volcanoes in the Philippine Archipelago, 11 of these 
bemg more or less active. They are as follows: In the island of Luzon, 
Mayon, Taal, Bacon, and Bulusam; in the Babuyanes Islands, Babuyan' 
Camiguin, and Diclica; in the island of Negros, Canlaon or Malaspina; 
in the island of Camiguin, just off the north coast of Mindanao, 
Camigum; and in the island of Mindanao, Apo and Macturin. The 
others are considered as extinct and are as follows: Cana, Arayat^ 
Maquilmg, Banahao, and Irasog, in the island of Luzon; Acudining' 
in the island of Leyte; Magaso, in the island of Negros; Dinata' 
Calayo, Matutum, and Butulan, in the island of Mindanao, and Saran- 
ganin, which rises southwest of Davao. 



The volcano of Mayon or Albay is situated in the southeastern part 
of the island of Luzon, in the northern part of the province of Albay 
Its geographical location is latitude 13^ 15' 30'' north and longitude 
123^ 40' 18" east from Greenwich. It is the most notable of all the 
volcanoes of the archipelago, rising from the center of a great plain to 
a height of 2,734 meters above sea level. It is almost constantly 
crowned by a great cloud of vapor which is emitted with extraordinary 
ability and abundance from the crater. 


The second volcano in importance is Taal, situated in Lake Bonbon 
in the province of Batangas. It rises from an island 22 kilometers in 
circumference. Its geographical situation is between the parallels 13- 
52' 4" and 14° 7' 42" north latitude, and longitude 120^^ 53' and 121° 5' 
east from Greenwich. It is composed mainly of lava and volcanic 
rocks. The crater of this volcano is oval in form and measures in its 
greatest diameter from east to west 2,300 meters, and in its lesser diame- 
ter from north to south 1,900 meters. Its greatest height on the 
southwest IS 320 meters above the level of the lake. From this point 
It descends on both sides to a heig-ht of 150 meters on the northwest 

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and east-southeast, and again rises to a height of 234 meters on the north. 
The walls of the crater are quite steep and the floor extends in the form 
of an elliptical plane destitute of vegetation.^ 

This volcanic peak, called also Pocdol, rising 1,400 meters above sea 
level, is situated in the province of Albay, near the eastern coast 
between May on and Bulusan volcanoes. Trustworthy persons say that 
at times smoke rises in considerable quantities from Bacon. 


The volcano of Bulusan is situated at latitude 12^ 46' 40'' north and 
longitude 124^ 2' east from Greenwich. Seen from the east it appears 
to be a single peak, which is the crater of the volcano, and which 
appears to have an altitude equal to that of Mayon as seen from the 
northwest. Seen from the south-southwest it appears to have two 
peaks, and very much resembles Vesuvius. It is almost extinct, but 
at times emits an abundance of watery vapor and sulphurous fumes. 

The volcano of Babuyan is situated in the southern extremity of the 
island of the same name, in the Babuyanes group. On account of its 
appearance and its great eruption the island is completely deserted. 


The island of Camiguin is very mountainous and high. The south- 
ern part is formed by a mountain 736 meters in height, which takes 
the name of the island. This is the volcano of Camiguin, which, 
according to the testimony of persons who have passed that way, is 
constantly burning. 

The Didicas rocks are reefs lying east of Camiguin. To the north- 
west and forming a group with them is a little island 60 meters high 
and a mile in circumference, which has on its north coast the crater of 
an active volcano. The common report is that this crater was formed 
in 1856, and that the following year there was a violent eruption accom- 
panied with small earthquakes. 


Canlaon or Malaspina rises from the central mountain chain of the 
island of Negros about latitude 10^ 24' 35" north. It has a height of 
1,400 meters, throws out smoke continually, and, according to report, 
has been in eruption in recent times. 


" This volcano appeared the 30th of April, 1871, in a little island 
situated north of Mindanao, 340 meters southwest of the town of 

^A historical account of the eruptions of Taal and Mayon may be found in the 
treatise on seismic foci. 

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Catarman. It is situated on the western part of the island. Its 
appearance was accompanied by a violent eruption.^ 


This is the principal volcano existing in Mindanao. It is situated 
15 miles west of the shore of the Bay of Daval, and is a high moun- 
tam which slopes gradually from its highest point to the shore. On 
its summit are three peaks, the highest of which, that to the south- 
west, has an altitude of 3,300 meters above sea level and is the one con- 
taining the crater. Long before reaching this crater deafening and 
intermittent subterranean sounds are heard, which increase as the 
distance diminishes. They finally become so great that it seems as 
though the earth would disappear from under the feet, and that an 
eruption would soon begin. Two expeditions have succeeded in 
reaching the top of this famous volcano, that of D. Joaquin Raial 
governor of Daval, in 1880, and that of the two German naturalists' 
Alexander Schamdemberg and Otto Koch, in 1882. 


This is the highest point of the elevated Rangaya Mountains in the 
bugut Range, situated in the territory of Buhayen about 40 kilometers 
troin Pollok. Macaturin in former times gave evidence of prodigious 
activity, throwing out enormous masses of ingneous rock such as are 
now seen in the port of Pollok. 


Caua IS a volcanic promontory situated in the northern part of the 
bierra Madre Range near Cape Engano. It is 1,195 meters in height. 
It IS commonly considered to be extinct, but Dr. Semper claims to have 
seen from Aparri a cloud of smoke issuing from this crater. 


In the middle of the great plain of Pampanga, latitude 15^ 13' 28" 
north, the solitary peak of Arayat rises in the form of a majestic 
cone to a height of 1,069 meters. Because of its situation its form and 
the character of the rocks which constitute it, it is clearly of volcanic 


Northeast of the Taal volcano, in the Tagaytay Range, which divides 
the provinces of Batangasand Laguna, this peak rises to a height of 
1,135 meters. On its top is the crater of an old volcano, the inside of 
which presents very abrupt walls most marked toward the north, where 
they are almost vertical and have an elevation of 500 meters. 

\ Details concerning the eruption of Camiguin and of expeditions made to the 
volcano of Apo may be found m the treatise of seismic foci, chap. 4 
^ See map 27 of the Atlas of the Philippines. 

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To the east, and not far from Maquilin|^, is Banahao, which rises to 
a height of 2,230 meters above the level of the sea. Its crater, having 
a diameter of 5 kilometers, is entirely covered with vegetation. Its last 
eruption in 1750 buiied the town of Sariaya and part of the surround- 
ing country in ashes. 

Isarog, situated northeast of Mayon, in the province of South Cama- 
rines, is also an extinct volcano. It is in the form of a cone, rising 
1,966 meters above the level of the sea. 


Under this name are included some volcanic peaks in the Sierra 
Dagami and Danan ranges, near Burauen, in the island of Leyte. 

This is a volcanic mountain in the Sierra de Dumaguete range, near 
the town of Bacon, in the southern part of Negros. 

The volcanic peak Diuata forms part of the eastern range of Min- 
danao, and is situated between the towns of Lianga and Hinatuan. 

Calayo, called also Sugut, lies east-southeast of Macaturin, about 
80 kilometers from the sea. 

Matutum, situated north of the Bay of Sarangani, not far from the 
sea, is undoubtedly the crater of an ancient volcano. 

Butulan is another volcanic mountain, situated north of Point Pan- 
guian, in the southern part of the district of Daval. 


In the island of Balut Grande, the largest of the Sarangani group, 
6 miles from the southern point of Mindanao, is the volcano called 
Sarangani. It has an elevation of 930 meters. Seen from the north- 
west it appears to have two peaks. In the extreme southwest of the 
island there is another volcanic peak much smaller than this. 

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P c— VOL 8—01 17 153 

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In this small treatise on hydrography we do not pretend to present 
an accurate work regarding the maritime and terrestrial hydrography 
of the Philippine Archipelago, but only to give a general idea of the 
hydrographic conditions of these islands, since a complete and ade- 
quate work on this subject in the actual state of the hydrographic 
works that have been accomplished by sea and land in the archipelago 
would be little less than impossible without counting on much time 
and on large and costl}^ means. 

We have confined ourselves to collecting and setting in order some 
data, taken for the most part from the ''Derrotero del Archipielago 
Filipino" (collection of sea charts of the Philippine Archipelago), so 
far as concerns the maritime hydrography, and to picking out what 
refers to terrestrial hydrography from maps and geographical works 
that have been published up to date, adding, as the complement of 
terrestrial hydrography, a brief study of the minero-medicinal waters, 
based on the reports published by scientific commissions appointed to 
examine said waters. Therefore, this treatise comes to be a more 
circumstancial amplification of what is said in the ''Guia Oticial de 
Filipinas " (Official Guide of the Philippines) regarding the hydrogaphy 
of these islands. 

Manila, December S\ 1899, 


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The most important ^ulf of Luzon, and the onl}^ one properly such, 
is that of Lingayen, situated on the western coast. The entrance 
opens toward the north-northwest, and is comprised between the 
island Santiago, on the west, and the point of San Fernando, on the 
east. Its width in this part is some 20 miles, with soundings of 100 to 
117 meters, on an average sand and mud bottom. Hence the gulf 
extends for 28 miles to the south-southeast. The eastern coast is 
formed by the high mountains of Union and dominated by the peak of 
Santo Tomas. The western coast is of moderate height and quite alike 
up to Mongosmongos, then it rises by successive steps up to an enor- 
mous mountainous mass, which runs toward the south. 

Mcmila Bay. — The principal bay of Luzon, and perhaps of the whole 
archipelago as to its extent, is that of Manila, which occupies an unim- 
provable position for domestic and foreign trade with the nations and 
colonies of the Far East. It is situated, approximately, in the middle 
of the western coast of Luzon. It is beautiful, extensive, clear, and 
good anchoring ground. At its end there is situated the city of Manila, 
capital of the archipelago, and on its southeastern side the town and 
arsenal of Cavite. Rivers as important as the Grande de la Pampanga, 
the Pasig, the Orani, and the Imus, all navigable, empty into it. 

The exterior elevation of the points of Hornos on the north and 
Limbones on the south marks distinctly the great ravine which the 
mountain ridge of Mariveles and that of Tagatay near the peak of 
Lore form between them. It has a depth of 32 miles to the northeast, 
and has a width of 30 miles at its eastern extremity and only 10 miles 
at its mouth, which is divided into two channels or passages formed by 
the islands of Corregidor and Pulo Caballo. The passage two miles 
wide, comprised between Corregidor Island and the northern shore of 
the entrance of the bay — that is, the Mariveles coast — is called the 


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''Boca Chica" (small mouth), and the passage five miles wide, formed 
by Corregidor Island and the southern shore of the entrance of the 
bay, is called the ''Boca Grande" (large mouth). The "Derrotero 
del Archipielago Filipino " (collection of sea charts of the Philippine 
Archipelago) says the following regarding this bay: 

The lands which surround the interior of the bay are generally low, liable to be 
overflowed, and cut up by innumerable small rivers, creeks, and lakes formed by 
the overflow of the tide, Avhich toward the east usually communicate with the 
Laguna de Bay, and toward tlie west with the marshy lands which drain into 

Lapog. — On the western coast of Luzon, to the north of the Gulf of 
Lingayen, is the bay of Lapog, incomparably smaller than that of 
Manila. It is situated 10 miles to the north-northeast of Dile Point, 
and is comprised between Darrena Point on the north and the island of 
Santo Domingo on the south, and is some two miles wide 1)}^ one in 
depth. Its southern part is called the bay of Magsingal, and the north- 
ern part the bay of Lapog, between which is found the anchorage of 
Lapog or So^otsolot. The northern and southern shores of this bay 
project reefs for a quarter of a mile, but in the middle and at the end 
of the baj' they are wholly absent, and these make an anchorage of 
from 10 to 18 meters depth, sand bottom, up to near the shore. This is 
in the province of Ilocos Sar. 

Dim gal a. — The ba}^ of Dingala is found on the eastern coast of 
Luzon, situated 84 iniles to the southwest of the cape of San Ildefonso 
and 18 miles, approximately in the same direction, from the sound of 
Baler. Its entrance inclosed ])etween the points Sua to the north and 
Deseada to the south is Of miles wide; it is open to the winds from 
the northeast to the southeast by the east, and it has a depth of 8 miles 
long toward the west. Both points at the enti'ance are very clean and 
the water is deep in their proximity, although that on the south has 
several rocks very near it on that side. 

Lanion, — The bay of Lamon, oi' the small gulf included between the 
point Inaguican on the northwest and the lands of Mambulao on the 
southeast, is also worthy of special mention. It is -15 miles wide at the 
mouth and extends more than 35 miles to the south, so narrowing the 
island of Luzon at this point (province of Tayabas) that it reduces it to a 
true isthmus some 5 miles wide, which joins the large upper body of the 
island to the lower one, in which are the provinces of Ambos Camar- 
ines, Albay, and Sorsogon. Before the entrance of the bay is found 
the island of Polillo, and to the southeast of it that of Jornalig with 
two small islands on its eastern side which protect it from the winds 
from the north. Within the bay there is the little island of Balesin, and 
further in those of Cabalete and Alabat and neighboring small islands, 
which, extending from the west-northwest to the east-southeast, form 
with the shore at the end of the bay a sheltered port with good 

San Miguel, — Almost in the middle of the northern coast of the 
province of Ambos Camarines is the bay of San Miguel, open toward 
the north and formed by the points Sagcadoc and Sapenitan. It is 
circular in shape, some 10 to 12 miles in diameter, clear, and sur- 
rounded by high mountains, offering a safe shelter to all kinds of 
ships after avoiding the reefs which run out from the points at the 

Hosted by 


Hosted by 


Hosted by 


Hosted by 


Hosted by 




There are many and very important ones in the island of Luzon. 
We shall enumerate the principal ones: 


Sisiman. — At the entrance of Manila Bay, between points Gorda 
and Aguaguan, on the coast of Mariveles, is the bay of Sisiman, which 
extends toward the northeast, with a sandy shore, where very good 
water is found. Its depth is from 3 to 13 meters, sand bottom. 

Patungan, — Also at the entrance of Manila Bay, on the southern 
coast, is the bay of Patungan, included between the small islands Lim- 
bones and Carabao, between which the soundings give from 42 to 50 
meters of water. It extends 2 miles to the south-southeast, toward 
the mountain peak of Loro, and is protected from the winds from the 
second and third quarters. 

Oancicao, — Within the ba}^ between the point of sand called Sangley, 
in which the peninsula of Cavite ends, and the tongue of sand on which 
the town of Cavite is located, is the bay of Canacao. It is 7 cables 
wide at the entrance and extends for 8 cables to the southwest. It is 
only 5 to 6 meters deep. It is sheltered from the winds from the west 
and southwest and exposed to those from the. first quarter. 

JSacoor, — Besides the bay of Canacao, there is that of Bacoor, which 
penetrates some 2 miles toward the southwest into the province of 
Cavite, and has on its southern shore the important towns of Cavite, 
Viejo, and Bacoor. It would be a magnificent harbor if it were not 
choked with loose mire, which covers it to such an extent that no other 
craft than the very light ones of the country can navigate it. 


Sailing along the western coast of Luzon, from Ilornos Point to- 
ward the north, the following bays or coves are found successively in 
the order named: 

Guay, — Between Guay Point on the north and Hornos on the south 
is this small bay, which is a good anchorage during the northeast 

Bagac, — Beyond Point Luzon is found the bay of Bagac, 3 miles wide 
and 1 deep, open to the southwest. 

Cagumi, — Within the port of Subic is found the cove of Caguan, 
toward the northwest, included between point Cabangan, which is 
situated at the bottom of it, and that of Manisbasco. 

Silanguin^ JVazasa^ Tilisain^ omd Calaguaguin, — Are four clear and 
deep bays that penetrate the high and accessible coast of Capones, open 
to the west and southwest at the northern exit of the port of Subic, 
near the southern extremity of the province of Zambales. 

Palauig. — Following the coast toward the north is found the cove of 
Palauig, inclosed between the points Bulubutu and Nuglubilac. It is 
open toward the northwest, and extends 1 scant mile toward the south- 
east. Its depth diminishes from 25 meters at the entrance to 8 near 
the shore at the end. 

Masinloc. — A bay comprised between points Palanguitin on the 
south and Bani on the north, 5 miles distant from each other. 

Hosted by 



Dasol, — To the north of the small island Raton there extends a large 
bay called Dasol, embraced between points Caiman on the north and 
Bayamban on the south. It has before it several rocks or barren islands 
which make the entrance dangerous, and contains within it two prin- 
cipal coves. 

Agno Grande.— Raving passed the bay of Dasol and doubled the 
point of Agno Grande, the cove of this name is found, of a circular 
form and sheltered from the winds from the first quarter, with a sandy 
bottom and a depth of 10 to 13 meters. 

Abagata,— Near Agno Grande is the cove of Abagata, with a bad 

JVamagpaean,— Haying passed the gulf of Lingayen, to the north 
of San Fernando, between point Darigayos and the point located south 
of Bangar, there is the cove of Namagpacan, which took the name of 
the town located on it. 

Solbec.—The bay of Sol bee is very small and is situated some 6 miles 
north of the town of San Esteban. 

Ourrhnao.— The cove of Currimao is inclosed between points Sugot 
on the south and Arboledan on the north, and is divided in two by the 
point Gabot, one of which is the cove of Gan, to the north of Solod 

Dirique.—Yerj near Cape Bojeador is the bay of Dirique, with fair 
conditions as to depth and shelter. 


Bangui— Doubling Cape Bojeador, the large bay of Bangui is found, 
embraced between points Negra and Dialao. 

Some other small bays are found on the north coast of Luzon, which 
are lacking in importance, if we except the great angle which extends 
from Point Pata to the strait which the island Palaui forms with Luzon, 
an angle which might well merit the name of bay and even of gulf of 
Aparri, although we do not find it under either name on the maps, nor 
so mentioned by any author. 


Dtvdacan and ^(^/(^tz,^^.— Doubling Cape Engano, at some 73 miles 
b. 50 E. of the northeastern extremity of Luzon, is found the so-called 
fronton Moises. This headland forms on its northern side the bay of 
Divilacan and on its southern side the cove of Palanan, semicircular in 
shape and very deep. Both belong to the province of Isabela. 

Dtldsac— Following the coast toward the south there is found at 
some 60 miles from the Fronton Moises, the cove of Dilasac or port of 
iumango, between the points Dinapiqui and Tarigtig in the province 
of Isabela. 

(^siguran.— This magnificent bay is found a few miles to the south 
ot Point Tarigtig, formed bv a great tongue of land which extends 
trom the north-northeast to the south-southwest and ends in the cape 
or point ban Ildefonso, in the district of Principe. 

^f ^^•— In ^^be same district of Principe, a short distance to the 
south ot Cape ban Ildefonso, extends the spacious bay of Baler, between 
the j)oints Delgaga and Encanto. 

Dibut.— The bay of Dibut opens between the points Diotoring- and 
Jbncanto. ^ 

Hosted by 



Apat mid Sogod, — Are two open bays on the northern coast of Taya- 
bas and Camarines, respectively. 

Lagonoy. — This broad ba}^, formed to the south of the peninsula of 
Caramoan, penetrates some 18 miles to the west- northwest, and is 
some 22 miles wide. 

Tabaco. — The bay of Tabaco extends to the south of Lagonoy. It 
is elliptical in shape, some 6 miles in extent on its Qiajor axis, which 
runs from northwest to southeast. It is formed by the cove which 
indents the coast of Luzon between Natunaguan and the tongue of 
land which projects toward the east as far as Point Sula and the 
islands of San Miguel and Cacraray. It has from 10 to 15 meters of 
water very near the shore. 

Alhay, — The bay of Albay is found in the northern part of the 
southeastern extremity of the peninsula in which the island of Luzon 

/SW,^(9^.— Doubling Point Cauit, in the bay of Albay, there is found 
toward the east the cove of Sugot, which opens to the east of the town 
Bacon. It is of little importance. 

Guhat. — This cove is found some 12 miles to the north of the town 
of Bulusan. 

Matnog, — The cove of Matnog opens between the reefs which sur- 
round the coast from Caranhan to Point Pandan. 

Dunol and Bahulgan, — Are two small coves located in the extreme 
southeast of Luzon. 

Milaghiga, — Before passing Point Tajiran, which is the most west- 
erly of the southeastern extremity of Luzon, in the Strait of San 
Bernardino, is found the cove of Milagbiga, inclosed between a head- 
land of pebbly sand covered with trees, called Coroncoron, and the 
next point to the east Suae, of small extent, but veiy deep. 


Tajiran^ Canomalag, Cabaranan^ and Jform^j^.— Beyond Point 
Tajiran are found the coves of Tajiran, Canomalag, Cabaranan, and 
Marinap, embraced between points Tajiran and Barugo. That of 
Marinap is good for ships of any tonnage. 

Bulag.—To the southeast of Point Bulag, between points Angil and 
Barugo, extends the bay of Bulag, of good depth and with conditions 
favorable for craft. 

Palatuan.—F^i^^mg the port of Sorsogon, traveling toward the 
west, is the cove of Palatuan, to the east of the port of Putiao, of little 
depth and formed by the points Calcut and Bantique. 

Macoto a7id C^a^maAafe.— Beyond Point Cadburanan or Panga- 
niran the coast deviates toward the north to form the great bay of 
Ragay. Between said point and that of Bondog, in the southern 
extremity of the peninsula of Tayabas, some 43 miles distant from one 
another. Various minor coves are found. The first is that of Macoto, 
between points Macoto and Badian, clear and with a good depth, which 
varies from 10 to 42 meters, although the shore is accessible. 

f/^mi^m^???..— Thecoveof Jamuraon comprised between points Sibono 
and Sirumaor Caurusan, is formed of a headland of high lands, having 
33 meters of water in their vicinity. It is 7 miles wide and li long. 

Caima.—llo the southeast of the small island Saboon the bay of 

Hosted by 



Gaima opens, 8 miles long by 3 deep, ending toward the south at 
Fomt Galvaney. It is obstructed with large reefs. 

Iiagay,—T\iQ end of the bay formed by the province of Tayabas and 
that of Ambos Camarines is properly called the bay of Ragay, although 
some give this name to the whole extent of sea inclosed between the 
two above-mentioned provinces. 

OatahangcL—]^^y to the northwest of that of Ragay, inclosed 
between Point Quilbait and that of Bagutayoc, distant 3i miles from 
one another. 

Talcauayan,—E2iY formed by points Ausan and Mambulao. 

Catimag,—T\iQ bay of Ragay ends in a little cove called Catimag, 
mto which the small river Vinas empties. 

P(^m.— Following along the western coast of the great bay of 
Ragay there is found the cove of Peris, some 13i miles to the north- 
west of Point Gorda, inclosed between points Lian on the north and 
Guihalinan on the south. 

Somhocogon.—P^i^i^mg by Point Gorda and the port of Pusgo there 
is found the cove of Sombocogon, 3i miles to the north-northwest of 
Point Arena, "which is very much frequented by the small native 

Pinamuntangan.—Ro\xnAmg the point of Bondog, in which the 
headland called Head of Bondog ends, the cove of Pinamuntangan is 
found, embraced between the haven of Aguasa and the point Pina- 
muntangan. It is small and open toward the west. 

Aguasa,— ThQ haven of Aguasa is found to the north-northeast of 
the preceding one. 
Ayo7il— The harbor of Ayoni opens near the previous one. 
Oatanagua7i.~-FiYe miles to the east-southeast of Point Tuquian 
extends the cove of Catanaguan, some 2 miles wide and 1 deep. It is 
good and sheltered from the winds from the first and fourth quarters. 
/V^^^^^^^^-— Following along from Point Taquian, coasting toward 
the northwest, is the haven of Pagbilao, between points Bocboc or 
Bantigui to the west and the south point of the island Capulaan or 
Pagbilao Grande to the east. It is 2 miles wide. The entrance is 
difficult and the space for anchoring limited. 

Camdami, — The cove of Capulaan is found to the southwest of the 
island of this name. 

Domond(m,~~K small cove formed to the northeast, and at a short 
distance from the river and point Tayabas. 

BuenlL~~~Kwo\hex small cove formed by the low point of Tayabas 
on its western side. 

Great lay of Tayahas^—AW the small coves included between points 
Bondog and Bantigui are found within the so-called bay of Tayabas 
between the provinces of Tayabas and Batangas. 

IUjan,—ThQ haven of Ilijan opens next the point of that name 
toward the east. It has an extent of one mile and ends in the flat and 
clear coast point called Arenas. 

Burijan.—P^Bsmg through the northern passage of Verde Island to 
the west, there is found the small elbow or cove of Burijan. It is 
obstructed and has little importance. 

Jf^mm.— Near the preceding elbow is found the haven of Marara, 
which unites good conditions of depth and shelter. 

Pinagcnrusan.—^^ilmg past Point Tubunan toward the west, in the 
space of half a mile the coast presents two headlands of rock, inter- 

Hosted by 



posed with sandbanks, from which the coast of beach and woods 
extends to form the cove which the natives call Pinagcurusan. 

Tingloy, — This cove, just as the preceding one, is found on the 
northeastern coast of the island of Maricaban. The headland Putin- 
Bujanin and the point Tubunan form it. It is small and is almost 
unused on account of its many reefs and shoals. 

Batangas, — The bay of Batangas is inclosed between Point Cazador 
to the west, and that of Matocot to the east-southeast, distant 9 miles 
from each other. It has a clear coast and is very deep, and the haven 
of Mainaga is included in it. 

Janaojanao, — Is found to the south of the cove of Taal. 

Taal. — The cove of Taal is on the northeastern coast of the bay or 
haven of Balayan. It is some 5 miles in extent and is bounded on the 
south by the point and small pointed islands' of Janaojanao. 

Balayan. — This harbor opens immediately to the north of Point San 
Pedrino; it penetrates a little more than 2 miles to the northwest, and 
ends in the river and town of Balayan, some 6 miles north of said 

San Pedrino or Pagapas. — The cove of San Pedrino is inclosed 
between the northeast headland of Cape Santiago and Point San Pedrino, 
extending some 3i miles to the northwest. 

Bay of Balayan or Taal. — This broad bay extends between Point 
Benagalet on the east and Cape Santiago on the west, which are 13 
miles distant from each other. It enters some 14 miles toward the 
north; is a clear coast, without depth, and with very accessible shores. 


%Zm.-— Rounding Cape Santiago the cove of Talin is found, formed 
by the points San Diego and Talin. It is 3f miles wide and 1^ miles 
deep in the southwestern part; it is exposed and has an uneven bottom. 

Namujhii, — Sailing along the coast from Point San Diego toward 
the north is found the cove of Nasugbu, formed by said point and that 
of Nasugbu. It is formed of low land with a beach of dark sand, and 
is accessible, with trees up to a very short distance from the edge. 

Looc. — The cove of Looc opens immediately to the south of the 
point and small barren island of Buri, and is embraced between this 
point and that of Fuego or Calayo on the south, which are 2 miles 
distant from each other. It is a very poor anchorage. 

Passing by the cove of Looc and following the coast in the direction 
of Manila Bay, is the cove of Patungan, already described in the 



Manila, — Naturally the port of Manila is nothing more than an 
anchoring ground. Some craft of great burden can enter into the 
Pasig River and anchor in it when they can pass the bar of the river, 
which is quite a difficult passage at low tide. An artificial port is being 

Camte, — The port of Cavite is located to the south of Manila Bay 
and one-third of a mile to the southeast of the town of Cavite. It is 
the port and arsenal of the navy, and arranged solely to make the 

Hosted by 



necessary repairs to the ships of the military station. The anchorage 
of Cavite is small and has a depth of only 5 to 5i meters. Tt is exposed 
to winds from the east and sheltered from those from the west. 

Oorregldor, — On the north coast of Corregidor there is a small port 
for minor craft, of good depth and excellent anchoring ground, shel- 
tered from the north wind. 

Mariveles. — The port of Mar iveles is on the south coast of the province 
of Bataan, to the northwest of Corregidor. The points Lechones and 
Gorda define the entrance. It is a good port in which ships of any 
tonnage can anchor. 


Binanga or Minangas. — At a short distance to the north of the 
entrance of Manila Bay and to the southeast of that of Subic, is the 
port of Binanga, very small and protected from all winds excepting 
those from the west and west-southwest. 

Subic. — The port of Subic, one of the best in the archipelago, is 
located at a short distance to the northwest of the preceding one. 
It consists of a spacious bay, within which there are very well sheltered 
and safe coves with good anchorages, such as that of Olongapo. 

Iba. — On the same coast of Zambales, some 40 miles to the north of 
Subic, is the anchorage of Iba, commonly called Hoya de Iba, in the 
center of the cove formed by points Guay and Iba. 

Matalm. — The port of Matalvi is the one which the island of this 
name forms with the south coast of the bay or cove of Masinloc. 

Salvador, — The island of this name has a fair anchorage on its 
western coast, which is near the previous port. 

Santa 6Vms.— The anchorage of Santa Cruz is a small cove formed 
by the point of this name on the south and Balibago on the north. 

Dasol. — To the east of point Caiman is the cove of Dasol, which 
contains two anchorages of good depth. 

BoUnao. — The island of Santiago, n\ the gulf of Lingayen, and the 
peninsula of cape Bolinao form a narrow channel, open towards the 
northwest, with a depth varying from 14 to 22 meters, called the port 
of Bolinao. 

Cien Mas. — The anchorage of Cien Islas is found south of the group 
of islands of this name on the western coast of the gulf of Lingayen. 

Sual.—ThQ port of Saul is the second cove, 2 miles south of the 
island of Cabalitian. The interior of this port is divided into two 
anchorages, separated by a bank of coral which, running out from the 
west coast, extends for more than half its distance towards point 

Santo Tornas. — The port of Santo Tomas, in the province of Union, 
is formed by a bank which runs from point Sahto Tomas for approxi- 
mately 2 miles toward the south, over which there are from 3 to 10 
meters of water. 

San Fern/Mido. — In the same province of Union, a small peninsula 
to the north of Santo Tomas forms with the adjacent coast two small 
anchorages; in the southern one there is a depth of 11 to 12 meters, 
and in the northern one is the port of San Fernando. 

Santiago. — The small port of Santiago is situated 4i miles N. i NE. 
of point Candon, in the province of Ilocos Sur. 

San Esteban. — The port of San Esteban is also small and accessible. 
It is found 2i miles from that of Santiago. 

Hosted by 



Caucvyan. — The aiicliorage of Cauayan is '1\ miles to the southwest 
of Vigan. 

Salomague. — The port of Salomague is a small haven surrounded 
with reefs. It is safer and more sheltered than that of Lapog. 

Lapog. — Is an anchorage at the foot of the baj^ of this name. 

Cahugao, — Between the islands Salamogue and Badoc is the anchor- 
age of Cabugao, some 11 to 13 meters deep. 

Currknao, — The port of Currimao, in the province of Ilocos Norte, 
is a small circular haven formed to the east of point Arboledan. 

Dirique.^ — The anchorage of Dirique is found in the bay of this 
name and is from 11 to 20 meters deep. 


Bangui. — The anchorage of Bangui, situated neai the northeastern 
extremity of Luzon, is in the bay of the same name. Formerly it was 
a good port, but it was closed by an earthquake. 

Ajxirri. — The port of Aparri, if it may be called such, is obstructed 
and is opposite the southeastern point of the entrance of the large 
river of Cagayan. The bar of the river has very little water over it 
and at certain seasons of the year large ships can cross it with difficulty. 

San Vicente. — The port of San Vicente lies between the northeast- 
ern extremity of Luzon, the little island of San Vicente, and the south- 
eastern part of the mountainous and rugged island of Palaui. It can 
hold several ships perfectly protected from all winds, aiid is 5 to 10 
meters deep, with a nmd bottom. Before the mouth of the port there 
are some good anchoring grounds, but more exposed than the port. 


Dinialansan and BicoJnan, — Are small ports which open in the har- 
bors of Divilacan and Palanan. 

Timiango. — The port of Tumango is found in the ba}^ of Dilasac. 

Lamjoon. — The port of Lampon is situated in the northwestern 
extremity of the bay of Lamon. It is small, but well sheltered. It 
is celebrated in history because it was for several years during the six- 
teenth centur}^ the depot of the galleons and wealth of Manila, called 
the Royal Port. It is* located in the district of Infanta. 

Mainhulao. — Is found to the northeast of the end of the bay of 
Ragay, on the opposite coast, inclosed between points Pinandunguan 
and Dajican. 

Slsiran. — The port of Sisiran is remarkable because it is the one 
which, at the end of the last century, was considered the onl}^ one on 
the opposite coast of Luzon to receive the ships which arrived late 
from Acapulco or to hold hidden and ready a ship for carrying state 
papers to New Spain or Mexico. It is formed by the island Quina- 
layag, on the west, and the point Pambuan, on the east, and is sheltered, 
clear, and of good depth. 

Tabaco. — The anchorage of Tabaco is in the bay of the same name. 

Stda. — The port of Sula is formed in the southern extremity of the 
narrow channel which separates the island of Cacraray from the main- 
land. It is very sheltered and good anchoring ground. 

p c—voL 3—01 18 

Hosted by 




Sorsogon. — Rounding point Tajiran toward the west is the magnifi- 
cent port of Sorsogon, considered as the best of all those which are 
found in the passage from the strait of Verde Island to that of San 
Bernardino. (Described in the Treatise on Chorography, Chapter V, 
p. 79.) 

Putiao, — The port of Putiao is a bay of little depth, which the 
coastwise ships are accustomed to enter at high tide. It lies between 
points Dumaquit, on the west, and Cutcut, on the east, and is sur- 
rounded with reefs. 

Pantao, — The anchorage of Pantao is to the southeast of point 
Simura, near the cove of Jamuraon. 

Fasacao, — The anchorage or bar of Pasacao is between two little 
flat-topped hills, near point Sibono. 

Ptisgo, — The port of Pusgo is found to the north-northwest of point 
Arena. It is long and narrow. 

Miilanay. — The anchorage of Mulanay is located on the western 
coast of the "peninsula of Tayabas, south of the bay of Catanauan. 

Pltogo. — The anchorage of Pitogo is 2 miles to the east-northeast of 
Point Mabio. 

Calaylayan. — The anchorage of Calaylayan is an elbow which is 
formed to the west of Point Silancapo. 

Lagidmanoc, — The port of Laguimanoc is inclosed between the east 
coast of the island Pagbilao Chico and the coast of Laguimanoc. 

Bay of Tayahas, — ^ Along the whole coast comprised between the 
river Tayabas and the river Nayun it is possible to anchor in the depth 
of water that may be suitable, because at a little more than half a mile 
from the shore there is a depth of 18 meters. 

It is also possible to anchor on that part of the coast comprised 
between the river Nayun and the small cove situated to the northwest 
of Point Bantigui. From Point Bantigui up to that of Malabrigo 
there are quite a number of elbows and sites suitable for anchoring, 
especially beyond Point Sigayan. Likewise along the coast which 
runs from Point Malabrigo to the cove of Ilijan or Matocot ships of 
any tonnage can anchor, 

Snr de Batangas. — The deep and narrow channel Avhich is formed 
between the islands of Maricaban and Caban is a good anchorage for 
all kinds of ships. Such is the case also with the one found on the coast 
comprised between points Bauan and Pinamucan, which terminates in 
beaches of sand. 

Taal, — The best anchorage in the bay of Taal is to the north of the 
mouth of the river Pansipit. 

Balayan. — The best anchorage in the harbor of this name is found 
to the east of the river Balayan. 


Talin. — Rounding Cape Santiago and following along toward the 
north is the cove of Talin, and in it an anchorage with fair conditions. 

Nasughii, — To the northwest of Talin is the anchorage of Nasugbu, 
in the cove of the same name. 

Jamelo. — Finally, 2i miles south of Point Limbones, the cove of 
Jamelo opens, and to the southeast of it is situated the port called 
Jamelo, with a clear coast and good anchoring ground. 

Hosted by 




The capes of Luzon are: Bojeador, in Ilocos Norte; Engano, on the 
island of Palaui, extreme northeast of Luzon; San Ildefonso, at the 
entrance of the cove of Casiguran, district of Principe; Santiago, on 
the southwest of the bay of Balayan, province of Batangas; and Boli- 
nao, at the entrance of the gulf of Lingayen, province of Zambales; 
to which should be added, according to some authors, that of Baluagan, 
located on the eastern coast of the ba}^ of San Miguel. 

As to the points, we have already enumerated almost all the princi- 
pal ones in Luzon in locating the various bays and coves; nevertheless, 
in order that they may be recognized with greater facility on the maps, 
we shall cite them here in their order, especially the most important 
ones, commencing from Manila Bay and passing round the island of 
Luzon by the northeast and south until we reach the entrance of the 
same bay from the south. 


In the interior of Manila Bay point Sangley, of the province of 
Cavite, juts out, and on the northwest coast of this same prov^ince 
point Restinga. On the east coast of the province of Bataan are found, 
successively, points Malabaton, Pandan, Linao, Lamao, Limay, Real, 
San Jose, and Lasisi, and on the south coast those called Gorda, Talayo, 
and Hornos. 


Batami.— Points: Guay, Luzan, Canas, Caibaba, Saisain, Napo, 
Alinin, and Nabasan. 

Zmnbales.—Foints: Biniotican, Silanguin, Capones, Botolan, Casila- 
gan, Palauig, Oyon, Bani, Arenas, Santa Cruz, Bunop, Bavamban, 
Dauh, Caiman, Tambobo, Arena, Piedra, Balingasag, Encarnad^, 
V erde y Pastora. 

I^angfasinan.— Points: Portuguesa and Many a. 

Union.— Points: Santo Tomas,Baoang, San Fernando,and Darigayos. 

Ilocos xS'^/n— Points: Candon, Dile, and Santo Domingo. 

Ilocos JVorte.— Points: Solod, Culili, Blanca, Negra, and Dialao. 


Ilocos JVorte,— Points: Mayraira, Buagan, and Lacaylacay. 
Cagayan.—Points: Cabicungan, Pata, Batulinao Pont, and Diur. 
Island of Palaui, — Points: Nordeste and Cogon. 


Cagayan.—Points: Escarpada, Quijada, Padnanungan e Higan. 

Isaljela.~-Points: Dimalansan, Aubarede, Disumangit, Dibinisa, 
Dmatadmo, Dinaj)iqui y Tarigtig. 

Destrito del Principe, —Points: Delgada, del Encanto. Dicapilarin, 
Dibayabay, Diotoring y Dicapinisan. 

Mieva ^"q;^.— Points: Sua, Sapio y Deseada. 

Distrito de la Infanta.— Points: Inaguican y Tacligan. 

Tayalas^—P^ixits: Piapi, Saley, Malazos, Pilisan, Majabibujaguin, 
i^angao, Maguigtig, Minanucan, Camu, Roma, Panjan, Pangao y 

Hosted by 



Amhos (7amarmes,—Fomt8: Mapinjor, Palapinuhuajan, Jesus, Pi- 
nagdtingan, Calibigaho, Malugnon, Buluagan, Manin, Sauan, Longos, 
Tanoban, Buncalon, Sagcadoc, Manuse, Pambuan, Taron, Sihan, Colasi, 
Sapenitan, Qainabucasan, Dagdagun, Tambang, Tinajuagan, Pana- 
honga, Pandanog, Batabato, Rungus, Maulao, Asuang y Sibauan. 

Alhay. — Points: Gorda, Entilan, Misibis, Mainonon, Bato, Cana- 
gaayan, Cogbali^ay, Pinagbucan, Cauit, Paran, Calaocalao, Bongo, 
Jesus y Gajo. 

Ma Cacraray. — Points: Tumaras, Sauras, Cabadia, Cacrai'ay y 

Ma Batdn.—Pomta: Camisog, Calanagan, Naualangpalay, Bucton 
y Binalbagan. 

Ma BamirrapiL—Fomts: Acal, Mamanao, Talisay, Ungay y Baba- 
yon, en el extremo mas occidental. 

Sorsogo?i. — Points: Paguiriran, Bingay, Montufar, Dancalan, Banga 
o Cagan, Tang, Dongon, Binorongan, Talagio, Pacahan o Habang, 
Pandan y Caranhan. 


Sorsogon, — Points: Babulgan, Langao, Sual, Tajiran, Anambogon, 
Cabaranan, Lipata, Barugo, Marinap, Angil, Saban, Nungay, Quina- 
lapan, Inacanan, Ibalong, Mantag, Bagalao, Macugil, Caguayan, 
Tubiajon, Roja, Alimpayo, Bantique y Dumaquit. 

Alhay, — ^Points: Marigondon, Cadburanan o Panganiran, Badian, 
Tobian, Naga, Cananhalan, Sinlian y Palo. 

Amhos Camarines, — Points: Caurusan o Siruma, Tongon, eJamuraon, 
Sibono, Tanuan, Buri, Bagulayo, Galvaney y Octoc. 

Tayahas, — Points: Cabasbatan, Manibulao, Cabunganan, Quilbait, 
Ausan, Balogo, Calimu, Capuluan, Lian, Guihalinan, Gorda, Pusgo, 

Pinacapulan, Palaspas, Angat, Bocboc y Tayabas. 

Batangas. — Points: Bantigui, Locoloco o Sigayan, Malagundi o 
Galban, Punas o Loboo, Malabrigo, Rosario, Talajib, Arenas, Mato- 
cot, Pinainucan, Pangot, Mapilio, Mainit, Cazador, Azufre, Boncte, 
Malatanguit, Magallanes, Ligpo y San Pedrino. 


Batangas, — Points: Talin, San Diego y de Fucgo o Calayo. 




Santo Domingo, — This bay is situated on the west coast of the island 
of Batan. It has good anchoring grounds of tine sand and coral. 

Sonson and Mananion. — On the northeast coast of the same island 
there are also two very deep and probably very sheltered bays called 
Sonson and Mananion. 

Hosted by 




Matacon, — ^The cove of Matacon is formed almost in the middle oi 
the north coast of the island of Polillo. 

Pinamsagan. — This is another small bay on the north coast of Polillo, 
situated a little more to the east than the previous one. 


Carao or Carabao, — The larger of the two small bays which are 
formed to the northwest of the island of Catanduanes, between points 
Carabao and Caramuan, is called Carao or Carabao. 

Cabugao, — Is another small bay which opens on the south of the 
same island. 



Fuga, — The port of Fuga is situated between the western extremity 
of the island of this name and two small, low adjacent islands called 
Bari and Mabac. 


Bar as. — The little port of Baras is found on the southwest coast of 
the island of Catanduanes, some 9 miles to the northeast of the point 



The principal points of the island of Polillo are those of Panam- 
palan, Banta, and Agla. 


In the island of Catanduanes there are worthy of mention points 
Pandan and Carao on the north, Anajao and Pandaran on the east, 
Nagumbuayan, Taguntum, and Agojo on the south, and those of Sialat, 
Cogon, and llacaong on the west. 



^ Ahra de Hog, — The cove of Abra de Hog has a low shore and a semi- 
circular form. 

Balateros Grande, — The bay of Balateros Grande is found 1 mile to 
the east of the little port of Minolo. 

Balateros Chico, — This cove is found immediately to the east of the 
preceding one. 

Varadero, — The cove of Varadero is 2 short miles to the southwest 
of point Escarceo. 

Hosted by 



Suhaang .—The, cove of Subaang lies to the west of the point of this 

Calwpan. — The cove of Calapan extends between points Baliti to the 
southwest and Calapan or Tibao on the northeast, and is some 3 miles 
in extent. 

Pola. — The cove of Pola is formed to the northwest of Mount 
Dumali, between points Anahaoan and Dayap. 

Dayaj). — Is an elbow situated at some 6 cables to the southwest of 
the point of this name. 


Mansalay, — The small ba^^ of this name is found 10^ miles to the 
north of Point Bu3^allao. 

Pmamalayan, — The bay of Pinamalayan is located south of the 
northeast extremity of the island, between points Balete and Dumali. 


Pandarochan. — The bay of Pandarochan is inclosed between the 
clear and accessible point of Buruncan, the southern extremity of the 
island, and the southeast point of Ylin. 

Bulalacao. — The cove of Bulalacao opens between point Tambilambi, 
to the west, and the peninsula of Pandan to the south southeast. 

Loguicay, — The bay of Loguicay lies between the peninsula of 
Pandan and the south coast of Point Buyallao. 


Paluan.—ll\ie cove of Paluan is situated south of Mount Calavite, 
between points Pantocomi and Marigil. It has a good depth at the 
entrance and better in the interior up to a half mile from shore. 

Tuhile, — The small bay of Tubile is found north of the point of the 
same name. 

Mmnbiirao. — There is a little elbow toward the left within the mouth 
of the river of this name. 

Pandan. — The cove of Pandan is north of the point of this name. 

Dongon. — Some 7 miles south of Sablayan is the prominent point of 
Dongon, and to the east and northeast of it the coast forms the little 
bay of the same name which can shelter all kinds of ships. 

Iriron. — The cove of Iriron is inclosed between points Iriron and 

Lalangan or Gomez. — ^The cove of this name is formed near the 
middle of the channel of Ylin. 


Several small bays are found on the coast of Marinduque near San 
Andres, Santa Cruz, and Trapichihan, opposite the small barren islands 
of Engano. 

Loog. — The bay of Loog is within the harbor called Port of Bana- 
calan or San Andres. 

Marlanga. — The small bay of Marlanga lies between the point of 
this name and that of Salomague. 

Calanca7i and Sayao. — The cove of Sayao is on the western coast 
and that of Calancan on the eastern coast of Point Trapichihan. 

Hosted by 




Balaqicias, — The cove of Balaquias is situated to the west of the 
island of Ambil and ends on the east at Point Tagbanan. 

Ancagiiayan. — The little bay of Ancaguayan, situated on the east 
coast of Lubang- and formed by points Napula and Antipolo, is shel- 
tered from all winds but those from the east northeast to the west 
southwest and is protected from the sea by several reefs. 

Loog. — The cove of Loog is situated near the southeastern end of 
the island of Lubang, inclosed between points Panican on the south 
and Tumbaga on the north, and looks like a beautiful bay, but it is 
very dangerous on account of the many ledges of rock hidden in it.^ 

Tahag, — The small bay of Tabag is 1 mile to the northeast of Point 


The west coast of the island of Semerara forms some bays up to 
Point Taboan. There is another cove to the southeast of said point. 

The bay formed on the west coast of the island of Caluya is worthy 
of notice. 


Baquit, — The bay of Baquit, which opens on the south coast of 
Busuanga, the largest island of the group, deserves to be mentioned. 

Liwayan, — Next to the bay of Baquit, to the W., is formed the cove 
of Lucayan. 

CoTOii, — The name Bay of Coron is given to the extensive bay formed 
by Coron on the east, Busuanga on the north, Culion on the W., and 
the small islands Dunaun, Tempel, and Bulalacao on thesouth. It is 
some 13 miles wide. 


There is scarcely any bay of importance in the Cuyos group, because 
all the islands of this group are small. 



Cal(wite.—To the north of the point of this name is a good 

AmUL—To the south of Point Binuanga there is formed an elbow 
or bay, in front of which is one of the best anchorages on this coast. 

Minolo. — The anchorage of Minolo opens immediately to the east of 
the point of this name. 

(rafcm.-— The so-called port of Galera opens If miles to the west of 
Point Escarceo. 

VaradeTO,—T\i(d cove of Varadero is some 2 miles to the southwest 
of Point Escarceo and opens toward the southeast. It is an excellent 
anchorage in all weather, except in the case of a severe storm passing 
very near on the south. It is much preferable to the port of Galera. 

Naujan.—'l^o the southeast of the mouth of the river of this name 
there is an anchorage for all sorts of craft. 

Hosted by 




Mmi. — Opposite the river Masi there is an anchorage in the angle 
which Point Bongabon forms to the northwest. It is excellent in all 
weather and for all sorts of ships. 


This coast has neither ports nor anchorages of sufficient importance 
to be worth mentioning, unless there are some for small boats. 


Mamlmrao. — A fair anchorage opposite the mouth of the river 

SaUayan, — The anchorage of Sablayan lies to the east of Point 
Pan dan. 

^ Mangarin, — The port of Mangarin is found north of the strait of 
Ylin and some 3 miles to the southeast of Point Busuanga. It is very 
sheltered and quite deep. 


^an. Andres or Banacalan, — The port of San Andres, open toward 
the west, lies between points Antagtacan on the north and Panumitan- 
gan on the south. 

8a7ita Or 113.— The port of Santa Cruz is to the southeast of the point 
of the same name. 

Markmga. — The anchorage of Marlanga is in the bay of the same 

Boac. — The anchorage of Boac is near the viver of this name, to the 
southwest of the fortress of Boac. 


YUn. — The anchorage of Ylin is in front of a reef which surrounds 
the coast of Ylin. 


Cahtya, — Anchor may be cast to the north of the island of Caluya, 
in the large cove of this name. 

The other ports and anchorages of the group are not especially 


Borac, — The port of Borac, in the island of Busuanga, is extensive 
and sheltered. 



Calavite, — Cape Calavite is well known among mariners, because it 
is on the point of the island which extends farthest into the China Sea. 

Following the coast from Point Calavite toward the east there are 
found successively the points of Binuangan, Monte or San Tomas, 

Hosted by 



Bagalayag, Bacto, Baguio, Minolo, Escarceo, Boaya, Calupan, Bisayan, 
Lubang, Baleto, Calapan, Anaganahao, Tagusan, Balingauan, Ana- 
haoan, Dayap, and Dumali. 


From Point Dumali, situated to the northeast of the island, going 
down toward the south there are to be mentioned points Pinamalayan, 
Balete, Mayllague, Bongabon, Dayagan, Ticlin or Alaya, Mansiol, 
Colasi, Bayallao, and Pandan. 


Points Buruncan, Canimanet, and Tambilambi. 


Points Pantocomi, Marigil, Tubile, Caranisan, Manburao, Talabasi, 
Sablayan, Dongon, Lumintan, and Busuanga. 


The following are the points of Marinduque: San Andres, Silangan, 
Panumitangan, Datinuana, Cauit, Catalo, Suban, Marlanga, Panique, 
Cabuyoc, Cagpoc, Salomague, Tasa, and Trapichihan. 


Tilig, Naguionca, Pinagdagayan, Nanoc, Tumbaga, and Antucao are 
the principal points of this group. 


In the Ylin group, those of Ylin and Calan3^anan. 


Points Tungao, Tabonan, Macapdos, Talisay, Pasal, and Alimanda. 

In the canal which extends between Burias and Busin there are some 
bays which afford good anchorage. The bay which opens upon the 
eastern coast, south of Point Tinamandagan, 5 miles from the port 
of Busainga, is worthy of mention. The small bay of Alimango, 
which is quite deep, is on the western coast. 


The northern coast of Masbate has a number of bays affording good 

Asid. — The bay of Asid, situated between Point Pulanauta on the 
west and Point Bary Chico on the east, is the most important one of 

Hosted by 




Taguan, — The cove of Taguan lies 7i miles southeast of Punta del 
Diablo (Devil's Point). 

Ticao, — The bay of Ticao is 5i miles south of the port of San 

JBiton. — The cove of Biton opens 3 miles south of the bay of Ticao. 



Bimn, — The port of Busin is formed by the northern end of Burias 
and the island of Busin; it is merely a deep channel. 

Bimiinga, — The port of Busainga opens 3i miles southeast of the 
port of Busin, and is also formed by a channel. 

Barrera. — The port of Barrera is very large, and affords safe 

Magdalena, — The port of Magdalena is situated 9 miles south of the 
foregoing one. 

Palanog — The port of Palanog opens miles southeast of the port 
of Magdalena; it is small, but deep, and is protected against all winds. 

San Miguel. — The port of San Miguel is situated at the northern 
end of the island. 

San Jacinto. — The port of San Jacinto is situated 3 miles south of 
the cove o^ Taguan, and opens eastward with good anchoring ground. 
In the times of Acapulco this port was a stopping place for vessels. 


Among other points there are on the island of Burias the following: 
Norte or Colorada, Cueva, Guinduganan, Sur, Tinamandagan, and 


On the island of Masbate there are the following principal points: 
Bugui, Unutat, Mariveles, Camasusu, Jintotolo, Pulanauta, Pangca- 
nauay, Jangan, Bato, Balabao, Bary Chico, Naindain, Nauco, Cadu- 
ruan, del Este, Malibago, Tiguijan, Tabunan, Marintoc, Sagausauan, 
Bagubaud, Capandan, and Colorada. 


Ticao has the following points: San Miguel, Noroeste, Talisay, Nil- 
adlaran, Lagundi, San Rafael, Lagan, and Tasiran. 

Hosted by 





The principal islands of the Rorablon Archipelago are the islands of 
Romblon, Tablas, Banton, Maestre de Campo, and Sibuyan. 


From the islet of Bagud, southwest from the port of Romblon, the 
coast runs 2^ miles southward, forming three small coves, of which 
the first two are of no importance, and the most southerly one is fairly 
good. From this last the coast runs in a south-southeast direction and 
forms two other coves. 

Magallanes, — The cove of Magallanes is comprised between the points 
of Consumala and Cang-ouac, the river Nailog pouring into its center. 
Lubug, — The bay of Lubug is situated northeast of the island. 

The island of Banton possesses three good coves, one on the eastern 
coast, one on the northeastern, and another small one on the western 

On the island of Tablas, from Point Origon to the cliffs on the side 
of Mount Noroeste, two coves are formed, and also another south of 
said cliffs. 

Calaton, — The cove of Calaton is formed by the point bearing the 
same name, by the islets lying 2 miles south-southwest, and by a small 
point of hidden rocks on the north. 

Taholotan, — The cove of Tabolotan is situated directly south of the 
northeastern point of Tablas. 



The port of Romblon, one of the best of Bisayas, is situated north- 
east of the island bearing the same name. The island of Lugbung, 
situated at a short distance from this port, defends its two sheltered 
and deep anchoring grounds. 

Odiungan, — The harbor of Odiungan is situated southeast of the 
cove which is formed by Point Bagulayan on the western coast. 

Hosted by 



Loog, — On this same western coast is the port of Loog, between 
two points which are very close to each other and are on the same 

Sabang. — Sabang is a small port situated north and west of Calaton 
Point on the western coast. 


Southwest of the island of Maestre de Campo there is a sheltered 
harbor protected against all winds except the southwesterly ones. 



The following points are to be found on the island of Romblon: 
Tongo and Lantian on the north; Cabog, Naya, and Sablayan on the 
east; Apunan on the south, and San Pedro and Bombon on the west. 

On the island of Tablas there are the following points: Calaton, Cer- 
vera, del Este, and Pineda on the east; Origon on the north; Sangilan, 
Bagulayan, Cabaccongan, and Inanayan on the west, and el Sur or 
Cabalian on the southern end of the island. 


The point of La Concepcion on this island is worthy of mention. 

The principal points on the island of Sibuyan are: Ipil, Bayarin, 
Cang-ouac, Canglonbog, Consumala, and Padulog, all along the south- 
ern coast; on the eastern coast, Majiuat, Cambulayan, Cambijan, and 
Canjalon; on the southern end of the island, Point Cauit; and on the 
western coast, Cansapal, Apiat, Bolabos, and Agutaj". 



Naisot, — The cove of Naisot is comprised between points Ibajay and 
Sigat or Mabgaran. 

Pontiid, — The so-called bay of Pontud is situated opposite the bank 
of Pontud and is comprised between points Sigat and Apga-Sapian. 

Sapian, — The cove of Sapian opens between Point Baquiao and the 
land strait of Sapian. 

Gapiz, — The cove of Capiz, also called Capiz Harbor, is comprised 
between Point Nailon on the west and Point Colasi on the east. 

From Point Nagtig to Point Bulacaue a large bay of more than 18 
miles in length and 9 miles in width is formed toward Mount Agudo. 

Hosted by 




BancaL — The cove of Bancal runs from the cliffs of Cambaloton 
south-southeast of point Bulacaue to point Gogo, which is situated 4i 
miles more to the south. 

There are various unimportant coves to be found from point Gogo 
to the Tugil " Silanga." 

BalacL — The cove of Balad would be the principal one of these were 
it not obstructed by hidden rocks. 

The bay which is formed to the west of the island of Tagubanhan/ 
on the coast of Panay, is an important one. 

The bay of Canas is the most important one of those which are to be 
found on the eastern coast of Panay. 


South of Point Dalipe there is a cove of fair conditions. 

Pandan, — The cove of Pandan is almost the only one which may be 
called such on the western coast of Panay. It is formed south of the 
promontory of Naso, and is situated between points Pucio and Lipata; 
it is clear, has steep banks, depth of waters, and is not sheltered. 


Igan, — The bay of Igan opens south of the port of Santa Ana and 
contiguous to it, on the island of Guimaras, and is situated between 
Point Ganga on the north and Point Guinad on the south, and is the 
most important one on this island. 



Batan, — The port of Panan is situated 10 miles southeast of the bar 
of Acdan; it is deep, but the entrance to it is bad. 

Capk.—Th^i harbor of Capiz may be either the one which is oppo- 
site to the church of the village of Capiz, or the one which is opposite 
to the bar of the river. 


Estancia. — The harbor of Estancia is situated north of the Bay as. 
Iloilo. — The harbor of Iloilo is situated between the two bends 
formed by the river at its mouth. 

weste:rn coast. 

Buruanga. — On the coast comprised between points Naisog and 
Pucio there is another point called Point Batuit, which separates two 
small harbors; that of Buruaga is the better. 

San Jose de Buenavista, — The harbor of San Jose de Buenavista is 
situated south of Point Dalipe. 

island of guimaras. 

Santa Ana, — The port of Santa Ana is a small port, clear and 
deep, opening to the west. 

Hosted by 





All along' the northern coast, from west to east, are to be found in 
succession points Naisog-, Tabun, Saboncogon, Tabicu, Ibajay, Sigat 
or Mabgaran, Apga, Aclan, Nailon, Colasi, Mpa, Pirara, Pinalabroa, 
and Bulacaue on the northeastern end of the island. 


On the eastern coast points Gogo and Tabunan are worthy of men- 


On the southern coast points Mulactin, Bugnayon, Caducdula, and 
Siaran are worthy of mention. 


Commencing at the southwestern end of the island and continuing 
toward the north the following points are to be found in the order as 
named: Naso, Aniniy, Jagdan, Mapatag, Tubigon, Dalipe, Lipata, 
Picol, and Pucio. 


On the island of Guimaras the following points are worthy of men- 
tion: Cabugao on the north, Lusaran on the south, and Ginad, Ganga, 
Bondulan, and Cabulic on the west. 



On the northern coast of Negros there is scarcely any cove worthy 
of being mentioned. The so-called Saco de Negros is formed on the 
north of the island, and is bounded on the west by the group of the 
island of Pan de Azucar and the southern part of the group of Gigantes, 
and on the east by the island of Bantayan and the chain of small islands 
which, starting from the last named, runs southwest to the northeastern 
end of Negros. 


A cove of fair depth extends from Point Ocre to Point Ticlin. At 
a distance of U miles north from Point Ticlin the coast forms another 
small cove, with an islet in front of it. 

Bais— The cove of Bais— that is to say, the one which is opposite 
the Bais islands— is comprised between Points Teca on the north and 
Canamay on the south. 

Oapeap and Tutuban,— The coves of Capcap and Tutuban are sit- 
uated on the southern end of the island. They are small, but possess 
good conditions. 

Hosted by 




Tolon, — The spacious cove of Tolon runs between points Cauitan 
and Cansilan. 

Oompomanes. — The cove of Compomanes opens south of Point Matu- 
tindog and next to it. 

W(3)ulao. — The cove of Nabulao is situated south of the preceding 
one, at the mouth of the river of the same name. 

CatiThon, — The bay of Catmon is situated between points Catmon 
and Bacuyangan. 

Sipahiy and Cartagena. — The coves of Sipaluy and Cartagena are 
situated next to that of Saban. 

Linaon. — The bay of Linaon opens between points Sojoton and 


Only the large bend formed on this coast south of the island of Gui- 
maras and which ends at Point Sojoton is worthy of mention. 



There are on the northern and eastern coasts of Negros some unim- 
portant harbors. 


Siyt. — The port of Siyt is situated on the southern end of the island; 
it is small, but clear, with good anchoring grounds, and sheltered. 

Bomhonon. — The port of Bombonon opens at about 2 miles south- 
west of the port of Siyt, on the southern end of the island. 

Tolon. — In the river or cove of Tolon vessels of light draft can 
anchor at high tide. 



The principal points on the northern coast are: Points Guimugahan, 
Talisay, Sagay or Carey, and Panagsagon, on the northwestern end of 
the island. 


On the eastern coast there are the following points: Bito, Mucabog, 
Ocre, Ticlin, Tabon, Jilaitin, Panay, San Jose, Tayasan, Manjuyod, 
Palompon, Canamay, Amblan, Tayba, Sibulan, Dumaguete, Bacong, 
Dauin, Magabo, Zamboanguita, Liza, Siyt, and Bombonon. 


On the southern coast are: Point Siaton, the southernmost one on 
the island; Cauitan, Cansilan, Matutindog, Sanque, Taliptipan, Bala- 
tong, Doog, Bolila, Catmon, Bacuyangan, Luinbia, and Obon. 


On the western coast are Points Manoban, Maguiliquian, Sojoton, 
Gabambalang, Bula, Bilad, Calasian, Bacong, Magsalin, Maquiliquili, 
and Tomanton. 

Hosted by 






Bago. — The cove of Bago is situated 18 miles south-southeast of 
Point Bulalaqui. It is formed by a bend made by the coast, which 
runs toward the east with Point Nailon. 

There are also to be found inflections of the coast on the north of 
Point Bantolinao, between Points Sacaan and Catmon; north of Point 
Danao, between Points Cotcot and Bagacay or Liloan; on the north- 
west of the island of Mactan, south of Cebu, between Points Carcar 
and Sibonga, and south of Point Dalaguete. 


Daijagon, — The bay bearing this name is comprised between Point 
Daijagon on the north and Point Magtulinog on the south. 

Tvburmi, — The cove of Tuburan, of little importance, is h\ miles 
distant south-southwest of the cove of Batauan. 

Langiiyon. — The bend or small cove of Languyon is 1 mile south of 
Point Tuburan. 

Balamban, — The cove of Balamban opens south of the Point of 

Calavera, — The cove of Calavera is a small cove south-southwest of 
the cove of Balamban. 

Pinaimmgajan. — The small cove of Pinamungajan is halfway between 
Points Tajao and Gorda. 

Barili, — The cove of Barili is 3i miles south-southwest of Point 

Badian. — The cove of Badian is situated between the peninsula of 
Copton and another point of land which advances about 2 miles also 
to the north, called Point Badian. 

Matutinao.- — The cove of Matutinao is situated between Point Badian 
on the north and Point Guiuanon on the south, the distance between 
these being 6 miles. 



Bugtit, — The small port of Bugut is nearl}^ on the north, 3 miles 
distant from Point Caladman. 

Cebu.—ThiQ harbor of Cebu is situated south -southwest of the fort 
of Cebu. 

Cmiit, — The port of Cauit opens on the cove of Cauit toward the 

Tinaan, — The harbor of Tinaun is situated 11 miles southwest of 

Carcar, — At the bend of Carcar there is a fairly good, small port. 

Boljoan.—ThQ port or harbor of Boljoon is situated at the bend of 
this same name. 

Canaan . — The port of Canoan is formed at the cove of Canoan. It 
is sheltered from all wiftds except the winds from the northwest to 
the west. 

Hosted by 




Batauan,-— The port of Batauan is a little more than 2 miles distant 
south of the river Jaligue. 

Ruenahrlgo, — On the southern side of the point of this name ves- 
sels can find sufficient shelter when at anchor. 

Calavera, — Vessels can also find anchorage in the cove of this name. 

Badian. — There is an anchorage south of the island in the cove of 
the village of Badian. 


Along the eastern coast, from the northern end, there are the fol- 
lowing points: Bulalaqui, Campatoc, Malontod, Tindug, Nailon, 
Maitum, Ulud, Pamoboan, Bantulu or Bantolinao, Manayaosayao, 
Jinmguit Sacaan, Catmon, Panalipan, Binuncalan, Danao, Lusun- 
sacatao, Bandiloan Cotcot, Bagacay or Liloan, Cauit, Lipata, Pan- 
guian (island of Mactan), Tinaan, Minaga, Carcar, Sibonga, Simala, 
Argao, Balatic, Dalaguete, Bugo, Ilijan, Samang, Cayangon, Landu- 
gan, Oslob, and Tanon, southwestern end of the island. 


The principal points on the western coast, commencing at the north, 
are: Tapilon, Bantique, Cauit, Isabel, Mancao, Aniningan, Tagjalique 
or Jaligue, Batauan, Bagasaue, Languyon, Carmelo, Jinampangon, 
Bagacaua, Buenabrigo or Guinabasan, Uag, Balamban, Buanoy, Jino- 
lauan, Tajao, Gorda, Japitan, Palalon, Jacbas, Minalos, Bitoon, Tan- 
guil, Dumanjuc, Copton, Tongo, Badian (Bilambilam), Guiuanon, 
Bulalacao, Malboc, Looc, Colasi, and Liloan, on the southern end of 
the island. 



The northern coast of this island is very dangerous, as it is nearly 
all obstructed by the coral banks of Dana j on. 


Tintiman. — The cove of Tintiman is formed west of the island bear- 
ing this name. 

Cohlon.—The cove of Coblon opens north of the peninsula of Puga- 
tin and contiguous to it. 

Guiiidulimmi. — The small peninsula of this name forms at its south- 
ern part the cove of Guindulman. 


On the southern coast there are formed at the mouths of the rivers 
small coves, which are of no importance. 

Guinagiianan. — This cove is formed by the western point of the 
mouth of the river Loav. 

p c— VOL 3—01 19 

Hosted by VrrOOQiC 



MarihojoG. — The cove of Maribojoc is formed by a bend of the east- 
ern coa^t of Point Cruz. 

Cataghacan. — The cove bearing this name is formed by the islands 
of Cabilao, Sandingan, Calape, and part of the coast of Bohol. 


Panglao. — The cove of Panglao is situated southwest of the island of 


Canoan, — The cove of Canoan, on the island of Siquijor, which we 
consider as the group of Bohol, is situated 3 miles south of Point San- 
dugan. It is the principal one of this island. 



Calape, — The small port of Calape is situated on the most southerly 
part of the cove of Catagbacan, formed by the islands of Calape and of 

Laon, — Vessels can anchor at the so-called Muelle de Laon, in the 
cove formed by said Muelle together with the island of Sandingan. 

The southern coast of Bohol has many bends which can serve as 
anchoring grounds, although the entrance thereto is difficult. Vessels 
can also anchor in the coves of Guindulman and Coblon. 



The following are the principal points in the island of Bohol: Corte, 
Tabigui, Amol, and Acha on the north; Libas, Namuco, Agio, Quinal, 
and Napacao on the east; Cabantian, Nauco, Campao, Cantagay, 
Gorda, Magay, and Loay on the south, and Cruz and Lauis on the 


On the island of Panglao the most noteworthy points are: Catadman, 
Biquin, Bolud, Tahuruc, and Duljo. 


^ The most noteworthy points on the island of Siquijor are: Canoan, 
Sandugan, Lumancapa, and Lumango on the north: Tubintin, Daquit, 
and Minatulan on the east; Tonga and Basigajen on the west, and 
Cambalaguio, Bagacay, and Canaba on the south. 



Tinagutman.--T.\):\^ cove is situated 2 miles from the river Mobo. 

Balicuatro.—ThQ cove of Balicuatro is formed between the point 
bearing that name on the west and the point surrounded by hidden 
rocks, which is 7 miles distant to the East. 

Hosted by 



Laguan. — The cove of Laguan is situated between Point Libas and 
the western coast of the island of Laguan. 


Giimay, — The so-called cove of Gumay is situated between points 
Lila on the north and Alibangbang on the south. 

Oras, — The cove of Oras is west of Point Tiguias. 

Ipil, — Near the place called Ipil a small bay opens, formed by points 
Casangayan on the north and Tambadon on the south. 

Sulat, — The cove of Sulat is 6 miles distant from the foregoing one. 

San Julian, — Near the south of Sulat is the cove or bay of San 

Borongan, — The cove of Borongan is south of the foregoing one. 

Bayacan. — The cove of Bayacan is some 3 miles south of Borongan. 

Pamlmjan, — The splendid bav of Pambujan is situated between 
points Bura and Matarinao. 


There are several bends at the end of the island, the most remark- 
able of which is that of Guiuan. In the direction of the west-north- 
west there are others of less importance as far as the Bay of San 
Pedro and San Pablo. 


Beyond the strait of San Juanico, toward the north, are the bays of 
Laguin, Villareal, and Cambutatay, the harbor of Maqueda, and the 
cove of Calbayog. 

Laguin, — The bay of Laguin opens east of the southern end of the 
island of Daram. 

Villareal, — The bay of Villareal extends toward the northeast of the 

Maqueda, — The bay of Maqueda extends into and toward the north- 
east or the island of Buad. 

Camhutatay, — Northwest of Catbalogan is the bay of Cambutatay. 

Calbayog, — South of this village there is a bend or cove northeast of 
the island of Limbancauayan. 



From west to east there are: Points Sacalagayan, Simoga, Balicu- 
atro, Malubaroc, Bugtu, Oot or Lauigan, Caradapat, Ocan or Binay, 
Maujud, Sila, Pagsanhan, Alibangbang, Pangpang, Binugayan, and 
the cape of Espiritu Santo. 


From north to south there are the following points: Tiguias, Ugbun, 
Casangayan, Tambadon, Tugasan, Sulat, Cambista, Paninihian, Anito, 
Sorongon, Guinanuc, Capines, Anitagipan, Tabay, Haba, Panadlihan, 
Bura, Matarinao, Burac, Asgad, Pinanamitan, Hognaya, Bagton, Bauas, 
and Sungi, at the southern end. 

Hosted by 




From east to west the following points are worthy of mention: 
Banago, Pamanpangon, Cabanian, Baras, Bobon, Cabarasan, Higoso, 
Sua or Dapo, Paglalaongan, Capines, Amangbuale, Cabalagnan, Odoc, 
Panay, Guintulan, and Tingib. 


From the southern entrance of the strait of San Juanico, in a north- 
erly direction, are points Binuntuan, Cabugauan, Dalugdug, Manalumo, 
Binatac, Cujao, Irong-irong, Hibatan, Tactac, Malay oc, Maglalabon, 
and Polauit, near the northwestern end. 


The most important points on this island are: Guindauan on the 
north; Cauayan, Madang, Tanagon, Catangdan, Amantarong, Asug, 
and Campilipa on the east; Remintao, Bacjao, Halaba Guinlatuyan, 
Cabadiancan, and Cananyong-Daco on the west. 



Pmialamin. — The ])eautiful cove of Panaluran is formed by the 
northern coast north of the small peninsula of Tacloban. 

Ca7ical)af().~--^\\^. cove of Caucabato is south of Tacloban. 

San Pedro and San PaMo. — The great harbor of San Pedro and 
San Pablo is one of the most capacious of the archipelago. It is 
formed by the southwestern coast of Samar and the eastern coast of 

Cart'dris. — The cove of Camiris is situated north of Tanauan. 

Jaclugan, — The bay of Jaclugan is formed by the coast and a small 
peninsula which extends from south-southwest to north-northeast, east 
of Tanauan. 

Himmangan. — The cove of Hinunangan opens south of the islands 
of Cabugan Grande and Cabugan Chico. 


Sogod, — We call by this name the deep and spacious cove which 
opens south of Leyte, between points Taancan or Ninipo on the west 
and Mangayao on the east, on the Strait of Panaon. 


Tahin Chico and Tahin (rvande. — The small coves of Tabin Chico 
and Tabin Grande are separated by a small tongue of land which lies 
9 miles south of the northwestern end of Leyte. 

Tabango and Cmnpopo. — The bays of Tabango and Campopo are at 
a distance of about 6 miles south of the foregoing. 

Dupo7i. — The Bay of Dupon is situated between Point Sacay-Sacay 
on the northwest and Point Catiyoman on the southeast. 

Siapon. — The cove of Siapon opens 1^ miles east of the bay of 

Hosted by 



From Siapon the coast runs southward without any noticeable inflex- 
ions, with the exception of the bends of San Agustin, Bay bay, Ino- 
pacan, Hilongos, and Cajagnaan, and that of Maasim on the southwest. 


The bays and coves of importance in the island of Biliran, situated 
north of Leyte, are those of Biloan, Baganito, Inansugan, and Capalis. 



Liloan. — The port of Liloan is formed by 'the northern point of the 
island of Panaon and the southeast of Leyte. 

The harbors and ports which are to be found on the cove of Pana- 
luran or port of Tacloban are very good, as are also those on the cove 
of Cancabato, on the cove of Hinunangan and specially so the one on 
the large cove of Sogod. 


Palompon. — The port of Palompon opens 14 miles south of Point 

Dupon. — There is good anchorage m the bay bearing this name. 
Siapon. — There is also good anchorage in the bay of Siapon. 
Bello, — Port Bello opens on the western part of the bay of Ormoc. 


The northern coast of Leyte has been very imperfectly surveyed. 
It is probable that there are good anchoring grounds in the various 
bends of the large bay of Carigara. 


Bilwan. — Vessels can anchor ofl' this island at a distance of half a 
mile, opposite to the village of Biliran Nuevo. 



All along the northern coast from west to east there are the foUow- 
hig points in succession: Rabin or Caruyucan,Villalon or Sugboncogon, 
Uson, Manoc, Bacjao, Bulacahui, Talairan, Pinagmupuan, Antipolo, 
Canumbao, Halaba, Baluarte, Odbo, Can apug, Calugupan, Calbayogos, 
and Majinasu. 


On the eastern coast the following are noteworthy, from north to 
south: Canotoc, Uban, Cauayan, Panirugan, Cataisan, Camiris, Amban, 
Marigatdan, Vigia, Liberanan, Tagbuc, Salacot, Taytay, Hinunucan, 
Udiong, Laguma, Patyacan, Bandan, Malagusan, Sua, Hitumnog, and 

Hosted by 




The southern coast is the one which most abounds in points. Among 
them are specially worthy of mention Points Mangayao, Bantigui, 
Naglon, Malatag, Lubo, Mayuga, Cauayan, Jubas, Cataluan, Calapo- 
can, Magalo, Hoangon, Sahuaon, Tamulayog, Taancan or Ninipo, 
Cantutuy, Higanligam, Bato, and Ubay. 


On the western coast there are worthy of being mentioned, goin: 
from south to north, Points Panno, Taguus, Cantoto, Uman, Ponto<\ 
Calinauan, Cauampit, Bitanjuan, Panalian, Biasong, Nabanoc, Pagtail, 
Baglit, Bari, Sacay-Sacay, Bislutan, Duljugan, Binagmaan, Canauayan, 
Linganay, Pamangpangon, Quiohag, Can-apug, Blanca, Liglio, Baga- 
jupi, Tugas, Sangubon, Matungo, Daja-Diotay, Daja-Daco, Bagorayray, 
and Dungun. 


The island of Biliran has the following points: Pontado, Himbucgan, 
Mapuyo, Anas, Mambajab or Amangbahan, Mariquit, and Tanjas on 
the northern coast; Jabujab, Gamay, and Pauican, or Masog, on the 
eastern coast; Nuluncan, Matuntun, or Macogtong, and Magbugun, on 
the southern coast, and Catmon, Sabang, Bagonbog, Acta, and Sulung, 
on the western coast. 


The island of Panaon has also some remarkable points, such as Cala- 
pina, Caligangan, Bahag, Maoyo, Quinanad, Pinaghaua, Pinutan, 
Cainguin, Buhisan, Bilatan, and Botobolo, on the eastern coast; Cay- 
biran, Dinid, and Inolinan, on the southern coast, and Cogon, Panaon, 
Mabauha, llihan, Maclayauas, Bahay, and Cado-Ocan, on the western 




Butuan, — The bay of Butuan i-s a spacious bay, opening to the 
north. It is 21 miles wide and is situated between the lands of 
Madilao and Point Dinata. It is one of the best bays of Mindanao. 

Maeajalar. — That of Macajalar is a vast open bay on the northwest, 
and is situated between Points Gorda and Sulauan. 

Iligan, — ^The magnificent bay of Iligan is a gulf, rectangular in 
shape, and opens exactly to the north. 

Pcmguil, — That of Panguil runs inward toward the southwest of the 
gulf or ba}^ of Iligan. 

Great Bay of I liana. — The Great Bay of Illana extends from Point 
Flechas as far as Point Quidapil, southwest of Cotabato. It is the 

Hosted by 






Hosted by 


Hosted by 



largest bay of Mindanao. It comprises the bays of Matubug, Paga- 
dian, Sigayan, Marga, and Caromata on the north, and those of Barras, 
Matimus, Lusayen, and Paranparan on the east. 

Saramgani. — The bay of Sarangani runs southward into the south- 
ernmost peninsula of Mindanao. 

Pujaga, — The bay of Pujaga, one of the best of the whole archi- 
pelago, is situated some 35 miles north of the Cape of San Agustin. 
It has about 10 miles in its greatest length from southeast to northwest, 
and is about 5 miles at its widest part. 



Murcielagos. — The cove of Murcielagos, which is very deep, opens 
between Point Bombon on the east and Point Silla on the west. 

Dapitan.—ThQ bay of Dapitan is situated between Point Tagolo 
on the north and Point Sicayab on the south. It is 2 miles wide at 
its entrance and runs inward about 3 miles in a southwesterly direction. 

(rran Ensenada. — This name is given to the cove comprised between 
Points Sicayab and Blanca. 

Dcmigmi, — The cove bearing this name is comprised between Points 
Dauigan and Tabonan. 

Sindangmi. — The bay of Sindangan is bounded on the east by Point 
Dauigan and on the west by Point Sindangan. 


An important bay opens between Points Dulunquin and Piacan, 
about 17 miles south of the port of Santa Maria. 

Sihuco. — The bay of Sibuco extends between Simbaguan and Pang- 
man, about 25 miles north of Zamboanga. 


Mamngloc. — After turning the peninsula of Zamboanga toward the 
east and going along the coast of said peninsula, one finds south of 
Manicahan or Manicaan the small cove of Masingloc, west of the 
islands of Malanipa and Saccol. Inside of this bend is situated the 
small island of Vilanvilan. 

Sihuguey, — From the small bay of Masingloc the coast of Mindanao 
runs 53 miles to the north-northeast, and then turning it advances 
about 30 miles toward the south, forming the spacious bay of Sibuguey , 
which ends on the southeast at the island of Olutanga. The coasts of 
this bay are formed by a great many islands, and its points contain 
small ledges of hidden rocks. 

This bay has various bends or partial coves which are little known. 
Vitali or Bung (10, — North of Point Vitali there opens a cove, wbich 
we call Vitali or Bungao, toward the middle of the eastern coast of 
the peninsula of Zamboanga. 

Dimianqiiilas. — The bay of Dumanquilas is comprised between the 
southern extremity of the island of Olutanga and Point Flechas or 
Baganian, about 30 miles east of the bay of Sibuguey. The most 
important bay it contains is that of Igat. 

Tantauang, — The bay of Tantauang is situated south of the penin- 
sula which is formed between the bays of Sibuguey and Dumanquilas. 

Hosted by 



lumalung, — The bay of Tumalung opens north of the island of 
Olutanga. It is sheltered and has a good depth. 

Malicay, — The bay of Malicay is formed by Point Dumanquilas and 
the peninsula which ends at Point Flechas. 

Matuhug. — The bay of Matubug is formed by Point Tambulian on 
the south and Dapulisan on the north. 

Linao. — The bay of Linao extends from Point Quidapil to Point 

Tuna. — The cove of Tuna opens at about 6 miles south of Point 

Cdsilaran. — The magnificent bay of Casilaran is situated on the west- 
ern coast of the large bay of Davao, after turning Point Calungan. 

JDavao. — ^The large bay of Davao is comprised between Point Calian. 
on the eastern coast of the peninsula of Sarangani, and Point or Cape 
San Agustin, on the southern extremity of the peninsula of this name. 
It contains various coves or bends, among which is specially worthy 
of attention the one which opens on the western coast of the island of 
Samal, situated in the center of said bay. 


After turning Cape San Agustin and going along the eastern coast 
of Mindanao in a northerly direction one finds several bays, among 
which the following are worthy of special mention: 

Mayo. — The bay of Mayo is situated near the bay of Pujaga, on the 
northeast, between Point Lamigan on the south and Point Tugubum 
on the north. 

Yucatan. — In the interior of the bay of Mayo and near Point Tugu- 
bum the cove of Yucatan opens. 

Caraga. — The cove of Caraga is found after turning Point Pusan. 

Baganga. — The cove of Baganga runs inward from Point Daguet to 
Point Lambajon. 

Bislig. — The cove of Bislig is comprised between Point Tagtaba on 
the south and Point Maslic on the north. The islet of Masaburon 
divides the entrance of the cove into two channels. 

Lianga. — The cove of Lianga is comprised between Point Baculin 
on the south and Point Umanun on the north, which points are at a 
distance of 8 miles from each other. Other coves open south of Point 
Lambillon and between Tandag and Point Cauit, but they are of no 


Bilanhilmi. — The harbor of Bilanbilan is 1 mile south of Point 
Surigao. This is a very small port. A cove, opened at the north 
and comprised between Point Bilanbilan and the most northerly point 
of Mindanao, can also serve as anchoring ground. 

Nasipit.—lL\i^ small port of Nasipit is situated south of the Bay of 
Butuan, near the river of the same name. 

Bal'mgasag. — The harbor of Balingasag is north of Point Gorda 
and next to it. 

Cabulig. — The harbor of Cabulig opens south of Point Gorda and 
north of the town of Jasaan, on the Bay of Macajalar. 

Cagayan., — The harbor of Cagayan is northeast of the mouth of the 
River Cagayan, at a distance of half a mile. 

Hosted by 




Hosted by 


Hosted by 



OpoL— The harbor of Opol is 5 miles west of the bar of the River 

AhiMjit.--Thehs.rhov of Ahibijit is 7 miles northwest of the harbor 
of Opol. 

Misaniis. — The port of Misamis opens at the entrance of the bay of 
Panguil, southwest of the bay of Iligan. 

Loctdan.--ThehRThoY of Loculan is situated between the two mouths 
of the river Loculan in the bay of Pan^'uil. 

DapUwti. — The port of Dapitan is opposite the town of this name, 
on the bay called also Dapitan. 

Talaguilong. — The port of Talaguilong- is situated between the town 
of Dapitan and Point Tagolo. 

El Canicol. — The Caracol is a small port in .the shape of a snail, north 
^of the river Dapitan and close to it. 

Dauigan, — ^The harbor of Dauigan is on the bay of this name. 

Baniga7i, — That of Banigan is situated south of Point Banigan. 


Santa Maria. — The well-sheltered port of Santa Maria is situated 
south of Point Bulangolan and close to it. 

Caldera. — The port of Caldera is situated near the town of Ayala, 
on the southern extremity of the peninsula of Zamboanga; it is small 
and of little depth, but very well sheltered. 

pan Mateo. — The harbor of San Mateo is situated between the port 
of Caldera and Zamboanga. 


/jirihhoayiga. — The harbor of Zamboanga is one of poor conditions on 
account of its bottom being formed of large rocks. It extends north 
of the islands of Santa Cruz. 

'MaHhigloG. — The excellent harbor or port of Masingloc goes inward 
about 3 miles north of Point Mariqui. It affords excellent shelter when 
high seas are feared, due to the northern hurricanes peculiar to the 
Philippine Islands. 

Banga.^-The port of Banga lies back of the cove of this name. 

Bolong and Coruan. — There are anchoring grounds opposite the two 
towns named, the better being that of Coruan, which is very well shel- 
tered by the islands of the Panubigan group. 

Smnhnlaua/n,. — The port of Sambulauan lies beyond Point Tambatan, 
on the cove of Matubug. 

Sangwrayan. — The island bearing this name, lying south of the 
northern point of the cove of Matubug, together'wifli some hidden 
rocks at the entrance of said cove, afford fair anchoring grounds. 

Tucnran. — The harbor of Tucuran is west of the mountain of this 
same name. 

Ba/ms. — The harbor of Baras, on the cove of this name, is formed 
by the island of Ibus and the coast. 

There are also anchoring grounds between points Matimus and 

Polloc. —The magnificent port of Polloc, situated east of the bay of 
Illana, is comprised between Point Mariga-bato on the south and Point 
Tagapangan on the north. It runs 5 miles in to the east, and together 
with the northern coast it forms the bays of Quidancaco and Sugut, 

Hosted by 



while with the southern coast it forms a still larger bay, within which 
is situated the naval establishment of Polloc. That of Paran-paran is 
on the western part of this bay. Sounding at the entrance of the bay 
shows a depth of over 70 meters, and inside of it there is a depth of 
from 30 to 50 meters. 

Cotabato,—T\iQ harbor of Cotabato is situated on that part of river 
Pulangui which is opposite the town of this name. It has 5 meters of 

Linao. — The harbor of Linad is in the bay of this name. 

Mati.—T\\^ harbor of Mati is in the bend formed by the cliffs of 
Point Tabunao, 11 miles nort of Port Lebac. 

Lehac. — This port is formed by points Lebac and Nara. 

Basiauang. — The harbor or harbors of Basiauang, which are sit- 
uated between the cove of Lebac on the north and the cove of Tuna on 
the south, are the best in this part of the coast. 

Tirmtto, — The harbor of Timuto is north of Point Baluluan and 
close to it, and west of the entrance to the bay of Sarangani. 

Maear. —Th^ harbor of Macar opens to the northwest of the bay 
of Sarangani and contiguous to it. 

MluG.—T\\Q harbor of Mluc is north of point Dimpao, also on the 
bay of Sarangani. 

Marapatang.—T\\Q harbor of Marapatang is east of the bay of 
Sarangani. Its conditions are poor. 

Sapo. — The small port of Sapo opens south-southwest of the harbor 
of Marapatang. 

Glan-Masila. — The harbor of Glan-Masila is situated about 3 miles 
north of Point Sumban, at the eastern end of the bay of Sarangani. 

Balangunan.— The harbor of Balangunan lies beyond Point Tinea, 
in the direction of the east-northeast. 

JVuin. — The harbor of Nuin opens li miles north of Butulan. 

Cahiran. — The harbor of Caburan is north of Point Caburan. 

Bung, — The harbor of Dung is at the island of Sarangani, Grande, 
or Balut-Marila. 

7thal. — This harbor is also situated in the same island, after turning 
Point Vay toward the west. 

Minic. — Minic is a bay and anchoring ground at the end of the same 

Pahtco. — The port of Patuco is the best in the island of Sarangani- 
Chica and is situated at the northern end of same, 1 mile south of 
Point Catoan. 

TumMnao. — The port of Tumanao is situated about 1 mile south of 
Point Tian. 

Boay. — The port of Boay opens south of the port of Tumanao. 

Matalag, — The port of Malalag is situated in the cove of Casilaran, 
southwest of the bay of Davao. 

Bavao, — The harbor of Davao is situated at more than a cable's 
length from the coast, beyond the bar of the river toward the north. 

MadoAim. — The harbor of Madaum is situated near the mouth of 
the river of this name within the bay of Davao. 

Pandasan and Cojpia. — There is a good anchoring ground, sheltered 
and protected from all winds between the islands of Pandasan and 
Copia, situated near the south-southeast of the mouth of the river 

Matiao, — Five miles S. i E. of Point Lahi is the small cove and 
anchorage of Matiao. 

Hosted by 







Hosted by 


Hosted by 



Sigaboy, — The harbor of Sigaboy is opposite the town of this name. 

Lanigan—T^No miles before reaching Cape Augustin is the small 
port of Lanigan, good only for small craft. 

Other anchorages can be found in the coves and bends of the bay of 

Malipano. — The harbor of Malipano, a naval station in the bay of 
Davao, is situated between the small island of Malipano and the island 
of Samal. Its conditions are good and it is protected by the island of 


Luban,—WQ call harbor of Luban the one which is met before sail- 
ing past Point Camamauan coming from the South, and is formed by 
the islet and Point Luban. 

Pujaga.—T\iQ bay of Pujaga is one of the best ports of Mindanao. 

Macamhol.—T\iQ harbor of Macambol is situated inside of the bay 
of Pujaga. 

Oaraga, — The harbor of Caraga is situated East of the river which 
bears its name, and it can give shelter to small craft. 

Tuhu. — Within the cove of Caraga, toward the south, is the harbor 
of Tubu, a good shelter from the southeast to southwest winds. 

Baganga, — East of the town of Baganga is the harbor of this name. 

There are to be found other harbors in the various coves and bends 
formed by this coast as far as the strait of Surigao. They have, how- 
ever, never been surveyed, neither do they appear to be of any 


There are two capes worthy of notice in Mindanao. That of Saran- 
gani or Point Tinaca, at the southern end of the island, and that of San 
Agustin at the end of the western coast of the bay of Davao. 


From Point Cauit, the most easterly one of the peninsula of Surigao, 
along the coast toward the west, there are the following points in the 
order named: Tugas, Bilanbilan, Nanoc, Bilaa, Bolobolo, Diuata, 
Sipaca, Gorda, Bagacay, Sulauan, Binuni, Biani, Labo, Tabu, Divalan, 
Layauan, Polo, Bombaon, Silk, Balalo, Tagolo, Botong, Sicayab, 
Blanca, Dauit, Tabonan, Sindangan, Dauigan, Banigan, Quipit, Mada- 
log, Panganuran, Gorda, and Coronada. 


The principal points on this coast, commencing with the most north- 
erly one, are: Bulangonan, Dulunquin, Siocon, Siraguay, Cauit, Pia- 
can, Nanga, Batotindoc, Litangan, Alimpaya, Batalampon, Dumalun, 
and Caldera. 


The most important points on the coast of Mindanao, which extends 
from Zamboanga through the bays of Sibuguey, Illana, and Davao, are 
the following: Coruan, Lutangan, Taguisian, and Arenas (island of 
Olutanga), Lapat, Flechas, Tambulian, Tambatan, Dapulisan, Pora, 
Caliban, Semaruga, Selungan, Lapitan, Salauan, Matimus, Tagapan- 

p c— VOL 3—01 20 

Hosted by 



^an, Marigabato, Tapian, Maiiangula, Lugus, Liiput, Liriao, Tabuiiao, 
Quidapil, Lebac, Nara, Pitas, Basiauang, Tuna, Polo, Bacud, Bui, Balu- 
than, Panguian, Tinaea, at the southern end of the island; Vay and 
Tiain on the islands of Sarangani; Sagal, Pampat, Cabusa, Banos, 
Calian, Lubalan, Tibungoy, Cakmgan, Pagquiputan, Santana, Bayagua, 
Lasang, Parara, Lalu, Arenas, and others, from the Bay of Davao to 
Cape San Agustin. 


Sailing past Cape San Agustin and along the coast toward the north 
one meets the following points: Baluc, Camamauan, Luban, Salasada, 
Nagas, Masala, Macaoran, Alo, Tumadgo, Tataidaga, Camainsi, Batiano, 
Taganilao, Lamigan, Uguis, Gorda, Flaca, Tugubum, Maglubun, Buan, 
Bunga, Pusan, Sancol, Baculin, Lamigon, Daguet, Lambajon, Quin- 
ablayan, Bagoso, Tonquil, Catel, Catarman, Sanco, Tagtada, Maslic, 
Lamon, Baculin, Unianun, Lambillon, Tandag, and Cauit, from the 
latter of which the eastern coast of the Peninsula of Surigao starts. 



The bay of Maluse, situated on the western part of the Isabela de 
Basilan, is a remarkable one. It is the most important bay of the 
whole group of Basilan. 



The harbor of Catarman, in the island of Camiguin, and that of 
Malamaui, in the island of Basilan, are good anchorages. 


The principal points of Dinagat are: Desolacion and Berrugosa on 
the north. Peninsula and Penascales on the east, and Gabo on the south. 


Points Agojo, Maquinog, Cubuang, and Parol are the best known 
on the island of Camiguin. 


The same may be said of Points Calabaza, Matangal, and Mangal as 
regards the island of Basilan. 

Hosted by 









There are not in this group any coves or bays worthy of special 
mention, on account of its being- composed of 'small islandsand various 
islets. Navigation between the islands of this group is rather danger- 
ous, on account of the strong currents which are to be found in its 
little-known channels. 


In this group the most important bays are Jolo, Maibun, Tutu, and 

Jolo, — The bay or harbor of Jolo is comprised between points 
Daingapit and Belan on the southern extremity. Its coasts are clear, 
and its bottom, slightly shelving, is generally of thick sand. 

Between points Belam and Candea there are formed two small coves, 
which are separated by Point Bulangsi. 

Maibun. — The cove of Maibun is comprised between points Cabalian 
on the west and Putic on the east, distant from each other 8 miles. It 
runs in about 2 miles northward on the coast of the island of Jolo. 

Tuhu. — The bay of Tubu opens east of that of Maibun and close to 
it, between points Putic and Carangdato, distant from each other 13 

Pitogo. — The clear and rock-bound bay of Pitogo extends 11 miles 
to the northeast from point Carangdato, and is comprised between this 
point and Point Landican. 


Although there are no important bays in the group of Tapul, there 
are various bends which may serve as anchorages, especially in the 
islands of Siasi, Tapul, Lapag, and Lugus. 

(tRoup of tawi-tawi. 

Among the bays of the group of Tawi-Tawi, only those of Basbas, 
Tawi-Tawi, and Chongos are worthy of notice. 

Basbas. — The bend or small bay of Basbas is situated on the island 
of this name. 

Tawi-Tawi. — There are on the island of Tawi-Tawi, the largest one 
of the group, four bays or bends, sheltered and distributed at almost 
equal distances around the coast. 

Aguada.—Th^ cove of Aguada is situated south of the island of 

Chongos. — The cove of Chongos is situated northeast of the same 
island of Bongao. 

Hosted by 





There are some unimportant harbors in this group, especially in the 
island of Balanguingui, which is a center of piracy. 


Tulayan, — The harbor of Tulayan is the best of the whole group, 
although its depth of sounding water is irregular. It is situated north- 
east of Jolo. South of Tulayan there is a deep cove. 

Jolo. — The anchorage of Jolo is in the bay or harbor of this name. 

Pata. — There is a fair harbor in the island of this name. 

There are also fair anchoring grounds in the bays of Maibun, Tubu, 
and Pitogo. 


Tapaam.-^There is good anchorage at the pass of Tapaam, between 
the island of this name and that of Lapag. 

Basbas. — North of the channel of Basbas there is a very well-shel- 
tered harbor and anchoring grounds for all kinds of craft, and it is 
easily accessible. 

^Bos Amigas. — The port of Dos Amigas is situated on the northern 
coast of Tawi-Tawi, 9| miles west of the harbor of Basbas. 

Uhian. — Vessels can anchor in the channel which runs east of the 
island of Ubian. There are good anchorages of 13 to 20 meters, over 
sand, opposite to the northern extremity of Ubian, and of 15 to 18 
meters in the placer which extends east of Pandana. 


The islands of the archipelago of Jolo being mostly small, this archi- 
pelago is unimportant from a hydrographic point of view so far as the 
survey of its points is concerned. We shall, however, mention a few 
of the principal ones. 

The best known are on the island of Jolo, and they are the following: 
Tuctuc, Igasan, Daingapit, Belan, Candea, Silangan, Cabalian, Putic, 
Carangdato, and Ludican. 

Point Balimbin, on the island of Tawi-Tawi, is also known. 


There are various bays and coves of importance on this island. We 
will confine ourselves to mentioning a few of the most important ones. 


Going along the western coast, starting from the south, one finds 
the following bays and coves: 

Canipan, — ^The bay of Canipan, formed by Points Alimudin on the 
south and Cape Siacle on the north, derives its name from a river 
which flows into it. 

Hosted by 



Limapug, — The bay of Limapug runs north from Cape Siacle and 
ends at Point Coreti on the north. 

SepangoiD. — ^The bay of Sepangow opens 5i miles northeast of Cape 

Marasi, — The bay of Marasi extends from Point Roca to opposite 
the island of Litalita. 

Etom. — The bay of Eran or Cran opens north of the point of this 
name and contiguous to it. 

Nacoda. — The cove of Nacoda is formed by the island of this name 
and the coast of Paragua. 

Taghayug. — The bay of Tagbayug extends east of Cape Albion. 

Traidora. — The Traidora Bay opens 12 miles from Cape Albion. 

Apuranan, — The harbor or bay of Apuranan is 5 miles distant from 
the cliff of Moorsom, south of Point Larga. 

Ulugan. — The aborigines call the bay of Banog '^bay of Ulugan." 
It runs inward 8 miles to the south, and almost divides the Paragua in 
two halves. Its entrance is 2 miles wide, between Point Corneria and 
Point Cabeza Rota. 

Taguipa. — The cove of Taguipa opens next to Cape Dean. 

Ostras. — The cove of Ostras is situated between Points Coral and 

San Pablo. — The bay of San Pablo extends east of Point Sangbonen. 

Botalon — The bay of Botalon is formed on the northern coast of 
Point Promontorio. 

Cruz de Mayo. — The bay of Cruz de Mayo is east of the islands of 
Catalat and Cacbolo and contiguous to them. 

Reinas. — The bay of Reinas runs inward between Point Bubon and 
Point Ostras. 

Pagdanan. — The bay of Pagdanan is comprised between Point Bet- 
bet and Cape Pagdanan. 

ImuryAin.—ThQ bay of Imuruan is formed by Cape Pagdanan toward 
the south and Point Emergencia toward the north. 

Inlutiitoc. — The bay of Inlututoc is formed by Cape Capoas and Point 
Del Diente. 

Bolalo. — The bay of Bolalo, north of Point Del Diente, is comprised 
between this point and Point Barmidiaran. 

Malampaya. — The bay of Malampaya, situated on the opposite coast 
of Taytay, is perhaps the best in the Philippines. 

Pirata. — Pirata Bay is the best of the three bays which are formed 
at the entrance of the port of Malampaya and the narrows which are 
4 miles to the north. 

Caiman. — The bay of Caiman is the northern one of the two which 
occupy the southern side of the strait, contiguous to Pirata Bay. 

Malipu, — The bay of Malipu is separated from the bay of Caiman 
by Point Balulu. 

Bamiit. — The bay of Bacuit is a deep bay, formed by a series of 
islands and by the coast of La Paragua, near its northern extremity. 


Going along the eastern coast, from south to north, one meets the 
following bays and coves: 

Pied/ras. — The bay of Piedras runs inward and near the Mantalingajan 
mountain range. 

Hosted by 



fslas, — The bay of Lslas is on the same parallel as that of Tagbayug 
on the western coast. 

Aided. — The bay of Aldea opens '2, miles north of the island of 

Honda. — Seamen call Bahia Honda (Honda Bay) that part of the coast 
which extends about 25 miles to the southwest of Point Acantilada. It 
corresponds to the bay of IJlugan on the western coast. 

IdasVerdeH, — The bay of lslas Verdes is formed northeast of the 
Verde Islands. 

Dwrria/ran, — The bay of Dumaran opens toward the north of Point 

Taytay. — The magnificent ba}^ of Taytay, 10 miles wide and 6 miles 
deep, extends on the opposite coast corresponding to the interior of 
the port of Malampaya. 

Silanga. — The bay of Silanga is formed by the island of Maitiaguit 
and the coast of La Paragua. 

Aletas de Tihuron. — The bay of Aletas de Tiburon runs inward north 
of Maitiaguit^and contiguous to this island. 

Santa Monica. --^^ ^ call bay of Santa Monica that small cove which 
opens near to the northern extremity of La Paragua, and on which is 
situated the town of this name. 

DaroGotan. — The cove of Darocotan opens north of the point of this 



Evan. — There is good anchorage east of Point Eran, in the bay of 
this name. 

Nacoda. — The anchoring grounds of Nacoda are in the cove of this 

Taghayug. — The anchoring grounds of Tagbayug are in the ba}" of 
this name. 

Apuranan. — The anchoring grounds of Apuranan are west of the 
cliflf of Apuranan. 

Vlugan. — The anchoring grounds of Ulugan are at the southern 
extremity of the island of Santa Rita. 

Barton. — The port of Barton comprises the space of sea between 
the islands of Albaguen and Cacnipa and the promontory which 
advances toward the east of the latter island. 

Capsalay. — There is an anchorage north of the island of this name. 

Imuruan. — There is also an anchorage in the bay of this name. 

Malampaya. — The magnilicent port of Malampaya is on the eastern 
part of the peninsula of Capoas. It is without a doubt the best in the 

Cadlao. — We call the harbor of Cadlao the one which is situated on 
the northern side of the island of this name. 


Port Princesa or Port Yuahit. — This port is 4^ miles northeast of 
Point Tabla and its entrance is between this point and Point Saboruce. 

Cana. — We call the harbor of Cana the one which is situated between 
the ridge of Point Cana and Point Bateria. 

Dumaran. — The island of Dumaran has good anchoring grounds 
toward the south-southwest of the bay of this name. 

Hosted by 


Hosted by 


Hosted by 




The principal capes and points of the western coast of Paragua are: 
Cape Buliluj^an, on the southern extremity. Points Reposo, Panimu- 
san, Alimudin, Providencia, Pinos, and Lean; Cape Washington ; points 
Jervois, Townsend, Pampandugang, Eran or Cran; capes Albion and 
Tajado or Point Steep; points Larga, Mesa, Del Noroeste, Piedras, 
Promontorio, Pagdanan, Macaguit, Tabonan, Del Diente, Parmidiaran, 
Del Esfnerzo, De la Columna; Cape of La Cuna; points Baluluk, 
Cabuli, and Darocotan, on the northern extremity of the island. 


The principal points on this coast are: Rawrisley, Madropora, Decep- 
cion, Marantow, Okyan, De la Iglesia, Segyam, San Juan, Sir James 
Brook, Filantropia, De la Nariz, Del Pescado, Eustasia, Scolt, Separa- 
cion, Casuarina, Tabla, Binunsalian, Briyoon, Del Castillo, Acantilada, 
Flechas, Bay, Tinactactan, and Negra. 


The principal bays and coves of the island of Balabac are those of 
Calandorang, Dalauan, Clarendon, and Puerto Ciego. 

Calandora7ig ,—T\iQ bay of Calandorang extends toward the north- 
ern part of the island. 

Daloman. — The bay of Dalauan is on the eastern coast near the 
southern end of the island. 

Clarendon. — The bay of Clarendon opens toward the northeast of 

Puerto Ciego. — The bay known b}^ the name of Puerto Ciego opens 
toward the northwest, and is obstructed by coral reefs. 


Although anchor may be dropped all along the channel or northern 
strait of Balabac, there is a bend west of a rather long ledge of rocks 
which is formed in front of the mouth of a wide creek and which is 
more or less half a cable's length distant from the eastern entrance of 
the channel on the southern coast, where there is an anchorage of 10 
meters in depth with a mud bottom. 

Port of Principe Alfonso. — There is a good anchorage in the bay of 
Calandorang, sheltered and protected, especially against the winds and 
seas from south to west, called Port of Principe Alfonso. 


Capes Desastre and Melville, the former on the northern extremity 
of the island and the latter on the southern end, are worth mentioning 

Hosted by 




SKA8, CHA:NKT^]I.8, straits, passages, AKT) ''SII.A]SrOAS." 


As it was not easy to include in the division which we have followed 
in this treatise the seas, channels, straits, passages, and silangas of the 
Philippine Archipelago on account of their large number, and it being 
on the other hand very useful to know where they are situated, we 
have thought it proper to devote this chapter to the enumeration and 
location of same. 

Although there is apparently no essential difference between a chan- 
nel, a strait, a passage, and a ''silanga," we shall still adopt the names 
given by seamen acquainted with these islands, or which have been 
used in the hydrographic maps hitherto published. 


The seas which wash the Philippine Archipelago are the Pacific 
Ocean on the east, the China Sea on the north and west, the Celebed 
Sea on the south, and the Sea of Jolo or Mindoro, comprised between 
the islands of Borneo, Paragua, Calamianes, Mindoro, Panay, Negros, 
Mindanao, and the archipelago of Jolo. 

The portion of sea which extends from the southern part of Luzon 
to the northern coast of Mindanao, between the Visaya Islands, is 
known by the names of Interior Sea, Interinsular Sea, and Visayas Sea. 


The most important channels in the Philippines are the following: 

Channel of Baschi^ between the island of Formosa and the group of 
Batanes, north of Luzon. 

Channel of Balingtan, between the Babuyanes Islands and the 
Batanes, north of Luzon. 

Channel of Isla Verde, between Luzon and the island of Mmdoro. 

Channel of Lubang, between the group of the Lubang Islands and 

Channel of Mindoro, between Mindoro and the Calamianes group. 

Channel of Ylin, between the Ylin and Mindoro islands. 

Channel of Ambolon, between the Ylin and Ambolon islands. 

Channel of Biliran, between the northwestern point of Leyte and 
the southwestern coast of Biliran. 

Channel of Buad, between the bay of Maqueda and the Parasan and 
Buad islands. 

Channel of Janabatas, on the west-northwest end of the strait of 
San Juanico. 

Channel of Malapascua, between the Malapascua and Chocolate 

Channel of Tictauan, at the eastern entrance to the strait of Basilan. 

Channel of Binitosa, in the Basilan group. 

Channel of Salipin, in the Basilan group, to the south. 

Channel of Tapiantana, in the Basilan group, to the south. 

Hosted by 



Channel of Siasi, in the Tapul ^roup. 

Channel of Basbas, in the Tawi-tawi group. 

Channel del Norte, northeast of the island of Balabae. 

Channel of Comiran, east of the island of Balabac. 

Channel of Lumbacan, east of the island of Balabac. 

Channel of Simanahan, east-southeast of the island of Balabac. 

Channel of Enmedio, southeast of the island of l^alabac. 

Channel of Mangsee, southwest of the above. 

Channel of Noche Buena, in the Tawi-tawi group. 

Channel of La Verbena, in the Tawi-tawi group. 

Channel of Maipat, in the Tawi-tawi group. 

Channel of Cambacamba, in the Tawi-tawi group. 

Channel of Sipungut, in the Tawi-tawi group. 

Channel of Tandubas, in the Tawi-tawi group. 

Channel of the west of Banaran, in the Tawi-tawi group. 

Channel of the west of Basibuki, in the Tawi-tawi group. 

Channel of Balseiro, in the Tawi-tawi group. 

Channel of Bambulin, in the Tawi-tawi group. 

Channel of Pasco, in the Verde Islands. 

Channel of Dumaran, between the islands of Duiuaran and Paragua. 


The principal straits are: 

Strait of San Bernardino, between the Southern end of Luzon and 
the northwestern end of the island of Samar. 

Strait of the Isla Verde, between Luzon and the Island of Min- 
dora. (Also called Channel of the Isla Verde.) 

Strait of Los Ticlines, between Luzon and the islands of Calintan, 
Juac, and Ticlin, southeast of the province of Sorsogon. 

Strait of Mindoro, between Mindoro and the Calamianes Island. 
(Also called Channel of Mindoro.) 

Strait of San Juanico, between the islands of Samar and Leyte. 

Strait of Coron, in the Calamianes group. 

Strait of Iloilo, between the islands of Panay and Negros. 

Strait of Tanon, between the islands of Negros and Cebu. 

Strait of Surig-ao, between the southern ends of Samar and Leyte 
and the northern coast of Mindanao. 

Strait of Basilan, between the islands of Mindanao and Basilan. 

Strait of the Bloqueo, toward the south of Tuluran (Paragua). 

Strait of El Esfuerzo, toward the east of Tuluran (Paragua). 

Strait of Balabac, between the islands of Balabac and Banguey. 

Strait of the north of Balabac, between the islands of La Paragua 
and Balabac. 


The passages between the various islands are, as it will be easily 
understood, innumerable. We shall only mention some of those 
specially known as being the most frequented by vessels: 

Passages of Boca Chica and Boca Grande, at the entrance of the bay 
of Manila. 

Passages of Ambil, in the group of the Lubang Islands. 

Passages north of the Verde Island, between the Verde Island and 

Passages soutti of the Verde Island, between the Verde and Mindoro. 

Hosted by 



Passage north of Maricaban, between the island of Maricaban and 

Passage south of Maricaban, between the islands of Maricaban and 

Passage of Mompog, between Point Tuginan (Luzon) and the island 
of Mompog. 

Passage of Sibuyan, between the islands of Sibuyan and Mas bate. 

Passage of Masbate, between this island and that of Ticao. 

Passage of Ticao, between this island and that of Luzon. 

Passage of Tablas, between this island and that of Komblon. 

Passage of Bocaboc, at the entrance of the Strait of Tanon. 

Passage east of Ginatuan, between the northeastern coast of Min- 
danao and the islands of Dinagat and Bucas. 

Passage of Tapaam, in the Tawi-tawi group. 

Passage of Pangutaran, in the Tawi-tawi group. 


The most frequented "silangas" are the following: 

"Silanga" of Golo, in the Lubang group. 

"Silanga" of Cabra, in the Lubang group. 

"Silanga" of Rapurrapu, between the islands of Rapurrapu and 

''Silanga" of Sula, between Luzon and the island of Cacraray. 

' ' Silanga " of Pitogo, between Luzon and the island of Pitogo. 

"Silanga" of Casolgan, between the islands of Cacraray and San 

''Silanga" of Cacraray, between the islands of Cacraray and Batan. 

"Silanga" of Cebu, between the islands of Cebu and Mactan. 

" Silanga" of Tagbilaran, between the islands of Bohol and Panglao. 

" Silanga " of Gabo, between Dinagat and the islands of the Ginatuan 

''Silanga" of Dapa, between the southwestern coast of the island of 
Sirgao and the island of Bucas. 

"Silanga" of La Isabela, between the islands of Malamaui and 

Hosted by 







There are four principal rivers in the island of Luzon, which run in 
opposite directions nearly the whole length of the island, namely: The 
Grande de Cagayan, the Agno Grande, the Abra, and the Grande de 
la Pampanga. Their basins are determined by the three great moun- 
tain ranges, which, as we said in the Treatise on Orography, belong to 
the system of the Caraballos. 


Among the rivers of Luzon the Grande de Cagayan, likewise called 
Tajo by the Spaniards, holds the first place, not only on account of its 
great length but also on account of the great volume of its waters. 
Compared with all the rivers of the archipelago it is second to none, 
unless it be the river Grande de Mindanao. The territory drained by 
it embraces all the region lying between the Western Caraballos, the 
Sierra Madre, and the Southern Caraballos, with a total area or extent 
of 38.52 square kilometers. The source of this great river is on the 
northern slope of the Southern Caraballos, to the east of the starting 
point of the Mamparan mountain range. 

At first it follows a northeasterly direction, and after receiving the 
waters which come from the eastern slope of the above-mentioned 
Mamparan range and those which come from the western slope of the 
Sierra Madre, it continues in the same general direction for a distance 
of more than 20 leagues until it reaches Tumauini, which is about half- 
way of its course, having received by its left bank, in the neighbor- 
hood of Gainu, the largest of its affluents, the River Magat. Passing 
by Ilagan and Tumauini, it continues its course in a northerly direction, 
and having, with great windings, fertilized the towns of Cabagan, 
Nuevo, Iguig, Amulung, Alcala, Gattaran, and Lal-lo, it reaches, with 
a broad and navigable current, the town of Aparri, located near its 
mouth, where it yields up its tribute of waters to the China Sea, which 
bathes the northern coast of Luzon. 

Numerous tributaries pour into the Cagayaan on both sides, those 
deserving special mention being the Magat, the Bangag or Chico, and 
the Siffu or Sibbu, which enter into it by the left bank. 


Hosted by 



The Magat is approximately 25 leag-ues long, and rises in the south- 
west corner of the province of Nueva Vizeaya, among the mountains 
Mingoht, Salaesa, Dalandem, and Ugu or Lugsen, at the junction of 
the Western Caraballos and Mamparan mountain ranges. It runs first 
toward the north, passing by Aritao; it waters the boundaries of Bam- 
bang, Bayombong and Bagabag; then it turns toward the east, passing 
by Reina Mercedes, and empties its waters into th<3 Cagayan near the 
town of Gamu. The affluents of the Magat, within the province of 
Nueva Vizeaya, are: the Mingolit, Caraballo, Abual, Matumut, Ibulao, 
Ahnit, Mayoyao, and other less important ones on the left bank, and 
the Abian, Angadanan, and Salinan on the right. 

The Bangag orChico empties into the Cagayan on its left bank in 
the township of Alcala, and near the town of Nagsiping. It gathers 
its waters from numerous tributaries, which descend in different direc- 
tions from the rugged mountains situated on the west of the divide of 
Itaves, and those from the eastern slopes of the Central Caraballos, 
where it rises near the valley of Banano. Its length is some 17 leagues', 
and, although at the beginning it flows from west to east as far as near 
Piat, it turns thence toward the northeast until it reaches the Cagayan. 
While passing through the provinces of Cagayan, Albra, and Bon toe 
it receives its most important tributaries, which are the Saltan, Nab- 
buangan, and Sable. 

The Siff'u or Sibbu gathers all the waters of the region west of the 
district of Bontoc and, flowing toward the east, passes through part of 
Isabela until it joins the Cagayan between Ilagan and Tumauini. 


From the western slopes of the Sierra Madre, crossing districts 
inhabited only by savages, there descend many other tributaries of the 
Cagayan, which ]oin it on its right bank; the principal ones being the 
Disabungan Ditulay, Catalangan, Tarretic, Masagan, Pinacanauan de 
lumauini, 1 macanauan de Cabagan, and Pinacanauan de Tuguegarao. 
ihey are all short, the longest not exceeding 10 leagues in length. 


The Agno is the second in importance among the rivers of Luzon. 
It rises on the southern slope of Mount Data, near the boundary 
between the districts of Benguet and Lepanto and the province of Nueva 
V izcaya. Its length is about 32 leagues. It crosses the district of Ben- 
gmet trom north to south and the province of Pagasinan in a direction 
trom northwest to southeast at first, and between San Nicolas and 
layug It begins to form a great sweep, which continues in the direction 
trom northeast to southwest, passing through Rosales, Alcala, and 
Bayambang, and after having received the waters of the river Tarlac a 
little further south, inclines toward the northwest, watering the bound- 

Hosted by 










1 ** 

1 i 




lillj -• . 






Hosted by 


Hosted by 



aries of Urbiztondo and Aguilar, and dividing into two branches near 
Salasa, one flowing toward the northeast and ending in Dagupan, while 
the other flows toward the west, and after having received near San 
Isidro the waters of a branch of the first, which passes by the town of 
Lingayen, it pours its waters into the western part of the Gulf of 


There are many tributaries to the Agno Grande, on account of the 
broken country it runs through, but those which carry the most water 
are the ones received in the second half of its course, and the principal 
ones among them are the Tarlac and the Camilung, which empty into 
it on the left in the vast plains of Pangasinan. The other tributaries 
on the left are the Angbayabang, Matabla'n, Nibobon, Agra, Olo, 
Julaguit, Soboc, Salamague, and Dumulo. Of those on the right bank, 
which are not so numerous, the only ones that deserve mention are the 
Agno Chico, the Catablas, the Macalang, and the Sinuncalan. 


The third of the rivers of Luzon is the Abra, which, descending from 
the northern slope of the Data, in the district of Lepanto, in the oppo- 
site direction to the river Agno Grande, gathers in the beginning the 
waters of the northern and western slopes of the Data, and those of its 
tribuary, the Sayuc, which, having its source on the southern declivity 
of the same mountain, forms a great curve toward the south, then runs 
toward the north, and empties into the Abra between the towns of 
Mancaj^an and Cervantes, the volume of water being then considerable. 
Its general direction from Cervantes to Angaqui, near the mountain 
range of Tila, and in the eastern part, is from south to north as far as 
Tayum, in the province of Abra; there it describes a semicircle in a 
southerly direction and soon continues in a southwesterly course, passes 
through the mountain range which separates Abra from Ilocos Sur, and, 
having watered the boundaries of Bangued, Pidigan, and San Quintin, 
divides, within Ilocos Sur, near Santa, into two branches, which not 
far from Vigan empty at different points into the China Sea. Its 
length is some 25 leagues. 


Besides the Suyuc it receives as tributary the Tinog, which is formed 
by the union of the Anayan and Caluan, which gather the waters from 
the southern slopes of Pagsan. It flows from northeast to southwest, 
to increase its volume, near La Paz, with the waters of several rivers 
which rise in the mountains Liputen, Mabulusan, Cusa, Balatinao, and 
Maonayud, until between Dolores and San Gregorio it joins the main 
branch of the Abra. Other less important tributaries are the Mala- 
nao, Baay, Abas, Mamebel, BuUoc, Damunil, Ulip, Balasian, andDica- 
pen, all on the right bank, which gather the waters from the western 
slope of the central Caraballos. 


The river Grande de la Pampanga has its source in several rivers 
which drain the waters from the southern slopes of the Southern Cara- 
ballos range, in mountains Lagsig and Mingolit, and therefore on the 

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opposite slope to that of the river Magat, which, as we have just seen, 
belongs to the basin of the river Grande de Cagayan. Its general 
direction is from north to south, and it flows through the provinces of 
Nueya Eeija and Pampanga. In the lirst part of its course and before 
receiving, near Arayat, the river Chico de la Pampanga, it waters the 
boundaries of Bongabon, Santos, Cabanatuan, Jaen, San Isidro, and 
Cabiao, all in Nueva Ecija. From Arayat it turns toward the east, 
and, passing near 4he shores of Lake Candaba, it continues through 
San Luis, San Simon, and Calumpit, always toward the south, until, 
having divided into numerous branches, it forms a complicated net- 
work of channels and marshes, which empty their waters into Manila 


The river Chico de la Pampanga rises in Lake Canaron, province of 
Tarlac, and, taking a southeast course between the boundaries of Nueva 
Ecija, Tarlac, and Pampanga, after having fertilized the boundaries of 
La Paz and Zaragoza, near Arayat, province of Pampanga, contributes 
its waters to the voluminous river which from said confluence to its 
mouth is properly called the river Grande de la Pampanga. 


The^ principal tributaries of this great river are the Barat, Calun- 
gan, Carranglan, Tuntumin, Santor, Gapan, San Jose, and Parudo. 



The Cauit traverses the province of Ilocos Norte, and, passing between 
Laoag and San Nicolas, over the bar of its name, pours its waters into 
the China Sea. Its tributaries are, among others, the Gant, the Guisi, 
the Baybay, the Pagsan, and the Pagsambaran, which descend from 
the western slopes of the northern Caraballos. 

The Pasig, which flows out of the Laguna de Bay through five 
branches and is its outlet, empties into the magnificent bay of Manila. 
It has several tributaries, those which it receives from the right bank 
being the only important ones, among which may be mentioned, on 
account of their great volume of water, the Cainta, Grande de San 
Mateo, and San Francisco del Monte. Those which unite with it on 
the left bank are nothing more than small streams and creeks, short in 
length and carrying little water. The river Pasig is the principal 
means of communication between Manila and the interior of Luzon, 
especially between Manila and the Laguna de Bay, which is only 18 miles 
distant. Its width is from 100 to 2,000 meters, and its depth is also 
variable, ranging from 2.28 to 6.13 meters. 


The Bicol is the principal river of Southern Luzon. It rises on the 
slopes of Mount Isarog, province of Ambos Camarines, and flows 
toward the southwest, dividing into two branches, the smaller one taking 

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a southeastern course until it empties into the lake of Bato, while the main 
branch follows a southwestern direction, and, passing through Nueva 
Caceres, San Nicolas, and Panon, empties, after a course of 178 kilo- 
meters, through its mouth at Cabusan, into the bay of San Miguel. 
Its tributaries on the left bank rise in the Colasi Mountains and in 
Mount Amtig. This river forms, with the Quinali and the Lipocot, the 
basis of the hydrography of the province, and is of no small importance 
to the geology of Am bos Camarines. 

The Imus also deserves special mention because it empties into 
Manila Bay, and it is navigable up to the town which gave it its name. 


The rivers of the coast ai"e of little importance. Those which rise 
on the eastern slopes of the Sierra Madre pour their waters into the 
Pacific Ocean. They are the Degollirin, in Isabela; the Casignan, 
which empties into the bay of Baler, district of Principe; the Baler, 
which has several tributaries (the principal ones being the Dicaniti, the 
Dimanalepe, the Malanis, the Dinmnaglan, and the Caliselan), empties 
into the bay of the same name; the Tbonan runs into the cove of Din- 
gala; the Taborgon, into the cove of Sogod; the Cal)ibijan and the 
Calabanga, into the bay of Nagay; the Simol and the Tinuiragat, into 
the bay of San Miguel; the Malaquing and the Hog, which descend 
from Mount Malarayat, into the bay of Tayabas; the Batangas, formed 
by the Tabla, and others which empty into the bay of Batangas. 


The lake of Bay, situated between the provinces of Manila, Morong, 
Cavite, and Laguna, is undoubtedly the most important in the island 
of Luzon. It is some 200 kilometers in circumference, with an island 
in the center called Talim, Avhich forms the strait of Quinabulusan, 
besides several other small islands, such as those called Pulo Insan, 
Pulo Olgipan, Pulo Calamba, and Pulo Bay. On the north there are 
three gulfs and two peninsulas, and on its shores are found the capitals 
Morong and Santa Cruz de la Laguna. It communicates with Manila 
Bay through the Pasig River, and it receives the waters of 15 rivers. 
It has all the appearance of a small sea of fresh water, and among 
the fish caught in it those called ''corvinas" (a kind of conger) are 


The lake of Taal or Bombon, situated in the northeastern part of the 
province of Batangas, is second in importance among the lakes of 
Luzon. It has a perimeter of 120 kilometers, approximately, its 
diameters from north to south and from east to west being, respec- 
tively, 28 and 20 kilometers. It communicates with the sea through 
the river Pansipit, which has a very slight inclination, and this clearly 
proves that there is very little difference between the level of the lake 
and the sea level. In spite of its small size the depth of this lake is 
quite considerable, measuring as much as 106 fathoms at a very short 

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distance from the shore in some places, as has been proved b}^ various 
soundings taken in it. In the midst of it is the volcano of Taal, which 
we mentioned in the Treatise on Orography, Chapter III, page 439. 


Besides those of Bay and Bombon, there are also worthy of mention, 
in the territory of Luzon, those of Candaba and Canaren, in the prov- 
ince of Pampanga; that of Hagonoy, in Bulacan; that of Mangabol, 
between the towns of Paniqui and Bayambang, in the province of Tar- 
lac, more than 25 kilometers in circumference; that of Cagayan, in 
the northeastern region of the province of that name, with a length of 
16 kilometers by 11 in width; that of Talavera, in Nueva Ecija, with 
a perimeter of 22 kilometers; that of Paoay or Danum, 10 meters 
deep and more than 10 kilometers in extent, in the province of Ilocos 
Norte; the lake Bato, among whose tributaries are found the rivers 
Bicol, Naga, Libon, and others, which irrigate its surroundings, a 
deep lake, veij rich in fish; that of Buhi, large and beautiful, whence 
start several rivers, among them the important one which takes its 
name, and that of Baao, no less extensive, all of them belonging to 
the province of Ambos Camarines. 


According to the Official Guide of the Philippines more than sixty 
rivers in the island of Mindoro are known, and there must be many 
more in the interior that have not yet been explored. Among the 
former the principal ones are the "^ Malay lay, between Bacoo and 
Subaang; the Nabuluan, Magasauangtubig, Navotas, Naujan, Pola, 
Macaulit, Bansod, Masaguisi, and Bongabon, between Pola and Ticlin; 
the Basig, Bumbusan, and Manjao, between Ticlin and Bulalacao; 
the Lambangan, in Mangarin; the Pagbajan, which empties into the 
bay of Paluan, and the Tabinay, in Puerto Galera. 

The Santo Tomas, Maasim Arnay, Santa Cruz, and Mamburao 
should also be cited. 


This lake is located in the northeast part of the island. It is some 
25 kilometers in circumference, and the river Naujan flows from it 
and, passing the town of the same name on the south, runs directly 
into the sea. 


Of all the rivers of this island only the Lauang, the Asid, and the 
Grumotaban are worthy of special mention. The first descends from 
the mountains of Bagasimbahan and runs from south to north to its 
mouth in the port of Barrera. The second comes down from the oppo- 
site side of the same mountains, takes a contrary course, and ends in 
the bay of the same name. The third is important only on account of 
the auriferous sands which it brings down with it. 

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Among its small rivers the principal ones are the Himoto and Sinago, 
which empty on the east coast, and the Batoo, whi(?h empties on the 
south coast, near the town of the same name, and is, perhaps, the 
longest and the one which has the most water of all. 


The rivers Upala and Bonleo and several other less important ones 
descend from the central mountains of the island. 



Three great rivers, which may well be called of the first order, con- 
stitute the drainage system of Panay. They are the Panay, Jalaur, 
and Aclan. There are other less important ones, among which the 
most prominent are the Salug, the Ibajay, and the Sibalon. 

The Panay, which is the principal one, rises in the northern slopes 
of Mount Baloy, which, as we have seen in the Treatise on Orography, 
constitutes the*dividing line between the provinces of Capiz, Antique, 
and lloilo. From its source the Panay takes the direction f rom^ east 
to west as far as Capas, whence, with numerous and marked windings, 
it turns toward the southeast, irrigates the boundary of Dumalag, and 
before reaching the boundary of Cuartero its vohune is augmented 
with the waters of the Babbarad, with numerous tributaries, and turn- 
ing toward the south it passes through Dao, and receives two large 
tributaries, the Mambusao and the Mayon, which so increase its 
volume that from Panitan to its mouth it attains an approximate 
width of 100 meters. After the Mayon joins it it turns toward the 
north, waters the territories of Panitan and Loctugan, and divides 
near Agbangbang into two branches, the main one of which, flowing 
toward the east, passes through the town of Panay, and empties into 
the sea by three main mouths, called Jumulao, Paua, and Guibuangan- 
Daco, while the other takes a course from south to north until it again 
divides into two forks in the ward of Sansasud, one of the two branches 
taking the name of the river Banicaa, and being lost in the marshes of 
the mouth Guibuangan-Daco, and the other continuing as far as Capiz, 
capital of the provincial district, whence it takes the general course of 
west-northwest, and empties into the gulf which is formed south of 
Point Nipa. 


The Jalaur also rises in Mount Baloy, receives innumerable although 
small tributaries on both sides, and takes its course toward the south- 
east. In Alibunan the river of this name joins it. It turns toward 
the southeast, waters the confines of Calino and Passi, where the 
Lamunang unites with it, a river with a considerable volume of water 
which it gathers from many affluents, the principal one being the 
Maliao. It waters the confines of San Enrique, on the south, and not 
very far from Duenas receives the waters of the Ulian, formed by 

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many aiiluents from the main mountain range, and continues in a south- 
east direction as far as Dingle, taking in this township a southerly 
course. In Jalaur it increases its volume of water with the Abangay 
and the Suague, from the same source as the Ulian, and waters the 
boundaries of Fototan and Barotac Nuevo on the south, and having 
received the waters of the Janipaan it empties at Colongcolong into 
the strait of Iloilo. 


The Aclan has the same source as the Panay, but not the same direc- 
tion, which is from soutn to north with few windings. It receives its 
main tributaries on the left from the western slopes of the mountains of 
the main range, traverses Libacao, Madalag, and Malinao, irrigates the 
boundary of Cab'vo, and in Camansi, near the northern coast, it divides 
into two branches, forming the little island of Bacao. Its principal 
tributaries are the Dalagnan, Cabarsana, Dumalaylay, Tingbaban, 
Bukbot, and Malinao, on the left bank. Those on the right bank are 
less important, among them the Manicaa and the Pangpangon, which 
has several tributaries, and the Calancan. 

The Salug, proceeding from a depression in the eastern slopes of 
mounts Llorente and Inaman of the main mountain range, follows a 
course from northwest to southeast, and waters the boundaries of 
Maasin, Cabatuan, Santa Barbara, and Pavia, where the Agauan unites 
with it, until near Iloilo, where it empties. 

It is some 60 kilometers long and receives the waters of the Titong, 
which also rises in the eastern valleys of Mount Inaman and in the 
opposite ones of Tiratid, and after a course of 22 kilometers empties 
into the Salug by its right bank, near Maasin. The Agauan descends 
from Mount Tiguran in an easterly course and lower down changes its 
direction toward the south, and,* flowing through the town of San 
Miguel, twists toward the east, where, after a course of some 52 kilo- 
meters, it empties into the river Salug, also by the right bank, near 

The Ibajay has its source among the Toctocon and Sanasico moun- 
tains, at a considerable height, and descends toward the northwest, 
with many turnings, until it reaches its confluence with the Garot. It 
has many tributaries, among which may be named the rivers Dalanao 
and Garot. The Garot, which is the most notable, rises on the north- 
ern slope of Mount Panancaban, in the district of Antique. 

The Sibalon, which descends from the western slope of Mount Llo- 
rente, on the opposite side to the river Salug, follows a course from 
northeast to southwest, passes through San Remigio, and fertilizing 
the boundaries of Sibalon and San Pedro, near this town, pours its 
waters into the sea by the western coast. Its chief tributaries are the 
Tangday, Maninila, which is formed by the Dungaron and Maliao, 
the Banayan and the Tigpuluan. The latter, which has the greatest 
volume of water, unites with it in the town of Sibalon. 

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Finally, although not so important as the preceding, there are, 
however, several rivers in the central region worth mentioning, regard- 
ing which Don Enrique Abella, in his Descripcion Fisica de Panay 
(physical description of Panay), says the following: 
^ ''The rivers Timagboc, Uyungan, Sinaragan, Bacauan, Bayonan, 
Tiolas, Lanigan, and Hibog, which empty on the south, and those of 
Tagalan, Jalo, Habalili, and Ibisan, which empty on the north of the 
island, may also be mentioned as very notable. In the western region, 
to the north of the basin of the river Sibalon, there are three others 
which aJmost attain the same size, namely, the rivers Cangaranan, 
Paliuan, and Dalanas, and they are the ones which, on account of their 
importance, should be classed next to the Sibalon. Then to the north 
and south of these four most noteworthy streams in Antique, there are 
other rivers, which decrease in size as the distance from the former 
increases. Among them should be mentioned, on the north, the Cai- 
rainan, located between Dalanas and Paliuan, the Tibiao, the Bacon, the 
Bacalan, and the Ipayog, and on the south, the Antique, the Asluman, 
and the Dao. In the eastern region the most notable rivers are: 
Balantian, Bangun, and Pamian or Estancia, which flow through the 
plain of Balasan and Quiasan, and which empty into the sea through 
great salt lakes of great depth up to the bars; the Bunglas and its 
numerous tributaries from the beautiful plain of Sara and Ajuy; the 
Barotac Viejo, on whose banks auriferous exploitations have been 
made, and the Aglacaigan, which empties into Banate." 


The principal rivers of this island are those which empty on the west 
coast, the Ginigaran, Himamaylan, and Hog being the most prominent. 
The Danao, 200 meters wide and 15 deep, which flows from west to 
east between Calatrava and Escalante, and the Marinas, 300 meters 
wide and 20 deep, its great branch, called the Tanao, being noteworthy, 
empty on the north coast. Other minor rivers are the Bunglas, Cadiz 
Nueyo, Manapla, Toreno, Talabe, Mandalagan, Siluban, Macaribao, 
Marianas, Pontevedra, Siaton, San Enrique, and some others. 


The rivers of this island are of little importance, because they are 
all short, on account of the mountain range which divides the island 
into two very narrow parts. The one which has the longest course is 
the Baliguigam, which, descending from the central mountains, flows 
with all the characteristics of a torrent toward the northeast, until, 
after crossing an extensive zone of calcareous lands, it empties into the 
sea through a channel 300 meters wide. The Cotcot, belonging to the 
same eastern slope, is almost as large, and likewise resembles a torrent. 
Located to the south of the preceding on the same slope is the longer 
river of Mananga. In conclusion, there are worthy of special mention 
the Danao, which descends from Mount Mangilao and runs to the 
north of the Cotcot; the Alpaco, Minaga, Carcar, Catmon, Bao, and 
some others. 

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The majority of the tributaries of the principal rivers of this island 
are unknown, because its central part is so rugged and therefore its 
interior hydrography unfamiliar. The main rivers^, which fertilize it 
in various directions, are the Oras, which, starting from the extreme 
north of the central mountain range, flows at first toward the southeast, 
and then to the east, pouring its waters into the bay of Uguis, on the 
Pacific, having traversed some 57 kilometers; the Suribao, which, ris- 
ing in the same mountains, soon turns toward the east, emptying on 
the same coast as the preceding; the Vlut, which starts from the cen- 
tral range, takes its course toward the northeast, then deviates to the 
east, and, after a course of some 25 kilometers, ends in the Pacific; 
the Laguan, which has its source on the same central divide, flows con- 
stantly toward the north, passes through Catubig, and drains into the 
bay of the same name; the Bato, which originates from the northern 
slopes of mounts Salta and Sangley, and flows in a north -northeast 
direction, emptying on the north coast, near the bay of Laguan; the 
Timonini, with the same source and running parallel to the Bato. Other 
less important rivers are the Antiyao, Basey, Balangiga, Opong, Pag- 
babangunan, Calbayog, and Bagajon, which, with many others, water 
the fertile plains and thick forests of this island. 

Besides, the island of Samar has four large lakes, viz, Somotoc, 
Calbiga, Ganoy, and Sampinit, among which that of Calbiga is remark- 
able for its extensive borders, all of rock, which make it resemble a 
great boiler. 


The chief rivers of this island empty on the eastern coast into the 
Pacific. Among them are Dao, or Burauen, which comes from the 
central mountains, flows toward the east, and empties into the sea a 
little below Dulag; the Binahaan, which proceeds from lake Amandi- 
uing, passing to the north of the town Dagami; the Palo, which, formed 
by the Dapdap and other tributaries, empties into the bay of San Pedro 
y San Pablo, and the Bito, which originates in the lake of its name 
and ends a little above Abuyog, The Maasim, proceeding from the 
mountains in the southern part of the island, runs some 40 kilometers 
from northeast to southwest and, bathing the boundary of Maasin, 
ends at point Gigantigan on the south coast. The Leyte empties on 
the north coast. It originates in a lake located to the west of Jaro, 
flows from south to north, and ends near the town of its name. Other 
smaller rivers are the Bao, Tanauan, Malburay, Cabayungan, Caloan, 
Cauliling, Masayac, Bayongbong, Cabalasan, Panilahan, Bayoc, Bulac, 
Mantitinao, Anilao, and Mansanga. 

Lake Bito is of considerable extent and depth, especially during the 
rainy season, when it attains a circumference of more than 30 kilome- 
ters. Lake Jaro has a circumference of 25 kilometers and communi- 
cates with the sea through the river Leyte, which empties into the 
port of the same name. 

Among the notable lakes are Aslum, 5.57 kilometers long by 1.39 
wide, with a depth of 15 fathoms; Cabalian, which measures 2.86 kilo- 
meters; Polo, 3 kilometers long from northwest to southeast, and 500 
meters wide from north to south. 

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In spite of its small extent the island of Bohol contains a number of 
rivers, although all are short and are dry after the rainy season is 
over. Those that deserve special mention are the Maasin, Muguid, 
Manaba, Napo, Gulayan, Cabidian, Lagumay, Soca-Vilar, Fragata, 
Taginting, and Inabanga. 


There are three principal rivers in Sibuyan, the Mabolog, which 
rises in the highest peak, located in the center of the island; the Cam- 
bulayan, which has its source on the eastern slope of the peak of 
Sibuyan and empties on the east coast of the island at a very short 
distance from Point Cambulayan; the Nailog, which has its source 
half wa}^ up the peak of the same name. 


The river Grande, or Pulangui, deserves the first place in the hydrog- 
raphy not only of Mindanao, but also of the whole archipelago, on 
account of its volume of water and its length. This large river rises 
on the eastern slopes of the mountains Sobrac and Quimanquil of the 
central- western range and on the western slopes of the central-eastern 
range in the northeast part of the island, in the district of Misamis, 
and at a height of approximately l,500imeters above the level of the 
sea. It descends by successive falls over the broken landings from 
which said ranges resemble a stairway; it flows among enormous rocks 
heaped up in its bed toward the south until after a course of 80 kilo- 
meters it joins the Tigua on its left bank. Then it turns toward the 
west, passes near Linabao, waters the boundaries of Sevilla (Mailag), 
at the same time receiving the waters of the Sauaga and Malupali on 
its right bank, twists with a slow and broad current toward the south- 
east on the confines of Valencia and Lepanto (Salagapon), receives the 
waters of the Culaman and, a little after, those of the Marama on the 
same right bank; again takes its course toward the south, and with 
various windings another Culaman joins it on the left bank not far 
from the confluence of the Mulita, which is the boundary of the Mon- 
teses, Moros, and Manobos. Up to this dividing line, about half of 
its course, it is called Palangui, and the remainder to its mouth is 
called the river Grande, which is navigable in a gunboat. From said 
dividing line the rivermakes a sweep from northeast to southwest, where 
is found what was the military post of Catituan, and at the end of the 
bend it receives on the right bank the waters of the Marurugao, the one 
of all its tributaries which carries the most water. After its confluence 
with the Marurugao it again turns toward the south, with marked 
windings, receiving some small tributaries, and passes by the military 
post of Piquit until it reaches the vicinity of Lake Liguasan. Its vol- 
ume being increased by the waters of this great lake, it turns suddenly 
toward the northwest, then almost perpendicular to its general direc- 
tion, which is from south to north, waters Tinucup or Eeina Regente, 
receives several tributaries of slight importance, and on reaching 

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Tumbao divides into two branclies, the larger of which passes through 
Libungan, where the river Caimanes or Libungan joins it, turn^ toward 
Cotabato, capital of the district of this name, and with few deviations 
empties its waters into the sea at Illana Bay through the smooth and 
broad north mouth. The left branch, which is somewhat smaller, runs 
from Tumbao to Tabiran, passes through Tamontace, and empties into 
the 8ame bay by the south mouth. Between the two mouths Mount 
Timaco is situated. It is celebrated for its monke3^s, which approach 
travelers who visit its slopes. 

During the course of some 470 kilometers, the last two-thirds of 
which is calm, there is found the cascade of Logsocan, near Valencia, 
and that of Salagapon, a little lower down, in the township of Lepanto. 
In this river and in most of its tributaries there are a great many alli- 
gators, or, more properly speaking, crocodiles. 

The tributaries which pour their waters into this powerful river on 
both sides are very numerous, the most important on the right bank 
being the Sauaga, Malupali, Mulita, Marurugao, and Tigua, and on 
the left the Culaman and the Cabacan. 


The Sauaga rises on the eastern slopes of the Quitanglag range, 
within the boundary of Calasungay, on the divide of the waters of the 
basins of the Pulangui and the Tagoloan. Leaping by great rocks in 
the bottom of a deep channel, from Calasungay its course is toward 
the southeast, with several marked bends, until it reaches Oroquieta 
or Balaybalay. Continuing in the same direction it irrigates the 
boundary of Linabo, and after joining with the Malupali contributes 
its waters to the Palangui near Sevilla. 


The Malupali orignates in the western slopes of the Quitanglag and 
in the eastern slopes of the Calutangan, in the divide of the waters of 
the Palangui and the Cagayan. At iirst it follows a southeast course, 
and in Covadonga or Alanip, where the river of this name joins it, it 
changes its direction toward the east, and near Sevilla unites with the 
Sauaga, as has been said, and empties into the Grande River. 


The Marurugao is the most voluminous of the affluents of the Palan 
gui. It descends from the western slopes of the Pinangayonan, follows 
a direction from northwest to northeast, with few deviations in its 
whole course, which is sometimes rapid and among rocks and at others 
quiet, and passing through several settlements of Moros empties its 
waters into the Kio Grande at Dumalasag, alongside of Mount Tinip- 
tiban. It receives, in its course of some 70 kilometers, the Malitbog, 
Piratan, Lalayan, and other smaller streams. 


The Mulita is formed from the waters that rush from the eastern 
slope of Mount Dagumban. It flows through a small plain, and with 
a course toward the east passes below Mount Colcol, whence, receiving 

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on its left bank the river Liimag-us, it traverses the southern slope of 
Panicsican, soon after uniting with the Palangui. Its length is some 
40 kilometers. Its confluence is the division between the Monteses, 
Manobos, and Moros. The Monteses inhabit the northeast, the Manobos 
the northwest, and the Moros extend toward the south. 


The Tigua has its source in the central-eastern range, follows a 
direction from southeast to northwest, through a broken country 
inhabited by Manobos, and after a short course empties into the 
Palangui, a little lower down than the Bubunanan, a small tributary 
on the right of the same. 


The Culaman rises in the western slopes of the central-eastern range, 
takes an opposite direction to the preceding from northeast to south- 
west, and after a short course empties into the Pulangui, a little 
higher up than the Mulita, on the opposite bank, in front of Mount 


The Cabacan rises on the northern slopes of Apo, receives tributa- 
ries from the north and south, such as Bacat, Balanan, Maleput, and 
Malebol, and with considerable volume of water empties into the 
Palangui, near Catituan. 


The Agusan is the second river of Mindanao and the third in the 
whole archipelago because of its length and volume of water. Its 
basin is formed by the main mountain ranges of the island, almost 
parallel to each other, and it is fed by numerous tributaries, some of 
them with considerable volume of water. This river rises to the east 
of the bay of Davao and on the western slopes of mountains Tapao, 
Tagdalit, and Campalili, of the eastern mountain range. Its general 
direction is from south-southeast to north-northwest, a course which 
is parallel to the two mountain ranges between which it runs, and 
which ends in the bay of Butuan, near the town of this name. From 
its source it passes through Compostela, Moncayo, Jativa, and Patro- 
cinio, settlements of Christianized Manobos. In the first part of its 
course it receives various small tributaries, the principal one among 
them being the Manat, which joins it at Moncayo. At Patrocinio 
it turns toward the west, passes through Veruela, makes a curve 
toward the east, and at the extreme of the bend, near Clavijo, the 
Ihanan empties its waters into it on the left bank, and it forms the 
lakes Cadagun, Dagun, and Sinanat, the Humayan uniting with it on 
its left bank. A little below the last lake the Gibon pours its abun- 
dant waters into it from the right bank. The Agusan, augmented by 
the Gibon, inclines a little toward the northwest, passes through Tala- 
cogon, San Luis, Guadalupe, and San Estanislao, where it makes many 
turns, and a little lower down, on the left bank, the Lubang empties 
into it, which river rises on the eastern slopes of the mountain of the 
same name, and at half a day's journey farther on it makes a sweep, 

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and the Ujut empties into it on the same bank as the preceding* tribu- 
tary, opposite Esperanza. From Esperanza to its month in Bay 
Butuan the Agusan follows a south-southeast to north -northwest 
course, with fewer windings than in its middle course, passes by 
Nieves, and, having received the waters of the Bugubas on the left 
bank, waters the townships of Amparo and Butuan. After a course 
of 403 kilometers it empties, not far from said town, into the bay of 
Butuan. In its course there are several widenings of the channel that 
resemble lakes and that prevent passage along its banks. 

The tributaries of this river are very numerous, as in the case of 
the Palangui, and some of them have considerable volume of water. 
The principal ones on the right bank are Simulao and Gibon, and on 
the left, Ihanan, Humayan, Arganan, and Ujut. 


The Simulao rises in the western slopes of the eastern mountain 
range, on the side opposite to Bislig. Very turbulent at the begin- 
ning, and augmented with several tributaries, such as the Miaga, 
Bayayan, Bunanan, after watering the villages of San Isidro, Tudela, 
and Trento, it reaches San Jose with a direction from southeast to 
northwest. At this village it divides into two branches, one of which, 
turning toward the west, subdivides into two branches, which after a 
short course join the Agusan, while the other continues its course 
toward the northwest, and a little below the lakes also empties into 
the Agusan. 


The Gibon is the largest tributary of the Agusan, and descends from 
the same range as the preceding one, gathering the waters from the 
western slopes of Mount Diuata, on the side opposite Jinatuan. Its 
general direction is from northeast to southwest. It crosses Navas 
and Prosperidad, continues in the same course to Borbon, where it 
describes a very marked curve toward the southeast, and at the other 
end of the same it receives the waters of the Suribao, of considerable 
volume, which passes through Novele, and together, taking a westerly 
direction, they empty a little below the Simulao into the Agusan, after 
a course of more than 120 kilometers. 


The Ihanan flows with many windings from the eastern slopes of the 
central eastern range and receives many tributaries in a very broken 
country, such as the Anahanan, Tignaunan, Sampinit, and others. Its 
course is from southwest to northeast as far as the confluence of the 
Sampinit, where it turns to the east and, passing through Gracia, 
empties into the Agusan a little lower down. 


The Humayan has its origin in the same range as the preceding 
river, but more toward the north. Its direction is from west to east, 
with a great many large curves. It receives the waters of many trib- 
utaries on both sides, passes through Loreto and, directing itself 
toward the northeast, soon after empties between two lakes. 

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Hosted by 


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The Arganan, although it is shorter and has less volume of water 
than the preceding rivers, gathers its waters from the eastern slopes 
of the same range as the other two. It takes a direction from west to 
east, waters the villages of Asuncion, Sagunto, and La Paz, where it 
turns to the northeast and empties into the Agusan at the same place 
as the Gibon, but on the opposite bank. 


The Ujut comes from the same mountain range as the preceding, in 
a northeast direction. It receives the waters of the Agsabo, and at 
Remedios the Pusilao, which is of equal volume, joins it, after having 
irrigated the boundary of Milagros, and together they empty into the 
Agusan opposite Esperanza. 


After the rivers which we have just described the Tagoloan and the 
Cagayan, which empty into the sea on the north coast, are worth}^ of 
special mention. 

The Tagoloan has its source on the boundary of Oroquieta (Balay- 
balay), on the side opposite the Palangui, and follows a course directly 
contrary to the latter, in a south southeast to north-northwest direc- 
tion. Its most important tributaries are, on the right bank, the Quina- 
puntan, Dumalagui, Amusic, Silo, Malibog, and Quimaya, and, on the 
left, the Dila, Ulugan, Culaman, and the Manguina, proceeding from 
Mount Quitanglag. After a course of some 90 kilometers it empties 
into the bay of Macajalar at the town of its name. 

The Cagayan rises on the opposite slopes of Mount Quitanglag and 
Mount Calutangan, both belonging to the central western range. It 
follows a direction parallel to the Tagoloan and, with a course similar 
to that of the latter, pours it waters, which carry with them auriferous 
sands, into the same bay as the Tagoloan. Its chief tributaries are the 
Cocina and the Tigalan. 


Among the remaining rivers of Mindanao there are still to be men- 
tioned, on account of their relative importance, the following: Gapay, 
Agus, Sintogo, Dapitan, Dipolog, Lubungan, Davao, Tagum, Hijo, 
and some others on the Pacific coast. 

The Gapay rises near Lake Lanao and takes the same direction as 
the Cagayan. It has several tributaries, such as the Mamanga, 
Samagon, and Dulama, and empties into the bay of Macajalar at Point 
Sulauan. Its length is 70 kilometers. The Agus comes from Lake 
Lanao, runs from southeast to northwest, and empties into the bay of 
Iligan. Its course is much shorter than that of the preceding river, 
and its tributaries are of slight importance. The Sintogo rises on the 
southern and eastern slopes of Mount Malindang, follows a course from 
west to east, and, after receiving the waters of the Salag, its principal 
tributary, empties into the bay of Panguil. The Dapitan, Dipolog, 
and Lubungan have their source on the northern and western slopes of 

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the above-mentioned Mount Malindang, and, with a course toward 
the northwest, empty into the sea near the towns of the same names. 
The Davao empties into the bay of the same name. Its small tribu- 
taries rise on the eastern slopes of Apo. The Tagum is more impor- 
tant, and has as tributaries the Libaganon and the Salug, whose affluents 
connect with those of the Agusan, which flow in an opposite direction. 
The short river Hijo ends, as do the other two, in the same bay of 
Davao. On the Pacific coast there are worthy of special mention, on 
account of their extent, the Casauman, Manay, and Caraga, which, 
rising in the mountains of Tagdalit, Campalili, and Tapao, respectively, 
pour their waters into the Pacific near the towns of the same names. 
Near Tago, on the northern coast, the river of the same name empties. 
It has a wide mouth and no mean volume of water. 


The principal lakes of Mindanao are the following: Lanao orMalanao, 
Buluan, Liguasan, Mainit or Sapongan, Linao, and Panguil. 

The lake of Lanao or Malanao, located in the territory of the same 
name, is inclosed by high mountains, which do not, however, prevent 
there being some plains between them and the lake. It is divided into 
three principal regions, namely, that of Bagabao, which includes the 
northeastern and part of the western shore; that of Masco, which 
embraces all the southern part, and that of Unoyon, which extends to 
the southwest. Its only outlet is the river Agus, and in exchange it 
receives on the southeast the waters of the Digosan. Its shores are 
inhabited by hordes of Moros (Mohammedans). 


Liguasan and Buluan are two lakes situated between the Volcano 
Apo and the boundary of Catabato, which join and form but one lake 
during the rainy season, and notably increase with their waters the 
volume of the river Grande. 

Mainit or Sapongan, in the district of Surigao, measures 8 miles 
from north to south and 6 from east to west. It empties through the 
river Tubay , with a rapid descent, into the bay of Butuan. It is very 
deep and it is supposed to be the crater of an extinct volcano. 


The lake of Linao forms part of the river Agusan. It increases 
extraordinarily in circumference as soon as the rainy season sets in. 


Finally, the lake of Panguil, in the territory of Misamis, has a 
length from north to south of 7i miles and from east to west of 6i 
miles and empties into the bay of Misamis. 

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As we stated in treating of Orography, volcanic action has had such 
a great influence in the formation of the Philippine soil that it is 
readily understood that there must be in it a-multitude of minero- 
medicinal springs, as is in reality the case, although many of them 
still remain unknown from a scientific standpoint. 


Before the year 1885 there had not yet been made any classification 
of the Philippine springs. In 1890 the report of the work of the 
first commission was published in Madrid, and in 1893 that of the 
second and last. From an attentive reading of both volumes it is 
inferred that the physical, chemical, and therapeutical examination of 
some 60 springs is the most complete and thorough that can be made 
in a country in which, as in the Philippines, traveling is so difiicult 
and laborious on account of the absolute lack at times of good means 
of communication. Notwithstanding, there are a great many springs 
that have not yet been analyzed. We shall place here first those 
whose analysis is known, and afterwards add the others as they are 
supposed to be constituted. The first are taken from the reports of 
the above-mentioned commissions and are indicated, because it seemed 
to us most convenient, according to the alphabetical order of the 
provinces in which they are found. 

Hosted by 




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Besides the 50 springs that have been analyzed, there are 117 more, 
well known, although they have not yet been analj^zed, which we 
enumerate below: 

Springs ivJiose waters have not yet been analyzed. 





Province or island. 





Ilocos Norte . 
Ilocos Norte . 
Ilocos Norte . 
Ilocos Norte . 














Nueva Vizcaya . 
Nueva Vizcaya . 

Nueva Vizcaya . 

Nueva Vizcaya . 
Nueva Vizcaya . 
Nueva Vizcaya . 

Binatangan . 


Nueva :^cija 

Nueva ]^cija 

Nueva l^cija 

Nueva j^cija 

Nueva Ecija 









Batadn . 








Ambos Camarines . . . 
Ambos Camarines . . . 














Aparri , . . . 



Al S. de la punta Escarpada . 



yintar (Bisaya) 

A tres kil6metros deTBisava . 
San Guillermo (en el rio)' . . . 

Rio Yenin 

Balatoc (rio Pascil) 





Buguias (Padungay) 

Buguias (Asin) 

Buguias (al Oeste) 

Dacldn (al ONO.) 

Dacldn (Asin) 

Buyanbuydn (en el monte al Oeste j . 

Bayombong (en la loma) 

Bambang ( Amigui No. 1) 

Bambang (Amigui No. 2) . 

Monte Blanco (Asin). 
Ihin . 


Amsac6n (rio Bued). 

Quelingdn (rio Dicasigndn) . . . 
Baler (rios Baler y Caliselan) . 


Pantagambdn (Cabuyao) . 
PantagambAn (Cadacldn). 
Cuyapo (cerro Bancay) ... 

Santor (Camaboy) 

San tor (arroyo Dagudn) . . . 




Cabangdn (Calumejan) ... 


Moriones . 

San Rafael (camino de Daang-Partida) 

Porac (hacienda de Pias) 

Morong (origen del rio M6rong) . 

Tanay (rio Lanatin) 

Calamba (Bocal) 

Indang (Arzobispo) 



Lipa (Taton) 

Ibadn ( Pangao) 

Taysdn ] " 

San Juan de Bocboc ] 

Caramoan " 

San Fernando (Mainit) .!.!!]!!... 

Daraca (Budiao) 

Camdlig ''_ 

Legaspi (Marisbiris) .., 

Manito (punta Cduit) 

Buldn (Lalisaga) 


Naujdn (entre el mar y la laguna Naujdii j '. 

Bulaldcao (Damagdn) 

Boac (Sabang) 

Gasdn (Buenavista) 


Supposed class. 

Calbdyog !!.'!!.'[!! j Termales, 




Saladas y termales. 

Saladas y termales. 

Saladas y termales. 

Bicarbonatadas, mixtas. 

Saladas y termales. 

Bicarbonatadas, mixtas. 

Bicarbonatadas, mixtas. 

Bicarbonatadas, mixtas. 

Saladas, deposito ferrugino- 
so con olor sulfhidrico. 

Saladas con olor sulfhidrico. 

Saladas con olor sulfhidrico, 


Cloruradas, sodicas. 

Cloruradas, sodicas. 

Cloruradas, sodicas. 


Cloruradas, s6dicas, 



Hipertermales, bicarbona- 
tadas, cloruradas, sodicas. 

Hipertermales, bicarbona- 
tadas, cloruradas, sodicas. 

Cloruradas, s6dicas. 

Cloruradas, sodicas. 

Cloruradas, sodicas. 

Hipertermales, sulfhidricas, 
cloruradas, sulfatadas. 

Hipertermales, sulfhidricas, 

cloruradas, sulfatadas. 
Hipertermales, sulfhidricas, 

cloruradas, sulfatadas. 
Bicarbonatadas sodico-mag- 

Bicarbonatadas, cdlcicas, 

cloruradas, sodicas. 
Sulfurosas, bicarbonatadas. 
Cloruradas, s6dicas. 
Cloruradas, s6dicas. 
Cloruradas, s6dicas. 
Cloruradas, s6dicas. 

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Springs whose waters have not yet been analyzed — Continued. 




Province or island. 






Antique . . 
Anticiue . . 
Antique . . 













Cebii , 

















Isla de Panglao . 
Isla de Siquijor.. 
Isla de Siquijor.. 
Isla de Siquijor.. 
Isla de Siquijor. . 











Guiadn (en la playa) 

Isla Busuanga (al pie del monte Tundalara) 

Ibajay (rio Panacuyan) 


Antique (arroyo Apdo) 

Aniniy (punta Siardn) 

Passi (Maasin) 




Caibiran (rio Calambis) 


Biliran (punta Tinogdayan) 

Ormoc (cerca de Dolores) 

Burauen (monte To-od) 

Laguna Jaruanan 

Cabalian (rio Guintuluc) __ 

Tagobon (Mabuli-Romero) 

Asturias (Aguas Calientes) 

Dumanjuc (NagbatA) 




Bago (barrio de Zaragoza, en 4 parajes) 

La Carlota 



Sibulan (al Noroeste) 

Sibulan (San Antonio) 

Nueva Valencia (Mainit) 

Nueva Valencia (Magano) 

Dauin (Lagit) 

Dauin (origen del rio de este nombre). 

Guindulman (Boboc) ' . 

Tagbilaran (Dduit) 

Dauis (Bingan) 

San Juan (monte Condoon ) 





Placer . 

Mainit (Mapaca) . 





Supposed class. 








Termales, sulfhidricas. 

Cloruradas, sodicas. 

Cloruradas, sodicas. 

Cloruradas, sodicas. 

Cloruradas, sodicas. 

Cloruradas, sodicas. 







Termales, sulfurosas. 

Termales, sulfurosas, 

Hipotermales, sulfhidricas. 

Hipotermales, sulfhidricas, 

Hipotermales, sulfhidricas, 

Hipotermales, sulfhidricas. 

Hipotermales, sulfhidricas. 




Termales, sulfurosas. 




Hipertermales, sulfatadas, 

cloruradas, sodicas. 


From the ''^Memoria Geologico-Minera de las Islas Filipinas" of 
the inspector -g-eneral of mines, Mr. Centeno, we take the following: 

We have already briefly indicated, in treating of volcanoes, the existence of sul- 
phurous thermal springs in the settlements of Magangan and Buguias in the district 
of Lepanto. In the distance which separates the settlement of Magangan from that 
of Acaal, there are a multitude of jets of sulphurous water wdth a strong smell 
ot rotten eggs and with temperatures varying from 16° to 50° C. One of these 
sprmgs is remarkable, because it throws oiit almost constantly a great quantity of 
black mud, which has the same odor as the waters, and of the composition of which 
we are ignorant. In the proximity of all these springs a great quantity of sulphur 
has been deposited, which on account of being of no use there, no one has taken the 
trouble to exploit. From Acual one can go to Amblimay, 5 leagues distant, by a 
good and pleasant road, passing by the settlements of Lutap and Cabayan, noted for 
their agricultural wealth and fisheries, and from the latter point Buguias may be 
reached by following the course of the river Agno, which must be crossed many 
times in the short distance of half a league which separates the two towns. The 
village of Buguias is located on the side of the mountain, in which the springs appear 
i5 X^^y short distance from it and a little higher up. The water from the 37 jets 
which appear within a very short distance is very salt and of such a high tempera- 

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ture that the skin can not stand it more than two or three seconds. From these 
waters the natives extract the small quantity of common salt they need for 

*,. ^ * * * ¥r * 

The province of Batangas is also very rich in mineral waters, for, besides the sul- 
phuric waters of the volcano of Taal, of which we shall speak further on, there are 
several important springs in it. In the township of San Luis, at a place called 
Mainit (hot), some jets of hot water gush from the ground, which leave an abun- 
dant ferruginous sediment. The waters of the brook Panipil, near the town of 
Lemery, are very sulphurous and are used with good results by the natives for cuta- 
neous diseases. In the territory of the same town, on the road which leads to 
Calacd, at a place called Matasnabayan, there are also some springs which are little 
known and used. In the mountains of Taypan also there are hot springs whose 
composition is unknown to us, but which are used by the natives with good results 
for diseases of the bladder and cutaneous diseases. Besides the water is used as an 
efficacious purgative in many cases. Finally, to the southeast of Bauan, near Point 
Cazador, there is another small spring, to which all afflicted with rheumatism and 
paralysis resort in search of relief from their sufferings, and which they usually find. 

The volcano of Taal is found in this same province, in the crater of which there is 
a small lake of water charged with sulphuric acid. 

■5«- -x- -x- -x- -x- * ^ 

Very near this interior crater and toward the east a small lake is seen, w^hose dark- 
green waters emit <douds of sulphurous vapors, and whose shores are formed of lava 
and salts, which must be magnesia, lime, and soda, as we shall soon see from the 
analysis which we shall present of said waters. The extent of this interior lake 
varies frequently, but it is hardly ever less than 60 meters in diameter. 

* ^ -x- * ^ ^ . ^ 

The interior crater has a circumference of 80 meters, approximately, and in the 
bottom is seen, when one descends by the walls of the old crater, a yellowish liquid 
in a state of violent ebuUition, which with subterranean noises appears and disap- 
pears with marvelous rapidity, presenting points of lively combustion and occasion- 
ing the column of vapors which ascend into the atmosphere from the center of the 
large crater. 

The water of the interior lake has the following composition: 

a A I. • ' 1 Per cent. 

bulphuric acid 2. 98 

Hydrochloric acid 3^ X6 

Ferruginous oxide l' 00 

9^y---. ]1""1111]""1[]]11]]]; i!o4 

Magnesia 20 

Lime [l[[]""[[[ 0^08 

feoda 1^ 02 

Water 90. 52 

100. 00 
Of the 2.98 parts of sulphuric acid, 2.47 were found free, or not combined. 
In the province of Albay near the town of Tivi, and at a place called Jigabo, there 
are several thermic springs of different temperatures, some containing a large quan- 
tity of sulphur, which is precipitated when the sulphureted hydrogen decomposes, 
and others have a gelatinous silica in solution, which the waters on cooling deposit 
on objects dipped into them, incrusting them in a short time with remarkable 

The sulphurous springs appear at several points along the channel of a small stream, 
whose waters, of the ordinary temperature, conveniently mixed with the water from 
the hot springs, make baths of any temperature that may be desired. Underneath 
the round stones which make the bed of the brook there are found small deposits 
of sulphur sublimate, and at certain places in a pasty state and colored by metallic 
oxides, which are used in that locality for paint. The second— that is to say, the 
siliceous springs— appear some 200 meters from the first, and are much more remark- 
able, nut only on account of the greater space they occupy, but also on account of 
their very high temperature (108° centigrade) and the very beautiful siliceous con- 
cretions they produce, sometimes consisting of flattened cones with cylindrical ter- 
minations, perfectly joined and with bands of different colors, sometimes forming 
small cylindrical and semi-spherical hollow crystals, wholly filled with quiet and 
transparent hot water. In these waters, with a little care, the purest siliceous incrus- 
tations can be obtained by simply putting the molds in them for a few days. 

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These theriiio-iiiineral waters, which have not been known very long, have, how- 
ever, begun to be used with astounding success for certain infirmities, and we have 
seen cases of chronic rheumatism and paralysis completely cured in a short time. 



The spring of Lanot is in the village of Colasi, township of Daet, 
province of Ambos Camarines. 

Therapeidic application. — The large quantity of free carbonic acid 
which these waters contain deprives them completely of the disagree- 
able taste characteristic of all ferruginous waters, and as such there 
may be treated by them, with great probability of success, especially 
those morbid states which are characterized by the diminution of red 

Assisting the action of the carbonic acid, the bicarbonates of lime 
and magnesia will have a favorable effect on various diseases of the 
digestive organs, especially those which are caused by a defect in their 
regular action. 

Special indiccitions.~--^G^stv^\gm^, dyspepsias, gastric and intestinal 
catarrhs, anaemia, and chlorosis. 

ITse. — Drink. 



^ The spring of San liaimundo (Calauan) is located in the ward of Sim- 
sian, town of Lemery, province of Batangas. When the natives of this 
neighborhood began to use these waters for the treatment of their dis- 
eases, they gave them such a reputation that from 300 to 400 individ- 
uals bathed in them daily, and in their ignorance they attributed 
marvelous cures to them. 

It is preferable to use these waters in baths, rubbing the skin a great 
deal with the mud from the bottom of the spring, the diseases treated 
by it being so different that it is possible there is not a single one that 
has not been submitted to the test of its efficacy. The indication of 
arsenic, which the analysis shows, gives these waters great value, because 
they are the only ones of their class that the commission was able to 

Special indications. — Chlorosis, anaemia, chronic metritis, gout, uric 
diathesis, and catarrhs of the genito-urinary mucus. 

Common ^W//m?^v>>?^.^.— Neuralgias, menstrual disturbances, neuro- 
pathic effects, and gastro-intestinal catarrhs. 

Use. — Drink and bathe in. 

Season. — From November to May. 

Taken from the ''Estudio descriptivo de algunos manantiales minerales de FiU- 
pnias, ' issued by the commission composed of D. Enrique Abella y Casariego 
inspector-general of mines; D. Jose de Vera y Gomes, physician, and D. Anacleto 
del Kosario y Sales, pharmacist. Manila. Tipo-Litograffa de Chofre y Cfa., 1893. 

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The spring of San Mariano of Nagtanglan is in the town of Pozor- 
rubio, province of Fangasinan. 

Special indications, — Scrofula, tabercaiosis, goat, diabetis, rickets, 

Common indications. — Gastro-intestinal catarrhs, dyspepsias, and 
catarrhs of the respiratory and genito-urinary organs. 

Use, — Drink and bathe in. 

Season. — From December to May. 


The spring of Gapas is in the town of Balayan, province of Batangas. 

Special indications. — Rheumatism of slight intensity, gout, and 

Common indlcatio'ris. — Catarrhs of the stomach and dyspepsias, with 

Use. — Drink and bathe in. 

Season. — From November to May. 



The spring of Mainit is in the town of Bosoboso, district of Morong. 

Special indications. — Herpetism, catarrhal affections of the respira- 
tory organs, and habitual costiveness. 

Common indicutions. — Lymphatism, visceral rheumatism, syphilis, 
and scrofula. 

Use. — Drink and bathe in. 

Season. — From February to May. 



The spring of Candaguit is found in the town of Naga, district of 

Special indications. — Dermatosis, chronic catarrhs of the genito- 
urinary organs, infarctions of the abdominal viscera, and menstrual 

Common indications. — Chronic catarrhs of the respiratory organs, 
dyspepsias, and gastralgias. 

Use. — Drink and bathe in. 

Season. — From November to May. 


The spring of Casipitan de Inamblan is in the town of Malabuyoc, 
district of Cebu. 

Special indications. — Rheumatism, gout, neuralgia, paralysis, pul- 
monary tuberculosis, chronic bronchial catarrh, chronic catarrhs of 
the genito-urinary organs, infarctions of the abdominal viscera, uric 
diathesis, menstrual disturbances, and leucorrhoea. 

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This is in the town of Carcar, district of Cebu. 

Sjjecial ifidications. — Dermatosis, chronic catarrh of the genito- 
urinary origans, infarctions of the abdominal viscera, menstrual dis- 
turbances, and leucorrhoea. 

Coimnon iruUcations. — Chronic catarrhs of the respiratory organs, 
dyspepsias, and gastralgias. 



The spring of Tagbag or Bolocboloc is in Barili, town of Cebu. 

Special indkatlom. — Dermatosis, chronic catarrhs of the genito- 
urinary organs, infarctions of the abdominal viscera, gout, uric diathe- 
sis, menstrual disturbances, and leucorrhcjea. 

Convnwn indications. -~Q]xyo\\\q, catarrhs of the respiratory organs, 
dyspepsias, gastralgias, and hysteria. 

Season, — S'rom February to May. 


The spring of Tanon (Mainit) appears in the town of Santander, 
district of Cebu. 

SjjeGlcd l7idlxMtlons, — Dermatosis, rheumatism, gout, uric diathesis, 
chronic catarrhs of the genito-urinary organs, and infarctions of the 
abdominal viscera. 

Common indicatlons.~Y)y^^id^^v<x.^ with pyrosis, chronic gastro- 
intestinal catarrh, catarrhal and chronic ulcers of the stomach, neu- 
ralgias, and hysteria. 



The spring of Quensitog is in the settlement of Amamasan, com- 
mand of Tiagan. 

Special indlc(itlons,--OiiYO\)XQ. catarrhs of the respiratory organs, 
hemoptysis, incipient tuberculosis, rheumatism, paralysis, herpetic 
and scrofulous dermatosis, and habitual costiveness. 

Common m(^/(?<^2^^:(;;i^\--Verniinous affections and visceral infarctions. 

TIse. — To drink, bathe in, and inhale. 

Seaso7i. — From November to April. 


The spring of Cabad is in Tiquen, district of Lepanto. 

SjjeciM indlcatlo7is.-~C\irom(d catarrhs of the respiratory organs, 
hemoptysis, incipient tuberculosis, rheumatism, paralysis, herpetic 
and scrofulous dermatosis, and habitual costiveness. 

Common indlcatlo7is,-~N ^vmmoxx^ affections, visceral infarctions, 
and polysarcia. 

Use, — To drink, bathe in, and inhale, 
p c— VOL 3—01 23 

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This is in Dilog, district of Lepanto. 

General indications. — Clironic catarrhs of the respiratory organs, 
hemoptysis, incipient tuberculosis, rheumatism, paralysis, herpetic 
and scrofulous dermatosis, and habitual costiveness. 



This is found in the district of Benguet. 

Special indications.- — Constitutional diseases of the skin and mucoas 
membranes, herpetic and scrofulous dermatosis, bronchio-pulmonary 
catarrhs, rheumatism, paralysis, and h^^drargyrism. 

Common indications.- — Visceral infarctions, syphilis, and chronic 
catarrhs of the digestive and biliary passages. 


The spring of Meabe is in the town of Itogon, district of Benguet. 

Special indications. — Constitutional diseases of the skin and mucous 
membranes, herpetic and scrofulous dermatosis, bronchio-pulmonary 
catarrhs, rheumatism, paralysis, and hydrargyrism. 

Common indications. — Visceral infarctions, syphilis, and chronic 
catarrh of the digestiye and biliary passages. 


The spring of Bolaboran appears in the town of Cardona, district of 

Special indications. — Herpetic and scrofulous dermatosis, catarrhal 
affections of the respiratory organs, arthritism, syphilis, and visceral 

Cominon indications — Hemorrhoids, chronic catarrhs of the digest- 
ive and biliary passages, traumatic diseases, wounds, and atonic ulcers, 



The spring of Cotabato is in the town of this name, capital of the 
fifth district of Mindanao. 

Special indications. — Herpetism, scrofula, and lymphatism in their 
different manifestations in the skin and mucous membranes, goiter and 
indurations of the cellular and glandular tissues. 

Common indications.— Secomln^vj and tertiary syphilis, muscular 
and articular rheumatism, infarctions of the abdominal viscera, espe- 
cially of the liver and spleen, and abdominal plethora. 

use. — To drink, bathe in, and inhale. 



The spring of Binobresan is found in Lian, a town of Batangas. 

Special indications. — Chronic gastro-intestinal catarrh, ulcers of the 
stomach, acid dyspepsia, visceral infarctions, and anorexia. 

Co7nmon indications. — Catarrhal states of the respiratory organs, 
hemoptysis, and the initial stage of tuberculosis. 

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This spring is in the town of O'Donnell, province of Tarlac. 

Special indicatio7is,—W^idv.mdX\mi, gout, uric diathesis, catarrhs 
of the genito-urinary organs, neuropathic diseases, hysteria, and 

Common m(^^'mz^^W^.— Lymphatism, scrofula, chronic gastro-intes- 
tinal catarrhs, infarctions of the abdominal viscera, acid dyspepsia, 
wounds, and ulcers. 

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By Geo. F. Becker, U. 8. (Teologist. 

Nothing approximating to a complete geological reconnaissance of 
the Philippines has ever been made. There were earnest men among the 
Spanish geologists, however, and Messrs. Centeno and Abella deserve 
much credit for what they accomplished with small appropriations and 
little encouragement f i^om the Spanish Government. Visiting geolog- 
ical explorers have also contributed importaai^ observations, in par- 
ticular Messrs. Richthofen, Semper, and Drasche. The conditions are 
not all favorable to rapid work. The enormous coast line, estimated 
by the Coast and Geodetic Survey at 11,444 miles, would indeed 
afford great facilities to a geological expedition properly equipped 
with a steam vessel and launches; but none such, I believe, has ever 
been organized. In the interior of the islands roads are few and bad; 
the vegetation is so dense and matted that it is often impossible to 
leave the regular trail excepting by cutting a new path, and the damp, 
motionless atmosphere in the jungle is precisely like that of a hothouse. 
Under such circumstances progress in geological mapping must inevi- 
tably be slow. 

The additions which it has been possible for me to make to the 
geology of the islands are small, in spite of a residence of fourteen 
months. I was not allowed to do any work, except within the mili- 
tary lines of the United States forces, without a special escort of sol- 
diers, which events proved to be anything but unnecessary. Moreover, 
it was only occasionally that the situation justified the authorities in 
placing an escort at my disposition, for deliberate exposure of soldiers' 
lives for the purpose of gaining geological information was not to be 
thought of, although volunteers for such service could have been 
obtained in any number. 1 made examinations at various points on 
Manila Bay, as well as along the railway from Manila to San Fernando, 
and cruised about Laguna de Bay, touching at many points. I also 
spent a month in Negros and another in Cebu, passed some time at 
lloilo, touched at Guimaras, visited Jolo, and coasted along the island 
of Mindanao, though without being able to land. 

A report is in preparation in tne office of the Geological Survey 
which is intended to embody all that is at present known on the geology 
and mineral resources of the archipelago. In the meantime an out- 
line is presented here in the form of brief memoranda. That on the 
mineral resources was prepared in Manila in September, 1898, at the 
request of Admiral Dewey and as a report to him.^ It is reproduced 

^ This memorandum appears in the Nineteenth Annual Report, Geological Survey. 


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here with one or two uniinportaiit chari^-es. A supplcmentMl note 
embodies some pertinent faets extracted from a report to the commis- 
sion recently made by the J(\siiit fathers. The memorandum on the 
general geology was addressed to (xeneral Otis in September, 18J)1), at 
the close of held work in the island/ 


This brief memorandum probably covers all the main discoveries in 
the geology of the Philippines which are of economic interest. It is 
drawn up from data recorded in the Spanish mining bureau (Inspec- 
cion de Minas), but not published; manuscript mine reports by the late 
William Ashburner ; verbal information obtained in Manila, and various 
technical publications of Semper, Santos, Roth, Drasche, Abella, and 

Only about a score of the islands are known to contain deposits of 
valuable minerals. These are arranged below in the order of their lati- 
tude, to give an idea of their geographical distribution and to facilitate 
finding the islands on the map. The latitude of the northern end of 
each is taken as that of the island. The character of the valuable min- 
erals stated in the table will afford a general notion of the resources 
of the islands. 

M'meral-hear'mg islands and their resources. 
























































(?) 1 



Character of mineral resources. 


























Sulu Archipelago 

Coal, gold, copper, lead, iron, sulphur, marble, 

Coal, gold, iron. 

Gold, copper, lead. 
Lead, silver. 
Coal, gold, copper. 


Coal, copper. 
Coal, gold. 

Coal, oil, gas, gold, copper, iron, mercury (?). 

Coal, oil, mercury (?). 
Coal, oil, gas, lead, silver, iron. 


Coal, gold, copper, platinum. 

The distribution of each mineral or metal may now be sketched in 
somewhat greater detail. In many cases the information given in this 
abstract is exhaustive, so far as the available material is concerned. 
The coal fields of Cebu, however, have been studied in some detail by 
Mr. Abella, and in a few other instances more extended information 
has been condensed for the present purpose. 

1 Printed in the Twentieth Annual Report of the Geological Survey. 

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Ooal.—^o far as is deliriitcly known, the coal of the Philippine 
Islands is all of Tc^rtiary ai^e, and might ])etter be characterized as a 
highly car})onized lignite. It is analogous to the Japanese coal and 
to that of Washington, })ut not to the Welsh or Pennsylvania coals. 
Such lignites usually contain considerable combined water (8 to 18 per 
cent) and bear transportation ill. The}^ are also apt to (contain much 
sulphur, as iron pyrite, rendering them subject to spontaneous com- 
bustion and injurious to boiler plates. Nevertheless, when pyritous 
seams are avoided and the lignite is properly handled it forms a val- 
uable fuel, especially for local consumption. In these islands it would 
appear that the native coal might supplant English or Australian 
coal for most purposes. Lignite is widely distributed in the archipel- 
ago; some of the seams are of excellent width, and the quality of 
certain of them is high for fuel of this class. 

Coal exists in various provinces of the island of Luzon (Abra, 
Camarines, Bataan, Sorsogon). The finest beds thus far discovered 
appear to be those in the small island of Bataan, lying to the east of the 
southern portion of Luzon, in latitude 13^ WY . These seams vary 
from 2 feet 6 inches to 14 feet 8 inches in thickness. Analyses have 
been made in the laboratory of the Inspeccion de Minas, and the 
mean of seven analyses gives the following composition : 

Analyst of coal from Bataan, one of the Philippitu' Islands, 


Per eent. 



Volatile matter 


Fi xed enrbon . . . 


Ash - - 




One pound of this coal will convert 6.25 pounds of water at iO^ C. 
into steam at 100° C. The heating effect is about three-fourths that of 
Cardiff' coal. The same beds are known to exist in other small adjacent 
islands, Carraray and Rapu-Rapu. A number of concessions for coal 
mining have also been granted on the main island of Luzon just south 
of Bataan, at the town of Bacon. No doubt the beds here are either 
identical or at least closely associated with the coal seams in the little 

The coal field of southern Luzon is said to extend across the Strait 
of San Bernadino into the northern portion of Samar. Here coal is 
reported at half a dozen localities, but I have been able to ascertain no 
details as to the thickness or quality. 

In Mindoro there are large deposits of coal in the extreme southern 
portion (Bulacao) and on the small adjacent island of Semirara. This 
fuel is said to be similar to that of Bataan. 

The islands of Masbate and Panay contain coal, the deposits of which 
thus far discovered do not seem of much importance. Specimens from 
the southwestern portion of Leyte, analyzed in the laboratory of the 
Inspeccion de Minas, are of remarkably high quality, but nothing 
definite about the deposit is known to me. 

The first discovery of coal in the archipelago was made in the island 
of Cebu in 1827. Since then lignitic beds have been found on the 

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island at a great variety of points. The most important croppings are 
on the eastern slope within some 15 or 20 miles of the capital, also 
named Cebu. Though a considerable amount of coal has been extracted 
here, the industry has not been a profitable one hitherto. This is, at 
least in part, due to crude methods of transportation. It is said, how- 
ever, that the seams are often badly faulted. 

At Uling, about 10 miles west of the capital, the seams reach a 
naaximum thickness of 15i feet. Ten analyses of Cebu coal are at my 
disposal. They indicate a fuel with about two-thirds the calorific 
effect of Cardiff coal, and with only about 4 per cent ash. Large 
quantities of the coal might, I suspect, contain a higher percentage 
of ash. 

The island of Negros is nearly parallel with Cebu and appears to be 
of similar geological constitution, but it has been little explored, and 
little of it seems to have been reduced to subjection by the Spaniards. 
There are known to be deposits of coal at Calatrava, on the east coast 
of Negros, and it is believed that they are of important extent. In 
the great island of Mindanao coal is known to occur at eight different 
localities, but no detailed examination of any kind appears to have 
been made. Seven of these localities are on the east coast of Minda- 
nao and the adjacent small islands. They indicate the presence of 
lignite from one end of the coast to the other. The eighth locality is 
in the western province, called Zamboanga, on the Gulf of Sibuguey. 

Petroleum.—\vL the island of Cebu petroleum has been found asso- 
ciated with coal at Toledo on the west coast, where a concession has 
been granted. It is also reported from Asturias, to the north of Tol- 
edo, on the same coast, and from Algeria to the south. Natural gas 
IS said to exist in the Cebu coal fields. On Panay, too, oil is reported 
at Janinay, in the province of Iloilo, and gas is reported from the same 
island. Petroleum, highly charged with paraflin, is also found on 
Ley te, at a point about 4 miles from Villaba, a town on the west coast. 

Gold, — Gold is found at a vast number of localities in the archipel- 
ago, from northern Luzon to central Mindanao. In most cases the 
gold is detrital, and is found either in existing water courses or in 
stream deposits now deserted by the current. These last are called 
aluviones" by the Spaniards. It is said that in Mindanao some of 
the gravels are in an elevated position and adapted to hydraulic min- 
ing. There are no data at hand which indicate decisively the value of 
any of the placers. They are washed by natives, largely with cocoa- 
nut shells for pans, though the batea is also in use. 

In the province of Abra, at the northern end of Luzon, there are 
placers, and the gravel of the river Abra is auriferous. In Lepanto 
there are gold quartz viens as well as gravels. Gold is obtained in 
this province close to the copper mines. In Benguet the gravels of 
me river Agno carry gold. There is also gold in the province of 
Bontoc and in Nueva Ecija. The most important of the auriferous 
provinces is Camarines Norte. Here the townships of Mambulao, 
Paracale, and Labo are especially well known as gold-producing locali- 
ties. Mr. Drasche, a well-known German geologist, says that there 
were 700 natives at work on the rich quartz veins of this place at the 
time of his visit, about twenty -five years ago. At Paracale there are 
parallel quartz veins m granite, one of which is 20 feet in width and 
contains a chute in which the ore is said to assay 38 ounces of gold to 
the ton. One may suspect that this assay hardly represented an aver- 

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age sample. Besides the localities mentioned, many others in this 
province have been worked by the natives. 

The islands of Mindoro, Catanduanes, Sibuyan, Samar, Panay, Cebu, 
and Bohol are reported to contain gold, but no exact data are accessible. 

At the south end of the small island of Panaon, which is just to the 
south of Leyte, there are gold quartz Vv3ins, one of which has been 
worked to some extent. It is 6 feet in thickness and has yielded from 
16 to $7 per ton. 

In the island of Mindanao there are two known gold-bearing dis- 
tricts. One of these is in the province of Surigao, where Placer and 
other townships show gravels and veins. The second district is in the 
province of Misamis. Near the settlement of Iponan, on the Gulf of 
Macajalar, there are said to be many square kilometers of gravels car- 
rying large quantities of gold, with which is associated platinum. 
The product of this district was estimated some years since at 150 
ounces per month, all extracted by natives with bateas or cocoanut- 
shell dishes. 

Copper. — Copper ores are reported from a great number of locali- 
ties in the Philippines. They are said to occur in the following islands: 
Luzon (provinces of Lepanto, Benguet, and Camarines), Mindoro, 
Capul, Masbate, Panay (province of Antique), and Mindanao (province 
of Surigao). Many of these occurrences are probably uniniportant. 
The great island of Mindanao, being practically unexplored, is full of 
possibilities, but as yet no important copper deposit is known to exist 
there. An attempt was made to work the deposit in Masbate, but no 
success seems to have been attained. On the other hand, northern 
Luzon contains a copper region which is unquestionably valuable. 
The best-known portion of this region lies about Mount Data, a 
peak given as ''2,500 meters T' in height, lying in latitude 16^ 53' N., 
longitude 120° 58' east of Greenwich, or 124° 38' east of Madrid. The 
range of which Data forms one peak trends due north to Cape Lacay- 
Lacay, and forms a boundary for all the provinces impinging upon it. 

Data itself lies in the province of Lepanto. In this range copper 
ore has been smelted by the natives from time immemorial, and before 
Magellan discovered the Philippines. The process is a complicated 
one, based on the same principles as the method of smelting sulpho- 
salts of this metal in Europe and America. It consists in alternate 
partial roasting and reduction to ''matte" and eventually to black 
copper. It is generally believed that this process must have been 
introduced from China or Japan. It is practiced only by one peculiar 
tribe of natives, the Igorrotes, who are remarkable in many ways. 

Vague reports and the routes by which copper smelted by natives 
comes to market indicate that there are copper mines in various por- 
tions of the Cordillera Central, but the only deposits which have been 
examined with any care are those at Mancayan (about 5 miles west of 
Mount Data), and two or three other localities within a few miles of 
Mancayan. The deposits of Mancayan are described as veins of rich 
ore, reaching 7 meters in width and arranged in groups. Mean assays 
are said to show over 16 per cent of copper, mainly as tetrahedrite 
and allied ores. The gangue is quartz. The country rock is described 
as a large quartzite lens embedded in a great mass of trachyte. An 
attempt has been made by white men to work these deposits, but with 
no considerable success. The failure does not seem to have been due 
to the quality or quantity of ore found. 

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Lead and silver, — A lead iiiine has been partially dovolopod near the 
town of Cebu, on the island of the same name. 

,, 'i'he most important deposit of argentiferous galena is said to he at 
Torrijos, on the small island of Marinduque (latitude 13'^ (>'). A metric 
ton, or 1,000 kilograms, is said to contain 96 grams of silver, 6 grams 
of gold, and 505.5 kilograms of lead. 

In Camarines, a province of Luzon, lead ores occur, but are worked 
only for the gold they contain. 

/t^^^.— There is iron ore in abundance in Luzon, Cebu, Panay, and 
doubtless in other islands. In Luzon it is found in the provinces of 
Laguna, Fampanga, and Camarines Norte, but principally in Bulacan. 
The finest deposits are in the last-named province, near a small settle- 
ment named Camachin, which lies in latitude 15^ T, and longitude 
124^ 47' east of Madrid. A small industry exists here, wrought iron 
bemg produced in a sort of bloomery and manufactured into plow- 
shares. The process has not been described in detail, so far as I know. 
It would appear that charcoal pig iron might be produced to some 
advantage in this region. The lignites of the archipelago are probably 
unsuitable for iron blast furnaces. 

Quickdlmr.—^wwLOV^ of the occurrence of this metal in Panay and 
Leyte have failed of verification. Accidental losses of this metal by 
prospectors or surveyors sometimes lead to reports of the discovery 
of deposits, and ochers are not seldom mistaken for impure cinnabar. 
.Nonmetallic siibstanGes,—'^\A^\mY deposits abound about active and 
extinct volcanoes in the Philippines. In Luzon the principal sulphur 
deposits are at Daclan, in the province of Benguet, and at Colasi, in 
Camarmes. The finest deposit in the archipelago is said to be on the 
httle island of Biliran, which lies to the northwest of Leyte. 

Marble of fine quality occurs on the small island of Romblon (lati- 
tude 12° 6'). It is much employed in churches in Manila for baptismal 
fonts and other purposes. Marbles are also quarried at Montalban, in 
the province of Manila, and at Binangonan, in the province of Morong. 
There are concessions for mining koalin at Los Banos, in Laguna 

Pearl fisheries exist in the Sulu Archipelago, and are said to form 
an important source of wealth. 


The elesuit Fathers report the sulphide of antimony (stibnite) as 
occurring at Paracale, in the province of Camarines, and as found 
also m Zambales province. It does not appear whether in either case 
the mineral is sufiiciently abundant to be regarded as an ore deposit. 
So, too, zinc, both as the sulphide and as silicate, exists at Paracale 
seemingly in connection with lead ores and gold. Such information 
as I have would point to the conclusion that the zinc ores are to be 
regarded rather as metallic gangue minerals than as separate deposits 
but my information is insuflScient to decide this question definitely. ' 

Deposits of rock salt occur in Mount Blanco and Bamban (Nueva 
Lci]a),in Calamba (Laguna), and in Placer (Surigao, Mindanao). As 
might be supposed, the natives extract much of their salt from the 
sea water. Niter is found in caves at some points in the Philippines 
very probably originating in the dung of bats and other animals. It 
has been collected by the insurgents for the manufacture of gunpow- 

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der. Among the localities where it is known are the small island of 
Masapilit and the town of Placer, in Mindanao. 

Beautiful serpentine is found in Santa Cruz (Zambales), and the 
same mineral is widely distributed in the islands. Gypsum is plentiful 
in the eastern part of the central range of Luzon. Opal is said to 
occur at Binangonan (Morong) and at Catbalogan, in the island of 
Samar. This mineral is a very common one in volcanic regions; but 
the valuable variety, fire opal, is rare. Lithographic stone is found 
at San Mateo, province of Manila. Should this turn out to be of good 
quality and in large blocks, the deposit would be a treasure. 

The clays of Los Banos (Laguna) and of Maunrigao (Surigao, Min- 
danao) are said to be comparable with the best Chinese and Japanese 
kaolins. If this is true, it would be eas}^ to import expert potters 
from those countries. Asphalt is reported in Luzon in Camarines, 
between Lakes Buhi and Bato, as well as in Mindanao at Hinatuan, in 
the province of Surigao. 


Much office work must be done on the specimens collected and much 
literature abstracted before all of the information at my command on 
the geology of the Philippine Islands can be systematically presented. 

So far as my observation or my information goes, the geological 
history of the whole group is similar. I have seen that the Post- 
Tertiary gradual upheaval, presently to be described, is common to 
Jolo, Mindanao, Luzon, and the intermediate islands; and descriptions 
leave little doubt that the Philippines belong, and have long belonged, 
to a single geological and biological province. 

Prior to the Tertiary epoch the Philippines consisted of slates and 
igneous masses, the age of which is as yet unknown, no fossils having 
been detected in these ancient rocks. They are now to be found chiefly 
in the northern and eastern ranges of Luzon, but appear to be repre- 
sented also by some limited occurrences in Cebu, and seem to form the 
walls of the gold-bearing quartz veins of the province of Surigao, in 
the northeastern portion of Mindanao. They are doubtless in reality 
widely distributed, but in most localities are buried beneath more 
recent formations. 

During the Eocene, or earliest Tertiary, the archipelago must have 
consisted largely of swamps and shallow seas, perhaps not very dif- 
ferent from those now existing in the same region. Limestones were 
formed at some distance from the coasts, shales and sandstones were 
laid down near the shores, and accumulations of vegetable matter 
grew in the swamps. These last were covered by mud, and, in the 
almost total absence of free oxygen, they were gradually converted into 
lignite, probably the most valuable mineral asset of American India. 

At the close of the Eocene a great crumpling and upheaval took 
place, which was felt from Switzerland to the Philippines, and perhaps 
most of all in the Himalayas, where marine Eocene beds now stand at 
an elevation of 16,i)0() feet above the sea. In these islands the Eocene 
strata are frequently thrown into a nearly vertical position and some- 
times are actually overturned. In the Visa3^as the axis of upheaval 
trended a little east of north, corresponding to the direction of greatest 
extension of the islands of Cebu and Negros. These disturbances were 
accompanied by much faulting and it is believed by somemetamorphism. 
Intrusions and extrusions of igneous rocks seem to have accompanied 

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this upheaval, but no satisfactory study has yet been made of the 
phenomena, good exposures being rare. 

During the remainder of the Tertiary the islands appear to have 
been above water. Miocene and Pliocene strata have not been detected 
with certainty, though some traces of such beds will probably be 
discovered in future investigations. Near Jolo I found strata which 
appeared to be younger than the Eocene and older than the Recent 
period. In the main, the area of the Philippines was probably then 
continental, and there is zoological evidence of a land connection with 
the Asiatic continent, probably by way of Borneo, during the Middle 
Tertiary. This connection did not persist to the close of the Tertiary, 
however, and to its rupture are ascribable the extraordinary peculiari- 
ties of animal life in these islands, evolution here having been left to 
take its own course undisturbed by invasions. 

The subsidence which cut off immigration of the lower animals con- 
tinued, seemingly, till somewhere about the close of the Tertiary, and 
long after Homo sapiens had made his appearance in the Malay Archi- 
pelago. This group also was very probably alreadv inhabited during 
the Pliocene, possibly by the ancestors of the Negritos. This is a mat- 
ter which requires careful investigation, for in the opinion of my late 
famous colleague, O. C. Marsh, this archipelago is likely to have been 
one of the earliest haunts of the human species. 

When the elevation was at its minimum the archipelago was reduced 
to a group of small, hilly islets, four of which existed within the area 

now occupied by the island of Luzon. Cebu was almost completely 


At or before the period of maximum subsidence, began a series of 

eruptionswhich has not yet closed. Mayon Volcano, in southern Luzon, 

had a violent eruption in 1897. It is probably the most beautifully 

symmetrical volcanic cone in the world, and the truncation at the top, 

due to the crater, is scarcely sensible.^ The work done in fusing lavas 

and ejecting ash is probably a manifestation of the energy involved in 

the mighty earth throes which bring about regional upheavals with 

incidental subsidences. The earlier of the eruptions under discussion 

were largely submarine, and vast additions were made to the super- 

hcial material of the archipelago by these outflows, especially in the 

central and southern portions of Luzon. The ejecta include andesites, 

rhyolites, basalts, and probably other less common rock species. 
The period of upheaval, once initiated, does not seem to have been 

interrupted by any era of subsidence, and the modern coral reefs give 

evidence that it is still in progress. It is said that uplifts accompany- 
ing earthquakes have actually been observed by the Spaniards, and the 

earthquakes themselves are spasmodic jars in the process of elevation. 

The elevation has not been, properly speaking, catastrophic, however, 

for the tremors which may wreck a cathedral are insignificant from a 

terrestrial standpoint. On the whole, the uplift has been very gradual, 

so that even the coral polyp has been able to adjust himself to the 

changing conditions, building outward into deeper water as his old 

home was raised too high for his welfare. In this way nearly the whole 

ot Cebu, to a height of over 2,000 feet, has been covered with a nearly 

continuous sheet of coral which can be followed seaward into living 

reefs. Much of Negros has been clothed with a similar mantle. On a 

J The radius of any horizontal section is the hyperbolic sine of the distance from 
this section to the summit. 

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small scale, also, off the coasts of these islands, and particularly^ about 
Mactan, reefs can still be studied in every stage of upheaval, all those 
portions being dead which are exposed to the air even at the lowest 
tides. In southern Luzon and to the northward of Lingayen Bay 
similar phenomena can be observed. 

Although upheaval does not appear at any time since the close of 
the Tertiary to have given way to subsidence, there have been repeated 
pauses in the uplifting process. On exposed coasts these pauses are 
marked by benches eaten into the land by the action of the waves. 
Thus the southern ends of Cebu and Bohol are terraced from top to 
bottom, each terrace being an old bench cut out of the rock mass by 
stormy seas. Pauses in the uplifting process are also marked by a 
rude stratification of the corals. Even in the interior of the islands ter- 
races indicative of uplifts are frequently visible. Some of them repre- 
sent base levels of erosion, others are ancient coral reefs which Have 
been checked in their upward growth by reaching the surface of the 
water. In short, terraces constitute one of the most prominent topo- 
graphical features of the archipelago. 

The slowness of the uplift is emphasized by the stupendous accumu- 
lation of coral in these islands. Coral is, of course, mainly composed 
of calcium carbonate, and this is formed by the coral polyp from the 
lime salts dissolved in the sea. Now, the sea contains a very minute 
proportion of lime salts (chiefly the sulphate, or gypsum), say a tenth 
of 1 per cent, and corals are necessarily of slow growth because of the 
scantiness of the material with which they build. The sheets of coral 
on uplifted areas seem to have a tendency toward a nearly uniform 
thickness, approximating to 100 feet. This is explicable from the 
habits of the coral animal, which does not grow at a greater depth 
than 15 or 20 fathoms. Unlike merely sedimentary strata, the coral 
follows the topography of the rising surface along a contour of which 
it grew. Where muddy waters or frequent eruptions befoul the sea 
there are no coral reefs. 

When the uplift began, say ten or twelve thousand years ago, the 
island shores were steep and the sea about them was relatively deep, so 
that an upheaval of 100 feet added but little to the area of the islands. 
As the amount of uplift increased to something approaching the mean 
depth of the circumambient sea, the area of the land increased in a far 
greater ratio to the increment of upheaval. The last rise of 100 feet 
has rescued from the seas the most valuable part of the archipelago. 
Examination of the charts will show that a fresh rise of 100 feet would 
add a further area, which, though important, would be less important 
than the actual lowlands of the Philippines. The plateau on which the 
island stands is now mostly above sea level. 

Area has been added to the land by the formation of deltas at 
the mouths of the rivers, a process which has been greatly assisted by 
the mangrove trees and the nipa palms. These grow in the water in 
all favorable situations, and hold back the solid contents of the streams, 
adding their own debris to the accumulation. Along the eastern shore 
of Manila Bay the so-called "estero" or ''bayou" country consists of 
the confluent deltas of the various rivers flowing into the bay. 

To the eastward of the estero country the ground passed over by 
General MacArthur's army from Manila to San Fernando consists of 
low, base-leveled terraces, all more or less dissected by water courses. 
These almost always have somewhat high and steep banks. They are 

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in fact engorged, as is characteristically the case in a country under- 
going upheaval; for upheaval increases the potential energy of the 
flowing water and leads to erosion of the stream beds. 

In my published memorandum on the nuneral resources of the Phil- 
ippines,^ I hav^e briefly noted the distribution of valuable minerals. 
The distribution of gold deposits indicates that this metal, when in 
place, is associated with the older rocks, and it will probably be found 
that the last great addition to the auriferous deposits was an incident 
of the Post-Eocene upheaval. In some parts of the world gold is 
found in neo-volcanic rocks, as at Bodie in California, and elsewhere. 
I have learned of no such occurrence in these islands. Where streams 
in the Philippines cut into the older rocks they seem nearly always to 
carry a little gold, which the natives have been exploiting time out 
of mind. 

There is a very general impression that Mindanao is a rich aurifer- 
ous region, though little deflnite information is current on the subject. 
The absence of information seems to add the attractions of the imagi- 
nation to the tales of a few prospectors. It is a fact, to which attention 
should be called, that each of the two auriferous provinces of Mindanao — 
viz, Surigao and Misamis— has been reported upon by a competent expert 
and that neither expert found anything to excite his enthusiasm. There 
is gold there, beyond a doubt, and the natives have been extracting it 
on a modest scale, yet with no little skill, for centuries. The informa- 
tion at hand points to very moderate auriferous resources, comparable 
with those of the Carolinas and Georgia rather than with those of 
Colorado or California. 

Luzon, so far as I can judge from reports, is as rich in gold as Min- 
danao. It is probable enough that a fair number of spots exist in which 
capital invested in gold mines will find reasonable renumeration, but I 
fear that any ''rush" to the gold fields will involve great disappoint- 
ment. The whole archipelago has an area almost the same as that of 
Arizona. There is nothing known which indicates that the islands 
contain more gold than this Territory. 

The copper doposits of Lepanto seem rich and extensive, but very 
expensive roads will be needed to render them available. The high 
quality of some of the iron ores of Luzon is beyond question, but the 
lignite of the islands is not adapted to iron smelting. A moderate 
industry could be based on charcoal smelting, while the pig iron could 
be converted into steel and manufactured by the use of furnaces burn- 
ing lignite gas. 

The so-called coal is a good lignite. Its heating efl'ect is from two- 
thirds to three-fourths that of the best steaming coal. There are great 
quantities of this fuel, and nmch of it could probably be delivered at a 
profit on vessels at |2.50 (Mexican) per ton. The lignite is at least as 
good as the Japanese " coal," which is also lignite. The Japanese fuel 
often brings $9 or |10 (Mexican) in Manila, and is now much dearer; so 
that unless the price of such coal were to fall enormously, great profits 
await the coal miner. The development of a coal industry is of great 
importance to the industries of the archipelago, and though our naval 
vessels would prefer Cardiff or Pocahontas coal, they could use Philip 
pine lignite in case of need. 

^Nineteenth Ann. Kept. U. S. Geol. Survey, Part VI Continued, 1898, pp. 687-69o. 

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As the Philippine Aivhipelego, situated between 5 and 21 degrees 
north latitude, is nrade up of a large number of ishmds, has great vari- 
ations in the elevation and composition of its land, and is subject to 
various winds, it necessarily presents marked variation in its vege- 

In general the flora is tropical. In the south of Mindanao, or in 
the Jolo Archipelago, it is beyond doubt equatorial, as is shown hy 
t\m presence of the durian {Dario zthdlflinis) and the niangosteen 
{(jdrcudu iHi(iHf(>st((n((). In Mindanao this character gradually disap- 
I)ears, preserving the tropical form as far as the north of Luzon. The 
dividing line of these two llonis is about at the parallel of Manila, 
as, from there toward the south, such tropical families as Myrtaceie, 
Lauraccjc, lh■ticacea^ Aracea', and Orcliidaccje abound, while toward 
the north the pine, not found in the south, covers consideral)le areas, 
especially in the northwest of Luzon. 

So, too, there are some notable ditl'erences in the vegetation on the 
Pacilic coast and that of the China 8(^a. In the former region the rains 
are more cox)ious, while in the latter, wdiich is covered Avith compact 
mountain ranges, and which has a more limited agricultural zone, 
there are magnihcent and splendid virgin forests containing an abun- 
dance of ferns, orchids, palms, aroids, andMelastomacea), and although 
theiir tree is not found, others, such as the alniacigii(/lf/<?/AAv /<//Ym2^/^- 
folia), various speci(^s of Podocarpus, and the agojos {(Jdsuarlna eqwl- 
'setlfolla) grow luxuriantly. So, too, in regions where the Ivind of 
man has not interfered with nature, two kinds of vegetation are seen; 
either the land is covered with extensive forests or with thick grass 
of various species, the greater part belonging to tlie genera Saccharum, 
Anthistiria, and Imperata. And, tinally, a study of the distribution 
of species in relation to various latitudes and altitudes shows the 
Philippine flora (piite analogous to that of Sumatra and difi'erent from 
that of Java, there being a less nund)er of species here than in 
Sumatra. It is worthy of note, also, that identical species are less 
abundant on the Pacilic coast than on the coast of the China Sea. 

The acceptable classification made by D. Sebastian Vidal makes a 
division into two classes: Forest flora and agricultural flora. The 
flrst is divided as follows: (a) Mangrove swamp, (b) Vegetation along 
the seashore, (c) Vegetation in the lowlands of less than 200 meters 
altitude, (d) Vegetation of the zone between 200 and 1,000 meters of 
elevation, (e) Of the mountain zone between 1,000 and 1,800 meters, 
(f) Of the higher mountain zone between 1,800 and 3,000 meters. 
The second class is made up of various cultivated plants of commercial 
or other uses. 

It seems, however, both practical and convenient to leave this scien- 
tific classification, and to divide this treatise into chapters as herein- 
after appear. - 


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ORAMIlNrKOirS PliAKTS (GRA881i:8). 

We include in this group species of tlie faniil}^ of grasses which are 
of great interest in the Philippine Archipelago, serving as food for 
man and beast, and as articles of common use for the natives. Amono- 
these are rice and corn, grass and reed grass, and the common cane or 

Palay, ok lucE {(h'ij2a sdtlvalj,). 

This cereal, native to the njarshy regions of hot countries, is one of 
the most important of this class as a food stuff and industrial product. 
It is the principal food of all Eastern peoples. In the Philippines it is 
the principal crop upon which the sustenance of the indigenous popu- 
lation depends. All the other crops together would not be sufficient 
to cover the loss of this one, upon which the poor chisses depend. A 
large number of varieties exist, as was seen in the coHection presented 
by p. liegino (nircia at the Colonial Exposition, in Amsterdam, and 
which contain more than 120 varieties. The collection of 120 varieties 
presented by Senor Garcia at the Exposition of Paris in 1878, received 
the only gold medal presented by the judges to Philippine exhibitors. 
Two main divisions are made, according to the manner of cultivation. 
First, those varieties cultivated on the lowlands (irrigated lands), and 
second, those cultivated on uplands (dry lands), the latter being more 
numerous. Rice is supposed to be of Asiatic origin, and is the plant 
concerning whose cultivation the most ancient documents exist. Its 
introduction into the Philippine iVrchipelago was much anterior to the 
discovery of the islands. Morisqueta, or rice boiled in water without 
salt, is looked upon hy the natives in the same way as we look upon 

The varieties of greatest importance are: Mimis, greatly esteemed 
on account of its white, transparent grain and exquisite flavor; Dumali, 
an early variety; Bontot-cabayo, and others which may be cultivated 
either on lowland or on highland. 

The cultivation of rice is one of the few occupations which the native 
pursues with care, although they do not have at their command everv- 
thmg necessary to make the production most profitable. For the 
cultivation of lowland rice the ground is divided into little parcels, 
generally rectangular, and having a slight inclination, and which are 
surrounded with little dikes called pilapil, which serve to retain the 
water. The rice is sown by hand in little beds of moist earth. This 
seed rice is selected during the springtime. While these seed beds are 

\We do not include sugar cane in this group, considering it a commercial product 
which will be included m the last group. 

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sprouting the flooded lands are worked, the carabao (water buffalo), 
which serves admirably for this purpose, being- used. In this way the 
soil is worked into a soft mud. When the rice has grown to a height 
of 20 centimeters it is pulled from the beds, formed into bundles, and 
taken to the place where it is to be transplanted. Regular lines of little 
holes are made in the softened earth, in each of which is placed a little 
bunch of six or seven stalks. The soil is not fertilized, nor is any 
other care given to the crop. When harvest time comes, which is 
usually in August, or from that time on, according to the variety of 
rice and the character of the soil, the plants are cut one by one, by 
means of a little sickle, or the yatap. This latter instrument consists 
of a little blade of steel or of tin, semicircular in form, fixed into a 
little handle. 

This palay is now placed in heaps called mandalas. The grain is 
now separated from the straw by thrashing, in which operation water 
buffalo play an important part. At other times this thrashing is 
accomplished by pounding the straw in a large wooden mortar, called a 
lusong, or simply by striking the bundles against a stone. When there 
is sufficient wind the grain is separated from the straw and the dust by its 
use. It is finally separated from the husk by pounding it two or three 
times in the wooden mortar, or by making use of a sort of handmill, 
called guilingan. 

On the highlands it is necessary to go over the ground two or three 
times and break up all clods. The seed is sown by hand after the 
first heavy rains, and without other care the crop is finally collected. 
The natives of the interior, and even some of those of the Christian 
towns, are accustomed to plant rice on virgin soil, in the preparation 
of which they are compelled to cut down all trees. Some of these are 
burned and others are used to make fences about the field. 

The rice plant has many enemies, the most important of which is the 
locust, which, when it appears, totally destroys the crops. Another 
insect attacks the young and tender grain, sucking out the juice and 
leaving it completely empty. Another enemy is the maya {Muiiia 
oryzivora, L.), a small bird abundant in the lowlands. Sometimes 
monkeys injure the crop in certain regions. 

The production of rice has diminished in the Philippines on account 
of the increased production which has taken place in adjacent countries. 
The Chinese market, to, which formerly a large amount of Philippine 
rice was exported, supplies itself at present with greater economy and 
in greater abundance with the rice from Cochin China. This latter 
place even supplies the Philippines with rice whenever the crops are 
short. Again, lands which formerly produced rice for export are now 
given over to the cultivation of sugar cane with great advantage to 
the general wealth of the country. 

Corn {Zea mays L.). 

Corn is a cereal which sometimes gives abundant crops. It is a 
monoicous plant of great importance on account of its grain, its flour 
making excellent food. It is used likewise as food for cattle, as are 
the leaves and young stalks, which make excellent fodder. And, finally, 
an alcoholic drink, which the Bisayans call pangasi, is made from it. 
It is of American origin, from whence it was carried by the Spaniards. 
At first the natives received it with indifference until, on account of 
frequent losses of the rice crops, they became accustomed to its use, 

P c— VOL 3—01 25 

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Its cultivation has become quite generalized throughout the archi- 
pelago, especially in those regions where the soil is not altogether 
suitable for the cultivation of rice, as in Cagayan and Isabela. In 
many towns it has taken the place of morisqueta, being reduced to a 
coarse granular flour by means of the guilingan, and then boiled in 
water without salt. 

Z AC ATE (Grass), 

Under this name are included several species of grasses which make 
up the forage of the live stock, especially horses. The chief ones 
of these belong to the genus Leersia. The fields where this grass is 
raised are the objects of much care on the part of the native farmer, 
especially if they are in the vicinity of large centers of population, as 
the returns are excellent. The grass is cut several times a year. 

CoGON {Sacchaimm koenigii Eetz). 

This grass reaches the height of 2 meters, forming a sort of forest 
almost impossible to traverse without first making a path, either by 
means of fire or with a knife. The natives, with the object of obtain- 
ing fodder, are accustomed to set fire to these grass fields in the dry 
season. They are thus able to obtain the young shoots, which when 
not more than 18 inches in length are much relished by cattle. In 
regions where the nipa does not grow, cogon is used for thatching the 

Sorghum or batad {IIolcus saccharatii^ Bl.). 

Although this plant has given excellent results in the United States 
and other places when cultivated for sugar or the production of alcohol, 
in the Philippines it is used only for fodder. This is true of a number 
of other plants belonging to the genera Paspalum, Milium, Panicum, 
Sporolobus, Chloris, Avena, Poa, Bromus, Agrostis, etc., which grow 
on the pastures of the mountains. 


Under this name are included various species of cane of the genus 
Bambusa, which are of great importance in the Philippines. The 
principal species are Bambusa diffusa Bl., B. monogyna BL, or 
Cauayang quilang B., pimgeas BL, or Cauayang to too, Bamhusa 
niitis BL, or Taivanse, Bamhusa lima BL, or Anos, and Bamhusa 
textoria BL, or Calbang. All of these bamboos are used for many 
things, but the most useful of all is the Cauayang totoo, which at 
times reaches a diameter of more than 20 centimeters and a height of 
more than 12 meters. It is employed principally in the construction 
of native houses, which are often made wholly of bamboo, except for 
the rattan used to tie it together and -the cogon used as thatch. The 
posts, floor, rafters, and doors are all made of bamboo, and the native 
IS very skillful in working it. Either entire or split into strips, it is 
used in the construction of boats, rafts, bridges, aqueducts, scaflfolding, 
vessels of all kinds, baskets, furniture, fishing apparatus, arms, rope, 
etc. This plant, together with the cocoanut tree, the nipa palm, and 
the rattan, are truly providential for these countries. 

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Plate X. 


^ ■«'-^.«^^*^,■ 

rV ^■'■^ . ■ * V 

■>■'' 1- ■ ,, ■ V " ,-^ ''^■'^^ ' ^ 

1*-. -L'"*-''*;^ ^\ ■' ^ ■: 

^'^' .-'^■■■■--■■.^.|^'^-^-V^:;., i 

P*» ^. ^- «^ ' ,j^-*,. J^v. '■ ' ' 1^', ", 

' s>v »i AW 

^} ^#f^.xii 


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In this chapter are included those plants of the family Leguminosae 
which serve as food, those whose tubers are edible, those roots which 
are edible, and, finally, the plants cultivated in the gardens. 


MoNGO, Frijol, and Others. 

Leguminous plants are of but little importance in this country. One 
of the most commonly cultivated is the mongo {Phaseolus 7nungo BL), 
smaller than the lentil, but of the same flavor, and which is cultivated 
on a large scale, as it is the principal food of many towns. The butingui 
(Phaseohts vulgaris L.) is the true kidney bean, which is found in con- 
siderable variety in the garden. The zabache {Phaseolm Ivnatus L.) is 
also greatly prized. The sitao {Phaseolus caracalla L.) produces a 
vegetable about a foot long. The frijol from Abra {Phaseolus timhi- 
7iensis Lour.), and the patani {Phaseolus inamornus L.) are both highly 
prized by the natives. There are also some species of the genera 
Dolichos, Vigna, Pachyrhizus, and Prophocarpus, which produce vege- 
tables or edible seeds less highly esteemed than those of the genus 


Sweet Potatoes (Ipoyncea batatas Lamk. ). 

Although the origin of this plant has been much discussed, it is 
believed to have come from America. Its tuber, which is commonly 
called caniote, is very suitable for food, and its cultivation is greatly 
favored by mountain races, which would seem to favor the antiquity 
of its introduction. The plant grows in five or six months, extending 
its shoots in all directions, completely covering the soil with its abun- 
dant leaves, which are likewise edible. When the ground is given 
over to the exclusive cultivation of this plant it is allowed to take root 
in all directions, and as the roots extend and grow the tubers continu- 
ally, they may be dug up for use at any time of the year. When its 
cultivation alternates with that of rice or corn it is necessary to plant 
anew each year, the product usually being of greater value than in the 
previous years. 

The Potato (Solarium tuberosum 1j.) . 

This plant originally came from the Andes, and was introduced into 
Spain after the conquest of Peru. After that its use extended over 


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the rest of Europe, especially after the tests by Parmentier, who dur- 
ing the last century demonstrated that the potato was not poisonous, as 
was believed, but that, on the other hand, it was very useful as a food. 
These tubers have about 20 per cent of solid matter, and more than 80 
per cent when desiccated at a temperature of 120 degrees. In Europe 
they form the basis of the food supply of the lower classes, and are of 
industrial value, especially in the manufacture of alcohol. 

In the Philippine Archipelago this valuable tuber has not done well, 
and is only cultivated with success in certain elevated localities, such 
as the District of Benguet. 


Gabe {Colocami esculenta Schott). 

This plant, introduced a long while ago from Asia, is to-day exten- 
sively cultivated in almost all the islands, especially in the mountain 
regions. Its large roots and young leaves make an excellent food for 
the natives. The badiang, which is cultivated principally in the 
Visayas, has the same uses. There are three principal varieties, the 
best known of which is the variegata. 

Ube, Tuqui, etc. 

Various species of the same genus Dioscorea are found either grow- 
ing spontaneously or being cultivated for their edible roots. Among 
these are the ube {Dioscorea alata)^ the tuqui {D. sativa L.), the paquit 
{I), divaricata L.), the nami-conot {D. pentapliyUa L.), the tongo 
{D. papillaris L.), and others. They all have large roots and some 
times attain enormous sizes. They may be eaten boiled or without 
other preparation than leaving them in water for some days. The 
tuqui and the ube, being most highly prized, are most extensively 
cultivated. The rhizome of this latter makes a healthy food of a 
sweet taste. It is somewhat sour when raw, but is rendered sweet 
and nutritious by boiling. Its cultivation is simple, somewhat similar 
to that of the potato. It is necessary to carefully prepare these 
tubers for eating, for when this is not done they are poisonous. 


PiiiNciPAL Species Cultivated in the Philippineh. 

Although the natives do not care much for the cultivation of these 
plants, gardens are found near the large centers of population, gen- 
erally cultivated by Chinese, the products being used by Europeans. 
Among those cultivated are the following: Onions, garlic, asparagus, 
radishes, cabbages, artichokes, endives, peppers, tomatoes, carrots, 
celery, parsley, and the haras {Anethiim fmniculum), a native plant 
whose fruit contains seeds having a sweet 'flavor similar to anise. Of 
the family Cucurbitaceas there are also a large number of plants which 
are generally eaten boiled. Among these are the common squash, of 
which there are several varieties, the condol {Cucurhita aspera)^ which 
is oval in shape and very suitable for making* sweets. A variety of 
squash known to the natives as calabasang bilog {Oucurliia sulcata)^ 

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P c— VOL 3—01 26 

L^ , 'i.. L ..JL u. 

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which is of a green color, much prized and extensively cultivated, and 
the tabayag {Lagenarie rylf/ans), the meat of which is soft and smooth 
to the touch. The geruis Cvcumis is represented hy no less than four 
species in the Philippines. The tabacog {Oueuviis vido), which is the 
true melon, and which, although possessing a delightful aroma, never 
reaches the excellent flavor of those of P]urope. The pepino, or 
cucumber, which is eaten boiled or pickled. The patola {Oueumis 
acutwiigulus) ^ large in size, and eaten green or boiled. The milondaga 
{Gucunm luzon'was)^ small in size and with a flavor similar to the 
cucumber, and the w^atermelon, sandia, or pacuan. 

Albay is the only locality where the strawberry occurs. 

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The so-called textile plants are those which furnish fiber for the 
manufacture of cloth, cordage, etc. They are called industrial because 
of the large number of hands employed in the manufacture of these 
products in the great manufacturing centers. The principal ones 
found in the Philippines are hemp, cotton, the pineapple plant, ramie, 
agave, cabo-negro, rattan, pandan, and palma buri. 

Manila Hemp (Mum tejiill.^J^.). 

This plant is greatly appreciated for the excellent quality of its fiber, 
which constitutes one of the chief articles of exportation! Its princi- 
pal cultivation is in the provinces of Ambos Camarines, Albay, Sorso- 
gon, and Catanduanes, in the islands of Samar and Leyte, and on a 
smaller scale in Cebu, Mindoro, Marinduque, and the north of Minda- 
nao. In Negros it grows well only in the southern part, and in Panay 
the small quantity gathered is of inferior quality. The fiber is 
obtained from the outer of the sheathing leafstalks, which in these 
plants forms the apparent trunk, as in bananas. This sheath is cut into 
lengths and then into strips, which are called sajas. There are many 
varieties of hemp, in some places as many as fourteen. The difl'er- 
ences between these consist in variations in'color in the bulb and lower 
part of the trunk, in the greater or smaller number of shoots, and in 
the development and strength of the fiber. In Albay experts distin- 
guish varieties according to the size of the stalk, the shape and size 
of the leaves, and especially according to the strength of the fiber in 
the sajas. Even though experts recognize these characterist'cs n each 
variety, it is very difiicult to do it at first sight, as the ditferent names 
given to the difi'erent varieties in the difi'erent localities cause some 
confusion in the determination of them. 

Oultwation.—This plant needs a moist climate, the lack of which is 
sometimes supplied by planting trees, which furnish shade and prevent 
the loss of water, which, by evaporation, is continually going on from 
the broad leaves. These trees also aid by drawing moisture to the 
surface by means of their long roots. Trees having high branches, 
narrow leaves, and deep roots are those most serviceable for this pur- 
pose. The land should be open and moist, but not swampy. Sloping 
lands having a clay soil, situated on the hillsides or mountain sides, are 
suited to the cultivation of this plant. The best fertilizer is the refuse 
of the plant itself left after the extraction of the fiber, as this contains 
the same elements which have been taken from the soil. Other articles, 
such as ashes, or any substance which contains potash and soda, may be 
used. New plants are grown from shoots or suckers, called by the 
natives saja, which grow about the base of the plant. The plants may 

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be grown likewise and with considerable economy from tubers and 
from seed, but these methods are rarel}^ used. For new plantations 
recently cleared mountain lands are used, a few trees being left for 
shade, the trunks and branches of the others being burned. After 
the ground has cooled the shoots are planted in little holes li or 2 
meters apart. As the little shoots are very slow in growing, some 
other plant is usually sown on the same field to check the growth of 
weeds which might destroy the hemp plant. For this purpose the 
sweet potato is most serviceable. At the end of three years the plant 
has reached its full development, the most suitable time for cutting 
being when the fruit begins to show, as the fiber is then in the best 
condition. The trunk is cut down with a sharp machete or knife. 
The lower part of the trunk and the leaves are then cut off and the 
external layers of the plant or those containing the fiber are then 
removed arid carried to the workhouse where the fiber is extracted. 

Enemies of the hemj) jplant.—TY^o insects, the larviB of which are 
called by the natives tamiloc and amarog, pass through the metamor- 
phosis in the trunk of this plant. The former of these measures about 
4 centimeters in length, the latter \\ centimeters. A large hole may 
be observed somewhere about the lower part of the plant attacked, 
which soon assumes a yellow color and dries up before reaching half 
its full size. 

Production and prices, — There has been a constant increase in the 
area of land devoted to the cultivation of hemp. It is estimated that 
the annual production of the archipelago is more than 1,000,000 piculs. 
Hemp is classified in commerce in three grades — current, second, and 
colored. The price of the first grade between the years 1885 and 1894 
varied between 117.12, its highest price, and $6, the lowest price, per 
kilogram. The other two classes sell at prices from 25 to 40 per cent 
lower than the first. All of these prices are those of the market of 
Manila, being somewhat less in the provinces. 

The cultivation of hemp began to assume important proportions in 
the Philippines in 1855, at which time it was second in importance among 
articles of export from these islands. It is exported principally to the 
United States and to England, small quantities going to Spain, Aus- 
tralia, Singapore, and China. 

Cotton {Gossypium herhaceum L.). 

This plant is cultivated in the Philippines and the provinces of North 
and South Ilocos, Union, Pangasinan, and Abra. The species cultiva- 
ted are Gossyphmn herhaceimi and O. perenne and Ceiba pentandra. 
The first two are known to the natives as capas and bobuy, and the 
latter as capasanglay. They are respectively herbs, bushes, and trees. 
The capas or herb is the only one which is really cvdtivated and whose 
product is used in the manufacture of cloth. The others are found 
growing wild, the cotton being used only for making pillows and 

Cultivation and preparation,— The soil should be open, strong, and 
easy to work, and should be deeply plowed and carefully prepared. 
It should be planted, when there is no danger of heavy rains, in fur- 
rows a meter apart, the plants being an equal distance apart in these 
furrows. When the fruit is ripe it is collected and the cotton is passed 
through a series of manipulations, rendering it suitable for the manu- 
facture of cloth. The first operation is the separation of the cotton 

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froni the husk, after which the liber is separated from the seed, to 
which it strongly adheres. This operation is accomplished })y the 
means of a little hand machine, called laddit, which is composed of two 
parallel wooden cylinders revolving in opposite directions. The cot- 
ton is passed between the cylinders and separated from the seed. With 
this primitive apparatus one man working ten hours can obtain 3 or 
4 kilograms of clean cotton. The cotton is then spread on drying 
tables, after which it is ready for spinning. 

The enemies of the cotton plant which menace production are 
the curiat, or field cricket; a gray caterpillar which is the larva of a 
butterfly (Nochiasuhterranea)', and the larva of Melolontha vulgaris, 
called by the natives abaleng. 

Pineapple (Bromelia ananas L., or Ananam saliva Lindley). 

^ A plant of the family Bromeliaceae, which is cultivated for its deli- 
cious fruit and for the fiber which is obtained from its leaves. This 
latter is similar to that obtained from the agave. Its origin is tropical 
America, from whence it was spread to Africa, Oceania, and even to 
Europe. The pineapple has about the same geographical distribution 
as coffee, but is grown on some mountains at an altitude not suitable 
for coffee. It requires an even temperature which does not fall 
below 18^ C. It will grow on almost any kind of ground, but 
gives best results in open, strong soil. It grows from the seed, 
which is sown in parallel lines li meters apart, the individual plants 
being one-fourth meter from each other. In Culia it is cultivated 
almost exclusively for its fruit, which has an exquisite flavor, and is 
sweet, aromatic, and slightly tart, on account of the presence of malic 
acid, which makes it somewhat indigestible. In the Philippines it is of 
moi-e importance as a textile plant. 

3/et/iod of r}htahmi(/ thefber.—The fruit of the plant is first cut so 
that the leaves may become as long and broad as possible. When 
these leaves are well developed they are torn off and then scraped with 
a fragment of glass or some other sharp instrument so as to separate 
the fleshy part and leave the flbers behind. It is then washed, dried 
in the sun, and combed out. It is classified in four grades, according 
to its fineness, and is then employed in the manufactuie of fabrics in 
the same way as Manila hemp. The finer filaments are woven in very 
rough looms into a most delicate cloth. This commands a high price, 
and is used for making handkerchiefs, waists, and other garments! 
This cloth is very highly prized in the Philippines, as much as 20,000 
reals having been paid for a single embroidered suit. 

Ramie ( Boehmeria nivea ) . 

This plant, of the family Urticacea3, probablv has its origin in Java, 
Sumatra, or the southern part of China. It is a nettle, like those of 
Spam, but without needles. It is cultivated for its fiber, which is 
formed on the outer part or bark of the plant. It grows to a variable 
height, according to climate and soil, of between 1 and 2i meters. 
Beyond doubt the famous Canton linen is manufactured from this 
excellent fiber, which rivals flax. In spite of the excellent quality of 
this fiber the cultivation of this plant has not increased, on account of 
the difficulty of extraction, which can only be profitably done with 

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special machinery. In the Philippines it is found only in the Batanes 
Islands and the north of Luzon. 

The plant Urtica arboremenH Bl. orDalonot, whose fiber is employed 
for the same purposes, also exists. 

Agave (Agave americana L. ). 

This plant, belonging to the family Amaryllidacese, comes originally 
from America. Its fleshy, sharp leaves, bordei'ed with a row of spines, 
furnish a fiber from which delicate cloth called nipis is made. It is 
cultivated on a small scale in certain localities in the Philippines. The 
Tagalogs call it magui, or maguey. It is exported in bulk to England, 
China, Japan, and Egypt. 

Cabo-negro {Arenga sacdiarifera LabilL; Caryopa oimstd BL). 

This plant, called cauong by the natives, belongs to the family of 
palms. Along the edge of the stem of the leaf are long, black, and 
very strong fibers, which are useful for the manufacture of ropes and 
cordage. These are very durable and resist moisture and even salt 
water. It is used also in making walls or partitions, and has some 
other uses which will be mentioned later. 

Rattan (Bejuco). 

Of the genus Calamus there are several species called by the natives 
dilan, yantoc, talola curag, and palasan. These spiny, climbing plants, 
which sometimes attain a length of 200 meters, furnish to the natives 
a useful material of most extended application. All the framework 
of the houses built of bamboo and nipa, and many of those built of 
wood, are held together only by strongly laced bands of rattan, this 
article supplying the place of nails. These rattans are also employed 
in the rigging of all the smaller boats, and in the making of rafts, etc. 
In some of the provinces hats and sacks or bags are made from rattan, 
and in other places chairs and other articles of furniture. 

Pandan (Pand amis spiralis, Bl. ). 

This plant belongs to the family Pandanacem. Its leaves are used 
for the manufacture of hats and sacks, an industry developed in Luc- 
ban and the province of Tayabas. The huge, wide leaves of the palm 
called buri {Corypha umhraculifera L.) are also used for this purpose. 
In the same way the split stems of the leaves of the nito {Lygodium 
semihastatus Del.) are utilized. 

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CocoANUT {Cocas 7iuci/er ah.). 

This is one of the most important plants of the archipelago, satis- 
fying as it does with its various products so many industrial, economic, 
and medicinal wants. It will be discussed here simply as an oil- 
producing plant. 

It belongs to the family of palms and comes from India. Man}^ 
varieties are found in the Philippines, especially in the Visayan 
Islands. The chief ones of these are called cayumanus. limbaon, dah- 
lili, and macapuno, the chief points of difference being in the fruit. 

Oultwatioh, — This plant will grow almost anywhere and does not 
demand any particluar kind of soil. Nevertheless, if a plantation is 
to be established it is best to choose land situated near the sea, having 
a reddish soil mixed with sand, as the salt water and the regular 
winds seem to l)enetit the trees. It is not expedient to place planta- 
tions on highly elevated ground, as the winds easily uproot many 
trees. Young trees grow from the perfectly ripe fruit. In Cuba, 
where the cultivation of the fruit is carried on with much care, beds 
for sprouting the seed are made in suitable soil and the young trees 
are carefully guarded. \w the Philippines the nuts are placed with- 
out any preparation close together iri beveled beds, where they are 
exposed to the influence of the air. In following this procedure it is 
a year before the plant reaches a height of a meter. Another and 
shorter method is to hang the nuts on trees in such a way that 
they are partiallv protected from the sun, but exposed to atmos- 
pheric influences. In this way the plants will attain the height of a 
meter within five months. The small trees are now transplanted into 
previously prepared soil. The holes in which they are placed should 
be not less than 1^ meters in diameter in loose soil and 2 to 3 meters 
in mountain soil. The plants should be from 8 to 12 meters apart, 
according to the character of the soil, and the transplanting should be 
done just before the beginning of the rainy season. After planting 
they require but little care. Weeds must be kept out, insects destroyed, 
the dry leaves cut away, and in certain cases, when the dry season is 
very prolonged irrigation must be resorted to during the first few 
years. It is a good idea to cultivate some other crop, such as corn or 
the mungo, for the first few years. On good land the plantations 
begin to bear fruit at the end of seven years; on poor lands no fruit 
is borne for ten or twelve years. 

Diseases, — The diseases of the cocoanut tree are brought about by 
atmospheric conditions or by animal or vegetable parasites. Among 
the first may be mentioned excessive humidity, especiall}^ when the 
water lies about in pools, and an unusually prolonged dry season, very 
strong winds, and earthquakes. Earthquakes produce such an effect 
upon the vegetative functions of the tree that ordinarily many of the 
nuts drop off within a short time. Among animals may be mentioned 

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crows, rats, and bats, which cause but little damage. Locusts at tinies 
devastate the plantations, eating not only the leaves but the leaf ribs. 
Hogs sometimes destroy the young trees. The ])eetles Rhyncophora 
ochreatus^ Eydana^ and Rhyncophora pasch a Bohem., called by the 
natives Bagangan, penetrate the terminal bud of the tree and destroy 
it in a few days. These insects are destroyed by pouring into the 
holes they make ashes, sand, or an infusion of tobacco. Among para- 
sitic plants may be mentioned a fungus ( Ur<do voeivova). This micro- 
scopic plant collects on the terminal bud of the tree and destroys the 
outer covering of this organ, the fungus appropriating the nutritive 
elements to its own use. This opei'ation destroys the tree in a short 
time, as the fungus nmltiplies from its spores witli great rapidity. The 
best treatment consists in destroying the ali'ected or suspected trees 
with fire. 

The analysis of the meat of the cocoaiuit, according to Buchwer, is 
as follows:' Water, 31.8 per cent; stearin and olein, 47 per cent; albu- 
men sulphate of calcium and sulphur, 4.3 per cent; potassium and 
other salts, 11 per cent; insoluble Vvoody fiber, %.^ per cent. 

The nuts are collected every four months. They are taken to mar- 
ket in such vehicles as are used in the country or, if possible, by water, 
when a raft is formed of the cocoanuts themselves, having simply a 
rope about them to prevent them from separating. The owner rides 
on top of this raft of cocoanuts. 

JJ^es. — When the fruit is to be used for the manufactui"e of oil a disk 
of the outer husk called by the natives bonot is first cut from either end. 
The rest of the husk is then removed l)y means of a conical-pointed 
iron which is fixed in a piece of wood. The inner covering, or shell, 
is then divided into two parts. The adherent meat is then separated 
from the shells by means of a senricircular knife fixed in a wooden 
support, or perhaps by a spl erical iron grater, which is fastened to 
the end of a wooden shaft lying horizontally and which is turned by 
means of pedals. When extracted in this manner the meat of the nut 
is deposited in a large wooden tub which has a hole in the bottom for 
the escape of the oil, which flows from the mass simply by exposure 
to the sun; but this process is very long, as to extract all of the oil 
requires a month or more. It is likinvise very imperfect, as the 
decomposition of extraneous material imparts to the oil a dark color 
and an almost insupportable odor. A b(^tter and more general method of 
extracting is by means of Hre. The cocoanut meat is placed in suital)le 
receptacles or in specially prepared ovens and boiled, or it is placed in 
large kettles having a slow fire undi-rneath. During the boiling a 
froth containing extraneous material is thrown away.^ It is usual to 
express the oil from the meat, as a much larger quantity is obtained. 
If the nuts are good ones, and the operation is done with care, 5 liters 
of oil should be obtained from 30. The natives use this oil as a condi- 
ment, and while still fresh as a purgative. It is greatly used for light- 
ing purposes and in the manufacture of soaps. Both in the Philippines 
and Europe it is used in the manufacture of porfumery. 

Benne seed — (Sesama, or Ajon.joli) {Sesamum orientale L.). 

This plant, belonging to the family Pedaliaceee, has been known in 
the Orient from the most remote time, and is to-day cultivated in all 
tropical countries. The seeds of this plant contain as much as 53 per 
cent of fixed oil. This oil, somewhat similar to olive oil, and often 
mixed with it to adulterate it, has a sweet taste, although more insipid 

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than olive oil, and is very slow in becoming rancid. In Egypt, Japan, 
and other oriental countries, it is used in cooking in place of lard or 
olive oil. As it is an excellent arti(4e for making soap, it is an impor- 
tant article of trade between Europe and Egypt and oriental countries. 
It is also used as a cosmetic and in the preparation of medicinal emul- 
sions. The residue left after the extraction of the oil is used as a 
fertilizer, and also as an excellent food for fattening cattle. Of that 
cultivated in the archipelago but a small quantity is exported. For 
perfect ripening this plant requires a temperature 30 degrees centi- 
grade and an even climate. It should be planted in places protected 
from strong winds, preferably on alluvial or clay soil of average fer- 
tility and capable of irrigation. The seed is sown by hand, after which 
the crop requires no care except thinning a little when the plants are 
from 12 to 10 centimeters in height. The crop is harvested when the 
stalks begin to fall and turn yellow. Great care must be taken in har- 
vesting or the seed will be lost. 

LuMBANG (AleurUei^ iriloha BL). 

This plant, of the family Euphorbiacaa, is cultivated for the oil 
which is extracted from its seeds. This oil is of good quality, is used 
for lighting purposes and for calking ships, and is excellent for paint- 
ing. The refuse left after the extraction of the oil is generally 
employed as a fertilizer for the betel palms. Lumbang oil is exported 
to China. 

Ca8Tok Oil (Ricino) {RlcinuH commuym h.) . 

This plant, a native of India, belongs to the family Euphorbiaceie, 
known also as the Iliguera infernal (infernal fig) and to the Tagalogs 
as tafigantangan. it is cultivated for its seeds, which produce about 40 
per cent of a purgative oil much used in medicine and which ma}" be 
also used for lighting purposes. 

A reddish oil very useful for illumination is extracted from the 
seeds of a tree {Jatropha curcas) belonging to this same family and 
which is known to the Tagalogs as tuba, in Iloilo as casla, and in 
Ilocos as tavatava. 

The Peanut (Manx, or Cacahuate) {Arachis hypogaeaJj.). 

This plant, belonging to the family Leguminosa? is a native of lower 
Guinea, from whence it was carried to Brazil, and is now cultivated in 
all America, the southern part of Europe, Asia, and Oceania In the 
Philippine Archipelago it is cultivated on a small scale only as forage 
for cattle. 

The most important use of mani is the extraction of a fixed oil from 
its seeds. This oil has the important property of not becoming rancid 
for a long time. If the climate is suitable and the cultivation care- 
fully carried on, the seeds will yield half of their weight in oil, but as 
ordinarily cultivated they do not yield more than one-third. It is a 
pity that in the Philippines, which has a climate so well suited to this 
plant, its cultivation is not more carefully and extensively carried on. 
The oil is fluid, yellowish in color, without odor, and with a decided 
sweetish taste, which makes it inferior to olive oil. It may be 
employed in the preparation of toilet oils, soap, and lubricating 
oils. The residue obtained after the extraction of the oil, mixed with 
an equal weight of flour, is employed for making bread. It may be 
mixed with cacao for the manufacture of chocolate. 

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In this chapter are inchided two groups of industrial plants — the 
first containing the dye plants found in the Philippines, and the second, 
those from which starch can be obtained. 


Under this heading are included those pli:nts which furnish to indus- 
try substances from which dyestull's can be made. The cultivation of 
these plants has diminished greatly since the discovery of the aniline 
dyes which are to-day so much used. 

Indigo (Anil) (Indigofera tinctoria J^.). 

This plant, belonging to the family LeguminosiB, is a native of India, 
where it is found wild in many places and in others under cultivation. 
The juice extracted from its leaves and young stalks furnishes a blue 
(iyestull* known as indigo, which is much used in the industries. The 
])rincipal Philippine provinces in which it is produced are Bataan, 
Batangas, Bulacan, Laguna, Pangasinan, Pampanga, Zambales, and 
North and South llocos. The latter province, even with a small crop, 
produces more than all the other provinces combined. 

Besides the species already mentioned others are found in the Philip- 
pines, as Indigofera trifollata^ L. ; Indlgofera trlta^ L. ; liidiqofera 
hirsuta^^ L., the first two being cultivated. 

Cultivation, — The indigo plant, called by the Tagalogs tayum, has 
small, slender, round leaves, whose tips are colored. It produces little 
slender pods full of seeds, by means of which it is propagated in the 
fields. Although this plant grows in temperate climates, two or three 
crops a year may be obtained in warm, moist climates as against one 
in the former. The most suitable grounds for the cultivation of this 
are those having light, deep soil, as the roots of this plant ramify but 
little, the central long root penetrating deeply into the soil. For this 
reason lands lying along rivers and small streams and at the foot of 
mountain ranges are most suitable for its cultivation, especially if 
they abound in alluvium. The land should be free from trees, so that 
the sun's ra3^s are not cut oflf. 

Under these conditions the juice of the leaves and young stems is 
more abundant. The soil should be deepl}^ worked and fertilized by 
such substances as the residue of the indigo plant and others which 
contain organic matter, alkaline salts, phosphates and lime, such as 
refuse, ashes, etc. The seed is sown broadcast or in lines, the latter 
method being preferable, as it saves seed and facilitates weeding and 
irrigation. When the young plants are one month old the ground 


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should be cleared of weeds, which deprive the plants of sustenance and 
of light and ventilation, all of which are so necessary to them. As 
the coloring matter is extracted principally from the leaves, these 
should be collected as soon as they are completely formed and before 
the fruit has formed. The indigo in the leaves is without color and in 
solution, and forms a part of the juice. When the juice is extracted 
from the plant it is yellowish white in color. On being exposed to the 
action of the air it changes successively to yellowish green, green, 
greenish blue, and finally, becoming insoluble, it falls as a blue pre- 
cipitate, in the bottom of the vessels in which it is contained, about 
thirty hours after the extraction of the juice. 

^^'^6.- -Indigo is used for dyeing thread and cloth of cotton, silk, 
and wool and for coloring wood paper, etc. In commerce several 
varieties of indigo are known, of various values. Philippine indigo is 
of about the same grade as that of Coromandel and Madras, which is 
next to that from Bengal, the most highly prized, but on account of 
adulterations made by speculators, principally Chinese, who mix other 
materials with it, Philippine indigo is somewhat discredited and has 
suffered depreciation in price in the markets of the world. Neverthe- 
less, this article is regularly exported to China, Japan, and Singapore. 

Rattan (Sibucao) ( Csesalpinia sappan L, ) . 

This is a plant of the family Leguminosge, whose woody trunk pro- 
duces a red coloring matter similar to campeachy or logwood, and which 
is employed in dyeing cotton or wool. It is very abundant in the 
forests of the Philippines, and some excellent varieties are found, 
which produce a color more highly valued than that of the Brazil 
woods. It grows naturally from the seeds which fall from the pod on 
the ground. Considerable amount of the dye is produced in the 
Philippine Archipelago, and it is an important article of export to 
China and England. The Chinese employ it in dyeing silks, damasks, 
and other fabrics woven in China. It is sometimes used in place of 
cochineal, though the color is not as stable. 

S AFFLowp^R OR Alazor ( Cavtluwinus tinctori'us L. ) . 

This is a plant of the family Compositse, called also bastard saifron 
and in the Philippines biri. It is valued and cultivated for its stamens, 
which contain three principal coloring matters, two yellow, soluble in 
water and of little value, and the third red, soluble in the alkalies and 
of greater importance. It is used in the adulteration of saffron. 

Aguisip (Melastoina polyanthum Blum.), and Bancuro {Morindatincioria Roxb.)- 

These are two trees of the family of Melastomacese and Rubiaceae, 
respectively. The natives extract from the bark of the former and 
the root of the latter a bright-red coloring matter which the}^ use to 
dye pieces of hemp cloth, which are then called pinayusas. To obtain 
the coloring matter from the bancuro the bark from the upper part 
of the large roots is taken off, dried, and reduced to a fine powder. 
In this condition it is called nino or culit. The operation of dyeing 
these pinayusas is thus described by Father Delgado, S. J. : 

The operation of dyeing these white squares on the cloth is very compHcated and 
delicate. They are placed in little piles upon one another in a curious and admirable 

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manner. Each one of the Httle squares before being dyed is tied with a thread of 
hemp, each blanket or piece of cloth requiring innumerable little threads or puyos, 
as they are called in the native language; the little threads once tied up in this way, 
the dye is applied to the whole piece, a little lime is added, and after the cloth has 
taken the dye all the little threads are removed. As the dye has not penetrated the 
little squares which were tied up, these remain white, and form on the red back- 
ground figures which give to the cloth the name pinayusas. The natives use this for 
making tents, curtains, and for adorning their houses. 

Bacauan {Hhizophont tinctoria L. ). 

Shrub or tree of the family Rhizophoraceie. These trees make up 
the mangrove swaoips which are commonly found along the coast and 
near the mouths of rivers. They have extensive and impenetrable 
jungles, the refuge of mosquitoes, aquatic birds, and marine animals. 
From the bark a reddish coloring matter is extracted. The wood is 
much used as firewood. 

Balanti (Homalanthiis populifolius R. Grali.) and Cumalon {Dlospyros cunalon 

A. DC). 

These are two trees of the family of the Ebenaceje, the bark of which 
when dried and reduced to a powder furnishes a black coloring mat- 
ter used by the natives. 

Salicsican (Morhida iinibellata L.) and othp^rs. 

The salicsican is a species of nino or wild bancuro, from whose roots 
the natives extract a red coloring matter which they employ in various 

The natives extract dyes from various other species of wood. From the 
bark of the tree called bagolibas a dye is obtained which will give any 
kind of cloth a fine, tawny color. The prepared bark of the tree called 
dayagao makes a fine mordant, which imparts a fine luster and great 
stability to cloth dyed black, yellow, or red. Belolo, dugna, and 
hagur are very much used by fishermen for dyeing and strengthening 
their nets, which take on a dark brown color and are rendered less 
susceptible to rotting. Ananaples {Alhlzzla 'procerra Benth.), of the 
family LeguminosiB, is used in dyeing hides which are to be used in 
the manufacture of whips, sole leather, and saddles. 


The so-called feculas, or starches, are carbohydrates which exist in 
plants, constituting one of the most abundant of their proximate prin- 
ciples. They are found in the seeds of cereals, in vegetables, in tubers, 
in the trunks of various palms, in the roots of some plants of the fam- 
ily Euphorbiacese, and in various organs of many other plants. Accord- 
ing to their origin they take diflerent names— that from wheat and 
other cereals is called starch; that from the potato and other tubers, 
fecula, which is a generic term and is usually considered synonymous 
with starch; that from the yucca or cassava, tapioca; and that from the 
palm, sago. Here will be discussed only those plants from which some 
one of these proximate principles is extracted. They all furnish food 
of great nutritive value and easy of digestion. 

p c— VOL 3—01 27 

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Cassava, Yucca, or Oamoting cahoy (Jatropha manihot L.), 

This plant is an herb of the family Euphorbiacese, a native of tropi- 
cal countries. It is notable for its roots, which contain an abundance 
of starchy fecula J^nown by the name of tapioca, whose good qualities 
are so well known. In the Antilles, where it is known as yucca it is 
cultivated with great care. The yucca or camoting cahoy, as it is called 
m the Philippines, grows well in both temperate and hot regions; the 
soil should be strong but not low, sandy and loose, so that the develop- 
ment of the root is not restricted; to accomplish this the ground must 
be plowed four or five times, finally leaving the straight parallel fur- 
rows one or two meters apart in order to allow the unrestricted growth 
of the plant. The plant is multiplied by means of buds growing from 
knots on the woody trunk, pieces of which are planted horizontally in 
the furrows and covered with nine or ten centimeters of earth. The 
roots of the camoting cahoy attain considerable size, and while they 
are still fresh they contain a milky juice which is poisonous, but this 
deleterious substance disappears upon boiling or simply upon exposure 
to the air for twenty-four hours, leaving the residue of the milky iuice 
quite inoffensive. 

^ According to Chemists Bontron and Henrv, this poisonous principle 
IS prussic acid m very small quantities, and in such a diffused state that 
it can not produce an instantaneous effect, but it does when concen- 
trated. In order to utilize the root of the camoting cahoy as food it is 
necessary to grate it, wash it, and subject it to a considerable pressure 
to express the ]uice; the material remaining behind after these opera- 
tions IS the flour or tapioca. This material after being taken from the 
press IS roasted on some hot surface, being continually stirred. The 
fecula or tapioca is very nutritious, some maintaining that a half a 
kilogram a day is sufficient for one man. It is white or yellowish 
white in color, sweetish in taste, and somewhat insipid. It is much 
valued m medicine on account of its digestibility, and it is much used 
as an infant food. 

Arkow Root. 

This is also called maranta, and in the Philippines tagbac-tagbac It 
belongs to the family Marantace^e, of which two species are known- 
Maranta indica L., and M. arimdmacea, the latter a name of America 
and the fornier of India. Both are important on account of their 
roots, which produce the starchy feculas known as arrow root and 
sago. The latter is a herbaceous plant, a meter in height, havino- 
lanceolate leaves about 15 centimeters in length, similar to those of 
the banana plant, even in the method of growing. The part of the 
stalk under ground gradually diminishes in size, to the point of inser- 
tion, into a long horizontal, fleshy-white tuber, which seems to be a 
rhizoma, and which contains a considerable quantity of fecula. 

Cidhvatio7i,—lt is cultivated with success in all loose, fairly damp 
soils. It IS planted from buds which are placed separately in hole^ 
about 60 centimeters apart, as the plant is very leafy. The crop can 
be collected m six or seven months without further care. 

BuRi ( Corypha umhraculifera L. ). 

This plant is celebrated in all the Philippine Archipelago, P-ivin^ 
name to the island of Burias, where it is found in abundance. It is 
tound in all the other islands, although in some not in the same 

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abundance as others. It belongs to the palm family, grows to a con- 
siderable height, is very beautiful, the trunk being adorned with an 
extended bunch of leaves. These are green in color, the young ones, 
however, being very white. It grows spontaneously in all parts, the 
natives never planting or cultivating. The leaves are very large and 
are different from those of the cocoanut tree; they extend from a single 
base in the form of a fan. This plant is of the greatest value to the 
natives. It does not produce fruit till after many years, and when it 
does once produce it, it dries up and dies. The fruit grows in bunches 
from the top of the tree, and is filled with little round nuts like hazel- 
nuts. The fruit, however, is not edible. 

Uh6 and Method of preparation, — To obtain the starch, the tree is 
cut down at the root and all of the soft interior part of the trunk is 
taken out and placed while moist in casks or troughs, while some of 
the naturally bitter substances are drained from it; it is now pounded 
with sticks or mallets, when the starch separates in the form of very 
fine grains; it is then collected and dried and made into Hour, which 
serves as food for the natives, and some of which is sold in Manila and 
other parts. It furnishes an excellent, tasteful, and good food, which 
is called in commerce sago. In Burias, Masbate, Bohol, and other 
parts where the tree grows in abundance, it takes the place of rice as a 
food stuff'. 

Bagsang {Metroxyloti rmriphii Mart.). 

This palm, called Bagsang, is very connnon in the Visayan Islands 
and very useful to the inhabitants. They neither plant it nor cultivate 
it, as it grows spontaneously from the seeds which it produces or from 
the shoots which grow at its base. It generally grows along the banks 
of rivers and estuaries, in moist regions, and in places near springs. 
This plant has many uses in all times, but especially if there is a lack 
of rice or other food stuffs. To obtain it, the tree is cut down and 
stripped of its bark, which is called baje, and which is utilized by the 
natives in many ways. The interior or heart of the tree is then cut 
into strips, which are dried over a fire and saved for further use. It 
is then pounded in wooden mortars, being reduced to a sort of flour, 
which is of great nutritive value. It is most frequently made into 
cakes or fritters, which, when eaten with cocoanut milk, are very good 
and healthful. 

LuMBiA, OR LuMBAY (Melroylon silvestre Mart.). 

This is a palm very similar to the preceding one, but taller and 
larger and having wider and stronger leaves. It grows along the shore 
of the sea and along the banks of rivers and creeks and in other places 
where water is abundant. It grows from its small fruit, which is not 
edible. A species of flour is obtained from the heart of this palm, 
which serves as a food stuff to the poorer classes, especially during 
times of famine. 

Cauong ( Caryota onusta Bl. ) . 

This is a palm similar to the preceding, from whose trunk a species 
of sago is obtained. The method of extraction is that generally pur- 
sued. The tree is cut down and the fibrous material removed from 

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the interior. This is pounded and then soaked in a cask, when a fine 
white flour settles to the bottom. The water is poured off, the pre- 
cipitate remaining behind being a sort of sago. 

Pag AHAN, OR Banga ( Caryota urens L. ) . 

This pahn, although containing a poisonous substance, furnishes a 
starch, or kind of sago, of excellent qualities and in good quantities. 
It is prepared according to the methods already described. 

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Two groups of plants are included in this chapter, the saccharine 
plants, or those which produce sugar and alcohol, and those from which 
alcoholic drinks are made. Only the species of both groups cultivated 
in the Philippines will be mentioned. 


Sugar Cane {Saccharum officlnarum L. ). 

This plant, known by the name of sugar cane or honey cane, belongs 
to the family of grasses. It is a native of India and China. In the 
Philippines it is one of the agricultural products of greatest impor- 
tance. The sugar-producing provinces are Pampanga and the island 
of Negros, and on a smaller scale the Laguna Bataan, Batangas, Iloilo, 
Cebu, Cavite, Pangasinan, Capiz, Antique, and Mindanao. There 
are many varieties of sugar cane, there being no less than twenty in 
the Philippines. The most important one cultivated, besides the ordi- 
nary variety, being the Batavian, which is distinguished from the com- 
mon variety by the violet color of its stalks and the larger number of 
joints and its greater size; the Otaheite, which is taller and larger than 
the previous one, and has a lemon-yellow stalk; finally the yellow or 
Creole variety, which has a slender stalk, and is yellowish white in 

Cultivation, — This plant for its full development requires a climate 
whose temperature is not less than 18^ C, and which should be 
as high as 23° C. during the ripening period. The soil should be 
deep and of medium consistency and, preferabl}^, clayey loam or sili- 
cious. The best fertilizers are manure, ashes, blood from the slaugh- 
terhouses, lime, and green stuff; fish, on account of the phosphorus 
which they contain; sulphates and phosphates of potassium, and, bet- 
ter than all of these, the bagasse, or the refuse left after grinding 
the cane. The ground should be prepared by plowing three or four 
times, and finally by hoeing, leaving it perfectly soft and smooth. 
Little holes of varying depths are then made in the soil at a distance of 
a meter or a meter and a half from each other. In these are placed 
little pieces of the stalk, some 40 centimeters long, each one of which 
should contain eyes or buds. These should be placed in water twenty- 
four hours before planting. They are then placed four or five in a 
hole, somewhat inclined, and are covered with 4 or 5 centimeters of 
soil, and worked if necessary. Other care of the crop is reduced to 
irrigation, hilling, and necessary weeding. The cutting begins when 
the cane assumes a yellow color on the lower part of the stalk and 


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when the juice shows 8^ or 9° on the Baume scale. The cane should 
be cut obliquely and when the earth is not too moist, as when there 
is an excess of moisture the blow of the machete or knife breaks the 
root and thus injures the plant. In the Philippines the cultivation 
of su^ar cane is generally carried on with little care and intelligence, 
and this is one of the reasons why the quantity and qualit}^ of the crop 
has diminished. To increase the production, it will be necessary to 
perfect methods of cultivation, selecting the best varieties of cane, or 
those which are best suited for the existing conditions, and tilling and 
fertilizing the land with more care; so, too, nmch greater care should 
be taken in the manufacture of the sugar. 

Sorghum {Sorglimn mccJiardtum Pers., or Sacchanmi koenigii Hetz). 

This plant likewise belongs to the family of grasses, and in its stalks 
are sweet juices which sometimes give as high as 17 per cent of pris- 
matic sugar. In the Philippines this plant is utilized only for forage, 
although it might well be cultivated for the production of sugar in cer- 
tain regions where sugar cane does not grow well. Sorghum demands 
the same kind of soil and the same cultivation as corn. It is planted in 
the same manner and should be weeded and hilled in the same way as 
corn. Alcohol for industrial purposes can be obtained from sorghum 
as well as from sugar cane. 


Under this heading will be included such vegetables as contain glu- 
cose or other substances which can by means of fermentation be con- 
verted into alcohol or alcoholic drinks. In the Philippines these plants 
are nipa, cocoanut, buri, cauong, pugahan, maize, and others. 

NiPA, OR Sasa {Nipa littoralis BL, Nipa fructificans Thunl).). 

The nipa is a palm which grows to a height of 4 meters, and from 
whose short stem rise large leaves composed of a multitude of little 
ensiform leaflets. The fruit consists of various clusters lying very 
closely together, although they are easily separated, which together 
form a large bunch hanging at the end of a thick peduncle which arises 
from the base of the tree. It is indigenous to the coast and grows 
only in muddy regions, or those which are liable to be overflowed, or 
the mouths of rivers which communicate with the sea. It is one of 
the most useful trees found in the Philippines. As a thatch it covers 
a great majority of the houses and even some of the churches in the 
islands. Many of the native houses have the walls and partitions made 
of nipa, as well as the roofs; but of still greater importance than the 
leaf is the tuba or sap from which nipa wine or arac (arrack) is made 
and which is consumed to such a great extent by the natives. 

Cultivation, — Nipa groves must be prepared by planting, which 
usually takes place between May and the last of July. The ripe fruits 
which fall to the ground are collected and employed for this purpose. 
Two or three of these fruits are placed in holes which are located about 
1.7 meters from each other. As the rains are very frequent during 
these months and the ground is kept moist it is not usually necessary 
to irrigate. This condition of moisture of the ground is also favored 
by the high tides. In order to get the best results from the grove all 

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dead leaves, or those which could prejudice the development of the 
fruit, should be removed. 

Method of obtaining the tuha. — A grove becomes serviceable at the 
end of five or six years. In order to obtain the tuba an incision is 
made in the peduncle immediately below the point of insertion of 
the fruit, leaving a few of the best developed fruits for purposes 
of reproduction. A liquid which flows from the incision is collected 
in bamboo tubes or joints called bombones, which are hung conven- 
iently on the plant. In order that this sap shall flow with the greatest 
facility several little operations are gone through with. The first of 
these, called sicat, consists in striking the peduncle of the fruit several 
blows, with the object of loosening somewhat the tissues and opening 
the pores. This operation should be done once a week during the five 
months preceding the producing season. Siinultaneously the process 
called talog, which consists in cleaning the peduncle of all leaves, is 
gone through with. When the collecting season arrives the operation 
called pucao is gone through with. This consists in rapidly rubbing 
the foot against the peduncle so as to call the sap toward the fruit. 
After this comes patit, which consists in cutting the peduncle near the 
base and leaving the bamboo joint attached, in which the juice is col- 
lected as it falls drop by drop. After this the incision on the peduncle 
is renewed twice each day, morning and evening, the tuba being collected 
daily. The collecting season lasts about ten months, the production 
increasing gradually for the first five months and decreasing slowly 
from that time. The average production of a single plant is about 46 
liters during the season. When the business is carried on on a large 
scale one-half the product goes to the owner and the other half to the 
workmen. The tuba is afterwards distilled and then concentrated in 
stills, and although the loss of liquid is great, there still remains a con- 
siderable amount. This tuba, when much fermented, may be used as 
vinegar. One hundred jars of this vinegar, each containing 48 liters, 
sells for $10 or %1% 

The Cocoanut ( Cocos nuciferaj L, ) . 

Method of gathering the t\iba. — ^To obtain the tuba from the cocoanut 
tree the same is cut before the flower is formed and before it has 
appeared externally. A bamboo joint or bombone is then attached for 
the collection of the liquid. The flower cluster or summit is bound 
together with pieces of rattan so that the bamboo joint can be easily 
adjusted. As one tree may have several flower clusters, as many bam- 
boo joints as are necessary are placed in position. A little of the 
powdered bark of the tongog (liizophora longissima^ Bl.) is placed in 
each bamboo joint; this serves to give strength and a reddish color to 
the wine. The wine is collected daily by men who carry large bamboo 
joints hanging over the back and held in place by a curved piece of 
wood. Attached to this large bombone, which is carried on the shoulder 
of the workman, is a rounded receptacle made of a shell of a cocoa- 
nut, which contains the powder already spoken of. Every time one of 
the small bamboo joints is emptied it is necessary to clean it perfectly 
on the inside and to renew the powder. This cleaning is done by a 
little brush or broom, which is made of a piece of the stem of the leaf 
of the cocoanut tree, which is carefully pounded on the end so as to 
convert it into a shorter brush. A small quantity of powder is then 
placed in the bombone and a fresh incision made in the flpwer stem. 

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This cutting of the flower stem is done with a veiy sharp little curved 
knife. ^ Each stem will produce wine for a period of two months, after 
which it dries out. In order to facilitate climbing the trees notches are 
made on either side, thus forming a sort of ladder. When a collection 
of tuba is carried on on a large scale, in order to avoid the loss of time 
involved in climbing each tree, large bamboos are tied from one tree 
to another horizontally, the two passing from tree to tree; one of these 
serves as a foot bridge and the other as a hand rail. Men frequentlv 
fall from them, often with fatal results. This tuba begins to ferment 
within an hour, more or less, after its collection, and at the end of a 
day it has^changed to a sort of vinegar, fermentation often being facili- 
tated by the addition of suitable plants. The liquid is then distilled, 
the distillate being known as cocoanut wine. 

BuKi ( Corypha umbraculifera L.) . 

This plant also produces a wine called tuba. It is obtained from an 
incision in the fruit, from which the juice issues. From this juice 
wine is made; and also a yellow honey-like substance called pacascas. 

(/AiTONU [( hryota onnda, B1.)ani) riTOAFTAN {CaryoUt urens h.). 

A sweet liquid or tii])a is obtained in the same manner in the fruit 
of these plants. 

There are also other plants of less importance from which the 
natives obtain their favorite drink, tuba. 

Maize or Indian Corn, etc. {Zea maysJ^.). 

An alcoholic drink, called in the Visayan Islands pangasi, is obtained 
by the fermentation of the starch of corn. Several families generally 
unite to make this drink and they generally end up by becoming very 
jo3^ful and noisy. 

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Tobacco {Nicotiana tahaaim, L. ). 

Tobacco is a plant belonging to the famiW Solanaceae, having straight 
cylindrical stems, wide soft leaves of a dark-green color, whitish -green 
funnel-shaped flowers, and numerous seeds contained in the two sides 
of a pod or capsule. It is an annual plant in Europe and evergreen 
in South American and other parts. 

This plant is a native of America. It was introduced into the Philip- 
pines by missionaries in the last quarter of the sixteenth century by 
means of seeds coming from Mexico. Its cultivation spread rapidly 
on account of the favorable conditions of climate and soil, and the 
favor with which the natives looked upon it. From the Philippines it 
was introduced into the south of China. 

varieties are: 

.First, common tobacco {Nicotidna tahacum L.), called also tabaco 
macho, or male tobacco, which is the best of all. It is somewhat 
gelatinous or viscid. Its stalks reach a height of 1 meter, its leaves 
are oval or heart shaped, and its flowers purple. 

Second, ioh2i(^Q.o hembra (female), or Mexican tohdo^x^o {Nicotiana 
rustica L.), which has rounded leaves, and which is cultivated with 
good results in the south of France. 

Third, verina, or Brazilian tobacco {Nicotiana ]}anicidata L.). This 
is a small species, very mild, demanding a very warm climate. It is 
much used in Turkey. 

The principal varieties of the first species are the Virginia tobacco, 
which has sharp leaves and does not require an especially fertile soil, 
and which loses but little in drying; Carolina tobacco, with shorter and 
narrower leaves than the Virginia tobacco and likewise less delicate in 
its growth. Tobacco growers, paying little attention to the botanical 
and scientific classification and more to the form and utility of the 
plant, divide it into two classes, wide leafed and narrow leafed. The 
qualities determining the price of tobacco in the market are combus- 
tibility, strength, aroma, fineness, elasticity, color, and uniformity. 
Philippine tobacco, which up to a short time ago was considered 
second best in the world, on account of its agreeable aroma, fine 
veins, and notable elasticity, has recently lost much of its reputation. 
Tobacco coming from the province of Isabela de Cagayan is considered 
the best in the Philippines. That from the Visayan Islands is coarser, 
more unequal in color, and of greater strength. The tobacco from 
Nueva Ecija is fine, but somewhat bitter in taste and yellow in color. 
That from Union, Ilocos, and the Igorrotes is of heavy body, broken, 
and frequently has but little combustibility. 


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Philippine tobacco may be divided into two groups: First, the 
varieties with elliptical or ovate, wide, or heart-shaped leaves, which is 
called in the provinces ''tobacco from the old seed;" and, second, 
tobacco with lanceolate, narrower leaves than the preceding, which is 
generally known under the name of " tobacco from new seed." The 
former comes from Mexico, and the latter is supposed to have been 
introduced recently from the United States. 

Cultivation, — Although tobacco grows in almost all climates, the 
product is more abundant and much better when grown in hot climates, 
as the heat has a great influence in determining that important quality, 
the aroma, which it is impossible to impart artificially. The lands 
most suitable for its cultivation are those of medium consistency and 
depth, which are cooled during the summer time, or such as have a 
sandy or silicious subsoil covered with loam, which are situated along 
the banks of rivers which are periodically overflowed, thus adding new 
mineral and organic constituents to the soil. These lands are called 
vegas (meadows), and in this country the name of vegueros is given to 
the workmen on such plantation. As the tobacco plant is very deli- 
cate, it is necessary to fertilize the soil thoroughly. Among fertilizers 
may be mentioned those which contain potassium, lime, chloride, and 
phosphate, the best being manure in an advanced stage of decomposi- 
tion. The preparation of the soil, which should be very deep and 
carefully done, consists of three plowings at intervals of several days, 
and the completion of the process by grading and leveling and the 
removal of all injurious weeds. 

The tobacco seed is sown in hotbeds, which are made on level, clean 
ground, having a carefully fertilized soil. The seed is selected from 
accredited sources and sown broadcast, being mixed with fine sand. 
These beds are about a yard wide, space enough being left between 
them to allow of the passage of weeders and other workmen. The 
seeds are covered lightly with earth, which is packed down a little and 
then irrigated, this operation being frequently repeated until the plants 
appear. These beds should be fenced in and covered over with 
branches, so as to protect the plants from the direct rays of the sun, 
but not interfere with ventilation. When the plants have four leaves 
this cover is removed, so that they may develop with greater vigor, 
and transplanting immediately begins. The plants are separated a dis- 
tance of about 60 centimeters from each other. When the flowers begin 
to appear and 10 or 12 leaves have developed, the buds are cut from the 
extremities of the stalks, so that the sap may flow to the leaves and 
nourish them with greater vigor. 

The gathering of the leaf is begun when the plant is in just the 
right condition, and the recognition of this is of the greatest impor- 
tance for the quality of the tobacco. At this time the leaves begin to 
turn yellowish, wrinkle somewhat, droop, and show more or less of a 
sticky juice, according to the abundance or scarcity of rain during this 
period of ripening. This condition having been reached, the process 
of gathering begins. This may be done either by cutting off* the stalk 
at the base, which is not a good way, or by collecting the leaves, one 
at a time, in the order in which they grow; or, beginning below, gath- 
ering a handful of two or three at a time. They are then classified 
according to size and quality, being left on the ground until they 
have dried. The tobacco is then tied in bundles, which are suspended 
by cords in the tobacco storehouse. They are thus protected from the 

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sun, but are exposed to excellent ventilation on all sides by windows 
and doors, which are opened or closed, according to circumstances. 

Diseases. — The tobacco plant is subject to injury from various kinds 
of insects which attack it. Among these the most dreaded is that 
called cogoUero. This is a white butterfly, which is so called because 
it grows and develops in vegetables, such as cabbage and lettuce. The 
gordo is a large black worm which eats the stems of the leaves, cutting 
them and causing them to fall. The cachasado is the larva of Iladena 
androgea Lat., which lives and hides during the day in the roots of the 
plant. The primavera is very voracious, and the babosa and other 
small animals not so much dreaded. 

Chemical composition. — The chemical composition of tobacco is very 
complex and variable, according to the kind and origin of the sample 
under examination. Vauquelin and other chemists who have analyzed 
it have found inorganic substances, such as silica, potassium, magnesia, 
ammonia, nitric acid, hydrochloric, phosphoric, and sulphuric acids; 
neutral organic substances, such as cellulose, oil, yellow and green 
resins, and a volatile alkaloid called nicotine. This is an oily, color- 
less substance of pungent taste and odor, soluble in water, alcohol, and 
ether. This alkaloid is found from 1^ to 9 per cent, according to the 
kind of the tobacco, and it is worthy of note that the best tobaccos, and 
those having the greatest reputation, are those which contain the small- 
est quantity of nicotine. Dr. Lebon, of Paris, has recently announced 
the presence of a new alkaloid in tobacco — colidine — which is as pois- 
onous as nicotine. Nicotine is very energetic, and in a short time 
poisons small animals, but is much less active in the plant itself, as it 
is mixed with other less active and inert substances. 

Coffee ( Coffea arabica L. ) . 

Coflfee is a plant of great importance in the Philippines. It belongs 
to the family Rubiacese, is a bush 2 or 3 meters high, having perma- 
nent leaves and white, fragrant flowers like jessamine in appearance, 
which have five stamens grouped together near the base of the leaves. 
The fruit is an oval fleshy berry, somewhat resembling a clierr}", hav- 
ing a clear, green color, which changes to intense red when the fruit 

History. — This valuable fruit is a native of ancient Ethiopia, obtain- 
ing its name from the region called Kaffa, where it grows in gieat 
abundance. It was brought to the Philippine Archipelago by the 
Spanish missionaries toward the end of the last century, where it was 
first cultivated in the province of Laguna. It was afterwards natu- 
rally propagated easily and rapidly by a little mammal {Paradoxwnis 
musanga L.), which fed upon the berries. Afterwards its cultivation 
fell to the lowest ebb in spite of premiums offered to cultivators. At 
the present time, due to the increased price of coffee and better facili- 
ties for exporting, its production has begun to increase. 

Species and varieties cultivated. — Although there are many different 
species of the genus Coffea^ but four constitute the coffee of commerce. 
They are: Coffea arabica^ or common coffee; Coffea racemosa.^ or Peru- 
vian coffee, very similar to the preceding; Coffea laurina.^ or African 
coffee, and Coffea liberica^ or Liberian coffee, a more robust plant, 
which has larger leaves than the common coffee plant. Almost all of 
the varieties cultivated come from the first species, which is the one 

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requiring most heat. In the Philippines the provinces producing 
most coffee are Batangas, Laguna, Tayabas, and Cavite in Luzon and 
the districts of Cotabato and Misamis in Mindanao. 

Cultivation. — Coffee requires a climate whose average temperature 
ranges between 16° and 24° C, and, therefore, next to sugar cane, is 
the plant requiring the greatest amount of heat. In localities having 
both heat and moisture its growth is stronger and more luxuriant, as 
is manifested in various ways. In very hot climates the coffee plant 
grows well, but should have the shade of some other suitable tree, 
whereas in cooler climates it thrives best without this protection. 
The soil most suitable for its cultivation is that which is light and 
moist, but not marshy. Reddish soils somewhat sandy, or black soils 
without too much clay, are suitable for its cultivation. 

If the land is virgin soil it should be thoroughly cleared, plowed 
deeply two or three times, and then harrowed, and if old land, it should 
be well fertilized. 

Planting can be carried on in various ways; the best are by means of 
hot beds and by transplanting. These hot beds or nurseries are made in 
well-shaded soil, which should be clean, well worked, and thoroughly 
fertilized. The seed should be ripe and fresh, and not taken from the 
fleshy covering. Transplanting is done when the plants have three or 
four roots, care being taken not to injure the delicate stem, although 
a part of the central root is cut off at the moment of transplanting. 
Plants which have reached a height of 40 or 50 centimeters may be 
used by cutting off the upper part of the stem and likewise the vertical 
root, stamping down the earth about them, and immediately watering. 
The ground where this transplanting is made should be previously 
prepared, holes being made in parallel lines running north and south, 
and having a distance of 2i meters from each other. The land should 
afterwards be kept clean and other trees should be planted for their 
shade. The tree usually employed in the Philippines for this purpose 
is called madre cacao {Galedupa pun^am BL), but there are many who 
advocate the use of the balibago {Ilthiscits tiliaceus L.) as giving bet- 
ter protection to the plantations and being more productive. Experi- 
ence demonstrates that the pruning of coffee trees prejudices the 
production, as the plant growing naturally with favorable rains 
produces at the end of six or seven years an average of 5 kilograms 
of berries for each one, while those which have been pruned do not 
produce one-fourth as much. 

The gathering is accomplished either by shaking, if the plants are 
high, or by hand picking if they are low. After gathering the peri- 
carpium is removed, an operation easily accomplished by hand, and the 
berries are placed in the sun, care being taken to separate those col- 
lected on various days. When the berries are thoroughly dried, the 
husk is removed by means of a mill or other apparatus. The other 
operations necessary to prepare coffee for the market are winnowing, 
to separate the inner husk and all dirt from the berry, and sorting into 
first and second grades. 

The coffee plant begins to produce in from three to five years, 
according to climate, soil, and cultivation, is in full bearing in six or 
seven years, and continues to be productive for thirty years if ro acci- 
dent happens. Philippine coffee compares well with that of Java or 
Martinique, but there are certain localities which produce coffee which, 
according to experts, can be compared only to that of Mocha. 

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From former times the production of coffee in the Philippines has 
fallen off greatly on account of the destruction of the plants by an 
insect of the genus Xylotrechm and by a fungus of the genus 

Chocolate ( Theohroma cacao L.) . 

Cacao or chocolate belongs to the family Sterculiaceae, and is a 
native of Mexico and South America. It is a tree which is distinguished 
for its beautiful appearance, but more for its fruit, which is very highly 
prized, as is shown in its botanical name Theobroma (food for the gods). 
The seed of this fruit properly roasted gives out a delightful aroma, 
and well ground and mixed with sugar and a little cinnamon it forms 
chocolate, a nutritive, healthful, and agreeable food. It was intro- 
duced in the Philippine Archipelago from America some time between 
the years 1660 and 1670. Although it has been cultivated for a long 
time in small quantities in various provinces of Luzon and Visayas, it 
flourishes best in southern Mindanao, and in the district of Davao it is 
produced in large quantities and of excellent quality. 

The tree reaches a height of from 8 to 11 meters and has straight 
branches. The petiolate leaves, oblong or ovate-oblong, are acuminate, 
strong, and smooth, and of same color on both sides. The small flowers 
are reddish in color and very numerous. The fruit is reddish or yel- 
lowish, ovate or oblong, having ten ridges, and simulates to a certain 
degree the shape of a small cucumber. The seeds are somewhat larger 
than an almond. 

Cultivation. — This plant demands a warm climate having an average 
temperature of from 23° to 29° C. and a considerable amount of mois- 
ture in the atmosphere. The soil should be deep and light. Black and 
reddish soils, somewhat sandy, with an abundant top soil of muck, are 

Planting can be done from the seed, and to save time this is usually 
done by planting the seed a distance of from 2^ to 3 meters from eacL 
other in parallel lines. In the Philippines the seed is often planted in 
bamboo joints or in the forest, from whence they are transplanted to 
ground shaded by banana plants. As the chocolate plant requires 
shade, the tree called madre cacao is usually planted. This plant 
requires nmch more care than the coffee plant. In its cultivation it is 
necessary to remove all premature flowers, trim off dry branches, and 
keep the ground well cleaned. 

The fruit is gathered when it becomes ripe. The life of the choco- 
late tree is supposed to be about thirty years, during which time it 
produces fruit. It may live to be 50 years old or more, but is almost 

Nutmeg {Myristica fragrans Houtt. ). 

The nutmeg grows naturally in Cebu and in Lagun^i, province, and 
will grow in all parts of the islands cultivated. It is a tree belonging 
to the family Myristicaceee. In the Dutch possessions the tree reaches 
a height of from 10 to 13 meters. The trunk is covered with rather 
thin bark, blackish and slightly mottled, from which, when incised, 
flows a reddish juice which coagulates on contact with the air. The 
fruit is about the size of a small peach, having a thick husk and a hard 
pit about the size of an almond, inside of which the nutmeg is formed. 
This is surrounded by an aromatic rind, or skin, called mace. The 

p c— VOL 3—01 28 

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beautiful flower of this tree is aromatic, and from it a kind of preserve, 
noted for its fragrant odor, is made. 

The tree begins to produce at the age of 5 or 6 years, but the crop 
is very light at first. 

Cinnamon {Cinnamomum burmanni Blume; Laurus cinnamomum Blanco). 

The cinnamon tree is found in these islands, especially in Mindanao. 
In Zamboanga, Caraga, and in the mountains of the district of Misamis 
varieties of cinnamon of stronger taste and fragrance than those of 
Ceylon are found. The reason it is not more exploited is because it 
seems to contain some kind of bitter principle, which is noticed when 
it is chewed. This tree should be more highly prized in these islands, 
as it grows wherever it is planted. The cinnamon comes from the bark 
of the branches which have been stripped of their epidermis, and is an 
aromatic substance, having many uses. 

Pepper [Pij^er nigrum, L. ) . 

This plant belongs to the family Piperaceae. Its cultivation dimin- 
ishes daily in the Philippine Islands. It is a climbing plant, which is 
fastened to adjacent trees w^hen cultivated. Its fruit is a berry which, 
when dried, is black or white pepper. In the northern part of the 
islands the long pepper of British India can be cultivated. 

Betel or Itmo {Piper betel, L. ); Buyo de Anis {Piper anworum, BL). 

The betel or itmo is a climbing plant, belonging to the same family 
as the preceding. It is cultivated very extensively throughout India, 
the Sunda xlrchipelago, all the regions adjacent to Asia, and the Phil- 
ippines. In all of these countries the leaves are used in making the prep- 
aration which is known in the Philippines as "buyo." This preparation 
is composed of one of the leaves of this plant, a piece of lime the size 
of a pea, and a piece of bonga or betelnut. The object of this mixture 
is to mollify and render supportable the taste of the pepper leaf, which 
otherw^ise would be acrid and disagreeable. 

The buyo de anis has a leaf which has an agreeable odor resembling 
anise. This leaf is used by some natives to mix with the pepper leaf 
in the preparation of buyo. 

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The castor-oil plant {Eicmus communis L.),of the family Euphor- 
biaceae, which is called '' tarigan-tangan," is very abundant in these 
islands. It is used principally to alleviate headaches, being applied on 
leaves to^ the forehead, causing sweating and, consequently, relief. 
Mixed with the oil of sesame it is applied to the stomach with good 
effect; so, too, it is applied to the feet of persons suffering with 

Balocanad {Alevrites trispennaBi.) belongs to the family Euphor- 
biacese. It has a fruit a little larger than the pomegranate. This 
fruit contains six or seven poisonous seeds. The oil of these seeds 
when rubbed into the scalp kills all vermin. 

The leaves of the capanatolet or gaudarura, when properly applied, 
improves and cures those who suffer with pains in the back. 

The so-called dacdac has medicinal properties. Its stalk or stem is 
about the size of the index finger, somewhat flattened, and blackish in 
color. An infusion is made from this stalk chopped up finely. When 
the head is bathed with this infusion, headaches disappear, as does the 
lethargy from which the patient suffers. This is true when it is used 
in the treatment of any other cephalic disease. 


The salibutbut or pandacaqui {Taberim numtcmd) belongs to the fam- 
ily Apocynaceas. An infusion of the root of this tree when given as 
a drink improves the stomach and bowels in cases of distention, cold, 
and indigestion. It is likew^ise an excellent blood medicine, and is 
used with great benefit by women after parturition. 

The leaves of the taguypasin or alom are of v^alue in any chronic 
stomach disease due to inflammation, overloading, or cold. They 
should be applied hot or united with oil used as an unguent. They are 
of great value in reduciiig inflammation or swelling of the limbs if 
used m the same way. They cause sweating, after which the limbs 
should be enveloped in a blanket, dried, and the operation repeated if 
complete relief is desired. 

The leaves of the maisipaisi ( CTai/^m/^ sp. Bun.), of the family Ruta- 
ceae, have an odor and flavor very similar to that of anise. From these 
leaves an oil of anise is made, which is very useful for diseases of the 
stomach. Made as an infusion with cocoanut wine, it furnishes a 
drmk much used in the country. 

The tree known by the name of ''bacao" furnishes a bark which, 
when pulverized and mixed with water, furnishes a remedy which kills 
all kinds of intestinal parasites. This same property is possessed by 


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the fruit of a trailing plant called '^tangulon," ''pinoncillo," or " niog- 
niogan" {Quisqualis ^n(liGa L.) of the family Combretacese. 

The tree called '' bahay " {Adenanthera pavonina L.) produces a fruit 
something like ordinary beans in appearance, but of a bright red 
color. These placed in cavities of teeth greatly relieve the pain, the 
same object being accomplished by the root. 

The grated bark of the maragaat {Ficus radiata Dec), of the family 
Urticacese, when applied to the gums reduces swelling and strengthens 
the teeth. 

The paetan {Ltmasia parvifolia Muell.), of the family Rutaceee, is an 
antidote for fish poison. Taken as a powder, it cures any stomach dis- 
order and is an excellent remedy for ulcerating sores, which it cleans 
and closes. 

The sambong {Bhmiea halsamifera DC), of the family Composita, 
is an excellent sage, quite aromatic, and having medicinal properties. 
As an infusion it is much used in diseases of the stomach. 

The tangulon {Quisqualis vridicus L.), of the family Combretaceae, is 
another species of trailing plant, which grows bountifully along the 
seashore, produces a seed called '^ pinoncillo," which is an excellent 
vermifuge. It may be eaten raw without danger of injury. 

The cabcaban {Polypodkum quercin/wn^ L.) and the balsamina or 
apalia {Mouiordica halsamina L. ) produce purgative medicines. 


The sibucao or Brazil wood {Omsalpmia sappan L.), of the family 
Leguminosse, is medicinal. An infusion of it causes the absorption of 
coagulated blood, and it is given in cases where blows on the body 
have caused the extravasation of blood into the tissues. 

The cumalibquib or himangcoran or otob-otob are medicinal. The 
grated root made into an infusion cleans and cures ulcers or 
wounds. An ointment is made from this plant and from the jalanotan 
and hagonoy. This is made by boiling the plant in oil, straining, and 
adding a little wax. The ointment may then be used for the cure of 
wounds. So, too, the leaves of a climbing plant grown in the Visayan 
Islands, and which is called " balangon," is useful for this purpose. The 
pounded leaves are applied directly to the wound. 


The tuyucay is used as a remedy for deafness. In the operation a 
branch 8 or 10 inches in length is placed over a slow fire until it 
becomes quite hot. It is then placed close to the affected ear and air 
is blown through the hole which passes through it, care being taken to 
keep the branch well within the ear. It is claimed that the hot tube 
has some special virtue, due perhaps to the medicated moisture thereof; 
when penetrating the ear restores it to a healthy condition. 

The tree called " haulig" is very useful for treating and preserving 
the eyes, a solution in water of the bark and leaves being used as a wash. 


The resin of culasi {Lumnitzera coccinea Wight and Arn.), of the 
family Combretaceae, cures scab and itch. 

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A resin which serves well as a caustic is obtained from the canumay 
and the lagnoto {Diospyros multiHora Bl.) 

The tree called panjantolon {Scae^ola hoenigii Vahl.), of the family 
Goodenoviacese, an extraordinary large tree, is useful in medicine. 
An infusion is made from the leaves and bark which is used as a lotion 
for those suffering with specific trouble. This cures the disease and 
relieves the pain in the bones which accompanies this terrible disease. 

The pila and the root of the trailing plant called mangadlao are both 
useful in treating all kinds of wounds. 

All kinds of spots on the skin are cured by a lotion made from the 
roots of the tree called salac. 

A lotion made from the wood of the mampol, of the genus Loran- 
thus of the family Lorantacea% will cause the pustules of smallpox to 
appear when they are slow in presenting themselves. 

The leaves of the little tree called alocloc when crushed and applied 
to boils or other cutaneous tumors quickty brings them to a head and 
causes the removal of their contents. 

Sarsaparilla of the genus Simlax, called by the natives banag, is 
very common along the banks of the rivers and the coast. The root 
is used in medicine and is well known as a remedy for those who suffer 
from specific ulcers. It is given as an infusion. 

The trailing plant called bago-bago, of the genus Garcinia, family 
Guttiferae, is also used. It is powdered, and placed over the fire, and 
applied hot to patients suffering from inflammation, as it quiets the 
nerves and relieves the pain in the joints. 

The plant called busalas is likewise medicinal. Its leaves, when 
reduced to ashes and mixed with a little oil, will bring to a head any 
kind of an abscess, or, if these are already in the stage of suppuration, 
it will cause them to open and will cure them without trouble. 


An infusion of the leaves of the taraje {Camiarina equisetifoUa 
Forst.), of the family Casurinaceae, will cure chlorosis. 

The leaves of the alagtayo or tieala, when applied to abdomen of a 
pregnant woman, will very quickly bring on parturition. 


According to the opinion of experts the manungal {Samadera indica 
Gaert.), of the family Simarubaceoe, is one of the best antidotes found 
in these islands. A solution made by boiling is given to anyone who 
has eaten poisoned substances, such as herbs or fish. The oil of 
manungal is admirable for curing all kinds of disorders of the stomach, 
as is likewise the infusion made from marbar or cayutana. 

An infusion of the bark of the palagnigon is both an antidote and a 

An infusion of the bark of the calasusi {Plumeria acutifolia Poir.), 
of the family Apocynaceae, is an excellent, mild purgative, or may be 
used as an emetic. 

The bark of the root of the tree called bagosabac is curative for the 
bite of any kind of poisonous animal or snake. 

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The tree called tambalaguisa or mantala {Sophora tomentosa L.), 
of the family Leguminosse, has at a certain season a number of little 
yellow flowers, and following them, long pods filled with seeds, some- 
what like chickpeas. This fruit is a febrifuge having a very bitter 
taste. One or two of the seeds are given to those who suffer from 
certain malarial fever. The medicine is still more valuable for those 
having quartan. It is likewise an excellent stomachic. From these 
seeds an oil is also made which gives great relief to pains in the bones. 
It is also used for intestinal troubles and is a remedy for chlorosis. 
Another trailing plant having admirable qualities is called by the 
Tagalogs macabuhay and by the Visayans pangianan (Menhperiimm. 
Twimum L.). It belongs to the family Menispermaceie. It is very 
bitter and very useful for the stomach and the entire body. 

The bark of the tree called dita {Alstonia seJiolaris D. C), of the 
family Apocynace^e, when treated with acidulated water, produces an 
alkaloid, ditain, which is employed in place of quinine for all kinds of 


An infusion of the leaves of the tree called polotan or ulingon serves 
as an excellent diuretic. The juice of the bark or an infusion of it is 
likewise useful. 

The palo-santo, called by the natives guicos-guicos, or hannadao, of 
the genus Abrus, family Leguminosse, possesses admirable properties. 
It is an excellent remedy for spasms and chills, from which so many 
suffer in these countries. An infusion of this plant expels injurious 
humors from the body, does away with obstructions, regulates the 
stomach, and is of equal value with sarsaparilla for specific trouble. 
It is likewise a sudorific. 

Naguini and languingi are trailing plants which cure muscular and 
nervous spasms, the leaves being applied as a plaster after being 
heated before the fire. The application is made under the arms. 


The pilipog is a most bitter medicine. It is useful as a stomachic, 
and simply chewed and swallowed serves to cure any kind of pain. 
It is likewise an antidote, and in the form of an mfusion is a febrifuge 
useful in tertian and quartan fevers. 

Among all the trailing plants found in these islands that which is of 
greatest importance and most esteemed is called by the natives igasud, 
{Strychiios ignatiiBerg.) of the family Loganiaceae. The Spaniards tak- 
ing up the name which was given to it by the missionaries in the Visayan 
Islands, call it the pepita of San Ignacio. It abounds in all the moun- 
tain regions of Visayas, but is not f oimd in Luzon. When full grown it 
is of considerable size, the fruit at times being as large as a pomegranate, 
though a little longer. It has a hard shell, within which is a yellowish 
or slightly reddish meat, and in this is found the seed so highly esteemed 
in all parts of the world. These seeds are grown principally near 
Catbalogan.^ They are used for persons who have eaten soniething 
poisonous, in which case a little piece is eaten and immediately fol- 
lowed by a drink of cold water, the poison thus being expelled. So, 

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too, taking it in ttiis manner it cures disturbances of the stomach or 
intestines. It is likewise useful for paralytics and for women during 
parturition. Grated or in the form of powder it is much used as 
styptic. Grated and given with water at the beginning of the chilly 
stage will often prevent an attack of malarial fever. It is also useful 
for the bite of the caterpillar called basut, when applied as a powder 
over the affected place. It is used also as an emetic. Held in the 
mouth and sucked it is useful for rheumatism. So, too, it relieves 
indigestion. The oil remaining after pieces of this seed have been 
fried is useful for contractions of the nerves and pains in the body. 

There are many other medicinal plants in the Philippines, as may 
be seen by consulting the General History by P. Juan J. Delgado, S. J., 
published in Manila in 1892, and others. 

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Philippine fruit trees in general do not produce such exquisite and 
highly-prized fruits as do those of Europe. As both wild fruit trees 
and cultivated ones are very abundant, only the best-known ones will 
be spoken of; some mention will be made of their probable origin, 
arranging them according to the families to which they belong. 


Among th<^. Philippine species of this family is the mango {Man- 
gifera indica Linn.), which is believed to come from Macao, and which 
grows well in the provinces of Manila and Cavite, and also in the Vis- 
ayas. The fruit season begins in April. The fruit has a delicate 
flavor and an aromatic odor, the largest of them being from 6 to 7 
inches in length; in shape they are flattened, not round; the skin is 
yellow and rather fine; the pit, which lies in the center of the fruit, is 
almost as long as the fruit itself, but very narrow. The plant springs 
from this seed. The leaves are long and wide and dark green in color; 
an infusion of ^these is somewhat similar to tea. Besides this species 
the following are found: Manga de anis {Mangiferafragans Maingay) 
and mani {M. cosia Jack), which is found in Mindanao, of Asiatic 
origin; casuy {Anacardium occidentale L.), of American origin; siruelas 
{Sj}07idias purpurea L.), from southern Asia; albudhod {Spo7idias 
manmfera Wild), found in Panay, also of Asiatic origin. 

The^ mamjpon on pqjomanga {Mangifera altissima Blanco). —This 
fruit is very similar to the mango, and when ripe is quite delicious. 
It is frequently preserved in brine in the form of pickles, and is very 
healthful; it is likewise made into sweetmeats and preserves. There 
are other small varieties of this kind about the size of an olive, which 
are used in making pickles and preserves. 


Among this family is found the anona {Ano7ia reticulata L.). It is 
an exotic from Mexico, its flesh being white and containing small, 
black pits. It is sweet and fragrant. 

ATES (anona squamosa L. ) . 

The fruit is juicy and aromatic, very sweet, and so soft that it seems 
to melt in the mouth; it is somewhat peppery. Another species found 
is Guanabano {Anona muricata). All three species come from America. 


But one species of this family is indigenous to the Philippine Archi- 
pelago, the mabalo {Diospyros discolor Wild), whose reddish fruit, 


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about the size of a quince, contains a large seed; the flesh is white and 
sweet, but somewhat indigestible and has a rather strong odor. The 
sapote {Diospyros ehenaster B>etz.) and the pagsup^t {Diospyros kaMLt.) 
are natives of China. 


Of the American family there are two species, the balimbing {Aver- 
rhora caramMa L.), which has the flavor of a quince, and the camias 
{Averrhora hilimbi L.), whose fruit when green has an agreeable, sour 
taste, but when ripe is sweet and fragrant. 


Of this family the mangosteen {Garcinia: mangostana L.) is found. 
It is an exotic, and grows only in Jolo and some points in the district 
of Zamboanga and Catabato. It is called there the ''king's fruit," 
because it is so highly prized by the Moro sultans. It is dark red or 
purple in color and about the size of an orange. The edible and juicy 
parts of the fruit form small white divisions, very soft, which are 
found in the interior; they are covered with a double skin, reddish in 
color, and which must be removed before the fruit is eaten. The 
fruit is sweet and very delicate in flavor. Its origin is the Indian 


In this family is found the lanzon or boboa [Lansium domssticum 
Jack). The tree is beautiful in appearance and gives a cool shade; 
the leaves are a beautiful clear green; the skin of the fruit is a clear 
yellow, thin and fine; within it are contained five divisions, as in the 
lemon, but the flesh is crystalline white, almost transparent, sweetish 
sour, quite delicate, and very refreshing. Each fruit contains a pit, 
which is the seed from which the tree grows; it is more bitter than 
gall, but is not injurious, on the contrary it is something of a carmin- 
ative. One may eat a hundred of these fruits without difficulty and 
without danger, for they are healthful and excellent for those who 
suffer from heat. Their origin is the Malay Archipelago. 

Santol {Sandoricxim, indicmn Cav.) is a large tree having leaves 6 or 
7 inches long. The fruit is bitter sweet in taste; it is used principally 
for preserves and pickles. Its origin is southern Asia. 


Macupa {Euge7iia malaccenms L. ) is a fruit about the size of a sweet 
pepper and of somewhat the same shape, rather larger and quite red 
in color; it is, however, more lustrous, being almost resplendent. It is 
bitter-sweet in taste, somewhat agreeable, but has no solid flesh which 
can be eaten. 

Tampay {Eugenia jamhos L.): This fruit is about the size of a small 
apple, the flesh being soft, sweet, and having an odor like roses. 

Duhat or limboy {Eugenia jamholona L.): This produces a wild 
fruit, dark purple to black in color, about tne size of an olive. It is 
likewise a native of the Malay Archipelago. 

Guayabo {Psidiuin guayaba L.): This exotic plant comes from 
Mexico, but grows so well here that entire forests of it may be found. 
There are three principal varieties. The fruit is yellowish in color and 

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very aromatic, as are likewise the leaves. The interior of the fruit is 
filled with little, hard seeds or pits, which are embedded in the flesh. 
It is a carminitive, and its astringent properties make it an excellent 
preserve. With simple sirup it is much used. 

The banana is the most important of this family. In the Philippines 
there is a large number of species, varying greatly in their form and 
taste. The trunk of the banana tree is not solid, but soft and full of 
minute little tubes or aqueducts, which serve to conduct the sap which 
sustains and matures the plant within the short space of one year. 
Shortly after the fruit ripens the plant begins to decline and the leaves 
dry up and fall. The fruit grows in bunches of various shapes, accord- 
ing to the particular species. Important varieties are the saba {Mesa 
sapientum L.), which is delicious and healthful when ripe; the hanipa, 
sweeter than the saba, and which is cultivated principally in Samar 
and Leyte; the tambonan, a very common and healthful species; the 
camada, very large; the binalatong, larger, more delicate, and more 
fragrant than the preceding; the tarip; the bungaran, rather indigesti- 
ble; the putian; the torlangdato, called in Spanish ''the lady finger;" 
the pitbitin, a small, sweet, and rich variety; the dariao, a good variety; 
the mungco, the talood, the tinumbaga, the dariyas, and others. 
P. Delgado enumerates and describes 57 varieties, as may be seen in 
his history. 


Of this family there is but one Pbilipf)ine species worthy of mention, 
the papaya {Carwa 2^apay(^ L.). There are two sexes, the male and 
female. The male does not produce fruit, only some tubes filled with 
small white aromatic flowers; the female produces fruit. The tree is 
soft and yellow, looks somewhat like a palm, and has large, broad 
leaves; the fruit somewhat resembles a small quash in appearance. 
When it ripens, the skin changes from green to a reddish color, as does 
the flesh also. The fruit contains a number of seeds somewhat similar 
to squash seeds; it is sweet, refreshing, delicate, and pleasant to the 
taste. The tree is indigenous to America. 

Of this family various oranges and lemons are found. Oranges of 
various indigenous species are found. The principal one is the cajel 
{Chtrusaiirantkwi var.). Another variety is the naranjitas {Oitriw 
aurantmm). There are several wild species, one of which is called 
''amumimtay " {Citrm hystrix DC). They are very large, being 12 
or 13 inches in circumference, have a thick skin, are very juicv and 

There are more than seven varieties of lemons. The citron, which 
is verj^ large, is also found in abundance. 


The chico sapote {Achras sapota L.) and the chico mamey {Lucuma 
mamosa Gaert. ) belong to this family. The fruit is about the size of an 
orange, green on the outside and black on the inside. It is sweet and 
agreeable and makes excellent preserves. It is a native of Mexico. 

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Belonging to this family is the nangca or langca {Artocarpus integ- 
rifolia Willd.). It has been claimed that the fruit of this tree is the 
largest found in the world, as some of them are as large as a good- 
sized water jar. The tree is large and thickly branched; the leaves 
are long and' narrow. The fruit is produced alike from the branches 
and from the main trunk of the tree quite close to the ground, and 
even from the roots, this last being especially true when the ground 
is somewhat elevated. The ripening fruit is recognized by its aro- 
matic and penetrating odor; the fruit is then cut. When opened along 
the middle it shows a large amount of yellowish or whitish meat, which 
is not edible, and a number of shells of a golden color each contammg 
a seed. It resembles in sweetness the date, but it possesses an odor 
like musk. It is somewhat indigestible, but is quite nourishmg. 
The seeds when boiled or baked somewhat resemble the chestnut. The 
wood of the tree is yellow, solid, durable, and very serviceable for 
working. It is a native of the Malay Archipelago. Other species 
are tigs {Ficus carica L.), from western Asia; the rima {Artocarpus 
inoisa L.), from the Malay Archipelago; the dalanguian camansi {A. 
caniansi BL), an indigenous plant, and the marang {A, polyphema 
Pers.)., of Mindanao. 


There is a large number of wild species of fruits found in the Philip- 
pines. They are in general sour, sweet, and somewhat carminitive. 
Among these may be mentioned the doctoyan, the pananquian, the 
durion, the abuli, amahit, angiap, amaga, agononan, abubunanu, alnga- 
nisan, dee amamampang, bonano, barobo or marobo, cabaan, carong, 
cagos, gayan, dalinson, etc., which are described by P. Delgado. 

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There are various trees in the Philippines from which these essences 
or essential oils may be extracted, but the only ones utilized are the 
ilang-ilang {Gmimiga odorata Hook); sampaguita (JasmlTvum samhcw 
L(.); champaca {Ihchelia Gham^)aca, L.). 

llang-Uaiig {Caiianga odorata Hook, Unoria odoratisslma Bl.) --This 
tree, belong-mg to the family Anonacea3, produces ordinary look- 
ing flowers of a greenish color, but of great fragrance. The tree is 
utilized as a shade tree, and from its flowers, especially those of the 
mountain trees, a highly valued essence is extracted by distillation. 
Ihis essence, called '^ilang-ilang," has been popularized bv the Parisian 
pertumers This essence is exported in small quantities to France 
-hn^land, Singapore, and China. 

^ bampagidta (Jasmmum samhac L.).--Sampaguita is a plant belong- 
ing to the family OleaceiB. From the white fragrant flowers a hio-hly 
prized essence is extracted by distillation by perfumers. "^ 

ChxMJipaca {Mlchelia climnpaca L.).— The*^ champaca belongs to the 
family Magnoliaceae, and is a tree about 4 meters in height, conical 
m shape. The flowers are very fragrant, and about an inch in length. 
it IS much cultivated in gardens, but is not found in the mountains. 
J5y distillation a well-known essence is extracted from the flowers. 


In the Philippines there is a large number of trees which produce 
resin, home of these are used in medicine, some for illuminating 
purposes, others in the manufacture of varnishes, others in painting 
and others for calking ships. The principal ones will be indicated bv 
lamilies: ^ 

AraliaGe(B,—^\i^ limolimo [Ileptaplewrmrh caudatum Vid.) furnishes 
a resin used in the making of varnishes. 

^ BurseracfB {Ahilo) {Garuga Prrihimda Decne.) produces a resin used 
in medicine. The antong or brea negra {Cwnm^vmn vhiada Kom) pro- 
duces a resin used for illumination. The pili or brea blanca ( Cwnamim 
aibum 131.) pipduces a resin which is used for illuminating purposes 
and tor calking ships. The papsaingin (ftm^r^'^m Gumi7iqliY.xi^V\ 
produces a resm used for the same purposes. 

ConifepcB,~l\i^ galagala or piayo {AgatUs orantifoUa Salisb.) pro- 
duces a resm which is used for burning, for lighting, and for the 
manufacture of varnishes. 

Bipterocarpacew.—ThQ apitong {Bwierocarpusgrandiilaims Bl.) pro- 
duces a resm used for illumination. Balao or malapaho {Bipterocarpus 
vekitmus Bl.) produces a resin used for calking. The mayapas 
{^JJtpterocarpus turUnatus Gaert.) produces a resin similar to the pre- 


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ceding one, which is used for the same purposes. The duagling 
{Dipterocarmis sp.) produces a resin useful for illuminating purposes. 
The guijo (Shorea giiiso Blume) produces a resin used for the same 
purposes as the preceding; as does the yacal {Hopea plagata Vid.). 
The resin from the \^U2i2in{Anisopeterathurifera BIT) is used for burn- 
ing, for the manufacture of varnishes, and for calking. The resin 
from the nialaanonang {Dipterocarpits sp.) is used for calking. A 
resin used in medicine is obtained from the mayapis {Dipterocarpim 
turhinatus Gaert.), and one useful for lighting purposes is obtained 
from the paua {Bipterocarpus vermiciflims Bl.). 

Enphorhiacem.—ThQ resin from the alipata {Excmcaria agallocha L.) 
is used as a remedy for the bites of poisonous animals; taken internally 
it produces dysentery. 

A medicinal resin is obtained from the birunga {Macamiiga tanarius 
Muell-Arg.). The resin from the togocam {Claoxylon waUicJdammi, 
Muell-Arg.) is used for illuminating purposes and as a medicine. 

Guttifera. — The binucao {Garcima sp.) produces a resin used in 

Legtimi7i(mB,—T\iQ adyangao {Alhizzia procera Benth) produces a 
resin used as incense. A resin having medicinal properties is obtained 
from the caturay {Seshania grandiflora Pens.). A resin useful for 
illuminating purposes is obtained from the cupang {Parkia roxhurqhii 
G. Don.). Another resin used for the same purpose is obtained from 
the cogontoco {Alhizzia sapo7iaria Blume). 

Mdastofnacew. — A resin used for illuminating purposes and for 
calking ships is obtained from the bota-bota {melastoma obvolutum 

Rutacem—K resin used for illuminating purposes is obtained from 
the cajel {Citrus aurantiwn L.), orange tree. 

Sapindacew, — The balinghasay {Buchanania florida Schau.) is used 
for illuminating purposes and for calking ships. An illuminating 
resin is obtained from the ligas {Semecarpus perrottetii March.). 

Urticacew.—A resin from the breadfruit or antipolo {Artocarpus 
mincisa L.) is used as a medicine and as a bird lime for catching birds. 
The resin from the ambling {Artocarptis ovata Bl.) is used for making 
varnish. The resin from the camansi {Artocarpiis camansi Bl.) is used 
as a medicine and as a drier. Nangca {A, integrifolia Linn, f.) pro- 
duces a resin used for illuminating purposes. 


In the Philippines the name of almacigas is given to most of the yel- 
lowish and aromatic resins. The most valuable ones are found in the 
Calamianes, while others are found in Mindanao, especially in Davao 
and in Ilocos. 


The principal trees which produce gum resins useful in medicine, 
painting, or the arts are: 

Anacardiacem^ the casay or balubad {Anarcadium ocddentale L.), 
which produces a gum resin used in the manufacture of varnish. 

^ocynew^ the dita {Alstonia scholaris R. Br.), which produces a 
medicinal gum resin, as do those of the species Laniti (Wrightia). 

JSuphorMacem, — Medicinal resins are obtained from the bigabing 
{Macaranga mappa Mull. Arg.) and from the buta {Excmaria sp.). 

p 0— VOL 3—01 29 

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GiMiferw.--The^£L\onmim or bitao {Oalophylhtm sp.), the bitanhol 
{Calophyllum rmUkh/imia Planch.), the gutagaby or tanglananac {Gar- 
cinia morella Derr.), and the gatasan-pula {brarcinia venulosa Choisy) 
produce gum resins used in medicine. 

Legmriinosce, — Two gum resins used in medicines are derived from 
the aromo {Acacia farnesiana Wiild.) and the narra encarnada {Ptero- 
carpus indicus Willd). . 

Myristicace(B.--lA.'^^\(A\\A resin is obtained from the dugoan {Myris- 

tica sp.). . J • 

PaZmi^.— The bonga {Areca catechu L.) produces a resm used m 


Riitacmcem.—ThQ lucban or naranjo {Citrus decummia Mnrr,) pro- 
duces a gum resin likewise used in medicine. 

l/rticacem.— The balete {Ficus indica Bl) and the banyan tree {I^^cus 
sp.) produce gum resins used in medicine. 

Saj^otacew.— The notac {Falaquiu7n sp.) produces a gum resin used 
as a glue and for other industrial purposes. 


Gutta-percha is found in considerable quantity in Mindanao, and is 
produced from the trunk and branches of several trees, from those of 
the genera Ficus and Falaqiiium. This tree is called by the Visayans 
solonot. In collecting this it is not best to follow the plan used by the 
natives of cutting down the tree; large trees only should be selected, 
and these should be tapped. Beneath this incision on the bark or the 
trunk a bombon or large tube of bamboo is placed to collect the sup- 
ply. This product is then placed in a batea, or dish, where it is macer- 
ated with salt water, the dish being at the same time shaken. In this 
way the gutta-percha soon becomes solid; the water is then poured off 
and the gutta-percha is formed, while still plastic, into a plate or disk, 
but through the edge of which a hole is made, suspending it, and thus 
exposing it to the air, so that it may dry perfectly. This method pro- 
duces gutta-percha of rather inferior quality. 

A few years ago a considerable quantity of gutta-percha was exported 
to England, but on account of the many adulterations made by the 
Chinese merchants but little is now exported. 


Many plants produce a certain amount of an oily material somewhat 
similar to beeswax. It is found sometimes as a deposit on the surface 
of leaves, fruit, or on the bark. This material is not of the same 
quality in all vegetables, although it has not been well studied. It is 
obtained from the palm {Ceroxylon andicola) and from the Myrica 
cerifera. It is found in the Philippines, in the Calamianes, in Paragua, 
and in some other parts. It is obtained from the trees by scraping 
the bark. 

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The magnificent forests of the Philippine Archipelago constitute a 
source of great natural wealth, which is as yet almost undeveloped. 
They yield woods valuable for a great variety of purposes, and many 
of these woods are to be had at present in very great abundance. Cer- 
tain of them are unexcelled for sea piling and shipbuilding, not only 
because of their great strength, but on account of the fact that they 
are proof against the attacks of the sea worm {Teredo navalis). Others 
are particularly adapted to house construction in climates where humid 
atmosphere and intensely hot sun subject them to the severest tests. 
There are woods suitable for boat building, carriage building, and box 
making, and, finally, there are a considerable number of heavy, hard, 
fine-grained, and beautifully colored woods, which are admirable for 
cabinetmaking, and would make beautiful floors and inside finishings 
for the houses of those who could aflford to pay for them. 

No systematic effort has ever been made looking to the exploitation 
of these woods, nor have they ever been carefully studied. The lum- 
ber used for local purposes in the archipelago is almost entirely hewn 
out or sawed by hand. So far as we are aware, there are at present 
but two steam sawmills in the Philippines. This is the more remark- 
able when one remembers that the local demand for lumber is steady 
and good, while China affords an excellent market for many of the 
better known woods. 

An explanation of this singular state of affairs may be found by 
taking into account the conditions which have existed in the past. It 
was formerly a tremendous undertaking to get machinery through the 
custom-house at Manila. The Spanish Government, more or less, sys- 
tematically interfered with the commercial development of the archi- 
pelago in this and other ways, and was especially hostile to all enterprises 
backed by foreign capital. While it was easy under the old laws to 
obtain a license to cut timber on government land in one or more prov- 
inces, one could not ship it after it was cut until it had been surveyed 
by a government official and a tax paid upon it at so much per cubic 
foot, the rate varying for the different classes of woods. 

It was,' of course, easy for the government officials to fail to send an 
inspector until lumber rotted where it lay, and in this and other ways 
it was easy for the government to control not only the amount of tim- 
ber cut but the places for cutting it. In the early days of the Philip- 
pine lumber trade the government seized an entire ship's cargo of very 
valuable wood upon a flimsy pretext, and this occurrence, as well as 
the other facts above mentioned, served to make capitalists shy of 
investing heavily in what seemed a rather precarious enterprise. 

Heavy investment was necessary to the successful carrying on of a 
lumber business. It often happened that wood cutters were not to be 
found near the best forests and had to be brought from a distance. 


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This necessitated the making of cash advances to them in order that 
they might leave money behind for the support of those dependent on 
them. After houses had been erected so that they could live with their 
families, their improvident nature still rendered it necessary to make 
them constant advances against their future earnings. The sums 
invested in this way were often considerable, and a heavy percentage 
of loss had to be allowed for, as it was impracticable under the old 
judicial system to compel laborers to fulfill their contracts. 

It can not be doubted that under changed conditions and reasonable 
laws the lumber business in the Philippines will rapidly attain to 
greatly increased importance, while ebony and others of the very hard 
and beautiful woods will be placed upon the European and American 
markets. The labor problem will continue serious, for the present at 
least, unless Chinese are employed. The natives are wedded to their 
old customs and will insist on the usual advances, but as it is cus- 
tomary to pay them by measure for timber cut and delivered at some 
point previously agreed upon a lack of industry on their part does 
not necessarily result in financial loss to their employers. Lack of 
suitable means for land transportation will continue more or less of an 
obstacle for some time to come, and it will at first be necessary to 
confine operations to forests situated moderately near the sea or the 
larger fresh-water streams. 

The most extensive forests are to be found in Mindanao, Basilan, 
Tawi Tawi, Balabac, Palawan, and Mindoro. There are also very large 
areas in Luzon where no cutting has ever been done. In Samar, 
Masbate, and parts of Panay there are still considerable quantities of 
valuable timber. This is also true of Biliran, Tablas, Sibuyan, and 
many others of the smaller islands. 

The forest lands are, for the most part, the property of the Govern- 
ment. On account of their great value, suitable means should be 
promptly taken for ascertaining their extent and for preventing tres- 
passing upon them. There has been much needless destruction of 
valuable timber in the past. The plantations of the natives are speed- 
ily invaded by "cogon^' and other strong-growing grasses, which they 
are powerless to combat with the crude agricultural implements at 
present in use, so they simply clear more forest land from time to 
time, and often burn the felled trees where they lie. 

The number of species of woods found in the archipelago is very 
large, as will appear from the subjoined list, which is, however, neces- 
sarily very incomplete. A careful investigation into the properties 
of these woods is greatly needed, and the results obtained would 
undoubtedly abundantly justify any reasonable expense which might 
be incurred. 

For further information concerning the lumber business in the 
Philippines see the testimony of Mr. Collins, volume of testimony, 
page 79, and of Mr. Von Bosch, page 108. 


In preparing the subjoined list of Philippine woods, use has been 
made of the testimony taken by the commission and of the list given 
by Mr. John Foreman in his book. The Philippine Islands, as well 
as of a pamphlet entitled ''Breve Descripcion de Algunas de las 

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Maderas Mas Importantes y Mejor Conocidas de las Islas Filipinas," 
by Don Sebastian Vidal y Soler. 

It was found that a part of the official collection of woods belonging 
to the ''Inspeccion de Montes" was in the hands of former United 
States Consul O. F. Williams, he having purchased it from some pri- 
vate individual. Consul Williams kindly loaned this collection to the 
commission, but other work prevented a detailed examination of the 
specimens before he required it again. At the last moment, brief 
notes were taken on the color and weight of the blocks. Some of the 
labels had been injured by insects, but so far as they were legible, the 
names of the woods in this collection have been incorporated in the list, 
with the above-mentioned information. 

It has been found that a number of the woods are entered under 
different scientific names in different lists; in some instances no scien- 
tific name is given; in others, we find the generic name only, or the 
generic and specific names without the name of the author. In general, 
it is not too much to say that the classification of the trees which pro- 
duce good woods in the Philippines is in a decidedly chaotic state, 
and it is to be hoped that some competent botanist will come to the 
rescue in the not far distant future. 

1. Adang-pwmng {AlUzzia sp.).— A wood of medium weight and 
dark ash color. 

^. Ade {Mimosa ade Bl.).— A tree of large size, giving logs up to 32 
feet long by 28 inches square. Wood a dark, dull red. It is strong, 
tenacious, and durable and takes a good polish. It is difficult to burn, 
and is much used for house construction in the Philippines, as well as 
for shipbuilding. It also affords an excellent charcoal. It is a hard 
wood with wavy grain and small pores. It has no perceptible odor. It 
})reaks in long splinters and gives a rough and only slightly curled 

3, Alagao {Premna sp.). — A heavy wood of ashy color. 

^. Alahan {Diospyros sp.).— An ashy wood of heavy weight. 

5. Alrnasiga or antang {Dipterocarpus sp.).-— A light wood of ashy 
color. The tree distills a valuable gum. 

6. Alintatao {pispyros philippi7ie8is F. Vill.).— A tree with dark, 
hard wood like ebon3\ 

7. Alupay or Lecheas. —Yi^Adi^ a heavy wood of dark-gray color. 

■ 8, Amug^ds ( Oyrtocarpa qidnqiiestila Bl.)— Yields a moderately hard 
wood, light red or flesh colored, and sometimes marked with lead- 
colored spots, with numerous pores of moderate size. It breaks in 
long splinters. It gives good boards, which are employed in house 
and ship building. This wood would be niuch used in the Philippines 
were it not so subject to the attacks of white ants. 

9, Amuyong {Melodorum fulgens). — A light straw-colored wood. 

10, Afiagap,— The tree reaches a height of 60 feet, and gives logs 
up to 18 feet long by 16 inches square. The wood is a grayish yellow, 
of fine grain and somewhat brittle. It breaks in long splinters. It is 
used for furniture, inside house trimmings, and for other purposes 
where a light, durable wood is required which need not be exposed to 
the sun or rain. 

11, A7iosep or Anusep.— Yields a wood of brownish or ashy red color 
and fine grain, with small pores, but somewhat fibrous. It is used, 
though not to any great extent, for building purposes. 

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1^, Antipolo {Artocarpits incisa, L.).— Tree of large size. Yields a 
wood varying in color from grayish yellow to canary yellow, and even 
dark red; sometimes marked with numerous white spots. Its texture 
is fibrous, and the pores are strongly marked. It breaks in long splin- 
ters. It is highly prized for outside planking and keels of vessels, for 
it IS light, very strong, resists sea worms {Teredo navalis) entirely, and 
IS not affected by climate. It does not warp when once seasoned, and 
IS a very valuable wood. It is even somewhat used for cabinet work, 
but is not very highly prized for this purpose. 

13, AnuUng, or AnuUong^ or AnuUn (Artocarpus ovata).— Tree of 
moderate size. Wood a brownish yellow to dark red. Of fine texture, 
with small pores. It breaks in short splinters. Much used for rafters 
m the native houses. 

^ U. Apitmi {Dipterocarpus grandiflorus Bl.).~Tree of very large 
size. It distills an odorous and resinous gum, similar to that known 
to commerce as malapaho and employed in varnishing furniture, but 
it does not serve as a substitute for the latter gum. The wood is a 
light or dark greenish gray, with lighter or even white spots. It is 
ot fine texture and brittle. It has no noticeable odor, and breaks in 
long splinters. According to Foreman it yields logs up to 70 feet 
long by 24 inches square. The wood works well, and serves for fur- 
niture and general joiner's purposes. Vidal rates it as a wood of third 
or fourth class. 

15. Aranga {Ilomalium. sp.).— Trees are very large size, giving logs 
up to 75 feet long by 24 inches square. The wood is of reddish color, 
with violet stripes. It is of compact texture and straight grain, 
though somewhat brittle. It is especially valuable for sea piling and 
shipbuilding, since it resists well the attack of sea worms. 

16. Asac-talo7i,~A very heavy wood of dark-red color. 
Asmia. See Narra. 

17. Bacmmn {Bruguiera caryophilloydes Blum.).— A very heavv 
wood of dark-red color. 

18. Bagarilao {NoAidea sp.).— A light wood of dark-red color. 

19. BaJiay {Lepidopetalum perrottetii Blum.).— A straw-colored 
wood of medium weight. 

W. Balacat (Zyzyphus sp.).— A light straw-colored wood of medium 

^1. Balao, malapaho, or panao {Dipterocarpus vernieifluus B. L.)— 
Iree of medium to large size. Wood yellowish white or light green- 
i^h gray; sometimes with tints of light rose and yellowish red 
lexture quite variable, from soft to solid. It is fibrous, sometimes 
breaking m threads, and at others in short splinters. The pores are 
slightly marked. It is commonly used in house building, but less so 
tor ship construction. Canoes are made from it, although it is not 
one of the woods most commonly employed for this purpose. Some- 
times the reddish-yellow variety of comparatively firm texture is sold 
tor ipil, to which it is inferior; but upon careful examination it is 
readily distinguished from the latter wood, especially if one notes the 
size and distribution of the pores. It may be considered a second- 
class wood. It produces the resinous gum known as balao or mala- 
paho, which IS fluid and odorous, and is employed for varnishing 
turniture, picture frames, etc., as well as for floors of rooms. Some 
business is done m it, but it is not very highly thought of. 

^^. BalayoJiod.—k dark grayish wood of medium weight. 

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^3, Balihago {Ilihiscus tiliaceus L.) — A light white wood. 

24., Batitinan {LagerstrcmiiahatitiTmii), — Tree of large size, giving 
logs up to 40 feet long by 18 inches square. The wood varies in color 
from an ashy red to an intense olive brown. It is of firm to very 
firm texture, with numerous small pores. It is very strong, tough, 
and elastic, and is commonly used for ships' planking above water. 
When properly seasoned it stands the climate well, but will not resist 
burial in the ground or exposure to sea worms. It is much stronger 
than teak, and could be used to advantage in place of the latter wood 
for almost all purposes. It can also be used for furniture, and may 
be considered a first-class wood. 

25. Banaba {Lagerstrcemina speciosa Pers.). — Tree 30 to 50 feet in 
height. The wood varies in cc^or from reddish white to dull red. 
The fibers are longitudinal and compressed: The pores are broad and 
short, looking sometimes like tiny cracks. The wood breaks in short 
splinters, and its shaving is rough, porous, and little inclined to curl. 
The white variety is of coarser texture than the red, and its qualities 
are inferior. The red is the kind preferably employed for ship and 
house construction. The wood is highly appreciated on account of its 
strength, and it resists the elements well, lasting for a long time under 

26. Banatanhisan. — A heavy wood of light brown color. 

27. Bangcal or Bancal {SarcoGephaltcs cordatm Mig., Naudea 
glaherrima D. C). — Tree of large size, giving logs 24 feet long by 16 
inches square. Wood of a golden yellow color, or sometimes green- 
ish 3^e]low. Grain straight. Texture somewhat fibrous, but pores 
little marked. It breaks in long splinters. The wood is very easy to 
work, and is used in house building and in general joiner's work, but 
its most important use in the Philippines is for the construction of 
small canoes. 

28. Bani. — A very light white wood. 

29. Bannin. — A heavy white wood. 

30. Bansalagui {Mimusops elengi). — Tree is of great size, giving 
logs up to 40 feet long by 18 inches square. According to Foreman 
it is known in Europe as "bullet-tree wood." The wood is reddish 
white, with ashy spots, or a uniform bright red. It is of solid texture, 
fibrous, with small pores, and breaks in long splinters. Pins of it can 
be driven like bolts, and from this fact, and on account of its durabil- 
ity, it is much used in shipbuilding at Manila. It is well suited for 
making tool handles, and on account of its close grain is admirably 
adapted to turning, while its strength, elasticity, and durability mark 
it as a first-class wood. 

31. Bansio. — A whitish wood of medium weight. 

32. Bantigui. — A heavy, fine-grained wood, resembling rosewood 
in appearance. 

33. Banuyo (Dipterocarjpus sp.). — A straw-colored wood of medium 

3J^,. Barusang. — A heavy grayish-yellow wood. 

35. BaticuUng or BaticuUn {Milingtonia quddncipinnata Bl. ) . — Wood 
of a yellowish white or a greenish white, of soft texture, with numer- 
ous pores, of moderate size, with delicate, but clearly visible, medullary 
rays. It is easy to work, and takes a good polish. It is employed for 
joiners' work. There are many varieties. 

36. Batino {Dipterocarpus sp.). — Straw-colored wood of medium 

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37, Bayucan {Dipterocarpus sp.). — A heavy wood resembling maple 
in appearance. 

38, Betis{Azaolahet{sBl,), — Tree of large size, sometimes giving 
logs up to 65 feet long by 20 inches square. The wood is brownish 
red or light red, with ashy-brown spots. Its texture is firm, with pores 
small and slightly marked. It is brittle, and breaks smoothly. It is a 
most valuable wood, especially useful for the keels of vessels, as it is 
proof against sea worm. It is also used for salt or fresh water piling, 
piers, wharfs, etc. 

39, Binayoyo, — A heavy reddish wood. 

Jfi. Binnang {Macaranga mwpjpa^ Mull. Arg.). — A very light wood 
of grayish-white color. 

^i. Binunga [Macaranga tanarius^ Mull. Arg.). — A reddish wood of 
medium weight. 

Jfp. Bitag {Calophyllum ^^,). — A reddish-brown wood of medium 

Jf3, Bitang {Calophyllum spectaMle^ YfiWdi.). — A grayish wood of 
medium weight. 

^^. Bitanhol or Bitanjol. See Palo-Maria. 

JiS. Bolongita.) B along eta.^ or Bolo^nzeta {Biospyrospilosanthera Bl . ) . — 
Wood a light- red color, or dark red, with streaks and spots of black. 
It is of firm texture, with only slightly marked pores, and gives a deli- 
cate shaving, flexible and curling. It breaks in short splinters. It is 
very useful both for building and cabinetwork. 

J4.6. Bayug {Plerosperinum acerifolium Willd.). — A grayish -yellow 
wood of medium weight. 

^7. BucbuG {Strehlus sp.). — A heavy white wood. 

J4.8. Bidac, — A white wood, very light and pithy. 

Jf9. Buna, — A heavy, grayish-yellow wood. 

60, Oaha (Fragrma sp.). — ^A light whitish wood. 

51, Cahxvy {Citrus htstrix V. C). — A heavy white wood. 

5'2, Calamansanay {Stephegyne sp.). — Wood varies in color from 
rosy white to bright red. Frequently of uneven color and has more 
intense spots. It is of firm texture and brittle, with pores slightly 
marked or imperceptible. When dry it is odorless, although when 
first cut it sometimes gives out an acid odor. It usually breaks in 
long splinters, although this is not always the case. The wood is 
useful for building and construction. 

63, Calantasor Philippine cedar {Ced/rela odorata BL). — Tree of 
great size, giving logs up to 40 feet long by 35 inches square. The 
wood is flesh color, brick red, or, in some varieties, a pale, ashy red. 
The pores are slightly marked, but the texture is somewhat coarse. 
It breaks in short splinters. Its odor is agreeable and insects attack it 
very little. It is used chiefly for the manufacture of cigar boxes. It 
also makes very handsome inside house fittings. 

5^. Calimaidao {Diospyros sp.). — A light yellowish-white wood. 

66,^ Calohcub {Eugema macrocarpa Roxb.). — A very heavy wood, 
varying in color from dark brown to black. 

66, Oalumpang^ {Stermilia fcetida L.). — A tree of very great size. 
Its wood is not highly valued, and is employed cut into boards. It is 
of brownish-yellow color, with pores slightly conspicuous, but numer- 
ous. It is easy to work, but lasts only a short time in the Philippine 

57, Calumpit {Pepminalia edidin L.). — Tree of moderate size. Its 

Hosted by 


Hosted by 


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wood is of dull -yellowish color, with ashy spots, or of a uniform ash 
color. It is soft, with straight grain, and somewhat brittle. Pores 
well marked and very numerous. It breaks in long splinters. Its 
ripe fruit, a drupe with black skin and red flesh, is edible. Its bark 
is used in some localities for dyeing cotton, which it stains a dirty 
straw color. 

58. Camagon {Diospyros pilosanthera var.). — Tree of moderate size. 
Wood black, with narrow brown or yellowish-red streaks, and some- 
times with black spots. It is of very solid texture, with straight lon- 
gitudinally compressed fiber and broad, short pores, slightly marked. 
It takes a good polish, and breaks almost square. Its shaving is some- 
what rough, is compact, and does not curl at all. The wood is highly 
valued for cabinetwork on account of its color and polish. It is 
often confounded with ebony. It ordinarily comes into the market in 
logs 9 or more feet in length up to 12 inches in diameter. 

59. Camay imn, — Wood of very variable color. In some samples it is 
light red, in others violet, while yet others are bright red or brownish red. 
Spots, streaks, and clouds of a color different from that of the mass of 
the wood are found. It is probable that several different woods are 
known under this name, which would explain the fact that in some sam- 
ples the texture is very firm and compact, with almost imperceptible 
pores, while others are merely fine grained, not hard. Some have a 
strong and agreeable odor, while others are odorless. It breaks in 
short splinters, and is employed for building purposes, both in the 
form of small pieces and in boards. 

60. Oamuning {Muraya exotica L.). — Tree of small size, ordinarily 
12 to 15 feet high. Wood a bright ocher yellow, uniform or with 
wavy streaks and spots of brown. It is of compact texture, is quite 
hard, and lasts extremely well. It is used chiefly for cabinetwork. 
The Moros of the southern islands use it in making handles for their 
weapons. It is a beautiful wood and takes a fine polish. It is not 
employed for building on account of the. small size of the pieces 

61. Canaiistula {Cassia fistula L.). — A medium- weight wood, white 
or light reddish in color. 

6^. Cani-oi. — A wood of weathered grayish color and medium 

63. Caronsan. — A heavy grayish- white wood. 

6Jf. Catmon {Dillenia philippensis Rolfe). — A heavy wood, resem- 
bling rosewood in appearance. 

65. CoAjantol. — A heavy grayish- white wood. 

66. Cayatao. — A heavy reddish wood. 

67. Cay tan {Zanthoxylum oxiphyllum Edg.).— A heavy grayish- 
3^ellow wood. 

68. Cuhi. — Wood yellowish brown with greenish spots. Its texture 
is moderately compact. The pores are numerous and of small size 
and are uniformly distributed. It is much used in building, chiefly 
for joiners' work, and is said to last very well. 

69. Culing-manoc. — The color of this wood varies from a rosy white 
to brick red, sometimes with streaks and spots of lighter color. Its 
structure is very compact. The pores are well marked and show a 
whitish color, which makes them conspicuous. The wood is brittle 
and breaks in long splinters. It has no odor. It is a good wood for 
building purposes, although not in common use in the Philippines. 
It is also somewhat used for cabinetwork. 

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70 Oulis {Memeeylpm edmla Roxb.).-A heavy grayish-yellow wood. 
biwn?oC^ (^^'^^'^^^^^^^^^^^ G- Don.).-A ifght wood of reddish: 

rf ^^7 (^^^^^t^'^^^^f^™ sp.) -A light wood of dark-grayish color. 

73 Dale (r^mm^^. -A reddish-brown wood of meliuin weight. 

me^umTligl.t.'^ ^""^"^ ^^'''^ 'P"^-^ reddish-gray wood of 

udTo o^Xff*,P^*«^~^«^« Bl.).-Tree of good size, giving logs 
VVol/i? • r^ ^^^^ "^'^^^^ '1'^^^«' and sometimes even larger. 
Wood brown^h or ashy red.. Texture fine, with pores of modeS 

Ssects Tnrpl^l h ^fr^' ^"5 "*^'^ '"^J^«* to the attacks of 
wsects. It IS employed m the construction of edifices and ships and 

anfme^lurwelgr ^^^^^^^^-^^ ^P-)-^ -^^ of light-^ray color 
we^ght^'^''^^^*^'''''''*'''^^'^^^-""'^ grayish-yellow wood of medium 

lo ^HhT*' (.^«^^*'« «P-)— a heavy grayish-yellow wood. 

mJ lM>at {Hugenm sp.).— A heavy dark-red wood. 
T.i' ff^^''^' ?^ ^^f'i?'^'^, or Dcmgm {StercuUa eimUfrmnis D. C.) - 
wood k Zf^^^A'- f -'"^ ^'^^ ^*^ *i"^t long by 20 inches square. The 
wood IS pale reddish in color and firm in texture. It is cross^rained 
With inconspicuous pores. It has an odor of tanned leather Its 
shaving IS rough and only slightly inclined to curl. This wood L' veiv 
hard to work, but lasts well. It is much used both in house and ship 

1^ reS-od 'Tt"^""' *^'^ r'*^?^-^ ^'^i'^^^th ^»d considerable lengh 
IS requiied. It is especially strong in resisting heavy transverae 
strams, and IS therefore much used for roof timbfr and L the keek 
of vessels, although it does not resist the attacks of sea worm 
.wltr.. J'"'"'' "^ Limyrm {Dwspyros nigra \..).—Ehonfu.—T\im wood 
differs from camagon in its more intense and uniform black cXi 
without brown or yellow streaks. It is very valuable for cabinetwork' 
and IS also employed in the Philippines in making gunpowder ' 

^J. 0;atasan-pula{0ami7igmna sp.).~A heavy red wood. 

^J^. hueijalaa.—K reddish-brown heavy wood. 

85. Gmjo Gimo, or Guisoc {Bipterocarpm guiso Bl. ).— Tree of vorv 

St reKd3,lT "P ? ^' ^r\ ^°?.^/y ^* inchesVare WooS 
light red to dark red in color and of solid texture. It is cross^rained 
with inconspicuous pores. It has an odor of tanned leather. It breaks 

fuS TtThnTdT*" ^""n J^' 't^'^^ '' rough and but sMghtt; 
curled. It IS hard to work, but very durable, and is strong tou^h and 

Tploved fo^'"^ 1 '', T^ *"J r"^^« ^*^ft«- In nfngkong itt 
&ll ^^' '^^^'■^ ^^''•^^ '^"d floo^ng- There are a numblr of 


86. g^^m.— A heavy grajish-yellow wood. 

oo Y^y^'~'^ ^^^"^y reddish-yellow wood. 

i^' ^^W^J'~A very heavy red wood. 

89. mmlab(w,~K grayish-yellow wood of medium weight. 
h^itri^Z T^^ od<yratissima L.).-A tree 

fume t^^^^^^ from which i roduced a valuable per 

lume, tnan tor its white wood, which is soft and does not last well 
being very subject to the attacks of insects. ' 

Hosted by 



91, Ipil, 07' Tpil {Eperua deeandra Bl.).— Tree of very large size, 
giving logs up to 50 feet long by 26 inches square. The wood is 
usually dark red, but in some cases is ocher yellow. The color grows 
more intense with age, especially in the red varieties. It is a tough 
wood with conspicuous pores. It has a slight but agreeable odor. It 
breaks in short splinters, and gives a very rough and closely curling 
shaving. It is a most excellent wood for building purposes and 
joiners' work. It has all the good qualities of molave, except resis- 
tance to sea worm, and lasts as well under ground. It is excellent for 
pailroad sleepers. Attempts are often made by native dealers to sub- 
stitute balao or supa for it. 

9^. Jagud.—A very light whitish wood. 

93. Lanaan {Anisoptera thwifera).—A dark grayish wood of 
medium weight. 

9Jf. Lemete^ lanate^ or Unite {Anasser laniti Bl.).— A tree of moder- 
ate size, giving logs up to 25 feet long by 18 inches square. Its wood 
is bone white, or ashy white with white spots. It is of soft and com- 
pact texture, with inconspicuous pores. It breaks in long splinters 
and gives a delicate, curling shaving. It is valuable for cabinetwork, 
and is used for carved objects, musical instruments, inside decorations, 
and turning. It has also been used for making match boxes. 

95, Lamitah (IliMsms),— Wood of reddish white or light red color, 
with narrow yellowish streaks. It is of fine texture, with straight 
grain and small pores. It is easy to work. It is coimnonly employed 
in cabinetwork and for inside finishing of houses. 

96, Lmian, Imiaan, or smidanct {Dipterocarpus thurlfera L.).— Tree 
of large size, giving logs up to 75 feet long by 24 inches square. It 
yields a white and hard resmous gum, which has a strong odor and is 
sometimes used for incense in the churches. The wood is reddish 
white in color, or ashy with brown spots. It is soft and fibrous, with 
strongly marked pores. Its principal use is for the construction of 
canoes. It is said that the old Mexican galleons had their outside 
planking made of this wood, because it did not splinter when struck 
by cannon balls. 

97, Liga,—K heavy reddish-gray wood. 

98, iJpo {Eugenia sp.).— A heavy white wood. 

99, Loctoh {Mens lanrifolia Blanco).— A grayish-yellow wood of 
light weight. 

100, Maholo {Diospyros isocolor Willd.).— A very heavy white wood. 

101, Macasim^ macasin^ or macaasim,— There are two varieties, the 
red and the white. The former is very similar to batitinan in color, 
but is distinguished by its more compact texture and less conspicuous 
pores. It breaks square across and is less useful than batitinan for 
house and ship building. The second variety is of lighter color with 
yellowish streaks. It is considerably used for inside housework and 
flooring. It is somewhat inferior to banaba, but longer and broader 
boards can be obtained from it. 

102, Macupa,—A very heavy red wood. 

103, Mago/ra7nlmlo,—K heavy wood of grayish-yellow color. 

10 If,, Malacmuncmg {SJwrea malaanunang Bl.).— A light wood of 
grayish -yellow color. 

105, Malahwyahas,—A. very heavy wood, dark brown or black m 

106, Malabonga (Laurus hexandra Pers.).— Tree of moderate size. 

Hosted by 



Wood li^ht red with orange streaks and sometimes with lead-colored 
spots. It does not last well in the Philippines, as insects attack 
it, especially white ants. Its flattened fibers, numerous medullary 
rays, and large, compressed pores are characters which make it easily 
recognizable. It is esfjecially used for making common boxes. 

107, Malacadms {Litsea chinensis Lam.). — Wood canary yellow, 
darkening with time, and taking on greenish-brown tints. Texture 
fine, grain straight, pores inconspicuous. It breaks square across, and 
is odorless. It is used for beams and ribs in shipbuilding, and also 
gives good boards. 

108, Malacainote,—K very heavy wood of reddish-brown color. 

109, Malacatmon, — There are several varieties of this wood of differ- 
ent colors, two of which are especially deserving of mention. The first 
is brick red, with spots and streaks of black. Its pores are only slightly 
visible, while its medullary rays are numerous and well marked. The 
second is red, with a few streaks and spots of lead color. Its pores 
are abundant and conspicuous. Both are somewhat used for building 

110, Malacumon {Dillenia sp.). — A heavy straw-colored wood. 
HI, Maladujat,, Malarujat, or Malaruhat {Myrtus suhrubens Bl.). — 

Tree of large size. Wood of brownish-yellow color, with streaks of 
intense brown or ash. Occasional examples are earth red, with white 
spots. A compact and brittle wood, with delicate pores, which are 
sometimes quite conspicuous. It breaks square across, gives good 
boards, and is also somewhat used in making common furniture. 

11^, Malagaitrmm — A heavy straw-colored wood. 

113, Malaiba {PhyUanthmj^f,),—A. light wood of whitish color. 

m. Malaitmo {Oeltis phihppinensis Blanco). — A heavy, light- 
colored wood. 

115, MaluUg {Syzygium sp.). — A heavy wood of dark-gray color. 

116, Malmiangca, — A heavy white wood. 

117, Malapalw {Dipterocarpus velutina Blanco). — A heavy dark-red 

Malaruhat, See Maladujat. 

118, Malasantol ( Thespesia populnea Corr. ) . — A heavy wood of whit- 
ish color. 

119, Malatalan^ or Malatalang, — A somewhat brittle wood of red- 
dish color, with spots and streaks of black. Of fine grain with mod- 
erate sized pores. It is not much used for building. 

IW, Malatapay {Alangium octopetalum Blanco). — A yellowish wood 
spotted with brownish black, the spots growing darker with age. Tex- 
ture very compact. It breaks in short splinters. Highly valued in 
the Philippines for the construction of fine furniture. The tree is 
small and unfortunately not abundant. 

Ml, Malatiaong. — A heavy wood of grayish-yellow color. 

12^, Malato, — A light wood of reddish color. 

123, Malatoob, — A dark-gray wood of medium weight. 

12Ji„ Malatumhaga {Oruaia spioata D. C). — Tree of large size. 
Wood varies in color from flesh red to brick red. It is of compact 
texture and easy to work. It is not at present much employed for 
building purposes. It gives very good boards for box making. 

126, Malauhud. — A straw-colored wood of medium weight. 
W6. Malaya, — A dark-gray wood of medium weight. 

127, Mamlog {Stephengyne dwersifolia Hook.).— A light wood, 
grayish-white in color. 

Hosted by 



1'28, Manabang. — A neavy wood of yellowish-white color. 

1^9, Mancalamian. — Wood of a reddish color with lighter streaks. 
Its texture is fine, somewhat fibrous, with numerous inconspicuous 
pores. Insects attack it. It is little employed in building in the 
Philippines. Only the natives use it in Luzon, and it is not ordinarily 
to be had in the market at Manila. 

130. Manayao. — A grayish-yellow wood of medium weight. 

131. Mancono {XantJiostemon verduganiamvs Nav.). — A very hard 
and heavy wood found in the island of Mindanao. It is said to be a 
species of lignum vitse. It is of a deep chocolate color. 

132. Mangachapuy or Mcmigachapoi {Dipterocarpus mangachapoi 
Bl.).^ — Tree of large size, giving logs up to 55 feet long by 20 inches 
square. The wood is of two varieties, called red and white. The 
latter of these has compressed fibers and longitudinal pores, and is of 
compact texture, but brittle, breaking square across or in long splin- 
ters. Some specimens give off the odor of linseed. The shaving is 
somewhat rough, and hardly curls at all. The red variety is less com- 
mon, and is distinguished from the white only by its color. The wood 
of both varieties is very elastic, and when seasoned withstands the 
climate as well as teak. It is used for masts and decks of vessels, and 
for all work exposed to sun and rain, and is a very valuable wood. 

133. Mangasinoro {Fagroca vohMlis Jack.). — Tree of y^yj large 
size. The wood is ordinarily an ashy yellow, of straight grain, some- 
what fibrous, and of porous texture. It is soft and not very durable, 
and is consequently little used in building. 

13 Jf. Maiiicnic or Manipnij). — Wood ashy red or light ashy. Tex- 
ture solid to very solid. Fibrous, with pores distinctly or very plainly 
marked, and the fiber somewhat twisted. It breaks in short splinters. 
It is used in house building, although not very extensively. 

135. Mapulat {Pelagimn sp.). — A straw-colored wood of medium 

136. Mara^ Maran.^ or Marang. — The wood is a reddish yellow, of 
sometimes a dirty greenish white. It is of moderately fine texture. 
It breaks square across. It is probable that several woods are con- 
founded under the above name. 

137. Mayapl^ or Ma yap is {^Dipferocarpus mayapis ^\.). — Tree of 
large size. Wood reddish, with colored streaks and spots. It is soft 
and does not last well. On account of its lightness and the ease with 
which it can be worked, it is consideral)ly used for box making. 

138. Mldhid {Lagerstraniia ^^.). — A heavy wood, of reddish brown 

139. Molave {Vitex geniculata^ BL). — Tree of good size, giving logs 
up to 35 feet long by 24 inches square. Wood yellow, yellowish 
green, or ashy, of compact and fine texture, with small pores fre- 
quently almost imperceptible. Its odor is slightly acid, and it stains 
water yellow. It has a slightly bitter taste. It breaks in short splin- 
ters. Its shaving is delicate, flexible, and curling. Molave resists sea 
worms, white ants, and the action of the tropical climate. It is an 
extremely strong and durable wood, of great value. It lasts well 
under ground. E'oreman characterizes it as ''practically everlasting," 
and quotes Mr. Thomas Laslett, timber inspector to the British admi- 
ralty, as saying that ''It can be recommended to notice as being fit to 
supplement any of the hard woods in present use for constructive 

p o— VOL 3—01 30 

Hosted by 



purposes." It is very highly valued in the Philippines for "building 
purposes, and is called by the natives " The queen of woods." 

iXo. Mulang-ti. — A heavy wood of dark gra}^ color. 

i^i. Narra^ Naga^ or Agana. — There are two species. The first of 
these comes from Pterocarpus santalimis L. The tree is large, giv- 
ing logs up to 35 feet long by 26 inches square. The wood is known 
as the mahogany of the Philippines, and is much employed in the 
manufacture of furniture. It varies in color from scarlet to blood red, 
is of solid texture, but very brittle. It easily takes a beautiful polish; 
it breaks in short splinters; it has an agreeable odor; it is an admi- 
rable wood for cabinet purposes. From the bases of the trunks of the 
largest trees magnificent pieces are sometimes obtained of sufficient 
size to make tops for large dining tables. 

llf,!, Narra Blanca^ m^ Narra Amarilla., Naga Asana^ or Agana 
(white or yellow Narra). — From the species Ptet'ocarpits palli(his Bl. 
Its wood is ocher-yellow with brown streaks. It darkens with time, 
taking a brownish-yellow color. There are specimens which show a 
color intermediate between that of this and the preceding species. 
The texture is fine and the pores are usually less conspicuous than in 
red narra. It breaks in long splinters. Both species distill a resinous 
gum of reddish color. It is very fluid at first, but hardens upon dry- 
ing, and is employed in finishing furniture. 

142. Nato {StercuUa halanghas L.). — Tree of large size. Wood red- 
dish white with delicate spots of more intense color; sometimes it is 
rosy and occasionally even brick red. It is of compact texture, fibrous, 
breaks square across, and has no noticeable odor. It is used especially 
for joiner's work. 

llfB. Opac, — A very light wood, yellowish white in color. 

i^^. Pagatpat., Palopad.^ or Palatpat {Sonneratiapagatpat Bl. ) . — ^Tree 
of moderate size, frequent along the seashore, growing with its trunk 
partially submerged at high tide. Its roots send up conical processes 
from the sand for a considerable distance around its base, producing a 
singular appearance. They somewhat resemble cork on account of 
their soft, spongy structure and their small weight, The natives use 
them in place of cork. The wood is reddish in color and of various 
tints. Its texture is moderately compact. It is used somewhat for 
building, especial 1}^ for work under water. It is superior to the wood 
of the other mangroves (species of the genus Rhizophora), which are 
not here described on account of their small importance. It does not 
find a very ready sale at Manila. 

llfB, PaJiuhiitan {Maiigifera loiigipes Griff'.). —A light white wood. 

iXs, Pait.—A. very heav}^ red wood. 

lJf7, Paitan, — A light white wood. 

lJf8, Palayenor Rohle, — Several species of the genus Quercus occur 
in the Philippines. 

lJf.9, Palms, — Numerous genera of this extensive family are repre- 
sented in the Philippines, such as Cocos, Arica, Borassus, Calamus, 
Caryota, Coripha, etc. From one and another of the species the 
natives get food, drink, houses, clothing, and illuminating oil. For 
structural purposes the species known collectively under the name 
' ' Palma brava " are most important. The hard outer wood resists 
moisture very well, and the natives convert their trunks into tubes for 
conducting water by simply removing the inner fibrous portion. 
Palma brava is also used for rafters in house building, for piles, and 

Hosted by 



for telegraph poles. It is well adapted to the latter purpose on account 
of its small cost and great durability. Handsome canes are made from 
the hard outer wood, and the natives often fashion bows from it. 

150. Palo-maria^ or Bitanjol^ or Bitanhol {Callophyllmn inopJiyL- 
hmi^ D. C.) — Tree of moderate size; wood, light red; of fibrous tex- 
ture, with large pores. It breaks in long splinters. The shaving is 
rough and strongly curled. The tree is said to acquire gigantic pro- 
portions in Mindanao. The wood is exceedingly tough, and, as it 
often has good crooks, is much used for shipbuilding, though in the 
northern islands it can seldom be obtained in pieces of suitable size for 
large vessels. It is lighter than Molave, and does not corrode iron 
bolts as does that wood. It is said to produce ''tar," oil, and an excel- 
lent balsam for curing wounds. 

151, Palo napuy. — Wood violet red with blackish spots. Texture 
compact, fine-grained and fibrous. Pores inconspicuous. It gives off 
a mild odor of tanned leather. It is somewhat employed for building 
purposes. It is hardly known in the Manila market and is not exported. 
Nevertheless, it is a wood which is not to be despised, and might prove 

15^2. Palsaguyiiguin, — A grayish -yellow wood of medium weight. 
153, Palusapis. — A light wood of dark straw color. 
15 Jf,, Panao. — A light grayish-yellow wood. 

155, Panguisan. — The wood is of an ashy yellow color, moderately 
porous and not very durable. It is somewhat used for building purposes. 

156, Panayhanay {Plerospernum sp. ) . — A very heavy wood of grayish- 
brown color. 

157, Panosilo, — ^The wood known by this name is of a yellowish- 
white color and of somewhat fibrous texture, with large and numerous 
pores. It is not very beautiful, nor is it much used. It is not ordi- 
narily to be met with in the Manila market and is not exported. 

158, Pasac {Mirnosops erytliroxylon Bos.). — Tree large; wood hard, 
tough, and durable, of reddish-white or flesh-red color. Texture varies 
from fibrous to quite compact; pores plainly visible; it gives off no 
odor and breaks square across. It is employed for building purposes 
like yacal, to which wood it is, however, inferior. This wood is more 
and molT. used as the time goes by, and is increasing in value. 

159, Pasqidt {Memeeylon paniculatum Jack.). — A heavy wood of 
reddish color. 

160, Pili ( Omiarvumi sp. ). — A straw-colored wood of medium weight. 

161, Pino err palo pino {Pirius iiunlariH Endl.). — Tree very large; 
in the mountains of Ilocos, Lepanto, and Benguet specimens of tre- 
mendous size are seen; wood very resinous. The wood is not to be 
found in the Manila market nor is it exported. The tree is very abun- 
dant in the mountains of north Luzon, and it is said that the gather- 
ing of its resin would be profitable. 

162, Puso puso {Litsea littoralis Benth.). — A reddish-yellow wood 
of medium weight. 

163, Putat {Barringtonia raceinosa BL). — A white wood of medium 

16Jf„ Putotan orpototan, — A reddish-brown wood of medium weight. 

165, SampoG {Tantarindus indica L.). — The tamarind. It acquires 
a great growth in the Philippines, and its roots are used for carpenter's 

166. Scmtol or scmtor {SandoricuTn ind^icum Cav.). — ^The tree attains 

Hosted by 



a height of 12 meters, with a diameter of 1 meter. Its wood is red- 
dish and of strong texture, with undulating grain aud with the pores 
but slightly visible. It breaks into short splinters and gives a delicate 
and somewhat curling shaving. It is little employed for building pur- 
poses and is not exported to any considerable extent. 

167, Sihucao or valo-sapang {Cesalpinia sappana). — ^An orange-red 
wood of fine and fibrous texture, with pores of moderate size. Pegs 
made from it are used in the manufacture of small sailing craft in 
place of iron spikes and nails. It produces a red coloring matter, 
similar to logwood, which is used for dyeing wool and cotton. This 
substance is most abundant in the small branches, which are exported 
in considerable quantities. The wood is useless for building purposes. 

168, Sirique, — A grayish-yellow wood of medium weight. 

169, Solipa or sulipa {Sulipa pseudopsidium BL). — The so-called 
" false guava" is a tree of small size which abounds in some provinces 
of Luzon. Its wood is a canary yellow or greenish yellow. It is of 
fibrous texture, with numerous and conspicuous pores. It has no odor. 
It breaks in long splinters. It is employed for cooper's work, but is 
little used for building purposes. 

170, Supa {Dipterocarpus sp.). — Tree of large size; wood yellowish 
or dirty ocher, becoming brownish yellow in time. It sometimes 
shows reddish tints. It is very similar to ipil and is employed in place 
of the latter wood for house and ship building, but is, nevertheless, 
considerably inferior to it. Persons buying lumber should familiarize 
themselves with this wood in order to avoid fraud. 

171, Tahigui-itiin. — A heavy wood of deep- red color. 

172, Taboo {yiJgle decandra Naves). — A heavy white wood. 

173, Talisay {Terminalia catappa). — A dark straw-colored wood of 
medium weight. 

17 Jf. Tamauyan-piiti {Gy'mnosp}oria sp.). — A light white wood. 

176, Tangile or tang Hi or taiiguili {DipterocarpuH 'polyspernius BL ) — 
Tree of large size; wood brownish red and of very fine texture, but 
with large and numerous pores. It breaks squarely across. It is 
much used for the construction of canoes and also for joiner's work. 

176. Tangisan {Ficus sp.). — A white wood of medium weight. 

177, Tapal,—A very heavy wood, with black and white stripes. 

178, Teca {Tectona grandw L.). — The teak, which constitutes one 
of the principal sources of wealth in the Indian forests, exists in the 
Philippines, but is little known. It has been observed in Mindanao 
and is said to exist in Negros. 

179. Tibayos or tuhayos. — A heavy slate-colored wood. 

180, Tihig {FiciuH glomerala Blanco). — A white wood of medium 

181. Ti7iaanpantay, — A light-gray wood of medium weight. 

182, Tindalo {Eperua rJwmhoidea BL). — Tree of large size; wood 
of light red, shading to dark red when freshly cut. It grows darker 
with age and in time becomes almost completely black. Sometimes 
the color is uniform, sometimes it shows darker streaks and spots. 
The wood is of solid texture and somewhat cross-grained. It gives a 
rough shaving, very porous, and not curled. It is used for house 
decoration and the manufacture of fine furniture; occasionally also 
for building, but not much, as it is difiicult to get pieces of suitable 
size. It is somewhat brittle and takes a high polish. 

183. Tingan-tingan {Pterospermuni ohliquum Blanco). — A dark 
straw-colored wood of medium weight. 

Hosted by 



18 4.. Tool) {Bischofia ja/vanica Mull. Arg.). — A light-gray wood of 
medium weiglit. 

185. TooG or toog, — A heavy dark-red wood. 

186. Tucangcalo {StercuUa rubiginosa Vent. Hook.). — A heavy 
dark-red wood. 

187. Tacal or saplungan {Dipterocarpus plagatus BL). — The trunk 
of this tree reaches a height of 40 to 60 feet, with a diameter of 2 to 3 
feet. It gives logs up to 50 feet long by 22 inches square. It is of 
an earthy-yellow color and of solid and fine texture. It breaks in long 
splinters and gives a delicate shaving closely curled. It is proof 
against white ants and has great strength and tenacity. It is much 
used in house building as well as in shipbuilding. It is one of the 
heaviest and most enduring of the Philippine woods. 


The more important and better known of the woods enumerated in 
the foregoing list may be grouped according to the uses to which they 
are especially adapted, as follows: 


Ebano, Camagon, Bolongita, Tindalo, Narra, Malatapay, Alintatao, 
and Camuning, for tine furniture. 

Lanete, Narra blanca, Lanutan, Malarujat, Batitinan, and Antipolo, 
for common furniture. 


Yacal, Betis, Dungon, and Ipil, for keels and stern posts. 

Antipolo, for keels and outside planking. 

Molave, for futtock timbers, stems, crooks for framework. 

Banaba, for outside planking, beams. 

Guijo, for beams, masts, and yards. 

Batitinan, for keelsons, clamps. 

Mangachapuy, for waterways, deck timbers. 

Amuguis, for upper works, partitions. 

Palo-maria, for futtock timbers, masts and yards. 

The last-mentioned wood does not last well. 


Tangile, lauaan, malaanonang, balao, may apis, and many other woods 
not so well-known. 


Molave, for beams, framework, doorcasings, window casings, floor 
boards, etc. 

Ipil, same as molave. 

Supa and balao are substitutes for ipil, but very inferior to it. 

Dungon, for rafters, door and window jambs, clamps, etc. In gen^ 
eral for all parts that are required to afford great resistance and do not 
involve much shaping. 

Banaba, employed f o*^ various purposes. Excellent for all parts 
exposed to the action of moisture, which it resists excellently. 

Hosted by 




Yacal, excellent for framework. 

Amuguis, baticulin, and malatumbaga, used in form of boards for 
partitions, ceiling work, etc. 


Calantas, for cigar boxes and fine boxes in general. 

Tangile, mayapis, and malaanonang, for common boxes. 

There are also many other woods suitable for box making and simi- 
lar work on account of their abundance and the ease with which they 
are sawed. 

The more important Philippine ivoods arranged according to iveight. 












Camay uan 






Culing-manoc . 








'[nch gravity. « 



12. 79 

11. 449 
10. 499 
10. 749 


9. 260 
10. 150 
10. 499 
10. 099 





8. 015 










. 785 (?) 









. 709 (?) 














Malacadiiis . . . 



Palo-napuy . . . 













per cubic 


gravity, a 

8. 240 
7. 414 
6. 734 
6. {.90 
6. 240 

. 641 
. 634 (?) 














a Should be reckoned over. Vidal's table evidently full of mistakes. 
The more important woods arranged according to elasticity. 














Calumpang . . . 













0. 0075 


Palonapuy ... 




Camay uan 















Bansalagui . . . 





Hosted by 




The more important woods arranged according to power of resistance. 



Bansalagiii . . . 


Culing-malo(^ . 




















Calumpang . . . 

Weight re- 
quired to 

63. 263 
46. 699 
41. 552 
40. 747 
40. 594 
40. 028 
39. 539 
38. 522 
36. 938 
36. 347 
36. 369 
35. 586 
35. 427 
35. 341 
35. 140 
34. 967 
34. 679 
34. 235 














Mayapis ....... 




Malaeadius . . . 








Weight re- 
quired to 

33. 127 
29. 820 
29. 676 
28. 526 
27. 375 
27. 145 
26. 915 
26. 829 
26. 312 
25. 765 
24. 845 
22. 602 
21. 394 
21. 222 
20. 705 

Hosted by 


Hosted by 





Hosted by 


Hosted by 




Although the zoology of the Philippine Islands has been more studied 
than have their botany and geology, still the work may be said to have 
only been fairly begun, even in the case of those groups of animals 
which have been most carefully investigated. In general it may be said 
that the Philippines are characterized by a scarcity of mammals, by a 
rich bird fauna, which includes a very high percentage of species 
peculiar to the group, and by the enormous abundance and great variety 
of the land niollusca. The distribution of the mammals and birds 
within the limits of the archipelago is a most interesting study, which 
has already thrown much light on the probable past geological his- 
tory of the group. The study of zoography in the Philippines is, 
however, as yet in its infancy. The results thus far reached will be 
briefly discussed under the chapters devoted to mammals and birds. 

In general it may be said that the Philippines politically speaking, 
and the Philippines zoologically speaking, are not identical areas, for 
Balabac, Palawan, and the Calimianes islands are strongly character- 
ized by the presence of numerous Bornean forms which are conspic- 
uously absent throughout the remaining islands of the archipelago. 
Although the Philippines are commonly held to form an eastern exten- 
sion of the Indo-Malayan subregion, it should not be forgotten that 
at least among the birds and mammals there is a large amount of spe- 
cialization in the islands to the eastward of the Baladac-Palawan- 
Calimianes group. 

It is not our purpose to enter into a detailed discussion of the zool- 
ogy of the Philippines, and we shall content ourselves with briefly 
mentioning a few of the more important or interesting forms in the 
various groups. 


As already stated, the Philippines are very poor in mammals; and 
this fact is the more surprising when one compares them with the 
neighboring island of Borneo in this respect. They are undoubtedly 
well adapted to a large and diversified mammalian fauna, and the only 
plausible explanation of the scarcity of forms is to suppose either that 
they have never been connected with Borneo and the Asiatic conti- 
nent or that, if at one time connected, they have since been subjected 
to such subsidence as to wipe out the greater part of their mammalian 


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Apparently, however, there has been a comparatively recent con- 
nection of short duration between the Calamianes Islands, Palawan, 
Balabec, and Borneo. This would account for the strong Bornean 
character so plainly to be noted in the mammals of these islands. 

There are no marsupials in the group. The edentate, or toothless 
mammals, are represented by the pangalin (Manis sp. ?), which is 
abundant in Palawan and the Calamianes group. This curious animal, 
known to the natives as balington, has its whole dorsal region protected 
by thick scales, and when molested rolls itself up into a ball. It feeds 
at night, living largely on ants, which it licks up with its long protrusi- 
ble sticky tongue. 

In the seas of the archipelago we have the dolphin ; the cacholet, from 
which spermaceti is obtained; whales, and, finally, the dugong, or, as 
the natives call it, woman fish. Beads are made from its tusks. This 
animal is said to be constantly growing scarcer in the Philippines. 

The horses which exist in the Philippines were imported from 
Mexico, China, or Borneo. They are of small size, but well formed 
and tough. Little care has been exercised in breeding them, and they 
might doubtless be greatly improved. Neither Australian nor Euro- 
pean horses have thus far done well in the Philippines. It is said that 
the grass, which is somewhat harsh, gives them intestinal trouble, and 
that the great moisture during the wet season causes foot disease. 
Good results have been obtained with American cavalry horses by 
feeding them young rice leaves or imported hay. 

Wild hogs of at least two species occur in the Philippines. In some 
of the islands, notably Tawi-tawi, they are extremely numerous, and 
they often cause the natives no little trouble and loss by destroying 
their crops at night. They are much hunted, both on this account 
and for the sake of their flesh, which is excellent. The boars some- 
times attain to immense size, and hunting them is by no means unat- 
tended with danger. In Tawi-tawi, during the season when the dureian 
tree ripens its fruit, the wild hogs become so fat that the natives insist 
they die of heat when hard pressed by dogs. 

The curious babyrusa of Celebes has been said to occur also in Min- 
danao, but this statement is probably incorrect. 

Domesticated hogs of black color are to be found in numbers in 
every native village. They cross more or less freely with the wild 
species. Few white men who have observed their habits care to eat 
their flesh. 

Deer are extremely abundant in many parts of the archipelago, and 
their flesh, like that of the wild hog, forms an important article of 
food for the natives, while their skins and horns are put to various 
practical uses. In Sulu there is a beautiful axis deer, which has almost 
certainly been introduced there by man. Neither this nor any other 
species occurs on the island of Tawi-tawi. In Basilan, Mindanao, 
Leyte, Samar, Luzon, Mindoro, and the Calamianes Islands there are 
deer of red or brown colors, without spots when adult. The exact 
number of species and their respective ranges have never been satis- 
factorily determined. 

Finally, in Masbate, Panay, Guimaras, and Negros there is a beau- 
tiful dark-colored deer, marked throughout life with buff spots. 

Sheep and goats have been imported into the islands from China and 
Mexico. The goats do well, but the sheep do not. It is said, however, 
that experiments made with them in the highlands of Benguet have 
resulted very successfully. 

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Humped cattle are raised on most of the islands, notably in Masbate, 
the Calamianes group, and some of the small islands north of Luzon. 
They are killed for their flesh, hides, and horns, and little attention is 
paid to milk-giving properties. Australian cattle have been brought 
to Manila from time to time, but have suffered greatly from disease. 
The establishment of good modern dairies, within easy reach of Manila 
and other large cities, would seem to be likely to prove a practicable 
and remunerative enterprise. At present cows' milk is difficult to 
obtain, while cream, fresh butter, and pressed cheese can not be had 
at any price. 

The most important domesticated mammal in the Philippines is the 
water buffalo, or carabao. It occurs wild in Luzon, Mindoro, the 
Calamianes Islands, Masbate, Negros, and Mindanao, and probably 
also in other islands of the group, but it is believed that the wild herds 
have originated from domesticated animals which escaped after being 
imported into the islands. It is said that Mindoro herds sometimes 
number as many as 200. Although bullocks are sometimes used as 
draft animals, the carabao is par excellence the beast of burden in 
the Philippines. They are tolerably strong, but are sluggish in their 
movements, and can not long endure the heat of the tropical sun when 
at work. If one forces them on they are likely to lie down in the first 
puddle or stream encountered, and refuse to get up. If pushed too 
hard, they die of the heat, and in cases of emergency water should at 
least be poured over their heads and along their backs from time to 
time. If left to themselves they will pass the greater part of the day 
in a mud bath. 

They are wonderful swimmers, and do not hesitate to cross 10 miles 
of open sea. When feeding in the water, they frequently submerge 
their heads for some time in order to get at the roots of water plants, 
it seems impossible to mire them, and on this account they are 
extremely useful during the rainy season. They breed freely, but 
are frequently swept off in great numbers by epidemics of disease. 
They are often tended and driven by small children, who clamber up 
their hind quarters on to their backs, supporting themselves mean- 
while by hanging on to their tails. In spite of their apparant gentle- 
ness they have been known to attack and kill their masters, and in the 
more remote towns they sometimes display a violent dislike for white 
men, occasionally stampeding at the mere^ smell of one. Their flesh 
is eaten by the natives, but is tough, stringy, and rather tasteless. 
Their hides and horns are put to various uses. The natives believe that 
pieces of burned buffalo horn will cure snake bite. 

Hunting the wild buffaloes is a much more exciting and dangerous 
sport than one would expect. When wounded they charge home 
viciously, and if they once get into close quarters it is all up with the 
hunter. They have been repeatedly known to kill men after being 
shot through the heart. In hunting them the natives sometimes use 
trained tame buffaloes as decoys. Success can be hoped for only at 
night. The tame animal feeds along, slowly approaching the wild one 
up the wind, and the hunter creeps along in his shadow. When close 
alongside of his victim he slips round behind him, and attempts to 
hamstring him with two blows of his bolo. If he fails, his carelessness is 
apt to cost him his life. In the Calamianes Islands long fences are 
sometimes constructed, gradually running together and leading into a 
pen, and drives are held which sometimes result in the capture of 

p c— VOL 3—01 31 

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considerable numbers of buffalo. The younger ones are readily 
domesticated; the older ones are sometimes brought to subjection by 
the cruel method of tying them up and leaving them without food or 
water until they are completely exhausted and nearly starved. 

By all odds the most interesting mammal in the Philippines is a 
small island buffalo, called by the natives timarru, peculiar to the 
island of Mindoro. In color it resembles the water buffalo, but it is 
very much smaller than that animal. Its short, strong, and sharply 
pointed horns run almost directly backward, somewhat like those of 
an antelope. Unlike the carabao, it never bathes in the water or wal- 
lows in the mud. It sleeps during the day, hidden away in the densest 
jungle. At night it comes forth to feed, and some time before morn- 
ing visits a neighboring water course in order to drink. Hunting it 
is both difficult and dangerous, so much so, in fact, that it is only 
within a few years that a series of specimens has been obtained for 
scientific investigation. One must pick up a trail along some water 
course and follow it as best he may. The timarru is short legged, 
and in going through the forests it puts its nose close to the ground 
and burrows under the creepers and dense vegetation which slip along 
its horns and back and snap down behind it, leaving no passageway 
at all. In following such a trail one is frequently compelled to work 
his way along flat on his belly, and at the best will frequently have to 
go for half an hour at a time on all fours. The timarru's senses of 
hearing and smell are exceptionally acute, and the snaj^ping of a dry 
twig or a puff of wind in the wrong direction often make half a day 
of killing work useless. When the animal has once been alarmed one 
might as well abandon the trail, for it will often run 10 miles without 
stopping, tearing its way through the forest, and exhibiting an amount 
of brute strength utterly out of proportion to its small size. 

Before lying down to sleep the timarru usually turns about and 
faces its own trail. The hunter must creep up within 30 or 40 feet of 
his game before he can see it, and he must then shoot for the brain. 
The timarru is almost certain to charge if not instantly killed, and at 
sucii short range there is little time for a second shot. When hit 
through the lungs it will run for miles, and it will often go 75 to 100 
yards after being shot through the heart. 

It is ordinarily met with singly, although it is said to go in herds in 
the tall grass on the west coast of Mindoro. Fierce battles often occur 
between the bulls, and in spite of their inferior size they attack and 
sometimes kill the wild water buffaloes. The natives are much afraid 
of them, and not without reason. Repeated attempts at domesticating 
them have ended in failure. When taken in snares or pitfalls they 
struggle until they kill themselves, and young calves, with horn just 
starting, when put to suck to female carabaos are said to have 
attempted to attack them and afterwards to have refused all food. 

According to the English naturalist, Mr. John Whitehead, the 
timarru forsakes the wet lowlands for the mountains during the rainy 

season. t • • i. 

This curious animal presents a zoological puzzle. Its extmction by 
man would be well-nigh impossible so long as a bit of jungle renaained 
on an island; yet it is not found in Luzon, which at one point is dis- 
tant but 10 miles from Mindoro, nor does it exist in any other island 
of the archipelago. It has been classified as Bubalus mindorensis 
Haude, but it is doubtful if this determination is correct. The Ger- 

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man collector, Dr. Platen, who had successfully hunted the anoa of 
Celebes, and who secured four or live specimens of the timarru in 
Mindoro, insisted that the two animals were identical. 

Elephants were at one time imported into Sulu, and, it is said, into 
Cebu also. It is said that they proved a nuisance, and were therefore 
killed. None exist in the archipelago at present. 

Domesticated rabbits occur in the islands, but there are no wild ones. 
One species of porcupine occurs, but it is confined to the Palawan- 
Calamianes group. 

The house rat, which has been introduced by man, is a common 
nuisance. There are a number of wild species of rats and mice, some 
of which occasionally become so numerous as to seriously damage the 
sugar cane and rice fields. 

Squirrels occur in the eastern chain of islands from Luzon to Basilan 
and in the Palawan -Calamianes group. In the southern islands there 
is a tiny species the size of a mouse. Very large flying squirrels are 
found in Palawan and Mindanao. They are nocturnal in their habits. 
There are no squirrels in Cebu, Negros*^, Panay, Masbate, or Mindoro. 
Squirrel-shrews occur in the Palawan-Calamianes group, and true 
shrews at various points in the archipelago. 

Among carnivorous animals may be mentioned the bintorang and a 
species of otter, both found in the Palawan-Calamianes group. Also 
two species of civet cats which range throughout the group, and a 
true wild-cat of small size which has been found in Palawan, Panay, 
and Negros, and is said to exist in Cebu. 

Bats occur in great numbers, and there are very numerous species, 
a number of which are peculiar to the archipelago. There are exten- 
sive bat caves in Guimaras, Cebu, and Siquijor. The deposits in these 
caves have never been worked, but would doubtless be of considerable 
commercial value. At numerous points in the archipelago there are 
immense colonies of the large fruit bats, which pass the day hanging 
head downward in their favorite trees, which they frequent in such 
numbers as to fairly blacken them. At dusk they mav be seen rising 
in a great swirling column high into the air, and then setting off in 
different directions to search for food. Their skins have been some- 
what used for furs. 

The prosimidee are represented by Galeopithecm philippinensis 
Wath. (the so-called flying lemur), the tarsier {Tarsms spectrum Geoff.), 
and a small lemur {Nycticebus twrdigradtis Fisch.). Tlie latter animal 
occurs only in Tawi-tawi. It is known to the natives as kokam and 
to the Spaniards as el virgonzoso, on account of its curious habit of 
hiding its head when approached by man and unable to escape. 

Galeopithecus is found from Basilan to Luzon, and also in the island 
of Bohol. It has membranes like those of a flying squirrel, which not 
only extend between the legs but reach to the tip of the tail. By the 
aid of them it is able to make immense leaps through the air, pitching 
down sharply at first and rising again as it approaches the tree on 
which it desires to alight. It is nocturnal in its habits. Its soft fur 
is highly prized in Europe. 

So far as is at present known the tarsier, a most curious little mam- 
mal, is confined to Basilan, Mindanao, Samar, Leyte, and Luzon. Its 
characteristics are perhaps too well known to require description. The 
natives in the Philippines insists that it feeds on charcoal, and this 
curious belief occurs among the natives of some other regions where 
it is found. 

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In spite of all that has been said to the contrary, but a single species 
of monkey has as yet been discovered in the Philippine Islands. It 
is known to the natives as maching, or matsin, and its scientific name 
is ikacacas philippinensis Geoif. It is of medium size, and occurs on 
every island of any importance in the group. It is very commonly 
tamed by the natives, who use it to rid their heads of objectionable 
tenants. It not infrequently inflicts considerable damage on growing 
rice and other crops. Its flesh is sometimes utilized by the natives as 
an article of food. 

A black monkey {Oynocephalus niger Desm.), of Celebes, has been 
said also to occur in Sulu and Mindanao. It is undoubtedly some- 
times brought to Sulu from Celebes, but there is no reason for believ- 
ing that it occurs wild, either in that island or in Mindanao. The 
various other species of monkey which have been assigned to the 
Philippines by diflerent authors are myths pure and simple. 


No other group of organisms has been so thoroughly studied in the 
Philippine Islands as have the birds, which early attracted the atten- 
tion of naturalists, beginning with Sonnerat. Since his day Cuming, 
Meyer, Steere, Everett, Platen, Moseley, Bourns, Worcester, White- 
head, and others have contributed more or less extensively to our 
knowledge of the avifauna of the archipelago. The result has been 
to raise the total number of species to more than 590,^ of which at 
least 325 are peculiar to the Philippines. 

With few exceptions, these peculiar species are land birds, and the 
study of their distribution has brought out some interesting facts. 
Certain islands, or groups of islands, have been found to have char- 
acteristic forms of their own which do not spread to other islands of 
the group. Thus, the Balabac-Palawan-Calamianes islands have several 
peculiar species, and the bird fauna of this region, on^ the whole, 
agrees with the mammalian fauna in showing strong evidences of a 
Bornean origin. 

The deep water between the Calamianes group and Mindoro marks 
. the northern extension of these Bornean forms into the Philippine 
group. None of them reach the latter island, which has 11 peculiar 
species of its own; although, as might be expected, a number of the 
characteristic forms have made their way across the few intervening 
miles of sea, aided, no doubt, by Isla Vei-de and other small islands. 
Many of the most important Luzon forms are absent, however, and 
these facts, together with the occurrence of the remarkable timarru 
and the absence of most of the characteristic Luzon mammals, combine 
to give Mindoro a place by itself. 

As might be expected, the great island of Luzon, with its high 
mountains and might}^ forests, its extensive open plains, its important 
fresh-water lakes and large rivers, has a very rich bird fauna, and it 
has been more carefully studied than has that of any other island in 
the archipelago. Two hundred and eighty-six species of birds have 
been recorded, of which 136 are peculiar to the Philippines, and 51 are 
not known to occur outside of Luzon and the small islands immediately 
adjacent to it. 

^ In 1897 the number recorded was . Some additions have since been made. 

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A close relationship has been shown to exist between the eastern 
islands from Luzon to Basilan. The greatest differences occur between 
Luzon, on the one hand, and Samar-Leyte and Panaon on the other. 
The latter group of islands form a well-defined zoological area char- 
acterized by the presence of 22 peculiar species; and while no less than 
63 Luzon forms have not as yet been found in Samar, we find practical 
agreement between the families occurring throughout the eastern chain 
of islands, while many important and highly characteristic genera not 
represented in the central Philippines range from Basilan or Mindanao 
to Luzon, often with different representative species in the different 
zoological areas into which the islands in question nmst be divided. 

Mindanao is; next to Luzon, the largest island in the Philippines, 
and, like the latter island, has a diversified surface, with high mountams, 
extensive forests, and open plains. Much- doubtless remains to be 
done before the study of the birds of this island will have been com- 

Eleted, and its highland avifauna is as yet quite unknown. Two 
undred and seven species of birds have thus far been found on the 

The small island of Basilan probably once formed an extension of 
the peninsula, which at present ends at Zamboanga. There are 17 
species of birds peculiar to Mindanao and Basilan, while 13 more occur 
in these islands and range to the northward, but do not extend into 
the Sulu-Tawitawi group. Apparently, however, the separation 
between Mindanao and Basilan has endured for a considerable time, 
as 5 peculiar species have been developed in the latter island and 8 in 
the former, while a number of species closely allied to or identical 
with Samar-Leyte forms occur in Mindanao which are absent in 
Basilan, apparently indicating a relatively recent connection between 
the former islands and those lying to the northward. With but a 
single exception every one of the peculiar Samar-Leyte species is 
known to have a close all}^ of the same genus in Mindanao. 

It is only within a few years that the birds and mammals of the 
Sulu-Tawitawi group have been investigated. The result has been 
to show conclusively that these islands belong to the Philippines 
zoologically as well as politically. Bornean forms are conspicuous by 
their absence, the mammals of that island being represented only by a 
lemur, and the birds by a few unimportant forms; while 53 charac- 
teristic Philippine species have been accorded from Sulu and 51 from 
Tawitawi. This group has 12 well-marked peculiar species of its own, 
and many of the characteristic Mindanao-Basilan forms are lacking, so 
that it forms a well-marked area by itself. 

It only remains to discuss the central islands of the archipelago. 
Panay, Guimaras, Negros, and Masbate have been shown to constitute 
another sharply defined area characterized not only by the occurrence 
of 30 peculiar species of birds, but by the absence of important genera 
and even whole families which are represented in the eastern chain of 

As previously stated, they also lack most of the mammals character- 
istic of the region last referred to. They have no squirrels, and Gale- 
opithicecus tarsius and pteromys do not occur. The wild-cat of the 
central Philippines is not known to occur in the eastern islands, and a 
very well marked species of deer is peculiar to the former group. 

Curiously enough, the island of Cebu stands by itself, although the 
greatest width of the channel separating it from Negros is hardly more 

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than 20 miles, while at one point it narrows to 4. It is very deep, 
however, and has doubtless long existed. As a result, Cebu pos- 
sesses no less than nine striking species of birds not known to exist 
elsewhere in the world, and lacks not only important genera, but even 
whole families, which are represented in the Panay-Negros-Masbate 

The zoological position of Bohol has never been satisfactorily deter- 
mined, as naturalists who have attempted to work there have not suc- 
ceeded in finding good forest land. Such facts as have been ascertained 
indicate that this island should be grouped with Samar and Leyte, a 
fact rendered the more probable by the line of shallow soundings 
which connects it with the latter island. 

Interesting results have been obtained from the study of the birds 
of small islands like Siquijor, Tablas, Romblon, and Sibuyan, but they 
can not well be here discussed. 

Should it be thought that the facts as regards the geographical dis- 
tribution of birds and mammals within the Philippine group are of 
small importance, it may be replied that they throw important light 
on the past geological history of the group. 

The land birds are not driven from north to south, and from south 
to north again by changing seasons, as happens in our own country, 
and a comparatively small expanse of salt water forms a barrier which 
many of them can not or will not cross, while it effectually checks the 
migration of many of the mammals. The degree of difference between 
the birds and mammals of the natural zoological areas into which the 
islands of the Philippine Archipelago fall may therefore be taken as a 
fair index of the duration and completeness of the separation which 
has existed between them. 

Much still remains to be done in the study of the birds and mam- 
mals of the archipelago. The connection with Formosa on the north 
has never been worked out, while that with Celebes on the south has 
been studied incompletely. The highlands of many of the larger 
islands of the group are still nearly or quite unexplored, and many of 
the smaller islands are as yet wholly unknown. It is probably safe to 
say that nowhere else in the world does nature offer a more favorable 
opportunity for the study of the vexed question as to the relationship 
between environment and species formation in the case of the higher 

The islands abound in beautiful birds, as well as in species which are 
interesting on account of their peculiar habits, while a number of forms 
are in one way and another of considerable importance to man. Only 
a few of these can here be mentioned. It should be said in passing 
that the statements which have appeared to the effect that birds of 
paradise, humming birds, and the lyre bird, occur in the Philippines 
are utterly without foundation. Instead of humming birds we have 
sun birds, conspicuous for their beautiful colors, and feeding from 
flowers, as do the hummers, but quite without their remarkable powers 
of flight. 

Among the most remarkable birds of the group are the mound build- 
ers {Megapodius cumingi Dillwyn), known to the natives as tabon. 
These singular birds burrow into the sand along the sea beach, or the 
soft earth of the forest, and deposit their eggs, which are very large 
and out of all proportion to the size of the birds, 2 or 3 feet below the 
surface of the ground. The eggs are YQvy rich in yolk, and the little 

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birds are highly developed when they hatch. They dig their way to 
the surface, take to the brush, and shift for themselves from the day 
of their birth. A number of pairs often frequent the same spot, to 
which they constantly return. Each time an egg is deposited the 
parent birds scratch dirt over the place, and a mound of steadily 
increasing size is thus formed, which sometimes attains to a diameter 
of 12 or 15 feet and a height of 4 or 5. The eggs of the tabon are 
highl}^ prized by the natives as an article of food, and they sometimes 
impose on the unfortunate bird by digging away the top of a mound, 
covering the base with boards, and then heaping soft earth on them 
again so that after several ineffectual attempts to burrow to the bottom 
the birds lay their eggs on the boards, thus saving labor for those who 
wish to rob them. 

The jungle fowl (Gallv^ gallus Linn.) abounds throughout the archi- 
pelago. This fowl is presumably the ancestor of our domestic breeds, 
and the cocks and hens somewhat closely resemble red leghorns. They 
are not infrequently caught and domesticated, and the cocks are even 
trained to fight, they cross freely with the domestic fowls of the 
Philippines. The cocks are extremely pugnacious, and the nativ^es 
obtain them in considerable numbers by the use of individuals that 
have been tamed as decoys. The tame cock is staked out in the 
brush, and its owner secretes himself. The crow of the decoy bird is 
promptly answered by that of the lord of the territory thus invaded, 
who promptly appears to punish him for his audacity, and is thereupon 
laid low by the concealed hunter. 

This method of procedure is often varied by surrounding the decoy 
bird with a circle of snares, so that when his wild rival appears to find 
him he becomes entangled and can not escape. 

There are no less than 35 species of pigeons and doves known to 
inhabit the Philippines; many of them are most beautifully colored, 
and the flesh of all of them is edible. Several of the species are of very 
large size. This is notably the case with the six representatives of the 
genus Carpophaga, which are collectively know^n to the natives as 
balud. The splendid Nicobar pigeon (Caloenas nicobraica Linn.) is 
especially worthy of mention on account of its beautiful changeable 
hues, which vary from deep green to fiery copper red. There are 15 
species of rails, coots, and gallinules. The natives often eat their flesh 
and sometimes their eggs as well. Gulls and terns are poorly repre- 
sented. ' 

Snipe, plover, turnstones, and shore birds in general are very abun- 
dant along the coast during the cold season in Asia, but the majority 
of the species migrate northward with the oncoming of the hot season. 
The Asiatic snipe makes splendid shooting in November, December, 
and January, and the beautiful painted snipe is resident in the islands 
throughout the year. 

The herons and bitterns are represented by 15 species of the most 
varied forms, size, and color. There is but one stork, and it is com- 
paratively rare. 

Five species of ducks are recorded from the islands. One of these, 
a fine mallard, is peculiar to the Philippines, and this species, as well 
as Dendrocycna arcuata (Cuv.) often affords fine shooting. The latter 
species breeds abundantly, and its eggs are often used by the natives 
for food. The birds of prey number no less than 45 species, of which 
22 are peculiar to the Philippines. In size they vary from a tiny falcon 

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{MiGTO hierax)^ the size of a sparrow, up to the immense monkey - 
catching" harpy eagle {Pithecophaga jefferyi^ Grant), which is so strong 
and active that it seizes monkeys as they leap from tree to tree. It is 
one of the most difficult of birds to kill, and thus far but two speci- 
mens of it have been secured. The first was obtained by the Menage 
expedition near Catbaloban, Samar, in 1892. The second was secured 
by the English naturalist, Mr. John Whitehead, several years later. 

Another family well represented is the kingfishers. Of these there 
are 21 species, all but six of which are confined to the Philippines. 
Many of these are most beautifully colored, and not a few of them feed 
on insects, larvae, etc., in the forests, never ''fishing" at all. 

There are 12 species of hornbills, not one of which occurs outside of 
the Philippines. These birds have most singular breeding habits, the 
males wall up the females in hollow trees when the latter are ready to 
attend to their maternal duties, by filling up the openings through 
which they enter with clay, leaving only small holes through which 
they can pass in food to their imprisoned wives. The hornbills are 
fruit eaters, and their flesh is excellent. The large species of the 

fenus Hydrocorax frequent very high trees, but can readily be called 
own within range if one hides one's self and imitates harsh notes. 
There are a variety of frogmouths, bee birds, night hawks, and 
swifts. ^ One of the latter {Collocalia troglodytes^ Gray) is especially 
interesting, since it constructs the edible nests so highly prized by the 
Chinese for food. These nests, which are composed of a gelatinous 
secretion from salivary glands in the mouths of the birds, are usually 
placed in the hollow of steep cliffs or in limestone caves. When quite 
fresh and clean they sometimes bring more than their weight in gold. 
The best nests are obtained on the precipitous sides of the Pefion de 
Coron, between Culion and Busuanga, where the natives gather them 
at no little personal risk. Good nests are to be had in Guimaras, 
Siquijor, and at other points. When persistently robbed the birds 
help out their stock of secretion by using bits of moss, grass, etc., 
and it is perhaps this fact which has given rise to the more or less 
widespread belief that their nests are made of ''sea moss." 

Among the remaining forms there may be mentioned 21 species of 
cuckoos, 1 cockatoo, 19 parrots and paroquets, 19 woodpeckers, bar- 
bets, broadbills, starlings, orioles, weaver finches, larks, nuthatches, 
24 species of beautifully colored sun birds, and 23 of flower peckers, 
titmice, shrikes and swallow shrikes, tailor birds, thrushes, fruit 
thrushes, fairy bluebirds, firebirds, 42 flycatchers, 4 swallows, and 5 
species of most beautifully colored pittas, or ant thrushes, as well as 
a large number of birds belonging to the Timeliidge, and several other 
families for which English names can not readily be supplied. 

The breeding habits of the tailor bird are particularly worthy of 
note. There are nine species of the genus Orthotomus in the Philip- 
pines. So far as their breeding habits are known, they all stitch 
together green leaves by piercing their edges with their long, slender 
beaks and passing thread obtained from spider webs, cocoons, or other 
sources back and forth through the holes thus made. As the leaves 
remain attached to the branches and are in no wise injured by this 
process, they form a green sack, within which the nest is so perfectly 
concealed that it is almost impossible to discover it. Although the 
birds are excessively common, their nests are extremely difficult to 

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The reptiles and batrachians of the Philippine Islands have been 
but little studied; nevertheless a large number of forms is known, of 
which we shall mention only a few of the more important. 

The largest snake in the archipelago is the python, known to the 
natives as saua. It is not uncommon to see immature specimens oflfered 
for sale in the larger towns, where they are put in storehouses and 
over the ceilings of rooms in dwelling houses in order that they may 
keep down the pest of rats. As they grow larger they prey upon 
chickens and pigs, and individual specimens which have developed a 
taste in this direction often cause much annoyance in the native villages. 

In the forests of the archipelago they sometimes attain to enormous 
size. These very large specimens live on "wild hogs, monkeys, and 
deer. They often have fixed abiding places, called by the natives their 
''houses," in the shape of caves in the limestone rocks or hollows in 
large trees, to which they return after gorging themselves with food, 
and where they apparently spend the greater part of their time. 

The most extravagant tales are told by the natives as to their size, 
and it is not uncommon to hear of specimens "60 feet long, with eyes 
like saucers and heads as big as demijohns." Two specimens were 
obtained by the Menage Scientific Expedition in 1892, one of which 
measured 22 feet 8 inches in length, the other 22 feet 6 inches. Each 
of these specimens had a maximum circumference of 21 inches with 
the stomach entirely empty. Facilities for weighing them were not 
at hand, but the weight was estimated at about 375 pounds each. 

Large pythons are particularly numerous in the Calamianes Islands, 
Basilan, Mindanao, and, it is said, also in Bohol. Their abundance in 
any given locality seems to be largely a matter of food supply. 

They sometimes occasion loss to cattle owners by killing their young 
animals, and they have been known to attack and kill human beings. 

The specimens kept in and about the houses become tame and are 
entirely harmless. 

Among the nonvenomous serpents there is a small group of some 
ten species, representing four genera, which are exclusively confined 
to the Philippines. 

There are numerous venomous serpents in the Philippines. The 
annual mortality from snake bites is said to be great in the little 
island of Lubang to the northwest of Mindoro, but is certainly not seri- 
ous in any other island of the group, although tfiere are cobras in the 
eastern chain of islands and in the Calamianes group. The genera 
Elaps, Naja, and Erigonocephalus are also represented. 

The poison of some of the venomous species is extremely active, 
and, if fairly introduced into the circulation, ends in death, so that 
only prompt and radical measures will save life after one has been 

The natives are firm believers in the efficacy of " the snake stone," 
of which the following curious account has been given by Father Del- 
gado, when speaking of the snake known to Tagalogs as alupon, and 
to the Visayans as aguason. He says: 

It is found almost in the sea, as well as in the plains, the towns, and even houses, 
where it goes to seek rats and other small animals for food. Its poison is very active 
and deadly if one does not have recourse promptly to some one of the remedies with 
which Divine Providence has enriched this country. One may readily cure himself 

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with the snake stone, which is notning more nor less than a piece of deer horn, or 
buffalo horn, burned and broken up to resemble bits of rock. Both kinds applied 
to the bite have the same effect, while a portion of them scraped and mixed with 
cold water is given to drink. Also the stone which I myself discovered in the Visayan 
Islands is a medicine and an admirable antidote. I called it St. Xavier's stone on 
account of having discovered it in the town of San Javier de Palompon, when I was 
curate there. Scraped and reduced to a powder it is given as a drink in water, and 
it is also applied to the wounded part, mixed with lemon juice, and it both quiets 
the pain and counteracts the effect of the poison. 

The Dahun-palay (rice-leaf snake) is universally dreaded by the 
natives. Under this name they include a number of distinct species 
of g-reen snakes, most of which are absolutely harmless, although one 
at least is very deadly. The large poison glands give its head the 
typical arrow shape so widespread among the venomous species, while 
its neck is very slender, and its body short, thick, and strong. Why 
this species should be confounded with the perfectly innocuous green 
whip snakes, to which the same name is applied by the natives, does 
not appear, yet in many localities they seem to fear the latter as much 
as the former. 

Two species of geckos are common in the houses. One is very small, 
and may be seen at any time running up the walls or back down upon 
the ceiling. It feeds actively on mosquitoes, house flies, and other 
insect pests, works noiselessly, and may be regarded as an almost 
unmitigated blessing. The other species has a large, thick bodv, some- 
times attaining a length of 8 inches or more. It is comparatively slug- 
gish in its movements, and sometimes loses its footing when running 
back down on the ceiling and falls. It has a loud call, which it is fond of 
giving, audit often interferes more or less seriously with one's slumber. 
Its call becomes particularly loud and annoying when emitted, as it often 
is, from within a large hollow bamboo of the roof into which the animal 
has crawled. Although ordinarily harmless enough, these large geckos 
bite viciously at anything put near them when they can not readily 
escape, and are quite capable of inflicting disagreeable wounds. The 
natives sometimes take advantage of their pugnacious disposition and 
set them to fighting with each other or with rats. 

There is an almost endless variety of lizards. Large iguanas are 
very abundant in many localities. They sometimes attain a length of 
more than 5 feet, and are able to swallow fair-sized fowls whole. They 
are often to be seen in great numbers lying astride of the limbs of 
trees and bushes along the river banks, where they sun themselves and 
sleep. When disturbed they drop into the water, usually disappearing 
and swimming away beneath the surface, but sometimes, when greatly 
frightened, swimming so actively that they seem literally to run on 
the top of the water, keeping almost the entire body out of the water. 
Their eggs are considered a great delicacy by the natives and are really 
very good, while the flesh of one species, variously known as ibid, 
ibit, and pelubid, is very highly esteemed. 

Flying lizards of several species are very common in the forests. 
They are often protectively colored, and are well nigh invisible so long 
as they remain quiet on the gray trunks of trees. They become sud- 
denly conspicuous as they spread their flying membranes, which are 
often brightly colored, and sail from tree to tree, only to disappear 
again almost miraculously when they alight. 

Crocodiles are extremely abundant in many of the streams and fresh- ' 
water lakes, and are sometimes met with in the sea along the coast. 

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They frequently attain very large size. The Jesuit priests at Manila 
are authority for the statement that 'Hhere are specimens which 
measure some 10 meters," but this seems rather incredible. They 
certainly do sometimes measure as much as 18 feet iii length. In certain 
parts of the archipelago they occasion no little loss of life, while in other 
regions the natives may be seen bathing with apparent impunity in 
streams where they are known to abound. The natives explain this 
by saying that the taste for human flesh is acquired, and that having 
once tasted it by accident a crocodile is content with nothing else and 
becomes a man-eater. 

Land turtles are common, but of small size and of no commercial 
importance. Sea turtles have the largest dimensions, are not infre- 
quently captured by the fishermen in their weirs, and their flesh is 
highly appreciated as an article of food. The tortoise producing the 
beautiful shell of commerce is abundant, and a considerable business 
is done in the shell. 

Frogs occur in great variety. One small species appears in immense 
numbers with the oncoming of the rainy season, and even on some of 
the streets of Manila the noise of its outcry sometimes almost over- 
powers othei sound. In the forests there is a tree frog with enor- 
mously developed membranes between its toes, which seem to aid in 
supporting it in its long leaps. Toads occur, but are less common than 
frogs and there are fewer species. 


Marine fishes constitute one of the chief sources of food supply in 
the Philippines, while some of the fresh-water species also are largely 
depended on by the natives. The number of species of fish in the 
w^aters of the archipelago is doubtless much larger than that of any 
other group of vertebrates represented in the islands, yet practically 
no scientific work has been done on them. 

The method most extensively used for the taking of fish is the con- 
struction of pens or ''corrals," which are to be seen in large numbers 
along the coasts wherever the water is shallow and the necessary food 
supply present. The sides of these pens are constructed of slender 
pieces of split bamboo, bound together with rattan in such a way that 
long pieces can readily be rolled up and transported from place to 
place. When it is desired to construct a "corral" at any given point, 
stakes are driven into the sea bottom, and the siding is then unrolled 
and fastened to them. These corrals are sometimes so placed that they 
surround the favorite feeding ground and are immersed at high water. 
The fish then come in over the top at high tide, and the ebb leaves 
them imprisoned. 

More commonly, however, the walls project above the surface of 
the sea at all times. A long line of the close bamboo fence leads from 
near the shore to the corral, which has narrow openings at the point 
where this fence joins it. The fish follow down the line, enter the 
corral, and are too stupid to find their way out of the openings through 
which they came before the fall of the tide renders it impossible for 
them to reach it. 

Frequently a narrow lane leads from the main part of the corral out 
to comparatively deep water, where it ends in a circular pound. The 
opening from the lane into the pound is surrounded by pointed bam- 

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boos, directed into the latter, so that when the fish have once entered it 
they can not escape. Their tendency to run toward deep water as the 
tide falls results in the imprisonment of the whole catch here, and they 
are then either speared or dipped out with a scoop net. 

Very large catches are not infrequently made. The fish are sold 
fresh so far as practicable, but any that remain unsold are split and 
sun dried. In this form they find a ready market. 

Another method in vogue at certain points, notably at Malabon, near 
Manila, is the suspending of very large dip nets from masts erected on 
boats or bamboo rafts by means of a contrivance not unlike the old- 
fashioned well-sweep, so that they can be quickly lowered and raised. 

Seining is practiced to some extent, but almost invariably in the 
shallow waters along the coast. The nets, which are of comparatively 
small dimensions, are run out from native boats and are then hauled 
in toward the beach. 

In the Tanon channel, and at various other points in the archipelago 
where conditions are suitable, deep-water traps are used, which are 
sometimes sunk in as much as 200 fathoms of water. They usually 
take the form of loosely woven wicker or bamboo baskets 6 by 4 by 2 
feet. At one end there is an opening leading inward, protected by the 
usual pointed bamboos. The trap is baited with meat, and the fish 
having once entered can not readily escape. The line by which these 
traps are raised and lowered is simply a series of long pieces of split 
rattan. A load of stones is necessary to sink them, and these are often 
so adjusted that a jerk on the line will loosen them before the trap is 
hauled up. The position of each trap is marked by a buoy at the end 
of its line, and this method can be used in a given locality only at the 
season when the sea is comparatively quiet; otherwise it would often 
be impossible to tend the trap, while the buoys would carry away, 
resulting in their loss. Particularly choice fish are taken by this 

In the very shallow waters along the beaches immense schools of 
small fishes are to be met with at certain seasons as they run in over 
the shoals in order to escape the attacks of the larger species or of full- 
grown individuals of their own kind. The smallest of them, merely 
salted without drying or other treatment, are considered a great 
delicacy with the natives, who have several ingenious methods for their 

One of the commonest is the use of a circular casting net some 10 
or 12 feet in diameter, with leaden sinkers around the edge and a cord 
attached to the center. It is sometimes thrown from a boat, but more 
frequently the operator wades in the shoal water. Small stones or 
bits of bait are thrown in to attract the fish, and when a school has 
gathered the net, which has been properly coiled up, is given a rotary 
motion and thrown into the air over them. The centrifugal force of 
the heavy leaden sinkers causes it to spread out to its full extent before 
it falls into the water, where it quickly sinks to the bottom, imprison- 
ing anything that happens to be under it. The operator then takes 
hold of the cord attached to the center, which is, of course, provided 
with a float, and pulls on it, the sinkers naturally all dragging in as 
the net is raised and effectually imprisoning any fish that may have 
been caught under it. 

Another method much in vogue is the use of a large scoop net 
attached to two long bamboos, the ends of which are furnished with 

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pieces of wood, so fashioned as to run easily along a smooth, sandy 
bottom. The operator wades out as far as possible, sinks his net, and 
pushes it rapidly toward the shore, raising it when he has a sufficient 

Spearing is sometimes resorted to at ni^ht in the waters of sheltered 
bays and coves. Torches of resin or of dried palm leaves are employed 
to attract the fish. 

Finally, hook and line are sometimes resorted to in the waters along 
the coast, but this method is comparatively unimportant. 

Weirs similar in general plan to those used for sea fishing are con- 
structed in the fresh-water lakes, and especially in the rivers, when 
the fish are running. Gill nets are sometimes stretched entirely across 
small streams from platforms erected for the purpose, and are raised 
by pulling simultaneously on both ends. Dip nets are also consid- 
erably used, and hook and line are brought into play more frequently 
in fresh than in salt water. 

A species of mud fish, known to the natives throughout the islands 
as dalag, is found throughout the rice fields during the rainy season, 
and at this time the natives may frequently be seen wading in the 
fields, provided with basket-like traps, with sharply pointed bamboos 
surrounding the open end, which they continually thrust down into 
the water, on the chance of imprisoning the unfortunate dalag under 
them. The fish are so abundant that they often succeed in making 
considerable catches in this way. The natives insist that the dalag 
buries itself in the mud before the oncoming of the dry season, but 
as it is quite capable of working its way through the shallowest 
water, or even over bare ground where the grass is damp, it is more 
reasonable to suppose that it finds its way into the paddy fields from 
the streams which are used to irrigate them, and departs again before 
they dry up. 

Owners of fish corrals, seines, etc., often make a steady income, and 
in return for the privileges which they enjoy are compelled to pay a 
tax for the benefit of the town to which they belong. 

It is needless to say that no measures looking to the propagation or 
preservation of valuable food fishes have been put in operation in the 
Philippines. At Malabon, however, the natives have hit upon the 
plan of capturing small fishes, which grow rapidly, and feeding them 
in artificial ponds until they reach large size. 

Among the marine forms there are a number of poisonous species, 
the eating of which sometimes occasions severe illness, and even death. 
Those who may in future undertake a systematic study of the fish 
of the Philippine Archipelago will do well to investigate a method 
sometimes employed for taking them by the Tagbanuas of the island 
of Palawan. 

They make use of a mixture of several vegetable substances with 
earth and wood ashes, which is known as macasla, from the name of 
its most important ingredient. The macasla itself is the fruit of a low 
bush. It is pounded up together with a tuber known as caix)te, leaves 
and fruit of the cayenne pepper, and two other vegetable substances 
together with ashes and earth. The mixture is placed in a wooden 
trough, covered with banana leaves, and allowed to ferment over night. 
It is then placed in wicker baskets, and men, women, and childi-en pro- 
vided with these wade out over the shoals along the shore at ebb tide 
and await the flow. When this sets in they form a long line, lower 
p o— VOL 3—01 32 

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their baskets into the water, and jerk them about by the thongs until 
the macfela has been washed out. They then gradually move in toward 
the shore. 

The macasla soon begins to exert a marked influence on the fishes, 
which at first swim about actively, coming to the surface or leaping 
out of the water. After a little they float helplessly or sink to the 
bottom, where they lie on their sides. The small ones may then be 
picked up and thrown into baskets. The larger ones should be dis- 
abled by a blow from a knife or a club, as they are apt to dart off for 
a short distance when touched, only to lose their equilibrium and 
sink to the bottom again. The effect of the poison, which seems to 
act through the gills, eventually works off, and only the very small- 
est of the fishes die from it. This method would be invaluable to the 
collector, as it would enable him to catch a species which will not take 
bate, and which, from the nature of the locations which they frequent, 
can not well be netted. 

The unsatisfactory state of our knowledge renders it difficAilt to say 
much as to the species which are of especial importance. The follow- 
ing statement on the subject has been furnished the commission by the 
fathers of the Jesuit mission at Manila. 


This lowest class of vertebrates is undoubtedly that which presents 
the largest number of species (in the Philippines), but is at the same 
time least known. We shall consider the principal species of the 
Selachii and Teleosteii under their five suborders, the Lophobranchii, 
Plectognathi, Fisostomi, Anacantidse, and Acantopteri. 

SelacML — Under this order we find the sharks, or Fating {Char- 
charias vents Cuv.), which abound in the marine waters of the archi- 
pelago. The Indians engage in the dangerous task of capturing such 
voracious animals on account of the profit which they derive from the 
sale of their fins and tails, which constitute a gelatinous iood, highly 
prized by the Chinese, who pay a large price for it. The genus Pristis 
IS represented in Philippine waters by the sawfish {Pristis antiquormn 
Lath.). Pertaining to the same water are the plow fish, or sut-sut 
{BJiyncJiobatus amydostomus)^ dogfish, rays, and hammer fish (Sphi- 
sura sigona). 

Teleosteii. — There are a great number of noteworthy species of the 

fenera Triancan thres and Ballistes, belonging to the same suborder 
'lectognathi. They have the body compressed and the mandibles 
provided with eight teeth placed in one single rank on each, and cov- 
ered by true lips. Their flesh, little esteemed, is even considered harm- 
ful at certain times of the year. They assemble in large schools, and 
produce beautiful effects, the reflections of the blue bodies shining 
like precious stones. The representatives of the genus Ostracion, 
trunkfish, do not have the body covered by scales, but with regular 
bony plates. 

The most noteworthy species are Ostracion gihhosiMS L. , O, cuhicus 
Gunth., and O, cornutus L. There are forms with triangular bodies 
with or without spines; others have the bodies quadrangular, covered 
with spines. Species of the genus Tedrodon (porcupine fish) abound in 
these waters. 

Lophohranchii. — Representing this suborder we find the sea needle 

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{Lyngnathus conspieillatm Jem.), so called from having the body very 
slender and long and of almost uniform diameter throughout; also the 
sea horse {Hippocampus guttulatus Cub.). 

Fisostomi, — This suborder is represented in these waters by various 
species of Murenidae, Clypeidae, and Siluridas. The genera Mursua, 
Ophychtys, Muronesare, and Anguila are especially worthy of mention. 
The natives spend much time in fishing for eels, which are notable for 
their large size. 

Among the Clypeidse are found sardines, such as the Bangos ( Charios 
salmoneus Forik), the Buan buan {Megalops ciprinoides Bronnss.), and 
the shad {C. alosa L.). 

Finally, the Silluridee or Bagres are represented by the genera 
Clariae (Alito), Plotosus, and Rita, which ai'e for the most part river 
or fresh-water fish. They have the skin bare or covered with large 
bony plates, but never possess true scales. There is a peculiar species 
of the genus Rita in the Philippines {Bita manileiisis C. V.). The 
genus Danguila belongs to the same natural group as the tench and 
the barbels. 

Anacanthidce, — Of this suborder there are found the Gabidee and 
Pleuronecthidae. Among the former one of the most notable species 
is called Bregmaceros macclellandi Thoms, characteristic of Philippine 
waters and very similar to the Bacalao, the cod, and other gadadse with 
light meat of good savor. To the genus Pleuronectes belong the tur- 
bots and soles. The latter, so highly esteemed on account of their 
delicious flesh, are obtained in large quantities in these waters. The 
most important species are Solea ovata Richard, and PseudbrJwnibits 
russelii Pleck. 

Acanthopteri, — Belonging to this suborder there are found in the 
Philippines the Labredae, Percidse, MuUidae, Esparidae, Triglidee, and 
Escombridae. Among the Labredae are Pseudx)8Garm eruginosus C. B. , 
Jiilis lunaris L. , Pseudojulis girandi Fleeck. , Novcteula pentadactila 
L. , and others. There are various fish of the genus Ophicephelus, 
called by the natives dalag. Their flesh is insipid, but light and easy 
to digest. They constitute an important article of food with the 
Indians. They abound in rivers, lakes, and pools, and during the 
rainy season are found even in the rice fields. The species best known 
is Ophacephehis striattcs B. The one called Martinico {Anabas scan- 
denas C. V.) also pertains to this group. 

The Percidae are quite numerous, and are represented by the Lan- 
garay of the Pasig River {Ambassis urotenia Bleeck.), the Serrano 
{Mesoprion annularis C. V.), the Serrato {Serranits altivelis C. V.), 
the Lapolapo of Cebu {Serranus oceaniaus Forsk.), and the Bango 
ongoc {Mesoprion hohar Forsk.). 

Among the MuUidae the more important ones are the SaramoUete 
{Midlaides jlavoifReatus Lac, Upeneces trifoseratus Lac.) and others, 
all of exquisite taste and beautiful colors. 

The Esparidae, or gildings, so highly estimated on account of their 
delicious flesh, are represented in the Philippines by the genera Leth- 
rinus. Gems, Pimelepturas, and Chrisophois. 

Among the Tringhdae may be mentioned the flying fish {Ptervis vol- 
itans L.), and the sea hog {Scorpona poh/prion Bleeck.). 

The most important Escombridae in these waters are the horse raack- 
eral of the country {Esconder micro lepitodos Rupp.) the plataco (Pla- 
tace teira Forsk.), the Vadigo, or Talaug-talaug {Lichia glauca L.), 
and the Caranga {Carance rotleri BL). 

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Further among the Eraquinidae are found Percis cylindrica Bl. and 
Sillago sihama Forsk. The latter is one of the best food fishes of 
these waters. 

Among the mugilidse is the Talilong or mullet {Mugil sundanensis 

Among the Scienidee the conger {Corvina rmlis C. V.) and the ala- 
caac ( Uinhrina russelii C. V.) are worthy of mention. 

Of the Quetodontidae the hvQ^m. {Ohotodon occellatus Blec.) and the 
quitong {Scatophagus omatiis C. V.) may be mentioned. 

Finally the gobidae are represented by the gobido of Manila and 
Angat {Gebius giuris Ham. Busch.). 


The Philippines are famous for the wonderful variety and abun- 
dance of their ''land shells," which are, with few exceptions, formed by 
snails. They are of the most varied form, size, and color, and many 
of them are extremely beautiful. Not a few of them are protectively 
colored, and the nature of their shells is such that when the tree trunks 
that they frequent darken with the wet they darken at the same time. 
Many of the species are extremely local in their distribution, and the 
study of the land mollusca of the archipelago is of absorbing interest 
to the conchologist. So far as we at present know, none of the species 
are of great practical importance to man, although some of them are 
occasionally eaten by the natives. The fresh-water and marine forms 
are very numerous and many of them are exquisitely beautiful. For 
the most part they are like the land species, of interest and impor- 
tance chiefly to the conchologist, but there are some exceptions to this 

There are a number of species of edible oysters, clams, etc. , which 
are used by the natives, and to some extent by Europeans also, as food. 
Many of them are very palatable, although none of them compare with 
the oysters obtainable in the United States. 

The shells of one species {Placuna placenta L.) split into thin, flat 
plates, and cut into squares some 2 inches on a side, are almost univer- 
sally used in place of window glass. They are fitted into sliding wooden 
frames, and when in place serve to modify the glare of the tropical 
sun, producing much the effect of ground glass. 

The shells of the enormous giant clams of the genus Tridacna some- 
times attain a length of 5 or 6 feet, and weigh hundreds of pounds. 
The valves are considerably used for baptismal fonts, etc., and the 
natives sometimes burn them to make lime. Divers are afraid of them, 
and with reason, for they close with a grip like a vise, and were one of 
them to catch a man's foot he would certainly be drowned. 

True pearl oysters are found in the southern waters of the archi- 
pelago along the coasts of Mindanao and Palawan, and in the Sulu 
Archipelago. They are especially fine and abundant in the latter region, 
and vory valuable pearls are frequently obtained there. There are 
probal^ly no more expert divers in the world than the Moros, who train 
themselves to remain under water two minutes or even longer. The 
Sulu pearl fisheries are controlled by the Sultan, who rents the privi- 
lege of exploiting them, and to whom all pearls above a certain size 
are held to belong. At present a Chinaman has the monopoly of the 
fisheries near Sulu itself, and is using half a dozen small sailing craft 
provided with complete divers' outfits. 

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The shells bring a good price, and there is a ready market for them. 
At present they are nearly all shipped to Singapore. 

The wonderful chambered nautilus, or, as it is more commonly 
called, the pearly nautilus, is so common that its shells are much used 
by the natives for drinking cups. In the Tanon Channel it may readily 
be taken alive in the deep-sea fish traps previously described. A dozen 
or fifteen specimens are sometimes taken in a single trap in the course 
of a day. Very fine specimens of the delicate paper nautilus are occa- 
sionally obtained. 

The shells of certain of the marine moUusks serve a variety of pur- 
poses apart from that of making lime. Some of them with hard and 
serrated edges are used in harvesting rice for cutting the straw. From 
the great opercula of others bracelets and other ornaments are carved. 
Some of the more beautiful species are utilized in other ways for the 
formation of ornaments. The cowries, formerly used in lieu of money 
in certain countries, have ceased to possess any commercial value. 
The taclabo (tridacna) shells are so hard that the Moros sometimes 
pound them up and ram the pieces into their rude cannon, thereby 
providing themselves with projectiles which are very efi'ective at short 

The land moUusks of the Philippines have already been quite thor- 
oughly classified. Much still remains to be done with the marine 
species, which will doubtless, however, present fewer new and peculiar 
forms than have been found on land. 


The arthropoda, or ''animals with jointed feet," are represented in 
the Philippines by an enormous number of species, and have been as 
yet very little studied. Shrimps, crabs, and lobsters abound in the 
waters of the archipelago, and form an important part of the food 
supply of natives living along the coast or on the banks of fresh-water 

Spiders are found varying in size from tiny, almost microscopic 
creatures to great hairy specimens the size of our tarantulas, which 
are capable of inflicting a painful injury with their bite. There are 
several species of scorpions, some of which are very large and sting 

The number of species of insects is so large that it would be folly to 
hazard a guess at it. House flies are abundant, and in some places 
become a great nuisance. They were often found in countless myriads 
about the trenches from which the insurgent troops were driven, and 
must have been a prolific means for the spread of disease. 

Mosquitoes are sufficiently numerous m the lowlands, so that nets 
are necessary for protection at night. In view of the part which they 
are believed to play in the spread of malarial diseases a careful study 
of the Philippine species is desirable. 

Beetles are found in endless variety, as are butterflies and moths. 

There are three species of honey-making bees. One of these is of 
very large size, and its combs are built pendent from the branches of 
trees. The other two species store their honey in hollows. One of 
them is stingless. Honey is an important article of food, and wax an 
article of commerce among the wild tribes. 

Wasps of various species are abundant, and some of them sting most 

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The number of species of ants is very large, and they occur in count- 
less millions. Doubtless the most important is the termite, or white 
ant, which inflicts great damage on wooden buildings, often causing 
very serious loss. A tiny red species frequently invests dwelling houses 
and occasions great annoj^ance by swarming over the food, which can 
be protected from it only with the greatest difficulty. A much larger 
brown species has the same objectionable habit. Among the woodland 
forms there are many which bite or sting viciously, and some which 
do both. It is not uncommon to see columns of ants an inch or more 
in width extending through the woods for many rods and looking 
much as would a black or brown rope if dragged slowly along. An 
examination of one of these columns reveals the presence of several 
different kinds of individuals, each evidently assigned to a definite 
duty, and the column moves on with all the precision of a thoroughly- 
drilled army. One who is so unfortunate as to inadvertently put his 
foot on it will not soon forget the result. 

Some of the species raise hills 6 feet high, others nest in dry leaves. 
Still others build mud nests in the trees or bushes. One of the latter 
species with a thick body three-fourths of an inch in length has a bull- 
dog grip, and when it has once taken hold its body may be torn from 
the head without causing it to let go. The sting of another of these 
nest-building species causes intense pain, frequently attended by some 

Serious plagues of locusts sometimes occur, wiping the growing 
crops out of existence, while the larvae of many of the insects inflict 
more or less serious injury of one sort or another. Some of them bore 
in timber or in living trees, while others blight the growing rice. A 
few years since the coffee growers in the province of Batangas were 
rapidly accumulating large fortunes, when a borer appeared which 
worked in the stems of the coffee bushes and soon wiped the plantations 
out of existence. Thus far no effort has been made in the Philippines 
to combat the insect pests, but the matter should be given serious 
attention in the future. 


The remaining important groups of the animal kingdom may be 
very briefly dismissed. Although they are all most abundantly repre- 
sented in the Philippines, they have as yet hardly been studied at all, 
and a rich and almost unexplored field lies before the zoologist. The 
damp forests and warm seas of the archipelago swarm with life. Star- 
fishes and sea-urchins are abundant, and some of the latter are much 
feared by fishermen and divers on account of the danger of stepping 
on their poisonous spines. Land leeches swarm in the damp forests 
of certain of the islands and seriously annoy everyone who attempts 
to pass. They show a special fondness for tapping the veins on the 
inner sides of the ankles, and not infrequently cause considerable loss 
of blood. 

ll is impossible to conceive of a more beautiful sight than that 
afforded by sailing over the wonderful coral beds of the southern 
islands and looking down through the clear water at the wonderful 
display of beautiful form and color in the depths below. A number 
of the islands of the Philippine group, like Guimaras, Cebu, and 
Siquijor, are covered completely over with a thick cap of coral lime- 

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stone, showing the important part that the coral polyp has played in 
the archipelago during bygone centuries. That work is still going 
steadily on. 

The prevalence of amoebic dysentery in the Philippines shows that 
we can not even afford to neglect the protozoa in our study of animal 
life, and it is certain that a careful study of all the important groups, 
from the highest to the lowest, would result in great practical good. 

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The study of the races of man is always of great interest. This is 
especially true in the Philippines, where live the most distinct people, 
representing the greater part of the races of the globe, in some 
instances pure, in others mixed since very remote times. Here man 
presents himself with the greatest variety of characteristics conceivable, 
as has been noted by eminent ethnologists; for, beginning with the 
Negrito and ending with the Chinese and European mestizos, all the 
races are represented in these islands. 

All these most varied ethnological classes are mentioned in this 
treatise, which is divided into four parts. In the first, ethnogeny, the 
origin of these races is gone into. In the second, ethnology, their 
physical characteristics are analyzed. In the third, etology, the cus- 
toms peculiar to each people are described; and finally, in the fourth 
part, entitled '' Idiomography," the languages or dialects are discussed.^ 

In order to reconcile brevity with the greatest possible clearness, we 
do not, as a rule, discuss or refute opinions opposed to those which are 
set forth, but merely mention them, setting down what is ordinarily 
considered most certain, or has seemed so to us. By this means the 
material is placed in convenient form for the reader, in order that in 
disputed and doubtful cases he may form his own opinion. 

1 The data contained in the second and third chapters of the fourth part are entirely 
due to Father Francisco Chorro, S. J. 


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The Negritos are generally conceded by authors, who have investi- 
gated the subject, to have been the first inhabitants of the Philippine 
Islands. Absolutely conclusive arguments in favor of this statement 
have not been brought forward, but an attentive study of the differ- 
ent races of the archipelago, a minute comparison of the languages 
they have spoken, and finally the usages, customs, and distinctive char- 
acteristics of the Negritos' make this theory highly probable. We 
have, furthermore, the testimony of the natives themselves, handed 
down by tradition from father to son, who say that when the first 
Indians arrived in the Philippines they were already held by the Aetas, 
by which name they designate the people here called Negritos. 


Their origin, the place from which they came, and also the pre- 
historic time of their establishment in this region, are difficult to 
determine with certainty. 

The time of the arrival of these blacks, as well as the reason for the 
same, and other points, are found by the contemporaneous writer^ 
''In the history of the fierce Cambises, when the inhabitants of Ethi- 
opia were fugitives, fleeing from the cruelty of the tyrannical con- 
queror, in the year 1529 before the Christian era, who, strengthened 
by their misfortune, launched themselves upon the storniy sea, naviga- 
ting in fragile and small embarkations, without any definite course, and 
driven by the wind or swept along by currents, reached the places 
where we find them to-day." This explanation, while not altogether 
impossible, is, on the other hand, far from certain, and has no weight 
of authority further than the opinion of a private individual. On 
the other hand various authors believe that these Negritos have their 
origin in equatorial Africa, and that, having sailed from there and 
lost their course, or by some other chance, they went to New Guinea, 
and from the territory of the Papuans came to the Philippine 

^ Work entitled ''Exploration of the territory of Davao, Philippines," made by 
Don Joaquin Rajal, p. 13. 


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The Jesuit father, J. Delgado, in his important history of the Phil- 
ippine Islands ' discusses in detail this very point. Here is his opinion 
condensed into a few words, and freed from lengthy digressions: ' 

It is difficult to ascertain from whence or how the Negritos can have come to these 
islands for authors are agreed only on the fact that they have come, and are here 
and that they mhabit the most rugged mountains without any sort of order Such 
savages must have come from New Guinea or the country of the Papuans, who are 
below the equator They may have come to that place from Nueva Bretafia, which 
IS the nearest land; they might have arrived here from New Holland, and to this 
they may have come from other contiguous territory more to the south by some 40 
te^T^n ""§ n"S^^^.'"''^''li?^ *^> ^y unknown land bordering on the Cape of 
Good Hope and Caffraria. Wherefore the fount and origin of such a race of savage 
blacks IS Caffraria, and this also was the opinion of the celebrated geographer 
Homman de Norimberga. Nor does this theory demand other proof thaA the 
knowledge that there do not exist blacks of this sort in any other country except 
Oattraria, m Africa; on the side of America and about the Straits of Magellan all of 
the nations which have been discovered are Indian, very distinct from the Caffirs 
both m body and intellect. ' 

It should be added that if the Philippine Negrito, as he exists to-day 
be compared with the African, a sufficient number of characteristics 
will be found to indicate a relationship with the latter race. This is 
the opinion of Senor J. Mallat, who states very definitely^ that if some 
dilterence is noted between the two types it may readily be explained 
as a result of the very distinct conditions between the two countries 
which have fallen to the lot of the one and the other. The Filipino 
has a very fertile soil, and shelters himself in the densest forests, while 
the African inhabits arid deserts burned by the sun. 

As for the immediate origin of the Negritos, it is believed by many 
historians that they come in reality from New Guinea, and this con- 
clusion readily reached by exclusion, for in the north no people is 
found similar to the black Negros, and the inhabitants of Japan, although 
not entirely white like the Europeans, are not black, but are rather of 
a brownish yellow color. To the northwest lies the Empire of China 
the inhabitants of which are, as a rule, light colored, although one 
sometimes hnds swarthy individuals among those who inhabit the sea- 
coast, ihe nations which inhabit the coast region of India are Mala- 
bars, who, although of quite dark color, are neither blacks nor CafBrs 
but are so distinct from them that they would have few differences 
from Spaniards or other Europeans if they were white. 

It may be added to what has been said that the nature of all these 
people IS very different from the fierce character of the Caffirs Thev 
are in general tolerant, tractable, capable, and well adapted to business 
and to the maintenance of relations with other people, while the blacks 
almost complete y lack all of this. The numerous and well-marked 
I^apuan types, which are to-day to be met with in the most inaccessible 
and roughest mountains of the archipelago, are rough and uncivilized 
in the extreme, nor do they have more culture or practice more indus- 
tries than they may have had and practiced in the past centuries. 

Ihe following historic case is also worthy of notice, and mav con- 
siderably strengthen the opinion set forth: In the year 1645 when 
b-en. l^opez de ViUalobos was in the Moluco, and desired to send from 
there a ship to New Spain in order to give to the viceroy an account 

^al^-r''?''^ general sacro-profana, polftica y natural de las islas del Poniente llama- 
5ifu\J^^^^^^^^ ^^' • ^"^^ ^' ^^^^^^^' ^" ^^ Compania de Jesus, parte khbrj^o. 
2 In the work entitled Les PMlipines, torn. 1, Cap. III. 

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Plate I. 

Types as found to-day in the mountains. 

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of the condition in which he was, he gave orders that the voyage 
should be undertaken by the southern route and the land of the 
Papuans, or New Guinea, for greater security, believing that the sea 
in those regions would be smoother than to the northward. The ves- 
sels sailed on their course, and having navigated to the coasts of New 
Guinea with favorable winds, a distance of some 600 leagues, they ran 
great risk, because large embarkations tilled with black negroes came 
out from the shores, and these blacks were so lierce and warlike that, 
in order to prevent being captured, it was continually necessary to 
resort to arms; and before the year 1859 Don Alvaro de Medana, hav- 
ing set sail from Callao with the purpose of colonizing the Solomon 
Islands, discovered a large island full of blacks who came from New 

It is therefore not strange, but on the contrary quite natural, keep- 
ing in view the preceding facts, that the blacks of New Guinea may 
have come to people the islands of this archipelago. At all events, this 
belief is perhaps the most probable, at least so far as concerns the first 
and most important invasions. However, it may well be that in these 
earlv times blacks from Australia, whose characteristics do not greatly 
differ from those of the Papuans, may have come to the Philippines 
through losing their way, or for some other reason. Nor can it be 
doubted that the Philippine blacks may have originated, in part at 
least, as others believe, from those who in remote time dominated the 
Peninsula of Malacca and the Asiatic archipelago. 


This race, savage and barbarous to a degree, and consequently weak, 
conquered later by more robust invaders who were endowed with a 
certain degree of culture, was compelled to take refuge in the moun- 
tain forests, where it is still to be met with at different points in the 
archipelago, although decreasing from day to day and soon to com- 
pletelv disappear. The reason for this is, in addition to inborn bar- 
bailsm and a nomadic life, that this race, regarding the rest of mankind 
as enemies, has passed its life in a most regrettable isolation, living in 
a manner more fit for wild beasts than for rational beings. 



The Negritos, being in possession of the land and being warlike and 
cruel, undoubtedly had many encounters and struggles with the new 
invaders, and the latter, being victorious, took possession of the coast 
region and the fertile plains. When their enemies, the Negritos, had 
taken to the forests, they established themselves little by little in these 
pleasant regions, forming towns and states of a certain sort, governed 
by chiefs or rulers, with the title of rajah, under whom they defended 
themselves against their enemies. This is the origin of the large num- 
ber of provinces in which they were distributed at the time of the arrival 
of the Spaniards. The greater part of them, as well as of the towns, 
still retain their names, which are in perfect accord with the language 
of these new inhabitants. 

p o— VOL 3—01 33 

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What were they, and whence did they originate? A certain combi- 
nation of relationship and affinity in language, usages, and customs, 
as well as in physiognomy, leads to the belief that they were derived 
from the Malayan race, which is that of the Indian native to the islands 
situated between Ceylon and this archipelago. From this trunk it is 
believed that almost all the natives are primarily derived, although they 
show a great variety of types. This variety is so great that at first 
sight it seems to make impossible a belief in a common origin, but this 
can be and is sustained, especially by the analogy and language which 
may still be discovered, and which is undoubtedly the surest means of 
determining the origin of peoples. 

It is, indeed, a cause of no small wonder to find in these regions so 
many people with different languages that the same tongue is hardly 
spoken on two islands. In Luzon each province has its special dialect, 
which is not understood except by its inhabitants. The Tagalogs and 
Pampangos speak different tongues. The Pangasinans, Ilocanos, and 
Cagayans have in their respective territories their special languages. 
The people of Camarines are distinct from all the others. The Visay- 
ans, although almost all of them speak one language, nevertheless vary 
it so much in the different provinces that it seems like a distinct tongue 
in each. The native of Bohol does not pronounce certain letters. The 
native of Cebu has his special way of speaking, which is distinct from 
that of the native of Samar and Leyte, whose dialect is richer, more 
complicated, and has a greater abundance of words, which are, further 
more, pronounced more rapidly than in the regions above referred to; 
and this without mentioning the island of Mindanao, where, on account 
of words derived from the Moro dialect, the difference is perhaps 
greater than in any other island. 

Notwithstanding this the great readiness with which the natives of 
one province learn the languages of other provinces and towns proves 
that many of these dialects have a common origin, for the Europeans 
can not do this without much laborious study, nor could they do it if 
their dialects differed as much among themselves as they differ from 
ours. It is proved furthermore by the large number of common 
words, although they may be differently conjugated and combined 
and sometimes changed in their significance as well as in pronunciation, 
which may be nasal or guttural. 

This common origin is believed in by various authors, and among 
them, curiously enough. Father Delgado, who has already been men- 
tioned, and who does not agree with certain Spanish authors in assign- 
ing a Malayan origin only to the Tagalogs and different origins to the 
other peoples simply on the basis of the diversity of languages. It 
might undoubtedly very well be that the natives of 'these islands should 
have a single origin and should yet go on separating from each other and 
varying in the matter of language. Furthermore, we know through 
history that the discoverers brought with them Malayan interpreters, 
who were distributed in those early days through the Visayan Islands and 
Mindanao, and who were quite well instructed in the language of that 
region. From this it may be inferred that there is no occasion to seek 
one origm for the Visayans and Mindanaos and a different one for the 
Tagalogs, whom everyone admits to be Malay. Furthermore, it is cer- 
tamly evident that the two tongues, Tagalog and Visayan, differ little or 

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not at all in the general plan, and in the roots from which the verbs are 
derived, being almost identical in all their parts, and even the conjuga- 
tions in the one and the other tongue are the same, and the language 
among the Visayans being more univocal, the pronunciations are so 
different as to appear distinct to those who have not passed some years 
in the country. 

We admit that there would be greater difficulty in satisfactorily 
determining the origin of the Pampangos, neighbors of the Tagalogs, 
who have a distinct language, but their features, dispositions, and cus- 
toms agree with those of the Tagalogs, and, furthermore, in this case 
the fact already mentioned as to the readiness with which they learn 
each other's language and all learn the language of the Visayans is of 
significance. Various experiments have been made with Tagalog and 
Pampango children who have been taken to 'the Visayan Islands and 
in less than a month have spoken the language as if it were their own. 
A similar argument may be made in case of the Cagayans, Ilocanos, 
Pangasinans, and other people, the difference in whose dialects is not 
sufficient to destroy belief in their Malayan origin. 

On the other hand, Fr. M. Zuniga defended on various grounds,^ and, 
singularly enough, on account of the agreement between the dialects, 
the theory that these Indians came from tropical America. Other 
authors find the immediate origin of all or some of the Philippine peo- 
ples in different islands or lands of Oceania. 


Let us now consider with particular care the origin of the native 
inhabitants of Mindanao. It would appear that at least as far as their 
immediate origin is concerned it can not be different from that of the 
other Indians, whether they came there from Borneo, from the Moluc- 
cas, or from others of the Indonesian Islands. 

So far as concerns the Manobos, Bagobos, and the tribes derived 
from them, a modern explorer believes^ that if one studies their 
vocabulary its origin is obviously related to that of the Ovas of Madagas- 
car, whose individuals must have arrived on the island which they to-day 
inhabit at the same time that the former people reached the Philippine 
Archipelago. It would seem probable that, having undertaken together 
the emigration from Asia, they may have become separated at sea 
through causes beyond their control. It may also be supposed that 
some of the Ovas arrived after the others, as is indicated b}^ the Visa^^an 
word ^'bago" (new), a classification which might be explained with 
reference to their coming to the country. And we should say that the 
Manobos must have been somewhat earlier, because if their coming 
had extended over a considerable period up to the arrival of the Bago- 
bos they would not have had such an appropriate term for designating 
the common time of their arrival in the country. The word " mano- 
bos" expresses very well the idea, ''man of the sort of the ovas," 
while "bagobos" means ''new ovas." 

Others believe that the word "manobos" is derived from "manuba," 
and this in turn from "man-suba," which signifies "inhabitant of a 

^ See his Historia de las islas Filipinas, Sanpaloc, 1803. 
^Don Joaquin Rajal, op. cit., p. 16, 

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The Mandayas also, like the Manobos, give origins to various terms 
and their antiquity is not to be disputed. The word ''Mandayas'' 
signifies ''descendent of the Bayas," and " Dayas" or ''Dayacs" is the 
term applied to the natives of southern and western Borneo. 

We might continue this discussion to the other different groups 
which peopled the island of Mindanao before taking up the Moham- 
niedan race, and its origin, more or less remote, might be found to be 
either Indonesian or Malayan. 


For the rest it is to be clearly borne in mind that certain differences, 
although they may seem notable, are not sufficient ground for attribut- 
ing to one race an origin distinct from that of another. Otherwise we 
should be compelled to seek a different origin for each one of the very 
large number of tribes of pagans which are to be met with in the 
1 hilippmes, and especially in the great islands of Luzon and Mindanao. 

A "^ u^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ people leads, the region which it occupies, 
and other circumstances are more than sufficient to impress upon it a 
peculiar character which separates it from other peoples, if not com- 
pletely, at least in very important particulars, as we see happening in 
Lurope among the different nations, like the Spanish, the French, or 
the Itabans, in spite of the close relationships which unite their people. 



After the Negritos, the true aborigines, and after the second inva- 
sion had spread over the entire archipelago, as has already been 
described, the Moro tribe ought to be cited among the peoples which 
have most deeply impressed their characteristics in these islands. In 
an evil hour a death-bearing plague of them invaded many regions of 
India and archipelagos of Oceania. 


At what time did the arrival in these islands of the Mohammedan 
Malays occur? It seems evident that it could not have been before 
the invasions of the Indians above mentioned, because had this been 
the case the fact would have been indicated in the written traditions 
which the Mohammedan race keep, since it is somewhat more civilized 
than were the other peoples. Nor would it be easy to understand how 
they could have imposed their rule on the Moros, for we know, on the 
contrary, that the latter, endowed with greater native valor, imposed 
their authority on the former and laid the heavy yoke of bondage 
where they would. 

Don Joaquin Rajal, after investigating this point, makes the follow- 
ing staitement:^ ''The invasion of the Mohammedan Malays must, in 
our modest opinion, go back to those authorized by Mohammed and 
brought to a conclusion by some of his subchiefs. It is well known 

iQp. cit. p. 13. 

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that the subjects of that extraordinary man carried the beliefs of Islam 
throughout India, extended them over the islands of the sound and 
the other archipelagos of Oceania." A little further down he con- 
tinues: ''Another indication of the antiquity of Mohammedanism in 
those islands is furnished us by the name Soliman, which was applied 
to certain rulers, a fact which proves not only their ancestry, but also 
a frequent contact with their progenitors, as well as expeditions to 
Mecca, which they make even to-day periodically, and which in former 
times, according to the traditions which they preserve, were of great 


When the Moros arrived they met the earlier populators and owners 
of the islands and waged ferocious war with them in order to establish 
themselves at the mouths of the large rivers and to be able to spread 
along their banks, situations which they have always preferred for the 
sites of their dwellings. Hostilities did not cease, but from the begin- 
ning have continued up to the present, caused by the frequent excur- 
sions of the Moros for the purpose of taking slaves, practicing piraoy, 
and extending the belief of their sect. 

In these repeated encounters the Indians and the Negritos frequently 
made common cause, attempting to resist their advances, which were, 
nevertheless, very successful. The result of this seems to have been 
that those who at first obeyed an hereditary chief and respected cer- 
tain hierarchies, later, taking a fancy to the richness and delightful 
character of the country, divided the territory, and establishing a 
sort of feudalism, in which various chiefs governed more or less 

Such is the probable origin and progress of Mohanmiedan domina- 
tion in these islands. Others, however, with equal probability believe 
it to be much niore recent, antedating the arrival of the Spaniards very 
little. The Jesuit Father Combes ^ makes the following statement: 

Since Mohammedanism is recent in India, and from there has been carried to these 
regions, it may be understood that this people have occupied these coasts for but a 
short time. 

Furthermore, many are of the opinion that the occupation of these 
regions by the Moros does not partake of the character of a national 
invasion. Father Pastells, S. J., expresses his opinion in the following 
terms : ^ 

Ethnological, philological, and anthropological proofs demonstrate clearly the fact 
that the Moros did not come in great numbers to occupy the regions of Sulu, Min- 
danao, and Palawan, but rather tliat they exerted moral influence over the natives 
through commerce and a sectarian propaganda, making Moros of the pagans of the 
coast region by means of their preaching and their superstitious practices. There- 
fore the uucleus of the population of the coasts of Mindanoa, Basilan, Sulu, and Pala- 
wan is composed of natives, and those who came from abroad were only the ances- 
tors of the datos and panditas of the Sultans and sherifes, who are the ones that by 
hereditary right rule and tyrannize over the great mass of the Moro population. The 
proof of this is found in the strongly marked Malayan type which they all show. 
Without going farther it may be seen that to-day "^the Malayan sherifes come to 
install themselves, and are received with religious respect in the Moro settlements. 

^ Historia de Mindanao y Jolo, by Father Francisco Combes, of the Companv of 
Jesus. (Vol. I, Chapter XI.) ^ ^ 

J^See Vol. IX of the Letters of the Fathers of the Company of Jesus belonging to 
the Philippine Mission. (Appendix, p. 638. ) 

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They are the very ones who are charged with the duty of sustaining and developing 
the fanaticism of their sect. According to my observations, they are not numerous in 
the districts of Cottabato and Davao, but are met with more frequently in Isabela de 
Basilan and Sulu. 

It is certain that when Spain established here her domination through 
the immortal Magellan the Moros were found to be strong at the better 
points in Luzon, Mindanao, Sulu, and other island groups of the South, 
where they held many of the natives enslaved, and had led astray many 
more with the novelty of their doctrines and the beliefs of the Koran. 


At this time the complicated intermingling of customs, usages, and 
superstitions between the different populators of the islands was not 
less worthy of note than the anthropological amalgamation which was 
bound to come as an immediate result of the intimate intercourse and 
friction of such varied races and peoples. The schism introduced 
among the pagans and the guerrilla warfare which the Islemites espe- 
cially waged, and which all the rest imitated, made opportunity for an 
important and constant slave trade, resulting in such a crossing of the 
races that two centurie^s later it was a very difficult undertaking to 
distinguish the characteristics of the primitive elements which were 
the origin of such a confused mass. 


Among the causes which have contributed to bring about the changes 
in the primitive class throughout almost the entn^e archipelago must 
be mentioned long-standing and constant commerce with the neighbor- 
ing Empires of China and Japan. Before Magellan discovered the 
Philippine Archipelago the Chinese and Japanese were already making 
excursions to the coasts of some of the islands in order to possess 
themselves of the gold which the natives brought from the mountains, 
in return for which they gave the Indians cloth, arms, and trifles of 
various sorts. 

How much the association and the commerce above referred to con- 
tributed to change the type and the character of the natives is a mat- 
ter concerning which there are differences of opinion. ''These rela- 
tions," says W. E. Retana, ''were nevertheless very superficial, audit 
may be taken as certain that the sons of the Celestial Empire did not 
modify much or little the anthropological characteristics of the island- 
ei%. Neither history, nor philology, nor ethnography lends probability 
to a belief in the existence of mixed races before the time of the Span- 
iard."^ Another contemporaneous author,^ without denying that 
there is not seen the least trace of Chinese script in the primitive 
alphabets of the Indian, nor are there Chinese roots in their dialects, 
nevertheless inclines to the opposite opinion as regards the crossing 
of the races, bringing forward the argument that the savages of Ben- 
guetuse very frequently in their language the sounds "cha" and " che," 
and that the Tinguianes, who inhabit the heights of Candon, give indi- 
cation at the first glance of their Chinese origin by reason of their 
color, features, and dress, and he finally draws the conclusion from 

^ History of Father Conbes already cited. Table V, col. 778. 

^ Author of the work Informe sobre el estado de las Islas Filipinas en 1842. 

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characteristics, such as broad skull, sharp facial angle, and peculiar 
hair, which he has noted in some instances as a result of personal 
examination, a very ancient mingling" between the Papuan and Mon- 
golian peoples. 

Another writer of our day expresses himself as follows:' 

The data which prove the effect of the Chinese on the former population of the 
archipelago are so numerous that we do not beheve one who has made a somewhat 
detailed study of the idolatrous peoples of Luzon can do less than admit it. The 
proximity of the continent to the western coast of the archipelago, the action of the 
monsoon, and the adventurous spirit of the sons of the great Empire allow it to be 
supposed that from very ancient times they came to these Spanish countries of 
Oceania. It should be remembered in this connection that even in the ninth cen- 
tury the Chinese and Malays frequently entered into relationships with each other, 
and that before this epoch the Japanese had reached the islands of the sound. 

This author further adduces the fact, among other proofs, that the 
industries of the pagans of Lepanto, which have attracted the attention 
of travelers, may be due to Chinese origin. In the annals of the 
Empire it is attested that the Emperor Ton-hi taught his subjects to 
cast bronze, also the fact that among the religious practices of the 
pagan tribe the cult of the anitos, so sacred to the Chinese, is seen to 

Be this as it may, it is certain that as the years passed by commerce 
between China and the archipelago was regulated to a notable degree, 
important expeditions being made, and many of the members of the 
same remaining in the islands, especially in Luzon and at points some- 
what near Manila. Latterly Chinese * immigration has increased to 
such a notable degree that the mixed Chinese Malayan race is rep- 
resented in the archipelago by perhaps half a million individuals. 


It is evident also that the people of Borneo were at the time of the 
conquest in frequent communication with those of Mindanao, Sulu, 
and the Visayan Islands, as well as with the Tagalogs, whom they 
infected with their beliefs. At present these relations are of small 
interest, and very few natives of that island exist in the Philippines. 


Mention is also made within the time of the Spaniards of various 
arrivals of embarkations from the Palaos, Caroline, and other islands, 
as a result of contrary winds or for other reasons. ''In 1699," says 
Father M. de Zuniga^ '' two canoes which arrived from the Palaos in 
Samar occupied seventy days in covering the distance of 300 leagues. 
Their crew consisted of thirty persons, between men and women, and 
only five men died within the passage. In the year 1725 there was 
driven on the coast near Baler an embarkation with some twenty men. 
On other occasions through similar accidents people have come from 
the Palaos and the Carolines to the Marianes and other islands." 
Later, in 1749, seventeen embarkations were driven out to sea, only one 

^See Tierras y Razas del Archipielago FiUpino por Jos^ de Lacalle. Part II, 

Chapter 11. i t^ i x^ t • 

2 Estidismo de las Islas FiUpinas 6 mis viajes por este pais, por el Padre Fr. Joaquin 
Martinez de Zufiiga Agustino Calrado; obra extensamente anotada por W. E. Retana. 
Come lo Madrid, 1893, page 429. 

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of which made land in Guinan. Other cases like these have occurred 
more recently. Castes of half European men, which, as may be heard 
from former and present missionaries, are to be met with sometimes 
at remote points, may probably be explained in a similar way. We 
give one of these cases which Father Delgado instances, as it was noted 
by the first officer of a certain Spanish vessel, Pedro Fernandez de 
Quiros, when Don Antonio de Morga was lieutenant-general of the 
island: " While sailing along the south coast at about ten degrees we 
saw an island which we called Magdalena, and from its port there came 
forth to receive us in sixty boats more than 400 white Indians of very 
mild disposition, well formed, large, robust, and of good figures. They 
had fine teeth and eyes, good mouths, very slender hands and feet, 
straight hair, and many of them were very light colored, among them 
some very fine-looking boys. This white and ruddy people is judo-ed " 
adds the above-mentioned father, 'Ho be descended from Europeans 
formerly shipwrecked among those islands. These people are called 
Caesars on account of their beauty and well-regulated bodies." 

Here is another case which confirms the preceding. Miguel Lopez 
de Legazpi had hardly arrived at Cebu when he got tidings of various 
Spaniards of the first armada who had remained there, where they 
had married and become citizens, and having sent to a town called 
Basey in the island of Samar embarkations with ransoms to redeem 
them, an Indian named Juanes said that the others had died in a cer- 
tain war, nor did he know more of them. 


It can not be doubted that there came to the Philippines at different 
times peoples of other regions, islands, and continents, and this would 
seem to be indicated by the name barangay, which is here employed 
to denote a tribe or settlement, because in Its primarv sense barangay 
IS a launch or boat, and according to traditions, which it is easy to find 
among the natives, those who came in a barangay formed a separate 
tribe and were governed only by themselves. 

Hence the word ^'barangay," by which is signified a definite num- 
ber ot families settled at a definite point and affording people suffi- 
cient to occupy embarkations of this sort; whereby is also made clear 
how the natives in part populated the islands by means of barangays 
directed by their headman, called for this reason ^'cabeza (head) de 


Up to this point we have indicated some of the peoples which proba- 
bly have come to constitute the population of the Philippines with the 
certain probable or commonly accepted explanation of their origin. 
Many other ethnological classes of less importance are characterized 
by authors which have treated this subject more or less fully. As to 
this matter, as well as in the discussion of the place of their origin and 
of the immigration which brought each one of them, there are such 
different and often such contradictory views that it would require 
volumes to thoroughly discuss the matter. The truth is that in spite 
ot all this it has not been stated to the satisfaction of the reader how 
and from whence it has been possible to assemble in this archipelago 
such a complicated aggregation of peoples and castes as we see to-day. 

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With a view to explaining this confusion and variety there is cur- 
rent a singular opinion which is certainly not well proved, but on the 
other hand is not impossible, and which on account of its magnificence 
does not lack interest. Here it is: If one looks at the map, one sees 
that the Philippine Archipelago seems to be united at the points 
Unsang and Banguey with Borneo by means of two strings of islands. 
Still more striking is the line which the Andamon and Nicobar islands, 
Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok, Sumbava, Flores, Timor, etc. , form from 
the Cape Nigres, in the Gulf of Bengal, to New Guinea. These islands are 
undoubtedly a chain of mountains which run from one extreme to the 
other. May it not then have happened that all of these islands formed a 
continent, and that in a horrible cataclysm the waters invaded the plains, 
leaving only the elevated points visible^ On this supposition the 
inhabitants who had spread into this continent from all the neighbor- 
ing continents, of various races, separated more or less trom each other 
by natural boundaries, found themselves obliged to take refuge in the 
mountains, where we see them to-day, isolated and showing a great 
variety of races and customs. How otherwise can it be explained 
that the inhabitants of Oceania have communicated with each other? 
That is not to say that in very remote times they had obtained a civiliza- 
tion similar to ours, of which no sign remains at present. Quite the 

In conformity with this theor}^ Seiior Re tana explains the origin of 
the populators of the Philippines as follows: ^ 

This continent, of which scientists tell us, transformed later into great groups of 
islands, may have been united to the continent of Asia. If this was the case, in very 
remote times there came from Asia the Aetas, who settled certain regions in the vast 
territory. If an actual union did not exist, it must have been possible to cross with- 
out great difficulty, in view of the proximity between Sumatra and the Peninsula 
of Malacca, w^hich must have been much greater in bygone times. When the cata- 
clysm occurred, that is to say when there took place the great transformation which 
geologists recognize, the Aetas or Negritos were the only inhabitants of the Philip- 
pines. It should be understood that the period included between the dispersal of 
the Aetas over the Oceanic Continent, and the breaking up of this continent included 
some centuries. Time passed and the brown Malays invaded the Philippine Islands 
as they invaded many others of the Pacific islands. 

The reader may use his own judgment as to the plausibility of such 
an ethno-geographic theory. On the other hand, if he adopts the 
opinion first expressed, the paths have already been indicated along 
which the various populators of the islands may have arrived. 


Finally, to the classes of Indians already mentioned there must be 
added a new class — that of the European mestizos, which in number 
and in area occupied has gone on increasing since the beginning of 
Spanish domination. This caste is usually the most important and 
noble, because it has, if one may say so, in its very blood the nature 
and the culture of a superior race. Individuals of this sort are to be 
found in all regions which have been reached by the commerce of 
Europe, but they are particularly numerous, as may readily be under- 
stood, at the capital and in its vicinity, as well as in the various pro- 
vincial capitals and more important towns. 

1 Op. cit. Vol. II, App. G, p. 488. 

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In the European colony there are representatives of all nations, the 
hpaniards being the more numerous than the English, the Germans 
and the French. Thus it may be said that there are found residing- in 
the islands representatives of almost all the nations of Asia, India, and 
J^.urope, and since Manila is the center and head of the whole archi- 
pelago and its commerce, it has a diversity in its inhabitants such as is 
hardly to be met with in any other city of the globe. 



It was not without reason that a celebrated naturalist said there was 
no country like the Philippines for making a complete study of the 
races of man. Such is the variety of the tribes, some of which are 
hidden away in the mountains, others of which are scattered about the 
coast and lowland forests of the archipelago, that it would be difficult 
to find a land where man presented himself to the eyes of the ethnolo- 
gist with conditions so extraordinary and worthy of such careful atten- 
tion. But these peoples seem to be mixed in such a way that it is 
commonly admitted to be a difficult undertaking to determine their 
characteristics and analogies with sufficient precision in order to be able 
to determine definitely the primitive type predominating among each 
one of them. He who reads will see that many travelers have come to 
this conclusion after visiting these tropical regions, and have set forth 
their views in their writings. Nor would their confession be necessary 
m order to make plain the difficulty which they encounter; for, since 
they have gone to almost all the different and most remote regions of 
the globe in order to seek and find the origin of these people, still they 
disagree in various ways as to the method of grouping the tribes and 
classifying them among themselves. May it be that they have not 
made as yet a complete and conscientious study of the material at hand? 
Undoubtedly this work would present very great interest not only 
for history, but also for other important modern sciences. But there 
are not lacking those who believe that its completion could hardly be 
attained, on account of a lack of data in regard to the prehistoric periods 
in which the Oceanic races lived. For the rest, examining carefully the 
organic characteristics and the physiological peculiarities which the 
numerous tribes present who, as a matter of fact, inhabit the Philip- 
pine Islands, some of them being savages and others civilized, special 
and distinctive conditions may be deduced of such a nature as to serve 
as a basis and foundation for a satisfactory classification. 


Before presenting what it has seemed best to adopt, we will make a 
brief summary of some of the opinions of other authors. 

There are those who maintain that three trunks have given origin to 
the inhabitants which people the Oceanic Islands— the Malayans, Melan- 
esians, and Polynesians. The author who has already been cited, Don 
Jose de Lacalle, with the purpose, as he says, of leaving intact the 

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problem of the Philippine races, admits the following distinction: He 
first considers by itself and describes the black and aboriginal race, sepa- 
rate from the other peoples by well-determined characteristics, and he 
thus includes the remaining peoples under two great groups, conven- 
iently known as ''pagan-mestizo" tribes and ''Christianized" peoples, 
a division established solely on the basis of the intellectual condition of 
the peoples and their religious beliefs. 

There are other authors who reduce the various native inhabitants 
of the Philippines to only two branches — the Negrito and the Malay. 
Among these should be mentioned F. Blumentritt, Avho, in his Vade- 
mecum,^ divides all of the Philippine peoples into three groups; that is, 
tribes of the Malay race, tribes of the Negrito or Aeta race, and mixed 
tribes of Malayan -Negrito origin. 

Finally, the English naturalist, Wallace, 'and the Dutch, H. Kern, 
and Robide, maintain that the Papuans and the Malays belong to the 
same race, founding this proposition on the study of their languages. 
Senor Retana, who has already been mentioned, inclines somewhat to 
this view, which affiliates under a single mother race, namely, the 
Malay race of the native races of the Philippines.^ 


In this way we might go on stating in order the various views as to the 
classification of these peoples; but, in order to avoid prolixity, we come 
immediately to the statement which has seemed to us preferable, and 
which we simply advance as the one adopted by Dr. Montano after 
the studies which he made on his celebrated trip through these islands. 
It is first given as he himself sets it forth. ^ 

The peninsula of Malacca and the whole of the great Asiatic archipelago to the 
east of Flores, Ceram, Gilolo, or, if you please, the limit of the Papuan race, seems to 
be populated by three very distinct races, namely, the Negrito, the Indonesian, and 
the Malay. At all events, this is the conclusion which I have reached from my 
observations of the beings inhabiting this region to-day, and from my conclu- 
sions which have been gathered in all of the regions that I have tiaveled through. 

The distribution of these races might well be represented according 
to the author cited by means of three concentric zones, the interior 
one occupied by the Negrito, driven back toward the centers of the 
lands which they inhabited by the Indonesian invasion. The second 
zone occupied by the latter tribe, dislodged in their turn from the 
coast regions by the Malays, who are almost the only inhabitants in the 
exterior zone, and are found scattered about everywhere on the coasts. 


In Map No. 3 of the Atlas of the Philippines it may be seen how 
we represent the various races scattered throughout the different 
regions of the Philippine group, under the three tribes above men- 

^Vademecum etnografico de Filipinas. Madrid, Establecimiento tipografico de 

^See the w^ork cited, Estradismo de las Islas Filipinas. Appendix G., pages 

^In the work, Eapport d M. le Ministre de 1 instruction publique sur une Mission 
aux isles Philippines et en Malaisie (1879-1881) par M. le Docteur T. Montano. 
Cap. III. 

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tioiied. In respect to the latter we must state that on account of the 
great difficulty above set forth in determining the primitive and domi- 
nant type in which one of the peoples have not always been assigned . 
to the various races with such certainty that it might not prove that 
they belonged to a different one, for it must be known that these races 
are profoundly modified by the large amount of intermarriage which 
has inevitably come about during man}^ centuries of piracy, continuous 
warfares, slavery, and more or less commerce between the various 
tribes, as well as between them and the countries from which they 

Wherefore in this classification which we adopt, and which seems 
best to carry out our undertaking of classifying the different Philip- 
pine peoples, we note the most conspicuous type of each class, but 
we especially note the organization and distinctive peculiarities which 
the people that populate the Philippine soil at present show, leaving 
for later and detailed investigations the determination, without uncer- 
tainty as to what shall be finally the true ethnographical definition 
which should be applied to these natives. 

A description of each one of the groups named will form the subject- 
matter of the second part of this treatise, in which there will be given, 
first, the general characteristics of the races, and, second, the peculiari- 
ties of each people or tribe of the same. 

Finally, there may be seen in the same Map No. 3 another classifica- 
tion, which, under another form, includes all the natives of the archi- 
pelago, in the three following groups: First, the tribes that have long 
been Christianized; second, Pagans and very recently Christianized 
peoples; third, Mohammedans. 

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chaptp:r I. 


Among the various inhabitants of the Philippines it is certain that 
the Negritos alone present Avell-marked racial characteristics l)y which 
it is easy to separate them from all the rest, although one can not 
fail to note in them certain indications of the inevitable influence of 
the other races which have invaded the country. 

Dr. Montano describes them as follows : 

The Negritos attract attention at the first glance on account of the relatively large 
size of the head, the lack of trognathism, and the elevation of the cheek bone. Their 
general aspect is that of a weak people. The thorax is slightly developed, the 'legs 
lack well-developed calves. The feet, which are quite clumsy and large, are some- 
what turned in, the direction being exaggerated on account of the position of the great 
toe, which is conspicuously separated from the others, which are very short. The 
abdominal wall, which is very linn, has a semispherical form. The opening of the 
eye is usually prolonged and rectilinear, although it sometimes describes a somewhat 
pronounced curve. The sickle-shaped fold is lacking, although the internal prolonga- 
tion of the upper eyelid tends to form a fold which appears to be its rudiment. 

They distinguish colors well, although they lack words for naming them. The 
forehead is notably high and vertical, and forms a very distinct angle with the trans- 
verse plane of the face. The antero-posterior curvature of the skull is circular in 
general, and is quite high. The same is true of the transverse curve. The posterior 
region of the head is always more or less flat, and not infrequently even depressed in 
the center of the right side, this being in relationship with the flow of the humors (?) . 

The hair is abundant and very fine, crisp, and closely curled, and implanted m 
groups of hairs regularly scattered over the scalp. It grows white before the age of 
50 years. The cross section of a hair is frequently ellipitical, not kidney shaped, and 
sometimes rather ovoid. 

The beard, wdiich presents the same characteristics as the hair, is sometimes thick, 
and in that case covers the whole lower jaw, as well as the upper lip. More frequently it 
is thin and limited to the region of the upper lip to the mentum, and to the upper 
part of the ascending l)ranch of tlie mandibula. 

The color of the eyes does not correspond exactly to any of the colors of the chromatic 
scale. Irregularities of the implantation of the teeth are frequent, especially in the 
case of the incisors, but this is much less frequent than ulceration, almost always 
limited to the molars and to be observed in different stages of development in almost 
all individuals. The superior incisors are more frequently tiled to a point, the 
oblique and lateral part of the tooth including two-thirds of its free portion. 

Coinparison with the Fapuam, — To the preceding description we 
consider it opportune to add another from a recent work/ in order 

^ Tierras y razas, por Jose de Lacalle. ^ 


p c— VOL 3—01 34 ; 

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that the principal characteristics of the Negritos may ])e compared 
with those presented by the Papuans in New Guinea, and at the same 
time to take up and consider the osteological studies of Virchow and 
other ethnologists. It is to be noted that the author is not in con- 
formity with those who represent the Negritos as having ill-pro- 
portioned, weak, and poorly organized bodies, these characteristics 
pertaining only to certain individuals, on account of their way of life 
and local conditions in general. He gives the following account: 

The body of the Negrito is regularly formed. Their height varies from 1.30 to 
1.57 meters, being less in the case of the women. In general it may be said to be a 
race of small people, and it is to be noted that during the early years of life growth 
is more rapid than during the second period. The constitution of the Aetas is closely 
related to their nomadic and savage customs. The muscular system is well developed, 
and the extremities are strong and slender. The skin is more delicate and softer to 
the touch than that of the Papuans of New Guinea, and it has a brownish-black color, 
which without equaling the brilliant black of the peoples of Africa, is more intense 
than that which is seen among the other inhabitants of the Philippines. The head 
is covered with abundant hair, which is crisp and of a sooty black color. Like the 
blacks of New Guinea, they have the face almost round, the lips thick and the medium 
sized nose, flattened and broad at its base. The slight prognathism observable in 
this race is remarkable. The teeth are well formed and the beard is short. The 
forehead is broad, and the eyebrows very pronounced. In the dark and brilliant 
eye_ one notes an uneasy look, which (;hanges to a sinister gleam in moments of 

Desiring to study Negrito skulls, we attempted on various occasions to obtain them, 
but did not succeed in examining more than five. These belonged to the tribe in 
the east of Luzon. We do not believe that the data ol)tained from the study of so 
small a number are sufficient to estal)lish general principles, nevertheless we must 
give them, assigning to them such importance as they actually have. A careful 
examination of these skulls has shown their similarity with skulls of Papuans, and 
we at once include them in the dolico-(;ephalic variety, for although certain small 
differences are noted they do not affect the general type. In two of them the parie- 
tals formed a marked eminence at their point of union, but this has sometimes 
been found in the hipsisteno-cephalic skulls described by Davis from Papuan geletine. 
The frontal bones were flattened in their lateral portion and the occipital presented 
great convexity. The horizontal cranial index varied from 71.45 to 73.56, and the 
vertical from 72 to 73.6. The average capacity of the five skulls was 1.390 cubic 
centimeters, which demonstrates the fact that the development of the cephalic mass 
is not so scant as some authors have supposed. The arbitrary index did not in any 
of them exceed 86, from which we conclude that the Negritos nmst be considered 
among the "mesosemas" of Broca. The arrangement of the zvgmotic arches places 
these skulls among the criptozygic or skulls with slightlv prominent cheek bones. 
The mandibule differ somewhat from those of the Papuans, the prognathism is not 
marked. Finally the nasal index gives an average of 57. 10. 


The study of these remains makes it possible for us to combat the conclusions of 
various other ethnologists. The former examined only two skulls, whose antecedents 
were not above suspicion, and concluded that there was sufficient reason for separating 
this race from the other races of Oceania, and R. Virchow, accepting this opinion, 
and supporting himself on the statements of certain travelers, and on the examination 
of a single skull collected by Scheteling, hastened to change his previous statement 
concerning the characteristics of the Negritos, and said that no relationship could be 
made out between the Philippine peoples and others of Melenasia and Australia. 
On the other hand, this author does not find it impossible to accept the species of 
Davis, who admits as aboriginal certain white tribes now extinct. Virchow certainly 
believes that mere suppositions have been carried too far; but even so, we do not see 
how .certain theories have been able to make headway on the basis of the study of 
three or four skulls which assuredly were not those *of true Negritos. In proof of 
this it may be noted that Scheteling dug up at the south of Luzon a skull which, 
according to his own admission, belonged to a tribe with an admixture of Bicol blood. 
As to the skulls studied by Davis, Virchow himself says that Davis did not give 
concrete information as to their origin. It is seen, then, that authority may be given 
to conclusions derived from very uncertain data. 

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Furthermore, the German savant falls into errors which are the result of untrue 
statements of certain travelers. Thus we note that in speaking of Negrito crania 
brought from the Philippines since 1872, he does not hesitate to state that they 
belonged to a bracacephalic race, in flat contradiction of what he first WTote. He 
uses the words ' ' ancient and modern Philippine crania, ' ' referring to the material 
obtained by Jagor in the caves of Nipanipa pertain to a bracacephalic people which 
have nothing in common wnth the Negritos, because these are distinguished by the 
small breadth and the great length of the skull, and thus are dolico-cephalic. For the 
rest, on reading what Virchow says of the bracacephalic crania, one understands how 
great is the error of those wdio believe that they belong to the pure black race of the 
archipelago, which, as Semper has demonstrated, and as we ourselves have proved 
by the material which we examined, are distinguished by the lack of prognathism, 
while those examined by the German professor are, as he says, strongly prognathic. 

The authority of a savant like Virchow naturally carries much weight, but if we 
stop to consider that his fine descriptions are not based on the bones of pure Negritos, 
we shall have to admit that they lack great ethnological value. It is certain that if 
one examines the skulls of the Balugas of Pangasinaii and of the other mestizo black 
tribes of Luzon and Mindanao, these differences will be met with, in distinction from 
those collected by Dabis and Scheteling, and employed by Virchow to separate the 
Aetas of the archipelago from other peoples with whom they no doubt have very 
complete resemblance. Perhaps to this circumstance also it is due that the illustrious 
Quatrefarges includes the Aetas in the group of subbracacephalic Negritos, likening 
them to the Mincopies of the Andaman Islands and to the Semangs of Malacca, with 
whom we do not believe that they have any relationship. 

The remains which w^e have examined, the origin of which is well known to us, 
do not essentially differ from those wdiich Meyer collected in the gulf of Geelirmk 
in New Guinea. As to the differences which separate them from Australian skulls, 
we must state that they are definite when compared with the tribes having straight 
hair, but disappear when comparison is made with the Papuans with c^urly hair 
which inhabit Australia and whose cranial capacity reaches 1.400 to 1.450 cubic cen- 
timeters. Nor do the small variations which w^e have indicated in describing crania 
from Luzon bear great significance. In those which come from the Gulf of Astrolabio, 
examined by Virchow himself, such differences are indicated, and they are frequent 
both in the skeleton and in the color of the skin and the facial characteristi(!S in the 
whole Papuan race. 

The error of Scheteling and Davis, as w^ell as that of many other travelers and 
naturalists, lies in accepting for remains of Aetas those of black tribes wdiich in more 
or less remote times have crossed with other peoples of the archipelago. It would 
be well for observers to take this circumstance carefully into account, as Semper has 
long since noted it. 

In general the Aetas, while they do not attain to the mori)hological perfection of 
other races, are superior to the blacks of Australia and even to many Polynesians. 
Although being compelled to live in the forests and compelled to forego the frequent 
forays in wdiich they engaged in other times, they present to-day indications of the 
fact that they have been dominated by other men. 

So much for their general characteristics. 


We now come to the division of the race. We consider it to be 
divided into two subgroups, namely, Negritos of pure blood, and 
Negritos of mixed origin. In the first group we include the Negritos 
of the province of Bataan, in Luzon, and the Mamanuas. 


As the Jesuit missionaries who worked among them have noted, 
these are the true aborigines of Mindanao and the only Negritos which 
are to be found in the island. They live a nomadic life in the eastern 
Cordillera from Surigao to Tago, inclusive. To-day, thanks to the 
labors of the fathers, many of them have been brought together and 
have founded settlements around Lake Mainit and the Jabonga River, 
where they lead a social life, and are gradually becoming accustomed 

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, to work and to civil and relig-ious civilization. They are distinguished 
especially by their height, by a certain lack of proportion between 
their limbs, and by their haii-. They are short; they are inclined to be 
corpulent, which is the more surprising since their bodies are in gen- 
eral weak. Their arms are long and their legs somewhat short, and 
their hair is crisp and entangled. 

Montano states that these blacks resemble in their physical character- 
istics those which inhabit Marl veles, with only this difference, that the 
latter are not surrounded by pagan races which war upon them, while 
those of Mindanao are continually maltreated by the Manobos. 


Of the Negritos pertaining to the second subgroup the best known 
are those of the provmce of Albay. Mantano describes them as 
follows : 

In the southeastern extremity of Luzon, in the province of Albay, near the hot 
springs of Tibig and in the vicinity of Mahnao, there dwell Negritos with a mixture 
of Malay blood. Their medium height is 1.5036 meters, nearly that of the Negritos of 
Mari veles, which is 1.4853 meters. 

These Negritos of mixed descent are much stronger and better muscled than the 
pure Negritos of Mari veles; their hair is much less crisp. In certain individuals it is 
hardly curled. The color of the skin is less dark. Their teeth are not destroyed, 
and it is unusual among them to find a case of irregular implantation. The smallness 
of their size, the nasal fossae dilated transversely and turned forward, the lobule of the 
nose, the extremity of which is gently curved downward, the shght sinuosity of the 
eye slit, the medium development or absolute lack of the sickle-shaped fold cause 
them to appear notably similar to the Negritos of pure blood. The same intermediate 
characteristics are noted in their intellectual development and their customs. 


Among the Mestizo Negritos there must be included many other 
tribes whose characteristics are as yet not well understood or wholly 
unknown. These tribes bear various names, as follows: The name 
Negritos is applied to the blacks of pure and mixed blood, who inhabit 
the region from the eastern Cordillera of North Luzon to the Pacific 
coast, as well as to those of North and South Ilocos, Nueva Ecija, 
Tayabas, Ambos, Camarines, and Iloilo, island of Panay. The Pagans, 
who seem to be blacks of pure blood, found in Mindoro and in the 
neighboring islands or tablas Masbate and Ticao, are called Man- 

In Pangasinan and Zambales the blacks of the mountain regions are 
called Aetas. 

The Buquiles are the Mestizo Negritos inhabiting Zambales, in Luzon, 
and the vicinity of Baco and Subaan, in Mindoro. They have thick, 
woolly hair, and broad, flat noses. The color of their skin is somewhat 
lighter than that of Nigritos of pure blood. 

In Palawan the blacks are called Igorrotes. They seem to be of 
quite pure blood. They have black skins, crisp hair, well-formed, ath- 
letic bodies, and are some 2,000 in number. 

Finally, the name Attas is applied to the blacks of the eastern Cor- 
dillera, in the province of Cagayan, island of Luzon. Concerning them 
Father Pedro de Medio, a Dominican, makes the following statement: 

In the Cordillera which traverses the eastern coast to the Pacific in the province of 
Cagayan there abound Negritos or Attas, who are ordinarily of lower stature than are 
the Indians or Calingas. Their cheek bones are more prominent, and their color is 
much darker, although not so black as that of Africans. Their hair is thick and 

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woolly both in the case of women and in that of men. The women take delight in 
letting it grow ont in all directions from tlie head without tying it up or causing it to 
hang down the back. It is so curly that it never seems to have more than a quarter 
of its actual length. Being very thick, it forms a sort of rude aureole. The Negritos of 
this region may be subdivided into two classes. The one class leads a completely 
nomadic life; the otiier forms a quite permanent settlement. 

As to the Negritos of the island of Negros, the Recoleto father, 
Navarro, makes the following statement: 

In the northern and eastern parts of the islands Negritos wander through the moun- 
tains. They have black skins, thick hair, and very weak bodies. In Calatrava there 
are thousands of them. 

They were so numerous in this island at the time of the arrival of 
the Spaniards that the latter changed its original name, ''Buglas," to 
"Isla de Negros" (Island of Blacks). 

There follows a synoptical table, in which will be found set forth 
what we have stated in regard to the Negrito race and its distribution 
throughout the archipelago. 


Mixed (Mestizo) 

Local iiairie. 


Pure or mixed (not cer- 
tainly known) . 

Negritos Province of Bataan, island of Luzon. 

Mamanuas i Shores of Mainet Lake, northeastern Mindanao, Pen- 

I insula of Surrigao, and the coast mountain chain 

I on the Pacific clown to Tago. 

Negritos '■ Vicinity of Pilig, iVlbay Province, southeast Luzon. 

Negritos \ North Ilocos. 

Negritos i South Ilocos. 

Negritos ' Tayabas. 

Negritos ' North Camarines (mountains of Capalonga, Mambu- 

lag, Paracala, Bacod, etc.). 

Negritos Nueva Ecija. 

Negritos Uoilo. 

Negritos Negros. 

Negritos Vicinity of Iriga (South Camarines). 

Negritos ^ Albay. 

Manguianes ; Mindoro. 

Manguianes Tablas. 

Manguianes Masbate. 

Manguianes Ticao. 

Aetas i Pangasinan. 

Aetas ' Zambales. 

Buquiles Mindoro. 

Buquiles Zambales. 

Igorrotes Baluan. 

Attas Province of ('ajoian in Luzon and the eastern moun- 
tain chain down to the Pacific coast. 



Dr. Montano indicates as physical characteristics common to all 
Indonesian tribes — 

Their considerable height, their muscular development, and the prominence of the 
occipital region, which forms a great contrast to the flattening characteristic of 
the Malayan race in general, and especially of its Philippine representatives. ^ They 
have, furthermore, high foreheads, aquiline noses slightly curved, wavy hair, and 
abundant beard. The color of the skin is quite light; the individuals are clever and 

With the exception of the Bilanas, of the island of Mindanao, all of the natives 
who are not Negritos or Malays have strong constitutions and enjoy a high degree 
of good health. The old people, as I have been able to prove in various cases, reacU 
an advanced age without infirmities. 

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All of the Indonesian tribes, even the most modified types, file their teeth. I 
have never seen but one tribe adopt the definite and special mode of doing it, how- 
ever; in general, the part of the tooth filed away is considerable. 

Ulceration of the molars is frequent, and more noticeable even than among the 
Bicols. The practice of chewing beted nut and tobacco is widespread among them, 
and even when they are not chewing it, men and women keep it in reserve between 
the upper lip and the incisors. 

Nearly all the tribes pierce the lobules of the ears. At first the opening is small, 
but little by little they make it larger, introducing round pieces of dugong bone, 
usmg larger and larger pieces until the openings finally reach a diameter of 2 or 3 

Tattooing is especially common among the tribes near the Gulf of Davao. Moth- 
ers practice it on their children when 5 to 6 years of age for the purpose of placing an 
mdelible mark on them, in order that they may know them if they are stolen or 
snatched away from them, as frequently happens. The instrument which they 
employ is not a conical point, but the tip of the blade of a knife. The little incisions 
made by it are always readily recognized. 

The color is given by exposing the skin to the smoke of difierent resins, at least so 
the Pagans told me, although they never allowed me to witness the operation. 


Passing on now to a consideration of the tribes into which the 
Indonesian race may be divided, we must state that while we accept 
the tribes indicated by Montano, and assign to them almost the same 
charac^teristics which he gave, we add various others, which, while 
closely related to them, have differences worthy of consideration. 
Such are the Atas, Mamguangas, Dulanganes, Tagabalies, Subanos, 
Tirurayes, and Calaganes. 

The Samales inhabit the island of this name, situated in the Gulf of 
Davao. They have broad shoulders and are relatively tall, exceeding 
1,680 millimeters; the calf of the leg is hard and prominent; the 
hands and feet are strong without being large; the brachycephalic 
skull lacks much of being as flat as in the Visayans; the alvelor prog- 
nathism is considerable; the nose is short and prominent, with its lobule 
flattened; the cheek bones are very prominent, especially laterally, 
producing a characteristic appearance almost feline, which is accentu- 
ated by rough and quite abundant hair on the upper lip and the chin; 
the long hair is not extremely thick. 

The individuals of this tribe are for the most part Moro-Mandaya 
Mestizo, and number some 2,000. 

The Bagobos inhabit the central and eastern portion of Mount Apo. 
They are tall, reaching a height of 1,750 millimeters; they are strong 
and robust and take advantage of their strength to impose on their 
neighbors. Their profile is effeminate, boys and girls being indistin- 
guishable, and the latter having the vigor *^of the former; the nose is 
straight and the prognathism is very variable; the sickle-shaped fold 
is usually more pronounced than in the Moros; the transverse axis of 
the eye is straight and does not present the slightest obliqueness from 
below and within. 

The Bagobos number some 12,000. 

The Guiangas who inhabit the northern and eastern slopes of Mount 
Apo are in all respect similar to the Bagobos. They are divided 
between the rivers and settlements of Gueilan, Guimalan, Tamugan, 
baeril, and Biao. They speak a language different from that of the 
other tribes. Guiangas are also found along the river Mala and its 
tributaries. According to the eJesuit Father Gisbert, who did mission- 
ary work among them, they number approximately 6,400, 

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Plate V. 

(Living on the Bay of Davao.) 

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The Atas inhabit the regions to the eastward of Mount Apo and to 
the northwest. They are of a superior type, and this is especially 
true of their chiefs, who have aquiline noses, thick beards, and are 
tall. They are very brave and hold their own with the Moros. Their 
probable number is 8,000. 

The Tagacaolos live on the Gulf of Davao from the cvove of Casilaran 
down to a little below the river Lais, and also the right side of the 
upper part of the little peninsular which ends in the point called San 
Augustin. They are of good height, and robust. 

The antero-posterio part of the skull is, as a general rule, curved or 
slightly flattened in its posterior portion, and does not present the pro- 
jecting occipital portion which is to be observed in the neighboring 
Bilianes. The prognathism is moderate. The face is long, with pro- 
jecting cheek bones forming an elongated rhomb. The eyes are fre- 
quently obliquelj^ inclined downward and inward, the nose is straight 
and quite prominent, and the lobule recurved downward and backward, 
giving a pleasant expression to the face. The beard is notably thick, 
and appears at a comparatively early age; the color is quite light. 

To the north of the Gulf of Davac, between the rivers Salug, Hijo, 
and Agusan, live the Tagabauas, a mixed tribe, with Bagobo, Manobo, 
and Pagacalo blood. They have the characters of these various peoples, 
sometimes side by side, sometimes confused with each other. Their 
color is frequently dark. They are few in numbers and lead a wretched 

The Manobos live to the number of some 20,000 in the vast valley 
of the river Agusan, and in smaller numbers to the north of the Bay 
of Malalog, Gulf of Davao, and also on Cape St. Augustine, and finally 
at various points in the interior of the district of Cottabatto. 

It is the most numerous, powerful, and fierce of the Indonesian races. 
It presents two very distinct types. The first is characterized by a tall 
stature of some 1,705 millimeters and by its almost athletic build; its 
forehead is high, nose aquiline, slightly curved. The hair is very 
slightly curled, the beard abundant, and the color of the skin quite 
light. This is the type most similar to the Indonesian or pure race. 

The Manobos of the second class have very dark skins and are not 
nearly so tall. The nose is straight and shorter. The nasal fossae 
are sometimes very narrow and are developed laterally. The antero- 
posterio portion of the skull is more developed than its occipital portion. 

The greater part of the skul-s found in the caves of the Islet Mag- 
bulacao, near Dinigat, those of the cave of Tinaga, on a small island 
quite near Taganaan, and those of two other caves of Cabatuan, on 
Mainet Lake, belong to the Manobo tribe, as well as do the greater 
part of the Christian converts which people the peninsula of Suriga. 

The Mandayas live in the valley of the river Salug and along the 
eastern coast of the island of Mindanao from Tandag to Mati. They 
are the most numerous tribe, with the exception of the Manobos. The 
other pagans consider them the oldest and most illustrious people. 
They are distinguished from the various other Indonesian tribes by 
three characteristics: First, the rectilinear direction of the median 
portion of the antero-posterio cranial curve; second, by the breadth 
of the eye slit, which is almond-shaped. Their eyelashes are very 
dark and long, giving them a peculiar expression. Third, by the 
special color of their skin, which is rather an ashy gray than a yellow- 
gray, due, possibly to some admixture of Negrito blood. The nose is 

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straight and prominent; its nasal foss^B are not flattened out, although 
they appear so at first glance on account of not being horizontal, but 
oblique from below backward on their lower border. The eyebrows 
are not thick, and the beard is only moderately so, and they almost 
always wear both shaved. The hair is very abundant and grows 
white at an age which does not seem very advanced. Sometimes 
there is noted among them an occipital flattening peculiar to the 
Malays, and also the facial characteristics of the Bilanes. In general, 
their prognathism is little marked. In the external adornment of 
their houses, which are of a special form, they resemble the Dyaks of 
central Borneo. In 1887 Father Pastello estimated their number at 
approximatel}^ 30,000. 

The Bilanes live in the vicinity of Lake Buluan, to the west, the 
south, and the east, extending to the end of the little peninsula which 
terminates in Punguian Point. Those of them who live hidden away 
in the mountain peaks of the eastern Cordillera, between Soboy and 
Malalag, are usually the victims and slaves of all the neighboring 
tribes. They seem to be as wretched as the Mamanuas, and even 
inferior to them in intellectual capacity, but the Bilanes of the Saran- 
gani Islands, called Balud and Tumanao, are held in great respect on 
account of their robustness and proverbial valor. No less than 1,500 
persons reside in the two small islands mentioned. 

The Manguangas inhabit the upper part of the Rio Sahig and 
extend to the east and west of it. They are of small stature and 
stubby form. Their skulls are notable for their antero-posterior elon- 
gation, and for the flattening of the antero-posterior curve, which, at 
the level of the superior portion of the occipital, is very great. The 
forehead, which is very prominent, forms, with the broad and flat- 
tened face, a diedral angle. The nose is sunken and the nasal fossie 
are very broad. The prognathism is considerable. The lower max- 
illary, which is very prominent, is prolonged forward in the same way 
as the upper, which augments the depression of the median facial 
region. The hair is straight, coarse, and abundant. The beard, 
which is thin, develops at the age of 35 to 40 years. The Manguan- 
gas are warlike, and are continually quarreling' with the Manobos and 
Mandayas of the Angusan, with the Moros of the river Hijo,and with 
the Bagobos of the Apo. They are of good disposition, and in this 
respect resemble the Mandayas. 

The Dulanganes inhabit the forests and mountains extending some 
15 leagues from Tamontaca toward the south-southeast coast. They 
are so savage and fierce that even the Moros are afraid of them, and 
call them bad people. 

The Tagabalies inhabit the region to the south of Lake Buluan as 
far as Sarangani Gulf. They are an unconquered people, warlike, and 
hostile toward their neighbors, the Moros, Bilanes, and Manobos, with 
whom they frequently fight. 

The Monteses, or Buguidnones, are found in the district of Misamis, 
and constitute one of the most important tribes of Mindanao. They 
live for the most part in the valley of Tagoan, in the northern part of 
the island, but are sometimes met with in the mountains near Point 
Dinata, and even a little before that point in the mountains near Nasipit, 
and extending to the river Odiungan, behind Mount Balatocan, and as 
far as the source of the Polungui and the territory of Dato Mapondo, 
continuing to Lake Lanao and Point Sulanan. 

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Plate VI. 

The above were taken in the mountains near Lebac and educated in the Orphanage of Tamontaca 


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Many of them show the influence of Malayan blood, while others 
have Negroid characteristics. In the former the forehead is often high 
and sometimes prominent. The nose is straight and narrow in its 
upper portion and broad in its lower. The eye slit is horizontal or 
slightly inclined, with eyebrows somewhat conspicuous. The face is 
oval and moderately broad with considerable prognathism. They are 
of good height and of graceful and even pleasing proportions. As a 
rule, they are of an approachable character, and are possessed of good 
understanding. Some of them are singularly able and cultured, and 
if one were to judge by their frankness and naturalness in their inter- 
course with others he would not say that they were pagans. As to 
their number, it is probably approximately 13,000. 

The Subanos occupy nearly the whole of the peninsula of Sebuqui 
up to the vicinity of Zamboanga, and they are neighbors of the Moros 
of Lanao and Illana Bay. Many of the members of this tribe show 
the influence of Malayan blood, and the type of those in the north is 
slightly different from that of those in the south. There are among 
them some fine specimens. As a rule, their faces are rather broad, and 
their eyes slightly inclined. Unfortunately the people of this tribe 
have for a very long time been exploited and oppressed by the Moros, 
as a result of which they are a degenerate people. They are long- 
suft'ering and pacific, and are not accustomed to the use of arms. 

The Tiruray es people have the Dulanganes for neighbors on the south, 
and inhabit the region from the lower branch of the Kio Grande down 
to a little below the Trampadidu. On the coast, and especially in the 
interior or eastern portion of their territory, they come in contact 
with the Moros called Maguindanaos, who have cowed them and hold 
them under their domination. Their number may be some 10,000. 

The Cataganes live in part on the river Digos. They are altogether 
some 300. They do not speak the Sulu language, nor do they profess 
Mohammedanism. They are pagans, like the other pagans of the 
Gulf of Davao. Their average stature is 1.665 meters. 

The data which we have set forth will be found summed up in the 
following ethnological table : 

Local name. 

Pure or nearly pure: 












Manguangas ... 
D.ulanganes .. .. 






The foothills east and south of the volcano Apo. 

The northeast slopes of Apo, and the steep slopes near Davao. 

The regions west and northwest of Mount Apo. 

The Gulf of Davao, from Maldlag to the river Lais, and in the northern 
part of the peninsula of Cape San Augustin. 

Very numerous in the valley of the river Agusan, in much smaller num- 
bers to the north of the Bay of Malalag, Gulf of Davao, on Cape San 
Augustin, and in the district of Cottabato. 

Valley of the river Sdlug, and the eastern coast of the island of Min- 
danao, from Tdndag to Mati. 

Cove of Casilaran, Gulf of Davao. 

Island of the same name in the Gulf of Davao. 

To the northward of the Gulf of Davao. 

Two of the Saran^ani Islands, and the eastern shores of Lake Buluan. 

Branches of the river Sdlug to the north of the Gulf of Davao. 

The forests and mountains distant some 15 leagues from Tamontaca 

toward the south-southwest coast. 
Western shores of Lake Buliian. 
In the northern part of Mindanao, in the region between Point Diuata, 

Point Sulauan, and the sources of the river Pulangui. 
Nearly the whole of Sibuguey Peninsula. 
From the lower branch of the Rio Grande to the river Trampadidu. 

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The Malayan race in the Philippines is very difficult to characterize, 
because it is at present not found in any part of the archipelago in a 
pure state, but is always more or less mixed with other races. On the 
whole, its principal characteristics seem to be as follows : 

The Malays are not so tall as are the Indonesians. Their skin is of 
a darker color. The nose is shorter and straighter. The nasal fossae 
are longer and broader. The antero-posterio curve of the skull is 
more developed in its occipital region. The eyes are black and bril- 
liant, with thick, curved eyebrows and long eyelashes. The mouth is 
in general from medium to large size and thick lipped. The hair is 
black, thick, and straight ; it is coarse and abundant. The Malays 
have their muscles and legs delicate, and their feet are small. 


In spite of the numerous varieties of the Malayan race, we agree with 
Dr. Montano in reducing them to three subraces, under which we 
include the numerous tribes. The Malays in whose veins there is a 
certain amount of Negrito blood belong to the first subrace. To the 
second we assign the Malays who show marked indications of Chinese 
blood. Finally, we include under the third subrace the Malays who 
show indication of possessing Arabic or Indonesian blood. 


MATiAY NE("iRrT()S. 

This subrace is the more numerous of the three. Dr. Montano, who 
has studied it in the case of the Atas of Ambos Camarines, in southern 
Luzon, makes the following statement concerning it: 

In the forests of the steep Cordillera of southeastern Luzon, which extends through 
the provinces of Tayabas, Ambos Camarines, and Albay, there dwells a race of very 
mixed origin, which the other natives call by the name Atas (refugees or pagans) , 
without paying any attention to the race to which they belong. Among these groups 
of people not as yet subdued, many of whom live a nomadic life and who inhabit the 
inaccessible region above mentioned, many owe their origin to Indians who have fled 
from their towns on account of crimes. 

In the provinces above mentioned the Atas have a great reputation for strength and 
ferocity,and apparently with only too good reasons. The two Atas whom I saw were 
undoubtedly Indians w^ith a large amount of the Negrito blood. 

These two individuals were well muscled, and their large black eyes gave an 
expression of cautious ferocity. The eye slit was slightly oblique and greatly elon- 
gated, the sickle-shaped fold very well developed. In my description I place them 
after the tribes of Malacca, for they, like this people, seem to form a combination 
between the true Negrito mestizo and the Malays. The Atas of Camarines and the 
adjacent provinces, causing great trouble as they do by their robberies, are destined 
to disappear even more promptly than the Negritos themselves. 

The Irayas inhabit the banks of the river Ilaron and the eastern 
slopes of the Sierra Madre on the side of the provinces of Nueva 
Viscaya, Isabela, and Cagayan de Luzon. 

The Itetapa7ies are contiguous on the south with the Igorrotes of Ben- 
guet, on the north with tne Guinaanes, and on the west with Btisaos. 

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Plate VII. 

Types of those of the mountains near the Rio Grande. 

r c— VOL 3—01 35 

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They are of low stature, but well formed. The nose is coarse and 
very broad, the eyes black and round. , 

The Gaddane^ dwell to the northward of the Igugaos, Irora the river 
Magat to the vicinity of the river Chico of Cagayan de Luzon. J he 
color of their skin is very dark. ^ o .u r. x n 

The Ilongotes inhabit the rough mountain side ot houtti Caraballo, 
on the northern limit of the province of Nueva Ecija. They are also 
to be found in Caraballo de Baler, and in Cassiguran, m the district ot 
Principe. They are well proportioned, robust, tall, and strong. Their 

color is dark. . 

The Balugas inhabit the eastern Cordillera of Nueva Lcija and the 
mountains bordering upon Tarlac and Pampanga. They als^ extend 
through the heights of Mauban, through certain regions m iayabas, 
ihrough the Cordillera of Zambales, and the eastern mountains of the 
two Ilocos provinces. , , ., ^ -n . j- 

The Dwrnangas are confined to the region ot the Pacilic coast trom 
Baler and Cassiguran to the northward. They may also be met with 
on the eastern slope of the Grand Cordillera. , 

The lUlaos and Italones.—T\iQ people of these two tribes are neigii- 
bors of the Ilongotes, from whom they differ but little, it may well 
be that in all three tribes there is some Indonesian or other blood. 

The Manguianes {Ma?igynas).— By this name it is customary to 
indicate various pagans in the island of Mindoro. Different authors 
have applied the name to the Negritos, to the Malay Negritos, as well as 
to the Malay Chinese and the Malay Caucasians, all of which peoples 
inhabit this island. The Manguianes here referred to dwell between 
Abra, Hog, and Pinamalayan. The color of their bodies is rather 
dark. Their hair is loose. They have prominent cheek bones and 
flattened foreheads. The nose is somewhat elongated. , _. ^. , 

We will now consider various other tribes of the island ot Mindoro. 
On the borders of Socol and Bulalacao there is a tribe called Man- 
guianes. In the plains of the above-mentioned regions live the Bangot 
tribe. In the foothills of the mountains of Socol and Bulalacao dwell 
the Buquiles, while the Beribes inhabit the peaks. In Pinamalayan 
they call those who inhabit the coasts Bongots; those of the plains, 
Buquiles; those of the foothills, Tadianan; and those of the peaks, 
Durugnum or Buctulan; those of the high ground of Naujan are called 
Tiron. Also, in Mangarin they apply the name Buquiles to those 
who inhabit the shores, Lactan to those of the plains, Manguianes to 
those of the foothills, and Baranganes to those of the mountains. 

In the island of Tablas there are also so-called Manguianes, said to 
resemble those of Mindoro. 

What we have just said may, perhaps, serve as a base tor someone 
to clear up this whole matter. There are those who do not admit any 
such variety of peoples in Mindoro. 

The Isinayes inhabit various parts of the island of Panay. 
The Guinaanes, or Guinanes, are the Malay Negritos of the province 
of Abra. ^ , ^ ^ , , 

The Tinguicmes live to the westward of them. To the eastward they 
are bounded by the crests of Caraballo. To the south are the Yteta- 
paanes, and to the north the Apayaos. ^ , ^ ^t xu- 

The Allabanes are a tribe inhabiting the island of Panay. Nothing 
is known concerning them. 

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The Apayao, live to the north of the Guinaancs from North IIocos 
to the highest part of the Grand Cordillera. They also occur on the 

JcagaylT "' *'' ''"" """"*^^" '^^^^^ «" *^« ^^^^' theproviic^ 
The Oatatangis are Mher unknown tribe of the island of Panav 

dilWa of thf r, 7l '" '^^ "^'^'■''•"*' "«^'*^«™ P*'^-""" «f the Cot 
iA A ®7 Caraballos in the province of North IIocos. 

balfs Mou'SaSs."''"'*'*"*" ''"'*^^''*' ^^^'^y-^egrito tribe of the Zam- 
uSt^Tfl '''■ ^¥''ff''^f^ inh'iWt the heights in the neighborhood of 
X^7[S^^£^ '-'^^ ^^^-'^" *^^ -^- of Itaves, 

JutaitTCavLcVa*' "' "''^^'^^ Negritos inhabiting the 
TAe fefeVi^a«._We borrow a description of this tribe from a Domin- 
ican monk who makes the following statement concerning them 

Calmga type is very s milar to the Indians, but a littte white? Some Tth;n.«r! 
:JuaTEuropeanf ' ^'''' ^'^''^ '''''''' ^"^ ^^'"-'^ featuV'itho'ugT they^T n^^^ 

They live to the north of the Calauas in the Cordillera which runs 

die capital of the island. They are also to Tmet '^itS'abngT 
Subaan River, which empties on the north coast. ^ 

^Ae Artpas are a tribe living in the vicinity of Tdban^ situated 
rSon' ''"^ ""'"*""■' '" '''' ''"*^^" "^^ the'^province of 'Cagaj^n 

rinT^ ^^r''^'^. a^e the Malay Negritos of Mount Iriga, Ambos Cama- 
nnes. They also occur in the provinces of Abra, pingasinan Nu^va 
ViscayaL Zambales, and Pampanga. g<*»i"an, xxueva 

The Taghanum are without doubt a Malay -Negrito tribe Thev live 
wandering about the multitudes of little isknds between Palawan and 
the Calamianes They are also found at Bahile and Bintuan on the Bay 
of Urugan in the western part of Palawan, as well as in the island! 
Culiof ' ''"''' Linapacan and Dicabaito, to the soSh of 

The Tandolmo^ inhabit the island of Palawan. As their name indi 
cates they live on the capes along the shore of the eScoS from 
PointDientetoPointTularen. Thl tribe is derive^rom the Jg^rrot^^^ 
and IS warlike. The Tandolanos poison their darts with a venom so 
active that it causes immediate death. 

easte^n^^rS p1''' '° ^^^uyan, to the north of Bahia Honda, in the 
o?|Torcustoms "• ^"""'^ '' "° ^^^^'^^1^ information as ^o their 

ar..f^^^*f*''T''''*''"^*^^*^^l'*^^n^n^ the Calamianes group Thev 
are of a dark citron color. The nose is somewhat aquilif e^The hSr 

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|^HHII|H|^^|B ■;;-^-.-i."1'.£.^.'*5 '";#,*..;, ^ 

■hH^^hII^hP"''' ^ ' 

*-**i^J*'*^ <^:j''Z '■',:■'- 



S-- . 'pl^^l 

: ' . :' '- , ' 'M^ ' 

ff ; • :' J J 

K -'■■ -')'^> '* ;.-:*''S^ S||- , \:; \ :{' I 

: ^^-: J*,: , \t.r^;::.;: ;:/f^^Y.*i 

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is somewhat crisp, and there is a slight beard. They are of delicate 
physique. In Masbate and Ticao there are also Bululacaunos similar 
to those of Palawan. 

The Buries,— The people of this tribe live in the province of Abra, 
in the northern part of the Cordillera, which runs from the center of. 
the province of South Ilocos to the western limit of Nueva Vizcaya, 
traversing the center of Abra. The Buries are more robust and vigor- 
ous than the Igorrotes and have the custom of tattooing coats of mail 
on their bodies and twining serpents on their arms arid legs. They 
are more pacific and humane than their neighbors, and they display 
notable industry in the manufacture of certain arms which find a mar- 
ket outside of their country. They also occur in the district of 
Lepanto, on the western slopes of the Caraballos. 

The Busaos are another tribe of the proyince of Abra. They dwell 
in the iron-producing mountains of Siguey, near the town of Benang. 
They tattoo themselves, but only on the arms, where they fashion 
flowers of various sorts. They often wear in their ears great copper 
rings, and still more frequently heavy pieces of wood. They cover the 
crown of the head with a cap of wood or rattan, sometimes adorned 
with feathers. They are of a peaceable and industrious disposition, 
and take good care of their little plantations. The following synop 
tical table gives a resume of what has been said concerning the Malay- 
Negrito subrace: 

Race. — Malayan vnth Negrito blood. 

Local name. 



The forests of South Camarines. 


Banks of the river Ilaron, eastern slopes of Sierra Madre, 

on the side of Nueva Vizcaya, Isabela, and Cagayan. 
To the east of the Busaos, bounded on the south by the 


Igorroties of Benguet and on the north by the Guin- 
From the river Madet to the river Chico of Cagayan. 


They live to the north of the Ifugoas. 
South Caraballo and Caraballo of Baler, Casiguran in the 

Balueras ... 

district of Principe. 
Eastern Cordillera of Nueva Ecija, Tayabas, and Zam- 


bales, eastern mountains of the two Ilocos provinces. 
From Baler and Casiguran to the north coast of the Pa- 


cific side. 
Neighbors of the Ilongotes. 


Mindoro between Abra, Hog, and Pinamalayan. 



Guinaanes * 

Province of Abra. 




From"^ North Ilocos to the highest part of the Grand Cor- 



Adaugtas . 

The extreme north of the Cordillera of the Western 

Abunloii . . 



Malaueg — ravines of the river Chico on the side of 


Nueva Vizcaya. 


To the north of the Calauas, between the Rio Grande of 


Cagayan and the Abulog or Apayao. 
Mindoro, in the neighborhood of Bacoo and Subaan. 


Neighborhood of Tabang. 


Mount Irriga, provinces of South Camarines, Abra, Pan- 


gasiinan, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, Pamoanga, etc. 
Islands from Palawan to the Calamianes. 


Western coast of Palawan. 


Eastern part of Palawan. 

North of Palawan and Calamianes group. 



Western slope of the Eastern Caraballos, district of Le- 

Busaos - 

Near Benang to the north of the Buries. 

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We term the people of the second subrace Malay-Chinese not 
because these two types are the only ones which appear in them, but 
because they predominate and are found in almost all the tribes here 

Since the immigration of Chinese has always been limited to men, 
it will be readily understood that there was bound to be frequent cross- 
ing with the natives, and the mestizos resulting from such unions are 
very numerous. Furthermore, in the crossing of the Chinese with 
the Indians the Chinese blood is so potent that a small propor- 
tion suffices to produce a wide variation from the primitive type of 

The admixture of Chinese blood, therefore, is much more important 
than that of Indonesian blood. It must have begun long before the 
arrival of the Spaniards, and it is still ceaselessly augmented. If this 
should continue it might eventually result that it would take the place 
of the Malayan blood. 


These two peoples have well nigh the same characteristics. Their 
original Malayan type is profoundly modified by the influence of vari- 
ous crossing, which probably first took place in remote times 
and which has continued with more or less frequency up to the 
present day. 

The first of these crossings — and the most important are those which 
took place in ancient times — must have been with the Negritos, a fact 
which is still clearly proved in certain individuals by the smallness of 
their size, by their curling or undulating hair, and by the darker color 
of their skins. 

The crossing with Indonesian tribes has not left well-marked indica- 
tions. It manifests itself only by the lighter color of the skin in a few 

The Chinese Indian is revealed by his increased height, the elevation 
of his skull, the obliqueness of his eyes, and the elongation of his 

Finally, the peoples which we are about to discuss have a small 
amount of Spanish blood. This crossing, although due to a small num- 
ber of individuals, is not without importance, for it has been going on 
constantly for three centuries. White blood is detected especially 
through a type of nose intermediate between two types as distinct as 
those of the European and Malay. 

From what has just been said it will be evident how greatly the 
type may vary among these peoples. In the two southern provinces 
of Luzon, for example — Albay and Sorsogon — the fundamental Malay 
type oscillates perpetually between the four types just mentioned, but 
with greater frequency toward the Chinese type. All of the char- 
acteristics except the form of the skull vary under these diverse 

The posterior region of the skull is frequently flattened, as if cut 
with an ax, and this flattening is so marked that it is observable even 

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in the women when they wear their long and thick hair hanging down 
their backs. 

It may well be asked whether this flattening of the occipital regions 
is hereditary or is the effect of some artificial procedure. 

It is undoubtedly natural. One may enter the houses of the Indians 
at any time and never find any trace of artificial flattening operation. 
Furthermore, this flattening is to be noted in Spanish mestizos, whose 
parents take great care to keep them from usages and practices which 
might serve to make more conspicuous the characteristics due to 
native blood. 

As for the region inhabited by the peoples we have xiist described, 
the Bicols may be found in Sorsogon, Albay, Ambos, Camarines, and 
a part of Tayabas. 

The Tagalogs are gathered about Manila in some of the most highly 
civilized provinces of the Philippines, to the number of about 1,500,000. 
Some of them imitate the manners and customs of the Europeans. 


The Visayans also belong to this group. They are spread to the 
number of 2,500,000 over the group of islands bearing the same name, 
and since very early times have been establishing themselves on the 
coast of Mindanao, where they have formed numerous colonies. Don 
Jose de Lacalle characterizes them as follow^s: 

One's attention is immediately attracted by the uniformity of the type, which does 
not present the modifications so noteworthy in the case of the inhabitants of the 
island of Luzon. This circumstance noted by Jagor in the provinces of Samar and 
Leyte is readily proved to hold true elsewhere. The measurements of the skull, the 
structure of the organs, and the general external aspect of these people maintain a 
very striking resemblance and relationship. That diversity of type which is else- 
where so strongly marked is not to be seen among the Visayans. The color of the 
skin is reddish yellow, and lighter than that of the Tagalogs. The hair is black, but 
not so coarse as with the latter people. The eyes, small and animated, are slightly 
oblique. The beard is inconspicuous and the cheek bones are moderately prominent. 

The cephalic index varied in fourteen skulls from 80 to 81.10. They are therefore 
subbrachycephalic. The parietals are somewhat flattened laterally, and the frontal 
is almost plain. The zygomatic arches are strongly curved. The forehead lower espina 
nasal is weakly developed, as is the menton. The nasal index gave an average fig- 
ure of approximately 52. The arrangement of the zygomatic arches gives to the face 
of the Visayans a greater breadth than would correspond to the remaining lateral 
measurements, which are not so great as those observed in skulls from Luzon. The 
index of the orbit approximates that which we have seen in the inhabitants of the 
latter island, and the bimaler diameter is slightly less. 

The general organization is well developed, and the superior robustness or vigor of 
this tribe is undoubted. 

In this race the physical and moral predominance of the women is particularly 
notable. Their form is symmetrical and harmonious throughout. 

In general, it may be said that the Visayans are no more highly civi- 
lized than the Indians already described, but they are more robust, and 
some of them, especially those of Bohol, have the reputation of having 
fought the Moro pirates and defeated them. 


We take from the same author certain other data which may be con- 
sidered common to the tribes of which we shall speak later and to 
those already mentioned. These people have in general the character- 
istics of a highly lymphatic temperament. Climatalogical influences 

p c— VOL 3—01 36 

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on the one hand and prevailing customs on the other strongly favor its 
predominance. The hepatic system becomes strongly developed, hence 
the frequency of inflammation and other gastrohepatic affections. 
This does not hold for the nervous system, which, in spite of what cer- 
tain authors have said, gives evidence of normal development in the 
native. The physiological senses are keen, and sight and smell are 
exquisitely sensitive. 

They agree also, although with less uniformity, in the following 
external characteristics: The skin, which is slightly rough and coarse, 
does not have the same color in different individuals. In general it is 
a dark copper color with various tones and shades, from the dull reddish 
of certain Pol^^nesians to the light yellowish of the Asiatic people. 
The color is darker among the inhabitants of the north of Luzon than 
among the Bicols, who live in the south. The dark color predominates 
among women, and one notices that it is characteristic of those who 
are strongest and best formed. 

The head is covered with coarse, black hair, which is straight and 
extremely strong and long. Over the rest of the skin the lack of hair 
is noteworthy, and it is exceptional to see a man with indications of a 

The nose shows very different forms in different individuals. The 
forehead is large, broad, and flattened, with the frontal elevations but 
slightly marked. The superciliary arches are more developed than 
in the Malay race. The eyes are large and black, and they sometimes 
show a slight obliqueness. 

Pamjpangos,, Pangasinans^ and Ilocanos, — According to Montano 
''these individuals owe their height to Indonesian blood, which, it 
would seem, may be observed among various independent or recently 
subdued tribes in the center or the northern half of Luzon." 

The Cimarrones. — By this name are known the pagans who inhabit 
the peninsula of Camarines, in the island of Luzon. It would seem 
that they are not all of the same origin. 

The Tingidanes^ or Itanegs^ are continuous on the north and west 
with the Busaos. They live near South Ilocos, in the cordillera of 
Tila, which is in the district of Lepanto. They are also found through- 
out the greater part of the province of Abra. Their color is quite 
light. They are a pacific people. 

The Ifugaos inhabit the Cordillera of the eastern Caraballos in the 
slopes which lie toward Nueva Vizcaya, on the left bank of the Rio 
Magat, and the missions of Ituy. They are a bloodthirsty lot, and 
are fond of assaulting travelers in order to rob and kill them. It is 
their habit to put a rattan ring in the ear for each person that they 

The Catalanganes live along the eastern branch of the River Ilagan, 
in the province of Isabela de Luzon. 

The Maiiguianes inhabit the island of Mindoro to the south of the 
River Pinamalayan, which empties into the sea upon the eastern coast 
of the island. They have a black eye, Roman nose, and conspicuous 
cheek bones. Their forehead is fattened. Their skins are olive col- 
ored. They are in the habit of wearing a long tress of hair, hanging 
down from the back part of the head after the fashion of the Chinese, 
the rest of their hair being close cut or shaven. They are industrious 
and less needy than the other wild tribes of the island. 

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Plate XIII. 


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. We now come to the third and last subrace, which we consider to be 
divided into eight tribes, whose distinctive characteristics will be dis- 
cussed later. We will first consider certain characteristics common to 

them all. i mT_ i • 

The Moros are well developed and are of medimn height. The skm 
is of a dark copper color, more pronounced among the inhabitants of 
the interior. Straight, black, and very abundant hair covers the head 
and conceals a part of the forehead. Their small, black, and animated 
eyes show their suspicious character and evil disposition. The cephalic 
index, according to the data of Don Jose d^ Lacalle, varies from 81 to 
81.60. Their skulls are distinguished by the constant prominence of 
the f rontals, and by their prognathism, which attains to 69°. The nose 
is broad, but not flattened. The facial angle does not pass 84°, and 
frequently does not reach this tigure. When the Moro conquest was 
checked by the Spaniards in its movement toward the north, the 
extreme points which it was agreed they should occupy were the island 
of Palawan, the third meridian of the island of Mindanao, and, curi- 
ously, the west coast of the same island. Until 1860, in which year 
eighteen steam gunboats reached the archipelago, it was not possible to 
break their indomitable pride and to establish safe communication 
throughout the Mindoro Sea. Later on, thanks to various military 
operations, they were brought within the limits above outlined. 


The island of Sulu, at the center of the archipelago bearing the 
same name, has always been the political, religious, and commercial 
center of all the Moros, and even to-day, in spite of the fact that 
Spain had occupied the island since 1876, and has imposed her pro- 
tection upon the Sultan, nevertheless all the other sultans and datos 
of the region indicated respect him, at least outwardly. 

The type of the Malays of Sulu has been modified by two distinct 
and opposite foreign elements, namely, the native of the Philippine 
Islands and the Arab. 

Until within a few years the Moros in general, and the natives of 
Sulu in particular, practiced continual piracy along the Philippine 
coasts, including even those of Luzon. If they had kept for them- 
selves the slaves which they captured, the population of the island of 
Sulu would to-day be chiefly formed of a mixture of the native Phil- 
ippine peoples, but the pirates sold a great part of the slaves that 

they took. i t j- 

Although they bear a certain amount of relationship to the Indian, 
nevertheless th^ Sulu natives are readily distinguished from them by 
various marks and characteristics. For one thing, they are more 
robust, although of lower stature than the Bicols. This is doubtless 
due to the sort of life they lead, which is more full of adventure and 
activity than is that of the peaceable Bicols. The lower stature of the 
Sulu natives is due to the fact that they have less Chinese blood in 
their veins, not because the Chinese do not exist in the Sulus, but 
because they are much less numerous than in Luzon and find more 

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difficulty in getting native women to marry them. The Sulu natives 
are further distinguished from the Indians by their lack of prominent 
cheek bones and their smaller alveolal and dental prognatism. Their 
face is less flattened and the nose is more prominent. The sickle- 
shaped fold is much less pronounced and sometimes lacking. The 
transverse axis of the eye slit is less oblique with the Moros than with 
the Indians. The eye opening is almond shape and much rounder 
than with the Indians and Chinese. The hair is much finer, and its 
cross section is kidney-shaped and not triangular. The eyebrows are 
not thick. The color of the skin is frequently lighter than with the 
Indian and is not so much inclined to be yellow or ashy gray. They 
file the incisors and canine teeth, sometimes on their front face and 
sometimes on their lower border. 

The Arabic element has modified the Sulu type in a much smaller 
degree. The natives of that race, being in insignificant numbers, would 
have left no trace of their presence in the archipelago had it not been 
that most of them occupied the highest posts, which are the only ones 
that among thena make polygamy possible. Individuals who show 
Arabic characteristics more or less plainly are not uncommon, and 
some of them even reproduce the original type with all fidelity. An 
example is one of the panditas, or Sulu priests, the head of one of the 
oldest families of the island. 

The Sulu Moros occupy the island of Sulu to the number of some 
27,000. In Tawitawi there are about 13,500. They also inhabit the 
multitude of small islands adjacent to those just mentioned. 


These Moros occupy, in addition to the west coast from Punta 
Flechas to the Trampadidu River, a great extent of territory around 
the Lakes Lanao, Liguasan, and the north shore of Lake Baluan. They 
are noteworthy for their large numbers, which, according to the Jesuit 
missionaries,, attain to a total of 200,000. They show bravery and 
ferocity in their frequent excursions to rob and enslave the pagans in 
their vicinity, i. e., the Subanos, Tirurayes, Bilanes, Atas, and Mon- 
teses. For this reason they have long enjoyed, like the natives of 
Sulu, the reputation of being warlike, bold, and rapacious. Never- 
theless, Father Pastells ^ insists that — 

On the day when missionaries succeed in planting the cross among these pagans, 
who are surrounded by Moros, the latter will lack for slaves to cultivate the soil for 
them, dress them, build their houses for them, and serve them as a means of luxury 
and commerce, and will find themselves compelled to change the campilan and the 
kris for the plow, and the arrogant ferocity of the warrior and pirate for the peace- 
ableness of the man who sees himself compelled to gain his bread by the sweat of 
his brow. 

As for their characteristics, it may be said in general of all these 
Moros that they are of medium or small stature, and for the most part 
weak-limbed, but their forms are well proportioned up to 15 or 20 
years of age. Their nose is small and flattened. The mouth is small 
and the lips are thin. The color of the skin is dark, with a certain 
yellowish tone. The cephalic angle is lower than with the Sulu 
natives, and its height greater than with them, both characteristics 

^ See appendix to Vol. VI of the Letters of the Fathers of the Company of Jesus 
belonging to the Philippine Mission, p. 346. 

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Plate XV. 

Living near river Matiao, east coast of Bay of Ddvao. 

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Plate XVI. 

(Chief family of the new Christian town of Alberique.) 

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being undoubtedly due to the frequent and long-continued crossing of 
these Moros with Indonesian tribes. It should be noted well that 
these characteristics are not fixed throughout the whole region which 
these Moros occupy, but are general or common. The type varies 
considerably at different points. 


The Moros of this tribe dwell in part near Mayo Gulf and in part 
along the Gulf of Davao, where they occupy a portion of the coast 
region and the mouths of the rivers. They are not formidable, 
because they are few in numbers and isolated. , t i 

These Moros differ from those of Sulu on account of their Indonesian 
blood, due to marriage with women bought or stolen from the tribes 
of the interior. This admixture of Indonesian blood is, according to 
Montano, the cause for the falling of the cephalic index from 84.67 to 
81.94, and for the increase in their height to 1.573 meters m pla€e ot 
1.526 meters, which is the average height of the Sulu natives. They 
seem to form a transition between the Malays of the southern Philip- 
pines and the Indonesians of Mindanao. 


The name Sanguiles is applied to those who occupy a strip along the 
southern coast of Mindanao from Cuhit to the Gulf of Sarangani, 
inclusive. Those who inhabit the little island of Olutanga, near the 
extremity of the small peninsula which separates the gulfs of Sibuguy 
and Dumanquilas, are called Lutangas. Those who are found in small 
groups along the shore of the Gulf of Sibuguy are known as Calibu- 
ganes. The Samales-Lauts inhabit the coast region of Basilan, while 
the Yacanes occupy the interior of that island. Those who are to be 
found on both coasts of southern Palawan are the Sulu-Moros (Jolo- 

anos). 4 1.1 • J.' ^ ;i 

The total number of Moros in the Philippine Archipelago is estimated 

by the Jesuits to be about 350,000. 

In the table which follows there will be found summed up the more 
important facts as to the Malay-Chinese and the Malay -Mohammedans: 


Malayan with Chinese 

Local name. 

Malay-Moros . 


Bicoles Albay, both Camarines and a part of Tayabas. 

Tagalos. Manila and the center of Luzon 

Visayas ^^' t„i„,,^„ ^^a or^r^.^ 

Pampangas — 
Pangasinanes . 


Cimarrones — 
Tinguianes . . . . 








Calibuganes . . . 
Samales-Lauts - 

Visayan Islands and some towns on the coast of 

North and south Ilocos. 
South Camarines, Isarog Mountain. 
The Cordillera of Tila, district of Lepanto, and m the 

province of Abra. 
Missions of Ituy and Panigui; eastern Caraballos. 
Eastern branch of the river Ilagan. _ 

Mindoro to the south of Pinamalayan and m the 

island of Sibuyan. 
The Sulu Archipelago and part of Palawan. 
The Rio Grande, Lanao Lake, and Illana Bay. 
The vicinitv of the gulfs of Mayo and Davao. 
Coast of southern Mindanao and Sarangani Gulf. 
The little island of Olutanga. 
The Gulf of Sibugney. 
The coast of Basilan Island. 
Interior of Basilan Island. 

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The Mandayas are as a rule docile, hospitable, and inclined to social 
intercourse. They govern themselves after the fashion of the civi- 
lized Indian, having gobernadorcillo, headmen, lieutenants, justices, and 
bailiffs. He who has most distinguished himself in the settlement on 
account of his influence is usually the petty king, whom all obey and 
consult, including the gobernadorcillo and head men. Commonly it is 
the ambition of relatives to live near each other, and this is the reason 
that there are preserved among them fixed traditions, of which a legal 
and penal code form a part. They cherish this code with great care. 

They are strongly attached to their idolatrous rites. They believe 
in two good principles, father and son, and in two evil ones, husband 
and wife. 

The wildest among them sometimes employ human sacrifices, which 
they carry out with extraordinary cruelty. Sacrifices of animals are 
common throughout the tribe, and various usages and ceremonies ap- 
pear in the carrying of them out. 

The most important and solemn sacrifice for them is the Balilic. In 
order to celebrate it they get together ten or twelve dancers or more, 
according to the degree of splendor which they wish to give to the 
feast, and having prepared beforehand the little altar of the diuata in 
front. of the house of the man who is paying the costs of the celebra- 
tion, the owner of it comes out with a big hog and gives it to the dan- 
cers before an assemblage of from one to two hundred invited guests. 
When the hog has been placed on the altar, the richly dressed dancers 
immediately surround it. Later the Mandayas play on the tambourine 
the*pieces sacred to the diuatas, while the dancers follow the time with 
their feet, dancing around the altar and singing at the same time the 
Miminsad; also, trembling from foot to head and inclining themselves 
from one side to the other, they describe with their revolutions vari- 
ous. semicircles. They raise the right hand to the sun or moon, accord- 
ing as it is day or night, entreating according to the desire of the one 
who has caused that Balilic to be celebrated. Almost immediately the 
head dancer separates from the others and wounds with her balarao (a 
sort of little dagger) the hog placed on the altar; and she is the first 
who participates in the sacrifice. Applying her mouth to the wound 
she sucks and drinks the blood of the animal, which is still alive, and 
in imitation of her the others do the same. If the operation causes 

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nausea to some of them, it is a bad dance. Later they return to their 
nlace, repeat the dance, tremble, finally sit down, and talk with Man- 
silatan, who, they say, has come down from heaven to inspire them with 
that which they immediately prophesy. It is often the announcement 
of a ffood harvest, or the curing of some infirmity, or some triumpli 
over enemies, so the Balilic is concluded. The hog is dressed, a part 
of it is offered to the idol, and the function is concluded with a general 

They make numerous and frequent sacrifices, after the fashion of 

the one just described. „ , . , • rp^ 

Thev have many superstitions, some of which are very curious, lo 
enumerate them all would be a long undertaking. When there is an 
eclipse, they believe that a snake is eating the sun or the moon and 
in order to frighten it so that there may not be perpetual darkness 
they shout, raising a tremendous outcry, and strike blows upon various 
obiects They follow the same procedure when there is an earthquake, 
in order to pacify the immense crocodile which causes it by moving 
about in the center of the earth. 

They inter their dead in the forests in the cavities ot the clitts, 
tocrether with their arms and shields and a pot of boiled rice, in order 
that they may have food and weapons to defend themselves during 

their iourney. , ,.,. 

Among the settlements whose inhabitants are most superstitious in 
front of each house is found an idol, with an altar full of offerings. 
As a rule all of them place inside of their houses, at a suitable height 
and under a red canopy, a small idol, surrounded by fruit of the betal 
palm Hanging from its neck is a small sackful of rice. Every even- 
ing while dinner is being prepared it is their habit to play upon certain 
inltruments, and while dancing about the room to sing the following 
words: " Situated between the good and the ill, we entreat the Libera- 
tor to descend from heaven to-day for our good." ^ . . ,.,, 

During the watches of the night the parents give to their children 
various curious bits of advice concerning the hechicara (witch), the 
giant, and the dwarf, and the old women tell their stories. 

The men wear a sort of loose trousers, and a short ]acket opened 
down the front of the breast. The women wear the ]abol tor a skirt, 
and a short waist or jacket like the men. Both ornament themselves 
with necklaces, bracelets, anklets, bells, teeth of deer and crocodites, 
little bundles of fragrant herbs, and other objects, according to the 
splendor with which they wish to shine. They are sometimes seen 
with a golden collar and slippers of silver, made and worked by 
themselves. They are very much addicted to the habit of chewing 
betel nut and tobacco. The latter they mix with "among, from a 
creeper which they call balinguina, and the former with caningag, a 
poor sort of cinnamon which is very abundant in that country. 

The Mandavas do not employ money, but exchange and barter ef- 
ferent objects, and if they receive silver it is in order that they may 
manufacture the above-mentioned articles of luxury, with which they 
adorn themselves, and to embellish their arms. 

Thev believe it is an obligation, even with the death of the one who 
has inflicted them. From this it results that feuds are sometimes 
handed down for several generations. , , , ^, . , u- i. . ^;„= 

The Baganis, so called, are distinguished by their dress, which varies 
according to the number of persons whom they have assassinated. 

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Those who have committed from five to ten murders wear on the head 
a flesh-colored handkerchief. If the number lies between ten and 
twenty they wear a scarlet handkerchief and shirt; while those who 
have killed twenty or more have scarlet pantaloons as well. After 
committing a murder they cut off a lock of the hair of the victim in 
order to ornament the border of their shields, and in this way they 
keep track of the number of persons whom they have killed. They 
use armor made of three thicknesses of split rattan in order to protect 
the breast and back. When pursued they make the progress of their 
enemies difficult by driving into the ground sharply pointed pieces of 
bamboo of different lengths, and set spring bows, which are carefully 

They build their houses in strategic and almost inaccessible posi- 
tions on the summits of the crags and in the tops of trees. They usu- 
ally attack at dawn, but they first assure themselves of the probability 
or certainty that their undertaking will result well. They prepare 
ambushes in dense thickets along paths, and when they can not satisfy 
their vengeance on the enemy wno is the target for their wrath, they 
take it by shedding the blood of his close or nearest relative or that of 
his friends or of members of his settlement. 

Among the Baganis there are found some cannibals who are said to 
tear out the palpitating entrails of the victim and eat them, together 
with pork and chicken meat and sweet potatoes, or only with boiled 

A husband is under obligations to pay for his wife in advance by 
serving for her parents for a period of four to six years. This is the 
origin of the custom of having the j^oung men live in the houses of 
the parents of the women whom they are to marry. If the man is of 
some importance, he pays for a wife as high as six slaves. In addi- 
tion, the aspirant gives, from time to time, hogs, tuba, rice, plates, 
bolos, and lances to the parents of the lad}^ of his choice. A man who 
breaks an engagement loses by this act all that he has given. A woman 
under similar circumstances must return what her parents have received 
and must, furthermore, give a slave in exchange for herself. Mar- 
riage among the Mandayas is solemnized by the husband giving the 
wife a handful of boiled rice, and vice versa, in token of the fact that 
they are to mutually sustain each other. 


The Manobos constitute one of the most numerous tribes of the 
island of Mindanao. They are, in general, fierce, inconstant, and dis- 
trustful. They ordinarily build their houses in the tops of trees near 
rivers. Although they do not lead a nomadic life, like the Mamanuas, 
nevertheless they ordinarily change the site of their huts each year in 
order to form new cultivated plots, and they do not have the attrac- 
tion resulting from fixed property rights. There are '^Baganis" 
among them also, and the same strifes and rivalries occur as among 
the Mandayas. 

When someone dies within a house they abandon it, and if the 
deceased is a stranger they compel his family to pay the value of the 
deserted house. They ordinarily live in settlements, the chiefs of which 
maintain a sort of patriarchal or family type of government. 

In their rites and superstitions they very greatly resemble the Man- 

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1>?.. \-*^'' V;^> j 


P C — VOL 3 — 01 

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da5^as. They believe in three principal divinities, which they imagine 
as strong animals inhabiting the forests, of which they are held to be 
the owners. One is called Tama, who they believe watches over the 
snares and traps which they set in the forest in order to secure deer and 
hogs. The sacrifice which they offer in order to make them propitious 
consists in placing upon a post a couple of eggs or a little rice which 
any animal may eat, while they in their simplicity believe that the 
imaginary being has taken it to himself. 

Tumanghob they consider the god of crops, and they offer him, upon 
a lattice work made of sticks and raised a meter or so above the earth, a 
hog boiled in water and cut to pieces, and at its side the indispensable rice 
and a little tuba. Then they call him with a great outcry, and as no 
one appears they decide thaf the god is satisfied with the mere invita- 
tion, and so they themselves eat the offering, terminating the feast 
by all getting drunk. , 

' Finally, the god called Busao is regarded as the cause ot sicknesses, 
and to him they also offer sacrifices. 

The Manobos also resemble the Mandayas in the matter of clothmg, 
arms, and ornaments, with the exception of strings of beads. The 
Manobos prefer black beads, which the Mandayas despise, always pre- 
ferring bright -colored beads, provided th^ are not green or yellow. 


The Bagobos inhabit the foothills of the volcano Apo, and are divided 
between as many settlements as there are rivers bathing those dense 
forests, and the\-ivers are many. They are of medium stature. It is 
very unusual to find a Bagobo who is lame, squint-eyed, one-handed, 
or deformed, for when a child is born with some conspicuous physical 
defect it is not allowed to live. The Bagobos are industrious, and 
although they like to keep slaves, it is ordinarily in order that they 
may sacrifice* them. In their wars they make use of the lance, cam- 
pilan, bow and arrows, and some of them have firearms. As a rule 
thev kill by treachery. The headman, or dato, is wont to attend to 
the^ government of his settlement. They settle their difficulties in 
conformity with the traditions handed down by their ancestors and 
with their own superstitious beliefs, often availing themselves of the 
right of might. They do not make idols. They believe that they 
have two souls, of which one goes to heaven and the other to hell. 
They worship and offer sacrifices to the devil in order that he may 
allow them to live, for thev say that death, sickness, and other dis- 
agreeable incidents of life are due to him. Among other superstitions 
they believe that one can not ascend the volcano Apo without first 
making a human sacrifice to Mandarangan, who, according to them, 
has his throne there and needs human blood to drink. Mandarangan 
has wives, and is the head devil, and the volcano belongs to him as the 
gateway or path to hell. During their sacrifices they pronounce the 
following words: "Eat, Mandarangan, and drink the blood of this 

man." ^ , . x . j. xt_ 

The singing of the Limocon (a species of wood pigeon) is tor them 
the voice of God, advising them of the dangers which await them. 
When the bird sings on the right the augury is good, and they continue 
their journey without fear; but if it sings on the left they do not dare 

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to go forward. Various others of the pagan tribes have this same 


The Samales, or natives of the island of Samal, situated in the Gulf 
of Davao toward the north, and in front of the town of the same name, 
are found divided into seven groups or settlements. In each of these 
there is a capitan, or old man, whom they all obey. Their ordinary 
occupation is the making of small and very rude boats from the trunks 
of trees split lengthwise and excavated. They also make salt by the 
evaporation of sea water. They gather beche de mer and sweet pota- 
toes in abundance, and with this they ordinarily nourish themselves. 
Rice can hardly be raised in their ground, which is usually very dry 
and lacks rain. As for religion, they show little indication of it, merely 
practicing certain superstitious ceremonies which they have seen in use 

among the Moros. . 

In a little coral island near the coast they have a burymg place m a 
small grotto. The mortuary caskets, made of two excavated halves of 
a tree trunk, are placed on supports of palma brava, and remaui 
there until time destroys them. Each year, after the conclusion of the 
harvest, the Samales go to visit this burying place, leaving there offer- 
ings from their crops. 




Beyond doubt, even if the Moros did not demand attention on 
account of their turbulent character and the influence which they have 
exercised over the population of these islands, they would still be inter- 
esting on account of the tenacity with which they hold to their beliets 
and their adventurous life, as well as because of the place which their 
conquests occupied in the history of the Philippines. We therefore 
give a chapter to the description of the character which distinguishes 
them and the manner of life which they lead at present at the different 
places which they inhabit in the southern portions of the archipelago. 
We shall not discuss in detail all of the tribes usually distinguished, 
but we shall confine ourselves to the more important groups, makuig 
use of the description of the Jesuit Father Murgadas. 

The political regime of the Moros of SuIil— To begin with their gov- 
ernment, the Sultan is the sovereign, and is the absolute arbiter ot 
persons and events in the whole region subject to his mandates; that is 
to say, the three groups of islands which constitute the Sulu Archi- 
pelago. As a matter of fact, he does not enjoy so absolute a power, 
except in those districts which form his private domain, and m the 

^See the Ethnological table at the end of Part II, Chapter IV. 

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Plate XIX. 


(They believe that they see and meet spirits in the forms of the large rivers and trees.) 

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Plate XX. 

In holiday attire. 

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Plate XXI. 


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Plate XXII. 

*«^ .;%"*'^^ 


At the source of the river Ragiibbriig, near Apo. 

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districts of those datos who are his relatives or allies. The other dis- 
tricts are governed almost independently by their hereditary datos, 
whose power is absolutely unlimited. As a matter of fact, the author- 
ity of the Sultan is quite weak. _ . ^, . -^ j i 

The datos, or feudal lords, are the actual sovereigns m their citadels, 
and they have subject to their orders chiefs of lower rank, from among 
whom they select the "tao marahay" (good and brave men) or free 
men. Alfthe others are sacopes (vassals) or slaves. 

Character and general manner of life.—Ks for their warlike and 
hostile spirit, each Moro is a soldier and is always armed with kris, 
campilan, or lance, and sometimes with two of these arms. He never 
leaves them, not even when at rest, but even sleeps with them; and 
this Moro soldier is astute and fanatical for his beliefs, obstinate, cow- 
ardly in the open field, or when he sees calm and decision on the part 
of his enemv and can readilv escape; but brave, dashing, and audacious 
to the point of ferocity when he sees himself surrounded and unable 
to escape; conspicuous for his sobriety, he nourishes himself with a 
handful of rice, with the fruits which he gathers in the forests, the 
herbs of the plain, and the little fish of the streams. He drinks the 
water of springs, more or less clean and clear, and m lack ot other 
water which is better, when he is afloat satisfies his thirst with sea 
water. Extremely agile, he quickly ascends the mountains, chmbs the 
highest trees, crosses the deepest and thickest mangrove swamps, fords 
tht torrents, leaps across the small streams, and lets himselt drop with 
theutmostcoolness from a height of 15 or 20 feet. Accustomed from 
birth to live in the water, he swims like a fish, so that the crossing ot 
a river, although it be wide and swift, is for him the most simple and 
natural thing in the world; and when, on account of the strength ot 
the current, he can not or will not swim, a single bamboo, stretched 
from one bank to the other, makes him a sufficiently commodious bridge. 

Owing in part at least to the warlike spirit which animates them, 
the Sulu Moros have always been turbulent and refractory toward 
outside domination. They have displayed a tendency toward robbery 
and piracy. Their settlements, which are always small, are situated 
in low plains near the fields, or in the vicinity of rivers, creeks, and 
swamps They suddenly attack unarmed vessels and the defenseless 
towns of the Christian natives. They ravage the fields, burn houses, 
and take captives in order to increase the number of their slaves. 
To-day, however, instances of piracy are rare. The increasing num- 
ber of war and mercantile vessels is rapidly putting a stop to it. 

Their ignorance is as great as their cruelty. Apart from their datos, 
and those who constitute among them a sort of ecclesiastical hier- 
archy, few of them know how to read, and almost no one can write. 
They have no books except an occasional copy of the Koran, and tfie 
Manlut, which are always in manuscript, with vignettes and ornaments 
not lacking in elegance. , i a 

The common people of the towns are as a rule very lazy. A con- 
siderable number engage in commerce. They come and go between 
various points of the archipelago in their light vintas (canoes), some 
of them trafficking in pearls and pearl oyster shells, others m the 
highly valued edible birds' nests. They also bring cinnamon ayaca 
(Manila hemp), hides of bullocks, and buffaloes, shark fins, and other 

articles. . ^u „„a 

As for their domestic habits polygamy is common among them, and 

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the number of women each man keeps depends onl}^ on his individual 
resources. Only one of them, however, is his legitimate wife. The 
marriage ceremony, which is preceded by a simulated carrying off of 
the bride, is celebrated before the pandita. Divorce may be had on 
demand of either party to the contract. 

Those who are condemned to death have their heads cut off, or serve 
the datos as targets for their revolvers, or as objects for trying the 
edges of their krises or tombicus. Sometimes they are given over to 
the populace, who cut them to bits with kris blows struck in tune to a 
certain dance, during Avhich each individual strikes the victim. ^ These 
executions have in the past afforded occasions for great festivity and 
rejoicing to tlie sanguinary population of Maibun. 

^OoHwae.—ThQiY costume is similar to that of the Malays. It con- 
sists in pantaloons, which are loose, except in the p