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Full text of "Urban safety, safety for all : report of the International Conference for Crime Prevention Partnerships to Build Community Safety, 26-30 October 1998, Johannesburg, South Africa"

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0' 



INTERNATIONAL ENGINEERING CONGRESS 

(Glasgow). 1901 



PROnstOR J. D, CORMACK. 

QENCRAL SKORETARY. 



Qrviversity College, 
Qoxjoep Street, 
LONDON, W.C 



tOitf\ tKe Compliments 

of tfve 
Kxecutive Committee. 



(Zju^^.^ g^U^^^^ ^^''^'^ 



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I 



Engfneerfng^ 
Library 

TA 
.S* 



International Engineering Congress 

^ (GLASGOW), 1901. 



REPORT OF THE PROCEEDINGS 

AND } } Lj "' ' ' 

ABSTRACTS --— 
OF THE PAPERS READ. 



WITH A PREFACE 



By ROBERT CAIRD, LL.D., 

Chairman of the Executive Committee. 



Edited by the General Secretary, J. D. Cor mack. 



GLASGOW : 
WILLIAM ASHER, 128 RENFIELD STREET. 

1902. 



CONTENTS. 



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PAGX 

Preface by Robert Caird, LL.D., -, ... j 

Office Bearers and Committees, ------ i 

Institutions and Sectional Office Bearers, - . , . 5 

Minutes of Proceedings : — 

Monday, 2nd September — Banquet, - - . . g 

Tuesday, 3rd September — General Meeting, Address of the 
President, Meetings of Sections, Visits to Works, Opening 

of the James Watt Engineering I.aboratorie??, Reception, - 9 

Wednesday, 4th September — Meetings of Sections, Visits to 

Works, Excursions, - - . - - - - 21 

Thursday, 5th September — Meetings of Sections, Visits to 

Works, Excursions, Ball, - - - - -23 

Friday, 6th September — ^Visits to Works, Excursions, - - 24 

List of Works, etc., open during the Congress week - - - 26 

Summary of the Proceedings of the Sections : — 

Section I. — (Railways), - - - - - - 28 

Section II. — (Waterways and Maritime Works), - - - 56 

Section III. — (Mechanical), - - • - - 98 

Section IV. — (Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering), - 146 

Section V. — (Iron and Steel), ----- 167 

Section VI.— (Mining), - - - - - - 212 

Section VII.— (Municipal), - - - - - 251 

Section VIII.— (Gas), 275 

Section IX.— (Electrical), - - - - - - 310 

List of Societies which took part in the Congress, - > - 34» 

List of Foreign and Colonial Delegates and Honorary Members, - 343 

List 0(f Members, - - - • - . - - - 399 



Index : — 

List of Papers, 

List of Authors of Papers, 

Errata, - - 



399 
402 

407 



PREFACE. 



The Executive Committee desires to seize the opportunity of the 
issue of the Report and Abstrax:ts to express its deep sense of 
indebtedness to the many Institutions, Societies, and gentlemen who 
contributed to make the Congress of 1901 the great success it un- 
doubtedly was. 

The idea of holding the Congress originated with the Council of 
the Institution o^ Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland; which, 
considering that the Exhibition would furnish an excellent occasion 
for ensuring the attendance of a large number of engineers from all 
over the world in Glasgow, during 1901, appointed a small com- 
mittee from among the members of that Institution, consisting of 
Dr. Barr and Messrs. Biggart, Macintosh, Mavor, and myself, to 
study and report upon the best means of giving effect to the project 

We consulted the office-bearers and officials of the leading 
engineering societies in Britain, and received most valuable advice, 
information, and suggestions from them. 

The Institution of Civil Engineers in particular rendered us in- 
valuable assistance. The first notice given publicly of the intention 
to hold a Congress was by the then President of the Institution of 
Civil Engineers, Sir William Preece, in his Introductory Address 
at the opening of the summer meeting in London in 1899. His 
successor, Sir Douglas Fox, consented to act as Chairman of our 
London Committee, and in that capacity materially contributed 
towards the formation of our executive organisation. Dr. Tudsbery 
also acted as Secretary of that Committee, and in innumerable ways 
assisted us with advice, which, in view of his vast experience, was of 
the utmost value. And yet another President of the Institution of 
Civil Engineers, Mr. Mansergh, accepted nomination as President 
of the Congress, delivered an address at the opening of the pro- 
ceedings, received the delegates of Foreign Governments and 



11. PREFACE. 

Societies, and was present throughout the sittings and entertain- 
ments. Further, two past Presidents of that great Institution, Sir 
Benjamin Baker and Sir John Wolfe Barry, presided over Sections I. 
and II., assisted as secretaries by Mr. R. Elliot-Cooper and Professor 
L. F. Vernon Harcourt. 

The work of each of the remaining seven sections was under- 
taken by the leading British Society devoted tO' the particular branch 
of Engineering with which it dealt. Most of these Societies have 
at their own expense published full reports of the proceedings in 
their several departments as a part of their ordinary transactions. 
The proceedings of Sections I. and II. only have been published 
by the Congress, a sum of j£soo having been granted by the In- 
stitution of Civil Engineers towards the expenses of this publication. 

The Committee fully and gratefully appreciates the extent to 
which its labours and responsibilities have been lightened and 
relieved by the generous co-operation of these Institutions and 
Societies whose names appear in their due place in the Report and 
Abstracts. 

In the course of negotiation it soon became apparent that the 
numbers attending the Congress would considerably exceed the 
original estimate, and that extraordinary meiasures would have to 
be taken for the accommodation of members. An appeal was made 
xx> the members of the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in 
Scotland and their friends to extend hospitality to our guests, with 
such good results that, notwithstanding the apprehensions of some 
of the most experienced organisers of summer meetings whom we 
consulted, no difficulty was encountered in suitably housing the 
members. The thanks of the Committee are due not only to the 
sub-committee which took charge of accommodation, but also to 
those gentlemen of Glasgow and the West of Scotland who placed 
their houses at our disposal. 

We desire also to acknowledge our indebtedness to the Lord 
Provost and Corporation of the City of Glasgow for the counten- 
ance they gave to the Congress officially, and for the magnificent 
and imposing reception they accorded to the Foreign Delegates and 



PREFACE. UL 

Members of the Congress, a reception which, in the opinion of 
many of those gentlemen, compared favourably with similar 
entertainments iri the capitals of Europe under Royal auspices. 
And the University Buildings in which the meetings were held 
proved an ideal set of surroundings for such a gathering and lent 
a dignity to the proceedings for which we cannot be too grateful to 
the University Court. 

It is impossible adequately to express our thanks to all those 
agencies which enabled us to carrj^ our scheme to a successful 
termination. Among those we wish specially to name are the 
Executive of the Glasgow International Exhibition; the various 
Railway Companies which gave unusual facilities to members; the 
Steamship Companies and owners who assisted in the organising of 
Excursions; and the Firms which opened their works to the in- 
spection of visiting engineers. 

Readers of these Abstracts will certainly join in according a very 
hearty vote of thanks to the Honorary Secretaries of the various 
Sections, and more particularly to Professor J. D. Cormack, the 
editor of all the general publications and the General Secretary of 
the Congress, to whose untiring energy, great administrative ability, 
admirable tact and geniality the smooth working of the whole 
organisation is chiefly due. 

In conclusion, it has been a source of great pleasure to the 
Executive Committee to hear, as it has heard from many of our 
foreign guests, that the arrangements made for their comfort and 
entertaiiunent have been thoroughly appreciated, and that they 
have derived both pleasure and profit from their visit to their 

confrères in Glasgow in 1901. 

R. Caird. 



OFFICE-BEARERS. 



l>onorars pre^tDent 

The Right Honourable the Lord Kelvin, G.C.V.O. 

•fconotat)? W(ce*pre0(&ente* 

The Most Noble the Duke of Argyle, K.T. 

The Most Noble the Duke of Fife, K.T. 

The Right Honourable the Earl of Elgin, K.G. 

The Right Honourable the Lord Balfour of Burleigh, K.T. 

The Right Honourable the Lord Blythswood. 

The Right Honourable the Lord Provost of Edinbuiigh, 

(James Steel). 
The Honourable the Lord Provost of Glasgow, 

(Samuel Chisholm, LL.D.). 

pteôtôent» 

James Mansergh, F.R.S., President of the Institution of 

Civil Engineers. 

lPice««pteôi&ents* 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Glasgow, G.C.M.G., President 

of the Institution of Naval Architects. 
William H. Maw, President of the Institution of 

Mechanical Engineers. 
William Whitwell, President of the Iron and Steel 

Institute. 
Professor John Perry, D.Sc, F.R.S., Past President of the 

Institution of Electrical Engineers. 
Sir William Thomas Lewis, Bart., President of the 

Institution of Mining Engineers. 
Robert Caird, LL.D., Past President of the Institution of 

Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland. 
Colonel J. M. Denny, M.P., President of the Institution 

of Marine Engineers. 
Professor R. L. Weighton, Vice-President of the North- 

East Coast Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders. 
James S. Dixon, President of the Mining Institute of 

Scotland. 
E. George Mawbey, President of the Incorporated Associa- 
tion of Municipal and County Engineers^ 
George Livesey, the Institution of Gas Engineers. 



1 



2 COMMITTEES. 

6eneral Committee* 

Chairman, James Mansergh, F.R.S. 

The members of this committee are distinguished by 
the sign -+• placed opposite their names in the List of 
Members, see p. 355 et seq. 

IReception Committee* 

Chairman, Robert Caird, LL.D. 

The members of this committee are distinguished by 
the sign *-*■ placed opposite thedi names in the List of 
Members, see p. 355 et seq. 



COMMITTEES. 



Xon&on Committee* 



Chairman : Sir 
Honorary Secretary : J. 
Sir Frederick Abel, Bart., 

iL.v^.B. 

Prof. W. Grylls Adams, 

D.Sc. 
James Adamson. 
Sir John G. . N. Alleyne, 

Bart. 
John A. F. Aspinall. 
Professor W. E. Ayrton, 

F.R.S. 
Sir Benjamin Baker, 

K.C.M.G. 
Sir Nathaniel Barnaby, 

xC.O.B. 
F. K. Barnes. 

Prof. Archibald Barr, D.Sc. 
James Barrowman. 
Sir John Wolfe Barry, 

iC.C/.B. 
Sir Lowthian Bell, Bart. 
W. H. Bleckly. 
Sir Frederick J. Bramwell, 

Bart. 
The Rt. Hon. Lord Brassey, 

XV.. C/.B. 
Bennett H. Brough. 
M. Walton Brown. 
'Sir G. B. Bruce. 
James C. Cadman. 
Robert Caird, LL.D. 
'Sir Edward H. Carbutt, 

Bart. 
Major P. Cardew, R.E. 
Andrew Carnegie, LL.D. 
A. G. Charleton. 
Thomas Cole. 
^R. Elliott Cooper. 
S. B. Cottrell. 
R. E. Crompton. 
Sir David Dale, Bart. 
The Rt. Hon. Sir John 

Dalrymple-Hay, K.C.B. 
R. W. Dana, M.A. 
Henry Davey. 
Maurice Deacon. 
James S. Dixon. 
Bryan Donkin. 
Sir Theodore Doxford, M.P. 
James Dunn. 
Sir John Durston, K.C.B. 
F. Elgar, LL.D. 
Prof. Arch. C. Elliott, D.Sc. 
Thomas Evens. 



Douglas Fox. 

H. T. Tudsbery, D.Sc. 

J. C. Hawkshaw. 

Charles Hawksley. 

J. W. Helps. 

George C. V. Holmes, M.A. 

The Rt. Hon. the Earl of 

Hopetoun, 
John Inglis, LL.D. 
S. W. Johnson. 
Arthur Keen. 
The Rt. Hon. Lord Kelvin, 

G.C.V.O. 
Alex. B. W. Kennedy, LL.D. 
Sir James Kitson, Bart., M.P. 
W. E. Langdon. 
Sir William T. Lewis, Bart» 
George T. Livesey. 
J. A. Longden. 
C. H. Lowe. 
W. G. McMillan. 
Sir Henry Mance, CLE.. 
James Mansergh, F.R.S. 
E. P. Martin. 
H. A. Mavor. 
W. H. Maw. 
T. W. H. Mitchell. 
Henry Morgan, 
Arthur Musker. 
John Nevin. 

Sir Andrew Noble, K.C.B. 
Prof. John Perry, D.Sc. 
S. R. Piatt. 
Sir William H. Preece, 

K.C.B. 
Sir Edward G. Reed, K.C.B. 
E. Windsor Richards. 
Sir Thomas Richardson, M.P. 
T. Hurry Riches. 
James Riley. 
W. C. Roberts. 
Sir William Roberts-Austen, 

K.C.B. 
The Rt. Hon. Sir Bernard 

Samuelson, Bart. 
Alexander Siemens. 
J. T. Smith. 
G. F. Snelus, F.R.S. 
C. E. Spagnoletti. 
Joseph W. Swan, F.R.S. 
Tames Swinburne. 
jProf. Silvanus P. Thomson,. 

F.R.S. 
J. I. Thorneycroft, LL.D. 
Prof.L.F.Vemon-HarcourtjM.A^ 



COMMUTEES. 



T. M. Favell. 

S. Z. de Ferranti. 

Prof. G. Carey Foster, F.R.S. 

John Gavey. 

The Rt. Hon. the Earl of 

Glasgow, G. CM. G. 
Sir John Glover. 
'Robert K. Gray. 
W. Harpur. 
Joseph H. Harrison. 



Major-General C. E. Webber, 

C.B. 
Tom Westgarth. 
P. G. B. Westmacott. 
Sir William H. White, K.C.B. 
William Whitwell. 
J. H. Wicksteed. 
Edward Woods. 
Edgar Worthington, B.Sc. 
A. F. Yarrow. 



Sir William Arrol, M.P., 
LL.D. 

Sir Benjamin Baker, 
K.C.M.G. 
*Prof. Archibald Barr, 
D.Sc. 

James Barrowman. 

Sir John Wolfe Barry, 
K..L«.B. 
*W. Beardmore. 

G. T. Beilby. 
*A. S. Biggart. 
♦Prof. J. H. Biles. 

Bennett H. Brough. 

M. Walton Brown. 

Thomas Cole. 

R. Elliott Cooper. 

W. R. Copland. 

R. W. Dana, M.A. 
♦Archibald Denny. 
♦James S. Dixon. 

Walter Dixon. 

Francis Elgar, LL.D. 

Thomas Evans. 

J. T. Forgie. 
♦William Foulis. 
♦Sir Douglas Fox. 

J. M. Gale. 

The Rt. Hon. the Earl of 
Glasgow, G.C.M.G. 

J. W. Helps. 



I6jecutit>e Commfttee. 

Chairman : Robert Caird, LL.D. 



George C. V. Holmes, M.A. 

John Inglis, LL.D. 

J. G. Jenkins. 

Thos. Kennedy. 

W. E. Langdon. 
♦C. C. Lindsay. 

George Livesey. 

C. H. Lowe. 
♦A. B. McDonald. 
♦J. F. M'Intosh. 

W. G. M*Millan. 

E. P. Martin. 

William H. Maw. 

E. George Mawbey. 
*H. A. Mavor. 

James Mollison. 

R. T. Moore, B.Sc. 
♦Matthew Paul. 

E. Windsor Richards. 

Hazleton R. Robson. 
♦James Rowan. 

George Russell. 

Alexander Siemens. 

John Strain. 
♦J. H. T. Tudsbery, D.Sc. 

Prof .L.F.Vernon-Harcourt,M . A 

John Ward. 

Prof. W. H. Watkinson. 

James Weir. 

William Whitwell. 

Edgar Worthington, B.Sc. 



Xocal Ejecutipe Committee* 

Chairman : Robert Caird, LL.D. 
♦ Members of the Executive Committee, whose names are 
distinguished by an asterisk are members of the Local Executive 
Committee. 

jpinance Committee* 

Chairman : Robert Caird, LL.D. 

James S. Dixon. J- R. Richmond. 

Robert Gourlay, LL.D. Paul Rottenburg, LL.D. 

James Neilson. Professor Smart, LL.D. 
Hugh Reid. 



COMMITTEES. D 

Sul)-»<rommittees* 

Visits to Works, 

SECTION I. (Railways).— James Brand, David Cooper, W. 
Lorimer, James Manson, D. A. Matheson, William 
Melville, Hugh Reid, J. F. Robinson, and R. 
Elliott Cooper, with J. F. M*Intosh as Convener. 

SECTION II. (Waterways and Maritime Works.) — ^William 

M. Alston, W. R. Copland, C. P. Hogg, and Prof. 
L. F. Vernon-Harcourt, with C. C. Lindsay as 
Convener. 

SECTION III. (Mechanical). — Henry Brock, Sinclair Couper, 
Thomas Kennedy, Prof. W. H. Watkinson, J. D. 
Young, Thomas Young, and Edgar Worthington, 
with A. S. Biggart as Convener. 

SECTION IV. (Naval Architecture).— Robert Caird, LL.D., 

Alexander Gracie, W. J. Luke, James Mollison, 
and George Holmes, with Prof. J. H. Biles 
as Convener. 

SECTION V. (Iron and Steel).— George Beard, William 

Beardmore, William Clark, David Colville, Walter 
Dixon, Prof. A. Humboldt Sexton, and Bennett H. 
Brough, with J. G. Jenkins as Convener. 

SECTION VI. (Mining).— J. B. Atkinson, James T. Forgie, T. 

Lindsay Galloway, James M'Creath, J. M. 
Ronaldson, Wallace Thomeycroft, and James 
Barrowman, with James S. Dixon as Convener. 

SECTION VII. (Municipal).— Peter Fyfe, T. M. Gale, Thomas 

Nisbet, William Paterson, Gilbert Thomson, John 
Young, and Thomas Cole, with A. B. M*Donald 
as Convener. 

SECTION VIII. (Gas).— G. T. Beilby, G. R. Hislop, and J. W. 

Helps, with W. Foulis as Convener. 

SECTION IX. (Electrical).— W. A. Chamen, M. B. Field, W. 

W. Lackie, Prof. Magnus Maclean, W. B. Sayers, 
E. George Tidd, and W. G. M'Millan, with H. A. 
Mavor as Convener. 

Excursions and Entertainments. — Charles Connell, J. Duncan, A. 
FuUerton, H. E. Hollis, R. T. Moore, R. D. Munro, E. H. 
Parker, J. R. Richmond, A. D. Wedgwood, and J. 
Williamson, with James Rowan as Convener. 

Rooms Committee. — Prof. Biles, G. T. Beilby, H. A. Mavor, J. D. 
Cormack, with Prof. Arch. Barr as Convener. 

Billeting. — Councillor Burrell, John Cochrane, James S. Dixon, 
Robert Duncan, Alex. Fullarton, A. Bonar Law, M.P., 
Fredk. Lobnitz, Sam Mavor, George M'Farlane, J. F. 
Maclaren, Anderson Rodger, Jas. M. Thomson, and W. C. 
Warden, with Matthew Paul as Convener. 

©eneral Sectetarç. 

Professor J. D. Cormack, 
University College, Gower Street, London, W.C. 

au&itot9. 

John Mann & Son, Chartered Accountants, 142 St. Vincent Street, 

Glasgow. 



1 



Inatîtutioîts anb ^erticrnal ^ftia-^znxtts. 



SECTION I. 

• • 

Railways. 

Chairman : Sir Benjamin Baker, K.C.M.G., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Chairmen : B. Hall Blyth. 

Alexander Ross. 
John Strain. 

Honorary Secretary : R. Elliott Cooper, 8 The Sanctuary, 
Westminster, London, S.W. 



SECTION II. 
Waterways and Maritinne Works. 

Chairman : Sir John Wolfe Barry, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Chairmen: William H. Hunter.' 

William Matthews. 

Honorary Secretary: Professor L. F. Vernon-Harcourt, 
M.A., 6 Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster, London, 



SECTION III. 
Mechanical. 

The Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 

Chairman : William H. Maw. 

Vice-Chairmen : Bryan Donkin 

J. Hartley Wicksteed. 

Honorary Secretary r Edgar Worthington, B.Sc, Institution 
of Mechanical Engineers, Stjore/s Gate, St. James's 
Park, Westminster, London, S.W. 



SECTIONAL OFFICE-BEARERS 

SECTION IV. 

Naval Architecture and Marine 

Ehi^ViWVtnk 

The Institution of Naval* Architects. 



► i 



Chairman : The Right Hon. the Earl of Glasgow, G.C.M.G. 

Vice-Chairmen : Archibald Denny. 

Francis Elgar, LL.D., F.R.S, 
John Inglis, LL.D. 

Honorary Secretary : R. W. Dana, M.A., the Institution of 
of Naval Architects, 5 Adelf)hi Terrace, London, 
W.C. 



SECTION V. 
iron and Steei. 

The Iron and Steel Institute. 

Chairman: William Whitwell. 

Vice-Chairman : Sir Wm. Roberts-Austen, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Honorary Secretary : Bennett H. Brough, The Iron and 
Steel Institute, 28 Victoria Street, Westminster, 
London, S:W. 



SECTION VI. 

Mining. 

The Institution of Mining Engineers. 

Chairman : James S. Dixon. 

Vice-Chairmen : James T. Forgie. 

George A. Mitchell. 

Honorary Secretary : James Barrowman, Staneacre, 
'' Hamilton, Scotland. 



8 SECTIONAL OFFICE-BEARERS 

SECTION VII. 

Municipal. 

The Incorporated Association of Municipal and 

County Engineers. 

Chairman : E. George Mawbey. 

Vice-Chairmen : W. Weaver. 

T. H. Yabbicom. 

Honorary Secretary : Thomas Cole, 1 1 Victoria Street, 
Westminster, London, S.W. 



SECTION VIII. 



The Institution of Gas Engineers. 

Chairman: George Livesey. 

Vice-Chairmen : Wm. Foulis. 

W. R. Herring. 
T. O. Paterson. 

Honorary Secretary : J. W. Helps, Waddon, Croydon, 
Surrey. 



SECTION IX. 

Eiectricai. 

The Institution of Electrical Engineers. 

Chairman : W. E. Langdon. 

Vice-Chairmen : R. K. Gray. 

Professor Magnus Maclean, D.Sc. 

Honorary Secretary : W. G. Macmillan, 28 Victoria Street, 
Westminster, London, S.W. 



\ 



\ 



MINUTES OF rROCEEDINQS, 



MONDAY, 2nd SEPTEMBER. 

BANQUET. 

In the evening at 8 p.m. a banquet was held in the St. Andrew's 
Halls, at which the Foreign Delegates and Honorary Members and 
the Members of the London Committee and the Executive Com- 
mittee were present. 

Robert Caird, LL.D., in the Chair. 

The following was the toast list : — 

" His Majesty the King," and " Queen Alexandra, the Duke and 
Duchess of Cornwall and York, and the other Members of the 
Royal Family," proposed by the Chairman. 

" Foreign Governments," proposed by the Earl of Glasgow, and 
replied to by M. Berrièr-Fontaine (France) ; M. J. Troost (Belgium) , 
and Comm. George Breen (Italy). 

" Engineering Societies," proposed by Lord Provost Chisholm, 
and replied to by Herr O. von Miller (Germany); Herr J. H. 
Beucker-Andreae (Holland); Colonel Huber (Switzerland); Pro^ 
fessor Carhart (United States of America); and Herr S. Eyde 
(Norway). 

" The International Engineering Congress," proposed by Professor 
V. E. de Timonoff (Russia), and replied to by Mr. J. Mansergh and 
Mr. W. Foulis. 



TUESDAY, 3rd SEPTEMBER. 

GENERAL MEETING in the Bute Hall at lo a.m. 

In the Bute Hall of the University the Foreign Delegates and 
Honorary Members were received by the President, Mr. James 
Mansergh, F.R.S., and by the Honorary President, Lord Kelvin 
the Hon. the Lord Provost of Glasgow, Samuel Chisholm, L.L.D. 
Mr. Robert Caird, LL.D., Chairman of the Executive Committee 
and the Very Reverend R. Herbert Story, Principal of the 
University. 

Thereafter the President delivered to a large audience of the 
Members his Presidential Address. 



/ \ 



i 



ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT, 

JAMES MANSERGH, F.R.S. 
President OB' The Institution of Civil Engineers. 



Standing here, in virtue of my position as President of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers, to open the first General Inter- 
national Engineering Congress held in Great Britain, I am conscious 
of owing my elevation to this eminence to the accident of office, 
and not to personal desert. I feel keenly myself — and I am sure 
the feeling must be shared by many present — ^that it is an act of the 
greatest presumption on my part to occupy this position in the 
presence of the " Grand Old Man " of Glasgow's ancient University. 
I desire therefore to explain that the position has been forced upon 
me, notwithstanding my earnest remonstrance, and by the desire 
of Lord Kelvin himself. My words will therefore be few, and will 
be restricted to tendering a very cordial welcome to all engineer^ 
present — especially to those hailing from foreign and distant lands ; 
to thanking the authors of the papers contributed to the various 
sections ; and to making the briefest reference to certain matters of 
interest to us, as engineers working under modem conditions. 

It has long been impossible for any individual to give' adequate 
expression to the fulness of the combination of contemporary 
science, art, knowledge, and practice, which we recognise tor 
engineering. Engineers constitute more than a profession; they 
amount to a " race " ; and it is upon them, more than Upon any 
other class of the civil population of the world, that falls the heaviest 
share of the " White Man's Burden." There have been framed 
many definitions of engineering and of the engineer; but none that 
I can esteem adequate, and at the same time sufficiently exact and 
exclusive. My reason for holding this opinion is based upon two 
considerations. The first is the persistence of much popular 
igniorance of the nature of our work, and some lack of appreciation 
of our class; and the second is the stubborn refusal of the English 
spirit to admit the necessity of any formal qualification on the part 
of those who claim to be of the profession. With us — odd as such 



ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 11 

a state of things must seem to our more highly organised foreign 
«colleagues — an engineer may hold à diploma, but he need not. He 
may be associated with our Institution, and be entitled to append 
a string of capital letters to his name, or he may not possess a single 
title to nominal distinction. This is because with us engineering 
does not consist in being, but in doing. The public's unformed 
vague idea of an engineer is that of a man who can do things — a 
great and constantly increasing number of thirigs — all falling within 
a wide but fairly recognised category. His quality seems to lean 
more to the side of invention than to that of scholarship. I^or rriy 
part I am content to have it so. Not that an engineer can ever be 
400 deeply instructed, or too well trained in all the elements of 
knowledge and skill required for the effective pursuit of his calling ; 
but the really gteat engineer is born, not made. So subtle is the 
influence of words upon thought, that I could wish the name of 
our avocation were spelt in English, as it is in languages of more 
pronounced Latin derivation, with a capital "I," instead of "E" — 
"Ingeniering", say, in place of " Engineering." Thus the nature of our 
work would be better recognised among the people, who are careless 
of etymologies. The suggestion of the name would be removed from 
association with the word " engine " (a word good enough in its 
degree, and one that once had a wider significance than is now left 
to it) and would be placed where it rightly belongs, with the root 
idea which gives us the words "ingenious," "ingenuity," etc. We 
must go no further however in this direction for the missing 
definition of engineering, or we shall get into the clouds, where, 
although I anfi not sure but that we might find some Colleges of 
E'ngineering, we should miss the substance of the thing itself. 

For engineering is the only high art which for its excellence 
depends as much on its cheapness as upon any other item in the 
suih of achievement. All other things being equal — adaptability, 
soundness, efficiency — the engineering work which costs the least 
money îâ the best. I do not know any other product of man's 
creative and adaptive powers, of which the same can be so truly 
-said. The " cash " basis is the real foundation upon which the 



12 ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 

engineer builds; and this consideration at once draws us away from 
judging of engineering as merely something cleverly done by an 
ingenious person. It also serves often to distinguish between 
college, text-book, or rule-of -thumb engineering, and the real thing. 
There is an American definition of an engineer, which states that 
" he is a man who can do well for one dollar things that anybody 
could do somehow for double the money." This is getting very 
near the truth. It is not the whole truth, of course ; but that, for 
reasons I have already indicated, is unattainable. At any rate, it 
places in due prominence a quality which those who regard engineer- 
ing studies from the college standpoint are apt to ignore. I have 
heard a legend of a professor of applied mechanics, who was 
shocked at the thought of steam engines being made for money, to 
sell — ^like cakes, A good deal of wasted ingenuity would be saved, 
if those who engage in every kind of engineering work would 
remember to use the money standard, as well as the foot-rule and 
the higher mathematics. 

Actual engineering must be mastered as it is realised on works 
in progress. It has no authoritative text-books. The working 
engineer's library is sometimes largely composed of ephemeral 
manufacturer's catalogues, and lists of prices current of materials. 
Like the perfect artist described by Longfellow, the engineer must 
learn to work with the means that lie readiest to his hand. He 
must cherish his ideals, or he will sink into routine; but he, of all 
men, cannot afford to indulge in hobby-riding. He leaves as little 
as possible to chance, and, if he is wise, he will not rely upon his 
best mathematics any further than he can see them. If he starts 
with aptitude, plods on with patience, observes with insight, records 
with careful exactitude, and adapts with wisdom, in the fulness of 
time he will find himself, almost to his surprise, in possession of 
judgment y and this is the glory of an engineer, fitting him for his 
highest employment as man-of-all-work to civilisation. Material 
civilisation owes much to this faithful servant. Others may plot, 
scheme, invent, discover wants and their proper supplies; the 
engineer, as a rule, does chiefly what he is told wants doing. By 



ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 13 

Strict attention to his own business, he helps to make the crooked 
ways straight and the rough places plain for all. 

The engineer must have great power of concentration. His 
solicitude is to make every job a little better than the last. The 
newest steam engine shows a fractional economy of steam; the 
latest steamship carries her freight with a scarcely distinguishable 
saving in coal consumption per ton-, the selected railway metal 
lasts a little longer than the previous purchase; the main line is 
straightened here and there; and — incidentally as it were — the 
remote ends of the earth are brought closer together, and plague, 
pestilence, and famine are driven back. The wiseacres who declare 
on political platforms that the effect of modem civilisation is to 
make the rich richer, and the poor poorer, forget all about 
engineering. The engineer is the chief of the modern democratic 
Civil Service. Civilisation is admitted to have had its birth with 
the Egyptians and its rearing with the Romans; and the latter 
were the first to recognise a change of purpose in engineer- 
ing from the idle aims of Egyptian pyramid builders to 
the useful purposes of road-making and the provision of 
ample supplies of pure water for their cities. Down to the 
dawn of the century that has just closed, civil engineering did not 
surpass the works of the Romans, which indeed in some respects 
remained unequalled. With respect to the elemental need of the 
modem world for improved means of transportation, it may be said 
that the new civil engineering first broke out its own line in the 
notable discovery of the Scotsman, Macadam, that good roads 
could be made with stones broken small. The distinguishing note 
of modem engineering is that it subserves in the main the interests 
of the mass of the people. The greater comfort, better feeding, 
higher healthiness, freer movement of the people to outside con- 
gested urban areas to-day, as contrasted with the state of the 
populace of this and other countries a century ago, are chiefly 
attributable to the triumphs of our professional work. 

An alarm has been sounded in our ears of late, waming us that 
we, the inhabitants of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 



14 ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 

Ireland, have touched our high-water mark in respect to the 
prosperity derivable from the prosecution of those manufacturing 
industries which are based upon engineering, or are by it served with 
the means of transport and communication. This may be so. 
Our nation has no royal secret for arresting the revolution of 
Fortune's wheel. When merchants first sought our shores to trade 
with the aborigines, their attraction was the native tin. The 
development of the country however was not arrested by the 
substitution of iron for bronze implements and weapons. Wool 
became in turn the staple product of the land, and carried its 
diversified fortunes bravely down almost to within living memory. 
We have long ceased to produce enough wool, or com, or meat, 
for our teeming population. It is almost as much as we can do to 
find enough water to drink. The wisest man that graced the Court 
of the British Solomon who first united the kingdoms of Scotland 
and England would be sorely puzzled — if he were to revisit this 
realm — to understand how we all contrive to live. 

The industrial development of the world has proceeded along 
the lines which one of the profoundest minds of the nineteenth 
century — Charles Darwin — traced for the life history of the planet 
The course of economic progress is from the simple to the complex, 
from sameness to infinite diversity. In the history of Britain, the 
mining of a semi-precious metal for exportation was succeeded by 
pastoral pursuits, and these again were followed by agriculture and 
manufacturing enterprises. Good government kept order in the 
land, and saved it from devastating invasions. Margins realised 
over the cost of living formed capital, which went into fresh enter- 
prises at home, and eventually overflowed into adventures for the 
conquest of markets abroad. All the time engineering dogged the 
way, making roads and inland waterways and harbours, and supply- 
ing tools and mechanical motive powers. A vast multiplication and 
diversification of employments for money, ingenuity, and toil, have 
resulted from the free play of the national genius; and have been 
carried to such a height by the indomitable spirit of the race, that 
now the waxing and waning of particular trades and interests from 



ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 15 

accidental influences do not alter the balance of the great account 
which the nation has opened. with Fate. An illustration in point 
is spread before our eyes. Mark the difference between the con- 
ditions governing the prosperity of, say, a mining camp, and those 
prevailing over a vast and varied emporium, a manufacturing centre, 
such as this noble city. Glasgow flourishes, not by reason of the 
vogue of any particular trade that finds specially favourable situa- 
tion on the banks of the Clyde, but because it is a microcosm of 
the universal activities which yield wealth. Its engineers can 
point with pardonable pride to the material framework and setting 
of this community — the artificially improved river, the systems of 
railways and tramways, the magnificent water supply, which. have 
given Glasgow elbow room for her expansion — as the gains of 
engineering; but it is the peculiar diversity of Glasgow's energies 
that have won for her the rating of " Second City of the Empire." 

The question of moment to Britishers is: Shall we maintain our 
ground ? to say nothing of increasing our lead ? I cannot tell ; but 
this I do believe, that the character of the future of the country 
and the fruitfulness of our common calling depend chiefly upon 
the preservation of that freedom for the play of all the talents,, 
all the energies, all the force of human initiative for the subjugation 
of the powers of nature and their direction to the service of 
mankind, which has enabled us to do so much in this regard in 
the past. Favoured simply by secured peace at home, and by the 
confidence felt by the masters of accumulated capital, engineering 
has hitherto showered its first fruits over our land. To-day these 
advantages have become internationalised. Gold flows daily to 
and from the capital cities of the earth for the smallest balance of 
gain; or — as engineers would describe the movement of a mobile 
fluid — ^under the slightest head of a pressure that is ever shifting. 
Brains are no peculiar possession of our nationality. The cosmic 
forces are the same everywhere. Economic conditions tend to wear 
down to a uniform level. Science knows no frontiers. The 
engineer is the truest free trader. He goes whithersoever he is- 
wanted and finds most to do. Will he in future flourish best ii* 
Britain or abroad ? 



16 ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 

We hear much talk nowadays about the British need of more 
technical education for workers, and of better instruction in the 
art of living for the people generally; and I am not disposed to 
disparage this desire for more light There cannot be too much of it 
Nevertheless I hold liberty to be more precious than learning. The 
fullest freedom for the exercise of the inborn spirit of initiative, 
enterprise, and adventure, is the next essential to the occurrence of 
this spirit in the individual members of a race, for enabling the 
whole to make headway in the universal struggle for life and for 
a leading position. I fear that only too good a case could be made 
out for the allegation that a mistaken statutory system has dis- 
couraged in this country — for the time being, at least — the 
naturalisation and development of electrical engineering on the 
largest scale. In other words, the Electric Lighting Acts had the 
broad result of chopping up the business of electricity supply in this 
favoured land into morsels reduced to the parochial needs of local 
authorities. There was no freedom in the business. Instead of 
the electrical and mechanical development of lighting and power 
being undertaken in this country upon a scale proportional to its 
early promise, the work had to be done by " sample " — every small 
specimen differing from the others. Long years passed before any 
English engineer was in a position to give out an electrical power 
contract amounting to ;£i 00,000. Meanwhile our friends in 
America and on the Continent of Europe were forging fast ahead. 
So we lost our chance, and shall probably have to take other 
people's electric plant for some time : instead of striking out our 
own leading line, as did our less governed forefathers years ago 
in railway work and shipbuilding. 

I should like to remark here, in parenthesis, how much of the 
real essence of economical engineering is contained in the work 
of settling standard sections of important constructive materials. 
This matter has been taken in hand by a joint committee of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers, the Institution of Mechanical 
Engineers, the Institution of Naval Architects, and the Iron and 
Steel Institute. It is my privilege to be ex officio Chairman of this 



ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 17 

Committee, and we have already taken the evidence of representa- 
tive men among makers, merchants, and users of steel and iron 
bars of all shapes and scantlings, and have received many written 
communications, all of which go to prove the great desirability of 
doing thoroughly the work of standardizing that the Committee 
have taken up. Sir Benjamin Baker, with a specially selected Sub- 
Committee, has charge of bridge and general building construction ; 
Sir J. Wolfe Barry, with similar assistance, of railways; Colonel 
Denny of shipbuilding; and Sir Douglas Fox of rolling stock. In- 
the hands of these eminent engineers you may rest assured the work 
will be well carried out; but we desire earnestly the active and 
cordial assistance and co-operation of all our brethren interested in 
this important matter. 

In all the various sections to which you will now go to perform 
the real work of the Congress, you will, I think, find something that 
will serve to focus your attention upon the great engineering 
problems of our time. 

I have no wish to discriminate among the papers ; but it is plain 
that in Section I. Professor Carus-Wilson has undertaken the 
treatment of a matter of extreme interest, in writing of the 
" Economy of Electricity as a Motive Power on Railways at present 
driven by Steam." 

Some highly important papers axe to be read in Section II. ; and 
it is a matter of peculiar gratification that we have been able to enlist 
the help of so distinguished a band of engineers from the United 
States of America and from the European Continent, for giving true 
interniatiooml importance to the deliberations of this Section. 

I am pleased to find that one of the most interesting of all 
inventions since the age of " Watt " in the domain of prime movers 
—the steam turbine — is to be discussed in Section III. 

It is impossible to overrate the value of the section of metallurgy; 

and the number of papers promised testifies to the technical 

interest of the questions which await answers in this sphere of 

engineering energy. 

In Section VII. two of the most pressing problems of mimicipal 



18 ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 

engineering — the disposal of sewage, and the housing of the poor 
— ^will, I am sure, be adequately treated. 

In Section VIII. — gas engineering — sufficient proof will be given 
of the influence exerted on this industry by that invaluable invention 
of incandescent lighting, to which the Exhibition — of which our 
hosts may justly be most proud — owes so much of its evening 
brilliancy. 

The applications of electricity to various purposes will be 
described in Section IX. ; among them the wonderful " three- 
phase " system of power transmission, which promises so much in 
this connection. 

Time forbids my going further into the various matters that 
crowd our minds on such an occasion as the present. I can there- 
fore only commend you heartily and sincerely to the despatch of 
the important business you have undertaken; and trust that the 
fruit of increased knowledge which may be gathered from inter- 
change of ideas will amply repay your trouble in coming here at 
the invitation of our Glasgow friends and confreres. 



M. Berrier-Fontaine, directeur du Genie Maritime, Paris. — My 
Lord Provost and Gentlemen — ^I have no doubt one and all of the 
foreign engineers who have come from so many distant countries to 
attend the Congress and to take part in this unprecedented general 
intemationial engineering gathering, will join with me in according 
our best thanks to, the President who has been so fitly selected to 
preside over our distinguished meeting to-day. I need not say, 
sir, that we fully appreciate the very kind reception we are ex- 
periencing at your hands. We are most sensible of it Why ? Well, 
sir, we expect to gain much additional technical knowledge during 
this week of our stay with you in Scotland, and we greatly ap- 
preciate the good will, and the better understanding, between 
different nations which meetings such as these are so apt to develop. 
It is, therefore, from the bottom of my heart that in the name of 
all the foreign gentlemen here present I tender to you our most 
sincere thanks for your kindness — to you Sir, and to your colleagues, 
the British Engineere. 

The President, — I thank you, gentlemen, for your kind apprecia- 
tion of my remarks. I thank you particularly on behalf of the 
leaders of this Congress, mostly our friends in Glasgow, and 
especially must I thank M. Berrier-Fontaine for his kindly words. 

The General Meeting then concluded. 



MINUTES. 19 

PROCEEDINGS OF SECTIONS. 

At 11.30 a.iiL the sections met in the Sectional Rooms as follows : 

Section I. — (Railways) — Botany Lecture Theaitre. 
(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see 
pp. 28 to 34.) 

Section II. — (Waterways and Maritime Works) — Botany Labora- 
tory. 

(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see 
pp., 56 to 64.) 

Section III. — (Mechanical) — Debating Hall, Students' Union. 
(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see 
pp. 98 to 108.) 

Section IV. — (Naval Architecture) — Humanity Lecture Theatre. 
(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see 
pp. 146 to 153.) 

Section V. — (Iron and Steel) — Chemistry Lecture Theatre. 
(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see 
pp. 169 to 194.) 

Section VI. — (Mining) — Greek Lecture Theatre. 
(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see 
pp. 212 to 228.) 

Section VII. — (Municipal) — Engineering Lecture Theatre. 
(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see 
pP'. 251 to 258.) 

Section VIII. — (Gas) — Natural History Lecture Theatre. 
(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see 
pp. 275 to 291.) 

Section IX. — (Electrical) — Natural Philosophy Lecture Theatre. 
(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papeii, see 
pp. 310 to 316.) 

The meetings concluded at i o'clock, and in the afternoon the 
members took part in the following visits to works : — 

1. Messrs. Dubs & Co., Glasgow Locomotive Works, and 

Messrs. Alley & MacLellan, Sentinel Engine Works, 
Polmadie. 

2. Prince's Dock, and the Weir on the Clyde. 

3. Messrs. G. & J. Weir, Holm Foundry, Cathcart. 

4. Messrs. The Fairfield Shipbuilding & Engineering 

Co., Ltd., Govan. 



20 MINUTES. 

5. Messrs. W. Baird & Co., Gartsherrie Iron Works, 

Coatbridge. 

6. Messrs. The Waveriey Iron & Steel Co., Coatbridge. 

7. Messrs. The Steel Company of Scotland, Hallside 

Steel Works, Newton. 

8. Tidal Weir and Swanston Street Sewage Works. 

9. Gas Works at Dawsholm, and new Gas Works at 
Provan. 

10. Organised Visit to the Electrical Exhibits in the 
Exhibition. 

11. Messrs. Robert Maclaren & Co., Eglinton Foundry, 

Canal Street. 



OPENING OF THE JAMES WATT ENGINEERING 
LABORATORIES, GLASGOW UNIVERSITY. 

At 3.30 p.m. a large number of members and citizens assembled 
in the main Laboratory, on the invitation of the Engineering 
Laboratory Committee, Sir William Arrol, Chairman of the Com- 
mittee, presiding. The Chairman briefly introduced Professor Barr, 
who made a statement regarding the history of the undertaking, 
referring especially to the donation of ;^i 2,500 towards the buildings 
from the Bellahouston Trustees, and the numerous subscriptions in 
money and apparatus received towards the equipment. Sir James 
King acknowledged the reference to the Bellahouston Trustees. 
Lord Kelvin (Honorary President of the Congress), then declared 
the laboratories open, and referred to the growing need for labora- 
tory instruction, and the desirability of a close connection being 
maintained between the University and the engineering profession. 
Mr. James Mansergh (President of the Congress), delivered a short 
address on the scientific training of engineers, touching upon the 
action that the Institution of Civil Engineers had taken in requiring 
scientific knowledge as a qualification for associate-membership. 
The Lord Provost of Glasgow (Samuel Chisholm, LL.D.), and 
Mr. William Maw (President of the Institution of Mechanical 
Engineers), also addressed the meeting. Principal Story expressed 
his gratification in accepting this addition tO' the equipment of 
the University, and conveyed the thanks of the meeting to Lord 
Kelvin for the part his lordship had taken in the proceedings. 



MINUTES. 21 



RECEPTION. 



In the evening at 8 p.m. a reception was held in the City 
Chambers. The members were received by the Lord Provost 
(Samuel Chisholm, LL.D.) and the Magistrates. 

During the evening the company assembled in the Banqueting 
Hall, and the Lord Provost, in the name of the Corporation, 
welcomed lalike those strangers from afar and near who were visitii^ 
Glasgow in connection with the Congress, and welcomed also the 
citizens of Glasgow who were present. 

Lord Kelvin, as a burgess of the city, joined with the Lord 
Provost and Town Council in giving all a hearty welcome to the 
City Chambers ; and as Honorary President of the Congress, he 
thanked the Lord Provost for his hearty welcome to the Congress 
members. 

Sir John Wolfe Barry also acknowledged the welcome. 

Dr. Caird, in name of the foreign delegates, the members of the 
Congress, and the Local Committee, moved a vote of thanks to the 
Lord Provost and Corporation for their hospitality. Principal 
Story seconded the motion. 

The Lord Provost replied briefly. 



WEDNESDAY, 4th SEPTEMBER. 



The Sections met as follows : — 

Section I. — (Railways) — Botany Lecture Theatre. lo-i. 

(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see 

PP- 35 ^ 46.) 

Section II. — (Waterways and Maritime Works) — Botany Labora- 
tory. lO-I. 

(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see 
pp. 65 to 76.) 

Section III. — (Mechanical) — Debating Hall, Students' Union. 

lO-I. 

(For summary " of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see 
pp. 109 to 126.) 

Section IV. — (Naval Architecture)— Humanity Lecture Theatre. 
10.30-1. 

(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see 
pp. 154 to 161.) 



J 
i 



22 MINUTES. 

Section V. — (Iron and Steel) — Chemistry Lecture Theatre. lo-i. 
(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see 
pp. 195 to 211.) 

Section VI. — (Mining) — Greek Lecture Theatre. lo-i. 
(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see 
pp. 229 to 250.) 

Section VIL — (Municipal) — Engineering Lecture Theatre. lo-i. 
(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see 
pp. 259 to 265.) 

Section VIII. — (Gas) — Natural- History Lecture Theatre. lo-i. 
(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see 
pp. 292 to 299.) 

Section IX. — (Electrical) — Natural Philosophy Lecture Theatre. 

lO-I. 

(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see 
pp. 317 to 330.) 

In the afternoon the members took part in the following visits to 
works and excursions: — 

VISITS TO WORKS. 

12. Messrs. Neilson, Reid & Co., Hydepark Locomotive 
Works, Springburn; Messrs. Sharp, Stewart & Co., 
Ltd., Atlas Loco. Works. 

13. Messrs. The Singer Manufacturing Co., Kilbowie. 

14. Messrs. Babcock & Wilcox, Ltd., Renfrew. 

15. Messrs. John Brown & Co., Ltd., Clydebank. 

16. A visit to Messrs. David Colville & Sons, Steel Works, 

Motherwell, had been arranged but was cancelled 
owing to the death of Mr. John Colville, M.P. 

17. Messrs. The Steel Company of Scotland, Blochaim 
Works. 

18. Messrs. Edward Chester & Co.'s Engineering Works, 

Renfrew. 

19. Fire Station in Ingram Street, and Hydraulic Power 
Station. 

20. Messrs. The Furnace Gases Co., Ltd., Works, 

Carnbroe. 

21. Messrs. Kelvin & James White, Ltd.- 

Glasgow Corporation Telephone Exchange. 

22. Messrs. Mavor & Coulson, Ltd., Dynamo Factory, 

47 King Street, Mile-End, and Messrs. Duncan, 
Stewart & Co., Ltd., Engineers, Bridgeton. 



MINUTES. 28 

EXCURSIONS. 
I.— Excursion to Aberfoyie and Loch Ard. 

Train to Aberfoyie, drive round Loch Ard and back to 
Aberfoyie, and train from Aberfoyie to Glasgow (via 
Killearn). 

Il —Excursion to Lanark and Falls of Clyde. 

Train to Lanark, drive to Falls of Clyde, Cartland Crags, 
Crossford, Tillietudlem, and train from Tillietudlem 
to Glasgow. 



THURSDAY, St h SEPTEMBER. 

The Sections met as follows : — 

Section L — (Railways) — Botany Lecture Theatre. lo-i. 
(For summaxy of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see 
PP- 47 to 55.) 

Section II. — (Waterways and Maritime Works) — Botany Labora- 
tory. 10- 1. 

(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see 
pp. 77 to 97.) 

Section III. — (Mechanical) — Debating Hall, Students' Union. 

lO-I. 

(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see 
pp. 127 to 145.) 

Section IV. — (Naval Architecture) — Humanity Lecture Theatre. 
10.30-1. 

(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see 
pp. 162 to 168.) 

Section V. — (Iron and Steel) — Did not meet for the reading of 
papers. 

Section VI. — (Mining) — Did not meet for the reading of papers. 

Section VII. — (Municipal) — Engineering Lecture Theatre. lo-i. 
(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see 
pp. 266 to 274.) 

Section VIII. — (Gas) — Natural History Lecture Theatre. lo-i. 
(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see 
pp. 300 to 309.) 

Section IX. — (Electrical) — Natural Philosophy Lecture Theatre. 

lO-I. 

(For summary of proceedings and abstracts of papers, see 
PP- 331 to 340.) 



24 MINUTES. 

VISITS TO WORKS. 

During the day a visit, No. 26, was made to Collieries in the 
Hamilton District : — the Priory Pits of Messrs. Wm. Baird and Co., 
Ltd. ; the Whistleberry Colliery of Mr. Archibald Russell ; and th^ 
Palace Colliery of the Bent Colliery Co., Ltd. 

Visit No. 27 was also made to Broxburn Oil Works. 

In the afternoon ihe members took part in the following visitjs 
to works and excursions : — 

23. The Caledonian Railway Locomotive Works, St. 

RoUox, and the North British Railway Locomotive 
Works, Cowlairs. 

24. Messrs. Glenfield & Kennedy, Kilmarnock. 

25. Messrs. Wm. Denny & Bros., Dumbarton. 

28. Pinkston Tramway Power Station and Port Dundas 
Electric Lighting Station. 

29. Port Dundas Electric Lighting Station and Pinkston 
Tramway Power Station. 

30. Organised Visit to the Gas Exhibits in the Exhibition. 

EXCURSIONS. 
III.— Excursion to Loch Lomond. 

Train to Dumbarton and Ardlui by West Highland Rail- 
way, steamer to Balloch, and train from Balloch to 
Glasgow. 

BALL. 

In the evening at 9 p.m. a Ball was held in the St. Andrew's Halls. 



FRIDAY, 6th SEPTEMBER, 

The members took part in the following visits to works and 
excursions : — 

Visits to works: 

31. Leith Docks and Excursion to the Forth Bridge. 

EXCURSIONS. 
IV. - Excursion Throui^h the Kyles of Bute. 

Train from Gasgow to Fairlie ; sail from Fairlie in turbine 
steamer '* King Edward," through the Kyles of Bute, 
and back to Fairlie between the Cumbraes. 



MINUTES. 25 

v.— Excursion to Edlnburi^h and Forth Brld^^o. 

Train from Glasgow to Edinburgh, drive to Forth Bridge, 
through Lord Rosebery's grounds, sail from Forth 
Bridge for an hour on the Forth, and train from 
Dalmeny to Glasgow. 

Vl.'-Excursion flrom BroomlelaiMf to Arrochar. 

Steamer " Duchess of Hamilton," from Broomielaw down 
River Clyde, past the Cumbraes, round south end of 
Bute, through Kyles of Bute to Arrochar, via 
Rothesay, Dunoon, and Loch Long; drive to Tarbet 
(Loch Lomond), steamer "Prince George" to 
Balloch, and train to Glasgow. 






I 



26 MINUTES. 

DURING THE CONGRESS WEEK THE FOLLOWING 
WORKS, SHIPBUILDING YARDS, ETC., WERE OPEN 
TO CONGRESS MEMBERS BETWEEN THE HOURS OF 
lo A.M. AND 5 P.M., EXCEPT WHERE OTHERWISE 
NOTED, ON PRODUCTION OF THEIR MEMBERSHIP 
CARD. 



Arrol, Sir Wm., & Co., Ltd., Dalmarnock Iron Works, 85 

Preston Street, Bridgeton (10-4). 
Barclay, Curie & Co., Ltd., Engineering Works, Finnieston ; 

Boiler Works, Kelvinhaugh ; and Shipyard, Whiteinch. 
Barr & Stroud, Scientific Instrument Makers, 46 Ashton Lane 

(closed 12.30 to 1.30 daily). 
Beardmore, Wm., & Co., Engine Works, Lancefield Street. 
Blackie & Son, Printers and Publishers, 17 Stanhope Street 

(closed 2-3 daily). 
British Hydraulic Foundry Co., South Street (3rd Sept. only). 
Caird & Co., Ltd., Shipbuilders, Greenock. 
Carron Co., Carron Iron Works, Stirlingshire (3rd or 4th Sept.). 
City Improvement Schemes. 

Clyde Shipbuilding & Engineering Co., Ltd., Port-Glasgow. 
Collins, Wm., Sons & Co., Printers and Publishers, 139 Stirling 

Road. 
Coltness Iron Co., Newmains. 
Connell, Chas., & Co., Shipbuilders, Whiteinch. 
Craig, A. F. & Co., Engineers, Paisley. 
Dixon, Wijlliam, Ltd., Govan Iron Works, Glasgow. 
Dixon, William, Ltd., Calder Iron Works, Coatbridge. 
Duncan, Robert, & Co., Shipbuilders, Port-Glasgow. 
Dunlop, D. J., Shipbuilders, Port-Glasgow. 
Dunlop, James, & Co., Clyde Iron Works, Tollcross. 
Dunlop, Tames, & Co., Calderbank Steel Works. 
Edinburgh & District Tramways Company, Ltd., Cable Power 

Station, Tollcross, Edinburgh. 
Etna Iron and Steel Co., Motherwell. 
Fullerton, Hodgert & Barclay, Ltd., Engineers, Vulcan Works, 

Paisley. 
Glasgow Central Station Extension and Plans, Resident 

Engineer's Office^ Central Station. 
Glasgow District Subway Co. Power Station, 173 Scotland 

Street. 
Glasgow & South-Western Railway Locomotive Works, Kil- 
marnock. 
" Glasgow Herald " Printing Office, 65 Buchanan Street. 
Glasgow Harbour Tunnel Co., Hoists, etc.. Plantation Quay. 
Glasgow Iron and Steel Co., Wishaw. 
Glebe Sugar Refining Co., Greenock. 
Hyde Park Foundry Co., 54 Finnieston Street. 
King, David, & Sons, Manufacturers of Electrical Castings and 

Sanitary Appliances, Keppoch Iron Works, Possilpark. 
Lang, John, & Sons, Machine-tool Makers, Johnstone. 
Lindsay, Burnet & Co., Moore Park Boiler Works, Helen Street, 

Govan. 
Lloyds Proving House, 82 St. James Street, Kinninç Park. 
Lobnitz & Co., Ltd., Engineers and Shipbuilders, Renfrew. 



MINUTES. 27 



London & Glasgow Engineering & Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., 

Govan. 
M*Dowall, John, & Son, Saw Mill Engineers, Walkinshaw 

Foundry, Johnstone. 
M*Farlane, Strang & Co., Iron Pipe Founders, Lochburn Iron 

Works. 
M*Onie, Harvey & Co., Engineers, 224 West Street, South Side. 
M*Millan, Archd., & Son, Ltd., Shipbuilders, Dumbarton. 
M*Neil, John & Co., Engineers, Helen Street, Govan. 
Mackie & Thomson, Shipbuilders, Govan. 
Martin, Hugh, & Sons, Coatbridge. 
Martin & Miller, Tanners, 847 Duke Street. 
Mechan & Sons, Engineers, Scotstoun. 
Miller, A. & T., Globe Iron Works, Motherwell. 
Milne, Jas., & Son, Engineers, Milton House Works, Edinburgh. 
Mirrlees, Watson & Co., Scotland Street Iron Works (Afternoons 

only). 
Muir & Houston, Ltd., Engineers, Kinning Park. 
Napier & Miller, Ltd., Shipbuilders, Yoker. 
Napier Bros., Windlass Engine Works, 100 Hyde Park Street, 
Outfall Sewer and Pumping Station, Dumbarton Road Bridge, 

Partick. 
Penman & Co., Boilermakers, Caledonian Iron Works, Strath- 

clyde. 
Ross & Duncan, Engineers, Govan. 
Rowan, David & Co., Engineers, 231 Elliott Street. 
Russell & Co., Shipbuilders, Port-Glasgow. 
Scott & Co., Shipbuilders, Greenock. 
Scottish Cold Storage Co., 219 George Street. 
Scottish Co-operative Wholesale Society, Ltd., Works, Shield- 
hall, Govan. 
Shanks & Co., Ltd., Manufacturers of Sanitary Appliances, 

Tubal Works, Barrhead. 
Simons & Co., Shipbuilders, Renfrew. 
Smith, A. & W., & Co., Eglinton Engine Works, 57 Cook 

Street. 
Smith, Hugh & Co., Possil Engine Works, off Possil Road. 
Spencer, John, Ltd., Phœnix Iron Works, Coatbridge. 
Stephen, Alexander, & Co., Shipbuilders, Linthouse. 
Steven & Struthers, Brassfounders and Engineers, Kelvinhaugh. 
Stewart & Menzies, A. & J., Clydesdale Steel Works, Mossend. 
Stewart, Duncan & Co., London Road Iron Works, Bridgeton. 
Sterne, L., & Co., Engineers, Crown Iron Works, 156 North 

Woodside Road. 
Summerlee and Mossend Iron and Steel Co., Coatbridge. 
Summerlee and Mossend Iron and Steel Co., Mossend. 
TuUis, John, & Son, St. Anne's Leather Belt Manufactory, 

Bridgeton. 
Thornliebank Co., Ltd. (The Calico Printers' Association, Ltd.), 

Thomliebank (closed 2-3 daily). 
Ure, John, & Son, Regent Flour Mills, Sandyford. 
Wemys^ Bay Railway Widening, D. A. Matheson, Engineer in 

Chief, Caledonian Railway, Buchanan Street Station. 
Woodside Steel and Iron Co., Coatbridge. 



PROCtEDINOS or THE SECTIONS. 



SUMMARY OF PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



Section L— Railways.* 



TUESDAY, 8Pd SEPTEMBER, 1901. 



Sir Benjamin Baker, K.C.M.G., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., in the Chair. 



" UGANDA RAILWAY." 
Paper by Sir Guilford Molesworth, K.C.I.E. 

Abstract, 

The Uganda Railway is instructive — 

I St, In showing the inferences that may be deduced from the 
study 01 maps and books of travel. 

2nd, As an example of an excellent reconnaissance based on 
astronomical and barometrical observations. 

3rd, As an instance of the combination of difficulties different 
from those ordinarily encountered by the engineer. 

In 1 89 1 the author had to advise the I.B.E.A. Co. on the question 
of railway communication with Lake Victoia. He had never been 
in the country, which before 1888 was practically a terra incognita, 
the only European who had succeeded in penetrating the country 
being Mr. Joseph Thomson in his rapid and necessarily superficial 
expedition through Masailand. What was known of the rest of 
the region was the result of conjecture, or native reports, gathered 
by missionaries. Stanley visited Lake Victoria via Congo, and 
Fischer had in 1883 passed through German territory to the 
Dogilani Plain and Navasha. In 1888 Jackson and Gedges 
expedition passed via Machakos to Navasha, and thence via Stotik 
to Lake Victoria. From these sources Ravenstein's map was 
compiled; and from it, and from the records of Thomson's and 

.^^^_^ . - ' ■■ — ^UMIWI I ■— IIMI» l^—^^M ■ I ■ . I i ■ ■■ ■■ ^ 

* The full proceedings of Section I. are published by Messrs. Wm. 
Clowes & Sons, Ltd., Duke Street, Stamford Street, London, S.E. Price 
ss. 6d. post free.. 



UGANDA I^AILWAY. 29 

Jackson's expeditions published by the Royal Geographical Socjet}^, 
the lajuthor gleaned the information on which his advice was based. 
A map thus compiled must necessarily be sketchy and in points 
inaccurate; but, notwithstanding these defects, it afiforded valuable 
information. Some idea of its inaccuracy may be inferred by the 
results of recent surveys near the mouth of the Nyando. 

Little information was given about the escarpments which 
bounded the great rift that traversed the country. There were 
no records of any European having visited either the Mau Plateau 
or the Valley of the Nyando. 

After careful study of the sources of information, he submitted 
t» the I.B.E.A. Company a sketch map, on which he had marked 
the line of reconnaisance which he recommended for first trial, 
giving also the reasons for his advice, which may be summarised 
as follows : — 

1. A typical section in a straight line from coast to lake was 
assumed. 

2. A great volcanic rift existed, at least 20 miles in breadth, with 
escarpments 1500 to 2000 feet high. 

3. A chain of lakes indicated that the rift extends throughout 
British territory, and therefore cannot be avoided. 

4. A longitudinal section of the rift and its escarpments was 
assumed. 

5. Close to the coast the Rabbai Hills, 700 feet high, had to be 
rounded. 

6. Voi was an obligatory point for purposes of water supply. 

7. From Rabai Hills the land rises steadily to 5000 feet at the 
rift. 

8. The Tsavo River should be crossed between its confluence 
with the Sabaki and the River Mbololo. 

9. Mackakos must be avoided either by the Athi Valley or an 
alternative route. 

10. The ramifications of the Athi River indicated the probability 
of a low point in the escarpment, and the best approach to the 
rift near Ngongo. 

11. The descent of the eastern escarpment should run in the 
direction of the rising rift floor. 

12. The line should pass along by Lakes Navasha and Elmenteita 
to the culminating point at Nakuro. 

13. An easy line would be obtained in the rift floor at this part. 

14. The best point for ascending Mau escarpment was at Lake 
Nakuro. 

15. The ascent should run in the direction of the fall oï the 
escarpment. 

16. A railway by Jackson's route through Sotik was 
impracticable. 



30 UGANDA RAILWAY. 

17. The only probability of a favourable line descending to Lake 
Victoria was by Mau Plateau and the Nyando Valley. 

18. A line via Nzoia River would involve a considerable detour 
and broken ground. 

19. Beyond Ngongo, excepting the portion in the rift floor, the 
line must be difficult and costly. 

Macdonald's expedition in 1891-92 entirely confirmed these 
inferences, with one exception, the main point of difference being 
that the route via Nzoia was followed instead of the Nyando, which 
was considered impracticable. This change involved a detour 
of about 100 miles, but when the permanent survey was 
made in 1898 it was discovered that the Nyando Valley was quite 
practicable, and the railway is now being made through it. 

Macdonald's reconnaisance was very ably made by compass, 
pedometer, and aneroid barometer. The cross sectional slopes 
of the country were taken by Abney's level. Corrections were made 
for the diurnal barometic wave, which is very important in the 
tropics. Plans and sections were plotted in camp each day, and 
linked in by triangulation where feasible ; otherwise by astronomical 
observation. The position each day was checked either by 
latitude and longitude with chronometer, or by longitude from 
occultations. Notes were taken of the dimensions, slopes, flood- 
marks, soil in bed and banks, all waterways, and of the general 
physical and geological features of the country. 

The difficulties encountered in the construction were very great. 
A port had to be established, with jetties, moorings, cranes, steam 
launch and lighters, and connected with the terminus by 
a short railway with a gradient of i in 50. Store sheds 
and workshops had to be built, labourers housed, nearly all 
the labour had to be imported from India, many subordinates 
obtained in India or locally were incapable or inebriates, those 
sent from England were satisfactory. The staff was new to the 
work, the language, and each other. No supplies were available 
in the country; even poles and thatch for coolie sheds had to be 
imported. Native raids necessitated military escort for the first 
survey parties. The construction involved an organisation 
equivalent to the maintenance of an army of 15,000 men in a 
practically waterless country devoid of resources, and of all means 
of animal or wheeled transport, with a base of operations to which 
everything had to be imported from a distant country. Large 
condensing plant was needed to supplement the water supply, and 
a com mill to grind the imported food. The line had to be 
constructed telescopically, and it was impossible to maintain 
working parties far in advance of railhead. Separate water trains 
had to be run, and locomotives had to take a heavy water tank to 
supplement the tender. Heavy temporary works were necessary 



UGANDA RAILWAY. 31 

to expedite the progress of railhead; 34^ miles of temporary 
diversions were needed for the first 300 miles ; amongst these being 
the Macupa Bridge and the Mazeras Viaduct, built in 91 and 
25 working days respectively. The ruling gradients on these 
diversions was i in 30, with curves 400 feet radius; these limited 
the power of the engines. On one temporary diversion the descent 
to the rift was made by four rope inclines with a maximum gradient 
of I in 2, making a total descent of 15,000 feet with a length of 
6000. The engineering strike in England delayed the supply of 
locomotives, rolling stock, and bridges. The first 250 miles were 
infested with tsetse fly, fatal to transport animals; nearly all of 
those imported died. Jiggers abounded, causing ulcers, which 
often necessitated amputation of one or more toes. Man-eating lions 
killed 28 of the Indian labourers, and caused a panic. Waves of 
fever passed over the coimtiy, and at one station 90 per cent, of a 
working party were doiwn with it. It was necessary to organise 
an agency in India for labour and materials, a postal service with 
regular mails, a force of 200 police, complete hospital staflF, a 
temporary telegraph beyond railhead; and a small steamer 
had to be carried piecemeal by porters to the lake. The 
viaducts over the deep ravines in the descent into the rift 
had to be constructed telescopically. The responsibility for 
the whole of this organisation rested on the chief engineer, and 
very great credit is due to him and his staff for the able manner 
in which these difficulties have been met. 



Mr. A. E. Welby and Mr. Wigham Richardson took part in the 
Discussion. 

The author replied, and on the motion of the Chairman a vote 
of thanks was accorded to him. 

Mr. A. Ë. Welby, at the Chairman's request, contributed some 
additional notes on the paper. 



Mii Alexander Ross, Vice-Chairman, in the Chair. 



THE ECONOMY OF ELECTRICITY AS A MOTIVE 
POWER ON RAILWAYS AT PRESENT DRIVEN BY 
STEAM. 

Paper by Professor C. A. Carus-Wilson, M.A. 



Abstract, 



The paper deals with the economic considerations which will 
probably govern the substitution of electricity for steam as a motive 
power on railways. 

Branch or cross country lines are the least profitable part 
of present railway systems, and in many cases the receipts 
barely cover expenses*. The competition of electric tram 
lines now being built throughout the country will still 
further accentuate the unremunerative character of branch 
lines. With steam traction it is necessary to make up long 
trains, so that on branch lines with little traffic the interval 
between trains is large and entails delay in making connections with 
main line stations. This infrequency of service causes unpunctuality, 
as the limited traffic does not warrant the employment of a staff 
adequate to cope rapidly with long trains heavily laden with pas- 
sengers and luggage, which come in at infrequent intervals. This 
need not necessarily be the case if the traffic were evenly distributed 
over the working day, as the existing staflF would be able to cope 
with a considerable increase of passenger traffic. By breaking up 
the train service on branch lines into smaller units moving more 
frequently, cross-country travel would be greatly facilitated. 

It is thereore necessary to ascertain upon what the cost of any 
increase of train service depends, so as to deduce the minimum 
traffic required to pay for it. To do this with steam railways, the 
running expenses, such as coal, drivers' and conductors' wages, etc., 
per train-mile, which vary with the number of trains run, mi^st be 
separated from the fixed expenses, such as maintenance of wa)', 
traffic expenses, etc., which do not so vary. 

The fixed expenses per train-mile, multiplied by the number of 
trains per day on any given line, will then give the contribution 
of that line per day-mile to the general fund for maintenance. This 
constitutes a fixed sum per day-mile which must be provided for 



ECONOMY OF ELECTRICITY AS A MOTIVE POWER 33 

under the new conditions, together with the increased running ex- 
penses. The traffic per day-mile must exceed this amount, plus 
a sum required to pay interest on the electric installation, before 
the line can be said to pay. 

An analysis of the Board of Trade returns* of the working 
expenses of the principal English railways for 1900 shows that the 
fixed expenses increase when the proportion of passenger traffic 
to goods traffic is increased. Thus, on the Midland Railway, where 
the passenger train-mileage is 40 per cent, of the whole, the fixed 
expenses are only 22.6 pence per train mile; whereas with the Great 
Western and Great Northern Railways, where the goods and pas- 
senger train-miles are equal, the fixed expenses vary from 23d. to 
25d. 

On the other hand the item of running expenses remains fairly 
constant for all the principal lines, despite the difference in \the 
proportion of passenger and goods traffic. Thus, the Midland 
Railway, with 60 per cent, of goods train-miles and 1.43 tons per 
train-mile, has the same running expenses as the Lancashire and 
Yorkshire Railway with 35 per cent of goods train-miles and 3.33 
tons per mile. An exception occurs in the case of the London and 
Brighton and South Eastern Railways owing to the high price they 
had to pay for coal last year. The analysis demonstrates that the 
running expenses do not rise above the average unless there is a 
very large proportion of heavy goods traffic. 

In comparing steam with electric traction, we may assume the 
case of a branch line with six steam trains each way per day. 
Taking the fixed and running expenses of a normal line like the 
Great Northern for the purpose of illustration, the running expenses 
will be 12 X ii.85d.= i42d., and the fixed expenses will be 
12 X 2i.38d. = 256d., per day-mile. If the line is to contribute to 
the general revenues a sum proportional to the trains run and to 
the average cost per train mile for the whole of the line, the 
receipts per day-mile must equal 398d. 

Instead of the steam train running every two hours we may sub- 
stitute an electric train, composed of motor-driven cars with ordinary 
carriages trailing, running every half-hour, but with a quarter of 
the seating accommodation. About 20 per cent, dead weight is 
saved by dispensing with the locomotive ; and, as the weight of the 
carriages is only a quarter, the new trains will weigh one-fifth of 
the old ones. This reduces the coal item in the running expenses 
to o.68d.,t and water, oil, etc., to o.i5d., as against 3.36d.t and 
0.7 7d. respectively for steam trains. The experience of the City 
and South London Railway shows that the cost of wages and 

*This Table is given in the Paper. 
+The price of coal is taken at 8s. per ton. 



34 ECONOMY OF ELECTRICITY AS A MOTIVE POWER. 

materials for repairs is halved, bringing these items down to 0.6 yd. 
and 0.5 2d. for electric railways. The simplicity of the electric 
equipment makes it possible to substitute one motor-man for the 
highly-paid driver and fireman; so that the item of wages on the 
locomotive is also halved. The electric motor car is ready to start at 
any time, and a larger proportion of actual working hours can be 
usefully employed; so that the men can put in about 50 per cent, 
more train-miles, thus reducing the wages item to 2.25d. To this 
must be added the wages of the men at the generating station, 
estimated at o.62d., or half the motor-man^s wages, thus making 
the wages per train-mile altogether 2.87d. The total cost per train- 
mile for running expenses for electric traction is therefore 4.89d., 
as against ii.85d. for steam traction. 

With electric traction the fixed expenses would be the same as 
with steam traction, but the running expenses would increase with 
the frequency of the service. In the case assumed, with trains every 
half-hour, or twenty-four each way per day, the running expenses 
would be 48 X 4.89d. = 24od., and the fixed expenses being as 
before, 256d., the total expenses per day-mile would come out at 
496d. In order to pay expenses the receipts would have to increase 
from 398d. to 496d. per day-mile, or about 25 per cent. This, 
however, would not pay the interest on the capital required for 
the electrical equipment. The generating station, rolling stock, 
and distributing system for a half-hour's service of 40-ton trains on 
a line 15 miles in length, would probably be about ^8000 per 
mile, which at 3^ per cent, interest would require additional receipts 
of i84d. per day-mile. The total increase of traffic required to 
pay all expenses and interest would therefore be about 70 per cent. 
Assuming that a fourfold increase in the number of trains per day 
were to double the traffic, the profits per day-mile would be los. ; 
if the traffic were trebled the profits would be 43s. 

The profits per day mile on the whole of the Great Northern 
system average 124s. ; so that the adoption of electricity on branch 
lines is worth considering as a means of making them contribute a 
more substantial proportion of the total profits than they do at 
present. 



Mr. Hurry Riches and Sir Douglas Fox took part in the Discus- 
sion. The author replied, and has also replied by correspondence. 

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
to the author. 

The meeting was then adjourned. 



WEDNESDAY, 4th SEPTEMBER, 1901. 



Mr. Alexander Ross, Vice-Chairman, in the Chair. 



"MODERN PRACTICE IN RAILWAY SIGNALLING." 

Paper by I. A. Timmis. 



Abstract 



The changes which steam effected when it came into use as an 
aid to more rapid movement of people and material on land and 
water, created an ever-increasing desire and want for more perfect 
and faster means for effecting that movement. And, now that 
another force of nature — electricity — has come to the aid of steam, 
the growth of railways has developed enormously, and the desire 
and necessity for intercommunication in all countries has not only 
increased, but must go on increasing; as a consequence, the 
engineers of railways are obliged to fit new signalling systems in 
order to deal with the larger stations, greater number of main lines 
and sidings, larger cabins, the increase in number of trains 
and higher speeds. It has become necessary to place the points 
and danger signals at a greater distance from the cabins. The 
result of these altered conditions is that some other power is required 
to take the place of manual. Three systems have been tried — 
hydraulic, pneumatic, and electric. 

Hydraulic. — The experience gained from signal work operated 
by this system proves that it cannot compete with the pneumatic 
and electric systems, and so- the author did not deem it advisable to 
take up time in describing it. 

Pneumatic. — There are two systems that use air: — 
I. The Westinghouse High Pressure. In the first installations 
that were fitted in the United States the signals and points were 
operated by the air conveyed through a main supply pipe- and its 
branches to a cylinder on each signal post and at each pair of 
points, and the air was admitted to the cylinders by hydraulic 
power, which was put into action at the signal cabin by the signal 
man moving a small lever. The hydraulic pressure acted on a 
valve, which admitted the air into the cylinder, and moved â piston. 
But a later development introduced an electric current as the 
controlling agent. The levers in the cabin are interlocked; when 
a signal lever is pulled over, an electric current is sent to an electro 



36 MODERN PRACTICE IN RAILWAY SIGNALLING. 

magnet on the signal post, which compresses a spring, closes the 
exhaust port, and opens the high pressure air admission valve. 
The piston in the cylinder then lowers the signal. When the 
electric current is interrupted the spring closes the valve, opens the 
exhaust, pushes back the armature, and the counter weight puts 
the signal to "danger." When a point lever is moved m either 
direction the operation of the points, in each direction, is practically 
as described for the signals. Thus there is a magnet controlling 
each end of the point cylinder with one slide valve. But there 
is a third magnet to lock the slide valve, and in addition it breaks 
and changes the electric circuit and sends an indication current 
back to the signal cabin when the points are over and locked, and 
this current operates an electro magnet in the cabin, which enables 
the signalman to lower the necessary signals. 

2. The Low Fressure Fneumatic. This system is altogether on 
different lines from the high pressure. The operating is effected 
by air at 15 lbs. pressure, and the controlling by air at half that 
pressure. 

To operate points the lever is pulled over half way, and is then 
stopped. The controlling current goes to the points and admits 
the higher pressure air into a cylinder, when the points are moved 
and locked, and a return indication is sent to the cabin, which 
releases the lever and completes its throw. The movement of 
the points and the locking bar and locking bolt are effected by a 
plate or fiat bar with grooves and studs in it. There are four 
pipes to work each signal — main supply, two controllers, and one 
return — and there are five pipes to a pair of points. 

Both the above systems can be fitted to work with a track 
circuit, but this involves the use of electricity, and adds consider- 
ably to complication of detail. 

Electric. — In the United States a system is fitted by the Union 
Switch and SignaJ Co., where the power is supplied from primary 
batteries, and each signal is lowered to " line clear " by a small 
motor geared 1000 to i. An electro magnet then holds the signal, 
and the motor is cut out. When the circuit is broken the signal 
goes to " danger " automatically. 

Another system, fitted by the Taylor Co., uses secondary 
batteries, and the signals are operated practically in the same way 
as just described. Points are also worked by motors geared 20 
to I to the driving wheel. The first quarter revolution of the 
wheel unlocks the points, and the last quarter locks them and 
closes the return indication circuit to the cabin, and reverses the 
connections for a reverse movement. Interlocking is effected in 
the cabins in the lever frame. 

In this country the first practical system fitted was on the 
Liverpool Overhead Railway. This is an automatic system, and 



MODERN PRACTICE IN RAILWAY SIGNALLING. 37 

of course only works the signals. A full description is in 
" Engineering " of February loth, 1893. As a train leaves a 
station it puts the starting signal to danger by means of a striking 
bar fitted to the rear vehicle operating a breaking contact; and 
when the train is a suitable distance ahead of the signal the same 
bar operates a making contact which closes a cuircuit. This 
circuit is completed by the signal just passed being at " danger," 
and then the signals in the rear block are lowered automatically 
to " line clear." The train goes on to the " home signal " at the 
next station, and puts it to " danger." There is thus always at 
least one signal at " danger " in the rear of a train, and no vehicle 
can be left on the line if the signals are lowered in a block. An 
electro magnet of the " long pull " type operates each signal with 
some 250 watts, and the current strength is automatically reduced 
to one-tenth as the signal is lowered. The points are electrically 
interlocked with the signals on both lines at the cross-over roads, 
and in addition they are mechanically locked. After the author 
had fitted the signal work on the Liverpool Overhead Railway, he 
fitted a small but complete installation, not automatic, on the 
Western Railway of France, by which the signals and points are 
all worked by electro magnets, and the points are all locked and 
repeating. The Western Railway of France have adopted that 
system. Since then he fitted another automatic system on the 
small circular railway, two miles in length, in the Paris Exhibition 
of 1900, practically on the same lines as that on the Liverpool 
Overhead Railway, but the signal arms and magnets, and resistance 
and contacts, are all small and light, and encased so as to avoid the 
action of wind and weather. 

The paper discusses the important non-automatic installation — the 
"Crewe system" — at Crewe, where some 1200 levers are being 
fitted, and nearly one-half are finished or well in hand. The 
signals are fitted in principle similarly to those on the Liverpool 
Overhead Railway, except that a counter weight has been 
attached. E'ach pair of trailing points is operated by a 
pair of magnets, but the facing points are operated and locked by 
an electric motor designed and made at Crewe, which, by the aid 
of worm gearing, completes the work. The first part of the travel 
of the gearing unlocks by half the throw of one rod; then the 
other rod moves the points over by a complete throw; and then 
the other rod, by the completion of its throw, locks the points 
again, and sends a return indication current to the cabin, which 
enables the signalman to complete the movement of his lever, 
and at the same time the selector rod at the points determines 
what signals can be lowered. Unless the points are locked, no 
signals can be lowered. 

The 300 lever cabin now being fitted will have only about 150 



/ 



38 MODERN PRACTICE IN RAILWAY SIGNALLING. 

cables of f-inch diameter, from the cabin, each cable holding 
several leads. But if the low pressure pneumatic system were to 
be fitted to do the same work, it would require 1200 tubes from 
the cabin. This is a condition which is of very serious moment, 
and is an important factor in favour of electricity. 

The final system to be considered is also entirely electrical, and 
embraces a track circuit. It is necessary to describe it, because 
there can be no question that in the near future all lines of railway 
heavily charged with passengers and goods, mixed traffic, including 
fast expresses, must have a track circuit fitted; and there is also 
no doubt that the initial difficulties which were met with in the 
earlier attempts have been sufficiently overcome to render it a 
certainty. 

In this system, as in other systems, the levers in the cabin are, 
of course, mechanically interlocked. The signals are worked 
with the same magnets and gearing, only more powerful than on 
the Liverpool Overhead Railway. The points are operated and 
locked by a pair of electro magnets with a 7-inch throw, and the 
final travel of the magnets is softened in its force by an air cushion. 
At the same time a return current is sent to the cabin lever, which 
completes the throw of the lever and advises that the pK)ints 
are locked. When the signal is lowered the circuit is completed 
in the lever frame, and the lever is held in the forward position 
by a small electro magnet, and when the current is broken the 
lever goes automatically to the back position. Thus the signal- 
man knows what is done. This arrangement enables a track 
circuit to be fitted economically. This circuit has a small battery 
in Qach block operating a small magnet, which, when energised, 
completes the main circuit. 

It should be stated here that, if electric leads for such low 
potentials as not over 200 volts are properly fitted, it is absolutely 
impossible for any circuit to go wrong. There is no force of 
nature so constant, so easilv taken from place to place, or so 
Instant in its action as electricity. 



The Chairman, Sir Douglas Fox, Mr. F. W. Webb, and Mr. W. B. 
Worthington took part in the Discussion. The author replied to 
their remarks, and also' replied to the Discussion by correspondence. 

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
to the author. 



Sir Benjamin Baker, K.C.M.G., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., in the Chair. 

SUDAN GOVERNMENT MILITARY RAILWAYS. 
Paper by Major C. B. Macauley, R.E. 



Abstract. 



The Sudan Government Military Railways consist of two branches, 
which start from Wadi Haifa and pass through different kinds of 
country. One branch goes in a south-easterly direction to Khar- 
toum, 576 miles by rail; and the other branch goes in a southerly 
direction to Kerma, in the Dongola province, a distance of 203 
miles by rail. 

The railway was laid primarily to supply an army in the field) 
and, partly as a consequence of this, nearly 50 per cent, of it is laid 
in desert. This necessitates that every train leaving one terminus 
foj: another shall take five special tank trucks to carry the 9500 
gallons of water which are necessary for crossing the waterless 
desert. 

The Khartoum Branch. 

This leaves Wadi Haifa and goes through the Nubian Desert — 
a flat, waterless, sandy desert with hardly any vegetation — to Abu 
Hamed (230 miles). This section, on which there are nine stations 
for crossing trains, is so flat that it contains a piece of line 45 miles 
long without a curve, cutting, or embankment. Water was found at 
two places, by sinking wells, at depths of 72 feet and 96 feet. 
At a point 126 miles from Wadi Haifa there are small shops and 
an engine pit, and at Abu Hamed (230 miles) there is a running 
shed and workshop. From this last station to Shereikh (292 miles) 
the line follows the river, the country being less flat, and then 
makes a detour into the desert to avoid rocky country. At Abadia 
(340 miles), where there are shops and engine pits, the line again 
approaches the river. 

From Abadia to Berber (362 miles) — the most important place 
on the line between the termini — and from Berber to the Atbara 
River (385 miles) the line runs across flat plain covered with scrub, 
it crosses the river by a seven-span bridge, 1050 feet long, con- 
sisting of girders resting on pairs of cylinders sunk into the river 
bed upon rock foundations. From this point the line approximately 
follows the Nile through flat plain and scrub, avoiding rocky country, 
which begins about 3 or 4 miles away from the river. This section, 
intersected by numerous watercourses, is liable to being flooded in 



40 SUDAN GOVERNMENT MILITARY RAILWAYS. 

the rainy season; and it is often washed away in places owing to 
the few bridges and culverts which exist at present. It was impos- 
sible to build these at the time owing to the rate (2000 to 2800 
yards per day, with a maximum of 5100 yards in one day) at which 
the line was built. This is now being remedied as quickly as 
possible. Owing to the presence of the white ant, steel sleepers 
are necessary on this part of the line. 

Between the Atbara and Wad Ben Naga (496 miles) there are 
five stations, the one at Shendi (471 miles) being of importance, 
as it contains workshops, engine pit, coal and general stores. There 
are many villages along the river banks, and a considerable amount 
of cultivation in the country traversed by this section of the line. 

From Wad Ben Naga to Wad Ramleh (545 miles) the line again 
traverses desert, and from Wad Ramleh it runs parallel with the 
Nile, across a flat plain containing several large villages, till it 
reaches Halfaya station, the terminus (576 miles), which is situated 
opposite Khartoum on the Blue Nile. 

The steepest gradient on this branch is i in 120. The heaviest 
pull on the line is from Wadi Haifa to No. 5 station (103 miles), 
a difference in level of 1564 feet, and practically up-hill all the 
way. And from the latter station to Abu Hamed (230 miles) the 
line falls 810 feet*, after which there are no very long gradients. 
The usual curves on this branch are 2865 feet radius, the sharpest 
being 955 feet. 

The Kerma Branch. 

The line follows the river as far as Sarras (33 miles). For the 
first five miles it crosses a flat, sandy plain to the second cataract, 
and from there it passes through rocky country. The cuttings 
(some 40 feet deep through rock) and embankments on this section 
are the largest on the lines. The gradients are numerous and as 
steep as i in 60; and the curves are numerous and as sharp as 
500 feet radius. There are 24 bridges on this section, mostly iron- 
plate girders with stone abutments. The largest is 100 feet long, 
in three spans. This section, built years ago, could not have been 
constructed in the hurry of an expedition, as the work is generally 
far heavier than on any other part of the lines. 

At Sarras the line winds in and out of rocky hills, chiefly following 
dry watercourses to Akasheh (86 miles). Between these two points 
there are two stations for crossing trains, the latter — at Ambigole 
wells (64 miles) — containing a good and constant water supply. 
From Akasheh to Ferket (99 miles) the country is so rocky that, 
to avoid cuttings, the railway winds in and out in a most extra- 
ordinary manner. This part of the line is liable to being washed 
away ; but owing to the great expense of laying a safer line it was 
considered better to take the present risk. 



SUDAN GOVERNMENT MILITARY RAILWAYS. 41 

From Ferket to Kosheh-(io5 miles) the line runs along the river, 
the banks of which are well cultivated. At Kosheh, which has a 
small running shed, the river makes a large bend, and the railway 
leaves it to go across a fairly flat desert to Dalgo (174 miles). 
There are two crossing stations and one 200-foot bridge on this 
section. From Dalgo the line follows the river for 10 miles and 
then crosses the river to.Kerma (203 miles), the terminus, where 
there is a running shed and workshop. Kerma, the starting place 
for steamers to Dongola, is a large village with a considerable traffic 
in dates, grain, and ostrich feathers. 

Details of the Khartoum and Kerma Branches. 

The gauge of both branches is 3 feet 6 inches. Vignoles rails 
are used, varying from 36 to 50 lbs. The older sections, especially 
the Kerma branch, have the lighter rail. Creosoted and uncreo- 
soted wood sleepers, and 81 -lb. steel sleepers, are used. The rails 
are fastened to the wooden sleepers by spikes, without bearing 
plates, and to the steel sleepers by keys. On the Khartoum branch 
the line is only ballasted in a few places ; but this will be remedied 
later. Very few bridges exist at present, but more are being 
built. The type adopted, with the exception of the Atbara bridge, 
consists of steel plate girders in 50 and 30-foot lengths, with rails 
laid on the top booms. The culverts consist of 2-foot cast-iron 
pipes set in masonry, with an apron on the down-stream side to 
prevent scouring away the foot of the bank. 

The stations on both branches are rather primitive ; but at Hal- 
fanya, Shendi, and Haifa there are proper stone buildings. On the 
Khartoum branch there are 19 crossing, 11 watering, and 15 coaling 
places for trains, and 6 places with triangles — ^no turntables being 
used. On the Kerma branch engines can water at 6 points, and 
there is a reserve of coal at every station. There are triangles at 
3 points. The main workshops are at Wadi Haifa. These com- 
prise a running shed holding 12 engines, an erecting shop, a smith's 
shop, a machine shop with lathes and other appliances driven by 
a 45 H.P. horizontal compound engine, a brass and iron foundry, 
a boiler yard, carpenter's shop with circular saws and other ap- 
pliances, and also two carriage repairing shops. 

Owing to the light rails and bridges on the older sections of the 
Kerma branch only one class of engine — a four-wheeled, coupled, 
30-ton tank engine, drivers 3 feet 9 inches, outside cylinders 14 
inches by 20 inches — ^is used. The engines on the Khartoum branch 
are heavier, some of them weighing 50 tons. There are seven 
types of engines in use due to the rapidity with which they had to 
be procured. Some are eight, some six, and some four-wheel 
coupled ; the drivers vary from 3 feet 3 inches to 5 feet in diameter ; 
all have outside cylinders, of various dimensions. The passenger 

5 



42 SUDAN GOVERNMENT MILITARY RAILWAYS. 

Stock is of the Indian type; but two trains-de-luxe, with sleeping 
and dining cars, and some spare cars are now being bought.. The 
goods stock consists of high- and low-sided lo-ton trucks, of 14-ton 
and 12-ton covered trucks, and of brake vans, all with double bogies. 
There are also some four-wheeled, 5-ton trucks, brake vans, high- 
sided trucks, and cattle trucks. 

The line is worked on the absolute block system, telephones 
being used. There are no safety appliances, such as facing-point 
locks, etc. ; but the question of providing these is being considered. 
The ordinary train service to Khartoum consists of two fast trains 
weekly each way — connecting with the two principal mails from 
north and to north — and one slow train daily each way. The latter 
is a goods train and carries south Government supplies, stores, 
building materials. It brings back gum, ivory, senna, ostrich 
feathers, and grain, and also carries passengers. The service to 
Kerma consists of two mail trains each way weekly, connecting as 
above with the Eiuropean mails, and about three or four other trains 
weekly each way. A good deal of grain is brought from Kerma 
for the army at Khsitoum. Most of the stores are kept at 
Wadi Haifa, and owing to the cost of transport they are very dear. 
Coal, which costs about jQ^ per ton, is stacked in the open. 

One of the greatest difficulties experienced on these lines is the 
abnormal wear and tear caused by sand. Unskilled labour is 
plentiful, but indifferent. Skilled laboiu: is scarce; and, being 
imported at present, it is consequently dear. The natives, however, 
show a desire to learn trades, and fifty apprentices are now employed 
in the workshops at Wadi Haifa. The lines cannot be considered 
as finished, but it is estimated that they will be completed in the 
course of a year or so.* 



The Chairman, Sir Guildford Molesworth, and Sir Douglas Fox 
took part in the Discussion;. but there was no reply as the author 
was ait Khartoum. 

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
to the author. 



* The Report was written during midsummei, 1901. 



Mr. B. Hall Blyth, M.A., Vice-Chairman, in the Chair. 



" AUSTRALIAN RAILWAYS." 
Paper by Professor W. C. Kernot. 



Abstract, 



Australia, is about 2500 miles long by 2000 broad. Its climate 
is temperate in the south and tropical in the north. It produces 
wool, wheat, horses, cattle, sheep, dairy produce, sugar, coal, gold, 
and other metals. Population, 3,800,000 at present, and is 
. steadily increasing. Divided into five states, which, with the 

adjoining island of Tasmania, are united to form the Common- 
wealth of Australia. 

A coast range runs round most of its perimeter. Outside this 
io a comparatively narrow strip of usually fertile country, with 
good rainfall and short, swift rivers, navigable only near their 
mouths. Inside is a vast shallow basin, with small rainfall, often 
arid surface, and long, tortuous rivers, precariously navigable, 
which in some cases ultimately reach the sea, but in many others 
lose themselves in swamps. This inland basin is useful for 
pastoral purposes in the eastern portions, but in the western is a 
nearly valueless desert, which, however, has important towns in 
it at places where gold abounds. 

Railway making commenced at Sydney and Melbourne, the two 
largest cities (now possessing about 500,000 inhabitants each), soon 
after 1850. Melbourne, together with some other parts, acting 
under advice, r.dopted the 5 feet 3 in., or Irish, gauge. Sydney,, 
after having agreed to 5 feet 3 inches, went back to 4 feet 8^ inches. 
Queensland somewhat later adopted 3 feet 6 inches; so did 
Tasmania and Western Australia. Thus a most unfortunate con- 
fusion of gauges has come into existence. 

There aie now 12,554 miles of State railways in Australia, of 
which 3725 are 5 feet 3 inches; 281 1, 4 feet %\ inches; 5970, 3 feet 
6 inches; and 48 miles, 2 feet 6 inches, as well as about 1000 
miles of private line, mostly 3 feet 6 inches. 

GRADES. 

In crossing the coast range and its spurs severe grades and high 
summit levels occur. The western line of New South Wales rises 
3300 feet in 30 miles, requiring long continuous grades of i in 33, 
and in one case nearly two miles of i in 30. The northern line of 



44 AUSTRALIAN RAILWAYS. 

Victoria rises 1880 feet in 42 miles, having long grades of i in 50. 
The line from Adelaide to Brisbane, via Melbourne and Sydney, 
crosses the coast range six times, and reaches a sunmiit level of 
4473 ^eet. Of its total length of 1783 miles, 134 are above 3000,^ 
409 above 2000, and nearly 800 above 1000 feet — grades ascending 
and descending 1000 feet in 10 to 12 miles, and having inclinations 
of I in 50, I in 40, and even in one instance i in 30 occur. 

Grades have in some cases been recently improved, but this 
cannot be done where they are continuous for many miles, as is 
the case at some of the most difficult parts. 

CURVES. 

In Victoria 40 chain curves are usual on main lines, but in New 
South Wales and South Australia ciures as sharp as 12 and even 
10 chains occur at mountainous parts. On the 3 feet 6 inches 
gauge 5 chain curves are usual. 

PERMANENT WAY. 

The double-headed rail originally used has for many years been 
given up, and a steel rail of Vignoles pattern substituted. 100 lbs. 
per yard is standard for busy suburban; 80 for main lines; and 
60 for branch lines are common on the wider gauges. 

The lines are well made, with good storm ballast and hea\7 
eucalyptus sleepers. Accidents from derailment are rare. 

STRUCTURES. 

In the eastern colonies large use is made of the local timber 
for bridges, culverts, and viaducts, but there are many fine iron 
and steel bridges over the larger rivers. The Hawkesbury Bridge 
in New South Wales, the Albert Bridge in Queensland, and the 
Mowabool and Melton Viaducts and Echuca Bridge in Victoria 
are noteworthy. 

Timnels are not numerous. New South Wales possesses the 
greatest number and length. Tunnels are always substantially 
lined, and give but little trouble. 

Stations usually of English type. Permanent stations are not 
yet built in Melbourne or Sydney, but are about to be constructed. 
Signalling appliances of English type. Interlocking points and 
signals usual at important stations and junctions. 

LOCOMOTIVES. 

Owing to severity of grades and character of traffic, power is 
required rather than speed; hence small wheels and coupling are 
general. The Victoria standard engines are four or six coupled 
with inside cylinders. Those of New South Wales, four, six' 
or eight, coupled with outside cylinders and leading bogie. ' Six 
coupled engine» ,>f ^,6 tons, not including the tender, and indicating 



AUSTRALIAN RAILWAYS. 45 

over looo horse power, are used for express trains on the heavy 
grades. On the 3 feet 6 inches lines outside cylinder engines, 
with small wheels, from six to eight coupled, are general. 
American engines are used to some extent, especially on sharp 
curves; but English, or locally made engines of English type, are 
usually preferred as being more economical in point of fuel con- 
sumption and repairs. The Westinghouse brake is general. One 
private line in Tasmania uses the Abt rack on a i in 16 grade, the 
gauge being 3 feet 6 inches. 

PASSENGER CARRIAGES. 

Usually of European type, with steel under-frames and four or 
six wheeled bogies. The later ones on the broader gauges have 
a corridor* at one side, lavatories and sanitary conveniences, and are 
lit with Pintsch gas. Sleeping cars of the Pullman type are used 
in New South Wales, and of the Mann type between Melbourne 
and Adelaide. 

GOODS STOCK. 

U.sually of English type on four wheels, but occasionally double 
bogie vehicles are seen. Special wagons for carrying sheep, cattle, 
frozen meat, and dairy produce are used. The Westinghouse brake 
is usually fitted. 

SUBURBAN RAILWAYS. 

The largest suburban system is at Melbourne. The principal 
station has 500 trains in and the same number out each day. The 
accommodation is good, and the fares very low, is 4^d first-class 
return to a point 11 miles from town, and one shilling first-class 
leturn to one 9 miles out being representative fares. In one special 
case the charges for 9 miles are only 4^6 first return and 3d second, 

ADMINISTRATION. 

Australian railways are usually made and worked by the State. 
The system is generally approved, in spite of certain dangers and 
mistakes in the past. Each system has a Commissioner, or Board 
of Commissioners at its head. The Commissioners axe permanent 
officials of very high standing. 

The average cost per mile of Australian Railways up to date, and 

percentage of net revenue to capital, is as follows : — 

Percentage 





Cost per mile. 


nett revenue. 


Victoria 


••• ;£i2,300 


3.07 


New South Wales... 


13,700 


363 


South Australia 


7,500 


3.90 


Queensland... 


6,900 


2.67 


West Australia 


5,000 • 


5.81 


Tasmania ... . ; . 


8,200 


I. II 



46 AUSTRALIAN RAILWAYS. 

In conclusion, Australian railways, despite minor defects, are 
substantial, safe, and efficient, and of immense value to the com- 
munities they serve. 



The Chairman took part in the Discussion; but as the author 
was in Australia he was unable to reply. 

On the motion of the Qiairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
to the author. 

The meeting was then adjourned. 



THURSDAY, 5th SBPTEMBER, 1901. 



Mr. John Strain, Vice-Chairman, in the Chair. 



THE PROPOSED TUNNEL BETWEEN SCOTLAND 

AND IRELAND." 

Paper by James Barton, 



Abstract. 



The important national and local advantages of a tunnel between 
Great Britain and Ireland axe not discussed in this paper, which 
deals only with the engineering questions involved. 

selection of site. 

The first question considered is the selection of a site for the 
tunnel. Three positions suggest themselves. First, the nearest 
approach of Great Britain to Ireland is at the Mull of Cantyre, 
where the distance to the Co. Antrim is 12^ miles. The next 
position in point of distance is from Wigtownshire, where the Scotch 
coast comes within 21 to 25 miles of Ireland. The third position 
is from Holyhead to Howth. 

The maximum depth of water on the Cantyre route is 460 feet; 
on the Wigtownshire route the depth varies according to the line 
selected, and is from 480 to 900 feet; and the greatest depth on 
the Holyhead route is 432 feet. 

The strata of the Cantyre route are lower Silurian; on the 
Wigtownshire route to Antrim, Silurian for the most part, but over- 
laid near the Irish coast by new red sandstone and the Kèuper 
marls; between Wigtownshire and the Co. Down, lower Silurian 
throughout ; from North Wales to Dublin would be in the Cambrian 
rocks* 

The first of these positions has to be abandoned on account of 
its not forming a practically useful connection. 

The second forms a direct line between Carlisle and Belfast, 
the business centre of Ireland, and gives the best route from 
Scotland to all Ireland, and for the North of England to Ireland. 

The third route would connect London best with Dublin, but 
would be of little use as between Scotland and Ireland, and being 
more than double the length of the second route, it has to be 
abandoned, and the second route adopted for the present project. 



48 PROPOSED TUNNEL BETWEEN SCOTLAND AND IRELAND. 

LOCATION. 

On the second route two lines aie considered — one from Port- 
patrick, Wigtownshire, to- Donaghadee, Co. Down; the other from 
near Corsewall Light to the Co. Antrim, with a curve in the centre to 
pass round the north end of the Beaufort Dyke, a deep valley or 
gorge in the bottom of the sea, which runs for 30 miles north and 
south seven miles from the Scotch coast. The channel bed north 
of this Dyke is comparatively level. 

A tunnel under Beaufort Dyke would involve very serious diffi- 
culties and probably dangers. 

descript:on of the line. 

The tunnel line adopted begins at the Stranraer Railway Station, 
and passing north, enters the tunnel at five miles, and, descending i 
ir» 75, passes under the shore line at the Ebbstone Beacon at nine 
miles; it passes round a curve of a mile radius at the head of 
Beaufort Dyke at 16 miles, and reaches the shore line at Island 
Magee, Co. Antrim, at 34 miles, rising i in 75 from the deep 
water, and passing out of the tunnel at 39^ miles, it joins the 
Belfast and Northern Counties Railway at 41 miles, and runs 10^ 
miles along it into the terminus at Belfast, 

Total length, Stranraer to Belfast, 51 J miles, of which 34^ is 
tunnel> and 25 of this under the sea. 

To provide suitable drainage the line falls each way from the 
centre, and drainage headings have to be run to the shafts at 
each side, where pumping stations would be placed. 

Subsidiary shafts are proposed at a short distance inland, and 
would in connection with the main shafts enable specially accurate 
lines to be given for the tunnel. 

geological. 

The geological formations have been reported on by Professor 
Hull, late director of the Geological Government Survey of Ireland, 
and his views of the strata to be met with are indicated on the 
diagraan section accompanying the paper. His views were con- 
firmed my the late Mr. Topley, of the Geological Survey of London. 

The top of the tunnel is proposed to be placed 150 feet below 
sea bottom, and the tunnel is to be for a double line. 

The principal operation, and that which controls the time of 
execution of the whole work, is the heading. 

The heading proposed is ib feet wide by 7 feet high. The 
heading through the Silurian, should probably be as rapid as those 
now being made in the SLmplon Tunnel ; those in the Keuper marls 
more rapid ; and the whole heading can, it is believed, be completed 
under 10 years, and the finished tunnel between 11 and 12 years. 

Improvements in rock drilling in the Alpine Tunnels have been 



PROPOSED TUNNEL BETWEEN SCOTLAND AND IRELAND. 49 

remarkable of late years; the maximum speeds of Alpine tumiels 
are as follows : — 

Cost of Tunnel 
per yard complete. 

Mont Cenis, maximum speed per day, 6 yds ;£224 

St. Gothard, maximum speed per day, lo yds.... ;Êi42 
Arlberg, maximum speed per day, 12 yds jQ^^I 

The Simplon heading has so far been faster than the Arlberg, and 
in a very hard rock (specimens of the rock were submitted with the 
paper); specimens of the rock for the proposed tunnel were also 
submitted, showing the silurian, sandstone, and Keuper maxl. 

THE WATER QUESTION. 

The amount of water to be dealt with is the one uncertainty, 
though there are grounds for believing it is not likely to be a very 
serious difficulty. The Severn and Mersey tunnels encountered 
no serious water leakage under the sea, the great leak of the Severn 
Tunnel being from fresh water and a quarter of a mile from the 
sea. Judging from these tunnels, and a tunnel driven under the 
Forth by Sir Benjamin Baker, there seems good ground for believ- 
ing that the sea bed under the Irish Channel has probably sealed 
all interstices, so that excavation may be expected to be fairly dry. 
Silurian rocks are found in beds nearly vertical, which have been 
under heavy horizontal pressure, and will probably give little water 
either in the under sea or approach tunnels; the Keuper marls 
under the Irish side are remarkably suited to an under water 
tunnel, being perfectly water-tight where examined down to 900 
feet. 

The new red sandstone which lies between the marl and silurian 
allows water to percolate, but is not likely to give large quantity; 
150 feet of cover between tunnel and sea bed will, it is expected, 
make all safe. 

The working of the line from Stranraer to Belfast is proposed to 
be by electric motors from installations near the main shafts, one 
at each side of the channel; and it is intended that tradns be run 
at a speed of 60 to 70 miles per hour, so that the time of tunnel 
would be a little over half an hour, and the whole distance 
traversed (Stranraer to Belfast) under an hour. 

VENTILATION. 

The ventilation of the tunnel is rendered easy by the use of 
electric power; a current of fresh air would be sent in by a fan 
at one end, and drawn out at the other, probably upon the 
Saccardo system successfully used in Italy. 

ESTIMATE. 

The cost of the tunnel is estimated by the engineers and by a 



60 PROPOSED TUNNEL BETWEEN SCOTLAND AND IRELAND. 

contractor at lo millions, exclusive of interest during construction, 
and this leaves a considerable margin for contingencies. The 
finance of the project is the present difficulty, the prospect as a 
speculation not being sufficiently good. 

The subject has been brought before the Government as an 
Imperial one, and a small guarantee asked. Mr. Balfour ex- 
pressed himself desirous of seeing the project carried out, and was 
willing, if the amount of capital could be definitely fixed, to bring 
the subject before his colleagues. Until a heading has been run 
from the Irish side past the junction between the sandstone and 
Silurian, no contractor is willing to undertake the tunnel at a fixed 
sum; to do this, however, would probably not cost more than half 
a million, and a heading through the whole 34 miles is estimated 
at 2 J millions. * 



The following members took part in the discussion : — Mr. Jas. 
Mansergh, Mr. F. W. M'Cullough, Mr. Leonard M. Bell, Sir 
Douglas Fox, Professor C. A. Carus-Wilson, and the Chairman. 

The author replied to their remarks, and on the motion of the 
Chairman was accorded a vote of thanks. 



"CHEAPER RAILWAY FARES." 
Paper by Horace Bell, 



Abstract. 



On no. subject is opinion so frequently and strongly expressed, both 
in private and in public, as on the need for cheaper railway faxes.. 
It cannot be contended that this is mere British grumbling, since, 
if it means anything at all, it implies that, on existing conditions, 
the mass of the people cannot afford to travel as often as th^y 
would do on more reasonable terms, or, in other words, on terms 
more suited to their means. The question is one mainly of third- 
class fares, for it is from this source that quite 90 per cent, of 
passenger receipts are derived at the present day. The second 
class must be regarded as a moribund institution, while the first 
class is on most lines unremunerative, and is maintained, in great 
measure, as a politic concessioii to a small but influential body uf 
customers. The movement in the direction of one class is alreadv 
well defined. Its complete success, coupled with low fares, on 
tramways, on omnibus routes, and lately on the Central London 
Railway, affords unmistakable signs of what we are coming to in 
the near future, in serving nine-tenths of the travelling publ'C. 
Yet, in spite of these and other obvious indications of change, 
our home railways still adhere stubbornly to the " parliamentary " 
minimum fare of one penny per mile for all but cheap trips and 
^* week-end " excursions, and apparently disregard the broad hint 
which the profitable results of these deviations from the standard 
charge afford, viz., that by reducing the ordinary fare to, say, a 
halfpenny per mile, they would probably, if not certainly, get three 
persons to travel where they now get but one. They appear ro 
consider the penny a rpile as " bed-rock," and that any departure 
from it is to be regarded more as a benevolent concession, or 
hazardous, if not reckless, transaction, than as sound and lucrative 
business. At the time that the " parliamentary " fare was 
established, now more than fifty years ago, it was vehemently 
opposed, . and mainly on the ground, then largely prevalent, that 
the " cost of conveyance " was a fixed figure. It was not then 
seen, as it is now, that, far from being fixed, the cost of moving 
passengers, or hauling goods, varies up or down with the volume 
of traffic dealt with. Every tyro in railway policy now knows as 
the alphabet of his business that if it costs, say, x to move 100 
passengers, it does not cost ^x to move 500. The penny a mile 



52 CHEAPER RAILWAY FARES. 

has long since been found to spell anything but ruin. No railway 
manager would for a moment think of increasing it. But how 
many of them can see the mine of wealth which lies waiting for 
those who will materially reduce it? 

The absence of systematic and detailed statistics for the railways 
in the United Kingdom in a large degree accounts for the timidity, 
or we may call it conservatism of their management. There are 
probably but few of our railway managers who are in a position 
to unhesitatingly quote the prime cost of moving a passenger or 
a ton of goods, as derived from the operations of any single year, 
or could do more than gue>s at the cost of nmning expenses per 
train mile; while the outlav per passenger-mile or per ton-milc, 
which would include charges shown separately for each depait- 
ment, would be to him no more than as a dream of perfection, or 
perhaps as a nightmare of embarrassment. Yet, if we turn Lo 
the statistics annually oflFered for the American railways, or, better 
still, for the Indian railways, we find that for each system, under 
separate administration, there ^ an invaluable review of its yearly 
operations, in every detail, and for each department, and in a form 
so clear as to render the results on any one line readily comparable 
with those ot another. It is due in great measure to these statistics 
that the rates and fares on Indian railways are probably the lowest 
in the world, and at the same time eminently profitable. Taking 
as an instance the East Indian Railway, the figures for 1899 show 
that in this year the line carried a totad of iSf million passengers, 
of which 17 millions were of the third or lowest class; that the 
average number of passengers in a train of all classes was 228 ; 
the average distance travelled was 61 miles; the cost of hauling 
one passenger one mile was one-eighteenth of a penny, and the fare 
charged one fifth of a penny per mile — all debits included. Now, 
it may be readily allowed, in comparing the fixed charges (for 
operation only), and the running charges on this line, with those of 
some of our leading English lines, that the East Indian has ;5ome 
points in its favour; but these, after all, are as nothing in face of 
the fact that if the average income of the third-class passenger 
in England is taken, say, at ^15 a month, that of the same class 
in India may be taken, and liberally, at no more than 15 shillings; 
that is to say, that in order to induce any passenger traffic at all. 
and one that was worth considering, the Indian railways have had 
to come down to rates which the English railway manag.er would 
have imagined impossible. They have found, however, that i)y 
moving very large numbers at very low fares, the result is most 
profitable, and, in face of such figures as are given above, it is but 
reasonable to ask whether the penny a mile must be continued as 
the standard fare in the United Kingdom, i.e., for ordinary journeys. 
The reply might be that the penny pays, and that any materially 



CHEAPER RAILWAY FARES. 53 

lower fare may not. Yet against this we have the fact that fares 
approximating to a halfpenny a mile, or indeed less, on the Central 
London, the District Railway, and the Glasgow Tramways, are, 
with large numbers, not only possible in a fiscal sense, but that, 
in the face of keen competition, it is the only way of getting the 
traffic. From such facts it seems fair to expect that if the half- 
penny a mile was adopted generally on English railways, for all 
journeys, instead of the penny, thousands, or rather millions, would 
largely increase the number of their railway journeys, and that, 
moreover, an entirely new stratum of travellers would be reached. 
It is further to be remembered that a development of passenger 
traffic is now well understood to bring with it a corresponding im- 
provement in goods traffic. 

It is not overlooked that the settlement of this question is no 
small matter, for it must be tested fairly, and on a sufficiently large 
scale, while the experiment may, or perhaps must, involve a con- 
siderable expenditure on additional rolling stock for at least main 
lines. The area on which the experiment would seem at Srst 
most likely to prove successful is on the railways serving the sea- 
board round London. There lies a field for the enterprising; 
manager such as exists nowhere else in the world — a city of, let lis 
say, five millions of sea-loving people at one end, and the sea .at 
the other. Yet there we find, at any rate for the third class 
passenger, a poor and unpunctual service; a class of rolling stock 
which, until quite lately, was almost the worst in the country; and 
fares which, to the bulk of the people, make a visit to the seaside 
a rare luxury, while it should, and could, be the commonest holiday 
jaunt for the Londoner. With fares reduced to a halfpenny a mile, 
with a fast direct ser\dce, and with ordinarily decent carriages, 
thousands upon thousands of people, who now perhaps go down 
to the sea once in the year, would come to regard such a trip with 
but little more hesitation than those who now fill the Pullman 
cars to Brighton and elsewhere. What can be more obviously 
prohibitive to the great lower and lower middle class than îhe 
present ordinary return third class fares to Brighton (8s 5d), lo 
Dover (12s iid), to Margate (12s 4d), or Hastings (los id)-— all 
at the inevitable penny a mile, and none of the places much more 
than 70 miles from London. At a halfpenny rate, and with an 
ample service of quick through trains, the present passenger traffic 
could probably be quadrupled, more especially if facilities for 
through booking were arranged with the District Railway; indeed, 
it is more than likely that it would pay to make entirely new direct 
lines, electric possibly, for no other purpose than to serve a through 
passenger traffic between London and the sea coast. But for 
the railways round London, at least, the halfpenny fare need not be 
confined to seaside traffic. It would effect a great development 



54 CHEAPER RAILWAY FARES. 

of suburban traffic, more especially on the shorter distances, and 
induce a far greater movement of the rural population to and from 
towns and villages from distances of 50 to 60 miles from the 
metropolis, a movement which is now inconsiderable, and whi'".h 
would well repay better attention on the part of railway men. 

Conservatism appears to be the key-note of the policy of our 
railway companies. They seem to say — " Our officials and oui 
work-people get their pay, the board gets its fees, and the share- 
holders their moderately good dividend. What more do you 
want ?" The " more " that is wanted is some attention to the 
claims of the British public, more regard for the interests of the 
shareholders, some attempt to shake off old-fashioned ideas, and 
to strike out in new directions. In any such attempts they should 
recollect that every small advantage which the third-class passenger 
now has, as compared with his position 50 years ago, has been 
simply wrung from the companies against their vehement opposi- 
tion, and yet not one of these would now think for a moment of 
returning to the old regime. The " parliamentary " train was dis- 
couraged by making it almost impossible for the third-claas 
passenger to effect any long journey in daylight, even although he 
was expected to start at cock-crow, and was made to get out and 
wait at junctions; though even when his train arrived there might 
be no room for him. Conveniences of any kind, even for 
refreshment, were not even contemplated for this lowly type of 
tiaveller. Again, when the Midland Company, in 1872, boldly 
started to carry third-class passengers by all trains, the other 
companies, especially the Great Western, lagged behind for a long 
while, and even to this day the South Eastern and Chatham com- 
panies run some trains either with first and second only, or with 
an extra charge for third class. Again, the substitution of two 
classes for three, proposed or advocated by Mr. Gladstone so lon^; 
ago as 1874, which has already been amply proved to be both 
politic and profitable, has not as yet been adopted generally, 
though it grows slowly. So it is with the reduction of fares; the 
fare and a half, and the single fare — or, in other words, ilie 
fialfpenny per mile — are already well to the front for trips and 
excursions, but for these only, though they show without doubt 1 hat- 
full trains at these rates are distinctly remunerative. There are, 
ir fact, but few lines on which the actual cost of carrying passengers 
in full trains can be much more than half a farthing per head per 
mile, yet, though our railways have taught us to travel, they have 
not learnt their own lesson, which is to offer the necessary induce 
ments to extend the habit. They go on with the same old " penny 
a mile," as if there was divine revelation in the figure, and as if 
our railway boards were not men of business but mere ornamental 
pluralists. In some cases, If not in many, the boards are held 



CHEAPER RAILWAY FARES. 55 

down by the inertia of their managers, as was notoriously the case 
on the Great Western, when in the able but very conservative 
hands of Grierson. His type is unfortunately still too common, 
and for the reason "that by the time a man has worked up from the 
bottom of the ladder to the position of manager, he has too 
generally and not unnaturally lost his vigour and the spirit of 
enterprise. His policy is to let well alone. The better or the 
best may be left to others to try for. On the other hand, there 
are doubtless many younger men who, if given reasonable latitude 
of action, would soon show that the true policy of the administra- 
tion of a railway is, as much as in any other industrial undertaking, 
to venture, to move forwara, even if slowly, and to be content, 
not merely when they have met a demand forced on them, but 
when they have introduced facilities which will induce a further 
demand. 

One acknowledged difficulty in carrying out a general an«T 
considerable reduction in third-class fares lies in the want of 
sufficient yard and platform accommodation at many of the oldir 
principal stations, and especially in London, if, as is almost certain, 
the halfpenny per mile fare led to trebling the number of 
travellers in the third class. At many of the smaller stations, as, 
for instance, on the Brighton and the South Eastern and Chatham, 
lines, the same difficulty would be experienced, though this difficulw 
i: after all almost entirely one of money, and is one that can be 
met gradually and tentatively as the demand develops. A simiL'^r 
but probably less immediate obstacle will be found in the need for 
a large increase in the rolling stock. But neither these nor other 
difficulties would stand in the way for long when experiment had' 
.atisfactorily established that the reduction of fares would be 
profitable. 



Mr. R. Elliott Cooper, Sir Guildford Molesworth, Sir William- 
Preece, and the Chairman took part in the Discussion. 

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
to the author. 

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
to the Honorary Secretary; and on the motion of Mr. C. P. Hogg^ 
a vote of thanks was accorded to the Chairman. 

The business of the Section was then brought to a close. 



SUMMARY OF PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

Section IL 
Waterways and Maritime Works.* 



TUESDAY, 3Pd SEPTEMBER, 1901. 



Sir John Wolfe Barry, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., in the Chair. 



The Chairman in opening the Proceedings of the Section 
coiidially welcomed in name of the British representatives of 
Engineering their confreres from every part of the world. 



"THE DORTMUND AND EMS CANAL." 
Paper by Regierungs und Baurath Hermann. 



Abstract. 



The Dortmund and Ems Canal connects the industrial regions of 
Rhineland and Westphalia with the North Sea. It begins at 
Dortmund and Heme, and ends at Emden. The distance between 
the two termini is 270 kilometres (168 miles). The canal is 
2.5 metres (8 i-5th feet) deep, and 18 metres (59 feet) wide at the 
bottom. The locks in the upper reaches between Dortmund and 
the 138 kilometre post (about 85 miles) have an available length 
of 67 metres (220 feet), and are 8.2 metres (27 feet) wide. Barges 
of this length, and having the permissible maximum draught of 
2 metres (6 feet 7 inches), can carry about 1000 tons. On the 
lower reaches the locks are 165 metres (542 feet) long, and can 
accommodate a whole train of barges. The water-level in the 
summit reach (15.5 kilometres — 9 J miles — ^long) at Dortmund is 
70 metres (230 feet) above zero (zero equals zero of the Amsterdam 
standard gauge). Barges are lowered from this level to the main 
reach below, 67 kilometres (4i§ miles) long, by a canal lift at 
Henrichenburg. The next lock is at Munster, and has a fall of 
6.20 metres (20 J feet); by its aid barges reach the Midland Reach, 
which is about 37 kilometres (23 miles) long. The reach is so 

* The proceedings of Section II. are published in full by Messrs. Wm. 
Clowes and Sons, Ltd., Duke Street, Stamford Street, London, S.E., price 
6s. 6d. post free. 



THE DORTMUND AND EMS CANAL. 57 

called because, from its northern end, immediately before the lock, 
the Midland Canal is about to start, leading to the Weser and the 
Elbe without any change in the water-level, which is 49 metres 
(161 feet) above zero. When carried out, there will be a reach 
210 kilometres (130 J miles) long, without a single lock, between 
Munster and Hanover. Between the Midland Reach and Meppen, 
there are eleven locks to pass through. Beyond Meppen, the 
River Ems forms the sole waterway, and is divided into five 
lengths by as many locks. From Oldersun, at 10 kilometres (6 
miles) above Emden, a lateral canal, skirting the Ems, leads by 
means of two locks to the inland port of Emden. 

Altogether there are 20 locks between Dortmund and Emden, 
representing a total fall of 70 minus 1.138 metres (Emden 
inland gauge), or 68.862 metres (226 feet). The smallest radii of 
curvature on the canal are 400 metres (20 chains), and on the 
River Ems, where the bottom width is 30 metres (98^ feet), 350 
metres (17^ chains). 

There are one hundred and seventy-five bridges leading over 
the canal. Only two of these are movable; all the others are 
fixed, and have a free headway of 4 metres (13 J feet) above the 
highest water-level. The canal crosses the Rivers Lippe, Stever, 
and Ems, on massive aqueducts, 18 metres (59 feet) wide. All 
slopes of the canal that are cut through any formations that are 
not compact enough in themselves to withstand the wash of the 
waves, are protected with stone pitching or cement concrete slabs. 
The covering is carried 0.60 metre (2 feet) below, and 0.50 metre 
(i§ foot) above the water level. The canal is made water-tight 
on all high embankments by a layer of clay to prevent leakage. 
The thickness of this layer varies from 0.30 to i.oo metre (i foot to 
3 feet 3f inches). The bulk of the water for feeding the canal 
is pumped from the River Lippe. The balance of the supply is 
derived from the natural drainage of only 60 square kilometres 
23.17 square miles). The loss of water in the canal, from all 
causes, amounts to 10.4 litres per kilometre (3.68 gallons per mile) 
per second, according to observations made to date. 

There are three pumps in use, each of 400 h.p. The height to 
which the water is raised is 15.75 metres (5i§ feet). To be able 
to sub-divide the long reaches of the canal into short lengths, in 
the event of sudden accidents, stop-gates of a novel design have 
been provided, which can be turned either way, and are able to 
withstand the full head of water in either direction. Each gate 
consists of a single web plate of mild steel, which is bent in the 
shape of a segment of circle, and is properly stiffened by suitable 
frame-work. The gate is raised out of the water by means of a 
pair of long lattice-work arms or spokes, carried by trunions, which 
revolve in bearings bedded in the side walls of the passage. The 

6 



58 THE DORTMUND AND EMS CANAL. 

arms are set in motion by capstans. When not in use the gate is 
held up by the arms across the canal, like a hood or shield. 

The canal lift at Henrichenburg is constructed on the principle 
of a floating trough moving in parallel guides. The whole weight 
of the trough full of water is carried by five floats, which move up 
and down in as many wells. The whole system is in equilibrium, 
so that any addition to the volume of water in the trough makes 
this sink, and, vice versa, any reduction in the volume causes the 
trough to rise. The up or down movement is controlled by four 
screw spindles, which work in four nuts, which are attached to 
the cradle carrying the trough, and are simultaneously raised by 
the turning of the spindles. 

The power is transmitted by electricity. There are two dynamos 
in the central station, of 220 h.p. each. The tension is 220 volts, 
and a current of 800 amperes is required for starting. 

The principal posts along the canal are Dortmund, Heme, 
Munster, and Emden; and there are also about seventy smaller 
ports or landing places, which are distributed over the whole 
length of the canal. 

At Emden, there is an open harbour outside the lock, in addition 
to the inner harbour, for the accommodation of sea-going vessels 
up to 6.5 metres (21J feet) draught. At average tide, there is a 
depth of water of 10 metres (33 feet) in the sea channel. The 
range of the tide is 2.90 metres (9^ feet). The outer harbour is 
most completely equipped with cranes, warehouses, railway lines,, 
and an electric coal tip, and has already been opened for traffic. 
The port at Dortmund has been built by the town at a cost of 5.5 
million marks (;Ê2 75,000). 

The total cost of the canal amounts to 79.43 million marks- 
(jÊ3,97 1,500), or to about 316,000 marks per kilometre (;é2 5,438 
per mile). 

The oanal lift at Henrichenburg cost 2.6 million marks 
(;£i 30,000). A lock, built in masonry, of 165 metres (572 feet) 
available length, cost 500,000 marks (;^25,ooo); one of 67 metres 
(220 feet) length, 310,000 marks (jQiSySoo); a needle weir 170,000- 
marks (;è^>5®o)^ *^^ aqueduct across the River Lippe 650,000 
marks (^32,500); and a small steel-girder bridge 25,000 marks 
(^1250). 

The barges are drawn along the canal by tugboats, or are 
towed by a rope from the towing path. All establishments are 
ready for the adoption of electric towage, which is to be introduced" 
so soon as the volume of traffic has increased sufficiently to make 
it a matter of necessity to adopt a systematic and properly regulated 
traffic of barges. The speed of navigation has been fixed at 5 
kilometres (3 miles) an hour for vessels drawing 1.75 metre (5! feet), 
and at 4. kilometres (2J miles) an hour for vessels drawing 2 metres. 



THE DORTMUND AND EMS CANAL. 5^ 

(6 feet 7 inches). The screws of steamers must remain 0.75 metre 
(2 J feet) above canal bottom. 

The volume of traffic on the canal is considerably increased by 
the sea-going lighters of from 400 to 800 tons carrying capacity^ 
which frequent it from all parts of the Baltic and the North Sea. 
They are towed from Hamburg, Bremen, and elsewhere, to Emden,. 
and most frequently go up the canal without unloading any part 
of their cargoes. 

The canal tolls are at present levied upon goods divided into 
three classes, and amount to 10, 25, and 50 pfennig (id, 2d, 3d, and 
6d) per metric ton for the whole canal length, and less in pro- 
portion for shorter distances). 

The principal goods imported are Swedish ores from Lulea and 
Oxelsund, com, and timber. The bulk of the export goods consists, 
of coal and iron. 

The canal was completed in 1899. Last year half a million! 
tons were carried along it. For the current year a substantial! 
increase may be reckoned upon in the tonnage. 



The following members took part in the Discussion: — Prof. V. 
E. De Timonoff, Mr. W. H. Hunter, M. Mendes Guerreiro, Mr. 
Wilfrid Stokes, and the Chairman. The author replied, and on 
the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded to him. 



"NOVEL PLANT EMPLOYED IN TRANSPORTING THE 
EXCAVATIONS ON THE CHICAGO DRAINAGE 
CANAL WORKS." 

Paper by I sham Randolph. 



Abstract. 



The paper gives an account of the sanitary history of Chicago up 
to the appointment in 1889 of the first Board of Trustees of the 
Sanitary District. To improve the sanitation, it was decided to 
cut a channel across the divide which separated the watershed 
of the Chicago basin from that of the Desplaines and Illinois 
valleys, whose slope is towards the Mississippi River. 

The channel, as now in use, is described under three divisions : 
— The first division extends through a clay formation for 7.8 miles, 
and has a bottom width of no feet, with side slopes of two to one, 
giving, with the minimum depth of 22 feet, a width at the waterline 
of 198 feet. This section is to be widened by dredging, to afford 
the full flow of 600,000 cubic feet per minute, and the bridges are 
all built of a span to admit of this enlargement. 

The second division is through glacial drift for 5.3 miles; it i? 
202 feet wide at the bottom, has side slopes of two to one, and 
with the minimum depth of 22 feet, has a width of 290 feet at the 
waterline. The gradient through these two divisions, 13 J miles 
long, is I in 40,000. 

The third division,, beginning at Willow Springs, is through rock, 
or rock overlaid with glacial drift. The length is 14.95 nf^il^» 
about seven of which are through rock-cuttings of an average depth 
of 36 feet; it is 160 feet wide at the bottom, and has vertical sides, 
with two offsets of 6 inches each on each side, giving a resulting 
width of 162 feet at the water surface. The gradient through this 
division is i in 20,000 feet, and the total length of the main 
channel proper is 28.05 miles. It discharges into the Desplaines 
River at Lockport, and the overflow is controlled by regulating 
works, consisting of seven steel lifting gates of the Stoney free-roller 
t)rpe, each 32 feet wide, and one bear-trap dam, 160 feet wide, 
having an oscillation of 17 feet. 

The volume of material excavated from the main channel, and 
for the diversion and enlargement of the Desplaines River, amounts 
to 29,246,838 cubic yards of glacial drift, 13,106,586 cubic yards 



NOVEL PLANT EMPLOYED IN TRANSPORTING EXCAVATIONS. 61 

of solid' rock, and 1,382,195 cubic yards of earth — or a total of 
43,736,379 cubic yards. The work, for convenience in designating 
the several contracts, was divided into sections, each approximately 
one mile in length (there were 29 sections in 28.05 miles). On this 
work there were seventeen contractors. The main channel is 
spanned by thirteen bridges, all movable structures, six of which 
are for highways and seven for railways. The cost of all this work, 
including 7000 acres of land, interest account to January ist, 1901, 
administration, and all other items, amounted to ;£7>329,633. 

The dredgers used for excavating the Chicago River on the first 
section west of it were of the ordinary type, the only novelty about 
them being the substitution of wire cable for chain cable on the 
cranes. The dippers of some had a capacity of six cubic yards. 
Most of the sections were excavated by dry methods. Hydraulic 
dredgers, one of which cost ;£8333, were used for two of the 
sections. These dredgers were equipped with four loo h.p. 
horizontal boilers, a 250 h.p. Westinghouse engine, a 6-foot centri- 
fugal pump, with a 20-inch suction pipe and an 8-inch steel 
discharge pipe. The suction pipe had flexible joints, and at its 
extremity a revolving cage with knives to erode the material to be 
excavated. The material eroded by the revolving knives at the 
end of the suction pipe was drawn in with the water and discharged 
into settling basins, some of which were situated a mile away. 
The best performance of either dredger was 11,000 cubic yards in 
24 hours. 

Ploughs and scrapers drawn by horses, and steam shovels of 
various types, were used for removing top soils. The " New Era " 
grader was employed by some of the contractors. It is a great 
breaking plough, drawn by 12 to 16 horses, and will excavate about 
J 00 cubic yards per hour in friable soils. 

The Hddenreich Incline Conveyor was among the most successful 
de\'ices used for delivering the excavated material on to the spoil 
area. Its best record was 968 cubic yards per shift of ten hours. 
This device consists of a framework, mounted upon trucks, which 
travels on tracks parallel with the channel. In elevation the frame- 
v.ork is a triangle with one side as the base, which carries engine, 
boiler, dynamo, and hoisting machinery. The other side points 
upwards, and projects beyond the base, and the third side forms 
the roadway which carries two standard gauge tracks, on which the 
cars for loading and dumping alternately are moved. The top 
section of the track, for a length of about ten feet, is pivoted, and 
forms a tipple, so that when the loaded car is drawn up from the 
pit, as soon as its centre of gravity passes the axis on the tipple, 
it is thrown forward and its contents dumped. As soon as it is 
empty, the counter-weighting of the tipple causes it to right itself, 
and the empty car is returned to the pit. Meanwhile the car on the 



€2 NOVEL PLANT EMPLOYED IN TRANSPORTING EXCAVATIONS. 

Other track has been loaded, and is being hauled up. The Christie 
^ Lowe Conveyor, also used on this work, is a modification of the 
above. 

Mason & Hoover's Conveyor is a bridge spanning the channel, 
with a cantilever arm extending over the spoil area; it is carried 
on trucks which travel on tracks parallel to the channel. The 
bridge carries a steel belt, 1300 feet long, made in 4-foot sections, 
interlocking and hinged with 2-inch axles, carrying 12-inch flanged 
wheels. This belt works in a metal trough with rails on each side, 
on which the pan wheels travel. A separate car carries two boilers, 
which supply steam for running the conveyor, and also for pro- 
pelling the plough which loads it. The latter can be drawn back 
and forth across the channel without turning, and cuts a furrow 
each way. The conveyor is driven at the rate of 120 feet per 
minute; the plough is started at the top of the cut, and the 
successive furrows are lower and lower, until the bottom is reached, 
and the material thrown from the ploughshare rolls down the side 
of the cut on to the conveyor; its best record achievement for any 
month was 509 cubic yards per lo-hour shift. 

Bates' Conveyor consists of a car with boiler and necessary 
gearing for driving the conveying belt. The car moves parallel 
with the channel; a frame extends down from the car into and 
across the channel excavation, carrying at short intervals concave 
rollers, on which a roller belt, 22 inches wide, travels. This belt 
passes under a hopper, in which a pair of cylinders set with great 
steel knives, which intermesh, revolve, and break up the clay which 
is dropped into the hopper by the steam shovel. The granulated 
material is delivered on the belt, and carried up over the power 
car, where it is delivered on to another similar belt, carried on a 
bridge which spans the spoil area; its best average for one month 
was 920 cubic yards per shift. 

In the rock sections, the sides were cut down verticallv bv 
channelling machines. These consist of boiler and engine and 
channeller, or large Z-shaped chisel made fast to the end of the 
steam piston-rod. Each machine will cut about 100 superficial 
feet per lo-hour shift. 

The Lidgerwood Cableway proved a very efficient conveyor. The 
carrying cable is stretched across the channel from the tops of 
supporting towers, which span the channel and the spoil area. 
The towers are mounted on wheeled platforms, which run parallel 
to the channel. The cable carries a cage, and draws it back and 
forth. When the skip has been loaded, lifted out of the pit, and 
run out to the spoil bank, the dumping cable, which is wound on 
the same drum with the hoisting cable, and travels at the same 
speed, is, by means of a lever, thrown on to a drum of greater 
diameter, which winds it up more rapidly than the lifting cable, 



NOVEL PLANT EMPLOYED IN TRANSPORTING EXCAVATIONS. 63 

and tips the skip forward, discharging its load. The empty skip 
is then returned to the pit, and a loaded one removed. The 
average performance was about 400 cubic yards per day. 

Brown's Cantilever Conveyor proved wonderfully efficient in 
handling blasted rock, and had the best record of any device on 
the work. It is essentially a platform, about 40 feet square, 
carried on four sets of trucks, supporting the four comers, which 
travel on two tracks parallel with the channel. The platform 
carries the operating machinery. A steel tower, composed of four 
braced and stayed comer posts, with sides of unequal height, 
supports in equilibrium a bridge, 355 feet long, on an angle of 
12 deg. 50 min. to the horizon. This bridge carries a track on 
which a trolly car mns, which is hauled up and down its length of 
travel by an endless cable. The time consumed in lifting a skip, 
running it off, dumping it on to the spoil bank, and returning it 
to the pit, is about 50 seconds. The excavation is made across 
the channel, giving a working face corresponding with its width. 
The skips or hods have a capacity of 75 cubic feet, or about 7500 
pounds, of broken limestone. 

The High Power Derricks used on one of the sections were very 
ponderous and powerful. They are mounted on turntables self- 
poised, and have double booms, which counterbalance each other. 
They move on rollers and work in pairs, one on each side of the 
channel, as the booms would not reach across the excavation. 
Their performance did not fulfil expectations, their best record 
being 372 cubic yards per shift of 10 hours. 

This gigantic work is bound to exercise a wonderful influence 
as an educator, and embolden men to undertake enterprises more 
vast than were considered practicable before its success had been 
demonstrated. The great array of mechanism brought into being 
for its construction, which earned vastly more than it cost to 
produce, was, most of it, without a sphere of usefulness after the 
work was completed, and was dismantled and sold for the value 
of the raw material. 

As a corollary to the work already done, the Chicago River, 
which is the main artery of supply for the Sanitary and Ship Canal, 
is now being widened and deepened. 



The following members took part in the Discussion: — Mr. W. 
H. Hunter, Mr. Andrew Brown, Mr. George Higgins, Mr. Charles 
H. Whiting, Mr. A. W. Robinson, and the Chairman. 

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
to the author. 



"IRRIGATION IN THE NILE VALLEY AND ITS 

FUTURE." 
Paper by W. Willocks, C.M.G. 



Abstract. 



The ancient basin irrigation of Egypt, which utilises the flood 
waters of the Nile, is a system of irrigation eminently suited* for 
new countries whose permanent development depends on irrigation. 
The history of the development of the basins in Egypt is here 
traced. The work was successfully begun on the left bank of 
the river in the time of King Menés, and extended to the right 
bank by the great Pharaohs of the Xllth. Dynasty, who converted 
the Fayoum depression into Lake Moeris. 

The value of subsoil water is next dealt with. It supplies the 
link between basin and perennial irrigation. The foundation stone 
of the conversion of the whole of the Egypt from basin to perennial 
irrigation was laid by Mehemet Ali in 1833, when he began the 
construction of the barrages across the Nile branches north of 
Cairo. The accumulating of silt in the canals forms a serious 
drawback, and the best method of dealing with it is considered. 
The necessity of providing suitable manures is also dealt with. 
The cost of the different schemes is fully given. 

The modem irrigation works are the Cairo and Subsidiary 
Barrages, the Assiout and Zifta Weirs, and the still more recent 
reservoirs. The history of the Assuan reservoir and dam is 
given from the inception of the scheme up to the present day. 
The action of the Government with regard to Philae Temple is 
criticisefl. 

The paper closes with outlines of schemes for irrigating the 
whole of the Nile Valley, by possible reservoirs in Abyssinia and 
Uganda; and the possible development of the Sudan, when Egypt 
is perennially irrigated, is portrayed. Strong brigades of canal 
engineers are required to work, up projects in the Sudan, which, 
although a poor country in itself, is of inestimable value to Egypt 
as a highway for the waters of the great lakes. 



Prof. Vernon Harcourt, Mr. Wilfrid Stokes, and the Chairman 
took part in the Discussion. The author replied by correspond- 
ence. 

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
to the author. 

The meeting was then adjourned. 



VTEDNESDAY, 4th SEPTEMBER, 1901. 



Sir John Wolfe Barry, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., in the Chair. 



"PROPOSED INLAND WATERWAY BETWEEN THE 
BALTIC SEA AND THE WHITE SEA." 

Paper by Professor V. E. De Timonoff. 



Abstract 



The north-western territories of Russia can be compared with those 
of the Great Lakes of North America. A glance at the map of 
this region will show the similarity at once. Lakes Ladoga, Onega, 
Saïma, Ilmen, Peipous, and others, which receive the waters of 
many important rivers, are situated in the principal low-lying 
regions. Most of these lakes belong to the basin of the Neva, 
and form an extensive navigable system. The superficial area of 
the basin of the Neva is 288,972.5 square kilometres (111,572.4 
square miles). 

Lake Ladoga has an area of 18,129.6 square kilometres (7000 
square miles), and a coast line of 1142 kilometres (709 miles). 
Lake Onega has an area of 975 i.i square kilometres (3765 square 
miles), with a coast line of 1300 kilometres (807 miles). Lake 
Wygo, situated on the dividing ridge between the Baltic and White 
Sea basins, is 80 kilometres (58 miles) long, by 5 to 32 kilometres 
(3 to 20 miles) wide, and has an area of 929 square kilometres 
(358.68 square miles). 

These three lakes indicate the natural route from the Baltic to 
the White Sea. The greater part of this route, even independently 
of the lakes themselves, comprises very important natural navigable 
waterways. Lake Ladoga is connected with the Baltic Sea by the 
river Neva, and with Lake Onega by the river Svir. Again, the 
upper reaches of the river Poventchanka, which flows into the 
northern end of Lake Onega, are close to the basin of Lake Wygo, 
which is itself connected with the White Sea by the river Wygo. 
In fact, with the exception of less than 10 kilometres (6 miles), 
which will have to be rendered navigable, the whole route from 
St. Petersburg to the White Sea — a distance of over 900 kilometres 



66 PROPOSED INLAND WATERWAY BETWEEN 

(558 miles) — ^is navigable. Two of the rivers in the above navigable 
system have a very large discharge. 

The depth of the Neva varies from 20 to 40 feet throughout the 
greater portion of its length, and is as much as 59 feet near St. 
Petersburg. There are very few natural obstacles to navigation. 
The Svir is nowhere less than 1.6 metre (5.25 feet) deep, on a length 
of 210 kilometres (130 miles). In order that vessels drawing 14 
feet may be able to enter Lake Ladoga, a few hundred thousand 
cubic metres must be dredged from the bed of the Neva and at 
its outlet from the lake, involving an outlay of barely half a million 
francs (;£2 0,000). By increasing the expenditure to one million 
francs (;£4o,ooo), the lake could probably be made navigable for 
ships drawing 20 feet. For this small outlay, Lake Ladoga would 
become, to aJl intents and purposes, a part of the Baltic Sea, though 
it would only be accessible to ships able to pass the bridges at St. 
Petersburg. The reconstruction of the navigable channels past 
these bridges is, however, merely a question of time and money, 
and it should be undertaken without delay, so that ships drawing 
28 feet may enter the Neva, this increased depth being already 
decided upon as regards the Kronstadt Ship-Canal. A few million 
francs would cover the cost of the necessary works on the Neva, 
and at the entrance to Lake Ladoga, to render the latter accessible 
to ships of that draught. The results of opening Lake Ladoga to 
maritime navigation would be of great importance and of immediate 
benefit. 

The opening of Lake Ladoga to the mercantile marine, though 
important in itself, would only be the first stage in cairying out 
the great scheme of connecting the Baltic with the White Sea by 
means of an inland waterway. The two other stages would be — 
(a) to deepen the river Svir, and to open Lake Onega to maritime 
navigation; (à) to connect Lake Onega with the White Sea by 
means of a ship-canal. 

The second stage presents much greater difficulties than the first. 
It entails the construction of several weirs, with sea locks, on a 
large and rapid river. But the advantages reaped by opening Lake 
Onega to international traffic, and by making a seaport at the 
mouth of the Vytegra, thus shortening the transit of goods by river 
barges on theVolga by several hundred kilometres, would more than 
compensate for the cost of the undertaking. Finally, in order to 
establish maritime communication between Lake Onega and the 
White Sea, it is necessary to cariy out works of the magnitude of 
those executed for the Manchester Ship-Canal, for the Kiel and 
Corinth Canals, and to embark on a proportionate expenditure. 
These works would, however, be the crowning achievement of the 
enterprise. 

These are the principal features of the scheme. 



THE BALTIC SEA AND THE WHITE SEA. 67 

The project also includes the construction of maritime ports 
on Lake Ladoga at the mouth of the Svir, and on Lake 
Oneg9. at the mouth of the canalised river Vytegra, which would be 
the points of transhipment between the maritime traffic and the 
river traffic of the immense basin of the Volga. The scheme also 
includes the construction of a railway which would connect Moscow 
with the seaports which it is proposed to build at the outlet of the 
new canal on the White Sea and on the coast of the Arctic Ocean 
near Norway, where the sea is always free from ice. 

The author's scheme fulfils two important objects. In the first 
place, it will give to the Russian Navy a freedom of action it does 
not possess at present. The Russian Navy consists of ûve 
squadrons, namely, the Pacific Ocean Squadron, the Black Sea 
Squadron, the Baltic Squadron, the Caspian Sea Squadron, and 
the Arctic Ocean Squadron. These squadrons would not generally 
be able to join forces in time of war, as the outlets of the Black 
Sea and the Baltic could be easily blockaded, and the principal 
fleets reduced to inaction. This state of things is the more serious, 
as all the naval and shipbuilding yards and arsenals, etc., are 
actually situated on these inland seas — namely, the Black Sea in 
the south, and the Baltic in the north. If the author's scheme 
is carried out, the Baltic fleet will be in a position to steam to any 
part of the globe at a few days' notice, before any obstacle can 
be placed in its way. 

The other object which will be attained by the proposed waterway 
is the industrial and commercial development of Northern Russia. 
The new waterway will certainly be an important route for conveying 
to Europe the wood, coal, naphtha, iron and other riches abounding 
in the northern provinces of Russia. 

In terminating this paper, the author states some of the general 
conclusions which may be deduced from his paper: — 

(i) A seaport, situated at the entrance of an important inland 
waterway, should not be designed and constructed in a manner which 
may impede the development of the waterway. Furthermore, it is 
desirable that all possible steps should be taken to avoid the 
necessity of constructing fixed bridges, or, if these are indispensable, 
the opening spans should be suitably situated, and should afford 
ample width and depth between their piers so as to provide for all 
possible future requirements of navigation. 

(2) The development of inland waterways, with as great a depth 
as practicable, should be promoted, so as to enable ships to pene- 
trate into the heart of the country. To bring this about, it is 
desirable that those great lakes near the sea, which have sufficient 
depths for maritime navigation, should first be opened up. 

(3) It is desirable that the seas on the coast of the same country 



68 THE BALTIC AND WHITE SEA WATERWAY. 

should be connected by deep navigable waterways passing through- 
the country. The construction of those waterways, which serve the 
double purpose of commerce and national defence, should especially 
be undertaken. 

(4) Any scheme for the formation of an inland waterway of 
sufficient depth to enable shipping to penetrate into the interior, 
should provide, as far as possible, for the work to be carried out 
in sections, so that each section, as it is finished, may be capable >f 
being utilised for navigation, without waiting for the final com- 
pletion of the undertaking. 

(5) In Russia, the inland waterway which fulfils the above re- 
quirements is the one which would connect the Baltic to the White 
Sea by way of the great lakes of Ladoga and Onega, The work 
might be carried out in three sections, the first being the opening 
of Lake Ladoga to maritime navigation, the second the opening 
of Lake Onega to maritime navigation, and the third the junction 
of the two seas. The completion of each of these stages of the 
work would bring about great industrial and commercial progress 
tc» Russia and to the whole of Europe. 



The following members took part in the Discussion: — Baron 
Quinette De Rochemont, Mr. W. H. Hunter, Mr. William Brown, 
Mr. S. Mavor, Mr. C. H. Moberley, and the Chairman. The 
author replied, and on the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks 
was accorded to him. 



"THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI 

RIVER.' 

Paper by J. A. Ockerson. 



Abstract. 



The Mississippi River is 2500 miles in length, and its drainage 
area covers 1,256,000 square miles. The regulation and control 
of a stream of such magnitude involves problems which greatly 
tax the ingenuity and skill of man to solve. In the lower half of 
the river the extreme oscillations of stage between low and high 
water amount to 53 feet; and the volume fluctuates from 65,000 
cubic feet per second at extreme low water, to two million cubic 
feet per second at flood stages. This portion of the river flows 
through an alluvial bed of its own formation, and the banks are 
constantly being eroded by the action of the current. This erosion, 
coupled with the suspended matter brought down by the tributarj^ 
streams, furnishes the material for sand bars, which at low stages 
become formidable obstructions to navigation. The regulation 
and control, then, involve two distinct problems : one the control 
of floods, and the other the improvement of navigation. Incident- 
ally, the works constructed for flood control have considerable 
influence on the channel, by preventing a dispersion of the waters., 
and thus inducing a scouring effect which tends to produce uni- 
formity in depth. 

The erosion of the banks reaches enormous proportions. In 
the 885 miles of river lying below the Ohio River, it amounts to 
an average of 9^ acres for each mile of river each year, or a volume 
of 1,003,579 cubic yards each year for each mile of river; or a 
total annual erosion in this 885 miles amounting to ten square miles 
86 feet deep. 

The alluvial basins subject to overflow cover an area of about 
30,000 square miles. It has a soil of remarkable fertility, capable 
of sustaining a large population. In order to utilise this land, it 
must be protected from the ravages of the floods. This is accom- 
plished by means of levees, or earthen embankments, built as near 
the river as consistent with the stability of the banks. At the 
present time, there is a total length of about 1450 miles of levee. 
The average height is something over 12 feet. The levees are 
built with a crown of 8 feet, and side slopes of 3 to i. High 



70 THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

levees are reinforced with a banquette of earth on the land side. 
The whole is sodded with a very tenacious grass, known as Bermuda 
grass. About fifty million dollars (over ^10,000,000) have been 
spent on the levee system, and much work remains to be done 
before it is completed. 

The interruptions to navigation due to low water cover a period 
of about three months in each year. During the greater part of 
the year, depths of 14 feet, under natural conditions, can be relied 
upon; furthermore, the obstructing bars cover only a small portion 
of the total length. To open channels through these bars, 
hydraulic dredges of large capacity have been designed, and have 
been used to good effect. It seems certain that a channel of nine 
feet or more can be maintained, under the most unfavourable 
conditions, by this means. The essential features of such a dredger 
are a double suction centrifugal pump, with runner of 7 feet or 
more in diameter; a water-jet agitator to loosen up the material; 
a floating discharge pipe about 32 inches in diameter; suitable 
winches for manipulating the dredger and suction ; motive power 
and paddle wheels for moving the dredger from point to point 
under its own steam; all mounted on a steel hull carrying the 
boiler, machinery, and a cabin for housing the same, and the crew 
which operates the dredger. There is also a well-equipped 
machine shop for making repairs, an electric light and refrigerating 
plant, steam steering gear, and other accessories. These dredgers 
have a capacity of about 1000 cubic yards of sand per hour, de- 
livered through 1000 feet of discharge pipe. They have been in 
operation for several years, and are regarded as successful. 
Dredging in a stream with sand bars that shift more or less with 
every change of stage, is only regarded as a temporary expedient 
in aid of navigation, as the flood stages may, and usually do, 
obliterate the dredged channels ; but it serves a good purpose while 
permanent work is going on. 

The permanent work consists of the revetment of banks to 
prevent erosion, the closure of side channels or chutes, and the 
contraction of width where the river is abnormally wide. The 
portion of the bank lying below the low-water line is covered with 
a fascine willow mat, about 300 feet wide, and made in lengths of 
1000 feet or more. This mat is ballasted with stone and sunk to 
the bottom. As it is always covered with water, the willows are 
not subject to decay; but the wire which binds the fascines together 
rusts out in the course of time. To remedy this defect, galvanised 
and silicon bronze wire is used. After the mat is in place, the 
upper bank is graded to a slope of 3 to i by means of a hydraulic 
grader, using water jets under a pressure of about no lbs. per 
square inch. The whole surface is then covered with a layer of 
stone about a foot thick. In some cases concrete, four inches thick, 



THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 71 

is laid on the graded bank with good success. In the lower 
sections, where stone is only obtainable by very long hauls, a 
substitute is found in artificial stone made of thirteen parts of 
gravel and one of Portland cement. 

This work on the Lower Mississippi River is carried on under 
the direction of a Commission, consisting of four civilian and three 
army engineers. The author, who is now a member of the Com- 
mission, has been connected with the work for some twenty-five 
years, and so writes with personal experience of the problems 
involved, and of the methods now in use for the regulation and 
control of the great river. 



Mr. C. H. Whiting, Mr. W. H. Wheeler, Mr. William Brown, 
the Chairman, and Prof. Vemon-Harcourt took part in the Dis- 
cussion. The author replied by correspondence. 

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
to the author. 



"RECENT IMPROVEMENTS EFFECTED IN THE 
NAVIGABLE CONDITION OF THE SULINA 
BRANCH AND OUTLET OF THE DANUBE." 

Paper by C. H. L. Kuhl. 



Abstract, 



The European Commission of the Danube has been in charge of 
the Lower Danube since 1856. Training works have been executed 
at the Sulina mouth, in the Sulina branch, and at the Ismail Chatal. 
Besides, the Zeglina shoal, above Galatz, has been dredged. 

THE SULINA BRANCH OF THE DANUBE. 

The navigable depth at zero of the Sulina branch was 8 feet in 
1856, 10 feet in 1862, 11 feet in 1863, 13 feet in 1870, 15 feet n 
1886, 16 feet in 1889, and 17 feet in 1899. The little M Cutting 
was opened in 1869. 

Since 1880 eight further cuttings have been opened, and a 
ninth cutting is in progress. 21,690,418 cubic yards have been 
excavated in these cuttings by three steam dredgers. The different 
shoals were treated by the construction of groynes and revetments, 
narrowing the upper part of the Sulina branch to 400 feet and the 
lower part to 450 and 500 feet. The river has been shortened 
by seven nautical miles, and when the last cutting is finished th** 
total shortening will be 11 miles. 

THE SULINA MOUTH OF THE DANUBE. 

The depth of the Sulina entrance in 1856 was from 9 to 7 feec. 
The provisional jetties started in April, 1858, were finished in July, 
1 86 1, when the depth was 17^ feet. The consolidation of the 
jetties in concrete was finished in 1871, when the depth was ici 
feet; this increased to 20 feet in 1872, and to 2o\ feet in 1873. This 
depth was maintained to 1895 without dredging, with sligb: 
reductions only in 1876 and 1879. 

The depth of the Sulina entrance being insufficient for modern 
requirements in 1894, parallel dams, to reduce the width to 500 feet, 
were constructed between the jetties, and a powerful marine hopper 
bucket dredger was built. 

Dredging was started on the ist October, 1894, increasing the 
depth to 22 feet in January, 1895 ; to 23 feet in August, and 24 feet 
in September of the same year. 



RECENT IMPROVEMENTS ON THE DANUBE. 73 

In 1897 the depth was reduced to 23 J feet from the 6th March 
to the 17th April, during a heavy river flood, bringing down much 
sediment. Since that time the depth of 24 feet has been main- 
tained, the quantity dredged from 1894 to 1899 being 1,790,736 
cubic yards. 

The practical result of these works is that the size of steamers 
navigating the Sulina branch has increased from the maximum of 
1462 net reg. tons in 1880 to 2889 net reg. tons in 1900; and for 
the port of Sulina the maximum of 2190 net reg. tons in 1892 has 
been increased to 3519 net reg. tons in 1900. 



M. Vander Vin, Prof. Vemon-Harcourt, Mr. W. H. Hunter, and 
the Chairman took part in the Discussion. The author replied 
by correspondence. 

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
to the author. 



"THE RIVER CLYDE AND HARBOUR OF GLASGOW." 

Paper by W. M. Alston. 



Absirad. 

THE RIVER. 

The river Clyde rises at about 2000 feet above sea level on the 
southern confines of Lanarkshire, and in its course of 102 miles 
to Port Glasgow drains about 1400 square miles of country. 
Anxious to secure improved communication with the sea, the 
magistrates of Glasgow in 1755 consulted John Smeaton, who 
found the river obstructed by shoals with from 15 to 24 inches 
depth at low water. His recommendation to canalise a portion 
of the stream was fortunately discarded, and, under advice by 
John Golbome in 1768, contraction by jetties was adopted. 

Systematic improvement of the navigation commenced in 1773 
by the removal of Dumbuck Ford, the most seaward obstruction. 
The deepening of the river was authorised as follows : — 

In 1770 — From Glasgow to Dumbuck Ford, to give 7 feet at high 

water, neap tides. 
In 1809 — From Glasgow to Dumbarton Castle, to give 9 feet at 

high water, neap tides. 
In 1825 — From Glasgow to Port Glasgow, to give 13 feet at high 

water, neap tides. 
In 1840 — From Glasgow to Port Glasgow, to give 17 feet at high 

water, neap tides. 

By the inauguration of steam navigation in 181 2, and the intro- 
duction of steam-worked dredgers in 1824, a great impetus was 
given to further improvement. Dredged materials generally were 
deposited on land, but since the introduction of steam hopper 
barges in 1862, almost all material has been carried to sea. The 
dredging plant now consists of five dredging machines, one floating 
grab, twenty steam hopper barges, a tug, many punts, and two 
diving bells. Between 1844 and 1900, 56,591,093 cubic yards 
have been dredged from river and docks. The general result is 
that the bed of the river from Glasgow to Dumbuck Ford has 
been lowered about 27 feet since 1755, and the bed has been 
made practically level from Glasgow to Port Glasgow. 

Dredging is now being carried to a depth of 22^ feet below 
average low water, corresponding with about 33 feet at high water, 
with bottom widths ranging from 120 to 500 feet. 

The progressive deepening of the river is indicated by the 
increasing draught of vessels, thus : — 



THE RIVER CLYDE AND HARBOUR OF GLASGOW. 75 

1821. 1831. 1841. 1851. 1861. 1871. 1881. 1891. 1900. 

"^Trellrfe'etll^Se ^4 17 i8 19 - .. 33 26* 

From the Kelvin to Erskine Ferry the river has now the artificial 
appearance of a canal, the sides consisting of rough stone slopes 
rising to three feet above high water, and the width varying from 
365 to 560 feet. Seaward of Erskine Ferry the river widens in 
estuary form to two miles breadth at Port Glasgow. The only 
remaining training dyke is in the waterway between Dunglass 
Castle and Dumbarton Castle. Safe navigation is insured by 
numerous fixed and floating lights^ all burning Pintsch^s com- 
pressed gas, and ordinary buoys and beacons. 

With regard to the tidal phenomena of the river, in 1755 springs 
rose only i foot 9 inches at Glasgow, and neaps were just sensible. 
Springs now rise 11 feet 4 inches, and neaps about 9 feet. 
The low water line has been lowered about 9 feet 7 inches. In 
1768 high water was two hours later at Glasgow than at Port 
Glasgow, and now the interval is reduced to about one hour 

For many years there was a weir above the harbour at Glasgow, 
but about twenty years ago it was removed. It is now, however, 
in course of being replaced. 

GLASGOW HARBOUR. 

Glasgow Harbour embraces the 2 J miles of river between Albert 
Bridge and the river Kelvin, and the docks on either side. The 
first quay at Glasgow was built about 1662, but by 1792 there was 
a length of only 262 yards, at which time 120 yards were added, 
bringing the total to 382 yards in the latter year, with a water 
area of 4 acres. For many years riverside quays sufficed for all 
accommodation. The first dock — Kingston Dock — was autho- 
rised in 1840, but not carried out until 1867. Powers were ob- 
tained in 1870 for Queen's Dock, and in 1883 for Prince's Dock; 
in 1890 the form of the latter was modified. The latest dock is 
that at Clydebank, about six miles below Glasgow, authorised in 
1899, and now in course of construction. Although called docks, 
these works are tidal basins. 

For brevity the harbour and dock accommodation is tabulated 

thus : — 

Length of Quays. Water Area. 

Glasgow Harbour ... 

Kingston Dock 

Queen's Dock 

Prince's Dock 

Go van Passenger Wharf ... 

Shieldhall Timber Yard Wharf 

Totals 15^115 205.83 



Lineal yards. 


Acres. 


... 6786 


131.75 


... 830 


5-33 


••• 3334 


33.75 


• • 3737 


35-00 


... 46§ 




... 381* 





76 THE RIVER CLYDE A.VD HARBOUR OF GLASGOW. 

The graving dock accommodation is as follows : — 

No. I Dock. No. 2 Dock. No. 3 Dock. 



• 


1875- 


1886. 


1898. 




ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in 


Length of floor inside face of 








caisson 


551 


575 


880 


Width of entrance 


72 


67 


83 


Depth on sill at high water, 








average springs 


22 10 


22 10 


26 



Note.-— No. 3 Dock is divisable by gates into lengths of 460 and 

420 feet. 

Fortunately for Glasgow, its trade is most varied : 2686 yards 
of quays are devoted to coal and ore, 669 yards to timber, 175 
yards to cattle, 7459 yards to liners, 630 yards for fitting out, and 
the remaining 3496 yards to general traders. Where required the 
quays are lined with commodious sheds, of one storey, except at 
Prince's Dock, where most of them are two storied. There are 
no warehouses. 

Numerous cranes, ranging in power from 35 cwts. to 130 tons, 
are provided. Water mains are laid throughout the harbour and 
docks, and the quays are lighted by gas and electricity. The quays 
are connected with the railway systems of the country. For cross 
river traffic there are four ferries for passengers and two for 
•passengers and vehicles combined; while for up and down harbour 
traffic there is a fleet of small steamers called " Cluthas," Space 
does not permit of any description of the quay walls. 

The improvement of the river and growth of the city have gone 
forward together. When the citizens entered on the task, they 
numbered only about 40,000, and the revenue from the navigation 
was only ;£i47 ; now they number 760,406, and the revenue last 
year was jQ^^i,j\i^. In 1792 the accommodation consisted of 
only 2\ acres of water and 262 yards of quay; now there are 206 
acres of water and 15,115 yards of quay. Since 1810, when the 
management of the river and harbour was placed under trustees, 
down to June, 1900, the capital expenditure has been ^^^7, 430, 702. 

In conclusion, the river Clyde is a magnificent example of what 
can be done by a public body, without any assistance from 
Government. 



The following members took part in the Discussion : — Mr. R. C. 
II. Davidson, Mr. William Brodie, Mr. Alexander Gibb, Mr. H. 
Home, Mr. W. H. Hunter, Mr. James Brand, Mr. R. Gordon Nicol, 
Prof. Vemon-Harcourt, and the Chairman. The author then 
replied to their remarks. 

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
to the author. 

The meeting was then adjourned. 



THURSDAY, 5th SEPTEMBER, 1901. 



Sir John Wolfe Barry, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., in the Chair. 



"IMPROVEMENT WORKS ON THE CLYDE ESTUARY." 

Paper by D. and C. Stevenson. 



Abstract. 



The lower estuary of the Clyde, which may be called the key to 
the upper navigation, and with which this paper deals, is under 
the jurisdiction of the Clyde Lighthouses Trustees, the jurisdiction 
of the Clyde Navigation Trust ending above Port Glasgow. The 
estuary extends from Port Glasgow westwards, the channelway 
passing through sandbanks until the " tail of the bank " is reached, 
below which the estuary is more of the nature of a firth or fiord, 
the depth of water varying from i8o feet at Cloch to 370 at the 
Cumbrae, although it is deeper at some places, such as opposite 
the Cloch, than at places more seaward, such as Skelmorlie. It 
is encumbered by several " patches," the highest up being that of 
Roseneath, with a depth of 7 feet over it at low water, situated 
midway between Fort Matilda and the Roseneath shore. The 
depth of the estuary here varies from 60 to 220 feet; and the slope 
of the bottom from the tail of the bank is no less than 190 feet in 
one mile. The Gareloch, one of the numerous arms of the Clyde 
estuary, branches off here; and a little lower down, where the 
estuary takes a right-angled bend to the south. Loch Long comes in. 
It is navigable for large ships to its head, which forms the 
starting point of the projected great Scottish Canal connecting the 
Clyde and the Forth by Loch Lomond, which, being only 10 feet 
above high water, necessitates little lockage, and has an almost 
inexhaustible supply of water. From Loch Long the Clyde 

estuary is practically the sea with but few dangers. The Gantock, 
lying off Dunoon, is guarded by a gas-lighted beacon ; then another 
obstruction, called the Warden Bank, is met with, which, till 
recently, was not shown on the Admiralty charts, and was not 
generally known to exist. It forms an extension of Lunderston 
Bank, and has 34 feet of water over it at dead low water, so that it 
does not form a danger to ordinary traffic of the present draught. 



78 IMPROVEMENT WORKS ON THE CLYDE ESTUARY. 

Within a few yards of this rocky ledge there is a depth of no less 
than 300 feet, so that the west side of the Warden Bank is a 
submarine precipice. Skelmorlie Patch is the next shoal, the 
boulders coming to within a few feet of the surface. It forms 
a danger at present guarded by a gas-lighted buoy and bell. The 
estuary south of this to the Little Cumbrae is from 30 to 60 fathoms 
in depth, and the navigation through it is unimpeded by dangerous 
shoals. 

The Clyde, it will be seen, differs from most of the navigable 
rivers of this country in that it does not flow direct into the sea 
with the natural accompaniment of a bar, but enters into a deep 
and sheltered estuary. The estuary itself is encumbered with 
sandbanks, but owing to their sheltered situation they are not 
stirred up to any great extent by heavy waves, and the sand is not 
carried in to choke up the channelway. There is no " fretting " 
of the banks, as in the Mersey, for example. The Clyde Light- 
house Trust, which succeeded' the Cumbrae Trust in 187 1, 
immediately took steps to carry out the powers which Parliament 
had delegated to them, and appointed Messrs. Stevenson, of Edin- 
burgh, their engineers. The improvement of the estuary between 
Port Glasgow and the tail of the bank involved, at the same time 
as the improvement of the estuary to Glasgow, the conservation of 
the entrances to the harbours of Port Glasgow and Greenock. 
These harbours required to have the benefits of a navigable fair- 
way in close proximity, and yet the channelway for the ordinary 
river traffic had to be sufficiently removed from the shore that ships 
passing to other ports might be comparatively free from interruption 
due to the local traffic to Port Glasgow and Greenock. The incon- 
venient curves round Garvel Point, and the bight at Cartsdyke, 
also required to be dealt with and made easier for the passage of 
large ships. A channelway, or rather what is really a ship-canal, 
has now been formed from Newark Castle (Port Glasgow) to 
Prince's Pier, Greenock, having nowhere a less depth than 23 feet 
at low water of spring tides, with a minimum width at the bottom 
of 300 feet, and slopes of 100 feet on either side, having depths 
varying from 20 to 23 feet. Before this canal was begun the ruling 
depth at that part of the estuary was 12 feet. The curves at 
Garvel and Cartsdyke have been eased by fully one half. These 
improvements, great though they are, cannot be taken as final, as 
the draught of ships is still on the increase, and perhaps at no 
very distant date further deepening and widening of this channel- 
way may be called for by the shipping interest. This deep-water 
channel has been marked on its northern side by buoys and a 
lightship lighted by gas, while the southern side has also been 
similarly marked by buoys, and gas-lighted beacons and buoys. 
Pilots can, therefore, take vessels through the estuary at night almost 



IMPROVEMENT WORKS ON THE CLYDE ESTUARY. 79 

as well as by day; and when fog obscures the lights, the fog signals 
at Kempock Point, Fort Matilda, Cloch, Toward, and Cumbrae 
give their warning note to the sailor that he is near them. 

The removal of wrecks becomes sometimes a serious matter in 
such navigations. In the case of the " Auchmountain," lying as 
it did in good anchorage ground, the wreck had to be repeatedly 
tackled with explosives, and finally, on the suggestion of our firm, 
was covered up by dredgings, which has made the anchorage a 
perfectly safe one. 

The tidal flow has been greatly facilitated by the dredging \\oiks, 
causing the tidal flow at Port Glasgow (where the Clyde 
Lighthouses Trustees' works described were executed) down to 
Greenock to be more distinctly that of the sea proper than 
it was; and especially is this an improvement from a sanitary 
point of view, as it renders the admission of fresh water more rapid, 
although the actual gain is not so much as might be wished, owing 
to the counter effects of the greater amount of sewage to be dealt 
with than in former days. 



The Chairman, Mr. W. H. Hunter, and Prof. Vemon-Harcourt 
took part in the Discussion; and Mr. C. A. Stevenson replied. 

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
to the authors. 



"WORKS FOR IMPROVING THE BILBAO RIVER AND 
MAKING AN OUTER HARBOUR : ALSO, THE 
APPLICATION OF LARGE CAISSONS AS A BREAK- 
WATER FOUNDATION." 

Paper by Evaristo de Charruca. 



Abstract. 

The maritime part of the Nervion River, which forms the port of 
Bilbao, has a total length of 8f miles, the town being situated in 
the upper part. This river has a torrential character, and has 
little influence on the navigable depth, which is kept up exclusively 
by the tidal waters. 

The oldest documents show that this river had a shifting and 
shallow bar, and the river itself had sharp curves and many 
obstructions, all of which existed to within a few years ago, despite 
all the training walls built in past centuries. 

The Bilbao Chamber of Commerce, thinking that such conditions 
should not continue, obtained from the Government, in 1877, leave 
to create a Harbour Improvement Board, with power to levy 
certain dues on imports and exports, for defraying the cost of the 
works of improvement. 

Most excellent results were obtained at the bar by building out 
a training jetty 800 metres (2625 feet) in length from the left bank 
of the river mouth. Formerly only two feet depth existed at low 
tides on the bar; whereas, after building the jetty, a permanent 
channel along its whcle length was maintained, with a minimum 
depth of 13 feet at low water of spring tides. This enabled 
steamers drawing 22 to 24 feet to go in and out at spring tides, 
and 18 to 20 feet at neap tides; whereas, before the works were 
executed, the maximum draught of steamers was 14 feet at spring 
tides and 10 feet at neap tides. 

The works executed in the river itself did away with all the 
obstructions, and obtained over 14 feet depth at low water of 
spring tides up to Bilbao. But as the river mouth is directly 
exposed to north-westerly gales, the entrance of steamers continued 
to be dangerous during bad weather, a defect that could only be 
removed by the construction of sheltering breakwaters; and as in 
doing this it was possible, at the same time, to create a large outer 



WORKS FOR IMPROVING THE BILBAO RIVER. 81 

harbour for the use of steamers at all states of the tide, the 
follov/ing plan was adopted. 

This outer harbour is enclosed by two breakwaters — (i) The 
west breakwater, 1450 metres (4757 feet) long, running out from 
the coa.st at right angles to the north-west; (2) the eastern break- 
water, running out in a westerly direction, is iioo metres (3610 
feet) long. Between them there is an entrance 600 metres 
(1970 feet) wide, facing the north-east. The area protected by 
the two breakwaters is 741 acres, with a maximum depth of 46 feet 
at low water of spring tides. The first breakwater is the more 
important of the two, and rests on a bottom of mud and sand, 
except near the coast, where the rock is uncovered. 

As there were few days in the year during which it would be 
possible to- work with divers, it was decided to build the super- 
structure from the level of low water, and to let it rest on a large 
mound of concrete blocks, of 30 to 50 cubic metres (39^ to 65^ 
cubic yards), which in turn would rest on a large mound of sorted 
rubble. The building of the superstructure was begun in 1891, 
and was damaged in 1893 and 1894, when the superstructure built 
on the concrete blocks and rubble mound had a length of 127 
metres (417 feet). 

As it would have been very hazardous to persevere in building 
the superstructure on the foundation of loose blocks already laid, 
the solution that appeared the wisest to adopt was to leave all that 
part as an outer protection, and to build the superstructure further 
back under its shelter. 

It was decided to build the superstructure upon large steel caissons 
filled with concrete, and resting 5 metres (16 feet 5 inches) below 
low water — a system that was accepted by the Government in 1895. 
The caissons are 13 metres by 7 metres by 7 metres — 637 cubic 
metres (833 cubic yards) — so that when placed at a depth of 
5 metres below low water of equinoctial spring tides, they would 
emerge 2 metres (6^ feet), as it was necessary that the top of the 
caissons should be above the water-level at every low tide, to 
enable the work to be carried on inside. As it was necessary to 
fill these caissons rapidly, so that the sea might not break them, 
we decided to ballast them. with a layer of concrete 1.50 metre (5 ft.) 
thick before they were floated out to their place, and afterwards 
to deposit inside them, by means of a Titan, 12 blocks of 30 cubic 
metres (3 9 J cubic yards) each. At the next low tide, the water 
is pumped out from between the blocks, and concrete run into the 
interstices, and lastly a layer an the top of them 0.50 metre (i§ feet) 
thick, so as to make one monolithic block of 637 cubic metres 
(833 cubic yards). 

The superstructure is built upon this foundation, formed by two 
face walls made with concrete blocks of 30 cubic metres (39J cubic 



82 WORKS FOR IMPROVING THE BILBAO RIVER. 

yards) each, and a hearting of rapidly setting concrete. This 
brings the work up to 7 metres (23 feet) above low tide, and it is 
protected on the sea sids by a strong parapet. 

The system of construction explained has, in addition, the very 
great advantage of allowing the superstructure to be built in 
separate lengths of 7 metres (23 feet), so that they can settle quite 
independently on the mound. 

Up to 31st December last 150 caissons had been placed in five 
and a half years, without the slightest mishap; and the system 
can safely be adopted for seas as violent as those of the Bay ot 
Biscay. 

After two winters have elapsed it is considered that the caissons 
have settled down to their full extent, and the joints between them, 
and between the superstructure sections built upon theai, which 
are about 12 inches wide, are filled with concrete; and the parapet 
wall is subsequently built. 

The construction of tne east breakwater calls for no special 
remarks, because the sea waves run nearly parallel to it. It is 
built on a foundation of concrete bags, which, in their turn, rest 
on a rubble mound protected cy large concrete blocks. 



The Discussion was combined with the Discussion on the Zee- 
brugge Harbour Works (see p. 84). The author replied. 

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
to the author. 



" ZEEBRUGGE HARBOUR WORKS." 
Paper by J. Nyssens Hart and L. Van Gansberghe. 



Abstract, 



The port of call of Zeebrugge is formed by a curved breakwater 
extending out to sea, and consisting of a sea wall and harbour 
wall, with filling between, forming a quay. It is also provided with 
an entrance channel and lock, which connect the roadstead, 
sheltered by the breakwater, with an inner basin in communication 
with the Bruges ship-canal. The breakwater consists of three 
portions. The first portion on the beach is a solid embankment; 
the second portion, which is a continuation of the first, is an open- 
work viaduct 400 metres (131 2 feet) long; the third portion is a 
solid breakwater and quay, 1605 metres (5264 feet) long. The third 
or solid portion of the breakwater comprises two parts. The first 
part consists of a quay with a sea wall on the outside, which 
protects the filling between the sea wall and the harbour wall, 
forming the quay; and alongside the quay or harbour wall, 
1271.40 metres (4170 feet) long, there is a general depth of 8 
metres (26.24 feet) at low water of spring tides, for a width of 
300 metres (984 feet). The second part is a straight length of 
solid sea wall, 340 metres (11 15 feet) long, which constitutes an 
outer breakwater. 

The base of the sea wall protecting the quay of the third or 
solid portion of the breakwater, consists of monolithic concrete 
blocks weighing 3000 tons; these are 25 metres (82 feet) long, by 
7.5 metres (24.6 feet) wide, and their height varies according to the 
depth of the sea, so that the top of all the blocks may be i metre 
(3.28 feet) above low-water level. 

The straight length of sea wall constituting the outer breakwater 
beyond the quay is larger, the foundation blocks being 9 metres 
(29.52 feet) wide. The main body of the sea wall consists of 
55-ton blocks laid upon the foundation blocks, up to a level of 
7 metres (22.96 feet) above low water of spring tides. Upon 
these is built a sheltering wall 4.80 metres (15.74 feet) high, and a 
parapet 1.20 metres (3.94 feet) high; the summit of the latter 
being thus 13 metres (42.64 feet) above low water. The toe of the 
sea face of the breakwater is protected from undermining by a 
mound of large blocks of rubble stone, weighing from 300 to 2000 
kilogrammes (5.9 cwt. to 39.36 cwt.). 

The quay wall which protects the embanked portion of the 
breakwater on the harbour side is built on foundation blocks 



84 ZEEBRUGGE HARBOUR WORKS. 

25 metres (82 feet) long, laid on the sea bottom, which has b.tn 
previously dredged to a level of 8 metres (26.24 feet) below low 
water, for a length of 876.41 metres (2876.6 feet), and to a level 
of -9.5 metres (37.16 feet) below low water for a length of 393 
metres (1289 feet). These blocks are 9 metres (29.52 feet) wide at 
the base, and 6m. 20 (20.34 feet) wide at the top. Upon these 
are laid the courses of 55-ton concrete blocks, up to a level of 
7.30 metres (23.94 feet) above low water. 

The space between the sea wall of the breakwater and the 
quay or harbour wall is filled in with earth, and covered with 
stone pitching. This quay space carries the sheds, buildings, lines 
of railways, cranes, etc. 

The foundation blocks are built of concrete in iron caissons, 
which remain part of the blocks. These concrete blocks have 
large cavities in the first instance, providing sufficient displacement, 
in comparison with their weight, to enable them to be towed out 
floating into position, without danger of sinking during the voyage; 
and they are then sunk and filled up with concrete. These blocks 
are made in the basin forming the inner harbour, just above the 
sea lock. Four sizes of blocks are employed. Those used for 
the outer solid breakwater beyond the quay are 25 metres (82 feet) 
long, 9 metres (29.52 feet) wide, and 8.75 metres (28.72 feet) high, 
which represents a cubic capacity of nearly 2000 cubic metres 
(2616 cubic yards), and a weight of about 4400 tons. The lower 
part of the caissons has a cutting edge to enable it to penetrate 
into the ground, which consists of clayey sand. When the sea 
bottom upon which the block is to be founded is uneven, it is^ 
levelled by means of rubble deposited by hopper barges. Orifices 
are provided in the shell of the hollow block for letting in the 
water to sink it. When the block has been deposited upon its. 
foundation, it is filled with concrete by means of skips of 10 cubic 
metres (13.08 cubic yards) capacity, which open at the bottom 
directly they begin to be drawn up. 

Up to the present time, four caissons have already been 
deposited; these form the starting point on the sea side of the 
solid portion of the breakwater. 



The Discussion was combined with that on the preceding j>aper.. 

The following members took part in the Discussion: — ProL 
Vernon-Harcourt, Mr. P. A. Fraser, the Chairman, Mr. J. R- 
Baterden, M. Mendes Guerreiro, Mr. de Charruca, and Mr. W. H. 
Hunter; and M. Van Gansberghe replied. 

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded! 
to the authors. 



"RECENT IMPROVEMENTS IN THE LIGHTING AND 
BUOYING; Etc., OF THE SCOTTISH AND ISLE OF 
MAN COASTS." 

Paper by David A. Stevenson. 



Abstract, 



A GLANCE at a chart of Scotland shows that, owing to its exception- 
ally rugged coast-line, and numerous outlying islands and dangers, 
the task of lighting and otherwise guarding it effectually for the 
purposes of navigation, is an interesting and difficult problem for 
the lighthouse engineer. 

Owing to the want of funds, little was done up till 1854 to light 
the Sounds and Kyles on the West Coast, between the outlying 
islands and the mainland, and the coasts of the Orkney and Shetland 
Islands, and of the Western and Northern shores of the mainland. 
The war of 1854, however, made it necessary that something should 
be done to enable the fleet to navigate the Northern seas at least 
with some degree of safety, and the advantage of lighting the West 
Coast sounds came also about the same time to be appreciated. 
Since that period good progress has been made, and in 1875 there 
were 60 lighthouses, 98 buoys, 49 beacons, and 2 fog signals on the 
coast. Druing the last twenty-five years (since 1875) there have 
^een erected on the coasts under the jurisdiction of the Com- 
niss* oners of Northern Lighthouses, 16 lighthouses, 21 fog signals, 
and 2Z lighted beacons ; and there have been laid down i lightship, 
equipoe.i with a fog-signal, 15 lighted buoys and 9 unlighted buoys, 
and i^' I'nlighted beacons have been erected. 

The course of a seaman making for and navigating the Scottish 
coast bîts thus been much facilitated, though no doubt much 
remaiTis to be done, for there are still many outlying dangers 
unç,iuraed, and stretches of coast line with 50 or even 100 miles 
between the lights, while the range of our most powerful lights in 
weather when they are most required does not exceed 9 or lo miles. 

The characteristics of the lights on the Scottish coast have also 
been much improved as regards their distinctive character, which, 
next to the existence of a light at all, is the most important factor 
in its usefulness. It has been the policy of the Northern Light- 
house Board to gradually alter the old fixed lights which are liable 
to be mistaken, or, at all events, not so readily recognised and 
identified, and give them a definite character. During the last 
twenty-five years eight fixed lights on the coast of Scotland have 
been altered to flashing or occulting lights. The introduction by 
Messrs. Chance. in 1874 of the group-flashing characteristic, pro- 



86 RECENT IMPROVEMENTS IN THE LIGHTING AND BUOYING 

posed by the late Dr. Hopkinson, put into the hands of the light- 
house engineer the power of greatly varying thie character of lights, 
and many lights of this character have been installed on the coast. 
Further, the periods of many of the lights have been shortened as 
much as possible, consistently with other considerations. Not 
only has the number of the lights been increased and the characters 
improved, but the powers of the lights on the Scottish coast have 
been greatly increased. Thus, in 1875 the most powerful light on 
the Scottish coast had a power equal to 44,500 candles ; now there 
are several over 100,000 candles, and the Isle of May electric light 
has a power which is calculated is equal to 3,000,000 candles. 
The limitation of the duration of flashes to about half a second, 
and the reduction to a minimum of the number of faces of the 
apparatus have long been recognised as leading principles, and 
acted on in Scotland where consistent with producing the proper 
characteristic, and a duration of flash of sufficient length. The 
recent increase in the power of the apparatus has been effected by 
the use of one or both of the following improvements in lighthouse 
apparatus, which have been described by Messrs. Chance as " most 
valuable improvements." 

(i) The introduction of hyper-radiant or long focal distance 
apparatus proposed by Messrs. Stevenson in 1869, designed and 
experimented on by them in 1885, and introduced in many lights 
since that date both at home and abroad. (2) The introduction 
of Mr. Charles A. Stevenson's equiangular prisms, which effect a 
saving of 15 per cent, of the light incident on them at 45 deg., and 
26 per cent, at 40 deg., and which permit with efficiency oiF the 
use of refractors of 80 deg. focal opening in place of only 60 deg. 
with Fresnel elements. The adoption of flint glass to extend the 
refracting portion to 80 deg. caused more loss of light than if 
catadioptric prisms had been used for this portion; indeed, the 
great divergence from the prisms, and the loss of light due to 
using flint glass, rendered this portion of the apparatus practically 
useless as a lighthouse agent. 

This increase in the power of the lights has not been effected by 
increasing the size of the burners employed, as no burner of a 
larger diameter than six wicks for hyper-radiant, and five wicks for 
first-order flashing lights has been introduced, because, owing to 
want of focal compactness, and the fact that little increase of 
intensity is obtained, larger burners are considered not to warrant 
the additional consumption in oil and difficulty of management 
they entail. Nor has the length of flashes been reduced below 
four-tenths of a second, as anything less than about half a second 
is considered too short to give, under practical conditions, full 
perception. 

With the exception of one electric light and five stations where 



OF THE SCOTTISH AND ISLE OF MAN COASTS. 87 

oil gas is employed, four of which are also incandescent, the 
illuminant used in the Scottish lighthouses is paraffin. The 
introduction of gas as the illuminant has permitted, at less important 
stations, of dispensing with the attendance of one of the keepers, 
reducing the staff to one, who is rimg up should anything go wrong 
with the light by an electric automatic alarum. 

In the case of lights made by oversea vessels, and coast lights 
which are intended to light long stretches of coast, it is necessary 
that they should be of considerable power, and that they should be 
constantly attended by keepers to ensure their due exhibition. 
There are, however, many places on the Scottish coast, as in 
sounds, lochs, and firths, where lights do not require to be seen at 
a great distance, and where even the extinction of the light for a 
time would only cause inconvenience to the sailor, not disaster. 
In such cases the lights may obviously be of low power, and be 
unattended continuously by keepers. Lighted beacons and buoys 
have consequently been introduced at such places on the Scottish 
coast, to the great advantage of navigation, and at a very small 
cost. Twenty-three of these beacons and buoys axe lighted on 
Pintsch's system of compressed oil gas, and have given complete 
satisfaction. They require only to be visited once in six weeks 
or so. 

Originally the fixed-light character was all that was available, but, 
on Messrs. Stevenson's suggestion, Messrs. Pintsch introduced a 
method whereby they show one, two, or three flashes as desired, and 
this has greatly increased their usefulness besides reducing the con- 
sumption of gas. Twenty-one beacons are lighted with petroleum 
burned in the Benson-Lee and Lee lamps, in which the wicks are 
carbon-tipped, and require attention every four or five days, but are 
an improvement, as regards safety and power, on the Norwegian 
Trotter-Lin dberg system which was first used in this way. When 
these lights require to be made flashing, this is produced by 
revolving shades driven by the current of heated air from the 
flame. 

The buoys in use on the Scottish coast have been increased in 
size and improved in shape, so as to ride upright even in strong 
tidal currents, and they are for these reasons more easily seen 
and picked up by the sailor. 

The Otter Rock light-vessel just launched will be unattended by 
a crew, and has been designed to lie in a very exposed situation. 
The lantern apparatus and glass-work were specially designed to 
suit the circumstances, and made by Messrs. Chance. The gas 
fittings are on Messrs. Pintsch's system, and they are the contractors 
for the work. 

Owing to the prevalence of fog and snow showers on the 
Scottish coast, amounting to between 300 and 400 hours in the 



88 RECENT IMPROVEMENTS IN THE LIGHTING AND BUOYING 

year, and lasting occasionally for spells, without a break, of 36 
hours, the question of fog signalling is very important. Fog signals 
minister not only to the safety of navigation, but facilitate the 
making of regular passages, and hence are greatly appreciated by 
the sailor and the shipowner. The 24 fog signals erected on the 
Scottish coast during the last 25 years have explosive cartridges at 
two stations, and siren fog-horns actuated by compressed air at all 
the rest. These tonite signals, which give a loud report, were 
originated by the Elder Brethren of the Trinity House, and are 
of great value in certain situations. They are only used on the 
Scottish coast at rock stations, where the siren horn could not be 
introduced except at a very large cost, as they are not so efficient 
and much more expensive to maintain than fog-horn signals. 
For fog-horns the motive power to compress the air used 25 years 
ago was hot-air engines, which were excellent for the purpose, as they 
did not require a supply of fresh water, which is not easilv obtained 
at most lighthouse stations ; but, on the other hand, they took about 
. three-quarters of an hour to start, and were costly to keep in repair. 
Messrs. Stevenson accordingly introduced in 1883 gas-engines driven 
by oil gas. They require little water, and have not the drawbacks of 
the hot-air engine ; and his having proved successful, they followed it 
up by the introduction in 1889 of the oil engine, then just perfected. 
Both of these improvements were first used for fog signalling 
purposes in Scotland, and the oil engine is now almost invariably 
so used. Steam engines have been introduced at two stations, in 
one case because steam boilers were already at the station for the 
electric light engine, and in the other because the oil engine had not 
been introduced, and, being a lightship station, the choice lay 
between hot-air and steam engines. 

Where oil engines are used, a fog-horn can now be put in 
operation in about eight minutes, even if there is no air stored, 
which, however, is done in several cases, so that the signal can be 
practically instantaneously started. In recent cases the engine 
power introduced at fog-signal stations has been about 50 h.p., 
one-third of which is reserve. The working pressure used, as a 
rule, is about 30 lbs. per square inch, and about 46 cubic feet of 
air per second of blowing is expended. The siren used is a 
modification of Mr. Slight's cylindrical siren. By improving the 
shape and enlarging the horn and air passages, opening out and 
properly forming the air ports of the siren, driving the siren by an 
air motor, and properly proportioning the storage to the air con- 
sumption, Messrs. Stevenson have recently greatly increased the 
efficiency of the siren fog-horn. 

For the purposes of distinction, groups of blasts have been 
introduced, two, three, and four blasts given in quick succession, 
and these are still further difiFerentiated by making the blasts of 



OF THE SCOTTISH AND ISLE OF MAN COASTS. Sd 

different pitch when necessary. Their endeavour has been to make 
these blasts as long in duration as possible, consistently with due 
econoimy, their view and experience being that a long blast is more 
effective than a short blasts and that no blast should be less than 
three seconds, and that five seconds is what should be aimed at. 
The periods of some recent signals have also been reduced to i^ 
minute, though this is, in their opinion, perhaps unnecessarily short, 
as in most situations a two or even three minutes' period would 
serve the sailor's requirements, permit of a great reduction of the 
power, and therefore reduce the expense necessary to produce an 
effective signal. 

In spite of all that has been done to improve our fog-signals, 
they are undoubtedly the weak point in the provision made for 
leading and guiding the sailor. This is, it is to be feared, inherent 
in the system of using the air as the carrier of fog-signal warnings, 
for soimd signals are uncertain both as to penetration and location, 
and the solution of the difficulty will probably ultimately be found 
in Mr. Charles A. Stevenson's proposal of 1892, of an electric cable 
or conductor laid down off a coast or danger so as to act on an 
instrument on board each vessel, and thus either warn the sailor of 
his proximity to it, and therefore to a coast or danger, or act as a 
lead along which vessels might sail, keeping, as it were, in touch with 
the cable. 

Although not directly connected with the guarding of the coast, 
the remoteness of many of the lighthouses on the Scottish coast 
— one of which is 40 miles from land, one 20, and several about 12 
— at a very early period caused consideration to be given to the 
possibility of connecting them with the shore by electric telegraph. 
The expense involved prohibited the adoption of electric cables; 
and in 1894 the Commissioners of Northern Lighthouses made an 
experiment of the wireless system of telegraphy proposed by Mr. 
Charles A. Stevenson, on the scale and distance that was required 
for one of the stations in the Northern Lighthouse Service. This 
experiment, which was carried out with the assistance of the 
General Post Office officials in Edinburgh, proved quite successful; 
but the Board of Trade declined to sanction its adoption on the 
ground that flag signals were sufficient. Since then many other 
similar or cognate proposals have been suggested, but nothing 
practical has yet been done. 

The Discussion was combined with that on the papers by Baron 
Quinette de Rochemont, Mr. Harding, and Mr. Brebner (see 
p. 97). The author replied by correspondence. 

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
to the author. 



"REGENT :iMPROVEMENTS \m rPHE *IiIGHn?TNG AND 
•BUOYING^ OF ♦THE 'COASTS OF 'FRANCE." 

'P9|»r!by rBatron Quihette de IRochkmont. 



1â:èstract. 

The Department of Lighthouses and Beacons in France, under 
the àbie direction of the late and regretted M. Bour délies, has 
introduced many improvements in the lighting and buoyiag of 
coasts. 

The illuminating power of lighthouses has been greatly increased 
by:— 

1. Increasing the intrinsic brightness of the luminous source. 

2. Greater perfection in the manufacture of the optical apparatus. 

3. Reducing the number of lenticular panels, and increasing 
their surface and power by employing lightning lights. 

The brightness of the beam from a lenticular panel is pro- 
portionate to the intrinsic brightness of the luminous source at the 
burner, and not to the luminous intensity. The mean intrinsic 
brightness of flames, produced by oil lamps, increases only to a 
Islight extent with the size of the flames. The illuminating power 
of lighthouses can, therefore, only be improved to a slight extent 
by increasing the number of wicks. The adoption of Auer incan- 
descent burners, for compressed gas and petroleum vapour, has 
enabled a great practical improvement to be effected. Incan- 
'descent lighting by acetylene gas will probably give still better 
results, at any rate, as regards light efficiency. The intrinsic 
brightness of various systems of lighting employed in lighthouses 
is as follows, expressed in carcels(*) per square centimetre of the 
mean horizontal focal plane of the luminous source. It varies 
from o^35 to 1.18 carcel'for burners with mineral oil, emplo)dng 
fi/om one to six wièks; and for incandescent lightir^g with com- 
, pressed oil gas,, petroleum vapour, arid acetylene, it attains 2, 2.5, 
and 4 carcels, respectively. The crater of an electric arc has an 
intrinsic brightness of 900 carcels. 

The luminous efficiency of the optical apparatus has been in- 
creased by ini>proving the focal precision, and by keeping the 
characterislfic or effective diveargence -within narrow limits. 

With lightning lights,' by reducing the duration of the; flashes, as 
far a& -possible, to the time actually required for the full perception 

* I carcel equal»» Q.5 candles. 



UaHTING'AI^D BUOYING OF THE COASTS OF FRANCE. '91 

0Î their Junsinous ioteni^ty, .it «has (been possible to construct the 
optical ^a^ppasatus with jsl small luuaber of lenses of large surface^ 
.and consequently of great pomer. 

The iUuaainati^ power has thus been raised to 50,000 and 
'60,000 carcels in lighthouses which t have double sets of optical 
apparatus, such as at Ailly, where the illumiiiant is compressed 
gas; and at Vierge, where it is compressed petroleum vapour. 

Although the increase of the intriosic. brightness of the luminous 
source. exercises the principal iaduenoe in increasing the illuminat- 
ing power of lighthouses, it is, nevertheless, necessary to consider 
to some exitent the dimensions of that source. 

Incandescent gas lighting,, when no special gas works are required^ 
is not much more expensive than lighting with a three-wick burner ; 
and even when special works are necessary, it is more economical 
than a five-wick- burner. The annual expenditure for gas lighting 
does not exceed iBoo francs (j£y2) with gas works, or 800 francs 
(jQ^2) without works; for petroleum vapour lighting it amounts to 
650 francs (;£26). 

The generating stations for recently-built electric lighthouses 
have been provided with the latest improvements; particular 
attention has been paid to the improvement of the alternators and 
the regulators. 

The permanent lights have increased the safety of navigation 
by enabling the beacon towers and shoals out at sea to be 
illuminated, where the erection of ordinary lighthouses would have 
been precluded on account of the expense. These permanent lights 
employ wicks, the surface of which has been evenly coated with a 
thin layer of carbonised tar, the operation being termed " crontage,''^ 
or caking. These permanent lights can have all the character- 
istics of superintended lights. 

The consumption of oil is from 35 to 40 grammes (1.234 to 
1. 4 II oz.) per hour. The illuminating power of these lights 
averages about 100 carcels for regular lightning lights, from 85 to 
60 carcels for lights ^^'ith groups of two or three flashes, and & 
carcels for fixed lights. 

Other permanent lights, in the form of illuminated buoys, fed 
with oil gas, have been adopted on an extensive scale, especially 
to increase the protection at dangerous points, or as substitutes 
for lightships, and for lighting winding and shifting channels. 

Considerable improvements have also been effected in the con- 
struction of lightships — 

1. By eliminating sjmchronism between the period of oscillation 
of the lightship and that of the waves acting upon it. 

2. By reducing the rolling due to the waves by the addition of 
side k^ls to the vessel. 

The information afforded by the various trials and experiments 



92 LIGHTING AND BUOYING OF THE COASTS OF FRANCE. 

carried out with the Talais and Snouw lightships has been utilised 
for the design of the lightship which is to be moored on the 
Sandettie. This vessel will be 35 metres (114 feet 10 inches) long, 
6.24 metres (20 feet 5 inches) wide, with a depth of 5.10 metres 
(16 feet 8 J inches) from the deck to bottom of hold, at centre. 
It will have a displacement of 342 tons. 

The illuminating portion will consist of a swinging optical 
apparatus for a lightning light, with an incandescent burner em- 
ploying compressed oil gas as an illuminant. The illuminating 
power will be 3500 carcels. 

The vessel will, in addition, be provided with plant for the 
sounding signal. This will comprise two boilers with distilling 
plant, self -condensers, and air-compressers ; and a single siren 
worked by compressed air, with reservoirs and accessories. 

It has been observed that the vibration and noise which occur 
in beacon towers are the effect of the impact of the waves. 
Considered from this point of view, in which the essential factor 
of resistance is the whole mass of the tower, it has been found 
advisable to build the latter in the form of a monolith. 

Thus the most recent lighthouses at sea have been built with 
small stones set in Portland cement, with a facing of small pick- 
dressed stones. Similarly, beacon towers are constructed of 
concrete or of neat cement, deposited within framing. This 
simplified method of construction is economical and rapid, and, 
moreover, it increases the resistance of the work to the principal 
stresses to which it is subjected. 



The Discussion was combined with that on the papers by Mr. 
D. A. Stevenson, Mr. Harding, and Mr. Brebner (see p. 97.) 

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
to the author. 



"THE CHINESE LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE.' 

Paper by J. R. Harding. 



Abstract, 

The lighthouse service of China is a department of the Chinese 
Imperial Maritime Customs, which institution has, under the able 
administration of Sir Robert Hart, become practically the Inter- 
national Civil Service of the country, embracing within its com- 
prehensive grasp many important undertakings other than tue 
collection of revenue. 

The paper is divided into the following seven sub-headings : — 
(i) Commencement of lighting the coast; (2) Description of the 
more important lights in chronological order; (3) The lighting of 
the Yangtze; (4) Fog signalling, oil storage, etc; (5) Staff; (6) 
Buoys and beacons; (7) Construction and maintenance. 

1. When Sir Robert Hart first joined the Customs Service in 
1859 the coast was practically unlighted, and the work of 
establishing suitable safeguards for shipping was only commenced 
in earnest in 1869, in which year Mr. D. Marr Henderson, 
M.Inst.C.E., was appointed engineer to the Lighthouse Depart- 
ment, where he remained until 1898. 

The designs for most of the lights on the Chinese Coast were 
prepared by Mr. Henderson, and their erection was carried out 
under his directions. 

2. A brief description is given of all the lights of any importance 
on the Chinese coast, and plans of the various stations accompanied 
the paper, with a chart showing the positions and characteristics of 
the lights. Among the most interesting stations are : — Breaker 
Point, about 30 miles south of Swatow. The tower, which is 120 
feet in height to the lantern vane, was designed by Mr George 
Rendel, and consists of a wrought-iron cylinder or tube, made in 
sections and bolted together, containing a spiral stairway. The 
tube is enlarged at the top to a diameter of 12 feet, to form a 
service room and to carry the lantern, and it is stayed with eight 
large wrought iron stays, arranged in pairs, braced together, and 
secured to anchor-bolts embedded in Portland cement concrete. 
The tower was cheap, easily erected, and, what is of even more 
importance on the Chinese coast, easily transported and landed. 
The light is first-order dioptric white occulting, the occultations 



94 THE CHINESE LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE. 

being produced by an iron cylinder of slightly larger diameter than 
the burner, alternately raised and lowered by a suitable clockwork. 
South Cape of Formosa. — The interest attached to this station 
lies in the fact that it was built in a part of the island inhabited 
solely by savages, and had, in consequence, to be fortified. The 
lantern was protected by steel revolving screens, and on the galler> 
of the tower, which was of cast iron, a machine gun was fitted on 
racers. Round the base of the tower was built a wrought iron 
refuge or fort, communicating by bullet-proof passages with all the 
rooms in the keepers' dwelling-houses. Both fort and tower were 
fitted with suitable accommodation for the staff in case of siege, 
had water-tanks in the basement, and were supplied with a stock 
of provisions. The station was further protected bv a loop-holed 
wall and a dry ditch, flanked by two small towers or cafK>nnières, 
armed with i8-pounder cannon. Pei-yu-shan. — A fine hyper-radial 
light, floated on mercury, showing double flashes every half- 
minute. 

A description is given also of a composite light-ship, no feet 
long by 25 feet beam, which has been recently built in Shanghai, 
and which shows a triple white flash, and is fitted with a powerful 
double-noted fog siren, operated by two 9^ horse power Hornsby- 
Ackroyd oil engines. 

3. The Yangtze, which is probably the third largest river in the 
world, is navigable for deep-draught steamers up to Hankow, a 
distance of 620 miles; for light-draught steamers to Ichang, a 
further distance of 370 miles ; and for special steamers as far as 
Chungking, another 400 miles, and perhaps even further. 

The lighting is carried out with sixth-order lens lanterns, hoisted 
on suitable masts on shore, or on native craft fitted as light-boats, 
and attended to by native light-keepers. 

Gas buoys on Pintsch's system are now being provided for use 
in the Yangtze, and it is hoped that some will be in position early 
next year. 

4. Fog-signalling is undertaken mostly with cast-iron cannon, 
but four of the most important shore stations and three of the light- 
vessels are provided with sirens. A table is given, showing the 
average number of hours of fog during the year at various points- ori 
the coast. 

The stations are supplied with water by large, undei^otind 
cisterns, which are filled with rainwater from the roofs. This 
system of water-supply has been always found to be pure and 
sufficient. 

The mineral oil used for the burners is- not stored in bulk in 
tanks, but in its original tins and cases in specially isolated oil 
stores. 

All the buildings in the Chinese light-houses are erected at some 



THE CHINESE LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE. 95 

distance from the towers, in order that the latter may not suffer 
in case of a fire occurring in any of the quarters. 

5. The more important coast lights axe in charge of foreign 
keepers, whose pay ranges from about ;£i8 to ^£9 a month. The 
river lights are manned by native keepers, whose monthly pay 
ranges from j£^ 15s. to 15s. 

6. Whistling, bell, and ordinary buoys are in use, and a Wigham's 
buoy light has been experimented with. A considerable number 
of gas buoys' on Pintsch's system, are now under order, and should 
be watching early next year. 

Portland cement concrete sinkers are now being used to moor 
the buoys with, and are found to be very economical. Buoys and 
beacons are all coloured on a uniform system. 

7. The paper concludes with a description of the management 
of the service, at the head of which is Sir Robert Hart, Bart., 
G.C.M.G., the Inspector-General of Chinese Customs. The 
engineering is carried out by an engineer-in-chief, assistant 
engineer, and staff, and the hydrographical and surveying work is 
under the control of a coast inspector, the latter and the engineeri- 
in-chief working in consultation regarding the selection of sites 
for lighthouses, etc. 

There are at present 98 lighthouses, 4 light-vessels, 20 light-boats, 
88 buoys, and 78 beacons under the management of the service, 
besides 17 lights on the coast in the hands of foreign nations. 



The Discussion was combined with that of the papers by Mfe 
D. A. Stevenson, Baron Quinette de Rochemont, and Mr. BrebnsK 
(see p. 97). 

The author replied, and on the motion of the Chairman a vote 
of thanks was accorded to him. 



IMPROVED RAPID GROUP-FLASHING LIGHTS." 

Paper by Alan Brebner. 



Abstract 



Ihe paper describes the combination of a complete subdivided 
eclipsing screen of two or more parts, with a revolving optical 
apparatus ot two or more panels, by means of which group-flashing 
rights can be produced in greater power and compactness than by 
any other means. In this system a bivalve apparatus carries a 
screen of two sub-divisions, a trilateral apparatus one of three sub- 
divisions, and so on, each screen sub-divi«ion being attached to 
and revolving with its corresponding lenticular panel. One burner 
at che common focus of the lenses suffices for each complete 
apparatus. The principle of the French " lightning light " is 
absorbed by and perfected in this system. The trilateral form of 
optical apparatus is shown to possess advantages over any other 
form in r^jpect of power and economy — a fact first brought to 
light by the author in 1890. Any one of the bivalve, trilateral, 
quadrilateral, or other polygonal arrangements of the optical 
apparatus, combined with the suitable éclipser, can give all the 
group-flash characteristics; whereas with the Hopkinson system or 
with the plain lightning-light system the number of panels must be 
at least 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 for the 2ble., 3ple., 4ple., 5ple., or 6ple. 
group-flashes respectively. 

No mirrors being required in the system described, opaque 
as well as transparent luminaries can be fully utilised. 

An example of a quadruple-flash characteristic obtainable from 
a trilateral apparatus, making one revolution in 6 seconds, with a 
burner of reasonable and current dimensions, is as follows : — 
Flash, .r sec; eclipse, 1.9 sec; flash .1 sec; eclipse, i.^ sec; 
flash, .1 sec; eclipse, 1.9 sec; flash, .1 sec; eclipse, 5.9 sec — the 
total period being 12 seconds. 

Although the paper does not dwell on this fact, the system 
makes it possible to produce such rapidly-delivered characteristics 
as the following, if the persistence of luminous impressions be taken 
into account: — Flash, .25 sec; eclipse, .25 sec; flash, .25 sec; 
eclipse, .25 sec; flash, .25 sec; eclipse, .25 sec; flash, .25 sec; 
eclipse, .75 sec; the total quadruple-flash period being only 2^ sec. 
Similarly the double and triple group-flashes could be given in 
i^ and 2 seconds, and so on. 



IMPROVED RAPID GROUP-FLASHING LIGHTS. 97 

The paper is illustrated by a sheet of drawings, and a drawing 
and model of an optical apparatus, complete with eclipsing mechan- 
ism, were shown at the meeting. 



A combined Discussion was held on the papers by Mr. D. A. 
Stevenson, Baron Quinette de Rochemont, Mr. Harding, and Mr. 
Brebner, and was taken part in by the following members: — 
M. Ribiere, Mr. J. R. Harding, Mr. C. A. Stevenson, the Chairman, 
and Mr. N. G. Gedge. The author replied by correspondence. 

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
to the author. 

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded to 
the Honorary Secretary, Prof. Vemon-Harcourt, and on the motion 
of Baron de Rochemont a vote of thanks was accorded to the Chair- 
man, Sir John Wolfe Barry, and to the Committees of the Congress. 
The Chairman briefly replied. 

The proceedings then terminated, and the business of the Section 
was brought to a close. 



SUMMARY OF PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

Section 1 IL— Mechanical.* 



TUESDAY, BPd SEPT Jg JWr B 'Ji rH , 1901. 



Mr. William H. Maw in the Chair. 



The Chairman opened the Proceedings with a few remarks. 



"THE COOLING OF THE CYLINDERS OF HIGH-SPEED 
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES, AND ITS 
EFFECT UPON THE POWER DEVELOPED." 

Paper by Professor H. Hele-Shaw, LL.D., F.R.S. 



Abstract. 



The author commenced by giving his experience with the cooling 
of small internal-combustion engines for motor cars, and explained 
a method by which he had applied water cooling by gravitation to 
a voiturette with extremely satisfactory results. He mentioned that 
both with the voiturette in question and with a motor tricycle the 
water on a hot day during a long run is for considerable periods 
at a time o)i the boil without the power in any way appearing 
to diminish ; whereas, on the other hand, he had been on larger 
cars where owing to the defective working of the pump, the water 
was not circulating properly, and a considerable amount of steam 
was being formed. In the latter cases the power fell off in a very 
serious manner; although the engines never actually stopped, as 
has been seen with air-cooled motors. 

Amongst those who are accustomed to drive motor cars there 
is generally a feeling that the engines work best at a certain 
temperature, somewhere between that at which the water boils off 
and the cold state in which the engine actually starts. The author 

* The full Proceedings of Section III., being Part IV., 1901, of the Pro- 
ceedings of Mechanical Engineers, are published by the Institution of 
Mechanical Engineers, Storey's Gate, St. James's Park, Westminster, 
London, S.W. Price 4s. post free. 



COOLING OF THE CYLINDERS OF HUm SPEED ENGINES. 



99 



was not able to find that there esdsted any, aetuâ4 data- upon this 
subject, and it seemed to be a scifficiently important matter to be 
worth making some experiments upon. He has, therefore, with 
the assistance of Mr. Gill, B.Sc, engineering student of the Uni- 
versity College of Liverpool, experimented upon a 6 h.p. engine. 
This engine, which has magnetoelectric igxxition, was- fitted with 
two thermometers, measuring the temperature of the wa;ter at 
entrance and at exit. A tank was used when the water was allowed 
to remain at boiling point; but otherwise the two pipes were con^ 
nected with the mains, and the water at exit kept at the temperature 
required by allowing a sufficiently rapid flow of water through the 
cylinder-jacket. The power was accurately measured by means of 
a dynamometer brake acting on a flywheel. A series of five trials 
were made, four with the water at different temperatures, and a 
fifth with î^lycerine circulating in the cylinder-jacket and tank instead 
of water, in order to obtain a higher boiling point and a higher 
temperature of the cooling liquid. 

The general result of these trials is given in the following table. 
The two series of boiling-off experiments have been kept separate 
from the other three, but the plotted results indicate the same 
general result : — 

Summary of Tests. 



Trial No. 


Tempe 
at Entry. 


rature 

at Exit. 


B.H.P. 

1 
i 


1 

Kevs. 




j|,,o 


ij\° 




1 


662 


77-0 


4-775 1 


1086 


2 
3 


64-4 


131-0 


4-47 ; 


1084 
903 


64-4 


212-0 


3-97 


4 


212-0 


212-0 


4-07 


925 


5* 


253-4 


253-4 


3-937 


906 



In experiments i, 2, and 3, the water was running through. 
In experiment 3 only a small quantity was allowed to flow, as it 
was completely evaporated. 
Nos. 4 and 5 were boiling-off experiments. 

*With Glycerine. 



■• - J J . - 






100 COOLING OF THE CYLINDERS OF HIGH SPEED ENGINES. 1 

The general nature of these experiments is immediately obvious, 
and indicates a falling off in brake horse power as the temperature 
rises, the brake horse power between the two extremes of tempera- 
ture having fallen from 4.775 ^^ 3.93, a diminuticxi of about 17 
per cent. 

Each series of experiments represents, roughly speaking, about 
ten observations, which were conducted as carefully as possible; 
but, at the same time, the difficulties of maintaining uniformly the 
temperature and speed of the engine were sufficiently great to make 
it undesirable to attempt to produce any mathematical statement 
from these results. Further and more elaborate experiments will 
be required, taking temperature in conjunction with the actual 
quantity of water used, before any definite conclusion can be arrived 
at on this subject. It is interesting to note that Mr. Dugald Clerk, 
in reply to a letter from the author asking for information, appears 
to have obtained, with a slow-running gas engine, slightly greater 
efficiency at the higher temperatures; but, of course, the foregoing 
experiments only deal with actual power, and not with efficiency. 

The author has not attempted to discuss the actual cause or 
causes of the falling off in power as the temperature of the cylinder 
rises. Whether this is due to lubrication difficulties or thinning 
of the cylinder lubricant to a point which allows the piston rings 
to leak, or whether due to heating of incoming charge and con- 
sequent weakening of the mixture, would aflFord matter for an 
interesting discussion. 

The advances in the construction of these high-speed internal- 
combustion engines, and the rapidly increasing power which is being 
evolved from them, warrant their careful study. Thus, in the recent 
Paris-Berlin race, there were several engines upon light motor 
vehicles, capable of developing more than 50 H.P., with in one case 
at least a weight of not more than 10 lbs. per horse power. When 
it is remembered that this is not merely the equivalent of the 
steam engine, but of the engine and boiler, it will no doubt be 
admitted that any point, such as the cooling of the cylinders, which 
is an essential feature of the problem, is worthy of the attention of 
the Congress. 



The following members took part in the Discussion : — Mr. Bryan 
Donkin, Herr R. Diesel, Mr. Blackwood Murray, Mr. Dugald Clerk, 
and the Chairman. 

The author replied, and on the motion of the Chairman a vote 
of thanks was accorded to him. 



! ' ' * . ^.^ \ 

i 



"TRIALS OF STEAM TURBINES FOR DRIVING 

DYNAMOS." 

Paper by the Hon. Charles A. Parsons, F.R.S., and 

George Gerald Stoney. 



Abstract. 

The earlier forms of steam turbines were described in a paper 
read before the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in 1888, but 
since that date great improvements have been made both in the 
design and construction^ — leading, especially in the case of large 
condensing turbines, to a very remarkable degree of economy. 

Prior to 1890 all the steam turbines constructed were of the 
non-condensing type of small size, but in 1892 one of 100 kws. was 
constructed for condensing. With a steam pressure of 100 lbs. 
per square inch, and moderate superheat, a steam consumption of 
27 lbs. per kw. hour was obtained by Professor J. A. Ewing, F.R.S., 
a result rivalling the performances of the best compound recipro- 
cating condensing engines. 

This result placed the steam turbine among the most economical 
means of obtaining electric energy from steam, and led to its 
adoption in the lighting stations of Cambridge, Scarborough, New- 
castle, and other places. 

About two years later considerable improvements were intro- 
duced, the single flow type of turbine being adopted, in which the 
steam passes parallel to the axis, with balancing pistons to take 
up the end pressure; these alterations both improved the economy 
and also decreased the amount of workmanship involved. At the 
same time the steam vanes or blades were strengthened and im- 
proved. 

The following performances in condensing turbines with saturated 
steam of 140 lbs. per square inch pressure were recorded; a 24 
kilowatt plant gave 28.8 lbs. per kw. ; a 50 kw., 28 lbs. per kw. ; 
a 100 kw., 26.4 lbs. per kw. ; a 200 kw., 24.2 lbs. per kw. ; and a 
500 kw., 22.7 IIds. per kw. With a moderate superheat of 50 deg. 
F. these results are improved by about 8 per cent. ; and with 
100 deg. F., by about 12 per cent. 

With two 1000 kw. turbo alternators for the City of Elberfield, 
with 140 lbs. steam pressure, and about 25 deg. F. of superheat, 
driving their own air pumps, the following remarkable results were 
obtained on the official trials :^ — 

Load in kws 1250 1000 750 500 520 

Lbs. steam per kw. hour 19.0 20.2 22.0 25.1 33.6 



102 TRIALS OF STEAM TURBINES FOR DRIVING DYNAMOS. 

It should be pointed out that, as there is no internal lubrication 
in the steam turbine, there are none of the usual difficulties attend- 
ing the use of superheated steam, and also that the water from the 
hot-well is absolutely free from oil, and therefore can be used direct 
in the boilers. 

As might be expected, non-condensing turbines do not give such 
high results, but with about 150 lbs. steam pressure 39 lbs. per kw. 
has been obtained in a 100 kw. plant, and 38 lbs. in a 250 kw. plant, 
without superheat. 

In larger sizes of, say, 1500 kw., with 200 lbs. steam pressure 
and 150 deg. F. superheat, a consumption of 28^ lbs. per kw. non- 
condensing has been guaranteed, and is expected to be easily 
obtained, if not surpassed. 



The following members took part in the Discussion : — the Chair- 
man, Professor Schroter, Professor William Ripper, and Mr. Bryan 
Donkin. 

Mr. G. Gerald Stoney replied, and on the motion of the Chairman 
a vote of thanks was accorded to the authors. 



«SOME PARTICULARS OF THE RESULTS OF THE 
COMPOUND LOCOMOTIVES ON THE BUENOS 
AIRES GREAT SOUTHERN RAILWAY." 

Paper by R. Gould. 



Abstract. 



The question of coal consumption of locomotives becomes in 
countries like the Argentine Republic, which depends entirely on 
the imported article, a matter of paramount importance, and an 
endeavour to secure an economy in this respect led to the trial of 

. the cooapound eogine. 

The type of engine adopted on the Great Southern Railway was: 

.the two-cylinder " Worsdell and Von Borries," as being the simplest 
•arcaQgeuoaent, and interfering least with the duplication of parts of 
the standard simple engines previously in service. All these 
engines, both simple and compound, were built by Messrs. Beyer, 
Peacock & Co., under the instructions of Messrs. Livesey, Son & 
Henderson, the Company's consulting engineers. 

The first compound engines ordered were erected in 1889, and 
the results obtained were so excellent that, with the exception of 
hunting and local traffic engines, no simple engines (either goods. 
or passenger) have since been ordered. 

The engines proved easy to handle, exhibited a high economy in 
coal and water, and, owing to the reduced demand on the boiler,, 
showed less tendency to priming and scale than the original simples. 
As an offset against these advantages, the first compounds some- 
times showed a sluggishness in starting, or an inclination to jib, due to 
the rapidity with which the automatic " Worsdell and von Borries " 
starting valve caused compounding to take place, reducing the 
power by cutting off the live steam from the low pressure cylinder 
before (in the case of long and heavy trains) the whole weight was 
fully taken on the drawbars, or the whole train in motion. In 
this valve the exhaust steam from the high pressure cylinder is held 
in check by a mushroom valve, which closes automatically by the 

.action of live steam from the boiler, admitted to a pair of small 
pistons operating on the back of the large mushroom. With this 
valve closed, no high pressure exhaust steam can pass, and the low 
pressure cylinder is temporarily fed by a by-pass of live steam from 
the boiler. The high pressure exhaust beipg completely bottled 
up, compounding takes» place very rapidly, as the back pressure 
rising forces' open the large mushroom and shuts the by-pass. The- 



104 SOME PARTICULARS OF RESULTS OF COMPOUND LOCOMOTIVES 

defect was got over by an improvement made in the Company's 
Works at Buenos Aires in introducing a hollow spindle in the 
mushroom valve with an escape passage to the chimney, the office 
of the passage being to relieve the h.p. back pressure to some 
extent, and so delay compounding. 

The effect of the alteration in the intercepting valve was to 
entirely obviate the tendency to jib previously experienced, and 
to ensure a certain and easy start, with the maximum power, whilst 
retaining the automaticity of the valve's action, a most valuable and 
important feature, putting it out of the power of the driver to work 
non-compound longer than absolutely necessary, which by some 
systems is possible, and tends to reduce the economy. This hollow 
spindle arrangement was found so successful that the intercepting 
valves of the whole of the compounds — some 109 engines — ^were so 
fitted. 

The diagrams accompanying showed the principal classes of 
compound engines on the Great Southern Railway, and also the 
corresponding simple engines for two classes. Classes 6 and 6a and 
7 and 7 A compare absolutely. Class 10, d-^'signed by the author, for 
working either goods or heavy passenger trains, represents the most 
modem engines of the Company, whilst Class 6b shows an engine of 
special interest as regards the compound question, in that it was 
constructed from old engines similar to Class 6 at the Company's 
works. Increasing weights of trains made it necessary to do 
something to adapt engines — of which the Company possessed a 
large number — ^to the heavier demand on their power. The 
boilers of some of the older engines were replaced by new and 
larger ones carrying high pressure, the cylinders being at the same 
time changed for those of increased size, and the engines corn- 
pounded, the new type being represented in Class 6b. 

The engines have proved a great success, being from 25 to 30 
per cent, more powerful than the old Class 6 which they supersede, 
and showing an economy of fuel even better than that of the 
compoimds. 

The tabular statement attached shows the coal and lubricant 
consumption, and also the comparative cost of repairs for the 
mileages given. 

It will be seen from the table that the engines. Class 6a, bum 
23 per cent less coal per axle than their compeers. Class 6, the 
load being practically equal, whilst the engines. Class 6b, actually 
show an economy of 37 per cent., but as the latter have hauled 
heavier trains (which always show a greater economy in consump- 
tion per axle hauled) some of this economy must be discounted. 

In the case of the engines, Classes 7A and 10, an economy of 
14 per cent over Class 7 is shown, but here again allowance 
must be made for the fact that the simple engines hauled more 



ON THE BUENOS AIRE3 GREAT SOUTHERN RAILWAY. 



105 



axles. The Classes 7 a and 10, especially the latter, were em- 
ployed for the heavier passenger trains, whilst Class 7 were almosti 
entirely employed on goods traffic, not being equal to the task 
of the heavier passenger work at the higher speeds. If it were 
not for these circumstances, the Classes 7 a and 10 would exhibit 
an economy equal in amount to that of Classes 6a and 6b. In 
the matter of lubricants the simple and compounds show practically 
no difference. 

In the comparison of the cost of repairs it must not be forgotten 
that this is as between the simple and compound engine only. The 
cost of wages in Buenos Aires is at present about 50 per cent, more 
than in England, and the material, although imported duty free, 
has to bear several extra charges, such as freight, packing, insur- 
ance, etc., that greatly enhance its cost when delivered to the 
Company's workshox» in Buenos Aires. 

The absence of heavy grades on the Buenos Aires Great 
Southern Railway renders it a favourable field for the compound 
engine, the grades of importance being in one district only, the bulk 
of the line being practically straight and level. The character of 
the traffic, with long runs and full trains as a rule, causing an 
approximation to the fixed load of a stationary engine, is also 
favourable for the compound system. 



Consumption of Goal and Lubricants for the year 1900. 
Engines^ Classes 6, 6a and 6b, 7, 7a and 10. 





Passenger Engine. 


Goods Engine. 


Simple. 


Compound. 


Simple. 


Compound. 


Class 
6 


C ass 
6a 


Class 
6b 

29- 25 
211 

32-5 

0*90 

6-28 

5-96 
625 


Class 
7 


Class 
7A 


Class 
10 


Coal consumed per train-mile lbs. 
Average weight of trains - tons 
Average number of axles per train 
Coal consumed per axle perl 1, 

mile - - -J 
Lubricant consumed per ioo\ ,1 

train-miles - - -f ^^' 
Lubricants consumed per ioo\ ., 

engine-miles r - ./ *^^' 
Ratio of coal consumed per axle) 

per mile j 


36*00 
162 

25 

1-44 

770 
6-38 
100 


28-05 
166 

25*5 

I'lO 

6-45 
5-96 
76-4 


55-68 

624 

96 

0-58 

7-13 

5*57 
100 


45-00 

585 
90 

0-50 
7-27 

5*96 
86-2 


40-50 

526 

81 

0-50 
5-96 
5 '32 
86-2 



106 SOME PARTICULARS OF RESULTS OF COMPOUND LOCOMOTIVES 

Oo§i of Bejp^H (QenertU and Mainiênmiee).* 
Enginery Classes 6, 6a, 7 and 74- 



Fasseag«r Engine. 



Siiqaple. Compound. 



Class 
6 



Nnmber of engines repaired 
Average cost of lepairs per engine 1 

per mileage shown / 

Averitge number of engine- miles run \ 

for above engine repairs J 

Average number of engine- miles run\ 

perannnm - - - - j 



Class 
6a 



32 

51,034 
23,916 



24 

55,865 
28,920 



Go<»ds Engine. 



ample. HCJq. 



Simple. HCkimpouad. 



Class ! Class 
y I 7A 



22 



43 
^470 



54,769 55,224 

j 
20,556 i 25,692 



* The maintevumce does not include wages of running slued fitters, but 
is for materials and spare pfurts supplied during service. 



The Chairman and Mr. Michael Longridge took part in the 
Discussion, and on the motion of the Chairman a vote qf thanks was 
accorded to the author. 



^^THP RATING AND TESTING OF Cl^ECTRJCAL 

MACHINERY." 

Paper by Gisbebt Kapp. 



Abstract. 



With the growing application of electricity, the commerce with 
electrical apparatus forms an important part of the general 
commerce of every civilised country. Such commerce should be 
put upon a safe basis by clearly defining the properties of the 
articles bought and sold. Electrical plant also enters into inter- 
national commerce, and the question of how it shall be rated and 
tested appears to be a fit subject for an International Engineering 
Congress. The rating of electrical machinery must always be 
influenced by the condition of its use. Thus a tramway motor, 
rated by the builder at so many h.p., will develop that power, when 
in service, only occasionally. The time during which this 
maximum power is required is short if compared with the total 
running time. Under these conditions the motor will not overheat. 
If, however, the same motor were used for driving a workshop, 
and had to give out the rated power continuously, it would break 
down from overheating. The same type of motor must, therefore, 
be rated differently in the two cases. The question of efficiency 
is frequently a source of trouble between buyer and seller, especially 
In direct coupled generators. The combined efficiency can easily 
be measured, but not the efficiency of each part separately. 
According to the method employed, the separate efficiencies found 
may vary greatly; hence, to protect buyer and seller alike, it is 
desirable that there should be recognised methods for testing 
efficiency. These methods should be simple and inexpensive, 
and cause little disturbance to the regular working of the plant. 
The German Association of Electrical Engineers has last year 
app>ointed a Committee to investigate the question of rating and 
testing electrical apparatus, and has this year at the annual meeting 
provisionally adopted the report presented by the Committee. The 
final adoption has been postponed until the values of the Association 
" Standards for Rating and Testing Electrical Machinery " have 
been found out by practical use. These standards are given in 
an appendix. By issuing them the Association does not desire to 
interfere in any way between buyer and seller if the two parties 
agree in detail upon the properties which the articles bought and 



108 THE RATING AND TESTING OF ELECTRICAL MACHINERY. 

sold shall have. The standards are only intended to apply to 
that extent which is not covered by special conditions of the 
contract. The standards refer to electric generators, motors, 
converters, and transformers, but not to switches, fans, and other 
subsidiary apparatus. As regards the rating, three working con- 
ditions are to be distinguished, namely, intermittent use, short time 
use, and continuous use. The working conditions must be stated 
on the name plate. The temperature rise is prescribed, and also 
the extent to which apparatus must be capable of being overloaded. 
A definite insulation resistance is not required, but a test for 
dielectric strength by application of high pressure. For testing 
efficiency eight methods are given, and the maker of the apparatus 
is at liberty to select any of these as the method under which the 
efficiency he guarantees shall be tested. The method selected 
must be stated in the tender. 



The Chairman, Mr. R. W. Weekes^ Mr. Dniitt Halpin, Col. P. E. 
Huber, Mr. E. C. de Segundo, and Mr. Michael Longridge took 
part in the Discussion. 

The author replied, and on the motion of the Chairman a vote 
of thanks was accorded to him. 

The Meeting was then adjourned. 



WEDNESDAY, 4th SEPTEMBER, 1901. 



Mr. William H. Maw in the Chair. 



" SOME EXPERIENCES AND RESULTS DERIVED FROM 

THE USE OF HIGHLY SUPER-HEATED STEAM IN 

ENGINES." 

Paper by R. Lenke. 



Abstract. 

Superheated steam is generated by adding heat to saturated 
steam. It is a very bad conductor of heat, and has a greater 
volume per unit of weight than saturated steam. The higher the 
pressure is, the smaller is the increase of volume. The question 
may arise whether the increase of volume does not require more 
additional heat than the benefit derived therefrom is worth. A 
table has been prepared to show how many B.T.U. less are required 
to produce one cubic foot of superheated steam than the same 
amount of saturated steam. For instance, to produce one cubic 
foot of steam at 115 lbs. pressure and a temperature of 570 deg- 

350-297 
Fahrenheit, =15 per cent, less heat is required; con- 

350 
sequently superheating must result in gain. Superheated steam 

does not condense during the admission period if sufficiently super- 
heated, which is another great advantage. 

The use of superheated steam has always effected great economy, 
and even a few degrees of superheat are sufficient to decrease the 
steam and coal consumption considerably. To obtain the maximum 
economy, 660 to 700 deg. is required, and the engines have to be 
specially designed to withstand this temperature. 

The introduction of superheated steam into engines largely in- 
fluences the expansion of the heated parts. Engines a/lways gave 
great trouble when the distribution of metal in the cylinders was 
not uniform, as parts with more metal expanded most, and forced 
the cylinder walls towards the inside, and made the cylinder out 
of shape. When using liners in the cylinders, the liners were 
squeezed in at the ends, decreased the diameter, and jammed the 
piston body if sufficient clearance was not provided. With steam 
jackets heated with steam of 500 deg. Fahrenheit, the lubrication 
ceased as the cylinder walls became overheated; consequently it 



110 SOME EXPERIENCES AND RESULTS DERIVED FROM THE USE 

was found necessary to do away with the jackets, or, if jackets were 
already provided, not to pass steam through them. Pistons con- 
structed on the Ramsbottom principle always worked satisfactorily, 
except in the case of pistons fitted with steel springs when they 
were in contact with highly superheated steam. Any kind of 
gun metal gets brittle after a very short time; therefore valves, 
seats, and all parts in direct contact with superheated steam must 
be made of cast iron or other suitable mixture. Copper also loses 
about 40 per cent of its strength at that temperature; consequently 
copper bends in pipes are not practicable. 

Glands and stuffing boxes at first frightened people, so that 
engines were constructed single acting to avoid the use of glands, 
but no serious difficulties have arisen on that account. It is 
advisable to place the stuffing box as far as possible from the 
cylinder end to keep it well away from the hottest parts, and to 
allow of as much radiation as possible. Make sufficient clearance 
in the neck bush to allow for the expansion of piston rod, and do 
not use any metal with a melting temperature below that of the 
steam. Valves and valve gears are influenced in the same way 
by superheated steam. Valves containing many ribs or different 
thicknesses of metal (in section), such as plain slide valves or 
Corliss valves of the usual constructions, are not suitable for high 
temperatures. A Corliss valve of medium size can stand 480 deg. 
to 500 deg. Fahrenheit, but no more, and the latter temperature 
very seldom.. The smaller plain slide valves are, the higher tem- 
perature they can stand; large slide valves will hardly stand even 
slightly superheated steam if no provision is made for forced 
lubrication of the valve face. Piston valves have proved to he 
most suitable for wery high temperatures owing to their uniform 
distribution of metal, but even with this sort of valve, a certain 
amount of experience is necessary to get them into good working 
order. Double-beat valves can also be recommended as being 
safe, but they require a special arrangement which is not obtain- 
able with all gears. 

An engine constructed in accordance with the principles just 
explained is as safe with superheated steam as any other engine 
is with saturated steam. The use of superheated steam need by 
no means be restricted to single acting engines. Besides economy, 
other important advantages are connected with the utilisation of 
superheated steam. It makes the steam consumption independent 
to all intents and purposes of the size of the engine, and it does 
not require high boiler pressures, 160 lbs. being the highest to be 
really recommended, as no advantage is to be derived by exceeding 
it. With regard to the economy to be obtained from engines 
working with superheated steam, the following comparison of 
various types of engines may be of assistance. A single cylinder 



OF HIGHLY SUPER-HEATED STEAM IN ENGINES. Ill 

condensing engine with superheated steam works more economically 
than a compound condensing engine with saturated steam, and it 
must be remembered that 131^ lbs. of steam per i.h.p. per hour has 
been reached with a 120 horse-power horizontal single cylinder 
Corliss engine, at 125 lbs. boiler pressure. 

A non-condensing single-cylinder engine with superheated steam 
has about the same consumption as an average compound con- 
densing engine, as 16 lbs. steam per i.h.p. has been obtained; and 
non-condensing compound engines have shown consumptions of 
14 lbs. per I.H.P. T?he compound condensing engine is the most 
economical, and the economy obtained with superheated steam can 
hardly be equalled by a quadruple expansion engine working at a 
pressure of 300 lbs. The steam consumption of such an engine 
— either compound or tandem — at 140 lbs. pressure only, never 
exceeds 10 lbs. per i.h.p. per hour, and usually remains below, 
many tests having produced a consumption of 8.5 and 8.8 lbs. per 
i.h.p. To obtain the better utilisation of these temperatures, and 
to work under various loads with safety and practically uniform 
economy, Mr. Schmidt has introduced the receiver heater with 
automatic valve, the object being to keep the cylinder walls at a 
steady mean temperature, not higher than will make the lubrication 
unreliable for different rates of expansion. 

The utilisation of superheated steam is recommended in con- 
nection with all engines; the only question to be settled is the 
degree of superheat, which largely depends on local circumstances 
and on the type of engine, and this matter should be left to the 
judgment of an experienced engineer. 



The following members took part in the Discussion : — the Chair- 
man, Mr. Bryan Donkin, Mr. C. C. Leach, Mr. Henry Lea, Mr. J. 
Hartley Wicksteed, Mr. Michael Longridge, Professor William 
Ripper, Professor John Goodman, Mr. E. Hall-Brown, and Professor 
W. H. Watkinson. 

The author replied. 

Communications have been received from: — Mr. D. R. Todd, 
Messrs. Hick, Hargreaves, and Co., and Mr. C. H. Moberley. 

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
to the author. 



"A PREMIUM SYSTEM OF REMUNERATING LABOUR." 

Paper by James Rowan. 



Abstract. 



With a view to the adoption of a reliable and satisfactory method 
of piecework, a premium system was decided upon, of which the 
following is a description: — 

Work, as recorded on a job ticket, is given to a workman on a 
time allowance, and if he reduces this time allowance his rate of 
wages per hour, while he is working at the job, is increased by the 
same percentage as that by which the time allowance has been 
reduced. It is, of course, apparent that data must be collected 
for the purpose of arriving at the time to be allowed to do work. 
For this purpose a special department (Rate-fixing Department) is 
required, and when instituted, data accumulates very quickly. The 
period occupied in doing work under the usual time payment con- 
ditions may be accepted as the time allowance of the premium 
system. 

When a job is given to a workman, a job ticket is issued to him, 
with a description of the work to be done, and the time allowed to 
do it. On completion of the work the job ticket is initialled, and 
the time of day recorded on it by the foreman, and this is the time 
of commencing the next job. When the work has been examined 
and passed by the works inspector, the job ticket is handed to the 
Rate-fixing Department, which passes the same for payment. In 
the case of a job being rejected by the inspector, any premium 
which would otherwise have been earned by the workman, by reason 
of his having reduced the time allowance, is forfeited. No clerical 
labour devolves upon the workmen, and very little upon the foremen. 

The time allowance for a job given to a workman, rated at say 
8d. per hour, is loo hours, and the actual time occupied on the job 
amounts to 75 hours. We have then 100 hours at 8d. = 8oo pence, 
against 75 hours at 8d. -H25 per cent. (2d.) = 750 pence, giving the 
workman a premium = 150 pence, or 2d. per hour, and the employer 
a reduced cost = 50 pence. Provided the time allowances are 
equitable to employer and employed, and based on the average 
attainments of hourly labour, it will be evident from the foregoing 
that the higher the premium earned by the workman the greater 
will be the saving in cost. The output of the machines is also 
increased, but it is a hard matter to put a value to this. 



A PREMIUM SYSTEM OF REMUNERATING LABOUR. 113 

Occasionally a piece of work is begun on one machine and 
finished on another. The job ticket in a case of this kind is passed 
by the first to the second operator, and so on until the work is 
completed, each workman engaged upon it receiving any premium 
earned, in proportion to the total reduction of time made in com- 
pleting the whole job. Any number of men may be employed on 
the same piece of work, and it is not necessary that they should 
all remain at the work for the same period, because a slump time 
allowance is made to cover the time of all the men on a job, and the 
total time spent upon the job fixes the premium percentage, which is 
used in fixing the premiums of the different men only to the extent 
of the time each has been employed upon the work; that is, a job 
for which the time allowance is looo hours may be performed in 
800 hours — one man might work loo, one 300, and one 400 hours. 
Each of these men would have his hourly rate increased to the extent 
of 20 per cent for the time he had been employed upon the job. 
The reduction or increase of a workman's hourly rate is not affected, 
as any change in either of these directions made during the time 
he is engaged upon a job is calculated at a percentage on his hourly 
rate or rates. Neither is any difficulty introduced in respect to 
overtime allowances, as the actual time worked upon a job deter- 
mines the time upon which a premium is paid. The overtime 
allowance, which in the Glasgow district is paid at the rate of 50 
per cent, on the overtime worked, does not appear in the job ticket 
as time, being only shown as such in the workmen's time and wages 
book as a unit to fix the value of the overtime allowances. In the 
job ticket this allowance appears at its value in money. Nor is 
there any diflSiculty presented when working a night shift, as each of 
the two men at a machine receives a share of premium earned in 
proportion to the number of hours worked on the job. 

It is advisable, where at all possible, that every man should work 
on his own account; but in cases such as before mentioned, which 
refer particularly to the erecting department, the inclusion of several 
men on one job ticket cannot very easily be avoided. It may be 
mentioned that in the erecting department the apprentices in their 
first year are not given a job ticket. In their second and third years 
they are junior apprentices, and half the time that they work is 
counted; in the fourth and fifth years they are senior apprentices, 
and three quarters of the time they work is counted. They are 
allowed the same time as a journeyman. In the machine department 
apprentices in the fourth and fifth year do the same kind of work 
that is also done by journeymen, and they are allowed 25 per cent, 
more than journeymen. 

The pa3rment of premiums does not take effect until 5 per cent, 
premium has been earned, and thereafter only in multiples of 5 per 
cent. The original time fixed upon as a time allowance has never 



114 A PREMIUM SYSTEM OF REMUNERATING LAfiOUR. 

been reduced, unless there has been a radical change in the method 
of doing a piece of work. As a rule, the premiums earned by the 
meû have increased since the introduction of this system, sometimes 
due to the industry, skill, or intelligence e*erted by the workman, 
but oftener due to those exercising a controlling power. The value 
of this premium system is not limited to a saving in cost of labour 
by the reduction of the time taken to do work. Numerous instances 
might be cited where the system has been the means of bringing 
to notice, through concentration of attention on its development, 
improved methods of manufacture. 

Another feature to which special attention is directed is the use 
of the job progress card. This card is prepared every morning by 
the Rate-fixing Department, and indicates the progress which has 
been made at the various machines; and it may be made of great 
value to employers and managers. The first column gives the 
machine numbers, the second column the hours allowed for the jobs 
in hand, the third column the number of pieces included in each job, 
the fourth column the hours spent upon the job in hand till 10.30 
a.m. on the date the card is prepared, and the fifth column the 
previous records for similar jobs. The card is therefore an index 
of the progress of work in each and all machines in operation. 

There is a job register book for the machine, brass-finishing, 
tinsmiths', and smiths' departments, erecting in the works, and fitting 
on board the machinery in the yard and at the quay. As new 
jobs occur they are duly registered. Every separate job in the 
manufacture of a marine engine, from the time the castings and 
forgings come into the works until the ship leaves after her trial 
trip, is registered in this book. 

The job data book is a record of the work done on each article, 
and this book now contains a most complete and miscellaneous 
collection of data in connection with the manufacture of marine 
engines, and of other work. All whitewashing and painting, shifting 
of machines, laying down concrete floors, shifting of material from 
place to place, and many otner operations for which, not so long 
ago, it would have been impossible to fix a time, are now recorded 
in the job data book. 

This system is by no means a final solution of the piecework 
problem, but it is submitted that this system is a step towards a 
solution. The value of good and powerful tools is forcibly brought 
forward ; the use of jigs, gauges, etc., is found to be necessary, and 
old machines are placed at their true value. Meetings with managers 
and foremen for the discussion of questions arising in the course of 
manufacture are found to be necessary, and of great value. Better 
wages are earned by workmen, and more work and better work is 
got out of the machines. With this knowledge before us we do 
not hesitate to say that the introduction of a premium system such 



A PREMIUM SYSTEM OF REMUNERATING LABOUR. 115 

as described would have an elevating influence upon any workshop 
where the hourly rate of pay or the ordinary piecework is in use. 

From the system above described, three advantages follow. No 
matter how long a man takes to do the work, whether from novelty, 
misfortune, misadventure, hanging over his work, or carelessness, 
he receives his hourly rate of wages. If a man is repeating the 
same job on the same machine and continually reducing the time 
of production, he is encouraged, as by all means he should be, to 
continue doing so. If the time allowance has been fairly fixed at 
the beginning, the more a man earns the cheaper is the work; in 
other words, the element of participation is introduced. 

The paper is accompanied by specimens of Job Tickets, and 
pages of Job Registers and Job Data Books. 



The Discussion on this paper was taken with that on the papers 
by Mr. William Thomson, and by Messrs. Weir and Richmond (see 
P- 123). 

The author replied, and on the motion of the Chairman a vote of 
thanks was accorded to him. 



"SOME FACTORS AFFECTING THE ECONOMICAL 
MANUFACTURE OF MARINE ENGINES." 

Paper by William Thomson. 



Abstract. 



The most desultory reader of our technical journals cannot fail to 
be struck with the great and increasing interest which has of late 
years been taken in the internal economy of our engineering 
workshops. The object of the following remarks is to draw 
special attention to certain factors afiFecting this which have hitherto 
not received the consideration which their importance warrants. 
The points particularly referred to are : — 

(i) A premium system of labour remuneration. 

(2) Good, accurate, and powerful tools. 

(3) Arrangement of tools and roomy shops 

(4) Standardisation. 

The Premium System. — The first and greatest of all these 
influences is the introduction of the Premium System, which effects 
nothing short of a complete revolution in a shop. One of the 
primary results of this system is the establishment of accurate data 
upon which comparisons- are based and deductions made. The 
annexed Table I., columns i and 2, gives a few examples of what 
the premium system has aone in the way of economising time. 

Accurate and Powerful Tools, — ^Another most important factor in 
the economical production of work is good, powerful, and, very 
especially, accurate machine tools. The experience of the author's 
firm in this direction has been one of considerable extent. Old 
tools have been sold or otherwise disposed of, and new and more 
powerful machinery substituted. A few examples of the results of 
this substitution are given in Table I., by comparing columns 2 
and 3. 

A certain tool made by a first class firm was purchased by the 
writer's firm three years ago, and after repeated trials it was con- 
cluded that it had not adequate belt power, so when a second 
machine was ordered, an increase in the ratio of gearing of about 
28" to 30 per cent, was insisted upon, much against the will of the 
toolmakers, who considered that the first machine was amply 
powerful. The result is that the newer machine turns out the 
same work as the old in 26.5 per cent, less time. 



117 



TABLE I. 









Same Machines throughout. 




(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


Description of 




Time taken on 


Time taken in 






Work. 


Time taken 


introduction 


better location 


Record time 






under old 


of Premium 


with greater 
facilities. 


for the 






Time System. 


System. 


same job. 






hours. 


hours. 


hours. 


hours. 


I. 


Turning conn, 
rod. I off. 


43i 


36 


35 


29i 


2. 

1 


Slotting conn, 
rods. 3 off. 


31 


24i 


22^ 


20 


3- 

1 


Crank webs 
(finishing holes. 
I off). 


7i 


si 


4i 


3i 






New and more powerful 






Old Mach 


ines under 


Machines (< 


3n Premium 










system). 


Old Time 


Premium 


First time on 








System. 


System. 


new Machine 


Record Time. 


hours. 


hours. 


hours. 


hours. 


4- 


Turning tunnel 
shafting, i off. 


42 


29I 


23è 


21 


5- 


Turning ecc. 
rods. I off. 


22 


Hi 


9 


81 


6. 


Turning thrust 
shaft. I off. 


129 


97i 


75 


65 


7. 


Finish turning 
crank shaft, i 
off. 


42 


34 


15 


9Î 


8. 


Turning quad, 
blocks. 13 off. 


195 


140 


9ii 




9. 


Slotting sole- 
plates. I off. 


70 


59i 


4ii 


35J 


lO. 


Slotting con- 
denser I off. 


64 


56 


44 


34 


II. 


Slotting H.P. 
cylinder, i off. 


45Î 


33} 


24 


21 


12. 


Ripping out 
holes in crank 
webs (i web). 
2 holes. 


29 


17 


9 


7 


14. 


Hole - boring 
main bearing 
covers for bolts. 
12 holes. 


45 


37 


27è 


20 


15. 


Planing six steel 
slabs for 1 2 crank 
webs. 


142e 


102 


65è 





118 



SOBCE FACTORS AFFECTING THE ECONOMICAL 



« 

Arrangement af Tools and Roomy Shops, — ^The questions of 
arrangement of tools and roomy shops are closely connected and 
interdependent, and where these have to be applied to existing 
buildings they become very difficult ones to settle, and in most 
cases the result cannot be anything more than a compfomise. 
The question of handling of material, which is the direct result of 
the arrangement of tools, is one which has not received the atten- 
tion it deserves, simply on account of the difficulty of getting at 
the direct loss caused by a poor arrangement. As an example 
of what can be done by the consideration of these questions, it 
might be mentioned that after the author's firm laid down their new 
boiler shop, the work turned out by the light and heavy plating 
squads was done in 19.6 per cent, less time in the new shops than 
it had averaged in the old, while the machines turned out their 
work in 10 per cent, less time than before; the conditions in both 
cases as regards tools and appliances being exactly the same, except 
that more room was allowed. 

Another example taken from the machine shop illustrates this 
same point very well. A group of three machines was located in 
the old machine shop in somewhat cramped and inconvenient 
positions, but afterwards these machines were shifted to a new 
machine shop and given lots of room. The results of this new 
arrangement are given below in the annexed table : — 



Machine. 

1 
i 


Saving. 


Output 
increased by 


Time. 


Money. 


Double-headed Horizontal 
1 Borer ... - 

H. and V. Planer 
i Connecting-rod ÏAthe 


pei cent. 
3*9 

22*5 

12-8 


per cent. 
2*5 

83 


per cent. 

4 
29 

147 



In this comparison the conditions were as nearly as possible the 
same in both cases, the machines doing the same kind of work; 
the same men were at the machines, and were working under the 
premium system in the new shop as in the old. The result was 
that the men made on an average — which is taken over a long 
period in both cases — 9.3 per cent, more wages; the work was 8.3 
per cent, cheaper to the firm, and 15.9 per cent, more work was 
•got out of the same machines, due entirely to a better arrangement 
and more roomy location of these machines. 



UàMVWAÇJVUW' Of MARINE B^^WESi. U9 

St^mdwdUfktm* — ^Tbe preioimn sy9l«fmi witb i^ 9^^mt 
Ifcords, veiy fi^n §bowed up the benefit? of having dupUcftte work, 
4$ the leaving of tim^ ii^ quite eoiiçiderable whei^e a nin of dupli- 
cate or nearly «milar pieceç was given to a machinist. This was 
j^ naarked that the question of standardisi»g, BQt only the detail», 
but the whole i^giue, was gone into in order to get the full benefit 
of this, and as patterns began to require renewal the engine was 
redesigned with this end in view. In carrying out this idea in a 
new design it was found necessary, not only to consider the engine 
and its details in relation to themselves alone, but also with special 
regard to their position in the range of sizes which it was decided 
to fi^ake with a view of keeping down the number of different sizes 
of details. This practically meant redesigning simultaneously all 
the sizes of engines made, but a careful analysis and consideration 
of the requirements to be met, enabled the whole range to be 
suitably broken up into well-defined groups, each group represent- 
ing a certain size of main centres, and permitting certain variations 
of cylinder diameter and stroke within well-defined limits, and 
suitable for the usual steam pressures. The details, which in each 
group are never altered, although the cylinders may vary within the 
group limits, are in very many cases common to several groups, and 
a large number common to the whole range. This object is always 
kept in view, in order to provide as much duplicate work as possible. 
Especially is this so in the case of the very small details, because 
in these the governing factor in the cost is the wages, not the 
material — a slight and unimportant variation in size causing a 
relatively large variation in wages cost; while in the larger details 
the conditions are reversed, and the material becomes the important 
cost factor, a relatively small variation in wages covering a very 
large variation in size. 

When, however, duplication of pieces can no longer be carried 
out on account of the loss of material prohibiting it, much can be 
done in the way of duplicating similar machined, faced, etc. parts, 
in different groups. This enables and encourages the use of jigs, 
which, under other conditions, would not have been warranted by 
the saving in wages. When even this cannot be done, standardisa- 
tion by a graded series of similar pieces does much to make the 
progress of the work through the drawing office and the shops easy 
and free from the friction and delay incidental to sudden and abrupt 
changes in design. In the drawing office it has the effect of 
crystallising that vague thing known as " our practice," and compels it 
to carry out its work on well-defined lines, thus avoiding expensive 
and irritating changes and mistakes or oversight. 

In the shops, standardisation by its consistency in design 
familiarises the staff and men with the practice, and enables them to 
go about each new job with confidence and expedition, knowing 



120 MANUFACTURE OF MARINE ENGINES. 

that each job as it comes forward, if not a duplicate, will at least 
be similar, all of which go far to speed up the progress of work 
through the shop, and thus increase the output. And, above all, 
by the very fact that the means to effect this calls for the best 
facilities and most exact workmanship, the result is, that the 
character of the workmanship is raised besides being cheapened, 
with satisfactory results to both consumer and manufacturer. 



The Discussion on this paper was taken with that on the papers 
by Mr. James Rowan, and by Messrs. Weir and Richmond (see 
P- 123). 

The author replied, and on the motion of the Chairman a vote of 
thanks was accorded to him. 



"WORKSHOP METHODS: SOME EFFICIENCY FACTORS 

IN AN ENGINEERING BUSINESS." 

Paper by William Weir and J. R. Richmond. 



Abstract. 



So many papers have been written, and so much literature now 
exists on the equipment and organisation of engineering works, that 
a brief consideration of some less frequently treated factors in 
promoting efficiency in the shops may be of interest and possibly 
of value. 

No claim to novelty is made on behalf of these schemes, as 
several of them are of trans-Atlantic origin, but their success when 
transplanted to this side shows that much can be done to interest 
the men and the staff in their work. 

The schemes to be described have now been in operation for 
some time, so that a fair idea can be given of their working results ; 
but the descriptions of the various efficiency factors following are 
not intended to be exhaustive. 

I. Premium System of Remunerating Labour. — In an engineering 
works which for many years has worked only with time wages, 
the relative wages do not represent the relative values of the 
men. To remedy this state of affairs it was decided, after con- 
sidering all the bestrknown systems of remuneration, to adopt the 
premium system, for the following reasons : — 

(i) The system was simple and easily understood by the men, 
their extra remuneration being easily calculated by themselves. 

(2) The system was comparatively simple in its application, and 
did not involve a very large additional staff. 

(3) It had not the defect of piece-work, that an error in rate 
fixing is either expensive or discouraging. 

(4) It offered a real inducement to the workman to suggest 
improvements in his machine or tools. 

(5) The system in its application gives accurate data for time- 
keeping and cost-keeping purposes. 

After more than three years' experience of the working of the 
system we have found the following to be among the many advan- 
tages gained by its application : — 

(i) It has resulted in a largely increased output from our 
machines for the same labour cost. 

(2) An increase in our workmen's average drawings of from 10 
to 40 per cent. 

10 



122 WORKSHOP METHODS. 

(3) In the practically compulsory maintenance of our machines 
in the highest state of eflSciency. 

(4) In a greatly increased interest of the men in their work, 
machines, and equipment, and a fair amount of co-operation in all 
our schemes for improving our factory. 

(5) It has given our foremen a field for the choice of men we 
never had previously, resulting in the employment of only the best 
class of steady workmen. 

(6) It has caused our foremen to be no longer merely task- 
masters over the men, but to become more providers of work for 
them, and inspectors of that work. 

2. The Friction Club. — To secure a proper discussion on shop 
problems, and to provide machinery for the systematic carrying out 
of suggestions and reporting of results, it was decided to inaugurate 
at our works a club composed not only of foremen, but of all the 
administrative heads of departments, drawing office, costing depart- 
ment, correspondence department, etc. 

When the club was at first proposed its reception was not at all 
favourable ; it was considered by the foremen that reflections would 
be made by one foreman on the work of another, and that generally 
it would give rise to internal friction. It was accordingly named 
the " Friction Club," on the principle that its mission was to be the 
elimination of friction. 

Among the matters dealt with by the club have been the follow- 
ing : — The establishment of a works library ; the workmen's sug- 
gestion scheme; the admittance and course of apprentices in the 
works \ the lighting of the shops ; the distribution of shop labourers ; 
shop hindrances — a report by each foreman on his department,, 
indicating the hindrances interfering with the execution or output 
of the work of his department; grind stones versus emery wheels; 
wearing of overalls by the men, etc. 

3. The Workmen's Suggestion Scheme. — Closely allied with the 
Friction Club is another efficiency factor which has recently been 
inaugurated in our works, namely, the Workmen's Suggestion 
Scheme. Encouraged by the success of the first few meetings of 
the Friction Club, it seemed a logical sequence that suggestions for 
improvement and reforms should be asked from the workmen 
themselves. Accordingly a scheme was promoted and discussed 
by the Friction Club, its purpose being to encourage the workmen 
to make suggestions for improvements in the shops, and on the work 
generally. All suggestions are signed with the workman's name 
and shop number, and are placed by the author in a box provided 
in the gate-house. The judgment and discussion on the sugges- 
tions is conducted at the Friction Club, and also the allocation of 
the awards, the amount being given according to their decision m 
one or more sums according to the merits of the suggestions. 



WORKSHOP METHODS. 125 

During five months the total amount of suggestions received 
amounts to 60 ; and of this total the number of suggestions adopted 
and carried out amounts to about 20 per cent, of those received. 
The discussion on these suggestions has been most educative, and 
has resulted in several most excellent shop devices. 

4. The Technical Committee. — It will be noted that the Work- 
men's Suggestion Scheme does not include in its scope suggestions 
for improvement on the designs of the firm's product. Accordingly 
the function of dealing with designs, etc., lies with a committee 
comprising the managing director, shop manager, chief draughts- 
man, and draughtsman on special design. This body is called the 
Technical Committee, and it deals with the révisai of the designs 
of the firm's product, the carrying out of experimental work, the 
tabulation of results, the systematic consideration of complaints and 
defects, and the criticism and development of new designs. 

5. The Intelligence Department. — The Intelligence Department 
deals with the collection of information and data required by the 
various departments and members of the firm; the indexing, 
catalogueing, and filing of technical literature, catalogues, cuttings,, 
etc. It secures a systematic perusal of contract advertisements in 
the technical papers, marks and records openings for the firm's 
products, and keeps a card index of parties interested or likely ta 
be interested in them. 

These brief notes on a few shop schemes are submitted as 
showing developments in dealing with the minutiae of an engineering 
establishment. Their value has been found to consist in providing 
a medium through which the intelligence and ability of the indi- 
vidual foremen and men are directly ascertainable, and in providing 
the machinery by which ideas and suggestions are methodically 
dealt with, followed up, and exhausted, before adoption or rejection. 

They have also had the effect of bringing the men and their 
employers into more direct personal relations, and of creating a 
certain esprit de corps in the shops, the value of which, although 
not tangible, is nevertheless of a real and gratifying nature. 



The Discussion was combined with that on the two previous 
papers by Mr. Rowan and by Mr. Thomson, and was taken part in 
by the following members: — The Chairman, Mr. George Livesey,. 
Mr. Wigham Richardson, Mr. Arthur Greenwood, Mr. W. H. Allen, 
Mr. Alfred Saxon, Mr. Hans Renold, Mr. T. Hurry Riches, and 
Mr. Wicksteed. 

Mr. Rowan, Mr. Thomson, and Mr. J. R. Richmond replied. 

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
to the authors. 

A written communication was received from Mr. Philip Bright. 



«THE ADOPTION OF THE METRIC SYSTEM IN OUR 

WORKSHOPS." 

Paper by Arthur Greenwood. 



Abstract. 



With the object of obtaining an expression of opinion of those 
connected with the mechanical engineering trades assembled in 
Congress at Glasgow, the author ventured to express his views as 
to whether the time has not now arrived that some steps should be 
taken towards the adoption in our workshops, in a more or less 
complete form, of the metrical system of weights and measurements. 
In the first place it will be expedient to consider what advantage 
would accrue to the mechanical engineering trade of this country by 
the adoption of the metrical system. If the engineers of this 
country were to devote themselves simply to the manufacture of 
engines and machinery required in its own workshops and factories, 
neither selling nor desiring to sell anything outside the Empire, 
there would be no reason why they should not continue to muddle 
on with feet, inches, and hundredweights for all time. It would 
be our own affair to continue, if we thought fit, a system which has 
been condemned by most nations of the earth. But it may be 
assumed that the British mechanical engineer has no desire to be 
content with any such position. He is determined to continue the 
efforts he has made to push his manufactures in every market in 
the world. He has to meet competitors in the countries of Europe 
and elsewhere where the metric system is universal. Germany 
has followed the lead of the Latin countries, and has abolished 
her many standards of feet, and Austria has done the same. Russia 
continued to honour us for years by using our standards, and still 
does so to some extent, but in Russia before very long the metric 
system will be as general as it is in Germany. If the British 
mechanical engineer is to hold his own in these markets, it is 
imperative that he should offer goods to conform to their usages, 
in dimensions and weights. The writer would appeal to those of 
his engineering colleagues who have doubtless found themselves 
in the same desperate position he has found himself, provided with 
a drawing of an elaborate machine carefully scaled to an inch or an 
inch and a half to a foot, and with probably a very imperfect 
knowledge of the language of the country with which he desires to 



THE ADOPTION OF THE METRIC SYSTEM IN OUR WORKSHOPS. 125 

transact business, and endeavouring to answer the numerous 
questions of an inquisitive and intellectual foreigner who wants to 
know the dimensions in millimetres and weight in kilograms of 
particular parts of the machine. Under such circumstances the 
wonder is that orders could be obtained at all. True, experience 
has taught many engaged in Continental trade to have plans drawn 
to tenth scale, thus somewhat mitigating the difficulty here alluded 
to. 

The writer could quote numerous cases of orders from France, 
Germany, Russia, Japan, and South America, that might have come 
to England, but for the reason that the purchasers preferred buying 
machinery which admittedly was not so good or so suited to their 
requirements, but which conformed to their metric system. 

The one serious objection is the cost and trouble of making the 
change, but this is a difficulty that can be overcome if time is 
taken to bring about the changé. Our legislators so long ago as 
1864 made its use permissable, and it is for the leaders in the 
various trades most concerned to take the next step, and certainly 
to no trade is it so important as to that of the mechanical engineer; 
and it is for him to attempt its introduction. It is simply a 

question of rules, callipers, standards, drills, and reamers, which, 
after all, is not very serious. The equivalents can be made from 
existing standard leading screws in lathes by means of change 
wheels. 

The mention of screws at once calls attention to the most serious 
part of the suggested change; but that difficulty can be easily met. 
It would be worse than folly to attempt at present to change the 
standard pitch and form of screw threads so admirably standardized 
by Whitworth. 

Much as one would wish to see the metric system adopted in its 
entirety, it would be well at present not to advocate any departure 
from the Whitworth standard thread. The two systems can and do 
work admirably together side by side in many shops in France, 
Germany, Russia, and Sweden. 

Much has been said lately about the metric system being made 
compulsory. Parliament has made it permissible, private initiative 
should demonstrate that it is practical, and should then call upon 
Parliament to make it compulsory. It would be a mistake to say 
two years — a period that has been advocated. Twenty years 
would be nearer the period. 

In conclusion the author added briefly his own experience. For 
the past twenty-five years the metric calliper-gauge has been often 
quite as familiar in the tool room at the Albion Works as the inch 
one, and very little difficulty has been met with from the men. In 
the engineering works in Russia, in which he is interested, both 
metric and English standards are used, and little difficulty is ex- 



126 THE ADOPTION OF THE METRIC SYSTEM IN OUR WORKSHOPS. 

perienced in their joint use. At the new workshops just com- 
pleted at the author's works in Leeds for the manufacture of the 
De Laval steam turbine, the metric standard has been adopted 
in combination with the Whitworth standard of thread. 



The meeting was then adjourned, and the Discussion on Mr. 
Greenwood's paper was taken on the following day. 



'^ 



THURSDAY, 5th SEPTEMBER, 1901. 



Mr. William H. Maw, President, in the Chair. 



Discussion on Mr. Greenwood's paper. 

The following members took part : — The Chairman, Mr. W. H. 
Allen, Mr. Hans Renold, Col. P. E. Huber, Professor Archibald 
Barr, Professor Schroter, and Mr. F. Howard Livens. 

The author replied, and on the motion of the Chairman a vote 
of thanks was accorded to him. 



" THE .1 CO-TON UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE, WITH 
VARIABLE ACCUMULATOR, AT THE JAMES WATT 
LABORATORIES, GLASGOW UNIVERSITY." 

Paper by J. Hartley Wicksteed. 



Abstract 

The straining frame of this testing machine is worked by 
a hydraulic ram supplied with water from an accumulator. 
When the valve between the hydraulic cylinder and the 
accumulator is open full bore, a test can be made at the 
rate of loo inches straining per minute, but the valve can be 
regulated so as to reduce the speed to a tenth of an inch per minute. 
The speed is under easy control through a wide range, and it can 
be altered at pleasure during the progress of a test. Thus the 
speed may be slow until the elastic limit is reached, and increased 
during the plastic stage. This facility for varying the speed, 
together with the absence of all vibration, makes a hydraulic 
straining gear worked from an accumulator preferable to any other 
system. It is due to Dr. Kennedy to state that he advocated this 
system in 1885, and stated in a paper read before the Institution 
of Civil Engineers (*) that " probably the maximum in steadiness 
as well as of convenience in working will be found in some such 
system." 

The machine consists essentially of a straining system em- 
braced by a weighing system. The straining system consists 

* Proceedings Institution of Civil Engineers, Vol. Ixxxviii., page 21. 



12« THE lOO-TON UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE 

of the hydraulic cyhnder, ram, and notched frame which 
slide out, carrying the straining crosshead A. The weighing system 
consists of two long parallel rods with the three crossheads or 
weighbridges B, C, and D. This parallel frame floats on knife 
edges. Whatever force comes upon the weighbridges C and D is 
communicated through the crosshead D to an elbow lever E, the 
fulcrum of which rests on an anvil at the back of the hydraulic 
cylinder. The elbow lever commimicates the force to the back 
centre of the steelyard lever above it. The poise-weights on the 
steelyard measure the forces. In tension tests the specimen is 
placed between A and C. For compression it is placed between 
A and B, and if it is placed between C and F it is tested in 
deflection. The crosshead A, being movable in the notched frame, 
can be adjusted so as to take long or short specimens either in 
tension or compression. Upon the ram there is a large nut which 
can be screwed up tight against the end of the hydraulic cylinder, 
so as to hold the straining frame out for an unlimited time inde- 
pendent of any leak-off of the water. This device, which enables 
one to keep the load upon a specimen all through the night or 
through a vacation, was first introduced for Professor Archibald 
Elliott, who put down the first loo-ton machine having this pro- 
vision at the University College, Cardiff. 

The torsion apparatus is placed at the back of the main fulcrum 
of the lever. It is entirely out of the way, and has 
no connection with the machine except through the torsion 
specimen itself when it is in position. The torsion gear will exert 
a twisting moment of 224,000 inch-lbs., and will twist in two a bar 
of iron 2^ inches in diameter. 

The deflection apparatus has swivel supports to prevent 
indentation, and the presser-foot also has swivelling half- 
round pieces which spread the pressure over 6 inches 
of surface, while still allowing the specimen to bend freely ; so that, 
if the distance between the centres of the semi-circles is taken, the 
test is theoretically the same as if the beam were supported on knife 
edges at that distance apart, while injury to the section by too 
intense local pressure is prevented. 

The steelyard of this machine has an arrangement of poise- 
weights which is a combination of the variable jockey-weight 
starting from the centre of the steelyard, as introduced by Dr. 
Kennedy on a 50-ton machine, the first of this type, which he put 
down in his laboratory in Westminster, and of the solid poise 
ranging over both arms of a double-armed steelyard which the 
author has used for many years. This combination has been 
arranged to meet Dr. Barr's desire for a larger scale unit when 
measuring light loads, and has the effect of giving the same scale 
unit up to 100 tons, which was obtained on Dr. Kennedy's machine 



AT THE JAMES WATT LABORATORIES. 129 

up to 50 tons, without materially lengthening the steelyard. When 
the machine is being used for loads up to 32 tons, the large 
poise-weight remains stationary at the short end of the lever, and 
acts merely as a balance weight to the long end. The variable 
poise starts from the centre of the lever and travels over the long 
arm with a scale reading of 4 inches to the ton up to 32 tons. 
This poise-weight has two removable discs, which reduce it 
by half, giving a scale reading of 8 inches to the 
ton up to 16 tons. When the specimen requires more than 
32 tons of load, this second poise is lifted clear away from the 
machine. The balance of the steelyard is not affected owing to 
the latter being lifted off the line of the fulcrum. The main 
poise-weight is then liberated from its fixing to the steelyard and 
engaged with the traversing screw, and travels over the whole 
range of the steelyard, giving a scale reading of 2 inches to the ton 
up to 100 tons. At the suggestion of Dr. Barr, these poise-weights 
ride upon three wheels, of which the two on one side have flanges 
working in a groove in the rail of the steelyard, to keep the poise 
from wavering sideways, and a plain single wheel on the other side 
to support the poise vertically, thus forming a " geometrical guide." 
There are two scales on the steelyard, one for use with the large 
solid poise, and the other for use with the variable poise. The 
poise-weights carry venier scales, which, at the suggestion of Dr. 
Barr, are attached by hinges to the poise-weights, and rest by their 
own overhanging weight in V grooves on the scale bar. This 
insures that the venier scale is always Ipng close up to the marks 
of the main scale without the possibility of being injured from want 
of clearance by the vibrations of the steelyard following upon the 
fracture of a test piece. 

The accumulator has a variable load consisting of ten 4-ton slabs, 
of which it can deposit any number up to nine on the base, and 
carry up the remainder. The slabs which it is desired to load on 
are, at the suggestion of Dr. Barr, hung from the top weight by 
three rods. This arrangement has been adopted not only on 
account of its advantages in connection with the testing machine, 
but to enable the accumulator to be used in connection with other 
pieces of apparatus, and to increase its value as an apparatus upon 
which efficiency tests under a great variety of circumstances may be 
made. 



The following members took part in the Discussion : — The Chair- 
man, Professor Archibald Barr, Mr. Arthur Greenwood, and 
Professor W. Cawthome Unwin. 

The author replied, and on the motion of the Chairman a vote 
of thanks was accorded to him. 



"A REGENERATIVE ACCUMULATOR AND ITS APPLI- 
CATION FOR USING EXHAUST STEAM.' 

Paper by A. Râteau. 



Abstract. 

The new apparatus referred to in this paper is intended to allow, 
in a turbine or any other motor, the use of the exhaust steam from 
machines having intermittent action, such as winding engines or 
the reversible engines of rolling mills. Engines with intermittent 
action are well known to be defective in respect of the satisfactory 
use of the steam, caused by condensation within the cylinders. 
This inconvenience has no doubt been to a small extent remedied 
by compounding and also by condensing ; but the advantage gained 
is much less than can be obtained by using the steam at about 
atmospheric pressure in a turbine provided with a condenser. 

The Hon. C. A. Parsons has already urged the use of turbines 
with low steam pressure, attached to continuously-running steam 
engines. For instance, if we take a winding engine using 
45 kilogrammes (99 lbs.) of steam per B.H.P. {utile), which is 
about the maximum for non-compound engines without condensa- 
tion, these 45 kilogrammes of steam are sufficient to give, in a 
steam turbine coupled to a dynamo, an electric power of at least 
two H.p. ; by the application in this case of the regenerative 
accumulator system, two horse-power is added to the one horse- 
power of the winding engine. 

The difficulty which this apparatus solves is the following : — 

The turbine requires to be supplied with a continuous flow of 
steam, whereas the engine working intermittently delivers it at 
more or less regular intervals of one or two minutes. A reservoir 
is therefore required between the two engines. An ordinary 
reservoir would have excessive dimensions, whilst with the 
apparatus about to be described this excessive size is avoided, 
and the cost of erection is relatively small. 

This apparatus, which may be called a " regenerative steam- 
accumulator," serves the purpose of a reservoir. The solid and 
liquid materials, which it contains, form a storage in which the 
steam gathers and condenses when arriving in excess, and sub- 
sequently re-evaporises during the period when the main engine 
slackens or stops. The variations in temperature necessitated by 
the condensation and re-evaporation of steam correspond to the 
small fluctuations of pressure in the accumulator. The pressure 



A REGENERATIVE ACCUMULATOR. 131 

rises while the apparatus is filling, and falls while it is being 
•emptied. The amplitude of these temperature and pressure 
oscillations is not great, 3 deg. to 5 deg. C, and o.io to 0.15 kg. 
per cm^ (1.4 to 2.1 lbs. per square inch). This variation can be 
limited to any desired range by designing the apparatus sufficiently 
large in accordance with the periods of running and standing of 
the main engine. 

The apparatus consists of cast-iron annular basins placed one 
above the other, inside a cylindrical vessel of sheet iron. The 
steam, which enters the vessel by a pipe near the top, reaches the 
basin by the central channel. The portion which is not con- 
densed, as well as that which is re-evaporated, descends along the 
lateral partitions of the vessel, and reaches the pipe leading to the 
low-pressure machine. 

The water carried away by the steam separates out in the upper 
chamber and falls, first through holes in the top plate, thence from 
basin to basin by the passages in the overflow to the bottom of the 
vessel, whence it is discharged by the small pipe, and an automatic 
steam-trap. The basins are thus always covered with water. 

The apparatus is completed with a safety valve and an automatic 
steam-valve for assisting the turbine by steam direct from the 
boilers. 

By means of this accumulator it is possible to obtain in an 
ordinary-sized winding-engine plant, an additional motive power of 
about 500 H.P., w^ith no expense but the cost of installing the 
turbine and accumulator, which is not great. 

An application of 250 h.p. is now in course of erection at the 
Bruay Mines in the North of France, and will be working in a few 
months. 



The discussion was combined with that on the other paper by 
M. Râteau (see p. 133). 



"EXPERIMENTS ON THE ESCAPE OF STEAM 
THROUGH CIRCULAR ORIFICES." 

Paper by A. Râteau. 



Abstract. 



The design of steam turbines depends upon the knowledge of 
the laws which determine the escape of steam through converging 
or converging-diverging orifices. In order to verify exactly the 
formulae for the escape of steam, the author undertook, in 1895- 
1896, at St. Etienne, a series of experiments on this subject, accord- 
ing to a method which gives the greatest possible precision. A 
short indication of these experiments has been given in the report 
on steam turbines which the author had the honour to present last 
year at the International Congress of Applied Mechanics in Paris. 
But at this time he had not yet completed all the calculations of the 
results of his experiments, whereas now he is able to give an 
account of the results. They differ a little from those the author 
provisionally announced at the Congress of 1900. 

Those investigators who experimented before and since the 
author, namely, Minary and Résal in 1861, Peabody and Kunhard 
in 1890, Parenty in 1891, Miller and Read in 1895, and Rosenheim 
in 1900, have all used the same method, which consists of con- 
densing in a surface condenser the steam, which escapes by the 
orifice for a sufficiently long period, and then weighing the con- 
densed water. But this method, beyond being very laborious, 
cannot give great precision, because in the first place it is very 
difficult to keep constant the initial steam-pressure during the 
whole of the experiments, and the steam, being never absolutely 
dry, the water which it carries with it is weighed \vith the condensed 
water, so that the results found must be generally overestimated. 

The author therefore proposed to remove these causes of error 
so as to obtain exact results within two-thousandths, and to use, 
besides, sufficiently large orifices to deliver up to more than 900 kg. 
of steam per hour. 

He has reached the desired result by condensing the steam in a 
stream of water with the use of an ejector-condensor, and by 
measuring the total jdeld of water and the initial and final 
temperatures of this stream. Thus he was able to make all the 
readings at the same moment, as soon as constant conditions were 



ESCAPE OF STEAM THROUGH CIRCULAR ORIFICES. 133 

obtained; and each experiment did not last more than one or two 
minutes. It has been possible thus without much trouble to make 
more than a hundred and forty observations under the most varied 
conditions. 

The paper contains the results of the experiments and diagrams 
illustrating them. The results agree satisfactorily with the theo- 
retical results. 



A combined Discussion was held on the two papers by M. Rateaiu, 
and was taken part in by the following members : — The Chairman, 
Professor A. Stodola, and Mr. Bryan Donkin. 

The author replied, and on the motion of the Chairman a vote 
of thanks was accorded to him. 

A communication was received from Mr. Michael Longridge, to 
which the author also replied in writing. 



"POWER REQUIRED TO DRIVE A MARINE ENGINE 

WORKS." 

Paper by James Crichton and W. G. Riddell. 



Abstract. 



It is not the intention of the writers to attempt to describe a 
model engine works or driving plant, but rather to enumerate, and 
show the result of, a few improvements which have been adopted 
by the firm with which they are connected. 

About three years ago it was decided to rearrange the works in 
a thorough manner, and to fit up a new power installation. 

The works had gradually grown during upwards of thirty years, 
and most of the buildings were in excellent condition, and in no 
need of reconstruction. The problem to be solved then was how 
to lay down an economical driving plant, which would conform to 
the existing conditions, and which would not lead to an unnecessary 
sacrifice. 

At that time the motive power of the works consisted of one 
marine type boiler working at 80 lbs. pressure, and supplpng 
steam to three vertical compound engines for driving the maclunery, 
and one vertical compound engine for lighting purposes. 

The points in favour of so many units were— (i) The saving 
in steam when running one or two machines at night, which might 
be driven by one of the small engines ; and (2) the fact that, in the 
event of a breakdown of one engine, the other part of the works 
were not affected. 

It was, however, decided to put in one engine capable of driving 
and lighting the entire works, and, to meet the difficulty of late 
work, by driving those machines which experience showed were 
most likely to be needed at night, with motors which could be 
connected with current from the Glasgow Corporation supply. 

The engine was made to a simple design, and of such strength 
as to make the fear of a break-down very remote. It is capable, 
as at present constructed, of developing 260 i.h.p., but this may 
be increased to 600 i.h.p. 

A cylindrical marine boiler, designed to work under either forced 
or natural draught, was selected as the most suitable t)^e, and 
has proved itself both economical and reliable. It has a working 
pressure of 200 lbs. per square inch, and evaporates about 9 lbs. 
of water per lb. of coal. 



POWER REQUIRED TO DRIVE A MARINE ENGINE WORKS. 135 

The position of the power station was fixed, to a certain extent, 
by circumstances. The works are situated in a busy part of the 
city of Glasgow, where ground is costly, and economy of floor space 
essential. There is no direct communication with any railway, so 
that all material has to be carted to and from the works. Close 
proximity to the street was, therefore, an important factor in 
settling the position of the boiler. The position chosen was be- 
tween the engine and boiler departments, and as the difference in 
the floor level of these departments is about six feet, the boiler 
was placed on the lower level, and the coal tipped over into a 
bunker in front of it. The ashes were returned by a hydraulic 
hoist to a receiver on the higher level, under which a cart might 
be filled automatically. 

1 he engine was placed as near the boiler as possible, with the 
crank shaft parallel to two of the main lines of shop shafting. 
Two d)mamos were laid down for lighting and driving purposes, 
and these and the two lines of shafting were connected to the main 
engine shaft with belts, and all so arranged as to be easily dis- 
connected. Motors were laid down to drive all outlying shafting. 

The paper contains full details of the new installation and of 
the tests which were carried out. 

Before instituting a comparison between the old and new 
systems of driving the works, it may be well to enumerate briefly 
various units which made up the old installation. These were: — 

1. A marine type boiler, working at a pressure of 80 lbs. per 
square inch. The feed water for the boiler was heated to 205 deg^ 
Fahr., as in the new boiler. 

2. Three compound non-condensing engines, indicating collec- 
tively, say, 151 I.H.P., for driving purposes. 

3. One compound nqn-condensing engine, for lighting purposes, 
of, say, 65 i.H.p. 

The boiler evaporated about 6.75 lbs. of water per lb. of coal, 
and the engines used 43.8 lbs. of water per i.h.p. per hour. This 
gave an average coal consumpt of 6.4 lbs. of coal per i.h.p. per hour. 

In calculating the cost of a horse power for a year, the coal used 
for raising steam for smithy hammers and blower engines has not 
been taken into account, but the steam for electric lighting has 
been charged in each case, as it was almost impossible to obtain 
accurate figures without doing so. It will be seen that the power 
for electric lighting is much greater in the new than in the old 
system, and it may be contended that the greater efficiency of a 
horse power in the new system of driving is partly due to the 
better lit workshops ; but this is a refinement into which the scope 
of the paper does not admit of investigation. 

It now remains to be shown by how much the new system is. 
better than the old — or, in other words, at how much smaller cost. 



136 POWER REQUIRED TO DRIVE A MARINE ENGINE WORKS. 

it produces work. Since the power in an engine works is experided 
in removing material from rough castings and forgings, a figure 
may be found by which different systems may be compared; the 
system by which the greatest weight of material is removed at the 
smallest cost being the most efficient. In order to make the 
grounds of comparison similar, the cuttings produced by machines 
whose scrap is not in proportion to the power expended — such as 
shearing machines and saws — are not taken into account; but the 
weight of all turnings, borings, etc., for a fixed period is divided 
by the cost of a horse power for the same period, and a money 
value for the power per ton removed can thus be obtained. From 
the tables accompanying the paper it will be seen that the cost 
of removing one ton under the old system of driving was ;£5.2i, 
and under the new system ;£2.48, showing a saving by the new 
system of 52 per cent. Notwithstanding this great saving, it is 
abundantly clear that the cost may be much further reduced. 

The authors hoped that the paper may help to provide a basis on 
which to calculate the relative efficiency of the driving plant in 
similar works. 



Mr. Alfred Saxon, the Chairman, Mr. W. H. Allen, Mr. Bryan 
Donkin, and Mr. E. R. Walker took part in the Discussion. 

Mr. Crighton replied. 

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
to the authors. 

A communication was also received from Mr. Alfred Saxon. 



"PNEUMATIC RIVETING, AND OTHER USEFUL 
APPLICATIONS OF PNEUMATIC TOOLS." 

Paper by J. C. Taite. 



Abstract. 



The author, having been asked to write a short paper on pneumatic 
tools, and having regard to the comparatively recent one, read 
by Mr. E. C. Amos, (*) when a lengthy discussion followed, has 
confined these remarks principally to pneumatic riveting, with 
special regard to the pneumatic exhibits at the Glasgow Exhibition. 

Shell Riveter, — With the introduction of the " Boyer " long-stroke 
hammer for shell riveting, rivets up to i\ inches can be successfully 
knocked down, and the pneumatic holder-up has overcome the 
difficulties of the old method. The length of the paper does not 
allow of a full description of the appliance. The most noteworthy 
feature, however, is that the riveting hammer is mounted, and has 
a travel of 3^ inches in an outer cylinder, to which air is admitted 
when the hammer trigger is depressed, the pressure acting on a 
collar surrounding the hammer barrel, shoots the tool forward on 
to the rivet head, the notched bar at the other end of the rigging 
being adjusted to provide the reaction necessary for the snap to be 
continuously pressed on to the rivet, while the percussive riveting 
action is performed by the hammer. The hammer with its casing 
is mounted in a spherical bearing which enables it to be turned 
about through any desired angle within the requisite limits. 
Another and later development is the No. 9 long-stroke hammer, in 
which the trigger is dispensed with, and air is admitted by a throttle 
valve. 

Riveter with Tail Piece. — In a riveting hammer with tail piece, 
largely used in shipyards for beam knees, the length of the tail 
piece is suited to the spacing of the frames, so that when air is 
admitted, the hammer jams itself between the rivet and the adjacent 
beam during the percussive riveting operation, the pneumatic 
holder-up exerting pressure in a similar manner on the rivet head 
from the other side. 

Deck Riveting. — These tools have been in longer use in the 
American yards than here, but they are now being gradually intro- 
duced, and already on the Clyde a very considerable amount of 
rivets have been put in with pneumatic tools. Samples of riveting 
done with pneumatic riveters were exhibited. From the fact that 

* Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 1900, page 119. 

11 



138 PNEUMATIC RIYETING, ETC. 

a longer rivet is required than that used by hand, it follows that the 
bole must be more thoroughly filled. 

Bridge Work, — ^For this description of work pneumatic tools are 
eminently adapted^ inasmuch as a satisfactory plant for riveting 
in situ, easily moved from one place to another, has long been 
wanted. At the construction of the Godaveri Bridge at 
Rajahmundry, Mr. T. F. G. Walton used pneumatic tools. 

Mr. A. B. Manning (Missouri, Kansas, and Texas Railway), in a 
report to the Conmiittee of the Association of Railway Superinten- 
dents of Bridges and Buildings at the Annual Convention, St. Louis, 
1 6th October, 1900, gives the following interesting figures compar- 
ing hand and pneumatic riveting : — 

" Men with pneumatic riveter will average 500 rivets per day 
for 8.12 dollars = 33s. 3d., or 1.62 dollars = 6s. yd. per hundred. 

" Men with hand power average 250 rivets per day for 9.20 
dollars = 378. 8d., or 3.68 dollars =155. per hundred." 

In England the cost of ^inch rivets with pneumatic hanmier is 
4s. 6d. per 100, as against los. 6d. by hand. An ingenious 
arrangement for carrying a drill, used on the Great Eastern Railway, 
was referred to; and the same arrangement would be 
equally useful for drilling holes in the long girders of bridges which 
cannot be drilled under the ordinary machine. 

Locomotive Work. — One of the most recent developments in 
pneumatic tools is a motor with tube cutter, which is similar to the 
ordinary drill, but having in addition an air cylinder and piston 
which forces out a taper mandril, thus pressing the cutting edge 
of the tool against the Kibe. By the use of this tool 2f inch 
diameter steel tubes can be cut through in five seconds. The 
reversible drill with the ordinary tube expander is now also largely 
used for tube expanding. Pneumatic drills are employed foi 
drilling out stay bolts and re-tapping the holes, and give every 
satisfaction, a saving of £/] per boiler having been effected in the 
cost of re-staying the fireboxes at one of the principal yards. 
Railway wagon floors are riveted pneumatically, a sa\âng of 15s. per 
wagon being effected. A report from the shops of one of the 
French railways states the 1 6-inch manhole doors are cut in the 
locomotive boilers in fifteen minutes, the plate being 7-1 6th inch 
thick, and if inch tubes are rolled in twenty-seven seconds each. 

General Boiler Work. — The long-stroke hammer is used for 
riveting up the end circumferential seams of Lancashire, Cornish, 
and vertical boilers, air receivers and super-heaters of water-tube 
boilers where the hydraulic riveter cannot be used ; also on manhole 
rings, Galloway tubes, combustion chambers and rivets connecting 
furnace tubes to the front plate, and one firm is emplojdng a gap 
riveter for the furnaces themselves. These are also used in making 
large tanks. 



PNEUMATIC RIVETING, ETC. 139 

With the extension of the use of pneumatic tools the sizes of 
compressors employed has been materially increased, and many 
works which have started with either a Westinghouse air pump 
giving 40 cubic feet of air per minute, or an oscillating compressor 
giving 60 cubic feet per minute, have now compressors giving 300 
to 350. 

The fullest advantages in increased output and economy have not 
yet been reached in this country, owing to the Trades Unions not 
having, up to the present, allowed rates to be made sufficiently 
remunerative to the masters, but the enormous saving effected in 
other countries, particularly by pneumatic riveting, must soon have 
its effect in this country. 

The paper is illustrated by three plates, and accompanied by 
two appendices. 



The Chairman, Mr. T. Harry Riches, Mr. Bell, and Mr. Chester 
B. Albree, took part in the Discussion. 

The author replied, and on the motion of the Chairman a vote 
of thanks was accorded to him. 

A communication wais received from Mr. Ewart C. Amos, and 
Mr. Taite has replied. 



** AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY IN THE CANADIAN 
PAVILION AT THE GLASGOW INTERNATIONAL 
EXHIBITION, 1901." 

Paper by G. Harwood Frost. 



Abstract. 



Agriculture was originated as an art in Egypt, whence it spread 
through Greece and Rome to Europe. Until the commencement 
of the last century, agricultural implements were in much the same 
state as they were a thousand or more years ago; but the develop- 
ment of the American Continent gave rise to the necessity for 
labour-saving machinery for farm work, and, as the vast area of 
arable land in Canada became opened up for cultivation, the 
manufacture of implements was entered into at home. In the 
perfection of this class of machinery, Canada has for the past 
half century held an important position, and is to-day the second 
largest producing country in the world. There are in Canada 
about a dozen factories making implements, representing the em- 
ployment, in all branches, of over 6000 men. In the Canadian 
pavilion at the G.I.E. six of the largest factories are represented, 
viz. : — the Massey-Harris Co., Ltd. ; the Frost & Wood Co., Ltd. ; 
the Noxon Co., Ltd.; David Maxwell & Sons; the Cockshutt 
Plow Co. ; and the Verity Flow Co. Implements for all purposes 
are shown, which may be divided into the following classes : — 

1. For preparing the ground for seed — ploughs and harrows. 

2. For sowing the seed — ^broadcast seeders and drillers. 

3. For cultivation and care of the growing crop — cultivators. 

4. For har\^esting the crop — mowers, tedders, rakes and loaders 
for hay, and binders and reapers for grains. 

The ploughs are a selection of those made to suit the require- 
ments of Great Biitain, and are adapted to meet all the local 
conditions of the country. They are light, strong, and easily 
handled. 

There are several varieties of harrows shown, viz. — ^the spring- 
tooth, spike-tooth, and disc. The first two are made up of inde- 
pendent sections, which may be connected in any number. They 
are of steel throughout, the former with curved spring teeth, the 
latter with solid spike teeth. The disc harrow is made of concave 
discs arranged in two sections, running on frictionless ball bearings, 
and independently adjustable to any angle. Each section is pro- 
vided with a section of scrapers to keep the discs clean. This 



AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY AT THE GLASGOW EXHIBITION. 141 

is used for pulverising and levelling the ground, and also for 
breaking it after the com crop has been harvested. 

For distributing the seed, two different implements are shown — 
the broadcast seeder and the drill. The former scatters the seed 
over the ground, covering it by means of cultivator teeth attached 
to the rear. The latter distributes the seed through tubes, at the 
bottom of which are either hoes or shoes to cut the furrow in 
the ground. The amount of seed sown is regulated by shifting 
the feed wheel to permit a greater or less quantity of seed to pass 
from the seed box to the tubes. The hoes are attached without 
the use of bolts or pins, allowing them to be removed and replaced 
by cultivator teeth. They may be lifted from the ground either 
all together or separately. 

Of cultivators, only the spring-tooth variety is shown. The teeth 
are made up in sections pivoted at the front, the depth of cultiva- 
tion being regulated by spring pressure applied to the sections by 
a hand lever, which also serves to lift the teeth from the ground. 

For harvesting the hay crop, the mower, tedder, rake, and 
loader are used. The mower cuts the grass, and is made so that 
the cutting apparatus will follow all irregularities of the ground 
without interfering with the action of the knife. Frictionless roller 
bearings are used in the drive wheels and for the intermediate 
gearing and wearing brass bushings on the cross shaft, where the 
constant jarring caused by the rapid vibratory motion of the knife 
renders the use of rollers impracticable. A ball bearing is used 
to take up the end thrust due to bevel gearing. 

The tedder turns the grass, and will do the work of about ten 
people. It is strongly constructed of steel, and is drawn by one 
horse. The horse rake is used to gather the hay in rows after 
it is dried, and then the loader picks up the hay and delivers it 
on the wagon, where it is placed by hand labour. One of the 
chief values of the loader is in its ability to save a crop of hay 
after it has been properly dried in case of a change of weather, 
when it would be ruined if left to be dealt with by hand. 

For harvesting the grain crop, only cutting and tying in bundles 
are necessary. The reaper performs only one of these operations. 
The binder performs both, cutting the grain and delivering it in 
compact bundles of any size desired; but it does not in any wav 
alter the condition or form of the grain itself. There are six 
distinct operations in the working of the binder — ^reeling, cutting, 
elevating, packing, tying, and discharging. The mechanism for 
each of the first four forms a complete machine in itself, and the 
last two are operated together. The entire machine is driven 
from the main drive wheel through a sprocket and chain driving 
the main gear shaft, thence the power is communicated throughout 
the machine by means of chain and toothed gearing. The reel 



142 AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY AT THE GLASGOW EXHIBITION. 

picks up the grain, and lays it evenly against the knife, and when 
cut, on to the moving platform canvas, which carries it to the foot 
of the elevators. Here it is taken between the upper and the 
lower elevator canvases and carried to the top, and over a free 
running roller on to the binder deck. The butter evens the 
butts and forces the grain down on the deck to within reach of 
two constantly-moving packers, which pack it tightly against one 
side of the encircling twine. When the required amount is packed, 
a trip is pressed throwing the binding mechanism into gear. The 
needle arm rises through the deck, carrying the twine that com- 
pletes the circle of the bundle, and laying a double strand across 
the tying hook. This is given a rapid revolution, which makes 
a loop, the twine is cut, and a stripping hoop strips off the loop 
while the ends are held back and drawn through, thereby com- 
pleting the knot. The bundle is then discharged, the needle arm 
returns to its place below the deck, and allows the grain that has 
accumulated behind it to be brought down to the packers. 

The reel may be adjusted to pick up grain of all kinds, long, 
short, or tangled. The binding mechanism may be shifted to place 
the twine always about the centre of the bundle. The machine 
may be tilted to cut within an inch of the ground. The size of 
the bundle may be regulated, and the entire machine may be raised 
and lowered as desired. Local conditions are met with the open 
rear, the folding dividers, platform springs, and other arrange- 
ments. Roller bearings are used where practicable, and on the 
crank shaft a wearing bushing is used. The main framework, 
the wheels, platform, braces, and shafting are all made of steel, 
making the machine rigid and strong, as well as light. 

The self-delivery and the manual-delivery reapers are used on 
farms where the grain acreage would not warrant the purchase of 
a binder. On the former, the rakes are driven through a gearing 
from the main drive wheel, and on the latter the rake and platform 
are operated by hand. 

All farm machinery must be strong and of great capacity, light in 
weight and in draught, simple in construction and operation, and 
reasonable in price. Canadian manufacturers have met all these 
and other requirements, and their goods are sent to all parts of the 
world, and have everywhere achieved a high reputation for 
superiority in material, construction, finish, and wearing power. 



The Chairman and Mr. Frank S. Courtney took part in the 
Discussion. 

The author replied, and on the motion of the Chairman a vote 
of thanks was accorded to him. 



THE CASSEL SELF-REGULATING WATER WHEEL." 

Paper by E. C. de Segundo. 



Abstract. 

The production of power by the impact of a jet of water under a 
high head upon buckets atttached to the periphery of a wheel or disc 
has assumed large dimensions in many parts of the world — ^notably 
in Europe and in the United States of America. A number of 
firms are engaged in the manufacture of this tjge of water motor 
with conspicuous success commercially; the capital of thesp com- 
panies is not less than ;£5 00,000, and the profits already earned 
very considerable. 

The field for a good water motor is practically unlimited ; and it 
may not be generally known that the energy of falling water has 
already been employed in Europe to quite a considerable extent. 
From the statements made in consular reports it appears that at 
the present day water power is utilised to the following extent: — 



1,000,000 horse-power. 
600,000 



•L X ^%A Jl Vi/ K^ ••• ••• ••• ••• 

^ wCwX y ••• ••• ••• ••• 

Switzerland ... ... ... 600,000 

Germany ... ... ... 630,000 

Sweden and Norway ... ... 270,000 

Austria, Hungary ... ... 300,000 

Spain, Portugal, Greece, Turkey, 

Russia, and Belgium, about... 500,000 „ 

making a total of about four million horse-power. 

The great drawback to the rapid extension of the production of 
power by falling water is the unreliability of every form of speed 
governor which has hitherto been placed before the public. The 
best known example of the impact system is the Pelton wheel. 
During the last fifteen years a very large number of these wheels 
have been sold, and the demand shows no sign of diminishing. 
This type of motor is, under suitable conditions, the cheapest and 
most efficient power producer known. Experiments at the United 
States Naval School have demonstrated that the mechanical 
efficiency at full load can rise as high as 92 per cent., and that at 
half load to about 85 per cent. Many attempts have been made 
from time to time to improve the governing of the speed of these 



144 THE CASSEL SELF-REGULATING WATER WHEEL. 

wheels under variation of head or load, but such attempts have not 
as yet been attended with any marked degree of success. 

Water being practically an incompressible fluid possessed of con- 
siderable inertia, the variation of the supply of water to the nozzle 
proportionately to the variations in the load is quite a different 
problem to that presented under similar circumstances in the steam 
engine, where an elastic compressible fluid is the motive agent; 
and it is no exaggeration to say that hitherto all attempts to govern 
the speed of impact water wheels within small limits have not been 
satisfactory from a practical point of view. The author made a 
number of experiments about six years ago with a Pelton wheel 
directly connected to a dynamo, and driven by water obtained from 
mains of the London Hydraulic Power Co. at 750 lbs. per square 
inch; but, owing to the hiefiicient action of the governing arrange- 
ments supplied with the wheel, it was ultimately decided that this 
form of wheel, when driven in the manner described above, did 
not form a suitable source of power for electric lighting purposes 
in cases where any variation of load was likely to occur. Although 
it is claimed that some improvement has since been made in tie 
method of governing, the result in practice does not appear to show 
any marked advance. 

The author was recently asked to report upon a new system of 
construction of water motor, which is the invention of Mr. Elmer 
F. Cassel, of Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., and for the purposes of 
his investigations he erected a water wheel on this system, and 
connected it with the supply mains of the London Hydraulic Power 
Co., thus repeating the t3^e of experiments which he had previously 
made in this direction. Many speed regulation trials have been 
made, and Mr. CasseFs system of construction has proved itself to 
be reliable, and to efi^ect an almost perfect regulation of the speed 
imder variations of load or head of water which are far greater 
than any which would ever occur in practice. 

The construction of the wheel is extremely simple. Two figures 
accompanying the paper show the arrangement of the wheel at the 
author's ofiice in London. By judiciously manipulating the water 
valve, the pressure at the nozzle can be varied to any extent up to 
about 600 lbs. per square inch. The particular wheel in question is 
adjusted to acquire a normal speed, when running light, equivalent 
to the proper proportion of the spouting velocity of a jet of water 
at 40 lbs. per square inch. Any variation between 40 lbs. per 
square inch and 400 lbs. per square inch (the maximum pressure 
registered by the gauge used) did not cause any but a momentary 
variation of the speed, even when a change of head over the whole 
range was made as rapidly as possible. 

The following trial shows the degree of precision which has been 
attained in this form of wheel : — 



THE CASSEL SELF-REGULATING WATER WHEEL. 145 

An 1 8-inch Cassel was erected by the author, and arranged to 
drive a dynamo, the output of which was taken up by a bank of 
incandescent electric lamps. Successive variations of 20 per cent^ 
in the load from full load (4.6 e.h.p.) to no load produced no 
appreciable variation of speed. When the whole load was thrown 
on or off suddenly, a variation of 1.7 per cent, to 1.8 per cent, 
from normal took place, but the speed returned to normal in about 
three seconds. The variation was therefore but momentary. 

It will be easily seen that the automatic regulation of speed 
without reference to the flow of water renders the automatic 
governing of the water supply a comparatively simple matter. 

The Cassel system of water power regulation consists in treating 
the question as two separate and distinct problems, namely, that 
the speed of the wheel must be quickly controlled to prevent racing 
or running away ; and secondly, the flow of' the water in the pipe 
line must be slowly controlled in order to prevent damage by shock 
to the pipe line, and to avoid detriment to the driven machinery. 



Professor Archibald Barr, Professor John Goodman, and Mr. 
Bryan Donkin took part in the Discussion. 

The author replied, and on the motion of the Chairman a vote 
of thanks was accorded to him. 

A communication was received from Mr. Murray Morrison, to 
which the author has replied. 

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
to the Glasgow University Students' Union for the use of their 
hall during the meeting, and to all who had helped in the manage- 
ment of the Congress. 

The proceedings then terminated, and the business of the Section 
was brought to a close. 



SUMMARY OF PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

Section IV.— Naval Architecture and 
Marine Engineering.* 



TUESDAY, 8pd SEPTEMBER, 1901. 



The Right Hon. the Earl of Glasgow, LL.D., G.C.M.G., 

in the Chair. 



The Chairman opened the proceedings of the Section with a 
few words of welcome to the many eminent naval architects from 
foreign countries who had honoured the meeting with their presence. 



"THE CHIEF CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NAVAL 
DEVELOPMENT OF THE NINETEENTH 

CENTURY." 
Paper by Sir Nathaniel Barnaby, K.C.B. 



Abstract. 



The century through which we have passed will be known to 
future generations as the age of steam. During the century, men 
have passed from the speeds on the water which have endured 
for long ages without change, to speeds considerably more than 
twice as great as the highest which had been reached before; 
and, connected with these steam speeds and with the independence 
of the elements which steam gave to the navigator, roads have been 
opened for commerce by new waterways connecting separated 
oceans. 

It may possibly be known also as the age of steel. It was 
the abandonment of wood as a building material which made it 
possible to give to ships great length and gigantic propelling 
machinery. With wood as the building material, neither great 
dimensions nor high speed could have been given to screw- 
propelled ocean steamships. But it is proposed to direct 
attention to some less marked characteristics. They are — 

* The Proceedings of this Section have not been published in full. Repoits- 
appear in Engineering of September 6th, and in other technical papers. 



CHIEF CHARACTERISTICS OF NAVAL DEVELOPMENT. 147 

1. The separation and differentiation in the types of ships for 
commerce and for war were the principal notes of the last 
half of the century. During the eariier half of the century an J 
for all time before that, ships for commerce and for war were 
built of the same materials, were subject tso the same injuries, and 
were capable of being as successfully defended as ships of war. 

It was the use of iron in the construction of the merchant ship 
which created the first ground of distrust on the part of the Lords 
of War. They held that iron-built ships would never be able to 
fight, and all provision for arming the mail ships and putting them 
under military control therefore ceased. 

The use of side armour on the fighting ship put the merchant 
ship more completely out of court, so that the naval war 
authorities ceased to take any interest in the way in which the 
merchant ship was built or manned; and the two classes drifted 
so far apart that there really was, in the end, no fighting power 
in even the largest merchant ships of any country. 

2. The century has, however, seen, during the last five and 
twenty years, distinct signs of a tendency to suppress this new 
feature and raise the position of the merchant ship. So we 
see again the ships for war and for commerce built of the same 
materials, with equal speeds, and capable of being alike efficiently 
armed and defended. The merchant ship will more easily reach 
high speeds and wide ranges of operations than the war cruiser, 
and will always be adopting for its own purposes devices for 
increasing both these advantages. It will always have, moreover, 
this great feature in its favour, that, as the march of eveats 
gradually forces slower ships out from the front rank, they will be 
able to find satisfactory employment in inferior ranks. But the 
regular war cruiser must be first or nowhere. It is clear, therefore, 
that the war navies must incorporate these fast merchant ships. 

During the last session of the Institution of Naval Architects 
and Marine Engineers, held in this city in June, it was resolved 
that a committee of Admiralty officials, shipowners, and ship- 
builders ought to be formed to discuss the best method of con- 
structing a combined naval and mercantile marine. Steps will be 
taken by the Council of the Institution to give effect to this, and 
it will be obvious that it may be efficiently helped by expressions 
of sympathy in this matter on the part of other Institutions of 
Engineers. 

3. Another characteristic is the appearance of a desire, and 
of measures for giving effect to it, that war should be rendered 
as little onerous as possible to the Powers with which the 
belligerents remain at peace, and that the operations of war should 
be confined to the regularly organised forces of the belligerents. 



148 CHIEF CHARACTERISTICS OF NAVAL DEVELOPMENT. 

This desire led to the rule, " Free ships, free goods," and to the 
abolishment of privateering, rules which now so widely prevail. 
It led further to the acceptance by several of the foremost maritime 
Powers that " the private property of subjects or citizens of a 
belligerent on the high seas should be exempted from seizure by 
the public armed vessels of the other belligerent, except it be 
contraband." 

Although this has not advanced beyond a pious opinion strongly 
held, it is apparently ripe for International acceptance. 

4. The century has been marked by the rise of new naval Powers, 
which have either achieved or are destined to greatness. 

5. It has been marked by the injfluence of international co- 
operation upon naval development, as, for example, by the 
formation and labours of such societies as those constituting this 
Congress. 



Col. John Scott, Professor Capper, and Professor Biles took 
part in the Discussion. 

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
to the author. 



^'APPROXIMATE RULES FOR THE DETERMINATION 
OF THE DISPLACEMENT AND DIMENSIONS OF 
A SHIP IN ACCORDANCE WITH A GIVEN PRO- 
GRAMME OF REQUIREMENTS." 

Paper by J. A. Normand. 



Abstract, 



The problem which forms the subject of this paper is the one 
most frequently proposed to the naval architect, but, although 
much has been written on the subject, no simple method of solving 
this problem has hitherto been shown. 

The proposed method is, like the more complicated ones already 
in use, based upon the equation of displacement. 

When the plans for a new vessel are to be laid down, the surest 
and simplest process is to take as a type one or more vessels 
dififering as little as possible from the one to be designed — pre- 
ferably an existing vessel, of which all the data, partial weights, 
and results are well known, so that the calculations may be based 
on facts and not on hypotheses — and to work out the changes 
required by the slight differences between the programmes of the 
old and the new ship. The possible errors are limited in that 
case to those that may be committed on slight differences. 

If the vessel to be designed is a cargo or passenger boat, or a 
yacht, size generally forms part of the programme. Not so in 
a war vessel, where size and displacement must, in most cases, 
be reduced to a minimum. This paper deals especially with war 
vessels, although the proposed rules may be used with great 
advantage for all kinds of ships. 

If the speed is not altered, but only weights added or suppressed, 
the author investigates what the displacement of the new ship 
will be, supposing her to be exactly similar to, and differing only 
by scale from, the one chosen as type, the water-line remaining 
at the 9ame relative height in order that the fineness of the lines 
be not altered. The following simple relation between the weights 
first added to the vessel chosen as type, and the ultimate increase 
of displacement, is arrived at, viz. : — 

The plus or minus difference of displacement must be equal to 
the plus or minus difference of weights, as calculated for the vessel 
chosen as type, multiplied by a co-efficient k, which can be exactly 
determined, and is nearly constant for all classes of vessels, its 



150 DISPLACEMENT AND DIMENSIONS OF A SHIP. 

mean value being about 3.60 for the general conditions of the 
programme to be fulfilled. 

Knowing by this very simple rule the approximate displacement 
of the ship to be designed, it is easy to calculate the dimensions, 
horse power, weights of hull, machinery, coals, etc., by reference to 
the same elements in the type vessel. 

The author then gives instances of the application of these 
rules. Taking as type a cruiser of the " Diadem " class, of which 
all particulars are obtainable, such problems as the following are 
considered in detail, viz. : — 

What would tie the displacement and dimensions of a similar 
vessel — 

(i) If small tube boilers were substituted for Bellevilles, sup- 
posing the speed, steaming distance, thickness and distribution of 
armour, weight of guns and ammunition, etc., to remain the same? 

(2) If cylindrical boilers were substituted for Bellevilles, the 
•other conditions, as above, remaining the same? 

(3) If small tube boilers were substituted for Bellevilles, the 
weight of guns, etc., reduced by 35 tons, the weight of armour 
reduced by 20 tons, and the steaming distance increased by 30 per 
cent., while the speed remained the same? 

The few problems which were solved by the new method are 
isufficient to show how easily it may be applied. It elucidates 
very simply a question which most people, and even some naval 
architects, do not clearly realise — the extreme importance of light- 
ness in a war vessel. The immense advantages resulting from a 
réduction in the weights of war vessels will certainly lead, sooner 
or later, to the adoption, not of small water-tube boilers, but of 
mean water-tube ones of some type or other, capable of standing 
a high rate of combustion. Even this substitution will not be 
sufficient if the race for speed continues. Steel of high tensile 
strength will be needed for the hulls of large vessels ; but the 
greater part of the advantages to be derived from its use will 
be lost until equally strong steel, not hardening when rivetted hot, 
•can be produced commercially and with certainty. 



M. Emile Bertin, Mr. James Hamilton, Mr. R. T. Napier, and 
Professor J. H. Biles took part in the Discussion. 

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
to the author. 



"THE HYDRAULICS OF THE RESISTANCE OF SHIPS." 

Paper by E. C. Thrupp. 



Abstract. 



This paper investigates a phenomenon in the laws of motion of 
water which may be briefly stated as a divergence from the laws 
of stream line motion enunciated by Poiseuille, Osborne Reynolds, 
and others, when the dimensions of the channels give hydraulic 
radii exceeding two inches. 

It is well known that the friction of water moving in small pipes 
at low velocities is approximately proportioned to the velocity, and 
that at a certain " critical velocity " the law changes, and the friction 
varies as V^ or V*, and at still higher velocities it settles down to 
V2 or V^"®^ 

Osborne Re)molds enunciated the " law " that the critical velocity 
varied in simple inverse proportion to the hydraulic radius. 

The author has found, by experiments on channels of various 
sizes up to about 8 feet in hydraulic radius, that for radii of 2 inches 
and upwards the critical velocity increases with the hydraulic radius, 
and he finds numerous indications of the phenomenon in published 
records of hydraulic experiments, notably in those of the Mississippi 
River Commission, carried out at CarroUton, in water about 60 
feet deep. 

Confirmation of the author's conclusions is afforded by a study 
of the nature of channel beds, and the scouring power and silt- 
carrying capacity of water flowing at various depths. The depths 
and velocities which occur in channels where the beds are 
accumulating very fine silt agree closely with the critical velocity 
conditions arrived at from surface slope and velocity measurements. 
The scour is, therefore, clearly due to the change from stream 
line to sinuous motion. 

Mathematical theories as to the velocity required to move solid 
particles in water have entirely failed to agree with observed facts 
in large channels, for there are innumerable instances where the 
velocities (at the bottom of the channels) are sufficient, according 
to ordinary text book theories, to roll along large cubical boulders, 
whereas, in fact, they hardly disturb fine silt or sand. 

The problem of the resistance of ships is intimately connected 
with this critical point phenomenon, and also with certain wave 



152 THE HYDRAULICS OF THE RESISTANCE OF SHIPS. 

motions, which the author has also found experimentally to differ 
from the accounts given by some eminent writers. 

It is generally accepted that the experimental model system of 
estimating a ship's resistance according to Froude's method, based 
on Newton's principles of '* similar motions," is the best system 
known ; but even that method requires some " doctoring " to make 
it fit in with the results of actual trials. The discrepancies are 
due, in the author's opinion, to the fact that the motions of the 
water past the model and past the ship at the so-called " correspond- 
ing speeds " are not precisely similar motions, owing to the critical 
velocity law which rules the motions within the limits of speed at 
which such trials are usually made. 

The custom of calculating all the known sources of resistance 
on some definite basis, and of calling all the rest " wave-making 
resistance," is condemned, and the author contends that the 
assumptions usually made in estimating the " skin friction " of ships 
are not warranted by ascertained facts in other departments by 
hydraulic science. For instance, it can be shown that the friction 
per square foot of wetted surface in a pipe or open channel depends 
not only upon the velocity of the water, but upon the dimensions 
of the channel, and the nature of the motion. 

To attribute all the obscure features of ship resistance to " wave 
action " is misleading, as the production of waves may be only an 
effect, and not the cause of the obscurity. 

It is true that Froude's experiments with models having various 
lengths of parallel body showed great fluctuations in resistance 
coincident with the existence or absence of the crest of a transverse 
wave near the stem of the model, but the question arises as to 
what the position of this wave depends upon. The fact that some 
ships have had their performances improved by the insertion of 
an extra piece of parallel body, and also the experiments of De 
Mas in France on various lengths of canal boats, go to show that 
large difference in lengths may make practically no difference in 
the resistance. 

The author describes some experiments he has made on the 
motion of groups of waves resembling the transverse waves which 
accompany a ship, and which prove to be quite different from 
the laws of motion of groups of waves as held by Lord Kelvin, 
Lord Rayleigh, Osborne Reynolds and others; and he dissents 
from many of the statements they have made with regard to this 
subject, and gives a description of the main features of the currents 
and waves produced by the motion of a ship, which are, in his 
opinion, more consistent with all the observed facts available for 
the formation of a correct theory of the hydraulics of the resistance 
of ships. 



THE HYDRAULICS OF THE RESISTANCE OF SHIPS. 153 

The paper was accompanied by illustrated diagrams representing 
the results of the authoPs experiments, and other matters. 



Professor H. S. Hele-Shaw and Mr. J. M. Adam took part in 
the Discussion; and the author replied. 

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
to the author. 

The meeting was then adjourned. 



12 



WEDNESDAY, 4th SEPTEMBER, 190L 



The Right Hon. the Earl of Glasgow, LL.D., G.C.M.G . 

in the Chair. 



" SHIPYARD EQUIPMENT." 
Paper by Professor J. H. Biles. 



Abstract. 



The necessity for constant improvement in labour-saving tools was 
called attention to. The division of the work of a shipyard into 
iron and wood work sections was discussed, and further considera- 
tion was given only to some iron working tools. The structure of 
a ship, and the method of shaping the different parts, were 
described. The following machines and tools were described and 
illustrations shown: — Punching, shearing, countersinking, and 
planing machines; plate-bending rolls and straightening rolls; 
plate-edge planing, beam bending, joggling, and bevelling machines ; 
hydraulic punching, shearing, flanging, and riveting machines; 
pneumatic tools for riveting and boring, and a few electric driven 
tools. 

The general subject of the cost of production, and the relation 
between the design of structure and the shipyard plant, were 
discussed. The general arrangement of plant in a shipyard was 
described, and the principal considerations determining the relative 
positions of, numbers, and power of different machines were 
discussed. The general transportation plant of a shipyard was- 
described. The illustrations, about eighty in number, were all 
lantern slides. 



The Discussion was combined with that on the paper by Mr. 
Robert Robertson (see p. 158). 

The author replied, and on the motion of the Chairman a vote 
of thanks was accorded to him. 



"ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY IN SHIPBUILDING 
YARDS AND MARINE ENGINE WORKS." 

Paper by Robert Robertson, B.Sc. 



Abstract, 



Works of this kind, like all others, differ in size, in arrangement, 
and in many other respects so much that each case must be taken 
and considered in detail by itself before any reliable conclusion 
can be arrived at as to the advantages in that particular instance. 

The conditions ruling in a shipyard are so different from those 
in an engine works that it will be convenient to consider the two 
separately, and also to take the latter part first. 

Engine Works. — The advantages claimed for electrical driving 
in marine engine works may be conveniently classified under three 
heads, viz.: — (i) Sa\dng in cost of power; (2) Flexibility of the 
system; (3) Increased output. 

I. In considering this subject, the saving in cost of power is 
too often looked upon as the only advantage to be gained, and the 
advantage is treated lightly because the whole cost of power in a 
work of this class only bears a very small proportion to the other 
costs of production. It must, however, be evident that the 
advantages gained under the other heads are such as to result in 
substantial increase of output and diminished cost- of production, 
they are of much greater importance than the saving in cost of 
power. 

The saving to be effected in the cost of power may be considered 
under two heads; (i) The saving in pawter production; and (2) the 
saving in distribution. 

By the adoption of a central power plant with boilers and engines; 
grouped together upon a suitable site, it is possible to use with 
advant^rge all appliances for getting cheap power, and Uatereby 
effect considerable reduction in the amount of steam used per horse 
power generated. This saving is placed by several authorities, 
who have investigated the subject, at from 30 to 50 per cent. 

In order to appreciate tlae saving «wwier tjae head of distribijiition, 
it is necessary |» consider the circumstances in each case. Under 
the old syst^joa of drivi^, t^ loss cqqc^ of :eicikj)Of ution Ir^m 
steam pipes, Ip^s^s iun vmxx ^sbafts, belj^!^? bevel (g«anG^, ,>etc. ; and 



^ I 



156 ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY IN SHIPBUILDING YARDS. 

it is evident that these losses are practically constant at all loads> 
and bear a very much higher proportion to the total power when 
only partial load is on the plant. 

In the case of the electrical system the distribution by means of 
wires or cables takes the place of the steam pipes, main shafts^ 
main belts, bevel gearing, leaving in most cases only short lengths 
of straight shafts. The losses in the wires are such that they fall 
off in greater proportion than the load falls off, and therefore bear 
a more or less constant proportion to the power being used. 

The saving to be effected by this means at full load will probably 
not exceed five or ten per cent., but at all other times, when the 
load is other than the maximum, the saving will be much greater. 

2. Under the second head of the advantages of this system of 
power — i,e,, flexibility — little need be said further than indicating 
the possibilities. 

The use of separate motors for large tools, or for small groups 
of tools, enables these to be placed in the most suitable positions for 
convenient handling of the materials, irrespective of the position 
or direction of line shafts, etc. The advantages to be got by the 
extended use of portable tools, more especially in heavy work, is 
very great, the time and labour of shifting and setting the tools in 
many instances being very much less than if the heavy castings 
have themselves to be shifted frequently. The flexibility of the 
system is also of great advantage in the extension of works. 

3. It is more diflScult to appreciate the advantage of increased 
output, and it is by no means easy to demonstrate it, but there 
has been, on various occasions when the subject has been dis- 
cussed, considerable testimony by those who have adopted the 
system, that not only a very substantial increase of output is 
obtained, but also at a very considerable reduction of cost for 
labour. Among other causes for this improvement we have 
already seen the advantage of being able to place tools in the most 
convenient situations, and the possible large use of portable and 
semi-portable tools, several of which may be at work on the same 
piece of machinery simultaneously. The absence of a consider- 
able amount of belting and shafting also admits of more extended 
and free use of overhead cranes, and such cranes are more speedily 
operated themselves by electric power. A further advantage is 
obtained from the fact that individual machines can more easily 
be driven at their most economical speed by electric driving. 

Shipyards. — It is evident that all the advantages claimed in the 
case of engine works are greatly enhanced when the working of 
shipyards is considered. The same principles may be applied as 
in the other case, and it is unnecessary to consider them more in 
detail; but the advantages to be obtained by the flexibility of the 
system reach their maximum in a shipyard as compared with any 



ELECTRICAL • POWER SUPPLY IN SHIPBUILDING YARDS. 157 

Other industry. The tools themselves are, as a rule, of a heavy 
class, which can most conveniently and economically be driven by 
independent motors, and may thus be disposed in such positions 
as to reduce to a minimum the handling of the raw material. With 
the increasing size of ships, and corresponding increase of weights 
of the component parts, this is of the greatest importance. 

Further advantages may be obtained in a shipyard by the facility 
with which electricity may be applied to all forms of gantries, cranes, 
or other lifting appliances used in the erection of ships. Portable 
tools may be applied on board the ships during construction, and 
temporary workshops with semi-portable tools fitted up on board. 

Equipment. — Here, also, it is only possible to deal with general 
principles. Broadly speaking, there are two systems which may 
be adopted, viz., the continuous current system, and the multi-phase 
alternating current system. As regards the actual driving, either 
system is suitable for the shipbuilding industry, and each system 
has advantages peculiarly its own; the outstanding advantage in 
favour of the continuous current is the fact that motors of this 
class can more easily be adapted to run at varying speeds. 

On the other hand, there are several advantages with multi-phase 
current for work of this class. The starting arrangements are very 
simple, especially with small motors ; the moving parts are of strong 
mechanical construction, and less liable to damage by overloading; 
and there are no brushes and commutators requiring attention. 
There is very little between the systems as regards cost and 
efficiency. 

The question as to whether single motors on each machine tool, 
or group driving by means of short shafts should be adopted is of 
the greatest importance as regards economy in working. In the 
class of works under consideration there is, as a rule, not much 
difficulty in arriving at a decision. Unless in the case of special 
portable tools, it is not economical to employ motors of less than 
five horse power. Below this size the cost of motors per horse 
power increases very rapidly and their efficiency decreases very 
rapidly, and in addition, where machines are worked intermittently 
and at varying powers, it is possible by suitable grouping to arrange 
a motor of, say, lo or 20 horse power upon a shaft to drive 
machines which, if supplied by separate motors, would require an 
aggregate of more than double that power. Single motors may 
be employed in the shipyard to greater advantage, but the tools in 
this case are of such a class that in very few cases will smaller 
motors than five horse power be required. 

It is impossible to consider the question of cost of installation 
in a general way, as it will vary in every case according to circum- 
stances. 

In conclusion, it may be confidently asserted that in the case of 



158 ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY IN SHIPBUILDING YARDS. 

Starting new engine shops and shippards, it is undoubtedly the best 
policy to adopt electrical power, and that in most cases it will pay 
to make the change in existing works. 



The Discussion on this paper was combined with that on the 
paper by Professor J. H. Biles. 

Mr. H. M. Napier and Mr. de Rusett took part in the Discussion. 

The author replied, and on the motion of the Chairman a vote 
of thanks was accorded to him. 



"A MEMORANDUM ON FLOATING DOCKS." 
Paper by T. Gibson Bowles, M.P. 



Abstract, 



The floating dock has developed greatly and rapidly. It has 
passed through the same phases as ships; has grown from wood 
to iron, and from iron to steel; has increased in size, altered in 
form, and been as much improved in design and details as ships 
themselves. The older types, such as the old Bermuda Dock, 
which is shaped like a capital U, with double sides and bottom, 
are even more obsolete than a battle-ship of that date (1868) 
would now be; nor could that dock be thought of to-day as an 
adequate provision for to-day's warships. 

The original floating docks were long iron vessels, with gates at 
each end, the whole thing floating on the water. The ship entered 
the dock at one end ; the gate was swung to behind her ; she was 
shored up inside, and the water inside the dock pumped away from 
around her. This was a dock differing from the graving dock 
only in that it floated on the water instead of being hollowed out 
of the ground. 

Then came the lifting dock with open ends, which first sank 
in the water, was then pumped out, and raised the ship as it rose. 
Its typical form to-day is that of the large and powerful new 
Bermuda Dock, which is the type probably best adapted for 
general use. 

There are also the L-shaped docks, which are of three kinds : — 
(i) Off-shore docks connected by booms to piles ashore; (2) 
Depositing docks with a floating outrigger; (3) Off-shore docks 
with a floating outrigger. The two latter are entirely floating, 
and wholly free from all connection with the shore. 

The floating dock is by no means in an experimental stage. It 
has been at work for a century at least, though, like all other 
floating structures, it has only in comparatively recent days been 
adapted to modem needs. It has been adopted by the most 
capable naval authorities, private and public, of all the maritime 
nations. 

Nor has experience of floating docks brought any decrease of 
confidence in them, but the contrary. We find that the British 
Government has recently ordered a new and larger one, costing 
;£i 95,000 delivered on the Tyne, or ;£2 30,000 in all, delivered 

I2A 



160 A MEMORANDUM ON FLOATING DOCKS. 

at Bermuda. For it is to be towed to Bermuda to take the place 
of the one already there. This dock is self-docking, and is 545 
feet over keel blocks, entrance 100 feet, capable of taking vessels 
drawing 33 feet, with a lifting power of 15,500 tons. We also 
find that the United States Government has recently ordered one 
525 feet over blocks, entrance 100 feet, with lifting power up to 
18,000 tons, for New Orleans, where these docks have been tried 
since 1866. 

The floating dock has admittedly the merit of being capable 
of use in places where a graving dock would be either impossible 
or difficult of construction. But even in a place where either a 
graving dock or a floating dock is equally possible, the latter has 
very important advantages of its own which do not belong to the 
former, as is evidenced by the fact that at many places where 
graving docks are not only possible, but are already in existence, 
floating docks have been added to them instead of other graving 
docks. 

The qualities of importance to be considered in a comparison 
of docks may be said to be seven in number. They appear to 
be: — 

1. Advantages and disadvantages of the general mechanical 

principle employed. 

2. Cost, in which is included original cost, cost of up-keep, 

and cost of working. 

3. Time required for the construction of the dock. 

4. Mobility of the dock. 

5. Adaptability of the dock for its work under all conditions. 

6. Certainty in construction of the dock, both as to time and 

cost. 

7. Length of time required to berth and safely dock an 

ordinary vessel under ordinary circumstances. 

Each of the above qualities wajs then discussed in detail in the 
paper. 

Finally, to sum up, the floating dock has been adopted, im- 
proved, readopted, and continually used by the most capable naval 
authorities, public and private, of all the great maritime nations; 
it is used, and always successfully, at places where no other kind of 
dock can be placed, and at places where there are graving docks 
in constant work as well; it is mechanically advantageous over 
the graving dock to the extent of requiring only about one-fourth "• 
the latter's horse power to do the same work; it costs but one-third 
as much as the graving dock of similar size to construct; it is 
but very little, if any, more expensive to keep up, and its main- 



A MEMORANDUM ON FLOATING DOCKS. 161 

• 

tenance expenses amount to but ij per cent, per annum on its 
prime cost; it may be constructed and delivered in a year with 
certainty; it may be towed and moved, with or without a ship 
on board, as required in smooth water; it can adapt itself to any 
condition of list or strain in which a wounded ship might find 
herself; its total lifting power, by which alone it is limited, may 
always be exercised upon any vessel to the full; the contract for 
it — since there is nothing unforeseen to be allowed for — is certain 
to be be adhered to ; and it will berth and dock a ship quicker and 
more .advantageously (except only in case she required the serious 
disturbance of her heaviest weights) than a graving dock of equal 
capacity. 



Mr. Lyonel Clark, Admiral Sir Gerard Noel, K.C.M.G., Mr. 
E. H. Tennyson d'Eyncourt, and Mr. R. T. Napier took part in 
the Discussion. 

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
to the author. 

The meeting was then adjourned. 



THURSDAY, 5th SEPTEMBER, 1901. 



Mr. John Inglis, LL.D., Vice-Chairman, in the Chair. 



"THE MODERN STEAMBOAT EQUIPMENT 

OF WARSHIPS." 
Paper by E. C. Carnt. 



Abstract. 



In order that the development of the present steamboat equipment 
of warships may be followed, it seems necessary to refer back to 
the time when steam was in its infancy in our navy. Up to the 
years 1865-66, steam launches in use in the British Navy were few, 
and those few slow and heavy. They were 42 feet long, about 
II feet beam, and had a speed of 7^ to 8 knots; the hulls were 
built in the Royal Dockyards, and the machinery by firms of the 
standing of John Penn, Maudslay & Field, J & G. Rennie, etc. 
The rowing and sailing boats which formed the equipment of 
war vessels had, in the meantime, been brought to a high pitch of 
perfection, particularly as regards the small sailing lifeboats which 
were attached to nearly every ship in the Navy. 

The application of steam machinery to these hulls was 
the next step in the development of the modern boat, and, 
as a result of experiments made in 1864 to 1866, by Mr. 
John Samuel White, at Cowes, the first 27-foot steam 
cutter was constructed and tried by the Admiralty, with a 
view to use for the special boat work required in connection 
with surveying service. This boat was successful, and a larger 
one, 36 feet long, built on the same principle, was ordered, and 
tried in 1867. She, also, was satisfactory, with a speed of 8 J 
knots, and became the standard boat until 1878. In that year 
greater speed was required; the 48-foot vedette boat was evolved, 
and a speed of 13 knots obtained. 

Further developments led to the patent turnabout, double rudder 
boat, and in 1882 a 42-foot boat on this principle was completed 
and put on service. In 1883 the dimensions further increased to 
56 feet length, and the speed to 15^ knots under certain conditions, 
the turnabout principle being retained. 

From then onward there have been gradual changes, and the 
adoption of water-tube boilers, with the result that a speed of 
16 knots can now be attained with a service 56-foot vedette boat 
under trial conditions. 



MODERN STEAMBOAT EQUIPMENT OF WARSHIPS. 163 

In foreign navies, a greater desire for speed has led to further 
•developments, and the Japanese Navy now possesses four of the 
finest vedette boats in the world, 56 feet long, 9 feet 6 inches 
%)road, with a speed, under specified official conditions, of 18^ 
knots per hour. 

This represents a record of 37 years' work on the same class of 
vessel, and gives us the development from a 27-foot cutter with a 
speed of 7^ knots, to a 56-foot vedette boat with a speed of 18^ 
loiots. 



Col. N. Soliani, Professor J. H. Biles, Mr. Comer, and the Chair- 
man took part in the Discussion. 

The author replied, and on the motion of the Chairman a vote 
•of thanks was accorded to him. 



"SOME GRAPHIC ANALYSES OF PROPELLOR 

REACTIONS." 

Paper by J. Millen Adam. 



Abstract. 



The paper concentrates attention on the propellor and the fluid 
which passes through it as a conservative system, and describes a 
rotating screw as an instrument to induce from the surrounding 
element on one side, and to produce distinct from the surrounding 
element on the other side, a homogeneous current relative to itself, 
flowing parallel with the axis of rotation, and receiving therefrom 
corresponding reactions. 

The difference between the screw pitch in relation to the pool 
within which the propellor is found and the resultant ship speed, 
provides the angle of incidence without which no useful energy 
would be employed, and a probable explanation of apparent 
negative slip is given. Reasons were also adduced for the non- 
success of attempts to adopt gaining pitches, and it is shown that 
a non-gaining pitch is an essential feature of the helical screw. 
With the assistance of a series of geometrical diagrams, the 
evolution was traced from the inclined plane with its simple 
reactions to the twisted rotating vane, and the gradual but complete 
divergence of its system of reaction from the ty^ ; and the necessity 
was shown for a modification of the surfaces to meet the various 
complications demonstrated. 

The angles of incidence over the whole superficies of the blade 
must be such in relation to the attacking fluid that the acceleration 
shall be normal to the disc area, and it is not so upon the helical 
screw. The angle of incidence has an outward radial component, 
which was graphically described ; also any line of tangential escape 
was shown to be a convex curve. Although the water of the race 
does not disperse much because there is nothing to take its place, 
an instantaneous deflection or tendency to deflect indicates loss of 
energy, which can be as surely dissipated by concussion as by 
translation of matter. Propulsive thrust is upon the propellor and 
nowhere else, and the direction of the resistances bearing thereon 
is of primary importance. 

A further series of diagrams and models traced the evolution of 
an ideal vane from a curve whose entering tangent is parallel 
\nth the attack, and rises on vertical equidistant ordinates whose 



SOME GRAPHIC ANALYSES OF PROPELLER REACTIONS. 165 

successive lengths are as the squares of units in arithmetical pro- 
gression, giving equal acceleration, at right angles to the force, 
in unit of time. Such a vane is found only on the surface of a 
cone rotated on an axis passing through the apex of the cone, but 
inclined to the conic axis. Besides possessing this ideal gaining 
pitch, the vane described was shown to have a constant centripetsiJ 
component in every angle of incidence, corresponding to a moving 
force directed towards the centre of rotation, altering the accelera- 
tion in direction but not in magnitude, and therefore dissipating no 
power. Such a vane was also shown to yield a total acceleration 
equal between parallel edges, or with practically constant width from 
root to tip. The simplicity of the conic form for geometrical 
computations, also the flexibility of the figure in respect of generat- 
ing angle and angle of inclination, were also shown to be features 
of advantage. 



Mr. E. Hall Brown, Mr. E. C. Thrupp, Col. John Scott, C.B., 
and Mr. E. R. Mumford took part in the Discussion. 

The author replied, and on the motion of the Chairman a vote 
of thanks was accorded to him. 



"A NEW PROPELLER/ 
Paper by Johann Schutte. 



Abstract. 



1'he purpose of the paper was to put before those interested in 
shipbuilding matters a description of a new propeller of rather 
a novel design. 

With regard to the ordinary type of screw propeller, no definite 
decision has, as yet, been arrived at as tOj the best form, nor 
whether it is advisable to have constant or variable pitch. 
Designers of propellers probably give more attention to the fonn 
of blade. It is well known that the portions of the blades adjoin- 
ing the boss contribute little to the propelling power of the screw. 
The propeller in question is designed with the object of reducing 
those parts and is the invention of Graf von Westphalen, of Vienna. 
The inventor's work is based on ideas which will be best understood 
from his own statements in the following letter:-^ 

"Vienna, 20th August, 1900. 
" Dear Mr. Schutte, 

" This propeller has been evolved by means of numerous 
trials of various forms suggested by the following considerations. 
Propeller blades of the usual form, and with constant pitch, have 
the greater part of their surface at angles of 45 degrees and over. 
Such portions are not very efficient as regards propulsion, as they 
tend to drive the water away from the centre; and the more so 
the larger the angle and the greater the speed of rotation. With 
a screw having its blades in one plane and fixed directly on the 
boss in the usual way a retarding action is set up, owing to the 
comparatively greater thickness of the blade at the root, such 
thickness being necessary for purposes of strength. This part of 
the blade (assuming the face to be a plane surface), not having 
the same pitch as the tip, must set up a resistance in proportion 
to its thickness. Various trials with a propeller having a plane 
surface have shown that the water is drawn in spirally towards 
the centre; therefore the blades should decrease in width from 
tip to root. The proposed propeller embodies this idea. The 
arms fixed to the boss join the blades at the centre of gravity of 
hydraulic pressure. This construction allows the water free access 



A NEW PROPELLER. 167 

to each part of the blade and thus prevents a vacuum from form- 
ing, the consequence being that the propeller works evenly and 
free from vibration. As the radiating arms revolve in the same 
direction as the water in which they work they experience very 
little resistance. 

I am, yours sincerely, 

(Signed) Rudolph Graf von Westphalen zu Furstenberg." 

A series of experiments was carried out with models of the 
new propeller in the North German Lloyd Company's tank at 
Bremerhaven, principally with the object of determining the most 
suitable shape of blade. 

Of the various forms tried, the best results were obtained with 
a kite-sliaped blade whose greatest width, which occurs at a dis- 
tance of 72 per cent of the propeller radius measured from the 
shaft centre-line, equals 0.3 of its length. From the widest part, 
inwards the blade tapers down to and terminates at a point a short, 
distance from the axis. All parts of the blade make the same 
angle — 36 degrees with an athwart-ship plane; so that the pitch 
increases uniformly from the centre outwards. The arms which 
carry the blades are inclined to the shaft at an angle of 52 degrees, 
thus throwing the vertical plane containing the centre-lines of the 
blade-faces a definite distance abaft the boss. 

As a result of the model experiments the North German Lloyd 
Company had the propellers of their T.S.S. " Seeadler " replaced 
by a set of the Westphalen design. 

The dimensions of the " Seeadler " are : — Length between per- 
pendiculars = 164.00 feet; extreme breadth =26.24 feet; draught = 
11.25 feet; displacement =72 2 tons; wetted surface=5575 square 
feet 

Original propellers : — Diameter =9.18 feet ; pitch =13.61 feet ; 
surface (4 blades) = 36.6 square feet. 

Westphalen propellers: — Diameter =9.18 feet; pitch (measured 
at "centre of gravity of hydraulic pressure ")= 15.07 feet; surface 
(3 blades) =15.5 square feet. 

Trial results: — 

With Old With New 

Propeller. Propeller. 

Revolutions ... ... ... 107 99 

Speed ... ... ... 12.3 knots. 12.3 knots. 

Slip ... ... ... ... 14.0 p. cent. 16.6 p. cent 

LH.P. ... ... ... 910 850 

Besides figures and diagrams illustrating the design and geometry 
of the propeller, the paper included a curve of e.h.p. for the- 



168 A NEW PROPELLER. 

" Seeadler" at the given displacement (the e.h.p. at 12.3 knots = 
420) and a diagram showing the vibrations experienced in the 
engine room at practically the same revolutions with the old and 
new propellers respectively. The curves indicate a marked reduc- 
tion of vibrational disturbance in the latter case. 



Col. G. Rota, Mr. R. T. Napier, and Mr. C. J. Davidson took 
part in the Discussion; and the author replied. 

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
to the author. 

The proceedings of the Section were brought to a close by a 
vote of thanks to the Chairman, proposed by Mr. R. T. Napier 
and seconded by Mr. J. M. Adams, to which Col. John Scott, 
C.B., responded. 



SUMMARY OF PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

Section Y.— Iron and SteeL* 



TUESDAY, 8Pd SEPTEMBER, 1901. 



Mr. William Whitwell, Chairman, in the Chair. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

This is the third time that the Iron and Steel Institute has been 
privileged to enjoy the hospitality of the City of Glasgow. Re- 
membering the great benefits derived from the previous visits in 
1872 and 1885, the members have been looking forward with 
satisfaction to the Institute's third meeting in Glasgow. Scotland 
had always held a pre-eminent position in the metallurgy of iron; 
and to Glasgow we owe the introduction of the first blowing 
cylinders at Carron Ironworks, which some of us hope to visit, 
the development of the mining of blackband iron ore, and 
James Beaumont Neilson's invention of the hot blast, one of 
the most important in the annals of metallurgy, well worthy of 
being ranked with those of Henry Cort and Henry Bessemer. 
It was at Carron that James Watt erected his first steam-engine, 
the patent for which was secured in 1769. It is especially 
pleasant to us that this meeting is held, by kind permission of 
the University Court, in the magnificent buildings of this ancient 
University, which for 450 years has been unflagging in its en- 
deavours to benefit the world by scientific research. Glasgow 
University discovered James Watt, and appointed him their 
mathematical instrument maker. Glasgow University was the 
first University to found an engineering school and professorship 
of engineering. It was the first University to have a chemical 
teaching laboratory for students, and it was here that the first 
physical laboratory for the instruction of students in experimental 

* The full Proceedings of Section V. form Volume LX., 1901, of the 
Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, published by The Iron and Steel 
Institute, 28 Victoria Street, London, S.W. Price i6s. 

Ï3 



170 PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

work was established. In short, our debt to Glasgow University 
can with difficulty be estimated. Long may it pursue its career 
of useful work. Vivais crescat, fiorealf 

Special interest attaches to this meeting, inasmuch as for the 
first time in the history of the Iron and Steel Institute we meet 
in conjunction with the Institution of Civil Engineers, the 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers, the Institution of Naval 
Architects, the Institution of Mining Engineers, the Institution 
of Electrical Engineers, the Institution of Gas Engineers, and the 
Incorporated Association of Municipal Engineers, forming one great 
International Engineering Congress. Once in our history we held 
a joint meeting in the United States with the American 'Institu- 
tion of Mining Engineers and our German sister society, and the 
benefits derived were far-reaching. Speaking of that meeting, 
one of my distinguished predecessors in this chair wisely said : — 

" These expeditions, through which we meet eye to eye and 
voice to voice our friendly competitors, to discuss the interests 
and the scientific aspects of the industry which absorbs us, have 
been of great personal and national benefit. It is thus we learn 
how much has been accomplished by persistent and intelligent 
labour, how much remains to be achieved, and how, by free 
exchange of ideas and of production, friendly understanding is 
promoted and personal acquaintance built up." 

Animated by this spirit, the Iron and Steel Institute has 
desired tO' participate in this great Congress for the advance of 
common interests, and with the aim of widening our field of 
investigation, of avoiding the duplication of work, and of ex- 
tending the ever-increasing fund of technical knowledge. The 
bulk of the progress in applied science can be traced to the 
technical societies, and every branch of engineering and industry 
shows the beneficial results of co-operation by workers in the 
same field. Indeed, the homely saying I quoted in my address 
to you last May is applicable to technical societies — " It is a 
Avise farmer who looks over his neighbour's fence!" 

At the present time, when the close of a century coincides 
with the end of the Victorian era, attention is naturally turned 
to the achievements of the nineteenth century. Conspicuous 
among these has been the development of technical societies. 
Organisations have been created and are active in every pro- 
fession and in all branches of industry, science, and art. The 
growth of such societies has been accompanied by a decrease 
in the use of secret methods of manufacture. Manufacturing 
supremacy is now decided by other factors, and it is impossible 
to over-estimate the importance of professional and business men 
assembling to interchange ideas, and contributing funds for the 
publications of Transactions for the advancement of industry. 



J 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 171 

The knowledge gained by practical experience recorded in the 
Transactions of a technical society soon finds its way into the 
text-books for the instruction of students that will presently 
take our places and carry on our work. The mass of matter 
published by such societies is vast, and increases year by 
yea/r. The eight Societies taking part in the Congress pub- 
lished last year among them no less than 6805 pages, 
distributed as follows : — 

Pages. 

Institution of Civil Engineers - - - - 1981 

Institution of Mechanical Engineers - - - 644 

Iron and Steel Institute 1173 

Institution of Naval Architects - - - - 305 

Institution of Mining Engineers - - - . 1255 

Institution of Electrical Engineers - - - - 975 

Institution of Gas Engineers 219 

Incorporated Association of Municipal Engineers - 253 

Total - - - 6805 

In this overwhelming mass of published matter there is a 
certain amount of overlapping that this Conference may tend to 
obviate in the future. Some of the papers, too, at first sight 
appear to be of little practical importance. This criticism has 
frequently been applied to many of the papers read before the 
Iron and Steel Institute. It must be remembered, however, that 
this has been from time immemorial the favourite objection to 
the work of pioneers of thought. In this age of specialisation it 
is peculiarly important that hypothesis and generalisation — the 
complementary factors in scientific progress — should not be 
lost sight of. Mr. Balfour in a recent address, summarising the 
changes that have occurred in the nineteenth century, gives as 
the dominant note the close connection between theoretical 
knowledge and its utilitarian application. This is a startling 
verification of the soundness of scientific methods and of their 
capacity of indefinite perfectibility. With the development of 
scientific research, hypothesis, and generalisations, the practical 
applications of science become multiplied with rapidity and give 
the student (to borrow a simile from a brilliant writer in the 
Edinburgh Review) a satisfaction similar to that which a child 
feels when he has reached the final stages of putting together a 
puzzle-map of which the first steps were tentative and slow. 
Everything at the last falls quickly into its place, he finds 
nothing missing, and the map is complete and fit for use; yet, 
accuracy — or even approximate accuracy — ^in the earlier stages was 
a more important and difficult step towards ultimate success. 

The thirty thousand pages published by the Iron and Steel 
Institute since its inauguration in 1871 afford fruitful examples 



172 PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

of the subsequent value of scientific researches, which, when 
first presented, were received with coolness and suspicion by many 
of our members and by the technical press. Numerous examples 
might be cited. For instance, the microscopic method of investi- 
gating the structure of steel, created by Sorby, Martens, Osmond, 
Howe, and Stead, has become an indispensable auxiliary to chemical 
analysis and physical tests in steelworks. The abstruse memoirs 
on the heat treatment of steel, and on pyrometry, have led to im- 
portant practical applications, and the phase rule enunciated by the 
American professor, Gibbs, and applied by Sir William Roberts- 
Austen, Baron Jiiptner, Le Chatelier, and Stansfield, will no doubt 
eventually prove of extreme value in eludicating some of the more 
intricate problems confronting the metallurgist. 

In short, by its papers, its discussions, and its interchange of 
ideas, the Iron and Steel Institute has advanced the science and 
art of metallurgy. It has rendered services to the world by 
assisting its progress, and is, I venture to think, not imworthy 
to accept the welcome which the West of Scotland ironmasters 
and the University of Glasgow are now so generously giving 
to it. 



"THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES OF THE 

WEST OF SCOTLAND." 

I.— PIG IRON. 

By Henry Bumby. 

On the previous occasions on which the Iron and Steel Institute 
has honoured Glasgow with its presence, papers have been read 
dealing so fully with the early history of ironmaking in Scotland 
thajt I will not venture to occupy your time by repeating what has 
already been so ably dealt with. I have, therefore, only added as 
an appendix (Table I.) a table of some of the more notable dates 
in the histxxry of Scotch ironmaking, in the hope that others may 
be able to supply those which I have been unable to obtain. 

Your previous visits to Glasgow, in 1872 and 1885, have practi- 
cally coincided with the general introduction of radical changes in 
the Scotch pig iron industry. 

When you first visited Scotland in 1872, the Scotch ironmasters 
were just b^inning to utilise the hitherto " waste " gas for boilers 
and stoves, and to supplement their own native ores with ore from 
Spain, and you were told in the descriptive pwiper read at that 
meeting that " (at Coltness) ... it is now finally resolved to 
go in for economical production by an application of the bell and 
cone to at least two of the blast furnaces." Whilst it was also 
told, as a remarkable fact, that at one works they had succeeded 
in making haematite pig entirely from Spanish ore. When you 
were here in 1885, the persistent efforts of Mr. M^Cosh and his 
partners to utilise the tar and ammonia contained in the furnace 
gas had just been crowned with success, and, encouraged by their 
example, several other works had begun to put down by-product 
plants, some of them of very remarkable design. Your Journal 
for that year contains descriptions of most of these plants, and 
most of us can remember the very great interest excited through- 
out the iron trade at the time, and the rather wild talk about pig 
iron "becoming an unimportant by-product," etc. 

In the sixteen years which have elapsed since the last visit of 
the Iron and Steel Institute, there have been no such radical 
changes as marked the earlier periods. The period has been 
chiefly marked by the gradual increase in the proportion of steel- 
making pig, and by the improvement and extension of the works 
for recovering by-products from the gas which were commenced in 
the early eighties. 



174 iron and steel industries of the west of scotland. 

Materials. 

Coal. — The blast furnaces of Lanarkshire and Ayrshire have 
now been at regular work for over a century, and during three- 
quarters of that time they have worked mainly on the coal from 
two or three not exceptionally thick seams; add to this that until 
the last fifteen or twenty years both mining and smelting were 
conducted in the most wasteful manner, and it will be no cause 
for surprise that the best splint coals are showing signs of ex- 
haustion.* Mining engineers have variously estimated the tune 
for the exhaustion of the good splint coals of Lanarkshire at from 
ten to twenty years, and already the scarcity is making itself felt 
by those works which depend on the open market for their fuel 
supplies. To meet this scarcity of splint coal, some works are 
endeaivouring to use in its place the softer semi-splint coals, with 
results which, so far, do not conduce to the comfort of their furnace 
managers. A more promising plan has been tried by one large 
firm, who coke the coal from the lower seams in very fine by- 
product ovens, and use a small proportion of coke with each barrow 
of coal. 

With the exception of two firms who use from lo to 25 per cent, 
coke, all the Scotch furnaces now work with raw coal. 

Blackband. — The Lanarkshire blackband, which was discovered 
in 1 801, has in 1901 been practically exhausted, as there are now 
no pits in the Lanarkshire coalfield working it as a principal pro- 
duct, though a small quantity of a thin blackband is raised with 
the gas coal at one or two pits. Some blackband of excellent 
quality is, however, still raised in Fife and Midlothian for smelting 
in the Lanarkshire furnaces, whilst the somewhat leaner black- 
banids of Ayrshire are still fairly plentiful. 

Clay band. — From somewhat different causes the use of clayband 
ores has also declined greatly, and these are now but little worked, 
except in cases where they can be worked with a coal seam. The 
gready increased cost of mining labour is partly responsible for 
this, whilst the greater attention paid to sampling and chemical 
analysis since haematite smelting became general has shown the 
necessity of abandoning many places working poor ores. 

Other Ores. — So far as I can learn, no iron ore is at present 
worked in Scotland except the bedded claybands and blackbands 
of the carboniferous system, though several small vein deposits 
of haematjte are know to exist in the older rocks, and com- 
parativdy small quantities have been worked from time to time; 
consequently the importation of foreign ores, which was almost 

* G. A. Mitchell, Presidential Address to Mining Institute of Scotland, 
1894. J. A. Longden, Presidential Address, Institution of Mining Engineers, 
London, 1899. 



IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES OF THE WEST OF SCOTLAND. 175 

unknown twenty years ago, has been steadily growing year by 
year, from 42,471 tons in 1879 to 1,403,889 in 1899, the last 
year for which the Government statistics are as yet issued. 
With this new state of affairs, however, Scotch ironmasters have 
not abandoned their traditional policy of controlling their raw 
materials, and three of the largest firms now own or control 
mines in Spain which are believed. to be capable of supplying their 
requirements of haematite for many years to come. 

Preparation of Ores. — The extreme difficulty of maintaining 
regulcor vvorking of furnaces supplied with soft coal and small 
and inferior ores has of late years caused considerable attention 
to be given to the briquetting of small ores. Several years a^o 
Mr. G. Fisher, then manager of the Shotts Works, devised and 
patented ai plant for working up the small dust from blackband 
into briquettes for the furnace, a little yellow clay being used as 
the agglomérant, and this is still working successfully. Since 
then several plants have been put down for the manufacture of 
briquettes from purple ores, clay or Irish aluminous ore being 
added as agglomérant. In the present year the Coltness Com- 
pany have put up a large plant for screening the small ores from 
the Alquife mines, of which they are the principal owners, and 
moulding the finest smalls into briquettes, the machine used being 
a oKxiification of the well-known Yeadon coal briquette machine, 
suitably strengthened. 

Blast Furnace Equipment and Practice. — ^At the present time there 
is a greater uniformity in both dimensions and output of the 
furnaces at different works in Scotland than in any other district. 
In 1872 the average make p>er furnace per week was 165 tons, 
with a consumption of 2.95 tons of coal per ton of pig. In 1884 
the production had increased to 200 tons, and the coal been 
reduced to 2.20 tons. In 1899 the production had increased to 
270 tons, and the coal consumption decreased tO' 1.83 tons. Last 
year the a^^^erage weekly production had decreased to 265 tons. 
The coal consumed per ton is not yet officially published, but will 
show a fractional increase — ^poorer results due entirely to the 
inferior quality of coal and ores used.* 

To those accustomed to the hard driving of some recently con- 
structed coke furnaces these makes will appear extremely small; 
it should not, however, be too hastily concluded that the pro- 
prietors and their managers are ignorant of their business. A 
furnace working on splint coal has to combine in itself a coke 
oven and a blast-furnace, and if it is driven so fast that any of the 
coal reaches the zone of fusion without having its 35 or 40 per 

, * "Thirty-sixth Annual Report, Alkali, etc., Acts, p. 170; also, "Thirty- 
seventh Report," p. 138. 



176 IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES OF THE WEST OF SCOTLAND. 

cent, of water and volatile hydrocarbons expelled, the temperature 
there is so reduced as to completely disorganise the working. An 
obviouf. remedy would appear to be an increase in the height of 
the funiaces, and this was tried, and gave very good results so 
long as uniformly hard coal was used; but with an admixture of 
softer coals the crushing was too great, and many of the heightened 
fiunaces have now been reduced to a height of 60 to 65 feet, which 
is the average height in Scotland. Of the many attempts made in 
the last few years to increase the rapidity of driving, one of the 
most encoiuraging was recently made at Clyde Ironworks, about 
which Mr. T. B. Rogerson writes me as follows : — " I cannot say 
much about our hard driving at Clyde, as we were on too short a 
time to make much comment; but this I can say, that we blew 
one furnace for three weeks with 8^ lbs, blast, and made about 90 
tons a day of good iron. We had to stop this hard driving because 
of scarcity of water, and our stove power not being suflScient for 
all furnaces, but intend at some future date to again go on with it 
We used nothing but splint coal during this trial." 

As almost all the Scotch works are now equipped with by-product 
plants, the manager has to work with one eye on this department, 
and anything which tends to produce irregular driving in the 
furnace is very quickly reflected in the returns from the chemical 
department 

In one respect — the value of an increased number of tuyeres 
— Scotch practice has anticipated the conclusions of modem 
designers. For many years past eight or nine tuyeres have been 
the rule in Scotland, and in the last few years several have been 
built with twelve. 

All the works in Scotland are now fitted with a full equipment of 
firebrick stoves, and fairly high temperatures (1200S to 1400-^ F.) 
are the rule. The stove which has found most favour is the 
Ford and Moncur — nine or ten out of the sixteen working plants 
in Scotland being fitted with this type, and some of the stoves 
have now been at work over ten years without any repairs other 
than the renewal of hot-blast valves. 

With the comparatively small makes in vogue there has been 
no opening for blowing engines or charging machinery of the 
American type, but pig lifting and breaking machinery has been 
introduced at Messrs. Dixon's two works, Govan and Calder, and is 
giving complete satisfaction. 

By-Products. 

In 1885 the recovery of tar and ammonia from the blast- 
fiunace was an infant industry just emerging from the region of 
small scale experiment. At the present time, with one exception. 



IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES OF THE WEST- OF SCOTLAND. 177 

every works in Scotland either has a complete by-product plant or 
is erecting one, and all the earlier plants have been considerably 
enlarged and improved. In all the recent improvements the 
changes have been in the direction of simplicity of construction 
and safety in working; the size of the gas tubing has been 
increased ,and obstructions in the shape of sharp bends, etc., 
have as far as possible been avoided. The water coolers and 
high scrubber towers of the earlier plants have been replaced by 
the tar washer and horizontal liquor washer, which gives an 
almost complete abstraction of ammonia. They require little atten- 
tion to keep them in perfect working order for years. They have 
the further advantage of holding only small quantities of gas in 
each compartment, so that the danger of a serious gas explosion 
is entirely eliminated. In designing these improvements, no one 
has done more than Mr. A. Gillespie, of Glasgow, and the three 
by-product works recently erected to his designs are admittedly 
the " show " plants of the country. As an example of the newest 
work in this direction, the following brief description of the new 
ammonia works at the Summerlee and Mossend Company at 
Coatbridge, for which I am indebted to Mr. Gillespie, will be of 
interest: — 

Summerlee New Ammonia Plani. — " The Summerlee plant con- 
sists of seven furnaces, of which five or six are usually in blast 
at once. The gas from all the furnaces, having a temperatiu-e 
of 300 deg. Fah., or a little over, is first taken by a tube of 9 feet 
diameter to the tar washer (or primary washer), a horizontal 
vessel 64 feet long and 16 feet wide, in which the gas is split up 
and made to pass in thin streams under diaphragm plates sealed 
in tar. The hot gases are there brought into intimate contact 
with the tar; the oi>eration is twice repeated in the vessel to 
ensure complete contact, with the result that the temperature is 
reduced by about 130 deg. Fah., and the heavier tars contained in 
the gas aie entangled and thrown down, flowing slowly along the 
sloping bottom of the washer to the regulating valve, where 
they are automatically run off to the stock tank. 

"The tar fed into the tar washer is the lighter tar from the 
liquor washer and condensers, containing a large excess of en- 
tangled water and gas; by the same operation these are expelled 
and the tar heated and prepared for distillation in the tar stills. 

" The partially cooled gases pass from the tar washer to the 
air condensers, where they are again split up and pass into 
twelve boxes leading into a series of 20-inch vertical tubes having 
a total' length of about 4J miles. In passing through these the 
temperature of the gases is brought down to about that of the 
atmosphere, and they are in a fit state for the complete recovery 



178 IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES OF THE WEST OF SCOTLAND. 

of the ammonia in the form of liquor. The tar washer and 
condensers are placed on the suction side of the exhauster, and 
the first and second liquor washers on the discharge side. 

" From the condensers the gas passes into the exhausters, of 
which there are three sets, of the horizontal cylinder type, each 
actuated by a pair of steam cylinders i8 inches diameter by 4 feet 
6 inches stroke. The two gas cylinders are 6 feet diameter by the 
same stroke, each pair of exhausters being capable of passing 
915,000 cubic feet of gas per hour at thirty revolutions per minute, 
or in all about 2| million cubic feet per hour. 

*' The two liquor washers are horizontal, 60 feet long by 12 feet 
6 inches wide, in each of which the gas is repeatedly split up and 
impelled under diaphragms sealed in liquor, the first washer being 
fed with weak ammonia liquor, and the second with a small 
quantity of pure water. 

" The products recovered in the condensers and the liquor 
washers pass intO' specially constructed separators, where, by the 
difference in specific gravity, the heavy and light frothy tars are 
each separated from the ammonia liquor. The washed gases are 
returned fit for use in the furnace stoves, steam boilers, etc., etc. 
The tar is dealt with in several tar stills, the oil distilled, graded, 
and separated, and the pitch run out in bulk or in blocks. 

*' The sulphate plant is capable of manufacturing forty tons of 
sulphate of ammonia per week, and the whole plant is arranged as 
far as possible to work automatically." 

The amount of sulphate of ammonia recovered at the different 
works varies from 20 to 25 lbs. per ton of coal used in the fur- 
naces, and the pitch and oil from 150 to 200 lbs. — the variations 
depending largely on the nature of the coal used, as the amount 
now lost in the gas at any of the works is extremely small. 

Other By-Froducts.-— Whilst our attention has been given to the 
recovery of tar and ammonia, the possibility of utilising other by- 
products of the blast furnace has not been entirely overlooked. 
The suitability of the washed gas for gas engines was demonstrated 
by the working of the gas engine at Wishaw — M^he pioneer of its 
class — with the history of which most of you wiU be familiar. 
That it has not as yet been followed by others is Wgely due to 
the fact that all the power and most of the heatrug re^iired about 
the furnaces is already provided by the gas. For exam^J^le, at one 
works, in addition to heating the blast furnace stovesVand pro- 
viding steam for the whole works, the gas serves to distil the tar 
and ammonia, heat the core-stoves for three large foundriçs» distil 
the coal for the gasworks supplying the village, etc., melt <be steel 
in a steel foundry; and the surplus is being applied to bVm the 
ore briquettes in a 1 2-ch(amber kiln. \ 






IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES OF THE WEST OF SCOTLAND. 179 

Many attempts have been made to utilise the slag, but so far 
the demand shows little prospect of overtaking the supply. Much 
is used for railway ballast and for the foundations of roads, etc., 
and of late years considerable quantities have been used for 
making mortar and concrete, with good results. Slag bricks of 
excellent quality have been made experimentally, but, with the 
present low price of bricks made from colliery waste, there does not 
seem very much prospect of manufacture at a profit. 

Statistics, etc. 

By the courtesy of Messrs. James Watson and Co., I am enabled 
to bring up to date the table of stocks, shipments, etc., given in 
Mr. Rowan's paper of 1885. From this it will be seen that the 
output of the Scotch furnaces has been practically stationary, 
whilst the shipments, and especially the foreign shipments, have 
decreased. Side by side with this, there has been a gradual change 
in the class of iron made. Up to 1885, the great bulk of 
the furnace output was foundr}' and forge iron; in 1890 the make 
of haematite had increased to 238,759 tons, against 498,307 tons of 
ordinary and basic; in 1899 the hematite amounted to 581,534 
tons, compared with 572,486 tons of ordinary iron; and at present 
there are 43 fiunaces making haematite, and only 36 working on 
foundry and forge iron. As the haematite made is almost entirely 
used in the Scotch steelworks, the decrease in pig iron shipments 
means chiefly that we are exporting finished steel and steel ships 
instead of crude pig iron. 

In concluding this very hurried sketch of the present position 
of the Scotch pig iron industry, I have to thank the proprietors 
of the iron companies named, and Messrs. A. Gillespie and T. B. 
Roger son, for permission to publish information so freely supplied 
to me. 



180 IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES OF THE WEST OF SCOTLAND. 

Table I. 
Some Notable Dates in the History of the Scotch Pig-Iron Trade, 



About 1750 


First charcoal blast-furnace in Argyleshire 
built. 




1760 


Carron Ironworks started. 




1769 


Watt and Roebuck erected a steam engine 
near Carron. 




1779 


Wilsowntown Works commenced. 


Dismantled 1840-50, 


1787 


Omoa and Muirkirk Works commenced. 


(Omoa now dismantled) 


1788 


Clyde Works commenced. (In this year 
there were eight furnaces at work in 
Scotland. ) 




1792 


Devon Works commenced (with furnaces 
cut out in the solid rock). 


Stopped 1858. 


>) 


Glenbuck Works started. 


Now stopped. 


1801 


Calder „ „ 




>» 


Balgonie (Fife) Works started. 


Now stopped. 


1802 


Shotts „ „ 




1805 


Monkland „ ,, 


Now dismantled. 


1828 


Neilson hot-blast patent. 




1830 


Gartsherrie Works started. (In this year- 
there were twenty-seven furnaces in 
blast, and the year's production was 
37,000 tons ) 




1833 


Dundyvan Works started. 


Now dismantled. 


1836 


Coltness „ „ 




1837 


Summerlee „ „ 




1838 


Carnbroe ,, ,, 




1845 


Gas collected and used at Dundyvan Works 
from a sixty-five feet furnace. 




1852 


Iron ore calcined with gas at Coltness. 




1879-80 


By-product works started at Gartsherrie. 




1896 


Gas-engine works with furnace gas at 
Wishaw Ironworks. 





Table II. 

Production of Sulphate of Ammonia from Scotch Blast-Furnaces (com- 
piled from the Reports of the Chief Inspector of Alkali, éc, Works), 

1883 about 400 Tons. 

(First reported separately in 1886.) 



1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 

1893 
1894 

1895 
1896 

1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 



(Strike of Furnacemen) 



(Colliers' Strike) 



3,750 
4,849 

4,930 

5,645 

/4,564 

1 5,790 

10,500 

/8,333 

19,675 
14,188 

16,111 

17,379 
17,535 
17.563 
16,559 



IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES OF THE WEST OF SCOTLAND. 181 



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182 IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES OF THE WEST OF SCOTLAND. 

IL— MALLEABLE IRON. 

By William Wylie. 

The malleable or manufactured iron trade, which is sometimes 
spoken of as if it were becoming almost a thing of the past, has 
suffered less in Scotland than in most other districts. In the 
three principal producing districts in Britain there has been very 
little change during the last three years, due entirely to the 
activity in the trade that has existed during that time; but com- 
paring the output of twenty years ago with last year, we find the 
production of puddled iron, as taken from the statistics of the 
British Iron Trade Association, to be as follows, so far as particulars 
have been supplied by manufacturers : — 





United 


South 






South 




Kingdom. 


Staffordshire. 


Cleveland. 


Scotland. 


Wales. 




Tons. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


1882 - 


2,841,534 


660,326 


852,199 


210,300 


213,179 


I9CXJ - 


1,162,765 


265,181 


198,131 


206,316 


practically 
none. 



So that now the total production is only 41 per cent., South 
Staffordshire 40 per cent., Cleveland 20 per cent, of what it was, 
while Scotland has almost remained stationary during the whole 
of that period. 

The manufacture of malleable iron commenced in Scotland over 
100 years ago at various small places, amongst them being Muir- 
kirk Ironworks, erected in 1790, and which are still in existence; 
but up to the middle of last century the trade was limited, and not 
to be compared in extent with that of South Wales, South Stafford- 
shire, or the North of England; from that time onwards, however, 
new plants were laid down in rapid succession till about the year 
1875^ when the trade had reached its maximum. 

By this time several of the older plants had been long since 
■cleared away, and several of the largest establishments, such as 
Dundyvan Ironworks, Monkland Ironworks, Govan Bar Ironworks, 
and, rather later, Glasgow Ironworks, St. Rollox, were dismantled, 
and others, as Blochaim, Mossend, Parkhead, etp., converted into 
steelworks. Within more recent years other places have been 
established, as Waverley, Dundyvan (new), Woodside, and Victoria 
Works (only two years ago), all in Coatbridge district, while the 
Globe Ironworks have been transferred from Coatbridge to 
Motherwell, and Coatbridge Works have been rebuilt on a new 
site; many others have also been entirely remodelled. With these 
additions and improvements on the existing plants, the productive 
capacity, as has already been remarked, has remained constant. 
At the present time there are employed in the manufacture of 
malleable iron in Scotland 22 firms, owning 25 works, consisting 



IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES OF THE WEST OF SCOTLAND. 183 

of 396 puddling furnaces, 38 scrap furnaces, 17 bar mills, 23 guide 
mills, 8 strip mills, 21 sheet mills, producing 325,000 tons per 
annum finished iron of all kinds (from particulars supplied by the 
manufacturers). All the works, with one or two exceptions, are 
situated in the Coatbridge and Motherwell districts of Lanarkshire. 

No new process having been introduced in the manufacture of 
puddled iron, the fundamental principles are just the same as have 
been in operation for the last fifty years or more, so that the only 
means of lowering the costs in order to meet the keen competition 
of modem times is by adopting from time to time all the minor 
improvements in furnaces and machinery, whereby the waste of 
material and consumption of fuel is lessened, the output increased, 
and thus the best results are obtained from the plant, and the 
general wages and charges are reduced. In this respect the 
various works have not been slow in adopting any means which 
they considered would be a benefit to them in their respective 
branches. 

A quarter of a century or so ago any one passing through an 
iron-producing district used to be struck with the long tongues of 
fire from the blast furnaces, and the intermittent flames emitted 
from the innumerable stalks of puddling and mill furnaces. Now 
all this is changed ; the former have all closed tops, the gases being 
used to heat the stoves and for raising steam, and there are few 
stalk furnaces to be seen in malleable works. The country around 
is now dark in comparison, the only light being the flash from the 
opening doors or the glow from metal on pig beds and when being 
conveyed to hammer or rolls, the blast-furnaces even requiring to 
be lit by electricity. 

Puddling furnaces are rather larger than formerly, working 
heavier heats and more per shift, and all have closed grates with 
forced blast underneath in order to consume smaller fuels, and 
have boilers attached to utilise the waste heat for steam raising. 
The same may be said of mill furnaces; most in this district are 
ordinary coal furnaces, with boilers overhead or at end ; gas furnaces 
have not been widely adopted in iron mills here. By making 
these of larger capacity, and devoting every attention to their con- 
struction, also by using the best types of high-speed engines and 
improvements about the rolls, the output of mills has been largely 
increased during recent years, so that it is no uncommon occurrence 
to have 12-inch guide-mills heating in two furnaces and rolling 30 
to 40 tons of iron piles per turn of twelve hours, which is quite 
equal to the best practice of any district even of our American 
cousins in the same class of work. 

A very varied class of trade is conducted in the iron mills in the 
district, both as regards the qualities and descriptions of material 
produced. 



184 IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES OF THE WEST OF SCOTLAND. 

Best Scotch iron commands a high reputation, and all qualities 
are manufactured, from the common unmarked bars for the export 
market to the highest grades that can be produced; and, situated 
as all the works are within a short distance from Glasgow and the 
Clyde shipyards, where there is a concentration of all the allied 
industries — shipbuilding, marine engineering, boiler making, loco- 
motive building, pipe and general founding, machine tool and 
general engineering, and fence, bridge, and roof building — there is 
a steady and large outlet for all sizes and descriptions of bars, ship 
and boiler plates, hoops, sheets, and sectional iron of all kinds. 

Coatbridge may also be said to be the chief seat in the kingdom 
of the welded tube industry, so that there and in and around 
Glasgow there is a large demand for strips and tube hoops. 

As a metallurgical centre the Scotch ironworks are, therefore, 
most favourably situated, having the great natural advantage of 
being within easy access of a seaport, as well as being in the midst 
of a perfect hive of allied industries. 

It may here be said that for many years the wages of the 
employees of the malleable iron trade in Scotland were regulated 
by the decisions of the Board of Conciliation and Arbitration in 
the North of England, and this arrangement proved satisfactory in 
so far that no serious dispute had occurred for many years; but 
by the desire of the operatives a local board was formed in 1897 
on the same principles as that of the North of England and South 
Staffordshire Boards, and so far it has amply justified its existence. 

The author is indebted to the statistics of the British Iron 
Trade Association for figures as to production, and to the various 
manufacturers for their particulars of furnaces and mills, etc. 



IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES OF THE WEST OF SCOTLAND. 185 

III.— STEEL. 
By Henry Archibald. 

In glancing back over the history of the steel industry of Scot- 
land, an industry which has long maintained a high position for 
the excellence of its manufactures, we find, as far back as the 
year 1857, experiments being conducted at Coats' Iron Works 
and by Messrs. William Dixon and Co. at Govan, with small 
Bessemer plants; at the latter place under the personal super- 
vision of the inventor. 

Neither of these trials seem to have been successful, probably 
due to the phosphorus in the Scotch pig-iron experimented with, 
and the adoption of the process was abandoned at that time; but 
in the year 1861 we find Messrs. Rowan and Co., of Glasgow, 
beginning operations with a small Bessemer plant consisting of 
two 3-ton converters, and using Cumberland iron. 

This works was manufacturing steel from 1861 imtil 1875, when 
it was dismantled; but during that period Messrs. Rowan seem to 
have made steel of exceedingly good quality, though only in very 
limited quantities. 

In the year 1873 the Steel Company of Scotland built at 
Hallside the first open-hearth plant in Scotland. There were 
three furnaces built, of 6 tons capacity, and we find this firm 
steadily increasing their plant year by year until, in 1877, they 
had fourteen furnaces, ten of 6 tons and four of 10 tons capacity, 
and an output of ingots of about 36,000 tons per annum. 

In the year 1879-1880 we find other firms entering the field, 
Messrs. Beardmore at Parkhead, Messrs. Colville at Motherwell, 
and Neilson's at Mossend, and about this time the Steel Company 
of Scotland bought and equipped the Blochairn Works in Glasgow. 
Under these circumstances it is not surprising to find that the 
total number of steel furnaces had risen, at the end of the year 
1880, to 73, and the production of steel ingots to 84,500 tons. 

With the earlier firms increasing their steel melting plants, 
and new works being erected, the production of ingots steadily 
increased. In 1881 the output of open-hearth ingots is given 
at 166,200 tons per annum; in 1882, 213,000 tons; 1883, 
222,000 tons; 1884, 213,887, and in 1885 it had risen to a total 
of 241,074 tons per annum. 

With 1885, a new departure was made in the manufacture of 
steel in Scodand, Messrs. Merry and Cunningham having adopted 
the basic Bessemer Process. This firm erected, in conjunction with 
the blast furnace plant at Glengamock, four lo-ton converters 

14 



186 IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES OF THE WEST OF SCOTLAND. 

with bar mills, etc., and in the following year the Glasgow Iron 
Co. started a somewhat similar plant in close proximity to their 
blast furnaces at Wishaw. 

The plant at Wishaw consisted of three 7-ton converters, bar 
mills, etc., the intention of both firms being to utilise the local 
clayband and blackband ore, and the large deposits of ironworks 
cinder for the production of basic pig iron, and to convert the iron 
into basic steel. 

The plant at Glangamock is still in operation, but the Wishaw 
plant (owing to the difficulty of obtaining suitable raw material for 
manufacture of basic pig-iron) was discontinued, and dismantled 
some years ago, the converters being replaced by open hearth 
furnaces smelting haematite pig iron. 

In the earlier days of the open hearth process the idea of the 
originators was to manufacture steel rails, but owing to the great 
fall in the price, and the scarcity of orders for this material, the 
manufacturers were forced to look for fresh fields for the disposal 
of their steel; and about the year 1875 the manufacture of steel 
bars and castings was begun, and the first plate mill started at 
Hallside works in 1877. 

The shipbuilders on the Clyde seem to have been quick to 
appreciate the new material placed to their hand, for about the 
year 1877 three steamers were built of open-hearth steel from the 
local works, and from this time on to the present the open-hearth 
steel industry of Scotland has been steadily on the increase. 

In Scotland at the present time nine firms with ten works 
are engaged in the production of open-hearth steel plates and 
bars. One of these firms, the Glengamock Iron and Steel Co., is 
also engaged in the manufacture of basic Bessemer steel as pre- 
viously mentioned. 

The undernoted are the works referred to : — 
The Hallside Works of the Steel Co. of Scotland, at Newton, 
manufacturing bars of every description, forging ingots, is the largest 
producer of steel castings in Scotland. 

The Èlochaim Works of the same Company, at Glasgow. Their 
chief product is plates for ship and boiler work. 

The Dalzell Steel Works of Messrs. David Colville and Son's, 
at Motherwell, who manufacture plates for every class of boiler and 
ship work, bars of every description, heavy ingots for forgings, steel 
rolls, castings, etc. 

The Parkhead Forge of Messrs. William Beardmore, at Glasgow. 
This works is principally devoted to the manufacture of armour 
plate, ordnance, projectiles, forgings, etc. 

The Lanarkshire Works of The Lanarkshire Steel Co., at 
Flemington, manufacturing steel bars, forging ingots, etc. 



IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES OF THE WEST OF SCOTLAND. 187 

The Wishaw Steel Works of The Glasgow Iron and Steel Co., at 
Wishaw, makers of ship and boiler plate, and bars. 

The Glengamock Works of the Glengamock Iron and Steel Co., 
Ltd., Ayrshire, producing bars, billets, and girders. 

The Clydebridge Steel Works of The Clydebridge Steel Co., 
Cambuslang. This firm are makers of plates only. 

The Clydesdale Works of Messrs. Stewart and Menzies, Ltd., 
Mossend. Plates and tube strips form, their chief product 

The Mossend Works of Summerlee and Mossend Iron and Steel 
Co., Ltd., Mossend. Makers of plates only. 

Calderbank Works. Makers of plates only. 

In addition to these works, there are numerous smaller works 
equipped with oi>en hearth-furnaces, and Bessemer converters, or 
using the crucible furnaces for the production of steel castings 
or tool steel. 

The statistics for 1900 show that there were, last year, 115 open 
hearth furnaces in Scotland — 114 acid and i basic. 

Of the 114 acid- furnaces, the average number in operation 
during the year was 89, 25 furnaces being idle, and the one basic 
furnace working. 

The total output of ingots from these furnaces was 963,345 tonS) 
960,581 being acid steel, and 2764 being basic steel ingots. 

The output of open-hearth steel plates, bars, etc., for the same 
period was: — Plates and angles, 360,589 tons; bars, etc., 199,359 
tons; blooms and billets, 56,839 tons; giving a total of 616,787 
tons of finished material. 

With reference to the total of 963,345 tons of open hearth ingots 
for Scotland, there remains to be added the output of the numerous . 
smaller works employed in the manufacture of castings, etc., which 
will bring the total output for Scotland up to little short of 
1,000,000 tons of steel for 1900. 

To those members who were present at the last meeting of the , 
Iron and Steel Institute, at Glasgow, in the autumn of 1885, and 
who availed themselves of the opportunity of visiting the local \ 
steel works, the great developments which have taken place in. 
method of manufacture and in the plant in use at the present day, 
will appeal most strongly. 

In 1885, the largest smelting furnaces had only a capacity of.; 
about 15 to 20 tons, to-day we havç steel furnaces vith a capacity? 
of 50 to 60 tons at work, with all the necessary appliances ior, , 
handling such quantities of molten stçel. 

Though charging machinery in connection- with the smelting 
furnaces has not been adopted at any of the works in this district, 
its absence has in no way hindered the Scotch works from com-,, 
peting successfully, as regards output, with . works where these) , 
machines have been introduced, owing largely to the improved 



1 88 IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES OF THE WEST OF SCOTLAND. 

design of tfhe newer furnaces, the better facilities for handling the 
raw materials, and the greatly improved condition, as regards ventikr 
tion, etc., under which the men are required to work. Some of 
these furnaces hold the record for output for Great Britain; iioo 
tons of ingots per fortnight being no unusual output for a 50-ton 
furnace. 

With the gradual adoption of the larger furnaces, and improved 
types of gas producers, a corresponding economy has been effected 
in the cost of manufacture of the ingot 

As with the melting furnaces, so the old condition of things has 
changed in the manipulation of the steel ingots: 

With the increased demands made on the steel trade by the 
engineer, the shipbuilder, and the boilermaker, for heavier and 
larger plates and sections, the necessity for improved appliances 
for haiidling heavy material, rapidly and economically, has 
gradually altered much of the steel works rolling plant within the 
last ten or fifteen years. 

The old coal-fired horizontal ingot heating furnace has given 
place almost exclusively to the vertical gas-fired regenerative 
furnace, with the necessary arrangement of cranes of various 
types for chairging and drawing the ingots, but nowhere is the 
change so marked as in the method of bringing the ingot down to 
the form of a slab. 

In 1888 the steam hammer was in universal use for this purpose, 
with its army of hammermen and assistants. To-day the hammer, 
in conjunction with the plate or bar mill, is a thing of the past; 
its place being taken by the modem cogging mill, with its few 
men but many mechanical appliances, with cradle, tilters, etc. all 
worked by hydraulic power, and capable, as in the case of one of 
our most recent and best equipped mills, of turning out 60 to 70 
tons per hour, and of cogging down slabs for the heaviest plate 
required. 

The heavy plates now required for the market necessitate the 
handling of correspondingly heavy slabs, and to deal with them in 
an efficient manner large hot slab shears capable of cutting slabs 
four or five feet broad by 14 inches thick, are now used. 

In the Scotch works the leheatiiig furnaces for the slabs are 
practically all horizontal gas fired regenerative furnaces, and 
already one works in this district has adopted the mechanical 
charging and cleaning machines, and alterations are being made 
in one of the other works to adopt mechanical charging and clean- 
ing in connection with their slab heating furnaces. 

With reference to the plate and bar mills mechanical appliances 
are largely supplementing manual labour. Live roller gearing, 
etc., has been almost universally adopted at all mills, and the 



IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES OF THE WEST OF SCOTLAND. 18t> 

adoption of these appliances has been followed by increased yields 
and a corresponding economy in the cost of production. 

The mechanioail appliances in connection with the handling of 
plates on the mill floor, at the shears, and on the loading bank, 
have been slower in coming, but a movement has been made 
within this last few years, and some of the works are equipped with 
electric ot steam overhead cranes to facilitate the handling of the 
plates, and as many of the plates turned out from these works are 
two inches in thickness, and of considerable area, whUe others 
are over eleven feet in width, mechanical arrangements for handling 
these expeditiously have become most necessary. 

As with the plate mills so with the bar mills, the improved 
appliances have considerably increased the output, and whereas, 
some years ago, it was necessary to reduce the ingot to a bloom, 
and then wash heat the bloom before rolling into the bar, the bars 
can now be rolled direct from the ingots without wash heating, an 
improvement which effects a considerable saving in time, fuel, and 
labour. 

The steel trade of Scotland has on many occasions been the 
pioneer in matters connected with the manufactiu-e of steel, or in 
adopting appliances connected therewith, so that it is not surpris- 
ing to, find many of the Scotch steel makers fully alive to the 
necessity of adopting every apphance or improvement whereby 
economy can be effected. Owing to the largely increased pro- 
duction of steel at home, and the keen competition in the foreign 
markets, by new and more advantageously placed competitors, it 
is only by keeping the plant up-to-date that a steel works can now 
hodd its own in a time of industrial depression. 

Since the year 1873 the steel trade of Scotland has been almost 
wholly an acid open hearth one, and its reputation for this class of 
material is world-wide, but with the changing conditions of the 
times, the high price of haematite ores, and consequent increased 
price of pig iron low in phosphorus, and with the other impurities 
within reasonable limits, the question of adapting the steel 
ftumaces to the working of basic pig iron by one of the more 
recently devised furnaces will have to be faced if the steel in- 
dustry of Scotland is going to hold in the future that place which it 
has held in the past in the world's steel industry. 



A vote of thanks was accorded to the authors, and to Mr. Dixon 
who read summaries of the papers. 



"THE NOMENCLATURE OF METALLOGRAPHY.'^ 
Preliminary Report by a Committee of the Iron and Steel Institute. 



Abstract. 



In view of the fact that, with the development of metallography, 
the nomenclature is becoming more and more involved, the Council 
of the Iron and Steel Institute, at the instigation of Mr. J. E. 
Stead, appointed a Committee, consisting of Mr. William Whitwell, 
President (chairman), Mr. F. W. Harbord (Englefield Green), Mr. 
E. Heyn (Charlottenburg), Mr. T. W. Hogg (Newburn), Professor 
H. M. Howe (New York), Baron H. von Jiiptner (Donawitz, 
Austria), Professor H. le Chatelier (Paris), Mr. Walter Rosenhain 
(Birmingham), Mr. E. H. Saniter (Middlesbrough), Dr. A. Stansfield 
(London), Mr. J. E. Stead (Middlesbrough), and Mr. Bennett H. 
Brough (Secretary), to consider the matter, and to ascertain whether 
it would be possible to take steps to make the terminology less 
complicated and more precise. 

A glossary has been drawn up in the hope that it will tend to 
promote the unification of terms, the simplification of those used, 
and the elimination of many of them. It is hoped, too, that the 
glossary may be improved, before final publication in the " Journal 
of the Iron and Steel Institute," by suggestions from members 
interested in the matter. Such suggestions, whether additional 
terms or better definitions, are earnestly invited by the Committee. 
As far as possible, the exact equivalents in FrencH and German 
have been added. This addition will, it is hoped, prove of great 
value to those who are in the habit of consulting Continental 
memoirs in the original. It will, at the same time, be of assistance 
to the editor of the great " International Technical Lexicon," now 
being prepared^ under the direction and at the cost of the Society 
of German Engineers, a society which, with its roll of 16,000 
members, is the largest engineering society in the world. The 
Iron and Steel Institute has undertaken to co-operate as far as 
possible in this great work, and it is thought that in drawing up 
an authoritative glossary of the most recent branch of the metallurgy 
of iron, the Iron and Steel Institute will be rendering valuable aid. 
Based upon the microscopic examination of thin sections of 
minerals and rocks, observations we;re recorded in 1858 by Dr. 
H. C. Sorby, member of the Iron and Steel Institute, in a paper 
on the microscopic structure of crystals, indicating the origin of 



THE Nomenclature of metallography. 191 

minerals and rocks (" Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society," 
vol. xiv., p. 453), and in October, 1867, by the late Mr. David 
Forbes, member of Council and Foreign Secretary of the Iron and 
Steel Institute. These observations gave birth to the special 
science of petrography. In view of the fact that metallic bodies 
are analogous to rocks, the exact knowledge of metals called for 
the creation of a corresponding science of metallography, in which 
the pioneers were Dr. Sorby, whose publications go back to 1864, 
and Professor Martens, whose publications go back to 1878. In 
1880 the use of the microscope was introduced at the Le Creusot 
works, and the investigations of Mr. F. Osmond and Mr. J. Werth 
were started, and have been continued since that time along the 
path indicated by Dr. Sorby. Metallography is cultivated to-day 
in the principal metallurgical countries. Starting from the 
scientific laboratory, it has been extended further and further into 
works laboratories, where it will undoubtedly become an indispens- 
able auxiliary to chemical analysis and physical tests. In view 
of its close analogy to petrography and to the study of meteoric 
irons, metallography necessitates the use of similar technical terms, 
and consequently, wherever possible, the terms familiar to the 
mineralogist and geologist should be used in describing the 
structures of metals and alloys, and the coining of new words should 
be deprecated. 

The report concludes with a long alphabetical list containing the 
more important terms used by authors of memoirs dealing with 
metallography. 



The preliminary report was read by the Secretary, and written 
contributions to the Discussion were received from the following : — 
Baron H. von Jiiptner, Mr. T. Vaughan Hughes, Dr. Hubert- Jansen, 
and Captain W. Tressider. 



"VARIATIONS OF CARBON AND PHOSPHORUS IN 

STEEL BILLETS." 

Paper by Axel Wahlberg. 



Abstract. 



It is well known to all metallurgists that, ever since the introduction 
of the Bessemer and open-hearth processes on an extensive scale, 
it has been impossible to obl;ain ingots of a perfectly homogeneous 
chemical composition, the want of homogeneity being due to the 
successive process of segregation which takes place in consequence 
of the gradual solidification of the molten mass within the moulds. 
This segregation occurs in two different ways. Under normal 
conditions, especially if the casting temperature has been moderate, 
the alloys of a higher fusing point solidify more rapidly; in other 
words, the exterior parts of the ingot, particularly towards the lower 
end, become poorer in carbon, silicon, manganese, phosphorus, etc., 
owing to the gradual concentration of the bulk of these matters 
inwards and upwards. The concentration is most pronounced in 
the very core of the upper half of the ingot The final result thus 
exhibits a gradual change in the chemical composition. Again, 
in other cases, if the casting operation is performed at a very high 
temperature, and the moulds are of a somewhat large size, both of 
which circumstances are conducive to slow cooling, there frequently 
occur, in addition to a more strongly marked tendency to segrega- 
tion, conglomerations of a chemical composition quite distinct from 
the surrounding material, and abnormally large in quantity. These 
conglomerations, which are generally more accentuated in the more 
highly carbonised descriptions of steel, often prove a serious draw- 
back in cases where material is intended for manufacturing 
purposes, although such irregularities as may be due to the one 
or other process of segregation are, of course, much modified, or 
even practically done away with, during the subsequent further 
treatment of the steel, a result which is chiefly due to the frequent 
reheating of the material. 

As a matter of course, every user of steel is always anxious to 
obtain a material which is as nearly as possible homogeneous with 
regard to its chemical composition. Consequently there always 
exists on the part of the producers a corresponding tendency to 
comply, as far as is reasonable, with the requirements of the users 



VARIATIONS OF CARBON AND PHOSPHORUS IN STEEL BILLETS. 1 93 

in this regard. But in the course of time those requirements have 
constantly increased, until they have now become excessive. This 
result may be ascribed partly to modern progress, especially with 
regard to improved methods of production ; partly, also, and perhaps 
chiefly, to the fault of the manufacturers themselves, who, owing to 
the keen, untiring competition of the present day, are occasionally 
induced to accept any conditions, however absurd, for the sole 
purpose of securing a contract. It was this undesirable state of 
things that gave the stimulus to undertake the research presently to 
be described, because certain incidents have occurred recently 
which are of a nature such as to imperil the soundness of the steel 
market. As an illustration of the absurd requirements occasionally 
demanded by the consumers, the following fact which recently 
occurred may be quoted. It was a case of contracting for the 
delivery of steel containing 0.60 per cent, of carbon. The 
customer insisted seriously on the insertion of a clause in the 
agreement, stipulating that any steel which might be found to con- 
tain above 0.62 per cent, or below 0.58 per cent, of carbon was 
liable to rejection. The absurdity of such a condition is quite 
obvious, since not only is the range of variation in carbon in almost 
every case likely to prove far wider, but even if it were successfully 
confined within these narrow limits, there is still the probability 
that different chemists would obtain different results. The risks 
incurred by the manufacturer would therefore be exceedingly great. 
Nevertheless, it seems that there are manufacturers who do not 
hesitate to accept such extravagant conditions, and as the risk 
seems imminent of creating most unfair precedents in favour of 
buyers, it is a matter of urgent necessity to check a practice of this 
kind, which may be attended with the most serious consequences, 
before it spreads more widely. 

Fully aware of these facts, the Board of Directors of the 
" Jemkontoret," who have ever manifested a most lively interest in 
any question touching on the Swedish metallurgical production and 
markets, have decided to institute an investigation, and have 
already, with their customary munificence, granted an ample sum 
for this purpose. Moreover, being desirous of ventilating the 
matter more thoroughly, and of securing a more authoritative 
opinion on the whole question, the Board of Directors further 
decided to submit the results of the proposed researches to this 
meeting. 

The author then proceeds to describe the selection of material 
and taking of samples, and gives in tabular form the analytical 
results. These show that there can be no doubt that any contracts 
of delivery specifying too narrow a margin as to the percentage 
of carbon and phosphorus are always to be considered as involving 
more or less serious risks. 



194 VARIATIONS OF CARBON AND PHOSPHORUS IN STEEL BILLETS. 

It must not be forgotten, however, that the most conspicuous 
defects in homogeneity have here been met with in the cross section 
of the ingots, or between the outer surface and the axis, while, as 
is well known, these faults will be essentially modified, or even 
practically done away with, if the subsequent treatment is rendered 
sufficiently effective, with repeated heatings. It is also to be 
remembered that such possible irregularities do not invariably make 
themselves evident on testing, as, for instance, in the case of 
analysing steel rolled into 2-inch square bars, from which the 
samples have been taken only either by boring or filing across the 
material. 

With regard to the diversity of chemical composition at the top 
and bottom of the ingots, this difference will remain unaltered, 
independently of any subsequent treatment, this being a factor 
always to be taken into account. 

This investigation also shows that occasionally considerably 
differing analytical results are obtained by different analysts and at 
different laboratories, a circumstance never to be overlooked in 
any case of contracting for deliveries, until quite satisfactory 
analytical methods arfe duly recognised and established by inter- 
national agreement. 



The following members took part in the Discussion : — Mr. J. E. 
Stead, Mr. G. J. Snelus, Mr. Benjamin Talbot, Mr. L. N. Ledingham,. 
and Mr. F. W. Paul. 

The author then replied, and a vote of thanks was accorded to 
him'. 

The meeting was then adjourned. 



WEDNESDAY, 4th SEPTEMBER, 1901. 



Mr. William Whitwell, Chairman, in the Chair. 



"THE CORRECT TREATMENT OF STEEL." 

Paper by C. H. Ridsdale. 



Abstract 

This paper, which is one of considerable length, is divided into 
six sections. The following is a synopsis of the contents : — 

Section I. 

Preliminary Remarks. — Much has been learnt of late as to how 
certain conditions in steel are brought about, but the knowledge is 
not being widely used, probably because it is not clearly connected 
with practice. 

Objects of the Paper. — ^The author tries to describe, in simple, 
practical terms, what is known. He also formulates certain views 
and asks for information and discussion as to the control exercised 
by the maker and the user, their responsibility, tests, and processes. 

Section II. 

The effect of Composition and Initial Treatment as compared 
with Subsequent Treatment 

(a) Considered generally, as to what is possible. The importance 
of composition apart from treatment has been overrated. Later 
treatment often outweighs composition and initial treatment, and 
the maker can do nothing to provide against this. Twist tests 
quoted show that rolling hardness outweighs 0.15 per cent, 
carbon, and 0.40 per cent, manganese, while the purest and best 
sbe^ fails when treatment is unsuitable, and irregular or impure 
steel stands if the treatment is right. German and American steel 
runs up to o.io per cent, and 0.14 per cent, phosphorus, and some- 
times the sulphur is high. Steel users should take as great pains to 
control treatment as the makers do to control composition. 

(b) As to what is likely in the ordinary working up. Much steel 
is worked up by separate users, who do not care to trouble about 
properties of steel, but simply want to shape it with the least 
possible cost. This — the use of wrong quality for untried purposes, 
or by works using chiefly iron — ^indiscriminate treatment, and other 
causes, all tend to develop faults, often only in a small proportion, 



196 THE CORRECT TREATMENT OF STEEL. 

but discrediting the whole; yet the user seldom thinks of 
irregularity in his treatment as the cause, but throws the onus on 
the maker. 

Section III. 

Can the maker do more than at present, and, on the other hand, 
is it worth the user's while to try what he can do ? — The maker can 
supply the most suitable composition when informed what pro- 
cesses the steel must undergo, but any slight further degree of 
purity attainable, whilst adding to the cost of production, would not 
improve the quality nearly so much as the means ready to hand 
— ^viz., for the user to study the character of each steel, and treat 
it discriminately. The best treatment may be quite easy. 

Section IV. 

In tihis Section axe discussed : — the condition of steel at different 
temperatures: the cooling of steel: steel molten to critical point: 
critical point: below red heat: blue heat — ^the state of minimum 
plasticity: below blue heat: the reheating of steel: changes in the 
grain and ^* cement," whilst reheating. 

Section V. 

This section considers samples of processes and treatment which 
steel must undergo, including: — ^treatment by the maker: rolling 
ingots: finishing temperature of material to be reheated before 
further treatment immaterial : rails : medium sections tend to finish 
right, heavy sections too hot, light sections too cold; these can be 
controlled somewhat by the rate of cooling: girders etc. — finishing 
temperatures dictated by tests required: plates — much the same: 
bars for cold shearing — ^these should be finished fairly hot, and not 
chilled in any way. 

Treatment by the user: — trolling after rejheating, — reheat as 
rapidly as practicable for the mass, but all througn avoid '' soaking " 
if there is any delay.: avoid burning and over annealing: the best 
temperatures can only be ascertained by experiment. 

The Forge: — ^forgings should be worked out while hot enough 
for work to penetrate the mass: strains through unequal or partial 
heating can be removed by reheating without work: drop forg- 
ings, which are often finished too hot, should be reheated to break 
up the grain. 

The Blacksmith's Shop: — forgings and weldings — avoid putting 
a nice finish at low temperatures: parts heated to welding without 
work should be reheated : the use of flux is explained : tihis latter 
is most desirable: tubes, — these are difficult to avoid burning or 
overheating when making thin tubesv 

Gas Cylinders and other welded goods: — ^if only the part heated 
to welding receives work, these should be reheated. 



THE CORRECT TREATMENT OF STEEL. 197 

Plates: — strains set up while flanging, — to avoid these they 
should be finished fairly hot or annealed. 

Sheets: — Blackplates and Tinplates, — annealing may be carried 
to excess: streaks, roughness, indentations — these are due to foreign 
substances rolled in : certain kinds are never due to the steel maker. 

Strips for stamping and cold rolling should be finished fairly hot, 
or, better, annealed. 

Strips for welding should be rolled at low temperatures. 

Hoops: — ^these have a tendency to overheat when getting down 
to thin sections. 

Wire Rods and Plain Wire: — avoid hardness by cooling slowly 
in masses, and avoid chilling locally by cold objects ; the tendency 
is to draw through extra passes without annealing. 

Galvanised Wire: — ^brittleness is sometimes induced, especially 
in the larger sizes. 

Pickling Hardness: — ^this is due to hydrogen, and may be re- 
moved by heating: pickling blisters are distinctive from other 
kinds, which are essentially the fault of the steel makers, and not 
that of the steel. 

Galvanising is generally recognised as tending to make articles 
brittle. 

Cold Drawing or Rolling: — this has a very marked hardening 
effect, sometimes producing great brittleness. Material for this 
should be as soft as possible, preferably annealed. 

Section VI. 

The required standard tests are discussed, and a table is given 
showing the types of faults and their manifestations, by whom 
originated, their probable cause ; and tests for identifpng the causes. 



The following members took part in the Discussion : — Mr. J. E. 
Stead, Mr. Andrew M'William, Mr. T. Vaughan Hughes and the 
Chairman. 

The author replied, and a vote of thanks was accorded to him. 



"COPPER AND IRON ALLOYS." 
Paper by J. E. Stead. 



Abstract. 

After briefly reviewing the contradictory evidence in metallurgical 
text-books, and showing the need of further research on the subject, 
the author described the nature of his recent work, which may be 
briefly summarised as follows : — 

1. That copper and iron alloy most readily by direct fusion in 
all proportions. 

2. That they may be classed into three main sections : — 

(a) Alloys containing from traces to 2.73 per cent, iron and 

97.2 per cent, copper. 

(b) Alloys containing from traces to about 8 per cent, copper 

and 91.5 per cent. iron. 

(c) Alloys intermediate between a and b. 

The alloys of {a) and {b) sections are practically homogeneous, 
{a) consisting of copper with iron in solid solution, and {b) consisting 
of iron with copper in solid solution. 

{c} The alloys of this section apparently contain saturated solid 
solutions, copper in iron, and iron in copper, separate from each 
other, but in micro-juxtaposition. 

The evidence is conclusive that in solidifying the alloys of section 
{c)y the portion first to fall out of solution is the iron containing 
copper in solid solution. 

The author discusses the eff"ect of carbon, and showed that in 
the alloys containing more than 7.5 per cent, copper, on heating 
to whiteness with charcoal, copper containing about 10 per cent, 
iron is thrown out of solution, and falls to the bottom, leaving a 
layer of carburised iron on the surface, containing about 7.5 per 
cent, copper. In conclusion, he points out that the conflicting 
evidence referred to in the paper was most probably due to the fact 
that some of the experimenters in the past had not taken the pre- 
caution to use iron free from carbon in their experiments. He did 
not consider that the alloys of copper and iron were of industrial 
Yalue. 



The Discussion was combined with that on the paper by Messrs. 
Stead and Wigham (see page 199). 

A vote of thanks was accorded to the author. 



"THE INFLUENCE OF COPPER ON STEEL FOR WIRE- 
MAKING." 

Paper by J. E. Stead and F. H. Wigham. 



Abstract. 



The authors describe experiments on a series of steels with and 
without copper, prepared by dividing the finished steel in each 
series, when in a fluid state, into two parts, to one part of which 
copper was added. The amount of copper added to the steel 
varied between 0.46 per cent, and 2.00 per cent. Four of the 
series were made by the Bessemer process, and one by melting in 
a crucible, in Sheffield. The mechanical properties of the steels 
are given in tabular form, showing the tenacity, bending and other 
properties, after each pass through the draw plates. The con- 
clusion the authors arrive at is that the copper in such large 
quantities as they experimented with does not improve the quality 
of the wire, but generally has a deteriorating influence, particularly 
in the presence of high carbon. The only apparently good property 
cupreous steel wire possesses is that it is not so readily corroded as 
the non-cupreous material. In conclusion, the authors point out 
that it is desirable that further experiments should be made with 
smaller quantities of copper than 0.5 per cent., to ascertain what 
quantity is admissable without disadvantage. 



The Discussion on the two papers by Mr. Stead and Messrs. 
Stead and Wigham was opened by Mr. Samuel Lloyd, and con- 
tinued by Mr. Thomas Turner, Mr. T. Vaughan Hughes, Mr. Axel 
Wahlberg, Mr. A. J. Atkinson, Mr. A. MWilliam, and Mr. Frank 
Hill (by correspondence). 

The authors replied, and a vote of thanks was accorded to them. 



"THE PRESENCE OF CALCIUM IN HIGH GRADE 

FERRO-SILICON.*^ 

Paper by G. Watson Gray. 



Absiraci. 



High grade ferro-alloys of late years, especially those produced 
in the electric furnace, have presented many interesting points to 
the metallurgical chemist, and, at the same time, some troublesome 
ones to the analyst. Having recently come across ferro-silicon 
containing calcium, and not having noticed this element recorded 
before in a ferro-alloy, the author submits this paper, so that its 
presence may be noted by users, and its good or ill effect on the 
steel observed. 

He has, for some time past, noticed the presence cf magnesium 
and aluminium in ferro-chromes, but calcium has been absent. 
The presence of magnesium and aluminium is not to be wondered 
at, seeing that chrome ores contain these elements in large 
amounts, and that the reduction of the chrome ore is brought about 
in the electric furnace. The same, to some extent, may be expected 
with ferro-silicon, as no doubt calcium compounds constitute a large 
proportion of the flux. High grade ferro-silicon containing only a 
very small percentage of calcium can be made in the electric 
furnace, and if the presence of a large percentage of calcium is 
objectionable, the makers will have to arrange accordingly. He 
is, however, inclined to think the calcium will be beneficial, but 
this is a matter for practical trial by the users. 

While the calcium may be looked upon as a special feature of 
some makes of high grade ferro-silicon, many of the other im- 
purities, such as chromium, nickel, timgsten, are purely accidental, 
resulting from the remains of previous charges of ferro-aJloys not 
being completely removed from the furnace. Their estimation, 
however, cannot always be neglected. 

The author gives analyses of ferro-silicons containing 0.79, 3.29, 
7.12, 6.96, 14.40, and 2.32 per cent, of silicon; and describes a 
new method for conducting the analysis. 



Mr. T. Vaughan Hughes took part in the Discussion, and the 
author replied. 

A vote of thanks was accorded to the author. 



"THE PROFITABLE UTILISATION OF POWER FROM 

BLAST-FURNACE GASES." 

Paper by B. H. Thwaite. 



Abstract. 



The author explains that the results of his researches into the 
subject of fuel waste in our iron and steel works, on which he 
contributed a paper to the Iron and Steel Institute in the year 1892, 
culminated in his invention of utilising the waste effluent gases of 
blast furnaces in internal combustion engines; and that this inven- 
tion, he further explains, has made the blast furnace a source of 
power, rivalling even that from waterfalls. It is further demon- 
strated that, owing to the blast furnaces being generally located 
in the centres of industrial areas, this source possesses advantages 
for the production of electrical power, both for industrial uses and 
for transmission purposes, not possessed by the waterfalls. The 
author explains that one of the results following the use of blast 
furnace gas for the direct production of power in internal com- 
bustion engines, has been a marked progress in the mechanical 
perfection of power capacities, and the thermo-dynamic efficiency 
of such engines. As high an efficiency as 30 per cent, has been 
obtained, and one of 25 per cent, should always be obtainable, and 
the power capacity of these engines is now no more limited than 
that of the steam engine. 

The author describes his new scheme for obtaining all the power 
possible from the blast furnace. This includes the recovery of the 
sensible heat that is otherwise lost in cooling the blast furnace 
gases, for heating the air to gasify common coal in producers, and 
also to support the combustion of the gases thirs produced in hot 
blast stoves, instead of employing the dirty, but, when cleaned, ideal 
power gas effluent from the blast furnace. Tlias latter gas is in the 
author's system entirely diverted for the production of power. The 
hot blast stove efficiency is due to the positive supply of air 
and gas under pressure, which makes the combustion independent 
of the vagaries of the chimney draught. The higher thermal 
value of coal producer gas when burnt in fire brick chambers 
ensures a higher temperature of the stoves, and this in addition to 
the higher thermal reciîpeuative efficiency due tor the absence 
of lime dust; all of which advantages secure an efficiency such as 
cannot be expected ftom the present system, and react beneficial^ 
on the furnace. The author enters into an explanation of the 
reasons why hot blast stoves are so thermally inefficient, because 

15 



202 UTILISATION OF POWER FROM BLAST-FURNACE GASES. 

of the effect of the lime dust deposited on the brick surfaces, lime 
having only one-fifth the thermal conductivity of a brick that is 
absolutely clean. In the new system, the brickwork of the stoves 
will always be in the best condition for conducting heat 

The power potential of a blast furnace, when the new system is 
applied, is estimated as being equal to an output electrically trans- 
formed as follows for a furnace having an output capacity of loo 
tons per diem : — 

Case A. Kilowatts 

i.H.p. Elec. H. p. reduced by 

25 per cent. 

All the thermal value of blast furnace 
gas except that required for steam blow- 
ing engines is utilised for developing 
p>ower in internal combustion engines, 
the hot blast stoves being fired with 
producer gas ... ... ... ... 3253 2602 1456 

Case B. 

All the thermal value of blast furnace 
gas, including that required to develop 
the power for blowing, pumping, and 
hoisting purposes, is utilised for de- 
veloping power in internal combustion 
engines, the hot blast stoves being 
fired with producer gas ... ... 5093 4074 2280 

The following are the characteristics of the furnace having the 
foregoing power output potential : — 

Air blast pressure, 10 lbs. = 0.67 atm. 

( CO = 24 p.c. 
Combustible percentage of effluent gas, 28 p.c. -< H = 2 p.c. 

( CH4 = 2 p c. 

Combustible percentage of inert gas, 72 per cent. < qq __^^ l'^' 

Ratio CO2 to CO=i to 2. 

Fuel consumption per ton of pig iron = 900 kilos. 

The author demonstrates why the blast furnace gas is almost 
ideal for producing power; he further points out that, seeing this 
gas flows from the furnace to the gas engine, as does water to a 
turbine, the labour associate of the dangerous steam boiler is not 
required. It is calculated that it will be possible, when the new 
system is applied throughout the year of 8000 hours, to develop 
,one kw. hour at a cost of o.i5d., so that there is a margin of a 
satisfactory profit for the ironmaster without destroying the ex- 
ceptional cheapness of the power. The author's system, in which 
all the blast furnace gas is available for power production, also 



UTILISATION OF POWER FROM BLAST-FURNACE GASES. 205 

provides an auxiliary power producing plant, so that when the blast 
furnace is blown out for any reason, the gas from the producing 
plant is diverted through the cleaning plant to the gas engine, coke 
fuel being substituted for slack coal, so there is no interruption 
in the continuity of the power-producing operation. 

The author described the various outlets for electrical power 
that could be generated by the new system, including that involved 
in satisfying the internal requirements of an iron and steel works, 
and also for providing the electric energy to permit the remarkable 
series of electro-chemical and electro-metallurgical industries to be 
profitably operated. He demonstrates the peculiar advantages 
possessed by an iron works for carrying on these industries. He 
instances the production of silicon and calcium carbides, and the 
production of the metals chrome, nickel, and aluminium, which 
are exceptionally suitable as associated industries for an iron works. 
The principal electro-chemical and electro-metallurgical processes 
that have been developed during these last few years are briefly 
explained. Inter alia, he points out that some of the new carbides 
may be employed in the steel converter in place of the alloys, ferro- 
manganese and spiegeleisen. The increasing use of metallic 
chrome, silicon, and other metals to alloy with iron or steel em- 
phasises the importance of the association of the industries pro- 
ducing these metals with that of iron and steel making. The 
importance of the new power system, as a profit making auxiliary 
to that of iron making, is emphasised, and especially the fact that 
the blast furnace being situated in the centre of many of our staple 
industries, gives the British ironmaster an advantage for the sale of 
power or of the products from it. 

The principal electrolytic processes are also described. It is; 
explained that when the blast furnaces are located within ten miles 
of a salt deposit, it will be possible to produce economically the 
alkaline products, such as those of sodium, caustic, and potash, as 
well as the chlorates. 

The new system of power production, according to the author, 
may, when fully developed, have an important bearing upon the 
question of our being able to withstand a fierce onslaught of com- 
petition from whatever quarter it may come. 



Mr. Edward Theisen opened the Discussion, and the following 
members also took part : — Mr. T. Vaughan Hughes, Mr. A. W. 
Richards, Mr. A. Greiner. Written contributions were also received 
from Mr. F. W. Lurmann, Mr. Horace Allen and Mr. J. E. Dowsoh. 

The author replied to the Discussion at the meeting and by cor- 
respondence. 

A vote of thanks was accorded to the author. 



"AN INVESTIGATION OF THE SPECTRA OF FLAMES 
AT DIFFERENT PERIODS DURING THE BASIC 
BESSEMER BLOW." 

Paper by W. N. Hartley and Hugh Ramage. 



Abstract. 



The whole of this work is based upon several previous investigations 
by one of the authors, published in the Philosophical Transactions 
of the Royal Society for 1894, under the general title of "Flame 
Spectra at High Temperatures " (Hartley). Results having 
reference to the spectroscopic phenomena and thermo-chemistry 
of the acid Bessemer process, as studied at the Crewe works of the 
L. & N.W. Railway, have already been communicated to the Iron 
and Steel Institute. The present communication deals with the 
basic process as carried out at the North-Eastern Steel Works, 
Middlesbrough. 

General Statement of Results, — Twenty-six plates were developed 
with 140 spectra upon them, taken at intervals of one minute's 
exposure throughout the different stages of the blow, by means of 
a spectrograph designed for this purpose, which has been already 
described in the " Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute." Photo- 
graphs of the flames and fumes were secured by means of an 
Anschiitz camera fitted with a Goertz lens. Observations were 
rendered difficult owing to the large quantity of lime dust blown 
into the air. The spectroscopic results are quite different from 
those previously obtained. First, the continuous spectrum was 
much stronger, and appeared from the commencement of the blow ; 
secondly, the strong bands of manganese are absent or greatly 
reduced in number and intensity; thirdly, many lines and bands 
new to the Bessemer flame spectra were observed in addition to 
the spectra of the alkali metals, iron, and manganese. Thus 
rubidium, caesium, calcium, copper, silver, and gallium have been 
identified. Very careful chemical analyses of the crude iron, the 
ores, limestone, lime, slags, flue dust, and the finished steel were 
made, and their constituent elements have been traced all through 
the process of manufacture. The bases were in each case 
separated and identified by spectroscopic examination. 

While no indication was obtained of the amount of phosphorus 



AN INVESTIGATION OF- THE SPECTRA OF FLAMES. 205 

in the metal during the process of " blowing," some insight into 
the chemistry of the process has been obtained. The greatest 
interest, however, is attached to the knowledge it has given of 
flame spectra under variations of temperature, and of the wide 
distribution of many of the rarer elements in minute proportions 
in ores and common minerals. 

Description of the " Blow " and " Over-blow " in the Basic 
Bessemer Process. — The converter is first charged with about two 
tons of lime in lumps, and then with twelve tons of fluid "mixer 
metal," a mixture of metal coming direct from the blast furnace, 
and molten pig iron from the cupolas. The blast is turned on, 
and the vessel rotated into a nearly vertical position. 

The blow may be divided into three stages. The first stage 
ends when the flame drops, indicating that the carbon has been 
burnt. The second stage ends when the vessel is turned down 
for a sample of metal to be taken out and the slag poured oflF. 
More lime is then added, and the blow is continued for a few seconds 
longer to complete the removal of the phosphorus; this forms the 
third stage. The average duration of the first stage was 12 
minutes 20 seconds, and of the second stage 5 J minutes. 

The blow began with the expulsion of a large quantity of lime 
dust, which hid everything from view for a minute or two, and 
covered the instrument and observers. A flame was visible at 
the mouth of the converter as soon as the cloud of dust had 
cleared away; this had a yellowish or yellowish-red colour. The 
flame grew rapidly in length, and remained clear as in the acid 
process until it dropped, and the second stage began. In this 
stage the flame was very short, and a large quantity of fume was 
expelled from the vessel; the flame grew longer, and the quantity 
of the fume increased as the blow proceeded. A plate of spectra 
was usually taken by giving the same time of exposure to each 
spectrum of the series until the flame dropped; two further ex- 
posures were then made on the flame of the over-blow. The 
spectra increases in intensity as the blow proceeds in the first stage, 
and this can only result from a corresponding increase in the 
temperature of the bath of metal and of the flame. 

By the interference of the light reflected from a large quantity 
of white dust and smoke, delicate detail was obtainable only by 
working in the evening when the sun was very low, or after it had 

Considerable difficulty was experienced in the identification of 
some of the lines and bands. The comparatively small disperson 
in the less refrangible portion of the green and red rays caused 
lines and the sharp edges of bands to be almost indistinguishable 
on the strong continuous spectrum. In other cases, lines were 
present which had not been observed in any flame spectra before. 



206 AN INVESTIGATION OF THE SPECTRA OF FLAMES. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

I. The phenomena of the " basic " Bessemer blow differ con- 
siderably from those of the " acid " process, — First, a flame is 
visible from the commencement of blowing, or a3 soon as the cloud 
of lime dust has dispersed. The authors conclude that the 
immediate production of this flame is caused by carbonaceous 
matter in the lining of the vessel ; that its luminosity is due partly 
to the volatilisation of the alkalies, and to the incandescence of 
lime dust carried out by the blast. 

Secondly, volatilisation of metal occurs largely at an early period 
in the blow, and is due to the difference in composition of the metal 
blown, chiefly to the smaller quantity of silicon. There is practi- 
cally no distinct period when siliceous slags are formed in the 
•' basic " process, and metals are volatilised readily in the reducing 
atmosphere, rich in carbon monoxide. 

Thirdly, a very large amount of fume is formed towards the close 
of the second period. This arises from the oxidation of metal 
and of phosphorus in the iron phosphide being productive of a 
high temperature, but little or no carbon remaining. The flame 
is comparatively short, and the metallic vapours carried up are 
burnt by the blast. . 

Fourthly, the " over-blow " is characterised by a very powerful 
illumination from what appears to be a brilliant yellow flame; a 
dense fume is produced at this time, composed of oxidised metallic 
vapours, chiefly iron. These particles are undoubtedly of very 
minute dimensions, as is proved by the fact that they scatter the 
light which falls on them, and the cloud casts a brown shadow, and, 
on a still day, ascends to a great height. The spectrum is con- 
tinuous, but does not extend beyond wave-length 4000. This 
indicates that the source of light is at a comparatively low 
temperature, approaching that of a yellowish-white heat. Con- 
sequently, the light emanates from a torrent of very small particles, 
liquid or solid, at a yellowish-white heat. The flame can have but 
little reducing power at this stage, and this, together with its low 
temperature, accounts for the very feeble lines of lithium, sodium, 
potassium, and manganese seen in the photographs or by eye 
observations. 

Fifthly, the spectra of flames from the first stage of the basic 
process differ from those of the acid process in several particulars. 
The manganese bands are relatively feeble, and lines of elements, 
not usually associated with Bessemer metal, are present. Both the 
charges of metal and of basic material contribute to these. 
Lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and caesium have been 
traced mainly to the lime; manganese, copper, silver, and gallium 
to the metal. Other metals, such as vanadium and titaiiium, are 
not in evidence, because they do not yield flame spectra; they, 
'together with chromium, pass into the slag in an oxidised state. 



,■ 

i 



AN INVESTIGATION OF THE SPECTRA OF FLAMES. 207 

2. Differences in the Intensity of Metallic Lines. — The intensity 
of the lines of any metal varies with the amount of the metal in 
the charge, but in some cases variations of intensity occur among 
the lines of one metal, as observed in the spectra photographed at 
Crewe in 1893; especially is this the case with some lines in the 
visible spectrum of iron. These variations are due to changes in 
temperature ; as the temperature of the flame rises, some lines fade 
almost away, others become stronger. Such changes are more 
marked in the arc spectrum, and still more in the spark spectrum of 
iron. Lines of potassium and the edges of manganese bands are 
shown to have been intensified by the proximity of iron lines in 
some cases, but this is doubtless a result of low dispersion. The 
two violet rubidium lines nearly coincide with two lines of iron. 

3. A new line of Potassium with Variable Intensity. — This line, 
wave-length approximately 4642, varies in intensity within some- 
what wide limits. In a given flame its brilliancy is increased by 
diminishing the quantity of metallic vapour in the flame; this does 
not appear to depend altogether on the weakening of the con- 
tinuous spectrum which accompanies the line spectrum of 
potassium; the experiments made with various salts of potassium 
show that it is probably due, in part at least, to the increased 
freedom of motion permitted to the molecules of the metal. 



The paper was taken as read. 

A vote of thanks was accorded to the authors. 



"BRINELUS METHOD OF DETERMINING HARDNESS 
AND OTHER PROPERTIES OF IRON AND STEEL." 

PART II. 

Paper by Axel Wahlberg. 



Ah sir act. 

In the Swedish section of the metallurgical department at the 
Paris Exhibition were displayed in systematic arrangement some 
results of experiments and methods of procedure relating to the 
testing of material, which attracted special attention. The experi- 
ments were conducted by Mr. J. A. Brinell, and the expense was 
borne by the Fagersta Works. They resulted in the development 
of a new and original method for determining the hardness and, to 
a certain extent, the tensile and ductile properties of iron and steel. 
The method alluded to is to be fully worked out on the initiative 
of the " Jernkontoret," which has granted ample funds for the 
purpose of carrying out further investigations on an extensive scale 
in the laboratory for testing materials at the Royal Technical High 
School at Stockholm. Among the most important questions to 
be decided by these experiments is that of ascertaining the practical 
utility of this method for determining the tensile properties of any 
kind of iron or steel material. For the purpose of comparison the 
experiments will be made with various qualities of both Swedish 
and foreign steel, the former being obtained from six or seven 
different works in Sweden. Mr. Wahlberg's paper gives an account 
of the results already achieved by Brinell. Among the more 
comprehensive researches described is a very complete series of 
results dealing with hardness, determined on steel specimens repre- 
senting 1500 different charges of acid open-hearth steel, of a widely 
varying chemical composition. Many of the experiments were 
intended especially to illustrate the influence of annealing and 
hardening, and these probably form the most extensive series of 
experiments that has ever been attempted for this purpose. In 
carrying out the tensile tests Brinell made use of thirteen different 
kinds of steel, of varying composition, each of which had been 
subjected to no less than 31 different modes of treatment. In a 
second series, which was carried out for the purpose of ascertaining 
what impact stress the material could withstand, the same 13 kinds 
together with two more, were used, each kind in this case hismng 
been treated in ten different ways. Lastly, his researches on the 



DETERMINING HARDNESS OF IRON AND STEEL. 209 

formation of blow-holes in ingots deserve notice. The results in 
this instance were obtained by testing 871 different charges, without 
taking any account of the innumerable experiments extending over 
several years, which Brinell made preparatory to drawing up his 
programme on the definite lines by which the later results were 
obtained. The first part of the paper was published in the 
"Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute" (1901, No. I., pp. 243 
to 298), and the present paper, covering forty pages, and illustrated 
by numerous plates, completes the work. Mr. Wahlberg expresses 
his regret that Mr. Brinell has been unable to find time to prepare 
a paper describing his own labours and their results. 



The paper was taken as read. 

A vote of thanks was accorded to the author. 



"THE INTERNAL STRAINS OF IRON AND STEEL AND 
THEIR BEARING UPON FRACTURE.'' 

Paper by Arthur Wingham. 



Abstract. 

The object of this paper is to assist the elucidation of some of the 
mysteries attendant upon the physical behaviour of metals generally, 
and of iron and steel in particular, and to throw light upon the 
cause of the sudden and unexpected breakages of metal used for 
machinery and other purposes. Its reasonings are based upon 
the following facts and hypotheses : — That there are two kinds of 
equilibrium to which a metal attains, viz., chemical and physical ; 
that the natural tendency of a complex metal is to assume its most 
simple forms of combination preferentially capable of existing at 
a given temperature; that its rapidity of cooling, even under the 
slowest conditions, is too great to allow this to reach finality; that 
the equilibrium is further repeatedly interfered with by changes of 
atmospheric and other conditions; that the adjustment to physical 
equilibrium tends to assist the adjustment to chemical equilibrium ; 
that adjustment which is assisted by slightly raised temperatures, 
also, as a consequence, takes place in the cold; and that the 
eutectic is the medium through which the chemical or molecular 
change takes place, working, of course, in conjunction with the 
vibration of the molecules. The subject is of both scientific 
interest and of practical importance. It is of great practical 
importance in the case of so-called permanent structures, especially 
where those structures are heavy and subjected to vibration or to 
shock. In such cases the greatest change or depreciation will 
take place at the points of jarring contact. Consequently, a strong 
and tough structural steel, well within the mechanical limits of 
the specification to-day, may, in the course of a few years, develop 
some of the properties more generally associated with cast iron. 
The latest instance of this is the recent mishap to the Brooklyn 
Bridge. The trouble appears to have been caused by the fracture 
of the vertical suspension rods holding the traffic way to the cables. 
The rods, no doubt, had a plentiful margin of original strength to 
cover any excessive or heavy usage, and it is hardly likely that the 
fractures were caused by extra traffic alone. It is more probable 
that the repeated vibration and the release of internal pressure by 



THE INTERNAL STRAINS OF IRON AND STEEL. 211 

the persistent tensile strain have accelerated an excessive tendency 
of the metal to crystallise, and so reduced its tensile strength. 
Other suspension rods in the same structure are probably approach- 
ing the same end. Obviously the internal stability of modern 
structural steel is worthy of serious consideration, when the selection 
of the best metal in view of longevity might prevent the com- 
paratively early breakdown of an important structure. 



The paper was taken as read. 

Written contributions to the Discussion were received from Mr. 
J. E. Stead and Mr. Walter Rosenhain. 

The author replied. 

The following votes of thanks were then proposed by the 
Chairman : — 

To the University Court for their kindness in granting the use 
of the Lecture Hall for the purposes of the meeting ; to the Chair- 
man, Mr. William Beardmore ; to the Vice-President, Mr. Archibald 
Colville; to the Honorary Secretary, Mr. James G. Jenkins; to the 
members of the Local Reception Committee for the arrangement 
they had made; to the proprietors and managers of the various 
works for the permission given to visit their establishments; to the 
Railway Companies; and to the committees of the various Clubs 
who had accorded privileges to the members. 

Sir David Dale, Bart., seconded. 

Mr. George Beard proposed a vote of thanks to the Chairman, and 
Mr. E. J. Ljunberg seconded. 

The Chairman acknowledged briefly, and Proceedings of the 
Section terminated. 



SUMMARY OF PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

Section YL— Mining.* 



TUESDAY, 3Pd SEPTEMBER, 1901. 



Sir William Thomas Lewis, Bart., in the Chair. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

By Sir William Thomas Lewis, Bart., 
Retiring President of the Institution of Mining Engineers. 



EXTRACTS. 

" It is pleasant to be able to congratulate all those connected with 
coal-mining as to the continued satisfactory condition of the coal 
trade, and it is especially gratifying for me to record the continuation 
of what has been referred to in detail by some of my predecessors 
respecting the reduced risk in the conduct of coal-mining operations, 
which recent statistics show to have been reduced to less than one- 
fourth of what it was per 1,000,000 tons raised when I first entered 
the profession 50 years ago, the death rate being 4 lives per 
1,000,000 tons of coal raised in 1900 as against 19 persons killed 
per 1,000,000 tons raised in 1851. This increased safety, as you 
are aware, has been brought about gradually by the introduction of 
machinery, by improved discipline and better management; and 
from time to time Acts of Parliament have been passed which were 
based upon the accumulated experience of those connected with 
mining throughout the kingdom; but with all the improvements 
in mechanical appliances and in ventilation, as well as in the various 
protective arrangements carried out daily, I may say hourly, by the 
army of officials connected with collieries all over the kingdom, 
coal-mining is still, unfortunately, attended with risk, although the 
occupation as a whole ranks as particularly healthy as compared 
with other trades. The cause of almost one half of the accidents 
in coal-mines, that is, falls of roofs and sides, has of late had special 

* The full Proceedings of Section VI., being part of Volume XXII., 1901, 
of the Transactions of the Institution of Mining Engineers, are published 
by the Institution of Mining Engineers, Neville Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
price ;^i IS. post free. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 213 

attention, and I look forward with confidence to a reduction in the 
number of such accidents in the districts where bad roofs prevail 
by additional care on the part of the miners in propping and tim- 
bering, and also by an extension of the use of improved lights for 
the workmen." 

" Those who have means of reference will find that in addition 
to the greater immunity from accidents our miners now also enjoy 
much better pay for the same amount of work; so that, on the 
average comparing present operations with those of a similar kind 
40 years ago, there has been a permanent increase in the labour 
cost of coal-getting of at least 20 per cent. — leaving entirely out 
of the calculation the recent prosperous times in the coal trade." 

" Of our total coal-output no less than 58,405,000 tons were 
exported, being 3,000,000 tons higher than any previous year's 
coal - export — the following being our principal customers : — 
France, 7,541,000 tons; Germany, 6,099,000 tons; Italy, 4,947,000 
tons; Sweden, 3,035,000 tons; Belgium, 1,213,000 tons; Russia, 
2,000,000 tons; and Spain, 1,500,000 tons. 

The United States coal-export in 1900 amoimted to 7,551,850 
tons, which was double their coal-exports in 1897 ; and as a large 
number of new collieries have been recently opened and equipped 
with the best mechanical appliances, it is fully expected in order 
to keep the mines regularly at work there will be a further increased 
output in the States, which will be thrown on the export markets." 

" In connection with the preservation of our export trade it must 
not be forgotten how greatly the nation benefits through the number 
of steamers employed in carrying the export coal ; and by reason 
of many of the steamers thereby securing a round trip our manu- 
facturers and others depending on imports are enabled to secure 
their supplies at much lower rates of freight than would otherwise 
have been possible. 

Some of my predecessors in this chair have dwelt upon the 
important matter of the duration of our coal -resources, which has 
recently again been the subject of discussion. Of course the dura- 
tion of our minerals depends first of all upon the probable yield 
of useful fuel from our several coal-fields, and next what our annual 
requirements, including exports, are likely to be in the future. So 
far I have been unable to discover, in the various calculations made 
as to the quantity of useful coal remaining in our coal-fields, to 
what extent it has been assumed the present wasteful mode of 
•working in some of the fields may continue to be modified ; and, 
on the other hand, whether the present wasteful mode of using coal 
in our steam engines and our manufactures is also assumed to con- 
tinue. The modification of either of which would of course make 
a verv material difference in the number of years that our usable 
coal >vill last. 



214 PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

With every desire to avoid anticipating the enquiry which has 
been indicated probable by a Royal Commission, and without 
attempting to follow the various eminent geologists and engineers, 
who have recently dealt with this subject, into their calculations 
as to the number of millions of tons of coal remaining unworked 
in the United Kingdom, which will, I have no doubt, be carefully 
gone into if the proposed commission is appointed, I think it useful 
^ direct your special attention to some important points bearing 
upon the question of our mineral resources, namely : — 

(i) The enormous waste there has been in the past, and con- 
tinues at present in many places, in the working of the various 
seams of coal. 

(2) The loss through such a number of seams of coal being left 
in the ground, owing to their quality, their thinness, or their 
proximity to more valuable seams, and their being depreciated by 
the working of the more valuable seams. 

(3) The custom which prevails in many districts of lessees work- 
ing out only the best or more profitable seams, without regard 
to the effect upon the thinner, inferior, or more expensive seams 
under the same properties; and also the loss through such great 
quantities of small coal being made in working, and the proportion 
of small coal left underground in many districts." 

"With respect to seams left unworked through their thinness 
or their proximity to more valuable coal-seams, it is gratifying to 
Irecord the very great change that has taken place throughout the 
kingdom, especially since the introduction of the long-wall system, 
as to the thickness of what is regarded as a workable seam of 
coal. I find from a paper read by the late Mr. G. C. Greenwell 
on the working of thin seams of coal by longwall and bord-and-pillar 
about 35 years ago, that in the more highly favoured coal-districts 
of the country seams of 2^ feet, or even more than that thickness, 
were at that time considered unworkable to a profit, and conse- 
quently left in the raine untouched; and Mr. Greenwell further 
stated that in the Newcastle Coalmeasures there were no fewer 
than 15 seams of coal under 2 feet 6 inches in thickness which 
were all considered unworkable, while at the same time in collieries 
under his management in the neighbourhood of Bath 3 seams were 
worked varying from 12 to 16 inches thick, and 4 seams varying 
from 2 feet to 2 feet 4 inches thick." 

" With reference to the number of tons of coal unworked in our 
different coal-fields it is of course easy to calculate from the plans 
and sections of the seams proved, making the usual allowances for 
faults and loss in working ; but, as I have endeavoured to indicate, 
the important question is, how many of the seams can be assumed 
to be workable to profit from time to time, and how much of the 
coal contained in the various seams can be usefully obtained. If 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 215 

the thin seams cannot now be worked, while we have superior coals 
in thick seams to mix with them, I fear that many of the thinner 
and the inferior coal-seams are much less likely to be profitably 
worked in the future, when they have to be worked in many cases 
either above or below abandoned workings, which may have sub- 
sided or be subject to water or any other causes, and when to some 
extent they will require to be won by deeper and more expensive 
collieries; the whole of which of course are elements of great 
uncertainty. 

So much on the question of waste and loss that, in my opinion^ 
can and should be modified so as to prolong our useful sources 
of supply; and then comes the question of our requirements as a 
nation, first for home consumption, and next for exportation and 
the maintenance of our commercial position. As to our own re~ 
quirements there can be no doubt that great saving ought to, and 
I hope will, be effected, if not immediately, most certainly when our 
coal-output becomes more costly. It is of course dangerous to 
prophesy, as has been instanced by the estimates of so many of 
the eminent men who dealt with the subject in connection with 
the Royal Coal Commission of 1871, which subsequently were found 
inajccurate; but we may at all events reasonably assume that as 
our fuel becomes more costly further attempts will be made to 
continue improvements in the direction of realising a much nearer 
approach to the theoretical value of our coal, and thus secure 
further enormous economies. 

" Were it not that our fuel had been so cheap until recent years 
many of the economies which have been introduced from time 
to time in our modem boilers, our best engines and manufacturing 
machines, and operations of various kinds, instead of being con- 
fined to modern works only would have been generally adopted 
by all steam users and manufacturers, and thereby a great saving 
of our fuel effected. With reference to a portion of this subject 
I may be pardoned for calling attention to the contents of a most 
valuable paper read at the last meeting of the Institution of 
Mechanical Engineers, at Barrow, by Mr. James M^Kechnie, 
wherein he sets forth the great improvements that have taken place 
in the boilers and engines of steamers during the last 30 years by 
improved boiler and heating arrangements, the adoption of higher 
steam pressure, the compounding of engines, and increased piston 
speed; which has resulted in the average consumption of fuel in 
steamers being reduced from 2. 11 lbs. per h.p. per hour in 1872 
to 1.83 lbs. per h.p. per hour in 1881, to 1.52 lbs. per h.p. per 
hour in 1891, and to 1.48 lbs. per h.p. per hour in 1901. 

It is hardly necessary to point out that such an apparently 
small saving, if applied to all the boilers in the United Kingdom^ 



216 PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

as well as the steamers sailing under the British flag, would 
(represent millions of tons per annum; and considering that even 
with these economical results we are far from enjoying one half 
of the economies which experts consider may still be made in the 
use of coal for steam purposes, and that we may confidently expect 
great advantages by the utilisation of inferior coals, by gas arrange- 
ments such as Mr. Mondes and others', by the extension of the 
utilisation of gas for manufacturing purposes, by the application 
of gas for the generation of electric power for lighting and heating, 
by the application of our water supply for the generation of 
electric power, and also by the application of liquid fuel for various 
purposes — enormous savings of fuel could be secured which would 
greatly reduce our consumption of coal. This, coupled with the 
husbanding of our coal resources by a substantial reduction of the 
waste I have previously referred to in the working of our coal-seams, 
^vould, in my opinion, extend the duration of our coal resources 
so as to provide for all our requirements and maintain our com- 
mercial position as a nation, while amply providing for the protection 
of our country, for a much longer term of years than any of the 
trecent estimates I have seen on the subject." 



On the motion of Mr. H. C. Peake, seconded by Mr. J. A. 
Longden, a vote of thanks was accorded to the Chairman for his 
address. 

Thereafter the Chairman introduced Mr. James S. Dixon, the 
president of the Institution of Mining Engineers, who thereupon 
took the Chair. 

Mr. Dixon acknowledged the honour which had fallen to him in 
being elected President of The Institution of Mining Engineers. In 
the course of a short address, he remarked upon the absence in 
Scotiand of a centre for the teaching of the higher branches of the 
science and practice of mining, and annoimced his intention of giving 
a sum of ;£ 1 0,000 for the endowment of a lectureship in mining in 
the University of Glasgow. The Very Rev. Principal Story, on 
behalf of the University, gratefully acknowledged the gift. 



Mr. James S. Dixon in the Chair. 



"THE OIL SHALE FIELDS OF THE LOTHIANS.'' 

Paper by H. M. Cadell. 



Abstract 

The author first described generally the principal characteristics 
of the Scottish carboniferous system of the Lothians, which in- 
cluded the coal measures, millstone grit, carboniferous limestoaie, 
and lower carboniferous or calciferous sandstone series. The last 
and lowest of these divisions contained in its upper section the oil 
shiale measures. The thickness of the calciferous sandstone series 
he estimated in round figures at 9000 feet, and the oil shaJe 
mea&iures occupied the upper 3000 feet of this section. Oil shale 
was not necessarily confined to this geological horizon, but in 
Scotland all the oil was at present derived from seams comprised 
in it The shale produced ammonia as well as oil, and the 
sulphate of ammonia was now one of the principal products without 
which shale could hardly be profitably worked. The shale seams 
were about six in number, and varied in thickness from two- up to 
fifteen or more feet. The principal shales were known as the 
Raebum Fields, Broxburn, Dunnet, and Pumpherston shales, but 
at some places these seams were divided into several parts, each of 
which was workable. Good shale produced 30 gallons of crude 
oil and 40 or 50 lbs. of sulphate of ammonia j>er ton. The shale 
fields were far from regular in form, and the whole area was much 
folded and faulted, and was at places invaded by large sheets of 
intrusive basalt. The author described in detail the geological 
features of the various shale fields worked by about ten different 
companies, with a total capital of nearly ;£2,ooo,ooo. The industr}^ 
was an important one, and the author thought great credit was due 
to the Scottish companies for the inventive genius, perseverance, 
and pluck they had shown in carrying on the industry for many 
years, in face of the fierce competition from America and other 
places, where the oil spyouted up ready made, and no great skill 
was required to win it from the soil. The principal shale fields 
were those of West Calder, Mid Calder, Pimipherston, Broxburn, 
Philpstown, Hopetoun, Dalmeny, Straiton, and Burntisland, but 
shale was not being worked at all these places. The author 
exhibited lai geological map he had prepared, showing the probable 
geographical extent of the available shale measures, and illustrated 
the paper, which was a long one, by numerous vertical and horizontal 
sections across typical areas in West and Mid Lothian. 



A vote of thanks was accorded to the author. 

16 



"THE CARBONIFEROUS LIMESTONE COAL-FIELDS OF 

WEST LOTHIAN." 

Paper by H. M. Cadell. 



Abstract. 



The carboniferous limestone series of Linlithgowshire (or West 
Lothian), immediately covering the oil shales, was about 2000 feet 
in thickness, and was marked by three upper limestone beds, and 
bv two or more similar marine beds at the base, between which 
were found the coal measures of Bo'ness and the district at and 
to the south of Bathgate. The series was characterised by a 
great development of volcanic rocks, basalt, and tuffs, which were 
interstratified with the coal seams of Bo'ness and Bathgate. Be- 
tween these localities the volcanic rocks were very thick, and 
occupied the position of the coals and non-volcanic strata. In 
the centre of the area, to the south of Linlithgow, there was a 
volcanic bank over 2000 feet thick, where no coal had apparently 
been formed; but to the north and south of this nucleus the trap 
rocks thinned away, and the coals began to increase. The Bo'ness 
coalfield contained more workable and generally better seams than 
the Bathgate field, and the author exhibited a series of vertical 
sections showing the relative proportion of coal-bearing and 
volcanic rock along the strip of carboniferous limestone ground 
extending for 12 miles southward from Bo'ness. He said he had 
often been asked to trace the Bo'ness coal seams into the Bathgate 
district, and state which seams in the one coalfield corresponded 
with those in the other. His answer in this paper was that there 
was really no connection between them, as the volcanic rocks had 
apparently produced a barrier in the carboniferous sea, on each 
side of which different strata were being laid down during most of 
the coal producing period. It was not till the upper limestones 
were deposited that the volcanic bank became sufficiently sub- 
merged for the sea to flow continuously across it, and permit of 
the uninterrupted deposit of sedimentary rocks. 



Mr. J. G. Weeks, the Chairman, and Mr. James M*Murtrie took 
part in the Discussion, and the author replied. 

A vote of thanks was accorded to the author. 



"THE TARQUAH GOLD-FIELD, GOLD COAST, 

WEST AFRICA." 

Paper by A. R. Sawyer. 



Absiraci. 



The Tarquah gold-field is situated in the Gold Coast colony. It 
is connected with the coast at Sekondi by a narrow gauge (3^ feet) 
railway. This railway, which is being constructed to Koomasi, 
is already open for traffic between the village of Tarquah (situated 
somewhere about the centre of the south-eastern edge of the gold- 
field) and Sekondi, a distance of 40 miles; and its course from 
Tarquah is as far as Cinnamon Bippo, a distance of about 7 or 8 
miles along the south-eastern edge of the gold-field. There it 
leaves the south-eastern outcrops and cuts across country to the 
same outcrops, which have been shifted forward in a north-westerly 
direction. The railway passes on to these new outcrops about 17 
miles from Tarquah, and continues along them to Aponsu, a. 
distance of 40 miles from Tarquah. 

The reefs in the Tarquah gold-field are undoubtedly con- 
glomerates, occurring in a sandstone-and-quartzite formation. 
These rocks occur as fine and coarse grained, and in some cases sa 
coarse-grained as to become grits. They often contain scattered 
pebbles. There is no doubt that these sandstones and grits become 
quartzitic in depth. These rocks differ in no wise from the same 
rocks on the Rand, except in the fact, which the reefs also share, 
that they contain a very large quantity of iron oxide, which mostly 
occurs in irregular thin bands or veins, giving the sandstone or 
quartzite a " striped " appearance. 

The thickness of this sandstone-quartzite formation is not easily 
determined, owing to probable duplication and to scarcity of 
available outcrops. The writer estimates the thickness, however, 
at between 4000 and 8000 feet. Overlying this formation and 
conformable with it, occurs a thick slightly arenaceous clay-slate 
formation, containing a few thin, fine-grained sandstone beds. He 
found the clay slates about three miles from the Wassau mine, and 
these still continued where he left off his examination. At this 
point, the clay-slate formation had a dip of from 5 to 10 degrees, 
and dipped consequently at a slightly flatter angle than in the 



220 THE TARQUAH GOLD-FIELD. 

south-western portion of the goldfield. This formation the writer 
estimated to be at least looo feet thick. In whatever direction the 
quartzites dip, these slates, which invariably accompany them, dip, 
owing to their conformability, in the same direction. They form a 
useful index of the position of the reefs, as will appear further on. 
These two intimately connected formations make up the gold-field, 
and although the slates are not auriferous, they certainly overlie the 
quartzites, with the conglomerate-reefs contained therein. 

The enclosing formations are, so far as the writer can judge, 
mostly basic igneous rocks, and schists and slates derived from 
them. These rocks contain white auriferous quartz-reefs, like 
those at Preston and Crockerville, generally with a trend parallel 
to the prevailing trend of the conglomerate outcrops. 

The gold-field has a tendency to a long synclinal shape trending 
about 40 degrees north-east. The continuity of the syncline south- 
westward is disturbed. Powerful dynamic forces have there thrown 
the sandstone-quartzite formation almost at right angles to the 
syncline. 

With numerous comparatively small disturbances, the sandstone- 
quartzite formation forming the south-eastern edge of the syncline, 
which consequently dips in a north-westerly direction, extends as far 
as the neighbourhood of the village of Busumchi, a total distance 
from Tamsoo of about 20 miles. Here another powerful disturb- 
ance appears to have thrown the whole formation north-westward 
about four miles, as there the peculiarly striped quartzite formation 
appears strongly, with a strike parallel to that of the large syncline 
and a north-westerly dip. 

The resemblance between the Witwatersrand and Tarquah 
synclines, with respect to the large disturbances occurring at either 
end, is striking. The Detchikroom disturbance corresponds to 
the large Witjpoorte fault and the Busumchi disturbance to the 
Boksburg fault, which throws the Moddersfontein series some 
miles to the north. Just as the Randfontein series there strike at 
right angles to the Rand, so here the Detchikroom disturbance 
strikes at right angles to the large Tarquah syncline. 

The matrix of the reef consists invariably, near the surface, of 
sandstone composed of quartz-grains, white mica, and iron oxide, 
which becomes compact and quartzitic in depth. At the extreme 
ends of the syncline, namely at Teberibi and Tamsoo to the 
south-west, and near Busumchi to the north-east, the matrix is 
schistose. This characteristic is due to shearing, no doubt produced 
by the earth movements which prevailed during the occurrence of 
the great disturbances at each end of the known syncline. The 
pebbles vary in size up to 8 inches, and near the surface are invari- 
ably coated with white mica. They consist mostly of white quartz. 
Darker quartz-pebbles and dark indurated slate-pebbles also occur. 



THE TARQUAH GOLD-FIELD. 221 

Patches of talc and red clay occur. The quartz pebbles are 
opaque, translucent and sugary or saccharoidal, in some cases being 
very friable. Under the microscope, the quartzites and con- 
glomerates nearly all show evidence of strain and crushing from 
shearing. 

Unlike the pebbles of the Rand banket, in which gold occurs 
very rarely if at all, the Tarquah conglomerate pebbles occasionally 
contain gold. The quartz-reefs from which they are derived must 
have been more or less auriferous, like some of the quartz-reefs now 
being worked in the neighbourhood of Prestea, and by the Ashanti 
Goldfields, Limited. The principal amount of gold occurs, however, 
like on the Rand, in the matrix. 

The unaltered condition of the haematite both in the quartzites 
and conglomerates, down to the depth at which it has been found, 
is remarkable. It is not improbable that pyrites will be found to 
replace haematite in the matrix at a greater depth. 

The dykes, in or about this gold-field, consist mostly of basic 
igneous rocks, but a few examples of intermediate igneous rocks 
occur. Dolerites and diabases are the only representatives of the 
basic igneous rocks. The few intermediate igneous rocks are 
diorite (the plutonic or deep-seated form) and andésite (porphyrite) 
the volcanic form, which usually occurs as a dyke. 

The writer has not seen any granite either in or about this gold- 
field, nor has he seen any between Sekondi and Tarquah. Typical 
homblende-biotite-gneiss occurs on the coast near Sekondi, and is 
quarried there for building purposes, but he has not seen any such 
rock in or about the Tarquah gold-field. 

The writer stated in a paper on the Witwatersrand gold-field, 
read before the North StaiFordshire* Institute of Mining and 
Mechanical Engineers on October 4th, 1889, that "The length of 
their (bankets) extension, coupled with the steepness of their dip, 
justly suggested a continuation downwards for a considerable dis- 
tance."* Just as on the Rand the length of outcrop indicated 
continuity in depth, so here the long known lengths of outcrop 
warrant the same conclusion. The view expressed in 1889 has been 
so splendidly confirmed on the Rand that he did not see how it 
could be otherwise here. 

The rocks surrounding the Tarquah gold-field are mostly of basic 
igneous origin. At Prestea, a graphitic schist-layer occurs in close 
proximity to the quartz-reef. The Prestea reef is a bedded quartz- 
reef, and has a strike of north 48 degrees west with a dip 60 degrees 
to the north-east. 

There is no question in the writer's mind as to the permanency 
of the conglomerate-beds in depth. They difiFer in thickness at 

* Trans. Inst. Min. Eng., 1889, vol. x. 



222 THE TARQUAH GOLD-FIELD. 

the different mines, but it may be broadly stated that these beds 
are considerably thicker at the south-western end of the syncline 
than at the north-eastern end, and that the thicker they are the 
lower the grade. 



A vote of thanks was accorded to the author. 



" BRICK-MAKING." 
Paper by George L. Allen. 



Abstract, 



In making clay into bricks the only forces that can be used are 
natural crystallization and artificial cohesive attraction. The former 
process is best suited to clays naturally plastic, and the latter for 
dry clays; while a combination of the two may be satisfactorily 
employed in treating certain classes of raw material. These methods 
may be termed the plastic, the dry press, and the semi-plastic, and 
the manufacturer who wishes to found a successful business must 
satisfy himself at the beginning as to which method is most suitable 
for his material. 

Plastic Clay Bricks. — In making plastic clay bricks, one very 
important matter is to see that the clay is well mixed at the face. 
The waggon which conveys the clay to the machinery should contain 
a regular admixture of the various stratas of the clay bed, as 
different sections usually require different treatment in drying and 
burning. 

It is important that the physical or natural condition of the 
clay should be entirely broken up, and this should be accomplished, 
as far as possible, by first passing it through a mixing mill and 
rollers before it reaches the pug mill. The pug mill alone is too 
often relied upon for thoroughly mixing and shredding the clay. 
The duties of the pug mill are to consolidate the clay and juress it 
through the die into a continuous column. This column should 
be thoroughly compact, free from lamination, and have a fine, 
polished surface, clean and unbroken at the comers. Seveial 
machine makers are now making a speciality of a double-shafted 
pug mill, fitted with expression rollers, to produce this result. 

Cutting Table. — ^A most convenient hand power cutting table 
is one which travels longitudinally as well as laterally — ^ksiown as 
the " Simplex " cutting table. The whole operation is performed by 
one attendant with one handle. A few power cutting tabks are in 
use, scNcoe automatic and some not ; but it is evictent that, to super- 
sede a hand table that requires but one attendant, the coming 
cutter must be automatic. The " Raymond " and the Americai» 
Clayworking Machinery Co.'s automatic cutters have a. most har- 
monious arrangem^it of all partsy and make a perfectly straight cut. 



224 BRICK-MAKING. 

Driers. — The old fashioned sysrem of open-air drying is, or 
ought to be, a thing of the past. Nowadays drying floors and tunnel 
dryers are recognised necessities. Tunnel dryers are of recent 
introduction into this country, but already some are giving good 
results, though their increased cost of construction may be against 
their general adoption for some time. The requisites in a drier 
are : — Non-liability to damage the green bricks, perfect regulation of 
the heat and air circulation, economy in construction and working; 
and the method which best achieves these results can only be 
obtained by varied experiment and careful observation. 

Kilns. — The modem continuous kiln is fast superseding older 
types; it is being rapidly perfected, and the day is not far distant 
when it will be used for burning all kinds of material. A continuous 
kiln, to give the best results, must always be built to suit the material 
it is intended to burn, and the nature of the material must always be 
taken into consideration in designing the kiln. 

Dry Press Bricks. — Up to the present time little has been done 
in this country in the making of dry press bricks, though in other 
countries, particularly in the United States, the best quality of 
facing bricks is made by this system. Where it has been tried in 
Britain it has not been altogether successful, but this result is due 
to a want of knowledge of the material best suited to this method, 
and ignorance of the machinery best fitted for it. Briefly stated, 
the method is as follows : — The clay is first thoroughly dried, pre- 
ferably by being left for some time under a shed with a hot floor. 
It is then thoroughly ground in perforated mills, and being next 
elevated to the top of the building, it is there sifted, the finer 
particles of clay being delivered by rhones down through a hopper 
to the press, while the coarser material is returned to the mill. 
The fine clay is next delivered through a charger into moulds, where 
by plungers with increasing degrees of force it is formed into com- 
pleted bricks. It is to be noted that different qualities of clay 
require diff"erent degrees of pressure. 

These bricks require more careful steaming and harder burning 
than the bricks made by the plastic method. 

Semi-Plastic System. — This system is generally applied where 
the material is of a shaley nature. The material is ground as 
already described in the dry press system, and is led from the 
rhones into a double-shafted mixing mill, where it is stirred up and 
mixed with a small quantity of water. From the mixing mill the 
clay is delivered into the pug mill, and from there it is pressed into 
moulds in a circular revolving table, or in a cylinder, according to 
the class of machine. From the moulds the bricks are then 
delivered automatically to the press, where under considerable 



BRICK-MAKING. 225 

pressure they are finished and taken direct to the kiln. This method 
of brick-making is best suited for treating the refuse heaps of coal 
and iron-stone mines, where these are used for making bricks. 



Mr. J. A. Longden, Mr. A. Gilmour, Mr. A. Weatherilt, and Mr. 
H. B. Nash txx>k part in the Discussion. 

A vote of thanks was accorded to the author. 



"THE BUFFELSDOORN AND ADJACENT DISTRICTS 
OF THE NORTHERN KLERKSDORP GOLD-FIELDS, 
TRANSVAAL." 

Paper by William Smith. 



Absiraci. 

I. — Geology. 

Although much has been learned and recorded by competent 
geologists and mining engineers of the general formation of the 
Klerksdorp district, still there is much to be done before the all 
important point, the exact position of the Main Reef payable beds, 
is located along the lines of the formation. There can be little 
doubt that these beds will be traced from Randfontein to Klerks- 
dorp. 

The generally recognised succession of beds as known on the 
Rand and neighbouring districts can be more or less distinctly 
recognised and traced over the Klerksdorp district, with this 
difference, that the country generally is more disturbed and 
broken up by the presence of intrusive igneous rocks, and con- 
siderable areas are covered by the overflows from dykes and other 
centres of eruption. The disturbances caused and the extensive 
areas covered by the igneous action has rendered progress in 
prospecting very limited, and in most cases it has been attended 
with uncertainty and much expense. Boring on a large scale and 
to great depths is now well understood and carried out on the 
Rand, and it only requires that a systematic plan of prospecting 
by bore-holes be employed to settle the question of the position 
of the payable reefs. The fact that large areas ajre covered with 
sheets of ancient lava need not deter one from piercing them with 
the drill, as in all probability they will be found of a reasonable 
thickness, especially near the edges of the overflow, and merely 
a cover to the older gold-bearing formations. 

The succession of strata from below upwards is as follows : — 
(i) Granites; (2) Schists; (3) Old and New Quartzites, Sandstones 
and Shales with Gold-bearing Conglomerates; (4) the Black Reef, 
lying unconformable to the above named; (5) Dolomites; and (6) 
the Magaliesberg and Gatsrand Sandstones and Quartzites. 

Granite is found in large bosses appearing to the north and 
west of BuiFelsdoorn ; and resting on these bosses are the shales, 
sandstones, and quartzites of the Rand formation; and towards 



BUFFELSDOORN DISTRICT OF KLERKSDORP GOLD-FIELDS. 227 

the east, the overlying Black Reef and JDolomitic Limestone, with 
a large area of igneous rock underlying and forming the footwall 
of the Black Reef. Igneous rock also occurs in large masses to 
the west of the Palmietfontein farm, and to the north on Cyfer- 
fontein farm. From the Doomfontein farm, about ten miles north 
of Buffelsdoom, a rock similar to the Hospital Hill shales (which 
are generally taken as the index to the Main Reef series) can be 
traced in a north-easterly direction for several miles, and this 
would indicate that the Main Reef should be found on a more or 
less parallel line at about one mile to the south-east or on the 
AVitrandjesfontein, Tweelingsfontein, and Rooikop farms. 

The general dip of the formation is from 30 to 45 degrees 
south-eastward, and the strike trends from north-east to south-west. 
The igneous rock is chiefly amygdaloidal diabase, with other basic 
rocks. Coal is found in small basins overlying the dolomite; and 
one of these areas, situated near Koekemoer station, has been 
•opened out and worked by the Buffelsdoorn Estate and Gold- 
mining Company (Limited). Large deposits of good coal are 
found south of Klerksdorp and the Vaal river in the Orange River 
Colony, and the coal is supplied to the Klerksdorp gold-mines at 
a reasonable price. 

IL — The Buffelsdoorn Estate and Gold-mining Company 

(Limited). 

This mine, one of the best equipped mines of the district, began 
in a small way, with but trifling development and a 10 stamps 
battery, and to-day has 200,000 tons of ore-reserves, and 100,000 
tons of 4.97 dwts. gold-slimes conserved in dams. The mining 
and other rights are situated on the Buffelsdoorn (660), Request 
{137), Rietfontein (632), Eliazar (617), Rietkuil (337), Palmiet- 
fontein (697), and Stilfontein (381) farms. 

The mine-workings comprise one main inclined shaft, 1,245 
feet deep, the No. i west inclined shaft, 524 feet deep, and the 
No. 2 west inclined shaft, 539 feet deep. These shafts are con- 
nected by six levels; the seventh level is connected with No. i 
shaft, and is being driven westward to No. 2 shaft; and the eighth 
and ninth levels are being driven westward from the main inclined 
shaft towards No. i shaft. 

The surface equipment consists of: — (i) The battery-plant, (2) 
the cyanide-plant, (3) the electric-plant, (4) the pumping-plant, and 
(5) the air-compressing plant. The battery-plant consists of 170 
stamps of the ordinary gravitation heavy type pattern. Details of 
the plant are given in the paper. 

The average working costs per ton of stone milled are as follows : 
— Mining, los. 9.94d. ; redemption of capital, 4s. ; transport, 4.54d. ; 



228 BUFFELSDOÔRN DISTRICT OF KLERKSDORP GOLD-FIELDS. 

prospecting, o.84d. ; milling, 3s. 5.42(5.; cyanide treatment, 2S. 
2.57d.; native labour supply, 3.59d. ; and the total cost of 21s. 
2.9od. would be reduced about 10 per cent, if waste-rock, broken 
and thrown out in the sorting process, was taken into axxoxmt 

The writer apologises for the brevity of the paper, which was 
written on the veldt, but hopes, at some future date, when he has 
left his regiment and returned to civil life, to write an extended 
paper. 



A vote of thanks was accorded to the author. 



"THE CULM-MEASURE TYPES OF GREAT BRITAIN." 
Discussion on Paper by W. A. E. Ussher. 



This paper was read at a previous meeting of the Institution of 
Mining Engineers (see Transactions, 1900, Vol. XX., p. 360). 

Mr. Ussher referred to and quoted from a paper entitled " Notes 
on Certain Granitoid Fragments from the Culm Conglomerates" 
by Mr. A. R. Hunt 

Mr. James M'Murtrie took part in the Discussion. 

The meeting was then adjourned. 



W^E2DNESDAY, 4th SEPTEMBER, 1901. 



Mr. James S. Dixon in the Chair. 



"THE PRODUCTION OF COPPER AND ITS SOURCES 

OF SUPPLY." 

Discussion on Paper by M. Eissler. 



This paper was read at a previous meeting of the Institution of 
Mining Engineers (see Transactions, 1901, Vol. XXI., p. 315). 

Mr. A. H. Bromly continued the Discussion. 



"THE IMPERFECT PULVERISATION OF ROCKS BY 
MEANS OF STAMPING, AND SUGGESTIONS FOR 
ITS IMPROVEMENT." 

Paper by E. D. Chester. 



Abstract 

This paper explains the cause of the imperfect crushing by stamps 
as at present operated, owing to the restriction set up through using 
a fine screen, and trpng to reduce the material at one operation, 
and suggests crushing in series and classifying. A trial run on 
hard Perthshire conglomerate in a stamp mill running at 94 drops 
per minute, with 1200 lb. stamps and 7^ inches drop, by first 
crushing through a screen 100 holes to tiie square inch, proved 
that 86.3 per cent, would pass through a 900 screen at the rate of 
9.29 tons per stamp per 24 hours. The coarse sands not passing 
the 900 screen were recrushed in a battery of 1200 lb. stamps, drop- 
ing 4 inches, drops per minute, 144, resulting in 2.6 tons per stamp. 
The two above results give an average of 6.277 tons per stamp. 
Another quantity of rock was then crushed in accordance with the 
present practice, and only 4.64 tons were crushed, showing an 
increased output of 35.1 per cent, in favour of the 6.277 tons in 
series crushing, and with at least 25 per cent, less slimes. 



230 IMPERFECT PULVERISATION OF ROCKS BY STAMPING. 

The paper further points out that in dry crushing with rolls, as 
soon as tine material enters the point of contact and becomes crushed 
it sets up a pack in a similar manner to what is done in the 
stamping operation. This pack lifts the roll, and consequently 
prevents fine crushing, as it allows particles of rock to pass 
through ; and if a separation were made, it could be crushed in one 
operation to the required size. This is, of course, the reason why 
finishing rolls have to be adopted in many instances.* 

In dry crushing it is essential, as soon as the rock enters the 
rolls and becomes crushed, that it should bs spread out so that 
the rolls can come into contact with the whole of the material, and 
still further reduce it. This result has been secured to a great 
extent by the Wegerif Roll (British patent, January nth, 1900, 
No. 662), in which the rolls are so mounted, the one partially above 
the other, that their axes cross each other, or lie in parallel 
horizontal planes, but in different vertical planes, so that the planes 
of rotation of the rolls are oblique to each other, and consequently 
the particles passing between the grinding faces of the rolls are 
subjected to a tearing, disruptive, or spreading action (in addition 
to ordinary simple crushing or grinding), whereby the grinding 
action is rendered more efficient. This obliquity of the roll-axes 
involves a concave hyperboloidal configuration of the grinding or 
crushing faces of the rolls, in order that a continuous line of contact 
or bite may be obtained. As, however, the direction in which the 
material enters between the rolls more or less approaches the 
horizontal, but should be wholly in a downwardly inclined direction, 
it is essential, in order to secure an even distribution of the material 
along the line of bite, that this line of contact should itself be 
as nearly horizontal as possible, so that the material fed into the 
rolls will not gravitate towards one end of the line of bite. "Were 
the rolls made in the form of a complete hyperboloid, either one 
or both of their axes would necessarily be placed out of the 
horizontal, and the efficiency of the rolls would in any case be 
seriously impaired. 

One of the above-described machines, in a trial run, gave the 
following . results : it used 14 indicated horse power, crushed at the 
rate of 150 tons in 24 hours, and reduced the material to such a 
size as would be suitable for catching the coarse gold and easy 
cyaniding. A sample of the resulting product was shown. 



The Chairman, Mr. J. Stirling, Mr. J. A. Longden, and Mr. D. 
A. Louis took part in the Discussion, and the author replied. 

A vote of thanks was accorded to the author. 



"MINING AND TREATMENT OF COPPER ORE AT 
THE WALLAROO AND MOONTA MINES, SOUTH 
AUSTRALIA." 

Paper by H. Lipson Hancock. 



Abstract. 



Introduction. — The Wallaroo and Moonta Copper Mines are^ 
situated at the northern end of Yorkes Peninsula, about 6 and ii 
miles respectively from Port Wallaroo, where the smelting opera- 
tions are conducted by the same proprietary. The mines have 
been in operation for about forty years, and take in the chief 
cupriferous resources of the district. At the Wallaroo mines 
there axe several ore-producing lodes, some of which are 
nearly parallel. The general strike of the main ore body 
is about North 75 degrees West. At the Moonta mines there 
are five ore-producing lodes, bearing on an average North 30 degrees 
East. The total value of the ore produced in connection with 
these mines has amounted to over ;^i 0,000,000. The quantity 
of veinstuff raised annually approximates 200,000 tons, giving 
about 37,000 tons of dressed ore yielding annually 4800 tons of the 
celebrated Wallaroo copper. The hands employed at the mines 
number about 2000. The main ore-raising operations are at 
depths varying from 1000 to 2000 feet, the deepest being about 
2500 feet. The ore as raised consists chiefly of sulphides of copper, 
intimately associated with a matrix very similar to the surrounding 
rock formation. The bulk of this material needs comprehensive 
treatment to afford satisfactory results, the copper contents vajying 
between 2 and 4 per cent. At the Moonta mines the country rock is 
f el site-porphyry — a plutonic igneous rock — intensely hard, with a 
specific gravity of about 2.67. At the Wallaroo mines the rock is 
chiefly a metamorphic mica schist of possibly Cambrian age, and 
though not so hard as that at Moonta, is tougher, containing consider- 
able quantities of hornblendic material ; specific gravity about 2.95. 
The weight and flaky nature of the waste causes greater difficulties 
in concentration. The Moonta mines ore is considerably richer 
than the Wallaroo, but the amount of waste in proportion to the 
ore much greater. The lodes are on the underlay ; those at Moonta 
dip from 50 to 70 degrees. The underlay and intensely hard 
nature of the rock making crosscutting expensive, the shafts are 
sunk for the most part with the lode. Wheeled skips are utilised 



* * 



232 TREATMENT OF COPPER ORE AT WALLAROO AND MOONTA. 

instead of cages for raising the ore to the surface; many of these 
have lai capacity of 45 cubic feet, holding about 28 or 30 cwt. 
of vein stuff. Passes, shoots, and bins are used extensively for 
speedy transport, and to facilitate expeditious hauling, which at the 
main shafts is at the rate of from 30 to 35 skips per hour. At Wal- 
laroo mines overhead stoping is found effective. Ordinary stuUs were 
formerly used where side pressure was not heavy. Where this 
pressure occurred it became necessary to timber with legs and caps. 
Where the ore body is sufficiently wide, the roof of the drives is 
supported on timber-work pillars, filled with mullock, on either side 
of the level. At Moonta both the overhead and underhand systems 
of stoping are followed. Whenever sides have been sufficiently 
rigid to be self-supporting, the underhand method has been pre- 
ferred. The stuUs have been of the simplest kind, namely, main 
timbers set in " hitches," with suitable " headings." 

Grading Plant. — The landing brace at the shaft is of sufficient 
height to admit of sizing by gravity. The ore is dumped on to 
iron screens, which separate the various sizes of rocks; these are 
discharged into bins, and thence into railway trucks below. Crude 
material passing through f-inch holes is kept separate, and treated 
on a specially designed jig. Vein stuff passing through holes 
J inch and ij inch in diameter is treated separately on another 
specially adapted jig. Material rougher than ij inch passes at 
the end of the sizing trommel into a bin, and is dealt with on the 
picking belt. 

Reduction Plant. — Rougher material and all crude vein stuff 
when poor, are fed into powerful breakers, which rapidly reduce it 
to a gauge of about 2 J inches. It is then elevated, after passing 
through a revolving trommel to remove smaller sizes, to be dis- 
charged on a travelling belt. The trommel lets through such sizes 
as can be cheaply dressed by the various mechanical concentrators. 
Boys pick out the different classes of ore from the travelling belt. 
The solid ore is sent in the rough or crushed state to the smelters. 
Coipper ores associated with special minerals are dealt with sepa- 
rately. But by far the greater portion of the material which comes 
on to the picking belt is low class vein stuff. This is conveyed in 
tipping trucks to large hoppers at the various concentrating plants ; 
it is then passed, after the addition of water, between large crushing 
rolls of the Cornish type, and the reduced pulp is received by a 
revolving trommel which removes the coarser stuff, the remainder 
going to the jig for concentration. 

Hancock Jig. — This machine was invented by the late general 
manager, Mr. H. R. Hancock, some years ago, to treat the immense 
quantities of low grade copper at these mines, where it has been 
most extensively used ever since ; and it may be safely said that the 



' . 



TREATMENT OF COPPER ORE AT WALLAROO AND MOONTA. 233 

life of this property has been prolonged considerably by the adop- 
tion of this invention in connection with the operations. The jigs 
have been adopted with great success by several of the Broken Hill 
silver mines in New South Wales, and also by mines in other parts 
of the Australasian Commonwealth. During the time the invention 
has been in use at these mines, about 4,000,000 tons of material 
have been passed through the various machines in operation. The 
capacity of the jig is great. One machine treats 150 tons of 
pulverised material in 24 hours, the cost of treatment being there- 
fore low. Shafts, smalls and toppings jigs (also the invention of 
Mr. H. R. Hancock) are found exceedingly serviceable for various 
classes of material at these mines. 

Slime Dressing Machinery. — From 12 to 15 per cent is re- 
duced to a fine state in crushing, and carried past the main jigs to 
settling pits. There are three classes of slime dressing machinery 
in this department, viz. — Round tables, belt and table vanners, and 
inclined soft treatment tables governed by self-acting gear. 

Leaching Tailings. — -The coarser tailings from the dressing 
appliances are placed in suitable positions, where after adequate 
exposure to wind and weather, the sulphides corrode and by degrees 
become decomposed. These heaps vary in height, but generally 
range from 30 to 40 feet, and represent a total area of over 20 
acres. The tops of the heaps are laid out in terraces. By a 
system of sousing, resting, and draining, a liquid is obtained from 
the base of the heap containing from 120 to 250 grains of copper to 
the gallon. The process of leaching has been carried on for some 
little time, but a plant is now nearing completion that will treat 
the large heaps, aggregating over 1,000,000 tons, in a very much 
more comprehensive manner from a large central station. 



A vote of thanks was ax;corded to the author. 



17 



*A NEW DIAGRAM OF THE WORK OF MINE 

VENTILATION." 

TsLper by H. W. G- Halbaum. 



Abstract. 



When a ga« expands in accordance with Boyle's law, the theoretic 
«^ÎJdgram of wofk is a rectangular hvpeibola. When a gas flows 
thr^/ugh a given passage, an equally convenient diagram is supplied 
by an ordinary parabola. The particular case h«e considered is 
that of a given fan's capacity to ventilate mines of diflFeient lesist- 
ancef. 

\jf^ the tangential speed of the given fan be u, and let the 
t/rtal pressure thereby actually developed be H. Then, for the 
H'«rn^? fan, 

jy = Constant = say, G. 

Thffrefwe, the tangential speeds are ordinates, and the total pres- 
sures abscissae, to all points on the parabolic curve whose paxameter 
is Cf. Since G is an inverse measure of the fan's ability to transform 
kinetic into potential pressure, G may be called the coefficient of 
transformation. 

Owing to fluid friction within the fan, and escape of energy in the 
final velocity of the air, a portion of the total pressure is lost in 
performing useless work. Let this loss of pressure be / when the 
volume of the ventilating current is V. Then, for the same fan, 

Y = Constant = say, M. 

'I h us the volumes of air are ordinates, and the losses of pressiu-e 

abncissae, to all points on the parabolic curve whose parameter is M. 

Since M measures the ability of the fan to pass volume against its 

own resistances, M may be called the parameter of the fan. In this 

parabola the product of ordinate and abscissa measures the 

aerodynamic power lost in useless work. 

The balance of the total pressure is h^H — l. This is the 

(•ffective pressure ventilating the mine. Then, for any given mine, 

Y2 
y = Constant = say, m. 

So that the volumes of air are ordinates, and the effective pressures 
abscissae, to all points on the parabolic curve whose parameter is m. 
Since m measures the mine's susceptibility to the ventilative influ- 
enres exerted by the fan, m may be called the parameter of the 



NEW DIAGRAM OF THE WORK OF MINE VENTILATION. 235 

mine! In this parabola the product of ordinate and abscissa 
measures the useful work performed in the ventilation. 

To find m for any mine, it is sufficient to accurately measure V 
and h. To find M for a given fan, it is necessary to apply the 
parabolic law which affirms that the parameter is equal to the 
quotient obtained when the product of the sum and difference of 
any two ordinates is divided by the difference of their abscissae. 
The volumes passed by a given fan are, under all circumstances, 
ordinates to the same M curve, and these are directly measurable. 
The corresponding abscissae, however, being vhe invisible losses of 
pressure, are not susceptible of direct measurement. But if two 
factive mines of different resistance be constructed, and if the fan 
be run at uniform speed on each mine in turn, the difference of the 
measurable effective pressures becomes equal to the difference of 
the invisible losses of pressure, and thus the difference of the 
abscissae in the M-curve becomes mathematically measurable, and 
the value of M is then deduced from the parabolic law just quoted. 
Having found M, I may be deduced and added to h. The sum is 
H, and since V is known,the coefficient of transformation, or G, the 
parameter of the remaining curve, is finally ascertained. 

The skeleton diagram for the given fan can now be constructed. 
It consists of the two parabolic curves whose respective parameters 
are G and M. These curves have a common origin, or vertex, and 
a common axis, which it is convenient to lay horizontally. From 
the common origin, a common scale of ordinates may be erected 
perpendicular to the common axis. The /«-curve may be dispensed 
with as unnecessary, for its abscissa is equal to the difference of the 
abscissae of the other curves, and the height of its ordinate is found 
on the M-curve. Moreover, to be of any appreciable use, it would 
need to be drawn for a great number of mines, which would confuse 
the diagram unnecessarily. In the construction of the diagram, 
again, it is convenient to take the tangential speeds in feet per 
second ; pressures and losses of pressure in feet of air-column ; and 
volumes of air in thousands of cubic feet per minute. 

To estimate the work of the fan on any mine m at any speed m, 
proceed as follows: — From the height u on the scale of ordinates 
draw a line parallel to the common axis until it touches the G-curve. 
The length of this line = H. The ordinate to the M-curve erected 
at the distance H from the origin is the volume the fan would pass 
at the speed u if it acted in the open air. The volume obtainable 
at the same speed from the mine m is measured by that ordinate to 
the M-curve whose abscissa is L And 

w + M 
The effective pnressure obtained under the same conditions is 



236 NEW DIAGRAM OF THE WORK OF MINE VENTILATION. 

A = H — Z. And in the same case, the ratios of the useful, useless, 
and total aerodynamic powers are the areas of the rectangles AV, 
IV, and HV respectively. By multiplying each rectangle by the 
weight of I GOO cubic feet of air, the ratios are converted into 
actualities. 

It has been proved by experiment that fans which are cased, 
fitted with évasée chimney, and regulated by sliding shutter, conform 
very closely to the law delineated in the parabolic diagram of work. 



A vote ot thanks was accorded to the author. 



"COKE-MAKING AT THE OLIVER COKE WORKS." 

Paper by F. C. Keighley. 



Abstract. 



Introduction. — The Oliver Coke Works are located at Oliver, 
just outside the borough of Uniontown, Fayette County, Pennsyl- 
vania, U.S.A. This location is in the very heart of the choicest 
portion of the Connellsville basin of coking coal. 

CoKE-OvENS. — The plants at this time consist of 708 beehive 
coke-ovens, 12 feet 3 inches in diameter by 8 feet in height, inside 
measurement, which are laid out, for convenience in charging, at 
two different points a few hundred feet apart, and known as Oliver 
No. I and No. 2. There are 328 ovens at No. i Oliver, and these 
are laid out as follows : — One row of bank-ovens and one set of 
block-ovens, the ovens facing three yards or loading wharves and 
two railroad sidings. There are 380 ovens at No. 2 Oliver, laid 
out in three parallel sets of block-ovens, the ovens being arranged 
to face six coke yards or loading wharves and four railroad sidings. 

The Oliver coking plant was erected by Messrs. Oliver Brothers, 
of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, a little over ten years ago ; and, as they 
were very extensively engaged in the iron and steel industry at that 
time, the works were laid out specially for the manufacture of coke for 
blast-furnace purposes. The coal for the coke ovens is taken from 
large bins (holding from 400 to 600 tons of coal) located at the 
hoisting shafts, and carried to the ovens by a train of three 200 
bushels capacity steel larries and a locomotive, at each location. 
All tracks, both on the coke-ovens for use of the larries and on 
the railroad sidings, are of the standard gauge of 4 feet 8| inches. 

The charges of coal are run into the ovens directly from the 
larries, and these charges run for regular work as follows: — 
Mondays and Tuesdays, 130 bushels of coal per oven; Wednesdays 
and Thursdays, 140 bushels of coal per oven; and Fridays and 
Saturdays, 175 bushels of coal per oven. In case of shortage of 
orders or car-supply, these charges are differently scaled. 

The yield of coke per oven varies, of course, with the charge. 
The average drawing per oven for a period covering 16 months 
was 4,602 tons* of coke. The output of coke for the year ending 
December 31st, 1900, was 466,618 tons. The capacity of the 

* Throughout this paper the short ton of 2000 pounds is used. 



238 COKE-MAKING AT THE OLIVER COKE WORKo. 

works, if run full time every day for a year, is 500,000 t»ns of coke- 
The coke-drawing is all done by hand, by means of scrapers and 
forks, and the coke is loaded at the ovens by the drawer into wheel- 
barrows, and wheeled directly into the railroad cars. The works 
are equipped with 400 25-tons capacity standard-gauge railroad 
coke-cars of the open-top drop-bottom type. The coal, of which 
this coke is made, is taken from the celebrated Connellsville sean> 
of coking coal, and is used for coking purposes just as it comes from 
the miner's pick. No crushing, washing, screening, or slate-picking 
is done; in fact, the coal is so pure that nothing of this kind is 
necessary. 

ANALYSIS OF COKE. 
Moisture. Volatile Matter. Fixed Carbon. Sulphur. Phosphorus. Ash. 
0.30 0-645 89.405 0.678 0-013 9.229 

ANALYSIS OF COAL. 
Moisture. Volatile Matter. Fixed Carbon. Sulphur. Phosphorus. Ash. 
0.600 29.50 63.10 0.94 0.014 5-^5 

The yield of coke from coal is about 67 per cent. There is 
about 3 per cent, of " breeze " in addition to the above, which at 
present is treated as so much waste, and carted to the ash-dumps. 
In common with other manufacturers of Connellsville coke, no 
attempt is made to utilise the waste-gases and bye-products from 
the coke-ovens. The cost of coke-making under the present wage 
scale is about 6s. 3d. ($1.50) per ton. It is the intention to increase 
thé number of coke-ovens to 11 00, making it the largest coking 
plant in the world. 



The Chairman took part in the Discussion, and the author replied 
by correspondence. 

A vote of thanks was accorded to the author. 



" MINERAL RESOURCES OF THE PROVINCE OF 

QUEBEC, CANADA." 

Paper by J. Obalski. 



Abstract, 



The province of Quebec covers an area of 347,000 square miles, 
being twice as large as the British Islands, and extends for about 
1700 miles from east to west and 600 miles from north to south, 
with a population of less than 2,000,000. It is practically crossed 
from east to west by the water-courses formed by the St Lawrence 
and Ottawa rivers, dividing the country into two well-defined dis- 
tricts, which are drained by numerous and important rivers. The 
tributaries are only navigable for small lengths of their courses, 
but they are of great use for the drifting down of timber and afford 
important waterfalls, which are beginning to be used for motive 
power. 

The country north of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers is 
formed of metamorphic and eruptive rocks, known under the general 
name of Laurentian. The southern shore comprises several series 
from the Cambrian to the Devonian, with a few eruptive moimtains, 
forming a continuation of the Alleghany chain. The immediate 
valley of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers is formed by Lower 
Silurian limestone and shales; while towards the south the older 
Cambrian and pre-Cambrian rocks have been brought to the surface 
by a great fault running north-eastward. Devonian rock appears 
only at the surface in Gaspesia, forming the eastern part of the 
province, and Anticosti island. 

Only a relatively small part of that large territory has been pro- 
spected ; but nevertheless, from the geological study which has been 
made, we know what kind of minerals may be expected, although 
new discoveries may happen. 

In the Laurentian formation the following minerals occur : Phos- 
phates of lime, mica (white and amber), plumbago, magnetite, titamc 
iron, felspar, etc.. In the other series, occupying the south, are 
found copper ores, magnetite, haematite, alluvial gold, asbestos, 
chromite, soapstone, etc. 

In the central district there are important indications of com- 
bustible gas and oil, and in the extreme west oil has been found. 
On both shores of the St. Lawrence the rock is generally covered 



240 MINERAL RESOURCES OF QUEBEC. 

by alluvial drifts. Peat, bog iron ore, clay, and marble are found 
in abundance ; while, where the rock outcrops, there is a large supply 
of material which is used for building and ornamental purposes and 
for lime-making. 

Amongst this great variety of minerals must be deplored the 
absence of coal, which has to be obtained from Nova Scotia and 
Pennsylvania; but in many mining districts wood, so plentiful in 
this province, is used as fuel, and several trials are being made 
just now for the preparation and industrial use of peat. 

Iron. — ^Although the iron industry in this district is the oldest 
established in North America there are only two small furnaces 
using bog ore, and they produce the highest quality of charcoal 
pig iron, 6700 tons having been made last year. Several attempts 
were made 30 or 40 years ago to smelt the magnetic ore found in 
the vicinity of Ottawa, the magnetic sand of Moisic, and the titanic 
ore of St. Urbain, but without financial success. Several mines 
of magnetite and haematite are scattered through the province, but 
the most important are the magnetic sand-deposits of Moisic, St. 
John, and Natashquan, on the northern shore of the Gulf. It is 
estimated that many million tons of ore, containing 70 per cent, 
of iron, practically free from phosphorus or sulphur, could be ob- 
tained by a proper concentration getting rid of the titanium, which 
is found as titanic iron with the sand: several machines have been 
introduced for this purpose. 

Copper. — In the vicinity of Sherbrooke large bodies of copper 
ore, yielding an average of 4 per cent, of copper, 35 per cent, of 
sulphur, and a little silver, are regularly worked with an average 
output of 30,000 to 40,000 tons a year. Part is used on the spot 
for the manufacture of sulphuric acid, the remainder and the burnt 
ore being shipped to the United States. Several other deposits, 
some of them of high-grade ores, were extensively worked about 
25 years ago, and abandoned later for several reasons, but they may 
be again reopened. 

Gold. — In the Beauce district alluvial gold has been worked in 
an intermittent manner; the total production has been estimated 
at ;£40o,ooo (2,000,000 dollars). Actually these alluvials are only 
worked on a small scale. 

Asbestos. — ^The asbestos industry is one of the most important 
having produced last year ;^i 50,000 (750,000 dollars) of raw 
material. The mines of asbestos are located in a serpentine belt, 
which is extensively worked at Thetford, Black Lake, and Danville. 
Asbestos is shipped to the United States and Europe. 

Chromite. — Chromite is found near Black Lake. The ore is 
variable in quality, but contains less than 50 per cent, of sesqui- 
oxide of chromium ; it is concentrated to reach that grade. About 



MINERAL RESOURCES OF QUEBEC. 41 

2500 tons are obtained yearly, and sent mostly to the United States. 
Mica. — In the Ottawa county amber mica is found and worked 
at many places, the value at the mines of the output being about 
^£30,000 (150,000 dollars) a year. It is shipped imcut, on account 
of the high duty on cut mica, to the United States, where it is used 
in the manufacture of electric machinery. White mica also exists 
in several places, but it is not at present worked. 

Among the minerals of minor importance is the apatite of 
the Ottawa region, where it is very abundant and was worked with 
success, at one time producing an average of 25,000 tons a year; 
but since the discovery of phosphate of lime in Florida and South 
Carolina the mines have become unprofitable. 

A deposit of galena is being worked at Lake Temiscaming, and 
some other deposits of more or less importance are known but 
are not at present being developed. 

In the eastern townships there is an antimony mine, not now 
worked, and also numerous deposits of soapstone. 

In the Laurentian formation graphite, mostly in a disseminated 
form, has been worked, with but little success ; a few concentrating 
mills have been erected, and some mineral is also shipped in the 
crude form to the United States. 

Felspar is abundant, but finds a limited market Sulphate of 
baryta is worked to a small extent. Molybdenite is found in a 
few places, but it is not developed. In Magdalen islands man- 
ganese has been discovered. 

Some borings have been made for gas in the Trenton formation, 
showing good indications. In Gaspé prospecting for oil has been 
carried on for several years, and many wells have been bored to 
a great depth. Oil of a first-class quality has been found, but so 
far not yet in commercial quantity. 

Granite, marble, and limestone of a good quality are found in all 
the formations of the province and used for the local building 
industry. Lime and bricks are manufactured at numerous places. 
Large areas of peat are found in many districts, but are not yet 
used. Ochre of good quality is manufactured near Three Rivers, 
and many other deposits are known. 

The mines on all the lands not sold previously to 1880 still 
belong to the Government, which disposes of them by sales or 
leases at reasonable prices. 

The total value of the crude products at the mines represents 
about ;£5oo,ooo (2,500,000 dollars) yearly, 5500 men beiiig em- 
ployed in this industry. Transport in the open districts is easy. 
Wood fuel is abundant, and Nova Scotian coal is worth i6s. 8d. 
(4 dollars) a ton. Labour is cheaper than usual in America, 4s. 
(i dollar) being the average wage of unskilled men. Water power 



242 MINERAL RESOURCES OF QUEBEC. 

has not been much used so far for mining purposes, but it may 
be used with proper transmission of power. 

In conclusion, although the province of Quebec is not of the 
first rank as a mining country, the few industries so far developed 
are generally prosperous, and afford good returns upon the invested 
capital. 



A vote of thanks was accorded to the author. 



"THE THEORY OF THE EQUIVALENT ORIFICE, 

TREATED GRAPHICALLY.' 
Discussion on Paper by H. W. G. Halbaum. 



This paper was read at a previous meeting of the Institution of 
Mining Engineers (see Transactions, 1900, Vol. XX., p. 404). 

Mr. J. T. Beard and Mr. G. Hanarte contributed in writing to- 
the Discussion, and the author replied. 



"GOLD DREDGING.' 
Discussion on Paper by W. Denham Verschoyle. 



This pap>er was read at a previous meeting of the Institution of 
Mining Engineers (see Transactions, 1901, Vol. XXL, p. 372). 

The author replied to the Discussion in writing. 



"GOLD^MINING IN THE ROSSLAND DISTRICT, 

BRITISH COLUMBIA." 
Discussion on Paper by J. J. Sandeman. 



This paper was read at a previous meeting of the Institution of 
Mining Engineers (see Transactions, 1900, Vol. XX., p. 401). 

Mr. John Kirsopp, jun., contributed to the Discussion in writing. 



"THE CONNECTION OF UNDERGROUND AND 

SURFACE SURVEYS." 

Paper by Professor G. R. Thompson. 



Abstract. 



In the early history of coal mining in any district little difficulty is 

experienced in the survey of the workings which, by inclines or 

shallow shafts, oi>en to the surface at many points. As the deeper 

coal is worked the royalties become larger, and more accurate 

underground surveys are required. These also must be accurately 

connected with the surface survev. In metalliferous mines the 

value of a small strip is often very great, and corresponding 

accuracy is required in connection with the surface. The mining 

engineer or surveyor will, in general practice, be required to make 

such connections with greater or less precision according to 

circumstances, and the paper examines the degree of accuracy 

attainable by the various methods in use. 

The principal methods adopted for getting a common meridian 
to the two surveys are : — 

I. The Magnetic Needle Method. — Using an ordinary 6-inch 
dial, the bearing of a line can be read to about five minutes of its 
true reading; hence in the underground and surface observ^ations 
we might expect an error of 8 minutes or so, or a lateral deviation 
of I foot in every 480 feet traversed from the connecting point. 
Such a result would suffice for small surveys, where the proportional 
accuracy required was not great. If the underground and surface 
surveys have each been conducted with greater accuracy than this, 
and a more accurate connection by the needle is desired, this may 
be done — (i) by taking one direct and several indirect bearings of 
surface and underground lines by the combined use of theodolite 
and dial; (2) by using a needle with vernier attached, or the 
tubular modification with micrometer eye-piece, a reading of the 
needle's 'position to 3 min., 2 min., or even i min., being attain- 
able. The limitations to the magnetic needle method are that 
the needle is subject to — (a) a. yearly change, which must be known 
for the year and the place, and allowance made when connections 
are made at different dates as in extensions; (b) a daily change, 
which varies with the place and season from i to 8 minutes or so. 
The curve of daily change must be known, and a correction applied 
for difference of time between surface and underground observa- 
tions, or the observ^ations must be made near 8 p.m., when the 



244 CONNECTION OF UNDERGROUND AND SURFACE SURVEYS. 

change is very slow, and the daily mean is recorded, (c) magnetic 
storms, during which readings should not be taken. Taking the 
above precautions, readings accurate to i min. could be obtained, 
but (d) local attraction, due to magnetic rock, may give a much 
greater error than this, and until such is proved to be absent, the 
method cannot be trusted. 

2. Transit Theodolite and Transit Instrument Method. — 
This method makes use of one shaft only. Let us suppose the 
length of the connecting line is 6 feet, and we wish to know its 
direction to one minute, we have to fix the direction of this line 
by fixing its two ends, and this must be done with such accuracy 
that the combined error will not displace the line more than one 
minute. Now in a 6-foot line a lateral error of 0.02 inch at one 
end will displace it by one minute, so that each point must be 
fixed to about 0.014 inch, and we must use a telescope of such 
power that each point can be adjusted to within this distance 
from the true direction of the line of collimation- If the shaft 
be 1000 feet deep, the telescope must allow this to be done at 
1000 feet. The unaided eye can resolve two lines when the space 
between them subtends an angle of i minute, or slightly less, and 
can see them distinctly when they subtend a like angle. It can 
adjust two lines to superposition to about J minute; consequently, 
to adjust the wire to within .014 inch in one observation we 
require a telescope magnifying 90 diameters. An error of i minute 
in the adjustment of the transit axis to the horizontal would 
displace the underground line 3 J inches in a shaft 1000 feet deep, 
but its effect on the direction would be negligible unless the 
imderground line were taken ofif at a very high angle. Vibration 
in all forms must be avoided in such a case as this, seeing that 
the angle of adjustment is about 0.2 seconds. 

Should a connection of equal accuracy be required through a 
shaft 100 feet deep, the magnifying power of the telescope need 
only be 9 diameters — such a telescope as is possessed by an 
ordinary 5-inch theodolite. 

3. Two Plumb Lines Suspended down one Shaft. — To test 
how accurately a line could be transferred from the surface to 
the underground survey by means of plumb lines, the writer took 
two tempered steel wires, 0.02 inches diameter, and suspended 
them in a rectangular shaft 660 feet deep, giving a 5-foot base 
line. The wires were run over pulleys with V grooves in the rims, 
an|d bearings carefully turned for true running, and shoulders on 
axles to prevent side play. From each line in turn weights of 
6, 13, and 19 lbs. respectively were suspended, and the wires 
allowed to vibrate with weights immersed in a pail of water, the 
position of rest being determined from the average of the greatest 



CONNECTION OF UNDERGROUND AND SURFACE SURVEYS. 245 

and least readings during each swing as observed, through tele- 
scopes, on two scales placed behind the wire at right angles to 
each other, one telescope being on a theodolite roughly centred in 
line with the two wires, and used for extending the line under- 
ground. The three plummets were used to detect and determine 
any steady deflecting forces (such as air currents, spray from 
dropping water, etc.). Though the experiments were regarded as 
preliminary, and too few observations were taken to eliminate 
the effect of irregular impulses, yet the results from the three sets 
of experiments on each wire showed the connection to be accurate 
to 2 minutes of arc. 

4. Plumb Lines down two Distant Shafts. — From Method 3 
it is easily seen that, if two shafts are available, and a direct sight 
can be had between, this method can become very accurate; and 
if a direct sight cannot be got, the accuracy of the connection depends 
on the accuracy of the survey between the two plumb lines alone. 
In this case the line of survey should be as nearly as possible 
in the direction of the connecting line, and the distance between 
the two shafts should be considerable. The probable error of 
determining the traverse angles consists of three parts: — (i) Read- 
ing the angle, (2) bisecting the signal, (3) centreing the instrument 
at the station. In a 5-inch theodolite the first may be about 20 
seconds, the second about 2 to 3 seconds, while the third depends 
on the length of sight available, and the care in centreing. The 
probable error in position of the last point of a traverse of twelve 
lines is discussed in the paper and illustrated by a figure; by 
traversing back and completing the polygon, the actual accumulated 
error can be determined, and this distributed over the polygon 
reduces the probable error, which in any case is only the same as 
would come in the underground survey itself. When the under- 
ground survey is circuitous and the shafts comparatively near, the 
lateral error in the traverse may become so great that the method 
fails for accurate connection. 

5. Survey down Inclines. — ^As in 4, the error made in carrying 
an angle forward by traverse applies, but the error of sighting 
increases proportionately to#the secant of the angle of inclination, 
as also the error due to centreing; and the probable error of each 
angle increases to such an extent that with high inclinations 
accuracy of direction cannot be maintained through many lines. 
Points, however, fixed by surveys down two distant inclines, may 
be treated in the same way as plumbed points in 4. 



A vote of thanks was accorded to the author. 



"A NEW CIVIL AND MINING ENGINEERS' TRANSIT 
THEODOLITE, FOR CONNECTING UNDERGROUND 
WORKINGS TO THE SURFACE, VICE VERSA, AND 
FOR GENERAL SURVEYING." 

Paper by H. D. Hoskold. 



Abstract. 



The writer devoted much attention to the improvement of survey- 
ing instruments prior to 1863, but the " Miners' Transit Theodolite" 
then introduced, and which he had in use prior to that date, 
although efficient for most surveying purposes, did not meet all 
the conditions proposed. Between that date and 1870 he con- 
ceived the idea that a portable transit theodolite might be con- 
structed, with a hollow or perforated vertical axis, rendering it 
efficient for the object of sighting down a perpendicular shaft 
through the centre of the instrument, with a view to connecting 
underground and surface surveys with facility and great precision, 
the instrument also being adapted for general surveying. 

The contrary case of producing a surface line through a per- 
pendicular pit and in the same direction below ground often occurs 
where shafts are sunk to produce railway or sewer tunnels in a 
given direction, and for these operations a proper instrument is 
absolutely necessary. 

An instrument was designed before 1870, but it was not until 
after 1893 that a design was placed in the hands of Messrs. John 
Davis & Son, Derby, who have constructed an instrument. It 
supplies admirably a deficiency long felt in surveying, because it 
is a perfect substitute for the portable astronomical transit instru- 
ment which was formerly employed exclusively for the object of 
connecting underground and surface surveys by the late Mr. 
Beanlands, Mr. Richardson (Severn Tunnel), and Mr. E. H. Liveing. 

The great objection to the use of transit theodolites with long 
and powerful telescopes is the great height of the standards or Y's 
supporting the telescope, rendering such instruments top heavy, 
clumsy, and easily affected by vibration; but in sighting down the 
deepest shafts considerable power of telescope is needed in order 
to bisect two illuminated marks placed at the bottom of the shaft. 

The telescope of this instrument is made much longer than is 
usual in order to supply the power needed. At the same time, 
the standards or Y's are made shorter than is usual, rendering the 



CIVIL AND MINING ENGINEERS* TRANSIT THEODOLITE. 247 

instrument more compact and not easily affected by vibration; in 
fact, the half of the telescope is longer than the height of the 
Y's or standards, so that apparently the telescope would not 
transite. This difficulty is avoided by constructing the telescope 
tube in one piece, and causing it to slide in a sleeve or long socket 
forming part of the horizontal axis. This movement is brought 
into action by turning the head of a large milled screw attached 
to a pinion and rack formed in the sleeve, so that the object glass 
can be made to point perpendicularly and right through the 
vertical axis down a shaft, and it can also be arranged so that a 
sight in the vertical or zenith may easily be taken through a long 
and powerful diagonal eye-piece. 

An exchangeable micrometer eye-piece, measuring angles to one 
second of arc, is fitted to the instrument, and is admirably adapted 
to find distances by the sub-tense mode without direct measure- 
ment with a chain. The instrument has also two spirit levels to 
its upper part — -i.e., one is attached to the vernier arms of the 
vertical circle, and the other, a very long and sensitive one, is 
attached to the opposite side of the telescope. 

In addition, therefore, to the instrument being a transit theo- 
dolite, the spirit level renders it equal to the finest spirit level for 
levelling operations. It is supplied with a lantern and axis level, 
and also a long trough magnetic compass, with short and long 
diagonal eye-pieces. It is made in composite aluminium metal, 
and is comparatively light. 

To connect an underground survey with the surface, the travers- 
ing stand of the new transit theodolite is fixed upon a platform 
over the centre line of a down cast shaft, and by moving the 
instrument laterally by hand, and a fine adjusting screw, the tele- 
scope is brought into the same vertical plane as two Dluminated 
marks or electric lamps placed in the bottom of a shaft, and in 
line with the heading leading from it. When the illuminated 
objects appear in the field of the telescope, the slow motion screw 
of the traversing stand is moved, causing the vertical spider line 
in the telescope to bisect the illuminated objects. The telescope 
is then raised to the horizontal, and the underground line set out 
upon the surface, and in the same direction. 



Mr. G. D. Ridley, Mr. J. A. Longden, Mr. James Stirling, Mr. 
T. Lindsay Galloway, Professor Henry Louis, Mr. J. Barton, Mr. 
C. C. Leach, and the Chairman took part in the Discussion. Mr. 
G. R. Thompson contributed in writing. 

The author replied to the Discussion in writing. 

A vote of thanks was accorded to the author. 



" ALTERNATING CURRENTS, AND THEIR POSSIBLE 
APPLICATION TO MINING OPERATIONS." 

Part II. 

"THE PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF ALTERNATING 
CURRENTS TO MINING OPERATIONS." 

Paper by Sydney F. Walker. 

Abstract. 

In the first part of this paper the writer dealt with the principles 
of alternating currents of electricity, and explained in what way they 
differed from continuous currents. In the present paper he pro- 
poses to show how alternating currents may be used in mining work, 
and the advantages of their use. 

The advantages and the method of application may be divided 
into two sections, viz. : — 

1. The distribution of energy over a large area. 

2. The use of alternating current apparatus underground. 

The tendency at the present time is, for economical reasons, to 
produce power at a convenient centre, and distribute it over the 
area to be served. Power, like so many other things, can be 
produced more economically in large quantities. At the present 
time, where a number of collieries are owned by one company, 
with perhaps an ironworks dependent upon the collieries for its 
supply of coal and coke, it is usual to have a battery of steam 
boilers at each colliery, sometimes more than one at each colliery, 
and often at different parts of the ironworks. The boilers are 
worked at pressures varying from 30 lbs. per square inch to 80 lbs., 
with, in a few cases, 100 lbs. and 150 lbs. Higher pressures than 
these cannot in many cases be used, because it is not practicable 
to use compound engines, and because there is so much condensa- 
tion of steam during the time the engines are standing, and this 
condensation increases with the pressure. If the whole of the 
power can be generated at one centre for the whole of the works 
interested, pressures of 150 lbs. to 250 lbs. per square inch can 
be economically used, by means of triple and quadruple expansion 
engines, and considerable economies in coal consumption realised. 
It will be remembered that, in raising steam, it is the operation of 
converting tiie water at 212 deg. F. to steam at the same tempera- 
ture that consumes the major portion of the heat, while the higher 



L 



APPLICATION OF ALTERNATE CURRENTS TO MINING WORK. 249 

the pressure to which the steam is raised, the more work a given 
quantity will do. But when all the power is generated at one centre, 
the question of distribution comes in. In many cases the collieries 
lie at great distances apart, an outside distance of 20 miles not 
being excessive. If the power is to be distributed by elfectric 
currents, it is absolutely necessary to use high pressures on the 
transmission lines, while it is equally necessary to be able to use 
low pressures, 100 volts to 500 volts, in the lamps and motors. If 
1,000 horse power has to be transmitted 20 miles, it will be practi- 
cally impossible to lay down enough copper to transmit it at 100 
volts; the pressure would be all lost; and it may be taken that 
economy in tra'^smission varies approximately as the square of 
the pressure employed. At 1,000 volts the economy is 100 
times that at 100 volts, and at 10,000 volts it is 10,000 
times that at 100 volts, and this applies to losses in 
transmission, and to the size of the cables. In America they 
are using pressures up to 60,000 volts, and there can hardly be any 
doubt that for such distributions as sketched above, pressures of 
10,000 volts and upwards will have to be used. Now, for pressures 
above 2,000 volts, it has not been possible, so far, to canstmct 
machines generating continuous. currents that will work satisfactorily. 
The insulation problems involved in a revolving apparatus with high 
pressures have been so far insuperable. With alternating currents, 
on the other hand, no such trouble exists. The stationary or static 
transformer — consisting of a magnified induction coil, a mass of 
laminated iron plates, with two coils of copper wire embedded in 
them, or coiled round them, allows of all sorts of transformations, 
up and down, from low to high . pressures, and vice versa, without 
any trouble. Hence alternating currents can be generated at any 
convenient pressure, transformed up to the pressure required for 
the line transmission, and transformed down again to any required 
pressure, at the points of consumption ; and in addition, alternating 
currents may be transformed into continuous currents, where it iis 
moie convenient to use these. The advantages of using alternating- 
current apparatus for machine driving in mines are, the complete 
absence of a revolving commutatov, with the attendant breakage of 
circuit and sparking in the electric motor, and the lower pressure 
employed in the revolving portion of the apparatus. The induction 
motor, the apparatus that would be most suitable for use in collieries, 
is actually a transformer in itself, in that it receives currents at any 
pressure in its stationary coils, where insulation can be accomplished 
with comparative ease, and transforms them into low pressure 
currents in the armature, or revolving portion of the apparatus, 
at the same time producing motion of revolution, only low pressure 
currents appearing in the revolving portion. The revolving portion 

18 



250 APPLICATION OF ALTERNATE CURRENTS TO MINING WORK. 

of the apparatus also presents no breaks in its coils, except in case 
of accident, and there is no break of any kind in the circuit of 
which the revolving portion is a part, except for the purpose of 
securing a large starting torque, while this, again, is not absolutely 
necessary where the machine can be started off the load, and 
switched on to it afterwards. These advantages are very consider- 
able for underground work. 



Mr. J. L. Walters and Mr. G. A. Mitchell took part in the Dis- 
cussion, and the author replied. 

A vote of thanks was accorded to the author. 

On the motion of Mr. G. A. Mitchell, seconded by Mr. J. T. 
Forgie, a vote of thanks was accorded to the Chairman, Mr. James 
S. Dixon, and he replied briefly. 

On the motion of Mr. J. C. Cadman, seconded by Mr. W. N. 
Atkinson, a vote of thanks was accorded to the University Court 

The proceedings then terminated, and the business of the Section 
was brought to a close. 



I ' • 



I 



I 
.1 .' 






SUMMARY OF PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

Section VII.— Municipal.* 



TUESDAY, 3pd SEPTEMBER, 1901. 



Mr. E. George Mawbey, Chairman, in the Chair. 



THE CHAIRMAN'S ADDRESS. 
By E. George Mawbey. 



Abstract, 



In opening the meetings of the Section the Chairman gave a brief 
address, in the course of which he said that, as representatives 
of the branch of engineering practice which is, perhaps, more 
closely identified than any other with the health of the people of 
the United Kingdom and the Colonies, it was fitting that municipal 
engineers should take a duly prominent part in the International 
Engineering Congress at what was possibly the greatest exhibition 
ever held away from London in the British Isles. It would have- 
been difficult, if not impossible, to have selected a more suitable 
site for a great exhibitiçn — and particularly for a congress of civil 
and sanitary engineers — than the city of Glasgow; which is the 
commercial capital of Scotland, the Manchester or Liverpool of 
the North, a seat of profound learning, and a veritable hive of 
industry. Indeed, comprehensive as the scope and character of 
the exhibition was, he considered it doubtful whether it could 
convey more vividly and strikingly an adequate idea of the indomi- 
table energy, pluck, skill, and enterprise of the British race than 
was conveyed by the great manufacturing works of Glasgow itself, 
and the world-famed shipbuilding establishments and other gigantic 
centres of production on the Clyde. A mere enumeration of the 
vast and varied industries so successfully carried on in the city and 

* The full Proceedings of Section VII. are published by The Incorporated 
Association of Municipal and County Engineers, ii Victoria Street, West- 
minster, London, S.W., price 6s. 6d., post free. 



252 chairman's address. 

its environs would occupy much more time than could be devoted 
to a brief address. He referred to one typical instance of the 
enterprise of the citizens of Glasgow, and took the opportunity 
to congratulate the civic fathers of the city, who had been the 
pioneers of British muncipial tramways, upon the inception and 
completion of one of the most important tramway imdertakings 
in the United Kingdom. Even those who lived at a remote dis- 
tance from the city of Glasgow had watched with the keenest 
interest the progress of the imdertaking; and if their admiration 
had not been voluntary, it would have been compelled by the 
splendid way in which really phenomenal difficulties had been 
overcome as they had arisen. The principal characteristics of 
the scheme might be said to be that it was so thoroughly lip-to- 
date in every particular; and it was evident that neither pains 
nor money had been spared to ensure complete success. The 
equipment of the Pinkston Power Station was especially interesting 
and instructive. The plant includes both British and American 
engines of the best types procurable in their respective coimtries; 
and an unique opportunity was here aflforded of judging their 
relative merits when working under precisely identical conditions. 
The speaker then briefly mentioned the papers which were to 
be read, and in conclusion remarked : " There is assembled here 
to-day a very large and representative body of engineers; and it 
will naturally be expected that from such a gathering much infor- 
mation will emanate as to research and experience, and that some 
new light at least will be thrown on the various problems of the 
day coming within the scope of our deliberations. I would there- 
fore appeal to you to enter with earnestness into the discussions, 
and to let us have the advantage of your knowledge and experience; 
so that the public, as well as ourselves, may derive material and 
lasting benefit from the part we take in this great Congress." 



"RESEARCHES INTO THE SYSTEM OF SEWAGE 

PURIFICATION AT HUDDERSFIELD BY 

BACTERIAL AND OTHER METHODS." 

Paper by K. F. Campbell. 



Abstract 



The sewage of Huddersfield contains a very large proportion of 
waste from the woollen trade and is therefore rendered very diffi- 
cult of purification. 

For a number of years the sewage was dealt with by special 
chemicals and subsequent filtration through very fine beds. This 
proved to be unsatisfactory and costly and was therefore 
abandoned. 

Experiments were then conducted by the author on the three 
following methods of purification : — 

1. Double contact of the raw sewage. 

2. Chemical precipitation and double contact. 

3. Open septic tank treatment and double contact. 

For the first experiment two beds, one composed of very coarse 
clinker and the other of very fine, were constructed. The sewage 
was screened before being applied to the coarse bed by perforated 
sheet zinc, in order to remove the wool fibre. The beds were 
filled twice a day, and were allowed one complete day's rest per 
week. 

The purification effected by the beds was good and constant, 
although not always sufficient. 

A third contact was necessary when the sewage was concentrated. 

One disadvantage of this system is that the sewage receives 
little or no mixing before being run into the bed, and also the 
rapid filling up of the coarse bed would alone cause the process 
to be condemned. 

For the second experiment a small quantity of lime and copperas 
was used as a precipitant, the resultant effluent being further 
purified by contact beds. A number of beds have been constructed 
for the single contact of the tank effluent, in various ways, as 
regards material and size of material. 

Those composed of clinker varying from f-in. to- i in. — a size 



254 SEWAGE PURIFICATION AT HUDDERSFIELD. 

which is readily prepared — are found to be most suitable. A 
single contact of the tank effluent is not always adequate, a second 
contact being frequently required. This was given, and a satis- 
factory effluent continually produced on an, experimental scale. 

There is, however, a continual but slight decrease in the capacity 
of the beds, which will render necessary an occasional renewal of 
parts of the beds. 

By allowing the sewage to slowly flow through an open tank a 
septic action was set up. This experiment was commenced in 
the autumn of 1900, but no permanent scum was formed until 
May, 1 90 1. 

The open septic tank has been treating sewage equal in volume 
to its own capacity per day. 

The amount of sludge which accumulated at the foot was '6 inch 
per week. The effluent from the septic tank, which is dark and 
•contains a considerable quantity of black matter in suspension, is 
purified in two contact beds. The first is coarser than the second, 
and both are composed of destructor clinker. The effluent is 
frequently unsatisfactory, and the capacity of the coarse bed has 
considerably diminished during seven months' working. 

It ■ has been found that the matter which accumulates in the 
contact beds is only partly reducible, and as the suspended matter 
in the septic effluent is much greater than that present in the 
effluent from chemical precipitation, the beds will not need as 
much attention when an effluent from chemical treatment is being 
dealt with as with a septic effluent. 



CONCLUSIONS. 

1. That by no process can the formation of sludge be obviated. 

2. When the crude sewage is treated in contact-beds, the rapid 
accumulation of matter in the beds renders the process im- 
practicable. 

3. That, by the use of a small quantity of lime and copperas, 
followed by contact-bed treatment, a satisfactory effluent can be 
produced. 

4. That the contact-beds used for the purification of the effluent 
after chemical precipitation will not retain their capacity indefinitely, 
and that, in the course of a number of years, it will be reduced to 
such an extent as to render necessary the washing or riddling of 
the material. 

5. That by the open septic process about 40 per cent, of the 
sludge is destroyed. 

6. The septic effluent is not as amenable to subsequent contact- 
bed treatment as the effluent from chemical precipitation. 

7. The capacity of the beds treating the septic effluent decreases 



SEWAGE PURIFICATION AT HUDDERSFIELD. 256 

more rapidly than that of the beds treating the effluent after 
chemical precipitation, owing to the excessive amount of suspended 
matter in the septic effluent. 

8. The septic effluent after double contact is frequently un- 
satisfactory. 



The Discussion on this paper was taken with that on the paper 
by Lieut-Col. Jones (see p. 258). 

A vote of thanks was accorded to the author. 



"SEWAGE TREATMENT." 
Paper by Lieut.-Col. A. S. Jones, V.C. 



Abstract, 

Town and District Councils, in view of the great improvements 
of late years in arts and manufacture which have resulted from 
chemistry and electricity, expect similar advance in sewage treat- 
ment from applied science. 

The paper touches upon " Chemical Precipitation," and the 
distinction between a popular interpretation of that term used 
in sewage treatment and its scientific limitation to the precipitate 
thrown down out of solution by a chemical r&-agent added thereto; 
irrespective of matter, held in suspension while the sewage is in 
a state of agitation, to be deposited by its own gravity on the 
advent of quiescence. 

Lord Bramweirs Royal Commission in 1884 crystallized the 
floating knowledge of experts on this distinction^ and also on the 
necessity for adopting the separation system in sewage wherever 
possible. 

But it led to a still more important advance of theory and practice 
by compelling the late Metropolitan Board of Works to take action 
as regards " a preliminary and temporary measure " by which 
" much of the existing evil " [of Metropolitan sewage discharge at 
Barking and Crossness] " will be abated." 

Postponing the permanent remedy recommended by that Royal 
Commission, the Board directed their chemist, Mr. Dibdin, in 
consultation with Dr. Dupré, to experiment with samples of LondcHi 
sewage, with the following result — ^that after a while these two 
chemists laid down the principle of discarding chemicals and 
favouring bacterial action by extending the Bailey Denton " Inter- 
mittent Downward Filtration " until one acre of artificially prepared 
bed of coke was supposed capable of purifying one million gallons 
of sewage per diem. 

Mr. Scott-MoncriefiF and Mr. Cameron followed with rules for 
" Septic tanks," agreeing very closely with the practice of many 
old-fashioned cesspool builders; and Mr. Cameron laid great stress 
on the cover of such receptacles being rendered gas-tight, whereas 
the experiments lately conducted at Manchester, Leicester, Leeds, 
and Lawrence, Massachussetts, prove that open tanks are equally 
efficient, and, of course, such are much less costly to construct. 

Among all the students of microbe action upon sewage, no one 



SEWAGE TREATMENT. 257 

has demonstrated that theory more completely than Scott-Moncrieff 
in his experiments at Ashtead and Caterham, which have been 
duplicated and confirmed on Filter No. 131 of the Massachussetts 
experimental station, as described at pages 452-3 of the Board's 
annual Report for 1899; but it can hardly be possible to erect 
such apparatus as his theory requires for a town's sewage, however 
useful from an educational point of view may be the results of such 
experiments. 

While the long-promised report of Lord Iddesleigh's Royal 
Commission is daily expected, it may seem presumptuous for any- 
one to come forward with less authoritative statements about 
sewage treatment, and the writer offers, with great diffidence, some 
views formed on his 30-years' practical experience in dealing at 
one time with mixed manufacturing and domestic sewage, and 
latterly with an extremely strong and fresh residential sewage, and 
so strong that its chloride of sodium varies from 10 grains to 15 
grains per gallon), from a population up to 30,000. 

This leads him to insist on the importance of studying local 
conditions from the first inception of plans for sewage works, in 
each particular case, up to their completion, with the best available 
materials. 

But when the best and most suitable works have been completed 
and paid for, the practice has often been for the sanitary authority 
to take little further interest in the matter, and to employ careless 
and incompetent workmen at inadequate wages to carry out the 
hourly varying duties, on efficient performance of which successful 
sewage disposal depends. 

Mr. Cameron and several other engineers have devised automatic 
machinery for the more routine work of applying sewage to contact 
beds, but, in the opinion of the writer, anything of that kind will 
be found less profitable to authorities who adopt such appliances 
than to the inventors and manufacturers. 

We have yet to learn the true average duration in satisfactory 
working of contact beds, under the most careful management and 
protection from insoluble matter but the recent experiments 
directed to that point are not encouraging, and if such beds have 
to be broken up and relaid every two or three years, the writer 
would suggest that the coke shoiid be burnt as fuel after its life 
as a bacterial filter comes to an end. 

With a well-arranged system of tramways it would be easy to 
keep one coke bed in use as a fuel store, and another in process 
of filling with fresh coke, while the rest of the series did duty as 
contact beds, and thus everything which bacterial life left behind 
would pass through the fire imder steam boilers, for electric light 
and power, etc. 

Passing from sewage treatment under dijficulties, which necessi- 



258 SEWAGE TREATMENT. 

tates great concentration of microbe energy on confined areas, the 
author proceeded to consider how the same energy has been used, 
and is still most extensively employed, by intermittent downward 
filtration, or broad irrigation, in sewage farming, and took as 
examples : — 

1. Berlin, with some 20,000 acres under sewage, and convalescent 
homes flourishing in the midst of its well-irrigated land. 

2. Paris, with a systematic distribution of its sewage to private 
cultivators over many square miles, in a suburban district. 

3. Birmingham, Nottingham, Leicester, and other of our large 
cities and towns, where sewage farming has been carried on from 
day to day, with all that comes down an outfall sewer, for a long 
series of years. 

In such cases there is always a complete natural protection from 
clogging, and some return in crops for labour in cultivation, while 
the freehold rises in intrinsic value as a Corporation asset for 
sewage or any other purpose — a factor often overlooked in com- 
parative estimates of capital outlay on works without land. 

Some account is then given of the camp farm at Aldershot, 
where the sewage of from 20,000 to 30,000 persons has been dis- 
charged for about 35 years, under good and bad management, 
in successive well-marked periods. 

The paper insists upon good arrangements for dealing with 
sludge and screenings. Barging to sea, or pressing with lime into 
a portable cake of little or no manurial value, are sometimes resorted 
to for sludge, and a destructor fire is best for the screened rags and 
other debris, as used at Barking and Crossness; but both can be 
dug into the ground at once, or made into compost with farmyard 
manure, wherever land is available. 

The reduction in quantity of sludge consequent on the use of 
septic tanks has been greatly exaggerated, and is outbalanced by 
increased difficulty of dispossd introduced by its putrid smell, which 
is infinitely more disagreeable than that of the fresher sludge from 
ordinary settling tanks. 

Reference is then made to the sewage disposal arrangements of 
Glasgow, which have received great attention from the city engineer 
and Corporation of Glasgow. 



A Discussion on this and the previous paper, by Mr. Campbell, 
was held, and was taken part in by the following members: — 
Mr. Fowler, Mr. Midgley Taylor, Mr. A. J. Martin, Mr. J. Price, 
Mr. S. S. Piatt, the Chairman, Mr. Thomas Stewart, Mr. J. Munce, 
Mr. Gilbert Thomson, Mr. A. J. Price, and Mr. Corbett. Col. 
Jones replied. 

A vote of thanks was accorded to the author. 

The meeting was then adjourned. 



VTEDNESDAY, 4th SEPTEMBER, 1901. 



Mr. E. George Mawbey, Chairman, in the Chair. 



"THE BIRMINGHAM WATERWORKS." 

Lecture by James Mansergh, President of the Congress. 



The city of Birmingham, with the district around it which the 
Corporation supplies with water, has an area of 130 square miles, 
and the present sources are six wells in the red sandstone and 
four or five comparatively small local streams. The present con- 
sumption of water at ordinary times is 18 or 19 million gallons 
a day; but during the last dry season there was a demand for 24 
millions, which was met with difficulty. Thirty-five years ago, when 
the speaker was contractor's engineer on the railway which passes 
the district, he laid down on an inch plan the reservoirs in the 
Elan valley. In 1890 the Birmingham Corporation asked him 
to advise them on the matter, and the scheme was ready in time 
for the next session of Parliament and passed in 1892. The source 
of the supply was the River Elan, which is a tributary of the 
Wye. The distance from the lowest reservoir to the centre of 
the city was 80 miles, and between that reservoir and the service 
reservoir at Frankley was 74 miles, divided almost equally between 
cut-and-cover on the one hand and iron and steel ^ipes crossing 
valleys on the other. A map of England was shown, giving the 
relative positions of Birmingham, the watershed, and the aqueduct ; 
also a plan of Manchester and the Thirlmere scheme, Liverpool 
and the Vymwy scheme, and the scheme suggested for London 
by Sir Alexander Binnie. Manchester had to carry its water 100 
miles, Liverpool 66, Birmingham 74. 

The district of Birmingham varies considerably in elevation. 
In the north-east corner it is 250 and in the south-west it rises 
to 800 above o.d. Fortunately the lord of the manor at Nant- 
gwillt had for 20 years kept a record of the rainfall, which was 
most useful to the engineers. The mean rainfall was 68 inches, 
rising to 94 inches in years of heavy fall and falling to 44 inches 
in years of drought The mean for three consecutive dry years 
was 55 inches. It is expected to obtain 72 million gallons a day, 
and, in addition, to supply 27 millions as compensation water. 



260 THE BIRMINGHAM WATERWORKS. 

When the speaker first delivered a lecture on this subject, at 
the Royal Institution some years ago, the question of stone dams 
was very much to the front — ^because the Bouzey dam, in France, 
had given way, doing an immense amount of damage — and he had 
therefore prepared a slide showing, for comparison, the section of 
that dam and of those he was building on the Elan. Slides 
followed showing how the flood water was dealt with during con- 
struction — a very serious business, as the quantity passing at the 
lowest dam was 700,000 cubic feet per minute; and then, starting 
at the beginning of the works, he explained how at the Caban 
dam they cleared the river bed of big boulders, built stanks 
enclosing the culvert sites, erected the culverts and diverted the 
water through them, and so obtained complete control of the floods. 
Slides were also shown of the old manor house of Nantgwillt 
and the house that Shelley once lived in; also of the church 
of Nantgwillt, which will be drowned under about 100 feet of 
water. A cross section of the cut-and-cover part of the aqueduct 
in course of construction was shown; also a slide of the Carmel 
bridge, eight or nine miles from the start. The cut-and-cover 
conduit and the tunnels provided for taking 72 million gallons 
a day ; so that that work was done for all time. The constructions 
above ground were few, and those were built so as not to dis- 
figure the country. Views of bridges were shown, including that 
crossing the Teme at Ludlow, ii6-feet span, and a bridge crossing 
Deepwood Dingle, 80 or 90 feet high, built by Messrs. Morrison & 
Mason, of Glasgow. The Severn bridge was also shown. The 
pipes of this bridge were laid 40 feet above the level of the 
river and have to stand a pressure of 530 feet There are five 
brick arches on one side and a steel arch of 150-feet span. The 
Worcester Canal had to be crossed with a bridge of loo-feet 
span, and the pipes were laid over as an arch. To get lateral 
strength three pipes were put in instead of two. The Frankley 
reservoir is semicircular in plan, as that provided the maximum 
of storage with a minimum of work. It is built with concrete 
asphalted, and the walls are blue brick faced. 

Photographs of the filter works were also shown. 

Eighty per cent of the district could be supplied by gravitation, 
but the rest would require to be pumped. 

All the work in the valley has been done without a contractor, 
being under Corporation administration; and after the lecturer 
obtained the committee's consent to this, he emphasised the 
necessity for providing houses for the workmen. Then he pro- 
duced designs of the huts he proposed to erect. In the lodgers' 
huts the keeper and his wife have a good living-room, a couple 
of bedrooms, scullery, and all decent sanitary appliances, and 



THE BIRMINGHAM WATERWORKS. 231 

the men have a large room in which there are eight single cubicles; 
so that each man is decently provided for. The result has been 
that a nucleus of good steady men, in whom reliance can be 
placed, is kept constantly on the job; and that is an enormous 
advantage for works of this type. For the married foremen and 
leading artisans of the better class there are huts of a different 
class, embracing altogether five types. The lecturer then de- 
scribed and illustrated the village, built to accommodate the 
men, which contains about 1200 people. There are schools, a 
recreation hall, baths and wash-houses, and complete water and 
sewage works; also a general hospital and one for infectious 
diseases; but this has been very seldom used, on account of the 
precautions taken to keep out small-pox and typhoid. There is 
what is called a doss-house, into which all men who come on 
tramp are put in quarantine for a week, under the observation 
of the doctor. They also have to take a hot bath and use a 
clean nightshirt; and their clothes are disinfected- They go to 
work; but they are not allowed to go to the village until they 
have passed out of quarantine. This has been found a useful plan 
in guarding against infectious disease. A picture of one of the 
wards in the general hospital was shown. A matron and a nurse 
are in charge, and one or two more come from Birmingham if 
necessary. There had not been anything serious — accidents, cases 
of pneumonia, and other minor cases. The bridge leading to the 
village is a suspension bridge over the River Elan ; and here there 
is a gate-keeper, whose business it is to examine all carts taking 
provisions into the village, to make sure that no spirits or intoxi- 
cating liquors are introduced. There is also a village superin- 
tendent, whose business it is to generally supervise and to see 
that the regulations are carried out and all sanitary rules adhered 
to. The superintendent is also the bandmaster. The canteen- 
keeper has no interest in the sale of beer, and the Corporafion 
has been able to make a substantial profit; the money being 
spent for the benefit of the men employed upon the works, on 
the schools, hall, recreation grounds, sports, entertainments, etc. 



The Chairman, Mr. Harpur, and Mr. Weaver took part in the 
Discussion. 

Mr. Mansergh replied, and a vote of thanks was accorded to him. 



''DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE." 
Paper by A. B. M'Donald. 



Abstract. 



The disposal of sewage is a question that does not admit of 
universal solution. The methods adapted for a rural commimity 
are as widely different from those applicable to a great industrial 
centre as they are from the sanitary arrangements of a residential 
establishment. The aim of the present contribution to the subject 
is intended to afford the members of the Congress such information 
regarding the Glasgow Main Drainage Scheme as may render their 
visit to the works of the Corporation more interesting than it might 
otherwise prove. 

The Main Drainage Scheme was authorised by special statutes 
in 1 89 1, 1896, 1898, and 1901. The included territory stretches 
along both sides of the River Clyde for a distance of about 15 
miles, the superficial extent being 39 square miles. 

The drainage area is divided into three sections, each separate 
from the others, with works for the disposal of the sewage. The 
first of these, authorised in 1891, and doubled in area during the 
last session of Parliament, is about 11 square miles in extent, one 
half being situated within the city and the remainder within the 
County of Lanark. The works for the disposal of this sewage 
are situated at Dalmamock. The second section, authorised in 
1896, includes the remainder of the municipal area on the north 
side of the river, the Burghs of Partick and Clydebank, with inter- 
vening parts of the Counties of Renfrew and Dumbarton, the 
whole extent being 14 square miles. The works for the disposal 
of this sewage are in process of construction on the river bank 
at Dalmuir, 7 miles seaward from Glasgow. The third section, 
authorised in 1898, comprises the whole of the city on the south 
bank of the river, along with the Burghs of Rutherglen, PoUokshaws, 
Kinning Park, and Govan, with various residential and rural districts 
situated in the Counties of Lanark and Renfrew. The extent — 
14 square miles — is likely to be increased by the inclusion of the 
Burghs of Paisley and Renfrew. The works for the disposal of 
this sewage are to be constructed on the river bank at Braehead, 
about 4 miles up stream from Dalmuir. 

The three dift'erent sections were shown in distinctive colouring 
on the sketch map accompanying the paper. 



DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE. 263 

The Dalmarnock works- are constructed, and have been in suc- 
cessful operation since May, 1894. 

The daily volume of dry-weather sewage is at present 16 million 
gallons. 

The dry-weather sewage to be ultimately treated at Dalmuir is 
49 million gallons, and at Braehead 45 million gallons. 

For the collection and disposal of these 94 million gallons of 
sewage there will be constructed 30 miles of sewers, from 2 feec 
6 inches in diameter to 10 feet, calculated to discharge, in addition 
to the sewage, an amount of rainfall equivalent to one-quarter of 
an inch per day or 189 million gallons of combined flow» 

The leading features of the Northern Scheme are: — an outfall 
sewer to convey the drainage of the higher levels to Dalmuir; an 
intercepting sewer to collect the drainage of lower levels of the 
city; an intercepting sewer to collect the drainage of the lower 
levels of Partick; and a third intercepting sewer to convey to 
Dalmuir the drainage of the Burgh of Clydebank. The Glasgow 
and Partick intercepting sewers are pumped into the outfall sewer 
at Partick bridge, the lift being 35 feet. The Clydebank inter- 
cepting sewer is pumped at Dalmuir, the lift being 15 feet. 

More than one-half of the Glasgow sewage is carried to Dalmuir 
without pumping. The whole combined sewage is delivered at 
Dalmuir above tidal level into the precipitation tanks. 

Sewers on the south side of the river: — The pumping station 
at Pollokshields raises the low-level sewage 35 feet. There is 
another pump at Braehead, where the lift is 25 feet. The sewage of 
Paisley and Renfrew will require to be pumped at Braehead. The 
Braehead works, like those at Dalmuir, have the great advantage 
of river frontage. 

The treatment adopted at Dalmarnock is chemical precipitation 
by means of under-surface continuous flow. The sewage is complex 
and most intractable, the suspended matters varying from 20 to 
250 grains per gallon. The chemicals employed are hydrate of lime 
and sulphate of alumina. 

The Sewage Committee intend to adopt at Dalmuir and Braehead 
the same method, except that sludge presses are to be dispensed 
mth and the liquid sludge with greater economy carried out to sea. 

The working result at Dalmarnock is that every trace of sus- 
pended matter is removed and 30 per cent, of purification attained, 
calculated on the basis of oxygen absorbed in four hours at 27 
degrees Cent. The sewage at Dalmarnock is discharged into a 
tidal stream of vastly superior volume, exceeding by forty times 
the quantity of sewage. At Braehead and at Dalmuir 94 million 
gallons of sewage will come in contact with 3000 million gallons 
of tidal water. 



264 DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE. 

The works at Dalmaxnock, originally designed by the late Mr. 
G. V. Alsing, were at first arranged for intermittent precipitation 
in connection with coke filters. Recently it has been found 
desirable to extend and convert the Dalmarnock works. The pre- 
cipitation tanks are now worked in continuous flow and filters 
abandoned, as the process has deteriorated the efiluent instead 
of improving it 

The precipitation tanks at Dalmuir are to be worked on the 
uhder-surface continuous-flow system. They are more favourably 
situated than those at Dalmarnock. £ach is about 750 feet in 
length, allowing opportunity for more complete precipitation than 
at Dalmarnock and effecting a saving in the reduced proportion of 
chemical agents. 

Last year the author was instructed to report upon the extent 
to which bacterial methods might be adopted at Dalmiur, with a 
statement of the relative cost, and entered upon a joint investi- 
gation witjh the late Mr. W. Santo Crimp, M.InstC.E. The in- 
vestigation showed that the capital expenditure alone at Dalmuir 
would be at least ten times greater than the outlay for ordinary 
precipitation works, without taking any account of the cost of renew- 
ing the filtering plant. 

Careful observation has been made of the working of an experi- 
mental plant at Dalmarnock for bacterial treatment of sewage, the 
cost being ;£iooo, exclusive of the original charge for the con- 
struction of the tanks. 

The plant consists of one open septic tank and four first- and 
four second-contact beds. 

One of the large precipitation tanks (superficial area 426.94 
square yards, capacity 200,000 gallons) was utilised as a septic tank. 

The result of the tests made in working this experimental plant 
exhibit the surface required for this method of sewage treatment; 
thus : — 

Acres per Million Gallons. 
Test No. I ... ... ... 5 acres for one filling. 



Test No. 2 
Test No. 3 
Test No. 4 
Test No. 5 



8.3 
9.4 

7.7 
8.1 



W >9 



The paper gives tables and figures relating to the working of the 
system in use and the experimental plant. 



The Discussion on this paper was taken with that on Mr. 
Weaver's paper (see p. 265). 

The author replied, and a vote of thanks was accorded to Him. 



" MUNICIPAL SANITATION." 
Paper by William Weaver. 



Abstract, 



Introductory remarks upon the general character of the paper. 
The author does not confine himself to specialities and details. 

Sewerage and Drainage. — ^Advance in sewer systems during the 
past fifty years. Sewers, adequate size, good flow, non-nuisance 
outfall. Surface water. Ventilation. House drainage. Super- 
vision bye-laws. Intercepting traps. Simplicity of construction. 
Costly details increase rent and the housing difiiculty. 

Water Supply. — Pure, free, and unstinted. Public and private 
ownership of supply. Proposed new (London) bye-laws. 

Habitations and their Occupants. — Rules as to building construc- 
tion; space; water supply; sanitation; increased cost of building; 
trade union limitation of output ; migration from country ; crowding 
into towns. Workers can help themselves to a large extent. 
Municipal efforts to retard national decadence. Crowding in 
relation to rent. Sanitary defects of dwellings can be dealt with. 
Sanitary shortcomings of occupier are not dealt with. Verminous 
Persons Act. Sanitary nuisance, whether man or matter, should 
be dealt with. Parks and open spaces. General power to acquire 
land should be vested in the Local Authority. 

Highways. — Formation and laying-out generally. Impervious 
road pavements. Scavenging. Watering. Motor traction. 

Refuse. — Street refuse. House and trade refuse. Destructors. 
Steam power. 

General observations. Baths and wash-houses. Abattoirs. Dis- 
infecting chambers. Infectious hospitals. Municipal lodging houses. 
Public libraries. Technical schools. Public conveniences. Health 
visitors. 



The Discussions on this paper and on Mr. M*Donald's paper 
were combined, and were taken part in by Mr. Midgley Taylor 
and Mr. George Chatterton. 

The authors replied, and a vote of thanks was accorded to them. 

The meeting was then adjourned. 

19 



THURSDAY, 5th SEPTEMBER, 1901. 



Mr. E. George Mawbey, Chairman, in the Chair. 



"RECENT TRAMWAY PRACTICE." 
Paper by James More, Jun. 



Abstract. 

In dealing with this subject, one has some difficulty in deciding 
what the term " recent " may mean. It may mean recent as 
compared with practice 20 years ago, which period covers many 
dififerent systems of traction; or it may mean recent as compared 
with five years ago, which practically means electric traction, with 
a small amount of cable traction. 

Electric traction in this country can hardly be considered of much 
practical value any longer back than five years, but it has greatly 
developed and matured in that time. The writer will, therefore, 
confine himself to a review of this method of traction, with a brief 
observation on the few cable lines in this country. 

Regarding the permanent way, however, it is worth considering 
over a longer period, as it applies to all methods of traction in 
principle, only differing in degree as to stability under the different 
methods. 

RAILS. 

During the last twenty years there has been a considerable 
change in the section, chemical composition, and physical qualities 
of these. Until about 1885 there were many built-up systems 
used. Some of these were fairly successful with the light cars 
used for horse traction, but failed completely when steam loco- 
motives were used. About 1880 light sections of girder rails were 
used to some extent, about 581bs. to the yard. 

girder rail. 

In 1883 the girder rail was generally adopted, to the exclusion 
of most others, and the weight was increased to from 80 to 100 lbs. 
per yard. The fish-plates, however, were as a rule much too 
light The usual standard lengths of rails at that time were 24 ft. 
At the present time 45 ft. may be called the standard, although 
some have been rolled 60 ft. long. The sections have also much 
improved. 



RECENT TRAMWAY PRACTICE. 267 

STEEL. 

Ten years ago the common percentage of carbon was 0.35. At 
the present time the steel used for tramway rails contains from 0.55 
to 0.65 per cent of carbon. 

FISH-PLATES. 

There has been great improvement in fish-plates and in joints 
generally. There are also numerous different designs of sole^ 
plates etc., all meant to minimise the pounding at the rail joint 
when the cars pass over. 

POINTS AND CROSSINGS. 

There has not been any important improvement in these except- 
ing that at the present time the cast steel is somewhat harder by 
the addition of manganese. This was first adopted by Mr. R. A. 
Hadfield, M.Inst.C.E., of Sheffield. 

Chilled iron points and crossings are becoming rarer every day 
for tramway purposes, but the writer thinks this is only due to 
the makers not making their patterns to suit the heavy electric cars. 

ELECTRIC TRACTION. 

As regards the electric traction of the present day, the writer 
thinks it is imnecessary to discuss any other than the overhead 
system, as this is the only system that has shown good financial 
results. The conduit system may become a financial success, but 
it is doubtful. The heavy initial cost is almost prohibitive, being 
more than that of the cable system. 

At the present day we may take it that the 500 volts continuous 
current is the standard. Recently, however, there has been high 
potential alternating current tried on the Continent, with alternating 
motors on the cars. It cannot be said, however, that this has 
yet proved to be a success. 

POWER HOUSE. 

In the modem power house there are several kinds of different 
boilers adopted, some of the tubular marine type, and others of 
the water tube type, such as the Stirling and Babcock & Wilcox 
boilers. 

These latter are specially useful where space is restricted, and 
where a lighting circuit is used in the same station as the traction 
circuit. There are, however, numerous engineers who will, if it 
is at all possible, adopt the old-fashioned Lancashire boiler with 
Galloway tubes. The writer is among that number. 

Of course it is advisable in all installations to use an économiser, 
so as to raise the temperature of the feed water. These or exhaust 



268 RECENT TRAMWAY PRACTICE. 

steam heaters are generally adopted now, and eflFect a^very sub- 
stantial economy. 

The type and speed of the engine vary to a great extent, but 
the practice is almost invariable to have direct-driven generators — 
that is, to have the generators fixed on the crank shaft of the 
engine. 

Conveyors, stokers, piping, injectors, feed pumps, generators, etc., 
are discussed. 

FEEDERS. 

The feeder insulataion adopted is generally paper or bituminous 
insulation. Sometimes they are laid in ducts or conduits, and 
threaded after the conduits are completed. In other cases they 
are laid in iron troughs and run in with solid bitumen. Both 
methods have their advantages, which, however, are dependent on 
various circumstances. 

TROLLEY WIRES. 

The trolley wires are usually divided by section insulators into 
half-mile sections, any half-mile of which can therefore be cut out 
at the section boxes, which are placed in pillars on the footpath 
or underground pits. 

WIRING. 

Where the road is very wide there is no doubt the central pole 
with short arms is the correct thing. There are cases, however, 
where roads are too narrow for this, and too wide for the side pole 
system. In this case, sometimes there are span wires fixed by 
rosettes to buildings on each side of the street, and in other cases 
poles are put up with a span wire between. Again, there is 
the side trolley system, where, in no case, the trolley wire is over 
the centre of the track. This is advisable where it is practicable, 
as there is less danger of accident to the trolley pole. 

POLES. 

The poles are made of steel tubing, tapered in some cases, 
and in other cases made to three different diameters shrunk one 
on another. The latter are somewhat cheaper, but there is 
no doubt that the tapered pole has a better appearance. 

CARS. 

As to the cars, there is no doubt that the bogie car with the 
maximum traction truck is easier on itself and on the road, and 
more suitable for fast running. The four-wheeled car, however, 
is more generally used, as it has been found that the smaller cars 
with a fast service pay better than large cars with a slow service. 



RECENT TRAMWAY PRACTICE. 269 

MOTORS. 

It is usual only to have two motors either on a bogie or a four- 
wheeled car, but in many cases, where the district is hilly and the 
bogie type is adopted, it is advisable to have a motor on each axle 
— that is, four motors in all. 

In the working of tramways, the modem, up-to-date manager 
fully realises that an essential factor to good financial 
results is to get the highest mileage per day out of his cars, of 
course with due time being allowed for dropping and picking up 
passengers. There are towns in this country where, in the writer's 
opinion, pick-up passengers are sacrificed for the sake of high 
mileage, and numerous accidents are caused which might be 
avoided. To facilitate this high mileage, it is becoming customary 
to fix stopping places at different parts of the route, and there 
is no doubt that this has tended towards the increasing of the 
mileage of the cars, but in the writer's opinion it is at the expense 
of the receipts in so far as pick-up passengers are concerned, 
especially where ^d. fares are charged for short distances. 

The paper contains niunerous specifications and particulars of 
materials and plant 



The following members took part in the Discussion: — Mr. 
Thomas Hewson, Mr. J. Price, Mr. A. H. Campbell, Mr. Fowler, 
Mr. Brodie, the Chairman, Mr. Harpur, Mr. J. Lobley, Mr. Kenway, 
and Mr. Broome. 

The author replied, and a vote of thanks was accorded to him. 



"THE PROBLEM OF THE HOUSING OF THE LABOUR- 
ING CLASSES; WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO 
SUBURBAN DISTRICTS.'" 

Paper by A. H. Campbell. 



Abstract. 



The subject was dealt with under the following heads: — 

I. That this is a pressing problem is evident from the great 
attention it is receiving at the hands of legislators, local authorities, 
and private companies. 

2. That, by reason of the growth of population in urban areas, 
the clearance of insanitary areas, and the tendency to congregate, 
the problem will not disappear, but, like the poor, be ever present 
with us, and in an increasing measure. 

3. That the problem deals not merely with the erection of houses, 
but is four-fold ; — 

{a) It is a social and economic problem. 

{b) It is a transport problem. 

{c) It is a structural problem. 

{d) It is a financial and l^islative problem. 

4. To satisfy the four-fold demand set up by these four sets of 
circumstances, the following conditions are necessary: — 

{a) The co-ogeration of private philanthropy and the municipal 
powers and authorities. 

{b) Greatly increased facilities by road and rail for conveyance 
from the " heart " to the circumference of our great 
circles of population. 

{c) Dwellings erected should be upon perfectly approved 
plans, so that each house or single tenement does not 
in itself become an overcrowded "unit." 

Referring to this last condition the author makes the following 
statements and conclusions: — 

(i) That the accommodation offered by each unit should be 
sufficient to house a family without being cribbed, 
cabined, and confined. 

(2) That such accommodation can best be provided by the 
self-contained house or single tenement design (as shown 
in drawings accompanying the paper. 



HOUSING OF THE LABOURING CLASSES. 271 

(3) That it is impossible, however, to erect a house on this 
plan to let at such a rent as the occupier can afford 
to pay, and as will repay all the outgoings and charges 
upon the property. 

(4) These charges consisting inter alia of repayment of capital 

and interest thereon, local taxation, embracing sanitary, 
educational, police, and poor law, are exceedingly and 
unjustly heavy, and should be readjusted by fresh legis- 
lation. 

(5) That such legislation should be upon broad and well- 

conceived lines, suited to the circumstances created by 
the attempt of local authorities to solve this problem. 

(6) Any fresh legislation should provide — 

{a) For extension of the periods of repayment and for reduced 
rate of interest on moneys borrowed for this purpose. 

ip) Nationalisation of the following charges : — 
(i) Poor law administration. 
(2) Education. 

(<J) Enlarged powers for Local Authorities, entitling them, 
under proper safeguards, to purchase, hold, lay out, and 
develop land, so that the object aimed at may be more 
nearly realised. 

7. To sum up, the great object is — 

The provision of healthy homes for the labouring classes. 

To let such homes at remunerative rents, that the low and 
uncertain wage-earner with a family can afford to pay. 

I 

Î The efforts of Local Authorities should be directed towards 

providing such dwellings at rents suited to the local conditions, 
but in every case this provision should be for the poorer class only, 
unable to afford the rent of the better or larger-sized dwelling 
provided by private enterprise. 

To secure the foregoing, unity of action is needed by Local 
Authorities. 

Statistics and drawings bearing upon the subject were submitted. 



The Discussion was taJcen part in by the following members: — 
the Chairman, Mr. Lobley, Mr. Cooper, Mr. Munce, and Mr. Price. 

The author replied, and a vote of thanks was accorded to him. 



"COAL-MINING SUBSIDENCES IN RELATION TO 

SEWERAGE WORKS." 

Paper by F. W. Mager. 



Abstract 



The object of this paper is to direct attention to the anomalous 
nature of the protection against subsidences, from mining opera- 
tions, of sewerage works as compared with the protection afforded 
by the law to the highways which they underlie. 

Alterations in gradients and cross-levels of highways are com- 
paratively of minor importance, and in most cases when they 
occur they may be easily remedied ; yet a subsidence of a highway 
constitutes technically a public nuisance. Against the person 
causing such subsidence an indictment will He, and he makes good 
the subsidence at his own expense. 

Alterations in the gradients of sewers virtually terminate the 
existence of the section affected, and give rise to actual nuisance, 
with serious results from a sanitary point of view. That being 
so, it would be imagined that a similar legal remedy would be 
provided; but no such remedy is open, and reconstruction must 
be done at the sole cost of the authority. 

The Public Health (Support of Sewers) Act, 1883, might be 
thought from its title to have been framed for the purpose; 
but, in the first place, a district could not afford to put the Act 
into operation, and, if it could afford to do so, what might be 
left of the collieries would not be worth working. 

The cost depends upon the amount of support necessary. In 
the author's district it would entail the purchase of seams known 
as the * yard," the " seven-foot," the " shallow," and the " deep," 
having a combined thickness of 24 feet. Other coal seams and 
ironstone bands exist but are not worked. 

The amount of lateral support required is not so readily arrived 
at. The angle of dip, direction of strike, the nature of the " bottom 
stone " and depth from the surface all affect the result ; and 
unless a sufficient width be provided the sewer will be " pulled," 
that is, will subside from insufficient lateral support. 

Where the other conditions are favourable, for a mine 300 yards 
deep a minimum width of 50 yards is requisite. Thus, for each 
yard run of sewer, minerals possessing a superficial area of 50 
square yards and a thickness of 24 feet, equal to about 250 tons 



COAL-MINING SUBSIDENCES 273 

weight, would be purchased. The value of the royalty, adding 
the usual allowance for interference and compulsory sale on a 
moderate valuation, would work out at jQ^ to jQ^ per yard run 
of sewer. Such a sum is evidently quite prohibitory. 

Undue interference with a vital national industry would also 
be a fatal objection to the Act, if there was the least likelihood 
of any Council putting it into effect. 

That being the case, the remedy for subsidence is clearly not 
purchase of support; but its more serious effects may be guarded 
against by designing sewerage schemes with regard to the levels 
which will obtain when subsidence has ultimately taken place, 
and in such a way that main points of outfall will not be affected. 

This having been done, tie cost of modifications of level of 
particular sections consequent upon subsidence posterior to the 
execution of the works should, by analogy with the law as to 
highway surfaces, be thrown upon the coal owners. 

A reference to works recently designed by the author will 
illustrate this. A certain low-lying district which was being entirely 
undermined had to be sewered, but the sewer had to cross a fault 
and discharge to works constructed on land beneath the surface 
of which coal did not exist. The upper end of the system con- 
sequently subsided, while the lower end or outfall did not. On 
reaching the outfall the sewage had to be pumped four feet as 
the levels then stood, and the author determined to fix the site 
of the pump on the side of the fault not liable to subsidence 
and to put in the floor of sump at such a level that after every 
seam of mineral had been won and after the workings had settled 
down solid any point of the sewer would still be at a higher level 
than the inlet to the sump and thus an adequate fall be still 
obtained. 

On the coal measures side of the fault the workings were in 
the hands of two separate owners and were broken up by two 
minor faults. Subsidences will, as a result, be irregular for some 
time, and the levels of individual sections of the sewer may have 
to be modified more than once. To avoid fracture of the pipes 
from movements of the ground they were shallow socketed and 
jointed in clay, and to keep them water-tight, should the joints 
become drawn, they were surrounded with puddle. This method 
will also allow the pipes to be readily taken up and relaid when 
modifications of the level become necessary. These modifications 
should evidently, and in spite of the law as it now stands, be 
carried out at the cost of the coal owner. 

What is required is that the law should be so amended that 
after such works as the author has indicated have been carried 
out any subsequent modification of level, such as could not be 



274 IN RELATION TO SEWERAGE WORKS. 

avoided in the original construction of the sewerage system, should 
be done at the cost of the coal owner. 

To call upon a coal owner to provide mineral support at his 
own cost, and thus maintain sewerage works at their original level, 
would be to force him to sacrifice valuable property, and to interfere 
with the working of his mine in such a way as would not be toler- 
ated and has been shown to be unnecessary ; but to call upon him 
to reconstruct public works laid down in public highways which 
have been damaged by him for his profit does not appear to the 
author to be unreasonable where such reconstruction may be done 
without excessive cost. 

This argument holds good for damage to all public services 
beneath roads and streets, but obviously not for works constructed 
by agreement or under powers of a provisional order on private 
lands. The author suggests, in conclusion, that the subject of 
the foregoing notes is one deserving of more attention than it has 
hitherto received. 

Details of the work alluded to were shown on draA\ângs accom- 
pan}âng the paper. The special method of construction of the 
sump was necessary owing to the ground being of a most unstable 
nature. A driving chain, instead of belting, was adopted for power 
transmission to economise buildings. This has proved highly 
satisfactory. 



On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
to the author. 

The proceedings then terminated, and the business of the Section 
was brought to a close. 



SUMMARY OF PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

Section YIII.-Gas.* 



TUESDAY, 8Pd SEPTEMBER, 1901. 



Mr. George Livesey, Chairman, in the Chair. 



CHAIRMAN'S ADDRESS 

By George Livesev. 



Abstract. 



The Chairman, in declaring the Section open, gave a short address, 
in the course of which he traced the progress of gas lighting from 
the days when, one hundred years ago, Murdoch introduced a 
system of gas lighting into the factory of Boulton & Watt, at Bir- 
mingham; and a few years later the first gas company was estab- 
lished to light London. From the early days of gas there has 
been, and still is, a general desire to reduce the price. At first 
in almost every place of importance rival gas companies competed 
with each other for custom during the first half of the century. 
Competition, however, killed itself. The last effort in that direc- 
tion was the formation of the Great Central Gas Company to 
supply the city of London and the Surrey Consumers Company 
to supply South London ; whereby the price of gas was temporarily 
reduced from 6s. to 4s. per 1000 cubic feet in 1850. The com- 
panies soon came to the conclusion that competition was suicidal, 
and allotted a separate district to each company — thus creating 
a monopoly of the supply of gas in London. The example of 
London was followed in other large towns. Hence so many " United 
Gas Companies." In i860 Parliament sanctioned the districting 
in the whole of the Metropolis ; and henceforth competition ceased. 
Then came a period of great prosperity. Gas had no competitor; 
for candles, and oil at from 5s. to 7 s. per gallon, could not be so 

* The full Proceedings of Section VIII. are published for the Committee 
of the Section by Walter King, 11 Bolt Court, Fleet Street, London, E.C., 
price 5s., post free. 



276 CHAIRMAN'S ADDRESS. 

regarded. Many companies' capitals increased; and, to protect 
the consumers, Parliament was led, in i860, to introduce the 
system of tiesting the illuminating power and purity of the gas — 
legislation that has never done an atom of good, but an infinity 
of harm, to the public; and it has culminated in the elaborate 
and costly and worrying system in vogue in the Metropolis. 

From the early days of gas lighting up to the end of the century 
the public, and gas makers also, have believed that gas of as 
high an illuminating power as possible was the desideratimi^ 
Instead of trying to develop the lighting power of the gas, the 
idea was to make it as rich as possible in hydrocarbons. Then, 
to prevent the inconvenience of dirt and smoky flames, burners- 
were used that certainly accomplished that object; but they gave 
very little light. Burners of the regenerative class were all impor- 
tant steps in increasing the duty per cubic foot, until Welsbach's 
wonderful invention capped, and seems destined to supercede thenii 
all, by the introduction of an entirely novel and really scientific 
method of obtaining light from gas. The consumers now have 
it in their power to get out of 5 cubic feet of gas per hour anything 
from 5 to 150 candles from ordinary coal gas; whether it be 
nominally 10, 15, or 20 so-called candle power. 

What a useless absurdity does this make of all the illuminating, 
power tests! Photometers, that for forty years have given so- 
much trouble, caused so much anxiety to, and wasted so much 
of the time of, gas managers, and have also caused so much Iocs 
to the consumer, are now proved to be, what they always have 
been, most useless instruments, and must sooner or later have their 
woodwork converted into firewood, and their metal consigned to the 
old-brass tub — to trouble gas managers no more. 

Reverting to the historical summary, the period of fictitious- 
prosperity, with nothing in the shape of competition, lasted about 
ten years (to the early seventies). Then appeared the first serious 
competitor, in the shape of cheap mineral oil ; and a few years later 
the electric light entered the field. Gas had no longer a monopoly 
as a lighting agent. But Parliament, at the instigation of the 
Local Authorities, instead of relaxing the restrictions increased* 
them. The old legislation, dating from 1847, governing the price 
of gas and the rate of dividend, was adapted to competing gas 
companies. When that competition ceased — ^which was the real 
protection of the public in the matter of price — the legislative 
enactments had no effect on the price; while they gave ample 
protection to the shareholders' dividends. In fact, it separated 
rather than drew together consumers and shareholders. This was 
remedied by the sliding scale, introduced in gas legislation in 1875 
— ^its sole merit beinç that it identifies the interests of consumers- 



chairman's address. 277 

and shareholders, and, in effect, makes them partners. Whether 
or not it is the best means for accomplishing that object may 
be questioned. The sliding scale as embodied in gas legislation, 
supposing, it to be the best known means of accomplishing the 
object in view, at present stops half way. There is another t» 
be included in the partnership. The speaker tried to make a 
triple partnership — capitalist, employee, and customer; and the 
results of twelve years' working have greatly exceeded expectations. 
If, ten yeaxs ago, anyone had said that the employees in 1901 
would have ;£ 140,000 invested in the sitock of, or on deposit at 
interest with, the South Metropolitan Company, the author should 
have pitied his ignorance; for of such a result the author never 
dreamed. The result of about seven years' working in the Crystal 
Palace District Gas Company is equally satisfactory. In a sense 
better even than the money earned and saved by the men is the 
feeling of mutual confidence and goodwill that exists between all 
ranks in both companies. The workmen of another large com- 
pany have, with practical unanimity, just accepted the system, as 
the men at Chester did a few months ago; and profit-sharing 
without shareholding was, about two years ago, adopted at the 
Corporation gas works at Stafford. 

Since gas ceased to hold the monopoly of light, nearly thirty years 
ago, the advance and improvement in its manufacture, and its in- 
creased uses, have been greater than ever — more especially during 
the last decade. The South Metropolitan Company used 637,583 
tons of coal in 1890, which increased 77 per cent, in ten years. 
Gas not only more than holds its own as an illuminant, but, since 
its monopoly as an artificial light ceased, it has come very largely 
into use for cooking, heating power, and manufacturing purposes. 
By means of the " slot " meter it ha^ taken almost imiversal p>os- 
session of workmen's dwellings, and by the Welsbach mantle it 
has distanced all competitors in the beauty and cheapness of its 
light We hear of decaying industries; but with such vigorous 
growth, instead of decay there is abundant life, that gives promise 
of more uses and greater usefulness than ever. The future of 
the gas industry rests with engineers more than its past has done. 
The first and greatest need of the gas industry is that the supply 
of men should be maintained. Technical science will not^ save 
the national industry; but men who love work more than play, 
and who will put their heart and brain into their work, are the 
necessity of the age. Technical training is very good and neces- 
sary; but you must first "catch your hare," or rather, find your 
engineer, before you train him. And then take care that you do 
not convert him into a man of mere routine — a simple copyist. 
The making of plans and sections and the calculation of strains 



278 chairman's address. 

are not his highest work. It is not by the repetition of old designs 
and ideas that progress is made. We need engineers who will 
look ahead, anticipate as far as possible public requirements, and 
then bring all their skill to meet them. 

The gas industry wants freedom to do its best for both the 
public and itself. Legislative restrictions should be removed, and 
the suppliers of gas left free to do their best to meet the needs 
of their customers. The great public need is cheap gas of good 
heating power. We are much behind places on the Continent in 
this important advance; and we shall do well to follow tfieir 
example. With Welsbach mantles at 2jd. each — the price at 
which they are now being obtained from Germany — only heating 
gas will be required; for incandescent lighting must then become 
universal. Therefore, let the engineer " take time by the forelock," 
forecast the future, and devise a satisfactory method of producing 
the gas that the near future requires. 

A last word, referring to the relations of the public authorities 
with gas companies. What other article of utility has come down 
from I OS. to 2S.— the same article, and not something different? 
The public does not know the extent and value of the service. 
The gas consumers in Glasgow are indebted to their gas engineer 
for a saving of ;£6o,ooo per annum. When such possibilities rest 
with the gas engineer, it is surely but necessary to mention the fact 
to ensure to the capable engineer the consideration and the treat- 
ment he deserves. 



Dr. Leybold, on behalf of the German Association of Gas and 
Water Engineers, expressed thanks for the opportunity which had 
been extended to them of participating in the Congress. 



«NOTES ON THE VARIOUS SYSTEMS OF GAS LIGHT- 
ING IN USE AT THE GLASGOW INTERNATIONAL 
EXHIBITION." 

Paper by the Committee. 



A bstract. 

There were four systems of gas lighting in use: — 

I. The Welsbach high-pressure incandescent system. 
II. The Scott-Snell self-intensifying gas lamp. 

III. Kitson's incandescent oil light. 

IV. Acetylene gas. 

The Welsbach High-Pressure Incandescent System. — The 
installation of the Welsbach high-pressure incandescent system 
extended from the Bank Street entrance to the main entrance of 
the Exhibition buildings, and along the length of the main building 
as far west as the Art Galleries, the total area of the ground 
illuminated being about 20 acres. 

There were about 140 cast-iron, ornamental columns, each sur- 
mounted by a single lantern of the Welsbach " shadowless " pattern, 
and containing a cluster of three burners, consuming 30 cubic 
feet per hour at a pressure of 8 inches; the illuminating power 
from the cluster being 1000 candles. There were also 12 columns, 
each carrying three lanterns, and 10 columns, each with five 
lanterns; each lantern being fitted with three bujmers in a cluster 
as above described. There were in all, therefore, 162 columns, 
carrying 226 lanterns and containing 678 burners, giving a total 
illuminating power of 237,000 candles. The gas consumed was 
about 10 cubic feet per hour for each burner; and, at the price 
of 2s. 6d. per 1000 cubic feet, the total cost for the gas consumed 
in the whole installation amounted to rather less âian 17 s. per 
hour. 

The compressing plant consists of two sets of Keith's patent 
" Duplex " automatic gas-compressexs. The motive power was 
water; drawn from the street mains; and the working was entirely 
automatic. Each set of compressors consisted of two pumping 
cylinders, with the motors fixed on the top, combined with a 
regulating arrangement for controlling the gas pressure and the 
speed of the motors and pumps. The quantity of water used is 
0.86 gallon per 10 cubic feet of gas. At the price of 4d. per 



280 GAS LIGHTING AT THE EXHIBITION. 

looo gallons, tihe cost of water for compressing looo cubic feet 
of gas therefore only works out to o.34d. The special mains 
laid in the ground for the high-pressure gas were divided into two 
sections, with a bye-pass valve between them, so arranged that 
either set of compressers could be used to supply either section 
or aJl the burners. 

It was estimated by the Welsbach Company, who supplied the 
lanterns and burners, and who maintained the latter, that the 
mande renewals would not exceed 12 per burner per annum. 
Welsbach Kem high-pressure burners were used throughout the 
installation. These require no chimney. The lighting was very 
effective. In any part of the area lighted, small print could be 
read with ease. 

The Scott-Snell Self-Intensifying Gas Lamp. — Between the 
Prince of Wales Bridge and the new Exhibition Bridge, on the 
north-west bank of the Kelvin, 32 lamps were erected by the 
Scott-Snell Self-Intensifjdng Gas-Lamp Company, Limited. Each 
lantern contained one burner. The pressure of the gas is raised 
in the lamp itself by the waste heat of the flame. The lanterns 
used were square, and were provided with a special governor 
immediately imder the burner; and this maintained a constant 
pressure at the burner of 8 inches. The gas consumption of each 
burner was 10 cubic feet per hour, giving an illuminating power 
of about 330 candles. 

The self-intensif5ring arrangement was placed in the top of the 
lantern, but cannot well be described without reference to drawings. 
In close proximity to this installation the company had a show- 
room, where diagrams and the working of the lamps were seen 
and explained. 

Kitson's High-Power Incandescent Oil Lamps. — The Kitson 
Lighting and Heating Syndicate, Limited, erected in the eastern 
portion of the grounds, extending from the south-east bank of 
the Kelvin and including the area where the Japanese, Canadian, 
and Russian Sections were situated, about 100 columns, each 
carrying a single lantern with two burners in each. The light 
from each lantern was stated to be of 1000 candle power. 

The system consists of the combination of an oil-burner and 
incandescent mantle. The oil (which is a specially prepared, 
highly refined, hydrocarbon oil, having a flash point of about 
no deg. F.) was stored in steel cylinders placed in the square 
base of the columns. The oil is first vaporised by the heat of 
the flame. It is then burned in incandescent burners witih mantles. 
Air is pumped into the oil receiver until a pressure of about 
50 lbs. per square inch is obtained. This forces the oil through 
small copper or bronze tubes to a vaporising tube, where it is 



GAS LIGHTING AT THE EXHIBITION. 281 

vaporised by the heat from the maatles; the arrangement being 
such that only a minute quantity of oil is subjected to the heat 
at one time. From the end of the vaporising tube, the oil vapour 
passes into a mixing tube on the top of the reflector, where suflS- 
cient air is drawn in for supporting combustion. The mixture 
then travels down to the burners, where it is burned inside a 
mantle, as in incandescent gas lamps. 

The oonsimiption of oil was stated to be o.i gallon per hour 
for I coo candles. With oil at ç^d. per gallon, and including 
renewals of mantles, etc., and time and attention to the lamps, 
the cost was stated to be less than a penny per looo candle hours. 

Acetylene Gas. — The Bon-Accord Acetylene Gas Lighting, — 
The Bon-Accord Acetylene Gas Company, Limited, erected a plant 
for 220 lights of 25 candle power each; and the Press Pavilion, 
Band Stand, and Flint's Tea Rooms (all situated in the eastern 
portion of the grounds) were lighted by acetylene gas. 

The carbide of calciimi used was that manufactured at the Falls 
of Foyers, in Invemess-shire. The carbide containers are of cast 
iron, and are set in a rectangular tank, of wrought iron and steel, 
surrounded by circulating water, which insures the gas being given 
off at a comparatively low temperature. From these containers 
the gas passes to the holder, thence to the acid waster, and 
forward through the purifiers and regulator to the distributing mains. 

The automatic generators only produce tihe gas according to the 
supply required. 

The Home and Colonial Acetylene Gas Syndicate's Lighting, — The 
Agricultural Hall and Home Farm buildings were lighted by the 
Home and Colonial Acetylene Gas Syndicate, Limited. The plant 
selected for this section was M'Conechy's non-automatic or storage 
system. The gas was made during the day and held in storage 
until required. By this means the moisture is eliminated and burner 
troubles are imknown. 

M'Conechys patent generator is of the " drown " order. Tl^ 
water used to work off the carbide is contained within a jacket 
round the top of the generator, and its flow is controlled by a tap 
on the outside. The carbide chamber is sunk into a well of water, 
and is square in form. The carbide container is round, and 
perforated with holes. As the water slowly rises round the con- 
tainer, the gas evolved escapes through the holes and percolates 
through its own residual — namely, the thick lime water; and it 
is thereby tlhoroughly purified. The carbide container is placed 
in the centre of the square chamber. The removal of the residual 
is both cleanly and easily effected, as the square chamber has 
handles ; and by lifting the manhole off, it is quickly cleared out. 

The gas made by this system is said to be free from all trace 

20 



282 GAS LIGHTING AT THE EXHIBITION. 

of odour when burning. Several portable automatic lamps were 
shown. 

The Manchester Acetylene Gas Company's Lighting, — Messrs. W. 
Moyes & Sons, of Glasgow, agents for the Manchester Acetylene Gas 
Company, Limited, had a 6o-light machine at work, consisting of 
Ka/s acetylene gas generators and Frank's purifier. The plant 
was very compact Besides lighting their own showroom, the 
model cottages of Messrs. Lever Brothers, Limited, some distance 
away, were lighted from the same apparatus. Here also were 
shown a number of the " Phos " acetylene lamps and burners. 

The Patent Fara-ffin Gas Lighting Company s Exhibit. — ^An oil- 
gas plant» capable of supplying 50 lights, was in operation, belong- 
ing to the Patent Paraffin Gas Lighting Company, Limited, of 
Glasgow. The gas is made from crude shale oil ; and it is stated 
that from 12 gallons of oil 1000 cubic feet of 60 candle power 
gas can be obtained. It is used with Welsbach incandescent 
manties, as well as with open-flame burners. 



"GOBBE'S 'QUENCHING' PRODUCER." 
Paper by Fernand Bruyère. 



Abstract 



A GREAT saving can be effected in the manufaxîture of water 
ga«, either carburetted or not, by modifying the usual method 
of quenching coke in the open air, and by adopting steam while 
the coke is at a red- white temperature; such as it is when drawn 
from the retorts or coke ovens. The commercial attainment of 
the reaction, H20 + C = H2 4-CO, which invariably occurs when- 
ever coke and water are brought into contact at a temperature 
of 600 degrees Cent. (11 12 degrees F ah.) or more, is arrived at 
by the quenching producer designed by M. Emile Gobbe. 

The quenching producer, briefly described, is in the form of 
a vertical chamber of a certain height, constructed so as to reduce 
to a minimum the loss of heat by radiation. The different openings 
required for working the apparatus are so arranged as to prevent 
any air getting in. The method of working is as follows. The 
coke, on being taken from the retorts or coke ovens, is received 
into tip-waggons, which are then emptied into the apparatus through 
the door provided in its upper part A supply of water, in the 
form of steam or fine spray, is led into the bottom of the vessel. 
The size of the quenching-producer is calculated from the amount 
of coke to be extinguished and the time allowed, according to 
the exigencies of the make, so that the coke may reach the bottom 
of the producer quenched as desired. 

It is in the upper part of the apparatus, where the temperature 
is sufficiently high, that the reaction takes place. In the lower 
part of the vessel the coke is at an insufficient temperature to 
cause the decomposition of the water; but, by its contact with 
the rising flow of steani, the coke becomes extinguished as it falls 
by imparting the heat it still has to the steam. The water, ki 
becoming gradually heated to the required temperature to enter 
into the reaction, quenches the coke which reaches the lower 
part of the apparatus extinguished; where it is picked, sorted, 
and afterwards lifted either by forks or by mechanical elevators. 

The gases formed, consisting chiefly of hydrogen and carbon 
monoxide, differ considerably from water gas made by other 
processes, and are particularly suitable for use for motive power; 
for lighting (either directly or after carburetting) ; or, better still, 
for heating tihe retorts in gas works. 



284 gobbe's "quenching" producer. 

The paper contains calculations relating to the yield per 70 
kilos, of coke- -the residual of carbonising 100 kilos, of coal — ^fed 
into the producer. The results show tli^ 12.06 kilos, of steam 
are required to quench the 70 kilos, of coke and 8.04 kilos, of 
coke take part in the reaction with the steam. The density of the 
gases produced will be .67 kilo, per cubic metre, and the volume 30 
cubic metres for 70 kilos, quenched. 

The yield, therefore, will be 3.73 metres per kilo, of coke con- 
sumed in the producer. 

It may be claimed that the gases made by the quenching pro- 
ducer are purer than those obtained in the manufacture of water 
gas. They have also a higher calorific power, and are therefore 
more suitable for various uses. The combustion of the 30 cubic 
metres of gas made by the coke (70 kilos.) left from the carbonisa- 
tion of 100 kilos, of coal is capable of giving a larger number of 
calories than that developed from coke used in the Siemens pro- 
ducer. The distillation of the fresh charge of coal to be carbonised 
can be effected by the gas made from the residual in the quenching 
producer. In the Siemens producers the coke used is 14.80 kilos, 
per 100 kilos, of coal carbonised. In the quenching producer it 
will be 8.04 kilos., which is an eccxiomy of more than 45^ per 
cent. The gas made by the quenching producer will not cost, 
half the price of water gas. The make of serviceable gas per 
kilogramme of coke is double; which is obvious, seeing that there 
is no coke consumed ûi order to feed the incandescent mass, 
as in the ordinary way of manufacturing water gas. The quenching 
producer will do away with the troublesome fumes arising from 
extinction in the open air and will prevent the loss of carbon caused 
by ordinary extinguishing. The apparatus costs little to erect 
It is simple to manage, and does not need any reversing of sensitive 
and dangerous currents. In short, the adoption of this invention 
in gas works will, in the author's opinion, be most advantageous; 
because water gas made in the most economical way possible has 
the further merit of being purer and of greater calorific power. 



In the absence of che author the paper was taken as read. 
A vote of thanks wais accorded to the author. 



"THE UTILISATION OF WATER GAS IN THE 
DESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF COAL." 

Paper by Professor Vivian B. Lewes. 



Abstract, 



With the permission of Mr. George Livesey, and the cooperation 
of Mr. Sydney Y. Shoubridge, a long series of experiments were 
carried out during the summer months of 1900 and 1901 at the 
Crystal Palace District Gas Works upon the lines indicated by the 
author in a paper upon '' Water Gas and its Recent Continental 
Developments," communicated to tihe Incorporated Institution of 
Gas Engineers in May, 1900. 

The author pointed out that the formation of tar during the 
destructive distillation of coal was partly due to the distillation 
from the coal of hvdrocarboo vapours, which afterwards condensed 
as liquids in the tar, and partly to decompositionB and interactions 
taking place in the upper part of the retort among the hydrocarbons 
which were there subjected to contact with the heated crown of the 
retort and to the action of radiant heat, with the result that many 
compounds which would have been of value as illuminants in the 
gas became broken down into methane, hydrogen, and carbon, 
together with naphthalene and other hydrocarbons which went into 
the tar. He suggested, therefore, that a considerable economy in 
the manufacture of illuminating gas might be effected by passing a 
stream of plain water gas through the retort during the process of 
carbonisation, owing to the fact that the flowing water gas would 
carry the rich hydrocarbons out of the retort before the detrimental 
secondary reactions could take place. To test the accuracy of thjs 
theory a series of experiments were commenced at the Crystal 
Palace District Gas Works in July, 1900, with the horizontal retorts 
used for carbonisation in the ordinary manner. At first six beds, 
having seven retorts each, were employed; but subsequently the 
experiments were conducted with twelve beds, containing seven 
retorts each. The retorts were 20 feet in length and 22 x 16 
inches in cross section, and were heated by regenerative furnaces, 
and charged by power stoking machinery. The water gas was made 
in an " Economical " water gas plant, and was conveyed from the 
holder to the retort house by a pipe specially provided. This pipe 
was continued over the retort bench just above the bridge pipes 
along one side, and a connection was made from it to the top of 
each ascension pipe on the same side of the bench. The dip pipes 
on this side were blocked, and the hydraulic valves closed. The 



286 UTILISATION OF WATER GAS. 

water gas descended the ascension pipes on this side, passed 
through the retorts, and up the ascension pipes on the other side 
along with the coal gas. 

The gas was tested in a standard London Argand burner with a 
6 X I J inch chimney, but it was found that when consumed at a 
rate of 5 cubic feet per hour an excessive proportion of air was 
drawn into the flame, and its illuminating eflSciency was reduced, 
while the best results were always obtained both with plain coal 
gas and with mixtures of water gas with coal gas when the rate of 
flow was adjusted until a 3-inch flame in the chimney was obtained. 
Mr. Shoubridge properly objected that when /the gas was sent out 
into the district the gas manager would not test the gas imder 
this favourable condition, but would use the Referees' Table 
Photometer, and adjust the rate of flow to give a i6-candle flame, 
and therefore that this latter method of testing should be adopted in 
these experiments. All the results quoted irt the present paper 
were therefore obtained by adjusting the rate of flow to give a 
i6-candle flame and then calculating the results to a 5 cubic feet 
rate. 

. When using the water gas it was soon found that the addition 
of smiall proportions resulted in but little gain, but that, as the pro- 
portion of water gas was increased, the gain in candle-feet per too 
(volume of gas per ton x illuminating power -r 5) became more and 
more marked. 

The conclusion deduced from the experiments with horizontal 
retorts was that an addition of about 40 per cent, of water gas 
during the first three hours of carbonisation of each charge is the 
most suitable proportion of water gas to employ, and this was 
confirmed in the following year by experiments conducted under 
more satisfactory conditions with inclined retorts. 

Mr. Shoubridge having completed the erection of a new bench 
of 70 inclined retorts in the early part of the year 1901, the upper 
: mouthpieces of these were provided with pipes for the intro- 
duction of water gas, and a long series of experiments were then 
carried out with extremely satisfactory results. Although little or 
no change was detected in the composition of the tar, a notable 
enrichment of the water gas was effected, and the results make it 
perfectly clear that a gas manager who has been supplying a 
i6-candle gas can, by simply putting in a blue water gas plant and 
.utilising 40 per cent, of this gas in the retorting, turti out between 
.14,000 and 15,000 cubic feet of 14.5 candle gas per ton, without 
jaay alteration in his heats or general procedure. Even with coke 
at a high price, the cost of water gas made by the Dellwik process 
ishould not exceed 3d. or ^Jd. per thousand cubic feet, and with 
water, gas ât the higher figure an economy of 25d. per ton of coaJ 
;Oârbomsed can be effected. 



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UTILISATION OF WATER GAS. 



287 





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288 UTILISATION OF WATER GAS. 

The principal results obtained are shown in the following table^ 
but the author is of opinion that by introducing hot instead of 
cold water gas, and by a more careful proportioning of the rate of 
flow of water gas to the rate of evolution of gas from the coal in 
the retort, results yet more favoiurable can be obtained. 



The Discussion was taken part in by the following members: — 
Mr. G. R. Love, Mr. E. H. Millard, the Chairman, Mr. W. Grafton, 
Mr. T. Glover, Mr. W. R. Herring, Mr. Charles Hunt, Mr. S. Y. 
Shoubridge, and Mr. J. W. Helps. 

The author replied, and a vote of thanks was accorded to him. 

Communications from Mr. Thomas Holgate and Mr. D. H. Helps 
have appeared in the technical press since the Congress, and are 
incorporated in the proceedings. 



"THE AUTOMATIC LIGHTING AND EXTINGUISHING 

OF STREET LANTERNS." 

Paper by A. Rothenbach, Jun. 



Abstract 



For many years past, attempts have been made in the direction of 
lighting and extinguishing street lamps by some automatic or 
mechanical means, which would be more reliable and less expensive 
than the present system. 

With the introduction of the Welsbach burners for the public 
lamps, arose the desire to light them in a way similar to that usual 
with electric, incandescent, and arc lights; and from that time date 
most of the trials made in this direction, especially those in which 
electricity is used. 

Separate wires were drawn between the lamps, and small devices 
fixed, by means of which the valves could be opened and closed 
by the electric current, and at the same time the gas ignited, 
either by electric sparks, or platinum-black, or by a wire brought 
to red heat. 

In course of time, however, many disadvantages showed them- 
selves, such as : (i) The breaking of the wires by the weight of 
snow or some other cause; (2) entanglement with other wires, es- 
pecially those of trolley lines ; and (3) changes of temperature, etc., 
causing the oxidation of the contact-buttons, and otherwise in- 
fluencing the small electric devices. In many of these instances, it 
is difficult to locate the defect which causes the interruption of the 
current. Putting the wires underground only increased the cost 
of installation, without improving aie situation. 

A second method was to light and extinguish by means of com- 
pressed air. This system has the disadvantage that leaks or 
obstructions in the small pipes to be used, and which have to be 
laid underground, would, until found, cause a great expense, and 
until repaired, would put quite a number of lamps out of use. 

A third way to accomplish the desired end was tried with an 
apparatus influenced by the difference in the pressure of the gas; 
but it was found difficult to procure the required différence in a 
distance of many miles, especially where the pipes leading into the 
houses are connected with the same main and in towns where the 
streets are hilly. This system has failed altcfgether, as proved by 
an attempt made in Brussels to measure the gas consumed during 
the hours of day and night with one and the same meter. 



290 AUTOMATIC LIGHTING AND EXTINGUISHING 

A fourth method, using an hydraulic apparatus based upon the 
difference in the gas pressure or compressed air, proved a failure 
also on account of the evaporation of the fluid and the influence 
of cold. 

Attempts have also been made in other directions. 

There is, in the author's opinion, but one way to solve this 
problem, and that is by the use of some device whereby each lamp 
can be lighted and extinguished independently of the others, so that, 
in the event of a failure through any cause, one lamp only, and 
not a whole section, will be affected. 

The Gas Engineers' Association of Switzerland had requested 
the author to show and explain such an apparatus made by the 
Actien-Gesellschaft fiir autom. Ziind und Loschapparate in Zuiidi, 
which Company has now, after experimenting for three years, 
brought it to such a perfection that it seems to answer all demands. 
This apparatus consists of a clockwork, of the very best quality, 
which cannot be influenced by changes of temperature. It 
is hermetically enclosed in a brass box, containing the valves 
(separated airtight from the movement to prevent gas escape and 
explosion), which are set in motion by the spring of the clock. 
The apparatus is placed in the centre of a wrought-iron support 
specially constructed, which can be fitted to every description of 
lantern. The whole has a neat appearance, and throws no shadow. 
The movement itself runs twenty days, but should be wound up 
every fortnight Once within that time, at least, lamps have to 
be cleaned and the lighting-hours changed; so, without extra ex- 
pense, the winding and time changing can be attended to by the 
lamp cleaner. 

The advantages of this system are the following: — 

(i) Each lamp can be lighted and extinguished separately 
and at any designated time. 

(2) Any number can be lighted and extinguished together 

within a few minutes' time. 

(3) The mantles of the Welsbach lights are better preserved, 

because the apparatus opens the valve gradually to let 
the air escape, thus preventing an explosion, and be- 
cause the jar caused by the knocking of torches against 
the lamps is done aiway with. 

(4) A great many lights can be extinguished about midnight. 

Some cities allow these to bum all night, because a 
third round on the part of the men would add more 
to their wages than the amount saved in the gas con- 
sumed. 

The apparatus can be furnished in five different forms : — 
(i) One with a simple stopcock. 



OF STREET LANTERNS. 291 

(2) One with a regulating-cock, through which the lantern can 

also be lighted and extinguished at any time by turning 
the lever. This has also an arrangement with which 
the action of the movement can be detached, and is 
suitable for such towns as during moonlight or summer 
months suspend lighting altogether. 

(3) One for lighting and extinguishing two to three flames 

together. 

(4) One which will light two flames, and extinguish them 

singly, at different times. 

(5) One which can light and extinguish twice within twenty- 

four hours. 

By means of these different arrangements, it is not necessary to 
do away with any lanterns now in use, or employ help for such 
special lamps. 

The apparatus is used in prominent cities like Zurich, Geneva, 
Lucerne, and Winterthur, over a thousand being in use or in course 
of erection. 

The paper was accompanied by illustrations. 



The Discussion was postponed until the following day (p. 292). 
The meeting was then adjourned. 



W^EDNESDAY, 4th SEPTEMBER, 190L 



Mr. William Foulis, Vice-Chairman, in the Chair. 



DISCUSSION ON MR. ROTHENBACH'S PAPER. 



The Discussion was taken part in by Mr. J. L. Chapman, Mr. 
Charles Carpenter, Mr. T. Holgate, Mr. G. R. Love, and the 
Chairman. 

Mr. A. Kilchmann replied on behaJf of the author, to whom a 
vote of thanks was accorded. 



"THE PRINCIPLES OF CONSTRUCTION OF A PROPOSED 
MODERN GASHOLDER FOR AMSTERDAM." 

Paper by J. Van Rossum du Chattel. 



Abstract. 



The conditions for the construction were the following: — The 
capacity of the holder (to be erected on a very poor subsoil) should 
be 100,00 cubic metres, or about 3 J million cubic feet. Piles 
must be used to give the necessary stability. The diameter 
must be about 60 metres, or 200 feet. The piles must bear a 
maximum weight of 10 tons each, their normal length being 14 
metres. The water level is ij metres below the level of the ground, 
where the holder is to be built. The indifferent nature of the 
ground, and the high cost of a good foundation, make it necessary 
to reduce as much as possible the total weight, and to exclude a 
tank made of brickwork or concrete. 

Only a wrought iron or steel tank containing a minimum weight 
of water could, therefore, solve the problem. An ordinary tank, 
with a flat bottom for a four-lift holder, with a diameter of about 
60 metres, would contain 29,000 tons of water; and with the holder 
weighing about 2000 tons, the total weight would be 31,000 tons. 
This shows that, with regard to economy in weight, it was necessary 



PRINCIPLES OF A PROPOSED GASHOLDER FOR AMSTERDAM. 293 

to take into consideration the weight of the water. These diflS- 
culties, it was thought, could be met by the construction of a 
tank after the patent of Professor Intze, or by an annular tank 
above the ground. For the latter construction less material is re- 
quired, and consequently it is cheaper and more desirable also from 
a general point of view. Care, of course, must be taken that no 
gas can enter into the interior space of the tank, which is intended 
to be used as a store room. It is therefore necessary that the 
inner roof of the tank or intervening central space should . be 
covered with water. 

In order to make this large store room suitable for heavy 
materials, it was so arranged that a locomotive and train could pass 
under the tank and the walls, the door openings being made suffi- 
ciently high. 

This is, so far as the author knows, the largest annular tank ever 
constructed under these conditions, and the character of the soil 
and the vibrations induced by trains passing under the tank must 
be taken into consideration. The supposition that, due to the nature 
of the subsoil, the tank will sink at one side 20 centimetres, or about 
8 inches, made the calculations very complicated. 

If the tank sinks on one side more than 8 inches, means are 
provided to put it straight again with wedges; and these, it is 
clear, may also be used for a sinking erf less than 8 inches. To 
prevent this sinking becoming more than 8 inches, 80 lifting 
apparatuses, put together under the stays, will come into action, 
after the tank has been emptied. Great care was taken with the 
foundation to avoid, so far as possible, the use of these contrivances. 
Testing piles clearly proved that the subsoil was of a varying 
character, and that the length of the piles at different places must 
vary between 40 and 60 feet. On the piles which are below the 
lowest water level a bed of concrete with old iron rails is built. 

The wall on which the tank is to be erected will be made so 
that there are 40 door openings through which the train may pass. 
Moreover, these walls, instead of being made as thick as if a low 
stress was allowed, will be made of superior brickwork, with the 
best bricks set in Portland cement, so that a higher stress may be 
allowed. The calculations are for a pressure of about 250 kilo- 
grammes per square metre; and for a maximum lateral strain on 
the bricks of 15 kilos, per square centimetre. The piles will bear 
a maximum weight of 7000 kilos, each. In order to render a turn 
table with radial rails possible in the centre of the store room under 
the tank, so that the waggons may be discharged in all directions, 
it was not desirable to have any support under the tank, or any 
centre pier. This problem was rather difficult to solve. 

Instead of covering the intervening space or roof of the tank with 
a few inches of water, a larger quantity was used, 40 centimetres 



294 PRINCIPLES OF A PROPOSED GASHOLDER FOR AMSTERDAM. 

or about i6 inches depth of water resting on the cover. The 
weight of this water gives compound stresses on the 40 oblique 
struts, and, from these, on the 40 vertical stays of the inner mantle 
of the tank. The vertical stays give additional strength to meet 
the pressure of the water in the annular tank, so that a much 
lighter construction sufficed. The roof of the central space is made 
of sheet iron, resting on 40 radial horizontal beams, supported by 
the 40 vertical stays, these last serving also to support the curved 
plates and transmitting the water pressure from the roof to the an- 
nular space. To support the vertical stays struts run from the 
horizontal beams, and give, by their shearing force, an exterior 
bending stress. The 40 horizontal beams meet in a central ring 
or star, and the 40 rays of this star are joined by hinges to the 
beams. This construction simplifies the calculations; and this is 
desirable, as lateral compressions are to be expected on account 
of the nature of the subsoil. The principal dimensions, given in 
-centimetres, are:— 

Exterior diameter of tank ... ... ... 6130 

Height ... ... ... ... ... ... 9^9 

Width of the ring, as far as the front of the stay 215 

Diameter as far as exterior of stays ... ... 5700 

Height to the roof sheets ... ... ... 918 

Total length of roof beams ... ... ... 5500 

Height of stays to the beams ... ... ... 863 

Distance from the face of the curved sheets to 

the front of stays ... ... ... ... 12 

(The paper gives further an introduction to the investigations 
and calculations regarding the forces acting on each part of the 
structure.) 

The calculations for the tank must take account of the follow- 
ing :— 

1. In addition to the weight of material from which the holder 

and tank are constructed there is a uniform load of 60 
centimetres of water. 

2. The tank sinks 20 centimetres over one side, the whole 

gas-pressure working. In this ca^e a imiform load of 50 
caitimetres of water, alid a wedgewise load at one side 
zero, at the opposite of 20 centimetres of water, have 
to be considered. 

3. The tank is filled, but without gas in the holder; and there 

is a uniform load of 40 centimetres of water on the 
cover or roof of the tank. This case has to be calcu- 
lated separately, as some struts undergo the full pressure 
from the outside, but a much weaker bending and shear- 
ing pressure from the inside. 



PRINCIPLES OF A PROPOSED GASHOLDER FOR AMSTERDAM. 295 

4. During the simultaneous filling of the roof and the annular 
space, the degree of filling must be found at which there 
is the maximum outsvard bending of the struts. 

Of very great interest is the simultaneous filling of the cover 
of the central space and the annular tank. Both must be filled at 
the same time. The tank having a capacity of 4545 cubic metres, 
•and the cover of 974 cubic metres, the rate of filling must be in 
the ratio of 4.67 to i. The cover having two concentric spaces, 
the filling of both parts has to take place in proportion to the 
sm'faces; that is as i : 8.4. 

Special boxes with overflows, dividing the water in the required 
quantities are therefore made for the purpose. The same care has 
to be taken in emptying the tank. 

Very important, also, is the construction of the hinge joints in the 
horizontal beams. The calculations show that they have to bear 
a vertical load of 6640 kilos. ; and there is also a maximum hori- 
zontal force of 136,281 kilos. 



The following members took part in the Discussion : — ^the Chair- 
man, Mr. Charles Hunt, Mr. Charles Carpenter, and Mr. W. Wood. 

The author replied, and a vote of thanks was accorded to him. 

A correspondence has appeared in the technical press between 
Mr. F. S. Cripps and the author, and is reported in the proceedings. 



"THE PRODUCTION OF ILLUMINATING GAS FROM 

COKE-OVENS." 

Paper by F. Schniewind. 



Abstract 



This paper describes the progress made in the United States and 
Canada in recovering illuminating gas from by-product coke ovens. 
It discusses its bearing upon the smoke problem of large cities, 
and gives particulars of various allusions to the subject in past 
literature. It deals with the fuel supply of large cities, and gives 
figures showing the comparative amounts of bituminous coal and 
anthracite coal used in some American cities for the year 1900. 

It then gives a general description of the combined coke oven 
and gas process, compares it with ordinary gas retort practice, and 
gives ai description of a plant of 100 coke ovens of the latest type 
of the United Coke and Gas Co., including the system of coal and 
coke handling, the arrangement of gas mains, the condensing plant, 
the treatment of the tar produced, and the methods adopted for 
the further enrichment of the rich gas by the benzole extracted 
from the poor gas. 

It then proceeds to discuss the principles of the dry distillation 
of coal in coke ovens, and gives figures as to the yields of gas, tar 
and ammonia, etc., of various American coals in use. It details 
the quality of the gas made during the various periods of the 
coking process, and gives figures showing that the operating results 
approximate very closely to those obtained in the various tests 
made. The question of heat balance is then carefully discussed, 
and comparisons made of the heat distribution in products of 
distillation from Otto Hoffman Ovens, and ordinary gas retorts. 
The subject of the enriching of coke oven gas is then carefully 
discussed, and tables given showing the distribution of illuminants 
in international coal gas. The author then deals with the applica- 
tion of coke plants to the gas supply of large cities, and gives figures 
showing the approximate gas consumption of a city of 400,000 
inhabitants supplied by a coke plant. The fluctuation in gas 
consumption is again introduced, and the methods of meeting it 
by means of auxiliary producer plants, auxiliary water gas plants,, 
and combined blue water gas and producer plants are discussed. 

The author concludes by claiming for the system serious con- 



PRODUCTION OF ILLUMINATING GAS FROM COKE-OVENS, 297 

sideration in the solution of the smoke problem, and argues that 
it is capable of forming a central station for the supply of light, 
heat, and power. 



The following members took part in the Discussion: — Mr. 
Livesey, the Chairman (Mr. Foulis), Mr. S. O. Stephenson, Dr. 
Révay, Mr. Charles Hunt, Mr. James Barrow, Mr. W. R. Herring, 
and Mr. W. W. Hutchinson. 

Dr. Révay replied on behalf of the author, to whom a vote of 
thanks was accorded. 

Dr. Schniewind has also replied by lettjer to the remarks on has 
paper, and Mr. Charles Hunt has sent a communication. 



ai 



I ■ . 



"THE DESTRUCTION OF GAS PIPES BY MEANS OF 

ELECTRICITY." 

Paper by W. Leybold. 



Abstract. 



The author gives the durability of the pipes used for the distribu- 
tion of gas in towns as from 25 to 50 years. He states that there 
arei certain influences sometimes at work which may coïiâdçrably 
shorten their lifetime. A new danger has, however, been intro- 
duced through the construction of electric tram lines — viz., electro- 
lysis. In Germany the electric current passes into the wires from 
the generating stations at a pressure of about 500 volts, and returns 
to the station by means of the rails. As the rails give a certain 
resistance, part of the current will pass through the earth into the 
gas and water pipes. The author took steps to discover whether 
in any pipes, near which any electric tram lines ran, the electric 
current was in existence, and he found that in water pipes laid at 
a distance of 6 kilometres from tihe nearest electric station consider- 
able tensions were found; and this was also the case in gas pipes 
in the town at night when no electric trams were running. This 
is accounted for by the theory that the cast iron pipes, with lead 
as the jointing metal, lying in the damp ground, produce a galvanic 
action. When the tram lines were working the tension in the 
pipes varied from 0.2 to i volt to as much as 4.65 volts near the 
generating station. All the electricity was supplied from one 
works, the working line being 100 kilometres long, and the annual 
consumption of current 13 million kilowatt hours. 

It is known that, by the electric current in the presence of saline 
solutions, metals can easily be dissolved. The ground in Hamburg 
contains small quantities of chloride of sodium, to the extent of 
0.006 to 0.04 per cent. ; the electric tramway authorities also use 
salt, etc., for melting the snow in winter time ; this affords, therefore, 
an opportunity for the eating up of iron in the earth by the electric 
current in the presence of the solution of salt 

In April, 1899, an escape of gas was found in a street near the 
electricity works, at a spot where the cars pass at intervals of three 
minutes, there being two lines of tramway rails. On investigation, 
it was found that the service pipes passing at right angles beneath 
the rails were corroded immediately underneath them, penetration 
being discovered in nearly every case. The pipes were covered with 
canvas soaked in boiled tar. In many cases blisters were found 
between the iron and the tar, which were filled up with a green 



DESTRUCTION OF GAS PIPES. 299 

solution, protochloride of iron, and it was inferred that the wrapping 
of boiled tar and canvas favours the destruction. The pipes were 
taken up and replaced with others, but after the expiration of 
seven to eight months the destruction again showed itself as before. 

The importance of great care being taken to reduce the currents 
passing into the pipes is emphasised, and various methods are 
mentioned for securing this result The rails should be of high 
conductivity, with sufficient transverse section, and with the points 
of contact well joined together by soldered copper wire. The use of 
thermite is also recommended, as is also the fixing of insulated 
return transmission cables in many places for the canying of the 
current back to the works. This has been done in Hamburg, with 
the result that the tension existing in. the gas pipes has been reduced 
to 0.45 volts. The cast-iron pipes in the town have not beçn 
perceptibly affected. Allusion is made to electrol5rtic damage dc«ie 
to pipes at Erfurt; and this, it is stated, was principally due to 
the rails used for the tramway being too light for the purpose. 

Mention is made of the rules for the protection of gas and 
water pipes drawn up by the German Electrical Technical Associa- 
tion, particulars of which are to be published shortly. The author 
gives it as his opinion that gas and water works have a right to 
demand that the Electric Authorities should do everything in their 
power to protect the pipes. 



Mr. Livesey at this point again took the Chair and opened the 
Discussion. The following members also took part in it: — ^Mr. 
James Mansergh, President of the Congress, Mr. Charles Carpenter,. 
Mr. S. O. Stephenson, Mr. W. R. Herring, Mr. T. Holgate, Mr.^ 
S. Meunier, Mr. Gisbert Kapp, Mr. Helps, and Mr. Foulis. 

The author replied, and a vote of thanks was accorded to him. 

The meeting was then adjourned. 



THURSDAY, 6th SEPTEMBER, 1901. 



Mr. William Foulis, Vice-Chairaian, in the Chair. 



"APPLICATION OF THE UNIT SYSTEM OF GAS 
MANUFACTURE TO ITS PURIFICATION." 

Paper by Charles Carpenter. 



Abstract. 



This paper discusses the close proportioning of output to require- 
ments afforded by the Retort method of manufacture. Each retort 
or unit is independent, and, alone or coupled, would give, when 
heated and charged, its maximum duty in thermal feet 

The question of a group of retorts in settings is discussed; and 
a table, drawn up for a plant for a works having a maximum 
output of five million cubic feet per day, shows the relation 
between the gas made and the number of settings at work when 
the settings are groups of 6, 8, 9, and 10 retorts. The purification 
plant is then considered, and the tables drawn up for a five million 
cubic feet works using — 

I. Two tower scrubbers, 20 feet diameter, 70 feet high, 314 
square feet area, 21,980 cubic feet contents, and wetted surface 
527,788 square feet; and 

II. Standard washer, 8 feet outlet diameter, 4 feet inlet diameter, 
12 inches wide, 37 plates, each 0.028 inches thick, per wheel, and 
wetted surface per machine of 12 wheels 24,672 square feet 





Millions per diem. 


Total area, sq. ft. 


Gas area, sq. ft. 


Wetted surface, sq. ft. 




per million. 


per million. 


per million. 


• 
M 
U 

1 


S 


63 


47 


10S.557 


g 


4 


78 


59 


131.947 


(fi 


3 


los 


79 


175,929 



H 


2 


IS7 


118 


263,894 


t 










•s 

et 


5 


^'6 


27 


4,934 


^ 


4 


107 


34 


6,168 


■S 


3 


14-3 


4-5 


8,224 


•a 

es 


2 


21*5 


6-B, 


12,336 


w 











GAS PURIFICATION. 



301 



The second column shows the veiy striking difference of practice 
in the two types of vessels. It appeared worth while to try the 
experiment of combining to as great an extent as possible the 
advantages of both. A pair of towers were therefore constructed 
for a works having a two-million winter and a one-million summer 
load. Each tower was made 2^ feet square by 26 feet high and 
packed with iron " bundles " built up similarly to those used in 
the " Standard " machines, but rectangular in shape. £ach bimdle 
is 9 inches by 10 inches by 30 inches by 0.036 inch, set in tiers 
supported upon strips cast on opposite sides of the tower. Three 



.a 
« 

o 
H 



Millions per diem. 


Total area» sq. ft. 
per million. 

&2 


Gas area, sq. ft. 
per million. 


Wetted surface, sq. ft. 
per million. 


2 
I 


2-6 

51 


607 s 
12-150 



sides of the tower are permanently bolted together, Uie front or 
fourth side being of separate pAates with distance pieces, so that 
it can be stripped from top to bottom. The whole of the bundles, 
if necessary, can be removed and fresh ones substituted in an 
ordinary working day. 

The construction is so simple as to readily lend itself to the 
design of a machine wherein, under varying conditions of gas 
production, a more constant ratio of scrubbing surface and gas 
treated can be obtained. For instance, in the case of a five million 
cubic feet works two rectangular vessels, 7 feet 6 inches by 2 feet 
6 inches, divided vertically by two partitions running from top to 
bottom, or one, 7 feet 6 inches by 5 feet, divided into six vertical 
chambers, would provide all that appears necessary. Bo-th liquor 
and water could be used in one, two, or three chambers, according 
as either was used for the make required. The additional advan- 
tages are small ground-space required, absence of motive power, 
and facility for cleaning. The liquor and water are distributed by 
shallow perforated trays ; but Barker mills, with or without circular 
tops, could be used if preferred. 

The proportioning of plant area to make of gas suggested in 
the case of scrubb^ can likewise be applied to purifiers. The 
minimum area recommended may be taken at 400 feet super per 
million feet of gas per diem. A table is given showing the cal- 
culated size of the purifiers in the case of the typical works selected. 

It is easy, by éie addition of diaphragms, to divide up, into 
any number of sections, the purifier; from the main inlet valve 
of which connections, with controlling valves, would branch 



302 GAS PURIFICATION. 

off into each compartment The proper rate of flow and time 
of contact could 'be given as between- gas and material, inde- 
pendently of the volume of gas being produced. Such a set of 
purifiers has been put into operation at the South Metropolitan 
Gas Company's worics; and, although the experiment is in its 
infancy, there is no doubt that the purifying material is more 
eaâly acted upon than is the case with the other vessels. 

In conclusion, the author advocated an endeavour being made 
to fix the best condition for speed of contact and area in the 
purifying plant of gas works, and then to provide means whereby 
this may be obtained in regular working within the extreme limits 
of production. 



The discussion was taken part in by Mr. Charles Hunt, Mr. S. Y. 
Shoubridge, Mr. G. R. Hislop, Mr. H. E. Jones, Mr. A. Wilson, 
Mr. J. W. Helps, and the Chairman; and the author replied. 

A vote of thanks was accorded to the author. 



J 



"THE MECHANICAL TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS 

IN GAS WORKS." 

Paper by William Reginald Chester. 



Abstract. 



The author confines his remarks to a description of the apparatus 
he has found most applicable to gasworks use, to the measure of 
its capacity in relation to the original cost of the installation, and 
to the cost of its maintenance and upkeep. The materials prin- 
cipally dealt with are coal, coke, breeze, ashes, pvirifying. material, 
and sulphate of amonia, the manipulation of most of which is 
continuous throughout the twenty-four • hours. 

Figures are given relating to the cost and performance of an 
installation. 

COAL TRANSPORT. 

The apparatus used in coal transport may be divided into three 
types — viz., the inclined elevator, the horizontal push-plate < ccin^ 
veyor, and the horizontal band conveyor. - ^ • • •; 

Elevators, — The coal elevators are used for raising the coal from 
the breakers, and conveying it into overhead hoppers. They are 
fixed at an incline of 50 degrees, and their total length is 74' feet 
each. They have been in use for 5 or 6 years. Each bucket has 
a capacity of about 870 cubic inches, and is worked at a speed of 
140 ft. per min., the normal capacity being about 30 tons per hour. 
Five of these elevators have transported 335,237 tons of ooal; at- a 
cost 0.06 id. per ton for repairs. The original cost' of the elevators 
was jQ^ 4s. per lineal foot of traverse. 

Push-Plate Coiweyors. — The push-plate conveyors receive the! 
coal at the top of the elevators and carry it forward. The plates 
work in a steel trough 20 inches wide, having hinged doors at the 
bottom. The speed of traverse is about 180 f éet pei: minute, and 
the working capacity about 40 tons per hour. For a total weight of 
coal conveyed, 36,536 tons, the* cost for repairs was 0.03901. per 
ton ; the original cost was ;£6 7s. 4d. per lineal foot run. - 

Band Conveyors. — ^Band conveyors are' used for conveying 
the coal across the retort-stack; each of the four in use has a 
traverse of 30 feet. The belt is cotton canvas, 18 inches wide, and 
it runs on cast-iron rollers at 250 feet per minute, with a carrjong 
capacity of 40 tons per hour. For a total weight conveyed of 
149,350 tons, the cost of repairs so far has been 0.113d. per ton. 
The original cost was JP^2 9s. 4d. per. lineal foot of traverse. 



304 TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS IN GAS WORKS. 

COKE TRANSPORT. 

The ap{>aratus may be divided into four types — viz., the inclined 
elevator, horizontal hot coke conveyors, plate belt conveyors, and 
canvas belt conveyors. 

Elevators. — Coke elevators receive the coke from the horizontal 
conveyors and carry it into overhead storage hoppers. The buckets 
are larger than the coal elevators, and are spaced i8 inches apart; 
each has a capacity of 1150 cubic inches, and a speed of 140 feet 
per minute. The normal capacity is about 20 tons per hour, and 
for a total of 178,541 tons of coke transported the cost for repairs 
is 0.913d. per ton. The first cost of the elevators was about jQ6 6s. 
per foot of traverse. 

Push-Plate Conveyors for Hot Coke, — Three push-plate con- 
veyors for hot coke are in use, two canying coke as drawn from 
the retorts to the foot of the elevators, and a third canying the 
coke from the elevator head. The push-plates are of malleable 
iron, spaced 24 inches apart. The speed of traverse is about 48 
feet per minute, and the working capacity 20 tons per hour. For 
a total of 9923 tons of coke transported the cost for repairs is 
0.89 id. per ton; and the first cost of the apparatus J[^^ 3s. iid. 
per foot run. 

Plate Belt Conveyor. — Five plate belt conveyors are also used 
for conveying the coke from the retorts to the foot of the elevator ; 
the belts are of flat steel plates, overlapping at the ends, and 
are continuous. The speed of traverse is 42^ feet per minute, 
and the working capacity about 30 tons per hour* During six 
years they have conveyed 149,350 tons of coke, at a cost for re- 
newals of 3.7i4d. per ton. The first cost was ^£3 12 s. 6d. per 
foot run, the difference between this and the previous system 
being accounted for by the fact that the plate belt conveyor 
has been completely renewed once, while the push-plate conveyor 
has not been long enough in use to require this. 

Canvas Band Conveyor. — A canvas band conveyor is used for 
carrying small coke and dust which pass through the screens from 
the hoppers to carts, etc. The belt is 17 inches wide, with a speed 
of 135 feet per minute, and a capacity of about 20 tons per hour. 
It has conveyed 10,000 tons of small coke, at a cost for renewals 
of id. per ton, the original cost being ^4 los. per foot run. 

PURIFYING MATERIAL TRANSPORT. 

The apparatus consists of two inclined elevators with buckets; 
they have a traverse of 40 feet, and a capacity of 10 tons per hour, 
at a speed of 80 feet per minute. They have transported 37,685 
tons oi material, at a cost of o.o46d. per ton for repairs. The 
total cost was ^^5 7s. per lineal foot run. 



TRANSPORT OF BiATERIALS IN GAS WORKS. 305 

SULPHATE OF AMMONIA TRANSPORT. 

The apparatus used has ah indiarubber belt, no feet long and 
17 inches wide, running on rollers at a speed of 140 feet per 
minute. It has carried 2180 tons at a cost for repairs of 4.63d. per 
ton. The original cost of the apparatus worked out at jQi us. 3d. 
per lineal foot. 



The following members took part in the Discussion: — Mr. S. Y. 

Shoubridge, Mr. Charles Hunt, Mr. W. Foulis, and Mr. T. Holgate. 

The author replied, and a vote of thanks was accorded to him. 



"THE CONSTRUCTION OF INCLINED RETORT 

CARBONISING PLANTS." 

Paper by Walter Ralph Herring. 



Abstract 



The primary object of the process described in the paper is the 
reduction to a minimum of the labour hitherto involved in the 
charging and drawing of coal-gas retorts, by employing simple and 
reliable mechanical devices for manipulating the material to be 
dealt with, and by taMng the fullest advantage of the natural force 
of gravity to charge and draw the retorts when set upon a plane 
inclined to the horizontal line. There are other secondary advan- 
tages, such as the greater producing capacity over a given airea of 
land, and economy in construction, etc. 

Considerable variety is shown in the outward form of the different 
plants existing in this countr)^, as contrasted with the various in- 
stallations upon the Continent of Europe. A great uniformity is 
discernible in the Continental installations, owing probably to the 
fact that, with few exceptions, the plants have been erected by the 
same constructors. Another distinctive feature of Continental 
installations is the length of the retort. The British practice may 
be said to be 20-feet retorts, where space permits of their adoption ; 
whereas, on the Continent, from 3 to 3^ metres (10 feet to 11 feet 
6 inches) is the predominant length of the retort. The only 
installation in this country, of which the author has any knowledge, 
approaching the Continental length is one which was erected at 
Leigh, in Lancashire, where 12 feet 6 inches retorts were put in. 
This bench, however, was levelled to the ground, and reconstructed 
as 20-feet retorts, some few years after its first introduction. 

The author, in his erections at Huddersfield, put in 15-feet 
retorts, the available space not permitting of anything longer. The 
fact of the majority of the British installations being 20 feet is, 
however, in the author's opinion, sufficient to prove that there can 
be no doubt as to their efficacy, and also their utility. The 
increased capacity of the hoppers necessitates but a small percentage 
in the additional weight of their structure ; and, from a labour point 
of view, the operation of charging a 20-feet retort with 7 cwt. of 
coal is no greater, and occupies but a few seconds more than the 
charging of a retort from 12 feet 6 inches to 13 feet long. 



CONSTRUCTION OF INCLINED RETORT CARBONISING PLANTS. 307 

The inclined retort installations at the present time may, broadly 
speaking, be defined as consisting of two distinct types. The best 
known type is that having continuous coal-storage hoppers (sub- 
divided or not) erected above the benches, with or without measur- 
ing chambers beneath, but more commonly with the measuring 
chamber attached to the underside of the storage hopper. The 
other distinctive t)^pe has one or more coal storage hoppers 
centralised, the charging shoot forming also the measuring chamber, 
receiving its charge from beneath the hopper, and traversing with 
it to the retorts to be charged. The author throughout has been 
a staunch advocate for the continuous storage hopper, with or 
without the measuring chamber beneath. The same weight of cool 
must be stored in either system, and the greater the bulk stored 
over a given area, the greater strength is required in the construction 
of the hopper and its supporting structure. Continuous hoppers 
need not be more than ^ inch thick, properly stayed, extending con- 
tinuously for the length of the retort bench, with the measuring 
chambers suspended beneath them. 

The charging appliances have a most important influence upon 
the successful working of the system. The many varieties of coal 
that have to be dealt with have brought into existence all sorts of 
devices whereby the charge can be regulated so as to flow into the 
retorts at a uniform speed, and ensure a perfectly level and uniform 
charge throughout the length of the retort. 

Generally speaking, in the case of type A — viz., the continuous 
hopper system — the coal is allowed to drop from the base of the 
measuring chamber, and is checked in its descent by the adjustable 
sloping valves or balanced flaps within the charging shoot. The 
traversing charging shoot working in conjunction with the centralised 
hopper, or type B, has first to be charged from the hopper, and has 
then to carry its charge to the retort, where it discharges from its 
base on to the mouth of the retort. The base of the shoot is set 
approximately at the angle at which the retorts are set, a valve 
is opened, and the coal, by its natural inclination, slides into 
the retort. Coals having differing physical characteristics will act 
differently under these fixed circumstances of angle of discharge; 
and as there is no positive power existing with this appliance, it 
is not surprising that it is now being regarded as of doubtful utility 
as a charging appliance. 

Details of the construction of the charging shoot were given and 
mention was made of the necessity for controlling the area of the 
aperture through which the coal discharges from the overhead tank 
or measuring chamber. Dealing with the question of the auto- 
matic discharge of the coke from the retorts, the author remarked 
that during the life of a setting not more than 50 per cent, of 
the retorts could be depended upon to discharge themselves ^vithout 



308 CONSTRUCTION OF INCLINED RETORT CARBONISING PLANTS. 

some assistance. Tapered retorts had been introduced to facilitate 
the discharge of the carbonised fuel. It is important that the 
cross-section of the retort should be properly designed, so as to 
permit of the coal in the retort, during the process of coking, 
rising or expanding freely without jamming itself in the arch or 
crown of the retort, the cross section being preferably a flat base 
with the sides opening outwards before the curve of the retort is 
commenced. 

The author suggested the introduction of simple mechanical 
means, worked from the upper end of the retorts, to assist in 
discharge, dealt with the manipulation of the slides or valves of 
measiuing chambers and overhead hoppers, and laid before the 
meeting particulars of a small double-acting hydraulic cylinder 
which he had introduced at Edinburgh. 

He then referred to the simplifications in the structural ironwork 
of inclined retort installations, traversing screens for projecting the 
coke and tar clear of the mouthpieces, and the improvements that 
had recently been made in the construction of hot coke conveyors. 

In conclusion the author gave a long description, illustrated by 
numerous diagrams, of the looo tons per day inclined retort plant 
now being erected at the new Edinburgh gasworks from his designs, 
laying particular stress upon the method of heating the furnaces, 
the means of discharging the coal from wagons, the feeding of the 
coal breakers, elevators, conveyors, etc., and the handling of the 
coke after carbonisation. 



The following members took part in the Discussion: — Dr. Ley- 
bold, Mr. A. F. Wilson, Mr. F. W. Cross, Mr. Livesey, Mr. A. W. 
Onslow, Mr. G. Helps, Mr. S. Y. Shoubridge, Mr. Charles Hawks- 
ley, and the Chairman. 

The author replied, and a vote of thanks was accorded to him. 

A communication was received from Mr. C. E. Brackenbury. 

Mr. Foulis proposed, and Mr. W. R. Herring seconded, a vote 
of thanks to the University Authorities for so kindly placing the 
College buildings at the disposal of the Congress. 

The motion was unanimously carried. 

Mr. Charles Hunt proposed, and Mr. John West seconded, a vote 
of thanks to authors for their papers. 



CONSTRUCTION OF INCLINED RETORT CARBONISING PLANTS. 309 

Mr. William King proposed, and Mr. J. Hepworth. seconded, a 
vote of thanks tx> the Chairman and Vice-chairmen. 

The Chaiiman and Mr. Foulis replied. 

The Chairman propCMsed, and Mr. Foulis seconded, a vote of 
thanks to Mr. Helps for the manner in which he had performed 
the duties of Honorary Secretary to the Section. 

The proceedings then terminated, and the business of the Section 
was brought to a close. 



SUMMARY OF PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

Section IX.— Electrical.* 



TUESDAY, apd SEPTEMBER, 19Q1. 



W. Langdon, Chairman, in the Chair. 



INTRODUCTORY ADDRESS. 
By W. Langdon, Chairman. 



EXTRACTS. 

In the course of his address the Chairman said: — ^''Just fifty 
years since London, under the auspices of the nation's lamented 
Prince Albert, gave birth to the first International Exhibition. Fol- 
lowed by numerous others, at home and abroad, none, it is pleasing 
to note, have proved more successful financially, or more fully met 
the object for which they were established, than those inaugurated 
by the enterprise of Glasgow's citizens — the last and most successful 
of which forms one of the attractions incidental to the assemblage 
of this Congress and of the inauguration of the new century. 

There can be no question that the result of these great under- 
takings has been for good ; that they have been a stimulus to manu- 
facture and trade; and that — greatly beyond all else — ^they have 
been a means making for pyeace. Whether we, as a nation, have 
been the gainer or the loser, the world has richly reaped. Exhibi- 
tions, railways, steam-boats, education, the ready intercourse between 
peoples, have told, and are daily telling their tale. Few articles 
remain the privileged product of any one place. 

Manufacture has become cosmopolitan, and the rivalry of the 

* The full Proceedings of Section IX., being part 153, Vol. XXXI., 1901, 
of the Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, are published by 
The Institution of Electrical Engineers, 28 Victoria Street, Westminster, 
London, S.W., price 5s., post free. 



INTRODUCTORY ADDRESS. 311 

future between the most advanced nations of the earth will be that 
of manufacture — the power to apply the products of the earth to 
the exigencies of life at the least cost, and with the least loss of time. 

The supremacy of a nation may be attained by force of arms, but 
war cannot be carried on without the sinews of war, and the sinews 
of war means the wealth of the nation. Whence comes this national 
wealth? Surely by the industry and intelligence of its people — the 
power to observe, to apply, and to produce. 

Lord Rosebery, when speaking recently at the Mansion House, 
remaarked " we are coming to a time of stress and competition, for 
which it is necessar}^ that we should be prepared," and later on he 
observes, " It is necessary for a nation in these days to train itself 
by every valuable method to meet the stress and the competition 
that is before us." 

The question whether England, in comparison with other nations, 
is becoming retrograde in her industrial achievements must prove 
one of peculiar interest to all who seek this country's welfare. There 
are grave reasons to fear that in some parts, especially in the more 
modem applioaitions of science, and notably in that development 
witih which the Institution of Electrical Engineers is so closely 
allied, we have not retained that prominent position which has 
characterised this country for so long a period. 

Twenty years back, British manufacture stood on level ground 
with other countries in the production of electrical machinery, yet, 
if we may judge by the following figures, for which I am indebted 
to Mr. Philip Dawson, it would appear that we have from some cause 
failed to meet even our home demands. From these figures, which 
are ^approximate, it appears that of some 300,000 indicated horse- 
power of steam engines laid down for lighting and traction, 73,000 
have been imported from the United States of America; and that, 
of some 200,000 kilowatt capacity of generators, 71,000 were 
derived from the same source. It will be understood that this does 
not mean that the residue was British production. 

It is not my intention, nor would the time at my disposal admit of 
my attempting to enter into details why this is so. I take the bald 
fact as illustrated by the figures I have quoted. England did not 
meet the demand ! Can it be that the British manufacturer lacked 
confidence in the i)ermanency of this new electrical development? 
I quote again from Mr. Dawson. The capital invested in European 
countries land the United States in electric lighting, power, and 
traction works, amounts to ;£3 6 7,000,000. Of this sum the United 
States contributes ;£2oo,ooo,ooo and Great Britain ;£35,ooo,ooo. 
The number of miles of single track equipped for electric traction 
in the two countries is, relatively, 21,000 and 900: of motor cars,. 
68,000 and 2600. Germany, where the power employed for lighting 
work approaches closely that of England, has 2300 miles of track,. 



812 INTRODUCTORY ADDRESS. 

and 5400 cars, although the invested capital is but twenty-nine 
millions^ as against England's thirty-five millions for an enormously 
less mileage and smaller equipment. 

The population of Great Britain is approximately 40,000,000 as 
against 70,000,000, that of the United States. The area in square 
nules is^ relatively, 121,115, and 3,581,885. Too much stress must 
not be laid upon territorial comparison, although it would seem an 
evident corollary that the more dense the population the greater 
must be the demand for means of locomotion. 

These figures, should, at all events, prove effectual in disposing 
of any doubt that electrical development is stable. That it is only 
at the beginning of its era, and that an enormous field lies before it 
in lailmost every path of commercial and social life, must be evident 
to every observant person. It is not, however, with its utility that 
I desire to deal so much as with the means for its production : the 
production by our own country of all that is needed to meet not 
merely the wants of our home demand but that of our colonies as 
well. 

Two important factors — cost and promptitude of delivery — attend 
successful competition in manufacture. Inspired with confidence 
in the future of electrical work, with, as it were, a prescience of those 
demands which must arise, and unencumbered with many of those 
restrictions and regulations which attend similar undertakings in 
England, other nations have seen and have seized their opportunity, 
gained experience, standardised their productions, aud have thus, in 
advance of this country, prepared to meet any ordinary demand 
that may arise. 

Cost depends much upon our labour conditions. Within a veiy 
shoirt period rivalry in manufacture will be far more acute than is 
even now the case, and in it labour will play the chief part 
America, as well as England, has her labour troubles. Trade Unions 
exist there as well as here, but the principles which govern them 
differ from those which prevail here. There the man works un- 
restricted, with all his might Of what avail is education to the 
child if manhood fails to take full advantage of it ? In the following 
comment of the New York Sun we have an expression of opinion 
that may well be laid to heart: "When the British workman is 
willing really to work for his wages, then, and not till then. Great 
Britain may hope to siu^ive in the great revolution which has 
begun to sweep through the modem economic world. There is no 
indication that that willingness will be shown until the bitterness of 
dire adversity has wrung it from the misguided Labour Unions of 
Great Britain." 

The artisan should not lose sight of the fact that this question 
of cost is one which affects the employé as well as the employer. 
In the long run the master may be thrust to the wall. He may 



INTRODUCTORY ADDRESS. 313 

Spend his last penny in keeping his works going, but when he closes 
those works the workman's means of livelihood are also, so far as 
the industry there dealt with affects him, closed. Unhappily, 
identity of interest, so necessary to both master and man, is more 
frequently marked by its absence than its presence. Until the 
employé can be induced to recognise in a practical manner the fact 
that his employer's interest is also his interest, those labour regula- 
tions which have been fruitful of so much harm to the manufacturing 
interests of this country, and which must in the end prove disastrous 
to the workman, will continue. So long as the production of a 
certain commodity is peculiar to a given locality, the question of 
cost is not so material; but where its production is world-wide, 
labour conditions must subscribe to those obtaining elsewhere, other- 
wise the market for that commodity will be lost. 

We are speedily approaching a condition in the industrial pro- 
gress of the world that will test to the utmost, not merely our means 
of production and our skill, but our position as a nation; for the 
pre-eminence of a nation will in future be largely determined by its 
progress in manufacture, and from it mainly shall we have to look 
for the means by which the nation's power will be maintained. A 
people may trade. Articles may be bought and sold, but food for 
the worker lies not there. The wealth of a land is to be found in 
that which it produces — whether from the soil or by the handicraft 
of its citizens." 



On the motion of Professor M. Maclean the Chairman was 
thanked for his address, and on the motion of the Chairman 
Professor Gray was thanked for placing his rooms at the disposal 
of the Section. 



22 



'''NOTES ON SOME OF THE CHIEF OBJECTS OF 
INTEREST TO ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS IN THE 
GLASGOW INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1901." 

Paper by W. B. Sayers. 



Abstract. 

The paper deals with the plant, etc., under the following heads: — 

I. Generating and Transforming Plant and Instruments 

IN Use Therewith. 

The Generating Station of the Exhibition. 

The plant in the Machinery Section constituting the generating 
station for the supply of electricity to the Exhibition on the 500- 
volt continuous-current three-wire system (250 volts a side) was 
situated at the south end of the machinery hall and consisted of 
the following: — 

Six Water Tube Boilers : 

Two of 1000 I.H.P. Babcock land type with chain grates. 

One of 800 ,, „ Marine type hand-fired. 

Two of 1000 „ Stirling type, one with Vickers stokers 

and the other gas- or hand-fired. 
One of 600 „ Davey Paxman, with special super-heater. 

One of the Stirling: boilers was fitted for either coal or gas firing, 
and was at that time gas-fired, the gas being supplied from a 
Mason's gas-producer situated at the back of the boiler-house. 
Weir's and Worthington's pumps were feeding the boilers through 
Royal's and Beiriman's heaters and Kennedy's water meters, the 
boiler steam-pressure being 175 lbs. 

THE GENERATING SETS WERE AS FOLLOWS: — 
NO. I.H.P. ENGINE. GENERATOR. 

1. Willans and Cromp- 

ton ... 1200 Multipolar compound, 1350 amps, at 500 V. 

2. British Schuckert 

3. Robey & Mavor & 

Coulson .'.. 

4. Davey Paxman & 

JiZêm \m/ • \h/ • • • • • • • 

5. Belliss & Bruce 

Peebles 

6. Ernest Scott & Moun- 

tain ... ... ... 250 ,, shunt ... 760 „ 250 V. 



>J 


J> 


a 55 


>j 


500 


JJ 


shunt ... 700 


jj 


500 


35 


compound, 570 


a 


400 


a 


» 380 


a 


250 


>> 


shunt ... 760 


a 



a 



3» 



a 



a 



OBJECTS OF INTEREST TO ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS. 315 

7. Alley & Maclellan & 400 Multipolar shunt ... 680 amps, at 250 v. 
Mavor & Coulson 

8. Browett Lindley & 

Ediswan 250. „ „ 525 

9. Sisson & Clark Chap- 

man 150 Two-pole shunt ... 320 

10. Robey, & Scott & 

Mountain 150 Multipolar shunt ... 250 

11. Ruston Procter ... 150 Two-pole compound ...370 

12. Robey, & Scott & 

Mountain ... ... 150 Two-pole shunt ... 200 



3i a 

a »» 

jj »» 



j> fJ 



Other plant included a balancer by Messrs. Bruce Peebles, and 
a three-phase plant by The Lancashire Dynamo and Motor Co. 
and Messrs. Hick Hargreaves. 

The main switchboard was connected by telephones with all sub- 
boards. 

The conductors for arc lights in the grounds were of aluminium. 

Descriptions are given of the Olivetti direct-reading recording 
Wattmeter, Kelvin & James White " feeder log," and the Fer- 
guson automatic overload switch. 

Descriptions are also given of some of the Private Exhibits in 
Group I., including: — 

Transforming plant by the British Schuckert Co. ; generating set 
by Bruce Peebles & Co., with Belliss engine; plant for 5000-volt 
three-phase transmission by Hick Hargreaves & Co. and the 
Lancashire Djmamo and Motor Co., Limited; 800-kw. dynamo 
by Mather & Piatt, Limited; and a 350-kw. slow-speed generator 
by Mavor & Coulson, Limited, with a Robey horizontal slow-speed 
engine. 

2. Gas, Oil, and Coal-Dust Engines. 

The author describes the Westinghouse three-cylinder gas engine 
(125 B.H.P., 260 revolutions per minute) exhibited by the British 
Westinghouse Co. ; a 20-B.H.p. Diesel oil engine made by Messrs. 
Scott & Hodgson; and a M'Callimi's coal-dust burning engine 
made by Messrs. D. Stewart & Co. 

3. Electric Traction. 

Reference is made to the exhibits of the British Schuckert Co., 
including a surface-contact tramcar system and electric locomotives ; 
to a railway circuit-breaker and an electric tramcar exhibited by 
the British Westinghouse Co. ; and to Messrs. Dick Kerr & Co.'s 
exhibits, including a tramcar generator and controllers. 

4. Controllers, Starting Switches, and Starting 

Rheostats. , 

Messrs. Lahmeyer & Co. showed a controller for overhead 
travellers; and among the exhibits of the Sturtevant Engineering 



316 OBJECTS OF INTEREST TO ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS. 

Co. were -motor starting switches, a multipole-switch starting rheo- 
stat, and a self-starting switch for motors. These are described. 

5. Sundry Applications of Electricity. 

The apparatus described in the paper included — 

(a) Electric clocks by Messrs. Ban* & Stroud. 

(b) Drilling machines with magnetic adhesive foot by 

Mather & Piatt, Limited. 

(c) Mining machinery, electric haulage, and rock drills by 

the British Schuckert Co. ; coal cutting machine by 
Clark Stevenson & Co. ; Kurd's coal cutter and a ship 
deck planer by Mavor & Coulson, Limited. 

(d) Motors. Selig Sonnenthal & Co. showed the Stow 

Manufacturing Co.'s motor with flexible shaft. 

(e) Overhead conveyor for goods or luggage in railway 

stations by Mather & Piatt, Limited. 

(f) A Hoe printing press, electrically-driven, exhibited by 

The " Glasgow Herald." 

(g) Pumping. 615-H.P. pumping plant by the British 

Schuckert Co. ; an electrically-driven feed pump by 
Mather & Piatt, Limited; and a centrifugal pump by 
Mavor & Coulson, Limited, 
(h) A search light (150 amperes) by the British Schuckat 
Co. 

6. Telephones. 

The Glasgow Corporation showed a switchboard adapted for 400 
metallic circuit lines (made by the Telegraph Manufacturing Co.) 
and operating 969 subscribers and 15 -junction lines. The system 
of switching is the " Bennett M*Lean." 

The National Telephone Co. also exhibited an exchange con- 
niecting no exhibitors. 

7. Miscellaneous. 

R. G. Ross & Sons showed Ross's speed reduction gear, and the 
British Westinghouse Co. showed experiments with a revolving 
(two-phase) field. 



(^lÎHhe motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
t» Mr. Sayers/ 

The meeting was then adjourned. 



W^EDNESDAY, 4th SEPTEMBER, 1901. 



W. Langdon, Chairman, in the Chair. 



"HIGH SPEED RAILWAY CAR OF THE ALLGEMEINE 
ELECTRICITÀTS GESELLSCHAFT, BERLIN." 

Paper by O. Lasche. 



Abstract. 



The car described in the paper is now finished, and, so far as trials 
and tests in the factory can give an indication of its behaviour 
under working conditions, has answered all expectations. It was 
tested at a peripheral speed of the wheels of about 56 metres per 
second, corresponding to a car speed of 200 to 210 kilometres per 
hour, and has been shown to the technical experts of the Studien- 
gesellschaft fiir Elektrische Schnellbahnen prior to its transference 
to the experimental line. 

I. EXPERIMENTAL LINE. 

The Studiengesellschaft was formed for the purpose of studying 
the technical and economical requirements of electric driving on 
long distance railways. The maximum limit of speed for the 
trials determined upon was 200 km. per hour. After careful 
consideration, it was decided to use an existing military line from 
Berlin to Zossen, placed by the German Military Department at 
the disposal of the Association, as the construction of a special 
experimental line would have involved a serious loss of time and 
much extra expense. The line selected is specially suitable, as 
it can be used for tests of the relative merits of different types of 
permanent way, track beds, rail profiles, and rail joints. 

The present paper relates exclusively to the construction and 
testing of the car, and to investigations and experiments in con- 
nection therewith. The running tests on the line will shortly 
commence, and will, it is hoped, form the basis for future practice 
in two completely different senses. 

(a) Attainment of a Speed of 80 to 100 km. per hour. — In the 
first instance, it is necessary to ascertain what speed is attainable 
without necessitating alterations in the existing line. Then the 
extent of the diminution in the wear and tear of the track must be 
determined when electric cars are used, as compared with that 
caused by steam locomotives running at the same speed. In many 
cases it is probable that the electrical working of a line with single 



318 HIGH SPEED RAILWAY CAR. 

motor-cars will enable existing bridges and tracks to meet the 
requirements of rapidly increasing traffic, whereas the use of heavier 
steam locomotives or longer trains would necessitate alterations. 
The attainment of these speeds would, in itself, be regarded as 
satisfactory, for distances would be covered in a reasonable time, 
and the public would have a more frequent train service, with 
shorter trains, instead of being provided with a few long trains in 
the day. The absence of smoke is a point in favour of electric 
trains. The construction of motor cars presents no difficulty, and 
no special alterations, either of the track, or signalling arrangement, 
or of the ordinary working conditions, are required for an electrical 
service. It is not, however, necessary, that electric traction should 
be more economical than steam traction; it will in many cases be 
sufficient to ensure its adoption to prove that the public will find 
it more agreeable, and that the general arrangements meet the 
requirements of the age. 

(b) Attainment of a Speed of 200 km, per hour. — The experi- 
ments will be continued in the direction of determining the best 
working conditions for running at high speeds, the limits of which 
can only be ascertained by trial. For such high speeds as are 
here contemplated, the present systems of signalling might have 
to be altered, and the crossings and switches abandoned. It 
will be absolutely necessary to establish all high speed service on 
a separate track, with special lines in either direction, exclusively 
for this service. Lines for local and goods traffic must be built 
separately. The investigations to be made relate to the motor 
cars, the construction of the track, and the necessity for ensuring 
safety. 

II. THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE MOTOR CAR. 

The motors are attached to the car itself, and no separate 
locomotive is used. Each car will accommodate about 50 pas- 
sengers. The motors have in all a normal output of 1000 h.p., 
and a maximum output of 3000 h.p. The tests will show whether 
so much power is really necessary, and will indicate the consump- 
tion of power at different speeds, and under the influence of head 
or side winds. 

For the working of long distance railways, the three-phase 
alternate current system could alone be considered. The generation 
and transmission of three-phase currents at from 40,000 to 50,000 
volts pressure present no difficulty, but on the experimental line 
the pressure will be only 12,000 volts, the current being supplied 
from the central generating station of the Berlin Electricity Works, 
which is situated at a distance of 12^ km. from the commencement 
of the line. The length of the line is 24 km. 

At present, transformers are placed on the car itself to transform 
the current down from 12,000 to 400 volts; but it is still undecided 



HIGH SPEED RAILWAY CAR. 319 

whether, in practice, it may not be better to use motors of medium 
voltage, say of 3000 volts, taking the current at this pressure from 
the line, to which it is supplied through transformers placed in 
transformer houses at definite intervals along the track. In this 
case the transformers would reduce the pressure from 50,000 to 
3000 volts. It is well known that static transformers require no 
attendance as compared with rotary transformers. 

The car is provided with a driver's platform at either end, from 
which the control is effected. All parts carrying current are placed 
in a special apparatus compartment, which is separated from the 
rest of the car by a double sheet-iron partition, so that passengers 
and attendants cannot come into contact with current at dangerous 
pressures. The total length of the car is about 22 m., and in 
cross-section it conforms to the standard structure of the German 
State Railway carriages. The car body is carried by two bogies, 
each with three axles, of which the centre is only a running axle, 
whilst each of the others carries a 250 h.p. motor, capable of 
developing a maximum of 750 h.p. The diameter of the car 
wheels is 1250 mm., and the speed about 960 revolutions per 
minute. 

HI. ^INVESTIGATIONS WITH REFERENCE TO THE CONSTRUCTION 

OF THE MOTOR CAR. 

The problem before the designer was the creation of some- 
thing aJtogether new — namely, the construction of an experimental 
motor car, without reference to any existing type either of low 
speed electric locomotive or of street railway cars. The sole 
aim in the investigation was the construction of a motor car to 
rim long distances at the highest possible speed. 

The weight of the Electrical Equipment was, in the first instance, 
not less than 50 tons for the required output of 3000 h.p., but, 
by modifying the construction of the starting apparatus, motors, and 
transformers, the weight was reduced to 30 tons ; but of this weight 
a large proportion was due to the transformers, which may possibly 
be dispensed with altogether hereafter. 

The mechanical connection between the motors and the axles of 
the wheels was a matter of the greatest importance, the use of 
intermediate gearing being out of the question on account of the 
wear and tear to which it would be subjected. Although from 
the first the object was to obtain an elastic coupling, various designs 
and devices were tried, in some of which the motor was rigidly 
attached to the axle, whilst in others springs were introduced. 
The designing of a spring attachment for use at about 1000 
revolutions per minute, and with an output of 750 h.p. per motor, 
was a difficult task. The problem was solved by connecting the 
motor to the wheel by an elastic coupling, and providing an 



320 HIGH SPEED RAILWAY CAR. 

elastic suspension for the motor, the springs being arranged so as 
to have increasing rigidity as the load increases. The motors are 
accordingly mounted on a hollow shaft, of which the surface speed 
^in the bearings is nearly 15 m. per second. Experiments and 
observations have been made as to the friction both at this speed, 
and at others up to 25 and 30 m. per second, and under very great 
bearing pressures. 

Starting Resistances for motors of 250 to 750 h.p. have already 
been used in practice, but the problem of arranging them 
in a confined space, for continuous use in current regula- 
tion in connection with a power of 4 x 750 h.p., has 
never before been contemplated. The relative advantages of 
liquid and metal resistances were considered in detail. The use 
of the former at first seemed out of the question, whilst the latter 
involved the employment of a large number of contacts, brushes, 
connecting cables, and resistance material, making them too heavy 
and cumbersome. 

Four motors, each with three armature circuits, give a total of 
twelve phases, in each of which was inserted a resistance divided 
into twelve steps; but in spite of this sub-division, the regulation 
was found to be too jerky to be satisfactory. Ultimately a liquid 
starting device, that could be equally well used for large winding 
engines, was designed. The resistance material was a solution 
of soda, but the apparatus had nothing in common with the 
ordinary liquid starting résistance. 

Taking into account the fact that a speed of 200 km. per hour 
was contemplated, it was arranged to provide, in addition to the 
Westinghouse air-brake, an Electrical Brake, which could be used 
either in connection with, or independently of, the source of current. 
The brake was so designed that it could be applied either gently 
or powerfully at will. 

Other investigations were made besides those above referred to, 
and from the results obtained in the preliminary trials, there is 
every reason to hope that the motor car will meet all requirements, 
and enable the Association to deal with the questions relating to 
the running of the car on the track. 

The paper contained full details, and many illustrations and 
plates. 



The following members took part in the Discussion : — the Chair- 
man, Sir William H. Preece, Herr E. Rathenau, Professor S. P. 
Thompson, Mr. A. Siemens, Professor Zipemowsky, Herr E. 
Kolben, Mr. Gisbert Kapp, Professor H. S. Carhart, and Professor 
C. A. Carus-Wilson. 

The author replied by correspondence. 

On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
to the author. 



"DANGERS FROM TROLLEY WIRES AND THEIR 

PREVENTION." 

Paper by Professor Andrew Jamieson. 



Abstract. 



This paper was treated under the following headings, and contained 
eight figures showing different kinds of trolley wire guards. 
Specimens and tests of the Glasgow Tramway trolley, guard, span, 
and tension wires, together with their various mechanical and 
electrical fittings; Post OflSce aerial lines and underground cables; 
as well as the National Telephone Coy.'s bare bronze wires and 
their overhead multiple wire cables, were shown and remarked 
upon by the author. 

HEADINGS. 

1. Recent accidents, and the necessity of keeping trolley wires 
free from contact with other overhead conductors. 

2. Methods which have been adopted and proposed for protec- 
tion against contacts with trolley wires. 

3. Board of Trade and Post OflSce regulations. 

4. Contacts between, and the breaking of, guard, span, and 
trolley wires. 

5. Freeing, earthing, and other safety devices. 

6. Aerial telephone and telegraph cables versus underground 
wires or cables. 

Under the last heading the author stated, that there were now 
in Glasgow three authorities dealing with telephone wires, viz. : — 

1. The Government Postal Engineering Department, who aimed 
ait placing underground all their principal city wires which at 
present cross tramway routes. 

2. The National Telephone Co., who had hitherto been pre- 
vented from opening the streets, and had until recently used bare, 
thin, bronze aerial wires, but who were now supplanting these 
(along the main routes which cross tramway lines) by multiple wire 
cables, each containing about 100 fine insulated wires. They 
employ two of these wires for each telephone circuit, upon the 
" closed circuit principle," in order to prevent inductive and earth 
interferences. These insulated cables were much safer than the 

.bare wires. 

3. The Glasgow Corporation, who, having full authority over 
their streets, had taken the precaution to place all their main 
telephone cables in underground cast-iron pipes. 



322 DANGERS FROM TROLLEY WIRES. 

He said : " There cannot be the slightest doubt, that the only 
sure and safe plan is, to place all non-tramway conductors, of what- 
ever kind, underground. If this were done, then there would be 
no necessity for guard wires, thereby leaving the trolley wires free 
from * extraneous contacts, and minimising the aforementioned 
dangers." 



Mr. M. B. Field, M. Ernest Gérard, and Mr. G. R. Blackburn 
took part in the Discussion. 

The author replied! and a vote of thanks was accorded to him. 



"ELECTRICITY SUPPLY METERS OF THE 
ELECTROLYTIC TYPE." 

Paper by J. R. Dick. 



Abstract. 



The author first directs attention to the attractiveness of meters of 
the electrolytic type on account of their inherent simplicity. In 
the case of electrolytic decomposition, where no secondary actions 
take place, the amount of electrolyte decomposed per second is 
directly proportionate to the strength of the current passing. Such 
a cell used as a meter will, therefore, register amj>ere hours per- 
fectly. With motor meters it is necessary to find a special brake, 
the retarding effect of which corresponds to the driving torque, 
in order to get a straight line registration. 

From the engineer's point of view the electrolytic meter has not 
had a permanent popularity. It has earned a bad reputation for 
various reasons, chiefly because it is " messy " and requires atten- 
tion for the renewal of electrodes or electrolyte, and because of 
the great drop of pressure with the unshunted types. The 
simplest design of the latter character ever suggested was that of 
the water decomposing meter of S. D. Mott, described in the 
American " Electrical World " of March 4th, 1893, where the 
volume of water remaining after a current had passed through a 
known volume of water was used to measure the quantity of elec- 
tricity which had passed through it. Attention was again redirected 
to this method of constructing an electricity meter in Mr. Gibbing's 
paper before the Inst of Elect. Engrs. in 1898. 

A short resume is then given of the faults which proved fatal to 
the older forms of electrol5rtic meters, such as Edison's, and an 
explanation is given, illustrated with many diagrams, showing how 
impossible it was to obtain accuracy at low loads when shunts were 
employed. There was always a certain amount of polarization, 
which made the ratio between the main and shunt currents not 
strictly constant. There are several methods of compensating for 
this E.M.F. of polarization, and thus obtaining a registration which 
is a linear function of the current. The best solution of the 
problem of a shunted electrolytic meter, however, is to find a form 
which gives no appreciable polarization. Such a meter can be 
devised where a volume of mercury deposited from a solution of 
mercurous nitrate measures the number of coulombs. Various 
forms of such a meter have been suggested from time to time — 



324 ELECTRICITY SUPPLY METERS OF ELECTROLYTIC TYPE. 

e.g., those of M*Kenna in 1892, Munsberg in 1894, and Gordwitsch 
in 1898. In all of these forms the electrolyte is mercurous nitrate, 
and the anode is mercury, and the cathode either platinum, or 
carbon, or mercury. Advantage was taken of the fluidity of 
mercury to measure the volume of deposited metal instead of 
weighing it, as was necessary in the meters where copper or zinc 
was deposited. 

There was one great difficulty, however, and that was to secure 
constancy in the resistance of the solution, and to prevent the 
formation of crystals on the anode. In all the forms mentioned 
above, the anode was placed below the cathode, and consequently 
the denser solution remained in contact with the anode, and finally, 
when it got too rich in the dissolved salt, it deposited crystals. 
There was no means of automatically mixing the solution so as to 
secure a uniformity of density. There was also the difficulty of 
resetting the instrument after the graduated receptacle became full 
of mercury. These defects have all been removed in the 
electrolytic meter, to which particular notice is directed in this 
paper. Here the anode is placed above the cathode, and is so 
arranged that its active surface is concentric with the latter. The 
mercury of the anode rises to such a height in its trough that the 
dense solution falls off the convex surface of the. mercury by 
gravity, and the lighter solution rises from the cathode, • and 
replaces the dense solution. This interchange of solution goes 
on continuously, and there is no need for agitation or stirring. 
The mercury anode surface is kept above the level of the cathode 
on the well-known ** bird-fountain " principle. The design is such 
that the level and area of the surface always remain constant, and 
therefore the internal resistance of the electrolytic cell is also 
constant. The mercury deposited is first of all collected in a 
graduated tube forming one of the legs of the siphons. As soon 
as 100 units have been deposited and the tube is filled, the whole 
quantity shifts over into a larger tube. The volume of the siphon 
tube is equal to one division on the larger scale. The meter will 
thus register up to 1200 units without resetting. 

The ratio between the main current and the shunt current 
passing through the electrolytic cell is 200 to i. A high resistance 
in circuit with the electrolytic cell prevents errors due to change 
of tiemperature, and consequent diminution in the resistance of the 
latter. Copper wire is employed, the increased resistance of which 
acts as a correction to any change of the resistanct, of the cell 
itself with temperature. 

The resetting of the meter to zero is accomplished by tilting 
the whole tube in a vertical plane, so that all the mercury which 
was deposited in the receptacle flows back into the anode chamber. 
The electrolytic cell is connected in the circuit across a shunting 



ELECTRICITY SUPPLY METERS OF ELECTROLYTIC TYPE. 325 

resistance of platinoid or other similar material, which has a drop 
in pressure not exceeding one volt at full load. There is no 
danger of a defect in the meter causing an interruption to the 
supply, as the main circuit is not completed through mercury. 
The electrolyte and the two electrodes are contained in a hermetic- 
ally sealed glass tube. This is possible, as no gas is given off from 
the chemical action. There is, therefore, no necessity for renewing 
any of the parts of which the meter is composed. The mercury 
which is deposited from the cathode, on tilting the meter, is trans- 
ferred to its original position in the anode chamber, and the whole 
cycle of operations can be repeated ad infinitum. There is no 
evaporation, there is no deterioration in the quality of the 
materials, no efflorescence due to atmospheric conditions, and the 
meter is entirely unaffected by changes in the barometic pressure; 
and, as the tests show, only to a very small extent by temperature. 
There is practically no limit to its starting current, and the 
accuracy of its registration can be attained at all loads. Of four 
meters tested with a current of .05 of an ampere, two registered 
100 per cent., one 95 per cent, of the whole quantity of electricity 
passed through them. The advantages of such a meter are 
obvious, and the simplicity and convenience of its design ought 
to remove the lingering objections which have hitherto applied to 
the general body of electrolytic meters. A conspicuous advantage 
is that there is no need to renew any of the parts, as, when once 
a meter is filled, it contains everything that is essential for its 
operation for an indefinite period as long as the glass tube remains 
intact. The ease of reading is a point not to be despised, as most 
people are familiar with the readings of a thermometer and 
barometer, and this is entirely similar. The cost of the meter, 2& 
in the case of most electrolytic meters, is comparatively small. 

The author then gives the results of many tests which he has 
taken, showing the behaviour of the meter at light loads and at 
ordinary loads. Various results are given, showing how extremely 
minute is the value of t in the equation 

E = Et + ^) + 

Tests of records at different temperatures are also given, and 
the paper concludes with some observations on the behaviour of 
the meter in practice. 



On the motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded 
to the author. 



'' KELVIN'S ELECTRIC MEASURING INSTRUMENTS. 

Paper by Professor Magnus Maclean. 



»♦ 



Abstract 



Lord Kelvin has altogether 38 patents on electric instruments, 
and particulars of these are given in two appendices. 
The instruments were classified under four heads : — 

I. Electrometers. 
II. Electromagnetic Instruments. 
III. Electrodynamic Instruments. 
IV. Recording Instruments. 

I. Electrometers were divided into : — 

(a) Symmetrical. 

(b) Attracted Disc. 

The Symmetrical include : — 
(i) Quadrant Electrometers. 

(2) Multicellular Electrometers. 

(3) Vertical Electrostatic Voltmeters. 

The Attracted Disc include : — 
(i) Absolute Electrometers. 

(2) Long Range Electrometers. 

(3) Portable Electrometers. 

(4) Electrostatic Balances. 

No description of these well-known instruments was given, but i 

a standard air Leyden condenser was fully described, as, in con- I 

junction with a suitable electrometer, it affords a convenient means 
of quickly measuring small electrostatic capacities, such as those 
of short lengths of cables. 

II. Electromagnetic Instruments include : — 

(i) Reflecting, differential, and ballistic Galvanometers. 

(2) Graded Galvanometers. 

(3) Suspended-coil Amperemeters and Voltmeters in six 
different tj^es : — (a) Edgewise pattern, (b) Round 
pattern, (c) Thistle pattern, with or without illuminated 1 
dial, (d) Portable pattern in aluminium case, (e) Port- I 
able paralleling pattern, and (f) Reflecting mirror 
pattern. / 

(4) Ampere Gauges. 



Kelvin's electric measuring instruments. 327 

The ampere gauges have had two very important improvements 
introduced of late years. The first improvement relates to the 
coil, and the object is to obtain a coil which will give a more 
uniform field than is attained by ordinary methods. The second 
improvement relates to the method of suspending the soft iron 
plunger which is now suspended from a sector. These two Im- 
provements were described. 

III. The Electrodynamic Instruments include: — 
(i) Ampere balances. 

(2) Watt balances. 

(3) Engineroom Wattmeters. 

(4) Three-phase Wattmeters. 

Particulars and diagrams of the coils of the engine-room and 
three-phase Wattmeters were given. 

IV. The Recording Instruments include : — 

(i) Amperemeters of the ampere gauge sector pattern. 

(2) Voltmeters of the ampere gauge sector pattern. 

(3) A combination of IV., i and 2, called a Feeder Log. 

(4) Astatic Voltmeters on the principle of Wattmeter III., 3. 

(5) Astatic Wattmeters like IV., 4, except that the fixed 

coils are of copper ribbon, and carry the main current, 
while the movable coils with electric lamps in series 
with them take the shunt current. 

The instruments were also classified as follows : — 

I. Standard Instruments : — 

(i) Ampere Balances. 

(2) Watt Balances. 

(3) Multicellular Electrostatic Voltmeters. 

(4) Vertical Electrostatic Voltmeters. 

(5) Quadrant Electrometers. 

(6) Absolute Electrometers. 

II. Portable Instruments : — 



(i) Horizontal Multicellular Voltmeters. 

(2) Portable Suspended Coil Amperemeters and Voltmeters. 

(3) Testing Set for measuring insulation resistance. 

(4) Cell Tester. 

(5) Rail Tester. 

(6) Paralleling Voltmeters. 

(7) Graded Galvanometers for currents and potentials. 

(8) Portable Electrometers. 

III. Central Station Instruments : — 

(i) AU the Electrostatic Voltmeters. 



328 Kelvin's electric measuring instruments. 

(2) The Suspended Coil Voltmeters and Amperemeters. 

(3) The Ampere Gauge Recording Voltmeters and Ampere- 

meters, including the Feeder Log. 

(4) Earth Current Recorder. 

(5) Astatic Recording Voltmeters for alternating currents. 

(6) Recording Wattmeters. 

(7) All the types of Ampere Gauges. 

(8) Engine-room Wattmeters. 

(9) Three-phase Wattmeters. 
(10) Rail Tester. 

The paper was illustrated by twenty-five figures. 



Mr. W. A. Chamen took part in the Discussion, and on the 
motion of the Chairman a vote of thanks was accorded to Professor 
Maclean. 

(Appendices, see pp. 329-330.) 



I 

■ 



KELVIN s ELECTRIC MEASURING INSTRUMENTS. 



329 



PATENTS RELATING TO IMPROVEMENTS IN APPARATUS 

FOR GENERATING, REGULATING, MEASURING, RECORDING, 

AND INTEGRATING ELECTRIC CURRENTS. 






3032 
5668 
2028 
4617 

4655 

5355 
6410 

10530 

11106 

9016 

1803s 

18035a 

18035b 

15769 

1004 

18436 

10230 

2198 



Date of 

Provisional 

Spedflcation and 

of Complete 

Speeiflcation. 



July 
Jan. 



9 
9 



Dec. 26 

June 28 

April 21 
Oct. 20 

Sept. 28 
Mar. 27 

Mar. 10 
Oct. 8 
Mar. 22 

Nov. 10 
Mar. 10 
Oct. 28 

July 24 
April 25 
Aug. 9 
May 7 
July 10 
April 9 

Dec. II 
Sept. 7 
Dec. II 
Sept. 7 
Dec. II 
Sept. 7 

Oct. 8 
July 7 

Jan. 2O; 

Oct. 20 

Oct. 27 

July 22 

May 30 

July 2 

Feb. I 

Nov. I 



881 
882 

881 
882 

883 
883 

883 
884 

884 
884 
884 
884 
884 
884 

884 
885 
884 
885 
886 
887 

888 
889 
888 
889 
888 
889 

889 
890 

891 
891 
891 
892 
892 
892 

893 
893 



TITLE OF PATENT. 



Improvements in regulating electric 
currents, and in the apparatus or 
means employed therein, - 

Improvements in dynamo-electric 
machinery, and apparatus con- 
nected therewith, - - . 

Improvements in apparatus and 
processes for generating, regulat- 
ing and measuring electric currents 

Apparatus for generating, regulat- 
ing, measuring, recording, and 
integrating electric currents. 

New or improved suspensions for 
electrical incandescent lamps, - 

Improvements in dynamo-electric 
machinery, .... 

Improvements in breaking electric 
contact to prevent over-heating 
by imperfect contact. 

Safety hises for electric circuits, - 

Improvements in apparatus for 
measuring electric currents. 

Improved apparatus for measuring 
the efficiency of an electric circuit 
(Amended Oct. 4, 1897), - 

Electrostatic apparatus for measur- 
ing potentials, - - - - 

An improved ampere gauge and 
connections, - . - - 

Improved apparatus for continu- 
ously measuring potentials or 
currents, 

Apparatus for measuring and re- 
cording electric currents (allowed 
to lapse), 

An improved indicator for electric 
potentials, - - - . 

Improved apparatus for measuring 
and recording electric currents, - 

An improved electric condenser, - 

Improvements in balances, - 






II 
18 
28 

41 
4 
3 



3 
7 



10 

13 
4 
3 



4 
2 

5 
2 



â 

7i 



3 
13 

25 

18 
I 
I 



2 
I 



28 

3 
3 



3 
I 

3 
2 



I 



5^S 



• ! 



70 \ 

: lapse 

48 



36 

2 

5 

6 
13 



40 

7 
6 



4 

3 

6 
2 



23 



aao 



Kelvin's electric measuring instruments. 



<D a 
.a 



Is 



Date of 

Provisional 

SpeciAcAtion and 

of Complete 

Specifica^tiiQu. 



2199 



Feb. I, 1893 

Feb. I, 1893 

5733 ; Mar. 17, 1893 

Dec. 16, 1893 

24471 Dec. 20, 1893 

; Oct. 20, 1894 

24979 i Dec. 29, 1893 

Dec. 29, 1894 

15034 I Aug. 7, 1894 



TITLE Oy PATENT. 



u en 



2261 

18438 

21716 

3937 



Nov. 
Sept. 

Aug. 
May 
Oct. 
July 
Mar. 
Dec. 



27, 1895 

28, 1896 

9, 1897 
9, 1898 

15, 1898 

14, 1899 

I, 1900 

I, 1900 



An instrument for measuring elec- 
tric currents, ... - 

Improved arrangement for reading 
the deflections of electric instru- 
ments, 

Improvements in electric supply 
meters, 

Improvements in instruments for 
measuring and recording electric 
pressures and currents, 

Improvements ia in^ruments for 
measuring electric currents. 

Improvements in apparatus for in- 
dicating and recording electric 
supply, 

Improved coil for electric instru- 
ments, 

Improvements in electric measuring 
instruments, - - - - 

Apparatus for indicating and record- 
ing electric pressure and curreat. 



2 
3 



5 

3 
2 

3 



II 



IQQ 



I 
I 



I 
I 
I 
I 




2 

5 
I 

4 



PATENTS RELATING TO IMPROVEMENTS IN TELEGRAPHIC 

APPARATUS. 



329 

329 

2047 

1784 
2147 

3069 



252 

810 

2086 

1095 
24868 



Feb. 20, 1858 
Aug. 19, 1858 
May 19, 1 87 1 
Aug;. 25, i860 
Feb. 25, 1 86 1 
July 6, 1865 
Jan. 6, 1866 
July 23, 1867 
Jan. 23, 1868 

Nov. 23, 1870 
Not allowed. 



Jan. 31, 1871 
July 31, 1871 

Mar. 25, 1 87 1 

Void. 
June 12, 1873 
Dec. 12, 1873 
Mar. 13, 1876 
Sept. 13, 1876 
Dec. 28, 1895 
Sept. 28, 1896 



Ijmprovements in testing and work- 
ing electric telegraphs. 

Disclaimer, . - . - 

],mprovements ip the means of 
telegraph^ communication, 

Impi;ovements in electric tele* 
graphs, - - - - 

Improvements in receiving or re- 
cording instruments for electric 
telegraphs, - - . . 

Improvements in electric telegraph 
transmitting, receiving, and re- 
cording instruments, and in 
clopks, 

Improvements in transmitting) 
receiving, and recording instru- 
ments for electric telegraphs, 

Improvements in clocks and ap- 
paratus for giving uniform motion 

Improvements in telegraphic ap- 
paratus, 

Improvements in telegraphic ap- 
paratus, 

Improvements in recording instru- 
ments for telegraphic and other 
purposes, - - . - - 



36 
19 

37 

14 



lo 



33 



24 



4 
I 



27 
9 



14 
16 



4 

4 



37 



II 
21 



THURSDAY, 5th SEPTEMBER, 1901. 



W. Langdon, Chairman, in the Chair. 



The Chairman gave the substance of a communication he had 
received from Dr. Glazebrook regarding the National Physical 
Laboratory and the work which was to be done there. 



" THE RELATIVE ADVANTAGES OF THREE, TWO, AND 
SINGLE PHASE SYSTEMS FOR FEEDING LOW- 
TENSION NETWORKS." 

Paper by M. B. Field. 



Abstract. 



A TRACTION system is first considered where the distribution of 
power is effected by means of continuous current at 500 volts, from 
various sub-stations, these being fed from a single distant generat- 
ing station with high tension alternating currents. It is assumed 
that the choice of frequency is open. 

The choice of converter lies between : — 
(i) Rotary converters with transformers. 

(2) Synchronous motor generators without transformers. 

(3) Non-synchronous motor generators without transformers. 

Tables are given showing that — (i) of rotary converters, the 
six-phase rotary used on a three-phase system is the best, owing to 
the greater load per unit weight it will carry; (2) the rotary con- 
verter is lighter, more efficient, cheaper, and equally as simple and 
practicable a converter as a motor generator, provided the fre- 
quency be kept low ; (3) the multi-phase converter of whatever type 
is preferable to the single-phase converter. The single-phase 
rotary is not a practicable converter, and is not considered. 

Cables. — ^It is pointed out that the three-phase system should 
theoretically give the minimum weight of copper in the transmission 
line per kw. transmitted, with given percentage loss and strain upon 
the insulation of generatçrs, cables, etc. A specific case is con- 
sidered, a three-phase transmission one mile long at 6500 volts 
p)er phase, transmitting 1000 kw. through three-core cables, being 
taken as a working basis of comparison. 



832 SYSTEMS FOR FEEDING LOW-TENSION NETWORKS. 

The alternatives are for single-phase — 
(i) One concentric cable. 

(2) Two independent single-core cables. 

(3) One two-core cable. 

For two-phase— 

(i) Two concentric cables. 

(2) Four single-core cables. 

(3) Two two-core cables. 

(4) One four-core cable. 

In comparing the various systems, either the strain on the 
insulation of the generators, transformers, etc., may be kept the 
same in each case, or the strain in the insulation of the cables may 
be kept the same. These are two entirely different conditions, 
which do not necessarily hold simultaneously. Conditions are 
also varied when the neutral point of the generating system is 
earthed, and when it is not earthed. Various cases are considered 
and discussed, the result arrived at being in favour of three-core 
cables and a three-phase supply. 

Board of Trade regulations may have an important bearing on 
the choice of the system. For example, if an earthed shield be 
required, and for this reason two concentric cables be used for a 
two-phase system, the outers forming a common main may have 
each a smaller cross section than the corresponding inner con- 
ductor. This will mean less copper for the two-phase system than 
for the corresponding single-phase system. If no earth shield be 
provided, and concentric cables be avoided, and in their place two- 
core cables be adopted, the weight of copper is the same for the 
two systems. If, on the other hand, three-core cables be used for 
a three-wire two-phase system, all cores being insulated from earth, 
a greater weight of copper is required for the two-phase than for 
the single-phase system, if they are both placed on the same basis 
as regards strain on insulation. 

Generators. — Three-phase generators are cheaper and lighter 
than single-phase generators, and the synchronising effects are 
greater. 

When it is a question of mixed lighting and power, and a higher 
frequency is adopted, the advantages of the three-phase system 
are not so predominating. Single-phase motors, though not so 
efficient, and having a lower power factor than three-phase motors, 
are nevertheless very serviceable motors. Frankfort is instanced 
as a case where a large amount of motor power is distributed from 
lighting circuits successfully. In well laid out three-phase schemes 
lights may be connected to motor circuits, and a mixed system may 
thus be adopted with very good results. 

If the transmission from the generating station to the transform- 



SYSTEMS FOR FEEDING LOW-TENSION NETWORKS. 333 

ing centres be a long one, economy is obtained by adopting a three- 
phase transmission. There is, however, no economy in a three- 
phase distribution where lamps are connected between each pole 
and the neutral point of the system, as against a single-phase 
distribution laid out on the three-wire system. 

Hence the adoption of two-phase systems in cases where the 
transmission losses are not great, and where both motors and lamps 
are connected. The advantage will be emphasised if the system 
be hampered by Board of Trade regulations, as stated above. 

A three-phase combined system adopted in America has met 
with a certain amount of favour where the voltage of one phase 
alone is kept constant, all incandescent lamps being connected 
across this phase. In such a case the other phases are loaded in 
any way in which it is not essential to keep the voltage absolutely 
constant. In this case no attempt is made to keep the phases 
balanced. Three-phase motors and transformers are connected 
across all three phases. The effect of this is to tend to equilibrate 
the load on the three phases, since a motor takes most power from 
the phase of which the voltage is highest. A good three-phase 
generator may be used as a single-phase generator up to about 
75 per cent, of its rated output. It is pointed out that an un- 
balanced load of this nature goes far to counteract the special 
economy of the three-phase system, in which case a two-phase 
system would probably be equally advantageous. 



The following members took part in the Discussion : — ^the Chair- 
man, Herr E. Kolben, Professor H. S. Carhart, Mr. W. B. Essoo, 
Professor Silvanus Thompson, Mr. W. G. Rhodes, Herr O. T. 
Blathy, Mr. Gerald Stoney, Mr. W. Geipel, Mr. F. Broadbent. 

The author replied, and a vote of thanks was accorded to Him. 



^'MODERN COMMUTATING DYNAMO MACHINERY, 

WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE 

COMMUTATING LIMITS." 

Paper by H. M. Hobart. 



Abstract. 



In the design of the continuous current d3niamo, in spite of the 
lapse of many years since the introduction of such machinery, 
there is not that progress observable which has characterised 
electrical engineering in general. There is certainly still very 
greai opportunity for improvement, and much may be done without 
any radical innovations, merely by making more general use of the 
technical knowledge of the subject at present at our disposal. 
One persistent error has been the perhaps natural assumption that 
the kilowatts output should be given predominating consideration 
in la3âng down the lines of the design, and that the required volt- 
and amperage are of altogether minor importance. This has led 
to the frequent use of very inappropriate designs, particularly with 
relation to the commutator, the armature winding, and the number 
of poles and general construction of the magnetic circuit. Machines 
of different voltages, but for the same kilwatts output, have, how- 
ever, one set of features in common — namely, all those features 
relating to the amount of mechanical power to be transformed into 
electrical, or vice versa; in other words, the mechanical design in 
general. The paper goes on to describe a group of machines 
designed with due regard not only to these features of mechanical 
similarity, but also to the points where the designs should diverge 
in order to suitably comply with the requirements of the different 
voltage and current ratings. In these machines, which are 
described in considerable detail, the base, stands, bearings, and 
shaft are the same for all voltages, but while in the low voltage 
design the electro-magnetic part of the machine is extremely 
narrow and the commutator wide, the high voltage machine has 
precisely the opposite characteristics. Since, however, the 
diameter of commutator, armature, field bore, and magnetic yoke 
are the same for all voltages, it is quite practicable to use to a 
great extent the same drawings and patterns for all voltages, the 
patterns being extended or not according as castings for machines 
of the one or the other voltage are required. It is shown how 
jiaturally all this works out, and the opinion is put forth that by 



MODERN COMMUTATING DYNAMO MÀCHINERt. 335 

the use of these principles the best results for a given outlay may 
be obtained. For the group of machines described, which range 
from 80 kilowatts at 580 r.p.m. to 150 kilowatts at 425 r.p,m., the 
cost for " net effective material " was quite uniformly 16.5 shillings 
per kilowatt for all voltages. The guarantee to which they were 
designed is given as follows : — 25 per cent, overload for one half 
hour without harmful sparking or heating. Thermometrically 
measured temperature increase of warmest part not to exceed 50 
deg. Cent, above surrounding atmosphere during continuous 
operation at rated load. No harmful sparking or heating with 
momentary overloads of 50 per cent. Fixed brush position for 
all these conditions. Insulation of entire machine, fro'm copper 
circuits to iron, to withstand for one minute at 20 deg. Cent, the 
application of the following R.M.S. voltages : — 

Rated Voltage. Test Voltage. 

115- 2500 

230 3000 

550 3500 

Incidentally the assertion is made that low reactance voltage 
greatly outweighs in importance low armature strength so far as 
relates to excellence in commutation, and high commutator 
peripheral speeds are advocated on account of the very great imi- 
provement in commutating constants thereby rendered practicable. 
Careful attention to all these different considerations still permits 
of a fair degree of interchangeability and uniformity in the designs 
for different voltages of the same kilowatts output. 

The paper treats in considerable detail of the author's (*) method 
of estimating the reactance voltage. The following principles 
uhderlie this method : — Experiments on various arrangements of 
armature slots of a wide range of shapes and sizes, with variously 
proportioned coils arranged in many ways with respect to these 
slots, have shown that the number of c.g,s. lines of magnetic flux 



* This method of estimating the reactance voltage is based upon substanti- 
ally the same principles as the method published two years ago by Mr. 
H. F. Parshall and the present writer. The novelty in the method, as 
then described by them, consisted chiefly in starting from the basis of 
representative values for the inductance, as expressed in terms of the 
lines set up per ampere turn per unit of length of laminations, and it led 
to substantially the same results as one obtains by the method in its 
present form. As now set forth, it allocates the components of the in- 
ductance in the " free " and " embedded " lengths respectively, giving 
guiding values for estimating these components, and supporting them by 
fairly thorough tests and by experience gained in applying the method to 
a greaf variety of machines, so that now, it is believed, the method may 
be employed still more effectively. 



336 MODERN COMMUTATING DYNAMO MACHINERY. 

set Up per ampere-turn of these coils may, as an average, be 
taken at — 

4.0 lines per centimetre of " embedded " length. 
0.8 „ „ "free" 

The tests made showed a very much smaller range of variation 
in these values for different proportions than has generally been 
considered to be the case ; hence, while in abnormal cases modified 
values should be taken, one may, nevertheless, in the great majority 
of designs, make an amply sufficient approximation to the reactanoe 
voltage by the use of these average values. In the course of the 
description of this method, the following rather interesting con- 
clusion is pointed out : — 

The inductance of a coil laid upon the surface of the armature 
— i.e., on the lines formerly so frequently employed, and sometimes 
nowadays termed " smooth core " construction — is, with customary 
proportions, rarely much less than one-third, and often one-haliF 
or more as great as in the case of the same coil laid in slots. 

This conclusion follows from the experimental result that with 
ordinary open slots, with parallel sides, of the proportions generally 
found in modern continuous-current generators, the inductance per 
centimietre of " embedded " length is generally only some 4 to 6 
times greater than the inductance per centimetre of " free " length, 
and with the dimensions of face conductors and end connections 
nowadays generally used, the inductance of the " free " length is 
a very considerable percentage, say 25 to 40 per cent, of the total 
inductance of a coil. 

After illustrating these methods and principles by data of a 
number of designs of machines of all sizes, the paper takes up the 
consideration of the case of large high-speed commutating machines, 
and it is stated that, by the employment of high armature reaction 
{as expressed in armature ampere-tums per pole piece), and high 
commutator peripheral speeds, even 600 volt machines of large 
capacity may be designed with excellent commutating properties 
for high speeds. 

The paper closes with mention of the large number of ratings 
required to meet all the present commercial requirements for a 
line of small motors, and expresses the opinion that it is false 
economy not. to admit at the outset the magnitude of the under- 
taking of manufacturing such a complete line. 



The Discussion on this paper was combined with that on the 
paper by Mr. H. A. Mavor (see p. 340). 

The author replied at the meeting and by correspondence, and 
a vote of thanks was accorded to him. 



"DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS-CURRENT DYNAMOS." 

Paper by Henry A. Mayor. 



Abstract. 



The present methods of designing dynamos and recording results 
do not readily lend themselves to comparison of machines of 
different outputs. It would, therefore, be of advantage if a 
suitable unit of comparison could be devised, and it is suggested 
that a consideration of the continuous-current dynamo, leaving out 
of account all the non-essential elements of design and construction, 
and concentrating attention upon the vital portion of the machine 
which alone is concerned in the direct generation of energy, would 
lead to a suitable basis of comparison. 

It is therefore proposed to consider as a whole the region 
occupied by the armature conductors in the magnetic field. This 
region may be named the " active belt " of the armature. It is 
bounded by the peripheral surface of the armature, the surface of 
the core at the bottom of the slots and the ends of the core. An 
examination of the machine in the terms bt the energy generated 
in this " active belt " leads to the interesting result that machines 
of very widely varying size, output, and speed, give a remarkably 
constant value in watts generated per cubic centimetre at unit 
velocity in unit field. This constant may be expressed in symbols 
thus: — 

/-|\ K = 

irdls X irdn x F 

The value of the constant K must be a compromise between 
economy in first cost and efficiency of radiation of lost watts. The 
maximtun value gives zero electrical efficiency; the maximum 
possible output of the machine is at half this value. 

A reduction of value of the constant leads to increased quantity 
of material, increased cost of construction, and increased electrical 
efficiency. A consideration of the dynamo from this point of view 
suggests increase in the depth of the " active belt," reduction in the 
watts generated per cubic centimetre, and reduction in the depth 
of the core so as to minimise hysteresis and eddy current losses in 
the core, with consequent increase in diameter and multiplication 
of the number of poles. A comparison between the results obtained 
by different designers of the proper value of this constant should 



838 DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS-CURRENT DYNAMOS. 

be of immediate interest. It will be noted that this consideratioii 

includes the radiation of all lost energy from the surface of the 

armature, the value being the total watts generated by the machine. 

The total electromotive force of the machine in volts is given by 

The reactance voltage of any machine considered on the lines 
of Messrs. Parshall & Hobart's book on " Electric Generators " 
may be ascertained by a very simple calculation. Assimiing a 
sine wave form for the fluctuations in the current under cc«n- 
mutation, the value of the reactance voltage is given by the 
formula: — 

{^)r= h 
and from 2 and 3 

The value of the field / due to the current under commutation 
is probably not so constant as indicated in the work above referred 
to, but any desired correction may be made on this factor by 
introducing the relation between the depth and width of the slot 
or any elements which the designer may consider it necessary to 
introduce. The value of F, the average field, per unit surface of 
the core being practically constant, the reactance voltage of any 
machine can be ascertained practically by inspection. This formula 
{4) indicates that the reactance voltage is not subject to much 
modification for any given output. 

. The average emf generated in m turns of the winding 

(5) 2mlF7rd7i 
e = 

In lap wound armatures e equals difference of potential between 
adjacent sections of the commutator. 

In wave wound armatures the difference of potential between 
adjacent sections of the commutator equals 

Poles 

-"^ 2 

From these formulae are derived — 

.n\ GmC K X Trds x 10® » i. • xu i. 

(6) = rr = Ampere turns m the armature. 

^ p 2 

(From 1 and 2.) 



DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS-CURRENT DYNAMOS. 339 



(7) 


e 
r 




(8) 


c 




\^J 


r 




(9) 


e 
r 





-^5L. (From 3 and 5.) 



2P 



Ktt/sIO 



8 



fErom 1, 4, and 5.) 



27rF2 dH'R f^ ^ . . ^ . 
X -^^^T-' (From 1 and 8.) 



60/ 108 W 

Curves are plotted of 7, 8, and 9, showing the relation of ampere 
turns on armature, slot depth and armature dimensions, to the 
reactance voltage and e,fn,f, between commutator segments. 

Turning now to the consideration of cost, it is found that in the 
case of many groups of machines there is no regular ratio between 
the cost and the output. There ought to be such a regular 
relation, and the following method is suggested for obtaining this 
result : — 

Plotting watts per revolution as abscissae and costs as ordinates, 
the position of each machine is marked, and the points representing 
cost and output for each carcase of a given diameter with varying 
length are joined by a straight line which is produced to the origin. 
The point where this line cuts the zero ordinate gives the limit of 
cost to which this carcase approaches as the core length is reduced 
to zero, and may be called the base cost of any given carcase; 
the slope of the line drawn through the costs of the machine at 
different lengths show the cost per inch length of " active belt " 
on that carcase. Increase of diameter increases the base cost and 
reduces the slope of the line passing through the costs of the actual 
machines, so that, starting from the smallest diameter and passing 
to the largest, will give a succession of straight lines, each touching 
its next lower neighbour at one point, and producing a curve made 
up of segments of the lines representing each machine, each 
segment showing the economical range of length for the machine 
which it represents. 

Symbols used in this Paper. 

A = Length of air space. 

b = The maximum number of sections of commutator covered 

by the brush. 
C = Total armature current in amperes. 
d = Diameter of core measured to the middle of the active 

belt in centimetres. 
e = Average e.m.f. generated in m turns of the winding 

in volts. 
E = Total e.m.f, generated by armature in volts. 
f = Induction Field in c.g.s. lines per centimetre length of 
slot, due to one complete turn. 



340 DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS-CURRENT DYNAMOS. 

F = Average Flux taken over the, whole surface of the 

arraature, in c.g.s. lines per square centimetre. 
G = Number of sections in the commutator. 
K = Watts generated per cubic centimetre of active belt 
at unit velocity in unit field, called energy factor. 
I = Nett length of armature core in centimetres. 
m = Armature turns per commutator section. 
n = Eevolutions of armature per second. 
P = Number of poles in magnets. 
p = Number of paths through armature, 
r = Eeactance voltage. 
s = Depth of slot in centimetres. 
E = 60w = revolutions per minute. 
W = E C = Total watts generated by active belt. 



The Discussion on this paper was combined with that on Mr. 
Hobart'$ paper, and was taken part in by the following members : — 
Mr. H. A. Mavor, Mr. Gisbert Kapp, Professor Silvanus P. 
Thompson, Mr. W. A. Chamen, Mr. W. B. Sayers, Col. R. E. 
Crompton, and Mr. W. B. Esson (communicated). 

The authors replied, and a vote of thanks was accorded to them. 

The following votes, proposed by the President, were passed: — 
(first) that the thanks of the members of the Section be given to 
Dr. Caird and the Commiittee of the Congress, and to the General 
Secretary, for the admirable arrangements made both for the 
comfort and convenience of the members, and (second) that the 
best thanks of the Institution of ElectricaJ Engineers be given to 
the University of Glasgow and to Professor Gray for the use of 
the Natural Philosophy Theatre for the meeting. 

A vote of thanks was also accorded to the President on the 
motion of Professor Jamieson. 

This closed the business of the Section. 



List of Societies and Institutions in Great Britain and 
Ireland which toolc part in the Congress. 



The Aberdeen Mechanical Society. 

The Cleveland Institution of Engineers. 

The Glasgow University Engineering Society. 

The Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College Scientific 
Society. 

The Hull and District Institute of Engineers and Naval 
Architects. 

The Incorporated Association of Municipal and County 
Engineers. 

The Incorporated Gas Institute. 

The Incorporated Institution of Gas Engineers. 

The Incorporated Municipal Electrical Association. 

The Institution of Civil Engineers. 

The Institution of Civil Engineers of Ireland. 

The Institution of Electrical Engineers. 

The Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland. 

The Institution of Junior Engineers. 

The Institute of Marine Engineers. 

The Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 

The Institution of Mining Engineers. 

The Institution of Naval Architects. 

The Iron and Steel Institute. 

The Liverpool Engineering Society. 

The Manchester Association of Engineers. 

The Mining Institute of Scotland. 

The North British Association of Gas Managers. 

The North-East Coast Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders. 

The Royal Engineers Institute. 

The Society of Engineers. 

The South Wales Institute of Engineers. 

The West of Scotland Iron and Steel Institute. 



[ 



iMt of F^r^lgn atni Colonial D0l0gat^9 an€t 

Honorary Mombora, 



AUSTRALIA. 

Australasian Institute of Mining Engineers, Melbourne. 
James Stirling, 15 Victoria Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 

Victorian Institute of Engineers. 
George Higgins, 60 Martel Street, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 



E. W. Eiohards, City Surveyor, Sydney, N.S.W. 

J. M. Small, Chief Engineer to the Metropolitan Board of Works,. 
Sydney, N.S.W. 

AUSTRIA. 

Ministry for Education and Public Worship, 
Professor Karl Hochenegg, Technical High School, Vienna. 

Ministry for Railways. 
Karl Goelsdorf . 

Oesterreichischer Ingenieur-umd Architekten Verein Vienna. 

Professor Fritz Edler von Emperger, Technical High School, 

Vienna. 
Oskar Guttmann, 12 Mark Lane, London, E.C. 
C. de Kierzkowski- Stewart, 17 Victoria Street, Westminster, 

London, S.W. 

F. Krauss, Seilerstrasse 11, Vienna, I/l. 
J. Spacil, 1 ZoUamtstrasse, Vienna, III/2. 



Karl Jenny, Chief of Locomotive Shops, Austrian Southern Eail- 

way, Innsbruck. 
Emil Kolben, Vysocan-Prag, Austria. 
M. Pichler, Chief of the Construction and Traffic Department^ 

Austrian State Eailways, Vienna. 
M. G. Eank, Fuhrmannsgasse, Vienna, VIII/2. 
A. Smreck, Belcredi Strasse, 831, Prag, Austria. 



344 FOREIGN AND COLONIAL DELEGATES 

BELGIUM. 

Ministère des Finances et des Travaux Fvhlics, 

J. Troost, Inspecteur Général des Ponts et Chaussées, Bruxelles. 
J. Pierrot, Directeur des Ponts et Chaussées, Bruxelles. 
L. Van Gansberghe, Directeur des Ponts et Chaussées, Ostend. 
H. Vander Vin, Ingénieur Principal des Ponts et Chaussées, 
Bruxelles. 

Ministère des Chemins de Fer y Postes et Télégraphes. 

M. Gérard, Ingénieur en Chef, f . f . d'Inspecteur Général, Bruxelles. 
M. Van Bogaert, Ingénieur Principal, Bruxelles. 

Ministère de Vlndustiie et du Travail, Bruxelles, 

J. F. Demaret, Ingénieur Principal, Corps des Mines, Bruxelles. 
M. Libert, Ingénieur en Chef, Corps des Mines, Bruxelles. 
V. Wattejme, Ingénieur en Chef, Corps des Mines, Bruxelles. 

Société Géologique de Belgique, Liège. 
Professor A.. Habets, 4 Eue Paul Devaux, Liège. 

Société Belge de Géologie, de Paléontologie et d' Hydrologis, Bruxelles. 

Ernest Van den Broek, Secrétaire-Général, 39 Place de l'Industrie, 
Bruxelles. 

Association des Ingénieurs Sortis de VEcole de Liège. 

Adolphe Greiner, General Manager, Société Anonyme John 
Cockerill, Seraing, Belgium. 

Association des Gaziers Belges, Liège. 

M. Boscheron, 13 Eue Simon, Liège. 

M. Busine, Boulevard Baudoire-le-Batisser, Mons. 

M. Escoyez, Tertre-lez-Baudour, Belgium. 

M. Salomons, 133 Chaussée d'Ixelles, Bruxelles. 

M. Tricot, Directeur de V Usine à Gaz de Mons, Mons. 

M. Trifet, Administrateur, Délégué de la Société des Usines à Gaz 

Eéunies. 
M. Van Heede, Usine à Gaz de Koekelberg-Bruxelles, Belgium. 
M. Verstraeten, 26 Eue Marie de Bourgogne, Bruxelles. 



AND HONORARY MEMBERS. 345 

Société des Ingénieurs Sortis de V Ecole ProvindaU d'Industrie et des 

Mines du Haiîiaut. 

Professor Henry Van Laer^ 83 Eue de Berckmons, Bruxelles. 



B, Bouillon, Chef du Service des Voies et Travaux, Société 
Nationale des Chemins de Fer, Vicinaux, Bruxelles. 

Emile Harze, 213 Eue de la Chaussée, Bruxelles. 

A. Heyland, 32 Eue du Marteau, Bruxelles. 

John Kraft de la Saulx, Seraing, Belgium. 

A. Lecointe, 38 Eue Albert, Ostende. 

L. Petit, Ingénieur-en-Chef de la Traction et du Material, Société 
Nationale des Chemins de Fer, Vicinaux, Bruxelles. 

E. Putzeys, Ingénieur-en-Chef, Directeur de la Ville, Bruxelles. 

E. de Eudder, Ingénieur-en-Chef des Voies et Travaux, Chemins 
de Fer de l'Etat, Bruxelles. 

Jules Semol, 148, Eue GoUait Bruxelles. 

Gustave Wolters, Université de Gand, Gand. 

BRITISH CENTRAL AFRICA. 

Percy Cullen, Fort Johnston, British Central Africa. 

CANADA. 

Canadian Society of Civil Engineers, Montreal, 

G. C. Cunningham, Tramway Of&ce, Birmingham, England. 
James Eoss, 877 Dorchester Street, Montreal. 

CAPE COLONY. 

E. O. Wynne-Eoberts, City Engineer, Cape Town. 

CEYLON. 

Francis A. Cooper, Director of Public Works, Colombo. 
Eobert Skelton, Municipal Engineer, Colombo. 

CHILI. 

Alejandro Bertrand, 41 Victoria Eoad, Kensington, London, W. 

CHINA. 

C. Mayne (Shanghai), c/o Mrs Bartlett, Church Street, Steyning 
Sussex. 

24 



346 FOREIGN AND COLONIAL DELEGATES 

DENMARK. 

Danish Gov&i'ument, 

J. O. V. Irminger, Gas Works, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

C. Hummel, Engineer of Danish State Maritime Works, Copen- 
hagen. 

H. A. E. Blben, Engineer-in-Chief, Way and Works Department, 
Danish State Eailways, Copenhagen. 

Captain A. Kasmussen, E.D.N. , Eoyal Dockyard, Copenhagen. 

Professor C. Ph. Teller, Hellerup. 

Dansk Ingeniôr Fôrening^ Copenhagen. 

C. E. Oellgaard, 32 Oestersogade, Copenhagen K. 
G. A. Hagemann, 51 Bredgade, Copenhagen K. 



Christian Otterstrom, Helenevig 5, Copenhagen. 

Captain J. C. Tuxen, E.D.N. , Eoyal Dockyard, Copenhagen. 

FINLAND. 

Tekniska Foreningen i Finland, Helsingfot^s. 
Baron K. E. Palmen, Forssa, Finland. 

FRANCE. 

Ministère de la Marine, Paris, 

M. Berrier-Fontaine, Directeur du Génie Maritime, Paris. 

M. Bertin, Directeur du Génie Maritime, 8 Eue Garancière, Paris. 

M. Pollard, Directeur de l'Ecole d'Application du Génie Maritime, 
Paris. 

M. de Courville, Attaché à la Section Technique des Construc- 
tions Navales, Paris. 

M. de Miniac, Directeur des Travaux Hydrauliques du Port de 
Brest, Brest, France. 

M. Oallou, Ingénieur en Chef de la Marine, Portrieux (côte du 
Nord), France. 

Ministère des Travaux Publics, 

Baron Quinette de Eochemont, Inspecteur - Général des Ponts 

et Chaussées, 43 Avenue du Trocadero, Paris. 
M. Eibière, Ingénieur en Chef des Ponts et Chaussées, Paris. 

Société des Ingénieurs Civils de France. 

B. Comuault, 10 Eue Cambacérès, Paris. 

M. Jannettaz, 78 Eue Claude-Bernard, Paris. 

M. Eegnard, 53 Eue Bayen, Paris. 



AND HONORARY MEMBERS. 347* 

Société de l'Industrie Minerakj Saint Etienne. 

M. Le Neve Foster, Llandudno, North Wales, England. 
M. Verney, Ingénieur Civil des Mines, St. Etienne. 

Société Géologique de France. 
Professor J. Bergeron, 157 Boulevard Haussmann, Paris. 

Association Technique Maritime. 

A. Normand, 67 Eue du Perrey, Havre. 
E. Bertin, 8 Eue Garancière, Paris. 

Société d* Encouragement pouâ' V Industrie Nationale. 
M. Eozé, 62 Eue du Cardinal, Paris. 

Société Technique de V Industrie du Gaz en France. 

E. Cornuault, 10 Eue Cambacérès, Paris. 
Fernand Bruyère, 65 Eue de Provence, Paris. 



C. H. Baudry, Eue Blanche 19, Paris. 

Georges Bechmann, 9 Place de THotel-de- Ville, Paris. 

Yoisin Bey, Eue Scribe 3, Paris. 

M. Briere, Ingénieur-en-Chef de la Voie et des Travaux, Chemin 

de Fer d'Orléans, Paris. 
C. J. Canet, 42 Eue d'Anjou, Paris. 
M. Chevalier, Ingénieur-en-Chef des Travaux, Compagnie des 

Chemins de Fer Departmentaux, Paris. 
M. Comble, Ingénieur-en-Chef de la Traction Compagnie des 

Chemins de Fer Departmentaux, Paris. 
V. Daymard, 6 Eue Auber, Paris. 
L. de Bussy, Eue de Jouy 7, Paris. 
Haton de la Goupillière, Boulevard St. Michel 60, Paris. 
F. B. de Mas, Avenue Jules Janin 8, Paris. 
M. Denis, Ingénieur-en-Chef de la Voie, Chemin de Fer Paris,- 

Lyon et de la Méditerranée, Paris. 
A. de Montgolfier, St. Chamond, Loire, France. 
L. Févre, Ingénieur au Corps des Mines, Arras, France. 
X. Gosselin, Eue de St. Quentin 12, Paris. 
M. Goupil, Ingénieur-en-Chef de la Voie, Chemin de Fer de 

rOuest, Paris. 
Adolphe Guerard, Eue Picot 8, Paris. 
P. Holts, Eue de Milan 24, Paris. 
F. Hospitalier, Eue de Chantilly 12, Paris. 
Maurice Levy, Avenue du Trocadéro 15, Paris. 



348 FOREIGN AND COLONIAL DELEGATES 

0. Linder, Eue de Rennes 44, Paris. 
Prof. E. Mascart, Rue de l'Université 176, Paris. 
P. Mengin-Lecreulx, Rue de Rennes 148, Paris. 
L. Eibourt, Rue Caumartin 64, Paris. 
E. Schneider, Rue d'Anjou 42, Paris. 

M. Vainet, Ingénieur-en-Chef des Travaux, Chemin de Fer du 
Nord, Paris. 

GERMANY. 

Schiffhautechnùche Gesellschaft . 

H. Rudloff, Leipziger Platz 13, Berlin W. 

H. Zimmermann, Schiffswerft Vulcan, Bredow b/ Stettin. 

Vertin Deufscher Irigenieyre. 

O. von Miller, Ferdinand Miller Platz 3, Mûnchen. 

Professor M. Schrôter, Miinchen. 

R. Diesel, Maria Theresia Str. 32, Mûnchen. 

O. Lasche, c/o Verein Deutscher-Ingenieure, Berlin. 

Deutscher Verein von Gas und Wasserfachmœnnern, 
Dr. Leybold, Gas Works, Hamburg. 



Ernst Borsig, Heydtstrasse 6, Berlin. 

Richard Broja, Kaiser Wilhelmstrasse, Breslau. 

C. E. L. Brown, Messrs Brown, Boveri & Co., Baden. 

Prof. Carl Busley, Imperial German Navy, 2 Kronprinzen Ufer, 

Berlin, N.W. ^ 

M. von Dolivo-Dobrowolâki, Brucken allée 23, Berlin, N.W. 
W. Fischer, Chief Engineer, Bavarian State Railways, Miinchen. 
Prof. Oswald Flamm, Goethestrasse 78, Charlottenburg, Berlin. 
L. Franzius, Oberbaudirektor der freien Hansestadt, Bremen. 
Otto von der Hagen, Kautstrasse 162, Charlottenburg, Berlin. 
G. Kapp, 16 Ulmen Allée Westend, Charlottenburg, Berlin. 
G. Langner, Bayreutstr. 20, Berlin W. 
M. Meyer, Mechanical Engineer, Royal Prussian State Railways, 

Berlin. 
Ludwig Peschect, Oberster Baudirektor, Breslau. 
H. Rathenau, Allgemeine Elektricitaets- Gesellschaft, Berlin. 
H. Schroder, Director of the Construction Department, Royal 

Prussian State Railways, Berlin. 
Alfred Schultze, Director of the Ministry of Public Works, Berlin. 
A. von Siemens, Markgrafen Strasse 94, Berlin. 
W. von Siemens, Markgrafen Strasse 94, Berlin. 
H. Wedding, Genthinerstrasse 13, Villa C, Berlin W. 



AND HONORARY MEMBERS. 349 

HOLLAND. 

Nethevland Oovemment. 

M. Hoogenboom, Bois le Duc, Holland. 
H. Wortman, The Hague. 

Koninklijh Instituut van Ingénieurs. 

J. H. Beucker Andreae, Retired Engineer-in-Chief, R.D.N., The 

Hague. 
H. Enno van Gelder, Director Engineer of the *' Maatschappij de 

Maas," Botterdam. 
R. A. Van Sandick, General Secretary of the Royal Institute of 

Dutch Engineers, The Hague. 

Fereeniging van Gasfabrikanten in Nederlanâ, 

J. van Rossum du Chattel, Gas Works, Linnaenstraat, Amsterdam. 
N. W. van Doesburgh, Gas Works, Leyden. 



A. E. R. Collette, Heemskerkstraat 30, The Hague. 

J. F H. Conrad, Van de Spieghel Staat 3, The Hague. 

T. van Hasselt, 28 Weespergyde, Amsterdam. 

Ritthem van Lambretchsen, Director of Public Works, Amsterdam. 

C. L. Loder, Director of Naval Construction, R.D.N. , The Hague. 

W. Verweij, Chief Engineer, Dutch State Railways, Utrecht. 



HUNGARY. 

Hungarian Government and Association of Hungarian Engineers 

and Architects y Budapest, 

L. Létay, Nâdor-uteza, 32, Budapest V., Ker. 
B. Uhlarik, Krisztina-korut, 36, Budapest I. 
Professor C. Zipernowsky, Polytechnicum, Oszloputeza, 7, 
Budapest II., Ker. 



O. T. Blathy, Messrs Ganz & Co., Budapest. 
Johan Brockh, IX. Bez. Ulloer-Strasse N. 19, Budapest. 
Alex. Robitsek, Director of Construction, Hungarian State Rail- 
ways, Budapest. 



^0 FOREIGN AND COLONIAL DELEGATES 

INDIA. 

Bombay- Baroda, and Central Indian Bailway. 
B. 8. Luard, Locomotive and Carriage Superintendent. 



T. C. Deverell, City Engineer, Calcutta. 

C. L. Griesbach, C.I.E., Director, Geological Survey of India, 

Calcutta. 
Ml C. Murzban, ** Gutestan," Murzban Eoad, Esplanade, Bombay. 
B. H. Trevithick, Locomotive and Carriage Superintendent, Great 

Great Indian Peninsula Eailway, Bombay. 

ITALY. 

Italian Government. 

George Breen, Italian Consul General in Glasgow, 240 St. Vincent 
Street, Glasgow. 

Minis ter della Marina. 
Giorgio Pruneri, Ingegnere Capo del Genio Navale, Boma. 

Ministero dei Lavori Pubblici, 
Giorgio Pruneri, Ingegaere Capo del Genio Navale, Boma. 

Miïdstero della Agricultura. 
Giorgio Pruneri, Ingegnere Capo del Genio Navale, Boma. 

B. Gorpo della Minière, 
Giorgio Pruneri, Ingegnere Capo del Genio Navale, Boma. 

Sooietà delle Conference frai Gassisti d* Italia. 

Leone Mariani, Direttore Générale della *' Società Italiana per il 

Gaz," Torino. 
Luigi Beria, Direttore della '^ Società Consumatori Gsur Lnce/' 

Torioio. 
Carlo Bourne, Ingegnere in Capo del Gaz, Milano. 

Società degli Ingegneri e degli Architetti Italiani, 

Mariano Edoardo Canizzaro, 89b via Panisperna. Boma. 
Ettore Basevi, 17 via Montecatini, Boma. 



ii 



Conte A. Betocchi, Ispettore del Genio Civile, Borne. 
Prof. Guiseppe Colombo, Milan. 



AND HONORARY MEMBERS. âÔl 

Prof. G. Mengarini, Eome. 

P. Orlando, Via Gaeta 2, Eoma. 

N. Pellati, Servizio Minerario, Ministero d'Agricoltnra, Roma. 

Lieut.-Col. R Pescetto, Gio Ansaldo Genova, per Gornigliano^ 

Ligure. 
Major G. Eota, Naval Architect to the Royal It. Navy, Ministero 

della Marina, Roma. 
Charles de Grave Sells, Sampierdarena, Italy. 
Col. N. Soliani, Direttore del Cantiere Navale Ansaldo, Sestri 

Ponente, Genoa. 

JAPAN. 

Tokio Imperial University, Engineering College, 
C. Shiba, 46 Sutherland Avenue, London W. 



Viscount Vice-Admiral Enomoto, Tokio. 
I. Fujiko, 56 Ziamokubo, Azabu, Tokio. 
. H. Hara ; Tokio University, Japan. 
Admiral S. Sasoa, The Admiralty, Tokio. 

NORWAY. 

Norwegian Government. 

M. Saxegaard, Ingénieur de Section, Christiania. 

M. Rasmussen, Inspecteur des Télégraphes, Christiania. 

NûTske Ingénier- og Arkitdu Forening, 

S. Byde, Christiania. 

Einar Rasmûssen, Steners Gaden 8, Christiania. 

William R. Pihl, Sannergaden 11, Christiania. 



W. H. Cari Swensen, Royal Norwegian Dockyard at Karl Johans- 

voem, Horten, Norway. 
Prof. T. H. L. Vogt, The University, Christiania. 



PORTUGAL 

Portuguese Government, 

J. V. Mendes Guerreiro, Engineer-in-Chief of Public Works, 
Lisbon. 



352 FOREIGN AND COLONIAL DELEGATES 

ROUMANIA. 

N. de Lodygensky, President of the European Commission of 
the Danube ; Galatz, Eoumania. 



RUSSIA. 

Ministère des Voies de Commtmicat/ion, 

Professor V. E. de TimonofiF, 10 rue Bronitzkaïa, St. Petersburg. 
Professor Vosnessensky, c/o Ministère des Voies de Communica- 
tion, St. Petersburg. 
M BmeHanow, Moscow-Arkangel State Eailway, Moscow. 

Institut Impérial des Ingénieurs des Voies de Communication, 
Professor V. E. de TimonofiF, 10 rue Bronitzkaïa, St. Petersburg. 



Prof Egorofif, St. Petersburg. 

Michel Ghercivanof, Zabalkanske 9, St. Petersburg. 

Col. E. E. Goulaefif, Chief Naval Constructor, The Admiralty, St. 

Petersburg. 
Vladimir Inchenesky, Moguilefif, Province of Podolia. 
General N. E. Kouteynikofif, Chief Inspector of Naval Construction, 

Admiralty, St. Petersburg. 
M. Welitschko, Chief of the Traction and Materials Departments, 

Eussian State Eailways, St. Petersburg. 



SPAIN. 

Bvaristo de Churruca, Ingeniero Director de las obras del Puerto 

de Bilbao, Spain. 
Mendes Nunez, ; Harbour Engineer, Vigo, Spain. 



General Enrico Garcia de Angelo, Director of Naval Construction, 

Ministry of Marine, Madrid. 
Andres A. Comerma, General de los Ingenieros de la Armada, 

Ferrol. 



AND HONORARY MEMBERS. 353 

SWEDEN. 

Svenska TechnologfÔreningen. 

Oscar Lamm, Atlas Engineering Works, Atlas, Stockholm. 

Axel Wahlberg, Tekniska Hogskolan, Stockholm. 

Martin Borgstedt, Svenska Teknologforeningen, Stockholm. 



Dr. Eichard Akerman, Chief of the Eoyal Swedish Board of Trade, 

Stockholm. 
C. Anncrstadt, Librarian, Royal University of Upsala, Upsala. 
John Hammar, 32 Wallingatan, Stockholm. 
H. H. Lilliehook, Chief Constructor, Swedish Navy, Stockholm. 
G. Nordenstrom, late Professor of the Mining School, Stockholm. 
Baron Gustaf Tamm, Stockholm. 



SWITZERLAND. 

Federal Government. 
Professor Aurel Stodola, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale, Zurich. 

Société Vaudoise des Ingénieurs et des Architectes, Lausanne, 
Edouard Elskes, 37, Boulevard de Corancy, Lausanne. 

Schweizerischer Veretn von Gas-und Wasser Fachmœnnern, 

E. Blanc, Administrateur des Travaux Municipaux du Gaz, 
Geneva, Switzerland. 



G. Cuenod, Chief Engineer, Jura Simplon Eailway, Lausanne. 
A. de Morlot, Inspectorat Federal des Travaux Publics, Berne. 
Colonel Huber, President Maschinenfabrik, Oerlikon, Zurich. 
A. Schrafl, Chief Engineer, San Gothard Eailway, Lucerne. 
W. Wyssling, Zurich. 



UNITED STATES. 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 

Prof. W. A. Anthony, 313 West 33rd St., New York, N.Y. 
Prof. A. Graham Bell, 1331 Conn. Avenue, Washington, D.C. 
Prof. H. Carhart, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 
Professor F. B. Crocker, Columbia University. 



354 FOREIGN AND COLONIAL DELEGATES 

Dr L. Duncan, 71 Broadway, New York. 
T. A. Edison, Llewellyn Park, N.J. 

Prof. E. J. Houston, Ph.D., 1809 Spring Garden Street, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

A. E. Kennelly, 1203-4 Crozer Buildings, 1420 Chestnut Street, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
T. C. Martin, 120 Liberty St., New York City. 
G. Eevay, Waldorf Astoria, New York. 
C. F. Scott, Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Co.,. 

Pittsburg, Pa., 
F. J. Sprague, Sprague Electric Co., New York City. 
Elihu Thomson, Monument Avenue, Swampscott, Mass. 

B. Weston, 120 William Street, Newark, N.J. 

Engineers^ Society of Western Fennsulvania, 
Chester B. Albree, 410 Penn Avenue, Pittsburg, Pa. 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 

Sir Benj. Baker, 2 Queen Square Place, Westminster, London,. 

S.W. 
O. H. Baldwin, 22a College Hill, Cannon Street, London, E.C. 
Philip Dawson, 59 City Eoad, London, E.C. 
Bryan Donkin, Eeigate, England. 

James Dredge, 36 Bedford Street, Strand, London, W.C. 
Prof. F. E. Button, 12 West Thirty-First Street, New York. 
Eear- Admiral George W. Melville, Navy Dept., Washington, D.G. 
Charles H. Morgan, Worcester, Mass. 
H. F. L. Orcutt, 30Farringdon Eoad, London, B.C. 
Horace F. Parshall, 8 Princes St., Bank, London, E.C, England. 
Alex. Sahlin, Millom & Askem Haematite Co., Millom, Cumber- 
land, England. 
Professor William Cawthome Unwin, Palace Gate Mansions, 

Kensington, London, W. 
Samuel T. Wellman, New England Building, Cleveland, O. 



Arthur V. Abbott, 203 Washington Street, Chicago, 

Gano S. Dunn, Chief Engineer, Crocker-Wheeler Co., Ampere,. 

New York. 
W. L. E, Emmet, General Electric Co., Schenectady, New York. 
John Fritz, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. 
Carl Hering, 929 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Abram S. Hewitt, 17 Burling Slip, New York. 
J. W. Lieb, Junr., 53 Daune Street, New York. 
L. B. Stillwell, Park Bow Buildings, New York City. 



LIST ©F MEMBERS 

Members of the General Committee are indicated by the sign -t-, or by the 
sign -»-+ if they are also members of the Reception Committee. 



680. J. L. Aamundsen, Classensgade 57, Copenhagen, Denmark. 
1315. W. P. Abell, Duffield, Derby. 

1196. R. G. Abercrombie, Broad Street Engine Works, Alloa. / 
733. J. M. Adam, 15 Walmer Crescent, Glasgow. 

53. J. W. Adam, Ferguslie Villa, Paisley. 
633. M. A. Adam, 145 Fordwych Road, W. Hampstead, London, N.W. 
. 1002. A. Adams, 75 Waterloo Street, Glasgow. 
1870. G. N. Adams, Mars Iron Works, Wolverhampton. 
1869. Percy J. Adams, Mars Iron Works, Wolverhampton. 
-I- 207. Prof. W. Grylls Adams, 43 Campden Hill Square, Kensington, W. 

1428. H. Adamson, Hyde, Cheshire. 

-I- 849. Jas. Adamson, St. Quivox, Stopford Road, Upton Manor, Essex. 

1429. J. Adamson, Hyde, Cheshire. 

1 106. P. H. Adamson, 11 Fairlie Park Drive, Partick. 
1040. F. R. Addie, 8 Westbourne Gardens, Glasgow. 
872. R. Addie, Calder Park, Baillieston, by Glasgow. 
1752. Edgar T. Agius, Grand Hotel, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
2044. Rear-Admiral Ahmed, c/o Schiff und Maschinenban actien Gesell- 
schaft Germania-werft, in Kiel, Germany. 
-J. 1 154. Geo. Ainsworth, Consett Iron Co., Ltd., Consett. 

826. R. Ainsworth, 49 The Crescent, Peel Park, Manchester. 

51. Russel Aitken, 116 Piccadilly, London, W. 
607. Thos. Aitken, County Buildings, Cupar-Fife. 

52. William Aitken, Telephone House, Temple Avenue, London, E.C. 
382. J. A. Aiton, 2 Harley Gardens, London, S.W. 

2256. John H. Alexander, Dundonald, Kilmarnock. 

416. P. Y. Alexander, The Mount, Batheaston, Somerset. 

280 Wm Alexander, 4 Kelvinbank Terrace, Sandyford, Glasgow. 

451. Wm. Alexander, 15 Hope Street, Glasgow. 

406. H. E. Allan, Rathvene, Penarth, S. Wales. 
21 19. Jas. A. Allan, Allan Line Office, 25 Bothwell Street, Glasgow. 

676. Jas. G. Allan, no Candleriggs, Glasgow. 
175 1. William Edgar Allan, Clevedon House, Ranmoor, Sheffield. 
1546, Harry Allcard, Albert Works, Sheffield. 
1244. Harry Allcock, Peel Terrace, Stretford, Manchester. 

10. C. E. Allen, 48 Temple Chambers, Embankment, E.C. 
1872. H. Allen, Blast Furnace Power Syndicate, Ltd., 29 Gt. George Street 

Westminster, London, S.W. 
1234. W. H. Allen, Queen's Engineering Works, Bedford. 
•^2344. S. E. Alley, Sentinel Works, Polmadie Road, Glasgow. 
2032. Hy. T. Allison, 13 Granville Road, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

656. Wm. Allison, Mansfield Cottage, Kilwinning. 

315. C. S. Allott, 46 Brown Street, Manchester. 
^ 748. W. M. Alston, 24 Sardinia Terrace, Hillhead, Glasgow. 

503. F. T. Aman, 55 Church Street, Birkenhead. 

1533. R. Ames, 116 Loughborough Road, West Bridgeford, Nottingham. 
2326. E. Chas. Amos, East Dean, Grange Road, Sutton, Surrey. 
1215. A. Anderson, Greenhill House, Dunaskin, by Ayr. 
1453. E. E. J. Anderson, Gas Works, Ripon. 



356 MEMBERS. 

1005. F. Carleton Anderson, 53 Bothwell Street, Glasgow. 
1921. G. W. Anderson, Gas Works, Whyteleafe, Surrey. 
1044. Jas. Anderson, 212 Renfrew Street, Glasgow. 
2163. Jas. Anderson, i Marlborough Terrace, Glasgow. 
2157. J. Godfrey Anderson, 2 Park Place, Bothwell. 
++1360. Jas. H. Anderson, 34 Lansdowne Crescent, Glasgow. 

523. Robt. S. Anderson, Benwell View, Bentwick Road, Newcastle-on- 

Tyne. 
1365. Thos. Anderson, c/o J. Lockie, Esq., 2 Customhouse Chams., Leith. 

1267. W. Graeme Anderson, 31 Enfield Place, Motherwell. 
iyi6. David Andrew, 33 Osborne Road, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

732. Jas. Andrews, Eton Villa, Rhannan Road, Cathcart. 
1233. Sidney Andrews, 28 Blythswood Drive, Glasgow. 
256. W. J. Angus, 79 Greengate Street, Barrow-in-Furness. 
1695. John Anstee, Chellow Drive, York Road, Guildford, Surrey. 
905. H. W. Appleby, c/o Gibbings & Baker, Old Bank Chambers, Brad- 
ford. 
54. P. V. Appleby, 27 Lincoln Street, Leicester. 
930. G. N. Aranghy, 20 Kelvingrove Street, Glasgow. 

1753. H. Archibald, Dalzell Iron and Steel Works, Motherwell, N.B. 
333. Lt.-Col. F. H. Armstrong, Gilnockie, East Southsea, Hants. 
957. F. W. Arnold, 19 Cross Street, Chesterfield. 

290. Wm. Amot, 70 W. Recent Street, Glasgow. 

1 148. L. J. Aron, 40 Upper Thames Street, London, E.C. 
++ 1274. Sir Wm. Arrol, Seafield, Ayr. 
++1160. T. A. Arrol, Germiston Works, Petershill, Glasgow. 

1166. A. S. D. Arundel, Penn Street Works, Hoxton, London, N. 

1754. A. J. Ash, Great Bridge, Tipton, Staffs. 

1235. Thomas Ashbury, Ash Grove, Victoria Park, Manchester. 
428. F. W. Ashcroft, 11 Park Street, Lytham. 

2027. John Ashford, 27 Baronsmere Road, East Finchley, London, N. 
1 142. J. D. Ashworth, 7 Wharf Road, Mile End, Portsmouth. 

1755. W. H. Ashworth, Bollam Works, Retford. 

■+1067. Jno. A. F. Aspinall, Gledhill, Sefton Park, Liverpool. 
555. Wm. Aspinall, Rockleigh, Ashton-in-Makerfield, Lanes. 
1402. E. A. Aston, 18 S. Sackville Street, Dublin. 
1633. A. F. T. Atchison, Holmwood, Four Oaks, Nr. Birmingham. 
1 87 1. Samuel Atherton, 11 Ann wood Colliery, Shrewsbury. 
660. A. Atkinson, c/o Messrs. Babcock & Wilcox, Ltd., 17 The Exchange, 

Middlesbro'. 
642, Alex. John Atkinson, 24 Waterloo Road, Newport, Mon. 
983. F. R. Atkinson, Congleton, Cheshire. 
542. John Atkinson, Borough Surveyor, Stockport. 
++ 124. J. B. Atkinson, iS Merchiston Gardens, Edinburgh. 
536. W. N. Atkinson, Barlaston, Stoke-on-Trent. 

1756. William Atkinson, Erwood, Beckenham, Kent. 
1050. Jabez Attwood, Hagley Road, Stourbridge 

89. Arthur C. Auden, Bewdley, Worcester. 

2007. John Auld, Rockmount, 13 Broompark Drive, Dennistoun. 

1268. W. R. Austin, 11 University Avenue, Glasgow. 

B 

1 1 15. John T. Babtie, Moss Cottage, Dumbarton. 

2008. Walter J. Bache, Electricity Works, Gloucester. 
534. James Bailey, 3 South Avenue, Ryton-on-Tyne. 
723. J. D. Bailie, 23 Park Row, Leeds. 



MEMBERS. 357 

1757. Robert Baillie, 95 Bath Street, Glasgow. 

843. Jas. Bain, The Whins, Alloa, N.B. 

868. W. B. Bain, 65 Waterloo Street, Glasgow. 

679. Wm. N. Bain, 40 St. Enoch Square, Glasgow. 
aii2. Geo. S. L. Bains, Surveyor, Saltburn-by-the-Sea. 

770. A. W. Baird, 30 St. Andrews Drive, Pollokshields, Glasgow. 

954. A. W. Baird, 4 Queen Margaret Crescent, Glasgow. 
441298. James Baird, Kinneff, Prestwick, Ayrshire. 
1883. Matthew B. Baird, West House, Bothwell. 

463. C. £. Baldwin, 2 North Road, Darlington. 

532. Alfred J. Balkwill, Phoenix House, Calder Vale Road, Wakefield, 
1596. William Ball, jun., Cragside, Torquay, S. Devon. 

163. J. Ballantyne, Gas Works, Hamilton. 

2009. Thos. Ballantyne, 5 Saltoun Gardens, Kelvinside. 

1 71 7. David Bsdlingall, 33 Dudley Crescent, Newhaven Rd., Edinburgh. 
312. Henry K. B amber, Westminster Chambers, 9 Victoria Street, 

London, S.W. 
1662. Harry Bamford, 3 Albany Street, Glasgow. 
995. F. J. Bancroft, Town Hall, Hull. 
1449. A. Banister, Kirkstall Forge, Leeds. 

55. A. N. Banister, 8 Oxford Hill, Norwich. 

164. T. W. Barber, Ottershaw, Surrey. 

1758. George Barclay, Vulcan Works, Paisley. 

1 261. Wm. R. Barclay, 87 James Street, Rotherham. 

1880. Charles D. Barker, 231 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 

1398. A. B. Barlow, 6 Trafford Place, Stretford Rd., Manchester. 

1 718. Harry D. D. Barman, 27 University Avenue, Glasgow. 
1 193. J. R. Bamett, Westfield, Crookston. 

1 124. M. R. Barnett, Laurel Bank, Lancaster. 

2028. Patrick M. Bamett, Ivy Lodge, 2 Westfield Terrace, Aberdeen. 
++2013. Prof. Arch. Barr, Royston, Dowanhill, Glasgow. 
++1281. John Barr, Glenfield Works, Kilmarnock. 
■H-I7I9. p. G. Barr, Machan Hill, Larkhall. 

2351. Thos. Barr, West Hartlepool. 

1765. W. Barrington, Clare Chambers, Limerick. 

2168. James Barron, i Bon-Accord Street, Aberdeen. 

1721. James Barrow, Maestry, Glam. 

1876. Joseph Barrow, Union Iron Works, Johnstone. 
313 Louis Barrow, Clovelly, Kings Norton. 
++ 88. James Barrcwman Staneacre, Hamilton. 

1393. Wm. Barrowman, Ayr View, Muirkirk. 
-+ 255. Sir J. Wolf© Barry, K.C.B., 21 Delahay Street, London, S.W. 

56. J. Barton, Dundalk. 

411. John J. Barton, i St. Thomas Street, Ryde. 

431. Thomas Barty, 218 W. Regent Street, Glasgow. 

1722. C. O. Bastien, Bartholomew Works, End of Lawford Road, 

Kentish Town, London. 
II. A. H. Bate, 214 Soho Road, Handsworth, Birmingham. 
437. James R. Baterden, 54 Brighton Grove, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

1759. Henry Bates, 30 TraSfford Road, Salford, Manchester. 
1 541. Fred Bathurst, 6 Loudoun Road, London, N.W. 

902. H. Bauerman, 14 Cavendish Road, Balham, London, S.W. 
1069. R. F. Baxandall, Cregneish, Ben Rhydding, Yorkshire. 

948. And. Baxter, Engineer, Coatbridge. 
1882. Geo. H. Baxter, Helenslea, Dalmuir. 
1 109. p. MacLeod Baxter, 181 Pitt Street, Glasgow. 

226. Captain F. Bayley, 4 StafiE Quarters, Brompton Barracks, Chatham. 
2288. Thos. A. Bayliss, Kings Norton. 



358 MEMBERS. 

423. T. R. Bayliss, Belmont, Northfield, near Birmingham. 
264. D. C. Beadon, Stoneham, Beechgrove Road, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
372. G. H. T. Beamish, Spyhill House, Queenstown, Ireland. 
++ 1408. Geo. Beard, Maristuen, Stepps. 

12. Herbert Beard, Gartcosh, near Glasgow. 
++2058. W. Beardmore, Parkhead Rolling Mills, Glasgow. 

1884. Wm. Frederick Beardshaw, Baltic Steel Works, Sheffield. 

2091. L. Beaujeu, Prof, at the Technical School of Naval Construction, 

•Paris. 
1063. C. W. Beckwith, 25 Southfield Road, Middlesbrough, Yorkshire. 

1601. J. Phillips Bedson, Newton House, Hyde. 
262. W. T. Beesley, 42 Norfolk Road, Sheffield. 

'343» Wm. Begg, 34 Belmont Gardens, Hillhead. 
33. F. B. Behr, 5 Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster, London, S.W 
++ 1570. George T. Beilby, 8 University Gardens, Glasgow. 
295 David Bell, 19 Eton Place, Hillhead, Glasgow. 
7. Imrie Bell, 49 Dingwall Road, Croydon. 
2108. J. Ferguson Bell, 4 The Gables, Uttoxeter New Road, Derby. 

1602. Leo. M. Bell, Huntly, Bangor, Down. 

-I- 1 760. Sir Lowthian Bell, Rounton Grange, Northallerton. 
1723. Norris G. Bell, c/o J. Wilkie, Esq., Oakden, Falkirk. 

125. Stuart Bell, 65 Bath Street, Glasgow. 

2233. W. J. Belsey, c/o British Thomson-Houston Co., Rugby. 
429. D. Bennett, 36 Hawthorn Road, Failsworth, Manchester. 
2192. M. H. Bennett, The Chestnuts, Brighton Road, Horley. 
1208. P. M. Bennett, Tewcliff, Grange-over-Sands. 
699. H. O. Bennie, 6 Camphill Drive, Crossbill, Glasgow. 

32. D. E. Benson, 18 Lansdowne Road, Southport. 
1761. R. Seymour Benson, Messrs. Ashmore, Benson, Pease & Co., Ltd. 

Stockton-on-Tees. 
790. G. N. Bentley, 13 Morley Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

90. Thomas Berridge, Gas \\orks, Leamington. 
2250. Walter Best, 51 Brougham Street, Greenock. 
2342. Alwin Beugger, 

2003. Robt. Beveridge, Jun., 19 Polmuir Road, Aberdeen. 
959. R. R. Bevis, Vyner Road, Birkenhead. 
358. Hubert Bewlay, The Lindens, Moseley, Birmingham. 
1655. Manuel Bianchi, Estado Mayor de Marina, Buenos Aires, 
Argentine Republic. 
++ 805. A. S. Biggart, Dalmarnock Iron Works, Glasgow. 

630. J. L. Biggart, Woodbine, Bridge of Weir. 
++ 1004. D. Selby Bigge, 53 Bothwell Street, Glasgow. 

126. C. H. W. Biggs, Glebe Lodge, Champion Hill, London, S.E. 
++2057. Prof. J. H. Biles, The University, Glasgow. 

1070. John E. Bingham, West Lea, Sheffield. 
j[96o. J. C. Binks, Norchard Colly., Sydney, Glos. 
1600. Sir Alex. R. Binnie, 77 Ladbrook Grove, Notting Hill, London, W. 
2339. Robt. Birkett, Boro' Electric Engineer, Burnley, Lanes. 
1623. Alex. Bishop, Engineer's Office, Buchanan Street Station, Glasgow. 
1249. J. Fred Black, Lagarie, Row, Dumbartonshire. 
1 134. J. W. Black, 51 Montgomerie Street, Kelvinside, N., Glasgow. 
1337. R. S. Black, Mansfield, Tayport. 
1314. Thos. Black, Spenn)niioor. 
2098. Wm. Black, 11 Howard Street, Arbroath, N.B. 
34. A. B. Blackburn, New Oxley, Wolverhampton. 
260. G. R. Blackburn, j Swinton Place, Horton, Bradford. 
1 221. S. Blackley, Marchhill, Dumfries. 
18S1. G. G. Blackwell, The Albany, Liverpool. 



MEMBERS. 359 

1406. R. G. Blaine, Bannview House, Rathfriland, Co. Down, Ireland. 

913. Frank R. Blair, Ashbank, Maryfield, Dundee. 

779. Geo. Blair, jun., 4 Kinnoul Place, Dowanhill, Glasgow. 
1 102. Geo. Blair, 16 Albert Road, E., Crossbill, Glasgow. 
++2206. Jas. MacLellan Blair, Williamcraigs, Linlithgow. 
1019. R. Blair, Dunwood, Dumbarton. 
1508. George R. Blake, 134 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 

696. Matthew Blake, 62 Forsyth Street, Greenock. 

575. A. R. Bleayard, Boro' Surveyor, 46 York St., Clitheroe, Lanes. 
1 132. C. E. Bloomer, Haywood Forge, Halesowen. 
2113. John Blue, Assuan, Egypt. 

113. S. R. Blundstone, 3 Ludgate Circus Buildings, London, E.G. 
++2056. B. Hall Blyth, 17 Palmerston Place, Edinburgh. 

373. Chas. L. Boddie, Co. Surveyor's Office, Londonderry. 
1 197. Albert Boissiere, 124 Boulevard Magenta, Paris. 
1762. E. Bond, c/o Messrs. J. C. Abbott & Co., Corporation St., B'ham. 
1 1 16. C. R. Bonn, Elmbank, Bowling, N.B. 
1878. Arthur Booth, Union Foundry, Rodley, Leeds. 
1877. John Wm. Booth, Union Foundry, Rodley, Leeds. 

283. R. Bell Booth, 4 EUerslie Villas, Bray, Wicklow. 

601. H. Borns, 19 Alexandra Road, Wimbledon, London, S.W. 
1399. P. Borrie, 4 Oxford Terrace, Norton Road, Stockton-on-Tees. 

583. W. C. Borrowman, Newstead, West Hartlepool. 
2296. Walter Bosman, 26 Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W. 
1 187. W. D. A. Bost, Adelphi House, Paisley. 

155. Sam Boswell, 82 Albert Grovs, Longsight, Manchester. 
1988. Chas. F. Botley, Guildables, Hastings, Sussex. 
1764. James Bott, Rose Lea, Eaglescliffe, R.S.O. 

650. Walter Stanley Bott, c/o Messrs. A. Ransome & Co., Ltd., Newark- 
on-Trent. 
++ 1280. James T. Bottomley, 13 University Gardens, Glasgow. 
2260. Prof. Jules Boulvin, Ghent, Belgium. 

286. L. Bourgoignie, 7 Rue de Bruxelles, Termonde, Belgium. 
1724. Harold V. Bower, Ivy House, Higher Openshaw, Manchester. 
2224. Wm. A. Bower, Loescoe, Grange, Normanton. 
2366. Wm. T. Bowen-Jones, Bronala, Carnarvon. 

ICI 7. Arthur Bowes, Wargrave Cottage, Newton-le-Willows, Lancaster. 
1 139. W. D. Bowman, 21 Kersland Terrace, Hillhead, Glasgow. 
++2261. Chas. H. Bowser, 80 Charles Street, St. RoUox, Glasgow. 
1344. Edw. Box, 9 Washington Terrace, N. Shields. 
1099. J. C. Boyd, 40 Aglionby Street, Carlisle. 

334. Cyrus Braby, " Slynfolde," Sutton, Surrey. 

634. C. E. Brackenbury, Continental Union Gas Co., 7 Drapers Gardens, 
London, E.C. 

486. W. L. Bradley, The Castle, Tonbridge, Kent. 
91. George G. Braid, 100 Both well Street, Glasgow. 
2249. Chas. Bramall, Caledonian Works, Oughtibridge. 
•f-i-1161. James Brand, 10 Marchmont Terrace, Kelvinside. 

1646. Jas. Brash, c/o E. Scott & Mountain, Ltd., 93 Hope St., Glasgow. 

824. Geo. J. Bray, Chipping Sodbury, Glos. 
2194. John H. Brearley, Engineer, Longwood, Huddersfield. 

625. Alan Brebner, 10 Hereford Road, Acton, London, W. 
-+ 329. C. A. Brereton, 21 Delahay Street, Westminster, S.W. 

730. S. E. Bretton, Electricity Works, Motherwell. 
1028. J. Alfred Brewer, 249 West George Street, Glasgow. 

488. J. H. Brierley, Town Hall, Richmond, Surrey. 

330. Philip Bright, Hadley, Barnet. 

204. Wm. Bright, Noyaddfach, Pontardulais, R.S.O. 



360 MEMBERS. 

569. Prof. A. W. Brightmore, Egham Hill, Egham, Surrey. 
1479. Frank Broadbent, 27 Devonshire Place, Newcastle-on-T3me. 
1345. H. Broadbent, Edgerton Grove, Huddersfield. 

378. A. E. Broadberry, Elmlea, Willoughby Lane, Tottenham. 
1725. Jas. Broadfoot, Lymehurst, Jordanhill. 

665. Wm. R. Broadfoot, Inchnolm Works, Whiteinch. 
2045. John W. Broadhead, The Hollies, Elland, Yorks. 
1320. G. Broadrick, Broughton House, Brought on Road, Ipswich. 
1072. B. J. Broadway, 267 Hagley Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 

812. H. W. Brock, Engine Works, Dumbarton. 
2282. John A. Brodie, City Engineer, Liverpool. 
1466. J. B. Brodie, Millburn House, Largs. 

2333. Wm. Brodie, Dockyard, Liverpool. 

1727. Alfred H. Brookman, Gas Works, Tenby, South Wales. 
1879. M. M. Brophy, 48 Gordon Square, London, W.C. 

-^I7D5. Bennett H. Brough, Secretary, Iron and Steel Institute, 28 Victoria 

Street, London, S.W. 
++ 1720. Adam Brown, Wellbank Cottage, Ferniegair, Hamilton. 
++ ICI 5. And. Brown, Castlehill, Renfrew. 

363. A. M*N. Brown, " Strathclyde," Dumbreck, Glasgow. 

1728. Arthur R. Brown, 13 Lime Street, London, E.C. 

2130. Geo. J. C. Brown, 2 Stanley Villas, Seascale, Via Camforth. 
1 150. John Brown, Longhurst, Dunmurry, Belfast. 

883. T. H. Brown, 30 Argyle Road, Ilford, E. 

945. J. P. Brown, 2 Parkgrove Terrace, Glasgow, W. 
1 181. M. T. Brown, 34 Gray Street, Glasgow. 
•+ 1699. M. Walton Brown, Secretary, The Institute of Mining Engineers^ 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

127. Peter B. Brown, 22 Osgathorpe Road, Sheffield. 

645. Richard Brown, Fairlight, Glisson Road, Cambridge. 
2149. Richard Brown, Glenmore, The Avenue, Southampton. 
2129. T. J. Brown, 233 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 

395. Wm. Brown, Meadowfiat, Renfrew. 

673. Wm. Brown, 3 Midlothian Drive, Shawlands. 
1068. W. P. Brown, 5 Cromwell Square, Queen's Park, Glasgow. 

385. R. F. Browne, i^ Grove End Road, St. John's Wood, London, N.W. 
1875. John J. BrownhiU, 98 North Walsall, Walsall. 
1874. William Brownhill, Vesey Grange, Mancy Sutton Coldfield, Warwick. 

960. Chas. Brownridge, Town Hall, Birkenhead. 

2286. Captain J. Bruce-Kingsmill, R.A., The Ordnance College, Woolwich. 
f+ 595. John Bryce, 17 Peel Street, Partick. 

210. Henry Bryer, i Miskin Road, Dartford. 
1873. D. R. Bryson, 45 Hope Street, Glasgow. 
1260. Wm. Bryson, 4 Windsor Street, Dundee. 

218. Walter Buchanan, Clyde Iron Works, Glasgow. 
1690. Edward Buckham, Town Hall, Ipswich. 

2334. J. Buckley, Gas Works, Formby. 

578. C. F. Budenberg, Somerville, Marple, Cheshire. 
2265. Edw. P. Bullard, Jun., Bridge Port, Conn., U.S.A. 

381. E. H. E. Bulwer, 4 Clarence Terrace, Grimsby. 
++1631. Henry Bumby, Burgh Boundary, Wishaw. 

245. W. J. Bumiley, Beech-Hurst, Chorley New Road, Bolton. 

966. T. F. Bunting, Borough Surveyor, Maidstone. 
1265. Herbert T. Burls, 84 Lee Road, Blackheath, London, S.E. 
2197. J. Morison Bumup, 77 Carlisle Mansions, Victoria St., London, S.W. 
lyôô. W. Bumyeat, Millgrove, Moresby, Whitehaven. 
++ 2055. Councillor Burrell, 54 George Square, Glasgow. 

1074. H. R. J. Burstall, 14 Old Queen Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 



MEMBERS. 361 

' 1 127. Thos. Burt, 60 St. Vincent Crescent, Glasgow. 

749. J. S. Burton, Orrell, Wigan. 
2146. Wm. Burton, Maxwell House, Wigan. 

128. Walter E. Butcher, 18 Brixton Road, Brighton, Sussex. 
145 1. Edmund Butler, Kirkstall Forge, Leeds. 
1450. H. M. Butler, Kirkstall Forge, Leeds. 
2279. Isaac Butler, Pantee House, Nr. Newport, Mon. 
2291. James Butler, Victoria Ironworks, Halifax. 
1729. J. P. J. Butler, 26 Craven Park, Willesden, London. 
1 1 77. J. S. Butler, 21 Hamilton Terrace, Partick, Glasgow. 

510. T. F. Butler, Infield, Barrow-in-Furness. 
1527. W. J. A. Butterfield, 66 Victoria Street, London, S.W. 
1457. J. Butterworth, Thorn Cottage, Pendlebury, Manchester. 
14. W. L. Byers, 11 Norfolk Street, Sunderland. 

901. A. R. Byles, "Observer" Office, Bradford. 

269 St. Clare Byrne, 48 Castle Street, Liverpool. 



++2319. H. M. Cadell, Grange, Bo'ness. 

-»-2i88. James C. Cadman, Silverdale, North Staffordshire. 

481. Thomas Caink, Sunny Bank, Fort Royal Hill, Worcester. 
480. T. G. Caink, Sunny Bank, Fort Royal Hill, Worcester. 
++1577. Patrick T. Caird, Belleaire, Greenock. 
++ 038. Robert Caird, ^6 Esplanade, Greenock. 

298. Charles W. Caims, 4 Hollow Lane, Barrow-in-Furness. 
202. Wm. T. Calderwood, Stanley Villa, Cathcart. 
2375. Frederico Camara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 
2303. D. Cameron, City Surveyor, Exeter. 
850. John B. Cameron, Lochiel, Bearsden. 
1 25 1. Duncan Campbell, Knock, Partickhill. 
1469. G. Campbell, 34 Orrell Lane, Aintree, Liverpool. 

1767. James Campbell, c/o Wild & Co., Middlesbrough-on-Tees. 
216. Thomas Campbell, Mary hill Iron Works, Glasgow. 

1359. Wm. W. Campbell, Oakshawhead House, Paisley, N.B. 
129. A. Campion, Cooper's Hill, Englefield Green, Surrey. 
2347. Rev. G. M. Capell, Passenham, Stone, Stratford. 
1368. Professor D. S. Capper, 17 Victoria Street, London, S.W. 
-h 265. Sir E. H. Carbutt, Bart., Nanhurst, Cranleigh, Surrey. 
165. Lieut. A. D. Garden, St. Mary's Barracks, Chatham, Kent. 
1650. E. G. Carey, 4 Sunnyside Avenue, Uddingston. 
1383. Alex. L. Carlaw, 14 Fitzroy Place, Glasgow. 
1382. D. Carlaw, jun., 10 Randolph Gardens, Glasgow. 
1625. Wm. H. Carlaw, jun., 5 Foremount Gardens, Glasgow. 

1768. E. Carlisle, Inspecting Engineer, 96 Clifton Hill, St. John's Wood, 

London, N.W. 
loii. R. S. Carlow, Gas Works, Arbroath. 
1525. J. Carmichael, Stair Cottage, Barrhead. 
874. Wm. Carnegie, 90 Eglinton Road, Plumstead, London, S.E. 
2325. Edw. C. Carnt, St Heliers, Cowes, Isle of Wight. 
H- 1065. Charles Carpenter, 709a Old Kent Road, London, S.E. 
933. John M. Carr, 7 Woodhall Drive, Cardonald. 

247. Henry Carrick, Hallgarth, Darlington. 

248. H. H. Carrick, 10 Clarendon Place, Leeds. 

^54' J* Carruthers, 19 Kensington Park Gardens, London, W. 
304. J. H. Carruthers, 38 Queen Mary Avenue, Glasgow. 
1481. Robert Carson, Minerva Chambers, Hull. 

25 



362 MEMBERS. 

962. S. J. Carstens, c/o Messrs. Burmeister & Wain, Copenhagen. 
1074. Charles J. Carter, 3 Quarrington Road, Horfield, Bristol. 
2141. Douglas R. Carter, 141 Bath Street, Glasgow. 

86. George F. Carter, Town Hall, Croydon. 
1730. Wm. A. Carter, 5 St. Andrew Square, Edinburgh. 
1673. Joseph Cartmell, M. & C. Railway, Maryport. 
H- 794. J. Cartwright, Albion Place, Bury, Lancashire. 

2148. John T. Cartwright, loi Armadale Street, Dennistoun, Glasgow. 
1564. I*rof. C. A. Carus-Wilson, Mill View House, Sutton-on-Sea, Line. 

388. Thos. A. B. Carver, 118 Napiershall Street*, Glasgow. 
1571. R. D. Cassells, i68a St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 

989. J. M'l. Cater, Southdown, Wimbledon. 

1769. Geo. Cawley, 29 Great George Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 
490. John F. Cay, Knowle Lodge, Lichfield. 

515. Wm. D. Cay, i Albyn Place, Edinburgh. 

328. fohn R. Chalmers, 18 Hemingford Road, London, N. 
1223. Walter Chalmers, 24 Claremont Gardens, Milngavie. 
4-1.1035. Wm. A. Chamen, Drumard, Partickhill Road, Glasgow. 
2245. P. ChamfrauU, Sauhier, Met. M., France. 

899. Noel Chandler, Cannock, Stafîs. 

560. J. L. Chapman, The Haven, Wembley, Middlesex. 

114. A. G. Charleton, Dashwood House, New Broad Street, E.G. 

647. G. Chatterton, 6 The Sanctuary, Westminster, London, S.W. 
1638. Samuel Chatwood, Broadoak Park, Worsley, Manchester. 
1 51 5. Wm. T. Cheesman, 4 Bridgeford Road, Nottingham. 
2335. E. D. Chester, 120 Bishopsgate Street Within, London. 
2331. W. R. Chester, Nottingham. 

2167. Robt. Chisholm, Ferniehirst, Springboig, Shettleston. 
2377. The Hon. Lord Provost Samuel Chisholm, City Chambers, Glasgow. 

971. R. Chorley, 15 Mile End Lane, Stockport. 

771. George Christison, Cremona, Cambridge Drive, Glasgow. 

521. Wm. G. Chubb, Brandhaur, Ludlow. 

590. G. D. Churchward, Metropolitan Railway Carriage & Wagon Co., 
Satley Works, Birmingham. 

737. Alex. Clark, 11 Blacket Place, Edinburgh. 

714. H. A. Clark, 4 Clobeny Street, Leeds. 
4H>i892. James A. Clark, Annbank. 

877. John Clark, Ormiston, East Lothian. 

1770. Robert Clark, 255 Cromwell Road, Kensington, London, S.W. 
662. Wm. Clark, jun., 10 Prospect Terrace, Aberdeen. 

635. Wm. Clark, 208 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 
++ 765. W. Clark, Steel Coy. of Scotland, 23 Exchange Square, Glasgow. 



1409. J. H. Clarke, Monkbridge^ Iron Works, Leeds. 
831. J. 



^ Clarkson, 719 Shields Road, Pollokshields. 
2362. George W. Ciaussen, Gestemunde, Germany. 
2107. Fred T. Clayton, Borough Engineer, Reigate, Surrey. 

92. Fred Cleeves, 4 Whitehall Court, London, S.W. 

908. Alex. Cleghom, 10 Whittingehame Drive, Kelvinside, Glasgow. 
387. Dugald Clerk,4i Bedford Square, London, W.C. 

93. G. B. Clifton, 17 Culmington Road, Ealing, W. 
692. W. P. Clyde, 42 Clyde Place, Glasgow. 

1420. Jas. Clyne, Rubislaw Den South, Aberdeen. 
815. A. Coats, jun., Hayfield, Paisley. 
1498. James Coats, " Talara," Katharine Drive, Govan. 
35. P. R. Cobb, Foyers, N.B. 
4-I-2I35. John Cochrane, Eastpark, Barrhead. 
-+ 719. R. Cochrane, H.M. Board of Works, Dublin. 

464. R. Cockbum, Pennoxstone Court, Ross, Hertfordshire. 



MEMBERS. 363 

2042. Robert Cockburn, Cumbrae House, Dmnbreck, Nr. Glasgow. 
1 1 22. John Cocks, Brook Side, Romiley, Stockport. 
2201. J. W .A. Cocksedge, £agle Foundry, Ipswich. 
-*-i7oo. Thomas Cole, 11 Victoria Street, London, S.W. 
1347. H. R. Coles, Gas Offices, Plymouth. 
483. A. Colley, c/o Messrs. A. Hickman, Ltd., Bilstpn. 
725. A. J. Collin, Chief Engineer, Cambrian Road, Oswestry, Salop. " 
6. William CoUingwood, Newton-le-Willows, Lanes. ^ . 

•+ 166. Arthur E. Collins, Guildhall, Norwich. . . 

148g. Wm. B. Collis, Swinford House, Stourbridge. 
1490. Walter T. Collis, Swinford House, Stourbridge. , 

626. H. G. Colman, 27 Stirling Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 
793- Wm. Colquhoun, Grove Road, Wrexham. . 1, 

1224. A. Colson, Gas Office, Leicester. 
++ 1893. Archibald Colville, Dalzell Steel and Iron Works, Motherwell. 

130. David Colville, Jerviston House, Motherwell. 
++ 115. Charles Connell, Scotstoun Shipyard, Whiteinch. 

1771. J. O Connell, Editor "Coal and Iron," Coal Exchange, London. 
1201. B. Conner, 9 Scott Street, Glasgow. 
1258. J. Conner, 4 Clark Street, Kilmarnock. 

94. James Conner, L.D. and E.C. Railway, Tuzford, Notts. 
1324. E G. Constantino, 17 St. Anne's Square, Manchester. 
-i-iii8. John Cook, Town Hall, Lancaster. 

915. Jos. Cook, The Poplars, Codnor Park, Alfreton. 
1403. J. W. Cook, Binchester Hall, Bishop Auckland, Co. Durham. 
1387. Samuel Cook, Albert Works, Bury, Lancashire. 
1 731. Thos. Cook, Washford Road, Sheffield. 
402. R. T. C ooke, 889 Ashton Old Road, Manchester. 
2158. Albert J. Coombes, 20 Cross Street, Ryde, I.W. 
2368. C. H. Cooper, 63 Queen's Road, Wimbledon. 
++2085. David Cooper, 10 St. Andrew's Drive, Pollokshields. 

251. J. Cooper, Park House, Jarrow-on-Tyne. 
-1-1701. R. Elliot Cooper, 8 The Sanctuary, Westminster, London, S.W. 
1 31 2. T. L. Read Cooper, 12 Queen's Terrace, Glasgow. 
36. W. R. Cooper, Gas Works, Banbury, Oxon. 
-H065. W. R. Cooper, 87 Upper Tulse Hill, London, S.W. 
++ 1889. S. G. G. Copestake, 40 Queen Mary Avenue, Crossbill, Glasgow. 
++2062. W. R. Copland, 146 W. Regent Street, Glasgow. 

1455. Lucien Corbeaux, Ingénieur des Ponts et Chaussées, Cambrai, France 

5. Joseph Corbett, Burgh Engineer, Salford. 
1886. M. Corby, 13 Montague Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 
934. A. C. Cormack, 241 Monton Road, Monton, Nr. Manchester. 
2000. Prof. J. D. Cormack, University College, London, W.C. 
1726. John T. Corner, H. M. Dockyard, Portsmouth. 
1077. T. Cosser, Karachi, India. 

1772. Edwin Cottam, Bute Steel and Spring Works, Cardiff. 
95. A. P. I, Cotterell, Woodcroft, Sneyd Park, Nr. Bristol. 

■+ 243. S. B. Cottrell, 31 James Street, Liverpool. 

1599. W. Arthur Coulson, 40 Ashton Gardens, Glasgow. 

1540. J. D. C. Couper, 65 Talbot Street, Grangemouth. 

++ 565. S. Couper, Moose Park Boiler Works, Govan. 

++2223. W. T. Courtier-Dutton, 151 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 

2277. F. S. Courtney, Broad Sanctuary Chambers, Westminster, S.W. 

806. D. Cowan, Clevedon, Cove, Dumbartonshire. 

1773. John Cowan, 68 Albert Street, Leith Walk, Edinbiurgh. 
1226. J. Cowan, 179 W. George Street, Glasgow. 

240. J. M. Cowan, 6 Salisburv Road, Edinburgh. . : 

323. P. C. Cowan, Chief Engineering Inspector, Dublin. 



364 MEMBERS. 

2054. Wm. Cowie, 25 fiaird Street, Coatbridge. 

2Ï79. Tas. Cowley, 4 St. Clair Terrace, Morniagside Drive, Edinburgh. 

1033. Wm. Cowley, Beaumont Terrace, Spennymoor. 

1588. Robt. M. Cowper, 3 Queen's Road, Brentwood, Essex. 

2i S. O. Cowper Coles, 46 Morpeth Mansions, Westminster, S.W. 
1 136. A. F. Craig, Caledonian Engine Works, Paisley. 

1774. George B. Craig, c/o Messrs. Craig, Taylor & Co., Stockton-on-Tees, 
747. James Craig, Netherlea, Partick, Glasgow. 

1732. Alex. C. Cramb, Electricity Works, Lithos Road, Hampstead, Lond. 
1888. Ellis H. Crapper, 32 Springhill Road, Sheffield. 

1775. Jas. Crawford, Hematite Iron Works, Harrington, Cxmiberland. 
h 704. Alfred Créer, i Clifton, York. 

mi. H. T. Crewe, 17 Sunning Hill Road, Lewisham, London, S.E. 

221. A. H. Crichton, Castlepark, Linlithgow. 
1 1 79. David Crichton, 6 Duncan Street, Newington, Edinburgh. 
1348. Hugh Crichton, Bute House, Airdrie. 

844. James L. Crichton, 3 East Park Terrace, Mary hill. 

343. Arthur J. Cridge, 16 Hindham Road, Upper Tooting, London, S.W. 

910. Jas. Crighton, i Thornwood Terrace, Partick, W. 
1556. W. Crockatt, 21 Hope Street, Glasgow. 
2244. Walter Crooke, Sen., Millom, Cumberland. 
i8gi. A. W. Crookston, 188 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 
1418. J. F. L. Crosland, Belcombe, Hale, Altrincham. 

764. F. W. Cross, Gas Works, Leyton, Essex. 
37. J. R. Cross, Netherton House, Wishaw. 
2170. Joseph H. Crossley, Thornhill Lees, Dewsbury. 

970. John Crow, 236 Nithsdale Road, PoUokshields. 
2287. A. D. Crowther, Wardwick, Derby. 

711. G. H. Crowther, Thornhill, Edgerton, Huddersfield. 

1776. John Crum, Askam-in-Furness, Lancashire. 

613. W. R. Cummins, 15 Victoria Street, Loughboro', Leicester. 
1530. D. M. Cunningham, Mill Road, Bathgate. 
1202. Hugh Cunningham, Calthorpe Lodge, Banbury. 
1590 Peter Cunningham, jun., Easterkennyhill House, Cumbernauld Rd. 
1591. Peter N. Cunningham, Easterkennyhill House, Cumbernauld Rd. 
2166. Wm. Currie, Gas Works House, Alexandria, N.B. 

822. A. E. Curry, 28 Deansgate, Manchester. 

506. M. Curry, University College, Bristol. 

1 138. Jos. C. Custodis, St. Maries Chambers, Norfolk Row, Sheffield, 
h 836. Wm. Cuthill, Beechwood, Uddingston, Glasgow. 
1890. Henry A. Cutler, Municipal Buildings, Cork. 

D 

1702. Robert W. Dana, 5 Adelphi Terrace, London, W.C. 
1603. E. L. Daniel, 6 St. James Gardens, Swansea. 

15. Thomas Danks, Barrow-in-Furness. 
2304. H. W. Darbishire, Plas Mawr, Pemmaenmawr. 

808. John Darroch, 27 South Kinning Place, Glassfow. 

131. Frank Davenport, Gilda Brook, Eccles. , 

185. Henry Davey, 3 Princes Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 

560. C. J. Davidson, Lloyd's Register, Water Street, Liverpool. 
1421. D. Davidson, 17 Regent Park Square, Glasgow. 

741. J. S. Davidson, Sirocco Engineering Works, Belfast. 
i89«>. S. C. Davidson, Sirocco Engineering Works, Belfast. 
1230. James Davie, 92 Albert Drive, Crossbill. 
2185. C. M. Davies, Leslie House, Pollokshields, Glasgow. 



MEMBERS. 365 

2IOO. H. Davies, i Longcross Street, Cardiff. 

192. J. C. Davies, Wood Green, Wednesbury. 
1086. L. G. Davies, H.M. Dockyard, Portsmouth. 
2321. Thos. A. Davies, Trelawne, Rinswell Hill, London, 
1371. W. H. Davies, St. Aubyns, Newport, Mon. 
2367. A. T. Davis, County Surveyor, Shrewsbury. 
-4- 487. J. Davis, Gas Works, Gravesend, Kent. 

472. T. Davis, 20 Alexandra Road, Southampton. 

504. R. C. H. Davison, 25 Victoria Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 

208. Capt. Cecil Wm. Davy, 10 Portland Avenue, Exmouth. 
1204. R. A. Dawbam, 82 Victoria St., London, S.W. 

964. John N. Dawe, Wadebridge, Cornwall. 

972. Edw Dawson, 23 Park Place, Cardiff. 
1604. Robt. Dawson, Hartley Works, Stalybridge. 

326. Wm. Dawson, Town Hall, Leyton, London, E. 
1390. G. St. John Day, Mumps Electrical Works, Albert Street, Oldham. 
1894. W. O. Dayson,, Blaenavon Works, Blaenavon, Mon. 
•+ 57. M. Deacon, Whittington House, Nr. Chesterfield. 
2280. Harold Deans, 14 Culmington Road, Ealing. 
1294. Robert L. Deans, Hillcresti Johnstone. 
1441. Jas. Deas, Water Engineer, Warrington. 

1763. M. de Borhek, Commission Européenne du Danube, Galatz, 
Roumania. 

287. Jules de Coene, 26 Rue Etoupee, Rouen, France. 
168. E. T. d'Eyncourt, Fairfield, Govan. 

288. Henri do Gorski, 8 Quai Cockerill, Seraing, Belgium. 

1798. E. F. de Hoerschelmann, Councillor of State, Kieff, Russia. 
724. Wm. Deighton, i Ash Hall Lane, Chapeltown Road, Leeds. 
258. G. de Joly,, 43 Avenue du Trocadcro, Paris. 
2374. Adolpho F. de Laureiro, 88 Ruadas Janellas Verdes, Lisbon. 
991. Carl Dellwik, 25 Victoria St., Westminster, London, S.W. 
181 3. M. de Loehr, Commission Européenne du Danube, Galatz, 

Roumania. 
1912. Julio de Luzurtegui, Alameda de Mararredo, Y.Y., Bilbao. 
181 7. His Excellency Don Arturo de Marcoartu, Hotel d'Angleterre, Bilbao, 
Spain. 
878. Emile Demenge, 89 Avenue de Villiers, Paris. 
869. J. Dempster, 571 Shields Road, Glasgow. 
44. 421. R. Dempster, Norwood, Broughton Park, Manchester. 
2063. Archd. Denny, Braehead, Dumbarton. 

1896. T. J. Denny, Blast Furnace Power Syndicate, Ltd., 29 Gt. George 
Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 
59. A. de Preaudeau, 21 Rue St. Guiiiaume, Paris. 
544. W. H. de Ritter, 7 Oriental Street, Poplar, London. 
1681. G. S. de Rosenkrantz, The South Wales Institute of Engineers, Park 

Place, Cardiff. 
1083. Chas. H. de Rusett, Hope Lodge, Blackheath Hill, S.E. 
409. E. W. de Rusett, Warden House, Tynemouth, Northumberland. 
1846. M. F. de Schryver, Ingénieur en Chef, Rue de Canal 47, Brussels. 
1366. E. C. de Segundo, 28 Victoria Street, London, S.W. 
2373. J. M. Cordeiro de Sousa, 45 Rue de Don Pedro V., Lisbon, Portugal. 
300 James Dewhirst, Avenue Chambers, Chelmsford, Essex. 
232. F. W. Dick, Easthill, Rotherham. 
311. John R. Dick, The Reason Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Lewes Road, 

Brighton. 
1 192. Jas. B. Dickie, "Sorrento," Terregles Avenue, Pollokshields. 
306. Harold Dickinson, i Whitevale Road, Leeds. 
305 Samuel Dickinson, Wilton Lodge, Wolverhampton. 
923. W. J. Dilley, 8 Granby Road, Edinburgh, 



366 MEMBERS. 

1734. J. T. T. Dillon, R.E. Office, Armagh, Ireland. 

213. Charles F. Dixon, Cleveland Bridge Work, Darlington. 

170. Edward Dixon, 74 Bartholomew Road, Camden Rd., London, N.W. 

563. E. W. Dixon, 14 Albert Street, Harrogate. 

303. Frederic ]. Dixon, 5 Prospect Crescent, Harrogate. 
++ 81. James S. Dixon, Fairleigh, Bothwell. 

1499. J. R. Dixon, 4 St. Nicholas Buildings, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
++1388. Walter Dixon, 59 Bath Street, Glasgow. 

520. Joseph Dobbs, Coolbawn, Castlecomer, Co. Kilkenny. 
++ 982. Thos. J. Dodd, East Villa, 16 Leslie Rd., PoUokshields, Glasgow. 
1030. E. E. Doddrell, 11 Bothwell Street, Glasgow. 

401. A. Dodgeon, Urban District Council, Clayton-le-Moors, Accrington. 

459. T. E. Dodgson, Granby House, Park Site, Rotherham. 

529. E. R. Dolby, 21 Henderson Rd., Wandsworth Common, London, S.W. 

632. D. B. Donald, Roseleigh, Penryn, Cornwall. 
2104. David P. Donald, Greenbank, Johnstone. 

159. James A. Donald, 12 Waterloo Street, Glasgow. 
2266. R. H. Dorman, County Surveyor, Armagh. 
58. C. P. Douglas, Thornbeck Hill, Darlington. 

837. C. S. Douglas, St. Brides, Dalziel Drive, PoUokshields, Glasgow. 

942. M. Douglas, Usworth Hall, Washington, R.S.O., Co. Durham. 
1897. W. L. Douglas, 8 Clydesdale Street, Hamilton. 
1507. A. M. Downie, 51 Cecil Street, Hillhead, Glasgow. 
1303. Nicholas Downing, Glenbrooke, Norton Hill, Stockton-on-Tees. 

937. E. A. Dowson, Basingstoke Iron Works, Basingstoke, Hants. 

1735. John A. Drake, Thornleigh, Halifax. 

161. Alexandre Dreux, Mont St. Martin (Meurthe & Moselle), France. 
562. W. N. Drew, Ecclesfield, Nr. Sheffield. 
807. R. W. Dron, Utica, Bearsden, Glasgow. 
320. Wm. Dronsfield, Brookhurst, Oldham. 
2363. A. G. Drury, C.R. Docks, Grangemouth. 
1444. C. D. Drury, Hendon Gas Works, Sunderland. 

2137. Chas. Vickery Drysdale, Clairville, Hadley Rd., NewBarnet, London. 
390. John W. W. Drysdale, 37 Westercraigs, Dennistoun, Glasgow. 
1 157. Wm. Duddell, 47 Hans Place, Chelsea, London, S.W. 
96. Peter Duff, Dock Engine Works, Birkenhead. 
244. W. DufE, 9 Market Street. Morecambe. 
417. W. H. Dugard, Bridge Street West, Birmingham. 
1471. W. M. Duguid, Blackdog Farm, Bridge of Don, Aberdeen. 
548. M. Dumur, Ingénieur des Ponts et Chaussées, Torcalquier, (Bases 

Alpes), France. 
698. John Duncan, Municipal Technical Institute, West Ham, London. 
++ 1220. John Duncan, Ardenclutha, Port Glasgow. 
++2061. Robert Duncan, Whitefield Engine Works, Govan. 

2162. Robt. Duncan, c/o Chas. E. Raeburn, i Hillhead Street, Glasgow. 
1 710. William L. Duncan, Lamorna, Scotstounhill, Renfrewshire. 
800. G. R. Dunell, 7 Spencer Road, Chiswick, London, N. 
151 1. Ernest C. Dunkerton, Globe Works, Lincoln. 
1246. Alex. Dunlop, 14 Derby Terrace, Sandyford. 
++1557. David J. Dunlop, 198 Bath Street, Glasgow. 

1618. D. N. Dunlop, Westinghouse Building, Norfolk Street, Strand, 
London, W.C. 
•H-2227. John G. Dunlop, Clydebank Shipyard, Glasgow. 
1 137. Thos. Dunlop, 156 Hyndland Road, Glasgow. 
1587. W. A. Dunlop, Harbour Office, Belfast. 

2010. Andrew S. Dunn, i Thomville Ter., Wilson St., Hillhead, Glasgow. 
1376. Hugh S. Dunn, Earlston Villa, Capringtoh, Kilmarnock. 
-+- 257. J. f)unn, 28 Victoria Street, London, S.W. 



MEMBERS. 367 

2359. Matt. Dunn, Gas Works Engineer, Goule. 
1542. Robt. A. Dunn, 168 Kenmure Street, PoUokshields, Glasgow. 
132. Walter T. Dunn, 47 Fentiman Road, London, S.W. 
++1736. James Dunnachie, Glenboig House, Glenboig. 
167. Henry Dyer, 8 Highburgh Terrace, DowanhiU, 



E 

1899. W. Frank Eagland, "The Iron and Coal Trades Review," 165 Strand, 

London, W.C. 
1506. W. L. Eaglesfield, Craig House, Workington. 
1 1 56. H. A. Earle, Salford Iron Works, Manchester. 
1605. J. M. Easton, Tordarroch, Helensburgh. 
873. W. C. Easton, Glasgow Main Drainage Works, Balshagray Avenue, 

Partick. 
1 1 19. J. T. W. Echevarrie, 6 Manor Villas, Norfolk Road, Merton, Surrey. 
862. E. M. Eden, 76 Adelaide Road, South Hampstead, London, N.W. 
2205. Alfred Edington, New Street, Chelmsford. 

360. James B. Edmiston, The Cottage, Highfield Rd., Walton, Liverpool. 
1586. Alfred R. Edmondson, The Oaks, Moss Lane, Timperley, Cheshire. 
1247. Charles Edwards, 36 Hamilton Park Terrace, Hillhead. 

1473. E. R. Edwards, Rose Cottage, Crabtree, Pitsmoor, Sheffield. 

1777. Azarian Efiendi, Commission European du Danube, Galatz. 
++ 38. Francis Elgar, Doonbrae, Ayr. 

-1-1454. Professor A. C. Elliott, University College, Cardiff. 
1085. Wm. R. Elliot, 12 Albany Gardens, Shettleston. 

361. Basil Ellis, Oxshotte, Surrey. 

1 1 59. E. Ellis, Gt. Northern Railway, Leeds. 
802. W. H. M. Ellis, Monktown, Dublin. 
1350. J. Ellison, Rose Hill, Harrington, Cumberland. 
_^. 16. Edward R. S. Escott, 16 Clifton Road, Halifax. 
17. W. 13. Esson, Victoria Works, Charlton, Kent. 
455. P. T. J. Estler, Fairfield House, Old Charlton, London, S.E. 
1502. John Etherington, Spring Mount, 201 Grove Lane, Denmark Hill, 

London, S.E. 
1370. John Eustice, 26 Wilton Avenue, Southampton. 
528. A. J. L. Evans, Town Hall, Luton, Beds. 
990. C. J. Evans, 108 Castlenan, Barnes, London, S.W. 

1778. C. Evans, Pen-yr-Hoel House, Merthyr Tydvil. 

116. D. Evans, Carlton Villa, Oxford Street, Upperthorpe, Sheffield. 
2365. Evan Evans, County Surveyor, Carnarvon. 

1900. G. W. Evans, Westfa, Nr. Llanelly, Carmarthenshire. 
1991. John Evans, Cyfartha Iron and Steel Works, Merthyt Tydvil. 

_^ 97. Thos. Evens, 3 Crescent Road, South Norwood, London, S.E. 
2094. Wilfred H. Everett, 215. Woodborough Road, Nottingham. 
1898. P. Ewen, The Barrowfield Iron Works, Ltd., Fordneuk Street, Mile 
End, Glasgow. 



2234. E. Fabri, Inspector of Factories, Ghent, Belgium. 

339. Edgar H. Fairgrieve, 40 Marchmont Crescent, Edinburgh. 

476. M. M. Fairgrieve, 6 Burgess Terrace, Edinburgh. 

133. G. W. Fairies, Bank House, Upper Parlestone, Dorset. 
1589. John Fairley, 124 Pitt Street, Glasgow. 
•1431. W. H. Farnell, Gallowflat, Rutherglen. 



368 MEMBERS. 

1901. Ernest Famworth, Broadlands, Goldthorn Hill, Wolverhampton. 
448. Wm. Farrar, 72 Steade Road, Sheffield. 

947. R. C. Farrell, 70 Wellington Street, Glasgow. 
2242. Alex. Faut, 120 Holland Street, Glasgow. 
332. F. H. Faviell, 45 Leadenhall Street, London, E.C. 

1779. ^* Feldtmann, 104 West George Street, Glasgow. 

279 E. A. Fella, 68 Messina Avenue, West Hampstead, London. 

266. E. G. Ferber, Claremont, Femhill Road, Bootle, Liverpool. 

811. D. Ferguson, Glenholm, Port-Glasgow. 

880. John Ferguson, 12 Broomhill Avenue, Partick. 
2229. Peter Ferguson, 19 Exchange Square, Glasgow. 
1 141. C. Femau, Nenthead House, Alston, Cumberland. 

505. Wm. Fiddian, Elmhurst, Stourbridge. 
<H>i363. M. B. Field, 94 Hyndland Road, Kelvinside, Glasgow. 

1902. John Fielding, Atlas Ironworks, Gloucester. 
1087. Alex. Findlay, Bellfield, Motherwell. 

891. C. Finlayson, Laird Street, Coatbridge. 
1578. F. Finlayson, Laird Street, Coatbridge. 

1781. Ambrose Firth, The Brightside Foundry and Engineering Co., Ltd 

Sheffield. 

1737, W. Firth, 13 Burton Crescent, Headingley, Leeds. 
610. Alex. Fisher, 10 Craigie Terrace, Ferry Road, Dundee. 

-I- 685. Prof. M. F. FitzGerald, 32 Eglantine Avenue, Belfast. 

1780. Stanley G. Flagg, jun., 420 North 19th Street, Philadelphia, U.S.A. 
646. David Flather, Standard Steel Works, Sheffield. 

2222. Geo. E. Fleming, 163 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 

712. M. J. Fleming, Mount View, John's Hill, Waterford, Ireland. 

2207. Thos. J. Fleming, 25 Victoria Street, London, S.W. 

2330. James Fletcher. 

1561. George Flett, no Cannon Street, London, E.C. 

2247. Dr. Walther Fliby, 109 Victoria Street, London, S.W. 

938. M. Fligg, Gas Works, Redcar. 

1782. Henry Flint, Machine and Colliery Stores Merchant, Ince, Wigan. 

1783. J. Fontes, Toulouse, France. 

1784. Harry Footner, L.N.W.R., Permanent Way Dept., Engineer's Office, 

Crewe. 
1330. Prof. Geo. Forbes, 34 Great George St., Westminster, London, S.W. 
522. Chas. F. Ford, St. John's Villa, Ripley, Nr. Derby. 
1245. Edward L. Ford, Iron & Steel Institute, 28 Victoria St., London, S.W. 
1082. T. W. Ford, Palace Chambers, Westminster, London, S.W. 
++ 190. James T. Forgie, Viewllela, Bothwell. 

1 531. Alfred L. Forster, 5 Haldane Terrace, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

1 191. Lawson Forsyth, Helenslea, Broomfield Road, Springburn, Glasgow. 

1677. Foster, Gordon Street, Darlaston. 

1053. Edgai Foster, Houseley Villas, Chapeltown, Nr. Sheffield. 

1052. Harold T. Foster, Housley Villas, Chapeltown, Nr. Sheffield. 

1738. John A. Foster, Lady walk, Rickmansworth, Herts. 

319. Martin Foster, Claremont, Norton Road, Stockton-on-Tees. 
2193. W. Foster, 230 Duke Street, Barrow-in-Furness. 
♦+ ^555* Wm. Foulis, 45 John Street, Glasgow. 
-1-1374. A. M. Fowler, 35 Old Queen Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 

1785. W. H. Fowler, 53 New Bailey Street, Manchester. 
408. H. Fownes, 6 Osborne Road, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

2254. Chas. B. Fox, Alyn Bank, Wimbledon. 
•+ 60. Sir Douglas Fox, 28 Victoria Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 
270. F. Douglas Fox, 19 Kensington Square, London, W. 
39. William Fox, 5 Victoria Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 
1583. Samuel Frances, Forton Bank, Hindi ey, Nr. Wigan. 



MEMBERS. 369 

539. Joseph Francis, Bemersyde, Coolhurst Road, Shepherd's Hill, 
London, N. 

579. W. A. Francken, Okehampton, Devon. 
1432. James Fraser, 100 Castle Street, Inverness. 
1440. J. I. Fraser, 13 Sandyford Place, Glasgow. 
1992. r. A. Fraser, Knockrobbie, Beauly. 
1098. P. Fraser, 11 Dalhousie Place, Arbroath. 

289. Wm Fraser, 121 N. Montrose Street, Glasgow. 

134. W. J. F. Freeland, c/o Crompton & Co., Arc Works, Chelmsford. 
1 144. W. W. Freeman, Cheetham Villa, Taylor Street, Dresden, Stoke-on- 
Trent. 



1903. W. E. Freir, i6 Eldon Street, London, E.C. 
r. Tas. "W^ French, i Kelvinside Terrace, Glasgow. 
>. P. R. 



[903. 
867. 

2140. P. R. Friedlaender, 39 London Road, Chelmsford, Essex. 

2161. Wm. E. Frier, 16 Eldon Street, London, E.C. 
314. G. S. Frith, Gas Works, Frodsham, via Warrington. 
♦♦1786. Alex. Fullerton, Vulcan Works, Paisley. 

2231. Charles W. Fulton, The Glen, Paisley. 

looi. N. O. Fulton, Woodbank, Mount Vernon. 

1297. T. C. Fulton, 44 West George Street, Glasgow. 
«4'2o64. Peter Fyfe, 23 Montrose Street, Glasgow. 



G 

474. Enrique Gadea, San Juan 58, Madrid, Spain. 
1 153. R. L. Gaine, 13 Craigmore Terrace, Dowanhill, Glasgow. 
2065. J. M. Gale, City Chambers, Glasgow. 
2128. William M. Gale, 18 Huntly Gardens, Kelvinside, Glasgow. 

672. A. Galloway, 12 Camphill Avenue, Langside. 

468. T. L. Galloway, 43 Mair Street, Glasgow. 
1236. T. Galston, 141 Rosebery Place, Tollcross. 

814. E. T. Gardiner, South View, Bishop Auckland. 
22H. John L. F. Gardner, 15 Waverley Gardens, Glasgow. 
2341. Joseph Garfeld, 7 Atsby Villas, Bradford. 
1340. D. E. Garlick, Urban District Council, Barnoldswick. 
1512. Sydney H. Garnett, 2 Saltoun Gardens, Kelvinside, Glasgow. 
1606. Geo. Garrett, Waverley Iron and Steel Works, Coatbridge. 

740. H. A. Garrett, Borough and Harbour Engineer, Torquay, Devon. 
1286. Wm. Garven, 26 Derby Crescent, Kelvinside. 

940. L. C. Gash, Inglecroft House, Hamilton Road, Lincoln. 

308. P. T. Gask, 2 Bath Terrace, Seaham Harbour, Co. Durhai3p 
1407. L. Gaster, yj Maida Vale, London, W. 

509. T. E. Gatehouse, 4 Ludgate Hill, London, E.C. 
98. C. P. Gates, Richmond Villa, Whitegate Drive, Blackpool. 

1787. Richard Gaunt, Albany Villa, Eaglesclifïe, R.S.O. 
585. C. Geddes, Laurel Bank, Huyton Park. Huyton. 

1 1 14. N. G. Gedye, 15 Victoria Street, W^estminster, London, S.W. 

441. Wm. Geipel, 97 Shooters Hill Road, Blackheath, London, S.E. 
1584. E. W. Gemmell, Board of Trade Office, 7 York Street, Glasgow. 

250. D. George, 20 New Steine, Brighton. 
1789. Walter H. German (of Sydney), c/o Messrs. Parbury, Henty & Co., 

20 Eastcheap, London, E.C. 
1592. John Gerrard, Worsley, Manchester. 

907. Alex. Gibb, Contractor's Office, Kew, Surrey. 
1905. Jas. Gibson, Phoenix Iron Works, Coatbridge. 

354. Ralph E. Gibson, Gas Works, Huddersfield. 

1788. H. Gielgud, 140 Leadenhall Street, London. 



370 MEMBERS. 

693. Paterson GifEord, 2 Woodrow Circus, PoUokshields. 
236. F. W. Gilbertson, Glyn Teg, Ponterdawe, R.S.O., Glamorgan. 
y 205. James Gilchrist, Stobcross Engine Works, Glasgow. 
753. Jas. Gilchrist, Clifton Lodge, Workington. 
466. G. F. L. Giles, Harbour Office, Belfast. 

9. Henry A. Giles, 11 Victoria Street, London, S.W. 
471. John C. Gill, City Electrical Engineer, Peterborough. 
366. A. Gillespie, Greenhaugh, Helensburgh. 
1266. James Gillespie, jun., Margaretville, Orchard Street, Motherwell. 

2176. M. M*A. Gillespie, Westinghouse Building, Norfolk St., Strand, 

London. 
1021. Jas Gillies, 14 Walmer Terrace, Paisley Road, Glasgow. 
652. Eugene M. Y. Gillon, 53 Price Street, Hebburn-on-Tyne. 
1364. John H. Gilmour, River Bank, Irvine. 
556. Hugh Girvan. Daligan, Bearsden. 
729. E. C. Given, i Aigburth Vale, Liverpool. 
1-2066. The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Glasgow, Kelbume, Fairlie. 

386. S. N. Glass, 16 Ravenscroft Road, Chiswick, London. 
£487. D. Corse Glen, 3 Lombard Street, London, E.C. 

1790. Geo. Glen, Ivor Villa, Newport, Mon. 

- 718. E. Glover, 19 Prince Patrick Terrace, North Circular Rd., Dublin. 
1438. Samuel Glover, Hill Crest, North Road, St. Helens, Lanes. 

1524. Thomas Glover, Shirley, West Bromwich. 

2043. J. F. Golding, Expanded Metal Co., Ltd., 39 Upper Thames St.,. 
London, E.C. 

302. Wm. S. Gollidge, 41 Queen's Road, Finsbury Park, London. 

890. J. P. de Souza Gomes, Largo da Bibliothica 20, Lisbon, Portugal. 

- 304. Prof. John Goodman, The Yorkshire College, Leeds. 

884. W. P. Goodrich, 66 Victoria Street, Westminster, I^ondon, S.W. 

1 791. Herbert Goodyear, Borough Engineer, Colchester. 

827. J. Gordon, Assistant Burgh Surveyor, Town House, Aberdeen. 

2177. E. T. Goslin, 31 Wilson Street, Hillhead, Glasgow. 
537. Edward L. Gosset, Watlington, Oxon. 

1464. And. H. Goudie, 27 Miller Place, Stirling. 

708. A. B. Gowan, 27 South Hamilton Street, Kilmarnock. 
>• 1739. Alex. Gracie, Clydeview House, Partick. 
2133. Walter Grafton, 102 Byron Avenue, East Ham, Essex. 
1433. John Graham, 15 Armadale Street, Dennistoun, Glasgow. 

169. The Marquis of Graham, Buchanan Cnstle, Drymen. 
2002. Maurice Graham, Graham, Morton & Co., Ltd., Leeds. 
1219. W. Graham, Westwood, Bearsden. 

227. F. T. Grant, Borough Surveyor, Gravesend. 

156. Thos. F. Grant, 58 Kelvingrove Street, Glasgow. 
1904. T. M. Grant, 322 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 

1792. H. G. Graves, 5 Robert Street, Adelphi, London, W.C. 
1.2360. Prof. Andrew Gray, The University, Glasgow. 

i6j4. Bruce M'G. Gray, Town Hall, Selby. 
581. G. W. Gray, 8 Inner Temple, Liverpool. 

1793. James Gray, Riverside, Old Cumnock. 

- 2237. R- ^' Gray, Lessness Park, Abbey Wood, Kent. 

485. A. W. Grazebrook, Queen's Cross, Dudley, Worcester. 

443. John Green, London Zinc Mills, Ltd., Wenlock Road, London, N. 

670. J. Singleton Green, Borough Surveyor, Haslingden. 

1566. William Green, North View Cottage, Beancroft Rd., Castleford, Yorks.. 

2312. Arthur Greenwood, Messrs. Greenwood & Batley, Leeds. 

848. J. Gregory, Upper Chorlton Road, Manchester. 

1672. James Gregory, 3 Park Lane, Abram, Nr. Wigan, Lanes. 

658. B. W. P. Greig, 17 Osborne Place, Aberdeen, N.B. 



MEMBERS. 371 

587. P. R. Gresham, 51 Howarth Street, Old Trafford, Manchester. 

Jordanhill. 
1088. John Grieve, Crawford Street, Motherwell. 
1331. Joseph Griffin, Victoria Works, Cradley Heath. 
++ 1684. A. Griffiths, The Bonnybridge Silica & Fireclay Co., Bonnybridge. 
1272. Harold Griffiths, Thornbury, Woodbourne Road, Edgbaston. 

194. William J. Griffiths, 61 Sinclair Road, London, W. 
2209. S. Slater Grimley, Hendon, London. 

135. F. G. Grimshaw, 364 Van Houten Street, Paterson, N.J., U.S.A. 

502. R. A. Groom, Wellington, Salop. 
1006. L. J. Groves, Ardrishaig, N.B. 

1484. J. Grundel, Hugo de Grootstraat 84, The Hague, Holland. 
2228. T. J. Guilbert, Surveyor, Guernsey. 

263. A. Guild, Jun., 30 Elmfield Avenue, Aberdeen. 
1 185. Thos. A. Guyatt, Gas Works, Ely, Cambridge. 
1740. Thos. Gwynne, Gwalia Works, Briton Ferry. 



H 

976. M. H. Habershon, 26 Newbould Lane, Sheffield. 
1688. F Hachez, 19 Rue de Pavie, Bruxelles. 

177. R. H. Haggie, Jun., Hylton, Johnstone. 

499. Charles Hall, 542 Edge Lane, Droylsden, Near Manchester. 

310. Charles J. Hall, 207 Hyde Park Road, Leeds. 

100. John Hall, Waterloo, Bury, Lancashire. 

467. J. Hall, 138 Market Street, St. Andrews, Fife. 

ICI. John W. Hall, 71 Temple Row, Birmingham. 

341. Robert Hall, Castlelea, St. Andrews, N.B. 
1430. Thos. A. Hall, Bellevue, Buncrana, Co. Donegal. 

710. T. B. Hall, 119 Colmore Row, Birmingham. 

1494. W. Silver Hall, Cranethorpe, Guy's Cliff Road, Leamington, Eng. 
1 155. E. Hall-Brown, 14 Hyndland Road, Glasgow, W. 
1404. Geo. Halliday, 148 St. Paul's Road, Canonbury, London, W. 

237. Druitt Halpin, 17 Victoria Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 
1237. F. Sison Ham, 16 Leopold Road, Wimbledon, London, S.W. 
1572. Andrew Hamilton, 124 Shiel Road, Liverpool. 
2105. A. Hamilton, Dimsdale, 8 Matilda Road, Pollokshields, Glasgow. 
1598. David C. Hamilton, Clyde Shipping Co., Ltd., 21 Carlton Place. 
++1552. James Hamilton, 208 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 
++2136. James Hamilton, Ardedynn, Kelvinside, Glasgow. 

2302. Jas. Hamilton, c/o Peterkin, 15 lona Place, Mount Florida. 

875. Jas. Hamilton, 6 Kyle Park, IJddingston. 
1658. John Hamilton, 22 Athole Gardens, Glasgow. 
1362. John K. Hamilton, 21. Derby Crescent, Kelvinside, Glasgow. 

570. Patrick Hamilton, 66 Victoria Street, London, S.W. 
"+1262. Robert Hammond, 64 Victoria Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 

860. R. S. Hampson, Oakwood, Norwood Road, Pitsmoor, Sheffield. 

438. A. S. Hampton, 25 Killermont Street, Glasgow. 
1447. J. J. Hanbury, Edgeley, Walm Lane, Cricklewood, London, N.W. 

851. H. Hand, 342 Argyle Street, Glasgow. 
1597. T. Hands, 6âs Works, Enniskillen. 
1422. A. C. Hanson, 4 Windsor Place, Stirling. 
141 2. W. Hanson, Failreigh, Norton, Stockton-on-Tees. 

136. F. W. Harbord, Coopers Hill College, Englefield Green, Surrey. 

102. Alfred E. Hardaker, Engineers' Office, L. & Y. Railway, Hunts 
Bank, Manchester. 



372 MEMBERS. 

1680. Edward P. Hardie, The London & Scottish Boiler Insce. Co., 128a 
Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C. 
18. J. R. Harding, Dixton Cottage, near Monmonth. 

919. Wm. H. Hardy, Jansey Green, Pinsneth, Nr. Dudley. 

1 143. W. Hardy, St. Oswalds, Alexandra Road, Upper Norwood. 
2210. H. J. B. Hargrave, 56 Upper Mount Street, Dublin. 
720. J. H. Hargrave, 4 Haddington Terrace, Kingstown, Co. Dublin. 
580. B. S. Harlow, Ardgowan, Spencer Road, Buxton. 
801. Bruce Harman, 35 Connaught Road, Harlesden, London, N.W. 
■+ 61. W. Harpur, Town Hall, Cardiff. 
344. Wilfred M. Harris, EndcUfiE, KendaL 

920. J, E. Harrison, 160 Hope Street, Glasgow. 

21 18. J. Fred Harrison, 9 Beechwood Drive, Jordanhill, Glasgow. 
-I- 40. J. H. Harrison, 2 Exchange Place, Middlesbro'-on-Tees 
2274. J. A. Harrop, Moss, WreaSiam. 
1273. John Hart, 5 Meson Terrace, Middlesborough. 
1287. P. C. Hart, Monkbams, Prestwick, Ayrshire. 
1279. John W. Hartley, Drysdale House, Stone, Staff. 

183. John H. Harvey, Benclutha, Port-Glasgow. 

365. W. B. Harvey, 7 Marchmont Terrace, Kelvinside. 

984. Arthur Hassam, Madeley, Staffordshire. 
•f-i> 834. Tas. Hastie, Greenfield, Burnbank, Lanarkshire. 

706. Wm. Hastie, 78 Finnart Street, Greenock. 

117. George Hatton, Round Oak Works, Brerley Hill. 

999. Wm. Hawdon, c/o Messrs. Sir B. Samuelson & Co., Middlesborough. 

596. Walter Hawkings, 24 Denbigh Road, Bayswater, London, W. 
H- 235. Charles Hawksley, 30 Gt. George Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 

1794. G. W. Hawksley, Saville Street, Sheffield. 

617. K. P. Hawksley, 30 Great George Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 

1795. W. R. Hay, 20 Abchurch Lane, London, E.C. 
756. T. A. Hay ward, 18 Carrington Street, Glasgow. 
368. A. P. Head, 47 Victoria Street, London, S.W. 

584. B. W. Head, 47 Victoria Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 
1560. David Heap, no Cannon Street, London, E.C. 
541. Douglas T. Heap, 21 Lea Park, Blackheath, Kent. 
252. W. Heap, 29 Botanic Avenue, Belfast. 
2283. T. A. Hearson, 8 Glenhouse Road, Blackheath, London. 
99. Captain T. B. Heathorn, 10 Wilton Place, Knightsbridge, London. 
41. C. Heaton, Brades Steel Works, Nr. Birmingham. 
519. Robert Hedley, Weardale House, Spennymoor. 

2353. Augustus Helder, M.P., Whitehaven. 
1339. Geo. Helps, Gas. Works, Nuneaton. 

•+ 1703. James W. Helps, Gas Works, Croydon. 
1 21 3. H. Henderson, 27 Cowper Street, Leeds. 
X186. J. Henderson, Frodingham Iron Works, Nr. Doncaster. 
114Ç. W. D. Helps, Cherry Bank, Kirkstall, Leeds. 

818. James Henderson, Frodingham House, Frodingham, Nr. Doncaster. 

854. Jas. B. Henderson, 146 Cambridge Drive, Glasgow. 
X448. J. F. Henderson, 4 Belhaven Crescent, Kelvinside. 
1062. J. G. Henderson, Inst, of Civ. Engrs., Gt. George St., London, S.W. 

2354. Robert Henderson, Harbour Engineer, Burntisland. 

340. Sir William Henderson, LL.D., Devanha House, Aberdeen, 
iioi. Thos. Hennell, 6 Delahay Street, London, S.W. 
1908. Gus. C. Henning, 220 Broadway, New York, U.S.A. 
410. W. H. Hepplewhite, Blenheim Mount, St. Ann's Hill, Nottingham. 
-I- 816. J. Hepworth, 4 Priestfield Road, Edinburgh. 

475. H. Hermann, Munster, i/w, Germany. 
•K2067. W. R. Herring, Granton House, Edinburgh. 



MEMBERS. 373 

965. Geo. Herriot, 24 Moray Place, Strathbungo. 

956. A. Herschel, 2 Glenavon Terrace, Crow Road, Partick. 
2301. Thos. Hewson, The Hollies, Roundhay, Leeds. 
2216. Dr. Adolphus Heyck, Budapest, Hungary. 

230. John Hibbard, Greenside House, Hackenthorpe, Sheffield. 

518. Wm. S. Hide, Beechwood, Cottingham, E. York. 
2214. Charles F. Higgins, Moore Parade, Hartlepool. 

636. Arthur Higgs, Batman's Hill, Bradley, Bilston. 
1504. David G. Hill, 70 Marchmont Road, Edinburgh. 
21 14. Edward J. Hill, 11 Victoria Street, Westminster, London. 
2035. W. H. Hill, jun., Audley House, Cork. 
1796. William Hill, Apedale, Newcastle, Staffs. 
1048. Maurice Hird, 46 Mary on Road, Charlton, Kent. 

206. W. Benison Hird, 13 Albion Crescent, Glasgow. 
19. D. J. Hirst, 33 Hartington Street, Barrow-in-Furness. 
+♦2068. G. R. Hislop, Gas Works, Paisley. 

469. Lawrence Hislop, Gas Works, Uddingston. 
1742. Chas. F. Hitchens, 25 Victoria Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 

275. H. M. Hobart, 123a Potsdamerstrasse, Berlin. 
1391. G. M. Hocknell, 47 Somerset Road, Huddersfield. 
++ 1797. John Hodgart, Vulcan Works, Paisley. 

1607. Geo. Hodgkinson, 9 Throgmorton Avenue, London, E.C. 
1039. H. E. Hodgson, Spen Hall, Cleckheaton. 
1574. Henry T. Hodgson, Harpenden, Herts. 

1909. Stephen Hodgson, 76 Scarbro' Street, W. Hartlepool. 
++2096. Hugh Hogartn, Dock Shipbuilding Yard, Port Glasgow. 

2097. S. C. Hogarth, Dock Shipbuilding Yard, Port Glasgow. 

709. T. O. Hogarth, The Woodlands, Swindon. 
1009. W. A. Hogarth, 293 Onslow Drive, Glasgow. 
++ 1024. C. P. Hogg, 53 Bothwell Street, Glasgow. 

137. William Hogg, Piele House, Beach Street, Lytham, Lanes. 

211. John Hojer, Lotsstyrelsen, Stockholm. 
1582. Alfred Holden, Hindley, Nr. Wigan. 
1 1 13. Col. Holden, R.A., Royal Arsenal, Woolwich. 

445. T. E. Holgate, 173 Hollins Grove, Darwen. 
2014. Thos. Holgate, Gasworks, Halifax. 
1969. Roslyn Holiday, Ashton Hall Colliery, Featherstone, Pontefract. 

512. E. M. HoUingsworth, Prescot Road, St. Helens, Lane. 
++ 952. H. E. HoUis, 40 Union Street, Glasgow. 
1269. F. G. Holmes, Town Hall, Govan. 
2084. G. C. V. Holmes, Office of Public Works, Dublin. 
1379. J. H. Holmes, Wellbum, Jesmond, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
2121. Matt. Holmes, Netherby, Lenzie. 

852. Carl Holmstrom, Lancefield Engine Works, Glasgow. 

589. W. M. Homan, 10 Rosslyn Terrace, Kelvinside. 

887. J. J. Hopper, Wire Rope Works, Thornaby-on-Tees. 

498. John Horan, 82 George Street, Limerick. 
2324. H. Home, 31 Cecil Street, Hillhead, Glasgow. 

796. W. Horner, 2 Vancouver Road, Catford, S.E. 

1910. H. K. L. Hornfall, Penns Hall, Erdington, Warwickshire. 
1799. Arthur Horsefield, High' Bank, Horbury, Nr. Wakefield. 

717. R. Horsfield, Alvanley House, Bredbury, Nr. Stockport. 

745. S. S. Horsfield, Beech House, Blaenavon, Mon. 
1384. E. Horton, The Grange, Bescot, Walsall, Staffs. 
21 31. William Hossack, Wood Merchant, Orton. 
2316. John Houlding, Stanley House, Oakfield Road, Liverpool. 
1003. C. Houston, 39 Melville Street, Pollokshields. 
1463. J. R. Howard, Parkside Place, Johnstone, N.B. 

415. F. Howarth, Municipal Buildings, Plymouth. 



374 MEMBERS. 

2 102. W. Howat, Elliot Street, Cranstonhill. 

4-i>icx>7. Jas. Howden, 2 Princes Terrace, Glasgow. 

i8oo. S. Earnshaw Howell, Brook Steel Works, Sheffield. 

637. W. T. Howse, Bexleyheath, Kent. 

1801. James Rossiter Hoyle, Norfolk Works, Sheffield. 

1434. P. S. Hoyte, Mona House, Coxside, Plymouth. 

62. Col. H. M. Hozier, Secretary of Lloyd's, London, E.G. 
1526. R. S. Hubbard, 3 Crow Road, Partick, Glasgow. 

170. John G. Hudson, Glenholme, Brownley Cross, Bolton, Lanes. 
2089. Wm. J. Hudson, North Lincoln House, Fordingham, Doncaster. 
1907. Wm. Hudspith, Greencroft, Haltwhistle. 

484. H. W. Hughes, 188 Wolverhampton Street, Dudley, Worcester. 

631. J. G. Hughes, Simddawen, Cemaes, Anglesev. 

950. L. H. Hughes, St. Catherines, Hendon, London, N.W. 

63. T. Vaughan Hughes, Norwich Union Chambers, Congreve Street, 

Birmingham. 
1008. J. Howden Hume, Hay lie, Clarkston, Busby, Nr. Glasgow. 

495. Chr. Hummel, 6 Nyvej, Copenhagen V., Denmark. 
1458. J. H .Humphreys, Norwood, Cambridge Rd., Bowden, Cheshire. 
-I- 103. Chas. Hunt, Gas Works, Windsor Street, Birmingham. 

491. F. O. Hunt, 43 Lord Street, Broughton, Manchester. 

418. G. J. Hunt, Guildhall, Dorchester. 

531. L. J. Hunt, Marlborough House, St. Johns Street, Chester. 

920. Adam Hunter, 32 Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W. 

350. G. Ernest Hunter, Aykleyheads, Durham. 
2355. Gilbert M. Hunter, New Yards, May bole. 
' 1691. John M. Hunter, 42 Montgomerie Street, Kelvinside, Glasgow. 

357. John W. Hunter, 10 Princes Street, Sunderland. 
++ 804. John Hunter, 13 Queen's Gate, Dowanhill, Glasgow. 

918. John Hunter, Dolphin Foundry, Leeds. 

603. J. Y. Hunter, Temora, W. Cults, Aberdeen. 
1 741. Thos. M. Hunter, 31 Lynedoch Street, Glasgow. 

618. Tom Hunter, Town Hall, Leigh, Lancashire. 

425. W. H. Hunter, Oakhurst, Eccles Old Road, Manchester. 
1803. W. Henry Hunter, Engineer's Office, 41 Spring Gardens, Manchester. 
2165. Wm. Hunter, Germiston Bolt Works, Petershill Road, Glasgow. 

420. A. E. Hurse, 4 Cobham Terrace, Greenhithe, Kent. 

178. A. C. Hurtzig, 2 Queen Square Place, Queen Anne's Mansions, 
Westminster, S.W. 
1194. J. Hutcheon, 46 Park Drive South, Whiteinch, Glasgow. 

743. Chas. H. Hutchinson, Falcon Works, Sackville Street, Barnsley. 
2046. Walter W. Hutchinson, Gas Works, Barnsley, Yorks. 
1906. Wm. Hutchinson, Penn House, Wolverhampton. 
2036. Daniel L. Hutchison, 3 Spring Gardens, Charing Cross, London. 
1282. George L. Hutchison, 9 Park Quadrant, Glasgow. 

835. Robert Hutchison, 76 Kenmure Street, Pollokshields, Glasgow. 

104. A. W. Hutton, Alma Tube Work, Walsall. 
1 131. Geo. P. Hyslop, Sidmouth Avenue, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffs. 



897. Geo. Idin, Hopedale, Spencer Park, Coventry, England. 
414. Wm. Ingham, Town Hall Chambers, Torquay. 
8. Joseph Ingleby, 20 Mount Street, Manchester. 
++2069. John Inglis, LL.D., 4 Princes Terrace, Dowanhill. 
949. J. Inglis, 49 Mayfield Road, Edinburgh. 



MEMBERS. 375 



1055. S. J. Ingram, Gas Works, Truro, Cornwall. 
1 1 70. Wm. Innes, 11 Walmer Terrace, Ibrox, Glasgow. 
564. W. A. Ironside, i Gresham Buildings, London, E.G. 
2109. Daniel Irving, Gas Office, Bristol. 



697. Alex. Jack, 164 Windmillhill, Motherwell. 

1058. A. J. Jackman, Persberg Steel Works, Attercliffe Common, Sheffield. 
1057. Joseph Jackman, Persberg Steel Works, Attercliff Common, Sheffield. 

1743. J. W. Jackman, c/o C. W. Jackman & Co., Machine Merchants, 39 

Victoria Street, London, S. W. 
1501. T. W. M. Jacks, Hillside, Squire's Walk, Wednesbury. 
1563. Algernon B. Jackson, 16 Gt. Tower Street, London, S.E. 

507. A. E. Jackson, City Engineer's Dept., Town Hall, Hull. 
++2356. Douglas Jackson, Main Street, Newmains. 

684. F. Jackson, Victoria Foundry, Cardiff. 

1804. G. M. Tackson, The Clay Cross Co., Clay Cross, Nr. Chesterfield. 
141 1. H. Jackson, Glenthorn, Horwich, Lancashire. 
'35^- J- Jackson, 3 Hall side, Newton. 

993. Peter Jackson, 3 Walmer Crescent, Glasgow. 

992. Wm. S Jackson, 3 Walmer Crescent, Glasgow. 
2039. W. Jacobsen, Bergannd, Stockholm. 

1744. Wm. Jaffrey, 3 Victoria Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 
1641. Enoch James, Ashburton Terrace, Middlesbrough. 

789. T. James, 4 Viewforth Terrace, Fulwell, Sunderland. 
++ 489. Prof. A. Jamieson, 16 Rosslyn Terrace, Kelvinside, Glasgow. 
1200. Wm. Jarvie, c/o Kirk, Main Street, Bothwell. 

1806. J. S. Jeans, 165 Strand, London, W.C. 
195. Alfred Jenkins, Sunny Bank, Abergavenny. 

++ 1809. James G. Jenkins, 33 Renfield Street, Glasgow. 

1745. G. Joram Jenkins, 16 Bridge Street, Aberdeen. 
1014. Thos. Jenkinson, 17 Windle Street, St. Helens. 

1807. H. M. Jenks, Heath Town, Wolverhampton. 

1808. Joseph Jenks, Heath Town, Wolverhampton. 
138. Walter Jenks, Dunstall, Wolverhampton. 

1485. Karl Jenny, Innsbruck, Bahnhof, T3rrol, Austria. 

64. Geo. Jessop, London Steam Crane Works, Leicester. 
201. Wm. J. Jobling, Norse Villa, Morpeth. 

1307. And. Johnson, 120 Nithsdale Road, Glasgow. 

1367. L. P. Johnson, 9 Blackheath Rise, Lewisham, London, S.E. 

863. David Johnstone, 9 Osborne Terrace, Govan. 

394. Geo. Johnstone, 5 Albany Street, Edinbrugh. 
1 513. Ronald H. Johnstone, 28 Athole Gardens, Glasgow. 
20. W. J. Johnston, 13 Victoria Road, Broomhall Park, Sheffield. 

171. John T. Jolifîe, Warrington Road, Ipswich. 
2015. A. Joly, II Rue de Printemps, Paris. 
2037. Arthur D. Jones, Lostock Junction, Bolton, Lancashire. 

324. Lt.-Col. Alfred S. Jones, V.C, Finchampstcad, Berks. 
1452. E. P. Jones, The House by the Church, Tattenhall, Staffs. 

1746. Hy. E. Jones, Gas Works, Stepney, London. 

1475. J. Jones, Velindre, Wood Green, Wednesbury, Staffs. 
664. James C. Jones (of South Bank), 30 Vansittart Terrace, Redcat. 

65. Llewellyn Jones, 98 Great Tower Street, London, E.C. 
1666. Thos. C. Jones, 17 Kent Avenue, Jordanhill, Glasgow. 
1034. Walter Jones, Holly Mount, Red Hill, Stourbridge. 



376 MEMBERS. 

924. £dw. Josselyn, c/o Messrs. A. Ransome & Co., Ltd., Stanley Works, 

Newark-on-Trent. 
2126. Basil H. Toy, 85 Gracechurch Street, London. 
1993. £dwin H. Judd, i St. Ronan's Drive, Shawlands. 
886. Wm. H. Jukes, Fern Villa, Burnt Tree, Tipton, Staffs. 
85. Marius Jullien, Marseilles. 



K 

21. C. Kadono, c/o Okura & Co., 53 New Broad Street, London, E.G. 

996. Tatsuzo Kajima, Tokio, Japan. 

049. T. Kazama, 50 South Street, Greenwich. 
1395. T. J. M. Keegan, 41 Margaret Street, Greenock. 
"*"i396. A. Keen, London Works, Nr. Birmingham. 

160. Alex. Kelly, 18 Doune Terrace, Kelvinside. 
■*'■'* 2122. Lord Kelvin, Netherhall, Largs. 

496. A. N. Kemp, 13^ Brecknock Rd., St. John's College Park, London N. 
1 182. Irvine Kempt, ]un., Foresthill, Kelvinside, Glasgow. 
1308. H. Kendrick, Gas Works, Stretford, Manchester. 

870. D. W. Kenmont, Machan Avenue, Larkhall. 
1675. Alex. M. Kennedy, Clydevale, Dumbarton. 
2295. Captain Kennedy, King's Wood Villas, New Brompton. 
2248. Jas. Kennedy, 88 Hyndland Road, Glasgow. 
1295. Robert Kennedy, 7 Howard Street, Kilmarnock. 
1510. Robt. S. Kennedy, 11 Fellows Road, London, N.W. 
^2320. Thos. Kennedy, Kilmarnock. 

1483. Wm. E. Kenway, 319 Hagley Road, Birmingham. 
^^. 370. James Kerr, The Knowe, Motherwell. 

682. C. S. Kershaw, Penwylt, N. Neath, S. Wales. 
1608. William Key, 109 Hope Street, Glasgow. 

454. H. G. Key wood, Maldon, Essex. 

379. Michael Khroncheffski, Shlusselburg, Russia. 
191 1. John Kidd, Consett, Co. Durham. 

9^1. M. H. Kilgour, 4 Blenheim Parade, Cheltenham. 

182. Peter G. iSllick, Finsbury Town Hall, London, E.C. 
1 135. H. B. Killon, Heaton Moor Road, Nr. Stockport. 

721. Jas. Kimber, 59 Canfield Gardens, South Hampstead, London, N.W. 
1089. N. Kimura, 5 Park Terrace, Govan. 

777* J* G* Kincaid, 30 Forsyth Street, Greenock. 
1 199. C. A. King, 12 Kew Gardens, Kelvinside. Glasgow. 
++ 172. J. Foster King, 121 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 

439. John King, 165 Victoria Road, Aberdeen. 
-+ 345» Wm. Kling, Gas Office, Duke Street, Liverpool. 

620. W. King, II Bolt Court, Fleet Street, London, E.C. 
1488. A. J. IQnghom, 93 Millbrae Road, Langside, Glasgow. 

105. J. G. Kinghom, ^doch, Prentin, Oxton, Cheshire. 

828. Wm. A. Kinghom, 81 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 

629. A. T. Kinsey, Aldborough House, Dublin. 

465. O. J. Kirkby, Carlton House, Batley, Yorkshire. 

525. Henry Kirk, Seatori Road, Workington. 

622. W. G. Kirkaldy, 6 Caleton Road, Tufnell Park, London, N. 

118. William Kirkham, 22 Brinsworth Street, Attercliffe, Sheffield. 

552. John Kirkland, 23 Angles Road, Streatham, London, S.W. 
1558. Ernest C. Knight, 45 Scotland Street, Glasgow. 
1038. Geo. S. Knight, jun., 155 Fenchurch Street, London. 
2115. H. J. C. Kuhl, 21 Delahay Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 



MEMBERS. 377 



++ 367. W. W. Lackie, 14 Doune Terrace, N. Kelvinside. 

138k. C. E. Lacy-Hulbert, 45 Rue Henri Maus, Brussels, Belgium. 
1708. Robert Laidlaw, 6 Marlborough Terrace, Glasgow. 
225. Wm. C. Laidler, 26 Ewesley Road, Sunderland. 
1443. And. Laing, 15 Osborne Road, Newoastle-on-Tyne. 
614. W. A. B. Laing, 18 Dean Terrace, Edinburgh. 
2155. Andrew Laird, 190 West George Street, Glasgow. 
1051. Richard Laithwaite, De Trafïord House, Ince, Wigan. 
^1913. And. Lamberton, Sunny si de Engine Works, Coatbridge. 
830. W. Lament, Cairnsmone, Helensburgh. 
1410. J. Lancaster, Auchenheath, Lanarkshire. 

82. W. Landell, Craigville, Toward Point, Argyleshire. 
1036. C. R. Lang, Morven, Quadrant Road, Newlands, Glasgow. 
1693. Robt. Lang, Quarrypark, Johnstone. 
784. Wm. Langdon, Percy House, Bath, Somersetshire. 
-1.2054. W. E. Langdon, Glenalmond, 15 Cavendish Crescent, The Park, 

Nottingham. 
1 516. Ernest F. Lange, Fairholm, Willow Bank, Fallowfield, Manchester* 
1325. Wm. Langford, Surrey House, Trentham Road, Longton, Staffs. 
1437. S. B. Langlands, Gas Engineer, Coleraine, Co. Derry. 
1747. Oskar Lasche, N. Brunnenstrasse 107a, Berlin. 
1222. .Jâs. Lauder, Windsor Place, Bridge-of-Weir. 
1914. Thomas H. Lauder, Parkhead Forge, Glasgow. 
492. J. H. W. Laverick, Pyr Hill, Jacksdale, Notts. 
442070. A. Bonar Law, M.P., 23 Royal Exchange Square, Glasgow. 
1415. Henry Lawrence, P.O. Chambers, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

1238. George E. Lawton, Aidenswood House, Kidsgrove, Staffs. 
42. Henry Lea, 38 Bennett's Hill, Birmingham. 

1218. M. Lea, Kenwyn View, Truro, Cornwall. 
508. C. C. Leach, Seghill, Northumberland. 

1239. H. L. Leach, 28 Leigham Court Road, W., Streatham, London, S.W, 
687. Joel. Lean, Castle Hill, Duffield, Derby. 

1514. L. N. Ledingham, Govandale, Elmore Road, Sheffield. 

238. Richd. Le Doux, West Derby, Liverpool. 
1405. Henry Lee, Bedford Lodge, IBroughton Park, Manchester. 

574. J. J. Lee, Engineer's Office, L. & N.W. Railway, Stafford. 
1020. Walter Lee, 35 Worple Road, Wimbledon, S.W. 

351. James Lees, 4 The Terrace, Tonbridge, Kents. 

602. A. S. Legat, Cambroe Cottage, Coatbridge. 
1567. E. J. Legg, Town Hall, Christchurch, Hants. 
1302. Sir Joseph Leigh, M.P., Nestbourne, St. Annes-on-the-Sea. 
T459. A. Leitch, 8 Hampden Place, Mount Florida, Glasgow. 

1240. Archd. Leitch, jun., Ardmaleish, Port Glasgow. 
559. C. R. L. Lemkes, Rosehill, West Kilbride. 
987. C. P. Lemon, H.M. Dockyard, Sheemess. 

224. James Lemon, Lansdowne House, Castle Lane, Southampton 
1042. Alex. Lennox, 34 Glasgow Street, Hillhead, Glasgow. 

769. J. T. G. Leslie, 148 Hill Street, Garnethill, Glasgow. 

935. L. R. Lester, Clifton on Dunsmore, Rugby. 
1 1 72. Lewis Levy, Hawthorn Lodge, 155 Finchley Road, London. 
2090. Harry W. Lewin, 154 W. Regent Street, Glasgow. 

139. David Lewis, Gorseinon, Glam. 

792. Gething Lewis, i Pearson Place, Docks, Cardiff. 

759. H. H. L. Lewis, The Foundry, Townmead Rd., Fulham, London^ 
S.W. 
66. J. T. Lewis, Gas Works, Wellingborough. 

26 



378 MEMBERS. 

655. Wm. Lewis, 2 Cambridge Road, London, S.E. 

140. W. R. Lewis, Gorseinon, Glam. 

22. William Liddle, Hodbarrow Sea Wall Works, Millom. 

461. E. H. Liebert, 115 Tweedale Street, Rochdale. 

462. H. A. Liebert, 180 Drake Street, Rochdale. I 
2284. H. Lightbody, 3 Victoria Street, Westminster, London, S.W. I 
1 104. J. B. Lightfoot, Kemnal Wood, Chislehurst, Kent. 

1661. Joseph Lindley, Warsaw, Russia. 
173. Robert S. Lindley, Godstone Place, Godstone, Surrey. 
44 674. C. C. Lindsay, 217 West George Street, Glasgow. 
181 1. James Lindsay, Fenton Hall, Stoke-on-Trent. 
1097. Wm. F. Lindsay, 203 Nithsdale Road, PoUokshields, Glasgow. 
1 91 5. W. T. Lintem, 38 Chapel Terrace, Parkhead, Glasgow. 
2218. James F. Lister, Rivers, Dursley. 

141. Robert R. Lister, 11 Alhol Road, Alexandra Park, Manchester. 
1095. A. M. Little, 518 Springburn Road, Glasgow. 

1423. G. Little, Smethwick. 

1436. F. H. Livens, Oak House, Staithes, Yorks. 

553* J- W. Liversedge, Surveyor and Waterworks Manager, As^iton-in- 
Makerfleld, Lanes. 
«i. 3. George T. Livesey, Shagbrooke, Reigate. 

1748. Archd. Livingston, Kinneil Collieries, Bo'ness. 

1994. Wm. Livsey, Birch Mills Ironworks, Ashton-under-Lyne. 
963. E. J. Ljunberg, Falun, Sweden. 
1333. F. W. Llewellyn, Alsager, Near Stoke-on-Trent. 
1652. E. H. Lloyd, c/o Jas. Mansergh, Bryngwy, Rhayader, Mid Wales» 

44. G. C. Lloyd, 28 Victoria Street, London, S.W. 
1503. Herbert Lloyd, Brecon Road, Builth, Wales. 
1595. Samuel Lloyd, 90 Whitecross Street, London, E.C. 
309. W. H. Lloyd, Hatch Couit, Somerset. 
_4.2328. F. J. Lobley, Council Office, Hale, Cheshire. 
♦+ 977- J" Lobley, Richmond Terrace, Shelton, Hanley. 
2071. Fred Lobnitz, Clarence House, Renfrew. 
422. H. C. Lobnitz, Bay View, Millom, Cumberland. 
493. A. Locher, Bowker Street 34, Higher Broughton, Manchester. 

43. John Lockie, 7 Hermitage Place, Leith. 
2345. F. M. Long, Electricity Co., Duke Street, Norwich. 
1814. R. H. Longbotham, South Parade, Wakefield. 
1284. John G. Longbottom, Sherwood, Scotstounhill. 
_,. 273 A. H. Longden, Stanton-by-Dale, Nottingham. 
272. G. A. Longden, Stanton-by-Dale, Nottingham. 
271. J. A. Longden, Stanton-by-Dale, Nottingham. 

2016. Michael Longridge, 12 King Street, Manchester. 

2017. James Lord, Town Hall, Halifax. 

4_,.i38o. H. D. Lorimer, Kirklinton, Langside, Glasgow. 
1094. Wm. Lorimer, Kirklinton, Langside, Glasgow. 
775. G. F. Loudon, 10 Claremont Terrace, Glasgow. 
2318. Prof. Henry Louis, Durham College of Science, Newcastle-on-Tyne 

1749. Geo. E. Louth, Great Western Railway, Reading. 
1536. Geo. R. Love, 7 Wellington Place, Guilford, Surrey. 
2281. R. T. Love, Stewarton. 

loio. R. P. Lovell, I Church Terrace, Newton Heath, Manchester. 

810. W. H. Loveridge, York Road, West Hartlepool. 
1076. J. Lowe, Gas Works, Weymouth. 
1427. R. Lowe, 85 Leslie Street, PoUokshields. 
1250. James Lowe, c/o Mrs. Waddell, 33 Nithsdale Road, Glasgow. 

513. D. A. Low, East London Technical Co., Mile End Rd., London, v, 

307 S. R. Lowcock, Temple Courts, Birmingham. 



MEMBERS. 37^ 

1424. T. B. Loxley, 3 St. John's Terrace, Wakefield. 

1509. W. Lumley, 2 Claremont, Claremont Place, Gateshead-on-Tyne. 

n68. T. T. M. Lumsden, 46 Queen Street, Edinburgh. 

1 100. Jas. L. Lumsden, i8 Douglas Street, Kirkcaldy. 

318. Clition Lund, Town Hall, Cleckheaton 
2175. JSI. D. Lupton, 16a Sholebroke Avenue, Leeds. 
1815. Com. Luigi Luiggi, Esmeralda, 22, Buenos Aires. 
++2080. W. J. Luke, c/o John Brown & Co., Ltd., Clydebank. 

961. Hugh D. Lusk, Larch Villa, Annan. 

855. Jas. Lusk, Orchard View, Hamilton Road, Motherwell. 

955. John Lyall, 33 Randolph Gardens, Partick. 
1305. H. T. Lyon, 57 Onslow Square, London, S.W. 

M 

597. D. Macalister, Overton Cottage, Greenock. 
1663. John H. Macalpine, Viewfield, Kilmalcolm. 
1043. Alex. M*Ara, 19 Dundonald Road, Kelvinside. 
1 108. Wm. M'Aulay, 17 St. Andrews Drive, Pollokshields, Glasgow. 

13. Malcolm A. E. MacBean, Dunnolly, West Kilbride. 
557. Donald M'Bean, Speedwell Hotel, Rochester, Kent. 
++ 24. L. MacBrayne, 119 Hope Street, Glasgow. 

588. David M'Call, 10 Rosslyn Terrace, Kelvinside. 
1400. R. B. MacCall, 145 Renfrew Street, Glasgow. 
927. H. MacColl, 4 Kirkleston Drive, Bloomfield, Belfast. 
691. Geo. H. M'Cowat, 8 Regent Park Square, Strathbungo, Glasgow. 
1027. Jas. M'Cracken, 3 Rosemount Terrace, Ibrox. 
876. Wm. M'Crae, Gas Works, Dundee. 
616. Wm. M'Culloch, Linkieburn House, Muirkirk. 
. 524. F. W. M'CuUough, Waterworks Engineer, Belfast. 
++2011. Alex. B. M'Donald, 79 Montgomerie St., N. Kelvinside, Glasgow. 
2178. D. H. Macdonald, Brandon Works, Motherwell. 
284. John MacDonald, Bonaly, Clynder, Roseneath. 
768. S. Macdonald, i Colebrooke Place, Glasgow. 
371. Thos. Macdonald, 47 Glencairn Drive, Pollokshields. 
++ 762. D. M*Dougall, Burnlea, Greenock. 

2329. P. R. M^Dougall, 70 South Street, Greenock. 
282. John M'Elligott, 4 Victoria Drive, Mount Florida, Glasgow. 
615. G. J. Macfadzean, 3 Grosvenor Terrace, Middlesbro'. 
++ 763. Geo. M'Farlane, Dunsloy, Bellahouston, Glasgow. 

893. John M'Farlane, 330 Dennistoun Gardens, Alexandra Park, Glasgow. 
1630. Walter Macfarlane, Kelvin, Hollies Drive, Wednesbury, So. Staffs. 
1180. D. Macfie, Milton House Works, Edinburgh. 

449. D. B. M'Geoch, Lilybank, Port Glasgow. 
2145. Wm. M'Geoch, Jun., 56 Coventry Road, Birmingham. 
2092. W. C. M'Gibbon, 108 Forth Street, Pollokshields, Glasgow. 
_,. J5. Tames M'Giichrist, (îas Works, Dumbarton. 

1579. Thomas M*Gill, Electricity Supply Station, Park Street, Dover. 

783. John A. M'Gilvray, 25 Hutton Drive, Govan. 
1327. Archibald M'Glashan, Beechcroft, Clifton Avenue, West Hartlepool. 
1031. John M*Gregor, Coatbank Engine Works, Coatbridge. 
19 18. Thos. M*Gregor, Mosesfield Terrace, Springburn, Glasgow. 

825. H. A. M*Guffie, Aldred House, The Crescent, Salford. 
1041. John H. M*Ilwaine, 43 Waring Street, Belfast. 

894. J. B. M*Indoe, Electricitv Works, Coatbridge. 
567. D. M*Intosh, Dunglass Cottage, Bowling, N.Tl. 

++ 121. J. F. M*Intosh, 67 Albert Road, Crossbill, Glasgow. 



380 MEMBERS. 

452. T. P. M'Intosh, 23 Bank Street, Aberdeen. 
2336. J. H. A. M*In^re, 2 Ashgrove Terrace, Partickhill. 
4^2152. T. W. M*Intyre, Glen Tower, Kelvinside. 

932. Alex. Mackay, 55 Grange Road, Edinburgh. 
1 7 14. Francis M*Kean, 53 Waterloo Street, Glasgow. 
1084. Allan M*Keand, 1 St. James' Terrace, Hillhead, Glasgow. 
-4-2144. J* M^Kechnie, Vickers, Son &: Maxim, Ltd., Naval Construction 

Works, Barrow-in-Furness. 
1293. David M'Kenzie, County Buildings, Dunfermline. 
2033. John M*Kenzie, Speedwell Iron Works, Coatbridge. 

829. T. B. Mackenzie, 342 Duke Street, Glasgow. 
2298. Thos. R. Mackenzie, 3 Huntly Gardens, Glasgow. 

352. James M*Kerlie, 7 Duffield Road, Irlams o' th' Height, Manchester. 
1622. Wm. Mackie, Lilybank, Pd!rt-Glasgow. 
442125. W. A. Mackie, Govan Shipbuilding Yard, Govan. 
1361. P. A. M*Killop, 104 North Hanover Street, Glasgow. 
1532. R. M*Killop, Barnhill Cottage, Perth. 

739. Wm. M*Kinnel, 234 Nithsdale Road, Pollokshields. 
1923. C. F. Maclaren, Stenton Iron and Steel Works, Wishaw. 

819. H. McLaren, Midland Engine Works, Leeds. 
1203. John McLaren, Midland Engine Works, Leeds. 

921. John M*Laren, Manager, Gas Works, Duns, N.B. 
++ 694. J. F. Maclaren, Eglinton Foundry, Glasgow. 

1206. J. M. MacLaren, 62 Sydney Street, South Kensington, London, S.W 

968. R. M*Laren, 19 Morningside Park, Edinburgh. 
^1750. Robert Maclaren, Eglinton Foundry, Glasgow. 

586. W. A. McLaren, Royal Exchange, Leeds. 
1054. Wm. M*Laren, Cordoba, Both well. 

746. J. D. M*Lauchlan, 21 Young Street, Edinburgh. 
2041. Duncan M*Laurin, Cartside Works, Millikenpark. 

186. James H. Maclaurin, Tigh-na-ghrian, Ayr. 
1026. Alex. MacLay, Camptower, Bearsden. 
1824. David M. Maclay, Dunourne, Motherwell. 
^ 944. J. P. Maclay, 13 Park Terrace, Glasgow. 
^^1825. Wm. Maclay, Thomwood, Langside, Glasgow. 

554. John Maclean, ig University Avenue, Glasgow. 
♦+1712. Prof. Magnus Maclean, 51 Kersland Terrace, Glasgow. 

671. D. M^Lellan, 53 Tnomwood Drive, Partick. 
1995. And. J. M*Lelland, 115 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 
2239. G. S. MacLellan, Clutha Works, Glasgow. 
1520. W. T. MacLellan, 129 Trongate, Glasgow. 

274. W. MacLeod, 4 Colebrooke Terrace, Hillhead. 

903. J. M*Mahon, 18 Imperial Terrace, Blackpool. 
-1-1704. Walter George Macmillan, 28 Victoria Street, London, S.W. 
1476. W. M. M*Millan, The Hotel, Carr Bridge, Inverness-shire. 
1353. Alex. Macmorran, Lochiel Arms Hotel, Banavie, N.B. 
1456. Geo. E. J. M'Murtrie, Radstock, Near Bath. 
1071. Jas. M'Murtrie, Radstock, Bath. 
1647. Jas. M*Nair, Norwood, Prestwick Road, Ayr. 

722. C. J. M*Naught, Moorhurst, Kents Bank, Lancashire. 

355. Bedford M*Neill, 25a Old Broad Street, London, E.C. 
1826. John M*Neil, Colonial Iron Works, Helen Street, Govan. . 
4^1682. Andrew M'Onie, Cessnock Engine Works, Copeland Road, Govan. 
1442. R. B. Macouat, Arden, Park Gardens, Paxtick. 

362. A. MacPherson, Gas Co. Office, Kirkcaldy. 

986. Angus Macpherson, 4 St. Vincent Terrace, Coatham, Redcar. 

600. Charles MTherson, 25 Victoria Street, Aberdeen. 
1375. M. Macpherson, 86 Stevenson Drive, Shawlands, Glasgow. 



MEMBERS. 381 

2018. A. P. Stanley MacQuisten, 33 Renfield Street, Glasgow. 
898. Grieve Macrone, St. Aubyns, Basingstoke, Hants. 

2019. Wm. M*Wliirter, 9 Walworth Terrace, Glasgow. 
2154. Andrew M'William, 12 Marlborough Road, SheflSeld. 

795. Wm. L. Madgen, Surrey House, Victoria Embankmt., London, W.C. 
1575. H. P. Maffiola, 21 Wellington Street, Waterloo, Liverpool. 
1959. Romain Maievesky, Tikhievin, Pro\'ince de Novgorod, Russia. 
1252. R. B. Main, Broomrig, Dollar. 

157. Crée Maitland, Ocean Chambers, 190 West George St., Glasgow. 

219. Colonel E. D. Malcolm, Auchnamara, Lochgilphead. 
1465. John Malcolm, 6 Waterloo Place, London, S.W. 
1816. S. Malcolm, 93 Jesmond Road, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

353. John Mallinson, Town Hall, Skipton-in-Craven. 
23. G. Mann, 10 Polmuir Road, Aberdeen. 
2156. John Mann, 137 West George Street, Glasgow. 
2120. John Mann, Jun., 137 W. George Street, Glasgow. 

1653. ^* L* Mansergh, c/o jfas. Mansergh, Bryngwy, Rhayader, Mid Wales. 
H-1651. Jas. Mansergh, Bryngwy, Rhayader, Mid Wales. 

1654. Walter L. Mansergh, c/o Jas. Mansergh, Bryngwy, Rhayader, Mid 

Wales, 
++ 833. Jas. Manson, G. & S.W. Railway, Kilmarnock. 

1733. Sydney H. March, Stradsett, t6 Silverdale Rd., Chorlton-cum- 
Hardy, Nr. Manchester. 

1256. F. G. Marley, 237 Albert Road, Jarrow-on-Tyne. 
925. T. E. G. Marley, Monkscroft, St. «Bees. 

2030. R. Marriott, Broomloan Road, Govan. 
++ 1306. D. Marshall, 18 Park Terrace, Glasgow. 

1 164. J. G. Marshall, Norwich Union Chambers, Congreve Street, B'ham. 
2271. John Marshall, 2 York Terrace, Cheltenham. 

941. R. Marshall, 12 Broughton Road, South Shields. 

400. W. B. Marshall, Richmond Hill, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 

179. Arthur J. Martin, Bradninch House, Exeter. 

369. David Martin, 2 Thornwood Terrace, Partick West, Glasgow. 
-+ 799. Edw. P. Martin, Dowlais, Glamorganshire. 

909. Wm. C. Martin, Heathbank, Kelvinside Gardens. 

142. George R. Martyn, Skelmorlie, Stour Park, Newport, Mon. 

296. Harold F. Massey, c/o B. & S. Massey, Openshaw, Manchester. 

297. Leonard F. Massey, c/o B. & S. Massey, Openshaw, Manchester. 
234. C. Masterman, Flavia Terrace, South Shields. 

1996. A. J. Mather, Glendair, Heaton Grove, Bradford. 
1401. G. R. Mather, Botlea, Wellingborough. 
778. Cha. Mathew, Town Hall, Ryde, Isle of Wight. 
++ 781. D. A. Matheson, 15 Royal Terrace West, Glasgow. 

1257. Donald Mathieson, 30 Jackson Street, Sunderland. 
1819. S. Matinoff, St. Petersburg. 

1818. J. Matthews, Forth Bank Works, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
-+2053. Wm. Matthews, 9 Victoria Street, London. 
++ 892. Henry A. Mavor, 3 Windsor Circus, Glasgow. 
++1697. Sam Mavor, 37 Burnbank Gardens, Glasgow. 

906. R. L. Maw, 18 Addison Road, Kensington, London, W. 
■+ 375. Wm. H. Maw, 35 and 36 Bedford Street, Strand, London, W.C. 
■+ 412. E. G. Mawbey, Town Hall, Leicester. 

1664. James Maxton, 4 Ulster Street, Belfast. 

143. Thos. Maxwell, 15 Ashfield Terrace East., Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
231. Wm. W. Maxwell, 36 Crown Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

2004. Arthur May, 24 Bride Lane, Fleet Street, I^ondon, E.C. 
2093. Walter May, 10 Blenheim Road, Bedford Park, London, W. 
624. W. W. May, Woodboume, Partickhill, Glasgow. 



882 MEMBERS. 

1820. Henry Mecban, c/o Messrs. Mechan &. Sons, Scotstoun, Ulasgovr. 
ao2o. Charles Meiklejohn, Craigside, Rugby, Warwickshire. 

383. Jas. Meldnim, 10 Victoria Stxeet, Westminster, London, S.W. 

859. J. F. Melbng, Cyclops Works, Sheffield. 
2190. Samuel Melling, Ince Forge, Wigan. 
1300. Thos. Melling, Parbold, via Soutbport. 
++2072. William Melville, Dunloskin, Dumbreck. 

2361. Carlos Mendizabal, Sociedad de Altos Hornos, Bilbao, Spain. 
++1103. John Menzies, Ëastbank, High Blantyre. 

728. Jas. B. Mercer, New Bank, Lower Broughton Rd., Manchester. 
2253. C. S. Metcalfe, 24 Croft Avenue, Sunderland. 

577. S. Meunier, Gas Works, Stockport. 
2358. Jos. L. Meyer, Papenburg, Ems, Germany. 
1049. ■^- ^' Meyjes, 42 Cannon Street, London, E.C. 
2337. A. Middeldorff, Worcester, Mass., U.S.A. 

242. J. T. Middleton, The Grange, Grange Road, Ealing. 
ai8i. R. A. Middleton, 34 Rothbury Terrace, Heaton, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

1821. Reginald E. Middleton, 17 Victoria Street, London, S.W. 
1278. Ernest J. Miles, Borough Engineer's Office, West Hartlepool. 

690. Jno. S. Millar, 22 White Street, Partick, Glasgow. 

162. R. Millar, 6 Colebrooke Street, Hillhead, Glasgow. 
1668. Thomas Millar, 19 Beverley Terrace, CuUercoats, Northumberland. 
2195. E. H. Millard, City of Durham Gas Co., 18 Claypark, Durham. 
2147. David S. Miller, 8 Royal Crescent, Glasgow, W. 

144. H. W. Miller, 18 Kensingtgn Court Place, London, W. 
1378. John Miller, Etruria Villa, South Govan. 
1919. John D. Miller, Rosehall Colliery, Coatbridge. 

766. John F. Miller, Greenoakhill, Broomhouse. 

391. Robt. F. Miller, 109 Bath Street, Glasgow. 

377. F. O. Mills, 31 Lansdowne Road, East Croydon, Surrey. 

460. Thomas Mills, Longdown Lodge, Sandhurst, Berks. 

754. W. H. Mills, Nurney, Glenagarey, Co. Dublin. 

435. Douglas Milne, 10 Queen's Road, Aberdeen. 
1416. Jas. Milne, Muirend, Colinton, Midlothian. 

663. W. B. Mimmack, Gas Works, St. Mary Craig, Kent. 
1916. Charles Misselhausen, 19 St. John's Park, Blackheath, London, S.E. 
•H-Z23I. George A. Mitchell, 5 West Regent Street, Glasgow. 

703. H. E. Mitchell, The Ivy House, Christchurch, Hempstead, N.W. 

470. James Mitchell, 19 Justice Mill Lane, Aberdeen. 
2219. John Mitchell, 98 Powis Place, Aberdeen. 
2315. John H. Mitchell, Bell vue, Uddingston. 
1 1 58. Thos. Mitchell, Annanbank, 17 Dumbreck Road, Glasgow. 
1645. Wm. Mitford, 6 Newcomen Terrace, Coatham, Redcar. 
1332. A. D. Mitton, Oakwood, Walkden, Nr. Manchester. 
2173. Thomas E. Mitton, c/o Hunt & Mitton, 14 Oozell Street, North, 

Birmingham. 
1640. Wm. Moat, Johnson Hale, Eccleshall, Staffordshire. 

119. C. H. Moberley, 33 Bennet Park, Blackheath, London, S.E. 
1548. A. Mogoutchy, Vitegra, via St. Petersburg, Russia. 
-,.1349. Sir G. L. Molesworth, The Manor House, Bexley, Kent. 

1271. H. A. Mollison, 30 Balshagray Avenue, Partick. 
++ 203. James Mollison, 30 Balshagray Avenue, Partick. 

936. J. M. Moncrieff, i St. Nicholas Buildings, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

440. Geo. Moncur, Engineer in Chief's Office, Gt. North of ScotlanJ 

Railway, Aberdeen. 
1209. J. W. Moncur, Borough Surveyor, Sunderland. 
1301. J. M. V. Money-Kent, Lime Tree House, Twickenham. 
Ï075. Edw. W. Monkhouse, 14 Old Queen St., Westminster, London, S W. 



MEMBERS. 383 

1920. F. Monks, Messrs. Monks, Hall & Co., Ltd., Warrington. 
21 71. Geo. Monteath, Taynuilt, Newton St. Boswells. 
1336. J. W. Montgomery, Silverdale, StafEordshire. 
X414. H. Moore, 49 Roslea Drive, Dennistoun, Glasgow. 
♦♦2073. R. T. Moore, B.Sc, 13 Clairmont Gardens, Glasgow. 

705. T. Ivor Moore, Craiglea, Woking. 

322. Thomas L. Moore, Millfield Foundry, Belfast. 

916. Wm. Moore, Springvale House, Fttingshall, Nr. Wolverhampton. 
2317. James More, Jun., 13 Drummond Place, Edinburgh. 

87. Edwd. F. Morgan, Town Hall, Croydon. 
1 961. J. T. Morgan, 2 Morlais Street, Dowlais, Glam. 

904. D. B. Morison, c/o Richardson, Westgarth & Co., Hartlepool. 

853. W. B. Morison, 7 Rowallan Gardens, Broomhill, Glasgow. 

430. W. S. Morland, Gas Works, Hempstead, Gloucester. 
1922. J. E. Morley, Iron and Steel Founders, Hebburn-on-Tyne. 

196. B. H. Morphy, 29 Deodar Road, Putney, London, S.W. 
1669. Geo E. Morrell, The Laurels, Belvedere, Kent. 
1696. David K. Morris, The University, Birmingham. 
2294. John Morris, Gwalia House, Gorseinor, South Wales. 
1025. A. M. Morrison, Merchiston, Scotstounhill, Glasgow. 

871. Wm. Morrison, 7 Maurice Place, Edinburgh, 
i-f 677. Wm. Morrison, 41 St. Vincent Crescent, Glasgow. 

2021. Wm. Morrison, 11 Sherbrooke Avenue, Pollokshields, Glasgow 
45. W. Murray Morrison, Foyers, Lochness. 

1 162. And. Home Morton, 130 Bath Street, Glasgow. 

1163. David Home Morton, 130 B^h Street, Glasgow. 
214. Hugh J. Morton, 128 Wellington Street, Glasgow. 
668. Jas. Morton, Manor Park, Coatbridge. 

427. John Morton, Gas Works, Ashford, Kent. 
4. Robert Morton, 27 Hamilton Terrace, London, N.W. 

212. Robert Morton, 237 West George Street, Glasgow. 
2143. Alessandro Moschini, S. Nicolo, Padova, Italy. 
1 147. Edmund Mott, Neilson Cottage, 25 Albert Road, Langside. 
1061. J. C. Mount, Town Hall, Lancaster. 

301 Montague B Mountain, Jesmond, Southborough Road, Chelmsford, 

981. M. Mowat, jun., Pitmain I-odge, Granville Park, Blackheath, 
London, S.E. 
++ 1962. Archd. H. Mowbray, Wellhall, Hamilton. 
1 1 17. John Y. Moyes, 12 Ruthven Street, Glasgow. 

667. A. A. Muir, 189 Renfrew Street, Glasgow. 

666. James Muir, 189 Renfrew Street, Glasgow. 

558. J. E. Muir, 45 West Nile Street, Glasgow. 
1 381. J. F. Muir, 8 Westminster Gardens, Glasgow, W. 

457. J. R. Moncrieff Muir, c/o H. & C. Grayson, Ltd., 179 Regent Road, 
Liverpool. 

605. R. W. Muir, 275 Golfhiir Drive, Dennistoun. 

120. William Muirhead, 37 West George Street, Glasgow. 
1823. Alexander Muller, St. Petersburg. 

2169. Thos. N. Muller, c/o E. C. Muller & Co., Middlesbrough. 
1963. Edwin Richard Mumford, Lynton House, Dumbarton. 

951. C. Mumme, 30 Newark Street, Greenock. 

538. James Munce, Asst. City Surveyor, Town Hall, Belfast. 

217. Walter H. Mungall, Croftweit, Crieff. 
++1079. R. D. Munro, m Union Street, Glasgow. 

453. A. Munyard, 6 Keir Street, Pollokshields. 
1917. J. Murdoch, 7 Park Circus Place, Glasgow. 

317 S L. Murgatroyd, Shelthorpe Cottage, Loughborough, Leicestershire. 



984 MEMBERS. 

1964. Philip Edward Murphy, 132 Philip Lane, South Tottenham, Lond. 

1965. Angus Murray, Strathroy, Dumbreck. 

1593. Charles W. Murray, 52 Marmora Road, Honor Oak, London, S.E. 
h 1316. F. B. Murray, 3 Clarence Drive, Kelvinside, Glasgow. 

926. Jas. Murray, Helenview, Gourock. 
1573. Richard Murray, 52 Albert Drive, PoUokshields, Glasgow. 

241. T. R. Murray, Mayfield, Melksham, Wilts. 
2221. Wm. Murray, 11 Leicester Street, Hull. 
1686. Walter M. Musgrave, Globe Iron Works, Bolton. 
2200. W. Musswitz, Schuckert & Co., Nuremberg, Bavaria. 

106. W. B. Myers-Beswick, Gristhorpe Manor, Filey, Yorkshire. 



N 



1678. Nagao, c/o Wm. Brown, Esq., Meadowflat, Renfrew. 

969. Yosohachi Nakajima, I.J.N., 5 Montgomerie Cottage, Scotstoun, 

Glasgow. 
1827. H. Nakayama, Engineering College, Tokyo, Japan. 
1522. Francis H. Nalder, 52 South Terrace, Littlehampton, Sussex. 
. 1709. Henry M. Napier, Wilton House, Bowling. 
1445* J- S. Napier, Broompark, Denny, N.B. 

861. T. Nash, 9 Nether Edge Road, Sheffield. 
2306. F. F. Neall, Dock Office, Leith. 
1828.- C. T. Needham, Needham Chambers, Old Millgate, Manchester. 

1829. John Neilson, 53 Both well Street, Glasgow. 
1810. D. M. Nelson, 14 W. Princes Street, Glasgow. 

1529. Wm. M. Nelson, c/o Mrs. Cameron, 40 Brisbane Street, Greenock. 
1535. George Ness, 128a Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C. 

325. R. S. Newbold, c/o Gas Works, Freemantle, W. Australia. 
2005. Leonard Newitt, 4 Belgrave Parade, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

911. A. Newlands, Highland Railway, Inverness. 

543. A. J. Newport-Kennett, 61 Barrfield Road, Pendleton, Manchester. 

376. T. B. L. Newstead, Ivy Villa, Newbold Road, Rugby. 

988. E. B. B. Newton, 125 Mon ton Road, Eccles, Lancashire. 
21 1 1. Benjamin Nicholas, Rockfield Housô^ Pontypool, Mon. 
1637. H. Nicholson, Stockton Street, Manchester. 
^377- J- C. Nicholson, Collingwood Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

1830. John S. Nicholson, North View, Mowbray Road, South Shields. 
1 176. R. G. Nicol, Harbours Engineer's Office, Aberdeen. 

145. Dr. J. T. Nicolson, Nant-y-Glyn, Marple. 
1263. James Nisbet, Helenslea, Uddingston, W. 
h 2322. Thos. Nisbet, City Chambers, Glasgow. 
1547. Thomas O. Niven, 19 Ann Street, Hillhead, Glasgow. 
246. Joseph N odder. Ash Lea, Crabtree, Sheffield. 
. 1392. Rear- Admiral Sir Gerard H. Noel, 5 Chester Place, Hyde Park Sq., 
London, W. 
841. C. G. Norris, 504 Stockport Road, Longsight, Manchester. 

183 1. W. G. Norris, Coalbrookdale, Shropshire. 

1491. Edward P. North, 220 West 57th Street, New York. 

1369. W. H. Northcott, Hatcham Iron Works, Pomeroy Street, New Cross 

Road, London, S.E. 
1966. Arthur Norton, 104 Stanmore Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 
1924. T. Nowlan, Pittgwendly Foundry and Engineering Works, Newport. 
813. John Nuttall, Oughtibridge, Nr. Sheffield. 



MEMBERS. 385 

O 



8j8. R. Oakden, jun., 41 Kirkgate, Newark. 
180. William O'Brien, 21 Ibrox Terrace, Ibrox. 



2186. Wm. P. O'Neil, Chief Engineer, Midland Railway, Ireland. 

639. T. W. Onion, Wainfelin, Pontypool. 

1925. W. J. Onions, Parkdale, Beeches Road, West Bromwich. 
1 121. A. W. Onslow, 8 Portland Terrace, Eglinton Rd., Shooters Hill, 
London, S. E. 

122. Reginald T. Orme, Woodlands, Uttoxeter New Road, Derby. 

761. J. W. Ormiston, 213 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 



994. Geo. S. Packer, Atlas Works, Sheffield. 

2191. H. F. Packham, Works and Engineer's Office, Lower Ham Road, 
Kingston-on-Thames. 

458. Berkeley Paget, 2 Laurence Pountney Hill, London, E.G. 
2240. D. Page, Clun House, Surrey Street, Strand, London. 

1832. C. Paillard-Duclere, Commission Européenne du Danube, Galatz, 

Roumania. 
107. C. B. Palmer, Wardley Hall, Nr. Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
191. Henry Palmer, The Manor House, Medomsley. 
193. Philip H. Palmer, 11 Grosvenor Crescent, St. J^eonards-on-Sea. 

1833. Marquis Pappalepore, Commission Européenne du Danube, Galatz, 

Roumania. 
1045. J* C. Pardoe, Kirklands, Barry, Glam. 
++1620. Edward H. Parker, 11 Strathmore Gardens, Hillhead, Glasgow. 

866. John Parker,^ City Engineer, Hereford. 
1212. Joseph Parker, Cardenden, Fife. 

715. B. Parkes, Promenade, Castletown, Isle of Man. 
1496. John I. Parkes, Mayfield, Harborne Rd., Edgbaston, Birmingham. 

348. John Parkin, 9 Cambridge Road, Blackpool. 
2257. Richd. M. Parkinson, 93 Lincoln Road, Peterbond. 
2040. Wm. W. Parkinson, 94 White Gate Drive, Blackpool. 

511. D. A. Parkyn, The Gerrards, Gee Cross, Nr. Manchester. 

268. W. J. Par^n, Oakfield Hall, Dukiniield, W. Manchester. 

975. Christopher Parnaby, Blackhill, Co. Durham. *» 

281 E. Parry, 28 Park Row, Nottingham. 
1214. Joseph Parry, 7 South Terrace, Victoria Rd., Peel Causeway, Nr. 

Manchester. 
1 165. Joseph Parry, Municipal Offices, Liverpool. 

1834. Wartam Pastakoff, St. Petersburg. 

239. John Paterson, Belle Isle Place, Working, Cumberland. 

1835. F. Stark Paterson, 6 Broomhill Gardens, Partick. 
-4-2050. T. O. Paterson, Gas Works, Birkenhead. 

2212. Walter L. C. Paterson, Elmwood Terrace, Jordanhill. 
++ 2075. William Paterson, 25 Ingram Street, Glasgow. 
1 169. Wm. A. Paterson, 47 Castle Street, Edinburgh. 
209. Prof. George Paton, Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester. 
-1-2289. James Paton, Municipal Offices, Plymouth. 
189. Andrew C. Patrick, Engineer, Johnstone. 
67. Anthony Patterson, 9 Glossop Terrace, Cardiff. 
609. Tas. Patterson, Maryhill Iron Works, Glasgow. 
623. Jas. Patterson, 18 Belmont Gardens, Glasgow. 
1289. And. Paul, Kirkton, Dumbarton. 
1056. F. W. Paul, Greenbank, Lawton, Stoke-on-Trent. 
1967. James Paul, Levenford Works, Dumbarton. 
++ 1460. M. Paul, Alcluith, Dumbarton. 



386 MEMBERS. 

2099. W. J. Paulin, 24 Oxford Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

68. H. Payne, 79 Arbuthnot Road, New Cross, London, S.E. 
1968. Wm. John Frederick Payne, Ackton Hall Colly., Featherstone, 

Pontefract. 
582. H. C. Peake, Walsallwood, Walsall. 
398. R. C. Peake, Cumberland House, Redbourn, Herts. 
1609. E. Peakes, of E. Peakes & Co., Atlas Iron Works, West Bromwich. 

1 317. F. W. Pearce, 10 Sandy Coombe Road, East Twickenham, Middlesex. 
349. Wm. H. Peard, 2 Ashfield Park, Terenure, Co. Dublin. 

384. C. H. Pearson, 86 Cannon Street, London, E.C. 

914. F. H. Pearson, 27 Scale Lane, Hull. 
1970. James J. Peck, 52 Randolph Gardens, Glasgow. 
1047. N. E. Peck, Newington, Jordanhill, Glasgow. 
1836. General Pencovici, Commission Européenne du Danube, Galatz, 

Roumania. 
1926. Vaughan Pendrid, " The Engineer," 33 Norfolk Street, Strand, 
2029. D. A. Penman, 53 Waterloo Street, Glasgow. 
2101. L. Penny, Members Mansions, Victoria Street, London, S.W. 

561. William Pepper, West Villas, Stockton-on-Te«s. 

750. Wm. F. Pepper, 5 Selborne Terrace, Gateshead-on-Tyne. 

26. H. L. Percy, 13 Hanger Lane, Ealing, W. 
2340. T. M. Percy, Wigan Coal and Iron Co., Wigan. 
1073. John Perks, The Elms, Woodville, Burton-on-Trent. 

895. Wm. J. Perkins, 17 Victoria Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 
1389. T. F. Perman, 4 Sandyford Place, Glasgow. 

69. Arthur Pernolet, 20 Mount Street, Manchester. 

161 o. John E. Perry, Albany Chambers, Lichfield Street, Wolverhampton. 

823. W. H. Perry, 36 Westbourne Street, Stockton-oji-Tees. 

742. J. A. Peterkin, 13 Swinley Road, Wigan. 
2246. F. Petit, Rochefort S. Mer, France. 
109 1. Thomas A. Pétrie, 66 Dee Street, Aberdeen. 
1 140. Geo. Pettigrew, Boundary Road Works, Middlesbrough-on-Tees. 

974. John Pettigrew, Fairmount, 40 The Esplanade, Greenock. 

973. W. F. Pettigrew, Friars Dene, Abbey Road, Barrow-in-Fumess. 
1 120. Wm. L. Philip, 7 Sherbrooke Avenue, PoUokshields, Glasgow. 
1 51 7. Charles D. Phillips, Emlyn Engineering Works, Newport, Monmouth. 

198. John R. Phillips, 54 Oak Road, Crumpsall, Manchester. 
2268. Wm. Philipson, 27 Pilgrim Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

817. E. Picker, Newbegin, Beverley, Yorks. 

337. Jonathan Pickering, 7 Ashgrove Terrace, Partickhill. 
1341. W. Pickersgill, 398 Gt. Western Road, Aberdeen. 
2348. G. H. Pickles, Albert Terrace, Burnley. 
1032. T. F. Pigot, 14 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin. 

316. H. Pilkington, Sheepbridgj^ Iron Works, Chesterfield. 

299. Oliver S. Pilkington, Bryn Cregin, Deganwy, near Llandudno, 
-i- 540. S. S. Piatt, Moss House, Rochdale. 

500. Wm. Platts, The Brooms, Sheffield. 
1319. E. Martin Player, The Quarr, Clydach, R.S.O., Glamorganshiiie. 

1318. W. J. Percy Player, The Quarr, Clydach, R.S.O., Glamorganshire. 
277. Wm. Poland, King's Bench Wall, Southwark, London, S.E. 
291. David Pollock, 128 Hope Street, Glasgov. 

847. Henry Pooley, Homestead, Liscard, Cheshire. 

846. John S. Pooley, Eblana, Glenburn Road West, Bearsden. 

434. John W. Porter, Grandholm Cottage, Persleyden, Aberdeen. 
2290. Richard Porter, Town Hall, Wakefield. 
2323. R. Portheim, Tay Works, Bonnington. 

2187. S. J. Powell, 7 Allison Grove, Dulwich Common, London, S.E. 
H- 46. Sir W. H. Preece, Gothic Lodge, Wimbledon. 



MEMBERS. 387 

1397. W. J. Press, Berrow Road, Bumham, Somerset. 

2088. James Prestwick. 

1 1 74. A. J. Price, Council Offices, Lytham, Lanes. 

108. John Price, City Surveyor, Birmingham. 
161 1. Jos. Price, 125 Bunhill Row, London, E.C. 

735. W. E- Price, Gas Works, Hampton Wick, Kingston-on-Thames. 

720. C. H. Priestley, 20 Plas Turton Gardens, Cardiff. 
1927. Jas. Procter, Wrockwardine Villa, Oakingate, Shropshire. 

397. John H. Proctor, 22 Hawthorn Terrace, Newcastle -on-Ty ne. 
70. John V. Pugh, Primrose Hill House, Coventry. 

442. J. T. Pullon, 75 Victoria Road, Headingly, Leeds. 
1837. D. Purves, 3 Park Crescent, Southport. 
1210. J. A. Purves, 4 Wardie Avenue, Edinburgh. 
1242. Joseph P3mi, Blackbrook House, Belper. 

Q 

405. H. J. Quicke, Belle Vue, Ryton-on-Tyne. 



R 

2160. Chas. E. Raeburn, i Hillhead Street, Glasgow. 
1 1 75. Jas. Railton, Holme Lea, Penarth, Glamorganshire. 

1612. George Raine, 48 Side, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

1613. John Raine, 48 Side, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
939. S. B. Ralston, 34 Gray Street, Glasgow. 

71. L. M. Rampai, 60 Lebanon Gardens, Wandsworth, London, S.W. 

331. Joseph Randall, Warren Lane Works, Woolwich. 

413. J. T. Randall, Gas Offices, Southend, Essex. 

83. John Rankin, Ravenslea, Bothwell. 
1838. Matthew Rankin, 3 Wilton Crescent, Glasgow. 
2220. Thos. J. M. Rannie, 104 Leadside Road, Aberdeen. 

356. G. F. Ransome, Engineer, Liverpool. 
1462. R. A. Raphael, 150 Renfrew Street, Glasgow. 

917. Prof. Auguste Râteau, 10 Quai d'Orsay, Paris. 

444. B. Rathmell, 2 Eaton Avenue, Liscard, Cheshire. 

701. Bâtard Razeliere, 14 Rue Montaux, Marseilles. 

497. R. Read, Guildhall, Gloucestsr. 
135J. T. P. Reay, Westwood Lodge, Leeds. 
1928. J. F. Redman, Wilsons and Furness-Leyland Line, Ltd., 38 

Leadenhall Street, London, E.C. 
2022. D. Sims Rees, Glonllynor House, Maisteg, Glam., S. Wales. 
1971. J. S. Reeves, Bilston Gas Works, West Bromwich. 
1064. A. T. Reid, 10 Woodside Terrace, Glasgow. 
1259. David J. Reid, York House, Church Street, Inverness. 
+H373. H. Reid, Belmont, Springburn, Glasgow. 
2292. James Reid, Conservative Club, Glasgow. 
1029. John Reid, 7 Park Terrace, Glasgow. 

109. R. M. Reid, 48 Barnton Stree:, Stirling. 

856. Robert S. Reid, 39 Melville Street, Pollokshields. 

946. James Renfrew, Gas Works, Langbank. 

158. b. Rennie Jun., 109 Whitehall Street, Dennistoun. 

347. Major Renny, R.A., 13 The Common, Woolwich. 

261. Hans Renold, 3 Brook Street, Manchester. 

501. S. Rentell, 15 Woodland Gardens, Muswell Hill, London. 



388 MEMBERS. 

842. B. M. Renton, Midland Works, Sheffield. 
1326. And. Reside, 38 Brooke St., Rastrick, Brighouse, Yorks. 
838. Jas. H. Rew, Victoria Place, Airdrie. 

628. A. M. Reynolds, Arlington House, Trinity Road, Birchfield, 
Birmingham. 
2327. W. G. Rhodes, Tower Chambers, Manchester. 

651. Arthur W. Richards, Stapylton Villa, South Bank, R.S.O., Vorks-^re. 
++1539. E. J. W. Richards, The Cottage, Glengarnock, N.B. 
■+ 72. E. Windsor Richards, Plas Llecha, Caerleon, Mon. 
1676. W. H. Richards, Vulcan Foundry, Darlaston. 

612. Wm. Richards, 30 Alexandria Road, Hornsey, W. 
1660. H. Richardson, Council House, Handsworth, Birmingham. 
-+ 110. Sir Thos. Richardson, Kirklevington Grange, Yarm. 

678. Wigham Richardson, Wingrove House, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
-+ 73. T. Hurry Riches, Taff Vale Railway, Cardiff. 

744. Ch. Richmond, c/o F. Hills, Esq., Northleigh House, Yarm-on-Tees. 
-^1505. Sir David Richmond, Broompark, Pollokshields, Glasgow. 
1929. Jas. Richmond, 24 Sutherland Terrace, Hillhead, Glasgow. 
++1105. J. R. Richmond, i Kilmorie Terarce, Pollokshields. 
1802. A. A. Rickaby, 27 Olive Street, Sunderland. 
1989. John Rickie, ''Argaith," Dumbreck. 
772. W. G. Riddell, 155 Hyndland Road, Glasgow. 
2310. G. E. Ridgway. 

1255. George D. Ridley, 31 Durham Road, Spennymoor. 
^839. J. C. Ridley, Swalwell Steel Works, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

1840. J. C. Ridley, jun., Swalwell Steel Works, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
1080. N. B. Ridley, c/o Crosier Stephens & Co., 2 Collingwood Street, 

Newcastle-on-Tvne. 
568. C. H. Ridsdale, Wilton Lodge, Southfield Road, Middlesbro'. 
1523. John Ridyard, Hilton Bank, Little Hulton, Bolton-le-Moors. 
321. Walter Riggb, 16 Davies Street, Berkeley Square, London, W. 

1841. M. E. Rigo, Directeur de l'Usine, St. Marcel, Hautmont (Nord), 

France. 
1059. H. E. Riley, Burnside, St. Austell, Cornwall. 

785. James Riley, Richmond Ironworks, Stockton-on-Tees. 
1205. J. H. Riley, c/o Riley Bros., Stockton-on-Tees. 
2023. Wm. Ripper, Hope, Nr. Sheffield. 

943. H. L. Riseley, 72 Renfrew Road, Wallsend. 

1842. A. Ritchie, c/o Messrs. MacDowall, Steven & Co., Ltd., 4 Upper 

Thames Street, London, E.C. 

1843. G. M. Ritchie, Haematite Iron Co., Askham-in-Furness. 
392. Geo. Ritchie, 9 Gordon Terrace, Shettleston. 

1022. T. N. Ritson, Gas and Water Works, Kendal. 
1500. Wm. L. Roach, Surveyor, Blaina, Mon. 
1614. C. W. Roberts, WoUaston Hall, Stourbridge. 
681. David E. Roberts, Dowlais Iron Works, Dowlais, Glam. 
1639. James Roberts, The Leasowes, West Bromwich. 
1997. M. G. Roberts, Briton Ferry. 
-1-2048. Sir Wm. Roberts-Austen, K.C.B., F.R.S., 56 Princes Gate, South 

Kensington, London, N.W. 
■+ 571. W. C. Roberts, 18 Windsor Road, Forest Gate, London, E. 
1467. David Robertson, 135 Waterloo Street, Glasgow. 
2159. David Robertson, Merchant Venturers Technical College, Bristol. 
1671. Duncan Robertson, Baldroma, Ibrox, Glasgow. 
1 198. Geo. T. Robertson, Taltal, Chili. 
228. Graham Robertson, Merrylee Park, Cathcart. 
292. John B. Robertson, Gas Works, Bathgate. 
1474. L. J. Robertson, Nethertown, Palnackie, Dalbeattie, N.B. 



MEMBERS. 389 

644. Robert Robertson, 154 W. George Street, Glasgow. 
223c. W. Robertson, Oakpark, Mount Vernon, Glasgow. 
1 1 78. M. Robin, 15 Clifford Street, Glasgow. 
2251. A. W. Robinson, 879 Dorchester Street, Montreal, Canada. 
641. John Robinson, Engineer's Office, New Dock Works, Middlesbrough, 
++2076. J. F. Robinson, Atlas Works, Springburn. 

2346. Wm. Jas. Robinson, City Surveyor, Londonderry. 
++2077. Hazletoiî R. Robson, 14 Royal Crescent, Glasgow. 

787. R. Robson, 4 Rothwell Road, Gosforth, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
84. John Rochford, 4 Clarinda Park, West, Kingston, Co. Dublin. 
++ 809. Anderson Rodger, jun., Glenpark, Port-Glasgow. 
1096. Geo. Rodger, 34 Oak Hill Road, Sheffield. 

1844. J. Pearce Roe, 30 St. Mary's Axe, London, E.C. 
338. Geo. Wm. Roger, Shipbuilder, Irvine. 

249. A. E. Rogers, Oaklands, Clonmel, Ireland. 
++1066. T. B. Rogerson, East Thome, Tollcross, Nr. Glasgow. 

1845. J^s* RoUason, Broomfield Mills, Erdington, Nr. Birmingham. 
1492. F. T. Rollin, 185 Penistone Road, Sheffield. 

1478. John E. Rome, 6 Roseburn Place, Edinburgh. 
404. Henry Ronald, Brighton House, Warwick Road, Birmingham. 
♦+1659. J. M. Ronaldson, 44 Athole Gardens, Glasgow. 

27. G. Rosenbusch, Royal Societies Club, St. James's Street, London, 
S.W. 

47. E. A. Rosenheim, i Croxteth Road, Liverpool. 

48. A. Ross, Gt. Northern Railway, King's Cross Station, London, N. 
1338. Hugh Ross, Croxdale, Nr. Durham. 

608. Jas. R. Ross, 7 Ashfield Gardens, Jordanhill. 

832. J. M. Ross, Ardenlea, Lenzie. 

782. Wm. Ross, 17 Pollok Gardens, Shawlands, Glasgow. 

446. W. L. Rothwell, Sunny Mount, Redcliffe, Lancaster. 
2267. E. Rotter, 12 St. David's Road, Southsea. 

2217. Ernest E. Rouse, c/o Grindlay & Co., Parliament Street, Westminster, 
London, S.W. 

958. O. M. Row, Westward Ho, Flixton, Lanes. 

123. Frederick J. Rowan, 66 Kenmure Street, Pollokshields. 
++ 276. J. Rowan, 22 Woodside Place, Glasgow. 

2372. John A. Rowcliffe, Atlas Engineering Co., Manchester. 
1346. B. R. Rowland, Climax Works, Reddish, Nr. Stockport. 
1482. J. A. Rudd, 7 Hamilton Drive, Hillhead. 
1480. M. Ruddle, Electric Light Station, Fleet Street, Dublin. 
++ 896. Geo. Russell, Belmont, Uddingston. 
1972. James Russell, Waverley^ Uddingston. 

215. Joseph Russell, Seafield, Ardrossan. 
++ 28. R. Russell, White Stripe House, Newmains. 

700. T. W. Russell, Prospect House, Newton Mearns, by Glasgow. 
1207. A. Rutherford, Neptune Works, Birkenhead. 
1426. Henry Rutherford, Aberlady. 

1562. Walter Rutherford, English Electric Manufacturing Co.. Preston. 
1670. Wm. Rutherford, Lindum House, Gateshead-on-Tyne. 

820. J. E. Rycroft, 9 Oakroyd Ter., Manningham, Bradford, Yorkshire. 
2364. E. F. Rydzewsky, Warsaw, Russia. 
1930. Frederick C. Ryland, Exchange Buildings, Birmingham. 



593. L. H. Sairle, Ramsden Dock Ext. Works, Barrow-in-Fumess. 
1248. Takashi Saito, 5 Vinery Villas, Park Rd., Regent Park, London, N.W. 
1692. A. W. Sampson, Bonington, Bellahouston, Glasgow. 



390 MEMBERS. 

2299. Peter Samson, 56 Victoria Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 
-^-2252. The Right Hon. Sir Bernhard Samuelson, Bart., 56 Prince's Gate,. 

London, S.W. 
865. M. Samuelson, Hessle, East Yorks. 
707. A. G. Sanders, " The Birches," Grosvenor Place South, Cheltenham. 

161 5. John Sandford, 2^ Netherton Road, St. Margarets, Twickenham. 
gi2. C. Sangster, 3 Pittodrie Place, Aberdeen. 

146. John W. Sankey, Claremont, Wolverhampton. * 

998. Kouji Satow, Tokio, Japan. 

1616. Franz Sauer, no Cannon Street, London, E.C. 

1 173. F. H. Sawyer, 17 Eriswell Road, Worthing, Sussex. 
1342. Alfred Saxon, 442 Ashton Old Road, Openshaw, Manchester. 
1093. E. C. Sayer, 14 King Street, Ipswich. 

1322. H. M. Sayers, 38 Chestnut Road, West Norwood, London, S.E. 
++ 1275. Wm; B. Sayers, 189 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 
1329. W. H. Sayers, 100 Both well Street, Glasgow. 

1973. F. Scarf, Highfields, West Bromwich. 

572. H. Scholey, c/o Messrs Mather & Piatt, 14 Victoria Street, London, 

S.W. 
2172. Arthur E. Schute, 12 Clydeview, Pardck. 

29. C. Scott, Guide Bridge Iron Works, Nr. Manchester. 
++2332. Chas. C. Scott, Greenock Foundry, Greenock. 

1 151. Chas. W. Scott, Dunarbuck, Bowling. 

21 16. Ernest K. Scott, Clun House, Surrey Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

75. J. Scott, 49 Leazes Terrace, Xewcastle-on-Tyne. 
2343. James Scott, 14 Doune Terrace, Kelvinside, Glasgow. 

1 1 52. Jas. Scott, Strathclyde, Bowling. 

450. J. Gray Scott, 27 Hamilton Park Terrace, Hillhead, Glasgow. 
++2151. John Scott, C.B., Halkshill, Largs. 

49. Ralph G. Scott, Monk Bridge Iron Works, Leeds. 
1472. R. L. Scott, 4 Ardgowan Square, Greenock. 

1847. Walter Scott, 30 Bellevue Crescent, Ayr. 

1848. W. H. Scott, 46 Sandhill, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
2272. Geo. D. Scouler, Fleatham, St. Bees. 

H-2293. A. E. Seaton, Wilton House, Hull. 

74. L. Serraillier, St. Stephen's House, Westminster, London, 5.W 
1468. A. G. Service, 27 St. Vincent Place, Glasgow. 
2031. Wm. Se well. Manor Office, North Bridge Street, Sunderland. 
++2078. Prof. A. Humboldt Sexton, Glasgow and West of Scot. Technical 

College, Glasgow. 
2309. E. Shane, Penrith. 
791. D. Shanks, Newton Chambers, Cannon Street, Birmingham. 

1849. J- ^- Sharman, 2 St. Andrews' Square, Edinburgh. 

1974. John Sharp, i Belsize Grove Mansions, London, N.W. 
1980. John Sharp, 28 Burnbank Gardens, Glasgow. 

1 1 23. Sidney Sharpe, 34 Victoria Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 
1 321. John Shaw, Fern Lea, Ashton-on-Mersey, Cheshire. 

1851. W. Shaw, Middlesbrough-on-Tees. 
1270. Wm. B. Shaw, Roman Road, Bearsden. 

1975. G. N. Shawcross, Lakelands, Horwich, Lancashire. 
2264. R. Sheard, Spurr Inman & Co., Ltd., Wakefield. 

1852. T. W. Sheffield, Trevelyan Buildings, Corporation St., Manchester. 
"1 1 12. F. Sheldon, 3 Gordon Villas, Wells, Somerset. 

174. Percy John Sheldon, The Chantry, Chelmsford. 
X386. Geo. A. Shipman, 26 Filey Street, Sheffield. 
1537. John F. Shone, " Fors," Meols Drive, Hoylake, Cheshire. 
1559. Professor S. H. Short, 112 Cannon Street, London, E.C. 
1334. Sydney Y. Shoubridge, Ravenswood, Forest Hill, London, S.E . 
H- 374. Alex. Siemens, 12 Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster. 



MEMBERS. 391 

527. Harry Silvester, 36 Paradise Street, Birmingham. 
2204. Harold H. Simmons, 78 Pepys Road, New Cross, London. 

1853. W. Simons, Dowlais Iron Works, Dowlais. 

1854. F. F. Simpson, Park Vane Iron Works, Oldbury, Nr. Birmingham. 
526. H. Farr Simpson, County Surveyor, Wisbech St. Mary, Cambs. 

1941. John G. Simpson, Haematite Iron Works, Harrington, Cumberland.. 

882. J. B. Simpson, Bradley Hall, Wylan-on-Tyne. 
1939. R. Simpson, Corkickle, Whitehaven. 
1 195. Robert Simpson, 175 Hope Street, Glasgow. 
'354- Walter Simpson, 446 Union Street, Aberdeen. 
1012. Wm. Simpson, 15 Regent Quay, Aberdeen. 
1998. D. T. Sims, jun., Neath, Soutii Wales. 

751. L. Skinner, 22 Ravensbourne Terrace, Southshields. 

482. R. J. Skinner, Gas Works, Londonderry. 
1 125. John F. Smillie, Borough Surveyor's Office, Tynemouth. 
1933. Samuel Smillie, 71 Lancefield Street, Glasgow. 
1092. Alex. Smith, 16 Courthill, Bearsden, Nr. Glasgow. 
1521. Charles F. Smith, 8 Dents Road, Wandsworth Com., London, S.W^ 
lood. Chas. E. Smith, Primrosehill, Old Aberdeen. 
1938. F. Smith, Anaconda Works, Salford, Manchester. 
1565. George E. Smith, 58 Mapperle}'^ Road, Nottingham. 

576. G. H. Smith, The Gleddings, Halifax. 
2230. H. O. Smith, 351 Renfrew Street, Glasgow. 

675. H. W. Smith, Netnerley, Polloksinelds. 
141 3. James Smith, 6 Deveronside, Banff. 

1977. James B. Smith, Diniskey, Cambuslang. 
738. Jno. Smith, 112 High Street, Burton-on-Trent. 

1976. John Smith, Ballinasloe. 

1855. John L. Smith, Parkhurst, Eaglescliffe, R.S.O. 
1018. J. P. G. Smith, KnatchbuU Road, Willesden, London, N.W. 
653. J. S. Smith, Harbour Engineer's Office, Aberdeen. 
470. Peter Smith, 55 Osborne Road, Forest Gate, London, E. 
2184. Sydney A. Smith, i Princes Street, Manchester. 
1931. W. W. Smith, Locomotive Department, North Eastern Railway,. 
Gateshead. 
Smyth, Milltown, Banbridge. 
B. Sneddon, Calderbank House, Mid-Calder. 

1549. R. M. Sneddon, 45 Whifflet Street, Coatbridge. 
758. Geo. J. Snelus, F.R.S., Ennerdale Hall, Frizington, Cumberland.. 

1 188. Edw. Snowball, 10 Broomfield Terrace, Springburn, Glasgow. 
1934. Arturo Sola, Alamedo de Mazarredo Y.Y., Bilbao. 

1978. J. W. Somar, Stannington, Nr. Sheffield. 
2198. S. S. Somers, Haywood Forge, Halesowen. 
1689. Walter Somers, Belle Vue, Halesowen, Nr. Birmingham. 

1550. Peter A. Somervail, 40 Athole Gardens, Glasgow. 
1629. Thos. W. Sorby, Storshfield, Sheffield. 

.2153. C. E. Spagnoletti, 2 Craven Terrace, Ealing. 
2213. W .L. Spence, 19 Waterloo Street, Glasgow. 
1937. Arthur Spencer, Phoenix Iron Works, Coatbridge. 

285. Charles Spencer, Cleveland View, Middlesbrough. 
1243. Henry B. Spencer, 48 Downshire Hill, Hampstead, London, N.W. 
1936. John Spencer, Phoenix Iron Works, Coatbridge. 
2278. T. H. Spencer, Globe Tube Works, Wednesbury. 

757. A. Sproul, 34 Union Row, Aberdeen. 
2106. Philip S. Stanhope, Midway, British Columbia. 

659. H. Stansfield, Whalley, near Blackburn. 

477. S. Stansfield, 195 Wood Bottom Terrace, Walsden, Todmorden, Yorks» 
- 1856. J. E. Stead, Laboratory and Assay Works, Middlesbrough. 



821. J. 
1217. J. 



3'J2 MEMBERS. 

380. W. R. Steele, c/o Delhi & London Bank, 123 Bishopgate Street, 

London, E.G. 
1290. A. E. Stephen, Linthouse, Govan, Glasgow. 
1446. F. J. Stephen, Linthouse, Govan. « 

f 1126. Jolin Steven, 9 Princess Terrace, Dowanhill. 
1 61 9. J. Wilson Steven, 9 Princes Terrace, Dowanhill, Glasgow. 

606. Geo. Stevenson, Hawkhead, Paisley. 
2308. S. O. Stevenson. 

695. Wm. Stevenson, 25 Killermont Street, Glasgow. 
1580. Wm. Stevenson, Bank Chambers, Sandhill, N'ewcastle-on-Tyne. 
2199. Alex. W. Stewart, West Field, Dalmuir. 

393. And. Stewart, 15 Leadside Road, Aberdeen. 
1636. Charles R. Stewart, 7 Oakfield Terrace, Hillhead, Glasgow, 
mo. D. Stewart, Blantyre Park, High Blantyre. 
1461. D. Stewart, 14 Windsor Terrace, W., Glasgow. 
1 184. Geo. W. Stewart, 376 Great Western Road, Glasgow. 
1023. Tas. Stewart, 13 Otterburn Road, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
-2255. Thos. Stewart, Harbour Works, Port Elizabeth, C.C. 
2269. W. J. Stewart, Adelaide Street, Belfast. 
15 18. Wm. Stewart, Tillery Collieries, Abertillery, Mon. 

551. Frank Stileman, i Victoria Street, London, S.W. 
76. H. J. S. Stobart, Messrs. Chance Bros. & Co., Ltd., near 
Birmingham. 
1585. Wilfrid Stokes, 32 Victoria Street, London, S.W. 
2314. G. G. Stoney, 7 Roxburgh Place, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

259. W. E. Storey, Weston, Dale, Manchester. 
2378. The Very Reverend Principal Story, The University, Glasgow. 

713. P. C. Stormont, 76 Garden Place, Aberdeen. 
1857. ^' Storr, 19 The Groves, Chester. 

1277. Adam Y. Storrar, i Bellefield Avenue, Magdalen Green, Dundee. 
1979. Jacob Stottner, 122/4 Charing Cross Road, London, W.C. 

788. Geo. Stow, Southdown Road, Shoreham, Sussex. 

147. John Strachan, Craigisla, Penylan, Cardiff. 
1940. Jas. M. Strain, 15 Kingsborough Gardens, Glasgow. 
I. John Strain, Cassins House, Ayrshire 

389. Alex. G. Strathern, Izaville, Stepps. 
1227. Jas. Stuart, 12 Broomhill Avenue, Partick. • 

776. J. T. Stuart, 2 Bowmont Terrace, Kelvinside. 
2307. Wm. Stubbs, Borough and Water Engineer, Blackburn. 
2202. Wm. E. Sumpner, Ainsdale, Moseley, Birmingham. 
2313. M. Supplison, 29 Rue Boursault, Paris. 
1285. R. T. Surtees, Town Surveyor, Hexham-on-Tyne. 

594. Samuel Sutcliffe, Vron House, Mostyn, N. Wales. 
2127. John R. Sutherland, 67 Hamilton Drive, Hillhead, Glasgow. 

223. K. W. Sutherland, 18 Portland Terrace, Newcastle-on-Tyne 

222. R. M. Sutherland, Solsgirth, Dollar. 
1935. S. Sutherland, Arthurlie, Beech Avenue, Dumbreck. 

928. H. A. Swan, Eastbrooke, Middlesbrough. 

686. J. E. Swindlehurst, City Engineer, Coventry. 

864. B. Sykes, Priors Lea, Broughton, Nr. Preston. 
1932. James Syme, 8 Glenavon Terrace, Partick. 
1642. M. H. Sykes, Borough Engineer, Stockton-on-Tees. 
2241. R. C. Syson, Bearsden, Glasgow. 



1626. W. A. Tait, 72a George Street, Edinburgh. 

77. G. C. Taite, 25 Buckingham Gate, London, S.W. 



MEMBERS. 393 

1942. J. C. Taite, Metropolitan Bldgs., 63 Queen Victoria St., London, E.C. 
231 1. B. Talbot, Westminster Chambers, Leeds. 
1 5 19. William Tanner, County Surveyor, Newport, Monmouthshire. 
1-1946. A. Tannet- Walker, Hunslet, Leeds. 
1858. John C. Tannett, Vulcan Works, Paisley. 
840. T. Tatham, 104 Corporation Street, Manchester. 
424. R. H. Taunton, Brook Vale, Witton, Birmingham. 
1999. Richard H. Taunton, 10 Coleshill Street, Birmingham. 

30. H, L. Tavemer, 12 Mosley Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
336. James Tawse, Home Bank, Broughty Ferry. 
473. Arthur Taylor, 18 Auriol Road, West Kensington, London, W. 
1225. Benson Taylor, 22 Hayburn Crescent, Partickhill. 
755. B. Taylor, 10 Derby Crescent, Kelvinside. 
640. C. Percy Taylor, 68 Dover Road, Northfleet, Kent. 
1081. F. C. Taylor, Gas Works House, Shanklin, Isle of Wight. 
16S3. G. Midgley Taylor, Messrs. J. Taylor, Sons & Santo Crimp, 27 Great 
George Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 
199. C. L. Templer, i Bowden Terrace, Rugby. 
187. John Tennent, Bredenhill, Bothwell. 
599. F. R. Thackrah, 135 Rosary Road, Norwich. 
22^2. Edward Theisen, Baden-Baden, Germany. 
2376. J. Thiry, 109 Victoria Street, Westminster. 
514. J. Thom, 14 Charterhouse Square, London, E.C. 
1569. E. H. Thomas, Oakhill, Aberdare, South Wales. 
403. G. C. Thomas, Grand Junction Canal, 21 Surrey St., Strand, London, 

W.C. 
1679. Hubert S. Thomas, Kayarina, Llanelly. 
702. J. M. Thomas, Penryn, Cornwall. 

1323. O. Thomas, Gas and Water Offices, Rentre, R.S.O., Glam. 
839. R. Beaumont Thomas, Brynycaeran Castle, Llanelly, Carmarthen. 
1568. W. Thomas, Oakhill, Aberdare, South Wales. 
2051. Prof. G. R. Thompson, Yorkshire College, Leeds. 
1358. J. G. Thompson, Collins Green, Earlstown, Lancashire. 
752. N. A. Thompson, Clun House, Surrey Street, London, W.C. 
-+23015. Prof. Silvanus P. Thompson, Technical College, Finsbury, London, 

E.C. 
2285. W^. B. Thompson, Dundee. 
591. A. M. Thomson, 121 Blackness Road, Dundee. 
148. C. S. Thomson, 15 Forest Road, Loughborough, Leicestershire. 
736. G. Thomson, 3 Woodbum Terrace, Edinburgh. 
1309. Geo. C. Thomson, 53 Bedford Road, Rockferry, Birkenhead. 
++1713. Gilbert Thomson, 164 Bath Street, Glasgow. 

479. J. Thomson, jun.. Harbour Engineer's Office, Dundee. 
■H-2o6o. James M. Thomson, Glentower, Kelvinside, Glasgow. 
2164. John Thomson, 3 Crown Terrace, Glasgow. 
2124. John Thomson, North West Rivet, Boiler and Nut Factory, Ltd., 105 

West George Street, Glasgow. 
1576. Robert Thomson, 45 Dundonald Road, Kilmarnock. 
++1107. R. H. B. Thomson, Govan Shipbuilding Yard, Glasgow. 

643. Wm. Thomson, 20 Huntly Gardens, Glasgow. 
++2079. Wallace Thorneycroft, 140 Hope Street, Glasgow. 

1 98 1. Edgar E. Thrupp, 39 Victoria Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 
1948. B. H. Thwaite, Blast Furnace Power Syndicate, Ltd., 29 Gt. George 
Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 
++ 803. E. G. Tidd, 2 Foremount Gardens, Dowanhill. 

1253. I. A. Timmis, 2 Great George Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 
546. Dr. Ed. Tinbeaux, Ingénieur des Ponts et Chaussées, 9 Bis Rue de 
Montet, Nancy, France. 

27 



1 



894 MEMBERS. 

9aa. R. Tindall, 167 Crown Street, Aberdeen. 
1493. Vladimer Tinsheneski, Moguileff, Province of Podolio, Russia. 
1943. V. F. J. Tlach, Messrs. Bohler Bros. & Co., Styrian Steel Works, 
Sheffield. 

727. P. Tod, a8 Rawson Road, Seaforth, Liverpool. 
1x33. D. R. Todd, 39 Arcade Chambers, St. Mary*s Gate, Manchester. 
19^. J. P. Todd, 13 Chalsworth Street, Sunderland. 

767. A. Tomiyama, 52 Hill Street, Game thill. 
1 149. W. W. Topley, Croydon Com. Gas Co., Katherine St., Croydon. 

683. Tno. W. Towle, 68 Lower Gardiner Street, Dublin. 
aooi. Harry B. Toy, Maiville, 41 Nicholls Street, West Bromwich. 
1859. William Tozer, 13 Lawson Road, Sheffield. 



2275. W. H. Travers, Egremont, Cheshire. 
688. E. C. Trench, Alfreton, Derbyshire. 



1252. R. S. Tresilian, 9 Upper Sackville Street, Dublin. 
i860. Lt.-Colonel Trotter. 

657. J. H. Troughton, Victoria House, Newmsurket, Cambs. 
1711. W. Tucker, Mayor of Christchurch. 
III. Tames Tudhope, Willesden, Coatbridge. 
-»• 1705. J. H. T. Tudsbery, The Institution of Civil Engineers, Great George 

Street, Westminster, London. 
1594. J. E. Tuit, 32 Victoria Street, Westminster, London. 
1528. Arthur C. I'urley, City Surveyor, Canterbury. 
149. Alex. J. TumbuU, Myrtle Bank, Campbell Street, Greenock. 
2038. Nicholas K. Tumbull, 2 Montague Terrace, Higher Broughton, 

Manchester. 
550. Walter Alex. Tumbull, 5 Fern Avenue, Southwick, Sunderland. 
**i356. W. G. Tumbull, Muriel Cottage, Uddingston. 

aioo. A, R. Turner, Winfield Mount, Meadow Road, Dumbarton, N.B. 
1947. John H, Turner, 129 Trongate, Glasgow. 
^41495* Thomas Turner, Broad Lea, Kilmarnock. 

573, Thos, Twynam, Hawthorne House, Slaid Hill, Moortown, Nr. Leeds. 



U 

1648, W. R. Underiiill, 18 Renfield Street, Glasgow. 
997. Kisaburo Urano, Tokio, Japan. 



137a, T, VachelU Trideçar Chambers, Newport, Mon. 

14J0, David Vass, Gas Works, Airdrie. 

1501. T<^hn Vaughan, Balaclava House, Dowlais. 

i545« \Vm« H. Vau^han, Lindum Lodge, 30 Brook Rd., FaUowfield, 

Manchester. 
150. Henry R. Verekex, Skewdiila, WestpKMt, Co. Mayo. 
4Ô». H. Vernon, Chepstow House, Oxford Road, Wakefield. 
1706. Prof, L, F, Vemon-Harcourt, 6 Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster, 

London, S.W. 
447. H, Viney, 17 Eastlake Road, Cold Haiboar Lane, Cambervdl, 

London, S.E, 
1S61, John Vivian, 4a Lowther Street, WHtehaven. 

•S. 3I, Voisin, ÏSj BoiJevarvi de Cauder^ni, Bcrdeasx. Fraiice. 
19S3. N. Vosnessenskr, ji Bass^einaia, St. Fetersbnig, Russia. 



MEMBERS. 395 

W 

2196. A. Waddell, Gas \vorks, Dunfermline. 
2047. Forbes Waddell, Brook Street, Broughty-Ferry. 
121 1. Jas. Waddell, 15 Moray Place, Glasgow. 
2183. James W. Wadsworth, Cleckheaton, Yorks. 
985. Edw. B. Wain, Norton-in-the-Moors, Stoke-on-Trent. 
2103. John W. Wainwright, Kyngstone, Park Road, Hale, Cheshire. 

184. -Archibald Walker, 6 Queen Gate, Dowanhill. 
2024." Edwin R. Walker, 19 Roe Lane, Southport. 

433. Fred Walker, Tyne Villa, New Road, Llanelly, S. Wales. 
1310. H. Walker, 11 Oxford Terrace, Gateshead-on-Tyne. 
2189. John Walker, Messrs. Robt. Stevenson & Co., Ld., Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
1296. S. F. Walker, 2 Kensington Gardens Square, London, W. 
^2132. William H. Walker, Cardarroch House, Airdrie. 

535. Wm. L. Walker, Lea Hurst, Wrexham, N. Wales. 
1292. Wm. Walker, jun., Springbank House, Dumbarton. 

731. D. M. Wallace, 65 Union Street, Greenock. 
1419. John Wallace, jun., 123 East Princes Street, Helensburgh. 
161 7. Joseph Wallace, Manahambri Road, Princestown, Trinidad 

592. W. C. Wallace, Atlas Steel Works, Sheffield. 
456. A. T. Walmisley, 9 Victoria Street, Westminster, I^ondon, S.W. 
2134. Robert MuUineux Walmsley, 23 Hilldrop Road, London, N. 
1357. Thos. Walshaw, Park Gate Iron Works, Rotherham. 
1627. J. P. Walter, Consett Iron Co., Ltd., Blackhill, Co. Durham. 
1335. Thos. Walton, Habergham Colliery, Burnley. 
1254. W. E. Walton, Gas Office, Bishop Auckland. 
1425. John Wamsley, Woodbank, Cram Road, Paisley. 

432. Wm. Waplington, i Norton Tee, Clydach Vale, Llwynypid, R.S.O. 
1264. John Ward, Linacre, Highfield Road, Derby. 
1 71 5. John C. A. Ward, 75 Waterloo Street, Glasgow. 
1862. Thomas A. Ward, Fitzalen Chambers, Sheffield. 
1 55 1. Henry W. Warde, Oakbank, Crookston, Renfrewshire. 

773. W. C. Warden, 4 Kensington Gate, Kelvinside, Glasgow. 

545. J. W. Wardle, Court House, Longton, Staffs. 

335. Francis J. Waring, 2 Delahay Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 

278. H. Waring, Shanagarry, Milltown, Dublin. 
1990. Alfred Wm. Warner, Corn Exchange Iron Works, Lion St., Ipswich* 
1950. W. Warner, Westwood, Clumber Road, Nottingham. 

1228. John Alex. Warren, 74 Balshagray Avenue, Partick. 

1229. Robert George Warren, 29 Scott Street, Gamethill. 

1060. R. Warriner, 129 Embleton Road, Lewisham, London, S.E. 
1657. Major Wm. Waterhouse, Church Gresley, Nr. Burton-on-Trent. 
^1046. Prof. W. H. Watkinson, The Pines, Crookston. 

1394. Geo. Watson, 50 W. Kensington Mansions, London, W. 

627. Jas. F. Watson, 15 Shaw Lane, Headingley, Leeds. 
1013. John Watson, 11 Wilson Patten Street, Warrington. 
1644. J. Stanley Watson, 7 Ashmount, Sheffield. 
2025. Wm. Watson, Burgh Surveyor, St. Andrews. 

661. James Watt, 17 Richmond Terrace, Aberdeen. 
1 190. Thos. H. Watt, 53 Bothwell Street, Glasgow. 
1 128. A. Weatherilt, Denton's Green Lane, St. Helens, Lancashire. 
H- 151. Wm. Weaver, The Limes, Holland Park Gardens, Kensington, W. 

648. Henry Webb, Irwell Forge and Rolling Mills, Bury, Lanes. 

419. James A. Webb, Stanmore, Middlesex. 

516. Tho. Henry Webb, 31 Storer Road, Loughboro', Leicestershire. 
131 3. W. H. Webb, 2 Boundary Road, Birkenhead. 



L 



%i^ MEU3ERS. 

141 7« J« J, Webster, 39 Victoria St., Westminster, Lxmdon, S.W. 

689. A. H. Weddell, Park VUla, Uddingston. 

780. Jas, Weddell, Park Villa, Uddingston. 
1863. Herman W^edekind, 158 Fencfanrch Street, London, E.C. 
1232. Arthur D. Wedgwood, Alexandria House, Alexandna. 
1203. A. Wedgwood, Dennystown Forge, Dumbarton. 

494. J. G. Weeks, Bedlingion, R.S.O., Northumberland. 

621. K. W. Weekes, 73 Elliscombe Road, Charlton, London, S.I . 
-t- 79. Prof. R. L. Weigh ton, Durham Coll. of Science, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
♦♦1130. Tas. Weir, 72 St. Andrews Drive, PoUokshields. 

857. Wm. Weir, iqo Nithsdale Road, PoUokshields. 
1 129. Wm. Weir, Holm Foundry, Cathcart. 

1276. Chas. F. H. Weiss, 14 Well Walk, Hampstead, London, N.W. 
225S. A. E. Welby, Famdon, Xewark-on-Trent. 

359. Henry M. Wells, Imperial Oil Works, Deansgate, Manchester. 

980. Geo. M. Welsh, 3 Princes Gardens, Dowanhill, Glasgow. 

978. James Welsh, ^ Princes Gardens, Dowanhill, Glasgow. 

979. Thomas M. Welsh, 3 Princes Gardens, Dowanhill, Glasgow. 
327. Wm. S. Welton, Elm Road, Wembley, Middlesex. 

1241. Joseph A. Wesley, Fern Villa, Hamilton Road, Lincoln. 
9^3. E. W. West, Fairfield, Govan. 
-»• 20S2. H. H. West, 5 Castle Street, Liverpool. 
-♦'2026. John West, Barfield, West Didsbury, Manchester. 

885. Lt.-Col. J. H. Western, Broadway Chambers, Westminster, S.W. 
2371. John Westgarth, Engineer, Middlesborough. 
1435. Alf. Whalley, Ashville, Helsby, Warrington. 

197. W. H. Wheeler, Wyncote, Boston, Lincolnshire. 
1628. C. Whensa-Nicholl, Armiston Coal Co., Ltd., Gorebridge. 



390. A. J. While, Whinsfield, Barrow-in-Furness. 

). J. M. 
1534. Jas. Whimster, Armagh, Ireland. 



426. J. M. While, Whinsfield, Barrow-in-Furness. 



1304. Geo. C. Whitbread, Carlton, Nottingham. 

1544. Richard Whitbread, Carlton, Nottingham. 

1864. Henry White, Derwent, Goldtops, Newport, Mon. 

21 10. Henry J. White, 21 Staverton Road, Oxford. 

2182. John N. White, Stonecliffe, Stalybridge. 

2123. J. Walwyn White, Old Public Hall, Widnes, Lanes. 

253. K. White, 3 Victoria Street, London, S.W. 
1 167. Thos Whitehead, 186 Gt. Clowes Street, Broughton, Manchester. 
1986. Andrew H. Whitelaw, 74 Dundonald Road, Kilmarnock. 
195 c. R. Cyril V. Whitfield, 5 Albert Terrace, Middlesbrough. 

547. Chas. H. Whiting, 42 Avenue Henri Martin, Paris. 
2370. E. B. Whitman, Wallbrooke, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. 



50. J. IL Whittle, II Hamilton Road, Ealing. 
5350. Jos. M. ~ " " 



2350. Jos. M. Whitwell, Saltburn by the Sea, Yorkshire. 

i86q. William Whitwell, Stockton Iron Works, Thornaby-on-Tees. 

2338. Peter Whyte, Leith Docks, Leith. 

131 1. J. H. Wicksteed, Weetwood Croft, Leeds. 

1954. F. H. Wigham, Lake Lodge, Stanley, Wakefield. 

15a. John R. Wigham, 33 Capel Street, Dublin. 
1985. Wm. D. Wight, Cory Bros. & Co., Ltd., Pentre, R.S.O. , Glam. 

716. P. F. C. Wilcox, 15 Norfolk Street, Sunderland. 
1687. F. Wilkinson, Director of Technical School, Bolton. 
1866. Thomas Wilkinson, Tay Lodge, Pitsmoor, Sheffield. 
2226. W. F. Wilkinson, Roscoth Lawn, Harrow 
2087. A. M. Willcox, Amberley House, Norfolk Street, London, W,C. 

530. Clifford G. Williams, Stanley House, Wake Green, Moseley, B'ham. 
1957. Dan Williams, Mining Engineer, Llanelly. 



MEMBERS. 397 

1632. H. B. Williams, 100 Gray Street, Workington, Cumberland. 

1 1 71. H. J. C. Williams, Coed Celyn, Dolgelley, N. Wales. 

1635. Lewis N. Williams, Caecoed, Aberdare, S. Wales. 

1291. L. W. Williams, 3 Park Terrace, Crossbill. 

734. O. R. Williams, The Linn, Cathcart. 

2369. R. B. Williams, Jun., 315 South Albany Street, Ithaca, New York. 

1643. Alex. Williamson, 67 Esplanade, Greenock. 

1867. Alexander Williamson, Craigbarnet, Greenock. 

1183. J. Williamson, Arden Ville, Balgray Hill, Springburn, Glasgow. 

879. Jas. Williamson, 59 Octavia Terrace, Greenock. 

112. Richard Williamson, South Lodge, Cockermouth. 
1497. Robert Williamson, Ormidale, Malpas, Newport, Mon. 

798. Edw. Willis, 293 Willesden Lane, Willesden Green, London, N.W. 

342. Alex. Wilson, Dawsholm Gas Works, Maryhill. 
31. A. F. Wilson, Burnbrae, Balfron, Stirlingshire. 

267. A. H. Wilson, 2 Albyn Terrace, Aberdeen. 

175. Archd. Wilson, Glenleven, Alexandria, Dumbartonshire. 

294. Arthur H. Wilson, 4 St. John's Terrace, Glasgow. 
2297. C. Wilson, Oakbank, Hammersmith. 

2270. Ernest Wilson, Clarence House, South Parade, Skegness, Lincoln. 
1543. H. R. Wilson, 28 Victoria Street, London, S.W . 

436. James Wilson, Queen's Hotel, Rothesay. 
2006. James Wilson, Hartlepool Engine Works, Hartlepool. 
1 146. J. R. R. Wilson, 182 Chapelton Road, Leeds. 
1667. Wm. H. Wilson, 34 Maxwell Drive, Pollokshields, Glasgow . 

669. Wm. Wilson, Burnbank House, Coatbridge. 

598. W. R. Wilson, Thorncliff, Greenock. 

203. W. S. Wilson, 4 St. John's Terrace, Glasgow. 

loi. Thos. J. Winn, 44 Hilldrop Crescent, Camden Rd., London, N. 

346. Douglas Winning, Municipal Buildings, Broughty Ferry. 

845. W. G. Winterburn, General Manager, Geo. Fenwick & Co., Ltd.^ 
Engineers and Shipbuilders, Hong Kong, China. 

233. F. Wiswall, 10 Stanley Villas, Runcorn. 

760. H. Withy, Middleton Shipyard, Hartlepool. 

797. J. J. Wolff, Ashurst, Sydenham, London, S.E. 

1649. Arthur P. Wood, Spring Bank, Whitefield Foad,Ashton-on-M3rsey, 
Cheshire. 

774. D. Wood, Hastings Avenue, Chorlton-cum-Hardy. 
2174. Edward Wood, 27 Brunswick Terrace, Harrogate. 

80. E. M. Wood, 3 Victoria Street, Westminster, London. 
1624. Frederick J .Wood, County Surveyor, County Hall, Lewis, Sussex. 
1952. Jno. Wood, Barley Brook Foundry, Wigan. 
1016. Thos. Wood, Barley Brook Foundry, Wigan. 
1987. Walter Wood, Philadelphia, U.S.A. 
'953- W. K. Wood, 153 Queen Street, Glasgow. 
2095. Wm. Wood, Ardgowan, Kilmalcolm. 

786. Wm. E. Wood, 46 Church Street, Accrington. 
^553* J- Cowan Woodburn, 18 Beechwood Drive, Jordanhill, Glasgow. 

619. Wm. H. Woods, Southfield, Hale, Cheshire. 
1951. J. H. Woodward, Urban. District Council, Skipton. 

153. Dr. Robert L. Woolcombe, 14 Waterloo Road, Dublin. 

549. Joseph Woolf, jun., 32 Victoria Street, London, S.W. 

517. R. J. Worth, East View House, Seaton, Carew. 
1707. Edgar Worthington, The Inst, of Mechanical Engineers, Storey's 

Gate, London, S.W. 
1538. W. B. Worthington, 2 Wilton Polygon, Cheetham Hill, Manchester. 
1956. J. D. Wragg, Swadlincote, Burton-on-Trent. 
1958. G. H. Wraith, Tudhoe Iron Works, Spennymoor. 



398 MEMBERS. 

1656. H. O. Wraith, 44 Croft Avenue, Sunderland. 

21 17. Romulus P. Wray, 33 Culchith Lane, Newton Heath, Manchester 

2012. T. H. Roberts Wray, The British Schuckert Electric Co., Ltd. 

533. Isaac H. Wright, 15 Gladstone Street, Keighley, Yorks. 
1320. James Wright, 181 Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C. 
1 189. John Wright, 40 Leadenhall Street, London, E.C. 

229. Robert Wright, Lloyds Ofl&ce, 342 Argyle Street, Glasgow. 
1090. Thomas Wright, 2 Berkeley Terrace, Glasgow. 
1685. Thomas Wright, c/o Siemens, Bros., & Co., Ltd., Woolwich. 
H- 900. Sir Thomas Wrightson, Mashona Hall, Darlington. 

154. H. H. Wyatt, 2 Crosby Square, London, E.C. 
1949. C. D. Wybron, Symabelle, Landsdowne Road, Bournemouth. 

188. Alexander Wylie, Kirkfield, Johnstone. 

396. John Wylie, Jun., Oswald Villa, Coatbridge* 
++ 220. Wm. Wylie, Clifton Iron Works, Coatbridge. 



2052. T. H. Yabbicom, City Engineer, 63 Queen's Square, Bristol. 

1554. F. A. Yerbury, Oaklea, Lenzie. 

i486. C. Y. Young, W. Parkweg 9, Amsterdam, Holland. 

12 1 6. G. F. Young, 35 Woodside Quad., Glasgow. 
++1078. John D. Young, 6 Carlton Terrace, Glasgow. 

1288. John Young, Cross Lynne, Bearsden. 

1477. John Young, 20 Chalmers Road, Ayr. 

1868. John Young, 42 Bath Street, Glasgow. 
++ 2083. John Young, 88 Renfield Street, Glasgow. 
4-H439. Thos. Young, Rowington, Whittingham Drive, Kelvinside, Glasgow. 

'604. Wm. Young, Walton Bank, Cambuslang. 
654. A. S. Younger, 8 Walmer Crescent, Glasgow, S.S. 
611. John Younger, Birch Bank, 88 Albert Road, Crossbill. 



889. H. Zweig, Director of Naval Construction, Pola, Austria. 



INDEX. 



LIST OF PAPERS. 

With Authors' Names and Pages for Abstracts 

PAGE 

Address of the President, James Mansergh, F.R.S., - - - lo 

PAPERS IN SECTION I.— RAILWAYS. 

Uganda Railway, by Sir Guildford Molesworth, K.C.I.E., - - 28 
The Economy of Electricity as a Motive Power on Railways at Present 

Driven by Steam, by Prof. C. A. Carus- Wilson, M.A., - - 32 

Modern Practice in Railway Signalling, by I. A. Timmis, - - 35 

Sudan Government Military Railways, by Major C. B. Macaulay, R.E., 39 

Australian Railways, by Prof. W. C. Kernot, - - - - 43 

The Proposed Tunnel between Scotland and Ireland, by James Barton, 47 

Cheaper Railway Fares, by Horace Bell, - - - - - 51 

PAPERS IN SECTION II.— WATERWAYS AND MARITIME WORKS. 

The Dortmund and Ems Canal, by Regierungs und Baurath Hermann, 56 
Novel Plant Employed in Transporting the Excavations on the Chicago 

Drainage Canal Works, by Isham Randolph, - - - 60 

Irrigation in the Nile Valley and its Future, by W. Willocks, C.M.G., 64 
Proposed Inland Waterway between the Baltic Sea and the White Sea, 

by Prof. V. E. de Timonoff, - - - - -65 

The Improvement of the Lower Mississippi River, by J. A. Ockerson, • 69 
Recent Improvements Effected in the Navigable Condition of the 

Sulina Branch and Outlet of the Danube, by C. H. L. Kuhl, - 72 
The River Clyde and Harbour of Glasgow, by W. M. Alston, - - 74 
Improvement Works on the Clyde Estuary, by D. and C. Stevenson, - 77 
Works for Improving the Bilbao River and Making an Outer Harbour : 
also the Application of Large Caissons as a Breakwater Founda- 
tion, by Evaristo de Charruca, - - - - - 80 
Zeebrugge Harbour Works, by J. Nyssens Hart and L. van Gansberghe, 83 
Recent Improvements in the Lighting and Buoying, etc., of the Scottish 

and Isle of Man Coasts, by David A. Stevenson, - - - 85 
Recent Improvements in the Lighting and Buoying of the Coasts of 

France, by Baron Quinette de Rochemont, - - - 90 
The Chinese Lighthouse Service, by J. R. Harding, - - "93 

Improved Rapid Group -Flashing Lights, by Alan Brebner, - - 96 

PAPERS IN SECTION III.— MECHANICAL. 

The Cooling of the Cylinders of High-Speed Internal Combustion 

Engines, and its Effect upon the Power Developed, by Prof. H. 

Hele-Shaw, LL.D., F.R.S., - - - - - 98 

Trials of Steam Turbines for Driving Dynamos, by Hon. Charles A. 

Parsons and Geo. G. Stoney, - - - - - loi 

Some Particulars of the Results of the Compound Locomotives on the 

Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway, by R. Gould, - - 103 

The Rating and Testing of Electrical Machinery, by Gisbert Kapp, - 107 



400 INDEX. 



PAGE 



Some Experiences and Results Derived from the Use of Highly Super- 
heated Steam in Engines, by R. Lenke, - - - - 109 

A Premium System of Remunerating Labour, by James Rowan, - 112 

Some Factors Affecting the Economical Manufacture of Marine 

Engines, by William Thomson, - - - - - 116 

Workshop Methods : Some Efficiency Factors in an Engineering 

Business, by William Weir and J. R. Richmond, - - - 121 

The Adoption of the Metric System in our Workshops, by Arthur 

Greenwood, - - - - - - -124 

The 100-ton Universal Testing Machine, with Variable Accumulator, at 
the James Watt Laboratories, Glasgow University, by J. Hartley 
Wicksteed, - - - - - - - -127 

A Regenerative Accumulator and its Application for using Exhaust 

Steam, by A. Ratrau, - - - - - -130 

Experiments on the Escape of Steam through circular Orifices, by A. 

Ratau, -------. 1^2 

Power Required to Drive a Marine Engine Works, by James Crichton 

and W. G. Riddell, - - - - - - - 134 

Pneumatic Riveting and Other Useful Applications of Pneumatic 

Tools, by J. C. Taite, - - - - - - ^37 

Agricultural Machinery in the Canadian Pavilion at the Glasgow Inter- 
national Exhibition, 1901, by G. Harwood Frost, - - 140 

The Cassel Self -Regulating Water Wheel, by E. C. de Segundo, - 143 

PAPERS IN SECTION IV.— NAVAL ARCHITECTURE AND MARINE 

ENGINEERING. 

The Chief Characteristics of the Naval Development of the Nineteenth 

Century, by Sir Nathaniel Burnaby, K.C.B., - - - 146 

Approximate Rules for the Determination of the Displacement and 
Dimensions of a Ship in Accordance with a Given Programme 

of Requirements, by J. A. Normand, - - - - 149 

The Hydraulics of the Resistance of Ships, by E. C. Thrupp, - 151 

Shipyard Equipment, by Prof. J. H. Biles, - - - - 154 

Electrical Power Supply in Shipbuilding Yards and Marine Engine 

Works, by Robert Robertson, B.Sc, - - - ■ ^55 

A Memorandum on Floating Docks, by T. Gibson Bowles, M.P. - 159 

The Modern Steamboat Equipment of Warships, by E. C. Carnt, - 162 

Some Graphic Analyses of Propellor Reactions, by J. Milieu Adam, - 164 

A New Propellor, by Johann Schutte, - - - - - 166 

PAPERS IN SECTION V.— IRON AND STEEL. 

Presidential Address, by William Whitwell, - - - - 169 

The Iron and Steel Industries of the West of Scotland : — 

I. — Pig Iron, by Henry Bumby, - - - - - ^73 

II. — Malleable Iron, by William Wylie, - - - - 182 

III.— Steel, by Henry Archibald, - - - - - 185 

The Nomenclature of Metallography (Preliminary Report by a Com- 
mittee of the Iron and Steel Institute), - - - - 190 

Variations of Carbon and Phosphorus in Steel Billets, by Axel Wahl- 

berg, -,------ 192 

The Correct Treatment of Steel, by C. H. Ridsdale, - - - ^95 

Copper and Iron Alloys, by J. E. Stead, - - - - 198 

The Influence of Copper on Steel for Wire-Making, by J. E. Stead and 

F. H. Wighain, - - - - - - - ^99 



INDEX. 401 



PAGE 



The Presence of Calcium in High Grade Ferro-Silicon, by G. Watson 

Gray, -...---- 200 

The Profitable Utilisation of Power from Blast-Furnace Gases, by B. 

H. Thwaite, -------- 201 

An Investigation of the Spectra of Flames at Different Periods During 

the Basic Bessemer Blow, by W. N. Hartley and Hugh Ramage, 204 
Brinell's Method of Determining Hardness and Other Properties of 

Iron and Steel, by Axel Wahlberg, ----- 208 
The Internal Strains of Iron and Steel and their Bearing upon Fracture, 

by Arthur Wingham, -...-. 210 

PAPERS IN SECTION VI.— MINING. 

Presidential Address, by Sir William Thomas Lewis, Bart., - - 212 

The Oil Shale Fields of the Lothians, by H. M. Cadell, - - 217 

The Carboniferous Limestone Coal-Fields of West Lothian, by H. M. 

Cadell, -------- 218 

The Tarquah Gold-Field, Gold Coast, West Africa, by A. R. Sawyer, 219 
Brick-Making, by George L. Allen, ----- 223 

The Buffelsdoom and Adjacent Districts of the Northern Klerksdorp 

Gold-Fields, Transvaal, by William Smith, - - - 226 

The Culm-Measure Types of Great Britain, by W. A. E. Ussher, - 228 
The Production of Copper and its Sources of Supply, by M. Eissler, 229 
The Imperfect Pulverisation of Rocks by Means of Stamping, and 

Suggestions for its Improvement, by E. D. Chester, - - 229 

Mining and Treatment of Copper Ore at the Wallaroo and Moonta 

Mines, South Australia, by H. Lipson Hancock, - - - 231 

A New Diagram of the Work of Mine Ventilation, by H. W. G. Hal- 

baum, ...----. 234 

Coke-Making at the Oliver Coke Works, F. C. Keighley, - - 237 

Mineral Resources of the Province of Quebec, Canada, by J. Obalski, 239 
The Theory of the Equivalent Orifice, Treated Graphically, by H. W. 

G. Halbaum, ---.-.. 242 

Gold Dredging, by W. Denham Verschoyle, . - - . 242 

Gold-Mining in the Rossland District, British Columbia, J. J. Sande- 

man, '- - - - - - - - 242 

The Connection of Underground and Surface Surveys, by Prof. G. R. 

Thompson, -------- 243 

A New Civil and Mining Engineers' Transit Theodolite, for Connecting 
Underground Workings to the Surface, vice versa, and for 
General Surveying, by H. D. Hoskold, . - - - 246 

Alternating Currents and their Possible Application to Mining Opera- 
tions, Part II. — The Practical Application of Alternating Cur- 
rents to Mining Operations, by Sydney F. Walker, - - 248 

SECTION VIL— MUNICIPAL. 

Chairman's Address, by E. George Mawbey, - - - - 251 

Researches into the System of Sewage Purification at Huddersfield by 

Bacterial and other Methods, by K. F. Campbell, - - 253 

Sewage Treatment, by Lieut.-Col. A. S. Jones, V.C, - - - 256 

The Birmingham Waterworks, by James Mansergh, - - - 259 

Disposal of Sewage, by A. B. M'Donald, - . . . 262 

Municipal Sanitation, by William Weaver, - - - - 265 

Recent Tramway Practice, by James More, Jun., - - - 266 

The Problem of the Housing of the Labouring Classes ; with Special 

Reference to Suburban Districts, by A. H. Campbell, - - 270 



402 INDEX. 



PACK 



Coal-Mining Subsidences in Relation to Sewerage Works, by F. W. 

Mager, -------- 272 

SECTION VIII.— GAS. 

Chairman's Address, by George Livesey, - . - - 275 

Notes on the Various Systems of Gas Lighting in use at the Glasgow 

International Exhibition, by the Committee, - - - 27^ 

Gobbe's " Quenching " Producer, by Fernand Bruyère, - t 283 

The Utilisation of Water Gas in the Destructive Distillation of Coal, 

by Prof. Vivian B. Lewes, ------ 285 

The Automatic Lighting and Extinguishing of Street Lanterns, by A. 

Rothenbach, Jun., ------- 289 

The Principles of Construction of a Proposed Modern Gas-holder for 

Amsterdam, by J. van Rossum du Chattel, - - - 292. 

The Production of Illuminating Gas from Coke-Ovens, by F. Schnie- 

wind, -------- 296 

The Destruction of Gas Pipes by Means of Electricity, by W. Leybold, 298 
Application of the Unit System of Gas Manufacture to its Purification, 

by Charles Carpenter, ------ 300 

The Mechanical Transport of Materials in Gasworks, by Wm. Reg. 

Chester, - - - - - - -- 303 

The Construction of Inclined Retort Carbonising Plants, by Walter 

Ralph Herring, ------- 306 

SECTION IX.— ELECTRICAL. 

Introductory Address, by W. Langdon, ----- 310 
Notes on Some of the Chief Objects of Interest to Electrical Engineers 

in the Glasgow Int. Exhib., 1901, by W. B. Sayers, - - 314 

High Speed Railway Car of the Allgemeine Electricitats Gesellschaft, 

Berlin, by O. Lasche, - - - - - -317 

Dangers from Trolley Wires and their Prevention, by Prof. Andrew 

Jamieson, -------- 321 

Electricity Supply Meters of the Electrolytic Type, by J. R. Dick, - 323 
Kelvin's Electric Measuring Instruments, by Prof. Magnus Maclean, - 326 
The Relative Advantages of Three, Two, and Single Phase Systems 

for Feeding Low-Tension Networks, by M. B. Field, - - 331 

Modem Commutating Dynamo Machinery, with Special Reference to 

the Commutating Limits, by H. M. Hobart, - - - 334 

Design of Continuous-Current Dynamos, by Henry A. Mavor, - - 337 



LIST OF AUTHORS OF PAPERS. 

With Titles of Papers and Pages for Abstracts. 

Adam, J. Millen, Some Graphic Analyses of Propellor Reactions, - 164 

Allen, Geo. L., Brick-Making, ------ 223 

Alston, W. M., The River Clyde and Harbour of Glasgow, - - 74 
Archibald, Henry, The Iron and Steel Industries of the West of Scot- 
land : III. — Steel, ------- ig^ 

Barnaby, Sir Nathaniel, The Chief Characteristics of the Naval 

Development of the Nineteenth Century, - - - - 146 

Barton, James, The Proposed Tunnel between Scotland and Ireland, 47 
Bell, Horace, Cheaper Railway Fares, - - - - "51 

Biles, Prof. J. H., Shipyard Equipment, - - - - -154 



INDEX. 403 

PAGE 

Bowles, T. Gibson, A Memorandum on Floating Docks, - - ^59 

Brebner, Alan, Improved Rapid Group-Flashing Lights, - - 96 

Bruyère, Fernand, Gobbe's " Quenching " Producer, - - - 283 
Bumby, Henry, The Iron and Steel Industries of the West of Scotland : 

I. — Pig Iron, - - - - - - - 173 

Cadell, H. M., The Oil Shale Fields of the Lothians, - - - 217 

„ The Carboniferous Limestone Coal-Fields of West 

Lothian, .----..- 218 

Campbell, A. H., The Problems of the Housing of the Labouring 

Classes ; with Special Reference to Suburban Districts, - 270 

Campbell, K. F., Researches into the System of Sewage Purification at 

Huddersfield by Bacterial and Other Methods, - - - 253 

Camt, E. C, The Modern Steamboat Equipinent of Warships, - 162 

Carpenter, Charles, Application of the Unit System of Gas Manufacture 

to its Purification, ------ 300 

Carus- Wilson, Prof. C. A., The Economy of Electricity as a Motive 

Power on Railways at Present Driven by Steam, - - 32 

Charruca, Evaristo de. Works for Improving the Bilbao River and 
Making an Outer Harbour : also the Application of Large Cais- 
sons as a Breakwater Foundation, - - - - 80 

Chattel, J. van Rossum du. The Principles of Construction of a Pro- 
posed Modern Gasholder for Amsterdam, - - - 292 

Chester, E. D., The Imperfect Pulverisation of Rocks by means of 

Stamping, and Suggestions for its Improvement, - - 229 

Chester, Wm. Reg., The Mechanical Transport of Materials in Gas- 
works, -------- 303 

Committee, Notes on the Various Systems of Gas Lighting in use at 

the Glasgow International Exhibition, - - - - 279 

Committee of Iron and Steel Institute, The Nomenclature of Metal- 
lography, -------- 1Ç0 

Ciichton, James, and W. G. Riddell, Power Required to Drive a Marine 

Engine Works, - - - - - - -134 

Dick, J. R., Electricity Supply Meters of the Electrolytic Type, - 323* 

Eissler, M., The Production of Copper and its Sources of Supply, - 229 

Field, M. B., The Relative Advantages of Three, Two, and Single 

Phase Systems for Feeding Low-Tension Networks, - -331 

Frost, G. Harwood, Agricultural Machinery in the Canadian Pavilion 

at the Glasgow International Exhibition, 1901, - - - 140 

Gansberghe, L. van, and J. Nyssens Hart, Zeebrugge Harbour Works, 83 

Gould, R., Some Particulars of the Results of the Compound Loco- 
motives on the Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway, - - 103 

Gray, G. Watson, The Presence of Calcium in High-Grade Ferro- 

Silicon, -------- 200 

Greenwood, Arthur, The Adoption of the Metric System in our Work- 
shops, - - - - - - - -124 

Halbaum, H. W. G., A New Diagram of the Work of Mine Ventilation, 234 
„ The Theory of the Equivalent Orifice, Treated 

Graphically, ---.... 242 

Hancock, H. Lipson, Mining and Treatment of Copper Ore at the 

Wallaroo and Moonta Mines, South Australia, - - - 231 



404 INDEX. 

PAGE 

Harding, J. R., The Chinese Lighthouse Service, - - "93 

Hart, J. Nyssens, and L. van Gansberghe, Zeebrugge Harbour Works, 83 
Hartley, W. N., and Hugh Ramage, An Investigation of the Spectra of 

Flames at Different Periods During the Basic Bessemer Blow, - 204 
Hele-Shaw, Prof. H., The Cooling of the Cylinders of High-Speed In- 
ternal Combustion Engines, and its Effect upon the Power 

Developed, - - - - - - - - 98 

Hermann, Regierungs und Baurath, The Dortmund and Ems Canal, 56 
Herring, Walter, Ralph, The Construction of Inclined Retort Carbon- 
ising Plants, -.-..-- 206 
Hobart, H. M., Modern Commutating Dynamo Machinery, with 

Special Reference to the Commutating Limits, - - - 334 
Hoskold, H. D., A New Civil and Mining Engineers' Transit Theo- 
dolite, for Connecting Underground Workings to the Surface, 

vice versa, and for General Surveying, - - - - 246 

Jamieson, Prof. Andrew, Dangers from Trolley Wires and their Pre- 
vention, - - - - - - - -321 

Jones, Lieut. -Col. A. S., Sewage Treatment, . - - - 256 

Kapp, Gisbert, The Rating and Testing of Electrical Machinery, - 107 
Keighley, F. C., Coke-Making at the Oliver Coke Works, - - 237 
Kernot, Prof. W. C, Australian Railways, - - - "43 
Kuhl, C. H. L., Recent Improvements Effected in the Navigable Con- 
dition of the Sulina Branch and Outlet of the Danube, - 72 

Langdon, W., Introductory Address : Section IX. — Electrical, - - 310 

Lasche, O., High-Speed Railway Car of the Allgemeine Electricitats 

Gesellschaft, Berlin, - - - - - '3^7 

Lenke, R., Some Experiences and Results Derived from the Use of 

Highly Superheated Steam in Engines, . - - - 109 

Lewes, Prof. Vivian B., The Utilisation of Water Gas in the Destruc- 
tive Distillation of Coal, ..... 285 

Lewis, Sir Wm. Th., Bart., Presidential Address : Section VI. — 

Mining, ........ 212 

Leybold, W., The Destruction of Gas Pipes by Means of Electricity, 298 

Livesey, George, Chairman's Address : Section VIII. — Gas, - - 275 

Macaulay, Major C. B., Sudan Government Military Railways, - 39 

McDonald, A. B., Disposal of Sewage, ----- 262 

Maclean, Prof. Magnus, Kelvin's Electric Measuring Instruments, - 326 
Mager, F. W., Coal-Mining Subsidences in Relation to Sewerage 

Works, ----.... 272 

Mansergh, James, Address of the President, - - - - 10 

Mansergh, James, The Birmingham Waterworks, - - - 259 

Mavor, Henry A., Design of Continuous-Current Dynamos, - - 337 

Mawbey, E. George, Introductory Address : Section VII. — Municipal, 251 

Molesworth, Sir Guildford, Uganda Railway, - - - - 28 

More, James, Jun., Recent Tramway Practice, .... 266 

Normand, J. A., Approximate Rules for the Determination of the Dis- 
placement and Dimensions of a Ship in Accordance with a 

given Programme of Requirements, - - - - 149 

Obalski, J., Mineral Resources of the Province of Quebec, Canada, - 239 

Ockerson, J. A., The Improvement of the Lower Mississippi River, - 69 



INDEX. 405 

PAGE 

Parsons, Hon. Ch. A., and Geo. G. Stoney, Trials of Steam Turbines 

for Driving Dynamos, ------ loi 

Ramage, Hugh, and W. N. Hartley, An Investigation of the Spectra of 

Flames at Different Periods during the Basic Bessemer Blow, 204 

Randolph, Isham, Novel Plant Employed in Transporting the Excava- 
tions on the Chicago Drainage Canal Works, - - - 60 

Ratrau, A., A Regenerative Accumulator and its Application for using 

Exhaust Steam, - - - - - - -130 

Ratrau, A., Experiments on the Escape of Steam through Circular 

Orifices, - - - - - - - - 132 

Richmond, J. R., and Wm. Weir, Workshop Methods ; some EflSiciency 

Factors in an Engineering Business, - - - - 121 

Riddell, W. G., and James Crichton, Power Required to Drive a 

Marine Engine Works, - - - - - - 134 

Ridsdale, C. H., The Correct Treatment of Steel, - - - 195 

Robertson, Robert, Electrical Power Supply in Shipbuilding Yards 

and Marine Engine Works, - - - - - ^55 

Rochemont, Baron Quin. de. Recent Improvements in the Lighting 

and Buoying of the Coasts of France, - - - - 90 

Rothenbach, A., Jun., The Automatic Lighting and extinguishing of 

Street Lanterns, -.-.-.. 289 

Rowan, James, A Premium System of Remunerating Labour, - - 112 

Sandeman, J. J., Gold-Mining in the Rossland District, British 

Columbia, -------- 242 

Sawyer, A. R., The Tarquah Gold-Field, Gold Coast, West Africa, - 219 
Sayers, W. B., Notes on Some of the Chief Objects of Interest to 
Electrical Engineers in the Glasgow International Exhibition, 
1901, - - - - - - - - 314 

Schniewind, F., The Production of Illuminating Gas from Coke Ovens, 296 
Schutte, Johann, A New Propellor, - - - - - 166 

Segundo, E. C. de, The Cassel Self -Regulating Water Wheel, - - 143 

Smith, William, The Buffelsdoorn and Adjacent Districts of the 

Northern Klerksdorp Gold-Fields, Transvaal, - - - 226 

Stead, J. E., Copper and Iron Alloys, - - - - - 198 

Stead, J. E., and F. H. Wigham, The Influence of Copper on Steel for 

Wire-Making, - - - - - - - 199 

Stevenson, David A., Recent Improvements in the Lighting and Buoy- 
ing, etc., of the Scottish and Isle of Man Coasts, - - 85 
Stevenson, D. and C, Improvement Works on the Clyde Estuary, - 77 
Stoney, Geo. G., and Hon. Ch. A. Parsons, Trials of Steam Turbines 

for Driving Dynamos, - . . . . . - loi 

Taite, J. C, Pneumatic Riveting and Other Useful Applications of 

Pneumatic Tools, - - - - - - "'37 

Thompson, Prof. G. R., The Connection of Underground and Surface 

Surveys, -------- 243 

Thomson, William, Some Factors Affecting the Economical TManu- 

factnre of Marine Engines, - - - - - 116 

Thrupp, E. C, The Hydraulics of the Resistance of Ships, - -151 

Thwaite, B. H., The Profixable Utilisation of Power from Blast- 

Furnace Gases, ------- 201 

Timmis, I. A., Modem Practice in Railway Signalling, - - -35 

Timonofî, Prof. V. E. de. Proposed Inland Waterway Between the 

Baltic Sea and the White Sea, - - - - -65