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Full text of "Report of the Philippine Commission to the Secretary of War"

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I 



o 



FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



Philippine Commission. 



1904. 



IN THREE PARTS. 
Part 3, 



BUREAU OF INSULAR AFFAIRS, WAR DEPARTMENT. 



WashlnKtoat 

Govenunent Printinsf Office. 

1905. 



CONTENTS. 



H^ 



f 



Pabt I. 

Page. 

Aniiiial report of the Phmppine Commission 3 

Conditions as to peace and order t. 3 

The Moro Province 7 

Use of constabulary in connection with scouts IG 

Friar-land purchases 18 

Religious controversies 21 

Currency 1 22 

The Philippine tariff 27 

The Dingley tariff 28 

Refundable export duties 28 

Mining law 29 

Public lands 30 

Extradition laws 30 

Recommendations 31 

Report of the civil governor of the Philippine Islands .?5 

Provincial and municipal governments 35 

Provincial and municipal elections 30 

City of Manila 37 

Manila Harbor Improvement 38 

Pasig River improvement 40 

Philippine civil-service board 40 

Insular purchasing agent 44 

Office management 48 

f^ Executive bureau 48 

^ Exhibit A. — Report of the municipal board of tlie city of Manila 

for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904 51 

Report of the secretary of the board 80 

Report of the disbursing officer 83 

Report of the fire department 91 

Report of the department of engineering and public worlcs__ 107 

Rei)ort of the chief of police 192 

Report of the law department 204 

Report of the city assessor and collector 211 

Exhibit A. — Assessed valuation of taxable real estate, 

city of Manila, 1903 22G 

Exhibit B. — Assessed valuation of taxable real estate, 

city of Manila, 1904 226 

Exhibit C. — Statement of proi)erties exempt from taxa- 
tion in the city of Manila, June 30, 1904 226 

Exhibit D. — Statement of market receipts and expenses, 

fiscal year 1903-4 242 

Exhibit E. — Annual statement of receipts and disburse- 
ments 244 

III 

^0 ?,5^ 



IV CONTENTS. 

Report of the civil governor of the Philippine Islands — Continued. Page. 
Executive bureau — Continued. 

Exhibit B. — Report of the officer in charge of the improvement of 

the port of Manila 247 

Exhibit C— Report of the Philippine civil-service board 251 

Exhibit D. — Report of the Imsular purchasing agent 269 

Disbursing division 272 

Property division 291 

Record division 300 

Local purchasing agent, land transportation division 307 

Exhibit E. — Report of the executive secretary 312 

Appendix A. — Draft of rules to be observed in preparing, 

coursing, and recording official correspondence 337 

Appendix B. — See Appendix K. 

Appendix C. — Report of law clerk 340 

Appendix D. — Report of the chief of the tran^atlon division. 344 

Appendix E. — The government of the Philippine Islands 345 

Appendix F. — Administration and' finance division 350 

Appendix G. — Records division 352 

Appendix H. — Report of the chief of the document division. . 352 

Appendix I. — Report of the acting disbursing officer 355 

Appendix J. — Brief biography of the members of the honor- 
ary board of Filipino commissioners to the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition 356 

Appendix K. — Reports of provincial governors 360 

Province of— 

Abra 360 

Albay 365 

Ambos Camarlnes 389 

Antique 398 

Bataan 401 

Batangas 404 

Benguet 410 

Bohol 412 

Bulacan 420 

Cagayan 431 

Caplz 437 

Cavlte 445 

Cebu 466 

Ilocos Norte 483 

Ilocos Sur , 493 

Hollo 498 

Isabela 506 

Laguna, La 511 

Lepanto-Bontoc 519 

Leyte 530 

Masbate 537 

Mindoro 539 

Mlsamls 545 

Negros Occidental 549 

Negros Oriental , — 557 

Nueva Eclja 565 

Nueva Vlscaya 571 

Pampanga 577 



CONTENTS. V 

Report of the civil governor of the Philippine Islands— Continued. Page. 
Executive bureau — Continued. 

Exhibit E. — Rerx)rt of the executive secretary — ^Continued. 
Appendix K. — Reports of provincial governors — Cont'd. 
Province of — Continued. 

Pangasinan 582 

Paragua 585 

Rizal 587 

Romblon 599 

Snmar G03 

Sorsogon 612 

Surigao 625 

Tarlac 632 

Tayabas 635 

Union, La 650 

Zambales ' 664 

Exhibit F. — Executive orders and proclamations, October 1, 1903, 

to September 30» 1904 685 

Exhibit G. — Operations under the Congressional relief fund 719 

Exhibit H. — Report on friar lands surveys by the consulting engi- 

ner to the Commission 747 

Exhibit I. — Report on examinations to titles to friars' estates 752 

Pabt II. 

Report of the secretary of the interior 1 

Organization of the department 3 

Operations of the department facilitated by the state of public order— 3 

Board of health for the Philippine Islands and the city of Manila 4-22 

General health conditions 4 

Vital statistics 5 

Need of public bath houses and laundries 6 

Esteros and tidal creeks _ 

Lowlands 7 

Mosquitoes 7 

Leper colony 8 

Smallix>x and vaccinations 10 

Asiatic cholera 11 

Bubonic plague 11 

Health work in the city of Manila 12 

Sanitai-y work in the provinces 14 

Collection and dfsix)sal of night soil 15 

Division of dislnfectors 15 

Overcrowding 16 

Markets, tiendas, and food inspection 16 

Opium-smoking establishments 16 

Free dispensaries and free clinics 16 

Hospitals for the insane 17 

General hofspital 17 

The San Lazaro hospitals 18 

San Juan de DIos Hospital ^ 18 

Municipal physicians and midwlves 19 

Boards of medical and surgical, pharuiaceutical, and dental ex- 
aminers 19 

Enforcement of sanitary laws 19 



VI CONTENTS. 

Report of tlie secretary of the interior — Continued. Page. 

Board of heultli for tlie Pliilippine Islands in the city of Manila — 
Continued. 

Billbid prison 20 

Worlc of the veteriiuiry division 20 

Office of the commissioner of public health 21 

Quarantine service ^ 22-24 

Vessels boarded 22 

Bubonic plague 23 

Smallpox 23 

Leprosy 23 

Aid to other services 23 

Quiirantine station at Cebu 23 

Additional launch 24 

Interisland quarantine service 24 

I^ilippine civil hospital 24-20 

Training of Filipino nurses 26 

Maternity ward 20 

Civil sanitarium, Baguio, Benguet 20-31 

Attendance 27 

Diseases at Bagnio 28 

Weather 30 

New hospital buildings recommended 30 

Stable 30 

Superintendent authorized 31 

Bureau of forestry 31 

Exhibit at tlie Louisiana Purcliase Exiwsition 31 

New quarters 32 

Additional employees 32 

Collections of forest products 32 

Division of forest management 32 

Licenses 32 

Lamao foiest reserve 33 

Timber-testing laboratory and workshop 34 

Mining bureau 35 

Assay work transferred 30 

Administration of mining grants transferred 30 

New quarters neetled for the bureau 37 

Additions to collections ^ 37 

Active field work begun 38 

Future fieldwork 39 

rreseut status of mining 3J) 

Mining labor 42 

Necessity for amendment to congressional legislation 42 

Minerals of the Philippines 43 

Bureau of government laboratories 44 

New building 44 

Visiting scientists 45 

Possible outside assistance 45 

Library 40 

Office of the superintendent 47 

Serum laboratory 48 

Botanical work :. 50 

Biological laboratory 50 



CONTENTS. VII 

Beport of the secretary of tbe interior — Continued. Page. 

Bureau of government laboratories — Continued. 

£^toniological worlv 51 

Cheinieai worlc 52 

Research on cocoanuts 53 

Division of weights and measures 54 

Difficulties due to cost oj living 54 

Publications 55 

Clinical work 55 

Work of government photographer 55 

Income from private work 55 

Value of work performed for other bureaus 57 

Bureau of public lands 58 

New legislation 58 

Work of the chief of bureau ; 58 

Administration of Spanish mining grants transferred 59 

Necessity for a system of land surveys 59 

Record of Spanish land titles 59 

San Lazaro estate 59 

Friar lands CO 

Special work performed by the chief 60 

Bureau of agriculture GO 

BJstablishment of a dairy farm ; 61 

Other animals received 63 

Horses and jacks 63 

Proposed breeding station for horses 63 

Jersey cattle 64 

Hogs 64 

Pure-bred fowls and crosses 64 

Beef bulls 65 

Stock farm at Culion 65 

Fodder on government farms i 65 

SingaloDg experiment station, Manila 66 

Seed and plant distribution 67 

Batangas station 67 

Coffee plantation at Lipa, Batangas 68 

Experiments at Baguio and Trinidad, Beuguet 68 

Rice farm at Murcia, Tarlac 60 

San Ramon farm, Mindanao 70 

Agricultural college and experiment station at La Carlota 72 

Fiber investigation 72 

Cocoanut oil products 73 

Other investigations 73 

Indian corn 73 

The castor bean 74 

Sheep and wool 74 

Publications 74 

Philippine weather bureau 74 

Improvement in offices 75 

Work of the bureau 75 

Weather stations 76 

Exhibit at the Louisiana Purchase Exi)osition 76 

Ethnological survey for the Philippine Islands 76 

Work of Doctor Miller 77 



VIII CONTENTS. 

Report of the secretary of the interior — Continued. Page. 
Ethnological survey for the Philippine Islands — Continued. 

Woric of Mr. Reed 78 

Work of Mr. Christie 78 

Publications 78 

Ethnological and commercial museum 79 

Need of museum building • 80 

Appendix A. — Report of the commissioner of public health 83 

Report of the chief health inspector for the Philippine Islands. . 170 

Report of the physician In charge of San Lazaro Hospital 188 

Report of the sanitary engineer for the Philippine Islands 196 

Report of the disbursing officer, bureau of public health 202 

Report of cashier of board of health 202 

Report of the chief of the veterinary division 204 

A preliminary report on the presence of anthrax in the Philip- 
pine Islands 207 

Special report on swine plague and hog cholera 210 

Special report on Texas fever (tick fever, Spanish fever) 212 

Clinical notes on surra 215 

Report of medical superintendent, Chinese hospital for con- 
tagious diseases 216 

Sj)ecial report on Bilibid prison 217 

Report of the Cebu leper hospital 218 

Report of the Palestina leper hospital 219 

Report of special sanitary inspection of the pro\ ince of Albay 219 

Report of special sanitary inspection of the province of Bataan _. 219 

Report of special sanitary inspection of the province of Cavite 222 

Special report on sanitary work in the city of Cebu 231 

Report of special sanitary inspection of the province of Misamis- 230 

Special report on Pampanga Province 241 

Report of special sanitary Inspection in the provinces of Pam- 
panga, Tarlac, Pangasinan, Beuguet, and Union 248 

Report of special sanitary inspection of the province^ of Surigao, 

Leyte, and Samar 259 

Report of the president of the provincial board of health of 

Surigao - 204 

Report of special sanitai'y Inspection of the province of Zambales. 266 

Appendix B. — Report of the board of medical examiners 270 

Appendix C. — Report of the board of pharmaceutical examiners 274 

Appendix D. — Report of tlie lx)ard of dental examiners 275 

Appendix E. — Report of chief quarantine officer for the Philippine 

Islands 277 

Appendix F. — Report of the attending physician and surgeon, Philip- 
pine Civil Hospital 302 

Appendix G. — Rei)ort of the attending physician and surgeon, civil 

sanitarium, Baguio, Benguet 308 

Appendix II. — Report of chief of the bureau of forestry 328 

Appendix I. — Report of the mining bureau 379 

ApiKjndlx J. — Report of the superintendent of government laboratories. 411 

Report of the librarian, bureau of government laboratories 426 

Report of Dr. Richard P. Strong, director of the biological labora- 
tory 435 

Report of the chemical laboratory 444 

Report of the director of the serum laboratory 449 



CONTENTS. IX 

Report of the secretary of tbe interior — Continued. Page. 

Appendix J. — Report of the superintendent of government laborato- 
ries — Continued. 

Report of the botanist 461 

Report of the photographer 465 

Appendix K. — Rei)ort of the chief of the bureau of public lauds 4G8 

Appendix L. — Report of the chief of the bureau of agriculture 480 

Exhibit A. — Report on government stock farm on Culion Island— 505 

Exhibit B. — Report on the distribution of seeds 509 

Exhibit C. — Report of superintendent of government rice farm 511 

Exhibit D. — Report on thrashing of palay 513 

Exhibit E. — Report of superintendent of San Ramon farm 514 

Exhibit F. — Report of agricultural college and exi>eriment station. 516 

Exhibit G. — Report of soil physicist 521 

Exhibit H.— Report of fiber expert 531 

Exhibit I.^ — Report on cocoanut Industry 538 

Appendix M. — Report of the director of the Philippine weatlier bu- 
reau — _ 542 

Appendix N. — Report of the acting chief of the ethnological survey— 561 

Report of the governor of Moro Province 572 

Acts of the legislative council of Moro Province : 

No. 19. An act appropriating the sum of 65,158 i^esos, in Philip- 
pines currency, or so much thereof as may be necessary, in part 
compensation for the fiscal year 1904, and for other purposes— 595 
No. 20. An act to provide for the allowance of traveling expenses 
and subsistence expenses of provincial and district ofllcials and 

employees, and to repeal section 3 of act No. 17 598 

No. 21. An act providing for the establishment of the municipali- 
ties of Mati, Davao, Makar, Cotabato, Malabang, Dapitan, 
Cateel, Baganga, and Caraga, and enlarging the municipalities 

of Iligan and Zamboanga 598 

No. 22. An act to provide for the employment of a clerk in the 
oflice of the district governor of Davao, and fixing the salary of 

the district secretary of the district of Davao 600 

No. 23. An act to provide for the employment of certain subordi- 
nate employees In the office of the district governor of the dis- 
trict of Cotabato, and fixing the salaries thereof, and fixing the 

salary of the district secretary of said district 600 

No. 24. An act to provide for the employment of one clerk, class 
9, in addition to those provided for in act No. 12, in the office 

of the provincial engineer, and fixing the salary thereof 600 

No. 25. An act to provide for the organization of the office of the 
district governor, district of Lanao, to provide salaries for the 
employees thereof, and to fix the salary of the secretary of said 

district 601 

No. 26. An act appropriating the sum of 15,237 pesos and 12 cen- 
tavos, Philippines currency, or so much thereof as may be neces- 
sary, to pay various expenses of the government of the Moro 
Province for the first and second quarters of the fiscal year 
1904, not provided for in the general appropriation acts for the 

first and second quarters 601 

No. 27. An act regulating the sale of intoxicating liquora, and re- 
pealing act No. 709 of the Philippine Commission in its applica- 
tion to the Moro Province 604 



X CONTENTS. 

Report of the governor of Moro Province — Continued. Pa««. 

Acts of the legislative council of Moro Province — Continued. 

No. 28. An act appropriating the sum of 1,080 pesos and 10 cen- 
tavos, Philippines currency, or so much thereof as maj be nec- 
essary, to defray the current expenses of the town of Jolo, dis- 
trict of Sulu, for the months of November and December, 1903. 607 

No. 29. An act to provide that the Moro Province shall be the 
beneficiary of the collections derived for timber cut and for- 
estry products on government lands returned to the i»x)Tince 
by the insular government 607 

No. 30. An act extending the time for the payment of the cednla 
tax for the year 1903 in the districts of Cotabato, Lanao, and 
Davao, and the subdistrict of Dapitan 607 

No. 31. An act to amend Act No. 1 of the legislative council of 
the Moro Province, entitled "An act to provide for the employ- 
ment of certain subordinate employees in the oflfice of the 
treasuivr of the Moro Province ; " Act No. 3, entitled "An act 
to provide for the organization of the office of district treas- 
urer of the district of Zamboanga, and fixing tlie salaries of 
the employees thereof ; " Act No. 7, entitled "An act to provide 
for the organization of the offices of the district treasurers of 
the districts of Colabato, Sulu, Davao^ and Lanao, and fixing 
the salaries of the employees thereof" 608 

Na 32. An act to provide for the employment of certain subordi- 
nate employees. In addition to those i»OTtded for in Acts Nob. 13 
and 17, in the office of the superintendent of schools and in 
the public school system of the Moro Province 609 

No. 33. An act appropriating the sum of 92,416 pesos, in Philippines 
currency, or so much thereof as may l)e necessaiy, in part com- 
pensation for the fiscal year 1904, and for other purposes 609 

No. 34. An act appropriating the sum of 892 pesos and 85 centavos, 
Piiililipittes currency, to pay the reward offered by the civil 
governor of the Philii>pine Islands for information leading to 
the arrest and conviction of the murderers of Frank Helm 613 

No. 35. An act to amend Act No. 82 of the Philippine Commission, 
entitled "The municipal code," as amended, in its applica- 
tion to tlie Moro Province 613 

No. 36. An act appropriating the sum of 28,009 pesos, Philipj)ines 
currency, or so much tliereof as may be necessary, for the cou- 
Btrnction and repair of roads in the Moro Province, the con- 
struction of a sdioolliouse at Davao, and in part payment of a 
provincial Jail at Zamboanga 633 

No. 37. An act appropriating the sum of 600 pesos, Philippines 
currency, or so much thereof as may be necessary, to defray the 
current expenses of the town of Jolo, district of Sulu, for the 
month of Januar>'» 1904 633 

No. 38. An act providing for the organization and government 
of the municipalities of Jolo, Siassi, and Cagayan de Sulu 638 

No. 39. An act temporarily to provide for the government of the 
Moros and other non-Christian tribes 633 

No. 40. An act empowering the governor of the Moro Province 
to offer a reward of any sum not exceeding 1,000 pesos, Philip- 
pines currency, for information leading to the arrest and con- 
viction of tlie perpetrators of crime in the Moro Province 639 



CONTENTS. XI 

R^[K>rt of the governor of Mon> ProTince — Continued. !**«?• 

Acts of tbe legislative councii of Moro Province — Continued. 

No. 41. An act authorizing the governor of the Moro Province 
to designate not to exceed five civil service employees of the 
Iirovince to aid in the translation of public laws, and pro- 
viding for the payment of on overtime wage to such em- 
ployees G40 

No. 42. An act to provide for the levy, assessment, and collec- 
tion of an ad valorem tax on land 640 

No. 43. An act to provide in part for the protection of pearl 

fisheries within the jurisdiction of the Moro Province G48 

Na 44. An act to provide for the employment of one clerk, class 
H, in addition to the employees provided for in Act Na 23, in 
the office of the governor of the district of Cotahato, and fixing 
the salary thereof 049 

No. 45. An act appropriating the sum of 05,697 pesos and 95 ccn- 
tavos in Philippines currency, or so much thereof as may be 
necessary, in part compensation for the fiscal year 1904, and 
tor other purposes 049 

No. 40. An act appropriating the sum of 5,000 pesos, Philippines 
currency, for the repair and reconstruction of the government 
wharf at Zamboanga 053 

No. 47. An act subjecting the use, licensing, and registration of 
boats of Moro or pagan construction to the provisions of the 
general customs administrative law 053 

No. 48. An act to amend Act No. 35 of the legislative council, en- 
titled •* The municipal code of the Moro Province " 053 

No. 49. An act appropriating the sum of 1,998 pesos and 93 cen- 
tavos, Philippines currency, or so much thereof as may be nec- 
essary, for sundry expenses of the government of the Moro 
Province for the third and fourth quarters of the fiscal year 
1904 054 

No. 50. An act creating district boards 054 

No. 51. An act regulating tbe fishing for shells of marine mol- 
luscfl, and amending Act No. 43 of the legislative council 054 

No. 52. An act to provide for the payment of the costs of criminal 
prosecutions and preliminary investigations before justices of 
tbe peace appointed in accordance with the provisions of sec- 
tion 27 of Act No. 787 of the Philippine Commission, as 
amended by Act No. 1104 of the Philippine Ci^nraission 057 

No. 53. An act amending section 1 of Act No. 12 of the legislative 
council, entitled "An act to provide for the employment of cer- 
tain subordinate employees In the office of the engineer of the 
Moro Province and fixing tbe salaries thereof" 058 

No. 54. An act api>ropriatlng tbe sura of 3,154 pesos and 10 cen- 
ta%'OS, Phnipi>ines currency, or so much thereof as may be nec- 
essary, for the constructiiMi of bridges at Jolo 058 

No. 55. An act appropriating the sum of 1,850 pesos, Philippines 
currency, or so much thereof as may be necessary, for the con- 
struction In the municipality of Zamboanga of a public market 
for the especial use of the Moro and other non-Christian inhab- 
itants of the district of Zamboanga, and providing for the 
administration thereof _ 059 



XII CONTENTS. 

lEeport of the governor of Moro Province — Continued. Page. 

Acts of the legislative council of Moro Province — Continued. 

No. 56. An act to provide for the employment of temporary clerks 
to aid in the preparation of the tax list of the municipality of 
Zamboanga for the year 1904, and to authorize the payment of 
extra compensation to native teachers on vacation so employed. 659 

No. 57. An act authorizing the employment, under certain condi- 
tions, of enlisted men of the United States Army as skilled 
laborers on public works 660 

No. 58. An act appropriating the sum of 1G4 i)esos, Philippines 
currency, or so much thereof as may be necessary, for the pay- 
ment of the salaries of the temporary clerks apiwinted under 
the provisions of Act No. 5C of the legislative council 660 

No. 59. An act appropriating the sum of 11,000 i^sos, Philip- 
pines currency, from the 300,000 pesos of the Congressional 
relief fund allotted the Moro Province for the emergency im- 
provement of the Illgan-Lake Lanao road 660 

No. 60. An act appropriating the sum of 1,500 pesos, Philippines 
currency, for the repair and reconstruction of the government 
wharf at Zamboanga 661 

No. 61. An act appropriating the sum of 81,938 pesos and 85 
centavos in Philippines currency', or so much thereof as may be 
necessary, in part compensation for the fiscal year 1905, and for 
other purposes 661 

No. 62. An act amending section 1 of Act No. 12 of the legislative 
council, entitled "An act to provide for the employment of cer- 
tain subordinate employees in the office of the engineer of the 
Moro Province and fixing the salaries thereof " 665 

No. 63. An act appropriating the sum of 25,490 pesos and 70 
centavos in Philippines currency, or so much thereof as may be 
necessary, for certain public works and permanent improve- 
ments of the government of the Moro Province 665 

No. 64. An act making additional appropriations for sundry ex- 
penses of the government of the Moro Province for the first 
quarter of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, and for other 
purposes 666 

No. 65. An act to i)rovide for the employment of one clerk, class 
9, in addition to those provided for in act No. 1, in the office of 
the provincial treasurer, and fixing the salary thereof 667 

No. GG. An act amending section 1 of Act No. 21 of the legis- 
lative council, entitled "An act providing for the establishment 
of the municipalities of Matl, Davao, Malair, Cotabato, Maia- 
bang, Dapitan, Cateel, Baganga, and Caraga, and enlarging the 
municipalities of Iligan and Zamboanga '* 667 

No. 67. An act to prevent the further introduction into the Moro 
Province of epidemic diseases of large cattle, and to provide 
measures for tiie suppression of the present epidemic of such 
diseases, and making approprisition for the expenses thereof 668 

No. G8. An act to provide for the employment of a temi)orary clerk 
in the registry of property and making appropriation for the 
payment of the salary thereof 670 

No. G9. An act authorizing the governor of the Moro Province to 
establish harbor lines for the preservation and protection of the 
harbors, bays, and navigable lakes and rivers of the province— 670 



CONTENTS. XIII 

Report of the governor of Moro Province — CJontinued. Page. 
Acts of the legislative council of Moro Province — Continued. 

No. 70. An act to provide for the employment of one teacher, in 
addition to those provided for in Acts Nos. 17 and 32 of the 
legislative council of the Moro Province, in the public school 

system of the Moro Province 670 

Report of Capt George T. Langhome on trip to Sarawak, Java, and 

the Federated Malay States 671 

Part HI. 

Report of the department of commerce and police 1 

Bureau of Philippine Constabulary 1 

Information division 3 

Telegraph division . 4 

Medical division 4 

Ordnance department 4 

Bureau of coast guard and transportation 4 

Light-houses 5 

Engineer Island 5 

Bureau of engineering 6 

Bureau of posts 9 

Bureau of prisons 9 

Benguet improvements 10 

Naguilian 11 

Benguet ^ 11 

Bureau of coast and geodetic survey 12 

Telephones 12 

Harbor lines commission 13 

Appendixes : 

Report of the chief of the Philippines Constabulary 15 

Report of the first district 67 

Report of the second district 82 

Report of the third district 91 

Report of the fourth district 97 

Report of the fifth district 121 

Report of the chief of the bureau of coast guard and transporta- 
tion 127 

Report of the light-house engineer 134 

Report of the division of ligM-house maintenance 154 

Report of the division of vessels 158 

Report of the coast-guard cutter Tablas 182 

Report of the disbursing officer 186 

Report of the paymaster 189 

Report of the bureau of engineering 192 

Report of the division of railroads 223 

Report of the chief of supervisors 245 

Report of Benguet improvements 257 

Report of Benguet road 260 

Report of the bureau of posts 276 

Report of the bureau of prisons 314 

Report of the resident physician 332 

Report of the bureau of coast and geodetic survey 330 

Report of the secretary of finance and Justice 349 

Administration of justice 349 



XIV CONTENTS. 

HeiKirt of the secretary of ftnanee and justice — Continued. P«««. 

New legislation T^ating to courts 351 

Court of customs appeals 353 

Court of land registration 353 

Criminal code and code of criminal procedure 356 

Changes in the personnel of the courts 357 

Attomey-generars ofiice 358 

Insular cold-storage and ice plant 359 

Currency 360 

New coinage and seigniorage _ 360 

Amount of new coinage received and in oii'culation 361 

Estimation of old currency 363 

Silver certificates 36:?. 

Islands now practically on a gold basis 364 

Exchange sold from the gold-standard fund 365 

How these results were accomplished 365 

Banks and banking 369 

The customs service and the tariff 378 

The new internal-revenue law 1 384 

The treasury and auditor's office 390 

Congressional relief fund 393 

Friar lands funds 393 

Insular budget 394 

Budget of city of Manila 397 

Financial condition of the provinces and municipalities 398 

Exhibit 1. — Ueport of the clerk of land registration 403 

Exhibit 2. — Report of the attorney-general for the Pliilippine Islands. 409 
Exhibit 3. — Reix)rt of the sui)erintendent of tke insular cold-storage 

and ice plant 436 

Exhibit 4. — HeiJOrt of the acting sui^erintendent of tlie insular cold- 
storage and ice plant 478 

Exhibit 5. — Receipts and disbursentents of the isfnilar cold-storage 

and Ice plant 486 

Exhibit 6. — Report of the chief of the division of currency' 487 

Exhibit 7. — Rei)ort of the collector of customs for the Philippine 

Islands 504 

Appendix A. — Comparative statistical suoimaries 540 

Appendix B. — Vessels inspected and granted certificates at tiie 

port of Manila , 575 

Appendix C 1. — Official numl>ers and signal letters of coastwise 

vessels 577 

ApptMidix C 2, — List of vessels to whlt4i official numl>ei*8 have 

been assigned in the Philippine Islands 581 

Appendix C 3. — Supplemental list of vessels to which certificates 

of ])rotoctlon have been issued 016 

Appendix D. — Parts of Internal -revenue law of 1904, with tem- 
porary rules for the collection of the tax on imported matches, 
and designating certain customs officers as Internal-revenue 

collectors for that purpose 021 

Api)endix E. — Regulations for the division of spwial agents of 

the Philippine customs service 624 

Appendix F. — Si)ecial report of the insular collector of customs 
on the registration of Chinese i)ersons in the Philippine 

Islands C28 



CONTENTS. XV 

Report of tbe secretary of finance and Justice — Continued. Page. 
Exhibit 7. — Report of the collector of customs for the Philippine 
Islands — Continued. 

Appendix G. — Report of the deputy surveyor of customs in 

charge of Arrastre 053 

Exhibit 8. — Rejwrt of the acting collector of internal revenue Co9 

Exhibit 9. — Report of the collector of internal revenue 662 

Exhibit 10.— Reiwrt of the auditor for the Philippine Islands 682 

Report of the secretary of public instruction 811 

Bureau of education 813 

Organization 813 

General superintendent 814 

Division superintendents 815 

Teaching force 816 

Filipino teachers 810^ 

Primary schools 821 

Intermediate schools 822 

Secondary schools 823 

Philippine normal school 824 

School of arts and trades 825 

Nautical school 826 

Schools in the Moro Province 827 

Pagan schools 828 

Students sent to the United States 829 

School buildings 831 

Cost of public Instruction 833 

Bureau of architecture and construction of public buildings 835 

Bureau of public printing 839 

Value of product and cost of production 839 

Matters of general Interest 840 

Instruction of native craftsmen and apprentices 841 

Bureau of archives 842 

American Circulating Library 844 

Official Gazette 845 

Exhibit A. — Report of the general superintendent of education 847 

Exhibit B. — Report of the superintendent of Filipino students In the 

United States covering the Filipino student movement 919 

Exhibit C— Report of the chief of the bureau of architecture and 

construction of public buildings 931 

Exhibit D.— Report of the public printer 946 

Exhibit E. — Report of the chief of the bureau of archives 954 

Exhibit F.— Report of the trustee of the American Circulating Li- 
brary . 961 

Exhibit G.— Report of the editor of the Official Gazette I 964 

Rei)ort of the Chief of the Bureau of Insular Affairs 973 



REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND POLICE. 



DEPARTaiENT OP G)MM£KCE AND PoLICB, 

Manila, P. /., November 7, 1904' 
Sirs : I have the honor to make the following report of the opera- 
tions of the various bureaus of the department of commerce and 
police during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904, and for the months 
of July and August, 1904 : 

BUREAU OF PHILIPPINES CONSTABULARY. 

The Philippines Constabulary were increased from 275 officers and 
6,774 enlisted men at the beginning of the fiscal year to 288 officers 
and 6,950 enlisted men at the close. The necessity and importance 
of this force are conclusively shown by the record of their perform- 
ance during the year and by fhe fact that the American troops in the 
islands, numbering at the beginning of the fiscal year 18,000 men 
and occupying 79 posts, have oeen reduced to 12,000 men occupying 
89 posts. .Oi the 50 companies of scouts, numbering 5,000 men, 81 
companies were detailed to service under the chief of the Philippines 
Constabulary during the fiscal year and actively engaged in assisting 
in the maintenance of order. The present arrangement, however, is 
unsatisfactory in one respect. The scouts are under-officered, and as 
the law provides that they can only serve under the chief or assistant 
chiefs or tlie constabulary it is impossible to use the bulk of the offi- 
cers of the Philippines Constabulary to supply the deficiency in the 
number of scout officers, thus creating a dearth of men who can com- 
mand the scouts. This makes it impossible to divide the scouts up 
into bmall detachments, such as the peculiar needs of the serdce 
require. It is estimated that the efficiency of these troops could be 
increased 100 per cent if they were given the additional officers which 
the law has made provision for them to have. The value of native 
troops has passed wholly beyond the experimental stage and is demon- 
strated beyond question. The chief of the constabulary reports : 

The service of the native troops has conclusively shown the wisdom of their 
creation. In the first place, they are efiieient and relatively economical. In 
the second place, their organization, with the training and education they 
receive, materially aids in the development of the country. The experimental 
stage has passed. 

The constabulary are to be congratulated upon having so far 
reduced the ladrones that it is now safe to travel practically through- 
out the archipelago. During the year the officials of all the depart- 
ments of the government, including nearly 1,000 teachers, officers of 
the forestry bureau, mining bureau, bureau of agriculture, ethno- 
logical survey, provincial officers, supervisors and foremen in charge 

WAR 1904— VOL 13 1 1 



I REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

of construction of roads, have traveled from end to end of the islands, 
penetrating regions hitherto unexplored and seeing people who have 
never before seen white men, and almost without exception have not 
been molested. Members of the Commission and other officials go^ 
freely everywhere unarmed and without guards. The activity of the* 
constabulary has resulted in practically wiping out the curse of 
ladronism, which has done so much to render any real development of 
the islands impossible. They have hunted tliese scattered bands 
down, killed or captured the members, until now there are only a few 
of the old leaders left, and these skulk in the mountains with the 
weight of public opinion against them, many of the natives who used 
to help them now endeavoring to effect their capture and giving 
information of their whereabouts to the authorities, so that they 
hardly dare to sleep two nights in the same place. In the course of 
this work parties of constabulary have covered over 158,000 miles, as 
against 222,000 in the previous year. They have captured 706 fire- 
arms in 1904, as against 948, and it is believed that these captures have 
reduced the numter of arms illegally held in the archipelago to such 
a point that there are at present outstanding not more than were cap-' 
tured in the last year. During the year they killed and wounded 570 
outlaws, as against 1,185 in the previous year, and captured 1,364, as 
against 2,722. Their losses were 63 men and 2 officers killed this 
year, as against 78 men and 5 officers in the previous year. The loy- 
alty of the men is demonstrated by the fact that there were but 52 
desertions, as against 84 in the previous year, and considering that 23 
of these were concerned in one mutiny, which was instigated by the 
return of the insurgent leader Ricarte, now serving a long term in 
Bilibid Prison, it can be seen that the percentage of desertions is so 
small that for all practical purposes it can be considered negligible. 
^ For the purposes of administration the archipelago is divided into 
five constabulary districts. The first district, covering the provinces 
nearest Manila, is inhabited mostly by the Ta^&logs, who have been 
the cause of most of the disturbances. This mstrict has been under 
the very able command of Colonel Scott, whose enforced departure 
to the States on sick leave is very much regretted by the department. 
The whole district is in a condition of unprecedented tranquillity and, 
except for a handful of scattered outlaws, too hardly pressed by 
the constabulary to be able to gather any bands or to commit depre- 
dations, there are no disturbing elements to the peace of the com- 
munity. 

In the second district, comprising practically all of the south of 
Luzon, reports show everything more quiet than at any time in its 
history. The body of the outlaw Roldan and four of his com- 
panions were recently brought in by his own men for the reward 
offered by the government, thus removing the only disturbing ele- 
ment. 

In the third district, comprising the Visayan Islands, the Pula- 
janes, who are religious fanatics, have recently become involved in an 
outbreak which extended through parts of Oebu, Leyte, and Samar. 
Bands of these people, armed with a few guns and many bolos, 
have kept in hiding in the mountains and have descended on the 
coast towns in different directions, burning a few houses and murder- 
ing a few people, mostly natives, and indiscriminately men, women, 
and children. The whole movement seems purposeless and is un- 



BEPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 3 

doubtedly due to ignorance and superstition on the part of the men 
^ligaged m it. Several Americans, mchiding one constabulary officer, 
haTe been killed, and a few enlisted men of the constabulary and 
scouts killed and wounded in addition during the months of" July, 
August, and September, 1904. Additional companies of both con- 
stabulary und scouts have moved into the infected region and are 
pressing the Pula janes very hard. The inhabitants of the coast 
towns seem to be loyal and inclined to help the troops in defending 
their towns against attacks. It is hoped in a short time to quell these 
disturbances, as there are already signs that the Pula janes are tiring 
of it, and many captures have been made. 

In the fourth district, comprising the provinces of northern Luzon, 
everything is reported quiet, except occasional disputes and small 
fights among the wild tribes. These difficulties have always existed. 

In the fifth district, comprising the Moro provinces in Mindanao, 
the Americans have undertaken the advance of civilization among 
peoples who have never before been brought imder modern rule. In- 
dications are that the great island of Mindanao, with its immense 
potential wealth, wijl soon be as safe and available for development 
as any in the group. 

The Commission, in its appropriation for the fiscal year 1905, has 
provided, for economical reasons^ for a reduction of the constabulary 
force to 6,000 men, these reductions to take place ffradually during 
the course of the year. This and the Pulajanes difficulties in the 
Visayan Islands have caused the civil governor to ask for seven addi- 
tional companies of scouts, which have been assigned by the general 
commanding the Philippines Division to service under the chief of 
the constabmary, many of them being employed in Samar. 

It frequently happens that where a Filipino is advanced to a posi- 
tion of authority that, until he becomes accustomed to the responsi- 
bilities of his office, he abuses his privileges. The enlisted natives 
need constant and rigorous supervision by competent officers to pre- 
vent their using their newly acquired authority to oppress the people 
they are supposed to serve. 

There are occasional complaints in regard to abuses by the Amer- 
ican officers, and these are given immediate and careful attention. 
Wherever any abuse is founa to have been committed severe disci- 
pline is meted out to the offenders, but in most cases it is noticeable 
that the complaints come from the more lawless regions, and when 
investigated are likely to show that they emanated from people who 
are compelled to observe laws they wish to break and whose personal 
records are not above suspicion. 

In general it can be said that the constabulary are a good, efficient 
or^nization, well officered, well manned, well drilled, and accom- 
plishing in full measure the purpose for which they were organized. 

INFORMATION DR'ISION. 

Under the operation of this division there have been 1,400 arrests 
of outlaws and other criminals. Eighty-one firearms have been cap- 
tured. The natives have given ready, intelligent, and very valuable 
advice as detectives and secret-service agents, although there is great 
risk attached to this service, as shown by the fact that 6 out of a 
total rostrum of 118 of these officers were killed during the year. 



4 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

TELEGRAPH DIVISION. 

The telegraph division is now operated jointly by the insular and 
the United States Government. The tendency has been for the 
United States Government to turn over to the constabulary the duty 
of caring for this service. This fact will account in part for tite 
large increase of miles of telegraph from 606 to 2,037^operated by the 
telegraph division of the constabulary during the year. The miles of 
telephone also increased from 1,871 to 2,213: the cable from 85 to 
163 miles; telegraph offices have increased irom 23 to 60, and the 
telephones in use from 155 to 350 outside of the city of Manila. 
Seven hundred and seventy-seven miles of new construction were 
completed, iron poles being largely used. The short life of wooden 
poles in this climate makes these almost a necessity. The United 
States Signal Corps operates, in addition, 1,351 miles of telegraph, 
1,460 miles of cable, and 398 miles of telephone in the archipelago. 

medicaia division. 

The constabulary supports 7 hospitals and 2 wards, aggregating 
200 beds. Thirteen hundred and thirty-two cases were treated, with 
a mortality of only 26. The superintendent of the division states 
that the native solaier is quick to learn the duties required by the 
Hospital Corps, and that only one instance has ever been brought to 
his attention where a native has not exceeded reasonable expecta- 
tions. 

ORDNANCE DEPARTMENT. 

All the firearms in the islands not in the hands of the military and 
the constabulary are registered in the ordnance department. Those 
in the hands of individuals are covered by licenses issued by the 
constabulary or by the provincial governments, under bond, to be for- 
feited to the government in case the arms are lost. The total number 
of permits outstanding, of all kinds, is now 4,749. 

For additional information and details in regard to the operations 
of this bureau attention is called to the annual report for the fiscal 
year, submitted by Brig. Gen. Henry T. Allen, and supplemental re- 
port covering the period from July 1 to September 22; also reports 
to him of the officers conunanding the five constabulary districts and 
of the chief supply officer. 

BUREAU OF COAST GUARD AND TRANSPORTATION. 

This bureau is now operating 17 steamers, 6 seagoing launches, 1 
river steamer, 6 river and harbor launches, and 1 sailing sloop. The 
coast-guard cutters, as the steamers are called, are kept continually 
in use, and perform excellent service in providing transportation for 
government officials, carrying supplies, expediting and rendering pos- 
sible the movement of the various government agents to the less access- 
ible parts of the archipelago. There are now 11 routes upon which reg- 
ular trips are made, 5 of which have headquarters at Manila. During 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904, the various steamers and launches 
of the coast-guard service traveled over 350,000 miles, visited over 4,000 
ports, carried over 15,000 passengers, and over 5,000 tons of freight, 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 5 

including 5,000,000 pesos in cash. Attention is called to the report of 
the cruiser Tobias^ used to prevent smuggling into the Moro Islands. 
On one occasion the sailors from the coast guard landed to help the 
constabulary against the ladroncs in Samar. 

There has been some complaint made by the owners of the merchant 
steamers that the lar^ use of government ships takes so much of the 
business as to make it impossible for them to operate at a profit. Witti 
a view to considering this point, the civil governor has appointed a 
committee to consider all questions of island and interisland transpor- 
tation, and determine, among other important questions, whether it 
would be advisable to take off the boats oelonging to the insular gov- 
ernment from the main avenues of commerce and turn the government 
business over to the commercial lines. This committee is now at work 
on the problem. It has been the effort of the government to prevent 
the use of the coast-guard vessels from interfering with the business 
of the commercial lines in carrying any passengers and freight other 
than those incident to the government service. 

LIGHT-HOUSES. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year 61 lights were in operation, 
including 15 flashing lights, 5 fixea lights, and 41 minor lights. At 
the end of the fiscal year 15 new lights had been put in operation, 
bringing the total up to 76, including 19 flashing lights, 8 fixed lights, 
and 54 minor lights. The Spanish Government had made plans for 
a very comprehensive system of lights, and many of them were in 
course of construction at the time of American occupation. The 
insurgents, apparently not alive to the importance of aias to naviga- 
tion, rather ruthlessly despoiled the light-houses of their machinery, 
and the equipment of the light-houses has been gathered sometimes 
from great aistances and at considerable expense, until the system 
is now in a fair way to become adequate. Many of the partly con- 
structed Spanisli light-houses are now nearing completion under 
American supervision, and the Commission has appropriated money 
for several much-needed new light-houses, to be ready as soon as the 
construction can be completed. Lack of funds has prevented the 
Government from undertaking some much-needed new construction 
which will render navigation much more certain. 

ENGINEER ISLAND. 

Engineer Island, situated on the south side of the mouth of th^ 
Pasig River, was set aside for the use of the bureau of coast guard and 
transportation by act of the Commission, in June, 1903. The act 
authorized the construction of shops, a marine railway, and other 
facilities for handling the business of the bureau. This work is now 
nearing completion. The building for the machine shops is about 
completed, and the machinery will soon be in place. The marine rail* 
way, contract for which was let in February, 1904, is in process of 
construction and will undoubtedly be ready in December of this year, 
the time called for in the contract. 

For additional information and details attention is called to the 
attached report for the fiscal year, submitted by Commander J. "h/L 



6 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Helm, chief of the bureau' of coast guard and transportation ; also, 
supplemental reports for the months of July and August, 1904, and 
reports of the light-house engineer, light-house inspector, marine 
superintendent, and paymaster. 

BUREAU OF ENGINEERING. 

The work of this bureau has been constant and increasing, and it is 
certain that with the development of the resources and growth of the 
conmierce of the islands its neld will assume ^eater ana greater pro- 
Ix)rtions. The work is classified into a division of records, division 
of surveys, division of construction, division of drafting, division of 

Erovincial supervisors, and division of railroads. The chief of the 
ureau recommends the creation of a division of irrigation and a 
division of geography. The former officer could well devote all his 
time to improvements of rivers and waterworks and the maintenance 
of existing systems of irrigation, which, from lack of proper atten- 
tion, are suffered to deteriorate ; and the latter is urgently needed to 
supply a suitable map of the islands and collate all the information 
which is being brought in from various sources, which show inaccu- 
racies in the existing maps to a degree that makes them unreliable for 
many practical purposes. 

A general review of the work of the bureau brings into prominence 
some extremely interesting facts. During the year the insular gov- 
ernment has engaged in the construction of 274 miles of new road, of 
which part is completed and part still remains unfinished. The 
monej for these has been appropriated principally out of the Con- 
gressional relief fund. The bureau has completed surveys and made 
recommendations in regard to 157 miles of additional road. i 

The development of roads is probably the most important step in 
the development of the commerce of the islands. The Spaniards 
made a practice of diverting to other uses money raised for the main- 
tenance and repair of roads, and thus it seldom accomplished its real 
purpose. Practically the only work which was done on the roads 
came from compulsory labor under the laws which then obtained. 
At present, during the rainy season, the narrow-tired bull carts, fol- 
lowing one another in a single rut, wear even the best road through, 
making them a series of quagmires through which the bulls toil up to 
their knees in the mud and dragging the carts, whose wheels are sub- 
merged to the axle. This necessitates very light loads if the carts are 
to get through and renders any extensive movement of products or 
merchandise impossible. 

The two main objects to be served by the development of roads are: 
First, military, and second, commercial. With the advent of good 
roads comes the advent of peace, for in the presence of quick trans- 
portation the ladrone moves out, and until the ladrone has gone 
industry can- not begin. The practical extinction of the ladrone 
brings the commercial use of the road into first place. It is nec- 
essary that the main avenues of commerce should oe made passable. 
It seems, therefore, that the time has come for the government to 
change its policy and direct its energies and revenue, both provincial 
and insular, toward putting the existing roads in permanent serv- 
iceable condition. Tliis can be done at a much less cost per mile than 
in construction of new roads and will render much greater service per 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. . 7 

mile, and still more per dollar expended, than any new road could 
reasonably be expected to do. Every year the roads which are not 
kept up deteriorate, and it is better that the provincial revenues 
should be exi>ended in keeping good roads in good repair than in 
making bad roads temporarily passable. 

In mis connection the report of the chief of supervisors is full of 
interest. It shows that in the * aggregate the provinces completed 
252 miles of new road, at a cost of about 300,000 pesos, and repaired 
1,C62 miles of old road, at an aggregate expense of about 400,000 
TOS06. There were 682 brides and culverts built and 458 repaired. 
The labor, of course, was principally Filipino, and the report shows 
the equivalent of 1,545,801 single days' work having been done dur- 
ing the year. The Clommission has enacted a law prohibiting the use 
of the narrow-tired bull cart. This law is absolutely necessary if 
the good roads which have been constructed and the repairs made on 
the old roads are to be of any permaneiit value. It is a verv difficult 
matter to enforce the law, as the price of the new wheels is high, and 
it is difficult to compel the native to buy them, as he does not have the 
money. Experiments are being made in Bilibid prison looking to 
a reduction m the cost of this construction, and figures will soon be 
obtainable. It is hoped that some device may be reached which will 
put the right kind oi wheel and axle within reach of everybody. 

Next to development of roads, the improvement of the harbors of 
the islands merits the attention of the Commission. The approach- 
ing completion of the port works of Manila will make a demand for 
good harbors in the other principal ports of the islands immediate 
and urgent. To meet this the Commission has authorized the con- 
struction of improvements in Iloilo and Cebu, for which contracts 
have been let, involving about $500,000 gold for Cebu and $250,000 
gold for Iloilo. These works will be started immediately, and it 
IS anticipated that the Iloilo works will be finished in about thirteen 
months from date. Cebu will take nearly a year longer. 

It is hoped that as soon as funds become available which can be 
devoted to harbor improvements the Commission will turn their 
attention to the most needed unimproved harbors and complete them 
in order of their importance, with a view to enabling ships to load 
and unload at wharves provided with adequate warehouses and save 
the annoyance, risk, and expense incident to lighterage. In this con- 
nection tne chief of the bureau of engineering says : 

PracticaHy all of tbe harbors are lacking proper wharfing facilities. Vessels 
necessarily anchor about 1 mile from shore, and lighterage is accomplished 
by cascoes, from which the goods are packed to the beach by men or carabao 
carts, which are driven as far as possible into the surf. The resulting expense 
In the discharge or shipment of cargoes is large, and considerable damage to the 
goods is incurred. 

The large number of rivers navigable for vessels of light draft pre- 
sent a system of communication of extraordinary promise to the 
development of the islands, and it is estimated that a single dredger 
operating continuously on the various bars \vhich obstruct the mouths 
of all these rivers would render a great service to the coastwise trade 
at a comparatively small expense. 

Some of the rivers of these islands present features worthy of note. 
The heavy rainfall and precipitous watersheds present a condition 



8 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

that brings about floods, and many of these rivers are known to rise 
20 or 30 feet in the course of a few hours, causing very severe damage 
to property and often menace to life. The Commission has received 
from various provinces petitions to have controlling works undertaken 
to prevent fertile lands or fine buildings from being destroyed. Such 
work usually involves extremely expensive construction, often in 
excess of the market value of the property to be saved, and it has been 
impossible to undertake this work for lack of funds. 

The bureau has investigated several water powers during the year, 
and it is hoped that the high price of coal may be offset in somo 
measure by development of water power. It is common practice in 
the United States to carry large amounts of power distances ranging 
from 30 to 150 miles, and there is reason to believe that within reach 
of Manila there is more than one good water power the development 
of which will materially decrease the cost of power in the city. It is 
by no means certain that electric power is not the proper motive power 
for the railroads of these islands, and this feature lends great impor- 
tance to these investigations. 

Ai)pended to the report of the bureau of engineering, under the 
division of railroads, is a very complete statement of the business of 
the Manila and Dagupan Eailroad. The most noticeable feature in 
this is the enormous increase in the third-class passenger business, 
which is carried to a point far in excess of anything in the previous 
history of the railroad. 

The demand for additional railroads is constant, pressing, and 
insistent, and comes from all classes and many directions. The exist- 
ing railroad company has applied for a franchise to extend its line in 
several directions and build new lines in others. Many other applica- 
tions for franchises have been received. All action in this matter is 
withheld, pending decision by Congress upon the bill authorizing the 
Commission to guarantee interest upon the construction of new rail- 
roads. It is hoped that the company or companies which obtain the 
Erivilege of building in the most populous districts where the largest 
usiness may be reached will be induced by means of a government 
guaranty to' build through some of the less populous regions, thus 
serving the double purpose of developing the resources of the regions 
now out of reach and bringing the lertile and populous regions 
beyond into closer communication with Manila. It is very desirable 
to have a railroad from Manila to the fertile and populous province of 
Batangas, and it is hoped that such a road could be extended so as to 
reach the rich and populous hemp districts at the southern part of 
Luzon. Another district of Luzon which it is very desirable should 
be brought within reach of Manila is the great and fertile valley of 
the Cagayan River, with its immense potential wealth and proved 
fertility. It is also desirable that the west coast of Luzon, from 
Dagupan to Vigan, and perhaps Laoag, be reached by railroad. 

During the year this bureau has completed surveys of the so-called 
" friar lands " agreements for the purchase of which have been entered 
inte by the government. This work was complicated by the fact that 
die title submitted did not have accurate plans and boundary marks 
in every case, and the title to the land in question involved a good 
many questions of ownership. 

For additional information and details attention is called to annual 
report of Mr. J. W. Beardsley, consulting engineer to the Commission, 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 9 

for the fiscal year, and supplementary report for July and August of 
1904, to which are attached reports of the railroad engineer ana of the 
chief of supervisors. 

BUREAU OF POSTS. 

During thq year the business of the post-offices showed a steady 
growth, the number of post-offices having increased from 213 at the 
beginning of the fiscal year to 3,191 at the close. As very few of 
these admtional post-offices are self-supporting, it is the policy of the 
Commission to go slow and not increase the number of post-offices 
further at present. They have limited the number to be established 
during the present fiscal year so as not to exceed a total of 460 post- 
offices in the aggregate. This step was taken purely in the interest 
of economy. 

The post-office in Manila is now moved into its new location in the 
Cuartel Fortin Building, which gives better space and more than 
double the facilities of its previous site, but at best can be regarded as' 
a temporary expedient. 

Too large a proportion of the mail is carried under official frank, 
and is not revenue producing. It may be necessary to take measures 
to protect the government from improper use of the mails in this 
way. 

Begulations are now in force providing that United States stamps 
not countersigned with the wora " Philippines " are not accepted in 
Philippine post-offices, and stamps so countersigned are not accepted 
in United States post-offices. This change was reported to have 
worked little hardship. 

Plans are being prepared for an issue of distinctive stamps of the 
Philippine Islands. The money-order business in operation at 88 
offices at the beginning of the fiscal year has been increased by 30 
additional offices and is now in operation at the capital city of each 
province. It is used largely^ for remittances of money to the United 
States, and the business continues to grow. 

The director of posts speaks very favorably of the result of his 
employing Filipinos, and he reports that he has now 102 Americans 
and 287 Filipino postmasters, and 72 American and 84 Filipino 
clerks. This is a great increase in the proportionate number of Fili- 
pinos employed the preceding year, and is very gratifying. Some 
improvement has been made in the transportation during the year, 
both as regards regularity and frequency. Much of this is due to the 
establishment of coast guard routes and the service given by the 
army transports. It is hoped that arrangements may be completed 
by which this business win be done more and more by commercial 
Imes. 

For additional information and details attention is invited to 
annual report for the fiscal year submitted by Mr. C. M. Cotterman, 
director of posts. 

BUREAU OF PRISONS. 

The Commission has ruled that wherever prisoners are sentenced 
for more than two years in any of the provinces they shall be trans- 
ferred from the provincial jail to Bilibid. Under the operation 
of this rule, aided by the vigilance and activity of the constabulary 



10 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

in hunting down ladrones, the prisoners increased from 2,776 at the 
beginning of the fiscal year to 4,318 prisoners at the end, an increase 
of 55 per cent. This has filled up Bilibid to an extent not contem- 
plated at the time of its construction. It is not anticipated that any 
such increase will occur in the present fiscal year, because the trans- 
fers from the provincial jails have been completed and the operations 
of the constabulary have reduced the number of outlaws ou^tanding 
to a comparatively few individuals, very small in number and adept 
in the art of concealment. 

During the year the cost for maintenance per capita of prisoners 
was 33^ centavos per day, or less than 17 cents gold. This takes no 
account of receipts from sales of manufactured articles. The prison 
is engaged in the manufacture of carriages, clothing for their own 
use, laundry, furnitui'e, and a few specialties, but these operations 
have not yet developed to a point where they give anything like an 
adequate return for the amount of potential labor. An effort will 
•be made to give employment to the prisoners in such a way as to 
educate as many as possible in some trade that will be useful to them 
after their release and at the same time help maintain them while 
in confinement. The opening of the extensive carpenter shops near- 
ing completion will tend to bring about this result. The business 
of making wide-tired wheels for the provinces is one which might 
prove very advantageous both to the prison and to the provinces. 
The government has been very careful not to have prison labor 
compete with legitimate business enterprises in the open market. It 
is hoped that this policy will not be carried so far as to prevent the 
prison from becommg more nearly self -supporting. 

The rapid increase in the prison population has necessitated sev- 
eral additional buildings to provide accommodation, and this work 
has been done mostl v by prison labor. 

The discipline oi the prison is good, and the health as good as 
could be expected where there has b^n such overcrowding of quarters 
as has been necessary pending completion of the new. Additional 
hospital facilities and more sleeping space are necessities if the 
health of the prisoners is to bo preserved. It is noticeable that with 
the substitution of bread for nee in the native rations beriberi has 
almost disappeared. Considering the calls that have been made on 
it during the last year, the prison has been carried on in a high state 
of efficiency, and it speaks well for the corps of officers. The fine 
physique of the long-term prisoners, who have thrived under the 
regular life and gooafood accorded them, is in sharp contrast to the 
appearance of the short-term prisoners, who present the more emaci- 
ated appearance, which is characteristic of the Filipino of the lower 
classes. 

For additfonal information and details attention is invited to 
annual report of Mr. M. L. Stewart, acting warden, and his supple- 
mental report for the months of July and August, 1904, to which 
are attached reports of the resident physician andof the chaplain. 

BENGUET IMPROVEMENTS. 

The constructibn of the Benguet road is being pushed rapidly to 
completion. Col. L. W. V. Kennon, the officer in charge, has proved 
himself capable of surmounting the many obstacles which present 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 11 

themselres, and is completing a road of easy grades, few curves, and 
of a permanent nature. The roadbed can readily be adapted for an 
electric railway whenever the time comes for the construction of such 
a road, although it will require a good deal of expensive bridging to 
prepare the road for the railroad. The canyon is narrow, and wind- 
mg, the rocks on either side precipitous, and the material of which the 
rocks are composed and their nature are such that it was found neces- 
sary to strip the hillsides sometimes for several hundred feet in height 
in order to make sure that the material above would not slide down, 
thus rendering travel dangerous. There are now over 3,000 men at 
work, and it is estimated that the road will be finished during this 
fiscal year. The bridges — ^wherever it seemed wise to complete the 
permanent construction — and culverts are of cement, as wood was 
found to rot too rapidly to be safe. The highest grade is 9 per cent, 
and the sharpest curve 80 feet in radius. While a very small part 
of the whole is actually finished at the present time, the bulk oi the 
work is done, the finishing touches being very easily put on by a gang 
of finishers. In the difficult and dangerous work it is found that the 
white men are the most efficient, the full-blooded negro next, while 
nearly a thousand Japanese are employed and are giving very good 
service in the other difficult parts of the work. Filipino laborers, 
of whom there are over a thousand now employed on the road, have to 
be educated very gradually up to this sort oi thing, but there is one 
body of Tagalogs who have attained great skill and have proved 
themselves to be very serviceable workers, having been a long time 
with the road. Colonel Kennon speaks highly of their work. 

NAGUILIAN. 

Nothing further is being done toward the completion of the road 
to Benguet from San Fernando known as the " Naguilian Trail." It 
is passable for horses. 

BENGUET. 

The Commission has had plans prepared providing for the creation 
of a township consisting of 6,866 acres, to take in the whole of the 
available country around the proposed site of the new town of Baguio. 
At present the buildings in Ba^io consist of a sanitarium that has 
48 l^ds, a number of cottages of cheap construction, and a few other 
buildings for prison purposes, constabulary barracks, provincial head- 
quarters, etc. 

With the completion of the road it is hoped that the advantages 
of this temperate climate will be placed within the means of Govern- 
ment officials and men in civil life who are living in Manila on small 
salaries and can not afford the time and expense to go to Japan, 
Oiina, or the United States. 

The Commission is fortunate in having secured the services of Mr. 
D. BL Bumham, of Chicago, who will lay out the plans for the per- 
manent improvements and arrangements of the public buildings, 
streets, etc., with a view of having everything upon the most im- 
proved lines. 

For additional information and details attention is invited to 
report of Col. L. W. V. Kennon, officer in charge, Improvements in 



12 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Benguet Province, for the fiscal year, and to the supplemental report 
coverinff the two months of July and August, 1904. Also to reports 
of the disbursinff officer, property officer, commissary officer, medical 
officer, and chief engineer. 

BUREAU OF COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY. 

The work of this bureau has been systematically and regularly pur- 
sued during the year. The steamers Path-findeT and Research nave 
been in continuous operation except for such times as they have had 
to be laid off for repairs, and the new steamer Fathomer is nearing 
completion in Hongkong and will be put into commission as soon as 
ready. 

The nautical information division has prepared bulletins entitled 
" Notices to Mariners " and " Sailing Directions," wherein all changes 
of buoys, lights, etc., discoveries or uncharted rocks and other men- 
aces to'navigation are reported as promptly as practicable. The chief 
of the bureau reports that " the work of the native draftsmen is sur- 
prisingly excellent, and their service worthy of veiy great praise." 

The attached report shows 30 topographic and 38 hydrographic 
sheets inked, and 20 new charts completed since the last reports, and 
about as many more nearing completion. The bureau reports over 
4,000 charts distributed for official use or disposed of by sale during 
the fiscal year. 

» Much has been accomplished by this bureau, but more remains to 
be done. The archipelago has a coast line more than double that of 
the United States, and not more than 10 per cent of this has been 
adef^uately charted. The exact geographical situation of a ^at 
portion oi the east coast of the islands has never been determined, 
and there has been considerable uncertainty in regard to many other 

Soints. With the opening of the Pacific cable the exact longitude of 
[anila has been determined from San Francisco during the year, and 
several other points hitherto in doubt have been cleared up. The 
bureau will compile data from which it will eventually plot an accu- 
rate coast line. In two cases the actual surveys show a discrepancy of 
nearly 4 miles over the previous reports. Accurate tidal observa- 
tions are being made and valuable records obtained. The work of 
this bureau is of the utmost importance to navigation and will be for- 
warded continuously just so fast as the means of the government will 
allow, especial attention being devoted to the main avenues of com- 
merce. 

For additional information and details attention is called to annual 
report submitted by Mr. John E. McGrath, assistant in charge of 
bureau. 

TELEPHONES. 

The situation in regard to telephones, telegraph, and cable service 
is very mixed, and would be much bettered if some arrangement for 
centralization could be put in operation. There are several telephone 
systems operating in Manila, none of them satisfactory. The instru- 
ments are old-fashioned and not adequate to the needs of the service, 
and a practically complete new installation is necessary if ^ood serv- 
ice is to be obtained, it is to be hoped that some means will be found 
to this end. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 13 

HARBOR LINES COMMISSION. 

Under authority granted by Act ^No. 592 a commission has been 
appointed, consisting of the consulting engineer to the C!ommission, 
as provided by the law, the chief of flie bureau of coast guard and 
transportation, and the officer in charge of the port works of Manila, 
whose duty it is to make recommendations in regard to the establish- 
ment of permanent harbor lines in such ports as they shall be 
requested to consider. The ports of Manila, Iloilo, Cebu, and Nueva 
Caceres have been submitted to them for recommendation. 

Bespectf ully submitted. 

W. Cameron Fobbes, 
Secretary of Commerce and Police. 

The Philippinb C!oMMifi8iON, Manila^ P. I. 



APPENDIXES. 



AJnrOAL BEPOBT OF BBIO. OEH. HEHBT T. ALLEH, U. S. ABMY, 
CHIEF PHILIPPINES GOHSTABTTLABT. 

Sir: The undersigned has the honor to submit the following report 
of the operations of constabulary and scouts for the fiscal year end- 
ing June 30, 1904: 

Since last report Capt. J. G. Harbord, U. S. Cavalry, has been 
appointed assistant chief, August 21, 1903, with the temporary rank 
or colonel. United States Army, and put in charge of the fifth con- 
stabulary district, comprising the Moro Province (excepting the Par- 
aguan group, which remains in the third district), to which the organ- 
ized provinces of Surigao and Misamis, taken from third district, were 
added. As to area, this district is larger than any other. 
- By virtue of authority of the Secretary of War, conveyed by cable 
under dat^s of March 31 and April 2, respectively, Capts. W. C. Kivers, 
First U. S. Cavalrjr, and A. L. Dade, Thirteenth U. S. Cavalry, were 
assimed to duty with the civil governor and were designated, respec- 
tively, as adjutant-general and inspector-general of Philippines Con- 
stabulary. 

These three officers have taken up their work with zeal and intel- 
ligence and beneficial results are in progress. The services of the 
latter two will also permit assistant chiefs who have served several 
years without leave to profit by a visit to the States. 

At the date of this report 31 companies of scouts are doing duty 
with the civil government. With the exception of two companies 
serving in the Ilocos provinces, these companies are in the first and 
second districts, where the population is cniefly Tagalog. 

The w^ork during the year has been largely a repetition of that of 
the preceding year, with the difference that the marauding bands have 
been much fewer in number and smaller in size, with corresponding 
diminution in disturbances. A gradual but sure conviction that 
their best interests lie with the government rather than with self- 
appointed leaders has dawned upon all Filipinos above the average 
intelligence. To bring conviction to numerous remote tribes, some 
of whom have scarcely seen a w^hite man and who are at enmity with 
all their neighbors, and to people who are fanatical and ignorant of 
the outside world almost beyond belief, will require much time and 
patience, as well as liberal instruction by practical methods. 

Under the operations of the courts, professional agitators have been 
lai^ely squelched, and the efforts of their minions in many cases have 
not met with success even among the ignorant. Practically every 
province has its mountain population, which has been driven into the 
fastnesses of the moimtains and oppressed by the lowlanders from 

15 



16 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

earliest times. These people have come to regard all outsiders as 
enemies, and from time to time they organize bands under some relj- 
ious craze and begin their marauding expeditions. The pulajanes . 
(red-trousered men) are such. 

In spite of the disturbances cited below, and of the numerous minor 
encounters with robber bands by the constabulary and scouts, tre- 
mendous strides have been made during the present fiscal year. 
Greater progress in this direction could not justly be expected. It 
augers well For the future of the Filipinos and for the safety of capital 
that may seek investments in the islands. These results, which are 
eifected under American officers bv the Filipinos themselves, confirm 
the wisdom of the policy of the administration in using the Filipinos 
to maintain order in the Philippines. 

Among the leading disorders that have taken place and disturb- 
ances that have been quieted during the year may be cited: The 
Albay "insurrection," under Simeon Ola; the capture of Ricarte, the 
Hongkong agitator, and practically all of his followers; the Vigan 
"mutiny," effected by the agents of Ricarte; the Tomines "rebel- 
lion" in the Cagayan Valley, also largely due to the Hongkone junta; 
the extermination of Gasie's band in Mindoro; the Laguna raia, begin- 
ning at the town of Bay; the attack on San Jose, Nueva Ecija, by 
the Santa Iglesia segregation, under Pope Felipe Salvador; the cap- 
ture of a new Katipunan in Pangasinan under "Captain-general" 
Pedro C. Gasig; the raiding of the towns of Gumaca and Catanauan, 
in Tayabas, by the "Cabecillo," Mariano Leonosta, and the wanton 
killing of women and children in the mountains of Antique by bands 
under Ompong and Pitoc. All of these have taken place outside of 
the Moro country. 

Many minor affairs have taken place involving killing, torture, and 
robbery by armed bands. Various marauding expeditions may be 
credited to the fanatical pulajanes of the third district. In pursuit 
of one of these bands in Samar Lieutenant McCrea and three men lost 
their lives. Bands of caTabao thieves are the greatest menace to 
good order in the archipelago, and they are largely recruited from the 
cock pits. 

Detailed records of the events mentioned above are found in the 
accompanying reports of district commanders. The tragic story of 
the constabumry renegades, Hermann and Johnson, have been duly 
reported. Two popes, with rank of general, one (Isio) in the moun- 
tains of Negros, the other (Felipe Salvador) in the Candaba Swamps 
of Bulacan and Pampanga, and several ladrone chiefs, with self- 
imposed important military titles, in mountainous localities of other 
provinces remain out. 

BUILDINGS. 

With the occupation of the two lower floors of the Oriente Building 
and its storehouses on the estero, and half of the Cuartel Fortin, the 
headquarters, staff, and supply divisions are well provided and stores 
are now properly housed. The use of these two ouildings permits a 
concentration and supervision of the work that was not practicable 
before, and it allows us to give up the Anda street building, the por- 
tion of the Intendencia Building occupied by the commissary, the 
ill-suited casemates on the Pasig used for commissary stores, and the 
Bishop's Palace on Nozaleda street used by the chief supply officer 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 17 

and the divisions (excepting commissaTv) under him, quartermaster, 

Saymaster. ordnance, medical, and telegraph. When the work of 
redging tlie Binondo estero is finished it will be entirely practicable 
to load supplies on lighters from the Oriente go-down, as now obtains 
with commissaries from Cuartel Fortin on the Pasig. The greater 

{)art of the buildings occupied by. constabulary and scouts is hired 
rom private persons, but with the extension to previously unoccupied 
regions at times, where there are now larger buildings than Igorrote 
huts, it has been necessary to construct temporary oarracks. Most 
of the old Guardia Civil buildings, many of which are by design well 
adapted to their purposes, are occupied by constabularv. Some of 
these are in dire neea of repair, others have little left other than the 
walls. In not a few cases conventos are used with the perihission of 
the church at fixed monthly rents. 

It is evident that in the future more money wiD be required for the 
repair and construction of barracks, storehouses, and quarters than 
has been allotted in the past. 

AMERICAN TROOPS. 

Last year there were 14 regiments of infantry, 8 regiments of cav- 
alry, 3 batteries of artillery, with the corresponding quota of tech- 
nical and staff troops, amounting in round numbers to 18,000 men, 
occupying 70 posts. This year there are 9 regiments of infantry, 4 
regiments of cavalry, and 3 batteries of artillery, amounting in round 
numbers to 12,000 men, occupying 39 posts. (Scouts are not 
included.) 

SCOUTS. 

Under the ori^nal act for the creation of scouts, of February 2, 
1901, comprised in section 36 which follows, it is seen that officers 
are given provisional appointment for four years, to be continued 
for the second or subseauent term contingent upon conduct "satis- 
factory in every respect." Since more than half of the scouts organ- 
ized under this act have been serving a greater part of the time 
under the undersigned since the passage of the constabulary act of 
January 30, 1903, ample opportunity has been afforded nim for 
observing the operation of the law and especially the working of the 
scouts in connection with the latter-mentioned act. 

Sec. 36. Act of Congress approved February 2^ 1901. — That when in his opinion the 
conditions in the Philippine Islands justify such action the President is authorized to enlist 
natives of thos3 islands Tor service in the Army, to be organized as scouts, with such officers 
as he shall deem necessary for their proper control, or as troops or as companies, as author- 
ized by this act, for the Regular Army. The President is lurther authorized, in his dis- 
cretion, to form companies, organized as are companies of the Regular Army, in squadrons 
or battalions, with officers and noncomraissionca officers corresponding to similar organi- 
zations in the cavalry and infantry arms. The total numbsr of enlisted men in said organi- 
zations shall not exceed twelve thousand, and the total enlisted force of the line of the 
Army, together with such native force, shall not exceed at any one time one hundred 
thousand. 

The majors to command the smiadrons and battalions shall be selected by the President 
from captains of the line of the Regular Army, and while so serving shall have the rank, 
pay and allowances of the grade of major. Tne captains of the troops or companies shall 
DC selected by the President from first lieutenants of the line of the Re^lar Army, and 
while so serving they shall have the rank, pay, and allowances of captam of the arm to 
which assi^ed. The squadron and battalion staff officers, the first and second lieutenants 
of companies, may be selected from the noncommissioned officers or enlisted men of the 
Regular Army of not less than two years' service, or from officers or noncommissioned 

WAB 1904— VOL 13 2 



18 REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

officers or enlisted men servins;, or who have served, in the volunteers subsequent to April 
twenty-first, ei^teen hundred and nincty-ei^t, and <^BcerB of those erades shall be given 
provisional appointments for periods of four years each, and no such appointments shall 
DC continued for the second or subsequent term unless the officer's conduct shall have been 
satisfactory in every respect. The pay snd allowances of provisional officers of native organ- 
izations shall be those authorized for officers of like ^ad^s in the Regular Army. The pay, 

* ill be fixed by 



rations, and clothing allowances to bo authorized for the enlisted men shall 
he Sv^cretary of War, and shall not exceed those authorized for the Regular I 
When in tne opinion of the President, natives of the Philippine Islands shall, 6y virtue 



the Sv^cretary of War, and shall not exceed those authorized for the Regular Army. 

When in tne opinion of the President, natives of the Philippine Islands shall, by ' 
of their services and character, show fitness for command, tne President is authorized to 



make provisional appointments to the grades of second and first lieutenants from such 
natives, who, when so appointed, shall nave the pay and aUowances to be fixed by the 
Secretary of War, not exceeding those of corresponding grades of the Regular Army. 

Although this act authorizes a strength of 12,000 men, the detail 
of captains and majors and the formation of battalions, the President 
has so far seen fit to organize only 50 companies, each of 100 men, 
vnith but one first heutenant and one second heutenant per company. 

With the exception of the battaUon now at the St. Louis Exposi- 
tion commanded by a captain of infantry detailed as major, no steps 
have been taken toward forming battalions. 

No one acquamted with the conditions existing in the Philippines, 
due to the low average civilization and the consequent readiness 
with which marauding bands are organized, would suggest a smaller 
active force than 10,000 men for tne maintenance or public order. 
If it is desired to bring the remote tribes of Northern Luzon (Ben- 

Suet, Lepanto-Bontoc, Abra, Isabela, and Nucva Vizcaya), of Min- 
anao, Paraguan group, Sulu group, Batanes and other islands, 
and I might add the mountain people of every pro\4nce in the archi- 
pelago, into proper relations with the government, this force must 
oe materially increased. By the very nature of this insular holding, 
and by virtue of the character of the American Government and 
nation, these people must be reached — if not now, in the near future. 

The enlistment of these semicivilized people, by which elements 
of warring rancherias or barrios are often brought into the same 
organization, has a most wholesome effect in diminishing head- 
hunting and other internecine practices. The education ot scouts 
and constabulary during their terms of enlistment amounts to a 
practical asset to the government, and no better or more rapid method 
of developing such people as referred to is known to the undersigned. 

With a view to minimizing insular expenses, efforts have "been 
made to reduce the constabulary; but in spite of this and of the 
employment of 30 companies of scouts, circumstances have ren- 
dered an increase of constabulary to 7,500 men imperative, with a 
necessary tendency toward further increase. The present force of 
natives — both kinds — is about sufficient to meet the rapid develop- 
ment of government in these islands. 

While the Conmiission recommends, also largely for economic 
reasons, further employment of scouts instead of increasing the con- 
stabulary, it is found that their Usefulness is hmited by the following: 

I. Two district chiefs are not army officers and can not, therefore, 
command scouts; 

II. Scout companies are under-officered, having an average of 
approximately one and one-half officers per comj>any; 

III. A deficiency of officers prevents the distribution of scouts as 
required by the nature of the service, and the supplying of these 
troops in remote stations with their fiixed ration is unduly difficult. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 19 

The scouts, like the constabulary, are primarily intended for 
insular service and it would not seem wise on the part of the Govern- 
ment to continue increasing either force while parts of the other 
remained idle. 

With few exceptions, scout officers have responded readily and 
efficiently to the work required of them; and there is no reason 
why scouts, with a quota of officers permissible under the original 
act and with certain changes indicated further on, might not be 
made equally efficient for insular service in all respects with constab- 
ulary. The term "constabulary" gives but an imperfect idea of 
the duties this force has been performing, and a number of years 
will elapse before the major portion of its work ceases to be field 
service m detachments. 

In recommending applicants for officers of scouts it was but nat- 
ural that army officers should favor old soldiers who had deserved 
well of the Government and who were therefore entitled to recogni- 
tion. This tendency has introduced into the scouts some officers 
who are already too old for field service and who are too conservative 
to learn any new language or* adapt themselves to conditions their 
long garrison service has not taught. It is too much to believe that 
these officers will accomplish all that the Government should justly 
expect of them. In the future appointments much consideration 
should be given the element of age. 

The act of Congress of January 30, 1903, follows: 

AN ACT -to promote the efficiency of the Philippines constabulary, to establish the rank and pay 
of its commanding officers, and for other purposes. 

Be it enaded by the SentUe and House of Repreaeniativea of ike United States of America in 
Congress assemUed, That officers of the Army of the United States may be detailed for 
service as chief and assistant chiefs, the said assistant chiefs not to exceed the number four, 
of the Philippines Constabulary, and that during the continuance of such details the officer 
serving as <^cf shall have the rank, pay, and afiowances of brigadier-general, and the offi- 
cers serving as assistant chiefs shall have the rank, pay, and allowances of colonel : Provided, 
Thai the mffercnce between the pay and allowances of the brigadier-general and colonels, 
as herein provided, and the pay and allowances of the officers so detailed in the grades 
from whicn they are detailed shall be paid out of the Philippine treasury. 

Sec. 2. That any companies of Philippine Scouts ordered to assist the Philippines Con- 
stabulaiy in the mamtenance of order m the Philippine Islands may be placed under the 
command of officers serving as chief or assistant chiefs of the Philippines Constabulary aa 
herein provided: Ph>t*uie(?, That when the Philippine Scouts shall be ordered to assist the 
Philippines Constabulary, said scouts shall not at any time be placed under the command of 
inspectors or other officers of the constabulary below the grade of assistant chief of con- 
staoulary. 

This provides for the control of scouts when ordered to assist the 
' constabulary in the maintenance of peace by putting them under the 
command of army oflSlcers serving as chief and assistant chiefs of 
constabulary with temporary army rank of brigadier-general and 
colonels. The division commander decided that this command 
unqualified by law should be tactical, by General Orders, No. 13, 
February 20, 1903: 

Sec. 2. The Philippine Scouts companies will be ordered to assist the constabulary under 
the above act of Congress only by the commanding general, division of the Philippines, and 
when so ordered they will receive orders only from officers of the Army who are detailed aa 
diief or assistant chiefs of the constabulary, and will be subject to their orders for tactical 
puiposes only; for administrative purposes scout companies will remain under control of the 
division commander. 

Under this decision scouts and constabulary have worked together 
with practically no friction and are at present, in spite of certain 



20 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

infected localities, maintaining a higher degree of order than has 
ever before obtained in the archipelago. Both division and depart- 
ment commanders are fully carrying out the provisions of this act and 
are giving every assistance to a successful cooperation of the two 
forces, it is easy to see, however, that officers with limited knowl- 
edge of field service in general, and of PhiUppine conditions in par- 
ticular, and more interested in the finesse of regulation and construc- 
tion than in the accomplishment of deeds and measures, could raise 
numerous quibbles concerning the phrase, tactical purposes. 

If the revenues of the insular government were such as to permit the 
maintenance of a force necessary to maintain order throughout the 
territory, and to bring all the semicivilized and savage tribes within 
touch and influence of the government, the principal reason for the 
maintenance of Federal native troops would be for possible use with- 
out the limits of the archipelago. 

Assuming what may be accepted as a fact — that the entire native 
contingent, constabulary and scouts approximately 12,000, should be 
used actively in eflFecting the above, and that the msular government 
can not at present devote more than- $2,000,000 (support of 7,000 
men) per annum for this work, it becomes highly important to enact 
such measures as will minimize any friction tnat might develop and 
that will simplify the supply and command of this dual force. 

The work required of the constabulary since its organization, 
chiefly fieldwork by detachments, has necessarily emphasized its 
military character until at the present time there is practically no 
diflFerence between scouts and constabulary in so far as their military 
duties are considered. 

Experience has also taught that it is extremely important to have 
high grade educated officers in the scouts and constabulary. The 
omcer entering the Army has the advantage of the immediate direc- 
tion of senior officers, while the officer entering the scouts or constab- 
ulary must be expected in the average case to command a separate 
station where his duties bring him constantly into relation mth the 
officials and other people where he serves. Military efficiency, tact, 

ffentility, and sufficient intelligence for a thorough appreciation of 
aws and regulations can not ordinarily be found witnout a liberal 
degree of education. The standard of constabulary officers has been 
raised until it is safe to say that it is fully equal to that of scout 
officers. Scout officers have been chosen from volunteer officers and 
noncommissioned officers of the Army, chiefly from the latter 
category; the same applies to constabulary officers with the diflFer- 
ence that a number of the junior ones are graduates of military 
colleges. 

Native troops can never have the moral influence of American 
troops, and the number of the latter will for a number of years 
depend upon the quantity of arms put into the hands of Filipmos. 

There are some who think that scouts' and constabulary should be 
consolidated into one homogeneous force commanded throughout 
by officers receiving commissions from the Federal Government, and 
all paid as far as possible by the insular government. The advocates 
of tnis state that it would create a more efficient military force, with- 
out in any way impairing its civil value, by (1) removing a supposed 
awkward condition of having the chief and assistant cniefs of con- 
stabulary (army officers) command scout companies while their 



KEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 21 

adirdnistrative needs are supplied by army staffs, and (2) by eUmi- 
nating or minimizing possible iriction between the various elements of 
the forces. 

Homogeneity would certainly be obtained and civil efficiency might 
not be sacrificed, but as the class of officers desired must be equally as 
successful political agents as miUtary agents, there could be a ques- 
tion regaraing this. As regards (1^ the division commander doubt- 
less finds a certain inconvenience that, however, has not influenced 
results. Theoretically the present practice can not be well defended, 
but in this as in many other cases theory and practice do not march 
hand in hand. The very fact that it is unusual is enough to suggest 
doubts about it in a conservative bodv like the Army. As regards (2), 
the following from a report of Colonel Scott is quoted: 

As to the que8tioii.of friction between the organizations of the constabulary and scouts, 
I believe that this question can well be dropped. The officers of these two oiganizations 
have been volunteer officers or enlisted men working side by side, and many of them are 
warm personal friends. The amount of friction is comparatively nothing, ana in one or two 
instances where it has arisen it is due generally to some bull-headed hotspur getting his toes 
or coat tails tramped on, or feeling that his dignity has not been quite held up to the standard 
which in his estimation it should nave been. Tlie officers eat and sleep together when they 
are working together; the enlisted men the same. 

I have had for the past year 18 companies of scouts which have been more or less intimately 
associated with the constabulary in field and in earrison. While there may have been 
gambling, which I have not heard, I am convinced that the two organizations could con- 



tinue indefinitely to woric together without anything more than an occasional grumble, the 
same as would be likely to arise in two companies of the same regiment. I, therefore, 
believe that this question might well be ignored. 



If the highest authorities should see fit to turn over the sum 
required to maintain the scouts to the insular government, their 
supply could be effected through modified existing insular channels, 
thereby putting this branch under the civil governor both as to 
supply and command. 

The service of native troops has conclusively shown the wisdom of 
their creation. In the first place, they are efficient and relatively very 
economical; in the second place, theu* organization with the training 
and education they receive materially aids in the development of the 
country. The experimental stage has passed. Various plans for 
reorganization might be effected that would be better tnan the 
present, but thev have not been tried and they must therefore remain 
conjectures. The present is the result of evolution and is known. 
After carefully considering all the circumstances, I believe it advisable 
to maintain the present double system (scouts and constabulary) 
with such modifications as actual conditions have shown to be neces- 
sary and beneficial. 

There are few persons who have had opportunity of carefully 
studying the situation that do not fully recognize the importance of 
placing whatever force may be necessary for the maintenance of peace 
and order immediately under the orders of the chief executive of these 
islands. The act of January, 1903, practically effects this; under it 
the policy of utilizing white troops solely as a reserve and for their 
moral effect, and the system of concentrating them into larger per- 
manent garrisons may receive their fullest development. 

Under the scout organic act quoted above, a first lieutenant of 
scouts has ended his career so far as promotion is concerned. The 
framers of the law doubtless recognized this as a military anomaly, 
and must have contemplated a change when scouts should have 
proved by experience the value and importance of their existence. 



22 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

The writer is far from believing that all first lieutenants of scouts are 
worthy of being made captains, nor would it be for the best interests 
of the scout organization to fail to profit by the provision of the act 
detailing first lieutenants of the line as captains of scouts. Without 
such innision of new blood, the standard of the organization would 
slowly drop; there would eventuate a tropical level. What has 
been said with regard to lieutenants and captains likewise appUes 
to captains and majors. 

The importance of having scout companies formed into battalions 
impresses itself continually with more force. Detached as they now 
are at one-company posts and less, even though not widely separated 
in distance, the question of drill, discipline, and a proper supervision 
of their duties and necessities leaves much to be desired. Under 
present conditions there are too few officers available for this work, 
and these companies can not receive the attention they should 
have. 

To say, however, that scouts deteriorate operating under the 
provisions of the act of January, 1903, is eauivalent to saying that 
an army deteriorates in war — in the very act tor which it was created. 
It is true that the standard of garrison efficiency and drill skill is 
lowered in each case, yet it does not become a soldier to bemoan the 
inconveniences and disadvantages of war or of any other duty that 
may be the supreme goal of his existence. 

(jood active battalion commanders would make the work of 
scouts far more eflFective and would simpUfy their command and 
administration. They would also help maintain garrison efficiency. 
The importance of organizing compames into battalions under their 
present duties and separated stations is more imperative than if 
they were concentrated in posts. A proper inspection of scouts 
could then be made by the battalion commanders and their adminis- 
trative needs be better eifected by officers of the regular supply 
departments, either as at present or by the detail of these officers witn 
the civil government. 

The following is from Colonel Scott's report, and shows that he 
does not agree with some concerning the deterioration of scouts with 
constabulary: 

I am fully prepared to show that the efficiency of scout oi^anizations in the first district 
has been materially improved by the services which they have been called upon to perform 
since February, 1903, with the civil government, in assisting in maintaining the peace, 
in conjunction with the constabulary. Officers have become proficient in the multitudinous 
duties which have devolved upon tnem through the best of schools — experience. 

The men have learned to be self-reUant and capable of caring for themselves in the field. 
The nonconmiissioncd officers have learned the duties of scouting, making arrests, and 
handling prisoners while keeping within the confines of the civil laws. 

Both officers and men are m good physical condition and hardened by field service. The 
benefits of this were brought especially to my notice last winter, wmle operating in the 
field in Hocos Sur, where scout organizations were thrown together whicn had and had 
not been performing this duty. 

In matters of courtesy and command, analogous relations should 
exist between scouts and constabulary to those now existing by law 
between regulars and volunteers. When the nature of the service, 
the equality as to intellectual, social, and professional attainments 
of the officers, and the identity of the enlisted strength are considered, 
the jiistice of this is as apparent as the ensuing results would be real. 
This is a highly important matter, and should receive early con- 
sideration. 



REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMIJSSION. 23 

If the enlisted men of scouts while serving in the Philippines be 
made amenable to the courts of first instance for major onenses, a 
long step in business procedure will be effected, and it is so recom- 
mended. I know of but one objection to this measure that could be 
advanced, namely, custom of tne service, which in my opinion has 
no value as an argument in this particular case. 

It 13 not believed that the present tendency toward maintaining 
scouts, both as regards quantity and kind of supphes, on a footing 
with American soldiers regardless of the tremendous difference of 
conditions can be justified from any point of view, either by Ameri- 
cans or impartial Fihpinos. It is based on the principle that actuated 
the officer who insisted that laborers employed under him should 
have'l peso a day, when an ample number were available at half 
& peso. 

The present ration system renders the scouts le^ mobile than the 
constabulary. It should be made more flexible by the introduction 
of a money allowance in part or whole for expeditionary work. 
This would be more economical, and would largely relieve a detach- 
ment from being tied down to a train of cargadores whenever it 
takes to the field. 

The undersigned believes that the present force of scouts and 
constabulary is sufficient to fully meet the requirements of the insular 
government, and that a more ample coordination of thcfir duties 
under the civil governor can be obtained in a large measure under 
existing law, and by making effective the following, which he urgently 
recommends: 

(1) The appointment of three officers for each company, half of 
the captaincies to be filled by promotion of scout officers, and half 
by detail from the Army. 

(2) The organization of battalions and the appointment of bat- 
taUon commanders at the rate of four from the line of the Army and 
one from scout officers. 

(3) That section 9, Act 175 of the civil commission, be made appli- 
cable to scout organizations serving under the civil governor. 

(4) That enlisted men of scout organizations serving in the Philip- 
pines bo made amenable for offenses not cognizable by summary 
courts to courts of first instance. 

(5) That in matters of courtesy and command analogous relations 
be established between scouts serving with the civil government and 
constabulary as exist by law between regulars and volunteers of 
the army. 

(6) Tnat the scout ration be made more flexible by the introduction 
of a money allowance. 

The undersigned desires to give public expression to the valuable 
services which the body of scouts has rendered the insular govern- 
ment, and to the wilUng and effective way in which both officers 
and men have responded to the arduous and. complex duties imposed 
upon them. Above all, special credit is due Brig. Gen. George M. 
Eandall, commanding Department of Luzon, where the majority 
of the scouts have been serving, for his full and complete cooperation 
with the requirements of the insular government and for his strict 
eompliance with the letter and spirit of act of Congress approved 
February 2, 1901. 



24 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

MUNICIPAL POLICE. 

What has been said about this bod^ in my last annual report has 
been emphasized by this year's experience. In the general case the 
result of putting arms into their hands has been to invite attack 
from robber bands desirous of replenishing their stock of arms and 
munitions. Some of these bands nave more cohesion and are better 
led than the police. In not a few cases municipal poUce have been 
shown before courts to have formed parts of ladrone oands, and have 
surreptitiously connived with them m various ways. 

Where the presidente is a specially vigorous, upright man with 
military instincts, or has the good fortune to select such a one as 
tiniente of police, the results of the operations of the pohce are very 
effective. Cases of this kind are the exception, and the policy of 
arming municipal police with bolos and clubs, rather than with 
firearms, is the outgrowth of three years experience. The tendency 
of municipal authorities to continue the time-honored custom of 
imposition on the tao is not diminished by backing up the police 
with firearms. Until they are better paid, and until constabulary 
officers are available for a more intimate inspection and command 
of them, the municipal police will not be of any value operating alone 
against armed bands. (The police of Manila is not included in these 
remarks;) 

Last year the municipal police throughout the archipelago 
amounted to 10 captains, 171 lieutenants, 688 sergeants, 1,181 
corporals, and 7,873 privates, or a total of 9,925. This year it 
amounts to 8 captains, 124 Ueu tenants, 405 sergeants, 909 corporals, 
6,606 privates, making a total of 7,052. 

INSTRUCTION. 

The necessitv of developing schools for officers and men for both 
theoretical ana practical work was early recognized by the under- 
signed as highly important for the establishment and maintenance 
OT proper standards of efficiency. The wide distribution reauired 
of constabulary by the nature of the service and the difficulty of 
inspection and discipline emphasizes this necessity; but, owing to' 
the excessive and continuous work and the absence of any sort of 
reserve of officers or men, progress has been slow. The small reserves 
established at these headquarters and at two district headquarters 
are intended to be schools of theory and practice that will raise the 
standard of all classes. 

The following order (75) shows what is demanded at each station: 

General Orders, \ Headquarters Philippines Constabulary, 

No. 75. J Manila, June 16, 190^. 

1. The following directions concerning the practical and theoretical instruction of the 
constabulary will supercede those contained m General Orders, No. 82, series of 1903, 
these headquarters: 

(1 ) Practical Instruction, 

There will be at each station at least two drills daily, except Saturdays, Sundays, and 
holidays, a regular drill for one hour, and, at a different time during the day, setting up 
exercises of twenty minutes. The regular drill will include the school of the company 
in infantiy drill regulations, and will be, when at all practicable, attended b^ aU omcers. 
Exactness and thoroughness in the performance of the exercises laid down m the school 
of the soldier and school of the squad will be required before taking up the school of the 
company. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 25 

Officers shaJl be careful as to their dress and appearance at drill; they will wear belts 
and revolvers outside the coat, with belt neatly fastened and not hanging over hips, until 
sabers are procured. 

Where field work or patrol duties are not sufficient to keep the men in first class marching 
condition, the drill will oe lengthened to four hours once each week, and devoted to a practice 
march of 10 miles. 

At stations where it is practicable, regular guard mounting will be held daily. At all 
stations the commanding officer will inspect the men, their clothing, arms, and equipments, 
their quarters and surroundings each Saturday morning. The ammunition in the possession 
of each soldier will be checked up at each Saturday inspection. Guard duty will be thor- 
oughly taught and correct performance required. Instructions will also be given in the 
elements of first aid to the injured and in the care of arms and equipments. 

At each station there should be daily at least two roll calls — at reveille and retreat. 
Other roll calls may be ordered by station commanders when they deem it necessary. 

{2) Theoretical Inatruction. 

At all stations commanded by an officer two classes will be formed, the first class to con- 
sist of. noncommissioned officers and such first-class privates as have shown by their intel- 
ligence and attention to duty that they possess the qualifications for noncommissioned 
officers. Instructions for this class will be neld for one hour twice a week, and will embrace 
the following: 

Constabulary regulations and orders. 

Guard manual. 

Drill regulations. 

Military courtesies (General Orders, No. 76, 1904). 

Method of securing warrants and making arrests. 

ResponsibUities as noncommissioned officers. 

Geography of the Philippine Islands. 

The subjects embraced for the second class below: 

The second class will consist of men not embraced in the first class. They will be assem- 
bled twice a week and instructed by means of lectures, concerning their duties as soldiers, 
in drill and guard duty, ancT the constabular3r regulations, pa^, allowances, penalties for 
offenses, etc. The noncommissioned officers will attend and assist in the instruction where 
practicable. 

Both classes will be given instruction in English, special attention being devoted to those 
men who can read ana write. When practicable to arrange with the local authorities for 
an American teacher, the English instruction may be given in this manner, and should 
consist of ni^ht school at least twice a week. 

2. Senior mspectors are authorized to detail not to exceed four intelligent soldiers at their 
headquarters for instruction in clerical and office work in the office of Uie senior inspectors 
and supply officers. Their duty will be so regulated that each will learn something of the 
various duties pertaining to these offices, with a view to the practical utilization of their 
services later. Monthly report will show the number of men so detailed. 

3. Station commanders will report at the end of each month concerning the work accom- 
plished, and senior inspectors will indorse on their monthly reports a summary of the sta- 
tion reports, with comments and recommendations. They will call special attention by 
name to any officer who has been unusually successful in his instruction, as well as to 
any officer who has failed to get proper results from his men in compliance with this order. 

4. Instruction herein ordered must never interfere with field work or with the other 
duties of the constabulary to guarantee order and to protect life and property in their 
vicinity. When the troops are not actually in the field, however, instruction must be con- 
stantly and systematically carried on. The district commander will give such instructions 
to supplement this order as they may deem necessary. 

5. Tne following annual allowance of stationery for each student in the first class will be 
furnished by the quartermaster upon proper requisition: Three scratch pads, large; 1 quire 
ruled legal pap>er; one-half quire ruled letter paper; 1 penholder and 2 pens; 2 lead pencils; 
1 quart black ink (for each 20 students). 

Station commanders who desire it may also submit requisitions for a blackboard with 
croons where it would be convenient to transport it to the station. 
iy command of Brigadier-General Allen: 

W. C. Rivers, 
Captain, First United States Cavalry, Adjutant-General. 



26 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

OFFICERS. 

The quality of ofl&cers is being constantly improved. 

The better the oflBccr the smaller the force required, is an axiom. 
He must teach by example, and unless his mental and moral fiber 
be good his results are unsatisfactory. Young college men are being 
brought out from the States, but tney require on arrival about six 
months' instruction before being assigned to independent stations. 
Highly recommended educated noncommissioned officers of the 
Regular Army reqim-e comparatively short periods of preparation. 
The Secretary of War has authorized the division commander to 
permit such to take examination with a view to promotion to officers 
of constabulary. 

The following (78) sets forth the nature of the examination: 

Geiceral Ore«rs, \ Hkadqcarters Philippines Constabulary, 

No. 78. / Marnh, June £1, 1904. 

Officers of the constabulary wiD be selected as provided below. 

1. No person will be appointed who is under the age of 21 or over 30 yeam of age, who 
is not a citizen of the United States, unless he has been honorably discharged from the 
military or naval service of the United States, or who is not a native of the Philippine 
Islands or a person who has, under and by virtue of the treaty of Paris, acquired the rights 
of a native of the Luanda; or who is not physically qualified to discharge all the duties of 
an officer in active service, or who has any deformity of the body or mental infirmity, or 
whose moral habits are not good. 

2. A candidate who has oeen graduated at a regularly incorporated coH^ may be 
appointed without mental examination on presentation of a diploma, together with a 
recommendation of the faculty of the institution and with full and satisfactory evidence 
as to mental capacity, moral character, and personal habits, and occupation since gradui^ 
tion, if the date thereof is not more than two years before date of making application. An 
applicant who has graduated at a college giving military instruction will give his full record 
in the military department. 

3. Every candidate appearing for examination win be subjected to a rigid physical 
examination, which will conform to the standard required of recruits for the United States 
Army, and applicants for appointment from the United States must include in their papers 
a certificate of i^ysical examination by two physicians, which will embrace the information 
required by the form for the examination of recruits. 

4. All applicants, except those specified in paragraph 2 above, will be examined as out- 
lined herem below. No candidate will be examined unless he has the authority of the 
chief of constabulary to a{>pear for examination, and in the case of a soldier in the United 
States Army the authority of the division commander. 

5. The examination of candidates will include the following: 

(1) Grammar, including spelling and writing from oral dictation. 

(2) Arithmetic, including the implication of its rules to all practical questions. 

(3) Geography, with re^rence to the general geography of the world — the principal 
physical and pohtical divisions of the earth's surface. 

(4) History, including the elements and outlines of general history, and particularly the 
history of the United States. 

(5) Constitutional law, including the elements of the Constitution of the United States 
and the main principles upon which the Government under it is organized. 

(6) Examination will also be made as to the general qualifications of each applicant, 
including aptitude and probable efficiency as an officer of the constabulary. The military 
record of an applicant who is or has been a soldier, as certified to by his company and post 
commanders, wiH be considered under this subhead. In the case of an applicant who is 
or has been recently a soldier in the Army a portion of the examination uncier this subhead 
win be a practical test in the driU regulations of the Army in which he has served, and oral 
questions in the main principles of army administration and discipline. 

(7) Physical aptitude, as determined by the medical examination or other evidence 
submitted. 

(8) Careful inquirj win be made concerning the antecedents, personal habits, and moral 
character of each applicant, who must submit evidence from reputable persons. Candi- 
dates win not be eraded under thb head, but those whose habits and associations arc not 
up to the standard, or who are addicted to the use of intoxicants, will be reported as not 
suitable to appointment. 



REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



27 



6. In awarding marks the relative weights will be given to each subject as in the form 
below. The general average of a candidate will be computed as follows: Mark each ques- 
tion according to its relative weight, and reduce the aggregate marks thus obtained in each 
subject to a ^ale of 100; the result will give the average proficiency in the subject. Mul- 
tiply the average in each subject by the number indicating the relative weight of the subject 
and divide the sum of the products by the sum of the relative weights; the quotient wUl 
be the general average. No candidate will be passed who shall not have obtained an aver- 
age of GO per cent in each subject, and a general average of at least 66 per cent. 

Example. 



No. 



Subject. 



Aver- 
ages. 



Relative 
weight. 



Products 
of multi- 
plication 
by relative 
weights. 



English grammar 

Mathematics 

Geography 

History 

Constitutional law -. 

Aptitude and probable efficiency. 
Fbysiquo 



Total 

.General average. 



22 



246 
304 
160 
219 
130 
400 
261 



1,720 
78.17 



7. Where several candidates are examined, the order of relative merit of all will be 
reported. Candidates who pass the required examinations and are recommended for 
appointment will be placed upon an eligiole list and will be appointed as vacancies occur 
should there be not sufficient vacancies for them at the time of examination. 
By command of Brigadier-General Allen: 

W. C. Rivers, 
CaptaiUf First United States Cavalry, Adjui^mt-General. 

In the subsequent examinations for promotions general fitness is 
rated at 25 as against 15 for the highest study. 



MesuUs of operations of constabulary and scouts for the fiscal year ending June SO, 1904, ^ 
ai^ricts; also a comparison with preceding year. 





First 
district. 


Second 
district. 


Third 
district. 


Fourth 
district.. 


Fifth 
district. 


Total, 
1904. 


Total, 
1903. 


Arms captured: 

Rlflps 


137 
60 
05 
1 
130 
2,324 

342 

198 

3,849 

52,875 

111 

191 

94 

931 

7 

20 

15 

31 

658 
347 

1,688 


152 
27 
31 


48 
29 
39 


36 
3 
9 
1 


23 
6 
10 


396 
124 
184 
2 
288 
6,616 

494 

237 

6,438 

158, .S32 

235 
431 
139 
1,364 
62 
32 
21 
118 

1,070 
2,238 

2,834 
2 
6 


449 


Shotgmie 


130 


Revwven 


366 


Cannon.. . . , 


3 


Boloe 




168 

1,159 

133 

14 

1,441 

45,699 

76 

150 

25 

163 

8 

8 

5 

52 

201 
453 

241 

1 
1 




2,498 


Ammunition 


1,744 

5 

1 

516 

21,851 

37 
63 
13 
l&i 

1 
1 


1,176 

11 

24 

462 

28,465 

6 
17 


213 
3 


Stolen animals recovered: 

CarabaoB 


1,291 


Horses 


408 


Number of patrols, etc 

Miles covered 


170 
9,462 

5 
10 

7 
20 

9 


5,351 
222,457 


Number of encounters with 
outlaws 


357 


Outlaws killed 


1,185 


Outlaws wounded 




Outlaws captured 


86 
27 
3 

1 
6 

84 
342 

372 

1 


2,722 


Enlisted men deserted 

Enlisted men killed 


84 
53 


Enlisted men wounded 




25 


Enlisted men died 


'29 

127 
1,086 

464 


10 




Number prisoners sentenced— 

. More than two years 

Less than two years 

Number prisoners In provin- 
cial jail at end ol year 

Officers killed 




10 
69 






5 


Officers died 


3 




1 


7 


Officers wounded 






h 



















28 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

The above table shows that there were only 431 outlaws killed m 
1904, as compared with 1,185 in 1903; that the constabulary casual- 
ties, killed and wounded, were 55 in 1904, and 88 in 1903; that the 
firearms of all classes captured were 706 in 1904 and 948 in 1903; that 
the miles covered in patrols, reconnoissances, and pursuit of criminals 
were, respectively, 158,532 and 222,457; that percentage in desertions 
were 0.007 and 0.013, respectively. If the Vigan deserters be not 
included, then the percentage for 1904 is only 0.005. In general, it 
may be said that the loss by desertion is insignificant. 

The coming year will doubtless show a still relatively greater 
improvement m peace conditions than has the past year. 

DIVISION OF INFORMATION. 

Considering the money expended, this division, under Captain 
Grove, is prooably more effective in securing results of certain kinds, 
difficult to officials or agents without special training and aptitude, 
than any other element of the constabulary. It comprises a map 
section and a detective section, with subsections at IIoilo, Malabon 
and Alfonso, Cavite, and Tanauan, Batangas. Besides, every senior 
inspector may have one or more secret-service men operating in con- 
nection with the central office. For special cases occurring in the 
f)rovinces detectives are sent out from Manila for investigations. The 
ollowing table shows what has been accomplished by this division 
during the year: 

Cases reported and acted upon by the division of information from July i, 1903 , to June 30, 190J^. 

Arrests 1,483 

Fugitives (all classes) killed 14 

Number convicted 240 

Number acquitted 53 

Number awaiting trial 135 

Number not reported, convicted, or acquitted 1 , 039 

Number revolvers and rifles captured 81 

Number carabaos captured 186 

Number horses captured 22 

Kounds ammunition (all kinds) captured 4, 123 

Secret-service men and spies killed 6 

Daggers captured 9 

Bol^ captured 42 

Prisoners died while awaiting trial 16 

Evidently there have been more convictions than is here given, but 
as this office has not been kept notified of the final disposition of cases 
by the courts, it is impracticable to give the exact number of acquit- 
tals or convictions. 

Ricarte insurrection case. 

Number arrests 42 

Number not arrested 25 

Number complaints filed 67 

Number not tried 2 

Secret-service men, division of information, Philippines Constahuiary, emjioyed, dischargedj 

reinstated, killed, etc. 

Employed 118 

Discharged 76 

Reinstated 6 

Itesigned 8 

Killed 5 



REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 29 

REPORTS OF ASSISTANT CHIEFS. 

The accompanying reports, submitted by the commanding officers 
of the five constabulary districts and the chief supply officer, contain 
much information not only valuable as setting forth the conditions 
as to peace and order in the archipelago, but also useful in furnishing 
data for future historical work. They are, therefore, given in fulL 
They show so well the kind and quahty of work that has been per- 
formed that special attention is invited to their perusal. Persons 
unacquainted with the services of these officers have but a vague con- 
ception of what has devolved upon them or what they have accom- 
plished. The work has involved continuous field service, in many 
respects resembling that accomplished by the army from 1898 to 1900, 
but naturally against smaller bands. 

FIRST DISTRICT (tAQALO). 

Headquarters, Manila; Col. W. S. Scott, commanding. This com- 
mand is composed of 2,200 constabulary and 1,700 scouts, occupying 
about 80 posts. The population of this district is 1,949,154. 

SECOND DISTRICT (TAQALO AND BICOL). 

Headquarters, Lucena, Tayabas; Col. H. H. Bandholtz, command- 
ing. This command is composed of 1,200 scouts and 1,000 constab- 
ulary, occupying about 43 posts. The population of this district is 
1,000,000. 

THIRD DISTRICT (VISAYA). 

Headquarters, Iloilo; Col. W. C. Taylor, commanding. This com- 
mand is composed of 2,000 scouts and 1,750 constabulary, garrisoning 
about 80 posts. The population of the district is 2,856,783. 

FOURTH DISTRICT (iLOCAKOS AND MOUNTAIN TRIBES ). 

Headquarters, Vigan, Ilocos Sur; Maj. Jesse S. Garwood, com- 
manding. This command is composed of 900 constabulary and occu- 
pies about 33 posts. There are also two companies of scouts com- 
manded directly from Manila. The population of this district is 
727,781. 

FIFTH DISTRICT (mOROS, VISAYAS, AND WILD TRIBES ). 

Headquarters, Zamboanga, Mindanao; Col. J. G. Harbord, com- 
manding. This command has an authorized strength of 800 constab- 
ulary, but it is not yet fully organized. At present there are 14 
stations. The population of the aistrict is 278,183. The command- 
ing general of the department of Mindanao is also governor of the 
Moro Province. The relations of the constabulary to the civil govern- 
ment in this district are somewhat modified by the so-called Moro act. 

CHIEF SUPPLY OFFICER. 

Col. David J. Baker, Manila. This officer has direct supervision 
over all the supply departments. This work is so intimately con- 
nected with the existence and maintenance of the constabulary that 
the reports of Colonel Baker and the heads of divisions are herewith 
incorporated in this report. 



30 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION, 

Headquarters Philippikes Constabulary, 

Office of the Chief Supply Officer, 

Manila, P. /., Ju/y ^, 1904- 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report for the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1904: 

This office was originally created to purchase the supplies necessary to feed, clothe, arm, 
equip, and quarter the constabulary. When the undersigned was detailed to it the further 
function of supervising and coordinating the work of the supply divisions was assigned .to it. 

In practice the assistant chief suppfy officer attends to all purchasing details, and the 
chief supply officer, assisted usually oy an examiner, to the supervising. 

To how considerable the yearly purchases now amount is shown in the reports of the 
various division chiefs. The policy has been followed of making them, generallv in large 
quantities, of Philippine merchants, by contract after advertising. It is believed that this 
has resulted in economy to the government and satisfaction to the merchants. 

Of course all ordnance has been purchased from the United States Army, and in this and 
m providing clothing and equipage in emei^ncy both the Ordnance and the Quartermas- 
ter's departments have proved willing friends. 

Experience has shown that certain staple stores, the use of which is general and not con- 
fined to this bureau, can be more advantageously obtained of the insular purchasing agent, 
and accordingly ho is depended on for all imported forage, leather, cleaning supphcs, and 
hardware. 

The supervising and coordinating of the supplv divisions, and the distribution of stores and 
funds to 47 district and provincial headquarters nas necessitated correspondence aggregating 
more than 13,000 communications. Tnis is notwithstanding the fact that in de2in^ with 
the six supply divisions themselves unrecorded memoranda are used whenever practicable 
and the division chiefs for the last six months have been, on all routine matters, correspond- 
ing direct with those concerned. 

In addition to the routine of supervision, purchase, and distribution, various orders 
intended to improve fiscal oiganization and administration were drafted in this office. 
Among them were those regulating the issue and account of clothing; regulating the issue of 
firearms and ammunition to municipalities; creating district supply officers and allotting 
disbursements to district and provincial headquarters; organizing and regulating the 
medical division; defining the outies of responsible and accountable officers concerning 
property, and establishing a ration system for enlisted men. 

Some features of the clothing system that were devised to insure prompt liquidation of 
old accounts can probably be now simplified. 

It is believed that the ration system is as simple, flexible, and practical a one as can be 
devised to meet the nature of our service and the character of the country. The very 
favorable reports of a majority of the district chiefs confirm this opinion. 

The idea of a chief supply officer did not orieinat« with the constabulary; the creation of 
such a position in the headquarters staff of the United States Army was suggested some 
years ago by the then Secretary of War, Mr. Root; but as far as known there is no exactly 
similar position in any miUtary or^^anization other than this. The writer believes that the 
experiment has proved a success, in that it has tended to efficient and economical coopera- 
tion between the different supply chiefs; has insured close attention to the wants of those in 
field and garrison; has resulted in close adaptation of financial means to constabulary ends, 
and has freed the chief of a mass of detail that hampered and interfered with his real and 
more important duties. 

In the constabularv all supplies are ultimately distributed through provincial supply 
officers, and most disbursements of funds are made through them and tne district supply 
officers. At first glance the system seems novel, but in reality it only considerably differs 
from the practice in our army in segregating at a district or provincial headquarters all 
fiscal matters in the hands of one man; and in this regard more approximates to the German 
system and the British garrison system than to American precedents. After an acquaint- 
ance with it of some years, and a direct charge of its administration of more than a year, the 
writer can find no serious fault with the system, and no substitute as well adapted to the 
peculiarities of the service and of the country. 

The personnel has in too many cases proved dishonest or incompetent. While the 
casualties among this class of officers show that there has been no condonation of guilt or 
compromise with justice, it is certain that many derelictions have been due not to bad 
morals but to lack of proper education and of training in responsibility, and to relaxing and 
enervating environments. 

The remedy for this condition is the employment of better bred, educated, and trained 
men, at larger salaries. There seems little doubt that this solution will soon be supplied. 

The telegraph division was organized to take over and operate for the civil government 
lines no longer needed by, or that for lack of men could no longer be operated by, the signal 
corps detachment of the Philippines Division. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 31 

YfhBt the erowth of this division during the past year has been is shown by these figures: 
The telegraph lines operated by it have increased from £05 to 2,037 miles; the telephone 
lines from 1^1 to 23^13 miles; the cables from 85 to 163 miles; an aggregate increase of 
1 ,953 miles. In consequence the telegraph offices have been increased from 23 to 60, and the 
telephone offices from 155 to 350. 

Toe mileage of lines transferred was 6C0, included in nthich are the Aparri-San Fernando 
trunk line and important ones in Negros and Panay. The mileage of lines constructed was 
777; included in tliis is the Luzon-Catanduanes cable, which was laid with the indispensable 
assistance of the U. S. cableship BumMde. The mileage of lines reconsti ucted was L\G. 

The United States Signal Corps now operates telegraph lines, 1,351 mUcs; cables, 1,460 
miles; telephone lines, ^8 miles; an aggregate of 3,210 miles requiring 78 telegraph and 436 
telephone offices. The aggregate mileage of the constabulary telegraph division is 4,414 
miles. 

Due to the fact that the signal corps is operating nearly all the large revenue-producing 
offices, Jt handled 78 per cent of the commercial messages, the total revenue from which 
was $58,675.67. However, even of this the share of the telegraph division increased from 
$1 ,884 in 1903 to $12,908 in 1904. 

Most of the construction and reconstruction has been of a lasting nature, using iron 
instead of wooden poles. 

To meet this growth in mileage and work, the American operators and linemen have 
increased from 31 to 67, and the native operators and linemen from 99 to 120. 

The most immediate wants of the archipelago in order of importance are the laying of a 
cable between Hollo and Bacolod, which besides saving much milage and relay would give 
two southern trunk lines; the building of a telegraph line across Samar, and of one in 
southern Mindanao, and of another from Bautista to Bay om bong via the San Nicolas Pass. 
Their construction waits on the necessary appropriations and the obtaining of a cableship. 
The training of native operators has progressed so satisfactorilv that success is assured. 
The Uocanos seem most promising, and the schools at Vigan and Manila insure a constant 
and adequate supply. 

This year the division cost approximately $155,237, of which $74,428 was for salaries and 
wages and the remainder for materials, transportation and installation. 

It will be noticed that the number of officers is relatively much less than during 1€03. It 
ia intended k> ccmtinue decreasing them, thus raising their standard. In view of this the 
recommendation of the superintendent that they, like other constabulary officers, be given 
military rank, is ap|>roved. 

The ordnance division started with an equipment that is listed in the report of the ord- 
nance officer as "Keceipts from U. S. Army," and the value of which as determined by the 
board cmkvened for the purpose totaled $1 19,622.23. Since the creation of the constabulary 
the writer has been accountable for these stores, but the settlement of counterclaims between 
the anny and the civil government, authorized in a recent act of Congress, will enable him 
to rid himself of this accountability and transfer the stores to the ordnance officer, who will 
then become accountable for them to the insular government. 

This nucleus has been added to from time to time by cash purchases, usually of the Army 
Ordnance Department. During the past year these purchases amounted to $35,860. 

Prior to this year all repairs for the constabulary were done at the Manila Ordnance 
Depot; but because its allotment of funds was only sufficient to do the work of the Philip- 
pines Division, and because the amounts paid by the constabulary did not revert to this 
arsenal, this became impracticable. In consequence it became necessary to install a clean- 
ing, repairing, and bluing plant, which will soon be completed. This work will then no 
kngerbe done by hand, but better, quicker, and cheaper by machinery. Besides repairing 
ita own leather equipment this division repairs all namess used by the quartermaster's 
division. On the whole this division is well eouipped, and it is well managed. 

Its cost for the year ending June 30 was $45,899, of which $7,452 was for salaries and 
wages and the remainder for stores and material. 

In its organization, equipment and work this division has been much aided by Colonel Rus- 
sell, \aie chief ordnance omcer of the Philippines Division, and his assistants. 

Durmg the year the medical service has been segregated into a division, and its duties 
apportioned and regulated. The superintendent has done much to raise the standard of the 
lieutenants, and is now able to recommend the appointment of only licensed graduates of 
medical schools to Uiose positions. It now operates seven hospitals and two wards, having 
a total bed capacity of 200. In them there was treated 1,332 persons, of whom only 26 
died. 

It also has in every province of the first, second, and fourth districts hospital corps men 
who are capable of giving first aid to the wounded, and of treating minor complaints. 

Through the superintendent and his district surseons, supplies are distributed and 
ucounted for, bills for medical and surgical service checked, hospitals supervised, and the 



32 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION, 

examination of recruits and discbarged men arranged. Provision for oi^ganizing a detach- 
ment of this division in the fifth district is made in the pending appropriation bin. 

While the organization is simple and inoxpensiye, it admits of reasonable expansion, and 
has met the demands made on it. However, it must be remembered that the constabulary 
avails itself of the many army hospitals in the provinces, and of the Civil Hospital in Manila, 
and only depends on its own medical division for first succor to the sick and wounded, 
hospital treatment in remote locaUties, and competent details to accompany expeditions 
and detachments in the field. 

The appointment of constabulary medical officers as presidents of the boards of health in 
the provinces in which they are serving is recommended. The extra compensation will 
insure the securing of competent physicians, and thus benefit both the constabulary and the 
provinces. 

This division cost during the past year about $27,565, of which $3,866 was for supplies. 
The commissary division, which supplies not only the constabulary but other civU bureaus 
and employees in the provinces, has an approximated working capital of about $232,500. 
It sold dunng the year about $107,000 wortn, and transferrejd to provincial branches about 
$242,500 worth of stores. It purchased $319,000 worth of supplies, for $23,000 worth of 
which it still owed at the end of June. All this would indicate that the working capital is 
too small and that it is turned oyet on an average of not to exceed 1.5 times a year. 

The financial statement for the fourth quarter is not yet complete ; that for the quarter 
ending March 31 is, and shows a net profit for the two and one-naif years' operations of a 
little more than $25,000. Much of this will be wiped out by the heavy losses sustained 
on rice during the last six months. 

Bearing in mind that of the $17,000 annual chai^ for salaries and wages the constabu- 
lary pays $13,000; that prior to this year mo^t of its transportation was paid not from 
its own but from constabulary funds, and that the great bulk of its transportation is now 
donated by the bureau of coast guard and transportation and by this oureau ; and its 
annual loss from waste and damage is at least $15,000 — it is evident that the 10 per 
cent surchai^e gives no profit. 

For this the eflScient and saving superintendent is in no way responsible. It is due in 

?;reat measure to the difficulty and cost of transportation to remote stations. It costs 
rom 50 to 100 per cent of their value to deliver commissaries at Baguio in Bonguet, at 
Cervantes in Lepanto-Bontoc, at Bayonbong in Nueva Vizcaya, and at Ilagan in Isabela. 
The losses due to indifferent supply officers have also been considerable. 

However, when it is considered that the insular government thereby insures the feeding 
of its much scattered constabulary and of its widely distributed insular and provincial 
officials and employees, it may congratulate itself on breaking so nearly even. 

By your direction an increase of $50,000 in the working capital has been requested. In 
that it should insure prompt payment and cheaper prices, real economy should result. 

In July, 1903, no reliable information could be obtained from the quartermaster's division 
as to stores on hand an contracted for; nor as to its expenditures for fixed changes, trans- 
portation, and supplies. 

These defects were due to cramped office and storage space, lack of system, and an ill- 
defined division of disbursements between the paymaster and the quartermaster. 

They were largely corrected by removal to more commodious quarters, by the introduc- 
tion of system, by confining all headquarters disbursements to the paymaster, and by 
relieving the quartermaster of accountability for property that pertained to the other 
supply divisions. 

Great saving was also made in transportation charges by using, whenever possible, coast 
guard cutters, by increasing the land transportation, and by acquiring the launches and 
lighters necessary to load all stores. Not least was this done by detaihng an officer as 
transportation quartermaster, who has done excellent work. In these matters the con- 
stabulary has been greatly assisted in manifold ways by the bureau of coast guard and 
transportatk)n. From its chief down they have gone out of their way to divide burdens 
and aid us in every way. 

This division, which handles the freight for all divisions, made 2,390 shipments aggre- 
gating nearly 4,000 tons. Of this about four-sevenths went by Government vessels, and 
of the remainder seven-fifteenths had to be shipped by rail to points not reached by water. 
Of the freight carried by commercial vessels, the greater weight was iron telegraph poles, 
which the coast guard fleet can not handle. The transportation of material and personnel 
cost approximately $59,965. The great amount of stationery supplied has proved inade- 
quate and should be increased. 

The many and diverse relations between the different headquarters and offices of the 
constabulary and others of the insular government, of the anny, and of the different 
provincial governments, and of the people of the archipelago entail an immense corre- 
spondence. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION, 33 

During the year effort has heen made to so equip the constahulary with land and water 
transportation as to insure its mobility and safeguard it against the exactions of local con- 
tractors. In doing this China has been drawn on for mules, horses, and carabaos, the 
United States for wagons and carts, and the Philippines for carretelus, boats, and Ughters, 

A thoroughly equipped pack train, manned by skilled packers, has been so far organized 
that the Benguet and Nueva Vizcaya detachments are doing good service, and mules for 
the Lcpanto-Bontoc detachment are in progress of delivery. 

There was spent for vehicles, animals, boats and other transport eauipment, $69,197. 

While the constabulary has never been so well clothed as during the past year, that 
problem still presents vexatious and unsatisfactory phases. That over $33,000 was paid 
to dischaiged men for clothing not drawn in kind seems to indicate that the allowance ia 
ample. Also the placing of orders for large quantities long ahead of the date of delivery 
has insured reasonable reserve stocks and cheapened the clothing price lists. On the other 
hand, some articles, and especially the important components of footgear — shoes and leg- 
gings — have proved unsatisfactory and caused much complaint. 

The only reliable source from which shoes, leggings, and some other supplies can be 
obtained is the Army Quartermaster's Department, and efforts to tap it'^are recommended. 

During the year there was paid for clothing and equipage $212,095. For the same 
period the personnel of the quartermaster's division cost $14,050. 

The paymaster's division has disbursed about $790,000 and transferred about $1,340,000 
to the various supply officers; in other words, handled about $2,130,000 with an accuracy 
and a conformity to law that has practically freed it of those necessary pests — auditor's 
difference sheets. 

Except under "Commissary stores," where lack of funds has sometimes prevented, all 
disbursements have been made most promptly. Well-founded complaints have some- 
times been received of slowness in getting ninds to outlying stations, thus delaying the 
payment of obligations and impairing the credit of the service. This was due to causes, 
some of which were and some not avoidable. It was never due to delay or inefficiency on 
the part of the paymaster's division. Realizing the importance of the difficulty the Com- 
mission has practically eliminated it by continuing old appropriations in force pending the 
passage of new ones. 

The division lacks the clerical force necessary to sift statistical information and keep it 
up to date. In consequence when estimates and reports are in preparation, it and this 
office must practically cease all ordinary work and combine to seek the necessary data. 
What statistics there are in this report were obtained by adding the paymaster's disburse- 
ments and transfers to my records of outstanding obligations and subtracting the surpluses 
reported by the various supply officers. This division cost $4,400, but is now costing at 
the rate of about $5,500 per annum. 

In paying, feeding, clothing, arming, equipping, transporting, quartering, doctoring, 
and providing for the other wants of the constabulary, some $2,210,000 in funds and stores 
were handled and distributed. The cost of this, including that of this office, $8,400, that 
of the supply officers, $72,000, and that of the personnel of the telegraph division, $74,500, 
was about ^11,000, or about 9i per cent. 

Considering only officers and enlisted men, and eliminating the telegraph division, which 
18 a useful but not essential adjunct, the per capita cost of the constabulary during the 
fiscal year 1903 was about $275, and during the fiscal year 1904 about $253. This great 
saving was due to a variety of causes, but inlaige part to the efficiency and mutual coopera- 
tion of the chiefs of the supply divisions, Captains Fisk, Schultz, Baker, Robertson, Love- 
I'oy, and Wheat, and the assistants in this office, Captains Ross and Harpold, all of whom 
[ commend to your consideration. The reports oi the six division chiefs are forwarded 
herewith. 

Respectfully, D. J. Bakeb, Jr., 

Chief Supply Officer. 

The Adjutant-General Philippine Constabulary, 

Manila, P. I. 

WAR 1904— VOL 13 3 



J 



34 



EEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Headquarters Philippines Constabulart, 

Telegrapdic Division, 

Manila, P. /., July 16, 1904^ 
Sir: I have the honor to make the following report for the telegraph division for the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1904: 

Personnel. 



Officers 

American operators 

American linemen 

Clerks 

Native operators 

Native linemen (civilian) 

Detached linemen (enlisted) . 
Messengers .' 



Total. 



June 30, I June 30, 
1903. 1«04. 



1S5 



22 
37 
30 
1 
65 
11 
134 
11 



311 



Increase. 



2 
18 
18 

1 
49 

9 
53 



156 



Equipment. 



Telegraph offices 

Telephone offices 

Telegraph lines miles. . 

Telephone lines do 

Cable do.... 

Total do 



23 

155 



505 
1,871 

85 



2,461 



66 
350 



2,037.5 

2,213.5 

163 



4,414 



43 

195 



1,532.5 

342.5 

78 



1,953 



Salaries and vxiges. 
[United States currency.] 





F!,»^c»r 


Fiscal year 
1904. 


Officers 


$10,913.66 
4,562.00 
2,493.43 


123,984.45 


Civilian operators 


23,119.12 


ClYilian linemen 


15, 190. 38 


Clerks 


432.08 




160.07 
1,228.10 


410.95 


Enlisted operators 


11,291.71 






Total 


19,357.26 


74,428.69 





Provincial list of telegraph and telephone lines. 



Tele- 
phone 




Abra 

Albay 

Ambos Camarines 

Antique 

Bataan 

Batangas 

Benguet 

Bohol 

Bulacan 

Capiz 

Cagayan 

Cavite 

Ccbu 

Ilocos Norte 

llocos Sur 

Hollo 

Isabela 

Laguna 

Lepanto-Boutoc. . 
Leyte 



Miles. 



38 



I 



29 ;. 
16.75 '. 

108 |. 



33 

107.5 

I 60 

I 27 

I 127 

I 21 

83.75 

71 

113 



80 



Mlndoro , 

Misamls I 

Negros Oriental LV) 

Negros Occidental Iftl 

Nueva Ecija ' 81 

Nueva Vircaya [ 69 

Pampanga 174 

Pangasinan i 229.25 

Paragua 4 



40 
115 

45 
103 



.1 116 
.■ 170 

,1 63 



agua 
al. .. 



0.75 l| Riral. ' 21 1. 



189 



63 
79 



111.5 



48 54 



Sorsogon . 

Surigao 

Tarlac , 164 

Tayabas 

Union 80 

Zambales 18^1.5 

Total 2,(XJ7.5 



Milrs. 
61 



95 

2.5 
47 
62 



114 

"28"' 
48.5 
2 
51 
87 
15 
15 



1G3 I 2,213.5 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 35 

Lines transferred from signal corps during fiscal year 1904. 

Mileage. 

San Jose, Antique, Panay to San Joaquin, Antique 18 

Olongapo, Zarabales to Dinalupijan, Bataan 25 

DiDahipijan, Bataan, to Angeles, Pampanga 32 

Tagudin to Candon, Ilocos Sur 17 

Candon to San Elstcban, Ilocos Sur 16 

San Esteban to Abra, Ilocos Sur 20 

Abra to Vigan, Ilocos Sur 6 

Vigan to Salomague, Ilocos Sur 21 

San Fernando to Angeles, Pampanga 10. 25 

Aparri, Cagayan, to San Fernando, Pampanga 333 

Dagupan, Pangasinan, to Rabon, Union 18 

Iloilo to Tigbauan, Uoilo, Panay 16 

Tigbauan to San Joaquin, Iloilo, Panay 20 

Bacolod to Silay, Negros 10 

Seravia to Manapla, Negros 11 

Silay to Seravia, Negros 9 

Castellana to Isabela, Negros 18 

Isabela to Himamaylan, Negros 18 

Himamaylan to Cabancalan, Negros 9 

Cabancalan to Isio, Negros 20 

Rabon to Baoang, Union 23 

Baoang to San Fernando, Union 6. 5 

San Fernando, Union, to Tagudin, Ilocos Sur 27. 6 

Total 600.25 

Lines constructed during fiscal year 190 Jf. 

Tabaco to Malinao, AJbay 4 

Malinao to Tivi, Albay 5 

Gulnobatan to Jovellar, Albay 14 

Polangui to Libon, Albay 7 

Tabaco to Malinao, Albay 1 

Malinao to Cololbong, Albay (cable) > 58 

Cololbong to Virac, Catanduanes, Albay j 

Bugason to Valderrama, Antique, Panay 8. 5 

Sibalon to San Remigio, Antique, Panay 6, 5 

Pantay to Santo Tomas, Batangas 3 

San Jose to Tanauan, Batangas 18 

Nasugba to Looc, Batangas 12 

Dagupan, Pangasinan, to Twin Peaks, Benguet 42. 5 

Temporary telephone line connecting work camps on Benguct Road with Twin 

Peaks and Baguio, Bengiiet 21 

Rosario to Novalete, Cavite ~. 2. 5 

San Fernando, Pampanga, to Malolos, Bulacan 22 

Malolos to Hagonoy , Bulacan 4 

Malolos to Polo, Bulacan 13. 5 

Tagbilaran to Loon, Bohol 16 

Capiz to Sapian, Capiz, Panay 15 

Septan to Balete, Capiz, Panay 27 

Indang to Naic, Cavite 14 

Naic to San Francisco de Malabon, Cavite 12 

Malabon to Rosario, Cavite 3 

Cavite to Novalete, Cavite 6. 5 

Rtzal boundary line to Imus, Cavite - 8 

Indang to Amadeo, Cavite • | 

Indang to Alfonso, Cavite -»---.-.-. [ ^^ 

Indang to Quintana, Cavite '. .' J 

Balamban to Bogo, Cebu 65 

Cebu toNaga,Cebu 12 

Tagudin to Alilem, Ilocos Sur 8 

Banate to Barotoc Viejo, Iloilo, Panay 6 

Barotoc Viejo to Ajui, Iloilo, Panay 24 

Ajui to Sara, Iloilo, Panay 6 

Sara to Concepcion, Iloilo, Panay 8 

Santa Barbara to Jaro, Iloilo, Panay 8 

Iloilo to Molo, Iloilo, Panay 3 



36 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Mileage. 

Tanauan, Batangas, to Calamba, Laguna 12 

Bifian to Santo Domingo, Laguna 10 

Cervantes to Bontoc, Lepanto-Bontoc 25 

Palo junction to Alangalang, Leyte 16 

Tanauan to Tolosa, Leyte 6 

Valle Herraosa to Escalantc, Negros 62 

Valle Hermosa to Hacienda Villas, Negros 2 

Apalit to San Luis, Pampanga 7 

Bmalalonga to Pozorrubio, Pangasinan 7 

Pozorrubio to Twin Peaks, Benguet '. 15 

Dagupan to Bunuan, Pangasinan 1 

Cable landing to telegraph office, Paragua 4 

Muntinlupa to Paranaque, Rizal 10 

Donsol to Pilar, Sorsogon 7. 75 

Pilar to Sorsogon, Sorsogon 40. 5 

Capas to Concepcion, Tarlac 5. 25 

Alaminos to Bolinao, Zambales 30 

Bani to Agna, Zambales 12 

Anda to main line, Zambales 4 

Total 777.5 

Lirus reconstructed during the fiscal year 1904- 

San Jose to boundary line, Antique, Panay 9 

Dinalupijan to Balanga, Bataan 20 

Ta^bilaran to Baclayon, Bohol 5 

Naic to Marongondon, Cavite 4 

Imus to Dasmariflas, Cavite 8. 5 

Balamban to Tuburan, Cebu 20 

Nueva Caceres to Libmanan, Ambos Camarines 16 

Cabugo to Pasuquin, IIocos Norte 60 

Carcar to Dumanjug, Cebu 20 

Junction to Balamban, Cebu 22 

Jaro to San Joaquin, Iloilo, Panay 36 

Jaro to Santa Barbara, Iloilo, Panay 8 

Cervantes to Bontoc, Lepanto-Bontoc 18 

Masbate to Cataingan, Masbate 61 

Dumaguete to Bais, Negros 27 

Bacolor to San Fernando, Pampanga 3 

Santa Ana to Mexico, Pampanga 7 

Olongapo, Bataan, to Angeles, Pampanga 57 

Dagupan, Pangasinan, to Alaminos, Pangasinan 28 

Lucban to Mauban, Tayabas 16 

Candelaria to Tiaong, Tayabas 16 

Tiaong to Dolores, Tayabas 9 

Tayabas to Lucban, Tayabas 11 

San Fernando to Naguilian, Union 13 

Olongapo to Subig, Zieimbales 8 



Total 502.5 

Commercial comparison, telegrapk division. 



Fiscal year. i Receipts. 



Messages 
handled. 



1903. 
1904. 



81..S84.15 
12,906.65 



58,266 
210,372 



Signal Corps, 

Mileage. 

Telegraph wires ... 1, 351. 5 

Telegraph cables 1 , 460. 299 

Telephone wires 397.98 

Total 3,209.779 

Number of telegraph offices 78 

Number of telephone offices 436 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 37 

There were handled by the telegraph service duiing the fiscal year 1,753,103 messages, 
of which 645,173 were "^nf* messages. The total revenue represented by the commercial 
proportion of the above business amounted to $58,675.67 United States currency, of which 
sum the Signal Corps, United States Army, handled 78 per cent, and the telegraph division 
of the Philippines Constabulary 22 per cent. This difference is accounted for by the fact 
that the Signal Corps is operating nearly all the large revenue-producing offices. 

The heavy reconstruction which has been carried on during the year has been rendered 
necessary bv the condition of lines as transferred to this division, and by the necessity of 
the renewal of a wooden-pole line about every two years. Fifteen thousand iron poles 
have been received from the United States, and all except a few hundred distributed to 
the most needed points. The iron pole is the best pole for this country. The best grade 
of wooden poles requires renewal, and those that take root and grow are good when they 
grow and bad when they do not. The life of the iron pole has not yet been determinedf, 
and when once erected these 'poles can be made to stand up under as many as five wires, 
whereas the wooden pole, such as is ordinarily used, can not be so made. Iron poles are 
thus additionally valuable when more than one wire is to be carried. 

Working parties are now in the field in Isabela, Zambales, both provinces of Negros, 
Albay, and Leyte installing iron poles. In other provinces iron poles are being constantly 
put in the lines by regular linemen, without the aid of repair or construction gangs. 

Probably the most important duties that have been performed by the telegraph division 
during the last fiscal year have been the laying of the Luzon-Catanduanes cable, the 
taking over from the signal corns of the Aparri line, and the installation in the Oriente Build- 
ing, Manila, of a telephone ana electric-hght system. Inspector Clement represented this 
division at the cable laying, which was done oy the U. S. cable ship Bumsidej and that 
ofiScer is now superintending some short land line construction near Tabaco, Albay, to 
make connections final, and thus put the island of Catanduanes into telegraphic communica- 
tion with the world. 

The transfer, on May 1 and subseouent dates, of the Aparri line was effected with the 
assistance of the officers of the Signal Corps and Inspectors Davies, Donnelly, and Davis, 
of this division. Inspector Davies is now engaged in installing 1,700 iron poles on this line 
in the province of Isabela. 

Inspector Hyland has been in charge of the electric-light and telephone work in the 
Oriente Building, and his work has met with praise from those who are judges. When it 
is considered that the building has been four times wired for electric lights and three times 
the job has been condemned, no small degree of credit should be given the telegraph divi- 
sion in general, and Inspector Hyland in particular, that this dimeult electrical installa- 
tion should have been carried to a successful termination. The establishment of a small 
telephone system in the headquarters building should also be noted as part of the work of 
the division. 

The telegraph lines operated by the telegraph division have been districted and officers 
of the division placed in charge as district telegraph ofiQcers. Operators and linemen in 
the different districts report to and are under tne orders of their respective district tele- 
graph officers, whom the undersigned holds responsible for the proper handling of their 
districts. This plan has been found to work splendidly, and the service is benefited by the 
technical knowledge and watchfulness of the officers. 

The laying of the Uoilo-Bacolod cable, the building of a line across the northern part of 
Samar, tne building of a line in southern Mindanao, and one from the railroad near Bau- 
tista to Bayombong, and the continued rebuilding in a number of wooden-pole provinces, 
are bright prospects for hard labor ahead. 

Sometime ago the signal officer, PhiUppines Division, recommended that the property 
officers of the Signal Corps take up the government lines on the railroad and invoice those 
operated by the constabulary to the telegraph division. Under the contract executed by 
Colonel Allen, of the Signal Corps, and Mr. Higgins, of the railroad company, that com- 

Eany keeps the lines in repair. The railroad company's service in this particular is fair, 
ut that 18 the best that can be said of it. The undersigned agrees with the si^al officer, 
Philippines Division, that these lines should be invoiced to some one. This division handles 
three wires from Manila to Dagupan, and operates all the mian offices between. The Signal 
Corps operates one wire. Mr. Higgins has courteously furnished transportation for the 
two officers who cover the railroadTbut interruptions occur, and when such is the case we 
must wait until the railroad company gets the fines up. 

I believe the service will be bettered by the invoicing of telegraph property direct to 
district telegraph officers instead of to the supply officers, as heretofore. This idea has 
been followed out in two cases and will be extended to all telegraph districts when neces- 
sary. As the district telegraph officer knows the location of all property in his district, he 
is in a better position to care for it, and as he is aware of what the property consists, he is 
better fitted to do the paper work than another officer who might not know a jack strap 
from an ammeter. 



38 REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

There is a general feeling of confidence in the future of the telegraph division. Officers 
are studying electrics and fitting themselves for adyancement. 

A large proportion of the officers and civilian employees have been soldiers, and as such 
have learned to respect and desire a military title. Our officers feel that the title inspector 
means nothing, while the corresponding military title means everything. They are in 
command of enlisted men who respect a military title. It is my sincere belief that the 
making of these gentlemen into captains and lieutenants would improve the morale of the 
telegraph division, and thus improve the service. 

I respectfully urge that this matter be favorably considered and indorsed by you and 
brought to the attention of the chief of constabularv. 

A cable ship is badlv needed in these waters, liie signal officer, Philippines Division, 
has requested that sucn a vessel be furnished, or that he bo authorized to arrange for the 
hire of a boat for cable purposes. Recent correspondence on this subject shows that an 
effort is being made to secure such a vessel, and the proper maintenance of the cables makes 
such a boat a great necessitv. There is at the present time a Signal Corns cable between 
Zatnboanga and Siassi which is not in operation for the lack of a properly equipped boat 
to underrun it. The Signal Corps has all the necessary machinery in Mwila. Authority 
and funds are lacking. 

The Manila Trade School has furnished us a number of operators for enlistment, and 
the men as taken from this school have been trained into fair telegraphers and have attended 
to business. It is mjr understanding that the instructor at the Vi^n school has left, and 
what arrangements will be made to provide competent instruction is not known. Ajium- 
ber of good students have been drawn from this school during the past ^ear. 

The Ilocano makes the best operator, 47 out of the 66 cnUstcd men bemg from this tribe. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Rush P. Wheat, 

Superititfndent. 

The CuiEF Supply Offices PmuppiNEs Constabulart, 

Manila, P. L 



Headquarters PiiiLippiNEa Constabulart, 

Office of the Ordnance Officer, 

Manila, P. /., Jvly 14, 190^, 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of operations of the ordnance divi- 
sion, Philippines constabulary, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904: 

During tnis period the efforts of this division, aside from the supplying and repairing of 
amis and equipments incid<Mit to the service, have b?en directecf chiefly to unifying the 
equipment of troops and gathering together at Manila all surplus ordnance stores. 

Large quantities of stores previously obtained from the Manila ordnance depot have been 
returned. 

The examining of ordnance-property returns of supply officer still forms a most impor- 
tant part of the duties of the ordnance officer, and time has proved its value. It is a great 
assistance to the auditor and greatlv facilitates the settlement of their accounts, the cor- 
rection of errors, and adjustments of misimderstanding, especially those concerning United 
States military property. 

receipts of ordnance stores from unfted states army. 

- The transfer of ordnance stores by army officers to the constabulary, in compliance with 
paragraph 4 of General Orders, No. 179, Division of the Philippines, July 20, 1901, as modi- 
fied by division General Orders, No. 255, same aeries (whicn provides that the arms and 
equipments not yet invoiced to the chief ordnance officer will be turned over to the senior 
inspector of constabulary of the province wherein they arc located, and that the officer 
transferring them shall invoice them to Capt. David J. Baker, jr., Twelfth U. S. Infantry, 
assistant cnief Philippines Constabulary, Manila), has practically been discontinued, and 
onlv two invoices have been received during this period. 

On S?ptembor 28, 1901, the board of officers referred to in a communication from the 
Chief of Ordnance, United States Army, to determine the price to be paid for the stores 
transferred to the civil government, was convened by paragraph 9, Special Orders, No. 255, 
headouarters Division of the Philippines, 1901, and the recommendation of this l)oard wero 
as follows: 

**No account then being taken of the cost of transportation, and without reference to 
the undoubtedly enhanced commercial value of the arms in the Philippine Islands, the 
board recommends that the following standard of prices obtain : 

• "1. AH revolvers, shotgims, spare parts, and equipments issued from the ordnance depot 
to the Philippines Constabulary' of the civil government, in the condition in which they were 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 39 

received from the States, and all serviceable shell and ammunition, whether received from 
the depot or from the troops, to be sold at invoice price. 

"2. Colt's revolvers, caliber .45, which, after sen'ic^, have been repaired here by the 
ordnance department and issued from the ordnance depot to the Philippines Constabulary, 
to be sold at a discount of 10 per cent from the invoice price. 

"Colt's revolvers, caliber .45, not repaired by Ihe ordnance department here, but turned 
over to the Philippines Constabulary by officers having them in use. to be sold at a discount 
of 20 per cent from the invoice price. 

*' 4. Remington shotguns repaired by the ordnance department hero and issued from the 
department, to be sold at a discount of 20 per cent from the invoice price. 

"5. Renungton shotguns not repaired by the ordnance department, but turned over by 
oflBcers having them in use, to be sold at a discount of 40 per cent from the invoice price. 

"6. All equipments formerly in the hands of the troops or of the police in the Philippines, 
to be sold at a discount of 50 per cent from the invoice price. 

"7. The price of such articles received in future and supplied by the ordnance department 
especially for the use of the Philippines Constabulary to oe that of cost, or cost with trans- 
portation added, depending on whether the transfer be regarded as one made to another 
Dureau of the War Department or to another Executive Department under paragraph 753, 
Army Regulations, 1901. 

"8. No account to be taken of the spare parts issued to officers for repair of these arms 
prior to transfer to the constabulary.'' 

Under the foregoing authorities, the following stores have been received by the Philippines 
Constabulary, the prices indicated being those obtained under the recommendation of the 
board, and are in United States currency: 

Under recommendation No. 1 : 

1,000 Colt's revolvers, caUber. 45 $12,000.00 

1,534 holsters for revolvers, caliber .45 1, 211. 86 

1^200 waist belts 504.00 

100 artillery saber belts » 42.00 

1,100 waist-belt plates 242.00 

200 waist-belt plates, noncommissioned officers 50. 00 

500 revolver-cartridge belts, woven, caliber .45 500. 00 

3,000 canteens 960.00 

25,439 cartridges, brass shells, buckshot 1,239. 38 

8 quarts of cosmoUne oil 4. 00 

100 pounds powder, smaU arm, smokeless 85. 00 

183,430 revolver ball cartridges, caUber .45 1,467.44 

11 arm chests, revoh'er 7L 50 

41,974 carbine ball cartridges, caUber .30...... 1,072.86 

860 ball cartridges, revolver, caliber .38 6.81 

Total 19,964.96 

Under recommendation No. 2: 

635 Colt's revolvers, cahber .45 6,858.00 

Under recommendation No. 3: 

4,148 Colt's revolvers, caliber .45 39,820,80 

Under recommendation No. 4: 

100 Remington shotguns 540. 00 

Under recommendation No. 5: 

1,604 Remington shotguns 6,496.20 

Under recommendation No. 6: 

3^67 holsters for revolvers, caliber .45 1, 523. 52 

3,092 waist belts 649.32 

2,762 waist-belt plates 203.83 

72 cartridge pouches 21 . 60 

27 arm chests, revolver 54. 00 

Total 2,552.27 

Under authorityper fifth indorsement on O. 0. letter 36909223, dated Sep- 
tember 20, 1902, and approved by the Secretary of War: 

4,000 Springfield carbmes, caliber .45 32,000.00 

410,000 carbine ball cartridges, caliber .45 6,970.00 

200 arm chests, carbine, calioer .45 670. 00 

l,124cartridge belts, blue, caliber .45 1,124.00 



40 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Under authority per fifth indorsement on 0. 0. letter 36909223, etc. — Continued. 

1 ,124 cartridge-belt plates, caliber .45 $281 . 00 

1 ,876 cartridge belts, gray, caliber .45, with fasteners 2, 345. 00 

Total 43,390.00 

Grand total » 119,622.23 

In addition to the foregoing I have received 3,317 Remington rifles and 96,706 Remington 
cartridges. These rifles were a part of the arms purchased bv the United States Government 
from the Spanish Government and from the insurgents and were paid for from public civil 
funds. 

ISSUE AND RECEIPTS OF STORES. 

During this period the number of requisitions received at this office amounted to 1.53. 

The number of issues of ordnance stores for this period amounted to 147 and the total 
number of receipts during this period amounted to 177. 

The ordnance office has responded most liberally to all demands made and has supplied 
requisite stores as promptly as possible. No serious complaints have been received from 
troops of failure to supply them promptly. 

In making reauisitions the pohcy to keep each province fully equipped was followed. 

In all cases wnere an officer reported in nis requisition a large number of unserviceable 
articles on hand he was requirea to explain the reason for not placing them before an 
inspector. 

In no instance was a request for stores returned to an officer because it had not been made 
out on proper blanks or had not gone through all the channels. 

When a requisition was received direct it was immediately remailed to the district com- 
mander for his approval. 

The provisions of circular letter No. 28, of 1903, enabled all supply officers to turn in to the 
depot all unserviceable stores on exchange of proper invoices and receipts, and in many 
instances it resulted in turning in to the depot worn but serviceable stores, and on account 
of the limited facilities for making repairs the quantity of unser>'iceable and repairable 
property has taken up all available store room. 

REPORT OF WORK DONE IN SHOPS OF THE ORDNANCE DIVISION. 

The following lists of work do not include small jobs, which in the aggregate would cer- 
tainly increase the amount one-third more. 

Armory. — ^The armory is under an American foreman and it employs eight natives. The 
principal work is as follows: 

Cleaned, repaired, reblued, and oiled: 465 Springfield carbines; 318 Colt's revolvers, 
single action, caliber .45; 16 Colt's revolvers, double action, caliber .45; 12 revolvers, 
various kinds, and 6 carbines. 

Cleaned, repaired, and oiled: 537 Springfield carbines; 243 Colt's revolvers, double action, 
caliber .45; 683 Remin^on shotguns, and 2 Winchester repeating shotguns. 

The most important improvement made in this shop is ttie installation of a bluing plant, 
for which this office is greatly indebted to Col. A. H. Russell, chief ordnance officer, PhiUp- 
pines Division, for his assistance. 

During the past year the facilities for rebluing and repairs were entirely limited to hand 
work, but about four months ago a contract was let for certain machinery, and the following 
named pieces are now being installed, which will greatly add to the quality and decrease 
the cost of work done: One large Norton emery grinder, one belt-strapping machine, one 
polishing machine, and one ^-horsepower kerosene engine. 

The large foot-power lathe purchased for this division about two years ago will also be run 
by power. 

Bids are now being received by the bureau of architecture for the building, for this divi- 
sion, of one large bluing furnace, which is of the same pattern as the one now used by the 
Manila ordnance depot. 

Harness shop. — The harness shop is superintended by a native foreman and it employs 
three saddlers. 

Owing to the severe climatic conditions of the islands on leather equipments, the work of 
this shop has been mostly confined to repairs. 

AH repairs on harness used by the quartermaster division has been made in this shop. 

One thousand eight hundred and fifty belts, fair leather, for 12-gauge cartridges, have been 
converted into belts holding .45-caliber ammunition. 

Of the saw-back pack saddles manufactured by this division about a year ago still remain 
in stock 30 to be completed. These were laid aside in order to give those sent out a thorou^ 
trial and fill immediate demand. The reports received from various provinces on their 
merits and demerits will now enable this division to make a pack saddle satisfactory in eveiy 
respect. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



41 



STORES PURCHASED DURING THE YEAR. 

The following is a list of the principal stores purchased: 

Springfield carbines 1 , 500 

Web belts, caUber .45 3,850 

Canteens, United States Army 5, 000 

Haversacks, United States Army ^ 1, 000 

Canteen and haversack straps 6, 000 

Haversacks, made by contract in Manila 6, 000 

Ball cartridges 450, 000 

Brass shells, 12-gauge, for repeating shotguns , 35, 000 

Powder pounds.. 1,000 

Leather (1,115 pounds fair, 914 pounds black) do 2,029 

MAINTENANCE OF ORDNANCE DIVISION. 

The cost of this division during the past year has been as follows: 
Purchase of ordnance stores and material P'Tl, 720. 00 



Purchase of machinery as per contract 

Building of one bluing furnace 

Material used in armory 

Material used in harness shop 

Salary of force in armory 

Salary of force in harness shop 

Salaiy of oflSce force 



2,492.00 
1,700.00 
847.49 
134.00 
5,504.80 
1,680.00 
7,720.00 



Total 91,798.79 

In view of the severe climatic conditions of the islands on all leather equipments and arms, 
I recommend that a regular allowance of preservative and lubricating oil be established, 
same to be as follows for a period of six months: Six cans of fair-leather dressing for every 
100 leather belts, holsters, and pouches; 3 cans of fair-leather dressing, 1 gallon of neat's- 
foot oil, and 3 pounds of castile soap for each set of horse equipments; 6 pounds of Cosmoline 
oil and 6 sheets of emery cloth for every 100 guns. 

Before closing this report I desire to mention Mr. J. C. Winebrenner, armorer, who has had 
chai^ of the shops during the entire period. In addition to his duties as armorer, he has 
charge of the storerooms, receiving and packing of stores. He has shown a marked ability 
in these duties and his energy and efficiency have told in the improved condition of the store- 
rooms and the arrangement of stores. His ability as armorer has been conspicuous through- 
out. 

In addition to the work heretofore mentioned, this office is charged with the registration 
of all firearms in the archipelago, under Act 610, United States Philippine Commission. 
This work may be summarized as follows: 

Permits issued by constabulary officers to carry firearms under the above-mentioned act 
since March 25, 1903, 1,799, as follows: 



Abra 11 

Albay 142 

Ambos Camarines 2 

Antique 7 

Bataan 17 

Batangas 81 

Benguet 30 

Bohol 68 

Bulacan 61 

Cagayan 150 

Capiz 23 

Cavite 36 

Cebu 68 

Davao 1 

Hocos Norte 19 

IIocos Sur 17 

Doilo 193 

Isabela 4 

La La^na 97 

La Umon ". 37 

Lepanto-Bontoc 11 

Leyt« 68 



Masbate 22 

Mindoro 6 

Misamis 14 

NuevaEcija 22 

Nueva Vizcaya 13' 

Occidental Negros 80 

Oriental Negros 11 

Pampanga 90 

Pangasinan 85 

Paragua 3 

Rizal. 13 

Romblon 7 

Samar 33 

Sorsogon 54 

Surigao 2 

Tarl ac 21 

Tay abas 26 

Zambales 44 

Zamboanga 5 

Mindanao 5 

Manila 36 



42 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Permits Issuod by provincial governors sidcc the 



of the above act, 1,850, as follows: 



Misamis 106 

Nueva Ecija 48 

Nueva Vizcaya 36 

Occidental Negros 425 

Oriental Negroe 90 

Pangasinan 97 

Pampanga 25 

Paragua 12 

Rizal. 8 

Romblon 38 

Samar 36" 

Surigao 46 

Tayabas 34 

Tarfac 52 

Zambales 58 



Abra 3 

Ambos Camarines 98 

Antique 68 

Bataan 4 

Bulacan 70 

Capiz 135 

Cavite / 45 

Cebu 20 

Ilocos Norte 45 

Uocos Sur. . . '. 4 17 

Loilo 176 

Isabela 40 

Lepanto-Bontoc 7 

Masbat« 5 

La Laguna 35 

Mindoro 1 

The constabulary hold to-day in actual use: 

Springfield carbines 7, 226 

CoWa revolvers, double action, caliber .45 4, 149 

Remington shotgunis 643 

Remington rifles 879 

Colt's revolvers, single action, caliber .45 1, 582 

The municipal police to-day hold: 

Remington rifles 1 , 738 

Remington shotguns 2, 370 

Colt's revolvers, single action, caliber .45 2, 540 

The following arms are in tlie hands of individuals to-day: 

Rifles 979 

Shotguns 1,365 

Revolvers 3, 461 

There are to-day in the constabulary ordnance depot, Manila: 

Springfield carbines '. 144 

Remington shotguns 3, 429 

Remington rifles 1, 372 

Colt's revolvers, single action, caliber .45 1 , 512 

Colt's revolvers, double action, caliber .45 980 

Colt's revolvers, double action, caliber .41 600 

There are, therefore, in the archipelago, exclusive of those held by American soldiers and 
scouts, 7,370 Springfield carbines; 6,448 Remington shotguns; 3,989 Remington rifles; 
5,129 Colt's revolvers, double action, caliber .45; 5,634 Colt's revolvers, single action, caliber 
.45; 600 Colt's revolvers, double action, caliber .41; and other arms as follows: 979 rifles, 
1,365 shotguns, and 3,461 revolvers. 
This makes a total of 34,975 flrearms of which record is kept at these headquarters. 
Very respectfully, 

John R. Schultz, 
Capfatnf Philippines Constahulanj, in Chargt of Ordnance Divisi/nu 
The CmEF Supply Officer, Phiuppinbs Constabulary, 

Manila, P. I. 



Hbadquahtsss Philippines Constabuij^ry, 

Medicaid Division, 
Manila, July 14, 1904- ^ 
Sir: In compliance with your memorandum of July 12, 1904, 1 have the honor to submit 
the following: ^ ' 

June 30, 1903, the medical division, Philippines Constabulary, consisted of 3 captains and 
BUi^eons together with 7 lieutenants and 35 enlisted men detailed for duty with the division. 
Up to this period the assistant chief supply officer bought, and the quartermaster accounted 
for, all meaicines and medical supplies. Act 807 provided for a fourth captain and surgeon. 
General Order, No. 66, current series 1903, created the medical division as a separate divisioni 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION., 43 

consistukg of 1 captain and sui^eon, superintendent of the medical division and first district 
surgeon; 3 captains and surgeons, 10 lieutenants and medical inspectors, and 103 enlisted 
men. Act 1049 provided lor its expenses as a separate division and fixed its personnel as 
given above until June 30, 1904. 

June 30, 1903, the enlisted men were attached to the constabulary hospitals and Manila 
dispensary undergoing instruction in first aid to the wounded, nursing, dieting, etc. Since 
that time thoy have been sent to provinces for duty, and on June 30, 1904, were distributed 
as follows: 

First district. — Tarlac,'5 (hospital detachiuent); Pangasinan, 2; Zambales, 2; Nueva 
Ecija, 2; Nueva Vizcaya, 2; Bataan, 2; Bulacan, 2; La Laguna, 2; Cavite, 1 ; Batangas, 1; 
Rizal, 1, and Manila garrison, 6 — total, 28 men. 

Second district. — ^Tayabas, 4 (hospital detachment); Sorsogon, 2: Romblon, 2; Mindoro, 
2; Ambos Camarines, 2, and Albay, 5 (hospital detachment) — total, 17 men 

Third district. — Iloilo, 6 (hospital detachment); Antique, none; Capiz, none; Negros 
Occidental, none; ><egros Oriental, none; (Jebu, none; Leyte, 2; Samar, 2; Surigao, none, 
and Misamis, none — total, 11 men. 

Fourth district. — ^Abra, 2; Ilocos Norte, 1 ; Ilocos Sur, 8 (hospital detachment) ; Cagayan, 
2; Isabcla, 4 (hospital detachment); Lepanto-Bontoc, 1, and La Union, 1 — total, 19 men. 

Exposition battalion. — St. Louis, 2 men. 

It will be seen that in the first, second, and fourth districts there is in every province one 
or two hospital corps men who are capable of giving first aid to the wounded and treating 
many of the minor complaints of constabulary soldiers. 

Statement of supplies bought and expended. 

On hand June 30, 1903 ^5,100.20 

Received during the fiscal year 1904 5, 396. 45 

10, 496. 65 
Expended during fiscal year 1904 7, 731. 44 

On hand June 30. 1904 2. 765. 21 

The above supplies comprise all medical supplies, hospital stores, disinfectants, furniture 
and bedding, surgical instruments, dressings, etc., used by the medical division. 
There are at present 7 hospitals and 2 wards located, with capacity as follows: 

First district: Beds. 

Tarlac 20 

Manila garrison (ward) 10 

Second district: 

Lucena 20 

Albay 25 

Nueva Caceres (ward) 15 

Third district: 

Jaro 40 

Borongon, Samar 20 

Fourth district: 

Vigan 30 

Ilagan, Isabela 20 

The fifth district has as yet no part of the medical division. 

June 30, 1904, there were being established 5 hospitals and 1 ward, with an approximate 
bed capacity of 125 beds. During the fiscal year 1904 there were treated in constabulary 
hospitals 8 officers, 1,282 enlisted men, and 42 civilians — total, 1,332. Number of days lost 
in hospital: Officers, 58; enlisted men, 14,995, civilian emplo^^^ees, 456 — total, 15,509. The 
treatment given in constabulaij hospitals would have cost, if given by the military hospitals, 
P'l 1,556. Number of deaths in constabulary hospitals since June 30, 1903, 26. This, with 
the many cases treated in "quarters" and attended outside the hospitals throughout the 
provinces, comprises the work of the medical division. 

The division is small and not at all adequate to the need of the constabulary, but the 
hospitala established have, it is believed, met the demands made upon them. The native sol- 
dier has proven quick to learn the duties required of him as hospital corps man. There has 
been but one instance brought to my attention where he has not exceeded all reasonable 
expectation in his efficiency. I wish especially to commend the work of the surgeons of tho 
second and fourth districts, Capts. J. M. Wneate and T. C. Walker. The work is well 
omuiLBed in those districts and the efficiency and care of the district sui^ons are felt in this 
office in all official communications with those districts. 



44 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

The tliird district has not been so well managed in the medical division, except the work of 
the hospitals, which has been excellent. 

The constabulary should unquestionably have a medical officer in every province, but aa 
this would necessitate a great increase in the expense of the bureau it is, under the present 
circumstances, impracticable. Much has been said in official communications regarding the 
relations of the work in the provinces of the ph^'sicians of the board of health and the medi- 
cal officers of the constabulary. This is a subject that desers'es consideration. Except in 
those provinces where constabulary medical officers are stationed, the constabulary must 
depend upon the provincial doctors in all serious cases, and the services of these doctors have 
seldom been available, and when available, their refusal to use medicines that have been pro- 
vided by the constabulary have often necessitated large expenditures for prescriptions. In 
fact this dependence for medical service has been almost wholly unreliable. 

Legislation has been proposed authorizing the appointment of constabulary medical 
officers, where graduates m medicine, as presidents or provincial boards of health, and pro- 
viding for the payment to them for this work 145 per month, thus saving to the provmce 
from $400 to $1,000 per annum. I would respectfully urge the passage of this bill for three 
reasons: It is in the mterests of economy; it will promote the efficiency of the medical divi- 
sion of constabulaiy by making it possible to secure competent physicians for medical 
inspectors, and it will improve sanitation in the provinces, and improve the work of the board 
of health in the provinces. 

The number of officers and enlisted men treated in military hospitals can not be given at 
the present time, as this data must be obtained from records in tne paymaster's office and 
he can not now furnish same. 

Very respectfully, W. P. Baker, 

Captain and Surgeon y Philippines Constabulary, 

Superintendent Medical Division, 

The Chief Supply Officer, Puiuppines Constabulary. 



Headquarters Philippines Constabulary, 
Office of the Commissary, 

Manila, P. /., July 15, 1904^ ,^ 
Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report covering the operations of this divi- 
sion during the fiscal vear 1904: 

The exact financial status can not be determined at the present writing as 9 provinces 
have as yet not been heard from. I have attempted to communicate with them by wire, but 
communications have been so interrupted during the past week that I have been unable to 
receive any reply. In addition to this the quarterly statement from the auditor has not been 
received. 

The Manila depot shows the following transactions: Purchases, P637,147.89; transfers, 
r485,083.55; sales, I»'213,990.84. 

The outstanding bills at the end of June amounted to P'45,660.19. A rough estimate 
places the value of stores that have been damaged during the fiscal year at 1^30,000, while 
the cost of transportation approximates P 40,000. Salaries and wages, including clerks and 
laborers, ^26,000. 

The financial statement submitted covering the operations including April 30, 1904, 
showed an indebtedness of this divisioD of P* 104,862.65. A limited amount of purchasing 
was done during the last quarter, with an idea of cutting down this indebtedness. How- 
ever, the amount due contractors at the end of June amounts to almost the entire purchases 
for the months of May and June; in other words, the contractors have not been paid for the 
goods delivered during these months, some of which have been disposed of. 

I do not doubt but that we could obtain better prices if we had sufficient capital to meet all 
obligations promptly. As it is, contractors figure 1 or 2 per cent interest on their money to 
cover the delay in payment of their accounts. 
I To cover the present business of this division, additional capital is necessary. I have 
given this matter considerable thought, but can not see how I can bring about the success 
desired without at least 1^100,000 additional capital. 

The need of additional clerical force has already been brought to your notice in my com- 
munication of recent date, and I understand it has already been submitted to the Commis- 
sion; therefore, I will not remark further on that subject. 

Attention is invited to the exhibits hereto attached, and marked A, B, and C. 
Very respectfully, 

Asa F. Fisk, 
Captain and Commissary, 
The Chief Supply Officer, Philippines Constabulary, 

Manila, P. I. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 
Exhibit A. 



45 



Statement of purchases, transjers, and sales made by the civil supply store, Manila branch, 

during the fiscal year 1904- 



Month. 



) Purchases. 



Transfers. Sales. 



1903. i 

July ' yi,553.19 

August ! 41,492.32 

September 65,614.28 

October 52,213.30 

November 101,842.36 

December • 69, 000. 19 



January.. 
February. 

March 

April 

May 

June 



1904. 



Total. 



92,032.24 
66,333.16 
70,584.55 
23,872.43 
20,908.92 
31,700.95 



637,147.89 



r"16,722.12 
36,346.42 
55,494.13 
36,752.89 
47,035.27 
74,318.15 



38,449.67 
33,300.39 
53,296.59 
33,434.90 
35,327.49 
24,603.53 



485,083.55 



^26,751.46 
6,112.86 
4,695.18 
5,758.83 
7,772.84 
12,727.10 



41,308.02 
22,446.88 
20,321.96 
20,a53.80 
22,428.62 
23,613.29 



213,990.84 



Exhibit B. 

Statement shovying operations of the Manila branch of the civil supply store during the fiscal year 

1904- 
Value of inventory, July 1, 1903: 

Good P-203,606.20 

Damaged 6,937.27 

Purchased during year 637, 147. 89 

Purchased during year at Cebu 1, 340. 65 

Returned to Manila from provinces 1, 818. 68 

Damaged flour sold at auction 1, 710. 00 

Ten per cent added to purchase prices 87, 981. 82 

^940,542.51 

Value of stores transferred to substations 485, 083. 55 

Sales 213,990.84 

Stores condemned 7, 409. 30 

Value of inventory, June 30, 1904: 

Good 232,332.09 

Damaged 1,726.73 

940, 542. 51 

EXHIBFF C. 

CIVIL SUPPLY STORE. 

Financial statement, March SO, 1904, 

ASSETS. 

Inventory of stock, Manila ^280,477.08 

Cash, Manila 23,385.96 

Inventory of stock, provinces 188, 718. 78 

Cash, provinces 51,330.69 

Insular treasurer 23, 741. 75 

Paymaster, Philippines Constabulary 7, 779. 92 

Captain Harpold 2,306.93 

Captain CampbeU 4,104.65 

Exposition battalion 3, 526. 42 

Divers officers 6,750.17 

Defaulting officers' accounts 29, 106. 35 

^621,228.70 

UABILHIES. 

Civil government 465,162.44 

Contractors 104,822.65 

569,985.09 

Net worth 51,243.61 



46 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Business statement, period January 1 to March 30, 1904- 

Inventory of stock , Manila 1^280,477.08 

Merchandise, ledger account 257, 273. 99 

i^23,203.09 

Inventory of stock, provinces 188, 718. 78 

Provinces merchandise ledger account 179, 199. 94 

9, 518. 84 

Loss and gain account 351. 09 

33,073.02 
Expense account, transportation 11, 750. 69 

Net gain during period '. 21, 322. 33 



IIeadquabtehs Piuuppines Constadulary, 

Office op the Paymaster, 

Manila, P. I., July 18, 190,^. 

Sir: I have the honor to hand you herewith a tabulated statement showing the total 
disbursements and transfers, by months, made by this division during the fiscal year 1904. 
This statement shows as nearly as possible the cost of maintaining the constabulary during 
that period; however, as there are still many outstanding obligations, a complete state- 
ment of the cost can not at this time be given. It is hoped that by September 1 all such 
obligations will have been settled. 

Until the beginning of the fiscal year just closed, no attempt appears to have been made 
to keep an intelligent record of the cost of any particular item for which funds were appro* 
priated; no comparative statement, therefore, can be submitted. With the it<»ms and 
divided subheads of appropriations sifted down to a settled basis, it is the aim of this 
division to be able to state the monthly or yearly cost of each such item; it will then be 
possible to show, by comparison, where expenses can be most advantageously reduced. In 
order, however, that a thoroughly reliable and accurate statement can be made, it will be 
necessary to have the hearty cooperation of all the supply oflBcers; with this in view a 
circular is now being drafted, which will shortly be submitted for your consideration, in 
which a monthly report showing the amount disbursed under divided subheads to be 
rendered by each supply officer is contemplated. 

Under tnc total disbursements shown on the accompanying statement arc included 
1*'2,488.60 paid for the treatment of our officers and enlisted men in military hospitals; 
1^7,593.94 for transportation of funds, quartermaster and ordnance supplies (thi^s, of 
course, docs not include the amounts disbursed by supply officers); P°3,061.49 for trans- 
portation of telegraph and t^'lephone supplies, and 1*^5,007.27 for transportation of commis- 
saries. It is reasonable to suppose that much saving has been made in the last three items 
during the last fiscal year, owing to the constant use of the coast-guard vessels. With a 
total of 3,274 paid vouchers, 555 transfers of funds, 2,891 communications received and 
3,762 sent; witii 1^1,217.94 collected under the special funds provided in section 14 of Act 
619, as well as the 10 per cent deduction from tne monthly salaries of the sixty-odd em- 
ployees appointed in the United States under the provisions of Act 643, the clerical work 
nas been neavy and at times trying. Too much praise can not be bestowed upon Lieu- 
tenant ThomaSy Mr. lleadington, and Mr. Robinson, whose untiring efforts ana compre- 
hensive knowledge of their duties made thesa results possible. 

Very respectfully, A. J. Robertson, 

Captain and Paymaster, Philippines Constabidary. 

The Chief Supply Officer, Philippines Constabulary, 

Manil'i, P. I. 



Headquarters Philippines Constabulary, 

Office of the Quartermaster, 

Manila, P, L, July U, 1904. 
Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of the work of this division for the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1904: 

July 1, 1903, found the quartermaster's division with Captain Ross, assistant chief supply 
officer, holding the position of quartermaster in addition to the duties of his other office 
and unable to give tne work of the division the attention necessary to institute any reforms, 
or in fact to do much else other than sign the papers. This officer recognized the loose 



HEPOBT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 47 

metkods in vogue m the transaction of the buslocss of the divisico, but bj le&scn of having 
lo lill two pofiitiooa, either of wiiich was enough for one officer, was unabk to give this 
division much personal attention. 

The {Mrwent incumbent relieved Captain Roes as quartermaster August 1 , and iD>medi- 
atelj sjet about faiuiharizing himself with the methods tlien extant. No dianges were made 
for about a month , the quartermaster desiring to learn all of the good and bad features of 
the office in order that any changes that mignt be made would be in the light direction. 
To accom{dish this the quartermaster took personal charge of the office and assumed all 
the duties that naturally fall to a chief clerk. In no other way could the quartennaster 
bave obtained the results desired^ for no one can presume to criticise a system or resystema- 
iiae any business, public or private, without first being able to do the woik of each indi- 
vidual derk in the establishment, or at least know just what is required of all clerks. There 
ave many desired changes that have not yet been consummated, but as a whole the efforts 
put forth during the past year have been fruitful of good results. 

It was found that the records of the office were kept in such manner that very little 
information could be had from them without a long search in each case, as the several 
kinds of work which had very close relations in the actual accomplishment had no cotuiec- 
Uon in the records. This has nearly all been rectiiied to such an extent that now all such 
matters are not only weH connected in the quarterpfiaster'a office, but all transportatkm 
settlements made by the paymaster are so connected in the records of the quartermaster 
that he can tell just where the vouclier is filed in tlie records of tlie paymaster's office. It 
ia hoped that shortly we can find time to institute a better system of record that will give 
us tbe same connection with tlie records of the chief supply officer's office with regard to 
requisitioDs on the insular purchasing agent, contracts, and a few kindred transactions. 

One of the first observations ol the present quartermaster was that too much money was 
being paid out for commercial transportation, but that was something unavoidable under 
the system in force prior to August 1, during the incumbency of two former quartermas- 
ters, the first of whom would not stay in his office and attend to same personaOy and the 
second who unavoidably had more than one position to fill. 

As sooQ as this became apparent to the unoersiened he transferred Lieutenant Snodgrass 
from office work and gave him full charge of ail coast-guard shifHnents, which arrange- 
m«it resulted in a great saving in freight charges. Besides this all commissaries carried 
via coast-guard vessels have been transferred in cascos direct from the bodega to the ship's 
aide at a great deal less expense than it formerly cost to truck the same to commercial 
vessels. 
The following is a statement of the freight handled during the fiscal year: 

Founds. 

Via deep-sea commercial boats 1, 563, 430 

Via commercial launches to Bataan, Cavite, Kizal, and Laguna provinces 337, 015 

Via railroad. ? 1,679,697 

Via coast-guard cutters and launches and constabulary launch Lt. Neddo 4, 149,313 

Total 7,719,485 

This is an aggregate of more than 3,859 tons. 

There were 2,390 shipments made during the fiscal year, which is an average of more 
than 7 for each working day. 

Included in the above shipments were funds to the aggregate of 1^1,602442.64. 

It will be seen that more than half of the freight handled was shipped via government 
vessels, and of the remainder less than half was handled via deep-sea conunercial boats, 
the greater part of that not handled by government boats being shipped by the railroad or 
via commercial launches to points that could not be reached by any of the coast-guard 
fleet. The above comprises all sliipments made by the quartermaster for the pay,, tele- 
graph, ordnance, medical, commissary, and quartermaster division during this period, but 
do^ not include the many shipments of frei^t received in Manila from the supply ofhcers 
in the provinces. There have been some few shortages and stray packages reported, 
mostly conunissaries, but nearly all have been cleared up readily, llie greater part of the 
freight carried by commercial boats was iron telegraph poles, which the coast-guard fleet 
could not handle: 

The undersigned desires to express his great appreciation of the courtesy and cooperation 
accorded the constabulary by the chief of the bureau of coast guard and transportation 
and his many subordinate officers, and to request that due credit be given that bureau for 
the great assistance which it has been to the quartermaster of constabulary in making this 
eeonomical sbowii^ possible. It is impossible to state anywhere near the amount of money 
that bureau has saved the constabulary in passenger fares alone between their many ^poria 
of call, but it is safe to say "several thousands of dollars." 



48 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



It is with regret that the undersigned must state that there have been a number of com- 
plaints from officers of the constabulary regarding the coast-guard service, and this regret 
IS made more keen because nearly all of the complaints have been found to be the result 
of our own officers' noncompliance with coast-guard rules, even after the same have been 
made plain to all in many ways. 

Prior to Au^st 1, and before this bureau began to use coast-guard vessels to such a great 
extent, the shipments made were largely in commercial vessels, which necessitated very 
heavy trucking across the city of Manila, and it was necessary that a large proportion of 
this trucking be hired, as the bureau had but four escort wagons and was unaolo to handle 
it all itself. The change to coast-guard vessels made it possible for the bureau to do all 
of its own trucking for the balance of the year, except upon the occasion of our removal 
from Calle Cabildo to Paco. During the months of December, January, and February this 
was a very hard task, for on December 1 the insular purchasing agent ceased to supply 
public institutions with commissaries and the civil supply store (constabulary commissary) 
began to supply them, making it necessar}*^ that tne quartermaster division make the . 
deliveries. 

This additional call upon the land transnortation of the quartermaster became more 
than he could handle, and since the close of the period mentioned the heavy transportation 
has been increased from four wagons to six wagons and two trucks. 

With the transportation now in use this division is able to handle all of the work placed 
upon it, and it is thought that no increase need be thought of during the present fiscal year. 

Of the increase in transportation cited above, the two trucks were added by purchase, but 
the two escort wagons were transferred from the provinces and rebuilt by tne employees 
of this division, as was also the wagon furnished the Manila garrison. 

Another large item of expense was found to be the hire of cascos for the handling of 
freight to coast-guard boats in the bay. That has now been all done away with and the 
cost reduced to the minimum by handling everything by our own lighter and cargo boats 
which have been purchased during the year. 

Besides the meaas of transportation purchased for the use of the quartermaster here in 
Manila, we have also received tX) aparejos for the pack train, about 30 of which have been 
in use on the Benguet trail and have done good service. 

Twelve light spring wagons, 14 carratelas, and 13 carratoncs have been purchased for 
the provinces. 

Six combination passenger and freight wagons, known as excursion wagons, have been 
purchased for the provinces, four of vrnich are as yet undelivered by the contractors. 

We have also furnished the provinces with six cargo and one sailing boat from this depot 
during the year. 

In addition to the above there have been many vehicles and boats purchased by the 
several district supply officers, the number of which is not known in this office. As a 
whole there has been a very extensiifC increase in means of transportation throughout the 
islands. 

Regarding animals the undersigned can not tell how many have been purchased, as all 
except four American draft animals have been taken by Lieutenant Dean. 

The register which the undersigned has caused to be prepared for the information of this 
depot now shows the constabulary to possess, in the entire archipelago, means of transpor- 
tation as follows: Two excursion wagons, 25 carromattas, 29 carratelas, 13 escort wagons, 
2 ambulances, 13 light spring wagons, 2 trucks, 3 quilez, 1 double-seated trap, 1 calesin, 
32 carretones, 2 dump carts, 34 small boats of all kinds, 1 gasolene launch, ana 1 forty-ton 
lighter. 

There has been a general complaint from officers in the provinces regarding the star 
tionery allowance, and although the undersigned has sent more than the aUowance to most 
provinces during the last six months the complaints continue to come in. It is therefore 
recommended that the allowance of rubber bands, pens, envelopes, and paper be at least 
double; that the ink allowance be reduced, and that the allowance of penholders bo done 
away with. The ink allowance is a great deal too lar^e, and penholders should be asked 
for by the supply officer only in quantities actually neeocd. 

The followmg is a statement of clothing handled by this depot during the year: 



On hand 

June 30, 

1903. 



Received 
sinceJune 
30,1903. 



On hand 

June 30, 

1904. 



Blankets, Philippine Constabulary 

Buckles, trouser 

Buttons, trouser 

Brassards, red cross 

Buttons: 

Small, municipal police 

Large, Philippines Constabulary 



1,453 
6,392 
8,424 



9,548 



210 



48 



8: 



.arge, 
miUl. 



78,300 



Philippines Constabulary : ! 133,200 



1,736 

6,392 

8,425 

180 

48 

37,6a 
18,107 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



49 



I On hand Received On hand 
j June 30, since June; June 30, 
1903. ' 30, 1903. 1904. 



Chevrons: 

First sergeant 

Sergeant 

Corporal 

Farrie rs 

First-class private 

Cap frames 

Cap cords 

Cap covers 

Cap covers, ca&omo 

Cap ornaments 

Capes and hoods, rubber 

Cloth: 

Khaki (yards) i 144,684 ; 

Cafiomo I 

Hats, (khaki) 




Laces, shoe. 

Ponchos 

Shoes: 

Tan (leather) 

. Canvas (khaki) 

Hemp soled 

Uniform coats (khaki) 

Uniform trousers (khaki) 

Shirts, (khaki) 

Shoulder knots 

Caps, (khaki) 

Coats, caAomo 

Trousers, cafiomo 

Drawers: 

Cotton 

Woolen 

Stockings (pairs) 

Undershirts: 

Woolen 

Cotton 

Leggings (pairs) 

Crosses, white metal 

Shirts, double-breasted flannel. 



I 



5,800 
47 

73 I 
4,650 



2,025 
29,350 



1,647 
1,647 



15,200 

5,286 

15, 195 

18, 149 

14,482 

500 

21,600 

10,375 

617 

580 

24,641 

650 

19,728 

650 
23, 774 
14,345 

210 
11,396 



229- 

2,025^ 

13,168^ 

5,800 

47 

4,94(r 
523- 
5,011 
1,00» 
1,120' 
225 
5, SOL 



565* 
580 

8,24r 

i 



178- 
1,093. 



Very respectfully, Claude D. Lovejoy, 

Captain ami Quartermaster Philippines Constabulary. 

The Chief Supply Officer, Philippines Constabulary, 

Manila, P. /. 

STATION AND STRENGTH LIST PHILIPPINES CONSTABULARY, JUNE 15, 1904. 

FIRST DISTRICT. 



IIeadqunrter$.—Qo\. W. S. Scott, first assistant chief. Philippines Constabulary, commanding; First 
Lieut. J . Benton Clausen, sr., adjutant; Second Lieut. Thomas Leonard, district supply officer. 

B ATA AN PROVINCE (225). 



Where stationed. 



Balanga . 



B ftgac 

Dinalupija 

Orani 

Special duty, telegraph division. 



Officers. 



Total. 



Enlisted 
men. 



108 



Officers— name and xank. 



Second Lieut. J. Clark, supply officer; 

Second Lieut. C. E. Heartt. 
Third Lieut. R. Lelsan. 

Subinspector V. Santos. 



Attached: Two enlisted men. Marine Corps; 2 civilian linamen, telegraph division; 1 lineman, tele- 
graph division. 

WAR 1904— VOL 13 4 



50 



EEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Station and strength list Philippines constabulary, June 15, 190^ — Continued. 

FIRST DISTRICT— Continued. 

BATANGAS PROVINCE (225). 



Where stationed. 



Batangas. 



CalAca.... 

Upa 

Tanauao . 



Tay asan 

Tuy 

Special duty, telegraph division 

Confined in nands of civil authorities.. 



Total. 



Officers. 



Enlisted 
men. 



213 



Officers— name and rank. 



Capt. E. W. Griffith, senior inspector; 

Second Lieut. L. E. McMurry, supply 

officer; Third Lieut. C.V. McCoy; Third 

Lieut. A. K. Brown. 
Subinspeetor H. Conc«pci6n. 
Third Lieut. A. S. Ashe. 
Third Lieut. L. Ramos, Third Lieut. L. 

Babiera. 
Second Lieut. M. Castillo. 



Attached: One civilian lineman. 



BULACAN PROVINCE (225). 



Malolos. 



San Miguel 

Angat 

Meycauavan 

Detached service in Nueva Ecija 



ToUl. 




Capt. W. W. Warren, senior inspector; 
Second Lieut. W. H. Shutan, supply 
officer; Third Lieut. J. de los Reyes. 
Subinspeetor M. Orlino. 
I Subinspeetor A. Cueto. 
42 I Second Lieut. L. H. McAdow. 
23 



Attached: Two enlisted men, medical division; 1 civilian operator; 1 civilian lineman. 



CAVITE PROVINCE (300). 



Cavito. 



Magallanes 

Amadeo 

Alfonso 

Mambug 

Quintana 

S. F. deMalabon 

Special duty, telegraph division 
Special duty, meaicAl division.. 
Sick in hospital, Nalc 



Total. 




62 



Capt. P. Bruin, senior inspector; Third 
Lieut. I. A. Opperman, Third Lieut. M. 
Flaherty, Subinspeetor L. Santos, Sub- 
inspector F. Rojales. 
Subinspeetor J. Kstrclla. 
Third Lieut. J. Velaaques. 
Third Lieut. W. Grey son- 
Third Lieut. A. Ronson. 
Third Lieut. J. Lopex. 



Third Lieut. L. T. Boher. 



Attached: Infantry division, 2 officers (First Lieut. R.Crame, Second Lieut. A. Ramos) and 1 civilian 
idivf • 



lineman, telegraph division. 



LAOUNA PROVINCE (162). 



Santa Cruz 3 

Siniloan 1 

Nagearlang ' 1 

Bay I 1 

Riga, Calamba ' 1 

Special duty, telegraph division I 

Confined in hands of civil authorities. .' 

Total I 7 

I 




Capt. H. A. Ilutchings, senior inspector: 
Second Lieut. W. M. Franklin, Second 
Lieut. F. A. Sims. 

Subinspeetor L. Real. 

Third Lieut. S. E. Green well. 

Third Lieut. A. Roxas. 

Third Lieut. M. Flures. 



BEPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



51 



StaHon and strength list Philippines canstabidanff June 15 j 1904 — Continual. 
FlfiST DlSTRICT--Continued. 
NUEVA ECIJA PROVINCE (220). 



Where sUtiooed. 



8*xiIsidro. 



San Josd. 



Talavem 

Bongabong 

Carranglan 

Sick in military hospital. 



On duty in province. 
* * ' 5irc ~ ■ 



Detached Bcrvicc from Bulacan.. 
Total 



Of&cers. 



Enlisted 
men. 



84 



233 

23 



210 



Officers— name and rank. 



Capt. R. B. Cavanagh, senior inspector: 
Third Lieut. G. H. Imboden, Second 
Lieut. W. 11. HuU. 

First Lieut. P. A. Hill. 

Subinspector A. Bucncamino. 

First Lieut. W. C. Boyer. 



Attached: One civilian lineman. 

NUEVA VIZCAYA PROVINCE (200). 



Bayombong. 



Fay aisan 

QuJangan 

Banaue 

Detached service San Nicolas road . 



Total. 



,1 



94 



198 



Capt. W. Thompson, senior inspector; 
Third Lieut. W. Friedlander, subin- 
spector M. Cavestany. 

Subinspector H. L. Logan. 

First Lieut. C. J. Bates. 

Second Lieut. L. E Case. 



Attadied: One telegraph inspector (Donnelly). 

PAMPANGA PROVINCE. 



Bacolor. 



Arayat 

San Fernando. 

Candaba 

Kabalacat 



Totel. 



90 



158 



Maj. T. I. Mair, senior inspector; Third 
Lieut. Josfi Kerr, Third Lieut. L. E. 
Jackson. 

First Lieut. H. J. Browne. 

Second Lieut. M. Olsen, supply officer. 

Subinspector A. Vergara. 

Subinspector C. Canda. 



Attached: One Inspector, telegraph division; and 2 civilian linemen. 
PANAGASINAN PROVINCE (258). 



Dagupan. 



Lingayen. 
Rosales... 



Tayug.. 
Twin Pei 



Twlnl 

Special duty, telegraph division . 

Sick in quarters . 



ToUI. 



100 



257 



Capt. J. F. W. Rickards, Third Lieut. H. 

F. Alexander, Second Lieut. J. Thor- 

nell. 
Third Lieut. R. Monserrat. 
Third Lieut. B. McElhannon. 
Second Lieut. D. F. M. Gunnison. 
Subinspector U. Belarnino. 



Detached service: From medical division, Tarlac, 1 enlisted man; from Union Province, 3 enlisted 
men. 
Attached : One telegraph Inspector and 4 operators. 



52 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Station and strength list Philippines constabulary ^ June 15, 1904 — Continued. 
FIRST DISTRICT— Continued. 

IlIZAL PROVINCE (250). 



Where stationed. 



Ofilccrs. 



Pasig. 



Malabon 

ParaAaque. 
Bosoboso. . . 



San Juan del Monte. 
8ubi, Talfm Island.. 
Absent with leave. .. 



Enlisted 
men. > 



Officers— name and rank. 



91 



45 I 
30 
40 ^ 

15 
6 



First Lieut. F. 8. De Witt, senior in- 
spector; Third Lieut. A. F. Perry, Third 
Lieut. Hans. Marcus. 

First Lieut. W. Schcrmerhom. 

Third Lieut. C. B. Lehmcr. 

Second Lieut. P. Guevara, Third Lieut. J. 
Dominguez. 



First Lieut. W. F. Gwynne. 



Total. 



.1 



227 I 



Attached: Medical division, 1 enlisted man. 

TARLAC PROVINCE (140). 



Tarlac 


1 3 


114 
20 


Bamban 


1 


Total 


I 4 


134 



Capt. J. W. Wakeley, senior inspector; 

Third Lieut. D. K. Cameron, Third 

Lieut. C. C. Baill. 
Subinspector R. M. Llorente. 



Attache 1: Hospiul at Tarlac, 1 om?er (Third Lieut. V. H. Taylor) and 6 enlisted men; telegraph 
division 1 civilian lineman. 

ZAMBALES PROVINCE (200). 



Iba 


3 


32 


Cant- C. C. Smith. ThirH T.lpiit. TT S. 


Alaminos 


Breszee, Third Lieut. F. J. Baunm. 
16 


Bolinao 


1 
2 


25 1 Subinspector A. Orlino. 

34 R(v>nnd Lipiit.. W. S. North. SiihfnfinMttnr 


Subig 


Santa Cruz 


22 
13 


B. Bayan. 


Siieciai duty, telegraph division, line- 
men. 










Total 


6 


192 





Attached: Telegraph division, 1 officer (First Lieut. Inspector Hill) and 7 operators and linemen. 

SUMMARY. 



Province. 



District headquarters, 

Bataan 

Batangas 

Bulacan 

Cavite 

Laguna 

Nueva Ed ja 

Nueva Vizcaya 



Officers. 


Enlisted 
men. 


3 
4 




ids 


9 


213 


6 


215 


11 


295 , 


7 


145 1 





210 


6 


198 



Province. 



Pampanga. 
Pangasinan 

Rizal 

Tarlac 

Zam bales.., 

Total. 



Officers. 



84 



Enlisted 
men. 

158 
257 
227 
134 
192 



2,352 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



53 



Station and strength list of Philippines constabulary ^ June 15, 1904. — Continued. 
SECOND DISTRICT. 

Headquarters.— Col, U. U. Dandholtz, commanding; First Lieut. C. D. Boone, district adjutant; 
Capt. J. M. Wheate, district surgeon; Second Lieut. C. C. Foote, district supply offlcor. 

ALBAY PROVINCE (200). 



Where stationed. 



Albay. 



Jovellar 

Guinobatan. 
Libon 



Oaa 

Tiui 

Sick In hospital 

Special duty, medical division... 
Special duly, telegraph division . 



TotaL 



Officers. 



Knlisted 
men. 



Officers— name and rank. 



56 I Capt. J. W. Swann, senior inspector. 
I Third Lieut. M. H. Burnham, supply 
officer; Sublnspcctor E. Bactac. 

I Second Lieut. F. D. Scott. 

Second Lieut. J. D. Ward; Third Lieut. 
J. T. Kellogg. 
I Second Lieut. J. B. Carothers. 

Second Lieut. L. Kellermeyer. 



Attached: Medical division, 1 officer (Second Lieut. W. L. Brown, medical officer). 
CAMARINES PROVINCE (160). 



Nueva Caceres 


4 
1 


62 

16 
28 
20 


Capt. R. H. Griffiths, senior inspector: 
First Lieut. J. B. Schuetz, Second 
Lieut. W. T. Butler, supply officer. 

Second Lieut. J. M. McCloud. 


Tigaon 


Buhi 




Bato 


1 

1 


Third Lieut. W. Neill. 


Deta.ched service In Cebu 


First Lieut. R. M. Poggi. 






Total 


7 


126 









Attached: Sorsogon, 1 officer (Second Lieut. J. Fawcett); medical division, 1 officer (Second Lieut. 
L. F. Raymond, medical officer). 

MASBATE PROVINCE (130). 



Masbate 


2 


61 

20 

1 
2 


Cataingan 


Detached service, Manila 


Special duty, telegraph division - - - 






Total 


2 


84 





Capt. Z. F. Collet t. Third Lieut. C. E. 
Lucas, supply officer. 



Calapan . 



Naujan 

Puerto Galera. 

Sablayan 

On leave 



Total. 



MINDORO PROVINCE (150). 



2 


66 


1 

1 
1 
1 


24 
11 
24 




' 


' 125 



Capt. H. O. Fletcher, senior inspector; 
Third Lieut. L. A. Dowdell, supply offi- 
cer. 

Second Lieut. II. Cilsheuscr. 

Subinspector A. Garong. 

Third Lieut. C. E. Schwebel. 

Third Lieut. C. Basa. 



ROMBLON PROVINCE (100). 



Romblon 


2 


76 

1 

1 


First Lieut. C. E. Manison, senior inspec- 


Sick. Lucena 


tor; Third Lieut. A. F. Home, supply 
officer. 


Detached service, Manila 












Total 


2 


78 









54 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Station and girength list oj Philippines constabvlary, June 15, 190^ — Coatinued. 

SECOND DISTRICT— Continued. 

SORSOGON PROVINCE (162). 



Whore stationed. 


Officers. 


Enlisted 
men. 


Officers— name and rank. 


Sorsogon 


2 

1 

1 
1 
1 


70 

10 
19 
19 


Capt. 0. Marshall, senior inspector; First 

Lieut. J. F. Quinn, supply officer. 
Third Lieut. C. B. Hollings worth. 


Bulan 




Tliird Lieut. R. 0. Mann. 


Pu tiao 


First Lieut. H. E. Wright. 


Detached service, Camarines 


Second Lieut. J. Fawectt. 








Total 


6 


118 









Attached: Telegraph di\i8ion, 1 officer (Third Lieut. C. Wclbom). 
TAYABAS PRO\aNCE (380). 



Lucena . 



Boac 

Catanauan 

Luchan 

Laniimanoc 

Maucbuy 

Pitogo 

Peris 

Tayabas 

Unlsan 

Mulanay 

On leave 

Detached service, Ilocos Norte. 



Total. 



53 



265 



Capt. G. K. Armstrong, supply officer; 

First Lieut. K. B Kee«cy: Second Lieut. 

E. Schroeder; Subinspcctor L. Puno. 
First Lieut. H. Coleman. 
Second Lieut. £. C. Stelton. 
First Lieut. E. R. Hcam. 
Subinspcctor R. Castro 

Capt. A. O. Sorensen. 
Suoinspector Campos. 
Third Lieut. G. R. Duval. 



Maj. J. B. Murphy, senior inspector. 
First Lieut. J. C.Buttner. 



Attached: Medical division, 1 officer and 3 enlisted men (Third Lieut. J. H. Bass, medical officer). 

SUMMARY. 





Officers. 


Enlisted 
men. 

178' 

126 : 

84 
125 ' 




Officers. 


Enlisted 
men. 


District headquarters 


4 
R 
7 
2 
6 


Romblon 


2 

3 


78 


Albay 


Sorsogon 


118 


Camarines 


Tayabas 


2G5 


Masbate 


Total 




Mindoro 


38 


974 









THIRD DISTRICT. 

Headquarters.— Col. W. C. Taylor, assistant chief, commanding: Second Lieut. E. Walter, district 
adjutant; Capt. R. V'andam, district surgeon; Capt. T. A. Campbell, district supply officer (absent 
on leave); Second Lieut. R. F. Adams; Third Lieut. W\C. Williams. 

ANTIQUE PROVINCE (130). 



Where stationed. 



San Jose 

San Romigio 

Bugason 

Vaidcrrama 

Pandan 

Absent on leave, Hollo 

Special duty, telegraph division. 
Detached aervice, school, Iloilo.. 



Officers. 



Total. 



Enlisted 
men. 



Officers— name and rank. 



43 First Lieut. H. L. Bca>.lcy, supply officer 

18 ; 
15 , 

25 ^ Subinsjjootor V. Salvador. 
' First Lieut. G. E . Barry, senior inspector. 

4 , 



125 j 



Detached service: From Iloilo, 1 officer (Second Lieut. A. G. Barber); from headquarters third dis- 
trict, 1 officer (Third Lieut. W. C. WUliams). 
Attached: Telegraph division, 1 officer (Second-class Inspector U. A. Brown). 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



65 



Station and stren^ lisi of Philippines eonstabuiaryf June 16^ 1904 — Continued. 

THIRD DISTRlCT-<Jontinued. 
BOHOL PROVINCE (100). 



Where stationed. 


Officers. 


Enlisted 
men. 


Officers— name and rank. 


^Agbilaran 


2 


66 


Capt. J. W. Green, senior Inspector; Sec- 
ond Lieut. W. S. Tabbcrrah, supply 
officer. 


Absent sick, Iloilo 










Total 


2 


68 






. 



CAPIZ PROVINCE (162). 



Caplz 


3 

1 


48 

20 
10 
10 
20 
10 
20 
10 
2 

4 

1 
1 


Capt. L. E. Boren, senior inspector; 
Third Lieut. F. W. Cannadav. supply 
officer: Third Lieut. R. P. Yates. 

Third Lieut. J.J. Guild. 


Calivo 


Rosario 




Ibajay 




• 


Dao 


1 


Subinspector P. Pana^. 


Tapaz 


Pontevedra 






Gi^ift 






Detached service, hospital, Iloilo, for 






instruction. 
Detached service, Iloilo school of in- 






struction. 
Confined in hands of civil authorities. . 






Special duty, telegraph division, Phil- 
ippine Constabulary. 










Total 


5 


156 









CEBU PROVINCE (162). 



Cebn 


2 

1 


100 


First T.iwit. S- M. Hlbhard: Third Lifiiit 


Najra 


F. A. Crooks. 
20 Second Lieut, li. Luea. 


Carcar 


^ c,econa i.ieui. j«i i.uga 


Balamban 




16 


Tuburan 




1 


B ogo 


1 


11 Third Lieut. F. Javier. 


Danao 


11 1 


Barili 




11 
3 




Special duty, escort for provincial offi- 
cials. 
In the field and pay trip 






2 


Capt. H. P. Nevill, senior inspector; 
First Lieut. A. E. Culver, supply officer. 


Absent without leave 


1 

1 
1 


Absent sick, Iloilo 






Detached service, Iloilo 












Total 


6 


180 









Detached service: From Negros Oriental, 1 officer (First Lieut. J. S. Mohler) and 10 enlisted men. 



56 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Station and strength list of Philippics constabulary, June 16, 1904 — Continued. 

THIRD DISTRICT-Continued- 
ILOILO PROVINCE (300). 



Where stationed. 


Officers. 


£nliated 
men. 


Officers— name and rank. 


Jaro 


3 


40 

7 

21 

9 

8 


Capt. A. D. Haskell, senior Inspector; 
Second Lieut. A. II. Matthews, supply 
officer; Second Lieut F. L. Dunham. 


Oton 


Sara 


1 


First Lieut. P. Lyons. 


Balasan 


Lemery 1 




Passl 


1 


9 Third Lieut. M. Guaso. 


Calinog ». . . 


9 

8 

27 

10 

26 

8 

23 

32 

5 

7 

6 

6 

7 

20 
4 
1 




Banate 






Janiuay 


1 


Third Lieut. D. D. Strong. 


Lambunao 




Maaslji 


1 


Second Lieut. H. W. Coutermarsh. 


Cabatuan 




Alimodian 


1 
1 


Subinspector Pedro Martins. 
Second Lieut. J. R. Lewis. 


Leon 


Cordoba 




Jffbaras 1 




Tubungan 






San Joaquin 






Hollo 






Special duty, telegraph division 






A Dsen t without leave 






Sick In hospital, Jaro 






Detached service, Antique 


i 


Second Lieut. A. G. Barber. 








Total 


10 


293 





Attached: Telegraph division, I officer (Second-class Inspector C. B. Compton) and 3 enlisted men; 
medical division, In hospital, 6 enlisted men. 
Detached service: From general service, third district, 3 enlisted men. 

LEYTE PROVINCE (250). 



Tacloban. 



Carigara 

Tunga 

Jaro 

Naval 

Palompon 

Valencia 

Special duty, telegraph division 

Detached service, district school, Iloilo 
Absent sick, Borongan 



Total. 



50 



192 



First Lieut. H. Barrett, senior inspector; 
Third Lieut. M. G. Browne, suppJv offi- 
cer; Second Lieut. J. Flores: Third 
Lieut. S. C. Edmondson; Third Lieut. 
P. E. Memmatt. 

Subinspector G. Abanilla. 



Subinspector F. Miranda. 



Attached: Telegraph division, 2 officers (First-class Inspectors C. F. Lyons and E. O. Smith) and 3 
enlisted men; Company A, general service, third district, 1 officer (Second Lieut. C. Scirelner) and 36 
enlisted men. 



NEOROS OCCIDENTAL PROVINCE (25.5). 


Bacolod 


3 


84 

12 
10 
12 
26 
41 

13 
16 
18 
9 
1 
5 


Capt. W. A. Smith, senior inspector; 
First Lieut. E. S. Halle, supply officer; 
Third Lieut. R. H. Harrell. 


Guimbaloan 


Murcia ' 




Manapla 




Isabela 


1 
2 


Second Lieut. C. A. S. Howard. 


La Castellana 


First Lieut. M. J. Conway; Third Lieut. 
A. Azcona. 


Cabancalan 


Sipalay ' 




Escalante 

Special duty, telegraph division 


1 


Second Lieut. J. R. Corfield. 


Absent sick, Iloilo ' 




Detached service, district school, Iloilo 












Total 


7 


246 









Attached: Telegraph division, 1 officer (Third-class Inspector A. M. Taylor) and 5 enlisted men. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



57 



Staium and strength list of Philippines constabulary ^ June 15, 1904 — Continued. 

THIRD DISTRICT— Continued. 

NEGROS ORIENTAL PROVINCE (130). 



Where sUtioncd. 


Officers. 


Eulistcd 
men. 


Officers— name and ranK. 


Dumaguctc 


2 


32 

- U 
13 
14 

7 
2 

10 
14 

4 


First Lieut. E. R. Knapp; Third Lieut, 
B. A. Steventon, supply officer. 


Tayasan 


Staton 






Valle HermoBO 






Bais (temporarily unoccupied). 
Special duty, telegraph diviflion 






Detached service, lloilo, hospital for 

instruction. 
Detached service, Cebu 






1 
1 


First Lieut. J. S. Mohler. 


Inthefield 


Capt. R. 11. Page, senior inspector. 


Special duty, escort for provincial gov- 
ernor. 






Total 


4 


100 









Attached: Telegraph division, 1 officer (Third Class Inspector C. Ericl), and 5 enlisted men; 21 cn^ 
listed men. Company A, general service. 



PARAGUA PROVINCE (105). 



Cuyo. 



Coron 

Taytay 

Balabac 

Cape Melville. 



Total. 



31 Capt. R. A. Preston, senior inspector and 
supply officer; subinspector, J. Roma- 
santa. 



16 
13 I 
20 
10 



Second Lieut. F. Walker. 



90 



Attached: Company B, general service, 20 enlisted men. 

8AMAR PROVINCE. 



Catabalogan. 



Calbiga.... 
Borongan. 



Catarman 

Absent, sick. Borongan 

Confined in hands oi civil authorities. 
Absent without leave 



46 



Totel. 



180 



Capt. II. J. Hunt, senior inspector; First 

Lieut. W. A. Burbank, supply officer; 

Second Lieut. J. A. Jcancon, Second 

Lieut. W. K. Martin. 
Third Lieut. J. Sulse. 
First Lieut. R. M. Poggi, Third Lieut. P. 

Abenis. 
Second Lieut. C. B. Bowers. 



Attached: Company B, general service detachment, 1 officer (Second Lieut. C. M. Smith), and 29 
enlisted men; medical division, 1 officer (Second Lieut. £. A. Farrow), and 3 enlisted men. 



GENERAL SERVICE. 



Company A : 

Detached service, Ormoc, Leyte. . . 
Detached service headquarters, 

Iloilo. 
Detached service, Negros Oriental. 

Absent, sick, Borongan 

Company B : 

Detached service, Catbalogan,Sa- 
mar. 

Detached service, Paragua 

Confined in hands of civil authori- 
ties. 

Absent, sick, hospital, Jaro 

Detached service with Company A 
awaitinc transportation. 
Unassl^ed: Detached service, Iloilo, 
recruits. 



ToUl. 



29 



115 



Second Lieut. C. Schreiner. 
Subinspector C. Cataylo. 



Second Lieut. C. M. Smith. 



Assinied, not reported: One officer (Third Lieut. C. A. Christied); medical division, 1 officer (Third 
Lieut. V. it. Taylor. 



58 



REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Station and strength list of PMHppines cTnstabylaryf June 15, 1904 — Continued. 

THIRD DISTRICT— Continued 
SUMMARY. 



District headquarters 

Antique 

Bohol 

Capiz 

Cebu 

Hollo 

Leyte 



Officers. 


Enlisted 
men. 


6 
3 




125 


2 


68 


5 


156 


6 


120 


10 


2i)3 


7 


lfl2 



Ncgros Occidental 
Ncgros Oriental.. 

Paragua 

Samar 

General aervlce... 

Total 



Officers. 



70 



Enlisted 
\ men. 



246 
100 
90 
189 
115 

1,6&1 



FOURTH DISTRICT. 



Headquarters.— yL&y 3. S. Garwood, commanding; adjutant (vacancy); surgeon, Capt. T. C. Walker; 
telegraph officer, First-class Ins|)cctor L. B. Manchester; supply officer (vacancy). 

ABRA PROVINCE (100). 



Where stationed. , Officers. 


EnUsted 
men. 


Officers -name and rank. 


Bangued 3 

San Jose ' 


70 

10 

2 


Capt. \V. B. Williams, senior inspector; 
Second Lieut. H. A. Duryea, supply offi- 
cer; Third Lieut. lionorato Balteirta. 


SiHicial duty, telegraph division 




Detached service, Isabela Province 1 


SuUnspector G. Ferrandez. 


Detached service, fourth district band . ' 


3 
2 
2 




In hands of civil authorities 




Absent with leave 


• 






Total 4 


89 





Attached: Telegraph division, 2 enlisted men; medical division, 2 enlisted men. 

BENGUET PROVINCE (50). 



Bagnio. 



Sablan 

Detached service, fourth district band. 



Total. 



28 Second Lieut. T. H. F. Dlederich, senior in- 
spector; second Lieut. J. F. Egerton, 
supply officer; Subinspcctor Clemente 



8 
2 



I 



38 



Attached: Telegraph division, 1 officer (Third-class Inspector G. L. Rickards). 

CAGAYAN PROVINCE (162). 



Tuguegarao. 



Aparri. 



Special duty, telegraph division 

Detached service, Isabela Province 

Detached service, fourth district band. 
In hands of civil authorities 



58 



28 



Total. 



116 



Capt. Henry Knauber, senior inspector; 
Second Lieut. Herbert N. Shobe; Third 
IJeut. Guy H. Greene. 

First Lieut. J. M. Van Hook, supply offi- 
cer. First Lieut. W. D. Harris; First 
Lieut. Ernest R. Hazard. 



Attached: Telegraph division, 1 enlisted man. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



59 



Station €Md strength Ivtt of PhUippinss constabulary, June 15, 1904 — Continued. 

FOURTH DISTRICT— Continued. 
ILOCOS NORTE PROVINCE (156). 



Wbcre stationed. 




Officers— name and rank. 



Lftoag. 



Bangui 

Badoc 

Dlngras 

Special duty, telegraph division I 

Detached service, Isabela Province. . . . 
Detached service, fourth district band. 
Absent with leave 



Capt. B. L. Smith, senior inspector; First 
Lieut. J. C. Buttner (temporary); 
Third Lieut. Omar C. Humphrey, sup- 

Sly officer, 
ird Lieut. E. De Beralta. 



Second Ldeut. J. J. McLean. 
Capt. Harry J. Castles. 



Total. 



Attached: Telegraph division, 5 enlisted men; medical division, 1 enlisted man. 
ILOCOS SUR PROVINCE (163). 



Vlgan. 



Special duty, telegraph division 

Detached service, fourth district band, 
Detached service, Abra Province.. 

Sick in hoepital, Vigan 

Sick in hosnital, Ilagan 

Absent witli leave , 



Total. 




Capt. A. E. Hendryx, senior inspector; 
Second IJeut. J. McRae, supply officer; 
Third Lieut. C. H. Allen; Third Lieut. 
O. S. Holmes; Subinspector Dionicio 
Reyes. 



Attached: Telegraph division, 11 enlisted men; medical division, 1 officer and 8 enlisted men. 
ISABELA PROVINCE (162). 



Ilagan... 
Echague. 



Bpodal duty, teI^;Taph division 

Detached service, fourth district band, 

Totol 



2 


M 


4 


67 




6 
3 






6 


129 



Capt. T. I. Owen, senior inspector; First 
Lieut. E. C. Collins, supply officer 

Second Lieut. G. A. Helfert; Second Lieut. 
Joseph Delaney; Third Lieut. James 
Treadaway; Subinspector Domingo 
Dannuy. 



Detached service: From Abra, 1 officer (Subinspector G. Ferrandez); from Cagayan, 22 enlisted men; 
from llocos Norte, I officer (Second Lieut. J. J. McLean) and 39 enlisted men; from llocos Sur, 1 enlisted 
man. 

Attached: Medical division, 1 officer (Second Lieut. Howard Talbott). 



LA UNION PROVINCE (100). 



San Fernando 


2 
1 


52 

12 
16 
15 
5 


Capt. E. R. Higeins, senior inspector; 
Third Lieut. R. A. D. Ford, supply offi- 
cer 

Subinspector Angel Bemal. 

Third Lieut. Jeremiah Sullivan. 


Bmng&r 


Rabon 


Naguilian 






Dagupan 


pack 






train. 


1 




Total 


4' 

1 


100 









Attached: Telegraph division, 1 officer (Third Class Inspector C. M. Sides) and 5 enlisted men. 



60 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Station and strengOi list of Philippines conMahularxfy June 15, 19O4 — Continued. 

FOURTH DISTRICT— Continued. 

LEPANTO-BONTOC PROVINCE (105). 



Where stationed. 



Cervantes. 



Officers. EnlUt*.! 



Bon toe 

Lubuagan 

AUlem 

Concepcion 

San Kmilio I 

Quinall I 

Detached service, fourth district band .' 
In hands of civil authorities ' 



Total. 



30 



Officers— name and rank. 



126 



Capt. C. E. Nathorst, senior inspector: 
Third Lieut. D. R. WUcox, supply offi- 
cer. 

Subinspector Santiago Robles. 

Second Lieut. Harry E. Miller. 

Third Lieut. A. J. Irwin. 



Attached: Telegraph division, 2 enlisted men. 

SUMMARY. 



Headquarters. 

Abra 

Bcnguet 

Cagayun 

Ilocos Norte... 
Ilocos Sur 



Officers. 



4 
■3 
6 
9 
5 



Enlisted 
men. 




Ofiicers. 


EnUsted 
men. 




Isabela 


6 
4 
5 


129 
100 
126 


») t 


La I'nion 


38 , 


Lepanto-Bontoc 


no 

129 
132 


Total 


42 


859 





FIFTH DISTRICT. 

DUtrict headquarter;^ -Col J. G. ITarbord, commanding; First Lieut. F. Johnson, district suddIv 
officer: Second Lieut. J. P. Caswell, acting supply officer. * * ^ 



COTABATO PROVINCE. 



Where stationed. 


Officers. 


Enlisted 
men. 


Officers— name and rank. 


Cotabato 


3 
1 


52 

25 

7 


Capt. J. R. White, senior inspector: Capt. 
C. M. Sanford, on detached service en 
route Davao; Third Lieut. L. Furlong, 
on detached ser\'icc from Sulu. 

Third Lieut. C. E. Hendrix, on detached 
service from Zamboanga. 


Kudarangr-n 


PoUoic 









Attached constabulary: 

Davao 


4 


84 

10 
34 
18 




Sulu 


1 
1 
1 




Zamboanga 




Attached en route to station 













Total 


1 


22 









DAVAO PROVINCE (l.W). 



Mati 


2 


Baganga 


1 1 


Detached service: 

Zamboanga 


Cotabato 






TotAl 


3 








LANAO Pr 



112 



Capt. W. O. Parsons, senior inspector: 

Third Lieut. 0. O. Fort. 
First Lieut. W. C. Taulbce. 



Detached service, Zamboanga. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



61 



Station and strength list of Philippines constabularyj June 15, 1904 — Continued. 

FIFTH DISTRICT— Continued. 

MISAMIS PROViNCE (130). 



Whore stationed. 



Officers. 



Enlisted 
men. 



Officers— name and rank. 



Cagayan. 



If isamis 

Oroqulcta 

Detached service, Manila. 



48 



Capt. J. J. Gallant, senior inspector; First 
Class Inspector F. P. Warren, T. D. at- 
tached. 

Second Lieut. M. Fortlch. 

First Lieut. C. C. Crooke. 



Attached telegraph division. 
Total 



110 



110 





SULU PROVINCE (150). 


Boneao 




20 ! Sergeant Madrazo. 


siaSf :::::::::::::::::::..:.:!..:. 


1 
1 


12 ! Cant. T. R. Ilftvaon. senior in«nftptor. 


Detached service, Cotabato 


34 


Third Lieut. L. Furlong. 








Total 


2 


66 









SURIOAO P 


ROVINC 


E (100). 


Surigao 


3 
1 


69 

15 
11 


Capt. 0. Waloe, senior inspector; First 
Lieut. C. J. Kindler, supply officer: Sec- 
ond Lieut. J. W. Lattimore, supply offi- 
cer. 

Sublnspector E. C. Zapanta. 

Corporal Fermil. 


Butuan 


Placer 






Total 


4 


95 











ZAMBOANGA PROVINCE (150). 




Zamboanga 


1 


51 

9 
25 
25 
23 

18 

4 


First Lieut. G. C. Taulbee, 

spector. 
Sereeant Fernandez. 
Submspector A. Carlaga. 
Third Lieut. G. A. Gallagher. 
Second Lieut. W. J. Platka. 

Third Lieut. C. E. Hendrix. 


senior in- 


Buluan 




Dapitan 


1 
1 
1 

1 




I sabela 




Tucuran 




Detached service: 

Cotabato 




Manila 












Attached constabulary: 
Davao 


5 


155 

30 
4 




Lanao 














Total 


5 


121 


• 







SUMMARY. 





Officers. 


Enlisted 
men. 




Officers. 


Enlisted 
men. 


District headquarters 

Cotabato 


2 

1 
3 




Surigao 


4 
5 


95 


22 

112 

4 

110 

66 


Zamboanga 


121 


Davao 


Telegraph division 


1 


I'Aiiao 


Total 


1 


Mkf^vnfR 


3 
2 


21 


530 


Sulu 











SUMMARY OF STRENGTH BY DISTRICTS. 



HeadquartenB.., 
First district... 
Second district.. 
Third district... 
Fourth district. 



27 




2 352 


38 


974 


70 


1,694 


422 


859 



Fifth district 

Headquarters troop . 



Total. 



21 



530 
224 



291 



6,633 



62 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

During the past year the chief difficulty that has been encountered 
in the du-ection of administration has been in securing good supply 
officers at the present rates of pay. Where these officers are efficient, 
the work of supplying the constabulary with its diflFerent wants 
and the insular and provincial officials throughout the archipelago 
with commissaries has been satisfactory. It would therefore seem 
that both theoretically and practically the system is correct, and 
with the proposed increase of pay applicants of more skill for this 
particular work will present themselves. 

Under the provisions of the proposed legislation granting pre- 
miums to officers, learning native dialects, it will be made incumbent 
upon them to take up the study of at least one of the principal 
dialects. The importance of direct conversation by constabulary 
officers with the Filipinos can not easilj be overestimated. 

A more complete system of inspection is being devised to meet 
the requirements of the wide distribution (200 posts) of the constabu- 
lary. This inspection will liave for its object not only measures 
productive of cohesion and discipline, but it will be in the nature of 
instruction, especially such as relates to the purely civic duties of 
officers ana their relations to other officials and the people. 

The tariff has been made applicable to supplies intended for 
constabulary use, and the cost of maintenance is correspondingly 
increased. In spite of this, however, the cost per man per year has 
but slightly exceeded $250. 

With the improved conditions now existing in the archipelago, 
the constabulary in all its ramifications is being subjected to measures 
that will insure a higher standard of efficiency. The loyaltv of the 
Filipinos to the authorities paying, feeding, and sheltering them has 
been highly gratifying. 

No element is more potent in maintaining order in these islands 
than the liberal use of telegraphic communication. The transfer of 
the military lines to the civil government is being slowly but surely 
effected. The rate of transfer will largely depend upon the funds 
made available by the Commission. The cordial cooperation of 
Major Maxfield, chief signal officer of the division, with the constabu- 
lary telegraph division nas greatly facilitated the work of the latter. 
The importance of a cable snip for repairing existing lines, as well as 
for laying new ones, has been duly reported to higher authorities. 
Ii^ an archipelago like this, government and commercial needs are 
largely dependent upon such a ship, and its acquisition is earnestly 
requested. 

Very respectfully, 

Hexry T. Allen, 
Brigadier-General J U, S. Army, Chief of Constabulary. 

The Secretary of Comlmerce and Police, 

Manila f P. /. 



SUPPLSMENTAL REPORT, JXTLT 1 TO SEPTEMBER 2, 1004. 

Headquarters Philippines Constabulary, 

Manila, P. /., September 22, 1904. 
Sir: In accordance with your verbal instructions, I have the honor 
to submit herewith a report up to date supplemental to my annual 
report for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 63 

By virtue of the instructions of the Commission, and as a result of 
the recent annual appropriations act, the constabulary force must be 
reduced from an authorized strength of 7,500 (actual strength of 
7,200) to 6,200 by the end of June, 1905. 

In the execution of this measure (to make good the diminution of 
the constabulary by 1,000 men) the scout companies that were 
already under the civil government have been further divided by 
assignment to a greater number of stations, and six additional 
companies of 100 men each (eighteenth, thirty-fifth, thirty-sixth, 
thirty-seventh, thirty-ninth, and fortieth) have been asked for and 
taken over by the undersigned. 

At present the constabulary occupies 207 posts, the scouts 65. 

General Orders, No. 99, War Department, extract of which follows, 
has greatly facilitated the use of scouts by simplifying the command : 

Whenever it becomes necessary in the execution of the statute above cited to direct the 
travel of officers, or the movement of companies or detachments of Philippine Scouts 
which have been placed under the command and control of the chief or assistant chiefs of 



the Philippines Constabulary, the orders directing such travel of officers or movements of 

troops wul be issued by the chief of the Phihppines Constabulary < \ 

if the travel or movement is within the limits of the district under his charge and control. 



The cost of transportation of troops and the reimbursement of expenses incurred in travel 
will constitute a chaise upon the appropriations for the support of the Army, and will 
be accepted and paid by officers of the Pay and Quartermaster's Departments as if i&sued 
by the commanding general of a territorial division or department. 

• •«•««« 

The chief of the Philippines Constabulary will submit, in advance, quarterly estimates 
of the funds needed undler the several beads of appropriation for the movement of troops 
or for the mileage of officers for the purposes herembeiore indicated. These estimates will 
be forwarded to the commanding peneral, Philippines Division, through the civil governor 
of the Philippine Islands, and wiU be embodiea in the estimates forwarded to the War 
Department by the chiefs of the proper departments of the staff in the Philippine Islands. 
They will be restricted to the amounts necessary for the efficient performance of the duties 
enjoined in the statute above cited. 

I urgently invite attention to the recommendation made in my 
annual report regarding the necessity of more company officers for 
scouts, and also battalion commanders to properly supervise both 
field and administrative work of the numerous small garrisons. It is 
hoped that the other measures recommended concerning same 
subject may receive favorable consideration. 

under the constabulary act of Congress, assistant chiefs of con- 
stabulary who are not army officera may not command scouts. This 
law and the absence of three assistant chiefs (two of whom are army 
oflBcers) have made it necessary to assign both Captains Rivers and 
Dade, of the United States Cavalry, specially desired by the civil 
governor for inspection service, to command respectively the second 
constabulary district and to take charge of field operations against 
the fanatical Pulajanes in the mountains of Cebu and Samar. 

As the term of enlistment of all the scouts expires this year, and 
nearly all of them during the present month, tne establishment of 
new posts has taken place at a most inconvenient time. 

The cooperation extended by General Wade, through his acting 
chief of staff. Major Mann^ and by General Randall, commanding 
Department of the Luzon, in which most of the scouts are serving, 
is radically minimizing the difficulties. 



64 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Under the provisions of the new appropriation act, the average 
pay of constabulary lieutenants was increased by $50, and an addi- 
tional $50 made available for those ofBcers who learn any one of the 
leading Filipino dialects. 

DISTURBANCES. 

In the first district ladrone bands are being continually decimated. 
At present much smaller detachments may be safely used in their 
extermination. Depredations since last report are practically nil; 
on the other hand, various fragments of bands have been struck, 
and many captured ones have been duly sentenced. Judge Cross- 
field, of the court of first instance, states that since the decisive 
fight against San Miguel's force, two years since, in which the general 
was killed, he has sentenced 550 of the organization captured from 
time to time. 

Under the present disposition of the scouts and constabulary 
large ladrone bands can not exist, nor can the few bandit chiefs still 
out keep their men together. Such a condition of tranquillity has 
never before existed in this district. It does not follow, however, 
that the country in general, much less the mountainous regions, is 
entirely free from armed ladronism. 

San Felipe Salvador, one of the popes of the Philippines, still 
hides in the Candaba swamps, and has a considerable following 
among the ignorant, his armed bands, under two or more smau 
leaders, having in all about twenty-five firearms. The latest from 
this militant church dignitary is contained in the following copy of 
letter taken from one of his captured apostles : 

[Translation.] 

September 2, 1904. 
Seilor Dionisio Velasquez: 

My dear brothers in the Santa Iglesia (Holy Church ) , to whom I have intrusted all the com- 
panies: My purpose is to request you to try to assemble all our brothers in this Katipunan, 
oeginning this date, the second day of September, 1904. Endeavor to assemble ail the 
soldiers, and as soon as vou have complied with your work, please send me a communication, 
in order that you may know of my great desire to comply with our needs. 

I therefore request'you to do all you can in order that we may have our self-government 
within the month of October. 
Without anything further to say, may God keep you safe for many years. 

Felipe Salvador. 

The second district is, generally speaking, very quiet. The kilUng 
of Roldan, and the complete extermination of his oand, as set forth 
in the following telegram from Lieutenant Cheatham, of the scouts, 
has freed the Camannes-Tayabas border country of a great scourge: 

Returned from mountains at 1.30 this morning with the dead bodies of Roldan and three 
others of his men; also 21 prisoners, 7 guns, and 2 revolvers, a few bolos and small amount 
of ammunition. This was all he had except 1 revolver. Roldan positively identified. 

This leaves Saria's armed band in the Albay volcano district with 
about 11 guns, and an armed band in the Capalonga district in the 
northwest part of Ambos Camarines with prooably fewer guns. 

In the third district the pulajanes of Cebu, Samar and Leyte have 
broken out and are giving considerable trouble. Pulajanism seems 
to be a resentment of the mountain people against the lowland 
people, of the cultivators of the soil against the townspeople who 
purchase their products, for real or fancied oppression, expressed in 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 65 

-the only way with which they are acquainted. Their ignorance pro- 
hibits recourse to law. There are always agitators who profit by 
this discontent to urge these i^orant people on to barbarous deeds. 
The fanaticism of these people is also exploited to its ultimate limits^ 
with the result that when a town is attacKed the most horrible atroci-^ 
ties are committed. 

The recrudescence of this agitation in the three mentioned Visayan 
provinces at the same time would indicate some concerted action. 
The subject is being carefully investigated. 

In the province of Leyte, operations have been restricted to a small 
section or mountain country tributary to Ormoc. It was here in an 
attack on a small mountain fort that Captain Barrett was killed by a. 
slug from a bamboo cannon on the 25th of August last. 

In Cebu the uprising began by an attack on the town of Pinamunga- 

t'an, where the fanatical mountaineers killed 1 man, wounded 3, and 
>umed 125 houses, including municipal buildings with all records. 

To assist the constabulary the Thirtv-sixth Company of scouts was* 
put at Naga on the east coast, and the Thirty-seventh Company at 
Toledo on the west coast. The command oi all operations in the 

frovince was given to Captain Dade, U. S. Cavalry, inspector-general 
Philippine Constabulary. 

Two stations, about 20 miles apart, have been established in the 
range of mountains extending throughout the province from north te 
south, one connected by wire from Toledo on the west coast and the 
other by wire from the city of Cebu. Since early Spanish days these 
mountaineers have willfully failed to respond to the aspirations of the 
government. Many of the 200,000 people involved in the region in 
question would gladly be freed from the Pulajanes, as shown by the 
voluntary aid they are rendering in building nipa quarters and bar- 
racks for these stations and in cutting a trail oetween them. 

Numerous detachments are kept in the field and much punishment 
has already been meted out. In spite of this the following telegram,, 
dated September 20, shows that the punishment has not yet been: 
suflicient: 

Pulajanes entered Asturias this morning 100 to 200 strong, 8 rifles, 2 cannon, killing 3 
native volunteers and burning about 30 houses. Pulajan casualties, 2 killed and 6 wounded.. 

In Samar Pulajanism has reached its greatest development. A few 
years since there were two rival factions of fanatics in this province^ 
one under Anugar called the ' ' Dios Dios ' ' sect, the other under Pope 
Pablo called the Pulajanes. At present this distinction does not 
exist, and all are called Pulajanes (the Red-trousers.) 

The following telegram from Major Crawford gives a good under- 
standing of the character of the Pulajanes and their methods. No 
Seople in the Philippines, not excepting the Moros, have shown more 
eadly work with the bolo than have the mountaineers of Samar: 

Return from Gandara. Brought in Bowers and Schreiner from nine days' locating central 
headquarters Pulajanes, on Magpagpao range north of Cagtotoy. Bowers captured outpost 
and valuable information. Morning 21st he sent 35 women and children, rulajanes, with. 
13 constabulary down river. Crockett followed with 15 men. Below Bulao, Pulajanes with 
25 ^ns, 100 biolos, both sides river, called to women prisoners to escape, upsetting barotes,, 
which they did; constabulary fought in water, expending about 30 rounds ammunition 
apiece; 7 constabulary shot through head, 1 in body, other 5 escaped; lost 11 guns; verv 
deep water. Crockett unobserved landed and got within 30 yards of riflemen ; volleyed^ 
ana volley returned, wounding 6 Crockett's men in feet and legs. First volley Crockett's- 
shoulder straps centered attack on him. He killed 5 with his shotgun as he feU, boloed. 

WAR 1904— VOL 13 5 



66 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COM&ilSSION. 

Killed the captain of Pulajanes, who wi4h 3 othen fell dead oyer Crockett, saTins his life^ 
Courage and discipline alone saved Crockett's men from annihilation. CrocKett and 
wounded men joined in chase of Pulaianes. At scene 23 dead Pulajanes. Other detach- 
ment, first fight in boats killed 13. There were 10 caig»dores and 2 women killed. Bodies 
of all constabulary, with their belts oa, recovered from river last ni^ht; buried with honors. 
GWkett captured 4 guns, 500 Krag ammunitwn. Sent this evemng Scfareiner, Heromitt, 
total 45, to Oquendo to work to Gandara. Pulajanes in fight were of Bunoyan battalion. 
Prisoner reports arrival of Catubig raiders in Magpao. 

On September 1 a detachment of scouts under Lieutenant Overly of 
the Thirty-fifth Company was attacked in the early morning near 
Mount Bunayan by a band of about 100 bolomen and 2 riflemen. In 
this engagement Sergeant Menicke, of the Hospital Corps, and 2 scouts 
were kOled and 2 were wounded. One SpriMoield carbine was lost, 
but 2 Springfields were captured, besides 10 bolos and ammunition. 
Ten Piuajanes were killed. Sergeant Menicke died from a bolo 
wound. 

On September 7 Lieutenant Clearman, conmianding Thirty-ninth 
Company of scouts, had an engagement with about 300 Pulajanes, 
under Pedro de la Cruz, after which 74 were foimd dead on the ground. 

Many other small engagements have taken place, in which both 
scouts and constabulary have given a good account of themselves. 

At the time of writing this the Pulajanes have been compelled to 
quit the valleys of the Gandara and the Catubis and the tributary 
country thereto, going to the east coast where they have destroyed 
several nipa barrios. 

There are at present 600 troops, equally divided between con- 
stabulary and scouts, engaged in tnis large mountainous island in 
bringing about order. 

An additional scout company is under orders for the town of Taft 
(Tubig) on the east coast, and also a detachment of Moro constabu- 
lary. This will be the first trial made of Moros outside of their own 
country: Favorable results are anticipated. 

Though stripped of most of his men and arms Pope Isio continues 
to escape the agents of the law in the mountain fastnesses of Negros. 
He has changed the name of his followers from Babaylanes to the 
more modem one of Pulajanes. 

In the fourth district conditions remain quiet. A few small fights 
between rancherias or towns of the wild tribes have been reported, 
especially between the Igorrotes of eastern Bontoc and northern 
Nueva Vizcaya. 

The following telegram of September 20 shows trouble near the 
Bontoc-Cagayan frontier: 

lieutenant-Govemor Folkmar wires that Lufo, on Cagayan border, with 20 guns, burned 
Dacalan on 12th and decapitated 8 people. He suggests cooperation with Bontoc from 
Lubuagan to Lias, and then go after guns at Mayojao and Sibley, making a general clean up 
of that legioo. 

The present policy of enlisted factions of waring rancherias into 
the same organization will in time destroy existing feuds with the 
accompanying practice of taking heads. The ]^orrotes possess 
elements indicating that they have a future in the coining develop- 
ment in the islands. 

In the fifth district the work of drilling and instructing the Moros 
continues. 

The Cotabato Valley is the most disturbed portion of the Moro 
district. The limited use of Moro constabulary against Moro outlaws 
has proved satisfactory. 



REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 67 

In the Moro country, more than in any other part of the archipelago, 
time is a most important factor to be considered in the solution of the 
problem — the civilization and education of the population. 

The successful work of Captain Gallant, Philijjpines Constabulary, 
in breaking up the bands of religious outlaws in Misamis deserves 
special mention. In the first penod of this small uprising we had 2 
constabulary killed and 1 wounded, while the outlaws had 18 killed 
and a larse number captured, of whom 70 have already been sentenced 
to Bilibia. During August the same element attacked a barrio near 
Nauan, killing 4 and abducting 20 others. As a result of this 4 out- 
laws were killed and 100 were captured and are held in jail awaiting 
trial. About 40 outlaws of this band still remain at large. 

Various minor engagements and expeditions into hostile Moro 
country have been made by constabulary officers and detachments, 
some mdependently and some in connection with United States 
troops, in which the constabulary has had several casualties. 

In spite of Pulajanism and the disturbances in Mindanao, a tre- 
mendous stride in peace conditions has been made since the beginning 
of the calendar year. Greater progress in this direction could not 
justly be expected. 

The collector of customs has agreed with the undersigned to permit 
the use of customs cutters stationed at Iloilo, Cebu, Sorsogon, Jolo, 
and Puerto Princesa for transportation of constabulary and scouts as 
long as the visiting of the principal towns of the several customs 
districts once per month is not interfered with. This offers a decided 
advantage for improvement of inspection service, and will give senior 
inspectors opportunity to make great savings of time in patrolling 
localities dimcult to reach by land. 
Very respectfully, 

Henry T. Allen, 
Brigadier-General J Chief of Constabulary, 

Hon. W. Cameron Forbes, 

Secretary of Commerce and Police. • 



SBP.BT 07 THE FIB8T BI8.BIGT, PHnjPFIim COKSTABiriABT. 

Headquarters First District, Phiuppines Constabulary, 

ManUa, P. /., Jnne 30, 190^. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit /he following report of operations and conditions in 
the first constabulary district for the year ending June 30, 1904 : 

The district comprises the following provinces: Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, 
Li^na, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Viscaya, Fampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal, Tarlac, Zambales. 

The great majority of the inhabitants of the first district are Tagalog. They have a 
more restless disposition, moro political ambition and are more warlike than any other 
tribe. They inhabit the provinces adjacent to Manila, where nearli^ all political and 
seditious plots originate. It is, therefore, but natural to expect that incipient disturbances 
will occur from time to time, until these people have learned to respect the Government 
which is doing so much for their advancement. 

Under the guise of patriotism, and a pretense to be fighting for national independence, 
certain bands of outlaws have given more or less trouble since the termination ot tne insur- 
rection in the islands. The bands generally are led by persons who, due to former crimes, 
are compelled to follow the lives of bandits to escape capture. They have been unable 
to attacn to themselves a class of ignorant followers and criminals who prey upon the 
people who are disposed to live respectable and law-abiding lives. 

While these bands proclaim themselves patriots, they do not hesitate to rob and steal 
when there is opportunity, and frequently murder those who fail to submit to their demands, 
or give to the authorities information concerning them. 



68 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

There are other bands who make no pretensions to be any thine else than robbers. 

Still other bands are religious fanatics, who incidentally compel the inhabitants of neigh^ 
boring barrios to feed them, and do not hesitate to take possession of any money or other 
personal property, such as animals, jewelry, etc., which diligent search will place within 
their reach. 

In certain sections, or^nized carabao stealing is in voeuc, and I regret to state that 
in some instances our investi^tions have shown that the principal manipulators in 
this " industry " are men in whom the government has placed some confidence. The 
method of operating is generally as follows: A common carabao thief steals the animal, 
drives it into the mountains, rebrands it and keeps it there for a certain period, then sells 
it to a middleman who obtains forged registration papers of ownership from an expert 
for a consideration, or induces a dishonest presidente to issue false registration papers. 
The animal is usually driven into an adioinin^ province for this purpose. With changed 
brands and certificates of ownership the animal is now ready for the market, where it 
brings a handsome profit. Many of them reach the markets in Manila. Of course the 
constabulary capture many of these animals while in the transition period. The large 
number recovered during the past year, as ^hown in tabulated appendix to this report, is 
thus accounted for. There is still another species of carabao thief who makes no preten- 
tion to go through with the foregoing operation, but simply steals the animal, hides it 
and, through a third party, demands a ransom for its return. It is occasionally our good 
fortune to catch the person thus manipulating the deal, who, to save his own skin, gives 
such information that enables us to catch the thief and recover the animal. 

A band of thieves in Batangas Province, in addition to the above, went so far as to 
demand a tax of 5 pesos a head on each animal, over quite an extended section, as a guar- 
antee that the animal would not be stolen. It was found that many persons had paid 
this tax, believing that it was the simplest and easiest way to insure immunity of the 
animal against theft. These persons afterwards refused to give any information, having 
been threatened with death it any part of the transaction was divulged. I am glad to 
report that at present we are malcing considerable progress in breaking up this practice 
and catching the guilty parties, among them the chief of police of Lipa and several office- 
holders of the pueblos of Batangas and Laguna provinces. 

Animal stealing is not a new industry in the islands. The Spaniards coped with the 
same difficulty for generations, and it is believed that we are making better progress in 
stopping it than their ever did. The Commission has recently enacted legislation which 
will materially assist in stopping it, and it is believed that if, during the reregistration of 
animals, a special paper is provided and used, which can not be counterfeited, we will 
have taken a great stride in preventing this crime. 

Another practice in the islands which leads directly to much crime is the vice of gambling. 
The Filipino is a natural gambler, and I regret to say that municipal and provincial author- 
ities, particularly the former, lend but little assistance in preventing it. It is believed 
that stringent and specific laws on this point should be passed by tlie Commission and 
taken entirely out of the Iftinds of municipal authorities. It is an easy matter for a gambler 
to turn ladrone and procure a stake from his neighbor with which to continue his vicious 
practice. . 

At the clase of the last fiscal year we had just succeeded in practically destroying the 
most formidable band of "patriotic'' outlaws, under San Miguel, that the constabulary 
has had to cope with. San Mi^el and 61 of his followers were killed and the band so 
scattered and demoralized that it was never reunited. Since that time his principal lieu- 
tenants have all been captured, except one, Apolonio Sampson, who is still m hiding, but 
with no following worthy of mention. • v 

Julian Santos and Faustino Guillermo were captured, tried, and sentenced to death. 
The former cheated the gallows by dying in prison. The latter was hanged at Pasig on 
May 20, 1904. The fourth, Ciriaco Contreras, was recently captured by scouts in a barrio 
in Cavite Province, where he was living under an assumed name and following the trade 
of a fisherman for a living. lie is now awaiting trial. 

So man^ of San Migucrs followers have been picked up by constabulary, scouts, and 
secret service men, and tried, that a judge of the court of first instance was recently led to 
say that he was sure that he had sentenced more of San Miguel's followers than were origi- 
nally claimed to belong to the band, the maximum being placed at 300. 

The names of old offenders such as Montalon and Felizardo still adorn our posters of 
"Wanted," but, although they have managed to escape capture, their bands have l)ccn 
lately broken up and many captured during the past year. In Cavite Province alone 
more than 200 have been sent to Bilibid for terms ran^^ing from two to forty years. At 
present Montalon is reported to be hiding in the mountains on the Cavity-Bat angas border, 
and Felizardo is reported to bo sick with tuberculosis and concealed by his friends some- 
where in the vicinity of Las Piflas. While the precepts of the good book teach us differently, 
still I believe that I am justified in profoundly desiring to see him captured, and hanged 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 69 

before the ravages of disease allow him to escape a fate which he so well merits. In Sep- 
tember these two celebrities combined their forces and raided the town of Bay, where 
they robbed the Tabacalera company and Chinese merchants of that town. An investi- 
gation of the affair showed that the presidente sent the municipal police out to escort 
them into the town and to insure them against a surprise by the constaoulary. It was also 
shown that this raid had been expected b^ the authorities for several days, but no inti- 
mation was given the senior inspector by either the governor of the province or presidente 
of the town, although the latter, when cross-examined, protested that he had notified the 
governor. The raid was made on the day following the withdrawal of a detachment of 
the engineer corps of the army from the town. The success of this raid induced these wor- 
thies to again believe that the glad hand would be extended to them in Laguna in April, when 
they mustered their forces, announcing that they were now, since the advent of Ricarte, 
genuine "revolutionaries." The result showed that the people of Laguna had experienced 
a change of heart. Constabulary of Cavite, Batangas, and Laguna rapidly assembled 
along the borders of the three provinces. Six companies of scouts were quickly sent to 
the scene, and w^hile some organizations followed on their trail, others arranged to intercept 
them. The people of Laguna rendered much assistance, and the result was that after 
chasing them for two days they dissolved, with the loss of 23 killed, 5 captured, and 14 
arms captured. These bands have not since attempted to concentrate, and, although we 
have captured many of their followers, no doubt we will hear from them again at some 
future time. 

In September it was determined to place more troops in Cavite Province. The province 
was divided into 11 districts and four additional companies of scouts placed there, and 
instructions issued for patrolling under the following oracrs: 

Imus, Cavite, September 9, 1903. 
Field orders No. 17.] 

The province of Cavite will be divided temporarily into districts for scouting, patrolling, 
and secret-service work, with stations and organizations as follows. (See accompanying 
map for district lines.) 



J^ ! Organization. 



Station. 



1 Fifth Company, Scouts ' Imua and San Nicolas. 

2 I Twenty-flrst Company, Scouts I Do. 

3 ' Thirteenth Company, Scouts (detachment 25 men) Malagasan. 

4 ; Eighth Company, Scouts ; Das Marifias. 

5 , Nineteenth Company, Scouts Biflan, San Pedro, and Muntinlnpa. 



6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
U 
12 
13 
14 

15 do I MagaTlanes. 

16 ; do I Rosario and San Francisco de Mala- 

I bon. 

17 do Cavite. 



Sixth Company, Scouts. 

Forty-fifth Company, Scouts 

Second Company, Scouts (detachment 50 men) . . 

Twenty-ninth Company, Scouts 

Seventh Company, Scouts (detachment 50 men). 

Constabulary 

.do. 



Carmona. 

Silang. 

Amaya. 

Naic. 

Cavite Viejo. 

Quintana. 

Indan. 

-do I Amadeo. 

-do Maraeondon. 



The organizations and detachments at stations designated will take up the work indicated 
at once. Others as soon at rations are provided. Officers in charge of districts are expected 
to keep the section over which they nave jurisdiction thoroughly policed. With this in 
view tney are authorized to establish additional stations in barrios, composed of such 
number of men as can do effective work, which detachments will be frequently changed. 
They will call upon tenientes of barrios to provide shelter. At every station where there 
is a telephone one or two men will be detailed to attend to telephonic calls at all hours, 
day and night, and will be held to a strict accountability that this duty is properly per- 
formed. 

A secret-service bureau has been established at Imus. All officers will transmit infor- 
mation to the senior inspector at Cavite promptly, and to Imus. They will always trans- 
mit information to the nearest station, which should act on information so learned and 
transmitted. Messengers will be used when necessary and paid for or vales given to the 
supply officer for payment. These instructions apply to both scout and constabulary 
officers. Any officer having knowled^ of intelligent and reliable men who can be utilized 
for secret-service work will report their names to the senior inspector of the province. 

Prisoners captured will be investigated, and if sufficient proof to warrant preliminary 
trial can be obtained a warrant will he sworn out against them ^d they will be proceeded 



70 REPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

against according to law. II they can be uttliaed in obtaining information by confeesions 
made, such information should be sent to the bureau hero, or the prisoner himself sent here 
to be questioned by Lieutenant Crame, of the information division. 

By persistent work and assurances to the people of our good intent toward law-abiding 
persons, it is believed that good results can be accomplished in the province. The district 
lines are only indicated to prescribe the territory generaUy to be covered. There cease to 
exist any lines when acting on information or in pursuit of ladrones. 

Additional data will be placed on the map, such as roads, trails, sitio8» single isc^ted 
bouses — in fact, everything that can be utilized in making a complete map. Each eora- 
mandine officer of a section will give this his attention. The maps will be taken in later, 
and all data obtained traced on the on^nal tracing at constabulary headquarters. Thb 
map should receive as good care as possible. Some extra paper is fumisbed for making 
notes, which can be transferred to the map. Every scouting party should be able to furnish 
some data. 

W. S. Scott, 
A^sidant ChUf of Constabulary, Commanding Firat Disirid. 

Since that time, in spite of the extended assistance and sympathy shown these bands by 
the people of the province^ partly through fear, but largely through a rebellious spirit, con- 
ditions have graauallv improved. Still there is muoi to be desired and accomplished 
before Cavite can be classed as "good." 

In May, under authority of the Commission, certain barrios in the province were concen- 
trated and the people compelled to gather their goods and chattels and move to town, but 
allowed to go out during tlie day to work. Other barrios of the province, as well as cer- 
tain ones of Batangas and Laguna, were required to move all their provisions into towns 
occupied by troops, but allowed to continue to live in the barrios, keeping only two or 
throe days' supplies on hand, this to prevent them from feeding ladrooe bands, as had 
been their custom. While this has not had the desired effect it has caused these bands 
much inconvenience and hunger and compelled them to seek other pastures on which to 
graze. In consequence they are at present like "br'er rabbit"— lying low, not daring to 
try any movement. I believe that u we could now guarantee protection to the people at 
all places and times we would get more assistance than formerly- This is notably shown 
around Tanauan, in Batangas, where the people are for the first time giving us any aid or 
information. 

In September, in addition to augmenting the troops in Cavite, a subdivision of the infor- 
mation bureau was established at Imus, under Lieutenant Crame, and the work accom- 
plished by this bureau has been most excellent. I can not speak too highly of Lieutenant 
Crame's work. He is intelligent, conservative, and thorougn. He allows no abuses and 
secures the friendship of the people. 

Many ladrones captured, who were not chared with any serious olTense, were liberated 
and used as spies to hunt for other ladrones, in addition to identifying suspects. Some 
of thoin have performed excellent work. The good work performed by this bureau induced 
those in authority to establish others at San Francisco de Malaoon, Alfonso, and at 
Tanauan, Batangas. The combing thus given the vicinity of Imus has left that section 
comparatively free from ladrones. 

In addition to service as spies, it has been customary at times to round up the male inhab- 
itants of certain barrios and have these ex-ladrones look over the people and identify any 
of their former companions. I supervised one of these dragnet performances in which a 
number of barrios adjacent to San Francisco de Malabon were corraled. We gathered in 
about 1,500 hombres. They were required to pass in review as they returned to their 
barrios. As they passed the reviewing stand our judge eved them closely, and occasionally 
drew a man out or ranks. Fourteen were thus identified and 1 1 of them convicted before 
the courts. In order that no favoritism be shown, every male inhabitant was brought in. 
The ex-governor of the province, the justice of the peace, and the presidentc walked by 
with hat in hand as humbly as the " rice paddy tao." 

During the year another star of first maenitude has made his appearance in Batangas 
Province. Oniga, who has been a ladron for a long time, got some euns together, accu- 
mulated a following of as fine a collection of cutthroats as the islands can boast of, and 
announced that he was a ^'colonel." The principal occupation of this choice collection 
has been stealing and ransoming animals in northern Batangas, where Oruga has given us 
considerable trouble. He has varied his proceedings from time to time by kidnapping a 
resident of some barrio and ransoming him similar to the "other cattle." We have suc- 
ceeded in killing a number of his band and captured a few guns, but ladrones, like nits, 
continue to hatch as long as a gun can be provided. 

The Twenty-fifth Company of scouts had a detachment of 7 men under a sergeant look- 
ing for Oruga and his band on April 6. They found him by allowing themselves to be 
ambushed. They succeeded in killing 7 of the band, but had 2 of their number wounded 
and 2 captured. The captured escaped after a few days and the wounded recovered. 



KBPOBT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 71 

•Two da^ UUr Lieutenant Berners, of the scouts, intercepted part of ibis band and suc- 
ceeded in weundiog and capturing 1 and killing 1. About the most notable feat of this 
buMl was its attack on a party of suryeyors, who were running the lines of ihe friar lands 
west of Batangas on March 20. This party, ccMisisting of 2 Americans, a Chinese cook, 
and a muchacho, with 4 constabulary, were awakened at daylight by the band firing into 
camp. One surveyor was wounded and the sentinel killed. After looting the camp and 
relieving the party of provisions and pocket money, Oniga apologized W saying that he 
just wanted an explanation as to why they were surveying tne land. Thus the ingrati- 
tude of some of our "Mttle brown brothers" is prominently exemplified. While the gov- 
ernment exerts itself to rid the country of what nas been claimed by the Filipino to be the 
most unworthy act of their op|M«aBOEs, by buying up the friar lanoB to dispose of them to 
the occuj^ts, armed bandits smite the band extended in succor. 

For tlus gallant deed Oruga appointed himself a brigadter-general. There is one thing 
to be admired about him, and that ie that occasionally he can be induced to put up a fight, 
when he feels that honore are in his favor, which is more than can be said generaUy of the 
leaders of these bands. 

There are other small bands in Laguna, Batangas, and Cavite, beaded by robbers of leas 
notoriety than those mentioned. It has been our eood fortune, from time to time, to cap- 
ture or kiU some of theur members, but their comiuete extermination seems to be the only 
permanent remedy for getting rid of them. 

There is a small band in Bataan, but they have almost been exterminated. The leader 
was formerly a native constabulary officer, but was caught stealiiw horses and phiced in 
jail. He escaped and organized this band. He was later captured by a sergeant of con- 
stabulary and was killed while attempting to escape. 

In Zambalea there was a small band, but recent reports state that it is exterminated, 
except the leader, who is hiding in the mountains. 

In Bulacan there is no orgamzed band, but carabao stealing in that province is reduced 
to a science. An attempt was made to break it up, but our mformation division failed to 
receive the support of tne officials and abandoned it temporarily. The governor of the 

S-ovince has recently requested assistance, and our efforts are again being exerted in that 
rection. 

There are no organized bands in Tarlac or Pangasinan, but more or less carabao stealing 
is in vogue along the borders of those and Nueva Ecija provinces. 

There is a band of religious fanatics in existence in northern Nueva Ecija, under the 
command of Felipe SalviMor, known as "Santa Iglesia." They do not remain together 
continuously, but combine, commit depredations, and immediately disband. This outfit 
has given no trouble since September 16, 1903, when about 100 of these men, wiui about 
40 guns, attacked the constabulary barracks at San Jose. The station consisted of an 
American officer and 44 men. The commanding officer. Lieutenant Wakeley, and 6 pri- 
vates were wounded, 1 sergeant and 4 privates killed. Three of the wounded afterwards 
died. The outlaws lost 14 killed. The constabulary lost 3 Springfield rifles and captured 
1 Remington and 2 Springfield rifles, besides bolos. This was the most vicious and pei^ 
sistent attack that outlaws have at any time in the district made on constabulary. It was 
in the middle of the night, and it is claimed by Captain Wakeley that there was one traitor 
among the constabulary. I embody herewith the report of the senior inspector on this 
affair: 

« Constabulary of Nueva Ecija, 

San Jose, September 20, 1903. 

Sir: The following is the result of my investigation of the attack on San Jose, on the 
morning of Septe'mW 16, 1903: 

It appears from the statement of Lieutenant Wakeley that about 12.30 a. m., 16th instant, 
the sentinel posted on north side of his barracks, outside the trenches, was fired upon by a 
large crowd of persons. He immediately ran to the cuartd and gave the alarm. The 
guard and detachment at once "fell in^' and opened fire on the attacking party, who were 
then close to the trenches. The first volley from the constabulary drove their enemy back, 
but they came on again and were again driven back. Once more they renewed the effort, 
and the leader, Captain Beyron, killed, jumped on the breastwork, saying to the constabu- 
lary, "We are here by appointment; keep your promises; kill your commanding officer." 
At this the constabulary hesitated and stopped firing for about thirty seconds, and only 
for lieutenant Wakeley shooting this man the result would have been deplorable, as he 
inight have won over the constabulary. On the fall of this leader the fightiik; was renewed 
vigorously on both sides. A party of bolomen, in the meantime, succeeded in getting 
inside the intrenchment from the side, getting into the guardhouse and securing two or 
three rifles, which they immediately turned on the constabulary. By this time 5 of the 
latter had been kiUed and 3 wounded, nearly all being shot from the right rear. The fight- 
ing now had lasted fully two hours, when Lieutenant Wakeley ordered a flank assault on 
the attackers, which succeeded well, and they were driven off, leaving 11 dead and 4 wounded, 



72 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

3 of whom since died, making a total loss to the enemy of 18. Lieutenant Wakelcy was 
filightlv wounded on right liip, a Springfield bullet striking his belt and reiftaining there, 
exploding 13 Krag cartridges and knocking him senseless for a moment. Sergeant Agsilu, 
First-<;ias8 Privates Magpale and Rodio, and second-<:lass Privates Cariilo, Lucas Menceros, 
Pascual, and Ubaila were killed and Private Sebastian and 2 others wounded. 

Lieutenant Wakeley is deserving of the greatest praise for his signal courage and coolness 
in this desperate contest, and I earnestly recommend him for promotion at first opportu- 
nity. Sergeant Agsilu and his 7 companions were as brave men as ever fought under a flag. 

The attack was marked by some skill and fanatical determination, met and only over- 
come by dogged pertinacity. 

Lieutenant Wakeley desires to especially recommend First-class Private Maximo Dumlao, 
who lield an outpost against great odds during the fight. Through the eood judgment and 
cool courage of this man the enemy were unable to flank the post from the rear, their being 
one column of the enemy sent to do so; First-class Private de la Cruz, who volunteered to 
take 2 men and flank the enemy, which he successfully accomplished; Second-class Private 
Julio de los Reyes, also member of flanking party; Second-class Private Sebastian, after 
being twice shot, second time seriously, not fatally; Second-class Private Clemente Lazaro 
and Second-class Private Juan Comilan. Lieutenant Wakeley recommends that if con- 
sistent these men be given medals for valor in the mast critical point in the fleht, when the 
enemy had the advantage and offered rewards if the constabulary would kill their leader 
and lay down their arms. He recommends that First-class Privates Aghual, E^panto, and 
Botid oe mentioned in orders. 

The constabulary lost 3 Springfleld rifles and captured 2 Springflelds, 1 Remington, 
besides bolos and clubs. 

There was undoubtedly one traitor, Second-class Private Remigio Ferrer (and possibly 
First-class Private Joaquin Opiilano). The first was absent without leave until nour of 
attack, but was seen by Lieutenant Wakeley in rear and right of him and his men with a rifle. 
He confesses to having been there and of firing at his comrades. Taxed with the crime he 
says he was out of his head. He is now in carcel at San Isidro and will be charged with 
treason. Private Opiflano was in the guardhouse at time of attack, but did not take his 
place in the ranks, only leaving the guardhouse when he saw two of the enemy entering. 
Without the least resistance he gave them his rifle, saying he was afraid of them. Lieuten- 
ant Wakeley ordered him afterwards to bring a box of ammunition from the ofiicc. He 
refused ( saying he could not on account of his sore wrist, and would have persisted in refus- 
ing only was afraid the lieutenant would use force. He is now in carcel and will be tried for 
treason^ as it is probable that he and Ferrer were agreed to give up their rifles to the enemy. 

After the fight the attackers dispersed in twos and threes, but reunited afterwards. One 
column of 60, commanded by Salvador, went toward Biacnabato, according to the story of 
a prisoner who was with him at San Jose and for one week previous and who heard Salvador 
tell the others he was going there and there would receive arms and supplies. One column 
of about 40, which I trailed for two days, is probably gone toward the Penaranda Mountains, 
and it is probable that a small column of Tarlac people went toward Cuyapo and Anao, as 
I received notice that Anao was attacked by Santa Iglesias on the 20th instant. 

There were persons in the attack from rampanga, Pangasinan, B^ilacan, Tarlac, and 
Nueva Ecija, the latter being in the majority. AH the population are in sympathy and the 
majority in some manner connected with this movement. The idea seems to be to get as 
many arms as possible, with a future view toward a general uprising. « 

The lawmakers ought to make some law making it a felony to a proven member of this 
organization. 

They will be hounded to the end by the constabulary of this province. 

Am very sorry that I could not forward this report sooner. I prepared it on the 20th at 
San Jose and left there the 21st, intending^ to mail it at San Isidro. Midway I struck a fresh 
trail, which I followed 21st and 22d, arriving at Talavera on 23d instant, late in the evening. 
The next mail for Manila left San Isidro on the 24th, so it could not go by that mail. I 
therefore kept it until to-day. 

Very respectfully, R. B. Kavanaqh, 

Captain and Senior InspcdoTy Philippines Constabulary. 

Chief First Division, Philippines Constabulary, 

Manila. 

In October, 1903, Lieutenant Velas(]uez was sent from Bayombong, Nueva Viscaya, to 
complete the census of the mountain districts, under the supervision of the governor of that 
province. On the 6th of that month it was reported that he was attacked by a large number 
of Calingas and other Igorrote tribes. The following is the senior inspector's (Captain 
Williams) report on this affair: 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 73 

[Telegram.] 

Bayombong, N. v., October 22-'&3, lOaS, 
CoNFiRST, Manila. 

Lieutenant Velasquez and party of 28 raen reported here to-day. Most of party suffering 
with chills and fever and show marks of hardship and service. Lieutenant Velasquez makes 
the following report: At 9.30 a. m., October 6, in the district of Banafa, Isabela, while hold- 
ing friendly conference with the following-named jefes of tbe Gaddan tribes, High Chief 
Tunit, of Caransao; Chiefs Dungaue, Jalangoy, Balanguia, and Sabio, of Banafa; Cliiefs 
Gumbi and Nanbaung, of Antang, my detachment, consisting of myself and 30 men, were 
attacked by /lOO to 600 Calingas and If ugao Igorrotes, latter £>toc. My two sentinels were 
surprised by rush of 80 savages from dense underbrush. Second-class privates Buenaven- 
tura Alindayu and Mariano Goralcs were sentinels and fatally wounaed, Alindayu with 
spear and Gorales with pinaparing, in the charge before their comrades could give assistance. 
At first fire from sentinels the chiefs in the conference rose to their feet, pinaparing in hand. 
He (Velasquez) killed 6 of the 7 chiefs with his revolver, and the seventh witn a pmaparing, 
while the soldiers were all engaged in a hand-to-hand fight, which lasted thirteen mmutes, 
with the following result: Constabulary lost 2 men fatally wounded, 2 slightly wounded, and 
2 Springfield carbines, and Lieutenant Velasquez lost Winchester carbine, his personal 
property. Calingas lost 53 killed, 30 or more wounded, 2 Remington rifles, 2 muzzle- 
Joaaing shotguns, 3 flintlock guns, 5 Springfield carbines, cartridges, 1 pound gunpowder 
(made from pulverized match-neads), and ^ pounds rifle balls, 1(X), 13 pinaparings or head- 
axes, 3 bolo6,5 steel spears, 6 rodelas of shields. Revolvers only were usea by tne constabulary 
in first attack — too close to use carbines. Calingas retreated to wooded mountains nearby 
and kept up hot fire with Krag, Mauser, Remingtons, flintlocks, and muzzle-loading guns 
of various kinds for about twenty-seven minutes. Their loss after taking to the woods is 
not known. After ceasing fire, burying the dead, and destroying all captured property, 
extra clothing, and rations, the constabulary began a retreat toward Mererao, but being 
completely surrounded were compelled to drop and shoot their way out. Five hundred to 
OCX) Calingas and 30 constabulary were engaged October 7; had running fight from 6.30 to 
8 a. m.; Calingas retreated, losing 30 killed and wounded. Three hundred Calingas and 
28 constabulary were engaged October 8; had running fieht from 6.30 to 8.30 a. m. ; Calingas 
retreated, losing 9 killed and 7 wounded. Two hundred Calingas and 28 constabulary were 
engaged 7th and 8th; constabulary had no casualties, but were without ^ood from 6th to 
10th instant. All captured arms were broken, and with captured ammunition, all rations, 
and extra clothing were burned that nothing might fall into hands of the enemy. Lieu- 
tenant Velasquez recommends the following-named enlisted men for meritorious 8er\'ice, to 
take precedence as listed: Second-class Private Mariano Camonoyon, First-class Private 
Nicola Bayanton, Second-class Private Manuel Callueng, First Sergeant Boinardo Tumalium 
Second-class Private Bernardo Dumlod, Corporal Jacinto Cadauan, Second-class Private 
Antonio Cruz, First-class Privates Dominto Guayad and Juan Birca, Second-class Private 
Alejandro Padasdao. I recommend for the gooa of the service that Lieut. Joaquin Velas- 
quez and the 10 above-named men be awarded medals of valor as reward for bravery, their 
heroic courage and remarkable endurance. All members of the detachment deserve hon- 
orable mention. 

Williams, Consenior, 

Later investigation and the testimony of a large number of enlisted men .present showed 
conclusively that a portion of Lieutenant Velasauez's report was false, and that this dis- 
turbance was brought on by his attempting to take certain guns away from these Igorrotes 
when he was sent there on a peaceful mission to take the census. In consequence, Lieuten- 
ant Velasquez was dismissed by the chief of constabulair. 

In Rizal Province there is a small band under Macario Sakay, w^ho poses as the presidcnte 
of the Philippine republic. This man was formerly a barber in Manila. He has about 6 
guns and a following of a few additional men. Several times during the year this band has 
been located and a number of its members killed. Lieutenant Pitney, at Tanay, in March, 
struck this band about 8 miles north of that town and killed 19 of it-s members. Later, in 
May, 5 constabulary of Rizal Province, through a ruse, induced a number of this band to 
enter the town of Bosoboso, where 4 were killed. Recently they attempted to go into 
Bulacan, and were intercepted near Norzagaray by a detacnment of constabulary under 
a sergeant of that province, and 4 were killed and 7 captured. In each instance some guns 
were captured. Tnis band has committed no depredations beyond compelling the people 
to supply food. Saka^ claims that he is not a ladrone but a patriot. Details of these i^airs 
have been submitted m quarterly reports during the year. 

Recently, in Pangasinan, the senior inspector unearthed the formation of a new Katipu- 
nan society, under the leadership of Pedro C. Gasig, who styled himself a captain-general. 
Quite a number of his followers were captured with what purported to be commissions in 
^eir pockets. These men are now in jail awaiting the action of the courts. 



74 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

On the 23d of December, 1903, Artemio Ricartc, one of the irreconcrables deported to 
Guam and later brought to Manila with other prisoners from that island, refused to take the 
oath of allegiance and was not allowed to land. He has since spent his time in Hongkong, 
where he organized what is known as a Filipino junta, for the purpose of agitating a revolu* 
tion in the islands. Prior to his returning to Manila clandestinely he was in correspondence 
with certain persons in and about Manila and had organized what he caUed a " revolutionary 
army,'' whicn consisted principally of brigadier-generals and colonels, the recruiting of 
priyates not haying been commenced. Immediately upon his landing it was discovered 
that he was in the islands, but he was at large until May, when he was captured in Marivelos. 
Bataan Province, by Lieutenant Heartt, of the constabulair, assisted by the preeidente ana 
clerk of the court. Immediately upon landing he callecl together his leaders and gave 
instructions for the organization of the revolutionary army, styling himself the "general 
in chief." He made a tour of Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, and Pampanga provinces, touching at 
certain towns. Almost immediately after his landing secret-service men of the information 
division commenced to gather in hia "generals," and much credit is due the information 
bureau for its excellent work in this respect Within thirty days after his landing practi- 
cally all of his followers were in jail, and all have been sentenooa for a term of years m Bili- 
bid. A man by the name of Tolent'no, who had been sentenced to imprisonment for writing 
and producing seditioiisjplays in Manila, joined with Ricarte and styled himself the " dictator 
of the Philippines." This man was under a bond of $3,500 at the time, which he jumped, 
and went with Ricarte to the bosque. Shortly after Ricarte 's capture, Tolentino was also 
captured. Both of these worthies are now serving sentences in Biiibid prison. Additional 
charges will be preferred against Ricarte for being the instigator of certain mutinous con- 
duct on the part of constabulary soldiers in Ilocos Sur in January of the present year. It 
appeani that a detachment of soldiers from Ilocos Sur were serving in Pampanga Province; 
that Ricarte corresponded with Corporal Ayala and Private Calvo, inducing them to take 
steps to cause a mutiny in the garrison at Vigan upon their return to their province. These 
men foolishly attempted the same, having inducea some twenty>odd constabulaiy, together 
with a lot of ignorant taos from the bamos around Vigan, Ilocos Sur, to join them. This 
party of mutineers, after robbing the conmiissaiy and helping themselves to guns, ammuni- 
tion, clothing, etc., started out through the province, but were intercepted by scouts, con- 
stabulary, and American cavaliy witnin the next few days. The entire outfit have been 
sentenced to long terms in Bilibid. The two soldiers above mentioned, one other soldier, 
and a civilian implicated in the matter were sentenced to death. I was acting chief of 
constabulary at tne time and took personal command of the situation in Ilocos Sur until 
quiet was restored. 

The details of this affair are set forth in a special report on file in the office of the chief of 
constabulary. 

While the advent of Ricarte into the islands caused no serious disturbances, and it was 
clearly shown that the people of the islands did not sympathize with him and are not pre- 
pared for a revolution and do not desire one, still his capture had the effect of quieting a 
certain restlessness among the people in the provinces adjacent to Manila. 

The authorized strength of the constabulai^ of this district during the past year has been 
2,400. In addition, 18 companies of Philippine Scouts, assigned with the civil government, 
have been on duty in the district. 

Under recent orders from the office of the chief of constabulary the authorized constab- 
ulary strength was reduced to 2,200, and a new scale of pay was ordered, making the pay 
of enlisted men more nearly uniform in the different provinces. Under present conditions 
the reduction was justified, and should conditions continue to improve it is believed that in 
time a further reduction can be effected. When we can substitute a smaller number of 
well-trained and disciplined men for numbers we will have made a great step in advance. 

The term of enlistment of a large part of the constabulary has expired during the past 
few months, or will expire in the near future. In some provmces the majority are rccnust- 
ing, but in others less than 50 per cent. 

It is impossible to report yet what the effect of reclassifying the pay will have. In some 
provinces the pay was slightly reduced. It is a well-known fact tliat a Filipino is always 
asking to have his pay raised, but generally quits his job when his pay is reduced, remains 
idle until he gets hungry, and is then happy to begin again at the foot of the ladder. Pos- 
sibly the same effect may obtain with tne constaoulary in those provinces where the pay 
has boon reduced. The constabulary soldier has learned to compare his pay with tnat 
of the scout, and the scout is grumbling because his pay is less than that oi the American 
soldier. 

The fact is, the scale of pay of the constabulary is believed to be about right, and even 
that is far more than they ever dreamed of receiving in the days of the Spaniards. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 75 

CLOnUNO. 

There has been some discussion as to whether or not the clothing allowance of 50 pesos 
is sufficient. I recently called for the views of the senior inspectors on this subject. A few 
thou^t it ample, but most of them thought it should be increased to 65 pesos, stating that 
where there was much field service it was not sufficient at present. Of course it is desired 
to have men at all times present a neat and soldierly appearance, and not be compelled 
when they ^ to the field to don a uniform in which they can take no pride. Smart ctothee 
certainly stiffen a man's back and make him hold his head a few inches higher, and generallv 
make bun a little better man. This is particularly so of the Filipino. When we can reach 
the point where we can reduce in numbers, it is reconunended tnat the clothing allowance 
bo correspondingly increased. 

SUBSISTENCE. 

Beginning with the present calendar ^ear the system of rationing the constabulary was 
. changed. Prior to that time each soldier paid for his own food, and when in the ^eld it 
was furnished him without charge. The men ate at tiendas or with their famihes. The 
first step as an improvement was to establish messes at nearly all stations in the district, 
the cost of same oeing deducted from the men's pay. It was found that this method 
of messing cost the soldier a little less, on an average, than 7 pesos. 

Under this system the men improved in strength and health. Following this, the Com- 
mission appropriated 21 centavos per day for the purchase of a soldier's ration. This 
method is veiy flexible and has proven entirely satisfactory. In the provinces of this 
district it has cost less than this amount to feed the men. The result is a saving which 
constitutes a mess fund. In this district senior inspectors have been required to keep 
thcs3 savings as savings for each separate station, and not lump it as a provincial mess 
fund, for the reason that at some stations quite respectable savings are made, while at others 
nothing is saved. It was deemed but just to the men that sucn savings should accnie to 
the benefit of the men who made them. 

Experience has shown that some officers have handled their messes splendidly, whila 
others have performed this duty but indifferently. There has been marked improvement 
in this respect, and it is believed that we need have no further anxiety where stations are 
commanded by American officers. The native officer, with but few exceptions, has proven 
himself an indifferent caterer and an extremely poor manager and accountant in running 
these messes. 

The system operates as follows: The supply officer of each province requisitions monthly 
for fundi for subsistence of the men of his province. The senior inspector draws on him 
for lands for the entire province at the rate of 21 centavos per day for the month. The 
station commanders make purchases in open market or from the branch civil supply store, 
giving receipts for same, retaining a stub showing the transaction. Thes3 receipts are 
cashed by ttie senior inspector or, when more convenient, the station commander is ^vcn 
money by the senior inspector, on memorandum receipt, and he cashes his own receipts 
and turns them in to the senior inspector. Station commanders must keep a daily record 
of strength of station and submit a return to the senior inspector at end of month, showing 
proper accounting. These returns are consolidated by the senior inspector, who forwards 
them for audit to the district chief. While on detached sarvice or m the field, where it 
is impracticable to mess the men, they may be given cash at the rate of 21 centavos per day. 

The senior inspectors are authorized to expend the savings for the benefit of the men 
fcH* such punwses as comforts about their mess, barracks, or dining room, or for extra articles 
of clothing for men who are in debt to the Government. They may also return the savings 
to the men if they so desire. Any other expenditures than these, of savings,' must receive 
the sanction of the district chief. In all cases of expenditure the wishes of the men are 
ascertained, as it is regarded as their money, except as to its care and supervision. 

During the five months from January 1 to May 31 the savings in provisions have ranged 
from a few pesos to upward of a thousand. In those provinces where there was a great 
deal of field 8?rvico but little savings were made, and in one province, Cavite, where men 
were continually in the field and eating at numerous stations, some confusion of accounts 
resulted, but this confusion was due to the fact that several stations were commanded by 
native officers who were not competent to keep their accounts properly. 

With proper care on tjie part of officers and attention to duty the system should work 
with entire satisfaction. 

It would be a good thing if this system of rationing could bs extended to scout companies. 
At present fully half the efficiency of these organizations is lost by detachments being 
compeUed to return to their stations after three or four days to provide themselves with 
rations. 



76 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

MBDICAI. CORPS. 

During the year a medical corps for the constabulary was established on a small scale. 
In the first district it now consists of 1 surgeon, 2 medical inspectors, and 17 hospital corps 
men. In the first district a hospital has oeen established at Tarlac, and medical inspec- 
tors arc stationed at Tarlac and Manila, with hospital corps men at stations, as shown in 
appended list of stations. The superintendent of the medical division is also surgeon of 
the first district. He will submit his report direct to the chief of constabulary, therefore 
no details will be mentioned in this report. 

The medical division in the district nas done a ^reat deal of good, and its extension is a 
matter to b3 determined by the needs of the service and money that is appropriated. A 
supply of medicines is kept at most stations in the district, and the siniple complaints are 
attended to b^* hospital corps men, the more serious ones by medical officers bemg sent to 
stations, and m cases where hospital treatment is necessary the patients are sent to Tarlac, 
the civil hospital in Manila, or the nearest army station. At several of the posts simple 
wards, with a few conveniences, are an-anged. There has been a great demand for a hoa-^ 
pital in Nueva Viscaya, it being an extremely isolated place with no doctor in the province. * 
After some discussion as to the feasibility of the board of health establishing one, it was 
finally decided bjr the civil governor that the constabulary should do so. In a very short 
time one will be in operation there, and it will prove a great source of comfort anci relief 
to the constabulary and civil government employees, both native and American, in that 
isolated district. 

It is believed that by judicious combination the work of the board of health and the 
medical work of the constabulary cau be combined in the provinces with benefit and economy 
to the government. 

TELEGRAPH DIVISION. 

The work of this division has been largely extended in the district during the year. 
Several lines have been taken over from the army, much construction and repair accom 

Elished, and lines extended. A large majority of stations in the district are now connected 
y wire, and it is possible for district headquarters to communicate with nearly all stations 
in Cavite, Batangas, Rizal, Lagima, and Bulacan by telephone, and with most others by 
telegraph. Tliis has facilitated the work of apprehending outlaws very materially, and has 
enablea us to accomplish much work that otnerwise would have been next to impossible. 
There are serving in the district 4 telegraph inspectors, 16 American operators, 19 native 
operators, 9 American linemen, and 9 native linemen at stations as shown in appendix. 

Native telegraph operators and linemen are doing fairly good work, and in time will 
be able to handle all but the more important stations. 

TRANSPORTATION . 

Transportation facilities have been much improved during the year. In a number of 
provinc< s mules and light wagons or rowboats have been supplied, thus facilitating delivery 
of supplies with economy to the government. It is to be hoped that the next appropriation 
will enable us to further provide similar transportation. ' 

BARRACKS AND QUARTERS. 

Constabulary occupy public buildings at but few places in the district ; therefore the rent 
of houses for barracks and quarters for officers means quite a draft on the appropriation. 
Private houses are generally not adapted to quarters for troops, and it is believed that the 
time has arrived when steps should be taken to spend a few thousand dollars annually in the 
construction of suitable quarters at such points as there will unquestionably be a station 
maintained for a long period. 

Tlie constabulary has developed into an organization of permanency and importance in 
the islands far beyond what was expected at the time of its oi^anization, and it becomes 
necessary to provide suitable quarters for sheltering it with commrt and economy. 

scnooLs. 

^ General Orders, No. 82, headquarters Philippines Constabulary, series 1903, outlined a 
course of instruction for enlisted men. This oraer was amended by General Orders, No. 75, 
headquarters Philippines Constabulary, series 1904, which is more comprehensive. Con- 
siderable progress has been made at many stations, but field work in the first district has 
retarded progress very materially. As conditions improve, facilities and opportunities for 
teaching will become greater, and it is believed that generally much good will be accom- 
plished. So far instruction has been confined to teaching English, reading and writing, and 
map reading, some effort at route sketching, drill, orders and acts affecting the constabulary, 
bow to serve warrants, and how to present cases to justices of the peace. 
^ Some progress has been made. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 77 

MUNICIPAL POUCE. 

There has been some improvement in the municipal police of a few of the provinces. They 
have been placed under the orders of the senior inspector, a system of regulations adoptedf 
and in some cases noncommissioned officers detailed to drill them. In other provinces they 
continue to be useless and worthless, largely due to the fact that they are principally used as 
muchachos for the presidente and other municipal officials, being improperly clad and poorly 
paid. After a fair trial, if there be not a marKed improvement, a recommendation will be 
made to take up the arms in their hands and limit the towns to such number as may be 
needed about the municipal building and to be used as messen^rs. Arms are in their 
hands as follows: Rifles, 869; shotguns, 996, and revolvers, 646. These are bonded and are 
comparatively safe, but we are continually in fear of their beine robbed of these arms by 
outlaw bands. In some places they have been extremely careless with the ammunition 
furnished them, and there is reason to believe that in certain localities ladrones have been 
supplied with the ammunition which is missing. 

Where aid is asked of the insular government it is believed that it would generally be 
better to increase the constabulary by that number and take care of the town m that way. 

In the province of Rizal there is not an armed policeman and it is about the quietest 
province in the islands. At certain points shotguns should be kept in the hands of police to 
prevent carabao stealing. 

LAUNCH. 

The SuerUf which is at the disposal of the district chief, will, I am infonned by the chief of 
the bureau of coast g^ard and transportation, fall to pieces some day and leave us without 
water transportation. This ^ould oe forestalled by the supply of a good, roomy launch 
with shallow draft. 

This boat does an immense amount of work by supplying stations on the lake and bay, 
towing all cascoes with supplies for the quartermaster to vessels in the bay, and by trans- 
ferring troops from place to place. The services of such a launch are indispensable. 

MIXTURE OF TRIBES IN PROVINCES. 

It is believed that beneficial results will obtain by authorizing the enlistment of one-half 
the strength of constabulary of provinces in certain places from natives of a tribe different 
from the inhabitants of the particular province. Tnis may have the effect of preventing 
local and tribal contaminations. It is questionable if disturbances such as the one in 
IIocos Sur would occur if this mixture of tribes were authorized. Such disturbances, if 
repeated, would give the constabulary a "black eye'' in the minds of many people here and 
in the United States, whether it was oeserved or not. 

REUGIOU8 QUESTION. 

Leaving out the question of religious fanatics and their organizations, there is still con 
siderable agitation in certain parts of the islands over Aglipay and his independent church 
He and his followers are believed by many people to be notning more or less than a politica 
» organization. Whatever this organization may develop into I am by no means prepared to 
beueve that at present the organization has politics or revolution as its object. It is true 
that this churcn has gathered into its fold the restless and disturbing element. It is but 
natural that such people would join such an organization^. While there is religious dissen- 
sion, one party or the other is bound to regale us with the'misdeeds of its religious enemies, 
and neither can go far wrong without our knowing it. 

A few disturbances of a minor nature have occurred, necessitating the constabulary or 
scouts taking a hand to keep the peace, but these are rare and scarcely worthy of mention. 

TORTURE OF VICTIMS. 

There have been a few cases of inhuman treatment and torture of victims by outlaws. 
The presidente of Bosoboso, Rizal, and a resident of a barrio in Cavite were captured and 
the tendons back of the heels cut in such way as to cripple the men for life. One man in 
Oavite had his lips cut off and a woman in Bulacan had her ears similarly treated. 

Two secret-service men were hanged in Cavite and 2 murdered in Bulacan. The culprits 
in several of these cases have been captured. 

Such%act8 as these intinridate the people in the vicinity, and unless we can give them 
protection they will not give us information. 

TARGET PRACTICE. 

Aiming and sighting drill has constituted part of the drill in all provinces, and in two or 
three there has Iwen some target practice. The results are not highly satisfactory, but with 
the limited expenditure of ammunition no great results could be expected. The practice held 
included SOO yards. 



78 BEPOBT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



\< 



STUDT OF NATIVE DIALECTS. 

t is bdifived that an iaoentive sbouki be held out to thoae ooostabulary officers who 
quiJify themaelTes in the native dialects, by giving them a prize in money or an increase of 
monthly pay. The value of an officer is aLnost doubled who can converse freely with 
natives in the community where he k operating. 

PEKSOirirEL OF 0OV8TABULART OFFICERS AND PAT. 

The variety of duties which a coDstabulanr officer is required to perform is of such a 
varied nature that he ^ould be a man of intelligence, high en^irit, honest, conservative, and 
firm, but not facutal or cruel. Far more varied and delicate auties are required of him than 
of an army officer serving with troops. '' You can't make a silk puise from a sow's ear; " 
we must, therefore, get nd of unsuitable material and substitute men ol proper intellectual 
and moral fiber to properly perform these duties. Such men are not cheap, and if we get 
them and expect to keep them we must pav them oommensurate with the work reauired 
and equal to men of corresponding tvpe and equally important duties in other branches of 



tbegovemmeDt and in conMnereiaTlite. 

We are continually losing men by transfer to other bureaus, where they get more pay, and 
by resignation to accept more lucrative positions. 

Officers and men of both constabulary and scouts in the district have generally performed 
their duties with loyalty and discretion. Thevhave had much hard work, and liavo per- 
formed it cheerfully ana well. Tliis is shown by results which are tabulated in the appen- 
dbxes to Uiis report. The details have been reported upon in my quarterly reports. 

Conditions in the district have improved during the year materially, and while I feel that 
there is much left to be accomplishea I realize that there is nmch improvement. 

With less field work in future in pursuit of organized bands of outlaws we can turn our 
attentioB more to minor depredations sod break up petty robberies, gambling, and the steal- 
ing of aninuds. One of the great drawbacks that we will encounter in tnis will be the 
dishonesty of municipal officials. If we could get clean administration the rest would be 
easy. 

The paper work in the district c^ce has been arduous and the limited forces in the 
adjutant's and district supply offiisers' offices have had all they possibly could attend to. 
I am indebted to lieutenants Clausen, the adjutant, and Leonard, the supply officer, for 
efficient and loyal services in their respective departments. 

I Pei^ret to report that ill health has caused my 8tenojg;rapher, Mr. D. G. Dwyro, to tender 
his t^esignation for the purpose of returning to the United States. His services have been 
efficiently and faithfuUy performed. 

During the entire year I have commanded the first district and, in addition, from Decem- 
ber 23, 1903, to May 7, 1904, was acting as chief of constabulary. 

There has been some talk to the effect that scouts and constabulary arc at enmity with 
each other. Where such reports originated I am unable to say, but such has not been 
my observation, nor have I received more than one complaint on the subject. This was 
more of a personal nature, when one province appeared to be too small to hold a senior 
inspector and commanding officer of a company of scouts, both Irishmen. A warning to 
them that if their differences were not amicaoly settled at once they would both be assigned < 
to other stations had the desired effect. 

As a fact, most senior inspectors have emphasized the fact that they have received every 
aid from scout officers. 

It is but natural that the two oiganizations should work in harmony. Enlisted men 
of both organizations are drawn from the same source, and the officers from botli arc largely 
from the army, where many were warm personal friends. 

Whether the two organizations should be combined into one insular army is a question 
open to argument. There are good reasons for and against this amalgamation. The 
views of the writer on this subject have been submitted to the chief of constabulary. The 
present arrangement is accomplishing good results, as shown by tabulated appendices to 
this report, it can well be foreseen tnat we will, in addition to the Regular Army, always 
have to maintain in these blands an oivanization composed of natives, for a pecuhar class 
of work for which it is neither advisabk? n<Nr convenient to use the Regular Array. This 
organization must iJbo be officered by men who have learned by experience the peculiar 
and varied work which will devolve upon them. 

I am fully prepared to show that tne efficiency of scout organizations in the first district 
has been materially improved by the services which they have been called upon to perform 
since February, 1903, with the civil government, in assisting in maintaining the peace, in 
conjunction with the constabulary. Officers have become proficient in the multitudinous 
ditties wlucfa have devolved upon them through the best of schools, experience. 

The men have learned to be self-reliant and capable of caring for themselves in the field. 
The noncommissioned officers have learned the duties of scouting, making arrests, and 
handling prisoners while keeping within the confines of the civil laws. 



BEPOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



79 



Both officeiB vad men are in good phyucal condition and hardened by field service. 
The benefits of this were brought especially to my notice last winter, while operating in 
the field in ilocoe Snr, where scout organizations were thrown together which had, and had 
not, been performing this duty. 

I wish also to call attention to the fact that two officers with a company , while performing 
this duty, are insufficient. The companies must necessarily serve much of tne time in 
detachments away from the headquarters of the company. Such detachments of native 
troops should be commanded by an officer. 
These companies should, by all means, have three officers. 

Again, many of the scout officers have been serving in the Philippines from four to five 
years, and are deserving of a leave. * 

If these companies were organiaed into battalions and those of same battalion assi^ed 
to contiguous sections of country, and majors appoint^ to take command and supervision 
of same, it is believed that the effect would be most beneficial. 
Very lespectfuUy, 

W. S. Scott, 
Colonel and First Assistant Chief ^ Philippine Cfmstahuhmji, 

Commanding First Ihitrict. 
The Aojutant-Gekebal Philippines Constabulart, 

Manila, P. I, 

Arms and ammunition captured hy ihe Philippine Scouts in first eonstdbulanf di^rid. 



Company. 


Rifles. 


Shot- 
gunfl. 


Revolv- 
•n. 


nltioo. 


Boloa. 


First 


16 
8 
3 

14 
4 
1 
3 


- 


4 
2 
1 
6 


1,850 
105 




Filth 






Seventh 




5 


Thirteenth 




3,856 




Nineteenth 


1 
1 


1 


Twenty-^rst -. . 


2 


31 


Twcn ty-flf th 


40 5 


Twenty-ninth , - - - , - - - - - - , , . ^ , . 




2 


50 









Total 


49 


2 


17 


5,932 


40 







Work accomplished by ths Philippine Scouts in the first oonstahulary district. 



Company. 


Maes 
covered, 
approx- 
hgnately. 


Engage^ 
ments. 


Outlaws 
kiUed. 


Outlaws 
wounded. 


Outlaws 
captured. 


Horses 
captured 

and re- 
covered. 


Carabaos 
captured 
and re- 
covered. 


fint 


1,480 
1,773 
260 
2,051 
09 
1.797 








22 

41 

7 

79 


5 




Socond 




i 




Third 




1 
1 








Fifth 








7 


glxth 










Seventh 








28 
31 


24 

7 








5 


11 


6 


BIcventb 


358 
2,753 
1.000 
1,651 
2,352 

319 
1,410 
1,423 

850 






Thirteenth 




23 
4 

1 


7 


35 
12 
9 
4 






Nineteenth 


2 

1 






Twenty-flrst . , r . , . r 









Twentv-second 








Twenty-third 


1 
2 

4 










T wen ty-fif th 


12 


8 


2 
4 
20 


11 
13 


4 


Twenty-ninth 


» 


Forty-fifth 



















Total 


19,340 


10 


47 


26 


274 


60 


25 



80 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Ariides captured and recovered by the municipal police in the first constabulary district. 



Province. 


Rlflee. 


Carbines. 
1 


Shot- 
guns. 


Revolv- 
ers. 

6 
3 


Bolos. 


Horses. 
12 


Cara- 
baos. 


Bulls. 


Batangas 


1 
4 
5 






<•! * 


Bulacan 




6 


1 


Laguna 








! 


Pangasinan 




2 












TaiSc.. ...:::.:::::: 


1 
3 














Zambales 


















1 












Total 


14 


1 


2 


9 


6 


12 ! A 


4 











Work accomplished by subdivisions of information in Cavite and Baiangas provinces. 

Captured: 

Rifles 4 

Revolvers 16 

Bolos 4 

Shotgun 1 

Rounds of ammunition 5, 000 

Captured and recovered: 

Carabaos 61 

Horses 11 

Captured and convicted: 

Outlaws 107 



Property captured and recovered by the constabulary in the first constabulary district. 















Province. 
















1 

& 

11 


1 

17 

1 
9 
12 

4 


16 

'*"3* 
12 


1 

5 

8 

1 

2 

10 


f-t 


1 
15 


i 

1 

1 


1 


1 

'4' 
5 
4 

22 

50 
13 


1 

en 

13 
2 
3 

14 
8 


1 

11 

1 


1 


3 


Rifles 


18 


4 


8 

1 
1 
4 


7 


129 


Carbines 


8 


Shotguns 


1 
7 


34 
16 


4 
10 


3 


60 


Revolvers 

Daggers 


5^ 


1 


95 

17 


Lances 












8 
7 


61 
2 




14 


19 


Bolos 1 


29 

820 

62 

8 

38 


7 

293 
5 


15 

87 
53 










94 


Ammunition | 
(rounds) ' 


518 
51 


120 


380 
1 




2,324 
198 


Horses ' 


1 


10 


Bulls ' 




, 


8 


Carabaos 




23 

1 
1 


110 


14 


44 




5 


"lA 


15 


50 


21 


334 


Carromatas 




1 


Bull carts 


















: 




1 


Brass cannons . . . 








1 










1 


' ' 


1 


Saddles 




















1 


1 


Qold watch and 
chain 


















I 






1 


Stolen church 
property (Phil- 
ippiDc currency) 


















150 






150 












...... 






' 











REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Miscellaneous report of the first constabulary district. 



8t 



Prisoners sentenced to less 

tbim 2 years , 

Prisoners sent to Bilibid 

Casualties: 

Constabulary- 
Killed 

Wounded 

Municipal police— 

KllTod 

Wounded 

Captured , 

Loss of arms: 

Constabulary- 
Carbines 

Shotguns 

Revolvers 

Municipal police— 

Rifles 

Shotguns , 

Revolvers 

Cases awaiting trial 

Convictions 

Acquittals. 



Province. 



Investigations pending | 1 

Descriptive reports of individ- I 

uals made ' 35 

Escort<i furnished 13 

Deserters apprehended 

Crimes reported i 

Miles of tel^rapb or telephone 

line in provinces 

Enlisted men marked sick dur- 
ing the year 

Cases sickness treated in hos- 
pitals 

Prisoners confined in provin- 
cial Jails during fiscal year . . , 
Prisoners sentenced to more 
than 2 years , 



32 
120 



31 



24 



110 



110 
14 



I 



9 I 3 
17 I 2 

8 ! 10 
13 i 3 



4 '.... 
09 , 34 






4 


117 


63 


6 


86 


9 


1 


68 


3 


17 





49 
115 
20 



22 

1 
3 

156 

1,817 



171 
14 



c I 



01 i 
69 



•3 ^ 



15 
95 



1". 



3 4 

70 I 12 
16 26 ! 



18 I 
1 
14 

200 

185 

94 

85 

15 



11 






11 
25 





119 




30 


207 


922 




1,121 


4 


121 


19 


2 


6 



347 
649 



20 
15 

2 
3 
1 

24 
2 
12 

<^ 
11 
2 
296 
679 
225 
34 

147 

352 

13 

57S 

1,421 
3,403 
1,S22 
1,688 
658 



Report of expeditions by the Philippines constahylary in the first constabulary district. 



n 



Expeditions ' 40 

Miles covered by pa- ! 
trols and expedi- i 

tions 2,139 

Engagements 4 

Outlaws killed 14 

Outlaws wounded . . 4 

Outlaws captured . .' 16 



270 



5,993 
35 
84 
34 



WAR 1904— VOL IIJ- 







§ 


V 


i 


5 


271 


1,400 


3,703 


2,200 


1 


42 


4 


20 


4 


30 


121 


331 



1-1 



297 



5,50) 



Province. 



36 



1,721 2,476 
1 
10 ! 



8 


7 


12 


18 


12 


5 


45 


24 



151 .1,077 



102 



137 



3,527 .9,7}^ 5,a'» 8,220 



45 , 



4 

10 1 



46 I 



106 



2,578 



59 



3,849 



12,875 
111 
191 
94 
931 



82 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

BEPOBT OF THE SECOVB DI8IBICT, PHnJPPINSS C0N8TABULABT. 

Headquartebs Second District, Philippines Constabui^ry, 

Lucena, P. /., June 25, 1904. 
Sir: In compliance with your telegraphic instructions of May 19, 1904, 1 have the honor 
to submit the following annual report on the operations, occurrences, and conditions in 
this district for the fiscal year ending June dO, 1904: 
The second district, Philippines (>)iistabulary, at present comprises the provinces of — 

Estimated 
population. 

Albay 250,000 

Ambos Caniarines 240, 000 

Masbate 45,000 

Mindoro 50,000 

Romblon 60,000 

Soraogon 140,000 

Tayabas 215,000 

Total 1,000,000 

Throughout the year the undersigned has been in actual command of the district. Capt. 
Edward R. Hig^ns served as district adjutant from June 1, 1903, to October 17, 1903; 
First Lieut. WTb. Wright, from October 18, 1903, to January 17, 1904, and First Lieut. 
Charles D. Boone, from Januanr 18, 1904, to the present date. Capt. Justice M. Wheate, 
surgeon, throughout the year nas served as district surgeon, and Second Lieut. Guy C. 
Foote as district supply officer from September 7, 1903, to the present date. Charles S. 
Darling has served smco March 17, 1904, as stenographer, and James B. McKowen as 
derk smce December 6, 1903. All the officers and employees on duty at district head- 
quarters have shown themselves to be conscientious, capable, and most zealous in the 
performance of their duties. 

At the time of rendering my annual report of June 30, 1903, the entire district, barring 
the two island provinces of Romblon and Masbate, was in a very badly disturbed condi- 
tion. In Mindoro the band of Gasic was still in the bosques, with no immediate prospects 
of its capture; on the main island of Luzon, Tayabas rrovince continued to have a few 
scatterea grouns of ladrones; Avila was hovering along the northern Camarines border; 
and Albay had four distinct and separately organized bands within its territory, these, in 
the order of their importance, being those of Simeon Ola, Ixizaro Toledo, Agustfn Saria, 
and Titio Sacula. There were in addition a few small bands along the northern portion of 
Sorsogon Province, but this portion was also badly overrun by the Albay ladrones. 

The following is a synopsis of the more important events by provinces: 



On June 30, 1903, nearly all the towns of this province were rcconcentratcd, and both 
the constabulary and scouts were constantly engaged in an active campaign against the 
four large ladrone bands within her borders. These numbered over 1,000 men, mostly 
armed with bolos and with about 150 firearms, according to our information. Ladronism 
had so long been rampant in the province of Albay and had assumed such stupendous pro- 
portions, especially liter the laorones had captured the 47 Springfield carbines in the 
hands of the volunteers and constabulary of Oas, that the leaders had become most arro- 
gant, and, on account of their successes, had won over the sympathy and secured tlie 
cooperation of nearly the entire pro\'incc. 

In March, 1903, Col. D. J. Baker, jr., assistant chief, Philippines Constabulary, was sent 
to Albay, and after a careful examination of the situation ordered and enforced a recon- 
centration of the affected towns. Shortly after Colonel Baker's arrival his troops succeeded 
in killing Miiximo Rejel, one of OLi's favorite officers, who had conceived and executed 
the assault on the town of Oas. Upon relieving Colonel Baker of command I informed 
myself as to his arrangements, in order that by adhering to them as closely as possible the 
natives could see that our policy was not a vacillating one. I first arrived m Albay in 
June, 1903. 

Reconcentration, as initiated in Albay by Colonel Baker and carried out by me, was tlio 
only system by which the situation in that province could have IxHjn handled, and I was 
very fortunate indeed to find it under such perfect headway under my predecessor when I 
assumed charge. With the comparatively small number of troops at our disposal, with the 
extent of temtorv and the large numl)er of towns to be covered, and considering the supe- 
rior strength of the enemy, it will be seen that the reconcentration could be such only in 
name. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 83 

One pntlemui, Doctor Dau^rty, who had reoentlv arrived in the Philippines from the 
States for the purpose of independently investigating the conditions in these islands, arrived 
at Albay under the natural impression that tliere must he a great deal of sufTering attendant 
upon any reconoentration. I invited him to go up the line in such company as he mi^t 
select, with permission to investigate into everything, and requested him to report to me 
any case of starvation which could have been avoid^ or any case of abuse. He reported 
none whatever. If anyone Vnffend from hunger, he had only himself to blame, as arrange- 
ments were made by which aD the people in any of the concentrated towns could work on 
the 'roads and receive more than a sumcient quantitv of rice for their subsistence. Con- 
sidering that towns with a population of 15,000 seldom had a garrison of 100 men, the 
impossibility of establishing a 'dead line" or cordon about any such town can readilv be 
seen. The rcconcentration was enforced mainly by scouring the immediate vicinity of the 
towns by smaO patrols, and arresting all who were found beyond the prescribed limits. 
There was no merciless shooting down of defenseless people, even when tncy went beyond 
limits; they were simply arrested when possible and sent before the courts. 

The object of this reconcentration was to prevent the ladrones from receiving supplies 
and assistance from the people of the barrios, and it was the only means by which this 
could have been accompushed. The moment Oli surrendered the reconcentration was 
raised and the people permitted to return to their homes. 

At my urgent request Vice-Oovemor Wright and Commissioner Tavera visited the prov- 
ince of Albay during the fore part of the month of July, 1903, and promptly dispelled many 
illusions the people had held in regard to the treatment tliey might expect. Until this time 
they imagined tnat any complaints they made to the insular authorities regarding the con- 
duct of tne campaign would be believed and that the officer in charge of operations would 
be relieved whenever they so requested. As a direct and immediate result of the visit of 
Governor Wright and Commissioner Tavera there was a marked difference in the attitude 
of the more influential people, and it was apparent that they finally realized that they could 
hope for nothing until ''bandolensmo" had been stamped out, and that indifference on 
their part was considered equivalent to sympathizing with the bandits. 

During October and November, 1902, an armistice of forty days was granted Ola, with 
a suspension of hostihties, which afforded him an opportunity to recruit and recuperate. 
About the middle of November Major Garwood had a conference with him, which resulted 
only in a resumption of hostihties. In his captured correspondence Ola refers to this con- 
ference as an event during which nothing of importance took place and which he had par- 
ticipated in solely for political purposes. During the following February the bandits nad 
secured at Oas ihe 47 carbines before alluded to, and with other small captures had increased 
their forces until it had attained the size previously mentioned. 

The first really important and decisive ei^agement of the campaign after my arrival 
took place at tlie town of Jovellar. This town was garrisoned by a detachment of the 
Thirty-first Company, Philippine Scouts, and on July 15 was attacked by the major por- 
tion of Ola^s entire band, numbering 60 guns and 250 bolomen. At the time of the attack 
the town was defended by only 24 scouts, under Sergt. Nicolas Napolis, with a very limited 
quantity of ammunition. F(V three hours this litt& band stood off the persistent attack 
of twelve times their number, and I know of no instance in which native troops, commanded 
by a native noncommissioned c^Scer, exhibited equal skill and bravery during an engage- 
ment of this magnitude. When their ammunition was nearly exhausted, Sergeant Napolis 
resetted to a ruse in order to deceive the attackers as to his really critical condition. Ho 
had two of his men make a dash for an adjoining house and brin^ back a candle box. Wlien 
the men had returned, the scouts made a great pretense of breakup open this box, as though 
for additional ammunition, at the same time defying the enemy and oaring them to advance. 
This caused a lull in the attack, and in the meantime Lieutenant Sutherland, with a detach- 
ment of 25 scouts, and Lieutenant Sommer, with an equal number of const abularv, appeared 
on the scene and completely routed the attacking party, driving them in a demorahzed 
condition to the hills. They left 15 dead on the field, and afterwards confessed to having 
had 20 killed and 30 wounded. During this engagement the gallant defenders unfoitu- 
nately lost 1 killed and 2 wounded. After his surrender Ohi told me he had never dreamed 
of encountering such a stubborn resistance and that he expected a bloodless victory. He 
stated that the scouts throughout the attack scoffed at them and dared them to come on. 
Sergeant Napolis, I uiulerstand, is to receive a certificate of merit for his magnificent con- 
duct on this occasion. 

Taking advantag|p of the demoralized condition of OlA's band after the Jovellar fight, I 
diminished the size of our field detachments, in order that the number of such mi^t be 
increased. By this means the territory was much more completely covered and more 
thoimighly scoured, and the ladrones wore so constantly harrsssed tfiat they became dis- 
couraged and completely worn-out. This system soon l>cgan to l)e&r fruit tn the rapidly 
increasing surrenders of bolomen, of whom nearly 300 surrendered lo Lieutenant Paegelow 
at Guinobatan ak>ne. 



84 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

On August 4 Sergeant Japon and 25 constabulary, while in camp, were attacked by 
Olii's bolomen, who suffered a severe defeat, leaving 15 dead on the field. On August 10 
the same sergeant struck Ohi's band and killed 12, 1 constabulary soldier being wounded 
in the cheek during the engagement. Shortly after this fight Sergeant Japon was promoted 
to subinspector. August 15 Lieutenant McCIoud, with 9 constabulary, had a series of 
little engagements with ladrones, killing 6 and capturing 4. On this same date Lieutenant 
Carothers, constabulary, engaged the band of Tito SacuJa, killing 3 of them. On the 18th 
Lieutenant McCloud, with a detachment of constabulary, surprised and completely routed 
a band of ladrones near Buena Vista, killing 23 and capturing 20. On August 24 Sub- 
inspector Japon and 30 constabulary engaged Ohi's band between Molabos and Buena 
Vista, killing 23 bolomen and capturing 1 pnsoner and 1 rifle. On September 15 Sen»eant 
Short, with a constabulary detachment, defeated Toledo, killing 4 ladrones, capturing 1, 
and capturing 4 guns. 

As a result of the Jovollar fight the spirit of our opponents seemed to be broken, and 
the remarkably small number of casualties among the scouts and constabulary was due 
to the half-hearted resistance of their enemies. Alter these successful engagements it was 
practically impossible to force the ladrones to fight at all. They were frequently surprised 
and many killed, wounded, and captured, but they did no more fighting worth mentioning. 

In my experience I have never seen such an aggressive lot of bolomen as were those of 
Olil. They invariably formed his outposts, andcovered such a large front that it was 
almost impossible to surprise his riflemen. On the offensive they could also be used to 
great advantage in the thick hemp fields of Albay. When these bolomen commenced to 
surrender the outpost duty fell upon the riflemen, and the heavy strain of guard duty 
soon broke them down. Nearly all of the men in the different bands when they surrendered 
were emaciated and covered with tropical sores, some of them having ulcers on their legs 
into which a man's fist could be thrust. 

Toward the end of September I permitted Eligio Arboleda, the newly appointed presi- 
dents of Guinobatan, and a cousin of Sime^'n Old, to enter into communication with the 
latter, whom I believed by this time to have been whipped into a reasonable mood. This 
culminated in his exprcjssing a desire for a conference with any representatives I might 
send out. I therefore designated Don Ramon Santos (who is now governor of Albay), 
the aforementioned prcsidente of Guinobatan, and Lieutenants PacgeTow and Pyle,of the 
scouts. Anticipating Ohl's request for an armistice for the purpose of assembling his men, 
such as had been gi anted him in the preceding November, I directed my agents to inform 
him that they could enter into no discussion whatever; that absolutely no terms would 
be granted or considered, except an immediate and unconditional surrender, and that if 
he did not return to Guinobatan that very day I would, on their return without him, push 
the campaign with e%^en increased vigor. Having heard that the ladrones feared they 
would be drawn up and shot on the plaza in case they surrendered, I authorized my repre- 
sentatives to inform Obi that such was not the American custom; that all who surrendered 
would be well treated as prisoners, and that they would receive a fair trial before the courts, 
which alone could determine their fate. 

At 3 p. m. on September 25 Simeon Ola accompanied Lieutenants Paegelow and Pyle 
into Guinobatan, and there surrendered to me, with 28 men and 31 firearms, including 
all in his personal following on that date. After the surrender he promised to aid me in 
bringing in the rest of his followers, and this agreement he carried out to the letter. 

Immediately after his surrender I sent him out with Lieutenant Pyle to locate his colonels, 
Loamo and Palermo, whom they finally discovered encamped about 6 miles out of the town 
of Oas. The date set for Loamo 's surrender having passed without acxiomplishment 
and not knowing what insane ideas might have taken possession of him and his followers, 
I started out alone with Ramon Santos and one guide to ascertain the cause of delay and 
to force the i.ssue. As Governor Santos traveled in a bull cart and I was mounted on an 
American horse, with the guide on a pony, we naturally reached the camp about 3 miles 
ahead of the governor, whom we met on our return. I found that Lieutenant Pyle had set 
out for Ligao some time previous, accompanied by Colonel Palermo, who had Seen badly 
wounded at Jovellar, and who was still suffering from his wound. Ohi was with Loamo, 
and, immediately after meeting them the entire band surrendered to me, with 33 guns, 
and returned with me to Ligao, where they were disarmed. This took plac43 on October 5. 

The following also surrendered to me on the dates and at the places specified: October 2, 
at Ligao, Capt. Hermencgildo Repoberbio, with 5 men and 5 guns; October 13, at Guino- 
batan, Col. Lazcro Toledo, with 13 men and 14 guns; October 23, at Ugao, Maj. Teofilo 
Bobis, of the band of Augustin Saria, with 3 guns. 

In addition to these surrenders, Major Camposano surrendered to Lieutenant Pyle on Octo- 
ber 4 in the vicinity of Ligao, with 14 guns, and on October 16 Col. Tito Sacula surrendered 
to Lieutenant Boone, Fourteenth Company of scouts, at Polangui, with 20 men and 6 guns. 

These surrenders ended all organized ladronism or insurrection in the province of Albay, 
and there remained out only Augustin Saria on the Camarines-Albay border, with 8 guns, 
3 of which have since been captured, and the larger portion of his men captured or killed. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 85 

• 

The situation in AHwy, which reRultcd in one of the n.ost succcfpful end extensive 
ladrone movements since the end of the insurrection, was peculiar, and for a long time 
its serioaoness was not appreciated. It is now understood that it oiiginated in a perBonal 
quarrel between Simc6n Oht and Cirilo Jausian. When Oh'i was an imurrecto major, it 
is stated he burned Jausian's house to perpetrate a personal revenge, and that when the 
insurrectos surrendered, Jausian, who was president e of Guinobatan, proceeded to get 
even, which resulted in Ohl's taking to the woods and gathering together a few kindred 
spirits who had concealed guns. Toledo was shortly afterwards released from jail, resur- 
rect<?d some guns which he had buried, and joined in the movement, although he was always, 
to a certain extent, independent of Oht. The financial condition in Albay never justified 
such an uprising, and the prisoners all maintained that they were satisfied with the American 
Government, but afraid of the vengeance of some of the local officials. I doubt if many 
really knew why they had joined in the movement. Throughout the campaign I impressed 
upon the peonle that we were waging a war against brigandage ; that although Ola's men 
called themselves "insurrectos" they would not be granted Wligerents' rights, and that 
when captured they would be held as criminals and not as prisoners of war. 

As an anec^lote of Ohl, I would relate that during the campaign it was reported that he 
had an infallible ''antin^-anting," and that by looking into this cnarm he could tell at once 
if troops were approaching. After his surrender I a^ed him about this, and he produced 
an incandescent electric-hght bulb, stating that when he held this bulb in his nand the 
wires vibrated rapidly if soldiers were near, and that othei*wise there was no movement, 
adding that by its means he always verified the reports of his outposts. I explained to 
liim that I feared his hand trembled somewhat whenever he heard that constabulary or 
scouts were approaching, and that otherwise it was more steady. He replied that this was 
possible, but that anyway the bulb possessed wonderful properties as an " anting-anting." 

In addition to the constabulary, I had under my command during the Albay campaign 
the Tenth. Fourteenth, Twentieth, Twenty-sixth, Twenty-seventh, Thirty-first, Thirty- 
second, Thirty-third, Thirty-eighth, and Forty-second Companies, Philippine Scouts, 
stationed in the three provinces ot Ambos Camarines, Albay, and Sorsogon, and a special 
report will be rendered on the efiiciency of the officers belonging to thei^e companies, except- 
ing the Twentieth, Twenty-seventh, and Thirty-eighth, which are no longer on duty with 
the civil government. As a rule, the scouts and constabulary worked in perfect harmony 
during the continuation of operations. 

During the entire year there were about 45 engagements in the province of Albay, result- 
ing in the killing of about 225 ladroncs and the capture or surrender of about 900 others, 
with 130 firearms. 

The work of Capt. Harvey P. Nevill as senior inspector during the Ohl campaign stamped 
him as a iDost superior ofiicer, both in the field and along administrative lines. His able 
and energetic suDordinates were Captains Fletcher and Swann, Lieutenants Taulbee, 
Corfield, Gait, Scott, Kellermeyer, Kellogg, Fawcett, Coleman, Ward, Neil, and Sommer, 
and Subiaspectors Bactat and Japon. Captain Nevill has since been transferred to Cebu, 
and Captain Swann is showing himself to oe a worthy successor. 

The scout officers and companies that participated in the above-mentioned cainpaign 
were Lieutenants Koch and Pyle, of the Tenth Company; Lieutenants Boone and Baker, 
of the Fourteenth Company; Lieutenants Mosely and McElderly, of the Twentieth Com- 
pany; Lieutenants Fallow and Rodgers, of the Twenty-sixth Company; Lieutenants 
Covcll and Sutherland,* of the Thirty-first Company; Lieutenants Wray and Drake, of the 
Thirty-second Company; Lieutenant Abbott, of the Thirty-eighth Company, and lieu- 
tenants Roeder and Parrott, of the Forty-second Company. AH of these companies and 
officers rendered most valuable service, and the oflScers, as previously stated, will be reported 
upon individually in a separate report. 

That the success of the campaign was due to the combined efTorts of all of the offices and 
men concerned, both constabulary and scouts, is shown by the following copy of a resolu- 
tion of the provincial board of Albay: 

Be it resolved by the provincial hoard of the province of Albay, That a vote of thanks of this 
body be, and hereby is, extended to Col. H. U. Bandholtz, Philippines Constabulary, for the 
excellent services rendered by him and the organizations under his command to the province 
in the suppression of bandolerismo and ladronism that for several months have disturbed 
the peace of the province. 

A. U. Betts, Governor, 
[Seal o( Albay Province.] CuAS. A. REYNOLDS, Treasurer. 

W. A. Crossland, Supervisor, 

That the people of Albay Province have returned in earnest to their peace-time pursuits is 
demonstrated by the fact that the exportation of hemp from that province since Ola's sur- 
render exceeds that for any equal period in the history of the province. 



86 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

AMBO0 CAMARINES. 

During the operations in Albay Province, the province of Ambos Camarines naturally 
suffered, e^)ecially along its southern border, which had been infested mainly by Tito 
Socula, whose surrender has very materially eased the situation in that section. 

A ladrone leader named Pablo Avila has for a long time carried on depredations on the 
Tayabas-Camarines border, and on the 19th of October he succeeded in entering the town of 
Ra^ay (of which he is understood to be a native ), killed the wife of the presidente and also 1 
policeman, and captured 7 Remington shotguns and 2 revolvers. This trouble is understood 
to be purely a local i^air, and, as is frequently the case, was the result of a petty feud 
between the presidentes of Ragay and Avila. Since then I have had the Thirty-third Com- 
pany of scouts at Daet and the Thirty-fourth Company at Ragay. They and the con- 
stabulary of the province have scoured the country thoroughly, have captured 5 of the guns 
and 1 revolver, killing 16 ladrones and capturing 10. 

At present the scout companies mentioned are operating along the Tayabas-Camarines 
border, and the Forty-sec^na Company of scouts, combined with the constabulary of Albay 
and Camarines, are operating against Saria on the boundary of those two provinces. The 
latter has recently sulTercd severely from surprises by the constabulary, and has been 
committing no depredations. 

Captain Griffitos, the present senior inspector, has shown himself to be thoroughly 
equipped for the position, and is rapidly cleaning up the disturbed sections, being ably 
seconded in his work by Lieutenants Fawcett, McCioud, Neil, Schuetz, Butler, and Sommer. 

The Thirty-third and Tliirt^-fourth Companies <^ scouts, under Lieutenants Davis and 
Baker, and Holtman and White, respectively, have been stationed in this province for the 
lust few months and have initiated a very aggressive campaign against the ladrones of 
Camarines Norte. 

MASBATE. 

This province throu^out the year has been very quiet and with practically no di8turl>- 
anccs. 

On April 2, 1904, Sergeant Moscarc, with a detachment of constabulary, accompanied by 
Presidente Charles Babst, of the pueblo of Cataingan, captured 5 Cebu ladronrs, including 
the leader, Marcos Negapatan, who was killed while attempting to escape. 

Captain Collett, as senior inspector, and Lieutenant Lucas, as supply officer, have per- 
formed their duties efficiently and satisfactorily. 

MINDOBO. 

This province since the termination of the insurrection had never been cleared of its 
ladrone element, and a large band under a leader named Gasic had infested the most populous 
section of the island ever since American occupation. 

On July 19 Lieutenant Holtman, with a detachment of the Thirty-fourth Company of 
scouts, struck Gasic 's band, inflicting upon it a very severe blow, killing 20 ladrones and 
capturing 20 guns. 

After tnis ^binspector Basa laid a trap ior Gasic, as a rrsult of which he and Lieutenant 
Gilsheuser, on November 11, captured Gasic and his followers, with 17 guns and 2 revolvers. 
This was the death blow to ' ' bandolerismo' ' in Biindoro. 

During the year there were captured in the province of Mindoro about 50 ladrones and 42 
guns. 

Captain Fletcher, who captured the **Dos Hermanos" mutineers, and who alone in a 
personal combat killed several Albay ladrones in the spring of 1903, has been senior inspector 
of Mindoro throughout the year, and has been characteristically successful and efficient. 
Lieutenants Gilsheuser and Basa have also rendered conspicuous services. 

Lieutc-nants Holtman and White, of the Thirty-fourth Company of scouts. Lieutenants 
Cheatham and Allen, of the Seventeenth Company, and Lieutenants Bennett and Morris, 
with the Forty-first Company, have all renderea valuable services in this province, and these 
officers will he reported upon separately. 



During the year there have been no operations whatever in the island of Roinblon. 

When en route to assume command in Albay, I stopped at liomblon to investigate into 
reports of an uprising which was feared, and found as a result of my investigation that the 
fears were absolutely groundless. 

There have been captured, hov/evcr, about 14 petty thieves, who, in larger provinces, 
might have organized into ladrones. 

Lieutenant Mannison, as senior inspector, has ably and successfully commanded the 
Aomblon constabulary. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 87 

SOBSOOON. 

The northern portion of Soraogon, being in close proximity to Albay, naturally suffered 
from the ^rations in the latter, and Toledo's band frequently visited the neighborhood of 
Donsol. His surrender, however, and Lieutenant Kellermeyer'a excellent wore in destroy- 
ing the small bands in the northeast portion of the province, have completely cleared up the 
atmosphere, and Sorsogon to-day is in a very quiet condition. 

Captain Marshall has but recently entered upon the duties of senior inspector, but has so 
far given perfect satisfaction. Lieutenant Quinn, as supply officer and acting senior inspec- 
tor, has rendered most efficient services. 

TATABA8. 

During my abflence in Albay a notorious bandit '^cabccillo" named Mariano Leoncsta, 
who had been one of the organizers in Albay, but who was driven out of that province by 
Olu for having stolen from the ladrones themselves, succeeded in gettinjg together a few 
followers and raided the town of Gumaca, capturing the arms of the municipal police, who 
gave them up without a struggle. He afterwards raided the town of Catanauan in a like 
manner. 

On my return to Tayabas from Albay I had the Tenth Company of scouts transferred to 
Sariaya, the Thirty-first Company to Atimonan, the Thirty-second Company to Calaoag, 
and the Seventeenth Company toGuinayangan. These, in conjunction with the constabu- 
lary, operated so successfully against the band of Leonesta (who frequently goes under the 
name of Roldan), that his men have been completely dispersed and nearly all of the guns 
recaptured. At last reports Leonesta, with a few followers, had returned to Camarines 
Sur. Later the town of Alabat, on the island of the same name, was raided, but by a differ- 
ent band, and the police promptly surrendered their guns, as is usual in such cases. These 
guns also have been recaptured. 

I wish in this connection to particularly invite attention to the conduct of First-Class 
Private Pedro Jordan, who, whue on an expedition with 6 companions, discovered a large 
band of about 50 ladrones eating their dinner in the vicinity of Mount Susa, near the town 
of Catanauan. Concealing his men. Private Jordan opened fire upon the ladrones, who, 
being surprised, immediately took to flight. Five of them were killed, and Private Jordan 
captured 4 guns. For his conduct on this occasion Private Jordan was promoted to 
corporal. 

One of the worst sections of this entire district is that triangular portion of Tayabas 
Province which abuts upon the provinces of Batangas and Laguna. During the insurrec- 
tion this was one of the worst holes in southern Luzon. Lieutenant Pyle has been stationed 
there for some months with a detachment of the Tenth Company of scouts, and has practi- 
cally ended the thriving business in cattle stealing which had formerly been carried on by 
some of the more influential people. I am convinced that to this day there are a number 
of guns still concealed in that section of Tayabas, and in the neighboring provinces of 
Batangas and Laguna, but have faith in Lieutenant Pyle's ability to eventually locate 
them. 

Maj. J. B. Murphy has served as senior inspector throughout the year, has b^en most 
active and successful in field work, and is exceptionally capable, eneigetic, and well qualified 
for his position. Capt. G. K. Aimstrong has rendered highly efficient and satisfactory 
services as supply (micer, and Captain Sorensen, Lieutenants Keesey, Coleman, Ream, 
Steiton, Schroeoer and Duval, and subinspectors Puno, Castro, and Campos, have also done 
excsllent work. 

For the last six months the Tenth, Seventeenth, Thirty-first, Thirty-second, and Forty- 
sixth Companies of scouts have been stationed in Tayabas, under Lieutenants Koch and 
Pyle, Cheatham and Allen, Covell and Sutherland, Wray and Drake, and Weusthoff and 
ijetcalf . As previously stated, the officers mentioned will be reported upon separately. 

During the entire year there have been, in round numbers, in this district 80 engagements 
with ladGrone bands, resulting in the capture or surrender of 210 firearms, the killing of 3o0 
armed enemies of the government, and the turning over to the courts for trial of 1 ,200 others. 

While the district is at present the quietest in its history, I do not feel that vigilance 
can for a moment be relaxed. I estimate that there are still at least 50 firearms scattered 
and many concealed throughout the interior, and that there is enough ladron material 
in any on& of the provinces to'oiganize a good sized movement whenever there are arms 
or a favorable opportunity. It will take many years to destroy the bandit microbe in 
the system of the ordinary "tao," although the better classes already appreciate the differ- 
ence between ladronism and insurrection. 

Attention is invited to the fact that there arc no indications what-ever that any of the 
organizations in this district were ever in communication or connected w^ith the Manila 
promoters or societies. 

At present all of the provinces are remarkably quiet, and the people are devoting them- 
selves to their usual peaceful pursuits. In Albay and Sorsogon the hemp trade should 



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^/ and Js^LK/an/ Chi^f, Philippine Cof^:'- ^I- 1>^^^^^ 
Jfaniia, P, I, 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION* 



89 



Poiia garriaoned by military and constabulary, horses ovmed by constabulary , and condition of 
stores in the second constabulary district. 





Garrisoned 
posts. 


Animals. 


Harnesses. 


Saddles. 


Con<Iition of 
- stores. 


Province. 


Mili- 
tary. 


Con- 
steb- 
ulary. 


1 Mules, 
Ponies, Chino 
all and 
kinds. Amer- 
ican. 


Sin- 
gle. 


Dou- 
ble. 


Pack. 
6 


McClel- 

lan and 

Whitney. 


1 

Commis- Ord- 
sary. fiance. 


Albay 


8 
7 


6 
3 
2 
4 

1 
4 
11 




6 
2 


3 


4 
1 


10 
28 
9 
4 
10 
17 
33 


Poor ^ Fair. . 


Ambos Camarines 

Ma8bat« 


Good... Good, 
do Do. 


Mindoro 


2 


i 










.. .do... Do. 


Romblon 













....do... 
....do... 
....do... 


Do. 


Sorsogon 


4 

9 










8 


Do. 


Tayaoas 


23 




2 


2 


Do. 






Total 


o31 


31 


24 


8 


5 


7 


9 


111 










1 



a This total includes the post at San Juan de Bccboc, Batangas. 
Strength in fnen and arms, second constabulary district. 





Second 

district 

head- 




Province. 










Ambos 
Albay. Cama- 
rines. 


Mas-! Mln- 
bate. 1 doro. 


Rom- 
blon. 


go^n. «l>-- 


Total. 


Strength: 

Colonels 


1 












1 


Majors 


1 










1 


1 


Captains 


1 
1 
1 


4' 

2 
2 

1 
1 


1 
1 
2 
2 


1 


1 


...... 


1 
3 


2 
2 
2 

1 
3 
1 
1 


8 


First lieutenants . 


8 


Second lieut-enants 


...... 


1 
3 

1 


10 


Third lieutenants 


1 


2 


12 


Subinspectors 




6 


Medical inspectors 




1 




1"^ ' 


3 


Telegraph inspect-ors 








......... 


2 










t i 






Total 


4 


11 


7 


2 1 6 


2 


6 1 13 

110 265 
1 3 


51 






Enlisted men 




181 
4 
1 


126 
2 


86 1 i::6 


77 


971 


Medical division 


10 


Telegraph division - - 


i 




1 








, 1 1 




Total 




186 


128 


86 126 


77 


111 ! 268 


982 


Arms: 

Rifles 

Shotguns 




279 
67 


12.5 
75 
112 
184 


lOS 

1 50 

100 1 93 
118 74 


23 
10 
73 
91 


6 
111 
143 
200 


"'84' 
367 
«7 


638 
397 


Carbines 




888 


Revolvers 




357 


1,281 



Losses in officers and men, second constabulary district. 





Second 
district 
head- 
quar- 
ters. 


Province. 






Albay. 


Ambos 
Cama- 
rines. 


Mas- 
bate. 


Min- 
doro. 


Rom- 
blon. 


Sor- 
so- 
gon. 


Tay. 
abas. 


Total. 


OflSccrs: 

Resigned 






3 
2 


1 


""2 


1 
1 


1 
3 

1 


3 

1 


9 


TraHsfermi 


2 


5 


16 


Dismissed 


1 


Enlisted men: 

Wounded in action 




3 

1 

6 

119 

9 










3 


Killed In action [ 














1 


Died of disease 1 


13 
126 
23 


2 
88 
11 


2 
19 

17 


1 
33 
9 


2 
82 
13 

1 


11 

219 

3 

1 


37 


Discharged 1 


686 


Transferred ' 


85 


Deserted ' 


2 


1 




1 









90 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Report or the Distbict Subqeon. 

Headquabters Second Distbict, Philippines C!onstabulabt, 

Office of the Distbict Subgeon, 

Lucena, June 30, 1904. 
Sib: I have the honor to make the following report of the work of the medical division 
in the second constabulaiy district for the year ending June 30, 1604: 

becapftulation. 

It is to be regretted that in a report of this nature I am unable to furnish accurate statis- 
tics relating to the cost of administration of the medical division in the district. This ina- 
bility is explained in the fact that district medical o£Bcers are neither disbursing nor auditing 
officers. This apncars to me to be a weakness in the administrative plan of the service. I 
have no means of Knowing how much money the various supply officers disburse on account 
of the medical division except by courtesy of the officer in replying to inquiries made. In 
endeavoring to estimate the cost of providing medical treatment and care for the constab- 
ulary, I have not been able to obtain data from all of the provinces, nor can I claim accuracy 
for the record of admissions to sick report in the remote stations. 

'A summary of expenditures by provinces, as far as can be ascertained, is as follows: 

Ambos Camarines: 

Rent of building..... P-IOO.OO 

Laundry (done by prisoners) 

Supplies purchased locally — 

Furniture, bedding, etc 49. 00 

Medicines and medical supplies IcO. 00 

Total 299.00 



Albay: 

Kent of building (building costing P'lOO per month, shared with constab- 
ulary headquarters, provincial supply officer, and hospital, estimated as 

share of hospital)..., 360.00 

Laundry 50.00 

Supplies purchased locally during campaign in Albay Province 1, 000. 34 

Total 1,410.34 

Masbate: Pro rata share of district supplies. 

Mindoro : Paid to military hospital for treatment to enlisted men of constabulary . 540. 00 

Romblon: Pro rata share of district supplies. 

Tayabas: 

Rent of building ^. . GOO. 00 

Laundry 60.00 

Supplies purchased locally — furniture and equipments 89. 50 

Total 749. CO 

These incomplete lists are of little value save to emphasize the faulty methods of the past 
and the necessity for adopting a system of reporting and recording all data that can be of 
future use to the constabulary. Lntil quite recently no reports of this nature were required 
of the medical division, and hence no measures were taken to secure them, and as a con.'^e- 
quence the reports of expenditures during the first half of the fiscal year are necessarily more 
or less inaccurate, in that the custom of the provincial supply officers, I am told, has been 
to pay many items of indebtedness incurred by the medical division from appropriations for 
" transportation,'' while others were paid under the head of "contingent," and in the limited 
time at mv disposal for the compiling of this report it has been impossible to have old records 
researched by the various supply officers to supply the desired data. 

It may be of interest to present this feature of maintenance of the medical division in 
another light, with a view to discover its utility and demonstrate its necessity from an 
economic standpoint. 

From recorded data acceptedly correct we find the following: 

Total admissions to sick report, hospitals and quarters 765 

Total numl)er days lost due to sickness 6, 792 

Averapje number days on sick report 8. 8 -f- 

Average number of days on sick report for each man in district . 67 -h 



REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 91 

• 
To this most be ad<kd a eonserraiiye estimated number of sick in quarters of which no 
accurate data has been kept by the detachment commanders in remote stations. The 
method employed in estimating this number is baaed upon the known per cent of death rate 
of cases in boapital. For example: There were 37 deaths recorded m the district during 
the year; 20 of this number occurred in hospital, while 17 occurred in stations not accessi- 
ble to hospitals. Now, of the 765 admissi<His to sick report of the taUe above 2.6 per cent 
died, and upon this basis of calculation there would appear to have been 1,406 admissions 
to sick repwt in the enture district. In reality, I am convinced that this method of calcu- 
lation is too conservative, for it is only the seriously sick that are brought from isolated 
stations to hospital, and the very great majority of cases occurring in such stations are not 
reported, and 1 believe it to be within reason to estimate the total number rightly classed 
as "admissioDs to sick report" at 1^500, with a total of 10,000 days kxit on account iA 
sickness. The totab woula then stand: 

Admissions to sick report 1 , SOO 

Days lost on account sickness 10, 000 

Average number days sick per man on sick report 6. 6 

Average number days sick for each man in the district 10 

Again, ss nearly accurate an estimate of expenses for the year on account of maintenance 
of tbB noedical division as can be herein reported is as follows: 

PCaSOSNEL. 

One district surgeon: Sala^ and allowances $1, 980. 00 

Three medical inspect4>r9: Salaries and allowances 3, 000. 00 

Nineteen enlisted men: Last half fiscal year,- 1, 7€0. 00 

Supplies: Medical supplies, including local purchases, rents, laundry, transpor- 

tetioa, etc / 2,2^0.00 

Total 9,020.00 

This can not be far wrong in estimating the entire expense of maintaining tlie medical 
division in th» district. Estimating the average strength of the district for tlie year to be 
1,100 officers and enlisted men, it wiO readily appear that the cost of providing for the actual 
and possible professional necessities of this district is less than $0 per man per year. When 
this IS compared to the sum necesMry to provide medical service for the Army of the United 
States we nnd it to be less than one-half the amount. 
Respectfully submitted. 

J. M. Wheatb, 
Captain and Surgeon, PhUippinea CcnstdbxUary, Dislrici Surgeim. 

The AwcTANT, Second Constabulary District, 

Lucena, P. I. 



BBPOBT OF THE THISD DISTBICT, FHILIPPINE8 COH8TAB17IABT. 

Headquabters Third District, Philippines Const abulart, 

Iloilo, Panay, June 30, 190^ 
Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report for the third district, Phil- 
ipptnes Constabulary, for the fiscal year ending June 30, li04: 

The foregoing chronology of events will give a fair idea of occurrences throughout the 
district which have affected directly public peace and order. By comparison with my 
annual report of a year ago it will be noted that there has been nn entire absence of any 
event or disc»t!er ci particular magnitude. 

The provinces of Surigao and Misamis were transferred on the 1st of October to the 
fifth district, and at that time both can be said to have been quiet and peaceful. Three 
days before this date occurred the piratical escajwide of Captain Herrman and Supply 
Officer Johnson, of Misamis. Supply OflRcer Johnson was found several hundred dollars 
short in his accounts, due to excessive drinking and gambling, and was still under inves- 
tigation when charges were preferred against Captain Herrman by Captain Green, for mis- 
conduct while senior inspector of the province of Bohol. The wild idea entered Herrmanns 
head to escape punishment by fleeing from the islands, and by taking advantage of John- 
son's condition induced him to rob the safe and attempt escape with him to Borneo. On 
the 27th of September Herrman and Johnson ouietly hired the launch Victoria, then in 
the harbor of Cagayan, compelling the master or the steamer Irene, which was also in the 



92 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION, 

harbor, to give them a supply of coal. With them were two privates of constahulary and 
a Spaniard, who was a passenger on the boat. They went to Balingao, on the opposite 
side of Iligan Bay, where the Spaniard, learning of their intention, made his escape. The 
captain of the boat was then compelled to go where ordered, and a start was made for 
Borneo, but the captain soon convmced them that he would have to obtain more fuel at 
once. They then proceeded to Bayauan, on the south coast of the island of Negros, and 
when Herrman ana Johnson went up the river to visit an old friend of the latter the cap- 
tain ran his launch on a sand bar, opened the sea valves, and flooded the vessel, making rei>- 
resentations to Herrman and Johnson upon their return that she had sprung a leak and 
that they could go no farther. The ruse appeared to work very well, and the two deserters, 
together with the two enlisted men, embarked in a barota and started up the west coast 
of Negros. Arriving at Asia their efforts to obtain a two-masted prao to carry them to 
Cagayancillo aroused the suspicions of one of the enlisted men, who up to this time believed 
the officers to l)e acting in the performance of their duties, and that they were going on an 
extensive expedition. Failing to influence his companion, he deserted the party and 
returned to Bayauan, where he reported to the presidente, while Herrman and Johnson 
and the other enlisted man embarked at Asia on a prao with six natives as crew and started 
for Cagayancillo. The captain of the prao objected to going on in the face of a severe 
storm which was approaching, and Herrman was compelled to threaten him and his crew 
with death if they did not proceed. Thev acquiesced, and the journey continued until 
about 8 o'clock the first evening. At thatliour Herrman, Johnson, and the soldier sought 
shelter from the rain beneath the canopy and all fell asleep. Herrman claims that John- 
son was supposed to have been on ^ard. Suddenly the native crew, attacking the three 
with bolos and daggers, .succeeded in mortally wounding Johnson and severely wounding 
Herrman and the enlisted man. As soon as Herrman could bring his revolver into play he 
killed four of the crew and compelled the others to jump overboard. As these two men 
have never been heard from it is presumed thev were drowned. Herrman guided the prao 
back to land, where he buried the mone3\ l!e then deserted the prao, leaving in it the 
dead body of Johnson and the wounded enlisted man. He made his way down the coast 
to Bayauan and started back into the hills. The natives who found the deserted prao 
sent word to the constabulary post of Sipalay, and a detachment was soon on the scene. 
The body of Johnson was buned on the beach and the prao with the wounded enlisted man 
was turned over to Lieutenant Conway, of the constabulary of Cabancalan, Negros. Herr- 
man was captured on the 14th of October, a few hours back of Bayauan, by Captain Haskell, 
Philippines constabulary. He is now serving a sentence of seventeen years in Bilibid. 
About 1 ,800 pesos of the money Herrman buried were recovered. 

The peace of the province of Samar has been menaced by a band of Pulajans,who roam 
about tne mountains between Calbiga and Borongan. The center of operations is the sitio 
of Magtaon. This band is headed by one De la Cruz, who has 9 rifles, and usually travels 
about with a force of 15 or 20 men. On February 13, Lieutenant McCrea, of Borongan, 
following up information, located De la Cruz some two hours out. At this time the Pula- 

t'ans numbered nearly 100, as the people of the surrounding country had been called together 
>y the leader. Lieutenant McCrea went out with a force of but 7 men, and when he 
attacked he had but 4 men with him. Although the Pulajans at this time had but 5 rifles 
they readily overpowered and killed Lieutenant McCrea and his 4 men. The 3 men who 
hadf been detached about half a mile back remained in the vicinity and watched the outlaws 
until the arrival of the constabulary and scouts the following dav, when another fight 
occurred, in which 1 scout was killed and 1 constabulary wounded. The Pulajans were 
dispersed and the bodies of Lieutenant McCrea and his 4 men recovered and taken to 
Boron^n. Numerous expeditions scouting the interior have since failed to come in con- 
tact with this band, although several bands of bolomen have been encountered and a few 
men killed. 

Aside from the protecting force on the Island of Biliran, the constabulary of Le3'te are 
concentrated in the northern section, with Jaro as the center. The Pulajan force of Juan 
Tomajo is occasionally heard from, and although numbers of his men have been killed and 
captured, yet the leader remains free to organize fresh bands, making the section unsafe. 
The Ormoc leader Papa Fau-stino was killed, together with 21 of his followers, on July 30, 
by Civilian Scout Connors. His fall cleaned up the west slope and no trouble occurred 
there until January 23, when Lieutenant Flores, operating from Dolores, in the mountains 
of Jaro, lost 3 men killed and 4 carbines in a fight with Pulajans. The barrios of Dolores 
and Valencia still contain garrisons of constabulary and are rapidly growing to be prosper- 
ous communities. A year and a half ago the majority of men in these barrios operated 
with the Pulajans, but they have proved themselves in the past year to l)e loyal supporters 
of the constabulary. The municipal police of Leyto are the most proficient of any prov- 
ince, due to the energy of the provincial governor. Major Borseth, of the constabulary. 

In Cebu the bands of Quintin and Adoy still hold forth in the mountains of Sudlum, 
about twelve houiy out from the town of Cebu. Although Lieutenant Luga captured 2 



RBP0RT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 93 

/ 
guns from these people in March last, and many of them have been killed, yet the leaders 
remain to furnish a refuge to lawless characters. 

With an increase of force in this province permanent posts will be established in the 
mountains. It has been asserted, and I give it considerable credence, that the existence 
and operations of the volunteers after the general operations of 1903 had broken up the 
movement had a tendency to keep alive the Pulajan agitation, because of the abuses of 
the volunteers creating new enemies and increasing the feeling between the people of the 
mountains and those of the towns. For this reason the volunteer organization has been 
allowed to die a natural death, and operations by them have been discouraged. 

The provinces of Bohol and Negros Oriental have been entirely without incident, and the 
people are exceedingly peaceful. 

The province of (Leiden tal Negros has been quite peaceful throughout the year, although 
there have been a few cases of carabao robbing. The famous Papa Isio, after more than a 
year in seclusion, sent a band of men to one of the outlying haciendas on the 14th of March, 
and taking the hacienderos by surprise captured 2 nfles and a Mauser pistol from them 
and returned to the mountains, taking 2 hostages. A couple of days afterwards the con- 
stabulary struck the band in the mountains, without, however, succeeding in doing them 
much damage. One of the hostages was rescued, while the other was boloed before the 
arrival of the constabulary. A few weeks later Captain Smith, with 2 officers and 4 enlisted 
men, after a four days' search in the mountains, came upon Papa Isio and killed 2 of hi^ 
generals, capturing 2 rifles, together with all the church paraphernalia, clothing, supplies, 
etc. The " papa," as usual, escaped in the bushes. Occidental Negros will probably never 
be free from fright until this man Papa Isio is captured. This is the only depredation 
that he has committed in more than a year and a half. He has but few followers, but 
seems able to strike terror in the hearts of both natives and Spaniards, although most of 
the hacienderos are well supplied with arms, some of them having 6 or 8 rifles. 

The province of Capiz has but one band of ladrones, under the leadership of Julian Ver- 
tosa, who holds forth in the mountains in the eastern section of the province. His is one 
of those bands which roams about the country and live off the mountain people, seldom 
bothering the lowland sections. The carabao stealing and depredations by what are known 
as local ladrones have almost entirely ceased since Captain Jones, in September and October 
last year, corralled the carabaos of all the towns, checked them up, and instituted several 
prosecutions against the principal officials. This broke up the traffic in carabaos and con- 
sequently the motive for robbery. 

Antique Province has not been as quiet as usual and in the northern part Subinspector 
Salvador has pursued and killed many of the mountain band of Ompon^ and Pitoc. The 
principal ladron or leader of the Montescas, Ompong, went into the barrio of Ibajay, 
Capiz, on October 7 last year and killed 13 people — men, women, and children — apparently 
in pure wantonness. He gives as his reason that one of his children died, and it was neces- 
sary that it should have servants designated to attend it in the next world. An effort 
was made to obtain the assistance of the governor of Capiz and the people of the western 
portion of that province to unite against Ompong and his Montescas, but the results were 
not in the least satisfactory, as the people appeared to be entirely without a feeling of unity, 
being apparently confirmed predestinarians. 

At this writing the civil governor of the province and Ldeutenant Beazley and Subin- 
spector Salvador are at Pandang having a conference with Ompong and Pitoc, and it is 
expected that they will surrender with the 6 rifles that they have. They were assembled 
and ready to do so a few days ago, but as the provincial governor was not present they 
returned to the mountains. Without rifles these mountain bands will undoubtedly cease 
to further molest the people of the lowlands. 

To the province of Paragua attention was directed by the unfdrtunate affair of February 
16, in which the 4 men of the Forty-eighth Company of Philippine Scouts were killed and 
31 carbines lost to the Moros. It seems that Lieutenant Loudm with a detachment of his 
company, while on a map-sketching expedition in southern Paragua, left their sailing vessel 
with their carbines on board in charge of 4 guards while the detachment went ashore to 
await the passing of the storm. The few Moros who were in the boat killed the 4 guards, set 
sail, and escaped with the 31 carbines. A detachment of scouts and constabulary under the 
provincial governor, who is an anny officer, encountered the Moros at Kulasian and suc- 
ceeded in recovering 8 carbines. At this writing another expedition is out to again locate 
the Moros. 

A wonderful change has taken place in the province of Iloilo during the past year and 
carabao stealing, which was a curse to the province, has been reduced to a point even below 
that in Spanish times. The chronological list of events will indicate the activitjr of the 
ladrones and in a measure that of the constabulary in this province. No mention is made 
of the numerous expeditions and patrols which returned without appreciable results. As 
a result of the operations a goodly number of serviceable firearms nave been surrendered 
in the past few months and the prospects are good for the surrender of more by the mountain 



94 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

people. They have time and again signified their willingness to be good if only left alone, 
and, as far as we have been aSle to determine, the mountain bands which formerly gave 
BO much trouble have not in the past year committed robberies or depredations to any 
extent. Tlio persecution of the armed bands has led them to make overtures of peace 
and promises of surrender. A number have presented themselves during the last few 
montns, turning over good serviceable rifles, and have gone out and brought in others. 
It was thought that Torribio would surrender with his men and arms in the month of May, 
but at the last moment he failed to do so, although he did send in 3 rifles as indication of 
his sincerity. Negotiations are now under way with a subcaptain of Torribio who has in 
his hands all of Torribio's rifles, and it is quite probable that a number of them will be 
surrendered. 

The old hard-shelled Sano still refuses to surrender, and as long as he commits no depre- 
dations will not be further molested until the constabulary are through with the others, 
who are now slowly coming in. Further back in the mountains is to be found the band 
of Oto with 12 or 15 arms, but as this band has never been known to commit cny depre- 
dations and is a long distance awav, but little attention has been paid to it. Patrols are 
occasionally sent through that section to recover carabaos which find their way there, but 
the people offer no resistance and hide themselves on the approach of an armed force. If 
the officers at present in this province continue the work of the past few months very 
satisfactory results are expected to follow. The outlawry has been almost entirely confined 
to what is known as local ladroncs or those who live in and' about the barrios and prey 
upon one another with the knowledge and assistance of their neighbors. Carabao stealing 
will never entirely cease in Iloilo as Tone as the people of Negroe are permitted to purchase 
animals in the province. The demand by the wealthier hacienderos of Negros creates a 
market for stolen animals. i 

I can not close my remarks on the work in the province without special commendable 
mention of the work of Captain Haskell and Lieutenants Countermarsh and Lewis and 
Subinspector Martinez. 

Take it all in all, conditions throughout the district as regards to outlawry and criminality 
are much improved over six montns ago and consideraUy more so over those of a year 
ago. Owing to the character of the people with whom we have to contend, it is to be 
expected that the existence of small bands of outlaws will continue for an indefinite period 
of time, although as the constabulary increases in efficiency and the municipal police and 
municipal officials are required to perfonn their duties as they should, criminality is bound 
to remain at the minimum. 

Tire MUNICn»AL POUCE. 

There nas been considerable improvement in many of the pueblos in the police oi^ganiza- 
tions and in the work performed by them. As the financial conditions become better 
more attention is given to the pav and equipment of the police and in many towns their 
pay exceeds that of the constabulary. Tnere are a great many rifles in the hands of the 
police, the issue of which was made necessary because of the lawlessness which existed 
and the inadequacy of the force of constabulary. With a knowledge of the readiness with 
which a band of outlaws can gain headway wnen once they come in possession of rifles, I 
would like to see more hesitancy in the granting of permits to municipal police and to 
private individuals. This opens the question of the ^neral license of arms, and it is one 
which appears to me as deserving of more stringent rules and less liberality. I would like 
to see revolvers distributed in goodly numbers throughout the islands for the personal 
protection of individuals and the moral effect it would have on bands armed only with 
Dolos. When it comes to the issuing or granting permission to possess rifles and shotguns, 
however, the privilege extended should he gradually withdrawn in proportion to the degree 
of necessity. 

THE CONSTABrLABY. 

The majority of the officers of the district are worthy of the highest prau?e for intelligence 
and conscientiousness displayed in the performance of their arduous duties. Difficulties 
have not been few, but nevertheless have been surmounted to a degree highly satisfactory 
to the district commander. It is true that in some instances much remains lo be desired, 
but I place the fault less with the individual and more with the adverse conditions under 
which the constabulary was started. 

First and above all, I advise the establishment of a school for lx)th officers and men. 
The constabulary is slowly but surely evolving into an organization of a character and scope 
far !>eyond that contemplated in its conception. The necessities of the situation have 
forced that issue until nothing but a radical change of governmental pohcy can divert it 
from the goal to which it is heading. Why, then, hesitate longer to give it the impetus that 
will insure its permanency and future standing? It is not to be an anny in the common 
acceptation of the word, but an insular police, organized and maintained on militar}'- prin- 



KEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 95 

ciples without the prerogfttivcs of the military. Discipline signifies r^larity, and 
strict obedience to laws and orders which promote unison of action and conouct. A well- 
cfiflciplined force is to be relied upon and instills confidence in itself, its superior officers, and 
in the people for whose protection it exists. Its principles must necessarily emanate from 
but one source. By force of circumstances, the constabulary has worked from the extrem- 
ities toward the center in matters of schoobng. Each post commander gave such instruc- 
tion as his abilities and energy permitted; then each provincial commander sought to 
establish a school for his province; then the district commander a school for his district, 
and now, if a central school could be established our rapid advancement toward a perfect 
oiganusation will be assured. The only drawback has been in the insufficiency of officers 
and men to be spared from the field. 

PAY OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 

This is a delicate subject to handle in view of the pressure from all bureaus on the govern- 
ment treasury, with their arguments as to their relative importance to the success of the 
government. Progress is contingent upon the establishment and maintenance of pe{u;e 
and order, and charged with this duty, the constabulary above all merits a consideration 
for its needs and its efforts at self-improvement. The pay of the officers in the lower 
grades should be sufficient to insure their retention in a service in which experience is so 
great a factor. The pay of the enlisted men, and particularly the noncommissioned officers, 
should be sufficiently above that of municipal police to serve as an inducement to the 
more intelligent joung men to enter the service with aspirations for higher honors. Imbued 
with American ideas of perfection and organization, many municipalities are actuated to 
offer l)etter pay to municipal police than can be obtained in the constabulary. The liberal 
distribution of rifles to the police encourages them in this matter. As against the munici- 
pal police and the scouts the lesser pay of constabulary makes recruiting of good men very 
difficult. 

THE SUPPLY DSPASTUENT. 

Too much can not be said of the work of this department in the past year. This district, 
although distant from Manila, has felt the effect of the systematic work of Colonel Baker 
and his subordinate officers as evidenced in the now nearly complete equipment of all 
provinces. No special recommendations are to be made, as it is quite evident that every- 
thing essential to the success of the organization is being provided with commendable 
expedition. The confusion formerly so extant has entirely disappeared by the institution 
of system and regularity. 

BABRACKS AND QUARTERS. 

This is a subject worthy of some contemplation. In few of the provincial capitals are to 
be found building suitable for offices and storerooms, and barracks for the men. The 
guarding of provmcial jails, furnishing escorts for officials and prisoners, enlisting and 
matructing the recruits nesessitates the maintenance of a force of about 60 men at each 
provincial headquarters. In several places land can be obtained from the insular, provincial, 
or municipal governments. Buildings constructed of nipa would be much preferable to 
present arrangements. When so constructed they could be improved from year to year ))y 
the substitution of boards for the nipa. The exorbitant rentals now forced upon us would 
pay for such buildings in a verj' few years. 

SUBSISTENCE. 

General Orders, No. 94, headquarters PhihoDines Constabulary*, «?ries 1903, making provi- 
sion for the subsistence of the enlisted men of the constabulary, was' not a step, but a lx)und, 
in the evolution of the constabulary from a guerrilla, volatile existence to a condition of stabil- 
ity and permanency. The proxnsion of 21 centavos per day is ample for both garrison and 
field duty, and officers of ability experience no difficulty in providing for their men a good 
ration. Rice is recognized by all as a most improper food when consumed in such lai^^e 
quantities as is customary with the lower class of Filipinos. Every effort is being made to 
gradually decrease the aflowance of rice and substitute therefor mangos, American beans, 
vegetables, bread, pork, fresh beef, canned roast beef, bacalao, etc. In most provinces the 
savings have b«sn sufficient to furnish a variety far in excess of that to which the men have 
been accustomed . This tends to strcngt hen the system and to reduce sickness to a minimu m , 
irtiilc the element of fastidiousness heretofore unkno>vn in Filipino character la beginning, 
develop as the enlisted man finds himself better clothed and subsisted. 

If the heart of a man is to be reached through his stomach the present provisions for the 
subsistence of the constabulary will bind the enlisted men to the service more surely than 
any other factor. 



96 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

TRANSPORTATION . 

Experience in this district has not warranted the use ol the native pony for a mounted 
force. Officers are able to keep one or two ponies in good condition for their use alone, and 
but Httle success has resulted m efTortfl to maintain mounted detachments. The ponies of 
the Visayas have been so depleted by disease that the few remaining are, if strong, to be had 
only at very pigh prices or, if weak, are difficult to get into shape for service. The supply of 
Chino ponies, mules, carabaos, vacas, wagons, carts, and carratelas has been increased to a con- 
siderable extent during the past few months. Twelve cargo boats were recently purqhased 
in Hongkong to be used in loading and dischai^ing coast guard and transportation vessels. 
More will be purchased as funds are available. All these provisions reduce to a considerable 
extent the cost of transportation, as at ordinary rates of hire a vehicle or boat will pay for 
itself in a few months. 

TEXT-BOOKS. 

At the present time the officers in command of posts have access to no other matter of 
instnictive reading than the general orders of the chief of constabulary and the district chief. 
Text-books on all subjects should be furnished supply officers to be issued to all officers on 
memorandum receipt. It would be but a recognition of the necessity of constant study and 
applic4ition. 

I would respectfully recommend that the following be made available for the use of all 
officers: The Official Gazette (Spanish copies to all native officers); Butt's Manual of Calis- 
thenics; infantry drill regulations; infantry firing regulations; manual of guard duty; A 
text book on map sketching; Pilcher's First Aid in Illness and Surgeiy. 

TARGET PRACTICE. 

The pointing and aiming drill, followed by target practice, is a verjr important element in 
the efficiencv of the constaoulary. The habit of shooting from the iup and absence of delib- 
eration in aiming and firing malkes it quit« necessary that target practice should be a sub- 
ject for special instruction by an officer detailed for the work. The present allowance of 25 
rounds per man annually could well bo increased to .50. Good results would follow if an 
inspector of tai^get practice could \ye appointed for each district. Such an officer should be 
continually engaged in traveling from pcKst to post giving instruction to officers and men alike. 
Targets at present being used are only such as post commanders can devise from material 
at hand and the results consequent upon such irregularity can not well be compiled into 
comprehensible statistics. 

DEATHS AND DESERTION. 

The lasses from deaths and desertion compare very favorably with that of last year, the 
total losses by death being 47 for this year as against 118 last year; while the losses by 
desertion were 9 for this year as against 26 for last year. There having been no deaths from 
cholera it will be noted that the provinces of Levte ,Samar and Cebu are the greatest suf- 
ferers in death from disease which is attributed principally to beriberi. The increase in 
death in Paragua was due to beriberi on the island of Balaoac and can be attributed primarily 
to improper quarters and poor food. With the presence of an American officer and the 
institution of the recent provisions for subsistence it is expected that further losses from 
beriberi will be at a minimum. 

REUQIOUS QUESTIONS. 

The agitation against the frailes heightened by the oi^nization of the Aglipay or Inde- 
pendent Filipino Chur(*h is confined to the provinces of Antique, Iloilo, Negros Oriental, 
Negros Occidental, and Cebu. In other provinces the movement has made but little 
impression. The question has at no time assumed a serious aspect but the feeling through- 
out those provinces against the frailes remains unabated and extends even to those who still 
adhere to the Roman Catholic Church. The Aglipay or Independent Filipino Church has 
for its followers the people who compose the radical element, and we find in their midst both 
men of the nationahsta and federal parties. The elements which were formerly known as 
Americanistas and insurrectos are now found side by side. There are some who feel that 
the new church is but a cloak to a new insurrectionist societv, but this I do not believe worthy 
of any consideration. Taking the question all in all, tlie division between the Roman 
Catholic Church and the Independent Filipino Catholic Church does not hinge on politics, as 
people of all parties and beliefs are to be found on botlr sides. 

Respectfully submitted. 

W. C. Taylor, 
Colonel and Assistant Chief , Philippines ConMabulari/f Commanding, 

The Adjutant-General, Phiuppines Constabulary, 

Manila, P. /. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 97 

B3F0BT OF THE rOVBTH DISTRICT, FHILIPFINE8 C0H8TABULABT. 

Hjbadquabters Fourth District, Philippines ConstabuULrt, 
Vigan, Ilacoa Sur, P. /., June 30, 190J^ 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of conditions, operations, occur- 
rences, and the status of the Philippines Constabulary m the provinces comprising the fourth 
constabulary district for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904: 

Per verbal orders of the chief of constabulary, Maj. Jesse S. Garwood, assistant chief, 
Phihppines Constabulary,' in General Orders, No. 1, headquarters fourth district, Philippines 
Constabulary, dated Vigan, June 25, 1903, assumed command of the fourth constabulary 
district, comprising the provinces of Abra, Benguet, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, 
Isabela, Lepanto-Bontoc, and La Union, and established headquarters at Vigan. 

Inspection trips have been made personalljr by the district chief during the year in all 
sections of the district and in all provinces, including the remote district in tne interior 
inhabited only by savage Igorrotes. 

Conditions m the district at present as to peace and tranquillity are excellent. Tliere is 
no band of dangerous ladrones at large in the district. Cattle thieving is very common, 
however, in some of the provinces, but is bein^ rapidly eradicated. An American deserter 
named Sibley is at large in the wild mountam district between Dumabato, Isabela, and 
Casiguran, Tayabas, but he is being constantly pursued and is not a very dangerous chai> 
acter. The state of the constabulary as to efficiency and drill is good. Efficiency of officers 
is also good. The two most important occurrences which marred the peace of the district 
during the year were the Vigan mutiny and what was styled as the "Tomines insurrection" 
in the Cagayan Valley. The former was successful at first, but all the mutineers except 
three were captured m a short campaign, lasting only eleven days. This campaign was 
joined in by parts of three scout companies (the first, twelfth, and fifteenth), three troops 
of the Eleventh Cavalry from Camp Wallace, San Fernando, and detachments of constab- 
ulary from the headouarters troop and the provinces of Ilocos Sur, La Union, Abra, Lepanto- 
Bontoc, and Ilocos Norte. The Tomines campaign was somewhat longer drawn out, but 
was successfully brought to a final close on March 30 by the capture of the bandit chief 
Tomines himself, most of his men and arms having been captured before him. Accounts 
of these operations will be found under the captions for the provinces of Ilocos Sur and 
Isabela, respectively. 

There have also been some troubles with the wild Igorrotes in Bontoc, but these, while 
occurring in Bontoc, were caused by hostiles from Nueva Vizcaya coming over the boundary 
against tribal enemies. This matter is reported in detail under the head of Lepanto-Bontoc. 

The conditions, operations, and occurrences in the fourth district for the fiscal year of 
1904, given by provmccs, follow: 

ABRA. 

Disposition of constabulary June 30 ^ 1904. — Banguet, Second Lieut. H. A. Duryea, senior 
inspector and supply officer; Third Lieut. HonoratoBallesta; 76 men. San Jose: Detached 
st^rvice, Isabela, Subinspector Guillermo Ferrandez, 10 men; fourth district band, 3 men. 
Total, 2 stations, 3 officers, 89 men. Authorized enlisted strength, 100. 

Expeditions and patrols, 10; miles covered, 441; engagements, none; outlaws killed, 
none; outlaws wounded, none; outlaws captured, none. .£ms and ammunition captured, 
1 brass cannon; other property recovered, P" 1,870.90, money stolen from provincial treas- 
urer on night of May 11, 1904. Constabulary casualties, none; arms lost by constabulary, 
none. 

Conditions in this mountain province are veiy good. A largo part of the back district of 
Abra having been transferred to the province of Lepanto-Bontoc, leaves the provinc? more 
easily to bo managed by the present force of constabulary. 

The "Alzados" (local name for wild Igorrotes), as the mountain people of this province 
are called, are as a general rule very peaceable. However, at times they go on the warpath 
against the Tinguiane people inhabiting the lower districts. In March, 1903, the constab- 
ulary became aware that a large force <m armed Alzados were making for the lower country, 
and the senior inspector at once disposed of his forca to afford protection to the inhabitants 
of the ranches of the Tinguianes and other people in the surrounding country. The Alzados 
on finding most of the ranches occupied by constabulary left without committing any dep- 
redations. They undoubtedly had intended levying tribute 'on the low-country people, as 
has been their habit of doing at intervals, carrying off stock, etc., in payment. These 
descents are not made often, however. They are generally instituted by the young men of 
the most remote hill tribes and are mostly to be feared during the spring months, at which 
time the young bucks seem to be more liellicose than at other times. 

The court of first instance, in the month of September, sentenced one Valerio, an exinsur- 
gent lieutenant, who was the main oi^anizer of the band that robbed Santa Maria, Ilocos 
our, to ei^t years' imprisonment and a $2,000 fine. Seventeen other men who were also 

WAR 1904— VOL 13 7 



98 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

held for the crime above stated were turned loose on motion of the fiscal, although some of 
them confessed that they had belonged to the band. The above-mentioned men, in the 
month of May, were organized into a band by Lieutenant Valerio, who joined the outlaw 
Vister, and committed considerable depredation in Ilocos Sur, the most serious of which, 
however, was the attack and defeat of the police and looting of the tribunal of the town of 
Santa Maria, Ilocos Sur, after which they fled to the mountains of Abra, expecting to escape 
pursuit. The Tinguianes (or low-country people), however, being very friendly to the gov- 
ernment and not desiring to have any turmoil in their province, brought about the capture 
of these men and surrendered them to Lieutenant Knoll, the senior inspector. They also 
brought in one cannon in good condition and one serviceable Krag rifle. The attitude of 
these people is very commendatory. 

Twcntv-five men from Abra, under Subinspector Ferrandez, were on detached service in 
Isabela during the Tomines campaign, and the constabulary of Abra also rendered able 
service blocking trails during the running down of the Vigan mutineers. The force was not 
tainted with insurrectionary ideas in connection with La Union and Ilocos Sur, as was at 
first thought might be possible. 

The constabulary of this province is without a doubt the best-drilled and disciplined 
provincial force in the fourth district, due mostly to the untiring and very zealous efforts 
of First Lieut. Frank Knoll, who, on February 1, was granted leave to visit the United 
States in connection with the Igorrote exhibit. He was relieved as senior inspector by 
Capt. August O. Sorensen, who was also relieved on March 20 by Capt. Waldo B. Williams. 
It IS desired that Lieut. Frank Knoll be returned to this province upon expiration of his 
leave, as he wields great influence with the Tinguiancs and the wild hill tribes in the interior 
of Abra. 

Locusts made their appearance to a more or less degree, but wei*c rapidly extermi- 
nated by the people, who, as soon as they found a swarm of little hoppers that were as yet 
not old enough to fl v, dug several deep pits nearby and inaugurated drives." The little 
hoppers hopped and fell into these pits and, being too small to hop or fly out, were very 
easily exterminated. 

The people of Abra, for the most part, are contented and hard workers. The most 
thrifty and prosperous appear to be the Tinguianes. They invariably have the best crops 
and stock, yet they are not taxed. It appears that they could be taxed to a certain extent 
and they undoubtedly can stand it better than the average Ilocano in this particular section. 

Very good com and tobacco crops were realized. 



Disposition of constahvlary June 30, J904. — Baguio: Second Lieut. T. H. F. Diederich, 
senior inspector; Second Lieut. J. F. Egerton, supply officer; Subinspector C. Valdez; 
Third-class Telegraph Inspector G. L. Rickards; 28 men. Sablan, 8 men. Detached serv- 
ice, fourth district band, 2 men. Total, 2 stations, 4 officers, 38 enlisted men. Authorized ' 
enlisted strength, 50. 

Expeditions and patrols, 1 ; miles covered, 140; engagements, none; outlaws killed, none; 
outla\^^ wounded, none; outlaws captured, none; arms and ammunition captured, none; 
other property recovered, none; constabulary casualties, none; arms lost by constabulary, 
none. 

This is a very peaceful mountain province, inhabited mostly by Igorrotes. At present 
the province is prosperous. 

On December 31 the senior inspector. First Lieut. Elmer B. Mehon, shot and killed him- 
self with a .38-calibcr Colt's revolver at San Fernando, La Union. Di»spondency is attrib- 
uted as the cause. His place was taken temporarily by First Lieut. Thomas Carl, who was 
relieved in March by Second Lieut. Theodore H. F. Diederich, and Lieut. John F. Egerton 
was also assigned to the province as supply officer, filling a long-felt want, as the senior 
inspector of this province had also been acting as supply officer. 

During the year there were only two expeditions after ladrones and marauders. The first 
expedition was during the time of Lieutenant Porter, and the second was in September, 
under command of Subinspector Valdez, who returned with five Igorrote prisoners, charged 
only, however, with stealing stock. They were tried. and found guilty of theft and were 
sentenced to six months' imprisonment each. This has been the only band of cattle thieves 
that has been reported in this province. The peaceful people, however, are subject to 
attacks now and then from bands of head-hunters belonging to the hill tribes. In the early 
part of November a band of '* Busoles" (local word for head-hunters) from the Asin Vallev 
m Nueva Vizcaya made a descent on the settlement of Buguios, close to the Benguet bound- 
ary. Detachments of constabulary immediately left Baguio and Cervantes for the scene 
of the raid. The residents of that district, however, had armed themselves against these 
head-hunters and they had not been able to do much damage before being chased off, and 
immediately left the district upon the appearance of the constabulary and returned to 
their haunts in the hills. The Asin Valley is in Nueva Vizcaya and is the resort of a savage, 
lawless element. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 99 

CAOATAN. 

I>i8i)09ition of comiaMcay June 30, 190^. — ^I^^uegarao: Capt. Henrr Knaubcr, senior 
inspector; Second Lieut. H. N. Shobe; Third Lieut. Guv H. Greene; '58 men. Aptrri: 
First Lieut. J. M. Van Hook, supply officer; First Lieut. \V. T. Harris; First Lieut, ^iicst 
R. Hazzard; 32 men. Detached service, Isabela, 22 men; fourth district band, 4 men. 
Total, 2 stations, 6 officers, 116 enlisted men. Authorized enlisted strength, 162. 

Expeditions and patrols, 108; miles covered, 5,235; engagements, none; outlaws killed, 
none; outlaws wounded, none; outlaws captured, none; arms and ammunition captured, 
2 shotguns, 1 revolver, 62 rounds assorted ammunition; other propertv recovered, 6 ponies, 
1 carabao, 2 watches (value, $50), jewelry (value, $300); constabukiy casualties, none; 
arms lost by constabulary, none. 

Conditions in this province with reference to peace and law and order are good. The 
indications are favorable to more prosperous times. Their straitened circumstances are 
largely due to tbe great ioEs in 1S02 of^ carabaos, cattle, and horses by pest, and by the 
more recent ravages by locusts in the corn crop during July, August, and September. 
Concei-ted effort was made to destroy the pest by all municipaUties in the province on 
September 8 and 9, and great numbers of locusts were driven into pits and Killed, since 
which time they have not been so noticeable, and the pest has apparentiv run its course, 
at least for the present. Owin^ to the great amount ot uncultivated land in the Cagayan 
Valley, it is thou^t that it will be very difficut for some time to come to exterminate 
the locusts there. The tobacco crop was a very good one this year, owing to the heavy 
rains in October and November, which inundated all tbe lowlands, and thereby ensured a 
good 3rieid <rf tobacco. 

A laige typhoon stnidc the valley on October 25, and was by far the most destructive 
storm for many years. Tugiiegarao suffered more than any town in tlie province. All 
buildings were more or less damaged, and many good structures totally destroyed. All 
the buildings on the old military reservation which were in use by the constabulary were 
totally destroyed, and the constabulary were compelled to retire to the town again and 
get other quarters. A steel warehouse of the Tabacalera Company, which was made in 
England, w^as totally destroyed, which shows the strength of the storm. The Tabacalera 
Company lost over $100,000. The loss of life and river shipping was severe. Sixteen 
cascoes, or barangays, were reported lost and 30 persons drowned. 

The executioQ at Amulung, on October 30, of the four condemned men, Daniel Verzon, 
Nicolas Ancheta, Faustino Pascual, and Anaceto Javier, had a very unfortunate termina- 
tion. The execution was bv garrote, and the executioner was an American — apparently 
a novice — from Manila. The records show the execution of these men was carried out 
according to schedule from start to finish, the provincial doctor and the jud^ of the court 
of first instance signing certificates that the men were dead. Each man was m the machine 
about eight minutes. It is very evident that not enough force was applied by the execu- 
tioner, for, aithoug^i the bodies had been laid out, several hours afterwards three of the men, 
Daniel Verzon, Nicolas Ancheta, and Faustino Pascual, were found to be still alive. Tlie 
provincial doctor was immediatelv notified by Captain Long, and everything possible was 
done for the men. They were taken to the homes of relatives, but the doctor pronounced 
them incurable, as they were almost totally paralvzed, and remain so to this day. The 
status of these men at present is very peculiar. Slaving been condemned and executed 
according to law and pronounced dead by the^doctor, and certificates signed by the judge 
of the court of first instance, these men l^ally do not exist, yet they are actually still alive, 
although it is thought they will shortly die. 

There has been for a long time in Cagavan a sort of an underground cattle-thieving 
organization, and not a few people numbered among the " principale '^ class (even including, 
in some instances, municipal officials) are suspected of having a hand in this nefarious 
business. These high-toned ladrones, who all nave humble servants to do their bidding 
under cover of the night, have made away with cattle, carabaos, and horses to an alarming 
extent during the past. The stock simply disappears from one section only to reappear 
in another with a new brand, where it is purchased by buyers who are members of the 
association and resold f^ain. This condition naturally has caused a degree of unrest and 
discontent among the masses, and has forced them at times into an attitude toward the 
present system of government which they should not feel, and which merely makes them 
more susceptible to the w^ishes of the "principale" class, as they fear the consequences 
of reporting the matter to the municipal officials, believing that the safer and better course 
is to let the matter drop and accept their loss, as the municipal officers themselves miglit 
be the ones committing the robbery. The present senior inspector is waging a vigorous 
campaign against these thieves, with considerable success, although it is very difficult to 
secure witnesses against the perpetrators even after they are caught. Tlie recent sitting 
of the court of first instance at Tuguegarao has been a great help to conditions, as a lai^e 
docket has been cleared up which was composed principally of norse and cattle thieves. 



100 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

It is thought this favorite vocation of some of Cagayan's resideDts will shortly he completely 
broken up. 

During the Tomines campaign in Isabela Captain Long and lieutenant Hazzard, with 
66 men, were on detached sen-ice in that province. 

ILOCOS XOBTE. 

Disposition of constabulary June 30, 1904. — Laoag: Capt. B. L. Smith, senior inspector; 
First Lieut. J. C. Buttner; Third Lieut. O. C. Humphrey, supply officer, 70 men. Badoc: 
6 men. Bangui: Third Lieut. E. DePeralta, 6 men. Dingras: 6 men. Detached service: 
Isabela, Second Lieut. James J. McLean, 39 men; fourth district band, 2 men. Absence 
with leave: Capt. H. J. Castles. Total, 4 stations, 6 officers, 129 enlisted men. Author- 
ized enlisted strength, 156. 

Expeditions and patrols, 86; miles covered, 8,250; engagements, none; outlaws kiHed, 
none; outlaws wounded, none; outlaws captured, 50. Arms and ammunition captured: 
1 Krag, 1 Spanish rifle, 3 revolvers, 6 revolver cartridges; other property recovered, none; 
constabulary casualties, none; arms lost by constabulary, none. 

This province is very quiet and peace reigns in all parts, although it is the home of 
Ricarte. It was reported in January that Kicarte had secretly entered the province and 
was at his home in raoay. Investigation, however, proved this to be fake. 

The most serious disturbance during the year was the attempted organization of the new 
Katipunan association in and around the town of Paoay by a native of Tarlar, named 
Valentin Butardo. The existence of the society was disclosed by Gavino Omayang, 
lieutenant of the barrio of Piaz, of the pueblo of Paoav, who, on the 6th of July, inform^ 
Corporal Quintos, in charge of the constabulary detachment at Badoc, that such a society 
was organizing in Paoav. Corporal Quintos l^ft for Paoay at once with 8 men, arriving 
there about 2 p. ro., and he, with his men, together with the municipal police of the town, 
arrested in all about 60 members of the new association that afternoon. The senior 
inspector arrived at Paoay the next morning, and from the 6th to the 25th of July 161 
members of this society were arrested by the constabulary and police. Butardo, with a 
few of his most devoted followers, succeeded in escaping to the mountains, where they were 
pursued bv a force of constabulary, while other detachments, with the municipal police, 
watched the different adjoining towns. Butardo, however, and his 5 compamons, tired 
of living without food and being constantly pursued in the mountains, came in and sur- 
rendered at Paoay on the 15th. At that time only 2 other important men remained to be 
captured, and the capture of these 2 men was effected on the 25th. Among the papers 
captured were lists of the members of the society, bearing 176 names, signed in blood. 
All members of the society had a scar on the right arm just below the elbow, being a slight 
incision made half an inch long, probably with a knife, dagger, or other sharp instrument, 
from which blood was taken from each man with which to sign his name. In the investi- 
gation made by Judge Wislezenus, who was at Laoag at that time, it was clearly shown 
that most of these men had been forced into the organization through threats of death, 
most of them being of the lowest workingman or tao class. Of the 161, 107 were released 
by the judge, and the remaining 54 were held for trial to the court of first instance. These 
men were tried by a special session of the court, which began August 20, 1903, with t^e 
result that 17 were convicted, receiving from one to seven years' sentence each. The 
organization of this Katipunan Society was «iot of a menacing nature to the peace of the 
province, as it was organized among a very poor and ignorant class, and was more a scheme 
of Butardo and several of his companions to ^in a livelihood than any other. Only 1 
revolver, with no ammunition, was captured. Bolos were to have been made later by one 
of the members who was a blacksmith by trade, but no money had been advanced as yet 
by Butardo's treasurer for the purchase of iron from which to make them, and none was 
manufactured. 

On September 30, 1903, Capt. W. G. Gatchell was relieved as senior inspector of this 
province by Capt. H. C. Ca.stles, who was relieved on March 15, 1904, by First Lieut. J. C. 
Buttner, who was relieved on April 3, 1904, by Capt. William Green, who was relieved 
on April 10, 1S04, by Capt. B. L. Smith, who is still in command of that province. 

Several conflagrations occurred during the year in the province, but no serious damage 
was sustained. The prompt action of the constabulary detachment at Laoag probably 
saved that town from having a serious burning. 

About the middle of December the newly arrived Roman Catholic bishop in charge of 
the diocese of Nueva Sigovia, of which this province is a part, the Reverend Doctor Daugh- 
erty, visited this province on an inspection tour. The churches in this province are all 
held by the Independent Filipino Church, excepting only the one in Laoag. Considerable 
feeling was shown against the Bishop in the different towns as he passed through, and a few 
stones were thrown at him in Laoag, one of which hit him, but resulted in no serious bodily 
injury. No serious disturbance occurred. The stones were thrown from behind a hedge 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 101 

fence*in Laoag while the bishop was out riding in the early evening. In view of the bishop's 
intended visit the constabulary officers were cautioned to prevent any personal violence 
against hira, if possible, should any be attempted. No constabulary escort was asked for 
or given him, as has been reported as having been done. Lieutenant McLean, however, 
although not a Catholic personally, rode with him from Badoc to Laoag. 

The people of this province are generally industrious and very peaceably inclined, 
although they may become fanatical over reli^on at times. 

During the Tomines campaign in Isabela Lieutenants McLean and Helfert, with 5^ men 
from this province, were on detached service in Isabela, where they rendered very excel- 
lent service. Although the campaign is over, they have been retained there until that 
province shall have quieted down to its normal state of tranouillity. 

Although depleted in numbers, the constabulary of Ilocos Norte put on a bold front on 
hearing of the mutinjr at Vigan, and are to be commended for the manner in which they 
did their duty, meriting the confidence shown them by their officers and the American 
population in general. 

ILOCOS SUH. 

Disposition of constabtdary June SO, 1904. — Vimin: Capt. A. E. Hendryx, senior inspector; 
Second Lieut. J. McRae, supply officer; Third Xiieut. C. H. Alien; Subinspector Dionicio 
Reyes; Third-elass Telegraph Inspector C.M. Sides; 126 men. Detached service: Lepanto- 
Bontoc, Second Lieut. Hariy E. Miller; Isabela, 1 man; fourth district band, 5 men. Total, 
1 station, 6 officers, 132 enlisted men. Authorized enlisted strength, 163. 

Expeditions and patrols, 68; miles covered, 800; engagements, none; outlaws killed, 
none; outlaws wounded, none; outlaws captured, 33; arms and ammunition captured, 1 
Krag rifle and 966 Mauser shells; other property captured or/ecovered, none; constabu- 
lary casualties, none; arms lost by constabulary, none. 

This province is very quiet and peaceful and apparently entirely recovered from the 
shock or the Vigan mutiny. The maguey and other crops appear to have been very good 
* this year. Considerable new building is ^oing on, es{)ecially in Vigan, where buildings 
upon which work was stopped during the insurrection in 1898-99 up to the present time 
are being completed and new ones erected. This is taken aj a fairly good sign of prosperity 
and contentment. 

A great many Tinguianes live back from the coast in the foothills of the Cordillera Real. 
They are very law-abiding and desirous of peace, but are very clannish and live in settle- 
ments of their own, where their magnificent cattle and other stock show their industry, as 
it does in other provinces of this district wherever they are found. 

The town of Vigan is the representative town of the Ilocano country, but has no suit- 
able port, most of the year boats being compelled to leave stores and supplies destined for 
the town and back district either at Salomaeue or San Esteban, both places about 20 
miles distant, one north, the other south. Only in the best of weather can boats make a 
landing or discharge cargo at Pandan, which is the port of Vigan, situated only 2 miles 
distant. It is believed randan could be made a very good port without the outlay of an 
extraordinary amount of money by the insular government. With this done it would 
reduce expense of transportation for the people by thousands of dollars, both convenience 
and time, and would have a tendency to increase traffic and output of products from this 
province and the back province of Abra and other sections in this district. 

A deplorable affair occurred in Cabugao on the 6th of September, resulting in the death 
of Lieut. C. W. Hutton, third lieutenant, Philippines Constabulary, formerfy attached to 
the constabulary of Abra. Lieutenant Hutton was en route to Manila per Special Orders, 
No. 55, paragraph 2, headquarters Philippines Constabulary, and on his way through to 
«Salomague to await transportation to Manila he stopped at Cabugao, as he had an old 
friend there named Wingo, the owner of a canteen. On the evening of the 6th, between 
7 and 8 o'clock, a native was beating his mother, and Hutton and Wingo both went to 
the house to quiet the disturbance. Some police of the town also arrived shortly after, 
who did not recognize Hutton as an officer, and, mistaking his position and resenting his 
attempt at authority over them, one of them struck him on the head with a club from 
behind. Dr. Wm. H. W. Wilson and Dr. A. E. Ander35n, from Camp Morrison, were sum- 
moned. They performed an operation on the crushed skull and did everything in their 
power to revive the unconscious officer, but without avail, and he died the next day in 
the hospital at Camp Morrison. Lieutenant Hutton left a wife at San Fernando, La 
Union, put no children. His estate was administered by the treasurer of the Philippine 
Islands, in conformance with Act 290 of the Commission. The policeman who strucK the 
blow was tried and sentenced to three years' imprisonment and a fine of $1,000. 

The typhoon of October 25 destroyed a great many buildings in Vigan, and the military 
post at Salomague was almost totally destroyed. 

The mutiny at Vigan, which occurred on the night of February 7, was a very serious 
affair while t lasted, but by the prompt action of the constabulary of adjoining provinces, 



102 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

and the quick response of the acting chief of oonstabulaiy, Colonel Scott, who came hp in 
person with reinforoements of scouts and oonstabulaiy from Manila, and the c|uick action 
of the honorable civil governor and the division commander in calling out additional scout 
companies and the American troops at San Fernando (which latter were commanded in 
person by Colonel Thomas, Eleventh Cavalry), the mutiny and whole affair was com- 
pletely ended in only eleven days, with all the renegades captured except 3 and all arms 
recaptured except 4 carbines and 3 pistols. 

The* district chief had just returned from the Cagayan Valley and had only been three- 
fourths of an hour in Vigan when the affair started. Had there been 7 good serviceable 
guns available at the start there woi^ld have been a different result. As it was, the Ameri- 
cans were all scattered and unarmed. It is safe to say they will not be cau^t that way 
again, however. The first thing to do was to get arms. These did not amve until the 
renegades had left town. Meantime all that was possible was done by the Americans, 
who got together as best thoy could with their pistols and a few old relics of guns. There 
were quite a number of American women and children in the town, families of officials, 
etc., which made the situation more grave. The coast-guard cutter Negros was at Pandan 
and she was dispatched to Salomagiio to seek assistance, Captain Roisser responding to 
the call with a promptness for which he deserves credit. The disappointment was indeed 
great when the commanding officer of Salomague, Lieutenant Neisser, of the scouts, sent 
word down that he would render no aid either with men or arms. Considerable might 
have been accomplished with even a small foree of well-armed men at this time, and Lieu- 
tenant Neisser's action in refusing to send either men or arms was regretted. He was 
probably right technically, accordmg to his orders and instructions, which it is hoped will 
oe immediately changed in such manner as to prevent a recurrence of such a back-action 
and craven interpretation and for the general peace and welfare of the American Govern- 
ment in the Philippines, and that another American colony ma^' never again be denied 
support and protection by United States troops. The constabulary officers in Vigan, 
being, as they were, in their unarmed condition that ni^ht, are to be commended for their 
behavior ancf the manner in which they prefonned their duty in an extremely trying and ' 
desperate predicament, and all Americans are fortunate that the result was not more 
senous. 

As all the wires had been cut to the southward by the renegades, the district cliief dis- 
patched the cutter Negros during the night to pick up the small detachments of constabu- 
lary at San Esteban and Candon, numbering 10 men. before the mutineers could reach 
those places, as it was impossible to give them warning. When this had been done and 
the detachments safe at Vigan, the following morning he left on the cutter for San Fer- 
nando to get in touch with Manila, notify other provinces to block trails, and to head the 
La Union constabulary to intercept the renegades, while Captain Hcndryx was to pursue 
them from the northward with all the forces he could muster. 

The prompt appearance of largo bodies of troops of all branches of the service, both 
United States and insular, and the blocking of all mountain trails, had a very demoraliz- 
ing effect upon the renegades, and they began to lose heart in their enterprise on finding 
that the people in the section of the country in which they found themselves were not in 
sympathy with them and would not help them. The result is well known. They began 
hiding their arms and presenting themselves by twos and threes in such a manner that 
would insure their not being shot by the scouts, coustabular}', and soldiery. All honor is 
due Col. W. S. Scott for his efficient and successful management of the campaign. 

An extract of Captain Hendryx's report of the affair from its inception is given below: 

* * In the latter part of December or the beginning of January of this year Artemio Ricarte, 
'The Viper, 'passed through Arayat, Pampanga, on his way to Nueva Ecija. AVhile cross- 
ing the river by the ferry, Kicarte, it is alleged, gave the ferryman, named Calixto, a letter to^ 
be delivered to Nicolas Calvo, who was, during the insurrection, one of Ricarto's officers, but' 
then a second-class private in the constabulary of Ilocos Sur,on detached service in Arayat. 
Tliis letter, while its contents are not absolutely known, it is to be presumed, so far as 
information can be obtained, appealed to Calvo in a manner best suited to serve the pur- 
pose of the * Viper. ' Calvo, it seems, showed this letter to Carlos Ayala, who was a corporal 
in the same detachment, and had be«n sent to Pampanga Province in charge. The letter, it 
seems, appealed to Ayala, with the result that the question of revolting was seriously dis- 
cussed by them while stationed at Arayat, and with one or two other companions, but the 
futility of accomplishing anythine was recognized, notwithstanding Ayala's desire to revolt 
then and there. Consequently the matter was deferred until they could return to Ilocos 
Sur. 

' 'About this time rumors reached the senior inspector of Pampanga, so he says« of things 
not being quite right among the members of this detachment, but on account' of the good 
woiic that many of them had done in the past he was loath to believe any charge against their 
loyalty. 

''Shortly after their return to Vigan, on January 26, either Calvo or Ayala, or both, pro- 
ceeded to work among their comrades in whom they had confidence, both with the civihans 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 103 

and members of the ooostabalary. As to which took the initiatiye I have been unable to 
determine, each aocuang the other, and neither admitting that they were willing or really 
wished to revolt until practically the last moment. However, by plausible explanations, 
the following members of the constabulary Were obtained to further the mutiny: Carlos 
Ayala, Teodoro Edndin, Macario Agapay, Domingo Rallojay, Nicolas Calvo, Paulo Peralta, 
l)oroteo Ayson and Leon Almariz. It is to be presumed that the above 8 circulated among 
their civilian friends so that there were practically 8 groups, with the result that two days 
previous to the revolt it was decided to avail themselves when an opportunity presented, 
and on Febniary 7 two of the above named conspirators, Leon Almariz and Paulo Peralta, 
were on guard, one on duty at the cuartcl and Peralta acting corporal at the prison. 

''Calvo, it appeared, went out late in the afternoon or about supper time, it is to be 
assumed, to meet certain civilians who were to take part in the revolt. Suffice to say that he 
returned to the cuartel about 7 o'clock, when Leon Almariz was on guard, with one party of 
8 civilians from Bantay, a barrio of Vi^n. Hiese civilians Almariz, the sentinel, permitted 
to enter the cuartel, notwithstanding the fact that they were armed with bolos and pu Rales, 
and at a time when there were but few soldiers in the cuartel, with the result that the muti- 
neers had but httle difficulty, with the cooperation of the renegade soldiers, in securing pos- 
session of the arms, Almariz, the sentry, continuing to remain at his post, but directing his 
attention to the action of the renegades and ciii^ians in seeing that their purpose was 
accomplished. All being to his satisfaction, several ^hots were fired in the air, evidently as a 
signal, as shortly afterwards many more civilians entered the cuartel under command of 
Formentes, an ex-sergeant of the constabulary, estimated to be about 20. Possession of 
the commissary was then taken and the bimdits proceeded to equip themselves with the 
necessary clothing. Simultaneously the work of liberating the prisoners was accomplished 
by 3 men, Doroteo Ayson, Domingo Rallojay, and the acting corporal of the guard, Paulo 
TOralta. Meanwhile they fired a volley up and down the streets leading from the bar- 
rad», and a running fire seemed to have been kept up by many of these renegades, who 
seemed to have been drunk with their success of the evening, and small detachments 
sent out to different locahties gathered up many soldiers, who were attracted by the shoot- 
ing, and, as a natural consequence, hastened in the direction of the cuartel with a view of 
reporting for duty. These were either voluntarily or by intimidation taken into the ranks of 
the revoTters and, for the evening at least, appeared to enter into the spirit of the mutiny. 
Other detachments hunted up civilian friends or soldiers whom they believed were in sym- 
pathy with the movement, with the result that the sentry on guard at fourth district head- 
quarters was gathered in; also the revolvers taken from the 3 native hneraen and 2 taken 
from 2 soldiers of Abra who were then in town and were forced to accompany the renegades 
towaid the cuartel, but fortunately were enabled to make their escape through the fear that 
suddenly ov;ercame this particular detachment on hearing the voice of an American. One 
of the arguments that appears to have been advanced was that the situation was entirely in 
the hands of the revolters, and that all the officers were killed and the uprising was general. 
At least that is what many of them testified to in court. Notwithstanding that there was 
considerable shooting throughout the entire evening, strange to say, only 1 man was hit, and 
he a member of the constabulary, who was killed by his comrades. The house above the 
commissary during this revolt was occupied by an American and his wife and the wife and 
child of the division superintendent of schools, the latter being away on an inspection tour. 
Fortunately the revolters did not attempt to molest them. Only one ball went into the 
house, and that seemingly fired for the purpose of extinguishing the street light which was 
secured in the comer of the house. It is reported that the house of the telegraph officer, 
Lieutenant Sides, was fired into by small detachments, but whose operations ceased through 
the resistance offered tliem by a liberal use of a Winchester rifle in the hands of Lieutenant 
Sides. My house was also fired into and means taken to decoy me outside by a detachment 
of renegades sent there for that purpose, but, as I was at that time in the house of Major 
(larwood, where I had gone to pay my respects, this being the night he returned from the 
north, their attempt failed. 

**Lfleutenant McRae, in going to the cuartel, was the first man fired upon. Recognizing 
the condition of affairs, he hastened to the house of Major Garwood and reported the revolt 
among the constabulary to the Major and myself. It was decided that as we were not 
armed, there being only some old relics in the Major's house. Lieutenant McRae should pro- 
ceed at once to Pandan, he being mounted, and secure the guns in the possession of the 4 
constabulary guards sent there to guard prisoners who were loading the exposition collection 
for Hocos Sur and guard stipplies, and secure such other guns and assistance as might present 
itself from the coast-guard tx>at then at Pandan. Tliere were, I believe, a shotgun and 1 
revolver aboard the boat. Laeutenapt McRae, securing the guns from the guards, placed 
the prisoners aboard the boat, turned the guns over to 4 passengers. Lieutenants Knoll and 
Abra, Messrs. Allyn and WclLs, of the quartermaster's department, and Mr. White, civilian 
operator, who had been relieved from auty at Laoag, and Captain Manchester, and ordered 
the captain of the coast-guard boat, by direction of Major Garwood, to proceed to Saloma^e 
and secure such guns and assistance as the company of scouts stationed there could give, 



104 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

aftenirards walking from Pandan to Vigan, and reporting for duty upon amyal to Major 
Garwood. On account of the various delays experienceof by Lieutenant McRae in gettmg 
away at Pandan, and making a long trip from the landing in Pandan to the coast-guard 
boat and return , his party did not reach vigan until after the renegades had left the town. 
When the firing had commenced I called the attention of the Major to shots, at first two or 
three in number, but he discredited it with the explanation that it was the muchacho rolling 
around some boxes below. Later on, however, the firing was confirmed by the appearance 
of Lieutenant McRae. Lieutenant Greene stated that he met the provincial fiscal, who, 
being very much excited, stated that a woman who had just come from the direction of the 
cuartel had stated that the soldiers and municipal police were fighting.' This, with the firing 
we had heard convinced him that the affair was serious. 

* * He hastened to his quarters and secured his carbine and, in company with Mr. Darling, a 
civilian stenographer at fourth district headquarters, went to the ofiice, where he relieved the 
guard stationed there, except the sentinel, who continued on post.until taken up by the 
detachment revolters. Lieutenant Greene, taking with him 3 guards, 2 of them armedfwith 
carbines, 1 of them unserviceable, proceeded in the direction of the cuartel, where their 
presence was resisted b^ a heavy fire on the part of the revolters, so much so that they 
sought shelter for the time being in the presidencia, where they met the late Lieutenant 
Arthur, who was unarmed, except with a pistol. In company with the acting first seigeant 
of the constabulary of this province. Lieutenant Arthur had been grazed on the ann by a 
bullet. No shots wore firea by Lieutenant Greene, so he says, as at the time he did not 
know the state of affairs, he thinking that Lieutenant McRae was at the cuartel. Mean- 
while the guards who had accompanied Lieutenant Greene remained in the presidencia and 
refused to give up their arms to strano^ers. Several attempts were made by officers to enter 
the cuartel without success. Upon seeing the impossibility of entering the cuartel, Lieuten- 
ant Greene, Mr. Darling and Mr. Ham, chief clerk of fourth district headquarters, who was 
picked up at the presidencia, went to the house of Major Garwood to report the affair and to 
place themselves under the orders of the Major. 

' ' Meanwhile the Americans were concentrating in the house of Major Garwood and that 
of the provincial treasurer. About this time Lieutenant McRae and his party reported to 
the Major from Pandan with the arms, and the Jatter, with a detachment, went immediately 
to the barracks, expecting to find the renegades still looting. They had accomplished what 
they had evidently intended to, however, and had leit town. Steps were then taken to have 
all the Americans go to the house of the Major, lest the reyolters return to the town before 
morning for more sack and plunder, and an examination, as far as possible, of what had been 
done was made. They found in the commissary that the safe had been broken open and 
moneys taken therefrom amounting to t* 864.16; commissaries largely in 'Mulces" to the 
value* of 1*205.88, and clothing amounting to 1*1,069.72, or a total of ^2,139.76. At the 
cuartel they found everything in great disorder and nearly everything destroyed, but dis- 
covered that the renegades had overlooked or had purposely left about 8 police shotguns, 
which were mostly unserviceable, and also considerable ammunition. Also, in the corral 
they found 2 carbines which the guard at that place had evidently tried to conceal, the car- 
bines being found under a structure of bamboo. All of the above was taken to the house of 
Major Garwood. At about 4 a. m. ' assembly ' was sounded throughout the town in order 
to get together all the soldiers that had stayed behind. Many reported and each patrol 
brought in some. These the Major ordered armed with the carbines and shotguns that had 
been left behind. It was then daylight and the major ordered that they proceed to the 
cuartel, post guard, and carry out the usual routine duties. 

' ' In the morning the coast-guard cutter havirig returned from Salomague, the captain 
reported that the commanding officer of scouts, Lieutenant Neisser, refused to assist in any 
manner without orders from division headouarters ; that he would not come himself or 
send any arms. Major Garwood then directed that the cutter go down and pick up the 5 men 
stationed at San Esteban, also the 5 men at Candon, and bring them to Yigan. The Major 
then went aboard and left for San Fernando, La Union, to secure the constabulary of that 
province to intercept the renegades on their way south. Next day I succeeded in gathering 
25 Americans, who were mounted upon available horses of this post, and proceeded at once 
on the trail of the renegades, leaving here very late in the afternoon and riding nearly all 
night, arriving at Santa, where we establishea a telegraph office. Inspector Manchester in 
chaise. 

* ' Meanwhile the renegades, having spent their force around the cuartel and vicinity, used 
such prisoners as were not armed as cargadores, taking with them anununition and conunis- 
sary stores; going south they rested in one of the barrios of Santa. Here a number of the 
renegades, having cooled off some of the excitement which controlled them around the 
cuartel, managed to escape and return to Vigan. Early next morning the revolters went to 
Narvacan, where they practically made the treasurer give up all the money he had, which was 
28 pesos, the same being distributed among the renegades, some of them receiving 50 cents. 
Here the revolters rested and breakfasted. After taking a horse from the ex-presidente of the 
town for Carlos Ayala, they traveled south to Santa Maria, where they went to the presi- 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 105 

dencia and secured about 200 pesos from the treasurer of the town, giving 4 or 5 pesos each 
to the different renegades, according to their grade, and made presents of clothing and com- 
miasaiy sweetmeats to the citizens. From there they continued their march south to San 
Esteban^ where the house of Joel Snell, the American school-teacher, was entered and 1 Parker 
double-barreled shotgun, a taiget rifle, certain moneys, checks, jeweliy, clothes and sharp- 
shooter's medal were stolen by the bandits. From here they went to Santiago, where they 
stole about 350 pesos from the municipal treasurer, distributing it in amounts of 5, 8, and 10 
pesos to the different soldiers, according to rank, and succeeded in getting their pictures 
taken, a copy of which is herewith inclosed with the names of such members of the oand as 
can be recognized. The presidente provided these bandits with dinner or supper, and here 
they rested for the night, the jefes in the presidencia and the soldiers and subordinate 
officers in the convent. On the succeeding morning, after breakfast, the band left, skirting 
the eastern barrios of Candon, resting at Abaya for dinner, and from there marching on to 
one of the outlying barrios of Santa Lucia. The bandits now began to be more cautious 
and to realize that they were being pursued and cut off. In consequence they split up in 
three divisions, Ayala and Agapay going in the direction of Santa Cruz, and the others, after 
wandering around, gradually began to separate and discard the uniform for that of the 
'paisano' that they might present themselves with the least possible danger. With each 
succeeding hour the trails of these renegades increased and the question of food became an 
important factor in bringing them to a realization of their acts, their condition resulting in 
a speedy settlement of the revolt. 

* ' Four troops of the Eleventh Cavalry, from San Fernando, under command of Colonel 
Thomas, the First, Twelfth, and Fifteenth Companies of the Philippine Scouts, and a detach- 
ment of constabulary from the headquarters troop took the field against the bandits. This 
demonstration, together with finding all trails cut off leading to the mountains, demoralized 
the revoltera and, I believe, will have a lasting influence on the people of this section. 

"Carlos A^ala, Macario Agapay, and 7 civilians with 8 guns were the first to be recovered, 
thev presenting themselves to the presidente of Santa Lucia. From this time on the rest, 
with the exception of 3 soldiers, were either captured or surrendered. As fast as they c^une 
in they were sent to V^n for confinement and trial. 

'"riie following week after this affair everything settled back into its natural way. At 
present the province is perfectly quiet. ' ' 

The following ere the sentences awarded by the court, of first instance at Vigan in the 
mutiny cases: Death — Corporal Carlos Ayala, Second-Class Private Macario Aganay, 
Second-Class Private Nicolas Calvo. Forty years and fine of 1^10,000— Second-Class 
Private Ancehno Ygarta, Second-Class Private Pablo Silvestre, Second-Class Private 
Maximiano Manganaan, Second-Class Private Santiago Asuncion, Second-Class Private 
Bruno Propio, Second-Class Private Modesto Polido, Second-Class Private Teodoro Edralin, 
Second-Class Private Cenon Lnzo, Second-Class Private Antonio Guerzon, Second-Class 
Private Benito Paez, Second-Class Private Doroteo Ayson, Second-Class Private Mariano 
Vallehermosa. 

Major Mair, with a detachment from headquarters troop and Pampanga constabulary, 
was sent up as a safeguard against possible trouble during the trial and sending of the 
sentenced men to Manila, which, however, was accomplished without incident. 

In connection with the trial and conviction of these renegades, special mention is due 
Mr. Vicente Singson, the efficient fiscal of this province, whose interest and energy in the 
prosecution of these cases was very marked. 



Disposiiion of etmstalndary June 30, 1904. — Ilagan: Capt. Theo. I. Owens, senior in- 
s^tor. Second Lieut. Edw. CoUins, supply officer; Second Lieut* H. R. Talbott, medi- 
cal officer; Third Lieut. 0. A. Helfert, 59 men. Echague: Second Lieut. Joseph Delaney, 
Second Lieut. James Treadway, Subinspector Domingo Danuey, 67 men. Detached serv- 
ice: Fourth district band, 3 men; from Abra, Subinspector Guillermo Ferrendez; from 
Cagayan, 22 men; from Ilocos Norte, Second Lieut. Jas. J. McLean, 39 men; from Ilocoe 
Sur, 1 man. Total, 2 stations, 9 officers, 191 enlisted men. Authorized strength, 162. 

Expeditions and patrols, 166; miles covered, 9,737; engagements, 3; outlaws killed, 16; 
outlaws wounded, none; outlaws captured, 3; arms and ammunition captured, 32 rifles, 
5 revolvers, 112 rounds rifle ammunition; other property recovered, 15 horses, 4 carabaos, 
large amount of quartermaster supplies lost by scouts; constabulary casualties, 1; arms 
lost by constabulary, 1 Springfield rifle. 

This province is rapidly assuming its normal state of affairs, after having been through 
the turmoil of almost a general insurrection brought about by an ex-officer in the insurgent 
army, named Manuel Tomines. 

It had been known for some time that a small band of bandits had crossed over into 
Isabela from Nueva Vizcaya, and as no headway had been made against them, and reports 
were meagerly sent in, First Lieut. William Greene was sent up to take charge of Isabela, 



106 REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

which he did on December 19. He immediately reported that there were several Uagp 
bands of bandits well armed and ammunitioned operating in southern Isabela, where they 
were apparently aided b^ all the people and were growing in numbers and power, ^e 
chief being the aforementioned Manuel Tomines, who styled himself a colonel, and having 
as his second in conmiand an American deserter from the Sixteenth Infantry, namea 
Maurice Sibley; that they had between 30 and 40 guns, mostly Krag-Jorgensens and 
Mausers. This report was followed by a request for some officers and men to be sent to 
aid him, sjs he deemed-his force too inadequate and inexperienced to cope with this bandit 
force, which was growing daily. 

Tlie district chief immediately took steps to comply with this request, and taking the 
field in person, arrived in Isabela on January 10 with 7 officers and 173 enlisted men from 
the provinces of Abra, Ilocos Norte, Uocos Sur, and Cagayan. Prior to the arrival of the^se 
men, however, on the night of January 2 Tomines himself began the campaign bv attacking 
the town of Naguilian. His prime object apparently was to kill the justice of the peace, 
Sofior Vicente Cauila, who had fearlessly prosecuted captured members of his band and 
had been instrumental in the capture of 2 rifles. Tomines had two brothers and quite a 
number of other relatives and connections in Nf^ilian, who were continually secretly 
aiding him, although one of his brothers, Silvestre Tomines, was in fact the mum'cipal 
secretary of the town. It is on record that they all aided Tomines's forces in getting into 
the town on the ni^t of the attack. One barrio, called Tomines, and composed of relatives 
mostly of the Tomines family, joined the bandit's forces in a body and entered Naguilian. 
The forees altogether numbered about 200 men. There were between 30 and 40 guns in 
the band. The rest were armed with bolos. 

There was a small detachment of constabulary in the town under command of an acting 
corporal, and the attack was directed simultaneously against them and the house of the 
justice of the peace, who was absent. The small constabulary forces taken by surprise, 
retreated across the river to the west of the town, losing 1 soldier killed in the town. 
The bandits, not finding the justice of the peace at home, ruthlessly murdered his ^*ife, 
riddled his house with bullets, beat one of nis brothers nearly to death, and carried off 
two women servants. 

The constabulary found the justice of the peace on the other side of the river in the 
town of Gamu, and on the following morning tney returned to Naguilian. Upon arriving, 
the justice of the peace went direct to his house to ascertain what the bandits had done, 
and some of the soldiers, about 5, went to the tribunal with the acting corporal to disarm 
the municipal police, whom they had reason to believe aided in the fight a^inst them the 
ni^t before. The brothers of Tomines, with some other people, were m the tribunal 
evidently having a ratification and taking stock when the corporal arrived and stated he 
had come to disarm the police, etc. Silvestre Tomines became very abusive immediately 
and threatened the corporal, who started to go up into the tribunal, whereupon Silvestre 
grabbed a police shotgun from the rack and fired point-blank at the corporal, who avoided 
the shot, however. Several constabulary with the corporal fired about this time at Silvestre 
and several others who had grabbed arms and run to his assistance, and a genera] fusilade 
began. Silvestre Tomines, together with Alejandro Tomines, a cousin of Manuel, the 
bandit, Francisco Acosta, brother to wife of Tomines, Benito Acosta, also cousin, and 
Espiridion Landay, lieutenant of the barrio of Tomines, had come into the town en masse 
with the bandits the night before. The vice-presidente, Romualdo Komena, was in the 
tribunal, but stated that when he saw Silvestre Tomines fire through the door at the corporal 
and the general shooting began, he jumped out of the window. He was implicated himself, 
but turned state's evidence and stated that Tomines's brothers and other relatives in the 
town had aided him in every way possible. St^veral other eyewitnesses of the affair the 
night before also testified that they nad seen Silvestre Tomines, his cousin, and also Fran- 
cisco Acosta, in company with the bandits on the night with guns in their hands and states! 
the kinds of guns they had. One municipal policeman also made the same statement. 

It was undoubt^ly a good thing for the province of Isabela and the whole Cagayan 
Valley that these men brought about their own killing as they did, for they were all notori- 
ously bad, were against the government and doing everything in their power to aid the 
Tomines insurrection both openly and underhandcKl. 

The attempt was made by an unscrupulous American lawyer and his retainers, mostly 
Ilocanos interested in land questions and other deals with the'native Cagayanes and Taba- 
calera Company, to show tnat this was simplv a tribal war, but nothing could have been 
farther from it as there were Cagavanes and Ilocanos on both sides, although the justice 
of the peace is a Cagayan while the Tomines clan are Ilocanos. I might here state the 
grandfather of Cauilan (the justice of the peace of Naguilian) brou^t the grandfather of 
the Tomines tribe from Ilocos Norte in peonage with several other Uocano families and 
placed them on ground, gave them implements and cattle with which to till their ground, 
and gave them such consideration that in the course of several years he was independent 
himself. It must be said that the Ilocanos are hard workers and this family grew and 
prospered. Some question arose after the death of the old man, however, which created 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 107 

had blood between the families of Cauilan and Tomines, which has existed until to-day, 
and as each family has a strong following, makes the matter to be considered. However, 
the Cauilans have shown themselves to be with the government and the other element 
undoubtedly have not been; but as there are Cagaj^anes and Ilocanos in both factions, 
the tribal war question must be left entirely out. Neither were politics nor town elections 
the cause of the trouble as had been asserted. 

Prominent Caffayanes and Ilocanos were early found to be badly mixed up in the move- 
ment in the soutn of the province, as well as some Spaniards employed by the Tabacalera 
Company, and early in January some 45 persons were arrested by Lieutenant Greene: 
This number included the following ^^principales" and influential men in the province: 
Ambrosio Logan, Marcos Baccay , Ignapio Flores, Victorino Cruz, Bernardo Billamil, Santiago 
San Jos^, and Manuel San Jos4. The 3 Spaniards arrested were Francisco Balbas, Francisco 
Martinez and Teodoro Galvis, all agents of the Tabacalera Company. The above were 
all convicted of aiding and abetting the ladrones before the court of first instance except 
Teodoro Galvis, who was acquitted. The Tabacalera Company was not, as a company, 
found to be mixed up in the affair. 

Inspector of Fiscals James Ross came up from Manila the latter part of Januaiy to make 
investigations and aid in the prosecutions, and was untiring in his efforts. His services 
were very valuable in putting down the trouble. 

The campaign dragged along until March without much result. A great many captures 
and arrests were made during this time, and it appeared as if the provincial jail would not 
hold all the prisoners. Meanwhile the Vigan mutmy affair came off, and the district chief, 
who had gone down to attend to some official business there, became mixed up in it and 
stayed and aided in winding it up, which, however, took only eleven days. He immediately 
returned to Isabela, where things had lagged somewhat, and took vis^orous hold of affairs 
there, with the result that by March 30 the "Isabela insurrection," as it had been called, 
was also completely wound up, terminating virtually with the capture of the bandit chief, 
Manuel Tomines himself, which was accomplished on the night of March 27. 

The bandits had been pressed very hard and Tomines and Sibley had separated, the former 
taking most of the rifles with him. His band was hit several times very hard and his men 
had begun to leave him and surrender. Several were captured with their arms while in the 
barrios endeavoring to get food. 

On March 21 Sergeant Botol, with a mixed detachment of Abra and Isabela constabulary, 
struck Tomines in the barrios of Mallid, jurisdiction of Cagayan, and after a short fight 
routed the whole band, capturing 2 Krag-Jorgensen rifles, 3 Mauser rifles, and 1 Remington 
rifle, 3 Krag belts, 1 constabulary belt, and 588 rounds of ammunition, together with 2 
boxes of clothing. Sergeant Botol is of the Isabela constabulary, and the above is men- 
tioned because it had been reported to Manila at the time when someone wanted scouts sent 
up to Ilagan that the Isabela constabulary force worked harder, more cheerfully, and 
snowed more loj^alty in Isabela than the constabulary of that province. Too much credence 
should never be given to the remarks or recomracnaations of inexperienced persons. 

On the night of March 27 Tomines himself was captured, wliue making a visit to his 
brother's house in Naguihan to get food and clothes. The capture was effected by Lieuten- 
ants McLean and Collins, with Subinspector Ferrandez and 2 enlisted tften. Sotice was 
received late at night and the above went immediately to the house and surrounded it. 
Lieutenant McLean entered the house by the back door and Collins by the front, while Fer- 
randez and the 2 men stood on guard outside. Tomines was found sitting on the edge of 
a bed with his revolver in his hand, but was apparently dozing. McLean jumped across the 
room and wrenched away his revolver before he could fire. Tlie two rolled to the floor 
together, and McLean probably choked the bandit longer than ho should. The first words 
he used, however, after McLean's pressure had been removed was to mention the name of 
the Savior in English. This was aoout all they could get out of him that night and he con- 
tinued repeating it. He afterwards stated that he had been taught that expression by the 
deserter Sibley, and also told them the next day where he had hidden 13 rifles when his 
band had brofcen up. He does not deserve the credit for this information, however, as one 
of the men captured with him gave the information before him. The 13 rifles were secured 
the next day by McLean and Ferrandez. They were 7 Krag-Jorgensens, 3 Maus?rs, 2 
Remin0«ns, and 1 Springfield, the latter having been captured by them in the fight at 
Naguilian. 

The total arms captured during the campaign were 11 Krag-Jorgensen rifles, 10 Mauser 
rifles, 6 Remington nfles, 1 Springfield carbme — a total of 28 rifles. Three revolvers were 
also captured and 1 presented. Tomines's entire band was captured or killed, except 5 
men who are now with Sibley. Tomines has been sentenced to death and Is now in Bilibid 
with most of his followera and supporters. 

Sibley, with 5 men, \b now back in the mountains from Dumabato and has taken with him 
all the people from the liongote rancherias or towns of Dumabato, Mangrad, Tamsi. Pani- 
pagan, and C'Sgadangnn. These people are the ones vho sheltered and protected him and 
the guns he has guarded since the insurrection. He is married into their tribe and wields 



108 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

a strong influencd over them. When Tomines was captured he went hack to them and the 
headmen and mhabitants have all gone back into the mountains with him. It is believed 
unwise to ^dopt stringent measures against this whole tribe except as a last resort. 

Captain Long has taken 6 or 8 ex-commissioners for I^rrotcs imder the Spanish govern- 
ment, and friends of the people of long standing, back mto the mountains m an endeavor 
to confer with Chiefs Consuil and Unmen in order to explain to them the necessity of return- 
ing to their homes and surrendering to the authorities this enemy of the government. The 
fourth district chief has studied Igorrotcs considerably, and at times drastic measures of 
necessity have to be ussd against them. In case this mission fails by conference and pres- 
ents to oring about the capture of this man, his influenco will grow and extend into the 
Vizcaya Igorrotes, who are oad enough already. 

Tomines made a very complete statement to the district chief after his capture. This 
statement is believed to be true in most respects and some extracts are given below. The 
whole statement can not be given in this report. Suffice it to say that he went to Manila 
in January, 1903, where he met the revolutionary "ring," who primed him up in proper 
manner for the part he was to play in Isabela. 

" He came back to Isabela in May on the BunuaUf and in about four weeks or a little more 
after his return Fidel Lipa and Isidro Justo came up from Manila via Nueva Vizcaya. TTiey 
met in a house or camarin belonging to Lucio Valensuela, near Marauiraui. Ambrosio 
Logan and Maurizio Sibley were called. These men, when they found Tomines, told him 
they had come from the persons with whom he had conferred m Manila; that he did not 
wish to commit himself in any way before they had demonstrated who they were, so he 

asked, 'Who?' and they answered^ .' Tftien they showed him a paper authorizing 

them to organize forces; that this paper was signed 'A Ricarte, general-in-chief.' He saw 
the letter and signature and studied it well. The papers stated that they should go to . 
Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Union, and otherparts and organize for the new revolution. Oper- 
ations were to begin in January, 1904. Tnat Lipa, after signing his name, placed below it 
the symbolic word 'laurel,' and that Justo added the word 'canela' (names of flowers). 
That at the meeting near Marauiraui he, Tomines, was elected to be chief of the Cagayan 
Valley, with the rank of colonel, and Sibley third, with the rank of major. Ignacio Flores 
was made commissary, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. After the meeting the two 
emissaries left. He docs not know whether they went to Aparri or south. That Logan 
afterwards gave him his star as colonel. That he and Sibley went from Marauiraui to 
Quinalabase and from there to Bacabac, a rancheria of Ilongotcs near Naguilian, and kept 
between these places until the last of October, when they came down the river further to 
ascertain the attitude of the people better. His guns were arms that had been retained 
out and hidden by Col. Raymundo Jeciel when he presented himself to Major Allen, of the 
Sixteenth Infantry, at Ecnague. These guns were guarded by Sibley, up about Dumabato. 
Sibley had been an officer with Jociel. They were mostly Krass and Mausers. Some had 
been captured in the valley and others had been brought in irom other provinces, some 
from Nueva Vizcaya and others from Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur. 

"Tliat in conformance with his instructions he began operations on January 3, 1904, by 
attacking the constabulary garnson at Naguilian. That he thought he would have only 
the constabulary of Isabela to deal with, but they were brought in from other provinces, and 
he was chased so that his men began to desert him and others were captured, and after 
Sibley left southward he was compelled to bury some of his arms. That on the night of 
March 27 he went to his father's house to get some clothes to wear and something to eat and 
was captured." 

No further trouble will occur in Isabela for some time to come, as the province has been 
taught a very severe lesson. Governor Dichoso, who is a native Cagayan, was very loyal 
and tireless in his efforts to aid the district chief, riding with the latter night after night over 
the province between the different towns, haranguing them and using his utmost endeavor 
to get them in line. Some of the towns were badly affected, and considerable credit is due 
Governor Dichoso, who is very loyal and not the weakling that some would paint him. It 
was lamented that he was relieved so soon after success had been secured, largely through 
his tireless aid. 

The new governor of Isabela, George Curry, has taken hold and will undoubtedly make 
a good governor. Too much attention can not be paid to the wild tribes and people of 
Isabela, who number thousands and have been almost totally neglected since American 
occupation. In this connection attention is respectfully invited to their government. 



Disposition of constabulary June 30 ^ 1904. — San Fernando: Capt. E. R. Higgins, senior 
inspector; Third Lieut. R. A. Duckworth-Ford, supply officer; 5/ men. Bangar: Subin- 
speetor Angel Bemal, 12 men. Rabon: Third Lieut. Jeremiah Sullivan, 16 men. Nagui- 
ban: 15 men. Total, 4 stations, 4 officers, 100 enlisted men. Authorized strength, 100. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 109 

Expeditions and patrols, 1 ; miles covered, 200; engagements, none; outlaws killed, none; 
outlaws wounded, none; outlaws captured, none; arms and ammunition captured, none; 
other property captured or recovered, none; constabulary casualties, none; arms lost by 
constaoulary, none. 

The condition of this province is peaceful. No influence from the late trouble in Ilocos 
Sur has manifested itself here. Smallpox has bsen prevalent in some sections to a consid- 
erable extent. Small fires have been reported in several of the towns of the province, but 
nothing of an incendiary nature. The municipal police of the province, under the control 
and supervision of the constabulary, are rendering very excellent service as policemen in 
the different towns. Municipal ordinances are being enforced and the people in general 
have more confidencs in the protection afforded. Some of the presidentes, nowever, long 
accustomed to us3 the police as servants and private messengers, are slow to bcins accus- 
tomed to the new police system. This was painfully evidenced in a deplorable snooting 
and killing of the presidente of the town of Santo Tomas, Seflor Luis Basco, by a corporal 
of the municipal pcfKce of that town on July 28. On that date Corporal Juan Alisance, of 
the municipal police, was on duty at the police quarters as corporal of the guard. The 
police Quarters are situated directl.y under the town tribunal. The presidente sent his 
muchacno below to the corporal aslung for a policeman to go on an errand. The corporal 
told the muchacho to 'inform the presidente tnat if he desired a policeman he must s^nd a 
note in writing to that effect. Shortlj^ after, the presidente's boy returned with the same 
request verbally. The corporal this time informed the bov that he was but the corporal 
of the g|iiard and had no authority to send a policeman without an order from his superior 
or a written re(}uest from the presidente, which he might show his chief as authority for 
sending the pohceman. When the presidente was so informed he came down stairs nim- 
self in a rage and demanded the policeman from the corporal immediately. The corporal 
repeated what he had already told the muchacho, whereupon the presidente began beating 
the corporal with an umbrella and struck him across the face. The corporal, upon being 
thus attacked, drew his pistol and shot the presidente, killing him almost instantly. These 
are the facts attested to by the corporal, the sentry, and two other policemen who were on 
duty at the quarters at the time. 

'the corpora] imdoubtedly acted very hastily. At any rate, he could easily have avoided 
shooting tne presidente, as it was not absolutely necessary in self-defense. The corporal 
was tried by the court of first instance, and as evidence was produced by the presidente's 
friends that the corporal had previously threatened his life, he was convicted and sentenced 
to fifteen years' imprisonment. The case has been appealed, as no confidence whatever 
was placed by the constabulary authorities of the province in the testimony given by the 
presidente's witnesses, and it is believed their testimony will prove false. It is further 
believed that a decision against the action of one of tne municipal police at this time, 
who, in line of duty, perhaps too hastily exposes himself, would undo a great deal of the 
work we are endeavoring to build up in elevating the character and independence of the 
poorer class against the corroded influence of tne other ^'principale" class. 

The crops in the province of La Union have been excellent during the year. The rice 
crop recently harvested is the largest the people have known for years. The untiring 
efforts of the people to exterminate locusts prevented that pest from doin^ much damage. 
The storm of October 25 destroyed quite a number of buildings in the province, but did not 
damage the crops much. The province is badly in need of bridges on the main road along 
the coast leading north from San Fernando, hardly any of which are passable at present. 
The new governor, Senor Joaquin Luna, was inaugurated on March 7, and the recent 
municipal elections are thought to have resulted most admirably for the future of the prov- 
ince. The presidentes are all of the better class of Filipinos, being young and energetic, 
and a great many speak English. Much activity on their part for the good of the province 
is looked for. 

LEPANTO-BONTOC. 

DisposUum of eonstabylary, June 30^ 1904- — Cervantes: Capt. C. E. Nathorst, senior 
inspector; Third Lieut. D. R. Wilcox, supply officer, 31 men. Bon toe: Subinspector 
Santii^o Robles, 32 men. Lubuagan: Second Lieut. Harry E. Miller, 25 men. Alilem: 
Third Lieut. Arthur J. IrwJ^, 12 men. San Emilio: 8 men. Concepcion: 8 men. Quinali: 
5 men. Detached service: Fourth district band, 5 men; from Iloex>s Sur, Second Lieut. 
Harry E. Miller. Total, 7 stations, 5 officers, 126 enlisted men. Authorized strength, 165. 

Expeditions and patrols, 22; mile^ covered, 1,672; engagements, 3; outlaws killed, 1; 
outlaws wounded, unknown; outlaws captured, none. Arms and ammunition captured, 
1 shotgun, 1 Spanish rifle, 30 rounds Krag. Other property recovered, 5 carabaos, 3 ponies, 
1 cow. Constabulary casualties, 1 killed, 1 wounded. Arms lost by constabulary, none. 

Conditions in this interior mountain province are very good. The inhabitants are nearly 
all Igorrotes, with a sprinklinjg of Ilocanos. The. greatest difficulty encountered by the 
constabulary of this province is in transportation of their supplies to and from the coast. 



110 REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

The suppKes for this purpose ftre unloaded at San Esteban^ Locos Sur, and at present are 
carried inland by Igorrote carriers. This system, however, is very unsatisfactory and 
expensive. Requisition has been made for a pack train for this worK, and if the number 
asKed for in the requisition is supplied it will do away entirely with the unreliable and 
expensive Igorrote carrier system. 

In the month of November the district chief made an extended, and what proved to be 
a very interesting, trip through the savage, remote mountain district in the back country 
of the two provinces of Abra and Lepanto-Bontoc. The start was made from Banguea, 
Abra, on November 21. The Cordillera Real was crossed on the 2Gth. The party then 
went down the Saltan River countiy as far as Balbalasan, visiting on the way the towns of 
Bucay, San Jose, Manabo, Lamao, Lingcy, and Tu-i. Balbalasan is where a constabulary 
post nad been recommended placed by Captain Nathorst, who was the only official from 
Lepanto-Bontoc who had ever visited that section. From Balbalasan the party was com- 
pelled to take up its travel afoot, as horses could not be taken fartl^er. The route lay 
through the towns of Gadang, Guinaan, Poapo, and Lubuagan. Thanksmving Day was 
spent crossing the Cordillera Real, and the Cordillera Central was crossed November 28, 
tne partr climbing from daylight until 8 p. m., and reaching an altitude of about 6,500 
feet. The people were extremely friendly in all the towns except Lubuagan, where they 
almost showed open enmity, fiy treating them in a very friendly way, however', and 
making them little presents, we gained their friendship and were fairly well treated during 
our stay, which was only overnight. Our route lay from there through Mabontoc, Bangued, 
Tinglaycn, thence do\iTi to Bontoc, the old capital of that province. The party struck 
the coast again at Candon. The district chief arrived at Vigan on December 16. 

The expedition was extremely instructive. An American fiae was presented to each 
wild Igorrote town, and presents were also made of brass wire, red cloth, pipes, gee strings, 
and otiier stuff to the people as we passed along. They thought a great aeal of the flags 
in all the towns except the town of Lubuagan mentioned above. At that place the flag 
was presented wth some ceremony to the bacnag,'* or headman, but it was stolen from 
him oy some of his retainers, and when he endeavored to find it he could not do so. The 
people of this town are not very friendly with either Mabontoc or Balbalasan, and are at 
open enmity with Bangued, which is farther down from Mabontoc. At Mabontoc the 
character of the people changed very noticeably, and we were received in a very friendly 
manner. This is due to the fact that this place is visited from time to time by Americans 
from Bontoc. It was intended by the district chief to visit also the Quiangan country of 
Nueva Vizcaya, but on account of the rains this part of the trip had to be canceled. At 
present in these black savage Igorrote districts there is no recognized law except their own 
savage customs which have been prevalent for centuries. The people murder and plunder 
each other at will. They recognize the Government of the United States, but are never 
visited, some of them, and have no directing hand in close touch with them. A constabu- 
lary garrison of some strength has l)een placed at Lubuao^an, which is in charge of Lieutenant 
Miller, a clean, cfTicicnt, and tactful officer. Attention is invited to recommendations given 
at the end of this report for the proper government of these people. 

On the night of Octol)er 25 a terrific rain and wind storm struck the province, lasting 
all the following night and doing considerable damage. An enormous Quantity of water 
fell, more than ever known before. Nine people were reported killed — 5 oeing buried by a 
landslide at Mancayan and 4 drowned at Abayag. Tlie constabulary^ buildings at Cervantes 
were badly damaged. 

On November 14 Captain Nathorst was relieved as senior inspector by First Lieut. E. A. 
Eckman, the former having \)cen assigned to command the province of La Union. In 
May of this year Captain Nathorst was recommended to command Lepanto-Bontoc, how- 
ever, and as he wields considerable influence with the Igorrotes there by virtue of his long 
residence with them, it is thought the little troubles which have cropped out will soon l;o 
regulated. 

Durinoj the month of January several cases of head-hunting were reported from the north- 
em section of Bontoc, and the Heutenant-govemor of the province, Mr. Folkmar, and 
Lieutenant Bennett attempted to apprehend the perpetrators of the depredations, but 
without much it'sult. A detailed statement of this will be found hi the n'port of the 
district chief for the quarter ending ^iarch 31, 1S04. 

In the Asin and Quiangan Valley districts, which lie across the lioundar}' in Nueva 
Vizcaya Province, the Igorrotes arc of tlie very worst type. That district being so isolated, 
tliey are seldom visited by any other Igorrotes or anvone else, and it Ls well known that 
any Igorrote driven from a Lepanto or Bontoc town for misconduct or crime usually t.akcs 
up his residence there, where it is hard to ferret him out, as he is generally protected b}^ 
the many shady characters who live there. News travels verj* fast amon^; them, and tliey 
are aware as soon as a strange person, Igorrote or other, sets foot in their .section. They 
have quite a number of arms, some of them Krags and Mausers, which they apparently 
take good care of and use them when any intruders come into their territory. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. Ill 

ConsiderftUe trouble from time to time has espedally been caused by the Igorrotes of 
Guines, Nueva Vizcava Province, coming over ttie divide into Bontoc, making repnsala 
and carrying off heacu of the Bontoc villagers. These Guines peoi^e are Mayayaos, and 
their special energies seem to be directed against the town of Balangao in Bontoc and not 
fiar from Guinea, but two or three days' march from Bontoc over an almost impassable 
trail. The town of Guines hea about 12 miles beyond the eastern boundary of Bontoc into 
Nueva Vizcaya. The exact location was not known until Lieutenant Miller, who recently 
made a trip over there, made his report. Miller thinks the teniente of "pusijes" (an 
Igorrote corruption for "fusiles," which in English means guns) mentioned m his report 
is probably an ex-insurgent renegade who has nutde^his retreat in that district for some 
time, and naa gained some influence by virtue of a few guns, and has gathered some Igorrote 
warriors around him as a combination for defense and ofTense. It is understood that 
there are now constabulary posts at Quiangan and Banauey, in Nueva Vizcaya Province. 
These detachments are well placed to keep law and order there and in the vicinity of Guines, 
and it is hoped that these people will now bo prevented from making further raids over 
into Bontoc. 

When notice of the depredations in Bontoc b^^ these Nueva Vizcaya savages was first 
received, the covemor of Nueva Vizcaya was notified bv wire. No answer, however, was 
received from him, and the senior inspector of Lepanto-^ntoc considered he was justified 
in sending some Bontoc constabulary down there. The expedition was a hard one and 
over very bad trails. Lieutenant Miller, who was in command of the detachment, has 
made a very interesting report, in which he describes the way in which these savages fight 
among themselves, and is tne first constabulary officer and undoubtedly the first .Ajnerican 
who has witnessed one of these combats in a manner from which he could make an authen- 
tic report. An extract from Lieutenant Miller's report follows: 

" Tne object of the expedition was to arrest five alzados of the barrio of Guines for whom 
I held a warrant. These five men were charged with the crime of killing and taking heads 
at the barrio of Balangao, Bontoc. It was also the object to get further information con- 
cerning the head-hunting affair and the names of all witnesses of the crime. In their com- 
plaint the people of Balangao stated that the people of Guines had 10 guns and that 2 of 
the victims had been killed by bullet. The people of Guines had made two raids into the 
barrio of Balangao. In the first raid 4 people ot Balangao had been killed, and in the sec- 
ond raid a woman had been killed. All the victims had been decapitated and their arms 
and le^ cut off and taken awajr. 

"With the foregoing meager information, and with a knowledge of the general direction 
of the barrio of Balangao, I started on my way to that barrio at 8.30 a. m., March 12, 1004. 
My force consisted of a detachment of 20 enlisted men of the station of Bontoc, and we 
were accompanied by an Igorrote of the barrio of Talubin who had been recommended to 
me by the lieutenant-^vemor of this subprovince as a man who desired to aid in the sup- 
pression of head-hunting and the preservation of peace among the barrios of this province. 

"At 11.30 a. m.we arrived at the barrio of Talubin, a friendly Igorrote rancheria. At 
Talubin dinner was eaten and enough rice to last the detachment to Bariig was procured, 
and at 1 o'clock sharp we took up tne march. 

"At 525 p. m. a halt was made for the night at a point n?ar the top of the Polis Range, 
which was ttie last place that water could be procured on the trail to Bariig. At 5 a.m., 
'after having eaten breakfast, the detachment was on the climb, and at 6.35 a. m. the top 
of the range was reached. At 7.40 a. m. we were met by the prrsidente of Bariig with an 
escort of about 20 men of hts barrio. At 8.30 a. m. the edge of Bariig was reached. This 
was the first occasion of any troops entering this barrio since the punishment of the barrio 
several months ago by a large detacnment under command of Captain Nathorst, and the 
inhabitants were found prepared to fight, not knowing the object of the expedition. The 
people were told through their presidente that we meant thorn no harm and we would pro- 
ceed on the trail aftc;r dinner. Although the young men and a few of the women were 
desirous of making us trouble, a clash was avoided, and at 1 1 .30 a. m. we were on the march 
to Balangao. The presidente of Bariig, being a friend of the barrio of Balangao, was taken 
with us lor guide and interpreter. 

" When about 3 or 4 mites from Bariig we were overtaken by about 20 Igorrotes from 
that town, who stated that they wished to accompany their presidente. Tht*se men were 
all armed to the teeth and apparently feared that we intended to arrest their presidente. 
Our object was explained to them and they were allowed to accompany us, as it was believed 
that this action would increase their confidence in us, and it was also desired that they 
should know that we wore not afraid of them. It was rather fortunate for us that we had 
been joined by them, as their services were much needed as cargadores of rations during 
the remainder of the trip. At about 5 p. m. we encamped under an overhanging rock on 
a small river in the range between Lais and Balangao. 

"At 6 o'clock on the following morning, March 14, we were on the climb, and at about 
9.30 a. m. we readied the top of the range. Shortly before reaching Balangao we were met 



112 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

by the presidente and about 10 men of that town. Balangao was reached at about 10.30 
a. m.y and the day was spent in investigating concerning the heads which had been taken 
there by the people of Guincs. Information obtained in Bontoc was corroborated by the 
statements of^eycwitnesses to the murder and decapitation. During the evening prepara- 
tions were made for an early start to Guines. Food was prepared and arrangements were 
made that 10 of the Barlig men were to accompany us as cargadores, while the rest were to 
remain at Balangao until our return. As it was necessary to take an interpreter with us 
from the barrio of Balangao, the presidente of that ranchena was asked for one and volun- 
teered himself. Upon l^ine tola that he could not take any of his people with him he 
appeared greatly surprised that a detachment of 20 soldiers should go into Uuines, and said 
that we would certamly all be killfd, as Guines had 2,000 warriors. I explained to him 
that we did not want to fight the Guines people and that I did not think that they would 
be unfriendlv to us. He said that he knew that they would fight us, as they had sent him 
word that tne more soldiers that came the better tney would be pleased, lor they would 
take all our heads. 

''At 4 a. m., March 15, we took up the march to O^nnes, accompanied hj the guide from 
Talubin, the presidente of Barlig, with 8 of his men 'iti oargadores, the presidente of Balan- 
gao, and 1 of nis people to cut out obstructions on the trail. Between Balangao and Guines 
there is a very hieh range of mountains, and the trail led over the highest peak in the range. 
[This range divides Nueva Vizacaya from Bontoc]. This mountain is very steep, and in 
many places we had to pull each other up for several yards and very often had to pull 
ourselves up the trail by the roots of trees. This trail, though bad enough at the begin- 
ning, degenerated into a tangle over the top of the ridge. In several places on this trail 
we found where the Guincs people had camped during their raid. At about 12 o'clock noon 
we reached the top of the mountain and began the descent. When about half way down 
the mountain the baying of dogs- and the crying of the Guincs people were heard below 
us, where they were hunting deer, and at about 1.30 we were seen by them and they gave 
the alarm. iSoon afterward we reached a small river which ran through Guines. At that 
place a Guines ''alzado" was seen near us in a waiting position with his spear poised to 
throw, but who ran when ho saw that we had seen him. As our trail led for some distance 
yet through the tliick wood and underbrush, it was decided to put the detachment through 
at the greatest possible speed, and if possible reach Guines before the alarm could be given 
there. After proceeding a short distance down the ravine my first sei^ant came up to 
tell me that some of the Balangao people were behind us. I halted the detachment, and 
going to the rear found that we had been overtaken by about 10 of the Balangao people, 
whereupon I ordered the presidente of Balangao to take his people and return immediately 
to their barrio. He told me that they refused to go unless I would guard them back, say- 
ing that they were already surrounded in the rear by the Guines people. Finding that 
it would be impossible to get the Balangao people to return without a guard, and the presi- 
dente having promised me that he would not allow his men to menace the Guines people 
in any way, I decided to enter Guines as quickly as possible in the hopes of finding some 
of the men whom I wanted to arrest before the alarm could be given. To turn oack I 
would have had to come in contact with the Guines people, apparently about 30 Guines 
warriors, who were advancing and shaking their spears in a menacing manner. I accord- 
ingly advanced on Guincs as fast as possible, ana after about half an hour emerged into 
an open grassy country. At about 2.30 p. m. we were in plain view of the barrio and could * 
see tne people of Guincs taking the alarm. Many of the uuines people could be seen clos- 
ing in behind us from all directions. Shortly afterwards an old man appeared in front of 
us and told us to 'come on,' and motioning us to advance, but every time we came near 
him he would run off ahead of us motioning us to come after him. We followed him and 
were led to the place where they evidently wanted to get us. The position was perfectly 
satisfactory for the purpose of defense and no alarm wbs felt, as we were among the rice 
terraces, where we could have defended ourselves against thousands. Having halted the 
detachment, several young men of Guincs were seen runnine towards us with a Katipunan 
flag, which they stuck in a rice terrace a short distance below us and came on pi-oressing 
friendship. We received them pleasantly and told them that we were their fnends and 
only on a friendly visit. The mayor of the barrio brought a roll of papers, which 1 exam- 
ined and found they were all Spanish and insuif^ent papers. They explained to me that 
they had a 'teniente,' whom they would call to see me, and whom they said lived in the 
other end of the barrio. We asked to whom the flaf belonged and they said that it belonged 
to the 'tenientc pusijcs,' meaning 'lieutenant of rifles.' They repeated that they had sent 
for him and that he would come soon. 

"Seeing that hundreds of warriors were coming up over the rice terraces below, the 
mayor was directed to tell them to leave their arms, as we were friends. He was answered 
with jeers, and they all began to sing their war songs. Soon afterwards a long line of men 
was seen coming down over the trail over which we had come, and who soon proved to be 
Balangao warriors who had taken advantage of an open trail and followed us at a dis- 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 113 

tance. Affairs had taken a very serious turn, but this could not have been foreseen, for 
Balangao was buried in sleep wnen we left it. The presidente of Balangao was directed 
to take his men back to Balangao immediately, and was told that if ho allowed his men to 
attacJc the men of Guinea I would fire on the Balangao warriors. He tried to turn his men 
back, but his attempts were unavailing and his warriors soon began to arrive. One of their 
leaders explained to me that he thought we would all be killed and had come to our aid. 
The presiaente soon returned to me and said that his men were afraid to return unless we 
.coula guard them back. While we were trying to get the Balangao p3ople turned back 
one of their warriors came up to me shouting that one of the Guines warriors had attacked 
him, but he had killed him, and showed me a gaping wound in his head. They had encoun- 
tered the Guines warriors, who had clo8:d in behind us. The Balangao warriors were at 
last turned back, their presidente being promised that we would prevent the Guines people 
from advancing from below us, it being our intention to remain at Guines. It was believed 
that the Balanfi^ao warriors could very safely return to their barrio without being attacked, 
as they were aoout 600 or 700 strong, while we could prevent the main body of warriors 
of Guinea from attacking them, as they were below us on the rice terraces. 

"The mayor of Guines was caused to explain to the Guines people that the Balangao 
people would return to their barrio, and that if they attacked them we would fire on them. 
This was answered with jeers, ana the soldiers explained to me that the Guines people 
were saying 'wait until to-night, wait until to-night,' and that some were saying that they 
would *soon have our rifles,* and that their 'tenientc would soon come.' 

''About this time a large body of Guines warriors was seen to break from the high grass 
upon the retiring Balangao warriors. I attempted to place my detachment between the 
assailants and the assailed, but it was necessary to cross a number of rice terraces which 
were blocked in places by the Balangato people. When within a few yards of the scene 
of the combat, and two terraces above it, we could go no further, as many of the Balangao 
warriors were trying to retreat over the same terrace. Although I tried to stop the fight- 
ing by shouting at them and threatentng them, my voice was drowned in the nois?, and 
hiul they been able to hear me they could not have understood me. While in that posi- 
tion two of the Balangao warriors were killed by their opponents within a few yards of me. 

"The fighting was m the form of duels, two and two fighting, while the other warriors 
would not interfere. The combatants did not throw their spears, but thrust with them 
and guarded with their shields. After one of the combatants was down the other was 
allowed to finish killing him. In one case the victor was seen to twist his spear in tl^ body 
of the unfortunate opponent. In several cases one of the opponents being wounded would 
make his way back to his friends alive. 

" I was unable to stop the fighting, being blocked in my progress. A large number of 
Guines warriors was seen a short distance away and advancing from below. It was decided 
to turn them back bv firing in front of them. This ruse proved successful, and they re- 
treated after a few snots had been fired close in front of tnem, whereupon all the Guines 
warriors who were making the attack on the Balangao people retreated also. 

" The Balangao people, fearing to return by the same trail over which they had come, 
crossed a comer oi the barrio to gain another trail. They burned all the houses in their 
progress. This I was unable to prevent, as we could not make much progress across the 
terraces, and one of my cargadores from Barlig, having been speared through the leg, had 
to be carried. A small sauad of my detachment, having at tne beginning of the assault 
been ordered to seize the Katipunan flag, had not yet returned. Upon the arrival of the 
squad the flag was taken by me and we proceeded as fast as possible after the Balangao 
people to prevent further destruction of houses, but did not come up with them until they 
nad reached the ed^ of the barrio, where they all stopped, fearing to go farther, as hundreds 
of the Guines warnors could be set^n on the mountam ahead. 

"As it was nearly sunset it was decided to camp in Guines for the night, and it was evident 
that the Balangao people must be guarded home to prevent a catastrophe. An excellent 
camping place was found near by, on the end of a small spur of the mountain, which was 
flanked on three sides by the rice terraces. In this campins place the Balangao people were 
assigned to one side, while my detachment, with the cargadores, occupied the most exposed 
side. The camping place, bemg only about 30 yards in width, was quite crowded, though 
easily guarded. 

"Two of the Balangao warriors came up to me to have spears removed from their legs, 
each one having a spear driven to the halt in one leg. As the spears were barbed, it was 
necessary to remove the hafts and force the spear on through the leg, but both operations 
were performed successfully and both men were able to walk the next day. A young 
Balangao warrior of about 12 years of age, who had had one hand almost severed at the 
wrist, was brought to roe, but nothing could be done for him, as the bones had been cut 
smooth and he was dying from loss of blood. 

" It was foond that 3 of the Balangao warriors had been killed, one of whom was the son 
of the presidente of Balangao. Of these, 2 had been decapitated and left on the field, and 

WAR 1904— VOL 13 8 



114 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

the third, the presidente's sod, had been seized br the Balangao people before he could be 
decapitated and had been brought into camp. Four of the Balangao warriors had been 
severeiy wounded and a lai^ number lightly wounded, and one of my cargadores had been 
seriously wounded. With the exception of 1 warrior, who had been killed earlier in the 
evening on the trail, none had been Killed. One of tlie Guines warriors was seen to retreat 
with a spear in one ankle, however. The number of houses burned by the Balangao people 
is estimated at 30. 

"An interesting custom of the Balangao pec^le was observed at dusk, when they estab- 
Ibhed an outpost. A squad of about 10 men were sent a short distance in advance of their 
camp. After sharpening a number of sticks about 4 feet in length, they placed them a few 
yards in advance of their position, slanting outward in such a manner that the sharpened 
points would no doubt kill or seriously wound anyone who should run against them m the 

" During the eariier hours of the night nothing occurred of importance, though the Guines 
warriors were seen within 100 yards of our camp on the hillside, singing their war songs and 
challenging us to come out, and the Balangao warriors were challenging them to come in. 
At about 10 o'clock a spear was thrown into the Balangao outpost, whereupon they ran in. 
Shortly afterwards a spear was thrown among my detachment, wounding a Barlig cargador 
in the back of the neck. Rocks were thrown into camp, but no one was injured by them, 
as all the men except m^ soldiers had shields. At about 12 o'clock a shot was fired into 
camp from the top of a hiU about 50 yards away. No one was bit by. the buUet. While our 
camp was as light as day from the fires which were kept lighted and was packed like sardines, 
no one was hit, althou^ two more shots were fired from different positions very near the 
camp. It is believed that there was but one gun being fired, and that it was nred from 
different positions for effect. 

"In order to weaken the prestige of this 'tcnientc pusijes' among the Guines people, I 
challenged him to fight a duel with me alone, and offered to go out to meet him. He would 
■ot accept my challenge, although it was repeated several times. It is not doubted that I 
ceuld easily have killed him in a duel, but it was known that he would not accept. At about 
3 o'clock in the morning, while standing ud near the edge of the camp and watching one of 
the Guines people who was throwing rocks into camp, a shot was fired at only 6 or 8 yards' 
distance from me, but the bullet went wild. A shot was instantly fired into the darkness, 
which ouietod the Katipunan rifle until daylight. 

"At daylight, March 16, the presidente of Balan^o was informed that he must imme- 
diately prepare to march, and that we would guard his people home. He was also informed 
that my detachment would march in front, rear, or center of his people, as he should elect. 
I was informed that he desired us to march in the rear, as it was the custom of the Guines 
people to close in on the rear of those whom thev attacked on a trail. 

"At about 6 a. m. the son of the presidente of Balangao, who had been killed in a duel the 
evening before, was laid on his shield and shing to two parallel poles. Some of the bravest 
Balangao warriors were chosen to walk near the litter of the dead to prevent the Guines 
people from taking the head of the corpse. 

"Everything bemg prepared, at 6.15 the Balangao people started over the trail, the pres- 
idente in advance, and all singing their war song. At a p<Hnt about 1 mile from the caniping 
ground the Katipunan rifle was fired from a thicket about 200 yards from the trail. From 
that position about 25 shots were fired on the Balangao people as they passed, but upon our 
arrival at that point no more shots were fired. The Katipunan 'lieutenant of rifles' was 
again challengea to sinsle combat, but did not answer. 

"Shortly before reaching this point a spear was thrown at the detachment commander 
from the high grass above the trail. This spear was brought in, with the Katipunan flag, 
and is a very peculiar specimen, having six barbs. 

"Shortly afterwards a spearman arose to throw a spear, when a soldier instantly firod at 
him. He was seen to be carried away by his companions and it is l^elieved was killed. 

"Nothing of importance occurred after this event, although the Guines warriors followed 
us at a short distance for several miles. The Balangao people were not molested ou the 
trail, though the presidente was seriously wounded in the loot by a sharpened stick planted 
in the traih 

"On the following day we marched to Barlig and encamped there overnight. The Barlig 
people were very fnendly to us. TTie following day, March 18, my detachment arrived at 
Bontoc. 

" It is believed that there is but one insurgent at Guines, who has perhaps been there ever 
since Aguinaldo passed through in his flight through this country. There is apparently but 
one Me, which is no doubt a muzzle-loader, as it took from two to three minutes to load. 
If there are more rifles they were not fired. 

"The enlisted men of my detachment behaved excellently and did perfect hiking. It 
was found that the soldiers do most excellent hiking when dressed in khaki hats, blue 3iirta, 
and gee-stringSy the trousers not being worn." 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 115 

These saTt.gee of the Qaiaogftii district are very hostile, as Lieutenant Miller's repwi 
shows, and ^ould be taken in hand by the Nueva Visca^a constabulary. 

The constabulary of Lenanto>Bontoc, upon being apprised of the Vigan mutikiy, accord- 
ing to instraotioos inuneoiateiy blocked all trails leading into tho interior. The senior 
inspector states that his men, wno are mostly Igorrotes, were very anxious to meet the rene- 
^|ades and ^ow them what they could do with the guns the Americans had giren them. It 
18 the first time in the history of their country that the Igorrotes themselves have been 
trusted with guns. Some hundreds of them were taken down to Manila during the insur- 
rection and were sent up against the Utah Battery, near Oaloocan, armed with tneir spears^ 
axes, and wooden fields. What happened to them was plenty, so far as they were coi^- 
cemed, and they have never forgotten it and are only too anxious for an opportunity to get 
eten some time with their new guns on the low-country Filipinos who took them down there. 

The province is still repairing roads and trails leading from Bontoc to Barlig, and from 
BoDtoc northward, as well as to the Amburayan district. 

BECOMMENnATlONS. 

CONSTABULART. 

Uniformg, — In the matter of uniforms it is recommended that only the canvas and tan 
thoe be issued, to be worn with leggings. It is recommended that leggings be issued 
throu^out to the entire constabulary in sufficient quantity to make them available at all 
times and in all formations as a part of the uniform. The high-top shoe has proved, as a 
general rule, unsatisfactory for our service in this district, and the legging, whether issued 
or not, is invariably procured in some manner by most of the men and used, as they desire 
them very much for use in the field and on marches. For formation and parades the brown 
canvas legging, worn with brown canvas shoes, makes a very pleasing effect. 

It is also recommended that the regular 3-ineh-brim felt campaign hat, to be worn with 
a red cord, be adopted for use in the constabulary, instead of the narrow-rim canvas hat, 
which affords very" little protection from the sun, as the rim is very narrow and the crown 
very low. The hi^Hcrown, 3-inch-brim felt hat is much more desirable for the constabulary, 
in ocHisideration of the general field duties performed by them. 

Ration*. — ^It is recommended that the enlisted men be rationed with a fixed ration in 
kipd, as is done with the scouts. Hiis appears to be the only satisfactory system that will 
meet the test in all localities and under all ccxiditions. If men were rationed in kind it 
would insure a better quality of food and a more regular supply. Two-thirds of the army 
ration is thought to be no more than sufiBcient. Tlie savings from this ration could then 
be used for improving messes in general, and accounts oi same should be kept, the same as a 
company fund in the United States Army, and might be used in buying conveniences, etc., 
upon the recommendation of the senior inspector to the district chief. Men traveling should 
be given 40 cents Philippine currency per day. 

It is thought that the above arrangement would create l)etter satisfaction among the men 
in genera] and, although creating necessity for somewhat more transportation, would in the 
end probably prove more economical andf for the general betterment of our service. 

Forage. — Kecognizing that there was need for an alteration, somewhat, of the present 
forage allowance, at least for the fourth cfistrict, the district chief appointed a board of 
officers to investigate, report upon, and make recommendations in the premises. The 
report of this forage board nas just been received and will be forwarded under separate cover. 

The general opinion is that the allowance of grass, as provided by Executive Order No. 
73, is not enough, while the grain component is quite adequate. In the recommendations 
submitted by some senior inspectors it is stated that the combinations fixed in mentioned 
order is not practicable io their provinces. The opinion is held that these combinations can 
be changed, however^ using any two components found best adapted to conditions in the 
different localities. 

In refierence to the inadequate allowance of grass, it was found that in Abra, and in Vigan, 
and other places where they pretend to take good care of their horses, they feed about 5 
pounds of grain and about 50 pounds of grass per horse per day, and that after soaking tho 
ptan in water before feeding, a small quantity of crude molasses ("miel," as it is styled) 
IB mixed with it. 

General Orders, No. 48, Headquarters Department of the Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 
dated Manila, P. I., September 15, 1899, made the following allowance for native ponies 
per day: Six pounds paddy, 3 pounds tiqui-tiqui, 1^ pounds miel, 35 pounds grass. 

The above allowance, as compared with the present allowance for native ponies, is ridic- 
ulously large, or else ours is likewise small. We have no allowance for miel or even salt. 
The opinion is held that the best staple forage for our horses, considering the nature of their 
work, is palay and grass, and liberal, not extravagant, allowance of Doth. Our present 
allowance of griMSs, 2@ pounds, is not even as laige as the allowance for grass in the general 
orders mentioned, leaving out of consideration the other ingredients in that order. The 



116 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

allowance of grass for native ponies should be increased to at least 40 pounds per day, and 
the Chinese or Australian horses to 50 pounds. 

In provinces where com is fed the horses do not do as well, and it is thought com is too 
heating. To those provinces it is thought palay should be shipped from Ma^a. 

In purchasing palay care should be tucen that the price given is for threshed palay, as in 
most provinces where palay is purchased it is done up in bundles with half of the stalk 
attached, and of course sells much chea])er, as it is half straw. A mistaken idea is thus 
conveyed that palay is extremely cheap in some provinces, when in reality it is dear, and 
palay might better be shipped. The district chief keeps two native ponies in good condition 
Dv buying 50 pounds of grass extra each day. It is hoped that efficient persons may be 
chosen to regulate this question of forage, and that it may be done at an early date. 

MUNICIPAL POLICE. 

It is recommended that the municipal police in all provinces be removed from the absolute 
control of the presidentes of the dinerent towns, and provincial police in general be placed 
in a separate corps by themselves by legislation of the Commission; that this corps of 
provincial and municipal police have a higher officer in Manila to be general superintend- 
ent of police; that regulations governing tne oi^anization and governing of the police be 
ysent out from Manila; that the police of a province be indirectly under the senior inspector 
of the province, and directly under an officer of constabulary detailed in each province as 
inspector of police ; that the police be called ' ' provincial police, * ' and be supported by the 
province, if possible, if not, by the insular government, or in part by the province and in 
part by the insular government. These ponce should be uniformed alike in all provinces, 
that they may be recognized as police by a person traveling from one section of the country 
to the other. At present the police are generally under the power of the presidentes all over 
the archipelago. They wear a hundred different kinds of uniforms, according to the artistic 
flourish or fancy of the particular presidente under whom they ser\'e, and their efficiency is 
likewise guagcd according to the good or bad intentions or mood of the presidente under 
whom they serve. 

In some provinces where the police have been placed under the inspection and control of 
the constabulary there had been signal success. In other provinces the governor and presi- 
dentes are opposed to this, for the season that it does not give them sufficient power in their 
machinations and coercions of the Tao class of people to follows their absolute desires in evefy 
matter, whether for the general public good or for private gain. 

A slight study of these conditions will make the matter ver}*^ clear to anyone interested . In 
this connection, attention is respectfully invited to the recommendations made by the 
fourth district chief in his report for the quarter ending September 30, 1903. 

GOVERNMENT OF lOORROTES AND HILC TRIBES OF THE INTERIOR. 

At present there are vast districts where there is no recognijsed law except the savage 
customs of the people which have prevailed for centuries. Many of the people are never 
visited, some of them, no doubt, never having seen white men, and at present there is no 
directing hand in close touch with them. A part of them have heard ot and recognize the 
Government of the United States. Others have made pueblos and towns and have a 
presidente, or headman, who, at some time or other, has been presented with a cane by one 
or the other of the governors or lieutenant-governors who have held sway at different times 
in the province of Lepanto-Bontoc. 

The repeated changing of lieutenant-governors of the Bontoc district, it is believed, is 
having a very bad effect on the people, owing to their indiscretion in the handling and their 

f general ignorance of the people, their customs and the country in general. The third 
ieutenant-governor who held sway in the subprovince of Bontoc gave a native, who had 
committed murder, his complete liberty, after a farce of an examination in his justice court, 
which, of course, had no jurisdiction for trial of such cases. This native was rearrested and 
held for trial afterwards to the court of first instance by the fiscal of the mountain district, 
and the murderer was given twelve years by Judge Buritt. 

The real authority of a lieutenant-govemor in one of the subprovinces does not have very 
great weight with those savage people anyway. The headmen and others generally have 
come to constabulary officers, wfiom they recognize as the men in power, as they command 
the police force, which they recognize above ever}' thing else. The lieutenant-eovemors 
upon their arrival call the people together and have a powwow, the effect of which is lost upon 
the people, as they have had numerous powwows of this character within the last year 
or so. 

The influence exerted over these people by having their young men enlist in the military 
police has been very great. The young men so enlisted have taken given and surnames, 
nave cut their hair (which is a very extraordinary thing), have taken the rings off their ears 
and off their legs and arms, wash themselves regularly, cat at tables, are learning to read 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 117 

and write, and in fact are becoming pretty well civilized considering the time the constabu- 
lary officers have been with them. Those of the soldiers who are married have in most 
instances taken their wives and children from the dirty hovels in which thejr existed before 
their entrance into the constabulary and placed them m very neatly made pine houses, and 
require them to wear clothes like the more civilized tribes. The influence is very great and 
can be seen on all sides. 

It is recommended that a system be inaugurated of officers, appoiiited as our Indian 
agents are appointed at home, but that they be appointed from clean, efficient and tactful 
constabulary officers, to be chosen by the chief of constabulary. That the governor of 
Lepanto-Bontoc be a cxmstabulary officer with the grade of captain or major, and that he 
also have charge of the Bontoc constabulary. That in the different subdistricts there be 
placed tactful constabulary officers, who may be deputy governors ex officio and justices of 
the peace. It is thought that the whole Igorrote. country should be covered in this manner 
and cut out from the different provinces, and an adaptable system of government adopted for 
it. In case it is not desired to make a district by itself, the different sections of the different 

Srovinces might be governed bv a constabulary officer or officers in addition to their other 
uties, as stated above, and so lar as administrative matters are concerned he should be sub- 
servient to the provincial governor of the province in which he serves. This system, it is 
certain, would improve conditions and reduce expenses considerably for the insular govern- 
ment. 

When these people, or some of them, are fully able to hold office, then is the time to insti- 
tute advanced civil government among them; but as long as they are in their savage state 
this should not be done, as the^ care nothing for it, and take it as an uimecessary molestation 
for them. For this reason, it is believed that at present a system of officers apnointed judi- 
ciously from the constabulary, as our Indian agents are appointed at home, wiU accomplish 
better results at a less expense, and the present form of government now in vogue in Lepanto- 
Bontoc and the other districts be administered more efficiently and for a better advance- 
ment of the people. 
Respectfully submitted. 

J. S. Garwood, 
Major and Aasistard Chief, Philippines Constabulary, Commanding Fourth District. 

The Adjutant-Gbner4l, Philippines Constabulary, 

Manila, P. I. 



Aggregate result of operations in the fourth constabulary district. 

Number of expeditions 4C2 

Number of miles covered 26, 475 

Number of engagements 6 

Outlaws killed. 17 

Outlaws captured 86 

Outlaws wounded Unknown. 

Arms captured: 

Cannon 1 

Rifles 36 

Shotguns 3 

Revolvers 9 

Ammunition captured: 

Mauser shells 966 

Rifle ammunition 112 

Krag ammunition 30 

Assorted ammunition (rounds). 62 

Revolver cartridges 6 

Stolen animals recovered: 

Ponies 24 

Carabaos 10 

Cow 1 

Other property recovered: 

Conant ^-1,870.90 

Two watches $50.00 

Jewelry $300.00 

Large amount of quartermaster supplies. 



118 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Numbet and kind of arms an hand in provinces of (he fourth constabulary district, June SO, 

1904. 



Province. 


Shot- 
guns. 


Revolv- Tiiflft. Car- 
ers. ^^^' bines. 


Abn 


62 
15 
75 

148 
1 
12 

100 
47 


96 1 68 


Benguet 


65 

120 
226 
49 
101 


1 47 


C&gftyAD 


1 100 


Ildcos Norte 


53 117 


Ilocos Sur 


' 111 


Isabela 


! 70 


I^ Union -r.r-. -,.--, 


75 ; 65 


Lepanto-Bontoc 


51 ! 1 69 






TotAl 


460 


785 


53 1 647 







Native ponies on hand June 30, 190^. 



Abra. 
Benguet. 



22 

6 

Cagajan 20 

Docos Norte 20 

flocos Sur 27 

Isabela 19 

La Union 17 

Lepanto-Bontoc 16 

Total 147 



Report of the District Surgeon. 

Headquarters Fourth District, Philippines Constabulary, 

Medical Division, 
Vigan, P. /., June 30, 1904. 
Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of the medical 
division in this district for the 6scal year ending June 30, 1904: 

This report must necessarily cover but five months of the year, less eight days, this 
office not naving been established until my arrival, February 7, 1904. 

During this period the health of the command lias been very satisfactory, as will be seen 
from the following statement tabulated from records believed to be accurate: 



Beriberi 3 

Minor ailments 15 

Days lost in hospital 470 

Days lost in quarters 450 

Died 3 



Intestinal diseases 20 

Pulmonary diseases 21 

Surgical diseases 22 

Venereal diseases 18 

Malarial fevers 64 

Dengue 2 

Two of the deaths above referred to were caused by beriberi, both men belonging to the 
constabulary of Isabela. The third was caused by the killing of Private Bautista by the 
Vigan mutineers February 7. 

It will be noted from this report that the malarial fevers have so far been the greatest 
cause of inefficiency. The consensus of medical opinion at present favoring the mosquito 
as the most active, if not the only, medium through which the malarial organism is con- 
yeyod and the disease propagated, the command should be provided with and required by 
order to use mosquito oars. Cots should also be furnished without delay. 

Hospitals. — Two well-eouipped hospitals are in operation in the district, one located 
at Ilagan, Isal^ela, establisoed about a year ago, and the other at Vigan, established March 
15, 1904. Both have rendered most excellent service, and, in my opinion, are a credit 
to the constabulary. 



In my report for the quarter ending March 30, 1604, it was recommended that the 
hoepital at Ilagan be transferred to Tuguegarao, the latter station being nearer a majority 
of tne troops serving in that section of the district. Authority for sucn transfer has since 



been granted, but on account of the difficulty encountered in securing a suitable building, 
it has not as yet been effected. It is believed that the government already has at that 
station sufficient material to build an entirely new house for this purpose, and such action 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 119 

is espectalty urged aa hemg laghfy neeessary to the effieiencj of the medical divisioR. The 
leaaoDs why are too apparent for argument. 

8upjilie$. — Authority has been secured to establish a medical supply depot at these 
headquarters, and requisition for supi^ies sufficient to cover a period of ^x months was 
forwarded some time ago. 

It is thought this plan of supplying provinces remote from the hospitals will prove nnich 
more satisfactory than the present arrangement of sending small requisitions from each to 
Manila at different intervaJb, as much confusion and d»ay in getting supplies to their 
dlestination wiD be avoided. 

The gtrtngih ef ^ division at present is as follows: One surgeon, 1 medical inspector, 
2 corporals, and 20 first-class privates. The medical inspector at Vigan having been 
recently ordered to Manila, the hospital at that station is for the present under the imme- 
diate supervision of this office. Tne inspector in charge at Ilagan is also under orders 
transferring him from the district, and is now awaiting transportation. 

It is hoped and urgently recommended tliat these officers be replaced at the earliest 
practicable moment, as witnout them a maximum of efficiency or even a fair administraticm 
of this division can not be realized. 

Etdigted men. — AD the provinces embraced by the district, with the single exception of 
Benguet, have been suppned with qualified enlisted men of the division who have under- 
gone several months of instruction, and are believed to be capable of attending such of the 
aick as do not require hospital treatment. 

For a more detailed and extended statement of the work accomplished by this divifmm, 
reference ^lould be made to my report for the quarter ending March 31, 1904. 

Respectfully submitted. 
Very respectfully, 

T. C. Walker, 
Capktm and Surgeon, PhUipjnnee C(m9iabularyy District Surgeon. 

The AlXJTTTANT, FOURTI^ DiSTBICT COKSTABULARY, 

Vigan, P. I. 



Rspc^T OF THE District Telegraph Opticer. 

Headquarters Fourth District, Philippines Constabltart, 

Telegraph Divisioif, 
Vigan, P. /., June 30, 1904. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of the telcgra|^ division of the 
fourth district for fiscal year ending June 30, 1904. 

The undersigned took charge of the telegraph division, fourth district, July 21, 1S03, 
'with Third-dass Inspector George Eeech at Baguio, Benguet, Third-class Inspector George 
Bickard at San Fernando, Union, and Third-class Inspector Charles M. Sides at Vigan, 
Ilocos Sur. The telegraph, and telephone Hues in the district upon my arrival were in as 
good condition as possible, considering the force then present to take care of them. W(H'k 
on the reconstruction trf the line from Cabu^ao, Eocos Sur, to Laoag, Ilocos Norte, was 
commenced about the middle of July, but owing to the lack oS material only about 7 miles 
of iron poles had been set up to July 29. Lieutenant Keech was relieved from duty in the 
province of Benguet August 14 for the purpose of superintending the construction work 
in this district, and upon his arrival at these headquarters was placed in charge of the 
reconstruction of the I^oa^ line. Work now progressed rapidly, and as material had been 
sent up from Vigan for this work, the same was completed September 30, 1903. Laoag, 
Currimao, and Badoc offices were opened for business October 1. 

The telegraph line was completed between Cervantes and Bontoc on September 23, but 
owing to bad condition of traus and rivers it was impossible to send a native operator to 
Bontoc to open the telegraph office until the rains were over. 

The changing of the LMag line to iron poles makes a total of 187 miles of constructed 
iron-pole line in this district, from Dagupan to Laoag, Ilocos Norte, aD No. 9 galvanized- 
iroa wira. Branch lines on wooden poles. No. 9 ^vanized-iron wire, Western Union 
standard insulators, are as follows: San Fernando, Union, to Baguio, Benguet, via Baoang, 
20 miles; CandoD, Ilocos Sur, to Bontoc, 55 miles; Vigan to Bangued, Abra, 20 miles; 
total, 105 mOes. Telephone lines in operation are as follows: Bangued, Abra, to San Jose, 
Abra, 15 miles; Laoag, Ilocos Norte, to Dingras, Ilocos Norte, 15 miles; Laoag, Ilocos 
Norte, to Bangui, Ikxoa Norte, 40 miles; total, 70 miles. The total number of miles 
of teleeraph and telephone hnes in the district amount to 362. Between the constabulary 
post <u Bagnotan, Union, and San Fernando there is now in operation a system of Russell 
cut-in tdepbones used on the main telegraph line with condensers, thus doing away with 
the necessity of building an extra line. 



120 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

On July 21, 1903, the following telegraph offices were in operation in this district: San 
Fernando, Union, with branch offices at Santo Tomas and Naguihan; Baguio, Benguet; 
Candon, Ilocos Sur; Vigan, Hocoe Sur. Since that time the foUowipg offices have been 
opened: Laoag, with branch offices at Currimao and Badoc; Bangar, Union (branch of 
San Fernando); Bangued, Abra; Cabugao, Ilocos Sur; Narvacan, Ilocos Sur (branches 
of Vigan) ; San Esteban, Ilocos Sur; Cervantes, Lepanto-Bontoc (branches of Candon). 
The branch offices are all in the hands of native operators. 

In each province linemen are detailed from the enlisted force at a salary of 25 pesos, and 
are stationed at the most advantageous places for the quick repair of lines. These men 
make trips over their entire section at least once a week during fair weather, and immedi- 
ately after each storm. American linemen are stationed at San Fernando de La Union, 
Vigan, Ilocos Sur, and Laoag, Docos Norte, and have supervision over the repairs of lines 
in their respective provinces. 

On the evening of February 7 the constabulary garrison at Vigan mutinied, fired at 
officers, looted the commissary and cuartel, and left town at once in a body, cutting all 
telegraph lines at edge of town. The following morning, February 8, these breaks were 
repaired and the Bangued, Abra, and Laoag lines came O. K., but the Da^pan line still 
remained open. As no escort could be secured it was impossible to order either American 
or native Imemen out (all native operators and linemen remained loyal), but on the fol- 
lowing morning, February 9, Lineman Lee Bartlett took the native lineman from Cabugao 
and the two from Vigan and started south. The renegades were then reported to have 
just left Santa Maria (after looting the place) and were moving south. The wire was 
found cut at the Abra River and was repaired, but found to .be still open south. Another 
cut was discovered just north of Narvacan, and when repaired wire came O. K.*to Dufupan. 

In passing through Narvacan the renegades disconnected the instruments, but did not 
break them. The revolver of the lineman was taken, but the operator was not molested. 

Operator Bernardo Villanueva left his post at San Esteban when the detachment was 
picked up by the coast-guard cutter Negros, February 8, and yj^en the renegades reached 
there they (Usconnccted the instruments and broke up the batteries. 

When the Candon detachment was picked up by the Negros on the same date Corporal 
Abella stayed at his office and did not come with them. 

Bartlett picked up the Narvacan lineman on passing through that place, and his party 
now consisted of 5, including himself. It was not known at that time where the renegades 
were, but it was thought they were near Candon, on the main road. He spent the night 
of Februaiy 9 at Santa Maria, where he was found about 4 a. m. by a party of constabu- 
lary officers and American volunteer deputy shcrifTs under Captain Hendryx. 

As I was in this party I opened a temporary station, the morning of February 10, at 
Santa Maria, and we stayed there during the day, Captain Hendryx's party guarding the 
trail leading into Lepanto-Bontoc Province, and also keeping the renegades from returning 
north (troops having arrived at Candon and Bangar). 

I closed tne temporary office at Santa Maria the morning of February 11 and we moved ^ 
on to Candon, arriving there at 1 p. m. Later in the afternoon it was reported that rene- 
gades were on the main road south of Santa Cruz, moving south. I took detachment of 
Enemen and went to Santa Cruz at once, where I found Lieutenant Harris with company 
of scouts. Opened temporary office and expected to remain there until arrival of Colonel 
Scott. I soon learned, nowever, that Colonel Scott had passed there on the coast-guard 
steamer that afternoon for Candon. As the office at Santa Cruz was apparently of no fur- 
ther use I returned to Candon the morning of the 12th, taking with me 11 prisoners and 
9 guns that Lieutenant Harris turned over to me. During the day I heard that Colonel 
Scott again wished the office opened at Santa Cruz, so I sent Corporal Abella, from Candon, 
down, and took charge of the Candon office myself. 

February 13 Colonel Scott wired that Operator Malana, at Tagudin, was not doing satis- 
factory work and that he wished Corporal Abella sent there to assist him. The office at 
Santa Cruz was therefore closed and Corporal Abella sent to Tagudin. Lineman Bartlett 
was then sent to Santa Maria to open an office, as there was a movement of the renegades 
reported near that place and a force had been sent there to intercept them. 

Civilian Operator Wilson reported to me at Candon for duty February 14, and on the 
following day I left for Vigan. 

As Colonel Scott wished the office kept open at Santa Maria for a few days. Operator 
Constancio Navarro was sent there to relieve Bartlett, February 16. 

The troops having abandoned Tagudin, Corporal Abella was ordered to report for duty 
at Vi^an, leaving Operator Malana in chaige at Tagudin. 

I msh to state that the act of Lineman Bartlett in starting out on the morning of Feb- 
ruary 9 to repair the line with only 2 native linemen as assistants was very commendable. 
It was not known at the time whether the revolutionary movement was general or not, 
nor was it known where the renegades were in camp. He had volunteered to start out on 
the night of the 8th at 11 p. m., out as the native linemen failed to put in an appearance 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 121 

at the appointed hour, the start was postponed until the following morning. No escort 
could be furnished him, as only the Americans were left in Vigan to guard the town. The 
constabulary soldiers who came back the morning after the mutiny were not trusted. 

All lines have been working in a satisfactory manner, except the branch Une from Candon 
to Cervantes, Lepanto-Bontoc, which is continually giving more or less trouble on account 
of the difficulty of getting iron poles, cross arms, insulators, etc., into that country. Iron 
poles are now at Candon and will be put in service on this line at the earliest possible date. 
The typhoon on the night of June 25 carried away 1 mile of wire and poles and broke com- 
munication in several other places. The entire available force of linemen is at work recon- 
structing temporarily until such time as the iron poles can be placed. 

The telegraph line to Bangui has been completed and a telegraph office installed at 
Bangui, with native operator in charge. This, with telephonic communication to Cape 
Bojeador, gives communication from Manila to the northern part of Luzon Island. 

The wooden poles on the branch line from San Fernando de La Union to Baguio, Ben- 
guet, are bein^ replaced by iron poles. To date, iron poles have been installed as far as 
Naguihan, Umon, this work having been stopped for an interval of two months, during 
the stay of the civil commission at Baguio, on account of the increase of work over tliis 
wire during the commission's stay; continued work of replacing wooden poles would too 
frequently interrupt communication. The work will be rapicuy pushed to completion. 
With the work of replacing wooden poles for iron completed on the San Femando^aguio 
and Candon-Cervantes lines, this will only leave a portion of the Vigan-Bangued line to 
be replaced with iron poles, and with this completed all lines in the district will be on iron 
poles, except the line from Cervantes to Bontoc, which will not be reconstructed, as wooden 
poles are oest suited for that line. 

Native operators in this district, with one or two exceptions, are giving satisfaction. All 
substations that do not check direct are being changed as rapidly as possible to '' check- 
direct stations,'' the native operator in chaige making all monthly reports. To date, 
Bangued, Abra; Baguio, Benguet; Cervantes, Lepanto-Bontoc, and Bangar, Union, have 
been changed to check stations, all the above named being in charge of native operators. 
Smaller stations, such as Narvacan, Ilocos Sur, and Rabon, Union, do not handle enough 
commercial business to justify the change from sub to check station. 

At present there are on duty in this district 4 civil operators and 3 civil linemen, all Ameri- 
can; native operators, 2 sergeants, 3 corporals, 7 first-class privates, and 11 second-class 
privates; constabulary soldiers, detailed as linemen, 3 in Docos Norte, 4 in Ilocos Sur, 3 in 
IJnion, 1 in Bangued, 1 in Cervantes, and 1 in Benguet; 1 civil native hneman stationed at 
Yigan; 2 native civil messengers at Vigan and Candon. At other stations where there is a 
constabulary garrison soldiers are detfuled for messenger duty. 

The Vigan telegrai^ school has been closed for the present, but before closing the entire 
class was examined by Third-Class Inspector C. M. Sides, telegraph division, and 14 of the 
class successfully passed the examination. Although the school is closed, the 14 students 
who passed the examination are available and willing to enlist in the telegraph division 
at any time, the address of each being on file in this office. 

Respectfully submitted. 

L. B. Manchester, 
District Tdeqrapk Officer, 

The Fourth District Chief, Philippines Constabulary, 

Vigan, P. I. 



BEFOB OP THE FIFTH DI8TBICT, FHILIFFIKEB COK8TABT7LABT. 

Headquarters Fifth District, Philippines Constabulary, 

Zamboanga, P. /., June 25 y 190^. 
Sm : The undersigned has the honor to submit report of conditions in this district and the 
oiganization and work of this constabulary from September 28, 1903, the date at which he 
assumed command of the fifth district pursuant to Greneral Orders, No. 49, headquarters 
Phihppines Constabulary, September 1, 1903, to the present time. 

territory. 

The district comprises Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago, divided into Misamis and 
Surigao provinces, and the districts of Cottabato, Davao, Lanao, Sulu, and Zamboanga. 
This area exceeds that of Luzon, the distances to be traveled being far greater and the propor- 
tion of constabulary to area and population being much less than in any other constabulary 
district. Manila is more accessible from these headquarters than some portions of the dis- 
trict from each other. The coast line of the district approximates 2,000 miles. Com- 
munication is almost entirely by water: all trails lead inward fiom the coast instead of 



122 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

ftloD|^ it, and the only wb^oq rottds aiv tho63 bailt by the army fr€Mn Lake Lanao to the 
north and south sides of Mindanao. There is no probability of much use at hukd transporiii<- 
tion for many years to come. In its capabilities for the cuHiTaticm of hemp, sugar cane, 
tapioca, coffee, tobacco, indigo, pepper, and similar products; in its unrivaled forest 
resources, indncMi^ gutta-percha vkd rubber, and its fine climate, this district should prore 
the most attraetire region m the whole archipelago for investment and settlement. 

The Rio Grande \Sitej and that of the Agusan have no rival in the islands in extent or 
fertihty, except in the Cagayan of Luzon. The fuie hemp re^on of Davao district along the 
east coast is unsurpassed, but the northeast monsoon practically shuts off that coast from 
the world half of each year. No land under a tropical sun will have a better future than this 
Strict when good government and a knowledge of its splendid possibilities bring capital 
and inunigrants to it. 

PCOPLK, LAKGUA6E, ETC. 

The coast from Dapitan by the north and cast around to Davao is settled by Visayans. 
The interior of the Davao district and the mountainous part of the Zamboanga district are 
occupied by pagan tribes. At iSamboanga there is a mixed population descended from depor- 
tados, Spaniards and Chinese, whose language is a corrupt Spanish. On Basilan Island there 
is a powerful tribe known as the Yaccanes. The balance of the population of the fifth 
district is Moro, whose religion is debased Mohammedanism. The language when written 
is in Arabic characters. An occasional chief can read and write, but such work is usually 
done by Arab and Malay hadjis, who have settled among the Moros and wield much influence, 
seldom for good. In 1*899 Sawyer said of Mindanao : 

' ' The prrsent condition of the island is most lamentable. Nothing could be more dread- 
ful; robbery, outrage, and murder are rampant. Every evil passion is let loose and the 
labor of years has been lost. 

' ' In the words of one who knows the country well, Mindanao has become a seething hell, 
and is in a ccmdition more dreadful thaa ever before in historic times. ' ' 

So much of the foregoing continued to be true that one is warranted in saying that probably 
few governments have been c<H:kfronted by more difi^cult conditions than that of the Moro 
Provinct, created by Act 787 of the United States Philippine Commiasion. The legislative 
council of the Moro Province has since last. September provided for a pubhc school system; 
established many municipahties; enacted a municipal code for its province; regulated the 
sale of intoxicants; protected by legisiatioa some of the peculiar products of this region, such 
as pearl shells; enacted a land-tax system; established a tribal vrard system of government 
by district governors among the ncmr<7hnstian tribes until such time as local self-govern- 
ment shall be created among them, and has forbidden the sbve traffic. The trib^ wards 
have' been defined, the heamncn are accepting their offices, and these Mohammedan and 
heathen people seem marching forward with reasonable rapidity toward order and settled 
conditions. Tliere is slavery among them, but its extent and its evils have been greatly 
exaggerated. Throughout the Philippinrs, and perhaps in many parts of the world, the more 
intelligent native obtains a hold over the laborer which places the latter in a condition of 
servitude which is moral if not actual slavery. This exists along the cast coast of I^iindanao, 
and there and among the Moros has been extended, human beings being bartered and sold 
instead of being passed from owner to owner on tlie covert payment of an alleged indebted- 
ness of the slave. The operation of t!ie slavery law has not met with much resistance, 
except as it has been viewed by some of the Moro chiefs as the }>eginning of a general invasion 
of their ancient customs. Slavery of one Moslem by another is forbidden by the Koran, so 
that its influence can be invoked where the slavery h not of non-Mohammedans. The open 
traffic has practically stopped. The complete eradication of slavery will take many years. 
As the peculiar institution of villanage survived the passing of the feudalism of the Middle 
Ages and traces of it lingered in England until the days of the Stuarts, it is probable that the 
slavery now existing among the Moros as a part of their lude feudalism will endure for 
several generations. Tlie slavery law has been generally (fisseminated, but with full 
knowledge of it many persona held in bondage prefer to remain there, although assured of 
protection if they leave thcCr owners. The whole district is quiet now except for Datu Ali 
and a small band of his followers m the Rio Grande Valley. The death of Panglima Hassan 
in Jolo ended active opposition to progress there. The murders around Lake Lanao seem 
moro due to savagery than any rebellion against law. The Taraca expedition has brought 
new and friendly chiefs into prominence in that region and the prospect b more promiatng 
than ever before. In the Rio Grande Valley in March, Datu Ali, a scion of the ancient Moro 
bouse of Kudarangan, organized at Screnaya the most formidable coalition against the gov* 
emment yet headed by any Moro. Related to the principal Moro nobiUty of the valley, with 
a prestige as a fighting man dating back into the early nineties, All's influence Ixou^t 
together several thousand warriors in an exceedingly wcll-chosen position, fortified with 
considerable engineering skill. This opposition was disintegrated by the Serenaya expedi- 
tion, and a later one in the Lake Buluan region, and All, while still at large, is to-day dis- 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 123 

credited among his own people, a fugitive with few followers, and his apprehension is only a 
question of time. As a strong factor against progress he has disappearea. 

The so-called Moro problem is to be solved now by time and patience, firmness and square 
dealing. There has been considerable friction along the east coast of Mindanao, the shrewder 
Visajan taking commercial advantage of his pagan or Moslem neighbors, and native officials 
abusmg their power. In Misamis Iwnds of fanatics have several times begun organization, 
but the constabulary have been able in each case to prevent trouble. There iiave been 
some abuses by native offictab along the west shores of Iligan Bay, in Misamis Province, and 
trouble between Roman Catholic authorities and the adherents of the Aglipay church has 
occurred in one or two places. A few cases of slave stealing by Moros from the Lanao dis- 
trict have occurred, but good work b^ constabulary officers of Misamis has restored the 
captives and apprehended the raiders m each case reported. In Suri^io general quiet has 
prevailed. Adnano Concepcion was captured by constabulary in ApnJ, and the hanging of 
four of his companions in the raid last year and his own death sentence ends general 
outlawry in Sun^ao. Slight friction in Surigao Province has occurred between Koman 
Catholics and Agh|>avef!o8, but nothing serious. A very disastrous hurricane on April 23 
destroyed crops and damaged towns along the east '^oast of Surigao, necessitating a 
distril>ution or rice in return for labor, in order to prevent suffering. 

TBE CONSTABULARY. 

The undersigned on his arrival here reported to the governor of the Moro Province and 
was informed by the latter that he did not desire a constabulary organized for the present 
in the Lanao and Cottabato districts nor on the island of Jolo. As under Act 787 of the 
Philippine Commission the governor may control the use and direct the movements of the 
constabulary of the Moro Province, this statement was considered sufficient authority for 
deferring, as far as those districts are concerned, the organization of the constabulary directed 
to be made by section 21 of the act referred to. Within the last thirty days, however, the 
governor has asked that constabulary be organized in those districts as soon as possible, and 
the matter only awaits the assignment of officers bv the chief of constabulary to proceed with 
speed. Enlistments in the districts organized have been principally of Mohammedans 
and pagans. The illiteracy of these has made it necessarv to secure a few Christians in each 
distnct, and in Zamboanga the Moslem and Christian have been enlisted in about equal 
proportions. For a time it was supposed that the well-known dislike of the Moro to eat with 
the Filipino, a feeling which is reciprocated with interest, was unconquerable, but the 
experience of eight months shows that Moslem, pagan, and Christian amalgamate with but 
little friction. Separate messes have been abolished. Tribal lines are disappearing, the 
loyalty to his new corps and white officers replacing the allegiance paid by the Moro to his 
hereditAry dato for many ages. The objection of the Islam to a hat with a brim was met 
by the authority of the chief of constabulary for the use in the Moro Province of a red fez 
with black tassel. The Moro is proud to wear that, and the result is a very smart and 
attractive uniform. The FiHpino acquires military instruction more quickly than the Moro 
or pagan, having seen moro of Spanisn and Unitea States soldiers, but in the opinion of the 
underaigned has not the seriousness, force, or physique of the Moro — an ofMuion not dis- 
sented from by any constabulary officer on duty in the Moro Provinc?. 

The Mora soldier is quiet, contented with his fare and surroundings, anxious to learn and 
please his officers, and will be true to the government that fee<^ and pays him. Cottabato 
Moros enlisted last autumn for the constabulary of Zamboanga are now on duty among 
their own people, self-respecting, proud of their uniform and newly acquired bearing, and it 
is believed happy in their emancipation from the old ties. 

At the date of this report Moras of the constabulary are in the field accompanying expe- 
ditions after Datu Ali in the Cottabato district, and against the Sultan of Masi\>ay in the 
Lanao district, and rendering loyal service against people of their own blood and religion. 

Not a few of the M<Mt)s who have enlisted were slaves who realized that the ranks of the 
constabulary offered the best protection against fonuer masters. The absolute ilhteracv 
of the Moro and pagan wiU be the greatest drawback to their usefulness. Less than half 
a doaen of those now in service can read and write. Schools to teach them are in pro^ss 
at every station, and the legislative council of the Moro province has faciUtated this by 
authority of the superintendent of schools to recognize our schools as on a footing with aU 
others in the province in the matter of supplies, etc., a resolution for which the constabulary 
is indebted to the good offices of Supt. N. M. Saleeby. The influence on these people of 
the constabulary among them wiU be one of the most potent aids to their civilization. 
ThB Moro, Baeobo, Manobo, Mandaya, Tiruray, etc., who exchan^^s his breech clout and 
apear for the Uiaki and carbine becomes a marked man among his race, is eagerly ques- 
tioned at every opportunity as to his arms, clothes, food, and treatment, and every soldier 
tfaoa becomes to nis own people a living evidence of the fulfillment of governmental prom- 
laea; for his government an advance agent and advocate; and to himself an individual 
who has taken the upward step to better things. 



124 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

■ There have not been lacking evidences from district governors of the More province of 
what Governor Taft described in an indorsement of September 10, 1902, to tne chief of 
constabulary, as "a feeling of irritation concerning the constabulary which is natural in 
view of the independence of command which the constabulary have under the law.'' In 
that province where the governors are all Americans, and the people governed are nearly 
all savages accustomed to the authority of patriarch or chief, it has been found necessary 
to subordinate that independence. Naturally in a savage country acquainted with the 
title governor, and where constabulary have been unknown, complaints, reports of abuses, 
etc., now to the district governors, the apparent fountain of authoritv, and redress afforded 
through the constabulary or not is crooited to the same source. The constabulary here 
stands ready to bear its share of this burden, but whether or not it shall do so depends 
principally on the district governors whose plans and pohcies for the development of their 
people might readily be ruined by independent or iil-advised action of a constabulaiy, 
and who must choose whether they will throw this work to the force created by law to per- 
form it. Since the establishment of this district the military have been withdrawn from 
Surigao and Misamis provinces, and in the Moro province from the stations of Tucuran, 
Misamis, Dapitan, Siasi, and Bongao, and the navy from PoUok and Isabela de Basilan, 
which have all been garrisoned by constabulary, not a small part of whose work here for 
many years will be as a moral force guaranteeing good order by its mere presence and 
exploration of the unknown regions which surround thBse remote stations. There is no 
laoronism or political agitation in this district after the manner of other parts of the archi- 
pelago, and he who should judge of the work being done and to be done here, by a bare 
comparison of arrests made, for example, with the r^tless Tagalog provinces, woiild argue 
hiinself ignorant of conditions here and the work reauired. A tabulation of the ordinary 
routine accomplished, to include May, is appended and marked "A." The strength of the 
district b^ tribes, stations, and provinces is tabulated in appendix marked " B.'' 

In considering the work done in this district it is deemed proper to invito attention to 
the fact that all the districts of the Moro province are paid ana supplied by the district 
supply officer and his assistant. This means a saving of three supply officers as compared 
to tne administration of other provinces, not to mention storehouses, handling, etc., has 
worked satisfactorily*, and the credit for it is due First Lieut. Frederick Johnson, rhilippines 
Constabulary, distnct supply officer, whose industry and capacity have made it possible, 
and who has been without an assistant until May. 

On the arrival of the undersigned in this district in September four companies of Phil- 
ippine Scouts were on duty with the civil government in Mindanao. They were returned 
to the military early in October, the necessity for their retention with the civil government 
having passed. 

The coast-guard launch Ranker was on duty in the district from September 28, 1903, to 
June 5, and steamed 15,987 miles, for the most part of which she carried the undersigned 
on visits of inspection. The services of this ship have been very satisfactory; the business 
of the district could not have been carried on without her. The launch Troy has been on 
duty in the district since April 6, and has steamed 5,214 miles. Two such vessels will be 
a continuing necessity in the district. 

Li the opinion of the undersigned, two great steps toward the efficiency of the constabulary 
have been taken in the last hdlf year; one, the inauguration of a messing system, and the 
other, the establishment of a uniform system of instruction. The ration checks and other 
administrative machinery qf the new messing system are admirable and testify to the pos- 
session of brains and their exercise by the officer who arranged it. Its working in this 
district has been eminently satisfactory, the cash allowance is ample, and with prompt 
honor to recjuisitions for funds on the part of the supply department, and senior inspectors 
held to their duty by district chiefs, can not fail to oe a permanent success. The school 
order, like the messing system, depends somewhat on supplies for its success. In this 
district the illiteracy is such that much elementary instruction must be given, reading 
and writing necessarily preceding much that is prescribed in the school order. Here, too, 
the use of English in speaking to soldiers will be a great aid. Few of them know any Span- 
ish, and there is no reason for them to learn it. The course of instruction prescribed from 
constabulary headquarters is excellent, and while pro^ss under it, subject to the inter- 
ference of many duties and a lack of supplies and teaching capacity on tne part of officers 
will be slow, time is bound to show good results. 

NEEDS OP THE DISTRICT. 

The proportion of officers and noncommissioned officers necessary in this district is 
greater than that required where the natives are more civilized and soldiery less illiterate. 
Command of isolated posts can not be trusted to noncommissioned officers. There are too 
many tribal and race antipathies which, when properly handled by white officers, may even 
increase the efficiency of the constabulary, but when given rein in native hands might 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 125 

bring shame to our corps. The crying need of the district thus far has been officers. Hardly 
a senior inspector has had an officer at his home station to keep up its administration and 
instruction while attending to the administration of his other territory, and efficiency has 
suffered. Noncommissioned officers should be continued in this district, as has been done 
by the chief of constabulary, in the ratio of a first sergeant, 5 sergeants, and 12 corporals 
to each 150 men. This allows the grade of first-class private to lapse. This proportion 
of noncommissioned officers is but half that which obtains in the constabulary of Borneo, 
which handles an identical people. It is believed that the public interest would be served 
if the law were amended to permit enlistments to be made outside the province or district 
in which the soldier is to be used. In trying to handle this population with soldiers selected 
from amon^ them, we do not follow the lead of nations more experienced in the manage- 
ment of oriental peoples. In Borneo the Sikh, Cingalese, Filipino, Confucian, and Moro 
mingle in a force whose problem is similar to our own. In our frontier Indian wars men 
of one tribe were used as scouts against others, but seldom if ever against their own tribes- 
men. Members of our National Guard have on at least one occasion affiliated with the 
mob they should have confronted. 

Sufficient water transportation is an essential to the administration of this district. 
Sailboats have been provided for the constabulary of Misamis, Davao, and Sulu. The 
chief supply officer has been asked to include in his estimate for the appropriation for the 
new fiscal year the purchase of two light-draft launches for use in Sungao and Cottabato. 
In each there is a ^at river, along which the constabulary has a great work to perform, 
and where a magmficent valley largely awaits the coming of the constabulary to take up 
the march of development under its protection. In neither the Agusan nor Rio Grande 
valleys will it be possible to station or maintain constabulary without water transporta- 
tion. Not later than another year such launches will be needed in Sulu and Zamboanga. 
It is to be noted in this connection that animal transportation will never be needed in Uie 
great part of this district. ' 

GENERAL REOOMMENDATIONS. 

The appointment of a traveling dentist for each constabulary district would be a help 
to the health and efficiency of our officers and to the interest of the government. Within 
the short time this district nas been organized, three officers have had to leave their stat'ons 
for extended dental treatment, and have been robbed by exorbitant prices charged by 
army dentists. 

Tne authorization of the employment by each senior inspector of a native clerk at not 
to exceed 1^35 per month, to attend to the burden of court work that falls on constabulary 
officers is recommended. For the constabulary administration routine no clerk is needed, 
but the work in connection with trials and prosecutions would seem to justify the employ- 
ment of a clerk. 

The uniform of the constabulary in appearance leaves little or nothing to be desired. 
The quality of certain articles is poor. The tan shoes do not stand wear even in stations. 
The undersigned has seen a pair of them wear out in two days in rough travehng. The 
hemp-soled sandal is a good thing, but accumulates trash and gravel in its open top. It 
should have a bellows tongue and lace to the ankle. Woolen Uiaki-colored puttees worn 
in this district give excellent satisfaction. They are more durable than canvas leggings, 
look better and are more comfortable, and the cost is but little greater. Their adoption 
for the entire constabulary is suggested. An increase of clothing allowance and rearrange- 
ment of periods of settlements is recommended. In the opinion of the undersigned the 
uniform should not be chosen entirely on lines of utility, especially with oriental peoples. 
No soldiers will respond moro quickly to efforts for "smartness" than our constabulary; 
that is a tiling to be encouraged. Much of the soldier's influence among his own people 
will depend on the appeal to tne eye, the dressiness of his garb, which at least in the Moro 
land means bright colors. The smartness of this constabulary uniformed for the field, 
with red fez, puttees, khaki trousers, dark-blue shirt, with red-blanket roll, has won praise 
from the commanding general of the department and other military men. The passing of 
the red blanket is a matter of regret to tne undersigned, for the invisibility of the new issue 
will never compensate the Moro soldier for the loss of the dressed-up feeling it gave him 
to carry the red one. 

It is believed that a knowledge of the vernacular of his region by every inspector should 
be a requisite to the retention of his position. It should be necessary to his promotion, 
and a monetary regard should be paid for proficiency. At the same time in regions where 
the constabulary soldiers know little Spanish all conversation with them should be held in 
English. Not luiowing Spanish, they snould not be made to learn it, as is now the tendency. 
The observation of the undersigned leads him to believe that examinations for payments 
of a bonus for learning native dialects to ascertain fitness for appointment on original 
entry into the constabulary and to determine the promotions of officers should be held by 
the civil-service board. Examinations conducted by brother officers are not very seriously 



126 



REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



eonsidered, either in the United States Armj or the constabulary. Thej should be serioas 
matters-; eliminate the unwortbj, and indicate our best material for promotion. 

There is no question which so vitally touches the present and future of the constabuhtry 
as the question of more pay for its officers. Scarcely one among them whose services 
are worth retention but hasoeen tempted by offers from civil life or from other branches 
of the insular government. Some remain with us for love of the life, others from a hope 
of assured permanent positicm at good pay, but in the end to retain these men and obtam 
others that will do the work the standard of pay must be raised. Officers now work over 
derks that are better paid; supply officers are expected to have the honesty and abihty 
that everywhere eke in the world commands a good price, and many of our officers are 
actually put to shame by their poverty. Brains and mtegrity are commodities, and they 
can not be bought of first rate quality at second or third rate prices. 

Respectfully submitted. 

J. G. Harbord, 
Assisiamt Chief PhQipffinea Constehuhryf Commanding District, 

The Adjutant-General, Philippines Constabulary, 

ManUa, P. L 



A. — Epitome of work 6y provimxs from Octoher 1^ tdOS, to May SI, 1904, 







Province or district. 








Cotta- 
bato.o 


Davao.'Lanao." 

1 


Mlsamla. 


Sulu. 


Surl- 
gao. 


Zambo- 
anga. 


Total 


Miles traveled 




2,412 
36 




2,035 

43 

19 

1 

10 
15 
5 
3 
3 

8 


594 
9 


1,083 
29 


3,338 

53 

19 

3 

9 

68 
7 
7 


9,462 


Expeditious 




170 


Firearms captured 




38 


Escorts furnished 




3 






2 

68 
18 





Warrants executed 




87 


Arrests without warrant 




9 
14 

14 




110 


Slaves freed 


. 


26 


Slavery cases investigated 








24 


Stolen animals recovered 








3 


Inspections from district head- 
Quartcrs...^ > 




8 




8 


8 


8 


40 













a Not organised fn time for May returns. 

Note —Ficru res from Surigao and Misamis only show to include April 30, May returns not having 
been received at date of this report. 

Enlisted siren^ of provinces by races. 









Province or district. 








Cotta- 
bato. 


Davao. 


Lanao. 


MiAAmlM 


Sulu. 


Suri- 
gao. 


Zambo- 
anga. 


Total 








MaguindaaeA Moroa 


22 


5 

1 

7 

59 


3 








42 

4 


72 


TasaloKs 


2 




2 




Bagobos 






Visayans ! 




100 


5 


92 

1 


7 

67* 

1 


263 


Pampangans 






Zamboangazks 


1 . _. 


1 


8 




7% 


Ilocanos .~ . . . .'. 




2 

1 








9 


^pAniArrin , 














Joloano Moroa 








61 






61 


Mandayans 




33 
2 










33 


Manobos 






^ 






J 


Uongos 




2 




1 






2 



















ToUl 


22 1 112 1 4 


110 


66 


95 


121 


530 











AmUTAL SEFOET OF THE CHIEF OF THE BTJEEATJ OF COAST 
GTTAED AHD TEAHSPOETATIOH FOE THE FISCAL TEAE ENDING 
JXriTE 30, 1904. 

Bureau of Coast' Guard and Transportation, 

Manila, P. /., August 22, 1904. 

Sir: I have the honor to make the. following report concerning this 
bureau's operations during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1904: 

The bureau still consists of three divisions, namely, division of 
light-house construction, division of light-house maintenance, and 
division of vessels. • 

At the beginning of the year the organization was as follows: J. M. 
Helm, commander, U. S. ]Navy, chief of bureau; Henry Jervey, cap- 
tain of Engineer Corps, U. S. Army, superintendent of the division 
of light-house construction; A. Franklyn, superintendent of the divi- 
sion of light-house maintenance; Wm. Howe, superintendent of the 
division of vessels; D. D. Wilson, inspector of machinery; 1 chief 
clerk, class 5; 1 chief property clerk, class 6; 1 disbursing officer, 
class 6; 1 pay officer, class 6; 1 clerk, class 7; 1 draftsman, class 7; 
4 clerks, class 8; 5 clerks, class 9; 1 storekeeper, class 10; 1 store- 
keeper, class A; 3 clerks, class A; 2 assistant storekeepers, class F; 
1 clerk, class J; 3 employees, at $180 United States currency per 
annum; 5 employees, at $150 United States currency per annum. 

By authority of Act 1049 an additional class, 7 clerk was employed, 
and a mechanic, class 9. 

On August 12, 1903, Capt. Spencer Cosby, Corps of Engineers, 
U. S. Army, relieved Capt. Henry Jervey as superintendent of light- 
house construction. 

On September 24, 1903, Mr. D. J. Curran succeeded Mr. D. D. 
Wilson as inspector of machinery. 

On March 8, 1904, Mr. Frank P. Helm succeeded Mr. Wm. Howe 
as superintendent of the division of vessels. 

In order to conform to titles for similar offices in the United States, 
and for the sake of brevity, the titles of the different superintendents 
of the divisions were, by act of the Commission, recently changed to 
"light-house engineer," ''light-house inspector," and "marine super- 
intendent." 

FLEET. 

The fleet of the bureau consists of 15 single-screw 148-foot steamers, 
built at Shanghai, China; 2 twin-screw 140-foot steamers, built at 
Uraga, Japan; steam launches — Ranger, length 110 feet; Raver, 99 
feet; Pittsmira, 93 feet; Troy, 86 feet; Picket, 102 feet; Leader, 78 
feet; stem-wneel river steamer Sentinel, 90 feet; 6 river and harbor 
laimches in use around Manila, ranging from 20 to 80 feet in length; 
the 25-ton sailing sloop Jervey, used by the light-house construction 
division in connection with working parties. 

127 




^*ji:-$s- 












A^^ 



.ef^^ 






1 not \> 
Re*?**" 



Tlii- 










v> 



3»^ 



.»e 




.^^-^ 



^,= 












*f 













,vf" 



EEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 129 

A building 250 feet long is in process of construction and should be 
completed early in the lall. Two-thirds of it will be used for a 
macnine shop and the other third as a warehouse for the division of 
vessels. Temporary offices will probably be established on upper 
floor of this warehouse. 

The insular purchasing agent has established a coal pile on this 
island for the use of coast-guard vessels, and what is known as the 
inner basin has been dredged out in part to allow the coast-guard 
vessels under repair to enter and moor in safety during the typhoon 
seasons. 

The mud dredged out of the inner basin and also between the walls 
where the marine railway is under construction has been used for 
filling in the low part of the island, and in this way auite a valuable 

Eiece of ground has been partly reclaimed. It will oe neces^ry to 
11 in witn sand and gravel over the top of the mud to complete this 
job, however. 

Water pipes have been laid across the canal and along the island, 
connecting with the city water supply, and water tanks are in process 
of construction. The water arrangements up to the present time, 
however, have not been altogether successful. An artesian well, in 
addition to the present city water supply, is under consideration. 

The alteration of old buildings, construction of new buildings, 
laying of water pipes, etc., are in charge of the bureau of architecture. 

A system of tramways and derricks, of sufficient capacity to hoist 
in and out ordinary sized boilers, is under consideration. 

Coal sheds and an office building, etc., will be eventually required, 
but their construction will be delayed until more pressing work has 
been completed. 

It is hoped that in the course of time the government will provide 
a new detention camp for Chinese, and that the old camp located 
on the pier on the south side of the mouth of the Pasig River will be 
removed and this pier left unobstructed, so that pilots of boats 
entering or leaving the river will be able to see across the pier, and 
thus materially reduce the risk of collision at the mouth of tne Pasig. 

Reports of the light-house engineer, Capt. Spencer Cosby, and 
Assistant Engineer W. H. Robinson, showing progress made m con- 
struction of Marine Railway, are appended. 

COAL. 

The insular purchasing agent proposes consolidating the coaling 
stations, and contemplates keeping piles only at Manila, Romblon, 
Iloilo, Cebu, Tacloban, Zamboanga, and Jolo. It has been recom- 
mended, however, that a small supply be kept also at Aparri, San 
Fernando de Union, or other place on Lingayen Gulf, ana Balabac. 

At Liguan, Batan Island, a coal deposit, now in process of develop- 
ment by the government, may prove valuable. Tne coal has already 
been tested by our steamers with very satisfactory results. ''Coal 
Harbor '' (the name given to the harbor where this coal is loaded) is 
reported to afford good anchorage and shelter in all kinds of weather. 
If everything is successful, this will prove to be a most valuable 
coaling station for the vessels operating on the eastern coast of Luzon 
or vicinity. 

WAR 1904— VOL 13 ^9 



130 BEFOBT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

YESSEX BKPAIBS AT CATITE NAVY-YARD. 

The United States navy-yard at Cavite has cantinaed aiding us 
in making vessel repairs at cost price, as far as the needs of the naval 
service would permit. This bureau is especially under obligations 
on that accoimt to Capt. A. R. Couden, U. S. iNavy, commandant, 
and other officers of the navy-yard for many courtesies shown. 

VESSEL REPAIBS AT CAMAGAO. 

An agreement has been reached with El Varadero de Manila for the 
docking of our vessels at Canacao and the performing of such work 
as may be found necessary. The following vessels have been docked 
for the bureau by that company during the year: Negros, CorreqidoTy 
PoliUd, Rover, Tabla^, Mindanao, SasUan, Marinduque, Luzon, 
Romblon, Leyte, Masbate, Busuanga, Samar. 

SHAFTS OF SHANGHAI CUTTERS. 

On December 16, 1903, while off the Zambales coast near Santa 
Cruz, the Mindanao's tail shaft broke and her propeller was lost. 

No great alarm was felt about this. It was thought at the time 
that likely the trouble was due to a flaw and not to poor material 
and workmanship being used in the manufacture of all the Shanghai 
cutter shafts. 

On April 1, 1904, while off Catanduanes Island, the Leyte's propeller 
dropped off. 

On April 17, 1904, off the coast of Negros Oriental, near Duma- 
guete, the Busuanga' 8 propeller dropped off. 

On April 30, 1904, when near Ualapan, Mindoro Province, the 
Masbate s propeller dropped off. 

Fortunately all these shafts broke when the weather was fair and 
the sea smooth. The dama^ done was not serious beyond the actual 
loss of the money value of the propellers and shafts. 

All four shafts broke short off near the propellers, and it was foimd 
that the metal was poor, containing flaws, and that propellers and 
shafts were poorly fitted together. It is thought that all other 
Shangliai cutters snould be docked at the first opportunity and have 
their propellers and shafts closely examined. The Samar, Luzon, 
and Negros were docked, and an examination showed the necessity 
of replacing tail shafts, which was done. 

The Philippine government still holds a guarantee check of Messrs. 
Famham, Boyd & Co., for $30,000 United States currency, pending 
settlement of claims against them. There are also impaid bills 
rendered by Farnham, Boyd & Co., aggregating about $4,000, which 
will not be paid until all controversies between that firm and the 
Philippine government are satisfactorily adjusted. 

nnaSION OF LIGHT-HOUSE COXSTRUCTIOX. 

The division of light-house construction was originally organized 
by Capt. Henry Jervey who, when he came to tne bureau in the 
spring of 1902, found absolutelv nothing except the wrecks of the 
Dpanish light-houses, which had been neglected for the previous six 
years, and few faciUties to draw from either in the w^ay of material or 



BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION, 131 

personnel. Captain Jervey, after more than a year's arduous and 
ceaseless labor, had gotten things into as good shape as possible with 
the means available, when he was relieved by Capt. Spencer Cosby, 
who has carried on tne work of organization and building in a manner 
to be expected from an officer of the Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army. 
Captam Cosby's report is attached hereto. 

DIVISION OP LIGHT-HOUSE MAINTENANCE. 

This division has carried on the ordinary routine of inspecting and 
supplying various light-houses already in operation, ana equipping 
and providing for the others as fast as completed by the division of 
light-house construction. This department has also had charge of 
the personnel, and labored to perfect the organization of the light- 
house keepers, and for the education of apprentices to supply w^aste 
and to fill new positions as the Ught-house establishment increases. 

The three lignt-house tenders were in charge of the Ught-house 
inspector, and have transported all the construction material and 
supplies for both divisions of the Ught-house establishment. 

This division also has charge oi the placing of buoys, and their 
care and preservation. 

I The division stiU remains in charge of Capt. Alexander Franklyn. 
who seems to have mastered the duties of a hght-house inspector, ana 
has brought liis division up to a very satisfactory state or efficiency. 

The remarks made about the personnel of officers of the division of 
vessels apply to the light-house tenders also. 

As to the FiUpino hght keepers^ of whom we have more than 100, 
I would Uke to say that in many mstances they are responsible for a 
great deal of government property and for the care and preservation 
of deUcate, intricate, and expensive machinery; also that they have 
considerable office work to perform in the way of accounts and 
returns; and at first, second, third, and fourth order Ught stations 
have the control and administration of quite extensive estab- 
lishments, many of which are comparatively isolated and can not 
be visited frequently. The manner in which they have met their 
responsibiUties and performed their duties seems to me creditable. 

Attention is invited to the report of Capt. A. Franklyn, light-house 
inspector, inclosed, here with. 

DIVISION OF VESSELS. 

This division controlled, on July 1, 1903, 11 cutters, 3 seagoing 
launches, the stern-wheel river boat Sentinel on the Rio Grande de 
Cagayan, and 5 bay and river launches. 

It received later the following vessels : Cutters: Mindanao , received 
from Shanghai August 21 , 1903 ; Mindoro, September 18, 1903 ; Samar, 
September 18, 1903; Leyte, Octoher 3, 1903; Panay, October 6, 1903. 
Seagoing launches: Pittsburg, from Misamis Provmce, July 20,1903; 
Troyy from Cebu Province, January 12, 1904. Harbor launches : Cuyo 
(Basilan), from district of Isabela, October 26, 1903 ; Leader, from Sor- 
sogon Province, June 12, 1904. 

The seagoing launch Scout was driven ashore at Pandan, Antique 
Province, by a typhoon on the night of June 23, 1904, and became a 
total wreck. She was purchased about two years ago for the sum of 
S3 1,500 Mexican currency. Her measurements were: Length, 100 
feet; breadth, 17 feet; and draft, 9 feet. 



132 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

PERSONNEL OF THE FLEET. 

The personnel of the fleet still consists of American officers (or 
European officers who have taken the oath of allegiance) and Fili- 

?ino petty officers and crews.. It must be understood that when the 
hilippine government collected so many vessels in a short time a 
sufficient number of desirable men could not be secured immediately, 
and owing to that fact it was necessary to take almost such asappUed, 
but during the year there has been a gradual weeding out, and it is 
thought that a marked improvement has been made in both classes. 
It is lioped to still further increase the efficiency of the officers by 
slight increases of the pay of first officers, second officers, and assistant 
engineers. 

Many and frequent changes in crews occurred during the earlier 
stages of organization, but there has been steady improvement in this 
respect, and the crews now seem to be very well satisfied as a rule, and 
disposed to remain more or less permanently. To accomplish this it 
was necessary to get the voluntary assent oi the Filipino, as no rules 
of enlistment or contracts can hold a Filipino sailor when he gets ready 
to leave. At present, changes among the crews are comparatively few. 
It is thought that under these circumstances officers and crews have 
done very well, and that they should be credited with a record of 
having very few accidents, and that the service is as good as could be 
expected. To their credit it must also be said that coast-guard ves- 
sels are required to go into many unfrequented places, often where • 
there have oeen no surveys. 

VESSELS ON ROUTES. 

The routes over which vessels run regularly have been modified as 
found necessary, and additional routes added. At the end of the 
fiscal year the routes are 11 in number, as follows: 

[No. 1.— Headquarters at Manila.] 

Boat to leave on the 1st and 15th of each month for San Fernando, Candon, San Esteban, 
Vigan, Saloraague, Laoae^and Aparri; returning via same route. Will also visit Capones 
Island and Cape Engaflo light-houses when necessary, while on regular trips. 

[No. 2.— Headquarters at Manila.] 

Boat to leave on the 1st and 15th of each month for Batangas, Lucena, Boac, Pasacao, 
Sorsogon, Calbayog, Catbalogan, Tacloban, and Surigao; returning via same route. Will 
stop at Cananay light-house when necessary. 

Will stop at San Pascual each trip on the way back to Manila, and will stop there on the 
way south when necessary. 

[No. 3.— Headquarters at Manila.] 

Boat to make alternate long and short trips, with from 15 to 20 days between sailings. 

Long trip to Coron, Culion (Halsey Harbor), Cuyo, San Jose de Buenavista, Uoilo, San 
Jose de Buenavista, Cuyo, Puerto Prmccsa, BaJabac, Cape Melville, Puerto Princesa, Cuyo, 
Culion, Coron, and Manila. 

Short trip to Cabra Island light, Coron, Culion, Cuyo, San Jose de Buenavista, Iloilo, San 
Joso de Buenavista, Cuyo, Puerto Princesa, Cuyo, Culion, Coron, and Manila. 

When necessary will visit Luzaran light, Tinotian, Araceli, Agutaya, and Cagayancillo. 

[No. 4.— Headquarters at Manila.] 

Leave Manila about the 5th of each month for Lucena, Masbate, Sorsogon, Le^aspi, 
Virac, Tabaco, Bicol River (for Nueva Cacei-es), Pandan, Daet, Atimonan, Mauban, Binan- 

f>nan, Polillo, Kasiguran, Baler, Polillo, Binangonan, Mauban, Atimonan, Daet, Pandan, 
icol River, Tabaco, Virac, L?easpi. Sorsogon, Masbate, Lucena, and Manila. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 133 

[No. 5.— Headquarters at Hollo.] 

Sail on 1st day of eadi month for Bacolod, Escalante, Concepcion, Capiz, Romblon, Capiz, 
Calivo, Pandan, Bugasan, San Jose, San Joaquin, and Uoilo. 

Sail on the 15th c&y of each month for Bacolod, San Joaquin, San Jose, Bugasan, Pandan, 
Calivo, Capiz, Romblon, Capiz, Concepcion, E^scalante, Bacolod, and Iloilo. 

When necessary stop at Gigantes Island light, Manigonigo light, San Fernando, Laoag, 
ManapU, Estancia, Ibajay, Bunianga, Sibaste, Colasi, 'nbao, Patnogan, Sipalay, Isio, Hog, 
Binaloagan, and Himamavlan. 

It is intended that this boat shall meet route 6 vessel at Escalante each trip. 

[No. 0.— Headquarters at Cebu.J 

Sail on 1st of each month to Poro, Bogo, ESscalante, Tiburan, Balamban, Valle Hcrmoso, 
Barili, Duroanjug, Tayasan, Bais, Dumagiiete, Siquijor, Dumagucte, Oslob, Tagbilaran, 
Dalaguete, Argao, and Cebu. 

Sau on 15th of each month to Argao, Dala^ete, Tagbilaran, Oslob, Dumagiieto, Siquijor, 
Dumagucte, Bais, Tayasan, Dumanjug, Barili, Valle Hcrmoso, Balamban, Tiburan, Esca- 
lante, Bogo, Poro, and Cebu. 

When necessary stop at Capitancillo light-house, Danao, Sogod, Bantayan, San Carlos, 
Guijulugan, Ginatilan, Zamboangita, and Siaton. 

It is intended that the boat on this route shall meet the cutter on route No. 5 at Escalante 
each trip. 

[No. 7.— Headquarters at Tacloban.] 

Sail on or about the 6th of each month for Carigara, Caibiran, Naval (Biliran Island), 
Leyte, San Isidro, Villaba, Palompon, Ormoc, Cebu, Baybav, Hindang, Ililongas, Maasin. 
Malitbog, Liloan, Cabalian, Hinunangan, Abuyog, and Taclo&an. 

Sail on or about the 20th of each month for Catbalogan, Calbayog, La Granja, Catarman, 
Li^uan, Oras, Borongan, Guinan, and Tacloban. Touch at Tubig during this trip when- 
ever necessary. 

[No. 8.— Headquarters at Zamboanga.] 

Sail on the Ist day of each month for Malabang, Cottabato, Davao, Baganga, Mati, 
Davao, Cottabato, Malabang, and Zamboanga; thence to San Ramon government farm, 
Jolo, and Sasi, and back to Zamboanga. Stop at Mati five hours. 

Sail on the 15th day of each month for Malabang, Cottabato, Davao, Mati, Baganga, 
Davao, Cottabato, Malabang, and Zamboanga; thence to San Ramon government farm, 
Jolo, and Siasi, and back to Zamboanga. 

On the eastward trip touch at Caraga when necessary. 

On the southward trip touch at Bongao when necessary. 

[No. 9.— Headquarters at Cebu.] 

Sail on or about the 1st and 15th of each month for Dumaguete, Dapitan, Oroquieta, 
Misamis, Iligan, Camp Overton, Cagayan, Mambajao, and Surigao; returning via same 
route.' 

On trip commencing 1st of month from Cebu, on the way south stop at Tagbilaran, and 
on the return portion of trip, commencing at Cebu on 15th of each month, stop at Tagbilaran. 

Stop at barrio near mouth of Butuan River (for Butuan) on first trip of month when 
outward bound and on last trip of month when homeward bound. 

Stop at Talisayan when necessary. 

[No. 10.— Headquarters at Manila.] 

Sail on or about the 9th and 24th of each month for Calapan, Romblon, Masbato, Cebu, 
Zamboanga, Jolo, Cebu, Masbate, Romblon, Calapan, and Manila, stopping en route at 
CapitanciUo light-house when necessary. 

[No. 11.— Headquarters at Aparrl.] 

Sail on or about the 8th, 15th, 22d, and 29th of each month for Alcala, Tuguegarao, 
Ilagan, and any intermediate points where stops are required. 

VESSELS PERFORMING SPECIAL SERVICE. 

In addition to operating on the foregoing routes, and affording the 
government means of communication and enabling it to carry on its 
duties between the islands, and transporting constabulary and 



134 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

United States troops from place to place to suppress insurrection and 
local outbreaks^ etc., these vessels have performed a considerable 
amoimt of special work, mentioned in detail in report of the marine 
superintendent. 

Attention is invited to the report of Capt. James Miller, relating to 
the special duty of the cutter Tabids in the Sulu Archipelago. 
Respectfully, 

J. M. Helm, 
Commander, U. S. Navy, Chief of Bureau, 

The Secbetabt of Commerce and Police, 

Mcnila, P. I. 



BBPOBT OF THE LIGHT-HOUSE EKOIKBEB. 

Bureau op Coast Guard and Transpobtatiok, 
Division op Lioht^housb Construction, 

Manila, P. /., Jvly 26, 1904, 
Chiep of Bureau of Coast Guard and Transportation, 

Manila, P. I, 
Sir: I h&ve the honor to transmit herewith the report of Mr. W. H. Robinson, assistant 
engineer, showing in detail the progress of the work of constructing the marine railway on 
Engineer Island, at the mouth of the Pasig River. 

Before any work was done on the railway proper, a survey was made of the site selected, 
borings were driven to a depth of .100 feet to ascertain the nature of the underlying soil, 
and its bearing power was determined by driving and loading test piles. The results being 
satisfactory a bulkhead was built across the upp>er end of the shp chosen as a site; this 
served the double purpose of providing a convenient basin for the deposit of the material 
that had to be dredged to prepare the foundations, and of allowing a depression in the island 
covered with water to be reclaimed and used in connection with the railway. 

After due advertisement, the contract for building th£ railway was let to the Atlantic, 
Gulf and Pacific Company, who submitted two bids, one for a cradle with a Umber sub- 
structure and the other for one with a substructure of steel. The latter bid, though the 
higher, was by authority of the civil governor accepted as being the more advantageous 
to the government. 

The contractors commenced work promptly and have so far pushed it vigorously and 
satisfactorily. All their operations are carefully watched and supervised, and every detail 
of the work closelv inspected by this office. It is hoped that the railway will be ready for 
operation before the end of the calendar year. 

Very respectfully, Spencer Cosby, 

Captain Corps of Enffineera, U. S. Army, lAght-^kouse Engineer. 



Bureau op Coast Guard and Transportation, 

Division of Lioirr-iiousE Construction, 

Manila, P. I., July 26, 1904. 
Capt. Spencer Cosbt, Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, 

Lighi-houee Engineer, Manila, P. I. 
Sm: I have the honor to submit the following report, showing in detail the progress, 
during the fiscal yerfr 1904, of the work of constructing the manno raOway on Engineer 
Island: 

1. On June 1, 1903, the Philippine Commission passed an Act No. 788, authorizing the 
construction of a 1,400-ton manne railway and machine shops on Engineer Island, Manila, 
P. I., to provide an adequate place for docking and repairing coast guard and other govern- 
ment vessels. The expenditure of $140,000 United States currency was authorized for 
the purpose, but the act did not carry an appropriation with it. Oti August 11, 1903, Act 
831 was passed carrying among other items an appropriation of $35,000 United States 
currency for the purposes of the marine railway and machine shops, and on April 11, 1904, 
an additional appropriation of $20,000 United States currency was made available by 
Act 1114. 

2. By Act 788 the chief of the bureau of coast guard and transportation was author zed 
to construct the work, and by his direction the light-house engineer proceeded with the work 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION, 135 

of obtaining data and doing the necessary preliminary work for the construction of the 
marine railway. 

3. A survey party was organized in July, 1903, for the purpose of making a plat of 
Engineer Island and the adjacent slip or waterway wherein was to be located the marine 
railway. Soundings and borings to the depth of 100 feet were made and all possible infor- 
mation was secured as to the practicability of the scheme. Test piles were driven and 
loaded up to 20 tons per pile, and it was decided that it was feasible to build a marine rail- 
way on a pile foundation on the site selected. 

4. To properly prepare Engineer Island for the purpose intended, by increasing the area 
of availaole land, and to mSke a site for a power house and other buildings, it became 
necessaky to construct a temporary bulkhead across the slip. This bulkhead was intended 
to close the north end of the slip and thus form a basin into which material dredged from 
the marine railway site could be deposited, and thereby at one operation dredge the slip 
and build up the island. 

5. Plans and specifications were made for the temporaiy bulkhead, and the work was 
advertised to contractors on August I and bids c^ned August 31, 1903. The bids received 
were so high that it was deem^ more economical and advantageous to the Government 
to build the bulkhead by day labor, and the completion of the work at about the estimate 
of cost made by this office justified the rejection of all bida. In this connection the follow- 
ing figures. United States currency, are given for comparison: 

Lowest bid received (not including superintendence) $5, 770. 00 

Estimate of this office (including superintendence) 3, 500. 00 

Actual cost of completed work of temporaiy bulkhead, including labor, mate- 
rial, and supermtendence 3, 547. 35 

6. The completion of the temporary bulkhead in December, 1903, and the building of a 
dike around tne portion of the island to be filled practically completed the preliminary 
work, the cost of which was as follows, stated in United States currency: 

Wages, including labor, drafting, and superintendence $3, 070. 43 

Material 1,919.27 

Contingent expenses, including rent of bancas, cascos, and launches and driving 
of '4 test piles by contract 1, 3S0. 60 

Total 6,380.30 

7. Specifications were drawn up and on November 30, 1903, advertisements were pub- 
lished asking for bids for the construction of a 1,400-ton marine railway complete, the 
contractor to furnish plans of the machinery, cradle, and other parts which he proposed 
to install. But one bid was received, that of the Atlantic, Gun and Pacific Company, 
who proposed to use the marine railway and machinery made by OrandaU & Son, of Boston, 
Mass. 'iliey made two offers, one including a wooden cradle for $95,000 United States 
currency and the other including a cradle constructed of steel for $104,900. The plans 
offered were satisfactory and the costs considered reasonable. Owing to the great activity 
of the teredo and other marine borers in the waters of the Philippines, and considering the 
cost of maintenance of the wooden cradle, it was thought advisable to accept the steel 
construction. On February 4, 1904, a contract was signed whereby the Atlantic, Gulf 
and Pacific Company agreed to construct the marine railway according to specifications 
and have the same completed and ready for use by December 15, 1904. 

8. Actual work commenced on March 1, when the contractors began removing the 
concrete blocks and riprap in the slip, placed therein by the Spanish Government m its 
scheme for the improvement of the port. Dredging was commenced during March, the 
dredged material being deposited back of the temporary bulkhead. Dredging was con- 
tinued intermittently until June when all the matenal necessary to be taken out had been 
removed, and the basin or low portion of Engineer Island had been filled as much as 
practicable with soft material. A covering of sand and gravel or other hard material will 
he neceesaiy before the reclaimed portion of the island will be ready for occupancy. 

9. Pile driving for the foundation of the railway was commenced on June 13, 1904, and 
is being pushed to completion. The foundation piles will all be driven by August 15, and 
should no unforeseen cause occur the entire work should be finished within the contract 
time. 

10. The actual cost of the work of constructing a marine railway as authorized by Act 
788, from the passage of said act to the end of the fiscal year 1904, including all preliminary 
work, has been as follows, stated in Philippine currency: 

Wages: 

July, 1903 1^241.79 

August, 1903 649.21 

September, 1903 1,019.37 



136 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Wages — Continued. 

October, 1903 n, 253. 34 

November, 1903 1,128.66 

December, 1903 1,234.20 

January, 1904 481.35 

February, 1904 132.96 

March, 1904 13.14 

Apra, 1904 154.23 

May, 1904 527.12 

June, 1904 571.74 

r7,407.10 

Materials: 

July, 1903 253.08 

August, 1903 263.05 

September, 1903 686.40 

October, 1903 2,636.01 

3,838.54 

Contingent expenses: 

July, 1903. 73.92 

August, 1903 130.43 

September, 1903 96.86 

October, 1903 1,000.00 

November, 1903 562.66 

December, 1903 917.33 

2,781.20 

Due contractors (not including the 10 per cent to be retained as per 

contract): 

March, 1904 11,860.00 

May, 1904 !... 1,918.38 

June, 1904 16,799.80 

30,578.18 

Due contractors for extra work (repairing break in bulkhead), March, 1904. . 318. 72 



Total cost to June 30, 1904 44,923.74 

The above amount may be segregated as follows: 

Total preliminary work 12,760.61 

Due contractors: 

Permanent work 1^30,578.18 

Extra work 318.72 

30,896.90 

Engineering and inspection of permanent work 1, 266. 23 

44,923.74 
Respectfully submitted. 

Wm. H. Robinson, 

Assistant Engineer. 



BuBEAU OP Coast Guard and Transportation, 

Division op Light-House Construction, 

Manila, P. /., September 9, 1904, 
Chief of Bureau of Coast Guard and Transportation, 

Manila, P. L 
Sir: As directed in vour letter of September 3, 1 have the honor to submit the following 
report of operations of this division for the months of July and August, 1904. This report 
is supplemental to the annual report for the fiscal year 1904: 

The work of the division has progressed as outlined in the annual report. The stations 
at Bagacay, Capitancillo, and Tanguingui are nearing completion, and tne parties who were 
at San Bernardino, Luzaran, and Ba^tao have completed work and been brought to Manila, 
leaving these stations in ^ood condition. The construction of new station on Apo Reef has 
been &gun and the preliminary work has progressed favorably. 

The following is a detailed account in bnef of the work done at each station. The finan- 
cial statements are approximate, owing to the difficulty of obtaining accurate information 
as to pay rolls, etc., so soon after the end of the month. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 137 

CAPITANCILLO. 

About one-third of the coping blocks have been set on the retaining wall. The masonry 
walls of kee]>er'8 dwelling have been finished and the foundation of the annex laid. The 
upright g^dera of the tower have been erected and about one-half of the cylinder riveted in 
place. The wages of local laborers at this station were reduced from P'0. 80 to ¥^0.50 durins 
July. A number of the men left the work, but others were imported from Tanguingui and 
some of those formerly employed have returned, so that the pay roll has been reduced 
without apparent hindrance to the work. 

Financial statement. 

Balance, June 30 n4,282.00 

Appropriated since June 30 10, 000. 00 

Total avaUable July 1 24,282.00 

Expenditures since June 30: 

Wages P'1,493.53 

Subsistence 945.50 

Material 1,632.62 

4,071.65 

Balance... 20,210.35 

Liabilities: 

Wages', August (estimated ) 1 , 700. 00 

Materials 396.84 

Subsistence 1,000.00 

3,096.84 

Balance available 17, 113. 51 

TANGUINGUI. 

The tower has been erected as far as the watchroom floor, but the riveting has not been 
finished. Bids will be opened on September 12 for furnishing the missingparts of the tower. 
'Keeper's dwelling has been finished except some of the minor details. Tne foundation and 
walls of the annex have been completed and concrete walks laid. The drainage system 
from buildings to cistern is finished and the latter about half covered. 

Financial statement. 

Total amount (estimated) 1^59,417.26 

Expenditures to June 30 36, 662. 03 

Balance 22,755.23 

Expenditures since June 30: 

Wages r2,646.26 

Subsistence 1,381.55 

Materials 1,208.95 

5,236.76 

Balance 17,518.47 

liabiUties: 

Wages , August (estimated ) 2 , 700 . 00 

Materials 3,206.65 

Subsistence 1,700.00 

7,606.65 

Balance available 9,911.82 

BAG AC AT. 

The masonry tower has been completed and is ready for the metal work and lantern. 
Bids wiU be opened on September 12 for fumishii^ the metal work. 

The oil and storeroom (concrete) are about ban completed. The excavation has been 
made for the kitchen foundations, ro^fl built from dwelling site to well, and poets of dwelling 
erected and tied together. 



136 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Wages— Continued. ?• 1 , 253. 34 

October, 1903 1,128.66 

November, 1903 1 234. 20 

December, 1903 481.35 

January, 1904 132.96 

February, 1904 13.14 

March, 1904 154.23 

AprU, 1904 527.12 

May, 1904 571.7 

June, 1904 

Materials: 253 

July, 1903 26;- 

August ,1903 6S 

September, 1903 2.6' 

October, 1903 L 

Contingent expenses: 

July, 1903 ;;;; 

August, 1903 

September, 1903 

October, 1903 " 

November, 1903 " 

December, 1903 

Due contractors (not including the 10 per cent to be retained as pei 
contract): 

March, 1904 •' 

May, 1904 

June, 1904 

Due contractora for extra work (repahing break in bulkhead > 

Total cost to June 30, 1904 " - - " 

The above amount may be segregated as follows: 

Total preliminary work 

Due contractors: 

Permanent work 

Extra work 

Engineering and inspection of permanent work 

Respectfully submitted. 







-^ 



iU 



1 e£ 



•rtMi ' 






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rlA^ 



i^-' 



Bureau of Coast d 
Division 



Chief of Bureau of Coast Guard and Tba? 



:0* .f^' 



Sir: As directed in vour letter of September 
report of operations oi this division for the moi 
is supplemental to the annual report for the fi.*- 

The work of the division has professed as 

fit t^iin BiTT^tirdino, hnmmUf »ntl D «!»'.' ^ ' — * 
Iruvirig Ibf^ Ft8(totis fii gtKHi F^in^f' 
hn'ii t*^^^n &nd the pn'Iiijj' ^~^ 
Tlip fuJIiJwing is a dij 

*« to pikj rall»* 'ttj 










^•''' -.' >• 






, X ^*-.- 




ji 



COMMISSION. 



141 




fumiyrfiTf *' ^''T^^s®® *°^ permanent improve- 

'*SKttt^**'2r2Si!*»'^' V^^ ri2,000 

* i^rfiS!T*^*'<^Aw^I?/'*-»»— ^ 30,000 

^'*»^**i4%^;jj^#iic3^^ J T 2;5oo 

i **'*^^«^!^^f ^^K^!*""']!!!!!!;!!!!!!!!!]!! slooo 

*■ ^Tl 18,000 

21,000 

^,. 10,000 

^K -, 5,000 

^rmm _^P 1,000 

^^f....... 7,000 

^^.. 10,000 

^ ^^, 23,000 

^ f ■ 15,000 

• ' J* .,,--,.. 20,000 

•# f. , 60,000 

fe^ ^i*- 20,000 

•** ^^^ ^B«" " 15,000 

_^^ ^P,,., -^... 7,000 

p.. - 185,000 

Atlueed herewith^ 
^ ^ Spenceb Cosby, 

w/i* o/ ETigirtt^Sj U.S. Armyy Light-House Engineer, 



AU OF Coast Guakd and Transpobtation, 

Division of Light-House Construction, 

Manila, P. /., September 9, 1904. 

I I^liigjtinrrB, U. S. Army, 

Lighi-Houfie Emjincery Manila , P. I. 
lUrntt tl)e following n^fHirt, supplemental to the report for 
• kL LicfoniplisJu'd on ibc marine railway on Engineer Island 

Hpu^ mid practically fLnisbod excepting the cutting off of piles 

Wh& railway all piles were ent off below the low-water line, and 
Wi with concrete. This c*>ncn'te work was commenced and more 

nidation plleti were driyen and the concrete bases for the engine, 

idin^ mtichj|]« were iet in poHition and a temporary shed built over 

wen? frtirtu'd and put to^fther, rails laid on the stringers, and 
I iron f^r ri}>» &iid brge-ht^aded nuils for protection against teredos, 
.i'> wtll lay Vunehed in Sopteniljer and sunk to its position on the 

■f fititHhed work tm Aun:ui!t 31, 1904, were as follows: 

Per cent. 

.„ .,.., 100 

, .- 3 

.,_. 98 

,„.; 5 

„ ,_.......,_ 40 

,___ 45 

,,,„, 60 

•oD^T v^hw ttt the work (inbbed wti^ cstirnated at $53,032.20 United States 
•0*1 56 ppr iMtnt of the contract price; 10 [ler cent of this amount is retained 
• ptXJ%'Lieion!i of the contract. 



138 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Financial etaiemerU. 

Balance, June 30 1^26,956.03 

Appropriation since June 30 : 15, 000. 00 

Total available 41,056,93 

Expenditures since June 30: 

Wages n,741.77 

Su taistenoe 667. 45 

Materials 2,369.^ 

4,779.12 

Balance 37,177.81 

Liabilities: 

Wages (estimated) 1,750.00 

Materials (estimated) 5,701. 15 

Subsistence (estimated) 1,000.00 

8,461.15 

Balance available 28,726.66 

BAOATAO. 

The work done during July and August consisted in finishing and painting the pennanent 
buildings, removing temporary structures, and cutting timl^r for use at other stations. 
The station was completed and the party brought to ^umila. 

Financial statement. 
Expenditures to June 30 1^19,896.40 

Amount estimated, June 30, to finish 3, 000. 00 

Expenditures since June 30: 

Wages r2,566.88 

Subsistence 212.54 

Material 206.65 

2,986.07 

Balance 13.93 

Liabilities : 

Subsistence on tender, etc 13. 93 

Total cost, constnictior of station 22, 896. 40 

Apparatus 5, 293. 90 

Total 28,190.30 

BAN BERNABDINO. 

Tliifl station was completed and the party transferred to Siote Pecados during the latter 
part of July. The work done during Julv consisted in completing the roofing and iron work 
of the veranda, erecting a flag and signal staff, painting, glazing, etc., and removing a large 
amount of materials to other stations and to Manila. 

Financial statement. 

Total estimate 1^11,926.22 

Expenditures to June 30 10,614.32 

Estimated, June 30, to finish 1,311.90 

Expenditures since June 30: 

Wages 1^983.40 

Subsistence 62.80 

1,046.20 

Surplus 265.70 

APO BEEF. 

The construction party left for this station on July 6. Some little difficulty was expe- 
rienced at first in mamtaming a sufficient supply of water, but the government sloop Jervey 



BBPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 139 

has been assi^ed to this station and no farther difficuHy Ls expected. The work done has 
been the erection of temporary quarters, the road from dwelling site to tower partially com- 
pleted, excavation for tower foundation b<»i]^, etc. A temporary light has been estab- 
lished at this point, and captains of vessels sauing south from Manila report that the ultimate 
utility of the light wiO be considerable, owing to the saving of time made possible. 

Finaneitd statemerU. 

Balance, June 30 P"39,467.54 

Appropriation 23,000.00 

62,467.54 
Expenditures since June 30: 

Wages P'1,732.93 

Material 2,192.14 

Subsistence 634.68 

4,659.75 

Balance 57,907.79 

Liabilities: 

Apparatus (estimated) 10,500.00 

Wages,August (estimated) 1,800.00 

Material 3,209.91 

15, 509. 91 

Balance available 42,397.88 

OBANDE ISLAND (SUBIO BAT). 

Some timbers have been cut for the structures to be erected at this station and the plans 
have been completed. 

Financial siaiemenL 

Amount appropriated in estimate i^l8, 000. 00 

Expenditures: 

Wages 117.40 

Balance available , 17,882.60 

LUZARAN. 

The retaining wall and repairs at this station were completed July 20 and the party and 
materials tran^erred to Apo Reef. 

FinaTicidl staJtemerU. 

Expenditures to June 30 : f*'9,419. 17 

Expenditures since June 30: 

Subsistence n,664.87 

Wages 558.40 

Materials 779.02 

3,002.29 

Total 12,421.46 

SIETE FECADOS. 

On July 29 a typhoon wrecked the roof and part of the walls of this station, destroyed 
the veranda, broke the lantern by blowing the veranda roof against it, and did considerable 
other damaee. Two days later a repair party was landed and the light reestablished on 
August 2. The repairs at the station were entirely completed on August 28. 

FtTiardal statement. 

Wages ^^824.05 

Materials 158.49 

Subsistence.. 245.00 

Total 1,227.54 



140 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

8AN NICOLAS SHOAL. 

A sixth-order flashing white light has been instaUed in the iron tower, which was erected 
by the Spanish Government on the northern extremity of San Nicolas Shoal, in Manila 
Bay. Owing to the impossibility of landing at this tower in bad weather, a lamp which 
will bum for one montn without attention, and an apparatus revolved by means of an 
electric battery was installed, instead of the ordinary apparatus and lamp. 

Financial statement. 
Installation: 

Materials 1P32.80 

Wages 56.50 

Subsistence 32.00 

Total 121.30 

Apparatus 4, 590. 14 

BATANGAS. 

The two red-lens lanterns at this station were discontinued in July and a tripod 31 feet 
high was erected from which is displayed a red port light. 

Financial statement. 
Expenditures: 

Wages 1^21. CO 

(The tower erected was found in the warehouse, having been made by some one pre- 
viously in chaige. ) 

FRAMED TOWEBS. 

A party began work in Ai^ust on five framed towers 33 feet in height, which will be 
erected at points where port lights are needed to replace old structures. 

Financial statement. 
Expenditures: 

Wages : r280.50 

Materials 67.47 

Total 347.97 

IMPROVEMENT OF EXISTING LIGHTS. 

The apparatus for Subig Bay and San Nicolas have been delivered and the latter has 
been installed. 

Financial statement. 

Balance June 30 1^13,^:82.84 

Expenditures: 

Apparatus, San Nicolas Shoal 4, 500. 14 

Balance 8,992.70 

Liabilities: 

Apparatus, Subig Bay TSj 114. 12 

Apparatus, San Fernando 3, 878. 58 

8,992.70 

ENGINEER ISLAND. 

Appropriations were made for the general improvement of Engineer Island, the boring 
of an artesian well, and the completion of the light-house warehouse and wharf. Work 
has been begun on each of these items. Filling has been commenced, the wharf has been 
completed, a concrete floor to the warehouse bqgun, and the well driven about 110 feet. 



BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 141 

APPaOPBIATIONS^ 

The foDowing appropriations were made for current expenses and permanent improve- 
ments: 

For maintenance of warehouse ^12, 000 

For repairs to light stations 30, 000 

For improvement of existing lights 8, 000 

For completion of new storwiouse 2, 500 

For completion, Tanguingui 25, 000 

For completion, Bagatao 5, 000 

For completion, Subig Bay 18, 000 

For construction, San Fernando 21, 000 

For 12 port lights 10,000 

For completion, San Bernardino 5, 000 

For San Nicolas Shoal 1,000 

For surveys 7, 000 

For completion, Capitancillo 10, 000 

For completion, Bajo Apo 23, 000 

For completion, Bagacay 15, 000 

For completion, Manigum 20, 000 

For new light, Bolinao 60, 000 

For new light, Manila Breakwater 20, 000 

For improvement, Engineer Island 15, 000 

For artesian well 7, 000 

For marine railway. 1 85, 000 

The report on marine railway is inclosed herewith. 

Veiy respectfully, Spencer Cosby, 

Captain, Corps of Enffineera, U. 8. Army, LigTU-House Engineer. 



BuBEAU OP Coast Guabd and Transpobtation, 

Division of Lioirr-HouBE Construction, 

ManHa, P. /., September 9, J904. 
Capt. Spencer Cosbt, Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, 

Light-House Engineer, Manila, P. I. 
Sib: I have the honor to submit the following report, supplemental to the report for 
the fiscal year 1904, of the work accomplished on the marine railway on Engineer Island 
for the months of July and August, 1904: 

1. Pile drivins; was continued and practically finished excepting the cutting off of piles 
to grade at the Tower end. 

2. At the upper end of the railway all piles were cut off below the low-water line, and 
foundation is to be built up with concrete. This concrete work was commenced and more 
than half finished. 

3. The power-house foundation piles were driven and the concrete bases for the engine, 
windin£f machine, and boiler built. 

4. The engine and winding machine were set in position and a temporary shed built over 
them for protection. 

5. The track timbers were framed and put together, rails laid on the stringers, and 
stringers protected with iron strips and lar^e-headed nails for protection against teredos, 
and the entire structure will be launched m September and sunk to its position on the 
piles as soon as may be. 

6. The percentages of finished work on August 31, 1904, were as follows: 

Per cent. 

Dredging 100 

Filling to grade 3 

Piling, cutoff 98 

Lumber in place 5 

Hauling out machineiy 40 

Power house 45 

Concrete work 60 

7. The total money value of the work finished was estimated at $53,032.20 United States 
currency, or about 50 per cent of the contract price; 10 per cent of this amount is retained 
according to the provisions of the contract. 



142 REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

8. The cost of the work to August 31. 1904, has been as follows, stated in Philippine 
currency: 

Total cost to June 30, 1904 ^44,923.74 

Wages: 

July, 1904 1^464.40 

August....: 624.23 

1,088.63 

Due contractors (not including the 10 per cent to be retained as 

per contract): 

July,1904 (paid) 36,741.82 

August (unpaid) 28, 137. 96 

64,879.78 

Total cost to AuguPt 31, 1904 110,892.15 

Very re^)ectfully, 

Wm. H. ROBIMflON, 

Asnstani Engineer, 



BuBBAu OF Coast Guard and Transpoktation, 
Division op Light-House Construction, 

Manila, P. /., Auffusi 20, 190i. 
Chief Bureau of Coast Guard and Transportation, 

Manila, P. I. 
Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of operations of the division of 
light-house construction for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904: 

Capt. HcniT Jervey, Corps of Engineers, U. S. Armv, was in charge of this division until 
August 12, 1903, when I relieved mm and continued on duty as light-house engineer for 
the remainder of the fiscal year. 

conditions at bboinntno of tear. 

The oiganization of this office was but partiallv completed. The clerical force was 
inadequate; the system of property accountability left much to be desired; there was no 
engineering force and no regular system of inspecting work in progress. 

Detached parties were at work at four outlying points, viz, Bugui, Jintotolo, Capul, and 
San Bemaroino, where they were engaged in completing third-order light stations begun 
under the Spanish r^^'gime. Apparatus for these stations, for two sixth-order lights and for 
two port liglits had been ordered from Paris. 

Sixty-one lights were in operation, including 15 flashing lights, 5 fixed lights, and 41 
minor lights (lens lanterns, pK)st lant43ms, and electric arc lights). 

work accomplished during the year. 

The organization of the office has been completed, so that it now has a force competent 
properly to design and carry on the amount of new work for which funds and transportation 
racilities have Wn provided, and to keep in fairly good order the lights now in operation. 
An officer of the Corps of Engineers of the Army has been detailed as assistant to the 
light-house engineer, an experienced civil engineer has been placed in direct charge of the 
more important works of construction, frequent inspectioas are made of all work in progress, 
the clerical foree has been increased and, under an able chief clerk, is doing excellent work; 
a skilled machinist has been brought from the United States to install and care for the 
delicate light-house apparatus, and the system of records, report.s, and property accounta- 
bility has tK>en improved and extended, greatly adding to the efficiency of the work. 

It has been found impossible in many cases to secure overseers and mechanics of the 
kind desired to make up our working parties. This difficulty is being remedied whenever 
possible by a ^adual process of elimination and s(>]ection. 

A survey party is greatly needed to complete our working force, and will be organized 
as soon as funds are provided. 

The work at Bugui, Jintotolo, and Capul has been completed, and these stations are in 
full running order. As it is impassible to make a landing on the island of San Bernardino 
during the prevalence of the winter monsoon, it was necessary to take away the working 
party on September 10, 1903, before they had completed all the necessary repairs. Hiis 
important light has, however, been kept in continuous operation, and a new working party, 
landed at the island on June 19, 1G04, is expected to complete the station in a few weeks. 

Extea«5ive repairs, requiring in each case several months to complete, have been made 
at Calabazas and Gigantes light stations, and minor repairs at a number of other stations. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION, 143 

In addition to the repair partv now at work at San Bernardino there is also a working 
party at Luzaran (at the southern extremity of Guimaras Island) engaged in building a 
neavy concrete retaining wall around the brow of the hill on which the fight-house tower 
and dwelling are situated. This wall is designed to prevent the threaten^ sliding of the 
structures into the sea. 

Besides the two repair parties, field parties of from 30 to 100 men each are at present 
at work building new stations for flashing lights at Bagacay and Capitancillo, on tne east 
coast of Cebu, at Tanguingui Island south of Masbiite, and at Bagatao Island at the entrance 
to Sorsogon Bay. An additional party has been organized and will be sent early in July 
to begin the construction of a thira-order light station on Apo Island off the west coast of 
Mindoro. 

The fixed light at Siete Pecados has been replaced by an incandescent flashing light, the 
first to be estaoliahed in these islands in which the new and powerful system of incandescent 
burners with petroleum vapor is used instead ot the ordinary wick lamp. Tlie experiment 
is being watcned carefully to determine whether it is j>racticab]e to extend this system 
to other lights. 

Three-lens lantern lights and three beacons marking shoals have been erected in the 
harbor of Romblon. A number of the minor lights have been replaced by others more 
powerful and visible at a greater distance. New li^ts have been installed where they 
were most ui^ently needed, including seven along the coasts of Mindanao, where formerly 
there were omy two. 

Detailed reports, with statement of cost, of the operations referred to above are given 
later under the heads of "New work" and "Repair work." 

NEW LIOHT-HOUSBS. 

Hie total number of lights in operation was increased from 61 at the beginning of the 
fiscal year to 76 at its close, includmg 19 flashing lights, 3 fixed lights, and 54 minor lights. 
One minor li^ht was discontinued. 

The following new lights were put in operation during the fiscal year: 

Capul Islano, Sclu Bernardino Straits, third order, flashing white light. November 1, 
1903. * 

Jintotolo Island, south of Masbate, third order, flashing white and red light. December 
18, 1903. 

Taneuingui Island, lens lantern, fixed white liglit. December 31 , 1903. 

Los BaHos, Laguna de Bay, 3 lanterns on tripod, white and red fixed lights. December 
29,1903. 

Cottabato, Mindanao, lens lantern, fixed red light. March, 1904. 

Tagolo Point, Mindanao, lens lantern, fixed white light. March, 1904. 

Surigao, Mindanao, lens lantern, fixed red light. March, 1904. 

Sabans Point, Romblon, lens lantern, fixed white light. April 9, 1904. 

Romblon Harbor Range, lens lantein, fixed red light at front and rear points. April 
9,1904. 

Camp Overton, Mindanao, lens lantern, fixed red light. March 21, 1904. 

Ormoc, Leyte, lens lantern, fixed red light. April 2, 1904. 

Bagatao luand, entrance to Sorsogon Bay, sixth order, flashing white light. May 15, 
19047* 

Port Bongao, Tawi-Tawi, lens lantern, fixed white light. About March 10, 1904. 

Tai-Tay, lens lantern, fixed wliite light. April, 1S04. 

Davao, Santa Cruz and Malalog, on Gulf of Davao, lens lanterns, fixed red lights, has 
presumably becoi established at each of these points. 

CHANGES IN LlOinS. 

The following are the more important changes in existing lights made during the fiscal 
year: 

Bugui. — ^The time of revolution of the flashing light was reduced from 30 to 10 seconds 
in October, 1903. 

Manila oreaktDoter. — ^The red light was discontinued on November 1, 1903. Its place is 
taken by temporary lights maintained by the contractors who are building the breakwater. 

San Fernando Range. — A single red lens lantern of improved pattern was put in place 
of the two lidits at each range point in February, 1€04. 

8ieU Pecados. — ^The fixed light was replaced by a flashing white light on April 10, 1904. 

Lepaspi. — A fixed red light was placeo below the white light on April 5, 1904. 

Puogo. — ^The globe lantern on a bamboo pole was replaced by a red lens lantern on 
cupola of church on April 20, 1904. 

Calapan. — ^A red lens lantern replaced the red and white lights on April 21, 1904. 



144 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

♦ New Work. 

The following is a description of the work accomplished under the various appropriations 
made for the construction of new light stations and the completion of those already under 
way: 

The Spanish Government plans included, amone many others, the erection of towers for 
flashing lights at the following localities: CapitancDlo Island, east of the north end of Cebu 
Island; Tan^uingui Island, south of Masbate Island; Apo Reef, off the west coast of 
Mindoro; Point Bagacay, on the east coast of Cebu Island; Maniguin Island, west of Panay 
Island ; Cape Bolinao, on the west coast of Luzon. 

It was proposed to erect steel towers at the first three mentioned stations, and in 1896 the 
towers were purchased complete in France by the Spanish authorities and delivered in 
Manila. The tower for Taneuingui was taken by them to that island and left exposed to 
the elements and unguarded during the insurrections, resulting in the loss and destruction of 
many of the smaller parts. The other two towers were left in Manila and were found in 
oxoellent condition when taken possession of by the Americans. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year 1904 no work had been attempted at any of the above 
stations by this office. The Spanish Government had commenced work at Capitancillo and 
Tanguingui islands, but had accomplished little and abandoned them when the insurrection 
broke out. 

During the past year work in connection with the various stations has been as follows: 

CAPITANCILLO. 

A party consisting of 4 Americans and 48 natives was organized in September, 1903, and 
sent to this station, leaving Manila September 27. 

The Spanish Government had commenced the construction of a retaining wall around 
the site for the tower and buildings, had made some excavations, and had transported a 
quantity of building rock and sand from the mainland. 

Work was commenced in October by this division, the construction of the retaining wall 
being first taken up. The Spanish plans have been generally followed, with modifications. 
Owing to the small size of the island and the scarcity of building materials, it was necessary 
to transport all the required sand and rock as well as fresh water, from the mainland of Cebu. 
Quarries were opened near the town of Tabo^an, about 7 miles from Capitancillo. 

Bad weather and poor transportation facilities have delayed the work. A scow with a 
canring capacity of about 10 tons was built at the station for transporting rock and was 
used succesrully during calm weather, but could not be used much of the time. 

In March, 1904, the lisht-house tender Picket was sent to the station for duty, and most 
of the necessary materiiu was transported by her in a short time. 

The party has been gradually increased until in June, 1904, it consisted of 3 Americans 
and over 80 natives, a number of the latter beine obtained locally. 

During the fiscal year the work accomplished, in addition to the building of temporary 
quarters, storehouses, etc., has been as follows: 

1. The retaining wall was finished on three sides, excepting the coping blocks, an opening 
being left in the north wall to allow of the easy handling of heavy matenal. 

2. Excavations were made for the foundations of the tower, keepers' dwelling, annex, and 
cbtem. 

3. Foundation of keepers' dwelling was finished and the masonry walls carried up about 
two-thirds of the required height. 

4. Foundation of the tower was finished and one section of the steel work erected. 

The work at this station is now well under way and is being pushed as rapidly as possible. 
The station will probably be complete about the end of Octo&r, 1004. 

Money statement. 
Appropriations: 

•Act 831 rso.ooo.oo 

Act 1114 20,000.00 

70,000.00 
Expenditures to June 30, 1904: 

Materials ^27,292. 12 

Subsistence / 6,787.33 

Wages 2,277.32 

Apparatus 3 , 324 . 40 

55,718.00 

Balance 14,282.00 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 145 

liabilities: 

Subsistence P"816. 00 

Insular Purchasing Agent, materials 654. 54 

Outstanding wages, etc 51. 12 

!ri,521.66 

Balance available 12, 760. 34 

Amount in estimate required to finish 10, 000. 00 

Estimated expenditure required to complete work 22, 760. 34 

TANGUINOUI. • 

A partjr consisting of 2 Americans and 55 natives was organized in December, 1903, and 
sent to this station, leaving Manila on December 10. 

The Spanish Government had delivered the steel tower on the island, constructed a cistern 
of about 15,000 gallons capacity, and made some of the excavations for tower and building 
foundations. 

An examination disclosed the fact that the steel parts of the tower were badly rust eaten, 
some parts being so far gone as to be useless. A number of other parts, principally small 
ones, were idissing. After the building of temporary quarters, the entire working force were 
employed in cleaning, sorting, and painting tne various parts of the tower. A list* of the 
missing and worthless parts was obtained and they will be replaced in the immediate future. 

The Spanish plans, somewhat modified, have lieen followed at this station. 

Some difficulty was experienced in obtaining a supply of fresh water. Water was delivered 
at the island by the light-house tenders and the station was equipped with a sailing prao of 
about 7 tons carrying capacity to act as a water boat; it has served the purpose very suc- 
cessfully, bringing water m sufficient quantity from a point about 10 miles distant. 

A temporary wharf was built to facilitate the landing of cargo, but during the heavy 
weather of the past two months was carried away. Fortunately, however, aU the heavy 
material needed has been delivered. 

The party has been increased by 1 American and 28 natives, the latter employed locally 
making the total strength of the party in June, 1904, 3 Americans and 83 natives. 

Dunng the fiscal year the work accomplished, in addition to the building of temporary 
quarters, storehouses, wharf, etc., has been as follows: 

1. Cleaning and painting the parts of the steel tower. 

2. Excavating for foimdations of tower, keepers' dwelling, and annex. 

3. Foundations for tower and keepersMwelling completed. 

4. Concrete waUs of keepers' dwelling carried to about one-half the required height. 

5. Two sections of steel tower erected. 

6. Grounds around station graded. 

A temporary lens lantern displaying a fixed white light was established December 31, 1903. 
The work at this station is progressing rapidly and will be finished about the end of 
October, 1904. 

Money statement, 

[Built from appropriation for the completion of minor stations and construction of new.] 

Expenditures to June 30, 1904. 

Wages P'15,075.14 

Subsistence 4,723.62 

Materials 16,863.27 

!r36,662.03 

liabilities: 

Subsistence 825.00 

Apparatus 338.00 

Ii^ular Purchasing Agent, materials 1, 100. 00 

2,263.00 

Total expenditures and liabilities. .- 38, 925. 03 

Estimated amount required to finish 20, 492. 23 

Total 59,417.26 

POINT BAG AC AT. 

A party consisting of 1 American and 26 natives was organized in September, 1903, and 
sent to this station, leaving Manila October 4. 

WAR 1904— VOL 13 10 



146 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

The location selected at this place for the erection of the tower for the flashing light, which 
is to replace the present lantern, was some distance from the landing place and it required 
considerable preliminary work before any actual permanent work coma be commenced. 

The landing is bad and it became necessary to build a long rock pier to obtain water 
enough to float a ship's boat. Temporary quarters and storehouses were built, the pier 
constructed, a light railroad track, requiring much grading, was laid from the landing to 
the tower site, a well sunk and temporary cistern built. Work on the permanent structures 
was not commenced until February, 1904, when excavation for the tower foundation and 
transportation of building material to the site was begun. 

Owing to trouble in securing local labor the work did not advance as rapidly as was 
hoped for but at the present time conditions are improving and the work is progressing 
fairly well. 

The plans of the Spanish Government for this point have been radically changed. The 
tower is practically tne same, being of masonry construction, but instead of the masonry 
buildings, frande structures on masonry foundations have been substituted. This has 
b?en done with a view of comparing the original cost, and cost of maintenance of the two 
classes of buildings. Complete plans of the various structures have been made. 

The party has been increased, until in June the working force consisted of 1 American and 
64 natives. 

Thcpermanent work that has been finished during the fiscal year has been as follows: 

1. The masonry tower completed for about one-half its height. 

2. The masonry piers for the foundation of the keepers' dwelling completed. 
It is thought that this station should be in operation about January 1, 1905. 

Money stctement. 
Amount appropriated: 

Act 831 ^-30,000.00 

Act 1114 30,000.00 

^,000.00 
Amount expended: 

Materials v ^14,733.03 

Wages 13,768.29 

SulSistence 4, 541. 75 

33,043.07 

Balance 26,956.93 

Liabilities: 

Subsistence 408.00 

Insular purchasing agent 1, 9C>6. 81 

Apparatus 16,731.00 

Unpaid rolls, etc 40-1.85 

19, 510. 66 

Balance available ^ 7, 446. 27 

Amount in estimate to finish 15, 000. 00 

Estimated expenditure to complete work 22, 446. 27 

BAOATAO ISLAND. 

A working party, in charge of an American overseer, was sent to construct a light station 
here, in January, 190 1, and will complete the work by the middle of August. 

The party has consisted of 2 Americans, from 6 to 10 Chino carpenters, and about 30 
Filipino workmen hired in Manila on account of the diflSculty of securing local laborers. 

Tne preliminary work consisted of the construction of temporary quarters and store- 
houses, the building of a landing pier of cribwork and masonry, the clearing and grading 
of a service road from the pier to the tower site, the clearing and grading of the site for 
the permanent structures, and the digging qj wells in an attempt to obtain fresh water 
on tno island, 

The permanent work has consisted of the erection of an iron tower, a frame dwelling 
for the keepers, a frame kitchen, a concrete storehouse and oil room, a cistern of concrete 
rcenforced with steel, a frame latrine, a tripod for a port liglit, and the cutting of consid- 
erable hardwood lumber for use here and at other stations. 

The tower, an iron cylinder 29 feet high, is anchored to its concrete base on the summit 
rock by anchor bolts 1 meter long; this tower was bought during Spanish times but 
several minor pieces had been lost requiring new ones to ho made. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 147 

The frame dwelling (38 feet 2 inches by 37 feet 6 inches), is supported on Molave posts 
set in concrete pillars. 

The sixth-oraer flashing white li^t, first lifted on May 15, is equipped both with an 
incandescent and with an ordinary burner. 

A red fixed port light is displayed on a tripod to the oast of the flashing light. 

The timber cut on the reservation has cost much less than the same quality of wood 
costs in Manila. 

Money siaUment. ^ 

[Built from appropriation for completion of minor stations and construction of new, Acts 831 and 1114.] 

Expenditures to June 30, 1904: 

Wages r-10,342.24 

Subsistence 2,264.36 

Materials 7,289.80 

19,896.40 
Estimated amount required to finish '.. 3,000.00 

Total 22,896.40 

BOMBLON HABBOB. 

Arrangements were made with the governor of Romblon to have the province supply 
the necessary boats and lighters and pay the laborers needed for the erection of lights and 
construction of beacons in Romblon harbor. With this understanding an American over- 
seer and assistant were sent to that place in February to take chai^ of the work, and the 
necessary materials were also suppliea by this division. The provmce provided about 20 
laborers per day until May 1, after which it was necessary for tnis division to hire laborers 
until the completion of the work about May 15. The amount of work was greater than 
was at first contemplated and the provincial authorities did not deem themselves justified 
in spending more money after May 1. 

Tne following work was accomplished: 

Sahang Poini. — ^A port li^ht was established on this point on a concrete tower erected 
during the Spanish occupation. This light marks the entrance to the harbor. 

A nipa dwelling of four rooms for the keeper was built. Small hardwood trees were 
cut on Bagatao Island for the posts of this dwelling and were set in concrete in the ground, 
to prevent their being attacked by either rot or white ants. A small storehouse for oil 
ana paints was erected near the tower. 

The ground surrounding the station was cleared and fenced. 

Sahanq Beef. — On the extremity of this reef was erected a structure of heavy iron pipes 
24 feet lugh. The reef is rough and rocky and covered by about 5 feet of water at low tide. 
The iron stmcture was fitted together on a lighter and then towed to the reef and sunk in 
place. Concrete in sacks was used to level the structure and to anchor the legs. Loose 
stone was piled around the beacon up to low-water level. Two wooden targets visible 
several miles were fastened to the upper part of the beacon. The structure was treated 
with hot coal tar to preserve it from the action of salt water. 

Agbatan Reef. — ^A beacon similar to the one described above was erected on this reef 
under practically the same conditions. 

Binagan Bee]. — A concrete beacon supporting an upper part of wood was erected on this 
reef. 

The depth of the water at the site is only 3 or 4 feet and little difficulty was experienced 
in depositing the concrete, using a box as a cofferdam. 

Range lights. — The front range structure is similar to the beacon constructed on Binagon 
Reef. The rear range is a post erected on shore. On each of these is displayed a red lens 
lantern. 

Money statement. 
[Built from appropriation for completion of minor stations and construction of new.] 

Expenditures: 

Wages n, 219. 80 

Suroistencc 444. 00 

Material 1,380.52 

Total 3,044.32 



148 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

BUGUI POINT. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year a part^ of about 60 men were at work completing 
this station, which had been left in an unfinished condition by the Spaniards. A thircf 
order flashing light had been installed but had been partly destroyed by insurrectos and 
the other parts were so badly rusted that it was necessary to get a new apparatus. 

This work was completea last September. The following is a partial list of the work 
done during the year by the party: 

Made and fitted doors and windows, laid walks, built gutters, finished ceiling, roof, and 
yeranda and completed generally all needed work on the tower, kitchens, storeroom and 
dwelling. 

Last January a small party was sent to this station to regrade the court because water 
s*ood on it, to paint the roofs, to erect a flagstaff, put a li^tning rod on the tower, and 
make yentilators for the lantern, as it had been discoyered that the light did not bum 
steadily without this regulation. 

This work was completed in February. 

Money staiemerU. 

[From appropriation for completion of minor stations and construction of new, Acts 831 and 1114.] 

Expenditures: 

Wages re, 609. 70 

Subsistence 528.90 

Materiab 2,247.81 

Total 9,476.41 

CAPUL ISLAND. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year a party was at work at Capul light station, which had 
been left in an uiSinbhed state by the Spaniards. Work was continued with a force of 
from 60 to 90 men until last November, wnen the work was completed. • 

A third-K>rder flashing light had been installed here by the Spaniards, but had been 
destroyed by the insurrectos, and a new one had to be bought. 

Since the beginning of the year the walls of the house have been completed, the roof 
put on, the house finished, a latrine built, the tower completed, the apparatus installed, 
the grounds graded, walks laid, etc. The station is now in excellent condition and in full 
working order. 

Money statement. 

[From appropriation for completion of minor stations and construction of new, Acts 831 and llU.] 

Expenditures: 

Wages !ri2,600.45 

Subsistence 4,237.42 

Materials 1,116.46 

Total 17,954.33 

JINTOTOLO. 

This station, like several others, had been in course of construction when the Spanish- 
American war broke out. A party of about 40 men were completing the work unaer this 
office at the beginning of the nscal year. 

The work done since the 1st of July by this party was the finishing of the floors, ceilings, 
veranda, kitchens, cistern, plastering, fence, walks, doors, and windows, grading, tne 
installation of a third-K>rder flashing light, etc., which was completed last December. 

Money stalemerd. 

[From appropriation for completion of minor stations and construction of new, Acts 831 and 1114.] 

Expenditures: 

Wages r-7,635.19 

Materials 1,198.77 

Subsistence 2,122.10 

Total 10,955.96 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 149 

SAN BEBNABDINO. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year a party was at work completing this station, which 
had been le^ in an unfinished state by the Spaniards. 

The party remained there until September, when they were taken off the island, as it 
was not considered safe to leave them longer on account of the impossibility of landing 
there during the winter months. ' 

A party was again sent to this station to complete the work in May, 1904, and are there 
at present. 

The work done during the year has included the making of doors and windows, comple- 
tion of storehouse and kitchen, painting, plastering, tinning, ironwork on veranaa, etc. 

Money staiemerU. 

[From appropriation for completion of minor stations and construction of new, Acts 831 and 1114.] 

Expenditures: 

Wages P"6,040.16 

Subsistence 1,728.31 

Materials 3,349.41 

10, 117. 88 
Liabilities: 

Insular purchasing agent, materials 496. 44 

Total liabiUties and expenditures to June 10, 614. 32 

Estimated amount to finish 1, 311. 90 

Total 11,926.22 

BAJO APO. 

A survey party was organized in November, 1903, and sent to this station for the pur- 
pose of making a topographical survey of the island. 

Several plans were considered and compared with the original Spanish plans. It was 
finally decided that for all structures, excepting the tower, a different construction would 
be used, and instead of the heavy masonry buildings proposed by the Spanish Govern- 
ment, modem steel concrete structures will be erected. This construction will be lighter, 
require less material, and therefore be more economical and still be fully as strong and 
permanent as the heavier construction. 

Complete plans were made, and in June, 1904, a party of 1 American and 45 natives 
was oi^nized and will be sent to the island early in July. Work will be pushed as rapidly 
as possible, and, weather permitting, the station will be in operation in aoout ten months. 



Amount appropriated: 



Monty siatemerU. 



Act 831 ^30,000.00 

Act 1114 12,000.00 

42,000.00 
Expenditures to June 30: 

Materials P-1,094.48 

Wages 1,377.48 

Subsistence 60.50 

2,532.46 

39, 467. 54 
liabilities: 

Apparatus 10,500.00 

Insular purchasing agent, materials 766. 84 

11,266.84 

Balance available 28,200.70 

Amount in estimate required to finish 23, 000. 00 

Estimated expenditure required to complete ^ 51, 200. 70 



150 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

MANIGUIN. 

A prolimlnary examination was made of this island with the view of erecting a flashing 
light here during the coming year. A map of the island has been made and the elevation 
of the site of the proposed station obtained. Plans for the various structures to be erected 
are in course of preparation. 

Money statement. 

Amount appropriated, Act 831 'POO, 000. 00 

Expenditures: 

Materials^ ^407. 95 

Wages 144.98 

552.93 

Balance • 59,447.07 

Liabilities: 

Apparatus 10,500.00 

Insular purchasing agent 53. 50 

10,553.50 

Balance available 48, 893. 57 

Amount estimated required to finish 20, 000. 00 

Amount required to complete 68, 893. 57 

OBANDE ISLAND (SUBIO BAY). 

In January a new port light was displayed on the incomplete tower on this island in 
place of the old lens lantern. 

A preliminary examination was made to ascertain the amount of work done by the 
Spamards, what materials were left at the station and in what state of preservation, and 
to make plans for the necessair work to complete the station. 

Plans have been begun for this work and it is expected to send a construction party to 
the station in August, 1904, to complete the station and install a new flashing light. 

Money statement. 

Amount spent during Spanish r%ime ^^3, 669. 46 

Estimatea amount necessary to complete 18, 000. 00 

Estimated total cost 21, 669. 46 

CAPE BOUNAO. 

A surveying party was sent to this place in Februaiy to make a sur\'cy and to get the 
elevation of several points, with a view to dioosing a site for a new flashing light. The 
party worked under groat difficulties. It was compelled to land several mifles from the 
site on account of the rocky and dangerous coaSt. Two days were required to reach the 
site, a road having to be cut through the brush and woods over a part of the way. 

The country is rough and densely wooded, making sur\'cying work slow and difficult. 

SAN FERNANDO POINT. 

The same surveying party also made a survey for a reservation on San Fernando Point, 
and chose a site for a new flashing light. 

SAN FERNANDO RANGE. 

The red lens lanterns on the range beacons at San Fernando were unsatisfactory on 
account of not being visible at a sufficient (fistance. A red port light was substituted for 
each pair of these lanterns, the beacons were painted a different color to increase their 
visibility, and each reservation was inclosed by a fence. 

DAGUPAN. 

Tlie reservation at Dagupan was sur>'cyed and the boundaries marked. 

SILAQUI. 

A survey was made of this island to ascertain its desirability as the site for a light station. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 151 

BAPU-RAPU. 

A preliminary examination waa made of this point to choose a site for a light station. 
An available site was found, its elevation obtained, and also information concerning the 
place for anchorage, landing, water supply, etc. 

Notices to mariners have been issued during the year and widely distributed, giving 
necessaiy warnings of changes, irre^arities, etc., in lights. 

Correffl^ndence has been had with the governments of Japan, China, and the Dutch 
East Inoies relative to their experiences with different kinds of apparatus and structures, 
and with particular reference to the atmospheric and seismic conditions of this part of 
the world. 

Repaib Work. 

The following work was accomplished during the fiscal year under the appropriation 
for "Repairs to light stations now in operation,'' Acts 807 and 1049: 

OALABAZAS. 

A party consisting of 2 Americans, 3 chino carpenters, and 6 native laborers began 
extensive repairs here on Au^t 10, 1903. This force was increased to a total of over 40 
on September 18, and remamed at about that strength until completion of repairs last 
FebruaiT. 

A landslide had threatened the safety of the tower, making it necessary to build a retaining 
wall to protect it. 

Excavations were made under the floors and new ones put in; new roofs and ceilings 
were made and several roof timbers replaced which had been destroyed by white ants; 
the service road was^improved, drains constructed, a new latrine built, etc. 

Money gUUemerU, 
Expenditures: 

Wages P'9,587.95 

Material 2,658.63 

Subsistence 3,016.70 

ToUl 15,263.28 

OIOAMTBS. 

A working party consisting of 2 Americans, 4 Chino carpenters, and 17 Filipino laborers 
began extensive repairs here on August 9, 1903, and contmued work with small additions 
to the force until tne completion of the repairs in January, 1904. 

The station was in a very dilapidated condition, having been neglected for several years, 
making it necessary to renew or repair the roofs, gutters, cornice, ceilings, floors, "doors, 
windows, cisterns, roof timbers, etc. 

Excavations were made under the floor to a depth of 2 feet 6 inches, new sills were put 
in, and new foundations under the partition walls, with the expectation that the floors i^all 
now be more durable and not likely to be attacked by white ants. 

Money statement. 
Expenditures: 

Wages y?, 355. 16 

Material 2,938.09 

Subsistence 1,272.20 

Total ' 11,665.45 

LUZARAN. 

The station at Luzaran had become endangered by the giving way of the retaining wall 
in front of the tower. A large section of this wall had overturned and fallen into the sea, 
taking with it part of the earth backing, leaving both the tower and house in imminent 
danger of being undermined. It was decided to replace the old wall by a new concrete 
wall of greater thickness and constructed nearer to the tower. 

A party of 16 men under charge of an American overseer was sent to this station in 
January, 1904; some local laborers were hired, making in all a party of 25 men. They 
will complete work about July 25. 

This station was built partly on a^fill, making it necessary to go down to a depth of 18 
feet in front of the tower m order to get a firm foundation for the new retaining wall. This 



152 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION; 

wall is 2 feet thick at the top, and has a batter of 1 foot horizontallY to each 3 feet verticaDj. 
The surface of the ground between the house and retaining wall has been covered by & 
cement mortar walk to prevent water getting in behind the wall, and drain pipes have 
been led through it near the base to allow any water inside to escape. 

The system of drainage has been so arranged as to discharge all surface water at the 
rear of the station so as to prevent the soil in front of the station from being washed away. 

Besides the retaining waU certain minor repairs have been made. 

The old Spanish latrine near the house was changed into an oil room. 

A new concrete latrine with a flushing system was constructed at a short distance from 
the house. 

Repairs were made to the concrete stairway leading from the beach to the station. 

Repairs were also made to the kitchen stove and to the roof. 

Money statement. 
Expenditures: 

Wages P'3,620.03 

Material 4,726.34 

Subsistence 1,072.80 

ToUl 9,419.17 

CAPONE8. 

This important first-order light has given constant trouble. The lens is of the old pattern 
and revolves on steel rollers, which, with the track on which they run, have become worn 
and uneven, so that the light runs irregularly and sometimes stops. 

New rollers were made and substituted for the old ones, with the result that the regularity 
of the light has been much improved. 

Money dalement. 
Expenditures: 

Rollers, etc P-660. 42 

SIBTE PBCADOS. 

On the 2l8t of March a party of 6 men in charge of an American carpenter were sent to 
this station to make minor repairs. These were completed in May. 

A new frame latrine was built at some distance from the dwelhng, and the old Spanish 
one adjoining the kitchen was converted into a storeroom. 

The Kitchen stove and sink were changed and improved, and the doors and windows of 
the station repaired and refitted where necessary. 

The fixed light was replaced by a new flashing light, which is fitted with both an incan- 
descent and an ordinary burner, the installation being made by an American machinist 
with the assistance of the working party. 

Money gtatemeni. 
Expenditures: * 

Wages P'510.62 

Material 820.06 

Subsistence 200.60 

Total 1,631.28 

8AN NICOLAS SHOAL. 

A party was sent to paint the iron tower erected by the Spaniards on San Nicolas Shoal, 
Manila Bay. An examination was made of the tower preparatoiy to installing there a light 
which has been recently received. 

Money stctement. 
Expenditures: 

Wages P'47. 10 

Material 41.00 

Total 88.10 

LiabiHties: 

New apparatus to be installed (installation of lenses. Act 807 ) 4, 643. 50 

OORBEOIDOH. 

A small party was sent to this station to make some minor repaiw to doors, windows, and 
drains. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 153 

nfFROYEMENT OF EXISTING LIGHTS. 

The appropriation of $7,000 made for this purpose by act No. 807 was applied to the pur- 
chase of apparatus for a flashing sixth-order lignt to take the place of the lens lantern on 
Grande Island at the entrance to Subig Bay, for a flashing thirty-day light to be placed in 
the light-house on San Nicolas Shoal, Manila Bay, and for portions of flashing lights to 
replace fixed lights at Capul Island, Strait of San Bernardino, and at San Fernando Point, 
Union ProYinoe. 

Money statement. 
Appropriation: 

Act 807 ^-14,000.00 

Expenditures: 

Balance incandescent light, Capul 417. 16 



Liabilities: 

Apparatus — 

Subig Bay ^5,114.12 

San Nicolas 4,727.00 

San Fernando 3,741.72 



13,582.84 



13, 582. 84 



BEPAIB SHOP AND STOREHOUSE. 



In June, 1904, the repair shop and storehouse, formerly located on the south bank of the 
Pasig River near the machine shop of the works of the port, were moved to the building on 
Engineer Island, which had been reconstructed for the purpose by the bureau of architecture. 
The building is not yet completed; a good deal remains to be done to place it in satisfactory 
condition for use. A wharf was built by this office alon^ the river side of the new storehouse, 
and tools and machinery have been ordered for the repair of light-house apparatus. 

From the storehouse were shipped to the various stations practically all the materials, 
tools, and supplies used in construction and repair work. Minor repairs and changes in 
apparatus and various small parts needed were made in the repair shop. 

Money statement. 

FOB MAINTENANCK AND OPERATION OP WAREHOUSE. 

Act 807 re, 000. 00 

Act 1049 6,000.00 

n2,000.00 

Expenditures: 

Wages 11,844.80 

Material 81.84 

11,926.64 

73.36 
Liabilities: 

Outstanding pay rolls 73. 36 

FOR PURCHASE OF TOOLS.^ 

Act 1049 r2,000.00 

Expenditures: 

Tools 171.61 



1,828.39 
Liabilities: 

Tools ordered from insular purohasing agent, including lathe, belting, etc . 1 , 828. 39 

FOR BUILDING OF WHARF AND MOVING WAREHOUSE. 

Act 1049 P-6,000.00 

Expenditures: 

Wages P'2,189.71 

Materials 3,478.10 

5,667.81 

332.19 



154 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Liabilities: 

Machine shop for supplies ^5i. 14 

Insular purcnasing agent, materials 72. 74 

¥-126. 88 

Balance available 215.31 

PROPOSED WORK DURING COMING YEAR. 

The repair work now under way at Luzaran and San Bernardino and the construction of 
the new station at Bagatao should be completed during the present month and the worldng 
parties withdrawn. If sufficient funds are provided, an attempt may be made to build a 
small wharf at San Bernardino to enable a landing to be made there during the winter 
months in case of emergency. It is doubtful whether a wharf can be built for a moderate 
sum that will stand the heavy seas that constantly beat around this island. 

The party organized to construct the new station on Apo Island will commence work 
early in July. It is expected that a party will be ready in August to begin the recon- 
struction of the light-house marking the entrance to Subig Bay. 

The apparatus ror the flashing light on San Nicolas Shoal, Manila Bay, has been delivered 
and will be installed in the course of a few weeks, weather permitting. 

The work on the new stations at Tanguingui and Capitancillo should be completed by the 
end of October, and that at Bagacay two or three months later. It is probable that the 

E allies from these stations will be reorganized and two of them sent to build the proposed 
ght-houscs at San Fernando Point and on Maniguin Island, off the west coast of Panay. 
All the^necessary apparatus and appurtenances for these two lights, and for those at Apo, 

on tiand or have been ordered 



Subig Bay, Tanguingui, CapitancilTo, and Bagacay, are either on 1 
and will be paid for from appropriations already made. 

Twelve port lights, two of which are to be occulting, have also been ordered from funds 
on hand and should be received within the next few weeks. Some of them will be used to 
replace inferior lights and others will be established at new points. 

A number of stations now in operation are in need of repairs. In a few cases the need is 
urgent, but it is believed that in no case will the repairs have to be of a very extensive 
character. The amount of work in sight is, however, ample to keep a repair party continu- 
ously at work during the year. , 

A survey party under a competent civil engineer should be organized as soon as possible. 
It is needed to make careful topographical surveys of proposed sites for new stations, to lay 
out now light-house reservations, ana to mark those already set aside. 

Funds have been asked for to increase the distinctive character of some of our minor fixed 
lights by converting them into occulting lights. It ia also desired to improve some of the 
flashing lights by installing in them incandescent burners and by eliminating the objection- 
able false flashes, due mainly to the use of flat instead of curved panes of glass in the lantern. 

Estimates have been submitted for the construction of 7 new light stations, of which 4 
are to be third and fourth order flashing lights, and 3 are to be occulting lights. If the 
amounts asked for are appropriated, it is hoped to begin construction work at most of these 
new stations during the coming year. 

Very respectfully, Spencer Cosby, 

Captain f Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, 

Light'house-Engineer. 

BEFOBT OF THE DIYISIOK OF LIOHT-H0U8E HAIHTEKAKCE. 

Bureau op Coast Guard and Transportation, 

Office of tue Lioht-House Inspector, 

Manila, P. /., July 28, 1904^ 
Chief of Bureau op Coast Guard and Transportation, 

Manila, P. I. 
Sir: The division of light-house maintenance has the honor to submit the following report 
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904: 

1. There were maintained by this division at the beginning of the year 15 flashing lights, 
5 fixed lighUs, and 41 smaller lights. 

During the year there have l^een 2 fixed lights changed to flashing lights, and 2 flashing 
and 14 lesser lights established: also 1 small light discontinued, making the totnl member 
of lights in existence June 30, 1904, as follows: Flashing lights, 19; fixed lights, 3; smaller 
lights, 54; total, 76. 

2. At the beginning of the year there were employed for the care and maintenance of the 
lights 80 keepers in cliarge and assistants, 8 apprentices, and 36 boatmen. 

During the j'car the following changes have Ijecn made: Keepers discharf]jed, 22; appren- 
tices discharged, 13; l>oatmen discharged, 21 ; keepers employed, 27; apprentices employed, 
33; boatmen employed, 24; apprentices promoted to keepers, 9. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 155 

The foQowing were in the employ of this division on June 30, 1904: Keepers in charge and 
assistants, 93; apprentices, 19; boatmen, 40. 

3. At the beginning of the year there were 44 buoys in ]>08ition. There have been 20 
new ones piaced during the year, as follows: Channel to Pasig River, Manila Bay, 5; over 
wreck near breakwater, Manila Bay, 1 ; over wreck of the steamship CastiUa, Canacao Bay, 
near Cavite, 1; Port Matalvi, Luzon Island, 1; Port Bolinao, Luzon Island, 2; San Fer- 
nando de Union Harbor, Luzon Island, 2; Cuyo Harbor, Cuyo Island, 2; Catbalogan Har- 
bor, Samar Island, 1; Misamis Harbor, Mindanao Island, 3; Camp Overton Harbor, Min- 
danao Island, 2. 

Tliere has been one buoy discontinued (Salomague Harbor, Luzon Island), leaving 63 
buoys in position June 30, 1904. Of these one is a temporary buoy placed off San Bernar- 
dino Island, for the use of the light-house tenders. Forty-six of tnese buoys have been 
overhauled and painted by light-house tenders and 17 by contract. 

4. There were 9 beacons in existence at the beginning of the y^ear. During the year there 
have been 10 more established, as follows: Port Matalvi, Luzon Island, 1; Romblon Har- 
bor, Romblon Island, 5; near Cottabato, at mouth of the Rio Grande de Mindanao, 2; 
Basilan Island, 2; 19 beacons in existence June 30, 1904. 

Act No. 807, enacted in July, 1903, appropriated for "buoyage 

for the half year ending December 31 , 1903 " f^l6, 000. 00 

Act No. 1049, enacted m February, 1904, appropriated for 

" buoyage for the half year ending June 30, 1904 '' 11, 000. 00 

r-27,000.00 

Expended to June 30, 1904 14,743.74 

Outstanding liabilities 11,764.30 

26, 508. 04 

Balance 491.96 

Having bad no vessel that was properly fitted for laying and handling buoys, we have 
been somewhat retarded in this line during the past year, but as the Corregidor has lately 
been fitted with a powerful lifting gear she is now prepared to handle any weight that may 
be required of her. It is proposed to place some thirty buoys during the coming year, as 
well as changing some of the second-class buoys at Iloilo and Cebu, replacing them with 
first-claBS buoys of United States regulation pattern. It is also proposed to build a buoy 
shed on Engineers Island, where all ouoys will be overhauled ana painted each year. 

5. The li^t^house tender Corregidor (single screw, 250 tons, built in Shanghai, 1902) was 
hauled up on the slipway at Canacao early in December, 1903. Her rudder post was 
repured, 226 sheets of metal on her bottom were renewed, and other necessary docking 
repairs were executed, at a total cost of ^"2,092.02. In June, 1904, she was fitted with 
heavier lifting gear for the better and safer handling of buoys and their appendages, heavy 
construction material, etc., at a cost of PI, 050. She has a complete set of new awnings, 
costing ^486. 

Dunng the past year she has placed 13 buoys and overhauled, painted, and replaced 34. 
She has made 313 visits to light stations, carrying a considerable amount of constniction 
material, supplies, construction parties, etc., steaming 17,523 miles, on a consumption of 
1,180 tons of Australian coal. 

The light-house tender Picket (t^in screw, 109 tons, formerly the Woo Foo of Shanghai) 
has been hauled out of the water three times during the past year (at Cavite navy-yard in 
Augu^, 1903, and May, 1904; at Canacao in June, 1904). Both of her old propellers were 
replaced with new ones, her shafts were lined up, various repairs were made to her engines, 
boilers, hull, etc., and the vessel was calked all over and resheathed throughout with MuntiK 
metal, at a total cost (three dockings) of P'5,470.23. She is at present having the deck 
over her engine and firerooms renewed, which will coat 1^1,450. 

She has been fitted with a complete set of new awnings, costing 1*'272.75. 

During the past year she has made 212 y'lsits to light stations, carrying supplies, etc., 
steaming 13,314 miles, on a consumption of 478} tons of Australian coal. She has placed 
7 new buoys and overhauled, painted, and replaced 12. 

The coast-guard cutter Romblon (twin screw, 250 tons, built in Japan, 1903) has been 
detailed on light-house duty since February, 1904. Her w^ork has been principally with the 
construction division of this bureau.^ 

6. Tabulated lists of the expenses of light stations and of the light-house tenders are 
attached hereto. 

Very respectfully, Alex. Franklyn, 

Light-House Inspector. 

«The Romblon was formally invoiced to this division on July 1, 1904, by the division of 



156 REPORT X>F THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Expenses of light stations of the Philippine Islands, fiscal year ending June 30, 1904, 



Name of station. 



Salary. 



Supplies. 



Total coat. 



Batangas 

Bagacay 

Boac 

Cape Bojeador 

Balayan 

Bugul 

Bagatao 

CapltanclUo 

Catbalogan 

Pulogaballo 

Calbayog 

Cabra 

Capul 

Capones 

Caiabazas 

Canal 

Canauav 

Corregiaor 

Cuyo 

Cafapan 

Coron 

Culion 

Camp Overton 

Cottabato 

Dagupan 

Davao 

Papitan (Tagalo Point) . 

Cape Engafio 

Escarceo 

Qlgantes , 

Puerto Galera 

Grande Island 

lloilo 

Jolo 

Jin totolo 

Linao 

Lanis Ledge 

Lipate Shoal 

Legaspi 

Lucena 

Luzaran 

1.08 Bafios 

Leme ry 

Manlgonlgo 

Mactan 

Malabrigo 

Melville 

Masbate ( Palinog) 

Malalog 

Napindan 

Ormoc ( I>ey te) 

Pollok 

Puerto Prlncessa 

Paslg 

Pitogo 

Romblon Point 

Romblon Range 

Santiago , 

Siete Pecados 

Sanglcy 

San Bernardino 

San Fernando Point 

San Fernando Range 

San Nicolas (Cebu) 

San Pedro 

Santa CruE (Mindanao) . . 

Surigao 

Tadoban 

Tanguingui 

Tay I'ay 

Zamboanga 



P-120.00 

460.00 

96.00 

2,516.00 

116.00 

2,283.33 

191.50 

332.00 

240.00 

1,344.00 

150.00 

2,688.00 

1,815.45 

2,809.94 

1,706.00 

560.00 

524.40 

2,728.66 



120.00 



32.00 
480.00 



49.32 

2,615.00 

624.00 

1,742.00 

240.00 

390.00 

837.33 

240.00 

2,160.00 

1,617.34 

360.00 

624.00 

480.00 

120.00 

1,728.00 



60.00 
1,476.00 

480.00 
2,270.00 
2,770.00 

240.00 



396.00 



240.00 



100.00 



1,728.00 
1,576.80 
440.00 
1,920.00 
486.00 
477.89 
360.00 
360.00 



49.00 

240.00 

73.33 



350.00 



P'255.11 

66.13 

18.87 
1,188.92 

39.80 
889.91 
410.34 
286.18 
359.93 
157.61 

51.46 

1,300.99 

1,449.02 

1,460.39 

590.17 

165.80 

117.55 

1,622.13 

204.51 

269.10 

4.50 

4.50 

277.82 

277.82 

90.80 
235.66 
199.23 
1, 193. 18 
106.18 
472.83 

46.01 
229.40 
123.39 
415.00 
884.46 
264.89 
142.93 
213.61 
498.92 

15.10 
716.42 
145.66 

74.41 
415.23 
180.22 
645.32 
904.06 

88.01 
235.66 
134.01 

73.24 

71.26 
210.91 
453.32 

69.69 
111.06 
126.03 
399.28 
393.32 
174.99 
2,123.24 
154.89 
605.98 
104.88 

54.94 

94.09 
186.49 
302.80 
173.68 

10.52 

89.34 



^•376. 11 
526.13 
114.87 

3,704.92 
155.80 

3,173.27 
601.84 
618. 18 
599.93 

1,501.61 
201.46 

3,988.99 

3,254.47 

4,270.23 

2,296.17 
725.89 
641.95 

4,350.79 
204.51 
389.10 
4.50 
4.50 
277.82 
309.82 
570.80 
235.66 
248.55 

3,808.18 
730.18 

2,224.83 
286.01 
619. 43 
960.72 
655.00 

3,044.46 

1,782.23 
512.93 
837.61 
978.92 
135.10 

2,444.42 
145.66 
134.41 

1,891.23 
660.22 

2,915.32 

3,674.06 
328.01 
235.66 
520.01 
73.24 
311.26 
210.91 

2,299.49 
69.69 
211.08 
126.03 

2,127.28 

1,970.12 
614.99 

4,043.24 
640.89 

1,083.87 
464.88 
414.94 
94.09 
235.49 
542.80 
247.01 
10.52 
448.34 



SUMMARY. 

Salaries P'52, 919.62 

Supplies 26,402.30 

Total 79,321.82 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Expenses of light-house tenders, fiscal year ending June SO, 1904, 



Corregldor. 



167 



Picket. 



Salarv and subsistence 

Supplies 

Coal (cost) 

Repairs 

Laundry 

Incidental expenses 

Total 



1*'27,664.68 

7,616.86 

16,189.96 

5,436.42 

87.73 

405.32 



67,400.97 



1^14,789.62 

7,148.98 

6,970.99 

7,762.76 

35.19 

527.88 



37,235.41 



a This amount includes P'1.025, which was the cost of making necessary alterations on lifting gear for 
the more efficient handling of heavy construction material, first-class buoys and their appendages, etc. 



Bureau of Coast Guard and Transportation, 

Office of tub LionT-HousE Inspector, 

Manila, P. I,, September 16, 1904. 
Chief of Bureau of Coast Guard and Transportation, 

Manila, P. I. 
Sir: The division of lieht-house maintenance has the honor to submit the following 
report for the months of Juiy and August of 1904, supplemental to the annual report for 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1904: 

1. There has been one flashing light established on San Nicolas Shoal, Manila Bay, 
sixth order, making the total number of lights under control of this division August 31, 
1904, as follows: Flashing lights, 20; fixed Tights, 3; smaller lights, 54; total, 77. 

2. The following were in the employ of this division for the care and maintenance of 
the above lights July 1, 1904: Keepers in charge and assistants, 93; apprentices, 19; boat- 
men, 40. 

The following changes have been made during the two months mentioned: Keepers 
discharged, 3; apprentices discharged, 4; boatmen discharged, 3; keepers employed, 3; 
apprentices employed, 8; boatmen employed, 7; apprentices promoted to keepers, 2. 

There were in tne employ of this division August 31, 1904, 95 keepers in charge and 
assistants, 21 apprentices, and 44 boatmen. 

3. There has oeen 1 buoy placed over the wreck of the schooner Marina in Manila Bay. 
The temporary buoy at San Bernardino went adrift in July, and there still remains 63 buoys 
in position. 

4. No new beacons have been established during the two months mentioned, and as the 
beacon on San Nicolas Shoal has' been lighted, and is now included in the list of flashing 
lights, there are 18 beacons at present. 

5. The light-house tender Corregidor was hauled up on the slipway at Canacao in August. 
Her tail shaft was hauled in and propeller removea for examination. A slight corrosion 
was found under the after end of the sleeve, and it was decided that although the shaft 
was not bad enough to condemn, and could be used as a spare shaft, it was nevertheless 
considered advisable to put in a new shaft, which was done. The vessel's bottom was 
recalked to deep load lino and resheathed throughout with 1,240 sheets of Muntz metal. 
The rudder post was renewed and shoo refitted. The rolling chocks were repaired and 83 
linear feet of planking renewed, as well as 87 linear feet of false keel. The latter repairs 
were found necessary, owing to injuries sustained in stranding at Burias in February 
and Cuyo in April, 1904. One-eighth of an inch was planed ofT the journals. A separate 
discharge valve and pipe from evaporator was fitted, the piping from fresh-water tanks 
was renewed, the steam and exhaust pipes were covered with asbestos, the ceiling in bunkers 
was removed, the frames in that space were cleaned and painted, and the ceiling replaced 
and calked. In addition to the usual docking repairs, such as grinding in sea vs^ves, etc., 
several minor repairs in deck and engine departments were executed. The total cost of 
docking and repairing was 12,031.70 pesos, Philippine currency .« During the oast two 
months she has made 34 visits to light stations, carrying construction material, lignt-house 
supplies, etc., steaming 2,192 miles on a consumption of 187 tons of coal. 

Tjie light-house tender Picket had no extraordinary repairs done on her, with the excep- 
tion of renewing the iron deck over engine and fire rooms, at a cost of 1,450 pesos, Philippine 
currency.* She has placed 1 new buoy, overhauled, painted, and replaced 2, and has 

o This bill was not paid during August. 

^This amount was carried in the outstanding liabilities in the annual report for fiscal 
year ending June 30. 1904. 



158 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

made 17 visits to light stations, carrying construction material, light-house supplies, etc., 
steaming 1,000 miles on a consumption of 45 tons of coal. 

The light-iiouse tender Romhlon was formally invoiced to this division July 1, 1904, hy 
the division of vessels. She has overhauled, painted, and replaced 1 buoy, made 37 visits 
to light stations, and steamed 2,654 miles on a consumption of 160 tons of coal. 

6. Act 1225, enacted August 31, 1904, has authorized the increase of the salaries of first 
officers and first assistant engineers of cutters from $900 to $1,020 ]>er annum, second 
officers of cutters from $720 to $840 per annum, and mates of seagoing launches from 
$600 to $840 per annum. The crews or each of the cutters {Corregiior and Romhlon) have 
been increased by 2 sailors, and the crew o£ the Picket (seagoing launch) has been increased 
by 1 sailor. 

The expenses (by actual disbursements of money and issue of supplies) for the two 
months mentioned are as follows: 

Light-house tender Corregidor: 

Salary and subsistence P'2, 561.96 

Coal (cost) 2,591.82 

Supplies 733.73 

Incidental expenses 15. 00 

1?'5,902.51 

Light-house tender RomUon: 

Salary and subsistence 2,421.26 

Coal (cost) 2,217.60 

Repairs 75.00 

Supplies 1,600.12 

6,313.98 

light-house tender Picket: 

Salary and subsistence 1, 227. 01 

Coal (cost) 623.70 

Repairs 16.50 

Supplies 520.47 

Incidental expenses 7. 95 

2,395.63 

Total 14,612.12 

Salaries of li^ht stations 1,724.49 

Supplies of light stations 3, 921. 91 

5,646.40 

Buoyage 3,368.41 

Grand total 23,626.93 

Very respectfully, 

Alex. Franklyn, 

Lighir-Hovse Irapedor, 



BEFOBT OF THE DIYISIOK OF VESSELS. 

Bureau op Coast Guard and Transportation, 

Division op Vessels. 
Commander J. M. Helm, U. S. Navy, 

Chief of Bureau of Coast Guard and Transportation, Marnhf P. I. 
Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of the division of vessels, bureau of 
coast guard and transportation, from July 1, 190!3, to June 30, 19(M: 



Tlie division at the beginning of the fiscal year was under the supervision of Mr. William 
Howe, who resigned on March 6, 1904, and was succeeded by the present incumbent. 

The work of the division has steadily grown and has been subdivided as follows: Execu- 
tive f^ubdivisioD, pay subdivision, property subdivision. 

personnel op the coast-guard fleet. 

The cutters and sca-f;oing launches continue to be manned bv American and European 
officers, and their services, generallv, have been satisfactory. They are rated as follows: 
Cutters, captain, first officer, secona officer, chief engineer, assistant engineer, and postal 
clerk; sea-going launches, master, mate, and chief engineer. 



BEPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 163 

• • 

At the be^pmung of Jamuuy, 1904, she was anchored off Gavite Navy- Yard and had her 
bottom repaired and cteaned and a few sheets of copper repkeed. 

On January 25 she sailed over route No. 10. On her return from this run she was ordered 
to report to Colonel Soott, Philippines Constabulary, at Vigan, in connection with the con- 
stabulary matiny at tliat place , and returned from that detail on March 5, 1904. 

From March 10 to Marca 12 ahe was on the slip at Cafiacao Bay and was given a general 
overhauline. 

On Marcn 21 ahe sailed, with two lighters in tow, to Cebu and relieved the coast-guard 
cutter Marindujut on route No. 6. 

While on this route, on April 17 she picked up the disabled cutt4?r Busuanga off the coast 
of Negros and towed her to Manila. 

During the months of May and June, 1904, she was assigned to duty on route No. 10, with 
headquarters at Manila. 

TABLAS. 

(Capt. James Miller. ) 

On July 1, 1903, she was assigned to duty on route No. 8, with headquarters at Zambo- 
anga. Her work on this run proved to be very valuable. 

She was relieved by the coast-guard cutter Palaman on September 23, 1903, and returned 
to Manila over route No. 10. 

During October, 1903, she was undei^going repairs, and on the 9th instant made ready to 
go to sea under sealed orders. 

On October 11 she proceeded to San Fernando and returned to Manila with Judge Odlin 
and party. On the 19th divers at Cavite examined her bottom and it was decided that she 
could not be repaired without docking her. 

From Novemher 12 to 23 she was on the slip at Cafiacao and had her bottom reooppered, 
her false keel renewed, and was given a general overhauling. On the 23d she made ready 
to go on route No. 10. 

On December 17 she received orders to proceed north in company with coast-guard cutter 
Masbale in search of the disabled cutter Mindanao, and after she had found that vessel off 
the coast of Zambales Province she took off the passengers and proceeded up north as far 
as Aparri, returning to Manila over route No. 1. 

On December 30, 1903, according to orders from the civil governor, she proceeded to 
Albay with 43 Japanese laborers, and returned to Manila with Judge Blount and prisoners. 

In the annuid report of a year ago no mention was made of the work of the cutter TahiaSf 
which, in April, 1903, hunted up the derelict Prince Georae on the east side of Basilan Island. 
This barkentine, of Christiania, Norway, left Loiklon eleven months previous with a cargo 
of pitch in bulk. Hot weather melted the pitch and caused the vessel to become unman- 
ageable, and she was abandoned on March 8, 1903, after an attempt was made to scuttle her. 

The crew was sick with beriberi and upon landiiig at Zamboanga on April 11, 1903, 
received mcnlical attention from the military authorities, and later came on to Manila. On 
April 14, 1903, the Prince George was brought to Zamboanga by the Tablae. The captain 
of the Tahhu reported: 

''The vessel was found ^-ith all sail set, adrift, and abandoned, 2 miles southeast of Dipolod 
Island, Samales Group. On boarding the vessel there was found to be 11 feet of water in 
her, nskog 2 feet above cargo in lower hold. Before leaving the ship the crow had cut a hole 
through her side. This hole was soon found, cold chisels and hammers near by indicating 
its location. The hole was plugged and ship cleared of water in four hours by her own 
pumps. Both anchors had been let go, with 25 fathoms of chain on each, but had no| 
toucned bottom. She is an iron vesao^of 472 tons net, with a cargo of 850 tons of pitch in 
bulk, etc." 

On January 1, 1904, she left Manila for the southern islands, being detailed for special 
customs service, with headquarters at Jolo. At the end of the fiscal year she was still 
assigned to this duty and was rendering excellent service to the bureau of customs. 

Since January, 1901, the TaUas, with a special customs officer aboard, has cruised around 
the Sulu Archipelago endeavoring to break up the smuggling trade from Borneo, etc. She 
has seized a great many sapits and much contraband cargo. 

ROMBLON. 

(Capt. John Hennlngs.) 

On the arrival of the cutter R<ml)Um she was immediately placed in commission under 
the command of Captain Cabling and assigned to duty with the constabulary. 

During the month of July, 1903, she was anchored at Cavite Navy-Yard undergoing 
repairs. 

On Aug;ust 1 she was assigned to route No. 5 with headquarters at Iloilo. 



160 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION; 

On January 12, 1904, she returned to duty on route No. 1. 

On January 22, 1904, she picked up at sea a capsized native viray and rescued some 10 
people thereon, and towed the wreck to San Esteban. 

While anchored at Vigan, Ilocos Sur, about 8 p. m. of February 8, 1904, some constabulaiy 
soldiers revolted, looted the commissary, killed a native guard, cut the telegraph wires, 
liberated the prisoners incarcerated in the provincial jail, attacked the American inhabitants 
and terrorizea the community. On this account the next few days were occupied by this 
cutter in running between Vigan, Salomague, in transposting constabulary to the scene of the 
outbreak. 

The PoliUo and Basilan also were sent to the neighborhood of Vigan at that time, and for 
several days assisted the military authorities in running down the renegade constabularioe 
and the native civilians who were persuaded to join their ranks. 

Negroa remained on route No. 1 until June 23, 1904, when she was ordered to proceed to 
CaHacao Bay to be docked and repaired. 



(Capt. John Foster.) 

From July 1 to 6, 1903, she was on duty with the constabulary. On July 7, 1903, she was 
ordered to take up route No. 9, with headquarters at Cebu, and remained on thia station 
until December 5, 1903, when she was relieved by the coast-guard cutter Samar^ and returned 
to Manila over route No. 2. 

After her arrival at Manila she was ordered to proceed to CaHacao, and from December 16 
to 23, inclusive, she was on the slip. Her bottom was repaired and the vessel found to be 
in fairly good condition after Vmg service among the southern islands. On December 31 her 
repairs were finished and she made ready to go to sea. 

On January 26, 1904, she sailed with the penitentiary-site committee to Burias Island, 
Port Concepcion (Maestro de Campo), Port Busin (Burias Island), Fort Santo Nifio (Lin- 
bacanay an Island), Libulan Bay (Daco Island), Catbalogan, Camud Bay (Samar), Cebu, 
Zamboanga, Port Isabela, Pilas Island, Jolo, Siassi, Sandakan, Cagayan (Jolo), Lapun 
Island, Puerta Princesa, Cuyo, Iloilo, and Caluya Island. The party consisted of Colonel 
Baker, Philippines Constabulary; Mr. H. Wolf, warden of Bilibia Pnson, and Mr. Bourne, 
chief of the bureau of architecture. She returned to Manila February 25, 1904. 

On March 1 she made a trip over route No. 2, and on her return was anchored behind 
the breakwater and was given a eeneral overhauling. 

During April, 1904, she made three special trips to San Fernando de Union, on account of 
the civil commission being in session at Baguio, Benguet. 

On May 17 she proceeded to Laguimanoc Bay, Batangas Province, with road supplies for 
the insular purchasing agent (including blasting powder, etc.), and on her return to Manila 
she made another trip to San Fernando de Union to return the clerks of the executive 
bureau to Manila. 

On May 31, 1904, she went on the slip at Caflacao Bay, and it was found that her shaft 
was in bad shape owing to galvanic action caused by bad connection between propeller and 
tail shaft, and it had to h^ replaced. She remained there until the end ot June, 1904, 
receiving a new tail shaft and propeller. 



(Capt. P. Lcblond.) 

From July 1, 1903, to August 1, 1903, this cutter was on duty with the constabulary 
under Colonel Bandholtz at Legaspi. On August 1 she was assigned to regular work on 
route No. 4, with headquarters at Legaspi. 

In October, 1903, she was examined by divers at Cavite Navy- Yard and some of her' 
copper was replaced. 

On November 18, 1903, she received orders to go to the southern islands on a tour of 
inspection of the public schools with Doctor Barrows, general superintendent of schools, 
ana Doctor Freer, superintendent of government laboratories, returning to Manila on 
December 17, 190}. 

On December 18, 1603, she was ordered to go in search of the coast-guard cutter Mirir 
danaOj who had lost her propeller off Santa Cruz. She returned to Manila the same day, 
the Mindanao having been taken in tow by the coast-guard cutter Masbaie. 

On February 9, 1904, she took Colonel Scott, Philippines Constabulary, and a detach- 
ment of constabulary soldiers to Vigan, in connection with the constabulary mutiny at 
that place, and returned to Manila the latter part of the month. 

From March 1 to 8 she was on the marine railway at Caflacao, and after finishing her 
repairs she sailed on the 15th over rout« No. 2. dn arrival at Surigao she relieved the 
coast-guard cutter Samar on route No. 9. 



JIEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 161 

led on this ruz 
rom Cebu to J 
order of the civil governor. 



She remained on this run until the end of June, 1904, with the exception of making a. 
special trip from Cebu to Manila with Roman Catholic Bishop Hendricks on board, oy 



MASBATE. 

(Capt. F. F. Stewart.) 

From July 1, 1903, to August 20, 1903, she was on special duty at Manila. On August 
20, 1903, she relieved the coast-guard cutter Balabac on route No. 3. 

On September 11, 1903, she sailed for Sorsogon and brought to Manila a company of 
scouts. 

On September 13, 1903, she sailed for Iba and Santa Cruz with 2,000 sacks of rice for 
the insular purchasing agent. After the rice was unloaded prisoners were taken on board 
at these places and landed at Dagupan. 

On September 21, 1903, she was assigned to duty on route No. 1, on account of the gov- 
emment traffic along the northern and western coast of Laizou growing to such an extent 
that it was considered necessary to have two cutters to handle it. 

She was relieved from this run on January 1, 1904, and proceeded with Captain Davies, 
local purchasing agent, and Mr. Washburn, manager of the government stock fann, to 
Busainga, Burias Island. After she returned from this detail she was again placed on her 
usual run until relieved on February 6 to go on the slip at Caflacao Bay. 

From February 15 to 20, 1904, she was on marine railway having her bottom repaired* 

On February 24, 1904, she returned to duty on route No. 1, where she remained until 
April 8, when she was ordered to take Major Shields, insular purchasing agent, and Major 
Townsend on a tour of inspection of the insular government coaling stations in the southern 
islands, visiting the following ports: Romblon, Sorsogon, Magallanes, Legaspi, Calbayog^ 
Tacloban, Ormoc, Cebu, Iligan, Zamboanga, Jolo, Sandakan, Borneo, Balabac, Uoilo, and 
Calapan. 

While returning with the above party, three weeks later, on May 1, 1904, she lost her 
propeller off the northern coast of Mindoro, and on the following day arrived at Manila in 
tow of the coast-guard cutter Luzon. 

From June 12 to 16, 1904, she was on the slip at Caflacao, where a new propeller and tail 
shaft were fitted, and on the 23d she went on tier trial trip and made reaay to go on route 
No. 1 on July 1, 1904. 

BUSUANOA. 
(Capt. F. M. White.) 

After doing special duty for the government, she was detailed on route No. 1 until Octo- 
ber 24, 1903, when she was ordered to take up route No. 10. While on this route, on October 
27, 1903, between Masbate and Cebu, she picked up five men from a capsized banca and 
turned them over to the collector of customs at Cebu. 

During the month of November, 1903, 'her bottom was repaired and recoppered. She 
was on Uie slip at Caflacao from the 24th to the 30th. After being repaired she was put 
into service and returned to take up route No. 10. 

On March 14, 1904, while at Zamboanga, she relieved the coast-guard cutter Palaican 
on route No. 8. She remained on this station until April 15, 1904, when she was relieved 
by the coast-guard cutter Mindanao and returned to Manila over route No. 10. 

On April 17, 1904, she lost her propeller off the coast of Negros; at the same time her 
main steam pipe burst. On the same day she was picked up by the coast-guard cutter 
BasUan and towed to Manila. 

On May 23, 1904, Captain Mason resigned and Capt. F. M. White was placed in command. 

During the month oi June, 1904, she was anchored off Caflacao Bay, waiting to go on the 
slip. On June 17, 1904, she was docked, and a new shaft and propeller were fitted. 

On June 30, 1904, she went on a trial trip, and was placed at once in active service on 
route No. 10, relieving the coast-guard cutter BasiJan. 

BALABAC. 
(Capt. P. J. C. Schoon.) 

On July 1, 1903, this cutter was detailed to duty on route No. 2. On August 14 she 
went to Cavite Navy- Yard, had her bottom examined, and minor repairs made to her hull. 

On, August 28, 1903, she went on the slip at Caflacao, and on September 19 returned to 
duty on route No. 2. 

On October 1, 1903, she was detailed on special duty with the collector of customs, cniis- 
ing in foreign waters under secret orders. She made investigation of Pratas Reef; then 
on account of a typhoon approaching she ran to Hongkong for shelter and coal. She 

WAR 1904— VOL 13 11 



162 REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

• 

returned to Manila on the 13th, and on the following day proceeded to Lanao River for 
the forestry bureau. 

On November 9, 1903, she sailed for the southern islands with Commissioner Luzuriaga 
and Doctor Freer, returning on the 25th. 

On November 28, 1903, she sailed for Subig Bay with 1,000 sacl^s of rice, and after 
unloading this freight she went to Sual to bring 57 prisoners, sentenced to terms in Bilibid 
prison, to Manila. 

On December 15, 1903, she proceeded over route No. 2 to Tacloban, where she exchanged 
routes with coast*-guard cutter Bagilan on route No. 7. 

Wliile on this run, on February 18, 1904, she sailed with Captain Hunt, Philippines Con- 
stabulary, and reinforcements for the constabulary, from Catbalogan, for duty on the east 
coast of Samar, on account of the uprising of the Pulijanes. On the 24th, when the town 
of Borongan was surprised by a band of ladrones, a paiiy of coast-guard sailors was landed 
in command of the first officer to help out the constabulary at that point. 

On June 6, 1904, she was relieved by coast-suard cutter Leyie at Tacloban, returning 
to Manila over route No. 2 to have her propeuer and tail shaft examined. The end o! 
June finds her in Cafiacao Bay, waiting her turn to go on the slip. 

PALAWAN. 

(Capt. waiiam Wethcrell.) 

During July, 1903, she was doing special duty for the government among the different 
islands. 

On July 15 Vice-Govemor Wright left for Legaspi and Tabaco, returning to Manila on 
the 20th. 

On July 23, 1903, she was placed on the slip at Cailacao to have her bottom repaired. 

During August she left for a tour of inspection of light-houses, having Captain Franklyn, 
superintendent of light-house service, and Mr. H. B. Hatfield, pay officer of the fleet, on 
board. 

On August 26 she left Manila, carrying 11 tons of the new currency for the treasury depart- 
ment for distribution among the southern islands. 

On September 10 she was assigned to duty on route No. 10 and relieved the coast-guard 
cutter Tablas on route No. 8, with headquarters at Zamboanga. 

On November 9, 1903, while on this station, she assisted the distressed launch Caranduque 
and towed her to Cottabato. 

On the following day, at the request of General Wood, military governor of the Moro 
provinces, she took on Doard four companies of the Fourth Infantry, and, in company with 
the coast-guard launch Banger, U. S. army transports and U. S. navy gunboats, proceeded 
to Catayuma and landed the troops at the place. 

Fighting with the Moros commenced as soon as the troops were landed. She then 
returned to Zamboanga. 

On December 27, 1903, while runnins on this route, she sighted the U. S. S. Quiros ashore 
on Pearl Bank, and at once hove to and gave her all the assistance possible, taking off guns, 
ammunition, etc., and was requested by the commanding officer of the Quiros to proceed 
to Sandakan to wire for help and to get divers. 

In January, 1904, she towed the Quiro8 to Sandakan and returned to her regular run. 

On March 11, 1904, she was relieved by coast-guard cutter Busuanga and returned to 
Manila. 

On March 22 Captain McLeod resigned and Capt. William Wetherell was placed in com- 
mand. 

On April 4 she proceeded to Tabaco, thence to Carao Bay, to tow to Manila the disabled 
cutter Leyie f which had lost her propeller off the east coast of Luzon. 

On March 20, 1904, she was assigned to duty on route No. 4, and while on this run picked 
up 40 scouts at Virac and transferred them to Palaun Bay. 

On her return trip to Manila she called at Laguan'Bay, Bataan Island, and took on board 
28 tons of coal from the newly-opened mines for trial. This coal has given good results, 
with the exception that the consumptbn is greater than with the Japanese or Australian 
coals. 

On June 30, 1904, she was in Manila Bay getting ready to return to duty on route No. 4. 



(Capt. Thomas. A. Hillgrove.) 

On June 6, 1903, Captain Dorris resigned and Capt. Thomas. A. Hillgrove was placed in 
command. 

On July 10, 1903, she was sent to luty on route No. 7, with headquarters at Tacloban, 
where she remained until December 17, when she exchanged routes with the coast-guard 
cutter BalabaCf returning to Manila over route No. 2. 



BEPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 163 

• • 

At tiie bogiiiiiiiig of Jaimary, 190i, she was anchored off Gavite Navy- Yard and had her 
bottom repaired and cleaned and a few sheets of copper replaced. 

On JanuaiT 25 she sailed over route No. 10. On her return from this run she was ordered 
to report to Colonel Soott, Phflippines Constahuiary, at Vigan, in connection with the con- 
stabulary mutiny at that piaoe, and retumed from tiiat detail on March 5, 1904. 

From March 10 to Marca 12 ahe was on the slip at Cafiaeao Bay and was given a general 
overhauline. 

On Marcn 21 ahe sailed, with two lighters in tow, to Oebu and relieved tlie coast-guard 
cutter Marinduque on route No. 6. 

While on this route, on April 17 she picked up the disabled cutter Buswan^ off the coast 
of Negros and towed her to Manila. 

During the months of May and June, 1904, she was assigned to duty on route No. 10, with 
headquarters at Manila. 



(Capt. James Miller. ) 

On July 1, 1903, she was assigned to duty on route No. 8, with headquarters at Zambo- 
anga. Her work on this run proved to be very valuable. 

She was relieved by the coast-guard cutter Palawan on September 23, 1903, and retumed 
to Manila over route No. 10. 

During October, 1903, she was underg<MRg repairs, and on the 9th^ instant made ready to 
go to sea under sealed orders. 

On October 11 she proceeded to San Fernando and retumed to Manila with Judge Odlin 
and party. On the 19th divers at Oavite examined her bottom and it was decided that she 
could not be repaired without docking her. 

From NovBrnoer 12 to 23 she was on the slip at CafSacao and had her bottom reooppered, 
her false keel renewed, and was given a general overhauling. On the 23d she made ready 
to go on route No. 10. 

On December 17 she received orders to proceed north in company with coast-guard cutter 
Masbai€ in search of the disabled cutter Mindaiyao, and after she had found that vessel off 
the coast of Zambales Province she took off the passengers and proceeded up north as far 
as Aparri, returning to Manila over route No. 1. 

On December 30, 1903, according to orders from the civil governor, slie proceeded to 
Albay with 43 Japanese laborers, and retumed to Manila with ciudge Blount and prisoners. 

In the annual report of a year ago no mention was made of the work of the cutter Tobias ^ 
which, in April, 1903, hunted up the derelict Prince Georae on the east side of Basilan Island. 
This barkentine, of Christiania, Norway, left Loi>don eleven months previous with a cargo 
of pitch in bulk. Hot weather melted the pitch and caused the vessel to become unman- 
ageable, and she was abandoned on March 8, 1903, after an attempt was made to scuttle her. 

The crew was sick with beriberi and upon landing at Zamboanga on April 11, 1903, 
received medical attention from the military authorities, and later came on to Manila. On 
April 14, 1903, the Prince George was brought to Zamboanga by the Tobias. The captain 
or the Tahlas reported: 

^'The vessel was found with all sail set, adrift, and abandoned, 2 miles southeast of Dipolod 
Island, Samales Group. On boardii^ the ves^l there was found to be 11 feet of water in 
her, nakoR 2 feet above cargo in lower hold. Before leaving the ship the crew had cut a hole 
through her side. This hole was soon found, cold chisels and hammers near by indicating 
its location. The hole was plumed and ship cleared of water in four hours by Irer own 
pumps. Both anchors had been let go, with 25 fathoms of chain on each, but had no| 
tou(med bottom. She is an iron vessc^of 472 tons net, with a cai^ of 8^ tons of pitch in 
bulk, etc." 

On January 1, 1904, she left Manila for the southern islands, being detailed for special 
customs service, with headquarters at Jolo. At the end of the fiscal year she was still 
assi^ed to this duty and was rendering excellent service to the bureau of customs. 

Since January, 190 i, the TaMaSf with a special customs officer aboard, has cruised around 
the Sulu Archipelago endeavoring to break up the smuggling trade from Borneo, etc. She 
has seized a great many sapits and much contraband cargo. 

ROUBUOS. 
(Capt. John IleaningB.) 

On the arrival of the cutter R<mihUm she was immediatelv placed in commission under 
the command of Captain Cabling and assigned to duty with the constabulary. 

During the month of July, 1903, she was anchored at Cavite Navy-Yard undergoing 
repairs. 

On August 1 she was assigned to route No. 5 with headquarters at Iloilo. 



164 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

• • 

On October 12 she was relieved from this run and ordered to report to Colonel Taylor, 
Philippines Constabulary, in connection with the hiinting down or the two constabulary 
oflScers, Herman and Johnson. 

After this detail she was assigned to the governor of Negros Occidental to bring to 
Bacolod the presidcntea of the different towns for the election of provincial governor. 

On January 1, 1904, she was in Manila undergoing general repairs. 

On February 1 Captain Cabling was relieved and Captain Eaton was placed in command ; 
the latter entered the civil hospital and First Officer Hennings was placed in command. 
On the 2d she proceeded with light-house construction material to Calabazas, Luzaran, 
and Maniguin islands. 

On February 27, 1904, Captain Eaton resigned and First Officer John Hennings was 
placed permanently in command. 

During the months of April, May, and June sho was doin^ special dutjr with the light- 
house construction division, and on July 1, 1904, by authority of the civil governor, this . 
vessel, together with all equipments, was invoiced to the light-house inspector, and the 
officers and crew transferred. 

MARINDUQUE. 
(Capt. H. Leubc.) 

This cutter was on special duty with the forestir bureau until July 10, 1903, when she 
was detailed on route No. 6, with headquarters at Uebu. 

On March 27, 1904, she was relieved by the coast-guard cutter BasHan^ and returned 
to Manila to be repaired. 

On April 1 Captam Wetherell was relieved and Captain H. Leube was placed in command. 

On May 1 she returned to her station on route No. 6, and on the 6th First Officer Hen- 
schien was placed in command, Captain Leubc having received injuries which necessitated 
his entering the civil hospital in Manila. 

For the remainder of the fiscal year she did duty on route No. 6. 

MINDANAO. 
(Capt. A. R. Cabling.^ 

She was received oi August 21, 1903, and placed under the command of Capt. J. Eaton. 

During the month of September, 1903, she made trips to Dagupan with prisoners, guards, 
and money for the construction of Benguet road. 

On September 14 she sailed for the Lanao River for the forestry bureau, and from there 
to Lucena with the disbursing officer of the census bureau; thence to San Juan de Bocboc 
with Commissioner Legarda and his secretary. 

On the 20th she sailed with a largo amount of constabulary commissaries and supplies 
for Calapan, Nasugbu and Lucena, and on the 29th sailed for Iba and Salamague with 
1,000 sacks of rice for the insular purchasing agent. 

On October 12 she was ordered on route No. 1 to relieve cutter Busuangaf and while at 
Aparri was caught in the typhoon that was blowing at that time. She proved herself to 
b? a good sea l)oat and no damage was done to her. 

On December 16 while on this detail, off the coast of Zambales, she lost her propeller, 
but on the following day she was picked up by the coast-guard cutter Masbate and towed 
to Manila. Her passengers were transferred to the coast-guard cutter Tobias. 

At the beginning of January, 1904, she was at Caflacao Bay waiting to go on the (dip. 
6he was hauled out on the 13th, and placed in the wat^r again on the 16th. A propeller 
having been put on, she was made ready for active service. 

On January 22 Captain Eaton was relieved and Captain Cabling was placed in command. 

On February 3 she sailed for Laguimanoc, Batangas, with men and materials for the 
insular purchasing agent, and towed two lighters to Komblon. 

On March 24 she was detailed for duty on route No. 10, and on April 15 she relieved 
the coast-guard cutter Busuanga on route No. 8 with headquarters at Zamboanga, where 
she is still. 

SAM4K. 
(Capt. Peter Olscn.) 

She arrived in Manila Bay on S^ptemb.^r 18, 1903, and was placed temporarily under 
the command of Capt. H. C.Reissar, until the 23d, when Capt. John C. Fels of coast-guard 
cutter Negros took charge. 

On October 1 she was on duty on route No. 2 until December 5, when at Surigao, she 
was relieved by coast-guard cutter Lnzon^ taking up route No. 9 with headquarters at Cebu. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 165 

While on this run, on January 4, 1904, she sighted a large banca flying disircss signals. 
She towed her to Mambajo, leaving her in charge of the customs authorities. 

On the 9th of the same month, while passing Cagay an, she sighted the U. S. army transport 
Kingdey on a reef in Murcielagos Bay. She at once hove to, and the captain was requested 
to take oflf the passengers and crew, as the Kingsley was rapidly breaking up. All passen- 
gers were safely landed at Cagay an, and the Samar returned to the wreck to save, if pjxssible, 
freight and property, but she could do nothing, as the saas were lunning high. The Kingsley 
was left on the reef and pronounced a total loss. 

On the 19th the Samar overhauled the schooner Albertaile and investigated her papers, 
which were found regular, and she was allowed to proceed on her way. 

On the 20th she was relieved by the coast-guard cutter PdiUo and returned to Manila 
over route No. 2, and on the 26th Captain Fels was detailed on shore duty, and Capt. P. 
Olsen was placed in command. 

At the close of the year she is still running on route No. 2. 

HINDORO. 

(Capt. II. C. Anderson.; 

She arrived from* Shanghai on September 18, 1903, and was placed under the command 
of Capt. F. C. Ryer. 

On the 24th of September she proceeded 'to San Fernando de Union for the purpose of 
bringing to Manila tne officials and prisoners connected with the Tompkins trial. 

On the 30th she was assigned to duty on route No. 3, reUeving the coast-guard cutter 
Balahae. 

During the month of October, 1903, she was doing duty on route No. 3, and on the 13th 
she overtook a native boat at Dalawan Bay acting suspiciously; her papers were examined 
and found to be regular and she was released at onc«. 

She remained on rout« No. 3 until February 1, 1904, when she sailed for Iloilo to bring 
to Manila 100 natives for the Vifayan village concession at the St. Louis Fair. After this 
detail she made one short trip over route No. 3. 

On June 21 Captain Ryer resigned and Capt. H. C. Anderson was placed in command. 

On the 27th she sailed over route No. 3. 



(Capt. William N. Fisher.) 

She arrived in Manila Bay on October 3, 1903, and was placed in command of Capt. 
William N. Fisher. She was completely fitted out with stores and supplies and assigned 
to route No. 10. 

On her return trip she was detailed on route No. 4, with headquarters at Legaspi, reliev- 
ing the coast-guard cutter PolUlo. 

On February 24, 1904, she returned to Manila to repair her windlass. 

On April 1, while cruising off the east coast of Luzon, she lost her propeller and sailed 
for Carao Bav for anchorage, sending the first officer in the ship's boat to Tobaco, where he 
telegraphed for assistance, and the coast-guard cutter Palawan was at once dispatched to 
her relief, returning with her in tow on April 12, 1904. 

During May she was anchored in Cafiacao Bay waiting to go on the slip, and on the 16th 
she was hauled out and her proneller and shaft replaced. 

On May 25 she went on a trial trip and made ready to go on route No. 2. 

On June 1 she sailed for Tacloban and relieved the coast-guard cutter Balahae on route 
No. 7. The end of June finds her still on this run. 

PANAY. 

(Capt. William N. Murphy.) 

This is the last of the five cutters that were built under the second contract by Famham, 
Boyd & Co., and arrived at Manila on October 6, 1903, when she was placed under the 
command of Capt. William N. Murphy. 

She was at once fitted out with stores and supplies and detailed on route No. 5, with 
headquartes at Iloilo. She remained on this route until June 23, 1904, when she arrived 
m Manila with the crew of the coast-guard launch Scanty which was wrecked off Pandan, 
Antique. 

On June 25 she returned to her station at Iloilo and resumed her regular run. 



166 JREPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Seaooino Launches. 

RAKOER. 
(Capt. Cbarlcfl W. B. Maddoz., 

At the beginning of the fiscal year she was assigned to the constabulary at Cebu. On 
the 25th of l^ptember, 1903, while running between Dumaguete and Tagbilaran, she noticed 
the American schooner Esperanza flying signals of distress. She stopped and found that 
the schooner was short of drinking water, which was given to her. On the 28th she was 
ordered to proceed to Zamboanga to report to Colonel liarbord, Philippines Constabulary, 
for duty. 

On October 1, 1903, she was detailed to pursue the launch Victoria with the two rene- 
gade Philippines Constabulary officers Hermann and Johnson on board. During this detail 
she touched the following ports: Sandakan, Zamboanga, Isabela, Cagayan, and Sipalay. 

At the last-named port she joined the coast-guard cutter Romblon under the orders of 
Colonel Taylor, Philippines Constabulary. Here one of the Philippines Constabulary officers 
was found dead. From there she returned to Misamis, where the launch Victoria was found. 

After being relieved from the above detail she returned to her station at Zamboanga. 

On January 5, 1904, she was beached at Pollok and had her bottom repaired, and on the 
1st of February returned to her old run. 

On March 6, 1904, she towed the quarternmster launch Detroit up the Cottabato River, 
her steering gear being out of order. 

She remained under the orders of the constabulary at Zamboanga until June 8, when she 
came to Manila and was given a general overhauling. 



(Capt. Charles W. Lauritzcn.) 

On the 1st of July, 1903, she was at Manila being repaired, and on the 11th was ordered 
to proceed to Lucena and re]x>rt to Colonel Bandholtz, Philippine Constabulary, with 
headquarters at Lucena. 

On January 15, 1904, she came to Manila and was given a general overhauling. 
' On the 30tn she returned to her station at Lucena, where she remained until the end of 
the fiscal year. 

SCOIT. 
(Wrecked.) 

She was one of the oldest launches operated by this division and was assigned to the 
constabulary with headquarters at Cebu. 

On Aueust 12, 1S03, she was ordered to report to Colonel Taylor, Philippine Constabu- 
larv, at lloiio. 

§he remained there until October 4, when she arrived at Manila to be repaired, and on 
the 12th was placed on the slip and had her bottom repaired, being ready to go to sea 
again on the 24th. 

On the 27th of the same month she returned to her station at Iloilo. On May 20, 1904, 
she was ordered by Colonel Taylor, Philippine Constabulary, to report to the governor of 
Samar for a tour of inspection around tne island, calling at such ports as the governor 
directed. 

While lying at anchor off Pandan, Antique Province, Panay, and while under the com- 
mand of Capt. C. R. Croucher, she was wrecked during a typhoon on June 23, 1904, and 
is a total loss. The boiler, engines, and a great deal of her fittings were saved later by a 
wrecking party, which was left on the ground. No lives were lost. The officers and crew 
were brought to Manila on the coast-guard cutter Panay. 

PITTSBURG 
(Out of commission.) 

The Pittsburg was received by this bureau from the United States Quartermaster Depart- 
ment on March 1, 1903, and after beins repaired and supplied with stores was invoiced to 
the governor of Misamis Province for duty. On account of the expense of maintaining a 
launch, the province of Misamis was unable to care for her, and consequently, by authority 
of the civil governor, she was returned to this bureau on July 21, 1903. 

She was again fitted out and assigned to duty on route No. 12 with the constabulary, 
with headquarters at Lucena. 

She was returned to Manila on May 1, 1904, for repairs, but on account of the bad condition 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 167 

of her hull and engines, she was condemned by a board of survey, her crew dischai^ed, and 
the oflScers transferred to other coast-guard vessels. 
She is now lying behind the breakwater in the basin at Engineer Island. 



(Kftstff Charles Yamebcrg.) 

The Troy was oripnally a quaitermaBter launch and was invoiced to the governor of Cebu. 
After about six months service she was released and turned over to this bureau, being 
received by the division of vessels on January 1, 1904. 

She was docked on the slip at Cavite Navy- Yard on January 26, and after a general over- 
hauling made ready to go to sea and assigned to duty with the constabulary at Zamboanga, 
leaving Manila on Aprils, 1904. 

On arriving at Zamboanga she was assigned to Colonel Harbord, Philippines Constabu- 
lary, and has been doing duty with the constabulary on the south coast of Mindanao ever 
since. 

8BNTIXEL. 

(Mftster J. O. MusBen.) 

The Sentind is a stem-wheel river boat, bought from Famham, Boyd & Co., and detailed 
to duty on the Cagayan River, with headquarters at Aparri. She makes from three to five 
trips a month up and down the river, canying mails, paasengers, and freight, connecting 
with the cutter on route No. 1 at Aparri twice a month. 

Bay axd Ritee Launches. 

CUYO. 

(Benutbe ViAat, patron.) 

The Cuyo was forraeriy the Btmlan and was turned over by the district commander of 
Isabela de Basilan on Ck;tober 1, 1903. This launch was in fairly good condition when 
received by tliis bureau. It is used for harbor and river work. 

GEORGE TILLEY. 

<A. Harlngsa, patron.) 

This is the only large launch used by the division that can go under the Bridge of Spain, 
and is largely used for river and harbor woric, carrying mail, passengers, and frei^t from the 
landing of the captain of the port to the cutters in the harbor. 

SUEKTE. 

(P. Fcbre, patron.) 

This launch has been assigned to the constabulary and is largely used in transporting 
troops and supplies on the Pasig River, Laguna de Bay, and in Manila Bay. 

PA8IO. 

(Segundo Asi&tioo, patron.) 

The PoMg was former)^ the Jrdia and was received from the United States Quartermaster 
Department. Slie is assigned to duty at the coast^^ard machine shops at Engineer Island. 
She is engaged in carrying the inspector of macliinery, workmen, material, etc., from the 
island to the ships. 

PEPE. 

(L. Ayala, patron.) 

TE17DBB. 

(E. Alberto, patron.) 

These are two small launches used in going from the office of bureau of coast guard and 
transportation to Engineer Ishmd, and rack and forth between the cutters and snore. 



166 :report of the Philippine commission. 

Seagoing Launches. 

HANGER. 
(Capt. Charles W. B. Maddox., 

At the beginning of the fiscal year she was assigned to the constabulary at Cebu. On 
the 25th of ^ptember, 1903, while running between Ehimaguete and Tagbilaran, she noticed 
the American schooner Esperama flying signals of distress. She stopped and found that 
the schooner was short of drinking water, which was given to her. On the 28th she was 
ordered to proceed to Zamboanga to report to Colonel Ilarbord, Philippines Constabulary, 
for duty. 

On October 1, 1903, she was detailed to pursue the launch Victoria with the two rene- 
gade Philippines Constabulary officers Hermann and Johnson on board. During this detail 
she touched the following ports: Sandakan, Zamboanga, Isabela, Cagayan, and Sipalay. 

At the last-named port she joined the coast-guard cutter Romblon under the orders of 
Colonel Taylor, Philippines Constabulary. Here one of the Philippines Constabulary officers 
was found dead. From there she returned to Misamis, where the launch Victoria was found. 

After being relieved from the above detail she returned to her station at Zamboanga. 

On January 5, 1904, she was beached at Poliok and had her bottom kiepaired, and on the 
Ist of February returned to her old run. 

On March 6, 1904, she towed the quartermaster launch Detroit up the Cottabato River, 
her steering gear being out of order. 

She remained under the orders of the constabulary at Zamboanga until June 8, when she 
came to Manila and was given a general overhauling. 



(Capt. Charles W. Lauritzcn.) 

On the 1st of July, 1903, she was at Manila being repaired, and on the 11th was ordered 
to proceed to Lucena and report to Colonel Bandholtz, Philippine Coastabular^^ with 
headquarters at Lucena. 

On January 15, 1904, she came to Manila and was given a general overhauling. 
' On the 30th she returned to her station at Lucena, where she remained until the end of 
the fiscal year. 

SCOUT. 
(Wrecked.) 

She was one of the oldest launches operated by this division and was assigned to the 
constabulary with headquarters at Cebu. 

On August 12, 1903, she was ordered to report to Colonel Taylor, Philippine Constabu- 
lary, at lloilo. 

She remained there until October 4, when she arrived at Manila to be repaired, and on 
the 12th was placed on the slip and had her bottom repaired, being ready to go to sea 
again on the 24th. 

On the 27th of the same month she returned to her station at lloilo. On May 20, 1904, 
she was ordered by Colonel Taylor, Philippine Constabulary, to report to the governor of 
Samar for a tour of inspection around the island, calling at such ports as the governor 
directed. 

While lying at anchor off Pandan, Antique Province, Panay, and while under the com- 
mand of Capt. C. R. Croucher, she was wrecked during a typhoon on June 23, 1904, and 
is a total loss. The boiler, engines, and a great deal of her nt tings were saved later by a 
wrecking party, which was left on the ground. No lives were lost. The officers and crew 
were brought to Manila on the coast-guard cutter Panay. 

prrrsBURO 

(Out of commission.) 

The Pittsburg was received by this bureau from the United States Quartermaster Depart- 
ment on March 1 , 1903, and after being repaired and supplied with stores was invoiced to 
the governor of Misamis Province for duty. On account of the expense of maintaining a 
launch, the province of Misamis was unable to care for her, and consequently, by authority 
of the civil governor, she was returned to this bureau on July 21, 1903. 

She was again fitted out and assigned to duty on route No. 12 with the constabulary, 
with headquarters at Lucena. 

She was returned to Manila on May 1, 1904, for repairs, but on account of the bad condition 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 167 

of her hull and engines, she was condemned by a board of survey, lier crew discharged, and 
the officers transferred to other coast-guard vessels. 
She is now lying behind the breakwater in the basin at Engineer Island. 

TROT. 

(Master Charles Yameberg.) 

The Troy was ori^nallj a quaitermaBter launch and was invoiced to the governor of Cebu. 
After about six months service she was released and turned over to this bureau, being 
received by the division of vessels on January 1, 1904. 

She was docked on the slip at Cavite Navy- Yard on January 26, and after a general over- 
hauling made ready to go to sea and assigned to duty with the constabulary at Zamboanga, 
leaving Manila on April 5, 1904. 

On arriving at Zamboanga she was assigned to Colonel Ilarbord, Philippines Constabu- 
laiy, and has been doing duty with the constabulary on the south coast of Mindanao ever 
nncc. 

BENTIXEL. 

(Master J. G. Mussen.) 

The Sentinel is a stem-wheel river boat, bought from Famham, Boyd & Co., and detailed 
to duty on the Cagayan River, with headquarters at Aparri. She makes from three to five 
trips a month up and down the river, carrying mails, passengers, and freight, connecting 
with the cutter on route No. 1 at Aparri twice a month. 

Bay and River Launches. 

CUYO. 

(Bsmabe Vizi as, patron.) 

The Cuyo was formeriy the BatUan and was turned over by the district commander of 
Isabela de Basilan on Cfctober 1, 1903. This launch was in fairly good condition when 
received by this bureau. It is used for harbor and river work. 

GEORGE TILLEY. 

(A. Marlngsa, patron.) 

This is the only large launch used by the division that can go under the Bridge of Spain, 
and is largely used for river and harbor woHe, carrying mail, passengers, and frei^t from the 
landing of the captain of the port to the cutters in the harbor. 

8UERTE. 

(P. Febre, patron.) 

This launch has been assigned to the constabulary and is largely used in transporting 
troops and supplies on the Pasig River, Laguna de Bay, and in Manila Bay. 

pabig. 

(Segundo Asiatioo, patron.) 

The Pasig was formeriy the Jvlia and was received from the United States Quartermaster 
Department. She is assigned to duty at the coast-guard machine shops at Engineer Island. 
She is engaged in carrying the inspector of macliineiy, workmen, material, etc., from the 
island to the ships. 

FEPE. 

(L. Ayala, patron.) 

TENDBB. 

(E. Alberto, patron.) 

These are two small launches used in going from the office of bureau of coast guard and 
transportation to Engineer Island, and back and forth between the cutters and shore. 



168 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



COAST-GUARD CUTTIiR NEOROS. 

COST OF MAINTENANCE. WORK PERFORMED. 



Pay 1"20,r)28.32 

SuBsisteiice 5,078. 70 

Coal cost and 10 per cent 16,644. 68 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 9, 782. 34 

Repairs to hull 933. 52 

Repairs to machinery 4, 696. 94 

Pilotage and contingent expense 71 1. 40 

Washing 212.46 

Total 58,586.26 



Coal consumed tons.. 1,256.63 

Distance cruised miles. . 21,767 

Porta visited 240 

Passengers carried 1, 559 

Freight carried tons. . 488. 40 

Money carried P'362,728 

Mail carried in pouches 413 

Mail carried in sacks 762 



COAST-GUARD CUTTER LUZON. 



COST OF MUNTENANCE. 

Pay r22,693.00 

Subsistence 5, 305. 16 

Coalcostand lOpercent 12,648.94 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 8, 411. 28 

Repairs to hull 2,410.67 

Repairs to machinery 1,660.68 

Pilotage and contingent expense 504. 72 

Washing 93.20 

Total 53,727.65 



WORK PERFORMED. 

Coal consumed tons. . 886.26 

Distance cruised miles . . 16, 028 

Ports visited 166 

Passengers carried 1 , 291 

Freight carried tons. . 265. 23 

Money carried 1*4, 590 

Mail carried in pouches 906 

Mail carried in sacks • 1, 182 



COAST-GUARD CUTTER POLILLO. 



COST or MAINTENANCE. 

i>ay F22,020.65 

Subsistence 5, 370. 70 

Coalcostand lOpercent 18,307.22 

Supplies cost and 10 per cen t 9, 520. 72 

Repairs to hull 8,107.66 

Repairs to machinery 281. 65 

Pilotage and con tingen t expense 642. 70 

Washing 220.74 

Total 64,472.04 



WORK PERFORMED. 

Coal consumed tons.. 1,352.20 

Distance cruised miles. . 22, 460 

Ports visited 215 

Passengers carried 1,038 

Freight carried tons. . 240. 80 

Money carried T'147, 699 

Mail carried in pouches 611 

Mail carried in sacks 1,039 



COAST-GUARD CUTTER MASBATE. 

COST OF MAINTENANCE. I WORK PERFORMED. 



Pay... '... r21,650.73 

Subsistence 5,153.50 

Coalcostand lOpercent 13,298.92 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 9, 517. 31 

Repairs to hull 7,061.97 

Repairs to machinery 1, 579. 43 

Pilotage and contingent expense 521. 08 

Washing 161.95 

Total 58,944.89 



Coal consumed tons. . 1,046. 80 

Distance cruised miles. . 20, 774 

Ports visited 179 

Passengers carried 1, 054 

Freight carried tons. . 346. 20 

Money carried P'144,424 

Mail carried in pouches 1,024 

Mail carried in sacks 1,547 



COAST-GUARD CUTTER BUSUANGA 

COST OF MAINTENANCE. WORK PERFORMED. 



Pay 1-21,918.67 

Subsistence 5, 477. 13 

Coal cost and 10 per cent 15, 282. 37 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 8, 057. 61 

Repairs to hull 2,012.88 

Repairs to machinery 3, 192. 19 

Pilotage and contingent expense 669. 35 

Washing 126.62 

Total 56,736.72 



Coal consumed tons. . 1 , 064. 60 

Distance cruised miles. . 19, 833 

Ports visited 146 

Passengers carried 837 

Freight carried tons .... 267. 40 

Money carried r'353, 422 

Mail carried in pouches 717 

Mali carried In sacks 1,057 



COAST-GUARD CUTTER BALABAC. 



COST OP MAINTENANCE. 

Pay r22,434.14 

Subsistence 5, 373. 40 

Coal cost and 10 per cent 19, 603. 68 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 8, 154. 51 

Repairs to hull 1,257.96 

Repairs to machinery 2, 121. 63 

Pilotage and contingent expense 851 . 36 

Washing 127.08 

Total 59,923.76 



WORK PERFORMED. 

Coal consumed tons. . 1, 31.3. 56 

Distance cruised miles. . 20, 625 

Ports visited 281 

Passengers carried 1, 223 

Freight carried tons . . 269. 97 

Money carried riU,702 

Mail carried In pouches 294 

Mail carried in sacks 443 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



169 



COAST-GUARD CUTTER PALAWAN. 



COST OF UAINTENANC'E. 

Pay P'21,968.74 

SuDSistence 5, 381. 52 

Coal cost and 10 per cent 23,631.65 

Repairs to hull 2,461.56 

Repairs to machinery 1, 110. 63 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 7, 1 19. 67 

Pilotage and expenses 1,210. 24 

Washing 129.28 

Total 63,013.28 



WORK PERFORMED. 

Coal consumed tons. . 1, 190. fjO 

Distance cruised miles. . 24, 102 

Ports visited 230 

Passengers carried 760 

Frelgh t carried tons . . 1 1 7. 35 

Money carried 1*26,408 

Hail carried in pouches H02 

Mail carried in sacks 1,081 



COAST-GUARD CUTTER BASILAN. 

COST OF MAINTENANCE. < WORK PERFORMED. 



Pay r22,258.68 

BuDsistence 5,245. 94 

Coal cost and 10 per cent 11,216.14 

Supplies cost and 10i>ercent 6,811.71 

Repairs to hull 1,443.94 

Repairs to machinery 672. 51 

Pilotage and contingent expense 625. 09 

Washing 200.81 

ToUl 48,174.82 



Coal consumed tons.. 989 

Distance cruised miles.. 17,362 

Ports visited 217 

Passengers carried 988 * 

Freight carried tons.. 184.40 

Money carried 1^284,112 

Mail carried in pouches 716 

Mail carried in sacks 1,579 



COAST-GUARD CUTTER TABLAS. 



COST OF MAINTENANCE. 

Pay F22,086.02 

SuDsistence 4,938. 46 

Coal cost and 10 per cent 15, 106. 77 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 15, 720. 72 

Repairs to hull 6,885.65 

Repairs to machinery 697.10 

Pilotage and contingent expense 240. 45 

Washing 185.48 

Total 65,850.65 



WORK PERFORMED. 

Coal consumed tons.. 1,028.74 

Distance cruised miles.. 23,040 

Ports visited 170 

Passengers carried 429 

Freight carried tons 64. 38 

Mail carried in pouches 20? 

Mail carried in sacks 393 



COAST-GUARD CUTTER MINDANAO. 

COST OF MAINTENANCE. WORK PERFORMED. 



Pay 1^17,175.10 

Subsistence 4, 093. 90 

Coalcostand lOpercent 12,200.69 

Supplies cost and lOpercent 11,796.30 

Repairs to hull 457.67 

Repairs to machinery 1,547. 13 

Pilotage and con tingen t expense 292. 30 

Washhig 114.64 

Total 47,677.73 



Coal consumed tons. . 883. 23 

Distance cruised miles. . 14, 828 

Ports visited 157 

Passengers carried 701 

Freight carried tons.. 193. 13 

Money carried n71,934 

Mail carried in pouches 176 

Mail carried in sacks 337 



COAST-GUARD CUTTER ROMBLON. 



COST OF MAINTENANCE. 

Pay 1^23,182.00 

Subsistence 5, 293. 86 

Coal cost and 10 per cent 12,977. 69 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 7,582. 63 

Repairs to hull 3,090.37 

Repairs to machinery 3,890.84 

Pilotage and contingent expense 909. 18 

Washing 165.83 

Total 57,082.40 



WORK PERFORMED. 

Coal consumed tons.. 1,011.64 

Distance cruised miles. . 15, 692 

Ports vfbited 160 

Passengers carried 184 

Freight carried tons. . 452. 16 

Money carried 1*9,000 

Mail carried in pouches 210 

Mall carried in sacks 333 



COAST-GUARD CUTTER MARINDUQUE. 
COST OF MAINTENANCE. WORK PERFORMED. 



l>ay r23,018.88 

Subsistence 5,893.80 

Coal cost and 10 per cent 9,651. 40 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 5, 005. 62 

Repairs to hull 1,382.67 

Rejwirs to machinery 187.36 

Pilotage and contingent expense 686. 90 

Washing 191.17 

Total 46,707.98 



Coal consumed tons. . 637. 31 

Distance cruised miles. . 8, 565 

Ports visited 301 

Passengers carried 704 

F reigh t carried tons .... 355. 70 

Money carried ri26,631 

Mail carried in pouches 429 

Mail carried in sacks 612 



170 



HEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



COAST-OUABD CUTTER SAMAB. 

COST or MADrrEKAXCE. I WOKK PEEFOKMED. 



Pay ^-16,068.22 

BubBtetence 4,179.84 

Coal cost and 10 per cent , 13,800.as 

Supplies eostaad lOccrcfsnt 11,172.92 

Repairs tohuU 2,288.72 

Rapaln to machinery 330.38 

Pilotage and contingent expense 667. 52 

Washing, 1W.88 

Total 48,797.31 



Coal consumed tons.. 1,083.24 

Distance cruised miles. . i5,SO 

Ports visited 137 

Passengers carried 1,038 

Freigbfcarried tons.. 276.7P 

Mooey carried rU4,5(» 

Mail carried in pouches 8fH 

Mail carried in sacks 1,175 



COAfiT-GL'ARD CUTTER MINDORO. 



COST OF MAI^TENAKCE. 

.Pay ^-17,494.12 

Subsistence 4,164.66 

Coal cost and 10 per cent 16,257.24 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 7,837.37 

Repairs to huU 256.53 

Repalre to machinery 520.84 

Pilotage and con tingen t expense 24 1. 90 

Washing 129.36 

Total 46,902.02 



WOBK PEBFOEMED. 

C/oal consumed tons.. 1,113.02 

Distance cruised miles. . 22,088 

Ports Tlsitod 306 

Paasongcrs carried 698 

Freight carried tons.. 308.77 

Money carried ^57,472 

Mall carried in pooches 377 

Mail carried in sacks 479 



COAST-GUARD CUTTER LEYTE. 



COST OF MAIXTENAKCE. | 

Pay ^-16,748.70 . 

Sub^tence 3,887.10 

Coalcostand lOnercent 14,056.02 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 8,285.11 I 

Repairs to hull 238.03 

Repairs to machinery 2,527.15 i 

PUotagc and contingent expense 50. 20 i 

Washing 74.04 1 

Total 45,875.44 ; 



WOBK PXBFORVED. 

Coal consumed tons.. 727.63 

Distance cruised miles.. 14,900 

Porto visited !<» 

Passengers carried 775 

Freight carried tons.. 115.18 

Money carried ^"44,475 

Mail carried in pouches 406 

Mail carried in sacks 456 



COAST-GUARD CUTTER PANAV. 



COST OF MAINTENANCE. 

Pay n6,a99.66 

Subsistence 4, l«. 99 

C/oal cost and 10r>ercent 8,018.20 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 6,273.67 

Repairs to hull 20.00 

Repairs to machinery 328.00 

Pilotage and contingent expense 295. 94 

Washing 131.50 

Total 36,734.96 



! -WORK PEBFOBXED. 

! 

Coal consumed tons.. ii67.S5 

DisUnce cruised miles.. 11,305 

Porto visited 193 

Passengers carried 49S 

Freight carried Ions.. 110.12 

Money carried ^"50, 1U6 

Mail carried in pouches 480 

Mail carried in sacks 492 



COABT-CUARD LAUNCH RANGER. 
COCT OF MAIKTEMAMCE. ' WOBK PEBFOBMSD. 



Pay ni,190.77 

Subsistence 2,886.07 

Coalcostand 10 per cent *6,837.06 

Suppllt^s cost and 10 per cent 6, 250. 36 

Repairs to hull 1,548.38 

Repairs to machinery 696.17 

Pilotage and contingent expense 1 78. 01 

Washing 50.86 

Total 28,635.68 



Coal consumed tons.. 402.53 

Distance cruised miles. . 18,625 

Porto visited 209 

Paasengers carried 8S0 

Freight carried torn . . 2S7. 80 

Money carried f^OOO 

Mai] carried in pouches 127 

Mail carried inaacUs 280 



COAST-GUARD LAUNCH SCOUT. 



COST OF MAXKTEHAVCE. 

Pay P11,1S2.9I 

Subsistence 2,836.18 

Coalcostand 10 per cent 7,822.02 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 4,600.50 

Repairs to hull 67.18 

Repalra to machinery 3,169.33 

Pilotage and contingent expense 498. 88 

Washing 60.17 

Total 30,207.19 



WOBK PZBFOKMEO. 

Coaiconsnmed tons., 477.85 

Distance cruised miles.. 15,696 

Porto visited 240 

Passengers carried l«17l 

Freight carried tons.. 96.10 

Mailcarri(*d In pouches ftl 

MaU carried in sacks 101 



REPOET OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



171 



COAST-GUARD LAUNCH ROVER. 



COST OF MAINTENANCE. 

Pay ^-10,892. 97 

Sabaifltenoe 2,844.10 

Coal cost and lOperoent 6,365.95 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 5, 602. 44 

Repairs to hull 564.66 

Repalre to machinery 4,470.96 

Pilotage and contingent expense 196. 70 

Washing 8.60 



ToUl. 



WORK PERFORMED. 

Coal consumed tons. 

Distance cruised miles. 

Ports visited 

Passengers carried 

Freight carried tons. 

Mall carried in pouches 

Mall carried in sacks 



30,946.38 

COAST-GUARD LAUNCH PITTSBURG. 



379.99 

14,981 

190 

619 

99.04 

99 

144 



COST OF MAINTENANCE. 

Pay ^-8,688.58 

Subsistence 2,228.80 

Coal cost and lOperoent 5,474.88 

Supplies cost and lOperoent 6,178.89 

Repairs to hull 1,039.50 

Repairs to machinery . . . : 2, 459. 45 

Pilotage and contingent expense 93. 79 

Washing 36.64 



Total. 



WORK PERFORMED. 

Coal consumed tons. 

Distance cruised miles. 

Ports visl ted 

Passengers carried 

Freight carried tons. 

Mail carried in pouches 

Mall carried in sacks « 



, 26,200.53 

CO.\ST-OUARD LAUNCH TROY. 



314.57 

11,508 

130 

553 

135.30 

79 

74 



COST OF MAINTENANCE. 

Pay r3,757.W 

Subsistence 725.20 

Coal cost and 10 per cent 824. 54 

Supplies cost ana.10 per cent 2, 653. 74 

Repairs to hull 3,227.68 

Repairs to machinery 4,328.92 

Total 15,516.02 



WORK PERFORMED. 

Coal consumed tons . . 43. 23 

Distance cruised miles. . 2, 973 

Ports visited 37 

Passengers carried 186 

Freight carried tons. . 5. 11 

Mail carried in pouches 15 

Mall carried in sacks 41 



COAST-GUARD LAUNCH SENTINEL. 



COST OF MAINTENANCE. 

Pay P7, 449.33 

Subsistence 1,512.46 

Coal cost and 10 per cent 2,741.64 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 2, 773. 22 

Repairs to hull 2,403.38 

Repairs to machinery 319. 94 

Con tlogent expense 338. 32 

Washing 5.32 

ToUl 17,513.61 



WORK PERFORMED. 

Coal consumed tons. . IfiO. S3 

Distance cruised miles. . 4, 313 

Ports visited 105 

Passengers carried 495 

Freight carried tons. . 76.08 

Money carried P40,000 

Mail carried in pouches 158 

Mail carried in sacks 334 



COAST-GUARD LAUNCH CUYO. 

COST OF MAINTENANCE. 

Pay r3,08i.3l 

Coal, coat and 10 per cent 1,622. 71 

Supplies, cost and 10 per cent 1,607. 25 

Repairs to hull 412.51 

Repairs to machinery 273.61 

Contingent expenses 37. 86 

Total 7,035.25 

COAST-GUARD LAUNCH GEORGE TILLY. 

COST OF MAINTENANCE. 

Pay 1*4,520.00 

Coal, coat and lOperoent 1,783.77 

SuppUes. cost and 10 per cent 1,433.32 

Repairs to hull 3,633.54 

Repairs to machinery 4, 697. 87 

Total 16,068.50 

COAST-GUARD LAUNCH LEADER. 



COST OF MAINTENANCE. 

Pay rw.9» 

Supplies, cost and 10 per cen t 257. 04 

Repalntohull 41.44 

Repairs to machinery 325. 26 

Total 690.72 



172 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



COAST-GUARD LAUNCH SUERTE. 

COST OF MAINTENANCE. 

Pay ^3,502. 66 

Coal, cost and 10 per cent 1, 755. 59 

Supplies, cost and 10 per cent 987. 32 

Repairs to hull ^. 83.65 

Repairs to machinery 235. 60 

Contingent expenses 59. 65 

Total 6,624.37 

COAST-GUARD LAUNCH PEPE. 

COST OF MAINTENANCE. 

Pay P2,160.00 

Coal, cost and 10 per cent 583. 96 

Supplies, cost and 10 per cent 658. 23 

Repairs to hull 344. 30 

Hepaira to machinery 528. 91 

Total 4,275.40 

COAST-GUARD LAUNCH TENDER. 

COST OF MAINTENANCE. 

Pay PI, 919. 99 

Supplies, cost and 10 per cent 535. 71 

Coal, cost and 10 per cent 376. 57 

Repai rs to hull 139. 67 

Repairs to machinery 21. 79 

Total 2,996.63 

COAST-GUARD LAUNCH PASIO. 

COST OF MAINTENANCE. 

Pay n,659.98 

Coal, cost and 10 per cent 196. 59 

Supplies, cost and 10 per cent 305. 88 

Repairs to hull 2,190.46 

Repairs to machinery 63. 32 

ToUl 4,406.23 



Recapitulation of the coast-guard fleet. 



Vessel. 



Negros 

Luzon 

PoliUo 

Masbate 

Busuanga.. 

Balabac 

Palawan 

Basilan 

Romblon . . . 

Tablas 

Marinduque 
Mindanao.. 

Samar 

Mindoro 

I^yte 

Panay 



LAUNCHES— SEAOOINO 

Ranger 

Scout 

Rover 

Pittsburg 

Sentinel 

Troy 



Cost of main- 
tenance. 



r58, 
63, 
64, 
68, 
56, 
59, 
63, 
48, 
67, 
65, 
46, 
47, 
48, 
46, 
45, 
36, 



586.26 
727.65 
472.04 
944.89 
736.72 
923.76 
013.28 
474.82 
082.42 
850.65 
707.98 
677.73 
797.31 
902.02 
875.44 
734.96 



Ordnance 

and 10 per 

cent. 



i: 

6, 
6, 



621.88 
982.86 
368.79 
368.37 
56L26 



561.26 
948.21 



8,982.86 



067.63 
954.48 
708.00 
414.80 



859,507.93 | 91,520.40 



Total cost of 
vessels. 



28,635.68 
30,207.19 
30,946.38 
26,200.53 
17,543.61 
11,920.38 

145,453.77 



r64,208.14 
62,710.51 
70,830.83 
65,303.26 
63,297.98 
59,923.76 
69,574.03 
57,423.03 
57,082.42 
74,833.61 
46,707.96 
66,745.36 
60,751.79 
52,610.02 
62,290.24 
36,734.96 



951,028.33 



28,635.68 
30,207.19 
30,946.38 
26,200.63 
17,543.61 
11,920.38 



145,453.77 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Recapitulation of the coast-guard fleet — Continued. 



173 



Vessel, 



Cost of main- 
tenance. 



LAUNCHES— BAY AND BIVER. 



Cuyo 

George Tilly. 

Suerte 

Leader 

Pcpe 

Tender 

Pasig 



Total. 



Ordnance 

and 10 per 

cent. 



r?, 035. 25 

16,418.95 I 

6,624.37 ' 

690.72 I 

4,275.40 I 

2,996.63 ' 

4,406.23 , 



42,447.55 I. 



Total cost of 
vessels. 



y 7, 035. 25 
16,418.95 
6,624.37 
690.72 
4,276.40 
2,996.63 
4,406.23 



42,447.55 



1,138,929.65 



WORK PERFORMED. 

Dis tanco cruised miles . . 356, 948 

Ports visited 4,176 

Passengers carried: 

First-class 7,502 

Second-class 7,649 

Freight carried tons. . 5,471. 91 

Money carried 1^5,337,472.10 

Mail carried in pouches 9, 252 

Mail carried in sacks 13,823 

VALUATION. 

Value of all freight, passengers, money, and mail carried, in accordance with commer- 
cial rates now existing for coastwise trade: 

Money carried by all coast-guard vessels, P'5,337,472.10; charges, 0.0025 per cent 

PassengeiB, freight, and mall carried 

Coast-guard vessels chartered, presumably during the twelve months ending June 
30, 1W4, 1,071 days, at 1*200 per day.-. 



Total 

Respectfully submitted. 



n3,343.68 
350,705.50 

214,200.00 

578,249.18 



Frank P. Helm, 
Marine Superintendent, 



Bureau of Coast Guard and Transportation, 

•Division of Vessels, 
Manila, P. /., SepUmher 20, 1904. 
Conimander J. M. Helm, U. S. Navy, 

Chief o] Bureau of Coast Guard and Transportationf Manila, P. I, 
Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith supplement to the annual report for the fiscal 
year 1904, covering the period from July 1 to August 31, inclusive. 

coast-guard fleet. 

The vessels of this division were employed and located on August 31 as shown below: 

CUTTERS. 



Duty. 


Name. 1 Location. 


Duty. 


Name. 


Location. 


Route 1 

Route 2, 


Masbate ' Manila. 

Pollllo 1 Do. 


Route 6 

Route 7 

Route a 

Route 9 

Route 10 


Marinduque . . 
Leyte...: 


Cebu. 

Catbalogan. 
Zamboanga. 
Cebu. 
Do. 


Route 3 

Route 4 

Ropto5 


Mindoro | Halsey Harbor. 

Balabac i Manila. 

Panay San Jos6. 

1 


Busuanga 

Samar 

Mindanao 



Cutters on special duty. — Negros, on duty with the constabulary bureau under Captain 
Dade, U. S. Army, inspector-general of constabulary, in connection with the Pulajanes 
uprising on the island oi Samar. Luzon, returned from a trip to Iloilo, where she took on 
board laborers for the Benguet road. BasUan, finishing her repairs at Manila and getting 
ready for duty on route No. 2. Pcdaxoan, returned from a trip to Iloilo, from where she 



176 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

and 5 officors to the scene of the attack. On the 26th the troops were landed, and firing 
commenced at once. The Moros were fortified in a " Cotta ' * which, after some fighting, was 
taken. It was found that 24 Moros were killed. On the 28th she returned to Jolo to coal 
and to clean ship. 

While at Jolo, a captured sapit was fitted up for work in connection with the Tobias , and 
on August 8 she went on a cruise south of Tawi, towine the sapit. Owing to heavy weather 
during all of this month very few native boats ventured to leave Borneo, and in consequence 
there was very little smuggling done. On the 30th she returned to Zamboanga to consult 
with Governor Wood relative to licensing Moro boats and authority to enforce the law in 
that respect. 

MARINDUQUE. 
(Capt. John C. Henschien.) 

During July and August this cutter was on duty on route No. 6. 

On June 29 the chief of the bureau of coast guard and transportation was requested by the 
director of posts to allow a post-ofiice inspector who was on duty on the island of Cebu to ^ 
on the Marinduque so as to establish post-offices in all organized municipalities. The chief 
of this bureau accordingly directed the captain of the Marinduque to afford the post-office 
inspector every facility. 

On August 14 this bureau received a wire from the commanding officer at Cebu reauesting 
the use of the Marinduque to search for the quartennaster launch ChicaqOf which nad left 
Ormoc on the morning of the 12th. On receipt of this request the chief of the bureau 
ordered the Marinduque to look for the missing launch. On the 16th the Marindu^que 
found the launch all well at Ormoc. The Chicago having put to sea was obliged to return 
to Ormoc for safety on account of the heavy weather. 

MINDANAO. 

(Capt. A. R. CBhllng.) 

During the months of July and August this cutter remained on route No. 8, with head- 
quarters at Zamboanga. On August 15 she was relieved by the cutter Busuanga and 
returned to Manila over route No. 10. 

8AM AR. 

(Capt. Peter Olsen.) 

During the month of July this cutter was on duty on route No. 2. On the 90th while on 
duty as guard ship at Manila she assisted the steamship Afghanistan, which, on account of 
the typhoon, was being blown against the wall of the breakwater. 

On August 1 and 18 she made trips on route No. 2. On the 19th while at Surigao she 
relieved tne cutter PoliUo on route No. 6. 



(Capt. H. C. Anderson.) 

At the beginning of July this cutter was at Culion, on duty on route No. 3, and returned to 
Manila on the 8th. On the 13th she was at Caflacao waiting to go on the slip to have her 
propeller and shaft examined. She remained at Cafiacao for the rest of the month. 

From the 8th to the 10th of August she was on the dry dock. Herpropeller and shaft 
were examined, bottom partly recoppered, and decks calked. On the 20th she left Manila 
for a trip over route No. 3. On this trip she carried a lai^ amount of freight for the custom- 
house which is being constructed at Balabac. During August the Mindoro received 
(under Act 1000) the following amounts of money for passen^rs and freight: Passengers, 
1*^262.50; freight, ^40.17. On August 31 the Mxndoro was at Ualsey Harbor. 

LETTE. 

(Capt. WUHam N. Fisher.) 

During July and August this cutter has been on duty on route No. 7, where she will 
remain for some time. 

PANAT. 

(Capt. William M. Murphy.) 

On July 1 we find this cutter at Pandan, where the coast guard launch Scout was wrecked. 
She took aboard all the property Ihat could be saved and the crew of the Scouts and then 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



177 



sailed for Manila over route No. 5. She sailed from Manila again over route No. 5 on the 
13th, and while running between Concepcion and Iloilo, off Balbayan Island, she sighted a 
vessel flying signals of distress. On exarainition the vessel was found to be the launch 
Petro (of which Lazarraga Hermanos, of this city, are the owners), en route to Ilpilo, but 
weather-bound off the coast of Panay on account of the typhoon. The Panay supplied her 
with 23 sacks of coal. 
On August 31 the Panay was at San Jose, en route to Manila. 

RANGER. 

(Capt. C. W. B. Maddox.) 

At the beginning of July the Ranger was at Engineer Island undergoing repairs. From 
the 12th to the 23a she was on the slip at Cafiacao Bay. On the 27th she sailea from Manila 
to report to Colonel Harbord, Philippines Constabulary, at Zamboanga, where she is to 
remam for some time. 

On the recommendation of Colonel Harbord, the Ranger was fitted up with a Catling gun, 
which she received and mounted on August 30. 



(Capt. Charles W. Laurltzen.) 

Tliis launch has been assigned to the constabulary at Lucena, imder orders of Colonel 
Rivers, Philippines Constabulary. 

TROY. 



(Capt. George Mansfield.) 

Ever since her arrival at Zamboanga, this vessel has been assigned to Colonel Harbord, 
Philippines Constabulary. 

SENTINEL. 

(Capt. John G. Musscn.) 

This stem-wheel river boat is stationed at Aparri on route No. 2, operating on the Rio 
Grande de Cagayan inland from Aparri. 

COAST GUARD CUTTER NEGROS. 

COST OF MAINTENANCE. ( WORK PERFORMED. 



Pay 1*3,W7.28 

Subsistence 



Coal cost and 10 per cent 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 

Repairs to hull 

Pilotage and contingent expense . 
Washing I 



864.50 
2, 134. 57 
295.70 

20.52 
115.20 

16.80 



Coal consumed tons. . 132. 81 

Distance cruised miles.. 2879 

Ports visited 22 

Passengers carried 284 

Freight carried tons. . 33. 66 

Mail carried in pouches 10 

Mail carried in sacks 5 



Total 7,164.57 

COAST GUARD CUTTER LUZON. 



COST OF MAINTENANCE. 

Pay 1^3,826.32 

SuDsistenoe. 



Coal cost and 10 per cent 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 

Repairs to hull 

Repairs to machinery 

Pilotage and contingent expense. 
Washing 



918.60 

1,674.75 

668.78 

1,256.90 

544.19 

28.80 

12.24 



Totol. 



WORK PERFORMED. 

Coal consumed tons. . 183. 96 

Distance cruised miles. . 4, 904 

Ports visited 29 

Freight carried tons. . 60. 4ft 

Passengers carried 684 

Money carried 1*166, 99S 

Mail carried in pouches 36 

Mail carried in sacks 120 



8,930.58 

COAST-GUARD CUTTER POLILLO. 



COST OF MAINTENANCE. 

Pay 1*3,747.26 

Subsistence '"'" 



Coal cost and 10 per cent. . . .' 

Supplies cost ana 10 per cent . .'. . . 

Repairs to machinery 

Pilotage and contingent expense. 
Washing 1 



924.00 

4,718.73 

1,504.99 

78.67 

44.25 

35.60 



Total 11,053.50 1 

WAR 1904— VOL 13 12 



WORK PERFORMED. 

Coal consumed tons.. 215.83 

Distance cruised miles. . 3, 803 

Ports visited 56 

Passengers carried 191 

Freight carried tons.. 15.59 

Money carried P89, 609 

Mail carried in pouches 64 

Mail carried in sacks 12S 



178 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



COAST-GUARD CUTTER MASBATE. 

COST or IfAINTBNANCE. WOBK PBRPORMBD. 



Pay r3,744.66 

Bubsistcnco 909. 80 

Coal coflt and 10 per cent 2, 590. 72 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 1, 480. 27 

Repairs to hull 138.09 

Repairs to machinery 114. 24 

Pilotage and cbntingen t expense 4 1 . 20 

Total 9,020.18 



Coal consumed tons.. 159.64 

Distance cruised miles.. 3,790 

Ports visited 61 

Passengers carried 285 

Freight carried tons. . 82. 38 

Money carried 1^219,258 

Mail carried in pouches 94 

Mail carried in sacks 159 



COAST-GUARD CUTTER BUSUANOA. 



con or MAINTENAKCK. 



Pay r3,7M.14 

~ '' ' 907.20 

2,337.92 
3,223.60 
120.86 
38.26 
13.60 
12.30 



Subsistence. 

Coal cost and 10 per cent 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 

Repairs to hull 

Repairs to machinery 

Pilotage and contingent expense . 
Washing 



Total. 



WORK PERrORMED. 

Coal consumed tons. 

Distance cruised miles. 

Ports visited 

Passengers carried 

Freight carried tons . 

Money carried 

Mail carried in pouches 

Mail carried in sacks 



197.83 

6,250 

36 

141 

127.27 

1*436,551 

58 

211 



10,417.88 

COAST-GUARD CUTTER BALABAC. 



COST or MAINTEKAN'CE. 

Pay r3,654.65 

Subsistence 499. 20 

Coal cost and 10 per cent 2,013.18 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 1 , 752. 65 

Repairs to hull 2,942.00 

Repairs to machinery 680. 44 

Washing 63.38 

Totol 11,995.50 



WORK PERFORMED. 

Coal consumed tons. . 126. 98 

Distance cruised miles . . 2, 259 

Ports visited 34 

Passengers carried 109 

Freight carried tons.. 37.44 

Money carried ^'25,845 

Mail carried in pouches 48 

Mall carried in sacks 41 



COAST-GUARD CUTTER PALAWAN. 

COST or MAINTENANCE. | WORK PERFORMED. 



Pav 1*3,807. 

SuSsistence . 



.32 
877.30 

Coal cost and 10 per cent 2, 488. 70 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 3, 179. 85 

Repairs to hull 142.50 

Repairs to machinery 112.86 

Pilotage and contingent expense 8. 80 



Total 10,617.33 



Coal consumed tons. 

Distance cruised miles. 

Porti visited 

Passengers carried tons., 

Money ca rried , 

Mail carried in pouches 

Mall carried in sacks 



193.08 

4,582 

32 

19.54 

^■37,279 

53 

79 



COAST-GUARD CUTTER BASILAN. 



COST or MAINTENANCE. 

Pay r3,620.63 

8ubsi3tence 893.79 

Coal cost and lOper cent 3,132.42 

Supplies cost and 10 i)er cent 694. 10 

Repairs to hull 1,260.56 

Repairs to machinery 351.86 

Pilotage and contingent expense 15. 20 

Washing 33.00 

Total 10,010.56 



WORK PERFORMED. 

Coal consumed tons . . 1 10 

Distance cruised miles. . 2,735 

Porto visited 25 

Passengers carried 29 

Freight carried tons.. 82.95 

Money carried P'6,096 

Mail carried in pouches 14 

Mail carried in sacks 99 



COAST-GUARD CUTTER TAB LAS. 

COST OF MAINTENANCE. WORK PERFORMED. 



Pay r3,801.98 

Suoslstenoo 871 . 60 

Coal cost and 10 percent 2,268.20 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 631 . 14 

Total 7,572.92 



Coal consumed tons.. 151.51 

Porto visited 34 

Distance cruised miles. . 3, 138 

Passengera carried .•. 52 

Mall carried in pouches 1 

Mail carried in sacks 7 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



179 



COAST-OUARD CUTTER MARINDUQUE. 
COST or MAINTENANCX. 1 WORK PBRFO&IICO. 



Pay r3,8il.95 

Subsistence 982.60 

Coal co8t and 10 per cent 1,631.85 

Bopplies coat and 10 per cent 315.23 

Repairs to machineiy 29.60 

Pilotage and contingent expense 68. 62 

Washing 15.76 

Total 6,805.61 



Coal consumed tons.. 125 

Distance cruised miles.. 2,220 

Porto visited 72 

Passengers carried 98 

Freight carried tons.. 133.71 

Money carried P'32,038 

Mall carried in pouches 88 

Mail carried in sacks 37 



COAST-GUARD CUTTER MINDANAO. 
COST or MAIKTENANCE. ITOKK PERrOKlfKD. 



Par r3,761.89 

Subsistenoe ~ 



Coal cost and 10 per cent 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent . 

Repairs to hull 

Repairs to macliinery 

Washing 



931.60 
5,336.43 

895.56 
99.68 
10.34 
28.26 



Total 10,063.76 



Coal consumed tons.. 236.98 

Distance cruised miles.. 6,042 

Porto visited 47 

Passengers carried 236 

Monev carried P'337,730 

Freight carried tons.. 72.19 

Mail carried in pouches 47 

Mail carried in sacks 310 



COAST-OUARD CUTTER SAMAR. 

COST or MAINTENANCE. WORK PERFORMED. 



Pay ¥-3,667.30 

Subsistence 908.60 

Coalcostand lOpercent 2,834.40 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 2, 224.00 

Repairs to bull 120.08 

Pilotage and contingent expense 24. 80 

Washing 27.06 



Total. 



9,806.24 



Coal consumed tons . . 196. 36 

Distance cruised miles.. 4,913 

Porto visited 51 

Passengers carried 277 

Freight carried tons.. 188.30 

Money carried P'271, 533 

Mail carried in pouches 125 

Mail carried in sacks 204 



COAST-GUARD CUTTER MINDORO. 
COST or MAINTENANCE. WORK PERTORMEO. 



Pav rS, 737.82 

SuDsistenoe. 



Coal cost and 10 per cent 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent. 

Repairs to hull 

Repairs to machinery 



ToUl. 



870.60 
1.025.64 
1,755.08 

423.22 
64.00 

7,876.45 



Coal consumed tons. 

Distance cruised miles. 

Porto visited 

Passengers carried 

Freight carried tons. 

Money carried 

Mall carried In pouches 

Mail carried in sacks 



112.61 

2,375 

38 

191 

66.30 

res, 844 

26 

28 



COAST-GUARD CUTTER LEYTE. 
COST or MAINTENANCE. WORK PERPORMED. 



Pay r3,798.65 

Coalcostand lOpercent 1,182.37 

Subsistence 467. 70 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 497.66 

Pilotage and contingent expense 1. 50 

Washing 9.24 

Totel 5,957.12 



Coal consumed tons . . 107. 58 

Distance cruised...* miles.. 2,233 

Porto visited 56 

Freight carried tons. . 22. 22 

Passengers carried 200 

Mail carried in pouches 63 

Mail earned m sacks 73 



COAST-GUARD CUTTER PAN AY. 



COST or MAINTENANCE. 

Pav r3,871.S6 

Su bsistence 897. 50 

Coalcostand lOpercent 5,501.92 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 3,884. 19 

Repairs to machinery 11.07 

Pilotage and contingent expense 82. 50 

Washing... 18.97 

Total 11,267.71 



WORK PERrORMED. 

Coal consumed tons. . 150. r>7 

Dlstonce cruised miles. . 4, 99.3 

Porto visited 52 

Passengers carried : 222 

Freight carried tons. . 49. 5.1 

Money carried P^IS, 977 

Mail carried in pouches 40 

Mail carried m sacks 85 



180 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



COAST-GUARD LAUNCH RANGER. 

COST OF IIAINTENAK^CE. WORK PERFORMED. 



Pay 1*1,776.46 

Subsistence 471.30 

Coal cost and 10 per cent 1,214.78 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 1,360.06 

Repairs to hull 672.23 

Repairs to machinery 1,854.28 

Pilotage and contingent expense : 23. 40 



ToUl. 



7,381.49 



Coal consumed tons. , 

Distance cruised miles. , 

Ports visited 

Passengers carried 

Freight carried tons. 

Money carried 

Mail carried in pouches 

Mail carried in sacks 



64.57 

2,633 

25 

28 

4.13 

1*497 

3 

2 



COAST-GUARD LAUNCH ROVER. 



COST OF MAINTENANCE. 

Pay Pl,634.00 

Subsistence 483.60 

Coal cost and 10 per cent 926. 11 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 187. 07 

Repairs to hull 8.18 

Repairs to machinery 7. 15 

Pilotage and contingent expense 4.80 

Washing 6.60 

Total 3,457.51 



WORK PERFORMED. 

C^al consumed tons. . 87. 71 

Distance cruised miles. . 2, 850 

Ports visited 48 

Passengers carried 79 

Freight carried tons. . 32.95 

Mail carried in pouches 7 

Mail carried in sacks 4 



COAST-GUARD hAlfSCH TROY. 



COST OF MAINTENANCE. 

Pay n, 170. 00 

Subsistence 287.80 

Coal cost and 10 per cent 1,223. 37 

Pilotage and contingent expense 20. 00 

Total 2,710.17 



WORK PERFORMED. 

Coal consumed tons. . 63. 66 

Distance cruised miles. . 4, 189 

Ports visited 30 

Freight carried tons. . 1. 05 

Mail carried in sacks 12 



COAST-GUARD LAUNCH SENTINEL. 



COST OF MAINTENANCE. 

Pay Fl,230.00 

Subsistence 282. 10 

Coal cost and 10 per cent 805. 46 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 177. 52 

Repairs to hull 14.75 

Pilotage and contingent expense 74. 88 

Washing 5.32 



Total. 



2,590 03 



WORK PERFORMED. 

Coal consumed tons . 

Distance cruised miles. 

Ports visited 

Freight carried tons. 

Money carried 

Mail carried in pouches 

Mail carried in sacks 



54.19 

1,397 

27 

58.27 

ri3.5,667 

143 

146 



COAST-GUARD LAUNCH CUYO. 



Pay 

Coal cost and and 10 per cent. . 
Supplies cost and 10 per cent. . 

Repairs to hull 

Repairs to machinery .*. . 



P723.99 

60:J.43 

65.84 

238.56 

637.02 

Total 2,268.84 



COAST-GUARD LAUNCH GEORGE TILLY. 



Pay 

Coal cost and 10 per cent 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent. 



Total. 



p-eoo.oo 

123.82 
15.3.69 

877.51 



COAST-GUARD LAUNCH LEADER. 



Supplies cost and 10 per cent. 
Repairs to machinery 



r63.01 
9.00 



Total. 



72.01 



COAST-GUARD LAUNCH SUERTE. 



Pay 

Coal cost and 10 per cent 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent. 

Total 



r573.28 
63.62 
84.75 

72L65 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



181 



COAST-GUARD LAUNCH PEPE. 

Pay r346.64 

Coal cost and 10 per cent '. 181. 37 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 66. 27 

Repairs to huU 8.50 

Repairs to machinery 51. 35 

Total 654.13 

COAST-GUARD LAUNCH TENDER. 

Pay P-306.64 

Coal cost and 10 per cent 96. 39 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 24. 24 

Total 427.27 

COAST-GUARD LAUNCH PASIG. 

Pay 1*306.64 

Coal cost and 10 per cent 43. 25 

Supplies cost and 10 per cent 5. 00 

Total 354.89 

Recapitulation of the coast-guard and transportation fleet. 



Vessel. 



I Cost of I 
; maintenance 



Ordnance 

and 10 per 

cent. 



t 



Total cost 
of vessel. 



Negros 

Luzon 

PoUUo 

Mas bate 

Busuanga.. 

Balabac 

Palawan 

Bacilan 

Tablas 

Marlnduque 
Mindanao.. 

Samar 

Mlndoro 

Leyte 

Panay 



1*7,164.57 
8,930.58 
11,053.50 
9,020.18 
10,417.88 
11,995.60 I 
10,617.33 ' 
10,010.56 
7,672.92 I 
6,805.61 I 
11,063.76 
9,806.24 
7,870.45 
5,957.12 
11,267.71 j 



1*2,965.60 



6,730.21 
36.96 



42.90 
3,088.64 



3,099.20 



no, 

8, 
11, 

9, 
10, 
18, 
10, 
10, 

7, 

9, 
11, 

9, 
10, 

5, 
11) 



130. 17 
930.58 
a53.50 
020.18 
417.88 
.71 
654.29 
010.66 
615.82 
894.25 
063.76 
806.24 
975.65 
957. 12 
267.71 





139,559.91 


15,963.51 


155,523.42 


LAUNCHES— SEA-GOINQ. 

Ranger 


7,381.49 
3,467.51 
2,710.17 
2,590.03 


3,110.03 


10,491.52 


Rover 


3,457.51 


Troy 




2,710.17 
2,590.03 


Sentinel 












16, 139. 20 


3,110.03 


19,249.23 


LAUNCHES— BAY AND RIVER. 

Cuyo ... 


2,268.84 
877.51 
72.01 
721.66 
664.13 
427.27 
364.89 




2,268.84 
877. 51 


George Tilly ] 




Leader 




72.01 


Suerte 




721.66 


Pepe 




654.13 


Tender 




427.27 


Pasig 




354.89 










5,376.30 




5,376.30 
180, 148. 95 


Total 













WORK PERFORMED. 

Distance cruised miles. . 66, 225 

Ports visited 775 

Passengers cajried 4, 022 

Freight carried tons . . 1 , 087. 91 

Money carried 1*1,987,722 

Mail carried In pouches 920 

Mail carried in sacks 1, 750 

Very respectfully, 

Frank P. Helm, Marine Superintendent, 



182 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

REPORT 07 THE COAflT-QVABO CTTITSR TABLA8. 

JoLO, P. I., July 18, 190^ 
Commander J. M. Helm, U. S. Navy, 

Chief of BureaUf Coast Guard and Transportation , Manila. 

Sir : I hare the honor to submit the following report of the work done by the coast-guard 
cutter Tafias while on special duty with the customs service. 

Left Manila on January 10 with instructions to proceed to the Jolo Archipelago and 
endeavor to break up the smu^Iing going on there. En route, called at Puerta Pnncesa, 
Cape Melville, and Sandakan, BNE., Special Agent McDonald being on board to represent 
the customs service. 

On 12th arrived at Puerta Princcsa, landed mail and proceeded to Cape Melville witK 
supplies for the light-house; 14th left for Sandakan, BXB., arriving next day. Interviewed 
acting governor and commissioner of customs and other officials, who assured us their 
cordial assistance in our work. It is learned that very little smuggling is done from here 
at this season, as the winds arc contrary to the small boats making thes? trips, but with 
the beginning of the southwest monsoon there will bo a lot of it done as is usual with 
favorable wind. 

Left Sandakan on 16th and proceeded to Jolo for the purpose of locating the customs 
cutter Sanderiing with Coast District Inspector Shaw, wiio understands the situation in 
regard to smuggling going on. Arrived at Jolo on the 17th and left at once for Siassi, 
where Inspector Shaw was taken on board; then proceeded to Bongao, where a detail of 
20 soldiers was taken aboard for the pui-poso of searching several islands of the Tawi-Tawi 
group for dutiable goods. On the 20th proceeded to the island of Balimbing and sent 
party to search the island of Baun; proceeded to Simonor Island same day and searched 
the place but nothing of a dutiable nature was found anywhere; proceeded to Tandubas 
and s^'arched the whole island; found the natives here very hostile. Nothing found here, 
but got information of a lot of tobacco at South Ubian; 21st arrived at Ubian and sent 
partv to search the island. It is evident that a large shipment of tobacco had been on 
the island but has since been transshipped in vintas, as nothing was found; 22d returned 
to Bonffao and landed soldiers thero ; then proceeded to Siassi and Jolo. Arrived in Jolo on 
the 23d and upon request of the governor took about 100 soldiers as part of a military 
expedition to the island of Pata, also to search for dutiable goods; 24th patroled the 
island of Pata in cooperation with U. S. S. Annapolis and seized several vintas who were 
trying to escape with people wanted bv the military authorities. Same night took on party 
<rf soldiers and. returned to Jok); 26th proceeded to Sandakan and conferred with Secret 
Agent Lamlx»th and then proc^^eded to the island of Ca^yan de Jolo to clear up some 
customs matters; 2Sth left for Jolo and Zamboanga, arriving on the 30th — the latter in 
accordance with instructions received. Coaled ship at Zamboanga. Distance steamed 
during period, 2,618 miles; coal con.9umcd, 119 tons. 

February, — Remained at Zamboanga on the 1st to consult with Moro council in reference 
to licensing of Moro boats. Left 9 p. m. for Jolo, where Collector of Customs Hilf was taken 
on board For Bongao. On the way stopped at Siassi and arrived at Bongao on the 3d; 
proceeded to Sandakan and retunicd to Bongao on the 6th. Special agent proceeded to 
Sitanki, where duty was assessed on goods amounting to $391-Unitpd States currency, and 
the people instructed that all goods must pass through the customs-house at Bongao. 
Captain Hunt, commanding officer of Bongao, was taken to Lahut Dato (Darvel Bay) on 
the 9th to investigate about some children that were kidnapped from Mindanao; inter- 
viewed the resident governor and other government officials, who informed us that most 
of the goods illegally entered into the Philippines did not come from Sandakan, but were 
sent to Lahut Dato, Salim, Simpoma, and Tawao, small towns on the east coast of Borneo, 
and were from there run into the Sulu Archipelago by small boats. On the 12th, upon 
receiving telegram from Secret Service Agent Lambeth at Sandakan, we proceeded there, 
he being ordered to Manila; after waiting two days for him left for Bongao and Jolo; 16th to 
20th spent at Joloon account of severe storm then prevailing; 20th to 25th on cruise, stopping 
at Siassi and Sandakan; 26th proceeded to cruise among the Tawi-Tawi Islands. Stopped 
at South Ubian and found store stocked with goods bought at Siassi, the first time tnat 
goods 'sold hero that duty had been paid on. People here not very friendly, but more so 
than on previous visits; 27th went to Tandubas, but owing to the hostility of natives did 
not land; also learned that the natives of this island sent for lai^ shipment of goods from 
Jolo, which shows that some impression is being made and that they arc afraid to smuggle. 
Patroled the island between Tandubas and Sibutu, returning to Jolo on 28tii, thence to 
Zamboan^^a, where the situation was discussed with General Wood, who will give us all 
possible aid. Distance steamed during the month, 1,810 miles; coal consumed, 96 tons. 

March. — First to 7th remained at Zamboanga awaiting orders, then ordered to resume 
present duties and left at once for Jolo; 9th left for Bongao, then cniised off the coast of 
bomeo. Several Moro sapits were stopped and examined. Touched at Sandakan and 



HEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 183 

took on board Secret Aj^nt Lftmbeth and returned to Jolo on 12th for the purpose of 
getting two new officers on arrival of Palavxtn ; 16th left Jolo for several of the most southern 
islands for the purposo of bringing the chiefs and dattos of those places to Jolo that the 
governor might impress upon them the necessity of their keeping and obeying the law and 
not attack .£nericans who visited their islands; 18th left Jolo with part of a military expe- 
dition on board for the island of Pata and vicinity, after which a circuit of Jolo* Island 
was made, returning to Jolo on night of 19th. On the'21st left Jolo with Captain Rivers 
and party to visit some islands which are in dispute as to ownership, off the coast of Borneo, 
named as follows: Siamil, Danawan, Eapalai, Mabul, Sipatan, T^anak, Baguan, Laneaan, 
Lankayan, and the Mangsi islands, thence to Balubu. Although this servioB did not 
interfere with regular work, yet it made a long trip. Ten Moro dattos were also returned 
to their several islands while on this trip. Returned to Jolo on 29th, thence to Zamboanga. 
During the month some good results are beginning to show as' a result of our work, as there 
is a greater increase of native trade at Jolo and Siassi, and manv of the Moro boats are^ 
getting licensed. When the hcensing of these is completed it will be easy to trace up those 
that are smuggling. Distance steamed during the month, 1,731 miles; coal consumed, 87 
tons. 

AprU. — ^First to 3d at Zamboanga; 4th and 5th cleaning boilers at Jolo; then proceeded 
to Cagayan do Jolo; here found evidence of a large amount of smuggling. Infoimed the 
people that free trade would no longer be permitted, and that thoy must license their boats. 
This they have refused to do, so will get authority and take action later; 9th proceeded to 
Bongao, where 1 officer and 10 soldiers were taken on, and proceeded to Sitanki, Sibutu 
Island, where the place was searched and a Cliinese storekeeper arrested for evasion of 
duties; took him to Bongao, where he was later allowed to pay the duties, amounting 
to $273.10 United States currency; 12th left for Siassi, Jolo, and Zamboanga; 15th left for 
cruise, touching at most of the islands south of Tawi-Tawi; thence to Bongao, Sandakan, 
Cagayan dc Jolo; thence cruised to Lahut Dato, and here were informed that the con- 
traoand trade has greatly fallen off. The people in Sandakan tell us that their trade is 
being considerably affected by TaUas bcin^ in these waters, but on the other hand 
their legitimate trade with Jolo has greatly mcreascd. Cruised in vicinity of Simpoma 
and the Alice Channel, returning to Bongao on 26th; thence to South Ubian, Tobawan, 
Jolo, and Zamboanga. Many boats are stopped and examined. Distance steamed during 
the month, 1,860 miles; coal consumed, 68 tons. 

May. — Coaled at Jolo and proceeded toward Sandakan to intercept steamship Kudat, 
as it was reported she was bnnging in Chinese, etc. Stopped her at sea on the 4th and 
put customs official on board, who went to Jolo on her; however, nothing was found, as 
she seemed to have been warned by cable from Singa^wre and we know goods were trans- 
ferred at Sandakan. On the 7th proceeded on cruise to Bongao and Cagayan de Jolo with 
intention of hcensing all Moro boats there. Eleven of these were measured and licensed, 
and four were seized off the coast of the island on their way in from Sandakan, all with contra- 
band cargoes. Thcs3 were towed to Jolo, where they will be disposed of. We now have 
information of a lot of smuggfmg going on, but there is so much ground to cover with one 
boat that it can not be properly done. The natives of Cagayan de Jolo have resented our 
work here and express their intention to continue smuggling. " About 150 assembled on the 
beach with arms to retake some sapits with cargo we had seized, and it became necessary to 
fire upon them to get these sapits. 71': turned to Jolo on 17th, then proceeded to Zamboanga 
for coal; 20th returned to Cagayan, where seven more sapits were seized, all coming m 
from Sandakan with contrabancf goods. These seven were towed to Jolo with their crew 
and turned over to the collector of customs; 24th received instructions to go to Zamboanga, 
where orders were received to proceed to the south coast of Mindanao to investigate reports 
of smuggling at Sarangani Bay and Island. Accordingly made thorough investigations, 
but am convinced that very little is done there, as the people are very poor and nave no 
boats of any size. However, it is certain that Moros are sold as slaves and shipped in vintas 
to Tawi-Tawi and Basilan and other places, but such cases I think are few. Distance 
steamed daring the month, 2,106 miles; coal consumed, 86 tons. 

June.— On the 1st proceeded to Mati, thence to Davao, arriving on 3d, and made thorough 
investigation of trade conditions on coast to southward of Davao, but found no evidence 
of smuggling in this vicinity. On 4th went to Sarangani Bay and visited the several towns 
there, consisting of Glan, Macar, and two small towns on the east side of the bay. There is 
only one Chinaman in this locality and doin^ but Uttle trade, and it seems certam that little 
or no smuggling is done. On 6th cruised along the south coast of Mindanao and anchored 
at Port Iieoak ; 7th, proceeded to Cottabato, where we remained until evening of the 10th to 
give ship the benefit of lying in fresh water. Here orders were received to resume work in 
Sulu Archipelago. Left for Zamboanga, thence to Jolo, leaving Jolo on the 12th for cruise 
to north coast of Tawi-Tawi, .stopping all boats for examination. Landed at Tinakla Island 
and found three boats from Sandakan that had entered and paid duty at Bongao, the first 
time it has ever been done. CaUed at Bongao and left on the 14th for Jolo, where quarterly 



184 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

supplies were taken in on the 15th. Left same night for north coast of Tawi-Tawi, thence 
along the Borneo coast to Sandakan, arriving there on the 18th, and learned that smuggling 
had greatly diminished at this place; 20th, left Sandakan for Sibutu and the Alice channel, 
where all boats were examined and three sapits seized with rice from Borneo; 22d, proceeded 
to Bongao with said sapits and turned them over to coUector of customs. Left for Jolo, 
arriving there on 24th; coaled on 25th, and left on 26th for vicinity of Sibutu ; 27th, anchored 
near Buimbing to try and catch several vintas supposed to be coming from Sandakan, but 
find it is now a difficult matter to get small vintas, as the ship is too conspicuous and they 
hide on seeing the ship; 28th, proceeded toward Jolo, examined several ooats and seized 
three vintas with contrabands from Kudat, BNB., for South Ubian. These vintas were 
released, but their contents and the chief person among them taken to Jolo and turned over 
to the proper authorities. Large sapit in Tataan Pass upon seeing us ran their boat onto the 
reef and all of the crew escaped to shore. As some cartridges were found it is supposed they 
had arms, as there was no other reason for their running away. Sent landing party to find 
them, but without success; 29th, arrived at Jolo. Distance steamed during June, 1,942 
miles; coal consumed, 80 tons. Total distance cruised to June 30, 12,067 miles. Total 
amount of coal consumed to June 30, 536 tons. 

Respectfully, James Miller, 

Commanding C. G. C. Tobias. 



Buheau op Coast Guard and Transportation, 

COAST-GUARD CUTFER TaBLAS, 

Jdo, p. /., October 2, 1904. 
Commander J. M. Helm, U. S. Navy, 

Chief of Bureau of Coast Guard and Transportation, Manila , P. I. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of operations of coast-guard cutter 
Tobias from June 30 to September 30, 1904, while on special duty with the customs service: 

Left Jolo on morning of July 1, with 2 officers and 20 soldiers on board, for the purpose of 
searching the town of Maibun, information having been received that a quantity of Chinese 
tobacco nad been brought in. The town was thoroughly searched, but no trace of the 
tobacco could be found. Returned to Jolo the same day. 

Third, proceeded to Siasi at reauest of Governor Scott, to assist constabulary to capture 
a cotta on Lapak Island and break up a gang of troublesome Moros. Cotta was shelled on 
the 4th, and although the Moros escaped the matter was cleared up in a satisfactory man- 
ner, as all the chiefs surrendered to the constabulary officer. Returned to Jolo the night of 
the 4th. 

Fifth, left for a cruise, touching at Bongao and Sitanki. 

Sixth, seized a Moro vinta in Tataan Pass and turned her over to collector of Bongao. 
The crew escaped ashore. At Sitanki a thorough search was made for contraband, but 
nothing was found; then cruised on the coast of Borneo as far as Tawao. Here we find 
that considerable trade is done with the Moros, there being three sapits in port at this time. 
Touched at Simpoma on the 10th, then proceeded to Jolo via Bongao and south side of 
Tawi-Tawi. S:'nt party to search town of Lataan, but nothing found. All the people hero 
anned themselves and nid in the bmsh. Soldiers from Bongao were fired on at this place 
last month. 

Thirteenth, stopped at South Ubian. Here a sapit was found that had just unloaded 
contraband cargo. The sapit was seized, but the goods had been liidden in the brush and 
could not be found. Towed sapit to Jolo, arriving on the 14th. This sapit has since been 
fitted up to work in conjunction with the ship. 

Eighteenth, coaled ship at Jolo and sailed for vicinity of Bongao, and on the 19th seized 
a Moro sapit with a load of dutiable goods. This boat was headed for Siminoor Island, 
while two others were entering Bongao with small Quantities of rice. All the boats belonged 
to the same parties, and the goods nad been transferred at sea. In this manner the Moros 
avoid the payment of the greater part of customs duties, and make themselves appear 
honest by calling at Bongao with small cai^oes. Returned to Bongao with sapit and trans- 
ferred her cargo to TaUas; thenproceeded to Sandakan, arriving on the 21st, leaving again 
on the 22d for Cagavan Sulu. While Inspector Shaw and party from the ship were making 
search for smugglea goods landed here on the 20th he was attacked by a Moro with a bolo, 
but was not injured. The Moro was made prisoner and goods taken on TaUas; 24th, while 
armed party from ship was making more seizures they were fired upon by a large party of 
Moros anned with rifles. Three sailors were slightly wounded and ship's boat was riddled 
with bullets. All the men of this place were engaged in this attack and fired some two hun- 
dred rounds at our party, whose retreat was covered by ship's guns. The life of the cus- 
toms agent at Umus was attempted two days previous to this event. 

Arrived at Jolo 25th and left same date with two companies of troops for Cagavan Sulu, 
at request of Governor Scott. When these troops landed they were fired upon by tiie Moros, 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 185 

and an engagement took plaCi-^ in which some 26 Moros were killed and the town of Tanduan 
was burned; 29th, returned to Jolo with the troops. A stay was made here for purpose of 
cleaning the ship's boilers. 

August. — On the 1st coaled ship at Jolo and remained here until the night of the 3d, while 
inspector cleared up his office work at Siaf.i; 4th, proceeded to Zamboanga for the pur- 
po83 of consulting Grovemor Wood regarding the licensing of Moro boats, etc., and returned 
to Jolo on the 6th. 

Saventh, proceeded south, towing a sapit to b? used on the reefs where the cutter can not 
go; 10th, this sapit was Scnt to examine all the south coast of Tawi-Tawi and make such 
s?arche8 as found necessary and meet the ship again at Balimbing. In the meantime ship 
cruised in Sibutu Passage and stopped for examination all Moro boats seen; 15th, landed 
in Balimbing to investigate a smug^lii^g cas?, then proceeded to Siasi and Jolo; 17th, left 
for Cagayan Sulu for the purpose ofbringinfi^ the customs official and some troops back to 
Jolo; 18th, seized one sapit with contraband caivo from Sandakan. The goods and their 
owner transferred to T alias ^ but the sapit had to be abandoned at: sea, as she sprang a leak 
and filled. Arrived at Jolo on.the 19th; 20th, proceeded on cruise to the Sibutu and Alice 
channels; 22d, sent the sapit away to watch for boats on the reef to west of Sibutu, while 
the cutter cruised in Alice channel; 23d, seized one sapit with small amount of goods and 
full load of rattan from Tawao; owing to the rou^h weather she had to be released, with 
orders to enter at Bongao; 25th, proceeded to the islands ^puth of Tawi>Tawi and searched 
Moro boats and Chinese stores at the ditTercnt islands; 27th, anived at Jolo and remained 
there till the 30th, while Inspector Shaw clears up his office work at Siasi. It will be observed 
that six days of this month have been lost that the customs official stationed on Tobias 
might do office work on shore. 

Owing to the unusually severe weather prevailing during this month there appears to 
have been but few Moro boats visiting the coast of Borneo; 30th, proceeded to Zamboanga 
to again consult Governor Wood regarding the work. 

September 1 : Left Zamboanga for soutnern islands via Fouth side of Jolo. Examined 
all Moro boats seen and touched at Siasi on the 3d. Here Inspector Shaw received word 
that he was to be relieved; therefore he had to return to Jolo, that he might make arrange- 
ments for closing his office; 4th, left Jolo for Alice Channel, and remaining in vicinity of 
Meridian Reef stopped all boats for examination; 7th, called at Lahat Datu ; 10th, returned 
to Jolo; 12th to 16th, cruising in Sibutu Passage and vicinity; 16th, proceeded to Zam- 
boanga; 18th, left with members of court of first instance on board for Jolo, Siasi, and 
Boiigao; 21st, at Bongao, where several smuggling cases were disposed of by the court. 
Then proceeded to Cagavan Sulu with Collector Corwine and treasurer of Moro Province 
for the purpose of invest fgating customs affairs of that island and locating site for custom- 
house. Returned to Jolo on tTie 24th. From the 24th to the 27th patrolled waters in the 
vicinity of Borigao, thence to Siasi and took Inspector Shaw's oftico furniture to Jolo. 
Remained in Jolo till end of month. 

In connection with the special duty on which the Tobias has been engaged it is thought 
that some comment on the work and local conditions would not be inexpedient. And to 
this end the following observations are rcspectfullv submitted: 

In dealing with the situation in the district of Jolo it is necessary that a cutter be con- 
stantly in the district. It is imperative that it be stationed in the vicinity of Borigao, that 
the coast of Tawi Tawi and the approaches to the different channels and passages may be 
constantly watched; that this cutter should call Boiigao her headquarters and not be 
required to go to Siasi or Jolo oftener than once each month, or only in case of emergency 
or to take boats or goods there that have been seized; that the sapit already in use and 
one good vinta be constantly used by said cutter as tenders to watch certain channels 
while the cutter patrols the coast of Tawi Tawi and the Sibutu and Alice channels. 

From information gained it is quite certain that about two-thirds of the goods smuggled 
in are passed through the Boiigao Channel and this vicinity, and most of the Chinese tobacco 
comes through there in vintas, and even those boats that enter Bori^ao are known to land 
their dutiable goods in this chaimel until after leaving Boiigao, when it is reshipped and 
taken to its destination. This is done to throw off suspicion and make certain chiefs appear 
honest. Single boats have been known to land nine cases of Chinese tobacco and enter 
Bongao and pay duty on one case only. As a rule each package of the cases entered at 
the custom-house is there stamped. These packages arc kept by the Moros and pro- 
duced when an inspector visits their stores or houses. These boats must be caught on the 
sea, for it is a waste of time to search stores or towns. As soon as Americans are seen 
^proaching all dutiable goods are so securely hidden that it is impossible to find them. 
In most every instance where we have received reliable information of goods being in stores 
or towns it has been removed before we could land. Then, again, to do this it reouires 
that the searching party be armed and of sufficient strength to resist attack, and this keeps 
the natives stirred up and resentful, whereas seizures at sea involve no such disadvantages. 

All the boats coming from Sandakan follow the coast of Borneo as far as Tambisun Island, 



186 KEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

then make the short run across to the Bon{:ao Qiannel or Tataan Pass during the ni^ht, 
and are hidden or have passed all danger of being caught before daylight. The ship nught 
lay ofT these places at night, but every chance is against her being able to catch these small 
boats in the darimess, especiaUv as the cutter is so conspicuous, and they are able to avoid 
her, but, as before stated, with tendeis stationed in these narrow channels there is every 
probability cf catching the smugglers. 

In this and previous reports it will be noticed that the Tabhs has never stopped longer 
than two or three days at a time at the places above mentioned, and therefore ner move- 
ments are well known to the Moros. The customs officials heretofore stationed on the ves- 
sel have deemed it necessary to go to Siasi and Jolo three times or more each month. This, 
perhaps, was necessary in Mr. Shaw's caee, as he had and was responsible for his office at 
Siasi. Nevertheless, several days were lost on each of the^ie occasions, and at such tiroes 
the bulk of the smuggling has been done. I would respectfully suggest that if a cutter 
is to be stationed permanently in these waters the master sliould control every move- 
ment of said cutter and" her tendeis. And if a customs official is to be detailed for duty 
on the cutter he should only attend to the disposal of such boats or goods that are seized, 
or other such duties that are purely in Ids line, and en no account should he require or 
rcQuest that the vessel make long ciuises when no possible ^ood can be derived from so 
domg. I would also suggest that the ports in Borneo be visited as little as pcFsible. 

At this time a great amount of smuggling is being dene and I am certain that this can 
be broken up in a great measui-e by maintaining a strict watch on the places above men- 
tioned and keeping a cutter constantly in the waters adjacent to Botlgao and Sibutu. 

As regards the change in the monsoons,4t makes very little difference, especially to such 
lK)ats as go to Sandakan, as these find fair winds in either monsoon from Ta^n Tawi to 
Sandakan and return. Also in this part of the archipelago the northeast monsoon is oft- 
times variable. 

Very respectfully James Miller, Commanding. 



BEPOBT or BIBBITBSXNO 0F7ICEB, BUBSAU 01 COAST OUABD AUB TBAN8- 

POBTATION. 

Manila, P. I., Jvne SO, 190^, 
Commander J. M. Helm, U. S. Navy, 

Chief of Coast Guard and Transportation, Manila^ P. I. 
Sib: I have the honor to submit the following report of appropriations, expenditures, 
and balances of appropriations for the bureau of coast guard and transportation for the 
fiscal year 1904: 

APPROPRIATIONS. 

Salaries and wages P^76,481.96 

Contingent expeases 7, 000. 00 

light-house service 654, 818. 00 

Construction of vessels '* 2,154,824.00 

Total appropriated 2,893,123.96 

EXPENorrrRES. 

Salaries and wages ^74, 955. 91 

Contingent expenses 6, 488. 00 

Light^house service 444, 026. 95 

Construction of vessels 1,808,244.75 

Total expended 2, 333, 715, 61 

fi This being a permanent appropriation for the construction, armament, and equipment 
of coast-guard cutters, the amount shown here as having been appropriated includes all 
appropriations made for this purpose during the fiscal years 1903 and 1904. 



REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 187 

The appropriation of P"654,818 for the light-house service includes the following: 

Current expenses: 

Salaries and subsistence of officers and crews of light-bouse tenders T'45, 354. 00 

Salaries of light-keepers and assistants 63, 400. 00 

Maintenance and operation of light-house tenders Corregidor and Picket. . 81, 600. 00 
Maintenance and operation of repair shop and storehouse in connection 

with the divbion of light-house construction 6, 000. 00 

Constniction of wharf on Engineer Island 6, 000. 00 

Improvement of existing lights by installation of more powerful lenses ... 14, 000. 00 

Purchase of equipment for machine shop, light-house 2, 000. 00 

Buoyage 27,000.00 

Repairs to existing light stations 30, 000. 00 

Incidental expenses 11,564.00 

Total 286,818.00 

Permanent improvements: 

Construction of Maniguin Island lipht-house 60, 000. 00 

Construction of Capitancillo Island light-house ". 70, 000. 00 

Construction of Bajo Apo Island light-house 42, 000. 00 

Construction of Bagacay Point light-house 60, 000. 00 

Construction of new minor light-houses 136, 000. 00 

Total 368,000.00 

The expenditures for the above purposes during the fiscal year were as follows: 

C\irrent expenses: 

Salaries and subsistence of officers and crews of light-house tenders ^^42, 474. 29 

Salaries of light-keepers and assistants 47, 642. 68 

Maintenance and operation of light-house tenders 68, 726. 20 

Maintenance and operation of repair shop 5, 560. 87 

Construction of wharf on Engineer Island 5, 667. 81 

Improvement of existing lights 417. 10 

Purchase of equipment for machme shop 171. 61 

Buoyage 14,743.74 

Repairs to exisling light stations 30, 641. 77 

Incidental expenses 29,836.29 

Total 245,882.42 

Permanent improvements: 

Construction of Maniguin Island light-house 552. 94 

Construction of Capitancillo Island light-house 53, 340. 68 

Construction of Bajo Apo Island light-house 2, 532. 46 

Construction of Bagacay Point light-house 28, 143. 07 

Construction of new minor light stations 113, 575. 38 

ToUl 198,144.53 

The following shows the balance from the appropriations after the outstanding liabilities 
have been deducted: 

SALARIES AND WACES.^ 

Appropriated ^76,481.96 

Expended 74, 955. 91 

ri,526.05 

CONTINGENT EXPENSES. 

Balance of fund from prior years 1^1 ,000. 87 

Appropriated. .•. 7, 000. 00 

Expended 6,488.00 

n, 512. 87 

Liabilities 706.57 

806.30 

o All liabilities against this appropriation were settled June 30, 1904. 



188 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



UOIIT-UOUSE SERVICE. 

Current expenses: 

Appropriated i^286, 818. 00 

Expended 245,882.42 

Liabilities: 

Salaries of ligtit keepers and assistants 5, 500. 00 

Maintenance and operation of tenders 4, 529. 77 

Maintenance and operation of repair shop 

and storehouse 365. 77 

Construction of wharf on Engineer Island. . 4. 75 

Improvement of existing lights 13, 582. 84 

Purchase of equipment for machine shop. . . 1, 828. 39 

Buoyage. 1 11, 764. 30 

Repairs to existing light stations 800. 00 

Incidental expenses 150. 00 



Permanent improvements: 

All balances of appropriations for the con- 
struction of new light-nouses are carried as liabil- 
ities against said appropriations, as the con- 
struction work has not 3'ct been completed. 



r 40, 935. 58 



88,525.82 



1^2,409.76 



CONSTRrCTION OF VESSELS. 



Appropriated 2, 154, 824. 00 

Expended n, 808, 244. 75 

Amount turned back into the general fund, 

same l)eing no longer required 272, 000. 00 

2,080,244.75 



Balance 

Outstanding liabilities, including purchase of 
steam launch, guns and ammunition, car- 
bines, revolvers, grapphng irons, megaphones, 
pelorus compasses, etc (estimated) 



74, 579. 25 



74,579.25 



Balance, over and above outstanding liabilities 4,742. 11 

RECAPITULATION, 
f Philippine currcncy.l 



Purpose. 


Appropriated. 

■ 


Expenditures. 
1*74,955.91 


Refunded. 


Liability. 


palanee. 


Salaries and wascs 


1 1*76,481.96 

7,000.00 

6M.818.00 

2,154,824.00 

2,893,123.96 


1*1,. 526 05 


Tontingent expenses 


6,488.00 
444,026.95 




1^706.57 

208,381.29 

74,579.75 


806. .10 


Light-house service 





2,409.76 


Construction of vessels 


1,808,244.75 r272,000.00 








Total 


2,333,715.61 1 272,000.00 


283,667.41 


4,742.11 



Respectfully submitted. 



Paul A. Weems, 
Disbursing Officer ^ Bureau of Coast Guard and Transportation. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 189 

REPORT OF TEE FATMA8TER. 

Manila, P. I., August SI, 1904. 
The Chief of Bureau of Coast Guard and Transportation, 

♦ Manila, P. I. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith a financial statement of the appropriations 
and expenditures of this bureau for the fiscal year 190.5, commencing July 1, 1804, and 
ending August 31, 1904: 

cutters and launches. 

Appropriated Act 1225 PI, 140,000.00 

Disbursements 1^71 , 242. 66 

Supplies insular purchasing agent 12, 449. 82 

Coal, insular purchasing agent 27, 653. 35 

Liabilities 58,018.10 

169, 363. 93 

Balance 970,636.07 

LIGHT-HOUSE SERVICE. 

Maintenance : * 

Appropriated Act 1225 1^380,000.00 

Disbursements P'11,454. 97 

Supplies, insular purchasing agent 8, 365. 34 

Liabilities 16,508.67 

36, 328. 98 

Balance 343,671.02 

Construction : 

Balance June 30, 1904 169, 855. 47 

Disbursements 5, 627. 41 

Supplies, insular purchasing agent 9, 728. 87 

Liabilities 43,671.18 

59, 027. 46 

Balance 110,828.01 

SALARIES and WAGES. ' 

Appropriated Act 1225 ^"80,000.00 

Disbursements P12,617.39 

Liabilities 532. 00 

13, 149. 39 

Balance 66,&50.61 

CONTINGENT EXPENSES. 

Appropriated Act 1225 ^6, 400. 00 

Disbursements ^"217. 94 

Supplies, insular purchasing agent 530. 00 

liabilities 131.03 

879. 17 

Balance 5,520.83 

MARINE RAILWAY. 

Balance June 30, 1904 r61,425.50 

Disbursements r54,700.46 

liabilities 28,137.96 

82, 838. 42 

Deficiency -. 21,412.92 

Veiy respectfully, 

H, B. Hatfield, Paymaster, 



190 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

July 26, 1904. 
The Chief of Bureau of Coast Guard and Transportation, 

Manila. 
Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith a report showing the financial operations of 
the division of vcsseb for the fiscal year 1904 : 

CUTTERS and LAUNCHES. 

Dr. 

Appropriated Act 807 ^470,000.00 

Appropriated Act 1010 98,869.28 

Appropriated Act 1049 670,000.00 

Transferred construction of vessels 13, 234, 28 

Refund sale of rations 600. 84 

Refund repairs Tiay 1 , 802. 68 

Refund outside shopwork 9, 939. 20 

Refund miscellaneous 574. 69 

^1,265,020.97 

Cr. 

Office disbursements 641,520.21 

Purchases, insular purchasing agent 488, 697. 59 

Liabilities, insular purchasing agent , 71 , 205. 39 

Liabilities, miscellaneous 16, 025. 50 

1 , 217, 448. 69 

Balance 47,572.28 

marine railway. 
Dr. 

Appropriated Act 831 .' ^^70,000.00 

Appropriated Act 1114 40,000.00 

^110,000.00 

Cr. 

Marine Railway: 

Office disbursements ^"23, 955. 54 

Purchases, insular purchasing agent 3, 838. 54 

Liabilities 16,947.20 

44,741.28 

Shops: 

Office disbursements 1, 327. 51 

Purchases, insular purchasing agent 19, 452. 91 

20,780.42 

65,521.70 

Balance 44,478.30 

The above figures under cutters and launches include as a liability ^^20,000 for the 
payment of supplies requisitioned for from the insular purchasing agent, but not yet 
delivered. 

Very respectfully, H. B. Hatfield, Pay Officer, 



BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



191 



Pay iahUy Bureau of Coast Guard and TransporicUion. 
CUTTERS. 



Position. 



Captain 

First officer 

Second officer 

Chief engineer 

Assistant engineer 

Two machinists 

Three oilers 

Three firemen 

Th ree coal passers 

One boatswain 

One carpenter 

Three quartermasters 

Two coxswains 

Eight sailors 

One steward 

One first cook 

One second cook 

Two mess boys 



Monthly 
salary. 



11.50. 00 
75.00 
GO. 00 
133.33 
75.00 
35.00 
20.00 
15.00 
11.00 
20.00 

ao.oo 

12.50 
11.00 
10.00 
20.00 
20.00 
12.50 
8.00 



Subsist- 
ence per 
day. 



LAUNCH (TROY). 



10.50 
.50 
.50 
.50 
.50 
.15 
.15 
.15 
.15 
.15 
.15 
.15 
.15 
.15 
.15 
.15 
.15 
.15 





LAUNCHES (SEAGOING). 






Master 




1100.00 


SO 50 


Mate 




50. 00 


.50 


Chief engineer 




90.00 


.50 


One first asslstaiit engineer 




1 35.00 


.15 


One second assistant engineer. . . 




30.00 


.15 


Three firemen 




1 11.00 


.15 


Three Quartermaff tern 




12.50 


. 15 


Six sailors 




10.00 


.15 


One cook 




15. 00 


.15 


One mess boy 




8.00 


.15 









STEAMER (SENTINEL). 






Master 




' $90.00 


10.50 


Chief engineer 




1 75.00 


.50 


One assistant engineer 




1 37.50 


.15 


One mate (pilot) 




25.00 


.15 


Two firemen 




15.00 


.15 


One quartermaster 




12.50 


.15 


Two sailors 




i 10.00 


.15 


One cook 




. 1 12.50 


.15 


One boy 




1 5.00 


.15 







Master 

One patron 

One chief engineer 

One assistant engineer 

Two firemen 

Two quartermasters . . 

Five sailors 

One cook , 



190.00 


SO. 50 


40.00 


.15 


35.00 


.15 


30.00 


.15 


11.00 


.15 


12.50 


.15 


10.00 


.15 


12.50 


.15 



LAUNCHES (BAY). 



One patron, first class 

Two patrons, second class . . 
Three patrons, third class. . 

Firemen 

One engineer, first class 

Two engineers, second class 
Three engineers, third class. 

One quartermaster 

Sixteen sailors 



$50.00 
40.00 
25.00 
20.00 
40.00 
30.00 
25.00 
12.50 
10.00 



Respectfully submitted. 



H. B. Hatfield, Pay Officer, 



ANNVAL BSPORT BITBEAIJ OF ENOINEERINO, FISCAL YEAR 1904. 

The Ski RKTARY OK Commerce and Police, 

Manila, P. L 
Sir: 1 hnvc the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the 
iM>orHtions of tlie bureau of engineering for the fiscal year ending 
>luno:UK 1004: 

ROAD CONSTRUCTION. 

Koquosts from the provinces for insular assistance in improving 
existing highways and in constructing new ones have been numerous. 
Those romiests have been accompanied by recommendations from 
various officials pointing out the importance of improved highwavs 
(l) to the provincial officials in making their official trips, (2) in the 
operations of the constabulary, (3) in the extension of mail routes, 
(4) and, more particularly, in the development of fertile agricultural 
regions by reducing the cost of transportation of products, the price 
of which at the market centers has oeen high during the period of 
impassable roads, when the cost of transporting same to the markets 
lias been practically prohibitive. The principal work of the bureau 
during the year has been that of highway construction. 

Attention is invited to the additional value of road construction as 
a means of improvement in the organization of native labor and in 
its increased effectiveness. While difficulties have been encountered 
frequently in maintaining a uniform supply of labor, they are decreas- 
ing. The practice of giving only a few days' service and the unwill- 
ingness to labor in adjacent barrios may be considered as things of 
the past. It appears that considerable confidence in fair treatment 
has been gained; that a knowledge of the use of tools is being acquired, 
and that an application of such knowledge to the development of 
agricultural work is appreciated and utilized, and that the relation of 
manual labor to the development of the individual is gradually attain- 
ing its proper position. While the native still seeks the clerical posi- 
tion at the lesser money value rather than the position of a skilled 
laborer, he is by degrees acquiring a conception of the dignity of labor. 
The principal difficulty in securing satisfactory efficiency in the native 
laborers is the scarcity of competent foremen acquainted with local 
conditions and native characteristics. 

The money expended on road work has perhaps a more far-reaching 
influence on the inhabitants than that expended through any other 
channel. It is more uniformly distributed among the people, it dis- 
seminates a broader knowledge of modern methods of work, it brings 
the American and the native into closer relationship and into a better 
understanding of each other. It is anticipated that this knowledge 
of tools and methods will be applied in the agricultural regions and 
will lead to an increased demand for American machinery and tools. 

192 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 193 

The aggregate amount appropriated from insular funds for road 
construction was f*^l,335,600, or which ^494,227. 31 were expended 
during the fiscal year. This money has been distributed through 1 1 
provinces. The total number of natives receiving employment on 
road work is estimated at 80,000. 

A brief description of the roads under prosecution and for the con- 
struction of which the Commission has appropriated insular funds 
follows : 

Vigan-Bangued roady provinces of Ahra and Ilocos Sur, — A general 
description of this project is given on page 214, of part 3, Report of 
the Commission for 1903. Act 920, providing ^80,000 from the 
Congressional relief fund for the construction of this road, was passed 
October 3, 1903. The appropriation was practically expended during 
the fiscal year and work abandoned in the month of June on account 
of lack of necessary funds for the completion of bridges. An addi- 
tional appropriation of ^14,700 was provided for by Act 1192, dated 
July 15, 1904, and the necessary bridges between San Quentin and 
Bangued are now in process of construction. 

The road is practically completed to San Quentin. The major 
portion of the work consists of neavy rock and side-hiJl work in the 
vicinity of the Gap, about 6 miles below San Quentin. The old mil- 
itary road leading from the Gap to Vigan was repaired for a distance 
of about 3.5 miles to the barrio San JuUan. This portion of repair 
work the province had previously pledged itself to undertake. Work 
remaining to be done consists of the repair and construction of 22 
bridges and culverts between San Quentin and Bangued. It is esti- 
mated that this work will be completed during the month of 
November. 

The Abra River now forms the only outlet for Abra. It can be 
used only by rafts, and during much of the rainy season its navigation 
is difficult and dangerous and frequently impossible. 

The completion of this road will afford increased interprovincial 
communication between Abra and Ilocos Sur; it will provide an outlet 
to the coast for Abra Province at all seasons of the year, and will 
materially cheapen the transportation to the markets of agricultural 
products and timber, in which Abra Province is rich. Its use will 
materially decrease the cost of transporting supplies into Abra 
Province. 

Mr. E. S. Wheeler has been in charge of this road as superintendent 
since construction commenced. The maximum number of laborers 
employed was about 700. 

Money statement. 

Amount appropriated, Act 020, October 3, 1903 F80, 000. OQ 

Amount expended to June 30, 1904 79,877.22 

Balance available July 1, 1904 122.78 

Ca'pas-(f Donnell-Iha road, provinces of Tarlac and Zamhales. — 
Mention was made of the field work in progress on the Iba-O^Donnell 
survey on page 214 of the Annual Report of the Commission for 1903, 

Eart 3. During the southwest monsoons the exposed coast of Zam- 
ales is rendered difficult and dangerous for transportation by water. 
The construction of this road provides an outlet for the southerly 
portion of Zambales Province overland from Iba to Capas (on the 
WAR 1904— VOL 13 13 



194 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Manila and Dagupan Railway) , a distance of about 50 miles. Adja- 
cent to the termini of this road the population is fairly dense; the 
intermediate portion is sparsely settled. 

Location over the Cordillera de Cabusilan is somewhat difficult, and 
will represent the most expensive portion of the road. The maximum 
elevation is about 1,500 leet. A substantial road is under construc- 
tion, and at the end of the fiscal year was opened up for a distance of 
about 20 miles. The road is provided with a rock orusher and a 10- ton 
steam roller, and the linishea road will be durable and well surfaced. 
The road opens up several square miles of fertile territory on the east- 
erly side or the moim tains, and considerable valuable timber will be 
available in the mountain regions. 

Construction was provided for by Act 1016, under date of Novem- 
ber 30, 1903, appropriating for this purpose the sum of ^360,000 
from the Congressional rehef fund. Construction was commenced 
January 1, 1904. It is anticipated that no additional appropriations 
will be needed for the completion of this road in a substantial and 
durable manner. 

Mr. E. A. Keys, assistant engineer, who made the survey of this 
road, was the superintendent from the beginning of construction to 
the 10th of August, on which date he resigned, and was succeeded by 
Mr. H. Thurber, then supervisor of Bulacan. Maximum number of 
laborers on this road was about 550. 

Money statement. 

Amount appropriated, Act 1016, November 30, 1903 F360, 000. 00 

Amount expended to June 30, 1904 76,928.73 

Balance avoUablo July 1, 1904 283,071.27 

Pa^bilao-Atimonan road, Tayahas Province, — This road forms the 
principal link in the highway connecting the Pacific Ocean (Lamon 
bay) with the China Sea, by way of Lucena, the provincial capital. 
It will materially reduce the expense of transportation of products 
from the Pacific coast to the markets. This coast is difficult and 
dangerous during the prevalence of the northwest monsoons and the 
present route of transportation is by water around the southeastern 
portion of the island of Luzon through the San Bernardino Straits. 

The length of road is about 21 miles; from Pagbilao to Lucena ia 
about 7 miles. Upon completion the at present almost inaccessible 
portions of the province will be within comparatively easy reach of 
the capital. The most difficult portion of this road is over the moun- 
tainous section, a distance of about 4 miles, in which portion heavy 
grades are encountered and the construction is expensive on account 
of heavy sidehill and rock work. The maximum elevation of the 
road is about 750 feet. 

Surveys were authorized October 2, 1902, and were made by Mr. 
J. G. Vogelge>sang, assistant engineer, who commenced ^eld work 
August 11, 1903, and submitted final reports under date of November 
10, 1903. The cost of surveys was 1P2,837.44. 

Act 1015, dated November 30, 1903, provides ^174,000 from the 
Congressional relief fund for the construction of this road. Con- 
struction was commenced January 1, 1904, Mr. Vogelgesang having 
been appointed superintendent. This position was held by him 
until August 4, when he was fatally injured while in the discharge 



BEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE! COMMISSION. 195 

of his duties. He was succeeded by Mr. J. R. Miner, chief clerk, 
who had assisted in the surveys and who had been on the construc- 
tion from its beginning. At the end of the fiscal year the construction 
was about one-half completed. The maximum number of laborers 
employed was about 1,200. 

Mtmey gtatemenf. 

Amount appropriated, Act 1015, November 30, 1903 1^174, 000. 00 

Amount expended to June 30, 1904 99,224.20 

Balance arailable July 1, 1904 74,775.80 

Pasacao-Nueva Caceres road, Ambos Camarines Province. — This 
road extends from Nueva Caceres, the provincial capital, to Pasacao, 
its seaport, and consists principally of repair work. The total length 
of road is 18 miles; it includes 46 bridges, aggregating 1,404 linear 
feet. One of the main objects of this road construction was to relieve 
distress existing in the province. Available provincial funds did not 
permit incurring this expenditure. Its construction was provided 
tor by Act 918, under date of October 2, 1903, appropriating ^50,000 
for the work. The construction was conxmencea under the direction 
of the provincial supervisor, Mr. E. P. Shuman, February 1, 1904. 
At the end of the fiscal year about 70 per cent of the construction 
was completed. The maximum number of laborers employed on 
this work was about 800. 

This construction work hits materially assisted in relieving the 
distress which existed in the province, and considerable hemp land 
has been opened up in the vicinity of the road since it began. Its 
completion wiU be of material value in connecting the provincial 
capital with its seaport. 

It is anticipated that the construction can not be completed within 
the appropriated amount, but the provincial funds will permit the 
completion without further request for assistance from the insular 
government. 

Money gtatement. 

Amount appropriated, Act 918, October 2, 1903 i'-SOjOOO.OO 

Amount expended to June 30, 1904 49,333.12 

Balance available July 1, 1904 -. ... 666.88 

Lucena-Sariaya road, Tayahas Province. — The main object in the 
construction of this road was to increase interprovincial communica- 
tion and to decrease the cost of transportation from the westerly part 
of the province to the capital and to the market. 

Its length is about 6 miles and it follows the right of way of an old 
trail. The region is practically level, except the approaches to the 
ford near Lucena, and the road passes through a fertile agricultural 
area. 

An examination of this road was made in December, 1903, by 
J. G. Vogelgesang, assistant engineer, under authorization dated 
September 21, 1903. 

Act 1073, under date of March 3, 1904, provides for the construc- 
tion of this road by an appropriation or 1?39,000 from the Con- 
gressional relief fund, whicn includes the construction of a bridge 
at Sariaya and at Candelaria. Construction was commenced May 
2, 1904. 



196 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

During the fiscal year the road was entirely cleared, and 65 per 
cent of ditching and grading and 40 per cent of the surfacing was 
completed. 

The special advantages to be derived from the construction of 
this roaa are (1) it facilitates communication between the western 

f)ortions of the province and the capital, and (2) it is the connecting 
ink between the Pagbilao-Atimonan road and the Bay-Tiaong road 
leading tlirough the province of Laguna to the port at Bay. 

Attention is also invited to the fact that this latter road connects 
with Calamba, by means of the Calamba-Los Bailos-Bay road now 
under construction, and that a good road connects Calamba with 
Batangas. The completion of these related projects will serve for 
a considerable perioa the greater areas of the provinces of Laguna, 
Batangas, and Tayabas. 

Mr. H. C. Humphrey,. provincial supervisor of Tayabas, has been 
in charge of this construction. The maximum number of laborers 
employed is about 250. 

Money statement. 

Amount appropriated, Act 1073, March 3, 1904 r39, 000. 00 

Expended to June 30, 1904 8,420.085 

Balance available July 1 , 1904 30, 579. 915 

Bay-Tiaong roady provinces of Laguna and Tayabas. — Tliis road is 
of an interprovincial nature, connecting the northwesterly portion 
of Tayabas Province through Laguna Province to the port of Laguna 
de Bay. It is essentially the repair of an existing road, and aids in 
alleviating a condition of distress and famine existing tlirough this 
locality. The region traversed is fertile and the cost of transportation 
of agricultural products to the market will be materially decreased. 

Tne northerly portion of the road consists of heavy lowland work 
through rice padxlies; the southerly portion is on ground of more 
suitaWe material. The roadbed is constructed with a surfaced mate- 
rial 12 feet wide, and with the exception of a 9 per cent grade for a 
short distance is practically level. 

The construction of this road was provided for by Act 1073, dated 
March 3, 1904, appropriating ^144,600 from the Congressional relief 
fund for the purpose specified. 

Construction commenced March 25, 1904, under the direction of 
the provincial supervisor of Laguna, Mr. D. A. Sherfey. The work 
was fairly under way at the end of the fiscal year anci was employ- 
Jng a force of about 300 laborers. Notwithstanding the local condi- 
tions of distress, 50 per cent of the laborers on this road are recruited 
from outside the province. 

Money statement. 

Amount appropriated, Act 1073, March 3, 1901 1^144, 600. 00 

Expended to June 30, 1904 12,495.27 

Balance available July 1, 1904 132,104.73 

Calamha-Los BaTios-Bay road, Laguna Provin<^e. — The Calamba- 
Bay road is of si)ecial importance for securing forage and for opera- 
tions from the militarv post at Los Banos, connecting the same with 
Calamba and the highway leading southerly to Batangas and with 
Bay and the highway therefrom leading southerly to Lucena. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION, 197 

Its length is about 11.5 miles through low ground for the greater 
portion of the distance. It forms an important link of a coastal 
road around the southerly coast of Laguna de Bay. 

Its construction was provided for by an appropriation of 1^34,000, 
Act 1074, enacted under date of March 3, 1904, from the Congres- 
sional relief fund. 

The superintendency of this road' is in charge of Mr. Charles O. 
Thomas, first lieutenant, First Cavalry, United States Army, con- 
structing quartermaster of the army post at Los Banos. — 

The appropriation provided for is not sufficient for the construction 
of road work. However, it is estimated that no additional appro- 
priation will be needed on account of the large amount of transpor- 
tation and equipments that are available to the superintendent from 
military resources. 

In general, transportation is now so scarce and expensive that 
effective road work m manv localities is almost prohibited. In case 
the transportation available at many of the military posts can be 
utilized on road construction, in accordance with provisions similar 
to those of Act 1074, several roads of importance to both the civil 
and military authorities may Iijb prosecuted with small cost to the 
former and without additional expense to the latter. 

Money statement. 

Amount appropriated Act 1074, March 3, 1904 ^34,000.00 

Expended to June 30, 1904 2,68G.90 

Balance available July 1, 1904 31,313.10 

Carcar-Barili roadj Sogod-Putad roddj Province of Cebu, — Tb.ese 
roads are in the south central and northerly portion of the island of 
Cebu, respectively, and were provided for by Act No. 1000, under 
date of November 20, 1903, by an appropriation of ^56,000 from 
the Congressional relief fund for the Carcar-Barili road, and ^P178,00b 
from the same fund for the Sogod-Putad road. 

Surveys of these loads were authorized June 15, 1903, and were 
completed October 10, 1903, by Mr. W. G. Hunter, assistant engineer. 
The cost of the surveys for the two roads was ^1,154.88. 

The Carcar-Barili road extends from Carcar on the easterly coast 
of Cebu, westerljr^or a distance of 12.25 miles, over the Cordillera 
Central to Barili on the western coast of Cebu. The principal 
object in the construction of this road is to facilitate communication 
between the westerly coast of Cebu and the capital, to reduce the 
cost of transportation of supplies to market, and to aid the move- 
ments of the constabulary. — 

Consti'uction of this road was commenced January 18, 1904, under 
the direction of the supervisor, Mr. H. C. De Lano. 

The maximum number of laborers employed was about 1,150. It 
is proposed to use tlie equipment purchased for this road for the 
construction of the Sogod-Putad road. 

The road, excluding bridges, of which 50 per cent remain to be 
built, was practically completed at the end of the fiscal year. A 
percentage of the cost of equipment will be chargeable against the 
Sogod-Putad road, and no further appropriation for the completion 
of this work will be necessary. 



198 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Money staiemeni. 

Amount appropriated Act 1000, November 20, 1903 ^56,000.00 

Expended to June 30, 1904 52,136.67 

Balance available July 1, 1904 3,863.33 

No construction work had been commenced at the end of the 
fiscal year on the Sogod-Putad road. This road begins at Sogod on 
the easterly coast of Cebu, and extends westerly for a distance of 
16.3 miles to Putad on the westerly coast. The reasons for con- 
structing this road are similar to those necessitating the construction 
of the Carcar-Barili road. 

Plans for early conunencement of this work are under discussion. 
The construction of these two roads, in connection with the coastal 
roads of Cebu will place remote portions of the province in much 
closer communication with the provincial capital. 

Money statement. 

Amount appropriated Act 1000, November 20, 1903 1* 178, 000. 00 

Expended to June 30, 19(M 4,534.64 

Balance available July 1,1904 173,465.36 

BaconSorsogon-Gubat-Bulusan road, Sorsogon Province, — ^The 
construction of this road was provided for by Act 920, under date 
of October 3, 1903, appropriating the sum of ^80,000 therefor from 
the Congressional relier fund. 

. The total length of this road is about 33 miles, connecting Bacon 
on the Pacific Ocean with Sorsogon on the China Sea, thence to Gubat 
on the Pacific, and thence southerly along the Pacific coast on the 
easterly side of the province to Bulusan. Construction began 
December 1, 1903. 

This road traverses some of the principal hemp regions of Sorsogon, 
and its completion will be of great value in reducing the expenses- 
of transporting products to market, in facilitating the movements 
of officials, and in the development of the province. The roadway 
passes through level country for the greater distance, a maximum 
grade of 5 per cent being encountered for a short distance. 

The superintendency of this road was divided between the military 
and civil authorities, Capt. A. C. Dalton, Twenty-sixth Infantry, 
constructing quartermaster of the military post at Bacon, having 
charge of the Bacon-Sorsogon portion, and having built about two- 
thiras of this portion, or a distance of 4 miles, at a cost of ^3,571.53. 
The low expense for the construction on this section was due to the 
fact that Captain Dalton had control of military equipment and 
transportation, thereby greatly reducing its cost. 

The remaining portion of the road was under the charge of the 
provincial supervisor, Mr. H. L. Stevens, and at the end of the 
fiscal year was practically completed. 

The Gubat-Bulusan portion of this road furnishes the only means 
of marketing the hemp and other products. 

Telephone poles for the use of the constabulary have been erected 
along tne entire length of the road. 

The supervisor reports tangible signs already of the beneficial 
effects of this work, several farms having been opened up while the 



KEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 199 

road was in process of construction, and several houses having been 
erected. 

The maximum number of laborers employed on this road was 
about 350. 

Five steel bridges, which still remain to be erected, have been 
requisitioned for; the sum of ^20,000 remains available for these 
bridges. While the original appropriation will not furnish sufficient 
funds for the completion of this entire project, no additional appro- 
priations will be necessary, the financial condition of the provmce 
permitting the completion of the work without further assistance. 

Money statement. 

Amount appropriated Act 920, October 3, 1903 T^80,000.00 

Expended to June 30, 1904 59,455.79 

Balance available July 1, 1904 20,544.21 

Pcdre Juan ViUaverde. TraU, provinces of Pangaainan and Nueva 
Fi^caya.-— Surveys for this trail were authorized under date of June 
6, 1903. Various investigations made by the provincial supervisor 
of Nueva Vizcaya and by constabulary officers estimated the cost 
of this trail at about =3P6,000. 

. Act 920, under date of October 3, 1903, provided ¥^8,000 for the 
construction and repair of tliis trail, which forms practically the only 
outlet for the province of Nueva Vizcaya. Starting from Bayombong, 
the capital of Nueva Vizcaya, it crosses the mountains range and 
terminates at San Nicolas in Pangasinan, connecting there with 
the provincial road from San Nicolas to Bautista and from San 
Nicolas to Dagupan. The total length of the trail from Bayombong 
to San Nicolas is 62 miles. Construction work commenced Novem- 
ber 16, 1903, under the superintendency of Mr. L. W. Wilson. The 
work involved was found to be much larger than previously estimated, 
and a closer survey of this road by Mr. L. E. Bennett, ex-governor 
of the province, gave an estimated cost for the entire project of 
^70,000. Additional appropriation, amounting to ^62,000, was 

Erovided for by Act 1083, under date of March 10, 1904, and Mr. 
iennett, as superintendent, began construction work March 28. 
This trail is constructed for pack trains only; it has a width of 2 
meters with occasional turn-outs. Through the mountain region over 
a distance of 20 miles it is difficult side-hill work. The trades in 
general are fair for a trail, and follow quite closely the original location 
reported to have been made by Padre Juan Villavcrde. The trail for 
a considerable portion in the mountain region passes through unin- 
habited regions. The maintenance of this trail will be a somewhat 
serious problem, and should receive careful attention, particularly for 
the first two or three years. The present plan is to establish main- 
tenance gangs for each section of about 10 miles of trail, some member 
of the gang dailv to inspect the trail during the rainy season and see 
that slides or other obstructions are quickly removed. 

The work is practically^ completed at tne end of the fiscal year. 
The maximum number of laborers on this work was about 1,300. 
The labor has been largely recruited from the Igorrotes inhabiting the 
province of Nueva Vizcaya. 



200 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Money Statement. 

Amounts appropriated: 

Act 920, October 3, 1903 P-g.OOO.OO 

Act 1083, March 10, 1904 62,000.00 

70,000.00 
Expended to June 30, 1904 49,134.69 

Balance available July 1, 1904 20,865.31 

Magdalena-Santa Cruz road, Laguna Province, — This road forms a 
portion of an interprovincial road connecting the provinces of Laguna 
and Tayabas by way of Luisiana and Lucban. Location of the road 
from Magdalena to Lucban is under investigation. The completion 
of this road will open up the fertile territory southeast of Laguna de 
Bay and furnish facilities for reducing the expenses of transporting 
products to the markets. 

Act No. 1073, dated March 3, 1904, provides ^70,000 for the con- 
struction of this road. Its length is 4.5 miles through low ground. 
Heavy embankment work with durable surfacing will be required. 

Mr. Sherfey, provincial supervisor of Laguna, and superintendent 
of the feay-Tiaong road is also in charge of this construction, work 
on which will be begun as soon as opportunity is afforded. 

The following tabulation gives a summary of the above-described 
projects under process of construction by the bureau of engineering: 



s 



F 
a 

f: 

o 

I 
P 

si 
E 



o: 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



201 



5 



I 



§ 

I 



1 







202 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

ROADS SURVEYED AND CONSTRUCTION RECOMMENDED, BUT NOT 

AUTHORIZED. 

Ahuyoq-Bavbayy Leyie Province, — Surveys of this road were author- 
ized un^er date of December 20, 1902, and were completed by- 
Mr. W. W. Coleman, assistant engineer, in March, 1904. The pro- 
posed road, 32 miles in length, will cross the south central portion of 
the island of Leyte from Abuyog on the easterly coast, to Baybay on 
the westerly coast. The region traversed is fertile and thickly set- 
tled. The province proposes to complete the construction of the 
coastal road from Taclooan south to Abuyog, to repair the coastal 
road on the western part of the island, and by the construction 
of this projected road to render the westerly coast of the island more 
accessible to the provincial capital. 

The advantages of this roaa in the development of the resources of 
the island are large. At present the only means of communicating 
with the western coast of tne island is by vessel. The estimated cost 
of this road is ^290,000. Provincial funds will be exhausted in the 
repair and construction of roads immediately necessary. 

This project was favorably recommended July 18, 1904, and is now 
before tne Commission for action. 

lAgao to Tahaco and Guinohatan via JoveUar, Alhay Province. — 
The principal road of this province leads from Leeaspi, the seaport of 
Albay, northwesterly through the central part of tne province by way 
of Camilig, Guinobatan, Ligao, and Libong. The Ligao-Tabaco road 
connects this road from Ligao, through the north central portion of 
the province, with Tabaco, a port on the easterly coast reported to be 
the oest natural port existing in this province, and it passes through 
the rich hemp regions of the province. Its length is 17 miles. 

The Guinooatan-Jovellar road extends from Guinobatan, located 
on the principal road of the province southerly to Jovellar, a distance 
of 9.75 miles, tlu-ough a thicKly populated and fertile region. These 
roads are regarded as of large importance in the transportation of 
hemp to the seaports, in the development of the province, and in the 
suppression of lawlessness. Numerous petitions for their construction 
have been made by the inhabitants. Provincial revenues do not 
permit this expenditure. 

Estimated cost of these two roads is ^230,000. The proposition 
was submitted with favorable recommendations, but action has been 
deferred by resolution of the Commission under date of ^lay 11,1904. 

CamiUng to Paniquij TarJac Province, — ^This road is located in the 
northern part of the province, and connects San Miguel de Camiling 
with Paniqui, a station on the railroad. Surveys were authorizea 
January 11, 1904, and completed February 24, 1904. The length of 
the roacl is 12 miles, 2 miles of which are in good condition, the remain- 
ing distance requiring thorough repairs. 

The road is the only outlet for the northern portion of the province 
to the railroad, and is of considerable importance in reducing expenses 
of transportation in the province. The region traversed produces 
large quantities of rice. The importance or the road is both local 
and provincial, but the revenues of the province do not permit 
undertaking this work. The report 'on this road recommending an 
appropriation of 1*52,800 was submitted March 11. Action on the 
same was deferred by resolution of the Commission May 11, 1904. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



203 



Solaruh-Banaue traUy province of Nueva Vizcaya. — Surveys of 
these trails were authorized February 24, 1904, and were made by 
L. E. Bennett, assistant engineer, and practically finished within the 
fiscal year. These trails lead from Bayombong northerly by way of 
Solano, Bagabag, Payauan, Pindungan, and Banaue to Ambuyuan 
in the provmce of Lepanto-Bontoc, a distance of 55.5 miles. Addi- 
tional trails connecting therewith and leading to Ouingan, to Alimit, 
and to Sapao increase the distance to a total of 83.3 miles. The 
proposition is to build a trail 2 meters in width with occasional 
turn-outs. The project is of importance in the control of this region 
in the movements of the constabulary and provincial officials, in the 
transportation of supplies, mail, etc. This construction would be 
of lar^e value in brmging adjacent barrios and' municipalities of 
both the civilized and uncivilized inhabitants into closer communi- 
cation with one another. It traverses f ertUe regions for a considerable 
portion of its length, and passes through remarkable irrigating 
works constructed by the Igorrotes, and is of interprovincial impor- 
tance. 

The estimated cost for the 83.3 miles of trail is =P60,000. The 
project is before the Commission awaiting action. 

Votta-Barra road,, Tayabds Province, — The purpose of this project 
is principally for the development of the port of Luccna, and includes 
the construction of a small landing wnarf. The location of the 
port is exposed; boats necessarily anchor some distance out, on 
account of the bar at the mouth of the river, and lighterage will be 
necessary, regardless of the proposed improvements. The highway 
from Lucena to Cotta, the present port, is of substantial construc- 
tion. The distance from Cotta to Barra is about 3 miles tlu-ough 
low land and sparsely populated territory. The construction of the 
road would be expensive, and its advantages would consist princi- 
pally in the reduction of lighterage from a distance of about 4 miles 
at present to a distance of about 1 mile. 

The estimated cost, including a bridge at Cotta and a small dock 
at Barra, is ^24,000. Provision for this construction was deferred 
by the Commission under date of May 20, 1904. 

The following tabulation shows the total length and estimated 
cost of these six roads: 



Length and eatimated cost of roads. 



Termini. 



Province. 



Length. Eatlmatl 



Abuyoff-Baybay . 



Ligab-Tobabo. 
GulDobatan-Jovellar . 
Camlllng-Paniqui . 

Solano-Banaue 

Cotta- Barra 



Leyte 

Albay 

do 

Tarlac 

Nueva Vizcaya. 
Tayabas 



Total. 



UUes. 
32.00 
17.00 

9.75 
12.00 
83.30 

3.00 

157.05 



l'-290,000 

230,000 

52,800 
60,000 
24,000 

656,800 



204 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



The following tabulation shows the location and approximate 
length of roads surveys of which have been authorized and are in 
progress : 

Road surveys authorized and in progrtse. 



Termini. 



Various 

Magdalemi-Lucban 

San Juan de (Juimba-X ictoria, 
Tarlao. 

Various ^ 

Cal)anatuan-('uyai)o 

San JoR^ (Ic Bucnavista-lloilo. . 

Capiz-Iloilo 

Balanaoan-Boac 



via 



l^oboc-Ubay 

Subic Bay Dinalupihan 

San Femando-Dinalupihan. . . 

Angelea-Dinalupihan 

Vailc Ilcnnosa-La Caatellana. 



Ouinigaran-La rnstcllana . . 
San Enrique- La Castellana. 



Provinces. 



Ilocos Norte 
Laguna, Tayabas 



Date of au- \ , «„w»h 



thorizatlon. 



Mar. 12,1904 
Jan. 23,1C03 



Nueva Kclja, Tarlac Sept. 1,1903 

....do 

Nov. 7,1903 
Nov. 17,1903 
Dec. 2, 1903 
Nov. 30, 1903 
Mar. 10,1904 



do 

Nueva Ecija 

Antique. Capiz 

("apix, Iloilo 

Tayabas 

Bohol 

Bataan 

Bataan . Pampanga 

do 

Oriental Negros and Occidental Ne- 
gros. 

Occidental Ncgros 

do 



Mar. 29,1904 



Nov. 10,1903 



Uilet. 



25 
15 
18 

25 
31 
66 
82 
9 
50 
14 
20 
22 
20 

18 
16 



HIOHWAY BRIDGES NOT INCLUDED IN OTHES ROAD PROJECTS. 

ParanaauCj Rizal Province. — Authorization of investigation on 
which to uase designs and estimates for a bridge across an estero at 
Paranaque, Rizal Province, is dated December 19, 1902. Tliis 
bridge was built by the military authorities, probably in 1900, and 
consisted of a pile trestle 232 feet long, constructed of native timber. 
It was abandoned early in 1903, the piles having been destroyed by 
the action, of sea worms. A feriy, consisting of three bancas to 
which a platform is attached, was substituted therefor. While the 
site is favorable for the erection of a steel bridge, a protected pile 
trestle bridg:e was designed and recommended for construction on 
account of its suitability, convenience of maintenance, and because 
the first cost, i* 15,000, is about one-half that of a steel structure. 

This project is now before the Commission. 

Bayomhong-Bautista, Pangasinan Province, — Investigations rela- 
tive to this proposed bridge across the Agno River were authorized 
under date of August 28, 1903, and the same were made by Mr. C. F. 
Vance, supervisor. A bridge about 500 feet in length will be required. 
The cost of piers and abutments will be expensive, since soft material 
exists at the site of the proposed bridge to a depth of about 40 feet. 
On this account the cost of a seven-span railroad bridge, 494 feet 
long, near this proposed site, was 1P245,000. 

The conditions* existing are favorable for the consti-uction of a 
cable ferry, estimated cost being 1^5,200, and it was therefore 
recommended to the Commission November 16, 1903. 

Calmay River bridge at Daguvan^ Pangasinan Province, — This 
bridge is one of the two principal bridges in Dagupan. It consists 
of 31 pile bents, spans 20 teet each, and was rebuilt about tliree years 
ago. One span, movable to permit the passage of small steamers 
and lorcha^s, had been closed on account of tlie weakened condition 
of the trestle. Investigations of this structure were authorized 
under date of August 14, and report thereon submitted August 
25, 1903. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 205 

A new structure will soon be necessary, and the construction of a 
steel bridge having a movable span giving a clear channel 25 feet in 
width has been recommended. The provmce is now devising means 
for provicjing funds for the construction of a steel bridge across the 
Calmay River and one across the Pantel River; estimated cost, 
about 1P1 00,000. 

The provincial supervisors are keenly aware of the necessity of 
increased transportation faciUties in the development of the various 
provinces, and that the prosecution of road work is equivalent to 
the establishment of a practical and extensive manual training 
school, resulting in large civilizing influences and in agricultural 
and commercial developments. The estimate has been made that 
oh the average each province would require for a reasonably com- 
plete development of its resources about 400 miles of road, at a cost 
of ^2,000,000 for construction and repair. The desired results may 
be attained in the course of several years by a comprehensive svstem 
outlined for each province, and the work accomplished basea only 
on such a system. 

The provincial law requires that taxes to the amount of one-eighth 
of 1 per cent of the assessed valuation of land shall be collected and 
applied to the construction and repair of roads and bridges. In 
general all of the provinces have also drawn from the general funds 
on account of the present inadequacy of this measure. Unfortu- 
nately the existing conditions require that a large percentage of 
available resources shall be given to minor repairs, making the road 
passable during the dry season, and that this expense must be in- 
curred annually on identical roads, without any permanent repairs 
being accomplished. 

During the past fiscal year, while the revenues of the provinces 
have been light and while the duties of the supervisors have been 
largely in other lines, considerable activity has oeen shown in road 
construction. The aggregate provincial expenditures for the repair- 
ing of roads and bridges, as per the annual reports of the supervisors, 
is ?96 1,327.67, nearly equaling the amount appropriated from 
Congressional reUef funds by the special acts cited. The aggregate 
total mileage of roads constructed and repaired is 1,915.3 miles, of 
which 252.7 miles is new construction. 

It is significant to note that while all of the appropriations for the 
roads previously discussed are from the Congressional relief fund, 
the ffovemment has assisted the provinces from this same fund for a 
similar purpose to the extent of ^537,885.41. In other words, it 
appears that provincial and municipal revenues have furnished only 
^423,442.26 for this important work, and that practically none of 
the insular revenues have been expended for road repair and con- 
struction. 

It is desirable that the progress attained during the past year on 
the improvement of roads should continue for a perioa of at least 
five years, in order that the necessary system of highways required 
by the agricultural interests may be constructed in a fair and rea- 
sonable manner, and that suitable laws providing for the preservation 
of constructions and for the maintenance of highways may be 
enacted. The compilation of such laws is in progress, and will be 
submitted for action in the near future. 



206 



KEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS UNDER CONTRACT. 

Cebu Harbor improvements, — A description of this project appears 
on pages 210-211 of the Report of the Philippine Commission, 1903, 
part 3. 

Advertisement of this contract was made under date of May 1, 
1903, bids to be opened June 15, 1903. Jones & Smith, of Manila, 
P. I., were the only contractors submitting bids on this project. On 
account of irregularity in several items, their bid was rejected and 
the project was readvertised under date of October 1, 1903, bids to 
be oj)ened February 1, 1904. Advertisement was made in the islands 
and in the United States, plans, specifications, and proposals being 
placed on file at the United States engineer offices in New York, 
Chicago, San Francisco, and Portland, and at the Bureau of Insular 
Affairs, Washington, D. C. The opening of bids was postponed from 
February 1 to March 1, and J. G. White & Co., of New York, were the 
only bidders. Contracts were entered into with tliis firm under date 
of March 30, and approved by the civil governor April 5, 1904. 

The contractors requested certain modifications of plans and exten- 
sion of time for beginning work on the project. Supplemental speci- 
fications and contract were signed June 17, 1904, and approved by 
the civil governor. Under this supplemental agreement the esti- 
mated cost of the project is $452,910.07. Additional to this sum, the 
fovernment will be required to furnish to the contractor about 30,000 
arrels of Portland cement. 

The time of beginning work was extended to April 1, 1905, comple- 
tion to be September 1, 1906. The original contract aggregated, as 
per quantities specified, $493,727.07 under proposal '*A," and 
$469,402.21 under proposal ''B," contractor's plant to be transferred 
to the government of the Philippine Islands. 

Quantities and prices contained in the final proposal follow: 



Material. 



Concrete cubic yards. - 

G ravel ftllliiR (as required) '. 

Oregon flr puin^ linear feet. . 

Duiigon piling, including cast-iron caps (as required) 

Oregon fir timber, including bolts, spikes, etc feet B. M. . 

Dungon timber, for fenders and backlogs, including bolts, spikes, 

etc feetB. M.. 

Riprap stone in place (as required) 

Dredfi^g (to be paid for as nil) cubic yards. . 

Iron used in snubbing posts or cavels, in place (as required) 



Grand total. 



Quantity. 

30,e00 
* 123,366' 
* '540,166' 

63,610 
"263,159' 



Unit 
price. 



Amount. 



16.30 $192,780.00 

0.&5 ' 

.90 110,970.00 

62.50 

f75.00. 40,512.00 

<-175.0o! 11,131.75 

a2.S0 

.48 97,516. o2 
rf.lO ' 



452,910.07 



a Per cubic yard. 



h Per linear foot. 



c Per thousand. 



dper pound. 



Iloilo Harbor improvements. — This project is described on page 211, 
Report of the Philippine Commission, 1903, part 3. 

The advertisement for this contract was made coincident with that 
for the Cebu project and similar action was taken thereon. The bids 
were opened March 1, 1904, and contract with J. G. White & Co., of 
New York, was entered into under date of March 30, 1904, and 
approved by the civil governor April 5. The amount of the bid was 
$229,752.50. 

An extension of time in beginning work was requested and ap- 
proved, work to begin January 1, and to be completed November 1, 
1905. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 207 



Material. Quantity. ^J"" Amount. 



Kasdnes, including saplings in place cords . . 

Piling in place linear feet. . 

Stone in place, complete tons. . 

Drodging, including back filling, complete cubic yards. 



Total. 




While the above contracts for Cebu and Iloilo harbor improvements 
are in excess of the appropriations provided for by acts 640 and 641, 
a resolution of the Commission, dated Julv 19, 1904, confirms the 
contracts and states that appropriations will be made when necessary 
to cover the additional expense. 

Temporary timber wharf at CehUj P. I, — The necessity of relieving 
the expensive and congested lighterage condition of this harbor prior 
to the completion of the larger project was met by purchasing the 
Veloso dock and constructing an extension thereto. Authorization 
for an expenditure of $30,000 for this work is dated September 25, 
1903. Aavertisement of this contract was made under date of Octo- 
ber 27, 1903, bids to be opened November 24. The contract was 
awarded to Messrs. Jones & Smith, Manila, whose bid follows: 

4,000 linear feet of piles, at $1 .79 S7, 1 60. 00 

4,000 feet B. M. of waks and horizontal ties, at $1.75 700. 00 

54,000 feet B. M. of caps, braces, and decking, at $95 6,076.00 

l^lOOcubicyardsof embankment, at $2.70 2,970.00 

Total 15,900.00 

Act 1020, dated December 4, 1903, appropriates $20,000 for this 
project. The contract was entered into and approved by the civil 
governor under date of December 29, 1903. The project was to be 
completed on May 1, 1904. On account of difficulty in securing piling 
and other timber, the contractors reauested an extension of sixty 
days in order to complete the work. Tnis request was granted, under 
approval of the civil governor, May 6, 1904. Further extension of 
time for completion of project to July 24 was granted June 28, 1904. 
At the end of the fiscal year the contractors had earned on this proj- 
ect $8,837.70. The work is still under prosecution and it is probable 
that further extension of time will be necessary. 

Repairs to the sea wall at Iloilo, P, /. — The sea wall at Iloilo was 
constructed prior to American occupation. It consists of a thin 
rubble wall resting on a riprap foundation. This foundation failed 
and the wall was ruptured for a length of about 300 feet. 

Repairs were autnorized by resolution oi the Commission under 
date of January 6, 1904. Work was commenced Januaiy 25 and fin- 
ished March 30, 1904, at a cost of ^1,250.50, under the immediate 
direction of Mr. M. W. Tuttle, provincial supervisor. The cost was 
paid out of the regular appropriation for public works, bureau of 
engineering. 

Practically all of the harbors are lacking proper wharfage facilities. 
Vessels necessarily anchor about 1 mile from snore, and lighterage is 
accomplished by cascoes, from which the goods are packed to the 
beach oy men or carabao carts, which are driven as lar as possible 
into the surf. The resulting expense in the discharge or shipment of 
cargoes is large and considerable damage to goods is incurred. 



208 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



The characteristic bar formation at the mouth of the larger rivers 
prevents their utilization by seagoing crafts. The areas served by 
these rivers are comparatively extensive. Tabulations showing the 
principal rivers appear on pages 217-222, part 3, Report of the Phil- 
ippine Commission, 1903. 

While liberal provisions have been made during the past year to 
meet the needs of the ports of Manila, Cebu, and Iloilo, measures to 
provide suitable piers or wharves for the smaller harbors and to 
extend the possibilities of water transportation have been slight. 

An examination of the vessels engaged in coastwise trade shows 
that it is desirable in dredging and pier construction to provide for a 
draft of at least 12 feet, and preferably of 18 feet, while at the more 
important harbors, as Manila, Cebu, and Iloilo, provision must be 
made for the ocean vessels engaged in export trade. 

Additional to the importance of this subject in the development of 
the islands, it is probable that the construction of suitable piers would 
furnish reasonable returns on the money invested, provided equitable 
wharfage fees were collected. 

The saving per ton of cargo shipped or discliarged at a small pier 
instead of by the usual lighterage method is estimated at ^1. In 
general the provincial capital and military post are adjacent to the 
more important harbors. A large proportion of this saving would 
accrue immediately to the government, since a similar proportion of 
the trade is required by the civil and military authorities. 

These piers must be constructed of material capable of resisting the 
attack of the. teredo and other sea worms. A few varieties of native 
timber are satisfactory for such purposes, as well as concrete and iron. 

The following tabulation shows the minor projects on harbor 
improvements, investigations of which have been authorized: 



Location. 



Batangas, Datangas.. 



Luccna, Tayabas. 



Date of au- 
! thorization. 



Proposed con- 
struction. 



Lake Naneuyudan, 
I locos Norte. 



Puerto Priucesa Para- 

gua. 
Pasacao, Ambos Cam- 

arincs. 

Tacloban, Leytc 

Legaspi, Albay... 
Vigan, Ilocos Sur, 



Oct. 10,1903 Pier 



Oct. 2, 1902 



Oct. 27,1902 



Jan. 
Feb. 



6,1904 
9,1903 



I 



Mar. 22,1904 
Mar. 23,1904 
Sept. 22, 1904 



Pier and jetty ... 



Harbor of refuge.. 



Pier 

Jetty 

Pier 

do 

Pier and Jetty 



Remarks. 



Investigation completed and submitted to 
Commission Jan. 10, 1904: estimated 
cost, 1*50,000: action postponed indefi- 
nitely May 4, 1904. 

Investigation completed and submitted to 
Commission Dec. 23, 1904; estimated 
cost ^1,400,000; construction not recom- 
mended. 

Preliminary report submitted July 6, 1904; 
expenses of construction large; not rec- 
ommended; action indefinitely post- 
poned. 

Investigation In progress. 



Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Investigations have been requested, but not authorized, for harbor 
improvements at Tagbilaran, Bohol; Aparri, Cagayan, and at San 
Fernando, La Union. 

Control of the Tarlac and Pampanga Hirers. — The project is briefly 
described on pages 212-213, part 3, Report of the rhiUppine Com- 
mission, 1903. While no comprehensive system of surveys has been 
authorized, data are being collected from various surveys on highways 
by assistant engineers and supervisors. Several gaiiges have been 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 209' 

set, high and low stages of the water are being determined, and data 
on rainfall compiled. The coast and geodetic survey are arranging 
a system of triangulation from Manila Bay to the Gulf of Lingayen, 
which will cover the greater portion of the affected area and reduce 
the cost of the necessary topographical surveys. 
\< Special investigations for the control of tne Tarlac River are in 
progress, which will decrease the high-water stages of the Pampanga 
m case the proposed works are constructed. 

These areas subject to overflow include some of the richest rice 
land in the islands and are thickly populated. The proposed pro- 
tection in connection with a control by the government of the irri- 
fation system^onnected therewith is a problem of large importance. 
t will require extended observation and the collection or reliable 
data before designs and estimates can be completed, and it merits 
insular assistance. 

River encroachments, — Heavy precipitations during the rainy sea- 
son and the steep rocky slopes at the upper portion of practically all 
watersheds cause destructive high-water stages with a swift velocity 
in all of the principal rivers. The typical alluvial formation of the 
lowlands gives a river bank capable of offering but a slight resistance 
to floods, resulting in an encroachment of the river upon the various 
town sites. Several requests have been made by various munici- 

Ealities for the construction of protective works. In general, the 
anks are high and the cost of proposed works is large in comparison 
with the value of property protected. Insular revenues can not 
fulfill all requests presented for protection to private interests^ 
United action by the owners of endangered property to meet the 
necessary expense is not attempted. 

Surveys and investigations on which designs and estimates of cost 
may be based have been authorized for the following: 

Santa, province of Ilocos Sur. — This town is located on the Abra 
River and has a population of 1,904. The general elevation of the 
land is 25 feet above low water and it is overflowed in times of high 
floods. The soil is fine sand and clay. Investigations were author- 
ized September 22, 1903, and are now in progress. 

San Isidro, province of Nueva Ecija. — This town is the capital of 
the province and located on the Rio Grande de la Pampanga. It 
has a population of 5,084. The local features are similar to those at 
Santa. 

Investigations of a general nature were authorized in connection 
with the overflow of* the Tarlac and Pampanga rivers and are in 
progress. 

(TalivOj Capiz Province, — This town is located on the Aclan River 
and has a population of 3,547. It is one of the most important 
towns and sliipping points of the province. Local features are simi- 
lar to those at Santa. Investigations were authorized March 2 and 
are now in progress. 

Pansipit River improvement, Batangas Province. — This project is 
briefly described on pages 211-212, part 3, Report of the Philippine 
Commission, 1903. 

Estimates of the cost of a canalization of the river, the entrances 
thereto from the lake and the ocean, and the necessary bridge, lock, 
and dam construction required, based upon revised design for a con- 
struction suitable for vessels of 10-foot draft, aggregate ^1,522,000 
WAR 1904— VOL 13 14 



210 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

This cost, in connection with additional harbor work necessary 
within the lake, and the probable development of railroads througn 
Uie region served, justifies the recommendation that further action 
be delayed until the necessities for improved transportation warrant 
the necessary outlay. 

ATpai Carhol, Taydbas Provirice. — Authorization of a reconnaissance 
survey to determine the possibilities of water communication connect- 
ing the Pacific Ocean and the China Sea from the Bay of Apat to the 
Gulf of Ragav, Tayabas Province, by the construction of a canal 
between the headwaters of the Apat River and the Guinayangan 
River is dated November 30, 1903. At present these rivers are of 
slight importance. The location through which this improvement 
would pass is sparsely inhabited and the topography is not well 
knawn. 

The distance across Luzon at this peninsula is about 25 miles; the 
distance to the San Bernardino Straits is about 150 miles. The 
decrease in time for vessels sailing from the eastern coast of the 
island to Manila would be about one day. The advantage to local 
shipping would be of large value. 

No work has been done by the coast and geodetic survey in the 
terminal bay and gidf , and it has been reported that extensive shoals 
exist in the vicinitj of the mouths of these rivers. 

A survey party is now in the field, to whom this investigation has 
been assigned. 

WATER-POWER DEVELOPMENT. 

Boiocan Falls. — Investigation relative to the development of the 
Botocan Falls, briefly described on page 214, part 3, Keport of the 
Philippine Commission, 1903, were completea November 7, 1903. 
The final report by Mr. A. H. Perkins, assistant engineer, was sub- 
mitted to the Commission December 22, 1903. These investigations 
indicated an expense necessary for suitable development somewhat 
high as compared with the power available. 

The total cost of these surveys was 1P9,556.67. 

Caliraya River, — Mr. Perkins began investigations of the Caliraya 
project November 11, 1903, and his report tnereon was submitted 
to the Commission March 23, 1904. The development of this river 
is a more feasible project than the one described above. The need 
existed for more accurate and extended data on minimum discharge, 
rainfall, and area of watershed. Mr. H. F. Labelle, assistant engi- 
neer; was assigned to this work on April 22, 1904. Extensive gaug- 
ings of the stream were made to determine the low-water flow, the 
watershed area was surveyed, and, through the courtesy of the 
PhiUppine weather bureau, a rain gauge was established at San 
Antonio, a town located within the watershed. A river gauge was 
also established. Observations at these two stations are now in 
progress. 

The theoretical horsepower available at the proposed power house, 
with a moderate storage, is estimated at about 6,000. For about 
one-half of the year, or during the rainy season, this amount can be 
trebled. 

Cost of Caliraya surveys from November 11, 1903, to September 1, 
1904, was f^7,971.38. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 211 

The constructive features of this development are as follows: By 
the construction of a dam on the river the water would be diverted 
into a canal 2.33 miles long to the brow of the bluff, where it would 
fall through penstocks 800 feet to the power house near the Lumbang 
River. The power would thence be transmitted to Manila, a distance 
of 61 miles. To meet the dry-season flow, and husband the flood 
waters storage reservoirs would be established on the river at suit- 
able points. Mr. Labelle's report dealing w4th the above features is 
in progress. This development can be carried out at comparatively 
small cost and does not require exceptional engineering features. 
The capacity of the plant can be increased at any time by diverting 
the Lomot Kiver to the Caliraya. The question of storage, which 
is the life of the whole project, should, however, be solvecf satisfac- 
torily before the feasibility of the development can be determined. 
It is very probable that the necessary reservoir sites will be found in 
the watersned. 

An^ River. — ^Mr. J. G. Holcombe, principal assistant engineer, 
made an examination of the power development of the Angat Kiver, 
proposed bv the Electricista Company, and for which a franchise was 
requested Au^st 27, 1903. 

f his preUminary examination shows that it is feasible to develop 
the proposed 6,000 horsepower. The estimated cost is understated, 
and it now appears that either the Botocan or Caliraya projects are 
preferable thereto on account of the first cost of the proposed project. 

The project involves the construction of a dam, a tunnel 1,354 
meters m length, a canal 10.26 kilometers long, with one viaduct cross- 
ing the Angat River, and leading to the first power house, at which a 
head of 40 meters is available ; thence the water is lead by a canal 5 
kilometers long to the second power house, where 21 meters head is 
available. 

Agno River. — EJuring May, 1904, a preliminary examination was 
made of the Agno River, southern part of Benguet Province, by Mr. 
L. E. Bennett, superintendent, Padre Juan Vulaverde trail, with a 
view of determining the feasibility of the power development of that 
river. These investigations show that practically 3,300 horsepower 
might be developed by the low-water flow. However, the country is 
very rough and difficult of access, and no further action is proposed 
imtil the information already acquired can be laid before the expert, 
whose services are provided for by Act No. 638. 

MUNICIPAL WATERWORKS. 

Calaparif Mindoro Province. — Investigations upon the feasibility of 
constructing waterworks and insuring a supply of pure water for this 
town were authorized August 28, 1903. The population of the town 
is 1,294. Investigations were made by Maj. J. F. Case, engineer, new 
waterworks system, city of Manila, and his report was submitted to 
the Commission November 15, 1903. 

This investigation was desired mainly in view of a proposition to 
change the provincial capital from Calapan to Puerta Galera, on 
account of increased harbor facilities and the water supply available 
at the latter place. 

Pagsanjan, Laguna Province. — Surveys on w^hich to base designs 
and estimate of the cost of providing a water supply for this town 



212 REPORT OF TffB' PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

were-authorized April 11, 1904. - Mr. Max Dobbins, assistant engineer, 
made the necessary surveys and his report is dated June 30, 1904. 
The topographical map accompanying his report is of permanent 
value for municipal improvements that may be desired within a 
reasonable period. The cost of the survey was 1P1,514. 

The population of the town is 3,033 adjacent barrios to be served 
by the proposed supply will increase the number by 500. The proj- 
ect consists of pumpmg the water from springs of exceptional purity 
located about one-nalr mile from the town, to a reservoir on an 
adjacent hill, from which point the supply will be distributed by 
gravity. Of the three springs available omy one would be utilized 
until there is a considerable mcrease in population. The estimated 
cost is about =P30,000. 

The interest shown by Pagsanjan in municipal improvements is 
noteworthv, and merits the insular assistance given in making this 
survey. A considerable portion of the funds necessary for this proj- 
ect have been raised within the municipality, but construction works 
have not been authorized. 

LAND SURVEYS. 

Government farms. — Surveys of the agricultural farms San Ramon, 
Mindanao, ana La Granja Modelo, Negros Occidental, were authorized 
September 18, 1903. The former was completed January 13, 1904, 
by Mr. A. H. Iligley, chief draftsman. A topographical map suitable 
for designing and estimating the cost of irrigating work was prepared. 
The area of San Ramon is 982.2 hectares; cost of survey, 1P1,051.70. 

The latter survey was completed December 8, 1903, by Mr. J. C. 
Mulder, assistant engineer. The survey included the estate of 
Alejandria, area 134.994 hectares, the area of La Granja Modelo being 
684.845 hectares, a total of 819,839 hectares. Cost of survey, 
=P806.58. 

Resurvey of the friar lands. — Instructions were received from the 
honorable the civil governor, under date of January 20, 1904, to 
resurvey the friar lands included in the four contracts signed Decem- 
ber 22, 1903. 

A summary of these estates as per said contracts follows: 

The Philippine Sugar Estates Development Company, Limited, estates formerly the 
property of the Dominican Order, eight combined estates, or eleven separate estates. 11 

La SociecJad Agricola de Ultramar, estates formerly the property of the Augustinian 
Order (including the estate in the Province of Isabela, patented by the Spanish Gov- 
ernment to this order, and survey of which was not attempted ) 18 

The British-Manila Estates Company, Limited, estates formerly the property of the 
Recolcto Order I 

The Recolcto Order, the San Joaj estate in Mindoro (survey of which was not attempted) 1 

Total 31 

in which the total aggregate area was given as 164,120 hectares. 

The preparation of general instructions was immediately com- 
menced upon methods of records and computations for both field and 
office, the organization of field parties, and the prosecution of the 
work, all based upon available forces, equipments, and results to be 
attained. 

The only data available on which to base these surveys were copies 
of the said contracts, and tracings and tabulations prepared by 



REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 213 

Senor Juan Villega», surveyor, under the direction of the Commission 
during the years 1901-2. The field notes of Senor Villegas had been 
lost and destroyed by fire. Copies of the original maps, some of 
which were nearly 300 years old, oased on surveys made by the friars, 
were available later, having been secured by the legal representatives, 
Messrs. Del Pan, Ortigas, and Fischer. These maps were of material 
assistance in verifying surveys made and in completing work in hand. 
The greater portion of the boundaries* of these estates was through 
regions difficult to survey by the use of the chain, on account of tne 
dense tropical vegetation — bamboo, vines, mangrove swamps, cogon 

frass, etc. — and they also passed over considerable rugffed country 
ifficult of access. The number of men familiar with cnaining was 
limited; the time within which it was desired to complete the surveys 
was not sufficient to train reliable native chainmen, and for other rea- 
sons it was deemed economical, expedient, and sufficiently accurate 
for the problem in hand to employ the familiar stadia method of 
measurement, under such instructions as would attain to a degree of 
accuracy well within the limits of error ordinarily established for such 
surveys; and, in general, to conform in results to the requirements of 
the court of land registration. Furthermore, for similar reasons, it 
was necessary to confine the survey to the perimeter of the estates, 
securing only such adjacent and descriptive topography as v/ould 
assist in a relocation of the boimdary lines. 

Ten survey parties were placed m the field; four were sent out 
February 13, two the 19th, one the 20th, two the 26th, and one 
April 9. Field work was practically completed early in May, and the 
months of May and June were occupied in office work, computations, 
mapping, and m the preparation of technical descriptions of tne various 
estates surveyed. 

The total cost of the resurvey, including both field and office work, 
is ^36,299.68. The total area involved is 158,068.54 hectares. The 
average cost per hectare is 'PO.Sl. The total length of boundary 
fine is 577.06 miles, and the average cost per mile of boundary line 
is ^73,54. 

It is interesting to note that these unit costs for the smaller estates 
are far in excess of the total average cost, and are very irregular. 
This increased cost is due mainly to the high proportional cost of 
monumenting, transportation to and from the site of the work, and 
to the expenses incurred on account of office computations, mapping, 
printing, etc., which was much larger in proportion to area surveyed 
than for the larger estates. ' 

In accordance with the verbal instructions of the honorable the 
civil governor, no surveys were made of the Isabela and the Mindoro 
(San Jose) estates. 

The contract dated December 22, 1903, provides for shortages in 
areas as follows: 

♦ * * That if the Philippine government shall notify * * * that the area of any haci- 
enda or parcel as described in the title deed thereof falls short of the superficial area thereof 
as shown by Villegas's survey of the same, then the parties hereto shall cause a joint survey 
of the same to be made by the agent of each, and if the true survey shall show the area 
of the hacienda or parcel to be less than as stated by Villegas and in tlie list as hereinbefore 
set forth, the price herein to be paid shall be abated by an amount to be ascertained by 
multiplying the number of hectarts short into the average value of a hectare in the haci- 
enda or parcel in question as shown by dividing Villegas's total valuation of such hacienda 
or parcel by the total number of hectares contained therein according to his survey plus 



214 KEPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

iweniy-five per cent thereof; and if, on the other hand, the true survey shall show an 
excess of hectares over the amoimt reported by Villegas, then the price to be paid shall 
be increased by an amount to be ascertained in a similar manner. 

The total shortages found in the estates included in the four con- 
tracts cited, and their value as per conditions therein, are as follows: 

I. The Philippine Sugar Estates Development Company (Limited) (estates formerly 
the property of the DoHminican Order): The total shortage in area found in* the five 
estates of Santa Maria, Orion, Naic, Calamba, and Bifian aggregates 6,050.6775 hectares, 
the computed value of which is ^481,354.46. 

II. La Sociedad Agricola de Ultramar (estates formerly the property of the Augustinian 
order, and including the estate of Isabela, patented by the Spanish Government to this 
order, survey c^ which was not made) : The total shortage in area found in the three estates 
of Dampol, San Francisco de Malabon, and Muntinhipa aggregates 4,155.6546 hectares, 
the computed value of which is ^261,890.96. The total shortage of area found in the 
original maps of the Isabela estate (not surveyed) is 528 hectares, the computed value 
of which is >'9,604. 

III. The British-Manila Estates Company (Limited) (estates formerly the property of 
the Recolcto order): The total shortage in area found in the Imus estate is 176.5612 hce- 
tarcs, the computed value of which is 1^17,975.70. 

IV. The Recoleto order (the San Jose estate in Mindoro, survey of which was not made): 
The total shortage in area found in the original maps of the San Jose estate is 605 hectares, 
the computed value of which is 1^15,953.85. 

The total of these shortages in area, as per the resurveys, aggregates 
11,515.8923 hectares, the computed value of which is 1P^786,868.97. 

A statement of these shortages has been submitted to the repre- 
sentatives of these four companies, in accordance with the instruc- 
tions of the honorable the civil governor, and the question of a joint 
resurvey is now under consideration. 

Special charge of the various survey parties was assigned to Mr. 
Charles H. Kendall, acting railroad engmeer. 

The following tabulations show the location of the various estates, 
the principal results derived, the cost of the siunrey, and a list of the 
assistant engineers in charge of the various field parties. 



REPORT OF THE THILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 217 

RAILROADS. 

Mr. Charles H. Kendall, assistant engineer, was assigned to the 
position of acting railroad engineer November 1, 1904. His report 
on the work accomplished by the bureau, together with a brief 
historyof the Manila Kailway Company (Limiteo) is attached hereto^ 
and forms a part of this report. 

The diagrams of the operation and revenues of the Manila and 
Dagupan Kailway are especially interesting, showing graphically 
the principal source of revenues, the volume of busmess and its 
nature. 

The length of the Manila and Dagupan Railway is 196 kilometers^ 
the total length of extensions granted by the franchises for five 
separate lines contained in Acts Nos. 554, 555, and 703 is about 140 
kilometers. The Cabanatuan and Antipolo extensions are important 
in that they may be regarded as the first sections of Unes leading from 
Manila northerly through the central portion of Luzon and easterly 
to the Pacific. Their present locations are through thickly popu- 
lated regions. Immediate profits upon opening these extensions are 
assured, and their construction tends to control the larger projects 
involved. 

The question of a standard gauge for the islands is important, and 
should be settled in the near future. Already two gauges exist, 
namely, the 3 foot 6 inch gauge in use by the Manila Railwav Company, 
and the United States standard gauge, by the Manila Electric Rail- 
way and Lighting Company. This company will be operating about 
60 kilometers of' line early in 1905. Its probable extensions, and 
the importance of having connections with fines operated by steam 

Sossible, make a consideration of its established gauge necessary in a 
iscussion of this subject. Various gauges can not be successfully 
operated, and history snows that one gauge must ultimately be estab- 
lished throughout at least the island of Luzon, and preferably 
throughout the archipelago. 

Data on this subject is being compiled from information furnished 
by various eastern countries, and upon completion will be presented 
for action. The gauge decided upon should be incorporated in all 
future franchises. 

MISCELLANEOUS WORK. 

Special committees created by resolutions of the Commission or 
by executive orders have required attention and in certain cases 
extended investigation. The following is a list of the more impor- 
tant committees of which the undersigned was a member: 

Under date of August 24, 1903, a resolution of the Commission 
designated a committee to report on a topographical survey of the 
islands, and to recommend a system of beginning the same. The 
report was submitted February 6, 1904. 

A committee was likewise appointed September 8, 1903, to investi- 
gate and report on existing conditions relative to the care of the 
msane, to investigate suitable sites and report on the cost of erecting 
a suitable asylum. A m-eliminary report was submitted under date 
of January 20, 1904. The work of the committee is not yet com- 
pleted. 



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REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 219 

treasurer, the civil-service bureau, etc.; (7) inspection trips have 
been planned to places of interest and value in connection with the 
works of the supervisors, as to the testing laboratories for cement 
and for timber, to Bilibid, to the forestry and city workshops, to the 
crematory, etc. 

It is anticipated that the benefits of this meeting wUl materially 
assist in attaming to a higher efficiency in provincial work. 

PROVINCIAL WORK. 

Of the 40 provinces into which the archipelago is divided, 25 are 

?rovided witn supervisors, 13 with supervisor-treasurers, the Moro 
'rovince with an engineer officer, and in Ben^et these duties are 
performed by the provincial governor. Exceptmg the two provinces 
named, these officials are under the direction of tnis bureau in so far 
as relates to engineering work. The supervisors are, with few 
exceptions, men trained and experienced in engineering work. 
They are the only provincial officials intrusted with expenditure for 
public work. On account of other various duties it has been esti- 
mated that less than 15 per cent of their time is given to technical 
work. Also the executive bureau is placing the supervisorships 
more fully under the control of this bureau. 

Considerable work has been done in systematizing methods of 
investigations, reports and construction, m simplifying provincial 
forms required, and in expediting provincial business in Manila. 
Plans for the reduction of clerical work required of the supervisor 
are under consideration. It is desired to utilize his services more 
fully along the line of engineering and construction, and to permit 
increased opportunity for field work. 

The chief of supervisors, Mr. J. D. Fauntleroy, has immediate 
supervision of the supervisors in their relations to this bureau. 
His report is attached nereto. 

ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL. 

It has been the policy of the Philippine civil service bureau to 
regard this bureau as the 'insular clearing house*' for engineers 
appointed to duty, either by the bureau of insular affaii-s, or through 
examination held at Manila. It has been expected that the needs 
of the various bureaus employing engineers would be understood, 
and that a proper distribution of appointees in conformity to the 
necessities of such bureaus would be made. This policy has been 
met as fully as possible, although frequently expenenced techincal 
men were not available. Efforts to secure for service in the islands 
recent graduates thoroughly trained in the principles of engineering 
have not been successful in the past, and the demand has exceeded 
the supply. At present, however, the prospects of securing such 
assistants are more encouraging. The engineer of greatest use to 
the government should acquire, additional to high technical effi- 
ciency, a working knowledge of the language and an acquaintance 
not only with local conditions, but also with the characteristics of 
the inhabitants. 

The demand upon the engineer has been for results rather than 
theories. Existing conditions offer to the young engineer oppor- 
tunities for valuable experience and reasonably rapid promotion. 
The development of public works in the islands has been somewhat 



218 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Resolutions of the Commission dated March 30 and April 7, 1903, 
relate to investigations for a water supply for the agricultural stock 
farm, the leper colony, and for the proposed penitentiary, and the 
selection of sites for these institutions on Culion Island, together with 
the location of roads, dock, and principal buildings. Mr. J. G, 
Holcombe, principal assistant engineer, was appointed on this com- 
mittee in lieu of the undersigned April 10, 1903. This subject is 
briefly discussed on page 212, part 3, Report of the Philippine 
Commission, 1903. 

Mr. W. H. Robinson, assistant engineer, completed surveys and 
maps of the various localities, and submitted reports under dates 
of August 15 and October 5, 1903. The required reports were com- 
pleted and submitted to the executive secretary December 2 and 3, 
1903. 

The report required of the committee created by resolution of 
the Commission September 29, relative to procuring expert engi- 
neering advice on the new waterworks and sewer systems for tne 
city of Manila, was submitted October 17, 1903. 

The final report required of the committee appointed by executive 
order No. 89, dated October 17, 1903, and by resolution of the Com- 
mission dated December 29, 1903, relative to assignment of quarters 
in Oriente Hotel property, was submitted January 7, 1904. 

Executive order No. 107, December 18, 1903, created a com- 
mittee to investigate the accident at the Marivales quarry, and to 
determine the responsibility. This investigation required the 
testimony of several witnesses. The report w^as submitted May 
12, 1904. 

Executive order No. 14, March 30, 1904, appointed a committee 
to examine the bulkhead of the poit works of Manila, to present 
plans for making it substantial and permanent, and the probable 
cost thereof, ana to report on type of wharf best adapted to the 
needs of the port, and the probable cost of same. Several investi- 
gations were made to secure the necessary data. The report of the 
committee. was submitted May 16, 1904. 

Several minor investigations have required considerable time, 
data on artesian wells have been collected and compiled, standard 
designs of bridges and culverts for the use of supervisors and road 
superintendents and special designs for supervisor-treasurers have 
been prepared. 

Questions relative to boundaries between provinces and munici- 

?alities have been studied, and a few provmcial forms prepared, 
arious instructions for the guidance of survey parties and road 
superintendents have been issued. 

Arrangements for the first annual meeting of the supervisors, 
have received careful consideration. The principal subjects covered 
were: (1) The duties of the supervisors and laws relating thereto; 
(2) systematic office records; (3) organization of road repair and 
construction work; (4) methods of construction for various types 
of roads, including designs of culverts and bridges, and organization 
of maintenance gangs; (5) development of agriculture through a 
utilization of the knowledge acquired of modem methods of work 
and tools, s.etc. ; (6) addresses have been requested of the heads or 
representatives of the bureaus, directly or indirectly related to 
supervisorships, as the insular purchasing agent, the auditor, the 



KBPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 219 

treasurer, the civil-service bureau, etc.; (7) inspection trips have 
been planned to places of interest and value in connection with the 
works of the sui>ervisors, as to the testing laboratories for cement 
and for timber, to Bilibid, to the forestry and city workshops, to the 
crematory, etc. 

It is anticipated that the benefits of this meeting will materially 
assist in attaming to a higher efficiency in provincial work. 

PROVINCIAL WORK. 

Of the 40 provinces into which the archipelago is divided, 25 are 

?rovided with supervisors, 13 with supervisor-treasurers, the Moro 
'rovince with an engineer officer, and in Ben^et these duties are 
performed by the provincial governor. Exceptmg the two provinces 
named, these officials are under the direction of tnis bureau in so far 
as relates to engineering work. The supervisors are, with few 
exceptions, men trained and experienced in engineering work. 
They are the only provincial officials intrusted with expenditure for 
public work. Qn account of other various duties it has been esti- 
mated that less than 15 per cent of their time is given to technical 
work. Also the executive bureau is placing the supervisorships 
more fully under the control of this bureau. 

Considerable work has been done in systematizing methods of 
investigations, reports and construction, m simplifying provincial 
forms required, and in expediting provincial business in Manila. 
Plans' for the reduction of clerical work required of the supervisor 
are under consideration. It is desired to utilize his services more 
fully along the line of engineering and construction, and to permit 
increased opportunity for field work. 

The chier of supervisors, Mr. J. D. Fauntleroy, has immediate 
supervision of the supervisors in their relations to this bureau. 
His report is attached hereto. 

ORGANIZATIOX AND PERSONNEL. 

It has been the policy of the Philippine civil service bureau to 
regard this bureau as the ''insular clearing house '^ for engineers 
appointed to dutv, either by the bureau of insular affairs, or through 
examination held at Manila. It has been expected that the needs 
of the various bureaus employing engineers would be understood, 
and that a proper distribution or appointees .in conformity to the 
necessities of such bureaus would be made. This policy has been 
met as fuUy as possible, although frequently experienced techincal 
men were not available. Efforts to secure for service in the islands 
recent graduates thoroughly trained in the principles of engineering 
have not been successful in the past, and the demand has exceeded 
the supply. At present, however, the prospects of securing such 
assistants are more encouraging. The engineer of greatest use to 
the government should acquire, additional to high technical effi- 
ciency, a working knowledge of the language and an acquaintance 
not only with local conditions, but also with the characteristics of 
the inhabitants. 

The demand upon the engineer has been for results rather than 
theories. Existing conditions offer to the young engineer oppor- 
tunities for valuaole experience and reasonably rapid promotion. 
The development of public works in the islands has been somewhat' 



218 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Resolutions of the Commission dated March 30 and April 7, 1903, 
relate to investigations for a water supply for the agricultural stock 
farm, the leper colony, and for the proposed penitentiary, and the 
selection of sites for these institutions on Culion Island, together with 
the location of roads, dock, and principal buildings. Mr. J. G. 
Holcombe, principal assistant engineer, was appointed on this com- 
mittee in lieu of the undersigned April 10, 1903. This subject is 
briefly discussed on page 212, part 3, Report of the Phihppine 
Commission, 1903. 

Mr. W. H. Robinson, assistant engineer, completed surveys and 
maps of the various localities, and submitted reports under dates 
of August 15 and October 5, 1903. The required reports were com- 
pleted and submitted to the executive secretary December 2 and 3, 
1903. 

The report required of the committee created by resolution of 
the Commission September 29, relative to procuring expert engi- 
neering advice on the new waterworks and sewer systems for the 
city of Manila, was submitted October 17, 1903. 

The final report required of the committee appointed by executive 
order No. 89, dated October 17, 1903, and by resolution of the Com- 
mission dated December 29, 1903, relative to assignment of quarters 
in Oriente Hotel property, was submitted January 7, 1904. 

Executive order No. 107, December 18, 1903, created a com- 
mittee to investigate the accident at the Marivales quarry, and to 
determine the responsibility. This investigation required the 
testimony of several witnesses. The report was submitted May 
12 1904. 

Executive order No. 14, March 30, 1904, appointed a committee 
to examine the bulkhead of the poit works or Manila, to present 
plans for making it substantial and permanent, and the probable 
cost thereof, and to report on type of wharf best adapted to the 
needs of the port, and the probaWe cost of same. Several investi- 
gations were made to secure the nec-e.ssary (hiU. Tlie rep<>rt of tho 
committee. was submitted May Ifi, 1904/ 

Several minor investigations Jiave required consideial>Ie (itue, 
data on artesian wells have been colleettKl and compiled, ^tftndard 
designs of bridges and culverts for tlie u^v of r^upervisors and tQwi 
superintendents and special desit^^ns for supen^isor-trcasurers liaVf 
been prepared. 

Questions relative to boundaries between provinces anil mu 

?alities have been studied, and a lew provincial forms pr""" 
arious instructions for the guidance of survey parties 
superintendents have been issued. 

Arrangements for the first annual meeting of the 
have received careful consideration. The principal mi] 
were: (1) The duties of the supervisors and laws re^ 
(2) systematic oflSce records; (3) organ iziition of ri 
construction work; (4) methods of cons true ti<m U^' 
of roads, including designs of culverts and brid^res, 
of maintenance gangs; (5) development of Ji^^nj 
utilization of the knowledge ac<]uired of nioder 
and tools, ^etc; (6) addresses have heen requea 
representatives of the bureaus, dircM^tly or 
supervisorships, as the insular j)u reloading 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



219 



treasurer, the civil-service bureau, etc.; (7) inspection trips have 
been planned to places of interest and value in connection with the 
works of the supervisors, as to the testing laboratories for cement 
and for timber, to Bilibid, to the forestry and city workshops, to the 
crematory, etc. 

It is anticipated that the benefits of this meeting will materially 
assist in attaming to a higher efficiency in provincial work. 

PROVINCIAL WORK. 

Of the 40 provinces into which the archipelago is divided, 25 are 

?rovided witn supervisors, 13 with supervisor- treasurers, the Moro 
rovince with an engineer officer, and in Ben^et these duties are 
performed by the provincial governor. Exceptmg the two provinces 
named, these officials are under the direction of this bureau in so far 
as relates to engineering w^ork. The supervisors are, with few 
exceptions, men trained and experienced in engineering work. 
They are the only provincial officials intrusted with expenditure for 
public work. On account of other various duties it has been esti- 
mated that less than 15 per cent of their time is given to technical 
work. Also the executive bureau is placing the supervisorships 
more fully under the control of this bureau. 

Considerable work has been done in systematizing methods of 
investigations, reports and construction, in simplifying provincial 
forms required, and in expediting provincial business in Manila. 
Plans* for the reduction of clerical work required of the supervisor 
are under consideration. It is desired to utilize his services more 
fully along the line of engineering and construction, and to permit 
increa^ ^ed opporluriity for field work. 

of supervisors, Mi\ J. D. Fauntleroy, has immediate 
supQ^^^^Bpf the sijpervbor^ in their relations to this bureau, 
attachetl hereto* 



idu.i: 

bcr^i* 



[*i\ 



h 



ORGANIZATinx AND PERSONNEL. 

Philippine civil service bureau to 

ar Clearing house ^^ for engineers 

ireau of insular affairs, or through 

arj been expected that the needs 

engineers would be understood, 

appointees .in conformity to the 

l>e made. This policy has been 

frequently expenenced techincal 

ilortH to secure for service in the islands 

trained in the principles of engineering 

the past, and the demand has exceeded 

however, the prospects of securing such 

raging. The engineer of greatest use to 

acquire^ additional to* high technical effi- 

lotlirn of the language and an acquaintance 

tViiions^ but also with the characteristics of 



m tlie policK 

1 duty, eiuQI 
i held e^Ih 


^ th< 

n 

Ail' 


- ] 

■nl 

[.; 

! 1 

1 il; 


:.er^^V 


^K)ii 


of 


.. - ^>' 


!0U 


ii\i 






5 engineer lias been for results rather than 
Conditions offer to the young engineer oppor- 
3 experience and reasonably rapid promotion, 
public works in the islands has been somewhf 



218 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Resolutions of the Commission dated March 30 and April 7, 1903, 
relate to investigations for a water supply for the agricultural stock 
farm, the leper colony, and for the proposed penitentiary, and the 
selection of sites for these institutions on Culion Island, together with 
the location of roads, dock, and principal buildings. Mr. J. G, 
Holcombe, principal assistant engineer, was appointed on this cona- 
mittee in lieu of the undersigned April 10, 1903. This subject is 
briefly discussed on page 212, part 3, Report of the Philippine 
Commission, 1903. 

Mr. W. H. Robinson, assistant engineer, completed surveys and 
maps of the various localities, and submitted reports under dates 
of August 15 and October 5, 1903. The required reports were com- 
pleted and submitted to the executive secretary December 2 and 3, 
1903. 

The report required of the committee created by resolution of 
the Commission September 29, relative to procuring expert engi- 
neering advice on the new waterworks and sewer systems for the 
city of Manila, was submitted October 17, 1903. 

The final report required of the committee appointed by executive 
order No. 89, dated October 17, 1903, and by resolution of the Com- 
mission dated December 29, 1903, relative to assignment of quarters 
in Oriente Hotel property, was submitted January 7, 1904. 

Executive order No. 107, December 18, 1903, created a com- 
mittee to investigate the accident at the Marivales quarry, and to 
determine the responsibility. This investigation required the 
testimony of several witnesses. The report was submitted May 
12, 1904. 

Executive order No. 14, March 30, 1904, appointed a committee 
to examine the bulkhead of the port works or Manila, to present 
plans for making it substantial and permanent, and the probable 
cost thereof, and to report on type of wharf best adapted to the 
needs of the port, and the probable cost of same. Several investi- 
gations were made to secure the necessary data. The report of the 
commit tee. was submitted May 16, 1904. 

Several minor investigations have required considerable time, 
data on artesian wells have been collected and compiled, standard 
designs of bridges and culverts for the use of supervisors and road 
superintendents and special designs for supervisor- treasurers have 
been prepared. 

Questions relative to boundaries between provinces and munici- 

?alities have been studied, and a few provincial forms prepared, 
arious instructions for the guidance or survey parties and road 
superintendents have been issued. 

Arrangements for the first annual meeting of the supervisors, 
have received careful consideration. The principal subjects covered 
were: (1) The duties of the supervisors and laws relating thereto; 
(2) systematic office records; (3) organization of road repair and 
construction work; (4) methods of construction for various types 
of roads, including designs of culverts and bridges, and organization 
of maintenance gangs; (5) development of agriculture through a 
utilization of the knowledge acquired of modem methods of work 
and tools, ..etc.; (6) addresses have been requested of the heads or 
representatives of the bureaus, directly or indirectly related to 
supervisorships, as the insular purchasing agent, the auditor, the 



KBPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 219 

treasurer, the civil-service bureau, etc.; (7) inspection trips have 
been planned to places of interest and value in connection with the 
works of the su{>ervisors, as to the testing laboratories for cement 
and for timber, to Bilibid, to the forestry and city workshops, to the 
crematory, etc. 

It is anticipated that the benefits of tliis meeting will materially 
assist in attaming to a higher efficiency in provincial work. 

PBOVINCIAL WORK. 

Of the 40 provinces into which the archipelago is divided, 25 are 

?rovided with supervisors, 13 with supervisor- treasurers, the Moro 
rovince with an engineer officer, and in Ben^et these duties are 
performed by the provincial governor. Exceptmg the two provinces 
named, these officials are under the direction of tnis bureau in so far 
as relates to engineering w^ork. The supervisors are, with few 
exceptions, men trained and experienced in engineering work. 
They are the only provincial officials intrusted with expenditure for 
public work. Qn account of other various duties it has been esti- 
mated that less than 15 per cent of their time is given to technical 
work. Also the executive bureau is placing the supervisorships 
more fully under the control of this bureau. 

Considerable work has been done in systematizing methods of 
investigations, reports and construction, m simplifymg provincial 
forms required, and in expediting provincial business in Manila. 
Plans- for the reduction of clerical work required of the supervisor 
are under consideration. It is desired to utilize his services more 
fully along the line of engineering and construction, and to permit 
increased opportunity for field work. 

The chier of supervisors, Mr. J. D. Fauntleroy, has immediate 
supervision of the supervisors in their relations to this bureau. 
His report is attached hereto. 

ORGANIZATIOX AND PERSONNEL. 

It has been the policy of the Philippine civil service bureau to 
regard this bureau as the "insular clearing house'* for engineers 
appointed to dutv, either by the bureau of insular affairs, or through 
examination held at Manila. It has been expected that the needs 
of the various bureaus employing engineers would be understood, 
and that a proper distribution or appointees .in conformity to the 
necessities of such bureaus would be made. This policy has been 
met as fully as possible, although frequently expenenced techincal 
men were not available. Efforts to secure for service in the islands 
recent graduates thoroughly trained in the principles of engineering 
have not been successful in the past, and the demand has exceedea 
the supply. At present, however, the prospects of securing such 
assistants are more encouraging. The engineer of greatest use to 
the government should acquire, additional to high technical effi- 
ciency, a working knowledge of the language and an acquaintance 
not only with local conditions, but also with the characteristics of 
the inhabitants. 

The demand upon the engineer has been for results rather than 
theories. Existing conditions offer to the young engineer oppor- 
tunities for valuable experience and reasonably rapid promotion. 
The development of public works in the islands has been somewhat 



218 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Resolutions of the Commission dated March 30 and April 7, 1903, 
relate to investigations for a water supply for the agricultural stock 
farm, the leper colony, and for the proposed penitentiary, and the 
selection of sites for these institutions on Culion Island, together with 
the location of roads, dock, and principal buildings. Mr. J. O. 
Holcombe, principal assistant engineer, was appointed on this com- 
mittee in lieu of the undersigned April 10, 1903. This subject is 
briefly discussed on page 212, part 3, Report of the Philippine 
Commission, 1903. 

Mr. W. H. Robinson, assistant engineer, completed surveys and 
maps of the various localities, and submitted reports under dates 
of August 15 and October 5, 1903. The required reports were com- 
pleted and submitted to the executive secretary December 2 and 3, 
1903. 

The report required of the committee created by resolution of 
the Commission September 29, relative to procuring expert enri- 
neering advice on the new waterworks and sewer systems for the 
city of Manila, was submitted October 17, 1903. 

The final report required of the committee appointed by executive 
order No. 89, dated October 17, 1903, and by resolution of the Com- 
mission dated December 29, 1903, relative to assignment of quarters 
in Oriente Hotel property, was submitted January 7, 1904. 

Executive order No. 107, December 18, 1903, created a com- 
mittee to investigate the accident at the Marivales quarry, and to 
determine the responsibility. This investigation required the 
testimony of several witnesses. The report was submitted May 
12, 1904. 

Executive order No. 14, March 30, 1904, appointed a committee 
to examine the bulkhead of the poit works of Manila, to present 
plans for making it substantial and permanent, and the probable 
cost thereof, and to report on type of wharf best adapted to the 
needs of the port, and the probable cost of same. Several investi- 
gations were made to secure the necessary data. The report of the 
committee. was submitted May 16, 1904. 

Several minor investigations have required considerable time, 
data on artesian wells have been collected and compiled, standard 
designs of bridges and culverts for the use of supervisors and road 
superintendents and special designs for supervisor-treasurers have 
been prepared. 

Questions relative to boundaries between provinces and munici- 

?alities have been studied, and a few provmcial forms prepared, 
arious instructions for the guidance of survey parties and road 
superintendents have been issued. 

Arrangements for the first annual meeting of the supervisors, 
have received careful consideration. The principal subjects covered 
were: (1) The duties of the supervisors and laws relating thereto; 
(2) systematic office records; (3) organization of road repair and 
construction work; (4) methods of construction for various types 
of roads, including designs of culverts and bridges, and organization 
of maintenance gangs; (5) development of agriculture through a 
utilization of the knowledge acquired of modem methods of work 
and tools, .etc.; (6) addresses have been requested of the heads or 
representatives of the bureaus, directly or indirectly related to 
ipervisorsliips, as the insular purchasing agent, the auditor, the 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 219 

treasurer, the civil-service bureau, etc.; (7) inspection trips have 
been planned to places of interest and value in connection with the 
works of the supervisors, as to the testing laboratories for cement 
and for timber, to Bilibid, to the forestry and city workshops, to the 
-crematory, etc. 

It is anticipated that the benefits of this meeting will materially 
assist in attaining to a higher efficiency in provincial work. 

PROVINCIAL WORK. 

Of the 40 provinces into which the archipelago is divided, 25 are 

?rovided with supervisors, 13 with supervisor-treasurers, the Moro 
'rovince with an engineer officer, and in Ben^et these duties are 
performed by the provincial ffovemor. Exceptmg the two provinces 
named, these officials are unaer the direction of this bureau in so far 
as relates to engineering work. The supervisors are, with few 
exceptions, men trained and experienced in engineering work. 
They are the only provincial officials intrusted with expenditure for 
public work. Qn account of other various duties it has been esti- 
mated that less than 15 per cent of their time is given to technical 
work. Also the executive bureau is placing the supervisorships 
more fully under the control of this bureau. 

Considerable work has been done in systematizing methods of 
investigations, reports and construction, m simplifying provincial 
forms required, and in expediting provincial business in Manila. 
Plans- for the reduction of clerical work required of the supervisor 
are under consideration. It is desired to utilize his services more 
fully along the line of engineering and construction, and to permit 
increased opportunity for field work. 

The chief of supervisors, Mr. J. D. Fauntleroy, has immediate 
supervision of the supervisors in their relations to this bureau. 
His report is attached nereto. 

ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL. 

It has been the policy of the Philippine civil service bureau to 
regard this bureau as the "insular clearing house" for engineers 
appointed to duty, either by the bureau of insular affairs, or through 
examination held at Manila. It has been expected that the needs 
of the various bureaus employing engineers would be understood, 
and that a proper distribution or appointees in conformity to the 
necessities or such bureaus would be made. This policy nas been 
met as fully as possible, although frequently experienced techincal 
men were not available. Efforts to secure for service in the islands 
recent graduates thoroughly trained in the principles of engineering 
have not been successful in the past, and tne demand has exceeded 
the supply. At present, however, the prospects of securing such 
asvsistants are more encouraging. The engineer of greatest use to 
the government should acquire, additional to* high technical effi- 
ciency, a working knowledge of the language and an acquaintance 
not only with local conditions, but also with the characteristics of 
the inhabitants. 

The demand upon the engineer has been for results rather than 
theories. Existing conditions offer to the young engineer oppor- 
tunities for valuable experience and reasonably rapid promotion. 
The development of public works in the islands has been somewhat 



220 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

crippled by the necessity of appointing men not sufficiently trained 
for the duties required. The bureau has been compelled to draw 
from its experienced men for filling technical positions required by 
other insular bureaus. It has been necessary to draw from the 
same source for the appointment of the provincial supervisors who 
are required by law to oe engineers. It nas also been necessary to 
detail assistant engineers to supervisorships made temporarily vacant 
by the supervisors who are taking advantage of accrued leave; also 
to detail engineers to provinces in which the office of supervisor does 
not exist, in order to take charge of public works when sufficient pro- 
vincial funds have been accumulated to make such detail desirable. 

The growth of the bureau measured by the somewhat unsatisfactory 
standard of correspondence handled is shown by the fact that at 
the beginning of the fiscal year about 500 communications were 
handled monthly, increasing to 1,500 at the close of the year. Meas- 
ured by the total money expended for the operation of the bureau 
alone, its growth is shown by the fact that while about $3,000 was 
expended monthly at the beginning of the fiscal year, this amount 
was increased to $9,600 at the end of the year. 

On account of these conditions all attempts to effect a permanent 
organization have been difficult to accomplish. It now appears 
that the work of the bureau is on a reasonably normal plane, and 
that the present organization will be more effective in discharging 
its duties and responsibilities. This organization consists of a 
subdivision of the bureau into the following general divisions: 

DIVISION OF RECORDS. 

(In charge of the chief clerk.) 

This comprises all office records, excepting maps and field books; 
all property; receiving and mailing of all correspondence; the prep- 
aration of all returns, vouchers, and reports on authorized forms, 
and the immediate supervision of all clerks, stenographers, messen- 
gers, and such additional laborers as are employed in connection 
with the main office. 

DIVISION OF SURVEYS. 

(In charge of the chief surveyor.) 

This comprises the preparation of general instnictions and methods 
of work for field parties engaged upon authorized surveys ^ and 
investigations; the organization, equipment, and prosecution of field 
work; the. careful examination of final maps, designs, estimates and 
reports connected therewith, excepting the special investigations 
assigned to experts, and the supervision of all assistant engineers and 
employees engaged on the works herein cited. 

DIVISION OF CONSTRUCTION. 

(In ohai*gc of the principal assistant engineer.) 

This comprises the preparation of typical designs; the completion 
of final designs and specifications; the preliminarjr organization of 
constructing parties, including inspection and testing of materials, 
and the prosecution of such works, whether under contract or by 
day labor, and the supervision of aU assistant engineers and employees 
as are engaged on the works herein cited, excepting such special 



RHPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 221 

construetions as are asai^ed to experts, and also excepting such 
works as are under authorization and prosecution by provincial 
boards. 

DIVISION OF DRAFTING. 

(In charge of the chief draftsman.) 

This includes the general work of mapping, computing, and design- 
ing, the indexing and filing of maps and field books, the reproduction 
of maps, the coUection of all available data on provincial boundaries 
and subdivisions, and the supervision of draftsmen and computers on 
the work herein cited. 

DIVISION OF PROVINCIAL SUPERVISORS. 

(In chaise of the chief of supervisors.) 

This comprises the general supervision of all supervisors, in so far 
as relates to the construction of roads and bridges and other engineer- 
ing works authorized by provincial boards, the receiving, checking, 
and tabulation of reports, mspection, examination of designs and con- 
tracts, the issuing ot typical desi^s and general instructions to pro- 
vincial supervisors, and the compilation of data and laws relating to 
roads, navigable waters, and pubUc works. 

DIVISION OF RAILROADS. 

(In chai-gc of the railroad engineer.) 

This comprises the examination of all points required by the pro- 
visions of the franchise under which railroads are now constructmg, 
of all proposals for franchises submitted through the commission, or 
immeaiate supervision of railroad surveys and mvestigations author- 
ized by the Commission, and of the compilation bearing upon the gen- 
eral subjects of location, construction, operation, and revenues, etc. 

Existing conditions demand the creation of two other divisions in 
the near future — one a division of irrigation, to be in charge of an irri- 
gation engineer, and the other a division of geography, to be in charge 
of a geographer. 

The importance of irrigation in the agricultural development of the 
islands is large. The experimental farms are needing more or less 
development along this line. The estates included in the recent friar 
lands purchase have large irrigating systems. These lands will be 
subject to subdivision and sale in the near future; the repair and 
control of irrigating works will pass from one party to several. It is 
desirable that the government nave general control of this subject. 
Conflicting private interests and requests for decision and for investi- 
gations have already arisen. A digest of existing laws, the formula- 
tion of practical laws controlling this subject, and the institution of 
an effective working system will require extended investigations. It 
is believed that provisions should be made for the establishment of 
this work in the near future. 

Information as to the interior geosraphy of the islands is deplorably 
deficient and inaccurate. The neea or good maps is large for use in 
development and administration, and the lack is more evident than 
in the united States before national surveys were initiated. Sources 
of information are almost entirely lacking. Various surveys are in 
progress by the constabulary, by tne military, by the forestry bureau, 
oy the bureau of public lands, and by the bureau of engineering, 



222 REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

including work accomplished by the supervisors. No one bureau is 
compiling these various results, and doubtless much duplication of 
works exists. It would be of considerable advantage and also a mat- 
ter of economy to compile data now available and to keep maps up to 
date. 

Correct topographic maps will be of great assistance in the preUm- 
inary planning of engineering works, such as railways, highways, the 
improvement of waterways, irrigation, the development of water 
power and of water supply, in mflitary operations both of the army 
and constabulary, in the administration or the government, for show- 
ing the extent of provinces and municipalities and the correct relation 
of towns, for the needs of the court of land registration, and for use in 
illustrating the resources of the islands, as pubhc lands, forestry, agri- 
cultural products and minerals, as well as for other practical and 
scientific purposes. It is beUeved that it would be economy to estab- 
lish the division of geography as outlined above, pending the prosecu- 
tion of a comprehensive topographical survev of the islands. 

The authorized personnel at the close of tne fiscal year was a con- 
sulting engineer, 1 principal assistant engineer (J. G. Holcombe), 1 
railroad engineer (C. H. Kendall, acting), 1 chief of supervisors (J. D. 
Fauntleroy), 1 chief surveyor (A. H. Higley), 1 geographer (vacant), 
1 chief draftsman (F. P. Keynolds, acting), 7 assistant engineers, 18 
transitmen (junior civil engineers), 1 chief clerk (F. R. Bonner), 7 
clerks, 7 junior draftsmen (native), 10 surveymen (native), and 2 
messengers (native), a total for the fiscal vear ending June 30, 1904, 
of 69 employees, of whom 42 are technical and 27 nontechnical men, 
an increase over the previous year of 35 technical and 20 nontechnical 
employees. Additional to the above force, an indefinite number of 
temporary employees may be engaged, whose aggregate salaries 
during the year shall not exceed ^12,000. 

The 12 different roads being constructed from insular funds under 
the direction of this bureau require the services of 10 superintendents, 
of whom 5 are provincial supervisors; 64 foremen, including bridge 
carpenters and blacksmiths, 20 clerks, and about 7,000 native 
laborers. 

EXPEXDITXTRES. . 

The following tabulation shows the appropriations received for the 
operation of the bureau in accordance with the general appropriation 
acts Nos. 807, 1010, and 1049, total expenditures for the fiscal year, 
and the amount reverting to the treasury at the close tjiereof : 

Money statement, Bureau of Enyineeringy fiscal year 1904. 
fPhilippIiM curroncy.] 



Appropriationa. 



Act 807, July 1, 1903 

Act 1010, November 27, 1903. 
Act 1049, January 1, 1904 



Total. 



Contin- Transpor- 1 Public ' SaUtriea 
g<ent. I tation. 1 works. andwagm. 



Expenditurca t 8,866.89 2,701.16 



P6,600.00 P2,400.00 r-24,000,00 1*'24,000.00 

' ' 12, 309. 40 

2,400.00 I 800.00 { 20,000.00 70,000.00 

9,000.00 • .3,200.00 



44,000.00 106,309.40 
36,439.05 104,838.19 



Reverting to treaaury 134.11 498.84 7,500.95 1,471.21 

Total amount appropiiated lfl62,5Q9L40 

Total amount expended 153, 844. 29 

Total amount reverting to.treasury 9,665.11 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 223 

INCIX>SUKBS. 

The reports of the raiboad engineer and the chief of supervisors, a 
map showing the principal provincial roads and trails, the roads under 
construction by the provisions of special acts of the Commission, and 
roads the survey of which have been authorized, all for the islands of 
Bohol, Cebu, Leyte, Luzon, Panay, Negros, and Samar, and 30 pho- 
to^phs accompany this report. 
Respectfully submitted. 

J. W. Beardsley, 
CoTisuUing Engineer to the Commission. 

Manila, P. I., September 26, 1904, 



BEPOBT 07 THE DITISIOK OF BAILBOABS. 

Manila, P. I., September 2i, 190^, 
Mr. J. W. Bbardsley, 

Constdting Engineer io ihi Commission, Manila , P. /. 

Sir: I have the honor io submit the fdllowmg report of the divisioQ of railroads, bureau of 
eiigineering, for tbe fiscal year ending June 90, 1904: 

Acts Nos. 554, 555, dated December 8, 1902, and 703, dated March 27, 1903, were passed 
during the preceding year, granting authority for the construction of the Cabanatuan 
Extension, tne Stotscnoerg Branch and Bayambang Biianch, and the Antipolo Extension, 
respectiveiy. These acts arc all similar, and of the nature of franchises. The Stotsenberg 
Branch was constructed and opened to the public the same year. 

During the past fiscal year tne location, plans, and profiles have been submitted in accord- 
ance with provisions of section 9 of the above-mentioned acts, to this office, and examined 
and approved for the other lines authorized, amounting to 117.56 kilometers, now either 
constructed or under construction. Nine inspection trips have been made for the examina- 
tion of routes, right of way problems, crossings, etc., and the inspection of completed road- 
bed, structures, and equipment prior to the approval of the opening of the same. The 
otiening to tbe public of two sections of the Cabanatuan Extension Las been authorized. 
New and revised tariffs for the islands have been enacted, and rules and regulations govern- 
ing the operations of all lines have been approved. Plans for a light tramway in Am bos Cam- 
arincs under provisions of Act 1111 have been approved. Map projections of several linos 
throughout the islands have been made, and data acauired for tne benefit of those interested 
in these projects, and with a view to further detailed study and field surveys in the near 
future. A survey has been authorized for the preliminary location of a line from lloilo across 
the island of Panay to Caniz, and to a point on Bataan Bay. This survey is at present being 
prosecuted. The revised base tariffs and conditions of application are attached herewith as 
an appendix, with also a synopsis of the rules and regulations, approved to date. 

Excepting the tramway provided for by Act No. 1111 , all construction and operation is at 
present under the management of one company, the Manila and Dagupan Railway Com- 
pany (Limited) . A brief history of this road will be interesting here in connection with the 
statistics and workings of the same. A concession for the main line of this railroad, from 
Manila to Dagupan, was issued as a royal decree April 29, 1885. It was awarded to Mr. 
Edmund Sikes Hett, the only bidder, by royal order, January 21, 1887. Construction com- 
menced in June, 1887, and was eventually completed May 20, 1894. The first company 
failed in August, 1890, and the present railway company purchased the road Aagast 15. 

The road was opened to public traffic as follows: First section, kilometer to kilometer 43, 
March 21, 1891; second section, kilometer 43 to kilometer 87, February 22, 1892; third sec- 
tion, kilometer 87 to kilometer 120, June 1, 1892; fourth section, kilometer 120 to kilometer 
196, November 23, 1892. 

In November, 1896, the native insurrection against the Spanish Government broke out, 
and against the United States troops February 24, 1899. The railroad was under United 
States military control from November 21, 1899, until April 20, 1900, when it was returned 
to the present management. Since this latter date the road has not only regained the 
traffic it had previous to the disturbed conditions owing to the insurrection, but has entered 
upon a perioa of prosperous growth. The rates incorporated in the royai decree were in 
effect until April 20, 1900, an increase then bein^ granted by military order. These rates 
operated until the inauguration of the revised tarm, January 1, 1904. 



224 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Tlio following data is given of the main line and of its branches. The general statistica of 
the traffic and operations of this road, as indicated and compared graphically, shows its 
rapid rise, and it is interesting to note the prominent part third-class passenger traffic has in 
the revenues of the road. The total passenger earnings are double the freight earnings, and 
95 per cent of this revenue is from the third-class passengers. The charts attached to thb 
report show the traffic and the revenues for the ten years of its open service. 

MAIN LINE, MANILA AND DAGUPAN IIAILWAY. 

The length of this line between termini is 196 kilometers; total length of tangent, 179.904 
kilometers; maximum tangent, 11.468 kilometers; total length of curvature, 15.487 kilo- 
meters; maximum curvature, 4^ 22'; average grade, 0.282 per cent; maximum grade, 
0.8888 per cent ; 155 masonry culverts, 0.5 to 2 meter spans; 184 Dents, pile bridges, 4.8-meter 
spans; 177 steel bridges, 3 to 30 meter spans; 101 stations and buildmgs. 

The gauge of main line and branches is 3 fecti6 inches. Forty-five-pound rails are used 
on main line, but 65-pound rails are required by the franchise previously quoted, and are 
being laid on the new lines. Six foot 8 by 5 mch Australian nard-wood tics, ''jarrah/' 
principally, are used throughout. 

THB CABANATUAN EXTENSION. 

The franchise was granted by Act 654, dated December 8, 1902, and was accepted Fcbru- 
ary5, 1903. 

The termini of this extension are: Bigaa Junction (a dj^tance of 27 kilometers from 
Manila), and Cabanatuan, province of Nueva Ecija (adistance of 91.5 kilometers). 

The location plans and profiles were examined and approved in accordance with the pro- 
visions of said act, section 9, as follows: Kilometer to kilometer 5, approved July 17, 
1903; kilometer 5 to kilometer 20, July 31, 1903; kilometer 20 to kilometer 43, October 16, 
1903; kilometer 43 to kilometer 58, April 5, 1904; kilometer58tokilomoter68,May 6, 1904; 
kilometer 68 to kilometer 78, May 24, 1904; kilometer 78 to kilometer 91 .5, May 25, 1904. 

CoBstructioD began July 11, sections of which were inspected and examined as follows: 
First seciioB, kilometer to kilometer 8 (Bigaa to Quingua), January 10, 1904; second sec- 
tion, kilometers to kilometer 17.5 (Quingua to Baliuag), March 22, 1904. 

Opening of com pie tedport ions was authorized as follows: First section, June 22, 1904; 
second section, March 28, 1904. Total length of tangent, 77.628 kilometers; maximum 
tangent, 8.714 kilometers; total length of curvature, 13.871 kilometers; maximum curva- 
ture, 5° 49^ for 420 meters, and 960 meters on 1° 45'; average grade, 0.379 and 0.600 per 
cent; maximum grade, 1.5 per cent for 660 meters, and 2,300 meters on 0.209 per cent; 22 
masonry culverts, 0.5 to 1 meter spans; 266 bents, pile bridges, 4.8-meter spans; 41 steel 
bridges, 3 to 30 meter spans. 

ANTIPOLO EXTENSION. 

The franchise was granted Manh 27, 1903, and was accepted May 23, 1903. 

The termini of this line are Manila and Antipolo, with a total length of about 40 kilo^ 
meters. 

The location plans and profiles were examined and approved, in accordance with the piY>- 
visions of said act, section 9, as follows: Kilometer to kilometer 5, approved October 22, 
1903; kilometer 4) to kilometer 9.1, November 9, 1903; kilometer 9.1 to kilometer 16.9 
(Pasig .station), March 30, 1904; kilometer to kilometer 4.12 (Pasig to Mariquina), 
March 30, 1904 ; kilometer (equals 2.723 of above ) to kilometer 4.64 (Rosario to Tay tay ), 
March 30, 1904; kilometer to kilometer 0.423 (Ramal to Rio Pasig), March 30, 1904. 

The plans and profiles from Marquina to Antipolo have not been submitted to date. 

Construction began November 16, 1903, and is still in progress. 

Total length of tangent, 20.685 kilometers; maximum tangent. 4.086 kilometers: total 
length of curvature, 5.434 kilometers; maximum curvature, 8° 44' for 184 meters and 553 
meters on 5^ 49'; average grade, 0.340 and 1.391 per cent; maximum grade, 2 per cent 
for 300 meters, and 1,900 meters on 0.5 per cent; 13 masonry culvert3, 0.5 to 1.5 meter 
spans; 50 bents, pile bridges, 4.8-meter spans; 32 st«el bridges^ 3 to 20 meter spans. 

STOTSENBERO BRANCH. 
(Province of Pampanga.) 

Tlie franchise was granted by Act 555, dated December 8, 1902, and accepted Febru- 
ary 5, 1903. 

The termini are Dau (83 kilometers from Manila) and the military post at Stotsenberg, 
a distance of about 8 kilometers. 

Construction began January 19, 1903, and the line was opened to military traflSc March 
18, 1903, and to the public on May 15, 1903. Inspection trips were made March 7 and 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 225 

August 19, 1903, and the final complGtion September 3, 1903. This is operated for the 
convenience and benefit of the military post at Camp Stotsenberg. 

Total length of tangent, 5.906 kilometers; maximum tangent, 1.870 kilometers; total 
length of curvature, 1.154 kilometers; maximum curvature, 8^ 44' for 335 meters, and 369 
meters on T 57'; average grade, 1.42i9 per cent; maximum grade, 1.806 per cent for 1,440 
meters, and 1,900 meters on 1.526 per cent. 

BAY AM BANG BRANCIf. 

. This branch was authorized by Act 555, dated December 8, 1902, with termini at Bavam- 
Imng station (about IfH kilometers from Manila) and the militair post at Camp Ureig, 
with length of about 3 kilometers. It has not yet been constructed. 

The accounts and statistics of the company arc rendered by calendar years, therefore 
no attempt has been made to change such reports to fiscal years. 

The following is a st-atement of the traffic of the company lines for the year 1903 (Philip- 
pine ruiTency h Total revenues, 1^1,587,854.92, being an increase over 1902 of 1*349,619.87; 
working expenses, 1^693,007.13, being an increase over 1902 of ^168,162.96 (included 
in the working expenses, taxea were not included in the working expenses of 1902; for taxes, 
1^49,769.51; for duties, P' 13,207.66); percentage of working expenses to gross receipts, 
43.64; total passenger revenue, l*i, 0-18,049.93; revenue per passenger traffic per kilo- 
meter, ^2.82; passenger revenue per kilometer of road, 1*5,866.22; total freight revenue, 
1*387,185.39; revenue per freight train per kilometer, ^"2.08; freight earnings per kilo- 
meter of road, F2,165.98; average haul per passenger, 33.26 kilometers; average naul per 
ton of freight, 94.52 kilometers. 

Tlie equipment consists of 32 engines, 101 coaches (various), 547 freight cars and wagons 
(various). 

The number of accidents during 1903 were 4 of Class A (serious), 4 of Class B (not 
serious), and 91 of Class C (minor). 

The revenue from traffic for the first half of 1904, from January 1 to .Tunc 30, 1904, over 
the main line, has been as follows: 

Passengers 1*474,817.37 

Express freight 41 , 675. 95 

Ordinary freight 264,469.73 

Military transport 52, 672. 70 

Others 97,027.24 

Stotsenberg Branch (total) 10,397.65 

Cabanatuan Extension, first two sections ' 20, 070. 93 

Total 961,131.57 

The following difl|ptims attached to this report show graphically the business of the road, 
and a few photographs are added showing some of the construction features of the line : 

Diagram No. 1.— Groas rec<^ipts, expenditures, and surplus, 1893-1903, inclusive. 

Diaeram No. 2. — Comparative train earnings from passenger, freight, and military trans- 
portation for 1901, 1902, 1903, and six months of 1904. 

Diagram No. 3. — Comparative train earnings by months, 1897-1003. 

Diagram No. 4. — Comparative diagram of classified passenger traffic, 1893-1903, inclu- 
sive. 

Diagram No. 5. — Comparative diagram of classified freight tonnaeje, 1893-1903, inclusive. 

Digram No. 6. — Comparative diagram of classified train kilometerage, 1893-1903, 
inclusive. • « 

Accompanying this report is a map showing the lines operated, under construction, and 
projected on the island of Luzon, and a map of the projected n)ut^ now being surveyed 
across island of Panay. 

The rout« from Manila to Batangas and Lucena (alwut 110 miles), with a branch to 
Santa Cruz from Calamba and an extension from Lucena to Antimonan on the Pacific 
coast, passes through large market centers and a very populous, wealthy, and productive 
country. This will pay from the l)eginning of operation, and presents no serious engineer- 
ing difficulties in construction. It is a much-needed system and is one particularly inviting 
to capital. 

The railway system for the great hemp and copra country of Anibos Camarines and 
Albay, from "Pasacao to Nueva Caoeres and Legaspi, with extensions to Tobaco and to 
Laganoy Gulf (about 150 miles of line), is next in importance and could be easily con- 
structed. These two systems should be connected, thus giving an all-rail route to Manila 
from Albay (alwut 275 miles), enabling a trip to be made in t<»n hours with good service. 
It now requires three days to make the trip by a long water route and a much longer period 
by land transportation. 

WAR 1904— VOL 13 15 



226 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

The route from Iloiilo to Capiz might be mentioned as second to the above lines in < 
of construction and as a profitable investment, aside from the great })enefit to the island. 

The route from Dagupan up the west coast of Luzon to Loag and Claveria (about 200 
miles) is through a rich and thickly populated agricultural district, with a laige tributary 
traffic in sight. Tlie large amount of bndging along this line will make it a more expenaivo 
one than those previously mentioned. 

A continuation of the' Cabanatuan Extension northward to Aparri (about 275 miles) 
passes through the vast timlx'r and mineral section of the central north and down the 
Cagavan Valley, famous for its tobacco, rice, and com. This route presents some expen- 
sive features in construction, but its importance to the island as a civilizing factor in devel- 
oping this great territory aiid opening up ctirect communication with the tobacco valley 
warrants government support in its construction, if necessary. 

Another route needed is from Antipolo east to the Pacific coast (about 35 miles), or an 
extension of the proposed hue to Santa Cruz eastward to the coast. 

To the south of Lu?on coastal roads are practicable throughout the length of the larger 
islands. The present development and existing traffic make these routes desirable, par- 
ticularly on the islands of Cebu, Negros, and Leyte. 

One of the most important and perplexing engineering questions relative to t-he e)cten- 
sion of insular railroads is that of a uniform gauge. A continuity of railroad .systems and 
uniformity of gauge are essential and necessary for commercial interests. The experi- 
ences of all countries using two or more gauges, anci the opinion^ of all railroad men, condemn 
the use of various gauges in the same system or connecting systems of roads. 

The gauge to be adopted should be one suited to the present and to the future class and 
volume of the traffic, likely to be conveyed thereon, and one that will adequately meet 
the public demand regarding speed and accommodation with the greatest efficiency and 
economy. Each country has physical features, products, and traffic conditions peculiar 
to itself, and these have to bo studied and comprehended by railroad men in ascertaining 
the gauge and standards that will give the best service and returns for the money inv^^sted. 

In the United States, Canada, England, and in most countries of Europe, kussia and 
Spain excepted, the standard track gauge is 4 feet 8} inches, which is fast becoming the 
standard or tlie commercial world. But in the oriental countries we find the narrow-gauge 
not only popular, but admirably suited to the existing conditions, and in many instances 
to the exclusion of all others. 

• Data concx«ming the gaugis used in the nioro important oriental countries, and the 
opinions of representative railroad men, follows: 

South Africa has about 6,000 miles of 3 feet 6 inches gauge and finds it sufficient for its 
needs, notwithstanding its large volume of mining traffic. The first railroad built tliere 
was 4 feet 8J inches gauge, and was after^'ards changed to the narrow-gauge. Egypt has 
about 1 ,400 milrs of 4 fe«'t 8J inches gauge and 200 miles of narrow-gauge. Last year 
about 60 miles of the narrow-gauge was changed to the standard. 

Ill India the English Government has a very complete and well-controUed system that 
has created and developed the enormous traffic of that country. Three gauges are in vogue. 
Tliere are 14,346 miles of 5 feet 6 inches gauge; 11,246 miles of meter gauge (3 feet 3i 
inches), and 968 miles of 2 feet 6 inches gauge. In addition, 566 miles of road was under 
construction the past year, and 1,107 miles of new fines sanctioned, about equally divided 
between the broad and the narrow-^uge. Mr. C. F. Street, a prominent engineer, after 
inspecting this extensive system, saA*s: 

" The 5 feet <i-inches gauge was the first introduced, but it was soon found that many roads 
could not be made to pay operating expenst'S, and it was decided to use the met^r gauge 
in building some new roads and also to change the gauge of some of that built 5 feet 6 
inclj^s, in order to lessen the expense of operation. The South India road is a notable 
example of the latter, as it was originally 40 to 50 miles long and with a 5 feet 6 incli« s 
gauge, and did not pay expenses in the hands of a private company. The India Gorem- 
ment agreed to guarantee interest on the bonds of this road if the gauge was changed to 
one met<T and tlie line ext(*nded. This was done, and at tlie present time the road is 
doing a lai^ business, and it is found that the nieUT is too narrow to carry it economically. 
This has occurn»d in one or two other places in India, and in some places they have the 
meter gauge where they should have the 5 feet 6 inches, and in other plac< s they have the 
5 feet 6 inches and should have the meter, and I think the general opinion is that it was 
a great mistakethat the 4 fe<»t 8J inches gauge was not originally adopted." 

The small but important island of Ceylon has 331 mil<^ of 5 feet 6 inches gauge and 36 
miles of meter gauge. Java is an island about 800 miles long and 2(X) miles wide, with 
a population of 23,000,000. It has some 1,500 miles of government (Dutch) railroads 
of 3 iiH't 6 inches gauge and only 30 miles of 4 feet 8i inches gauge. 

The Siberian liailway and the Chinese Eastern are of 5-ft»et gauge. The Korean Railway, 
the Imperial railways of northern China, and the new Canton-IIankow Line are 4 fwt 
H\ inches gauge. Of the 3,000 miles of railways in Japan, the gauge is universally 3 feet 



REPOET OF THE PHILIPMNB COMMISSION. 227 

6 inches, 500 miles being Govrnunent lines. All the railways of Central America wid 
nearly all the lines of the countries of South America are narrow-gaugr, the 3 feet G inches 
and meter gauges predominatjing. The Hawaiian Islands ha^e the 3-feet gauge. 

In the Australian countries, the '^warfare of gauges" has been waged for years, and 
in I9d2 the- goiiremment adopted the 3 feet 6 inches for the new Transcontinental Railway. 
Foilowing^is the mileage and gauges of these countries- in operation in 1-903 and the opiuions 
of the various representatives of these lines: 



Country. 



Queensland... 

Nfew South Wales.. 
Victoria 

South Australia 

Western Australia. 
NtowZeaiand 



Mileage, ' Gauge. 



. _ . 


. . 




FL in. 


2,711 


3 6 


a.r» 


4 8i 


3,335 


5 3 


1,229 


3 6 


507 


5 3 


1.720 


3 6 


2,291 


3 6 


500 


3 6 



Mr. A- C. Pendleton, railways commissioner, Adelaide, South Australia, says: 

"The 3 feet 6 inches gauge was adopted by this Government for the proposed Transconti- 
nental Railway, because a great portion of our northern railway system is already on the 
3 feet 6 inches gauge, which also is the gauge in the State of Queensland, adjoining the 
northeastern part of South Australia. 

"The railway system in the southern parts of South Australia is on the 5 feet 3 inches 
gauge, as is also the whole of the railway system in Victoria; while in New South Wales 
only there exists at present a 4 feet SJ inches gauge." 

Mr. llenry C. Stanley, chief engineer, Queensland railways, says: 

" Our standard gau^e and the only one in use on the government lin s is 3 feet 6 inches. 
Economy of first cost m view of having to surmount a coastal range involving heavy works 
was what decided the authorities originally to fix our gauge at 3 feet 6 inches." 

Mi*. U. McLachlan, secretary railway conunission, New South Wales, says: 

"The gauge throughout New South Wales on the State railways is 4 feet 8i inches, 
and the conuuissioners strongly sufiport the adoption of tliat gauge throughout Austri^a. 
Tliis gauge was adopted in the first instance when- railwa^p were established hero forty-four 
years agoy and it was deemed by the authoritiea then m- power to be the most suitable 
gauge for a modem railway." 

Mr. F. Rennick, engineer in chief railways construction branch of the board of land 
and works, Victoria, says: 

"Profiting by the experience of America, the best general gauge is, in my^ opinion, the 
world's standard, 4 feet 8^ inches, and where the mileage of 3 feet 6 inches yet constructed 
in an^ country is small compared with the mileage which may be reauired, the conversion 
of thisto the standard gauge might be advisable, not otherwise. Tnc 3 feet 6- inches is 
a good gauge, and experience shows that a large trafiic and fair speed — up to 60 miles as a 
maximum — may be reached, as engines up to 45 or 60 twns (exclusive of tender) may bo 
used. Tlie saving in cost of cx>nstruction compared with 4 feet Si inches is, however, 
trifling,. American experience showing that the curves may be as sharp on the 4 feet 8^ 
inches as on the 3 feet 6 inches^" 

Mr. A- B. MoncriefF, engineer in chief South Australian railways, South AustraUa, says: 

"The 5 feet 3 inches gauge was introduced into this province about forty-three years 
ago, because of the report of the Irish commission about that time, and further because 
there was an understanding that 5 feet 3 inches was to bo the niling gauge for Australia. 
After some years it was found that the 5 feet 3 inches gauge was unsuitable for develop- 
ing the sparaely populated districts, and from an economical standpoint the narrow-gauge 
was adopted anci has proved satisfactory for tlio work it was intended to do. Tlie whole 
trade from Broken UiU to the seaboard is now conducted over a railway of tiiis gauge on 
a single line, bringing at least twelve trains each way every day, the passing places being 
on an average 9 miles apart. In my opinion, the 3 feet 6 mchcs gauge train is admirably 
suited for developing country dealing with farm produce, sheep, cattle, and minerals." 

Mr. T. lionaync general manager, New Zealand government railways, New Zealand, 
says : 

" When the general government undertook the construction of railways, a uniform gauge 
of 3 feet 6 inches was adopted, and the short fines which had been constructed to the wider 
gauge were altered. The reason for adopting the narrower gauge was a financial one. On 
portions of the line where grades and alignment are good our trains frequently reach a 
speed of 45 miles per hour, and our principal mixed trains have a time-table speed of from 
17 to 20 miles per hour. With a well-maintained fine of 3 feet 6 ineht s gauge, and with 



228 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

cunrcs of large radius, I see no reason why speeds of from 30 to 45 miks'pcr hour should 
not be generally run. At the present time there is an agitation in this colony to adopt for 
the more sparsely settled districts, a still narrower gauge, viz, one of 2 feet or 2 feet 6 
inches, but there are great objections to this proposal on account of the difficulties in 
working, incidental on break of gauge. With the grade of 3 feet 6 inches, and a minimum 
curve of 12 chains radius and a grade of 1 in 75, and a 65 or 70 pound steel rail, weU- 
sleepercd, an. efficient line can bo constructed capable of carrying a very large traffic; and, 
where necessary, at considerable speeds.'' 

Mr. F. Back, general manager Tasmanian railways, Tasmania, says: 

''The first line built in the colony was 5 feet 3 inches gauge, but it was found that the 
traffic was so limited that a cheaper class of line would be sufficient. The 3 feet 6 inches 
gaugp was therefore finally adopted as being more economical and quite equal to the 
requirements of the colony. The limits of grades is 1 in 40 with curves of 5 chains radius. 
Our passenger trains are able to maintain a speed of 30 miles an hour, although our ordinary 
trains are timed to a much lower speed." 

At a recent biennial conference of the British Institute of Engineers, all the speakers 
were unanimous in advocating the standard gauge for all light nulway construction, and 
contended that there was no material advantage or important saving in adoi)ting a na]> 
rower gauge. American engineers confidently agree to construct as economically, lines 
with the standard gauge as are being constructed with the narrower gau^e, thereby giving 
eniployment to American railroad men and to standard methods, materials and equipment. 

Kcspcctfully submitted. 

Chas. H. Kendall, 
Acting Railroad Engineer. 

MANILA AND DAGUPAN RAILWAY. 

PART FIRST-BASE TARIFFS. 

Chapter I. — General conditions ]or the apjjiication of tariffs. 

Article 1 . In no case and under no pretext whatever shall higher prices be charged than 
those specified in the maximum tariffs. 

Art. 2. The company may at any time establish lower tariffs than the maximum rates, 
provided the conditions of this order are complied with. 

Art. 3. All discrimination in favor of any person, company, locality, industry, as also the 
imposition of any unjust prejudice or inconvenience to any person, company, locality, indus- 
try, or merchandise, are hereby prohibited. 

Art. 4. In exceptional and extraordinair casrs the consulting engineer, with the approval 
of the sccnjtary of commerce and police, shall have power to authorize in writing, specially 
in each case, temporary exceptions to the general conditions of the application of rates. 

Art. 5. The general as well as the specialconditions established in particular cases which 
imply a reduction of the tariffs must oe of such a nature that they may be generally* acces- 
sible to all under equal conditions. 

Art. 6. Tlie company shall not in any case charge rates whicli have not been announced 
to the public ten days previous to their adoption. 

Art. 7. The copies in Spanish and Englisn of rates approved by governmental authority 
for the transportation of passengers,' baggage, packages, freight, and live stock shall ble 
posted by the company in prominent places in each of its stations ten davs before such rates 
shall go into effect and they shall also be published in Spanish and ETnglish newspapers, 
respectively, of general circulation for three consecutive days ten days before the same shall 
go into effect. 

Art. 8. The company may refuse to transport any package or parcel containing goods of 
a dan^rous nature or the transportation of which shall be prohioited by the government. 

Art. 9. Reduced rates for the transportation of merchandise shall not be raised for sixty 
days after having been put in force, except when authorized by proper authority. 

Art. 10. The company shall l3e entitled to issue commutation tickets, return tickets, and 
excursion tickets between stations at reduced prices. 

Art. 11. The company shall not grant free tickets or reduced rates nor transport pa&sen- 
gers at prices or conditions different from those contained herein. 

Art. 12. The company may grant free transportation or reduced rates to objects and 
merchandise destined to or proceeding from fairs, expositions, exhibitions, and in other 
similar cases. 

Art. 13. Tlie company may grant free transportation or reduced rates to all pt^rsons with- 
out means, shelter, or homes; to grant free transportation or reduced rates also lor charitable 
objects or in cases of floods or other public calamities. 




/W3 /89i fBBS W9e f^^ I8$3 fif99 ^Sfi^ /*V f$^2 /SOJ 
YEAR S. 

^^^Expenditure. E^^^ Surp/us. 



DIAGRAM SHOWING GROSS RECEIPTS, EXPENDITURES, AND SURPLUS, 
MANILA AND DAGUPAN RAILWAY, MANILA. 




y£A RS. 

kVSvVVV^VV^ Passenger. Illllllllllllllll Military TranzportaHon.eft. 

^^^ Frei^M-. 



DIAGRAM SHOWING COMPARATIVE EARNINGS, MANILA AND DAGUPAN RAILWAY, MANILA. 



J*^/)/MJj 



IfJORtf^f^ /llilgy^crj 



i^a^aaaF . 



t it/in n/i/l f. 



j^AfcrdfflgJ? 



^ ^i^^iaf. 



,*tiAaoaP 



UIIHIMI imilH!! 



I omiiiiiMimmiUHl! 



iliittimiimimiiimiim 



iiiiJiiiii 

Ifllimni!!!! 



ilSilli 



llinil!!!!!!! nimnnn! ! 



i !!!!!!!! nil! >!!!!!•"! 



Hi m 



iiiiiiiiHiiiiMimiiiiMiiii 



y^(tmi 



mm litillillll il lli!'lii!llillii!l !iy 
lilllli ijlllilllill {l !il!ll{||l|J!!!i!Ji!JI' 



ES^3/^^/a 



'^(2/CAs5. |IIIIIIIIIIIIID3^C/^. 



^ss 



DIAGRAM SHOWING NUMBER OF PASSENGERS CAR- 
RIED, MANILA AND DAGUPAN RAILWAY, MANILA. 



. 2^,000 r. 



^nqitanr 



J^QiXiT. 



jsqaaoT 









Jj^^JrtflT- 



^^llllllMfi 



JiilSIP 







ii^lllllB 
i'dlilliiiiiffib! 



^r^^ 




:^- 



y^- 



ToSacco 
m&ZSiM Timber 8^ Building Maten'sl. 

DIAGRAM SHOWING NUMBER OF TONS OF FREIGHT 
HAULED, MANILA AND DAGUPAN RAILWAY, 
MANILA. 



1897 



1896 











L^^ 



REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 229 

Art. 14. The company may transport free of charge oTat reduced rates their own 
inployces and officers or the employees and officers of other roads. 

Art. 15. Free tickets shall be issued only by the president or b^ the general manager. 
lie general superintendents of different departments may pass their immediate employees 
fhen in discharge of their duties. 

Art. 16. All goods, live stock, and other objects not specified in the tariff shall bo consid- 
ered, for the collection of freight, as belonging to the class which they most resemble. 

Art. 17. Theratfs^veninthetariffaronot applicable to any object weighing more than 
;1 ,50O kilograms or which exceeds the dimensions of the rolling stock. 

Art. 18. Fragile or brittle articles, unprotected, improperly packed, or perishable, will 
' not be received for conveyance unless accompanied by an "owner's risk'* note, which shall 
relieve the company from all responsibility except damage arising from its negligence. 

Art. 19. The price for the transportation of any merchandise shall not b3 less than 35 
cents if by passenger train and 25 cents if by a freight. 

Art. 20. In the event of goods and effects transported by the company rem.aining in the 
stations more than the time necessary for their removal as prescribed herein the company 
is authorized to charge for storing the same as per tariff. 

Art. 21. Tlie company is authorized to make application before the justice of the peace 
of the district wherein the station is situated for tne sale at public auction of all articles of 
freight or ba^age delivered to or transported by the company which may have remained at 
such station for two months or over and not been called for by the owner or consignee. In 
the bcforementioned cases, or when the owner or consignee can not be found or is unknown, 
or shall refuse to receive the goods transported or pay the cost of transport, application may 
be made by the company to the justice of the peace for an order to sell at public auction 
within two days those goods which are of a perishable nature and within ten days those not 
subject to deterioration. The proceeds of sale shall go first to defray the cost and expenses 
of said sale, and then to the account of freight and charges of the railroad company on said 
goods, and the balance, if there be any, shall be deposited with said judge at the disposition 
of the person who may have right to the same. 

Art. 22. The company may refuse, unless freight be prepaid, to transport empties, pei> 
ishable goods, and goods whose small value would be insufficient to cover freight on same. 
Art. 23. In the case of refusal, neglect, or delay in payment of the cost and expenses 
of trans[)Ortation and conduction of freight over the whole length or any part of the fine, 
the company shall have the right to detain the same until such time as amount due shaJl 
be paid. If the payment of rates or transportation on goods should not be effected within 
fifteen days, the company may apply for their sale at public auction to the justice of the 
peace for the district wherein the station is situated, who may order the total or partial 
sale of said goods in sufficient amount to cover expenses, costs, and transportation charges. 
Art. 24. For the delivery of goods, live stock, and any other freight at destination the 
consignee should present the receipt given by the company on shipment ; failing this the 
goods, live stock, or other freight will only be delivered by the company on proof of owner- 
ship or identity. 

Art. 25. Perishable goods, ice, fresh fish, oysters and other shell fish, butter, milk, eggs, 
bread, poultry, fresh meat, game, and all otner eatables of a perishable nature will only 
be transported prepaid, and if not received by the consignee within a reasonable time, 
shall be sold by the company or destroyed, proceeds of sale to be applied as per article 21. 
Art. 26. The company will not be responsible for loss of or damage to any articles unless 
the same be signed for as received by duly authorized clerks or agents, ana every consign- 
ment of goods when delivered for transmission by railway must be accompanied by a 
consignment note, signed bv the sender or some authofized person on his behalf, as a guar- 
anty of the correctness of the information furnished therein. The consignee shall be 
liable for any false description. The goods must be well and securely packed and plainly 
and legibly marked or addressed with the name and address of the consignee and the name 
of the railway station to which they are to be dispatched. 

Art. 27. Shortages or damages to goods, live stock, or other freight must be reported 
to the station agent before the goods, live stock, or other freight have been accepted by 
the consignee. The consignee accepting same without acknowledgment of complaint in 
writing by station agent relieves tne company from all responsibility for shortages or 
damages. 

Art. 28. Consignments of watches, jewelry, precious stones, gold or silver coin or bullion, 
WUs, bank notes, securities, stamps, and title deeds shall not oe accepted for conveyance 
by freight trains, but must be forwarded by passenger trains, and will be charged for at 
tariff for money and valuables. 

Art. 29. The company or its agents may refuse to receive for shipment any goods 
xindescribed or insufficiently described or addressed, and the right is reserved by the com- 
pany and its agents to inspect all such goods before accepting the same for shipment; 
and for this purpose, if considered necessary, any package must be opened by the sender 
at his own expense. 



230 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Art. 30. Tbe companj Rhall be exempt from ftU responsibility for contents of packages 
under seal or in sealed cars if delivered in the same condition as received with seals intaet. 

Art. 31. Consignees can not refuse to receive perishable freight and live stock on non- 
working days. 

Art. 32. Tlie company will not be responsible for any loss or damage oecuning to gobda 
consisting of a variety of articles in the same package liable by breakage to damage each 
other or other articles, or damage arising from leakage due to bad vessek or bad co<^ra^ 
or to fermentation. 

Art. 33. Tlie company is not bound to forward nonperishable goods from any station 
by llie first or succeeding train; or to send a car from one station to another with less 
than 1 ton. 

Art. 34. The company does not guarantee arrival or delivery of any goods or live stock 
(perishable or otherwise) at any particular time by any particular train or for any particular 
market. 

Art. 35. Whenever ''freight cars" are mentioned they shall, unless otherwise specified, 
be taken to mean four-wheel cars of 7-ton capacity, and whenever rates are quoted for 
goods in carload lots the minimum load shall, unless otherwise specified, be reckoned as 
tor a four-wheel car of 7 tons capacitv. 

Bogie cars, series VB and JB, shall be taken as equal to two 4-wheel care and three 
4-wlieel cars, respectively. 

Art. 30. It shall be obligatory for the company, by means of its agents or employees, 
to affix checks or tags to every pareel of ba^^age delivered to such agents or employeea 
for transportation, a^ a duplicate of such che& or tag shall be ^ven to the paasenger 
delivering same. If the company does not comply with this obligation no fare or toll 
shall be received from such passenger, and if such passenger has already paid same it shaU 
be returned on demand. 

Art. 37. The company shall have a lien on aS goods received and shipped for the pay- 
ment of freight chaiges due on the same, and in the case of tlie failure by the owner or 
consignee to pay, the goods .shall be .sold in accordance with article 21 . 

Art. 3H. A person who is injured by reason of being on tbe platform of a car, or on any 
baggage, wood, or freigltt car, in violation of tbe printed regulations in force at the time, 
ana without the consent of the company or its employees, shall not claim damages for such 
injuries. 

Art. 39. Only duly authorized employees shall be considered as k'gally representing 
the company in treating with the public and in effecting receipt and dehvory ol freight of 
all kinds. 

Persons exclusively employed for manual or mechanical labor sliall not be considered 
as legally representing the company with tlie public in the receipt or delivery of freight 
of any kind. 

Art. 40. Any person or corporation who makes a contract for transportation, passenger 
or freight, with the company, shall be understood to accept and l)e boi*nd by the rules imd 
conditions established herein, and in no case will alleged ignorance or inobservance of the 
said rules and conditions be admitted. 

Art. 41. AH dama^, loss, or deterioration during transportation sliall be on account 
and at risk of owner m fortuitous cases, or when caused by "force majeure" or when due 
to nature or faultineas inherent in the freight or mechaudise carried. 

PART SECOND— RATES. 



Art. 42. All rates shall be made in Plulippine currency, and payments shall be made 
in such currency, or in that of the United States at the rate of two u>r one. 

Fractions of a cent, one-half or greater than one-half, shall be chai^d as 1 cent, but if 
less than one-half shall not be chared. 

The unit of distance sliall be the kilometer, and any fraction thereof shall be considered 
as I kilometer. 

The unit of volume shall l)e the cubic meter. 

Tlie unit of weight shall l)C the kilogram, and the ton shall consist of 1,000 kilograms 
or 2 cubic meters for merchandise marked T. M. (ton measurement) in the approved 
classification. 

otaxdard Ti>rE. 

Art. 43. Manila observatory time shall be the standard b^ which all tlie clocks on the 
line shall be regulated. 



B£PORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



231 



CiiAPTBB I. — Passen^rs. 
Akt. 44. Rates for ftdult passengeis shall \)e, per kilometer: 



First Second TWrd 
class. ' class, class. 



I Cents. 

Trom I to 50 Wtometerff, lnclnniv« 5.80 

Yiom&l ta 120 kilometere, inchwive 4.60 

From 121 kilometers upward 4. 20 



Cents. 
3.80 
3w40 
2.9U 



AsT. 45. Children under 3 years o{ age who do no4 occupy a seat are not requfred to pay. 
Children from 3 to 9 sliall pay one-half the rate paid by adults, and two cluldreu over 3 
and under d shall be entitled fco one seat. 

Abt. 4(ju Passengers sliail obtain their tickets before entering the train. 

Art. 47. Oa each ticket shall be printed the names of starting station and deelination, 
di^a of coach to which it corresponds^ number; price^ dat«,'and number of ti-ain, said ticket 
beiiig only valid for the train, date^ and destination stated. 

Art. 48. Tlie sale of tickets shall commence at least half an hour before the train starts, 
and thfi ticket offices shall be closed two minutes before train is dispatched. 

Art. 49. Passengers shall show their tickets when requested to do so by the proper 
employees of the company and should keep same until arriral at destination, there to 
be handed to ticket collector. 

Art. 50. Passengers found traveling without tickets shall be required to pay the regula' 
fikce^ with an overcharge of 20 cents. 

Art. 51. Passengers found traveling in a coach of a class higher than that specified on 
ticket shall be required to pay the difTcrence in fare between tlie two classes wnth an over- 
charge of 20 cents, unless advice shall have been previously ^ven to the station agent or 
ticket re visor that they desire to travel in another and superior class; in which case, pro- 
Yided there is accommodation on the train, only the difference in fare shall.be collected 
by the ticket revisor, who will issue a supplementary ticket to be given up at end of journey. 

Art. 52. Any passenger traveling beyond destination marked on ticket will only pay 
the excess corresponding to the increased distance traveled when the ticket revisor snau 
have been duly informed of such intention before train loaves the station to which ticket 
is valid. If such required information is not given, the excess fare shall be collected with 
an overcharge' of 20 cents. 

Art. 53. Passengers are not allowed to take dogs or any other pet animals or birds in 
the coaches. 

Art. 54. Intoxicated persons, or persons carrying loaded firearms or packages which, 
hj reason of their contents, shape, size, or odor w^ould constitute a danger or annoyance 
to other passengers, shall not be permitted to enter the coaches. 

Art. 55. P&ssengers have the right to demand that the employees of the company shall 
eiect from the coaches all persons who, by bad conduct, bftd language, or actk>us, offend 
them, or who cause disturbances or discomfort. 

Art. 56. Elvery passenger who> refuses to pay his fare may, bv the conductor of the train 
and employees of the compaav, be put out of the train with his baggage at .the next station, 
the conductor first stopping the tram and using no unnecessaiy force. 

Art. 57. It is strictly proliibited: 

First. To enter or leave the coaches by any other way than tlu'ough the doors. 

Secood. To change from one coach to another or lean out of same whilst the train is 
in motion. 

Third. To enter or leave the coaches, not being in a station. 
. Fourth. To get on or off the coaches when the train is in motion. 

Art. 58. Passengers on pui"chaaing tickets must ascertain that tickets given are as 
requested and that change given is correct before leaving ticket window. No claim made 
by passengers after leaving the window for sale of tickets will be allowed. 

Art. 59. Should a passenger from any cause desist from the trip before the departure 
of the train, the company shall reimburse the amount of ticket to its owner at the same 
window or office at which it was sold. After the departure of the train the company will 
reimburse the holder of the ticket onl^r at the office of tne general manager upon presentation, 
with the least possible delay of sufficient proof of the validity of the claim. 

Art. 60. Passengers desiring to occupy a separate compartment should request same 
from statio 1 mas'^^er one hour before the train leaves, and pay for all the seats of said com- 
partment at tariff prices. This circumstance does not permit a greater number of pas- 
sengers to travel in said compartment than the regulation number of seats. 

Abt. 61. Spitting in any car of the company in strictly prohibited. 



232 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Chapter II. — Baggage. 

Art. 62. Rates per 100 kilograms and per kilometer: From 1 to £0 kilometers, inclusive^ 
4 cents; 51 to 120 kilometers, inclusive, 1 .60 cents; 121 kilometers upward, 1 cent. 

Art. 63. No distance will be considered of less than 20 kilometers. No fraction will be 
considered of less than 10 kilograms. No charge less than 35 cents shall be made. 

Art. 64. Passengers holding full tickets shall be entitled to the free transportation of 50 
kilograms or less of personal baggage for first-class passengers and 30 kilograms or less for 
other passengers; children holding half tickets shall be entitled to one-half the weights 
granted to adults. 

Art. 65. The rates for baggage shall be applied to the excess weight over the herein men- 
tioned 50 and 30 kilograms. 

Art. 66. The receipt of baggage will commence not later than one-half hour before the 
train's departure. 

Art. 67. All baggage must, to admit of it being checked, be presented at stations at least 
five minutes before the departure of the train by which it is required to forward same. 

Art. 6S. By personal baggage is to be understood ordinary wearing apparel, bicycles, and 
such articles as may be required by persons practicing any profession or trade, it being fur- 
ther understood that such articles shall only be accepted by the company when contained in 
such receptacles as will safely contain the same for purposes of transportation. 

Art. 69. The company sliall not be liable beyond tne extent of $200 Philippine currency 
for each 50 kilograms of weight of such baggage unless the owner thereof shall, upon offering 
the same for transportation, declare the contents thereof and pay therefor by way of insur- 
ance one-eighth of 1 per cent extra on such declared value for the additional amount of 
responsibility to be assumed by the company in case of loss. 

Art. 70. Passengers may carry with them in the coaches handbags, packages, and parcels, 
which, by their size, weight, appearance, or other conditions, offer no inconvenience to other 
passengers or reduce the seatmg capacity of the car. 

Art. 71. Baggage shall be carried on the same train as the owners thereof, and shall be 
delivered to such owners upon arrival of the train or at the latest one-half hour afterwards. 

Art. 72. Baggage not received within twenty-four hours after arrival, and packages and 
articles left by passengers at parcels ofiBce, will be stored by the company, to be delivered to 
the owners when called for and a charge of 10 cents per day for each piece or package shall be 
made, the day on which the package or article is left counting as one day. All baggage not 
claimed or delivered within three months shall be sold in the same manner as merchandise 
as provided by article 21. 

Art. 73. Baggage will only be checked on presentation of a ticket and on the payment of 
any excess, the pas.senger receiving a form on which shall be stated names of shipping and 
destination stations, the number of packages, the total weight, and the amount collected for 
excess, if there should be any. Tliis form will enable the passenger by presenting the same 
at the destination to obtain possession of his baggage. The fonn must be taken up by the 
company at the time of delivery. 

Art. 74. Passengers carrying in their baggage jewels, precious stones, bank notes, bullion, 
scrip, bonds of public debt, "or other objects of value shall declare same at the time of check- 
ing, stating the value which they represent. 

Art. 75. The receipt for baggage open or in a bad condition shall ho noted "bad order *', 
and the baggage shall be transported without liability by the company for losses resulting 
because of such bad condition. 

Art. 76. The passenger who can not present his baggage check will only be allowed to take 
possession of his effects after ample proof of ownership. Such proof will consist of possession 
of keys and the precise indication of marks and appearance of packages and some of the con- 
tents contained in each one of same. With such proof the baggage will be delivered under 
receipt. Expenses incurred through these formalities will be for account of passenger. « 

Art. 77. If on arrival of the train some package, duly checked, should be missing, the pas- 
senger should demand the same from the station master, who, after rewoighing those which 
have arrived and obtaining a description of those missing, will give the passenger in exchange 
for the receipt a paper specifying the description, marks, and approximate weight of same, 
this being the weight short of total given in way bill and receipt. 

Art. 78. All claims for shortage or damage shall be made on delivery of baggage; any 
claims made afterwards will not be admitted. 

Chapter III. —Express, 

Art. 79. Articles of all kinds which are not personal baggage of passengers shipped on 
passenger trains shall be considered as express matter. 

Art. 80. Rates per ton per kilometer: From 1 to 50 kilometers, inclusive, 34 cents; 51 to 
120 kilometers, inclusive, 16 cents; 121 kilometers upward, 10 cents. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 233 

Art. 81 . No distance will be considered of less than 20 kilometers. No fraction of weight 
will be considered of less than 10 kilograms. No charge of less than 35 cents shall be made. 

Art. 82. A rebate of 25 per cent on the regular express rates shall be allowed on the follow- 
ing and similar articles which by nature require immediate transportation, but the same shall 
only be received as express prepaid matter: Beer, bread, butter, cheese, dogs, eggs, ice, fresh 
fish, fruits, game, milk, mineral waters, oysters, poultry, soda water, vegetables, and the like 
in lots of 25 kilograms or over. Poultry and dogs shall be shipped in coops or crates. 

Art. 83. The company may refuse to accept poultry, dogs, and other birds and animals, 
unless contained in coops or crates. 

Art. 84. The liability of the company in express shipments shall be limited to $50 per 
hundred kilograms, unless the sender shall previously declare the value of such shipment and 
shall pay a nsk rate of one-eighth of 1 per cent upon said declared increased valuation in 
addition to the express rates. 

Art. 85. Express matter shall be booked at least one-half hour before departure of train 
by which it is to be shipped. If booked after this time, it will be forwarded by the next 
ordinary passenger train, and will be delivered to consignees one hour after arrival at 
destination. 

Art. 86. To effect this class of transport the consignor shall present a delivery note op 
declaration in duplicate stating name and domicile of the company, name^ and resfdences of 
consignor and consignee, station of destination, weight, marks, and numbers. 

Art. 87. Shipments will not be received for any place where there is no station. 

Art. 88. When a consignor ships various packages directed to one consignee the express 
charges shall be calculated on total weight of same. 

Art. 89. When the company receives sealed packets, it shall be exempt from all responsi- 
bility on delivering same in good order and with seals intact to consignee. 

Art. 90. Shipments not removed from station of destination within twenty-four hours 
after notice of arrival has been given shall pay storage charges on same as per tariff. 

Art. 91. The company will not receive for shipment any kind of perishable goods unless 
the express charges are prepaid. 

Art. 92. The company will not be responsible in any way for natural deterioration of 
perishable goods in their transport. 

Art. 93. The company will not be responsible for any loss of market. 

Art. 94. The company will not be liable for any loss of or damage to or delay^ of express 
matter resulting from it not being properly protected b^ packing. 

Art. 95. The company will not be liable for any indirect or consequential damages in 
respect of express matter lost, injured, or delayed. 

Art. 96. Money shall pay at the following rates : 

One-eighth per cent of the amount declared, and one-eighth of 1 cent per kilometer, fop 
every $100. ' 

Art. 97. Minor silver and copper coins, and other valuables will pay at the above rate, in 
addition to the express rates. 

Art. 98. Valuables of all kinds shall be placed in a strong covering tied and sealed, and 
provided that the company delivers the packages in the same condition they were received 
and with the seals unbroken, no responsibility shall attach to the company. 

Art. 99. Articles 73, 77, and 78 are applicable to express transport. 

Chapter IV. — Funeral transport. 

Art. 100. Rate for funeral transport shall be, per car per kilometer, 40 cents. 

Art. 101. No distance will be considered of less than 20 kilometers. 

Art. 102. The company is not obliged to transport in each wagon more than one coffin. 

Art. 103. Transport of funerals will only be effected by passenger train. 

Art. 104. Corpses will not be received for conveyanc-e unless a medical certificate be pro- 
duced setting forth that death was not caused by any infectious or contagious disease. 

Art. 105. Advice of a funeral transport should be given four hours Ixjforehand in the 
principal and twenty-four hours in the intermediate stations, and the shipment should be 
booked two hours Wforc the train is timed to leave. 

Art. 106. Funerals must be taken away from arrival stations within two hours after 
arrival; this not being done the company will effect removal of same on account and at 
expense of the consignor. 

Art. 107. Each coffin shall be placed in a closed car in which no other objects or freight 
mav be loaded. When in consequence of the removal of family vaults more than one coffin 
is l)ooked by the same person to same destination, the following rules will l)e obser\'ed: 

First. Two or three coffins may be placed in one car, the freight being 30 centa per coffin 
per kilometer. 

Secx)nd. In the event of there being more than three coffins, the freight will be 20 cents 
per coffin per kilometer, when same can lx» placed separately on the floor of car, one coffin 
not being allowed to rest on another. 



234 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

AsT. lOS. Special trains for fun&nJ transports wUl be ehaii^ed for at special traia rates 
as hereinafter provided, one funeral car being allowed in addition to train formation speei- 
tied, any additional C4Lr wiU be charged extra at 40 cents per car per kilometer. 

CiiiJPTES V. — Special trains. 

Art. 109. Rate shall be, per train per kilometer, $2.^0. 

Art. 1 1(X Minixnujim charge shall be $100. 

Art. 111. Formation of a special train shall be one tet-class eoaeb^ four-wheel type; 
one baggage Tan, four-wheel type; one brake van, fo«ir-wheel type. 

Art. 112. II it should be necessary to increiise the number ot cars, all seats contained 
therein, if passenger coaches, shall be paid for a& per tariff,, or il freiglit cacs, tliey shall be 
paid for as full carloads, as per tariff for goods by pass'jnger trains. 

Art. 113. Requests for special train shall be made, twelve hours in advance, to the sta- 
tion master of any station on the line. 

Art. 114. The cost of a special train ^lall be graduated, as per this tariff, by the luimber 
of kilometers run on outward journey, the return of train being on account of theeompu^. 
Payment for a special train givfs the privilege of occupying the returtting train withia t^e 
following limits: For a run of 50 kilometers or under on' outward journey six hours after 
arrival of train at destination r for a run of 51 kilometers upward, twelve hours after arrtvaL 
In each case the pass^snger shall deelaie, before starting, whether he intends to utilise the 
return of train. 

Art. 115. The company will not be responsible for the length ol time occupied m tba 
journey of a special train, which shall be nm as traffic arrar^mcnts will admit. 

Art. 116. When a special train is applied for and apptication granted, payment for same 
diaJl be made at once. 

Cbafter \h— Merchandise. 

Art. 117. — Rates per ton per kilometer. 





First 1 Secoiidl Third ! Fourth 
class. , class, j class. | cUiss. 


From 1 to 20 kllonieters. Inclusive 


Ceni». ' Cents, ] Centf. Cents. 
12.0 1 9.0 1 7.0 1 5.0 


From 21 to 70 kilometers, inclusive 


4.6 , 3.6 2.6 1 2.0 


From 71 to 1-K) kilometers, inclusive ^ 


4.2 ' 3.2 2.0 1.S 


From 141 upward 


3.» 1 2.8 Ld 1 1.2 







Art. 118. Freight will be charged on all goods according to gross weight, except when 
marked in approved classification **ton mra.su rement." 

In such cases the weight will be calculated oq the basis of one>-balf of a ton per cubic 
meter, and the cubic measurement will be that of a box or covering of usual form in whieh 
the article may be contained. 

Art. 119. 'fhe base of all tariffs will be per ton of 1,000 kilograms, except for goods 
marked "ton measurement" in cIa.s.sification. 

Art. 120. Lots shipped by full carload will be carried at 10 per cent reduction from tho 
class rates. 

Art. 121. All distances under 20 kilometers will he considered as 20 kilometers. 

Any fraction of weight of less than 10 kilograms shall be considered as 10 kibgrains. 

Shipments less than 50 kilograms shall be considered as ^0 kilograms. 

The minimum freight charge shall be 25 cents. 

Art. 122. Any package containing articles of more than one class will be charged for at 
the rate fixed for tJie highest clasHod article contained therein. 

Art. 123. Articles not enumerated shall be given the class providid for similar articles. 

Art. 124. The classification of merchandise shall be that contained in the official classi- 
fication. 

Art. 125. The shipment and delivery of merchandise at the stations shall b? at least 
between the hours of 7 a. m. and 4 p. nj. 

Art. 126. Merchandise shall bv shipped from the forwarding station in its orA'r of receipl 
and within forty-i»ight hours. 

Art. 127. Time allowed for delivery shall count from date and hour of having forward- 
ing station. 

Art. 128. Merchandise .sliall be placed at the disposal of the consignee at the r^'ceiving 
station on the day following its shipment from the forwarding station when the distano* 
bt»tween such two stations is 100 kilometers or hsa. For every additional 100 kikmwters 
or fraction of a hundred, one day nwre will be allowed for delivery. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



235 



Art. 129. At the time of placing th-e merchandk? tranf^port^d at tho disposal of the cou- 
aignoe the company should notify him of arrival cither by mail or by posting the same at 
the delivering stations, stating the particulars and details concerning each lot, said notice 
to remain for the inspection of the public for a period of at least throe days. 

Abt. 130. Merchandise should be removed by the consignee on the da^' of arrival or the 
fotk>fring day, and should su«h removal not be made within said term charge for stora<;e 
ahatt be nuicle according to tariff for each day over and above the time specified. 

Art. 131. The company shall re-wcigli the merchandise wh .'never the shipper shall 
require it. 

Art. 132. In case of loss or daiTiagc the company shall not be required to pay to the 
owners of the merchandise greater amounts per ton than the foUowine: First elaas, $200; 
second clasa, $100; third class, $50; fourth class, $25. Should the value of the merchan- 
dise, however, b? greater than the amount fixed by the maximum torilf as above, the shipper 
upon forwarding said merchandise may declare its valu& and pay a risk rate of one-eighth 
of 1 per cent upon increased valuatioa in addition to the freignt ehargrs, in which case the 
liability of the company shall be in proportion to the value so di^clared. 

Art. 133. The company is not obliged to transport packages weighing more than 1,J!;00 
kiograins- or which exceed the dimensions of the rolling stodc. 

If consenting tq effect thes!> transports, the rate shall oe doubte the ordinary tariff bh per 
classification with a minimum charge per ear necessary for safe transport as for full capacity 
el each car at lourth-ctass rat^Sv 

Art. 134. When the company transp<»is inflammable, exptoaive, materials, or ^oods of 
a dangeroas nature, the rate shatt be doable second class and under foNowing^ coaditions: 

(a) Gunpowder, fireworks, and other explosives will be carried entirely at the owner's 
lisk. The nature of the goods must be made known by a conspicuously printed notice of 
eontents on each package and upon the car carrying same. 

The days appointed for reeeiving gunpowder and other dangerous and explosive cora- 
pominds wm be ascertained of station master before consignr^nt is taken to the station. 

(5) The confpauy will not carry gunpowder and dangerous and exnlosive compounds by 
paasenger trains. 

All ganpowder and other explosives nuiat be packed in barrels or welb-made boxes, closely 
|oined and hooped, or is copper, zinc, of tinned cas^s or canisters, and so secured that no 
part of the explosive can escape. 

(e) Powder or other explosives will not be left at any place where there is not an officer 
in charge o^ eooeignee to receive same, and the consignnient must be removed from the 
nilway premdaes within six working hours after arrival. 

Art. 135. Goo<b liable to mix wkh others of the same nature, such as sand, asphalt, 
aaiphur, black kad, coal, coke, horns, gravel, chalk, bones, bricks, firewood^ timber, min- 
enus, potatoes, boards, salt, planks, tiks^ earth,, clinkers, etc., and goods liable to more or 
less damage others, such as manures of all kiods, Kme,. alafughter-house n^fuse, grease, whit- 
iag, etc., sliall not be received for transport in hia^, except when shipment be made by the 
foS carload. 

Axs. 136. The toading^ and discharge of goods transported in bulk shall always be foi 
the account of the consignors and consi^ecs».the cars should be loaded within twenty-foui- 
bours after having been ];daecd at the disposition of consignor, and unloaded within twelve 
keors after having been at ^position of consignee. 

Abt. 137. When forwarding frei^Kt to stations a di^claration shall be made, dat^^d, anc* 
signed by consignor indicating, firet, names, surnames, and addresses of consignor and con- 
aigoee; sce^ksd, naurks, nnmbers, quantity, and nature of package; third, their weight, ii 
known; fourth, if freight is to be paid on shipment or on arrival at destination. 



Chapter VII. — Live stock. 
Art. 138. Homed cattle, horses, mules, doidceysr— rates per kilometer shall be: 



Class A. 



From 1 to 20 kilometers, inclusive. . 
From 21 to 70 kilometers, inclusive . 
From 71 to 140 kiloraetere, inclusive 
From 141 kilometers upward 



One 

head. 


Two 
liead. 


Three 

head. 


Cents. 
12 
G 
5 
4 


Cents. 

20 

9 

7 

5 


Cents. 
28 
12 
9 
6 



Four head 
or more, 
per head. 



Cents. 



8.0 
3.8 
2.8 
2.0 



236 



REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Art. 139. Pigs, sheep, goate, calves — rates per head per kilometer shall be: 



Class 13. 



From I to 20 kilometers, inclusive . . 
From 21 to 70 kilometers, Inclusive. 
From 71 to 140 kilometers, inclusive 
From 14 1 kilometers upward 



1 to 5 
head. 



Cents. 
3.0 
1.6 
1.0 



Cto 10 
head mini- 
mum rate 

as for 5. 



Cents. 
2.6 
1.6 
1.0 



I 11 to 20 ! 
head minJ- 



More than 
20 mini- 



mum rate 
as for 10. 


mum rate 
as for 20. 


Cents. 
2.2 
1.4 

.8 
.6 


Cents. 

2.0 
1.4 
.8 
.4 



Art. 140. Minimum charge shall be as for 20 kilometers. 

Art. 141. These tariffs shall be* applied to shipments of animals by the head, and the 
halters, bridles, ropes, etc., shall b3 furnished by the shippers. The loading and unloading 
of animals and care of same shall be done by the owners, who may for these purposes send 
a person on the train, paying third-class fare. The company shall attend to the loading 
and unloading when the owner is not present or when he shall confide san^o to the company, 
but in either cas3 the company shall not have any liability on this account. 

Art. 142. The animals shipped shall be placed at the disposal of the consignees within 
two hours following the arrival of the train, and they must be removed on the day of their 
arrival. From the day following their arrival owners will incur the expenses necessary for 
the care of same as per tariff. 

Art. 143. In case of damage, loss, or death of animals, when the company is responsible 
for the same, it shall not pay more than $100 per head for live stock specified in article 138 
and $20 per head for those specified in article 139, unlrss the owner shall have previously 
dcH^lared their value and paia a risk rate of one-half per cent upon .said declared increased 
valuation in addition to the freight rats. 

Art. 144. No cattle, horses, sheep, or other live stock which in the judgment of the com- 
pany, its ofiBcers, or employees, may be infected with any disease shall be carried on the 
company's Hnes, and the company, its officers or employees may refuse to take any cattle, 
horses, sheep, or other live stock suspected by them to be diseased. 

Art. 145. Animals not specified shall be classed for payment of freight as belonging to the 
class which they most resemble, taking into account the space occupied in the cars. 

Art. 146. Wild or dangerous animals or animals for exhibition shall only be received when 
in cages which assure safety and can be moved with ease and without danger. 

Art. 147. Small animals, such as cats, squirrels, pet birds, and poultry shall be delivered 
in cages, boxes, or baskets. They will only be transported by pessenger trains and shall pay 
express rates although traveling with their owners. 

Art. 148. For making a shipment of animals it is necessary to present a declaration aa 
follows: First, names and addresses of consignor and consignee; second, place of destina- 
tion; third, kind of animals and number; fourth, if the shipment be made prepaying freight 
or freight to be paid at destination. 

Art. 149. Animals should be at the stations three hours before the train starts, but advice 
of shipment should be given one day beforehand, so that the necessary cars may be obtained 
if none should be ready: and delivery shall be made to consignee two hours after arrival of 
train at destination. 

If after thus time nobody comes to take defivery they will be placed in a corral and fed for 
account of owners. 

Animals not taken delivery of by consignee within fifteen days after c nival may be sold, 
with the conKcnt of the proper official, by the company for the f ccount of whom it "may con- 
cern. The amount realized shall be paid to owner of animals sold, after deducting the 
amount due the company for freight, warehousing, food, etc. 

Art. 150. The company does not respond for those occurrences during journey which are 
liable to occur to this class of tran.sport, nor for those which may happen during embarkation 
or disembarkation, unless resulting from negligence of the company or its employees. 

Art. 151. Live stock will be carried by passenger trains at aou6le the rates specified in 
articles 138 and 139. 

Chapter YUl. -Vehicles. 

Art. 152. The rate for vehicles shall be: Set up, per full carload, at lourth-cla.«s rates by 
freight train, and double this rate if sent by passenger train. 

Art. 153. If knocked down, vehicles shall be rated as per cla.ssification and be subject to 
niles governing tran.sport of merchandise. 

Art. 1.54. Each shipment of wagons and vehicles of all kinds must be accompanied by a 
consignment note stating names and addresses of consignor and con.signce: name of station 



REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 237 

to which consigned ; number and kind of vehicles: if freight is to be prepaid or paid at desti- 
nation. 

Abt. 155. No other class of freight shall be loaded on cars containing vehicles. 

Art. 156. Transport will be commenced at latest forty-eight hours after vehicles are 
deiivered to company and same shall be taken away by consignee within twenty-four hours 
after arrival of train at destination, after which time storage will be charged as j^r tariff. 

Art. 157. Vehicles shall be presented for shipment at least two hours before train by 
which it is required to ship same is due to leave. 

Art. 158. The company may refuse to transport any vehicle wliich from its size may 
cause danger. 

Art. 159. In ca.se of loss or damage the company shall not be required to pay the owners 
of vehicles a greater amount per unit than — carriages for persons, 4-wheel, $200; 2-wheel, 
SlOO; carts with springs, 4-wheel, $175; 2-wheel, $80; carts without springs, 4-wheel, $100; 
2-whee1, $50 — unless the owners shall have previously declared their value and paid a risk 
of one-eighth of 1 per cent upon said declared increased valuation in addition to the freight 
rates. 

Chaffer IX. — Loading and unloading. 

Art. 160. Loading and discharge of ^oods shipped by bulk or in full carload shall be for 
the account of the consignors and consignees. 

Art. 161. When the loading and unloading is for the account of the consignors and con- 
signees and these do not effect same within the time stipulated the company will effect these 
operations at following rate: Twenty cents per ton when goods are packed and easily han- 
dled; 30 cents per ton when in bulk or difficult to handle. 

In the intermediate stations where the company has no personnel for effecting these 
operations cost price will be charged. 

Art. 162. The company is not obli^d under any circumstances to load or unload pack- 
ages exceeding 1,500 Kilograms in weight, except under a special arrangement. 

Art. 163. Loading and unloading of live stock shall be done by owners, the company 
only attending to same when said owner is not present, or at his personal request, but in 
either case the company will not be responsible in case of damage. 

Chapter X. — Storage charges. 

Art. 164. Storage will be charged as per following tariff: 

Art. 165. Baggage, 10 cents per day per package. 

Art. 166. Express, 10 cents per 100 kilograms per twenty-four hours or fraction of 
twenty-four hours if not removed within twenty-four hours after arrival at destination. 

Art. 167. Merchandise, if not removed on day of arrival at destination or on the following 
day, will incur storage charges according to the following tariff: For each day or fraction of 
a day over the above time specified, per ton per twenty-four hours or fraction of twenty-four 
hours, first class, 60 cents; second class, 44 cents; third class, 28 cents; fourth class, 20 
cents. 

Art. 168. live stock, from day following that of arrival at destination, will incur storage 
charges per head per twenty-four hours or fraction thereof: Class A, $1 ; Class B, 30 cents. 

Art. 169. Vehicles, if not removed within twenty-four hours from time of arrival at des- 
tination, will incur storage as per full carload ordinar}' fourth-class freight. 

Chapter XI. — Reweighing. 

Art. 170. The company shall reweigh merchandise whenever the shipper shall require it, 
and if the weight ascertained by the company shall prove correct dues for reweighing shall 
be paid by the shipper as follows: Per 100 kilograms or fraction of 100 kilograms, 10 cents; 
per full carload, $1. 

Chapter XII. — Lines iv^ithin city limits and private sidings. 

Art. 171. On Imes owned by company within city limits connecting with public or private 
warehouses at the ports or cities, such lines not exceeding 3 kilometers in length, the follow- 
ing charge per ton shall be made for transport one way over whole or part of length : First 
class, 50 cents; second class, 40 cents; third class, 30 cents: fourth class, 22 cents. 

Art. 172. Lots shipped by full carload will be carried at 10 per cent reduction on above 
rates. 

Art. 173. The time for the return of cars used as above shall be limited to six hours, and 
unless such cars are put at the disposition of the company within the time fixed herein, the 
company may make an extra charge for the use of same as specified in article 167, Chapter 
X, for each period of six hours or fraction thereof over and above the first six hours. 



238 



REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Art. 174. The company shall be fMtid siding chaises per ion acoording to the loDowing 
tariff whenever its cars shall be placed on privat-e sidings or switches connecting with the 
linens of the company outside of its stations at the reavest of and for the purpose of being 
unloaded or loaded by the owner of the siding or switch : First class, 20 cents; second ciaas, 
20 cents; third class, 12 cents; fourth class, 8 cents. 

Art. 175. The time allowed for loading or unloading on private sidings cm- switehea shall 
be six working hours, to count from time cars are placed on said sidings or switches. If not 
loaded or unloaded within this time demurrage will be charged as per article 173 aboTC. 

Chapter XIII. — Military transport rates. 

[Taking effect Juce 1, 1904.] 

Base tariffs dated August 29, 1903, and conditions governing same, shaB apply to militazy 
transport with the following modifications: 

Akt. 176. The maximum charge for traffic, both paFscnger and freight, shall be as follows: 



PASSXKGER. 



Art. 177. Per kilometer: 



From I to a> kilometers, iDchiBive. . 
From 51 to 120 kilometers, inclusive 
From 121 kilometers upward 





First 
dasfl. 


Second 
class. 


Tblrd 
ciasfl. 




r0.0fi6 
.046 
.042 


^0.098 
.034 
.028 


T^.tf2 




.eis 




.016 







Art. 178. When passage for more than 10 and not to exceed 100 persons is called for on 
one transportation request at one time and for one train, but for any classes of passage, a 
reduction of 25 per cent shall he made in the above schedule; and where passage for 
more than 100 persons is called for on one transportation request at one time and for one 
train, but for any classes of passage, a reduction of tO per cent shall be made in the above 
schedule. 

Art. 179. The railroad company shall be entitled, when the above-mentioned reductions 
are made, to a minimum sum, wluch, in the case of the 25 per cent reduction, shall be equal 
to the price of 10 second-class fares (without reduction), for the same distance as the trans- 
portation request calls for, and in the case of the 50 per cent reduction, to the price of 100 
second-class fares, with a reduction of 25 per cent for the same distance as the transportation 
request calls for. 



Art. 180. Rates per ton per kilometer: 



First 
class. 



From 1 to 20 kilometers, inclusive 'p-fl. 12 

From 21 to 70 kilometers, inclusive 

From 71 to 140 kilometers, inclusive 

From Ml kilometers upward 



.M6 
.042 
.038 



Second Third 
class, class.. 



p-o.ce 

.036 
.032 
.028 



Fourth 

class. 



1^0.07 1 pa 05 
.026 I .02 



.02 



.016 
012 



Art. 181. The above freight mteR are applicable to all hauls of 20 kilometers or more, 
and for hauls lees than 20 kilometers the maximum charge may be the same as for a haul 
of that distance over any and all roads o^-ned by the Manila Railway Company (Limited) 
that are* subject to the railway tariff dated Aiipust 29, 1C03, except so much of the line 
as is covered by Chapter XII of said tariff, and the branch line fiom Dau to Camp Stot^en- 
l^rg. 

Art, 182. The following rates shall be applied to the Stotjaenberg Branch. 

Passenger. — Rates shall be the same as those allowe<l for mihtary transport on the Manila 
and Dagupan Railway, minimum charge of 20 kilometers from junction not to be taken 
into consideration. 

Express frei^t. — Will be charged as on the Manila and Dagupan Railway, mininnim 
charge of 20 kilometers from junction not to be taken into consideration. 

Ordinary freight. — Transported over branch will be charged a minimtim rate as for a 
haul of 20 kilometers. Any fraction of weight of Icj^s than ^0 kilograms shall be considered 
as 50 kik)grams. 

Car rates will be charged as for a haul of 20 kilometera. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 239 

Abt. 183. Wben a shipping officer deems it necsasary for, or to the advantaet^ of» the 
eovemiiient to take for its use an entire car or entire cars, such car or cars shall be paid 
For according to the following schedule, which shall be known as the car kilometer rate: 



From 1 to 20 kilometers, inclusive . . . 
Vrom 21 to 70 kilometers, inclusive . . 
From 71 to 140 kilometers, inclusive . 
From 14 1 kilometers upward 



Per car per kilometer. 

7-ton. 14-too. 1 21-ton. 

t 


P0.35 
.14 
.112 
.064 


1 
F0.70 ! P1.06 
.28 .42 
.224 1 ..336 
.168 1 .252 



The reduction of 10 per cent specified in article 120 will not be allowed on goods shipped 
under this rate. 

Art. 184. In all cases where railway bills of lading are extended, it shall be the duty 
of the shipping officer to state in the column headed "Rate" and "Class" whether the 
freight is snipped on the "classified freight" or "car kilometer" basis, and, if the latter, 
the number and capacity of cars used must be specified. 

The disbursing officer will be guided in the settlement of the bill of lading by this state- 
ment. 

Art. 185. Bills of lading will ordinarily be prepared in metric units as specified in base 
tarifls, but when not so prepared the approximation 1 kilometer =) mile, 1 kilogram = 
2.2 pounds and 1 cubic meter =35 cubic feet, may be used as the basis of reduction for 
settlement of accounts. 

Art. 186. Where "insular" or other freight and United States freight are shipped in 
the same car, the "car kilometer" schedule will not be used. Shipments of "insular" or . 
other freight and United States Govermnent freight will always be made on separate bills 
of lading. 

Abt. 187. Minimum distance weight shipments and charges shall be made according 
to terms of base tarilT. 

Art. 188. The shipment of bullion and express matter shall be governed by, and settle- 
ment shall be made according to, terms of articles 79 to 99, inclusive, base tariff. 

Art. 189. The shipment of live stock shall be governed by, and settlement shall be 
made according to, terms of articles 138 to 151 , inclusive, base tariff. 

Art. 190. The shipment of vehicles shall be governed by, and settlement shall be made 
according to, terms of articles 152 to 159, inclusive, base tariff. 

UNKs wrrniN citt umits and rxiVATE smixcs. 

Art. 191. On lines owned by the Manila Railway Company (Limited) within the city 
limits, and not exceeding 3 kilometers in length, shipments shall be made in car lots only, 
and payment shall be made as follows: For 7-ton cars, P1.54; 14-ton CArs, P3.08; 21- 
ton cara, T4.G2. 

The reduction of 10 per cent specified in article 172 will not be allowed on goods shipped 
under this rate. 

Art. 192. Loading and unloading shall be governed by terms of articles 160 to 163, 
inclusive, base tariff. 

Art. 193. Storage charges shall be governed by, and settlement shall be made according 
to, terms of articles 164 to 169, inclusive, base tanff. 

SPECIAL TRAINS. 

Abt. 194. Special trains for military purposes may be called for upon the authority of 
the chief quartemiaster of the Philippines Division, or the chief quartermaster of a depart- 
ment, when so directed by their respective commanding generals. 

Payment for such special trains snail be based on the number of passengers carried and 
on the rates as set forth in articles 177 and 178, including the reductions, provided that the 
railway company shall be entitled to a minimum sum equal to the price oi 100 second-class 
fares (with the 25 per cent reduction) for a run of 50 kilometers. 

Abt. 195. Each coach shall have marked upon it, so as to be clearly visible, the class 
and the number of men authorized to be carried as a maximum in said coach. 

Art. 196. Where a special train is delayed for more than four hours by militaiy authority, 
either after the hour set for the initial start of such train or while en route (excepting as 
result of active war), additional compensation shall be paid the railway company for the 
time of such delay, based on the following rates per hour: Jjocomotive, ^3; 4-wheeled pas- 
senger coach, 1^6.12; 7-ton frciglit car, P^O.06; 14-ton freight car, 1*0.12; 21 -ton freight 
car, 1*0.18; completed hours only to be considered. 

Art. 197. If any engine is liglited up by order of competent military authority, but not 
uaed, a minimum charge of $25 dollars shall be allowed. 



240 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



Art. 198. In case of military necessity goyemment service shall have precedence over 
all other railway business, and ih case of emergency, as determined by the military authori- 
ties, the entire rolling stock of the road must be placed at the disposition of the government. 

Art. 199. Any character of transportation, or a retention of rolling stock by the govern- 
ment for special purposes, not hereinbefore provided for, shall be matter for special agree- 
ment. 

Art. 200. It shall be the duty of the railway company to furnish, on application of 
quartermasters or other officers charged with shipping troops and supplies, at least one 
copy of "Base tariff," dated August 29, 1903, and classification of freignt. 

Art. 201. It shall be the duty of all quartermasters or other officers charged with ship- 
ping trooi)8 and supplies over the Manila and Dagupan Railway and its branches to secure 
and file with permanent office records at least one copy of ''Base tariff," dated August 29, 
1903, and classification of freight. 

Horace L. Hiooins, 

Oeneral Manager. 









KUometric rates. 

PASSENGER. 

(In Philippine currency.] 












Passengei 


■8. 

Third 
class. 

1*0.02 
.04 
.06 
.08 
.10 
.12 
.14 
.16 
.18 
.20 
.22 
.24 
.26 
.28 
.30 
.32 
.34 
.36 
.38 
.40 
.42 
.44 
.46 
.48 
.50 
.52 
.54 
.56 
.58 
.60 
.62 
.64 
.66 

•5S 

.70 
.72 
.74 
.76 
.78 
.80 
.82 
.84 
.86 
.88 
.90 
.92 
.94 
.96 
.98 
1.00 
1.02 
1.04 

i.a5 

1.07 
1.09 


Bag- 

pf?foo 

kilo- 
meters. 


Kilometers. 


Passengers. 


Bag- 


Kilometers. 


First 
class. 

yo.06 
.11 
.17 
.22 


Second 
class. 

^0.04 
.08 
.11 
.15 


First 
class. 


Second 
class. 


Third 
class. 


Rage 
per 100 

kilo- 
meters. 


1 


.84 
.88 
.92 
.96 
1.00 
1.04 
1.08 
1.12 
1.16 
1.20 
1.24 
1.28 


56. . 


r3.08 
3.12 
3.17 
3.21 
3.26 
3.31 
3.35 
3.40 
3.44 
3.49 
3.54 
3.58 
3.63 
3.67 
3.?2 
3.77 
3.81 
3.86 
3.90 
3.95 
4.00 
4.04 
4.09 
4.13 
4.18 
4.23 
4.27 
4.32 
4.36 
4.41 
4.46 
4.50 
4.55 
4.59 
4.61 
4.69 
4.73 
4.78 
4.82 
4.87 
4.92 
4.96 
5.01 
5.05 
5.10 
5.15 
5.19 
5.24 
6.28 
5. 3.* 
6.38 
.5.42 
5.47 
5.51 
5. .56 


2.14 

2.17 

2.21 

2.24 

2.27 

2.31 

2.34 

2.38 

2.41 

2.44 

2.48 

2.51 

2.55 

2.58 

2.61 

2.65 

2.68 

2.72 

2.75 

2.78 

2.82 

2.85 

2.89 

2.92 

2.95 

2.99 

3.02 

3.06 

3.09 

3.12 

3.16 

3.19 

3.23 

3.26 

3.29 

3.33 

3.36 

3.40 

3.43 

3.46 

3.50 

3.53 

3.57 

3. CO 

3.Cv3 

3.07 

3.70 

3.74 

3.77 , 

.3.80 

.3.84 

3.87 

.3.91 

3.94 


1*1.11 
1.13 
1.14 
1.16 
1.18 
1.20 
1.22 
1.23 
1.25 
1.27 
1.29 
1.31 
1.32 
1.34 
1.36 
1.38 
1.40 
1.41 
1.43 
1.45 
1.47 
1.49 
1.60 
1.62 
1.64 
1.66 
1.58 
1.59 
1.61 
1.63 
1.65 
1.67 
1.68 
1.70 
1.72 
1.74 
1.76 
1.77 
1.79 
1.81 
1.83 
1.85 
1.86 
1.88 
1.90 
1.92 
1.94 
1.95 
1.97 
1.99 
2.01 
2.03 
2.04 
2.06 
2.08 


1*2 096 


2 


67 


2.112 


3 


68 


2 128 


4 


59 


2.144 


n 


.28 .19 
.34 .23 
.39 .27 


60 


2 10 


6 


61 


2.176 


7 


62 


2.192 


8 


.45 

.50 

.56 

.62 

.67 

.73 

.78 

.84 

.90 

.95 

1.01 

1.06 

1.12 

1.18 

1.23 

1.29 

1.34 

1.40 

1.46 

1.51 

1.57 

1.62 

1.68 

1.74 


.30 

.34 

.38 

.42 

.46 

.49 

.53 

.57 

.61, 

.65 

.68 

.72 

.76 

.80 

.84 

.87 

.91 

.95 

.99 

1.03 

1.06 

1.10 

1.14 

1.18 


63 


2.208 


9 


64 


2.224 


10 


65 


2.24 


11 


66. . 


2 266 


12 


67 


2.272 


13 


68 


2 288 


14 


69 


2.304 


15 


70 


2.320 


16 


71 


2.336 


17 


72 


2.352 


18 


73 


2.368 


jo:::;.: 


, 74 


2.384 


20 


75 


2 40 


21 


76 


2.416 


22 


77 


2.432 


Zi 


' 78 ... . 


2.448 


24 


79::::::::::::::: 


2.464 


25 


80 


2.48 


26 


8I::::::::::::::: 


2.496 


27 


82 


2. 612 


28 


83 


2.528 


29 


84 


2.544 


30 


85 


2.66 


31 


86 


2.676 


32 


1.79 1.22 
1.8.5 1.25 
1.90 1.29 
1.96 1 1.33 

2.02 1.37 
2.07 1 1.41 
2. 13 ! 1. 44 
2.18 1 1.48 
2.24) 1.62 
2.30 1 1..% 
2.35 ' 1.60 
2.41 1.63 
2.46 1 1.67 
2.52 1.71 
2.58 1.75 
2 63 ' 1.79 
2.60 1 1.82 
2.74 ' 1.86 
2.8J) 1 1.90 
2.8.5 l.M 
2.89 1.97 
2.(M , 2.00 
2.98 ' 2.04 

3.03 . 2.07 


87 


2.602 


33 


1.32 
1.36 1 
1.40 
1.44 ' 
1.48 
1.52 
1.66 
1.60 , 
1.64 
1.68 1 
1.72 
1.76 1 
1.80 
1.84 1 


88 


2.608 


34. 


89 


2.624 


36 


90 


2.64 


36 . . ... 


91::::::::::::::: 


2.666 


rr 

37 


92 


2.672 


38. '. 


93::::::::::::::: 


2.688 


39 


94 


2.704 


40 . .. 


95 


2.72 


41 


96 


2.7,36 


42 . ... . 


97 


2.752 


43 


98 


2.768 


44 . . 


99 


2.784 


45 * ' 


100 


2.800 


46 


101 


2.816 


47 


1.88 
1.92 
1.96 < 
2.00 i 
2.016 i 
2.032 


102 


2.832 


48 


IM 


2.848 


JS::::::::::::::: 


UH 


2.864 


so . 


ia5 


2.88 


51 


106 


2.896 


52!.; !.. 


107 


2.912 


S::::::::::::::: 

65 


2.048 , 108 

2.061 1 109 

2.08 II 110 


2.928 
2.944 
2.06 



WnnlliL 


ManlU< 
















Cftloocftn 


6 


C 








Polo 


12 








8 between the stcUions. 

erg^SkUometers.] 


Meycauayan 

Marilao 


15 
19 
23 
27 
30 
38 
46 
50 
60 
62 
70 






Bocaue 








BigtA 








OMfpMFtO . 








Maloloa. . 








Callimpit: 




AplJlt 


— 




H 


Santo Tomas 


San Fernando 




CaLulut 










Angelea 


70 






Daa 


83 

87 




Mabalacat 


— ' 






Bam ban 


94 










Caoafl 


103 
110 
113 
120 
132 

147 
162 




Muxcfa 


J 


San Miguel 

Tarlac 






Oerona 




Paniqul 

Moncada 

BautJsta 


a. 
autista. 


Bayamban 


164 




2 1 Bayamban. 


Malaalqul 


176 




15 1 13 


Malaaqul. 


San Carlos 


182 




21 1 19 


7 


San Carloa. 


Calaeiao 


102 


31 r 2Q 


16 


10 


CalaafA.n 










Da^pan 


,«, 




34; 33 


20 


14 


4 


Dagupan. 



WAR 1904— VOL 1. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



241 



KUometric rates — Continued. 
PASSENGER— Continued. 





Paaaengers. 


Bag- 
gage 
per 100 
kilo- 
meters. 


Kilometers. 


Passengers. 


Bag- 


Kilometers. 


Firat 
class. 


Second 
class. 


Third 
class. 


First 
class. 


Second 
class. 


Third 
class. 


gage 
pCTloa 

kilo- 
meters. 


Ill 


F5.61 
6.65 
6.70 
5.74 
6.79 
6.84 
5.88 
6.93 
6.97 
6.02 

. 6.06 
6.10 
6.15 
6.19 
6.23 
6.27 
6.31 
6.36 
6.40 
6.44 
6.48 
6.52 
6.57 
6.61 
6.65 
6.60 
6.73 
6.78 
6.82 
6.86 
6.90 
6.94 
6.99 
7.03 
7.07 
7.11 
7.16 
7.20 
7.24 
7.28 
7.32 
7.36 
7.41 
7.45 
7.49 
7.53 
7.57 
7.62 
7.66 
7.70 
7.74 
7.78 
7.83 
7.87 
7.91 
7.95 
7.99 
8.0-4 
8.08 
8.12 
8.16 
8.20 
8.25 
8.29 
8.33 
8.37 
8.41 
8.46 
8.50 
8..^ 
8.58 
8.62 
8.67 
8.71 
8.76 
8.79 


1^3.97 
4.01 
4.04 
4.08 
4.11 
4.14 
4.18 
4.21 
4.25 
4.28 
4.31 
4.34 
4.36 
4.39 
4.42 
4.45 
4.48 
4.50 
4.53 
4.56 
4.59 
4.62 
4.64 
4.67 
4.70 
4.73 
4.76 
4.78 
4.81 
4.84 
4.87 
4.90 
4.92 
4.95 
4.98 
5.01 
6.04 
6.06 
6.09 
5.12 
6.15 
5,18 
5.20 
5.23 
6.26 
5.29 
5.32 
5.34 
6.37 
5.40 
5.43 
5.46 
5.48 
5.51 
5.54 
5.57 
6.60 
5,62 
5.65 
5.68 
5.71 
5.74 
5.76 
5.79 
5.82 
5.85 
5.88 
5.90 
5.93 
5.96 
5.99 
6.02 
6.04 
6.07 
0.10 
6.13 


F2.10 
2.12 
2.13 
2.15 
2.17 
2.19 
2.21 
2.22 
2.24 
2.26 
2.28 
2.29 
2.31 
2.32 
2.34 
2.36 
2.37 
2.39 
2.40 
2.42 
2.44 
2.45 
2.47 
2.48 
2.50 
2.52 
2.53 
2.55 
2.56 
2.58 
2.60 
2.61 
2.63 
2.64 
2.66 
2.68 
2.69 
2.71 
2.72 
2.74 
2.76 
2.77 
2.79 
2.80 
2.82 
2.84 
2.85 
2.87 
2,88 
2.90 
2.92 
2.93 
2.96 
2.96 
2.98 
3.00 
3.01 
3.a3 
3,04 
3.06 
3.08 
3.09 
3.11 
3.12 
3.14 
3.16 
3.17 
3.19 
3.20 
3.22 
3.24 
3.25 
3.27 
3.28 
3.30 
3.32 


1^2.976 
2.992 
3.008 
3.024 
3.04 
3.056 
3.072 
3.068 
3.104 
3.12 
3.13 
3.14 
3.15 
3.16 
3.17 
3.18 
3.19 
3.20 
3.21 
3.22 
3.23 
3.24 
3.25 
3.26 
3.27 
3.28 
3.29 
3.30 
3.31 
3.32 
3.33 
3.34 
3.35 
3.36 
3.37 
3.38 
3.39 
3.40 
3.41 
3.42 
3.43 
3.44 
3.45 
3.46 
3.47 
3.48 
3.49 
3.50 
3.51 
3)52 
3.53 
3.54 
3.55 
3.56 
3.57 
3..W 
3.59 
3.60 
3.61 
3.62 
3.63 
3.64 
3.65 
3.66 
3.67 
3.68 
3.69 
3.70 
3.71 
3.72 
3.73 
3.74 
3.75 
3.76 . 
3.77 
3.78 
1 


1 

1 187 .. 


8.88 
8.92 
8.96 
9.00 
9.04 
9.09 
9.13 
9.17 
9.21 
9.25 
9.30 
9.34 
9.38 
9.42 
9.46 
9,51 
9.55 
9.59 
9.63 
9.67 
9.72 
9.76 
9.80 
9.81 
9.88 
9.93 
9.97 
10.01 
10.05 
10.09 
10.14 
10.18 
10.22 
10.26 
10.30 
10.35 
10.39 
10.43 
10.47 
10.61 
10.56 
10.60 
10.64 
10.68 
10.72 
10.77 
10.81 
10. R5 
10.89 
10.93 
10.98 
11.02 
11.06 
11.10 
11.14 
11.19 
11.23 
11.27 
11.31 
11.35 
11.40 
11.44 
11.48 
11.52 
11.56 
11.61 
11.65 
11.69 
11.73 
11.77 
11.82 
11.86 
11.90 
11.94 


ro.ie 

6.18 
6.21 
6.24 
6.27 
6.30 
6.32 
6.35 
6.38 
6.41 
6.44 
6.46 
6.49 
6.52 
6.55 
6.58 
0.60 
6.63 
6.66 
6.09 
6.72 
6.74 
6.77 
6.80 
6.83 
6.86 
6.88 
6.91 
6.94 
6.97 
7.00 
7.02 
7.05 
7.08 
7.11 
7.14 
7.16 
7.19 
7.22 
7.25 
7.28 
7.30 
7.33 
7.36 
7.39 
7.42 
7.44 
7.47 
7.50 
7.53 
7.56 
7.58 
7.61 
7.64 
7.67 
7,70 
7.72 
7.75 
7.78 
7.81 
7.84 
7.86 
7.89 
7.92 
7.95 
7.98 
8.00 
8.03 
8.06 
8.09 
8.12 
8.14 
8.17 
8.20 
8.23 


f3.33 
3.36 
3.36 
3.38 
3.40 
3.41 
3.43 
3.44 
3.46 
3.48 
3.49 
3.61 
3.62 
3.64 
3.56 
3.67 
3.60 
3.60 
3.62 
3.64 
3.66 
3.67 
3.68 
3.70 
3.72 
3.73 
3.75 
3.76 
3.78 
3.80 
3.81 
3.83 
3.84 
3.86 
3.88 
3.89 
3.91 
3.92 
3.94 
3.96 
3.97 
3.99 
4.00 
4.02 
4.04 
4.05 
4.07 
4.08 
4.10 
4.12 
4.13 
4.15 
4.16 
4.18 
4,20 
4.21 
4.23 
4.24 
4.26 
4.28 
4.29 
4.31 
4.32 
4.34 
4.36 
4.37 
. 4.39 
4.40 
4.42 
4.44 
4.45 
4.47 
4.48 
4.60 
4.52 


1*'3 79 


112 


' 188 


3.80 


113 


189 .. 


3 81 


114 


190 


3.82 


115 


191 


3 83 


116 


192 


3.84 


117 


193 


3.85 


118 


194 


3.8t 


119 


195 


3.87 


120 


196 


3.88 


121 


197 


3.80 


122 


198 


3.90 


123 


199 


3.01 


124 


200. 


3.02 


125 


201 


3.93 


128 


202 


3.94 


127 


203 


3.95 


128 


204., 


3.96 


129 


205 


3.97 


130 


206 . . 


3.98 


131 


207 


3.09 


132 


208 


4.00 


133 


209 


4.01 


134 


210 


4.02 


136 


211 


4.03 


136 


212 


4.04 


137 


213 


4.05 


138 


214 


4.06 


139 


215 


4.07 


140 


216 


4.08 


141 


217 


4.09 


142 


218 


4.10 


143 


219 


4.11 


144 


220 


4.12 


145 


221 


4.13 


146 


222 


4.14 


147 


223 


4.15 


148 


224 


4.16 


149 


225 


4.17 


150 


226 


4.18 


151 


227 


4.10 


152 


228 


4.20 


153 


229 


4.21 


154 


230 


4.22 


155 


231 


4.23 


156 


232 


4.24 


157 


233 


4 25 


158 


234 


4.26 


159 


235 

236 

237 


4 27 


160 


4.28 


161 


4.29 


162 


238 

239 

240 

241 

' 242 

i 243 

244 

245 


4.30 


163 


4.31 


164 


4.32 


165 


4.33 


166 


4.34 


167 


4.35 


168 


4.36 


169 


4.37 


170 


246 

247 

248 

249 


4 38 


171 


4.30 


172 


4 40 


173 


4 41 


174 


250 


4 42 


175 


• 251 


4.43 


176 


252 


4 44 


177 


253 


4.45 


178 


254 


4.46 


179 


1 255 


4.47 


180 


1 256 


4 48 


181 


257 


4 49 


182 


258 


4 50 


183 


259 


4 51 


184 


200 


4 52 


185 


261 . 


4 53 


186 











WAR 1904— VOL 13 16 



242 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



FREIGHT. 
(In Philippine currency.] 



Classified freight, per ton 
of 1. 000 kilos or 2 cubic 
meters. 




REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



243 



KQomebric raiM — ContixHied. 
FRE lOnT— eoBtiBued. 





Ci*M«lc<l freight, JM 


r Ion 


















^-« 




gl i,fm yiQ« [^ :i cubic 


Her34^ uid oatUe. 


ri£i 


, shtwlJ, gfttls, 


elc 


t| 




tnvtifrs' 






















j 


J 
1 




1 


1 


i 


"5 

1 

1 


1 

!■ 

1 


II 
1 


1 

1 

B 


If 

Ill 




II 


li 
ill 


1^ 


87-_„ 


r5.y4 


P4.14I 


r3,D4& 


r2.r4 


r6.25 


1 \ 

r 0. e& r 13. i3i rx 976, r l 57o 


1*1,490 


P1,2J« 


ri.»i|r22.fta 


«..,. 


6^.15« 


4, 1761 


3,D6U 


2.290 


tt.30 


9,76 


13.^ 


4.00* 


!,.W0 


LrJOO 


1.^ 


1,344 


23. 6S 


«.,.. 


s-^a 


4.3D»{ 


:ios« 


2.30« 


6.3& 


o.uul 


U.3J 


L(Xi2 


J.50O 


l.,MO 


i.2»a 


1.252 


n,u 


KlJ, 


5.m 


4.2411 


3.U10 


2.320 
2.3,19 


a. 40 


1X4^ 


4.cm(^ 


1,600- 


1.520 


1.300 


3.260 


33. 4t 


9I_.,, 


A.m 


4,27a 


3. J 20 


i.45 


9.1J7 


13.41> 


4,t>^ 


L6I0 


i.ato 


u-^m 


1.2«i§ 


23,«i 


«,.,. 


&e3t 


4.3U4 


3,140 


IMI 


10.0* 


13. r* 


4.116 


1,620 


U540 


um 


1.276 


33. 7J 


!R.,„ 


fi.oes 


4.X1« 


S^GO 


2.;iCS 


6,5a 


14».11 


13,67 


4.144 

4,1711 

4.2cd 


l.&JO 


1.550 


1.324 


1.284 


23. BS 


n.... 


&.im 


4,.1fl8 


'^im 


2..TS4 


i.GO 


lA.lft 


13.76 


1.640 


l.&flO 


1.331 


1.2tr.i 


24.04 


«&..„ 


6w7SO 


4.40O 


3,aOQ 


2.400 


6.70 
6.7£ 
6.80 
6.85 


IQ.2B 


13.85 


i,ft.--o 


1.570 


1.34f^ 


1.300 


34,10 




5.7Ua 


4,133 


S.320 


2.4ie 


1«.3» 


13,94 


*.2'M 


l.OfU 


l.W> 


1.34^ 


1.308 


24.3ft 


m"V. 


S.R,'H 


4.4ai 

4.4M 


3^240 


2.433 


1«.39 


14.fla 


4.2.^ 


l.f^iO 


1,500 


1.35* 


1,316 


34,53 


»..,.: 


&.g76 


5.260 


2.44S 


HJ.4fl 


14, 12 


4. I'M 


i.6S{y 


[.364 


1,:J24 


24.68 


«-.., 


5,t>l8 


4.sa8 


3,2S 


2.m 


10.53 


14.21 
14, 30 


4.:; 3 2 


L<'LJ(» 


1.610 


t.373! 


1.332 


24. M 


1B&,... 


fi.B6II 


4.5ea 


3.^ 


2.4S0 


6,90 
6.9i 


W.60 


4, -i-Eu 


1.7I.III 


l.H'SO 


u'^m 


I.^O 


25.09 


m^^J 


€.(infl 


4.593 


^.m 


2.4M 


10.67 


14. HJ* 


4. d(>^ 


1.710 


l.O^O 


1.388 


1.348 


25. 1« 


m.... 


G.044 


4.624 


3.a4tt 


2.."]! a 


7Am 


10.74 
10. Si 


14- 4S 


4.:f.« 


1.720 


1.640 


1.306i 


1.35ti 


25. 3« 


Ka.... 


fi.CW« 


4.ft.'i& 


3.36W 


2. ,'■■28 


7Jia 


11.57 


4.424 


1.7 JO 


l.E.^ 


J. 404 


1.3&4 


2X4S 


MH.-.. 


B.iza 


4,0Sik 


3,380 


1M4 


7Jft 


14,06 


4.453- 


1.740 


1.^60 


1.41^ 


3.372 


25.64 




fLllO 


4.73B 


3.4ilO 
3.420 


a.5*» 


7.15 


10. 05 


14.75 
14, N 


4.4SO 


1.750 


1.670 


1.4m 


1.:J80 


25.80 


Mfillnil 


e,2ia 


4.763 


2.576 


7,20 


11.03 


4.&i]8 


1.760 


1.63^ 


[.42t» 


1.388 


2.1.06 


tm^' 


«.as4 


4.7fti 


3,440 


xsoa 


7.25 


11.0* 


U.tMl 


4. .1116, 


1.770 


, 1,6H<* 


Lm 


1.3% 


2a. 11 


e.2M 


{ 4.816 


3,4M 


2:.6QS 


l.iHi 


11. 1& 


15J« 


].im 


1,700 


l.!44 


3.464 


26.3a 


wl!l' 


B,-138 


4.SWI 


3.4d 


2.^34 


7.35 


11,21 


15. 11 


4,.'H('J 
4.620 
4,fH8 


K7T« 


1.710- 
t,7^ 


1.4,3S 


1.412 


26. W 


IMfrK** 




t.ssm 


3.50tt 


2.640 


T.411 


n.:^o 


15.20 


1.800 


].4fiO 


1,420 


26.60 


IH^.. 


4.912 


3.?i2» 


2.im 


7.45 


31.37 


15, 2» 


1,*(J0 


1.730 


1.4^ 


1.4£8 


26. 7t 






4.044 


a.54fl 


2.673 


7.5fl 


11.44 


n.li8 


4.67<i 
4.70* 


l.K^O 


L740 


J. 476 


1.4:6 


36,flt 


IW^^- - 


4.970 


:4.5flO 


2.688 


7..SR 


11.51 


U,47 


1. s:jO 


1.7,'50( 


1,484 


1.444 


27. Oi 


■iH-*-* 




&.(m 


;is*ifl 


2.7i>4 
3.7SJ 


7.6fl 


11. i» 


UJ^ 


4.7.13 


1.840 


1.760 


l,4t»S 


1.452 


27.34 


Sit:! 


5.fH0 


3.600 


Lflfi 


11,05 


U.fl5 


4,Tt5y 


1.8,50 


t.770 


}jm 


1.460 


27.40 


fiLtiafi 


f^,073 


X6M 


2.7:!6 


7.70 


11,73 


15.74 
15, «l 


4.7,SS 


1,860 


L7»0 


].rm 


1.46S 


27. .W 


U7 


fl.7lfl 


5. B>41 


3.fV4fl 


2.7.=i2 


7.7& 


11.7t> 


4,^ia 


1.870 


L700 


J. 516 


1.476 


27.73 


iisCKl 


5, nffl 

5. les! 


3,tMI0 


2.708 


7.»0 


11,8^ 


15.03 
1«. 0) 
16.10 
16.10 


4.^1* 


1.880 


1.800 


1,624 


1,484 


27. Si 




%.-m 


:^.6H0 


3.7W 


7.8--^ 


11.63 


4.f^73 


1.8^ 


I.KIO 


i.r»:i3 


1.402 


2S,04 


6. SiiHl 


f>. if^\ 


3,700 


2.^10 


i.m 


13,00 


4,ax> 


lOflO 


l.SSO 


1.51(1 


1.500 


2!O0 


Ht...q». 


fl SJ^ 


-. :^^ 


3,720 


2.^10 


7,0* 


13.07 


4, 0*28 


1.910 


i,«ay 


l,M» 


1.508 


2S.30 


IB^m. ^ 


fy -.<] 


^ .Ti^ 


3.740 


a.*a3 


%.m 


13. U 


; it.-m 

, 16.37 


4.056 


1.^*-^ 


1.846 


1.556 


1.516 


2S,40 


■W**_T- 


h ■■ ■. 


.ii 


X760 


2. MS 


8. OS 


13.21 


4.0S4 


l.OSO 


l.KW 


1.5fi% 


1.524 


28.50 


mu... 


i^.- 'i.' 


.. .JH- 


3,7S0 


2.«m 


S.l« 


13. 2S 


li,46 


;i.oi3 


l.^O 


1,W0 


i..i7a 


K5 2 


2*4,M 


m.^. 


T.WJif 


■'. .^ij<> 


■l.ftOO 


3.£)KI 


S.15 


ia,35 


16.56 


S.040 


1,950 


1.870 


l.r.80 


1.540 


28.70 


ft::: 


7,058 
7.094 


5,392 
5.424 


li.tfSO 


2.8M 


«.3ft 


13,^ 


U.U 


&06a 


L9W 


uffm 


1.588 


1,648 


28.89 


:i.ft«j 


2.013 


ft.^ 


ia.4» 


16.73 


tOftft 


1.970 


l.SJtO 


1.506 


L,^ 


2S.OT 


IW.,.. 


7.156 
7A7% 


5l45« 


:{.8oo 


2.92S 


S.30 


ia.M 

13.63 


16. «? 


*.lSi 


Lfum 


I.UW 


K6D* 


l.,^4 


20.00 


120,.., 


fi.4sa 


3.880 


3,044 


a.3s 


IS. 01 


5. i."ja 


i.mio 


1.010 


1.612 


1.5T2 


iO.lO 


ia&.... 


7.220 


ri.5K« 


a. 900 


2.«eo 


a, 40 


i2.m 


17,00 


5.1^) 


3.0W* 


1.620 
1.61'ft 


hm 


mao 


ai,.,. 


7.3Ba 


5. Mir 


3. 930 


2.976 


a. 45 


13.77 


17.01V 


S.2QS 


2.1H(I 


L9iM* 


1.588 


20, HO 


i^^'» » 


T*10l 


.S.5^ 


.1.040 


2,91*3 


: 8.S0 


13, S4 


17. IS 


5,2:^0 


-Lfm 


1,*M0 


l.KIB 


i.fm 


211.40 


BHL.-*,_ 


T.34« 


s.ei« 


3.960 


3.008 


8.S5 


12, W 


17.27 


5.264 


2.o:iO 


LP-tO 


1.6-14 


1.50-1 


21>.W 


g,*.. 


tIS 


XSSO 


3,0©4 


S.60 


IX i« 


n.m 


5.2512 


lAm 


1 6r>;r 

1.660 
1.668 


1.612 


2«xeo 


7.4.ia 


fl.CW 


4,000 


3,040 


JU65 


13,05 


17.45 


5,3^D 


2.<^^JL^ 


1.070 


l.fl20 


3J.70 


Kfli-^n. 


7.4Va 


c^711 


4.020 


3.056 


It. 7(1 


U. 13 


17.5* 


S..H8 


±{m 


Liw^ 


1.628 


mm 


07'.-^. 


T.Sl* 


5.714 


4.040 


3,073 


a7s 


13,19 


17.63 


5.376 


2.ii70 


1.09O 


1.676 


1.6:6 


20.00 


IK. 41 


7.fi5ft 


5.77ft 


4.060 


3.osa 


asn 


13.2fi 
13.33 


17.73 
17. Kl 


5.4*» 


2.0W 


2.E100i 


1,6M 


1.644 


3U.0O 


on.::. 


T^flse 


S.^lft 


4.0fi0 


3.104 


as* 


5.4,13 


2.090 


2.fU0 
2.021^ 


1.602 


l.ft'i2 


'ML 10 


MD„.. 


T.ftlO 


■S.M) 


4,100 


3.126 


e.o0 


1».40 


S.460 


2, im 


L7(!l* 


1,660 


:«).20 


til.,.. 


T.r*7^ 


5.&68 


l,Uft 


3.133 


^ a 04 


13. 4S 


17. f« 


S.4«* 


2.106 


2.036 
2.tft2 


1.706 


1.664 


30.30 


i*3,... 


r.Tje 


-s^awft 


4. 1J^2 


3.144 


k.0^ 


IS. 03 


5.54W 


2.113 


J. 712 


1.6r*i 


no. 40 


m.... 


7.7M 


5,924 


4.148 


H. \m 


ftoi 


l.%,,SSi 


l»J^ 


5.52t» 


3. IIH 


2M^ 


1.718 


1.672 


3^1.50 


m..,. 


7,753 


fi.ra.'vt 


4.1M 


a.iOi 


9l06 


ixeo 


18.14 
18,20 


X,510 


2. 124 


2.1m 


I,T24 


1,676 


?Akm 


If-.. 


7,830 


5.9Hp 


4, IRQ 


3.1SQ 


^Hi 


13.65 


5.5fiO 


2.1^ 


2. O-^jO 


1.730 


1.6-si> 


so. 70 


m.... 


7.m 


0.008 
COM 


4.10« 


:Lira 

3.216 
3.22fl 


«Lli 


13.70 


1^26 


5.5fi*> 


S^I36 


2Am 


i.m 


1,681 


lahW 


iS:::: 


t.m 


4.ai4 
4.S2« 

4.344 


'AAA 
6.22 


13.731 


\^.l^ 


S.f.Ot> 


3. 113 


2.013 


L742 


1.6t!i8 


30. no 


7-W4 


COM 


n.m 


lii.JS 


5.629 


2.I4& 

2.154 
2.160 


2jm 


1.718 


1.603 


31. «> 


Mi.... 


7,m 


^^,093 


9,26 


IX «s 


ia44 


5.610 


2.074 


1.7,>l 


l.e£J6 


31. 10 


ISO ... 


&02fi 


030 


4.^76 


3.^0 
3,2.'J2 
3.2<S4 


9.30 


J3,9D 


lSJ,riO 
l^.ft6 


5. W*fl 


2.^im 


i.7m 


i.Tno 


31,36 


iBil.... 


&osa 


(LHil 


0.34 


1.1. ttS 
14. 0» 


S.ftSO 


2. If* 


2.I1S6 


I,7t» 


1.7fH 


:u.Mj 


ltt„„ 


s.{Si 


(klTtt 


4.2sa 


0.3.*i 


15.63 


5.700 


2,173 


2.0OTJ 


1.772 


1.7m 


51.40 



244 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

KUometric rates — Continued. 
FREIGHT— Continued. 





Classified freight, per ton 


















^-w 




of 1,000 kilos or 2 cubic 


Horses and cattle. 


Pigs, sheep, goats, 


etc. 






meters. 






















1 




1 

o 
73 


1 


1 

1 


i 


CI 




CO . 

li 

B 


i 

a 

d 

5 


In 


ij 
1 


11 

if. 
Ill 


163.... 


1^8. 134 


1^6.204 


r4.308 


1^3.276 


1^9.42 


1 
1^14.05T18.68 


r5.720 


r2. 178 


F2.098yi.778 


ri.7i2 


F3i.50 


164.... 


8.172 


6.232 


4.324 


3.288 


9.46 


14.10 


18.74 


5.740 


2.184 


2.104 


1.784 


1.716 


31.60 


155.... 


8.210 


6.260 


4.340 


3.300 


9.50 


14.15 


18.80 


5.760 


2.190 


2.110 


1.790 


1.720 


31.70 


166.... 


8.2-18 


6.288 


4.3,56 


3.312 


9.54 


14. M 


18.86 


6.780 


2.196 


2.116 


1.796 


1.724 


31.80 


167.... 


8.286 


6.316 


4.372 


3.324 


9.58 


14.25 


18.92 


6.800 


2.202 


2.122 


1.802 


1.728 


31.90 


168.... 


8.324 


6.344 


4.388 


3.3.36 


9.62 


14.30 


18.98 


5.820 


2.208 


2.128 


1.808 
1.814 
1.820 


1.732 


32.00 


169.... 


8.362 


6.372 


4.404 


3.348 


9.66 


14.35 


19.04 


5.840 


2.214 


2.134 


1.736 


32.10 


160.... 


8.400 


6.400 


4.420 


3.360 


9.70 


14.40 


19.10 


5.860 


2.220 


2.140 


1.740 


32.20 


161.... 


8.438 


6.428 


4.436 


3.372 


9.74 


14.45 


19.16 


5.880 


2.226 


2.146 


1.826 


1.744 


32.30 


162.... 


8.476 


6.456 


4.452 


3.384 


9.78 


14.50 


19.22 


5.900 


2.232 


2.152 


1 832 


1.748 


32.40 


163.... 


8.524 


6.484 


4.468 


3.396 


9.82 


14.55 


19.28 


6.920 


2.238 


2.158 


1.838 


1.752 


32.50 


164.... 


8.552 


6.512 


4.484 


3.406 


9.86 


14.60 


19.34 


6.940 


2.244 


2.164 


1.844 


1.756 


32.00 


165.... 


8.590 


6.540 


4.500 


3.420 


9.90 


14.65 


19.40 


6.960 


2.250 


2.170 


1.850 


1.760 


32.70 


166.... 


8.628 


6.568 


4.516 


3.432 


9.94 


14.70 


19.46 


5.980 


2.256 


2.176 


1.856 


1.764 


32.80 


167.... 


8.666 


6.596 


4. .532 


3.444 


9.98 


14.76 


19.52 


6.000 


2.262 


2.182 


1.862 


1.768 


32.90 


168.... 


8.704 


6.624 


4.548 


3.456 


10.02 


14.80 


19.58 


6.020 


2.268 


2.188 


1.868 


1.772 


33.00 


169... 


8.742 


6.652 


4.564 


3.468 


10.06 


14.85 


19.61 


6.040 


2.274 


2.194 


1.874 


1.776 


33.10 


170.... 


8.780 


6.680 


4.580 


3.480 


10.10 


14.90 


19.70 


6.060 


2.280 


2.200 


1.880 


1.780 


33.20 


171.... 


8.818 


6.708 


4.596 


3.492 


10.14 


14.95 


19.76 


6.080 


2.286 


2.206 


1.886 


1.784 


33.30 


172.... 


8.856 


6.?36 


4.612 


3.504 


10.18 


15.00 


19.82 


6.100 


2.292 


2.212 


1.892 


1.788 


33.40 


173.... 


. 8.894 


6.764 


4.628 


3.616 


10.22 


15.05 


19.88 


6.120 


2.298 


2.218 


1.898 


1.792 


33.50 


174.... 


8.932 


6.792 


4.64^1 


3.528 


10.26 


15.10 


19.94 


6. 140 


2.304 


2.224 


1.904 


1.796 


33.00 


176.... 


8.970 


6.820 


4.660 


3.540 


10.30 


15.15 


20.00 


6.160 


2.310 


2.230 


1.910 


1.800 


33.70 


176.... 


9.008 


6.848 


4.676 


3.552 


10.34 


15.20 


20.06 


6.180 


2.316 


2.2.36 


1.916 


1.804 


33.80 


177.... 


•9.046 


6.870 


4.692 


3.564 


10.38 


15.2,5 


20.12 


6.200 


2.322 


2.242 


1.922 


1.806 


33.90 


178. . . . 


9.084 


6.904 


4.708 


3.576 


10.42 


1,5.30 


20.18 


6.220 


2.328 


2.248 


1.928 


1.812 


34.00 


179.... 


9.122 


6.932 


4.724 


3.588 


10.46 


15.35 


20.24 


6.240 


2.3,34 


2.254 


1.934 


1.816 


34.10 


180.... 


9.160 


6.960 


4.740 


3.600 


10.50 


15.40 


20.30 


6.260 


2.340 


2.260 


1.940 


1.820 


34.20 


181.... 


9.198 


6.988 


4.756 


3.612 


10.54 


16.45 


20.36 


6.280 


2.346 


2.266 


1.946 


1.824 


^ 34.30 


182.... 


9.238 


7.016 


4.772 


3.624 


10.58 


15.50 


20.42 


6.300 


2.352 


2.272 


1.952 


1.828 


34.40 


183.... 


9.274 


7.044 


4.788 


3.636 


10.62 


15.55 


20.48 


6. .3-20 


2.358 


2.278 


1.958 


1.832 


34.60 


181.... 


9.312 


7.072 


4.8(M 


3.648 


10.66 


15.60 


20. .54 


6.340 


2.364 


2.284 


1.964 


1.836 


34.00 


185... 


9.350 


7.100 


4.820 


3.660 


10.70 


15.65 


20.60 


6. .360 


2.370 


2.200 


1.970 


1.840 


34.70 


186.... 


9.388 


7.128 


4.836 


3.672 


10.74 


15.70 


20.66 


6.380 


2.376 


2.296 


1.976 


1.844 


34.80 


187.... 


9.426 


7.156 


4.852 


3.684 


10.78 


15. 75 


20.72 


6.400 


2.382 


2.302 


1.982 


1.848 


34.90 


188... 


9.464 


7.184 


4.888 


3.696 


10.82 


15. 80 


20.78 


6.420 


2.388 


2.308 


1.988 


1.852 


36.00 


189.... 


9.502 


7.212 


4.884 


3.708 


10.86 


15.85 


20. W 


6. .440 


2.394 


2.314 


1.994 


1.856 


36.10 


190. .. . 


9.640 


7.240 


4.900 


3.720 


10.90 


15.90 


20.90 


6.460 


2.400 


2.320 


2.000 


1.880 


36.20 


191.... 


9.578 


7.268 


4.916 


3.732 


10.94 


15.95 


20.96 


6.480 


2.406 


2.326 


2.006 


1.864 


36.30 


192... 


9.016 


7.296 


4.932 


3.744 


10.98 


16.00 


21.02 


6. ,500 


2.412 


2.3.32 


2.012 


1.868 


36.40 


193.... 


9.6>* 


7.324 


4.948 


3.756 


11.02 


16.05 


21.08 


6. .520 


2.418 


2..3:« 


2.018 


1.872 


36.60 


194.... 


9.692 


7.352 


4.964 


3.768 


11.06 


16.10 


21.14 


6.540 


2.424 


2. ,344 


2.024 


1.876 


36.00 


195.... 


9.730 


7.380 


4.980 


3.780 


11.10 


16.15 


21.20 


6. ,560 


2. 430 


2.3.50 


2.030 


1.880 


36.70 


196.... 


9.768 


7.408 


4.996 


3.792 


11.14 


16.20 


21.26 


6.580 


2.436 


2.356 


2.036 


1.884 


36.80 


197.... 


9.806 


7.436 


5.012 


3.804 


11.18 


16.25 


21.32 


6.600 


2.442 


2. 362 


2.042 


1.888 


36.90 


198.... 


9.844 


7.464 


5.028 


3.816 


11.22 


16.30 


21.38 


6.620 


2.448 


2. 368 


2.048 


1.892 


36.00 


199.... 


9.882 


7.492 


5.044 


3.828 


11.26 


16.35 


21.44 


6.6-40 


2.454 


2. 374 


2.054 


1.896 


36.10 


200.... 


9.920 


7.520 


5.080 


3.840 


11.30 


16.40 


21.50 


6.660 


2.460 


2. ,380 


2.060 


1.900 


36.20 


201.... 


9.958 


7.548 


5.076 


3.852 


11.34 


16.45 


21.56 


6.680 


2.466 


2. .386 


2.066 


1.904 


30.30 


202.... 


9.996 


7.576 


5.092 


3.864 


11.38 


16.50 


21.62 


6.700 


2.472 


2.302 


2.072 


1.908 


36.40 


203.... 


10. 034 


7.604 


5.108 


3.876 


11.42 


16.55 


21.68 


6.720 


2.478 


2. ,308 


2.078 


1.912 


36.60 


204.... 


10.072 


7.632 


5.124 


3.888 


11.46 


16.60 


21.74 


6. 7i0 


2.484 


2.404 


2.084 


1.916 


36.00 


206... 


10.110 


7.660 


5.140 


3.900 


11.50 


16.65 


21.80 


6.760 


2.490 


2.410 


2.090 


1.920 


36.70 


206.... 


10. 148 


7.688 


5.156 


3.912 


11.54 


16.70 


21.86 


6.780 


2.496 


2.416 


2.096 


1.924 


36.80 


207.... 


10.186 


7.716 


5.172 


3.924 


11.58 


16.75 


21.92 


6.800 


2.502 


2.422 


2.102 


1.928 


36.90 


208.... 


10.224 


7.744 


6.188 


3.936 


11.62 


16.80 


21.98 


6.820 


2.508 


2.428 


2.108 


1.932 


37.00 


209.... 


10.262 


7.772 


6.204 


3.948 


11.66 


16.85 


22.04 


6.8-40 


2.514 


2.434 


2.114 


1.936 


37.10 


210.... 


10.300 


7.800 


5.220 


3.960 


11.70 


16.90 


22.10 


6.860 
6.880 


2.520 


2.440 


2.120 


1.940 


37.20 


211.... 


10.338 


7.828 


5.2:36 


3.972 


11.74 


16.95 
17.00 


22.16 


2.526 


2.446 


2.126 


1.944 


37.30 


212.... 


10.376 


7.856 


5.2.52 


3.984 


11.78 


22.22 


6.900 


2.532 


2.452 


2.132 


1.948 


37.40 


213.... 


10.414 


7.884 


5.268 


3.996 


11.82 


17.05 


22.28 


6.920 


2.538 


2.4.58 


2.138 


1.952 


37.50 


214.... 


10. 452 


7.912 


5.284 


4.008 


11.86 


17.10 


22.34 


6.940 


2.544 


2.464 


2.144 


1.956 


37.00 


216.... 


10.490 


7.940 


5.300 


4.020 


11.90 


17. 15 


22.40 


6.960 


2.5,50 


2.470 


2.150 


1.960 


37.70 


216.... 


10.528 


7.968 


6.316 


4.032 


11. (M 


17. 20 


22.46 


6.980 


2.556 


2.476 


2.156 


1.964 


37.80 


217.... 


10.566 


7.996 


5.332 


4.CM4 


11.08 


17.2.5 


22. 52 


7.000 


2. .562 


2.482 


2.162 


1.C68 


37.90 


218.... 


10.604 


8.024 


5.348 


4.056 


12. KYI 


17.30 


22. .58 


7.020 


2.568 


2.488 


2.168 


1.9721 


38.00 





ROCK CUT AT SAN FELIPE NERI, ANTIPOLO EXTENSION. 




APPROACH TO CROSSING OF SAN JUAN RIVER, ANTIPOLO EXTENSION. 




ROCK CUT AT SAN FELIPE NERI, ANTIPOLO EXTENSION. 




PILE TRESTLE, CABANATUAN EXTENSION. 




TYPE OF CULVERT, CABANATUAN EXTENSION. 




CUT NEAR MASINI, CABANATUAN EXTENSION. 





LAYING TRACK, CABANATUAN EXTENSION. 




< 

'i 
o 



o 
o 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



245 



Kilomeiric rates — Continued. 
FREIGHT— Continued. 





Cla«f;lf]cd freit^ht, per too 








■ 










^H» 




ot 1 ,000 kilo» or 2 «ubie 
mtHera. 


Horws »nd c« tt)e. 


Pigi- 


, *he*p, goftta, 


etc. 


il- 


i 

o 

3 


1 

u 
1 


i 

s 




1 




•3 
J! 

P 

,£3 

I 

ri7.35 


S3 
r22.64 


1 

II 
5 

P7.040 


1 
B 

£ 
& 

f»-2..574 


ti] 


^2 

to 

it 
II 


It 


219.... 


no. 642 


1*8.052 


1*5.364 


r4.068 


I"12.06 


r2.494 


f2.174 


ri.976 


r38.10 


220.... 


10.680 


8.080 


5.380 


4.080 


12.10 


17.40 


22.70 


7.060 


2.580 


2.500 
2.606 


2.180 


1.980 


38.20 


221.... 


10. 718 


8.108 


6.396 


4.092 


12.14 


17.45 


22.76 


7.080 


2.686 


2.186 


1.084 


38.30 


222.... 


10.756 


8.136 


5.412 


4.104 


12.18 


17.50 


22.82 


7.100 


2.592 


2.512 


2.192 


1.988 


38.40 


223.... 


10.794 


8.164 


5. 428 


4.116 


12.22 


17.55 


22.88 


7.130 


2.598 


2.518 


2.198 


1.992 


38.50 


224.... 


10. 832 


8.192 


5.444 


4.128 


12.28 


17.60 


22.94 


7.140 


2.604 


2.524 
2.530 


2.204 


1.996 


38.00 


225.... 


10. 870 


8.220 


5.460 


4.140 


12.30 


17.65 


23.00 


7.160 


2.610 


2.210 


2.000 


38.70 


226.,.. 


10.908 


8.248 


5.476 


4.152 


12.34 


17.70 


23.06 


7.180 


2.616 


2.536 


2.216 


2.004 


38.80 


227 . 


10. W6 


8.276 


5.492 


4.164 


12.38 


17.75 


23.12 


7.200 


2.622 


2.542 


2.222 


2.008 


38.90 


228.... 


10.984 


8.304 


5.508 


4.176 


12.42 


17.80 


23.18 


7.220 


2.628 


2.548 


2.228 


2.012 


30.00 


229.... 


11.022 


8.a32 


5.524 


4.188 


12.46 


17.85 


23.24 


7.240 


2.6.34 


2.554 


2.234 


2.016 


30.10 


230.... 


11.060 


8.360 


5.540 


4.200 


12.50 


17.90 


2.3. .30 


7.260 


2.640 


2.560 


2.240 


2.020 


30. ao 


231.... 


11.098 


8.388 


5.556 


4.212 


12.54 


17.95 


23.36 


7.280 


2.646 


2.566 


2.246 


2.024 


30.30 


232.... 


11. 1,36 


8.416 


5.572 


4.224 


12.58 


18.00 


23.42 


7. .300 


2.652 


2.572 


2.252 


2.028 


30.40 


233.... 


11.174 


8.444 


5.588 


4.236 


12.62 


18.05 


23.48 


7. 320 


2.658 


2.578 


2.258 


2.032 


30.50 


234.... 


11.212 


8.472 


5.604 


4.248 


12.66 


18.10 


23. .54 


7.340 


2.664 


2.584 


2.2&I 


2.096 


30.00 


23.5. . . . 


11.250 


8.500 


5.620 


4.260 


12.70 


18. 15 


23.60 


7.360 


2.670 


2.590 


2.270 


2.040 


30.70 


236. .. . 


11.288 


8.528 


5.636 


4.272 


12.74 


18.20 


23.66 


7.380 


2.676 


2.596 


2.276 


2.044 


30.80 


237.... 


11.326 


8.556 


5.652 


4.284 


12.78 


18.25 


23.72 


7.400 


2.682 


2.602 


2282 


2.048 


30.90 


238.... 


11.364 


8.584 


5.668 


4.296 


12 82 


18.30 


23.78 


7.420 


2.688 


2.608 


2 288 


2.0S2 


40 00 


239.... 


11.402 


8.612 


5.684 


4.308 


12.80 


18.35 


23.84 


7.440 


2.694 


2.614 


2.294 


2.056 


40.10 


240. .. . 


11.440 


8.640 


5.700 


4.320 


12.90 


18.40 


23.90 


7.460 


2.700 


2.620 


2.300 


2.060 


40.20 


241.... 


11.478 


8.668 


5.716 


4.332 


12. 9-* 


18.45 


23.96 


7.480 


2.706 


2.626 


2.306 


2064 


40.80 


242.... 


11 516 


8.696 


5.732 


4.344 


12.98 


18.50 


24.02 


7.500 


2.712 


2.632 


2.312 


2 068 


40.40 


243.... 


11.5.54 


8.724 


5.748 


4.356 


13.02 


18.55 


24.08 


7. .520 


2.718 


2.638 


2.318 


2.072 


40 50 


244.... 


u.(m 


8.752 


5.764 


4.368 


13.06 


18.60 


24.14 


7.540 


2. 724 


2.644 


2.324 


2.076 


40.00 


245.... 


8.780 


5.780 


4.380 


13.10 


18.65 


24.20 


7.560 


2.7.30 


2.650 


2.330 


2.0§p 
2.084 


40.70 


246.... 


8.808 


6.796 


4.392 


13.14 


18.70 


24.26 


7.580 


2.736 


2.656 


2.336 


40.80 


247.... 


11*706 


8.836 


6.812 


4.404 


13.18 


18. 75 


24.32 


7.600 


2.742 


2 662 


2.342 


2.068 


40.00 


248. . . . 


11 744 


8.864 


5.828 


4.416 


13.22 


18.80 


24. .» 


7.620 


2.748 


2.668 


2.348 


2.092 


41.00 


249.... 


11.782 


8.892 


5.844 


4.428 


13.26 


18.85 


24.44 


7.610 


2.754 


2.674 


2.354 


2.096 


41.10 


2-50.... 


11 820 


8920 


5.860 


4.440 


13.30 


18.90 


24.50 


7.660 


2.760 


2.680 


2.360 


2.100 


41.20 


251 . . . . 


11 858 


8.948 


5.876 


4. 452 


13.34 


18.95 
19.00 
19.05 


24. .56 


7.680 


2.766 


2.686 


2 366 


2.104 


41.30 


252.... 


11.896 


8 976 


6.892 


4.464 


13.38 


24.62 


7.700 


2.772 


2 692 


2.372 


2.106 


41.40 


253.... 


11.934 


9.004 


5.908 


4.476 


13.42 


24.68 


7.720 


2.778 


2.698 


2.378 


2.112 


41.50 


254.... 


11.972 


9.032 


5.924 


4.488 


13.46 


19.10 
19.15 


24.74 


7.740 


2.784 


2.704 


2.384 


2.116 


41.00 


255.... 


12.010 


9.000 


, 5.9^10 


4.500 


13. .50 


24.80 


7.760 


2.790 


' 2.710 


2.390 


2.120 


41.70 


256.... 


12.048 


9.088 


; 5.956 


4.512 


13.54 


19.20 


24.86 


7.780 


2.796 


2.716 


2.396 


2.124 


41.80 


257.... 


12.086 


9. lie 


i 5.972 


4.524 


13. .58 


19.25 


24.92 


7.800 


2.802 


2.722 


2.402 


2.128 


41.00 


258.... 


12. 124 


9.144 


' 5.988 


4.536 


13. 02 


19.30 


24.98 


7.820 


2.808 


2.728 


2.408 


2.132 


42.00 


259. .. . 


12. 162 


9.172 


6.0(M 


4.548 


13.66 


19.35 


25.04 


7.840 


2.814 


2.734 


2.414 


2.130 


42.10 


260.... 


12.200 


9.200 


6.020 


4.560 

t 


13.70 


19.40 


25.10 


7.860 


2.820 


2.740 


2.420 


2.140 


42.20 



ANNTTAL BEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF BITFERyiBOSB. 

Mr. J. W. Beardsley, 

Consulting Engineer to the Commission^ Manila^ P. I. 
Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the work done during 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904, under the direction of the provincial supervisors and 
supervi.sor-trca8urers, and paid for from provincial and municipal funds and Congressioiial 
reuef rice. 



246 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



The following tabulation, compiled from, the leports of the supervisors and supervisor- 
treasurers, shows in a compact form the expenditures and work accomplished: 

Annual report ofprwrincial puWtc v)ork^ fiscal year ewUd June SOy 1904- 
EXPENDITURES. 



Ppovlnco. 


Native labor. 


Labor otiier than native. 


Days. 


Cost. 


Days. 


cost. 


Abia .... 


23,689.00 
20,903.15 
34,087.35 
20,901.00 
1,252.00 
174,707.50 


r 10,328. 44 

9,926.70 

23,864.70 

5,684.03 

827.46 

82,836.99 

5,085.92 

1,694.84 

41,419.86 

638.12 

20,071.75 

38,886.78 

58,596.81 

27,818.94 

20,621.19 

71,l72.8fr 

3.662.90 

1,001.66 

4,865.86 

6>84«.80 

10,742.21 

787. 17 

1,135.80 

228 01 

30)096.77 

2.283.30 

33,878.36 

2,489 10 

36,513.18 

31.353.76 


1 


Albay 


2,671.25 
512.00 


^5, 694. 44 


Ambos Camarines 


2,352.14 


Antique 




Bataan 


7.30 
358.00 


30.66 


Batangas 


1,688.79 


TiAnffiiPt ... 




Bohol 


1,991.00 

66,658.00 

2,484.00 

56, 267. 17 

70,799.25 

159,503.00 

60,127.90 

36,545.40 

173,966,83 

4,178.60 

1,994.00 

0,615.00 

46,0ia50 

13,989.00 

848 00 

1,372.50 

7.071.00 

07,574 70 

4, 41 r. 00 

48,^79 45 

5.29&00 

69,302.00 

45«924.00 


80.00 

327.50 

374. 75 

947.00 

1,015.00 

1,487.00 

324.00 

291.00 

1, 139. 00 

4.00 

89.00 

20.09 

498.59 

1,113.00 


481.06 


Dulacan 


1,599.00 


f-iMrftyan 


1,868.59 


Capiz 


3,609.97 


Cavite 


4,524.31 


Obu 


7,914. 78 


Ilocos No#t« 


1.613.48 


Iloeoa S«r 


1,041 66 


Ilolio 


4, 773. 13 


Isabela 


20.00 


La Lagrnia 


344.03 


La Umoo 


132.90 


L«panto-Bontee 

Leyte 

Maabato 


2.919 n 
4,195.98 


Mittdoro 

Mfoarals 


17.09 


105.00 


Megro8 Occidental 


188.50 


848.09 


Negro« Oriental . .. 




Nueva Ecija 


112.09 

103.00 

642 50 

1, 147. 50 


527.00 


N«eva Viscaya 


361 00 


P»mpaBga 

PangMtoan 

ParHGnm a 


3,339 90 
6.604.50 


Rfea™ :::.::::::::::::::::::::::: 

RombkMi 

Bainar 


25.214 20 
5,06«.10 
15.363.30 
42,635.00 
4.041.00 
86,50a75 
98,926.40 
38,817.00 


18,586.49 
3.948.63 
15,086..^ 
43,881.88 
2,016.07 
6», 785. 21 
55,943.43 
14,944.96 


108.00 
68.00 

233.00 

957.00 
26.00 

126.00 
l.&IS.dO 


515.00 
126 00 
981 50 


Sorsogon 

Siif1g»« 

Tarlac 

Tayabas 

Zaml)«ie8 


4,391 92 
98.50 
968.93 

8,699.33 








Total 


1,545,801.00 


809,477.49 


16,498.50 


60,829.84 



Province. 


Materials. 




Kind. 


Cost. 


Abra 


Various... 


^570123 



Rents, freights, con« : 
tracts, and other 
services not shown. 



Total. 



Albay ' do ■ 

A m hos Cama nnes ' do I 

Antique ' do ' 

Bataan • do | 

Batangas ' do 

Bcncuot ' I 

Bohol Various. . . | 

Bulacan do 

Cagayan.., do 

Capiz ' do ' 

Cavile ' do ' 

Ccbu j do I 

llocos None ' do 

llocoaSur ' do I 

Iloiio I do I 

Isabcla I do | 

La Laguna do I 

La Unjon ' do 

Lepanto-Bontoc | do 

I>ey te i do .... | 

Masbntc ' 

Mindoro ' 

Misamls I \'arious. , 



Kind. 



V'arloiM. . 

8,592.14 do... 

6,474.04 do... 

342.25 do... 

97. a3 I do... 

14,557.48 : do... 



Cost. 



1*44.75 

l,a5fl. ;2 

1,268.37 

107.96 

721.49 

37,933.65 



429.19 

7,aS2.58 

446.63 

1,575.76 

4.990.32 

2,978.22 

16,312.00 

9,336.71 

8,295.30 

362. 21 

029. 16 

821. 75 

24.1. 00 

6,096.58 



I Various. 

do.. 

do.., 

do. 



.^o. 



435.98 
. 16.422L09 
.t 16.00 

.' 873.24 

.; 4,984.47 



Various. . . 


" i3,'i8i.*26' 


Various... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 


! 3,098.98 

78(). 59 

50.61 

1,568.22 





.1" 



197,40 



, Various. 

do.. 

' do.. 

do.. 



.! 44,333.03 

.1 17.70 

.' 14,025.55 

.! 52.61 



no. 943 42 

25,240.00 

33,959.-25 

6, 134. 24 

1,675.98 

137,016.91 

5,085.92 

3,041.07 

66,493.49 

2,969.34 

26,130.42 

53,329.88 

68.589.81 

68, 92!). 68 

30,999.56 

87,340.30 

4,825.70 

2,025.76 

7,387.83 

10,008.91 

64,967.80 

804.87 

15,207.35 

478.02 



o No expenditures. 



KEPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



247 



Anmud report of provindal public worJeSj fiscal year ended June 30, 1904 — Ootitinued. 
EXPENDITURES-Continued. 



Province, 



N«grM Ocddestal. 
Negros Orientol... 

NuevaEclja 

Nueya Vizcaya 

Pampanga 

Pangasinaa 

Paraguaa 

Rical 

Romblon 

Samar 

8onog<m 

Burigao 

Taxiac 

Tayabas 

Zambal06 



Total. 



Materials. 



Kind. Cost. 



Varioua . 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 



Various.. 

do... 

do... 

do... 

do... 

do... 

....do... 
do... 



f»-8,n8.67 

1,615.32 

6,904.32 

36.00 

11,092.06 

7,299.97 



3,056.53 

3,918.89 

327.29 



184.60 

7,886.14 

2,218.61 

498.13 



Rents, freights, con-, 
tracts, and other 
services not shown. 



Kind. 



Various . 

do... 

do... 

do... 

do... 

.....do... 



Cost. 



Various . 



Various. . 
...-do... 

do... 

....do... 
....do... 



181,493.47 j 



P-6,435.39 
2,599.01 
74.00 
1,950.50 
2,019.87 
4,232.95 



372.84 



10,856.75 

478.34 

3,004.84 

4,571.24 

530.75 



177,051.61 



Total. 



P-44,428.82 
6,498.53 
41,383.68 
4,&36.e0 
52,065.01 
48,401.18 



22,530.86 
7,993.51 
16,395.32 
97,467.41 
2,777.41 
81,645.12 
70,823.61 
15,973.84 



1,237,852.41 



WORK ACCOMPLISHED. 



Province. 



Road constructed. 



Miles. Cost. 



Abra 0.353 

Albay 1.750 

Amboe Camarines 

Antique t 

Batoan I .135 

Batangas { 63.187 

Benguet 11.750 

Bobol I 

Bulacan i 1.473 

Cagafan 

Capis i 2.671 

Cavlte I 17.500 

Cebu 32.314 

Ilocos Norte 

Ilocos Sur I 

Iloilo I 6.918 

Isabcia 



La Lagiina 

La Union 

Lepanto-Dontoc. . . 

Leyte 

Masbato 

Mlndoro 

liisamis 

Kegros Occidental . 
Kegros Oriental... 

Nueva Eclja 

Mueva Vtscaya 

Pampanga 

Pangasinan 

Patagua & 

RizaT. 

Romblon 

Samar 

Borsogon 

fiurlgao 

Tarlac 

Tayabas 

Zambales 



.333 

.178 

14.980 

18.736 



Total. 



7.000 

.500 

14. 212 



6.926 



4.989 
6.860 



2.022 
7.043 
.850 
15. 967 
13.292 
.807 



252.735 



r348.83 



168.26 
63,465.42 
6,085.92 



2,211.54 



947.32 

2,227.61 

33,406.72 



46,780.91 



420.80 

1,006.81 

4,994.95 

26,878.60 



5,739.50 

121.31 

18, 127. 17 



17,963.56 



20,686.82 
19,209.29 



1,208.50 
18,713.97 

719. 74 
27,559.80 
10,348.95 

793.35 



319,127.65 



Road repaired. 



Miles. Cost. 



9.765 
17.961 
21.722 
20.250 
1.136 
213. 184 



63.057 
10.750 
20.755 
33.5&4 
94.579 
132.700 
20.664 
43.707 
23.000 



P^, 147. 92 
13, 197. 16 
13,222.43 
4,672.12 
301.59 
28,159.82 



38,658. 
773. 
17,651. 
33,152. 
30,465. 
19,204. 
14,401. 
29,360. 
14. 



U.106 I 
25.510 I 
73.152 



4,847. 
4,717. 
0,876. 



2.000 

1.488 I 

24.532 I 

1.833 ; 

48.038 
21.000 ' 
18. 136 ; 
40.910 



136. 
128. 
12,868. 
1,272. 
11,198. 
3,504. 
19,026. 



75.613 I 

6.333 

22.500 

3.043 ! 

11.000 • 

199.500 I 

128.015 

222 000 i 



20,817.68 

1,257.36 

9,577.31 

14,752.44 

502.81 

30,588.37 

60,202.90 

13,141.23 



1,662.563 , 469,930.06 



Bridges and ' Bridges and 
culverts con- | culverts re- 
structed. { paired. 



No. 



Cost. 



P216.52 

4,796.09 

1,451.48 

833.05 

31,988.88 



486.28 
2,520.39 

101.50 
2,918.09 
3,863.79 
1,834.37 

213.88 
2,879.14 

673.05 
3,616.64 

4.54.22 

503.10 



21,448.30 

804.87 



No. 



228.01 
7,375.84 

847.94 
2,9M.41 



3,980.22 
6,751.92 



71.59 



2,601.45 
15,861.04 



3,488.28 

1,965.23 

570. 53 



582 i 128,330.10 



Cost. 



P902.32 

8,579.50 

10.64 

148.25 

824.32 



406.46 

1,748.17 

18.59 

3,664.67 

3,277.21 

100.00 
3,083.77 
4,424.00 
3,230.50 
1,131.60 

853.98 

670. 10 



308.00 



33.80 
1,183.52 
2,081.70 



7,020.09 
2,828.36 



285.15 



523.54 



503.80 

1,161.94 

36.80 



458 43,039.86 



a No expenditures. 



h No work accomplished. 



248 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION^ 



Annual report of provincial public wjrJcSj fiscal year ended June SOf 1904. — Continued. 
WORK ACCOMPLISHED-Contlnued. 



Province. 


Buildings 
constructed. 


Bi 
re 

No. 

9 

8 
5 

1 
2 


pSISS" j surveys. 


Cost of ! 
ment. | 


Cost of 
miscel- 
laneous. 


Total. 




No. 


Cost. 


Cost. No. 


Cost. 




Abra 






PI, 795. 50 
1,309.32 
3,957.61 






i 




no, 943. 43 


Albay 

Ambos Cainarines . 


3^1.850.69 
23' 4,847.96 

1 


6 1*939.80 


1*4,374. 20.^2, 101. 16 
1,872.63 1,683.03 


25,240.00 
33,959.25 


AnM^u^ 




6, 134. 24 


Bataan 1 


224.83 


1 


1 




1,675.98 


Beneuet 


63 


11,466.32 


1 


2,877.16 


8,244.99 


137,016.91 






1 •• . 


5,085.92 


Bohol 




2 
1 
3 
2 
1 
1 
6 
2 
6 


2,016.34 
759.32 
885.25 


' 


lai.oo. 

272.62, 
483.88 
255.851 
4,490.20 
105,00; 
13,313. 84j 


'994.' 97 
516.45 
692.83 

6,159.58 
866.22 

3,208.92 


3,041.07 


Bulacan 

Cagayan 

Capiz 


4 

2 


19,326.27 
130.00 


i 1.60 
5 60.00 


66,493.49 
2,960.34 
26, 130. 42 


Cavlte 




i,i59.34 
1,018.44 
9,522.48 
3,412.72 
315. 45 



1 


53, 329. ^8 


Cebu 


22 


792.00 
10,312.82 
5,881.86 




68, 589. 81 


Jlocofl Norta 


i| 65.50 


58,925.68 


Ilocos Sur 


30,999.56 


Iloilo 


i 


1,702.00, 


5,278.05 
62.66 


87,340.30 


Isabcia i 


1 


4,825.70 


J^a Laff una ' 


1 
2 
2 
2 


69. 57 


227. 19 . 
146.76. 


2,025.76 


La Umon ' 


313. 10 
296. 53 






7,387.83 


T/4'DRnto-Wontoc. ...,...'...,' 


! 




10,008.91 


Leyte.. . . .^:;^^^^^^^ 


998. OOJ 4, 


4,019.82 


1,438.44 


64,967.80 


Hasbate ! 


804.87 


Mindoro . . 


6 


5,382.84 





97. 75 I 


1 


3,910.76 


15,267.35 
478.02 


Misamis !....!!!!!!.. 


\""\ 


1 


Negros Occidental 


1 
3 


564.34 
1,749.58 


2 

I 

1 
2 
2 


1,858.91 

1,210.05 

174. 78 

36.00 

1,060.28 


1 


579.13 
1 


3,021.44 

235.44 

5,000.54 

9.00 


44,428.82 


N^ros Oriental 




6,498.53 


Nuova Eclja 






1,979.99; 


41,383.68 


Nueva Vizcaya 


2 


1,287.66 
125.89 
367.33 






4,836.60 


Pampanga 

Pangasinan 

Parairua a 


1 


19.00 
3,838.42 


1,046.18 
2,477.07; 


52,965.01 


2,571.86 9 


1,407.66 


48,491.18 


Rizai. ::::::... 










76.26; 


1,286.24 

1,623.82 

1,414.22 

14,130.86 

536.75 
1,495.58 

371.85 
1,431.93 


22,530.88 


Romblon 




2 
4 
2 

14 
2 

11 


5, 112. 33 

1,000.79 

2,080.84 

928.11 

486.49 






7,993.51 


8amar ] 




» 


344.55 


248.501 
31,4ai.72 


16,395.32 


Soreogon i . . . . 




97,467.41 


Surigao 




! 


2,777.41 


Tarlac 


1 
1 


16,292.83 
1,747.75 


1 


1,229.88 
1,628.55, 


81,64.5.12 


Tayabas 

Zam bales 


3,357.59 


2J 38.85 


70,823.61 
15,973.84 










1 






ToUl 


,« 


82,125.48 


115 


48,029.58 


29 


5,307.62 


, 74,9:i8.67 

1 1 


66,123.39 


1,237,852.41 



a No work accomplished. 
Explanations to Headings Used in above Tabulation. 



NATIVE LABOR. 

This includes practically all of the unksilled and a largo part of the skilled labor employed 
on the various provincial works. 

Though not physically capable of performing the amount of work usually expected of 
-laborers in the United States, the Filipino here in his own country renders full value for the 
wages received, and is the most satisfactory labor that we can obtain. 

Though unaccustomed to modem implements, yet when placed under competent foremen, 
he nuickly becomes proficient in their use. 

If he becomes dissatisfied he quits and goes home. He makes no effort to hinder the pro- 
gress of the work, nor to induce others to leave. 

The average daily wage paid laborers on road work varies according to the locality and the 
season, generally being higner in the hemp provinces than in those which produce principally 
sugar and rice. The Igorrotes woric from 1^0.10 to 1^0.20 per day. In Albay as high as 
1*"1..50 per day has been paid for native labor. 

There are few good carpenters found among the natives; they make fair masons, some of 
them make good foremen, but, generally speaking, they have not had enough experience and 
ere not familiar with modem methods. 

[Extracts from annual reports relative to native labor.] 

' ' I have had no occasion to use any lalwr other than native, except Japanese. I find that 
for unskilled labor the labor of the country is decidedly the best. On road work the native 
does fuUy as much and as good work as the Japanese, is more easily managed, has better 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 249 

health, and costs ahout half as much. Carpenters, masons, harness makers, blacksmiths, 
etc., must be imported, because there are a very few in the province, the young Filipino of 
the middle class generally believing the work of a mechanic at ^5 or F6 per day less 
dignified or less honorable than that of the cleric at ?'25 per month. * ' — Superviaor of Albay. 

**As a whole the laborers can be considered satisfactory, if properly managed, but it is 
very difficult to secure competent foremen. ' ' — Supervisor of Buiacan. 

" It is my intention to use Filipinos exclusively for road work. I believe them to be more 
capable as foremen than the average American, who can be hired at $75 per month or less." — 
Acting supervisor of RizaL 

LABOR OTIIEB THAN NATIVE. 

On account of the difficulty of securing amonc the natives men duly qualified to take charge 
of pubUc works, most of the foremen, blacksmiths, and bridge carpenters at present employed 
are Americans, Spaniards, or other Europeans. Their wages varv from ^5 to ^10 per 
day ; also for fine carpenter work Chinese are frequently employed at from P'2 to T'S per 
day. Less difficulty is experienced in finding foremen who are hard workers than in find- 
ing those with patience to properly train the natives. 

MATERIALS. 

Lumber. — In 1901 Oregon pine was generally used on all works of magnitude; the ten- 
dencv now is to use native timber. The Oregon pine does not last well in tnis climate and is 
besides subject to attacks by white ants. In most of the provinces a great variety of good 
native timber can be secured at fair prices, but the difficulty of transporting it renders its 
delivery so uncertain that often American and Australian woods are used. 

Road metal. — In the mountainous sections of all the islands arc found ^ood materials for 
road construction, especiaUy in those provinces near volcanos. Volcanic bowlders when 
crushed make good road metal and concrete. The coral limetsone found near the seacoast 
makes a superior lime when burned, but is rather soft material for road metal. "Adobe'' 
makes a good smooth road, but also wears easily. River eravel is probably most used for 
road metal. In some localities are varieties of hard clay which makes a eood road, and in 
Albay there are roads constructed of a hard, black sand, which gives a eood wearing surface. 
In some of the islands are found deposits of broken shell, which makes a fine surfacing material 
In most of the flat country north of Manila road material is very scarce and often has to be 
hauled long distances either by rail, cart, or boat. 

RENTS, FREIGHTS, CONTRACTS, AND OTHER SERVICES NOT SHOWN. 

Under this heading are shown all those items of expense incurred in prosecuting public 
works, which do not come under the first three headings. 

Native contractors generally are able to furnish gravel, bamboo, lime, etc., in small 
quantities. During the last year there was a notable increase in the amount of work done 
by contract, the principal contractors being Americans. The money paid out to con- 
tractors forms, however, a very small part of the total expenditure. 

ROADS JDONSTRUCTED. 

Under this heading are included roads the repair of which is equivalent to the construction 
of a new road. The foUowing are the principal types: 

1. Dirt roads, which are simply ditched and graded, and sometimes rolled; 

2. MetaUed roads, which are dirt roads surfaced with gravel, broken stone, or crushed 
shells; 

3. ' ' Adobe ' ' roads, similar to dirt roads, except constructed through ' * adobe ' ' soil ; 

4. Coral roads, constructed of coral stone and surfaced with broke ucoral, gravel, or sand; 

5. Sand roads, i. e., dirt roads surfaced with sand; 

6. Roads through swamps; and, 

7. Trails 2 meters wide constructed through the mountainous regions of Benguet and 
Lepanto-Bontoc. 

[Extracts from annual reports relative to road construction.] 

Eagonoy road. — "This road runs through a very fertile part of the province connecting 
the towns of Malolos and Hagonoy, and is about 4} miles long. Its entire length is on an 
embankment, in some places 10 feet above the surrounding country, this height being neces- 
sary on account of the annual flooding of the entire country through which this road runs. 
During the last heavy rains even this height has proven inadequate and parts of this road 
were under water. 



250 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

' ' Neariy all material had to be hauled with bancas from the dikes used to separate the 
Hoe fields. The embankment was packed partly by the rains that fell.last year, and partly 
by rolling; and finally a layer of first-dass gravel from 7 inches to 12 inches deep wss put on 
in thin layers and roiled. This has n^ade a very good road out of a trail formeriy Dassable 
during part of the dry season, and then only under difficulties. ' ' — Supermsor of Dtuaean. 

MarUandaruf-Naujan road.-^'*The road was located through a swamp for 3,fi00 feet. A 
q>aoe 32 feet wide was cleared of all stumps and underbrush. Most of the work was done by 
men working up to their waists in water. Then two ditches 24 inches wide and varying 
from 8 inches to 3 feet in depth were dug parallel to the direction of the road and at a dis- 
tance of 4 feet on either side of it. The oirt from the ditches was thrown into the 8-foot 
space between ditches. The road bed had to be raised 5 feet; this was done by hauling 
stone and piles 15 miles in bancas. Fifty men with bolos cut 10,000 piles in six days. The 

?iles were of the following dimensions, viz, 5 feet, 6 feet, and 8 feet long, and from 4 mches to 
inches in diameter. 'Hie wood was a swamp timber, very easy to cut, when green, but 
very hard when seasoned. Piles of this wood were examined which after thirty years' service 
in salt water were found to be perfectly sound. Along each side of the 24-inch ditches the pile 
were driven as close as possible and in such a manner that they stood up above the top of the 
ditch from li feet to 4 J feet. The piles in the outer row were inclined inward at an angle of 
45 degrees. They were driven 3 feet into the bottom of the ditches, and were then wired 
together in the rows with No. 9 galvanized wire so that each line of piles became practicaUy 
solid, and the two lines were finnly fastened together at the topin the same manner. The 
24-inch ditches were then filled with stones and well tamped. Then the earth in the 8-foot 
space was leveled oflf and a thin layer of stones placed over the entire road, after which cor- 
duroy timbers were laid and wired together, and the ends fastened in like manner to the 
piles along the side of the ditches which were at the ends of the corduroy. 

" Then 8-foot canals were begun on the outside of the 32-foot space and gradually widened 
until they were 12 feet wide at the river end and, on an avera^, from 2 to 6 feet wide 
at the bottom and so sloped as to permit the water to drain off. All the earth which came 
out of these ditches was placed on the road in layers alternating with layers of stone. On 
completion the roadbed measured 12 feet, with a gentle slo^ to the canals on either side. 
It was then crowned with a layer of gravel hauled 15 miles m bancas, and the slopes were 
planted with, swamp grass and shrubs, which took root and grew nicely. AH the earth 
was handled by shovete. 

** The entire distance was completed in thirty-five days, at a cost of P'5,500." — SupervigoT' 
treasurer^ Mindoro. 

ROADS REPAIRED. 

The nature of the repairs varied from cleaning grass and underbrush from abandoned 
roads to the reconstruction and metaling of others. 

To the latter class belong the road between Vigan and Pandan, 4.664 miles long, regraded 
and metaled at a c-ost of P 8,233.76, and the nmd between Laoag and Currimao, 17 miles 
long, where 2.10 miles were reconstructed and metsled at a cost of P'7 ,976.97. Occa- 
sionally it costs more to repair an old road than it would to construct a new one of equal 
length. 

BRIDGES A'SD CULVERTS CONSTRrCTED. 

The bridges constructed are of the following types, viz, Howe, Queen Post and King 
Post trusses, and pile titsstlcs, timber girders, and arches of stone and concrete. Some^ 
the latter are reenforoed with steel nbs. The permanent culverts consist of stone and 
concrete arches. Those of a temporary nature are constructed of timber or bamboo. 

Many substantial and ornamental stone and concrete arehes were constructed, especially 
in the provinces of Batangas, Ijeyte, and Sorsogon. In Batangas the "Gogo" 10-meter 
stone arch and the "Sabang" 20-nietcr stone arch are now under construction. In Leyt© 
the San Joaquin trestle bridge, 266 by 20 feet, was constructed of the best native lumoer 
at a cost of r9,298.96. 

[Extracts from annual reports relative to bridges and CDhrerts.] 

Ilagonoy drawbridge. — "The ITagonoy drawbridge, now under construction, consists of 
a circular center pier 14 foot in diameter, resting well below the river bottom on a founda- 
tion of 25 wooden piles 30 feet long and cut off below water level, and 12 concrete piles 
30 feet long extending into the pier. The pier consists of a thin sheet-iron shell filled with 
gravel concrete (1 cement, 2 sand, 4 washed gravel). The weight of the pier is estimated 
to be 90 tons. On this pier rests a small turntable, purchased from the Manila and Da^- 
pan Railway Company, and a cast-iron rack cast in Manila. The turntable is rim beanng 
and the rollers run on a circ.ular rail partly embedded in concrete. *Yacal' beams were 
used to properly strengthen the top of the turntable to sustain the estimated weight of 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 251 

Ike draw span, wki^ is 100 feet long between end bearings, and estimated to wei^, un- 
loaded, 2S tons (SOO pomufe per linear foot). 

** The ends of the draw span will rest on cast-iron rollers, ^riucfa, ninning up a ali^t incbae 
oo the timber ajqwoack pier, will give the neceasarv end-lifting effect. The approaches 
to the draw span are on five 3-pile trestles, well braeed, and 60 feet long each. The 
approaches have a 4 per cent grade to save embankment and still allow small crafts to pass 
under the closed draw span. All piles are to be incased in concrete to above the high-water 
line, to prevent attacks of the teredo, which occasionally is found in the vicinity of this 
bridge. The lumber used is Oregon pine, except the loading beams, keys, and turntable 
strei^hening, which are of yacal. AH timber is to be painted with carbolinoum, which 
has proven to be an effective preventive against white ants. 

"The turning device for this bridge consists of a rack 13 feet 6 inches in diameter, 2-inch 
pitch JEind 4 inches hi^h, wliich engages a pinion connected to a horizontal gear by a ver- 
tical shaft. The pinion of this gear has a squared shaft on which fits a key, which, if 
worked with a lever, enaUea one man to move the bridge. The locking device is simple 
and was secured with the turntable. Suitable arrangements will be made to close the 
approaches, to prevent accidents, when the bridge is open. 

"The total cost of this bridge, when ctmipleted, will be 1^14,000; F10,500 of this was 
appropriated by the municipal council, which put the planning and building of this bridge 
entirely under my supervision.^' — Supervisor, Bvlaean. 

"The most important and largest of the bridges is the one across the Ogod River at 
Donsol. Two concrete abutments and ^\e concrete piers support six timber spans of fire 
panels eadi. ' The total length of the bridge between abutments is 85 meters. The abut- 
ments and piers rest on rock foundation and the wooden superstructure is of the best native 
lumber. An interesting point about this bridge is that it was constructed almost entirely 
by hand labor; the stone was broken by hand and the lumber sawed by hand. Part of 
tne cement was rolled 3 miles from Donsol, because no other means of transportation was 
available. A constabulary guard was necessary part of the time to protect laborers fhmi 
ladrones, who were active «at that time. Total cost of -bridges was IM 4,692.26.'* — 
Su-pervi90Tf Sor&ogtm. 

BRIDOSS AND CULTIXTS REPAIBED. 



The nature ol the repairs varied from placing a new plank or a bamboo mat on a bridlge. 
to render same passable, to remodeling and reconstructing bridges of importance. 

BUILDINGS CON8TBUCTED. 

This includes the construction of all provincial buildings, schoolhouses, and municipal 
buildings of which the supervisor had cbaige, regardless of the sources of funds providing 
for such construction. 

Among the most important buildings constructed during the past year under the direc- 
ftk» fA the supervisors are the following: Secondary scEooihouse at Tarlac, municipal 
adkool building at Malolos, municipal market at Maloloe, provincial secondaiy school at 
Laoag, and the new provincial building at Malolos, and various barrio scboolhouses built 
throiigjbout the islanoB^ generally eonstructed of bamboo and nipa. 

[Extracts from anaoal report* relative to buikUngs conatrocted.] 

Ifew promneial huilding at Malolos. — ^^The original plans for this building were selected 
from competitive designs submitted. These plans were changed considerably after accept- 
ance and finally the contract was let for ^"36,075. The structure is built of Oregon pine, 
excepting the floor, and rests on a stone foundation, 132 by 117 feet, 5 feet high. The 
floor is to be of yacal and guijo laid alternately. The building is one stoiy high and has a 
Teranda roof supnorted on the outside by ornamental hard-wood posts, a row of which 
surrounds the building. 

"Two inner courts provide light and air for the corridors inside. The office ceiKnep are 
16 feet 6 inches high, and there is plenty of room for any enlargement anticipated during 
the next few jeara. The roof is of corrugated iron and has a decorative ventilator tower. 

" The framing is a combination of American and native practice, some of the posts run- 
ning into the ground (these are spliced at their lower ends to molave) ; others are mortised 
into a siK bolted to the foundation. All connections of the trusses are bolted. 

"Partitions have 2 by 4 inch studding and are sheathed on both sides, offering great 
lateral resistance, which is almost totally lacking in the native construction. 

"All plumbing will be modem and the building will bo lighted by electricity and bo sup- 
plied with electric fans. 

''For this purpose a contract, at ^^'6,31 3.90, was awarded by this office for the installing 
of a small electnc-light jpttJiV*— Supervisor , Bulacan. 



252 REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

Calapan and Luban school huUdings. — "Calapan and Luban schools are built of the native 
lumber, shell windows, galvanized-iron roofs, painted white, and are 60 feet long, 25 feet 
wide, and the rooms are 15 feet high. 

"In each case the materials were donated by the people and labor paid for by the prov- 
ince." — Supervisor-treasurer f Mindoro. 

BUILDINGS REPAIBED. 

Most of the provincial offices have been repaired, in some cases necessitating extensive 
improvements to both buildings and grounois. Several vaults were constructed for the 
provincial treasuries. 

SURVEYS. 

These consist of surveys, plans, and profiles of proposed roads, including cost of super- 
visor's temporary employees, and surveys and plans of municipalities (by contract), the 
average price paid for the survey of a municipality being from 1^450 to 1*500. 

EQUIPMENT. 

On account of scarcity of draft animals in the provinces, several of the supervisors, in 
order to successfully prosecute the various public worlds under their charge, have been 
compelled to buy from provincial funds such draft animals as were needed. The plants 
have been increased by the addition, from time to time, of various tools, implements, 
scrapers, carts, wagons, road rollers, tramways, traction engines, and rock crushers. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Under tliis heading are embraced all kinds of public work done under the supervisor's 
direction and not shown under the other headings, embracing such items as cost of handling 
Congressional relief rice, cost of constructing and operating provincial pounds, cost of read- 
ing river gauges, construction of levees, clearing channels of rivere for navigation, construc- 
tion of piers, telephone and cable lines, building retaining walls to protect river banks and 
foot of nils, testing for water supply, transportation of road and bridge supplies, and other 
miscellaneous expenses. 

At Romblon a pier 55 by 25 feet was constructed of hardwood, resting on piles sunk into 
coral rock, cost r 1,623.82. 

A submarine cable was laid between Virac and Tabaco by the provincial government of 
Albay cost 1*1,101.50. 

[Extracts from annual reports relative to miscellaneous work.] 

Cngayan River imfrovement. — '* Considerable work has been done at Afusing, which is 
about 3 miles up the Cagayan River from Alcala. Lar^c trees have been filling in the chan- 
nel year after year, being undermined by the river, which cuts back at the rate of about 50 
feet per year at this point. Dynamite was freely used in the work to blow out or loosen up 
the stumps, they then being pulled out by block and tackle. The river channel is now 
clear." — Supervisor, Cagayan. 

Protection jrom river encroachment. — "To keep the banks of the Rio Grande in Nucva 
Ecija from washing away, three-fourths of a mile was protected by lines of stakes, back of 
which rows of young trees were planted; cost, ^478.50." — Supervisor^ Nueva Ecija. 

"Probably tne most important work done during the year was the construction of levees 
along the western bank of the Rio Grande do la Pampanga at certain points. 

"At Mandasig the old levee was entirely washed away, leaving a gap 900 feet long and 
20 feet deep in the center ; besides 700 feet of levee on the extremities of this gap were very 
low. Wort was started May 2 and completed May 19; the average number of men em- 
ployed each day was 450, with 25 carabaos. The total amount of money expended by the 
province at this point was 1*^1,399.60. The property owners and citizens of the affected 
towns donated r'786.10, which was expended by the provincial governor as their agent, 
making a total cost of this work 1*2,185.70. The newly constructed lovec is 12 feet wide 
on top; side slopes were one and one-half to one; the average height of fill was 8 feet, for a 
total length of 535 yards of new levee completed. The new levee was protected from the 
river current by si*ven rows of bamboo lattie^^work 2 feet apart, firmly anchored in the 
ground and well braced at the top. The space between these bamboo fences was filled with 
earth and well tamped; the dirt behind the fences was packed in irregular layers by rolling 
with a 3-ton road roller drawn by six carabaos. American plows and drag scrapers were 
also used with carabaos. The length of the new levee completed in this manner at Man- 
dasig, Lanang, Pansinao, San Juan, San Pedro, and other points was 2.102 miles. The cost 
to the province of this work was P'6,456.12. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 



253 



"Due to the closing of these gaps or breaks in the old levee, the towns in the affected 
district will enjoy increased crops this year and hereafter as long as the floods are prevented. 
The provincial governor and various municipal officials and landowners, whom I have con- 
sulted, estimate the annual gain to be from r'400,000 to 1^900,000. 

"The municipal officials and property owners of the above-mentioned pueblos deserve 
much credit for their active interest m the work and for their willingness to aid the province 
with money, bamboo, carabaos, etc., whenever called upon to do so." — Supervisor, Pam- 

Tiie following list shows the respective official positions authorized in each province for 
the supervision of public works, the number of the act creating same, the maximum salary 
authorized, the name of the present incumbent, and the date of his appointment: 



Province. 



Act. 



Offico. 



Salary. 1 



Incumbent. 



Date of ap- 
pointment. 



Abra 

Albay 

AmboB Camarlnes . . 

Antique 

Bataan 

Batangas 

Benguet 

Bohol 

Bulacan 

Cagayan 

CapiK 

Cavite 

Cebu 

Ilocos Norte 

Ilocos Sur 

Iloilo 

Isabela 

La l/aguna 

La Umon 

Lepanto-Bontoc 

Leyte 

Hasbate 

Mindoro 

Misamlfl 

Moro 

NuevaKcija 

Nueva Vlscaya 

Occidental Negroa.. 

Oriental Negros 

Pampanga 

Pangaslnan 

Paragua 

Rizaf. 

Romblon 

Samar 

SoraoRon 

Suriprao 

Tarlac 

Tayabas 

Zam bales 



122 
123 
628 
823 
126 

49 
872 

88 
209 
631 
138 
116 
207 
205 
113 
633 
424 
203 
410 
122 
1,060 
600 

630 

787 

139 i 
337 ' 
119 I 
766 
86 ! 

86 I 
422 I 
137 
901 
419 
124 
815 

87 I 
499 I 
632 ' 



Sui)erviior-trea«urer . 

Supervisor 

do 

Supervisor-treasurer . 

do 

Supervisor 

Governor 

Supervisor-treasurer . 

Supervisor 

do 

Supervisor-treasurer . 

Supervisor 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Supervisor-treasurer . 

Supervisor 

do 

do 

do 

Supervisor-treasurer . 
do 



700 I (Vacant.) 
700 J. F. Ilawle 



....do.... 
Engineer. 



Supervisor 

do , 

do I 

Supervisor-treasurer .1 

Supervisor I 

do I 

do I 

do ' 

Supervisor-treasurer . I 

Supervisor 

do 

Supervisor-treasurer . 

Supervisor 

do 

Supervisor-treasurer . 



tl,500 
2,000 
2,000 
1,800 
1,800 
2,000 
1,500 
1,600 
1,700 
1,700 
2,000 
1,800 
2,6C0 
1,700 
1,700 
2,200 
2,200 
1,800 
1,7C0 
1,6C0 
2,0C0 
1,200 
2,250 

2,200 
a4,000 

1,6C0 
1,2C0 
2,2C0 
2,0C0 
1,800 
2,000 
1,200 
1,8C0 
1,500 
1,400 
1,700 
2,300 
1,500 
2,000 
1,800 



I Archibald D. McFarland 

, W. A. Crossland. 

; E. P. Shuman 

I P. J. Van der Broeck 

I E.R.Yundt 

E. J. Wostcrhouee 

W.C. Pack 

C. D. Upington 

(Vacant.) 

W.E. Pearson 

! F. S. Chapman 

E. O. Worrick 

T.W.Allen 



Sept. 9,1903 
Aug. 1,1903 
Aug. 10,1903 
July 1, 1904 
Aug. 15,1903 
Oct. 15,1903 

Sept. 8,1903 

Apr. 1, 1903 
Aug. 4,1903 
Apr. 30,1904 
July 16,1904 



y. 



I M.W.Tuttfe. 

B. F. Reamy 

D. A. Sherfey 

B.II. Burrell 

Saml. E. Kane 

O. D. Filley 

J. W. Hunter 

Wm. O, Smith, first lieu- 
tenant, U. S. Army. 

John Haxley 

I Chas. Keller, captain, U. 
S. Army. 

1,C. D.Wood 

I Wm. H. Nipps 

I H.M.Wood 

H. A. Peed 

S. V. Cortelyou 

I C.F.Vance 

i (Vacant.) 

T. Hodgson 

Julius S. Reis 

R.E.Scott 

H. L. Stevens 

A . Benedict 

S. C. Phlpps.. 

H. L. Humphrey 

J. W.Ferrier 



June 
Oct. 
July 
Feb. 
Aug. 
Kar. 
Nov. 
June 
Mar. 



18,1903 

20,1903 

1,1904 

1,1903 

4,1903 

5,1904 

13,1903 

14,1904 

28,1904 



July 16,1904 



Aug. 16,1903 
July 3, 1903 
Nov. 1,1903 
June 28,1901 
Feb. 4, 1904 
Feb. 1,1903 

Oct. 27,1902 
Sept. 24,1903 
Nov. 7,1903 
Oct. 16,1903 
June 15,1904 
Feb. 1,1903 

Do. 
Mar. 4,1904 



I. 



a Not to exceed 14,000. 

The following general subjects have received considerable attention from the provincial 
8U])ervisors: 

CARABAOS PURCnASED FROM THE CONGRESSIONAL RELIEF FUND. 

The receiving of the carabaos from the insular purchasing agent, preparing suitable 
corrals and stodiades for their reception and protection, making arrangements for feeding 
and pasturing same, arranging for their sale to the inhabitants, securing the necessary 
afRdavita and certificates for such as died, and the extra correspondence occasioned on 
ac4*x)unt of these animals, caused the supervisors a great deal of extra and unsatisfactory 
work. In case of future sales of draft animals it would seem better to allow the insular 
purchasing agent to sell to the inhabitants direct. 



THE DESTRUCTION OF LOCUSTS, EXPENSES PAYABLE FROM CONGRESSIONAL REUEF RICE. 

Act 817 requiring all inhabitants of the Philippine Islands to aid in the destruction of 
locusts, and providing that a ration of rice should he issued to those not able to ration 
themselves, would have worked great hardship on tlie majority of the people, provided 



254 REPORT OP THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 

the rice had not be«i on band for pcompt iasoB. In wder to do this cffoctaaJi^, ihs sapa^ 
visors made every effort to distribute the riee ceceiTed from MAaabk, pwefaased in acoorduioe 
with the provisions of Act 797, so thst each municipahty or barrio ai importance, inliBBted 
with locusts, would have a stock on hand suffidant to feed the people wh^e engaged in 
dratroying the pest. 

The inunediate effect of this distribution was to cause great activity, and die presidentos 
of the infested municipalities r^wried one alter another thai there wen no more locvsls 
in their respective jurisdictions. 

They wero, however, ignorant and carelese in making out their vouchers, and the bulk 
of the pay rotb and other aecounts necessary to account for this expenditure had te be 
made out in the office of the supervisor. As a result, the increase in the work of the supec^ 
visor's office, by adding thereto the office work of 20 or 30 municipal offices, caused often 
a complete stagnation, and even now, though it is nearly a year since the locusts disap- 
peajre<C many of the supervisors have not accounted for the locust rice expended under 
their direction. 

OOlfOHESSIONAL SBLHSy RICB POR PrBLIC WOXKB. 

The sending to the different provinces by the insular govemmeni of large consignmenia 
of Congrsssional relief rice to be used in relieving distress by givii^ the inhabitanta employe 
mcnt on pubhc works undoubtedly enabled the supervisors to make a much better showing 
than they otiierwise could have done. But there are many objections to this use of ike 
as compared with money. It is bulky and hard to transport, e^wcially to inland towns. 
Every time it is handhsd there is a certain per cent wasted. Great care must be taken in 
its storage, and even then after two or three months it begins to spoil. 

It is difficult to find intelligent men to place in charge of its proper distribution. Laboreis 
prefer money, and when obliged to accept rice they demandea more. Sometimes the warn 
paid in rice amounted to double what they were accustomed to receive in money. Ua 
resuming cash payments they demand money eooivalent to the value of rice received. 
Hence its use tends to demoralize and unsettle tne labor conditions. The loss through 
wastage in transportation, ravages by worms, bugs, and rata, and by mM and decay 
amocmtd to luily 10 per cent of the original amount, and in some eases more. 

When the various sources of loss are ti^en into consideration, and also the higher wages 
paid, it is believed that the use of rice in paying for pubFic works increases the cost of same 
nearly 50 per cent over what the same work would have cost were payments made in cash^ 

raOVINCIAL POUND. 

The operation of the pound law caused the supervisor a good deal of extra work of very 
muoh the same nature as was occasioned through handling the insular carabaos. 

The law states that the supervisor is to receive and receipt for such animals or other 
property as may be delivered to him, and to keep the same for thirty days, unless the owner 
previously establishes his title, and tlien to sell them at auction, all costs of maintenance 
to be deducted from the proceeds of sales, and the remainder to be turned into the provincial 
treasury. 

In a proerinco where ladrones are plentiful, as Cavite, a strict interpretation of the law 
would mean tiiat the supervisor would have to be at the pound every day to receive animals 
and to sen those captured thirty days previously. In case an animal died, or did not 
bring when sold enough to eover cost of keeping, there was no arrangemMit wherel^ the 
supervisor could be reimbursed for eost of keeping. If the supervisor kept the animals 
longer than thirty days, hoping to realize better prices, he would nave to pay for the excess 
days out of his own pocket. This office finally brought the matter to the auditor's atten- 
tion, and his interpretation of the law allowed the supervisor considerable discretion, and 
secured him against the probability of the losses referred to. 

FKOTZlfCTAL BOABD CXT XX.\MINEBS FOR THE CTVIL 8BBTTCB. 

The member» of the provincial board should be relieved from this duty, which takes up 
considerable time, and for which they are not specially qualified. The civil service board 
should provide a sufficient number of traveling examiners to properly carry out these 
examinations. 

BOAD M ATNTKNANCB. 

Complaints re^rding the violations of the road laws have been made by many super- 
visora. These violations consist principally of the encroachment of houses on the public 
roads, stealing of road mat4»rials, bridge timbers, etc., and the destruction of roaaways 
by carabaos, irrigating ditches, etc. rroposed laws remedying these defects are under 
consideration by this (Slioe, and will be submitted in the near future. 



REPORT OF THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION. 255 

WIDE-TIBSD CABTS. 

Act No. 774 of the Coinmiasion, which was intended to bring wide-tired carts into general 
use bj prohibiting narrow tires on improved roads has, so far, fallen short of the desired 
end. The reason is obvious. Native carts, such as are generally used, are produced very 
cheaply. In some of the provinces a cart complete will cost only 1^20, or even less. The 
lowest price wide-tired cart furnished by the insular purchasmg agent costs 1^45. To 
overcome this difficulty, this office has prepared and distributed to the various supervisors 
and supervisor-treasurers,. blue-prints of a standard type of ca