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WAR DEPARTMENT : : OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY 

EIGHTH ANNUAL 
REPORT OF THE 

PHIUPPINE COMMISSION 

TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

1907 



(IN THREE PARTS) 

PART 1 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OmCE 

1908 



1 26508 



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•• '•• • • "••••• 
• ••••• ••* •• 



.•.••• • • ♦ ••• , 



• • • 



• • • • 

• • • • • 

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• •• • .•« .• • •••• •« • 

• • •" • •■ ••• • • • • •• 



CONTENTS. 



Report of the chief of the Bareau of Insular Affairs 3 

Legislation enacted by the Eif ty-ninth Congress, second session . . . ^ 3 

Agricultural bank 3 

Bank of assistant to chief of bureau 4 

Philippine government library 4 

Le^lation recommended ^ 5 

Philippine assembly 5 

Bailroads 6 

Luzon 6 

Panay 7 

Cebu 7 

Negros 8 

Difficulties encountered 8 

Postal savuigs bank 8 

Paper currency 10 

Depositariee of Philippine funds 11 

Philippine coinage 11 

Stamps... 12 

Bonded indebtedness 12 

Purchase of supplies 12 

Philip|)ines 12 

Dominican receivership 13 

Cuba 13 

New York office 13 

Disbursements of Philippine revenues in the Unite<l States 13 

Commercial statistics 13 

Imports 14 

Exports 15 

Receipts and expenditures 16 

Insular •. 16 

City of Manila 16 

Law officer 17 

Filipino students iu the United States 17 

Provisional government of Cuba 19 

Cost to the United States of the intervention "i . . 19 

Statement of extraordinarv expenditures on acH^ount of the army of 

pacification in Cuba from October 1, 1906, to June 30, 1907 20 

Expenditures paid by tiie Republic of Cuba on account of American 

intervention, October 1, 1906j to June 30, 1907 21 

Customs receivership of Santo Domingo. -.^ 21 

Organization and personnel 22 

Appendix 1. Motlus vivendi 25 

Appendix 2. Statement by fiscal vears of the customs service of the 
Republic of Santo Domingo under the operation of the 
"modus Vivendi," from April 1, 1906, to AugU8t.31, 1907. 26 
Appendix 3. Convention between the United States of America and the 
Dominican Republic providing for the assistance of the 
United States in the collection and application of the cus- 
toms revenues of the Dominican R*^public 27 

Appendix 4. Executive order — General regulations for the government of 
the Dominican customs receivership under and in pursu- 
ance of the convention of February 8, 1907, between the 

United States of America and the Dominican Republic. . . 30 

III 



IV CONTENTS. 

Report of the Philippine Commission 33 

Changes in the Commission 36 

Conditions as to peace and order 36 

Matters affecting provinces and municipalities 44 

Philippine assemoly 47 

Important acta passed by the Commission 52 

Railroads 68 

Philippine Railway Company 58 

Manila Railroad Company 59 

Progress of the harbor work 60 

Budget for the fiscal year 1908 61 

Postal savings bank 62 

Dingley tariff 62 

Shipping act of 1906 63 

Bonded and other indebtedness of the Philippine government 64 

Specific recommendations 64 

Report of the governor-general 75 

Bureau of civil service 77 

Executive bureau 81 

Personnel of the bureau 81 

Convention of provincial governors 82 

Land tax 84 

Provincial funds 86 

Municipal funds 90 

Public improvements in municipalities 92 

Changes in municipal and provincial governments 92 

District auditor system 93 

Cable tolls 94 

Firearms 94 

Transportation of government officials and employees to and from the 

United States '. 95 

Pardons 95 

Charges against provincial and municipal ofiicials 95 

Elections and the election law 96 

Laws of the Moro Province 98 

Agricultural conditions 98 

Diseases of animals and agricultural pests 100 

Public order 101 

Consular corps • 103 

Manila 103 

Iloilo 105 

Cebu 106 

Fire losses 105 

Bureau of audits 106 

City of Manila 106 

Department of engineering and public works 106 

Police department 110 

Fire department 1 10 

Department of assessments and collections Ill 

Department of city schools. 113 

Summary of receipts and expenditures 114 

Exhibit No. 1. — Report of the director of civil service. .- 117 

Appendix- 
Revised civil service act 129 

Opinions of the attorney-general 139 

Resolutions of the Philippine Commission 144 

Examination requirements relating to appointment and promo- 
tion 144 

Recapitulation of examinations 145 

Recapitulation of appointments made in the Philippine classified « 

civil service 146 

Appointments made in the United States civil service in the 

Philippine Inlands 146 

Table snowing number of Americans and Filipinos in the Philip- 
pine civil service 146 



CONTENTS. V 

Report of the governor-general— Continued. !*■««• 

Exhibit No. 2. — Report of theexpcutive secretary 4- 149 

Exhibit A. — Caees against provincial and municipal officials 199 

Exhibit B. — Cases against provincial and municipal officials 199 

Exhibit C. — Appointments and changes in service 199 

Exhibit D. — Filipinos and Americans in provincial offices 200 

Exhibit E. — Filipinos and Americans in municipal offices 200 

Exhibit F. — Registration for municipal elections 201 

Exhibit G. — Registration for election of delegates 202 

Exhibit H. — President's proclamation to call election 202 

Exhibit I. — Proclamation of the governor-general calling election 203 

Exhibit J. — Total vote cast, by provinces and parties '. 203 

Exhibit K. — Public reception and welcome to the honorable the Sec- 
retary of War 204 

Exhibit L. — Inauguration of the Philippine assembly 207 

Exhibit M. — Joint convention of the Philippine Legislature 228 

Exhibit N. — Reports of provincial governors 246 

Albay 246 

A m bos Camari nes 259 

Antique ' 263 

Bataan 268 

Batangas 273 

Benguet 277 

Bohol 282 

Bulacan 286 

Cagayan 293 

Capiz 297 

Cavite 302 

Ilocos Norte 306 

IlocosSur 315 

Subprovince of Abra 318 

Iloilo 322 

Isabela 326 

La Laguna 335 

Lepanto-Bontoc 342 

Subprovince of Aniburavan 350 

Mindoro *. 351 

Misamis 357 

Moro Province 364 

Nueva Ecija 397 

Nueva Vizcaya 406 

Negros Occidental 412 

N«»ro8 Oriental 416 

Palawan 424 

Pampanga 427 

Pan^inan ^. . 431 

• RiziS 439 

Romblon 446 

Samar 449 

Sorsogon 456 

Surigao 471 

Tarlac 477 

Union, La 479 

Zambales 484 

Exhibit O.— Foreign consuls 491 

Exhibit No. 3. — Report of the auditor 492 

Exhibit No. 4. — Report of the municipal board of the city of Manila 593 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF THE BUREAU OF INSU- 
LAR AFFAIRS TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR. 



11024— WAR 1907— VOL 7 1 



REPORT 

OP THE 

CHIEF OF THE BUREAU OF INSULAR AFFAIRS 

TO THB 
SECRETARY OF WAR. 



War Department, 
Bureau of Insular Affairs, 
Washington^ October Sl^ 1907. 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report of the Bureau 
of Insular Affairs for the past year: 

LEQiaiiATIOV BVAGTBD BY THE XTTTY-NINTH CONO&B88, SBOOND 

SESSION. 

AGRIOUIiTURAL BANK. 

One of the most urgent recommendations of the Philippine Com- 
mission, and of the Department, requiring Congressional action was 
that an act be passed authorizing the establishment in the islands of 
an agricultural bank. 

The reasons for this recommendation were well set forth in the last 
and preceding reports of the Philippine Commission and in the sev- 
eral nearings before Congress. The bill as recommended, with but 
slight modincation, was passed in the following form : 

AN ACT To proTld« for the establishment of an agrlcnltnral hank In the Philippine 

Islands. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assemhledf That for the purpose of aiding in the 
establishment and operation of such an agricultural bank in the Philippine 
Islands as the general government thereof may hereafter specifically authorixe 
the Philippine government is empowered to guarantee an income of not exceed- 
ing four per centum per annum upon cash capital actually invested by indi- 
viduals or corporations in such agricultural bank; such guaranty shall be 
granted by an act of the Philippine Oommission which shall contain, among 
others, the foUowing provisions: 

E^rst. The guaranty shall be made to a company organized under the laws 
of the Philippine Islands, with its principal office in Manila and with branches 
in such parts of the islands as may be designated by the Philippine Ck)mmission. 

Second. The bank shall not grant loans except to those engaged in agricul- 
ture and with the sole purpose of assisting agriculture in the Philippine 
Islands. 

Third. No loan exceeding in amount five thousand dollars shall be made ex- 
cept upon the written authorization of the secretary of finance and justice of 
the Philippine Islands, 

3 



4 BBPORT OF CHIEF OF BUREAU OF INSULAR AFFAIRS. 

Fourth. Interest charged on loans shall not exceed ten per centum per 
annum : Provided, That in no event shall the total annual contingent liability 
under the guaranties authorized by this Act at any time exceed two hundred 
thousand dollars, and no such guaranty shall continue for a longer period than 
twenty-five yeafs. 

For the further security of the Philippine government said government Qhall 
provide by the aforesaid act proper rules, including those for determining the 
cash capital actually invested in such bank and the net income actually received 
on said capital so invested, and shall provide for supervision by said Philippine 
government, through the auditing and other appropriate bureaus thereof, of the 
conduct of the business of the bank. 

The bank shall make such reports from time to time as to its receipts and 
expenditures in such form and substance and sworn to by such officials as may 
be prescribed by the Philippine government, and its books and accounts shall 
be at all times open to inspection by any authorized agent of the Philippine 
government 

Sec. 2. That money paid by the Philippine government pursuant to the afore- 
mentioned guaranty shall be a liability of the bank to the Philippine govern- 
ment, and, as such, shall constitute a lien upon and be paid out of the annual 
net profits of the bank, subject only to the right of the stockOolders to receive 
therefrom four per centum dividends per annum upon the bank's cash paid-up 
capital stock. No dividends above four per centum shall be paid, and no profits 
credited to the surplus fund, either during the period of the government's guar- 
anty or subsequent thereto, until the Philippine government shall have- been 
repaid in full all sums advanced to the bank under said guaranty. 

Obligations of the bank to the Philippine government arising from advances 
made pursuant to the aforementioned guaranty and existing at the time when 
the bank shall go into liquidation shall constitute a lien on the bank's assets, 
subject only to the payment of the bank's legitimate debts and the repaymoit 
to the stockholders of the par value of the bank's duly authorized cash paid-up 
capital stock: Provided, That nothing in this section shall be interpreted as 
a guaranty on the part of the Philippine government to the stockholders of the 
bank of the par value of the bank's cash paid-up capital stock when the bank 
shall go into liquidation. 

Sec. 8. That the bank shall not be permitted to hold real estate beyond that 
required for business premises: Provided, That the temporary acquisition of 
land as the result of foreclosure, or otherwise, on account of a debt, shall be 
permitted on condition that land so acquired shall be sold within ten years from 
the date of acquisition, and all said land not so alienated in good faith shall be 
forfeited to the Philippine government. 

Approved, March 4, 1907, 10 a. m. 

Since the approval of this act effort has been made to interest 
American capital in undertaking this proposition, but as yet without 
success, though there is little doubt that m the near future the bank 
will be estabushed in accordance with the law. 

RANK OF ASSISTANT TO CHIEF OF BUBEAU. 

By act of Congress of March 2, 1907, making appropriation for the 
support of the Army for the fiscal year ending June 80, 1908, the 
rank, pay, and allowances of a major are granted to the officer oi the 
Armjr whom the Secretary of War is authorized to designate as the 
principal assistant to the Chief of the Bureau of Insular Affairs dur- 
ing such time as he is serving under that detail. Such detail has been 
made and the vacancy in the line caused thereby has been filled. 

THE PHILIPPINE GOVERNMENT LIBRART. 

By an act of January 18, 1907, Congress provided that the Philip- 
pine government library be placed on the list of libraries where Gov- 
ernment documents are deposited, and in consequence it is now bein^ 
furnished with copies of all public documents issued by the Qeneru 
Government. 



BEPOBT OF CHI£F OF BUBBAU OF IK6ULAE AFFAIBS. 5 

LEOISIiATIGK BECOMMENDEB. 

The Philippine tariff bill, to which extended reference has been 
made in the preceding annu^ reports of the Bureau, failed to reach 
a vote in the Senate, and no action was taken on the recommendation 
for the further modification of the laws relating to mines and mining 
in the Philippines, or with reference to the recommendation for a 
general topographical survey of the islands to be undertaken by the 
United States. The cost of the quarantine service, light-house con- 
struction, and, in part, of the coast and geodetic survey in the islands 
continues to be borne by the insular government from island revenues, 
though the Commission has recommended that these expenditures be 
made from United States revenues, as is the case in Hawaii, Porto 
Rico, and other noncontiguous territory of the United States. 

FHIUPFIKE ASSEMBIiY. 

Section 7 of the act of Congress of July 1, 1902, otherwise known as 
the " Philippine civil government act," provides in part — 

That two years after the completion and publication of the census, in case 
such condition of general and complete peace with recognition of the authority 
of the United States shall have continued in the territory of said islands not 
inhabited by Moros or other non-Christian tribes and such facts shall have 
been certified to the President by the Philippine Commission, the President, 
upon being satisfied thereof, shall direct said Commission to call, and the Com- 
mission shall call, a general election for the choice of delegates to a ix)pular 
assembly of the people of said territory in the Philippine Islands, which shall 
be known as the Philippine assembly. After said assembly shall have con- 
vened and organized, all the legislative power heretofore conferred on the 
PhUippine Commission in all that part of said islands not inhabited by Moros 
or other non-Christian tribes shall be vested in a legislature consisting of two 
houses — ^the Philippine Commission and the Philippine assembly. 

The census herein referred to was completed and published on 
March 27, 1905. whereupon the Secretary of War directed the gov- 
ernor-general oi the Philippine Islands to make due proclamation of 
this fact and to announce that, subject to the provisions of the act of 
Congress referred to, a general election for the choice of delegates 
to a popular assembly of the people of said territory would be held 
two years thereafter. Proclamation was duly made as directed. 

On March 28, 1907, the Philippine Commission certified to the 
President of the United States that for a period of two years after 
the completion and publication of the census a condition of general 
and complete peace, with recognition of the authority of the United 
States, had continued to exist in the islands, whereupon the President, 
on the same date, issued an Executive order calling a general election. 

In January, 1907, the Philippine Commission passed the Philippine 
election law. In framing this law the election codes of Massachusetts, 
New York, the District of Columbia, and California were consulted 
and features adopted from each, modified in such a way as to meet 
insular conditions and to avoid the mistakes and abuses that have 
arisen in some provincial and municipal elections in the islands. 
The aim has been to provide a law sufficiently explicit and not too 
complicated for easy comprehension. Every effort has been made to 
afford the necessary safeguards and machinery to insure purity, 
secrecy, certainty, and expedition without causing too great a drain 
upon the resources of municipal and provincial governments. 



6 BEPOBT OF CHIEF OF BUBEAU OF INSUIiAR AFFAIB8. 

The prominent features of this law as amended are the division 
of those provinces not inhabited by Moros or other non-Christian 
tribes into 78 assembly districts, each province to constitute at least 
one district, and the more populous being divided into more districts 
in the ratio of 1 to every 90,000 of population and major fraction 
thereof remaining. In accordance with this apportionment there 
will be 80 delegates, two of whom will represent the city of Manila, 
which is considered as a province within the meaning of the act oi 
Conffress and divided into two districts. 

The first election under this law was held on July 30, 1907, and 
on the 16th of the present month the first Philippine assembly was 
opened by the Secretary of War. 

It is gratifying to notice that although the Nacionalistas, the party 
favoring immediate inde^ndence, were victorious in the elections 
just hela, the first measure passed by the assembly was a vote of 
thanks and appreciation to the American Government for its admin- 
istration of the islands during the past nine years. 

BAILBOADS. 

When the United States entered the Philippine Islands in May, 
1898, there were under operation therein only 120 miles of railroad, 
extending from Manila northward to Dagupan. There was later 
constructed, under the authority of the Philippine Commission, 
enough additional trackage to bring the total mileage up to about 200 
miles, all being in the island of Luzon. Under the enabling acts of 
Q)ngress of July 1, 1902, and February 6, 1905, further concessionary 
grants were made by the Philippine Commission on May 28 and 
June 10, 1906, respectively, for 428 additional miles of railroad in 
Luzon and 295 miles in the islands of Panay, Cebu, and Negros. 
Engineers representing the concessionaires immediately left the United 
Stetes to make the preliminarv surveys and prepare specifications 
and maps to be submitted to the governor-general for approval of 
final routes. These final routes are to be substantially in accordance 
with those selected by the Government, which have been highly com- 
mended by the engineers both of the Government and of the conces- 
sionaires, one of them stating that the same mileage could not have 
been better selected to produce revenue or to serve the Government's 
ends of reaching the large interior towns and rich uncultivated lands 
and of furnishing an outlet for the present and prospective produce 
of the islands. All of the lines will run through rich country, capable 
of producing large quantities of hemp, rice, sugar, tobacco, caoinet 
woods, and minerals. The progress of the railroad construction 
under these last two contracts follows : 

LUZON. 

As the Albay pute will tap the great hemp region of the Philip- 
pines and pass through or near towns with a population of 188,000 and 
m view of the fact that 80 per cent of the male inhabitants are land- 
owners, it is quite probable that the earnings of this line will be rela- 
tively larger than those of any other projected line on the island of 
Luzon. The extension to Camp No. 1, in the north, is to furnish bet- 
ter communication with Baguio and its healthful climate, the resi- 



REPORT OF CHIEF OF BUREAU OF INSULAR AFFAIRS. 7 

dence of a month or two each year in which renders it unnecessary 
for those not acclimated to leave the islands to recuperate from the 
debilitating effects of the Tropica This place is to the Philippine 
Islands what Simla is to India, and it is purposed to make it the 
^' summer capital " of the islands. The extension to San Fernando 
will reach a well-populated section, which promises to produce a pay- 
ing passenger traffic, besides great freight possibilities, while along 
the proposed line to Batangas and Santa Cruz are some very impor- 
tant towns and rich agrici^tural country. The preliminary surveys 
and definite locations of these extensions are well under way. All of 
them with the exception of the branch in Albay Province connect 
with the main line now in operation. 

PANAY. 

In the interior of Panay the country between Passi and Dumarao 
is rouch for railroad work and quite rolling, but the land is good and 
should, with^he road in operation, sustain a large population. It will 
reach some very sood town%and traverse some excellent agricultural 
country, and as the entire interior of the island is dependent upon the 
railwav for its development and for the transportation of its produce, 
both the freight and passenser outlook is good. The northern and 
southern ends of this line loUow the remains of very good roads, 
which, with some repairs to bridges, will be of great aid during 
construction. As the line in Panay is through the interior, au 
supplies have had to be packed overland and the surveying parties 
have suffered some delays on account of sickness, bad weather, and 
loss of pack animals from surra, glanders, and scarcity of forage. 
Definite location surveys have been completed along the whole pro- 
posed route, and the first 20 miles from Iloilo to Pototan have been 
officially approved by the governor-general. About 1,600 men are 
now employed, but the work has been progressing slowly on account 
of incessant rains and the shortage of ties and bridge material. As 
soon as ties are received, the number of workmen will be largely 
increased and the laying of rails will be pushed to the utmost. 
Grading has been completed from Iloilo north for a distance of 35 
miles, and 11 miles of track have been laid. 

CEBU. 

In Cebu over 20 miles of track have been laid from a point 5 miles 
south of Cebu Ci^ to Xvithin a few miles of Danao, the northern 
terminus, and the first regular trains passed over this completed por- 
tion on September 16, 1907. Pending the arrival of first-class coaches 
now on the way, second-class coaches and converted flat cars will be 
run. This will be ample for present demands. The final surveys 
and definite plans for all the lines required to be built under the 
concessionary contract are practically finished, and as the work is 
progressing very rapidly it is expected that a second 20-mile section 
will be completed and ready for operation by January, 1908, as it is 
all graded and track laying is proceeding. A considerable percent- 
age of the grading also nasT)een completed on a third 20-mile section 
in this island. It is reported that tne location of the line has been 
excellently made and that no material saving could have been accom- 



8 REPORT OF CHIEF OP BUREAU OF INSULAR AFFAIRS. 

plisHed by increasing either the grades or curvature. Although the 
haul will be shorter on this island than on the others, it is probable 
that the percentage of the population traveling will be higher^ as it 
is more closely confined to the immediate vicmity of t^e railway. 
As the population of that part of the island which will contribute 
to tl^e railway is approximately 450 per square mile and the coimtry 
through which this Ime will pass is very productive, the prospective 
freight and passenger business ought to cause the revenue^ to be suffi- 
cient to pay interest on bonds guaranteed by the government and a 
fair return on the stock. 

NEOR08. 

In Cebu and Negros the men employed on construction have en- 
joved good health and there has been but little trouble with animals. 
Although there are less people alon^ the line of the proposed route 
in Negros, the merchants believe that if the rich sugar country 
throum which it will pass can be developed the prospects of the rail- 
way there for a fair passenger as well as freight business will be dis- 
tinctly good. While it is more difficulUto forecast the income from 
the line in Negros, it is hoped that the earnings will be satisfactory 
and that there will be quite a margin after the payment of the fixed 
charges, as the route along the west coast will reach the best business 
and producing section of the island. Definite location surveys have 
been run along the entire line, but no ballasting has been done or rails 
laid, and the completion of the line in this island will not be pushed 
very rapidly until those in Panay and Cebu are well under way, when 
some of the forces will be transferred. 

DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED. 

There have been some difficulties in organizing the grading and 
track-laying forces in the three islands last mentioned. The main 
trouble, however, has not been with the native laborers, of whom the 
reports are very favorable, but in securing competent and efficient 
supervising foremen and timekeepers. Late reports from the engin- 
eers in charge state thev are very miich encouraged at the progress 
made, and believe the lorces now engaged are rapidly approaching 
efficiency. On all of these islands considerable trouble and expense 
have been experienced in determining property ownership and land 
boundaries. Possession has been obtained for all the right of way 
of the portions under construction by condemnation proceedings, and 
the amounts assessed as the value of the lands taken have been 
required to be deposited with the insular treasurer in the form of 
certified checks. It has been practically impossible to purchase the 
right of way outright owing to insufficient titles and the indispo- 
sition of the natives to sell at any price. 

POSTAL SAVINGS BANS. 

The postal savings bank, authorized by the act of the Philippine 
Commission' of May 24, 1906, has been transacting business in the 
islands as a part of the bureau of posts since October 1 of that year. 

The main provisions of this act are that : 

(a) Any person 6 years of age or over residing in the Philippine 
Islands, and not under legal disability, may open an account. 



BEPOBT OF CHIEF OF BXJEBATT OF IKStlLAB AFFAIBS. 9 

(b) Charitable or benevolent societies may, upon approval by the 
proper authority, open accounts. 

(c) Immediately upon the passage of this act banks be- estab- 
lished in the cities of Manila, Iloilo, and Cebu, and other branches 
elsewhere throughout the archipelago as rapidlv as possible. 

(d) Deposits may be made in money or postal savings bank stamps 
to any amount from 1 peso up. 

(e) Postal saving b&nk stamps in denominations of 5, 10, and 20 
centavos, respectively, are to be held for sale at every postal savings 
bank in the I^hilippme Islands, which shall furnish, without char^, 
appropriate cards arranged with 10 or 20 blank spaces on which me 
stamps are to be pasted. Upon being properly filled these cards may 
be deposited with the bank as if they were money to the amount rep- 
resented by the face value of the stamps, whereupon a deposit entry 
of such amount will be made to the credit of the depositor. 

if) Interest of 2^ per cent will be paid on all deposits. 
g) The funds of the bank are required to be invested under the 
supervision of the government of the Philippine Islands in certain 
approved securities, and none other. 

\h) Subject to specified regulations deposits may be withdrawn 
by telegraph. 

The postal savings bank in Manila began operation on October 1. 
1906, and on June 30, 1907, there were open for the transaction oi 
business throughout the islands 235 offices with resources amounting 
to 510,100.64 pesos. The number of accounts opened during this 
period was 2,676^ and of the depositors 60.4 per cent were Americans, 
35.3 per cent Filipinos, 2.2 per cent Europeans; Asiatics, 1.6 per 
cent, and societies, 0.5 per cent. It will be noticed that the American 
depositors were in the majority, which was largely due to the. fact 
that the stamps, a large shipment of which was made from Wash- 
ington in the early part of the present year, did not arrive in the 
islands until March. Since their distribution began, however, there 
has been a steady growth in the monthlv deposits. The stamps were 
designed more especially for the school children, and the fact that 
they were availaole only a few days before the close of the school 
year (April) will also serve to account for the relatively small de- 
posits made by Filipinos during the period covered by this report. 

The investment of the funds of the postal savings bank is placed 
by law in the hands of an investment board, which at present is com- 
posed of the secretary of commerce and police, the secretary of finance 
and justice, the director of posts, the insular treasurer, and one busi- 
ness man of the city of Manila. On the recommendation of this 
board funds of the postal savings bank have been invested in banking 
institutions of the islands to the amount of 490,000 pesos in the form 
of time deposits bearing 3^ per cent interest. The banks with which 
these deposits have been made are all duly authorized depositories of 
the Philippine government, and the funds deposited with them are 
amply protected by surety bonds filed with the Treasurer of the 
United States. 

For the purpose of providing a more lucrative field of investment 
for the bank's funds laws have Been enacted providing that loans may 
be made upon city real estate, under carefully guarded provisions, to 
the extent of 25 per cent of the total deposits of the bank ; upon im- 
proved agricultural land to the extent of 10 per cent of the total 



10 BBPOBT OF CHIEF OF BUBBAU OF INBVIAB AFFAIBS. 

deposits; upon any securities the principal or interest of which is 
guaranteed oy the Government of the United States or of the Philip- 
pine Islands, and to the various provinces for public improvements 
under the guaranty of the insular government. Under this last pro- 
vision one of the provinces has already applied for a loan of 160,000 
pesos for six years, with interest at the rate of 5 per cent. 

The total expenses of the bank from its inauguration to June 30, 
1907, were 37,393.35 pesos. If from this amount there be deducted 
the sum of 6,495.36 pesos, representing interest earned on the invest- 
ment of the bank's funds, there will be left the sum of 30,897.99 pesos, 
representing the real deficit for the period indicated. A considerable 
part of this deficit is, however, more nominal than real, for, excluding 
from consideration that part of the supplies in the hands of the post- 
masters which will not have to be duplicated for several years, there 
were on hand in the divisicm of supplies on June 30, 1907, supplies 
to the estimated value of 10,000 pesos* 

The Filipinos have had little opportunity to make investment of 
their savings or to make them secure in any manner, least of all in a 
manner to yield any income. Americans and a few Filiinnos have in 
the past made use of postal money orders, payable to tJiemselves, as 
a means of safeguarding their earnings for a time. Such an invest- 
ment of course draws no interest, and it was estimated by the gov- 
ernor-general in his report for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1906, 
that there were a million pesos held in this form at the time at which 
he wrote. The money so held could not be used by the government 
for the purpose of reinvestment, and was, therefore, entirely stagnant 
in the community. 

The postal savings bank meets a much-needed requirement in the 
islands, and is one of the most important pieces of legislation enacted 
by the Commission. It immediatelj enabled persons to deposit with 
the government small sums of money, on which they receive interest 
at the rate of 2^ per cent per annum, to be increased later if the opera- 
tion of the bank shows tnat it can be successfully done without loss 
to the government. 

FAFBB CTTBBSNOY. 

The act of Congress approved June 23, 1906, authorized the Philip- 
pine government to use as reserve, against which currency could be 
issued, gold coin of the United States up to 60 per cent of the certifi- 
cates outstanding, the former act, to which this is an amendment, 
providing that only Philippine silver coin could be used as such 
reserve. During the past fiscal year there were prepared by the 
Bureau of Engraving and Printing of the Treasury Department and 
shipped to Manila by army transports certificates in denominations 
and amounts as follows: 

July 5, 1906: 

20 pesos W» 000, 000 

50 pesos 4,000,000 

100 pesos 4,000,000 

600 pesos 3,000,000 

October 6, 1906, 10 pesos 5,000,000 

April 5, 1907, 2 pesos 2,000,000 

May 0, 1907, 2 pesos 2,000,000 

June 6, 1907, 2 pesos 1,000,000 

Total— 27,000,000 



BEPOKT OF CHIEF OF BUBEAU OP INSULAB AFFAIBS, 11 

This makes the total paper currency shipped to the islands to June 
30, 1907, as follows: 

2 pesos .-- M, 000, 000 

.6 pesos 6,000,000 

10 pesos 16, 000, 000 

20 pesos : 6,000,000 

50 pesos « 4,000,000 

100 pesos 4,000,000 

500 pesos : 3,000,000 

Total - 47, 000, 000 

BEPOSITABIES OF PHILIPPINE FUNDS. 

Depositaries of Philippine funds are those mentioned in the last 
annual report, with the addition of the Mercantile Trust Company, 
of St. Louis, Mo., which was declared by the Secretary of War, m 
June, 1907, an authorized depositary in the United States of the 
Philippine government. The total deposits of the treasurer of the 
Philippine Islands with banks in the United States on June 30, 1907, 
amounted to $13,061,095.86. 

PHILIPPINE COINAGE. 

The act of Congress approved June 23, 1906, authorized the reduc- 
tion of the weight and nneness of Philippine silver coins because of 
the increase in She value of silver, which had made the intrinsic value 
of such coins greater than their face value as currency. All Philip- 
pine silver coins which have been minted since the passage of this act 
have been of the following weights and fineness: For the peso, 20 
grams of silver .800 fine; W) caitavo, 10 grams of silver .750 fine; 20 
centavo, 4 grams of silver .750 fine; 10 centavo, 2 grams of silver 
.750 fine. During the fiscal year there were shipped to the San Fran- 
cisco mint, for recoinage in accordance with tne new standard of 
weight and fineness, f=8,000^00 of Philippine coin and n00,750 of 
old Spanish-Filipino coin. 

To meet the immediate demand in the islands for additional sub- 
sidiary coin the Bureau purchased in the United States during the 
fiscal year 965,465.46 ounces of silver, costing $655,382.82, from which* 
were coined ^,000,000 in subsidiary pieces, as follows : 

50 centavofl W, 100, 000 

20 centavos 500, 000 

10 centavos 400, 000 

Expenses of minting and shipment of the ^,000,000 amounted to 
$44,260.12, so that the net seigniorage was $300,357.06 United States 
currency on an outlay of $699^642.94. It will thus be noted that the 
profit on coin of the new weight and fineness minted from bullion 
purchased during the past fiscal year was more than 40 per cent. 



12 



REPOET OF CHIEF OF BUREAU OF INSULAR AFFAIRS. 



Philippine silver coins have been made at the United States mints 
during the fiscal year and shipped to the Philippines (including ship- 
ment on transport July 6, 1907) as follows: 



[Value in pesos.] 





Peso. 


SO^sentavo. 


20^entayo. 


10-centavo. 


Philadelphia 




600,000 
600,000 


250,000 
260.000 


160,000 


Ban Franciw^" 


5,&87,000 


250,000 


Total 




6.607,090 


1.100,000 


600,000 


400,000 



STAMPa 

During the fiscal year there were prepared and forwarded to the 
Philippines, under the direction of the Bureau, the following : 

Postage stamps ' 1, 010, 000 

Stamp books 140, 010 

Postal savings bank stamps .' 4, 747, 636 

Internal-revenue stamps 9, 100, 000 

Documentary stamps 10,000,000 

BONDED INDEBTBDNESS. 

On September 1, 1906, temporary certificates of indebtedness of 
the government of the Philippine Islands then outstanding to the 
amount of $1,500,000 were retired by an appropriation of $500,000 
from the gold-standard fund in the Philippine treasury, and by a 
new issue qf $1,000,000 in certificates running for one year and bear- 
ing interest at 4 per cent. This issue fell due September 1, 1907, and 
was retired outright, thus eliminating all indeptedness due to the 
inauguration of the currency system of the Philippines, which in- 
debtraness at one time amounted to $6,000,000. 

The bonded indebtedness of the Philippines now is — 



Amount. 



I Redeem- 
I able- 



Land purchase 4 per cent bonds 

Public works and improvement 4 per cent bonds . 

Do 

City of Manila sewer and water 4 per cent bonds . 

I>o 



S7, 000, 000 


1914 


2,500,000 


1915 


1.000,000 


1916 


1,000,000 


1915 


2.000,000 


1917 



Due— 



1934 
1965 
19S6 
1935 
1937 



PUBCHASE OF STTPPLIES. 

Philipphies. — While the Philippine government has continued its 
policy or favoring Manila merchants and brokers in its purchases of 
supplies, the Bureau received during the past fiscal year lor execution 
in the United States 612 requisitions by mail and 73 by cable. 

The system of purchasing through an a^nt in New York City and 
paying accounts for purchases from WaSiington, which has been 
described in detail in previous reports, continues to give satisfactory 
results. Through the courtesy or the Post-Office Department and of 
the Government Printing Office, the annual contracts for supplies for 
those branches of the United States Government provide that the 



BBPOBT OF CHIEF OF BUBEAU OF IN8ULAB AFFAIBS. 18 

Bureau ma]r purchase thereunder such supplies as may be required by 
the Philippine government As the bureaus of posts and prmting of 
the Philippine government naturally use supplies similar to those em- 
ploved hj the Post-Offioe Department and the Government Printing 
Office, tms arrangement gives the insular government in its smaller 
requirements the benefit of the prices made, to the United States 
Oovemment on its larger purchases. 

By far the larger portion of shipments to the Philippines is made 
from New York City via the Suez Canal, the Bureau having a con- 
tract with four steamship lines for this service. All meroiandise 
shipped is covered in transit by marine insurance, which protects the 
government from breakage, damaee, and loss. 

Dominican Receivership. — ^To June 30 last there have been pur- 
chased for the receiver of Dominican customs and paid for from cus- 
toms collected in Santo Domingo supplies, not locallv obtainable and 
including four revenue cutter^, to the amount of $74,798.76, the 
machinery of the Bureau having been used for this purpose at the 
request or the receiver made in August, 1906. 

Cuba. — ^At the request of the director of the Cuban census, sup- 
plies for the census, which could not be obtained in Habana, were 
purchased in the United States by the Bureau and recently shipped 
to Cuba. 

NEW YORK OFFICE. 

The agency maintained in New York Citv under the direction of 
this Bureau continues a necessity to the Philippine government in 
the purchase and shipment of supplies from the United States as 
well as in the protection of the government in its purchases of sup- 
plies from Manila brokers. As stated in previous reports, even 
should the Philippine government buy all of its supplies in Manila, 
the New York office should be maintamed as a check on prices asked 
by the Manila*broker. 

The force of the Ndw York office comprises 1 purchasing agent and 
8 clerks. 

2>I8BXTBSBXENTS 07 PHUJPPINE BBVENT7SS IK THE T7NITBD 

STATES. 

All accounts of the Philippine government in the United States 
for supplies, for transportation of employees, for expenses of coinage 
and currency, for education of Filipino students, for interest, and for 
miscellaneous expenses are paid by the disbursing agent ox Philip- 
pine revenues, this Bureau. The total disbursements made during 
the fiscal year 1907 amounted to $3^34,153.29, in payment of 3,456 
accounts, and the total disbursements from May 20, 1901, the date 
the disbursing office was established, to June 30, 1907, amount to 
$30,218,594.10, in payment of 16,123 accounts. 

OOKMEBOIAL STATI8TIGS. 

G)mmercial returns continue to be received monthlv and are com- 
piled for record, although their publication, since December, 1905, 
appears quarterly instead of monthly. 



14 



BSFOBT OF CHIEF OF BUBEAU OF IN8ULAB AFFAIB8. 



IMPORTS. 



The imports, exclusive of gold and silver and United States Govern- 
ment supplies, for the fiscal years 1899-1907 were as follows : 



Fiscal year. 



From— 



United States. 



ia99fl $1,160,618 

1900 1,667,701 

1901 2,866,685 

1902 4,085,243 

1903 8,944,098 

1904 4,683,216 

1905 5,761,498 

1906 4,838,898 

1907* I 5,166,859 



Other coun- 
tries. 



111,962,397 
18,943,735 
27,428,721 
28,106,569 
29,027,784 
28,687,545 
25,114,852 
21,465,873 
23,630,496 



Total. 



tl3,118.010 
20,601,436 
80,279,406 
82,141,842 
32,971,882 
88,220,761 
80,876.350 
25,799,266 
28,786,855 



• August 20, 1898, to Jun^ 30, 1899. 

* Figures exclude free-entry railway supplies. 

As compared with last year the returns for 1907 show a larger value 
under total imports by approximately $3,000,000, and the dependence, 
of the islands on foreign rice continues to decline. Cotton doth was 
the leading import, more than $5,500,000 worth having been pur- 
chased, which, with the exception of the year 1901, was the heaviest 
showing in this line since Ajnerican occupation. 

Imports from the United States amountea to over $S,000,000, an in- 
crease of more than $750,000. Practically all of this increase may be 
credited to cotton cloth, and in the heavier cotton trade of the year 
the tariff amendment of February 26, 1906, seems to have corrected 
the former discrimination against American piece goods. 

From the commercial totals of the year there have been excluded 
all imports of railway supplies entered free of duty under the two 
franchises recently granted for the construction of railways. These 
purchases assumed no importance prior to January, 1907, but 
reached a value of $879,759 during the fiscal year, of which the 
United States contributed $508,524, while the United Kingdom and 
Australasia were credited with almost the whole of the remainder. 
This trade is expected to grow in importance during the next few 
years, in which the lines contracted for must be completed. Being 
subject to free entry and of the nature of extraordinary imports des- 
tined to assume large proportions, but for only a short period, and as 
their inclusion would seriouslv inflate the normal trade figures, they 
have been excluded, as has oeen the usage with Government free 
entries. 



BEPOBT 07 CHIEF OF BUBEAV OF INSULAB AFFAIBB. 



15 



SXFOBT8. 



The exports, exclusive of gold and silver, for the fiscal years 
1899-1907 were as follows: 





To- 




Fiflcal year. 


United States. 


other coun- 
tries. 


Total. 


ISWa 

1900 

1901 


13,540,894 
3,522,160 
2,572,021 
7,691,743 
13,868,059 
11,102,776 
15,668,026 
11,579,4U 
12,079,204 


98 as 

16 108 
20 ^27 
16 »36 
19 (40 

19 162 
16 >89 

20 '23 

21 . , 153 


812,366,912 
19,751,068 
23,214,948 


1902 


23.927,679 
83.119,899 


190S 


1904 


30,250,627 
32,352,616 
81,917,184 
83,713,887 


1906 


1906 


1907 





•Auffiut 20, 1898, to Jont 30, 1800. 

The value of exports was in excess of any previous year of American 
occupation, amounting to $33,713,367, or $1,796,223 above the figures 
for 1906. The largest increases are to be noted in hemp and tobacco, 
while copra shipments yielded practically the same figure and the 
su^r trade suffered a heavy reduction in value. 

Hemp exports amounted to 112,895 tons, only a nominal increase 
over the reduced quantity marketed in the previous year, but higher 
prices have prevailed, and an increase of more than $1,500,000 is 
included in the total of $21,085,081. Of this sum, American pur- 
chases represent slightly more than half. 

The tobaooo trade showed increased export activity in both leaf 
and manufactures, and reached a value of $8,129,194, with an increase 
of $739,304 over the record for the previous year. Of this increase, 
leaf tobacco made up nearly $500^000, cigars were credited with 
$147,371, while a notable gain of $87,467 was found in ci^rettes — a 
trade that has not amounted to as much as $25,000 in previous years. 
The United States did not figure at all as a purchaser of leaf, but 
took cigars to the value of $26,067. 

Copra shipments suffered a reduction of 25 per cent in quantity, 
but in. consequence of exceptionally high prices showed a nominal 
increase in value, and the ^,000,000 trade of the previous year was 
maintained. 

The sugar industry was less fortunate, and between a somewhat 
reduced quantity and a decline in prices, a reduction of $929,405 
was recorded for the year. Sucar exports amounted to 118,396 tons, 
valued at $3,934,460, and found an almost exclusively oriental mar- 
ket, with shipments to the United States amounting to but $234,074. 



16 



REPORT OP CHIEF OF BUREAU OF INSULAR AFFAIRS. 



BECEIPTS AND EZFEiroiTUBES. 



The following statement of revenues and expenditures of the 
Philippine government, exclusive of all items of a refundable char- 
acter, covers the period from the date of American occupation, Au- 
gust 18, 1898, to June 80, 1907: 



REVENUES. 



PiBcal year ended June I 



Insular. 



Provincial. City of Manila. Total. 



1899.^ •3,558,682.88 

1900 6,899,840.58 

1901 10,758,469.96 

1902 1 9,871,288.11 

1908 10,767,466.63 

1904 10,249,268.98 

1905..* i 11,549,495.87 

ltf06 , 11,468,087.16 



1907. 



Total. 



11,149,619.25 



85,756,667.81 



82,008,480.88 
2,627,252.98 
3.295,839.47 
8,107,912.91 
4,509,572.02 
4,604,528.81 



20,058,686.62 



81,199,598.21 
1.541,575.85 
1,981,129.97 
1,441,165.82 
1,995,289.86 
1,691,341.93 



9,800,096.63 



13,558, 
6,899, 
10,753, 
12,579, 
14,826, 
15,476, 
16,098, 
17,972, 
17,445, 



682.83 
340.68 
459.95 
357.20 
284.41 
233.42 
674.10 
929.08 
489.49 



115,610,350.96 



EXPENDITURES. 



1899 82,376,327.12 

1900 1 4,768,7W.66 

1901 6,461,628.87 

1902 ; 8,189,404.69 

1908 1 10,249,588.40 

1904 1 11,122,662.88 

1905 12,248,867.83 

1906 ! 10,146,779.12 

1907 I 8,408,012.84 



11,633.158.22 
1,961,261.22 
2,839,826.10 
1,474,820.43 
4,836,091.82 
4,786,088.20 



ToUl 73,961,798.81 



16,499,695.49 



8622,294.81 
1,177,611.67 
1,678,803.50 
2,574.102.78 
2,492,892.28 
1,560,801.40 



10,005,606.39 



82,376, 
4,758, 
6,451, 
10,444, 
18,408, 
16,040, 
16,297, 
16,974, 
14,704, 



827.12 
798.66 
528.87 
857.62 
406.29 
091.98 
280.54 
262.67 
852.44 



100,467,000.69 



Receipts and expenditures for the fiscal pear ended June SO, 1907, 

Amount of funds In the Philippine treasury on June 30, 1907, 
available for purely administratiye purposes, exclusive of 
funds derived from refundable collections and bond issues $6, 935, 288. 48 

INSULAR. 

Insular net revenues for the fiscal ^ear ended June 30, 1907, ex- 
cluding all items of a refundable character 11,140,619.25 

Net ordinary Insular expenditures, including in- 
terest on bond issues and contributions made to 
the city of Manila and tg the provinces in lieu 
of land taxes, cancellation of loans to prov- 
inces, and contributions for provincial adminis- 
trative purposes $8,408,012.84 

Excess of insular revenues over expenditures 2, 741, 606. 41 

11, 149, 619. 26 

CITY OF MANILA. 

Revenues collected by the city, inclusive of the amount con- 
tributed by the insular government under provisions of the 
charter of the city $1,691,341.98 

Ordinary expenditures of the city, including interest and sinking 
fund charges on sewer construction bonds 1, 660, 801. 40 

Excess receipts over expenditures 130, 540. 53 

In addition, $101,297.45 was disbursed for insular purposes from 
the Congressional relief fund. There were also disbursed funds, 
which may be designated bond issues, as follows: 

Public works and permanent improvement fund $374,299.09 

Sewer and waterworks construction fund 1,187,107.77 



BBPOBT OF CHIEF OF BUBBAU OF INStJLAB AFFAIBS. 17 

LAW OFFSCOOL 



The work of this office has increased in volume during the last year. 
Not only has it included the consideration and decisi<m of questions 
arising in the Philippine Islands, but also many civil matters pre- 
sentea for the consiaeration of the Secretary of War. 

FILIPINO STTJDBimi IN THB UNmD 8TATB8. 

At the close of the last fiscal year 188 students were bding educated 
in the United States at the expense of the Philippine government 
and under the supervision of this Bureau. These students were dis* 
tributed throughout the schools of the country as ^own in the fol- 
lowing list: 



Riverside, Cal. : 

Riverside nigh School 1 

Boulder, Colo.: 

University of Ck)lorado 1 

New Haven, Ck>nn.: 

Tale University 1 

District of Columbia : 

Catholic University 1 

Coast and Geodetic Survey— 2 

Georgetown University 6 

George Washington Univer- 
sity 1 

National University 2 

Chicago, 111.: 

University of Chicago 8 

University High School (Uni- 
versity of Chicago) 2 

Rush Medical College 2 

Lewis Institute 2 

Armour Institute of Tech- 
nology 2 

College of Physicians and 
Surgeons 8 

Northwestern University Law 

School 2 

Evanston, 111.: 

Northwestern University 1 

De Kalb, 111.: 

Northern Illinois State Nor- 
mal School 6 

Macomb, 111.: 

State Normal School 6 

Normal, 111.: 

State Normal School 5 

Urbana, 111.: 

University of Illinois 18 

Bloomington, Ind. : 

Indiana University 5 

Lafayette, Ind.: 

Perdue University 11 

Notre Dame, Ind. : 

St. Mary's Academy 2 

University of Notre Dame — 7 
Ames, Iowa: 

State College of Agriculture.. 8 

11024— WAR 1907— VOL 7 2 



Iowa City, Iowa: 

University of Iowa 8 

Manhattan, Kans.: 

State College of Agriculture.. 8 
Boston, Mass.: 

Massachusetts Institute of 

Technology 8 

Lowell, Mass.: 

Lowell Textile School 1 

Worcester, Mass.: 

Clark College 1 

Lansing, Mich.: 

State Agricultural College — 2 
St. Paul, Minn. : 

College of St Catherhie 2 

Lincoln, Nebr.: 

University of Nebraska 6 

Trenton, N. J.: 

State Normal School 6 

Ithaca, N. Y. : 

Cornell University 7 

Oswego, N. Y. : 

State Normal School 8 

Cincinnati, Ohio: 

University Technical School— 8 
Columbus, Ohio: 

Ohio State University 8 

Oberlin, Ohio : 

Oberlin Conservatory of 

Music 1 

Eugene, Oreg. : 

University of Oregon 1 

Philadelphia, Pa. : 

Drexel Institute 8 

Pennsylvania Academy of 
Fine Arts 1 

Univessity of Pennsylvania 2 

Women's Medical College 2 

Villanova, Pa.: 

College of St, Thomas 1 

West Chester, Pa. : 

State Normal School 5 

Madison, Wis.: 

University of Wisconsin 9 

188 



18 



BBPOBT OF CHIEF OF BUREAU OF IKSULAE AFFAIRS. 



The courses pursued by these students were as follows : 



Normal (teaching) 44 

ClvU engineering 32 

Agricolture 23 

Law 21 

Mechanical engineering 19 

Medicine 1 17 

Commerce or business 6 

Chemistry or chemical engineer- 
ing 4 

Electrical engineering 3 



General or preparatory 2 

Science 2 

Pharmacy 2 

Coast and geodetic survey 2 

Architecture 

Art 

Forestry 

Music 

Veterinary science 

Textile weaving 



It will be noted that their time in this counting was spent in prepa- 
ration for educational or industrial work in the islands. 

In the period between the date of the previous report (showing 184 
students in this countrv) and the close of the fiscal year one aeath 
occurred and three students were returned to the islands, one because 
of gross misconduct and two because of neglect of studies. During 
that period three new appointments were made, all three appointees 
being private students already in this country. 

Ot the 183 students above mentioned, 92 were appointed by the 
governor-general in October, 1903, for a period of four years, which 
expired during the present month. Of these, 36 have been reap- 
pomted to complete courses of study (mostly engineering, affricm- 
ture, and medicine), one has been permitted to remain for &rther 
study (law) at his own expense, and 55 have been returned to the 
islands, having completed their courses of study (mostly law and 
teaching) . 

During the past four months, 61 students have been returned to the 
islands; m July, 22; August, 24; September, 11; October, 4. Fifty- 
five of these were of the 1903 students above mentioned, 3 had com- 
pleted courses before expiration of terms of appointment, 1 returned 
because of serious trouble with the eyes, and 2 were sent back because 
of misconduct. 

Since the close of the fiscal year, 2 new appointees have arrived 
from the islands, and at the present date, October 31, 1907, there are 
in this country 123 Government students, not including the 1 remain- 
ing^at his own expense. 

During the past summer many students were in attendance at 
various summer schools, making up deficiencies, while others were 
employed in commercial work, gaining practical knowledge along 
their lines of study. 

The health of the students has been generally good and they suffer 
but little from the climate. Two serious cases of illness occurred; 
one finally requiring operation for appendicitis from which the 
student has fuUy recovered; the other, cancer, to which, in spite of 
the ablest surgical and hospital treatment, Ignacio A. Rosario, of 
Manila, succumbed on April 7, 1907, and his remains were promptly 
returned to his parents. He was a bright student of promise and 
ability, and was highly esteemed. 

It should be noted that this Bureau has been given every assistance 
bv the instructors and schools in which students have iJeen placed. 
There have been shown a kindly cooperation and interest which have 
materially lessened the care of these students and impressed them 
with the best side of American life. 



REPORT OF CHIEF OF BUREAU OF INSULAR AFFAIRS. 19 

Conclusion as to the value of this educational movement to the 
Philippine government can best be made after observation of results 
attained by the students returning this summer. They excelled in 
studies, in sports, in music, and especially in military science. In 
open competition they secured many valuable prizes, one having won 
a fellowship in a leaaing university of this country. 

It is not too much to say that as a whole the students have done 
remarkably well. While naturally handicapped by the language, 
they hold their own with American students, and in some instances 
stand first in their classes. T^ey are esteemed highly by classmates 
and instructors. Without a single exception, they exemplify to a high 
degree the Filipino characteristics or gentlemanly, courteous, and 
i-espectful demeanor, and almost without exception are earnest, faith- 
ful, and industrious. As a whole they are such a body of active, 
intelligent, and progressive students as any country might well be 
proud of. 

PBOVISIONAL OOVEBNMENT OF CUBA. 

The business of the provisional government of Cuba recjuirinff 
action in the United States, which was by Executive Order directed 
to be conducted through this Bureau, continues to be transacted here. 
Peace and quiet reigp over the entire island and confidence among the 
business men is again largely restored. 

COST TO THE UNITED STATES OF THE INTERVENTION. 

The act making appropriations to supply deficiencies in the appro- 
priations for the fiscal year ending June 80, 1907, approved March 4, 
1907, contains the following provision : 

The President is hereby authorized to receive from the treasury of the Cuban 
Bepublic and pay into the Treasury of the United States from time to. time 
such amounts to reimburse the United States for the expenditures from the 
United States Treasury made necessary on account of the present intervention 
as he may consider the Cuban treasury then able to pay without serious em- 
barrassment 

Such expenditures, it was evident, would be exclusively for mili- 
tary purposes, and experience having demonstrated the difficulty of 
determining at a later time the amounts of expenditures due to such 
operations and of segregating them from normal expenses of the 
Army, the matter of having reports of such expenses made monthly 
during the period of occupation was immediately taken up, and the 
results up to June 30, 1907, are given in the following table. 

No other expenditures due to the intervention have oeen made from 
United Stat^ funds. 

There is likewise given the amount paid during the same period 
from Cuban funds on account of the American mtervention. The 
expenditures from this latter source are made from funds allotted 
from time to time by the provisional governor from the Cuban treas- 
ury for certain expenditures of the Anny that would not be necessary 
except for its service in Cuba. 



20 RBPOBT OF CHIEF OF BUBEAU OF INSULAR AFFAIB8. 

StalemerU of extraordinary expenditures on account of the army of pacification in Cuba 
from October /, 1906, to June SO, 1907. 

Military information division, U. S. Army $4,906.28 

Signal Corps, U. S. Army: 

Services $720.77 

Salaries 2,271.66 

Instrumente, equipment, and tools 58, 092. 76 

Supplies 33,807.80 

Total 94,892.98 

Engineer Department, U. S. Army: 

Instruments 6, 748. 29 

Services 7,406.66 

Supplies 3,492.67 

Construction of dock 1, 203. 17 

Total 17,849.79 

Medical Deportment, U. S. Army: 

Expre^age 4. 46 

Meaical attendance and medicines 439. 07 

Hospital laundry 1, 945. 41 

Pay of employees 4,898.66 

Blanks and stationery 980. 57 

Medical supplies and equipment 80, 570. 86 

Total 88,839.02 

Commissary Department, U. 3. Army: 

Advertising .• 67.00 

Printing 66.92 

Commissary stores 64, 182. 03 

Ice 14,060.86 

Rations, civilian employees 16, 798. 06 

Expenses, United States army transports 87, 879. 38 

Commutation of rations 13,089.26 

Salaries of civilian employees 19, 1 81 . 42 

Subsistence property 13, 649. 87 

Travel rations 2,159.34 

'Total 171,184.14 

Quartermaster's Department, U. S. Army : 

Emergency fund 105,625.00 

Cavalry, artillery, and engineers* horses 32, 500. 00 

Clothing and equipage H6, 800. 32 

Army transportation 2, 013, 283. 31 

Barracks and quarters 24, 399. 01 

Incidental expenses 103, 750. 86 

Regular supplies 291, 112. 77 

Total 2,656,471.27 

Ordnance Department, U. S. Army : 

Ordnance depot, Habana 3, 838. 09 

Paymaster's Department, U. S. Army : 

Courts-martial 2,870.0^) 

Mileace and actual expenses 39, 683. 81 

Travel expenses, paymaster's clerks 642. 00 

(>)mmutation of quarters 24, 225. 07 

Pav increase, enlietod men 136, 092. 86 

Salary increase, officers 51,936.94 

Total 266,460.76 

Judge- Advocate-General, V. S. Army : 

I>aw books 444.10 

Paymaster's Department, IT. S. Marine Corps: 

Pay of enlisted men, foreign service 27, 868. 73 

Pay of officers, foreign service 7, 355. 54 

Mileage paid to officers 1,374.28 



BSPOBT OF CHIEF O^ BUREAU OF INSUIAB AFFAIBS. 21 

Paymaster's Department, U. 8. Marine Corps — Continued. 

Traveling expenses to officers $2,869.10 

Commutation of quarters to officers 590 .80 

Mounted pay 950.84 

Transportation of officers 63. 54 

Total $41,072.83 

Quartermaster's Department, U. S. Marine Corps: 

Contingent expenses : 12,534.35 

Provisions 15,413.60 

Transportation and recruiting, Marine Corps and 

U.S. Navy K^,n5.15 

Forage 111.70 

Military stores 4.67 

Pay of Marine Corps .^ 271.73 

Pay, miscellaneous 31. 26 

Bureau of medicine and surgery 353. 41 

Total 41,835.87 

Grand total 3,376,735.13 

Bwpenditures made by the Republic of Cuba on account of American intervene 
tion, October i, 1906, to June SO, 1907. 

Amount advanced by Republic of Cuba $387,716.23 

Expenditures: 

Barracks and guarters $329,503.00 

Salary of provisional governor 14, 333. 28 

Printing and miscellaneous expenses 2, 708. 18 

Amount in Bands of disbursing officers 41, 171 . 77 

Total 387,716.23 

Note. — ^The amounts given are those reported, and before any refund should 
be called for these reports should, be scrutinized and the amounts carefully 
audited. 

CUSTOMS BEGEIVEBSHXP OF SANTO DOMINQO. 

By the modus vivendi of March 31, 1905,« it was provided that until 
the l>)minican Congress and the Senate of the United States should 
act upon the convention of February 7, 1905, the President of the 
Dominican Republic, on the nomination of the President of the' United 
States, should appoint a person to receive the revenues of all the cus- 
tom-houses of tne Republic. Of the net revenues collected, 45 per 
cent was to be turned over to the Dominican Government, and usea in 
administrative expenses. The remainder, less the expenses of collec- 
tion, was to be deposited in a bank in New York to be designated by 
the President of the United States and to remain there for me benefit 
of all creditors of the Republic, Dominican as well as foreign, and not 
to be withdrawn before tne Dominican Congress and the Senate of the 
United States should have acted upon the convention then pending. 
During the operation of the modus vivendi all payments were to be 
suspended without, however, in any way interfering with or chan^ng 
the substantial rights of creditors. This modus vivendi went into 
effect on April 1, 1905. 

Under the receivership created by this modus vivendi there has 
been collected, to August 31, 1907, $7,183,397.56. Of this amount 45 
. __ _ _ 

o See Appendix 1, p. 25. 



22 REPORT OP CHIEF OF BUREAU OF INSULAR AFFAIRS. 

per cent was turned over to the Dominican Government, and $3,318,- 
946.97, to bear interest while on deposit, has been remitted to New 
York.®. This is in striking contrast with the results of the customs 
operations of former years, when, having control of the entire reve- 
nues of the Republic, the Dominican Government had not only been 
unable to pay its current expenses, but found its apparent public debt 
increased at an average rate of almost $1,000,000 a year for some 
thirty-odd years. 

The convention between the United States and the Dominican Re- 
public, signed at Santo Domingo City on February 8, 1907, was trans- 
mitted to the U. S. Senate on February 19, 1907, by the President for 
ratification^ and was ratified on the 25th of the same month. After 
formal ratification by the President of the United States and the 
Dominican Republic, ratifications were exchanged July 8, 1907, and 
formal proclamation made by the President on the 25th of the same 
month.* Regulations have been drawn up for the application of its 
provisions." The treaty sets forth that tne debts or the Dominican 
Ilepublic amount to more than $30,000,000, nominal or face value, 
which have been scaled down by a conditional adjustment and a^ee- 
ment to some $17,000,000, including interest, in the payment of which 
the Government has requested the assistance of the United States. 
The latter agrees to give this assistance subject to certain conditions 
set out in the treaty, the principal among which are (a) that the 
President of the United States shall appoint the general receiver of 
the Dominican customs and his assistants, and (&) that the Domini- 
can Government shall provide by law for the payment to such general 
receiver of all the customs duties of the Republic. The money col- 
lected is to be applied as follows: (1) To paying the expenses of the 
rpceiyership ; (2) to the payment of interest on bonds issued by the 
Dominican Government in connection with the settlement of its debts; 
(3) to the payment of the annual sums provided for amortization 
of said bonds, including interest upon all bonds held in the sinkinff 
fund ; (4)^ to the purchase and cancellation or the retirement and 
cancellation, pursuant to the terms thereof, of any of said bonds as 
may be directed by the Dominican Government, and (5) the re- 
mainder to be paid to the Dominican Government On the 1st day 
of each calendar month the sum of $100,000 is to be paid over by the 
receiver to the fiscal agent of the loan, and the remaining collection 
of the last preceding month paid over to the Dominican Government, 
or applied to the sinking fund for the purchase or redemption of 
bonds, as the Dominican Government shall direct. Should the rev- 
enues thus collected exceed $3,000,000 for any one year, one-half of 
the surplus is to be applied to the sinking fund for the redemption 
of bonds. 

OBeANIZATION AND PEBSONNEL. 

The classification of the civilian force remains the same as last 
year, with a total of 74 employees, the total salaries aggregating 
$87,400. Of this force 3 clerks have been detailed without pay to 

« For statement by years see Api)endix 2, p. 26. 
^ For text see Appendix 3, p. 27. 
^ See Appendix 4, p. 30. 



BBPOBT OF CHIEF OF BUREAU OF IKBULAB AFFAIB8. 28 

assist the United States provisional government in Cuba. ^ During the 
year the Bureau has lost 13 employees by transfer or resignation. 

In this year's estimate the Bureau has recommended the discontinu- 
ance of the 14 clerks of the $900 grade, asking in lieu thereof an in- 
crease of 2 additional clerks at $1,400, 5 at $1^00, and 4 at $1,000. 
This will decrease the total number of employees from 74 to 71, and 
increase the total appippriation by $200 omy. The discontinuance of 
the $900 grade is desired because experience has shown great diffi- 
culty in getting and keeping good men at that salary. In many cases 
appointees at this salary, nnding prpmotion slow, leave the service 
for better salaries elsewhere. 

Bv obtaining a more permanent force, through the discontinuance 
of tne above grade and by the increases indicated in classes 2, 1, and 
$1,000, it is hoped that the reduction will be met by the greater effi- 
ciency of more contented employees. This is the experience of the 
Adjutant-General's office, which now has no clerk grade below $1,000. 

1 urge the necessary legislation in accordance with the approved 
estimate. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Clabbkcb B. Edwards, 
Brigadier-Gensral^ U. 8. Army^ Chief of Bureau. 

The Secretary of War. 



Appendix 1. 

Modus Vivsnui. 
[Translation.] 

Oablob F. M0BALB8, li., Oonaiitutional President of the BepuUic: 

For the purpose of protecting all the creditors of the Republic until the Do- 
minican Ck>ngre88 and the Senate of the United States shall act upon the con- 
vention signed on the 7th of February of the current year by the representatives 
of the Governments of the Dominican Republic and of the United States, of 
maintaining alive meanwhile the said convention, and of facilitating its full 
execution if it should be ratified, or not prejudicing any right should it be 
rejected; 

The opinion of the council of Secretaries of State having been heard : 

Resolves: First To name the person to receive the revenues of all the cus- 
tom-houses of the Republic, and, for the better guaranteeing of the latter*s 
creditors, to leave to the President of the United States the designation of the 
person who will receive said revenues, the Dominican Government conferring 
upon him the ofllce, providing always that the designation shall be satisfiictory 
to it 

Second. The sums collected shall be distributed in the following manner : 

(a) Forty-five per cent to be used in administrative expenses. 

ih) The necessary expenses of collecting, including the salaries of all the 
employees of the custom-houses. 

Third. The remainder, as a sum destined to the payment of debts, shall be 
immediately deposited in a bank in New York, which shall be designated by the 
President of the United States, remaining on deposit for the benefit of all the 
creditors of the Republic, Dominicans as well as foreign, and shall not be with- 
drawn before the Dominican Congress and the Senate of the United States 
shall have acted upon the pending convention. 

Fourth. If the final action of ttie Congress of the Dominican Republic and 
of the Senate of the United States shall be favorable to the pending conven- 
tion, the sums so deposited shall be distributed among the creditors in propor- 
tion to their Just claims, in accordance with said convention; If the action of 
the said Congress and Senate shall be adverse, the said sums shall be at the 
disposition of the Dominican Government for equitable distribution among 
the creditors, according to the arrangement it shall make with them. 

Fifth. In order to do effectively what is above provided for, the Executive 
8ii^)ends all payments upon the debts of the Republic, of whatever nature, dur- 
ing the time that this modus Vivendi continues in operation. 

No document shall be received in payment of customs or port dues, and the 
total amount of all revenues payable through the customs shall be delivered to 
the receiver of whom this resolution makes mention. 

Sixth. This modus Vivendi is not intended to interfere with or change the 
substantial rights of creditors, nor to repudiate or modify any of the agree- 
ments hereinbefore made by the Government, except in so far as the immediate 
enforcement of such rights and agreements may be suspended by the general 
moratorium herein declared. 

This modus Vivendi will take effect from the 1st of April of the current year. 

Given in the National Palace of Santo Domingo, capital of the Republic, on 
the 31st day of March, 1005 ; sixty-second year of independence and forty-second 
of the restoration. 

(Signed) MoKALBS. L. 

Countersigned. 

The Minister of Finance and Commerce, 
Fedebioo Velasquez H. 

26 



Appendix 2. 



Btatement, by fiscal years, of the customs service of the Republic of Santo Do- 
mingo under the operation of the ** modus viveiUU,*' from AprU i, 1905, to- 
Auffust 91, 19(n 



Apr. 1.1906. to 
June SO, 1905. 



July ljl906, to' July 1 . 1906, to July 1, 1907, to 



June 90, 1906. June 80,1907. 



Aug. 81, 1907. 



Total. 



«2,186.17 
13,45197 

7,427.88 



DEBITS. 

Expenditures: 

Interest and exchange, 

8. Michelena , 

Salaries and expenditures 

at all ports 

Salaries and expenses, office 

of receiver and general 

comptroller 

Expenses of customs and 

frontier guard 

Expenses of revenue-cutter 

service 

Cost of revenue cutters 

Cost custom-house at £1 

Fonda 

Expenditureefrom internal rev- I 

enues: , 

Ramona-Seybo-Macoris 1 

Rwy ! 

Mona-Monte Criatl Rwy ' 

Refunds of customs collections: I 
Refund of personal fees and 

concessions I 8,462.78 

Refund of excess duties 

Available for distribution: 

Sinking fund, New York 

Balance due Republic of 

Santo Domingo from 46 

per cent fund 

Internal revenue, 80 per cent 

export duties, balance 

Quaranty fund for construc- 
tion of railroads (derived 

from internal revenue 

fund) 

Payments: 

Republic of Santo Dominso. 
Remittance under"Awara" . 

Bills payable 

Morris indemnity 

Las Matas affair 

Milbum settlement 



15,406.54 
70,199.47 

84,188.94 

32,870.66 

1,065.68 
18,680.00 



5,985.06 



ToUl. 



CHEniT. 

GrosH customs oollectionH. 
26 



54,911.06 
8,897.10 

254,168.79 | 1,287,158.78 



$11,668.96 
72,478.28 

87,688.06 

58,098.22 

42,012.96 
88,517.50 

8,046.80 



28,137.19 
56,770.45 



64,728.94 i 
9,172.57 



143.882.02 
2.761.43 
8.167.96 



1.216,428.73 
6,*366.66' 



22,706.17 
1,845,767.46 



1,128.85 
5,000.00 



440.492.00 I 2,786,990.99 



8,277,882.48 



523, 880. 12 2, 712, 821. 56 ' 3, 800, 392. 44 



$12,258.58 

7,299.06 
8,090.29 
15,828.86 



1.12 



9,006.18 
15,008.66 



11,094.40 
2,885.74 



1,481,045.12 296,584.88 



65,250.55 
7,782.05 

6,006.42 
271,900.00 



$19,166.67 
168,891.26 

86,648.94 

99,064.17 

58,402.60 
57,197.60 

8,742.92 



48,067.88 
71,779.01 



139,197.20 
16,906.41 

8,818,946.97 



65,260.66 
7,782.06 

28,71L60 

2,977.968.21 
2,761.48 
8,167.96 
5,800.00 
1.126.86 
5,000.00 



729,062.09 



7,183.897.56 



646,303.45 



7.183,897.66 



Appendix 3. 



OOHVBXmON BBTWXEK THB JJKJTXD 0TATE0 OV AXBBZOA AlTD THB DOKZNIOAK 
BBFUBUO PBOVZBZHa VOR THB AB8XBTAK0X OF THB XJNITBD BTATB8 ZH THB OOZ«- 
IiBOTZOir AKD.AFFUOATZON 07 THB OUBTOKB BBVBNTTBS OF THB DOMIVIOAN BB- 
FUBUO. 



Concluded February 8, 1907. 

Ratification advised by Senate February ftS, 1907, 

Ratified by President June 22, 1907. 

Ratified by President of the Dominican Republic June 18, 1907. 

Ratifications exchanged at Washington July 8, 1907. 

Proclaimed July 25, 1907. 



Br THE President of the United States of Amebiga, 
A PROCLAMATION. 

Whereas a convention between the United States of America and the Domini- 
can Republic proTlding for the assistance of the United States in the collection 
and application of the customs revenues of the Dominican Republic, was con- 
cluded and signed by their respective Plenipotentiaries at the City of Santo 
Domingo, on the eighth day of February, one thousand nine hundred and seven, 
the original of which convention, being in the English and Spanish languages, is 
word for word as follows : 

Whereas during disturbed political conditions in the Dominican Republic debts 
and claims have been created, some by regular and some by revolutionary gov- 
ernments, many of doubtful validity in whole or in part, and amounting in all 
to over $30,000,000, nominal or face value ; 

And whereas the same conditions have prevented the peaceable and continuous 
collection and application of National revenues for payment of interest or prin- 
cipal of such debts or for liquidation and settlement of such claims; and the 
said debts and claims continually Increase by accretion of Interest and are a 
grievous burden upon the people of the Dominican Republic and a barrier to 
their improvement and prosperity ; 

And whereas the Dominican Government has now effected a conditional ad- 
justment and settlement of said debts and claims under which all its foreign 
creditors have agreed to accept about $12,407,000 for debts and claims amount- 
ing to about $21,184,000 of nominal or face value, and the holders of internal 
debts or claims of about $2,028,258 nominal or face value have agreed to accept 
about $645,827 therefor, and the remaining holders of internal debts or claims 
on the same basis as the assents already given will receive about $2,400,000 
therefor, which sum the Dominican (government has fixed and determined as 
the amount which It will pay to such remaining Internal debt holders ; making 
the total payments under such adjustment and settlement, including interest as 
adjusted and claims not yet liquidated, amount to not more than about 
$17,000,000. 

And whereas a part of such plan of settlement is the issue and sale of bonds 
of the Dominican Republic to the amount of $20,000;000 bearing five per cent 
interest payable in fifty years and redeemable after ten years at 102i and re- 
quiring payment of at least one per cent per annum for amortization, the pro- 
ceeds of said bonds, together with such funds as are now deposited for the 

27 



28 BEPORT OP CHIEP OP BUREAU OP INSULAR APPAIRS. 

benefit of creditors from customs revenues of the Dominican Republic hereto- 
fore received, after payment of the expenses of such adjustment, to be applied 
first to the payment of said debts and claims as adjusted and second out of the 
balance remaining to the retirement and extinction of certain concessions and 
harbor monopolies which are a burden and hindrance to the commerce of the 
country and third the entire balance still remaining to the construction of cer- 
tain railroads and bridges and other public improvements necessary to the 
Industrial development of the country; 

And whereas the whole of said plan is conditioned and dependent upon 
the assistance of the United States in the collection of customs revenues of the 
Dominican Republic and the application thereof so far as necessary to the 
Interest upon and the amortization and redemption of said bonds, and the 
Dominican Republic has requested the United States to give and the United 
States is willing to give such assistance: 

The Dominican Government, represented by its Minister of State for 
Foreign Relations, Emiliano Tejera, and its Minister of State for Finance 
and Commerce, Federico Velasquez H., and the United States Government, 
represented by Thomas C. Dawson, Minister Resident and Consul General 
of the United States to the Dominican Republic, have agreed : 

I. That the Pi-esident of the United States shall appoint, a General Receiver 
of Dominican Customs, who, with such Assistant Receivers and other em- 
ployees of the Receivership as shall be appointed by the President of the 
United States in his discretion, shall collect all the customs duties accruing 
at the several customs houses of the Dominican Republic until the payment 
or retirement of any and all bonds issued by the Dominican Government in 
accordance with the plan and under tlie limitations as to terms and amounts 
hereinbefore recited; and said General Receiver shall apply the sums so 
collected, as follows : 

First, to paying the expenses of the receivership; second, to the payment 
of interest upon said bonds; third, to the payment of the annual sums pro- 
vided for amortization of said bonds including interest upon all bonds held in 
sinking fund; fourth, to the purchase and cancellation or the retirement and 
cancellation pursuant to the terms thereof of any of said bonds as may be 
directed by the Dominican Government; fifth, the remainder to be paid to the 
Domlncan Government. 

The method of distributing the current collections of revenue in order to 
accomplish the application thereof as hereinbefore provided shall be as 
follows : 

The expenses of the receivership shall be paid by the Receiver as they 
arise. The allowances to the General Receiver and his assistants for the 
expenses of collecting the revenues shall not exceed five per cent unless by 
agreement between the two Governments.' 

On the first day of each calendar month the sum of $100,000 shall be paid 
over by the Receiver to the Fiscal Agent of the loan, and the remaining col- 
lection of the last preceding month shall be paid over to the Dominican 
Government, or applied to the sinking fund for the purchase or redemption 
of bonds, as the Dominican Government shall direct. 

Provided, that in case the customs revenues collected by the General 
Receiver shall in any year exceed the sum of $3,000,000, one half of the 
surplus above such sum of $3,000,000 shall be applied to the sinking fund for 
the redemption of bonds. 

II. The Dominican Government will provide by law for the payment of all 
customs duties to the General Receiver and his assistants, and will give to 
them all needful aid and assistance and full protection to the extent of its 
powers. The Government of the United States will give to the General Re- 
ceiver and his assistants such protection as it may find to be requisite for the 
performance of their duties. 

III. Until the Dominican Republic has paid the whole amount of the bonds 
of the debt its public debt shall not be increased except by previous agreement 
between the Dominican Government and the United States. A like agreement 
shall be necessary to modify the import duties, it being an indispensable con- 
dition for the modification of such duties that the Dominican Executive demon- 
strate and that the President of the United States recognize that, on the basis of 
exportations and importations to the like amoimt and the like character during 
the two years preceding that in which it Is desired to make such modification, 
the total net customs receipts would at such altered rates of duties have been 
for each of such two years In excess of the sum of $2,000,000 United States gold. 



BBPORT OP OHIBP OP BUREAU OF INSULAR AFFAIRS. 29 

IV. The accounts of the GJeneral Receiver shall be rendered monthly to the 
Contaduria General of the Dominican Republic and to the State Department 
of the United States and shall be subject to examination and verification by 
the appropriate ofilcers of the Dominican and the United States Governments. 
v. This agreement shall take effect after its approval by the Senate of the 
United States and the Congress of the Dominican Republic. 

Done in four originals, two being in the English. language, and two in the 
Spanish, and the representatives of the high contracting parties signing them 
in the City of Santo Domingo this 8th day of February, in the year of our Lord 
1907. 

•Thomas O Dawson 
Emiliano Tejera 
• Fedebico Velazquez H. 

And whereas the said convention has been duly ratified on both parts, and 
the ratifications of the two governments were exchanged in the City of Wash- 
ington, on the eighth day of July, one thousand nine hundred seven ; 

Now, therefore, be it known that I, Theodore Roosevelt, President of the 
United States of Americff, have caused the said convention to be made public, 
to the end that the same and every article and clause thereof may be observed 
and fulfilled with good faith by the United States and the citizens thereof. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of 
the United States of America to be affixed. 

Done at the City of Washington, this 25th day of July in the year of our 
Lord one thousand nine hundred and seven, and of the Independence of the 
United States of America the one hundred and thirty-second. 

[seal.] Theodore Roosevelt 

By the President : 
Robert Bacon 

Acting Secretary of State, 



Appendix 4. 

JBXEOUTIVE ORDER,] 

• The White House, 
Washington, July 25, 1907. 
Whereas, the Conyention concladed on the 8th of February, 1907, between 
the United States of America and the Dominican Republic has been duly 
signed and ratified by the governments of said countries, the following regu- 
lations are hereby promulgated for the government of the customs receivership 
established thereunder: 

GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DOMINICAN CUSTOMS RE- 
CEIVERSHIP UNDER AND IN PURSUANCE OF THE CONVENTION OF FEBRUARY 8tH, 
1907, BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBUC. 

1. In accordance with the provisions of Article 4 of the Convention, the 
accounts of the General Receiver i^all be rendered to the Contaduria General 
of the Dominican Republic, and to the State Department of the United States, 
and referred for examination and verification to the Bureau of Insular Affairs, 
which shall have immediate supervision and control of the receivership, pursu- 
ant and subject to such directions in regard thereto as shall be received from 
the President directly or through the Secretary of State. 

2. The President of the United States will appoint and fix the salaries of the 
General Receiver of Dominican Customs, of the Deputy General Receiver of 
Dominican Customs, as well as of all other customs employees under the re- 
ceivership. In cases of emergency, provisional appointments and removals for 
cause may be made in the discretion of the General Receiver, subject to the 
approval of the President of the United States. 

3. The accountable bonds to be required by the receivership, except as herein 
otherwise provided, shall be fixed by the General Receiver, subject to the 
approval of the Chief of the Bureau of Insular Affairs. 

4. Under the Bureau of Insular Affairs, the General Receiver shall have full 
charge and control of the Dominican customs receivership within the scope of 
the Convention of February 8, 1907, between the United States of America and 
Dominican Republic, and shall enforce and comply with the provisions thereof. 
He shall give bond in such form and amount as may be determined by the Chief 
of said Bureau. 

5. The Deputy General Receiver shall assist the General Receiver In the per- 
formance of his duties and In matters pertaining to the receivership, In such 
manner as the General Receiver shall direct, and In the absence or disability of 
the latter, the Deputy General Receiver, shall perform the duties of the Gen- 
eral Receiver, and assume, without formal transfer, the corresponding accounta- 
bility. The Deputy General Receiver shall give bond under the same conditions 
as the General Receiver. 

6. The General Receiver shall pay all necessary and authorized expenses of 
the receivership as they arise, within the limitations of the Convention. The 
allowance not exceeding five per cent "for the expense of collecting the reve- 
nues,** under Article I of the Convention, shall be considered as available only 
for the payment of the customs expense of the central office of the receivership, 
its special customs agents and the several customs houses of the Republic as 
authorized by the said General Receiver or other proper authority of the 
United States Government. 

7. All of the expenditures and dif^bursements of funds handled by the Re- 
ceivership shall be covered by complete vouchers in duplicate; one copy of 
each such voucher shall be retained as a imrt of the permanent files of the 
central office of the receivership, and the other transmitted to the Dominican 
Government, together with the corresponding accountable returns. 

SO 



, EBPOBT OF CHIEF OF BUREAU OF INSULAB AFFAIRS. 31 

8. All books, records, and accounts of the receivership shall be kept available 
and accessible for examination, inspection and audit at any time, by officers 
designated for that purpose, in accordance with the Oonvention, by either the 
Dominican or the United States Government. Such books, records and accounts 
shall constitute permanent archives of the central office of the receivership, 
and shall not be removed therefrom. 

9. The General Receiver, or in his absence, the Deputy General Receiver, 
shall submit the following reports to the Bureau of Insular Affairs, and to the 
Dominican Government: 

I. On the first of each month, or as soon thereafter as practicable, the Ao- 
countable Returns covering all transactions of the receivership during the pre- 
ceding month. 

II. On the first of each month, or as soon thereafter as practicable, a coa- 
solidated report of the receipts and expenditures of the Dominican customs 
service during the preceding month, accompanied by the corresponding state- 
ment for each entry port of the Republic separately. 

III. For the six months ending June SOth and December 31st of each year, 
and as soon as practicable after those dates, statistical reports of the commerce 
of the Republic. 

IV. At the end of each fiscal year of the receivership, starting from the date 
upon which the operations of the receivership begin under the Ck)nvent|on, and 
as soon thereafter as practicable, a general report of all transactions of the 
receivership during each such year, together with such collateral data and re- 
marks as may be deemed pertinent thereto. 

10. The General Receiver shall prepare and promulgate from time to time 
such additional regulations as he may deem necessary for the proper conduct 
of the service under his direction. Ck>pies of all such regulations and formal 
orders issued, shall be transmitted, as soon as practicable after their issuance 
to the Bureau of Insular Affairs, and sliall be subject to the approval of the 
Chief of that Bureau. 

11. When deemed necessary, and at least once in each fiscal year, a personal 
Inspection and examination of all accounts and records of the Receivership 
shall be made in Santo Domingo by a representative of the Bureau of Insular 
Affairs, who shall file with said Bureau a full report of his findings for such 
action as may be required. 

12. From and after August 1, 1907, upon which date these regulations shall 
become effective, and until such time as the provisions of the Convention, 
through the completion of the corresponding financial arrangement, become 
fully operative, the Goieral Receiver shall, in his own name as such General 
Receiver, in a new account, continue to make the same disposition of the funds 
received by him as heretofore. 

Thbodobe Roosevelt 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION 
TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR. 



11024— WAR 11)07— VOL 7 3 33 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION 
TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR, 



Manila, Decemher 31^ 1907. 

Sir: The Philippine Commission has the honor to submit its 
eighth annual report, covering the fiscal year ended June 30, 1907. 

Ordinarily this report will not deal with matters which fall under 
the special jurisdiction of the executive departments of the govern- 
ment. 

The report of the governor-general covers in condensed form all 
matters relating to the civil service, the auditing of the accounts of 
the government, the administration of the city of Manila, and the 
operations of provincial and municipal governments. Detailed in- 
formation as to these matters will be found in the reports of the 
bureaus concerned. 

Matters relating to public lands, public health and sanitation, non- 
Christian tribes, agriculture, forestry, meteorological conditions, and 
scientific investigation of all kinds will be found in the report of the 
secretary of the interior and in detailed form in the reports of the 
director of lands, the director of health, the director of agriculture, 
the director of forestry, the director of the weather bureau, and the 
director of the bureau of science. 

Information as to public works, the operations of the coast guard 
boats and their relations to the coastwise trade, the work of the con- 
stabulary, the postal service, and the coast and geodetic survey work 
accomplished is embodied in the report of the secretary of commerce 
and police. The reports of the director of public works, the director 
of navigation, the director of constabulary, the director of posts, and 
the director of coast surveys deal with these matters very fully, and 
for detailed information reference should be had to such reports. 

The report of the secretary of finance and justice contains in con- 
densed form information as to the finances of the government, in- 
ternal-revenue and customs receipts, the operations of internal-reve- 
nue and customs laws, the work of the judiciary, and the adminis- 

NoTE. — All appendixes and exhibltB mentioned herein have been omitted 
from this advance reiwrt and will be printed in the full report to follow shortly. 



86 REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

tration of justice. Information on these subjects is very fully set 
out in the reports of the insular treasurer, the insular auditor, the 
collector of internal revenue, the insular collector of customs, and 
the attorney-general. 

The report of the secretary of public instruction covers the subject 
of public schools, the administration of prisons, public printing, and 
supplies purchased or furnished by the government. Detailed in- 
formation as to any of the matters embodied in the report of the sec- 
retary of public instruction may be found in the reports of the di- 
rector of education, the director of prisons, the director of printing, 
and the purchasing agent. 

CHANGES IN THE COMMISSION. 

On September 20, 1906, the resignation of the Hon. Henry Clay 
Ide as governor-general became effective, and on that date the Hon. 
James F. Smith was inaugurated as governor-general of the Philip- 
pine Islands. The inauguration took place in the Marble Hall of 
the Ayuntamiento, and was attended by the Commission, the justices 
of the supreme court, the official representatives of foreign nations, 
officers representing the United States Army and Navy, judges of 
the court of first instance, provincial governors, administrative offi- 
cials of the insular government and of the city of Manila, repre- 
sentatives of the several commercial and economic associations of 
the city, the veteran army of the Philippines, and a large representa- 
tion of the general public. 

The Hon. W. Morgan Shuster, formerly insular collector of cus- 
toms, was appointed secretary of public instruction on September 28, 
.1906, vice the Hon. James F. Smith, appointed governor-general. 

Vacancies in the position of vice-governor and of secl*ctary of 
finance and justice haye not as yet been filled. 

CONDITIONS AS TO PEACE AND ORDER. 

In the months of April, May, and July of last year, as appears 
from the Commission's report for the fiscal year 1906, the outlaws 
Montalon, Sakay, Villafuerte, and De Vega surrendered to the au- 
thorities, and with their surrender the brigandage which had existed 
for some years in the provinces of Cavite, Batangas, La Laguna, and 
Rizal terminated. The four outlaws in question were found guilty 
and sentenced to death by the court of first instance of the sixth judi- 
cial district. The sentences so imposed were subsequently confirmed 
by the supreme court. Petitions for commutation of sentence were 
presented and commutation was granted in the cases of Montalon 
and Villafuerte and denied in the cases of Sakay and De Vega. The 
following order of the governor-general sets forth the reasons for the 



BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 87 

granting of the commutation to Montalon and Villafuerte and for its 
denial to Sakay and De Vega : 

Offic?e op the Govebnob-Genebal of the Philippine Islands, 

Manila, September 12, 1907. 

On the 22d of August, 1906, Macarlo Sakay, Julian Montalon, Leon Villa- 
fuerte, and Lucio de Vega were accused of the crime of bandolerismo in the 
court of first instance of the sixth Judicial district by the provincial fiscal of 
the province of Cavite. The accused, on their arraignment, pleaded "not 
guilty," but subsequently during the trial, and after some 20 witnesses for the 
prosecution had been examined, they withdrew this plea and entered a plea of 
"guilty." The court, taking into consideration the evidence adduced and the 
plea of " guilty," found the defendants guilty as charged and pronounced upon 
them the sentence of death. From the judgment and sentence the accused 
appealed to the supreme court of the islands, which, on the 6th day of August, 
1907, confirmed the judgment from which the appeal was taken and directed 
that the record be remitted to the lower court in order that its sentence might 
be carried into effect. The record having been duly remitted as required, the 
judge of first instance of the sixth judicial district, of which the province of 
Cavite forms a part, ordered that the sentence duly pronounced by said court 
of first instance and duly confirmed by the supreme court, as aforesaid, be 
carried into effect at Bilibld prison on Friday, the 13th of September, 1907, 
at 9 o'clock a. m. 

From investigations made by the undersigned and from the record of the 
trial and appellate courts it appears that Macarlo Sakay in 1902 attempted a 
reorganization of the Katlptinan Society for the purpose of bringing about a 
renewal of disturbances of the public order, and that upon discovery of his 
ulterior purposes he was tried and convicted of the crime of sedition. Happily 
for him he fell within the terms of the amnesty extended by the President of 
the United States to all those engaged In attempting the overthrow of the exist- 
ing sovereignty, and upon taking the oath of allegiance to the United States 
he was set at liberty. Far from appreciating the grace and mercy of which 
he was the recipient, Sakay almost Immediately set himself to work to foment 
new disorders and new disturbances which he must have known could result 
only In misery and ruin to his own people and to his own race. Hearing that 
information of his activities had reached the ears of the constituted author- 
ities, Sakay fled to the mountains and there, gathering about him a small 
band of outlaws, criminals, and Irresponslbles, established what he was pleased 
to call a government and made himself its ofllclal head under the high-sounding 
title of ** Supreme president of the Tagalog Isles." 

At this time Cornelio Felizardo, Julian Montalon, and Lucio de Vega, crim- 
inals from boyhood, who never did an honest day's work in all their lives, and 
who gained a livelihood by robbing, pillaging, and many times by murdering 
X)eople of their own race, were operating with others of like character in and 
about the provinces of Cavite, Batangas, and Laguna. These men were emi- 
nently fitted for all the purposes of Sakay, so he erected the band of outlaws 
and assassins commanded by them Into a so-called army and put the seal of 
his approval on all that they were and on all that they had done by the simple 
process of converting the title of " Robber chief " Into that of " General." 
Montalon seems to have received the highest rank, but his chieftainship appears 
to have been merely nominal and to have been recognized only when his views 
accorded with those of his more powerful subordinates. Sakay and his evil 
followers assumed the convenient cloak of patriotism, and under the titles of 
" Defenders of the country " and " Protectors of the people " proceeded to 
inaugurate a reign of terror, devastation, and ruin In three of the most beautiful 



88 HEPOBT OF THE PHIIilPPINE COMMISSION. 

provinces in the arcliipelago. They drove the peaceful inhabitants from 
their homes and their fields, stole their horses and carabaos, outraged their 
women, and murdered or horribly mutilated all those who opposed them or 
were suspected of giving information of their crimes to the authorities. 

As self-styled " patriots," " defenders of the country," and " protectors of the 
people" they killed a constabulary private on duty with a peaceful surveying 
party, hung Lorenzo Amigo, a resident of the barrio of Galoocan, municipality 
of Talisay ; brutally cut the tendons of the hands and feet of Natalio Anitares 
and Candido del Mundo and then slew them, slashed to death Tomas Panuelpa 
and his brother, shot Benigno Martin and Teniente Juan, of Bacoor; hung 
Melicio Alcantara and Alejandro de Jesus, poured petroleum over Patriarco N. 
and burned him to death, hamstrung and cut off the lips of Bias Cabrera, a 
resident of Calaca; cut off the upper lip and severed the tendons of the right 
foot of Martin Piol, of Taal ; hamstrung Vicente Castillo and Isidoro Camauiac, 
of San Francisco de Malabon ; mutilated and crippled for life Simeon de Quiros 
and Calixto Rollo, hamstrung German Oliveros, sequestrated and hamstrung 
Nesario Crisostomo, of Boso Boso; severed the tendons of the hands and feet 
and cut off the tongue and lips of Anacleto Mojica, captured two female ser- 
vants in San Francisco de Malabon and repeatedly outraged them on their way 
to the mountains, carried off and outraged Rosa M., of a barrio of Tanauan, and 
while resisting her rescue wounded Sergeant Gonzales and killed Policeman 
Francisco Guevara ; seized the father of Justa M., of Bacoor, and under threats 
of death obliged him to withdraw his 13-year-old daughter from a convent in 
Manila and to deliver her to the brutal embraces of Cornel io Felizardo, and 
finally, to demonstrate that no horror was too great to make them hesitate at 
any crime, they carried away the wife and two baby children of General Trias, 
whose love of country had been tested on many a well-fought field of honorable 
conflict, and in the depth of mountains submitted this gentlewoman of their 
own race to mistreatment worthy only of brutes and savages. 

It has been stated that Marcario Sakay had no knowledge of the horrible 
crimes committed by his " generals " and " colonels " and " captains," and that 
while legally responsible for all that they did, his want of actual knowledge 
might justify the exercise of executive clemency in his behalf. But, unfortu- 
nately for Sakay, the record is against him and discloses that, far from disap- 
proving the acts of his subordinates, he himself authorized many of their 
offenses and set for them the very bad example of cruelty and crime. It was 
his personal band which hamstrung Nasarlo Crtsostomo and murdered Tomas 
Panuelpa and his brother. He it was who ordered that male prisoners should 
take the oath of enlistment and directed that the list should be i)ermltted to 
fall into th^ hands of the authorities in order that those thus unwillingly en- 
listed might be punished for sedition. He it was who ordered Major Ramos 
and "Captain" Franca to cut the tendons and crush the hands of Francisco 
Rosalfa and Faustino Custodlo in the presence of their wives. He it was who 
ordered the sacking of the pueblo of Teresa, inhabited solely by people of his 
own race, who commanded that Councilor Maximo Gravlllas and his compan- 
ions should be hamstrung and their hands crushed, and who directed that the 
town should be burned and its inhabitants treated without pity in case they 
dared to resist. 

This is the honor roll of battles waged In Rlzal, Laguna, Cavlte, and Ba tan- 
gas for the country and its peoples by Sakay, Felizardo, Mon talon, de Vega, 
and similar self-styled "patriots." The list includes only those deeds of arms 
which might be proved by competent evidence in a court of law. It does not 
include, however, the hundreds of cases of rape and outrage the victims of which 
kept their shame to themselves and contented themselves with the bare state- 
ment tliat they had been carried away to the mountains by evil doer& Neither 



BBPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 89 

does it include the liuudrods iiix)n hundreds of cases of theft, house burning, 
and robbery which, compared with the other oflTenses of these men, might be 
almost disregarded. 

Petitions have been presented by the prisoners, members of their families, 
and many citizens of Manila praying that the sentence pronounced by the courts 
be modified and that the death penalty be commuted to life imprisonment In 
consequence the duty now devolves upon the executive to determine whether 
the law should be permitted to take its course as prescrit)ed by the Judicial 
tribunals or whether executive clemency should be extended in any or all of the 
cases as prayed for in the petitions presented. 

One of the grounds for executive clemency urged by the petitions is that the 
surrender of the condemned prisoners was accomplished by promises of Im- 
munity, or at least by promises that the pardoning power would be exercised 
in their behalf should the courts finally pronounce on them the ultimate penalty. 

If any such promise was made by the government or even by any official of 
the government clothed with apparent authority to make It, the executive should 
Intervene and commute the extreme penalty' imposed upon the prisoners to some 
lighter punishment. The government as such certainly never made any such 
promise as that indicated in the petitions, and a careful, painstaking investi- 
gation discloses that no official of the government, whether clothed with appar- 
ent authority or not, made or suggested any promise of immunity to the pris- 
oners or anyone else in case of surrender, or made or suggested to the prisoners 
or anyone else any conditions of surrender whatever save and except that those 
who surrendered would receive a fair and impartial trial before the courts and 
would not be summarily dealt with. Far from making any promises of im- 
munity or proposing any terms of surrender, the government officials who had 
anything to do with the surrender seem to have taken every precaution to avoid 
any misunderstanding In that behalf. Indeed, before any arrest of the pris- 
oners was made the Intermediary who dealt with the prisoners, and who was 
the first to come In contact with them, was warned in writing that no terms 
or conditions conld be offered or accepted beyond those of good treatment and 
a fair trial, as the following correspondence will show : 

[Translation.] 

July 2, 1906. 
Dr. DoMiNADOB Gomez, 

Calle Diaz 2^2, Trozo, Manila. 
My Dear Sir : In order that there may be no misunderstanding or mistake I 
wani you that the government can not offer to negotiate with or talk of condi- 
tions to any chief or band of bandits, ladrones, or robbers or other class of evil- 
doers notwithstanding that they may call themselves insurgents or revolu- 
tionaries. The only condition which the government can offer Is good treatment 
and a just Judgment by the civil courts. It is necessary that you explain all 
this to the persons to whom you speak In order that there may be a perfect 
understanding and that they can not say that the government has broken Its 
word. 

Very respectfully, H. H.* Bandholtz, 

District Director. 
To which letter tlie following reply was made : 

[Translation.] 

Manila, P. I., July S, 1906. 
Col. H. H. Bandholtz, 

Director, First Constabulary District, Manila, P. I. 
Mt Dear Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your letter dated 
the 2d of July, 1906, in which you tell me that no kind of conditions must be 



40 BEPOBT OF THB PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

offered to any outlaw, chief, or band desiring to surrender, and that the surren- 
der of such persons mnst be absolutely unconditional. I am in every way in 
accord with the warnings contained in your letter, and must state that in con- 
formity with the verbal instructions received from you prior to the surrender of 
Villafuerte, Sakay, and Oarreon I have neither proposed nor accepted any con- 
dition or compromise either on their part or on the part of the government to 
secure their surrender, and that in consequence such surrender has been abso- 
lutely unconditional. 

Very respectfully, Dominadob Gomez. 

Notwithstanding all these precautions, hefore the arrest of Sakay, Montalon, 
Villafuerte, and de Vega some currency was given in the public press to rumors 
that the surrender had been accomplished by promises of immunity. la view of 
this the statement, under oath, of the parties Interested was taken. The state- 
ment is as follows: 

BuBEAU OF Const ABTn^ART, Infobmation Division, 

Office of the Supebintendent, 
Manila* P. I. 
Philippine Islands, 

Cavite Province^ Luzon, $8: 

Personally appeared before me, the undersigned, Mncarlo Sakay, Julian Mon- 
talon, Leon Villafuerte, Lucio de Vega, and Benito Natlvidad, who, being duly 
sworn according to law, deposed as follows : 

That they have surrendered to Ck)I. H. d. Bandholtz, of the constabulary, 
voluntarily and without promises, conditions, or offers of any class having been 
made except Just and legal treatment, and understanding that they are to ap- 
pear before the competent court there to answer for the acts committed by them 
while in the field ; that the actual reasons for their surrender have been that the 
persons who have arranged same have convinced them that their stay in the 
field was prejudicial to the interests of the country, whereas their surrender 
would be a great benefit ; that this statement is free and spontaneous, without 
their being prisoners or in detention, and without any kind of imprisonment or 
violence, and for the sole purpose that there may be no doubts or misinterpre- 
tations in regard to the motives that may have inspired this act. 

Macario Sakay. 
Julian Montalon (his x mark). 
L. D. Villafuerte. 
Lucio de V^a. 
Benito Natlvidad. 
Witnesses : 

L. J. Van Schaigk, 

Governor of Cavite, 
DoiiiDOB Gomez. 
Chables F. Hebb, 

First Lieutenant, Twenty-first Infantry, 
Subscribed and sworn to before me this 17th day of July, 1906. 

SULPICIO Antont, 
Acting Provincial Secretary, Cavite, 

WiNFIELD S. GbOVE. 

Rafael Cbame. 

I certify that the signatures of the atK)ve two witnesses to the signature of 
Julian Montalon, made at his request, are correct, and therefore I sign this in 
Cavite this 17th day of July, 1906. 

SULPICIO Antoni, 
Acting Provincial Secretary, Cavite, 



BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 41 

I CBTtity that this is a true copy of a translation of this affidavit appearing 
in tlie Cablenews of July 21, 1906. 

Rafael Cbame, 
Major and Superintendent. 

From all this it wonld seem that the executive is Justified in concluding that 
no terms or conditions were proposed or accepted by the government or any of 
its officers, and that the surrender was unconditional with the exceptions men- 
tioned. The government, through its trusted officials, took every precaution to 
avoid any mistake or misunderstanding in the matter, and to assume that any 
promises of immunity were made on the part of the government or its officials 
would be in the face of direct and indubitable evidence to the contrary. 
Indeed, as is shown by their affidavit, those most interested in the matter 
denied under oath, at the time when they were not driven to the last expedient, 
that any promises had been made to them by anyone. 

Once resolved in the negative the question as to whether any promises of 
immunity or of leniency as to penalty were made, there is not the slightest 
ground for executive interference with the sentence imposed by the courts on 
Macario Sakay and Lucio de Vega. Many of their subordinates and followers 
have already suffered the last penalty for crimes committed under their orders 
and' by their direction, and to make them the objects of clemency would 
necessitate a discrimination in their favor which could neither be justified nor 
defended. The petitions for commutations of their sentences are therefore 
denied. 

With reference to Julian Mon talon It may be said with truth that he was 
the least bloodthirsty and cruel of all the bandit chieftains who cursed the 
provinces of Batangas and Cavite. Confirmed criminal as he was, some of 
the milk of human kindness yet lingered with him, and when Mrs. Trias and 
her little babies had been carried into the mountains by a monster dead to 
every human sentiment he strove by every means in his power to save her 
from indignity and to accomplish her release. That she was released was due 
to his efforts and those of CJosme Caro, whose mother was Induced by him to 
intervene on behalf of her unfortunate countrywoman. This act of mercy on 
the part of Julian Montalon shall count for something in his hoar of extremity 
and weigh the balance in his fkvor when nothing else could save him. The 
death penalty imposed upon him by the court of first Instance of the sixth 
judicial district, and confirmed by the supreme court of the Philippine Islands, 
is hereby commuted to life imprisonment in Bllibld prison, and he will be 
confined accordingly. 

Leon Villafuerte is a young man, 25 years of age, and prior to taking to the 
mountains as an outlaw he was a student in the Nautical School of Manila. 
It seems entirely probable that due to the talk of irresponsible agitators this 
young man was carried away by a false conception of duty to his country and 
that the cloak of patriotism was not assumed by him to give an outward ap- 
pearance of respectability to brigandage, robbery, and murder. No deeds of 
cruelty, mutilation, rape, or outrage appear to have marked his criminal career, 
and save the deaths resulting from open combat, no killings except that of 
Mellcio de Silva, president of Bigaa, can be traced directly to his door. Mellclo 
de Silva, it seems, was at once an official of the government and a member of 
Vlllafuerte's band of outlaws. As president of Bigaa and outlaw spy of Vllla- 
fnerte the opportunity for thieving with comparative security was great, and 
de Silva set himself to the work of stealing carabaos on a large scale. This did 
not meet the approval of Villafuerte, who called a halt and directed that the 



42 EBPOBT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

further theft of carabaos upon which the poor people depended for a living 
should cease. To de Sllva this appeared an unwarranted Interference by an 
outlaw with a legitimate business enterprise, and he called attention to the 
fact that as president of the municipality It was his duty to denounce Villa- 
-fuerte to the authorities. This attitude on the part of de Sllva resulted In his 
elimination, which, while a clean-cut violation of the law, was not wholly desti- 
tute of extenuating circumstances admissible for consideration on an applica- 
tion for commutation. Moreover, Vlllafuerte, Impressed by the argument that 
he was working a great Injury to his country and Its future, was the first to 
come In, and thereafter he lent very valuable assistance in bringing about the 
surrender of other outlaws In the mountains. Taking into account his youth 
when he took his first mistaken step and the Impresslonableness which Induced 
It, and considering that his criminal career Is not stained by the horrible crimes 
committed by his companions, and that the killing of de Sllva was accomplished 
under circumstances not showing a reckless and abandoned heart, the death 
penalty Imposed upon Leon Vlllafuerte by the court of first Instance of the 
sixth Judicial district, and confirmed by the supreme court of the Philippine 
Islands, Is hereby commuted to life Imprisonment In B 11 ibid prison, and he will 
be confined accordingly. 

James F. Smith, 
Oovemor-Oencral of the Philippine Islands. 

After the insurrection had ended throughout the islands and its 
I'esponsible chiefs had surrendered and submitted to the inevitable 
many of the provinces were infested by outlaw bands which, under 
the pretense of continuing the insurrection, gained a dishonest liveli- 
hood by preying upon and plundering their fellow-countrymen. 
Some of these bands were the natural result and aftermath >of the 
insurrection. Many who, prior to 1898, had been engaged in humble 
pursuits and had risen to rank in the insurrectionary forces found it 
anything but agreeable to return to their former avocations, and 
therefore continued in the field with small followings, enjoying com- 
mand rather than service and unlawful luxury instead of honest 
poverty. 

Besides these outlaw bands, which were the creation and result of 
the insurrection itself, there were several bands of outlaws which had 
existed in the archipelago long before any insurrection was thought 
of. Once the insurrection commenced, these bands nat'urally became 
a part of it, and after it ended they continued the life to which they 
were accustomed. The outlaws of Cavite were of the latter class, and 
under the chieftainship of Felizardo, Montalon, and other minor 
leaders they incited from time to time disturbances which kept Cavite 
and the contiguous provinces in a state of ferment and unrest. 

With the death of Felizardo and the surrender of Montalon, 
Sakay, Vlllafuerte, and De Vega, Cavite, Batangas, La Laguna, and 
Rizal returned to normal conditions, and during the past year it may 
be said with entire truth that the four provinces in question have 
been as tranquil and peaceful as any in the islands. 



BBPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 48 

In 1906 the pulahanes of Ijeyte raided the town of Burauen and 
killed several of the municipal police. This, added to some minor 
successes achieved immediately thereafter, started in the province a 
disturbance of such serious proportions that it was necessary to call 
upon the military to furnish substantial aid in suppressing it. To 
many the word "pulahan" is synonymous with that of bandit or 
robber. This designation of the people responsible for the outbreak 
in Leyte is hardly proper. The pulahanes of Leyte and Samar can 
hardly be called robbers or thieves* Indeed, as a rule the pulahan is 
hard working, industrious, and not at all disposed to violence unless 
impelled to it by long continued wrongs or by the potent influence of 
religious fanaticism. All the trouble in Leyte and in Samar was due 
in a large degree to injustices perpetrated upon the people living in 
the mountains and at a considerable distance from the seashore. In 
the towns where these people were compelled to sell their products 
they received little or no consideration from municipal officials and 
were not infrequently deprived of the products of months of toil by 
cheats and swindles which not infrequently were winked at and some- 
times even aided and abetted by municipal officials. Education and 
just treatment will make out of the pulahan a good citizen. Under 
proper guidance he will soon learn that there is a legal remedy for 
injustice and that there is an easier and better way to obtain relief 
than to take the law into his own hands after his wrongs have be- 
come unendurable. The pulahan is the successor of the " diosdios " 
in Samar, Leyte, Cebu, and Panay. He is the " babaylan " of Negros, 
the " colorum " of Batangas and Tayabas, the " Santa Iglesia " of 
Nueva Ecija and Bulacan, and the " guardia de honor " of Pangasi- 
nan and the two Ilocos ; and in any of these provinces wrong or fan- 
aticism or both may bring the trouble which wrought destruction to 
life and property in Samar and Leyte. Christianity and civilization 
have but lightly touched the pulahan and he is still the plaything of 
the fetichism and weird superstitions which have been his inherit- 
ance for centuries. If the discipline or any doctrine or ceremony of 
the Christian faith appealed to him he adopted it, but uprooted 
none of his ancient beliefs to give it place. Whatever of Christianity 
he may have has substituted nothing ; it has simply been added to the 
religion 'of his ancestors and made a part of it. He has little in 
common with the Christian civilized Filipino, and to the latter the 
uprising in Samar and Leyte was as much of a surprise as it was to 
the authorities in Manila. The farms desolated, the houses burned, 
the towns and barrios raided all belonged to civilized Christian 
Filipinos, and it would be strange indeed if they had been the prime 
movers in a disturbance which brought destruction to their business, 
their property, and their homes. 



44 REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Since April of this year complete tranquillity has prevailed in 
every part of the archipelago, inclusive of the Moro province. In 21 
of the provinces peace has reigned supreme during the entire year. 
In Bataan and Batangas there was some disturbance of the public 
order, caused in the case of the first-named province by the escape of 
some provincial prisoners, and in the second by the operations of six 
or seven brigands near the boundary line of the provinces of La La- 
guna and Tayabas. All of the escaped prisoners and all of the ban- 
dits with the exception of two in each party have been captured. In 
Capiz and Nueva Ecija cattle thieves and brigands caused some trou- 
ble for a few months, and in Uocos Norte during the month of July, 
1906, two prisoners who had just been released from Bilibid at- 
tempted to organize an armed uprising, which was promptly discov- 
ered and suppressed by the provincial governor with the aid of the 
constabulary. The only outlaws of any importance who are still 
uncaptured are Papa Otoy, the religious head of the pulahan move- 
ment in Samar, and Felipe Salvador, the religious head of the Santa 
Iglesia movement in Nueva Ecija and Bulacan. In Ambos Camar- 
ines there is one outlaw who still remains uncaptured. 

MATTERS AFFECTING PROVINCES AND MUNICIPALrnES. 

Extension of autonomy to provincial governments, — ^Thc conven- 
vention of provincial governors held in Manila in October, 1906, rec- 
ommended that the then existing law providing that provincial boards 
shall be composed of a provincial governor elected by the municipal 
councilors and vice-presidents of the various municipalities of the 
province and a provincial treasurer and a third member appointed 
by the executive be so amended as to permit of the election of the 
provincial governor and third member by direct vote of the people. 
This recommendation was submitted to the Secretary of War, and on 
receiving his approval thereof the provincial government act was 
amended accordingly. This innovation in the constitution and selec- 
tion of provincial boards has been an advantage both to the insular 
and to the local government. On the one hand it has removed all 
cause for friction between the provincial governor elected by the 
people and the two members of the board named by the executive. 
On the other it has imposed upon the provincial governor and the 
third member the responsibility for the well-being of the province 
and has removed from the insular government much of the responsi- 
bility for conditions purely of local concern. Provincial governors 
and third members realize that they are on trial to test their ability 
to preserve peace and order within their respective jurisdictions and 
to prove their capacity for local self-government. The advice of the 
provincial treasurer as to the necessity for the collection of taxes, 



BBFOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 45 

as to economy in the expenditure of public moneys, and as to related 
matters is now accepted with good grace, coming as it does by way 
of counsel from the American minority instead of a determination 
by an American majority of the board. Since the change in the 
composition of the provincial board friction between the provincial 
governor and the provincial treasurer has entirely disappeared, arid 
so far as is known perfect harmony prevails between elective and 
appointive provincial officials. 

Land tax. — ^By the provisions of act No. 1713 the imposition or 
suspension of the land tax has been left to the determination of pro- 
vincial governments, and as a consequence the land tax, which has 
always been a source of annoyance and agitation, has ceased to be a 
matter of insular concern. The opinion prevailed among many 
American and Filipino officials that the transfer of responsibility 
for the land tax to provincial boards would result in the annual sus- 
pension of the land tax in all of the provinces. So far as known 'the 
land tax has been suspended in but two provinces, Iloilo arid Cebu, 
and it would seem that at least for the calendar year 1908 the prog- 
nostications of a general suspension have not been justified by the 
event. It is probable that a bill will be introduced in the assembly 
by the delegates from Ambos Camarines and Batangas for the sus- 
pension of the land tax in the provinces which they represent. The 
present attitude toward the land tax on the part of the provincial 
governments composed of two Filipinos and one American is rather 
surprising to those who year in and year out have been accustomed to 
receive from provincial boards petitions supplicating that the land 
tax be abolished or at all events suspended until the agricultural 
conditions of the country had improved. Nevertheless the change 
of front was the natural consequence of vesting the boards with the 
power to suspend the tax and the natural outcome of transferring to 
them all responsibility for the results. So long as provinces and 
municipalities could secure sufficient financial aid from the insular 
government to pay salaries and secure necessary betterments it was 
quite natural that they should be opposed to taxation; but when sus- 
pension of the land tax meant a loss of provincial income which 
could not be repaired by loan or gift from the insular government, 
provincial officials were confronted with the stern proposition that 
governments, like individuals, require money to live, and were face 
to face with the disagreeable alternative either of confessing that 
they could not maintain local governments or of admitting that taxes 
were a necessary evil. The people begin to understand that the land 
lax was not imposed for the benefit of the insular government, but 
for the construction of provincial roads, the maintenance of primary 
schools, and the support of their own local governments. The land 



46 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

tax may have been and may still be impopular, but it is fair to pre- 
smne that before municipal and provincial governments ask for its 
suspension or abolition they will be prepared to suggest some other 
system of taxation to sustain the local governments, the failure or suc- 
cess of which will largely determine the capacity of the people to 
exercise the autonomy already conceded. 

Internal revenue. — Under the provisions of act No. 1695 an addi- 
tional 5 per cent of the internal revenue was allowed to municipali- 
ties for school purposes, and an additional 10 per cent of the internal 
revenue accruing to the insular treasury was conceded to those 
provinces authorizing a 1-peso increase of the cedula tax for the 
benefit of the road and bridge fund. Twenty-seven of the provinces 
promptly adopted the double cedula tax, and as a result the road and 
bridge fund in five-sixths of the provinces and the moneys available 
for the repair of much needed roads and bridges will be very greatly 
inci'eased during the calendar year 1908. 

Municipal betterments and improvements. — Five years of munici- 
pal government showed to a conclusion that nearly 50 per cent of the 
provinces were disposed to spend the greater part of the municipal 
moneys on salaries and wages and little or nothing on public works 
of any kind or character. During the calendar year 1906, 88 out of 
685 municipalities expended their entire revenues for -salaries and not 
a single cent on betterments. Sixty-three municipalities expended 
on public inlprovements less than 1 per cent and 163 less than 10 per 
cent of their income. 

Argao, a mimicipality of the first class, province of Cebu, with a 
population of 35,448, received into its treasury ^12,962.60 during the 
calendar year 1906 and expended for construction, repairs, and im- 
provements the munificent sum of ^01.62. The salaries of its offi- 
cials, police, and employees amounted to the sum of more than ^,600. 

Bauan, a municipality of the first class, province of Batangas, with 
a population of 39,094, received during the calendar year 1906 
!?^2,032.10 and expended on construction, repairs, and improvements 
the sum of P506.26 and on salaries, wages, and miscellaneous more 
than ^=11,000. 

Barotac Nuevo, a municipality of the second class, province of 
Iloilo, with a population of 22,332, had to its credit in the treasury 
during the calendar year 1906 ^10,106.35, of which sum it expended 
^188.26 on construction, repairs, and improvements, and more than 
^8,000 in salaries. 

Angat, a municipality of the third class, province of Bulacan, with 
a population of 12,092, received into its treasury during the calendar 
year 1906 ^6,188.01 and expended on construction, repairs, and im- 
provements P=l 12.45 and on salaries of officials, employees, and police 
more than ^=4,400. 



BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINfi COMMISSION. 47 

Murcia, a municipality of the fourth class, province of Occidental 
Negros, with a population of 4,408, and with money to its credit m 
the treasury to the extent of ^3,281.41, expended on public improve- 
ments ^9.05 and on salaries and wages more than f^,700. 

It will be noted from this that a municipality of the fourth class 
with an income of ^^,281.41 spent on public improvements and better- 
ments about ^100; that Angat, a municipality of the third class, with 
money to its credit amounting to ^=6,188.01, spent on improvements 
^112.45; that Barotac Nuevo, a municipality of the second class, with 
money to its credit amounting to ^10,106.35, spent on public improve- 
ments W88.26, and that Bauan, a municipality of the first class, with 
an income of ^2,092.10, spent ^506.26 on public works. These are 
municipalities selected almost at random from the various classes, 
and the figures show to a demonstration that, whatever may be the 
income of the municipality, the disposition is to spend the money on 
salaries. 

In view of this lamentable condition of affairs the Commission was 
forced to put a limit on the amount that could be expended for 
salaries, and that limit was fixed at 50 per cent for municipalities 
of the first class, 60 per cent for municipalities of the second class, 65 
per cent for municipalities of the third class, and 75 per cent for 
municipalities of the fourth class. This law will force the expendi- 
ture for betterments of something more than an insignificant part of 
the municipal income and will enable the separation of many munici- 
palities which, in the interests of economy, were fused with others and 
"have been completely abandoned by the municipalities to which they 
are annexed. As a rule, the annexed municipalities have received 
from the cabecera neither police protection, sanitation, or any other 
benefit justifying the imposition and collection of taxes. 

THE PHILIPPINE ASSEMBLY. 

CdU for a popular assembly. — On the 28th of March, 1907, the 
Commission by resolution, unanimously adopted, certified to the 
President that for two years following the publication of the census 
of the islands a condition of general and complete peace had pre- 
vailed and then existed in the territory of the islands not inhabited 
by Moros or other non-Christian tribes. The certificate is as 
follows : 

Whereas the census of the Philippine Islands was completed and published 
on the twenty-seventh day of March, nineteen hundred and five, which said 
completion and publication of said census was, on the twenty-eighth day of 
March, nineteen hundred and five, duly published and proclaimed to the people 
by the governor-general of the Philii)pine Islands with the announcement that 
the President of the United States would direct the Philippine Commission to 



48 BEPOBT OF THE PHrLIPPINB COMMISSION. 

call a general election for the choice of delegates to a popular assembly, pro- 
vided that a condition of general and complete peace with recognition of the 
authority of the United States should be certified by the Philippine Commission 
to have continued in the territory of the Philippine Islands for a period of two 
years after said completion and publication of said census ; and 

Whereas since the completion and publication of said census there have 
been no serious disturbances of the public order save and except those caused 
by the noted outlaws and bandit chieftains, Felizardo and Montalon, and their 
followers In the provinces of Gavlte and Batangas, and those caused in the 
provinces of Samar and Leyte by* the non-Christian and fanatical pulahanes 
resident in the mountain districts of the said provinces and the barrios con- 
tiguous thereto; and 

Whereas the overwhelming majority of the people of said provinces of 
Cavlte, Batangas, Samar, and Leyte have not taken part in said disturbances 
and have not aided or abetted the lawless acts of said bandits and pulahanes; 
and 

Whereas the great mass and body of the Filipino people have, during said 
period of two years, continued to be lawabiding, peaceful, and loyal to the 
United States, and have continued to recognize and do now recognize the 
authority and sovereignty of the United States in the territory of said Philip- 
pine Islands: Now, therefore, be it 

Resolved hy the Philippine Commission in formal session duly <issemhled. 
That it, said Philippine Commission, do certify, and it does hereby certify, to 
the President of the United States that for a period of two years after the 
completion and publication of the census a condition of general and complete 
peace, with recognition of the authority of the United States, has continued to 
exist and now exists in the territory of said Philippine Islands not inhabited 
by Moros or other non-Christian tribes ; and, be it further 

Resolved hy said Philippine Commission^ That the President of the United 
States be requested, and is hereby requested, to direct said Philippine Commis- 
sion to call ft general election for the choice of delegates to a popular assembly 
of the people of said territory in the Philippine Islands, which assembly shall 
to be known as the " Philippine assembly.*' 

By virtue of this certificate and in accordance with the provisions 
of the act of Congress of July 1, 1902, the President, on March 28, 
issued a proclamation directing the Philippine Commission to call a 
general election for the choice of delegates to a popular assembly. 
Accordingly on the 30th of March, 1907, the Commission passed a 
resolution ordering that an election be held for delegates on July 30, 
and directing the governor-general to issue a proclamation announc- 
ing the election for that date. The proclamation was issued on 
April 1. By a strange coincidence the day of the month fixed for 
holding the election was the same as that on which the first legislative 
body in America, the house of burgesses, met in the year 1619. 

Under the general election law the delegates to the assembly elected 
at the elections held on July 30, 1907, and seated by the Philippine 
assembly will serve until January 1, 1910. Subsequent elections for 
delegates will be held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in 



REPORT OF THE PHIIilPPINE COMMISSION. 49 

November, 1909, and on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in 
November in each odd-numbered year thereafter, delegates to take 
office on the 1st day of January next following their election and to 
hold office for two years or until their successors are elected and 
qualified. 

Representation in the aasemhly. — ^The basis of representation in the 
Philippine assembly is one delegate for every 90,000 of population 
and one additional delegate for a major fraction thereof: Provided^ 
however^ That each Christian province shall be entitled to at least one 
delegate and that the total number. of delegates shall at no time ex- 
ceed 100. Provinces entitled to more than one delegate are divided 
into districts. The law declares Manila to be a province within the 
meaning of the act of Congress authorizing the assembly, and is al- 
lowed the same representation as other provinces. Thirty-four prov- 
inces are represented in the Philippine assembly, which is composed 
of 80 members. 

Qualifications of delegates. — ^The act of Congress requires that dele- 
gates to the assembly sh^ll be qualified electors of the election 4istrict 
in which they may be chosen, 25 years of age, and owing allegiance to 
the United States. The act of Congress prescribes that the qualifica- 
tions of electors shall be the same as those prescribed for electors in 
municipal elections under laws in force at the time of the passage of 
tJie Congressional enactment. As the municipal election laws in force 
at the time of the passage of the act of Congress have undergone some 
change in regard to the qualifications of electors, the strange anom- 
aly is presented of having certain qualifications exacted from munic- 
ipal and provincial officials which are not required for delegates to 
the assembly. One of the results is that felons, victims of the opium 
habit, and persons convicted in the court of first instance for 
crimes involving moral turpitude but whose cases are pending on 
appeal are not eligible for election to any provincial or municipal 
office, but may become delegates to the assembly. 

The first elections. — ^As announced by provincial governors the elec- 
tions for assemblymen held on the 30th of July, 1907, resulted in the 
election of 32 Nacionalistas, 4 Independistas, 7 Inmediatistas, 16 Pro- 
gresistas, 20 Independents, and 1 Centro Catolico. 

The total number of voters registered for the assembly elections 
was 104, 966. The number of voters registered for the provincial and 
municipal elections will be very much larger than that for the as- 
sembly elections. The difference in registration and votes cast at the 
two elections seems to show with considerable certainty that there was 
far more interest in the elections for provincial and municipal officials 
than there was in the election for assemblymen. 

11024— WAB 1007— VOL 7 i 



50 



BBPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



The following table will show the result of the vote in the various 
provinces entitled to representation in the assembly, the total vote 
cast, and the vote cast by the various political parties : 



Province. 


OS 


1 

2,106 
334 
004 

85' 


1,415 


ei 
1 
1 


1 


1 
Catholic. 

1 


Philippine 1 
Independent 
Church. 


1 


55 
58 
47 
U 
55 
76 

""""58" 
30 
61 
159 
106 
54 
75 
84 
132 


Total. 


Aibay — . . 




3.666 


Anbofi Oa^TiArfn^ 


1,577 

"Ijii" 


2(4 


1 - -- 




2.213 


AntlQue 


352 

350 

l,4rj5 

1,594 

048 

72.5 

2,600 


1 " 1 


1,006 


Bataan — . 





379 








749 


Batangas. 




. 




8.708 


Bohol 


"i:::::::::"!:::::::::::::::::":: 


1,670 


Bolacan 


1.050 

""iso" 

2.680 

3,068 

747 

1,610 


"ilisi" 

1,177 





. 







2.80B 
2,217 






1 




137 


4.842 


Cavltel. 




1 




2,747 


OebA- 








445 






8.602 


Ilocos NorteL 


1,421 

2,005 

1,773 

549 

705 

1,284 

510 

1.861 

1,006 
912 

""*874" 
570 
1,477 
193 
430 
745 
946 
857 


85 

95 

1,770 

100 

58.V 






91 




2.450 


Uocoa Sor. .. 




1 


8,778 


noflo.-.-... — 


2,275 


1 






5.002 


laabela 

La Laguna^ 

La Union ... -__ 


"2^635" 
1,297 
3.025 
5.671 

_^ 

""iliaj" 


529 









1,311 
3.562 
8,166 


Leyte- 

ManUa 

Mlndoro.* 


96 
06 

ir»3 

1,0G8 


125 


-yw 





...-.- 


69 
8 
32 

112 
1» 

179 
31 
23 
13 
69 
45 

184 
53 
44 
18 
24 
73 


3,827 

7.206 

622 


MtaamlB 

NuevaEcUa 





__ _' — .^_ 


"iiiir" 





1.150 
2,095 


Ooddental Xeeros 


1,406 


1 




100 


2.689 


Oriental Negros 


'"""217' 

456 

1.009 


614 


"2^637" 






1,557 


Palawan 


48 

1,057 
137 
665 


"i'iis" 


— 








288 


Pampanfi^a. — . 


2,701 


Pansafllnan 


600 
88 






6.400 


Rfzal 






3.567 


Saniar.-. -....._. — 


2,565 

1,510 


70 








3.149 


Sorsogon 

Snrlffao ... .« 


iiiiiiiLiiiiir 





:-:>: 


2,658 

789 


Tarlac... 


1,234 


2,216 


Tayabai- .____.._. 


2.237 




8,823 






6.941 




502 


i«2 ;. — 









737 


Total 


34,277 


24,234 


22,878 


7,126 


6,179 


1,192 


91 


209 


2,005 


96,251 



The following table contains a list of the delegates to the Philip- 
pine assembly, with their professions, avocations or pursuits, and 
political affiliations, as stated by them : 



Name. 



AdrlAtlco. Macarlo 

Affoncfllo, Felipe 

Affuas, Marcellno 

Alkulno, Qalrem6n. 

Almonte, Tom&s 

AltavAfl, Job6 

Alvarez, Francisco 

Alvear, Jnan 

Ar^jola, Tom&8 

Aaprer. Andr^ 

Avanoena. Amaddo 

Barretto. Alberto 

Boyles. Eutlqulo 

BorJa. Candelarlo 

Catlgbak. Qregorlo 

Causing. Caslano 

Ch&vez, Pedro 

Claravall. Nlcaslo P 

Olarfn, Jos^ A 

Cojuangco, Melecio... 



Delegate for— 



Political party. 



Mindoro 1 Naclonallsta. 



Batangas, first district 

Pampanga. second district 

Lcyte^ first district '. 

Albay, first district 

Capiz. second district 

Ambos Camarlnes, third district 

Pangasinan. third district 

Ambos Camarlnes. first district 

La Union, first district 

nollo. first district '. 

Zambales 

Bohol. third district , 

Bohol, first district I 

Batangas, third district 

Cebu, sixth district- _... 

Sorsogon, second district I. 

Isabela ' 

Bohol, second district I 

Tarlac. first district 



Independent- 
Naclonallsta. 
-do- 



Independent-. 

— -do 

Naclonallsta. 

.—do 

—.-do 

—-do — 

do 

do. 



Indei>cndent_ 
Narlonalista. 

do 

.-.do 

-do. 



Progreslsta— . 
Naclonallsta. 
Progresista... 



Profession, avoca- 
tion, or pursuit. 



Professor of law 

and Journall.st. 
Lawyer. 

Do. 

Do. 
Agriculturist. 
Lawyer. 

Do. 
College professor. 
Property owner. 
Lawyer. 

Do. 

Do. 
Agriculturist. 
Lawyer. 

Do. 

Do. 
Agriculturist. 
Qualified physician. 
Lawyer. 

Merchant and agrl- 
culttirlst. 



BBPOBT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



61 



Naim. 



DdeffAte for 



Political iiarty, 



Frofeflslon, aroca- 
tloD. or pursuit. 



Oorratas, Carlos 

Oorrales. Manuel 

Dasa. Euseoio D 

Deroeterlo. Salvador K-. 

Dotlllo, RBfflao 

Fenoj, Lorenzo 

Gabald6n. Isauro 

Oala, Bmfllano A... 

GaUcano, Troadio 

Oomez, Donilnador 

OodziOm, Matlas 

Gnemiro, Femando Ma. 

Guerrero, Le6n Ma 

Guzmin, Pablo 

Hemindee, Adrlano 

Imperial, Carlos A 

Jalandoni, NIcolte 

Javier, Iiioeo 

Jayme, Antonio 

Jimenez, Pedro 

Laguda, Salvador.* 

Lasam, Gabriel 

Lenna, Josi Ma 

Locsin, Vicente 

Lukbin. Cayetano 

Mapa, Dlonlslo 

Mercado, M6nlco 

Mlna. Maxlmino 

Mobo, 8tme6n 

Montllla, Agustln 

Oben. Crispin 

Orense. Euseblo 

Osmefia. Sergio 

Padllla, NIcanor 

Palma, Rafael 

Paterno, Pedro A 

Patero, Santiago M 

Pefiaranda, Florontlno.. 

Pleazo, Eugenio 

Pineda, Aurelio 

Pobre, Baldomero 

Quezon, Manuel L 

Revllla. Bartolom6 

Bey, Manuel 

Beyes, Deogradas 

Boco, Angel 

Bodrlguez, Celestino 

Bodrfgu<s. Pedro 

Bosales, Honorlo 

Bovlra, leopoldo 

Buiz, Alejandro 

Slngson, Ylosnte 

Sinko. Luciano 

Soriano, Francisco 

Sotto. FIIem6n 

Velarde. Aguedo 



Vera. Vicente de 

Veyra, Jaime O. de 

Vlllamor, Juan 

Zaadneta, Francisco — 



MIsamIs, first district 

MIsamlB. second district 

Samar, third district 

Leyte, second district 

DoUo, fifth district-. 



Pangaslnan, fourth district 

Nueva Edja 

Tayabas, second district 

Oebu. fifth district 

Manila, first district 

Pangaslnan, fifth district 



Manila, second district 

Bulacan. second district 

Cagayan. first district 

Ilofio, fourth district 



Albay, second district 

nollo, second district 

Docos Norte, first district 

Occidental Kegroe, first district 

Antique * 

Hollo, third district 

Cagayan, second district 

Bataan ... ... 



Oriental Negros, second district 

BIzal, first district 

Occidental Negros, second district.. 

Pampanga, first district^., 

nocos Sur, second district.. 



Independent. 

do 

. do. 

Kacionallsta-. 
Independent— 
Naclonallsta.. 

do 

Independent— 
Naclonallsta. 

do 

Indq>eindent~ 

Nadonalista.. 

.....do 

Progresista... 

Naclonallsta.. 

Progresista 

Nadonalista. 

do 

do ^. 

Progresista 

do 

do 

Nadonalista. 

Progresista 

Naclonallsta. 

do 

.....do. 



Oaplz, third district 

Occidental Negros. third district. 

La Laguna, second district 

Batangas, second district 

Cebu, second district 

Pangaslnan, first district 

Cavite 

La Laguna, first district 

Palawan 

Leyte, third district 

Caplz, first district 

Tarlac, second district 

Hooos Norte, second district 

Tayabas, first district 

Rizal, second district.. 



Ambos Camarlnes, second district.. 

Pangaslnan, second district 

Albay, third district 



Cebu, first district.. 

Gebu, seventh district 

Ssmar. first district 

Oriental Negros, first district 

Cebu, fourth district 

Hooos Sur, first district 

Samar, second district 

Surlgao 

CJcbu. third district 

Bulacan, first district 



Sorsogon, first district 

Leyte, fourth district 

Ilocos Sur, third district _. 

La Union, second district .•_ 



.do 

Independent. 

Progresista 

Naclonallsta. 

do 

do 

Independent-. 
Naclonallsta. 

. ^do 

Independent.. 
Nacionalista., 
Independent.. 

Progresista 

Naclonallsta.. 

^do 

do 

do 

do 

Progresista 

Naclonallsta. 
.do.. 



Independent.. 

Progresista... 

Nadonalista. 

Progresista — 

Nacionalista. 

Progreslsta 

Naclonallsta. 

Nadonalista. 
Independ- 
ent. 

Independent-. 

Nadonalista. 

do 

Progresista... 



Agriculturist. 

Do. 
College profsMor. 
Agriculturist. 

Do. 
Lawyer. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Physician. 
Agriculturist and 

merchant. 
Journalist. 
Pharmacist. 

Do. 
Agriculturist and 

merchant. 
Lawyer. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Justioeof the peace. 
Merchant and 

planter. 
Physldan. 
Lawyer. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
College professor. 
Agriculturist. 
Lawyer. 

Do. 

Do. 
Physldan. 
Lawyer. 

Do. 
Agriculturist. 

Do. 

Do. 
Lawyer. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Phjrsldan. 
Lawyer. 

Do. 

Do. 
Property owner. 
Agriculturist. 
Lawyer. 
Merchant. 
Lawyer. 

College professor. 
Lawyer. 

Do. 

Do. 



Do. 
Journalist. 
Agriculturist. 
Lawyer. 



Protested elections. — The seats of 14 assemblymen certified to have 
been elected by election boards were contested. Seven of the con- 
tests were resolved in favor of the assemblymen certified to have been 
elected and seven are still awaiting decision. 

Corvoening of the Philippine assembly. — The delegates to the 
Philippine assembly, in accordance with the call of the governor- 
general as prescribed by the act of Congress, met at the Grand Opera 
House in the city of Manila on the 16th day of October at 9 o'clock 



62 AEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPIKE COMMISSION. 

a. m. The provisions of the act of Congress authorizing the creation 
of the Philippine assembly, the resolution of the Commission certi- 
fying that the conditions for its organization had been fulfilled, the 
order of the President directing the Philippine Commission to call 
an election for delegates to a popular assembly, the resolution of the 
Commission calling the election for the 30th of July, 1907, and 
directing the governor-general to proclaim the fact, the roll of dele- 
gates certified to have been elected by the various election boards, 
and the call of the governor-general directing that the first meeting 
of the Philippine legislature be Jield at Manila in the Grand Opera 
House on the 16th of October, 1907, at 9 o'clock a. m., were duly 
read, and after the delivery of an address by the honorable the Sec- 
retary of War to the Philippine Commission and the delegates to 
the Philippine assembly, the Philippine assembly and the Phillippine 
legislature were by him, as the representative of the President, form- 
ally declared open for the transaction of business. 

IMPORTANT XCTS PASSED BY THE COMMISSION. 

The following are the important laws passed by the Commission 
during the year : 

Act No. 1523, to prohibit the importation, sale, giving away, use, 
and possession of lottery tickets and lottery advertising matter. 

Act No. 1533, providing that for good conduct a reduction of 
sentence shall be allowed to all prisoners sentenced for a definite term 
of more than thirty days and less than life. 

Act No. 1545, amendatory of the provincial government act and 
providing for the election of the provincial governor and a third 
member of provincial boards and abolishing the office of provincial 
secretary. 

Act No. 1548, extending the power of provincial boards to expend 
provincial funds. 

Act No. 1561, authorizing the governor-general to parole prison- 
ers and providing for the enforcement of the conditions of parole. 

Act No. 1564, providing for the recoinage of Philippine silver 
coins and reducing the weight and fineness thereof. This act was 
passed in view of the fact that due to the increased price of silver 
Philippine silver coins were worth more as merchandise than as 
money, which resulted in the exportation of Philippine money and 
a reduction of the circulating medium. 

Act No. 1573, extending the time within which free patents may 
be granted to native settlers upon unreserved and unappropriated 
agricultural lands. 

Act No. 1577, providing that the death penalty shall be executed 
in Bilibid Prison instead of in the provinces. This act was passed 
in order to prevent the evil effects resulting from public executions. 



BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 58 

Act No. 1578, authorizing the refund to the purchaser of moneys 
received from land-tax sales together with interest upon proper con- 
veyance of the property involved to the provincial treasurer as trustee 
for the government, and extending the time for the redemption of 
the property by the delinquent taxpayer. This act was passed in 
view of the fact that many Americans and many officials of the gov- 
ernment had acquired tax titles to property sold for delinquent 
taxes with the resultant effect that the impression was produced 
among the people that Americans and officials were more interested 
in exploiting the people than in protecting them. 

Act No. 1596, providing that the supreme court may review the 
evidence adduced on the trial in the court below in case a motion for 
a new trial has been made on the ground that the evidence is in- 
sufficient to justify the decision. This act was passed for the reason 
that it was believed that a review of the evidence by seven judges of 
the supreme court would better protect the interests of justice than to 
continue a procedure which made the determination of a single trial 
judge final as to the facts. It may be said that the trial judge who 
sees the witnesses, hears them testify, and notes their manner on the 
stand is better able to determine the truthfulness of their testimony 
than would be seven judges who can not possibly have any knowledge 
of the witnesses except that furnished by the written report of their 
testimony. This argument would be entitled to much weight if it 
were not for the fact that while the trial judge sees the witnesses his 
knowledge of their declarations in 90 per cent of the cases is gained 
through an interpreter. A witness's manner of answering questions 
is more frequently induced by his failure to understand the inter- 
preter than from any desire to conceal the truth. 

Act No. 1617, authorizing provincial governments to establish and 
maintain toll roads and toll bridges. 

Act No. 1627, reforming the law as to justices of the peace and sub- 
stantially consolidating in one act all legislation in force on that 
subject. 

Act No. 1638, providing for the retirement of officers and enlisted 
men of the Philippines Constabulary on part pay after twenty or 
more years of satisfactory service. 

Act No. 1640, authorizing the Postal Savings Bank investment 
board to make loans of its funds to provinces under guaranty of the 
insular government 

Act No. 1648, amending the land registration act so as to provide 
that judges of all courts of first instance shall have jurisdiction to 
hear land-title cases and report findings of fact to the court of land 
registration in Manila. This act further amends the land registra- 
tion act so as to fix a definite sum which must be paid by parties in 
interest to cover the costs of the court of land registration. Here- 



54 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

tofore neither the clerk of the court nor the petitioner for a title was 
able to determine ,the exact amount which should be deposited as 
fees and costs of court. When the original deposit made by the peti- 
tioner was exhausted the clerk of the court would refuse to file papers 
until a further deposit was made. This usually brought about 
lengthy correspondence, in consequence of which cases were not in- 
frequently delayed three, four, and even five months. The fees are 
proportioned to the assessed value of the estate, but in no case can 
such court fees and costs exceed $100. 

The following statement will show the court fees which must be 
paid to the court of land registration by parties in interest: 

Property not exceeding $100 in value, $5; property not exceeding 
$500 but over $100 in value, $16 ; property not exceeding $1,000 but 
over $500 in value, $20; property not exceeding $5,000 but over $1,000 
in value, $26 ; property not exceeding $25,000 but over $5,000 in value, 
$40; property not exceeding $50,000 but over $25,000 in value, $50; 
property exceeding $50,000 in value, $100. 

Other amendments were made which avoid the necessity of requir- 
ing a report from the examiner of titles. This report in 90 per cent 
of the cases was valueless and accomplished no purpose other than 
that of delaying for many months the final determination of the 
matter. 

Act No. 1652, authorizing the provincial boards to increase the 
amount of the cedula tax by 1 peso for the benefit of the road and 
bridge fund. 

Act No. 1653, amending the road law so as to enable provinces and 
municipalities to put its provisions into effect for a limited period of 
time, and authorizing any municipality to avail itself of its provisions 
although the road law may not have been put in force in the entire 
province. 

Act No. 1654, regulating the construction of bridges over navigable 
waterways and authorizing the leasing of the foreshore, reclaimed 
lands, and lands under water. 

Act No. 1655, preventing the manufacture, sale, or transportation 
of adulterated or misbranded or poisonous or deleterious foods, drugs, 
medicines, and liquors, and regulating traffic in foods, drugs, medi- 
cines, and liquors. This act is really a reenactment of the law of Con- 
gress known as " the pure food and drug law." The Congressional 
law was reenacted because it was evident that the machinery provided 
by Congress for the enforcement of the act was not available in the 
Philippine Islands. Moreover, it was clear that in the Philippines 
no effect could be given to that part of the Congressional enactment 
which provided that offenders against the law should be tried by a 
jury. Any attempt to try offenders without a jury at the very least 



KBPORT OF THE PHrLIPPINB COMMISSION. 66 

would have resulted in appeals which would have delayed for a very 
long time the enforcement of the substantive part of the law as 
declared by Congress. , 

Act No. 1667, authorizing the city of Manila under specified terms 
and conditions to lease or sell for hotel purposes a certain tract of 
land on the Luneta Extension. 

Act No. 1665, annexing the province of Romblon to the province of 
Capiz. For the purposes of representation in the assembly, Romblon 
has been added to the third assembly district, as originally constituted 
in Capiz. 

Act No. 1670, authorizing the trustees or directors of asylums and 
institutions where poor children are maintained at public expense 
to place such children in charge of suitable persons and providing for 
the adoption of such children. . 

Act No. 1691, limiting the amount of municipal funds which may 
be expended for salaries and wages in municipalities of the first class 
to SO per cent, in municipalities of the second class to 60 per cent, in 
municipalities of the third class to 65 per cent, and in municipalities 
of the fourth class to 75 per cent of the annual receipts. 

Act No. 1692, prohibiting the utterance of speeches or the use of 
language violative of good order or tending to disturb the public 
peace. 

Act No. 1693, creating the province of Agusan and the subprovinces 
of Butuan, Bukidnon, and Batanes, and empowering the provincial 
board of Cagayan to apply the provisions of the township government 
act to the municipalities and settlements of the Babuyanes Islands. 
The creation of the province of Agusan and the subprovinces of 
Butuan and Bukidnon was induced by reason of the fact that the 
mountain people of Misamis and Surigao and the peoples living re- 
mote from the coast received little or no attention from the provincial 
governments. 

Act No. 1695,* allowing from internal-revenue receipts accruing to 
the insular treasury an additional 5 per cent to municipalities for 
school purposes, and to provinces an additional 10 per cent for the 
benefit of the road and bridge fund. 

Act No. 1696, prohibiting the display of flags, banners, emblems, or 
devices used for the purposes of rebellion or insurrection against the 
authority of the United States. This law was brought about in view 
of the fact that in processions held in Manila, Caloocan, and Navotas 
for the purpose of celebrating the triumph of one of the political par- 
ties occasion was taken to relegate the American flag to second place 
or to the rear of the processions and to display an American flag of 
so small a size as to make it ridiculous when compared with insurrec- 
tionary flags, banners, and emblems carried in the post of honor. 



56 EEPORT OF THE I>HILT1»1>IKE COMMtSSlOK. 

Act No. 1711, providing for the detention, segregation, and treat- 
ment of all lepers in the Philippine Islands. 

Act No. 1713, authorizing provincial boards, with the approval of 
the governor-general, to suspend the collection of the land tax for a 
period not exceeding one year at a time. As all funds resulting from 
the land tax accrue* to provincial and municipal treasuries, it was 
thought better to leave the suspension of the tax to provincial boards 
and to make them responsible for results. 

Act No. 1724, approving, confirming, and ratifying the agree- 
ment made between the Secretary of War and the Archbishop of 
Manila settling the title and right of administration of various es- 
tates and properties which had been a matter of dispute between the 
Boman Catholic Church and the government of the Philippine Is- 
lands. This act also ratified the agreement settling controversies 
between the government and the Banco Espanol-Filipino. 

Act No. 1726, providing the machinery for the election of dele- 
gates to the Philippine assembly and re-forming the law for the elec- 
tion of provincial and municipal officials. 

Act No. 1754, prohibiting the forging, counterfeiting, altering, or 
fraudulent making of money, or of obligations and securities of the 
United States or of the Philippine Islands, or of the circulating 
notes issued by any banking institution authorized under the laws 
of the United States, or of the Philippine Islands, etc. 

Act No. 1757, prohibiting monte, jueteng, and gambling of all 
kinds in gambling houses. 

Act No. 1759, creating the office of lieutenant-governor for the 
province of Samar, and charging him with the special care of people 
residing in the mountains and in districts difficult of access from 
the seacoast. 

Act No. 1760, providing for the prevention of the introduction 
into the Philippine Islands of dangerous communicable animal dis- 
eases, and for the prevention of the spread of such -diseases. 

Act No. 1761, providing for the regulation of the sale and use of 
opium, pending the going into effect of the Congressional enactment 
which prohibits the importation of opium in any form except for 
medicinal purposes, and prohibiting all persons except physicians, 
licensed pharmacists, and certain government officials and scientific 
establishments from having in their possession opium, cocaine, or 
alpha or beta eucaine after said Congressional enactment shall have 
gone into effect. 

Act No. 1768, disqualifying habitual users of opium from hold- 
ing provincial or municipal offices. 

Act No. 1773, making the crimes of aduUerio, estupro^ rapto^ vio- 
lacion^ calumnia^ and injuria public offenses, abolishing the right 



BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 57 

of pardon by the aggrieved party in such cases, and allowing to 
such aggrieved party the right of civil suit for damages. Prior to 
the passage of this act these offenses were private offenses, and the 
aggrieved party had the absolute right to pardon the offender, 
although the courts had assumed jurisdiction of the matter. This 
made blackmail easy and extortion quasi respectable. 

Act No. 1800, providing for the reservation of communal forests 
for the benefit of municipalities, townships, and settlements. 

In the interests of business, commerce and industry the following 
laws were passed during the fiscal year : 

Act No. 1497, granting a concession for the construction of rail- 
ways in the islands of Cebu and Panay and in the province of Occi- 
dental Negros. 

Act No. 1506, providing for the execution of chattel mortgages. . 

Act No. 1510, granting a concession for tlie construction of rail- 
ways in the island of Luzon. 

Act No. 1519, providing for the inspection and sealing of weights 
and measures and regulating their use. 

Act No. 1535, abolishing the collection of tonnage dues on vessels 
coming from foreign ports to ports of entry in the Philippine 
Islands. 

Act No. 1544, excepting from internal-revenue taxes all timber and 
forest products used in the actual construction and equipment of rail- 
way lines under the concessions granted by acts Nos. 1497 and 
1510. 

Act No. 1566, regulating the free entry of railroad material im- 
ported into the Philippine Islands. 

Act No. 1574, continuing in force until May 1, 1908, the existing 
rate of duty on rice imported into the Philippine Islands. 

Act No. 1589, granting the Manila Suburban Railways Company an 
extension of time within which to complete the portion of its line east 
of Fort William McKinley, and conceding the right to build a branch 
line to the town of Taguig and to the Laguna de Bay. The Manila 
Suburban Railways Company is granted the right to transport over 
its lines freight, express packages, and baggage under such regula- 
tions as may be prescribed by the governor-general. The rates which 
may be charged for such transportation are subject to regulation by 
the governor-general, from whose decision an appeal may be taken to 
the Secretary of War. 

Act No. 1636, providing for the transmission of money within the 
islands by means of the sale of demand drafts and telegraphic trans- 
fers. This act was passed in order to afford to business, commercial, 
and industrial interests a ready means of securing transfers of money 



58 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

from one part of the islands to another at a minimum of expense and 
risk. 

Act No. 1735, authorizing the governor-general to execute on cer- 
tain specific terms and conditions a concessionary grant for the con- 
struction of a railway line to Baguio, in the province of Benguet. 
. Act No. 1751, making provision for the arrest and return to ship of 
seamen deserting from merchant vessels, for the adjudication by con- 
suls of certain disputes, and for the enforcement of consular decisions 
in such cases. 

Act No. 1762, fixing the maximum rates which may be charged by 
the Manila Suburban Railways Company. 

Act No. 1775, authorizing the insular collector of customs to clear 
foreign vessels for the ports of Legaspi and Tabaco. 

Act No. 1779, creating a board for the regulation of rates charge- 
able by public-service corporations in the Philippine Islands, and con- 
ferring upon such boards the power to regulate such rates and to 
enforce the rates fixed by it. 

Act No. 1781, providing for the remission of duties on importa- 
tions of the value of less than $1. 

Act No. 1782, providing for the establishment of manufacturing 
bonded warehouses. This act was passed in order to facilitate the 
collection of rebates on material used in the manufacture of articles 
subsequently exported. 

Act No. 1790, confirming certain rights and franchises of the Banco 
Espanol-Filipino and amending its charter. This act was passed in 
conformity with an agreement made by the Archbishop of Manila 
witli the Secretary of War, and the act as passed by the Commission 
has been accepted by the Banco Espanol-Filipino. 

RAILROADS. 

Work under the concessions granted by act No. 1497 to the Philip- 
pine Railway Company and by act No. 1610 to the Manila Railroad 
Company began about the beginning of the present calendar year in 
the islands of Luzon, Cebu, and Panay. 

The following statement will show the progress of the work up to 
December 1, 1907 : 

PHILIPPINE RAILWAY COMPANY. 

Island of Cebu, — Ninety-six and five-tenths kilometers to be con- 
structed. Grading completed north of Cebu, 31.7 kilometers ; grading 
completed south of Cebu, 34.4 kilometers; track is laid north of Cebu, 
31.7 kilometers ; track is laid south of Cebu, 22.4 kilometers ; ballast- 
ing partially completed north of Cebu, 31.7 kilometers; ballasting 
partially completed south of Cebu, 20.5 kilometers. 



BBPOBT OF THB PHUJPPIKB 00MMI8SI0K. 59 

The station buildings north of Cebu are practically all completed 
except at Danao. 

South of Cebu 4 station buildings are under way. 

At Cebu the storehouse and oil house are completed ; work on pas- 
senger station and roundhouse is well under way, and work has been 
begun on shop buildings. 

No permanent bridges have yet been erected, but progress, how- 
ever, is being made on substructure for permanent bridges and on 
culvert^. 

Island of Panay. — One hundred and sixty and nine-tenths kilome- 
ters to be constructed. From Iloilo north continuously, grading has 
been completed for 39.8 kilometers ; track has been laid for 17.2 kilo- 
meters ; ballasting partially completed for 17.2 kilometers. 

But very little progress has been made on depot buildings. The 
storehouse and machine-shop buildings at Iloilo are well under way. 

Island of Negroa. — One hundred and sixty and nine-tenths kilome- 
ters to be constructed. No construction work has been done. 

MANILA SAILBOAD COMPANY. 

San Fernando-Union Line. — ^Length, 70.3 kilometers. Grading 
completed for 12.5 kilometers; track laid for 12.5 kilometers; partly 
ballasted for 12.5 kilometers. 

One station building completed and work on another begun. 

San Fahian-Camp One Line. — ^Length, W.7 kilometers. Grading 
completed for 16 kilometers; track laid for 13 kilometers; partly 
ballasted for 10 kilometers. 

Paniqui-Tayug Line. — ^Length, 48.7 kilometers. Grading com- 
pleted for 5 kilometers. 

DavrMagalang Line. — ^Length, 9 kilometers.* Grading completed 
for 9 kilometers; track laid for 9 kilometers; ballasted for 9 kilo- 
meters. Line completed and in operation. 

San Fernando-Florida Blanca Line. — ^Length, 24.6 kilometers. 
Grading completed for 24.5 kilometers; track laid for 16 kilometers; 
partly ballasted for 12 kilometers; line in operation for 10.5 kilo- 
meters. 

Bacolor station completed with three others started. 

Mariquina-Montalban Line. — ^Length, 12.9 kilometers. Line com- 
pleted and in operation. 

ManUa-Batangas Line. — ^Length, 108.1 kilometers. Grading com- 
pleted for 55 kilometers; track laid for 11 kilometers; partly ballasted 
for 7 kilometers. 

Belt Line^ Manila. — ^Length, 9.6 kilometers. Grading completed 
for 9 kilometers; track laid for 8 kilometers; partly ballasted for 8 
kilometers. 



60 BBPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

MaTula-Gavite-Naic Line. — ^Length, 68.5 kilometers. Grading com- 
pleted for 24 kilometers; rails laid for 12 kilometers; partly ballasted 
for 10 kilometers. 

Santo TomaS'Lucena Line. — ^Length, 63.2 kilometers. Grading 
completed for 5 kilometers. 

Antipole Line^ beyond Taytay. — ^Length, 9.4 kilometers. Grading 
completed for 5 kilometers; track laid for 3 kilometers; partly bal- 
lasted for 2 kilometers. 

Very little permanent bridge and culvert work has been done on 
any of the lines except the Florida Blanca and Magalang lines. 

In addition to the railroad work set forth in the foregoing state- 
ment 20 kilometers of grading and track laying have been completed 
on a little line of railroad running from Paniqui to Camiling, in the 
province of Tarlac. This narrow-gauge railroad is owned by the 
Tarlac Tramway Company and is really a feeder for the Manila 
Bailroad Company, to which, it is understood, the property has been 
leased. * 

The expenditures of the Philippine Railway Company amounted 
on September 30, 1907, to ^4,017,241.48, practically all of which sum 
has been audited and allowed, with the right reserved to the railway 
company and to the government to correct errors subsequently dis- 
covered. 

The first section of railroad, running approximately 15 miles 
north of Cebu and 5 miles south of the same place, has been prelimi- 
narily completed, and a bond issue has been authorized for the sum of 
$973,000, representing at date of issue the cost of construction and the 
proportional part of equipment and other expenses properly assign- 
able to tlie section. 

PROGRESS OF THE HARBOR WORK. 

The construction of the harbor works in Manila was practically 
completed on the 17th of May, 1907. The construction of new 
wharves is progressing slowly but steadily. The first part of the 
abutments originally planned, for which contracts had been let at a 
cost of ^15,000, settled considerably and proved that they would not 
serve the purpose for which they were being built After W,492 of 
the money appropriated had been expended, the contracts were can- 
celled. In consequence, plans for new abutments were prepared, for 
which contracts to construct at a cost of ^113,041.54 have been let 

The port works at Cebu are still unfinished. It is probable that 
the Cebu port works will be completed at an expense less than that 
contemplated in the contract and that of the full sum appropriated 
there will be a balance of about ^100,000. 

The port works at Uoilo have been completed. 



BBPOBT OF THE PHIUPPINB COMMISSION. 61 

BUDGET FOB THE FISCAL TEAS 1908. 

Oil the 1st of July, 1907, there was in the insular treasury avail- 
able for appropriation M, 480, 078. 72 

From which sum, however, should be deducted liabilities exist- 
ing June 30, 1907, and not provided for by appropriation» as 
follows ,to wit: 

Sinking fund public works bonds, act 1729 M04, 204. 13 

Reimbursement to friar lands bonds funds, 

act 1749 606,184.31 

1,100,388.44 



Net balance available for appropriation July 1, 19P7 5, 379, 690. 28 

During the current fiscal year the following is a conservative 
estimate of the revenues and receipts which may be expected 
to accrue to the insular treasury : 

Customs revenue «5, 000, 000. 00 

Internal revenue _, 5,600,000.00 

Micelianeous ^ 800,000.00 

Reversion from lapsed appropriations 600,000.00 

Total estimated revenue and reversion 21,900,000.00 



The total available for appropriation from the insular treasury 
for the fiscal year 1908 on the basis of the net balance ac- 
tually in the treasury, and the estimated receipts, was on 

the 1st of July, 1907 27,279,690.28 

From this sum the following appropriations have been made : 

Interest public works bondsi act 1729 K82, 500.00 

Sinking fund public works bonds, act 1729 142,848.44 

Shiking fund friar lands bonds, act 1749 140,000.00 

Interest friar lands bonds (estimated amount payable from gen- 
eral funds), act 1748 350, 000. 00 

Annuities to the Sultan of Jolo et al - 16, 200. 00 

Subsidies to steamship companies, act 1715 230,000.00 

Liability on account of railway guaranty, act 1730 270, 000. 00 

Liability on account of Agricultural Bank, act 1730 

Insurance fund, act 1728 250, 000. 00 

Cuixent expenses insular government, act 1679 17, 495, 980. 00 

Aid to subprovinces of Apayao and Kalinga, act 1642 1, 000. 00 

Reimbursement to provinces on account of suspension of the 

land tax, act 1686 700,000.00 

Public works insular government, act 1688 3,502,655.00 

Aid to province of Agusan, act 1693 (estimated) '25,000.00 

30 per cent current expenses city of Manila, act 1706 1, 000, 000. 00 

30 per cent public works city of Manila 85,000.00 

30 per cent sinking fund city of Manila sewer and bonds 59, 622. 00 

Refund to city of Manila on account expenditure Pasig River 

walls, act 1750 207,000.00 

Agricultural loans friar land haciendas, act 1736 100, 000. 00 

Fidelity bond fund, act 1739 40,000.00 

Reimbursement to provinces on account of court fees, act 1764.. 75, 000. 00 



62 



KKPOBT OF THE PHUilPPINE COMMIBSION. 



Bounties to tobacco growers, act 1767 W3, 250. 00 

Sundry current expenses insular government, act 1785 197, 700. 00 

Provincial roads and bridges, act 1783 200, 000. 00 

Reserve for contingencies 1, 896, 934. 84 

Available for appropriation 27,270.690.28 

THE POSTAL SAVINGS BANK. 

Nine first-class, 86 second-class, and 140 third-class Postal Savings 
Bank offices were opened during the fiscal year 1907. The total num- 
ber of accounts opened during the year was 2,676, of which 347 were 
closed. These accounts represent a total deposit of f^86,361.03, or 
an average of F108.21 per account. At the close of the fiscal year 
1907 there were 2,329 open accounts, representing a total deposit of 
^509,463.34. Of the depositors in the Postal Savings Bank 1,616 
were Americans, 944 Filipinos, and the balance Europeans, Asiatics, 
and benevolent or other societies. 

DINGLEY TABIFF. 

The effect of the Dingley tariff on sugar and tobacco products of 
the Philippines has already been discussed fully in previous reports 
and especially in the report of the Commission for the fiscal year 
1906. 

The following tables showing the sugar exported from the Philip- 
pine Islands during the fiscal years 1905, 1906, and 1907 and the to- 
bacco exported during the fiscal years 1906 and 1907 may be of some 
value to illustrate the effect of prohibitory tariff legislation on two 
of the principal products of the Philippine Islands : 

Bugar exported from the Philippine Islanda during the fiscal years 1905, 1906, 

1907. 





190!>. 


1000. 


1007 


Value. 


Oonntry. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 

16,09<),068 
'""85;80&^885" 

7,&49,880 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Unftod States 

United Kingdom 

Ohfnese Empire. - 

British E«at Indies 

Hongkonc 

Japan 


127,668,818 

1,101,667 

42,801,978 

""'ei^Biilwo' 

10,471,244 


$2,618,487 
22.108 
887,431 

"'1^887^158' 
161,782 


$260,104 

""i^6i9,"629" 

""2^9io;i88" 
1(M.944 


14,574,250 
21,616,126 
112,494,139 
6,122 
112,206,496 
4.407,551 


$224,074 

288.000 

1,740,747 

97 

1,009,641 

67.001 


Total 


•250,542,682 


4,977,026 


»277,«2.222 


4.863.866 


<'265,206.684 j 3,934,460 



• Equals 111,850 tons. 



•Equals 123,813 tons. « Equals 118,395 tons. 



BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



63 



Cigars exported from the Philippine Islands during the fiscal years 1906 and 

1907. 



OountTT. 



United States 

United Kingdom 

Germany 

France 

Spain 

OhJneae Empire 

Hongkong 

Japan 

British East Indies 

Dutch East Indies 

British Australasia 

Canada 

Argentina 

Other countries 

Total 



1906. 



1097. 



Thousands. 


Value. 


Thousands. 


Vahie. 


1.288 


$23,406 


1.698 


826.067 
100.860 


8.925 


84.170 


11.473 


3,107 


20.300 


2.899 


17.478 


8.666 


27,917 


8.876 


25.067 


3.311 


21.964 


0.064 


24.iS9 


8.690 


107.580 


10.328 


121.417 


82,6u6 


285.208 


42.778 


309.146 


570 


6.794 


4.753 


58.m 


9^96 


114.69d 


11,048 


110.767 


89i 


7.401 


1.331 


12,004 


11.360 


116.617 


11.178 


128.940 


028 


10.941 


1.223 


13.913 


1.461 


9.134 


1.065 


10.918 


6.029 


66.026 


llO.Oli 


982.441 


aj,136 


901.250 


116.719 


1.051,681 



Cigarettes exported from the Philippine Islands during the fiscal years 1906 

and 1907. 



Country. 


1006. 


1907. 


Thousands. 


Value. 


Thousands. 


Vahie. 


Chinese Empire 

Hongkong... 

British East Indies 

All other countries 


3,854 

12,827 

860 

1,335 


$3,139 

11,528 

830 

1,298 


04.8M 

49,728 
0.551 
1,634 


$62,493 

35.298 

4,806 

1.671 


Total 


18.802 


10,801 


152,777 


101.208 



'*AU 



other tobacco" unmanufactured antd manufactured, exported from the 
Philippine Islands during the fiscal years 1906 and 1907. 



Country. 



United States 

United Kingdom 

Germany 

France 

Spain 

Italy 

Austria-Hungary 

Belgium 

Olbraltar ~ 

Netherlands.. 

Hongkong — 

Dutch East Indies. _, 

Uruguay — 

Other countries . 



Total _ 21.470,845 1,468,839 ^0,133,080 



1906. 



Pounds. 



Value. 



110.120 

221.712 

44,295 

361,360 

12,476.208 

458,608 

4,561.561 

1,075,139 

440.291 

896,518 

108,199 

226,685 

270,727 

216,842 



$7,510 

13,000 

1,974 

22,714 

641,959 
22,373 

857.006 
09, 4&-) 
16.201 
60,757 
10.043 
22,102 
16.297 
18,448 



1007. 



Pounds. 



Value. 



365,874 
299.320 

1.453,906 

14.922.475 

5,952 

8,734,464 

2,588.115 
409,069 

4.436,779 
836,710 
15.'). 063 
224,661 

1,199,762 



$20,024 

19.460 

91.250 

1,083.068 

692 

822.518 

145.801 
13.688 

231,920 
26,908 
11.442 
13.508 
42,129 



1.073,306 



THE SHIPPING ACT OF' 1906. 



The act of Congress of April 30, 1906, entitled "An act to regulate 
shipping in trade between ports of the United States and ports or 
places in the Philippine Archipelago, between ports or places in the 
Philippine Archipelago, and for other purposes," if put into effect 



64 EBPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

as passed will be a positive detriment to commercial and industrial 
interests in the islands. This bill does not seem to take account of the 
fact that freight, merchandise, and passengers from the Philippines 
to the United States can not be transported promptly unless there is 
a substantial addition to the number of American vessels now plying 
in the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific available for the Philippine 
trade. This bill must of necessity result in a very substantial increase 
in freight and passenger rates, to the great detriment of the industries 
of the islands, which are regarded as foreign territory when free 
admission into the United States of sugar and tobacco is requested 
and as domestic territory when American shipping interests are to be 
promoted. Philippine sugar and tobacco are kept out of the United 
States, although the domestic production in the United States falls 
far short of supplying the demands of local consumption. For 
the benefit of American hemp iipporters from the Philippines the 
Philippine government is obliged to refund all export duties col- 
lected on hemp consumed in the United States. The shipping act of 
April 30, 1906, may well be regarded as " the last straw," and should 
be repealed in justice to Philippine interests, which are entitled to 
some consideration. 

BONDED AND OTHER INDEBTEDNESS OF THE PHILIPPINE GOVERNMENT. 

The bonded indebtedness of the Philippine government consists 
of ^,000,000 in bonds issued for the making of public improvements 
and of ^14,000,000 in bonds issued for the purchase of the so-called 
friar lands. In September of this year all certificates of indebtedness 
relating to the gold-standard fund were paid, and there is at the 
writing of this report no liability of the insular government on 
account of such certificates of indebtedness. 

SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The Commission begs leave to make the following specific recom- 
mendations, some of which have been embodied in previous reports: 

^^ First. That the duties on sugar and tobacco exported from the 
Philippine Islands into the United States be removed." 

See previous reports of the Commission and in this report under 
heading "Dingley tariff." 

" Second. That that portion of section 2 of the act of Congress 
approved March 8, 1902, entitled *An act temporarily to provide 
revenue for the Philippine Islands, and for other purposes,' which 
requires that all export duties upon articles exported from the Phil- 
ippine Islands and consumed in the United States be refunded, be 
repealed." 

This is a renewal of the recommendation made by the Commission 
in its annual report for 1906. 



BBPORT OF THE PHIUPPINE COMMISSION. 65 

"Third. That the customs duties on agricultural machinery, 
apparatus, and implements, machinery and apparatus for making or 
repairing roads, and on steam plows be removed." 

This can be accomplished by amending paragraph 245 of tlie Phil- 
ippine tariff revision law of 1905 to read as follows: 

245. Machinery and apparatus for pile driving, dredging, and hoisting, for 
refrigerating and ice making, sawmiU machinery, machinery and apparatus for 
extracting vegetable oils and for converting the same into other products, for 
making sugar, for preparing rice, hemp, and other vegetable products of the 
islands for the markets, and detached parts therefor, also traction and portable 
engines and their boilers adapted to and Imported for and with rice-threshing 
machines, five per centum ad valorem.** 

and inserting in the unconditional free list (section 12) an additional 
paragraph to read as follows : 

Agricultural machinery, apparatus, and implements, machinery and appa- 
ratus for making or repairing roads, and steam and other motor plows. 

The customs duties on this class of machinery are a revenue tax 
only ; hence the only possible objection to the removal of said duties 
would be the loss of revenue to the insular government, and the 
advantages which would accrue to the islands through the additional 
facilities and stimulus which would be given to agriculture here by 
the removal of said duties decidedly outweigh the loss of revenue 
involved. 

" Fourth. That the customs duties on mining, smelting, and reduc- 
tion machinery and apparatus be reduced by including them under 
paragraph 245 of the Philippine tariff revision law of 1905, further 
amending the paragraph to read as follows. 

245. Machinery and apparatus for mining and the reduction and smelting 
of ores, for pile driving, dredging, and hoisting, for refrigerating and Ice mak- 
ing, sawmill machinery, machinery and apparatus for extracting vegetable oils 
and for converting the same into other products, for making sugar, for pre- 
paring rice, hemp, and other vegetable products of the islands for the markets, 
and detached parts therefor; also traction and portable engines and their 
boilers adapted to and imported for and with rice-threshing machines, five 
per centum ad valorem. 

In fixing a low rate of duty on machinery and apparatus the intro- 
duction of which will tend to develop certain industries of the islands 
it would seem that an industry which may become of considerable 
importance has been overlooked, to wit, the development of the min- 
eral resources of the islands. There is considerable prospecting now 
in progress in the islands for both precious metals and coal, and a 
not inconsiderable number of properties have been located. An 
amendment such as that recommended would encourage and assist 
in the development of the mineral resources of the islands. 



^ The note to paragraph 245 would not be changed by this amendment. 
11024--WAB 1907— VOL 7 6 



66 BEPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

" Fifth. That the customs duties on materials for the construction 
and repair, in the Philippine Islands, of vessels of all kinds be 
removed." 

To accomplish this it is recommended that paragraph 397 (con- 
ditional free list, section 12), Philippine tariff revision law of 1905, 
be amended to read as follows : 

387. All materials for exclusive use in the construction and repair, in the 
Philippine Islands, of vessels of all kinds. 

The object of this amendment is to put local ship-repairing estab- 
lishments in position to be better able to compete with such concerns 
in Hongkong, where all materials are entered without duty, and to 
encourage the establishment of ship building and repairing concerns 
in these islands. 

By placing these materials on the conditional free list they will 
be entered free of duty, subject to formalities prescribed in each 
case by the customs authorities which will prevent impositions on 
the revenue which might be attempted by reason of the fact tbat 
materials required in the manufacture and repair of vessels are 
largely used for other purposes also. 

" Sixth. That a provision be added to paragraph 308 that each and 
every gauge or wine liter of measurement of spirits dutiable imder 
letter (a) shall be counted as at least one proof liter." 

This could be accomplished by amending clause (a) of paragraph 
308 of the Philippine tariff revision law of 1905 to conform to the 
wording of the corresponding tariff revision in the United States, as 
follows : 

308. (a) Whisky, rum, gin, and brandy, per proof liter, thirty-five cents: 
Provided, That each and every gauge or wine liter of measurement shall be 
counted as at least one proof liter. 

The following remarks of the acting collector of customs, concurred 
in by the present collector of customs, are, after consideration, like- 
wise concurred in by the Commission. 

At the time the revision of the tariff law of 1901 was under consideration 
the committee on tariff revision recommended that the duties on spirituous 
liquors provided for in paragraph 308 be increased from 35 cents per liter to 50 
cents per liter, and that liquors imported under this paragraph in wood should 
be dutiable by the proof liter. This was done for the purpose of increasing 
the duty on such importations, and for the further purpose of equalizing the 
duty on high and low grade spirits. The Commission in acting upon the recom- 
mendation of the committee approved the changes recommended in this para- 
graph; the duty was reduced by Congress from 50 cents, as recommended, to 
35 cents, including in the paragraph the provision " per proof liter," which did 
not appear in the tariff revision law of 1901. The effect of this provision was 
to reduce by approximately 10 per cent the duties which had formerly been 
collecte<l on such merchandise; this for the reason that the greater portion 
of the spirituous liquors imported into the Philippine Islands are under proof 



BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 67 

and now pay on the proof liter iusteed of on the gauge liter, as formerly pro- 
vided. In addition to this disadvantage it has added materially to the cost 
of assessing such merchandise for duty for the reason that each importation 
in bottles and similar receptacles must be gauged and tested in order that 
the proof may be determined. 

" Sev^enth. That section 22 of the Philippine tariff revision law of 
1905, providing that importations exceeding $100 in value shall be 
accompanied by a consular invoice, etc., be repealed." 

The following remarks of the acting collector of customs, con- 
curred in by the present collector of customs, are, after consideration, 
likewise concurred in by the Commission : 

Section 22 provides that all importations of merchandise into the Philippine 
Islands from countries other than the United States, when the value of such 
importations exceeds $100, shall be accompanied by a consular invoice similar 
to that required for importations into the United States, and that when brought, 
into the Philippine Islands from the United States such importations shall 
be accompanied by an invoice similar in form to the consular invoice, but in 
lieu of execution by a consul of the United States such invoices shall be sworn 
to before a United States commissioner, collector of customs, or deputy col- 
lector of customs. 

After a i)erlod of about two years, during which the workings of the con- 
sular invoice system have been carefully noted, the fact is evident that the 
Introduction of consulated invoices for importations into the Philippine Islands 
has not been of any advantage to the Philippine customs service, nor are such 
invoices as useful in the dispatch of imported merchandise as are the usual 
commercial invoices which were formerly required by law ; this for the reason 
that United States consuls throughout the world apparently have no informa- 
tion whatever In regard to the Philippine customs laws nor as to the informa- 
tioq which invoices must contain In order to permit importers to make a 
proiier entry covering such importations, or to furnish the information which 
customs officers absolutely require for the proper classification of the same. 

The average value of an importation covered by consular Invoice is estimated 
by this office to be approximately $250 United States currency, and it is fair 
to estimate *that during the past twelve months there were 30,000 of such in- 
voices presented covering merchandise from countries other than the United 
States. This number of entries would represent an additional cost to importers 
of $75,000 United States currency, which, of course, must be an additional 
charge to the consumers who purchase the imported goods. 

The Philippine tariff revision law of 1905 Is essentially a tariff of specific 
rates. Of the 366 paragraphs contained in the tariff, only 45 have a straight 
ad valorem rate and only 62 an ad valorem provision, making but 107 para- 
graphs of the tariflf which are in any way affected by the value of the im- 
ported merchandise. This leaves 259 paragraphs which are not affected by ad 
valorem rates, and the merchandise dutiable under these 259 paragraphs might 
as well be passed by the customs officers without any invoice whatsoever in 
80 far as the revenue of the islands is concerned. 

What is particularly required under our tariff is an invoice which properly 
describes the merchandise as to kind and quantity, and which shows correctly 
the gross and net weight of the same. The commercial Invoices which were re- 
celvetl prior to the passiijrt^ of the tariff revision law of 1905 contained in nearly 
every instance the jieedful Information, which has never been required by 
United States consuls in the invoices consulated by them. 



68 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Ill addition to these reasons, consular invoices are frequently delayed in the 
mails and do not reach importers until after the arrival of the merchandise 
covered thereby. This again necessitates additional expense in that the 
Importer is required to give a bond for the production of such an invoice to the 
customs authorities before he can be permitted to make entry and obtain 
delivery of his goods. 

I am satisfied from my observation that the consular invoice system as 
applied to the Philippine Islands is a detriment rather than a betterment to the 
Philippine customs service and that this system has created a large additional 
expense to importers without any corresponding advantage accruing to the 
government. 

" Eighth. That in order to place the local button manufacturing 
industry on a fair and competitive basis with the imported article 
paragraphs 29 and 345 of the Philippine tariff revision law of 1905 
be amended to read as follows: 

' "29. Oold and silver-plated wares. — (a) Gold and silver-plated jewelry, net 
weight, kilogram, two dollars and forty cents; (b) gold and silver-plated wares 
other than Jewelry, net weight, kilogram, two dollars; (c) silvered copper foil, 
net weight, kilogram, fifty cents : Provided, That none of the articles classified 
under paragraphs twenty-seven, twenty-eight, and twenty-nine shall pay a less 
rate of duty than twenty-five per centum ad valorem: And provided further. 
That all articles classified for duty under paragraphs twenty-seven, twenty- 
eight, and twenty-nine shall pay the prescribed rates on the net weight of the 
articles themselves, and that the immediate packing In which they are con- 
tained shall be assessed for duty under the paragraph covering the article of 
which it is manufactured. 

"345. Buttons. — (a) Bone, iwrcelaln, composition, wood, steel, iron, and simi- 
lar materials, net weight, kilogram, thirty cents; (b) rubber, copper and its 
alloys, net weight, kilogram, fifty cents; (c) mother-of-pearl, and others not 
specially provided for, except of gold or silver, or gold or silver plated, net 
welfight, kllo^am, one dollar and thirty cents: Provided, That none of the 
articles classified under letter (c) of this paragraph shall pay a less rate of 
duty than thirty per centum ad valorem." 

The Commission is in receipt of a petition from a button factory 
established a few years ago in Manila, requesting that in order that 
it may continue to operate without losing money the duties already 
prescribed by the present customs tariff (act of Congress of March 3, 
1905), in paragraph 345, be decidedly inci*eased. 

Petitioners also request that the duties upon shells imported into 
these islands be removed, that the duties upon brass shanks and rings 
under paragraph 69 (b) be reduced, and that the duties upon silvered 
copper foil under paragraph 29 (b) be similarly reduced. 

After careful examination of the books and operations of this but- 
ton factory we are of the opinion that the present rate of customs duty 
is not sufficient to give a fair profit to the manufacturer here upon 
certain lines of mother-of-pearl buttons, and that if said factory is 
not afforded certain additional protection against the competition of 
imported buttons it will be compelled to close its doors. 



BEPOBT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 69 

The petitioners request that the dnties upon bone, porcelain, com- 
position, wood, steel, iron, and similar buttons be increased from 20 
cents per kilogram, net weight, to 50 cents, an increase of 150 per cent 
in the present duties ; that the duties upon rubber and copper buttons 
be increased from 50 cents per kilogram, net weight, to $1, an increase 
of 100 per cent in the present duties; and that the duties on mother- 
of-pearl and other buttons not specially provided for be increased 
from $1 per kilogram, net weight, to $2 per kilogram, net weight, an 
increase of 100 per cent in the duties. 

It appears that upon an average class of mother-of-pearl buttons 
the factory is at present losing about 16 per cent of the cost of pro- 
duction of said class of buttons. The average cost per gross of a fair 
type of said buttons is f^.28. The average selling price per gross is 
^1.91, the loss therefore being 37 centavos per gross, or about 16 per 
cent. The duties paid upon similar and competing imported buttons 
is $1 per kilogram, or about 90 per cent of the cost of production of 
these buttons. In order to give a reasonable profit of, say, approxi 
mately 10 per cent upon the manufacture of these classes of buttons 
it would seem evident that additional protection through the customs 
tariff must be given to the extent of making the duty upon such but- 
tons $1.35 per kilogram, net weight, instead of $1. 

We believe that the duties upon silvered copper foil, now amount- 
ing to approximately 140 per cent ad valorem, should be greatly re- 
duced, and that the present rate is an abnormal one. We are not of 
the opinion that the present rate of duty, approximately 15 per cent 
ad valorem, on brass shanks and rings is unreasonable, and think 
that it should remain unchanged ; nor are we of the opinion that the 
present duty on shells imported into the islands should be removed, 
for the reason that there is a growing shell industry here which should 
be encouraged. 

" Ninth. That the following proposed amendments to the act of 
Congress of July 1, 1902, be made: 

Sbc. — . That section thirty-three of the act of Congress approved July first, 
nineteen hundred and two, entitled "An act temporarily to provide for the 
administration of the affairs of civil government in the Philippine Islands, and 
for other purposes," is hereby repealed, and the following substituted therefor, 
80 that section thirty-three shall read a« follows : 

" S£C. 33. That, subject only to such limitations and regulations as may be 
provided for by the Philippine legislature to exempt navigation from artificial 
obstructions or to protect prior vested rights, all navigable waters and all shoal 
waters between low and mean high tide on shores, bays, and Inlets of the Philip- 
pine Islands shall be subject to exploration and mining for gold and other 
precious metals by citizens of the United States, or persons who have legally 
declared their intention to become such, or of the Philippine Islands : Provided, 
That such exploration and mining shall be by virtue of licenses granted by the 
gOYCmor-general of said islands: And provided further, That no exclusive 



70 REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

licenses for this purpose shall be granted except as to limited and prescribed 
areas under general regulations established by the Philippine It^gislature." « 

Sec. — . That section thirty-six of the act of Congress approved July first, 
nineteen hundred and two, entitled "An act teiniJorarily to provide for the ad- 
ministration of the affairs of civil government in the Philippine Islands, and 
for other purposes," and that part of section nine of the act of Congress 
approved February sixth, nineteen hundred and five, entitled "An act to amend 
an act approved July first, nineteen hundred and two, entitled *An act tem- 
porarily to provide for the administration of the affairs of civil government 
in the Philippine Islands, and for other puri)oses,* ** and to amend an act 
approved March eighth, nineteen hundred and two, entitled "An act tern iwrarily 
to provide revenue for the Philippine Islands, and for other purposes," and to 
amend an act approved March second, nineteen hundred and three, entitled '*An 
act to establish a standard of value and to provide for a coinage system in the 
Philippine Islands," and to provide for the more efilclent administration of civil 
government in the Philippine Islands, and for other purposes, which refers to 
section thirty-six of the act of Congress approved July first, nineteen hundred 
and two, as hereinbefore mentioned, are hereby amended by inserting in the 
first paragraph thereof, after the word " governing," the words " the number 
of mining claims that any person, corporation, or association may locate on the 
same vein or lode ; " and by Inserting in the second paragraph, after the word 
"Provided" the words " That where a group of two or more contiguous lode or 
placer mining claims are held by &ny individual, corporation, or association the 
total value of the iifiprovements or labor required upon such group may be made 
or performed upon any one of the group, provided that any two claims in such 
a group have one boundary line in common ; " and by striking out the word '* lo- 
cation " at the end of the first sentence of said paragraph and inserting in lieu 
thereof the word "relocation," so that the said section when amended shall 
read as follows: 

" Sec. 36. That the Philippine legislature may make regulations, not In con- 
flict with the provisions of this act, governing the number of mining claims 
which any person, corporation, or association may locate on the same vein or 
lode, the location, manner of recording, and amount of work necessary to hold 
possession of a mining claim, subject to the following requirements : 

" On each claim located after the passage of this act, and until a patent has 
been issued therefor, not less than two hundred i)esos' worth of labor shall be 
performed or improvements made during each year: Provided, That where a 
group of two or more contiguous lode or placer mining claims are held by any 
individual, corporation, or association, the total value of Uu* lmi)rovements or 
labor required upon such groui)s may be made or performed upon any one of 
the group; provided that any two claims In such a group have one boundary 
line in common, and that upon a failure to comply with these conditions the 
claim or mine upon which such failure occurred shall be o\you to relocation In 
the same manner as If no location of the same had ever been made: Provided, 
That the original locators, their heirs, assigns, or legal representatives have not 
resumed work upon the claim after failure and before such relocation. Uix>n 
the failure of any one of several coowners to contribute his proportion of the 
expenditures required thereby, the coowners who have i^rformed the labor or 
made the improvements may, at the expiration of the year, give such delinquent 
coowners personal notice in writing, or notice by publication in the newspaj^er 
published nearest the claim, and In two newspai)ers published at Manila, one in 
the English language and the other in the Spanish language, to be designated 



« See^p, 73 Compilation, etc., Alaska. S. Doc. 141i, 59th Cong., 1st sess. 



REPORT OF THE PHIUt^IKE COMMISSION. 71 

by the chief of the Philippine insular bureau of public landa, for at least once 
a week for ninety days, and if, at the expiration of ninety days after such 
notice in writing or by publication, such delinquent shall fall or refuse to con- 
tribute his proportion of the expenditure required by this section, his interest 
in the claim shall become the property of his coowners who have nwde the 
required expenditures. The period within which the work required to be done 
annually on all unpatented mineral claims shall commence on the first day of 
January succeeding the date of location of such claims." 

Sec. — . That section seventy-five of the act Of Congress approved July first, 
nineteen hundred and two, entitled ''An Act temporarily to provide for the 
administration of the affairs of civil government in the Philippine Islands and 
for other purposes," is hereby amended by amending the second clause of said 
section so that the said section as amended shall read as follows : 

'* Sec. 75. That no corporation shall be authorized to conduct the business 
of buying and selling real estate, or be permitted to hold or own real estate 
except such as may be reasonably necessary to enable it to carry out the pur- 
poses for which it is created, and every corporation authorized to engage in 
agriculture shall, by its charter, be restricted to the ownership and control of 
not to exceed one thousand and twenty-four hectares of land. And it shall be 
unlawful for any member of a corporation engaged in agriculture, and for any 
corporation organized for any purpose except irrigation, to be in anywise in- 
terested in any other corporation engaged in agriculture. Corporations, how- 
ever, may loan funds upon real estate security and purchase real estate when 
necessary for the collection of loans, but they shall dispose of real estate so 
obtained within five years after receiving the title. Corporations not organized 
in the Philippine Islands and doing business therein shall be bound by the pro- 
visions of this section so far as they are applicable." ^ 

Sec — . That section fifty-six of the act of Congress approved July first, nine- 
teen hundred and two, entitled "An act temporarily to provide for the admin- 
istration of the affairs of civil government in the Philippine Islands and for 
other purposes," is hereby amended by inserting after the word " authorized " 
In the first clause of said section the words " the holding of," and by striking 
out the second and third dlauses of the said section and inserting in lieu there- 
of after the words " or association of persons " in the first clause, the follow- 
ing words: "or by any association of persons, any member of which shall 
have taken the benefit of such clauses either as an individual or as a mem- 
ber of any other association," and by striking out all of the fourth and fifth 
clauses of the said section and inserting in lieu thereof the following: "and 
that persons claiming under section fifty-four shall be required to prove 
their respective rights and pay for the land filed upon within three years from 
the time prescribed for filing their respective claims, and upon the failure to 
file proper notice or to pay for the land within the required period the same 
shall be subject to entry by any other qualified applicant; and any person or 
association shall, after entering upon any quantity of vacant coal land as pre- 
scribed in the three preceding sections, and before obtaining a patent for same, 
have the right to mine and sell coal therefrom, provided that upon the coal 
extracted before obtaining a patent a royalty of thirty centavos per ton shall 
be paid to the government of the Philippine Islands in such manner as may be 
directed by the governor-general thereof. And provided that if a patent for the 
said land is not secured within one year after the time prescribed for filing 
claims for said lands, a tax thereon of T6 per hectare shall be paid into the 

« The reference to mining in the original section 75 is omitted by this amend- 
ment 



72 REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Philippine treasury each succeeding year until the patent be secured," so that 
the said section when amended shall read as follows : 

"Sec. 56. That the three preceding sections shall be held to authorize the 
holding of only one entry by the same person or association of persons, or any 
association of persons any member of which shall have taken the benefit of 
such sections either as an individual or as a member of any other association ; 
and that persons claiming under section fifty-four shall be required to prove 
their respective rights and pay for the land filed upon within three years from 
the time prescribed for filing their respective claims, and upon failure to file 
the proper notice, or to pay for the land within the required period, the same 
shall be subject to entry by any other qualified applicant; and any person or 
association shall, after entering upon any quantity of vacant coal land as pre- 
scribed in the three preceding sections and before obtaining a patent for same, 
have the right to mine and sell coal therefrom, provided that upon the coal 
extracted before obtaining a patent a royalty of thirty centavos per ton shall 
be paid to the government of the Philippine Islands in such manner as may be 
directed by the governor-general thereof; and provided, that if a patent for 
said lands is not secured within one year after the time prescribed for filing 
claims to said land, a tax thereon of K per hectare shall be paid into the 
Philippine treasury each succeeding year until a patent be secured ; provided, in 
lieu thereof, that on each claim located after the passage of this act, labor may 
be performed or improvements made equal in value to said tax, evidenced in 
such manner as may be prescribed by the secretary of the interior of the Philip- 
pine Islands, and in the event of failure to comply with these conditions, that 
part of section 36 of ^this act which is applicable upon the failure to comply 
with the conditions for holding a mining claim shall apply thereto, except that 
the period within which the work shall be required to be done annually on all 
unpatented coal claims shall conmience one year from date of location of such 
claims." 

The above is a repetition in a more complete form of recommenda- 
tions made in previous annual reports of the Conmiission and was 
prepared by the Bureau of Insular Affairs and submitted to the Sec- 
retary of the Interior and the Director of Lands of the Insular 
Government for comment. Changes therein were made by the Di- 
rector of Lands under direction of the Secretary of the Interior. 
Copies of the communications of the Secretary of the Interior and the 
Director of Lands may be found on pages 151 to 155, inclusive. Part 
2, Report of the Commission for 1906. 

" Tenth. That proper legislation be enacted authorizing the natu- 
ralization of foreigners as citizens of the Philippine Islands after 
fulfilling the conditions usually exacted for naturalization of foreign- 
ers as citizens of the United States ; and also the naturalization in the 
United States of citizens of the Philippine Islands fulfilling condi- 
tions there." 

A bill which would accomplish this (S. 5766) was introduced by 
Senator Lodge on April 19, 1906, and was referred to the Committee 
on the Philippines. 

" Eleventh. That the act of Congress of April 30, 1906, relating 
to shipping between the United States and Philippine ports and 
between ports and places in the Philippine Islands be repealed." 



BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPIKE COMMISSION. 73 

See this report under caption " The shipping act of 1906." 
"Twelfth. That the following bill be enacted by Congress into 
law: 

"AN ACT To authorise the treasurer of the Philippine Islands and the Postal Sayings 
Bank InTestment Board to make loans to the provinces of the Philippine Islands, 
under certain conditions, and for other purposes. 

"Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives ot the United 
States of America in Congress assembled. That for the purpose of providing 
funds for the construction and improvement of port works, harbor works, 
bridges, roads, school buildings, court houses, penal institutions and other 
public buildings and improvements in the Philippine Islands, the Treasurer of 
the Philippine Islands, with the approval of the Governor-General, is authorized, 
from time to time, to make loans to any province or provinces from any sinking 
funds now established or to be established for the payment of any bonds law- 
fully issued by the Government of the Philippine Islands; and for the same 
purpose, the Postal Savings Bank Investment Board, created by Act Numbered 
Fourteen hundred and ninety-three of the Philippine Ck)mmi88ion, entitled ' An 
Act to encourage economy and saving among the people of the Philippine Islands, 
and to that end to provide for the establishment of postal savings banks and 
their administration through the organization of a postal savings bank division 
in the Bureau of Posts, and for other purposes,* may, with the approval of the 
Governor-General, make loans to any province or provinces from any Postal 
Savings Bank funds under the control of said Board for investment. Any loan 
made under authority of this Act shall be a lawful charge and lien upon the 
revenues and property, real and personal, of the province to which it is made, 
and may be collected in accordance with the terms of said loan, administratively 
or by proper Judicial proceedings." 

"Thirteenth. That section 7, congressional act, July 1, 1902, be 
amended to provide that qualifications of electors in election of As- 
sembly delegates shall be the same as those now or hereafter required 
for municipal electors by Philippine laws, and that no person shall 
be eligible to election as Assembly delegate unless he has qualifica- 
tions prescribed by law for municipal officers, is resident of his elec- 
tion district, owes allegiance to the United States, and is 25 years 
of age." 

For necessity of this see under heading " The Philippine assem- 
bly," subheading^' Qualifications of delegates," of this report. 
HespeotfuUy submitted. 

Jakes F. Smith, 

President. 
T. H. Paroo de Tavera, 

JoSE B. DE LUZURIAGA, 

W. Camebon Forbes, 

W. Morgan Shuster, 

Commtssioners. 
To the honorable the Secretary op War, 

Washington^ Z>. C. 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL. 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL. 



Manila, December 31^ 1907. 

GiBNTLEMEN ! The govemor-gcneral begs leave to submit for your 
consideration the sixth annual report of the operations of the various 
provincial governments and the work accomplished by the bureaus 
and offices under his executive control during the fiscal year 1907. 

Under and by virtue of the provisions of acts Nos. 1679 and 1706 
the executive control of the bureau of audits and of the city of Manila 
was transferred from the secretary of finance and justice to the gov- 
ernor-general. The report as to the work accomplished during the 
fiscal year 1907 by the bureau of audits and by the city of Manila 
will therefore be made by the governor-general instead of by the 
secretary of finance and justice as heretofore. 

BXTBEAU OF CIVIL SEBVICE. 

Civil-service law and modifications therein. — On the recommenda- 
tion of the director of civil service the Commission, after having 
made a careful study of the original civil-service act and amendments 
thereto, carefully revised the same and enacted act No. 1698 whidi 
now comprises in concrete form the entire law governing and con- 
trolling the civil service of the Philippine Islands. On the one hand, 
this act eliminates many objectionable features of the original act and 
its amendments which hampered the service, especially in the case of 
emergency and temporary employments, and, on the other, nullifies 
certain modifications of the civil-service law which were injected into 
it by appropriation bills and which tended in some measure to break 
down the civil-service barriers intended for the protection of the gov- 
ernment. 

Act. No. 1698 authorizes the appointment of aliens to the Philip- 
pine civil service in case citizens of the Philippines or citizens of the 
United States are not available for appointment. It repeals the pro- 
vision of law authorizing the reduction of office hours during the h^t 
season and requires from officials and employees of the government 
not less than six and one-half hours' service on every day of the year 
except Sundays and legal holidays, provided, however, that bureau 
chiefs may be authorized by executive order of the governor-general 
to shorten the hours of labor to five hours on Saturdays. The officers 

77 



78 BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

and employees of the government are no longer obliged to take their 
leave in the United States, but may visit foreign countries, provided 
that the expense so incurred shall not exceed that which would have 
been permitted for a visit to the United States. Under the new 
civil-service act skilled laborers who receive less than $1,000 per 
annum, messengers, watchmen, and detectives appointed subsequent 
to the passage of the act will not be allowed leave. 

To save delays and unnecessary paper work the governor-general 
and heads of departments have been empowered to authorize the 
director of civil service to approve appointments and grant leaves of 
absence subject to the right of the governor-general or heads of de- 
partments, as the case may be, to reverse or modify on appeal the 
action of the director of civil service. 

Examinations. — During the year 5,726 applicants for promotion, 
transfer, reinstatement, or entrance into the service were examined by 
the bureau, an increase of 433 as compared with examinations for 
the previous year. The number of Filipinos, other than skilled 
laborers and mechanics, who took examinations in English was 3,078, 
of whom 631, or 21 per cent, passed, as compared with 2,231 for 
the fiscal year 1906, of whom 401, or 18 per cent, passed. The number 
of Filipinos appljdng for examination during the fiscal year just 
ended exceeded that of the previous year by 847, an increase of 38 
per cent. The number of applicants for examination in Spanish 
during the year 1907 was 1,863, of whom 675, or 36 per cent, passed, 
as compared with 1,973 for the previous year, of whom 816, or 41 
per cent, passed. The decrease in the number of applicants for 
examination in Spanish was 110, or about 6 per cent. Six hundred 
and four Americans were examined for entrance into the service 
during the year 1907, of whom 309, or 51 per cent, passed, as com- 
pared with 702 examined during the preceding fiscal year, of whom 
398, or 57 per cent, passed. Compared with the previous fiscal year 
there was a decrease of 98, or 14 per cent, in the number of Americans 
examined. 

Appointments in the classified service. — During the fiscal year 
covered by this report 550 original appointments were made, 430 of 
which were Filipinos and 120 Americans, as compared with 593 
original appointments for the preceding year, of which 474 were 
Filipinos and 119 Americans. Seventy-eight per cent of the 
appointments made during the present year were Filipinos and 22 per 
cent Americans, as compared with 71 per cent Filipinos and 29 per 
cent Americans for the preceding year. Of the 430 Filipinos 
appointed during the fiscal year 1907, 204 qualified in English and 
226 in Spanish, as compared with 174 in English and 300 in Spanish 
for the preceding year. 



BEPOBT OF THS GOVEBNOB-OBNEBAL. ^ 79 

From the applications for examination and the appointments 
made it is very evident that young Filipinos are making a great effort 
to quailify themselves for appointment to places in the government 
service requiring a knowledge of English, and that the number of 
Americans in the service is gradually decreasing, while the number 
of Filipinos is correspondingly increasing. On January 1, 1903, the 
number of Americans in the service above the grade of laborer was 
about equal to the number of Filipinos. The following table will 
show the number of Filipinos and Americans employed on the 1st of 
January, 1904, 1905, and 1907, no statistics being available for 1906 : 



AmerlcanB. ' Ffllplnoi. 



January 1. 1904 3.228 8.377 

January 1. 1006 _ ' 8,807 I 4.023 

January 1. 1007 j 2,616 i 8.002 

Since 1904 the number of Americans employed in the service has 
been reduced by more than 600 and the number of Filipinos em- 
ployed increased by more than 500. 

Salaries. — ^The gradual substitution of Filipinos for Americans 
should very materially reduce the cost of government, but whether 
such a result will follow the substitution will depend largely upon 
the firmness shown by the bureau chiefs and the Philippine legisla- 
ture in restraining the present tendency of Filipino employees to 
demand the high salaries paid to Americans. At first blush the 
demand of the Filipino that he should be paid the same salary paid 
to the American when he has shown himself capable of doing the 
same work appears to be reasonable and just, but when it is consid- 
ered that the salary paid to the American represents not only the 
value of the services rendered by him, but also the compensation 
exacted by him for the risks incurred by service in a tropical climate 
and for long-continued separation from family and friends, it is evi- 
dent that the demand of Filipino employees for the same salary 
for the same work loses something of its force. In my opinion, the 
Filipino should receive no more for his services to the government of 
the Philippines than the American would receive for the same services 
in the United States. Indeed, the government of the Philippine 
Islands should not pay to Filipinos, or, for that matter, to Americans, 
any more for their services than private concerns are willing to pay 
to their employees, American or Filipino, under corresponding cir- 
cumstances. Should the present policy of bureau chiefs be continued, 
of paying to Filipino officials and employees the same salaries for- 
merly paid to Americans for the same service, it is very safe to say that 
when the final substitution of Filipinos takes place the government 



80 RBPOBT OP THE PHIMPPINB COMMISSION. 

of the Philippine Islands will be the most expensive government in 
the world. 

Notwithstanding the high salaries that are paid to Americans, the 
service is constantly drained of its employees by private concerns and 
private enterprises. During the preceding fiscal year great diflSculty 
has been encountered in obtaining and retaining civil engineers and 
stenographers and typewriters. This is due to several causes, but 
principally to the fact that the entrance salaries now offei-ed here are 
but little higher than those offered during the past few years for simi- 
lar work in the United States. This is especially true with reference to 
engineers, some of whom are now earning in Panama, Cuba, and the 
United States from $4,000 to $6,000 a year,' whereas the salaries 
allowed to the same men in the Philippine service was only $2,500 
per annum. 

With a view to filling provincial treasurerships with competent and 
capable Filipinos an assistant provincial treasurer examination was 
given in February and May of the present year. Comparatively few 
competitors presented themselves, however, and it is evident that the 
process of substitution in this branch of the government service will 
be slow. 

Permanency of the service. — Constant changes in the public service 
defeat to some extent the objects of the civil-service law, whose prin- 
cipal purpose is to give permanency of tenure and to retain in the 
public service those whose capacity, efiiciency, and experience are the 
best guarantees that the government work will be efficiently per- 
formed. Heretofore it can not be said that the civil service has been 
wholly successful in securing to subordinate employees and officials 
that tenure of office which is the best security for good government. 
That this permanency has not been secured is due to no fault of the 
civil-service administration or of civil-service laws or rules, but rather 
to circumstances over which neither the civil-service bureau nor the 
government has had much control. American officials and employees 
have rarely made up their minds to cast their fortunes definitely with 
the Philippines or to make governmental service in the Tropics ?i 
career. Many of those who in the beginning were so minded, due to 
ill health of themselves or their families, or the longing to return to 
friends and relatives, changed front and preferred to return to the 
homeland, there to enjoy life at half the salary in the environment to 
which they were accustomed. Filipino officials and employees, it is 
true, have not the same temptations as their American brothers to 
leave the service, and in time the vacancies caused by separation of 
Americans will be filled by Filipinos. Meanwhile, however, until 
Filipinos have been prepared to fill such vacancies, the service must 
suffer, and suffer severely, for lack of trained and qualified personnel. 
The difficulty is not only a temporary one, but one which will confront 
the service for some time to come. Recognition of merit, promotion 



REPORT OP THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL. 81 

without favoritism, impartial and just treatment, and the security 
that no oflScial will be removed from office for light or trivial causes, 
will, of course, retain in the service many capable, able, and experi- 
enced Americans and Filipinos, but not all required by the govern- 
ment in order to secure the best results. That which operates prob- 
ably more than anything else to induce good men drawing good 
salaries to abandon the service, whether American or Filipino, is the 
knowledge that they have nothing to look forward to when broken 
health or old age shall have rendered them valueless to the govern- 
ment. 

Nearly all European governments make some provision for the 
retirement, after a certain number of years' service, of faithful public 
servants when incapacitated by ill health or old age for further work. 

The undersigned favors the pensioning on three-quarter pay of all 
civil officers and employees after forty years of service, or on one-half 
pay when retired from the service by reason of ill health which dis- 
qualifies them for further duty. It is true that in the present condi- 
tion of the treasury the establishment of a pension and retirement 
system would be attended by some financial difficulties. In view of 
the fact, however, that fully thirty years must elapse before any pen- 
sion for length of service would accrue, and of the further fact that 
retirements from the service by reason of permanent incapacity to 
render further service will be comparatively few, it is possible that a 
pension and retirement law might be passed at this time. 

For further and more complete details of the operations of the 
bureau of civil service reference is hereby made to the report of the 
director of civil service which is hereto annexed, marked " Exhibit 
No. 1," and made a part hereof. 

EXECUTIVE BTTBEATT. 
PERSONNEL OF THE BUREAU. 

In January of the present year the chief clerkship of the executive 
bureau was- abolished and a new division was created, known as the 
"law division." Mr. Thomas Gary Welch, chief clerk, was made 
chief of the law division, and Mr. Harry E. Laughlin, the law clerk, 
was made chief of the administration division. The duties formerly 
exercised by the chief clerk were distributed among the various chiefs 
of division, the largest measure falling to the second assistant execu- 
tive secretary. The law division assumed all the duties which there- 
tofore had been performed by the law clerk and his assistants. In 
addition to his other duties, the chief of the law division prepares for 
submission to the Commission drafts of proposed legislation, and 
makes a special examination of all legal questions affecting the 

11024— WAR 1907— VOL 7 6 



82 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

administration of provinces and municipalities, submitting to the 
executive secretary his conclusions and recommendations. 

Appropriations for the 7 private secretaries to the members of the 
Philippine Commission are now carried under the headings " Execu- 
tive " and " Philippine Commission," and are no longer charged to 
the executive bureau. 

On June 80 the personnel of the bureau consisted of the executive 
secretary, assistant executive secretary, second assistant executive 
secretary, supervisor of land assessments, recorder of the Commission, 
6 chiefs of division, 1 assistant chief of division, 97 clerks, 34 mes- 
sengers, 2 special employees, 1 janitor, 1 watchman, and 14 laborers. 
Of this force, 43 are Americans and 118 Filipinos. The clerical force 
is made up of 31 Americans and 66 Filipinos. 

CONVENTION OF PROVINCIAL GOVERNORS. 

CdU of the convention. — On the 22d of September, 1906, the gov- 
ernor-general called a convention of provincial governors, to be held 
at Manila on the 1st of October following. 

Representation. — The convention met at 9 o'clock a. m., on the day 
appointed, with 29 provincial governors present and ready for the 
transaction of business. The provinces represented in the conven- 
tion were Albay, Ambos Camarines, Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, 
Bohol, Bulacan, Capiz, Cavite, Cebu, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, 
La Laguna, Leyte, La Union, Mindoro, Misamis, Negros Occidental, 
Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal, Samar, 
Sorsogon, Surigao, Tarlac, and Tayabas. 

Election of offtcers. — ^The Hon. Sergio Osmefia, provincial gov- 
ernor of Cebu, was elected chairman of the convention, and Senor 
Gregorio Nieva, of the staff of the executive bureau, was selected as 
secretary. 

Matters submitted to the convention. — Among other matters sub- 
mitted to the convention of provincial governors and considered by 
it were (1) the proposed new election law covering the election of 
representatives to the assembly and of provincial and municipal offi- 
cials, (2) the areas of land under cultivation in the various prov- 
inces, (3) the amount of indebtedness and industrial conditions of 
the farming communities, (4) the land tax, (5) the relations of the 
constabulary force to provincial and municipal governments, (6) the 
construction of roads, (7) the financial condition of provincial gov- 
ernments, (8) the best method of disseminating information among 
the people concerning contagious diseases and their avoidance, (9) 
the improvement of sanitary conditions, and (10) the necessity for 
economy in municipal expenses. 

Reconvmendatians of the convention. — ^Many amendments to the 
proposed election law were submitted to the Commission by the con- 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL. 88 

vention, practically all df which were accepted save those which 
appeared to be in conflict with the act of Congress of July 1, 1902. 

With the exception of the amendments suggested by the convention 
to the proposed election law, the most important recommendation 
made by the convention was that which involved the election, instead 
of the appointment, of a majority of the provincial board. The pro- 
posed alteration in the method of selecting a majority of the members 
of the provincial board met the approval of the Commission. In 
practice it was found that the division superintendent of schools 
could not act as a member of the provincial board without prejudic- 
ing the interests of education in the province, and as there seemed to 
be no good reason why the organized provinces should not enjoy the 
same measure of autonomy as that conceded to the municipalities, the 
Commission so amended the provincial government act as to permit 
of the election of the provincial governor and a third member of the 
provincial board by popular vote. The provincial board as now con- 
stituted is composed of a provincial governor and third member 
elected by the people and of a provincial treasurer appointed by the 
governor-general with the approval of the Commission. The third 
member may be required to perform the duties of provincial treasurer 
and any other ministerial duties designated by the provincial board. 
While on duty the third member is entitled to such compensation as 
may be fixed by the provincial board, such compensation to be, how- 
ever, not less than P5 nor more than ^15 for each day of actual 
attendance. 

On the reconmiendation of the provincial governors Uie position of 
provincial secretary was abolished, in the interest of economy, and the 
duties of that position were transferred to the office of the provincial 
governor. 

The convention recommended that provinces be authorized : 

(a) To make loans to municipal governments in amounts not to 
exceed 5 per cent of the assessed value of the real property within the 
municipalify, interest on such loans not to exceed 3 per cent per 
anhum. 

(b) To provide for the payment of medical attendance, transpor- 
tation, and hospital fees of unclassified employees and laborers dis- 
abled as a result of injuries received in the line of duty, and to pay, 
in the discretion of the board, compensation to such employees and 
laborers for a period not exceeding ninety days. In case of the death 
of imclassified employees or laborers as the result of injuries received 
in the service it was recommended that provincial boards be per- 
mitted to allow reasonable funeral expenses. 

(c) To appropriate out of the road and bridge fund moneys for 
the removal of obstructions to navigation, and for the erection and 



84 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

maintenance of wharves, piers, and docks in accordance with plans 
and specifications furnished by the buredu of public works. 

(d) To make, subject to the approval of the governor-general, such 
appropriations out of general funds as may be necessary to promote 
the prosperity and welfare of the province. 

It appearing to the Commission that provincial governments, under 
certain limitations, ought to be permitted to come to the relief of 
municipal governments within their confines; that some provision 
should be made for the benefit of employees and laborers injured in 
the provincial service; that the erection and maintenance of wharves, 
piers, and docks was necessary to give to highways and roads their 
highest usefulness; and that a wider authority might be given to pro- 
vincial boards to expend, under executive approval, general funds, the 
provincial government act was amended accordingly. The neces- 
sity of the approval of the governor-general is the check on expendi- 
tures made for purposes other than those specified in the provincial 
government act as amended. 

Governors Sergio Osmeiia, of Cebu; Manuel Quezon, of Tayabas, 
and Jaime 6. de Veyra, of Leyte, were appointed a committee by the 
governor-general to remain in Manila until further orders for the 
purpose of compiling and arranging in proper and convenient form 
for consideration the resolutions of the convention of provincial gov- 
ernors, and for the further purpose of furnishing such information 
concerning the recommendations submitted as might be required by 
the Commission. 

THE LAND TAX. 

Suspension of the land tax. — In view of the unanimous recom- 
mendation of the provincial governors and of the further fact that 
it was claimed that agriculture had not recovered from the effects of 
the war and the loss of cattle, the land tax was suspended for the 
calendar year 1907, and 60 per cent of the sum which in the absence 
of such suspension would have accrued to the various provinces either 
has been or will be paid out of insular funds. The net result of this 
arrangement was a loss to the provinceb of 50 per cent of their land- 
tax revenue. 

Without the land tax local governments would soon be in a very 
deplorable financial condition. Indeed, the loss of 50 per cent of the 
land-tax revenue so embarrassed several provinces that during the 
year they petitioned for permission to impose and collect the tax. 
These petitions were denied, first, because it would have, been impossi- 
ble to complete the new assessment in time; second, because the legis- 
lation required would have been special ; and, third, because it was 
deemed advisable that provincial governments should be placed face 



BEPOBT OF THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL. 85 

to face with the difficulties which would result from a permanent 
suspension of the land tax and brought to a realization of the fact 
that the land tax would have to be maintained or some other system 
of taxation substituted for it. The lesson was a very bitter one to 
many provincial governments, not so bitter, however, as to completely 
prevent agitation for a further suspension during the year 1908. For 
more than five years the Philippine Commission was constantly pre- 
sented to the people as the bad partner who was responsible for the 
imposition and the maintenance of the hated land tax, the so-called 
burden on agriculture. During the fiscal year 1907 the Commission 
felt that it was no longer bound to endure the burden of criticism 
which it had sustained for many years purely and solely in the inter- 
est of local governments, and accordingly it transferred to provincial 
boards some, if not all, of the responsibility of continuing or sus- 
pending a tax which had no other purpose than that of aiding in the 
support of provincial and municipal governments. As resolutions for 
the suspension of the land tax must be adopted prior to the 1st of 
December in each year the power was reserved to 'the governor-gen- 
eral to suspend the tax on his own motion in case some great disaster 
or misfortune occurring subsequent to that date should render suspen- 
sion necessary. The provincial boards of Cebu and Iloilo have 
adopted resolutions suspending the tax for the calendar year 1908. 
The provinces of Ambos Camarines, Batangas, and Ilocos Sur failed 
or refused to suspend the tax prior to December, and then through 
the provincial governors sought to ^induce the governor-general to 
suspend the tax of his own motion. In the absence of^a resolution 
requesting a suspension the executive declined to intervene in the 
matter or to assume a responsibility which properly belonged to the 
provincial board. 

Some twenty years ago there was a very large delinquent tax list 
resulting from the failure to pay the land tax. During the two years 
of suspension, however, this list has been very considerably dimin- 
ished and it would seem certain that before the end of the present 
year the entire land tax list will be cleared up without resorting to 
sale of landed property. 

New assessment of real estate, — The new assessment of real estate 
authorized by act No. 1455 has been completed. Taking into con- 
sideration that few parcels of land have been carefully surveyed, 
that the majority of landed proprietors have very indefinite ideas as 
to the area of their property, that titles have not been perfected, and 
that descriptions and documents showing or tending to show title 
are vague and indefinite, the work of reassessment has been as well 
performed as could be expected. 



86 BEPOBT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

On May 1, 1907, the work of assessment by local boards of assessors 
and provincial boards of tax appeals had progressed so far that the 
central equalizing board was able to commence its duty of revising, 
reviewing, and equalizing the assessment rolls. The central equaliz- 
ing board visited all the provinces for the purpose' of hearing appeals 
from decisions of provincial boards of tax appeals and of equalizing 
the valuations fixed. But few reductions or increases were made by 
the equalizing board in the schedules of valuation adopted by pro- 
vincial boards. Although the valuations are lower than those origi- 
nally prevailing, the total assessed valuation in many of the provinces, 
if not the whole archipelago, will be greater than that of the first 
assessment. This is in large part due to the fact that many parcels 
previously assessed have been found of larger area than that declared, 
and that many parcels of land never before assessed have been dis- 
covered and included in the assessment rolls. The most bitter oppo- 
nents of the land tax are the proprietors of large estates who are 
unable to cultivate the entire area owned by them and are therefore 
naturally opposed' to a tax based upon valuation rather than upon 
income. 

PROVINCIAL FUNDS. 

Provincial receipts and disbursements. — The revenue of the vari- 
ous provinces of the archipelago for the fiscal year 1907 amounted to 
^2,679,255.80, and miscellaneous receipts to the sum of ^=1,473,418.93, 
01* a grand total of ^4,052,674.73, which represents the total amount 
received by the provinces during the fiscal year. There was in the 
treasuries of the provinces on July 1, 1906, the sum of ^1,961,219.64, 
being the balance unexpended at the end of the fiscal year 1906. The 
grand total, made up of the receipts for the fiscal year 1907 and of the 
balance on hand at the end of the fiscal year 1906, was ^,013,894.37. 
This does not include the sum of Pfs. 27,757.44, Mexican and Span- 
ish-Filipino currency, on hand in the various provincial treasuries 
on the 1st of July, 1906, or the sum of Pfs. 47,018.71, Mexican and 
Spanish-Filipino currency, received by such treasuries during the 
fiscal year 1907. The total expenditures of all the provinces for pro- 
vincial purposes, exclusive of miscellaneous credits, were ^3,703,- 
415.03. The miscellaneous credits amounted to ?262,670.43. The 
total expenditures, inclusive of miscellaneous credits, were ^3,966,- 
086.46, and the balance on hand in the provincial treasuries on the 
80th of June, 1907, was 1P2,047,808.91. The expenditures and mis- 
cellaneous credits just mentioned do not include the sum of Pfs. 
69,393.53, Mexican and Spanish-Filipino currency, turned into the 
insular treasury. The sum of f^,047,808.91, balance on hand June 
30, 1907, does not include the sum of Pfs. 5,382.62, Mexican and 
Spanish-Filipino currency, on hand in the provincial treasuries at 
the end of the fiscal year 1907. 



RBPOBT OF THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL. 



87 



The following table will show in detail the revenues and miscel- 
laneous receipts of the provincial governments during the fiscal year 
1907, and the expenditures and miscellaneous credits of the provinces 
for the same period : 



Provfndal. 



' Mexican and 
Philippine I SpanlBh-FlU- 
cniTsncy. plno cur- 
rency. 



DKBIT8. 



Balance July 1. 1906 *-. 

Bsvenoes: 

An provincial— 

Refflatry of property 

Mlninr fees ■ 

Rental of provincial property 

Priaon labor 

Faree provincial launches 

Medical oertlflcates. act No. 810.— - 

Bay-San Pablo toll road 

Franchise tax, act No. 887 

Fees Justice of the peace* act No. 1308 _ 

Road tax. act No. 1398 _ _ 

Fees provincial sheriff, act No. 176_ 

Various taxes pertaining exclusively to the Moro Province.. 
Oustoms (Moro). 



Oustoms arrestre plant Jolo, act No. 143sS (Moro) 

Miscellaneous 

Joint provincial, municipal— 

Oedulas, act No. 83 

Oart 

Land. 1005 and previous years 

Industrial 

Daet franchise, act No. llll_- 

Franchise tax, act No. 1803 

AH municipal- 
Cattle registration, non-Christian Inhabitants 

Interaal revenue— 

Oedulas. act No. IIW 

Refund from Insular treasury, act No. 1189 

Non-Christian portion. 

Township and settlement portion 

Oedulas, act No. 118»- 

Non-Chrlstlan portion 

Township and settlement portion 

Opium certificates, act No. 1481. township and settlement por- 
tion. 

Weights and measures, act No. 1519 



Total revenues-. 



MiiceUanoous receipts: 

Payments to provlnoes— 

Insular payment in lieu of land tax. acta Nos. 146& and 1579 

Oongresslonal relief, act No. 1408 « ' 

School building funds, act No. 1275 j 

General provincial purposes, act No. 1527 

Insular payment In lieu of land tax, act No. 1475.. ' 

Belief for municipality of Mavltac, act No. 1S27 

Cancellation of loans, act No. 1881 

Bagulo-Trlnadad road appropriation , 

General provincial purposes, act No. 1300 

Loans to provinces — .' 

Bepayment of loans by municipalities 

Public contributions school building fund, act No. 1275..., 

Public contributions Tarlac dike fund 1 

Sale of rice. Congressional relief ' 

Sale of galvanized iron, Oongresslonal relief | 

Toi expenditures— ' 

Provincial funds, general purposes, refund cost tax sales 

Tabaco-LIgao road fund, roads and bridges, refund perma- 
nent equipment 

Oongresslonal relief fund, general purposes, refund perma- 
nent equipment 

Exchanges of currency - 



Total miscellaneous receipts. 
Total debits 



Ptt09. 

1,981,219.81 



Pf*. 
27,707.44 



20.040.71 ' 

2,578.00 

6,408.87 I _ 

9,014.68 

850.53 

12.00 

510.26 

10.82 

1,010.89 

81,882.00 

87.44 

98,874.85 

389,029.89 

8,087.98 

5,185.84 ' 



5,230.40 

85.840.54 

247,745.28 

80.51 

118.18 I 

88.07 



8.89 



kOO I 



905,047.00 

782,094.88 

21,488.02 

81,289.92 

2,888.00 
44.50 

6.00 
189.84 



2,579.265.80 | 



8.09 



882,078.88 '_. 

44,800.00 .. 

88,600.00 - 

118.880.00 .. 

8.928.04 .. 

821.87 .. 

2.000.00 .. 

1,308.35 ' 

348.16 1- 

248.000.00 '.. 

34.325.85 .. 

42.811.79 - 

2.252.75 .. 

5.931.18 - 

221.29 -. 

1.083.17 „ 

312.00 .. 



101.00 
68,121.18 



47.010.( 



1,478,418.98 | 47.010.02 



8,018,894.37 



74,776.15 



88 



BEPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Provincial. 



Philippine 
corrency. 



Mexican and 
Spanish-Fili- 
pino cor- 
rency. 



OBBDITS. 

Expendl tares: 

Provincial funds— 

Oeneral purposee— 

Salaries of provincial officials 

Salaries of provincial employees 

Repairs and construction of buildings 

Traveling expenses and per diems 

Rentals for buildings 

Office supplies 

Permanent equipment-, 

Clerk of court fees 

Sheriffs' fees 

Feeding prisoners. — 

Premiums on bonds 

Purchase of land 

Cost tax sales — -. 

Postage, mall and telegrams 

Miscellaneous 

Roads and bridged- 
Labor and material _ 

Permanent equipment - '- 

Purchase of land— — _- 

Schools- 
Salaries 

Repairs and construction of bridges 

Rentals for buildings 

OfHce supplies 

Permanent equipment 

Purchase of land ~ 

MIscellaneouB; _ — 

Congressional relief funds— 

Oeneral purposes- 
Repairs and construction of buildings 

Postage, mall and telegrams 

Miscellaneous _ 

Roads and bridges- 
Labor and material 

Permanent equipment 

Schools— Repairs and construction of buildings 

Congressional relief fund, act No. 1406— 

General purposes- 
Repairs and construction of buildings 

Permanent equipment _ - 

MIsQcllaneous 

Roads and bridges— Labor and materlaL 

Tarlac dike fund, act No. 1406— 

Roads and bridges- 
Labor and material 

Permanent equipment _ 

Bay-San Pablo road fund, act No. 1617— 

Roads and bridges- 
Labor and material— — 

Permanent equipment 

School building fund, act No. 1275— 

Schools- 
Repairs and construction of buildings. 

Office supplies 

Permanent equipment 

Purchase of land.. - - 

Miscellaneous ' 

Tabaco-LIgao road fund, act No. 1260— 

Roads and bridges— labor and material.. 

Special road fund, act No. 147S— I 

Roads and bridges— labor and material 

School fund, aot No. 160»- • I 

Schools- 
Repairs and construction of buildings | 

Permanent equipment 

Miscellaneous J 

School building fund, act No. 1564— i 

Schools- 
Repairs and construction of buildings ' 

Permanent equipment 

Non-Christian inhabitants' fund- 
General purposes- 
Salaries of employees 

Miscellaneous 

Schools- 
Salaries of employees 



PewoM. 
586,929.57 
803,976.40 
209,700.42 
.m,834.98 

27,660.01 

53,406.11 
111,003.24 
139.824.28 

26,401.52 
142,270.09 

25,530.39 
8.843.00 



Pf8, 






Repairs and construction of buildings.. 
Miscellaneous 



46,255.40 
186,007.67 

.'306,484.72 

60.630.46 

125.00 

87,014.74 
19.536.34 
27.476.45 

1,068.36 
14,946.77 

5.830.39 
17,983.79 



5,236.40 
27.92 
266.78 

34.929.39 

664.42 

5,428.32 



1,661.37 

19.96 

7.805.85 

747.17 



20.401.84 
4,702.27 



1.446.82 
829.44 



218.966.24 

14.80 

854.04 

3.895.00 

10.326.54 

997.62 

4.781.47 



11.824.76 
26.18 
61.58 



19,888.67 
166.43 



66.72 
192.65 

265.00 

61. SO 

814.24 



181.65 



BEPOBT OF THE OOVEBKOB-OBNBKAL. 



89 



OBKDiTS— continued. 

gxpendltqrB B Oonttoned 

Township and settlement f und>- 
General purposes- 
Salaries ol employees 

Repairs and construction of buildings 

Miscellaneous 

Boads and bridges— labor and material 

Schools— salaries of employees 

Boad and bridge and public work fund, act No. 1399— 

General purposes— Repairs and construction of bnlldlncs 

Boads and bridges- 
Labor and material 

Permanent equipment 

Schools- Repairs and construction of buQdings 

Provincial building fund, act Ko. 1416— 
General purposes— 

Repairs and construction of buHdinga 

Permanent equipment 

School assistance fund, act No. 707— 

Schools— Salaries of employees 

Special provincial building fund- 
General purposes— Repairs and construction of buOdings... 
VUlaverde trail fund- 
Roads and bridges— Labor and material 

Provincial launch fund, act No. 1478— 

General purposes— Permanent eqtdpment.. 



Provincial. 



Philippine 
currency. 



Industrial and agricultural school fund, act No. 1801— 
Schools— Repairs and construction of buildings 

Oongressional relief fund Gandara VaDey— 

Schools— Repairs and construction of buildings 



Total expenditures. 



Mlndlaneous credits: 

Allowanoee under section 42, act No. 1402 

Loans to municipalities 

Repayments of loans to insular government 

Payment to municipality, for cancellation loans __ 

Payment to municipality from congressional relief fund 

Transfer to township and settlement fund ~ 

Exchanges of currency 

Transfer to municipal fund from rancherlas fund 

Payment to township from township and settlement fund 

Allowance for losses, act No. ie08 

Advances to customs officers (Moro) 

Advances to customs offlosrs arrastre plant (Moro) 

By revenue, Joint provinclal-munldpal stamps previous years.. 
Refund unexpended balance appropriation, act No. 1306 

Total miscellaneous credits 

Balance June 80, 1907 

Total credits _ •— - 



Peaot. 

1,964.00 

176.67 

48.95 

2.825.00 

244.00 

20,561.71 

12,821.44 

.45 

408.90 



15,185.56 
96.50 

1,820.24 

6,067.26 

2,610.68 

1,616.42 

7S.46 

1,790.13 



Mexican and 
Spanish-Fili- 
pino cur- 
rency. 



P/#. 



8,706,415.06 



181.66 



440.67 

82.600.00 

88,220.86 

2,000.00 

7.90O.0O 

10.856.68 

86,157.06 

82.00 

800.00 

948.74 

81,263.28 

1,500.00 

40.82 , 

1.60 



III 




_- 





— 


"e»^7Te2 


:::: 


""'iwlM 



262,670.43 



69,211.1 



2.047,808.91 | 



6,882.68 



6.013,894.37 



74.776.16 



Deposits of provincial funds, — Experience has shown that a con- 
siderable sum on hand in the various provincial treasuries at the 
end of each fiscal year might have been safely deposited on time 
deposit with government depositories and returned to the channels of 
trade and commerce until required for current provincial expenses or 
public works. Such sums are now deposited with the government 
depositories and accomplish the double purpose of earning interest 
for the benefit of the provinces and of aiding the circulation of money 
among the people. Notwithstanding the reduced revenues of provin- 
cial governments, due to the suspension of the land tax and the 
reimbursement of only 50 per cent thereof out of insular funds, it was 



90 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE GOMMISSIOK. 

found possible during the fiscal year 1907 to deposit with government 
depositories at 3^ per cent per annum the sum of ^1,580,050 belong- 
ing to the provinces. The additional income derived by provincial 
governments from such deposits is the sum of ^55,817.50 per annum. 
Officials have become more familiar with the system and can now so 
distribute their deposits that they will fall due at convenient times 
for the purpose of meeting provincial expenses. It is expected that 
during the fiscal year 1908 the deposits will reach the sum of about 
f^jOOOjOOO which will probably add about ^0,000 per annum to 
provincial funds. 

Economies in salary expenses. — ^During the fiscal year 1907 it was 
suggested that one fiscal might, without undue difficulty, do duty in 
two provinces instead of one, as has been the practice in the past, and 
that the position of fiscal for some of the provinces might be wholly 
abolished and an assistant attorney from the attomey-general's office 
detailed to perform the duties formerly imposed on the fiscal. It 
was also found that in many of the smaller provinces the offices of 
clerk of the court and clerk to the provincial governor might be con- 
solidated, in the interests of economy and to the advantage of the 
service. Since the termination of the fiscal year 1907 many of these 
reforms have been carried into effect, resulting in a substantial 
reduction of provincial expenses. 

MUNICIPAL FUNDS. / 

Municipal revenues during the calendar year for general purposes 
amounted to W,755,408.98, and for school purposes to the sum of 
^24,829.70. Miscellaneous receipts of mimicipalities for general 
purposes amounted to the sum of 7^11,145.39, and for school pur- 
poses to the sum of 1P840,222.54. The balance on hand January 1, 
1906, to the credit of the general fund was ^606,047.02, and to the 
credit of the school fund ^447,550.96. The revenues and miscella- 
neous receipts of municipalities for the calendar year 1906 do not in- 
clude the sum of Wl,414.36 to the credit of the cemetery fund. The 
expenditures of municipalities out of the general fund for munici- 
pal purposes, exclusive of miscellaneous credits, were ^,731,409.66, 
for school purposes, ^1,078,632.40, and for cemeteries, ^09.80. In 
addition, there were expended out of the general fund as miscella- 
neous credits ^150,874.52, and out of the school fund as miscellaneous 
credits P28,414.56. The total expenditures of municipal govern- 
ments for the calendar year 1906 out of general funds, inclusive of 
miscellaneous credits, were W,882,284.18, and out of the school fund 
^1,107,046.96. The balance on hand in municipal treasuries 
on Decembei 31. 1906, to the credit of the general fund was 



BEPORT OP THE GOVEBNOB-GENERAL. 



91 



^1,090,317.21, tx) the credit of the school fund, ^805,556.24, and to 
the credit of the cemetery fund, 1^10,805.06. 

The following table will show in detail the revenues and miscella- 
neous receipts of municipalities during the calendar year 1906, and 
their expenditures and miscellaneous credits during the same period : 



DXBIT8. 

Balance January 1, 1900 

BaVentMs: 

Internal revenue— 

Befund from Insular treasurer, act No. 1189.. 

Oedulas. act No. 118». 

Licenses, act No. 118» 

Opium certificates, act No. 1481 

Joint proylnclal and municipal— 

Oart 

Land, 1905 and previous years. 

Industrial tax 

Municipal-^ 
Fisheries.. 



Cattle registration 

Bents, proflts, and privileges 

Licenses 

Fines 

Sales ol estrays 

Miscellaneous 

Cemetery.. 



Propoty tax 

Oedulas— 

Act No. 83 

Act No. 1397 

Stamp tax (Spanish) 

Forestry, 1904 

Franchise tax- 
Act No. UU 

Act No. 1112 

Building permit (Moro) 

Latrine (Moro) 

Frontage (Moro) 

Street cleaning (Moro) 



Total revenues 



Miscellaneous receipts: 

Insular payment la Heu of land tax, act No. 1455 

Insular payment In lieu of land tax, act No. 1475 — . 

Loans from province 

Transfers _ 

Special appropriation, act No. 1527 * 

Police aid fund, act No. 681 _. 

Public contributions Tarlac Dike — 

Allotment township and settlement fund 

School assistance fund, act No. 797 

Insular aid to schools, resolution CommissIoD, January 

15. 1906 t. 

Received from Insular Government, act No. 1416 



Total miscellaneous receipts.. 
Total debits 

CRiorrs. 



General 
fund. 



. School 
fund. 



Cemetery 
fund. 



r>606,047.0a 



733,218.21 
823.888.82 
238.601.78 
30,813.00 

32,566.14 

224.693.76 

383.68 

129,211.77 
251.390.46 
652.682.09 
349.071.89 
219,572.84 
32.319.16 
12,325.71 



F>447,660.96 i 



861.808.00 ! 



.L, 



256,746.89 I 



15.775.06 



7.106.97 

546.00 
13.69 



6,274.81 

, rio,a99.8« 



955.57 

219.65 

1,820.55 

3.00 

1.091.04 

2.063.57 

58^.10 






3.755.406.96 | 624,829.70 10.899.38 



I 



676,078.85 

5,45.3.61 

10,574.00 

1,427.47 

12,374.66 

086.00 

450.80 

800.00 



690,757.56 
8,453.63 





8,800.00 
116,385.88 


515755 










18.877.68 


:::::~::i: 


250.00 





611,145.39 1 840.222.54 



515.00 



4.972.601.39 1,912.608.20 11.414.36 



t 



846.446.11 



Expenditures : 

Salaries of officials _. 884.207.70 

Salaries of employees u _ 1 719,340.60 

Salaries and maintenance of police ^.. 1,035,814.59 

Furniture^ office supplies, etc t-i 202,495.74 27,982.08 

Rent _ 41,292.89 

Construction, repairs, and improvements 461.789.63 I 151,101.20 ' — — 

Street lighting. ! 62,350.10 I 

MlsceUaneous : 320.323.18 j 52.550.68 

Cemetery ^ - i 609.80 

OoDstnxetlon. repairs, and Improvements, act No. 1527— 3,756.23 ] ' 

School assistance fund, act No. 797 1,552.33 



Total expenditures ' 3.731,409.66 1.078,632.40 



609.30 



92 



BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 





General 
fund. 


School 
fond. 


Ooneterr 
fund. 


0BXDIT8— <!ont!naed . 

MieodlaneonB credits: 

Bepaym«nt of loana to proylT>ce ..... _ . . 


26.858.85 
116.000.86 

4.600.qD 

I.OUO.OO 

2,024.81 

90.50 


11.844.20 
1,427.47 

16,000.00 

642l»" 




Translera 

Payment to province- 
Act No. 1275 ,„._..... _ ^ _.-._. .. 




TariacDIkeL. 

Loaees. section 41, act No. 1402 - 





Losses, section 42. act No. 1402 





Total rntfiAAllAnAOtin pti^Ma 


160.874.62 


28.414.56 






" 


Balance December 31. 1906 


1,000,817.21 


805.556.24 


10,805.06 


Total credits _... 


4,072.601.80 


1.912.603.20 


11,414.36 



PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS IN MUNICIPALITIES. 

Six years of experience proved to a demonstration that the 
majority of municipal governments were disposed to expend ahnost 
all the municipal revenues and receipts for salaries and wages and to 
devote to public improvements and betterments little, if any, of the 
taxes and contributions collected from the people. Careful invest!-' 
gation of the expenditures of municipalities shows that out of 685 
municipalities 88 expended the entire general fund for salaries and 
not a single cent on permanent improvements. Sixty-three munici- 
palities spent less than 1 per cent and 163 less than 10 per cent on 
public works and betterments* In consequence of this state of affairs 
the Commission felt itself obliged to curtail in fiome measure the 
autonomy of municipalities in the expenditure of municipal funds, 
and to limit the amount which municipalities of the various classes 
might expend on salaries. This limit was fixed at 50 per cent for 
municipalities of the first class, 60 per cent for municipalities of the 
second class, 65 per cent for municipalities of the third class, and 76 
per cent for municipalities 4Df the fourth cla^. The effect of this 
limitation in expenditures for municipal salaries will be, first, to 
oblige municipalities to expend some of the taxes and receipts col- 
lected on public betterments, and, second, to permit of the separation 
of many municipalities which were annexed to other municipalities 
in the hope that more money might be available for public improve- 
ments. Experience shows that notwithstanding the fusion of mu- 
nicipalities either nothing or very insignificant sums were expended 
on public works, and that the towns annexed to other municipalities 
were practically abandoned to their own devices and received no 
benefit whatever from the taxes paid by them. 

CHANGES IN MUNICIPAL AND PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENTS. 

During the fiscal year 21 new municipalities were created by 
reconstituting municipalities which had been annexed to others. 
Since the termination of the fiscal year 1907, twenty-eight additional 



BBPOBT OF THE GOVEBNOp-GBNERAL. 98 

municipalities have been reconstituted. During the fiscal year nine 
municipalities were so combined with other municipalities as to 
reduce the number of municipalities by four. Since the termination 
of the fiscal year the number of municipalities has been reduced by 
two. The total number of municipalities in existence on the date 
of this report is 630. 

For the purpose of establishing some form of government for the 
mountain people of Cagayan and Lepanto-Bontoc the subprovinces 
of Apayao in Cagayan and of Kalinga in Lepanto-Bontoc were 
created. A new boundary between the subprovince of Amburayan 
and the provinces of Ilocos Sur and La Union was established. The 
province of Agusan has been carved out of the provinces of Misamis 
and Surigao, and this new province in its turn has been divided into 
the subprovinces of Butuan and Bukidnon. The creation of the 
province of Agusan and the subprovinces of Butuan and Bukidnon 
resulted from the fact that the people residing within the limits now 
defined for the new province were either badly governed or received 
but little attention from the provincial officials of Misamis and Suri- 
gao. The province of Romblon was unable to maintain itself on the 
revenues available for its support and was annexed to the province 
of Capiz. The number of provinces is still 38. Seven of them, how- 
ever, are governed under the provisions of the special provincial gov- 
ernment act. 

DISTRICT AUDITOR SYSTEM. 

The lack of proper investigation of municipal accounts, and the 
fact that the auditor's office in Manila could not make frequent and 
careful examinations into the financial affairs of provincial govern- 
ments, resulted in the establishment of the district- auditor system. 
The islands have been divided into districts and to each district has 
been assigned an auditor whose duty it is to make frequent examina- 
tions, not only of the accounts of provincial treasurers, but also of 
municipal treasurers. As a result illegal collections and expenditures 
are now less frequent, and the expense of the system has been saved 
many times over to taxpayers. In addition to the examination of 
municipal and provincial accounts the district auditors are required, 
within their respective jurisdictions, to report upon damaged, lost, or 
surplus property of the insular government. The performance of 
this duty by the district auditors has made possible the prompt dis- 
patch of property inspections and has checked to a very considerable 
degree the wasteful handling of government property. Property 
when no longer needed by the department or bureau accountable for 
it was frequently sold instead of being transferred to some other de- 
partment or bureau in which it might have been used to advantage. 
This unsatisfactory condition has been largely remedied by means of 



94 RBPOBT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

the district auditors, who, knowing to some degree the needs of the 
various bureaus and departments of the government, are in a position 
to recommend transfers rather than sales of public property. 

GABLE TOLLS. 

The total cable tolls paid by the government during the fiscal year 
1907 amounted to ^=17,080.22, as compared with ^19,066.76 paid dur- 
ing the fiscal year 1907. 

FIBEARMS. 

During the fiscal year a consistent and persistent effort has been 
made to reduce the number of firearms in the hands of others than 
peace officers of the government. The practice of arming municipal 
police with rifles has also been discouraged, and municipalities not 
exposed to raids or assaults by bandits or marauders have been 
enjoined to arm their police with revolvers and clubs instead of a 
weapon which is of but little use at close quarters and a positive 
danger to the peaceful citizen if used in the centers of population. 
Six hundred and seventy-eight new firearm permits were issued in 
the provinces during the fiscal year just passed as compared with 
1,005 issued during the fiscal year 1906. In addition to the 678 fire- 
arm permits issued in the provinces 920 permits were issued for fire- 
arms in the city of Manila. This is a very large number of permits, 
but was due to the existence of authorized gun clubs and to the fact 
that many of the citizens of Manila are fond of hunting. The num- 
ber of permits issued in Manila during the fiscal year 1906 was 961. 

The following table will show the number of new and renewed per- 
mits issued, the number of permits outstanding June 30, 1907, the 
number of permits canceled, the number of firearms lost, the number 
of firearms destroyed by fire, and the number of bonds canceled : 



Fiscal year ' Tfjiral year 
1906. I«y7. 



New permits toaned: 

Provinces 1,005 878 

Manila , 961 no 

lienewed permits: | 

Provinces 2,710 2,«18 

Manila m S45 

Permiti outstanding Jane 30: I 

Provinces 3,750 8.847 

Manila 1,555 1,050 

Permits canceled: 

Provinces '. 190 fi8f 

Manila 335 515 

Firearms lost and bonds forfeited: i 

Provinces ' — l» 

Manila — 2 

Firearms lost, cases pending: 

Provinces — 



Manila. 



Firearms destroyed by fire, bond canceled: 

Provlnoes 

Manila 



BEPOBT OF THE GOVERN OB-GENEBAL. 96 

TRANSPORTATION OF GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS AND EMFLOTEBS TO AND 

FROM THE UNITED STATES. 

Transportation on commercial liners at the government rate was 
furnished to 412 government students, officials, and employees, exclu- 
sive of their families. Two hundred and ninety-seven passengers 
were transported on army transports at the request of the insular gov- 
ernment. In addition to the government students, officials, and 
employees carried on army transports and on commercial liners, 66 
indigents, vagrants, and conditionally pardoned prisoners were trans- 
ported to the United States at the expense of the insular government. 

PARDONS. 

The pardon committee appointed by Executive order No. 24, series 
1906, examined during the fiscal year 1907 the antecedents and records 
of 285 prisoners sentenced for bandolerismo, sedition, and insurrec- 
tion. Conditional pardon was recommended in 108 cases, commutation 
of sentence in 76, and denial of pardon or commutation in 101 cases. 
During the year very considerable pressure has been brought upon the 
executive to pardon municipal, provincial, and insular prisoners in 
honor of some festal occasion or day of rejoicing. This is a survival 
of the old Spanish practice. The executive has declined to grant pe- 
titions on any such ground, for the reason that the establishment of 
any such precedent would serve to create the belief that infractions of 
the law were lightly regarded by the executive, and for the further 
reason that any such exercise of power by the executive would finally 
result in bringing into contempt both the legislative and judicial de- 
partments of the government. The extent to which executive clem- 
ency is sought may be realized when it is considered that during the 
fiscal year 1907, 1,549 petitions for pardon were carefully investigated 
and considered by the executive. The governor-general released 6 
prisoners on parole, coinmuted the sentences of 110 prisoners, and 
issued 321 pardons. Twenty-one hundred and thirteen cases were 
under investigation or pending decision on June 30, 1907. 

CHARGES AGAINST PROVINCIAL AND MUNICIPAL OFFICIALS. 

During the fiscal year 1907 two provincial officials, both Americans, 
were removed for cause, and during the same period charges against 
182 justices of the peace, auxiliary justices of the peace, and munic- 
ipal officials were investigated. Of the* 182 officials charged with 
misconduct or neglect of duty 127 were found guilty and 55 acquitted. 
Eighty of those found guilty were removed from office. The number 
of officials tried and removed during the "year 1907 is lower than that 
of any year since 1904. At the close of the fiscal year 69 cases 
against municipal officers were pending before provincial boards and 



96 RBPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

none awaiting the action of the executive bureau. The number of 
cases pending against justices and auxiliary justices of the pe^ice at 
the close of the fiscal year can not be given. Such cases are now 
handled by the judges of first instance. While the total number of 
officers charged is greatly reduced, the charges for abuse of authority 
greatly increased during the year 1907, as compared with the pre- 
vious year. There were 100 charges of abuse of authority by munic- 
ipal officials during the fiscal year just ended, as compared with 39 
for the year 1906. It is thought that this does not show that there 
were more abuses of authority in 1907 than in 1906, but rather that 
the people are now more disposed to assert their rights and to 
demand relief from abuses which they had theretofore endured in 
silence. 

ELECTIONS AND THE ELECTION LAW. 

The general election law, — In view of the call for a popular 
assembly it became necessary to pass proper legislation for the hold- 
ing of the election for delegates thereto, and, as it was apparent that 
the elections for delegates and for municipal and provincial officers 
should finally be held on the same date, and that important changes 
should be made in the manner and mode of electing municipal and 
provincial officers, a general election law was prepared and submitted 
to the Commission. The law as proposed was submitted to the con- 
vention of provincial governors and also to public discussion. After 
careful consideration of the recommendations of the provincial 
governors and of the amendments suggested at the public hearing a 
general election law was passed by the Philippine Commission on 
January 9, 1907. Under this law an election for municipal officials, 
provincial governors, third members of provincial boards, and dele- 
gates to the assembly must be held on the first Tuesday after the 
first Monday in November of each odd-numbered year. With the 
exception of those elected at the first election held under the law, 
provincial and executive municipal officers hold office for two years, 
one-half the councilors being elected biennially for a four-year term. 

Qualifications of voters. — Some criticism has been made of the 
qualifications required of electors, and the claim has been made that 
the qualifications for voters are far more stringent than those pre- 
scribed in the United States. This criticism and claim would be 
important if true. The fact is that the qualifications fixed for voters 
are far more liberal in the Philippines than in any State of the 
Union, except those granting the suffrage to all citizens of the United 
States having the required residence in the State, district, and pre- 
cinct. In Louisiana and South Carolina every voter must be able to 
read a clause of the Constitution or own property to the value of 
$300. In Massachusetts and Connecticut the elector must be able 



BEPOBT OF THE GOVBBNOB-GBNBEAIj. 97 

to read a clause of the Constitution without alternative, and in New 
Hampshire he must be able to fill out his application for registry in 
his own handwriting. In the Philippines any person 23 years of 
age, a resident of the municipality for six months, and not a citizen 
or subject of any foreign power may be a voter if he is the owner of 
real estate worth P'SOO, or if he pays annually ^80 of the established 
taxes, or if he speaks, reads, or writes either English or Spanish, or 
if he held during Spanish rule the office either of municipal captain, 
gobemadorcillo, alcalde, teniente de barrio, cabeza de barangay, or 
member of an ayuntamiento. No person can be an elector in the 
Philippines who is delinquent in the payment of taxes, or if he has 
violated the oath of allegiance, or has been guilty of rebellion against 
the United States since May, 1901, or had contributed to the same, or 
if he has been deprived of the right to vote by the sentence of a com- 
petent court. 

Inspectors of election. — ^The general election law takes the regis- 
tration of voters out of the hands of municipal authorities and places 
it under the jurisdiction of a board of inspectprs composed of repre- 
sentatives of the two political parties polling the greatest number of 
votes at the previous election. 

Restrictions. — ^Public officers must resign before they can become 
candidates for election to any office other than the one held. Judges 
of first instance, justices of the peace, provincial fiscals, and officers 
and employees of the constabulary and of the bureau of education 
are prohibited from taking any part in elections except to vote. This 
restriction of the right of officials to become candidates for office or 
to take part in elections is somewhat drastic, but it is very necessary 
in the Philippines, in view of the fact that the mass of the people, 
by reason of centuries of experience with a strongly centralized gov- 
ernment, are inclined to be governed by the political opinions of the 
official rather than by their own judgments. 

Changes in provincial hoards. — Prior to the passage of the general 
election law the provincial board was composed of a provincial gov- 
ernor, elected by the municipal councilors and vice-presidents, and of 
two nonelective officials, one of whom was the provincial treasurer. 
Under the general election law two members of the provincial board, 
namely, the provincial governor and the third member, are made 
elective, and both are elected by popular vote instead of by the munici- 
pal councilors and vice-presidents. This is one of the most important 
changes accomplished in provincial governments by the new election 
law. 

Registration under the general election law. — The registration under 
the general election law for the elections held on July 30, 1907, for 
assemblymen, and the registration for the elections held for provin- 
cial and municipal officials on the first Tuesday after the first Monday 

11024— WAR 1907— VOL 7 7 



98 BEPOBT OP THE PHIIilPPINE COMMISSION. 

of November, passed off without friction in most of the municipalities 
and provinces, and in general it may be said that the election boards 
acquitted themselves creditably. In one province, that of Capiz^ 
gross frauds were perpetrated by corrupt boards, which registered 
many persons who were not at all entitled to vote and refused to 
register many others who were. These corrupt boards were promptly 
investigated by a representative of the attorney-general's office, and 
those engaged in perpetrating the frauds were prosecuted, found 
guilty, and sentenced to imprisonment. The registration of voters 
in the province of Mindoro was also very unsatisfactory. Indeed, 
the provincial governor reports that in several municipalities of that 
province " The sick, the lame, and the halt have had to be called upon 
to help supply material for officials of election, and the electors have 
even imported their candidate." The registration of voters in the 
Batanes Islands and in the province of Palawan was also unsatisfac- 
tory. In Mindoro only 622 votes were cast for delegate, and in Pala- 
wan only 228. 

Protested elections.-r-The elections for governors in the provinces 
of Batangas, La Laguna, and La Union have been protested on the 
ground of ineligibility and are awaiting the decision of the executive. 
The elections for governors in the provinces of Cagayan, Capiz, 
Cavite, La Union, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Bizal, Sorsogon, and 
Tarlac have been contested for irregularities in holding the elections, 
and these contests are now awaiting decision by the courts of first 
instance. Unofficial notice has been received that the election for 
governor in the province of La Union, contested on the ground of 
irregularities, has been resolved in favor of the governor-elect by 
the court. Contests in the election of municipal officials to the num- 
ber of 112 have been filed in the various courts of first instance. In 
10 of the cases the elections have been annulled, in 38 the elections 
have been sustained, and 64 cases are awaiting trial and decision. 

LAWS OP THE MORO PROVINCE. 

Thirty-six certified copies of laws of the Moro Province were re- 
ceived by the recorder and presented to the Commission for approval 
in accordance with section 32 of the Moro government act (No. 787). 
Thirty-three of the laws so presented were approved by the Com- 
mission. Three were made the subject of correspondence with the 
provincial governor and were subsequently withdrawn by the legisla- 
tive council of the Moro Province. 

AGRICUIiTURAL CONDITIONS. 

Rice. — ^The rice crop in the provinces of Abra, Albay, Antique, 
Batangas, Benguet, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, La Laguna, Mindoro, 
Nueva Ecija, Palawan, Pangasinan, Surigao, and Zambales was 



BEPORT OF THE GOVERN OB-GENERAL. 99 

excellent. The production of rice during the fiscal year 1907 in the 
provinces of Abra, Albay, Batangas, Benguet, Cavite, La Laguna, 
Xueva Ecija, Palawan, Pangasinan, and Surigao was especially 
notable. In the province of Ambos Camarines the crop was almost 
totally destroyed by , mice. In Bataan, Capiz, Iloilo, Lepanto- 
Bontoc, Misamis, Pampanga, and Romblon much of the rice crop 
was lost either for lack of rains or by reason of the ravages of locusts 
and worms. 

Abacci. — ^The production of abaca in the provinces of Ambos Cama- 
rines, Antique, Batangas, Bohol, Capiz, and Samar was greater than 
during the previous fiscal year. Due to the typhoon of 1905 the pro- 
duotion of abaca in the provinces of Albay and Sorsogon during the 
year 1907 was still somewhat short of normal. Samar, one of the 
most important hemp-producing provinces, exported more hemp in 
the fiscal year 1907 than during any year since American occupation. 
The price of hemp has fallen from an average of f^O per picul to ^13 
per picul. Inferior grades of hemp will in all probability command 
lower prices than at any time since the war with Spain. 

Copra and cocoanuts. — ^There was a noteworthy improvement in the 
production of copra in Antique, Bohol, Capiz, Palawan', Pangasinan, 
Romblon, and Samar. One hundred million five hundred thousand 
cocoanuts were gathered in La Laguna Province, 63 per cent of which 
were converted into copra. Locusts destroyed the product of 70,800 
trees in Misamis. Nevertheless, the yield in that province was more 
than that of the previous year. 

Tobacco. — There was an increased production of tobacco in the 
provinces of Nueva Ecija and Pangasinan. Due to the inundation of 
the Cagayan valley during the year 1906, the crop of tobacco pro- 
duced in the province of the same name was very much smaller than 
that of previous years. The product in Hocos Norte and Iloilo was 
less than during the previous year. The quality of the tobacco in the 
provinces of Cagayan and Isabela has deteriorated considerably and 
low prices have prevailed. Whether the tobacco has deteriorated as 
a result of low prices or whether low prices have prevailed because 
of the deterioration is a disputed question. I think it is fair to say, 
however, that to some degree low prices have contributed to the de- 
terioration, and that to some degree the farmer himself has brought 
about low prices by producing bad tobacco and so impairing the 
reputation of his product in Europe as to cause a substantial falling 
off in the demand. For the purpose of improving the quality of the 
tobacco the Commission has offered premiums to the small farmers 
for the best quality of crop, for the best sorted crop, and for the best 
sorted and best packed crop. It is expected that th^ offering of these 
premimns and the internal-revenue regulations, which make it to 



100 EBPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

the interest of the farmer to properly sort and pack his crop, will 
result in restoring the reputation of Philippine tobacco and in higher 
prices for a better product. The lack of wrapper leaf in the Philip- 
pine Islands has placed the local manufacturers at a great disadvan- 
tage in competing with tobacco from the Dutch possessions. 

• Sugar. — In the provinces of Abra, Batangas, Pangasinan, and 
Zambales there was an increased production of sugar. These prov- 
inces, however, are not large producers of sugar. In Bataan and 
Pampanga the sugar crop was practically a failure. In Iloilo, Capiz, 
and Occidental Negros, which are sugar-producing provinces on a 
large scale, the production was somewhat less than normal, due to 
low prices and the general discouragement of sugar planters. 

• Maguey and sisal. — ^In Abra, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, 
Pangasinan, and Zambales there has been a great increase in the areas 
planted and considerable enthusiasm over the results obtained. The. 
prices of maguey, however, are less than during the fiscal year 1906. 

Com. — There was an increased production of corn in Abra, Batan- 
gas, Cagayan, La Laguna, and Zambales. In Misamis one-third of 
the crop and in Antique the entire crop was destroyed by locusts. 

Coffee. — ^Lepanto-Bontoc is probably the most important coffee- 
producing province in the islands. Its crop this year, however, was 
short. Batangas, which was once famous for its coffee, has aban- 
doned further efforts to save its coffee plantations and is dedicating 
itself to the uprooting of the trees and to the substitution of abaca 
plants therefor. 

Cacao. — ^Cacao is raised in many of the provinces, but in such small 
quantities that it can not be considered a very important product of 
the islands. It has a future, however, and the investment of capi- 
tal in cacao plantations will develop a very lucrative and valuable 
industry. 

Garden truck and fruit. — ^The experimental station at Baguio has 
proved that Irish potatoes, com, squash, cantaloupes, celery, parsnips, 
tomatoes, pease, sweet potatoes, and string beans can be produced in 
great perfection in the province of Benguet, and many of the native 
peoples of that province are now devoting themselves to the raising 
of garden truck and vegetables. The production of yams, peanuts, 
melons, tomatoes, and mangoes was 50 per cent larger in Cavite than 
during the year 1906. 

DISEASES OF ANIMALS AND AGRICULTURAL FESTS. 

Rinderpest and other cattle diseases worked considerable damage 
in the provinces of Ambos Camarines, Antique, Bulacan, Cavite, 
Ilocos Sur, La Union, Misamis, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, 
and Zambales. 



SEPOBT OP THE GOVEBNOR-GBNERAIi. 101 

Surra prevailed in the provinces of Bohol, La Union, Misamis, 
Pampanga, and Zambales. 

There was an outbreak of anthrax in Lepanto-Bontoc which car- 
ried off some 400 cattle. Strict quarantine and other sanitary pre- 
cautions checked the ravages of this disease, and there appears to be 
no further danger that it will extend beyond the locality where it 
first appeared. It seems that many years before there had been an 
outbreak of anthrax at the same place at which anthrax made its 
appearance in the year 1907. Veterinarians who have carefully 
investigated the cause of the reappearance of the disease at this place 
are of the opinion that the soil was infected beneath the surface, and 
that the surface was reinfected by earthworms which made their 
appearance in great numbers some few weeks before anthrax devel- 
oped among the cattle. 

Locu8ts^ worms, and insect pests. — ^Considerable damage was done 
to the rice crop by worms in many of the provinces. In Antique, 
Misamis, Occidental Negros, Oriental Negros, Romblon, and Masbate 
there was a great plague of locusts. Locusts also appeared in Samar 
but inflicted damage in only three or four municipalities. 

Considering the provinces as a whole there was a decided better- 
ment of agricultural conditions and a very decided increase in pro- 
duction, especially in the rice producing provinces. 

PUBLIC ORDER. 

In the provinces of Ambos Camarines, Albay, Abra, Antique, Bohol, 
Bulacan, Cagayan, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, La Union, Leyte, Misamis, 
Occidental Negros, Oriental Negros, Pangasinan, Pampanga, Rom- 
blon, Surigao, Sorsogon, Tarlac, and Zambales crimes of violence 
have been few and isolated, and it may be said that general peace 
and tranquillity have reigned supreme during the entire year. In 
Bataan the peace and good order of the province was broken but 
once and that through the escape of some provincial prisoners, all 
of whom, with the exception of two, were recaptured or killed 
within a month after their flight. The only disturbance of the pub- 
lic peace which occurred in Batangas was caused by the operations 
of six or seven brigands near the boundary line of the provinces of 
La Laguna and Tayabas. This band confined its operations to the 
robbing and killing of laborers who were passing from one province 
to another in search of work. With the exception of two, all the 
members of this band have been captured. In Capiz there was no 
disturbance of the public order save that caused in the municipality 
of Tupas by brigands and cattle thieves, who commenced operations 
after the removal of the constabulary post from that place. Com- 
pared with the previous year, the number of assaults and robberies 
committed in the province of Iloilo has greatly decreased. Brig- 



102 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

andage, which has always existed in that province, is very much on 
the wane, and by provincial officials and the constabulary it is con- 
sidered as good as exterminated. 

In Ilocos Norte during the month of July, 1906, two prisoners, 
the Butardo brothers, who had just been released from Bilibid, 
endeavored to organize in all the municipalities an armed uprising 
against the constituted authorities. The plot was discovered by the 
provincial governor and through his efforts, aided by the constabu- 
lary, the plotters and their accomplices were captured, together with 
their arms, ammunition, and incriminatory papers. In this con- 
spiracy no person of social or political prominence was implicated. 
With the exception of this conspiracy, which was " nipped in the 
bud," it may be said that perfect good order has reigned in the 
province of Ilocos Norte. 

Since the death of Felizardo and the surrender of Montalon, 
Sakay, Villafuerte, and De Vega in the months of April, May, and 
July, 1906, there have been no disturbances in La Laguna, Rizal, or 
Cavite. 

In Nueva Ecija a band of carabao thieves and ladrones operated 
during the months of May and June, 1907, but the capture of Nicolas 
Gutierrez, the leader of the band, put a stop to its raids, assaults, 
and mischievous activities. 

In view of the fact that Samar had been very peaceful since the- 
beginning of the calendar year the military were requested in the 
month of September to suspend military operations. It is thought 
that through the influence of the civil authorities and the coopera- 
tion of the constabulary the capture or destruction of Otoy and the 
few outlaws yet remaining in Samar can be accomplished without 
the aid of the military. The people of Samar, with the exception 
of Otoy and a small number of adlierents, have returned to their 
usual avocations and pursuits. Otoy, however, is a constant menace 
to peace and good order. Indeed, a resuscitation of disorder may 
be expected should he be given an opportunity to settle down and 
devote himself to inciting the fanaticism and playing upon the cre- 
dulity of the ignorant people who live in the mountains or in their 
vicinity. 

In Leyte, Felipe Idos, the last pulahan of prominence, has sur- 
rendered and has been tried and condemned by the court. Filipinos 
and Americans all agree that Leyte has seen the last of pulahanism 
and that no further disturbances of the public order may be expected. 

The people of Lepanto-Bontoc have almost ceased head-hunting 
and are growing more friendly to tlie government every day. The 
secretary of the interior and the governor-general traveled through 
this province without a guard and were received everywhere with 
friendly demonstrations and expressions of good will. 



BEPOBT OF THE GOVEBNOR-OENEBAL. 103 

Under the able administration of Governor Bliss splendid prog- 
ress has been made in bringing about orderly government among 
the Moros and other non-Christians of the Moro Province. Espe- 
cial attention is invited to the report of Governor Bliss, which is 
included as an exhibit in the report of the executive secretary hereto 
annexed and marked " Exhibit No. 2." 

The condition of good order and peace existing in every part of 
the archipelago at the writing of this report is very satisfactory. 
That, however, does not mean that the Philippine Islands have seen 
the last of organized bands of outlaws or of raids and assaults by 
armed fanatics. Robo en cuadrilla and band robberies have been 
in evidence so long that "the memory of man runneth not to the 
contrary." Pulahanes, Babaylanes, Diosdios, Colorum, Guardias 
de Honor, Santa Iglesias, and other fanatical organizations excited 
disorder, raided towns, and destroyed life and property long before 
the first American put foot upon the soil of the Philippines. Until 
education shall have done its work with the mass of the people, until 
enlightenment shall have made it impossible for the fanatic to play 
• upon the superstition and credulity of the man of the fields, and until 
the children of the humble workingman have been taught to think 
for themselves and to realize that blind obedience to caciques is no 
longer necessary for their personal safety, sporadic disturbances of 
the public order may be expected which will be unimportant or 
serious according to whether they are promptly checked or permitted 
to gather headway. 

The constabulary have made an excellent record in suppressing 
lawlessness and maintaining good order in the provinces, and much of 
their success in that behalf may be attributed to the friendly relations 
maintained by them with the people and with provincial and munici- 
pal officials. This good understanding is largely due to tactful and 
prudent dealing with the people and with provincial and municipal 
officials, and, above all things, to the fact that the constabulary force 
as a body has come to regard itself as a civil and not a military 
organization. 

CONSULAR CORPS. 

The consular representatives at the date of writing this report for 
the different countries, residing in Manila, Iloilo, and Cebu, are shown 
below: 

MANILA. 

Argentine Republic: Hon. Alberto Manigot, vice-consul of the Argentine Re- 
public for Luzon, 12 Plaza Santa Ana, San Sebastian. 
Austria : 

Hon. P. Krafft,* Austrian-Hungarian consul (absent in Europe), 15 Nova- 
liches, San Miguel. 
Hon. Adolf Determann,'* acting Austrian-Hungarian consul, 15 Novaliches, 
San Miguel. 



« Consuls de Carriere. 



104 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Belgium : Hon. Ch. Le Vionnois,^ consul for His Majesty, the King of the Bel- 
gians, 167 Calle San Marcellno. 
Brazil : Hon. M. Henry, consul for Brazil, 21 Plaza Moraga. 
Chile : Hon. A. Malvehy, consul for Chile, 15 Marques de Comillas. 
China: Hon. Su Yu-tchUj^* His Imperial Chinese Majesty's consul-general, 48 

P. Calderon de la Barca. 
Denmark : Hon. Francis Stuart Jones, acting consul for His Majesty, the King 

of Denmark, 16 Carenero. 
France : 

Hon. F. L. M. Labrouche," consul for the Republic of France, 51 Calle 

Soledad. 
Count Leo Sieyes de Veynes, vice-consul for the Republic of France. 
Germany: Dr. Franz Gruenenwald,* His Imperial Majesty the German Em- 
peror's consul, 346 Real Malate. 
Great Britain: 

Hon. W. J. Kenny,** His Britannic Majesty's consul-general, 100 Anloague. 
Hon. Hugh Horne,<» His Britannic Majesty's vice-consul, 100 Anloague. 
Hon. J. N. Sidebottom,^ His Britannic Majesty's proconsul, 2 Carenero. 
Italy : Hon. F. Reyes, consul for Italy, 59 Calle Norla. ' 
Japan : Hon. Shosuke Akatsuka,« His Imperial Japanese Majesty's consul, 776 

Calle Iris, Quiapo. 
Liberia : Hon. R. Summers, consul for Liberia, 68 Calle Herran, Malate. 
Mexico : Hon. Jos6 Rosales, consul for Mexico, 15 Marques de Comillas. 
Netherlands : 

Hon. P. K. A. Meerkamp van Embden, consul for the Netherlands (absent), 

227 Muelle de la Reina. 
Hon. A. C. Crebas, vice-consul for the Netherlands (acting consul), 227 
Muella de la Reina. 
Nicaragua : 

Hon. Trinidad Lacayo, consul for Nicaragua, 7 Calle Magallaues, Int. 
Hon. Julio Danon, vice-consul for Nicaragua. 
Norway: Hon. W. G. Stevenson, His Norwegian Majesty's consul, 310 Muella 

del Rey. 
Portugal : Hon. M. Osorio y Cembrano, Most Faithful Majesty's consul, 4 Calle 

Olivares, Binondo. 
Russia : Hon. F. L. M. Labrouche, acting consul for Russia, 51 Calle Soledad. 
Spain : 

Hon. Arturo Baldasano,** His Catholic Majesty's consul-general, 162 Calle 

Allx. 
Hon. C. Bargiela y Perez,« His Catholic Majesty's vice-consul-general, 350 

Gral Solano. 
Hon. Adelardo Fernandez Arias,<» His Catholic Majesty's vice-consul at 
Manila. 
Sweden: Hon. W. G. Stevenson, His Swedish Majesty's acting consul, 319 

Muelle del Rey. 
Switzerland : 

Hon. E. Sprungli, consul for Switzerland (absent in Europe). 
Hon. Jobs. Preisig, vice-consul for Switzerland (in charge during Sprungll's 
absence), 95 Calle Noria, Quiaiw. 



« Consuls de Carriere. 



REPOBT OF THB GOVERN OB-QENEBAL. 105 

ILOILO. 

Great Britain: Hon. Talbot Knowles,* His Britannic Majesty's vice-consul at 

Hollo, Iloilo. 
Spain: Hon. Hilarion Gonzales del Castillo, His Catholic Majesty's consul, 

Hoilo. 

CEBU. 

Great Britain: Hon. Charles Agustin Fulcher, His Britannic Majesty's vice- 
consul, Cebu, Cebu. 

FIRE LOSSES. 

During the period from September 28, 1901, down to and includ- 
ing June 30, 1907, 170 fires were reported to have occurred in the 
Philippine Islands outside of the city of Manila. Twelve thousand 
one hundred and forty-two buildings were destroyed by these fires 
and a loss of more than ^5,700,000 inflicted. 

In 1902 the town of Dumaguete suffered a loss by fire of f^00,000. 
In 1904 Binan, La Laguna, suffered a loss of f1200,000. In 1905 the 
city of Cebu suffered a loss of P2,000,000. In 1906 the town of Ta- 
cloban, Leyte, suffered a loss of !P500,000. In 1907 the town of Laoag 
suffered a loss of ^00,000. 

From August 9, 1901, down to and including June 30, 1907, 893 
fires occurred in the city of Manila, involving a loss of ^,782,504.80, 
of which only !P571,586 was covered by insurance. The loss by fire 
in the city of Manila during the fiscal year 1907 amounted to the sum 
of ?^65,211, or about one-fourth of the entire loss caused to it by fire 
since August 9, 1901. The total loss from fire in the Philippine 
Islands from August 9, 1901, down to and including June 30, 1907, 
is estimated at ^,500,000. Manila's loss represents about one-third 
of this amount. 

As a rule municipalities made no provision whatever for protection 
against fires, and therefore the Commission by act No. 1733 required 
the organization of a volunteer fire department in each municipality 
not having a paid fire department. The bill provides that the police 
force of such municipalities and such volunteers as may desire to en- 
list will constitute the fire department of the municipality. The law 
provides that the fire department shall drill at least once a week and 
requires each municipality to furnish 24 buckets, 12 ladders of suit- 
able lengths, 24 bolos, 12 axes, 1 two-man cross-cut saw, and such 
other apparatus as may be found necessary for the purpose of combat- 
ing and extinguishing fires. A volunteer fireman is exempt from the 
cedula tax provided he has attended 75 per cent of all drills and fires 
during the year and has drilled at least one hour at each drill attended. 

For a further and more detailed report as to the operations of the 
executive bureau and of the provinces and municipalities falling 
under the jurisdiction of the governor-general, reference is hereby 
made to the report of the executive secretary, which is hereto annexed, 
made a part hereof, and marked " Exhibit No. 2." 

« Consuls de Carriere. 



106 BBPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

BTTBEAU OF AUDITS. 

The report of the insular auditor as to the operations of his bureau 
is not complete at this time and only covers the financial status of 
provinces and municipalities. A reference to the report of the insu- 
lar treasurer will, however, furnish full information as to the finan- 
cial operations of the government and as to the condition of the 
various funds with which that official is charged. The financial con- 
dition of provinces and municipalities as reported by the insular 
auditor has already been discussed in this report and in that of the 
executive secretary, to which reference is hereby made. 

The report of the insular auditor, when completed, will be annexed 
to and made a part of this report and marked " Exhibit No. 3.'* 

CITY OF MANILA. 
DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING AND PUBLIC WORKS. 

Streets. — ^The streets of the city of Manila have an extension of 
146.5 kilometers and a total area of 1,360,354 square meters requiring 
repair from time to time. Of the total street area 1,307,989 square 
meters are macadamized, 17,433 square meters are paved with wooden 
and 34,932 meters with granite blocks. The material used for ma- 
cadamizing streets is secured by the city from its quarries on Talim 
Island, Laguna de Bay. 

Two steam rollers and one traction engine are employed on street 
work. The daily cost of operating the traction engine is ^=21.99, and 
the running expenses of each road roller amount to ^11.36 per day. 
A careful account kept during the year shows that the cost of hauling 
per ton-mile with the traction engine is 13 centavos as compared with 
40 centavos per ton-mile by wagon. 

One thousand four hundred and seventy-seven lineal meters of 
curbing were constructed during the year at an average cost of ^1.80. 
This work should be extended as the cost of maintenance of paved 
streets is considerably reduced by curbing and guttering. Experi- 
ence has demonstrated that the Australian wood block decays rap- 
idly and that in the tropics it is a failure as a street paving. Experi- 
ments with the native molave block show that it resists tropical 
conditions and that it is better suited for paving purposes than other 
wood thus far tried. Arrangements have been made for experiment- 
ing with other Philippine woods, and it is hoped that for paving pur- 
poses some wood cheaper than molave will be found, or, at all events, 
that some native wood may be encountered which if treated with 
creosote and resin will prove resistant to the decaying influences of 
heat and humidity. Asphalt has proved serviceable and satisfactory 
as a surfacing on the Ayala bridge. As a paving it is too slippery, 



BBPOBT OF THE GOVERN OR-GBNBRAIi. 107 

however, for inclines or approaches to bridges and it should be used 
only on level stretches where the traffic is comparatively light. 
Until the construction of sewers, the laying of water pipes, and 
other underground work at present under way or contemplated have 
been finally completed it would not be advisable to undertake the lay- 
ing of permanent pavements. The tearing up of the streets for the 
purpose of laying pipe for the new sewer and water system has 
caused great damage to the streets in the city, and the cost for street 
repairs will be considerably increased for the next two or three years. 

The force actually engaged in street construction during the pre- 
vious year was 267 men per day, not including 258 laborers employed 
at the quarries and on barges and launches engaged in transporting 
stone. The average wage per day per man is ?1.11. The total 
amount expended for street construction and maintenance during the 
fiscal year 1907 was ?=338,570.21. 

Bridges, — ^Manila has 54 bridges and 17 culverte which from time 
to time demand the attention of the department of engineering and 
public works. Five of the bridges are steel, 29 masonry arch, 16 
wood, one wood floor carried on I-beams, and 2 I-beams and concrete 
arches. The bridges enumerated do not include the suspension 
bridge crossing the Pasig River which is owned and operated by a 
private corportation, but is subject to inspection by the municipal 
authorities. The wooden bridges require frequent repairs and are a 
constant source of worry and expense. 

The new Ayala bridge was opened to public traffic on the 13th of 
August last year and cost the city as follows : 

Substructure nS, 714. 00 

Superstructure 129, 726. 00 

Inspection and incidentals 3,686.67 

Approaches to bridge, widening the same, and constructing retaining 

walls 19, 749. 91 

Total 231, 876, 58 

The total cost of bridge construction, repairs, and maintenance, 
exclusive of approaches to the Ayala bridge, was 1^238,201.48. 

Water supply. — ^For the rubber valves heretofore used on the four 
pumping engines at the Santolan pumping station metal valves have 
been substituted, and as a consequence a large economy in main- 
tenance and increased efficiency of the pumps have resulted. The 
coal consumed in pumping during the year 1907 was 530 tons less 
than during the year 1906, thereby saving the municipal government 
about ?^,000. 

The conduit leading from the river to the pumping wells was 
cleaned out and repaired, and a new intake constructed to allow a 
greater quantity of water to enter the conduit. A careful examina- 
tion of the conduit leading from the pumping station to the deposito 



108 EEPOET OF THE PHIUPPINE COMMISSION. 

disclosed that the masonry was badly cracked and in many places the 
conduit was filled with mud and debris which had fallen from the 
broken roof. The conduit was cleaned from end to end of all debris, 
and cracks and other defects repaired, thereby saving the escape of a 
large quantity of water pumped from Santolan and protecting the 
water supply at the deposito from seepage water and the consequent 
danger of pollution. 

Seven installations of new water pipe, amounting to 2,179 lineal 
meters, were made during the year at a cost of !P14,737.55. All the 
new installations made, with the exception of a 2-inch main on Calle 
Balic-Balic, are of a permanent nature and will form a part of the 
new water system. Four of the new installations are in outlying 
districts not previously supplied with water mains. The other three 
installations were made to increase the flow through existing pipes 
and to cut out dead ends. 

It is expected that with the exception of the dam the construction 
of the Manila waterworks will be completed about the first of July 
of the coming year. In all probability the completion of the dam 
will be delayed until the next dry season, but it is hoped that work 
thereon will have progressed so far that water can be supplied from 
the new system by July 1, 1908. 

The collections on account of water supply during the fiscal year 
1907 were ^21,187.98, an increase of ?10,449.29 over that collected 
for the fiscal year 1906. 

Sewers. — During the year 1907 there was expended the sum of 
^=6,019.56 on the maintenance and cleaning of existing sewers as 
against ^16,295.60 for the same account during the preceding year. 
The reduction in repairs and cost of maintenance is due largely to the 
fact that many of the old sewers, the principal office of which was 
to carry off surface water, have been replaced during the last two 
years with properly designed and constructed storm w^ater drains, 
which are less costly than sewers to maintain and keep in repair. 
The cost of new storm water drains during the year was Pll,937.40. 

Fourteen miles of the most difficult part of the sewer work has been 
completed, and although the total extension of the sewers is estimated 
at 52 miles, it may be well said that the 14 miles already constructed 
represent in time fully one-half of the entire work. 

Bids have been requested for the furnishing and installation of the 
necessary electrically driven pumps and motors for the six pumping 
stations of the new sewer system. 

The system will not be fully completed until about December 1, 
1908, at which time the pumping stations will be ready for operation. 

The estimated outlay for the sewer and water systems is $4,371,000 
gold. 



BBPOBT OF THE GOVEBNOB-GENEBAIi. 109 

The following statement shows the amounts realized from the sale 
of bonds issued for sewer and waterworks construction, and expendi- 
tures made therefrom : 

Dr. 

To amounts previously expended and reported W597, 840. 76 

To sundry expenditures during fiscal year 1907, as shown by 

report. of disbursing officer 2,113,895.82 

To balance on deposit In New York at 4 per centl 3, 000, 000. 00 

To balance on deposit In New York at 3 per cent 414, 010. TO 

To balance In treasury here 299,513.42 

Total 6, 425, 260. 70 

Cb. 

By proceeds of sale of $1,000,000 gold bonds of the Issue of 

June 1, 1905 2,191,250.00 

By proceeds of sale of $2,000,000 gold bonds of the Issue of 
January 1, 1907 4,234,010.70 

Total 6, 425, 260. 70 

By balance brought down 3,713,524.12 

In addition to this balance there are $1,000,000 of gold bonds authorized to 
be sold January 1, 1908, for this account. 

Drafting and surveys. — Plans and street maps for the districts of 
San Nicolas, Binondo, Santa Cruz, Quiapo, San Miguel, Ermita, 
Malate, and Paco have now been completed on a scale of 1 to 1,000. 
When the plans and street maps for the districts of Sampaloc and 
Tondo are finished a city map on a scale of 1 to 1,000 will be pre- 
pared. Block maps on a scale of 1 to 400 have been made for the 
districts of Binondo, San Nicolas, Santa Cruz, and Quiapo. These 
block maps, when completed, will show all details of house lines, 
service mains, conduits, sewers, and public utility constructions of 
every kind. 

Street monuments have already been installed on the principal 
streets of San Nicolas, south Tondo, and Binondo, and on the most 
important streets of other districts throughout the city. When 
street lines have been permanently marked much expense, trouble and 
annoyance now caused to private property owners in establishing the 
boundaries of their property will be avoided. 

Repairs to public buildings. — During the fiscal year 1907 there was 
expended for repairs to public buildings as follows : 

Repairs to school buildings W, 913. 95 

General repairs to police stations 775. 99 

Repairs and betterments to fire department stations 6, 322. 37 

General repairs to city stables, city pound, crematory, markets, city 
slaughter house and other buildings used by the department of 

sanitation and tram^)ortation 18, 402. 74 



110 REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Repairs to the city shops and other buildings under the Jurisdiction 
of the department of engineering and public works W, 013. 25 

Repairs to tie city hall, the audiencia, city tenement houses, Chinese 
tribunal, cuartel meisic and the band stands 19,951.01 

Total for repairs and betterments to public buildings 47, 379. 34 

New buildings. — Permits for the construction of 809 new buildings 
of strong materials and 1,119 of light materials have been granted. 
The aggregate cost of these structures will be over ^1,000,000. 

City shops. — On March 31 the city repair shops, with the excep- 
tion of the carpenter and water supply shops, were discontinued, and 
the plant transferred to the insular government for use in Bilibid 
prison. The buildings vacated by reason of the transfer of the city 
shops were turned over to the bureau of education and are now occu- 
pied by the school of arts and trades. 

POLICE DEPARTMENT. 

During the year there were 11,337 arrests made. Of this number 
2,899 were arrested for gambling, 901 for disorderly conduct, 551 for 
cruelty to animals, 426 for violation of sanitary regulations, 374 for 
violation of the opium law, 350 for obstructing streets, 300 for theft, 
243 for violation of license regulations, 211 for vagrancy, 203 for 
larceny, 111 for assault, 15 for embezzlement, 6 for murder, 4 for 
assault with deadly weapons, 3 for homicide, 2 for rape, and 1 for 
attempted suicide. 

As will be noted from the foregoing statement, there were very 
few crimes of personal violence committed in the city of Manila. 

Of the persons arrested 9,570 were males and 1,767 were females. 

The following is a comparative statement of the cost of the police 
department during the fiscal years 1906 and 1907. 



Salaries and wagea... 
Contingent expenMB.. 



Total 1,166.»17.» 



1006. 



yi,007.636.57 
68,381.82 



1907. 



T 744,966.09 
68,760.20 



808,747.28 



This decrease in cost was due principally to the reduction in force 
which was made on the recommendation of the committee on reor- 
ganization. 

FIRE DEPARTMENT. 

During the year the fire department responded to 118 alarms of 
fire, a decrease of 6 as compared with the preceding year. The total 
loss by fire, however, was very much larger than during any pre- 



BBPOBT OP THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL.. Ill 

vious year since 1903 as may be seen from the following table show- 
ing losses by fire for the five fiscal years last past : 

Fire losses in Manila since 1903. 

1903 W, 670, 650 

1904 468,911 

19a5 135,921 

1906 . 76,192 

1907 677,709 

The loss for 1907 is divided as follows : 

Buildings - W65, 262 

Contents 512,447 

The destruction of Stevenson & Company's bodega on March 27. 
1907, involved a loss of ^420,000. The destruction of 240 houses in 
the nipa district of Paco, 72 houses in the nipa district on calle 
Bivera, and 33 houses in the nipa district on calle Cervantes caused a 
loss of about ^120,000. 

The cost of maintaining the fire department has steadily decreased 
since 1904 as may be seen from the following table : 

Fire department expenditures. 

Fiscal year 1906 WIS, 195. 82 

Fiscal year 1906 294, 809. 63 

Fiscal year 1907 279, 236. 64 

Most of the fire alarm system, apparatus and hose have been in 
service from three to six years, and it is almost certain that expensive 
renewals will be required during the fiscal year 1908. As nothing was 
added to fire equipment during the fiscal year just ended it is very 
probable that the expense of the department for 1908 will be con- 
siderably greater than that incurred for 1907. 

The fire department force is made up of 1 chief, 1 city electrician, 
1 deputy chief, 1 chief engineer, 1 mechanic, 6 linemen, 8 captains, 
13 lieutenants, 5 first-class engineers, 9 second-class engineers, 45 
first-class firemen, and 50 second-class firemen. 

DEPARTMENT OF ASSESSMENTS AND COLLECTIONS. 

Taxes on real estate. — ^The total value of taxable real estate in the 
dty of Manila, as shown by the tax rolls of 1907, is ^=81,689,785, an 
increase of W,164,550 over the tax valuation for the fiscal year 1906. 
This increase is due to the erection of new buildings and to the addi- 
tion to the tax rolls of certain small properties which had escaped 
taxation in previous years. The total valuation of all real estate in 
the city of Manila, whether taxable or not, amounts to the sum of 
H27,887,866, of which, however, f'46,197,581 is exempt from taxation 



112 BEPOBT OP THE PHIUPPIKE COMMISSION. 

by reason of government ownership or because the property is used 
for religious, charitable, scientific, or educational purposes and not 
held for profit. The exempt property may be classified as follows : 

Inenilar gOTernment «.5, 522, 166 

Claimed by United States Army 7,347,688 

City of Manila 4, 745, 604 

Goyemment ownership (Insular or municipal not determined) — 3,149,366 

Catholic churches 5,607,849 

Protestant churches 322, 386 

Religious orders 9, 437, 763 

Miscellaneous 64, 870 

Of the total population of the city of Manila, 11,921 are real estate 
owners. Small houses of the value of ^-60 or less are not assessed, and 
the owners are therefore not included in the figures above cited. 
Sixty-two persons or firms own 30 per cent of all the taxable real 
estate. Fifteen persons or firms own 16 per cent. There are 5 persons 
or firms each of which owns taxable real estate to the value of 
^1,000,000 or over ; 15 persons or firms each of which owns taxable 
real estate to the value of ^^600,000 or over, and 31 persons or firms 
each of which owns taxable real estate to the value of ^100,000 or 
more. 

It will be remembered that in 1903 property owners of the city of 
Manila requested that for one year only the tax rate be reduced from 
2 per cent to 1^ per cent. This was conceded, but far from satisfying 
the property owners it has brought about petitions for further reduc- 
tion. The requests for reduction have been based largely on the claim 
that real estate in Manila has been assessed too high. This may be 
true as to unimproved real estate lying on the outskirts of the city, 
although it is remarkable that two boards of tax revision and one 
equalization board have not so decided. Of the 15,780 parcels of 
property subject to taxation appeals were taken from the assessments 
imposed on 298 parcels,. and only 34 reductions were made by the 
board of tax appeals. Only 5 appeals were taken to the board of 
central equalization under the provisions of act No. 1474, none of 
which were sustained. From information gathered by the city as- 
sessor and collector as to rentals received for several thousand parcels 
of property in all parts of the city, it appears that the average rental 
received is over 17 per cent per annum. The special assessments 
levied for sewers and street improvements on real property in almost 
all the cities of the United States are not imposed in Manila and in 
view of this fact it does seem that the present tax rate of 1^ per cent 
is very, very far from being excessive. 

Licenses. — During the year 1907 ^16,850.40 were collected for 
licenses for liquors, business, entertainments and peddlers, vehicles. 



BBPORT OF THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL, 



113 



dogs and bicycles. The following table will show the amounts col- 
lected under these headings during the fiscal years 1906 and 1907 : 



OlasB of license. 



1906. 



Liquors.. 

Business 

Entertainments and peddlers.. 

Vehicles — 

Doffs 

Bicycles - 

Total 



1*184,278.64 

6,770.57 

8.892.30 

13,621.10 

4,826.50 

68.85 I 



1907. 



n63,178.50 
25,085.59 

8,740.50 
14,518.70 

5,327.11 



217,958.16 I 



216,850.10 



The reduction in receipts from liquor licenses is due almost wholly 
to the closing of many wholesale and some retail liquor houses which 
in its turn is largely due to a pronounced reduction during the last 
few years in the number of consumers residing in Manila or in the 
province who secured their supplies from Manila. 

Markets. — ^The following table will show the receipts and running 
expenses of the slaughter house and public markets during the fiscal 
year just ended: 



Market. 



iKe-lPtalOO; ^°rn,°' 



I Outlay for 

lighting, 

cleaning, 

repairs, etc. 



Net receipts. 



DiTlsoila 

Qulnta 

Arranque 

SajniMuoc 

Herran 

Anda 

6anta Ana 

Oagalangin 

Pandacan 

Bay, Tetuan, and Esteros. 

Total 238,711.46 

Slaughter house I 164,962.53 



n31,895.31 

57,337.05 

24,757.35 

8,550.fiO 

11,180.90 

1,287.50 

1,455.45 

1,094.05 

1,144.35 



a no, 104. 42 

2,860.55 

1,426,65 

357.34 

1,747.99 

486.94 

311.68 

468.44 

300.33 



18,106.34 
10,084.79 



Orandtotal 403,673.99 



28,191.13 



ril,086.08 

5,557.15 

8,505.99 

2,184.66 

2,086.06 

1,103.58 

347.20 

333.20 

203.20 



1907. 



1906. 



rilO, 705.81 

48,880.35 

14,824.71 

6,017.60 

7,346.85 

6806.02 

796.57 

292.41 

631.82 



31,406.12 
3,837.17 



35,243.29 



189,199.00 
151,040.57 



340,239.57 



ri28, 542.58 

50,915.34 

13,703.47 

4,561.14 

9,421.53 

6118.13 

757.51 

37.48 

438.75 

7,609.60 



215,768.36 
149,353.46 



365,121.82 



'This Includes, as in former years, the salaries of the chief Inspector of marlcets and 
2 clerks and the hire of 1 yehicle, all amounting to ^5,760. 
6 These are deficit items. 

DEPARTMENT OP CITY SCHOOLS. 

There are 272 teachers employed in the city schools of Manila. 
The enrollment in city, day and night schools for the month of June 
from the year 1902 to the year 1907 is shown by the following table : 



Month and year. 



June, 1902 

June, 1903— 

June, 1904 

June, 1905 

June, 1906 

June, 1907 



Day 


Night 




Schools. 


2.244 


1.556 


3,046 


2,028 


6,767 


6,043 


7.803 


6.334 


8.311 


(•) 


8.436 


(») 



•Closed for lack of funds. 
11024— WAR 1907— VOL 7- 



*Not open on account of rainy season. 



114 BEPOBT 07 THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

During the school year 1907 the attendance was 96 per cent of the 
enrollment, a very remarkable showing. The seating capacity in the 
city schools is taxed to the uttermost and more school buildings are 
badly needed. 

Industrial work is made a special feature of the school carried on 
at Cuartel Meisic. There are 1,260 students enrolled with an average 
attendance of 1,165. Boys are engaged in the manufacture of hats, 
mats, baskets, curtains, fans, and the treatment and preparation of 
raw fibers. Girls are taught plain and fancy needlework, including 
all classes of embroidery, drawn work, Indian lace making, bead 
work, and Ilocano blanket weaving. 

SUMMARY OF RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES. 

The following table will show the receipts and expenditures of the 
city of Manila for the fiscal year 1907, exclusive of expenditures for 
sewer and waterworks construction : 

Accounti 

NET EXPENDITUBES. 

To municipal board, advisory board, public charities, etc P199, 547. 9^ 

To law department: including city attorney's office, sherifTs 
office, register of deeds, municipal court, and Justice of the 

peace courts 76, 513. OS 

To office of prosecuting attorney 38, 600. 03 

To fire department 278, 630. 17 

To police department 794, 130. 60 

To department of engineering and public works 843,437.10 

To department of sanitation and transportation 734, 253. 02 

To department of assessments and collections 142, 286. 54 

To department, city schools, not including cost of reconstruction 

of Cuartel Meisic, other repairs and water and electric light— 265, 394. 15 

To permanent public improvements 143,356.03 

To Luneta extension 49, 009. 03 

Total net expenditures by disbursing officer 3, 565, 157. 68 

To interest on sewer and waterworks bonds 100, 000. 00 

To sinking fund 38, 740. 00 

To insular government for New York exchange 1, 500.00 

To Insular government, balance due on purchase of land, trans- 
portation, etc 106, 567. 24 

Total net expenditures 3,871,964.92 

Excess of receipts over expenditures 231, 255. 88 

4,103,220.80 

NET KECEIPTS. 

By city assessor and collector, as per itemized statement 2, 590, 254. 30 

By register of deeds 13, 474. 74 



BEFOBT OF THE OOVEBNOB-GENEBAL. 



115 



By Insular treasurer: 

Miscellaneous collections Wt, 872. 84 

Seventy per cent of the interest collected on 
balances belonging to sewer and waterworks 
account on deposit in New York 100, 102. 24 

W04, 975. 08 

By disbursing officer: 

Transportation service, Insular government 106,667.24 

Interdepartment collections 189,980.92 

246, 548. 16 

Total coUections 2,955,252.28 

Less refunds paid by disbursing officer 8, 567. 82 

Less refunds paid by Auditor 10, 053. 14 

Total refunds 13, 620. 96 

Net collections - 2.941.631.82 

By Insular government contribution, 30 per cent of M,871,964.62_ 1, 161, 589. 48 

Total , 4, 103, 22080 

By balance brought down 231, 255. 88 

The following table shows a comparative statement of collections 
for the fiscal years 1906 and 1907 and the estimated collections for 
the year 1908 : 



Source of revenue. 



Real estate tax 

Hatadeio fees 

Market fees 

Municipal licenses 

Live stock, registered and transferred 

Vehicle equipment 

Rents, city property 

Municipal court fines and fees 

Weights and measures 

Miscellaneous burial funds (Board of Health) 

Jostioe of peace fees 

Sheriff fees 

Sales, city land 

City attorney fees 

Electrician fees i 

Pound fees 

Franchise tax (Manila Electno Railroad & Light <}o.) 

Secretary , municipal board fees , 

Internal revenue dividend , 

Miscellaneous , 

Industrial tax , 

Certificates of registration 

Pail system 

Vault cleaning 

Transpo rtation of meat 

Cementerio del Norte 

Rent of niches (Board of Health) 

Building permits 

Water rents 

Boiler inspector fees 



Total collections by city assesaor and collector. 

Register of Deeds 

Miscellaneous collected by insular treasurer 

70 per cent of interest collected by insular treasurer. . . 
Land transportation furnished the insular govern- 
ment 



Grand total. . 



Fiscal year 
1006. 



Pl,206,265.31 

100,049.25 

209,430.88 

217,058. 16 

785.80 

1,231.90 

18,730.29 

68,600.77 

6,410.40 

4,935.60 

6,757.90 

13,689.36 

2,644.30 

192.26 

7,868. 70 

4,077.00 

28,662.85 

09.00 

74,876.93 

13,811.70 

1,191.81 

846.00 

69,327.16 

38,69L85 

3,470.74 

13,425.09 

10,112.40 

17,958.90 

210,738.69 

1,070.00 



2,465,780.40 

14,850. 11 

60.00 



Fiscal year 
1907. 



Estimated re- 
ceipts for 
fiscal year 1908. 



P-1,302,855.00 

164,962.53 

238,054.41 

216,850.40 

77L40 

1,215.80 

19,950.32 

53,331.43 

715.40 

4,012.00 

5,968.57 

16,752.65 

18,397.63 



5,495.75 
4,065.14 
40,861.54 
43.60 
135,656.76 
5,128.10 



48,608.26 
39,199.00 

8,995.16 
10,996.50 

9,752.60 

16,314.47 

221,187.98 

1,212.00 



2,500,254.30 

13,474.74 

4,872.84 

100,102.24 



2,480,600.51 2,706,704.12 



ri,250,000.00 

170,000.00 

270, 55a 00 

230,000.00 

800.00 

1,200.00 

20,000.00 

60,ooaoo 



4,000.00 

6,000.00 

15,000.00 

25,000.00 

200.00 

5,000.00 

5,000.00 

45,000.00 

50.00 

140,000.00 

7,ooaoo 



60,000.00 
35,000.00 
9,000.00 
10,000.00 
10,000.00 
15,000.00 
225,000.00 

i,2oaoo 



2,600,000.00 

i4,ooaoo 



86,000.00 
96,000.00 



2,796,000.00 



The above totals do not include inter-department collections by Disbursing Oifloer. 



116 



KEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



The following table shows a comparative statement of expendi- 
tures for the fiscal years 1906 and 1907 and the estimated expendi- 
tures for the year 1908 : 



I 



Fiscal year 
1906. 



Fiscal vear 
1907. 



Honidpal board, advisory board, disbursing office, 
public charities and care of city prisoners 

Department of law, including office of city attorney, 
prosecuting attorney, office of sheriff, office register 
of deeds, municipal court and justice of the peace 
oourts 

Fire department 

Police department 

Engineering and public works 

Sautation and transportation, including street 
sprinkling, street cleaning, care of parks, cemeteries 
and public grounds 

Department of assessments and collections 

City schools, not including rents, repairs, water and 
electric Ught forl90fr-7 

Public works 

Lnneta extension 

Interest on bonds 

fl^TiMng fund 

Exchange 

Payment on account of purchase of land transporta- 



r204,828.74 



151,396.91 

295,030.63 

1,158,380.85 

1,102,897.49 



907,147.61 
116,372.45 

272,771.42 
782,610.58 
260,020.08 



ntyment 
lion.... 



Total. 



114,796.73 



5,366,253.49 



ri99, 647.93 



115,113.11 
278,630.17 
794,130.60 
843,437.10 



734,253.02 
142,286.54 

265,304.15 
143,356.03 

49,009.03 
160,000.00 

38,740.00 
1,500.00 

106,567.24 



3,871,964.92 



Fiscal year 

1908. 
estimated. 



r203,000.00 



100,240.00 
297,920.00 
750,000.00 
721,465.00 



742,700.00 
100,000.00 

844,728.00 

46,000.00 

50,000.00 

260,000.00 

116,220.00 

2,820.00 



8,744,083.00 



Sewer and waterworks construction account not included in the above. 

For further and more complete details as to the administration of 
the city of Manila reference is hereby made to the report of the mu- 
nicipal board which is hereto annexed, made a part hereof, and 
marked " Exhibit No. 4." 

Respectfully submitted. 



To THE Philippine Commission, 

Manila^ P. /. 



Jakes F. Smith, 
Governor-General. 



EXHIBIT No. 1. 

BEFOBT OF THE DIBECTOB OF CIVIL SEBVIGE. 

Manila, P. I., September 30, 1907. 
Sir : I have the honor to submit the following seventh annual report relating 
to the operation of the civil service law and covering the worl^ performed by 
the bureau of civil service during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1907 : 

EXAMINATIONS. 

During the year covered by this report, 5,764 applicants were examined in 
Manila and in the provinces for entrance to the service and for promotion, 
transfer, or reinstatement therein, as compared with 5,293 for the preceding 
fiscal year, an increase of 471. 

The following summary does not include examinations to test fitness of 
skilled laborers and mechanics for appointment or employment. The number 
of Filipinos who entered examinations given in E3nglish was 3,078, of whom 
031, or 21 per cent passed, as compared with 2,231 for the preceding fiscal year, 
of whom 401, or 18 per cent, passed, an Increase of 847, or 38 per cent. In the 
number of Filipinos examined in English. The number of Filipinos examined In 
Spanish during the year was 1,863, of whom 675, or 36 per cent passed, as 
compared with 1,973, of whom 816, or 41 per cent, passed, during the preceding 
fiscal year, a decrease of 110, or 6 per cent. During the year 642 Americans 
were examined, of whom 322, or 50 per cent, passed, as compared with 702 
examined during the preceding fiscal year, of whom 398, or 57 per cent, passed, 
a decrease of 60, or 9 per cent 

It will be noted from the above that there was a large Increase (38 per cent) 
in the number of Filipinos taking examinations in English, a decrease of 6 
per cent In the number of Filipinos examined In Spanish, and a decrease of 9 
per cent In the number of Americans examined. As Filipinos gain a better 
knowledge of English and of other subjects necessary to qualify them in 
performing duties other than those of a mere routine clerical order, modifi- 
cations of former examinations are prepared from time to time to meet 
conditions as they arise. 

Assistant provincial treasurer examination. — In the hope that It would attract 
to the provincial service young men of good antecedents and high grade qualifi- 
cations, an effort was made during the past year to obtain a list of ellglbles 
from which selection might be made for appointment to the position of assistant 
provincial treasurer ; examinations for this position were held in Manila and In 
the provinces on February 18, 19, and May 31-June 1, 1907. The examination 
is practically the same as that before given for appointment to the position of 
provincial treasurer, except that the former examination was given in English 
or in Spanish at the option of the applicant, whereas in the examination 
recently given the questions were In BJngllsh only, It being allowable to write 
the answers in English or In Spanish. The former examination resulted in 
obtaining a number of ellglbles for original appointment to the service, several 
of whom were Filipinos. In the latter examination only competitors who were 
already in the service and took the examination for promotion secured eligible 
ratings. It is regretted that competitors not in the public service with sufficient 
ability to qualify for this position did not enter the examination. The follow- 
ing extract from the first announcement of the assistant provincial treasurer 
examination shows clearly its purpose : 

" The attention of young men not In government service who are seeking a 
career which offers adequate reward, both as to money compensation and per- 
manent official position, is earnestly invited to the exceptional opportunities 
now offered them in the treasury service of provincial governments. The entire 
treasury personnel, with the exception of a few minor positions, is in the 

117 



118 EEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Classified service, thereby insuring permanent tenure of oflace to all officials and 
employees who render efficient, satisfactory service, and certainty of promo- 
tion to those who demonstrate capacity of a high order. Appointment from 
the eligible list resulting from the examination announced above will be made 
to the position of deputy provincial treasurer, with immediate assignment to 
duty either in a provincial treasurer's office or as treasurer of one of the more 
important municipalities. Ordinarily one full year of practical experience in 
the various branches of work to which a deputy may be assigned will be re- 
quired before consideration for promotion to the position of assistant provincial 
treasurer (now termed chief clerk or chief deputy) in one of the smaller 
provinces. From the position of assistant provincial treasurer in a small 
province promotion will ordinarily be to a similar position in one of the 
larger provinces. After demonstration of exceptional efficiency and fitness in 
the position of assistant provincial treasurer in a large province an opportunity 
will be given for independent work as acting provincial treasurer of some 
province the treasurer of which is absent on accrued leave. From among 
assistant provincial treasurers who have demonstrated their fitness for 
advancement after trial as acting provincial treasurer, selection will be 
made for permanent appointment to vacancies occurring in the position of 
provincial treasurer, appointment being first to one of the smaller provinces, 
and subsequent promotion being to vacancies occurring in larger provinces. 
The frequency with which vacancies occur in the various grades in the personnel 
of the treasury service is such as to insure promotion as rapidly as candidates 
may, by practical experience, fit themselves therefor." 

Junior stenographer examination. — ^During the past year there has been 
great difficulty in securing from the United States enough stenographers to 
meet the needs of the service. A new examination, called the junior stenogra- 
pher examination, was prepared and announced, with a view of testing the 
fitness of Filipinos who have some knowledge of stenography, but who are not 
sufficiently expert to take rapid dictation. While none of the competitors has 
thus far qualified in this examination, several have received temporary employ- 
ment as Junior stenographers or appointment as clerks with a knowledge of 
stenography ; with experience gained in the offices to which assigned, they have 
made sufficient progress to warrant the expectation that with the acquirement 
of a better knowledge of English and the Increasing thoroughness of Instruction 
in the commercial schools It will be possible to use a larger number of Filipinos 
in stenographic positions. 

Junior surveyor examination, — This examination Is Intended to test the fit- 
ness of Filipinos for surveying work in the bureau of lands. While no Filipinos 
succeeded In obtaining eligibility In the first examination held, the indications 
are that they will be able to qualify with a little more training and experience. 
They obtain their preparation In the public schools and through apprenticeship 
served in the bureau of lands. It Is designed to introduce into the service 
young Filipinos who, under the guidance and instruction of competent sur- 
veyors, will be able to perform a considerable portion of the work now being 
done by American surveyors. 

Internal-revenue agent examination, — ^An examination designed to test fitness 
of applicants for the position of Internal -revenue agent was prepared and held 
during the year in Manila and in the provinces. Appointments to the iwsitlon 
of agent were formerly made as a result of a first grade or equivalent examina- 
tion, which, with respect to the permanent appointment of Internal-revenue 
agents, has now been modified by the addition of practical questions relating to 
internal-revenue laws and decisions. Thus far no person has been regularly 
appointed as a result of this examination who had not rendered from several 
months to two years of service as a temporary agent In the bureau of Internal 
revenue. 

District inspector examination (bureau of posts). — This examination was 
prepared to test fitness of applicants for appointment to the position of tele- 
graph Inspector and several appointments have been made as a result thereof. 
Before the transfer of the telegraph division from the constabulary to the 
bureau of posts, no adequate and thorough tests of fitness were given for ap- 
pointment to this position. 

APPOINTMENTS IN THE CLASSIFIED SERVICE. 

The total number of appointments made In the Philippine classified civil 
service during the year was 3,812. Of this number 550 were made In the 



REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF CIVIL SERVICE. 119 

islands for original entrance into the service ; 3,059 in the islands by promotion, 
reduction, transfer, and reinstatement; and 203 by appointment in the United 
States. 

The number of Filipinos and Americans receiving original appointment In the 
Islands, as compared with the preceding year, were as follows : 





1906. 


1907. 


Filipinos: 

From English registers _ ._ „ 

From Spanish registers 


174 

aoo 


204 
226 


TotaL 


474 
119 


430 


Americans: 

From English registers . 


120 


Total original appointments 


508 


560 



The number of appointments made in the islands during the year through 
changes in the service by promotion, reduction, transfer, and reinstatement 
was 3,059, as compared with 2,804 during the preceding year; this Increase is 
due to the larger number of promotions, there having been 2,351 promotions 
during the year covered by this report, as compared with 2,069 during the pre- 
ceding year. Reference Is made to the frequency of promotions under the 
liead of salary adjustment. 

The total number of appointments made in the United States to this service 
was 203, including 3 appointments by transfer from the Federal service and 
16 by reinstatement, as compared with a total of 154 for the preceding year. 
The number of teachers appointed in the United States was 97, as compared 
with 109 for the preceding year; 23 of the 97 teachers were appointed as a 
result of the assistant examination and the remainder as a result of the 
teacher examination. The number of stenographers and typewriters ai)- 
ix)inted in the United States during the year was 22, as compared with 7 
for the preceding year; twice the number appointed and sent to the Islands 
during the year would have been hardly sufficient to meet the requisitions 
from various bureaus and offices. Special difficulty has also been encoun- 
tered during the past fiscal year in obtaining from the United States a suffi- 
cient number of civil engineers, surveyors, and other technical men to meet 
the needs of the service. This is due to several reasons, but principally to the 
fact that the entrance salaries offered here during the past year or two for 
these classes of officers and employees have been but little higher than salaries 
paid for similar work in the United States. Substantial recognition of this 
fact in providing in the current appropriation bill for larger entrance salaries 
for these classes of officers and employees will, it Is believed, materially aid In 
securing from the United States a higher grade of men In sufficient numbers to 
meet the immediate needs of the service. 

Appointments in the Federal service, Philippine Islands, — During the year 
77 appointments, 64 original and 13 by promotion, transfer, and reinstatement, 
were made in the Federal service In these Islands on certification of this office, 
as compared with 65 for the preceding year. In the absence of eligibles, it has 
also been necessary to authorize the temporary employment of a considerable 
number of persons to fill clerical positions. The number of transfers from the 
Federal service in the Philippines to the insular service has been offset by 
approximately an equal number of transfers from the Insular service to the 
Federal service. It is proper to state that the bureau of civil service has had 
the continued cooperation of Federal officers in applying the provisions of the 
civil-service law and rules to positions in the Federal service in these islands. 
There has been little attempt on the part of either Federal or insular officers 
to induce employees In one service to transfer to the other, when such transfer 
might embarrass the office in which the employee was serving. The policy 
adopted by the insular government of employing Filipinos, so far as practicable, 
in the interest of good administration and economy, is receiving favorable 
recognition by Federal officers. Some of them have recently expressed the 
intention of appointing Filipinos from the register^ of eligibles, and several 
have already been appointed. 

Relative number of Filipinos appointed to the service increasing yearly. — The 
civil-service law contemplates the appointment of a maximum number of Fill- 



120 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

piuos and a minimum number of Americans at salaries commensurate with 
qualifications and duties; whenever a Filipino is found to be qualified to per- 
form creditably and satisfactory the duties of any position held by an American 
he should be appointed to the first vacancy occurring in that position. Under 
the examination system of mailing appointments it is contemplated that the 
Filipino people shall be given every opportunity to participate in the worlt of 
government through selection and appointment on a merit system basis. The 
process of substituting Filipinos for Americans has been progressive since 
1902. On January 1, 1903, the number of Americans in the service above the 
grade of laborer was about equal to the number of Filipinos. There were in 
the service on January 1, 1907, 2,616 regularly appointed Americans, and 3,902 
regularly appointed Filipinos, as compared with 3,307 Americans, and 4,023 
Filipinos on January 1, 1905, and 3,228 Americans and 3,377 Filipinos on 
January 1, 1904; no statistics were prepared for January 1, 1906. From this 
it will be seen that in two years the number of regularly appointed Americans 
in the service has been reduced by approximately 700. During these two years, 
however, there was a larger number than usual of Americans employed 
temporarily. 

A considerable portion of the routine work is now being done by Filipinos, 
enabling the government materially to reduce the number of Americans em- 
ployed in the lower grades by apix)inting Filipinos as vacancies occur. There 
has been a considerable increase in the number of Filipinos who entered and 
passed the second grade examination in English, and a still greater increase 
in the number receiving appointment. The ellglbles obtained as a result of 
this examination are trained principally in the public schools, have a good 
conversational Icnowledge of English, spell, and read fairly well, and, as a rule, 
have a good knowledge of arithmetic and excel In penmanship. With careful 
supervision and training many of them in a few months develop into fair 
Junior clerks and junior typew^riters, and some of them eventually do superior 
work. There is little doubt that the expenses of the government could be 
further reduced in some bureaus by employing more Filipinos to assist In carry- 
ing on the ordinary routine work. 

In previous reports reference has been made to the capability of Filipinos as 
tracers or copyists of draw^iugs. This work Is now being satisfactorily done by 
them in the bureaus of lands, coast and geodetic survey, and public, works. 
In mechanical trades positions also Filipinos have shown special aptitude, as 
is being so amply demonstrated In the bureau of printing and In other bureaus. 
Filipinos have not been well trained in skilled occupations as artisans and me- 
chanics. Mere theoretical teaching In the public schools is not likely per se to 
prepare adequately a sufficient number of Filipinos to meet in full the demands 
of industrial activity, unless such teaching is supplemented by a widely exist- 
ent apprenticeship system, under which there may be practical application of 
knowledge gained in schools. Aside from reducing the cost of ordinary rou- 
tine clerical work, the expenses of the government may in the near future be 
materially reduced by the further employment of Filipinos in manual trades 
positions at salaries commensurate with their needs and qualifications. 

SALABY ADJUSTMENT. 

In a published article relating to the employment of Filipinos the director 
of education states: 

" There has been In some branches of the government service a tendency on 
the part of the Filipino employee, as soon as his training fitted him to do the 
work previously done by an American employee, to demand the same salary as 
was paid to the American. In some cases this has been given, and Filipinos 
are being paid salaries of $1,000, $1,200, and even $1,400 gold per year for the 
simple reason that these salaries were paid to Americans who formerly filled 
the same positions and did the same work. At first thought It might appear 
that this was only a Just recognition of the equality, which must permeate the 
civil service. But further consideration shows conclusively how Impossible a 
policy this Is. The Americans In these Islands are paid practically double 
what their services would command in the Tnited States. That Is, they are 
paid the large salaries that must always be paid the skilled employees in foreign 
service. That they are not paid too much Is sufficiently evidenced by the fact 
that It has been difficult to secure first-class American employees at the sala- 
ries which have been offered. The proper compensation for a Filipino In the 



BEPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF CIVIL. SERVICE. 121 

Philippine Islands should certainly be not higher than that paid to an American 
for the same class of service in the United States. • ♦ ♦ The principle upon 
which the government in the Philippines is proceeding, and which is eminently 
fair to the Filipino teachers, Is that as rapidly as the work done by Americans 
can be done by Filipinos the Americans will be dismissed and the positions 
filled by Filipinos. But the compensation for the Filipinos accepting office un- 
der these circumstances should not by any reason be the high compensation 
which must be held out to an American in order to Induce him to Interrupt his 
career In the United States to enter a service in the Philippine Islands neces- 
sarily insecure and involving sacrifices." 

One of the difficult problems of government In the Philippines Is that of fix- 
ing appropriate salaries or rates of compensation — difficult of proper adjustment 
for the reason that a false salary schedule Is necessitated to comi)ensate ade- 
quately Americans In the service, who must of necessity be paid salaries con- 
siderably higher that are paid in the United States. The majority of Filipinos 
enter the service through the Second or third grade junior clerlcal'or copyist 
examinations. When appointed as a result of passing the second grade or junior 
clerical examination given in English, under existing regulations their salaries 
may be Increased to $900 per annum without further examination. Those who 
succeed In passing the stenographer, bookkeeper, translator, interpreter, or 
clerk examination given In English become eligible, so far as examinations are 
concerned, for probatlonal appointment to grades or positions heretofore gen- 
erally filled by Americans with rates of comi)ensatIon above $900 per annum. 
The salaries of somes Filipinos who have succeeded In passing one or more of 
these latter examinations have been further Increased since the director of 
education preimred the paper above quoted. Naturally others are anxious to 
receive the salaries heretofore paid, apparently Ignoring the fact that the 
salary schedule for the American Is of necessity an artificial one. 

An appropriate basis of comparison to determine proper salaries of Fili- 
pinos would be the rates of compensation paid In private life to Filipinos for corre- 
six)nding work, or in private or public life in other oriental countries, or even In the 
United States. The salaries of Filipinos should accord with the salaries paid 
to them in private life in the Philippines and in private and public life In other 
oriental countries to natives with similar qualifications. If for no better rea- 
son, the revenues of the Philippine Islands do not justify the payment for the 
accomplishment of routine clerical work of larger salaries than are usually 
paid by private individuals in the Islands for similar classes of work, and cer- 
tainly not larger than are paid In the United States. With this basis of com- 
parison it appears that the salaries paid Filipinos In some cases are dispro- 
portionately large already and that the number of these cases is steadily In- 
creasing. 

To enable Filipinos to participate in the work of government and to bring 
about a reduction In salary expenditure, the jwlicy of appointing Filipinos as 
rapidly as they qualify to fill iwsltlons vacated by Americans who voluntarily 
resign or are removed for cause has been adopted and generally observed. 
Nevertheless, the needs of the service have continued to demand the appoint- 
ment annually of several hundred Americans. Notwithstanding the substitution 
of Filipinos in considerable numbers, the salary expenditure Is above the nor- 
mal. Promotion Is allowable under the civil service rules at the expiration of 
the probationary period of six months and thereafter yearly. It Is believed 
that the periods of promotion yearly after the first six months tentatively fixed 
in the rules should be lengthened and the examination restrictions extended, 
or the Government will soon find Itself paying to Filipinos larger salaries for 
corresponding work and ability than are paid even In the United States, where 
salaries and wages are higher than In most other countries In the world. 

ACCBUED LEAVE. 

In determining rates of compensation for employees in the Philippine civil 
service it Is proper to take into consideration also the liberal annual leave al- 
lowances to employees, averaging from six weeks to two months. These annual 
allowances in addition to Sundays and holidays reduce the working days to 
an average of little more than two-thirds of the year, while the salary allow- 
ance is for a full year's work. 

In its last annual rei)ort this office reconunended that the leave law be so 
amended as not to permit the indiscriminate granting of *' accrued " leave for 
use in the islands. Governor-General Ide, in his report covering the fiscal year 



122 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION, 

1906, recommended that the matter be taken up for consideration by the Com- 
mission, suggesting that some plan ought to be adopted for the protection of the 
treasury and the service generally, and in comment thereon stated : 

"Accrued leave was primarily intended to enable employees to visit the 
United States, whereby Americans could regain their strength and vigor, and 
the Filipino employees could gain a knowledge of American institutions and 
become acquainted with the customs of the American i)eople, which would be of 
great value in the service. The maximum annual liability for accrued leave 
Is nearly P1,000,000. Much of the accrued leave enjoyed by employees Is now 
passed in the Philippine islands, thereby defeating the purposes of the original 
Intention of the law." 

The revised civil service act, recently passed, contains a provision for grant- 
ing leave with permission to visit foreign countries with practically the same 
traveling expense and half pay allowances as are granted in connection witli 
visits to the United States. It is hoped that tills may result in increasing the 
amount of accrued leave spent abroad, but unless the granting of accrued leave 
for use in the Islands is restricted the greater part of such leave will be spent 
in the islands as heretofore and the primary purpose for giving accrued leave 
will not be realized. Chiefs of bureaus complain that frequent absences for 
short periods interfere with the proper accomplishment of the work of their 
bureaus. The law provides that a<!crued leave shall be granted " subject to the 
necessities of the public service." It is believed that a chief of bureau may 
properly decline to approve applications for accrued leave to be taken in the 
islands when there is no apparent necessity for the absence and when the grant- 
ing of the leave applied for would interfere with the work of the bureau. The 
vacation leave provided by law is ample for recreation purposes: accrued leave 
is intended primarily to enable employees to visit the United States and foreign 
countries, or to cover absences in the islands on account of illness or urgent 
necessity when vacation leave is exhausted. The fact remains, however, that 
this government is allowing for forty-one to sixty-three days* leave per annum, 
which in the majority of cases covers absences in the islands requested osten- 
sibly for the puri)ose of recreation or recuperation, but used by some in work- 
ing for private parties. No other government, so far as this office is aware, 
allows its officers and employees to be absent from duty so many days in the 
year on full pay as does the Philippine Government. As the annual liability 
on account of leave amounts to approximately W,000,000, no small responsi- 
bility rests upon this office, which is primarily charged with the proi)er applica- 
tion of the law. 

ECONOMY AND EFFICIENCY REQUIRE PERMANENCY OF PERSONNEL. 

Exclusive of officials in Manila, a considerable number of appointments have 
been made from time to time of persons who had been employed in the United 
States civil service prior to appointment in the Philippine civil service. The 
records show that this method of recruiting for the Phlipplne civil service has 
not been uniformly productive of satisfactory results. Out of 87 of such trans- 
ferees appointed in 4 bureaus only 33 remain. While some should have been 
retained by better rates of compensation, the return of others to the United 
States was not detrimental tp the Interests of the service. 

In the report of this office to the governor-general for the year ended June 
30, 1005, it was stated under the caption of character and permanency of 
personnel : 

"A high grade of efficiency In the public service can not be attained with a 
transitory personnel. Continuity of service Is essential to efficiency. Adequate 
preparation and special training supplemented by long exi>erience tend to pro- 
duce a personnel whose services become Increasingly valuable. 

"A transitory personnel not only does not contribute to a high degree of 
efficiency, but it adds greatly to the exi^ense of administration. Where officers 
and employees are, without adequate preparation and experience, placed In 
positions of resix)nslblllty, mistakes are bound to be more or less frequent, and 
some of them expensive and serious. From the standpoint of economy, there- 
fore, as well as efficiency, appointment In a deijendency esT)ecially should con- 
template a long period of service. The constant withdrawal from the Philippine 
service of competent men who are Just reaching the point where their services 
would be most valuable and useful to the Government is not in the interests 
of economy, efficiency, or good government. The Philippine civil service, no less 
than the military and naval services of the United States, should offer oppor- 



REPOBT OF THE DIRECTOR OF CIVIL SERVICE. 123 

tunlty for an honorable career for well-trained men. The continuance in the 
service of self-reliant, well -trained, and eflScient young men of good character 
must be deemed essential to successful administration and good government in 
the Philippine Islands." 

It is a matter of regret to report that the percentage of withdrawals from 
the service of competent and desirable men has been greater during the past 
year or two than theretofore, while there have been fewer separations of the 
incompetent and undesirable. On January 1, 1907, there were 2,616 Americans 
having regular appointment in the service. During the fiscal year ended June 
30, 1907, approximately 500 Americans resigned, about double the number with- 
drawing from the service during the preceding fiscal year. Of the 500 over 
100 were university or college graduates, including scientists, civil engineers, 
surveyors, physicians, teachers, and subordinate officials, as against 40 univer- 
sity or college graduates . for the preceding year. Of the remaining 400, a 
considerable number were graduates of high or normal schools. The loss to 
the government of these trained and experienced men is in many instances 
irreparable. Good men were evidently discouraged, and apparently lost hope 
that the Philippine public service promised a career which would justify their 
remaining in it. Whatever the cause, the withdrawal of so many competent 
Americans is greatly to be regretted, and suggests that encouraging conditions 
must prevail or well-trained and efficient young men will continue to leave the 
service and the hope of establishing firmly a dignified and efficient civil service 
in these islands composed of men above mediocrity and grafting tendencies must 
be abandoned, to the detriment of good government and to the disappointment 
of the friends of civll-servlce reform. 

BELATION OF TENURE AND PROMOTION TO CAREER. 

The promise of an opportunity for an honorable career is essential to the 
retention of the best type of young manhood in this service, as indeed it is 
in any public service. The policy of the American Government from the begin- 
ning contemplated the laying of a foundation deep and strong for. the super- 
structure, an efficient public service as good as the best, and a worthy 
achievement of American honesty and industry in the field of government 
endeavor. Whenever the competent man feels that tenure of office is insecure 
or that there is no certainty of promotion of the most competent to the higher 
positions, he will if he have laudable ambiton and capability look forward to 
an early return to the home land instead of giving his undivided attention to 
carving out a career for himself by striving to render the best possible service. 
The American as well as the Filipino must be assured that tenure is perma- 
nent, if his service Is faithful and satisfactory; otherwise, the best type of 
American manhood will rarely enter the service and few will remain. If the 
merit system is adhered to such assurance can unhesitatingly be given. As 
shown hereinbefore, the needs of the service continue to require the appoint- 
ment of hundreds of Americans every year. When the time comes that no 
more Americans need be appointed to carry on the work of government, the 
tenure of reliable officers and employees remaining In the service will not 
be affected, as vacancies will continue to occur as rapidly as Filipinos qualify 
to fill them. 

The matter of promotion must depend upon capability and fitness and not on 
personal influence or favor in any form. Appointments and promotions not 
made in accordance with the letter and spirit of the civil service law must 
inevitably tend to demoralization and to lower the general average efficiency In 
any public service. Integrity and efficiency must therefore be the touchstones to 
securing impartial consideration in promotion. By adhering to the true princi- 
ples of the " merit system " and avoiding the adoption of false ones the advan- 
tage gained in the splendid progress heretofore made toward good government 
in the Philippines need not and will not be lost 

PROMOTION EXAMINATIONS. 

The only practical method by which promotions on merit may be assured is 
by means of competitive promotion examinations. No promotion to any position 
in this service is made without passing the examination required for original 
appointment thereto. This requirement of eligibility in examination taken non- 
competltlvely for promotion prevents promotion of the really incompetent and 
the practical breaking down of the merit system, but does not Insure the pro- 
motion of the most competent and trustworthy. Competitive promotion exam- 



124 REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Inations can not be generally applied to this service without Increasing the 
appropriation for this Bureau, as the examiners as well as other employees of 
the Bureau are required constantly to work overtime to keep abreast of current 
work. Without strict adherence to the spirit as well as the letter of the law, 
the public service will suflFer by the appointment or advancement of the men- 
tally, morally, or physically unfit. CJonstructive work can not be done by the 
incompetent and positions of financial trust and responsibility should not be 
given to men whose habits of life and political and social relations are likely 
to outweigh principles of honesty and integrity. No position, high or low, the 
duties of which presuppose cai)ablllty to administer actually, honestly, and 
intelligently the affairs of the i)osltlon or to perform the work required to be 
done, can In the Interests of good government be filled by an unfit iierson or by 
a political or personal appointee who has not the proper qualifications to per- 
form the duties creditably. The actual money loss caused by the payment of 
government revenues to the incompetent and unreliable Is probably less harmful 
than the deadly effect on the esprit of the service and the disgust and resulting 
resignations of really competent and reliable men. The possession of brains 
by a government ofliclal or employee Is important, and so Is the iwssesslon of 
good morals. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that without the latter 
there Is no assurance of reliability and integrity. The interests of good adminis- 
tration require the reasonable observance by employees of the ordinary rules 
of conduct everywhere approved by right-thinking and law-abiding persons. 

THE NEED OF FURTHER APPLICATION OF THE EXAMINATION SYSTEM. 

Of the whole number of subordinate officials who have been removed from 
the Philippine civil service for cause, only 5 per cent entered the service through 
civil service examination. There are approximately 250 unclassified positions 
in the constabulary filled by Americans of the grade of officer, which consti- 
tute a majority of the unclassified positions in the Philippine civil service filled 
by Americans. Of the total number of Americans, approximately 600, ap- 
pointed as officers in the constabulary, about 150, or 25 per cent, have been 
separated from the service for cause, some 200 have resigned, and about 260 
arc now In the service. These positions are specifically excepted from the 
examination requirements of the civil service law, and selections for appoint- 
ment, being left to the director of constabulary, have been made without testing 
fitness through a rigid, thorough, and systematic examination system. While 
free from some of the restrictions of the civil service law, constabulary officers 
have all the privileges of that law and other si)ecial privileges. In addition to 
leave privileges, constabulary officers are given quarters in kind or commuta- 
tion thereof, and are allowed under certain regulations expenses while in hos- 
pital ; a special pension and retirement system is provided for them ; periodi- 
cal Increases in salary for length of service and promotions to higher grades 
and classes are more frequent than in other branches of the insular service. 
These favorable conditions of service would ordinarily be expected to be pro- 
ductive In a higher degree of honesty and efficiency. Nevertheless, there has 
been an unusual number of failures among constabulary officers and conse- 
quent separations from the service on account of defalcations or other delin- 
quency or misconduct. If appointments and service in the constabulary were 
subject to the requirements of the civil service act and rules, improvement In 
character and efficiency of the i)er8onnel would undoubtedly follow in this 
branch of the service, as has heretofore followed with every extension of the 
law to other grades of positions in the unclassified service. Nothing in this 
discussion is to be construed as detracting one lota from the record made by 
those constabulary officers who have rendered creditable and satisfactory 
service. 

In this connection it may be noted that of the employees brought out from 
the United States by 2 of the large constructing companies in the Philippines 
over 50 per cent were practically failures and have been " let out " for cause. 

It seems quite clear that the statement frequently heard to the effect that 
the selection of appointees for the public service by chiefs of bureaus without 
the intervention of a disinterested civil service officer, or the selection of em- 
ployees by heads of business concerns, without the application of an examina- 
tion system In either case, secures a better and more satisfactory personnel 
than the government obtains through the operation of civil service law lmr)ar- 
tlally and rigidly enforced, is not verified by the facts. Results conclusively 
show tliat the highest average in general efficiency, integrity, and reliability is 



REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF CIVIL SERVICE. 125 

secured through the open competitive examination system of making appoint- 
ments. The favorable comments of some officials on the oi)eratlon of the 
Philippine civil service law are found in the appendix of this report." The 
unqualified indorsement of the " merit system " by hundreds of officials all 
over the world may be found In published government reports. 

CRITICISM OF OFFICERS CHARGED WITH THE ENFORCEMENT OP A CIVIL-SERVICE LAW 

INEVITABLE. 

In the publications of this office it Is shown that: First, important prelim- 
inary evidence of fitness is obtained in the data required in making applica- 
tion for examination; second, if application is acceptable, further evidence of 
fitness is obtained through appropriate tests of knowledge of subject-matter 
relating to the position for which application is made ; and third, the final test 
of fitness is given through actual trial by a bureau chief for six months — the 
probationary period. If not discharged during the probationary period, dis- 
charge during this period being discretionary with the bureau chief, it is pre- 
sumed that the appointee is competent. Occasionally It is discovered that 
employees thus permanently appointed after the expiration of the probationary 
period prove to be inefficient. Complaint of a chief of bureau against the 
examination system with respect to such appointees is not well founded, as 
the official has ample opportunity to determine the appointee's qualifications 
during the probationary period. 

No civil-service director or commissioner, whether or not he does his duty. 
Is able to escape adverse criticism sooner or later. He may for a brief period 
undertake to justify partiality of action for special, more often specious, rea- 
sons, and accede to the wishes of many; but if he does so the inevitable day 
comes, all too soon, when he finds himself in the mazes of an inextricable 
tangle of unhappy precedents of his own creation, all to the detriment of the 
public service. Nor will he escape criticism if he does his duty in faithfully 
and consistently enforcing the provisions of a thoroughgoing civll-servlce law, 
which means fair competition and no favor for entrance to the public service 
and advancement therein on merit, and opportunity for the government to 
obtain the best men. 

A single case of hardship, and perhaps a mere prima facie one at that, is 
quite sufficient for some to declare the clvU-senMce law a failure, though such 
conclusion Is contrary to all rules of logic and evidence. As here In the 
Philippines, so probably elsewhere, on presentation of the facts and reasons 
for the action taken by the clvH-servlce office adverse criticism is generally 
found to be without " rhyme or reason." The attitude of those opposed to 
any compreheusive clvll-senice examination system, however meritorious that 
system may be, will render a continuance of the usual amount of adverse crit- 
icism unavoidable In individual cases. While the clvll-service officer can not 
escape criticism, he may, by courageous and judicious action, if his mental 
and moral vision Is clear, steer a safe course past Scylla and Charybdis. 

TO MAINTAIN AN EFFICIENT SERVICE A CIVIL-SERVICE LAW MUST APPLY TO THE 
PERSONNEL AS WELL AS TO ENTRANCE TO THE SERVICE. 

A Study of the clvll-servlce laws of other countries Is convincing to any fair- 
minded person that were the oiieration of a clvll-servlce law to cease with 
original appointment to the various bureaus and departments of a public 
service there could not be uniform and impartial treatment of the entire per- 
sonnel, as varying privileges and practices affecting the personnel would arise 
In each of the several departments. Hence all these laws provide for general 
supervision over the service by the executive head of a government, carried 
out by him through the operation of rules and regulations not only having 
application to entrance to the service, but also Intended to secure uniformity In 
privileges and practices In all the departments, 1. e., uniform treatment of the 
entire personnel with respect to appointments, promotions, transfers, rein- 
statements, removals, fines, suspensions, leaves of absence, etc. 

In the exercise of the i)ower vested in the executive head of a government to 
promulgate rules and regulations as provided by law for the purpose of securing 
and maintaining a dignified, economical, and efficient public service, being prima- 

« These have been omitted and are on file in the Bureau of Insular Affairs, 
War Department 



126 BEPOET OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

rlly reBpouslble for wise administration or good government, he appoints a civil- 
service body whose members are directly responsible to him for the proper per- 
formance of their duties. Critics of a comprehensive civil-service law who are 
sincerely In favor of limiting its application have probably failed to keep 
abreast of the civil-service reform movement and have overlooked the signifi- 
cant fact tliat in addition to the examination requirements for entering the 
civil service the merit system is in most countries being wisely applied to the 
personnel of the service, and that the degree of efficiency and good government 
the world over largely depends upon the extent and thoroughness of the appli- 
cation of this system to the personnel of the public service. With resiject to 
the objection raised by some that the powers of chiefs of bureaus are circum- 
scribed by the civil-service law and rules, and that the director of the Philip- 
pine civil service is Invested with too much authority In addition to the purely 
examination functions of his office, provisions of civil-service laws enacted 
during the last half dozen years by State and municipal governments In the 
United States and elsewhere, defining the powers of civil-service commission- 
ers, are interesting and Illuminating. Trial has demonstrated that under the 
just and equitable operation of civil-service law and rules efficiency and economy 
In the public service have greatly increased in every country where uniformity, 
fairness, and impartiality are thus secured by the executive head of a govern- 
ment to the entire personnel of the service during the period of employment 
as well as for entrance into the service. 

FAVORABLE CONDITIONS OF SERVICE. 

It is believed the conditions essential to give promise of a career in the 
Philippine service are: 

Tenure of office for the efficient must be as secure as it is in any other branch 
of the United States public service — military, naval, or civil. 

No positions should be filled by Americans when competent * and reliable 
Filipinos are available who are capable of filling creditably such positions. 
If competent and available, Filipinos should be given preference as provided 
In the civil service act. Neither American nor Filipino should receive the 
salary of a position which he is not capable of proi^erly filling, while subordi- 
nates do his work. 

Vacancies in the^hlgher grades must be filled by promotion of the most com- 
petent as contemplated by the civil service act. 

As in the United States Army, Navy, and Marine Corps, there should be, as 
stated below, a pension on retirement from the service for disability and re- 
tirement pay after a fixed period of service. 

PENSION JlND retirement SYSTEM. 

In the annual report of this office for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1904, it 
was stated that a mass of data covering the general subject of i>enslons and 
retirement had been obtained by direction of the governor-general, and It was 
further reported: 

" Officers and enlisted men of the military and naval services of the United 
States receive pay after retirement, and many municipalities In the United 
States provide for i>enslonlng iwlicemen and firemen on retirement. Some 
business corporations In the United States have adopted pension systems. 

" European nations apparently consider the pension system essential to suc- 
cessful administration In their colonies. The comments of writers and ob- 
servers on the value of a pension and retirement system are favorable to Its 
adoption. 

" It Is Improbable that a stable and efficient civil service in the Philippine 
Islands can be established without the adoption of a pension and retirement 
system. The board therefore recommends that the matter be given favorable 
consideration. 

" Such investigation of the subject as the board has been able to make seems 
to warrant the conclusions that for a pension system to be successful: (1) 
The cost must be divided between the government and the personnel ; and (2) 
employees over 40 years of age when appointed shall not be pensionable." 

Governor Wright, In referring to this matter in his report for the fiscal year 
1004, stated: 

" The policy of providing for a system of retirements and pensions ifor faith- 
ful and efficient civil officers and employees who have passed their entire life 



EEPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF CIVIL SERVICE. 127 

In the service has been the subject of discussion between the chairman of the 
civil service board and myself, and at my instance he has given the matter 
considerable study and investigation. While in the United States such a system 
has been often a topic of discussion, it has never passed that stage, but it has 
been adopted in some form bx. Great Britain and the nations of continental 
Europe. I shall not attempt at this time to enter into a discussion of the 
subject or to give the arguments pro and con, or to make any specific recom- 
mendation, inasmuch as the finances of the islands do not now warrant incur- 
ring obligations for increased expenditures and the matter is not pressing. I 
may say, however, that it is a subject which at some future time should be 
taken up and fully considered uix)n its merits. We can only expect to establish 
a stable and eflacient civil service in the islands by offering inducements to well- 
educated young men of high character to make their life career in the Insular 
service." 

This ofllce has been unable to reach a definite conclusion as to whether or not 
the Philippine government should adopt immediately a pension and retirement 
system for this service. It is not needed to secure permanency in the Filipino 
personnel of the civil service. Moreover, the liberal allowance of accrued leave 
and other allowances provide a certain amount of money on retirement in addi- 
tion to full pay for all absences during service, which includes periods of illness 
of average duration and a maximum absence of six months on account of 
wounds or injuries Incurred in the performance of duty. Racial and tempera- 
mental characteristics and other conditions make the comparatively mild and 
healthful climate of Benguet most available and advantageous for Filipinos at 
a minimum of expense. A change of climate so radical as to necessitate physio- 
logic adaptation is not desirable. Moreover, the great majority of Filipino 
employees will not go abroad, either from disinclination or for other reasons. 
On the other hand, a new environment and absence from home render periodical 
returns to the home land on the part of Americans both desirable and necessary. 
Americans, therefore, need and use accrued leave to visit the United States, and 
the money equivalent thereof is required to meet the necessary expenses incident 
to making the long Journey to their homes. 

Since 1904 the matter of providing for a pension and retirement system for 
the United States civil service has been receiving very careful and thorough 
consideration. It is understood that a plan has finally been worked out which 
meets the approval of the executive and administrative officers of the govern- 
ment, and that the subject will be presented to the CJongress for action. In 
the event that a pension and retirement system is adopted for the Federal 
service by the United States Government, it Is believed that there is no insuper- 
able obstacle to extending the privileges of the system to Americans serving In 
the Philippine Islands under the Philippine government. Both the United 
States civil service rules and the Philippine civil service rules provide for 
transfers from one service to the other. There are now In the Philippine 
Ber>*Ice a number of officers and employees who before coming to the Philippines 
were In the United States civil service. Many officers and employees of this 
service have already been transferred to the United States service, and It Is 
probable that many others will be so transferred. The inclusion of such officers 
and employees within the provisions of the proposed pension and retirement 
system for the United States would preserve any equitable rights earned by 
them as officers and employees of the Government of the United States, whether 
serving in the United States or In the Philippine civil service. There will be, 
year by year, a steady decrease in the number — approximately 2,000 — of pen- 
sionable Americans in the Philippine civil service. The period of service re- 
quired of the American in the Philippines for retirement should, of course, be 
shorter than In the United States or than in the Philippine Islands for Filipinos. 
It is believed that the Insular government might well be asked to provide for 
making up any deficiency on account of the shorter period of service in the 
Philippines. If provision were thus made by the United States Government for 
Americans in this service, conditions of apiwintment and service would offer a 
career, and the declared purpose of the civil service act, "the maintenance of 
an efficient and honest civil service in all the executive branches of the govern- 
ment of the Philippine Islands," would be practically assured of fulfillment. 
The inclusion of this service within the provision of the proposed iienslon plan 
for the United States service would not require the United States Government to 
increase the appropriation to initiate the system, in view of the fact that com- 
paratively few of the American officers and employees of this service have 
passed the meridian of life and none of them are old men. 



128 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

THE REVISED CIVIL SERVICE ACT, 

In the last annual report of this office reference was made to certain provi- 
sions In appropriation bills, exempting from the operation of the clvil-servlce 
act and rules several hundred positions, by fixing compensations at other than 
a per annum rate. This objectionable procedure was changed by the provisions 
of the revised civil-service law recently enacted, which is a compilation and 
revision of all previously existing laws relating to the Philippine civil service, 
including and combining the clvll-servlce act proper and the leave act. In this 
new act all prior legislation affecting the civil service was specifically repealed, 
and the i)osltions exempted from examination requirements by appropriation 
bills as above mentioned were replaced in the classified service. Employees 
exempted from examination requirements naturally are not satisfied with their 
status, and after gaining a little experience, chiefs of bureaus are constantly 
endeavoring to get them into regular classified positions by noncompetitive 
examinations or without any examination, on the ground that they have become 
valuable and the office can not afford to lose them. It Is apparent that were 
these unclassified employees not required to compete with all other applicants 
in the regular prescribed competitive examinations for entrance to the classi- 
fied service, tlie competitive feature of examinations (the backbone of the 
merit system) would be evaded, and employees thus selected by the chief of a 
bureau would secure regular appointment through noncompetitive examination, 
while better men were waiting for certification and appointment Another 
evil flowing from exempted positions, Is the constant temptation of chiefs of 
bureaus to assign to classified positions such unclassified employees in viola- 
tion of law and rules. 

The experience of those sincerely in favor of the competitive examination 
eiystem has led them to the conclusion that the power of exemption should be 
sparingly exercised, as few regular permanent iwsltlons can be exempted from 
examination In the interest of the service. Bearing in mind the lmi)ortant 
and far-reaching consequences resulting from the exemption of positions filled 
by employees who enjoy none of the benefits and privileges of the civil service 
law and are not subject to any of its restrictions, and in particular the trans- 
ference to a bureau chief of all control over appointment and employment. 
It Is obvious that exemption from examination requirements should be limited 
to those positions where In the public Interest exemption Is absolutely neces- 
sary. 

Those provisions of law which were found by years of experience to be 
desirable were retained in the revised clvil-servlce act, some of them in modi- 
fled form, while other provisions of former acts were eliminated as obsolete. 
Aliens may be appointed only when Filipinos or citizens of the United States 
are not available. The provision for reduction of office hours during the so- 
called heated season is repealed. Officers and employees may visit foreign 
countries with practically the same travel time and expense allowances as have 
heretofore been given to those granted leave to visit the United States. SIcilled 
laborers who receive less han $1,000 per annum, messengers, watchmen, and 
detectives hereafter appointed are not allowed leave under the revised act. 
Provision Is made by which the governor-general and heads of departments 
may delegate to the director of civil service authority to approve appointments 
and to grant leaves of absence, thus saving much unnecessary paper work 
relating to leaves of absence and apix)lntments, without in any way lessening 
their administrative control over these matters. 

PUBLICATIONS. 

During the year two editions of the "Manual of Information*' were pub- 
lished, and the ** Official Roster for 1907 " was prepared and 700 copies printed 
for distribution. The last annual report of the bureau of civil service was 
published in Washington; a reprint of the appendix of the report, containing 
the civil service laws and rules, was also published by the Bureau of Insular 
Affairs for distribution to prospective applicants In the United States. 

Respectfully submitted. 

William S. Washburn, 
Director of Civil Service. 

The Governor-General, Manila, P. /. 



APPENDIX. 



The Revised Civil Sebvice Act. 

[No. 1098.] 

AN ACT For the regulation of the Philippine civil Hervlce. 

By authority of the United States, be it enacted hy the Philippine Commission, 
that: 

Section 1. This act shall apply to appointments to all positions and employ- 
ments in the Philippine civil service, insular or provincial, or of the city of 
Manila, now existing or hereafter to be created, the compensations of which 
are authorized at an annual, monthly, or dally rate, or otherwise, except the 
employment of semiskilled or unskilled laborers whose rate of compensation 
is seven hundred and twenty pesos or less per annum, and the employment of 
all other persons whose rate of compensation Is two hundred and forty pesos 
or less per annum: Provided, That the examination requirements of this act 
for entrance into the civil service or for promotion therein shall not apply to 
positions filled by the following : 

(a) Elected ofllcers. 

(6) Employees of the Philippine Assembly selected by it. 

(c) Persons apiK)iuted by the governor-general with the advice and consent 
of the Philippine Commission, unless otherwise specifically provided by law. 

(d) One private secretary to the governor-general and to each of the other 
members of the Philippine Commission. 

(e) Persons in the military, naval, or civil service of the United States who 
may be detailed for the performance of civil duties. 

(/) Officers and employees in the department of commerce and police whose 
duties are of a guasl-milltary or quasi-naval character. 

ig) Officers and employees in the office of the supervising railway ex|)ert 
who are exempted by the governor-general from compliance with the clvll- 
servlce law and rules. 

{h) Postmasters and customs inspectors whose rates of compensation do not 
exceed six hundred pesos and three hundred and sixty pesos per annum, re- 
spectively, and who may lawfully i)erform the duties of postmaster or customs 
ius|)ector In connection with other official duties or in connection with their 
private business, such duties of postmaster or inspector requiring only a por- 
tion of their time ; postmasters who are required to perform the duties of tele- 
^aph operators : Provided, That in the discretion of the director of posts such 
I>o8tmasters may be appointed subject to the examination requirements of this 
act; postmasters at army posts whose compensation does not exceed twelve 
hundred i)esos i)er annum each; and operators and linemen in the bureau of 

lK)StS. 

(♦) Detectives, secret agents, sheriffs, and deputy sheriffs. 

(i) Temporary and emergency employees: Provided, That when the work 
to be performed Is temporary In character, or whenever an emergency shall 
arise requiring work to be done before It Is practicable to obtain the prior ai>- 
l>roval of the director of civil service, the chief of a bureau or office may im- 
mediately employ any person, giving preference to ellgibles if available, but 
he shall without delay request approval of such temporary or emergency em- 
ployment, and the employment of a nonellglble shall cease when the director 
of civil service certifies an available eligible who accepts temjwrary or pro- 
bational appointment. 

Sec. 2. It shall be the duty of the director of civil service — 

(a) To keep a record of all officers and employees filling positions In the 
classified service and of all officers and employees In the unclassified service who 

11024— WAB 1907— VOL 7 9 129 



130 KEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

are entitled to leave of absence provided for in this act, and for the purpose 
of this record he is hereby authorized to require each chief of a bureau or 
oflSce to furnish the necessary information, in such form and manner as the 
director of civil service shall prescribe with the approval of the governor- 
general. An official roster shall be published at intervals to be fixed by the 
governor-general. 

(6) To keep a record of the absences of all officers and employees entitled 
to the leave of absence provided for in this act, and for the puri>ose of this 
record he is hereby authorized to require each chief of a bureau or office to 
cause to be kept a record of the attendance of such officers and employees and 
to rei)ort to the director of civil service, in the form and manner prescribed 
by him and approved by the govenior-general, all absences from duty of such 
officers and employees from any cause, whatever. 

(c) To render an annual report, on or before the first day of July of each 
year, to the governor-general showing the work performed by the bureau of 
civil service, the rules which have been certified by the director of civil service 
and approved by the governor-general and the practical effect thereof, and sug- 
gestions for carrying out more effectually the purpose of this act, which is here- 
by declared to be the maintenance of an efficient and honest civil service in alt 
the executive branches of the government of the Philippine Islands. 

(d) To supervise the preparation and rating and have control of all examina- 
tions in the Philippine Islands under this act. The director of civil service, 
with the approval of the governor-general or proper head of department, may 
designate a suitable number of persons in the Philippine civil service to con- 
duct examinations and to serve as members of examining committees. When 
examiners with special, technical, or professional qualifications are required 
for the preparation or rating of examination papers the director of civil serv- 
ice may designate competent i)erson8 in the service for such si)ecial duty. The 
duties required of members of examining committees, or of s|)ecial examiners, 
shall be considered as part of their official duties and shall bo performed with- 
out extra compensation. When persons can not be foimd in the Philippine 
service with the necessary qualifications for such special examining work as 
may be required, the director of civil service is authorized to employ at a rea- 
sonable conii)ensatlon persons not in public eniploj-ment for such work, which 
comi)ensation shall be paid on the order of the director of civil service out of 
the general funds appropriated for the puriwsos of the bureau of civil service. 

(r) To make investigations and report upon all matters relating to the en- 
forcement of this act and the rules adopted hereunder. In making such investi- 
gations the officers and diily authorized examiners of the bureau of civil service 
are empowere<l to administer oaths, to summon witnesses, and to require the 
production of official books and records which may be relevant to such investi- 
gation, and they may also administer such oaths as may be necessary in the 
transiiction of any olHcial business of the bureau of civil service. 

(/) To prepare and certify to the governor-general rules adapted to tlie 
carrying out of the provisions of this act. It shall be the duty of all officers 
in the Philippine civil service to aid. in all proi)or ways. In carrying said rules 
and any modifications thereof Into effect: ProvidaU That the rules so preimred 
and certified shall not take effect until approved by the governor-general and 
promulgated by his executive order. 

Sec. 3. The rul(»s to be prepared and certified by the director of civil service 
shall, among other things, provide — 

(a) For the preparation and holding in Manila and In the provinces of open 
comi)etltlve examinations for testing the fitness of applicants for api)olntment to 
the classified service, and for the i)roparation and the holding of examinations 
in the United States under the auspices of the IJnltetl States civil service com- 
mission. 

(b) For the holding of competitive exaniinations when practicable: Provided, 
That appointment to those positions requiring technical, [)rofcssiona!, or scien- 
tific knowledge may be made as a result of competitive or noncomi)etltlve exam- 
ination: Atid provided further. That nom'()mi)etitive examinations may be given 
when applicants fail to compete after due notice has been given of an oi)en com- 
petitive examination, or when in the opinion of the director of civil service the 
holding of a comi>otitive examination would not result in socuring comiwtitors. 

(c) For the selection of skill(»d workmen by such examinations, comT»etltlve 
or noncomi>etltIve, as may be r>nictl<'able. and which need not relate to more 
than the capacity of the applicants to labor, their habits of industry and sobri- 
ety, and their honesty. 



BEPOBT OF THE DIBBGTOB OF CIVIIi SEBVICE. 181 

(djTFor the examination of applicants in Spanish and English whenever 
a knowledge of both languages is essential to an efficient discharge of the duties 
of the position sought.' 

(e) For a thorough physical examination by a competent physician of every 
applicant for examination in the I7nited States, for such physical examination 
in the Philippine Islands as in the discretion of the director of civil service may 
be necessary, and for rejection of every applicant found to be physically disquali- 
fied for efficient service in the Philippine Islands. 

(/) For the allowance in examinations of credit for experience. 

iff) For certification by the director of civil service to the different bureaas 
and offices of those rated highest according to average i)ercentage on the civil- 
service list of eligiblea 

(h) For a period of probation before the appointment or employment is 
made permanent. 

(i) For competitive or noncomi)etitive promotion examinations whenever 
practicable. 

U) For transfers from one branch of the classified service to another, or 
from the Federal classified civil service of the United States to the classified 
civil service of the Philippine Islands, under limitations to t>e fixed by the rules. 

ik) For the conditions under which reinstatements in the service may be 
made. 

(0 For fixing age limits of applicants for entrance into the classified service. 

(m) For eliciting from all applicants for examination and from iiersons 
now in the service full information as to their citizenship, nativity, age, educa- 
tion, physical qualifications, and such other information as may reasonably be 
required affecting their fitness for the service. 

(n) For the procedure in making appointments to the service, separations 
therefrom, and suspensions and reductions therein. 

(o) For regulating hours of labor and the allowance of leaves of absence 
(including the withholding of salary for leave granted) and of traveling ex- 
penses and half salary for i)ersons entitled thereto. 

Sec. 4. The bureau of civil service sliall have-a permanent office in the city of 
Manila. When examinations are held by the bureau of civil service, either in 
Manila or in the provinces, officers having the custody of public buildings shall 
allow the reasonable use thereof for the purpose of holding such examinations. 

Sec 5. (a) No i)erson shall be api)ointed or employed in the civil service of 
Che Philippine Islands except as provided by law, or, in the provincial service, 
by a resolution of the proi)er provincial board approved by the executive sec- 
retary, and In accordance with this act. No i)erson api>ointed to or employed 
in the classified service in violation of law or of civil-nervlce rules shall be 
entitled to receive salary or wages from the government, but the chief of the 
bureau or office who makes such unauthorized apiwlutment or employment shall 
be personally responsible to the i)erson illegally api)ointed for the salary which 
would have accrued to him had tlie ai)iK)intment or employment been made in 
accordance with law and clvil-servlce rules, and i)ayment shall be made to him 
out of the salary of such chief of the bureau or office by the disbursing officer. 
When the director of civil service shall find that any i)er8t)n Is holding a iwsltlon 
in the classified civil service In violation of law, he shall certfy Information of 
the fact to the insular auditor and to the disbursing officer through whom the 
Iiayment of salary or wages to such i>erson Is by law recinlred to be made. If 
the insular auditor shall find that a disbursing officer has luild or i)ermltted to 
be iNiid salary or wages to any iierson Illegally holding a classlfl(Hl iK)sitiou, the 
whole amount ymid shall be disallowed and the disbursing officer shall not 
receive credit for the same unless the insular auditor shall find that the chief 
of the bureau or office is responsible, as above provided, for the payment of 
salary or wages to such person and that such imyment is not due to the failure 
of the disbursing officer to obtain proper evidence as herein required. In case 
the disbursing officer is not responsible for the illegal i)jiynient, he shall be 
directed to withhold from the Siilary of the chief of the bureau or office resiwn- 
sible for the illegal employment an amount equal to that disallowed by the 
Insular auditor. A disbursing officer, the head of any de|)artment, bureau, or 
office, or the insular auditor, may apply for, and the director of civil service 
shall render, a decision uiwn any question as to whether a position Is In the 
classified or in the unclassified civil service, or whether the api)Ointnient of 
any person to a classified [Kisition has been made In accordance with law, which 
decision, when rendered, shall be final unless reversed by the governor-general 
on appeal. 



132 REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

(6) No person appointed to any unclassified position shall be assigned to or 
employed In a position the duties of which are clerical, vpr shall he be assigned 
to or employed in any other position in the classified service. 

(c) No i^erson appointed to a i)osltion In the classified service shall, without 
the approval of the director of civil service, be assigned to or employed in a 
position of a grade or character not contemplated by the examination from the 
results of which appointment was made, unless otherwise provided by law. 

Sec. 6. In the appointment of officers and employees under the provisions 
of this act, the appointing oflicer in his selection from the list of eligibles 
furnished to him by the director of civil service shall, where other qualifications 
are equal, prefer — 

First. Natives of the Philippine Islands or persons who have, under and by 
virtue of the treaty of Paris, acquired the political rights of natives of the 
Islands. 

Second. Persons who have served as members of the Army, Navy, or Marine 
Corps of the United States and have been honorably discharged therefrom. 

Third. Citizens of the United States. 

Provided, however. That with the approval of the governor-general, persons 
other than those hereinbefore named in this section may be appointed. 

Sec. 7. If competent persons are found in the service who in the judgment 
of the appointing iwwer are available and iwssess the qualifications required, 
vacancies In the position of chiefs and of assistant chiefs of bureaus and offices 
and In the iwsltlon of superintendent shall be filled by promotion of such 
l>ersons without examination : Provided, however, That an examination may 
be given when requested by the governor-general or proper head of department. 
. Sec. 8. Any person who shall willfully and corruptly, by himself or In 
cooperation with one or more persons, defeat, deceive, or obstruct any person 
In the matter of his right of examination by the bureau of civil service; or who 
shall willfully or corruptly make a false rating, grading, estimate, or reiK)rt 
ui>on the examination or standing of any i^erson examined hereunder, or aid 
in so doing; or who shall willfully or corruptly make any false representations 
rohitlve thereto or concerning the i>ersons examined; or who shall willfully and 
falsely or corruptly use or furnish any information for the purpose of injuring 
the prospects or chances of employment, appointment, or promotion of any person 
so examined or to be examined, or who shall willfully furnish any special or 
secret Information which will give to the i)erson to be examined an unfair 
advantage In the examination, shall for each offense be punished by a fine not 
exceeding two thousand pesos, or by imprisonment for a i)eriod not exceeding 
one year, or by both4?uch fine and imprisonment. In the discretion of the court. 

Sec. 9. Any person who shall willfully become the beneficiary of an act in 
violation of the last preceding section shall be punished as provided in that 
section. 

Sec 10. No person In the Philippine civil service shall be imder obligation 
to contribute to a political fund or to render any political service, nor shall 
he be removed or otherwise prejudiced for refusing to contribute or render any 
such service, and no officer or employee In the Philippine civil service shall 
directly or indirectly solicit, collect, or receive from any other officer or employee 
subject to his orders or under his jurisdiction, any money or other valiuible 
thing to be applied to the promotion of any jwlitlcal object whatever. Any 
person violating any of the provisions of this section shall be removed from 
oflice and shall be punished by a fine not exceeding one thousand pesos or by 
imprisonment not exceeding six months, or by both such fine and imprisonment 
in the discretion of the court. 

Sec. 11. No Inquiry shall be made and no consideration whatever shall be 
given to any information relative to the i)olitlcal or religious opinions or affilia- 
tions of persons examined, or to be examined, for entrance into the service, or 
of officers or employees In the matter of promotion: Provided, however. That 
disloyalty to the United States of America as the supreme authority In these 
islands shall be a complete disqualification for holding office in the Philippine 
civil service: And prorided further. That no person shall be eligible for exam- 
ination or appointment under the provisions of this Acf who, after the thir- 
tieth day of April, nineteen hundred and one, has been in arms against the 
authority of the United States in the Philippine* Islands, or who has given aid 
and comfort to enemies of the United States or who after the passage of this 
act shall have been in arms against the authority of the United States In the 
Philippine Islands or shall have given aid and comfort to the enemies of the 
United States ; this provision shall not apply to those persons who were in arms 



BEPOBT OF THE DIBECTOB OF CIVIL SBBVICE. 183 

against the anthority and sovereignty of the United States in the Philippine 
Islands, or their alders or abettors, prior to Jnly fourth, nineteen hundred and 
two, who came within the provisions of the proclamation of amnesty of the 
President of the United States Issued upon said date, and who have complied 
with the terms of said proclamation. 

Sec. 12. Every applicant for admission to the Philippine civil service shall, 
before being admitted to examination in the islands, take and subscribe tho 
following oath before a notary public or other officer authorized to administer 
oaths : ' 

**OATH OF APPLICANT. 

" I ' , having applied for admission to the civil 

service of the Philippine Islands, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I recog- 
nize and accept the supreme authority of the Ui^Ited States of America In these 
islands and will maintain true faith and allegiance thereto; that I will obey 
the laws, legal orders, and decrees promulgated by Its duly constituted authori- 
ties; that I impose upon myself this obligation voluntarily, without mental 
reservation or purpose of evasion. So help me God. (The last four words to 
be stricken out in case of affirmation.) 

(Signature) " 

" Subscribed and sworn to (or affirmed) before me this 

day of 19 



The oath of the applicant shall be filed with his application for examination. 

Sec. 13. The officers and employees In the Philippine civil service shall be 
arranged In the following classes, and, unless otherwise provided by law, it 
shall be understood that the minimum amount specified for each class indicates 
the annual salary of each officer or employee in that class ; 

ClassJL. All persons receiving an annual salary of six thousand pesos or 
more, or a compensation at the rate of six thousand pesos or more per annum. 

(Tlass 2. All persons receiving an annual salary of five thousand five hundred 
jiesos or more, or a comi)ensation at the rate of five thousand five hundred pesos 
or more, but less than six thousand i)esos per annum. 

Glass 3. All persons receiving an annual salary of five thousand pesos or 
more, or a compensjition at the rate of five thousand pesos or more, but less 
than five thousand five hundred pesos per annum. 

Class 4. ^ill persons receiving an annual sjilary of four thousand five hun- 
dred i)esos or more, or a compensation at the rate of four thousand five hundred 
pesos or more, but less than five thousand pesos per annum. 

Class 5. All persons receiving an annual salary of four thousand pesos or 
more, or a compensation at the rate of four thousand i^esos'or more, but less 
than four thousand five hundred pesos per annum. 

('LASS 0. All iKjrsons receiving an annual salary of three thousand six hun- 
dred pesos or more, or a comi)ensation at the rate of three thousand six hundred 
pesos or more, but less than four thousand pesos i)er annum. 

Class 7. All persons receiving an annual salary of three thousand two hun- 
dred pesos or more, or a compensation at the rate of three thousand two 
hundred iJesos or more, but less than three thousand six hundred iiesos i)er 
annum. 

Class 8. All persons receiving an annual salary of two thousand eight hun- 
dred i)esos or more, or a compensation at the rate of two thousand eight 
hundred i)esos or more, but less than three thousand two hundred pesos per 
annum. 

Class 9. All persons receiving an annual salary of two thousand four hun- 
dred pesos or more, or a compensation at the rate of two thousand four hundred 
l>esos or more, but less than two thousand eight hundred pesos per annum. 

Class 10. All jiersons receiving an annual salary of two thousand pesos or 
more, or a compensation at the rate of two thousand i^esos or more, but less 
than two thousand four hundred i>esos i>er annum. 

Class A. All persons receiving an annual salary of one thousand eight hun- 
dred pesos or more, or a compensation at the rate of one thousand eight hun- 
dred pesos or more, but less than two thousand i)esos i)er annum. 

Class B. All persons receiving an annual salary of one thousand six hundred 
and eighty pesos or more, or a compensation at the rate of one thousand six 



134 BEPOBT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMBilSSION. 

hundred and eighty pesos or more, but less than one thousand eight hundred 
pesos per annum. 

Class C All persons receiving an annual salary of one thousand four hun- 
dred and forty pesos or more, or a compensation at the rate of one thousand 
four hundred and forty pesos or more, but less than one thousand six hundred 
and eighty pesos per annum. 

Class D. All i)ersons receiving an annual salary of one thousand two hundred 
pesos or more, or a compensation at the rate of one thousand two hundred 
I)esos or more, but less than one thousand four hundred* and 'forty pesos per 
annum. 

Class E. All persons receiving au annual salary of one thousand and eighty 
pesos or more, or a compensation at the rate of one thousand and eighty pesos 
or more, but less than one thousand two hundred pesos per annum. 

Class F. All iiersous receiving an annual salary of nine hundred and sixty 
l)esos or more, or a compensation at the rate of nine hundred and sixty i^esos 
or more, but less than one thousand and eighty pesos per annum. 

Class G. All persons receiving an annual salary of eight hundred and forty 
pesos or more, or a compensation at the rate of eight hundred and forty pesos 
or more, but less than nine hundred and sixty i>esos per annum. 

Class H. All persons receiving an annual salary of seven hundred and twenty 
pesos or more, or a compensation at the rate of seven hundred and twenty 
pesos or more, but less than eight hundred and forty pesos per annum. 

Class I. All persons receiving an annual salary of six hundred pesos or more, 
or a comiiensation at the rate of six hundred pesos or more, but less than seven 
hundred and twenty pesos per annum. 

Class J. All persons receiving an annual salary of four hundred and eighty 
I)esos or more, or a» compensation at the rate of four hundred and eighty pesos 
or more, but less than six hundred pesos per annum. 

Class K. All persons receiving an annual salary of less than four hundred 
and eighty pesos, or a comi)ensatlou at the rate of less than four hundred and 
eighty pesos i)er annum. 

Sec 14. AU appointments to and removals from subordinate positions In the 
Philippine civil service shall be made by the chiefs of bureaus or offices subject 
to the aproval or direction of the governor-general or proper hetid of depart- 
ment: Provided^ however, That somiskllled or unskilled laborers whose em- 
ployment is authorized by law may bo employed and discharged by chiefs of 
bureaus or offices under the general control of the governor-general or proi>er 
head of department. The employment or discharge of temporary or emer- 
gency employees shall be made and rei)orted in accordance with the provisions 
of this act. 

Sec. 15. In case of the temporary absence or disability of the chief of any 
bureau or office, or in case of a vacancy in such position, any officer or employee 
in such bureau or office may be designated by the governor-general or proper 
head of department temporarily to i>erform the duties of such chief of bureau 
or office without additional comi)eusatlon unless there is a vacancy in the position 
or the chief Is absent from duty without pay and unless the order designating 
such person shall provide additional compensation, in which latter case the per- 
son designated shall receive the compensation provided in said order, not ex- 
ceeding the salary authorized by law for said position. In case of the tempo- 
rary absence or disiiblllty of any subordinate officer or employee in any bureau 
"or office, the chief of such bureau or office may designate any other subordinate 
officer or employee in his bureau or office temporarily to perform the duties of 
the officer or employee who Is thus absent or disabled, and It shall be the duty 
of the person so designated to perform the duties so assigned to him without 
additional compensation. Whenever any officer or employee shall be designated 
by proi)er authority for the temporary performance of the duties of chief or of 
any subordinate officer or employee of a bureau or office, the person so desig- 
nated shall be reimbursed for any additional exjx^nse which he is obliged to 
incur on account of a bond premium in the position to which he has been so 
designated, and such reimbursement shall be made from the appropriation for 
the department, bureau, or office in which the services are rendered by reason 
of such designation: Provided, That no reimbursement shall be made to per- 
sons receiving the full comi)ensation attached to the position the duties of which 
they are designated to perform as herein set forth. 

Sec 1G. For neglect of duty or violation of reasonable office regulations, or 
In the interests of the public ser\'Ice, chiefs of bureaus or offices are hereby 
authorized to reduce the salary or comi)ensatIon of any subordinate officer or 



BEPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF CIVIL SERVICE. 135 

employee, to deduct from his pay ii sum not exceeding one month's pay, or as 
a punishment to suspend him without pay for a period not exceeding two. 
months : Provided, however , That if the officer or employee thus punished Is in 
the classified service or is entitled to the accrued leave provided for in this 
act such deduction from pay or such suspension without pay as a punishment 
shall receive the approval of the governor-general or proper head of deixirtment, 
.after having been submitted to the director of civil service for recommenda- 
tion: And provided further, That any reduction in salary or deduction of pay 
or any punishment by suspension without pay as provided for in this section 
shall not aflTect the right of the person thus disciplined to accrued leave of 
absence, but in the event of his suspension from duty no accrued leave of ab- 
sence shall be allowed for the time he is thus 8usi>ended as a punishment: 
And provided further. That when the chief of a bureau or office suspends an 
officer or employee* i)ending investigation of charges against such officer or 
employee, and subsequently restores such officer or employee to duty, no pay- 
ment shall be made for the period of susi)eusion unless otherw^ise directed by 
the governor-general or proi)er head of department. 

Sec. 17. Nothing herein shall be construed to prevent the Philippine Com- 
mission from making appointments to or removals from positions in the Philip- 
pine civil service of its own motion under the general i)owers conferred upon 
it by the instructions of the President of the Tnited States. 

Sec. 18. Upon the approval of the governor-general or proix?r head of depart- 
ment first had, a vacancy in a position of any class may be filled by the appoint- 
ment of one person or more of a lower class: Provided, That the aggregate of 
salaries i)aid is not greater than the salary tiuthorized by law for that position. 

Sec. 11). With the approval of the governor-general or proi)er head of dei)art- 
•cnent, and after the recommendation of the director of civil service has been 
had as to the matter, any chief of bureau or office may make changes in the 
authorized iMJsltions and salaries of his bureiiu or office: Provided, That the 
total charge for salaries and wages slinli not exceed the amount authorized by 
law: And provided further. That the positions or sjilaries of officials apix)inted 
by the Secretary of War, or by the governor-general with the advice and consent 
of the Philippine Commission, shall not be subject to change as hereinbefore 
provided. 

Sec. 20. Whenever in his judgment the public interest will be promoted by 
the consolidation of two or more ai>pointIve i)ositions, the governor-general may 
declare such positions to be consolidateil, may fix the salary of the position 
resulting therefrom at not to exceed seventy-five per centum of the sum of the 
salaries of the positions consolidated, and may apiK)rtlon the salary so fixed 
among the branches of the government servcnl by the officer or employee receiv- 
ing the same. 

Sec 21. Whenever two or more appointive positions have been consolidated as 
provided in the preceding section of this act, the governor-general may restore 
them to their previous status when In his opinion the public Interest is no longer 
served by such consolidation, and thereupon the salaries payable to the sei3- 
arated positions shall be the same as were authorized at the time of consoli- 
dation. 

Sec 22. The required office hours of all bureaus and offices in the Philippine 
civil service shall be fixed by executive order of the governor-general, but they 
shall not be less than six and one-half hours of labor each day, not including 
time for lunch and exclusive of Sundays and of days declared public holidays 
by law or executive order: Provided, That when the nature of the duties to be 
performed or the interests of the public service require it, ofiicers and employees 
may, by direction of the chief of the bureau or office, be required to work on 
Sundays and holidays without additional compensjition unless otherwise spe- 
cifically authorized by law. It shall be the duty of chiefs of bureaus or offices 
to require of all employees, of whatever grade or class, not less than the number 
of hours of labor authorlzetl by law or extvutlve order, but the head of any 
department, bureau, or office may, in the interests of the public service, extend 
the daily hours of labor therein siKK-lfied for any or all of the employees under 
him, and in case of such extension it shall be without additional compensation 
unless otherwise provided by law: Provided, hoicevcr, That on Saturdays 
throughout the year the governor-general may, by executive order, reduce the 
required number of hours of labor to five hours. This executive order shall 
not oblige the head of a department, bureau, or office in the Philippine civil 
service to reduce the hours of labor to five hours, but It shall be within his 
discretion to reduce the number of hours if consistent with the needs of the 



136 REPOBT OF THE PHTI.IPPINE COMMISSION. 

public service; nor shall this provision be regarded as conferring u right upon 
officers or employees. Unless specifically authorized by law no payment may 
he made for overtime work. The length of sessions of the courts shall be regu- 
lated by existing law, and the provisions of this section shall not apply to 
Judges. The number of hours for the daily sessions of the public schools shall 
be fixed by the secretary of public instruction, but they shall not be less than 
five hours a day. 

Sec. 23. (a) After at least two years' continuous, faithful, and satisfactory 
service, the governor-general or proper head of department shall, subject to 
the necessities of the public service, and upon proper application therefor, grant 
each regularly and permanently appointed officer or employee in the civil 
service, insular or provincial, or of the city of Manila, except as hereinafter 
provided, accrued leave of absence with full pay, inclusive of Sundays and of 
days declared public holidays by law or executive order, for each year of 
service In accordance with the following schedule: An employee receiving an 
annual salary of less than eighteen hundred pesos shall be granted twenty days' 
leave; an employee receiving an annual salary of from twelve hundred to 
eighteen hundred pesos with board and quarters, and an officer or employee 
receiving an annual salary of eighteen hundred pesos or more, but less than 
three thousand six hundred pesos, shall be granted thirty days' leave; an offi- 
cer or employee receiving an annual salary of three thousand six hundred 
pesos or more, shall be granted thirty-five days* leave. Leave shall accrue 
while an pfficer or employee Is on duly authorized leave of absence with pay. 

(6) If an officer or employee elects to postpone the taking of any or all of 
the leave to which he is entitled under this section, such leave may accumulate 
and if his salary changes he shall receive the same amount of leave and pay 
as if he had taken the leave while receiving the salary at which it accrued ^ 
Provided, however, That after January first, nineteen hundred and five, no per- 
son shall at any time have to his credit more than the accrued leave allowed 
for five years* service. 

(c) An officer or employee who has served in the islands for three years or 
more, and who has accumulated to his credit the accrued leave allowed for two 
full years, may be granted permission to visit the United States or any other 
country in the discretion of the governor-general or proper head of department, 
with the half -pay and traveling-expense allowances hereinafter provided: 
Provided, That such permission shall not be granted oftener than once in every 
thrt»e years. 

(d) A person in the teaching service shall not be granted accrued leave in 
accordance with the schedule provided in this section, but in lieu thereof he 
may be granted leave on full pay during vacation periods, with permission to 
si)end a vacation period in the United States or in any other country with the 
approval of the secretary of public instruction, not oftener than once in every 
three years. 

(e) In case an officer, teacher, or other employee is granted leave to visit 
the United States, he shall be allowed, with half pay in addition to the leave 
granted, sixty days for the time occupied by him in going to and returning from 
the United States if he is serving in Manila, and if serving in the provinces 
sixty days plus the actual and necessary time consumed from date of departure 
from station to date of departure from Manila, and on returning, from date of 
arrival at Manila to date of arrival at station, such half salary to be paid on 
return to duty ; if he is granted permission to visit any other country he shall 
be allowed under the same conditions, and in lieu of the sixty days* half pay 
above provided, actual and necessary travel-time with half pay not exceeding 
sixty days. On the completion of two years of continuous, faithful, and satis- 
factory service, after returning to the islands from leave of absence to visit the 
United States granted for three or more years* service, he shall be allowed his 
actual and necessary traveling expenses from his place of residence In the 
United States to Manila if he come by the route and steamer directed, and if 
returning from any other country or from the United States, not residing there- 
in, he shall be allowed his actual and necessary traveling expenses to Manila 
from the port of embarkation in the United States or such other country not 
exceeding four hundred pesos. 

(/) The following classes of persons shall not be entitled to the leave pro- 
vided in this section : 

1. Semiskilled and unskilled laborers and skilled laborers hereafter ap- 
pointed whose rate of compensation is less than two thousand pesos per 
annum. 



BEPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 01* CIVIL SERVICE. 187 

2. Temporary and emergency employees. 

3. Persons whose compensations are authorized at other than a per annum 
rate, except officers detailed from the military, naval, or civil service of the 
United States. 

4. Persons enlisted for a term of years. 

5. Detectives hereafter ap]x>inted except where appointment is by transfer 
from a leave-earning position, and secret agents. 

6. Messengers and watchmen. 

7. Postmasters who are required to perform the duties of telegraph operators 
except postmasters who are appointed subject to the examination requirements 
of this act, postmasters at army posts whose compensation does not exceed one 
thousand two hundred pesos per annum each, and operators and linemen in the 
bureau of posts. 

8. Persons who receive compensation for official duties performed in connec- 
tion with private business, vocation, or profession, such duties requiring only a 
portion of their time. • 

iff) The provisions of this section shall be retroactive in effect so as to entitle 
officers and employees of the Philippine civil service, whether serving as such 
by regular appointment or by detail from the Army, the Navy, or the civil 
service of the United States, previous to the passage of this act, to any accrued 
leave to which they would have been entitled had act numbered eighty, as 
amended, been applicable to them at the date of their employment or detail, 
computing the leave in the case of an officer on the basis of the salary and 
allowances received while on detail, and in the case of an enlisted man on the 
basis of first salary received in the Philippine civil service. No application for 
leave of absence presented by an officer or employee shall be considered if his 
application is not presented within six months of the date of the acceptance of 
his resignation. 

{h) An officer or employee separated from the service for cause, or who 
commits an act which requires his separation from the service, shall not be 
granted leave or any of the other privileges provided in this section and in the 
following sections: 

Sec. 24. After at least six months* continuous, faithful, and satisfactory 
service the governor-general or proper head of department nmy, in his dis- 
cretion, grant to each officer or employee entitled to the accrued leave provided 
in this act. In addition to such accrued leave, vacation leave of absence with full 
pay. Inclusive of Sundays and of days declared public holidays by law or 
executive order, for each calendar year of service, in accordance with the 
following schedule: An officer or employee receiving an annual salary of less 
than two thousand pesos may be granted twenty-one days* vacation leave; an 
officer or employee receiving anjinnual salary of two thousand pesos or more, 
or a trained nurse, may be granted twenty-eight days* vacation leave. Vacation 
leave must be taken within the calendar year in which it is earned, or in the 
first two months of the following calendar year. The vacation leave providetl 
for only one calendar year may be allowed in connection with accrued leave 
granted. In cases qf resignation, vacation leave shall not be allowed In addition 
to accrued leave. All applications for vacation leave shall be piade ou a form 
prescribed by the director of civil service. 

Sec. 25. (a) Absence from duty of teachers, due to illness, shall f)e cliarj?cHl 
against their vacations, and with the consent of the secretary of public in- 
struction they may remain on duty during vacations for a period equal to that 
lost on account of Illness, In which case no deduction of pay shall be made on 
account of absence caused by illness. 

(6) Absence of other regularly and i>ernianently appointed officers and em- 
ployees in the Philippine civil service on account of illness shall be charged first 
against vacation leave and then against accrued leave, until both are exhausted, 
when further absence shall be without pay. 

ic) Payment of salary to au officer or employee for any absence during his 
first six months of service properly chargeable to vacation leave, or during 
his first two years of service properly chargeable to accrued leave, shall be 
withheld until such leave may properly be taken under the provisions of this act : 
Provided, however. That in case of absence due to illness the governor-general 
or proper head of department may direct that payment for such absence be 
not withheld if not in excess of the vacation and accrued leave to his credit. 

id) In case an officer or employee in the civil service, insular or provincial, 
or of the city of Manila, permanent or temporary, is wounded or injured in the 
performance of duty, the governor-general or proi)er head of department may 
direct that absence during the period of dlsiibillty caused by such wound or 



188 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

injury shall be on full pay for a period not exceeding six uionlhs: Provided, 
That if the officer or employee is entitled to the vacation leave provided in sec- 
tion twenty-four of this act, absence for this reason shall be charged first 
against such vacation leave: And provided further. That the governor-general 
or proper head of department may, in his discretion, authorize payment of med- 
ical attendance, necessary transportation, and hospital fees for officers and em- 
ployees so wounded or injured : And provided further. That payments made 
under this paragraph shall not be made from the appropriation for general 
puri>oses when the bureau or office concerned has an available appropriation for 
contingent exi>ense8 or* public works, as the case may be, from which such pay- 
ments can be made, nor shall the provisions of this section be construed to 
cover sickness as distinguished from physical wounds. 

Sec. 20. If a regularly apiwinted officer or employee in the rhilippine civil 
service who has rendered faithful and satisfactory service shall die while in 
the servic^ the unused accrued leave that might have been granted at the 
time of delith shall be determined, and the salary equivalent of the accrueil 
leave shall be paid to the i)erson or persons entitled to receive his estate. 

Skc. 27. Tlie governor-general or proper head of department may, in his 
discretion, commute accrued leave of absence granted to persons entitled thereto 
and vacation granted to teachers, and authorize the payment of the amounts 
so granted in a gross sum from the appropriation from which their salaries 
should properly be paid: Provided, That whenever upon the resignation or 
deatli of an officer or employee it is in the interests of the public service that 
the position occupied by him be immediately filled, the governor-general or 
proi)er head of department may direct that the leave granted him he commuted 
from any unexpended available funds appropriated for salaries and wages In 
the bureau, office, or province from which separatcnl : And provided further. 
That except on retirement from the service, leave of absence shall not be com- 
muted to any officer or emploj^ee who remains In the Islands during the period 
of his leave: And provided further. That no officer or employee whose leave of 
absence has been cc^nmiuted shall be iKjrmltted to return to duty before the 
expiration of the period covered by such leave until he has refunded to the 
proper disbursing officer the money value of the unused portion of the leave of 
absence so commuted: Aud provided further. That In the case of an officer or 
emi)loyee separated from the service through lack of work or the abolition of 
his position, the govenior-general or proper liead of department may, In his 
discretion, allow the reinstatement of such officer or employee without requir- 
ing the refund of the money value of the unused portion of the leave of absence 
hereinbefore mentioned. 

Sec. 28. All applications for accrued leave of absence shall be made on a form 
prescribed by the director of civil service, and shall first be acted uix)n by the 
chief of the bureau or office, and by him submitted to the director of civil serv- 
ice for recommendation. The application shall then he forwarded to the head 
of the department In which the applicant is emi)loyed for his final decision, 
except in respect to those bureaus or offices not under any department. In which 
case It shall be forwarded to the governor-general for his final decision : Pro- 
vided, hoxcever. That the governor-general or proi)er head of department may 
authorize the director of civil service to grant accrued or vacation leave of 
absence In all cases in which he approves the recommendations of the chief 
of the bureau or office in regard to such leave. 

Sec. 25). The api)oIntment of all iwrsons residing in the T'nlted Slates to the 
rhilippine civil service, whether by transfer from the United States civil serv- 
ice or otherwise, shall be subject to the following conditions: 

(o) A person residing in the Unltetl States who is appointed to the Philip- 
pine civil service may pay his traveling expens<'s from the place of his resi- 
dence in the UnltcHl States to Manila : Provided, That If any part of his trav- 
eling exiienses is borne by the government of the Philippine Islands, ten per 
centum of his monthly salary shall be retained until the amount retained is 
equal to the amount home by the goveniment: And provided further, That if 
he shall come by the route and steamer directed his actual and necessary trav- 
eling expenses shall be refundetl to hini at the expiration of two j-ears*' satis- 
factory service In the Philippines. 

(b) He shall be allowed half salary from the date of embarkation and full 
salary from the date of his arrival In the Islands: Provided, That he procetni 
directly to the islands; otherwise he shall be allowed half salary for such time 
only as is ordinarily re<iuired to i)erform the journey by the route dirt»cted : 
And provided further, That such half salary sliall not be paid until after the 
expiration of two years of satisfactory service in the Philippines. 



BEPOBT OF THE DIBECTOK OP CIVIL SERVICE. 189 

(c) A person residing in the United States accepting an appointment to a 
position in the civil service of the government of the Philip[)ine Islands, under 
the conditions named in this act, shall, before receiving such appointment, exe- 
cute a contract and deliver it to the chief of the bureau of insular affairs. War 
Department, wherein the appointee shall stipulate that he will remain in the 
service of the government of the Philippine Islands for at least two years 
unless released by the governor-general or proper head of department. A breach 
of the conditions provided in the contract or a removal for cause shall require 
the proper officer to withhold payment of all salary and traveling expenses due 
to the person employed and who has violated the conditions of his contract or 
been removed foF cause, and shall debar such i)erson from ever entering again 
the public service of the Philippine government in any of its branches. In such 
case an action shall lie for the recovery of the amount exi^ended by the govern- 
ment in bringing the employee to the Philippine Islands. 

id) Irresi^ective of leave granted, a regularly appointed officer or em- 
ployee who has rendered continuous, faithful, and satisfactory service for three 
years or more after arrival In the Philippine Islands, shall, upon his retirement 
from the service, be allowed half salary for thirty days in addition to full salary 
for the period which may be granted him as leave of absence under the provi- 
sions of this act ; and if apiwlnted prior to January twelfth, nineteen hundred 
and four, he shall also be furnished transportation from Manila to San Vmn' 
Cisco, or transi)ortation of equal cost to the government by any other route: 
Provided, That such transi)ortatlon must be used within six months after 
retirement from the service. 

Sec. 30. The provisions of this act shall not ajiply to judges of the supreme 
court, the courts of first Instiince, or tlie court of land registration, but their 
leaves of absence and traveling expenses shall be governed by existing law or 
such law as may be hereafter enacted. 

Sec. 31. All si)ecial contracts made with apix)lntees of the Philippine civil 
service prior to the passage of this act shall remain unaffected by the terms 
and provisions of this act. 

Sec. 32. Act numbered five as amended by act numbered forty-seven, section 
two of act numbered seventy -eight, secttlons three and four of act numbered 
one hundred and sixty-seven as amended by sections one and two of act num- 
bered three hundred and six, act uumberetl one hundred and sixty-eight, act 
numbered two hundred and twenty, act numbered three hundred and six, act 
numt)ered five hundred and eighty-nine, and act numbered one thousand and 
seventy-two; act numbered twenty-five as amended by act numbered three 
hundred and one, act numbered three hundred and twenty-nine, act numbered 
five hundred and eighty-eight, and act numbered one thousand and ninety-six ; 
sections one and nineteen of act numbered one hundred and two ; act numbered 
three hundred and ninety-two; act numbered four hundred and eight as 
amended by act numbered eleven hundred and ninety-seven; act numbered six 
hundred and twenty-six ; act numbered one thousand and forty as amended by 
act numbered twelve hundred and seventy-six; act numbered sixteen hundred 
and seven ; act numbered sixteen hundred and seventy-four ; sections three, four, 
five, and six of act numbered sixteen hundred and seventy-nine; and all other 
acts or parts of acts inconsistent with this act ; are hereby repealed : Provided, 
That nothing in this section shall be decerned to revive act numbered eighty or 
any other act repealed by any of the acts herein mentioned. 

Sec. 33. The public good requiring the siwedy enactment of this bill, the 
passage of the same Is hereby expetlited In accordance with section two of 
"An act prescribing the order of procedure hy the Commission in the enactment 
of laws," passed September twenty-sixth, nineteen hundred. 

Sec 34. This act shall take effect on August thirty-first, nineteen hundred and 
seven, and shall be known as the revised civil service act. 

Enacted, August 26, liK)7. 



Opinions of the Attorney-General. 

An officer or employee who is separated from the service for cause loses all rights to 

leave of absence. 

Under sections 2 and 3 of act No. 1040 the granting of leaves of absence 
♦ * * presupposes that the employee's service has been satisfactory. When 
an official has been separated from the service for "cause" he has evidently 
not rendei-ed satisfactory service, and consequently loses all his rights to any 
leave. (Opinion of Apr. 14, 11)04; 382-A.) 



140 HEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Municipal treasurers acting as deputy provincial treasurers aVe not entitled to leave 

of absence. 

Municipal treasurers acting as deputy provincial treasurers are not entitled 
to leave of absence under act No. 1040. Subsection c of section 1 of act No. 
999 provides " the municipal treasurer may also act as a deputy of the pro- 
vincial treasurer and receive such additional compensation therefor, to be paid 
from the provincial fimds, as the provincial board may fix and the treasurer of 
the Philippine Islands approve, anything In existing laws to the contrary not- 
withstanding." 

Under this section a municipal treasurer who Is acting as deputy to the 
provincial treasurer Is employed both by the municipality and the province and 
receives pay from both, devoting a part of his time to his municipal office and a 
part to his provincial office. Such being the case, there are two reasons why 
lie should not be granted leave of absence under act No. 1040. In the first place, 
it is very doubtful If such an employee works for the province the number of 
hours required by section 1 of act No. 1040. In the second place, I think that 
the spirit of subsection / of section 2 of act No. 1040 would apply, which pro- 
vides that persons who receive compensation for official duties performed in 
connection with private business, such duties requiring only a portion of their 
time, shall not be entitled to leave. 

Although It can not be said that the position of municipal treasurer Is strictly 
private business, yet this position is the employee's regular employment, and his 
duties as deputy provincial treasurer are performed In connection with It In 
other words, the lmiK)rtant position Is that of municipal treasurer, and after- 
wards that of provincial deputy. (Opinion of Sept. 7, 1904; 987.) 

Elective officers are not entitled to leave of absence. 

In my Judgment, elective provlncfal officers are not entitled to leave under 
the civil-service or leaves of absence acts. Act No. .5, entitled *' An act for the 
establishment and maintenance of an efficient and honest civil service in the 
Phillpi>lne Islands," section 5, as originally passed, contains the provision that 
said act " shall apply * ♦ ♦ to all appointments of civilians to executive 
])ositlons;" and said section of said act, as amended July IG, 1901, November 
29, 1001, and January 9, 1903, contains the provision that the act " shall apply 
* * * to all apiK)intments of civilians In the bureaus and offices of the gov- 
ernment of the I'hilipplne Islands;" and the other sections of said act No. 5, 
as originallj' passed and as subseciuently amended, refer in many places to the 
entry of persons Into the civil service by appointment, and nowhere to such 
entry by election. 

Act No. 80 is entitled " An act regulating the hours of labor, leaves of absence, 
and transi)ortation of appointees under the Philippine civil service," and relates 
to "employees" in the "offices in the Philippine civil service;" and the same 
is true of said act as amended on January 28, 1902, August 30, 1902, November 
11, 1902, February 27, 1903, April 7, 1903, and May 18, 1903. Act No. 1040, 
repealing act No. 80 and all acts amendatory thereof, and entitled "An act 
regulating the hours of labor, leaves of absence, and transportation of officers 
and employees In the Philippine civil service" ♦ ♦ ♦ expressly provides In 
subsection a of section 2 thereof that "accrued leave of absence" shall be 
granteti " each regularly and permanently api)ointed officer or employee in the 
civil service. Insular or provincial, or of the city of Manila, except as herein- 
after provided;" and the other sections and subsections of said act No. 1040 
refer In many places to the persons to whom said act applies as being those who 
Imve entered the service by appointment. Elective officers are not referred to in 
any of the acts above mentioned, either as originally passed or as amended, in 
any way. I am therefore of the opinion that (to quote from subsection g of sec- 
tion 2 of act No. 1040) "officers and employees of the Philippine civil service, 
whether serving as such by regular apiK)Intment or by detail from the Army, the 
Navy, or the civil service of the United States," and no other persons, are en- 
titled to leaves of absence under said acts. (Opinion of Feb. G, 1904; 3243-1.) 

A person reinstated to the Philippine civil service can not be allowed vacation leave 
prior to the expiration of six months from the date of his reinstatement. 

Section 3 of act No. 1040 jjrovides in part : "After at least six months' c<m- 
tlnuous, faithful, and satisfactory service, the civil governor or pi"oi>er head 



BEPORT OP THE DIRECTOR. OF CIVIL SERVICE. 141 

of a department may, in his discretion, grant each officer or employee entitled 
to the accrued leave provided in section 2 of this act, In addition to such accrued 
leave, vacation leave of absence with full pay." 

Under the provisions of this section, six months' continuous service is plainly 
a condition precedent to the granting of any vacation leave. In the present 
case the employee resigned and thereby severed all his relations with the gov- 
ernment. Tills constitutes a distinct break In his services. Therefore he has 
not rendered six months' continuous service, and no vacation leave can be 
properly granted him until he has done so. 

Subsection c of section 4 of act No. 1040 provides in part : " Payment of sal- 
ary to an officer or employee for any absence during his first six months of 
service, properly chargeable to vacation leave ♦ ♦ ♦ shall be withheld until 
such leave may properly be taken under the provisions of section two or three 
of this act." 

According to this subsection, payment for vacation leave shall be withheld 
until the leave may be pror)erly taken under the above-quoted section 3 of act 
No. 1040. As previously stated, the employee in question can not proi)erly take 
vacation leave until six months after his reinstatement. Therefore, in accord- 
ance with the provisions of said subsection c of section 4, payment must be 
withheld for the vacation leave taken by a duly reinstated employee until six 
months after his reinstatement. (Opinion of Mar. 27, 1905 ; 5647-A.) 

When the resignation of an employee liefore the expiration of two years* service la ac- 
cepted on account of illness, or other cause, no accrued or vacation leave can be 
allowed, nor can a proportional part of traveling expenses and half salary en route to 
the islands from the United States be paid. 

Vacation leave Is granted to employees for the purpose of allowing them to 
recuperate, and always presupposes that the employee Is still in the government 
service. Likewise, the phrase " In cases of resignation, vacation leave shall 
not be allowed In addition to accrued leave " Is a general statement, and as It 
is nowhere modified It covers all cases. Therefore, vacation leave can never 
be granteil on resignation. This, however, does not mean that an employee 
who has been 111 may not charge absences from duty prior to his resignation to 
vacation leave. 

In regard to accrued leave, paragraph a, section 2, of act No. 1040 makes two 
years' continuous, satisfactory service a condition precedent to the granting of 
any accrued leave, but paragraph c of section 4 of the same act modifies this 
condition to the extent that in case of absence during his first two years' service 
due to illness, etc., the civil governor or proper head of a department may 
direct that salary due from such accrued leave need not be withheld. This 
covers only those cases in which the emiUoyee overstays his vacation leave from 
illness. It is Intended as maintenance to an employee who is still in the service, 
but does not provide for commuting leave on resignation for any cause. I am, 
therefore, of the opinion that accrued leave can not be granted before two 
years' service. 

Section 9, paragraph o, of act No. 1040 makes It an absolute condition that 
traveling expenses borne by an employee shall not be refunded until after 
two years of service. There is no provision In the law for any proportional 
payment of any kind. I am therefore of the opinion that such a proportional 
part of traveling expenses and half salary provided by paragraphs a and h of 
section 9 of act No. 1040 can not be paid to r)ersons who have served less than 
two years, no matter what the reason for their resignation. (Opinion of June 
30, 1004; 3235.) 

The thirty days on half pay grante<1 on resignation after three years* service begins at 
the end of accrued leave allowe<l, and leave does not accrue on such thirty days. 
I/eave of absence on half pay for sixty days allowed in connection with leave of 
absence to visit the United states, begins at the expiration of the accrued and vacation 
leave granted. 

In a case where an employee has rendered continuous, faithful, and satisfac- 
tory service for three or more years after arrival In the Philippine Islands 
resigns, and In addition to his regular leave Is granted thirty days on half pay 
while going to the Fnlted States, does leave accumulate on said thirty days? 

It has been held by the dvll-servlco board, and approved by the civil governor, 
that leave does not accrue on such thirty days. 

Do the thirty days above mentioned begin prior to or at the end of accrued 
leave? 



142 KEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

It has also been decided in the same manner as the first question, that siicb 
leave begins at the end of the accrued leave. 

The further question is raised by the letter of the auditor of August 22, 
inclosed herein, as to when the sixty days allowed by section 2, paragraph e, of 
act No. 1040 should be charged. 

It has also apparently been held by the civil-service board, and approved by 
the governor, that said sixty days are allowed at the end of vacation and accrued 
leave. It is my opinion that all of these rulings are final and are supported by 
the spirit and letter of the law ; hence there is no need for a further discussion 
of same. (Opinion of Oct. 20, 1904 ; 3258.) 

An employee appointed In the Fnlted states doeB iioi earn accrued leave during the period 
of travel from San Francisco to Manila. 

The question submitted in the within papers Is as follows: Does an employee 
appointed in the Ignited States under the provisions of act No. 1040 earn accrued 
leave during the period of travel from San Francisco to Manila? 

As a general rule, all employees from the United States are provisionally 
appointed there and their apiwlntnient made final uixm arriving in the islands. 
The exact facts are not set out in the within paper, but it is presumed that such 
Is the present case. Paragraph a of section 2 of act No. 1040 provides that 
"permanently" appointed employees are entitled to accrued leave. Until the 
employee arrives in the Islands he is not such a permanent employee, but is a 
provisional employee. Therefore, under the provisions of this section the em- 
ployee would not be entitled to have accrued leave while en route from San 
Francisco to Manila. 

Also section 5 of Rule V provides : " If the eligible was provisionally Ap- 
pointed In the United States, his regular api>ointment will be effective the day 
following the date of his actual landing in the Philippine Islands, provided he 
reports immediately at the office of the board, and leave shall not accrue prior 
to date of regular apiwintment." These rules were promulgated by the gov- 
ernor-general and within their scope are binding on all officials. 

As the above section. In accordance with the provisions of act No. 1040, pro- 
vides that leave does not accrue until after a regular apiwlntment In the Islands, 
no leave should accumulate while the emi)loyee is on route. (Opinion of Mar. 
23,1905.) 

Payment for leave of alwence of nn officer or employee who has served in more than one 
bureau or office during? the period for which leave is allowed should he made for the 
entire leave taken from the funds of the bureau or office In which he Is serving at the 
time the leave Is granted. 

I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of the inclosed papers relating to the 
commutation of the accrued leave of George N. Ilurd, assistant attorney in this 
office. Unquestionably In e<iuity the grejiter part of this accrued leave should 
be paid by the city of Manila, in whose service Mr. -Ilurd was at the time the 
same was earned. However, the provisions of act No. 1040 and the imiform 
ruling of the auditor's office would seem to re<iulre that the same be paid by the 
bureau of justice. Act No. 1040, section (>, specifically provides that up<Mi the 
resignation or death of an officer or employee, payment for the accrued leave 
shall be made from the salary appropriated for the ix>sltlon- last fllU»d by him. 
It is true that Mr. Ilurd is still living, and has not resigned, but In all reason 
this accrued leave should come from the same fund as In the case of his death 
or resignation. 

In this connection attention Is called to the fact that at the time of the passage 
of act No. 1040 the recorder of the Commission was histructed to prepare an 
act providing that accrued leave should be paid pro rata hy the departments 
where the same was eariUHl. The bill was prepared, but at the earnest solicita- 
tion of the auditor and of the chairman of the civil-service board It was aban- 
doned. 

The reasons stated by the civll-servico board f(u* Its objection to the proposed 
measure were as follows : " The board concurs with the auditor in opposing a 
pro rata division of leaves, believing with him that upon the transfer of an 
officer' or employee all obligations in the way of leaves of absence should be 
assumed by the bureau, province, or city to which transfer Is made. As stated 
by the auditor, payments of salary on account of leave would eventually be 
approximately e(iualized, and the assuming of all obligations for leave by the 
bureau, province, or city to which transfer is made would tend to prevent trans- 
fers except where the transfer is made on account of the special fitness of the 
officer or employee for the position to be filled." 



REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF CIVIL SERVICE. 148 

The uniform rulings of the civil-service board and of the auditor since the 
passafire of act No. 1040, so far as I have been able to obtain them, have been to 
retiuire the bureau in which the applicant is employed at the time the leave is 
granted to pay the same. This ruling Is manifestly in accordance with the law, 
and it would seem that even If the law did not require It that it would be 
inequitable at this date to change it, and that less injustice would be done by 
following the rule than by abandoning It. 

I am therefore of the opinion that the accrued leave of Mr. Hurd should be 
jMxld by the bureau of justice. (Opinion of June 19, 1005. Concurred in by the 
acting auditor, June 23. lfX>5; 5133-A.) 

The cIvlI-Bervlce board has authority to require eligibility In an appropriate examination 
88 a condition precedent to Increase in salary of a classified employee without an 
examination status. 

Section 4 of act No. 5 provides in part : " The board shall preimre rules 
adaiited to carry out the purpose of this act," etc. 

'•Paragraph v of section of act No, 5 as amended provides:** The rules to 
be prepared and certified by tJie board shall provide ♦ ♦ • for comi>etltlve 
or noncompetitive promotion examinations, as tlie board shall determine.' 

** In pursuance of sjild section 4 the rules of the clvll-service board have been 
promulgated annually since 1001. Section 1 of said rules says: * The board shall 
have authority to prescribe such regulations in pursuance of and in execution 
of these rules and of the civU-servlce act as may not be inconsistent therewith,' " 

The distinction, therefore, must be clearly kept in mind between the rules to 
be i)rei)ared by the board and promulgateil by the governor-general under the 
authority of act No. 5, and tlie regulations to be prepared and promulgated by 
the civil-service board under autliority of the rules. In raising this question 
the distinction between the "rules" and ''regulations" was confused, and I 
tliink this is resi)onslble for the ditliculty. The exact language used was as 
follows: "A question arises whether the board has lawful authority to Impose 
any promotion test i)endlng the adoption of the regulations authorized by sec- 
tin 6, i>aragraph c, supra, of the clvH-servlce act. The i)ower to adopt promo- 
tion regulations is esi»eclally conferred by tlie section and paragraph quoted. 
But what law authorizes the board to exact promotion tests i)endlng the adop- 
tion of such regulations? Is this not exercising a iwwer before it accrues?" 

Or, In other words, the adoption of the regulations mentioned is a condition 
precedent to any promotion test. 

However, said paragraph r, section 6, does not provide for the promulgation 
of regulations, but for the promulgation of rules. Section of Ilule IX was so 
iiromulgated, and provides: 

" Until the promotion regulations herein authorized have been promulgated 
by the board for any de|)artmeut, bureau, office, or branch of the stn'vice, and 
the board has notifieil such department, bureau, office, or branch of the service 
that it Is prepared to conduct the promotion examinations authorized under 
the civil-^rvice act and rules, promotions therein may l)e made upon any 
tests of fitness not disjipprovetl by the board which may be determined upon 
by the api)ointiug officer: Provided, That i)ending the adoption of such regu- 
lations, in case of proposed promotion from one class to another class of 
an employee who has not entered the service through the examination pre- 
scribed for the class to which promotion is proiK)sed, such emi)loyee shall 
be required to obtain an eligible rating in such prescribeil examination taken 
noncomiKititively, and the ai)iK)lntment by i)romotion thus made shall not 
become effective prior to the date of taking the examination in which an 
eligible rating is obtained." 

Under this section, the governor-general has specifically authorized the 
civil-service board to hold noncomi>etltlve examinations for promotion from 
one class to another of employees who enter the service without examination, 
and did not place any condition precedent upon this authority. The board 
then had authority to act inuuediately ui)ou the promulgation of the rule 
regardless of regulations. The regulations referred to in said rule are not 
such a condition precedent and have apparently been confused with the rule 
itself. 

I am therefore of the opinion that the civil-service board clearly has the 
authority to exact a i)romotion test from an employee who entered the service 
without examination l>efore that employee may be promoted in salary. (Opin- 
ion of May 26, 1006; 2058.) 



144 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Resolutions of the Philippine C!om mission. 

An employee must have served three full years or more. Irrespective of any accrued leave 
that may be due him, before becoming entitled to the privileges of subsection (d), sec- 
tion 29 of act No. 1698. 

The true construction of paragraph 4 of section 4 of act No. 80, as amended 
[now subsection (rf), section 29 of act No. 1698], requires that an employee in 
the Philippine civil service must have served three full years or more after 
the passage of the civil-service act, irrespective of the time of his accrued 
leave of absence, before he becomes entitled to be furnished with transportation 
from Manila to San Francisco and half salary for thirty days in addition to full 
salary for the i)eriod to which he may be entitled as leave of absence. (Reso- 
lution of November 10, 1903; 4069.) 

Transportation due under subsection (c7), section 29 of act No. 1698, must be used within 
six months after date of separation from the service or It is forfeited ; if an employee 
desires to return to the United States via Europe, commutatioA of the value of such 
transportation may be made. 

By the provisions of act No. 80 it was not contemplated that an employee of 
the civil government who had rendered faithful and continuous service for three 
years or more should be permitted to commute his transportation in the event 
that he did not intend to return to the United States, but that he was to receive 
passage in kind. Act No. 1040 permits him to receive the cost of transportation 
by any other route to the extent that it would cost the Government to furnish 
him direct transi)ortation from Manila to San Francisco. As it is desirable to 
establish a fixed rule as to the time within which applications for return trans- 
IK)rtatlon may be made. It is hereby directed that such applications must be 
filed within six months after the resignation of the employee entitled to such 
traiisiwrtatlon. In the event the officer or employee resigning after service of 
three years or more desires to return to the United States via Europe, the 
executive secretary is authorized to make arrangements for his transportation 
uiKMi the payment by the ofllcer or employee concerned of the diflPerence between 
the cost of transportation which would have to be furnished by the insular 
government from Manila to San Francisco and the cost of the transportation by 
the desired route. (Resolution of Februai-y 14, 1905; 4622.) 

Ori^lual appointments or promotions dependent upon an appropriation act shall not he 
made effective prior to the date of passage of the appropriation act ; save In exceptional 
cases, appointments and promotions shall not be retroactive. 

In all cases in which the salary of a position is increased or a new position 
created by an appropriation act, api)oiutment to such new position or increased 
salary shall not be of date prior to the date of the passage of the appropriation 
net, or such other date as may have been fixed si)eclflcally by law or resolution 
of the Philipphie Commission for the increase in salary or the creation of the 
new iwsitlon, as the case may be. 

Aside from exceptional cases, apimlntment shall not be effective as of date 
prior to that uixm which the appointment or promotion is actually made. (Reso- 
lution of July 27, 1906; 11953.) 

Ed'dminaiUm requirements relating to appointment and promotion, 

'rhii..i ,r,.o,i« i,^nfTii«i, f Probation a 1 appointments and promotions as a result of eligibility 
Th rH^rl^MP* J?mfnu»\"'1 *" ^^^^^^^ of these examinations shall not bo made to positions 
I nira ^,rn(ie. wpani8n___^ ^j^^ salary or compensation of which Is above 'Class J. 

«s,w.*^iwi crr-iii.. *4n,.ni«h | I'robatloual appointments and promotions as a result of eligibility 
Junior tvnowrltE? 1 '" ^^^^her of these examinations shall not be made to positions 

juniorupowriier 1 ^^^ salary or compensation of which Is above Class K. 

Probatlonal appointments as a result of eligibility In any of theso 
examinations shall not be mado to positions the salary or com- 



Second grade. Kngll8h__ 

First grade. Spanish 

.lunlor translator ' 

Junior Interpreter 



ppnsatlon of which Is above tho minimum of Clas.s I); promo- 
tions shall not bo made to positions the salary or compensation 
of which Is above Class A. The basic subjects of the Junior 
translator examination and the Junior Interpreter examination 
are given In English only, and promotions as a result of eligi- 
bility In either of these examinations with basic subjects in 
Spanish shall not bo made to positions the salary or compensa- 
tlon of which Is above Class E. 

{Probatlonal appointments and promotions as a result of eligibility 
In this examination shall not be made to position^ the salary 
or compensation of which is above Class A. 



BBPORT OF THE DIBSCTOB OF CIVIL 8SBVI0E. 



145 



Interpreter- 



fProbi 
J to 
[ or 



(Probatlonal appointmenta and promotlona aa a result of ellglblUty 
to this examination shall not be made to positions the salary 
or oompensatlon of which is above Class lo. 



First grade, English 

Assistant 

Teacher 

Booklceeper 

Stenographer 

Translator 



Probatioaal appointments and promotions above Class 10 require 
eligibility ' in one of these examinations, or in an equivalent 
examination. 



The basic subjects of the translator examination and the interpreter examination are 
given in Bnglish only, and promotions as a result of ellgibiiitv in either of these examina- 
tions taken with basic subjects in Spanish shall not be made to positions the salary ox 
compensation of which is above Class 10. 

Recapitulation of examinations,^ 





For original appoint- 
ment. 


For promotion or 
transfer. 


Total. 




Num- 
ber 

exam- 
ined. 


Num- 

ber 

passed. 


Per 

eent 

passed. 


Num- 
ber 
exam- 
ined. 


Num- 
ber 
passed. 


Per 

eent 

passed. 


Num- 
ber 
exam- 
ined. 


Num- 
ber 
passed. 


Per 

cent 
passed. 


During the year: 

English 

Spanish ^ 


8.847 
1,534 


820 
583 


24 
38 


873 
829 


188 
92 


36 
28 


3,720 
1,863 


053 
675 


26 
86 


T<>tal 


4,881 


i.4fn 


29 


702 


225 


5,588 


1,628 


29 


Previously examined: 
English 

Spanish - 






10.800 
13,388 


4,454 
6,222 


41 
46 


2.796 
2.108 


1.357 
853 


49 
41 


13,686 
15.489 


5,811 
7.075 


42 
46 


Total 




24,276 


10,676 

5,274 
6,805 


44 


4.899 


2.210 


45 


29,175 


12,880 


44 


Total English 

Total Spanish.. . 


14,237 
14,920 


37 
46 


8.169 
2.432 


1.490 
• Wo 


47 
39 


17,406 
17.352 


6.764 
7,750 


39 
45 






Grand total 


29,157 


12,0?0 


41 


5,601 


2.435 


43 


34,758 


14.514 


42 



• The report in detail as to examinations held, number examined, etc., has been omitted 
and is on file in tbe Bureau of Insular Affairs, War Department. 

Recapitulation of appointments made in the Philippine classified civU service 
during the year ended June 30, 1907,^ 



Nature of appointment. 



During the year: 

Originai, in Philippine Islands 

Through changes in the service — 

Original, in the United States _. 

By transfer from the United States classified civil service.. 
By reinstatement in the United States 



Total 

Previously appointed- 



Grand total — 



From 
English 
registers. 



Prom 
Spanish 
registers. 



824 

1.417 

184 

3 

16 



1,944 
9,777 



11,721 



1,642 



1,868 
7,443 



9,311 



Total. 



550 

3.060 

184 

3 

16 



3,812 
17,220 



21.082 



• The details of these reports have been omitted and are on file in the Bureau of Insular 
Affairs. War Department. 



11024— WAB 1007— VOL 7- 



-10 



146 



KBPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Recapitulation of appointments made in the United States civil service in the 
Philippine Islands upon certification hy the bureau of civil service during the 
fiscal year ended June SO, 1907, 



Position. 



1 Number. 



ORIOINAIi. 



Butcher 

Clerk 

Engineer, chief 

Hate 

Messenger 

Pack master 

Stenographer 

8 torekeeper 

Storeman 



Total original 

By promotion, transfer, or reinstatement. 



Grand totaL. 



1 

36 
1 
2 

16 

1 
1 
3 
3 



64 
13 



77 



Table showing the number of Americans and Filipinos in the Philippine civil 
service on January i, 1907, and the salaries paid,^ 



Position. 


Salary. 


Number of — 


Salaries of— 


Americans. 


Filipinos. 


Americans. 


Filipinos. 


Class 1 


rsO.OOQ 
24,000 
21,000 
20.000 
15.000 
14,000 
12,000 
11,000 
10,000 
9.000 
8,500 
8,000 
7,500 
7,200 
7,000 
6,500 
6,000 
5.500 
5,400 
5,200 
5,000 
4,900 
4,800 
4.600 
4,500 
4,400 
4,200 
4,060 
4,000 
3,960 
3,900 
3,620 
3,600 
3,500 
3,400 
3,300 
3,200 
3.120 
8.000 
2,800 
2.7IJO 
2,760 
2,710 
2,700 
2,610 
2,600 
2,520 
2,100 


1 
1 
3 
4 
1 
2 
9 
2 
16 
11 
1 
11 

? 

8 
5 
27 
11 
2 
1 





P-30,000 
24,000 
63,000 
80.000 
15,000 
28.000 

108.000 
22.000 

160.000 
99.000 
8.500 
88.000 
45,000 
7.200 
56,000 
32,500 

162,000 
OO.fKX) 
10.800 
5.200 

220,000 
















3 


rdo.ooo 










1 
1 
9 
5 


12.000 
11,000 
90,000 
45,000 






















1 


7.000 


Class 2 


7 


42.000 


Class 3.. 











Olasff 4 


11 

1 
1 

1 
5 


55.000 
4.900 




8 


38,400 


4.800 
4.600 


Class 5__ 


1 

2 

1 
109 

1 
1 

188" 

2 
10 

1 
240 

1 
81 
343 

1 

1 

.. 

1 
117 

2 
590 


2-)2.000 
8.800 
8,400 
4.0(30 

436.000 
3.9:10 
3,900 


22,600 














Class 6 _ _ 


15 


60,000 








1 

8 


3,620 


Class 7 


676,800 

7.000 

31,000 

3.300 

708.000 
3.120 

213.000 

960.400 
2,790 
2,760 


28.800 




1 


3,400 


Class S 


14 


44.800 


Class 9 


15 
21 


45.000 
58,800 










1 
5 
.. 

--- 


2,740 




10.800 

2.610 

304,200 

5.(M0 

1,416,000 


13.500 




5.200 

iiCioo 



•A lar;;e number of tables showing this information in detail have been omitted and 
are on file in the Bureau ot Insular Affairs, War Department. 



BEPOBT OF THE DIBECTOR OF CIVIL 8EBVICE. 



147 



Table 8h(HDinff the number of Americans and Filipinos in the Philippine civU 
service on January i, 1907, and the salaries paid — (Continued. 



Pooftlon. 


Salary. 


Number of — 


Salaries of- 


Americans. 


Filipinos. 


Americans. 


FnipInoB. 


daw 10- ^ 


^2,300 

2,280 

2,200 

2,160 

2,060 

2,040 

2,000 

1,992 

1.920 

1,800 

1,680 

1,600 

1,560 

^.-iOO 

1,440 

1,420 

1,400 

1,320 

1,300 

1,200 

1,188 

1,100 

1.080 

1.060 

1.020 

1.000 

960 

972 

960 

WO 

920 

916 

900 


2 

137 

89 

53 

_-. 

159 

1 

1 

152 

16 


1 
2 
16 


^4.600 

812.360 
193,800 
114,480 


M.800 
4,660 
35,200 




1 


2,080 




38,760 
318,000 
1,992 
1,920 
273,600 
20.880 




OlaasA 


21 


12,000 


Olaiw B . . 


i 

66 
8 


1,920 

118.800 

40,320 


ClasB 0-.- 


12,800 




2 


3,120 








1 
63 

1 
4 


1,500 


Clam J>. 


27 


38,880 


90,720 
1,420 
6,600 












8 




10.560 






1 




1,300 


dan E- _ 


10 


175 
1 
2 
84 


12,000 


210.000 
1 188 








2,200 








90,720 


OlaosF _ 


1 
2 
7 
3 
1 
199 
5 
1 
1 

2 

I 

242 




1 060 






. 


2.040 








7.000 









2,940 




- 


972 


OlnmO, 


2 


1.920 


191,040 
4.700 






920 






916 








56,700 




888 
880 
864 
a52 
840 
836 
824 
816 
800 
792 







888 







1,760 






864 








1,704 




- 




206,280 


OlanH. 


1 
6 
5 
16 




836 








4,120 









4.060 






12,800 






1 


792 




780 
760 
744 
732 
720 
714 
700 
696 
690 
680 
660 
648 
640 
616 
612 
600 
599 
594 
592 
588 
580 




20 
2 

4 

2 

565 

1 




16,600 








1,520 






T 


2,976 






1.464 


Olan T 


1 


720 


406.800 
714 






1 


4.900 







696 






1 

1 

55 
1 
4 
1 
1 
390 
3 
1 
2 




690 








680 




. 




36.300 






648 






2,560 









616 

612 


OlauJ _.. 


2 


1,200 


239.400 
1,797 






594 








1,184 






3 


1.764 






18 
5 
2 

• ,1 

32 
2 
1 
2 




10,410 




576 




2,880 




560 
550 
544 
540 






1.120 








2.200 






9,792 






. 


17.280 




534 
532 
528 
525 






1.068 








532 




- -- 


■ 


i.orio 

1.0)0 
1.044 
10.400 
1.032 
2.520 




2 

i 

2 
5 
6 






522 
520 
516 
604 
500 




























1 3.000 



148 



BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Table 8hau>ing the number of Americana and Filipivioa in the PhUifn^ine oivU 
service on January J, iJW7, and the Balariea paid — Ck>ntlnued. 



Position. 


Satary. 


Nmnber ol-' 


Salaries of— 


Amerfcazus. 


POlpinos. 


Americans. 


Pillplnoa. 


OlM8 J 


^4«6 
492 
49B 
480 
475 
472 
4&> 
456 
450 
444 
432 
490 
406 
400 
896 
890 
384 
875 
872 
860 
350 
848 
836 
33a 
824 
820 
818 
80O 
288 
276 
2S2 
240 
228 
225 
216 
204 
200 
192 
180 
174 
160 
160 
144 
185 
120 
108 
100 


i 1 ! 11 ! ! i ! I I 1 ! I ! ! I 
1 1 ! ! ! 1 ! ! ! ! ! ; ; i ! ! 
; ! I 1 I 1 I ! 1 1 ! ! 1 I ! ! 
I 1 1 1 1 i ; M 1 1 1 I J 1 M 


8 
2 
3 




Th 488 






964 






1.458 




500 

1 
2 

a 

6 
7 
8 
8 
67 
6 
22 
10 
3 




210,000 


OlaM K -^ 





475 






944 







920 
2,788 
3,150 






3.552 







3.456 
28.140 






2.448 






8.80O 






3.900 
1.170 




8 
2 
11 
211 
2 
1 




1,152 






750 


• 






4.092 




8 


*»1,080 


75,1)00 
700 
348 






8 
1 
1 
3 
1 

83 
2 
1 

16 
128 
5 
1 
3 




2,688 




"iniirii 




3S0 




""IIIIIIII 


324 

9W 
318 






26,400 










576 






276 






4.032 




2 


480 


30.720 
1,140 






225 






648 







1 
8 
2 

79 
1 
2 
2 
3 
1 
233 

I 




204 






1.600 






384 




5 


900 


14.220 
174 










320 
300 






432 








135 




4 


480 


27.960 
756 









100 










Total 





2,616 


8»902 1 7.860,242 


3.234. 4IM 



^OTE. — The revised civil service rules to be inaerted when approved have not been 
received at the time of going to press. 



EXHIBIT NO. 2. 

SEPOBT OF THE EZECTTTIVE SECKETABT. 

Manila, P. I,, October 20, 1907. 
Sib : I have the honor to submit the following report covering, except where 
otherwise stated, the fiscal year ended June 30, 1907. 

BUBBAU PEB80NNBL. 

The organization of the bureau has been somewhat modified during the year, 
as will appear more at length under the caption " The law division." 
During the year there have been the following changes in the office force: 



Americans. 



Filipinos. 



Probatlooal or regular appointments.. 

Temporary appointments _. 

Transfers to bureau 

Belnatatenient. 




4 

31 
7 
1 



Total additions to force.. 



43 



Reeignatlons 

Temporary employment no longer required. 

Transfers from bureau 

Removals* _ „. 

Dropped from rolls, unexplained absence.. . 




10 

4 
3 
1 



Total separations.. 



20 



27 



• The 3 Filipinos who were removed from the service were aU roesaengers. 

In addition to the separations above set forth, 7 private secretaries to the 
Commissioners were, by act No. 1527, eliminated from the bureau appropriation, 
and are now carried under the appropriations made for "Executive" and 
" Phi1ipi)ine Ck)mmls8ion." 

The personnel of the bureau on June 30, 1907, consisted of H officials, super- 
visor of land assessments, recorder of the Commission, C chiefs of division, 1 
assistant chief of division, 97 clerks, 34 messengers, 2 special employees, Janitor, 
watchman, and 14 laborers, a total of 161. Of the bureau force there are 31 
Americans and 00 Filipinos classified as clerks. The total force of the bureau, 
including officials, comprises 43 Americans and 118 Filipinos. 



INSTABILITY OF THE SERVICE. 

For several years I have commented upon the unsettled condition of the 
service in this bureau and throughout the civil service generally. There is little 
to add as to the causes of this condition, but it is noteworthy that matters do 
not seem to be improving. The director of civil service informs me that during 
the fiscal year there were 500 voluntary separations from the service by Ameri- 
cans, of whom 100 were college graduates. While it is probable that not all of 
these places were refilled with Americans, a large proiK)rtion must have been, 
and when the exijense of getting and bringing out new men, and of training 
them to their new work is considered, the wastefulness of the present system Is 
evident. 

The Secretary of War has advocated the allowance of retirement jjensions to 
those employees who shall have continued in the service a certain number of 

149 



150 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

years, and a bill to carry out his suggestion will soon be introduced in the legis- 
lature. There is no doubt that proper provision for the support during their 
declining years of servants who have worn themselves out in the service will 
do much to remedy matters. 

CONVTINTION OF PROVINCIAL GOVEBNOBS. 

When the Secretary of War visited Manila in August, 1905, he conferred with 
a number of provincial governors present in the city to greet him, upon many 
subjects relating to provincial administration. The governors recommended an 
annual assembly of the heads of provincial governments in Manila to discuss 
matters of importance and interest to the provinces. The Secretary of War 
favored the proposition. 

About one month prior to the inauguration of Governor-General Smith 
(September 20, 1906), Governor George Curry, of Samar, suggested by wire to 
Governor-General Ide the advisability of holding the first convention on that 
occasion. « Governor-General Ide replied that the amount of work on hand at- 
tending the change of administration would render it impossible to give atten- 
tion to the matter. 

On the day following Governor-General Smith's inauguration the subject was 
again broached by a delegation of provincial governors while paying their 
respects to him. On September 22, 1906, the governor-general telegraphically 
advised all provincial governors that the convention would be held in Manila 
on October 1, and that, if conditions warranted, they were authorized to absent 
themselves from their provinces in order to attend. 

The convention was called to order in the office of the vice-governor at the 
ayuntamiento at 9 o'clock on the morning of October 1, by the executive secre- 
tary, 17 provinces being represented, as follows : Albay, Bataan, Batangas, Bula- 
can, Capi^, Cavite, Cebu, Hollo, La Laguna, Leyte, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, 
Occidental Negros, Pampanga, Samar, Tarlac, and Tayabas. 

The executive secretary addressed the convention, stating the purposes for 
which it had been called to be to confer on economical and industrial condi- 
tions, and to consider the proposed election law and related matters; the con- 
struction of roads; financial condition of provincial governments; the land 
tax ; relations to the constabulary, and necessity for economy in municipal ex- 
penses and other matters. He said that what the insular government especially 
desired were the views and recommendations of the members of the convention 
upon the construction and maiutenance of roads incidental to the adoption and 
operation of the road law, especially such amendments as would make it opera- 
tive for two years. Light was sought ui3on the economical and industrial con- 
ditions of each province, and general recommendations as to what legislation, 
either Congressional or insular, would aid in improving such conditions. Inci- 
dental to this latter question the opinions of the governors were solicited as tb 
the financial condition of each municipality, as to the amount of the indebted- 
ness of the haciendas in each province, and as to the areas in cultivation at the 
time as compared with those in 1896. It was hoped that attention would be 
given to organizing in the various provinces of committees, to act in conjunc- 
tion with a committee in Manila, for the purpose of aiding and assisting in 
securing a modification of the tariff in the United States. The subject of im- 
provement in sanitary conditions and the best method of disseminating informa- 
tion among the peoi)le on sanitary matters was suggested as of paramount 
Interest. Finally the governors were invited to discuss the advisability of 
forming a permanent organization to meet once a year, irresi)ectlve of the fact 
that the Philippine assembly would also meet each year, and to reach a con- 
clusion as to the best time to hold the convention. 

The convention then proceeded to the election of officers. Sefior Sergio 
Osmefla, provincial governor of Cebu, was elected chairman and Seflor Gre- 
gorlo Nleva, of the staff of the executive bureau, secretary. After the organiza- 
tion had been effected by the election of these officers the governor-general 
was invited to address the convention, which he did by welcoming the members 
to Manila, placing all governmental facilities at their disposition, and expressing 
Ills confidence that their dein)eratlon8 would be such as to "harmonize with the 
Importance of the matters submitted to them for discussion, to justify their 
being called together, and to commend to Congress and the Government any 
measures they might adopt. The convention then entered upon the discussion 
of matters relating to its internal regime. 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 151 

Additional goveniors arrived later on the same day, and by the end of the 
fourth day the membership of the convention had swelled to 29, by representa- 
tion of the provinces of Ambos Camarines, Benguet, Bohol, I locos Norte, Ilocos 
Sur, I^ Union, Mindoro, Mlsamls, Pangasinan, Rizal, Sorsogon, and Surigao. 

Daily meetings were held for three weeks and the greatest Interest shown in 
the subjects treated. The convention adjourned October 22, meriting from the 
governor-general the encomiums set forth in the following document : 

I^xECuifVE Order,! The Government of the Philippine Islands, 

No. 40. / Executive Bureau, Manila, October 23, 1906. 

The thanks of this government are hereby tendered to the provincial 
governors, 29 in number, who at great personal inconvenience and sacrifice 
have attended the recent convention of governors in Manila, for their assiduity 
In the arduous work of dealing with the more than 70 questions of great public 
Importance which were submitted to the convention for discussion and recom- 
mendation, for the ability and acumen shown in the discussion and recommen- 
dations made, and for the public and unselfish spirit manifested. The con- 
vention has proved a valuable adjunct to the government as well as a benefit 
to the provinces represented. 

I hereby designate and appoint Governors Sergio Osmefia, of Cebu; Manuel 
Quezon, of Tayabas, and Jaime C. de Veyra, of Leyte, a committee, to remain 
in Manila until further orders, for the purpose of compiling the resolutions 
of the assembly and arranging them in proper and convenient form for consid- 
eration by the Philippine Commission, and for the further purpose of consulta- 
tion .with the latter body when needed to elucidate and explain questions 
which may arise In the Interpretation and consideration of said resolutions. 

James F. Smith, 
Oovemor-G encral. 

The committee named in the above order remained In Manila for some time 
engaged In the discharge of the duties assigned to It, and Its members appeared 
before the Philippine Commission during the debates on the proposed election 
law. This committee, however, has not filed any formal report up to this time, 
except on the proposed election law, and hence I am unable to give any exten- 
sive record of the work and recommendations of the convention. Several of 
the amendments to the law named, suggested by the convention, were accepted 
by the Commission, and form part of It as finally enacted; others could not 
be accepted, as they related to portions of that law taken bodily from the act 
of Congress of July 1, 1902, and hence only amendable by that body. Other 
recommendations of the convention of provincial governors are mentioned 
under the next subhead. 

PROVINCIAL AFFAIRS. 

The changes which have occurred during the year in the relations between 
this office and the provincial governments have been wholly along the line of 
Increased autonomy and corresponding responsibility of those governments. 

Doubtless the most radical step which has been taken in this regard since 
the establishment of the civil regime was the enactment by the Commission 
on October 20, 1906, of an amendment to the provincial government act provid- 
ing that after the next provincial elections the majority of the board should 
become elective Instead of appointive, as heretofore. 

Upon the establishment of provincial governments In 1901 the board com- 
prised: (1) The provincial governor, elected for a term of t\N-o years by the 
mimlclpnl vice-presidents and councilors in convention; (2) the provincial 
treasurer, and (3) the provincial sui)ervlsor (engineer), both of the latter 
being appointed by the governor-general with the approval of the Commission. 
Upon the assumption by the bureau of public works, through its district engi- 
neers, of the purely engineering duties of the provincial supervisor, and the 
abolition of the latter position, October 4, 1905, provision was made for filling 
the vacancy thus caused on provincial boards by the appointment of the division 
superintendent of schools to perform the duties of member of the provincial 
board in addition to his regular duties as the provincial representative of the 
bureau of education. This arrangement was eminently satisfactory in practice 
in many cases. However, there was a general feeling that because of the 
considerable amount of time required by the necessarily rather frequent ses- 



152 EEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

slons of proTincial boards, as well as for other reasons, the duties of the 
division superintendent and of member of the provincial board were, if not 
incompatible, at least a combination of doubtful wisdom under existing condi- 
tions. The necessity for the application of disciplinary measures by provincial 
boards in the supervisory control of municipal officials tended to prejudice, 
sometimes quite seriously, the efficiency of the division superintendent in his 
work of popularizing our public school system. Furthermore, the offices of 
provincial treasurer and division superintendent of schools, being filled by 
Americans, resulted In all cases In placing upon provincial boards a majority 
not only of appointive officers, but of Americans, and therefore it followed that 
there was little popular interest In the administration. The matter of changing 
the provincial board organization so that it might have an elective majority 
had been the subject of more or less discussion almost from the beginning of 
the present government and it naturally was one of the first subjects that 
claimed the attention of the convention of provincial governors. 

After discussing the matter, this convention recommended to the governor- 
general the enactment of the amendment above referred to (act No. 1545), 
which provides in substance that provincial boards should comprise: (1) The 
provincial governor, elected; (2) the provincial treasurer, appointed by the 
governor-general, and (3) a third member, who shall be appointed by the 
governor-general until the next regular provincial election at which a suc- 
cessor might be chosen, qualify, and take office at the same time as the suc- 
cessor to the provincial governor should be elected and assume office. It was 
further provided that no election shall be held for third member of the pro- 
vincial board when, in the opinion of the govenior-general, such action might 
be necessary and advisable for the public interest, and that should the gov- 
ernor-general decline to confirm the i^erson elected, he shall order a new elec- 
tion, and should he decline to confirm the person elected at the second election 
he shall, with the consent of the Philippine Commission, appoint some suitable 
person, who shall be a citizen of the United States or of the Philippine Islands, 
resident in the Philippine Islands, to the position. It was also provided that 
by unanimous resolution of the provincial board setting forth the grounds 
upon which it is adopted, when approved by the governor-general, the third 
member may be required to perform the duties of provincial treasurer, or 
any ministerial duty required by the board. The investigation of the charges 
against municipal officials, and other investigations coming within the purview 
of provincial boards, was the object of this latter provision. As compensation, 
the third member Is allowed such per diem of not less than ?^ nor more than 
yi5 for each day of actual attendance, as the provincial board may fix. The 
rates which have been fixed vary greatly. In some cases the minimum named 
in the law has been adopted ; In others, the maximum, and in some, a medium 
rate. The expenses of the office of third member will average about PfiOO i)er 
annum. 

With a view to greater economy in the salary expense of provincial govern- 
ments and to reduce the number of officials, thereby rendering less divided 
official responsibility, upon the recommendation of the convention of provincial 
governors the Commission abolished the office of provincial secretary and trans- 
ferred the duties of the position to the office of the provincial governor, who 
is required to designate one or more emploj'ees of his office to perform the 
duties formerly pertaining to the office of provincial secretary. The resiwnsl- 
blllty for the acts of such employee or employees rests upon the provincial 
governor. The economy resulting from this change amounts to an average of 
about W,000 annually per province. 

Upon recommendation of the convention of provincial governors, the provin- 
cial government act was also amended by authorizing provincial boads : 

(1) To make loans to municipal governments at an Interest not exceeding 
8 per cent per annum, and in amounts, including other Indebtedness of 
municipal governments, not to exceed 5 per cent of the assessed valuation of the 
property within the municipality. 

(2) To provide, in its discretion, for the continuance of regular compensa- 
tion to unclassified employees of the provincial government, including laborers, 
during periods of disability not exceeding ninety days, whenever such em- 
ployees or laborers are Injured in the line of duty ; and to pay from provincial 
funds the necessary expenses of medical attendance, transportation, and hospital 
fees, and in case of death from such injuries, reasonable burial expenses. 

(3) To appropriate moneys pertaining to the provincial road and bridge 
fund, for the purpose of providing and maintaining wharves, piers, and docks, 



REPORT Of THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 158 

In accordance with plans and specifications furnished by the bureau of port 
works, and for removing obstructions to navigation within the limits of the 
Ijpovlnce, and 

(4) To appropriate moneys from any of Its funds, except those the use of 
which Is otherwise specifically fixed by law for other purposes, having In view 
the general welfare of the province and Its Inhabitants, subject to approval 
by the governor-general. 

The occasion for authorizing provincial governments to grant loans, within 
certain limitations, to municipal governments, was the necessity which has 
occurred occasionally to afford such relief In cases where, by reason of public 
calamity or other sufficient cause, temporary monetary assistance is essential to 
avoid a suspension of those branches of the public service which are maintained 
by municipal governments, particularly primary schools and local police. The 
provision for continuing during a limited period the compensation of laborers and 
other similar employees, and their medical and hospital expenses, when Injured 
In line of duty, was necessary In order that the government might make such pro- 
vision as humanity and good administration require for the unfortunate objects of 
not infrequent accidents which occur In connection with the prosecution of public 
works. The authority to expend moneys from the provincial road and bridge 
fund for the purpose of providing and maintaining wharves, piers, and docks, 
and removing obstructions to navigation within the limits of the province, was 
necessary In the public interest in provinces where, by reason of the location 
of cultivated areas, water, rather than land transportation Is now not only 
available and preferred, but because of the toix>graphlcal features of those 
provinces, will so continue for many years. The public interest clearly de- 
manded such authorization, in order that the proceeds of taxation might be 
used for those projects which will give the greatest public benefit and future 
return for expenditure. The authority to appropriate moneys from provincial 
funds for any purpose having In view the general welfare of the province and 
its inhabitants is analogous to the authority granted municipal governments 
u])on their establishment In 1901, and furnishes that factor of elasticity in 
the law which will enable a provincial government lawfully to solve any prob- 
lem within its purview that may present itself, and which It is elementary 
to say may not be foreseen, and hence can not be provided for si)ecifically 
In the law. Ample safeguard against the appropriation of public funds for 
improper purposes is afforded by the requirement that appropriations under 
this authority shall be subject to approval by the governor-general, whose 
prompt action Is assured by the provision that such appropriation will become 
effective. If not disapproved by the governor-general, within thirty days after 
he shall have receive! due notice thereof. In effect, it is the veto power as 
vested under the American system in the executive in^ relation with the legis- 
lative branch of government, 

LARD TAX. 

As stated In the report for the preceding year, the suspension of the land 
tax was continued for the calendar year 1907. It was, however, upon the basis 
of reimbursement to provincial governments from the Insular treasury in an 
amount equal to but 50 per cent of that which might be collected under the 
new assessment. This suspension of the tax for another year was premised 
upon the fact that it would be impossible to complete the new assessment prior 
to some date In the latter half of 1907, and that In a few of the provinces agri- 
cultural conditions were such as to render the continuation of the susi)ension 
necessary In the public Interest; and the further fact that in view of the gen-- 
eral feeling on the part of the property owning class against the land tax It 
seemed wise to allow local governments some practical exiierlence In endeavor- 
ing to conduct their affairs with a reduced revenue. 

As It would be impossible to ascertain the amount of the new assessment In 
each province until some time after July 1, reimbursement was authorized 
during the first half of the year upon the basis of one-half the collections 
actually made during the year 1905, which was the last year the tax was In 
effect, and requiring the auditor, upon receipt of certification of the total as- 
sessed value of each province, to make such adjustment between payments 
previously made and those due during the year as would effect the reimburse- 
ment for the entire year, as stated, at 50 per cent of the amount which might 
be collected upon the new assessment. The effect of the reduced revenue has 
been to cause a number of provincial and municipal governments to request 



154 REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

authority to collect, in addition to tbe reimbursement from the insular govern- 
ment, at least a ix)rtion of the seven-eighths of 1 per cent authorized by the 
provincial and municipal government acts on the assessed value of real estate. 
These requests have been in the majority of cases informal applications for 
information as to the attitude of the Commission uiwn the subject before mak- 
ing formal request for such authorization. But in view of the hoped for 
results through the adoption of the policy of acceding to the requests which 
were at the beginning almost unanimous for suspension, and of the fact 
that it would be of doubtful legality to permit the adoption, even tem- 
porarily, of a system of taxsctlon which might be deemed lacking In uniformity, 
reply was made to all Inquiries that the collection of the land tax or any por- 
tion thereof for the current year would not be authorized. In practically all 
the provinces and municipalities the work of collecting delinquent taxes corre- 
sponding to prior years was taken up, and as a result of active steps, without 
however resorting to the sale or confiscation of real estate, it seems certain that 
before December 31 next, practically the entire delinquent land-tax list In 
every province and municipality will have been cleared up. 

It Is believed that It would be wise to allow the land tax to become effective 
January 1 next, and to authorize provincial governments to suspend it for any 
year when, by reason of general crop failure or for other suflicient cause, the 
public interest seems to demand such action. The proceeds of this tax being 
purely provincial and municipal revenue, it will thus be possible to meet extra- 
ordinary conditions as they occur in Individual provinces without applying the 
same measures alike to provinces in which agricultural conditions are excel- 
lent and to those in which great depression exists. As an illustration of the 
necessity for considering each province Individually and not the entire archi- 
pelago as a whole in determining the matter of enforcing or suspending the 
land tax, the present agricultural conditions afford excellent examples : In the 
provinces of Occidental Negros and Hollo, by reason of the continuance of 
cattle plague, the lack of capital at reasonable rates of Interest, and the Im- 
possibility of bringing the soil under cultivation without ample financial means, 
owing to the landholdlngs being almost universally very large, there is little 
room to question the suspension of the land tax. But in the provinces of Bula- 
can, Ija Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pangaslnan, Tayabas, and many others, the 
abundant rice crops and the unusually high market prices of rice and copra 
have afforded an extraordinary degree of prosperity, and the more intelligent 
and progressive landowners express regret that the land tax is suspended, for, 
as a consequence, but little money Is available for the construction of roads and 
bridges, the necessity of which they recognize to secure cheap transportation 
of their products to market. The vesting of the veto i)ower in the governor- 
general should be ample safeguard against the suspension of the land tax with- 
out due investigation and on Insufliclent grounds. After a careful study this 
office prepared and submitted to the Commission a proposed law covering the 
matter as outlined above, which was enacted September 18, 1907 (act No. 
1713). 

The new assessment of real estate, the beginning of which was mentioned 
In the last annual report of this oflice, was carried out quite satisfactorily, 
considering the many difficulties and obstacles naturally fiowlng from the facts 
that relatively few parcels of land had been carefully surveyed; that In the 
great majority of cases landowners have quite indefinite Ideas as to the area of 
their property; that the majority of parcels of land are held with little or no 
documentary evidence of ownership, and still less correct description of loca- 
tion, the lack of exiierienced or. Indeed, of capable persons In many munici- 
palities for appointment on the local board of assessors, and the great amount 
of time that is consumed In the transmission of correspondence in answer to 
queries and other Incidents of supervision from provincial capitals and^the 
city of Manila of the work In the municipalities. Notwithstanding all these 
difficulties It Is felt that the work was performed even better than 4nlght be 
exiiected under existing conditions, and In the provinces from which final re- 
ports have been received It Is clearly a material Improvement over the previous 
assessment. 

On May 1 the work in all the provinces had reached a i>olnt which permitted 
the central equalizing board to begin Its duties. Its regular sessions were held 
In Manila. Its members visited all the provinces for the purpose of hearing 
appeals from decisions of the provincial boards of tax appeals, and of equal- 
izing assessed values throughout the archipelago as a whole. This board was 
In session until July 31, 1907. The assessment therefore Is now completed, with 



REPORT OP THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 155 

the exception of the readjustment which must be made by provinces In which 
the central equalizing board has ordered an increase or decrease in the values 
fixed by the provincial board of tax appeals. Provincial boards as a rule 
adopted schedules which afford fair valuations, but in a few instances it was 
necessary to reduce or increase somewhat the values fixed. It is of interest to 
know that while there has been a general tendency to lower the rate of assess- 
ment, which was probably excessive in many provinces under the previous 
assessment, yet because of the larger number of parcels of land and the in- 
creased areas reported in many parcels, the total assessed value in many prov- 
inces, if not in the whole archipelago, will be greater than under the previous 
assessment. 

There is Indeed a tendency generally on the part of the people to accept 
the land tax as the most just form of taxation which is at present utilized by 
any government, and as the small property owners and the masses generally 
become enlightened, this sentiment promises to increase, particularly because 
many owners of relatively large haciendas either can not or will not bring 
them under cultivation. While these proprietors of large landed estates are 
the most bitter opponents of the land tax, more particularly because it is 
based upon the capital investment rather than upon the rental value, it is 
safe to say that unless some unexpected social or financial movement occurs 
the popular demand will be for a form of real estate tax which will be directed 
wholly at capital Investment in land. 

INTEREST BEARING DEPOSITS OF PROVINCIAL FUNDS. 

In my last report mention was made of a plan to place excess funds and cur- 
rent balances of provincial treasurers, as far as practicable, upon interest 
bearing deposit with local commercial banks which have qualified as govern- 
ment depositories, with a view to making available for commerce currency 
which otherwise would be held in the safes and vaults of treasury officials 
throughout the islands. It was there stated that apparently at least W,bOO,000 
of such funds might be so deposited. The matter was taken up subsequently 
with the qualified depositories in the city of Manila, having branches in Cebu 
and Iloilo, which are the chief commercial centers of tlie archipelago. Arrange- 
ments were effected by which they would receive these funds in such amounts 
as might be available for fixed deposit at 3^ per cent per annum, and special 
surety bonds covering these deposits were executed. Later the matter was taken 
up with provincial boards and treasurers, and notwithstanding the reduced 
revenues of provincial governments during the year, these deposits reached 
an aggregate sum of ^1,580,050 on June 30, 1907, affording an additional reve- 
nue amounting to ^55,317.50 per annum to the provincial gevemments without 
increasing any of the existing forms of taxation. These deposits will be further 
increased during the ensuing year, and as officials become more familiar with 
the system, by distributing their deix)slts in convenient amounts which will 
mature from time to time during the year, they will be able to reduce their 
cash on hand to a further extent. From present indications these fixed inter- 
est bearing deiwslts will reach an aggregate of not less than 1^*2,000,000 within 
the next few months, and produce a revenue for provincial governments on 
these accounts alone of more than ^70,000 per annum. 

ECONOMIES IN SALARY EXPENSE. 

Under authority of law the positions of provincial fiscal in several provinces 
have been merged by cre;^tlng districts comprising two or more provinces under 
the charge of a district fiscal, and in some instances there has been effected or 
is projected the abolition, temiwrarlly at lepst, of the position of provincial 
fiscal, and the assumption of the duties of the position by the office of the 
attorney-general, whose appropriation will be reimbursed by the province itself 
in such amounts as may represent the actual exi)endlture on account of salaries 
and traveling expenses incident to the service. In this way those provinces 
which do not furnish sufficient work to occui)y the entire time of a fiscal 
will be relieved from the exjiense of paying the salary of such an officer, except 
when service Is actually rendered, and, by utilizing the personnel of the bureau 
of justice, one attorney will be able to attend to the requirements of two or 
more provincial governments, and to perform considerable service to which he 
is regularly liable for assignment as a member of the staff of that bureau. 



156 REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

In this general connection mention may be made of the fact that one of the 
most important problems for solution has been deemed the reduction of the num- 
ber of the officers and employees of the government to the minimum consistent 
with the interest of the public service, and the adjustment of salaries upon such 
a basis that the government may secure as the public Interests demand the best 
available personnel for its service. This matter has received much atten- 
tion and has been the subject of many conferences and much correspondence 
with officials and private persons, not only in Manila, but throughout the 
provinces. The conclusion has been reached that In government service as In 
commercial enterprises it is wholly impracticable to lay down an inviolable 
rule and &cale of salaries. There has accordingly been prepared and submitted 
to the Commission, whose action it awaits, a draft of a proposed act authorizing 
the consolidation of two or more appointive iwsltlons in any branch or branches 
of the government service, the determination of the salary of the new position at 
such rate as may be deemed adequate and Just, provided it shall not exceed 
75 per cent of the salaries of the positions combined, and the subsequent restora- 
tion of one or more of the combined positions to their original status, when such 
action Is, In the discretion of the governor-general, in the public Interest. 
Under this authority it will be iwssible to combine t\^'o or more positions which 
are not Incompatible, and the duties of no one of which require the entire time 
and best efforts of the officials or employees concerned. As an example of the 
action which would be taken if the proposed act be passed. In many of the 
smaller x>rovinces where the duties of clerk of the court of first instance and 
clerk to the provincial governor are not sufficient to occupy the time of two 
emplyees, the positions would be combined at a salary sufficient to secure a 
competent and honest employee and, at the same time, a saving of at least 25 
\>ev cent in the present exiiense. It is believed, although there is a divergency 
of opinion on the subject between Interested officials, that this plan of consoli- 
dation of offices might be carried Into effect with not only economy to the pub- 
lic treasury, but advantage and convenience to the taxpaylng public, by the 
consolidation at each provincial capital and In each municipality outside of the 
city of Manila of all offices concerned In the collection of public funds, with the 
possible exception of the i)osltlon of municipal treasurer in a provincial capi- 
tal. In this manner accountability for public funds would be vested In one 
official In each municipality with corresiwnding reduction in risk of defalca- 
tion, since through the. Increased dignity of the ix)sltlon a more adequate salary 
and higher tyi)e of official could be secured than Is at present possible where, 
by reason of duties being divided between two or more officials, It is impossible 
to pay adequate compensation, although the sum of the salaries paid is mate- 
rially more than sufficient to secure one thoroughly reliable official. 

Under si)eclal provision of law regarding the i>ostal service, and through 
the cooperation of the bureau of posts with this office, the positions of munici- 
pal treasurer and postmaster have been consolidated In a large number of the 
smaller municipalities, with material convenience to the public and some econ- 
omy to the service. It should be proi)osed that this iwllcy be extended to 
Include not only the bureau of posts but all other branches of the insular gov- 
ernment having representatives In the provinces engaged In the collection of 
revenues. Thus at the present time In the town of Cebu, which Is also a i)ort of 
entry, there are locateil a collector of customs at a salary of ^S,000 i)er annum, 
a provincial treasurer at 1Hi,0<X), and a postmaster at 1^^,000, a total of ^17,J)G0 
P(T annum. From Information obtained from representatives of the various 
branches of the service Interested and from others It Is believed that these three 
positions might well be consolldatcHl Into one office under the title of collector of 
revenue, or some other appropriate designation, and the salary of W0,000 per 
annum provided, with a saving of f7,9tX), and the consequent economy of 46 
I)er cent In the salaries now paid these three offices. Further economy could be 
effected through the adjustment of the salaries of certain subordinate Insular 
and provincial employees, upon the basis of salaries paid positions of relatively 
the same requirements In the provincial service; by the joint use of customs 
cutters and launches for Insular and provincial pun>oses, which would be prac- 
tical) le under the proposed arrangement, and by avoiding the not infrequent 
duplication of such transportation service with corresponding mmecessary 
^expense to the public treasury. In* addition by bringing together these three 
^offices not only under one officer, but under one roof, or at least in locations of 
close proximity, there would be an Incalculable saving in expense and In time 
to the public having to do with them, since business could be transacted with- 
out passing from one part of the city to another, as Is now the case to a cer- 



BEPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 157 

tain extent in most ot the towns which are at the same time provincial capitals, 
ports of entry, and money order and telegraph offices. There is encountered in 
the investigation of tills matter considerable opposition on the part of some 
otficials, but as yet no reason has been developed which would indicate the im- 
practicability of the project 

PROVINCIAL TBEASUBIES. 

The provincial treasury service, like other branches of the government, has 
continued to suffer through frequent changes in personnel, since the date of my 
last report. Nine treasurers, or almost one-fourth the total number, have left 
the service through resignation, transfer, or removal. 

Under the last head two separations from the service occurred — one for neg- 
lect amounting to practical abandonment of official duties, and the other for 
failure to prosecute with due energy municipal officials who were unfaithful to 
their trust in the custody, collection, and expenditure of public revenue. The 
removal of these two officers was due to the enforcement of the requirement of 
this government that its officials shall put forth their best efforts and consci- 
entiously perform their duty. This rcMiuirement, directly and indirectly, has 
aroused the adverse criticism which Americans and others have so freely made 
of the government's policy and methods. 

The district auditor service, which was organized during the period covered 
by the next preceding report, became well established during this year, and its 
results have been highly beneficial to that i)ortion of the government service 
which comes within the Jurisdiction of this office. It has afforded a practically 
uniform and, it is believed, honest examination of the accounts, not only of 
provincial treasurers, but of municipal treasurers who formerly had been inde- 
pendent of central supervision. 

Much time and effort have been devoted by district auditors and provincial 
treasurers in the instruction and improvement generally of municipal treas- 
urers. Illegal collections and expenditures have been stopped wherever dis- 
covered, and the comparatively small expense of the district auditor service us 
a result has been saved many times to the taxpayer. While it is undoubtedly 
true that petty officials still succeed in diverting to their own pockets moneys 
collected under the guise, or on account of taxation, and succeed occasionally 
in withdrawing funds from the public treasury unlawfully In the matter of ex- 
penditures, yet such instances are now comparatively rare, and the public is 
rapidly learning to recognize official corruption and knows where and how to 
seek the remedy. 

In pursuit of the policy of advancing Filipinos to positions of responsibility 
and trust as rapidly as the requisite cai>aclty is demonstrated, practical exami- 
nations have been held for appointment and promotion in the provincial treas- 
ury service during the year. As a result Miguel Unson, one of the provincial 
employees of longest continued service and most marked efficiency, was ap- 
pointed treasurer of the province of Isabela and several other Filipinos now em- 
ployed as deputy provincial treasurers, or in analogous positions, will be ad- 
vanced as vacancies occur, and be given an opportunity to demonstrate fitness 
for further promotion. These men have all had several years' practical ex- 
perience in the treasury service, and have demonstrated that they possess both 
initiative and proper conception of the responsibilities which are incident to the 
custody and control of public funds. They have had their experience under 
American officials and in accordance with American methods. They recognize 
tliat their success, as officials of this government depends upon their meeting 
the requirements of American standards, and such faith Is felt in their ability 
to acquit themselves creditably that they will be recommended to the governor- 
general for appointment, with no more reservation or uncertainty than would 
be felt in the case of American officials. 

GUANOES IN MUNICIPAL AND PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENTS. 

During the fiscal year there were 21 new municipalities created, by dividing 
^old municipalities into two or more parts. Between July 1 and November 1, 
there were 28 new ones created in the same way. These latter will come into 
existence January 1, 1908. During the fiscal year 9 municipalities were so 
combined as to leave 5, and 3 have been fused into 1 since. The subprovinces 
of Apayao in Cagayan, and of Kalinga in Lepanto-Bontoc, were created during 



158 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINB COMMISSION, 

the fiscal year, and a new boundary fixed between the snbprovince of Am- 
burayan, and the provinces of Ilocos Sur and La Union. Since July 1 the prov- 
ince of Agusan and the subprovinces of Romblon, Marinduque, Siquijor, Butuan, 
Bukidnon, and Batanes have been created and the province of Romblon abol- 
ished by attaching it to Capiz. The number of provinces remains as before, 
38, but 7 of these are now under the. special provincial government act 

PBOPEBTY INSPECrriON. 

The designation of district auditors throughout the islands as special in- 
spectors with authority to act upon damaged, lost, or surplus property of the 
insular government within their respective districts has, as was anticipated 
in my last report, contributed greatly to the prompt dispatch of property in- 
spections. In the city of Manila the practice of appointing officials or employees 
with other regular duties to perform to act upon insular government property 
located in Manila not having been entirely satisfactory, an employee of the 
bureau of audits was appointed permanent inspector of insular government 
proi)erty for the city of Manila on August 28, 1906, with the understanding 
that the work of property insjiectlon was to be his first duty and that he would 
be otherwise employed only when his services were not needed in this connec- 
tion. This change also has resulted In increased cfllciency and dispatch in 
handling property matters within the city of Manila, and it is believed that 
action upon insular public property throughout the islands is now secured with 
less delay than at any time since the establishment of the insular government. 
The permanent Inspector for the city of Manila has also, under the supervision 
of this office, been able to effect the transfer of surplus property from one 
bureau to another In many cases where, had less careful attention been paid 
the matter, the property would probably have been sold at public auction as 
not needed in the public service. The advantage of securing the full value 
of proi>erty by interbureau transfers, instead of condemning and selling the 
same at a low price when no longer needed by the particular bureau possessing 
it, is obvious. 

During the fiscal year 348 special inspections of public property were ordered, 
and 4 inspection committees and 10 special inspection committees were ap- 
pointed, a total of 362 inspections, or an increase of nearly 40 per cent over 
the previous fiscal year. A total of 407 inspection reports have been approved 
during the past year, 45 of which were reports submitted by inspectors appointed 
during the preceding year. 

DISTRIBUTION OF DOCUMENTS. 

There has been practically no change during the year In the work of the 
bureau In connection with the distribution of public documents. It being still 
charged with the distribution of all official publications of the Ck>mmisslon 
and of this bureau, for which no charge Is made, with the exception that the 
free official distribution of the Official Gazette and Oaceta Oficial was, on No- 
vember 15, 1906, transferred to the bureau of printing, by executive order No. 
42, series of 1906. 

A total of approximately 85,000 packages of printed matter have been mailed 
or delivered by messengers of the bureau during the year, consisting of census 
reiwrts, reports of the Commission, the executive secretary and other officials, 
copies of laws, executive orders, proclamations, the Official Gazette and other 
documents. 

By act No. 1660, enacted June 27, 1907, provision was made that "hereafter 
there shall be no free distribution of any public document, pamphlet, or publi- 
cation, except by express authority of the secretary of public instruction." 
The purpose of this enactment was to relieve the Commission and the govemor- 
*geueral of the necessity of authorizing from time to time the free distribution 
of documents which, under the reorganization act, could only be authorized by 
resolution of the Commission in the case of the Official Gazette, and by the 
governor-general in the case of other publications. Uix)n the enactment of the 
law the secretary of public instruction authorized the executive secretary to 
continue the free distribution of all government publications in charge of this 
bureau, with the exception of the Official Gazette and other similar publications. 



BEPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETABY. 159 

CABLEQBAMS. 

The system of condensing the cipher code in use between this office and the 
Bureau of Insular Affairs, mentioned In my last year's report, has been con- 
tinued during the fiscal year, and its value increased by a supplemental code 
tending further to reduce the cost of the cable tolls between the two offices. 
During the fiscal year 280 cablegrams have been received by the bureau from 
the United States and foreign countries, 462 official cablegrams have been sent 
by this office, and a total of 3,001 official excerpts from such messages has been 
furnished to Insular bureaus and others concerned. The total cost of cable- 
grams forwarded by the Bureau for the year was M.7,080.22, of which sum 
^9,037.60 were paid by the executive bureau and W,048.62 by other bureaus 
and offices. The total cable tolls for the fiscal year 1906 amounted to W9,066.76, 
thus showing a reduction of M.,986.54 during the past year. 

FIBEABM PERMITS. 

The arrangement referred to in my last report whereby this office approves 
permits for the city of Manila, and handles only such provincial permits as are 
disapproved by the director of constabulary has been continued during this 
year. 

A consistent effort likewise has' been made in the past twelve months to reduce 
the number of firearms, particularly rifies and revolvers, in the hands of indi- 
viduals other than peace officers of the Government. On February 25, 1907, 
the governor-general issued a circular letter to all provincial governors direct- 
ing that no new firearm permits whatever be issued, except in unusual cases 
where special necessity for the possession of the arm is proved, and that an 
endeavor be made to reduce the number of permits extant, whenever such 
action may be taken without injustice or great inconvenience. The governor- 
general also stated the policy to be not to authorise the issue of rifles to police 
of municipalities not exposed to raids or assaults by bandits and maurauders, 
his idea being that the police of such municipalities should be armed with 
revolvers and clubs, as are the police of the city of Manila. That this measure 
has not been fruitless is shown by the fact that during the fiscal year only 
678 new firearm permits were issued In all the provinces of the Islands, as 
against 1,005 issued during the fiscal year 1906. In the city of Manila, owing 
to the existence of authorized gun clubs and to other causes, the reduction of 
firearms is attended by considerable difficulty, and 920 new permits were issued 
as compared with 961 for the previous year, a reduction of but 41. The results 
of the efforts to reduce the number of arms are further shown, however, by 
the fact that during the year 1,078 permits were canceled — 562 by the director 
of constabulary, and 516 by the chief of police of the city of Manila — being 
more than twice the number canceled during the fiscal year 1906. The follow- 
ing statistics show more fully the action taken in regard to firearm permits 
during the past year.® 

TRANSPORTATION OF GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS AND EMPLOYESB AND FILIPINO STUDENTS. 

Upon the enactment of the recent railway rate legislation by the Congress of 
the United States, some doubt was felt as to whether it would affect thfc contracts 
with the various steamship and railway lines for the transportation of officials 
and employees of the Philippine government, members of their families, and of 
Filipino students. The contracts then in force expired on December 31, 1906, 
and pending decision of the matter they were renewed by the Chief of the 
Bureau of Insular Affairs only for the three months ending March 31, 1907. 
However, a decision favorable to the interests of the Philippine government 
was rendered by the Interstate Commerce Commission in January, 1907, and the 
contracts were then renewed by the Chief of the Bureau of Insular Affairs for 
the full calendar year 1907, upon terms similar to those for the calendar year 
1906. The small retluction in railway fare accorded Insular passengers traveling 
to and from the United States upon the army transports, however, has been 
discontinued. 

During the past few years considerable difficulty has been experienced in 
Fecuring accommodations on the contract steamship lines for insular officials 



<»0n file In the Bureau of Insular Affairs, War Department. 



160 BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

and employees desiring to proceed to the United States during the months of 
March, April, and May. The congestion during the spring months has been 
greater during the past year than ever before, and many insular employees 
who desired to leave the islands at that time were compelled either to cancel 
their applications for leave of absence, or to postpone the date upon which they 
should become effective, in some cases for as much as two months. Con- 
fronted by this dilemma a considerable number of employees, who had not 
intended taking such action, proceeded to the United States via the European 
lines running through the Suez Canal, as furnishing the only method of leaving 
the islands at the time desired. The main cause of the congestion during the 
spring months is the annual exodus of employees of the bureau of education, 
as a result of the closing of the schools in March, and the necessity the teachers 
are under of departing immediately thereafter In order to enjoy their full vaca- 
tion In the United States. It has been noted besides that as a rule employees 
throughout the service prefer to start on their leaves of absence during the spring 
months, thus avoiding the rigors of a winter In the United States, after a more 
or less protracted stay In the Tropics. 

Effort was made by this office to relieve this untoward condition of affairs 
by securing accommodations for Insular officials and employees upon the army 
transports, but owing to the fact that the transfer of troops between the 
United States and the Islands was then being effected, practically no relief what- 
ever was secured during the particular months mentioned. It is hoped, how- 
ever, that during the same months of the coming year accommodations on the 
transports may be available to relieve the conditions described. 

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1Q07, requests for transportation to the 
United States at the contract rate were furnished by this office to a total of 412 
persons, including officials, employees, and their families, and Filipino students 
proceeding to the United States to enter educational institutlona The requests 
furnished were divided as follows: Three hundred and eighty-six full, 9 half, 
14 one-fourth, and 3 servants' fares. Of the above, 132 were wholly or par- 
tially at the expense of the Insular government. More than 30 per cent of the 
I>erson8 furnished with transportation at the government contract rate were 
Included in transportation requests issued during the two months of March and 
April. 

A total of 297 persons. Including Insular officials and employees, their families, 
and 2 Filipino students, were furnished with transportation to the United States 
during the fiscal year upon the army transix>rts. The greater part of these 
accommodations, however, were secured prior to March 1, 1907, and, as hereto- 
fore stated, first-class passage for very few insular officials or employees has 
been secured on the transports since that date. However, a considerable 
number of applicants have accepted soldiers' accommodations upon outgoing 
trans{K)rts since the date mentioned rather than lose their vacations In the ho)ne 
land, the number furnished with such accommodations being Included in the 
figures given above. 

The total number of Insular passengers for whom transportation was secured 
by this office during the fiscal year, both upon commercial vessels and army 
transi)ort8, was 709, not including 56 indigents, vagrants, and condltl<nially 
pardoned prisoners who were deported by the Insular government as hereinafter 
stated. 

DEFOBTATION OF VAGRANTS AND DESTITUTE AMERICANS. 

As compared with the fiscal year 1906, there has been a very marked decrease 
In the number of vagrant and destitute Americans, and of conditionally par- 
doned prisoners, deported to the United States during the past year. The 
retrenchment policy of both the insular government and the military authorities 
In the Islands resulted in the deportation to the United States during the fiscal 
year 1006 of a total of 223 persons. During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1907, 
the total number of persons of the classes mentioned sent to the United States 
upon army transports at the request of the Insular government was only 56. 
The decrease In the number of Indigent Americans In the Islands Is believed to 
be very largely due to the demand for labor In the construction of the Philippine 
railways, and from information received by this office it is thought that there 
Is at present a smaller number of unemployed American citizens in the Philip- 
pine Islands than at any other time for a number of years. 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 161 

PABDON8. 

The work of the committee appointed by executive order No. 24, of May 1, 

1906, for the purpose of reviewing the records of prisoners sentenced for bando- 
lerismo, sedition, and insurr^tion, and of making recommendations as to proper 
cases for pardon, has been continued during the year. It is not yet completed, 
owing to the fact that the Judges who are members of the committee have been 
8o occupied with their Judicial duties that the work of the committee has had 
to be interrupted. The committee has considered and reported upon a total of 
285 cases during the year, of which 108 were recommended for conditional 
pardon or parole; commutations of sentences were recommended In 76, and 
recommendations that pardon be denied were made in 101 cases. 

As stated In my last report, the pardon conmiittee in its partial report of 
June 20, 1006, called attention to the fact that no legal procedure existed by 
which a conditionally pardoned prisoner might be reincarcerated should he 
violate the conditions of his pardon, and suggested that the necessary legis- 
lation to cover this omission be enacted. Favorable action upon this sug- 
gestion was taken by the Philippine Commission on August 9, 1906, upon which 
date act No. 1524, providing for the enforcement of conditions made by the 
governor-general in the exercise of his discretion in the granting of conditional 
pardons, was enacted. A number of cases of conditionally pardoned prisoners 
having violated the terms of their pardons has been reported to this office, 
but investigation developed the fact that in the majority of them the viola- 
tion was not willful, being rather due to ignorance or misunderstanding on the 
part of the men pardoned. In such cases, by authority of the governor-general, 
the conditions of the pardons were again carefully explained and no prosecu- 
tion ordered. In the province of Albay, however, a number of cases arose which 
were turned over to the provincial fiscal for action under the act above men- 
tioned. Rei)ort of the action taken by the court of first Instance in these cases 
has not yet reached this office. 

Two other important acts relating to prison management and the release 
of prisoners were passed by the Philippine Commission during the year. These 
are acts Nos. 1533 and 1501, enacted August 30, 1906, and November 10, 1906, 
respectively. The first provides for the diminution of sentences for good con- 
duct while in confinement, and the second empowers the governor-general to 
parole prisoners under such conditions as he may impose, the act providing also 
means for reincarceration, should the terms of the parole be violated. 

At the suggestion of this office, a rule was adopted by the governor-general 
on February 18, 1907, providing that petitions for pardon in all cases of homi- 
cide and in which denial of pardon has been recommended by the pardon com- 
mittee would not be considered by him more than once a year, unless some 
special reason for reconsideration were shown. In all other cases i^etltlons 
for pardon are not considered by the governor-general more than once in six 
months, unless sixH?lal reasons are advanced. It Is believed that the one-year 
rule might well be adopted in all cases, and the governor-general thus relieved 
of reviewing every six mouths a mass of such applications largely devoid of 
merit. 

During the fiscal year a total of 1,549 petitions for pardon were considered 
by the governor-general, of which 1,112 were denied and 321 granted. In 110 
cases sentences were commuted, and 6 prisoners were released under parole. 
There were 2,113 cases under investigation, or pending decision, on June 30, 

1907. This number includes also the bandolerlsmo cases not yet passed upon 
by the pardon committee. 

EXTRADITION REQUISITIONS. 

There were no requisitions of criminals between the Philippine Islands and the 
United States or foreign countries during the year. One defaulter — ^a clerk 
in the United States Signal Corps— got away successfully with about W,000 
and preparations for requisition were made but he has not been found. Since 
July 1 there have been three cases : One man sold his nlpa house to two dlffier- 
ent persons and left on a transport. Preparations were made to extradite him 
from Honolulu, but the military put him aboard a westbound transport and 
saved th^ trouble. He is now in Bilibid. 

Two Manila merchants who had left for Europe and were sojourning in 
Macao were charged with falsifying a private document to the defraudation 

11024— WAR 1907— VOL 7 11 



162 REPORT OF THB PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

of an estate, and extradition papers were issued. The case was settled out of 
court and the matter dropped. 

In September an ex-soldier of marines was charged in Hongkong with mur- 
dering his paramour, a woman of the under world, who had escaped from 
Manila with a large sum of money, the proceeds of an insurance policy be- 
longing to another woman of the same kind. He was found in Chefoo, China, 
and arrested by order of the consul there, after a desperate fight, in w^hich both 
he and one of his captors were rendered unconscious, the money and the wo- 
man's jewelry being in his possession. He was afterwards placed on a United 
States gunboat and brought to Manila, whence he was requisitioned by the 
governor of Hongkong. After a hotly contested legal battle he was delivered 
to the British authorities and is already, I understand, sentenced to be hanged. 

LAW DIVISION. 

Since my last rejiort an important change has occurred in the legal depart- 
ment of the bureau. On January 1 the law clerk, Mr. Harry E. I^ughlln, was 
made chief of the administration division of the bureau and the chief clerk- 
ship was abolished, Mr. Thomas Gary Welch, who held that position, taking 
charge of a new division which was then created and called the " law division." 
The abolishment of the chief clerkship made it necessary for the duties of the 
position to be distributed among the various chiefs of division, falling in larg- 
est measure upon the second assistant executive secretary. The change was 
effected practically without additional expense. 

The law division assumed all the duties formerly resting on the law clerk 
and his associates, including the appointment work and. In addition, took up a 
large amount of consultation work and of drafting legislation for submission 
to the Commission. The number of formal memoranda, which are in effect 
legal opinions, furnished by the division from January 1 to June 30 was 27. 
This represents only a fraction of the work of this kind actually done, as by 
far the most of the consultations are oral and are answered orally, by indorse- 
ment, or In i)encil notes which, having served their purpose, are destroyed. 
Over 40 proposed acts were drawn in the division before the end of the fiscal 
year, of which 21 found expression in actual legislation. Eighteen executive 
orders and 7 proclamations were prepared by the division in the six mouths of 
its existence. 

GASES AGAINST PROVINCIAL AND MUNICIPAL OFFICIALS. 

During the year there have, been two provincial oflicials, both Americans, 
removed, and 182 cases against municipal otficlals, justices, and auxiliary 
Justices of the i)eace tried. Of the defendants, 127 were found guilty, 65 ac- 
quitted, and SO removed. This is the lowest number of cases tried and of 
officials removed since 11K)4, while the percentage of acquittals is higher than In 
1905 or 11K)0. There were l(i justices and auxiliary justices removed during the 
year, as against 12 the year before. This would indicate that act No. 1450, 
which leaves these cases to the local Judge of first instance instead of the 
provincial l)oard. Is working effectively. " Exhibit A" is a tabular statement 
giving detailed information In the premises.** 

There were (>9 cases against municipal officers pending before provincial 
boards at the end of the fiscal year and none awaiting action In this bureau. 
How many cases were pending against justices and auxiliaries can not be given. 
as these cases are now handled by the judges of first instance direct. 

The charges upon which the cases were based and the decisions therein are 
set forth in " Exhibit B." ^ It shows a great Increase in charges of al)u.*<e 
of official position— a total of 100 as against 39 for 1906. 

The convictions on this charge were also proi)ort tonally more numerous — 
being 63 out of 100. Municipal presidents and councilors were the worst of- 
fenders In this regard, numbering 48 out of the 63. This goes to show that 
the i)eople are learning their rights, becoming more tenacious of them and less 
timid of giving testimony against tyrannical officials. 

STATISTICS BEGARDINO APPOINTMENTS. 

There were 650 appointments made last year as against 1,380 the year before; 
but that year was exceptional, owing to the paswige of act 1450, which necessi- 
tated the appointment of 1,159 justices. Exclusive of justices there were 176 



* On file In the Bureau of Insular Affairs, War Department. 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 168 

» 

appointments by the governor-general, by and with the consent of the Commis- 
sion, and 84 designations by the governor-general alone, as against 221 and 106 
the year before. " Exhibit " appended hereto gives the statistics of this work 
in detail. 

*' EiXhibit D " is a table showing the number of provincial officials in office 
at the date of this report and the relative number of Americans and Filipinos. 
It shows a large reduction — ^97 — in the number of officers from last yoar. 
This 4s mostly due to the abolition of the offices of provincial secretary and 
president of the provincial board of health and the expiration of the terms of 
office of the members of the boards of tax appeals. The proportion of Ameri- 
cans to Filipinos is 34.25 per cent, an increase of 10 per cent. 

** Exhibit B," likewise appended, is a similar table for municipal and town- 
ship officers. It shows an increase in the number of officials of 596, of whom 
307 are notaries public. The percentage of Americans to Filipinos, 0.77, is one- 
tenth of 1 per cent higher than last year. 

PBOVINCIAL ELECTIONS. 

Two provinces held elections for governor during the year. The extirpation 
of ladronlsm In Cavlte, which followed the downfall of Sakay, Montalau et al., 
brought that province Into such a condition of political health as to render It 
eligible to choose Its own chief, while Isabela, having remained at peace for 
the two years since the last American governor was transferred to Samar, had 
rei)eatedly expressed Its desire to elect Its own governor. Accordingly the 
governor-general, on November 13, liX)6, Issued an executive order calling a 
gubenuitorlal election for Isabela on the first Monday In February, and this 
was followed a week later by another for an election in Cavlte at the same 
time. These elections were held under the old law, the election law having made 
special provision therefor, and passed oflP without Incident of note. Mr. Ellseo 
Clara vail was elected in Isabela and Mr. Leonardo Osorlo in Cavlte. Neither 
election was protested, and both were confirmed. 

MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS. 

In my last report I referred to the unfinished municipal election In Malabou, 
Rlzal, then lately separated from Navotas. Altogether three elections were 
held, the last on September 5. This, like the others, was protested for fraud, 
bribery, coercion, and on various other grounds, one of them being — 

" Because various leaders of the Luna party remained inside the polls more 
than sufficient time. Influencing by their presence, gestures, and suspicious ac- 
tions the voters In general, In this way preventing the voters casting their 
ballots at their own discretion." • 

For one reason or another the provincial board of Rlzal failed to act on the 
matter until finally, on January 12 of this year, the Commission authorized the 
governor-general to appoint, and the governor-general did apiwint, a committee 
to investigate and decide the matter. It finished Its work on January 31, de- 
ciding In favor of the apparently elected candidates, who promptly took their 
seats. 

STATISTICS AS TO QUALIFIED VOTERS. 

** Exhibit F," hereto api^ended, shows the number of quallfietl voters regis- 
tered at the municipal elections In December, 1905, to have been 143,965, as 
against 150,081 In 1903. It has been impossible to obtain records from five 
towns and the totals of these have been estimated from the returns of the other 
towns in the same province. From two towns the totals only could be obtalne<l. 
For these reasons the total registration appears larger than the sum of all the 
columns showing qualifications. A comparison with the figures given In my 
last report for the year 1903 shows a considerable falling off in total registra- 
tion, but an increase in the percentage of those voting after registration. A 
marked increase In the number qualifying by reason of government service In 
Spanish times Is shown, but It is somewhat doubtful whether all of these actu- 
ally did hold office, the absence of any punishment for Illegal registration mak- 
ing it easy for unscrupulous persons to qualify under this head by the mere 
assertion that they had been officials. It is worthy of note that the number 
registered under the educational qualifications Increased about 2,000. The per- 
centage of voters to population remains very low. The registration for the 
assembly elections will be discussed further on. 



164 BBPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

ELECTIONS AND THE ELECTION LAW. 

The electiou law drafted by this bureau was submitted to the Commission in 
September — ^the first reading occurring September 28, 1906. After consideration 
by that body it was submitted to the convention of provincial governors In Octo- 
ber and their recommendations passed upon before it was put into form for 
public discussion. Public hearings were held for many days, but there were few 
points raided which were found to warrant changes. In fact, the law as it 
stands to-day is substantially as it was first proposed. 

Among its principal features are provisions for assembly elections on July 30, 
1907, the members-elect to serve until January 1, 1910, and for assembly, pro- 
vincial, and municipal elections on the first Tuesday after the first Monday of 
November in each odd numbered year. Municipal officers will hereafter serve 
for four years, one-half being elected at each election. Provision is made for 
special elections when necessary, and for starting in motion the machinery of 
newly created municipalities. Thirty-four provinces send 80 delegates to the 
assembly. As originally passed there were 35 provinces and 81 delegates, but 
this was reduced by the fusion of Romblon with Capiz, July 2, 1907. Manila 
Is declared to be a province within the meaning of the act of Congress authoriz- 
ing the assembly and is given two delegates. The members of the assembly 
have practically the same immunity from arrest and guaranty of free speech 
as is given members of Congress by the United States Constitution; they are 
to receive f^ a day for each day of actual sitting of the assembly, together 
with actual expenses for travel and subsistence en route between their resi- 
dences and Manila and return, once each session actually attended, probably 
the highest per diem paid to any body of legislators in the world. 

Mimicipalitles. are to be divided by their councils into voting precincts, con- 
taining not over 400 qualified voters, and polling places must be provided in 
each. The interior arrangement of polling places is outlined. 

The sale of liquor in the vicinity of the polls on election day Is prohibited, 
and the national pastime of cock-fighting can not be indulged in on that day, 
although by act No. 1671 it has been made a legal holiday. 

The qualifications of officers are somewhat changed. Those of delegates to 
the assembly are of course fixed by the act of Congress of July 1, 1902, which 
requires that they be qualified electors in their district and not less than 25 
years old. The qualifications for provincial governors and third members of 
provincial boards are bona fide residence for a .year, qualification as an elector, 
and 25 years of age. Hitherto practically all that was required was nativity in 
the Islands, or citizenship in the United States, and loyalty to the government. 
The qualifications of elective municipal officials are also changed. Formerly 
these officials had to be 25 years of age; this is now reduced to 23 in order to 
allow a number of young men, whg have had the benefit of American schooling 
in the past seven .years, to talie places in the local governments which it is be- 
lieved they are able to fill. As formerly, municipal officials must be able to 
read and write Intelligently either English, Spanish, or the vernacular. 

Originally no ix»rson convicted of a crime punishable by two years' Imprison- 
ment or more could hold any public office, nor could anyone who had been 
administratively disqualified from holding office by the governor-general upon 
removal therefrom. This has, since election, been made more stringent. Now 
persons convicted of any crime involving moral turpitude are rendered ineligible, 
and those convicted of the aforesaid crimes, but whose cases are on appeal, and 
also i)er8ons addicted to opium are likewise disqualified. It is provided that 
disqualification for office caused by delinquency in paym^it of taxes may be 
removed between the time of election and taking office. 

Another provision has been Inserted recognizing the acts of de facto officers, 
a provision which Is common law in America but not known to the law of 
Spain. This removes a source of much confusion and annoyance. Provision 
has also been made for the removal of disqualified officers and, later on in the 
law, the assumption of office by a person knowing himself to be disqualified is 
ix?nalized. It Is hoiied that this will prevent recurrences of such conditions as 
were shown in my last report to exist in Oriental Negros. 

The qualifications of voters at assembly elections were fixed by the act of 
Congress of July 1, 1902, as they existed at that date, and therefore they have 
boon left the same for all elections to avoid double registration. To vote at 
any election one must be twenty-three years of age, must have had a legal resi- 
dence In the municipality for at least six months, and be not a citizen or 
subject of any foreign power. In addition he must have any one of 3 — really 



BEPOBT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETABY. 165 

5 — qualifications, and none of the disqualifications specified. The qualifica- 
tions are, that he shall have held during Spanish rule the office of either 
municipal captain, gobemadorcillo, alcalde, lieutenant, cabeza de barangay; 
or member of any ayuntamiento, or that he owns real estate worth WOO, or 
pays KO of the established taxes annually, or speaks, reads, and writes either 
English or Spanish. Residence can not be gained by officers or men in the Army, 
Navy, or Marine Corps stationed in a municipality. The disqualifications are 
delinquency In payment of any taxes assessed since ^Vmerican occupation, de- 
privation of right to vote by sentence of a court, violation of the oath of alle- 
giance, rebellion against the United States since May, 1901, or contributing to 
the same, or giving aid and comfort to persons engaged therein, with exceptions 
as to certain l>odies of insurgents which surrendered. The disqualifications 
for rebellion are now practically a dead letter. 

Some criticism has been made both here and in America that these qualifi- 
cations are too restrictive and that the suffrage should be further extended. A 
consideration of the qualifications and comparison with those required in some 
of the United States does not give entire support to this view. Practically 
everyone who held any administrative or executive office, even to the lowest, 
as distinguished from a mere employment, in any municipality during Spanish 
sovereignty, and who therefore has had any previous personal experience in 
municipal government, may vote. In addition to this any owner of real estate 
to the extent of $250 gold, or, lacking that, anyone who i)ays $15 gold of any 
taxes, whether they be land tax, internal revenue licenses, or any other, and 
including the cedula, may vote. Mere literacy in one of two languages, without 
any further qualification, gives this right Thus there are 4 alternatives besides 
the qualification of experience, either one of which suffices. In the States of 
the Union which do not have universal sufl^ge there is none which offers so 
many different avenues of qualification, and in many the requirements are far 
more rigid. In Louisiana and South Carolina a person must either read a 
clause of the Constitution or own property of the value of $300. In Massa- 
chusetts and Connecticut he must be able to read a clause of the Constitution 
without any alternative, while New Hampshire requires ability to read Eng- 
lish, without specifying any particular test. In Virginia the voter must fill 
out his application for registry in his own handwriting. It is to be remembered 
also that there are now and for some years have been schools in which Eng- 
lish is taught free in almost every municiimlity in the islands, while Simnlsh 
has been the language of the educated and official classes since the sixteenth 
century. Just how far the right of suffrage should be extended is a debatable 
question, but I think there is no doubt but that it is quite as free here as in 
many States of the Union, both north and south. 

The election law changes the method of registration, taking it out of the 
hands of the municipal authorities and creating for the purpose boards of 
inspectors which will in time become bipartisan. There are no arduous con- 
ditions imposed on electors, but they must appear in person on 'one of four 
days and take an oath, as to their qualifications, the false swearing to which Is 
a crime. Bach elector Is required also to show his cedula for the current 
year. Registry lists are kept in triplicate and are open to the public, and any- 
one aggrieved may apply to the nearest judge of first instance or to the 
provincial board, upon notice, for an order requiring the inspectors to inscribe 
his name or to strike off names wrongfully registered. The inspectors meet 
on the Saturday before election for the purpose of complying with these ordors. 

Official ballots printed at the bureau of printing, with blank spaces in which 
to write the names of the candidates voted for, are furnished, and these must 
be filled out by the voter himself In a private booth at the polling place and 
can not be taken outside. This of course is not an ideal ballot, but it is the 
best that could be devised, considering the chaotic condition of party organiza- 
tion and the scarcity of printing presses in the islands, many provinces being 
absolutely without them. Any voter physically disabled or incapable of filling 
out his own ballot may choose any one of the 3 inspectors he likes and retire 
with him into the booth to have it done. The polls are open from 7 o'clock in 
the morning until 5 o'clock in the afternoon, and at the close the board pro- 
ceeds to count the vote without interruption until it is finished. The municipal 
councils act as a board of canvassers in municipal elections and the provincial 
boards in assembly and provincial elections. 

The penal provisions for punishment of offenses against the franchise are 
numerous. One which has caused some perturbation in official circles pro- 
hibits any public officer or employee from being a candidate for any, elective 



166 REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

office except reelection, and prohibits any Judge of first instance, Justice of the 
l)eace, provincial fiscal, or employees of the constabulary or bureau of educa- 
tion from aiding any candidate or taking any part in an election except to 
vote. These provisions would be considered drastic in America, but In this 
country, which has been under a highly centralized government for centuries, 
the people have come to regard a hint from an ofilcial as a command which 
must be unquestloningly obeyed. Moreover, political parties based on opposing 
principles of government have not yet crystallized, so that politics and the 
l)ersonality of the politicians are indistinguishable. Therefore to allow the 
members of the above-mentioned branches of the government, which ramify 
into every barrio and almost into every house, to take an active part in 
politics would not only exert a tremendous Influence on the results, but would 
create an impression difficult If not impossible to eradicate, that the govern- 
ment itself was using its power for one side or the other. Besides, the element 
of personality in politics is so strong that to assist one side is almost certain 
to make personal enemies of the other, and the work of those departments, 
whose influence for good depends largely upon their reputation for impartiality 
and aloofness from factional disputes, would be seriously hindered were such 
n feeling of enmity created. 

In spite of these stringent provisions several cases occurred of persons hold- 
ing office who were known to be candidates, but who did not so announce them- 
selves or resign the office until a very few days before election, thus violating 
the spirit of the law while keeping its letter. To prevent this and to make it 
more comprehensive, amendments were afterwards passed providing that in the 
future no person holding any appointive or elective office ninety days before 
election shall be eligible, except for reelection, to any elective office, and that 
to be eligible as delegate or for provincial office the candidate must file a cer- 
tificate ten days before election announcing his candidacy and that he is eligible. 
That some provision which will prevent officeholders from running for other 
offices was needed is shown by the fact that for the November elections 213 
resignations have been received, of which 128 were from Justices and auxiliary 
justices of the peace and 47 from municipal councilors. Thirty-six officers re- 
signed to run for delegate at the July elections. 

The work of carrying the election law into operation was given to the law 
division for the reason that this division was more familiar with its provisions 
than any other and was best fitted to put it in motion. ThQ necessary blanks 
and forms were drafted and printed, with instructions for their use covering 
nearly all the duties of inspectors of election. EiStimates of the number likely 
to be wanted were made for the director of printing, so that he might have a 
supply on hand, and the requisitions therefor from the various provinces were 
checked over as they came in to see that they were supplied with everything 
nceaed In sufficient, but not excessive, quantities. This distribution was ef- 
fected with as few delays or hitches as could be expected. Some few munici- 
palities, not 'exceeding 5 or 6, failed to receive supplies In time, and some 15 
municipalities failed to hold registration and were therefore disfranchised. 
The law itself Is In no way resi)onslble for this, however, It being entirely due 
to the neglect of officials and people to familiarize themselves with its provisions. 
It Is Interesting to note, as showing the practical difficulties of inaugurating 
such a measure In this country, that although supplies for the towns of Basco 
and Calayan, on the Batanes Islands, between Luzon and Formosa, which form 
a i)art of the province of Cagayan, were shlpiied from Manila on June 13, they 
were still In Tuguegarao a month later, no mall boat having left there for the 
Batanes In the meantime. A special coast-guard cutter was sent to these 
Islands to take the ballots and forms and to receive the returns. These two 
towns contain about 8,000 i)eople, all civilized, according to the census. The 
American school-teacher writing from Basco In April stated that the possible 
number of qualified electors was about 150; that there were no political parties, 
only the partisans of rival cattle dealers; that those precluded by the law from 
taking part In the elwtlon were the only ones who were able to understand the 
law; that it might be three months after election before the returns could be 
sent to the provincial capital, and suggested that no election forms be sent and 
that the election be thereby prevented, which would be, he stated, a course 
that would meet with general approval. In the two towns of the Batanes 
Islands there were actually 107 ballots cast. The trip of the cutter cost the 
insular government M,550, or W4.49 i)er vote. 

Among other things, the law division, in cooperation with the president and 
secretary of the muulcliml board of Manila, organized and held, on June 15, a 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 167 

meeting and school for insi)ectors of election in the marble hall of the ayunta- 
iniento building. An election booth was erected, members of the law division 
staff acted as inspectors and, after the law had been explained orally, a dem- 
onstration was given of the manner of registering and voting. An invitation 
was extended to Inspectors in the near-by provinces, -and the meeting was at* 
tended by about 250 persons. This proved to be of great value in preparing the 
Inspectors for their duties. 

Although every effort was made when drafting the law to make it as clear 
as possible, a large number of questions have been asked regarding It. There 
is no way of telling how many questions have been answered orally, but the 
amount of time. consumed in this work would equal that of one man for four or 
five days. Four hundred and tifty-tliree communications, containing an average 
of 3 questions each about the law, have been answered by letter, telegram, or in- 
dorsement. The greatest source of trouble seems to have been with regard to the 
provisions prohibiting public officers from being candidates, 49 questions con- 
cerning same having been answered — 34 about various officers and 15 regarding 
notaries public. The next most disturbing question was when an officer would 
be consldei^ed a candidate, so as to require his resignation. This was asked 
IS times. The question of legal residence, which is usually a source of trouble, 
camo up frequently. Three persons asked whether the inspectors of election 
were themselves allowed to vote. One person, an American official too, asked 
wliether a majority or plurality was necessary to election, although the act ex- 
plicitly states that a plurality is sufficient. 

Several amendments were suggested. One candidate desired to provide in- 
tending voters with rubber stamps to print their names and to secure an amend- 
ment permitting it. A number of suggestions and two actual requests were re- 
ceived asking that more days be allowed for registration. Inasmuch as the four 
days allowed are ample time in which to register all the i)ersons who care 
enough about voting to present themselves, as a privilege of this kind extended 
to one town would have to be extende<l to all, which there was no time to do, 
even were it desirable, and as the C/ommissiou had steadfastly refused to enact 
amendments, these requests had to bo refustnl. Four requests that the quali- 
fications of voters be changed were received in ignorance, doubtless, that they 
had been fixed by Congress. One municipal officer asked what he should do If 
there were not 4 persons in his town who could read and write to fill the places 
of inspectors and poll clerk. 

Another suggested amendment, which has repeatedly been made and which 
was agitated in the native press, throws a strong side light on the unwilling- 
ness of the native to trust his brother Filipino wiien they differ politically. It 
was strongly urgetl that the law be so amended as to permit a disabled voter to 
take into tlie l)()oth with him to prepare the ballot any person in whom he has 
eonfldence. All these suggestions were made urK)n the explicit statement that 
insi)ectors of election being, for this election at least, usually all of one 
party, could not be trusted bj voters of the other party to write on the ballot 
the name the voter desired. This rellectlon upon the honesty of the Filipino was 
in no instance made by foreigners, but always by Filipinos themselves. 

The following translation of an extract from an official letter by a promi- 
nent Filipino on the subject is illustrative: 

" The corruption consists In the candidates securing the agreement of the 
inspectors to write In their names when filling- out the ballots for those who 
can not read or write, instead of the names of the candidates voluntarily 
designated by the voter. The voter is heli)less to .prevent this practice, as 
act 1582, section 22, gives him no recourse of enqiloylng persons for this service 
in whom he has confidence; but he Is of necessity condemned to pass through 
the corruption of the inspector, the exclusively authorized guide of the voter, 
to lead him, apparently, along the right path, though the inspector's interven- 
tion turns out to be tyrannical and criminal. 

" This criminal and corrupt practice Is very easy to carry out and will be 
resorted to frequently for obvious reasons. The real character of the Filipino 
can not have escaped the observation of your honor. Almost all Filipinos, Includ- 
ing those of the professional class, are poor in Intelligence, i3oor in heart, poor 
in spirit, poor in body, and poor in morals, but rich in foolish desires and ambi- 
tions; so that, with this fragile character of theirs, any of them is susceptible 
of being bought for any price or consideration whatever." 

The actual com plants of abuses of this character received since election have 
been, however, comparatively few. 



168 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Inasmuch as before the advent of the American Government the people had 
no opportunity to become familiar with the principles of representative govern- 
ment, or practice of carrying them into eCFect, it was to be expected that their 
Ideas would be vague and their questions at times puerile. Some of the queries 
did in fact border on the humorous. A paragraph in one of the penal sections 
of the law contains a sweeping provision against bribery. One gentleman who 
proposed to become a candidate was evidently mystified thereby, for he wrote 
as follows: 

" The third paragraph of section 30 of the election law punishes the person 
who makes a promise to Influence the giving; or withholding of a vote. 

" Does this prescription of the law include candidates who publish platforms 
or manifestoes which contain promises of good government? '* 

Under the law the provinces of Mindoro and Palawan, although neither Is 
governed as a so-called Christian province, under act 83 are given representa- 
tion in the assembly. This was done because these provinces originally were 
divided into regular municipalities and contain a majority of Christian inhabit- 
ants. It has been found very difficult in Mindoro to secure a sufficient number 
of persons not already holding office who ix)ssess the requisite mental qualifica- 
tions to fill the positions of inspectors and poll clerks. To quote from an 
official utterance of Captain Offley of the Thirtieth United States Infantry, 
provincial governor of Mindoro, on this subject : 

" The sick, the lame, and the halt have had to be called upon to help supply 
material for officials of election — and the electors have even imiKirted their 
candidate." 

As a matter of fact. In Mindoro but 622 and in Palawan only 228 votes were 
cast for Delegate. 

Fortunately conditions elsewhere are not so backward as in the Batanes and 
Mindoro. 

BEGI8TBATI0N UNDEB THE NEW LAW. 

The registration days, June 21, 22, 28, and 29, passed off generally without 
friction, and while there were occasional complaints against the insi)ectors, 
some of which were serious, in general the boards acquitted themselves credit- 
ably and, indeed, made as few mistakes as would have been likely to happen 
in the average American city on the inauguration of a radically new law. 
The municipal board of Manila received only about 20 appeals from i)ersons 
claiming to have been wrongfully excluded. 

In one province — Capiz— conditions were not at all satisfactory. So many 
complaints of abuses and frauds on the part of the insi^ectors were received 
that a member of the attorney-genera rs staff was sent to investigate. In his 
report he describes the situation there as follows: 

" In Capiz politics constitute the only thriving industry and the maneuvers of 
two rival factions to i)ossess themselves of the muuiciiml and provincial offices 
-constitute Capiz politics. The competition between these, factious is so intense 
that it was not unnatural that the one which controlled the municipal council 
of any town should avail itself of its power under the new election law to 
api)oint its own partisans as inspectors. The faction calling itself ' modern- 
istas* controlled 17 municipal councils, while their opponents could only count 
upon 5. With 17 of the 22 election boards made up of leading partisjins of 
one faction, the result of the election for assemblymen was a foregone conclu- 
sion. To the partisan conduct of these election boards, the gravest abuses 
that took place are traceable. These abuses consisted of: (1) Partisan treat- 
ment of applicants for registration; and (2) unscrupulous use of the i)ower 
to prepare the ballots for illiterate electors. As to a lack of all sense of fair- 
ness or Justice, and to a want of any appreciation on the i>art of the Inspectors 
of the responsibilities of their office, I found no lack of evidence in matters 
of registration." 

This officer found that in several towns outrageous frauds against the regis- 
tration had been committed. In one town qualified voters of the opposite 
party were refused registration, 4 because they could not read and write either 
Siianish or English when 2 of them were college graduates, and 2 because their 
cedulas or poll tax had been paid in Manila, the inspectors claiming that tliis 
established the fact that they were nonresidents. All of these men had voted 
at i)reviou8 elections in the same province. The same board refused to listen 
to challenges from the opi)osite party, unless a dei)osit of money for exi)enses 



EEPOBT OP THE EXECUTIVE SECBETABY. 169 

was made, although hearing those made by their oi^v^n party without demanding 
money. Concerning the actions of the inspectors in this town the investigator 
says: 

" It would unduly extend this report to attempt to detail the outrages com- 
mitted by the members of this board upon their fellow-citizens in keeping them 
waiting from hour to hour — in many instances for two days — ^notwithstanding 
they presented clear proof of their qualifications, and then finally telling them 
that the polls were closed and they could not be registered." 

* He cites 14 cases in this connection. The same report indicates that similar 
abuses were committed in many other towns* of Capiz. Criminal prosecutions 
which were delayed in all of these cases, owing to the absence of the judge of 
that district, are now being instituted. 

In Mindoro also a deplorable condition existed. In Lubang it was found 
that 102 out of the 146 registered voters were disqualified at the time of reg- 
istering by reason of nonpayment of taxes. In Calapan 38 persons out of 171 
were similarly disqualified when they took the oath, and of these 13 liave been 
convicted. In Mamburao practically all of the 42 persons who registered were 
disqualified. In Bulalacao out of a registration of 91, 30 were disqualified, 
and 33 more were entered on the registry list after the last day for registration. 
In Naujan there have been 5 convictions for illegal registration. The lnsi)ect- 
ors of election in Sablayan made up the registry list on sheets of pafier, and 
when asked to explain why they were not made in the blank books provided by 
law, answered that they did not want to get the books dirty. 

Comparatively few complaints of Illegal registration have been received from 
other provinces, and while this is not proof that no frauds were committed it 
may safely be assumed that they were not so fiagrant. 

The following condensed extract translation from a native paper, published 
In the province of Cagayan, shows that other insi)ectors of election had views 
of their infallibility more decided than correct : 

"At 8 a. m. on June 30, 1907, Sefior Isidro Maguigad, sent by the provincial 
governor for the purpose of giving instructions to the election inspectors of 
Alcald and revising their work, arrived at Alcal&, and immediately sent for 
the inspectors. Having requested and examined the registry lists, and having 
found .that the board of inspectors had not held sessions on June 21 and 22, 
1907, as provided by law, in view of the fact that the necessary blank forms 
had not been received from the provincial board at that time, Sefior Isidro 
Maguigad suggested to the inspectors, and insisted uix)n this suggestion, that 
they draw up documents alleged to be the minutes of meetings supposed to have 
been held on June 21 and 22, 1907, setting forth that said meetings were held ; 
but that no voter applied for registration at either of them. 

"The writer, who states that this happened in his presence, and that he 
vouches for the truth of his statements, affirms wi|fh great pride that * How- 
ever stupid and incompetent the Inspectors appointed by the pueblos may have 
appeared to the honorable governor, who believed that they stood in need of 
such Instructions or explanations of a person apix)iuted for the purpose of 
interfering officially with the work of the inspectors, those appointed by us 
here conducted themselves on this occasion like men worthy of their office. 
They net only thanked Sefior Isidro Maguigad a thousand times for the kind- 
ness with which our good governor had acted in sending a supervisor or general 
instructor of election inspectors to the pueblos, but stated to him their grati- 
tude for the excellent instructions given by him, tending to amend allegeil 
errors which, according to him, might invalidate the election. At the same 
time they energetically rejected his suggestion. Informing him that they knew 
what they were about, and that they were acting on their own responsibility 
and according to their best judgment' 

" Sefior Maguigad was evidently not satisfied with the failure of the Inspectors 
to act on his suggestion, as he declined an invitation for luncheon extended by 
the acting municipal president, and called on Sefior Tomas Rodriguez Instead." 

Exhibit G, .hereto annexed, gives the total registration .by provinces which 
was 104,966. It shows that only 1.15 per cent of the population registered. 
This was a surprise. In the provinces the percentage in 1903 was 2.44 and it 
was generally expected that this figure would at least be equaled. The public 
estimates for Manila were for a registration of 20,000, a figure large enough 
to be certainly on the safe side. The city was divided Into 48 election precincts, 
23 in the first assembly district and 25 in the second, which covers the wealthier 



170 BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

residential portion. The registration on tlie first two days was a disappoint- 
ment. There were registered In the first district 1,170 persons, of whom !)7 
were Americans, and In the second 1,679, of whom 2t>5 were Americans. This 
high ratio of Americans Is noteworthy. The newspapers of all kinds took up 
the matter and urged the people to register, some of the native prints being 
rather severe In their criticisms of the apathy and Inertia of the Filipinos. 
This resulted in an Increased registration the last two days, and when the 
books were closed on June 21) there was a total registration In Manila of 7,1)02, 
3,420 in the first and 4,482 In the second district, the Americans furnishing 211) 
and 037 names, respectively. Even this Is a very small proix>rtion — 3^ per 
cent — of the population, although It came within 98 of my estimate (8,000). 

The decrease In the provinces from former years seems to have been due to 
lack of Interest and failure to appreciate the importance of the assembly elec- 
tion to the individual. At this writing the registration for the provincial and 
municipal elections In November is completed, and while the reports are only 
fragmentary, it seems certain that it will show a material Increase and perhaps 
exceed 150,000— the highest yet recorded. 

ELECTIONS. 

In accordance with the pi*ovlsIons of the act of CJongress of July 1, 1902, the 
Coumiission on March 28 by resolution certified to the President that for two 
years following the publication of the census of the islands a condition of gen- 
eral and complete peace had prevailed and then existed in the territory of the 
islands not Inhabited by Moros or other non-Chrlstlan tribes. Thereupon the 
President on March 28 Issued a proclamation diivcting the Philippine Commis- 
sion to call an election for the choice of delegates. The Commission passed a 
resolution calling the election for July 30 and directing the governor-general* to 
issue a proclamation announcing suclf call, which he did on April 1. Copies of 
these proclamations are subjoined as Exhibits H and I. 

It is quite a coincidence that the assembly election day in these Islands 
should fall ui3on a great anniversary In American history. It was on this 
same day that the first legislative body In America met in 1019, two hundred 
and eighty-eight years ago. It was the house of burgesses, which met in a 
small wooden church at Jamestown, Va., where the recent tercentennial exposi- 
tion was celebrated. 

The election itself passed oflC with gratifying smoothness. In the cltj^ of 
Manila during the whole of election day there were but 7 arrests, none of 
which were for crimes In any way connected with elections. In the provinces, 
except as above mentioned, but very few complaints were made. As was to 
be expected from the manner o'f registration, in Capiz there were many charginu 
of violations of law, and these are now being prosecuted in court, but this was 
the only province in which the abuses were serious or general. 

The i>roi)ortion of votes cast to the number registered was very high. The 
total vote was 9vS,251 out of a registration of 104,9(50. This is far higher than 
in America, although the percentage of the total civilized i)opulation that 
voted was very low, being 1.41 \yer cent. Exhibit J, hereto annexed, gives the 
total vote by provinces and parties. 

CONVENTION OF THE ASSEMBLY. • 

The act of Congress provided that the first meeting of the Assembly should be 
held on the call of the governor-general within ninety days after the first eltx;- 
lion. It was known that the Secretary of War would attend the oix?nlng cere- 
monies, and accordingly, on September 14, the governor-general issued a 
pr(K»lainatIon calling the delegates to meet at the ayuutamlento building in 
Manila on October 16, the day after the Secretary of War's exr)ected arrival. 
Owing to the small seating capacity of the marble hall and the groat number 
of i)eoi)le who desired to l.>e present, the meeting place was afterwards changed 
to the grand opt»ra house, which is more commodious. The proclamation con- 
vening the assembly, together with the journal of the proceedings of the open- 
ing session, giving the sjieeches then dellveretl, are hereto apiieuded marked 
" Exhibit L." 

PBOTESTED ELECTIONS, 

Very soon after the results were announced protests began to come into this 
office. In all cases the protestants were Informed that the assembly itself l>eing 
made by act of Congress the " Judge of the elections, returns and qualifications 
of its members " neither the executive lior any other branch of the government 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETABY. 171 

had any jurisdiction, but that the protests would be held and delivered to the 
assembly upon its organization. The monarchical Idea of government has be- 
come so firmly fixed, however, that in several cases the protestants could not 
understand such a situation, and in some instances native lawyers engaged in 
lengthy arguments to show that the executive had a right to step in and inter- 
fere. In two instances resort was had to the courts, naturally without success. 
Altogether 17 protests covering 14 assembly districts were forwarded by this 
office, and I am informed that protests from two more districts have been sent 
direct to the assembly. 

DIVISION OF ARCHIVES, PATENTS, COPYBIGHTS, AND TBADE-MABKS. 

The great amount of work involved in the licensing of foreign corporations 
and in the issuance of certificates of incorporation to domestic corporations, 
added to the duties heretofore performed by this division, viz, the furnishing of 
certified copies of notarial documents In the former archives of the Spanish 
Government, the registering of patents, copyrights, and trade-marks, and of 
cattle brands for all large cattle throughout the islands, has made this division 
a very busy one throughout the fiscal year just ended. A total of 527 coi)iea 
of documents, containing 3,475 pages, and 1,021,526 words, were issued to pri- 
vate parties during the year, yielding a total revenue of ^2,140.37. Of this sum 
W,021.81 were collected on accomit of copying the documents in question; 
^804.06 were fees charged on account of the antiquity of the documents, and 
W14.50 fees for certification. In addition to the above, 343 copies of docu- 
ments, containing 970 pages and 227,276 words, were Issued gratuitously on 
oflScial request. 

During the preceding year the division issued a total of 602 copies of docu- 
ments to private parties and 45 upon official request, or a total of 647. While 
the past year shows a decrease of 75 copies furnished to private parties, there 
is an increase of 208 fumlshe<l officially, making a total for the year of 870. a 
net increase of work under this head of 223. The small amount of ^2,140.37 
collected for this work is not in any sense proper compensation for the labor 
Involved, and I again earnestly recommend that action be taken to fix a more 
equitable schedule of fees. The existing schedule authorizes the charge of 10 
centavos for copying 100 words, with an additional charge of 10 centavos for 
each year of antiquity of the document, as comi)ensation for the labor of search- 
ing therefor (section 3 of act No. 273 as amended by act No. 644). In my last 
report I recommended that Instead of the 10 centavos per 100 words of copying 
and the fees for searching, a charge of ^ per page be made. No action having 
been taken upon that recommendation, it is now renewed in the following modi- 
fied form : That paragraph 5 of section 3 of act No. 273 as amended by act No. 
644 be further amended to read as follows : 

5. To furnish to any private person or persons making written application 
for the same, one or more copies of any document or paper in the archives in 
which such person or persons may be personally concerned and to which he or 
they may be entitled, and to certify to the correctness of same, if required, on 
the payment of the following, fees : 

For each page of copying of eight by thirteen inches in size, allowing a 
suitable margin, or any fraction thereof, fifty centavos; 

For each certificate of correctness of such copy, fifty centavos; 

For every search for any document more than one year old, whether or not the 
document be located in the archives, ten centavos for every past year of each 
notarial record in which search Is made. 

It is believed that the new schedule will result in only a moderate and proper 
reimbursement to the government for the labor involved In searching through 
these old notarial records and archives for documents desired by private indi- 
viduals, and furnishing certified copies thereof. 

There have been received in the division during the fiscal year 45 notarial 
registers from the provinces of Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Cavlte, Cebu, Iloilo, 
La Laguna, La Union, Leyte, Manila, Nueva E3cija, Tarlac, Tayabas and 
Samar. 

There have also been added to the archives 792 volumes relating to the Phil- 
ippines and adjacent Islands, which were purchased by the Philippine exposi- 
tion board for the St. Louis Exposition, and 132 books of historical Interest in 
connection with the Philippines, together with 4 bound manuscripts and 18 
copies of the book entitled " La Imprenta en Manila," all of which were pur- 



172 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

chased by the late collecting librarian of the Philippine government, Sefior 
Jo86 C. Zulueta. 

After a laborious selection and examination by the committee appointed by 
executive order No. 17, series 1905, the surplus, or damaged documents of the 
division, many of which had been attacked by white ants and were a source 
of danger to the remainder of the archives, were condemned by said committee 
and burned on March 6, 7 of the present year. The space thus made available 
lias been well utilized In the better classification and arrangement of the exist- 
ing archives. 

fiBGISTEB OF CATTLB BBANDB. 

The work of registering the brands of all large cattle in the Philippine 
Islands has been continued and to municipal presidents returning defective 
copies of brands, or requesting data omitted In the copies forwarded, 701 letters 
have been written. A total of 20,947 copies of brands were received by the divi- 
sion during the year, 223 of which were returned as defective and 124 for cor- 
rection. During the year 8,775 brands have been registered. At the time of 
my last report 100 municipalities had not yet forwarded the cattle brands 
within their jurisdiction for registry. Through constant correspondence with 
these municipalities the number yet to be heard from has been reduced to 44, 
and it is hoped that within the coming year the initial work of registering the 
brands of the cattle in the islands will have been completed. 

In my last report mention was made of the difficulties which have arisen in 
connection with cattle registration in the provinces near the city of Manila, 
owing to the cattle registration law not being applicable to Manila. The abuses 
then mentioned have continued during the past year and have been such tliat 
renewed recommendations have been made for the application of the general 
cattle registration act to the city of Manila, and a bill including the city of 
Manila within the scoi^e of the law in question is now in course of preparation 
and will shortly be submitted to the Commission for its consideration. 

BBQISTBATION OF PATENTS, COPYRIGHTS, AND TBADE-UABKS. 

During the past year 99 trade-marks and 15 certificates of trade-mark trans- 
fers have been registered, and there have been filed" 49 patents issued in the 
United States, 10 certificates of transfers of United States patents, and 5 
caveats. There have been Issued 59 copyright certificates, certified copies of 
documents referring to trade-marks, and 1 certified copy of a caveat, 
and collection has been made on account of 10 patents issued during the 
Spanish regime. The total of fees received on account of these transactions 
amounted to W,570.8C, as compared with P4,785.03 for the preceding year — ^an 
increase of ^790.83. 

The 59 copyright certificates granted during the year were issued pursuant 
to the proclamation of Major-General Merritt of August 14, 1898, under which 
the former bureau and present division of archives has construed the copyright 
laws of the Si>anish Government in the Philippines as continuing in force. 
However, in view of the fact that since the change of sovereignty In the 
Islands Spaniards are considered as foreigners before the law, doubt exists as 
to whether Spanish literary, artistic, and scientific works may legally be coi)y- 
rlghted under the royal decree of January 31, 1890, which prohibits the copy- 
righting of foreign publications. In a case which was recently presented, in- 
volving the copyrighting of certain Spanish dramatic works, the attorney- 
general held that the works could not be copyrighted, uix)n the ground that 
while the (Congress of the United States by the act of March 3, 1891, granted 
to citizens of foreign nations granting reciprocal rights to citizens of the 
United States the privilege of copyrighting their literary productions in 
Washington, section 1 of the act of Congress of July 1, 1902, specifically pro- 
vides that section 1891 of the Revised Statutes of the United States should 
not apply to the Philippine Islands, and that In consequence the copyright laws 
of the United States are not api)licable to the Philippines. As a result the 
literary works of neither foreigners nor of citizens of the United States may be 
legally copyrighted In the Philippine Islands. Again, In an opinion of the 
attorney -general rendered in connection with the ai)pllcation for coi)yright of 
certain dramatic works based on the "noil me tanpere" of Dr. Jose Klzal, 
It was held that the Spanish copyright laws which were continued In force by 
the military order above cited ceaseil to be efl'ective ui)on the termination of 
the military government, and that therefore all copyright certificates issued by 
the division of archives to any person whatsoever since the establishment of 



REPORT OP THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 



173 



the civil government are null and void. Should this opinion bo allowed to 
prevail without remedial legislation, grave injury will be causecl to those who 
In good faith have requested and been granted copyrights by the division since 
the establishment of the civil government. It is therefore urgently recom- 
mended that a proper and adequate copyright law be immediately enacted, and 
that the same confirm and legalize all copyrights granted by the division bf 
archives, which under the opinion of the attorney-general are now deemed to 
be without legal effect 

BBGISTBATION OF COBPOBATIONS. 

As heretofore stated, the licensing of foreign corporations and the registra- 
tion of domestic corporations under the new cori)oration law, enacted by the 
Coipmlsslon on March 1, 1906, has largely Increased the work of this division 
during the past year. The time fixed by section 70 of said law for the registra- 
tion and licensing of foreign corporations has been three times extended by the 
Commission and finally terminated on July 31, 1907. During the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 105 foreign corporations were licensed, and certificates of 
incorporation were granted to a total of 54 domestic corporations, of which 43 
were stock, 2 nonstock, and 9 nonstock religious coriwratlons. 

A complete list of all foreign corporations licensed to do business In the 
Philippine Islands under the new corix)ratlon law from the time of its enact- 
ment on March 1, 190(), down to and Including June 30, 1907, together with the 
date of Issuance of license, is set forth In the following table, In which the cor- 
porations are arranged according to nationality : 

UNITED STATES. 



Name of corporatlotn. 



Organized under the 
laws of— 



American Surety Co. of New York 

Atlantic, Gulf and Pacific Oo _ 

Behrendt A Oo -• 

Oadwalladcr Oo. (The B. W.) _ - 

Oaatle Bros.. Wolf & Sons 

California Manila Lumber Oommercial Oo 

Commercial Pacific Cable Co 

Domestic and Forelen Missionary Society of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church of the United States of America. 

Pidellty and Deposit Co. of Maryland 

International Banking Corporation 

Insurance Company of North America 

Kdly-Springfield Road Roller Co 

Moro Plantation Co 

Mount Cogran Mining Co _. 

Manila Trading and Supply Co 

New York Life Insurance Oo _ — 

Philippine Mining Co _ _ 

Philippine Islands Telephone and Telegraph Co 

Philippine Products Co 

Philippine Plantation and Commercial Co _ 

Standard Oil Co. of New York 

Underwood & Underwood Co — -_.: 



New Y^ork- 

West Virginia. 

New Y'ork 

Oregon 

California 

do 

New I'^ork 

do 

Maryland 

Connecticut- 
Pennsylvania. 

Ohio 

California 

Arizona 

Oliio 

New York 

Maine 

Nevada 

New Jersey... 

Oregon 

New York 

New Jersey- 



Issued li- 
cense on— 

Oct. 10,1906 
Dec. 14,1906 
Feb. 23,1907 
Dec. 7.1900 
Feb. 15,1907 
Feb. 1,1007 
Apr. 17,1907 
Oct. 6,1906 



Oct. 

Dec. 

Mar. 

Feb. 

Sept, 

Sept. 

Oct. 

May 

Oct. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Mar. 

Mar. 

Mar. 



10,1906 
12,1906 
27,1907 

5,1907 
.13,1906 
.18,1906 

2,li)06 
22,1907 
20.1906 

1,1907 
11,1907 
20,1907 
11.1907 
27,1907 



GREAT BRITAIN AND COLONIES. 



Name of corporation. 



Organized under the 
laws of— 



Alexander A Co. (R. F. & J.) _ _ England- 
British India Steam Navigation Co. (Llmite<l) do... 

British and Foreign Marine Insurance Co. (Limited) ' do. 



Chartered Bank of India, Australia, and China. 

Central Agency (Limited) — 

Coats, J. and P. (Limited) 

Eastern Extension Australasia and China Telegraph Co 
(Limited). 

Guardian Assurance Oo 

Jonas Brook A Bros. (Limited) — 

London and Lancashire Fire Insurance Co _ _._ 

Liverpool and London and Globe Insurance Co 

Maritime Insurance Co. (Limited) — . 

Marine Insurance Oo. (Limited) _ do 

Northern Assurance Oo — do 

Norwich Union Fire Insurance Society do 

National Union Society (Limited) do 

North China Insurance Oo. (Limited) do 



—do 

do.__ 

do— — - 

do 



-do— 

-do 

-do _ 

-do _ 

-do 



Issued li- 
cense on— 



Apr. 9.1907 
Oct. 27,1906 
Feb. 1,1907 
Dec. 11,1906 
Apr. 6,1907 
Apr. 0,1907 
Oct. 6,1906 



Oct. 
Apr. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 



1,1906 
6,1907 
1,1907 
4.1907 
1,1907 



Mar. 27.1907 
Feb. 6,1907 
Feb. 28,1907 
Feb. 4,1907 
Mar. 9.1007 



174 



BEPOBT OP THE PHIUPPIirB COMMISSION. 



GREAT BRITAIN AND COLONIES— Continued. 



Name of corporation. 



Organized under the 
laws of — 



Phoenix Assurance Co. (Limited) — . England — 

Philippine Cold Storea (Limited) do —. 

Palatine Insurance Co. (Limited) do 

Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Co do. __ 

Royal Insurance Co _ do 

Royal Exchange Assurance - do_. 

Stevenson, W. P., & Co. (Limited) do __ 

Scottish Union and National Insurance Co do 

Sun Insurance Office ' do_ _ _ 

Standard Life Assurance Co do 

Union Assurance Society --- — - -do_ 

Union Marine Insurance Co. (Limited) — do__ 

Warner, Barnes & Co. (Limited) — - — ' do — 

World Marine Insurance Co. (Limited) \ do 

Yorkshire Pire and Life Insurance Co_— — do 

China.Pire Insurance Co (Limited) 1 Hongkong — 

China Traders' Insurance Co. (Limited) - do — 

Canton Insurance Office (Limited) do_ 

China Mutual Life Insurance Co. (Lhnited) ___do 

China and Manila Steamship Co. (Limited) , do _— 

Pook On Assurance and Godown Co. (Limited). —J do 

Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation _ do 

Hongkong Pire Insurance Co. (Limited) ] do. 

Hip On Insurance Exchange and Loan Co. (Limited) ' do 

Philippine Co. (Limited) - do 

Po On Marine Insurance and Qodown Co. (Limited) ! do - 

Union Insurance Society of Canton (Limited)— I do. -— 

Watson, A. S., &Co. (Limited) _ _ ' do. _ 

Yang-Tsze Insurance Association (Limlteil) do — 

Yan On Marine and Pire Insurance Co. (Limited) do 

British America Assurance Co Canada _— — 

Canadian Pacific Railway Co _ do 

Manufacturers Life Insurance Co do. 

Mercantile Pire Insurance Co do.— - 

Sun Life Assurance Co. of Canada - do 

Western Assurance Co _ —•..do 

New Zealand Insurance Co. (Limited) New Zealand 

South British Pire Marine Insurance Co., of New Zealand do 

Triton Insurance Co. (LImltwl) Rrltlnh India 

Behn, Meyer & Co. (Limited).- Straits Settlements. 



Issued li- 
cense on — 



Oct. 


1,1908 


Dec. 


7.190G 


Mar. 


28.1907 


June 21,1907 


Oct. 


2,1906 


Mar. 


18,1907 


May 


4,1900 


Peb. 


23.1907 


Peb. 


4,1907 


Mar. 


18,1907 


Oct. 


2.1906 


Oct. 


27,1906 


Peb. 


1.1907 


Peb. 


4,1907 


Mar. 


23,1907 


Dee. 


14,1906 


Peb. 


1.1907 


Do. 


Mar. 


22,1907 


June 12.1907 


Apr. 


6.1907 


June 12.1903 


Peb. 


5.1907 


Mar. 


27.1907 


Nov 


. 6.190<3 



6,1907 

7.1906 

6.1907 

1.1907 

18,1907 

Peb. 23,1907 

Dec. 14,1906 

1.1907 

6,1907 

7,1907 

4,1906 

Mar. 27.1JI07 

Pob. 4.1907 

Peb. 1,1907 

Do. 



Apr. 
Dec. 
Apr. 
Peb. 
Mar. 



Peb. 
Peb. 
Peb. 
Oct. 



GKRMANY. 



Aachen and Munich Pire Insurance Co ; Germany-. 

Portuna Allegemeine Verslcherungs-Aktien Gesellschaft do 

German Lloyd Marine Insurance Co __ do 

Hamburg-Bremen Pire Insurance Co do 

Hanseatic Pire Insurance Co ...do 

Magdeburg Pire Insurance Co _. _do 

North (}erman Insurance Co. of Hamburg do 

Prussian National Insurance Co do 



Mar. 20.1907 
Peb. 7,1907 
Mar. 5,1907 
Mar. 20,1907 

Do. 
Mar. 21,1907 
Apr. 6,1907 
Apr. 24,1907 



NKTIIKU LANDS. 



Batavia Sea and Fire Insurance Co.— i Netherlands— 

Patum Accident Insurance Co _ do 

Java-Chlna-Japan-Lyn do 

Netherlands Pire and Life Insurance Co do 

Stoomvaart Maatschappy " Nederland" .__! do 

Samarang Sea and Pire Insurance Co.. do 



Peb. 20,1907 
Peb. 5,1907 
Mar. 20.1007 
Feb. 5,1907 

Do. 
June 17.1907 



SWITZERI^ND. 



Balolse Pire Insurance Co _ _ Switzerland.. 

Balolse Marine Insurance Co__ — do 

Federal Marine Insurance Co. (Limited) - __do 

Urania Cigar Factory (Limited) ■ do 



Mar. 18,1007 

Do. 

Do. 
Oct. 6,1906 



JAPAN. 



Imperial Marine Transport and Fire Insurance Co. (Limited). J Japan. 

Mitsui Bussan Kalsha _ ' do 

Toklo Marine Insurance Co. (LiniltttI) _ _ do 



Apr. 6,1907 
Mar. 23,1907 
Mar. 22.1907 



BEPOBT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECBETABY. 



175 



SPAIN. 



Name of eorporatlon. 



Oompafiia General deTabacos do Filipfnas (2 licenses). 

Oompaiila Agricola de Ultramar. _ '. 

Hospital Espanul de Santiago 



Organized under the ' Issued II- 
laws of — 1 cense on — 



Spain 8ept.27,190a 

do -.1 Oct. 22,1908 

do- I 8ept.28,lJ)06 



FRANCE. 



La Conllanco Fire Insurance Co.. 
Union Fire Insurance Co 



France . 
do- 



Mar. 18,1007 
Mar. 27,1907 



ITALY. 



Scbweiger Import and Export Co _, Italy. 



Nov. 7.1006 



The following? is a complete list of all domestic coriwratlous to which 
certificates of incoriwration were granted under the new corporation law, the 
table showing the date of incorporation and the amount of capital stocli of 
each coriKjration : 



Name of corporation. 



Capital 

stock 

(Philippine 

I currency). 



Assinga Co. (LImiUHi) 

Ang Pagslslcap _— _. 

Ateneo de Manila 

Assumption College _ _ 

AngLiwayway 

Army and Navy Club of Zambounga.. 

Baco River Plantation Co _ _. _ 

Buluan Ranchc Co _ 

Baguio Transportation Co. (Tlie) __ .__ 

Baguio Country Club (Corporation).. 

Camara de Comercio China de Filipinas _ 

Colorado Mining Co _ _ __. 

Clum Co. (W. N.)_ - 

Oontracostena Infantense (La) 

Destileria '* La Union " __ 

Eastern Engineering and Constniction Co 

Gloria Steamship Co __ 

Iglesia Filipina Independlente __ 

Ilocos Mining Co _ 

Lepanto Mining Co _ '. 

Do - 

Do -- _- 

Macleod Telegraph Code** Co_ 

Monserrat Bakery (Limited) 

Manila Transport Co ,_ _ __ 

Manila Hemp Machine Co _ _ 

Moro Improvement and Trading Co _ 

Monasterio de la Pnrisima Concepcion de Nuestra Madre Santa Clara 

Oriental Printing Cv>—. .— 

Obreros Tabaqucros (Loh) 

Otha Development Co 

Philippine Hemp Machine Co _ 

Padada Plantation Co __ 

Protecc'.Ion de la Infancia (La) -> . 

Philippines GoM Drodping Co _ 

Provlncla del Santisimo (Rosarlo) Nonibrc de Jesus de Filipinas, del 

Orden de Ermltanos de nuestro Padre San Agustin 

PIrawat _ — — 

Philippine Publl.sliing Co - 

Philippine Publishing Co _ 

Provincla del SanlLsImo Rosario de las Islas Filipinas. 

Provlncla dc San Gregorlo Magno - — 

Roman Catholic Bishop of Jaro. _ _ 

Roman Catholic Archbishop of Manila - 

Roman Catholic Bishop of Nueva Segovia _ - 

Roman Catholic Bishop of Cebu - 

Roman Cuthollc Bishop of Nueva Caoeres 

Southern Cross Plantation Co 



1*80,000 
2,j00 
None. 
None. 
40,000 
None. 
23,000 

riO,ooo 

50,000 
10.000 
None. 
1,000,000 
12,200 
2.>,000 
25,000 
20.000 
40,000 
None. 

100,000 
SO, 000 

200.000 

1,000,000 

50,000 

20,000 

15.000 

1,200,000 

30,000 

None. 

25,000 

2,500 

100,000 

150,000 
50,000 

None. 

200,000 

None. 
6,000 
5,000 

600,000 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

100,000 



Date of in- 
corporation. 



Jan. 
Dec. 
May 
Aug. 
Mar. 



June 7,1006 
June 7 . 11K)7 
Feb. 17, um 
Mar. 23.1907 
Apr. l«).nX)7 
May 2,1907 
July 18.15)06 
Feb. 10,1907 
Feb. 20.1907 

Do. 
Juno 1,1906 
Sept. 12. 1906 
Aug. 15.1906 
Dec. 26.1906 
3,1007 
2«},ll)06 
9.11)07 
14.1JJ08 
6.1907 
Sept. 22. 1906 
«Jan. 10.1907 
''Mar. 7,1907 
May 2,1906 
June 26,UX)6 
July 27.1906 
Dec. 11.1908 
Dec. 22.1906 
June 17.1907 
Aug. 9.190^5 
Nov.27.1}X)3 
June 17,1907 
Jan. 28,1907 
Jan. 29,1{W7 
Feb. 15,1907 
Feb. 20,1907 

Nov. 22.1903 
Mar. 18,15)07 
Mar. 22.1907 
'^Mar. 25,l<Ky7 
Apr. 1.1907 
June 7,1907 
June 19,1906 
Aug. 24,1906 

Do. 
Jan. 14.15i07 

Do. 
Sept. 10.1906 



« Capital stock Increased to P200,000. * Capital stock increased to ^1,000,000. 

<= Capital stock increased to 1*000,000. 



176 



RBPOBT OF THE PHIUPPINE COMMISSION. 



Name of corporation. 



San Rafael Agricultural Co _ 

Smith Company (The E. J.) 

Sociedad Mindorefia 

Sariling L'\^as (Ang) 

Tarlac Itailway Oo 

Tayabas Plantation Oo _ 

TIbungoy Plantation Oo _ 

Tayabas Sawmill and Lumber Co _ 

Tarlac Distilling Co_ 

University Club of Manila 

Uling-Lutac Coal Mining Co 

Visayan Mercantile and Drug Co 

Wilson Plantation Co _ _ 

Yek Tong Lin Fire and Marino Insurance Co. (Limited)., 

Yebana Company (La) 

Young Men's Christian Association of Manila 

Yap Tlco y Compania _ 

Zamboanga Chamber of Conunerce 

Zambo Mining Co , 



Oapital 
I stock 
(Philippine 
currency). 

.1 r 76,000 

200.000 

J 1,000 

s.ooa 

150.000 

aoo.ooo 

60,000 
100,000 

25,000 
None. 
100.000 
100.000 

30,000 
500,000 
100,000 
None. 

70.000 
None. 

25.000 



Date of In- 
corporation. 



Sept.28.1906 
Nov. 13,1006 
Mar. 2,1907 
June 18,1967 
Aug. 9.1906 
Aug. 81.1906 
Nov. 8.1908 

Do. 
May 28.1907 
Apr. &,I906 
Apr. 4,1906 
May 15,1907 
May 7,1906 
June 8,1906 
Dec. 10,1906 
June 24.1907 
June 26.1907 
Mar. ll.lOOr 
Apr. 24,1907 



RECOBDEB OF THE COMMISSION. 

The work performed by the recorder of the Commission and his office force 
has been greater in volume during the past year than in the year previous, 
owing to the natural increase of the business of his office and to the duty im- 
posed upon him of making verbatim reports of discussions in the Commission 
and of hearings before that body on various subjects, particularly on the sub- 
jei't of the new railway construction* now in progress in the islands of Luzon, 
Panay, and Xegros. 

The necessity of making provision for the new duties which will devolve upon 
the recording officer of the Commission upon the establishment of the Philippine 
assembly impelled the Commission, by Act No. 1679, to re-create the position of 
secretary of the Commission. The act provides that the secretary shall be ap- 
IK)inted by resolution of the Commission and that, after the organization of the 
Philippine assembly, he shall perform the duties which would properly be 
required of the recorder of the Commission under existing law, and such other 
duties as may be imi)osed by resolution of the Commission. It further pro- 
vides that the secretary of the Commission shall act as chief of the division of 
legislative records of the executive bureau, effective as of the organization of 
the Philippine assembly. 

As the organization of the Philippine assembly marks the establishment of 
a legislature composed of two houses, the Philippine Commission and the Phil- 
ippine assembly, It Is deem^l advisable that this rei)ort cover the i)erlod from 
July 1, 1006, to October 16, 1J)07, the date on which the work of the Commission, 
acting alone as the legislative body of the islands, ceased. The records of the 
Commission for this i)eriod show the number of executive sessions to have been 
230; public sessions, 24; hearings and discussions before the Commission which 
have been reported, 26 ; laws enacted, 203 ; resolutions adopted, 815 ; appoint- 
ments confirmed, 814; acts of the legislative council of the Moro Province 
approved, 31, and miscellaneous entries in the minutes, 176. 

On October 16, llKXi, by executive order No. 38, the hours of legislative sessions 
of the Commission were fixed by the governor-general at from 9 o'clock a. m. 
until 12 noon, dally, Sundays and legal holidays excepted; these hours being 
later changed by executive order No. 19, July 3, 1007, to from 8 o'clock a. m. 
to 1 o'clock p. m., dally, Sundays and legal holidays excepted. Prior to the 
issuance of executive order No. 38, the Commission had no regular time of 
meeting, sessions being held at the call of the president. Executive sessions 
held monilng and afternoon of the same day have been recorded as one session, 
and public sessions held in the morning and afternoon as two. From November 
10 to December 5, irKXJ, the governor-general, ex officio president of the Com- 
mission, was absent from Manila on an official trip through the southern prov- 
inces; on March 30, the Commission being In Bagulo, holdhig regular sessions, 
the governor-general found it necessary to leave for Manila on executive busi- 
ness, returning about April 23; on May 18, 1907, he left on an official trip 
through the northern provinces of Luzon, returning about June 26, 1907. There 
being no quorum during the periods mentioned, no sessions were held* - 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 177 

Of the ^4 public sessions, 1 each was held for the discussion of the chattel- 
mortgage law, the Philippine road law, and the weights and measures bill ; 6 
for the horse race gambling bill; 2 for the bankruptcy bill; 11 for the election 
law; 1 for the inauguration of the fourth chief executive of the Philippine 
Islands, and 1 upon the reception and welcome of the Honorable the Secretary 
of War. 

Hearings and discussions held before the Commission have covered a mul- 
tiplicity of subjects, among which might be mentioned the matters pertaining 
to railroad construction In the islands, the proposed grant of a franchise to 
the Automatic Telephone Construction Company, the proposed amendment to 
the land- registration act, and the petition to susiiend the operation of the race 
track gambling law. As previously remarked, a verbatim report of these 
hearings and discussions has been made. Six copies of a volume of 443 type- 
written pages, containing a complete record of discussions, resolutions, com- 
munications, reports, etc., from May 28, 1906, to May 31, 1907, on the railway 
questions which were submitted to the Commission, have been bound at the 
bureau of printing and have been furnished the Bureau of Insular Affairs, the 
governor-general, the secretary of commerce and police, the supervising railway 
expert, and the Insular auditor, the sixth copy being retained in the recorder's 
olHce. Under the railway franchise acts, Nos. 1497 and 1510. the power of 
IMisslng on all questions affecting railways was left to the governor-general 
without reference to the Commission, and all action taken by the Commission 
was merely advisory in character, except in so far as authority of the legisla- 
tive body was necessary to incur expenditures not already provided for by law. 

RESOLUTIONS OF THE COMMISSION. 

Of the many resolutions, general in character, adopted by the Commission 
during the year, the following might be mentioned as among the more Im- 
portant and as demonstrating the diversity of subjects under consideration : 

July 23, 19()G — authorizing the secretary of commerce and police, on behalf 
of the Philippine Commission, to enter into an agreement in writing with the 
Hawaiian Sugar Planters* Association, through- Its representative, Mr. Albert 
F. Judd, of Honolulu, with the object of safeguarding the interests of Filipino 
laborers with whom Mr. Judd was contracting for service on the sugar planta- 
tions of Hawaii. On December 18, 190G, the Commission, by resoultion, ap- 
|)olnted Messrs. S. M. Damon, Alexander Garvie, and A. M. T. Bottomley, of 
the banking house of Bishop & Co., with residence In Honolulu, Jointly and 
severally as attorneys for the government of the Philippine Islands and on its 
behalf to carry out the provisions of the above contract, and to commence, 
prosecute, or enforce all actions or legal proceedings touching any of the mat- 
ters contained in the said agreement. 

July 24, IJXK) — establishing 24 health districts throughout the Islands under 
the provisions of act 1487, and confirming appointments made thereunder. 

January 11, 1907 — ^authorizing the secretary of commerce and i)olice to ap- 
IK)lnt in the United States, by telegraph, 3 inspecting firms or individuals to 
Inspect railroad material to be useil in the construction of Philippine railways, 
consisting of steel rails, bridges, track fastenings, and other items of con- 
struction, in accordance with the practice prevailing among American railroads, 

January 25,^ 1907 — authorizing the governor-general to enter Into a contract 
for the protection of natives of the Philippine Islands taken to the Jamestown 
Tercentennial Exiwsition. 

February 4, 11K)7 — defining the word "completion," as applied to railroads 
under the provisions of act No. 1497, granting a franchise to the Philippine 
Railway Company, the matter being a very important one, as affecting the 
amount for which the government is liable under its interest guaranty on the 
cost of construction of the Visaj-an railways. 

February 25. 1907 — authorized the establishment In the bureau of audits of 
a division of railway accounts, and after consultation with the supervising rail- 
way expert, the insular and dei)uty auditors, and the representatives of the 
Philii)pine Hallway Company, approved certain rules and regulations for the 
inspection of construction and audit of the accounts of the Philippine Railway 
Comi)any. 

April 2S, 15K)7 — authorizing the secretary of commerce and police to enter into 
a contract or contracts with the contracting steamshii) companies, with a view 
to stK'uring more expeditious, wonomical and better service to a large number 
of i)orts in the Philippine Archipelago, in the event that the military authorities 

11024— WAB 1907— VOL 7 12 



178 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

dispense with the Interisland transports, excepting those equipped solely for lay- 
ing and repairing cables or for carrying refrigerated stores, and to enter into 
contracts with the said companies for their business. 

March 12, 1907 — ^that the government should insure its own property, and that 
a special fund should be created to be Invested and held to replace any property 
of the government of the Philippine Islands which might be damaged or de- 
stroyed. Act No. 1728 providing for such insurance has since been passed. 

March 18, 1907 — decided that a complete medical school, with a course of five 
years, should be established in the islands, and provided a faculty therefor. 

March 20, 1907 — the governor-general was authorized to take up with the 
Secretary of War the question of the transfer to the civil authorities of the 
telegraph and cable lines operated by the military, under the terms and condi- 
tions stated in the resolution. This transfer has since been effected. 

March 26, 1907 — ^authorizing and requesting the governor-general to appoint, 
as members of the board of directors of the Philippine Railway Company, to 
represent the interests of this government in the deliberations of said board. 
Gen. Clarence R. Edwards and Maj. Frank Mclntyre, U. S. Army, chief of 
the Bureau of Insular Affairs, and assistant chief of the Bureau of Insular 
Affairs. resDectlvelv 

March 28, 1907— certifying to the President of the United States that " for 
a period of two years after the completion and publication of the census, a 
condition of general and complete p^ce, with recognition of the authority of 
the United States, has continued to exist and now exists in the territory of the 
Philippine Islands not inhabited by Moros or other non-Christian tribes," and 
requesting the President of the United States direct the Commission to call a 
general election for the choice of delegates to a popular assembly of the people 
of said territory in the Philippine Islands, which assembly shall be known as 
the Philippine Assembly. 

March 30, 1907 — under and by virtue of the executive order issued by the 
President on March 28, 1907, the Commission formally called a general election, 
' to be held on July 30, 1907, for the selection of delegates to the Philippine 
Assembly. 

April 25, 1907 — requesting the assignment of the United States Fish Com- 
mission boat Albatross to these islands, for the purpose of making scientific 
investigations and Instructing the natives thereof in deep-sea fishing and the 
pearl and sponge industries. The Albatross is expected to arrive in the very 
near future. 

May 9, 1907 — a committee, consisting of the Hon, W. Morgan Shuster and 
8 other lawyers was appointed tp compile and codify all the laws of the Philip- 
pine Islands up to and including June 30, 1907, the object being to complete, if 
possible, a compilation of the laws of the Islands before the opening of the 
Philippine Assembly. On October 2, 1907, the report of the committee was ac- 
cepted and the committee discharged. It appeared from the report of the com- 
mittee that it had completed a compilation of all acts up to and including 
August 31, 1907. The Commission deeming It advisable that the same should 
Include all laws passed by it up to the time of the organization of the Philip- 
pine Assembly, appointed a new compilation committee of 3 members, with Com- 
missioner Shuster as chairman, to continue the work, so as to Include therein 
all acts passed from August 31, 1907, up to and including October 15, 1907, 
and authorized an expenditure of not to exceed W2,000 for the printing, bind- 
ing, and publishing of 500 copies of the final compilation and Index thereto. 

July 24 — the Commission expressed its opposition to the enactment of any 
law which would permit the granting of absolute divorces in the Philippine 
Islands, on the ground that the enactment of a law similar to that which pre- 
vails In some of the States In the United States would not be In the Interests of 
the Filipino people, the question having been brought up by a i)etItion request- 
ing the enactment of a law which would permit the petitioner to remarry, he 
having been granted a divorce by the courts of the islands. 

August 5 — the secretary of commerce and police was authorized to adver- 
tise publicly for bids for a concession to construct a railroad from San P'er- 
nando, Pampanga, to Arayat, a distance of approximately 9 miles. 

August 14 — the Commission reserved certain described land for a town site at 
Slbul Springs, a health resort of the Islands. 

September 9 — the Commission denied a petition filed by the Philippine 
chaml)er of commerce for the reduction until December 31, 1907, of customs 
duty on foreign rice on the principal grounds: (1) That the farmers and pro- 
ducers of rice in the Philippine Islands had not been consulted as to the pro- 



BEPORX OF THE EXECUTIVE SECBBTARY. 179 

posed reduction in tariff rates, and that it was doubtful whether such reduction 
would be to the interest of the rice growers, and whether the consumer would 
receive the benefit of any such reduction; and (2) that there was some doubt as 
to whether under the act of Congress of March 3, 1905, the Commission had 
any power to make reductions in the rice tariff once the rate had been fixed 
for a given period by an act of the Commission. 

October 3 — ^authorizing the director of navigation to advertise for bids for 
the improvement of the port of Tagbtlaran, Bohol, and in case proper bids were 
not received, to proceed with the improvement of the port by administration, 
and pledging WO.OOO for that purpose. 

August 14 — ^the Commission settled the question of the width of roadbed to 
be constructed by the Philippine Railway Company. 

LAWS OF THE MOBO PBOVINCE. 

Thirty-Six certified copies of laws of the Moro Province were received by the 
recorder, in accorda^ice with section 32 of the Moro government act (No. 787), 
which requires that all laws of the Moro Province shall be passed subject to 
annulment or amendment by the Commission. Of the above 33 were approved 
upon reading and 3 after having been questioned by the Commission were with- 
drawn by the legislative council of the Moro Province. 

CHANGES IN THE PERSONNEL OF THE COMMISSION. 

On September 20, 1006, Hon. James F. Smith was Inaugurated as governor- 
general of the Philippine Islands, succeeding Hon. Henry Clay Ide, resigned. 
The inauguration was held in the marble hall of the ayuntamiento and was 
attended by the Commission in a body, the Justices of the supreme court of 
these Islands, the ofllcial representatives in the' Philippine Islands of foreign 
nations, bodies of ofllcers representative of the United States Army and Navy, 
Judges of the court of first instance, provincial governors, administrative ofli- 
cials of the insular govemmeLt and of the city of Manila, representatives of 
the several commercial arid economic associations of the city, the veteran army 
of the Philippines, and a large representation of the general public. 

Hon. W. Morgan Shuster, formerly insular collector of customs, was ap- 
pointed by the President to the vacancy created in the Commission through the 
resignation of Hon. Henry Clay Ide and the appointment of Hon. James F. 
Smith as governor-general, and having taken the oath of office assumed his 
duties as commissioner and secretary of public instruction on September 28, 
1906. 

The position of vice-governor has remained vacant since the inauguration of 
Governor-General Smith. 

SESSIONS AT BAGUIO. 

On February 28, 1907, in accordance with its annual custom, the Commission 
adjourned to meet at Baguio, Benguet. Sessions began there on March 9, 1907, 
and continued morning and evening of practically every working day until 
March 30, when, as noted above, the governor-general returned to Manila on 
executive business. Sessions were resumed on April 24, and the Commislon 
met daily until May 18, when an adjournment was taken to meet in Manila 
after the return of the governor-general from his official visit to the northern 
provinces of Luzon. It will thus be seen that while the Commission left Manila 
for Baguio one month earlier than last year, the actual number of days on 
which a quorum was available and sessions were held during the season was 
only about equal to that of the season of 1906. Dally sessions of long hours 
and close application was the rule. A great many subjects of Importance were 
considered and a large amount of accumulated routine and current business dis- 
posed of, so that upon the termination of the season at Baguio all matters pend- 
ing had received the attention of the Commission. The staff of the Commission 
at Baguio comprised 15 employees, the same number as last year. The postal 
and telegraph arrangements between Manila and Baguio were excellent, and the 
members of the Commission were enabled to prosecute their business with the 
officials of the various bureaus and offices with reasonable expedition and con- 
venience. 

MATTERS PENDING BEFORE THE COMMISSION. 

All matters pending at the beginning of the fiscal year, as shown by the last 
annual report, have been disposed of except the bankruptcy bill and the pro- 
posed penal code and code of criminal procedure. 



180 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

The bankruptcy Mil, — ^This bill was presented to Hon. Henry O. Ide, president 
of tlie Commission, by a committee of tlie Philippine Bar Association on July 24, 
1906, and, after revision by Governor Ide, it was passed to first, second, and 
third readings, and submitted to public discussion. After considering the sug- 
gestions and recommendations made during its discussion and in communica- 
tions received from banking and commercial institutions of Manila, the bill was 
laid on the table on October 29, 1906, and Commissioners Shuster and Luzu- 
riaga were appointed a committee to confer with certain members of the Phil- 
ippine Bar Association as to the advisability of preparing a new draft of a 
bankruptcy law, to be taken from the law relating to insolvency as it stood 
under the Spanish regime or from the insolvency laws of one of the United 
States, and amend and amplify it to meet conditions in the Philippine Islands, 
the same to be translated into Spanish by members of the association familiar 
with Spanish and American legal terminology and presented to the bar asso- 
ciation for discussion and amendment, if desired, and when perfected by the 
association to be submitted to the Commission for consideration. It is under- 
stood that a new draft is now in the possession of Commissioner Shuster and 
will be presented to the Commission at an early session. 

Penal Code and Code of Criminal Procedure, — This measure has been allowed 
to remain on the table, the Commission having found it necessary to give Its 
attention to more urgent matters. It has been decided now to leave the matter 
with the assembly. 

In addition to the foregoing, there are now pending before the Commission a 
bill looking to the reorganization of the municipal government of Manila ; a bill 
to provide for the lnsi>ectlon of steam and other vessels of the Philippine Islands, 
and to regulate the transportation of passengers and merchandise thereon, and 
a number of other bills of minor importance. 

Appended hereto and marked " Exhibit L," and " Exhibit M," are the journal 
of the Philippine Commission, on the occasion of the ceremonies attendant upon 
the Inauguration of the Philli)plne Assembly, October 16, 1907, and the journal 
of the joint convention of the Philippine legislature on October 17, 1907. 

ADMINISTRATION DIVISION. 

As recommended In my last annual reiwrt, the name of the administration, 
and finance division was changed by act No. 1527 to that of the administration 
division. 

The duties of the chief of this division were Increased by the abolition of the 
I)osltlon of chief clerk on January 1, 1907, the result of which was to make neces- 
sary the handling by the chief of the administration division of practically all 
incoming corresiKHidence. This division is charged with the greater part of the 
"action" work of the bureau, except that relating to election matters and 
appointments, and, as has been the case in previous fiscal years, has been com- 
I)elled to perform a large amount of overtime work. 

TKANSLATING DIVISION. 

This division has worked under difficulties during a considerable portion of 
the fiscal year by reason of the absence, either on leJive or due to Illness, of the 
chief of the division and two Spanish-English translators. The work of the 
division was somewhat lightened, however, by relieving It from the necessity of 
translating i)ardon jietitlons and the lengthy court sentences and Indorsements 
connecte<l therewith, all of which work is now handled by Filipino clerks In the 
administration division. The fact that all the officials of the bureau and every 
division chief except one has a good working acQualntance with the Spanish 
language has also rendered It iwssible to disi)ense with the necessity of trans- 
lating a large amount of more or less routine correspondence of the bureau, and 
thus further rellevetl the congestion in the translating division. 

The following figures show the amount of translating work performed by the 
division during the past fiscal year:« 

The work of reviewing the island press published in the Spanish language 
and the various Philippine languages has luH^n continued during the year, and 
has involved the reading of 5,903 daily, weekly, !)iweekly, and monthly publi- 
cations, as a result of which 159 press reports w(»re made for the governor- 
general, aggregating 2,512 folios of tyi>ewritteu matter. The division also fur- 

» Omitted and on tile In the nurcuu of Insular Affairs, War Department. 



BEPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 181 

nlshed an Interpreter for most of the public and executive sessions of the Phil- 
ippine Commission, for a number of the sessions of the committee on pardons 
and for other work. The chief of the division, prior to his departure on leave 
of absence on March 11, 1907, also accompanied the governor-general on several 
of his provincial visits of insi)ection as his i)ersonal interpreter. 

LEGISLATIVE DIVISION. 

The chief of this division, Mr. David I^wis Cobb, returned from leave of ab- 
sence in the United States on October 20, 1906. In order not to delay the pub- 
lication of the supreme court reports, Mr. Cobb i)erformed' considerable work 
in preparing Volume III for the printer while absent in the United States on 
his vacation, with the result that the volume in question was printed and dis- 
tributed shortly after his return to duty. 

During the fiscal year Volume V of the Public Laws, Annotated, In English 
and Spanish, was compiled and published, official distribution made, and the 
remainder placed on sale with the director of printing. This volume contains, 
in both English and Si)anlsh editions, the laws of the Philippine Commission 
for the legislative year ending August 31, 190(5, and consists of acts Nos. 1384 
to 1536, Inclusive, the regular lists and special tables published in previous 
editions, and the following acts of Congress approved during the year 1906. 

The act of February 26, to revise and amend the tariff revision law of 1905 ; 
the act of April 30, to regulate the United States-Philippine trans-Pacific carry- 
ing trade and the local trade between interisland i)orts ; the act of June 13, pro- 
hibiting the imiwrtatlon, e.xiK)rtatlon, and transportation of falsely or spurious- 
ly stamped articles of merchandise made of gold, silver, or their alloys; the act 
of June 23, amending the Philippine coinage and currency act of March 2, 1903 ; 
the act of June 28, amending section 2844 of the revised statutes ; and the act 
of June 30, prohibiting the manufacture, sale, or transi)ortatlon of adulterated, 
mlsbranded, or deleterious foods, drugs, and liquors, and regulating the traffic 
therein. To carry out the intent and purpose of this latter law, the Philippine 
Commission has enacted act No. 1655, known as the "Pure Food and Dru ' ct," 
and promulgated appropriate rules and regulations for its enforceme^ain mthe 
islands. 

In view of the fact that the full legislative authority of the i '>j 

ceased on October 15, 1907, it is the intention to have Volume VI of |es of th^. 
Laws, which is now being compiled, contain all the legislation of tb' 
slon down to the Inauguration of the Assembly. Were this action '^^lent to 
and Volume VI closed on August 31, as has heretofore been the '^J^^ipped - 
would be necessary to issue a separate volume, in both English and .c ^5g^*M*^/ 
the legislative enactments of the (Commission for the month and a *^ V ^^'^^^ '^JJ. 
ing between the close of the legislative year and the inaugura' f^ ^/^^.'^o new 
Legislature. h£ 

The executive orders and proclamations issued by the governor-^^eral during 
the calendar year 1906 were comi)iled and published by the division and have 
since been distributed, the English and Spanish texts of the orders and procla- 
mations being contained in the same volume. 

PASSPORTS. 

All applications for passports received by the Bureau, as heretofore, have 
been passed ujkju by the chief of this division prior to their Issuance by the 
governor-general. The total number of passports Issued during the fiscal year 
was 91, of which 78 were to citizens of the I'nlted States and 13 to citizens of 
the Philippine Islands as defined by the treaty of Paris and the act of Congress 
of July 1, 11K)2. No formal applications for passports have been disapproved 
during the year, owing to the fact that each iierson desiring to apply for a pass- 
port has been first questioned to ascertain his status, and In cases where an 
application could not be considered favorably the applicant has been so informed 
and the reason why passport could not Issue exi)lalned to him. The majority 
of such applicants belonged to the class to whom passjwrts might have been 
Issued if the American rule were in force here as regards persons bom in the 
islands and subject to the jurisdiction thereof. The remainder consisted of per- 
sons who have made their declarations of Intention, and of honorably discharged 
soldiers, who because of their residence in the Islands have been unable to com- 
plete the formalities of naturalization. This subject has been discussed In a 
previous report. In which recommendations were made with a view to avoiding 
what seems a hardship in many cases. 



182 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

OFFICIAL OAZETTB. 

The division has continued in charge of the publication of the Official Gazette, 
both English and Spanish editions, the matter which has been published therein 
having been practically the same as outlined in my report of last year. The 
subscriptions to the Gazette have increased somewhat during the past year, and 
the Si)ani8h edition yielded a net revenue of «,055.68. The English edition, 
however, which has a smaller circulation, caused a net cost to the government 
of ^^,442.85. The net cost of both publications during the fiscal year was there- 
fore ^2,387.17. The net cost of both publications during the previous year was 
W,417.32. 

PHILIPPINE REPORTS. 

Volume III of the Philippine Reports, both English and Spanish editions, 
containing the reported decisions of the supreme court of the Philippine Islands 
from December G, 1003, to and including April 23, 1904, were published by the 
division In December, 1906. With the publication of this volume, however, 
the reports of the supreme court were still nearly three years behind. The 
imjwrtance of having the decisions of the supreme court compiled and pub- 
lished down to date, and of having its future decisions promptly reported and 
published, was brought to the attention of the Commission on January 11, 1907, 
upon which date that body adopted a resolution authorizing the temiwrary em- 
ployment in the legislative division of 4 additional clerks to assist In bringing 
the work of publishing the Philippine reports down to date. Under this author- 
ity, 4 additional clerks were Immediately employed, and the division devoted 
itself with energy to the work, with the result that during the period from Jan- 
uary 15, 1907, to June 30, 1907, Volumes IV, V, VI, and VII of the reports, both 
English and Spanish editions, were compiled, indexed and published and the 
office force of the division reduced to Its normal size on the latter date. 

The 7 volumes of the reports now published In both English and Simnlsh 
cover the reported decisions of the supreme court for a period of six years, be- 
glnnjif-jvwlth the first reported case on March 8, 1901, and ending with case No. 
105 led March 13. 11K)7. 

C ly 13, 1907, the supreme court of the islands adopted a resolution re- 
quf ^ the Commission to re-create the position of reporter of the supreme 
C,^ flj'^'lch had been abolished by act No. 1407. The action requested by the 
'Wi\ ini; ourt was taken by the Commission on July 23, 1907, by the enact- 
anision. .^ No. 1075. The legislative division of the bureau was abolished 

altiou o^' ^' August 31, 1907, and Its chief, Mr. David Lewis Cobb, was ap- 
^\v^ porter of the supreme court. Under the new arrangement, the re- 
pOTftr'T^m continue In charge of the compilation of the Public Laws and the 
Official Gazette, being subject to the orders of the supreme court as regards 
the i)ubllcatlon of the Philippine reports, and to the orders of this office as re- 
gards the publication of the Public I^ws and the Official Gazette. 

RECORDS DIVISION. 

This division, as stated In previous reports, Is charged wltli the recording of 
all the correspondence of the governor-general, the heads of executive depart- 
ments, the members of the Philippine Commission, and the executive bureau 
except that emanating from the division of archives, patents, copyrights and 
trade-marks which latter division, by reason of the peculiar nature of its work, 
keeps Its own records. 

LOCUST PLAQUE. 

Considerable damage has been Inflicted throughout the provinces durfng the 
past year as in previous years by the locust peat, which, It api)ears. Is to yearly 
recur. With the practical exhaustion of the Congressional relief fund, how- 
ever, from which insular assistance in coml)ating this i)est has heretofore been 
extended, the various provincial governments have been advised that this mat- 
ter must bo c(>nsidere<l a provincial and municipal problem and that all exi)enses 
incurred In combating the locust plague must be paid out of provincial and 
municipal revenues. Hence no statistics have been received, as in previous years, 
as to the weluht of tlio ItK-usts destroyed, except those in the reports of the pro- 
vincial governors, referreil to later. 



BEPOKT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 188 

BEPOBTS OF THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNORS. 

Attention Is invited to the reports of the provincial governors attached hereto 
and marked " Exhibit N." Several do not contain all the information required 
by law and by the instructions issued by this bureau. Nearly all of them are 
wanting in precise data. With few exceptions they are not as satisfactory as 
in previous years, and the searcher for facts regarding the actual conditions 
prevailing In the provinces during the period covered will not be repaid in the 
same measure as heretofore. The governors of three provinces, who resigned 
shortly after the expiration of the fiscal year to become candidates for the 
assembly, have failed to send in their reports. The labors Incident to the cam- 
paign and to the sessions of the assembly, of which they are now prominent 
members, are probably the reasons for the regrettable absence of their rejwrts 
from among those t)f their i)rovlnclal colleagues. The three provinces referred 
to are Cobu, Leyte, and Tayabas, which, according to the census of 1903, had 
an aggregate population of 1,195,714. 

In view of these facts, it Is manifestly imi)Osslble to give a survey of condi- 
tions in the provinces in as complete a manner as would be desirable. The best 
that can be done is to synthesize the data available — ^a great part of which it 
would be difficult to check — in order to arrive at the conclusions that only a 
more or less analytical study of the reports could give. 

The report of the Moro Province is not included in this survey. 

AORICULTCRE. 

Taking the provinces In alphabetical order, the following remarks apply to 
the production of rice, abaca, copra, and cocoanuts, tobacco, sugar, and other 
crops. 

Rice. 

Abra Increase of 25 per cent over last year. 

Albay Outlook is for an unheard-of crop of rice. 

Ambos Camarlnes Crop almost totally destroyed by rats and certain noc- 
turnal pests. 

Antique 450,000 cavans harvested during the year. 

Bataan Over one-half of the crop lost through the ravages of the 

accip. 

Batangas Considerable increase; production almost sufficient to 

supply all local demand, very little being shipped 
Into the province. 

Benguet Notable Increase In the number of rice paddles. 

Bohol Last crop half of normal, and estimated at 55 per cent 

more than the preceding one. 

Rulacau Small crop, due to Irregular rains. 

Capiz Croi)s harvested in September, October, and November 

good in coast towns, but those in the interior de- 
stroyed by locusts and worms; however, shipments 
were made to Romblon, Masbate, and Hollo. 

Cavlte Rico produced on a large scale. 

I locos Norte Increase of 10 per cent in production. 

Hollo (treat decrease in production, due to ravages of locusts. 

Province will have to Import rice next year. 

La Laguna Production, 250,000 cavans of cleaned rice worth from 

f*l ,250.000 to W,375,000. 

La Union Ordinary crop. 

Lepanto-Bontoc ^.Crop short In many sections owing to ravages of a worm 

called " balalec." 

Mlndoro Crop, 116.417 cavans of palay. 

Misamls Crop, 00,.307 cavans; estimated loss from locusts, 37,940 

cavans. 

Nueva Ek!lja Rice the principal agricultural product. 

XueVa Vlzcaya Rice produced. 

Palawan The largest crop since American occupation. 

Pampanga The crop a failure. 



184 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Pangasinan Increase in production over last year estiaiated at 25 

per cent. 

Romblon Crop damaged by locusts and worms. 

Samar Rice raised only for local consumption. 

Sorsogon 02,287 sacks of unhulied rice liarvested. 

Surigao--^ Considerable quantity produced throughout the prov- 
ince. Crop estimated at 50 per cent over that of last 
year. 

Zambales Crop 15 per cent larger than last year and more land 

under cultivation. 

A baca, 

Albay I^roduction for this year, though 20 per cent short, 

estimated at 400,000 plculs. Price of hemp, which 
averaged ?20 i)er picul for about three years, now 
fallen to 1*13 (attention is invited to the recommenda- 
tions in the report of the governor of Albay regard- 
ing the export tax refund on hemp). 

Ambos Camarines Crop increased from 30 per cent to 35 per cent over 

last year and will soon be normal. 

Antique Production greater than last year. 

Batangas Increased production over previous year. 

Bohol Amount grown constantly increasing. 

Capiz Plantations being extended; prices good. 

Cavite Abaca produced generally throughout the southern 

pueblos of the province. 

La Laguna Production, 60,000 piculs; average price, from W7 to 

W9 per picul. 

Mindoro Production, 7,288 piculs. 

Mlsamis Fire caused ^J00,000 damage to hemp plantations; 

general conditions, however, improved, though prices 
for lower grades have fallen. 

Oriental Negros Production, 40,500 piculs. 

Romblon Production, 8,407 piculs. 

Samar Ex|)ortation larger than any year since American occu- 
pation. 

Sorsogon Essentially an abaca province. Prices have fallen con- 
siderably. The province not yet recovered from the 
effects of the typhoon of 1905. 

Surigao Estimated production, 100,000 piculs. 

Copra and cocoanuts. 

Albay Shipments of copra do not exceed 20,000 piculs a year. 

Fresh cocoanuts sold in the local markets at 8 cen- 

tavos each, the highest retail price paid anywhere. 

Antique Production of copra larger than last year. 

Bohol Noteworthy improvement in trees noticed recently. 

Capiz The number of cocoanut plantations increasing from 

year to year. 
Cavite Copra and cocoanuts produced in the southern part of 

the province. 
I^ I^guna 100,500,000 nuts gathered, 63 per cent of which made 

into copra. Average price of fresh nuts from f*25 to 

P30 a thousand. 

Mindoro 21S piculs of copra and 345,714 nuts last year's yield. 

Misamis 74,423 piculs of copra, worth 1*595,384, shipped from 

province. l/ocusts destroyed the product of 70,800 

trees. Total number of cocoanut trees in the province 

1,587,682, of which 830,441 are in full bearing. 

Oriental Xegros 17,236 piculs of copra the year's yield. 

Palawan Shipments of copra this year larger than ever .before. 

About 100,000 cocoanut plants set out this year. 



BEPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 185 

Pangasinan The number of cocoanut trees increased considerably. 

Romblon 24,864 piculs of copra produced. 

Samar Larger shipments of copra made this year than at any 

time since American occupation. 
Surlgao Shipments amounted to some 12,000 piculs. Estimated 

that a like amount was used for local consumption. 

Tobacco. 

Abra Estimated production during the fiscal year 4,000 

quintals, a decrease of 33 per cent. 
Cagayan Small harvest this year. Much discouragement felt 

among planters on account of the low prices and slack 

demand in Manila market. 
Ilocos Norte Production of tobacco fell off on account of excessive 

rainfall. 

Iloilo Considerable decrease in production. 

La Union Production 42,000 quintals. Next crop promises to be 

largest in four years. 

I^panto-Bontoc Tobacco cultivated for local use only. 

Misamis Small tobacco plantations in many of the pueblos. 

Some of the tobacco raised of excellent quality, but 

the product insignificant. 

Nueva Ecija Larger harvest than last year; cultivation incroasing. 

Oriental Negros Amount produced, 40,100 hands. 

Pangaslnan Production Increased 20 to 25 per cent over last year. 

Romblon Production 2,157 piculs. 

Surlgao Small quantity producefl. 

Sugar, 

Abra 1,500 piculs produced, an Increase of 50 per cent over 

last year. 

Antique 35,000 piculs produced. 

Bataan The crop one-third the normal production. 

Batangas Production increased over last year. 

Bulacan No Improvement in production, owing to lack of capital 

and markets. 

Caplz Sugar cane extensively cultivated, but planters dis- 
couraged on account of low prices. 

Iloilo Production 200,000 piculs. 

La Laguna Ordinary crop. Considerable stock from last year still 

held over on account of low prices. 

La Union Production not Improved either In quality or quantity, 

owing to low prices. 

Lepanto-Bontoc Raised for local use only. 

Misamis Product insignificant. 

Oriental Negros Production 45,000 piculs. 

Pampanga Crop a failure. 

Pangaslnan Production Increased from 20 to 25 per cent over last year. 

Surigao Small quantities produced. 

Zambales Increase In production over last year. 

Note. — The governor of the province of Occidental Negros, probably the 
largest sugar-producing province In the Islands, gives no statistics as to the 
amount of sugar produced or acreage under cultivation, but simply confines his 
remarks to a pessimistic view of prevailing conditions in his province and to the 
reiteration of recommendations that already have been the subject of study on 
the part of the Commission and of Congress. 



186 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Maguey and sisaL 

Abra Bstimated increase of 25 per cent in maguey planta- 
tions. 

Cagayan General entliusiasm shown in planting maguey, and pro- 
duction increasing. 

Capiz A few small tracts of maguey planted. 

I locos Norte Notable increase in the cultivation of maguey and 

20,000.000 plants set out during the fiscal year. 

Ilocos Sur Considerabe development in the maguey industry; pro- 
duction will be doubled in three years. 

La Union Few maguey plants set out; but 8,000 of Hawaiian sisal 

planted. 

Misamls A few maguey seedlings set out and growing well. 

Pangasinan Planting of niaguoy largely increased. 

Zambales Increased production of maguey. 

Com. 

Abra Production was 17,000 uyenes, of 1,000 ears each, an 

Increase of 33 per cent. 

Antique Almost the entire crop destroyed by locusts. 

Batangas Increased production. 

Bohol Very little cultivated. 

Cagayan Increased production. 

Iloilo Production almost nil. 

La Laguna Production, 30,000 cavans, an increase of 5,000 cavans 

over last year. 

Mindoro L Production, 2,030 cavans. 

Misamls Production, 74,300 cavans. Loss caused by locusts 

36,700 cavans. 

Oriental Negros Production, 227,114 cavans. 

Samar Com raised only for local consumption. 

Surigao Small quantities produced. 

Zambales Increased production. 

Coffee and cacao. 

Abra Production of cacao, 30 cavans. 

Batangas Coffee plantations being displaced by hemp, which has 

been found to be a more profitable crop. 

Cavlte Coffee and cacao grown in the southern part of the 

province. 

Lepanto-Bontoc Considerable coffee grown, but crop this year short. 

Mindoro Production of cacao, 28 cavans and 5 gantas. 

Misamls Cacao raised in nmall quantities for local consumption. 

Cofift^ of sui)erior quality grown in the hills by non- 
Christian tribes, who sell it to merchants in the coast 
• towns. 

Nueva Vlzcaya Cofifee and cacao grown and marketed mostly In the 

province of Isabela. 

Surigao Cacao produced in small quantities. 

Cotton. 

Oriental Negros Production amounted to 2,160 piculs. 

Oranges. 
Batangas Small Increase over last year's production. 



BEPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 187 

Garden truck and fruit, 

Benguet Irish potatoes, com, squash, cantaloupes, celery, pars- 
nips, tomatoes, etc., grown and sold by natives, 
equal in size and flavor to those grown by the most 
careful gardener under the most promising conditions 
in the United States. 

Cavite Yams, peanuts, melons, tomatoes, etc., largely culti- 

. vated; mangos and other native fruits also produced 
on a large scale. Crops 50 per cent larger than last 
year. 

Misamis Dananas, mangos, and lanzones, grown on a large scale. 

Nueva Vizcaya Potatoes and other vegetables grown in this province 

and marketed in Isabela. 

Live stock, 

Abra Live stock the chief source of wealth; 3,295 certifi- 
cates of transfer issued for live stock valued at 
W67,140 during the year. 

Benguet—.. Head of cattle registered during the year, 15,775, an 

increase of 50 per cent over last year. Natives of 
Benguet have also 10,144 pigs, 1,617 goats, 431 sheep, 
2,500 native ponies, and 3,500 carabao. 

Capiz Herds of carabao shipped in from other provinces, and 

number multiplying yearly. 

Lepanto-Bontoc Cattle raising, an industry bringing into the province 

from «0,000 to nOO,000 annually, constantly 
growing. 

Nueva Ecija Considerably larger number of carabao now than last 

year, owing principally to purchases made from the 
Ilocano provinces. 

Palawan Cattle and carabao a profitable export of the island to 

the Iloilo market. 

DISEASES OF ANIMA.LS AND AOBICULTUBAL PESTS. 

Surra and Hnderpest, 

Ambos Camarines Rinderpest and other diseases of an unknown character 

have attacked carabao. 

Amburayan Many carabao have died, the disease probably coming 

from the coast. 

Antique Rinderpest and foot and mouth disease killed off 80 

carabao and 100 neat cattle. 

Bohol At Ubay and Sierra-Bulloues 00 per cent of th^ horses 

died of surra. At present prevalent In 7 pueblos, and 
steps were taken to kill off animals affected. 

Bulacan Rlnderi)e8t api)eared In several municipalities, causing 

great ravages among draft animals. 

Cavite Many draft animals dieii of rinderpest. 

Ilocos Sur -Jtllnderpest appeared in some of the pueblos of the prov- 
ince, but did not last long. 

Isabela J)urlng months of March and April, 1907, an epidemic 

disease appeared in 5 municipalities and caused rav- 
ages among horses and carabao. It was completely 
eradicated. 

La Union Blnderpest carried off 250 carabao. Among horses 80 

were attacked with surra of a malignant character. 

Mlsamls Incomplete returns show that 200 carabao and 30 neat 

cattle died of rinderpest, and that 400 horses died of 
surra. 



188 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Occidental Negro8__^__ Rinderpest continues to destroy cattle, though not gen- 
erally prevalent throughout the provinces. 

Oriental Negros ^.Diseases of cattle and of fowls prevalent. 

Pampanga A.mong horses 13 died of glanders and 10 of surra; 573 

carabao and 29 neat cattle died of rinderpest. 

Pangasinan High mortality among draft animals continues. 

Nueva Ecija z\mong carabao 249 died of rinderpest, 10 of foot and 

mouth disease; 18 horses died of glanders and 2 of 
surra. Disease carried off also 1,133 pigs, and 4,026 
domestic fowls of various kinds. 

Zambales Rinderpest and horse diseases have played great havoc 

with live stock : 343 horses, 177 carabao, and 38 neat 
cattle were carried off by disease. The 2 latter, how- 
ever, have increased 25 per cent. 

Locusts and other agricultural pests. 

Abra A worm known as russot caused much damage to cacao 

plants. 
Bataan A.n insect called accip did considerable damage to rice 

fields. 

Batangas Small numbers of locusts appeared in a few barrios. 

Antique Locusts appeared in nearly all of the pueblos: amount 

exterminated, about 10,000 cavans. 
Misamis Locusts are a constant scourge; 2,259 cavans destroyed 

during the year. 
Occidental Negros Locusts a veritable i)est, destroying large quantities of 

rice, corn, sugar cane, etc. 

Oriental Negros During the year 42,080 cavans of locusts were destroyed. 

Romblon Locusts appeared in some municipalities, and a worm 

called tagosto did considerable damage to rice fields. 

Samar Ix)cu8ts did some damage in 3 or 4 municipalities. 

Sorsogon Locusts especially bad in Masbate. 

As regards the amount and value of crops in the province of Tarlac the 
governor rejwrts that ** the increase of this year's pnxiuction over last is esti- 
mated at forty per cent " and gives no other definite data. 

The foregoing resume contains practically every definite statement contained 
in the provincial governors' reiwrts with regard to agricultural and kindred 
subjects. > Many of the governors complain that the Inaction of the govern- 
ment as to the establishment of agricultural banks, which will lend money at 
low rates of Interest to the farmers and planters, and thus enable them to 
purchase live stock, modem machinery, and implements, and other elements 
necessary for the restoration of agriculture to its normal condition in these 
Islands, is responsible for the agricultural depression felt in many districts 
throughout the Islands. Unseasonable rains and abnormal weather conditions 
are mentioned as the causes resulting In decreased production and failure of 
crops in other districts. But general conditions seem to have improved and the 
prospect is that they will continue to do so, though slowly. 



BEPOBT OP THE EXECUTIVE SECRETABY. 189 

PUBLIC OBDKR. 

The following remarks culled from the reports are indicative of the condi- 
tions of peace and good order which prevailed throughout the archipelago dur- 
ing the period reviewed : 

Albay Undl8turbe<l tranquillity, even the usual misdemeanors 

having been few in number. 

Abra Absolute peace and tranquillity. 

Antique Conditions as to peace and good order enviable. Dis- 
sensions arising from religious differences entirely 
disiippeared. Absolutely all of our most intelligent 
and capable men in favor of the i>olitical creed of the 
conservative party, and only a few advocate imme- 
diate indeiiendence. 

Bataan . Peace and good order of the province broken only by 

the escape of the provincial prisoners effected with 
the aid of a constabulary soldier on April 12, 1907. 
All of these fugitives not killed or recaptured left 
the province by the following month. 

Batangas Only disturbance of the public peace in the province 

caused by the operations of 6 or 7 brigands near 
the boundary lines of the provinces of Laguna, Batan- 
gas, and Tayabas, whose victims were chiefly la- 
borers going from one province to another in search 
of work. All of them captured, except 2 for whom 
rewards were offered. 

Bohol \s the threatened appearance of Pulahanism was pre- 
vented by the capture of its leaders, peace and good 
order not disturbed in any manner worthy of mention. 

Bulacan Invariable peace prevailed and no armed bands in 

the province. Number of carabao thefts diminished. 

Cagayan People have conducted themselves as good citizens, in a 

peaceable and orderly manner. Cattle stealing de- 
creased very considerably. 

Ambos Camarines General conditions as regards peace and order goQd; of 

the 2 brigand chiefs formerly operating on the provin- 
cial borders, 1 killed by the constabulary and capture 
of other soon expected. 

Capiz Tranquillity throughout the province except at Tupas, 

where brigands and cattle thieves carried on their 
nefarious work after the constabulary post was re- 
moved from there. Cattle stealing and brigandage 
still carried on near the borders of the province of 
Iloilo. 

Iloilo Conditions as regards public order very satisfactory. 

decrease in the number of assaults and robberies very 
marked. Brigandage as good as exterminated : some 
bands which appeared in the municipalities dispersed 
by the constabulary. 

Ilocos Norte In July, 190G, a plot to organize an armed uprising 

against the constituted authorities, which extended 
to nearly all the municipalities of the province dis- 
covered, with the result that the plotters and their 
accomplices, pai^ers, arms, and ammunition were 
captured. No person of social or political prominence 
imi)licated. In every other resi)ect good order pre- 
vailed. 

Ilocos Sur Complete tranquillity throughout the province. 

Isabella Only 7 i)risoners in the provincial jail; peace and good 

order prevailed. 

La Laguna Good order and tranquillity daily becoming more as- 
sured. 

La Union Relative tranquillity and general good order. 

Misamis Only 1 outlaw at large and believed that he has gone to 

another province. 



190 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Lepanto-Bontoc People of Bontoc constantly growing more friendly to 

the government; but 1 town to be won over. Peace 
and good order the rule among these primitive people. 

Nueva Ecija No disturbances or disorders to deplore. A band of 

ladrones operated during the months of May and 
June, but the capture of their leader, Nicholas Gutier- 
rez, has put a stop to their robberies. Thefts of 
carabaos decreased. 

Occidental Negros Complete peace and tranquillity with the exception of 

the disturbance of the peace caused by the depreda- 
tions of Babaylanes. 

Oriental Negros Condition of complete tranquillity and peace. 

Pangaslnan Peace, good order, and tranquillity not been disturbed, 

in spite of the intolerance of certain ministers of 
religion and leaders of political parties. 

Pampanga Complete tranquillity. 

Rlzal Conditions as to peace and good order excellent, and a 

decrease in the number of crimes committed, but 
an attempt to revive the Katipunan Society, as is set 
forth in the report, might have led to the disturbance 
of the peace and good order. 

Romblon No disturbances in the province. 

Samar Conditions steadily Improving. 

Borsogon Profoimd peace throughout the province; but some fear 

that public order may be disturbed In Masbate as 
the result of the total destruction of rice and com 
crops by locusts. 

Surigao Condition one of enviable peace and tranquillity. 

Tarlac Tranquillity supreme. 

Zambales .The governor proudly states that his province " has the 

distinction of being the quietest province in the archi- 
pelago." 

The governor of Isabela says that "there are many Immigrants Into the 
subprovlnce of Apayao, who are kept In life servitude by natives of that sub- 
province because of an Insignificant debt, or of the death of an animal in their 
charge* though such death was due to rinderpest. Such debts are even 
passed on to their children." The governor of Palawan In his report, also 
touches upon a similar evil practice in his province In referring to peonage. 

It win be seen that quiet and good order have been almost uninterrupted 
in the great majority of the provinces; that there have been no serious out- 
breaks of lawlessness, and that the roving predatory bands that heretofore 
Infested certain parts of the Islands have either been entirely exterminated 
or reduced to 1 or 2 small groups of outlaws devoting themselves to pillage 
and robbery, and having little or no Influence with the people In whose territory 
they carry on their nefarious work. 

It is exceedingly satisfactory to note that there is not one single complaint 
or criticism of the constabulary In any of these reports, and It Is beyond ques- 
tion that this body of men devoted to the maintenance of order have the 
sympathy and supiwrt of the great mass of the i)eople in every province. 

The relations between the provincial and the municipal authorities are every- 
where reported as harmonious and as working together for the common good. 

. PUBLIC HEALTU AND SANITATION. 

/ 

The following remarks and statistics of deaths from various diseases show 
that there were few epidemics causing a high mortality and that there has 
been a considerable Improvement In the public health. 

Malarial fvvers. 

Albay Malarial fevers prevalent In some municipalities and 

at Camp Daraga In a mild form. 

Anibos Camarines From malarial fevers, 1,403 deaths. 

Antique From the same cause, 031 deaths. 



BEPOBT OP THE EXECUTIVE SECRETABY. 19 1 

Gagayan Malarial fever almost epidemic in the province. No 

contagious disease such as cholera or smallpox re- 
ported; average death rate between 24 and 25 per 
thousand. 

Nueva Eclja From malarial fever, 493 deaths. 

Smallpox, 

Abra Prom smallpox, 121 deaths. 

Ambos Camarlnes Prom this cause, 80 deaths. 

Ilocos Sur Few cases of mild character at Bangued. 

La Union Pew cases of a mild character in 3 municipalities; few 

deaths. 

Lepantd-Bontoc From smallpox, 90 deaths. 

Nueva BScija Only 4 deaths from smallpox, as against 229 last year. 

Oriental Negros Few cases of varioloid. 

Cholera. 

Cavlte One hundred and sixty-four deaths. 

Iloilo - 1,407 deaths. 

Pampanga 790 deaths. 

Tarlac 54 deaths 

Nueva Bcija 495 deaths 

Samar One epidemic of cholera in the Catubig Valley. 

Pulmonary consumption and tubercular diseases. 

Antique 368 deaths. 

Ambos Camarlnes 321 deaths. 

Nueva Eclja 346 deatha 

Measles, beri-beri, convulsions in childroi, dysentery, diarrhea, and a few 
other diseases are given as the chief causes of death. Leprosy is reported in 
4 provinces. The governor of Ilocos Sur says "there is still a considerable 
number of lepers in the province, in several of the pueblos. The necessity of 
their removal to Cullon is urgent.*' Misamis reports that the number of lepers 
at large is a menace to the public health. The people of Mambajao feel grate- 
ful to the board of health for the removal of their lepers to Cullon. In Rizal 
there are 300 lepers at large, and an urgent request is made for their removal 
to the leper colony. In. the province of Nueva Ecija, there are 47 lepers at 
large, all of them being cared for by their respective families. 

Several of the provincial governors blamed the water supply for the presence 
of disease in many pueblos. In Albay the water supply in many towns is 
impregnated with substances prejudicial to health. On the other hand, the 
sinking of artesian wells In a number of the municipalities in the provinces 
of Bulacan and Pampanga has greatly improved the health of the people who 
use them as a water supply. Several of the provinces complain that the aboli- 
tion of the provincial doctor by act No. 1487 has deprived them of the services 
of a physician, as it is practically impossible for the district health officers 
to properly attend to their duties over so large and extensive a territory. 

The following statistics of the number of persons vaccinated in the provinces 
named may be of some interest : 

Vaccination. 

Ambos Camarlnes, 190,031; Bohol, 129,815; Bulacan, 92,686; La Union, 
14,230; Lepanto-Bontoc, "An effort has been made to vaccinate the people in 
the subprovlnces of Lepanto and Amburayan;" Pampanga, 109.585; Tarlac, 
34,165 ; Pangasinan, district health officer traveling through province making 
vaccinations; Nueva Eclja. 32,632; Sorsogon, 111,111. 

EDUCATION. 

The following information regarding the condition of education is the most 
encouraging feature of the reports. It shows that the interest in public in- 
struction has suffered no abatement but is making progress in all of the prov- 
inces of the islands. 



192 



BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Enrollment and attendance. 



Province. 


Enroll- 
ment. 


Attend- 
ance. 


Average. 


Remarks. 


Abra _ _ 

Albay . 

Antique 

Batangas- __ 


5,2M 
10.342 
8.962 
9,013 
16,000 


'_ 2 





Attendance ' regular. 
Do. 


Bulacan 




Attendance falling off. 


Cagayan.. 




Attendance increasing. 


Oavlte - - „. 








Double tbat for 1906. 


IloIJo '. .„_ 






16,02'» 




IIocos Norte 


11,3;>2 
15, 76 J 
3,704 


9,104 
12.973 




Ilocoa Sur 






l8al>ela 






La Laguna 


-.- 


10.000 

to 

I 12,000 

6,811 

1,249 

7,436 
9,584 
25,52iJ 




La Union 








Ji^piuito-Bontoo. , • 








Mlsamls — 

NuevaEcIJa 

Kueva Vizcaya 


5,714 
12,582 

1,960 
13.160 

"~39^46' 

9,550 
6,651 






Oriental Negros _ _ 

Pampanga 

Pangafilnan _ 

Sorsogon- 

Surlgao _ 

Tartac 




5^077" 
10.633 


Average dafly. 

Opened with 6,642; dosed 
with 13.360. 







Private achools. 

The following is a list of private schools established in the provinces to 
which reference has been made in the reports reviewed, and which includes 
jiarochial schools: Abra, 10; Albay, many denominations of schools; Bataan, 
abundance of private schools; Bulacan, many Catholic schools; Ilocos Sur, 3 
colleges; Oriental >Jegros, the well known and worthy " Silllmau Institute;" 
Tarlac, private schools in every municipality. 



8chooUiou8CS. 
The following statistics refer to the number of schoolhonses : 



Province. 



Number. 



Abra 

Albny... 
Antlqufl. 
Bohol__- 



Benguet. 
Bataan.. 



Bulacan.. 



rapiz-. 
IloIIo.- 



Ilocog Norte. 

Ilocos Sur 

Isabel a 



130 ' 
180 



Lepanto-Bontoc- 

Mlsamls 

Nucva EcIJa... . 
(^)rlental Ncifros.. 

Paniptinga. 

Rl/al 

RoinbUm 

Samar. 

Sorsogon 

Surlgao 

Tarlac- 

Zambales 



1»S 

m 



Remarks. 



Paucity of public schoolhouses, mostly rentctl buildings. 

A number of Bchoolhous<>8 constructed during the year by the 
various pueblos and barrios. The i)rovInco completetl 2 build- 
ings and set them aside for secondary Instruction and Indu:- 
trial training. 

Several school buildings were constructed during the fiscal year, 
some of masonry ami luml)cr. 

The 7 Municipalities have succeeded in constructing some school- 
houses. 

Has an industrial school and an agricultural school. 

The municipalities rival each other In the construction of school- 
houses, there now being 144 municipal an<I 5 provincial. 

Many dlstribute<l throughout the province; a provincial high 
school has been built. 



A number constnictcd nnd repaired. 

Has made considerable expenditures in this connection. 

Hik'h 'School buildlntf coinjilcted. 

Has built a number. 

Has several, and liich school now being built. 

HIgli school completo<l. 

Has built a mo<lem school house and Is erecting others. 



EEPORT OF THK EXECUTIVE SECBETARV. 



198 



Industrial inatmctian. 

As may be seen from the following, Industrial education is making great 
progress in nearly every province in the archipelago : 

Albay Industrial instruction has been tended with consider- 
able progress. 

Batangas The secretary of public instruction has granted the sum 

of ^8,000 for the construction of an industrial school 
building. 

Benguet A course in manual training is maintained in the cen- 
tral school. Weaving, housekeeping, etc., are also 
taught in the other schools. 

Bulacan Will soon have a school of arts and trades. 

Capiz Has an industrial and an agricultural school. 

Cavite Has an agricultural school. 

Ilocos Norte An agricultural school and classes in domestic science 

and carpentry. 

Ilocos Sur Two schools of arts and trades. 

Iloilo Schools of arts and trades giving best results. 

La I^guna Is building an industrial school as well as a high school. 

La Union Is building a school of arts and trades. 

Lepanto-Bontoc Has an industrial school. 

Mindoro— An industrial school. 

Nueva £k:ija . The industrial work of the pupils is particularly credit- 
able. 

Occidental Negros A school of arts and trades. 

Palawan Two industrial schools and 2 agricultural schools. 

Pamtmnga Vgrlcultural and Industrial schools. 

Rlzal Vn industrial and a domestic science school, and several 

schools of arts and trades are being built. Will soon 
have also a school of agriculture. 

Samar Erecting a trades school. 

Surlgao School of arts and trades completed. 

Tarlac Has a school of carpentry. 

Zambales Equipped with a school for domestic science, new Imple- 
ments for agriculture and tools for carpentering. 

Teachers, 

The number of teachers* Insular and municipal, reported by the provincial 
governors. Is given In the list below : 



Abra - 

Aatique 

Ben^et 

Bataagas 1 

Caplz 

Hollo -.. 

Ilocos Norte 

riocos Sur" 

Isabela 

La Union 

Lepanto-Bontoc ''. 



iDsuIar. I Municipal. 



• 32 special Insular teachers. 

* 87 teacbers. 



85 
6 
161 
168 
813 



226 



Misamis '' 

Nueva Ecija 

Nueva VIzcaya— . 
Oriental Negros. 
Pampanga 

Pangaslnan * 



198 'I Rteal- 



Samar •_ 
Surlgao.. 
Tarlac— 



Insular. Municipal. 



• 124 apprentices. 



27 
12 
10 
3J) 
87 ' 
27 I 
38 
19 I 

a) . 



<* 51 aspirants. 

d 61 assistants unpaid. 



84 
136 

36 
128 
207 
431 
142 
171 

97 
112 



ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CONDITION. 



• As regards economic conditions of the provinces only two governors report 
them as good, the balance either qualify them as deplorable or only fair and ini 
proving. However, the finances of nearly all of the provinces are In a good 
condition, and they have been able to cover i)ermanent expenses without the 

11024— WAR 1907— VOL 7 13 



194 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

necessity of loans. The general economic conditions of the different provinces 
are given in the following list: 

Abra Fair and improving. 

Albay Not good. 

Bohol Not satisfactorj', some improvement noted. 

Benguet Prosperous. 

Batangas Has improved. 

Cagayan Precarious. 

Bataan On down grade. 

Bulacan Comparatively satisfactory. 

Capiz Gradual ijf^.improving. 

Oavite Nothing Ti' favor of, except may Improve in course of 

next^^ree years; income of province moderately 

incren^sM. 

Ilocos Norte (ieneral j6rosi)erity. 

Ilocos Sur Very fairl 

Isabela Deplott1f)l6' on account of floods; financial condition fair. 

La Laguna Fair, improving. 

La Union Oood.''^^^^''' 



Lepanto-Bontoc Not stfir-ibpiKirting, conditions improving. 

Mindoro 1)61 "^r 

Calapan ProsiiJ^bfiii^* 

Misamis _ Not good.'^'due to drought of 1906; financial condition a 

little more prosperous. 

Nueva Ecija Fair. Best since American occupation, prospects bright. 

Nueva Vizcaya Not self-supi)orting, destructive storm worked much 

havoc. 

Occidental Negros Rather severe economic depression. 

Oriental Negros Flattering and constantly improving. 

Palawan Not self-supporting, fairly prosperous, 

Pampanga .Not very brilliant, but somewhat improved. 

Pangasinan Comparative prosperity, improving. 

Rizal Though not altogether prosperous, able to defray cur- 
rent expenses. 

Romblon Not good. 

Samar Much improved. 

Sorsogon Financial condition deplorable, economic condition im- 
proving. 

Surigao Sufliciently satisfactory. 

Tarlac Fair, improving. 

Zambales A poor province, but no indebtedness and able to sup- 
port itself. 

The following list shows the condition as regards payment of taxes in the 
provinces where the governors have touched upon this subject in their rei>orts : 

Payment of taxes, 

Abra Regularity in the payment of. 

Bohol Payment and collection of taxes regular. 

Bataan On down grade. 

Bulacan Comparatively satisfactory. 

La Union Ten per cent delinquent In cedulas and land tax. 

Pampanga Satisfactory results in collection of delinquent land tax. 

Tarlac Larger and better than last year. 

In the matter of loans the following information hns been culled from the 
reports : 

Loans, 

Albay Reduced to f*60,000. lioan for purpose of constructing 

provincial building and Jail. 

Batangas Relieved from, for educational puri)oses. 

Bataan .^5,000. 

Ilocos Norte No outstanding lnde!>tedness or obligation. 

Ilocos Sur No obligations. 

La Union Debt of ?37,000 transferred to school fund. 



BEPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 195 

Nueva Ecija A debt of ¥^2,196.50 which It hoiies will be cancelled 

by the Commission, as in other provinces. 

Pangaslnan I^an of ^165,000 requested for construction of three 

bridges. 

The provincial governor of Albay states that wages are high and that there 
is much demand for labor; also that there is a scarcity of hard cash in the 
province. The governor of Capiz also states that there is but little money in 
circulation and that the rates of interest are high. In Palawan it Is reported 
that employment can easily be had In the timber industry. Employment and 
sure wages can be obtained also in railroad and public works in the province of 
Pampanga. The governor of Ilocos Norte states that there are large sums of 
money in circulation. 

NONCHBISTIAN TRIBES. 

The following interesting Information reflects the progress that was made 
during the fiscal year in the work of civilizing the non-Christian tribes scat- 
tered throughout the archipelago: 

Organization, 

Abra Organized in accordance with act 1397 — 8 townships, 

72 districts or barrios, 9,225 people. Fourteen settle- 
ments in Abra — inhabitants, 5,912; 55 settlements in 
Ilocos Sur — inhabitants, 7,456. Total, 69 settlements; 
inhabitants, 13,368. 

Antique One additional settlement organized. 

Benguet The natives of Benguet are prosperous; their wealth 

consists of animals, rice fields and agricultural lands. 
They have 5 claims for about 1,200 parcels of land, for 
free titles under the provisions of chapter 4 of the 
land act. They have 4 schools, for boys and for girls. 
The demand for labor exceeds the supply. The Igor- 
rotes have the privilege of enlisting in the constab- 
ulary and have their own police. They have been 
granted the privilege of making claims for lands, and 
for the first time in their history Igorrot'es now have 
titles to their homes. 

Bataan The Negritos, or Aetas, the only non-Christian tribe 

of this province, are now living in settlements. They 
are as a rule inoffensive, good natured, and submissive, 
but utterly refractory to social and cultured life in 
the settlements. 

Bulacan Two small settlements of Aetas. Many live in the 

mountains, unorganized, without fixed homes. 

Capiz The tribes which i)opulate the mountains are united in 

various settlements. They are willing to live in 
settled communities. 

Ilocos Norte Twelve settlements organized under act 1397, and there 

is a desire for civilization. 

Ilocos Sur The conditions as to non-Christian tribes in this prov- 
ince a re. described in the report of the lieutenant- 
governor of the subprovince of Abra, to which refer- 
ence is made above. 

Lepanto-Bontoc There has been a remarkable improvement in the con- 
ditions as regards the non-Christian Inhabitants. None 
of the towns of Bontoc subprovince are now actually 
hostile to each other. The attitude of these people 
is increasingly friendly toward the Government. 
Schools for Igorrote children are maintained in nearly 
all the organized townships of the province. 

Mlndoro Several small settlements started on the west coast, 

and great improvements made in the older settlements. 
The Magyans or Batanganes by far the most pros- 
perous people in Mlndoro. They have little farms, 
good cogon grass houses, pa lay, cotton, tobacco, pine- 
apples, bananas, pigs, chickens, and dogs. Numerous 
traps or dams in every stream for catching fish. 
Very timid and run away on the approach of a white 
man. 



196 REPOBT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Misamis Mountains inhabited by non-Christian tribes known as 

Bukldnon, Manobo, and Siiban-on or Subanos. The 
Bukidnon are docile, submissive, and intelllf^ent A 
large portion of the latter already have notions of 
civilization. The Manobo have no organization and 
are most savage of all. The Suban-on are also of a 
docile nature, but less advanced than the Bukidnon. 
There are many settlements organized under act 1397. 
The Suban-on have just organized 5 settlements and 
will organize others, 

Nueva Vizeaya Population now known to be considerably over 46,000 — 

the census figures — which were only an estimate. 
Old feuds have been settled and the Igorrotes now 
travel about freely and confidently. A great majority 
have paid their cedula tax and have faith and trust 
in the government. They are improving very rapidly 
and will one day be very prosperous. They are clear- 
ing land rapidly and planting a great deal of coffee, 
as well as vegetables. 

Nueva Ecija There are settlements of Tinguianes, Ibilaos, and Ilon- 

gots. The social condition of the Tinguianes in the set- 
tlements is highly progressive. The children punctu- 
ally attend the schools and a very pronounced desire 
to study is observed. A great number have been con- 
verted to Christianity. Their character is submissive 
and they recognize and respect the orders of their 
officials. They engage exclusively in agriculture. 

Occidental Negros The hillmen, who are, in the majority, peaceable and 

roam about our mountains in small tribes, are con- 
stantly diminishing, due to the forces of civilization. 
They are little by little taking up the civil and politi- 
cal duties. Voluntary police comi)osed entirely of 
these tribesmen, have been organized. It is estimated 
that there are from 13,000 to 1,8,000 hill men. 

Palawan Conditions among the Mphammedan and Pagan tribes 

practically the same as last year. The rice crop was 
good among the Tagbanuas and Pala wanes. They 
have followed their ordinary vocations of raising 
palay and gathering almaclga (mastic gum) and 
bejuco (rattan). 

Pangasinan Two townships have been organized under act 1397. 

Great efforts have been made to awaken a love for a 
higher degree of civilization. There are still 5 un- 
organized settlements. 

Sorsogon \ settlement of Aetas, consisting of over 100, was formed 

in the mountains near Prieto-Diaz. Most of them 
have since scattered. 

Surigao In the interior of the province there are Manoboa and 

Mamanuas; their number is unknown. The Manobos 
recognize as their chief one of their number, who 
excels in bad conduct and misdeeds. The Manobos 
cultivate fields, raise pigs and chickens, and engage 
in hunting wild boars. They are loyal. The Mama- 
nuas wander about in the forests, do not work, and 
are thieves ; they are indolent and disloyal. 

Tarlac The Aetas or Negritos who inhabit the mountains of 

this province have been given a special municipal 
organization. They have their own officers, dress like 
the civilized inhabitants, and are anxious to have 
schools and teachers. 

Zambales__ _ There are many settlements of Negritos. There is a 

considerable tendency among them toward assimila- 
tion and cohesion. One school has been built, and 
there is a great deal of enthusiasm for Instruction 
among these black people. They are well disposed 
toward the government and travelers, whom they 
treat with respect and hospitality. 



BEPOBT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECEETARY. . , 197 

Schools. 

Abra Thirty-three schools — 2,000 pupila Agricultural school 

in township of Lagangibang. Tinguianes show much 
Interest in instruction. 

Antique No schools as yet. Tribes baclcward: only a few of the 

youths can read. None of them own real estate, al- 
though some have abac& plantations on government 
land. 

•Ilocos Norte Three schoolhouses built by the settlements, and it is 

reported that teachers have been appointed thereto. 

Fund. 

Antique Balance this year, ?^7.18. Revenues estimated at not 

less than WOO per annum. 

Ilocos Norte Balance, ^80.12. 

Misamis ^5,467.50. 

Occidental Negros f^l,(>84.10. 

CHANGES IN THE CONSULAR COBPS. 

The consular representatives of foreign nations at Manila, Hollo, and Cebu 
number 33, of whom 14 are consuls de carriere. 

During the time covereil by this report the changes in the personnel of the 
cori)S have been the following: Dr. Franz Gruenenwald resumed charge of the 
aftairs of the Austrian-Hungarian consulate on January 23, 1907, as acting 
consul. 

Hon. Peter Krafft presented his exequatur and was recognized as consul of 
Austria-Hungary on March 16, 1907. 

Mr. Adolph Determann was recognized on May 27, 1907, as acting consul for 
Austria-Hungary during the absence of the Austrian-Hungarian consul in 
Europe. 

Hon. J. N. Sidebottom, proconsul for Great Britain, assumed charge of the 
affairs of the consulate of Denmark, March 16, 1907, i)ending the arrival of 
the Hon. Francis Stuart Jones. 

Information by cable was received from Washington on May 18, 1907, to the 
effect that Francis Stuart Jones had been recognized as temporary acting 
consul of Denmark. He assumed charge of the affairs of the consulate of 
Denmark May 15, 1907. 

Hon. R. E. Barretto, consul of Ecuador, advised that the consulate of Ecuador 
at Manila had been abolished February 27, 1907. 

Dr. Franz Gruenenwald resumed charge of the affairs of the German con- 
sulate January 23, 1907. 

Hon. F. Keyes resumed charge of tlie affairs of the Italian consulate January 
24, 1907. 

Hon. Shosuke Akatsuka was recognized as consul for Japan December 3, 
1906. He presented his exequatur January 29. lfX)7. 

Hon. Federico CJorrea was recognized as acting consul for Mexico December 
24, 1906. 

Hon. Jos6 Kosales resumed charge of the affairs of the Mexican consulate 
May 8, 1907. 

Hon. A. C. Crebas was recognized as acting consul for the Netherlands, dur- 
ing the absence of the consul, August 20, 1906. 

Hon. Richard Toovey was recognized as acting consul of Norway and of 
Sweden November 23, 11X)6, during the absence of Hon. Walter G. Stevenson. 

Hon. Walter G. Stevenson resumed charge of the affairs of the consulates of 
Norway and of Sweden June 4, 1907. 

Hon. Arturo Baldasano y Topete was recognized as consul-general for 
Spain May 15, 1907. 

Information was received by cable from Washington on June 8, 1907, that 
Sefior Don Adelardo Fernando Arias had been recognized as vice-consul for 
Spain. He arrived with the consul-general and is now discharging the duties 
of his office. 

Hon. Jobs. Preisig, vice-consul of Switzerland, assumed charge of the affairs 
of the consulate May 11, 1007. during the absence of the consul. 

Hon. Charles Augustin Fulcher assumed charge of the affairs of the British 
vice-consulate at Cebu July 12, 1906. 



198 • BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Hon. John Brown assumed charge of the affairs of the British vice-consulate 
at Iloilo July 12, 1906. 

Information by cable from Washington was received April 24, 1907, to the 
effect that Hon. John Talbot Knowles had been recognized as British vice-consul 
at Iloilo. He assumed charge of the affairs of the vice-consulate Februarv 23, 
1907. 

Sefior Jos^ Heguera was recognized as Spanish consul September 17, 190G, 
at Iloilo, but was advised that formal recognition thereof would have to be 
made by the Department of State at Washington. 

Information was received by cable from Washington March 28, 1907, to the 
effect that Sefior Hilari6n Gonzales del Castillo had been recognized as Spanish 
consul at Iloilo. 

Appended hereto, marked " Exhibit O," <» is a list of the consular representa- 
tives in the Philippine Islands, with their office addresses. 

FIBE LOSSES IN AND OUTSIDE OF MANILA. 

In speaking of the 3 great causes which have prevented the rapid advance 
of the Filipino people along material paths, a prominent ex-insurgent general, 
now engaged profitably in industrial pursuits, once remarked that fire losses 
were the first and greatest of them, because the severest material losses were 
due to them.^ 

Summarizing, the total money loss in both Manila and the provinces for the 
period from August 0, 1901. down to June 30, 1907, amounted to 1^,503,436.65, 
Manila's loss representing about one-third of this amount. 

It is gratifying to note that the Commission has recently enacted a measure 
(act No. 1733) providing for the organization of a fire department In each 
municipality not having a paid fire department, to be composed of the police 
force of such municipality and such volunteers as may desire to enlist, and for 
the drilling of the members of such fire department at least once in each 
week, and requiring each municiiMility to furnish 24 fire buckets, 12 ladders 
of suitable lengths, 24 bolos, 12 axes, and 1 two-man crosscut saw, and such 
additional apparatus as may l>e found necessary. As an incentive to all able- 
bodied males In the municipality to join the volunteer fire force. It is pro- 
vided that any volunteer fireman who has attended 75 i)er cent of all drills 
and fires during the year, and has drilled at least one hour at each drill 
attended, shall be furnished a certificate to that effect, which, ui)on presenta- 
tion to the provincial treasurer or his deputy in the municipality, shall entitle 
the i)erson named therein to a refund of the amount paid by him as cedula tax 
for that year. It is hoiked that self-interest, always so strong In the human 
breast, will succeed in creating under this act an eflicient fire department In 
each municipality. Were the Congress of the United States to remove the duty 
on galvanized iron, it is undoubted that the increased use of such iron for 
roofing purposes in these islands, coupled with an efficient fire-fighting force, 
would do much to prevent destructive and disastrous fires such as have oc- 
curred in the past. 

LIBRARY OF CONQREBSIONAL AND OTHER DOCUMENTS. 

During the fiscal year there have been added to the library of Congressional 
documents and publications of foreign governments and to the library of the 
executive bureau about 3,0(X) volumes. These libraries now contain about 
10,000 printed volumes and pamphlets. 

CONCLUSION. 

The progress of the Filipino members of the force during the year has been 
most satisfactory. Of the 118 Filii)lno clerks and messengers, 80 have a work- 
ing knowledge of English, and of the 43 American employees, 20 have the same 
knowlege of Spanish. 

« This list has been omitted and Is on file In the Bureau of Insular Affairs, 
War Department. 

^ Statistics as to fires have been omitted and are on file in the Bureau of In- 
sular Affairs, War Department. 



BEPOBT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECBETABY. 



199 



The fact, noted elsewhere, that every official of the bureau and each chief 
of division, except one, possess a comprehensive knowledge of both the English 
and Spanish languages, and daily conducts business with the public personally 
in these two tongues, is more important than would seem at first blush, in that 
it saves thousands of dollars a year to the government by rendering unnecessary 
the time consuming use of interpreters and expense creating translation of 
the great bulk of the correspondence of the "bureau. 

Respectfully submitted. 

A, W. Febousson, 

Executive Secretary. 

The Govebnob-General, Manila, P, I, 



Exhibit A." 
CASES AGAINST PBOVIKCIAL AND XTFNICIFAL OFFICIALS. 

[Tabulated statement of detailed information.] 

Exhibit B.« 
CASES AGAINST PROVINCIAL AND KinflCIFAL OFFICIALS. 

[Charges upbn which the cases were based and the decisions therein.] 

Exhibit C. 
APPOINTMENTS AND CHANGES IN SEBTICE. 



Insular officers, IndudiDg Judges.. 

Provincial officers. - 84 

Municipal officers — _ 

City of Manila. — - U 

Justices of the peace. _ _ 2.i4 



Auxiliary Justices of the peace- 



Total. 



259 



8t 



193 



157 



75 



1 
60 



76 



Note. — The appointments include those made by the governor-general with the advice 
and consent of the Philippine Con^mlssion. Designations Include only those made by the 
governor-general alone. 

Municipal officers are elected or appointed In accordance with the municipal code and 
the election law. They are removed by the governor-general only for cause, under the 
provisions of act No. 314. 



« Exhibits A and B have been omitted from this report and are on file in the 
Bureau of Insular Affairs, War Department. 



200 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Exhibit D. 
PILI7IN0S AND AMERICANS IN PROVINCIAL OFFICES. 



Provincial officers. 



Governors _*. 

Lleutenaat-ffovernors 

Secretaries 

8ecretary-treast:.crs._- 

Treasurers _ 

Supervisors _ 

Supervisor-treasurers _ 

FIscals - 

Third members of provincial boards. 
Begisters of deeds 



Filipi- 
nos. 



Ameri- 
cans. 



30 



25 

27 I 



Total. 



6 
2 
3 
34 
2 
1 

26 

27 

7 



Total. 



93 1 



Provinces organised under act No. H3- 
Provinces organized otherwise 



Total number of provinces. 



6 

38 



PERCENTAGE OP TOTAL. 

Filipinos 65. 75 

Americans 34. 26 

Exhibit E. 
FILIPINOS AND AMERICANS IN KI7NIGIPAL OFFICES. 



Municipal and township officers. 



Presidents _ ■— 

President-secretaries _ _ 

Vice-presidents _ 

VIcc-prcsldcQts-trcaaurer.s-.- 

Secretaries— 

Treasurers — 

Secretary-treasurers. _ 

Councillors.- - 

Justices of the peace.. - — 

Auxiliary justices of the potuo.— 

Notaries public (appointed by the courts and including Manila). 



Total. 



Filipi- 
nos. 



678 

5 

088 

3 

616 

619 

69 

6,472 

695 

!m 

1,000 
11,350 



Amerl- | Total, 
cans. I ^"''»*' 



8 

1 

] 


6S6 
6 

689 
3 


1 

1 


617 
620 
00 




5 
18 


6,477 
608 
599 


58 


1.004 


88 


11.438 



Municipalities 627 

Townships 65 

Settlements 188 

Total , 880 



PEItCENTAUK OF TOTAL. 

Filipinos 99.23 

Americans . 77 



BEPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETABY. 

Ej^hibit F. 

BBOIBTAAnON FOB KUinCIPAL XLEOTIOVB. 



201 



Province. 



Albay 

Am bos Camarines. . 

Antique 

Bataaa 

Batanga5< 

Bohol 

Bulacan 

Cagayana 

Capizfe 

Cavite 

Cebu 

Uocoa Norte 

Ilocos 8ur 

noilo 

laabela 

La Laruna 

La Union 

Leyteo 

Mi^mis 

NuevaEciJa 

Occiden ta f Negros . , 
Oriental Negros... 

Pampanga 

Pangasinan 

Rizal 

Romblonb , 

Samar , 

Sorsogon c 

Surigaoa 

Tarlac 

Tayabas 

Zambales 



Office 
qualifi- 
cation. 



Total 

Moro Province . 



1,374 
2,387 
1,338 

242 
3,128 
1.513 
1,798 

617 
2,983 

612 
3,817 

878 

843 
3,763 

146 
1,094 

995 
1.161 

312 

i,88;i 

2,607 

645 

2,263 

2,642 

1,497 

409 

1,649 

866 

377 

969 

994 

429 



Prop- 
erty 
qualifi- 
cation. 



2,432 

1,286 
159 
137 
259 
806 
463 

1,469 
734 
370 
893 
953 

2,578 
666 
584 

1,280 

3,020 

2,129 
401 
502 
252 
318 
383 

3,752 
426 
422 
567 

1,662 
230 
541 

2,095 
136 



45,570 31,286 



Educa- 
tional 
qualifi- 
cation. 



Office 
and 
prop- 
erty 
qualifi- 
cations. 



913 

1,368 

364 

117 

718 

927 

446 

1,992 

610 

1,616 

2, 155 

2,222 

1,285 

2,626 

1,221 

524 

687 

1,274 

344 

£74 

2,306 

795 

465 

1,130 

466 

144 

616 

835 

81 

343 

466 

380 



29,479 



956 
653 
186 
127 
604 
154 
664 
826 
347 
811 
669 
271 
400 

1,009 
140 
942 
333 

1,267 
266 
468 
249 
344 
414 

1,227 
347 
103 
364 
757 
140 
313 

1,160 
161 



Office 
and 
educa- 
tional 
quali- 
fica- 
tions. 



15, 692 



847 
424 

91 

11 
175 

56 
132 
376 
112 
130 
448 
134 

81 
7*27 

lis 

810 

41 

269 

58 

83 

364 

112 

148 

178 

136 

12 

209 

227 

23 

58 

501 

80 



Prop- 
erty 
and 
educa- 
tional 
quali- 
fica- 
tions. 



382 
396 

86 

50 
175 

56 
202 
457 

98 
176 
357 
283 
191 
412 
184 
841 
202 
542 
HI 
111 
318 

91 

98 
537 
143 

34 
212 
335 

36 
126 



Office, 
prop- 
erty, 
and 
educa- 
tional 
quali- 
fica- 
tions. 



Persons 
qualify- 
ing as 
elect- 
ors. 



774 1 1,034 

149 I 97 



347 I 
848 

87 

83 I 
243 

40 
279 
823 
132 
•181 
342 
850 
163 
504 
121 
535 
139 
370 

62 

99 
303 
105 
133 
412 
100 

28 
232 
189 

72 

87 



6,751 
6,802 
2,250 
717 
5,302 
8,062 
8,974 
6,586 
4,911 
8,436 
8.081 
4.591 
5,541 
9,697 
2,513 
6.026 
6,317 
7,404 
1,554 
8,420 
6. 29M 
2,410 
8,904 
9.H78 
3,105 
1. 152 
8,849 
6,017 
1,044 
2,437 
7,024 
1,432 



Elect- 
ors 

actu- 
ally 
voting. 



6,090 
6,790 
2,168 

680 
4,490 
8,052 
8,660 
5,331 
4,451 
8,040 
7,883 
4,839 
6,302 
7,825 
2,358 
3,676 
5,008 
6,771 
1,130 
3.257 
5.877 
2,2M 
3.576 
9,790 
2.723 
1,107 
3,164 
4.641 

971 
2.386 
5,957 
1,327 



Total civ- 
ilized 
popula- 
tion, cen- 
sus of 
1908. 



6, 170 7, 658 



,440 143,965 1131.013 



239,434 

233. 472 
131. 245 

45, 166 
257, 715 
269,228 
223.327 
142,825 
225.092 
134,779 
653,727 
176, 785 
211,628 
403,932 

68,793 
148,606 
127,789 
388,922 

135. 473 
132.999 
303,660 
184.889 
222, 656 
439,135 
148. 502 

52. 848 
265.549 
164. 129 

99,298 
138. 513 
201, 936 

66.762 



6. 623. 804 



63, 374 



<■ It has been impossible to obtain reports from one municipality In Cagayan, another 
In Surlgao, and 3 municipalities in Leyte, but estimates of the total numt)er of persons 

?iuallfying and of the total number actually voting have been included above in the totals 
or the respective provinces. 
* Romblon is now a part of Capiz. 

<' One municipality in Sorsogon reported only the total number of persons qualifying 
and the total number actually voting, which have been included above in the totals for 
said province. 



202 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Exhibit G. 
BEOISTBATION FOB ELECTION OF DELEGATES. 

Registration of electors, by provinces and districts, for the election of dele- 
gates to the Philippine Assembly, held on July 30, 1907, as shown by reports of 
provincial governors. 



Province. 


First 
dis- 
trict. 


Second 
dis- 
trict. 


Third 
dis- 
trict. 

1,289 
592 


Fourth 
dis- 
trict. 


Fifth 
dis- 
trict. 


Sixth 
dis- 
trict. 


Seventh 
dis- 
trict. 


Total. 


Albay 


1,218 

988 
1,149 

795 
1,531 

646 
1,770 
1,620 
1,193 
8,031 

655 
1,132 
1,473 

497 
1,566 
1,587 
1,461 

885 
1,170 

667 

572 
2.827 
1,166 

929 

813 
1.658 
i;564 
2,010 
1,072 
1,492 
1,726 

932 
1,465 
8,287 

827 


1,428 
899 






3,986 


AfTibos CAfnarifM'^i , 


* ' 1 






2,479 


Antique 








1,149 


Bataon 






1 






795 


Batangas 


1,560 
692 

2.003 
981 

1,517 


1,119 
626 








4,210 


Bohol 








1,864 


Bulaciln 


1 






3,773 
2.601 
5,264 
8.031 
4,416 
2,647 
4,162 
6,899 
1,666 
4,062 
8.583 
4 821 
2,849 

657 
1,362 
2.827 
3,059 
1,697 

313 


Cagayan 




' 






Capiz 


2,554 


...J 







Cavite 


1 




Cebu 

Ilocos Norte 


867 
1.515 
1,640 
2,240 


319 

'i,'649* 
1,169 


796 702 1 325 


752 


Ilocos Sur 


Uoilo 


907 


i 




Isabela 


1 




La Laguna 

La Union 


2,475 
2,122 
1,141 
1,679 




1 1 










Leyte 


952 


1,393 


I 




Manila 


t 




Mindoro 




1 1 




Misamis 


790 






1 





Nueva Eciia 












Occidental NegTos 


1,407 
768 


486 










Oriental Negros .... 










Palawan 













Pampanga 

Panffasi n an 


1,468 
1,083 
1,726 












8,116 


1,192 


1,647 


1,642 






7,128 
8.735 


Rizai I!!'.!'.'.!!!!!*.'!!.' 






Romblon (subprovince) 






1 




1.072 


SamRr 


898 
1,180 


1,062 




.. 1 




8,452 


Borsogon 




. 




2.906 


Surigao 

Tarlac 







1 




9^ 


901 
8,123 










2,866 
6,410 


Tayabas 






i 




ZambftieH 






1 




827 










' 






Total 


46.814 


36,058 


12,810 


5,922 


3,261 


825 


752 


104,966 



Exhibit H. 
PBESIDENT'S PBOCLAMATION TO CALL ELECTION. 
By THE Governor-General of the Philippine Islands: 
A PROCLAMATION. 

Whereas, the President of the Unitetl States did, on the twenty-eighth day of 
March, nineteen hundred and seven, issue the following Executive Order :*» 
* * * * * * * 

Now, therefore, I, James F. Smith, governor-general of the Philippine Islands, 
do hereby proclaim the foregoing for the information and guidance of all con- 
cerned. 

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the 
govenmient of the Philippine Islands to be affixed. 

Done at the city of Manila this first day of April, in the year of our Lord 
one thousand nine hundred and seven. 

(seal.) James F. Smith, 

Oovcnwr-Ocneral, 
By the governor-general : 

A. W. Fergusson, Executive Secretary, 

« The text of Executive Order of March 28, 1907, and Resolution of Philippine 
Commission of March 28, 1907, have been omitted here and may be seen In 
'•Exhibit L," following (pp. 213, 214). 



BEPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETABY. 



203 



Exhibit I. 
PBOCLAMATION OF OOVEBNOB-OENEBAL CALLINO ELECTION. 
By the Govebnob-General of the Philippine Islands : 
A PROCLAMATION. 

Whereas the Philippine Commission on March thirtieth, nineteen hundred 
and seven, adopted the following resolution :<» 

* * * « « « m 

Now, therefore, I, James F. Smith, governor-general of the Philippine 
Islands, in pursuance of the foregoing resolution, do hereby proclaim the same 
for the information and guidance of all concerned. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of 
the government of the Philippine Islands to be affixed. 

Done at the city of Manila this first day of April in the year of our Ix)rd one 
thousand nine hundred and seven. 



[SEAL.] 

By the Governor-general : 

A. W. Febgusson, Executive Secretary. 



James F. Smith, 
Govemor-Oeneral. 



Exhibit J. 

TOTAL VOTE CAST, BY PBOVINCES AITD PABTIE8. 

Votes cast for the different political parties, by provinces, at the election for 
delegates to the Philippine Assembly, held on July 30, 1907, as shown by official 
canvass : 



Province. 




X 


f 


1 

B 

c 


i 

1 

c 


« 


III 

Sag 

a. 


1 

i 


1 


§ 


Albay 


2,196 
334 
604 


1,415 
244 
352 
859 

1,455 

1,594 
948 
725 

2,600 








55 
58 
47 
11 
55 
76 

68* 

39 
61 
159 
106 
54 
75 
84 
132 


3,666 


Ambo^ Cuniiirines 


1,577 




: 




2, '213 
1,003 


Antique 










Bataan 






379 






749 


Batannu! 


2,113 


85 


1 




3,708 


Bohol 


::::: 




1 




1,670 


Bulacan 


1,960 


*'i."434' 
1,177 


i 




2,898 


Cagrayan 


2,217 


Caplz 


889 
2,686 
3,088 

747 
1,619 


1 


137 


4,842 


Cavite 


1 


• 2,747 


Cebu 






445 




3,692 


Ilocos Norte 


1,421 

2,005 

1,773 

549 

795 

1.2<t 

510 

1,361 


85 

96 

1,779 

199 







i.1 


2,460 


Ilocofl 8ur 




3,773 


Iloilo 


2,275 








5,902 


Isabela 


529 







1,311 


La LAg una 


2,636 
1,297 
3,025 
5,671 
437 


1 




3,562 


Lh i'nlon 


685 
98 
98 

153 
1.038 










3,166 


Lcyte 


125 








69 
3 
32 

112 
13 

179 
31 
23 
13 
69 
45 

184 
53 
44 
18 
24 
73 


3,827 


Manila 

Mindoro , 




59 


14 


7,206 
622 


Miaamia 










1,160 


Nueva Eciia 


1,385 


697 

1,005 

912 

"874" 
570 
1,477 
193 
430 
745 
946 
857 






I 


2,095 


Occidental Negros . 


"'""2i7' 

4.-J6 

1,909 


1,405 
614 




100 


2,689 


Oriental Negros 




1,557 


Palawan .... 


48 




288 


Pampanga 


■'2*637" 


1,448 




2,791 


Pan^sinan 

Rizal 


615 

1,957 

137 

665 


600 
88 




6,400 




3,567 


Samar 


2.56.5 
1,510 


70 








3,149 


Sorsogon 

Surigao . 


, .. 1 




2,658 
789 








Tarlac 


i,234 


1 


i 


18 


2, 216 


Tayabas 


2,237 
162 




3,823 


1 


6,941 
737 


Zambales 


502 


1 








1 






Total 


34,277 


24,284 


22.878 


7,126 


6,179 1-192 1 91 


269 


2,005 


98,251 













«The text of Executive Order of March 2.S, 1<K)7, Resolution of Philippine 
Commission of March 28, 1907, and Resolution of Philippine Commission of 
March 30, 1907, have been omitted here and may be seen in " Exhibit Ij," fol- 
lowing (pp. 212-214). 



204 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Exhibit K. 

PTTBLIC BECEPTION AND WELCOME TO THE HONORABLE THE SECBETABT 

OF WAR. 

The Philippine Ck>MMissioN. 

MINUTES OF PBOCEEDINGS. 

Tuesday, October 15, 1907. 

In accordance with previous arrangements the Commission met at 4 p. m., 
and talving the launch provided for them repaired in a body to the transport 
McClcUan, just arrived in the bay, to meet the honorable the Secretary of War. 

At 5.40 p. m.. Secretary Taft, Gen. Clarence R. Edwards, Chief of the Bureau 
of Insular Affairs, and the Commission arrived at the marble hall of the ayun- 
tamiento accompanied by MaJ. Gen. Leonard Wood, commanding-general, Phil- 
ippines Division, United States Army, Rear-Admiral Hemphill, commanding the 
Philippine squadron, United States Asiatic Fleet, Hon. P611x M. Roxas, presi- 
dent of the muncipal board of Manila, and Hon. Arthur W. Ferguson, executive 
secretary. 

All immediately took the chairs reserved for them on a platform at the end 
of the hall. l*resently Hon. F^llx M. Roxas, president of the municipal board 
of Manila, arose and delivered the following address of welcome: 

" Your excellency, ladies and gentlemen : The city of Manila feels proud to 
have as guests the illustrious travelers who to-day honor us with their visit. 
This visit to the Filipino people is the greatest evidence of the most lively 
Interest felt by the American people in our prosi)erity and progress. The dele- 
gation they have sent us is the highest representation of the American nation, 
personified in the Secretary of War, the great friend of the Filipinos; personi- 
fied in his worthy wife, the distinguished lady who for some years lived In our 
midst, and by her distinction and affable manner won affection and sympathy 
on every side; personified, finally, In General Edwards, who at Washington 
for some time past has devoted himself to the study of Philippine problems. 

** Be you all welcome ! The delirious enthusiasm with which you have been 
received has the singularity and beauty of the siwntaneity with which the 
Filipino people exi)ress their sentiments. The hospitality we extend to you is 
not forced and oflScial, It Is our collective hospitality, our Individual hospitality. 
For you are oi)en not only the ancient doors of the city, but also the doors of 
our own homes. If you penetrate the large and sumptuous residences, if you 
enter the humble bamboo and nlpa homes that you have found on your road, 
you will find palpitating in all of them these same sentiments of kindly sym- 
pathy; for these sentiments are the patrimony that we Filipinos have Inher- 
itetl from our forebears. 

" Sir, the Filipino people have faithfully followed the route that you traced 
with a master hand. All of the institutions that you here established have 
developed greatly and vigorously. The municipalities, the provinces, the insular 
government work with admirable precision, with high credit to the executive 
power. The courts of Justice with that same organization due to your ability 
and skill, notwithstanding that the procedure upon which they are based was 
exotic and unknown at the beginning by a kirge part of the Filipinos, constitute 
the strongest bulwark and the surest protection of our rights and liberties. 
The Philippine Commission, in which to this very moment Is exclusively vested 
the legislative power, has passed laws up to act No. 1.S00, if my information be 
not incorrect; this fact alone eloquently reveals how zealously and diligently 
this body has carried out its august functions. 

"The glory for these successes belongs largely to the Filipinos, not only to 
those who take an active part in the administration, but particularly to the 
hotly of the people who, being obedient and respecting the law, have with 
docility kept up with the progressive influence, and by their own efforts have 
overcome obstacles and difficulties, and facilitated the accomplishment of the 
I)olicy of America in these Islands. 

" The disorder and disturbances which invariably follow great social up- 
heavals have here had an ephemeral existence. Under the {Vatemal rule of 



REPOBT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETAKY, 205 

General Smith the complete pacification of the islands has been accomplished; 
neither In Cavite nor in Batangas, in Negros or in Gebtl, in Leyte or in Samar, 
does there any longer exist the least spark of revolution or disturbance, the 
chieftains of disorder have bent the neck to the resolute attitude of the people 
in their demands for peace, quiet, and tmnquillity, in order that they might fully 
enter upon the most transcendental epoch of the history of the Philippines.- I 
refer, gentlemen, to the establishment of the Philippine Assembly that in a few 
short days will be inaugurated. The fourth estate, the electrical power has 
reached its full development in this country. The people have been permitted 
to choose their representatives, the representatives elected by the people are 
here with you. Young souls, of lively and intelligent aspect, they appear to have 
stamped upon their countenances the glorious impress of the century in which 
we live. 

" Permit me, beloved fellow countrymen, in alluding to you, that I remind 
you of these words of Doctor Rizal : * You are the legitimate hope of the father- 
land.* With your accession to power, the oriental chrysalis has burst its bonds, 
the beautiful butterfly will to-morrow take its first flight and flit from flower to 
flower in the vast Filipino garden ; but know ye well, upon you is imposed the 
holy task of gathering the honey destined to nourish the Filipino people. 

" The inauguration of the Assembly records a memorable event In the history 
of the Philippines, at the same time that it adds a glorious page to the history 
of the American people. The constitution offered by the act of July 1, 1902, has 
become established, and the promises of America to the Philippines have been 
fulfilled. The Filipino people are in the vanguard of oriental peoples, a place 
of honor always h^Id by peoples living under the protection of the American flag. 

" It devolves upon us now to turn our eyes toward those who have dis- 
pensed such signal benefits and accomplished, in the period of ten years, a work 
of centuries, and, having reached this point we must evoke the memorable 
recollection of the illustrious president treacherously assassinated in Buffalo, 
of him who conceived the humane plan of the regeneration of the Philippines — 
of McKlnley; of Secretary Root who inspired so noble a task; of President 
Roosevelt, faithful in carrying out that beneficent policy; of Secretary Taft, the 
able executor of the complex project for our upbuilding. For this reason the 
names of McKlnley, of Root, of Roosevelt, and of Taft are symbolical of the 
modern history of the Philippines. 

" This address, gentlemen, is dedicated to the Secretary of War now with us, 
and I do not think that you will qualify my words as adulation, if I render to 
him the homage and the eulogy to which he Is Justly entitled. Secretary Taft 
has been our great legislator, our fiawless statesman, and our excellent gover- 
nor, all at the same time. I do not know in what to admire him most It appears 
to me that in him shines the same genius of the artist who was a great architect, 
a sublime painter, and an Inimitable sculptor all in one, of that prodigy of art, 
of Michael Angelo ; for Just as he, with the last stroke, of his chisel to his cele- 
brated Moses, being carried away by the perfection of his work exclaimed: 
•Arise and walk,' I forefeel that the Secretary will experience the same emo- 
tions as did that artist, and addressing himself to the i)eople will exclaim: 
•Forward Filipinos.' 

** Before concluding I must reiterate to you, Mr. Secretary, the welcome cor- 
dially extended to you by the residents of the city of Manila — foreigners, Ameri- 
cans, and Filipinos." 

Governor-General James F. Smith then si)oke as follows : 

" Now that the ofliclal welcome of the city of Manila has been tendered. It 
devolves ujwn me, Mr. Secretary, to perform the very pleasant duty of saying 
a few words of welcome on behalf of the entire body of the i)eople of the Phlll[)- 
plnes, foreign, American, Spanish, or native of the soil, a few words of wel- 
come to you, Mr. Secretary, and to Mrs. Taft, and to the members of your 
party; but why say them, when the eyes and the hearts and the hands of all 
have spoken them In a language which no poor words of mine can equal? 

"Next Christmas eve It will be four years since you laid down, Mr. Secre- 
tary, the cares of the government of the Philippines, and set out to assume 
others, heavier and more lmi)ortant, but probably not so serious as those you 
encountered here. You left us, and Indeed that was a sad day for everyone, 
one to be remembered long ond sorrowfully by those who were present uiwn 
that occasion and witnessed the deep feeling of the entire body of the ixjople 
when they saw their almost father about to sail away. It was a sorrowful 



206 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE. COMMISSION. 

people because they had learned to know you, Mr. Secretary, and they had 
learned to know, to be acquainted with, the amiable qualities of the partner of 
your joys and sorrows ; and they loved you both very much. 

" Time and distance may dim the memory of achievement, but they never 
can dull the recollection of kindly deeds, inspired by kindly hearts. The people 
of -the Philippines have not forgotten Mr. and Mrs. Taft, and when time shall 
have resolved into its kindred dust all who are gathered here to-day their 
memories will be fondly cherished by the children of the years to come as 
fondly as by those whose welcome I can so poorly speak. 

" New triumphs of statesmanship have added laurels to your brow ; others 
prouder and better yet still await you, but for us none will be nobler than those 
which you won as the first civil governor of the Philippines. 

" In the name of all I wish you, 3klr. and Mrs. Taft, a happy * coming to your 
own again,' and to the members of all your party a hearty welcome to the 
Philippines.'* 

Secretary Taft then arose and was enthusiastically greeted by all present. 
He addressed the gathering as follows : 

'* Ladles and gentlemen : I should like to-day to talk about my personal feel- 
ings, and nothing else. I prepared no speech. As I stand here a flood of 
reminiscences of the last seven years, a flood of affectionate remembrance 
comes over me. President Roosevelt has always been my friend, has always 
extended every evidence of kindness to me : but he has in all our long friend- 
ship never done anything that I value so much as having given me the oppor- 
tunity to come and have this reception and this renewal of my old intimacy 
with the people of the Philippine Islands. 

"And first. In the order In which I had the honor to meet them, may I extend 
my thanks to the Admiral of the Navy and his oflicers. Who were good enough 
to meet us with their vessels as we entered the gates of the Philippine Islands — 
at Mariveles and Corregidor. May I also extend my thanks to the committee of 
reception, representing both Americans and Filipinos, to whom I am Indebted 
for the cordial earnestness with which they have arranged a task which, to use 
a colloquial expression, may * finish ' me, but with which I am going through 
with a determination to express my appreciation of it. Let me express my cor- 
dial appreciation of the welcome from the army; let me congratulate General 
Wood and his associates upon tlie fine appearance of the American soldiers, and 
congratulate him and them that this really seems to be now a station to which 
we send troops for health rather than to be Invalided; and, finally, let me ex- 
press my x)rofound appreciation of the welcome from my old colleagues, the 
Commission, with Oovernor-Oeneral Smith at the head — Governor-General 
Smith, who came to the Islands before I did and who had impressed himself 
upon tLe Filipinos long before they knew me or I knew them, and who is still 
constant to the task of doing the best that he can for the people of these Islands. 

"Ah ! those reminiscences — I see In the first line of the distinguished govern- 
ors of the provinces a gentleman who was in arms against the United States, 
and a gallant soldier was he, when I landed on these shores — Governor Cailles, 
of Laguna. I see among the governors others whom I knew well and loved 
when I was in the Islands, and I express to them my profound gratification at 
meeting them here. My old friend, the alcalde, I can remember as distinctly as 
If It were yesterday when he came Into the little room In the corner of this 
building where the Commission first began its sessions, with a book on munici- 
pal corporations, which he tendered us to assist us in drafting the municipal 
code; and ever since that time he and I have worked together, differing some- 
times, but always agreeing in an earnest desire for the elevation of the Filipino 
people. 

** I bog to express my appreciation of the courtesy of the members of the 
newly elected Assembly In coming here. There are some faces that 1 know. My 
old friend. Doctor Guerrero, I recognize and have known since I came to the 
islands. There is a gentleman sitting next to him whom I know, but there are 
others whose faces are younger and who perhaps have come on even in the 
short three years or four years in which I have been absent from the Islands. 

" But as I look down this line and see the chief Justice and his distinguished 
associates they carry me back to the very day that I landed in the Islands, and. 
Indeed, before we landed, when the chief justice came out to meet us on a day 
hotter even than to-day, on the 3d of June, 1900. 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 207 

** I see among my American friends present those wlio have figured on and 
for the last seven years have been looking for that prosperity which was to 
make us all rith, but which has been somewhat slow in coming. 

" To all of you I wish to express as fully and earnestly as I can the deep 
pleasure I have in being here. This is the third time that it has been given to 
me to meet a welcoming throng in the Philippine Islands, in the city of Manila, 
and this, I am proud to say, is the most earnest and cordial reception of the 
three cordial receptions with which I have been honored. Therefore, the four 
years that I spent in the Philippine Islands were the four to me most im- 
portant years of my life. Never again shall I have the responsibility, never 
again the opportunity, in working out a problem of such tremendous importance 
to a great nation of people. Never again, no matter what responsibility may 
come, will there be a time when 1 enter in with such love of the work as I did 
in the task which was assigned to my colleagues and me in developing a gov- 
ernment in the Philipi)ine Islands In the interest of the Philippine people. 

*'And, therefore, it seems to me as if nothing could happen now which was 
of more importance to me — which filled my life fuller — than this affection, sin- 
cere and warm, that I wish. In what I say with very poor words, to express to 
the i)eople of the Philippine Islands." 

The meeting was brought to a close by the playing of the " Star-Spangled 
Banner" by the constabulary band. 

The Honorable Secretary of War and the governor-general then held an 
informal reception of the persons present. 

The occasion of this demonstration was marked by a very large and enthusi- 
astic gathering of the people, and was principally noteworthy in that there 
were represented through the delegates of the Philippine Assembly, who were 
present in a body, practically the entire Christian i)opulation of the islands. 

There were present also the chief Justice and members of the supreme court 
and representatives in the islands of foreign governments, the commanding offi- 
cers of the United States Army and Navy and their staffs, the provincial gov- 
ernors, and the heads of the various bureaus and offices of the government. 

\Vm. H. Donovan, 
Secretary, Philippine Commission. 

Exhibit L. 

INAUOUBATION OF THE PHILIPPINE ASSEMBLY. 

By the Govebnob-General of the Philippine Islands: 

A PROCLAMATION. 

.Whereas on the twenty-eighth day of March, nineteen hundred and seven, the 
President of the United States, in pursuance of the provisions of the act of 
Congress, approved July first, nineteen hundred and two, did issue an Executive 
order directing the Philippine Commission to call a general election for the 
choice of delegates to a popular assembly of the people of the territory of the 
Philippine Islands not inhabited by Moros or other non-Christian tribes, to be 
known as the Philippine Assembly ; and 

Whereas the Philippine Commission, In session duly assembled, on the thir- 
tieth day of March, nineteen hundred and seven, in compliance with said 
executive order of the President of the United States, did pass a resolution 
calling a general election to be held on the thirtieth day of July, nineteen hun- 
dred and seven, in accordance with the provisions of act numbered fifteen 
hundred and eighty-two of the Philippine Commission, entitled " The election 
law," for the choice of delegates to a jwpular assembly of the people of the ter- 
ritory of the Philippine Islands not inhabited by Moros or other non-Christian 
tribes, to be known as the Philippine Assembly ; and 

Whereas such general election was duly held on the thirtieth day of July, 
nineteen hundred and seven, and delegates to said popular assembly were elected 
thereat : 

Now, therefore, I, James F. Smith, governor-general of the Philippine Islands, 
in pursuance of the provisions of the act of Congress, approved July first, nine- 



208 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

teen hundred and two, do hereby call the Philipphie Legislature to hold Its first 
meeting at the ayuntamiento building In the city of Manila on Wednesday, the 
sixteenth day of October, nineteen hundred and seven, at nine o'clock in the 
forenoon of said day. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the great seal 
of the government of the Philippine Islands to be affixed. 

Done at the city of Manila this fourteenth day of September, nineteen hun- 
dred and seven. 

James F. Smith, 
Oovemor-Oeneral, 
By the governor-general : 
F. W. Carpenteb, 
Acting Executive Secretary. 



By the Governob-Genebal of the Philippine Islands: 

\ PROCLAMATION. 
[Amending proclamation of September 14, 1907.] 

Whereas a proclamation was made on the fourteenth day of September, nhie- 
teen hundred and seven, calling the Philippine Assembly to hold its first meet- 
ing at the ayuntamiento building in the city of Manila on the sixteenth day of 
October, nineteen hundred and seven ; and 

Whereas the place of meeting designated in said call is deemed to be insuffi- 
cient to accommodate the public desirous of being present at the opening of the 
Assembly. 

Now, therefore, the said proclamation is hereby amended to read as follows : 

" Whereas on the twenty-eighth day of March, nineteen hundred and seven, 
the President of the United States, in pursuance of the provisions of the act 
of Congress approved July first, nineteen hundred and two, did issue an Execu- 
tive order directing the Philippine Commission to call a general election for 
the choice of delegates to a i)opular assembly of the people of the territory of 
the Philippine Islands not inhabited by Moros or other non-Christian tribes, 
to be known as the Philippine Assembly ; and 

" Whereas the Philippine Commission, In session duly assembled, on the 
thirtieth day of March, nineteen hundred and seven. In compliance with said 
Executive order of the President of the United States, did pass a resolution 
calling a general election to be held on the thirtieth day of July, nineteen hun- 
dred and seven. In accordance with the provisions of act numbered fifteen hun- 
dred and eighty-two of the Philippine Commission, entitled * The election law,' 
for the choice of delegates to a popular assembly of the people of the territory 
of the Philippine Islands not Inhabited by Moros or other non-Chrlstlan tribes, 
to be known as the Philippine Assembly ; and 

" Whereas such general election was duly held on the thirtieth day of July, 
nineteen hundred and seven, and delegates to said popular assembly were 
elected thereat : 

** Now, therefore, I, James F. Smith, governor-general of the Philippine 
Islands, In pursuance of the provisions of the act of Congress approved July 
first, nineteen hundred and two, do hereby call the Philippine I^eglslature to 
hold Its first meeting at the Grand Oi>era House, on Calle Cervantes, Santa Cruz, 
In the city of Manila, on Wednesday, the sixteenth day of October, nineteen 
hundred and seven, at nine o'clock In the forenoon of said day.'* 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the great seal 
of the government of the Philippine Islands to be affixed. 

Done at the city of Manila this 11th da^ of October, nineteen hundred 
and seven. 

James F. Smith, 

Govemor-GeneraL 

By the governor-general : 
F. W. Cabpenteb, 

Acting Executive Secretary. 



EEPOBT OP THE EXECUTIVE SECRETABY. 209 

Philippine Leqislaturu. 
journal of the com mission. 

Wednesday, October 16, 1907, 

Pursuant to the proclaDiation of the governor-general, dated September 14, 
1907, as amended by the proclamation of the governor-general, dated October 
11, 1907, made In accordance with the provisions of the act of Congress ap- 
proved July 1, 1902, the members of the Philippine Commission and the mem- 
bers-elect of the Philippine Assembly met in the Grand Opera house, Calle 
Cervantes, city of Manila, at 9.25 a. m. 

The delegates-elect of the Philippine Assembly entered the hall in a body at 
9 o'clock a. m., and shortly after the hour of 9 Hon. William H. Taft, Secretary 
of War of the United States, Hon. James F. Smith, governor-general of the 
Philippine Islands, and Hon. Dean O. Worcester, Hon. T. H. Pardo de Tavera, 
Hon. Benito I^egarda, Hon. Jos^ R. de Luzuriaga, Hon. W. Cameron Forbes, and 
Hon. W. Morgan Shuster, members of the Philippine Commission, accompanied 
by MaJ. Gen. Leonard Wood, commanding the Philippine Division of the 
United States Army, Rear- Admiral Hemphill, commanding officer of the United 
States Asiatic Fleet at this station, Brig. Gen. Clarence R. Edwards, chief of the 
Bureau of Insular Affairs, and Hon. Arthur W. Fergusson, executive secretary 
of the Philippine Islands, arrived and took the seats provided for them on the 
stage. 

There were present also the members of the supreme court, Monsignor A. 
Ambrose Agius, Apostolic Delegate, and Right Rev. Jorge Barlln, the official 
representatives of foreign Governments in the Philippine Islands, and the 
various provincial governors. 

The governor-general arose and spoke as follows: 

" Mr. Secretary of War, members of the Philippine Commission, members- 
elect of the Philippine Assembly, ladies and gentlemen : 

" In section 6 of the act of Congress approved July 1, 1902, entitled *An act 
temporarily to provide for the administration of the affairs of civil government 
In the Philippine Islands, and for other purposes,* it was provided — 

"'That whenever the existing insurrection in the Philippine Islands shall 
have ceased and a condition of general and complete peace shall have been 
established therein and the fact shall be certified to the President by the Philip- 
pine Commission, the President, upon being satisfied thereof, shall order a 
census of the Philippine Islands to be taken by said Philippine Commission; 
such census in its inquiries relating to the populaton shall take and make so 
far as practicable full report for all the inhabitants, of name, age, sex, race, or 
tribe, whether native or foreign bom, literacy In Spanish, native dialect or 
language, or in English, school attendance, ownership of homes. Industrial and 
social statistics, and such other information separately for each Island, each 
province, and municipality, or other civil division, as the President and said 
Commission may deem necessary: Provided, That the President may, upon the 
request of said Commission, in his discretion, employ the service of the Census 
Bureau in compiling and promulgating the statistical information above pro- 
vided for, and may commit to such Bureau any part or portion of such labor, 
as to him may seem wise.' 

" In section 7 of the said act it was provided — 

" * That two years after the completion and publication of the census. In case 
such condition of general and complete peace with recognition of the authority 
of the United States shall have continued in the territory of said islands not 
inhabited by Moros or other non-Christian tribes and such facts shall have 
been certified to the President by the Philippine Commission, the President upon 
being satisfied thereof shall direct said Commission to call, and the Commission 
sball call, a general election for the choice of delegates to a popular assembly 
of the people of said territory in the Philippine Islands, which shall be known 
as the Philippine Assembly. After said assembly shall have convened and or- 
ganized all the legislative power heretofore conferred on the Philippine Com- 
mission in all that part of said Islands not inhabited by Moros or other non- 
Chistian tribes shall be vested in a legislature consisting of two houses — the 
Philippine Commission and the Philippine Assembly. Said assembly shall 
consist of not less than fifty nor more than one hundred members to be apppor- 
tloned by said Commission among the provinces as nearly as practicable accord- 

11024— WAB 1907— VOL 7 14 



210 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

lug to iK>i)ulatiou : Provided^ That uo proviuce shall have less than one member : 
And provided further. That provinces entitled by i)oi)ulatiou to more than one 
member may be divided Into such convenient districts as the said Commission 
may deem best. 

" * Public notice of such division shall be given at least ninety days prior to 
such election, and the election shall be held under rules and regulations to be 
prescribed by law. The qualification of electors in such election shall be the 
same as is now provideil by law in case of electors in municipal elections. The 
members of assembly shall hold office for two years from the first day of Janu- 
ary next following their election, and their successors shall be chosen by the 
people every second year thereafter. No person shall be eligible to such election 
who is not a qualified elector of the election district in which he may be chosen, 
owing allgiance to the United States, and twenty-five years of age. 

" * The legislature shall hold annual sessions, commencing on the first Monday 
of February in each year and continuing not exceeding ninety days thereafter 
(Sundays and holidays not included) : Provided^ That the first meeting of the 
legislature shall be held upon the call of the governor within ninety days after 
the first election : And provided further. That If at the termination of any ses- 
sion the appropriations necessary for the support of Government shall not 
have been made, an amount equal to the sums api^ropriated in the last appropri- 
ation bills for such purposes shall be deemed to be appropriated; and until the 
legislature shall act In such behalf the treasurer may, with the advice of the 
governor, make the payments necessary for the purjwses aforesaid.* 

" On September 8, 1902, on motion of Commissioner Wright, the following 
resolution w^as adopted by the Philippine Commission : 

" * Resolved, That the Philippine Commission hereby certifies to the President 
of the United States that the recently existing Insurrection In the Philippine 
Islands has ceased and a condition of general and complete peace has been estab- 
lished herein ; that this certificate Is made in accordance with the i)rovlslons of 
section six of "An act temporarily to provide for the administration of the 
affairs of civil government in the Philippine Islands, and for other puri)0se8," 
and that the Commission recommends to the President of the United States that 
he order a census of the Philippine Islands to be taken by the Philippine Com- 
mission In accordance with the provisions of said section. 

" * Be it further resolved. That the foregoing certificate does not and Is not 
Intended to certify that the condllons surrounding the Lake Lanao Moro dis- 
trict In Mindanao, which district forms but a small part of the territory occupied 
by the Moros, are those of absolute and complete peace, but that In the opinion 
of the Commission the language of section six and the certificate therein provided 
for were not intended by Congress to require before such census should be taken 
that complete peace should exist in the country of the wild Moros, who never 
have taken any part in the Insurrection referred to in section six.* 

" On September 25, 1002, the following order was issued by the President of 
the United States : 

" * White House, September 25, 1902. 
" * Whereas, by the sixth section of the act of Congress approved July first, 
nineteen hundred and two, entitled "An act temporarily to provide for the ad- 
ministration of the affairs of civil government in the Philli)i)lne Islands, and 
for other puriwses," It was provided " That whenever the existing Insurrection 
in the Philippine Islands shall have ceased and a condition of general and com- 
plete peace shall have been established therein and the fact shall be certified 
to the President by the Philippine Commission, the President, upon being sat- 
isfied thereof, shall order a census of the Philippine Islands to be taken by said 
Phllii)plne Commission; such census In Its Inquiries relating to the i)opulatlon 
shall take and make so far as practicable full report for all the inhabitants, 
of nam^, age, sex, race, or tribe, whether native or foreign born, literacy In 
Spanish, native dialect or language, or In English, school attendance, ownership 
of homes, industrial and social statistics, and such other information separately 
for each Island, each province, and municipality, or other civil division, as the 
President and said Commission may deem necessary: Provided, That the Presi- 
dent may, uixm the request of the Commission, In his discretion, employ the 
service of the Census Bureau in compiling and promuliratliig the statist ic'al in- 
formation above provided for, and may commit to such Bureau any part or 
portion of such labor as to him may seem wise," and 



BEPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 211 

*' * Whereas, the said Commission hAa adopted and certified to me the follow- 
ing resolutions : 

** Resolved, That the Philippine Commission hereby certifies to the President 
of the United States that the recently existing insurrection in the Philippine 
Islands has ceased and a condition of general and complete peace has been es- 
tablished herein. That this certificate is made in accordance with the provi- 
sions of section six of an act temporarily to provide for the affairs of civil 
government in the Philippine Islands, and for other purposes, and that the Com- 
mission recommends to the President of the United States that he order a census 
of the Philippine Islands to be taken by the Philippine Commission in accord- 
ance with the provisions of said section. 

"Be it further resolved. That the foregoing certificate does not and is not 
Intended to certify that the conditions surrounding the I^ake I^uuo district in 
Mindanao, which district forms but a small part of the territory occupied by 
the Moros, are those of absolute and complete peace, but that in the opinion 
of the Commission the language of section six and the certificate therein pro- 
vided for were not Intended by Congress to require before such census should 
be taken that complete peace should exist in the country of the wild Moros 
who never have taken any part in the insurrection referred to in section six." 

" * Now, therefore : I, Theodore Roosevelt, President of the Unltetl States, 
in pursuance of the provisions of the law above quoted and upon the foregoing 
due certification, and being satisfied of the facts therein statcnl, do order a 
census of the Philippine Islands be taken by said Philippine Commission in 
accordance with the provisions of the said act of Congress. 

" * THex)DOBE Roosevelt. 

" * 1918-11.] 

" * Wab Department, 
" * BnsEAU or Insular Affairs, 
" * Washington, D. C, September 27, J 902. 
" *Oflicial copy respectfully referred to the civil governor of the Phllli)i)lne 
Islands, Manila, P. I., for his information. 
" * By order of the Acting Secretary of War : 

" * Clarence R. Edwards, 
" * Colonel, U. H. Army, Chief of Bureau,' 

"Then followed the proclamation of the governor-general of the Philippine 
Islands, Hon. Luke E. Wright, made on the 28th day of March, 1905, proclaim- 
ing the order of the President, as follows : 

" *By the Governor-General of the Philippine Islands — 

"'A PROCLAMATION. 

" * Whereas the. Secretary of War has informed this government that on the 
twenty-seventh day of March, nineteen hundred and five, the Philippine census 
bureau, with the aid of the United States Census Bureau, completed and pub- 
lished the fourth and last volume of the report of the Philippine census, taken 
In accordance with the provisions of section six of the act of Congress ap- 
proved July one, nineteen hundred and two : 

" * Now, therefore, I, Luke E. Wright, governor-general of the Philippine 
Islands, do hereby proclaim the publication of the Philippine census as above 
set forth, and do call the attention of the people of these islands to that imrt 
of section seven of the said act of Congress approved July one, nineteen hun- 
dred and two, which provides that two years after the completion and publi- 
cation of the census, in case a condition of general and complete peace with 
recognition of the authority of the United States shall have continued In the 
territory of these islands not inhabited by Moros or other non-Chrlstlan tribes 
and such facts shall have been certified to the President by the Philippine 
Commission, the President upon being satisfied thereof shall direct the Philip- 
pine Commission to call, and the Commission shall call, a general election for 
the choice of delegates to a popular assembly of the people of said territory in 
the Philippine Islands, which shall be known as the Philippine Assembly : and 
which provides also that after the said assembly shall have convened and or- 
ganized all the legislative power heretofore conferred on the Philippine Com- 
mission in all that part of these islands not inhabited by Moros or other non- 
(Thristian tribes shall be vested In a legislature consisting of two houses — the 
Philippine Commission and the Philippine Assembly. 



212 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

" * In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of 
the government of the Philippine Islands to be aflSxed. 

" * Done at the city of Manila this twenty-eighth day of March, nineteen hun- 
dred and five. 

" * By the governor-general : 

" * Luke E. Wbight. 
" 'A. W. Ferguson, 

" ^Executive Secretary,* 

" No further steps were taken in this matter until March 28, 1907, when the 
following resolution was adopted by the Philippine Commission, and tele- 
graphed to the President of the United States : 

" * Whereas the census of the Philippine Islands was completed and pub- 
lished on the twenty-seventh day of March, nineteen hundred and five, whicti 
said completion and publication of said census was, on the twenty-^ghtli 
day of March, nineteen hundred and five, duly published and proclaimed 
to the people by the governor-general of the Philippine Islands with the 
announcement that the President of the United States would direct the 
Philippine Commission to call a general election for the choice of delegates 
to a popular assembly, provided tliat a condition of general and complete i>eace 
with recognition of the authority of the United States should be certified by 
the Philip|>Ine Commission to have continued in the territory of the Philippine 
Islands for a i^rlod of two years after said completion and publication of 
said census; and 

" * Whereas since the completion and publication of said census there have 
been no serious disturbances of the public order, save and except those cause<l 
by the noted outlaws and bandit chieftains, Fellzardo and Montalon, and their 
followers in the provinces of Cavlte and Batangas, and those caused in the 
provinces of Samar and Leyte by the non-Christian and fanatical pulajanes 
resident in the mountain districts of the said provinces and the barrios con- 
tiguous thereto; and 

" * Whereas the overwhelming majority of the people of said provinces of 
Cavlte, Batangas, Samar, and Leyte have not taken part In said disturbances and 
have not aided nor abetted the lawless acts of said bandits and pulajanes ; and 

" * Whereas the great mass and body of the Filipino ixK)ple have, during said 
period of two years, continued to be law-abiding, i^eaceful, and loyal to the 
United States, and have continued to recognize and do now recognize the 
authority and sovereignty of the United States In the territory of said Philip- 
pine Islands: Now, therefore, be it . 

" * Resolved by the Philippine Commission in formal session duly assembled. 
That it, said Philippine Commission, do certify, and It does hereby certify, to 
the President of the United States that for a period of two years after the 
completion and publication of the census a condition of general and complete 
I)eace, with recognition of the authority of the United States, has continued 
to exist and now exists In the territory of said Philippine Islands not Inhab- 
ited by Moros or other non-Chrlstlan tribes ; and be it further 

" * Resolved by said Philippimj Commission, That the President of the United 
States be requested, and Is hereby requested, to direct said Philippine Com- - 
mission to call a general election for the choice of delegates to a popular 
assembly of the people of said territory In the Philippine Islands, which assem- 
bly shall be known as the Philippine Assembly/ 

" The following day an official telegram was received from Washington con- 
taining an Executive order of the President directing the Philippine Commission 
to call a general election for the choice of delegates to a popular assembly, and 
on March 30, 1907, the Commission adopted a resolution as follows : 

"Whereas on March twenty-eighth, nineteen hundred and seven, the Philip- 
pine Commission by resolution certified to the President of the Ignited States 
that on said date, and for a period of two years subsequent to the completion 
and publication of the census, a condition of general and complete peace, with 
recognition of the authority of the United States, had continued to exist In the 
territory of said Philippine Islands not inhabited by Moros or other non- 
Christian tribes, and in and by said resolution I'equested the President to 
direct said Philippine Commission to call a general election for the choice of 
delegates to a popular assembly of the people of said territory of the,Philli>- 
plue Islands; and 



BEPOBT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECBETABY. 218 

"Whereas the President of the United States thereupon made and Issued 
an Executive order as follows, to wit: 

" * Whereas by the sixth section of the act of Congress approved July first, 
nineteen hundred and two, entitled "An act temporarily to provide for the ad- 
ministration of the affairs of civil government in the Philippine Islands, and 
for other purposes," it was provided " That whenever the existing insurrection 
in the Philippine Islands shall have ceased and a condition of general and com- 
plete i)eace shall have been established therein and the fact shall be certified 
to the President by the Philippine Ck>mmission, the President, upon being satis- 
fied thereof, shall order a census of the Philippine Islands to be taken by said 
Philippine Commission;" and 

" * Whereas by the seventh section of said act it was provided : " That two 
years after the completion and publication of the census, in case such condition 
of general and complete peace, with recognition of the authority of the United 
States, shall have continued in the territory of said islands not inhabited by 
Moros or other non-Christian tribes, and such facts shall have been certified 
to the President by the Philippine Commission, the President, upon being satis- 
fied thereof, shall direct said Commission to call, and the Commission shall call, 
a general election for the choice of delegates to a popular assembly of the 
I)eople of said territory in the Philippine Islands, which shall be known as the 
Pliilil)plne Assembly. After said Assembly shall have convened and organized, 
all the legislative power heretofore conferred on the Philippine Commission in 
all that part of said islands not inhabited by Moros or other non-Christian 
tribes shall be vested in a legislature consisting ot two houses — the Philippine 
Commission and the Philippine Assembly. Said Assembly shall consist of not 
less than 50 nor more than 100 members, to be apportioned by said Commission ' 
among the provinces as nearly as practicable according to population: Pro- 
vided, That no province shall have less than one member: And provided 
further. That provinces entitled by population to more than one member may 
be divided into such convenient districts as the said Commission may deem 
best;" and 

" * Whereas on September eighth, nineteen hundred and two, the Philippine 
Commission certified to me that the insurrection in the Philippine Islands had 
ceased and that a condition of general and complete peace had been established 
therein; and 

" ' Whereas in pursuance of the provisions of the law above quoted, and 
upon the foregoing due certification, and being satisfied of the facts therein 
stated, on the twenty-fifth day of September, nineteen hundred and two, I 
ordered a census of the Philippine Islands to be taken by the Philippine Com- 
mission ; and 

" * Whereas the census so ordered was taken and announcement of its com- 
pletion and publication made to the people of the Philippine Islands on March 
twenty-eighth, nineteen hundred and five; and 

" ' Whereas the Philippine Commission has now certified to me the following 
resolution : 

" * " Whereas the census of the Philippine Islands was completed and pub- 
lished on the twenty-seventh day of March, nineteen hundred and five, which 
said completion and publication of said census was, on the twenty-eighth day 
of March, nineteen hundred and five, duly, published and proclaimed to the 
people by the governor-general of the Philippine Islands with the aimounce- 
nieut that the President of the United States would direct the Philippine Com- 
mission to call a general election for the choice of delegates to a popular as- 
sembly, i)rovlded that a condition of general and complete peace, with recognition 
of the authority of the United States, should be certified by the Philippine Com- 
mission to have continued in the territory of the Philippine Islands for a period 
of two years after said completion and publication of said census ; and 

" * " Whereas since the completion and publication of said census there have 
been no serious disturbances of the public order, save and except those cause<l 
by the noted outlaws and bandit chieftains, Fellzardo and Montalon, and their 
followers In the provinces of Cavlte and Batangas, and those caused In the 
|)rovinces of Samar and I-.eyte by the non-Christian and fanatical pulajanes 
resident In the mountain districts of the said provinces and the barrios con- 
tiguous thereto; and 

" * " Whereas the overwhelming majority of the people of said provinces of 
Cavlte, Batangas, Samar, and Leyte have not taken part In said disturbances 
and have not aided nor abetted the lawless acts of said bandits and pulajanes; 
and 



214 REPORT OF tHE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

" * " Whereas the jcreat mass and body of the Fillpluo |)eople have, during 
said iKjrlod of two years, continued to be law-abidinp, i^eaceful, and loyal to the 
United States, and have continued to recognize, and do now recognize, the au- 
thority and sovereignty of the United States in the territory of said Philippine 
Islands: Now, therefore, be It 

" * " Resolved by the Philippine Commission in formal session duly assem- 
bled . That it, said Philippine Commission, do certify, and it does hereby certify, 
to the President of the United States that for a period of two years after the 
completion and publication of the census a condition of general and complete 
l>eace, with recognition of the authoritj' of the United States, has continued to 
exist, and now exists, in the territory of said Philippine Islands not inhabited 
by Moros or other non-Christian tribes ; and be it further 

" * " Resolved by said Phili'ppine Commission, That the President of the United 
States be requested and is hereby requested to direct said Philippine Commis- 
sion to call a general election for the choice of delegates to a popular assembly 
of the people of said territory in the Philippine Islands, which assembly shall 
be known as the Philippine Assembly ; " 

" * Now, therefore, I, Theodore Roosevelt, President of the United States, In 
pursuance of the provisions of the law above cited and being satisfied of the 
facts certified to me by the Philippine Commission, do hereby direct said Phil- 
ippine Commission to call a general election for the choice of delegates to e 
popular assembly of the people of the territory of the Philippine Islands not 
Inhabited by Moros or othep non-Christian tribes, which shall be known ar 
the Philippine Assembly. 

"'Theodore Roosevelt. 

" * The White House, At arch 28, 1907: 

" Now, therefore, be it 

" Resolved, That in accordance with the direction of the President of the 
United States, and under and by virtue of the provisions of the act 
of Congress approved July first, nineteen hundred and two, the Philippine 
Commission, In formal session assembled on this the thirtieth day of March, 
nineteen hundred and seven, does hereby call a general election to be held 
on July thirtieth, nineteen hundred and seven, for the choice of delegates to a 
popular assembly of the people of the territory of the Philippine Islands not 
Inhabited by Moros or other non-Chrlstlan tribes, which shall be known as the 
Philippine Assembly, said election to be held In accordance with the provisions 
of act numl>ered fifteen hundred and eighty-two of the Philippine Commission, 
entltl(»d *The election law,* passed January ninth, nineteen hundred and seven; 
and be It further 

" Resolved, That the governor-general be, and he Is hereby, requested to 
Issue a proclamation announcing the calling of said election, which proclama- 
tion shall embody this resolution, and that the executive secretary be, and is 
hereby, directed to have the said proclamation printed as soon as practicable 
in English and in Spanish, and when printed to cause a copy thereof to be 
forwarded without delay to each provincial and municipal government con- 
cerned." 

•* On April 1. 1907, the govenior-general made and Issuetl a proclamation em- 
bodying the resolution of the commission of March 30, lfK)7. 

** In accordance with the call of the Commission the election was duly held 
on July 30 last, and on the face of the returns the delegates who are here 
l)resent ajjpear to be the delegates duly and properly elected from the various 
provinces. 

" Sul)sequently and within the ninety days prescribed by the act of Congress, 
the gnvernor-goneral diret^ttni that the Philippine legislature meet at the ayun- 
tanilento building in the city of Manila on Wednesday, the IGth day of October, 
IIKIT, at the hour of 9 o'clock a. m. In view of the little space available for 
the public in the marble hall of the ayuntamlento buildlnp, this proclamation 
of the governor-general was, on October 11, 1907. amended so as to require the 
met»ting to be held at the (Jrand Opera House, where we are now gathered. 

" Xo other step now remains except that of the formal opening of the Philip- 
pine Asstnnbly and the Phillpi)lne Legislature for the transaction of such busi- 
ness as may come before both bodies as the legislative iwwer In the Philippine 
Islands. 

" Who shall formally announce this opening to the people of the Philippine 
Islands? Who better than the man who represents the President of the United 



ItEPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 215 

States and to whom is due, more than to any other man, the organization of the 
Philippine Assembly, because this iwpuliir, rei)rcsentative, legislative body has 
been made possible by his policy and his achievement? Who better can an- 
nounce the fact of this organization to all the peoples of the Philippine Islands 
than the honorable the Secretary of War, William II. Taft?" 

The honorable the Secretary of War then arose, and after making a few in- 
troductory remarks in elaboration of the remarks of the governor-general to 
the effect that the Philippine Assembly was organized for two puriioses — one 
to make the government of the Philippine Islands better, and the other as an 
educational Instrument to prepare the people of the islands and their repre- 
sentatives for exercising the powers of government, and warning the members- 
elect of the Assembly that one of the experiences of a legislative body that It 
must take to heart and learn is the ability to listen to long speeches, he de- 
livered the following address, which was interpreted by the Hon. Arthur W. 
Fergusson, executive secretary of the Philit)pine Islands, with the exception of 
that portion thereof relating to the progress made in the islands, which, on the 
advice of the Secretary of War, was not interpreted Into Spanish owing to the 
lateness of the hour and to the fact that the address In Its entirety would 
appear In the public press and In the journals of both Houses: 

" Gentlemen of the Assembly : President Roosevelt has sent me to convey to 
you and the Filipino i)eople his congratulations niwn another step in the en- 
largement of popular self-government In these Islands. I have the greatest per- 
sonal pleasure In being the bearer of this message. It is intended for each and 
every member of the Assembly, no matter what his views upon the issues which 
w^ere presented in the late electoral campaign. It assumes that he is loyal to 
the government in which he now proposes, under oath of allegiance, to take 
part It does not assume that he may not have a wish to bring about, either 
soon or in the far future, by peaceable means, a transfer of sovereignty; but 
it does assume that while the present government endures, he will loyally do 
all he lawfully can to uphold its authority and to make it useful to the Filipino 
people. 

"I am aware that, in view of the issues discussed at the election of this 
assembly, I am expected to say something regarding the policy of the United 
States toward these islands. Before attempting any such task, it is well to 
make clear the fact that I can not speak with the authority of one who may 
control that policy. 

" The Philippine Islands are territory belonging to the TTnlted States, and 
by the Constitution, the branch of that (iovernment vested with the power, 
and charged with the duty, of making rules and regulations for their govern- 
ment Is Congress. The iwlicy to be pursued with resi)ect to them Is, therefore, 
ultima telj' for Congress to determine. Of course. In the act establishing a gov- 
ernment for the Philippine Islands passed by Congress July 1, 1002, wide 
discretion has been vested In the President to shape affairs In the islands, 
within the limitations of the act, through the api)ointment of the governor and 
the Commission, and the power of the Secretary of War to supervise their 
work and to veto proposed legislation; but not only is the transfer of sover- 
eignty to an Independent government of the Filipino people wholly within 
the jurisdiction of Congress, but so also Is the extension of any popular political 
control In the present government beyond that conferred in the organic act. 
It Is embarrassing, therefore, for me, though I am charged with direct super- 
vision of the islands, under the I*resident, to deal in any way with issues relat- 
ing to their ultimate dIsix)sltion, It Is true that the peculiar development 
of the government of the islands under American sovereignty has given to the 
attitude of the President upon such Issues rather more significance than In 
most matters of exclusively Congressional cognizance. After the exchange of 
ratifications of the treaty of Paris In April of 18(K), and until the organic act of 
July 1, 1002, Congress acquiesced in the government of the islands by the Presi- 
dent as commander in chief of the Army and Navy without Interference, and 
when it passed the organic act it not only confirmed In every respect the 
anomalous quasicivil government which he had created, but it also made his 
instructions to the Secretary of War part of Its statute, and followed therein 
his recommendation as to future extension of popular iK>litical control. This 
close adherence of Congress to the views of the Executive in respect to the 
Islands In the past gives gi-ound for ascribing to Congress approval of the 
Philippine iM>lIcy, as often de<'lare(l by President McKinley and President 
Roosevelt. Still, I have no authority to si)eak for Congress in respect to the 
ultimate dlst)osltion of the islands. I can only express an opinion as one 



216 BEPORT OF TriE PHILIPPINE COMMISSlOiJ* 

familiar witli the circumstances likely to affect Congress, in the light of Its 
previous statutory action. 

" The avowed policy of the National Administration under these two Presi- 
dents has been and is to govern the islands, having regard to the interest and 
welfare of the Filipino people, and by the spread of general primary and in- 
dustrial education and by practice in partial political control to fit the people 
themselves to maintain a stable and well-ordered government affording equality 
of right and opportunity to all citizens. The policy looks to the improvement 
of the iieople both industrially and in self-governing capacity. As this policy 
of extending control continues, it must logically reduce and finally end the 
sovereignty of the United States in the islands, unless it shall seem wise to the 
American and the Filipino peoples, on account of mutually beneficial trade rela- 
tions and possible advantage to the islands in their foreign relations, that the 
bond shall not be completely severed. 

" How long this process of political preparation of the Filipino people is 
likely to be is a question which no one can certainly answer. When I was in 
the islands the last time, I ventured the opinion that it would take considerably 
longer than a generation. I have not changed my view upon this point ; but the 
issue is one upon which opinions differ. However this may be, I believe that 
the policy of the Administration as outlined above is as definite as the policy 
of any government in a matter of this kind can safely be made. We are en- 
gaged in working out a great experiment. No other nation has attempted it, 
and for us to fix a certain number of years in which the experiment must be- 
come a success and be completely realized would be, in my judgment, unwise. 
As I premised, however, this is a question for settlement by the CJongress of the 
United States. 

" Our Philippine iwlicy has been subjected to the severest condemnation by 
critics who occupy points of view as widely apart as the two poles. There are 
those who say that we have gone too fast, that we have counted on the ca- 
pacity of the Filipino for political development with a foolish confidence lead- 
ing to what they regard as the disastrous result of this election. There are 
others who assert that we have denied the Filipino that which is every man's 
birthright, to govern himself, and have been guilty of tyranny and a violation 
of American principles in not turning the government over to the people of 
the islands at once. 

" With your permission, I propose to consider our policy in the light of the 
events of the six years during which it has been pursued, to array the difficul- 
ties of the situation which we have had to meet and to mention in some detail 
what has been accomplished. 

** The civil government was inaugurated in 1901 before the close of a war he- 
tween the forces of the United States and the controlling elements of the Phllli)- 
pine people. It had sufficient popular support to overawe many of those whose 
disposition was friendly to the Americans. In various provinces the war was 
continued intermittently for a year after the appointment of a civil governor in 
July, 1901. This was not an auspicious beginning for the organization of a 
people into a peaceful community acknowledging allegiance to an alien power. 

" Secondly, there was, in the United States, a strong minority party that 
lost no opportunity to denounce the policy of the Government and to express 
sympathy with those arrayed in arms against it, and declared in party plat- 
form and in other ways its intention, should it come into i3ower, to turn the 
islands over to an independent government of their people. This not only pro- 
longed the war, but when peace finally came, it encouraged a suUenness on the 
part of many Filipinos and a lack of interest in the progress and development of 
the existing government, that were discouraging. It offered the hoi^e of imme- 
diate independence at the coming of every national election by the defeat of the 
Administration at the polls. This was not of assistance in carrying out a policy 
that dei)ended for Its working on the political education of tlie i)eople by their 
cordial participation, first, in the new municipal and provincial governments, 
and finally in the election of a national assembly. The result has been that 
during the educational process there has been a continuing controversy as to the 
political capacity of the Filipino people. It has naturally been easy to induce 
a majority of the electorate to believe that they are now capable of maintain- 
ing a stable government. All this has tended to divert the people's attention 
from the existing government, although their useful participation in that must 
measure their progress toward fitness for complete autonomy. 

"The impatience of the popular majority for further power may be some- 
what mitigated as the extent of the political control which is placed in the 



BEPOKT OP THE EXECtTTlVE 8ECBETABY. 217 

hands of the people increases, and as they become more familiar with the re- 
spousibllties and the difficulties of actual power. The difference between the at- 
titude of an irresponsible critic who has. behind him the easily aroused preju- 
dices of a people against an alien government and that of one who attempts 
to formulate legislation which shall accomplish a definite purpose for the good 
of his own peopleris a healthful lesson for the ambitious statesman to lenrn. 

"Other formidable political obstacles had to be overcome. There still re- 
mained present in the situation in 1901 the smoldering ashes of the issues 
which had led the people to rebel against the power of Spain — ^I meaU' the 
prospective continuance of the influence of the regular religious orders in the 
parochial administration of the Roman Catholic Church in the islands and their 
ownership of most valuable and extensive agricultural lands in the most 
I)opulous provinces. The change of sovereignty to a government which could 
exercise no control over the church in its selection of its agents made the new 
regime powerless, by act or decree, to prevent the return of the friars to the 
parishes, and yet the people were disposed to hold the government responsible 
whenever this was proi)osed. It would have been fraught with great danger of 
political disturbance. It was also essential that the religious orders should 
cease to be agricultural landlords In order to eliminate the agrarian question 
arising between them and 60,000 tenants which had played so large a part in 
the previous insurrections against Spain. These results were to be attained 
without offending, or infringing upon the rights of, the Roman Catholic Church, 
the influence of which for good in the islands could not be denied. Other 
political difficulties attending the transfer of a sovereignty from a government 
in which the interests of the state and the church were inextricably united to 
one in which they must be absolutely separated, I need not stop to elaborate. 
The religious and property controversies arising out of the Aglipayan schism, 
and the disturlMinces caused, added much to the burden of the government 

"The novelty of the task for the United States and her people, the lack of 
the existence of a trained body of colonial administrators and civil servants, 
the dependence iPor a time upon men as government agents who had come out in 
a spirit of adventure to the islands and some of whom proved not to be fitted 
either by eharacter or experience for the discharge of responsible public duties, 
gave additional cause for discouragement 

"Another great difficulty in working out our policy in these islands has been 
the reluctance of capitalists to invest money here. Political privileges, if 
unaccompanied by opportunities to better their condition, are not likely to pro- 
duce permanent contentment among a i)eople. Hence the political imix>rtance of 
developing the resources of these islands for the benefit of its inhabitants. 
This can only be done by attracting capital. Capital must have the prosi)ect of 
security In the investment and a certain return of profit before it will become 
available. The constant agitation for independence in the islands, apparently 
supported by the minority party in the United States, and the well-founded fear 
that an independent Philippine government now established would not be per- 
manent and stable have made capitalists chary of attempting to develop the 
natural resources of the islands. The capital which has come has only come 
reluctantly and on terms less favorable to the public than would have been 
exacted under other conditiona 

"Another difficulty of the same character as the last in preventing material 
progress has been the failure of Congress to open the markets of the United 
States to the free admission of Philippine sugar and tobacco. In every other 
way Congress has shown its entire and generous sympathy with the i)oIlcy of 
the Administration ; and in this matter the popular branch of that body i^assed 
the requisite bill for the purpose by a large majority. Certain tobacco and 
sugar interests of the United States, however, succeeded in strangling the 
measure in the Senate committee. I have good reason for hoi>e that in the 
next Congress we may be able to secure a compromise measure which shall 
restore the sugar and tobacco agriculture of the islands to its former prosiHjrIty, 
and at the same time by limitations upon the amounts of importation allay the 
fears of injury on the part of the opponents of the measure. Still, the delay 
in this much-needed relief has greatly retarded the coming of prosperous times 
and has much discouraged supporters of our policy in America who have 
thought this indicated a lack of national purpose to make the present altruistic 
policy a success. 

" But the one thing that interfered with material progress in the islands, 
more than all other causes put together, was the rinderpest which carried away 
from 75 to 80 per cent of the cattle that were absolutely indis^iensable in culti- 



218 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

vating, reaping, and disiwsing of the agricultural products upon which the 
Islands are wholly dei)eudeut. The extent of this terrible disaster can not be 
exaggerated and the islands have not yet recovered from it. Attempts to 
remedy the evil by the importation of cattle from other countries have proved 
futile, and the Islands can not be made whole In this respect excei)t by the 
natural reproduction of the small fraction of the animals that escaix*d destruc- 
tion. This is not a matter of a year, or of two years, or of three years, but a 
matter of a decade. Then, too, there were in these years surra, locusts, drought, 
destructive typhoons, cholera, bubonic plague, and smallix)x, ladronism, and 
pulajanlsm. The long period of disturbance, of guerrilla warfare and unrest, 
which interfered for years with the carrying on of the peaceful arts of agri- 
culture and made it so easy for those who had been used to work in the fields 
to assume the wild and loose life of predatory bands claiming to be liberating 
armies, all made a burden for the community that it \^as almost impossible for 
it to bear. 

" When I consider all these difficulties, which I have rehearsed at too great 
length, and then take account of the present conditions In the Islands, it seems 
to me that they present an occasion for profound satisfaction and that they 
fully vindicate the policy which has been pursued. 

" IIow have we met the difficulties? In the first place, we have carried out 
with entire fidelity the promises of Presidents McKinley and Roosevelt in re- 
spect to the gradual extension of political control in the government as the 
peoi»le should show themselves fit. In 1901 the Commission adopted the munici- 
pal code, which vested complete autonomy In the adult male citizens of every 
municipality in the islands, except that of Manila, which for special reasons, 
like those which have prevailed with respect to the government of the city of 
Washington, was preserved for control by the central government. The elec- 
torate was limited to those who could speak English or Spanish, or who paid a 
tax of W5 a year, or who had filled municipal office under the Spanish regime, 
and did not exceed 20 per cent of the total adult males of the population. Very 
shortly after this a form of provincial government was established in which 
the legislative and executive control of the province was largely vested in a 
provincial board consisting of a governor and treasurer and supervisor. Pro- 
vision was made for the election of a governor and the appointment imder 
clvll-servlce rules of a treasurer and supervisor. Subsequently it was found 
that the government was too exi)ensive and the office of supervisor was finally 
abolished, and after some four years the board was made to consist of a gov- 
ernor and treasurer, and a third member electcnl as the governor was, thus 
effecting popular autonomy in the provincial governments. And now comes 
the assembly. 

"It is said by one set of critics, to whom I have already referred, that the 
franchise Is the last privilege that ought to be granted In the development of a 
people into a self-governing community, and that we have put this into the 
hands of the Flllplijos before they have shown themselves to be Industrially 
and In other ways capable of exercising the self-restraint and conservatism of 
action which are essential to iK)lltlcal stability. I can not agree with this view. 
The best political education Is practice in the exercise of political i>ower, unless 
the subject Is so Ignorant as to be wholly l)lind to his own Interests. Hence the 
exercise of a franchise which is conferred only on those who have qualifica- 
tions of education or proi)erty that prove intelligence and substance, is likely 
to teach the electorate useful political lessiuis. The electorate under the rhlllp- 
pine law are sufficiently alive to their own interests to make the exercise of 
political power a useful training for them, while, the i)ower to be exerclsinl Is 
subject to such limitation as not to be dangerous to the community. More than 
this, the granting of the franchise was most useful in producing tranquillity 
among the iHH)ple. The policy has been vindicated by the fact. 

*• The Importance of the agency of the Army of the Ignited States in sup- 
pressing insurrection I would not minimize In the least; but all who rememl>er 
clearly the succession of events from lf)01 to 1003 will admit that the return 
to i)eace and the ac(iulescence of the Filipino |)eople In American sovereignty 
were greatly Influenced and aided by the prosjiect held out to the Filipinos of 
participation in the government of the islands and a gradual extension of i)op- 
ular self-control. Without this and the confidence of the Filipino in^ople in 
the good puri)oses of the I'nltwl States and the patience with which tliey en- 
dureil their many burdens that fate seemed to increase, the progress which has 
been achieved would have been lmiK>S8iblc. 



REPORT OP THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 219 

» 

" Let us consider in some detail what progress has been made: 

"First To repeat what I have>3aid, the islands are in a state of tranquillity. 
On this very day of the opening of the National Assembly there has never been 
a time in the history of the Islands when peace and good order have prevailed 
more generally. The difficulties presented by the controversies arising with and 
concerning the Roman Catholic Church have either l)€en completely settled or 
are in process of satisfactory adjustment on a basis of justice and equity. 

" Second. Most noteworthy progress has been made in the spread of general 
education. One of the obstacles to the development of this people speaking half 
a dozen or more different native dialects was a lack of a common language, which 
would furnish a medium of sympathetic touch with modern thought and civiliza- 
tion. The dense ignorance of a very large proportion of the people emphasized 
the necessity for a general educational system. English was the language of 
the sovereign power, English was the business language of the Orient, English 
was the language in which was thought and written ,the history of free institu- 
tions and popular government, and English was the language to which the com- 
mon people turned with eagerness to learn. A system of education was built up, 
and to-day upward of half a million children are being taught to read, write, 
and recite English. It is not an exaggeration to assert that now more native 
Filipinos speak English than Spanish, although Spanish was the language of the 
ruling race in these islands for more than two hundred and fifty years. English 
is not so beautiful as the Spanish language, but it is more likely to prove of use 
to the Filipinos for the reasons I have given. The strongest basis for our con- 
fidence in the future of the Filipino people is the eagerness with which the op- 
portunities extended for education in English have been seized by the poor and 
ignorant parents of these islands for their children. It is alike pathetic and 
encouraging. 

" I am not one of those who believe that much of the public money should be 
expended here for university or advanced education. Perhaps one institution 
merely to form a type of higher education may be established at Manila or at 
some other suitable place in the islands, and special schools to develop needed 
scientific professions may be useful, but the great part of the public funds ex- 
pended for education should be used In the spread of primary education and of 
industrial education — that education which shall fit young men to be good farm- 
ers, good mechanics, good skilled laborers, and shall teach them the dignity of 
labor and that it is no disgrace for the son of a good family to learn his trade 
and earn his livelihood by it. The higher education is well for those who can 
use it to advantage, but it too often fits a man to do things for which there is no 
demand and unfits him for work which there are too few to do. The enlarge- 
ment of opportunity for higher education may well await private beneficence or 
be postponed to a i>eriod when the calls upon the island treasury for other more 
lmi>ortant improvements have ceased. We have laid the foundation of a 
primary and industrial educational system here which, if the same spirit con- 
tinues in the government, will prove to be the most lasting benefit which has 
been conferred on these islands by Americans. 

** Third. We have introduced here a health department which is gradually 
teaching the people the necessity for sanitation. In the years to come, when 
the great discoveries of the world are recited, that which will appear to have 
played as large a part as any in the world's progress in the current hundred 
years will be the discovery of proper stmltary methods for avoiding disease in 
the Tropics. The Introduction of such methods, the gradual teaching of the 
piH)ple the simple facts affecting hygiene, unpopular and difficult as the process 
of education has been, will prove to be another one of the great l>enefits given 
by Americans to this i)eople. 

**The efforts of the government have not been confined to preserving the 
health of the human inhabitants of these islands, but have been properly ex- 
tended to doing what can be done In the matter of the health of tbe domestic 
animals which is so indispensable to the material progress of the Islands. The 
destruction by rinderi>est, by surra, and by other diseases to which cattle and 
horses are subject I have already dwelt upon. Most earnest attention has been 
given by men of the highest scientific attainment to securing some remedy which 
will make such widespread disasters in the future impossible. Much time and 
effort and money have* been spent and much has been accomplished in this 
matter. The people are being educated in the necessity for care of their cattle 
and for inviting in public aid at once when the dread rlnderi)est shows Its pres- 
ence. Serums have been discovered that have been effective to immunize cat- 



320 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

tie, and while the disease has not disappeared, it is not too much to say that 
such an epidemic as that which visited the islands in 1900, 1901, and 1902 is 
impossible. 

"Fourth. A judicial system has been established In the islands which has 
taught the Filipinos the possibility of the independence of a Judiciary. This 
must be of enduring good to the people of the islands. The personnel of the 
judges is divided between Americans and Filipinos, both for the purpose of aid- 
ing the Americans to learn and administer civil law and of enabling the Fili- 
pinos to learn and administer justice according to a system prevailing in a coun- 
try where the judiciary is absolutely Independent of the executive or legislative 
branches of the Government. Charges have been made that individual judges 
and particular courts have not been free from executive control and have not 
been without prejudices arising from the race of the particular judge who sat 
in the court, but on the whole an impartial review of the six years* history of 
the administration of justice will show that the system has been productive of 
the greatest good and that right has been sustained without fear or favor. It 
is entirely natural that a system which departs from the principles of that in 
which one has been educated should at times attract his severe animadversion, 
and as the system here administered partakes of two systems, it is subject to 
the criticism of those trained in each. 

** Another agency in the administration of justice has been the constabulary. 
When I was here something more than two years ago, the complaints against 
that body were numerous, emphatic, and bitter. I promised, on behalf of the 
Philippine government and the Washington Administration, that close investi- 
gation should be made into the complaints and that if there was occasion for 
reform, that reform would be carried out. It gratifies me on my return to the 
islands now to learn that a change has come, that the complaints against the 
constabulary have entirely ceased, and that it is now conceded to be discharging 
with efliciency the function which it was chiefly created to perform, of sympa- 
thetically aiding the provincial governors and municipal authorities of the 
islands in maintaining the T>eace of each province and each municipality, and 
that there Is a thorough spirit of cooi)eration between the oflicers and men of the 
constabulary and the local authorities. 

" In resi)ect to the administration of justice by justices of the peace, reforms 
have been eflPected, but I am not sure that there Is not still great room for im- 
provement. This is one of the things that come home close to the i)e<)ple of the 
country and is a subject that will doubtless address itself to the wise action and 
consideration of the National Assembly. 

" Fifth. ^Ve come to the matter of public improvements. The port of Manila 
has been made into a harbor which is now as secure as any in the Orient, and 
which, w^lth the docking facilities that are now being rapidly constructed, will 
be as convenient and as free from charge and burden as any along the Asiatic 
coast. The Improvements in Iloilo and Cebu harbors, the other two important 
l)orts of the islands, are also rapidly progressing. Hoad building has proceeded 
in the islands, both at the instance of the central government and through the 
agency of the provinces. The diflicultles of road building and road maintaining 
in the I'hilipplnes are little understood by those not familiar with the difficulty 
of securing proper material to ivslst the enormous wear and tear caused by the 
torrential downiwurs of the rainy season. Progress in this direction must neces- 
sarily be gradual, for the islands are a poor country, comparatively speaking, 
and roads are expensive. 

•* Early in the history of the islands we began the construction of a road from 
Pangasinan to the mountains of Benguet in order to bring within the reach of 
the people of the islands that healthful region where the thermometer varies 
from 40** to 80°, and in which all the diseases of the Tropics are much more 
easily subject to cure than In the lowlands. Had it been supimsed that the road 
thus' to be constructed would involve an expense of nearly $2,000,000, the 
work would not have been begun, but, now that the road has been con- 
structed, I would not undo what has been done even If It were possible. As 
time progresses, the whole Province of Benguet will be settled; there will be 
made the home of many educational institutions, of many sanitariums, and there 
will go, as transportation becomes cheaper, the Filipino i>eople to obtain a 
change of air and acquire a renewed strength that is given to tropical peoples by 
a visit to the temperate zone. 

" When the Americans came to the Islands there was one railroad 120 miles 
long, and that was all. In spite of circumstances, which I have already de- 
tailed, making caiiital reluctant to come here, contracts have now been entered 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 221 

Into, that are In the course of fulfillment, which in five years will give to the 
islands a railroad mileage of 1,000 miles. The construction of these roads will 
involve the investment of $20,Q00,000 to $30,000,000, and that in itself means an 
added prosperity to the country, additional demands for labor, and the quicken- 
ing of all the nerves of trade. When the work is finished, it means a great addi- 
tional profit to agriculture, a very great enlargement of the exiwrt capacity of 
the islands, and a substantial elevation of the material condition of the people. 

" In the matter of municipal improvements, which directly concern the i)eople, 
that which has taken place in Manila is most prominent The improvement 
of the streets, the introduction of a satisfactory street railway system 35 miles 
in length, the improvement of the general appearance of the city and its hygienic 
condition, the construction of new waterworks and a new sewage system, all 
strike one who knew the city in 1900. The improvements of other mun4cipallties 
in the islands have not kept pace with those in Manila, and of course they were 
not so imperatively needed ; but the epidemics of cholera and plague and small- 
pox which have prevailed have convinced those in authority of the necessity 
of bettering the water supply of all municipalities and for improving this by 
the sinking of artesian wells and other means, so that bad water, that frightful 
source of the transmission of disease, should be reduced to a minimum. 

"The government now maintains and operates a more complete system of 
posts, telephones, and telegraphs than ever before In the history of the islands. 
Seventy-five per cent of the 652 municipalities now established In these islands 
have post-offices. In 235 of which there are now opened for business postal savings 
banks. The telegraph or telephone now connects all of the provincial capitals 
with Manila and more than 90 offices are now open for business. Appropriation 
has been made to provide for a system of rural free delivery. In less than one 
year of operation the postal savings bank has deposits exceeding ^600,000, and 
the number of Filipino dei)osltors now exceeds 1,000, and the proiwrtlon of their 
de|)08its is steadily Increasing. 

" Sixth. We fiave inaugurated a civll-servlce law for the selection of civil 
servants upon the merit system. On the whole It has worked well. It has 
grown with our experience and has Improved with the disclosure of its defects. 

" One of the burning questions which constantly presents itself in respect to 
the civil service of a government like this is, how far it sliall be American and 
how far Filipino. In the outset it was essential that most of the civil servants 
of the Government should be Americans. The Government was English speak- 
ing, and the practical difficulty of having subordinates who did not speak that 
language prevented large employment of Filipinos. Then their lack of knowl- 
edge of their American governmental and business methods had the same ten- 
dency. The avowed policy of the government has been to employ Filipinos 
wherever, as between them and Americans, the Filipinos can do equally good 
work. This has given rise to frequent and bitter criticism, because It has been 
Improperly assumed that every time there has been a vacancy, it could be 
filled by a Filipino. There are two great advantages in the employment of Fili- 
pinos, one is that this is the government of the Filipinos and they ought to be 
employed where they can be, and the other is that their employment is a matter 
of economy for the government, because they are able to live more cheaply and 
economically in the islands than Americans and so can afford to receive less 
salary. There has therefore been a constant reduction of American employees 
and an increase of Filipinos. This has not been without Its disadvantage be- 
cause It makes competent American employees feel an uncertainty of tenure, 
and materially affects their hope of promotion and their Interest In the govern- 
ment of which they are a part. This disadvantage I believe can be largely 
obviated. 

" There are many American civil servants in this government who have ren- 
dered most loyal, difficult, and efficient service. In season and out of season, 
through plague and epidemic. In sickness and in health, in full sympathy with 
the purposes and policy of the government. Without them our government 
would have been a complete failure. They will never receive adequate reward. 
Their interest In their work has prevented their return to their native land, 
where the same energy and efficiency would have earned them large return. 
They are most valuable public servants who have done a work that, had they 
done It In the English colonial service or at home, would have been certain to 
secure to them a permanent salary and entire freedom from anxiety as to the 
future. I would be glad to see adopted a system of permanent tenure and 
retirement on pensions for the small and higher classes of civil employees. 
Their continuance in the government indefinitely is a public necessity. I 



222 BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

sincerely hope the Philippine Assembly will exhibit its spirit of justice and 
public interest to the point of concurring In such a measure even though this 
at present will be of benefit to more Americans than Filipinos. 

"Seventh. In the progress which has been made, I should mention the land 
system, the provision for homestead settlement, for free patents, and for per- 
fecting of imperfect titles by land registration. The homestead settlements 
under the law were very few for several years, but I am delighted to learn 
that during 1907 they reached 4,000 and the free patents applied for were 
10,600. It is probable that the machinery for land registration, though neces- 
sary, is too expensive, and it will be for you to decide whether, in view of the 
great public benefit that good land titles will bring to the country, it may not be 
wise to reduce the cost of registration to the landowner and charge the expense 
to the government. Capital will not be advanced to the farmer unless his title 
is good, and the great benefit of an agricultural bank can never be realized 
until the registration of titles is greatly Increased. 

"This naturally brings me to the subject of the agricultural bank. After 
much effort Congress was induced to pass an act which authorizes the Philippine 
government to invite the organization of such a bank with private capital by 
guaranteeing an annual income of a certain percentage on the capital invested 
for thirty years. Negotiations have been opened and are pending with some 
American capitalists in the hoiie of securing the establishment of such a bank. 

"The condition of agriculture in the islands, while generally much improved 
in the last three j^ears, is still unsatisfactory in many parts of the Islands, due 
not only to the continued scarcity of cattle but also to the destructive effect of 
the typhoon of 1905 upon the hemp culture. This has properly led to the sus- 
pension of the land tax for another year and the meeting of half the deficit in 
provincial and municipal treasuries thus produced out of the central treasury. 

" The production of rice has, however, materially increased. It is also a 
source of satisfaction to note that the exports from the islands, which are 
wholly agricultural, are larger In value by half a million gold dollars than ever 
in the history of the islands. One of the chief duties of this assembly is to 
devote Its attention and practical knowledge to measures for tha relief of 
agriculture. 

" Eighth. The financial condition of the Philippine government Is quite satis- 
factory, and so, too. Is the state of the money and currency of the Islands. 
There is a bonded indebtedness for the purchase of the friar lands amounting 
to $7,000,000, for the waterworks and sewage of Manila of $3,000,000, and for 
public works amounting to $3,500,000. Sinking funds have been established for all 
of these. The price paid for the friar lands was a round one and may result, 
after the lands are disposed of. In some net pecuniary loss to the government, but 
the political benefit of the purchase was a full justification. The lands will be 
disposed of to the tenants as rapidly as the public Interest will permit. The 
only other permanent obligation of the government is the contingent liability 
on the guaranty of Interest for thirty years on the bonds issued to construct 
300 miles of railroad in the Visayas. We may reasonably hope that this obliga- 
tion will soon reduce itself to nothing when the roads come Into successful 
operation. The governor-general reports to me that the budget for 1908 will 
show an income and surplus from last year, without any land tax, from which 
it will be possible to pay all the Interest on the bonds and guaranties, all the 
Insular expenses, the proper part of the expenses of Manila, $2,000,000 In per- 
manent improvements, and still have on hand for contingencies $1,000,000. I 
am further advised that the condition of most of the provinces is excellent In 
respect to income and surplus. 

"It has been necessary to reduce the silver in the Philippine peso to keep 
its intrinsic value within the value of 50 cents, gold, at which it Is the duty of 
the government to maintain it, and this change is being rapidly carried through 
without much difficulty. The benefit to the i)eople, and especially the poorer 
and working classes, in the establishment of the gold standard is very great. 
It eliminates a gambling feature from the business of the islands that always 
worked for the detriment of the Philippine i>eople. We are just carrying 
through a settlement with the Spanlsh-Flllplno Bank which I hoi>e will provide 
a means of safely adding to the currency of the country and increasing its 
elasticity. 

" In rwounting these various evidences of progress in the last six years I am 
not unmindful that the business of the Islands is still far from prosperous. In- 
dec<l, it is noteworthy that so much progress has l)een made in the face of con- 
tinued business depression due to the various causes I have elsewhere enumer- 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE * SECRETARY. 228 

ate<l ; hut it is a long lane that has no turning and I look forward to the next 
decade in the history of the islands as one which will be as prosperous as 
this one has been the reverse. Business is reviving, the investment of foreign 
capital is gradually increasing and only one thing is needed to insure great 
material improvement, and that is the continuance of conservatism in this gov- 
enmient I feel confident that the inauguration of this assembly, instead of end- 
ing this conservatism as the prophets of evil would have it, will strengthen it. 

" Before discussing the assembly, I wish to give attention to one report that 
has been spread to the four corners of the globe, and which, if credited, might 
have a i^ernicious effect In these islands. I refer to the statement that the 
American Government is about to sell the islands to some Asiatic or European 
power. Those who credit such a report little understand the motives which 
actuated the American people in accepting th'e burden of this government. The 
majority of the American people are still in favor of carrying out our Philip- 
pine policy as a great altruistic work. They have no selfish object to secure. 
There might be a grim and temporary satisfaction to those of us who have been 
subjected to severe criticism for our alleged lack of liberality toward the 
Filipino people and of symimthy with their aspirations, in witnessing the rigid 
governmental control which would be exercised over the people of the islands 
under the colonial policy of any one of the powers to whom it is suggesteil 
that we are about to sell them; but that would not excuse or Justify the gross 
violation, by such a sale, of the implied obligation which we have entered into 
with the Filipino people. That obligation presents only two alternatives for 
us — one is a permanent maintenance of a popular government of law and 
order under American control, and the other, a parting with such control to 
the people of the islands themselves after they have become fitted to maintain 
a government in which the right of all the inhabitants to life, liberty, and 
property shall be secure. I do not hesitate to pronounce the report that the 
Government contemplates the transfer of these islands to any foreign power 
as utterly without foundation. It has never entered the mind of a single 
person in the Government responsible for the Administration. Such a pale must 
be the subject of a treaty, and the treaty power in the Government of the 
United States is exercised by the President and the Senate, and only upon the 
initiative of the President. Hence an Executive declaration upon this subject 
Is more authoritative than an Executive opinion as to probable Congressional 
action. 

" Coming now to the real occasion of this celebration, the installation of the 
National Assembly, I wish, for purposes of clearness, to read the section of 
the organic act under which this Assembly has been elected : 

" * That two years after the completion and publication of the census, in case 
such condition of general and complete peace with recognition of the authority 
of the United States shall have continued in the territory of said islands not 
Inhabited by Moros or other non-Christian tribes and such facts shall have been 
certified to the President by the Philippine Commission, the President upon 
being satisfied thereof shall direct said Commission to call, and the Commis- 
sion shall call, a general election for the choice of delegates to a popular assem- 
bly of the iHiople of said territory in the Philippine Islands, which shall be 
known as the Philippine Assembly. After said Assembly shall have convened 
and organized, all the legislative i)ower heretofore conferred on the Philippine 
Commission in all that part of said islands not Inhabited by Moros or other 
non-Christian tribes shall be vested in a legislature consisting of two houses — 
the Philippine Commission and the Philippine Assembly. Said Assembly shall 
consist of not less than* fifty nor more than one hundred members, to be apix)r- 
tloned by said Commission among the provinces as nearly as practicable accord- 
ing to population : Provided, That no province shall have less than one member : 
And provided further. That provinces entitled by population to more than one 
memt>er may be divided into such convenient districts as the said Commission 
may deem best. 

•* * Public notice of such division shall be given at least ninety days prior to 
such election, and the elections shall be held under rules and regulations to be 
prescribed by law. The qualification of electors in such election shall be the 
same as is now provided by law in case of electors In municipal elections. The 
members of Assembly shall hold ofl3ce for two years from the first day of Jan- 
uary next following their election, and their successoi-s shall be chosen by the 
people every second year thereafter. No person shall be eligible to such elec- 
tion who is not a qualified elector of the election district in which he may be 
chosen, owing allegiance to the United States, and twenty-five years of age. 



224 REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

** * The Legislature shall hold annual sessions, commencing on the first Monday 
of February in each year and continuing not exceeding ninety days thereafter 
(Sundays and holidays not included) : Provided, That the first meeting of the 
Legislature shall be held upon the call of the governor within ninety days after 
the first election : And provided further, That if at the termination of any ses- 
sion the appropriations necessary for the support of the government shall not 
have been made, an amount equal to the sums appropriated In the last appropri- 
ation bills for such purposes shall be deemed to be appropriated ; and until the 
I^egislature shall act In such behalf the treasurer may, with the advice of the 
governorr make the payments necessary for the purposes aforesaid. 

" ' The I^eglslature may be called in special session at any time by the civil 
governor for general legislation or for action on such specific subjects as he 
may designate. No special session shall continue longer than thirty days, ex- 
clusive of Sundays. 

" * The Assembly shall be the Judge of the elections, returns, and qualifica- 
tions of its members. A majority shall constitute a quorum to do business, but 
a smaller number may adjourn from day to day and may be authorized to com- 
pel the attendance of absent members. It shall choose its speaker and other 
ofliccrs, and the salaries of its members and officers shall be fixed by law. It 
may determine the rule of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly 
behavior, and with the concurrence of two-thirds expel a member. It shall keep 
a Journal of its proceedings, which shall be published, and the yeas and nays of 
the members on any question shall, on the demand of one*fifth of those present, 
be entered on the Journal.' 

" I can well remember when that section was drafted in the private office of 
Mr. Root in his house in Washington. Only he and I were present. I urged 
the wisdom of the concession and he yielded to my arguments and the section 
as then drafted difl'ered but little from the form it has to-day. It was embodied 
in a bill presented to the House and passed by the House, was considered by the 
Senate, was stricken out in the Senate, and was only restored after a conference, 
the Senators in the conference consenting to its insertion with great reluctance. 
I had urged its adoption upon both committees, and, as the then governor of the 
islands, had to assume a responsibility as guarantor in respect to it which I 
have never sought to disavow. I believe that it is a step and a logical step in 
the carrying out of the policy announced by President McKinley and that it is 
not too radical in the interest of the people of the Philippine Islands. Its effect 
is to give to a representative body of the Filipinos a right to initiate legislation, 
to modify, amend, shapQ, or defeat legislation proposed by the Commission. The 
power to obstruct by withholding appropriations is taken away from the assem- 
bly, because if there is not an agreement as to appropriations between the Com- 
mission and the assembly, then the appropriations of the previous year will be 
continued ; but the power, with this exception, absolutely to veto all legislation 
and initiate and shape proposed laws is a most substantial one. The concur- 
rence of the Assembly in useful legislation can not but command popular sup- 
port for its enforcement; the discussion in the Assembly and its attitude must 
be informing to the executive and to the other branch of the Legislature, the 
Commission, of what a re the desires of the people. The discharge of the functions 
of the Assembly must give to the chosen representatives of the Philippine elec- 
torate a most valuable education in the responsibilities and difficulties of prac- 
tical government. It will put them where they must Investigate not only the 
theoretical wisdom of proposed measures, but also the question whether they 
can be practically enforced and whether, where expense is involved, they are 
of sufficient value to Justify the Imposition of a financial burden upon the people 
to carry them out. It will bring the members of the Assembly as representa- 
tives of the people into close relation with the Executive, who will be most 
anxious to preserve a harmony essential to efficient government and progres- 
sive, useful measures of reform. 

" Critics who do not sympathize with our Philippine policy, together with those 
who were reluctant to grant this measure of a legislative assembly to the Phil- 
ippine people at this time, have not been slow to comment on the result of the 
election as an Indication that we are going too fast. I differ entirely from the 
view of these critics as to the result of this election and the inferences to be 
drawn from it. 

" The small total vote as compared w^lth the probable number of the total elec- 
torate shows that a considerable majority of those entitled to vote did not ex- 
ercise the privilege. This indicates either an indifference or a timidity that we 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 325 

wonid not find In a people more used to the wielding of political power ; but it 
affords no reason for supposing that as the Assembly proves its usefulness and 
important power, the ratio of votes to the total electorate will not rapidly in- 
crease. 

"The election was held without disturbance. In many districts there were 
bitter controversies, but the complaints of fraud, violence, or bribery are insig- 
nificant. Although the government was supposed to favor one party, and was 
subject to much criticism in the campaign, no one has been heard to say that 
the power of the Executive was exerted in any way improperly to influence the 
election. This furnishes a good object lesson. 

"A popular majority of those who exercise the franchise have voted for repre- 
sentatives announcing a desire for the Immediate separation of the islands from 
the United States. This majority is a small one when the returns are care- 
fully considered and is much less than the ratio between the party representa- 
tives in the assembly would lead one to suppose. However, assuming a decided 
majority for immediate independence, the result is one which I thought possi- 
ble even while I was urging»the creation of the assembly. It is not a dlsap- 
IX)intment. If It indicated that a majority of the representatives elected by the 
people were a body of irreconcilables determined to do nothing but obstruct the 
present government, it would indeed be discouraging; but I am confident from 
what I know and hear of the gentlemen who have been elected that while many 
of them differ with me as to the time in which the people of the islands will 
become fit for complete self-government, most of them have an earnest desire 
that this government shall be carried on In the interests of the people of the 
Philippines and for their benefit, and shall be made for that purpose as effective 
as possible. They are thus generally conservative. Those whose sole aim Is to 
hold up the government to execration, to win away the sympathy of the people 
in order to promote disturbance and violence, have no proper place In this 
Assembly. Had the Filipino people sent such a majority, then I should have to 
admit that the granting of the Assembly was a mistake and that Congress must 
abolish It. 

" It has been reported in the Islands that I was coming here for the purpose 
of expressing, in bitter and threatening words, my disappointment at the result 
of the election. Nothing could be further from my purpose, nothing could be 
less truly descriptive of my condition of mind. I am here, filled with a spirit of 
friendship and encouragement for these members, who now enter upon a new 
field in which they have much to learn, but where everything can be learned 
and this duty most efficiently discharged If they are led by an earnest desire to 
assist and gjiide the government In aiding the people. I have no right to appeal 
to the members of this Assembly to conduct themselves In the discharge of their 
high duties In a manner to vindicate me In the responsibility I assumed In urg- 
ing Congress to establish this Assembly, because they should find a stronger 
reason for so doing In their sworn duty ; but It Is not inappropriate for me to 
touch on this personal feature of the situation, because my attitude has been 
misconstrued and my sympathetic Interest In and hope for the success and use- 
fulness of this National Assembly have not been properly stated. 

** I venture to point out a number of things that you will learn In the course 
of your legislative experience. One Is that the real object of a legislature Is to 
formulate si)eclflc laws to accomplish specific purposes and reforms and to sup- 
press specific evils; that he makes a useful speech who studies the question 
which he discusses and acquires and Imparts practical Information by which 
the remedies offered can be seen to be applicable to the evil complained of; that 
the office of a legislator for a great country like this is one that can be dis- 
charged con8<*iontlously only by the use of great labor, careful, painstaking 
investigation and hard work In the preparation of proposed measures. One of 
the most necessary traits in a successful legislator or executive Is patience. 
Where the sudden change In that which Is regarded as a wrong system may 
paralyze a necessary arm of the government, ways and means must be devised 
to bring about the change gradually. There will be a temptation to take up 
measures which will Invite the support of popular prejudice rather than meas- 
ures which will really accomplish good for the body politic. Such a temptation 
exists in older legislative bodies than this, and we can not hope that It will be 
absent from here; but, In the end, the man who exerts the most Influence In 
this body and among the people will be the man who devotes most conscien- 
tiously his time to acquiring the information upon which legislation should be 
based and in explaining It to his colleagues and his people. The man who Is 
seeking to put his adversary or the government in an embarrassing situation 

11024— WAR 1907— VOL 7 15 



226 BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

may win temporary triumph; but the man who himself feels responsibility of 
government, and who, while not concealing or failing to state the evils which 
he considers to exist in the government, is using every effort to reform those 
evils, will ultimately be regarded as the benefactor of his country. 

"I have not the time and doubtless not the information which would Justify 
me in pointing out to the assembly the various subjects-matter to which they 
may profitably devote their attention with a view to the formulation of useful 
legislation. They will properly feel called upon to devote their attention to 
public economy in the matter of the numerous governmental bureaus which 
have been made the subject of criticism. It is quite possible that they may 
find In their investigations into these matters reasons for cutting off officers 
and bureaus, but I sincerely hope that no such effort will be made until a full 
investigation is had into the utility of the functions which the bureau performs 
and the possibility of dlsi^enslng with them. I can remember that while I was 
governor there was much outcry against the extravagance of maintaining cer- 
tain bureaus which in subsequent crises in the public welfare proved their great 
usefulness beyond cavil. Of course we shall encounter in this investigation and 
discussion a radical difference between legislators and others as to the function 
which a government in these Islands ought to perform. It is entirely easy to 
run an economical government if all that you do is to maintain order and if 
no steps are taken to promote health, to promote education, and to promote the 
general welfare of the inhabitants. It is of course the object of the person 
charged with the duty of governing a country to reach the golden mean — ^that 
is, to make governmental provisions for the welfare of the people without impos- 
ing too great a tax burden for the purpose. The taxes in this country are 
imposed partly by the legislature and partly by Congress. The former will con- 
stantly have your attention. In so far as the welfare of the country is affected 
by the latter, to wit, the customs duties, and can be improved by a change of 
them, it would be wise for the legislature to devote much time and thought to 
recommendations to Ck)ngress as to how they should be changed, for I doubt 
not that Congress will be willing and anxious to take such steps as may com- 
mend themselves to the people of the islands in the matter of adjustment of 
duties, having regard to the raising of sufficient revenue on the one hand and 
to as little interference with useful freedom of trade as possible on the other. 

"As you shall conduct your proceedings and shape your legislation on patri- 
otic, intelligent conservative, and useful lines, you will show more emphatically 
than in any other way your right and capacity to take part in the government 
and the wisdom of granting to your Assembly nnd to the people that elected you 
more power. There are still many possible intervals or steps between the 
power you now exercise and complete autonomy. Will this Assembly and its 
successors manifest such an interost in the welfare of the people and such clear- 
headed comprehension of their sworn duty as to call for a greater extension of 
political power to this body and to the people whose representative it is? Or 
shall it, by neglect, obstruction, and absence of useful service, make it neces- 
sary to take away its existing powers on the ground that they have been pre- 
maturely granted? Vpon you falls this heavy responsibility. I am assured 
that you will meet it with earnestness, courage, and credit. 

" In closing, I can only renew my congratulations upon the auspicious begin- 
ning of your legislative life in a fair election, and to express to you my heart- 
felt sympathy in the work which you are about to undertake, and my confidence 
that you will Justify in what you do, and do not do, the recommendations of 
those who are responsible for that section in the organic act that has given life 
to this As.sembly." 

Upon the completion of the address and at the direction of the Secretary of 
War the executive secretary read the list of delegates elected according to the 
records of his office, with a request that each member rise as his name was 
called. The reading of the roll resulted as follows : 

Present— Macario Adrlatlco, Mindoro; Felipe Agonclllo, Batangas; Marcelino 
Aguas, Pampanga; Quiremon Alkuino, Leyte; Tomils Almonte, Albay; Jos<5 
Altavas, Caplz; Juan Alvear, Pangaslnan; Tomfts Arejola, Ambos Camarines; 
Andres Asprer, La Union; Amando Avancefia, Hollo; Alberto Barretto, Zam- 
bales; Autlqulo Bolles, Bohol; Candelarlo Borja, Bohol; Caslano Causing, Cebu; 
Gregorlo Cntlgbac, Batangas: Pedro Chaves, Sorsogon; Nicasio P. Claravall, 
Isabela; JosC Clarln, Bohol; Melecio Cojuangco, Tarlac; Carlos Corrales, Misa- 
mls; Manuel Corrales, Misamls; Eugenlo Daza, Samar; Salvador Demeterio, 
I^yte; Reglno Dorlllo, Hollo; Vicente SIngson Encarnaclon, Ilocos Snr; Ix)renzo 
Fenoy, Pangaslnan; Isauro Gabaldon, Nueva Ecija; Emiliano Gala, Tayabas; 



BBPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE BECRETABY. 227 

Troadio Gallcano, Cebu ; Domlnador Gomez, Manila ; Matlas Gonzales, Pangasi- 
nan ; Fernando Ma. Guerrero, Manila ; Leon Ma. Guerrero, Bulacan ; Pablo Guz- 
man, Cagayan ; Adriano Hernanzez, Iloilo ; Carlos A. Imperial, Albay ; Nicolas 
Jalandonl, Iloilo ; Irineo Javier, I locos Norte ; Antonio Jayme, Occidental Negros ; 
Pedro V. Jimenez, Antique; Salvador Laguda, Iloilo; Gabriel Lasan, Cagayan; 
Jos^ M. Lerma, Bataan; Vicente IxK?sin, Oriental Negros; Cayetano Lncban, 
Rizal; Dionlsio Mapa, Occidental Negros; Monico Mercado, Pampanga ; Maxi- 
mino Mina, Ilocos Sur; Simeon Mobo, Capiz; Agustin Montilla, Occidental 
Negros; Crispin Oben, La Laguna; Eusobio. Orense, Batangas; Sergio Osmefia, 
Cebu ; Nicanor Padllla, Pangasinan ; Rafael Palma, Cavite ; Pedro A, Patemo, 
La Laguna; Santiago Patero, Palawan ;. Florentino Pefiaranda, Leyte; Bugenio 
Plcazo, Capiz ; Aurelio Pineda, Tarlac ; Baldomero Pobre, Ilocos Norte ; Manuel 
Quezon, Tayabas; Bartolome Revilla, Rizal; Manuel Rey, Ambos Camarines; 
Deogracias Reyes, Pangasinan ; Angel Roco, Albay ; Celestino Rodriguez, Cebu ; 
Pedro Rodriguez, Cebu; Honorio Rosales, Samar; Leopoldo Rovira, Oriental 
Negros ; Alejandro Ruiz, Cebu ; Francisco Sandueta, La Union ; Luciano Sinko, 
Samar; Francisco Soriano, Surigao; Filemon Sotto, Cebu; Aguedo Velarde, 
Bulacan ; Vicente de Vera, Sorsogon ; Jaime C. De Veyra, Leyte : Juan Villamor, 
Ilocos Sur. 

Absent — Francisco Alvarez, Ambos Camarines. 

Number present, 79 ; number absent, 1. 

The Secretaby of War: "The call of the roll discloses the presence of 79 
of the persons who appear by the returns to have been elected to this Assembly 
out of a total of 80, and so shows the presence of a full majority. 

" By authority of the President of the United States, I therefore declare the 
Philippine Assembly oi)en for the transaction of business. (The hour was 12 
o'clock meridian.) 

" With the permission of the members of the Assembly and by arrangement 
of the governor-general and the Commission, I invite Bishop Barlin to pronounce 
the invocation." 

Bishop Barlin thereupon pronounced the invocation in the Spanish language, 
as follows: 

" To Thee, O Most High Creator, omnipotent, sole king great and most ter- 
rible, who reignest with eternal majesty over the universe and over everything 
therein existing, as the one Lord God, who created it with Thy power, put it in 
order with Thy wisdom, sustains it with Thy goodness and governs it with Thy 
Providence; to Thee, word of God on highest, in whom the light of intelligence 
exists from eternity, and with which Thou enlightenests every man who comes 
into this world ; to Thee, fount of wisdom, whose currents are eternal command- 
ments, from right and from justice, for man and for States, for families and for 
societies, for peoples and for nations, for tribes and for empires; to Thee, O 
Father of light, from whom^cometh every perfect gift, counsel and equity, pru- 
dence and fortitude; to Thefe, in whose hands are the riches and the glory, the 
opulence and the justice of nations; to Thee, by whom rulers govern with wis- 
dom, and law-givers decree just laws, and the princes and the heads of peoples 
command good things and the judges administer justice; we invoke Thee to-day, 
in the great day of our history, in the day when the Fili|)ino people, a people 
who confess and adore Thee, come together for the first time to deliberate over 
their future destinies. Shower on their noble representatives the abundance of 
Thy gifts, light on their intelligence, firmness on their will, rectitude, nobility, 
and decision on their acts, prudence and skill on all their decisions ; so that they 
may decree what will be good and useful for the people, that which will con- 
tribute to their greatest happiness and greatness, which will make them walk 
pJways in the path of true human progress, to the glorious summits of sound 
liberty and independence, where dwells the noble and great nation to which 
Thou hast entrusted the continuance and consummation of the work of their 
moral and political aggrandizement. Bless also, O Omnipotent God, the nation 
under whose protecting aegis Thou hast placed the direction and safeguarding 
of our social life, our peace, and our liberty. For its sentiments and practice of 
justice Thou hast made it great and strong. Thou hast exalted it with majesty 
and power over many peoples ; cause It, O God, in carrying out the mission that 
Thou hast confided to it, to make the Filipino people great and happy among 
the other great peoples of the earth. — Amen." 

The Secretary op War : " The assembly having been opened for business what 
is its pleasure? In the absence of projjer organization and for the purpose of 
facilitating action, any motion now presented will be submitted by me to the 
aBsembly." 



228 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Sergio Osmena, delegate-elect from Cebu, was recognized and moved " that 
the meeting do now adjourn to meet again at 5 o'clock this afternoon at the 
marble hall of the ayuntamiento." The motion was seconded by Eugenic 
Picazo, delegate-elect from Capiz. 

The yeas and nays being taken, the yeas prevailed. 

It being 12 o'clock and 15 minutes p. m., the Secretary of War, presiding, 
thereupon declared the assembly adjourned " to meet again this afternoon at 
5 o'clock at the marble hall of the ayuntamiento," and directed the secretary 
to have prepared and furnished to the Assembly at the meeting of this after- 
noon a certified copy of the minutes of the morning's proceedings. 

Wm. H. Donovan, 
Secret ary, Philippine Commission, Reporter. 

I hereby certify that the foregoing is a true record of the proceedings had 
at the opening of the Philippine Assembly, held this the 16th day of October, 
A. D. 1907. 

A. W. Febqusson, 
Executive Secretary. 
Exhibit M. 

JOINT CONVENTION OF THE PHILIPPINE LEGISLATTTKE. 

Journal ok the Philippine Legislature. 

IN JOINT convention. 

Assembly Hall, Manila, P. I., 

Thursday, October i7, J907. 

At 3 o'clock p. m. the Commission and the assembly met in joint convention. 

Governor-General James F. Smith, ex-officio president of this Commission, 
assumed the chair on the Invitation of the president of the assembly. 

The secretary of the Commission was directed to call the roll of the Com- 
mission. 

The roll was called and the following members answered to their names: 
Conimisfiioners Worcester, Tavera, Legarda, Luzuriaga, Forbes, Shuster, the 
President. 

The presiding officer then requested the recorder of the Assembly to call the 
roll of the Assembly. 

The roll of the assembly was called, with the following result : 

Present. — Macario Adriatico, Felii)e Agoncillo, Quiremon Alkuino, Tomd» 
Almonte, Jose Altavas, Francisco Alvarez, Juan Alvear, TomAs Arejola, Mar- 
celino Aguas, Andres Asprer, Amando Avanceila,, Alberto Barretto, Kutiquio 
Boiles, Candelario Borjn, Casiano Causing, (Jregorio Catigbac, Pedro Chaves, 
Nicasio P. Claravall, Jos<^ A. Clarin, Melecio Cojuangco, Carlos Corrales. 
Manuel C\>rralos, Kngenio Daza, Salvador Demeterio, Regino Dorillo, Vicente 
Singson Encarnaci6u, Lorenzo Fenoy, Isauro Gabaldon, EmiHano Gala, Troadlo 
Galicano, Dominador Gomez, Matias Gonzales, Feniando M. Guerrero, I.,eou 
M. Guerrero, Pablo Guzman, Adriano Hernandez, Carlos A. Imperial, Nicolas 
Jalandoui. Irineo Javier, Antonio Jayme, Pedro V. Jimenez, Salvador I^iguda, 
(Jabriel I>asam, Jose M. I/?rma, Vicente I^osln, Cayetano I.ukban, Dionisio 
Mapa, Monico Mercado, Maximino Mina, Simeon Mobo, Agustin Montilla, 
Crispin Oben, Euaebio Orense, Sergio Osmefia, Nicanor Padilla. Rafael Palma, 
Pedro A. Paterno, Santiago Patero, Florentine Pefiaranda, Eugenio Picazo, 
Aurelio Pineda, Baldoniero Pol)re, Manuel Quezon, Bartolome Revllla. Manuel 
Rey, Deogracias Reyes, Angel Roco, Celestlno Rodriguez, Honorio Rosa tea. 
I^oiwldo Rovira, Alejandro Ruiz, Francisco Sandueta, Luciano Sinko, Fran- 
cisco Soriano, Filenion Sotto, Aguedo Velarde, Vicente de Vera, Jaime C. de 
Veyra, Juan Vlllamor. 

A quorum of both houses l>elng present, the presiding officer arose and ad- 
dressed the legislature as follows: 

*' The Philippine legislature having met in Joint session, the executive pre- 
sents his first message and submits it for the consideration of both houses. To 
save time, and as all the members of both houses understand Spanish, the 
message will be read in Spanish by Mr. Rupert Fergusson, the official inter- 
preter." 



REPORT OP THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 229 

The message of tbe Kovernor-general, which was thereupon read in Span- 
ish, as directed, is as follows : 

*' To the Philippine Commission and the Philippine Assembly: 

" Nine years ago last May the war flags of the United States fluttered over 
the waters of Manila Bay and 7,000 men engaged in deadly conflict marked the 
beginning of a new rule of national conduct, a new conception of national re- 
sponsibility, and a new epoch In the world's history. Then for the first time 
since the world began did a nation, flushed with victory and mistress of the fate 
of conquered millions, turn her face from earth to heaven, and, catching some 
of that divine charity which inspired the Good Samaritan, set herself to lift a 
subject people to a higher plane of progress; nay, more, to make them sharers 
of all the rights, the privileges, and the liberties which she herself enjoyed. For 
her the story of the Good Samaritan was intended by the meek and lowly 
Savior as a lesson to nations as well as men, and though the hand extended by 
her in amity and brotherly love was roughly thrust aside by those she sought 
to aid, though her promises were doubted and her motives suspected, though her 
authority was disputed and her friendly advances met open defiance and resist- 
ance, she clung to her policy of disinterested benevolence with a tenacity born of 
conviction. She knew her neighbor, and while the smoke of battle still hung 
over the hills and valleys of the Philippines and every town and barrio in the 
islands was smoking hot with rebellion, she replaced the military with a civil 
regime and on the smoldering embers of insurrection planted civil government. 

" The soldiers of the regular establishment retired to their stations, their bar- 
racks, and their garrisons, and from the body of the people but a little while 
before In armed resistance to her authority she organized a force of constabu- 
lary to protect life and property and to preserve the \yeace and public order. 
She has given to every municipality its own government and conferred upon It 
ample powers to impose municipal taxes, to Incur obligations within the limit 
of Its income, to expend as to it may seem proi)er all municipal revenues except 
moneys reserved for schools, and to administer its local affairs through officials 
elected by direct vote of the people. Neighboring municipalities having the same 
customs and speaking generally the same language have been constituted into 
provinces, and provincial boards comi)08ed of a provincial treasurer, api)oInted 
by the governor-general, and a provincial governor and third member elected 
by popular vote have been created to remedy pflSclal abuses and to exercise Juris- 
diction In all matters affecting the welfare and interests in common of the 
municipalities within the provincial limits. 

"A pure, impartial, and upright Judiciary has been created and an antiquated 
method of Judicial procedure, which prolonged litigation and ruined litigants 
with the law's delay, has been replaced by one which secures to all who dili- 
gently seek its aid a fair hearing without favor, and Justice without price. 

" She has established an honest and efiicient civil service and by making the 
subordinate oflSces and employments of the government rewards of merit she 
lias secured the service from the baneful consequences of political intrigue and 
the corrupting influence of a traffic in positions of public trust. 

" She has taken a census of the people that she might Intelligently legislate in 
their behalf and provided a sanitary organization which, though bitterly op- 
posed, has suppressed plague, practically eliminated small[)ox as an endemic 
disease, successfully combated cholera, reduced the death rate, and greatly 
improved health conditions In those localities in which Its rules have been 
respected and enforced. 

"While other governments under similar circumstances might have feared 
knowledge among the masses of the people, she feared Ignorance, and Ignoring 
every selfish argument she has established a system of public Instruction along 
practical lines which reaches nearly every nook and corner of the archipelago. 
Insular, municipal, and barrio schoolhouses have been erected, hundreds of 
teachers imported, and the opportunity for intellectual improvement and educa- 
tion brought within the reach of rich and poor alike. She has sent to the home 
land intelligent young men and women, natives of the Philippines, that they 
might have the advantage of the Instruction given to her own sons and daugh- 
ters, so that, becoming acquainted with her laws, her customs, and the practical 
workings of popular government, they might return to the land of their birth 
prepared to cooperate in the patriotic work of developing, uplifting, and regener- 
ating the people of their own race. 

** She has constructed 500 miles of highways and roads, hundreds of steel and 
concrete bridges, and thousands of concrete culverts. 



380 BBPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

*' The weather bureau, which was 'founded by the Jesuit Fathers under the 
Spanish Government, has been so extended and amplified that practically at 
every port of call in the islands typhoon signals are displayed in ample time to 
warn navigators of imi)ending danger. 

'* Formerly 25 light-houses and 31 buoys and un lighted beacons helped to 
guide the mariner over trackless seas. One hundred and seventeen light-houses 
and 107 buoys and unlighted beacons now point the way with certainty to the 
longed-for port of destination. 

' For five years the labor of charting rocks, reefs, and shoals that menaced 
navigation has been steadily pursued and the ten-year task of surveying the 
dangerous waters that wash the shores of the Philii)pines engages the attention 
of three vessels fully equipped for the work where none was occupied before.. 

" She has completed the harbor works of Manila, at a cost of more than 
M,000,000, and improved the ports of Iloilo and Cebu to the extent of 
W,600,000 more. 

" She has beautified the city of Manila and so improved its sanitary condition 
that the mortuary and health statistics now very favorably compare with many 
of her own cities. Many of the streets of the city have been widened and all 
of them reconstructed. Large extensions of urban property have been made 
available for building puri>08es by the creation of beautiful boulevards and the 
building of new avenues of communication. 

"A well-disciplined fire department, fully equipped with modem apparatus, 
has taken the place of the bucket brigade, and the hand engine, so old *that 
the memory of man runneth not to the contrary,' is now a thing of the staid 
and stately past. 

"The Bridge of Spain has been widened and two costly new steel bridges 
have been thrown over the Paslg Illver at convenient points. Two hundred 
acres of new-made ground now provide additional space along the harbor 
front for the needs of commerce and business, and 30 acres along the bay 
shore have been added to the system of city parks and pleasure grounds. 
Within a year the city will be blessed with a plentiful supply of pure water, 
free from all danger of contamination, and the present costly system of remov- 
ing the filth and foulness of a large city will be replaced by a modern sewerage 
system imposing but little, if any, burden on the inhabitants. 

*' She has netted the islands with lines of telegraph and furnished to those 
parts of the archipelago cut off from ways of communication a system of inter- 
island transportation and subsidized steamers, which enc^ourages Increased pro- 
duction and opens up new markets to the farmer and the Industrial. 

** Hindered by almost Insurmountable obstacles, she has established a postal 
system which, while defective in many particulars owing to lack of funds, 
reasonably meets the needs of business without unduly straining the resources 
of a very modest treasury. 

" Fifty i)er cent of the tonnage tax lmix)seil upon the smaller vessels has been 
removed and the owners of the thousands of lighter craft which ply the rivers 
and skirt the shores of the archipelago have been encouraged to extend their 
activities for the benefit of commerce and trade. 

"To stimulate agricultural pursuits and the planting with marketable and 
useful products of the vast areas which now He fallow for lack of transporta- 
tion facilities, she has granted concessions for the construction of 750 miles of 
railroad and guaranteed interest on the bonds issued for the cost of construction. 

•* With the exception of first-group woods, lumber, timber, and other forest 
products may, for the construction of dwellings and buildings for personal use, 
be cut or extracted from the public forests free from taxes or other government 
exactions. 

" The public domain has been thrown open to the people for settlement, and 
no one may now complain of lack of opportunity to acquire, without cost, land 
sufficient to modestly support a family and to build thereon a home with but 
little expense save that of his personal labor and energy. 

"Agrarian dlfiSculties, which for nearly a quarter of a century were a menace 
to the prosperity of many provinces and the peace of the arcbl|)elago, have been 
finally settled by the purchase of the landnl properties of the religious orders 
and by giving. to tenants an opportunity to acquire, on easy conditions, the 
title to holdings which they and their ancestors had cultivated and developed 
for generations. 

" Finding that the majority of property holders had no title to the lands 
occupied and claimed by them as their own and that more than 200,000 claim- 
ants to lands and landed estates had no higher title than that of bare posses- 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECBETAEY. 281 

sion, she provided an easy and inexpensive method of perfecting Inchoate or 
defective titles, and by means of a system of government insurance of the titles 
so perfected she has reduced transfers of real property and the obtention of 
loans thereon to a minimum of time, of cost, and of difficulty. 

** She has abolished the inquisitorial system of criminal investigation and 
secured to every citizen, however humble, and whatever his crime, the right 
to know the charge against him, the advantage of a si>eedy trial before the* 
civil tribunals, and the high privilege of being confronted and of examining at 
every stage of the proceedings the witnesses produced against him. 

*' Insular prisons are no longer institutions for the promotion of idleness 
and the encouragement of the liberated convict to continue his career of crime 
because he knows of no better method of gaining a livelihood. The prison 
has ceased to be an establishment designed solely for the punishment of the 
transgressor and has become a school for the uplifting and regeneration of 
those caught in the meshes of the law. If aught remains in him of good, the 
prisoner to whom the prison gates are opened starts life again w^ith habits 
of industry and a useful trade or occupation. The* spirit of regeneration is 
strong within him and he begins a new career confident of himself and sure 
that he and the world and all its trials are to meet on more equal terms. 

''Animated by the same feeling of pity and sympathy which induced her 
to teach and better rather than punish and worsen those whom misfortune or 
an evil life had brought within prison walls, she has boldly undertaken the 
experiment of establishing a penal colony ruled and managed under govern- 
ment supervision by the prisoners themselves. Four hundred prisoners now 
guard themselves and maintain order and discipline at Iwahig, in the island 
of Palawan, under the supervision of a single man and his assistant No 
weapons other than Justice, kindness, and firmness compel obedience to au- 
thority. A life of comparative freedom, the busy day, the hope of gain, a sense 
of resix)nslbility bred by the trust and confidence reposed in them, and the 
expectation that industry and good conduct will obtain the privilege of having 
with them their families will, it is hoped, convert the convict into j^ valuable 
and useful citizen. It may be that the experiment will prove a failure. But 
what if it does? It is worthy of a trial by a nation at once the most altruistic 
and most practical of all the world. 

" She has taken the leper from the hospital and from his miserable life of 
isolation in the fields and has given to him not only a home, but the opi)ortunlty 
to follow most of the avocations and pursuits which make life happy or endur- 
able to his fellow-men. 

" She has sent her agents to the fastnesses of the wild tribes of the moun- 
tain and, making her officials the arbiters and the judges of the wild men's 
differences and disputes, she has brought them Into touch with the benefits 
of a civilized life and by encouraging friendly relations and barter among 
them has prepared them to enjoy better things than constant Internecine strife 
and mutual destruction. 

" In the face of virulent opposition she destroyed without hesitation a sys- 
tem of taxation which imposed upon the poor and weak almost the entire 
charges of government and for it she has substituted a revenue system which 
so distributes the load that every citizen must carry his fair share of the 
burdens which every civilized people must bear for the sake of government. 
Under similar conditions the taxes are now the same for all who reside in 
the Philippines, and the Invidious and annoying distinctions and discrimina- 
tions formerly prevailing as to taxes and contributions exacted from Spanish 
and native citizens, from citizens of the half-blood, and from Chinese and 
European residents, have been entirely removed and abolished. 

*• For a variable and fluctuating currency which made trade and business a 
gamble and Imposed heavy losses on those little able to pay them she substi- 
tuted a stable currency and a settled measure of value. 

" She has founded a postal savings bank to guard and invest the savings of 
the poor and to inculcate in the masses of the people habits of thrift and fru- 
gality. 

" She has encouraged private capital to establish an agricultural bank and 
has authorized the insular government to guarantee interest on loans made to 
the farming and agricultural community. 

" She has established a bureau of laboratories, the best equipped and 
furnished In all the East, for the scientific investigation of tropical diseases, 
whether of men or animals, the manufacture of serums, vaccines, and other 



282 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

prophylactics, the study of the vegetable and mineral products of the islands, 
and the best means to make them valuable and marketable. 

" She has placed the forests of the Philippines and its valuable timbers under 
government protection, and by forbidding forest fires and careless and improvi- 
dent cutting she has secured for all time the majority of the provinces against 
the scarcity of timber which threatened to curse the entire archipelago. 
* " Freedom of speech and liberty of the press have been granted to the people 
of the Philippines, coupled only with the condition imposed ui)on her own people 
that neither shall be used to incite a disturbance of the public peace or the 
breaking of the law, and although both rights have been used by the deceived 
and unthinking to excite distrust in the minds of the unsuspecting masses and 
by the designing and malicious to malign and calumniate the sovereign power, 
both rights are as unimpaired to-day as they were on the day on which they 
were granted. 

"The right of the people to peaceably assemble and petition for redress of 
their grievances is as well recognized in the Philippines as it is in the United 
States, and the right of every citizen to worship his God at the altar of his own 
choosing and to enjoy freedom of religious worship without discrimination, 
preference, or favor are a? much a part of the organic law of the Philippines as 
they are of the American Constitution. 

" These are some of the things which have been accomplished during the nine 
years of American rule, three of which were devoted to war and the suppression 
of public disorder and rebellion. This is some of the record of accomplishment 
of American altruism at which the nations of the world have laughed long and 
loud and for which, because It was unsanctioned by precedent and unproved by 
experience, those wise in the policies of the past have predicted failure and 
disaster. But enough of this. All that the United States has done In the past, 
all the sacrifices which she has made, all the patience which she has exercised, 
all the blood and treasure which she has expended will not have been in vain 
If It shall have taught the people of the Philippines to lay aside unworthy 
suspicions which make for failure and to give the trust and confidence which 
w^lll bring success. 

** With the organization of the Philippine Assembly a new era has commenced 
and henceforth the responsibility Imposed upon the Philippine Commission, 
appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate of the United States, 
will be divided with the representatives elected to the assembly by the Filipino 
people. 

*• It has been said that the Philippine Assembly enjoys no power and that In 
shaping the future of the Islands Its Influence will be practically negative. To 
this let It be answered that the rights, privileges, and powers possessed by the 
Philippine Assembly are exactly the same as those enjoyed by coordinate 
branches of the legislature wherever liberal government prevails. True, It can 
pass no law^s without the concurrence of the Philippine Commission ; on the 
other hand, It is equally true that no legislative action on the part of the Com- 
mission can be effective or have the force of law until It has met the definite 
approval of the Assembly. 

" The fact that the Assembly Is elected and that the Commission Is not pre- 
sents nothing novel to the student of history or to the lawmaker who Is well 
acquainted with the comix)sltion of such modern governments as recognize the 
right of the people to determine the legislation which Is to govern them. 

"The Imperial Diet of Japan Is composed of two chambers — the House of 
Peers, made up of the hereditary princes, marquises, counts, viscounts, and 
barons of the Empire, and of the House of Representatives, the members of 
which are elected by the people. 

•• Germany has Its Bundesrath, comix>sed of members appointed by the 
former Independent states, and the Reichstag, the members of which are elected 
by the people. 

'* In Italy the legislative power Is vested In a Senate, the members of which 
are princes of the royal house and appointees of the King, and In a Chamber of 
Deputies, elected by the people. 

" The Reichsrath of Austria is composed of hereditary princes and nobles, of 
certain ecclesiastical officials, and the appointees of the Emperor. Some of 
the members of the Lower House are elected by direct and others by indirect 
vote of the people. 

*• England, which is nothing more nor less than a republic with a hereditary 
president, vests all legislation In the House of Commons, elected by the people, 



BEPOR'? OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETABY. 



and in the House of Ijords, composed of hereditary and created peers, the Irish 
and Scotch peers, and the bishops of the Church of England. 

" Let this be as it may, the Government of the United States and the Philip- 
pine Commission consider the Philippine Assembly to be one of the Important 
factors In the solution of the delicate problem of aiding and assisting a new 
people to permanently secure the rights, ])rlyHeges, and liberties, the enjoyment 
of which by other peoples has been the development of a thousand years of trial 
and preparation. 

** The Commission has gratefully looked forward to the coming of the Assem- 
bly In order that some of the grave responsibilities which have hitherto weighed 
heavily upon It might be shared with the representatives of the people, who 
through their intimate contact with the citizen and with the affairs of govern- 
ment will be able to bring about a better appreciation of those public measures 
and policies which have hitherto been misunderstood and misinterpreted. 

"And this brings me to the consideration of those things which are of the 
highest interest to the people of the Islands and to those who represent them In 
the Philippine Assembly. 

" First of all, let me speak of the burning question of taxation, which has 
done so much to breed distrust and dissatisfaction. Complaints have been loud 
and deep that interior taxation has been multiplied and that the burdens 
of government have been increased by the Commission many times over those 
which were Imposed by the previous regime. This would be Important if true, 
but fortunately for the credit of the American Government In the Philippine 
Islands the facts do not sustain the charge. The following comparative state- 
ment o^ taxes imposed by the Philippine Commission and by the Spanish Gov- 
ernment, as taken from the auditor's report for the year 190G and the Pre- 
supuesto General de Gastos (^ Ingresos de las Islas Flllplnas, will show that 
less interior taxes to the extent of $746,000 gold were Imposed by the Philippine 
Commission than were Imposed by the Spanish Government. All amounts are 
stated in gold coin. Mexican is reduced to gold at the rate of 2 for 1. 

Comparative statement for the years 1897 and 1906 of taxes imposed hy the 
i^panish (iorernment and the Philippine Commission, 



Item. 



Insular: 

iQtaraal revenue _ — . 

Postal and telegraph service _— 

MlsceUaoeoua (fees, profltfi, etc.) 

Cedulaa (Obinese head tax, non-Chrlstiau tribute, and miscellaneous 

direct personal taxes) 

Urbana (a form of land tax) _ 

Industrial _ _ 

Forestry _ _ _ :_._ 



United 

States Gov 

emment, 

1906. 



$2,592,000 

193.000 

1.263,000 



Opium. 



Stamps and stamped paper _ 

Lotteries _ _ -. - 

Provincial (including: city of Manila, except municipal taxes): 

Internal revenue , 

Cedulas _ - - --- 

Land tax - - 

Miscellaneous _ 

Municipal: 

Internal revenue - -.. 

Oedula* - 

Land tax - - - - -.- 

Urbana - - 

Miscellaneous (including city of Manila purely municipal taxes) 

Money value of compulsory labor on public works, computed on the 
basis of 1 peseta per diem for fifteen days for each of 1,000,000 men 
subject to the tax _ - 

Fees and other legal perquisites collected but not covered into the 
treasury, as ascertained from official and personal records, but 
wbicb, for obvious reasons, is far from complete. 



Spanish 
Govern- 
ment, 
1897. 



Total - - — 8.4.>3,000 



$50,000 
98,000 

8,478.000 
70,000 

701,000 
ftj.OOO 

288,000 

sai.ooo 

500,000 



312,000 

426,000 |. 

902,000 ;. 

52,000 .- 

683,000 . 
426.000 I 
348,000 



700,000 



7,000 
270.000 



1,500.000 

1,072,000 

9,19».000 



£x(»s8 collected by Spanish over United States Government, $740,000. 



284 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

" In this statement the customs collections under the American Government 
and the Spanish Government have not been included for the reason that exports 
have Increased from $16,535,000 under the Spanish regime to $33,721,517 under 
the> American, and imports from $14,251,000 to $29,606,140. To show that more 
interior taxes have been imposed by the Commission than by the Spanish Gov- 
ernment it would not only be Incorrect but manifestly unfair to compare the 
duties collected on imports and exports which had doubled with the duties 'col- 
lected when only half the amount of business was done. 

*• If the foregoing statement be correct — and it is — ^the government of the Phil- 
ippine Islands now realizes from interior taxation $746,000 gold less than was 
collected under the former sovereignty. True, the banker and the farmer, the 
merchant and the capitalist pay very much more in taxes now than was ex- 
acted from them under the Spanish rule; on the other hand, it should be re- 
membered that a heavy burden of taxation has been taken from the shoulders of 
the poor and the weak and that all the complaint which has been made as to 
taxation is nothing more nor less than a complaint that the burden has been 
transferred from those less able to bear it to those who are stronger and better 
able to carry the weight. Under the former regime a graded cedula tax was col- 
lected on men and women of full age, whereas since the transfer of sovereignty 
a tax of but ?1 has been exacted, and that from men only. From cedulas the 
Spanish Government derived, according to its Presupuesto General de Gastos € 
Ingresos de las Islas Filipinas, ^8,178,000, while n,700,000 measures the full 
sum derived annually from the same source under American rule. One million 
two hundred and fifty thousand men were liable under Spanish laws for the 
prestaci6n personal, a tax of fifteen days* labor on public works, Redu^ng the 
number of men to a million and fixing the wage at a peseta a day, the value of 
this tax in money reached the comfortable sum of not less than K,000,000. 
•"As the present government collects only W,700,000 in cedulas and does not 
exact the prestaci6n personal, it is easy to see that on these two items alone the 
body and mass of the i)eople have been relieved of a burden of taxation of 
W,478,000. all of which loss has been recouped through the imposition of the 
land tax and internal-revenue taxes with the exception of «,492,000 ($746,000 
gold), which represents clear gain to the people, taken as a whole. The taxes 
imposed prior to the change in sovereignty and those imposed since are clearly 
set out in the foregoing statement and may be verified by reference to the official 
records. 

" The Philippine Islands to the number of 3,141 dot the waters of the China 
Sea and the Pacific Ocean from 5° to 21° north latitude and from 117** to 126' 
east longitude. Their territory covers an area of 127,853 square miles, and they 
have a population of 7.635,426. of which number 6,987,086 are civilized and 647,- 
740 are uncivilized. The revenue of the insular government, excluding that of 
municipalities and provinces, is $11,601,000 gold, or $1^2 gold for each inhab- 
itant. 

" Cuba is a compact little place, not scattered over a sea of waters, and has an 
area of about 44,000 square miles. Her population is 1,572.845 and she enjoys a 
revenue of $20,112,241 gold, or $13.33 for every inhabitant residing within her 
confines. 

" Porto Rico has an area of a thousand square miles less than that of the 
Island of Panay and a population of less than a million. Its revenues for In- 
sular purposes amounted, in the fiscal year 1903, to the sum of more than 
$3,500,000 gold, or about $3.70 gold for each inhabitant. 

" Bulgaria has an area of about 37,000 square miles and a population of about 
3.500.000. Its expenditures amount to about $7,000,000 gold, or $2 per inhab- 
itant. 

" If Cuba spends $13.33, Porto Rico $3.70, and Bulgaria $2 for the benefit of 
each inhabitant within its Jurisdiction, it would seem that the Philippine gov- 
ernment, considering the cost of maintaining order and of educating the people, 
has not been extravagant when it has spent only $1.52 per Inhabitant. 

" Other countries struggling for advancement and practically in the same con- 
dition as the Philippines might be selected for comparison. I refrain, however, 
from making further citations and leave to the Legislature the consideration of 
whether taxes should be further reduced, in view of all that must yet be done 
for the education and advancement of the people. 

" During the fiscal year 1907 there was a very decided increase in both the 
import and the export business of the Philippine Islands as compared with that 
of 1906. For the latter year the value of imports was $25,799,290 gold, and 
that of exports reached the sum of $31,918,542. The importations during the 



BEPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 



285 



fiscal year 1907 amounted to the sum of $29,606,140 gold, and the exports to 
the sum of $33,721,517 gold. The value of Imports for the year 1907 exceeded 
that of the year 1906 by the sum of $3,800,850 gold, and the exports for the 
fiscal year 1907 exceeded those of 1906 to the amount of $1,802,975 gold. The 
balance of trade for the fiscal year 1907 was In favor of the islands to the ex- 
tent of $4,055,377 gold. The articles of import which largely increased during 
the past fiscal year were cotton, iron and steel (machinery), mineral oils, 
opium, and paper and manufactures thereof, as will appear from the following 
statement : 



Article. 



Cotton goods 

Iron and steel (machinery) 

Mineral oils. 

Opium _ 

Paper, and manufactures thereof. 



1906. 



$6,754,860 

1.706.65S 

447.176 

446.464 

410.063 



1907. 



$8.416.ti46 

2.544.092 

816.763 

518.287 

508.704 



*' There was a decrease in the importations of rice, malt liquors, and jew- 
elry as follows: 



Article. 



RJoe. - - $4,875,600 

Malt liquors— _... __ 225.482 

Jewelry 150,884 



■| 



1907. 



$3,662,493 
141. 8S8 
40.410 



" Though coupled with a loss of revenue the decrease in the importation of 
rice is highly gratifying and much more satisfactory than the sad condition 
which in 1903 obliged an importation of rice to the value of $12,552,382 gold— a 
drain on the country which meant ruin if continued. Every dollar expended 
for imported rice has gdne to Saigon and not a dollar of it has ever returned to 
the Islands. The great reduction in rice importation demonstrates to an ab- 
solute conclusion that the agricultural condition of the country is improving 
and that the rice which was imported in 1903 is now made up by local produc- 
tion to the extent of nearly $9,000,000 gold. 

** The exports of the Philipi)ine Islands, which have shown an increase during 
1907 as compared with 1906, are as follows : 



Article. 



Hemp 

Oopra 

Tobacco- 
Maguey.. 



1906. 



$19,446,769 

4.043,115 

2.389.800 

219.064 



1907. 



$21.0a3.08I 

4,053,198 

3.129.194 

298.997 



•* I regret to say that there was a material decrease in the export of sugar 
which amounted to $4,863,865 in 1906 and to only $3,934,460 in 1907. The de- 
crease in quantity was 5,418 tons. For this decrease the failure of Ck)ngress to 
pass favorable tariflP legislation was largely responsible. 

" During the year 1894, the last year for which data are available, the exports 
from the islands amounted to $16,000,000. During the year 1907 the exports 
reached $33,721,517 — an increase of more than 110 per cent Prior to the change 
of sovereignty the average exix)rt during the five years from 1891 to 1805 was 
$19,532,000, while the average export for the five years 1902 to 1906 was 
$30,439,000. Yet we are constantly confronted with the statement that the 
country is ruined and that very much more business was done in Spanish times 
than since the change of sovereignty. Even if the prospects of the future were 
darh: and forbidding, which they are not, it is scarcely wise to announce to the 
buyers of the world that the producer is hard pressed and that almost any price 
will be accepted for his product. Men of prudence when in need of money, far 
from making a display of their rags and tatters, usually don their best " bib and 
tucker '* and outwardly at least bear such an appearance of prosperity as not to 
prejudice the coveted loan. 



286 REPOKT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

"The customs collections for the j^ear 1907 were $8,194,708.52, as compared 
with $7,553,206.06 for the year 1906. Of the customs collections for the year 
1907, $185,494.86 accrued to the Moro Province as against $159,429.84 for the 
year 1906. The total expenditures for customs collections during the year 1907 
was $461,111.45, as compared with $491,081.68 for the year 1906. 

**The improper packing of abaca and the use of a coarse-edged knife in 
breaking it out, coupled with carelessness in caring for it after once " drawn," 
have seriously affected the reputation of the fiber in foreign markets. This 
fact, together with its high price, has driven the foreign manufacturer to the 
expedient of substituting some other fiber, and In time a serious loss will result 
to the farmer and to the islands unless steps are taken either by the farmer 
himself or the Legislature to compel proper packing and proper caring for the 
product 

*' The quality of the tobacco has also deteriorated, principally because the 
paternal rule which formerly obliged the proper cultivation, caring for, curing, 
and packing of the tobacco can no longer be enforced. Seed is not carefully 
selected for i)lanting, no effort is made to produce the large fine leaf for wrap- 
ping, the tobacco is exposed to the sun until it is as dry as biscuit, and when 
partly cured it is sold on ** palitos " which have torn the leaf and completed the 
ruin which the sun began. After the tobacco reaches the factory, the tobacco 
manufacturer is forced to remedy, as far as remcily is possible, the negligence 
of the farmer, and the cost of the labor so employed is deducted from the price 
paid for the product. The manufacturer of abaca, forgetting that to ruin the 
reputation of any article of commerce is to damage the producer, excuses his 
conduct by the statement that an inferior quality of abaca in greater quantities 
is worth more money to him tlian a less quantity of fine quality. This excuse, 
poor as it is, does not avail the tobacco farmer, whose negligence works a loss 
to himself, the manufacturer, and all concerneii. Ix)w prices now prevail for 
tobacco and low prices will soon prevail for abaca. It seems to the executive 
that the legislature should give most careful study to these questions and, if 
possible, furnish a remedy by appror)rlate legislation. 

" The executive is sorry to say that to-day, owing to the negligence and 
Indifference of municipal officials, the roads and highways of the islands have 
fallen into such a disgraceful condition that in the rainy season they are better 
suited for boats than land transportation, and this would not be so bad if the 
roads were properly navigable. Exclusive of the Benguet road, the Insular 
government has constructed some 500 miles of road, and expended for the 
purpose more than ^3,000,000. And for what? To see the highways go to ruin 
through the indifference of the very peo[)le for whose benefit they were con- 
structed. To enable municipalities to keep their roads in repair the Commis- 
sion passed a road law, and, recognizing the autonomy of the local governments, 
made the law effective on its acceptance by the convention of municipal oflScers. 
It was not accepted, and the Legislature is now confronted with the proposition 
of devising some means by which the roads and highways, so necessary for the 
benefit of agriculture and the advancement of trade, may be put In proper con- 
dition and new highways constructed. To build all the roads which are neces- 
sary for the development of the Philippine Islands and to put the existing high- 
ways into proi)er condition would cost somewhere In the neighborhood of 
$65,000,000 gold. The Philippine government probably has less income in pro- 
portion to population than any other government on earth, and unless the people 
are willing to make some sacrifices for their own welfare and prosperity, the 
development of the resources of the islands will be long delayed Indeed. In 
one province during the last year the cost of transporting a picul of abaca a 
distance of 5 miles was M, and this contribution to bad roads was paid will- 
ingly and without a murmur: the imposition however of a tax of the same 
amount for the purpose of securing good roads and a reduction of the cost of 
transportation by 75 per cent would have been considered by those most con- 
cerned as an intolerable act of tyranny and oppression. 

"As a counterbalance to this lack of public spirit, to this Indifference to their 
own industrial and commercial welfare, it may be said with Justice that the 
whole body of the Filipino people have made the greatest sacrifices for the 
cause of education and public Instruction. 

" From insular funds and the contributions of the people 24 high school, 20 
trade school, and 2 intermediate school buildings, all of strong materials, have 
been constructed. The Insular schools are housed In 13 buildings, and inter- 
mediate and secondary schools in 49 buildings. Three hundred and forty build- 
ings of strong materials, 2,495 of mixed materials, and 493 of light materials 



BBPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 287 

furnish accommodations to the municipal schools. Nearly all of these buildings 
have been constructed since American occupation. There are now contemplated 
or in course of construction 25 primary schools, 3 intermediate schools, 5 schools 
of arts and trades, 7 provincial hlj?h schools, and 3 schools for fishery, pottery, 
and agriculture. The total enrollment of pupils in the schools is 479,978, and 
the average attendance is 269,006. The increase in primary, intermediate, agri- 
cultural, arts and trades, domestic science, and provincial high schools for 
1907 as compared with 1906 is as follows : 



Kind of school. 

Primary schools ' 3,10B 

Intermediate- _ 

Scbooto of domestic science _-_ 

Arts and trades.. 

Affricultaral schools.— .. — 

Provincial high schools. 



1906. 


1907. 


3.10B 
92 

8 

2 
36 


3,435 
162 
17 
32 
5 
3G 



'* For the instruction of the 479,000 children only 840 American teachers and 
5,200 Filipino teachers are available. The number of teachers employed is 
wholly Inadequate to do full justice to the pupils seeking Instruction. More- 
over, the schools are overcrowded and additional accommodations should be 
furnished. The appropriation for public schools has been largely increaseil for 
the current fiscal year, but is still insufllcient to meet the constant demands 
for more teachers and more school buildings. The appropriations for educa- 
tion should be increased. But how? * There's the rub.' Eight hundred thou- 
sand children are now barred from the public schools, and the problem of fur- 
nishing out of the meager revenues of the government the modicum of instruc- 
tion which is required to them for the modest needs of a modest life presents 
some difficulties. In the past large sums of money have been spent for the 
maintenance of peace In Cavlte, Batangas, Samar, and Leyte, and. If the pres- 
ent satisfactory condition of public tranquillity continues, It is possible that the 
moneys which have been expended In suppressing disorder may be utilized for 
educational purposes. 

"The relations between the Philippines Constabulary and the officials and 
people of the provinces and municipalities I am glad to say are highly satisfac- 
tory. Constabulary officers and men have galiieil the confitlence, trust, and 
good will of the people, and that alone has aided greatly In keeping crime and 
lawlessness in check without the necessity of employing extreme or extra or- 
dinary measures. In this connection I can not let the opiwrtunlty pass of pay- 
ing a tribute to the governors of the various provinc*es, who have left no stone 
unturned to maintain order and to suppress crime within their respective 
Jurisdictions. 

** Rinderpest, which has worked such destruction to the farming animals of 
the country, was reduced at one time during the year to such limits that the 
entire suppression of this disease seemed In sight. I'nfortunateI.v, the Importa- 
tion of cattle from Saigon, China, and other i)oints caused a reinfection, and 
during the last month cattle diseases, and espwlally rlndoriwst, have again as- 
sumed dangerous proiwrtlons. A quarantine law has been passed and a large 
appropriation has been made for the establishment of quarantine stations. It Is 
hoped sincerely that the Legislature will lend Its aid should further approi)rla- 
tlons be required, and that the best Influence of the members of the Assembly 
will be exerted to cultivate a public sentiment In favor of quarantine measures, 
without which any attempt to preserve the cattle of the Philippines will be 
utterly useless. 

"A largely increased appropriation for the bureau of iM)sts has been made 
in order to establish a paid rural carrier service. It Is exi)ecte<l that this ex- 
tension of the service will remove many just grounds of complaint which re- 
sulted from the fact that, in the interests of economy, the distribution and 
transfer of the mails was confided to unpaid or poorly paid municipal officials, 
who took but little interest in the work. With the appropriations made the 
service will be bettered but not perfected. Perfection or anything approaching 
It can not be hoped for until larger sums of money are available for the dis- 
tribution and prompt delivery of the mails. 

" The executive is of the opinion that a more careful administration of mu- 
nicipal affairs is necessary and that stei)s should be taken to train and instruct 



BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

subordinate municipal officials as to the proper method of keeping their records, 
books, and papers. In many of the municipalities the expenditures of public 
money have been unwise, not to say wasteful. In 88 municipalities out of 685 
the entire revenue was expended for salaries and not a single cent was devoted 
to public betterments or improvements. Sixty-three municipalities spent on 
public works less than 1 iier cent and 163 less than 10 per cent. Such a condi- 
tion of affairs is to be deplored, and the Commission was obliged to pass a law 
within the last few months prohibiting municipalities from spending for salaries 
more than a fixed percentage of their revenues. Municipalities of the first class 
are allowed to spend 50 per cent of their revenues on salaries, municipalities of 
the second class 60 per cent, municipalities of the third class 65 per cent, and 
municipalities of the fourth class 75 per cent. A statement of the total per- 
centage expended by the various municipalities for public improvements is 
appended to this message and marked ' Exhibit A' for the information of the 
Philippine Legislature. 

" Provincial governments, as a rule, have been well administered, and the 
provincial boards are deserving of high commendation for the energy and inter- 
est which they have displayed in bettering conditions within th^ir respective 
jurisdictions. 

" Railroad work in Luzon, Cebu, and Panay began about the beginning of the 
present calendar year. The following table will show the progress of the work: 

'* Manila Railway Company, 

Dagupan-San Fernando, Union, Line: Kilometers. 

Earthwork completed for 12.5 

Track laid for 12.5 

Partly ballasted for 12.5 

Work begun on station buildings. 

San Fablan-Camp One Line : 

Grading completed for 15 

Track completed for ^ 13 

Partly ballasted for 10 

Dau-San Pedro-Magalang Line: 

Grading completed for 9 

Track completed for 7 

Partly ballasted for 5 

Panlqul-Tayug Line: 
Grading begun. 

San Fernando-Florida Blanca Line: 

Grading completed _-_ 24.52 

Track laid for 10 

Partly ballasted for : 10 

Work begun on station buildings. 

Marlqulna-Montalban Line: 

All work completed and line in operation April 17, 1907 _ 12.87 

Belt Line, Manila : 

Grading completed for -. 9 

Track laid for 3 

Partly ballasted for 3 

Manlla-Batangas Line : 

Grading completed for _____ . _ ._ . 50 

Track laid for 5 

Antipole Line, beyond Taytay: 

Grading completed for 4 

Track completed for _ 3 

Cavite Short Line: 

Grading completed for _• 25 

Ralls laid for 9 

Partly ballasted for 9 

" Tarlac Tramway Company. 

Paniqul-Camlling Tramway : 

Grading and track laying completed 20 

Line not in operation on account of being washed out by Tarlac 
River. 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 239 

•* Philippine Railway Company, 

On Cebll : Kilometers. 

Grading completed from Danao to near Carcar 65 

Track laid from Danao to about 13 kilometers south of Cebu 44.6 

Grading Is partly completed from Carcar to Argao, a distance of 32 

Storehouse and oil house at Cebu are partly completed. 

Work begun on Cebu station building. 

Work is progressing on ijart of station buildings north of C«bu. 

On Panay: 

Grading completed for 35 

Rails laid for 11 . 

Partly ballasted for 6.5 

No work done except on temporary buildings. 

On Negros: 

Nothing done. 

•* With the exception of the dam it is expected that the construction of the 
Manila waterworks will be completed about the Ist of July of the coming year. 
In all probability the completion of the dam will be delayed until the next dry 
Reason, but it is hoped that construction work thereon will have so far pro- 
Kressed that water can be supplied from the new system by July 1, 1908. 

"The sewer system will not be fully completed until December 1, 1908, at 
which time the pumping stations will be ready for operation. 

"It is pleasing to note that during the fiscal year 1907 there was a marked 
increase in the application for homesteads, free patents, and sales and leases 
of public lands. This indicates that the people have been finally aroused to the 
necessity of ac<iuiring a title to their holdings and of securing from the public 
domain homes of which they will be the lords and masters. There have been 
10,607 applications for free patents, of which number 870 have been surveyed. 
Seven thous«ind one hundred are pending survey and 2,637 are under considera- 
tion. Three thousand nine hundred and sixty-seven applications have been filed 
for homesteads and 968 allowed. Two thousand nine hundred and ninety-nine 
are held for further consideration. One hundred and eighty-seven applications 
have been made for the purchase of public lands, of which number 19 sales have 
been accomplished and the balance are pending consideration or otherwise dis- 
posed of. Forty-two applications for lease have been filed, 22 of whicli are now 
under survey, 1 is accomplished, and the rest are awaiting consideration. 

"The total area of the friar lands is 158,677 hectares, 65.8 i)er cent of which 
has been surveyed. 

" The total rentals contracted for the friar-lands estates is the sum of ^247,- 
555.12. As yet no sales have been made to tenants, principally because the 
work of subdividing the estates and making proper surveys thereof has not yet 
been completed. 

On the Ist day of July, 1907, there was in the insular treasury 

available for appropriation 1^,708,486.19 

From which sum, however, should be deducted 
liabilities existing June 30, 1907. and not pro- 
vided for by apropriatlon, as follows, to wit: 

Sinking fund, public works bonds, act 1729— W04, 204. 13 
Reimbursement to friar-lands bonds funds, 

act 1749 696. 184. 31 

1, 100, 38S. 44 



Net balance available for appropriation July 1, 1907__- 5,608,097.75 
During the current fiscal year the following is a conservative es- 
timate of the revenues and receipts which may be exi)ected to 
accrue to the insular treasury : 

Customs revenue « 5, (KK), 000. 00 

Internal revenue 5, 500. 000. 00 

Miscellaneous 800,000.00 

Reversion from lapsed appropriations 600, 000. 00 

Total estimated revenue and reversion 21,900,000.00 



The total available for appropriation from the insular treasury 
for the fiscal year 1908 on the basis of the net balance actually 
in the treasury and the estimated receipts was on the Ist of 
July, 1907, the sum of 27.508,097.75 



240 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

From this sum the following appropriations have been made : 

Interest, public-works, bonds, act 1729 ^282,500.00 

Sinking fund, public-works bonds, act 1729 142, 848. 44 

Sinking fund, friar-lands bonds, act 1749 140,000.00 

Interest, friar-lands bonds (estimated amount payable from 

general fund), act 1749 350,000.00 

Annuities to the Sultan of Jolo et al 15,200.00 

Subsidies to steamship companies, act 1715 230,000.00 

Liability on account of railway guaranty, act 1730 270, 000. 00 

Liability on account of agricultural bank, act 1730 

Insurance fund, act 1728 250,000.00 

Current expenses, insular government, act 1679 17,495,980.00 

Aid to subprovinces of Apayao and Kalinga, act 1642 1, 000. 00 

Reimbursement to provinces on account of suspension of the 

land tax, act 1686 700,000.00 

Public works, insular government, act 1688_- 3,502,655.00 

Aid to province of Agusan, act 1693 (estimated) 25,000.00 

30 per cent current expenses, city of Manila, act 1706 1, 000, (X)0. (X) 

30 per cent public works, city of Manila 85,000.00 

30 per cent sinking fund, city of Manila sewer and water- 
works bonds 59. 622. 00 

Refund to city of Manila on account expenses Pasig River 

walls, act 1750 207, 000. 00 

Agricultural loans, frlar-lauds haciendas, act 1736 100,000.00 

Fidelity-bond fund, act 1739 40,000.00 

Reimbursement to provinces on account of court fees, act 

1764 75, 000. 00 

Bounties to tobacco growers, act 1767 13,250.00 

Sundry current expenses Insular government, act 1785 197, 700. 00 

Provincial roads and bridges, act 1783 200,000.00 

Reserve for contingencies 2,125.342.31 

Available for appropriation 27,508,097.75 

** In conclusion, the executive, on his own behalf and for and on behalf of 
the Philippine Commission as Its president, tenders to the Philippine Assembly, 
and through them to the people of the Philippines, most heartfelt congratula- 
tions on the formal opening and permanent organization of the body which 
from now henceforth is to share with the Philippine Commission the respon- 
sibility for the laws which are to govern the Philippine Islands. From this 
day participation by the Filipino people In every department of the Philippine 
government begins. Three Filipinos of eminence, renown, learning, and ability 
are now Justices of the supreme court, headed by the distinguished jurisconsult 
Don Cayetano Arellano. Out of 21 judges of the court of first Instance 10 
are Filipinos. The court of land registration is represented by 1 Filipino and 1 
American. The chief of the bureau of justice is a Filipino, who Is assisted by 
5 Filipinos and 5 Americans. All the flscals of the various provinces are Fili- 
pinos. In the exe<Mitive !)ranches of the government the offices of responsibility 
and trust held by those born of the soil are too numerous to mention. On the 
Philippine Conimission three well-known, able, and distinguished Filipinos, ap- 
I)ointed by the President of the ITnlte<l States and confirmed by the Senate, 
have rendered notable service to the legislative department of the government. 
To-day 80 assemblymen, ele<'tetl by popular vote at the general elections held on 
the 30th day of July of this year, assume their part in the affairs of govern- 
ment, and upon them now devolves a stewardship of which a rigid accomitlng 
will be exacte<l !)y history, by their own people, and by other peoples struggling 
to take their part in the onward march of civilization. The service rendered 
by Filipino officials, whatever their office and wherever employed, has been of 
the most pronounced benefit and advantage to the land of their birth. That 
which is to be rendered and will be rendered by the Phllli)pine Assembly can 
not be measured. On the Philippine Assembly more than on any other branch 
of the Philippine government depends the future of the Philippine Islands, and 
on the energy, the earnestness, the devotion to duty, the self-sacrifice, the un- 
selfishness, and, above all things, the entire conservatism and sane judgment 
of its members deiiends the realization of the hopes and the Ideals of the Filipino 
people. If this Assembly fails of its purpose, the peoples who have looked to it 
to demonstrate their capacity to legislate wisely and well will have just reason 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 



241 



to regret that the high privilege of participating in the malting gf the laws to 
govern them was ever concede!^. If, on the other hand, success attends it, and, 
all the circumstances considered, the product of its labors compares not unfa- 
vorably with that of other legislative bodies, no names will shine brighter on the 
pages of Philippine history than those of the members of the first Philippine 
Assembly. 

"James F. Smith, 
" Governor-General of the Philippine Islands. 

** ElXHIBIT A. 
" MUNICIPAL PUBLIC WORKS. 

"There is shown in the statement which follows the percentage which the 
expenditures for public works in each municipality bears to the total expendi- 
tures of that municipality for all purposes. The municipalities of each class are 
shown in their relative order of superiority In this respect. 

Municipalities of the first class {population 25,000 or over). 



Municipality. 


Province. 
Cebu 


Per cent. 


Municipality. 


Province. 


Per cent. 


Dala^ruete 


27.71 
26.01 
24.42 
23.ei 
23.50 
28.51 
22.11 
IS.flO 
14.84 
14.76 
14.76 
14.70 
13.33 
12.05 


1 San Pablo. 

Imus 


La Laguna 


11 69 


Taal 


Batangas 


Oavite 

Iloilo 


11.33 
11 15 


Vlgan 


Ilocos Sur 


Mlagao 


Batangas 


Batangag 


Barlli _ 


Ccbu 


10*78 


Laoaip - 


Ilocos Norte __ 

Pangaslnan 

Misamis 


Argao._- 

1 Llpa 


do.. 

Batangas 


7 48 


CalaMaq 

Mambajao 


7 13 


1 Santa B&rbara... 
' Ocbu- . 


Hollo 


G 43 


Carcar 


Ccbu 


Cebu 


5 81 


Sara 


Hollo 

Bulacan 


, San Carlos 

1 Janluay 


Pang as In an. 

Iloilo... 


5 29 


Malolos 


5 28 


Hollo 


Hollo . 

Tarlac 


Dumanjug — 

Callbo 


Cebu 


3.67 


Oamfling 


Capiz.. 


8 00 


Pototan — - 


Hollo 


SIbonga 

Bauan 


Cebu 

Batangas 


9 95 


Baiiuaff- 


Bulacan, 


2 69 











Municipalities of the second class (populatiofi 18,000 or over and less than 

25M0), 



Municipality. 



Province. 



Aparrl... , 

Tanauan — 

Candon , 

Irlga 

Burauen 

Boac I 

Malabon 

Dagaml. ' 

Snay 

Daraga ; 

Dingras. 

Gatarman 

San Fernando 

Hagonoy 

Ouyapo _ ' 

Arayat- ., 

Urdaneta 

Dagupan 

Gumobatan ' 

Bago j 

Macabebe.. 

San Miguel : 

La Carlota ' 

Lubao I 

Tabaco I 

Llngayen f 

Paasl 

Slquijor 

Narvacan 

New Washington. 

Nabua 

Oabatuan 



Per cent. Municipality. 



Cagayan 

Leyte. 

Ilocos Sur 

Ambos Camarines. 

Leyte. 

Tayabas 

Rlzal 

Leyteu 

Occidental Negros. ' 

Albay 

Ilocos Norte J 

Samar | 

Pampanga. _.| 

Rulacan 

Nueva Eclja 

Pampanga , 

Pangasinan 

do 



Albay ' 

Occidental Negros. , 

Pamp anga 

Bulacan. ' 

Occidental Negros. 

Pampanga 

Albay 

Pangasinan. 

HoUo ' 

Oriental Negros 

Ilocos Sur..- 

Caplz 

Ambos Camarines. ' 
IloUo 



11024— WAB 1907— VOL 7- 



41.11 
34.50 
32.46 
28.76 
27.72 
28.46 
25.66 
24.8-5 
24.18 
23.96 
23.89 
2B.82 
23.57 
23.40 
23.13 
22.28 
21.50 
21.33 
21.07 
18.03 
16.66 
18.57 
16.06 
15.21 
18.37 
13.26 
13.11 
12.40 
12.33 
10.98 
9.64 
9.62 



-16 



Baybay 

Dumaguete 

Buenavlsta.. 

Mangaldan 

Tuburan 

Manga tarem 

Opon 

Ouagua 

Bacarra 

Bangued 

; Manaoag-. 

I Asingan 

Pura 

Calbayog... 

San Francisco de 
Malabon. 

Tanauan. 

Capiz _ 

Carigara 

Tarlac 

Leon— 

Ormoc -- 

San Jose 

Bantayan ._ 

Cagayan „ 

Guluan 

Batac 

Maasin , 

Barotac Nuevo... 

Hog 

Logo 



Province. Per cent. 



Leyte 

Oriental Negros.— 

Hollo _. 

Pangasinan 

Cebu 

Pangasinan 

Cebu 

Pampanga 

Ilocos Norte 

Hocos Sur 

Pangasinan 

Tarlac .'. . ."' 

Samar 

Cavite- 



Batangas 

Capiz ' 

Leyte | 

Tarlac 

Hollo 

Leyte 

Antique 

Cebu. 

Misamis 

Samar J 

Hocos Norte. J 

Leyte. ..' 

Hollo I 

Occidental Negros. J 
Bohol 



9.57 
8.57 
8.04 
7.78 
7.59 
7.34 
7.09 
7.08 
7.04 
6.40 
6.25 
6.21 
5.M 
5.77 
5.58 

4.97 
4.95 
4.58 
4.25 
4.16 
.1.90 
3.57 
2.97 
2.89 
2.82 
2.73 
2.59 
1.76 
1.72 



242 



BBPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Municipalities of the third class (population tO.OOO or over and less than 

8,000). • 



Municipality. 



Palo 

Oavite 

Surigao .— 

Santa Cruz 

Oton- 

Oabanatuan 

Oatbalogan 

Dapa 

Santa Maria 

Sorsogon 

Oantilan 

Tugiiegarao 

Paniqui 

San Luis 

Jagna 

Oatmon.. 

Balasan... 

Sarlaya 

San Marcelino... 
Santo Domingo. 

Gapan... 

Paoay— 

Noveleta 

ApaUt 

Oalape 

Malasiqul 

Angeles 

Langaran 

Binalonan 

Bauang- i. 

Bayambang 

Lacy -__. 

Balaoan 

San Fernando... 

Valladolid 

Bosales 

Oroquiota 

Agoo 

Bulan 

nagan- 

Larena 

Mandaue I 

Baeey j 

Pefiaranda 

Tallsay ' 

Atimonan ' 

Saravia .' 

San Narciso 

Mallnao 

Bogo 

Tandag 

Asturias — «_ 

Sanlsidro 

Oonoepcion 

Ibajay 

Navotas 

San Oarlos 

Gubat 

Talisay 

Bais 

Oulasi 

Salasa- — 

San Juan 

Lucban 

Loboc 

vniasiB 

Santa Cruz 

Oras 

Bacolor 

Oaluxnpit. 

Dact 

Isabela — 

Naguillan 

Glgaquit.,. 

Borongau :. 

Sibalom 

Paslg - 

Meddlin- 

Bulacan 

Moncada 

Inabanga — 

Balliyan 

Maaban — ^ — . 



Province. 



Per cent. 



Leyte— _ 

Cavite 

Surigao 

Tayabas 

Doilo 

Nueva Ecija 

Samar 

Surlgao— 

nocos Sur — 

Sorsogon 

Surigao 

Oagayan.. 

Tarlac 

Pampanga 

Bohol 

Cebu — 

noilo 

Tayabas 

Zambales 

riocos Sur 

Kueva Ecija 

Ilocos Norte. 

Cavite. _. 

Pampanga 

Bohol- 

Pangasinan 

Pampanga 

Misamls 

Pangasinan 

La Union 

Pangasinan 

Oriental Negros 

La Union 

do .- 

Occidental Negros. 

Pangasinan 

Misamls 

La Union 

Sorsogon. 

Isabela 

Oriental Negros — 

Cebu 

Samar 

Nueva Ecija 

Oebu 

Tayabas 

Occidental Negros. 

Zambales 

Albay 

Cebu 

Surigao 

Cebu. 

Nueva Ecija 

Tarlac. 

Onplz 

Rlzal 

Occidental Negros. 

Sorsogon- 

Ocoldentnl Ncgros. 

Orlental Negros 

Antique 

Pangasinan 

La Union 

Tayabas.. 

Bohol 

Pangasinan 

La Laguna 

Samar 

Pampanga 

Bulacan 

Ambos Camarlnes. 
Occidental Negros. 

La Union 

Surigao 

Samar 

Antique. 

Rizal 

Oebu 

Bulacan 

Tarlac 

Bohol - 

Batangaa- 

Tayabas 



46.52 
45.54 
41.00 
40.15 
34.21 
33.63 
31.66 
31.35 
31.27 
80.60 
30.22 
29.93 
27.85 
27.10 
26.06 
26.12 
25.31 
24.65 
24.20 
23.84 
23.35 
23.28 
22.99 
21.29 
20.96 
20.80 
20.79 
20.60 
20.35 
19.87 
19.64 
19.32 
19.23 
18.45 
18.10 
17.51 
17.27 
17.24 
17.20 
17.15 
16.90 
15.93 
15.83 
15.56 
15.32 
15.07 
15.02 
14.85 
14.40 
14.30 
13.93 
13.56 
13.44 
13.29 
13.00 
12.90 
12.88 
12.84 
12.73 
12.72 
12.69 
12.62 
12.40 
11.96 
11.91 
11.75 
11.58 
11.31 
11.25 
10.97 
10.86 
10.69 
10.61 
10.62 
10.51 
10.02 
9.97 
9.67 
9.53 
9.39 
9.38 
9.37 
9.37 



Municipality. 



Balanga 

Rosario 

Meycauayan 

Tayabas 

Bugasong 

Luna 

Camallg 

Bacolod 

San Fernando... 

Tadoban 

Polo 

Pontevedra 

Ligao 

Bomblon 

Jaro 

Nueva Oaceres... 

Pltogo 

Tubigon 

Toledo 

LOoan 

San Fabian 

Binalbagan 

Albay 

Dao 

Alcala 

Bacon.. -1 

Daan Bantayan. 

Indan..- 

BInmaley 

Allaga— _- 

Palompoo- 

Panay 

Loay 

Taguig 

Misamls 

Moalbual 

Badoc 

Hilongos 

Guimbal 

Naga - 

Alongulnsan 

Dao 

Qulngua— 

Talisayan... 

Bangui 

Pozorrubio 

Maribojoc— , 

Mexico 

Pontevedra 

Maragondon 

Pandan 

Zimiarraga 

Cadiz 

Badian 

Alangarlang 

Nalc 

Slaton 

Candaba 

Minglanilla 

Oas 

Danao 

Oranl 

Santa Maria 

Libmanan 

Balingasag 

San Isldro 

Ayuqultan 

Bifian. 

Arlngay 

Banate... 

Jimamaylan 

Victoria 

Alfonso 

Echague— 

Manapla 

Balamban 

DImlao 

Indan 

Tayug 

Angat... — 

Alaminos 

Cabagan Nuevo. 
Escalante 



Province. 



Percent. 



Bataan 

Batangas ' 

Bulacan | 

Tayabas ' 

Antique 

La Union 

Albay 

Occidental Negros.. 

Oebu 

Leyte ' 

Bulacan ; 

Occidental Negros- 

Albay ' 

Romblon I 

Leyte. 

Ambos Camarlnes- 1 

Tayabas. .| 

Bohol 

Oebu ; 

do I 

Pangasinan ! 

Occidental Negros. J 

Albay 

Antique 

Pangasinan... 

Sorsogon 

Oebu 

Cavite 

Pangasinan.. 
Nueva Ecija.. 

Leyte 

Oapiz 

Bohol 

Rizal 

Misamls 

Cebu 

Ilocos Norte. 

Leyte 

nollo 

Oebu 

-...do 

Capiz 

Bulacan... 

Misamls 

Ilocos Norte 

Pangasinan 

BohoL 
Pampanga. 

Caplz 

Cavite..^ 

Antique 

Samar. 

Occidental Negros. 

Cebu. 

Leyte. 

Cavite 

Oriental Negros. 

Pampanga. 

Cebu... 

Albay. 

Cebu- 

Bataan 

Bulacan. 

Ambos Camarlnes. 
Misamls. 

Leyte. 

Oriental Negros 

La Laguna 

La Union. „ _^ 

Iloflo 

Occidental Negros. 

Tarlac 

Cavite 

Isabela 

Occidental Negros. 

Cebu .- 

Bohol 

Ambos Camarlnes. 

Cebu. 

Pangasinan 

Bulacan. 

Pangasinan- ._ 

Isabela 



9.S6 
9.86 
9.15 
9.16 
9.13 
9.11 
9.00 
8.86 
8.77 
8.43 
8.33 
8.39 
8.16 
8.13 
7.96 
7.92 
7.58 
7.54 
7.48 
7.32 
7.20 
7.12 
7.01 
7.00 
6.86 
6.70 
6.63 
6.29 
6.27 
6.23 
6.21 
6.17 
6.02 
5.71 
5.53 
6.46 
5.38 
5.83 
5.82 
5.21 
5.07 
4.85 
4.76 
4.73 
4.50 
4.40 
4.37 
4.27 
4.16 
4.14 
4.07 
8.7S 
9.62 
3.38 
S.83 
3.28 
3.25 
8.17 
8.17 
3.10 
3.08 
2.99 
2.94 
2.85 
2.54 
2.38 
2.35 
2.85 
2.29 
2.23 
1.99 
1.77 
1.76 
1.70 
1.58 
1.64 
1.52 
1.51 
1.49 
1.46 
1.48 
1.36 
1.80 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 



248 



Municipalities of the third cJasa {population 10,000 or over and leas than 

8,000)— Contimiea. 



Municipality. 



Tanjay 

HlnuDanga 

Blnangronan 

TagbUaran 

WHght-__ I 

Dulag. I 

OloatUao 

Oslob 

PatnongoQ . 

Malabuyoc 

Dauin I 

Ouljulugan 1 

Plnamungajan.-. . 

San Antonio 

Bacacay 



Provlni'e. 



Occidental Negroa. 

Oriental Negros 

Leyte - — 

Rizal 

BohoL 

Samar 

Leyta 

Oebu 

do 

Antique 

Oebu 

Oriental Negros — 

do 

NuevaEcIja 

Albay. _ 



Percent. I Municipality. 



1.35 

1.31 

1.18 

1.07 

1.08 

.87 

.81 

.73 

.72 

.89 

.60 

.63 

.49 

.47 

.36 



Barugo 

i Tlgbauan 

I Taft 

Tayasan 

Odiongan 

Jinigaran 

Bocaue. 

I Gandara 

Infanta 

Lauaan 

Malltbog 

Nagcarlan 

San Juan 

San Nicolas— 



Province. 



Per cent. 



Leyte 

IloUo... _. 

Samar 

Oriental Negros 

Romblon 

Occidental Negros. 

Bulacan 

Samar _ ' 

Tayabas I 

Antique 

Leyte 

La Laguna 

Batangas „ 

Pangaslnan 



.84 

.27 

.16 

.15 

.08 

.02 

None. 

Nona 

None. 

Nona 

Nona 

None. 

None. 

Nona 



Jlunieipalities of the fourth class (population less than 10,000), 



Municipality. 



I 



Province. 



San Bemiglo 

Tuao 1 

Barcelona 

Gasan 

Hlnatuan ' 

Orion I 

MagBlngal ' 

Valencia 

Butuao 

Caloocan _ 

Cabadbaran. 

Gnmaca , 

SevIUa 1 

Sua! I 

Oalamba J 

Solana - 

San Miguel 

Mabusao — i 

Bongabon 

Oasiguran 

Magalan 

PHa 

Lavesares 

Bllar 

Sagnay 

LIcab 

Tiblao 

. Mabalacat 

Duero 

Irosln 

Pagbilao — 

Cabuyao 

San Pedro Macatl. 

Juban 

Victorias ' 

Catubig 

Oamu ' 

Lopez 

Jamlndan... ; 

Guinayangan ' 

Taytay ' 

Naguilian 

Pagsanjan. 

San Juan • 

Oalauag ; 

Pasay 

Calaca 

Ubay 

Magallanes 

San Mateo 

Luoena 

Tigaon 

SInalt 

TiwI 

Buhl 

Borbon 

Jetafe 1— . 

San Jose 

Oordla 

Porac 



Oebu 

Cagayan 

Sorsogon 

Tayabas _ 

Surigao 

Bataan 

IIocos Sur— 

Bohol- 

Surigao 

Rlzal 

Surigao 

Tayabas 

Bohol 

Pangaslnan 

La Laguna 

Cagayan 

Ilocog Norte 

Oaplz 

Nueva Eclja 

Sorsogon 

Pampanga 

La Laguna 

Samar 

Bohol 

Ambos Oamarines. 

Nueva EclJa 

Antique 

Pampanga 

Bohol 

Sorsogon 

Tayabas 

La Laguna 

Rlzal 

Sorsogon 

Occidental Negros. 

Samar. _ 

Isabela — . 

Tayabas 

Oaplz 

Tayabas 

Rlzal 

Isabela 

La Laguna 

Nueva Eclja 

Tayabas 

Rlzal 

Batangas 

Bohol ! 

Sorsogon ! 

Rlzal 

Tayabas 

Ambos Camarlnes^l 

Docos Sur 

Albay > 

Ambos Camarlnes- 

Oebu - 

Bohol - 

Batangas 

Bohol 

Pampanga 



87.43 

8«.91 

36.63 

34.50 

33.67 

3?.97 

30.88 

29.48 

28.79 

28.00 

25.52 

25.44 

25.42 

23.70 

23.69 

23.69 

23.34 

23.29 

22.45 

91.50 

20.72 

20.41 

18.94 

18.74 

18.64 

18.50 

18.46 

18.26 

17.98 

17.52 

17.18 

16.8.} 

16.81 

16.45 • 

16.08 ! 

15.76 , 

15.62 j 

15.25 I 

15.23 i 

15.06 I 

14.70 I 

14.55 I 

14.53 ' 

14.28 

14.20 

14.07 

13.73 

13.73 I 

13.72 

13.18 

13.08 

12.85 

li.m 

11.80 

11.63 

11.62 

11.88 

11.29 

11.26 

11.18 



Province. 



I Per cent. 



Paombong 

Santo Tomas-. 
Pena Blanca... 

HIndang 

Nasugbu 

Santo Nino 1 

Lal-lo ! 

Antequera ' 

San Vicente I 

Dumalag j 

Lapog 

Tlaon ' 

Bautlsta * 

Paradaque 1 

Carmen 1 

Paracale 

Abulug ' 

Abucay : 

Baao » 

Plat 

Manlto 

Alegrla..- -. 

Oabugao — 

Libacao... .«. 

Legaspl 

Santa 

IMnambao 

Sierra Bullones— 

Caballan 

Placer ; 

Santiago | 

Santa Lucia 

Antlpolo 1 

Santa Cruz ( 

San Felipe Nerl... 

Morong [ 

Dinalupljan ' 

Are valo 

Silang 

San Jose ' 

Lumban .— 

AJburquerque ' 

Marlqulna 1 

Milagros I 

Nabas 

Santa Cfuz 

T-abo ' 

Tvisan. ' 

Tubao ' 

Mallnao , 

Lobo6 I 

Tagudln _, 

Tagoloan 

Vlrac ' 

Babatungon 

Alabat 

Milaor _ 

Pamplona 

Olaveria 1. 

BoljooD I 



Bulacan. __. 

La Union 

Cagayan i 

Leyte- .^ I 

Batangas ' 

Samar 

Cagayan 

Bohol 

Ambos Camarlnes.J 

Oaplz 

IIocos Sur. i 

Tayabas 

Pangaslnan 

Rizal 

Oebu 

Ambos Camarines. 

Cagayan 

Bataan 

Ambos Camarines.. 

Cagayan 

Albay 

Oebu 

riocos Sur 

Oaplz 

Albay 

Docos Sur 

Ambos Camarines. 

Bohol 

Leyte 

Surigao 

IlocoB Sur 

Zambales 

Rizal 

Bataan 

UoUo 

Cavlte 

Ambos Camarines. 

La Laguna 

Bohol •.-.. 

Rlzal 

Sorsogon 

Oaplz 

IIocos Sur 

Ambos Camarlnes- 

Caplz 

La Union 

Caplz 

Batangas i 

IIocos Sur 

Mlsamis 

Albay 

I>eyte 

Tayabas — . 

Ambos Camarlnea. 

Cagayan 

do 

Oebu 



11.12 
11.11 
10.97 
10.87 
10.85 
10.79 
10.73 
10.71 
10.63 
10.42 
10.24 
10.19 
10.09 
10.08 
9.90 
9.86 
9.73 
9.72 
9.29 
9.15 
9.06 
9.02 
8.92 
8.69 
8.42 
8.26 
8.11 
8.01 
7.94 
7.77 
7.77 
7.69 
7.68 
7.,'54 
7.31 
7.34 
7.25 
7.07 
7.00 
6.87 
6.47 
6.24 
6.17 
6.11 
6.00 
6.00 
.=>.97 
5.94 
5.82 
5.81 
5.52 
6.51 
5.45 
5.40 
5.38 
5.31 
5.23 
5.06 
4.88 
4.87 



244 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Municipalities of the fourth class {population less than 10,000) — Continued. 



Municipality. 



Bato 

Galabanga.- 

Masbate 

San Isldro... 
Mlnalabac— 

CastDla 

Candijay 

Pasuquin 

Mastnloc 

Tolon 

Cortes 

Lulslana 

Alcala -_, 

San Bemlfflo. 

LIbon 

Oquendo 

Panltan 

Bangar 

Olongapo 

Oarcia Hernandez 

Mobo 

Basco 

Oarmona... 
Dlmasalang. 
Sambo an... 

Cauayan 

Baclayon... 

Mallllpot 

Dinagat 

Saplan 

Enrlle 

Dolores 

SIruina 

Tapas 

San Fernando 

Uralngan 

Lupl — 

Bacnotan 

Leytc- 

Bollnao 

Taft - 

Iba 

Magarao 

Tolosa 

Corregldor 

San RIeardo 

Balanglga 

Matnog 

PoIUlO— 

San Jacinto 

Tabogon 

Buruanga 

Laoang 

Abuyog — 

Galnza 

Matalom 

Murcia 

Luzurlaga 

Naval 

Bacong..- 

Bato _ _. 

Gattaran 

Snnto ToiJiHfl- — 

Cuyblran 

Anda_ 

Magdalena.-it.- 

Mavltac 

Cataingan. 

Barafl. 

Gulndulinan 

Bainijan 

La Paz 

Mauibulao.. 
Talacogon. . 
San Quintln. 

Pilar... 

Llorento 

Ban Fernamlo 

Biila— 
Subfc- 
Daul8- . 
Aroroy. 
Pangll. 
Bucay 



Provlnee. 



I 



Per cent, n Municipality. 



Province. 



Albay 1 

Ambos Camarlnes- 

Sorsogon 

Pangaslnau. 

Ambos Oamarlnes.. 

Sorsogon 

Bohol 

Ilocos Norte 

Zambales 

Oriental Negros 

Bohol I 

La Lagima 

Cagayan ' 

Antique ! 

Albay 

Samar 

Caplz 

La Union 

Zambales ' 

Bohol » 

Sorsogon J 

Cagayan 

Oavlte ! 

Sorsogon 

Cebu 

Isabela I 

Bohol I 

Albay 

Surigao ..i 

Caplz- ' 

Cagayan. —I 

Ilocos Sur* I 

Ambos Oamarlnes.. I 

Caplz ■ 

Sorsogon— .| 

Pangaslnan ' 

Ambos Caraarlnes..' 

La Union. 

Leyte 

Pangaslnan 

Caplz 

Zambales. I 

Ambos Camarlnes..' 

Leyte _ , 

Cavlte. I 

Leyto 

Samar 

Sorsogon .' 

Tayabas.. _. 

Sorsogon 

Cebu 

Caplz ; 

Samar .' 

Leyte I 

Ambos Caraarlnes.. 

Leytc ^ 

Occidental Negros. J 

Oriental Negros ' 

I^yte— , 

Oriental Negros 1 

Ambos Camarlnes. 

Cagayan... 

Batangas 

l^eytc - 

Bohol 

La Laguna 

-do. 




Ilocos Sur 

Ambos Camarlnes- 

Surigao.. - ' 

Pangaslnan ...' 

Caplz I 

Samar 

Romblon 

Ambos Camarlnes.' 

Zambales , 

Bohol I 

Sorsogon 

La Laguna — ' 

Ilocos Sur I 



4.39 
4.19 
4.09 
4.06 
4.01 
3.83 
3.82 
3.80 
8.78 
8.74 
3.72 
3.70 
3.68 
3.56 
8.55 
8.50 
8.48 
8.46 
8.87 
8.29 
8.23 
3.27 
8.21 
3.00 
8.07 
3.00 
2.91 
2.90 
2.88 
2.82 
2.77 

2.7r. 
2.72 
2.58 
2.43 
2.41 
2.40 
2.39 
2.28 
2.18 
2.13 
2.00 
2.06 
2.02 
2.01 
1.94 
1.88 
1.81 
1.79 
1.50 
1.50 
1.58 
1.56 
1.55 
1.53 
1.62 
1.50 
1.45 
1.40 
1.36 
1.38 
1.30 
1.33 
1.32 
1.2!) 
1.28 
1.22 
1.20 
1.19 
1.18 
l.ll 
1.08 
l.a') 
1.05 
1.00 
.97 

.m 

.96 
.9* 
.04 
.94 
.08 
.01 
.90 



I 



Mauanan ^_... 

Santa Rita 

Oapul 

Tanay 

Ibaan. 

Sanchez MIra 

Vlllareal 

Sogod 

Sigma 

Ouenca... 

Mulanay 

Floridablanca 

PIddig- 

Paete 

BanI 

Palangul 

Oajldiocan. 

Oalblga 

Santo NIfio 

Camalanlugan.... 

Llanga... 

Igulg -„ 

Panglao 

Rapu-Bapu 

Plinia 

Llloan- 

SIpocot 

I Bulusan 

I Badajoz _. 

I Tallbon 

' Capas 

I MablnL... 

I Sagay 

, Oalauan 

Allen 

' Tagle. 

I Agno - 

Jovellar 

Pilar 

I Cauayan 

I Dumarao __ 

I Lfllo 

I Almeria 

Jimenez. -. 

I Almagro — 

J Amulung 

Anda 

I Bagamanoc. 

Baggao 

Bagac 

Baler 

Bamban _ 

Bato 

Batuan. 

Botolan. _. 

Calayan 

Calolbon 

Capalonga. 

Caramoan 

Caramoran 

Carmen. 

Carranglnn 

Catanauan 

Donsol 

Goa 

Infanta 

Inopacan — 

Kaslguran 

Lagonoy 

LIbog 

T,ooc.._ 

Los Banos 

Majayjay 

Mandann.. - 

Marl veles ... 

Merlda _. 

Moron 

Palapng 

Pamplona 

Pambujan 

Pandan 

I Pantabangan... 

Pasacao 

Payo 



Cagayan 

Pampanga 

Samar ' 

Rizal 

Batangas ' 

Cagayan I 

Samar 

Leyte- ' 

Caplz I 

Batangas. 

Tayabas 

Pampanga [ 

Ilocos Norte 

La Laguna I 

Pangaslnan ' 

Albay ; 

Romblon 

Samar I 

Cagayan ' 

do ; 

Surigao I 

Cagayan ' 

Bohol ' 

Albay 

Rlzal I 

Leyte I 

Ambos Oamarlnes. * 

Sorsogon.. .- 1 

Romblon ' 

Bohol 

Tarlac ' 

Bohol 

Occidental Negros.. 

La Laguna 

Skmar 

Isabela _— 

Pangaslnan 

Albay.. 

Sorsogon... 

Occidental Negros. 

Oaplz 

La Laguna- 

Leyte 

Mlsamls 

Samar 

Cagayan 

Pangaslnan... 

Albay 

Cagayan 

Bataan... 

Tayabas... 

Tarlac... 

Leyte 

Bohol 

Zambales-.-- 

Cagayan- 

Albay 

Ambos Caraarln<>^. 

do --- 

Albay 

BohoL 

Nueva Eclja 

Tayabas 

Sorsogon 

.\mbos Camarlnes. 

Pangaslnan 

Leyte 

Tayabas 

Ambos Camarlnes. 

Albay. 

Romblon 

La Laguna 

do... 

Sorsogon.— 

Bataan 

Leyte 

Bataan 

Samar „. 

Ambos Camarlnes- 

Samar 

Albay 

Nueva Ed J a 

Ambos Camarlnes- 
Albay .-J 



Per cent. 



.82 
.73 
.72 
.67 
.67 
.65 
.63 
.61 
.50 
.57 
.66 
.55 
.48 
.40 
.42 
.41 
.41 



.37 
.35 
.34 
.32 
.31 
.30 
.25 
.22 
.18 
.18 
.17 

.14 

.12 
.12 
.12 
.10 
.10 
.10 
.06 
.05 
.04 
.03 
.01 

^onft 

None. 

None. 

None. 

Non& 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY. 



245 



Municipalities of the fourth class (population less than 10,000) — Continued. 



Municipality. 


Province. 


1 
Per cent. 

1 


Municipality. 


Province. 


Per cent. 


Pilar 

Pilar 

Pill 

Placer _ 

Prieto-Dl az 


Oebu 

Ilocos Sur — 

Ambofl Oamarlnes.. 

Sorsogon 

do 


None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 1 

None. 


Santa Magdalena 

Santa Maria 

Santa Rosa 

SIniloan 

Talavera 

Torrijos 

Tudela 

Tumaulnl 

Uson 

Valderrama 

Vlga 

Ynltao 


Sorsogon 

Isabela 

La Laguna 

do 

NuevaEciJa 

Tayabas 


None. 
None. 
None. 
None. 
None 


Pulunduta 


Ambos Oamarlnes.. 

Tayabas 

Ambos Oamarlnaa. 

Cebu 

Nueva Ecu a 

Sorsogon 


None. 


Ragay . 


Cebu 


None. 


Sampaloc 


Isabela 


None. 


San Fernando 


Sorsogon.. -«- 


None. 


San Francisco 

San Jose 


Antique 

Albay . 

M^amls 


None. 
None. 


San Pascual 


None. 



Townships, special provincial government act provinces. 



Municipality. 



Trinidad 

Bagulo 

Coron 

Tublay , 

Naujan ' 

Iligan j 

Parang 

Disdis i 

Itogon ' 

Cotabato ' 

Oayan 

Mamburao _.' 

Matl 

Jolo I 

Malabang '. 

Oalapan. [ 

Atok I 

Cpyo 

Bagnen 

Davao 

SlasI 

Balakbak 

Bulalacao 

Bauco ' 

Penarrubia 

Puerto Prlnceea— 

Cervantes 

Banaao — . 

Mancayan 

Zamboaoga 

Sagada — 

Dapitan 

Besao ^ 

Plnamalayan 1 

Alilem I 

Sablayan i 

Baganga 

Lubang — 

Bagabag -.; 



Province. 



Bengnet 

do 

Palawan 

Benguet 

Mindoro 

Mc.ro 

do _ 

Benguet 

do 

Moro 

Lepanto-Bontoc- - 

Mindoro 

Moro. 

do 

do 

Mindoro 

Benguet 

Palawan- 

Lepanto-Bontoc. . 
Moro. 



Per cent. 



-do. 



Benguet 

Mindoro 

Lepanto-Bontoc.. 

Ilocos Sur 

Palawan 

Lepanto-Bontoc— 

do 

do 

Moro 

Lepanto-Bontoc- . 

Moro 

Lepanto-Bontoc- . 

Mindoro __. 

Lepanto-Bontoc- _ 

Mindoro 

Moro 

Mindoro 

Nueva VIzcaya 



62.08 

rjO.64 

42.99 

39.53 

32.94 

32.54 

30.03 

27.23 

27.02 

23.84 

19.«7 

18.78 

17.35 

17.25 

10.74 

16.61 

13.62 

13.54 

11.81 

11.68 

11.27 

9.39 

9.22 

8.05 

6.19 

5.96 

5.58 

5.33 

5.03 

2.83 

2.79 

2.46 

2.41 

2.30 

2.34 

1.76 

1.74 

.78 

.73 



Municipality. 



Angaqui 

Bambang 

Bayombong 

Solano 

Adaoay 

Ampusungan 

Bacun 

Bokod 

Bontoc 

Bugulas- 

Cabayan 

CagayanciUo 

Caluya — , 

Capangan 

Oaraga 

Oatod 

Ooncepcion 

Daklan 

Danglas 

Dupax 

Kayapa 

Eibungan 

Lagan gllan 

Lagayan 

Langiden '. 

Manabo ', 

Palina 

Quiagan 

Sabangan 

San Emillo '. 

San Gabriel '. 

San Quintin I 

Santol 

Sigay . 

8udlpen__ |. 

Sugpon 

Suyo 

Taytay 

Villavlclosa 



Province. 



Per cent. 



Lepanlo-Bontoc 

Nueva VIzcaya 

do 

do 

Benguet J 

Lepanto-Bontoc- .- ' 

do — 

Benguet 

Lepanto-Bontoc ; 

Benguet... 

do 

Palawan __ 

Mindoro. 

Benguet— 

Moro 

do 

Lepanto-Bontoc. 

Benguet 

Ilocos Sur 

Nueva Vizcaya 

Ilocos Sur 

do 

do 

Benguet 

Nueva Vizcaya.- 
Lepanto-Bontoc. 

ZlldoIIZIIIIIIIIII' 
Ilocos Sur 

Lepanto-Bon toe 

do 

do 

iiiidoiiiiiiiiiir"" 

Palawan 

Ilocos Sur 



0.62 
.48 
.18 
.17 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

Nona 

Nona 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

None. 

Nona 

None. 

None. 

Nona 

None. 

None. 

None. 
None." 



The message of the executive having been read and submitted for the con- 
sideration of the legislature, the presiding officer stated that the joint session 
would be dissolved if there were no objection on the part of any of the members 
of the legislature, in order that both houses might be permitted to resume, sei)a- 
rately, the consideration of public business. 

There being no objection, the joint session was thereupon dissolved, the hour 
being 4 o*clock and 40 minutes post meridian. 

Jambs F. Smith, 
President of the Philippine Commission, 

SEBOIO OSMEJl^A, 

President of the Philippine Assembly. 
Attest: 

Wm. H. Donovan, 

Secretary of the Philippine Commission. 
Julian Gebona, 

Recorder of the Philippifie Assembly, 



246 REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Exhibit N. 
REPORTS OF PROVINCIAL GOVERNORS. 

Report of the Governor of the Province of Albay. 

Office OF the Goyebnob, 

Province of Alb at, 
Albay, P, /., July i, 1907. 

Sib : In compliance with the reqnlrementB of act Xo. 1044, Philippine Commis- 
sion, I have the honor to submit my report for the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1907, as follows : 

The twelve months referred to throughout has been one of undisturbed tran- 
quility, even the usual' misdemeanors, as a rule common to the best-administered 
communities, having been so few in number and importance as to be equal to 
almost nil. 

The credit for this gratifying state of order was not especially due to extraor- 
dinary official supervision and vigilance, but to the resumption of their normal 
status on the part of the Blcols of the province, which is one of peacefulness 
and industry* 

Indeed, while the campaign for assembly m^ is being prosecuted with some 
show of vigor by candidates, of whom there are many, it is neither sensa- 
tional nor dramatic. None of them is radical in his views or intemperate in 
bis utterances. All are conservative, well-poised, and farseeing. Public meet- 
ings and speech making have not been resorted to, the canvass of each pro- 
ceeding quietly and without the least sign of furore. 

The provincial board has always endeavored to secure to the municipalities 
local self-government in fact, and with this object in view has carefully 
avoided anything that might suggest officious interference. It has acted upon 
the theory that the president and councilors must be held, as their selection by 
the voters implies they shall be, responsible for the government of their towns. 
In consequence there is evidence of self-reliance and a real desire to be regarded 
worthy and efficient as reward for the confidence reposed in them. In proof 
of this statement is cited the infrequent necessity to suspend officials upon 
charges of maladministration. 

The municipal officials, for the most part, do very well. They are improving 
all the time, and we who live among them and are charged with the duty of In- 
structing them find them ready, willing, and well-intentioned if not always 
correct, a failing that is somewhat universal, by the way. 

Providence has dealt most kindly with the province in the past year. There 
have been no epidemics, no baguios, no pests, no disasters. The sun has been 
fair, the rains so essential to prosperity plenteous, and the crops abundant, for 
all of which the people are most grateful. But still there is lacking legislation 
by the Philippine Commission to relieve them from paying a |)enalty to Manila 
for the bare privilege of living here in southern Luzon, far removed from a 
friendly port of entry — a penalty wrested from the producer and the consumer 
by sheer and cruel force, wholly un-American and unjust. 

A semlweekly newspaper. El Heraldo Bicol, was established at Legaspl In 
the month of April. It promises to be helpful to the government. Its tone being 
high, its sentiments loyal and lofty, and its aim the development of the province 
in the interest of all who now reside therein and such others as may cast their 
lot in Albay in good faith. 

A battalion of the Twenty-sixth Infantry has relieved a battalion of the 
Ninth Infantry, theretofore stationed at Camp Daraga. While these troops are 
not essential to preserve the peace of the province, their presence is popular 
and the moral effect thereof is not underestimated. When it was proposed, 
three years ago, to abandon this post, natives led In the protest against so 
doing. 

The post enjoys the deserved distinction of being the most delightful in the 
archipelago. Certainly, it is the most healthful. It is sea-breeze swept, nestled 
in the shadow of stately Mayon and provided with excellent sanitary facilities 
and a pure water supply. 

Second district headquarters of the constabulary has been transferred from 
Lucena to Albay, bringing the district director and his staff, and eventually 
there will come two companies additional to the one at Ligao and another at 
Tabaco. Likewise the presence of the officers and the soldiers of the constab- 
ulary is popular with the Filipinos resident here. Officially there is accord 



BEPORTS OF PROVINCIAI, GOVERNORS. 247 

and hearty cooperation among the various branches of the Federal and island 
goTemments represented, to the profit and benefit of both. 

AOBICULTURE. 

The province has not entirely recovered from the setback it received by the 
destructive baguio of September 25, 1905, in which abaca suffered so terribly. 
The crop of the fiber for this calendar year will not be normal — only near so ; 
It will be at least 20 per cent short, the reason being that many plantations 
were stripped of their growing plants as effectually as If they had been cut 
down with Isnives, and the new plants have not matured. Nevertheless, the 
total production for the province should not be less than 400,000 piculs — ^more 
than Cebu exports, annually. 

But it is the low price paid for hemp grown in this province that is causing 
much discontent among planters and general contraction of the circulating 
medium. For three years or thereabout the price paid for Albay hemp has 
average ^20 a picul. At this price the receipts for this ye^r would be at least 
^,000,000. Instead, it has fallen as low as ^3 per picul, although the hemp 
of northern Samar continues to bring from KO to ¥25 per picul. 

There has never. been the least fault to find with the quality of Albay hemp — 
that is, the strength of the fiber. It Is the strongest. The color has been ob- 
jected to ; and when bought almost all of it is classified as " Corriente-mala." 
Then it is carried to Manila, where it is turned over to the exporters, who 
immediately proceed to reclassify it, and manage to extract considerable of 
the higher grades therefrom. 

The producers claim that the exporters gamble in hemp, as they style it; 
that is, they manipulate the market Just as wheat is manipulated in the United 
States. They say that when they furnish very white hemp the exporters call 
for corriente or corriente-mala, and that when they supply them with the latter 
then they shout for muy bianco, declaring there is no ready sale for corriente 
or corriente-mala, all the time bearing the market, whether they demand the 
one class or the other. In other words, the growers believe that they are 
tricked and underbought by the exporters at every turn, and it does look that 
way. They are at their mercy. Their hemp must be sent to a port of entry, 
and this means it must go to Manila. 

A communication to the undersigned as president of the Albay International 
Chamber of Commerce, recently received from an interested person, contains 
information and light on this subject It states that '*the recent deplorable 
drop in the price of the product forming the principal object of industry and 
source of wealth in this province, viz, hemp, to W3 per picul, where it has 
remained some months and still remains — for, though apparently higher, there 
is such a number of classifications that the average price turns out to be n3 — 
leads me to express the wish that the chamber of commerce, as the only repre- 
sentative yet formed in the interests of business, could put forth means to help 
the growers to maintain the true price of hemp in the future and prevent the 
slaughtering of prices. The true price of hemp to-day is undoubtedly some- 
thing like f^ ; that is what growers ought to get for it here." 

Again, the same writer states something which Is worthy of serious consid- 
eration, if the policy of the government be to protect and encourage the pro- 
ducer, in these words : " I feel convinced that recent reports as to the state of 
congestion in the Manila hemp market by extraordinary deliveries from the 
\isayas, and as to a similar state in world markets from the influx of sisal, 
displacing hemp, are the most transparent sorts of misrepresentations. The 
Visayas have been producing — ^Just like Albay — fixed quantities for years; the 
hemp plantations have not been secretly and by collusion enormously extended, 
so as to have suddenly yielded their product in such immense quantities as to 
be able to throw the Albay product on the producers or make them sell It at 
great loss; neither has the long-made threat of raising sisal in other parts of 
the world (or any other fiber) to displace hemp been made good — as I believe 
it never will If we keep on producing half-decent hemp here. It Is of great 
importance to note that some defect or other always appears in whatever 
fiber that It may be proposed to raise to displace hemp; either it is too short 
or it is too weak. This is not said to make hemp growers too secure of the 
hemp market, but only alert ; and, furthermore, the world's demand for hemp — 
greatly in excess of supply, as It Is constantly reported— ought to swallow up 
unnoticed all such increase of yield." 



248 REPORT OF THE PHH^IPPINE COMMISSION. 

The producer can not defend himself against these alleged tricks of the 
exporter; only the government may help and save him; and the government 
may do no more noble service than to institute an inquiry, and, if it be deter- 
mined that hemp growers are being victimized as charged, enact legislation to 
prevent a continuation of the infamy. 

Then the export tax refund to the exporters of hemp to the United States 
is a bill which comes out of the producer's pocket. This is plain to anyone 
who will think but once. All hemp is purchased on the presumption that it 
is for export to Europe. Nor can the i)urchaser be blamed. He can not tell 
when his agent at Legaspl buys a quantity of hemp, for example, whether It 
will be shipped to Ix)ndon or New York, and to make sure he assumes that it 
will go to London. If, instead, it be sent to the United States, he is in and the 
seller is out. 

It would be more equitable and more satisfactory to the hemp grower if a 
straight export tax of 25 centavos a picul were laid upon and collected from 
every picul of hemp carried away from the islands, with no refund for any 
reason whatsoever. The result in that event would be that the producer could 
calculate uix)n what he should receive for his hemp, including the export tax 
deduction, and he would not have to engage in a continuous performance of 
Involuntarily contributing to the enrichment of the exjjorter whose cus- 
tomers happen to be in the United States. 

Hemp cultivation Is the only Industry worthy the name In the Philippine 
Islands, and yet the hemp grower is and since American occupation always has 
been the easy game of the exporter, who has dictated prices to suit his own 
notion of profit, without respect to the law of demand and supply. It does 
appear that the time has come for the government to champion the cause of 
the grower, at least to the extent of learning whether his grievances are real 
or fancied. But this can not be done by conferring alone with the exporter. 

In April, 1906, an effort was made to have the Insular government grant 
authority to this province to pay the freight charges on agricultural machinery 
to be tested In the Albay rice fields. In and about Llbon, but it was denied. 
The Libon farmers had neither implements nor animals, but they did have 
pluck, and they banded together and with such crude implements as they could 
devise they went to work and planted all their fields, laboring cooperatively 
so to do. The crop was the largest in ten years. Polangui and Oas followed 
suit, and they reaped palay sufficient to meet their needs for a year, with some 
to sell. This year a school-teacher, selling disk plows for a Manila house, 
chanced to drop into the province. Before he himself could realize it he had 
sold every plow his principal had In stock, and more that had to be ordered. 

Everywhere throughout the province to-day the fields are under cultivation, 
or, where not, are being planted, and the outlook is for an unheard-of rice crop, 
all of which is significant when there Is taken into account the fact that there 
was brought into the province, sold, and consumed last year 675,000 sacks of 
rice. 

It is an erroneous impression that Albay Is only a hemp province. It grows 
as well as good a quality of rice as any raised elsewhere. While its shipments 
of copra did not exceed 20,000 plculs last year. It was not because there are not 
thousands of cocoanut trees. The truth Is the cocoanuts are brought to the 
markets fresh and sold for domestic use, bringing from 4 to 8 centavos per 
cocoanut. It Is altogether likely that In no other province are cocoanuts in as 
general use for preparing dishes for the table as in Albay, and It Is safe to say 
that nowhere else do cocoanuts retail for as high prices as here. 

Attention Is re8i)ectfully invited to recommendations made In the report for 
the fiscal year ended June 30, 1906, under the subhead "Agriculture," and the 
same are hereby repeated in the hope that it Is not too late for them to receive 
some consideration. 

COMMERCE. 

It is more evident now than it was a year ago, and it was emphatically so 
then, that this province will not be truly prosi)erous until it shall be given a 
l)ort of entry. The proposition has been discussed at length by everybotly who 
could command a hearing, but In all the discussion the point has not been made, 
and no one has attempted to make It, that the province could not support 
a i)ort of entry If one were established therein. There has been some disa- 
greement as to whether the port of entry should be at Tabaco or Legaspl. Those 
persons who view the matter from the bridge of a ship favor Tabaco because it 



REPORTS OF PROVINCIAL GOVERNORS. 249 

has the better, and perhaps safer, anchorage in its bay ; those who intelligently 
see it from the counting room, the hemp late, and a customs office, know without 
doubt that It should be at Legaspi, because the business is there now, and with 
a port of entry there all hemp for export would be brought from Sorsogon, 
Camarines, and Samar, I^egaspi being central and easy of access for these 
provinces; and Sulat Pass and Coal Harbor, either an hour's sail from Legaspi, 
splendid shelter for ships, large and small, aflTord safety from' the most sudden 
and worst storms and, in time, are near at hand. 

In the United States legislation is shaped to jealously foster and promote the 
interests of producers. The denial of a port of entry to Legaspi is a gross dis- 
crimination against the producers of more than one-half of the hemp of the 
Philippines, in the provinces of Albay, Sorsogon, and Camarines and the island 
of Samar, and in behalf of the Manila exporters, who are not Filipinos and only 
a very few of whom are Americans. To an American — one who is familiar with 
the history and traditions of his country — this policy seems to be foreign. 

The recommendations heretofore made with respect to a port of entry for 
liegaspi are renewed and early favorable action respectfully urged, in the name 
of the hemp growers. 

ECONOMICS. 

The conditions described in the report for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1906, 
continue unrelieved, except that there will be a fair hemp crop harvested for 
the present current year; but, as heretofore explained, the price Is so very low 
that the receipts therefrom will be small in comparison to what they should, or 
would, be in a normal season with all things normal. 

The scarcity of real cash for transaction of business continues; shopkeep- 
ers complain of dullness in trade and there are signs of lethargy. 

The recommendations heretofore made on this subject are again referred 
to you. 

FINANCES. 

The indebtedness of the province in the form of loans has been reduced to 
M0,000, the same having been borrowed from the insular government to build 
a second story upon the provincial carcel for provincial offices and court room. 

The land-tax declarations were carefully examined by the board of tax 
revision, and uniform classification and assessment of the lands effected. 
Nevertheless it appeared uiwn sober reflection that in general the assessment 
is too low, when it is considered how bountiful the yield of abaca is and how 
high grade the rice grown in the province is, and how much soil not suited for 
the culture of hemp is exactly adapted for raising an excellent quality of rice, 
and accordingly it was agreed with the central board of equalization that the 
assessment shall be sufficiently increased' with re8i)ect to both kinds of lands to 
insure a fair asses-sed valuation, which will be relatively the market valuation 
in each case. 

Now that the authority has been given, the same having been made optional, 
in my opinion the provincial board will increase the cost of the cedula to 2 
pesos. All other provinces, doubtless, are like Albay ; their incomes are not 
enough to pay salaries and ordinary exi^enses and leave a balance to build 
and keep in repair roads and bridges, without which advancement along any 
proper development lines is most difficult Indeed, if at all likely. 

The 2-i)eso cedula will not be a hardship in this province. Wages are high 
and there is employment In all months of the year for the labor of the province, 
with the prospect that the demand for labor will steadily increase. For my 
own part, I believe in the graduated cedula, which was provided for by the 
Spaniards. I know of no good reason why the governor's muchacho should pay 
as much for his cedula as is charged the governor, or rather why the gov- 
ernor should not pay a great deal more for his — ^just as a graduated income tax 
Is assessed. Nor can I see wherein there is anything un-American in the Idea. 

What we suffer from throughout the Philippines is a lack of revenue, in 
many sections, to make both governmental ends meet. We ought to be able 
to find a way to materially increase receipts, and the taxes should be laid where 
they will be the least felt. There are hundreds of men who should be carrying 
about with them the 35 peso cedula to-day, as not a few of them are receiving 
handsome salaries from the insular and provincial branches of the government. 
Leave the tao off with the peso cedula. That is well and good. Then graduate 
the price higher and still higher according to the hidividuars ability to pay. 



250 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Repeal the law allowing the hemp export-tax refund, when the hemp is for 
delivery in the United States, because, as hereinbefore pointed out, it works a 
fraud against the hemp producer and fills the purse of the exporter at his ex- 
pense, and, instead, place a fixed export of 25 centavos upon each picul of 
hemp exported, whether it go to the United States or to Europe, Just as Great 
Britain leveies an export tax upon all tin sent from Malaya to other countries. 
This tax is gathered into a peninsular fund which supplies a major part of the 
money to support the government. Of course the provinces contributing the 
proposed hemp tax should be the beneficiaries therefrom, in part at least ; all 
of it should not go to the insular government, which has income enough for its 
present needs; and, besides, the time has come to put the provinces in shape 
if it be expected or intended to do anything worth while for the benefit of 
the greatest number. 

The cash balances in the several provincial funds at the close of business 
June 30, 1907, were as follows : 

General fund n6, 590. 82 

General fund, Catanduanes 1,093.60 



Total «7, 684.51 

Road and bridge fund 16.085.73 

Road and bridge fund, Catanduanes 1, 285. 36 



Total 17,371.09 

Tabaco-Ligao road fund _ -_ -- .. - 16,347.33 

School building fund 6,970.82 

Provincial building fund 60.000.00 



Total 83,318.15 



Total balance . 118,373.75 

The total provincial share of collections for the year amounted to W77,737.69, 
and was distributed as follows : 

General fund, including land-tax reimbursement W27,994. 76 

Road and bridge fund, including land-tax reimbursement 48,742.93 



Total 177, 737. 69 

There was expendetl for the puriwses enumerated the following sums : 

Salaries Wl,729.37 

Traveling expenses 7, 735. 31 

Sherirs fees i 287.28 

a^urt fees 6,608.08 

Ofiice supplies 14,868.38 

Postage 2,042.04 

Premiums, surety bonds 2,209.88 

Rentals for buildings 210.00 

Maintenance of prisoners 3,583.13 

Permanent equipment 2, 959. 36 

Alterations, repairs and maintenance of buildings 951.03 

Alteration, re^mir and maintenance of bridges 7,053.20 

Construction and maintenance of roads 20,172.21 

Miscellaneous 18, 875. 61 



Total 139,284.88 

The only provincial bill unpaid Is as follows : 

Court fees dating back to the year 1901 and for some time there- 
after rs. 209. 23 

Arrangements will be made with the auditor to withhold this amount from 
ample refunds due the province. In his custody. 

PUBLIC HEALTH AND SANITATION. 

This office has no official report covering the public health and sanitation of 
the province, since the president of the [irovlnclal board of health was legis- 
lated out of his position a year ago. He was succeeded by a district health of- 



REPORTS OF PROVINCIAL GOVERNORS. 261 

ficer who located at Nueva Gaceres, GamarineB, and bas given but very little of 
his time to Albay. 

Fortunately, as already stated, the province has been visited by no epidemics. 
Malarial fever and calentura are pres^it in some of the municipalities, but in 
mild form. Some cases of malarial fever having appeared at Camp Daraga, the 
surgeons looked into its origin, the camp always having been free of it, and con- 
cluded that it was brought from Lucena by troeps sent there, from Camp 
Daraga to the rifle range for practice and instruction. It spread to civilians in 
the vicinity, carried by mosquitos which examinations previously disclosed 
were not of the malaria variety, but which by subsequent examinations are so 
classed. 

The provincial carcel, as it has periodically ever since American occupation, 
and for years prior thereto, furnished about the usual percentage of beriberi 
cases during the year. 

In a number of towns the water supply is impregnated with deleterious sub- 
stances, from various causes, which produce sickness. The municipalities 
wherein this condition exists, by circular, have been advised to furnish public 
driven wells, for general use, and to encourage residents to provide them for" 
private and family use, but the advice has gone unheeded. 

This was done last year in the capital of the Camarines, Nueva Caceres, and 
the sick rate which was alarmingly high was greatly reduced. 

It is suggested that the board of health through its representative in this dis- 
trict interest itself in inducing municipal officials to realize the importance of 
seeing to it that the drinking-water supply be as free as possible from disease- 
breeding germs, and that in the absence of artesian wells, driven wells are the 
next best. The cost for pump, pipe, and labor for such a well is small — com- 
pared with the good flowing therefrom it is as nothing. The health officer's 
opinion is bound to be of more weight in such a matter than the layman*s, and 
if he has not the power to force compliance with such orders he should be 
given it without delay, as he should in many other things relating to the public 
health and sanitation. His powers should be absolute, without the right of ap- 
peal. 

He should name and fix the salary for municipal health officers, removable 
at his pleasure. He should be permitted to organize municipalities into health 
districts, each district to have a health officer to be appointed by him. Munic- 
ipalities will not take the initiative to do this, because each will have a favorite 
for health officer and will not agree to consolidation imless promised the partic- 
ular person preferred. Municipal health officers should be required to see and 
treat the indigent sick upon the municipal president's request. 

The provincial officials have had burdened upon them much annoyance grow- 
ing out of the refusal of the municipalities of Tabaco and Legaspl to pay the 
salaries fixed by the director of public health to their municipal health officers. 
Only the district health officer has Jurisdiction to compel compliance with the 
law, and he is at Nueva Caceres. 

In the year since the abolition of the office of president of the provincial 
board of health, according to his own figures, the district health officer has 
spent but thirty-nine days in Albay, and this Includes the days employed In 
traveling to and returning from here to the Camarines ; and he was, or will be, 
paid by the province of Albay a salary from January 1, 1907, to June 30, 1907, 
in the sum of ^1,040, or at the rate of about KO a day for the thirty-nine days 
given the province by him. It would be cheaper to hire a physician when 
needed. There have been no inspections of towns — ^no assistance, no counsel; 
practically nothing. It is not meant lo censure the incumbent, as he acts under 
orders from Manila, goes when told to go, and remains at his headquarters 
when not ordered away. It Is the system which invites attack; and without 
hesitation there Is voiced herein the belief of the provincial board and people 
generally that the experience of this province is that the district health officer 
is a failure and a costly one at that. That this province Is entitled, because of 
its importance and its geographical arrangement — Its mainland and Its cluster 
of islands, most of which are difficult to reach and yet which should be fre- 
quently visited — to have a provincial health officer, one assigned solely to 
Albay, by whatever name it may please the law to call him, there can be no 
reasonable doubt. 

POLITICAL CONDITIONS. 

The municipal elections in December lacked the animation of that of the 
former year, which was natural, because presidents were not to be elected and 



252 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

the conncllmen to be chosen would have no membership In an electoral college 
for the choosing of a governor. None of the elections was annulled. There 
were few feeble protests, but these were filed more out of a wish that they 
might be than a conviction that the elections should be set aside. 

The law requiring an officeholder to resign his office to be a candidate for 
another office is without precedent in the United States and seems new and 
strange to Americans, whiles Filipinos regard it as a punishment for entertain- 
ing an ambition to hold another office. 

To the provincial board the effect of the law would be nmusing If it placed 
less resi)onsii)ility upon the membera in the naming of successors to fill va- 
cancies, and provoked many less communications asking for constructions of 
the law ; as, for example, whether a deputy sheriff or notary public or lieuten- 
ant of barrio must resign to be eligible to election to a seat in a municipal 
council. 

Something like 25 such resignations already have been received, and election 
day is more than four months distant. 

The three assembly districts have had presented to their voters, the candi- 
datures of a goodly number of gentlemen, all well known for their conserva- 
tism and stability, so that the province in any event may rely upon being sin- 
cerely rei)resented in its manifold interests. 

The new election law gave rise to a multiple of questions from the munlci- 
imlities, which, when very important and involving the spirit of the law, were 
promptly resubmitted to the executive bureau, Manila. 

PUBLIC nUILDINOS. 

Plans and specifications for a second st(»ry to be erected upon the present 
provincial carcel, to be used for the accommodation of provincial offices, a 
court room, court offices, and offices for representatives of the insular govern- 
ment in the persons of the district engineer, the district auditor, the superinten- 
dent of schools, and any others who may be stationed here, were adopted long 
ago, but work has not been commenced. 

The original appropriation and loan to undertake the said improvement was 
P35,000, which was not half enough. The insular government increased the 
loan to f»fJO,000, but this was not sufficient. Accordingly, it was decided to de- 
posit the total amount of the appropriation in banks, to draw Interest, until the 
earnings should bring up the total to approximaetly M5,000. The excess be- 
yond ^)5,()00, necessiiry to complete the building in accordance with the plans 
and specifications, will be appropriated by the provincial board from the pro- 
vincial funds. 

The large and beautiful site — Casa Real, 60 ares — covering an entire block, 
flanking ttie i)rovincial plaza at Albay, was ceded to the insular government by 
the provincial government, on which to erect a building to be used as district 
constabulary headquarters. The design of the building to be erected is attrac- 
tive and Imposing, and the cost to build the same will be approximately 
^)2,()00. The work on the provincial building and the constabulary building, 
it is intende<i to begin at the same time, and by the 1st of next March both 
should be occupied. 

The RKTetary of etlucation has been solicited to favor an appropriation of 
M0,000 from the school building fund, set aside for his apportionment among 
the i)rovinces, to construct a two-story building on the old administration-build- 
ing site, also facing the provincial plaza on the side opiwslte the old Casa Real 
site, the building to l)e used as a trades school on the first floor and as a boys' 
dormitory on the second. This building is badly needed, and the high school is 
inadecpiate to furnish space for the purpose. Besides, if the old administration- 
building site shall be utilized for such a building, the Spanish plan, by which 
at either end and on either side of the provincial plaza there was a building, all 
forming a harmonious whole, will be renewed and the character and class of the 
edifices Improved. 

PUBLIC WORKS. 

No new road or bridge work to speak of has been done since July 1, 1906. 
The building of a road from VIrac to Bato, island of Catanduanes, was started, 
but it was stoi)peil because the foreman in charge could not get labor to do the 
work. 

The road from I^egaspi to Llbon, a distance of 30 miles, and the Gogon road, 
Daraga to Legaspl, 3 miles, have been kept in good repair. 



REPORTS OF PROVINCIAL GOVERNORS. 



253 



The bridges from Legaspi to Libon, many of them of heavy masonry, con- 
structed by the Spaniards fifty, sixty, and seventy years ago, have been put In 
as good repair perhaps as they had been at any time since they were finished, 
concrete being used with which to do the worlt. Forty-four bridges and culverts 
In all were repaired In the province. 

This road, from Legaspi to Libon, doubtless is the best stretch of road in the 
Pbilippine Islands. The bridge over the Banao River, a splendid Spanish struc- 
ture, was washed out by a flood some years ago, leaving a missing link in this 
incomparable highway, which It Is expected will be supplied before the close of 
the present calendar year. It Is the intention to place in its stead a reenforced 
concrete bridge of one span and no center pier, to cost about ?=30,000. Then a 
toll Is to be fixed for vehicles, with the expectation that the receipts for five 
years will be equal to the original cost of the bridge, and thus leave It- to the 
province free of cost. 

There is still hope that a road from Legaspi to Tabaco may be constructed, 
following the route of the one maintained in the days of the old regime. Then 
work on the Vlrac-Bato road. If at all practicable, will be resumed, and it is in 
mind to build a road from Pandan to Caramoran, Island of Catanduanes. 

The total cost of the maintenance of each road for the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1907, and the cost per mile per year Is seen In the subjoined table ; 



July 

AufUflt 

September- 
October 

November.. 
December — 
January — 
February- 
March 

Aprfl-_i 

May 

June 



Total 

Cost per mile per year.. 



Legaspf- 


Qogon 


Bridge re- 
pair. 


Tabaco-TiwI 


Llbon road 


road (3 


road (8 


(28 miles). 


miles) . 
f»118.84 


miles). 


n,861.(M 


X 37.50 


f»192..50 


816.79 


59.67 


100.50 


168.00 


311.75 


54.99 


663.61 


181.73 


790. 1» 


60.00 


411.91 


190.50 


788.7(5 


57.00 


236. U 


190.50 


800.22 


60.00 


3n.32 


192.50 


091.50 


60.00 


526.68 


161.03 


831.60 


146.50 


478.55 


172.50 


876.65 


60.00 




171.83 


927. 8J 


50.33 


728.03 


185.15 


975.57 


60.00 


753.41 


192.60 


906.49 


60.00 


180.65 


190.60 


10,571.30 


85'>.33 


4.488.30 


2,189.24 


378.00 


2»5.0O 




271.00 



I am wire It was a mistake to abolish the office of provincial supervisor and 
substitute therefor the office of district engineer. I did not think it was when 
the provincial governors were in session in Manila and the almost unanimous 
sentiment was arrayed against the change. 

Few provinces do more work than Albay on public roads. Here the work 
can not be neglected even for a moment ; it must be kept up throughout the year ; 
especially must the Legaspi-Libon and the Tabaco-Tiwl roads be maintained In 
good repair. It is regretted that the latter is not in as good condition as it 
should be and that no new road building has been planned. This is nobody's 
fault: It is due to the reorganization of the engineer corps, the placing of an 
engineer in charge of the public works in the provinces of Albay. Sorsogon, and 
Camarlnes, instead of in one of these provinces — for example: the attempt to 
have him serve three masters, a task much more difficult of performance than to 
serve two, which latter in all ages has not been a celebrated success. 

I venture the assertion that no one of the three provinces In this district is 
content with the change. There is naught against the individual. Tender the 
circumstances, a prince of his profession could not please. District engineers 
are not wanted by the public any more than by the officials for the reasons 
cited. I^t me illustrate. The provincial board on February 14 asked for an 
estimate of the probable cost of a bridge over the Banao River between Ligao 
and Gulnobatan, and up to this date none has been received. Since about the 
same time a rei>ort on a scheme to restore the street canal system for running 
water in the capital, Albay, has been awaited and not^ without murmuring on 
the part of the members of the provincial board and the president and council 
of Albay. 

Returning In February from an inspection of the upcountry towns — nine of 
them all told — I requested through the provincial board estimates touching 
proposed Improvements by these municipalities and other information, but none 
is forthcoming. The municipal officials very naturally suspect that I gave no 



254 REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

concern to these matters. The Tabaco-Tlwi road needs to be carefully Inspected 
and placed in good repair before the rainy season shall set in, but it is incon- 
venient to reach Tabaco. 

The district engineer is kept constantly on the go. When he is in one province 
each of the others has something for him to do there — something which provin- 
cial officials imagine he should drop all else to look after. This is human nature, 
and if he be absent in each of or in the two other provinces a month, six weeks, 
or two months and then return to Albay, he has to learn Albay anew. Ck)nceive 
of three counties in the State of (Jhlo or the State of Virginia with one county 
surveyor and how long the scheme would be tolerated by taxpayers. True, an 
American legislative body would not consider such a thing. 

I have visited several provinces in the past year, talked with a great many 
provincial officials, and do not recall one who thought well of the change. There 
are provinces, many of them, which do not require the services of an engineer — 
a road foreman or builder ^ill answer In lieu — ^whereas the provinces that do 
need to have the services of civil engineers want to have them available every 
day in the year. And, moreover, the provinces should be permitted to select 
the engineer to be assigned to them. An eligible list might be kept at Manila; 
but no province should have put upon it a man not desired — a man unsuited for 
the particular class of work to be done in that province. While it is unwittingly 
done, I doubt not, still it often occurs that when an American becomes us^ul 
lo a province and is liked by the people, who prefer to have him remain among 
them, he is transferred to some other province, where in instances I have 
known he was less useful and not at all popular. The question often has been 
asked me in this province why this or that appointee was sent away, when 
everybody wished to have him stay, and I know of no man who thus has gone 
away from Albay who has not longed to be back. I never go about the prov- 
ince that I do not have frequent inquiries about the health and welfare of such 
persons from Filipinos. The insular authorities should be glad to keep the 
Americans identified with the government In the provinces in which they have 
proved their usefulness and won the confidence and respect of the natives, and 
when it is the wish of the latter that they shall continue In their positions and 
not be sent away. If higher salaries have been earned, allow them without the 
necessity of transfer. They should never be driven out because of pique toward 
them on the part of other Americans. 

NATURAL RESOURCES. 

The natural resources of the province arc no longer secrets, but have fre- 
quently been the topic of report's and of articles In periodicals, so that it is 
unnecessary to mention them at length. 

The coal deposits of the Island of Batan, however, have come into no little 
prominence only recwitly, and it would be remiss not to advert to the subject. 
Coal is being mined in Batan and ships are being coaled therefrom. A mine 
on the coast owned and operated by private parties Is producing, it is reliably 
reported, 70 tons per day and merchantmen, coast-guard cutters, and other 
craft to the number of 22 are buying the coal they consume from this mine, 
which Is giving satisfaction. 

I'P to the present time coal mined in Batan is of the surface variety, but as 
the tunneling progresses beyond, the quality becomes better, and ere long it 
should be, as tests heretofore made determine it to be, the equal, if not the supe- 
rior, of Australian and Japanese coals. 

In some respects It Is unlike any other bituminous coal, if it may be thus 
classified. It reduces to a fine white ash under heat, forms no clinkers, and 
vapor rather than smoke escapes from Its combustion. It has to be* used dif- 
ferently from any other coal and should be banked in the furnace and kept 
banked ; under no circumstances should it be stoked. The furnace, furthermore, 
should be provided with fine grate bars close together. 

Its cleanliness, cheapness, and tremendous heating capacity commend It to 
mariners especially, and In time it is confidently thought bunkers will require 
no more space for a supply of Batan coal for a voyage of any particular 
number of days than is now required for Australian coal, the difference at 
present being about 20 or 25 per cent against Batan coal, which difference is 
more than made up In the low cost of Batan coal, the same being furnished on 
board ship at ?^J>0 per ton. Compared with Japanese coal, 10 per cent less 
in bulk is required for steaming any given number of days, the strongest imag- 
inable argument why there should be no delay in making arrangements to coal 



REPORTS OF PROVINCIAL GOVERNORS. 256 

transports from the Batan mines when the military branch of the Government 
shall be ready to do so from its reservation, and meantime from existing mines 
If their output be sufficient. 

The military branch of the Government, on or about the first of the year, paid 
the purchase price of W00,000 for certain lands in Batan bought by it from two 
residents of Albay, and Congress declared it to be a reservation. Congress neg- 
lected, nevertheless, to make an appropriation to mine and develop its coal 
interests, and only lately has the division commander managed to secure per- 
mission to explore this possession. No doubt the rumors of probable war with 
Japan impressed officials at Washington with the grave risk taken over here in 
not having a huge coal pile in the sole control of the United States Government. 

The Island of Batan is reached by the way of San Bernardino Strait or by 
Rapu-Rapu Strait. The Coast and Geodetic Survey discovered and has indicated 
on charts a narrow but very deep channel through each to Legaspi, passing 
the island of Batan. Both of these straits are vast networks of reefs, and be- 
fore the present channels were discovered and indicated on the maps it was 
difficult and even dangerous to enter either. In case of war these self-same 
reefs might be turned into natural defenses, and with the aid of artificial de- 
fenses and explosives entrance through either one of these straits could be easily 
and completely blocked, and that, too, without the expenditure of either much 
time or labor. 

Batan Is but 18 miles distant from the course traveled by the transports be- 
tween Manila and San Francisco. Once the Government has its mines in opera- 
tion, no trouble will be experienced in coaling transiwrts in one of the harbors 
of the Island of Batan instead of at Nagasaki. Moreover, the two days lost in 
going to Nagasaki for coal will be recovered and the Journey between the 
islands and the United States reduced to a like extent. 

Batan has a number of very good ports. Coal Harbor is the best because the 
largest, and it can afford anchorage for several of the deepesjt seagoing ships at 
the same time. Coal Harbor, which was lately discovered and chartered by the 
Coast and Geodetic Survey, abuts the military reservation. There are also 
some smaller deep-water harbors well protected against both monsoons. 

As the outlook is for the development of Batan coal into an iudustry of con- 
siderable magnitude, it should be accorded the hearty en(?t)uragement of the 
civil branch of the Government and should not suffer from indifference. The 
coal-claim law should be amended so that the outlay of a large amount of 
money by individuals or companies to perfect a claim would not be necessary. 
A claim in the island of Batan contains 64 hectares. To secure a patent the 
charge is W,400 or M,200, depending upon the distance the director of public 
lands may hold Legaspi, the nearest port is from the claim sought to be per- 
fected. In either case the cost is too high to Induce persons to explore and 
develop. There are outcropplngs throughout the island, It Is true, but the best 
stratum of the coal Is far below the surface, necessitating shafting, with Invest- 
ment in costly machinery ; and not every hole sunk will locate veins that will 
prove facile and profitable. 

The Government through Its branches expends a great deal of money annually 
for coal, and all of this money is sent out of tbe country. If it shall be kept 
here it will constitute no small contribution to the era of prosperity so long 
promised and so patiently waited for by Filipinos and Americans alike. 

STATE OF ORDER. 

The excellent state of good order already has been elaborated upon herein 
and there Is no occasion for further eraphaslsfilng the condition beyond citing 
the criminal record for the year as Indicated by the court calendar. 

There were instituted 81 prosecutions and 11 prisoners were given Blllbld 
sentences, the highest being three years, excepting in one case of homicide, the 
culprit receiving twelve years. 

There were 20 persons convicted of misdemeanors and sentenced to short 
terms in the provincial jail or to pay small fines. 

There were 26 acquittals and dismissals, 22 cases remaining yet to be tried. 

FUSION. 

The nine towns of the island of Catanduanes were consolidated into five. -As 
was anticipated, the people of the towns which were absorbed by the one which 
carried the name of the new municipality were somewhat displeased. Because 



256 . REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

of their affection for the town of their birth and the liome of their fathers, 
naturally they held some resentment; but they are becoming reconciled and the 
assertion is risked that in course of time they will be heartily conformable to 
the new condition because of the ability of the present municipalities as now 
organized to pay salaries and accounts when due. 

The provincial treasurer rei)orts that the new towns are self-supporting, with 
balances on hand to make improvements, the only embarrassment they suffer 
from being the indebtedness inherited from the old towns, which were not self- 
supporting, some of them not paying salaries for ns long a period as two yearfi. 

The fusion of the towns of Legaspi, Albay, and Daraga is again urgently 
recommended. As indicated in previous reports made by this office and Treas- 
ury Examiner Dean, these towns form one continuous and uninterrupted settle- 
ment from the Gulf of Albay to and into the heart of Daraga, a distance of 
not more than 3 miles. The stranger passing from one of these towns to the 
other and thence to the third is unable to make out where the limits of any 
one ends and the other begins. 

The population and buildings are more dense than In Hollo and the barrios 
of Jaro and Molo. This proi)osed fusion would give to the province a city of 
the first class, with a population of 41,950 according to the census, but more 
nearly 50,000 in fact, and the consolidated towns should carry the historic 
name Legaspi, as has been recommended heretofore. 

Furthermore, the consolidated towns to be kaown as I^egaspi would be self- 
supporting, with a comfortable balance for improvements. Now fjegaspl is 
far behind In the payment of salaries; the ix)lice have not received their sal- 
aries for two months; Albay is always struggling, . its receipts barely paying 
salaries, with not funds available for the I'epalr of roads or buildings. The 
reconstruction of the presldencla was begun but had to be abandoned on this 
account. Daraga, once the chief commercial town of the three municipalities, 
is a victim of n»trogression. Before the Insurrection it had the distinction 
of being the most beautiful pueblo In the Philippines, but Its palatial man- 
sions and attractive shop buildings were destroyed, and since that time no 
effort, public or private, has been made to restore its beauty or its commercial 
activity. It must be rejuvenated, and to become a part of a first-class city will 
tend to assist it in doing so. 

Men of capacity, progressive men, men who are for upbuilding will not be 
candidates for the offices in these towns under existing conditions. There is no 
inducement. There is no hope to do anything for the public good or to make 
for development. With the towns consolidated into one it would be different. 
The kind of men who make communities pros|)erous and great would stand for 
and be elected to office, and soon I^egaspl would take rank with Cebu, Hollo, and 
Zamboanga. Fusion must be a good thing for all concerned in it or in the 
I'nited States we would not have a greater New York, a greater Chicago, and 
a greater Pittsburg. There can be no valid objection to fusion by even the 
imliticians. When the governor was elected by a college of officials — the vice- 
presidents and councilors — the politician did not relish the proiwsltlon for 
fusion. But under the new law the governor is chosen by popular vote and 
fusion would not affect the result in any wise. Then at this time the presidents 
of I>araga and Albay, each having served two terms, are not eligible for reelec- 
tion, and it is not probable that the president of Legaspi cares to contest for 
another two years of strenuous officeholdlng. 

I know of no serious objection to fusion. I have been told If there were 
fusion and the municipal buildings were placed at Albay the distance from 
Legaspi to go to pay taxes would work inconvenience and expense to taxpay- 
ers. This objection falls of Its own weight. From the presidencia Legaspi to 
the presidencia Albay Is not to exceed a mile and a half. People come from a 
much longer distance In Manila to pay taxes and think nothing of It. In the 
Ignited States a person no farther distant from the city hall In a first-class city 
would speak of living " downtown.'* But this objection Is easily overcome. The 
municipal treasurer could and would send a clerk every now and then for a 
definite number of days to Daraga and legaspi for the sale of cedulas and the 
collection of other taxea The provincial treasurer has said that, in case of 
consolidation, he would approve of It, so that objection Is removed. 

I know of no other real or fancied objet^tion. Considerable adjacent territory 
of both Daraga and Legaspi Is nearer the presidencia at Albay than It Is to the 
I)resldencla of Daraga or Legaspi. It seems opportune to make the order for 
fusion at this time, when nobody and no interest can be hurt thereby. 



BEPOBTS OF PROVINCIAL GOVEBNOBS. 267 

PUBLIC INSTBUCTIOW. 

The importance of public instruction coming next after property, life security, 
and health protection is keenly appreciated by all classes of our residents, and 
the public schools are met with little, if any, opposition from any element. 

The problem here is how to get the greatest number of children of school 
age into the schools. This means into the primary schools — ^into the little red 
schoolhouses, as we are wont to say at home. Poverty, indifference or ignorance 
of parents, long distances to walk, and customary uses to which child labor is 
put contribute to keep no small percentage of children of school age away from 
the schools. 

No set of persons can do more to assist in having these children sent to school 
than the municipal officials, including the members of the municipal councils. 
This Is obvious, and there is evidence of the fact in the towns where this aid 
is cheerfully rendered in contrast with the towns where the officials lend no 
encouragement whatever. 

The enrollment for the year was 10342 ; but all these did not attend through- 
out the year. When the schools were resumed, after the long vacation, the en- 
rollment was only 6,877. The superintendent of schools states " in these sta- 
tistics may be found one of the difficulties of the school work ; that is, the irreg- 
ular attendance of children in the first and second grades.*' After pupils have 
been at school for a couple of years, he says, the difficulty does not longer exist, 
a t&ct established by the reports of attendance, which always show a very high 
percentage, almost 100, in the third and higher grades. The average attendance 
for the month immediately preceding the long vacation was but 4,834, a little 
more than one-third of what the average attendance upon the public schools 
should be, to wit, 13,350 children, according to the rule of one-eighteenth of the 
total population of 240,326, the figures of the official census. 

There are maily private schools, so called, where the alphabet, reading, and 
the catechism are taught. These are generously distributed in the province and 
attract not a few children. They are denominational, and this may be assigned 
as the reason. 

The province has a paucity of public school buildings, something not to its 
credit, but which can not well be overcome because municipal effort and rev- 
enues must be relied upon to supply them. There are 23 municipalities in the 
province ; there are but 9 of these provided" with municipal schoolhouses owned 
by the public. Besides more than half the barrio schools occupy rented houses 
or dwellings let gratuitously. 

Industrial instruction has been begun and has been attended with consider- 
able progress Glasses in agriculture and carpentry are taught. The carpentry 
class in the year just closed made and sold to the municipality of Albay 35 school 
desks of the Kirtland pattern, besides 50 of the same kind of desks for the pro- 
vincial school. In addition there were made numerous cupboards, lockers, tables, 
and carpenter's benches. Work in bamboo also was done and a number of light, 
strong, and serviceable tables were made and sold. Instruction was given in 
agriculture, but it was interfered with by rains and winds, and tillable ground 
was difficult to acquire. 

In the I^gaspi central school the larger boys, together with the teachers, made 
90 school desks at considerable less cost than they could have been bought in 
the market. Most of the schools in the provinces did gardening, and some did 
very well. 

Handiwork, such as the making of rulers, baskets, articles of bamboo, minia- 
ture agricultural implements, and articles of furniture on the part of the boys, 
and plain sewing, embroidery, and the making of fancy articles by the girls, 
according to the superintendent, was carried on in most of the schools. These 
articles were collected and placed on exhibition in Albay during June when the 
normal institute was in session. Prizes were awarded to 16 pupils and a num- 
ber of the articles were sold to visitors. During the institute the entire body 
of municipal teachers received instruction every afternoon along industrial lines 
in order to prepare them as well as might be done to teach systematically the 
handiwork and industries prescribed by the new course of study. The interest 
of the teachers was most gratifying, and augurs well for the success of the work 
the present year. There were classes of carpentry, bamboo work (the making 
of chairs and tables), hat making, basket weaving, two classes of gardening, a 
class in plain sewing, and instruction in clay modeling, paper pulp map making, 
and several different kinds of busy work useful with the small children. Three 

11024r— WAB 1907— VOL 7 17 



258 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

native artisans were employed by the province to aid in teaching hat and basket 
weaving and bamboo furniture making. 

The superintendent further says that most of the municipalities in the prov- 
ince have ordered gardening tools and materials for sewing for the schools, and 
a number are also buying carpentry tools ; and the only lack in the prosecution 
of industrial work is that of trained teachers. However, this need will gradually 
be supplied and it will not be long until the wholesome effect of this very prac- 
tical and useful instruction will be felt throughout the province. 

The greatest need in the way of equipment is a school of arts and crafts at 
Albay in connection with the high school, where young men can be taught and 
trained as artisans and teachers. The provincial board has by resolution called 
the attention of the Philippine Commission to this need, and has requested as- 
sistance in the building of a combined trade school and dormitory for Ijoys, here- 
tofore mentioned. 

It is with no little satisfaction that the good feeling existing between the 
superintendent of schools and the teachers under him is referred to because 
anteriorly this province suffered from an absence of harmony and reciprocal 
kindly relations In this respect. It Is a pleasure to meet and converse with 
the teachers of the province. As a whole, they are exceptionally capable, and 
not being under unusual restraint, they are free to take the initiative and exer- 
cise their own judgment when required. They get among the Filipinos and In 
many w-ays outside the schoolroom make themselves valuable to the community 
in which they abide in the promotion of the general well-being thereof. 

HOT SPBINGS OF TIWI. 

The hot springs of Tiwi were celebrated among the Spaniards as well as the 
natives for the curative property of their waters, and on the occasion of the 
recurring festival of Santa Salvaclon, the 10th of August, thousands of i)er- 
gons, old and young, decrepit, deformed, diseased — the maimed, the halt, the 
blind — make pllgrlpaages In quest of relief from their sufferings and restora- 
tion to sound limbs and bodies and the sense to see. And they go away, many 
of them. In the belief that they have been healed or benefited. 

That the water contains medical virtues has been clearly evidenced in the 
treatment of many cases since American occupation. The army surgeons sta- 
tioned in southern Luzon knew of the remedial qualities of these hot springs, 
and soldiers suffering from blood disorders before the same became chronic 
frequently were sent to Tiwi. From the baths taken there they returned 
seemingly In good health. 

The springs cover a half mile square at least. They are many. One in imr- 
tlcular Is wide, long, and deep and the water so clear that the bottom is plainly 
seen from the top, while the temperature is intensely high. 

A pool for bathing, covered by a rude shed, provides the means therefor. 
Two streams i)aralleling one another lead to this pool. They have their origin 
In Mount Mayon. The water of one Is very hot; that of the other very cold. 
Gates are arranged in each so that they may be raised or lowered to admit 
the water in such volume from each stream as to furnish the bather with a 
temperature to suit him. Then* all about columns of vapor here and there may 
be seen, rising to a height of 20 to 25 feet. 

It Is quite common to boll eggs and corn In the water In a few minutes. 

There are no such other springs in the Islands anywhere. That bathing in 
the water will cure rheumatism Is certain. It Is said It will cure paralysis and 
some of the most terrible of the diseases of the blood. 

There is no analysis of the water on file in Manila, but there should be. It 
is believed from what has been seen and hoard with regard to the springs 
and from what army surgeons who have visited them think and state that it 
will repay the trouble and expense which the Government would incur to send 
a chemist here to report upon the same. 
A'ery respectfully. 

Oil AS. A. Reynolds, 
Qovernor of the Province of Albay. 

The ExEcuTivK Secretary, 

Manila, 1\ I, 



BEPORTS OF PROVINCIAL GOVERNORS. 259 

Report of the Pbovincial Govebnob of Ambos Camabines. 

[Translation] 

Office of the Govebnob, 
Pbovince of Ambos Camabines, 

Nueva CAceres, July IS, 1907. 

Sib : In accordance with law, I have the honor to forward the annual rei)ort 
for the fiscal year 1007 of the most important events which have occurred In 
the government and administration of this province. 

Before entering upon the report proper I have the honor to state that all the 
municipalities of this province are enjoying the most complete i>eace and tran- 
quillity and at no time have there been disturbances by brigands or ladrones. 

I consider public tranquillity one of the most essential conditions for the de- 
velopment and prosperity of the municipalities, for It is notorious that in 
places where public order is disturbed agriculture, industry, and commerce suf- 
fer paralyzatlon and can not develop as they should, and It is therefore the 
cause of Immense losses and disturbances to the economic life of the munici- 
palities, the consequences of which are reflected in the various manifestations 
of life. This is the cause of the great crises that are wont to travei'se our 
municipalities and from which the Philippines are now suffering. 

Although in that part of the province- which borders on Tayabas Province, 
as in the municipalities of Capalonga, Mambulao, Paracale, and Ragay, certain 
public disorders have occurred owing to the presence of the brigand chiefs 
Caba^'o and Avlla; nevertheless they are not of Importance, since the former 
was killed by the constabulary in a hut in one of the barrios of the municipality 
of Capalonga. His capture was due to secret information which I had, as a 
result of which the president of Capalonga, accompanied by a number of 
constabulary, repaired to said place. With respect to Avlla, I expect that he 
will soon be taken, alive or dead, for the constabulary are pursuing him. 

As to the general condition of the province there is very little change from 
what I stated in my report of last year. This is due to the precarious condi- 
tion resulting from the same cause, namely, the scarcity of carabaos for farm- 
ing, and which I consider essential for even the partial restoration of the 
province, since without them It would be difficult If not Impossible to restore 
it to the original condition in which it was before these animals were decimated 
by the terrible rinderpest. 

AGBICULTUBE. 

Agriculture continues in the same condition as stated in my last report, and 
it may be said that it is now even worse off, due to causes which I will 
enumerate. 

The inhabitants of the province can not be blamed for the present conditions, 
for the fact that they have not secured the fruits of their labors Is due to causes 
entirely foreign to their intents and desires. Nearly all the farmers who had 
the m^ans planted rice more or less extensively, according to their means ; some 
with their own carabaos and others by borrowing money. This was the case 
in the rlce-growlng municipalities, which constitute the larger part of this prov- 
ince, and whose principal product is rice* Yet, since the American occupation, 
and owing to the high price of abaca and the death of carabaos, many 
have engaged In planting abaca ; and it may be said without exaggeration that, 
though formerly only a small part of the lands of this province were planted 
to abaca, It has now doubled, so that the production of abaca constitutes at 
the present time the principal article of exr)ort, and has kept the Inhabitants 
from hunger, which they would have suffered were it not for this plant. As 
I have stated, a large extent of rice lands was planted owing to the efforts 
which the farmers and landowners made, and one-third of the rice lands 
of the province was planted, according to a conservative estimate. The crop 
was favored by the weather, for there was no scarcity of rain, which, though 
not so abundant as was hoi)ed for, was nevertheless sufficient. Hence rice had 
an extraordinary growth, as it was the first crop In four years, due to the death 
of carabaos, and, moveover, according to old residents, to the fact that 
the land was Idle for four ^tars; In short, because everything was very favor- 
able to the farmer and a relatively abundant crop was anticipated. I foresaw 
this myself on my official inspection of the municipalities. When the time for 
heading arrived all was promising, so a good crop was expected and the farm- 
ers were overjoyed ; but their rejoicing was shortlived, for when the harvest time 



260 BBPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION, 

arrived and the farmers had but a little while to wait to gather the fruits of 
their labor a new calamity appeared (as if those we had suffered were not 
sufficient) in the form of rats and night insects. It is pitiful when large tracts 
of lands are planted to rice and matured and in condition to harvest to see the 
crops vanish in a night as if by enchantment. Many may doubt this, but it Is 
true, for it is the unanimous statement of all the farmers, and personally I 
have not the least doubt in the matter, since I am one of the sufferers. This is 
the reason why I consider the present condition of the province more critical 
than that of the previous fiscal year; the farmers have suffered another loss, 
and those whose farms were mortgaged have suffered an additional burden, 
instead of having their sad condition alleviated. 

However, in spite of all these calamities and misfortunes, the farmers have 
never lost hope, and this year, to my knowledge, they are again planting rice, 
hoping that they will be recompensed this time for their labors. It gives me 
the greatest pleasure to note this constancy. I continually encourage the farmers 
to be preservering ; and I have told the municipal presidents and councils to 
do likewise. 

One of the causes of the paralyzation of agriculture is the excessive mortality 
of animals, not only carabaos, but also other cattle and horses, and which still 
continues. Live stock was one of the sources of wealth of this province, so 
much so that other provinces were supplied by it with all kinds of domestic 
animals, but unfortunately we now have to get our supply of animals from 
other provinces and, moreover, without the assurance that they are free from 
rinderpest. Some farmers, wishing to plant their rice lands, bought 10 or 20 
carabaos; but after a relatively short time they died, the victims of diseases 
the origin of which is unknown so far. 

Taking into account the high price of carabaos at this time, ranging from 
^120 to nso per head, the great losses caused will be seen. And apart from 
this crisis there are other sufficiently weighty affairs to dishearten the most 
courageous. 

In my last report I stated that the production of abaca had diminished con- 
siderably during the fiscal year 1905-6 in consequence of the heavy tempest 
which devastated this province in the month of September, 1905, and the 
drought, so that it may be asserted that the production had dropped off about 
one-half; but I am pleased to state that during the last six months of the past 
year all the abaca plantations began to recover, so that the production has 
increased about 30 to 35 per cent during the present year, and I feel certahi 
that by the end of the year it will have resumed its normal condition. 

COMMEBCE. 

Commerce in the province has also been in a critical condition, as if other 
calamities which this country has suffered were not sufficient. 

As I had occasion to state in my report of last year, abaca is the principal 
article of export from this province; it is the product which in the main has 
sustained the inhabitants; in other words, were it not for this article famine 
would have been the inevitable result, for in spite of the fact that a little rice 
has been harvested, the price of rice is still almost as high as formerly. 

Commerce has continued in the same condition, with the exception of small 
changes in the prices of articles which are the object of trade in this province, 
such as abaca, rice, and copra, and other articles of secondary importance, not 
necessary here to mention. 

However, about a month ago the price of abaca in this locality began to fall 
at an alarming rate, and in an extraordinary and unaccustomed manner, as a 
result of which there was a fall of W per picul. This decrease will undoubtedly 
affect everybody, some directly and others indirectly, and carry with It as a 
certain consequence the raising of prices of almost everything, and especially 
of rice. 

FOBESTBT. 

The province is very rich in forest products. It has all kinds of timber 
known in this country; but it is very difficult to cut and secure, first, because 
of the want of draft animals (carabaos), and, secondly, because the valuable 
timber is found in the interior of the forests and Is difficult to take out. 

Other information concerning this subject I have already had occasion to set 
forth in my last report, and I refrain from mentioning it at this time, as there 
has been no change. 

As to the mineral resources of this province the same remark applies. 



BBPOBTS OF PROVINCIAL GOVERNOBS. 261 

FUBLIC HEALTH AND SANITATION. 

In general the condition of public health is satisfactory, with the exception 
of a few cases of smallpox and traces of cholera of but little importance. 

The following is furnished by the sanitary authorities of this province : 

" From July 1, 1906, 80 deaths from smallpox were reported during the first 
three quarters of the fiscal year — ^first quarter, before my arrival in the prov- 
ince, 45 deaths ; second quarter, 28 ; and third, 7. No cases have been reported 
during the fourth quarter. The majority of these cases occurred in munici- 
palities from San Fernando to Libmanan, and were due to neglect of proper 
vaccination in previous years, vaccinations having been made, but with virus 
which had not received the proper care. September 28, 1906, a systematic 
vaccination of that part of the province known as Camarines Sur was begun at 
Ragay, a group of 23 vaccinators being employed under my personal direction 
and supervision. No cases of smallpox having been reported from Camarines 
Norte, that district has been left un vaccinated until the province of Albay (ex- 
cepting Catanduanes) is completed. While the vaccinators are primarily en- 
gaged to vaccinate, one of their duties is that of sanitary inspector, carrying 
out my directions in placing each municipality In which they are vaccinating in 
as good a sanitary condition as possible. This was a necessary provision, as my 
inspection of towns shortly after arrival in the province revealed the worst 
possible sanitation or rather absolute neglect of any sanitation whatever. 

" With the exception of two municipalities, Tlnambac and Slruma, all towns 
of Camarines Sur were thoroughly vaccinated with fresh virus, the work being 
completed May 27, 1907, eight months after beginning, 190,031 persons having 
been vaccinated, with from 65 to 70 per cent successful result. 

" The result of this work was immediately apparent. In towns where small- 
pox had existed from time immemorial the disease has been completely stamped 
out. The result will be even more apparent as the present generation matures, 
when the pock-marked person will be an exception rather than the rule, as 
to-day. 

'* Upon arriving in the province the northern part that borders upon Tayabas 
was threatened with an invasion of cholera from that province where the 
disease prevailed. Great efforts were made to place the town of Ragay in the 
best possible sanitary condition. This was accomplished notwithstanding the 
indifference and lack of cooperation on the part of the town ofllcials, and I 
am happy to say that the dread disease did not invade this province. Had it 
done so before placing this town and those bordering on the Bicol River in a 
better state of sanitation its ravages probably would have been frightful. 

" Malarial infections, easily preventable, have claimed 1,463 victims during 
the first nine months of the year. Owing to the incomplete rendering of reports 
this does not represent the true number, which, according to the average mor- 
tality, would be over 2,000. There is but one way to prevent this disease, 
and, while I have urged it rei)eatedly, it seems almost an impossibility to get 
a result — the mosquito bar, without the universal use of which loss of life will 
continue to be the penalty. 

** Four hundred and ten infants have died from convulsions during these 
nine months, according to reports received, which does not represent the entire 
number. A conservative estimate, based on the average mortality, would place 
the number above 500. This is due, mainly, to Incorrect diet and lack of care. 
The mortality could be greatly reduced If mothers could be prevailed upon to 
refrain from giving their babies solid food before 9 or 10 months of age, and 
then sparingly. 

** Tubercular diseases have claimed 321 victims, needlessly sacrificed to 
' custom.' I refer to the custom of shutting out all ventilation i)088lble during 
sleeping hours. Fresh air Is the greatest enemy of the germ that causes 
tuberculosis; and, until the fear of fresh night air is eliminated, this great 
plague of the Filipino that claims far more victims than cholera, smallpox, 
beriberi, and bubonic plague combined, will continue to claim many useful 
lives that might easily have been saved. 

** E\'ery life lost is a direct drain upon the resources of a community. This Is 
emphasized when lives* are needlessly sacrificed to * custom.' Out of 3,987 
deaths reported during the period of nine months, 2,237 died of the easily pre- 
ventable diseases above enumerated, nearly 60 i)er cent, from either Ignorance 
of the most simple knowledge of hygiene or refusal to apply the teachings of the 
bureau of health." 



BEPORT O^ THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Although the land tax has been suspended for two years (the past year and 
the present one) and the provincial treasury has only been reimbursed to the 
extent of one-half the annual income therefrom, and while there are a great 
number of delinquents in cedulas and land taxes (the former in the consid- 
erable sum of over ?tK),000 and the latter in more than ^70,000), nevertheless 
the province has conducted its affairs comparatively w^ell, though it has not 
been able to undertake any public works, with the exception of some repairs of 
roads of minor Importance. 

For all these reasons, and in view of the fact that agriculture has not yet 
recovered for the reasons already mentioned, I am of the opinion that the sus- 
pension of the land tax should be continued for two years more. In this way 
the inhabitants of this province would be given an opportunity to recoup their 
considerable losses due to the rinderpest ( I refer to the owners of lands and 
farmers), and it would be another cause of gratitude to the nation that now 
governs us. 

The following table shows the operations of the provincial treasury, according 
to data furnished by the provincial treasurer: 

Receipts and disbursements during the fiscal year 1906-7, 

Recelnts * ^ 

Balance on hand July 1, lOOG ^34,059.26 

Registry of land _-^-— • 1, ()90. 51 

Registry of mines 148.00 

Rents 3, 0(57. 67 

Cart tax 263. 00 

Land tax 8, 340. 88 

Refund of land taxes (act No. 1455) 19, 343. 52 

Cedulas (act No. 82) 575.00 

Daet tramway 118. 13 

Cedulas (Internal revenue) 29,548.50 

Refund from the Insular treasury 22,224.70 

Refund of the expenses for delinquent tax sales. 1, 231. 60 

M21,010.77 

Disbursements : 

Salaries 44,696.53 

Transportation and subsistence 7,514.81 

Sheriff fees 755. 80 

Court fees 848. 00 

Office supplies 4, 607. 48 

Postage stamps 1,436.72 

Bond premiums 827.40 

Rents of buildings 1, 014. 00 

Maintenance of prisoners 2,103.12 

Permanent equipment 958.84 

Repairs and preservation of buildings 714.60 

Repairs and preservation of bridges 1,448.32 

Repairs and preservation of roads 3, 287. 54 

Miscellaneous expenses 3,011.59 

73, 224. 75 

Balance on hand June 30, 1907 46,780.02 

PROVINCIAL JAIL. 

This establishment, which formerly was under the custody of the constabu- 
lary of this province, on May 1, last, passed under the care of the provincial 
guards. 

The object Is to leave the constabulary completely unembarrassed. In order 
that pul)llc order may be effectively assured, and any attempt on the part of the 
brigands or lad rones be suppressed. 

The following table accounts for prisoners during the fiscal year just ended: « 



' Omitted and filed In the Bureau of Insular Affairs, War Department. 



BEPOBTS OF PROVINCIAL GOVERNOBS. 268 

PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 

Here Is the branch of the government which I consider the most important, 
for it relates to the prime necessity of all young nations who aspire to inde- 
pendence. An ignorant people will never be independent, and If at some day 
it should attain Independence without the necessary instruction such a people 
could not retain its ' independence, and if i)erchance it did retain it for any 
length of time then true liberty would not be enjoyed, for it would in this case 
be a government by a small minority In the interests solely of caciques and 
to the prejudice of the majority. This has ever been observed in all peoples. 

As to public instruction in this province, I am pleased to state that it is very 
efficient, not merely because the division superintendent says so in his report, 
but for the reason that I have observed it to be so myself. 

One proof Is that at the last school contest held in the neighboring provin«> 
of Albay this province secured the prize for declamations in a competition with 
Albay, Sorsogon, and Masbate. 

I regret that this is the only province of southern Luzon which has no high 
school as yet. Albay, Sorsogon, Batangas, and Tayabas already have theirs; 
but nevertheless the province Is to be congratulated, for, thanks to the endeavors 
of your honor for the education of the Filipino people, within a short time we 
can have a high school worthy of the province through the loan just authorized 
to the province. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Mabiano Abella, 
Oovemor of Amhos Camarines. 

The Govebnob-Genkbal. 



Repobt of the Govebnor of Antique. 

[Translation. 1 

Office of the Govebnob, Province of Antique, 

San Joii6, July JS, J907. 
Sib: I have the honor, in compliance with act No. 1044, to submit herewith 
the following report for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1907. 

aqbicultube. 

• 

It Is estimated that 450,000 cavans of rice were harvested during the year, of 
which 250,000 were grown In the wide plain of Slbalom, comprising the munic- 
ipalities of San Jos6 de Buenavista, Slbalom and San Remlglo. 

The pueblos situated on this plain are In fact the granaries of the province, 
as the grain produced In excess of the quantity necessary for the sustenance of 
the population makes up a large part of the exports of this province. The fields 
are naturally fertile, especially at Slbalom; but no improvement has been intro- 
duced so far in the cultivation of the rice, in the Implements used, or In the 
Irrigation of the fields. The plows used are of the most primitive kind and 
scarcely remove the subsoil of the clayey ground, and there are no irrigation 
ditches to regulate and fix the time for the preparation of the crops. Excepting 
the caingins, the method used is to transplant shoots prepared during the wet 
weather, which Is uncertain as to time and Is the sole factor In determining the 
time for the work In the fields. 

This plain is traversed by the large Slbalom river and by the Tipulwan and 
Inabasan rivers, whose waters, which never fail at any time of the year, could 
easily supply an extensive Irrigation system, sufficient to Irrigate seven-tenths 
of the area of the plain mentioned. With this Irrigation the crops grown each 
year could easily be increased five times. 

The remainder and the larger part of the province, comprising the munlcl- 
I>a]ltles of Dao, Patnofigon, Bugason, I^wan, Tlblao and Culasl, excepting that 
of Pandan, produce sugar rather than rice ; but as there are still very few cattle, 
and the sugar estates have not yet reopened, and since the work of tilling the 
cane fields is much more costly than that of growing rice, preference has been 
given to the cultivation of rice, as was the case in former years. For this reason 
the rice crops have almost never come up to the hopes of the farmers here, and 
in this part of the province there are few large property owners able to harvest 
more than 1,000 cavans per annum. The year which has just closed was not. 



264 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

however, a bad year for the pueblos mentioned, excepting Dao, Patnofigon and 
Pandan; this was not unexpected, as the crops harvested there have been 
sufficient to maintain the population during past years. 

The fact that the pueblos from Bugason to Culasi, except Pandan, had a fair 
crop notwithstanding the lateness of the rains, is largely due to their Irrigation 
system, which though still deficient, sufficed to provide what the weather denied 
to the farmers engaged in growing rice. 

Generally speaking, and so far as the rice crop is concerned, the year covered 
by this report has not been a good one compared with the year before, as the 
Sibalom plain and the municipalities of Dao, Patnofigon and Valderrama lost 
some of their rice through drought 

While the rice crop has been poor, the sugar crop has increased considerably. 
The harvest at Patnofigon, Bugason, Lawan, Tibiao, and Culasl has been almost 
double what it was the year before, and the total production of sugar for the 
province Is estimated at over 35,000 piculs. The quantity of cane now standing 
in the fields is larger than that of the previous year. Bugason and Culasl are 
the two pueblos of this province which have produced the most sugar and have 
the largest area of land suitable for growing cane, and Patnofigon, Culasl, 
Bugason, Tibiao, and especially Lawan, have always produced a superior grade 
of sugar. 

The cocoanut and abaca plantations, though still in an embryonic state, have 
produced more than the year before, and both the crop and the quality of the 
former has been better during the second half of the fiscal year covered by this 
report than that of the first three years, after several years of scant production. 
Unfortunately the output of copra and oil was not so large as the friends of 
the province would have lilted it to be, and Judging from the high prices at 
which it has recently sold in the marlcets producers would have secured larger 
returns. As it Is, the majority of the cocoanut trees were used for the produc- 
tion of tuba, of which a great deal is consumed in the province;. We may say 
that Pandan was the only pueblo in this province which exported copra and 
abaca, while San Jos6 de Buenavista exported oil. 

The landholders of the coast pueblos, attracted by the high prices paid for 
copra, have enlarged their cocoanut plantations, and many persons have taken 
up land in the hills to plant abaca. These plantations, together with those made 
during the last three years, constitute the greatest hope for the material prog- 
ress of the province In the near future. 

The weather has been favorable this year for the cocoanut and abaca planta- 
tions, and few of. the plants have succumbed to the heat; the weather has been 
more favorable this year than last. 

The maize crop, however, which was planted during last March and April, 
brought disappointment to the farmers; drought and locusts destroyed nearly 
all that had been planted. 

Now agriculture seems to be gaining, and the farmers have more animals and 
have commenced to repair their sugar estates, as they are convinced that on the 
north coast of the province the cultivation of rice does not compensate them 
for their efforts. The area planted in sugar cane this year exceeds that of last 
year by two-fifths. 

Unfortunately the locusts began to appear last April and did much damage to 
the sugar cane, and left their young in all the pueblos of the province, which 
destroyed a large part of the rice seeding plots. The amount of loctones (locusts 
in the hopper stage) exterminated in May and June Is estimated at almost 
10,000 cavans. 

Draft cattle are increasing rapidly, and the estate owners have secured a con- 
siderable number of carabaos from Mindoro. which, with the increase within 
the province, has Increased its registered cattle, to a considerable extent. The 
Increase in the number of cattle of all kinds during the year covered by this 
report is estimated at almost 2,500 head. 

However, the rinderpest, which appeared at Dao on May 8, 1906, caused 
great ravages until the end of November of the same year and carried off, from 
July 1 to November 30, 51 head of carabao and 97 head of neat cattle, all In 
the municipality of Dao, to which we must add 20 head of carabao and 3 head 
of neat cattle that died of the foot-and-mouth disease in the several municipali- 
ties of the province. 

During the epidemic of rinderpest an Inoculator sent by the bureau of health 
inoculated at Dao some 30 head of cattle, but unfortunately nearly all died, the 
result being the failure of inoculation there. However, excellent results were 
achieved by the quarantine organized, maintained, and directed by the provin- 



BEPOBTS OP PROVINCIAL GOVERNORS. 265 

cial gOTeminent, which isolated Dao from the rest of the province, the cordon 
being established between Arasasan and Masayo, a distance of nearly 2 miles, 
and no cattle or dogs or pigs were allowed to run loose in the district qaaran- 
tined. The result was that the rinderpest did not pass the limits of the munici- 
paUty of Dao. 

COMMERCE. 

Commerce has not yet recovered and makes only slow progress, due to the 
scant production of the province and the bad condition of its roads. 

Exportation is confined to two products, viz, rice and sugar. During the 
year over 35,000 plculs of sugar were exported, which shows an increase of about 
10,000 piculs over the last crop. A part of the crop was bought up by Chinese 
merchants at the price of n.25 a picul, Culasi, Patnofigon and Bugason having 
exported the most. 

There were also exported, principally by the pueblos of Sibalom and San 
Jos6 de Buenavista, approximately 20,000 cavans of rice (unhulled) at the 
price of «.50 a cavan, and some 18,000 piculs of rice (hulled) at the price of 
M.16 a ganta, the latter being bought up exclusively by Chinese merchants. 

All the sugar and hulled rice, and a small portion of the unhulled rice were 
sold in the Iloilo market 

FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC. 

At the conclusion of the previous fiscal year the balance In fftvor of the 
province was ^21,580.74, of which sum ¥^,218.41 belonged to the municipalities. 

During the year covered by this report the revenues of the province amounted' 
ta ^94,228.27, of which «54,505.47 belong to the municipalities. These revenues 
were derived from the following sources : <* 

These items give the total of «>4,228.27, of which 1^35,462.44 are for the 
general funds of the province, ^825.87 for the road and bridge fund, and 
W,043.39 for the congressional relief fund. Of the latter sum f^443.3D were 
the proceeds of the sale to the municipalities of the galvanized iron, and ^600 
were appropriated under act No. 1406 for the relief of the iiersons who suffered 
by fire in the pueblo of Culasi. 

Adding to these partial sums the balance of the previous year, we have for 
the year covered by the present report: ^40,474.22 for the general funds and 
^,610.10 for the road and bridge funds, aside from other sums pertaining to 
special funds, such as the " congressional relief fund " and the " school build- 
ings fund," kept under the provisions of act No. 1406 and act No. 1275. 

The expenditures of the provincial government during the year were ^43,- 
008.88. Of this sum ^34,607.44 were for general purposes, ^4,469.73 for roads 
and bridges, and n,356.01 for schools, aside from P^75.20, which were paid, 
in accordance with act No. 1406, to the persons who' suffered by the fire which 
occurred at the pueblo of Culasi.* 

Adding to the above the sum of ^575.20, for the relief of the persons who 
suffered by the Culasi fire, we have a total of 1^43,008.38 of disbursements 
made by the province during the last fiscal year. 

Finally, as a result of all the transactions realized during the year, we have 
a balance of 1^8,564.12 in favor of the province, distributed as follows : 

General funds, ^4,794.78; road and bridge funds, W,166.17; congressional 
relief fund, *W3.17, aside from K4.80, the balance of the ¥«00 appropriated 
tolc the relief of the Culasi sufferers, and K,296.57, school funds under act 
No. 1275. 

PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 

On the 15th of October, 1906, the title of " head teacher " was changed to 
"acting division superintendent of schools," and the province of Antique was 
separated from that of Hollo, to constitute an independent school division. 

There were 63 schools, with 88 Filipino teachers, Including 3 insular teachers, 
under the supervision of 5 American teachers. The latter were distributed as 
follows: One at Pandan, for the Pandan schools; 1 at Culasi, for the schools 
of Culasi and Tlbiao ; 1 at Patnofigon, for the schools of that pueblo, and 1 at 

« Omitted and on file in the Bureau of Insular Affairs, War Deimrtnieut. 
^ The itemized statement of these expenditures has been omitted and is on file 
In the Bureau of Insular Affairs, War Department. 



266 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Sibalom, for the schools of Sibalom and San Remiglo. One of the three Insular 
teachers was assigned to Bugason as supervising teacher for the schools of 
Bugason, Lawan, and Valderrama. 

In addition to the 5 American teachers mentioned there were 2 in charge at 
the provincial high school, to which a Filipino schoolmistress was assigned in 
the middle of the school year to teach the fourth grade. Instruction in the 
provincial high school went only as high as the seventh grade (inclusive), for 
want of pupils. 

A comparison of the school year covered by this report with the one pre- 
ceding shows marked progress in the efficiency of the teachers as well as in the 
number of the pupils. While the matriculation in the previous school year 
amounted to only 4,220, we have now a matriculation of 8,962, and an attend- 
ance of 6,899, the highest rate of attendance recorded in this province since the 
establishment of the public schools here.. 

In the provincial high school we had a matriculation of 170; 153 of the 
pupils matriculating attended assiduously during the school year. An inter- 
mediate school course, corresponding to the fourth grade, was established at 
Culasi, and the fifth grade is now being taught there, but in view of the 
scarcity of teachers I doubt whether there has been as complete a success as 
the parents and the department of education desire. What is needed there 
is an American teacher, who should have no other duties except the Instruction 
and supervision of the intermediate school. The last convention of municipal 
presidents recommended that an intermediate school be established at Culasi, 
covering the fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, and I warmly recommend that this 
suggestion be acted upon favorably. 

The inhabitants of the province and the presidents of the several municipali- 
ties subscribed with enthusiasm for a library for the provincial high school. 
This library consists at present of 375 volumes of select^ authors, English and 
Spanish, and aside from this there are now ^345.34 on deposit in the treasury 
of the province. 

The province has now a spacious school building, with ample accommodation 
for teaching the intermediate and secondary classes, excepting the special course 
in agriculture. The latter is not taught here at present, but as it is unani- 
mously desired that this be done, and that competent teachers be sent to this 
province for the purpose mentioned, I earnestly recommend that special at- 
tention be given to the wishes of the province, as it is of the greatest necessity 
for the material development of this region, which is essentially agricultural. 

POLITICAL CONDITIONS. 

Notwithstanding the poor rice crop peace and order have prevailed through- 
out the province. No cattle thefts have been reported, and aside from the 
assault on Pangalkagan, a barrio of Bugason, nothing is known of the existence 
of bands of evildoers within the province. The persons who sacked the barrio 
of Pangalkagan were brigands from Capiz, led by a notorious character by the 
name of Santos, and were prompted principally by a desire to revenge them- 
selves upon this barrio for the reason that a son of the leader was killed there 
three years ago. 

As to the administration of the pueblos, the municipal officers have shown 
greater efficiency and more devotion to their duties. However, two municipal 
presidents have been suspended and one councilor and three policemen removed. 
The latter were Implicated in the theft of nearly ^,000 at the beginning of the 
fiscal year from the treasury of Dao. Also, two municipal treasurers were re- 
moved from office for the reason that the sureties withdrew from their bonds. 

The administration has been both efficient and economical, and there has 
not been a single municipality In the province which has not been fully ac- 
quainted with its obligations, all having acted as their needs really required. 

The old dissensions resulting from the difference of religion have disappeared 
entirely from the pueblos, and very few amongst the ignorant people have at- 
tempted to mix religion with politics. There are three creeds here at present, 
the Roman Catholic, the Agllpayau, and the Protestants; the work of the 
latter, who have started schools In several of the hill barrios and attract the 
inhabitants to civilization, preaching love of work and peace and the brother- 
hood of man, merits the most enthusiastic approval of the government. They 
have attracted many of the hill people, removing them from the action and in- 
fiuence of the i)ersons who are leading bad lives, and have greatly contributed 



BEPORTS OF PROVINCIAL GOVERNORS. 267 

to induce the hill people to pay the poll tax. In this manner they have con- 
tributed in a very efficacious manner to the work of complete pacification of 
the entire province, realized during the year covered by this report. 

There are as yet no organized political parties here; but absolutely all our 
most intelligent and capable men are in favor of the creed of the " Partido 
Nacioual Progresista," and only few advocate immediate independence. As the 
public schools have extended to all the barrios, the people have gained confi- 
dence in their political future, the preparation whereof has been put into the 
hands of the preseut government, comiwsed of Americans and Filipinos. 

PUBLIC HEALTH. 

One thousand, nine hundred and sixty deaths have occurred during the year ; 
031 of these were due to fever, 3G8 to pulmonary consumption, and the rest to 
various diseases. 

There has not been any epidemic during the year ; only the measles appeared 
in some pueblos in June and caused 21) deaths. 

Fever and pulmonary consumption have caused the greatest mortality; but 
these diseases were rather the result of a lack of care and of the suffering 
among the pauper classes. 

While there have been 1,960 deaths during the year, there were, on the other 
band, 4,098 births; consequently there has been an increase of population of 
2,138 souls. 

Diseases due to vice have been very rare, and the hygienic conditions of the 
province in general are excellent. 

Only two of the eleven municipalities of the province have a municipal physi- 
cian, viz, Bugason and Sibalom, and the contemplated consolidation of the 
province with that of Iloilo for sanitary purposes will not fail to result in great 
difllculties for Antique. This measure has not been well received by Filipinos, 
Americans, or foreigners from the outset. There are no physicians here, and 
only the municipality of Sibalom has a licensed physician, the present president 
of the board of health. The abolition of the position of district health officer 
and the transfer of the present incumbent thereof, therefore practically deprives 
the inhabitants, and especially those of the provincial capital, of the services 
of a physician. 

The province has over 134,000 inhabitants, and communication with Hollo Is 
difficult, especially during the rainy season, which lasts some six months, and 
in the event of an epidemic the pueblos of the province would be abandoned to 
their fate. Considering that the economy to be obtained by the proposed con- 
solidation Is not great, as the province will be compelled to pay part of the 
expense of maintaining a health officer in the city of Hollo, besides traveling 
expenses of the health officer for every visit he makes to this province, I rec- 
ommend that the proposed consolidation be abandoned, and that In any event 
the salary of the health officer of this province be reduced to ^1,800 per annum. 

NONCIIRISTIAN TRIBES. 

Aside from the non-Chrlstlan tribe settlements of Badiafigan, Igcococ, and 
Igtonarum, I organized in January of the current year the settlement of Villa- 
font, near Sibalom, where, as in the other settlements, a president, a vice-presi- 
dent, and three councillors were elected to govern the tribe. 

None of the officials in any of the four settlements mentioned knows how to 
read or write, and only a few of the youths of the Badiangan and Igcococ tribe 
can read; consequently the authority exercised by them over their respective 
settlements can hardly be adjusted to positive and written laws. Their powers 
are therefore based on custom and good usage, and It Is in this way that the 
people of these settlements have been governed during the year, the councillors 
having acted as advisors of the president, with powers to disapprove and sus- 
pend In session of the council the acts of the president. 

The inhabitants of Igtonarum, who are largely nomads and belong to the 
worst class of Aetas, have not advanced materially; but the contrary is the 
case with those of Badiangan, Igcococ, and Vlllafont, who have increased their 
abaca plantations, have all settled down, and are engaged in agriculture. How- 
ever, none of them owns real estate, their fields being on public land, which 
they have cleared without infringing forestry regulatlona 

When a balance wad struck this year, the sum of -PtJST.lS was found In the 
provincial treasury belonging to the non-Christian tribes fund, and I estimate 



268 BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

that the revenues for this fund will not be less than ^400 per annum, and it is 
my opinion that the money at present available, together with future collec- 
tions, will be sufficient to establish a school for the instruction of youth at 
Badiafigan or at Villafont. It is probable that we will soon be successful in 
establishing a school, maintained by the government, in one of these settle- 
ments as an experiment tending to prove the degree of capacity for advance- 
ment of the Negrito inhabitants of this province. 

Respectfully submitted. 

A. Salazab, 
Oovernor of the Province of Antique, 

The Govebnob-Genebal. 



Repobt of the Govebnob of Bataan. 

[Translation.] 

Office of the Govebnob, Pbovince of Bataan, 

Balanga, P, /., July i, 1907. 
Sib; I have the honor to submit. the following report for the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1907. 

aobicultube. 

The deplorable situation of the suffering farmers of this province has been 
further aggravated this year by the circumstance that in addition to the pro- 
tracted economic crisis through which they are passing, due to past calamities, 
they have lost this season over one-half of the rice crop, as a consequence of the 
ravages of an insect known in this section by the name of " accip," which did 
considerable damage to the rice in the fields. The sugar crop was only one- 
third of what it is in normal years, owing to the drought which prevailed while 
the cane was developing, and the succession of storms last year. To cap the 
climax, there are very few farmers who have not lost draft cattle from rinder- 
pest, which reappeared in the province this year, and the most serious blow 
for the sugar growers has been the lack of a foreign market for sugar, the 
only article exported from this province for the last ten years; and for which 
reason it takes them a year, or more, to dispose of it. Unfortunately they are 
unable to abandon the growing of sugar cane, since they have invested their 
capital in land exclusively for this purpose and in the machinery, storehouses, 
and implements employed in the grinding of the cane and the manufacture of 
sugar. 

Hence the farmers of all the municipalities inspected by me are in despair 
over their precarious situation and see no means of salvation save through 
action of the Philippine CJommisslon to the end of securing from the proper 
authority the immediate establishment of an agricultural bank by the govern- 
ment They believe that its establishment by the trusts might mean immediate 
ruin for them. They further desire, as an immediate remedy for their desper- 
ate situation, a free port of entry for their products or a reduction of the 
customs duties, and an amendment of the law governing carts, so that sledges 
with runners 2^ inches in width shall be exempted from the prohibition con- 
tained in the second paragraph of subsection (j) of section 43 of the Munici- 
pal Code, as are carts with tires 21 inches in width. The latter, due to their 
great weight, sink into the soil where it is soft, which is not the case with the 
sledges, whose runners enable them to glide with equal facility over muddy 
and dry land without sinking. Moreover, for the agricultural uses to which 
they are utilized, these sledges can not be replaced by carts of any kind, 

commebce. 

As stated in previous reports, the principal articles of commerce are, in the 
order of their importance, sugar, timber, fresh and salted fish, firewood, salt, 
fruit, and vegetables, such as mangoes, pineapples, jicamas, and camotes. 
The fiscal year just ended was a bad one for sugar, and adding to this the 
low prices at present paid for want of a foreign market it may be affirmed that 
this province has not exported any sugar, and that the small quantity har- 
vested this year is still in the warehouses. The timber trade has been fair, 
as it was last year, while there has been less business than usual in fruit. 

Maguey has been planted in several municipalities, also a small amount of 
cocoanuts and abacft, apparently with satisfactory results. 



BEPOBTS OP -PROVINCIAL GOVEBNOBS. 269 

FINANCE. 

I have already stated. In my last annual report, that since the promnlgation 
of the internal-revenue law this province has been going down grade financially, 
because of its small population, the crisis through which its agriculture is 
passing, and the stagnation of its inconsiderable commerce. It was therefore 
compelled to apply to the insular government for another loan of M,000 when 
the honorable governor-general and Commissioners Pardo de Tavera and Le- 
garda honored this province with their visit on February 17, in order to be 
able to meet its expenses. 

Prior to the enactment of the law above mentioned, the personnel and 
salaries of the provincial government were: 

Provincial governor M, 000. 00 

Clerk 720.00 

Provincial secretary 2, 200. 00 

Clerk 600.00 

Provincial treasurer 3,600.00 

First deputy 720. 00 

Second deputy 600. 00 

Third deputy 480. 00 

First clerk 456.00 

Second clerk 360.00 

Third clerk 1 240. 00 

Provincial supervisor 3,000.00 

Messenger 120. 00 

Janitor 120. 00 

Provincial fiscal 2, 200. 00 

Clerk 200.00 

Provincial physicians 1, 800. 00 

Total 20, 416. 00 

At the present time the personnel and salaries are : 

Provincial governor M, 000. 00 

Clerk and recorder 588.00 

Provincial treasurer 3,600.00 

Clerk 720.00 

Clerk - 480.00 

Deputies (municipal treasurers) 1,242.00 

Provincial fiscal - . 800. 00 

Clerk 160. 00 

Total .__ 10, 590. 00 

As the foregoing tables show, the province of Bataan expended prior to the 
promulgation of the internal-revenue law, for salaries alone, the sum of 
^^,416.00; yet it did not find it necessary to obtain a loan from the insular 
government; on the contrary, it paid its indebtedness, ?^,000, to the govern- 
ment contracted in connection with its organization. 

Although the provincial government has at this time a smaller number of 
employees, as will be seen in the total of the second table, yet I have twice been 
compelled to ask the Insular government for aid In order to meet urgent ex- 
penses; and this in spite of the fact that there are more taxes collected now 
than there were formerly. The cause of this is the internal-revenue law, which 
drains this province of the greater part of its revenues. 

To corroborate my statement, attention is called to what the Hon. Henry C. 
Ide, late secretary of finance and Justice for the islands, said in his report for 
the year 1902 : 

*' Bataan : Organized March 2, 1901 ; total receipts, $37,435.20, including bal- 
ance on hand June 30, 1901, $1,507.80; balance in treasury June 30, 1902, 
$5,245.86. This is a small province, but one able to maintain itself." (Third 
Annual Report of the Philippine (Commission, 1902, Pt. 2, p. 717.) 

It is truly sad to see this province, which prior to the enactment of the 
internal-revenue law had life of its own, now hovering on the verge of ruin, 
although it has resources of its own, merely because it has the misfortune to be 
the smallest province in the Philippine Archipelago. 



270 REPORT OF THE PHIUPPINE COMMISSION. 

As the internal-revenue tax collections are distributed at present, this prov- 
ince contributes materially to the support of other provinces which have no 
resources of their own, but have a large population. 

The province succeeded, however, in meeting all its expenses during the fiscal 
year Just ended, as the annexed report of the provincial treasurer (Exhibit A) 
win show, and it may be here stated that if the insular government would 
cancel the small indebtedness of this province, as requested by the provincial 
board in its communication of June 5, 1907, this province would be able here- 
after to stand alone. 

It would also be well for the Philippine Commission or the Philippine legisla- 
ture to take measures for bettering the condition of this province, which de- 
serves a better fate In view of Its past efforts. 

PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 

It can not be denied that public Instruction is making decided headway In 
several municipalities of this province, especially since October 15, 1906, when 
it was organized into a school division independent of Pampanga, with which it 
had been consolidated since the organization of the public schools under act 
No. 74. 

I Several school buildings were constructed during the year, some of them of 
masonry and lumber, with corrugated iron roof, as the one at Orion, which cost 
about ^6,000. 

However, In some municipalities the school attendance on the part of the 
children of both sexes is relatively small, which is probably due to the absence 
of a law making it obligatory for the parents to send their children to school, 
and to the abundance of private schools. 

This state of affairs Is, however, disappearing, thanks to the activity of Mr. 
J. M. Gamblll, our division superintendent, and to the teachers under him, 
Americans as well as Filipinos, who are continually holding meetings to attract 
the children to the schools. 

On August 16, 1906, the provincial board, In special session, unanimously 
resolved on the pueblo of Oranl as the most suitable place for the establishment 
of the provincial high school, and on November 20 of the same year this trans- 
fer was effected by direction of the school authorities. 

At the beginning it had been decidea to establish the high school at Balanga, 
the capital of the province; but as it was Impossible to obtain by subscription 
the sum of ^5,000 required by the secretary of public instruction as a condition 
precedent to the gift of 1^6,000 to this province by the Philippine Commission, 
the board changed its resolution and chose the pueblo of Oi:ani, because of its 
advantages and of the fact that It has a building of masonry, the property of 
the province, worth P=3,500, which, added to the ^2,370.42 subscribed, makes the 
total of ^5,870.42, ^^870.42 more than had been requested from us. 

The bids for the repair of this building were opened on May 24 last, several 
having been received, the lowest for ^12,486, which Is ?4,115.58 more than the 
province has available for this work. 

In view of this deficit we do not know when we shall be able to begin repair- 
ing this building, unless the Philippine Commission, In view of the trying ordeul 
through which this province Is passing, comes to our assistance with the differ- 
ence, in which case we could begin the work Immediately. 

It is therefore earnestly recommended that the Commission, In consideration 
of the facts above set forth, appropriate ^4,115.58 to enable this province to 
repair immediately the building chosen for the provincial high school. 

INDUSTRY. 

The Industries of this province are so few and of so little Importance that it 
Is hardly worth while to speak of them. However, mention might be made of 
the fisheries, which have Increased considerably since my last annual report, 
some fish having been exportetl to the adjacent provinces. As to the other 
Industries, I have already covered them In my last rei)ort. 

FACTORIES. 

The only factories In this province are for the manufacture of sugar, which, 
as stated In my former rei>orts, Is the principal source of Its wealth. The 
factories for the distilling of alcohol from cane molasses and tuba, formerly 
operating here, closed down last year. 



REPORTS OF PROVINCIAL GOVERNORS. 271 

NATU&AL WEALTH. 

The natural wealth of this province consists of timber, which is first class. 
However, for want of easy communication with the places where this timber 
grows, it is not properly exploited. The scant commercial activity in this 
province and the death of a great number of draft cattle used in hauling logs 
practically place the lumber business at nil. 

BOADS AND BRIDGES. 

The wagon road from Orion to Dinalupihan has been repaired in its entire 
length, and it is now possible to travel over it in vehicles with the greatest 
comfort. This is due to the efforts of Mr. G. A. Benedict, the provincial treas- 
urer, who has been tireless in pushing the repair work to its completion, within 
the shortest time and with the smallest outlay possible. 

Several bridges have been built and others are in contemplation, as, for 
Instance, that at Calaguiman (Oranl), the material for which has been ordered 
from the insular purchasing agent through the bureau of public works. 

There are, however, certain bridges (those of Layac, Samal and Orani) 
which this province will not be able to build without assistance. The construc- 
tion of these bridges will require an expenditure of approximately P30,000 
owing to their great size. 

Balanga, the only municipality in the province with any means, has Just 
repaired its most Important bridge. If it had not done so in time, it would have 
had to si)end thousands of pesos in building a new one. 

Several road inspectors at a monthly salary of P12 each, have been appointed 
to look after the preservation of our wagon roads, and it is hoped that next 
autumn the province will be able to cover the entire length of its wagon road 
with a layer of gravel and sand, and thus make it more solid and lasting. 

NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES. 

As stated in my last report, there are in this province a number of Negritos 
or Aetas, the only non-Christian tribe here. Owing to the policy of attraction 
pursued by the provincial and municipal authorities, these Negritos are now 
living in settlements. 

On my last tour of inspection to the pueblos of Bagac and Moron I visited 
the settlements of the Negritos and observed that they begin to understand the 
sincerity of the intentions of the government to improve their mode of living. 
At times, however, the failure of the crops in their calfSgins has forced them to 
move from one place to another ; but they do so in groups, and not by families, 
as formerly. 

They are, as a rule, inoffensive, good-natured, and submissive, but utterly 
refractory to social and cultured life in the settlements. 

POLITICAL CONDITIONS. 

Political conditions in this province could not be more satisfactory. As stated 
in my last report, the inhabitants are law-abiding and orderly, as the following 
incident will serve to Illustrate: The provincial prisoners, aided by a member 
of the constabulary named Modesto Miaco, made their escape from the provin- 
cial jail on the morning of April 12 last; but they received no aid from the 
inhabitants; on the contrary, the people energetically condemned their action 
• and actively aided In the capture of the fugitives. 

They conscientiously contribute to the support of the government by punc- 
tually paying their taxes, and attend their dally labors rather than iwlltlcs. 

Since my last report peace has reigned throughout the province, with the 
exception of the period between April 12 and the last days of May of this year, 
when Miaco and a few fugitives who had not been killed or recaptured left the 
hills of this province and went to another. 

With few exceptions all the municipal officers are working for the good of 
their respective municipalities, and good understanding prevails between them 
and the people. 

PUBLIC HEALTH AND HYGIENE, 

The public health of this province is very satisfactory. During the fiscal 
year just past there has not been one case of contagious disease. However, 
during the last few months there has been an excessive mortality among Infants, 
which is usually the case every year at the beginning of the rainy season. 



272 



BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



CONCLUSION. 

Before concluding this report I have the honor to make the following recom- 
mendations : 

1. That the Philippine Commission appropriate for this province the sum of 
?4,115.58, to repair the building to be used as the provincial high school. 

2. That the bridges at Layac, Samal, and Orani be built at the expense of the 
Insular government, as was done In the case of wagon roads and bridges in other 
provinces. 

I also deem it my duty to state in this report my profound gratitude to my 
comimnlons of the provincial board for their cordial and efficacious cooperation, 
direct and indirect. In the dispatch of the matters which have come before the 
board; and likewise to the municipal officers and the constabulary for their 
disinterested and loyal support, which has made it easier for me to perform the 
duties of the office I hold. 

Respectfully submitted. 

L. Ii. ZlALCITA, 

Governor of the Province of Bataan, 
The Govebnor-Genebal. 



Exhibit A. 
Finances, province of Bataan, fiscal year 1907, 





General. 


Road. 


Oongres- 
slonal 
reUef. 


School. 


Total. 


Bftl&Doe July 1, 1906.. - -_ 


^5.908.06 


^■9,544.85 


r407.04 


^1,035.25 


^16 889 67 






BecHpta. 
Bevfloues: 

Registry of property 


159.14 
155.00 
S83.74 
559.80 

•5,409.57 
6,628.00 

4,667.86 

890.00 

•fl.QOO.OO 








169.14 


Cedula. 1901-1901 series. . 








155 00 


Oart _ 








883.74 


Land. 1902-1905 


•279.87 






838 97 


Internal revenue- 
Refund . .. ... 






5,409.57 


Cedula — 




6,526.00 
7,001.73 


Otber receipts: 

Acts 1465 and 1679- 


2,333.88 1 _ _ 


Refunds 


1,398.90 


1 


2,280.90 


Loans from Insular government 




6.000 00 


Oontributions . _.'- - 




500.00 1 1.335.17 


1 835 17 










• 




Total receipts — 


24,750.60 
287.14 


4,010.45 


300.00 


1.835.17 


80.596 22 


Excbange (net) Pfs 










"*"" 


Grand total 


80.653.65 


18,554.78 1 907.04 


2.370.42 


47,485.88 


Expenditureg. 
See abstract followinsr. - - . 




22.447.89 
219.24 


6,862.49 


907.04 




80.217 42 


Excbansre (net) »-— — - 


— ......... 


219.24 


Balance June 90. 1907 








7,986.52 


6,692.29 




2,370.42 


17.049 23 









•Not pertaining to year 1007. 



»P1,250 not pertaining to year 1907. 



STRICTLY PBRTAININQ TO TEAR 1007 (GENERAL). 

Income 1 M7. 000. 00 

Expenditures 16. 500. 00 



Excess . 



500.00 



G. A. Benedict, 
Provincial Treasurer. 



REPORTS OF PROVINCIAL GOVERNORS. 273 

Abstract of expenditures, province of Bataan, fiscal year 1907, 



General. 



Road. 



Oooffres- 
slooal 
relief. 



School. 



Total. 



Salaries, officials 

Salaries, employees 

Per diem. Judge only 

Public buildings repaired.. 

Traveling expenses... 

OfiQce supplies. 

Equipment, permanent 

Court fees 

Sheriff fees 

Feeding prisoners 

Bond premiums _ 

Loans to municipality 

Miscellaneous 

Roads and bridges 

Gratuitous distribution — 



r7,753.3a 

3,601.54 

1^0.00 

246.73 

1,108.64 

1,112.68 

440.09 

•5.968.00 

90.40 

»1.707.10 

159.34 



50.21 



1*1,324.00 



5,538.49 



Total- 



.« 22,447.89 



6,862.49 



^•699.04 
208.00 



^7, 
8, 



753.32 
601.54 
120.00 
246.72 
106.64 
112.53 
440.09 
168.10 
90.40 
707.10 
159.34 
324.00 
50.21 
237.53 
208.00 



907.04 80,217.42 



• P5,450 not pertaining to year 1907. * MOO not pertaining to year 1907. 
MOO for Bilibid prisoners. 

b£sdm£. 

Actual expenditures M2, 450. 00 

See notes ^ 300. 00 

22. 750. 00 
Other years • 6, 25 0. 00 

Net, 1907 16,500.00 



Repobt of the Governor of Batanqas. 
[Translation.] 

Office of the Governor, Province of Batanoab, 

Batangas, P. /., July 26,1907. 
Si^ : I have the honor, in compliance with the provisions of act No. 1044 of 
the Philippine Commission, to submit herewith my annual report for the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1907. 

Pursuant to the programme furnished by the executive secretary, I shall begin 
by discussing the agricultural conditions of this province. 

agriculture. 

In comparison with the last fiscal year the condition of our agriculture has 
improved considerably. Not only has the production of sugar, abaca, and 
oranges increased, but the rice and maize crop is much larger than it was last 
year, which is shown by the small amount of rice imported, the rice grown 
being almost sufficient for the subsistence of the inhabitants. This is also 
demonstrated by the increase in the number of the rice-hulling machines, and by 
the fact that contrary to past years, large quantities of grain now go from the 
rice-growing pueblos of the interior to the coast towns. 

According to information received from the orange-growing pueblos, Tanauan 
and Santo Tomas, the production has not increased to a very large extent, but 
is larger than that of last year. 

The production of abaca in the pueblos formerly engaged in growing jeoflfee 
has liliewise increased, and it is remarkable what activity the agriculturists 
display in sowing the textile plant mentioned on land suitable for the purpose. 
I may affirm, without fear of making a mistake, that in the pueblos mentioned 
the revenues from this source will in 4 or 5 years come close to those derived 
by the same agriculturists from coffee growing when it was in its apogee. 



11024— war 1907— vol 7- 



-18 



274 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

With regard to the production of maize and rice, it must be borne In mind 
that instead of decreasing it has increased, notwithstanding the extraordinary 
mortality among the labor cattle, this being the best evidence of the efforts made 
by the agriculturists in employing manual labor. 

The proTincial government has received information relative to the appear- 
ance of locusts In several barrios of the municipalities of San Juan and Ro- 
sario ; but as they have appeared in small numbers, It is hoped that it will be 
possible to speedily exterminate them. 

INDUSTRY. 

There are very few industries in this province, which is and always has been 
essentially agricultural. These industries are those mentioned in my report for 
last year, among them the breeding of hogs and chickens, of which large num- 
bers are exported to Manila every week. The important industry of weaving 
continues, is almost general, and exists on a large scale in Bauan and Lipa, 
which export their products not only to Manila, but to other provinces. 

While there has not been an increase in the quantity, the quality of the 
articles produced is improving gradually, and it may be affirmed that two-thirds 
of the rural population are clad in cloth woven in the province. 

ECONOMICS. 

The economic condition has improved visibly — in the first place because it did 
not have to bear the heavy burden of the land tax during the years of 1906 and 
1907, and in the second place, because the provincial treasury has been greatly 
relieved by the Philippine Ck)mmission by the remission of its indebtedness for 
the benefit of public instruction, because though it is true that the province has 
to pay this indebtedness, yet the period of t«n years granted for its payment 
makes it easy for the provincial exchequer. 

The province has at present on deposit with a banking establishment at 
Manila, at the proper rate of Interest, ^0,000. At the end of the present year, 
as soon as the current liabilities contracted by the provincial exchequer have 
been paid, the balance on hand will be invested in the construction of several 
bridges, the plans and estimates for w^hich being already in the possession of the 
provincial board. 

The provincial government building and the court-house, the latter a one-story 
building annexed to the former, have been suitably repaired and painted, 
^000, more or less, having been expended for this purpose. 

The municipal governments also report good economic conditions. Some of 
the municipalities, among them Rosario, have built town halls, and Lipa has set 
aside funds for the purchase of a building for an intermediate school. 

The pueblos of Tanauan and Lipa, though they have applied for loans of 
W,000 and W5,000, respectively, for the construction of town halls, and though 
they have until the present not been successful in raising these sums for the 
purpose of executing the work projected, have, however, sufficient revenues to 
fully guarantee the payment, in installments, of the loans requested. 

The municipality of Batangas also has a surplus of W2,000 in its municipal 
treasury, which the council has decided to invest in the construction of a town 
hall. 

The provincial treasury has made the following collections during the fiscal 
year 1907 : 

Register of deeds ^55.23 

Registration of mining claims 12.00 

Revenues from provincial property 363.50 

Cedulas, act No. 83 996.00 

Cart tax-^ ^ 786. 40 

Land tax, 1905 and preceding years 25, 103. 02 

Land tax, acts Nos. 1455 and 1579 65, 044. 44 

Fisheries 18, 818. 58 

Certificates of ownership and transfer of cattle 15, 430. 00 

Revenues, profits, and privileges ^- 19,808.65 

Licenses 13, 452. 29 

Fines , 4, 514. 86 

Sale of estrays, act No. 1147 549.50 

Cemeteries 274. 90 



REPORTS OF PROVINCIAL GOVERNORS. 275 

Ck>iitrlbutionB toward school funds 297.62 

Sale of municipal property 582.60 

CJedulas. act No. 1189 63, 314. 00 

Licensee, act No. 1189 5,990.50 

Opium smokers' certificates, act No. 1461 110. 00 

Internal-revenue tax refunds 74, 379. 53 

Sale of supplies 3, 237. 16 

Sale of carts j. 1, 600. 00 

Court fees 319. 11 

Refund of excessive collections of court fees 1,648.00 

Refund of loans by municipalities 2,989.47 

Transfer of deposit and trust funds 103.11 

Appropriations by municipalities for road work 2,200.00 

Refunds, miscellaneous 542. 77 

Total 322, 522. 23 

Of this sum m3,804.76 went to the general fund (the revenues amount to 
W03,367.14) ; «8,049.29 to the road and bridge fund, and «90,668.18 to the 
several municipalities. 

The provincial balances were on June 30, 1907, as follows: General fund 
^55,924.38, road and bridge fund W9.586.97, and school fund ^5,166.44. The 
fund last named was created by act No. 1622, the money being appropriated 
from general funds. 

COMMUNICATIONS. 

Though it can not be said that the wagon roads are in absolutely good condi- 
tion, yet it may be stated that it is possible to travel by carromata from one end 
of the province to the other; that is, from Nasugbu to the provincial capital, 
and from the provincial capital to the farthest pueblos, which are Talisay on 
the north and San Juan de Bocboc on the southeast. The provincial board has 
gradually repaired these roads with the scant funds, which do not reach the 
sum of K0,000, available for this purpose, to put them in such condition as to 
make it possible for travelers to use carromatas. Only one pueblo, Lobo, has no 
wagon road, nor has it ever had any wagon road connecting it with this capital, 
because the construction of such a road, which would have to cross hills and 
gulches, would be exceedingly expensive. This municipality may, however, be 
easily reached in seven hours on horseback, or one may go there by sea, as the 
steamers which come to this capital call there for cargo two or three times a 
month. 

NATURAL WEALTH, 

« 

There have been filed 23 applications for the registration of mining claims; 
of these 18 are located in the municipality of San Juan de Bocboc, 1 at Lobo, 2 
at Bauan, and 2 at the provincial capital, Batangas, the applicants for the 20 
claims first mentioned being Americans, and for the others Filipinos. 

The 20 applications filed first do not specify the kind of the claim ; but as to 
the others, two at Bauan are for placer mines, and that at Batangas for a 
guano deposit. 

PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 

During the fiscal year 8,374 children attended the primary schools, 608 the 
intermediate schools, and 31 the seventh and eighth grades of the high school, 
making a total attendance of 9,013. 

There are 22 American, 11 insular, and 161 municipal teachers. 

The number of children attending the provincial school was 293. 

The secretary of public instruction has granted the sum of ^8,000 for the con- 
struction in this capital of an industrial school building on the lot on which the 
provincial school is located. 

PUBLIC HEALTH AND SANITATION. 

There has not been any epidemic disease in this province during the year. 

In view of the unnecessary abolition of the provincial board of health — I say 
unnecessary, because this province has to pay its share, in proportion to its 
population, of the salary of the district health officer, who resides in Tayabas — 
this provincial government is unable to furnish the data regarding sanitation 



276 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

which it furnished in the report for last year, because the presidents of the 
municipal boards of health report to the district health officer at Lucena, Tayabas. 

Though matters pertaining to the health of the animals are now in charge of 
the bureau of agriculture, to which this subject has been transferred from 
the bureau of health, I will treat of the health of the labor cattle in this chapter. 

During the last year this office his continually received reports of cases of 
rinderpest from the several pueblos of the province, which were immediately 
forwarded to the bureau above mentioned for the proper action. When the rln- 
deri)est was at its height in this province, 7 government inoculators were sta- 
tioned here, to Inoculate the Infected animals with serum. These Inoculations 
were so efficacious that the animals were cured within a few days ; but I deem 
It my duty to state that these Inoculators, notwithstanding their good Inten- 
tions, were half of the time without work, because of the Insufficiency of the 
quantity of serum received from Manila, the demand being extraordinarily large, 
and the agriculturists being so confident as to the efficacy of the serum that 
the inoculators were actually besieged and petted, In order to Induce them to 
give preference to the persons who overwhelmed them the most with favors. 

However, the serum Inoculated was merely a preventive and Its effects were 
limited to two or three months at the most. In view of the small quantity In- 
oculated In each case, and when the plague reappeared the animals cured be- 
came sick and died. It being then impossible to apply the same remedy again 
on account of the lack of serum or of the transfer of the inoculators to other 
pueblos or provinces. 

The havoc wrought by the rinderpest In this province last year has been so 
great that It Is not an exaggeration to estimate that the number of the cattle 
decreased at least 60 per cent, and to say that rinderpest still exists, though 
not so extensively as before, and continues to diminish the already depleted 
labor cattle In several pueblos. 

It Is recommended that the residence of the Inoculator and veterinarian 
stationed in this province be transferred from Llpa to the provincial capital, 
to the end that he can be Informed Immediately of reports of cases of rinderpest 
received from the pueblos. 

POLITICAL CONDITIONS. 

It may be affirmed, without fear of erring, that the province of Batangas en- 
joys at present an era of peace and tranquillity, which has been cemented by the 
favorable action taken by the Philippine Commission on the petition of the pro- 
vincial government for the segregation of I^emery and Tallsay from the munl- 
cipalties to which they had been annexed, and their reorganization as Inde- 
pendent municipalities. In my report for last year I stated in detail the reasons 
which induced me to request this segregation, and I believe that I did not make 
a mistake, seeing that my efforts In this direction have been crowned with 
success. 

At the close of last and the beginning of the present year, a band of six or 
seven brigands Infested the boundaries of the provinces of Laguna, Batangas 
and Tayabas, holding up the unfortunate laborers who went from one province 
to the other In quest of work. 

The meeting of the governors and constabulary officers of the three provinces, 
requested by me and held last March at the pueblo of Santa Cruz, La Laguna, 
resulted In the disappearance of this band, some of the members surrendering 
to the president of San Pablo and others to the constabulary at Tallsay, one 
of the chiefs, Miguel Amante, being captured recently at Banaybanay, In the 
municipality of Lipa, by the lieutenant councilor of said barrio and the mnnl- 
' cipal i)ollce of Lipa. Only one member of that band, Fulgehclo de Gula, is still 
at large. His whereabouts are unknown ; but the police do not cease the pur- 
suit, and this fact impelled me to address a petition to your honor asking that 
a reward be offered for his apprehension, and another for that of the robber 
chief, de Castro, who, according to private information. Is at present In the prov- 
ince of Cavite. These rewards were authorized by the Commission at its ses- 
sion of the 20th of the current month. 

Since I have taken charge as provincial governor. It ha» been my greatest 
desire to make the municipal police as efficient as possible, inasmuch as that 
organization is charged with the maintenance of peace and order In the 
municipalities. 

At the present time all the police of the province are uniformed alike and 
governed by the same regulations, which were drafted by the undersigned, sub- 
mitted for api)roval to the municipal councils, and unanimously adopted by the 



REPORTS OP PROVINCIAL GOVERNORS. 277 

same, with a few insignificant amendments. Tliese regulations are being printed 
by the Bureau of Printing and will soon be Issued to the municipalities, in order 
that each municipal officer may have a copy for his guidance as to the relations 
between the police and the people. 

Upon my petition, the governor-general has also authorized the exchange of 
the arms now used, which are almost unserviceable, for Springfield carbines. 
Knowing that these arms are necessary only for those pueblos which are in 
need of efficient means of defense against the outlaws, I have requested Spring- 
field carbines only for nine municipalities, namely, Balayan, I^emery, Taal, 
Santo Tomas, Tanawan, Lipa, San Jos^, Rosiirio, and San Juan, and do not 
deem It necessary to equip the rest of the municipalities with these arms, 
leaving them the rifles and revolvers which they have at present. 

I have also filed a petition, which has been approved by the director of con- 
stabulary. General Harry H. Bandholtz, requesting that a subinspector of the 
constabulary be detailed to Instruct the police of each municipality, and that 
after the completion of this instruction all the police be assembled at the pro- 
vincial capital for a general course of instruction, during which time only the 
I>olice indispensiible for the maintenance of peace and order are to remain In 
the pueblo. 

Upon concluding this report I wish to tender my thanks to the honorable 
the governor-general and to the members of the Philippine Commission for 
the assistance which they have rendered to this provincial government in its 
work for the welfare and tranquillity of this province, in view of which I will 
never cease for an instant to do all in my power to increase the prestige of the 
government in this province. 

Respectfully submitted. 

J. IX)SADA, 

Oovernor of the Province of Batangas. 
The Govebnob-General. 



Repobt of the Govebnob of Benguet. 

Office of the Govebnob, Pbovince of Benguet, 

Baguio, P. /., July 31, 1907. 

Sib: I have the honor to submit the following report for the province of 
Benguet for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1007 : 

The government of the entire province of Benguet is administered exclusively 
under those acts of the Philippine Commission for the government of non- 
Christian tribes, and every district and all the people of the province are sub- 
ject to the rules and advantages of the special provincial and township acts 
Nos. 1396 and 1397. 

The native population of Benguet, with the possible exception of about 1,000, 
is Igorot, and thus most of this report will necessarily be a report of their 
condition. 

NONCHBISTIAN TBIBES. 

American occupation found here an almost inaccessible district peopled with 
a comparatively small population of poor, timid, oppressed barbarians. Being 
so-called infidels, they were without both the consolation and the protection of 
the church, which for three centuries had been a partner in the government of the 
Islands, and being nearly naked barbarians these Igorots had been as far 
back as tradition recites the natural prey of the more enlightened and Cnrist- 
ianized tribes. No attempts were made to redress wrongs commlttetl against 
these people, and outrages of all kinds and abuses from private and official 
parties were so common that . stifety and peace seemed to be found only In 
poverty and solitude. 

The people were naturally suspicious that in the change from the Spanish to 
the American Government thej' were but getting a change of masters in name 
only, and it has been a labor of much patience and constant consideration of 
their customs and habits on the part of all our government officials and repre- 
sentatives that has won the apparent confidence of these natives, which we now 
possess. 

The principal attribute of Deity according to the Igorot belief is that of 
Justice: and the laws governing this province, as framed by the Commission, 
were so considerate and just to them, and the administration of these laws in 
all branches of the service having been careful to live up to both the spirit and 



278 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

the letter of the law, that the Igorots, like the old man who sees in every bright, 
sunny morning only a "weather breeder," have now only one fear — "that 
it can not last, that there will be another change of matters, and that they will 
eventually be again robbed even of the fruits of this prosperity." 

PB08PEBITY. 

The natives of Benguet are prosi)erous. Their wealth consists of animals, 
rice fields, and agricultural lands. 

Stock. — Last year we reported 10,000 head of cattle registered in the 
province, this year there are reported to this office 15,775 registered and the 
registration of animals does not begin until they are two years of age. This 
shows an Increase of 50 per cent over last year. In addition to this increase 
there has been an enormous sale of matured cattle from the province, the 
township of Baguio alone having transferred cattle to the value of P17,465J50. 
The Benguet cattle are prized by the lowland people as draft animals on ac- 
count of their speed and wind, and bring exceptionally good prices, the natives 
here receiving from WK) to W40 for full-grown bullocks. The cattle industry 
is only in its Infancy in Benguet, for with the vast ranges of first-class grazing 
lands in this province and the freedom from disease among stock, the fact that 
cattle will reproduce every ten months and that the only necessary expense 
Involved is that of herding and shelter should, and doubtless will, interest and 
Induce investors with small capital to enter this field of occupation for slow 
but large and safe returns on their money. The mountain districts of north 
central Luzon, if properly exploited, could easily supply the beef market of 
Manila. The natives of Benguet have also 10,144 pigs, 1,617 goats, 431 sheep, 
about 2,500 ponies, and 3,500 carabao. 

Agriculture, — ^The demand for American vegetables by the large transient 
population in and about Baguio and their successful growth at the gov- 
ernment exi)erimental station, thus demonstrating that the climatic condi 
tions are favorable to these products, have stimulated the natives to produce 
them, and the increase in their production is marked. Irish potatoes for the last 
five years have been produced by the natives in small amounts, and the price* 
for them being so alluring they have increased their little patches Into fields 
and will attempt their growth on so large a scale as to more than supply the 
local demand for next year. One man is now preparing about 10 acres of 
ground for this crop alone. Native com two years ago was unknown here as a 
product, although there were a few plants raised and prized as is a weakly 
palm in a hothouse back in the States. This year there were 1,802 baskets 
(about a half bushel per basket) raised and sold. Squash, cantaloupes, celery, 
parsnips, turnips, tomatoes, etc., grown and sold here by these natives are 
equal in size and flavor to those grown by the most careful gardener under the 
most promising conditions in the States. The supply only is deficient, and I 
fear this will continue to be our trouble, as the demand increases more rapidly 
than the belief in such a demand can expand in the mind of the native; in 
other words his hind sight is better than his foresight. 

Rice paddies. — The construction of rice paddies in this province Involves 
an enormous amount of labor, which is expensive. The natives terrace the hills 
from the lowest level to the level of the water supply. The walls of these ter- 
races are made of stone, rising one above the other, and are then filled with 
rich productive soil. In the construction of these terraces they often build 
their walls, completing their improvements to the top, and then for the purpose 
of filling they go to the source of the stream an^ shovel black dirt into the 
waterway that runs down over the terraces ; as the water strikes one level after 
another the sediment precipitates, forming the completed terrace, thus avoiding 
the effort of carrying the soil in baskets from possibly a long distance. In this 
way primitive man in a primitive way has accomplished an engineering feat, 
the principle of which is the same as that used in making the fill of the Luneta 
Extension of Manila. There has been a noticeable increase in the number of 
these paddies constructed throughout the province. 

Lands. — Chapter IV of the land act giving free titles to native settlers was 
made applicable to this province January 1, 190C. The natives looked upon 
this with favor and have filed claims for about 1,200 parcels of land. These 
claims have been surveyed, mapped and monuments placed on the ground by 
the bureau of lands, and titles will issue as rapidly as counterclaims may be 
adjusted. The restriction of one claim to each proi)erty holder, while a great 
advance from any favor granted the Igorot by our predecessors, still falls to 



BEPOBTS OF PROVINCIAL GOVERNORS. 



279 



cover the ground claimed by these people in anything like a satisfactory man- 
ner. Owing to the rough and broken surface of the country the parcels of 
ground cultivated