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■^.iYi 






THE 



AMERICAN GAS LIGHT 'ASSOCIATION. 



Report of Proceedings 

»)F IHK 

Seventeenth Annual Meeting, Held at Baltimore, 
October 16, 1889, 

TlIK 

Eighteenth Annual Meeting, Held at Savannah, 

October 15, 1890, 

AM) IN K 

Nineteenth Annual Meetinu:, Held at New York, 

October 21, 189 1. 

SEPTEMBER. 1692. 

I'UBLISHtD BY ORDER OF Till: ASSOCIATION. 
A. 15. SLATKR, Jk.. Si., ki iakv. 

PRESS OF E. L. FREEMAN be SON PROVIDENCE R I 



thf: n'ew yori< 






BOUND VOLUMES OF PROCEEDINGS. 



Many of our present mcml>ers joined the Association after its organization 
and therefore have not obtained complete sets of the proceedinjjs. The Asso- 
ciation has in stock a number of the several volumes and the Secretary can 
furnish them to members as follows : 

( leneral Index, N'ol's I to S incl., Taper Covers ♦0.25 

Volume I, 1^^73-74, " " 1.00 

'-!. IVS75-76, Cloth !' 1.50 

3. i''»77-7^, ** " l?o 

4. iS7(;-8o, " " .... 1.50 

5. iSSi- S2, *' " 1.50 

(), 1SS3-S4, " " 1.50 

7, i-^^s-^O, " " 1.50 

S, iSs-j-sS, " " 1.50 

i), l5>.; «jo-.)l, 

AIPllKTS U. SI.ATKR. Jr.. 

Sti f tttiry. 
rko\ im N( I.. K. I. 



The American Oas Light Association is imlcbted to the courtesy of the 

Amkrican (JAS Li<;nT Jt)rRNAL and also Li(;nr, IIkvt and Povvkr for 
nearly all ot t4ic cuts used in illustratinjj the papers of the various authors. 

A. H. Slatkr, Jr., Stcrtian'. 

CONTENTS. 

I'AOE. 

Adams, II. C. Paper on ** The Gas Coals of the United States— Their 
(ico^jraphical and Cicological l<ocation and Arexi, and Their Thysical 

Characteristics," i8(/) 360 

Advantajjes of .Supplying a Mixture f>f (!oal and Water (ias. Hy 

Thomas G. Lansden, 1889 134 

Amendments to Constitution. Sections 6-16-46-47, 1891 470 

Appendix. A List of Water Gas Reference Papers, etc. Corrected by 
y. H. Shki.ion, from date of his paper October, 1889, down to 

July, 1892 635 

Applications for Membership, Report of the Council on, 18H9 7 

" " 1890 220 

1891 465 

Arrival and Introduction of President Harbison, 1891 569 

iJarker, Commissioner, Introduction of, i88() . 87 

lUrker. " ** i8(j<j 246 

lioardman, A. K. Paper on ** Hints on Llectric Lighting by Small Gas 

C'«»nipanies, 1890 437 

Hriirs ( )xygcn Process of Puriticalion, K. P.. Kl.l.l' K-Cl. AkK. I >>9 33 

C!io!l.»r, Hymn I''. Paper on " Piiritication of ( i.is fnim Kansas Coals." 

«^^') ^') 

(.'lark, Walton. Papi-r «»n " l-'iutl Gas." i>^() ^14 

" Mctt-r kcnt^ — A <jM(:sti«>n of Htpniv an-.l 

l'«.Iicy." l-*)i 5!7 

( f.niniillcc on P>a<igc>, Report of, lS^() 1 ; 

'• StaiKl.ini Cnioiis. Rcpori «»f. i>>() 13 

" Nomination^. Rt-jMtrt of, 1 -^S.) \z, 

" President >ialt.-r's \(l<lrc>->. Ai>j)'»inlm< m of, iS>.) 3^ 

Rt'|)ort of. I--') 1 ^3 

•' Place of lIoMiii;; Nf\i Mi-fliii^. Ai)j)oiiitniriii ..f. i-^.). ... >'. 

'• Place of nc.vi Mcclin;(, Rcj)orl of. 1-^) 1 ^ :; 

of Arraiij^cinent^ for Savannah Mcctirv^. .\])i)ointrncm of, i-^-^i) \^\ 

on President McMillin's Xddrt •>^-. .Njipoiiitni' ni <>f, i ■^«;r» -ij^ti 

•' Nominations. Rci)ort of, \^^y) jj; 

" Place of ncM Mectiii;^, .\p|)oiiitnicnt of. i->!,o 2Ui 

" President McMillin's .VJ.lrc^s, Kcix.rt of. i>.,.» ;,.j^ 

" Place of next NK-elinj^. Kci)ottot. i-'jo ^^; 

(;n World's <(>lumhian l.xhihirirjn, Uri)oit of. i-,i pi 

of Arrangements, Rej^ori <,\, i^.jr 4^; 

<»n Nominations, Report of, i-^.^i p j 



IV 

I'AfiB. 

Comniiltee on Telejjrams of Synii>athy, Appointment of, iv^()i 491 

" World's Fair Exhibits, Appointment of, 1891 61 S 

*' ** Place of next meeting. Appointment of. 1891 491 

Report of, 1 89 1 585 

to Prepare a Souvenir to Retiring Secretary C J. R. Hum- 
phreys, Appointment of, 1891 557 

Constitution, Amendments to. Sections (y-iCy-^d-^y, 1891 470 

Council, Report of, on last year's Applicati<ms for Membership, 1S89 6 

Annual, 1889 8 

i8(jo 222 

" ** on Applications for Membership, 1891 465 

Annual, i8qi 467 

C'o\vder>', E. (1. Paper on "The Mismanajjement of (Jas Works," i8t)0. 250 

Deceased Members, 1889 12 

iStp 226 

189^ 477 

Dixon, Robert M. Paper on " The Pintsch System," 1890 313 

Doujjlas, David M. Paper on "The Manipulation of Tar from Carbu- 
reted Water das," 1891 558 

Doujjlas, David M. Discussion on paper of, 1891 586 

Eijjhteenth Annual Mcetinjj, Savannah, Ga., 1890. 

First Day, Morning Session 218 

Afternoon " 275 

Second Day, Morning ** 321 

Afternoon " 416 

Adjournment 458 

Egner, Frederic. Paper on *' Inclined Retorts," i.S<>o 275 

Election of New Members, 18S9 7 

** Officers, 1SS9 15 

** New Members, l8()<j 222 

** Officers, 1890 248 

" New Members, 1891 467 

" ( )fHcers. 1 891 484 

Electric Light Husiness, the Conduct of the, in Connection with the (ias 

Industry. P»y W. II. Pkarson, 18S9 117 

EUice-Clark, E. H. Introduction of, 1SS9 33 

" *' Remarks on iSrin's Oxygen Process of Purification, 

^^^9 33 

Extension of Uses of Gas, for Purposes other than Illumination. JJy 

E. ( *f . Pkat r, 1 890 2(p 

Fuel Gas. \W Wal 1 on Ci.akk, i 889 64 

** Some Thoughts on, Induced from i'ractical Experience in the 

Distribution of Natural Gas. Py John Vdinc;, iS8<). .. »j5 

Finance Committee, Report of, 1S89 10 

** I'^go 223 

" 1S9I 480 



V 

PACK. 

Fcxiell, \V. P. Paper on " Su^j^estions of Methods and Systems for Re- 
cording the Histories and Accounts of (ias Light Companies," 1890. . 354 

Forstall, A. E. Paper on " The Purification of (ias," iSc^) 262 

i las Calorimetrv. By Prok. E. ( r. Lovk. 1889 141 

Gas Coals of the Uniteci States, The — Their Geographical and (ieological 
Lrxration and Area, and Their Physical Characteristics. By II. C. 

Adams, i8t)o 360 

(ias Engineer, The and His Pencil. By F. H. Shklion, i8(p 321 

(lasholders. Their Care and Operation. By Charles !.. Rowland, 1889. 199 
Glasgow, A. (i. Paper on "The Practical ElTiciency of an Illuminating 

Water Gas Setting." 1S90 416 

Harbison, TYe'iident Elect, Introduction of, 1890 248 

" President. Arrival. Introduction and Remarks of, 1891 569 

Hints on FLlectric Lightning by Small Gas Companies. l?y A. E. Board- 
man, 1S90 437 

Hunt, C.'harles, of Piirmingham, B2ng., Telegram from, 1890 321 

Illuminating Power of Mixtures of Coal and Water Gas, The. By Prof. 

K. G. Love, 1S91 547 

Illuminating Water Gas — Past and Present. By Frederic H. Shelton, 

1889 154 

Inclinetl Retorts. By Fkederk Ec;ner, iScp 275 

In Memoriam, 1889-1890-1891 649-651-^)53 

Intensity of Light. F^y A. B. Slater. Jr., 1891 594 

Introduction of E. B. Ellice-Clark, 1889 33 

" " Commissioner Barker, I S89 87 

'* •' '* " 1S90 246 

" Corbett Woodall, 1889 in 

•• President Kloct McMillin, 1.SS9 113 

" Gen. Louis Wagner, i8.S(; 114 

•* " Mr. Williams, of tlie l\ S. Census Bureau, iS8() ii() 

" Pre^i(ie^t Elect Harbison, 1890 248 

" other Ofiicers Elect, 1 890 249 

*' President Elect White. 1 891 574 

" other Othcers Elect. 1 891 577 

Invitation, An, to Frank Morrison to a seat in the Convention, 18.^9 42 

Jones, E. C. Paper on " Leaka;jje and Condensation," iS8() 43 

LauMlen. T. (i. Paper on " Advantages of Supplyinj^^ a mixture of Coal 

and Water ( las," 1889 134 

Leaka;;e and (_'on»lensation. By E. C. JoNFs, 1889 }3 

Leakage. ByCuAKlKsIL NETri.F.ioN, 1S91 4()2 

Lime. By I>k. A. W. Wilkinson, 1891 531 

List of (.>rt"icers, iS.S(^-(^ 15 

l8(/>-9i 247 

1S91-92 4^4 

Members ^77 

Love. Prof. E. (i. Paper on " Gas Calorinietr\ . ' i88() i |i 



VI 

pagk. 
Love, IVof. E. (1. Paper on " The Illuminating Power of Mixtures of 

Coal and Water Cias," 1891 547 

Manipulation of Tar from Carbureted Water Gas, The. By David 

Dor(;LAs, 1 891 558 

McMillin, President Elect. Introduction of, 1889 113 

'* Emerson, Presidential Address, 1890 230 

Meeting, Seventeenth Annual, 1889 i 

Eighteenth " 1890 218 

Nineteenth " 1891 459 

Members. r)eceased, 1889 12 

1890 226 

I S91 477 

Members, List of, 1892. 

' ' I lonorary 677 

Active 677 

* ' Associate 686 

Deceased , 687 

Meter Rents, A (Question of Equity and Policy. By Walton Clark, 1891. 517 
Meridan, J. B., Superintendent Savannah Cotton Exchange, Telegram 

from, i8(>o 436 

Mismanagement of (jas Works, The. By E. CI. Cowdkry, 1890 250 

Morrison, Frank. An Invitation to a seat in the Convention, 1889 42 

Municipality of .Savannah, Cla. Welcomed by, 1890 218 

Necrology 655 

Robert P. Spice, 1S89 655 

Edward J. King, 1889 657 

Oliver K. Cushing. 1 889 658 

Theobald Eorstall, 1890 660 

William Parrish, 1890 661 

Walter B. I louston, 1 8«^ 662 

James H. Rollins, l8i}() . 663 

Cien. Charles Roome, iScp 665 

B. K. Sherman, i S90 667 

Nathaniel Tufts, 1 8(>o 668 

William Mooney, 1 891 669 

William II. Down, 1891 670 

E. M. Russell, 1891 672 

Samuel Prichett, 1891 672 

C. II. Nash, 1888 674 

J. M. Sterling, 1891 675 

Nettlet(m, Charles H. Paper on *' Leakage," 1891 492 

New .Members, Election of, 1889 7 

" iS(p 222 

" 1S91 467 

Nineteenth Annual Meeting, New York, 1S91. 

First Day, Morning Session 459 



Vll 

Page. 

Fir*il Day. Afternoon Session 4QI 

Seconti Day, Morning '* 547 

Afternoon " . 5S4 

Adjournment 633 

Norris. Rollin. Paper on ''Theoretical KfTect of Pre- Heating Blast Steam 

anti Oil in Water (las Manufacture," 1891 6of) 

Otticers. Election of, iSSy 15 

*• *' *' i8i)o 248 

Introiluclion of, 1890 249 

Election of, 1891 1 484 

*' Inlrotluclion of, 1S91 577 

Opening Address, Vi( K President White, 1891 486 

Pearson, W. H. Paper on " The Conduct of the Electric Light Business 

in Connection with the Cias Industry," 1S89 117 

I*earson, W. II ., Telegram from. 1890 436 

Pinfich System, The. By Rohert M. Dixon, 1890 313 

Place for Holding Next Meeting, ApjK)intment of Committee on, 1889. . . 86 

• < .4 .. .♦ ». |8fp 262 

" *' " ** " 1891... 491 

Practiciil Efficiency of an Illuminating W'ater (las Setting, The. By A. (1. 

Glas<;()\v, iS9() 416 

Pratt, Edward (1. Paper on "The Extension of the Cses of (las for 

Purposes other than Illumination," i8(/J 298 

President's Address, A. B. Slater, 1889 16 

Reference of, to Committee, 1889 33 

Emerson McMii.mn, 1890 230 

" Reference of, to Committee, l^ip 24^1 

Presi-ieiit Hiirliison's Remarks, 1S91 ^(h) 

Pricheit, Samuel, Teiegram of Sympathy to, and answer. ihS9 217 

iMiriiualion, Brin'^ Oxygen Process of. E. B. Kii.icK-Cl.AkK, iS?>(j 33 

of (las from Kansas Coals. I^y P>YK(>N !•'. Cli< m.f.ak. IvSS().. S(^ 

" " The. By A. E. EoRsiAi.L, 1890 2(»2 

^^>iie^lion Box. The, I.S89 20') 

iS(>() 4?i 

1S91 ()2I 

Remarks of Conmii'^sioner I'arker, lv^89 >; 

i"><)o 240 

Report t»f Council, on last year's Applications for Memher^hij), i^^c) () 

'* ** •* Applications for Membership, i.S><) 7 

Annual, iSS<j. S 

Finance Committee, 18.S9 10 

" Treasurer, 1889 1 1 

' ' Secretary, 1 889 12 

(.'ommittee on Badges, |SS() 13 

'* " Stancianl rnif)ns. isst^ 13 

** Nominations. 18S1) i ■; 



Vlll 

PACK. 

Report of Committee on President Slaters Address, i88g 133 

*' " Place of next Meeting, 1889 153 

*' Council, on Applications for Membership. i8go 220 

'* " Annual, i8()0 222 

'* Finance ("omniittee, i8(jo 223 

* * Secretary and Treasurer, 1S90 224 

" Committee on Nominations, 1S90 247 

*' *' President McMillin's Address, 1890 345 

" ** ** Place of next Meeting, i8()0 354 

" Council, on Applications for Membership, 1891 465 

" *' Annual, 189T 467 

' * Secretary, 1 891 ^ 476 

' ' Treasurer, 1 891 478 

" Finance Committee. 1891 4S0 

** Committee on World's Columbian Exposition, 1891 481 

" " of Arrangements, 1891 483 

** *' on Nominations, 1891 484 

*' '* *' Telegrams of Sympathy, I S9I 557 

'* Place of next Meeting, 1891 585 

Resolutions Tendered to the Retiring Secretary, i8gi 620 

Roll C'all, Seventeenth Annual Meeting, 1889 i 

" ** Kighteenth Annual Meeting, i8(^ 227 

'* " Nineteenth Annual Meeting. 1891 459 

Rowland, C. L. Paper f)n " (iasliolders, Their Care and Operation," iS.Sg 199 

Savannah Meeting, A])pointment of Committee of Arrangements for, 1889 154 

Secretary's Report, I S89 .... 12 

*' " l8()<) 224 

1-^91 A7(y 

Seventeenth Annual Meeting, Haltimore, Md., 1S89. 

First I ►ay, Morning Session i 

' ' A f ternyon ' * 43 

Second I )ay. Morning *' ill 

* ' A f lernoon * ' 1 39 

Adjournment 217 

Shelton, F. II. Paper on " Illuminating Water (ias — Past and Present," 

^^^9 154 

I'aper on " The Cas I'lngineer and His Pencil, i8(p. . . . 321 
** I.ist of Water (ias Reference Papers, etc.," Appendix, 

1891 635 

Slater, A. P». Presidential Address, 1889 16 

Slater, A. B., Jr. Paper on " Intensity of Light." 1891 594 

Souvenir to Retiring Secretary C. J. R. Humphreys, Appointment of a 

Committee to prepare a, 1891 557 

Suggestions of Methods and S)stcnis for Recording tlie Histories and Ac- 
counts of (ias Fight Companies. IJy W. P. FoDELi., i8(p 354 

Telegram of Sympathy to Samuel Prichctt and answer, 1889 217 



IX 

PACK. 

Telegram from Charles Hunt of Birmingham, Eng , i8()0 321 

" \V. H. Pearson, in Acknowledgement of Klection as Nice 

President, iSiyo 436 

** J. H. Meridan, Supt. Savannah Cotton Kxchangc, lS(|o. . 436 

of Sympathy, Appointment of Committee to send, i8yi 491 

fn)m Secretary Humphreys, i8()i 585 

Theoretical KfFect of Pre-Heating Blast Steam and Oil in Water (ias Man- 
ufacture. By Roi.LiN NoKRis, 1891 f)o6 

Treasurer's Report, 1889 11 

1S90 224 

1891 478 

Votes of Thanks. 'Seventeenth Annual Meeting, 1SS9 215 

Eighteenth ** '* 1*890 454 

'* Nineteenth *' *' 1891 630 

Wagner, (leneral Louis. Introduction of, 1889 114 

Welcomed by the Municipality of Savannah, (ra., i8(/) 218 

White, President Elect. Introduction of, 1891 574 

White, W. IIenr\', Vice President's Opening Address, 1891 486 

Wilkinson, Dr. A. W. Paper on " Lime," 1 891 531 

Williams, Mr. of the U. S. Onsus Bureau. Introduction of, 18S9 116 

Woodall, Corl)ett. Introtluction of, 1889 ill 

World's Exposition. Chicago, Two letters in Reference to, 1889 42 

Fair Exhibits. ApjXMntment of Committee on, 1891 6i8 

^'oung, John. Paper on '* Some Thoughts on Fuel (ias. Induced from 

Practical Experience in the distribution of Natural C«.'is," i8S() (^5 



INDEX TO SPEAKERS. 

PAGE. 

Adams, Hon. A. I'. 

Welcome of the Municipality, 1890 218 

Adams, H. C. 

(las Coals of the United States, 1890 360, 413, 414 

Adams, \V. C. 

(las Engineer and His Pencil, 1890 340 

AnnicKs, \V. R. 

Leakage, 1891 510,515, 516 

I .ime, 1 891 540 

Illuminating Power of Mixtures of (las, 1891 556 

Manipulation of Tar from Carbureted Water Oas, 1 891 593 

Pre- Heating Hlast Steam and Oil in Water Cias, 1891."' 617 

Souvenir to the Retiring Secretary, 1891 620 

Naphtha as an Knricher, 1S91 626 

Andkrson. Wm. 

Leakage and Condensation, 1889 57 

IUrkkr, Commissioner, of Massachusetts. 

In Response to Introduction by IVesident, 1S89 87 

l8()0 246 

Haxtkr, Rohert.' 

Klcctric Light Husiness, 1889 129 

Lime, 1S91 543, S46 

Hoardman, a. K. 

Place of Next Meeting, 1889 153 

Electric Lights in Small Towns, 1889 206 

Where Should Ownership of Service Pipe Terminate. 1SS9 208 

Election of Officers, i8(}0 ...... 249 

Inclined Retorts, 1890 294 

Extension of l^ses of ( las, 1 890 30S 

Pintsch System, 1 890 320 

(ias Coals of the United States, 1890 414 

Practical Efriciency of an Illuminating Water (las Setting. 1890 432 

Hints on Electric Lighting, i8()0 437,447,448, 450 

\'otes of Thanks, iStjo 454 

Leakage, 1891 501, 506 



XI 

rAGB. 
BoARDMAN, A. E. 

Lime, 1891 543 

Installation of Officers, 1891 577 

Intensity of Light. 1 891 602 

World's Fair Kxhibits, 1891 618 

Naphtha as an Knrichcr, 1891 626 

Votes of Thanks, 1 891 633 

B«nvKN, W. S. 

Obtaining Damajjeson Account of Change of (Iradc in Street, 1890. 451 

Shuuld (i;LS Companies do I'ipe Fitting of Houses at Cost, 1890 452 

Furnishing (las by Contract, 1891 621 

BkKHKL, Frkdkrick. 

Fire Brick, 1889 214 

Lime, 1891 540 

BlTlKkWORTIf, IrVIN. 

Where Should Ownership of Service Vipc Terminate, 1889 208 

Per ("cnt of the Day Consumption of (las, 1889 2(X) 

Extension of Uses of (las, i8(/) 305 

Hints on Ellectric Lighting, i8(>o 446 

Naphtha as an Enricher, 1891 627 

Choi.lar. B. E. 

Purifjcalion of (las from Kansas Coals, i8vS9 89, 95 

(las Engineer and Ilis Pencil, iS(/) 336 

(las ("oais of the United States, iS9(j 414 

Practical FtViciency of an Illuminating Water (las Setting, iSc^o 432 

(j.\kK, Wai.imn. 

Brin's (Jxygen Process of Purifuation, 1SS9 38 

Fuel (las. 1.S89 64, 83, 84, S6 

Inclined Retorts, 1890 2()l 

Leakage. 1891 510 

Meier Rents, iv**9i 517, 529, 530 

Lime, 1891 53S 

Response at Installation, 1891 579 

Effect of I'npurified Water (las on Ilolilcrs. i8()i ()25 

(.'(x;«;siiAi.i., H. F. 

Extension of Uses of (las, i8(p 31 h) 



("mi.mns. U. R. 

Illuminating Power of Mixtures of (las, 1891 
Pre- Heating Blast Steam and Oil in Water ( la»i 



CokNK! I.. T. C. 

Fuel (las, 1S89 109 



xu 

HAOB. 
CoWDERY, E. C;. 

Ailvantajjes of a Mixture of Coal and Water (Jas, 1889 140 

Mismanagement of (ias Works, 1890 250 

President McMiliin's Address, 1 8<)o 345 

Committee on Nominations, i8(p 484 

Cr«»nvki.i., F. H. 

KfTect of Unpurilied Water ( ias on Holders, i8yi C26 

Dkll, John. 

Inclined Retorts, iScp 293 

Dknniston, W. II. 

Fuel (;as, 18S9 77. 78, 102 

Dixon, R. M. 

Extension of I'ses ot ( las, 1890 309 

Pintsch System, i8()0 313, 320 

Dorc.LAs. David. 

Manipulation of Tar from Carbureted Water (ias, 1891. 

558, 586, 588, ?(/), 592 
Down. W. H. 

Committee on Standard l.'nions, 1889 13 

K<;nf.r, Frkhkric 

Imlined Retorts, iS()o 275, 2S6, 2SS, 2(/), 292, 294, 297 

(ias Engineer and His Pencil, i8(>() ^ 335 

Hints on Electric Lighting. iS()<3 444, 445, 447 

Inclined Retorts, i8(/) 453 

Voles of Thanks, 1890 45S 

Illuminating Power of Mixtures of (ias, 1S91 555, 556 

World's Fair Exhibits, 1891 618 

El.I.K K-Cl.ARK, E. B. 

Leakage and (Condensation , 1SS9 62 

l^rin's Oxygen Process of Purification, 1889 33, 39, 40, 42 

Faiii-n, C. R.. Jr. 

Fuel ( las, 1SS9 81 

Manipuhition of 'i'ar from Carbureted Water Cias, 1891 5(;o 

FiNDI.AY, J. H. 

Hints on Electric Lighting, 1890 447 

Should (ias Companies do Pipe Fitting of Houses at Cost, i8<)0 452 

F«>I>KLI., W. P. 

System of Recording Accounts, 18(90 354 

I .eakage, i .S91 507 

FoRsiM.i., A. E. 

l*urihcation of (ias, iS()o 2f>2, 274 



xin 

I*AGK. 
K»»RST.\M.. A. K. 

Practical Efticiency of an Illuminating Water Clas Setting. iS(^3. .428, 431 
Should (las Companies do Pipe P'itting of Houses at Cost, 1890 . . .. 453 
Manipulation of Tar from Carbureted Water (ias, 1S91 5()o, 592 

Gk(;<;ie. I). H. 

Purification of (las, i8(/3 274 

GlI.lJKR'I, T. I). 

Leakage and Condensation, 1889 53* ^^' 

(iiMi'ER, John. 

Hints on Electric Lighting, i8()o 445, 446 

Cl.AscJOW, A. (i. 

( lasholders 1S89 204, 2o(^) 

Practical Efficiency of an Illuminating Water (ias Setting. 1890, 

416. 430. 433 

Hints on Electric Lighting, i8(p 445 

Should (ias Companies do Pipe Fitting of Houses at Cost, 1890. . . . 452 

Leakage. 1891 507 

Meter Rents. 1891 526 

Lime. 1S91 542 

Illuminating Power of Mixtures of (ias, 1891 555 

Intensity of Light, 1891 604 

(iix^mviN, W. W. 

President McMillin's Address, 1S90 34S 

liKAH, (;. W. Jk. 

l-iitrl < ias. iPr^() 1(^4. lot), i<j~, la^ 

Anicmlments to (iunstitution, 1S91 475 

(ikn:N"i <;n. M. S. ^ 

I'urificalion of (ias. i>()0 2(i^ 

In* lined Retorts, lS()<). 2()2, 2*^5 

« ia> Engineer and His Pencil, iSi)*) 339 

II \M[;i Ki«»N. V. H. 

< i.is Knj^ineer and His Pencil, ixp 343 

HvkmismN, J. P. 

Liiei ( ias, 1SS9 ^^. 103. 105, 1 10 

Rrsponse to Introtliution as President IClut, iS<)i) 2|S 

(ias Engineer and His Peneii, i^<)0 340, 342 

President McMillin's Address, lS<)<) }\<) 

World's Fair, 1S90 ^34 

\ f»tes of Thanks. i.'^90 454. 457 

Presidential Remarks, 1^91 ... 5<. » 



XIV 



llARrKR, (i. H. 

Purification of (las, i8</) 271 

Practical Elticiency of an Illuminating Water (ias Setting, iStjO. . . . 433 

Hlmi'Iirkys, a. C. 

Leakage and ( 'onilcnsiition, 1S89 59 

Fuel (las, 1889 ...81, 82, 85, 86 

Presiilent Slater's Address, 1889 133 

Advantages of Supplying a Mixture of Coal and Water (las, 1S89.139, 140 

Arrangements for Kighteenth Annual Meeting, i8(;o 226 

Inclined Retorts, i8()0 296, 297 

Kxtensitm of I'ses of ( las, l8</j 306, 309 

Pintsch System, 1 8c)t) 31S 

(ias Engineer and His Pencil, l8<)0 336 

President McMillin's Address, i8(^ 350, 352 

(las Coals of the United States, iS(/j 413 

Pre- Healing Plast Steam and Oil in Water (las, 1S91 616 

Votes of Thanks, 1891 632 

HLMrilRKYS, (\ J. R. 

Votes of Thanks, 1 8S9 216 

i8()o 456 



Jknkins, E. H. 

Meter Rents, i8()i . 



529. 530 



JONKS, E. ('. 

Leakage and ("ondensation, 1SS9 43. 52, 54, 57, hi, 

( las Calorimetry, I S8t> 

Lamso.n, (*. 1). 

Leakage and ('«»n(kii»iali(>n, 1 8^9 



Lan^di-.n, r. <i. * 

Leakage and (nmlcnsation, iSSi) 

Advantai^cs of Supplying a Mixture nf Coal and Water (las, iS>(). . . . 

\'oies of Thanks. iS*^<) 

Misinaiiagenu'iit of ( las Work>. i>()0 

Int!iiu-<1 Rt-torls, iStjo 2.S7, 2SS, 

President McMiilin's Address, iS«)0 ^A^, 

Hints on Electric Ligluing, iS<><) 

LiNDSKN , El)\VAkI». 

Leakage and Condensation, 1S89 



f>3 
150 



U4 
215 

2()I 
2S«, 
353 
45f> 



Li in KHAI.1.S, T. 

Hrin's Oxy^^rn Pro(•^"^s of I'lirirication, iSS() ^i 

Lcakaj^f and C«»n(lcnsati«)n, l>>() .. 55 

l"lc«lric l.ij^ht lIiirntTs. i-'^^c) 128 



XV 

I*AGK. 

LrriLKiiAi.Ks, T. 

M ismanagement of (ias Works, 1 8<)0 258 

rurificalion of Cias, l8(/) 268, 271, 272, 274 

Inclined Retorts, i8</) 286 

Extension of Uses of (las, i8</) 311, 312 

( Jas Enjfineer and His Pencil, 18(90 343 

IVesident McMillin's Address, i8()0 348, 349, 350 

System of Recording Accounts, 1890 359 

(ias (.'oals of the United States, 181^3 414 

Should (las (.'ompanies do Pipe Fitting of Houses at Cost, i8(jo. . . . 452 

Amentimenls to Constitution, 1891 474 

Leakage, 1 891 502 

Meter Rents, 1S91 530 

Lime, 1S91 539, 540, 546 

Souvenir to the Retiring Secretary, 1891 557 

Free Sulphur in Oxide, 1891 628 

Lo«JMI?, BlKDKTl. 

Fuel (ias, 1 889 74, 82, 83, 84, 86 

Lo\ K. Pl<«)K. K. (i. 

(ias Calorimclry, 1SS9.. 141. 151, 152 

Illuminating Power of Mixtures of Cias, 1891 547, 552, 554 

MrKi.K.iv. J. H. 

Leakage and Condensation, 18S9 57, 60 

McMii I IN, Kmkrson. 

Ki-spx^n^e to Introduftion as I're.sidcnl Licet, iSS«) 114 

Lirctriv I.i'^j^ht business, iS^() 130^ 1^2 

K^•'.JK>n^c lo Welcome ;it Savannah. i8(>o 2i«) 

Presidential Addres*^, lS<;o j ^^o 

I-..\ten^i(>n of Uses of (ias, 1S90 312 

I'intsch Sy^tem. iS<)<) 3i() 

I)i>iussif)n tA Aildress. iS(p 352 

Practic.d l\tfuiency of an I llutriinaiinj^ Water ( ias Sell iiij;, iS')o..433. 434 

\'f»te> of 'rhank--. 1 S«p I55 

Le;ikaj:;c. I>9l 5 I.; 

I- ree Milphur in ( )xide. I>()1 (,2^ 

Ml I.I IK, A. S. 

Leakage, r>()I. 505, ^(-i, 

Lime, I'^en ?;>7 

Manipulation of Tar from Carbnreled Watei ( ..j^. 1*^91. ^-^i-. j:-^-) 

Lrfeel of I'npurifled Water (ias on Hohlers. i^'.^] . . . . (,.'5 

Ml I' !in 1.. K. M. 

Inclined Retorts, 1S90 j.,m 



XVI 

PACK. 

MOONEY, Wm. 

Inclined Retorts, 1890 286 

Gas Engineer and His Pencil, 1890 ... 335 

Nkal. G. B. 

leakage, 1891 503, 505 

Lime, i8gi 541 

Nettlkton, C. H. 

Committee on liadges. 1 889 13 

Brin's Oxygen Process of Purification, 1889 ... 41 

( las Calorimetry, 1 889 152 

Illuminating Water Gas, 1889 . . . 198 

Leakage. 189T 492, 501, 502, 505, 508, 515 

Illuminating Power of Mixtures of Gas, 1891 554 

World's Fair Exhibits, 1891 619 

Hydraulic Main Litjuor, 1891 630 

Votes of Thanks. 1891 631 

Ni TE, Jos. E. 

Explosives for Stopped Services, 1S91 623 

NOKKIS, ROLI.IN. 

Gas Calorimetry, 1 889 151 

Inclined Retorts, i8(/) .289, 2(^ 

Practical Efficiency of an Illuminating Water (ias Setting, i8(>o 429 

Pre-Heating Blast Steam and (^il in Water (ias, 1891 ()o6, O15, 616 

P.\<;e, (;. S. 

Hydraulic .Main Li<|uor, 1S91 629 

Pearson, W. H. 

Brin's Oxygen Process of Purification, 1889 40 

Electric Light Burners, 1SS9 117,128, 132 

Illuminating Water Gas, 1889 198 

Discount (m Gas Used for Cooking and Heating, 18S9 210 

Leakage, 1891 503, 514 

ResjH^nse to Installation, 1S91 . . 578 

Manipulation of Tar from Carbureted Water Gas. iS()i 5S7, 5S8 

Pre-Heating lUast Steam and Oil in Water Gas, 1S91 61 5, 616 

World's Fair Exhibits, 1891 619 

Effect of Unpuritied Water (ias on Holders, 1891 625 

Pearson. W. H., Jr. 

Manipulation of Tar from Carbureted Water ( ias, 1891 5S8, 5(}0 

Pratt, E. (i. 

Extension of Cses of (ias, i8()(^ 29S 

Obtaining Damages on .\ccount of Change in (iradc of Street, iS(K). . 451 
Should (ias Companies do Pipe Fitting of Houses at (,'ost, i^(/) ..451 



XVll 

PAGE. 

PRirilAKI), (.'. F. 

Lcraknj^e and Condensation, 1889 62 

Electric Lights in Small Towns, 1889 207 

Lime, ii*9i 542 

RamsiiKI.!.. (1. (1. 

< ias Engineer and His Pencil, i8t)0 342 

Systems of Recording Accounts, 1S90 358 

ko\M.ANr>, C. L. 

( iasholders, 18S9. 199, 204, 206 

Ri Miv, J. M. 

Practical KHiciency of an Illuminating Water (ias Setting, 1890 431 

Should < las Companies do Pipe Kitting of Houses at Cost, iSrjo 453 

Naphtha as an Enrichcr, 1891 627 

s«ii\\ \k/. Mayor. 

Wtlcome of the Municipality, iSgo 218 

Si klVK.k, J. V. 

Illuminating Water ( ias. 1S89 i<)7, 198 

I)i«*Cfiunt on <'ias l'»ied for Cooking and Heating. 1889 209, 212 

Puritication of (ias, i8()0 273 

Exton»iion of the Uses of (ias, i8<>o 310, 31 1. 312 

Leakage, IS91 502 

Pla<v of Ntxt Meeting, 1891 5S5 

>nn.l«»\. K. H. 

I'liiniiii.iting Watt r ( i.i^. I^■^<) i 54. 1*^7 

< .:«-- l''.iigiiK<T and lli^ l'cn«i!, i.-</o 321. 344 

>^\^l( ni>N of Kf.-conling .\((onnts, i8(;<) 35S 

I t-aka;^!-. iH'jI 513 

Pn'-llfatin;,' P.Iast, Steam and Oil in Water (ias, iS()i (,16 

>;n •%! w, I . < . 

Liakaj^e an<l < oinUn^.iiion, l-^r^n 1^4 

If-aka^r. i*^')i 51O 

lime. I.'^'^I 5.^5. =,.\(} 

'^\ M Kk, A. 1;. 

I'n -viilential Addles-*, i^^if 1^ 

W I.err Sbanihl Own^T'-hij) of Ser\iie Pipes Ti-rniii^ate, I^S«) -jos 

1 )iv( oiinl on ( i.is I sed for ( "ooking an«l I leatinj;. ISS() ■2<'-) 

I.nne. I"^9i =,4} 

>\ \i».K, .\. h.. Ik. 

I'urifu ation of ( ia>. I.S';0 'J72 

Installati<»n of ( Jfticers. i>()i 3>,) 

Marnf>nlation of Tar from ( arhnreteil Water (ias. i><)i ^rjj, |;(^^ 

\nu r:>-ilv of Light, I^c)! 5()4. (102. (>nz, 

H 



XVlll 

PAGE. 

SOMERVILI.K, JaMKS. 

Mismanajfcmcnt of (ias Works, 1890 260 

Inclined Retorts, iScjo 293 

Pintsch System, 1890 321 

President McMillin's Address, 1890 351 

Leakajje, 1891 508 

Naphtha as an Enricher, 1891 626 

Starr, J. M. 

Leakage and Condensation, 1889 54 

Stedman, \v. a. 

Vote of Thanks, 1 891 630 

Stiness, S. (.1. 

Electric Light Business, 1SS9 126, 128 

Taber, R. B. 

Leakage and Condensation, 1889 53 

Where should Ownership of Service Pipes Terminate, 1889 207 

f'xtension of Uses of ( ias, 1 890 307, 309 

Thomi'son, Ci. T. 

Collecting (las Bills Through Express Companies, 1891 629 

\Va(;ner, Loris. 

Response to Introduction by President, 1SS9 114 

W^eher. O. B. 

Fire Bricks, 1S89 213 

White, W. II . 

Amendments to Constitution, 1S91 471, 475 

Opening Address, 1891 486 

Illuminating Power of Mixtures of (las, 1891 556 

Installation of ( )fficers, 1.S91 576 

Collecting (las Bills Through Express (Companies, 1891 629 

Votes of Thanks, i S91 633 

Wilcox, J. W. 

Hints on Electric Lighting, i8(/; 447 

Wilkinson, Dr. A. W. 

Lime, 189T 531, 538, 540, 542. 545 

Williams, Mr. 
. United States Census, 1 889 116 

Wood ALL, (roRMETT. 

Response to Introduction by President, 18S9 112 



XIX 

I-AGB. 
VOLNC, Jt»HN. 

Lcakaj^e and Condensation, 1889 58, 60 

Fuel lias, 1889 95. 106 

Cias Kngineer and His Pencil, iHqo 342 

VmINi;. RjiHKRT. 

I- uel ( ias. 1 889 loS 

Kleclric I.ijjht Business, 18S9 12O. 129 

Advanta^jesof Supplyin}^ a Mixture of ('r>al and Water (ias, 18S9.139, 140 

Yj IMF, (i. A. 

t'ollcclinij: (ias Dills 'rhrouj^ii Kxpress Companies, 1891 628 



Index to Subjects Discussed. 



SUBJECT. srSAKKR. PAGK. 

Advantages of Supplying a Mixture of 

(las, i83g Thomas ( 1. Lansden 134 

Robert Voung 1 39, 140 

A. C. Humphreys 139, 140 

Amendments to Constitution, 1891, 

Sections 6-16-46-47 \V. If. White 471, 475 

T. Littlehales 474 

(;. \V. ClraefT, Jr 475 

lirin's Oxygen Process. 1RS9 K. 15. Kllice-Clark 33, 39, 40, 42 

Walton (Mark 38 

W. II. I'earson 40 

('. II. Neltleton 41 

T. Littlehales 41 

(.'olleclion of (las Hills through l^x[)ress 

(Companies, 1891 (1. A. ^'uille 62S 

W. II. White 629 

( 1. T. ThnnipsoTi 629 

Kleclrii- 1 j\du IJusiiu-ss. 1SS9 W. II. Pearson T 17, 12S 

KoIhtI Young 12(>, I2() 

.S. (1. Stiness 126, 128 

T. I.iltlchalcs 128 

Kolxrt Paxler 129 

K.nu'rson .McMillin 130, 132 

Klectric- Lights in Small Town**, isS<j. .\. K. iMianlnian 2M) 

C I'. Prichanl 207 

Kxlension Mf I'ncs «)f ( las. iS(^) E. ( 1. Pratt 29S 

Irwin IJuitcrworth 305 

A. (". llurnphriys 30() 

k. P». Taber 307, 3<k) 

A. K. Hoardnian 308 

K. M, l>ixon 3o<j 

H. v. C.Oggshall 3(J9 

]. V. Scrivcr 310,311, 312 

T. Littlehales 311 

Emerson McMillin 312 



XXI 

SUBJECT. SPEAKER. PAOK . 

Fuel rias, 18S9 Walton Clark 64, 83, 84 

liurdett Loomis 74, 82, 83, 84 

W. H. Denniston 77, 78 

A. C. Humphreys 81, 85 

J. P. Harbison 88 

Fuel Gas. Some Thoughts on, 1SS9. . John Young 95, 106, 107 

\V. H. Dtnniston 102 

J. I'. Harbison 103, 105, no 

0. \V. (iraeflf, Jr. .104, 10^), 107, 108 

kolHirt Young 108, ill 

T. ('.Cornell 109 

(las Calorimctry, 1889 Trof. K. (i. Love 141. 151, 152 

kollin Norris 151 

('. H. Nettkton 152 

(Jas Coals of the Cnited States. i8()o. H. C. Adams 360, 413, 414 

A. C, Humphreys .... 413 

A. K. Hoardman 414 

H. K. Chollar 414 

fias Kngineer and His reniil. if^i)(). . . V. H. Shelton " 321, 344 

Frederic l'!j;ner 335 

W'ni. M(;om y 335 

A. < ". 1 Iuni])hr(.-v^ 33O 

H. !•:. ( li-.llar 33^ 

M. S. ( iu-tiinii^ili 339 

\V. ( . A(l;m.> 340 

1. r. Ii;irl>is«»n 3^0, 34'j 

C. ( i. Kaiiisdrll 342 

Jolm N «»mi;j;; 342 

1-. II. Il.UiihUt..,, ;;43 

( lasJioMir^. l'"*"^*} < . I.. Kowiaml i^y.f, 2n\, -jof) 

A. ( >. < .la^^^ow 20 1 

llinr*-<m Klf'tric I.iglllin'^^ iSijo. ... \. 1'.. !'.'>. inltnaii .. . . | i7. 41?. 147- 

44-^. 45<' 

luJtric 1-iu.r 444. 445. 447 

A. (i. (.lax-.Av 415 

<". S. Ilaiimialt 4f;«i 

, jolui ( limprr 44(1 

11. K. (u--.l>all 440 

J. \V. Wiiu.x 44- 



XXll 

SUBJECT. SI'BAKKR. 1*AGB. 

Illuminatinjj Tower of Mixtures of Coal 

and Water (las, iSyi Prof. K. Ci. Love 547, 552, 554 

C\ K. Collins 552 

C. II. Ncttleton 554 

Frederic Kjjner 555, 556 

A. C;. Clasgow 555 

W. R. Addicks 556 

\V. II. While 55^> 

Illuminatinjj Water Cas. i8S() K. II. Sheiton 154 

J . K. S» river iy7, 198 

W. 11. Pearson lyS 

C. H. Nettletun I(>S 

Inclined Retorts, i8<><) Frederic Fj^ner 275, 2:S(). 2S8, 290, 

292, 2f>4, 297 

Wm. Mooney 2SO 

T. Littieliales 28C 

T. (1. Lansden 2S7. 2S9 

Walton Clark 291 

M. S. Cireemmjjjh 292, 295 

James Stuucrville 293 

A. K. P><>an!maii 294 

A. ('. lluniphreys 2(/>, 297 

Intensity of Lij^ht, 1S91 A. P.. Slater, Jr 51)4, 602, 605 

A. F. lioardnian (n)2 

A. ( i. ( ilas^ovv (n)4 

Is it Wise to make l)is((iunt on (las 

Used for Cookinj^and Ileatini;, 1S.S9 J. F. Scri\er 2ix), 212 

W. 11. Pearson 210 

Is there any Instance of a (las Com- 
pany obtaining I >aniai^cs for a 

chanj^e in ( Irade of Street, r-^ijo. . . F. (1. Pratt 45 1 

W. S. IJowen 451 

Faying' Fire Pricks, 18S9 O. P. Weber 213 

F. P)redel 214 

Leakage, 1891 C. II. Nettlet(»n 492.501, 502, 

50S, 515 

A. F. Poardman 501, 506 

1 . F. Scri ver 502 

T. Littlehales 502 

W. H.Pearson 503, 514 



XXlll 



SUBJECT. .SPEAKER. I'AGE. 

I^eakoge, 1S91 ( i. H. Neal 503, 5< 15 

A.S.Miller 505. 506 

A. (J. (Jlasj^ow 507 

W. r. Kodell 507 

James Sonierville 508 

Walton (.'lark 510 

\V. k. Adflicks .510, 515, 516 

K. II. Shelton 513 

P^merson MoMillin 514 

V. C. ShcTman 516 

Leakage and Condensation, iSSy K. C. J<jncs. . .43, 52, 54, 57, (n, 63 

T. (i. Lansden 53, ^h) 

R. h. Taher 53 

T. I.). (;ilb.Tt 53, 61 

F. C. Sherman 54 

J. M. Siarr 54 

T. Littlchalcs 55 

J. II. McKlroy 57. 60 

John \'oMn;j 58, 60 

.A. (.'. Humphreys 59 

(.:. F. Prichard. 62 

K. H. Kllice-Clark 62 

Lime. i-^Ql . . . I)r. A. W. \\ ilkiiison. .531, 53^. 540, 

A. S. .\Iil!(i- 537 

Walton ( "lark 53."^ 

v. l.itlUli.iIi^ ^V), ^.\<K 5.|() 

\V. K. Aii.ii<k^ 5.i.» 

1-. r.lV.lrl |;|() 

<;. 11. Neal =.,i 

('. 1'. rrichanl ^.\2 

A. ('.. (.las-o-A- 3.J2 

1* . < '. >>licrniaii ~.\() 

.\. ];. >latcr 5.13 

l\oI)trt HaMcT 543, 546 

Mani{)ulati«>n of Tar from ('arlaircto! 

Water (ias, iJxji I )avi(i 1 »uu:^las. :;5^. :^.>^, 5^,-. =(,0, 5<j2 

A. S. Mill.-n 5S(, 

W. H. l\-..i-m ^S;. 5.->S 

W. 11. IVai-M.n, jr p-S 

(.:. K. I'al'cn. |r 5()0 

A. !•:. I-oiMail .V)2 

W. k. Ad. licks 5.)3 

A. 1'.. SlattT. Jr 5')2, ^()2 



XXIV 



SUHjKCT. SPEAKBR. PAGE. 

Mismanagement of (ias Works, 1890.. E. (i. Cowclery 250 

T. I.ittlehales 258 

James Somerville 260 

T. ( i. I -ansden 261 

Meter Rents, iS<)i Walton Clark 517. 529, 530 

A. ( i. ( Ilasj^ow 526 

K. II. Jenkins 529, 530 

Pintsch System, 1890 K. M. Dixon 313, 320 

A. ('. Humphreys 31S 

Kmerson McMillin 319 

A. E. Hoardman 320 

James Somerville 321 

I'raclical Erficiency <»f an lllunn'natinj^j 

Water (las Settinj^;, i8()0 A. ( '•. ( llasjrow 416, 430. 433 

A. E. For«^tall 428. 431 

kollin Norris 429 

J. M. Rusl^y 431 

H. K. (liollar 432 

A. I"'. Roanlman 432 

(i. II. IlarptT 433 

Emerson McMillin 433, 434 

President MrMillin's Aildross, 1890. . \\. (i. ('owdery 345 

T. l.illlehalcs 34H. 349. 350 

T. (I. I.ansdcn 353 

W. W. ( loorlwin 348 

J. I*. IIarl)iM)n 349 

James Somerville 351 

Emerson McMillin 352 

ruritication of ( las. iS(;o \. E. Eorslall 262. 274 

M. S. (Ireenou^h 268 

T. Eilllehales 268. 271, 272 

(1. II. Harper 271 

A . li. Slater, J r 272 

J . F. Scriver 273 

1 ). II. ( •e;.j^ie 274 

Purification of ( las from Kansas Coals, 

1 8'<9 Myron 1'. Chollar 89, 95 



XXV 

SUBJECT. SPEAKER. PAGE. 

Should (las Companies do Pipe Fit- 
ting of Houses at Cost, i8()o E. C Pratt 451 

\V. S. Bowen 452 

A. CJ. ("ilasjjow 452 

J. H. Kindlay 452 

T. Littlehales 452 

Sugj^estions of Systenns for Accounts, 

i*v/> W. P. Fodfll ! . . . 354 

F. 11. Sh«.-lton 358 

(;. (;. Ramsdell 35S 

T. Littlehales 35*) 

Theoretical effect of IVe-Ileating Blast, 
Sieam and Oil in Water (las Manu- 
facture, 1S91 ... Kollin Norri^ 606, 615 

\V. H. Pearsim 615, 616 

(/. K. Cnllins 615 

A. C. Humphreys 616 

F. M. Shellon (>i(t 

W. k. Addirks 617 

Utili/.atit>n of Weak Hydraulic Main 

Li«luor, iSf^r ( 1. S. I'a^e . . <rj«j 

C. H. Netlleloii 630 

Wh.it KtTert has I'npuritied Water (ias 

on Holders. iS<^r \. S. Miller ()25 

W;ilt<.n Cl.irk ()25 

W. II. I'rarNoii f,25 

F. 15. (mwi-il r.jr, 

What ha^ been the result nt ( ias Coin- 
panics Fnrnishinj; (ias by Contract, 

i8')i W . S. I'.«)\v< n (>2\ 

\\. 11. White 622 

What is the besi Method of I'sin^ 

Naphtha as an I-'.nricher. iS^^i \. 1-*. I'.o.ininiau bab 

W. K. \.Mirk< b2b 

Jatiirs Si.MK rvil!<' t)2(') 

J. \I. Kiisby 027 

Irviii liutlerworth b27 

What per cent, of Free Sulphur should 

spent ^ )xide Contain, l-^i)l T. I.ittiehalts (jjS 

Fnierson .McMiliiii b2S 

Wliat Proporti<»n is the Day Consiimp- 

ti«»n C)f Cas, D^-^t) Irvin I'.iittcrworlh 2o<} 



XXVI 



SUBJBCT. SPEAKER. PACK. 

Where should a Gas Company's Own- 
ership of Service Pipes Terminate, 

1889 R. B. Taber 207 

A. E. Hoardman 208 

A. B. Slater 208 

Irvin Butterworth 208 

World's Fair Exhibits, 1891 A. E. Boardman 618 

Frederic Egner 618 

C. H. Nettleton 619 

W. H. Pearson 619 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAST I'RKSIDENTS. 

«.;ener;»I (.'harles Rr^^mc i873-7«). Frontispiece. 

Wiiliam H. Price iSSo-Si, ( )pp. I'age 72 

A. MirkenK.M)per 1SS2, " 136 

Theof >al(l Forslall 1 883. " 264 

\V. A. Stedman 1S.S4, " 312 

En^cne \'an«lrriXM)l 1S.S5, *' 3^0 

Au>tin (.". \V<km1 1S86. " 40S 

M S. < '.recnoiij^^h 1SJ57, " 544 

Thomas Turner 1 SS8, * ' ^24 

Alpheus B. Slater iS8(). " i 

Emer>f»n McMiilin I'^ijo, '* 218 

John r. Ilarbi'-on 1S91, '* 458 



I.Isl {)[ Wool) ( r I\s. 



\ \\r. 1 . iMisii.a --tirct-niaiii \al\e 

2. hlrfft-m.iin lest nicter 

3. Strt-'rl Irak tmdtr 

4. Aru'.rcu's ( aloriniftcr 

5. I-avnr ;iii«! sillHrinann's ( alfnirm-'rr 

'• 6. Hartley's ('ul«.»rinKter 

7. SindoiN Water (las Apparatus 

>. Allen I larri^ Aj)paratiis 

(f. Salisbury Apparatus 

!<;. frr/nianewski " Hoot I,t*;4[*'<ir " IJahy " Apparatus. 

11. I essic I)u M«ilay Aj)paralns 

12. \^ ilkinson System of Mamifac ture 

13. rienerator of Jer/.manowski Apparatus 

I \. Harkness Apparatus 

15. I lanlon and Jolmson Apparatus 

*' lb. lvl;jert«»n .Apparatus 

77. Mat:kenzie Apparatus 

I *^. K^ner Apparatus. ... . 



4b 
47 
4') 
144 
145 
147 
I |;'^ 

IC(, 

I (,( ) 

ir.2 

ih4 
lU) 
ih7 

\(>^ 
170 

'71 

172 

173 



XXVIU 



Fig. 



K). 

20. 
21. 
22. 

23. 

25- 
2^. 

2H. 
2»). 



32. 
y}' 

34- 

35- 
3^. 

37. 
3^- 
3'.). 
40. 
41. 
42. 
43- 



Meeze Oil and Water (ias Apparatus Page 175 

Original form Lowe Apparatus, 1873 *' 178 

M<Hlern form Lowe Apparatus, iSS<) " 179 

Cirang^er Water (Jas Apparatus '* 181 

Spriny;er Water (ias Apparatus ** 1S2 

Ilanli)n — L^adley Apparatus " 1S4 

Flannery Apparatus '* 185 

McKay— Critchlow Apparatus '* 1S6 

Martin Apparatus ** 1S7 

IVatt and Ryan (ienerator '* 1 88 

\'an Slionhur^ Cienerator *' iqo 

Loonii^ Apparatu*i *' H)t 

Chronoloj^ical and pro|X)rtionaI diag^ram- of Water Cias 

rpK e>*ies Opp. "' Ik/j 

II«>kler «<cal-(.up '* 20I 

1 Inidcr ^cal-cup '* 201 

Hultlor seal-cup *' 202 

('t»/e Retort liencli '* 2S0 

Lack-de-(.'ozf Retort lienoh Opp. ** 2St> 

1 )raftin^ outfit ** 324 

Specimen plan of Works ^^PP- ** 328 

('harts of output, ieakaije, etc. ., ** ** 332 

Street Mains — ("hollar '* 33S 

Secli<in of ('(»ai Seams ** 371 

(Ilasi;«»w*s Radiometer ** 421 

Vertical Still for Oil-tar " 562 

Horizontal Still f<^r Oil-tar ** 568 




1 



SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING 

AMERICAN Gas light association. 

HKrn Ai 

CONCORDIA UMA., UAI minRK, Mi>., 

Ocrniuk i6 ani> 17, 1SS9. 



FiR»T DaY| MfiRNiNc; Session — Wednesdav. Ot iobkr 16. 

The Convention was called lu nrtler at 10:30 a, m., by ihe 
President, Mr. A. B. Slater, of Providence, R, L 

The Secretary, Mr. C. J, R. Humphreys, being absciil on 
account of sickness, Mr WilJiam Henry White was elected 
Secretary /^ro tem. 

On motion of Mr Harbison, the reading of tlie nnnutes of 
the last annual meeting was dispensed with, the same having: 
been published in the gas journals. 

ROLL CAI.r.* 

The following :nembers were in atten<lanct! : 
Honorary Mtmber, 
Pr.if. H. (i. Love, Ph. !>., New Vork, N. V. 
Active Mtntitnt a. 



Adams, H. C, 
Adams, \\m, C, 
AddJcks, J, Edward, 
Africa, J. Simpson, 
Allen^ Augustus L,, 
Amory, Hr, Robi,, 
.Andrew, iff* 



Philadelphia, Pa, 
Richmond, Va. 
Philadelphia. Pa. 
Hunlingtun, Pa, 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 
Brook !ine, Mass, 
Chelsea, Mass, 



H^ ^^^^^^^^B 


1 


2 


1 


^^^H Atwonil, H. A., 




Ply month, Mass. ^B 


^^^H Banlett, E. 1., 


- 


Baltimore, Md, ^B 


^^^^H Baumgardner; John H,« 




Lancaster, Pa. ^^^H 


^^^^1 Baxter, Isaar C, 


- 


Detroit, Mich. ^^^H 


^^^^B Baxter, Rohert, 




Halifax, Nova Scotia ^| 


^^^H Baxter, \Vm. H., 


- 


IVtershnrg, Va, ^B 


^^^H Betrs 




Wilmin^tun, DeL ^B 


^^^^H Frank, 


- 


Memptiis, Tenn. ^B 


^^^1 (;etjrge IK, 




Mahlen, Mass. ^B 


^^^B Bhnl^et, Chas. VV., - 


- 


Brooklyn, K. IX, N. Y.H 


^^^^^^1 lioartlmaii, A. Iv, 




Macon, Ga. ^B 


^^^^^H Buartlmun, Kenry, - 


- 


Fiungor, Me. ^B 


^^^^^H Borgiier, Cyrus, 




Philadelphia, Pa. H 


^^^^H Bret Id, Frederic k. 


- 


New York, N. Y. H 


^^^^B Brnwn, K. L\, 




. New Vcjrk, N. Y. H 


^^^^H Bush, [no, S., 


- 


New York. N. Y, H 


^^^^H Byrne, 




Brooklyn, N. Y, H 


^^^^H Cartwri^ht^ Matt., 




Rochester, N. Y. ^^M 


^^^H Cartwrij^ht, Wm., 




i iswego, N. Y. ^^^H 


^^^H Cfiiidwick. H. ]., 


- 


LcH'kport, N. Y. ^^H 


^^^^B Chambers John S., 




IVentoi), N. J. ^^^B 


^^^1 Chollar, Byron E>, - 


- 


Topeka, Kan. ^^^^^ 


^^^B Clark, 




Philadelphia, Pa, ^^B 


^^^^^1 Cof^geshall, H, t\, 




Fitchhur^, Mass. ^B 


^^H 




New Britain, Conn. ^M 


^^^H Connelly, J. S., 


- 


New York, N. Y. B 


^^^1 Connelly, T. E., 




New York, N. Y. ^^H 


^^^^V Cooper, Arthur F.. 


- 


Exeter, N, H, ^^^| 


^^^^H Cornell, Thomas C, 




Yonkers, N. Y, ^^H 


^^^^^1 Cowdery, Ed. G., 


- 


Milwaukee, Wis, ^B 


^^^B Crafts, David W:, 




Northampton, Mass. ^H 


^^^^^ Cressler, A. 1)., 


- 


Fort Wayne, Ind. ^M 


^^1 Curley, Thomas, 




Wilmington, Del. ^H 


^^m Cushing, Oliver £., 


- 


Lowell, Mass. ^M 


^^M Daly, David, 




Jersey City, N, J. H 


^H Davts, Frederick ]., 


- 


Waitham, Mass. ^_^B 


^H Dell. Jno , 




St. [,ouis, Mo. ^^^B 


^H Denniston, W. H., 


- 


Pittsburg, Pa, ^^^B 


^B Dialt, M. N., 




Terre Haute, Ind. ^^^B 





Baltimore, Md. ^^^^^^H 


^H Dickey, R. R., > 


Dayton, Ohio. ^^^^H 


^H Down, William H.. - 


New York, N. Y. ^M 


^^H Faben, Charles R,, Jr., • 


Toledo, Ohio. 


^H Findiay. J. IK, 


Ogdensburg, N. Y. 


^^M Flcmming, Dutlley !>., - 


* Jersey City, N.J. 


^H Floyd, Fred W,. 


New York, N. Y. 


^^H FU*yd. Henry R., 


- New Vork, N, Y. 


^B Fodell, William K, - 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


^H Gardner, James, Jr., 


Pittsburg. Pa. ^ 


^^m Gardner, William, - 


Pittsburg, Pa. 


^B hartley, Wm. H.. 


- Philadelphia, Pa. 


^^M Gates, Frederick Wm., 


Hamilton, Ont, 


^1 Gibbs, W. W,, . 


' Philadelphia. Pa. 


^^H (tibson, Wm. H., - 


Lima, Ohio. 


^H Gilbert, Thomas D*, 


Grand Rapids, Mich. t 


^H Glasgow, Arthur G., 


Kansas City, Mo. 1 


^^H (^oodwm, W, W., 


- Philadelphia, Pa. 


^^M Gordon, J. J., 


Cincinnati, Ohio. 


^M Graeflt, Gea W., Jr., 


- Philadelphia, Pa. 


^^M Gribbei, John, 


New York, N. Y. 


^^H Griffin, John J., 


' Philadelphia, Pa. 


^1 Hallett, J. L., 


Springfield, Mass. 


^^H Hambleton, F. H., 


Baltimore. Md. 


^H Han lord, L. C, 


Norwalk, Conn. 


^^M Harbison, Jolm P., 


Hartford, Conn. 


^^M Hay ward, Thos. J., 


Baltimore, Md. 


^1 Helme, William E., 


- Philadelphia, Pa. 


^^M Hookey, George S., 


Augusta, Ga, 


^^M Hoover, C. E., 


Winchester, Va. 


^^M Hopper, Thos. C, 


German town, Pa. 


^^B Hopper, William H., 


Germantown, Pa. 


^^M Humphreys, Alex. (/., 


Philadelphia, Pa. . 


^^M Humphreys, C. J. R , 


Lawrence, Mass. 


^H Jones, Edward C„ 


South Boston, Mass, 


^^m K rum hoi 2, Joseph, 


- Buffalo, N, Y, 


^H Kuehn, Jacob L., 


York, Pa, 


^^M Lamson, Charles D., 


Worcester, Mass. 


^H Lansden, Thomas G,, 


Washington, D. C. 



^ — :-^\stsi^ii ^^^^^^^^^^^H 


■ 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H 




4 


1 


^^^^B Leach, Hent*}^ B.p 




Taunton. Mass, ^^^H 


^^^H Learned, K. C, 


- 


Nt^w Britain, Conn. ^H 


^^^^1 Learned, Waldo A., 




Newtt»n, Mass. ^H 


^^^^H Lindslcy, Edward, 


. 


Cleveland, Ohio. ^^H 


^^^H 




liamilton, Ont. ^^^h 


^^^^1 Loomis Hnrdett, 


. 


ILiriford, Couu. ^^^H 


^^^1 




F^vansville, Intl, ^^^B 


^^^^1 Mayer^ Frederick, 


- 


Baltimore, Md. ^^^H 


^^^^H MrCleary, Alex. J , 




Philadelphia, Pa. ^^H 


^^^^H McOnnatiU Win., 


- 


Albany, N. V. ^^H 


^^^1 McElroy, )un. H., 




Pitlslniri^, Pa. ^^^H 


^^^^^ Mrlihcnny, John, 


- 


Philailclphia, Pa. ^^H 


^^^^H MrMiMin, Emerson, 




St, Louis, Mo. ^^^B 


^^H Milsted, VVm. N., 


- 


New Vork City. ^^^| 


I^^^^B Monks, Rirhar<1 I., - 


- 


Boston, Mass. ^^^^B 


^^^^H Mouney, Willtam, 




- New Vcirk, N. V. ^^H 


^^^^1 Mnore, Davtd. 


- 


Salrm, Mass. ^^^^| 


^^^H Nettleton, Charles It., 




ISirnnni£ham, (\mn.^^^H 


^^^^H Newell, J no, W., 


- 


\(*w linn^swirk, N. J. ^H 


^^^^H NiUe, Jos. E,, 




Jersey City. N. J. ^M 


^^^^H O'Brien, Wivl J no.. 


. 


Philadelphia, Pa. B 


^^^^1 Odiorne, Fred. IL, 




Hostnn, Mass. ^H 


^^^^H I'age, ijeo. Sht*phard, 


- 


New Vurk, N. V. H 


^^^1 Park. William K., 




Philadelphia, I'a. H 


^^^^H Parrish, William, 


- 


Seneca I'alls, N. V. ^H 


^^^^B Pearson, William H., 




Toronto, (hit. ^H 


^^^^H Perkins, James I)., 


- 


New York, N, \ . H 


^^^H 




Lynn, Mass. H 


^^^H 


* 


l)es Muities, Iowa. ^| 


^^^^H Pric hio'd. Charles F., 




Lynn J Mass, ^^^H 


^^^^B Quinii, A. K., 


- 


Newport, R. I. ^^^H 


^^^^^ Ramsdell, (itor^e (i., 




Vinienut^s, Intl, ^^^H 


^^M Rogers, James E.» 


- 


Jamaira Plain, Mass. ^U 


^^B Rowland, Charles L., 




Brooklyn, N. Y. ^M 


^^H Rowland, William L.| 


- 


Philadelphia, Pa. fl 


^^M Rushy, J nil. M., 




Jersey City, N. J, ^H 


^M Russell, IX R., 


- 


St, Louis, Mci. ^H 


^H Scriver^ J, F,, - 




Montreal, Canada. ^| 


^H Sbeltoii, EreiFk H,, 




Philadelphia, Pa. ^^B 



^■P 


^^^^^^^^^1 


^^H Sherman, B. F., 


Boston, Mass. ^^^^^^^B 


^^1 Sherman, F. C, 


New Haven, Conn. ^^| 


W Sisson, Frank N"„ 


Albany, N. V. ^^| 


1 Slater, A. B.. 


Providence, R. I, ^^| 


I Slater, A. B, Jr, 


Provtdence, R, I. ^^| 


1 Smallwooc], James B.. 


Baltimore, MiL ^H 


^^_ Smith, Marcus, 


Wilkes Barre, Pa. ^H 


^^B Smith, Orbndfj F , 


Washington, I). C. ^^| 


^^ Smith, Robert A- C, 


New \ ork City, ^^| 


^^^ Snow, VV, H., 


Holyoke, Ma«i<^. ^^| 


^^1 Sprague, Charles Hill 


Boston, Mass. ^^| 


^^^ Spaukling, Charles F,, 


Wall ham. Mass, ^^| 


^^^ Spairkling, Charles S., * 


Hnrokliue, Mass. ^^| 


^^B Starr, Jamen M., 


Richniund, [nd ^^H 


^^ Stdu, K., 


Phila(k'l|ilua, Ba. ^^k 


^^^ Slincss, Samuel (i , 


i*a\vlucket, k, L ^H 


^H Taber, Robert B., 


New Bedford, Mass. ^M 


^^H rhumah, Joseph R,, 


New York, N. Y, ^^| 


^^H Thnin[ison, Jaine^ 0, 


St, Louis, Mu. ^^1 


H Townsciul, S. S„ 


New \^n'k, N, V. ^H 


^^H Tufts Nathaniel, 


Hosion, Nfass. ^^| 


^^^ Turner, Tluniias, 


Charleston, S. C. ^H 


m Vajulerpiiolj Eugene, 


Newark, N. J. ^^H 


1 Wagner, l.ouis, 


Philadelphia, Pa. ^H 


1 Warminglon, C. M., 


t levelaiid, Ohiif. ^^H 


1 WaLson, (!harle!^. 


Camden, N. J. ^^H 


^^ Weber, Oscar B, 


New York City. ^^| 


^^f White, VVrn. Henry, 


New York, N. \\ ^| 


^^ Wtkcix. K. K, • 


Middfelnwn, N. V. ^| 


^^^^ Wood, Giileun, 


New Bedford, Mass. ^^H 


^M Wuoil, Walter, • 


Philadelphia, Pa. ^| 


^^^ Young, Jithn, 


Allegheny City, Pa. ^^H 


^^^ Young, Robert. 


Altegheny, Pa. ^^| 


^^^^h Assadiih 


■ Members^. ^^| 


V Norton, H. A., 


Boston. Mass. ^^| 


I Persons, F. R„ • 


Chicago, III ^^1 


K Van Wie, P. G., 


Cleveland, Ohio, ^H 



RfePORT OF COUNCIL ON LAST YEAR's APPLICATIONS 
FOR MEMBERSHIP. 

At th€ meeting at Toronto, last year, there was some question 
as to the application of the new Constitution to the elections of 
members that were then held, and it was referred to the Council 
to take decisive action; and by vote the Council were instructed 
to make valid the elections, if there was not an election, by 
electing those gentlemen to membership. The Council, there- 
fore, present this report : 

To the Members of the American Gas Light Association : 

In accordance with the vote passed at the last meeting, your 
Council recommend that the election of a year ago of the fol- 
lowing gentlemen be confirmed : 



Chadwick, H. J., 
Thomas, Mark B , - 
Stoddard, C. H., 
Pearson, W. H., Jr., 
Higby, W. R., - 
Slater, A. B., Jr., - 



Active. 



Lockport, N. Y. 
Dundas, Ont. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Toronto, Ont. 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
Providence, R. I. 



Associate, 



Wilson, \V. I., - 
Norton, H. A., 
Persons, F. R., - 
Van Wie, P. G., 
Wright, W. S , - 



New York, N. Y. 
Boston, Mass. 
Chicago, 111. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 
Chicago, III. 



For the Council, 



C. J. R. Humphreys, 

Secretary. 

On motion of Mr. Stiness the recommendation of the Council 
was approved, and the election of the members named con- 
firmed. 



^ 7 


^^H 


^^^^^^^^^ KLECTION OK NEW 


MEMBERS. *^^^^H 


The Skcretarv — The Council further report their approval of ^H 


applications for membership, as follows: ^H 


7> the Memhtn of the AmerUan Gas Light AssiHiatitm : ^^| 


The Council having approved of the following applications ^H 


respectfully submit them to the Association for action: ^^| 


Atth'e. 


H 


^Anderson. Wm , 


Marlboro, Mass, ^^| 


^^P ^Eichbaum, F. H , - 


San Francisco, Cal ^^| 


^^ ♦Vail, R. B , - 


Rahway, N, J. ^^| 


I •Forbes, James, 


Chattanooga, Tenn. ^^| 


W ♦Welsh, William L., 


Oswego, N. V. ^1 


■ ♦Harper, George H., 


Fall River. Mass. ^H 


I ♦Norris Rollia, 


Jersey City, N. J. ^^| 


1 ♦Jjltlelon^ A. W„ 


Qnincy, III. ^^| 


^^m Spanlding, \\\ F., 


Clinton, Mass. ^^^ 


^^1 *Hutterworth, Irvin, 


Columbus, (Jhio. ^^| 


^H Evans, Charles H., - 


Jackson, Mich. ^H 


^H ♦Bradley, Fred. L., 


New York City. ^H 


^^H Wood, William A., - 


Boston, Mass. ^^| 


^H Bailey, Charles B., 


Washingtfjn, D, C. ^^| 


^^H •Franklin, S. j., 


Warren, ['a. ^^| 


^^f •McCutchenn, James, 


Allegheny, Pa. ^^| 


W ♦Lysle, A\ddison, 


Pittsbnrgh, Pa. ^| 


■ ♦McDonald, William, 


Philadelphia, Pa. ^| 


1 ♦MtUer, A. S, - 


Omaha, Neb. ^^^ 


1 *Egner, Frederic, - 


St. Fouis, Mo. ^^B 


^^ ♦Hosletler, D. HulR-rt. 


Pittsburg, Pa. ^H 


^P ♦Slaney, H. C , 


New York (Jty, ^^| 


^^ ♦Curneli, A. B., 


Yonngstown, Ohio. ^^| 


^^^ ♦Carrol l» Francis, 


New Orleans, La, ^^| 


^B ♦Mitchell. K. M , 


St. Joseph, Mo. ^H 


^^B Asstfclitte. 


H 


^^^■BLo^an* William J,, 


Brooklyn, E. 1)., N. Y. ^| 


^^^^VBarrows. \\\ £.. 


Phlladelphta, Pa. ^H 


^^^^^_^ Prci»cut at tbU meeting. ^^H 



♦Rice, F. K 

Oakman, Richard N., - 
♦Sumner, Robert N,, 
*Oiisius^ George, 
*Conant, Ed , 
♦Crane. Win, M., 
♦Stratton, S. S„ 
♦Walsh, R. n., - 




New York City. 
Greenfield, Mass. 
Philadelphia, Pa, 
Detroit, Mich. 
New York City. 
New York City. 
Chicago, 111 
St. Louis, Mo. 



The President — ^What action will you take with regard to 
these applications for membership? The ordinary way is to 
authorize the Secretary to cast the ballot of the Association. 

On motion of Mr. Harbison the acting secretary cast the bal- 
lot of the Association for the above named gentlemen, who 
were then declared duly elected. 

The PkF.siUKNr— If the gentlemen who have just been elected 
to the Association, are present, they will please rise. (The 
members were then introduced.) 

Tht next business is the reading of the Report of the Council 
on the workings of the Association during the last year, which 
will be read by the Secretary. 

RKPORl^ OF COUNCIL. 

HAcriMokK, Mo., Ortctber 15th, 1889. 
T(f the Members of the Association : 

Your Oiuncil would respectfully coffer the following report on 
the work of the Association for thtr past year: 

More than the ordinary amount of nnitine work has been 
performed during the year Volume 8 of the Proceedings, 
comprisi!ig the record of the iStSy and 1888 meetings has 
been pul>lished in b<;ok form, similar to the volumes previously 
published. There has also bren publisheil a (jeneral Index to 
all the volumes of the Proceedings, uvckiding that last issued. 
This involved, first, the preparation of an index to Volume i^ 
which was not indt-xetl originally. 

In the list of nicndirrs annexed to Vulumc 8 will be found 
dates showing when each person was elected to membership. 



* lYciicnt at this meeting. 



9 



[he preparation of these dates has involved a great deal of 

carch among the early records of the Association, and the 
task was the more difficult because at the outset the membership 
iras made up of gas companies and not individuals, then, later, 
bese companies named their representatives, who were there- 
after considered members. 

The Council has also made arrangements to carry out the 
vrishes of the Association by having the papers printed in ad- 
vance of each meeting. We regret that each year a few of the 
papers arc held back so long as to prevent their bting printed 
before the Convention. 

The permanent gold badge prepared under the direction of 
the Badge Committee has been sent to the members within the 
las4 few weeks. 'I'hesc were all sent out by registered mail to 
ensure their ^afe transmisiiion. 

The Council has approved the fullowing papers to be read 
during the meeting: 

** Fuel Cias/' by Waltoi^ (Mark ; "Care and Operatitm of Cias 
Holders/' by C I.. Rowland; ^illuminating Water Cras — Past 
and Frescol," by F, H, Shelton : *vLeakage and (Condensation,** 
by B» C. Jones ; ** Purification of (tas from Kansas Coals/' by 
B. K. Chollar; "Conduct of the Electric Mghl Business in Con- 
nection wnth the (tas Industry/' by W. H. Pearson; '* Advan- 
tages of Supplying a mixture of Coal anil Water (ias/* by T, 
it. Laiisden ; "Scinic Thoughts on Fuel tJas, Induced from 
Practical Experience in the Distribution of Natural <las/* by 
John Young, and "Cas Cakuimetry/' by Prf*f. K. (». Love. 

1*hc Council ho[)e(! to have been able to present a paj>er, frurn 
>fT, H. C\ Adams, nu '• American Gas Coals/' but we regret that 
ill-health and (jress <if many duties have prevented thai gentle- 
man from (ircparing hts cSvSay. 

The Council have appointed the following gentkmeu to serve 
as the Committee on Nominations, viz.: 

Chas. H. Nettlelon, Hirminghanj, Conu.; Kd. Lindsley, Cleve- 
land, Ohio ; I). IL (ieggie, Quebec. Canaila; Ceo. S. Hookey. 
Aagui»ta« Ga,; Hd. ii. t'owdery, Milwaukee^ Wis, 

The duly of this Committee is Kj bring before you a list of 
nommees for officers to serve for the ensuing yean 



10 

The Council recommend that Edmund T. Davis be appointed 
the Official Stenographer of the Association. 

The Council recommend that hereafter the Association take 
its own report of the meetings (as at present) and furnish the 
gas papers with a copy, at the expense only of the cost of mak* 
ing said copies. 

For the Council, 

C. J. R. Humphreys, 

Secretary, 

The Finance Committee have approved the accounts of the 
Treasurer, as per report attached. 

For the Council, 

C. J. R. Humphreys, 

Secretary. 

• REPORT OF FINANCE COMMITTEE. 

To the Council of the American Gas I.i^ht Association : 

Your Finance Committee have e.xamined the books and vouch- 
ers of the Secretary and Treasurer, C. J. R. Humphreys, for the 
year ending September 30, 1889, aiul find the same to be correct. 

Wm. Henry White, 

A. E. Ho A RDM AX, 
iiKO. Ci. R.\MS1)E1J., 

Finance Committee. 

On nu>Ho»\ ot Mr SimesN Mvomlcii by Mr. Harbison, the 
Re|H>rt of the C\nnuil \\a> aiveptod and the recommendations 
lhorcn\ made adopted 

RKrOKIS iM rKKASlKlK ANO SECRETARY. 

rh.c !\>!!o\Mnv; upoUs ol iho ruM>nior and Secretary, for the 
year cndjnv^ Sc|Mcn>bc\ ^\ iSSo, xxorc, on motion, accepted and 
p'avtxl on lUc 



11 



TREASURER S REPORT. 

Receipts. 

Dues for year of 1886 $1500 

" 1887 70.00 

" 1888 2TO.OO 

" 1889 '. .. 1,265.00 

** ** 1890 500.00 

Initiation fees 270.00 

Sale of books ^ 9- 25 

Account of Stenographic Report of Toronto 

Meeting 96.84 

Interest 104.56 

Total $2,550.65 

^Amount brought forward from last year .... 2,862 95 

$5»4i3-6o 
Expenditures. 

Expenses Toronto Meeting $192.63 

Salary of Secretary and Treasurer 600.00 

Printing of Stationery , 221.66 

Stamped Envelopes, Stamps and Sundries... 760.17 
Expenses of Council and Committee Meet- 
ings 178.88 

Printing Volume 8 and Cieneral Inde.x to 

Vols I to 8 , 1,140.00 

Badges — 450 — also, samples 1,832.00 

Expenses of Reporting Toronto Meeting. . . 290.50 

$5,215.84 
Amount carried forward to next year 197-76 

$5'4T3-6o 
Due from Members $1,785.00 

Examined and found correct. 

\Vm. Hp:nrv Wfhik, 
a. k. hoakdman, 

(iKO. (i. RaMSDELL, 

Finnih'c L \^infnitti'c. 



12 



SKCRETARY*S REPORT. 

Number honorary members on roll, Oct. i, 1888 7 

I )ir(l (hiring the year i 

Number on roll Oct. i, 1889 6 

Number of active members on roll Oct. 1, 1888 333 

.Adnntted Oct. 1, 1888 22 



'I'olal 



355 



Kcsij^nod tlurinj^t ihe year 8 

Droppctl ** ** '* 4 

Dicil 5 

Number on roll Ocl. 1. 1889 338 

Total i 355 

.\SMH iale members ailmllled Oct., 18S8 5 

NunUuM" on roll, Oi l. 1, i88<) 5 

OKv K \>KO MV M»iKR>. 

K V S|Mv e ... l.iuutun, England. 






IVujrhkctrpsie, N. Y. 






S:. Iv^seph, Mo. 

^K•rneil^viUe, N. V. 



I . ^ rvi.^;^i.\* I *.v ;u'\; ^;>:r,v>N > :hc irvddin^ of the 
\. ',N x^t N\v\ A N\^;\>.i^ :;escv U.^n ,^ *\ O. Ji^:r.;ji?^ of a special 



13 



HFPORT OF COMMITTEE ON BADGES. 

NfR. Nktti KTON — On behalf of ihe Commiiiee on Badges, I 
wili say that we have made our re|Kjri, and ihut the badges are 
in the hands of ihc members of the Association. When we 
rejmrted a year ago, the committee agreed thai tlesigns shonhl 
he obtained fnmi several manufacturjiig jewelers. A number of 
designs were obtained, and we tried to agree upon one ; but, 
finally, thinking that we n^ultl gel more satisfactory results if 
we could judge from the batlges themselves^ we had a number 
of sample badges made, and after a gum] deal of effort and 
lime the committee were able tri agree on a i ertain badge. 
This was shown to the P resilient antj Set rriary of ihe Assocta- 
lian, and they agreed with the c ummitlee tluil it w;is perhaps 
as well as we could df> for the money, ancl the badges wxre 
ordered. They cost $4,50 each, and the com nut tee hope that 
ibe Association are satisfied witli whai they have dtme. 

Mk, Hakjusiin — I move l[)at the report of the Connrrittee on 
Badges be acre[>ted and the committee dJschargetl, with the 
thank«; of the Association for the thoroughness with which they 
have attended to their duties. (Adopted.) 



REI'UUI 



OK CU.MMITIKH OM ^TANOAKO rNUrNS, 



Mr. Down — As Chairman of the Coj-nmittee on Standard 
Unions [ will state that the committee are prepared to make a 
report. We have had several meetings of the comuiittee, and 
have had a great deal of trouble in trying to agree upon some 
standard. We have finally agreed upon the standards, and trust 
that our recommendatitm will meet with y<mr favor. .Vtr. (iood- 
win will read the report of the Committee. 

Mr, C«OGdwin read as follows : 

The Committee on Standard rninrvs lieg leave in present the 
folKjwing report : 

At the last meeting of the Association, held in the city of 
Toronto, standards for j, 5 and lo-lights were adopted by the 
Association, and the committee were continued with instructions 
to report further standards at this meeting, and now present the 
following sizes for your consideration and adoption, viz.: 




2o-light, it^ ihreadsi; diam. ot screw, i j[j ; diam. »»f tail picctf, 
i|| ; diam. of nose, ijjj;. 

30'ligln, 1 1^ threads ; diam, of tail piere, ijjj ; diam. of nose» 
ijf ; diam, c»f thread, 2^*^. 

45-'i|?^i^ ^» J tlirt'ads; diam, of tail piece, t^J ; diam, of nose, 
rjjj ; diam. uf thread, 2 J J. 

6o*light, III tbrea<ls; diam. of tail j>iece, 2"; diam, of nose 
I jj ; diam, of thiY*a<l, 2|J. 

i4o-Hght, I ih ihreads; diuni, of tail pift:t% 2^\ ; diam. of nose, 
2/^ ; diam, of threa<l. 2 J J. 

roo-light, 11} threads; dtaiTi. nf tail piece, 2|J ; diam. of nose» 
2j} ; diam, of thread, X • 

Vour committee would also report that they have had pre- 
pared ''Standard (Ganges'* for 3,5 and 10 light meters, and each 
manufartLirr r mm possesses one set earh, and we have presented 
a set to the Association, which have been deposited with the 
Secretary for reference, These gauges were niitntifat tured by 
the Pratt- Whitney c:o. 

Your committee would also state that since the adoption of 
the 3, 5 and to-light standards orders for meters with Standard 
Unions have not been received as freely as was expected. Wc, 
therefore, respectfully suggest that the ist day of March, 1890, 
be named as the date from and after which all meters ordered 
shaH be furnished witli iStandard Unions adtipted by this Asso- 
ciation, unless expressly ordered otherwise. 

All of' which is resjiectfully submitted, 

\V\ H. Down, Chair man. 



Mr. Goomwin^H this report is adopted, the members of the 
ditferent manufacturing iirms are prepared to furnish the Asso- 
ciation with the standards, and they would like to know your 
pleasure with regard to other sixes. 

Tin: l*R>:sn)ENT.— Vou have heard the report of the Commit* 
tee on Standard Unions; what will you do with it? 

Mr. Harbison — 1 move that the report of the Committee on 
Standards be accepted and approved, and that the recommenda- 
tions be adopted by this Association. 

Mr. Walton Clark— I wish to add to that motion that we 
give the committee a hearty vote of thanks for the pains they 



15 



have taken and tlie expense they have hwu tu \n urder i*» [>ru- 
vide usi with standard unions. Every man who has ever set a 
meter knows the value that uniform standards will he to the 
Assrjcialion. I therefore move a hearty vote of thanks to the 
committee. 

Thk PkKsiin:xT— Yon have heard tlie nioii*jn of Mr. Harbison 
and the remarks of Mr. Clark. 

Mr, HAkiJisiiK^ — It should Ije understood that as tlieir work is 
not completed the committee are to be continued in office. My 
motion, therefore, is that we accept the repnrt of the committee 
as made, and thai the committee be ccnuinued in order that 
they may carr^' i>n and complete the work that they have under- 
taken. (Adopted.) 

ELECTION <)l' OFFICERS. 



Mr. NKTTirf:TJ»N — The Committee on Nominations have had 
but two meetings, but they have agreed to reC(jninienil the fol- 
lowing gentlemen as oflficers of the Association for the ensuing 

IT : 

For President — Emerson McMillin, St, Louis, Mo, 

Fmr Vice Presidents — J no. P. Harbison^ Hartford, Cnnn.; 
Wm. H. White, New York ; A, E. Boardman, Macon, Ga. 

Secretary and Treasurer — C. J. R, Humphreys, Lawrence, 
Mass. 

Memf*ers uf Council for one year — \Vm. FL Pearson^ Toronto, 
Ont; Geo. G. Ramsdell, Vincennes, Ind.; Chas. W. Blodget, 
Brooklyn, N. Y.; B. E. Chollar, Topeka, Kansas. 

Members of Conttcii for ttvo years — S, G. Sliness, Pawtucket, 
R. L; Walton Clark, Philadelphia, Pa.; Chas. R. Faben, Jr., 
Toledo, O.; Thos. G. Lansden, Washington, D. C. 

The Presidekt^ — What will you do with the report of the 
Committee on Nominations? 

Mr. White — I move that it be accepted, and that CoL Thomas 
cast the ballot of the Association for the election of the officers, 
as named. 

Mr. Thomas — I cast the ballot of the Association for the 

itlemen named as officers for the coming year. 
[The President — By unanimous vote the officers named are 



16 



elected, and they are declared to be the officers of the Associa- 
tion for the ensuing year. Is Mr. McMillin present ? 

Mr. Euner — Mr. Mc Mil tin tr/ld me that he con Id hardly hope 
to he here, as his family are going ttj Kurope to stay for some 
lime ; tnrl that lie wuidtl gel here if he possibly cciidd, 

Mk. Hakhison — 1 move that the Secretary be directed to tele- 
graph to Mr. MrMillin and annoy nee to him his election as 
President af the Association fur the coming year. (Ag^reed to.) 

The President tljen read the foMuwing address: 



PRKSIDKNTS AUDRKSS 

Genthmifi t{f the American Gas Light Assacintion : 

We <'onie to iliis, onr Seventeenth Annual Meetinj^j with mntnal 
congratulations that the great industry which we represent still 
remains in a prosperous condition throughout the country, not- 
withstantling the fact that we have had Uy meet stich cnmpeti- 
tu>n in the supplying of artificial light as has never before been 
known in the history of the business. 

There are very few t ompanies wliose bo<jks do utit show an 
increase in the c|uantity of gas distribnted, and this increase is 
generally the greatest in the larger cities where competition is 
the most active. This fact alcnie furnishes ample evidence that 
illuminating gas nf good t|ualily still holds the confideiue of 
our consumers, and that no other illuminating agent is yet able 
to furnish an e<|ual cpiantity of light for a given sum rjf money, 
and at the same time be as sure and safe a dependence to the 
public, and pay a fair return upon the capital which is necessary 
to carry on the business. From these facts we w^oultl naturally 
expect to see renewed confjtlence in the future and permanency 
of the business^ and this is shown in the activity which we every- 
where sec in the expenditure of large sums of money for the en- 
largement and extension of the business, by the c<nisiruction of 
new and improved apparatus and machinery, larger gasholders, 
mains, etc, New and improved apparatus and machinery, with 
better facilities and better management, result in reduced cost 
of production, which enables us to reduce the selling price of 
gas, and that means increased sales, which, in turn, adds another 
element of economy in cost of manufacture, A gas company 



17 



that means to hold its present business and increase it, will not 
be loo slow in adopting improved methods and machmery when 
economy of manufacture is sure to result from their use. 

One of the objects of this Association is to facilitate the in- 
terchange of information and knowledge among the members 
which may enable the companies to take advantage of improve- 
ments in manufacture. To be more explicit, our Constitution 
rea<ls» ** The object of this Association shall be the promotirm 
and advancement of knowledge, scientific and practical, in all 
matters relating to the construction and management of gas 
works and the manufacture, distribution and crjusumption of 
gas. The establishment and maintenance of a spirit of frater- 
nity between the members of the Association, by social inter- 
course and by friendly exchange of information and ideas on 
the before mentioned subject matters, the inducement and ex- 
tension tjf more cordial and frientlly rclalitms lietween the man- 
ofacturers of gas and their |);iirons, liased upon the mutuality 
of imercsts." 

The public may look upon this Associatkm as being a gigantic 
combination i»f inonopolisis, a sort of 'IVust, whose sole object 
IS to devise some scheme to bull the price of gas throughout the 
country. On the contrary, the object and nature of this Asso- 
ciation preclude the possilitlity of a member taking any action 
or doing anything which in any manner by such act can bind 

single company represented here. It is not an Association 
gas companies, but of individnals. and no member is author- 
Ucd or empowered by his Board of Directors to perform any 
act as a member of this Association to bind the company 
which he represents. At the most, he can only recommend to 
his directors that a certain action be taken or a certain policy be 
adopted, not because of any action of the Association, but 
solely because <if information and knowledge acquired by at- 
tendance at our meetings. 

In the early days of gas manufacture in this country we had 
no educated or experienced gas engineers or managers, and it 
las quite natural that the forms and regulations of older coun- 
Iries should be adopted for guidance. *' Cast iron rules and 
rcgidaliuns ** were generally adopted and observed to the letter, 
and when the officer, whose duty it was to see that the rules and 




regulations were carried out, happened to be a person ui [iioros 
nature, without a pleasing manner or address, a result disagree- 
able to both parties would folluw, only to be repeated day after 
day ; and then we wonder why such ill feelinjj exists^ towards 
gas companies. 

Certain rules and regulations may be necessary to the success- 
ful prosecution of the business of any large establishment. 
While system and order should be observed, officers or clerks 
whose position places them between the public and the com[>any, 
particularly when that company happens to be a gas company, 
should be persons of good address, of well balanced minds, with 
ability to control their feelings, especially when the customer 
happens to be a person of the opposite nature. 

We should always take as much pains to treat rsur customers 
with politeness as the retail tradesman takes to please his cus- 
tomers. The latter realizes thai others in the same line of tratle 
would take his customers* business if he fails to satisfy theni» 
and the nature of our business makes it all the more necessary 
for us to exert ourselves in this direction. Our customers are 
extremely sensitive to the fait that they are obliged lo patronize 
us if they use gas, so that when a customer, from what he may 
consider ill treatment, leaves us in a disagreeable frame of 
mind^ it instantly begets in him a desire for an opposition gas 
company, while he is entirely oblivious to the fact that another 
gas company wuuhl furnish the same kind of gas, sell it by 
meter measure, and transact its business in a similar way and 
expect to be ]>aid for the gas supplied. 

Such considerations lead us to the conclusion that gas com- 
panies should pursue a liberal policy towards their consumers. 
The old custom of charging the consumer for a portion of the 
service pipe and expenses of setting the meter, or of compelling 
him to be at the expense of employmg a plumber to connect it, 
charging rent ftjr the meter, charging for a little attention to 
pipes or bumers^ — all these petty charges should be abolished. 
The revenue from these sources at the end of the year does not 
amount to a large sum of money, while the income from the 
increased sale of gas derived from new consumers, who may be 
induced to use gas when they know^ they can have a service run 
and meter set without charge, and no exj>ense for meter rent 



19 



i, would in most cases be largely in excess of the 
former 

Our business is to sell gas» and the more we sell, the cheaper 
we can afford to sell it. The true poHcy of a gas company is, 
in the first place, to furnish its customers with a goud (|uality of 
gas at a reasonable price, and olTer liberal inducements for con- 
sumers to use It, To this end we should encourage ihe use of 
gus engines for power, regenerative burners where a strong light 
is required, and gas stoves for cooking and heating. Not a single 
family among our consumers should he without a gas stove for 
cooking ; and they would not be if they knew the value, comfort, 
convenience and economy of it. Gas companies generally do not 
take such active interest in this matter as its importance merits. 
In some places individuals have kept gas stoves for sale* but the 
high prices which have heretofore ruled for good stoves, logeiher 
with the little knowledge possessed by the people concerning 
their utility, has often resulted in small sales. The gas com- 
pany has an additional interest In the general use of gas stoves 
over and beyond what any individual can have, because when 
the gas stove is introduced it secures a good consumer, and 
from the novelty, saving of labor in starting and caring for the 
fire, handling of coal and ashes, cpiickness of action, absence of 
trouble, comfort of cooking in warm weather and economy in 
cost, the consumer is both benefited and pleased. Occasionally 
we find a manager who thinks it an unwise policy for his com- 
pany to supply Its consumers with gas stoves, unless he sells the 
stoves at a price which yields a profit ; and that to lease the 
stoves at a moderate rental, set and connect them free of cost 
to the consumer, is a waste of money. Such a policy I regard 
as shortsighted. In this as in many other matters I think a lib- 
eral policy the wisest one. From the fact than we know ihai a 
good gas cooking stove can be furnished, set and connected at 
an average expense of $12 to $14 to the company, I think there 
is no room for doubt that a gas company can afford to lease 
such stoves to its consumers at a moderate rental In some 
cases, for the purposes of introducing the stoves quickly, I am 
i>ot prepared to say that it would not be good policy to even 
give away a few stoves, as from experience we may safely antic- 
ipate approximate results, For instance, some managers con- 




sider ifial 12,000 cubic feet of gas may be calculated as a fair 
average quantity of gas which will be consumed during the sea- 
son in each stuve which is capable of doing the entire work of 
an ordinary family ; but sup)K>se we endeavor to make a safe 
estimate and call it 8,000 cubic feet; then 1 ,000 stove5 would 
consume 8,000,000 cubic feel in a year It is fair to suppose 
that an order for t.ooo stoves at one time wouhj secure a dis- 
count from the regular prices; bul these t,ooo stoves could be 
set and connected at a cost not exceeding $15,000, Now it is 
very easy to calculate approximate results for any location, and 
I think it will be foiintl that in most places stoves can be fur- 
nished at a moderate annual rental safely and profitably, and in 
some places they may be actually given away for a time to the 
profit of the company. Many consumers have Utile or no 
knowledge of the proj>cr conditions under which gas should be 
used for lighting purposes. It is not uncommon to see open 
burners consuming ten to twelve feet per hour, and giving no 
more light than should be obtained from six or seven feet per 
hour A little attention and instruction given in such cases 
would avoid much of the dissatisfaction which consumers often 
bring upon themselves through ignorance of the proper condi- 
tions for burning the gas so as to obtain the best results, and 
this informntion should be supplied by the gas company. 

Whatever we can pmperly and reasonably do to increase our 
sales is well, but we should not stop there. We must rm press 
our customers with a feeling of confidence in our motives, and 
to do I his we should interest ourselves in knowing as far as pos- 
sible that our consumers burn the gas properly and economically. 
It must not be satisfactory to us to have a consumer use a large 
quantity of gas, and at the same lime know that it is being 
used in a wasteful and extravagant way, by the use of bad burn- 
ers which consume a large quantity of gas and at the same lime 
give a light which half the quantity of gas woultl give him by 
the use of a good burner I think any gas company having 
more than one or two thousand consumers can profitably employ 
for such work a man of good judgment, one who has the requi- 
site knowledge concerning the proper use of gas to obtain the 
best results ; also the use of regenerative burners in places 
where they can be used to advantage. A gas company that 



21 



I 



wmpfy runs a service pipe, sets a meter antl takes no further 
interest in the cotisuiner dues not do its whole duty. 

Many of us can retnember the time when gas companies made 
uo special effort to increase the consumpticrn of gas; but that 
day has passed, and the gas manager of to-day, if he is Ut be 
fairly siicccs^sfuJ, must be active and progressive. He must not 
only supply a gas of gooil quality for general use and pursue a 
liberal jK>liey towards the [jublii, but set^k by all fair ami proper 
means to popularize the use of gas and increase its consumption. 
Some companies have done and are doing so, but tfie time was 
when cast iron rules and regulations hampered the management 
am! curtailed the sales of gas to a great extent. Until within a 
few years, competition with illuminating gas was practically un- 
known, althougli the discovery and iniroduction of cheap petro- 
leum oil lessened the natural increase in the ct>nsumptiou of gas. 
The high price of gas at that time as compared with the present 
low prrces favored the iniroduction of oi], particularly iu those 
districts in cities where gas was not supplied ; but its use en- 
tatJed inconvenience and such disagreeable odor that customers* 
unless from circumstances actually obliged to economize, pre- 
ferred to use gas. Later on the electric light appeared. What 
followed ? The newspapers teemed with statements that led 
timid holders of gas slocks to dispose of a portion or all of their 
»tock. Prices of gas stocks were ileprcssed. The electric light 
was heralded as the coming light. 

The electric light construction companies were active in their 
work and in the formatir)n of companies, and the installation of 
electric light plants, large royalties were demanded. Jly at least 
one of the electric light construction companies circulars were 
actually sent out conveying the intelligence to gas companies 
that their gas pipes would no longer be required to convey gas 
lo customers for lighting purposes, for the electric light would 
rapply that necessity, and the gas pipes w*ould be used for dis- 
tributing gas U) be used only for fuel purposes. After several 
years of competition what are the facts? Millions of dollars 
have been invested in the electric light business. Hardly a city 
or town of any considerable size in the country that is not to a 
greater or less extent supplied with electric light. This speaks 
well for the business enter])rise of the electric light people. 



22 



Without a doubt many of the compatites are earning dividends ; 
;>me of them arc not, even when operated by the local gas com- 
pany with, as is claimed, less expense than an independent 
company can do it. With an earnest activity by enterprising 
men, the business has been pushed to its utmost limit. Contracts 
have been made for a certain price and for a certain time so as 
to bind the customer to its use. 

Instead of adopting uniform rates and pursuing a policy of 
treating all customers alike, prices have been offered to suit 
circumstances and induce the consumer of gas to abandon its 
use and take the electric light. Some have done so, but few 
would abandon their old and sure dependence entirely and 
trust wholly to the electric light. Many private or isolated 
plants have been established, but nut to the entire exclusion of 
gas* While millions of dollars have been invested in the elec- 
trie light business, and it has increased with wonderful rapidity, 
and has, as 1 said before, reached almost every city and large 
.^town in the country, what about the gas business? Has it, with 
i single stroke of the pen of the electric light roan, been wiped 
completely out of existence? By no means. The gas business 
was never in a more prosperous and flourishing condition than 
it is to-day. Never in the history of the business was so much 
gas distributed as is being done this very year. Gas stocks 
have the confidence of the investors of money^and the character 
and business standing of the greater number of the holders of 
gas stock throughout the country place them among the stable 
and conservative class. I believe we can afford to be generous 
enough to give electric light the credit for at least a portion of 
the progress we have made during the last seven or eight years* 
and it has been greater than in almost any previous equal length 
of time. 

We furnish a better qtialtty of gas. By improved apparatus 
and machinery we produce it at less cosL By new and impruved 
buroens, especially the regenerative class, we utilise three to 
four times the quantity of light from a given quantity of gas. 

The scientific members of our fraternity have been spurred to 
greater activity in the line of impnivements and inventions* 
because oi the possible competnor which the elecrtric light 
might prore to be. But wc would not endeavor to belittle the 



influence o( the present or the future of that wonderful mystery 
in nature^ electricity . or its development as an illuminating 
agent. As scientific men, thoroughly interested in all that per- 

'tains to progress in civilization and the welfare and comfort of 
humanity, we welcome the advent of any invention, or any new 

.adaptatum of old principles, tf> subserve new and useful pur- 
poses. 

But electricity with all its subtlety can never crowd out that 
equally wonderful element of nature, gas, The mantifactnre of 
gas to be useil for the production of light and heat will never be 
superseded by electricity. The use of gas will be enlarged and 

LCxlcnded. Illuminating gas is now extensively used as fuel for 

f domestic purposes, and a gas is demanded which can be econ- 
umicatly used for general fuel, not only for domestic, but for all 
purposes where heat is retiuired. 

Much has been said and written advocating a combination of 
the electric light companies with the gas companies. This may 
be well for both interests in some places, but I have yet to 
know of any reasonable or satisfactory argument why, in all 
cases, it is going to be belter for the gas companies. The gasi 
business, as well as the electric light business, will maintain it- 
self upon its own inherent merits*. 1 firmly helieve that the 
business i^f any gas company will be managed better and will be 
more prosperous when the manager devotes his whole time, at- 
tention and energy to it ; and just in proportion as his mind is 
diverted from it, whether by the electric fight or any other busi- 
ness, his gas intt^rt-sr must in some degree suiter from such 
neglect. 

The manufacture and distribution of gas and electricity to be 
used for lighting purposes are entirely dissimilar. 'Hie man 
who has chosen the gas business f<ir his life work has a field in 
which the exercise of the brightest intellect, both in the line of 
scientific mvestigatitin and the highest order of business man- 
agement, can find ample scope, and when liis whole mind is con- 

rcentrated upon his work, success will be more likely to attend 

'him. My observation leads me to believe that bad results have 
followed already, at least in some instances, where gas compa- 

pliies have taken upcm themselves the management of electric 
Light in addition to their own business. 




It is sail! that a gas company can operate an electric light 
plant autl produce electric light at less cost than an independent 
electric light company can do it. This may in one sen^e be 
true, but really, in another sense, it may be at the expense of 
the gas interest. A glance at the report of the Massachusetts 
Gas and Elet trie Light Commissioners reveals the fact that the 
balance of profit and h>ss in quite a number of the electric light 
companies' accounts is on the wrong side r»f the ledger, show- 
ing that the statements often made tliat the electric light 
business is always a paying business is open to examination. 
Nevertheless, electric light has uses for which it is better 
adapted than gas can be, and for such uses custcmiers can afford 
and will pay for it a price that will be remunerative to the 
company that supplies it. Let us not deceive ourselves with 
the idea that electric light will not have its share of the business 
of supplying artificial light, or that gas will be crowded out. 
The field is a broad one, and electric light will share it with us; 
but, so far, the increased demand for light has become such that 
we do not, as a rule, notice the inroad that electricity has made 
when we compare our ** send-out" with that of previous years, 

I have said that a gas is demanded which can he used econ- 
omically for general fuel purposes. It has often been shown on 
paper, but not in a practical way. Many attempts have been 
made, circulars and advertisements have appeared, which would 
lead us to think that success had been reached ; thai gas for 
fuel could be produced and siipplicd for all purposes where fuel 
is required, and at living prices for the manufacturers. The 
ncmiinal price per thousand feet <>( fuel gas is not so much the 
question as the more practical one, can a fuel gas be produced 
which will do the same amount of work as coal at the same or 
less cost ? I do nut mean to say that ellorts have not been made 
to demonstrate that fuel gas can be made and supplied for domes- 
tic and mechanical purposes ; but the pioneers in this line have 
not been so successful as to be able to demonstrate that a fuel 
gas can be made^ distributed antl used fi>r general fuel purposes 
at a price that the consumer can afford to pay for it, and at the 
same time earn a fair return on the investment which is necessary 
to be made to carry on the business. I do not regard the fuel gas 
problem as an impossibility^ and experiments are now being 



2,5 



inaiic which are cfainied tu be m<ire or les*^ successful (air certuin 
purpiises ;nid under certain ctuitlitiuiis ; but the uetivc jjas man- 
ager ha*i bllle time to ^\yt to the development of this problem. 
The theorist has not the opportunity to demonstrate his theories 
upon a practical scale. We must await the solution of the ques- 
tion, whether certain work can be acctuujibshed by the use of 
fuel gas at a cost of the solid fnel to do the same work. It is 
not a little surprising to watch the [progress of events and to 
notice the eagerness with which ihe visionary nnnds receive the 
most absurd statements when coupled with some pretended new 
invention ; and again, to witness the persistence which many so- 
called inventors will work night and day, literally wasting time 
and money, in endeav*>ring tt» accomplish some result which a 
little knowledge of well known natural laws and principles would 
teach them to be impossible. I would not depreciate the elTorts 
of the honest toiler in the field of Science and Mechanism. He 
may produce something which shall prove a practical benefit to 
mankind* but hf)W often do we see the "enthusiast," in his 
haste tu become rich or to startle the world by s*une wonderful 
liiscovery, while his pet ideas are yet crude and undeveloped, 
though printed and circulated in well written pamphlets which 
abound in extravagant claims that have not been practically 
demonstrated, A **comfiany *' is formed with millions of dollars 
capital, and no matter how wild the claims set forth, men are 
found who will invest their money in the scheme. Even if the 
venture proves unsuicessful, the next one thai comes alfmg, 
promising great profit, will find some waiting to repeat the ex- 
periment. Hopeful writers may endeavtJr to enc(»urage us by 
giving expression to their feeling of confiilence in this or that 
process by which experiments are even now being made ; but we 
mtist await the practical demunstraticm of the actual fact as a 
cimjmercial success, 

I had ntJt intemled to trench upon the subjects assigned by 
the Council to the several writers of papers which wmII be pre- 
sented to you at this meeting. The subject of fuel gas will be 
treated from a technical standpoint by two of (jur members who 
are amply qualified to do so, as you well know — Messrs, Walton 
Clark and John Young — the latter having had a large practical 
experience in supplying natural gas. 



When tmr Association was tnnnLHl llu- President iiad an up- 
portuniiy lu bring to the Associatiun mial\ infurnuiiiun in mat- 
ters of iniproveinents and exptTicncc which wuuld be new to 
many of the members. Now we have placed before us every 
week by our several enterprising and abiy edited gas journals all 
the ctirreiU news pertaining io onr business, ably written articles 
on technical subjects and other matter of an interesting charac- 
ter ; and I am fully conscious that the atldress of your President 
will be the least instructive part of our procceedings and is 
likely to be but a re[Jetition of what you are all familiar with, 
In the several papers which will be read at this meeting you will 
have subjects discussed which possess more than usual interest 
and importance. The conduct of the ** Electric Light Business 
in Connection with the Gas Industry/' by Mr. W. H. Pearson, 
is a subject which many gas comjianies have practically taken 
up ; and the account iif the results of their experience will be 
listened to with interest by all the members of the Association. 
"Water Gas/' by Mr. F. H. Sheltim^ and ** Advantages of Sup- 
plying a Mixture of Coal and Water Gas/* by Mr. T. G. Lans- 
den, both of whom have had much experience in that direction, 
will no doubt give us such facts as will aid many of the members 
in decitling as to the economy or policy of supplying water gas 
wholly or a mixture of coal and water gas. 

Not the least in importance as being vitally connected with 
the manufacture of gas is ** Gas Coals of the United Slates/' 
which was to have lieen read by Mr. H. C. Adams, whtise knowb 
edge of this subject renders him amply competent to deal with 
it in a manner that will interest us all, I regret tcj say that 
owing to ili-health the writer of this paper desires to postpone 
it until a future meeting. The "Care and Operation of Gas* 
holders/" by Mr. C. L. Rowland, whose experience as a practical 
designer and constructor of gasholders, thoroughly quablies him 
to speak upon his subject with authority and confidence* 
** Leakage and Condensation/' by Mr, E. C, J(mes, w^ho is an 
earnest and devoted student in his profession ; and I am sure 
he will give you some points in connection with his subject that 
will be new to you. Mr. B. E. Chollar will give you his experi- 
ence w^ith the '* Purification of Gas from Kansas Coals." The 
purillcation of gas, altliough one of the oldest t>f iiur subjects, is 



27 



One which is always interesting to us, and is receiving the atten^ 
tioti uf some of the bnghtesl minds abrt»ad as welt as at home. 
I am sure his paper will receive that earnest attention which its 
importance merits, •*Gas Calorimetr)^ " will be treated by Prof, 
E. (». Love uf New York, This is a subject uf special interest 
at this time» and fnim the experience and reputation of the 
writer could be placed in no more able hands. These papers 
will furnish ample subjects for consideration and discussion 
during the time at our disposal at this session of the Associa- 
tion. 

Other tiiptcs of hardly less importance might come in for a 
share of our attention, and one of these is the incandescent gas 
burner, of which several kinds have been brought to our notice 
within a few years. Like many other new things they have 
been heralded as being sure to revolutionize the manner of 
lighting^ and companies for the manufacture and sale of them 
have been formed with milli<jns of dollars capital, and yet com- 
paratively few i»f them are in use to-day. There is no doubt 
that in some degree they possess merit peculiar to themselves, 
give a soft, mellow and very steady light, and consume compar- 
atively a small ijuariiity of gas; yet, as a rule, they lack one or 
two fundamental features which any burner must possess if it is 
lo be extensively used ; and the first is they lack the elements 
necessary for the proper and thorough difTusion of light. It 
is not enough that a l>urner ccjnsumes a small quantity of gas 
if it docs not possess the power to illuminate a space outside of 
a small circle immediately around the burner itself. Then, some 
of them must be used with a chimney, which adds trtnible and 
expense ; and last, but not least, the first cost of some (»f them 
will prevent their universal adoption. 

The pt»wer of the diffusion of light is another subject which 
should receive m(»re attention from the young scientific members 
of our Association than it has heretofore. As 1 have often re- 
marked none of us can foretell the (jossiljililies for development 
in our field of investigation, fi»r it is practically inimitable; and 
how few of us endeavor to reach out and f<»rwartl into the un- 
known. Many of us wider members have crowded uptm us the 
duties and cares of business management which monopolize our 
lime to an extent which leaves little for coniiiiued apjilication 




of thuuj^ht, exptTtmeiit and work oiiisiilf of our daily routine of 
business. But we are ;ilre;Hly Ijuj^inning Id see a change for the 
better. Many nf the younj^er members (jf this Association have 
been qualified l)y a ihi trough technical education to j^ursuc in- 
vestigation cmtside of our ulci and well beaten tracks. The mo^vt 
successful work will be accomplished, not by one whose knowl- 
edge is acquired from books t>nly, but' by him who is able, with 
experience in practical work, to bring to his aid the principles 
and theoretical knowledge which the books and technical schools 
furnish. This fact has in several instances been bn>ught prnni- 
inently tt> my notice by men whose scientific attainments were 
of the first order, and who could place upon paper the most 
promising thetJfies, l>ut from lack of practical ability and judg- 
ment were seldom able to work them out in practice, and un- 
profitable results naturally fulhmed. 

After practical experience and thorough technical education 
and training, cmr several (ias Associations and weekly gas jour- 
nals place within our reach means for uhtaining information and 
practical knowledge which we cannot afford to ignore. Some 
of our technical schools are now htoki ng with favor upon the 
questinn of estalilishing a chair of gas engineering. The future 
usefulness of this Auierican Cias Light Association never looked 
more encouraging and prospemus than it does now, yet the 
work accomplislietl will depend upon the united efforts of all 
the members. The revision of otir constitution has in several 
important particulars resulted in beneficial changes and added 
conditi*ms which will lend toward the stability and permanency 
of our organization. Our membership comprises men who are 
known at home and abroad as successful managers, scientific 
investigators, men with years of experience in all the various 
departments of the business, representative men from all parts 
of the country, and young men with special education just enter- 
ing into practical work, and liy experience fitting themselves to 
take the places made vacant hy those who by old age or death 
drop out of the ranks. The condition and prospects of the 
business of manufacture and sitpply of gas to be used for light, 
heat and power were never better than ihey are to-day. 

The same energy, scientific and business ability which has 
been exercised by our electric light friends during the last 



29 



seven or eight yean*» if cnncerUnitecl upriti invtrntjon ami ini- 
provemeni in our own business, will show even mure marked 
results than ihe must *^anguine uf our members now consider 
possible, VVe h;ive the men, material and opportunity; and I 
dislike to say it, but we need stmiething; like the apparent ctnn- 
ition of the electric light to spur us into activity in this 

Ltler, Until the last few years the conditions of our business 
were such that we allowed ourselves to drift into carelessness 
tti management, into decf) ruts trf routine wurk, and slothfuhiess 
from which it will take time to recover. 

The most successful manaj^ers ihrouj^h tiie next decade will 
be those who first read and Cfunprehend the si)^ns of the tinics^ 
and at once adopt a progressive policy that will lead them to 
lake advantajje of acknowledged improvements where possible, 
and be able in furnish a good quality of gas at a price as 
low as can be done by any une under the same conditions 
and in the same locality, I would not be understood as advo- 
cating any wild or extravagant policy, but rather the exercise 
of cahn and deliberate judj^ment, which, cuupleti with quick 
perception and ccnnprehensive views of things, distinguish the 
successful man of the present day frum him who, alth<mgh 
having an existence in this year of our Lord, 1889, has views of 
business management which were outgrown and became obso- 
lete twenty or thirty years ago. Competition in any business 
which has the world for its field means active and energetic 
work on the part of its promoters and increased sales and 
cheaper prices. Competition of one gas company with another 
on a limited field always has and must inevitably result disas- 
trously for both companies and the public, because all the 
capital which is necessary to invest in works to supply that ilis- 
trict with gas is already invested. When the capital is dupli- 
cated by an oppositi<in comj>any, then interest must be paid on 
two capitals out of the same business which the one company 
originatly had, ccmsequently bcjth mnipiinies get tired of doing 
business with little or no profit, and ihcy are cumpelled to dis- 
trict the territory or combine their interests; and in either case 
tbe price of gas cannot be reduced, but must be advanced to 
pay dividends on bf»th capitals, or the stockholders must be 
satisfied with a smaller return on their investment. Conipeti- 



30 



tion between gas companies and electric light companies in the 

supplying of light, heat and power partakes more of the nature 
of legitimate competition in trade; and yet it does not seem to 
be so much competition after all, for the electric light seems to 
have created a field fur itself, inasmuch as we know that while 
electric light is used to a very great extent, yet the quantity of 
gas called for in growing cities does not grow less, but actually 
increases year after year. 

We may be brought to the test of that impifrious law, ** the 
survival of the fittest," t(» decide whether our business can live 
and hold its own. 1 believe it can and will, and outside of the 
intlividual work of the members, this American (kis Light As- 
sociation will be the source from whence shall emanate infor- 
matt<in and knowledge which will be of material assistance in 
maintaining our position of furnishing artificial light. The 
district Associations will aid by performing a share of this 
work. I am not of that number who have fears that the influ- 
ence of the work and action of the district Associations will 
interfere in any detrimental way with the work of this Associa- 
tion, in a paper entitled ** Gas Associations and their Mutual 
Relations," read by our worthy Secretary last May before the 
Society of Gas Lighting, of New V<»rk, he considers this sub- 
ject somewhat at length and from a standpoint of more intimate 
knowledge tif the real effects of the influence exerted by the 
different Associations upon each other, and while he therein 
gives his reason why a certain detrimental in flue nee is at work 
between the several Associations, yet he expresses my own 
views when he says: **That there is rr>om for all these Associa- 
tions there can be no tpiestion; for each perfc»rms work which 
the other organizations could n<A do anil fills retpiirements 
which would be unfilled did not each Association exist/' He 
then asks for ''more systematic and more united action on the 
part of al! the Gas Associations, and suggests that a committee 
for special work be appointed from this Association to work in 
ct>njunction w^ith a similar committee from each of the other 
Associations. While I am aware that this subject is brought 
more prominently to his attention by reason of his position and 
duties as Secretary of this Association than it naturally would 
be to myself or the other members, yet 1 feel confident lliat tlie 



31 



work and influence of the smaller Associations will never seri- 
ously interfere with the usefulness of this Associatioa. 

In the first p!ace» our membership is largely composed of the 
more active members of all the other Associaticms. It does 
nut seem to me that "every year increases the difficulty of ob* 
laining papers, or that the standard of the dissertations is kept 
up better in the small Associations than in the larj^er ones;" 
and while, in his endeavors to secure writers of papers for this 
Association he has been answered, **No, I cannot write any* 
thing for the American Assfjciation, because I have to prepare a 
paper for somr *>ther Association, and I feel my first duty to be 
to my home organization,*' yet we have no scarcity of valuable 
papers here at our meetings, The reason, I think, why he feels 
as he does about this matter is l)ecause the principal work of 
securing papers has fallen upon him» but his effciris have been 
successful and wc have the papers, 

I feel that each Association has a field of usefulness for itself, 
and that each, if composed of active working members, will d(» 
its own work independently of the others; and if it is composed 
of members who do not or will n(»t each do his share of the 
work, the sooner such an organizatitm drops out of existence 
the better, and those members who are alive to their w^ork and 
duty win ally themselves with this or some other Association 
which will be of some benefit to them and the ctnnpanies they 
represent. While we recognize the intlucnce and usefulness 
of each and all of the district Associations, from its numerical 
strength nf membershi|), and frcjm its comprehensive character, 
the American Gas Light Associaticjn must be the representative 
Association of this country: ami it is our duty as well as our 
privilege to take the initiative in any work whii h is national in 
its nature and character, and this lirings to my mind the sug- 
gestion, which I think was first made by President Ramsdell, 
of thf Western AsstJCiation, in May last, and that is to devise 
ways and means to have our great industry adeipiatcly and 
6ttiilgly represented at the coming Quadri-Centcnnial, in 1S92. 
As President Ram sd el I remarked, it will be just one hundred 
years since Murdoch first made a practical use of illuminating 
gas by lighting his hoi^se and premises at Redruth, Cornwall. 
It will l>e a most op|)ortune time to have represented the pro- 



gress of riur business during the past century. This will com- 
pare favorably with any of the great manufacturing industries 
of our time, and an opportunity is offered to commemorate the 
event in a manner that shall be worthy of the occasion, an 
opportunity which may never come to us again. As the sub- 
ject is an important one, I recommend that a special committee 
be appointed to give the matter proper consideration and report 
to the Association some plan which, through well directed 
efforts, may result in something which will be a credit to the 
memory of past engineers and constructors as well as to those 
now actively engaged in invention and construction. 

In an Association like this, now comprising a membership of 
more than 350, in the natural course of events, up*m assembling 
together after twelve months have passed, we miss some famil- 
iar face and form and that kintUy greeting which years of 
acquaintance at our meetings has made almost sacred. It is 
sad to know that death has been active in our membership dur- 
ing the f>asl year. Mr. Robert P, Spice, of London, who was 
elected an hcmorary member of this Association, at the meeting 
in Cincinnati, in 1885, died on the iith day of May last. Mr, 
Spice was a man of more than t>rdinary ability and reputation. 
He was honored in America as well as at home. He served 
the British Association of Cias Managers as President in 1876-7, 
and was also a member of several other associations of a kin- 
dred nature. All who had the good fortune to become ac- 
quainted with Mr. Spice will miss his genial presence at our 
meetings, and will ji>in his English friends in paying the respect 
due to the memory of one of our most esteemed associates. 
Of our active members, three have dietl during the year, viz: 
John McDougall, President of the Hornellsville Gas Light 
Company, Hornellsville, N. Y.; C. H, Nash, President of the 
Gas Company at St. Joseph, Mo., and John Cartwright, of 
Poughkeepsie, N, Y. They have been identified wilh the gas 
business many years and we shall miss their presence at our 
annual gatherings. You will commit to kind friends, members 
of the Association, the duly uf preparing a fitting tribute of re- 
si>ect to their memory to be placed upon our records. 

Gentlemen, I have taken more r^f your time than I intended. 
We have much work before uSj and trusting la your kind con- 



SKlcration in the further discliarj^^e of my duties, I hope that 
when the final hour of adjournment comes we may each and all 
feci iropressed that this Seventeenth Annual Meeting has been, 
as it should he, profitable to us individually, and especially so 
to the several companies that we represent. 

iin niotiun ni Mr, V\ iiite, the President's address was referretl 
to the following commiiiee, for action, with directions to report 
back to the Association : 

A. C. Humphreys, J. P. Harbison and J. L. Hallett. 



BRIN'S OXYGEN PROCESS OF PURIFICATION, 

Tmk President: — We have with us to-day Mr. E, B, Ellice- 
Clark, of London, Mn Ellice-Clark is a member of the Insti- 
tute of Civil Engineers, and' President of the Society of 
Municipal Engineers, With your permission I will invite him 
to the platform, and ask him for a few remarks on the Brin 
oxygen process for purifying gas. (Applause.) 

Mr, Ellice-Clark — Mr. President and Gentlemen: I came 
over to your great country for purposes of recreation, mainly, 
and I came to this city with a view of seeing and enjoying it 
for the first time; but when I heard that there was to be a 
meeting of the Gas Engineers and Managers of America, I 
knew that I could not more thoroughly enjoy, or more profit- 
ably expend my time in Baltimore than by attending this meet- 
ing. Certainly I shall go back to the old country very much 
impressed by the common sense address which I have heard 
delivered [jy your President this mt»rning. (Ap[)!ause.) It has 
more than ever C(mvinced me of the thorough, sounil and com- 
mon sense view that the Americans take of such practical 
ijueslions as the manufacture of gas. I ho[>e that the few re- 
marks which I am abt>ut to make will be ftil lowing tuit one of 
the principles which your President has laid down. He has 
said, anil said very truly, not only for your ctjuniry, but cer- 
tainly for mine, that the gas industry can no longer be left in 
the hands of incompetent men; that science must be brought 
to bear in prosecuting this great industry. Now, in England, 
anrl nt) doubt in America, science has for a number of years 
t 



84 



been pracltjieiJ m tlic ijucsliurj uf the purification uf gas, and 1 
hiipprn, a% n civil enjfinecr, to lir asisociatcd with a process to 
aftsi*it in the pnrifiration of coal j^as, which has met with a large 
meanurc of hucccss in ihc old cuumry, and that is the process 
of intrtnltirinif free oxygen inh» ihe gas and continuing the 
inirificaiion by means of Mine. 1 do not knciw whether the 
mclluul of t>)ita»nin^ pure iixyj^cn fri)ni the alnif»sphere by the 
Uarium mcthinl is well understoiKl in this cnunlryjuit certainly 
It IS a nuisi prailicable |jnH'ess, and, in my judi^ment, and in 
thai iif a nmnlier of the st ientifH" men tif Kn^land, it is one uf 
the moHt remarkid)k- applit ,aiims ttf science ever made; because 
in the works that we now liavc in l^nglantl and one on the Con- 
tinent, the residls lend l«* shnw^ as it were, a manufactured 
arlii^le pansin^f i>ut of the fatUirv, being sold, and nothing 
coming in, as the raw material is the (*\ygen uf the atnn*sphere. 
1 will in a few words attempt to describe the method of se|>ara- 
lion. It is ahnost a mechanical prucess. It is hardly a chemi- 
cal pro<'ess, as there is m^ ]>ermanent change ni the BaO. The 
atmosphere is drawn thrnngh a pnrdler cif lime to take out the 
rarlmnic acid. It is then drawn thruugh caustic soda to elimi- 
nate the nnrislure, leaving only 2i per cent, of oxygen and 79 
per cent, of nitrogen passing to a furnace. Tins air is then 
drawn through, nr rather pushed through a series of steel re- 
torts, hung vertically in a furnace. The retorts are 7 inches in 
diameter, and may be from d 10 18 feet in length. They are 
heated up to abi*ut J400 V\, so that there is a series of retorts 
sus[iended vertically in a furnace fed liy producer gas. These 
retorts are Hilcd with oxide uf barium, obtained from the refuse 
of lead mines. The Iniryta is first converted into the nitrate, 
then into oxide; then broken up into pieces about the size of a 
wab)ut and placed in the vertical retorts. The air is drawn 
thrtiugh the purifiers, which I have already described, and 
jxisscs through the retorts. The outlet valve is weighted to 15 
]>ounds above atmospheric pressure. When the oxide of barium 
is heated to a light cherry red it seties hold, so to speak, of the 
oxygen in the atmosphere, and it rejects the nitrogen. There- 
fore, the nitrogen escapes at the low er end or bottom of the 
retort into the atmosphere, as free niir\>gen, the oxygen remain- 
ing in combination with the barium m the retorts. For hve 



85 



Knutes pumping- in takes place; then by an automatic arrange- 
feent, the outlet valve for nitrogen closes itself. The pumps 
are reversed in their action, and the oxygen is forced to a gas- 
holder. This operation goes on six times every hour for 
twenty-four hours a day, every day in the week, and it has 
been repeated upon the same barium now for two years in suc- 
cession williDUt any deterioration. On the contrary the oxide 
ni barium slightly improves in its capacity for yielding up 
oxygen. That is to say, we obtain a little more oxygen now 
from the operatic »n thnn we did seven or eight months ago. So 
that the process is a continuous one, and it is an exceedingly 
cheap one. In fact, in the coal districts of England, oxygen of 
90 per cent, purity may l>e made in a gas works cheaper than 
coal gas. N<»w, I come to what no d«mbl is much more inter- 
esting tf> you, that is, the application of oxygen tti the purifica- 
tion of Coal gas, I am not a gas engineer, but tfuite an amateur, 
as no doubt you will soon find out when I hegin to talk about 
the purification of gas; but any mistakes I am sure you will 
excuse. If you will refer to Mr. Valon, of Ramsgate (who has 
now been working on this process for two years consecutively) 
for explanations of points which I do not make quite clear, he 
will be glad to enlighten you. *J'he oxygen is passed at about 
from three-quarters to one per cent, by volume into the crude 
gas at its entrance to the purifiers. The first experimenLs were 
made at Blackburn, by Mr. Ogden, with a special plant. He 
treated ccmtinuously four million cubic feet of gas. The effect 
of that was that, whereas Mr. Ogden would have had to change 
one of his purifiers every twenty-four hours, he ran for sixty- 
eight days consecutively; and in my presence he said that the 
purifier would have gone on fitr cit^diteen months at least. At 
Manchester* the oxide is taken out of the puri tiers for the pur- 
pose of rcoxidation by the atmosphere, and there is such a 
large quantity of it that they use two horses anti tw^o ploughs 
to turn it over. Therefore, if it is possible, by the introductirui 
of a cheap gas into coal gas, to practically insure the purifica- 
tion • )f that gas in closed vessels, a great step has been made 
in purification. When Mr» Valon was making his exi>eriments 
he began to make some observations with reference to lime. 
He used tu purify the whole of his gas with oxide; but deter- 




mined to throw init tin- wlmk' of tlic oxide and lu go back to 
lin>t* purification. Ramstjate is a health resort, and he had 
aliandtmeti limu jnirjllcaliun l>eLause tlie ^as works are situated 
in the center of the town» atKl the smell uf spent lime was very 
obnoxiuiis and caused a great tleal of tmnble when il was re- 
moved. Mr. Valin) found that not only was the purification 
etiecleil much mure ra[)idly by using oxygen, but that he only 
required half of the |)urifying space. The crude gz^ at Rams- 
gate contains 800 grains of siil|ihur per 100 feet of gas. This 
was reduced tt» eight grains. Tlie carbonic acid, I think, 
amounts to 650 grains, and this is entirely obliterated. But 
what is more surprising is the increase of luminosity. The 
coals used at Kamsgale gave 10,000 cidnc feet of gas per ton 
with a luminosity of 15^ candles. For the purpose of revivify- 
ing the gas about three-fourths of one per cent, of atmospheric 
air was used, and the effect oi this was to reduce the luminosity 
by sj candles. This luminosity was brought u|> by the intro- 
duction of 2 J ti> 3 per cent. t»f cannel ctxiK When oxygen was 
intrmluced Mr. Valon obtained from 3 to jj candles of in- 
creased luminosity. He ihereu|K>n al>andoned the use of 
mnncl coal ^nd brought up the gas that he was manufacturing 
to the nt>rmal standanK and more than that, to an additional 
line-half candle without the use of ouuiel. So that by intro- 
ducing ii\ygen into his gas, Mr Valon has been able to abandon 
Ihe usif of i^nneL He has retlueetl his sulphur compounds to 
S grains,, and he is now carrying on a series of experiments 
whereby he has thus far ascertained that he can make« instead 
ot lOkiOOo ctibk feet of gas per too of coab he will probably get 
from it^ooo to 11,000^ and still servir customers with gis of the 
ssuide luminosity and oi incftttscd parity. 

I am ttol going to detain yvm with any more remarks on this 
ib|ect. I liiit*c given yoa ilie resoll of the expcrimciits thai 
( becfli HMMle by Mr. Valoiw esilnMiui^ €xtr a period of two 
years. In tXMMtng to your coimtry for the irsi time^ and land- 
Uif in Ke« Vi^ (and even in tkis citj of BahiaMm) one 
cnnnnt bnt be orwck hj iKe tmtmm»m mitmmxxs whick ckctiie 
MightMC nfipMn to tew made in the I nited States, and I was 
esMt^Kc^ gted to bear from y^m ^nesadrnt that tbe gas in- 
JnoiT bad ikh ^^krrd iberebjr. WcK^ |^m may look at it 



8T 



from that point of view; but as a stranger, I cannot but think 
that if gas in thin country had been all that it ought to have 
been, then the electric light would not have made such strides. 
That is the impression upon my mind. Certainly in England 
the electric light has made no such strides as it appears to have 
made in this country; and fuel being just as cheap with us there 
is n(» reason why it should nut. I may be wrong, but my own 
opinion is that ihe reason why the gas industry in England has 
held its own, and will ctmtimie to bold its own against the 
electric light, is by reason of its economical production and the 
great care that English and Scotch engineers devote to their 
business. First of all, we do, by Parliament and by Statute, 
what competition will, I think, compel you to do in this coun- 
try. As most of you are aware, the gas companies in England 
are compelled to keep their sulphur compounds down to the 
lowest known practicable limit. They are obliged to give gas 
of a certain candle power; and in London at a certain price. 
Therefore, being compelled to do this, they not only do it, but 
do a great deal more. For, whereas the Statute says that they 
shall give gas of i6 candles, very often the mean luminosity is 
17 or 18 candles. The fact is that the gas engineers, by these 
statutes, have been put upon their mettle, and now they make 
and deliver gas cheaper, and of better quality, and of higher 
luminosity than is required by any statutory regulations. 
Therefore, the electric light engineers have a much stronger 
competitor to deal with there than they have here. My im- 
pression may be wrong, but 1 cannot but feel that if all the gas 
companies in this great country were working on the same line 
— delivering to their customers, gas at a low price, gas of a 
standard luminosity, and of a standard (|uality of purity, and 
if they had adopted the best known practicable means for at- 
taining this, you would not have so much to fear from the 
electric light. This, as we always say in England, is a free 
country, i\\n\ one is very glad to form the impression that you 
will do by open competition that which in England has been 
forced upon them by Act of Parliament. (Applause.) 

I am very much obliged to you for your kindness in allowing 
me to address you. 



88 



Mr, Jonk.s—I would like to ask Mn Ellice-Clark one ques- 
tion: In taking the air from those retorts, what vacuum do 
you use ? 

Mr. Kllice-Ciark — A 27-inch vacuum. 

Mr. \Vai,ton Clark — Mr, Ellice-CIark has disclaimed any 
knowledge of gas matters, and, therefore, it will not be discour- 
teous in mc to correct some errors into which I think he has 
fallen. We know that in England they are confined by Statute 
to A certain quality and iHuminating power of gas. We know 
that they arc allowed a certain number» generally 20 grains of 
siulphur per 100 cubic feet of gas, and thai they are not allowed 
to gti Mow 16 candles in iUuminating power But we also 
know that in America without any such regulations, it is rare 
that you iind gas containing more than 12 grains of sulphur per 
100 cubic feet^ or gas under iS candle power. (Applause.) 
The elei'iric ciwv may not have hurt English gas men 

Mr, Kiltc^^Clark s that it has hurt American gas men^ 

but, if $0, it is on not account of the quality of the gas; nor is it 
on account of the price of gaSs^ In England it is true that the gas 
is made cheaper betatise of the cheaper labor* cheaper coal, and 
cheaper materiab generally: l>ut those influences aSTect also 
the cost of elecifk lightins^ 

I wotthl like to ask Mr. Ellice-dark a few qnestioos as to the 
Btifi |voce«Sw I Have read with a great deal of interest Mn 
Valoii^i recent utterances 00 this sabject, as also iJie coanneol 
have apfiearrtt in some of ike Aaieficafi joomalsL Hi 
tRnice^Cktl; ha* mn stated, aor has Mr. Valoiv whether the ah 
.i - ,:«* is 4we to Ihe UmtMntk of a double"^ 



^J^ffU l IS i 

;\s of mv irtnat practical 
^ rcmi*c iwietesi. Mf, Vj 



Che bariwoL This 

iaiescst, bwt it is of 

has saad m wfitiii 

of the effe 

Bke to 

Mr KlUx^A^tatlt ff he win etiskm w«9^ tlib is. Miu Vak» d^ 
m<A alte^^ t^ ti^^aifn »i« h«it ;jt may be thift his mece mem ex- 






haw t pet cem. of fwrt \ 
haw 5 per €» 



air, we have a dilution of 95 to t, and the difference is not great. 
Mr. Ellice-Clark has stated also that three-quarters of i per 
cent, of air mixed with Mr. Valon's gas reduces the illuminat- 
ing power 2^ candles. I believe that that is in excess of what 
has been found in this country. We have been led to suppose 
that wc could introduce considerable more air than that without 
reducing the candle power materially. On the gas that they 
are supplying, that reduction would be from 12 to 14 per cent, of 
the illuminating power, and if my memory does m:)t fail me, we 
consider that i per cent, of air will reduce not more than 5 per 
cent. However, I am not certain on that point, but I know that 
it is very much less than Mr, Kllice-Clark states. 

Mr. Eli.icf.-Ci.ark — 1 do not think that the reaction of the 
conversion of BaO to HaOj is very well understood. The BaO 
takes up another atom of oxygen when it is exposed to a tem- 
perature of 1400'' Fahr. under pressure, and it yields it up under 
a vacuum ; and that will go on indefinitely for 20,000 or 100,000 
limes. 

Mr. Walton Clark^ — Does the temperature remain the same? 

Mr. Ellick-Clark — Yes; the temperature is constant. 

Mr. W.^iton Clark — Then it would seem to me that the 
oxygen was occluded in the material. 

Mr* Ei.Mcb-Clark — When we first commenced the operation 
tif making oxygen we used a temperature of 600'^ C. when forc- 
ing in the air, and obtained a yield under vacuum at 800^. But 
after extended observations and experiments by engineers and 
chemists, we found that we coukl obtain the oxygen at a con- 
stant temperature. I did not mean to say that by the introduc- 
tion of oxygen in the gas Mr. Valon was able to get 11,000 feet 
of gas where he only got r 0,000 feet from his coals. What 1 
meant to say was that Mr. Valun usetl to get 10,000 feet of gas 
from his coals, giving a certain luminosity ; but he is now push- 
ing the distillation of coab further and is getting from 11,000 
to 11,500 cubic feet. Of course it is of an inferior (piality, but 
the introduction of oxygen in the purification brings up the 
Hiuminosity. This increased illumiualiug power has been at- 
rtbuted by those who have investigated the subject to the 





higher temperature of the flame by reason of a small quantity 
of oxygen passing through the purifiers and raising the tcroper- 
ature of the flame at the point of combustion. 

Mr. Pearson — I have heard it said that cheaper gas would 

kill the electric light ; but fuller investigation satisfied me tha^H 
in England it was not the cheap gas that kept out the electrid^^ 
light, but that it was legislation. An electric light company 
there would have to give up its charter at the end of about ten 
years. After the company had got itself into good working 
order and begun to make money » then it would have to give up 
its charter to the government. Perhaps Mr Ellice Clark is not 
aware that to-day in the city of London the Westtnghouse peo- 
ple have introduced one of the largest electric light plants in 
the world, and expect in a very short time to have it in opera* 
tion. Moreover, in most of the large hotels in London they an 
using the electric light because they claim that the gas is so full 
of sulphur and other imparities that it blackens their decora 
tions. I simply make these statements because 1 am credibly in- 
formed that such is the case ; and I have recently heard from 
rising gas engineer of very Cf>nsiderable note that incandescent 
electric lighting is making very considerable headway in the 
city of London. There was another thing which struck me 
while Mr. Ellice-Clark was speaking, and that was when he was 
speaking uf the process by whii h he ttbtainetl tlie oxygen, The 
question occurred to me — how much does it cost ? Bringing it 
down to dollars and cents, what is the gain obtained per thou- 
sand feet uf gas, as comparetl with the present process ? 

Mr. ELLiLK-Cr.AKK — The gain is $51 per million feet. The 
gentleman's arguments are really arguments in favor of gas. 
He says that he was informed (therefore, he has his information 
second hand), that the reason why gas was being ousted by the 
electric light was because of the considerable amount of sul- 
phur contained in the gas. 1 think that that is perfectly true ; 
and Mr. Valon's investigations enabled him to reduce the sul- 
phur compounds from 20 grains (and in Manchester 35 grains) 
per 100 feet, to a constant of eight grains. If the hotels to 
which the gentleman alludes, had been supplied with gas con- 
taining only eight grains of sulphur per 100 feet they never 
would have had electric light, (Applause). 



11 1 
I- I 



41 



IR. KKARSOx — I do not wish to be understood as saying a 
word against Mr Valon's process; but I am simpfy asking Mr. 
Eliicc-Clark as to what was in existence, and as to what caused 
\l I quite agree with Mr EJlice-Clark that if there had been 
less sulphur the result would have been different. But that such 
is the case I have the most unquestioned authority for the state- 
ment that electric lights are used in these hotels very largely on 
account of the presence of the impurities. 

Mil Nettletok — ^Mr Ellice-Clark stated that when Mr. 
ValoD or some other gentleman was using oxide in his purifier 
that the purifying boxes lasted 68 consecutive days without 
changing, and that in the opinion of this gentleman it would 
have lasted i8 months. Then Mr, Ellice-Clark said that Mr. 
Valon tried to use lime. But he did not say how long the boxes 
went without changing, I would like to inquire if the bo,ves of 
lime would last as indefinitely or for as great a length of time 
that the boxes of oxide last. If so, it seems to me to be a very 
important thing for this Association to take up. 

Mr, Ellice-Clark — Mr Valon states that the boxes with 
hme would last three times as long with oxygen as they would 
without oxygen. Not comparing it with the oxide at all, but 
taking lime without oxygen and lime with oxygen. 

Mk. LiTTLRHALEs— I wjsh to ask Mr. Klice-Clark a couple of 
stinns. The first is if he can give us an idea at what rate 
'thousand feet the oxygen was introduced ; and the second 
i is if the system is practicable in gas works of small or moderate 
fcixc. With reference to what has been said about the differ- 
ence in the price of gas in this country and in England, 1 think 
the most important element that enters into that question has 
been lost sight of on both sides, and that is the difiference in 
the capital account. The construction account in this country 
is very much larger, for there is no such thing as stock watering 
allowed on the other side. Before a company is started there 
they are limited very strictly by Parliament as to the capital 
which shall be employed. A committee of the House of Com- 
mons investigates very carefully, and finds out how much capi- 
tal is necessary for a company in any given locality; and that 




limits it That is a very important element which enters into 
the consideration as affecting the price of gas, 

Mr. Elmce-Clark — First, as to the cost of oxygen. In 
England it follows very nearly the cost of coal gas. It depends 
very largely upon the price of coals. You may take it that 
whatever it costs to make coal gas» oxygen will alw^ays cost 
about the same. The other question w^as whether this process 
is applicable tn works of moderate size. Several gas companies 
or corporations have ordered plants and are fiutting them up. 
The smallest is at Shrewsbury* where they want 5,000 cubic 
feet of oxygen per day. But oxygen may be made economically 
with a plant fur the prodiictiun tif r,ooo cubic feet in 24 hours. 
That is the smallest plant with which you could produce oxygen 
economically. 

On motion of Mr. Harbison, a vote of thanks was tendered 

Mr. Ellice-Clark for his court esy, and for the information given. 



AN IN\ rPAI'lON AND TWO LETTERS. 

Mr. Whitk — We are requested by the local committee to in- 
vite Mr. Frank Morrison^ the ['resident of an Electric Light 
Association, to a seat in our body during the meetings of this 
Convention. If there is no objection, I move that Mr Morrison 
be invited to meet with us at his pleasure, [Adopted,] 

The Skcretarv— I have a letter here from the Mayor of Chi- 
cago, and also a like letter of invitation from the Committee on 
Gas Industries for the World's Exposition^ of 1892, at Chicago. 

Thk Wori jj*s KxrosnioN or 1892. '\ 

Commit rEF.'s Heaihju.^r ifrs, 483 IHiaruorn Streut, >• 

ExECLrnvK CuMMrrTFK, CnK:A<;<\ Oct. 14th, 1889. ) 

Dear Sir: — In behalf of the rttizens of Chicago, I take 
pleasure in inviting your Association to hold its annual meeting 
in 1892 in this City. We would be pleased also tu have the In- 
ternational Gas Meetiug of tHt}2 held here at the same time, 
w^hen we hope to have the World's Fair here. 
Yours truly, 

DKWtrr C. Ckegikk, A/avfr of Chicago. 
To the Prcsidffit American Gas Li^ht Association^ Baitimore^ Md. 



43 



!*HE World's Exposition ok 1892, 
Committee's HEApnUARTERs, 185 Dearborn Street, 

Chicago, Oct. 14th, 18S9 

Presithni of the Amcrkan Gas Light Association^ Battimort, Afd. 
Dear Sir : — In behalf of the citizens of Chicago we hereby 
extend to your Association an invitation to hold its annual 
meeting in 189/ in the City of Chicago. An invitation is also 
extended to the International (ias Association to hold their 
meeting in this City at the same time. Ample facilities will be 
provided for the occasion. 

Yours respectfully, 

Joseph S. WoooRirFF,") ^ -,. ^ 

CHARLKsr). Hai'^. ComnutUe 0,, Gas 

H, I). Harpek, 
C. A. VosnuRG, 

F, A\'. VV^ILMARTH, 
H. VV. WlLLARI>, 

The Association here took a recess until 2,50 p, m, 



Industries for the 
U'orlii^s JExposi' 
tiafu i^p^, lit Chi- 
cax^'. 



First D a v— Afternoon Session. 

The Association was called to order at 2.30 p. xk 
Thf Prk^ident — The first paper this afternoon will be read 
by Mr, E. C. Jones, and is entitled 

LEAKAGE AND CONDENSATION. 

In no other industries are the energies of the manufacturer 
more devoted to the study of economy than in the manufacture 
of gas. 

Within the gates of the modern gas works the superintendent 
is actively engaged in developing new methods of reducing the 
cost of production, by increased regeneration in the furnaces^ 
Icngthrning the life of purifying material, and endeavoring to 
make the residual products pay ff>r the coal carbonized, and 
each success in reducing the cost one-tenth of a cent a thou- 
sand feet ts hailed with delight, while outside the gates a sum 
nearly equal to the value c*f all the fuel used in the works, and 
cnual tif four times the cost of (Hirilltnlion and nearly equal to 




the retort house labor, is going to waste. Is not the subject of 
leakage of vital importance, and a rich field for the best efforts 
of the gas manager ? 

To demonstrate that it does not receive the careful supervis- 
ion given to other departments of our business, I will quote 
from King's Treatise. ** Let us take the production of gas and 
the leakage or loss throughout the United Kingdom as it was 
twenty or twenty-five years ago, and compare them with the 
production and unaccounted for gas at the present time, and we 
shall probably find an increase in tl\e actual leakage over that 
of twenty-five years since, atthough the percentage of loss is 
considerably le^s/* 

The same unwelcome condition of things probably exists in 
the United States, The percentage of unaccounted for gas of 
56 companies in Massachusetts for the year ending June 30, 

1887, was 12.53 P^*" cent., while for the year ending June 30, 

1 888, the average of 58 companies was 13.17 per cent. 

A glance at the following table will convince the most skepti- 
cal that the percentage of unaccounted for gas of the companies 
0f the State is increasing instead of diminishing: 

1887. 1888. 
Towns with leakage under 5 per cent. 3 3 



1 5 and 


10 


«^ 


14 


25 


16 


10 •* 


»5 


44 


44 


'7 


25 


15 - 


20 


•• 


*« 


6 


8 


20 ** 


25 


«« 




3 


6 


^5 " 


30 


tt 


*t 


2 


I 




30 


<i 


H 


2 


I 



over 

In an era of close competition and small profits it seems a pity 
that one of the greatest industries of our country is not able to 
account for a loss, in a single State, of 13.17 per cent, of its 
prtMJuct, amounting to over 276 millions of cubic feet of gas» 
which at 1 1,000 feet per ton would require over 25,000 tons of 
coal for its production. In Massachusetts it is evident that the 
large and increasing leakage is due chieHy to small mains, and 
the scxxrity of the climate. In looking over the length and 
sites of the niains» it is noticeable that the percentage of unac- 
counted for gas is iiiverNrly as the siie of the pipe, other things 



45 



» 



I 



|uaK 'i'o bring the fact clearly before you 1 have calcn- 
le internal area of the mains of each company (/. <•., the 
tioinber of square feet of iron with which the gas comes in con- 
tact). The average main area of each company is 113,629 
Hjuare feet, and the average area of each mile of pipe is 5,297 
square feet. From this we find the average diameter of all 
mainn in the State to he only ;^^\ inches. 

It IS a circiunslance worthy of consideration thai the greater 
the main area per mile the less the leakage. 

Xo. Companies, Area |>er mile of main. Lcakaj^c. 

t6 Under 4,500 square feet, 14.9 per cent. 

8 Between 4,500 and 5,000 square feel, 13.7 " 

^ ** 5.000 and 5,500 ** " n.8 

II ** 5,500 and 6,000 ** ** 10.4 *' 

10 Over 6,000 square feet, lo.u ** 

Another way to demonstrate that small cast iron mains are 
one of the causes of large leakage would be to ask the niendiers 
bow many pair of clamps were used last winter to repair broken 
6,8, 10 and 12-inch mains, and how many were used for the 
same purpose on 3-inrh mains. In fourteen years 1 have been 
called upon but twice to use 6-inch clamps, and I have never 
had occasion lo use larger sizes, while broken 3-inch mains are 
of common occurrence. 

The structure of cast iron is such that the small amount of 
metal in a pipe three inches in diameter, or less, wiJl not with- 
stand the underground forces of freezing and thawing. The 
larger pipes are subjected to the same strains, but possess 
strength to resist them, and do not break. If the unequal ex- 
pansion and contraction of soils of different degrees of conduc- 
tivity could be represented in pounds pressure, and the pipe 
considered as a beam for carrying the load, I think all mains of 
less than six inches diameter would be of wrought iron, I have 
entirely given up the use of 3- inch cast iron pipe, and in streets 
where there is a prospect of a considerable consumption of gas, 
a six-inch main is laid. 

Much has been said of exosmose, or the leakage of gas 
through the pores of the iron, and I think it is overestimated. 
One company has 6,022 square feet of area per mile, and a leak- 





age of I J. 5 cubic feet per square foul per year, while another 
company has 3,864 square feet of area, and a leakage of 60.6 
cubic feet per square foot, showing that if there is any transpi- 
ration of gas through the pipe, the amount is very small. Large 
mains properly cared for, are a preventive of large leakage, and 
the cost of addiltona! metal used m ihem, when considered as 
an insurance against breakage, is a profitable investment, aside 
from the advantages of large mains for supjilyiilg increased 
dcniaiuis for gas for engines, healing and cooking. 

A brief description of the system uf laying mains, testing, 
and finding leaks, in use in South Boston, may be of interest. 

All cast iron iT\ains arc laid with cement joints, made by us- 
ing two hard twisted rolls of laibyarn and a mixture of two parts 
common cement, one jiart F(jrtland cement, and one part sand. 
After thtf joint is made, it is carefully pointed at an angle of 
about 45'^* with (juick-setti ng cement. The joints when prop- 




erly made are rigid, and fully as strong as any part of the pipe* 
At each street intersection a long end valve is put in, and on 




small leaks which are not large enough to make their existence 
known, yet swell the amount of unaccounted for gas. 

It has been pointed out to us, as long ago as i86o*, that the 
difference between lire contractile power of iron and lead }S as 
9 is to 3^. An ordinary eiigineer*s book made of cross section 
paper, h used to record in the simplest manner the location of 
each valve, special casting, and lead joint. 

In t:t)nne€ting a service pipe with the main, instead of a bend 
or elbow we use two street elbows. The first is screwed into the 
main» looking in the same direction the main is laid, and into 
this the other is screwed, looking at right angles to the main. 
Two street el hows screwed logetlier in this manner, form nearly 
a universal joint, making it possible to run the service at any 
pitch without strain, and allowing for movement of main or 
servi<!e in any direction, without risk of breaking. 

Regular and systematic tests of the mains are made by means 
of a ten-light meter, fitted with a rate dial on the top, and fur- 
nished with pipes by which it may be connected with the three- 
quarter inch pipes on each side of the street valves. The meter 
is protected against frost or careless handling by being enclosed 
in a tin box, and the space between the meter and the box is 
filled with dry sawdust. The tin box is provided with handles 
by means of which it may be lifted in or out of a wagon. With 
mains divided into small sections, and a thorough knowledge of 
each section and the probability of day consumption in each, wc 
are enabled to locate leaks with the greatest nicety. 

In districts where gas engines are in use, or where there is 
known to be a large day consumption, it is necessary to resort 
to Sunday testing, and it is sometimes desirable to send cards 
to consumers on a section of main where the meter indicates a 
leak, or that gas is being used, notifying them that the gas will 
be shut off for ten minutes for the purpose of testing. When a 
leak is discovered of sufficient size to warrant further search, 
we make use of a twisted steel sounding har, fitted with a loose 
cross-bar handle. This bar is driven into the ground by means 
of a sledge, at short intervals^ turning as it is driven, until it is 
near the main, when, on account of its spiral shape, it is easily 



♦Report of T. Spencer, J&urmal &f Gai Lighting, Sept., i860. 



49 



remtived, even from the most closely packed or frozen soil. If 
it IS preferred, a hexagonal steel bar similarly fitted with a 
wrench handle may be used, and is easily withdrawn. By the 
well known means of smelling^ carefully judging the quantity of 
gas at each bar hole, and digging where the odor of gas is strong- 
est, the leak isfiiund, Of late 1 have tested for leaks with some 
raccess by means of an aqueous solution of palladium and gold 
chlorides^ prepared from the formnla given in a paper by Emil 
Meri, of Carlsruihe. • 



Fig. 3. 



The sense of smell is fallible and unreliable, and a solution 
sensitive lo gas, with which test papers may be made for locat- 
ing leakii with the utmost certainty, is a useful companion in the 
search for leaks. The solution giving the best results is com- 
|kt5^d f»f ^^.75 grammes palladium cblonde, and 1,25 grammes 
jfold ddoride dissolved in i liter of distilled water. In Ger- 
many where this method of fintling leaks has been practiced, it 




has been the custom to moisten a slip of filter paper with the 
solution and insert it in a glass tube, fastened to the end of a 
piece of iron pipe. After driving a bar, and making a test hole 
this piece of pipe is lowered intu the hole, and if the gas is 
present, it rises through the pipe, and discolors the test paper. 
This test uccuptes fully fifteen minutes^ and to save time and 
increase the efficiency of the test, I have devised a simple piece 
of apparatus. 

A piece of quarter- inch pipe, four feet long, is fitted at one 
end with a glass bulb six inches long and i^ inch diameter. 
This bulb has a removable cap, on the inside of which is a wire 
hook for holding a slip of test paper. A short piece of rubber 
tubing connects the cap with a rubber aspirator bulb. 

To use this device, the test hole is first made by driving a bar. 
A slip of paper is moistened with the test solution, and sus* 
pended from the hook within the glass bulb. The quarter inch 
pipe is then lowered into the lest hole and by squeezing the 
rubber bulb the air is exhausted from the apparatus, and if there 
is gas present in any part of the test hole it is drawn up into 
the glass bulb, brought in contact with the test paper, produc- 
ing a reaction, and is expelled through the rubber bulb. 

The reaction with this useful reagent commences by the test 
paper turning a light rose tint, which is followed by a series i)f 
drab and brown shades, until it becomes a dark seal brown. 
The reagent is not extremely sensitive, although it requires 
some care in handling, and the variety of shades of color ac- 
companying a complete reaction enables the operator to nicely 
judge the extent and proximity of a leak. 

One is well repaid for using this sinqile lest, both by the in- 
terest excitetl by the beautiful reactions, and the fact that un* 
like the olfactory nerves, it tells a truthful story^ and is never 
tired. 

A large portion of unaccounted for gas is directly attributable 
to the difference in volume of the gas at the temperature at 
which it is measured at the station meter, and the temperature 
at which it is sold at the consumers' meters. It is customary 
at the larger works to record the temperature of the gas at the 
station meter at frequent intervals, and at the South Boston 
works the temperature is taken hourly, and carefully recorded. 




51 



The measuring temperature of the gas at the largest works in 
Massachusetts, last year, was 6i°, and at South Boston the 
average measuring temperature was 67.7*' F. The question at 
once arises, the measuring temperature being known, how can 
we establLsh a selling temperature? 

In my calculation of contlensation or shrinkage I have used, 
as a constant for corrections, a figure nearly representing the 
mean earth temperature at the depth of three feet, for in mov- 
uig through the ramifications of undcrgrountl pipes, the gas 
will assume the earth temperature at the average depth of the 
pipes. 

To assist me in the study of tfarth temperature I have had re- 
course to the reports of the Underground 1 enqierature Commit- 
tee of the British Association, and I find that in the temperate 
xones the mean annual earth temperature, at a depth u{ ttiree 
feet, docs not var}' ap[»reciahly from the mean air temperature 
in the same locality. So that the nu-an air temperature for a 
year in a given place furnishes a cuustani svith which to ( urrect 
the volume of gas made, or, in other wonls, a selling tempera- 
lure. 

Mr. Symons, at the Botanical Gardens, London, found the 
eriol mean of earth temperature taken at depths of 3, 6, 12, 24, 
and 48 inches, for six years from 187 r to 1S76, to be 50.5*^ F., 
and the mean air temperature taken at the same time and place 
49.6*^ h\ Observations by Quetlet, at Brussels, for three years, 
make depths less than i^ feet colder, and at greater depths 
warmer than the air. 

The greatest excess of earth temperature over air tempera- 
ture is to be found in a series of observations taken in Scotland, 
where the surface and subsoil were sandy and dry. The air 
temperature was 46.1*^, and the earth temperature at the depth 
of 22 inches was 48*'. 

The mean air temperature (jf Boston fur 18 years from 1871 
to 1888, was 48.1° F., and I find this does not differ much from 
the earth temperature at a depth of three feet. The mean earth 
temperature for five months from January to May, 1889, being 
49.1** Fah, 

With the temperature of the gas at the station meter and 
48.1^ Fah,, as a constant selling temperature, I am enabled to 




find how much of the gas not used by street lights and regis- 
tered by consumers' meters is actual leakage. For the year 
1888 the difference in volume of South Boston gas» thus calcu- 
lated, was 5,8 per cent., and of the portion of Boston gas 
manufactured at the North End station, 2^ per cent, condensa- 
tion due to ilifferenee in temperature. 

Discussion, 

The President — I think you will all agree with me that this*" 
is a very interesting paper and one worthy the fullest discussion. 
The conditions of condensation and leakage are so variable in 
different parts of the country that 1 am sure you will be able to 
gel considerable informati<ni from the paper. It is now open 
for discussion. 

Mr. Snow — ^I would like to ask Mr, Jones if he ever finds 
his service pipes stopped because of the presence of naphtha- 
line; or if he has found the joints started by rust or dirt settling 
in the extra joint ? 

Mr. Jokes— 1 have taken out connections of this kind, within 
a week, which had been in for seven or eight years, and I have 
not found any of them stopped, even with naphthaline. I have 
had occasion to lay about 3^500 feet of new ten -inch pipe, and 
most of the service pipes on the three- inch pipe displaced were 
fitUd with two street eitttnvs. 1 found them in excellent condi- 
tion, and none of them started. 

Mr. Lamson — I would like to ask Mr. Jones if, in using this 
new form of test for leakage, he has been able in his experience 
to find any leak which was difficult to be determined by smell- 
ing ? How much experience has he had in using that test ? 

Mr, Jones — I have not had very much Winter experience 
with it, but 1 have used it every time that I have had occasion 
to look for a leak within the last six months. My attention 
was called to it by Mr. Nule, of Jersey City, and I took hold of 
it and found that, by the use of this apparatus, 1 was able to 
draw the gas from a place very near the main, up into the bulb 
and bring it in contact with the test paper, so that if gas is 
present in any part of the hole I am sure of bringing it in con- 



lacl wilh the lest paper and thus find out its presence. A few 
squeeies of the ball exhauts this gas bulb, and the gas or air 
follows up the pipe and comes in contact with the test paper. 

Mr. Lansdkk — I would like to ask Mr. Jones what his opinion 
is wilh regard to condensation. What proportion of loss does 
he figure as due to condensation f 

Mr, Jones — I will say that I am afraid lliat the subject of my 
paper, ** Leakage and Condensation/' may have led members to 
think that I was going to treat an entirely different subject. 
Perhaps I ought not to have used the word *' Condensation." 
As it occurs in my paper it refers simply to shrinkage from 
ilifference in temperature. I have not enough considered the 
subject of condensation due to the deposit of the hydrocarbons 
in the gas Ui be able to give any information. 

Mr. Lanshen — Is it your opinion that most of the loss is due ^ 
to leakage instead of to condensation ? 

Mr, Jones— My paper says that in South Boston we have a 
dilTerence of about three per cent, due to shrinkage from differ- 
ence in temperature. 

Mr. Tabkr — I have made a few figures wilh regard to the 
temperature of gas. 1 live in very nearly the same latitude as 
Mr. Jones, but I diflfcr with him in finding that the temperature 
of the air is about 47^, while that of the earth, I find, is a tittle 
bit lower than his statement, 57**; and yet 1 find that the 
amount of condensation due to the stale of the temperature is 
estimated very closely to his — about three per cent. I was not 
iware that he was working on those same lines, and t am glad 
to find that we agree so closely. I think that the three per 
cent, of loss is not a loss actually, but simply a difference in the 
measurement affected by temperature. 

Mr. Gn.wKRT — After some thirty years \n the management of 
small works I have come to the conclusion that our loss of gas 
is mainly attributable to two faults. One is, not laying pipes 
deep enough >n our colder latitude ; and the other is the care- 
less and imperfect work in the making of joints. In the early 
days of the gas industrj^ and up to within twenty years, our 




superintendents and the men who have charge of that part of 

the business have largely come from Scotland; and there they 
generally find it necessary to lay their pipes as deep as we do. 
I would like to know from gentlemen, and especially from those 
who live north of Baltimore or New York, and in that latitude, 
how deep they are in the habit of putting their pipes under 
ground. My own experience is that it is largely to be attributed « 
to a desire to save expense in the laying of pipes, ^H 

Mr. Sherman — I would like to intjuire of Mr. Jones if, in 
the preparation of this paper, he gave any consideration to the 
matter of leakage, or the loss which we are subject to, through 
our consumers* meters. In my opinion we are subject to a very 
heavy loss in that way, I know of a company ni New England 
which reduced their leakage from 3o per cent, down to 6 by 
merely looking over and repairing their meters. They had been 
very much neglected, and, in fact, no attention at all had been 
paid to them for years ; but. by going over them and weeding 
out those which were nc»t registering at all, and those which 
were registering to, 20 or 30 per cent, slow, I hey succeeded in 
reducing their leakage from 20 to 6 per cent. My own opinion 
is that we furnish most of our customers with their night lamps 
without liny [lay, that most meters do ntil register the small 
quantity which our customers use for night lamps, and that 
would account for quite a leakage, *rhere is also a great deal 
of gas which is surreptitiously used. All those things count 
against the superintendent or managf r u( the works as leakage. 

Mr. Jonrs^-I belteve that uu avcrnyc test of all the meters 
in use ie New England would be against the gas cf>mpany. 
That is they would shtiw slow. 1 liave a company now in mind 
w^ho are testing all their meters, and they find them slow. A 
great many meters are too per cent, slow, and others are 10, [5 
and 20 per cent. slow. In the aggregate they amount to a great 
deal of gas which the company loses. 

Mr. Stark^ — I heartily agree with Mr. Sherman's idea with 
regard to the leakage of gas. I do not believe that the leakage 
of gas in the ground is one-twentieth of what it is claimed to 
be; 1 believe that one great cause of leakage is the defective 
meters j and another cause of leakage Is the fact that almost all 



55 



sUeet lamps burn more gas than they are rated at. I believe 
thai I lose on my street consumptiun from 15 to 20 per cent., 
because of the under-rating of the burners. I would rather give 
the people good burners than to give them small ones. My 
people pay me my price and I think that I ought to give ihem 
alight to suit them. They all say that they have the best lights 
un our streets that the lamps give anywhere. It answers a very 
good purpose if you want to renew your charter. We laid a 
street railroad in our town a few days a^o and found a few 
places where the earth was filled with gas, I ihuught that there 
must be a big leak there, and 1 dug up a number of joints, but 
there was not a leakage that would burtu We ciould not find a 
single point where there was leak enough t^^show^ but still there 
ras a leakage there. I am satisfied that if yuu have leakage 
enough to burn even fnie fool per hour fr>r 24 hours, it will smell 
on top of the ground. Vou cannrR find a spot in our place 
where you can smell the gas leaking on lop of the ground unless 
you make a cut. I am satisfied that the leakage goes in the 
way of imperfect meters, and through these under-rated lights 
un the street. A case in point occurred last Saturday. A Ger- 
man came to me and said, ** You know that 1 never kick about 
my gas bills ; but J don't know how it is that my bill for last 
month*s gas was $2,50, while this month it is $5.00." Said I, 
"The only trouble is that you have got a new meter. I'he old 
one leaked." The new meter is measuring correctly, and of 
coarse the charge is very much larger. 

Mr. LtTTLEHALES^My own experience corroborates what 
Mr Sherman has expressed. I am convinced that a very large 
{>ercentage of leakage arises from the meters, especially where 
dry meters are used. We know that it is no uncommon thing 
for us to find a meter which has ceased registering entirely. 
That registration does not stop all at once, but it gradually 
begins to run slow and finally ceases to register at all. Recently 
I tested a fifty light meter which had been in operation for five 
or six years, and I found that with five lights it did not register 
one foot, while WMth ten lights it was about 20 or 25 per cent, 
slow; and yet when the maximum quantity was on it was all 
right Of course you can understand that in such a case a 




great deal of the loss would not be leakage in the proper sense, 
but simply thai you are not getting^ paid for what you deliver 
This loss is due merely to the defective nature of the meter; 
and it must be so from the very nature of the construction. 
Of course a careful, periodical examinatiun of the meters will 
remedy that. The company with which I am connected is sub- 
ject to a law w^hich provides that every meter must be tested by 
the Grivernnient Inspector every five year?;. That law has had 
the effect of giving us a chiser examination of our meters ; and 
I think that our small leakage account is largely due to that 
fact There is another company that I know of where a great 
deal of gas is lost beranse it is overlooked ; and that is on ac- 
count of an old gasholder. Those of us who have gasholders 
exposed will find st)metimcs in the summer time that one side of 
the holder is so hoi that yon rannnt bear your hand on it. while 
on tht! other it is colder, and at the bolloni of the holder the 
water perhaps slatids at 40° or 50''. You can easily see that 
there is a great aiimunt of strain on the holder under those cir- 
cumstances. There are a thousand-and-one joints ami tens-of- 
thousands of rivets in the holder, and there is a constant ten- 
dency to wrinkle the parts one against another ; and an enor- 
mous amount of gas is lost from the holder which we do not 
fully appreciate. I was running some large holders awhile ago, 
and I vefiture to say that the leakage from those holders would 
amount to tens of thousands of feet annually. Of course, 
unless you get near the holder you may not notice the escape, 
because gas, being light, rises up. But 1 think that that is one 
large source of loss. I think that it is between the holder and 
the meters the loss is due ; and that if those two points are at- 
tended to the leakage might be brought down to very reason- 
able limiu. 



Mr. Ijndst.kv — I would like to ask Mr. Jfuies how these 
cement joints are affected by changes of tetnperature. There 
is certainly a change in the length of every pipe by reason of 
the changes of temperature. I would like to know if his expe- 
rience has been sufifkiently Umg to enable him to give us any 
account of the amount of breakage there w^ould be in those 
joints. 



foMEs — In my experienLt; I have never known a cemenF 
jotnl, when properly made, to draw. I have never known a 
properly made cement joint to leak. I have had dozens of cases 
where the pipe has broken back of the socket without starting 
the point on the outside of the joint. About six years ago I 
had Dccasion to lay about three-quarters of a mile of 6- inch 
pipt. I instructed my street foreman to lay the pipes as I have 
described, with valves every 500 feel, an<l with a lead joint on 
one side of each valve. The following winter 1 had two breaks 
inthat6'inch pipe and main; I ihx^ down, found the pipe parted 
and was i»bliged to use clamps, but no joint had siarietl ; I then 
asked my foreman if he followed ray instructions; he said that 
he had not ; that he had made that entire length of 6-inch pipe 
with cement joints, and it was perfectly rigid, but it parted in 
two places, I dug down to every valve in that lengtli of pipe, 
ripped those cement joints on the valves, made lead joints and 
have not had any trouble since. 

Mk. Anderson — I would like to ask Mr. Junes if he con- 
siders two parts of cement, mixed with luose saiul, makes a 
«ufficiently strong joint? 

Mr, Jones — I have found that a mixture of one part of Port- 
land cement, one part of sand» and two parts of common cement 
makes a very strong mixture, and it has given me exceedingly 
satisfactory results. 

Mr. Anderson— Can you tell what is the tensile strength ? 

M». JoNrs — I have never had an opportunity tn test that or 
loget at the true tensile strength of it, but I would su[>[iose that 
it was more than cast iron» from the fact that iron pipe breaks 
back of the socket in various places while the joint does not 
start, 

Mk. MlElroV— Vou are all aware that in the city of Pitts- 
burgh we use the natural gas very largely, and one conseqtience 
was that last winter a year ago I had 300 breaks in my juain. 
In those 300 breaks 1 had one broken joint, ami that was at the 
wall of an old building that extended into the street, and in lay- 
ing the pipe the men had not taken the wall away, but laid the 
pipe upon it, and the consequence was that the pipe had fallen 




on both sides and had cracked at the juint. That was the only 
leaky joint of the whole 300 cement joints that I had. My 
joints are laid with pure Portland and Rosendale, Hawthorne 
brand cement. 1 have made joints of the same kind for water 
pipes, where they have stood a constant pressure of 95 pounds 
for 9 years and never broke. I have removed, T suppose, from 
1 1 to 12 miles of pipe with lead joints, simply because they were 
lead joints. I could not t^ndure the stink on the street because 
o( the leakage that came thronj^h the lead joints. We could 
not possibly keep them tight. Any [lerson who has been accus- 
tomed to laying leatl jc*ints for natural gas ni the city of Pitts- 
burgh or vicinity, well knows that there is not 1 in lu that does 
not leak. J defy any tnati to keep a gas pipe joint made of lead 
for three years. For natural gas I have laid 1^ miles of lo-inch 
pipe with cement joints made in the usual manner. The com- 
pany then sr>ld out to the Philadelphia company and that pipe 
remained 22 months, delivering gas at their usual pressure. 
Their manager dug every joint of that [>ipe from beginning to 
end and soap-sudi*ed it, and did not find a bubble. They simply 
covered up the best of my cetnent joints with asjihaltum and 
paved the street. Since they did that they have dug up every 
joint, dug out the cement and llUed them with lead, simply be- 
cause they did not want that kind of evidence in the city that a 
gas joint could be made tight. [Laughter,] 

Mk. Young — I think that it has been established beyond a 
dotibt that a cement joint is the tightest joint yet made ; the 
only (picstion with me is as to its breakage. They are so rigid 
that there is no give to them ; and unless there is a lead joint 
put in every three or four hundred feet, especially in small pipes, 
you will have a great many breaks. The tpiestion is whether it 
is better 10 have a great many small leaks than one large leak. 
My own opinion is, that I would rather have a large broken 
pipe than a thousand leaking jttints. We use nothing but 
cement. In natural gas it is a little different. There is no 
trouble about making joints perfectly tight, but if, from any 
cause the joint is broken in any way, the slightest leak, no mat- 
ter how small it is, if the natural gas gets in contact w^ith the 
cement it reduces it to a powder and takes the joint entirely out 



59 



In some districts or sections from where the natural j^as comes 
it carries a certain amount of chloride of sodttin% and when 
that coraes in contact with cemeru it reduces it to a powder. 
That has been my experience with natural gas. But for illumi- 
Dating gas it will not act in that way. For illuminating gas I 
think there is no doubt that the cement joint is the tightest 
joint yet made, 

Mr, a, C\ Humphrfys — This is certainly a very serious sub- 
ject, and is worthy very full discussion. I am sorry that I was 
unable to listen to the paper, but shall certainly take great 
pains to read it carefully. I think probably this is the most 
serious subject thai we have before us as ^as engineers, and is 
perhaps one that we lose the most money in. I sh<juld imagine 
that the first thing any of us would do befnre starting in to find 
any heavy leakage would be trv determine whether there was a 
leakage there or not. Undoubtedly, we have losses from the 
jrrect registration of meters, ami through the incorrect esti- 

Ition of the amount of gas burned in the city lamps, and 
from many other causes ; but I suppose that the first thing we 
would do, and certainly we should do it, would be to start out 
to find what was the absolute leakage, even taking inir)aLcount 
the condensation and shrmkage — if we may use the term 
"shrinkage*" to denote what Mr. Jones has covered in his 
(Kiper, and ** ccjndensation " to cover the actual depijsition of 
hydro -carbons in the main. Those two points can be deter- 
mined. After that it remains t4> determine where the leakage 
is, and to stop it It seems to me that if there is any fair 
am<}unt c>f leakage, after we determine tht^se points, it woultl 
|jay us Ui go right liack and put our money into a systematic 
investigaticm i>f the condition ni the miuns. I do not think we 
want to f)c misletl Mr Sherman lias pointed out that possibly 
the trouble may occur almr»st entirely through the meters. I 
dti not tiiink we want to tkceive ourselves in that respect. 
There is no doubt that in sr^me Incaliiies almost the entire 
lrf>able is due tn that. 1 have in mtml a case where we tofjk 
hold of a certain works, and the leakage was simply outrageous. 
We investigated all the points that have lieen referred to, and 
came down to a place where we thought that we were simply 




Cfjiisideriii^ the leakajje pnijier. We investi|i^ate<1 the quality 
*>f gas sent out, the loss due to condensation, to shrinkage, etc., 
but there was one point that we did not cover at one particular 
station where there was an outlyinjj holder. We did ntJt inves- 
tigate that ground, but afterwards found that there was some 
leakage there. In spile <if all we dk\ we stil! had a very large 
leakage ; and although we went over all those mains foot by 
foot with drills^ and stopped up every leak that we could find, 
we still hatl a very heavy leakage account. Therefore, I claim 
that we do not any of us want to c{>nifort ourselves with the 
idea that we have not got any actual leakage account simply 
because our noses do not delec I the leakage. 

Mr. VnuNu^-l thhik that there ought to be a correct register 
kept of the temperature (*f the gas going into the statifHi meter 
every day. I think in many cases, especially in small works, 
that the gas gr>es to the station meter at a very high tempera- 
ture, and in that case the leakage would he very large. It is 
unaccounted-for gas. While it may not come un<lcr the head 
(jf leakage, it is due to shrinkage. 

Mr. ScRiVEK— I would like to ask the gentleman from Pitts- 
burgh what cement joint he uses and what dci>th of cement is 
used — that is, what is the depth of the socket? 

Mr, Mt Bi Kuv — Ours runs from 4^ t(» 5 inches. The socket 
of the 4 -inch pipe is about 4 inches deep ; you can make a very 
g(Jod joint oil 3 inches, but we prefer 4 or 5 inches. 

Mr. ScRivFR. ni> you use any red lead ? 

Mr. McEurov— No. 

Mr. Scrivfr— What is the depth below the surface of the 
ground ? 

Mr. McElrov — From three to four feet, according to cir- 
cumstances. 

Mr. Lansokn — It seems to me that this question is always 
coming back to that of ci>ntractit>n and expansion. The real 
question is how to tivercome it, and how to lay our pipes deep 
enough so that the temperature shall n(»t affect any kind of 
joints, either cement or lead. I have tried both kinds. 1 have 



61 



taken up lead joints when I liave found the Ifad drawn half an 
inch on each joinl fur three blocks. That was in the winter 
time. I ha.ve lifted those same joints in the summer time and 
found that they had crowded back. As my friend says, the 
Cement joint is rigid, but your [jipe has gol to luiuratrt and 
expand. The question comes up, which is the liesl ? The 
ceinctit breaks ytjur pipe, and the leail lets your pipe contract 
and expand, I should prefer to liave the joints draw. Of 
course in a lead joint we depend a great deal on the packing 
that is put in — more in fact than we do on the lead or cement. 
I prefer thai a joint should draw rather than have a pipe break 
in the wmler lime when it is hard to dig in the street. 

Mr, Cii.iiERi— One word more on the subject which I alluded 
to when up before. This whole discussion shows that no luat- 
ler what yuur joint may l)Ci it is the action of the temperature 
and frr>st on the pipes that does the mischief. It is not essen- 
tial whether the joint will draw, or whether the pi|>e will break, 
but what we want is to get the pipes so far down that the frost 
wrttl not act upon them. That is the conchisiuu I have come 
to. Our friend from Pittsburgh says that he puts bis pipes 
from J to 4 feet deep. Now I submit that those who live in a 
latitude north of this will not protert their pipes against the 
action of frost by puttmg them at that depth. Jt seems to mc 
that that is the remedy for aH the trouble^ — to spend a little 
more money in putting the pii»es down a sufficient depth. 
There is another thing w^hich should be considered, antl that is 
the fact that wrought iron service pipes will in many soils cor- 

ie su that in lo or 15 years there will be a leak. For the 
few years I have made it a point to encase every service 
pipe in a wooden box with asphalt covering. Oo this, and in 
ten years you w^ill see the benefit of it, 

Mr. J0NF..S — I must say that I have had the best results w^ith 
mains laid in the frost — that is, with shalltJW mains. I have 
found from the Report of the Underground Temperature Com- 
mittee of the British Association, that the point where a con- 
sklanl tem[ierature is reached undergnumd is 50 feet below the 
surface. Between that 50 feet below and the surface, there is a 
constant working gt>ing cm, caused by the change of tempera- 




lure of the soil ; and anywhere in that 50 feet a lead joint will 
be affected more or less, so as to leak to a considerable extent. 
From each square centimetre of the earth's surface there issues 
every year 44.4" of heat. Now, if pipe is laid at a point under- 
ground, say three feet deep, and the frost is y^ feet deep, this 
heat — the internal heat of the earth— is issuing through 
the surface and striving to brjng about an equilibrium. If our 
overground temperature rises, it gives the underground tem- 
perature a chance to exert its force. Therefore, the frost 
cunies uui from the boliom, not from the to|). The under- 
ground tcmj)erature— the internal heat — is what takes out our 
fn>st» and not the temperature from the top. As the frost lets 
gu of that nuiin an expansion takes place. Perhaps the next 
night it is relaxed ; the overground temperature is lowered so 
that the frost is driven down and overcomes this undergniund 
temperature. The frost is Itiweretl one foot, perhaps, and takes 
hohl of the pipe again ; and the working of the frost back and 
forth on the cast iron pipe is, I think, more the cause of break- 
ing than the simple expansii>n and contraction caused by 
free/Jng and thawing. Therefore, I attribute the good luck I 
have had with shallow mains to the fact that they are in the 
frost all winter, 

Mk. Pkkhakd — It seems to me that, taking the average 
temperature cif the year as a factor for estimating the shrink- 
age of the gas, you very largely overestimate ; because the 
selling temperature of the gas is rather the temperature uf the 
cellar than of the earth, which my observation indicates to be 
very nearly 60"^. It seems to mc that if the temperature of 
the gas at the station meter is ab(nit 60"^, we drop that factor 
from the calculation altogether. The temperature of cellars in 
our locality is certainly utJt down to 49*^, and if we estimate 
our shrinkage as the difference between 60^ ami 49*^, we over- 
estimate it. 

Mr, RLLtCK-CLARK-^There are many thousand miles of 
cement joints laid in England, and I imagine that the average 
depths of those would he about 12 feet, I venture to say 
thai there is not half a mile uf water tight joints so laid in 
England. We lind, either from the carelessness of the work- 




63 



men or from variations of temperature, or from !^ome other 
difficulty, that it is impossible to get a water pipe ti^ht with 
cement joinis;. For that reason at the present lime in Eng- 
land cement joints are being j^enerully abantloneil ; therefore, 
it is a matter of considerable engineering imptjrtante to knr>w 
how a perfectly tight joint can be obtained in cement, ami what 
is the practical way of accomplishing it, especially as cements 
vary so much. The cements of England are different fnmi 
thoi^e of Germany, In ISermany the cement manufacturers 
have adopted a standard as to the amount of free lime, as to 
tensile strength, weight, clc, but in England every engineer 
has bis own specification ; so much so that ime cement mann- 
farturcr recently told me that he was working tt) 38 iliffercnt 
specifications. I wiiuld like to know what rule is adu|}ied in 
this country and how this joint is made so as to get it water 
tight. What standard of tensile strength is adopted for cement, 
and how it is put in place — whether in liquid shafje or put in 
with a trowel ? 

Mk. Jonks — I will endeavor to explain how we make our 
joints in South Bostem, We find soft yarn, instead of old tarretl 
ropes, better and cheaper in the end. We make a twist of the 
yam, which requires to be driven in around the pi[>e with a 
caulking iron and hammer. After thai yarn is driven home we 
take this mixture of common cement and sand and mix it thor- 
oughly dry before we put any water with it. Then wi? tht^roughly 
mix it with water until it obtains the consistency of mastic, so 
that it can be used on a trowel. That cement mixture is caulked 
into the joint with a wooden caulking tool until the joint is full, 
and until that cement has entered into and been driven into the 
yam so that it becomes a part of it. Then, after filling that 
joint full of cement mixture, another twist of the yarn — the 
same size as the first — is entered and carefully driven home, not 
driven loo much on one side at first, so as to drive out the 
cement from the other side of the joint, but it is carefully driven 
in alike at all parts of the pipe. After that yarn is driven we 
fi!l the joint again to the edge of the socket and clean it off and 
pcNDt it. As my foreman says, if the joint is not tight when 
that first yarn is driven and filled with cement it never will be 
tight. 




On motion of Mr Harbison the thanks of the Association 
were voted to Mn Jones for his very able paper. 

Thk Prksuiknt — We will now lake up Mr, Walton Clark's 
paper on fuel gas, 

Mr. Walton Clark, Fhiladelphia, Pa., then read the following 

pajier on 

FUEL GAS. 

Within the fasit few years there has developed a demand for 
a combustible^ safe» cleanly and cheap ; suitable for general dis- 
tribution ; ajipbcable to the production of Hght and power, as 
well as of heat: reatly for instant use; requiring no storage 
room upon the premises of the consumer, and brought without 
his aid to the poim of combustion. To state the conditions of 
the demand is to prove a gaseous fuel necessary to its satisfac- 
ti<in, and I nntierstand ** Fuel Gas" in the meaning of the com- 
mittee whtj selected me to open the subject at this meeting, to 
be such a gas or mixture of gases, hnninous or (Otherwise, as is 
fitteil to fulfil i them. \\ hat I shall read to yon is written with 
this understanding, which precludes the consideration of local 
plants for the mannfactnre of gas to be used on the premises, 
I cunfme myself, therefore, to the presentation of my ideas 
upon the subject of the manufacture and distribution of such 
gas as I believe will commend itself to our probable customers, 
and meet the reasimable expectations of profit which our em- 
ployers may indulge, hoping to show ratitmal ground for the 
faith thai is in me. 

A year antl a half ago, I prepared a paper for the Western 
Association upon this subject. In it were given the ideas 1 then 
held, and now hold, as to the part of the demand for fuel we 
may hope to supply through pipes from central statitms, and the 
mixture of gases which shall he at once suited to the public 
need and producible at a figure which shall not prohibit its sale. 
I now reiterate the opinion there expressed, that our operations 
as fuel venders will be confined to warming apartments, cook- 
ing, supplying light and power, and heating soldering irons, 
light forgings and other implements and materials demanding a 
small localised fire. That we can reasonably hope to supply 



65 



frum our works fuel for boiler firing, metal working and other 
purposes demanding heat in great quantity^ I do not believe. 
Such a gaseous fuel as will satisfactorily meet this demand, may 
be economically generated upon the premises where consumed, 
and will contain in its total bulk more of the original energy of 
the coal, than will a gas having sufficient heating power per 
cuIhc foot to be cheap to distribute and safe to use. Generated 
as wanted, it will carry to the point of combustion the sensible 
heat with which it left the producer, a further advantage over a 
gcncmlly distributed gas. It not being necessary to store this 
gaji, distribute il over large areas, or snj)ply it cold in small 
qoanlities, the presence of a considerable percentage of nitrrjgen 
is not fatal to its use, as in the case of the gas we are discussing. 
If I have not erred in this estunate of the field of fticl supply 
we an cover, the gas adapted to the wants of housekeepers, 
users of power, and, generally, consyniers of fuel in compara- 
tively small quantities, is the gas we must jiroduce. What is 
this? 

Among manufactured gases, not made wholly or in large part 
of oil, resin or other material very rich in hydrocarbons, c<jal gas 
is the ideal fuel for mor.t purposes. With a high healing pcjwer 
per cubic foot, unmistakable odor and ** tough" (lame, it cer- 
tainly answers the conditions of a successful fuel, unless we 
must ex(!cpl cheapness of production. Does it answer this con- 
dition also? It is saitl that in some fav(»red localities, coal gas is 
king put into the holder at a cost that would enable the makers 
to sell to fnel users for a price lower per unit of energy than 
that at which a mixture of coal and other gases could l)e sup- 
plied, if its «se were made general, Coal gas in the holder at a 
low figure, argues one or both of two contlitions — low cost of 
soft coal, high price of coke. The cheapest gas will be made 
where both conditions exist ; and this can only l>u where there 
is a ilcmand for smokeless fuel, and a high selling price on an- 
tbractle. Were coal gas generally adopted as fuet in such a 
locaiity, the amount u( coke put on the market would l:itr in- 
CTeased at least five fold, and at the same time a considerable 
pari of the demand for it would be met by gas. With its field 
in part taken from it, and its rkwn rpiantity largely increased, 
the pricf of ri>ke must fall until it reaches a point at which it 




can compete with soft coal, for the purposes to which the latter 
is adapted. The amount thrown opon the market will force it 
from the position of a special fuel, commanding a higher price 
because it better meets the wants of certain consumers than 
does soft coiiL J believe that with their present make of coke, 
few gas works. do not at times accumntaie a large stock. Mul- 
tiply the make by five or ten, and can we doubt that the selling 
price mnst be very materially reduced to enable its owners to 
dispose of it? And if we take from the manufacturing account 
of the companies making this cheap gas the credit due to this 
most important residual, can coal gas then be generated at a 
figure justifying its sale at a price to compete with the cheap 
coals from which it is made ? A careful consideration of the 
question, will, I think, convince us that we i annot afford in gen- 
erating our gas to man u fact u re a by-product to compete with it 
in the fuel market. 

I admit that there may be cities in which the demand for 
furnace coke for manufacturing would equal the supply after 
the general introduction of gas had increased the coke output. 
In such localities, if any exist, coke might advantageously be 
made in ovens, and the by-product, gas, purified and stored for 
distribution at a low cost. The few exceptions to the gjeneral 
rule do not, 1 think, affect the force of my argument. 

As it is bad business policy to produce two ctjm modi ties 
which shall compete with each other for a market, and as soft 
coal is the raw material suitable for conversi<m into gas, most 
plentifully and widely distributed over the world, we seem ccim- 
pelled to adtipt, except in special localities, a method of manu- 
facture that will convert this snlid ct>;d into a gaseous fuel, 
without the iiroduction of annther substance applicable to the 
same purposes. 

I hiok f(jr mi contradiction from any source when I say that 
unless there is in another course some object to !)e gained in 
the direction of more ccniiplete conservation of the energy of 
the raw material, or lower cost of production, which shall com- 
pensate for the attendant disadvantages, it is desirable that our 
product contain all the gas that may be distilled from the coal 
and resulting tar, with as much condyustible gas as can be 
made from the coke^ and nothing else. Such a mixture, if of 



coal and water gases only, would have a heating power per cubic 
fool somewhat less than two- thirds that of coal ga^, (400 U. 
about), a s^pecific gravity of about .500, and its total heating 
power would equal s(jmewhat over 60 per cent, of the original 
enrrgy of the coal. In proportion as producer gas is made a 
constituent of the mixture, the heating power per cubic foot, 
and *♦ loughnesji " and tenfjperature of flame will diminish ; the 
speciiic gravity, size of necessary holders, mains and meters, 
and thi; percentage of the energy of the coal in the total 
product, will rise. Ihus, as we convert more of the coke from 
the distillation of the coal to producer gas, we correspondingly 
diminish the value of our pnuliut for each purpose to which it 
is applied, and increase the difliculties uf distribution and utili- 
xatitm. The return we get for this impoverishment of our gas, 
and pitsfiible annoyance to our consumers, is an increase in the 
lolul energ\' derived from the coal. It is nut safe to ilistribute 
a gaji eiMitaining as much as jj per cent, of producer gas, be- 
emuMT of the danger of light-drafts extinguishing its flame. 
The additional energy we could put into the tutal bulk of the 
product of a ton of coal, by this admixture, is less than five per 
etnL To save this it would be necessary to increase the bulk 
ttf and, therefore, the size of storing and distributing 

api very materially. 

Its the paper above referred in, 1 estimate the |>rnduct nl 
1,000 lbs. of scjft <"cjal made int(» <'(ial and water gas as 39,000 
cabic feel, representing 54.5 per cent, uf the energy of the 
OOaI; and converted into coal, water, and iirutliKcr gases {^ of 
ihc coke going to the last) at 66,000 cuIjic feet, containing 57 
percent. u( the energy uf the cnal. Here the gain through the 
KciMrralion of part producer gas is but 2,5 per rent. Later in- 
vestigation leads me tu the belief that my analyses uf producer 
lfjr% dill nut do it justice, and that the gain m energy resulting 
fruai ills introduction to the product will be nearer § per cent. 
The increase in bulk is nearly 70 per cent, antl the fiame tem- 
perature is reduced over 4oo'\ ** it is princi|)ally uptjn this in- 
CfcaM! of hulk and reduction of flame temperature that I base 
my object ion to the ail mix lure of producer gas. We must 
pforidr storage room for a portion, and a very considerable 
ion, of our prifduct. The amount^ whatever relation it 



H^ 




bears tu our daily output, will necessariiy be increased in prt>- 
poftion to the amount nf gas required ti» supply ai given de- 
mand for heat. To supply this demand will require of the 
mixture containing producer gas, 60 per cent, more than of 
that containing only coal and water gases, and render necessary^ 
60 per cent, more holder capacity. There is, of course, a 
pressure at which it will he found nu»st advantageous tn de- 
liver this gas, and at that pressure the carrying cai>acity t>f our 
mains must l>e 60 per rent, greater for the more bulky mixture 
to deliver the same anumnt of heating power. This estimate 
makes no allowance for the difference in specific gravity, which 
would make the comparisfni still less fav<irable to the producer 
gas mixture/'* 

This mixture of the three gases would contain over 30 per 
cent, of nitrogen, have a heating power about 60 per cent, that 
of the combined coal and water gas, or 40 |>er cent, that of coal 
gas. It needs no argument to prove it a less valuable fuel per 
unit of energy contained, than the stronger compound, and I 
do not deem it necessary to reason further in defence of the 
claim that the richer in heating p<jwer per unit of bulk a fuel 
gas is, consistent with economy of production, the better our 
prospect of customers and profit. The considerations 1 have 
presented to yf*u have led me to the conclusion that a mixture 
of coal and water gases, in the proptjrtic^ns which we r^in pro- 
duce them from bituminous coal, meets the conditions of a 
successful undt-rtaking belter than any other possible combina- 
tion, and have compelled nie, in my efforts after a successful 
apparatus, t(> hold as a sim ^//</ /f^m the conservation of practi- 
cally all the product of distillation, and the exclusion of nitrogen. 

If I am correct in my cnnclusi«»ns ant^nt the t ominjsition of a 



*Krom previous paper by author, Sinic it was wriltcn the practicability of 
continuously di*>tilling coal in rrtorts, with a portion of the waiite heat irom 
the generation of water )pis (a problem I was then working upon), has been 
satiiifactDrily demonstrated, with a, resuliing economy in manufacture, and in* 
crease tn pro-duition of commercial gas per ton of coal This will explain why 
I now believe we can obtain better results thun I then claimed possible. 
Further thought upon the utilization, or rather prevention, of tar, convinces 
mc that it can in: made to have a more considerable and beneficial effect upon 
the product than 1 then ;d lowed for. 



r>9 



practicable ftiel iras, I may now ask, and cnckavor to answer 
the question. •* What art the c«»iit]iti«iiis tint *i jjerfrt t (*ro(fss 
must fulfill in its productions ?*' 

ist. A pcirtinn <»f the combust) lj[c cimstuiiifnis uf ilic cual 
must b«* biirntri! to supply the heat alisorbtd in tht: j^eneraticm 
of the gas. The remainder shiudd bu present in the prudutt. 

id. The ciial thus consumed sht»ukl leave the apparatus as 
Qd>onir acid and steanL 

3H, The sensible heat of the escaping gases should be ulil- 
iml to pre-heat air or steam, nnd be s<> carrie<l ba<:k iniu ihe 
iipparalus, 

4th, RadiatitMi from the ap))aratus should be at a ndnimum. 

5th, 1'hat part of the jLcaseous product i»f the coal havinjif 
ihe highest healin^j power per unit »)f bulk shcndd be present 
in the commcrrlal )^is. 

6th. The raw coal shoufd be subjected to the highest possi- 
ble temperature, from the moment it enters the apparatus 
imtil the last distillahle pnrtion of the hydni-c arlxni ^ases and 
ujx)rs has been driven from it. 

7th, The tar matte shouhl lie ciuuerted inu> gas, as far as 
possible bef*»re cnndensation, and as a means to this end, the 
*ai€r^as, hot from the producer, should be passed over the 
(oal being distilled. 

To my mind the above ctmditions can only be fulfilled in an 
apparatus providing for the distillation of the coal in a vessel 
isolating it from the gases generated in the combustion neces- 
^Ty lo the supplying of the heat of gasifRaticm. Whether this 
vt^sel be of that form we are accuslimieil to call a retort, or 
fiot, whether horizontal, vertical or inclined, receiving coal by 
the shovelful or the ton, for the ctniservation of the coal gas 
iHiidc in it, it-s ctmtents must be kept frcmi contact with any 
p& licit intended tfj become part of the cr>niniercial prt*duct. 1 
am aware that insistence upon this point precludes the use of 
^ny MJTipIe cupola process for the manufacture of fuel gas fi>r 
flistrihution. 

To fulfdl the ctmditifms I have considered necessary to a 
Ptfffuct process, it is essential that the coal-containing vessel 
*hould be heated by the c<mibuslion art»und it, of a practically 
continuous stream of the otherwise w^asie gases of the process. 




1 am aware that insistence upon this point precludes the use of 
an independent fire for the coal distillation. 

It is further necessary for the fuifillment of the condititms 
named, that the coal ^^as as made should be at once removed 
from the apparatus, and not brought in contact with any incan- 
descent material other than the sides of the containing vesseK 
I am aware that insistence upon this point precludes the adop- 
tion of a plan involving the passage of the gas through masses 
of hot coke for its so-called fixing. 

It IS necessary to the generation of a product having the 
greatest heating power per cubic foot, consistent with conver- 
sion into gas of all the condnislible constituents of the coal, 
that the waste or blast gases resulting from the combustion of 
that part of the coal supplying the heat of gasification, should 
be as poor in carbonic oxide as a proper regard for the condi- 
tions essential to the generation of a good ([uah'ly t>f water gas 
{principally depth of fire) will permit, and contain abnost no 
hydrfjgen. I am aware that insistence upon this point pre- 
cludes the generation of a protlucer gas suitable to meet the 
fuel demands of manufacturers, as a step in the process of fuel 
gas making. In this connection I will at once admit, that, in a 
locftHty where a considerable amount of producer gas can be 
utilixed so near the generator as to reach the point of con- 
sumption hot, and there is an opportunity* very limited in 
proporttttn, Uvr the sale <if fuel gas» it would perhaps pay to 
run one apparatus for the satisfaction oi both demands. The 
admission of steam to the generator during the period of 
** blowing *' preparatory to the water gas making, and the coii- 
se<[uent redut ticiu tn the c[uantity of the latter^ in proportion to 
the enrichment of the blast gases, makes in this process the 
distributable fuel gas little more than a by-product of the 
generation of producer gas, liut if the safe of the fuel we are 
considering is destined to reach in its proportions the expecta- 
tions f>f most men whn have given thought Ui the matter, it is 
to my mind folly to crmsidcr any plan which has not for its ob- 
ject the conversion int<3 a distributable gas of the greatest 
possible proportion of the energy of the coal. In a properly 
arranged and proportioned plant there will be wc^rk enough for 
the products of combustion from that part of the coal which 





?1 



mu5t be burned in supply tht; energy necessary tn the conver- 
sion nf the rest i»f it into ^as. Due to our inability to make 
water gas or di.still coal, except at high teinperature, the car- 
bonk acid resulting from the combustii>n referred to, will leave 
ihe apparatus^ carrying nuu h heat, and may be accompanied 
W a small proportion of carbonic oxide. The heat, sensible in 
eurh. and resulting from the cr»inbtistion of the latter may l)e 
used in prc-heat the air necessary to the operation vi the ap- 
|>aratus, and the steam used in generating water gas. Where 
mintfral oil is* cheapo the excess nf heat iti the blast gases can 
bt utilij^cd to distill a portit^n nf it, with the desirable result oi 
ail increased healing power per cubic fotit, of tiu' firoduct, and 
the further advantage of giving to the gas a serviceable ilUimi- 
lutinvf power. Localities possessing both soft cnal and mineral 
oil each cheap, are favored beyond all others, as viewed by a 
"Fuel (Sas Enthusiast." He could there hope to make an ideal 
gas cheap encmgh for use as a fuel, and so rich in hydro-carbons 
•AS to produce a satisfactory light at low cost without the aid of 
s^JHTcial appliances. Where there is no opportunity ff^r the ap- 
plication of the waste heat to the (bstillation of oil, there is 
work for the greater ])art of it in connet titju with air antl 
^ltm\, a5 indicated above. 

If 45 lbs. of coke is sufficient for the generation of 1,000 
cubic feel of water gas in an a[)f>aratus built to fulfill, as far as 
tlic imperfections of workmanship and a proper regard for 
t^sipital account will permit, the conditions I hav^e given as in 
*ny mind essential to a perfect pnicess, 2,000 lbs. of soft ctial 
s^Joukl yield, according to its tjualily, from 40 to 45 thousand 
cttbic feet of gas, having a heating power of 375 to 400 units 
per cubic foot and representing 60 to 65 per cent» of the total 
tntrgy of the coal. As arrangements for pre-heating the air 
u^d in the process were perfected, or other imprfivenients re- 
cce! the consumption of coke per 1,000 cubic feel of water 
» made, the product would be increased in total bulk and 
tncrgy. This would result in a slight reduction in the heating 
power per cubic foot, because the water gas has a heating 
(KjWfr below that of the commercial mixture. 

Whatever process is adopted in the manufacture of fuel gas 
frora soft coal, having for its aim the conversion uf all the com- 





boftible nstcral tn ip^ ertlicr wasie or 
0I the Gosl tmrnu be burned Ui sappl j tlie beat 
duel! tbe dwBce oi iona. I adait dttt tk» oa be 
pUihcd vttb km torn of heat Ihroiigh radntiott^ ia j 
l^eoeratar f^roces* than in an appaiatus wbicb the 
fBcni of the md I attn at voald deatand, bat in 
Cttpoia priice%ik there h t#f necessity a mil tune oC bl aaAing with 
cool gai^ iniFttlwmg a loss to the final pntdact of the best port 
at the materia^ iff a mixing with it of nitrngen or cwhooic 
airid, or bf>th. This fact i^ ni>t affected by any im^jemaas apfili- 
catfon of exhausteni, or the ttse of ufk, doira, tir atteraattng 
(JmftA, Huch a process^, comprehending this loss, is nndcr obli- 
gation til hhow a^ an «iffM:t tfi the^t-e ftaipable defects some 
compeniating ecinomien or confess its own wcaknessL The 
(lfiiaiivantagC9» uf an admixture of nitrogen arc so serious that* 
lielween llie horn% of the dilcmraa^ the ciperatt>r of this process 
niunt choose to KacTfTicc some of the gases resulting frt>m the 
coal diMfllation. Thi»» means serious loss^ not only in the 
wa<ite of gaji, but in the consequent reduction of the heating 
power per i:ii!)ic foot of the pn»duct, 

Hierc are many reaM>ns why it is advantageous lu the users 
of gjiMeouH fuel to have it delivered to them at pressures con- 
siderably m excess of thost- usiiaHy prevailing in gas mains. 
It ij» not pirfhaph nccestiiiry to cnuriieratc these. One only I 
will mention; that is the increased duty of lamps in which the 
illumiiiaKtiii ri'sidts frtnti the incandescence of material woven 
into the form of a ^Mnanllc" or ** ca^e/' The increase in effi- 
ciency extendi in Uuih lamp and gas, and is the result of local- 
i/Jtig the ( omhriHiioji hy tnt rc:isJng the intimacy of the mixture 
of air and >;as hcforf rt-at hing the huriier lip. The '* mantle '* 
or **cage** under the^ie circumstances is more highly heated, 
anti therefore more brilliantly incandescent with a correspcmd- 
ingly mi reasec! iluty ; aiul the gas being more ccnnjiletcly 
bnrnt'tl while within il, less c»f the resnltiog heat is wasted and 
the eflicirncy |ier cubit! fnot is itu reasecL 

The ini[>roved result is effected without any increase in 
I he amount of gas used, or shortening of the life of the lamp. 
Tlie total area of the gas inlets is reduced for the increased 
pressure and there is practically no more wear on the iacaii- 




i-T"^: — 



:iv. 



-,'. n : 






n 



nt material. T mention this instance of the desira!)il»ty of 
imparatively high delivering pressure because of my belief 
that lighting by incandescence is to be one of the p(»tent causes 
nftht success of fuel gas. That a most satisfactory result may 
J'c obtained with a ncm-luminous gas has been established, 
With the mixture of coal and water gases I have been consider- 
ing, 1 believe we have in incandescent illumination a competi- 
tor of the electric light thai has the advantage of it in color 
•indprice^and is less bable Kj the olijection nf hiai than the 
<'[>cn flames we now generally use. 

The disadvantages of the use of high pressure are perfectly 
well km»wn, and I believe as easily overcome. The increased 
i<?nclencv to leakage must be met by greater care in the laying 
i^i><i maintaining of conduits. 'I1ic danger frtym Ijreaks can be 
^►hviiited by the use of automatic valves. Such pressure as it 
^'♦juld he necessary to carry to satisfactorily sup(>ly all con- 
sumers, and enable them to operate at the maximum efficiency^ 
J*iJdi appliances as they would be apt t4» use in burning the gas 
^orhcai or light, w(mhl not at all imperil the integrity ui the 
pipes or joints. Not more than lo inches water pressure or 
ii'ss than 4 pt»und [><t scjuare iru h wtudtl answer all purptjses. 
1 have put miles of mains aiul services under an air and water 
pa'^sure of over one hundred ptninils with*HJt any elTect be- 
yond the tris<.'iHery of rusted i>ul services and defective jtnnts* 
J ilu ncjt think any one will <|nestu>n our ability to so lay cas^t 
rnin, Uctl and spigot pipe, that the leakage account will not be 
excessive with lo inclies pressure. The advantages of high 
pressure are the greater range pcriuitted the consumer in the 
litiltxation of the gas, and the larger carrying capacity of the 
mains. A pipe will deliver twice the amount of gas at \o inch 
pressure as at 2^ inches. The fact that any leaks existing 
would be more readily detected and stopped, is an otiset to the 
disadvantage of greater liability to leakage. Meters as made 
by first class tnanufacturers can be trusted to properly measure 
at »o inches pressure. 

In the paper already referred to, I gave the efliciency of gas 
dickers and heaters as varying from 52 per cent, to 77 per 
cent,, quoting Mr. T ravers of the British (ias Institute, as my 
aulhurily. A lung series of experiments made last winter, by 




Mr. Carter H. Page, Jr, for the cinnpaiiy which einplfjys me, 
gives a hjwer eflicient y ft»r cookers. The wtirk was done with 
stoves from eleven makers, each stove about the size generally 
known as 7B, and riinstimitij^r between 30 and 40 eubic feel nf 
gas per hour eat !i. 

The effieiency of the van mis burners was from 14 per cent, 
ttr 52 per cent.» and the maxtmiuii (in which we are most inter- 
ested as indicating the best residl so far attained) was 55.4 per 
cent. The average of all burners of the eleven stoves was 
about 22 per cent,, and of all burners of the best stove under 
specially favorable conditions about ^H per cent. It is only 
fair to the gas U\ state that no efforts were made in this series 
of tests to proviile for tlie rcc(»very of waste heal. The stoves 
were just as the makers put them on the market, 

I am pleaseil, in view of the above figures, to be able to say 
that there is much room for improvement in gas stove con- 
struction. 

In cipniparing the elfiLiency of fuels il is iuity lair to consider 
the work done with the best appliances obtainable. With the 
best stove at his command Mr. Page i^ljlained an efficiency of 
38 per cent, in an experimental test. Afterwards, in cooking 
meals for five persons, he fuuntl the efficiency reduced to 29,8 
per cent. With a good coal range he obtained an efficiency of 
3.J6 per cent,, starting, as with the gas stove, all cokl, and 
coitking three meals a ilay. In each case care was exercised to 
prevent waste. In these tests the gas has the advantage of 
intermittent use. which it w<ndd lose in the case of heating 
stoves or furnaces kept alight night and day. In such work 
the advantage of gaseous fuel, though still very considerable, 
wtudd be nmch reduced. 



Thk PuEsiDENT — Mr. Clark's paper is now open for discus- 
si*m. As Mr. Lofunis has had considerable experience with 
and has given consitlerable attention to this subject the Asso- 
ciation would be glad to hear from him. 

Mr. Loom is — 1 have carefully read this interesting paper on 
the subject of fuel gas^ and there is a great deal in it that is un- 



n 



tirmMcOlr of "great use. Some of the ihinijs I will mention. 
The quality of the gas, which he proposes to distribale accord- 
ing to his ^heme, makes It an ideal gas. It is a gas which we 
should all aim to make. It is practically a gas consisting of 
water gas and coal gas. It is all made from the same machine, 
iind wdl mixed together without any admixture of producer gas 
at all, There seems to he the idea in some sections that I am 
in favor of mixing producer gas with water gas fur street dis- 
mbution. My idea is to build generators that will niiike a mix- 
ture that will answer for every jHirposc ; that is, a mixture of 
g'*^ Un different uses. A machine must be made for making 
gas for manufacturers' use, for distributing it in the streets, and 
f^jrOoinjr different things — a machine that will make any kind 
of gas that is practically needed for the purposes that it is to l)e 
iii*d for In simie metallurgical work and in some manu- 
^aauring establishments, a mixture of these gases is superior to 
thither of the gases used alone — that is, a mixture of producer 
ps* and water gas. In ttlher uses the [producer gas is superior 
fur certain purposes. The flame temperature of water gas if 
roixcd with it is too high. It makes a certain heat for some 
nirtaliurj^ital works which we cannot use, and it has to lie ^Yim- 
tnaicd. What you are most interested in is the manufacture of 
^, nut for metallurgical works, but for general distribution in 
the streets. For all piirpiases, as I saul be ft pre, the gas that Mr, 
^l^rk proposes to be made for that purpose is, according to my 
'dea, as nearly a perfect gas as can be matit:, l*crhaps the units 
fjf lieat may be loo large^ thai is, there may be loo much uf vcib 
atjl*" matter in it to burn without having any liunsen burner to 
give air I think that all fuel gas should be burned in an open 
^rucr, because, as you know, it is impossible to burn these 
«b thoroughly in a Bunsen burner without varying the press- 
ures, or varying the draughts of air. By nnxing a large quan- 
hty oi water gas with a certain amount of coal gas you gel a 
High (lame temperature which will burn m an open dame burner. 
In regard to the matter of pressure be is right. Practically the 
^rsi works that 1 built were for metallurgical uses, at Turner^s 
1" alls, Mass, I built a holder with i6 inches pressure, and we 
can use it down to lo inches. The next 1 built with lo inches 
pressure, and we found that with that lo inches for metallurgi- 





I 

I 



cal purposes, better results were (jlnained ilian from either a 
higher or lower pressure. In some part of his paper, Mr. Clark 
says somethinj^ with rej^^ard to prfitJucer gas, which it seems to 
me is hased upon a mistaken idea with regard to its value or 
quality. Producer gas, if made with the style of blast furnaces 
or cupolas that are mostly in use is partially burned or destroyed 
ill the making. ^I'hal is, after they are made, air is carried up 
by the [lecultar shape of the furnace, and the gas is partially 
burned while passing up the siile of the furnace, and after it 
reaches the top the hydrogen is liable to be hurned out tjf the 
gases, and they are reiki ced in quality, and contain not more 
than 60 or 80 units of heal, and someliioes as low as 50 units per 
fof^t, A producer gas made from st»ft coal should have about 
120 to 130 units nf heat. If the tar anti all the heavy matter is 
made into fixed [irudut lt gas, llieii we have a gas which we can 
transport and hurn at any distance from the generator with the 
sensible heal eliminatLil. The sensible heat is worth more to 
use hit producing stuani Utr running the a[>paratus than for any 
other purpose whatever. I am going to make a statement now 
that perhaps will bring up some tliscussion, and it is this : The 
sensible heat in gas we do nr>t find of much advantage in fur- 
naces, and it is l>ettcr to utiiiiie it by heating water, or by heat- 
ing air to l>uru with it. If air is heated and mixed and put in 
the furnace good results are obtained. We made a number of 
tests with Ileal ing gas on waste products from a furnace, and on 
waste products from forges, and found that heating the gas up 
to 300 ** to 500' we got no practical redut ticm of the amount of 
gas consumed. In the same forge we treated the air in the same 
way, mixed with the gas, and we got a large [lerceiilage of sav- 
ing. The reason that we get a larger percentage of saving in 
heating air, more than we do in heating gas, is because the air 
is expanded in the heating of it, and the gas mixes better with 
it and it is better ignileil. Now, with regard to the sensible heat 
ill [iroducer gases At a meeting of the iron and Steel Insti- 
tute of tireat Britain, three weeks ago, this matter of gases was 
discussed thoroughly, and Mr Head, an engineer in the employ 
of Sir Frederick Siemens, made a statement to the effect that 
they had made some experiments on that line, and had taken 
gases and cooled them purposely, after leaving the generator, 



77 



liar Siemens regenerative furnace ; and 
better results in ibis way than tliey diti by taking 
the gas directly from the producer. He gave no reason for it ; 
itwa>iamere statement of what he ftitind out by experiment, 
Thtrc were a number of altle enj^ineers there at that time who 
expressed the same view. I am n<it making this as my own 
statement* V)Ut merely tu show that producer ^ases have been 
coolerj and can be coofeil, and that they are not obliged to be 
ustd exactly at the place where they are made, but can be car- 
ried any distance, whether one mile or loo miles. It is only a 
mailer of the sij:e of the pipe, and the gases can be used with 
Ijrcat economy at various places. Works can he built and pro- 
ducer gas made and carried up into a town for heating, or 
carried to large works f(*r metaUurgical uses, or used for heat- 
itig buildings or for any ntanufaeturing purpose whatever. In 
making my producer gas 1 use no m«jre of the coal than 1 use in 
iny other process. 1 make as much water gas anfl coal gas 
inixed together as any process which is l«)-day running, itr that 
is ready to be tested ; that you can all see for yourselves. It is 
only a matter of investigation of the plants which I have built, 
and which are opei^ to inspection by you at any tiiTie^ and I will 
be glad to have you see them. 

Mr. Denniston — I was asked by the Secretary if I rxjuld not 
prepare a paper on fuel gas, and 1 sakl I thought 1 would. At 
that time I expected to have the process in operation so that 1 
could give you my experience^ Init 1 have been unfortunate in 
tbal^ and have not bad it in operation. I have, however, given 
some little attention to the subject, and have made some at- 
tempts at it. I certainly feci under oliligation to Mr. Clark for 
the very clear statement that he has made, anil 1 think that lbs 
paper is w^ell worthy the careful consitleratiun of gas men. 1 
differ somewhat with our President^ who this morning stated that 
he did not think that it was wr>rth our while to attempt to make 
fuel gas. Possibly I misunderstood his language ; but from 
bearing his address read I thought he stated that there had been 
so little success attending it so far, that it was hardly worth our 
whdc tu attempt to make it I hope I am wrong in this under- 
slanding, for J certainly thnik it is worth our while to make 
Siime investigation of this matter. 



78 



Twt; pRKsiuENT — I til ink if you will rt^ad what I s^d you 
will understand it difTerently. 

Mr Denniston — Then I am wrong, and stand corrected. I 
wfjuld he thankful to any one who would make known any plan 
that will sec u re a good cheap fuel gas ; and J am glad to see 
that Mr. Clark is so enthusiastic upon this subject. While he 
may not have got all in it that could be expected, and not all 
thai he expected to get, stilt he is a little belter than others 
who claim to have il all ; and Mr. Clark deserves to have 
success if he has not attained it. I claim that even tf he has 
not attained il he may yet attain success; and it may be a 
comparative success lu him when under different circum- 
stances it might not be a success to me or to other mem- 
bers in dillerent lucaliUeSj or under different circumstances. 
I tlTjnk there is no question among practical men about the pos- 
sibility of making, or even about the practicaf)ilily of making, a 
fuel gas. The method of manufacture and the kind made, 
must determine largely both as to the rr>st and the utility of it. 
I have fmind in some recent experiences that an intense heat 
can be made from steam, oil and air, generated in an entirely 
different manner from this plan snggesteil by Mr Clark. And 
that coal dust can also be used t«> advantage, where it can be 
obtained at low cost, and even that it may pay to crush nut coal 
and slack into dnst in ortler to spray it into the retorts, or gen- 
erators, as may be desirable, owing to what use it may be put to. 
Kspecially would this be the case if making only illuminating 
gas. The heat furnished during the irial I have referred to was 
such as to fuse the best fire brick in a short time, when properly 
applied. If not projirrly a]>piied it would be of little or no 
value. This, however, is not singular to this particular gas, as 
the same may be said t;f any fuel gas, or indeed of any fuel ; 
but it does not follow always that when the theory is correct ihe 
trial is satisfactory. Then, again, the practical man may suc- 
ceed in the application of a principle that scientifically would be 
cast aside. How often have we seen labored and scholarly dis- 
sertations set at naught by some ingenious practical application, 
which, when i^etn, and it has become an acceptetl fact, can be 
easily explained^ Init fif which it may have been asserted that 




79 



theoretically it was impracticable if not indeed iniposs^ible. 
Tiicrefore, it is not for me or for any one» when Mr. Clark (who 
ii qualified tn a double sense), or any sensible man asserts he 
can accomplish certain results, to say it cannot be clone, until 
after the fullest Investigation and most careful trial it has been 
proved a failure. I have no doubt Mr. Clark can improve on 
present methods, an<l yet it may be a success to him now, There 
arc certainly some things to commend in his plan. I believe 
that for certain pui^oses fuel gas cao be made to take the place 
of solul fuel, and I believe it can be matlc from culm or coal 
*l«st, slack and oil, or oil and steam, or by a combination of these 
matcnak; and that hot air can also be used to advantage in the 
manufacture of the gases in the generators and retorts. Indeed, 
this is no longer a matter of btUef — it is now knowledge; but 
Il)elicve that for certain purposes and in certain localities it can 
t^ done with profit. It has been asserted that hot air costs, in 
energy to heat it, all it is worth in the heating furnace, but that 
depends upon circumstances ; if y<iu have the heat, and it is heat 
that would otherwise be lost, it would certainly be of advantage 
to use it where heat is required, and thus utilize a waste pro- 
tlact : and then, too, may not the hot air, like the sui>erdieated 
steam, be of value in aiding the formation of the gas, as well as 
its ultimate final combustion ? I am an interested (larty in some 
new methods proposed, where this process will I hope soon be 
put to a practical test. Some experiments have been made- 
enough to show results heretofore unexpected : but a thorough 
test under favorable circumstances has not yel been made. Some 
lime since a trial was made with a crude machine, where, as at 
Oliver Roberts' Pittsburgh wire mill, an intense heal was gen- 
erated with a comparatively small amount of oil. li was tbefe 
that this crude machine was operated for about a week, and was 
to a degree successful — so murh so, indeeil, that improvements 
have since been made, patents applied for and obtained, which 
it is claimed will, for iron and steel heating in reversible Siemens 
furnaces, prove a decided advance over present methods and 
produce a great heat at a comparatively small cost. Neither 
ihc plant to make it nor the gaseous fuel being expensive, it can 
he used as natural gas is used, with tjcncllt to the iron ur steel 
as tile case may be. I do not claim that it can be made to su- 



perseile natural gas where it is, or in the immediate vicinity c*C 
natural gas districts ; but that it can be used to advantage wher^ 
coal is scarce and freights high and where oil can be transpnrte J 
in tank cars for less than either hard or soft coaK If an illumi' 
nating gas were wanted the same plant can be used, but only ^ 
minimum of air and steam wimld be used, and consequently i* 
smaller production, which, tuo, would retjuire purification. 1 
have been pleased with the presenialion of this subject by Mr* 
Clark, and \ believe the subject will be kept before gas men - 
and in fait all classes until we get a good gas fuel. It is hard 
for those of us who have beeu accustomed lo gas fuel to con- 
template a return, even in ttie dim thstance, to solid fuel, wrtli 
all its attendant dirt, smoke and general nuisance and filthiness. 
We want, in fact as w^ell as in theory, a good, safe, fuel gafi — 
atul I was going to add "rheap *': but if in other respects it i^ 
satisfadory, a high prire would be paid bef<»re we would again 
use coal. I hr»pe and t-xptri to learn more of this interesting 
subject. 

I may say, before taking my seat, that I was somewhat sur- 
prised to see it stated in Mr. Clark's paper that he does not pro- 
pose to tliscuss the fuel question nprui anything but a coal basis; 
or upon the basis of fuel gas which can be disiribuied. My 
experiments so far have been for the purpose of allempting to 
gel a fuel gas thai could be used in iron and steel and such like 
furnaces, and not for general distribution. If we are siiccc^- 
ful in that, ibe cjlher will folhiw. If ytni can get such a heat 
which was atlainetl at the wire mill which I mentiiuied, and that 
can be proven to be successful, to such places as Pittsburgh^ 
Chicago, antl different manttfacturing points^ it would be of 
great benefu, though you might not gel a fuel gas which could 
be distributed to the general public. As well might we under- 
take to distribute coal to every person throughout the West 
where wood is more plenty than ct»al. I think if we can get a 
manufacturing fuel gas, a fuel gas which can be used in the 
Siemens' furnace (as I claim this can beK that is a great point 
gained and these other uses will naturally follow. As it) the 
amount of air necessary to be used, I may say that you can 
grade that to suit the character of the gas you want to make. 
And, as 1 have slated, if you want to make an illuminating gas, 



i 



81 



you can leave out the air, and make it from oil alone, or by the 
comliinalion I suggest. It is not made by cupolas, but by re- 
torts; but not necessarily so, as it may l>e made in a cupola also. 
And further than this, to use culm, and the waste about coal 
mines is another object in view where you can make this gas 
from cheap fut-K I think Mr. Loom is stated in his remarks that 
while he use*l air of a certain percentage it not only carries the 
heat where you want Tt» but it aids in the coin!)ustion of the gas 
already formed ; or if you have not gr>t a fixed gas, to carry 
vjifxir into the furnace. It may do for that when it will not do 
for other purp<^>ses. For instance, it might not do for tiie man- 
ufarture of crcjt kcry ware, and such things as are glazed, for 
tht" stcum wcjuld lake the glazing off, whereas the same heat, 
niaile (rum the same products and put in a furnace for heating 
hilfetsof iron or steel, would increase in amount tlie heat given 
^>ff m that furnace, Asl say I am not preparetl with data which 
1 expected to have, but hope to have them later. 

Thi: PkKsiDENT— I think in the last six months^ most of you 
feve hearti the statement made that progress is promoted by 
enthusiasts. We have a gentleman present^ who is, I think, an 
enthusiast on this subject. I refer to our friend Fuben. We 
shall be pleased t<^ hear from him. 

Mr. Fa hen— I did not come here to dis<'uss fuel gas, hut ti» 
listen. At some future time I may discuss with the gentlemen 
this subject, but I am not prepared tu do so to-day. 

Mr. a, C. HiMV'HREVs — I would like to ask Mr. Lcjoniis 
what would be the maximum size of the outlet burner which he 
>rouid use for the tlislribiitirtn of producer gas, and which wtHild 
keep ignited under alt conditions, so as to be perftcily safe. 1 
have made scrnie investigations in this line, and in every case 
where ! have got on ti» the use of producer gas I found that 
the burner uf the size which would ordinarily be used in a 
liaiise was unsafe. In unr case that possibly Mr. Loomis would 
be interested in» the burner was probal>ly 2 inches in diameter, 
and It went out two or three times in the course of two 
flitnutes, and had to be lighted with a torch. I would also like 
li> ask Mr. Loomis how, in the productron of gas by the method 
which he has outlined or referred to, he would conserve all the 



82 



llyclri^-carht>lls oi thtr rtjul ? I cannot set' huw h«^ cuuUl do s>o. 
The blast jjoes thniiigh the coal, and how he can chain the 
hydro-carbons to their places to let them free in the second 
part of the process^, is somewhat of a mystery. 1 think it is 
due to Mn Clark to point out that there has been no effort 
on his part to drag in a process, but rather to point out a 
the<»ry upon which we must ail work if w*e are going to be sue- 
cessful in the prud action of a gas for general (Hstribntirtn. Of 
course there would be excepiions. Mr. Clark has pointed that 
out very clearly, and perhaps the clearness with which these 
points are stated in his paper will be more apparent upon a 
second reading ; but nnd<uibtedly the ])oint is well made that 
w^c must look to soft coal for our general heating gas. That is 
a fuel which is scattered all over the world, whereas anthracite 
is comparatively rare, anil i»il is comparatively rare — at least 
it will be comparatively rare when we come to use it in such 
immense (luaiUities as we w^tnild have tcj for fuel gas. AH 
these points have lo be borne in mind. 

Mr. Ijuimis — A t|ueslion was asked with regard to a burner 
for producer gas. I did not say that I would distribute pro* 
ducer gas to be used for private consumption; on the contrary, 
I say that I would not. 

Mr. Humfhrevs — I understood you to say that it could he 
done. 

Mr, Loomis— I did not intend lo say so. What f did intend 
to say was that producer g;is could be carried in pipes to any 
distance and burned in mctanurgical works, and for heating 
large sjxiccs or areas where it could be burned in a large open 
fire. I said positively that I would not put any of it in with 
a mixture of tJther gases for street distribution, and that ! 
would not distribute it for househidd use, because I know the 
linbiliiy of any gas to go out when it has air or nitrogen mixed 
with it, 

Mr» HcvtriiKKVs — tiranlmg the pt»sitti»n now taken by Mr. 
Loomis, wiU he not now* answer my question: What would be 
the minimum siic of the outlet of the burner ? 

Mr. LouMis — 1 cannot sav what would be the minimum sijsc. 



It burns reaclrty out of an inch fir two inch pipe, but we have 
not had occasion to determine how small a burner we could 
use. We have burned it in a smaller burner, under blaBt. I 
said, to begin with, that I would not use the gas for household 
uses. 

Mr. Humphreys — Leaving the houses out, 1 would like to 
gel some satisfactory information as to the size of the burner, 
Do I understand Mr. Loomis to say that it would be safe ftjr 
boiler purposes, or anything else, to distribute a producer gas 
and expect to burn it out of an inch and a *piarter pipe? 

Mr. Loomis— Yes, I think it would be. 

Mr, Clark — Mn Loomis speaks of the generation of pro- 
ducer and water gas, and the subsequent mixture of the two 
for some purposes. Do you mean, Mr Loomis, the generation 
of producer and water gas in the same vessel, one process 
alternating with the other? 

Mr. Loomis — Yes, sometimes we produce them at one time 
when the heat is in the right condition, in which case we mix 
them all together, or, we make them alternately, one in one 
place and another in another, and then mix them. In metallur- 
gical works, we fmd they do not like to use water gas for many 
uses — 1 cannot exfilain to you all their tbenries^l>ut they say 
thai it has too high a flame temperature, or that they want a 
mixture of gases of lower llame temperature. Then we have 
another metallurgical works where, if we do not use a regenera- 
tive furnace, we are obliged to use higher temperatures, and to 
use water gas pretty nearly alone. .M the Waltham Watch 
Works they were using illuminating gas to melt magnetic alloy, 
ind it was impossible for them to do it under an hour and a 
half, and sometimes two hours; but with water gas alone they 
can melt it in thirty minutes. 

Mr, Ct.ARK — You would not ex])ect any difference between 
protlucer gas, as ymi call it, and the water gas made from the 
same apparatus, alternating, and a prtjducer gas made with as 
much steam as the coal would take, would you ? 

Mr. I^ooMis — If you put the steam in and mix it all together 
yuu make a superior producer gas. Instead of being 60 per 




ceiiL nitroj^en, ii will run tluun js Icjw as 45 per cent. T 
makes a good producer ^as, but it is practically pari water gas. 
It has a largt percentage of liyclr<>gen. That gas can be 
worked fnr niiming gas engines^ and is Ijeing so used in Eng- 
land largely at the present time^ and has reduced the consump- 
tion of coal for gas engines down as low as one and a quarter 
pounds of coal [ler horse ^Kiwer per hour, That, of course, is a 
gas that will ignite in a gas engine, 

Mr. Clark^ — 1 would like to get the composition of this ga" 
which you say can he carried to a tJistance and nstnl eronomi 
cally in metallurgical works. By " producer gas*' in that sense, 
do yuu mean air gas? 

Mr. 1. 00 mis— That is an air gas. Vou may take nothing bi 
air and ])ass it through stift coal and you can make a gas you 
can carry to any distance yi:»u like, antl it does not ctnidense or 
lose its vitality, 

Mr. Clark — W^ill it then light cold ? 

Mr. LooMis^-Yes. 



a 

us I 
li- 
se, 

ou I 
or I 

4 



% 



Mr. Clark— At facony, a few niotiths ago, they told us the 
producer gas that was made from soft coal, in the endeavor to 
hght cold was not a success — that they could make it burn as 
long as the torch was held to it, but when the torch was with- 
drawn it would go out. 

Mk. Loom is— Then it was hlt)wn <Hit by the blast. 

Mr. Ct^ark— But it was what they call producer gas. 

Mr. IiOOMis — It would hum better at a distance. It would 
burn better over in the furnace h<jusc, 1,000 feet away, than it 
would in the generator luuisc, and for this reason, when the 
generator starts and l>egins to make proilucer gas, there is a 
certani arntuun ui steam left in the exhauster in the lower part 
of the furnace which has not yet passed through the coal at all, 
and that steam will go out with the first producer gas, and 
until it has a place to condense somewhere it will pass aloii||H 
with the gas and put it out. The gas they lighted for you T 
might have been in that condition, 

Mr. Clark— They told me that it was gas coming from i 



Jucer holder, and J prtrsunicd, uf course, that it was all 
Vight. At the Bethelem Iron Works there are a large number 
of Siemens generators lying idle, because they found it was not 
economical to carry that gas r,5oo feel to where they had to 
Tuse it as producer gas. This statement was matle by their as- 
sistARt superintendent to me. Unit was nul air gas; that was 
a gas that would probably have 50 per cent, more heating 
power per cubic fo(»t. It was a gas mad<j with steam. 

Mr. LooMis^Bul that has n*> nior^r units of heat m\ it than 
the gas which I makt. 

Mr. Ct ark — (*an you rxjiIaHi Ic^ me how it is that a gas that 
IS made with air only, and whkh consists <miy of nitrogen and 
carbonit: oxide, can have as high heating power as a gas which 
displaces a part of the nitrogen with hydrogen ? 

Mr. LooMls — In the Siemens furnace very Utile ni the steam 
^oes into the gas. There is not as much hydrogen in their gas 
as there is in mine. In my gas I have frum 10 to 12 per cent, 
hydrogen, without the admission of steam. 

Mr. Clark — Where does the hydrogen c<niie from ? 

Mr, I*ouMr> — It is there. Thai is all ! know. Of CiKirse 
there is a certain dampness in the coal, and percentage of 
hydrogen in the coal. 

Mr. Humphreys — I understoud Mr. Loomis Lo say, a few 
minutes ago, that the gas was richer in the case of steam intro- 
duL-ed into the blast, but I may have been mistaken as lo that. 
I would like to ask Mr. Loomis if he cares in answer my in- 
<]uiry in regard to how he preserves all the hydrtj-carbons of 
the coal in his process, when he semis gas through the coal ? 

Mr. Loom is — I do not preserve all the hydro -carbons in the 
first two cases. We get the [iroducer gas the same as ycju do. 
If you blast coke tu incandescence, there is a certain amount 
of hydro-carbon in it in its first stage, and you do not gel them 
all out. There is a certain amount of carbon that you must 
blow away before you can get incandescence. I don't know 
that 1 exactly understood what you wish to know. 

Mk. HuMi'Hkivs — What I am trying to draw out is this. 




That it is not necessary to waste any of the hydro-carbon to g( 
it ready for water gas mariufacturing. What I was trying to 
draw out is either a denial or an acknowledgment that the gas 
ready for general distributiun (which Mr. Loumis agrees will be 
the gas, which Mr. Clark has pointed out as being an ideal gas) 
could not be produced from his apparatus and retain its hydro*j 
carbons. 



0«^H 

1 



Mr. Loomis — Do you think that none of them can be re 
tained ? 

Mr. Humphreys — I do not say that, but can they all be^ 
retained ? 

Mr. I.ooMis— No, I do uut retain all the hydro-carbons, but I^ 
accomplish the same thing, as the heat units are saved in one 
way or another. 

Mr. Humphreys— My question refers to the commercial gas 
as made ready for distribution. 

Mr. Loom is — No, I do not retain them all, nor does any one 
else, by any process. ^H 

Mr. Ciark— I have not spoken of any particular apparatus,^" 
and I want to ask you if the steps of the process which I have 
described in this paper will not result in a concentration of the 
coal gas in the final [>roduct ? 

Mr. Loomis — 1 cannot say as to that^ but i think you will 
find difficulties such as you have not yet-encountered in working 
them out. 

On mutton of Mr. Rowlauil a vote of thanks was passed tu 
Mr. Clark for his paper. 



COMMJTTEE UK PlAi. F. KOR HuLPlNC NeXT MEETING. 

On motiun of Mr. Harbison the Chair appointed the follow- 
ing gentlemen to serve as a Committee to designate the 
place in which to hold the next annual meeting : A. E. Board- 
man, Macon, Oa.; Thomas Turner, t'harleston, S. C; E. G. 
Cowdery, Milwaukee, Wis,; G. S. Hookey, Augusta, Ga., and 
J. I'. Harbison, Hartford, Conn. 




Introducing Commissioner HAkKBik. 

Thk: Prksidf.nt — We have with us to-day Mr, Barker, a mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts Board of Gas and Electric Light 
roramtssi oners, and I invite him to a seal on the platform. We 
know that he Is always willing to give us a wnrtl of adviue and 
tncourageiiient. (Appfause.) 

Mr. Barker — Mn President am) (ientlemen of the Associa- 
tion; I regret to say, Mr President, that I did not hear the 
whole of your remarks. I happened to be busy talking with a 
gcmlcman when you began speaking, when 1 heard my name 
rot;iUioiied and something* said about the platform. I hardly 
think you would care to have me take the time of the Associa- 
tJ?»n wliich might be belter spent in listening to others, I must 
thank you, however, for the very pleasant way in which you 
'lave mentioned my name, and for the very pleasant way in 
which the allusion lo the lioard has been recciveti. It is but 
*>nc of a long series of courtesies wfiich the members of this 
Association, and of some of the other Associations in the coun- 
Iq, have been pleased to extend t<» me as the re[>resentative of 
the Hoard. 1 am very glad indt.*ed iu lie able to express the 
cordial gratification of the Hoard for very many acts of kind- 
ness. It has been my good fortune to visit a large num!)er of 
the coqipanies throughout the country, and I confess that 1 have 
been somewhat surprised, as well as very greatly gratified, at 
the cordial reception which, as a represenlative of the Hoard, 
has been given to n»c\ The confident e wliich*has been shown 
by ihc exhibition which representatives of companies have made 
to us of their work, and of the facts cnming tr) their knowledge 
— a confidence which, I am happy to say, has never yet been 
betrayed — has been of very great service not only to the Board, 
but 1 trust of considerable benefit to the coni|)anit;s with which 
the Board sustains such intimate and important relations. As 
1 have said, Mr, President, I do not think that it is wise (or me 
to take the time of ihe Assoc iatjoti which can be better spent 
in hslening lo these very interesting |)a[jers which have been 
prepared. I can only express to the members of the Associa- 
liOD my profound wish for their prosperity and their success in 




the solution of the very important problems to which their at 
tcntion is directed. (Applause,) 

Mr. Harbison — Akhough a vote of thanks has been givei 
to Mr. Clark for his paper, I think that we ought not to let th( 
matter drop here, 1 am quite interested personally and official!; 
in the subject of fuel gas. I do not want a gas which can 
used in iron works specially, or only in manufacturing estal 
Itshments, but I want one which can be distributed for general 
use by the public^ so that the Company which I represent cai 
enter into the business of producing it and make an honest dol- 
lar by selling it at a reasonable price. I believe that Mr. Clark 
has started in the right road, and that he is working in a direc- 
tion winch will lend to the realisation of our hopes. Others 
may be, and no doubt are, working in the same fiekl We shaUH 
hope that ihey will arrive at practical results and not simply a^" 
theoretical results. I do not care to know especially whether a 
producer gas can be carried 50 feet or 100 miles from the point 
of production, 11ie (juestiun is, will it pay to do it ? Can it be 
carried in connection with legitimate fuel gas or water gas ? If 
not, then what advantage is it to us to discuss the question or to 
waste any time in discussing whether fuel gas can be carried 
that distance. Of course there can enough of it be made to be 
of practical value to a company engaged in the business of 
making and selling fuel gas. I move that Mr Clark be re- 
quested specially by the vote of this Association to present to 
us, at our next annual meeting, the resuUs obtained in his in- 
vestigations during next year. I make this motion because I 
think the subject is one of great importance to the members of 
this Association, and because it is desirable to have practical re* 
suits pre.scntcd to us. I know that Mr. C!lark, like many other 
members of the Association, is extremely modest and bashful* 
and might not be willing, without s«nne rc([nest on our part, to 
come before ns every year with a paper on this subject ; but I 
think that he is eminently fitted to prepare such a paper, and I 
hope he may be requested by the vote of the Assoriation to do 
so, and present it to us next year. I so move. 

The motion prevailed, 

Mk. Clark — I appreciate the kindness of Mr. Harbison^s 



^ 



remarks. 1 cannot promi*^e that I will tell next year what has 
been done with the apparatus that I am at present operating, 
but if I am successful you will certainly hear from me. 

Thk Prksident — We will now listen to the paper by Mr. R. 
E. Chollar, of Topeka, Kan., on the 

PURIFICATION OF GAS FROM KANSAS COALS. 

The gas coa! tie Ids of Kansas at the present time are limited 
to a small district, hardly more than 20 otiles long; and 5 mtles 
wide, situated in the counties of Cherokee and Crawford, in the 
extreme southeastern part of the State. Hie coal deposit is 
ihrtc to four feet in thickness, and is found at the depth of 
^\mi 40 feel below the surface of the ground, 'Hie vein is not 
conunuous, but considerably broken up by clay seams, comrntmly 
bown as •* horse-barks/* The apjiearauce of the coal at first 
glance is much the same as that *if the product of the Eastern 
iiiine% excepting perha|)s that tlic color miy:ht seem to incline to 
a brown or a dark bronze, h is softer antl more friable than 
niany of the Eastern coals, and is especially liable to disintegra* 
lH;tJ from exposure to the weather. Tlie ccjals as shipped from 
the mines, contain large tjuantitics of iron pyrites ; not only in 
Itll defined streaks, but also thuronjfhly permeating the whole 
nJiss. About six per cent, in weight of the coa! can easily be 
picked out for rejection. The coal is a fairly good gas and coke 
ptoducer ; the average yield at I'opeka for two years being 4.56 
feet per pound, and the average illuminating power 17.42 can- 
tllcs. The ctial furnishes about twotbirds its weight in coke 
tieavily charge*! with sulphur, but of good heating (jower. The 
'j«antity of ash and clinker is fully one-eighth the weight of 
the coke. The composition of gas in respect to the two prin- 
cipal iiiipurriies, is subject to very great and very ra[>id fluctu- 
aiJODs, Contrary to the usual rule, the sulphureted hydrogen is 
^uia excess of the carbonic acid ; the former varying in fjuan- 
tityhetween 40 and 75, antl the latter between 15 and 25 volumes 
per fhou!»aud. Two exaniiiiations in quick succession uf the gas 
just before the condenser gave, respectively, 59 and 60 volumes 
ptr thousand of H^S, to 14 and 14 of CU^. At the same time, 
iht? gas immediately after the condenser indicated $^ volumes 




of tt|S aod 14 of CO J per thousand. The g^eneral effect of 
the condenser is tu remove sulphureted hydrogen and not car- 
bonic add. 

In Ihe purification of gas frtno ihese coals, the popular idea 
that CO5 combines more readily than HgS with lime, is cunlra- 
dieted, and llie npinion is confirmed that such a theory could 
not have gained credence where coals similar to these were used. 

The experiments next following will show the condition of 
the several purifiers, when the gas at the out!et of the third was 
about to show a foul test with lead paper. 



VulA. PUR. lOOQL 

Outlet 3d purifier nil , , 

2d " 10 

'' ist ** 50 

Crude gas 48 



CO, 
VOL0. PKR. looa 
J 

.* . 5 

, , . 10 
.....15 



The first purifier was doing good work with respect to C0^« 
but was discharging into the scloiuI more H^S than it was re- 
ceiving at its own inlet. I'he load, it will be noticed, was chiefly 
on the second, which was removing 40 volumes, or fully four- 
fiflhs of the HgS* and at the same time atjuantity of CO^ equal 
to that absorbed by the first one. The third purifier was remov- 
ing the last fifth of the HjjS, which, under ordinary conditions, 
it could easily do with the presence *»( so small a tjuantity of 

CO. 

The tpiantity of carbonic acid indicated above at the outlet 
of the third purifier is pnibably over estimated, by reason both 
of the dtfliculty of accurately measuring so small a contraction 
as three volumes in a thousand, and of the fact that nearly the 
same error of estijuation is included in this small quantity as 
might be expected in a larger one. 

What little CO 3 there was left in the gas, was probably all, or 
very nearly all in comljinatiun with NH^; the gas at this point 
was alkaline, and reijuired a strong flow for 15 to 20 minutes to 
produce a visible elTect uiion a solution of acetate of lead. 

On the same day, after putting a fresh purifier to work, a sim- 
lar examination resulted as follows : 



I 



91 



H,S CO, 

Outlet jd purifier,. o .. j 

'* 2d *• 8 4 

" ISt ** 12 ,,,,6 

Crude gas 44. 16 

The purifier that was second in the previous case had now be- 
come first in the series, and it was still able to remove 32 vol- 
umes of HjS and 10 of CO,. 

After about 200 M of gas had passed, the foil owing result 
wai obtained. 

H,S CO J 

V0L8. l*Xlt lOOQ. VciLH. PKH 1000. 

Crude gas at start 52 12 

Uullct 2d purifier , . 8 4 

'* 1st ** .--..,....26 6 

Crude gas at end.,,.. • , . ..,51 -.13 

The first purifier was perceptibly weakening, but still was able 
to remove 25 volumes of HjS and 7 of CO,. 'I'he second re- 
mained about in the same cundition as before. The test at the 
outlet uf the third was omitted. 

Several hours before the next change of purifiers tlic condi- 
tion was the following : 

H.S CO, 

VtiU^ VKH 1000. Yiil^. t*hlH llKlO, 

Outlet 2tl fuirifier » . 8 , . .*.,.».. 4 

'* 1st ** .40.. , . 6 

Crude gas ^ 50 (6 

The first purifitr hail nearly Insl its grip on the H,S and 
alhiwftl 40 out of 50 vokime^i <if H^S U\ pass into the secMiul. 
It was, however* able to stop 10 volumes or twn-thirds of the 
CO,. The foregoing experiments go to show licyond a doubt 
that nut only does the lime lake n[> the I!,S mcjrcr readily than 
I U does the CO^ but also that a lime punfitT vvlit^n saturated 
with H,S may still ctmlinue lo take up t'O^, 

In onlcr further to test this n)atter» the crude gas was passed 
'n a wash bottle through the several solutions enumerated be- 
low, 



92 

H,S CO, 

VOT^. PBH 1000. VoiiS. PER 1000. 

Crude gas at start 51 . . 15 

After carbonate of ammonia .. .37 33 

" " ** soda . 7 19 

" milk of lime 3 15 

** caustic soda 3 14 

Crude gas at end 50 14 

The caustic alkalies removed nearly all of the H,S, while 
they hardly touched the COj; while on the other hand, the 
alkaline carbonates actually increased the quantity of CO,. 
This latter action is confirmed by the action of the washer, 
which, when the flow of water becomes partially stopped, not 
unfre(iuently does the same thing. 

It would seem, therefore, that notwithstanding the greater 
affinity of the lime for the H^S than for the CO,, yet in conse- 
(|uence of the great abundance of the lime in operation, the 
actual absorption of both ()f these impurities is proportional to 
their relative (juantitics present in the gas. In the above ex- 
|)eriments, the estimation of ammonia has been neglected. 

In order, however, to fnul out if any perceptible error had 
been made by so doing, the crude gas was passed through 
diluted sulphuric acid, determinations of the H^S and CO, being 
made before and after as follows: 

H,S CO, 

Voi^. i»Ku 1000. Vols, pkk 1000. 

Crude gas 42 19 

A f ter acid 41 21 

Crude gas .. 41 22 

After acid 42 22 

One of two things is probably true, /. c, either the quantity 
of NH3 was too small to measure by volume, or it was in the 
form of carbonate, which, upon being decompo.sed by the acid, 
set free its own volume or thereabouts of COj. In either case 
the volume of ammonia present was (piite probably not in suffi- 
cient cpiantity to affect the relative proportions of the other 
impurities as determined above. 

In examining the hydraulic main liquor from the Kansas 



Sararicrtsiics will be observed^ — implead 
fvf finding ihc ammonia chit^fiy in the form of carbonate, as is 
usually the case, we fmd it almost entirely in the form of chlo- 
ride. *S(i free from carbonates is it usually found that only at 
times rill the aclcblioii of strong acid jjroduce any elTerves- 
ctnct, It weighs abcmt 6"^ Twaddel, and indicates abtnjt 9 oz, 
strcn^h per U, S. gallon by distillation. 

Thi* lit|uor from the condenser is very highly charged with 
Qfbonates as well as with sulphides. Il efTervesces furiously 
t»rt the additi«>n of an acid, and gives a strong precipitate with 
acid sulphate of iron. It weighs about 4A' Twaddel, and indi- 
cates about 5 ,\ oz, strength by distillation. The water from 
the washer cunudns chiefly the sulphides of ammonium, with a 
fair share of carbonates. Il weighs ordinarily only about i^° 
TwjuMrl, but indicates about 5 *iz. strength by distiHation. 

Tht: removal I »f so large a quantity of H^S in the purifiers 
priHluces as a matter of course a t:orresponding c|uantity f>f 
water, which drains through the lime and r ullects on the hot- 
t«m» of purifiers. This water weighs about 3^ ounces and in- 
dicate^ about the same nurjihcr r>t ounces in strength. It 
consist?* chiefly of the sulphides of ammoninni and of calcium. 
Notwithstanding the large i[uantity of sulphur compounds in 
this gas, the practical purification t>f it is not so diftit ult a 
matter as one might reasonably expect. The purifjcati<m is 
conducted entirely with reference to the IT^S; the CO, will 
cau?,c no trouble. Effective condensation will remove the tar 
and help to a certain extent with the H^S, Thorough w^ashing 
or SLTubbtng, especially the latter, will remove no small tpian- 
tity of the soluble suljihides. In the purifiers the quantity of 
H,S being so extremely large, the lime is rapidly converted into 
&ul|xbicles, thus providing an ample supply of material for the 
absorption of the sulphides of carbon— these latter compounds 
arc Well represeutetl in the crude gas, so well in fact, that in 
case the purifiers fail to act pro[>erly, they have a way of show- 
»ng their presence at the burner as much to the disgust of the 
consumer as to the annoyance of the producer 

In wurking the purifiers, it is best not in trust too confi- 
dently the indications of lead paj^er, especially at the outlet (jf 
Ibc third b*>x; fctr by the time the foul test is shown at that 




94 



place, the first purifier will probably have become over-charged 
with HjS, and the middJe one uncertain in condition, thus 
throwing too great a responsibility^ as it were, upon the last 
box. The sulphides of carbon, as is well known, give no warn- 
ing of their coming, and are liable to appear at any time after 
the first purifier has become inaitive. 

A safe way tt» operate, particularly in winter, is by a kind of 
**rult^of thumb;" that is to say — find out by experience how 
much gas can safely be passed per purifier, then to be careful 
not to exceed I hat tjuantity, being, however, always ready to 
make a change at any time, in trase a foul test should appear. 

The proper preparation of the lime, as well as the filling of 
the boxes, are matters of especial importance and should re- 
ceive careful attention. With purifiers of sufficient trapacity, 
two irays of lime, each one foot ileep, in each purifier, has been 
fiuind to give good satisfaction. The average duty of the 
native lime is between 5,000 and 6,000 feet per bushel. 

In view of the foregoing, it will hardly be denied that the 
successful purification of this gas demands an alkalme material. 
Lime Is effective, but costly. Fortunately, however, ammonia 
abounds in good quantity in tlie gas, and it is not improbable 
that at a day iu>t far distant the substitution of this ctimpound 
for lime, together with crjn verting the H,S iniu suliihuric acid, 
will remove this last named stiurce of expense and overcome 
the greatest objection to the use of these coals. 

The peculiar affinity of ammonia for HjS is well known, as 
also is the extreme solubility of the sulphides of ammonia- 
Estimating the average quantity of HgS in the crude gas at 
50 volumes per thousand, the weight of pure sulphur will be 
more than 40 pounds — a quantity sufficient to produce more 
than 100 lbs, of sulphuric acid — in the gas from each ton of 
2, 000 lbs. of coal. 

The present cost for lime is nearly three cents per thousand 
feet. If the cost of operating the ammonia purification should 
be no greater, the sale of sulphuric acid and of sulphate w*)uid 
have the very satisfactory effect of changing a heavy expense 
into a handst>me profit. 



95 



DisctiSshfK 

Mr. Egner — 1 would like to ask Mr. Cliollar wliat is the 
condition of the lime ? Is it very wet ? 

Mr. Chollar — It is wet, hut not so wet as is customary to 
use it where Pittsburgh and Eastern coals are ustd, because 
the Kansas coals have a larger amount of sulphureted hydro- 
gen which generates water in the purifiers. 

On motion of Capt. Wliite, the thanks of the Association 
wtrr voted to Mr. Chollar for his interesting paper. 

The Pkksident — We will take up one more paper to* night, 
which will still leave ^\z for to-morrow. 

Mr. Jno. Young, of Allegheny, Pa,, tlum rt-ad ihtf following 
paper on 



SOME THOUGHTS ON IL KL (iAS INDUCKD FROM 
PRACTICAL KXPKRIENCK IN THE DISTRIBU- 
TION OI' NATURAL GAS. 

Mr, Preiidetti and Gentlemen i*f (he American Gas Li^ht As- 
smation : T h e d i s co v e ry and a p ] 1 1 1 ca t i o n of n a t u ra 1 gas f o r 
domestic heating, and manufacturing purposes in quite a num- 
ber of places, and its superiority over coal as a fuel, have 
!>tin3ulatcd research into the possil)ility of manufacturing a fuel 
ipis to sufiply localities not favored with the natural article. 
Some of our ablest and most advanced gas engineers have 
taken the matter in hand and have, in these meetings and else- 
whcre» exjiressfd their faith in the ultimate commercial success 
uf a fnanufactured fuel gas. That there art- at [>rcsent, how- 
ever, Tery great difficulties in the way» will, I think, be ad- 
milicd by the most sanguine. The most formidabte difficulty 
that has to be encountered is in what 1 may term the cummer- 
cial difiiculty, vi;j. : The difficulty of prodticing the gas at a 
price people will buy it. There are other difficulties which otir 
experience in supply of natural gas has made very evident to 
iis» and it is probable they may have been overlooked to some 
extent by thi>se having no experience in supplying fuel gas. 1 
refer particularly to the erratic and varying demand and to the 



96 



great disprnpfntiiiii between the maximum and rotnimum d^ 
niiind. These may be termed simply mechanical difliculue^ 
but to overcome thein will greatly increase the commercial 
diUhculty as il involves excessive outlay on (ilant. In (mier tC 
make this inalter as i lear to ytm as possi!)le, 1 shall deal with 
the whole (»f our tlumestic consumplitm m Allegheny Ciiy. 

Allegheny City is suppi»sed to contain a populatioo o( from 
90,000 to 100,000, The number of houses is probably about 
15,000. Of that numl)er we supply 7,500. We ccjnsider wc 
supply almost every house worth supplying and probal^Iy in 
the cities of the size and character of Pittsburgh and AUegbeoy 
n(»t more than one-half the houses would use fuel gas, even if 
its cost approached the price of t*oaL There are various rea* 
sons for this which your experience in supplying tlluminaling 
gas would' suggest. Taking, then, the city of Allegheny, with 
its 100,000 population, as an illustration of the (]uantity of fuel 
gas required for a given ptipulation^ we can learn something of 
the capacity of a fuel gas plant retjuired fur its supply from oor 
experience in supplyitig natural gas. 

We can arrive at this pretty eorrecily from the fact that 
about one-half nf tiur consumers are supplied by meter. There 
is, therefore, no hajihazard estimate as to the quantity of gas 
required. Last winter was exceptionally mild, and the figures 
would give the niininruin rather than the maximum of winter 
consunq>tion. The average consunqition per house per day 
from Nnvend>er ist to April ist was 2,000 cubic feet, but as al 
least 75 per cent, of that i|uantiLy is used between the hours af 
7 A.M. and 10 f. m., it would he necessary to provide for an 
average consumption of 100 feet j>er hour for each house, or at 
the rate c»f 750,000 feet per hour, making for the 15 hoursa total 
of 11,250,000 cubic feeU Add to this the additional 500 cubic 
feet ret|uired for each house for the balance of the 24 hours, 
and we get a total of 18,000,000 cubic feet as the quantity 
necessary to supply 7»Soo consumers on an average winter day. 

You will notice, htiwever, that for nine himrs out of the 24 
the consumption is only 500 feet per hour for each house, equal 
to a total of 416,666 cubic feel per hour, as again.st 750,000 for 
tlie other 15 honr.s^ the average for the 24 hours being 625^000 
feet per hour. 



97 



fteed not point out to you that tu produce g;is economically 
it is necessary the production should be pretty nearly uniform 
during the 24 hours. To make 750,000 feet per hour for 15 
I'^JUrnamJ then drop to 4i6/)66 for the remainiii}^ 9 hours would 
i^e ver)' awkwani and also very costly. It will, therefore, be 
necessary, in order to gel a uniform production, to have a stor- 
age capariiy of 3^750,000 cubir feet. There Is, hf>wever. another 
^mi more dit^cnlt phase of the matter. In providing fi>r the 
snpplyuf fuel [?as to any community it will be necessary to pro- 
vide manufacturing and dislribuiin^ plant adequate to supply 
Ihe greatest consum[ition, I'he greatest consumption will, of 
coiirsn:, occur on the eolde^t days. As the temperature rises or 
^«»IK so in a regular proportion will the consumption be greater 
<^r less. With a given consumption at j2 temperatiire, it will 
iicr^itse 50 to 60 per cent, if the temperature falls to zero. In 
<JMr changeable climate, such a fall often occurs within 24 hours. 
^Vithjn that period the consumption may rise from 750,000 feet 
per hour to 1,125,000 feet per hour, requiring 16,875,000 feet in 
the 15 hours, instead of 11,250,000 cubic feet, an increase of 
5,625,000 in 15 hours. You can appreciate the difficulty of be- 
ing suddenly called upon to increase your production by over 
5.5oo»ooo feel. Therefore, to avoid intermittent work and pro- 
tide against failure of supply, it will be necessary in order to 
supply even the comparatively small number of 7,500 consumers 
to have an enormous storage capacity. In the demand for illu- 
iiHiiating gas, there is a gradual and steady increase from the 
"^immum to the maximum consumption, and a corresponding 
Meady decrease from the maximum to the minimum. On the 
contrary, during seven months in the year, the demand for fuel 
[Ji»* is most erratic, sometimes varying from 50 to 60 per cent, m 
H hours, and seldom for a week together will the demand be any- 
'Wng near uniform. In June, July, August and September, the 
Consumption of fuel gas dwindles down to a mere fraction of 
the winter consumption. The difficulties that have to be met in 
erecting a fuel gas plant are, first • The necessity of providing 
3 manufacturing and distributing plant equal to the greatest 
demand (which demand may only exist for two or three weeks 
in the year), involving great outlay and comparatively small 
Tciurns. The providing for erratic demand oecessitaling great 
7 



K -i^'. :.^ : I. : - :r i-ae utem: treat and expensive working. It 
"i - - - -.n :i -:tr=<-;zx :' I ^ and give you an idea of the 

I - 1 - - i-- : .■< :: i :-e: ^as piant necessary to supply 7,500 

■-:-:--* I * :-L. i.wi=.e :i:e p-:ss:bility of distilling the vol- 

i: T - 1".-: r - i. : :. — .- :c5 cual and converting the residual 

: it -: vi--:-~i>i.: :z* -7* rarion in the same vessel. I shall 

L-i - -- r : i: : ■ r r ::•■=>? »:'.! ;r«;-i:;ce 30.000 feet per ton of coal | 

: '.' t " ^t : ^Jl-j-t^, ^.v r.i 42c heat units per cubic foot Ishali 
1 *. i*---t •■. - .- : .r.s-.'icrable of an assumption) that by 

" : r.'.T : ^; i'. .e^ ::r ->:r.§ the gas, one foot of the fuelg^ 
:.:i :. ,: ^c: r.rJi: -r.::^ per f«x)t can be made to perform the 
- 1~*: 1: . : : :' A rk that one fo<3t of natural gas is now doing 
A.tr. .*.- i.zzz :.t:'.i -J nils per foot. 

I - .ii. :\^r.':.^r assume that coal will cost $2.00 per ton a^^ 
::. :t f:ii- ':. <■ '^^■^ (I do not know any better term) will produ^^ 
75/:,'.o :'»;':: j^rrr (Jay. To get at the maximum quantity require^' 
;i will ]}*: :.ef e-sary to gtft the average temperature for the fi^^ 
ffjoiiths Oh whicli our figures are based, then allow for the ext^ 
rjiiantity ri:(\\\'\rt;<\ at a zero temperature. The average tempe^' 
.ifiiu- for tin- iivi: months was 36.64 degrees, and, as the averag'^ 
r|;iily '.oiisiinii)iion of j^^as was 15,000,000, we must add at lea5^^ 
';o per Milt, to that (juantity, making 22,500,000, the maximurr'^ 
d.iilv •|ii.miity that must be {provided for. The yearly capacity"' 
i)f .1 pl.iiit providing 22,500,000 feet per day is 8,2 i2,5oo,oocr 
I (Ml, I III! as (luring (wc shall say) seven months of the year the 
.»\«i.»r.r d.uly consiiniplion is only 15,000,000 cubic feet, and 
.Imiiu'. ihr nihci live months only one-fifth of that quantity, the 
loi.il .ininiint icMjuircd for the year is only 3,639,000,000, equal 
to omI\ 11 |M'i Kc\\\. of tho actual producing capacity of the 
pl.int I .un not siittirirntly ronvtTsant with the cost of fuel 
I \. pi.int'. to \M\r A \riv lorrnt estimate of the cost of a plant 
. »l«.»l»l» ot piodui \\\\\ ,uul distributing 22,500,000 cubic feet per 
\\ \\ . Imh \i I pl,»rr w at $;.ovv\ooo I think 1 shall rather under- 
, itMMt^ \\\\\\ o\*i x'stunaio It. With these data we shall try and 

S,»\\ \\ \\\\.\\ \\\\\\\s^ \\w\ >iaN vMi\ bo produced. 

< * * ' *■ N' ., .f;4:.fxx\ or, o.ii666o cents per M. 

I • ■ ■> •■ '• •*' » » ♦-• «^" »"'*.n\4^\ v'»r. 0.02660 •• •• 

^' •» ' ■ ■ " ' N,"' "''^ .V kXV, or. o.cx>549 ** •* 



Bistnbution, repatrs and maintenance 

(streets) ,,..♦* 26,000, or, 0.00^14 ccnte per M. 

Weir uid tear and yard expenses 36i390i or, o.oiooo *' '* 

8 per cent, on f 3,000. cxx> 240,000, or, 0*06595 ** " 



18.178 cents per M, 

It will be seen that in providing for the wants of even a com- 
paratively small community, we have Lo deal with large cjuan- 
tities, and if the use of a fuel gas were to became anything like 
gencriil in our large cities, the consumption of raw material 
lODid he enormous. At this point 11 is pertinent to in(|utre what 
waicfial can be had in sufficient quantity to supply such a large 
demand, and I think we can reply unhesitatingly, coal, and coal 
Oily. It is also safe to make the assertion that the whole of 
^hecoal must be converted into the gaseous form. If the vol- 
atile portion of the coal alone were used, no sufficient market 
could be found for the immense amounts of secondary products, 
such as coke, tar, ammoniacaJ liquid, etc. While petroleum may 
bt a factor in the production of fuel gas, so far as my knowledge 
^J5t€nds, its quantity is too limited to be depended upon as a 
universal fuel. 

Vou will observe there is nothing included for purification or 
leakage. 

The gas produced from the volatile portion of the coal should 
contain about the usual percentage of ammonia. If that is ex- 
tracted, manufactured, and sold, I assume it would pay for the 
Puriftcation, 1 have taken the cost of coal at $2.00 per ton, as 
1 presume that is about an average price. Of course, any ad- 
vance or decrease from that price will proportionately affect the 
cost of the gas. If the above figures are an)'thing near correct^ 

ey indicate that a fuel gas containing 400 heat units per foot 
be produced and sold at 20 cents per M cubic feet, when 
'f^e quantity produced is large. The problem to be solved is, 
Wn this gas be made to perform the work of heating and cook- 
^^g in a house at a cost not to exceed 25 per cent, more than the 
cost of coal. I believe it must do this in order to become a 
popular fuel, f>ne ton of coal will develop 27,000,000 heat 
J?ails» 30,000 cubic feet of gas at 400 heat units per foot \vill 

*clop 12,000,000 heat units. By perfect combustion, and 



259 i54 




greater utilization of the developed heat, it may be possible to 
make jo,ooo' cubic feel of gas perform the work of a ton of 
coal, but even then the 30,000 feet will equal coal at $6.00 per 
ton. 

You will bear in mind that the estimate I have made of the 
quantity of gas to be produced is based on the supposition that 
1, 000 feet of fuel g;as of 400 heat units per foot will perform the 
same amount of work we are now doing with natural gas having 
TjOoo heat units per fool. 

Notwithstanding the great progress that has been made dur- 
ing the last fifty years in attaining in prarlice to ihcoretiial 
values, it seems as if very little progress has been made in util- 
izing to anything near its theoretical value the fuel used in 
jirivate residenres. The abiindanre and cheapness of wood and 
coal have causcti the matter to he left ahiicjst untouched, and 
to-day the appliances for healing our houses, so far a$ the prin- 
ciples of economy ure conrerned, are about as nnscientitic and 
wasteful as they were a lunulrcd years ago. If fuel gas is to be 
the fuel of the future, attention must be turned to devising 
means, first, to secure perfet t comlKistion tif the fuel, and then 
to utdize the developed heat to the utmost extent for heating 
the inside of our houses, where it is wanted, instead of sending 
from 80 per cent, to 90 per cent of the heat up the chimney to 
heat the atmosphere outside where it is not wantetl. In this 
direction 1 think lies the solution of the fuel gas problem. The 
price at which a fuel gas of practical value can be manufactured 
and sold is pretty well determined, and under no circumstances, 
so far as 1 can see, can it be sold cheap enough to displace coal 
if used in our present appliances. That it is possible to greatly 
improve on our present methods and attain much nearer the 
theoretical value of the fuel, admits f>f very little doubt, but as 
yet comparatively little has been done in that direction. We 
still adhere to our various forms of stoves and open fireplaces, 
hot air furnaces that do not heal the air, unless the products of 
combustion are going into the chimney red hot, and steam heat- 
ers that are even worse in this respect. There is no difficulty 
in constructing a hot air furnace in which the products of com- 
bustion can be reduced to the temperature of the outside atmos- 
phere, if it is desired to do so, thus utilizing the greatest 



101 



[m&Me amount of heat generated by the fuel In Keatfn^ by 
steam or hut water this of course is not practicable, as the pro- 
ducts of combustion must pass into the chimney at a higher 
temperature than the water or steam, and thus lose a great 
deal of heat. It might, however, be possible to utilize the 
waste heat in some way, say by combining the sttam heating 
with a hot air furnace. The rapid progress that has been made 
iluring the last few years in reducing the cost of production and 
distribution of electric lighting, its rapidly growing popularity 
for street lighting and for stores, hotels, theatres, railway sta- 
titms, and even private residences, point to a not far distant 
time when illuminating gas companies must look to some other 
means of utdizmg their manufacluring and distributing plant 
ihau in the sup]>ly of illuminating gas. Would it nut be wdl 
for gas companies to spend some time and money in investiga- 
ting into the pussibiiiiies of a manufactured fuel gas when ap- 
pHctl to domestic heating and cooking on thoroughlv economic 
^d scientific principles. To carry out an investigation of this 
fcind thorough ly will require a thorough knowledge of the laws 
*>f loridiuslion, a knowledge of the best methods and appliances 
'or uiihzing lu the utmost possible extent the h^at produced, 
*ind a knowledge of sanitary laws that will prevent securing 
ecoiionjy at the expense of pro[)er ventilation, and the healthful 
ct>tiditions that should obtain in every house. A good deal of 
isolated effort has been already made in this direction, but so 
far as 1 kuow, very liule of a reliable character is yet known 
which embraces all the above conditions. I'u existing gas com- 
ponies will naturally fall the supplying of a fuel gas, if such a 
thmg is practicable, and surely it is worth while to try and find 
**ut with some degree of certainty what can be accomplished in 
that direction. If the public demand a fuel gas, there is hardly 
»id(njbt but the demand will he met, no matter how great the 
ditlicultics in the way may be. The importance of pure air in 
relation to health was never realized to the extent it is to-day. 
There ts a general outcry against the filthy, unhealthy, costly 
«ind unscientific system of throwing into the atinosphere <»f our 
titics thousands of tons of unconsumed carbon in the form of 
*'mokc which depre^es our spirits, irritates our lungs, saps the 
tnergy of our wives and daughters by the incessant and irritat- 



102 



ing warfare against dirt, and lowers the whole tone of our moral 
and physical nature. The remedy is gaseous fuel. It may be 
difficult and somewhat costly, but if it falls within the range of 
possibility, there is little doubt of its accomplishment. 



Discussion, 

The President — This is a very interesting paper, indeed, 
and raises questions worthy of consideration and discussion. 

Mr. Denniston — Without ha%"ing known what Mr. Young 
was going to say, I am happy to have him corroborate my stale* 
ment that it would be a difficult matter to manufacture fuel g^s 
for general distribution, or for t.ities generally. If I accomplish 
what I aim to accomplish in furnishing a fuel gas for iron and 
steel furnaces, very much will be accomplished towards the end 
desired. You will see, by Mr. Young*s paper, the immense 
amount of holder capacity that we must have to supply a pro- 
ducer gas that could be distributed at anything like the figure 
given. Mr. Harbison says he does not want anything of that 
kind, but 1 will be satisfied if I can get such a gas as I claim it 
would be an advantage to us to try to get, and for the members 
of this Association theoretically and practical ty to work for. If 
you can get enough to run one iron furnace successfully, with* 
out a holder even, you have accomplished a great deal Hut 
you will not need such a great holder capacity for such purpose. 
There will be no more holder capacity required than for the 
ordinary gas supplied to-day. What do the gentlemen want? 
Do they prefer to go to individuals? Would they sell lower to 
manufacturers than they would to a thousand individuals that 
they might distribute the gas to.^ You get one mill fully sup- 
plied with a good, cheap gas, which will take as much as a thou- 
sand individuals, and you have accomplished a feat which will 
make you a hero. Now, 1 ask you, as practical men^ whether or 
not that thing can be done? What I want to say is that I do 
not believe it can be done on the scale marked out by Mr. 
Young, for that amount of money; that I do not believe you can 
get holder capacity enough in this city, with its eight gas hold- 
ers, to supply the necessary fuel gas for all the people, for the 
sum named. I do not believe that three milli<jn dollars will do 



r 



103 



It Therefore, if you get a fue! gas which will answer for man- 
ufacturing purposes, it will be an object attained which 1 hope 
ycttosee accomplished, and which any gas man would be proud 
to have realized. Then if you can do that, supply fuel gas for 
heating' bath rooms and for grates, etc., then you can use your 
•llmninating gas as a gas which must come higher than any gas 
which you can afford to use for fuel. The manufacture and 
distribution of fuel gas will come later. 

Mr. Harbison — I do not wish to be understood as entertain- 
'n^the idea that I do not want the fuel gas for manufacturing 
purposes, I do. But that is nut the object that we are after, 
so much as to supply wfiat was said to be a public demand for 
a fuel gas. The public demand means a demand from the 
general public, and not from the select few who may be en- 
gaged in any special line of business. What I am anxious for 
ii that it shall not only be a gas that we can furnish to 
inanufacturcrs, but a gas that we can furnish to the public 
Ki'nerally for domestic uses as fuel, instead of their hot air 
tenaces» and instead of their cooking stoves, in which they use 
coal; sn that they can use the gas fuel instead. Can any 
system be devised which will accomplish that end ? May 
*C not hope that a system will be devised which will enable 
us to make this gas and furnish it at a j)rice which the 
people can afford to pay, and which they will pay, and which 
^t the same time will pay a profit to the manufacturers? The 
statements given by Mr, Young are the most defmite of any- 
^Mng that I have yet seen with regard to the cost of doing 
this work, and the most satisfactory evidence that I have yet 
^tard on this subject, 1 have heard it ckiimed it was not nec- 
essary to ha%'e storage capacity m the use of a manufacturing 
or fuel gas. I have heard that claimed by parlies engaged in 
^he business. I douljted the statement then» and I doubt it 
*till. There is no company furnishing fuel gas that can manu- 
facture a supply in a satisfactory manner unless they have 
storage capacity. We are always liable to accidents, and to 
changes in temperature which necessitates extra storage ca- 
pacity and additional outgoes. The gas cannot be made on 
itrjpulse, or in a' moment. We must have the stock in hand 




that we have now every day to supply the demand. We c: 
not make gas now as fast as it is consumed in the hours wh 
it is needed for illuminadon. We make it during the day 
accumulate it for evening hurning. We would have to keep a 
stock of fuel gas on hand in some way, and that would ret] u ire 
larger holder capacity, I do not apprehend that any company 
can afford to go into the business of making fuel gas and put 
down a plant for that purpose, simply to supply a manufactur- 
ing demand, because manufactories are distributed over a large 
territory, and it would require an immense outlay of mains to 
reach them; and no price which manufacturers could afford to 
pay would compensate the gas company for this large outlay. 
We must have a large demand from the general public, suffi- 
ciently large to utilize the mains which we lay to supply the 
manufacturers. The figures given by Mr. Young would seem 
to indicate that the fuel gas of which he speaks can be d 
tributed for about i8 cents per thtnisand feet. There is in 
eluded in that cost of distribution the necessary outlay for 
repairs and maintenance. A company that is furnishing fuel gas 
to-day, as we have recently seen, is selling its gas at 30 and 40 
cents per thousand feet, and measuring it by meter; and yet it 
is admitted by the managers that they have never made a dollar, 
but that they have lost a great deal of money in their efforts 
to introduce it, and have not yet been able to pay a single cent 
on their capital. Other companies manufacturing and selling 
fuel gas at 50 cents per thousand feet have gone into bank- 
ruptcy. One company in New England is to be sold at auction 
— the entire plant— within a couple of months of this time. 
Now, if this gas cannot be put at a price which will make the 
heating value of it equal to coal at $6 per tun, how can we get 
a price for fuel gas and sell it at a profit ? J 

Mr, (iRakff— I would like in ask Mr. Harbison if the com- 
pany which he refers to as the one not al>le to make any money 
is not the company at Jackson» Michigan, 4 

Mr. Harhjson— I do not know that I ought to state jusi 
what company I refer to. 

Mr. Gkaeff — Then I wuuld like to ask him if it is not a 
company which has lieen spending a good deal uf money on its 



n^^ 



I 



plant and in extensions, and whether that company has had a 
complete plant for a sufficient length of time to demonstrate 
whether it can make money or not, 

Mr. Harbison — That would not change the correctness of 
my statement, 

Mr, Graf-ff — But it would change the strength o( the argu* 
m^nt. 

Mr, Harbison — No: for the reason that the cost of en- 
larging the plant ought to be charged to the capital account, 
^ncl not to the cost of producing gas, 

Mr. Graeff — In other words, the company has not yet got 
ti|)on a basis which will enable it to demonstrate whether it can 
make money or not. 

Mr. Harbison — The company which I allude to has been 
doing business for two years. 

Mr. GitA£FF — But on a very small basis. 

Mr. Harbison — They are making considerable gas now — I 
tio not remember just what amount ; at any rate, they have 
htn working it for two years. They claim that they have 
nnw got lo a point where they are not losing money, and they 
H>c lo increase their business so as to make something, and I 
Ji^^pc ihey will. I hope they will be successful in their opera- 
t^'>n, und make money, and sht>w us that we can do the same 
ihmg, 

Mr. Grakff— The company in New England to which Mr. 
Harbison refers never was anything but an experinieut. It 
*'♦»& Used, by the party who fniindec! it, as a basis for the eslab- 
ti^'hmcnt of a syndicate that ditl not gel established. I do not 
^'kc to see an instance of that kind quoted, or a bankrupt 
^-oinpany <|uoled, as an argunicnl against the possibility of 
success. 

Mr. Harbison — I do not wish to be undersluotl as arguing 
Hgainst ri. 1 am quite in favor of it. 1 wish to see it succeed. 
^ iitn anxious lo have some one show me that 1 can afford to 
itJtrodacc it in the city of Hartford, and produce gas there for 
fuel that the people will want and will be ready to pay for, and 






km; 

which i can furnish at a rate that vill enable jne to iiiak<^ 
something Mil tbc ln%*,: u -. , i ^ 

I am nut sfjc^iking m^^unmt ft. I am tieekmy to enoomaire thooc^ 
who are euf^vKtnJ in it What 1 mmsi U u» fet at tiie ^uCUi iia 
the case. 1'br CAiygtm h^ bees fcnicled H tfecteot ty ^selk ami 
long with a^iitefs«iil» tliat «potild oot bcsr the Itglit oC da^,aaid 
it is the Caiu tliat wr an* alter. Thai is thtr rcascin w!it I 
moved thut Mr (Jiark be r^iaesttsd tJi cutitiiiur ii: h\^ m osL, 
and give lui auiiic adllititiiial iact^ m ytsar irxxm tkua timt: 

Mr. GKAErr— J iruuld liJic u> aak Mr. Youni: how 
holder caj>^cky Iw thtnk> vuuid be wtectet^ry lor fuel !;»», 

Mk. Johi^ ViiL icu—l tiiiak« in of bi be ^e. thai it 
be necessar)' to iocrea&e the day fltiM ge. 

Mk. GKA»:>f — Huw uiucli wutUd be pecessar}" in fiifntshiq;; a 
million feet uf ga^ per day lo a mam factatiiiig 

Mk. John Yui N<^^Tliat ts* a dilletvBt aattter 

Mk. GKAt.li 'Why cud there out Im: some aoalcqi^ bciweeii 
the two ? If a iiianufacturer cao tiar a miliifiQ and a-half cabtr 

feet of fuel ^^ per da) , and use a holder of not muri! than 
thirty thousand Icet t:itpacit) , why inu**t tlicfe be a full d a^*^^ 
capacity of t^lura|;e for i^cacml diMiibtitioii ? ^BM 

Mk. John Vouko — 1 here are %fan<iy^ reasans for that. The 
manufacturer »ttart« U|i bi;^ work» itf the raorning, afid he nms^ 
usually at aixiut the i*aine capacity the whole day ; and yoo 
have to make uboyt the feaine quantity (if gas every day. I 
think that is very much the ca*c, Theti, if his machine breaks 
down it is only itie uiaiiufaclurer who loses ; but If yuur ma- 
chines bretjk tjown, or unyxhw^ goe** wrong, you inconvenieTice 
the whole romiiiuiiity. I think that the same rule would apply 
to fuel gas ihU applies U> illumiimting gas. You wotild haire 
to have your make pretty nearly iifiifonn, or eUe it would have 
to be very e^penMive* Su[>p(j!«e tiNil yon had to make fifteen 
million feet lo-day and twenty-two million feet to-morrow : it 
would be very tK[}en(iive to get tlu' apfHiratusand men together 
to make that ejttia s*even mtition cubic feet. If you had the 
storage capaetiiy you aoiild gu on workiiitf regularly and thus 
provide agauvst any break-dt^wn** uf your plant, or any other 



107 



accident that might arise. It is a very serious matter to put 
cvcrv'budy in a town in darkness, and it is a still more serious 
matter tu please everybody in a town. But you can get a can- 
dle or an oil lamp to take the place of illuminating gas, whereas 
if a man has his grates and stoves fitted up for burning gas it 
is quite different, and a far more difficult matter to get the gas 
burners out and get coal in the grates and stoves for heating. 

Mk, Graeff — Would you not make that gas continuously ? 
Cuuld yuu not devise a system which would make the gas con- 
tinuously ? 

Mh. John Young — Certainly ; and that is my idea of making 
the gas, 

Mr, Graeff^ — ^Then you would make about a million feet 
per hour > 

Mr, John Young — To make it continuously you must have 
your demand contiunous, or else yon must have storage 
cajjacity. 

Mr. Gkaeff — If you are going to make gas continuously, 
3nd set the limit that your plant shall make at a certain quan- 
tUy of gas every day, then you must have a steady demand for 
■l; but I d(j not see why it cannot be regulated upon a large 
st'^lc just as manufacturers require it. If on one day they 
*^ant a million feet^ and on another day a million and a-half, I 
tJo not see why, with a steady capacity of one million feet per 
hour you must need a storage capacity for twenty million feet. 

Mr. John Young — But you do not use a millirm feet per 
hourcach of the 24 hours, 

Mr. Graefk — But you have your generator capacity ready 
to supply any extra demand, as it increases. 

Mr. John Young — You would have the men idle during 
tight or nine hours a day, and ytmr plant standing idle. 

Mk. Graeff — I think that would be better than carrying 
such large storage capacity, 

Mr. John Youno — Your* storage capacity is only what it 




Mr. Graf.ff— I would like to say one thing more, that, as a 
fuel gas enthusiast, 1 feel %'ery much indebted to Mr. Young 
for presenting the [mints he has made in such a practical man- 
ner. What those who are advocating fuel gas wish to know is, 
what are the difficulties which lie ahead in their path ; and I 
think that Mr. Young has presented the difficulties which He 
ahead of the fuel gas men in a very clear and able manner, and 
I think that every one should be obliged to him. I would like 
to suggest that we seem to be getting more into a discussion 
as to the applicatiim of gasetHis fuel for manufacturing uses, 
whereas I think that what this Association needs mure particu- 
larly to know and understand i*; the application of gasetjus fuel 
for general uses. The question f)f manufacturing gaseous fuel 
for manufacturing uses is settled. Its success is settled. If 
Mr. Young or any one else will come to Philadelphia 1 will show 
him or them where gaseous fuel is doing to-day what gas has 
never done before in a like establishment ; and I will show it 
to him upon the word of a man whose statements no one will 
question. The wtjrking of gaseous fuel as regards manufactur- 
ing establishments is settled. I think that what we want to 
bend our energies towards is finding out how it can be made to 
serve best our own private consumers. In that line I think 
that Mr Ytumg hns done us very good service, and I wish to 
thank him. 



Mk. RouKRi VotNi; — There is one thing I notice in my 
brother's paper. He assumes that a gas having 400 heat units 
jjcr cubic foot might be got Ur lUi the same amount of work we 
are now doing with a gas that has 1,000 heat units. My advice 
to him would be,^f he makes an attempt to heat the average 
house in Allegheny with 2,000 fttel cjf gas having only 400 heat 
units to the fool, he had better be in Baltimore or some other 
distant place. I noticed from observations taken at my meter 
last winter (which was a very moderate winter in our section of 
the country), that on some of the coldest days it took 5,000 
cubic feet of gas, whit h had 1,000 heat units per foot, to keep 
my house comfortablt^. I am very careful not to let the temper- 
ature get above 70'. The halls are kept at 70 by a hot air fur- 
nace which I built expressly for using gas. Hie only place that 



109 



' where it is extremely wasteful is tlie cotikinjj range. I am 
sore 50 per cent, mnre gas is used there than is really necessary, 
Iain talking now of our present method of usinij the gas, but 1 
think a great deal has to he learned how ttj utilize a greater 
amount of the heat developed from the gas than we do at pres- 
ent, I don't nee how we can assume that a gas having 400 heat 
units can be made to do the same amount of work that gas hav- 
tnff r,ooo heal units can. VVe arc very anxious to get a fuel gas, 
«ind 1 ihink it is to all liur interests to study the fuel gas (jneslion. 
Mr. C<mN*:LL — This is a very interesting subject, and the views 
which Mr, Young has expressed bring before us very cfearly and 
fully the difficulties in the way of this enterprise in which we are 
all engaged and which we are looking forward to as promising 
In be successful m the future, and in a future not very remote. 
I think these difficulties which appear before us come pretty 
icirgcly from the fact that we reason from analogy. The anal- 
ogy of making illuminating gas is the one which brings out a 
vtH' formidable difiiculty, and which Mr. Young presents very 
clcaHy to us — ^and that is the amount of storage capacity re- 
^^ntil Yet wc must remember that in illuminating gas we 
make for the whole 24 hours, and desire ti> make it continucHisly 
tiuring 24 hours, that which we only use during five or six hours; 
whereas for fuel gas wc are making it for continuous consum[i- 
tion throughout the 24 hours. That fact greatly modifies this 
question of storage. I think it is entirely practicable, and wnlh 
all deference to the experience of Mr. Young, as stated to-day, 
I think there is no proof that it is not entirely practicable to 
gtl along without such a large amount of storage, and to make 
^uih an amount of gas as would be required to supply the de- 
mand. If there were jo or 40 actual producers, and if 15 or 20 
of thoiie were in actual use all the time, and five or ten more 
^'<?rc in such a condition that they could be brought into use 
w^ithin a few hours, I think there would be no great difficulty in 
pTOviding for the increased consumption — for a suddenly in- 
creased consumption— without anything like a day's storage, 
and writh possibly but a few hours* storage. That is one way in 
*hich 1 think that our analogies are apt to bring us into trouble 
If wc can throw away those analogies of storage as they relate 
to illuminating gas, I think we can dispose of the difficulties 



110 



which are presented. Another one which conies up very clearly 
and directly is the analogy frum the use of natural gas. In the 
use of natural gas, where it is very abundant, and where il has 
f>een furnished at very low prices, the whole community hav^e 
becu using it, so that a very large amount was used, and the use 
was very wasteful, so that it took an enormous amount. But, in 
using manufactured fuel gas we must conclude that it is to be 
used not on the basis of coal, but on a very much higher basis; 
aud that il is only those people who can afftjrd to pay, and who 
will pay a very nuich htghfr |)rice fur the mcreased healthfui- 
ness and cleanliness of gaseous fuel, that are gt>ing to use it at 
presfut. 'I'iierefore, we may reduce the amount to be supplied. 
In Allegheny the 7*500 users would have to lie reduced to a 
thin! of that number, and the price increased to such an amount 
*it least as ( (^d wnuld cost in Allegheny or Filtsburgh, and so 
remedy in part that difficulty. I think we must look in this 
direction for a great modification of the difficulties which Mr. 
Young presents. 

Mk. Uariusok — 1 wish to call special attention of members 
of the Association to the remarks of the President in his address 
this morning on this subject of fuel gas, and particularly to that 
part in which he alluded to what was being done with gas stoves. 
I want to reply to some statements which have been made in 
this town within 24 hours» more or less, with regard to the town 
in which I live when I am* at home. We have there in use about 
1,600 gas stoves. We are selling more than 20 per cent, of our 
eotire output of gas between seven o'clock in the morning and 
five o'clock in the afternoon. Notwithstanding the immense 
inroad whit h has been made upon us by the introduction of the 
electric light in |uist years (il having taken away nearly 1,400 
Street lamps), during the |ust four months we have sold much 
more gas than wc did in the corresponding four months of last 
year. (Applause.) I)\iring the month of September (notwith- 
standing we sold a year ago in September, nearly 70^000 feet of 
gis for lamps) our output for the month of September was more 
tlian half a tnillion feet abm-c what it was a year ago. 

Mr, Rohkirt You hg*- What are you doing with gas stoves? 
Mk, H^iintM>H — We are selling gas m Hartford to-day at 



Ill 



Ji.25 for certain purposes; and I can show as good things there 
as Mr, Graeff can in Philadelphia. Come and see them, 

Mr. Robert Young^ — Suppose that you had no gas stoves 
there what would be the difference with reg;ard to the amount 
of gas consumed ? Suppose that you took your stoves out 
altogether, would not the amount of your gas used for illumi* 
Rating purposes be much affected ? 

Mr, HARnisuN — Then we would turn our attention to dis- 
placing the electric light — as we are doing now. One store 
there where they have been using sixteen incandescent lights, 
we are going to light with ^as before the week is out. 

Mr. Robert Young — That is what you ought to dtx How 
much of the business of the gas company have the electric 
people taken ? That is what I would like to know. 

Mr, Harbison— In our city one- eighth of the entire output 
was sold for public lighting, and that is all gone. 

Mr, Robert Young — You have no idea how much for private 
lighting? 

Mr. Harbison — No^ but although they have taken a very 
large amount, yet we are now where we were a year ago. 

Mr, Robert Young — That is largely owing to the gas stoves, 
and not to the use of gas for illuminating purposes ? 

Mr. Harbison — There is a very large increase for illumina- 
ting purposes as well as for gas stoves. 

Mr. Starr — The increase I imagine is very largely due to 
the low price of the gas. 

The convention adjourned to October 17th, 1889, at 10 a. m. 



Skcond Dav — October 17 — Morning Session. 

The Association was called to order at 10,30 a. m. 

Introducing Mr. Corbett Woodall. 

Thk President — We have with us to-day a gentleman well 
known to most of you as a prominent gas engineer of London^ 




Mr. Corbeit WoikUII, ami with your [>ermission 1 will invite 
liini In lakt; a seat on tlie platform. ( Aiipkiiise.) 

Mr, WouDALr., — Gentiemen : I hartlly expectctJ that the 
President wnnki bt* jt^notl enoiigh ti) nurddiue nic to you in this 
miuinc*r, anti I am sorry lo confess that I (Ind myself with very 
little to say to ycai. I feel my minil very full of sentiments of 
thankfulness f*jr the very ^reat (^ouriesy antl kintlness with 
which I have f)een reieivecl by all my professional brethren on 
this siile t)f the water ; and altlicmjrb I have no authority at 
present to speak as a representative of the (las Institute on our 
side of the water (to my ijreat rej^ret not heinj^ a present 
member of that body) yet I am ijnite sure th.it I only interpret 
the feelings of the great body of Kii;^lish engineers (gas or 
otherwise) in saying that the recollection of all the kindness 
that has been shown by yon Americans to onr rountrymen visit- 
ing this country, has made them most anxious for an opportu- 
nity to reci|nocate tbi^sc niany kindnesses on our own side, 
(Ap]>lause.) 

1 cannot help feeling this morning drawn f>ack to two little 
episodes in connection with your Society, aiiti with our own 
people at home, that have been fully in my mind ever since \ 
found that I was able to have the pleasure of attending this 
meeting. (Ine of them was the meeting of onr own Society 
which was attended by certain members of yours, in the year 
1878, antl when 1 had the pleasure then to welcome one of the 
men whom 1 then held, anil shall always hold, in very pleasant 
memory — ^ Major Dresser — together with Mr. Forstall and Mr. 
Greenough, when they came over to attend the meeting of our 
Association, of which 1 had the honor at that time to be President. 
1 assure you that the recollection, especially of our late friend 
Dresser's amiable, kindly, cheerful, admirable spirits, will take 
a long, long time to elTace from the memory of those who were 
present on that occasion. I cannot help thmking also this 
morning of another gas man who, two years ago» stood very 
much in the same position in which I have the honor to stand 
to-day before you^^my old friend Mr. Spice. I am sure that 
those of you who met him must share the regrets that we felt 
on our side when he was so suddenly taken away from our midst. 



113 



^Tiowthat you have a busy day before you, and that I am 
simply wasting your time by attempting to make a speech to 
you; but I must ask permission to say how struck I have been 
with the differences in the character of the work that you are 
called to do in comparison with that which occupies us at home 
at the present time. The variety of the questions and problems 
that you have before you is something ahnost bewildering to 
one who for a comparatively long period has gone alang the 
steady course of simple coal gas making. One of the things 
that made me particularly glad to come to this meeting to-day 
»s Ihe opportunity presented for studying the question of the 
<listribution of fuel gas. I find many of you very largely en- 
^ged in the manufacture and distribution of water gas, and I 
find many of you not simply making and distributing gas» but 
also carrying on the business of electric light engineers and 
suppliers. The whole thing is so much fuller — I will not say 
tnore complicated — but giving so much wider scope for individ- 
*^l effort, thought and enterprise, that it has added very much 
•ndecd to the pleasure I have in visiting your works. In the 
Tianufacture and distribution of coal gas 1 think that we are 
able still to hold our own pretty decidedly in comparison with 
American works; but in all these other respects we have a very 
ftcat deal to learn. I can only say in conclusion that 1 am ex- 
tremely grateful for the readiness which I find on your part to 
communicate the many interesting things which you have to 
say. (Applause.) 

Oi HER Introductions. 



Mr. Harhison — 1 understand that President-elect McMillin, 
ts in the room, and I move that a committee be appointed to 
^^m fiim to the platform. 

The pRtsrDENT — I will appoint Mr. Ihirbison to be that 
•committee. 

(Mr. Harbison escorted Mn McMillin to the platform,) 

The pRESiPF^NT — Mr. McMdHn» it gives me very great pleas- 
'iTe to know that when 1 vacate this Chair it wmM be f>ccnpied by 
*i gentleman of such well known ability as yourself. (Applause.) 




Mh. McMm.un (Fresidtvnt-clect) — I would much rather listen 
to your applause than to my own voice. Never having appeared 
before a gas convention before it is a little bit embarrassing. 
Having been forbidden by my physician to attend the conven- 
tion at alK you will excuse me^ I know, for not attempting to 
make a speech upon this occasion. I obeyed the mandate of 
my physician until I gut the dispatch last night notifying me 
that I had been elected President of the Association. Then I 
could not stand it any longer, but came over to bow my ac- 
knowledgements; and that is all that I can do this morning, I 
want to add my congratulations upon the very large attendance. 
I am delighted to see so many here, and l trust that the attend- 
ance may be quite as large next year. (Applause ) 

The President — I notice that we also have with us to-day 
General Louis Wagner, Director of the Department of Public 
Works of the City of Philadelphia. He has a still higher title 
— that of gas man. I invite him to the platform. (Applause,) 

Mr. Wagner. — Yuu w^ill pardun me if I speak from the 
floor; I am not entitled to the h*Minr of an invitation to the 
platform. Unlike the President-elect, who hits never appeared 
before a gas convention before, and now disobeys his physician 
by coming here, I was told by my doctor that I was sick and 
ought to go away from home a day or two for the purpose of 
recovering lost health and strength ; and where could I better 
do that than in a gas convention. Of course in what I may 
say, I do not speak from experience except in so far as I have 
gained experience in reading the proceedings of this eminent 
lK>dy, and of trminent bridjes like this. I trust, as the President- 
elect does, that the attendance next year, and for years to come, 
will continue large, and that the exercises will be as profitable 
at this convention, and also at succeeding conventions, as they 
have been in years gone by. If they shall cease so to be I do 
not know w'hat will become of the gasjiusiness in this country. 
And of cijurse, in England, as we have learned of nnr friends 
from abroad, their movements are influenced ami directed to a 
very great extent by what they hear and learn from America. 
So far as the gas business in Philadelphia is concerned, I may 
say that we have there a great deal of various kinds of gas. A 



115 



tie girl of mine once had given her, as the subject of an essay, 
"Milk,*' and she wrote, ** there are many kinds of milk ; " and 
s() I say that there are many kinds of gas in Philadelphia. Of 
course, you don't have the same variety that we have in our 
city. Of course we have illuminating gas, as you have every- 
where. We used to have a gas in Philadelphia that did not 
illuminate very much ; but now it does very nicely. But we 
labor under particular and peculiar disadvantages, or have been 
doing so until the last year. My friend Park, who has been 
Chief Engineer of the Philadelphia gas works for many years, 
ha^, I har« no doubt, ttjld you all about it. He was haiidi- 
cappetl in his business for the last few years because he had 
tutlve men tt> manage him — twelve bosses in the gas business, 
_I mean — each of whum knew more about it than he tiid, and 
ch one of whom wanted to run the gas works in his own 
tuliar way. When that condition of affairs was changed, and 
one man was set to direct not only the gas business, but the 
public works generally^ who did not know anything about gas, 
then, I if course, Mr, Park could do just as he pleased, and the 
reports, of which he has sent you copies during the fast three 
years, show you that he has been pleased to tU) right well ; and 
all that we have accomplished in Philadelphia is due entirely to 
his efforts. Of course, when I get back from this convention, 
having learned all that there is worth knr)wing about making 
gas (as I shall at the close of the session to-day), I shall set up 
as a boss and tell him how to make gas. I sincerely hope that 
nobody will try to lead me astray in the gas business, because 
ifl should learn anything wrong there will be lots of trouble 
as the result when 1 get back to the city. I am glad to be here. 
1 want you to believe that, afthough everybody says it. I have 
no doubt, if wc all had our desserts, that some of us would be 
in heaven, and others of us would lie in a locality where they 
tlo not need gas for illuminating purposes. But! am glad to 
^le here. I am sure that I shall be Iienefited by being here, and 
that I shall learn much that is worth carrying back t<j Philadel- 
phia. Of course everything that is said here is gospel truth, 
and everything we learn here is of the very best, and so I will 
^akr It all back to Philadelphia and apply it all there iti the 
l»esi of my capacity. 



IW 



The President— We also have with us this momiiig ^*^' 
Williams, of the United States Census Bureau, who wot***^ 
like to say a few wurds to you with re,fi^rd to collecting t ^^ 
statistics of our industry for the next Census Report. 

Mr. Williams — I am here as the representative of i^"^ 
United States Census Bureau, for the purpose of laying befo:^ 
you the facts necessary to secure the co-operation of all wh* 
are interested in the manufacture of gas, to enable us to pr^^ 
sent such a report in the next census as we hope and belicr" ^ 
will be complete, valuable and interesting to those engaged x'^ 
this industry. Owing to the death of Major iJresser, who wa^ 
selected to collect statistics of the gas industry for the censu^^ 
report of 1880, we were unable to present any statement what^- 
ever in that report. But it is the desire of the present Super- 
intendent of the Census tu have a complete exhibit made for 
the gas industry, as well as fur all other industries; and it will 
rest entirely with those interested in that industry to determine 
how full and accurate that report shall be. We desire to select 
some gentleman to be entrusted with the investigations of that 
subject, who has the confidence of all who are engaged in gas 
manufacturing. Just who shall be selected for that purpose 
will depend very largely upon the wishes of this Association* 
and of those engaged in the manufacture of gas. I bespeak for 
him the same co-operation that we have the promise of in 
other lines of manuf;icture throughout the entire country, I 
have visited various cities of the country, and the manufac- 
turers uniformly promise co-operation with the different persons 
selected to conduct the investigations. I want to say, in con- 
clusion, that I hope the members of this Association will think 
seriously of the matter, for of course we are all interested in 
making for the gas industry the best possible report that can 
be made. 

The President — The first paper to be read this morning will 
be that by Mr, W. H. Pearson, on 




"HE CONDUCT OF THE KLECTRIC lAGHT BUSINESS 
IN CONNECTION Wn H THE GAS INDUSTRY. 




Mr. Pearson — I will state, before commencing to read my 

per» that I have made one or two alterations in it, relative to 

c percentages and statistics given nf the gas companies of 

Mas!>achu5etli». When I prepared my pai^er I did not notice 

that there were a number of lists of those Lom panics, and I 

luok a list which was not complete. That will account for the 

diJTtjrentes which you will find in the percentages. 

The question of the desirability of a gas industry, in counec- 
tiun with the electric light business, bein.ii u[)erated by the same 
company, is one reganling which, there will naturally, be con- 
siderable diversity of opinion, and one, indeed, upon which, ! 
^ free to admit, I have been induced to change my views. At 
the meetmg of this Associatiim, two years ago, I strongly up- 
PtJscd gas companies having anything whatever to do with elec- 
tric lighting, but further and fuller light upon the subject has 
^used me tu think differently, and I have recently cume to the 
conclusion, that, on the wdiole, it would be advantageous for a 
Ifas company to manufacture and sell both kinds of lights; and 
^ wilt be my purpose, in this pa[>er, to advocate that side of the 
question. In doing so, however, I must ex[>ress my regret that, 
owing to the strange course taken by the Toronto City Corpo- 
nition, in refusing the Consumers Gas Company the right to use 
the streets for electric wiring, I am not in a position to speak 
from practical experience in electric lighting, but as doubtless 
there are gentfemen here who have had tliis experience, they 
*ill be able to supply information which I am unable to give. 

The rapid progress which has been ma<lc in electric lighting 
<luring the past few years, and which is continually going on at 
an increased ratio, must of itself be conclusive evidence to any 
unprejudiced mind that it has **come to stay/' and that, as at 
Prtsenl, it is destined to continue to be one of the principal^ 
though not, in my opinion, the chief lighting agent of the future; 
for on careful iiwestigation I am satisfied that neither the arc 
"or the incandescent light can compete with good and cheaj) 
g*s, as the light fur the people, and w^hile there are some who 
can and will have luxuries, or what they consider to be the best, 




at any price, with the general public the question of cost is the 
factor which has the most weight- 
Admitting that electric lighting is to be a permanent indus- 
try, and that it will have a field that would otherwise be occupied 
by gas, why should not the two systems be conducted under one 
management ? My first reason for claiming that they should be 
is that a gas company would be able to furnish the light more 
cheaply than an independent electric light company would in 
the same place. A gas conjpany must have an executive head, 
who is usually a man of sound judgment and intelligence, with 
a good practical knowledge of the various mechanical aod other 
a[>[>liances, including the economical production of steam, and 
having experience in the purchase of supplies and of the best 
markets in which to obtain them and also having a large experi- 
ence in dealing with the public. He is, therefore, in these 
respects, better qualified to supervise the operation of an elec- 
tric lighting business than a novice. The gas company being 
already organized and officered, the combination of electric 
with gas lighting would cause comparatively little or no addi- 
tional expense for the directorate ant! management, and the two 
businesses could be much more economically conducted. Again, 
in most gas works^ there is generally ample space in the grounds 
for a building, or, what is better, room in a suitable building 
already erected, in which to erect an electric light plant; nor 
will any additional office room be required. The saving in the 
interest on the cost of these buildings, iherefure, would alone 
amount to a considerable sum, while the opportunity for the 
profitable utilization of some of the by-products of the gas 
business would be another item of saving. 

To my mind, however, the most important reason for a gas 
company going into the electric lighting business is to head off 
ruinous co m pe t i t i o n , 

We all know that^ when seeking to obtain a foothold in a 
city, the first thing the promoters of an electric light company 
do, is to systematically and [>ersistently canvass the gas con- 
sumers, and offer to supply them with their light, say^ for a 
certain period, at the same price they have been paying for gas, 
and sometimes at almost any price. By this means, they often 
succeed in obtaining a large number of customers, who other- 



11!) 



wise woufd not have adopted the electric light, and when, at 
the end of the term of agreement, the electric light companies 
are driven to increase their price to an anKuint that would pay 
a fair interest, the consumers, having gone to the expense of 
iriring and lamps, and disliking to have to ** knuckle down " to 
the gas company, sometimes kee[) a niimher — if not the whole 
—of the lights, which otherwise they would not have retained. 
Now, if the gas company had had control of the lighting, they 
should not, and probably wuukl not, have sold the light except- 
ing at a fair profit, and to supply a legitimate dernancl, and con- 
sequently would have retained a number of their consumers, 
lost through this ruinous competition. Again, if the electric 
light business was in the hands of the gas cumjianies, ctjrpora- 
tions would not put up electric lights in the reckless manner 
they dij nf>w, at three or four times the cost <ff gas, simply be- 
rausc the companies offering them are in opposition to the gas 
company, or because of the persistent importunity and the 
[Kjwerful influences brought to bear upon them by these op- 
pfjitents of gas. There woulil, therefore, be fewer electric 
lights and more gas lamps— much cheaper, and, at the same 
time, quite as effective street lighting — and. consetiuently, the 
interests of biith the citizens and the gas companies would be 
promoted. 

The circumstances of a company will determine the degree 
of the importance to it of going into the electric lighting busi- 
ness. It is, of course, usually much more important for a 
small company to adopt electric lighting than for a large one, 
owing to the necessarily high prices charged for gas, rendering 
electric lighting competition more injurious. Again, a gas 
company having full emphjyment for all of its plant, and con- 
templating extensions, will be in a much more favorable posi- 
lif»n to fiperale the electric light than one with ample space 
and apparatus for a much larger business, as, instead of ex- 
tending its gas business, it could adopt electric lighting^ while 
iti the latter case, the introduction t^f the electric lighting 
plant wimld continue to keep their superfluous gas plant with- 
out employment. 
An important enquiry here presents itself : — Would gas com- 
lies adopting the electric lighting sluii out all oppositiiin ? 
That would depend a great deal upon the financial strength of 



120 



the amipany, and the matuier in which it has cmiducted its 
dealings with the puhhc. Few h)cal electric light companies 
would be willing to ** tackle" a gas company^ strong financially, 
provided the latter*B prices for electric light are fair and rea- 
sonable, and it is prepared to supply every legitimate demand. 

As oppcjsitioii in lighting has [iroved to be productive of 
unnecessary and wasteful expenditure, and consequently detri- 
mental both to the interests of the gas and electric light 
ct>ni(*aivics, as well as to the public, I hold that the civic au- 
thorities shnuld, with certain restrictions and safeguards, give 
the monopoly of the electric lighting, as well as the gas, to the 
first in the field, thereby securing to the citizens the cheapest 
light they can obtain ; for, as experience has shown, ruinous 
conipctition has almost invariably resulted in combinations and 
increased prices, owing to the necessity of having to pay in* 
terest upon the large amount of unnecessary cajiital, and to 
make up for previous losses. I am afraid, how^ever, that it will 
be a long lime before corporalitnts will learn this common 
sense lesstm. 

I do not wish it to be inferred from anything that 1 have 
said that I contemplate, from the opposititm of electric light- 
ing, any thing apjiroaching disaster to any fairly large and well 
organized gas company, or to any company in a position to sell 
gas at a moderate price, and drawing my conclusions from 
what has already transpireii, am satisfied that with regard to 
such companies the worst that could happen would be a reduc- 
tion in the ratio of increase in the business tif the company 
heretofore maintained, or the maintenatice of the siafus in quo, 
After a good deal of enquiry, I have failed to hear that any 
good sized company has failed to maintain at least the con- 
sump ti*>n of the previous year. 

As the admirable report of the BtKird of (ias Commissioners 
for the State of Massachusetts, for the year ending June jolh, 
1888, may not have been accessible to most members of this 
Associalu>n, some extracts and deductions from that report, in 
corroboration of my claims, will doubtless be of interesL This 
report contains the statistics of 60 coal, and 10 oil gas com- 
panies, and partial statistics of some 50 electric light companies. 
The names of 70 companies being given in addition to 12 gas 



1^1 



light companies optiratin^ electric lights. Fifty uf thcsf coal 
gas companies show an average increase in the consumption, 
over the preceding year, of 12.68 percent. For three there 
arc no returns showing increase or decrease, and seven show a 
decrease in the consumption. Four of the oil gas companies 
show an average increase of 13.64 per cent. ; for two there are 
no returns, and four show a decrease. Electric lights are sup- 
plid in thirty-seven of the places where there are ga^i rom- 
fwnics, and ihe average increased consumption shown f«>r these 
l^as companies is n.85 per cent,, there being only seven gas 
campanies where there are opposition electric light companies 
that show a ilecrease in consumption. It is to be regretted 
ihat the increase or decrease in the electric light business is 
nui given in the report referred to. Twenty-seven of the gas 
companies referred tr» had during the year reduced the price of 
ga^, loof which arc opposed by electric light companies. That 
ill the aggregate these gas companies are doing a fairly paying 
baiiiness, and are in a sound financial position, is evident from 
the following facts. The dividends paid by 64 of them, range 
from to 20 per cent., and average 5.15 per cent. The 
report c»f the other six is not given, The aggregate surplus 
•mil reserve funds of these companies amount to 23 per cent* 
on the paid up capital With one exception, the companies 
nut paying dividends are very small (uies, 'J'he following 
statement will, to some extent, show the nature of the competi- 
tion with which they have had to contend ; I'he average price 
charged per hour for a i6'Candle iiKandesrent electric light, 
lor commercial lighting, in the cities of Boston, (*anibridge, 
Uwrence, Lcjwell, Springfield antS Won ester, is 1.2H cents, 
*hich is equal tu ^^^.$6 per thousand feet for gas of the same 
iiluminating power, while the average price charged for gas in 
tee places is $1,48 [ler 1,000, the average price fr»r uomTnal 
2,000 candle arc lights for municipal lighting, all night, being 
55 *-'cnls. The average increase in the consumi)tion of gas in 
these places, over the previous year, amounted in 9,47 per cent. 
These are fair samples of the electric lighting charges jnade 
throughout the State, where water power is not employed. 

From the above statements it appears evident that gas Hght- 
'lig h more than holding its own in Massachusetts (and I take 



122 



it Uj be a fair illustration of the position of the industry 
throughout the United States) and that incandescent lighting 
cannot there, at all events in the larger cities, begin to com- 
pete with gas in price. Whether or not electricity, at the 
prices charged in Massachusetts, is leaving, does not appear, as 
there is no statement in the report referred to of dividends 
paid by electric light companies, as in the case of gas com- 
panies. This, of itself is susptcitius, as if fair dividends were 
paid, it is not likely that the fact wcmld be sii[}[>ressed. 

While I am an adv(>caie, for the reasons above given, of gas 
companies adopting the electric light, 1 should be sorry to have 
it understuiKl that I yield to some of the claims to superiority 
made by the promoters of electric lighting. That it does not 
vitiate the atmosphere, throws hut little heat and does no in- 
jury to decorations, plate, etc, I am c|uitt' prepared to admit, 
but the vitiation of the atmosphere, by properly purified gas, 
is by no means as serifms, nor as injurious to decorations, etc., 
as is sometimes claimed by its opponents, and while the elec- 
tric light does not vitiate the atmosphere it cannot be utilized 
in ventilation as gas can. The advantage or disadvantage of 
the heat thrown out by gas is really a matter to be determined 
by the kind of climate in which it is used. In the northern 
parts of ihe United States and in Canada there are only two or 
three months in the year in which the heat of the weather 
causes any atnioyance, while, during the rest of the year, the 
gas is found to be a positive advantage in supplementing the 
heating frtmi other sources. As an illustration that this is 
recognised liy gas consumers, one of our largest hotel keepers 
told me recently that it prevented his having to light his fur- 
naces weeks earlier than he otherwise would, and this, he said, 
was one of the reasons why he did not care to put in the electric 
light; and it was only a few days since that another of our 
customers declined to put in the electric light, because it would 
necessitate his putting a heater into his restauranL 

As to steadiness, we all knrrw that a perfectly steady light 
can be obtained from gas by the use of proper globes and by 
many of the different kinds of burners, and that the gas light 
is not subject to the deterioration which takes place in incan- 
descent lights, often after the lamps have only been in use for 



123 



lays, nor to the fluctuation in the candle power of the 
arc lights. Nor am I prepared to yield the i>alm to electricity 
for street lighting, as I am satisfied the streets can be as effect* 
tvely, and in many places more economically, ilUiininated with 
gas. For instance, two high candle power lamps, consuming 
10 to 25 feet of gas per hour, placed 200 feet apart, though not 
giving as brilliant illumination around the lamp, will give a 
more satisfactory lighting than so-called 2,000 candle — (ac- 
tually from 400 to 500 candle pfjwer)— tin- light.^ placed 400 
feet apart. 

An important element to be considered is the ipiestton as to 
whether the cost of the production and the selling price of elec- 
tric lighting can be materially reduced. 

Unfortunately, in discussing this point, not being an electri- 
cal expert, \ am placed at a disadvantage, but 1 think we have 
some data to enable us to come to a fairly accurate conclusion, 
it is hardly likely that the high efficiency of the engines used in 
many plac es (using say less than 3 i)ounds of coal jier horse 
power) can be much improved upon, or that the very low prices 
ijf carbons (now less than a cent each) can be much reduced, 
while the introduction of the aUenialiiig system of incandescent 
lighting seems to have reduced the cost of wiring to a minimum. 
It is pretty generally admitted among electncians» that a 2,000- 
candle arc lamp requires otje horse power, and 14 is about the 
highest number of 16-candlc incandescent burners obtainable 
per horse power, that I have known to be claimed. Whether 
better results than these can be obtanicd is a matter fur consid- 
eration. 

It does not» therefore, appear as if there could be any very 
injportant reduction made. Moreover, it is admitted, that in 
numerous places, the electric lighting business had not been a 
profitable one, and certainly, higher prices will have to be 
charged in those places to put it upon a paying basis. At all 
events, as an offset (as far as large cities are concerned) against 
the probable reduction in the cost of production, the probabil- 
ity that the authorities will require wires to be placed under- 
ground, which means about three times the cost of overhead 
wiring, must be taken into consideration. 
It must be admitted that the prices now charged by manufac- 




turers far electrical apparatus are generally far too high, and, 
doubtless, a very material reduction will be made, in the course 
of lime, which will score in favor of electric lighting. 

The use of electric motors is, of course, a valuable adjunct 
to the business of incandescent electric lighting C()m[>anies, and 
one which will doubtless increase, and is, therefore, a factor to 
taken into account. 

It must not be lost sight of, however, that important reduc- 
tions and savings are conslanlly being accomplished in the 
manufacture and distribution of gas, and that there is equal 
probability of their fully keeping pace with the reduction made 
in the cost of electric lighting, 

A consideration of the prices paid for electric lighting through- 
out the United States generally will not be out of place, and 
this information is furnished by Whipple, in his " Municipal 
Lighting (1S89)/' lu this interesting volume, he gives a list of 
the prices charged fur jjublic lighting in 516 cities antl towns in 
the United Slates, where the streets are wholly or partly illumi- 
nated by electricity, of which tlie following is a partial sum- 
niary. The highest price paid fur an arc light of 2,000 nominal 
candle power, burning all night, is $360 per annum and the low- 
est $40, Between these two extremes are 186 prices, a few of 
which I give below: $280 per annum (56 lamps); $255 (100 
lamps); $252 (44 lamps); $237.25 (704 lamps); $233,60 (25 
lamps); $200 (170 lamps); $60 (100 lamps); $85 (65 lamps); 
$8o([4 lamps); $75 (33 lami)s); $73 (20 lamps); $60 (55 lamps); 
$51-^^ (75 l-'itnps). 

The highest i>rice charged for lamps burning till mi(itii);/tt, is 
$273,73, and the lowest $47,00 per annum, and the following are 
a few of the intermediate prices charged: $196 (56 lamps); 
$182.50 (17 lamps); $146 (16 lamps); $75 (55 lamps); $75 (22 
lamps); $60 (26 lamps); $50 {17 lamps). 

The difference between the higlvest and lowest prices charged 
for lamps burning all night, is 4H2 per cent,, and between the 
highest and lowest for lamps burning till midnight, 386 per cent. 

It is clear that no local conditions could legitimately cause 
anything like such a great variation in prices of electric light- 
ing. It would seem as if electric light companies simply obtain 
the highest prices they can get, and for the sake of "getting 






125 



in," wauUl take any price, and that it ts largely a matter of 
shrewdness on the pan of the officials on both sides, as to the 
price paid. 

It is evident these highest and lowest prices cannot be main- 
tained; and the question arises, when they come down to a fair 
average, say $146 per annum, or 40 cents per night, will there 
not \)t a reaction in a number of places in favor of gas light- 
ing? Whipple gives the average cost for arc lighting, as $J2i 
per annum, but from information which 1 have, I think 40 cents 
pcrnight would be a fairly paying price, where a large number 
of lamps are taken, and I consider at that price, high candle 
power gas lamps come into successful competition and give a 
more satisfactory illumination. 

Ffom careful enquiry and investigation, I am satislied that 
in the average place, incandescent lighting cannot be furnished 
to pay a moderate dividend, at less than one cent per hour, for 
a t6.candle lamp, which is eiinal to gas at $2.00 per 1,000 feet. 
In the city of New York, I am informed that the Edison people 
arc charging i 1-5 cents per hour, which is equal to gas at J^i 40 
per 1,000 fcrtj and that they pay a dividend of 5 per cent., and 
their stock is quoted at $75 per $100; I also understand that in 
Iheir down town station their business is not increasing. 

To conclude, I consfder that if a gas cornjiany can f>btain the 
control of electric lighting, by all means let it do so, but if it 
cannot I do not think it has any very great cause for alarm or 
discouragement; for, I am satisfied, as regards most places, ihat 
if proper attention is paid to the introduction of gas for heat- 
ing, cooking and motive power, the increase in consumption 
from these sources will more than compensate for the loss owing 
IQ the introduction of the electric light. As far as the Mana- 
ger is concerned, it need not personally be to him any source of 
regret; for, as a rule, there is quite enough in the gas business 
to occupy his energies to the fullest extent, and that the wear 
and tear from it is quite sufficient, without the addition of that 
which must of necessity arise from the adoption of electric 
lighting. 

TtlF. PRESiDtNT — This IS a very interesting and instructive 





paper I suppose many of our menbcrs already have both sys- 
lems running, and others are thinking of talcing up the electric 
light business. I hupe the paper will receive very full discussion, 

Mr, Robert Younc; — Does Mr; Pearson think that, where 
an electric light plant is already established, whether a gas com- 
pany can successfully compete by saddling an electric light 
plant on their own wtjrks ? That is, whether a gas company 
can compete in electric lighting with an electric light conipany 
already doing business in the same city. 



Mr. I'l arson — 1 would think not. 



fi 



Mr, Rmhkri Vouxn — It seems to me, such an increase of 
compelilitm wouUl *inly have a tendency to increase the cost of 
electric lighting, and that wonid affect the price of gas. Of 
course in a city wht^re no electric light plant is already estab- 
lished, anil the city desires the electric light, 1 would say il 
would be better fur the gas company to supply that light than 
to allow a i-cHiipeling company to do it. But I do not think it 
would he advisable, where tliere is an electric light plant already 
established, for a gas cumininy to enter into competition with 
them, 

Mr. SiiNF.ss — Dill I understand the t]uestion of Mn Young 
to be whether it was advisable for a gas company, where there 
is an electric light company already established, to enter into 
the business of electric lighting either by its own corporation, 
or by ronsohdation with a company already established? I 
understood Mr. Pearson to answer ni the negative. To that 
answer I desire to take issue. Although there may be individ- 
ual cases where sut h a course may not be advisable, yet m our 
own New Kngland I can scarcely name upon my fingers the in- 
fit ances where snch a combination or consolidation has no't been 
for the ftuanciul interest of the company as well as for the ben- 
efit of the people, I know by experience that there are many 
ix>mi>a«ir» d«iing a very successful electric light business, and 
doing it in « way that gives the most perfect satisfaction to the 
public^ by reason of the fact that they give all the means of 
artificial ilhimuiation^ whether by ga^s by the arc light, or by the 
incandescent light* In the report of the Gas Commissioners of 



127 



Massachusetts (whidi I consider one of the ablest papers that 
has been yet published in the gas world) I find no mention is 
made of the increase of business; and I suppose that that omis- 
sion arises from the fact that electric light companies have not 
been com j>el led to report to the Commission until within the 
past year, and, therefore, there has been no chance perhaps to 
make a comparative statement. Hut I think it comes to the 
mind of every man present here that the electric light business 
in Massachusetts is vastly increasing, I know this because I 
am a member of an electric club where these matters are 
brought to our attention; antJ I know that in very many cases 
this business is being done at a profit. Mn Pearson quotes from 
Mr Whipple*s book the statement that m one instance ^j6o per 
year is paid for an arc lamp burning ail night. 1 would like to 
furnish them for $130, and at that price will agree to pay a ten 
percent, dividend. 1 would like lo know where that place is, 
I think it is quite a remarkable statement, Mr. Pearson has 
given us some facts in his paper which come clear down to the 
present lime and to rock bottom. 1 think that 40 cents a night 
for an arc light all night long is a good paying price. Mr. 
Whipple's book may be quf>ted as an authority by some, but I 
attach very little value to it. I think that the consolidation and 
combination of gas and electric lighli ug, taken in its infancy by 
a gas company, has pro^^ed a blessing to all. While perhaps it 
roay not be appropriate here to give an exact statement as to 
Cost, yet there is one matter which I think has been somewhai 
liaggerated. We know that in our gas business we charge a 
good price for the depreciation of our plant, yet I think that 
the depreciation in the electric lighting, say perhaps, in over- 
head wires» will compare most favorably with the depreciation 
of any gas plant. I have machines which have been running 
and wires which have been strung for more than five years with- 
out one single cent of expense for repairs. Undoubtedly in 
niany companies which were organized simply for the sole ob- 
ject of selling a plant, and where they schemed and planned 
for the sake of selling stock, the depreciation in individual cases 
•^'ay be very large; but where a gas company establishes a plant 
in the same way that they establish gas works— for all time— the 
amount of the depreciation and repairs will compare very favor- 



128 

ably with those of a gas plant. I believe from my own experi- 
ence that there are many places where to-day the business of 
electric lighting and of gas lighting can be carried on with profit 
to the company, by one company. There may be individual 
cases where this cannot be done with a profit; but I think they 
are the exceptions. I think experience teaches us it is best for 
the gas companies to control, as far as possible, all means of 
artificial lighting, except what is burned by the wick. 

Mr. Pearson— I find that Whipple does not give the name 
of the company charging $360; but here is his statement: 
"The highest price paid for an arc light of nominally 2,000 can- 
dle power, burning all night, is $360." I have the names of the 
places that I found in his list and of some others where a high 
price is charged, and if desired I can give them to you. In 
Rutland, Vermont, for 56 lamps, $280; Savannah, Ga., $255, for 
100 lamps; Sacramento, Cal., ?»252, for 44 lamps; Boston, Mass., 
$237 for 704 lamps. 

Mr. Stiness — I do not see why I need say a word for the 
good city of Boston, but I think I may make the statement that 
I am positive they are not allowed to erect a pole in the city of 
Boston. Every particle of wiring in that city has to be done 
upon the tops of buildings ; and to maintain those wires upon 
the tops of those buildings requires a corps of men that is per- 
fectly astonishing. That is a reason why in Boston they are 
compelled to pay that high price. Being a Massachusetts man 
1 want to stand up for the city of Boston; but what is said as to 
the high price paid in Boston does not alter the position which 
I have taken. 

Mr. LiTTLKHAi.KS — I entirely differ from Mr. Pearson and 
Mr. Young and agree with Mr. Stiness as to the desirability of 
a gas company going in for electric lighting, even where another 
concern is in possession; and I will tell you why I think so. We 
know that in most cases the same tactics have been pursued in 
starting electric light concerns that have been in many places, 
in times past, adopted in respect to gas companies. They have 
been started by speculators, and the plant has cost three times 
what it should have done. Within the past five or six years 
great progress has been made, by reason of which the apparatus 



129 

for producing the electric light has been cheapened, and ihc effi- 
ciency of electric light plants increased, so that to-day a gas 
company, or any one else, can buy a plant of any given capac- 
ity for one-half what it would have cost seven or eight years 
ago, A gas company going into the business now has all those 
advantages. And those advantages are not small ones. I am 
It the present time making application to the City Council of 
oureily for permission to go mto the t-lectric light business, and 
wethinkwecan sec our way to a fairly remunerative trade. 
Touring my trip around in investigating thai mailer I came 
4irf)iiS n lumiber of gentlemen who have had a very large ex- 
]»criencc in electric lighting, and I think that those gentlemen 
t'an furnish this Association with a great deal of valuable infor- 
niaiion if they can be imluced to speak on the qnestiim, I may 
'ncntiun Mr Chadwick, of Lockport, New York, and Mr, Faben, 
of Tnledf), Ohio. Both of those gentlemen are in the electric 
i'ght business, and I have no doubt can give us a good deal of 
infuruiaiion on these subjects. 

Mr, RciHLK'i V'ouNti — Is it not to the advantage of the gas 
^"^mpany, when speculators come into a town and expend a great 
«fc^ of money in an electric light plant? They will have to 
charge more for their lights ur make their stock of no value. 
The gas company might be able to put up an electric light plant 
I'lai would be able-to compete with them, but it would be done 
'il the expense of the gas interest, I would be inclined to let 
the company with the large capital alone, for when a company 
hasa large amount of money invested ihey will lose a good deal 
^tiott they will give up. 

Mr. Robert BAxr>:R — ^I have listened with a great deal of 
'nierest to Mr. Pearson's paper, and also to the remarks of 
♦'Ihcrs. It is very pleasing to me to find that both Mn Pearson 
*^n(l Mr. Littlchalcs have come around to the position which I 
^o^ik two or three years ago. At that time I sent a circular let- 
ter Iq die principal gas companies of the Dominion, placing sev- 
^^l questions before ihem, and I had replies from them all. 1 
^Hink» with the exception of St, John, New Brunswick, they alt 
^»rl practically this: ** VVe have enough to do in the gas busi- 
^^^^\ there is n«j muney in tht^ ilt^tjtric Hgluing business; they 





are making no money; they are going to the bad; and we have 
enough to do in attending to our own business of making gas.*'' 
I am glad to find that they have now come round to the posi- 
tion which I took then — antl it is the strtjngest reason which I 
have for advocating a gas company contlucting an electric light 
business as well as its own. That, if the piiblrc want the elec- 
tric light they ought to have it; and if they want it who can 
give it to ihem as cheaply and as efficiently as a gas company? 
I maintain that no new company coming into the field is so well- 
fitted to do the business as a gas company already occupying 
that field. These points have been brought out most admirably 
by Mr. Pearson in his pa|)er, and 1 need not take your lime in 
going over them. 

In reply to the tjuestion as to whether it is expedient for a 
gas company to go into the electric lighting business in a city 
wh^re an electric light company is already established, J differ 
from Mr. Pearson and agree with Mr, Stiness. That is practr- 
cally what the company I am connected with is about to do* 
Of course every ctnupany must be governed by the peculiar cir- 
cumstances in which it finds itself. We were threatened with 
the species of persecution which has been so potent in the 
States, A company of *' booming speculators" came to the 
town and organi;^ed a company with the deliberate intention of 
absorbing our comjiany altogether, by buying us up, or buying 
us out, or forcing our stockholders to sell their stock below par 
and so enable them to gain control of the company. Under 
those circumstances my com]>auy decided to fight them with 
their own weapons, and, therefore, we installed an alternating 
system of about 1.500 lights, and are now running between 1,200 
and i»4oo lights very successfully. We had, as I say, to fight 
them with their own weapons. We supplied the light at a very 
low price. I think that is the ground that gas com panics ought 
to take, and 1 am glad to know that the number of those who 
are engaged in both businesses is increasing very rapidly, ^H 

Mr. McMtu.in^I am delighted to see with what facility gas 
companies can adapt themselves to the changed conditions of 
the times. Four or five years ago to mention water gas before 
a gas convention was like shaking a red flag before a bulls eyes; 



131 



but to*day we all lake it. A year ur two ago perhaps, certainly 
tffo or three years ago, you could hardly find in a gas cotiven- 
lion an advocate of electric lighting; and I believe that my 
friend Pearson told us at New York, two years ago, that we had 
belter let it alone, 

Mr. Pearson — ^I confess that in my paper, 

Mr. McMillin— Now, I think that the most of us will agree 
that the electric light is a right good thing to have about; and 
now the only thing that will stir up the Convention is to men- 
tion fuel gas; we will get there also after a w^hife. 

In St. Louis there are now five electric light companies, and 
that, loci, after five companies had combined into one united 
rompany. Myself and associates, as individuals, bought the 
united company, and wc also bought the Heisler Company, and 
as the owners of the gas company we are now putting in a 
plant li) do lighting, in competition w^ith ourselves. Su that 
*c jfu farther than any one who has been talking here; for not 
only IS the gas company putting up an electric light plant when 
there are already (tther plants there, but tht- I'resideiU r>f the 
gas company is putting in an electric light plant in opposition 
loan electric lighting company in which he is himself consider- 
able of an owner I mention this matter because in nego- 
tiating for the purchase of the property there I became familiar 
wuh some figures which show what the electric light com- 
jvinies have been doing. Last year one little company, with 
$too,ooo capital (which certainly could not have had ninch water 
"1 It), earned a clean 20 per ceut. dividend. The United Com- 
pany earned 18 per cent. 1'here were four gas companies there^ 
iind I need not tell you that they did not earn 18 nor 20 per 
ccni. There are now five electric light companies in the city, 
iind some of them do a very large l>usiness. The Missouri In- 
candescent Company (the Westinghouse System) is branching 
o«t to do an extraordinary business. The President told me 
the other day that they had rS,ooo lights on their books, 1 he 
Uclede Company is putting up a 5,000 light incandescent plant. 
Anuther company has a 2,000 to 2,500 arc light plant ; and this 
Company is also putting up a 25,000 light incandescent plants 
i>at which is not yet in opcratu>n. In the face of all this, the 




four gas organizations (which are now practically one) have 
had an averaj^e increase during ihe summer and fall thus far, 
uf from 8 to 14 per cent.» in the sale of their gas. 

Mr. Pearson — How much does the electric light company 
which is making from 18 to 20 per cent, charge for their light ? 
And is it an arc light company ? 

Mr. McMu/iiN — llie company that made 20 per cent, is an 
incandescent light ctimpany. They make private contracts, 
and there is no very sure way of knowing what they have 
charged heretofore; btit Ihey have heen in competition with 
the gas com[>anics» and with other electric light ccjmpanies, and 
yet they have charged enough to get 18 or 20 per cent^ out of 
it. Their charge depends somewhat upon the site of the cus- 
tomer. It is pretty cheap li» hotels. 



Mr, Pi arson — Ahcnit wliat is the average ? 



^"^1 



Mr. Mv-Micijn — Probably 75 cents per month for an incan- 
descent light. The Arc Company charged 50 cents a light for 
all night lighting— ftir private f*r commercial lighting. For 
railroads (antl they ilid a considerable portion of the lighting 
for the railrtKtds) I believe they got ^5 per year. That was 
nc»t for all night, but on moonlight scale. Of course some of 
them burnetl all night, and for those ihty pro frabiy get (ii2o, or 
something like that. The prices probal)ly would be an average 
of the country. In this connection I want to say that I think 
it would be easy if all these cases of extremely hiw prices men- 
tioned were invest igateth tt» find a cause for them. I know of 
one town where they \\\%i in 50 lights for ^48 each per year^ just 
simply because a number of electric light companies were try- 
ing to get in there in competition, and the City Council was 
willing that one more cmnpany should come in. They asked 
for bids on 50 lights under promise to give the charter to the 
company that wouUI bid the lowest. The old company bid 
dowMi to ^S; st» ntme <if the new companies got the contract. 
Of course the old company could afford to furnish those 50 
lighiH for nothinR nither than have a new company come in. I 
ihiivk ytm will find that all the extremely low prices arc occa- 
ihin^ of that kind. 1 think tliat ^o or <o cents 



p?nipt^>c^?i^nt^n mmst parts, of the country— ii^i a very 
good business for the electric arc light. I am like my friend 
Pearson. 1 consider that 40 cents per night for the arc light is 
igoml as gass at say, 75 cents or $1 per thousand feet. 

Mr. Stiness— I move a vote of thanks to Mr Pearson for 
his paper, as I consider it one of the very ablest papers we have 
had before our Association. [The iTiotinii [irevailed,] 

Report of thi*: Committee on President's Ai>okess. 

Mr A. C. Humphreys, Chairman of C!ommittee on Presi- 
^l!lcnt*s Address, presented the following report, which was on 
"lllOlion of Mr. tjraeff, recelvetK and the recomniendations 
adopted: 

Your Committee to which w^as referred the President's An- 
nual Address have considered the points and recommendations 
therein made, and woidd now commend to the menil>ers a care- 
ful re-reading of the atldress and a special consideration of the 
views expressed as to the conduct of the gas business so as to 
injure the full extension of our business. 

Yonr Committee recommend that, following the suggestion of 
our President, the Courjcd he instructed to promptly appoint a 
committee of seven. f\ve of whom shall be members of the 
Council to represent this Association, and with the representa- 
tives of kindred Associations, to consider and take action for 
the proper representation of the gas industry at the Centennial 
Eihihitmn of 1892. Yfair Committee reconiuRmds also that the 
committee so appointed be aulhorixed to ufhLialiy represent the 
American Gas Light Association at said Kxhibiiiun, and that 
iltcactua! expenses of this committee be paid from the funds of 
l^ic Association under the direction ami ctintrol of the CounciL 

Your Committee recommends that the Council be instructed 
^considerihe qncstioii of (>ro|)er co-o|>eration between the sev- 
eral gas light Associations of America and take such action and 
niakc such recommendations as may by it be deemed advisable. 

Your Committee recommends that the usual action be taken 
^* the Secretary looking to the preparation of suitable minutes 
reference to the members deceased dunng the past year. 

Your Committee finally recommends that the necessary num- 




134 

ber of copies of the President's Address be printed as promptly 
as convenient, and two copies be mailed to each member of the 
Association. 

Alex. C. Humphreys, 
J. P. Harbison, 
J. L. Hallett, 

Committee. 

The President — We have time to listen to the reading of 
another paper before taking our recess, and I will ask Mr. Lahs- 
den to read his paper on the 

ADVANTAGES OF SUPPLYING A MIXTURE OF COAL 
AND WATER GAS. 

Mr. Lansden then read as follows: — 

The subject on which I was requested to prepare a paper is 
"The Advantages of Supplying a Mixture of Coal and Water 
Gas." I did not think, when I wrote our worthy Secretary that 
I would furnish a short paper on this subject, that the first mat- 
ter I should have to speak of, would be one of the great " dis- 
advantages " we who are furnishing a mixed gas, labor under. 
It is this. We have no standard burner by which our candle 
power is measured. This is, of course, the most important 
question, when we wish to compare results. I believe there is 
no official recognition of any one burner in this country, for 
testing water, or mixed gases. Some municipalities have offi- 
cially said that the gas shall be tested by a burner best adapted 
to the gas furnished. This leaves the question to be settled by 
the gas inspector of that locality. 

The jet photometer, which is unreliable enough for coal gas, is 
vastly more so for testing water or mixed gases. Situated as 
we are, in Washington, we certainly have not a fair show in this 
regard. It is a statute law of the United States, that the Wash- 
ington gas shall be tested by a fifteen hole Argand burner, which 
was done away with in England i6 years ago, when the 24 hole 
burner was adopted for testing coal gas. 

Between the burner used in New York city and the one in 
Washington, there is something over 6J candles. I think it un- 
fortunate we have no recognized burner for testing water or 



13.^ 



mined gaseb in this country. In the tests 1 give in this paper* 
of candle power, I used the Bray Slit, No 7. 

I will now speak of what I think are some of the advantages 
of supplying a mixed gas. In localities where your consurnp- 
lioa i& subject to much fluctuation, and you are supplying a 
^traiglit coal gas, you are compelled to keep under fire, enough 
brnche^ tu furnish your greatest possible demand. When you 
hare a water gas plant in connection, you may at all times keep 
jrour coal benches running to their utmost capacity, being able 
to supply yf>ur fluctuating demand from the water gas. Those 
only who arc making coal gas know the worry and expense of 
balf diargcH, idle benches, and the many changes they have to 
make lo keep pare with dark days and rainy nights, when the 
fQOon should shine. I find our coal benches last much better and 
tile results are much more satisfactory when we can keep them 
under an even fire, and doing full work all the time. This is 
vaiitly so, with recuperative benches, 

One of the greatest advantages in supplying a mixed gas, is 
that of being able to furnish at all times any candle power re- 
quired. I know it is impossible to furnish straight coal gas over 
iB caiHlle power that wdl give entire satisfaction to consumers. 
I presume that 90 per cent, of the gas crmsumed is burned in 
balswing or fishtail burners. When you go beyond 18 candle 
power^ ant! often at less, consumers complain that your gas 
smoker. 1 admit much of this trouble is with the consumer, 
If they would keep their burners clean, we would hear less of it* 
Thb» we know they will not do, and we have to accept the srtu- 
altnn as we find it. Wc can give a muc h greater candle power 
with a mixed gas without smoking through the ordinary burners 
Id use than with straight coal gas. 

Right here let me say, I think the successful burner of the 
listure will be m(»re simple than the batswing or fishtail of tfie 
present ilay. U consumers will not take proper care of then», 
wliai may we expect of one that requires more attention ? 

In this day of electricity, we are ccmipellcd to give a much 
hi I 'lie power than before its* introduction. The eyes of 

Iht , - , J tiave been educated to demand it^ and wc shall have 
III fumUli ii. This high candle power we cannot supply with 
^'Iraigftt cwil gas. I do believe it wtmld be much belter for 




i 



136 



humanity, if we could not furnish a greater candle power than 
16 candles. However, the oculist and optician must live and the 
people must give them a chance. 

There has been a great deal said about the mixing of the two 
gases. Some insist it will stratify in the holder. This has not 
been our experience in Washington, Our gases are made and 
purified separately. After each kind of gas has passed its 
meter, they are worked into one main to the gas holder. I 
had an opponiiniiy this summer of testing this question of 
stratification. We filled a holder, while painting it, and let i 
»*tand idle for two months. When turned on to the city it wa^ 
Worke*l <|uite low down before more gas was put into it. We 
could see no difference in the gas whatever. Another advan- 
tage in making a mixed gas is, you have a much wider field 
from which to select your material. If the coal men pinch you 
in price, you can go to the oil men, and vice versa. You can 
feel you are not dependent on any one material from which to 
make your gas. 

One other advantage in a mixed gas is, you reduce ver\^ 
materially that comptment of water gas, which is considered by 
a great many as detrimental, namely, carbonic oxide. It is 
certainly a great advantage when your coke yard becomes 
overstocked and the price not satisfactory, you can turn it intOp^i 
water gas. Wt 

To come at the value of a mixed gas for heating purposes, I 
have made a few experiments to {uid its comparative value. 
The experiments were conducted as a consumer w^ould use the 
gas. I uscti a double ring liunsen burner, such as is ordinarily 
furnished with gas cooking stoves. I used a galvanized iron 
tank, six inches deep, of sufficient size to h<»ld one cubic foot 
of water. 

I found that with a coal gas, sp. gr. 431, candle power 14.60, 
burning at the rate of nine cubic feet per hour, air and water 
68'', the first cubic foot of gas raised the water to 78' ; second 
to 86''; third to 94'"; fourth to 102"; fifth to iio*^. The fivt 
cubic feet of gas raised the water 42^, or 8^"* for each cubic 
foot of gas. The rlay folluwing I made a similar test with coal 
gas, sp. gr. 445, candle power 16,12, air and water 68\ First 
cubic foot of gas raised the water to 76 ; second to 84*'; third 




137 



> 92"^; fourth to loo^; fifth to io8^. The five cubic feet of 

t raised the water 40', or 8° to each cubic foot of gas. The 
ten tests of coal gas raised the water 82*, or 8|\%** to each 
cubic foot of gas, 

I followed these tests with two of carbureted water gas. 
The first test, sp. gr. 584^ candle power, 28.10, water and air 
67", First cubic foot of gas raised the water to 76^^; second to 
85""; third to 94"; or 27"" for three cubic feet of gas consumed 
—burning at the rate of nine cubic feet per hi»ur 

The second test was water gas (carbureted), sp. gr. 578, 
c^ntlltf power, 27.61, air 68"^, water 84'. First cubic foot raised 
the water to 93^; second in 102 '; third to itT\ or 27'^ for the 
three cubic feet of gas used. In the two tests, using six feet 
of j^as, the water was raised 54", i*r g for each cubic foot of 
ps consumed. 

The average candle power of the two tests of coal gas used 
^^ 15.36 ; that of the carbureted water gas was 27. 86, a differ- 
ence of [2,50 candles: and for this difference in candle power 
1 gained 80-100 of one degree in fieating power. 

The first test of mixed gases, was of one-half each. Coal 
Jfis, ip. gr 445, candle power 16,12, and carbureted water gas, 
'^P' 1^.567, candle power 26.90. I first half-filled the hoider 
*ith the lightest gas at the top, following with the heaviest 
S*isat the bott<»m. I was testing the gases on the photometer 
^nhc time 1 was fdling the holder; so it required fifteen 
oiitutics to fill each half of the holder, I allowed the holder to 
'"tniain idle for three htnirs, when I lotik the candle power anil 
Seating tests. The average candle power put into the hrtlder 
|'V|a>2i.5i. ^^^ heaviest gas that went into the holder at the 
bottom as 26.90 candle [>ovver, came out 23.29. I'he last of the 
psatthe top of the hoUler came out 20.K1. The average of 
the candle power that came out of the holder was 22.05, ^^ 
54''oo of a candle greater than went in. I made but two tests 
of the candle power of ihrs htdder ; the first and last gas put 
'n it. I desired to test the heating quality of the mixture, so I 
used the gas in the middle of the bolder for this purp4>se. 

As there had been, according to my test, an increase in 
candle pf)wer, I was not satisfied, but thought it was due to an 
error m my tests, I made another test three days later. The 




difference in this last test frum the former tme was» I put the 
heaviest gas iiitn the holder first, filling it half full, This 
was sp. gr 522, candle pnwer 25.14, (carbyretecl water gas) 
filled the remaining half of the holder with coal gas, sp. gr 
424, candle power 14.02, This made an average candle power 
of 18,58. After the holder hatl been idle for two hours I made 
the folhjwing test for candle power. The first test was 16.29, 
second 22.22, third 21.54, fourth 21.05, ^^^^ 21.72. The five 
tests taken from the holder showed an average candle power 
of 20. 56^ a difference coming out oi the holder, to what went 
in, of r.gS candles. This has confirmetl me in the belief that 
mixing fine-half each cf>al and water gas increased the candl 
power. 

In making tests of the heating power of the mixed gas, 
found they varictl but very little from the value of each gas 
combined. For each cubic foot of gas consumed the same as 
the former tests, i found it raised the temperature of one 
cid>ic foot of water about 9 . Some tests gave t/iVir * <>lhers 
gave but 8 . I find it varied as the mixture of gas, 

I made one test of water gas not carbureted. I used the 
same burner, but of course had to exciutle the air (as we use it 
with carbureted gas). I burned it ai the rate of 15 cubic feel 
per hiuir. During the test the air was 64", water gas 65"", sp. 
gr. 485, First cubic foot tif gas raised the water to 69 ', second 
to 73', third to 78 \ fourth to 82', fifth to 86 \ sixth tu 90", 
seventh to 94'', eighth to 98'^, ninth to 102' , tenth to loG"", or 
4^ff'^ to each cubic foot of gas consumed. Thus, un carbureted 
water gas as to heating value, is but one-half that of itluminat- 
ing gas. This water gas sold as a fuel gas, to do the same 
amount f*f work, will require a plant of double the size of thai 
of illuuvinating gas. When it is sold at 40 cents per thousand, 
illuminating gas is as cheap at 80 cents, and in consequence of 
its odor is much safer about the house. 

As this ciuestion c)f mixed gas is being looked into by a great 
many, 1 feel it is a matter that may interest us all. I hope 
fathers who are m*n'e able than myself may keep it before the 
gas associations. I do think that the most satisfactory gas of 
the future will be sixty per cent, of coal gas, to forty per cent. 
of water gas. 



n 



191 

The President — The hour for adjournment has arrived, and 
it will be necessary to postpone the discussion of Mn Lans- 
den's paper until the afternoon session. 



Second Day — Afternoon Session. 

The association was called to order at 2 p. m. 

Discussion on Mr, Lansden^s Paper. 

The President — We will now take up the diiscussion on Mr. 
Lansden's paper on the "Advantages of Supplying a Mixture 
of Coal and VV^ater (las/' 

Mr, Robert Voung — I would like to ask Mr. l.ansdcn 
whether he made any change in the burner when he was burn- 
ing 16 candle and 29 candle gas. The same burner is not suit- 
Jible for both gases, and one is very apt to be led astray and to 
think that the 16 candle gas has aliout as high heating power 
is the 27 candle. I think the burner was at fatdt, 

Mr. Lansden — I used the same burner 

Mk, A. C. Ht;MPHKF.vs--I would like to say a w<jrd m\ the 
subject of stratification. To my mind it could be covered in 
^hJs w;iy. that if yrju give the gases a chance to mix they will 
^mix t:omplctciy. I think the idea that gases will stratify is en- 
tirely erroneous, but if you give gases a proper chance they 
M\\\ thorouglily mix. It will not do to say» rm the (»ther hand^ 
hat gases will not stratify in the ordinary acceplation of the 
term, because if you do not give them a chance to mix they 
will come out stratified to the cnnsumer, but if you give them 
a chance to mix in the hokler the niixiure will go cr^mplete to 
the consumer As to another point with regartl to the mixture 
of gases by means of an exhauster. I would like to point out 
that of course it is not necessary to have any elaborate system 
i*f double purification after mixing. We could of crmrse bring 
those gases together by the use of only one exhauster, and still 
mix in any rctjuired ipiantity of water gas with coal gas or 




t*ke versa, by the use of one exhauster and one holder 
constantly doings that. 

Thk Prfsident — Would there be any special objection, pi 
vided the two gases were of equal candle power, if they w< 
not thoroughly mixed? 



We are | 
y we^^ 



Mr. a. C HuMPHRrvs — Yes; there would be. The same 
burner would not be adapted to the two gases, and you get 
unequal results. The gases ought to be mixed. 

Mr, RoiiERT Young— I quite agree with Mr. Lansden, about 
the effect of using mixed gas. We use in Allegheny (where we 
have lx>th processes) a water gas plant and a coal gas plant, and 
of course are mixing our gases all the time. The mixture of 
water gas to coal gas ranges from 25 to 75 per cent. Ours is 
not a water gas exactly but a mixture of 66.66 per cent, of whaler 
gas and 53. 34 per cent, of natural gas — in summer we make 75 
per cent of this mixture and 25 per cent of coal gas and in 
winter it is just reversed; taking the whole year we make 50 
per cent, of each. As far as the stratifying of the gas is con- 
cerned we have no trouble with that. I also agree with Mr. 
Lansden that we make a better gas and a gas that is more sat- 
isfactory to the peo]>le than we did when we made a 16-candle 
coal gas. Our mixture of gas averages from 18.56 to 19 candle 
powen Since we have been using water gas we have never had 
a single complaint from the people of smoked ceilings. Before 
that we tried to increase our illuminating puwer by injecting oil 
into the retorts, but if we thus increased the illuminating pow^er 
to 18 or 20 candles the next thing we heard was about its dtscot* 
oring the wall and ceilings. Since we have used the water gas, 
mixing il with the coal gas, we have never had a bit of trouble. 

Mr. Co\vdf.rv— I have tried the same experiment that Mr. 
Lansden speaks of, and found the results to be very close to 

what he has stated. 

On motion of Mr. Walton Clark, the thanks of the Associa- 
tion were voted tn xMr, Lansden, ftir his paper. 

The President— We will next listen to the reading of the 
paper by Prof. E. G. Love, on 



141 



GAS CArX)RIMETR\ 

PltoF. LovR— Perhaps I shoiikl state, before commencing my 
paper, that the rea^son wliy there are no cuples printed is tlue to 
my ijjnorance of ihc custom u( the Association — a praiseworthy 
one— of having the papers primed in time to put them in the 
hands of the members at the meeting. I was not aware of that 
custom, and consequently did not send my [laper to the Secre- 
larj in time to have rt printed 

The constantly increasing demand on the part of the public 
for some cheap and efficient gaseous fuel naturally renders this 
one of thr most imporlant tpic-stions which engage the atten- 
tion of a body of gas engineers. 

The number and scope of the papers on gaseous fuel which 
from time to lime have been brought l)ffore this Association 
reader anything I might say from a strictly engineer*s stand- 
point quite unnecessary. And yet as the efficiency of a gaseous 
fuel is quite as important as its cheapness, it has occurred to me 
that perhaps a few words on the practical detcrminatinn of the 
heating power of gas might not be without some interest to the 
Association - 

The object of calorimetry is to measure the quantity of heat 
which is pn>duced or absorbed during any chemical or physical 
change; and a calorimeter is an instrument employed in measur- 
mg this heat* This includes the tletermi nation of specific heat, 
latent heat, heat of combustion, etc., and, consequently, the 
form of calorimeter must depend lipon the nature of the inves- 
tigation. 

At present we have to do with the determination of the heat 
of combustion, and this is more especially as it relates to gas- 
eous fuels. 

The calorific power of a fuel tuay be defined as the total 
quantity of heat produced by the combustion of any given 
quantity of it. This power depends not only upon the chemi- 
cal composition of the body» but also on certain chemical and 
physical properties. Thus the calorific power of carbon in the 
form of wood-charcoal would be represented by the number 
8,o80f while in the form of the diamond it would be 7,770. 
It is important to distinguish between calorific power and cai- 





0rific inifftHtw The first has to do solely with the quantity of 
heat produced, and would be the same whether the combustion 
took place in the oxygen gas or in the air. A piece of wood 
produces the same quantity of heat when allowed to decay in 
nature as when burned in a stove, but the calorific intensity is 
entirely different. 

*rhe calorific intensity, then, refers not to the quantity of heat, 
hut to the temperature pnjduced. and it \s sometimes defined as 
the temperature to which the burning of any substance will 
heat the products of its own combustion While the quantity 
of heat is the same whether the fuel is burned in oxygen or in 
air, the calorific intensity or flame teuipcralurc would be very 
dilfereni. When burned in the necessary quantity of oxygen, 
the heat produced raises the temperature of the products of 
combustion only, but when burned in air the heat must raise the 
temperature tif tlic nitrogen present in additicni to that of the 
products of com bust i on » and consequently the temperature 
reached is not so high. When, as in practice, the air is, and must 
be in consitk-rable excess, the flame temperature is even lower. 
As an ilhislration, a given weiglit of carbon when burned in the 
requisite amount of oxygen will give a temperature of 10,174° 
C; when burned with just enough air to furnish the necessary 
oxygen, the temperature is iowered to 2,715' il.\ and, lastly, 
when the amount of air \s twice that necessary to furnish the 
oxygen, the temperature is only 1,408 C. With hydrogen these 
figures would be 6,930 C, 2,741^ C, and 1^550 U. 

In measuring calorific power reference is made to water as a 
standard, and a heat unit is the quantity of heat required to 
raise a given quantity of water i deg. in leu}[>erature. 

Unfortunately some confusion exists from a lack of uniform- 
ity in the heat unit employed by tlifferent writers. In England 
and in this country the unit is either the pound Centigrade or 
the pound Fahrenheit. The pound Cent, unit is the quantity of 
heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water 1 
iW^. C, while the pound Fahr. unit differs only in sutistituting 
the Fahr. degree for the Centigrade degree. Since 1 deg. on 
the Cent, scale is equal to I deg. on the Fahr, the expression of 
calorific powers in the pound Cent, unit is converted into pound 
Fahr. unit by multiplying by jf. The reverse calculation is made 
by multiplying by J. 



143 



The French unit, generally employed in France and (icrniany, 
jsibc quanlity of heat required to raise the temperature of i 
kilogram of water i (leg. C It is called a caUjrie, and is equiv- 
alent to 2.2 pound Cent, units, or 5.96 pound Falir. units. 

The method of arriving at the heating power of any fuel by 
aQlculaiion based upon certain generally acceple<l data may 
Ue relied upon in some cases, an<l yet, to a practical man, tfiat 
method will naturally commend itself which determines the heat- 
ing [)<» we r by actual experiment. 

Forsiuhdand liquid fuels a calculation gives only rough approx- 
jmation§ to the truth, and this must t oniinue to be the case so 
long as our knowledge of the constitution of the carbon and hy- 
tlrogeu in these fuels remains in its [jresent imperfect state. To 
caliiilale the heating power of a sample of co^l from the amount 
of carbon and hydmgen it contained, and the calorifu- values usu- 
al!}' assigned to these elements, wouhl lie assuming that the carbon 
of the coal had the same heating power that it has in woo<l char- 
coal, and that the hydrogen had the same value as experiment 
has shown it to have in its elementary, gaseous condition. Some 
improvement is made when we recognize the |irol>ability, sug- 
gested by M. Cornut, that the fixetl and volatile carbon have 
different calorific powers; and still we are very much in the 
tlark. 

Uith Hquid fuels the data upon which to base a calculation ui 
their calorific powers is as uncertain as with solid fuels. 

In the case of gaseous fuel a calcidation becomes more reha- 
ble since there is less uncertamty in the data upon which it is 
hased. Two methods have been employed for calculating the 
calorific power of a gaseous fuel. I'he first considers the gas 
as containing known quantities of carbon and hydrogen, and 
Us calorific power is calculated on the assumption that these 
constituents have the same calorific va'ue as though in their 
elementary condition, 1 his is open to the same objection no- 
ticed in the case of solid and liquid fuels; and the result based 
upon it is, therefore, erroneous. 

J'hc other method considers the gas as a mixture of hydro- 
gen, marsh gas, olefiant gas, carbonic oxide, etc., for each of 
which a calorific value has been experimentally determined. If 
the percentage by weight of each of these constituents be muJ- 



144 



tiplied int<» its calorific power, the sum of the products thtt$ 
obtained will equal the calorific power per pound of gas. This 
gives us the most reliable result which it is possible lu obtaiu 
by calculation. It involves a complete analysis of the jjas m 
(|uestion, and, moreover, the nature and amounts of what are 
usually desig[nated as •* illominants " or heavy hydro- carbons 
must be ascertained, since the constituents of the illuminanii 
have different calorific values; thus it is that an actual laUun- 
tory test, while it may n<Jt be fully realized in the practical use 
of a jsjaseous fuel, is at once a more expeditious and salisfarlurv 
methcu! of reaching the desired result. 

In order to illustrate more in detail the methods employe 
in determiniuja: the heatinjiJ^ power of gas I have sketched he 
three calorimeters suitable for stich determinations. The fill 
is that of Andrews (see ¥\^. 4.) which involves the explosid 
of the gaseous mixture in a closed copper vessel. It consii 



\k 



Fiu. 4. 



145 



of four cylinders, one within another. The gas to be examined, 
mixed wilh the requisite amount of oxyjjen, is inclosed in the 
vessel A, which is placed in a larger vessel filled with water. 
This is itself placed in a cylinder provided with a cover, and the 
whole enclosed in an outer vessel arranged to rotate on a hori- 
Jtiintal axis. The apparatus is first rotated to establish unifdnniiy 
of temperature, this temperature being then measured by a deli* 
catc thermometer. By means of the wires shown, a current of 
electricity is passed through a fine platinum wire, placed in the 
gaseous mixture, until the wire becomes sufficiently heated to 
explrKle the gas. The calorimeter is then closed and rotated 
for 35 seconds to distribute the heat through the apparatus. 



fo 



^ 



\m^ 



11 



^<^ 



^ 



V 

t 



m 



:^:-r^r^ 



Fig. 5. 




14G 



The thcrrnomelcr is again uUroducecJ and the increase of lem- 
peralure observed. This» together with the known calorific 
capacity of the apparatus furnishes the necessary data for 
calculatin)^ the calorific power of the g^as. 

The second eaJorimeter is that of Favre am] Silbermann {see 
^i&- 5) I^ ^^ ^'* arranged that the fuel can be burned in oxy- 
gen gas. It consists of the combustion chamber a, made of 
gilt cojiper plate. Surrounding this is the vessel c c c, which 
is filled with the water to be heated. Outside of c c is the 
vessel of silvered copper /', the space between this and c being 
filled with swan*s di»wn. The whole is contained in the vessel 
rr to the bottom of which fi is firmly fastened. The annular 
space between If and r is fijled with water, the temperature of 
which is intlicatctl by the thermometer /, and which serves to 
neutralize any acciLlciital variations in the temperature of the 
atmosphere. The tube tf serves to convey the purified oxygen 
into the calorimeter, and v^hen the substance to be tested is a 
gas, it is inlroduced by the tube tK The gaseous products of 
combustion escape by the tube s, pass through the coil s» where 
they commmiicate their heat to the surrounding w^ater, and 
finally leave the instrument by the upper part of s. a a is a 
mechanical agitator, and m a mirror which enables the operator 
to o!>scrve the progress of the uombuslion^ the opening into 
the calornncler being closed by a tri{>le disc of glass, alum and 
quart/,. In all cases when; it was practicable to do so, Favre 
and Silbcrniann calculated the quantity of substance burned 
from the wcighl of the products of combustion. 

The calorimeter to which 1 wish especially to call your atten- 
tion, is one devised by the late Mr, F. \\\ Hartley (See Fig, 6.) 
it com*ist& of the water cisicm, A^ provided with a ball-cock, 
and connected with a larger cistern or supply ; B, the outlet of 
the cintern, is a glass tube containing a thermometer for ascer- 
taining the temperature of the inlet water; C, is a water jacket 
sumninding the Bunsei\ burner; D, is the body or calorimeter 
proper, consiAiiug of a modified CaCfey*s still, which presents 
htlcrnaUy a litrgi? welted surface for the absorption of heat; E, 
\% A box lo contain an anemometer when desired; F» is a cop- 
per chinMiey, aiul K\ \s a ringbumer for heating the upper part 
of tb^ chimney —ihb 1* ivecetijwiry^ itiasmuch as the products of 



147 



combustion^ being DeTow the lem[)eralure uf tht* air, cannot 
produce the necessary draught. M, is the meter delivering 
t-20 cubic foot of gas per revolution, and R, is a sensitive gov- 
ernor placed on the outlet of the meter. Delicate thermome* 
ten* are employed to determintf thtr temperatures of the atmos- 
phere, the inlet water, the outlet water, the body of the 
calorimeter, the products of combustion and the ^as tested. 

In working, the gas passes from the cistern, through the tube, 
B, and the jacket, C, to the upper part of the body, r>, through 
which it descends, finding an exit through the lip into the col- 
lecting cistern, J. The gas ts liurned at the rate somewhat less 
than I j cubic feet per hour, while the quantity burned in each 
lest is i cubic foot With our gases of higher candle power I 
find that the consumption cannot much exceed r foot per hour, 
the experiment lasting about fifteen minutes. The gas and 



Fig, 6. 




water sup[>ltcs are first regulated so that the increase of temper- 
ature shall be from about 5 to 8 deg. Fahr,, the water meantime 

running to waste. After this adjustment is made and the read- 
ings of the ihermomtfter are tulerably uniform, the index of the 
meter is taken and the uutlet water turned into the coUeciing 
cistern. During the lest the thermometer indicating the tem- 
perature of the heated water should be read frequently. My 
practice is to read this thermometer four times during each rev- 
olution of the meter, making 20 readings during the test. Each 
of the fJther thermivmeters is read five times at regular intervals. 
When the .25 cubic for^t of gas has been consumed the water is 
turned to ** waste,** the ttme is noted and the water in the col- 
lecting cistern either weighed or measured and the weight cal- 
ctdated. The weight of witter in prnnids multiplied by the 
increase in temperature of the water and divided by the cor- 
rected volume of gas burned, gives the calorific power per foot 
of gas. Tlu* resulis obtained with ai\v calorimeter require some 
correction, the nature antl extent of which vary with the dilfer- 
ent forms of instruments. This is usually determined once for 
all. Mr. Hartley pi>inied out the following possible sources of 
error in his calorimeter: 

r. Absorption of heal by the /Wv of the instrument, and 
loss of heat by the healed water fn'enrr, Exeriments have 
shown that for each tiegree Fahr. which tlie body of the calo- 
rimeter is below the temperature of the air, it absorbs an amount 
of heat equal to ,025 of a unit per minute, and that for each 
degree which the receiver — and issuing water — is above the 
temperature of the air it loses ,01 of a unit per minute. If, 
therefore, an experiment lasted ten minutes and the body was 
5" Fahr. hjwcr than, and the receiver 5" F'ahn above the tem- 
perature of the air» the corrections would be: 

.025x5x10^1,35 gain, to be subtracted. 

.010x5x10= ,50 loss, to be added. 



4 



.75 unit gain, to be subtracted from the result 
for ^ fool consumption. 
1. Absorption of heat from the air supplied to the burner. 
and aspirated through the apparatus. From various tests Hart- 
Icy became satisAed that not more than ij feet or, say, one 



141* 



pound ol'air, passes for each foot of gas borned. On this basis, 
if the effluent gases were 3' Fahr, below the air the correction 
per cubic foot of gas units would be ,2379 (specific heat of air; 
Regnault) multiplied by 3=0,7137 unit. No correction is made 
for this small error. 

3. Diflferences in the specific heat of water at different tem- 
peratures. 
Regnault found the sperirlc heat of water 

at 86" Fahr 1.0020 

at 50"^* Fahn r.0005 



00015, ^^ *5 uf^its in Tooo; 

ecjual to .04 of a unit in 1000 for each degree between 50 and 
86". If 620 units of heat were realized per cubic foot of gas 
with water at any temperature between 50'' and 86 the correc- 
tiot^ would be 620x^04^ tooo =0,025 ^^ ^ ^"^^ ^^^ nM, 

Nij correction is made f(»r this 

4. Radiation downwards from the burner. The burner is of 
the Bunsen type and radiation is not great, Mureover, the 
flame m» wholly within the body, and any radiated heat for the 
most part falls u|x*n the water-jacket placed around the burner 
tube. The loss, therefore, by radtatinn is practically nothing* 

As to the efhciency of this instrument, I have not tested it as 
yet with any simple gas of known calorific power, but I may 
state that a test with hydrogen by Mr. Hartley gave 329.28 heat 
units per cubic foot at 60 i.\^g. Fabr, and ;o in. This is equiva- 
lent to 620.80 heat units per pound. 

Appendix. 

Memoranda of Calorific Test of Gas. 



Temperature of air 



69,28" F. 



water-inlet, below air 3-767"^ 
** outlet, above air 4.413"^ 



1 (» 


raised . 


8.180^ 


* escaping gas . 


68.00 


* body 


♦ 


<>iH^ 


* gas 




69.00 




Duration of test , . . , i5'<^33 Min. 
Gas burned . . ,0,25 cu. ft. 

" ** corrected to 60*" and 30 in, ^245 15 ft. 
Lbs. of water heated . . . 20.814 
Correction: 

i.428x,o258xi5.o33=:x.554 gain. 
4,4i3X.oi xi5.033=.663 loss. 

.109 unit loss. 
2o,8i4x8»i8=i7o.254* 11= ^70.36-*-. 245 15 ==694.93 heat units 

at 60'' and 30 in. 
Candle power 21,94, 

Tahie of the Cahrific Patvtrs af Gases, based an the Results of 

Prof. JuLttfs Thomsen. 



GAB. 



Hyiirogcn. . . 
Mjtthjicie or \ 
Marsh Gas f 
Ethatte ..... 

rmpdiic , 

Eihyltnc . . . , 
T*n*fiytcnc . . 
AiTtylcfW' 

CarU 



FOTIDII^ 



8pMia«| w**«hl Nnraber 
Grjiv ly of I ctt.fl,' of cu, fl. WiHer-Llqnid. 
Air I. uraliii. , iu \ lb. 



lOitortlle Pa««f«» Lb. VUi. Uotl 



WBtor^Vftpor. 



I 



11 o 0693 

C H* jo 5576 

Ct 111 1 0374! 
C| n« \ 524'> 
C, Hi 0.^784 
C| Hi It \K\^ 

t't Hi o .)icx> 



Cf H. 
C Q 



37-04| 
39S.03I 

554 48 
804. S9' 
522.95 1 
Soo 67I 
4S6 39 
a.7(XMj 1443.14 
o ^^77 5t7 33' 



Par »b. C o. ft. ' Ptr lb, / Cn. ft, 

18S 9861534.O1 325.5 5i8o4'Ol 274.1 
33 49 24022.0 1022.8 21592.0 919,3 

12 S2 22399.S 1774.3 20455.811620 3 
S,59 21S25.0 2540.7 2CJ057.7J2335.0 

13.3821522.81607.920134,31504 2 
8 7421222.^2427.5 19834.2 2268.7 

■4 3921492.7 1493.4 20745.0I 1441.4 
4 8518133.43748.717435.713594 6 

"3-55 4395-2 324.7. 4395-2' 324»7 




I have calculated the weig^Ht of i cubic foot of air at 60"" R 
and 30 in. pressure as 534.495 grains. 

Discmssmm. 

Tmk Pk^s^uiknt— This ts a very interesting paper, and I have 
no doubt ihai the l*rofessor will be glad to answer any questions 
yon may ask hinu 

Mil JONKtsu-I would like to ask if it is true that the calorific 
powtr of carlMMiic oxid«» when burned with oxygen, is greater 
Ummi that of hydrofoil when bumed with oxygen^ foot for foot. 

.oviR— Aceotding to the fiignres that I have 
didereiicei Spo tar as calorific i^wer b concerned 





p^" 



151 

whether the gas is burned in oxygen or in air The quantity of 
beat is the same, but the intensity would be di He rent. I have 
calculated the calorific power of hydrogen as 325.5 heat units 
per cubic foot, and that of carbonic oxide as 314.7 units. These 
figure suppose the aqueous vapor produced in the burning of 
hydrogen to have been condensed, and its latent heat rendered 
sensible, 

Mk. NoRRis — Then the cc)m[)arist)n between carbotiiu t>xide 
am! hydrogen is affected by the c<indensation uf the watery 
vapor, and also by the temperature at which the gases are dis- 
charged. I believe that carbonic oxide takes about 24 times 
a!» much oxygen to burn it as hytlrtjj^cn, and, therefore, if you 
discharge the products of combustion at 600 deg. you lose 
more carbonic oxide than you do nf hydrr)gen. 

fttoF, LovE^ — These figures are based upt>n the supposition 
that the gaseous [jroducts are deprived of their heat. Of 
course it is important in any calculation of this sort to dfj that, 
urthe figures would be quite different fn the case of hydro- 
gtn you have steam produced which goes oif as vapor, carrying 
With it all the latent heal. These calculations are based upon 
tht' supposition that the aqueous vapor is condensed, and that 
the latent heat becomes sensible and is measured. When the 
vapor is not condensed, the calorific powers become 274. j units 
lor hydrogen and 324,7 units for carbnnic oxide. 

Mr. NoRRrs — I meant marsh gas and nut carbonic oxide. 

Mr, John Younu—I would like to ask Prof. I.ovu in what 
way he obtains the results when he is testing diiTcrcnt gases. 
For instance, light carbureted hydrogen would require a much 
larger quantity of air for combustion than would hydrogen. 

Prof. I.ovk — fhe burner emjjloyed is so constructed as tcj 
illow an adjustment of the air supply to the gas burned. 

Mr. Johk Yuunh — Would there not be a liability to error on 
i* count of imperfect combustion ? 

pROr. Love — I think not, and still if the combustion were 
imperfect an error would of course be introduced, In order to 
uisurr .1 gainst this I he iirndufts of conihustinn should be ex* 




162 



arttlncd. A glass tube can be inserted into the escape pipe, 
and the products of combustion drawn off and analyzed. If 
the analysis show<;d that tht carlnin had been burned to car- 
bonic acid, and that no carbonic oxide were present we should 
Conchide that the combustion had been perfect. It may be 
safely assumed that the same proportions of the gas and air 
would produce perfect combustion under practically the same 
Conditions. 

Mr, Nf-TTL ETON— Before leavin^r Prof. Love's paper I would 
like to ask him a question. He has tested both water and coal 
gas; but I would like to ask him if he has ever tested a mix- 
ture or combination of water and coal gas; and, if so, if he has 
found that the result is the average candle power of the two 
gases — the theoretical candle powder — or, if it is higher, how he 
explains thai fact. Probably he is in a better position to make 
that test than any one else in the room. 

Prof. Love — 1 have not made a sufficient number of tests on 
that particular point to answer your question. I may say that 
at my laboratories it is now impossible for me to get any pure 
coal gas, for the reason that, since the consolidation, it is 
mixed with water gas, and the only way is to bring the gas to 
my laboratory, or take my calorimeter to the gas works. At 
the Manhattan works they make pure coal gas, but in distribu- 
tion it is mixed with water gas, so that I can never tell exactly 
what 1 am getting. I have determined the calorific power of 
that mixture, which contains about 50 per cent of water gas. 
Of the water gas I have determined the heating power a great 
many limes, but not of pure cixvl gas. 

Mr. NKTrntTOK— My question is as to the candle power. 
If you take coal gns of 1 8 candle power and u-ater gas at *o 
candle power* theoretically, the mixture should be 19 candle 
power; but, practic;illy, it is stated lu be above 19. Has ProL 
Love found it so in his experience ? 

Pitar, Love — I misundersttKKl your question. I have not 
made that test and cannot say how it woalil be. 

Mit. NoRRis— How would it be with regard to the qtiantity 
of air ? 




15S 

^JlBr, Love — The latent heat would become a factor in the 
CMftf marsh gas and hydrogen, but not in the case of car- 
bonic oxide. 

Mr. Glasgow— In the Favre and Silbermann instrument 
du«s it discharge the products of combustion at a temperature 
tower than the surrounding atmosphere ? 

PROr, Lev c — No; they cannot be lower than the temperature 
of the water, which is practically the temperature of the air, 
and corrections have to be made for every ealurimeter. 

On motion of Mr. A, C, Humphreys, the thanks of the Asso- 
ciation were voted to Prof, Love for his valuable paper, 

RKp<iRr OF Committee on Place of Next Meeting. 

Mr, Boardman — Your Committee has considered the place 
for the next meeting, and from the composition of the Com- 
mittee it seems to us that it would be very desirable to have 
Ihc Association make a trip to the sunny South, We have 
thought that many of our beautiful cities would like to enter- 
tain us. bat we have at last come to the unanimous c<*nclusion 
that Savannah, Georgia, would be the best place at which to 
hiild the next meeting. (Applause.) In additi»m to the well- 
born hospitality of the South, we had the pleasure of receiv- 
^H the following communications, which in a measure deter- 
mined the exact location: 

*' Tv the Committee oh the Selection a/ a Piace far the Next 
Meeting: 

''Qmtltmen: — Learning that your Committee is thinking of 
seltcting some Stjuthern city for the next convention of our 
Assqciation, I w*ish to extend to the Association, in the name 
nf the United Gas Improvement Company, a hearty welcome 
to any city in the South where that Company is in control of 
the gas interest. I would especially mention Atlanta^ Savan- 
Hiih and St. Augustine, 

Very respectfully yours, 

ALEXANi>Ek C. Humphreys, 

For the United Gas Improvement Co." 




In selecting: this place we wish to extend our thanks, and I 
am sure also the thanks of the Association, for the hearty 
welcome extended by the United Gas Improvement Company. 

On motion of Mn Denniston the report of the Committee 
was received, and the selection of the place for holding the 
next meeting of the Association, approved. 



Committee op Arrangements. 



I 



The President appointed as a Committee of Arrangements 
for the next annual meeting: Alexander C Humphreys, Phila- 
delphia, Pa,; A. E. BoarLlinan, Macon, Ga.; Thomas Turner, 
Charleston, S, C; David Douglas, Atlanta, (ia.; W, G. Abel, 
Atlanta, Ga. 

Thk President— The next paper read will be that by Mr. 
Frederick H, Shelton, on 

ILLUMINATING WATER GAS— PAST AND PRESENT. 

Mr, President and Members of the A men can Gas Light Assana- 
Hoh: 

In presenting^ for your consideration a paper upon water gas 
—a subject that has probably excited more discussion and 
more controversy than any other one topic in the gas industry 
— it is, perhaps, well for me, at the imtset, to briefly give my 
reasons for so doing. 

To my mind, the present time marks a well defined and well 
rounded out period in water gas history. Known as a gas in 
the chemist's laboratory a hundred years ago ; struggling 
through the early stages of experiment; striven after by gas 
men and inventors throughout the century; frowned upon as 
illegitimate and with majiy an effort to throttle it by the older 
gas interests, water gas, like a lusty child^ has steadily grown 
to be a stout, fighting competitor of, even threatening to out- 
strip, these older forms of gas manufacture, and has developed 
into a well-recognized and legitimate position in the gas 
industry. 

Innumerable patents and methods for its manufacture have 
appeared » risen tt) a l»rief zenith of fame, and disappeared, 



156 



until, as n^n^stimvar of the fittest, a well defined and com- 
mercially successful system of manufacture has been evolved. 
In this process of evolution, water gas has spread throughout 
the land, far more than I think most of us appreciate — and it 
limy inlention in this paper to show you somewhat the extent 
of this growth, especially within the last 15 years; and, also, to 
give you a brief review of the early state of the art, together 
with a resum^^ of the practical methods for its manufacture 
to-day. 

Tht Earlier History 0/ Water Gas, — It is most interesting to 
note that the discovery of water gas, as a gas, dates back to 
atime when the composition and nature of gases in general 
was but little known. Hydrogen was known as "inflammable 
air/' and when (in 17^54) Cavendish made the discovery that it 
was one of the components of water, it was looked upon with 
great astonishment. Four years before this, however, one 
Fontana had called attention to the reaction which takes place 
between steam and incandescent carbon, at high temperatures, 
i*hich, as you all know, is the basis of the whole theory and 
chemistry of w^ater gas. 

In '* King's Treatise cjo Coal Gas " wc find that Lavoisier 
and Meusnier, prominent chemists of that day, in investigating 
the compt^sition of water, by analysis, *' passed steam through 
a red hot pipe, ivhereby they obtained a quantity of * inflamma- 
ble air' which, when mixed with atmospheric air, or oxygen, 
wploded upon being ignited. 'Ihey afterwards introduced 
charcoal in the pipc» which resulted in a considerable increase 
in the quantity of the gas, although of a somewhat different 
nature. This, then, was the first production c)f water gas/' 
This period was practically contemporaneous with the earliest 
titiliiation of coal gas; for about 1793^ — eight years later — we 
iind Wm. Murdoch, the universally acknowledged ''father of 
ifas lighting,'* ** distilling the vapors from bituminous coals,** 
and applying them to the lighting of his house. 

The first one who appears to have attempted to a|>i>ly Fon- 
tana'ji observations, and the theory of water gas, to practical gas 
ttJaking, was one Ibbetson who, in 1824, in England, made a 
water gas by passing steam through a mass of incanduscent car- 



166 

bon. From this date down to, say, 1858, inventions succeeded 
one another in great rapidity — no less than sixty patents appear- 
ing within this period, all aiming to take advantage of the reac- 
tion of steam and carbon at high temperatures. In theory, 
water gas was recognized, and its desirability admitted, but in 
practice, in all this period, no commercially successful system of 
manufacture was hit upon. I will not tire you with a detailed 
list of these patents, for most of them failed to get beyond the 
patent office. Those who are interested can find them listed 
in the American Gas Lig/if Journal for September 16, 1864. 

Some few of these patents are worthy of note, however, from 
the fact that they contain some one or two of the essential 
features of the modern water gas apparatus; and it was pre- 
cisely the combination of these individual features that has 
produced the successful systems of to-day. For instance, in 
1831, George Lowe patented a simple generator, for the express 
purpose of utilizing the hot coke drawn from retorts. The 
combustion of the coke was obtained by natural draft, instead 
of the modern forced blast; when a proper heat was obtained 
steam was admitted, decomposed, led off, and afterwards car- 
bureted. E.xccpt in the matter of draft, mark the similarity to 
the modern Tessie du Motay system. 

In 1832, M. Jobard, of Brussels, erected plants for supplying 
Dijon, Strasbur;^ and Antwerp, and part of Paris, with "water 
gas impregnated with hydro-carbon va|K)rs." 

In 1839, (icorgi; Ouikshank makes water gas in vertical re- 
torts filled with carbon, and fired externally, a forerunner of 
the modern A lien- Harris type. 

In 1847, Stephen White devised a somewhat similar apparatus, 
which met for a time with some little success, plants being 
erected at Ruthin, Southport, Warminster, Dunkeld, etc., and 
e.xciting some little comment in English gas circles. A good 
description of his method may be found in *' Hughes on Coal 
Oas," edition of 1853. 

In 1852, the Kirkliam Bros, designed a furnace, or generator, 
to be "blown up" continuously, with the admission of a steam 
jet. The producer gas so formed was afterwards carbureted; 
and in this we have the forerunner of the modern McKenzie 
method. 






lo7 



* 



in»56, the system of M. {Hlliarcl appears, This was stitipTy" 
the injecting of steam in a retort, troniaiiiing incantlescent car- 
bon, and the pure hydrogen gas thus formed was used for lig^ht, 
through the medium of a platinum burner, heated to incandes- 
cence; the forerunner^ again, of the modern incandescent gan 
lighting systems. Extensive works of this type were erected at 
Narbonne and Passy, France, a description of which can be 
found in the Amfrican Gas Lij^Jit Jffttrfnil iov Octolier 15, 1S60, 

In 1H56, also, Frederick Siemens invents the regenerative fur- 
nace, or the chamber fdled with loose (ke brick, for the storage 
ap of heat from waste gases, which has since become so essen- 
tial a feature of metallurgical furnaces, and which, under the 
name of superheater, and used as a fixing chamber, plays so 
important a part in most of the modern successful water gas 
apparatus. 

Most of the patents up to this date were in England and 
France, and it is not until 1S58 that we find record of water gas 
plants, of any note, erected in America, 

Just at this point — as we take up the list of water gas pro- 
cesses that have since appeared in America — I would call your 
attention to an important distinction, whic:h I would have you 
bear in mi ml, viz.: the two general classes into which all water 
gas apparatus can be divided. 

Ciitis /, Rftort Processts^ or **those in which steam is admitted 
into retorts containing carbon, the temperature of which is 
fnaintained by combustion external 10 the retorts;** and 

Class II, Genera for Processes, or, "those in which steam is ad- 
titjUed into retorts or furnaces (generators) containing carbon 
which has been previously heated by partial combustion of its 
<JWn mass, or by infer iml combustion." 

1 would here state that in enumerating the various processes 
and apparatus, both in this class and the succeeding, I do not 
propose to attempt to list all of the several hundred water gas 
patents that have been taken out, but simply to give a resum/, 
as far as I am able, of the forms of apparatus of which plants 
have actually been erected, and put to practical use. 

We have in Class 1, Retort Processes: 
I St, The Sanders apparatus, 
tcL The (G Wynne, or) Allen- Harris apparatus. 





Fiu. t,— Wateh Gas ArPAR^Tt^ or j, M. Saivdrrs. 

Tk4 SamJfrs Affmraims:^ln Fig. 7, 1 show a sketch of the 
first water gas j>bni of which I caw find any record, as having 
t>ecn erected m the Vniteil States, and which illustrates the 
method of manufacture of I>r. J, Milton Sanders, In this, the 
** L " shapcil cast iron retoa ** A^** set m an ordinary bench fur- 
nace, WAS charged with charcoat and broiight to a high heat. 
Soperheateii :^caai was then admitted at the top at ** E," and 
pasfiin^ downwards^ was de\x>iiipused and^ ocitting with the car- 
boo fmm the chamvuU formed a iiofi*iitniiiioiis water gas. At 
llie «amc time melted Rusin was introdoced In the retort for en- 
ridiiilg^ and the mixture i^assed out the standpipe ** F/* to hy- 
dmvilie WMm, twx You wiU see that there was aloKist no *• ^x- 
iof ^ of the K9K aod di»^ facv lot^tlwr with the resulting con* 
«teii$alio«i, %»fA llie t^eonstve mwts of ci»t iioq retofts (owing to 
tlic ht(li lK«t» pe<ce»iiaTy for ilMt decMiposkkm ol the steam), 




159 



practically killed the system. It is interesting, however, to note 

the interest it excited. During the years 1859 and i860, plants 

were erected in Philadelphia, at the Girard House; in Wilming* 

ton, Del.; Aurora, Ind.; Laconia, N. H., etc Extravagant 

claims were made, and the columns of the Amenatn Gas Lig/tt 

Journai at that period were filled with arguments respecting 

the merits of the apparatus. In fact, any one desiring a highly 

respectable water gas controversy need but go back thirty years, 

take this case in loio and change but the names and dales. 



^^^M 



Fig, 8.— The Allen-Harris ArrARAxus. 

The Alifn-Ifarris Apparatus t — The second method to excite 
general interest in gas circles was the ** Gwynne- Harris," or 
** American Hydro-carbon Process,*' as it was then frequently 
called. Mr. W. A, Gwynne, after taking out several patents, 
dating from 1863, and erecting a plant at Elizabeth, N. J., which 
was in operation for several years, became associated with Mr. 
G. W, Harris, also controlling several water gas patents, and 




together they erected at Fair Haven, near New Haven, Conn., 
in 1868, the first plant under the ** Gwynne- Harris " system. 

It excited much interest, was visited by many prominent gas 
men. and was the subject of five months' experiment and an 
exhaustive report of two hundred pages, by Professors Silliman 
and Wuriz, in 1K69, which report was afterwards published, and 
can be found in the American Gas Light Journal through the 
year 1S74. Some time before this Mr. Gwynne died, and the 
** National Cual (ias Co." Iieing formed, with Messrs. H. P. and 
A. L. Allen, at its head, the name gradually changed to ** Allen- 
Harris,** by which it has since been known. 

Ihis system was almost the only one that occupied public at- 
tention in the Water Gas line from 1868 until the advent of the 
generator processes in 1875. 




161 



Its backers j^toutly took up the cudgels fur water gas, writing 
column after column in it<% favor, ancJ installed plants at Ulica, 
Brooklyn and Weslchesler, N. \\; Newark, N, J., etc., all of 
whirh were operated for a longer or sisorter period. 

Since that time, numcroii?i ]>atents for improvements have 
been taken out, and the apparatus introduced at Rondout and 
IVjughkeepMe, N, \\ As one of the best developed of retort 
processes, it may be of interest to note Fig, 8, which shows the 
apparatus erected in 1884, at Poughkeepsie, 

In this, *♦ A " is a bench of vertiral firr clay retorts. Each 
rdorl is filled with carbon, and steam, admitted at the top in 
finely divided jets, in passing down through, is decomposed; 
I he gas so formed then passes to the bench of horizontal tlouble 
retorts '* B/' " Oil C/* for enriching, and the water gas " D " 
unite and pass into the lower chamber of the lower retort, and 
thence through 36 feet of increasing heats, tu the standpipe. 

7^r Sa/isf^ury Apparatus: — ^There have been numerous at- 
tempts by coal gas engineers to produce water gas in existing 
^^enches and retorts, These have resulted in many combina- 
tions of retorts, with the introduction of steam jels and hydro- 
carbon vapors, few of which have ever attained the dignity of 
4 **process" ^^ h^f^w heard of beyond the works of the inven- 
^*>r. It is manifestly impossible tu herein describe all these 
t^ffofts, and I will content myself with one, which is probably as 
typical and effective as any, and shown in Fig. 9, 

The **Sabsbury," or, perhaps, more properly speaking, the 
*'Slade** method, as in operation at Yonkers, N. Y, for six 
years, consisted of the introduction of a jet of superheated 
sieam, carrying a fine stream of naphtha through the mouth- 
piece of and into a retort, in an ordinary bench setting. I'his 
stream of steam and oil vapor was then carried through a fire 
clay pipe on the bottom of the red hot retort to the rear end, 
where, issuing from the pipe, it expanded into the upper part of 
the retort, and passed forward and out of the standpipe. One 
or two retorts were used for the regular coal gas, to supply coke 
for firing the bench, and a later modification of the method was 
lo pass the water gas from the lower retort up to and through 
the coal gas retort above. Although not so intended, as ar- 
ranged at Yonkers, air was drawn in with the oil into retorts, 
u 




16: 



resulting in a partial internal combustion^ and adding a certain 
percentage of nitrogen to the gas, 

The chief claims made for this method of manufacture weft: 
low cost of equipment; high candle power of gas; and the 
usual ** general economy." It is worthy of note, however, tlul 
it has since been superseded by a much more typical and cffa- 
tive water gas apparatus. 



□ 



Sk 






T/ir Jerzmatwii'ski ** Baity** Af*pantfus:^y\\\h form of appara* 
tus, dating from 1886, consists of ** L ** shaped retorts (sec Ftg. 
10), in the usual bench setting, the chief peculiarity of w*hich is 
that the vertical portion of each retort is filled with ** hard burned 
lime," or limestone, which is maintained at a red heat Steam 
injected, as usual at the foot of the retort, and carrying aiitrcam 



163 



r of naphtha is decomposed, and passing^ up through the lime *' is 
• converted or fixed into a permanent illuminating gas, by its con- 
tact with the hot lime in the upper part of the chamber/* Other 
_claims, also made, credit the lime with a peculiar but not satis* 
torily explained action upon the gas, which results in '*de- 
ased purification," etc. To the uuLytored mind it would 
appear that the limestone simply acts as would fire brick, or 
"'other refractory substances/' to ** fix " the gas. Plants of this 
form have been erected at Albany, Utica, Hrnoklyn and New 
York City, N. Y,; Bostiin, Mass., and several minor points. 

These comprise all the retort methcjds of whi(-h I have any 
knowledge, for the manufacture of water gas. I am aware that 
^undr)' of what are known as ** oil bench*' — ** processes/' in 
which ihe oil is injecteti into retorts by a steam jet —claim to so 
njanufacture a water gas. In the accepted sense of the term, 
H'jwever, this iloes not constitute a water gas process. I think 
ihat 1 have covered the recogniitetl retort methods as above. 



We now come to (.'lass 2 or ** (ienerator Processes/' 'I'his 
liasscan be readily sub-divided into two divisions, vi7,. : 

Seaian //.—Generator processes in which a non-luminous 
Water gas is first made, whi<:h is afterwards carbureted; usually 
»n a second apparatus, by the sec(jnU fire, and in a second oper- 
ation; and 

Sfditw i?.—( Generator processes, in which an illuminating 
water gas is made, carbureted and fixed entirely in one opera- 
tion—one apparatus and with one lire; usually through the me- 
flium of a ** superheater/' 

We have in Section A: 

isl. The Tessie du Mulay ajijiaratus. 

2nd. 1 he Wilkinson apparatus. 

3rd, The Jerzuianowski apparatus, 

4th. The Hanlon &: Johnson apparatus. 

5th, The Edgerton apparatus. 

6lh. The Harkness apparatus. 

7lh, The Mackenzie apparatus. 

Sth. The Kgner apparatus, 

9th. The Mee/-e ai)parai:ns. 




The Ttssie du Moiay ^//rrra/z/j;— Pre-eminently the most typ- 
ical of its class is the Tessie du Motay form, which I iUystrate 
in Fig, 1 1, *' A " is the **gasogene/* or simple generator, con- 
sisting of the usual fire-brick lined shell with coal bed, grate, 
air blast, and steam inlets, etc. In this, after attaining the 
proper heat, by ** blowing up," the blast is stopped, and steam, 
admitted beneath grate, in passing up through the bed of in- 
candescent coal, is decomposed, and the hydrogen gas thus 
formed passes to the ** hydrogen holder/* It then is brought to 
the carbureter **X,'* which consists of a series of shallow trays 





heated to a vapor by steam rn close 
The gas, enriched by, and carrying these naphtha vapors in 
suspension, passes to the retort '*Z/* in passing through which 
it is •' roasted ** or made into a fixed, permanent gas. It then 
goes to the purifiers, etc. You will note that in this apparatus, 
in blowing up the heat, the generator gases pass out the stack 
and up the chimney, and are absolutely lost. 

The methtnl above described, although named after the 
French chemisU Tessie du Mtilay, differs considerably frnm 
the original plan of working, as contemplated by him. Tlris 
first plan covered the distribution of an " oxygen ** gas, a plant 
for which was erected in New York, early in the seventies. 
This proved unsuccessful Later» the system was again taken 
up, very materially modified, and brought to its present form, 
ii«(l in 1876 the first plant of any magnitude was erected for 
Ihe Municipal Co., of New York, by the Continental Iron 
Works, of Brooklyn, N, Y., to whtjse energy much of the suc- 
t^^ess of ihe system has been due. Other plants have since 
been erected at the New York, the Knickerbocker and the 
Harlem stations, New York City, and also at the Ftdton Muni- 
L'ipnl Workss Brooklyn; Yonkers, N. Y.; Jacksonville, Ma., etc. 

Thf IViikinsoft ^//rfre/A/j;— -Closely resembling the preceding, 
l>ut of somewhat later appearance and construction, is the 
^Vilkinscm apparatus — shown in Fig. 12 — as conslructetl by 
Messrs. Bartlctt, Haywood iV Co., «>f Baltimore. From an au- 
thoritative description, I tjuote: ** Steam is decomposed in the 
ifenerators, and, after a scrubbing process, is carriett to the 
hydrogen holder, Fnmj thence it [>asses through a station 
meter to the * iihnninatr»r,' where it meets vapors of naphtha — 
produced by steam to a temperature of 240 to 260 t\ii^. The 
mechanical mixture of water gas and naphtha vapors th carried 
t(* the benches in which the mixture is converted into a fixed 
gas. The benches are through l)enches i'^i douljle the length 
of ordinary ret<jrts; the mixture enters at one end and the gas 
issues at the other/* From this you will see that the system is 
very similar to the preceding, and the claims of the one are 
practically the claims of the other, and are (aside from the 
general claims of economy, etc., common to every apparatus): 




166 




s 
S 

I 



I 



ist, that the make of gas is cuniimiuus; 2t!, that an absolutely 
uniform gas is produced, and 31I, that gas is produced at an 
absolutely unif<irm speed, 



The first Wjlkinjion plant was erected, and is in operation 
upon a large scale, ai the New York Mutual Co.*s works. 
Uier plants are at Baltimore, Md.; Washinjjttm, 1*. L\; Buffalo 
and Rye, K, V , etc 



L 



LiMt'STON!: 



1 mmm 




i 




Fl«, 13. — (JeNKRATOK UK rrn. jKRZMANfJWSKl Afl'AKATrs. 

Th^ Jerzmantnvski Apparatus: — This apparatus, as erected at 
the " Ecjultiible " works, New Ytirlc, Chit ajjo, Baltimore, etc., 
so strongly resembles the precedinj^, for the ji^eneration of the 
hydrogen gas, the latter earburettun, and the final fixing of 
the same, by passing through retorts^ that a detailed desrrip- 
riun would be largely a repetition nf what has gtuie beb>re. 
The chief point of difference is in the generator. This, in ad- 
dition to the chamber of incandescent coal, has a secondary 
chamber (see Fig. 13), containing ** hard burned lime/" or lime- 
stone, which is heated by tlie products of coml>usti(>n from the 
first chamber or generator proper. In making gas, steam, in 
parsing through the coal, decomposes and meets, at the top of 



1 




The Harkntss Apparatus: — It is of interest to note in thi 
connection, as indicating the difference between success and 
failure, a plant erected at New London, Conn,, of the Harkness 
form, patented 1874, which, working upon almost the same 
lines as the preceding, yet, from the crudity of certain es- 
Kntial details and poor structural design, has amounted to 
nothing. 

The method of manufacture, as in the preceding, consisted 
of the production of a non-luminous water gas in a generator 
(see Fig. 14), from which the gas w^as led off to retorts, car- 
bureted with naphtha vapors, and "roasted*' or made into a 
t>ennanent fixed gas. The generator was small, difficult to 
fire, and tij maintain proper combustion in; the coal was gotten 
to a proper heat by a slow draft, as compared with the modern 
hlower or forced draft. This made an extremely slow produc- 
tion of gas^ which in turn produced high labor account. To 
correct this, several generators were operated in conjunction. 
The gas went as made, regularly or irregularly, to the retorts — 
«•' hydrogen holder intervening. While this system had strong 
claims made for it at the time, as a matter of fact, it was short- 
I'ved. But one plant, as far as I know, was erected, and that 
l^iisnuw been in disuse for some years. 

The Hitnlen and Johnson Apparatus : — In 1878, nnder tlie 
^'Jspices of the ** United Petroleum and W'ater Gas Co.*' ap- 
|H;ared the system of manufacture known as the '* Han Ion and 
Johnson/* which attained some little success at the time, and 
vfhich I illustrate in Fig. 15. 

in this ** A *' is the usual plain generator fur the |)r(Khiction 
of Uon-luminous water gas, which is led off t(j one holder. **B*' 
is ;i ** Han Ion Bench," for the produt ticjn of a pure oil gas, 
which is led off to another holder. Ao exhauster ** X *' draws 
gas from each holder, mixing in the pipes, and it is obvious 
that by the adjustment of valves the proportinn of water gas 
and oil gas drawn from their respective holders and, therefore, 
the exact candle power desired c;in be maintained to a nicety. 
In theory this was excellent; in practice it was unsatisfactory 
and expensive. The gases having but a mechaniLal mixing, 
deveio[>ed a strong tendency toward condensation, and bad the 
lack of ** stiffness ** of ^ame peculiar to i^il gases. The al)so- 






* 



lute lack of uli ligation also of the jj:eneratc»r j^ases was a w^«- 
ful ft^atiire. 



^t.^"^^ 




< 

s? 

o 



There is no better illustration of the advancement of the art 
of water gas manufacture from uneconnniical to economical 
methods, than to state that in the cities where the *'Haa!on and 
Johnson " apparatus was some ten years installeil, viz.: Roch- 
ester, N. v.; Reatling, Penn.: Dover, N. H.; San Francisco, 
CaU; Atlantic City, N. J.; and several other points, almost with- 
out exception, these [>lants have since been sujierseded hy more 
modern and mure efticient water gas systems. 

Thf Eii^erttHi AfparaiiiRi^-K system very similar to the above, 




men I comes in from the fact that the generator gases, which ifl 
all the systems heretofore mentioned in the present class, atf 
allowed to go to waste, are, in this apparatus, to a certain ex- 
tent utilized, being used to ftre the retorts which make the o\\ 
gas; a continuous supply of gas for this purpose being Had by 
using two generators in conjunction. While one is making 
water gas the other is being ** blown up/* and vice versa. The 
water gas and oil gas after being separately made, are drawn h}" 
exhausters through meters and mixed in measured quantities 





The Mackenzie Apparatus:— "^XxW another form of apparatus* 
using a generator separately^ and afterwards carbureting the 
gas, is the Mackenzie, which is of interest as showing an, at* 
tempt to gel a coiuinufuis prod utt ion of gas with ihe nse tjf a 
generator, hut with the usual result, viz,: the gas is loatletl with 
nitrogen, svhich is its tiwn cofnlemnati<in. 

In the Markenzie method, which I show in Fig. 17, the gen- 
erator fire is hlnwn up continuously. At the same time a steam 
jet is also i <nitinuoiisly admitted, and the resultant "producer" 
gas is led nil to a htnch nf ordinary retorts, and carbureted hy 
passing through same, with naphtha added. Sufficient coal gas 
is made in one or two retorts to produce coke for firing the 
bench, which coat gas is mixed with the water gas at the hy- 
draulic main. While a numher of these plants were erected 
some years ago, they have all, as far as I know, fallen into dis- 
use— the nitrogen in the gas probably being a chief factor. 1'he 
last one, to my knowledge, now \\\ operation, is just being sup- 
[>lanled by a later water gas process. 

The E^ner Apparatus:— The: apparatus of Frederic Egner, of 
1887, shown in Fig, 18, is very similar in operation to the pre- 
ceding, antl illustrates another effort to attain a contuinous 
manufacture, with the use of a generator, *' A " is the genera- 
tor for making '* producer** gas, ** H " is a ** carbureter" seal, 
through which the j^as, in plunging, is eiiriched by the oil or 
naphtha, which rc[ilaces the usual water f<ir sealing. From it 
the gas is condunied to the '* iTxing*' chamber, i*r retort, in pass- 
ing throujy;h which the gas is made permanent, and thence jiasses 
to the hytlraulic main, purifiers, etc. A plant of this form has 
been erected at the Laclede works, St. Louis, and ()ne, also, 1 
believe, at Waco, Texas. 

The Meezt Apparatus i^^Vht: last form of apparatus of the 
class which we are now considering is that of A, G, Meeze, of 
England, patented 1886, and controlled by the '* International 
(las Co,/* plants of which have been installed at New York, N. 
Y.; New Orleans, La., etc. 

I'his apparatus (see Fig. 19,) consists essentially of fireclay 
retorts in an ordinary setting. In the center of each retort is a 
4 '* ingression pipe"' (leading almost to the rear end) which is 



175 



fiHetl with "bafflers," through which a jet of superheated steam 
and (mIro'Carhon vapors is injected These vapors, after going 
ihrough the ** bafflers'* and expanding from the '' ingression 
pipe" into the body of the retort, pass through a second series 
of "baffle plates*' tu the front, to standpipe "A '* and hydraulic 
main. The rich oil gas thus formed is afterwards reduced by a 
mixture of water gas, made by any generator method, which 
water gas may be admitted in the retort^ hydraulic main or other 
point 



Watcfv di\f 



n^ / 



—ja. 



Fig, 19, — ^TiiE Mekze Oil and Watkr (Jas Ari*ARATUs, 

I think you must have already noticed the main feature— I 
inight say the main fault — of this class of apparatus just de- 
scribed, vrr,: lh<*it in all these methods of manufacture to make 
a fixed illuminating gas, two operations are involved — first the 

iitt^ of a water gas and afterwards the carburtting and 

We now come to the consideration of a type nf direct appa- 
ratus tn which these two operations are combined in one. And 



176 

in this class, in noting the various forms that have achieved 
commercial success, we find that no matter how much they 
differ in design, in proportion, in detail, or in construction, there 
is one great central feature common to all — a feature that has 
made the system a success, and which is the basis of their classi- 
fication, as a process — and that feature is: the use of a super- 
heater for storing up waste heat from the generator, by which 
to fix or make permanent the mixture of steam and oil gases. 

In the second class— or Section B (" Generator Processes in 
which water gas is made, carbureted and fixed entirely in one 
operation, one apparatus, and one fire; usually through the me- 
dium of a superheater") — we have: 

I St. The Lowe apparatus. 

2(1. The Clranger apparatus. 

3d. The Hanlon-Leadley apparatus. 

4th. The Springer apparatus. 

5th. The McKay-Critchlow apparatus. 

6th. The Flannery apparatus. 

7th. The Martin apparatus. 

8lh. The Pratt and Ryan apparatus. 

9th. The Van Steenburg apparatus, 

loth. The Loomis apparatus (early type for illuminating gas.) 

The Linve Process and Apparatus: — The credit for the inven- 
tion of the process (which is the basis of the class of apparatus 
we are now about to notice), whether considered chronologi- 
cally, practically, or legally, belongs unquestionably to Prof. T. 
S. C. Lowe, of Norristown, Penn. 

Identified with gas interests since the war of the rebellion, 
where as chief aeronaut of the army of the Potomac, he was 
engaged in the manufacture of gas for ballooning purposes, 
and later connected with the illuminating gas interests, in 1872 
he took out a patent containing some of the features of and 
leading up to the patent of 1875, which is the base of the 
modern water gas system. This, as to time, is about the same 
period as the first Tessie du Motay plant in New York. 

Devoid of technicalities, the Lowe process covers broadly 
the use, in connection with a generator, of a superheater or 
fixing chamber, fired by the combustion within it of the gases 



177 



ire formed in " bluwing up the heat" in the generator; 
also the introduction of 'oil, or other enriching substances, into 
the hydrogen gas and the fixing of the two by passuge through 
the superheater into one permanent fixed gas. The process 
also covers the use of the superheater for superheating steam, 
if iU> desired, instead of for fixing the gas. 

The first Lowe apparatus was erected in Phoenix ville, in 
rSyj; the next at Conshohncken, and the third at Columbia, 
Penn., all by the inventor himself. 

Mcssrs. S, A. Stevens & Co, then took an agency (their first 
works being at Ulica, N. Y.,) and later organized the ** Ameri- 
caa Gas, Fuel and I^ight Co/* to whom a general license was 
given. About the same time Messrs, A, O. Ciranger & Co. 
commenced bniiding this apparatus, closely followed by Messrs, 
Pier*ion Bros., and the ** National Gas C(»/' 

By these various parties, Lowe apparatus was erected at 
very many places throughout the country, until 1882, when the 
patent rights were acquired by the United Gas Im[>rovement 
Co., of Philadelphia, who have since continued the erection of 
the apparatus. 

I show two cuts of the Lowe apparatus. Fig. 20 shows the 
earliest and original form. Fig. 2r shows the latest construc- 
tion. In general features, sequence of parts and operation, 
they are alike: **A,** the generator, a fire-bricked lined cham- 
"<^r, contains anthracite coal, or coke, which is raised to a state 
'•f incandescence by an air blast, admitted beneath the grate, 
^^e products of combustion, or gases, formed in this operation 
pass out at the top through the "goose-neck *' connection "C," 
t<J the base of the su|)crbeater ** B/* where, by the admission of 
a secondary air blast, they are burned, heating the fire brick 
with which the superheater is filled. When the proper heats 
^e obtained, the blasts are shut oflf, stack valve closed, and 
steam admitted beneath the grate in generator '* A/* This 
piJMiing up through the coal, and decomposing, forms a non- 
luminous water gas, and meets the oil vapors for enriching, 
which are admitted through pipes in the top of the generator, 

! The oil and steam gases then pass through pipe ** C *' to super- 
Jieater, where, by contact with the red hot fire brick, they are 

I " fix ed " into a permanent dluramating gas. 
u 





Fig. 50 is of interest as showing the crude early constructior 
of the apparatus, and the old form of hydraulic seal or *» washer/ 
with diaphragm, which, holding the gases under water, not onlj 



d 




^ lenlfy, also» washed out some fxir- 
lion of the illuminants. For which reason this form was speed- 
ily discarded. 




< 



^ 

2 



O 



O 






Fr|^, 21 shows the modern or "double superheater" conslruc- 
iJon— the chief changes (aside from ihe mechanical and detail 
**^orkj beiog the increase in depth of the generator, and the en- 
'irj^enient of the old pipe connection ** C ** into an entire 
superheater. 

The filling brick in this first superheater, or *' carbureter/* as 
»t is usually termed, from the fact of the hydrocarbons being 
often there admiltedi is peculiarly arranged for the use of heavy 
oik Ordinary checker bricks are used, but so laid up that con- 
tinuous •'* core holes** are formed from top to bottom, which in 
^ht use of crude oils, allow the heavier impurities to drop en- 
lirtly lo the cleaning doors at base. 



180 

A highly efficient form of the double superheater type is that 
known as the "Humphrey's" setting, as erected at Chicago, 
Toledo, Terre Haute, etc. In this arrangement two complete 
sets of apparatus are connected by flue at the generators. Both 
.sets of apparatus are "blown up" together. In gas making 
steam is admitted at the rear of one set, is superheated and car- 
bureted in this set, and passing on to the second is finally gasi- 
fied and "fixed." During the next run this course is reversed, 
steam being admitted in the opposite set. This setting is par- 
ticularly adapted to large works. 

The claims for this form of apparatus, aside from the general 
ones of high economy, etc., are, first — by the great depth of 
generator, the ability to use coal or hard or soft (gas house) 
coke at pleasure; second, by the utilization of waste heat.forthe 
highest pre-heating of the oil, and by the use of two super- 
heaters, maintained at different heats, the ability to use, to the 
best advantage, cheap crude oils, or distillates, etc., and, third, 
by the great superheating capacity, the ability to properly fix 
the gas at moderate heats: so doing away with the danger of 
lamp-black and naphthaline accompanying high heats, and the 
question of lack of fixing of the gas, present in some other 
forms of apparatus. 

The Lowe apparatus, in various forms, has been erected all 
over the country. I will not here attempt to list the places; a 
glance at the chart behind me will show its record. 

The Gra/ii^er Apparatus: — The first of this class to make its 
appearance after the Lowe was the Granger apparatus, of which 
I show a typical setting in Fig. 22. 

The firm of A. O. (i ranger <Jv: Co., dating from 1878, originally 
erected Lowe water gas apparatus, under license from S. A. 
Stevens \: Co., then controlling the patents. In doing this, 
many improvements in detail and in construction were made, 
and finally, patents were taken out for the "Granger" form, 
which you can readily see is an evolution from the Lowe. The 
two most essential differences were: First, the doing away with 
the old goose neck, heat-radiating connection (" C " in Fig. 20) 
by locating the generator in the cellar, with the shells slightly 
lapping, thus giving a short direct connection from shell to 
shell, and bringing all the operations of gas making upon one 



181 



floor: atiti, se< mhu, nie nnrodutiKjn of the oil, at a high tempera- 
lure, in the form of a spray or vapor, at the base of the super- 
healer; the claim being that in such a form it was much more 
readily taken up and gasified by the hot stream of water gas 
than as before when dropped upon the lop of the coal bed of 




Granger 

WAT e R G A S A PPA R AT U S 



^t generator in a solid stream. Messrs. Granger & Co. went 
largely into the detail of parts and of construction, and by 
erecting a simple and effective [)tant, did much to popularize 
this type of water gas apparatus, Their efforts were highly suc- 
cessful, for up to 1885 they erected, chiefly in the middle and 
eastern Slates, over seventy sets of apparatus. One plant 
erected by litis company at Chicago, with generator 13 feet in 
diaineler, is interesting as indicating the limit of sixe to which 
t generator may be made. This plant in question, while turn- 
mg oiri great quantities uf gas, yet owing to the large mass of 
fire to be handled, and practical difficulties of construction and 




183 



entirely in one shell; of certain new methods of intrcjiliicing 
the oil and of certain modifications of the course of the gas 
rhrough the apparatus; the advantages claimed being the mini- 
mum of radiation and the maximum of heat conserved for the 
superheater, together with superior economies in general. 

This single shell, or " cupola ** form of apparatus, was also 
one of the several earlier forms of apparatus erected by Prof, 
Lowe, and has since been adopted by later constructors, as will 
be noted further on. 

The first Springer plant was erected in Chicago^ in 1882, since 
which time it has rapidly grown in favor, large plants having 
been erected in San Francisco, St. Paul, Minneapolis, Chicago, 
etc, and also in many smaller cities and towns* chiefly in the 
Western States, around the upper Mississippi. 

Fig, 23 illustrates this apparatus; **A*' being the original 
form and ** B " a modification of it. In this latter form, the 
generator is "blown up*' in the usual way, the gases [>assing 
iHrough the combustion pipe '* L " arouiul the solid arch ** K " 
to the superheater. 

In making gas, steam admitted at ** M '* (the pipe " L *' being 
cio.sed) passes down through the coal bed and up the external 
pipe ♦•N,*' to lop of superheater, where it meets the oils, which 
together pass down through the superheater, and out at '*0,'* 
Asttfl later modification of this construction permits the course 
of the steam and gas currents to be either up or down. 

The Hanlon-Lcadky Apparatus: — The first Hanlon-Leadley 
apparatus was erected at Passaic, N. J,, 1884, by the United 
Coal and Oil (ias Co. controlling the patents. Since then 
numerous plants have been erected at other points, viz.: Read- 
uig, New Haven, Chicago, Manchester, Philadelphia, etc. The 
apparatus, containing all the essential features of the Lowe, is 
chiefly distinguished by the use of two or three generali>rs on a 
common communicating base. Perhaps the best illustration of 
ihich is the latest plant erected, Jcnown as the '* W '* setting, 
nd which I show in Fig. 24, The three generators are all 
blown op to a projjcr heat together, part of the products of 
lombustlon being used to heat the small superheaters '* 13,'* the 
bulk of the gases, however, passing through the three pipes, 
" K " •* K " " K," to heat the two superheaters *' P " * P," also 




on a common base. When ready to make gas» the valves " O " 
*' O *' are closed. Steam is first admitted at the top of both 
small superheaters ** B " ** B,'* and passing down is superheated, 
and thence continuing down through the outside generators, 
the two streams meet at base of the center generator They 
pass up through this genefalor and to this point their course has 
described the letter ** W/* whence the name of this setting. Oil 
is admitted at top of center generator, and the gases pass over 
through center pipe *' K/' to superheater, for fixing as usuaK 
The usual claim for high economy is made, in this case being 
based largely upon the superheating of the steam, and of the 
operation of several generators together. From this latter it is 
obvious the apparatus is best adapted to works of a large size. 



A... 



□ 



-Ji 



ftCCT«a»**i. cirwAT«oN . 



JiTt*w f*j 



Fig, 24,— The IlANLoN-t.EATiLEY ArrARATCS. 



T/i^ Flanncry AppanUtts : — Another type of apparatus, and 
one that has been introduced at some of the principal gas 
works of the country, is that built under the patents and de- 



185 



iiplft of Mr. Jos, Flannery, and which I illustrate in Fig. 25. 
tn general appearance it differs from the usual series of cylin- 
drical shells, in being built in a rectangular wrought shell, and 
in pairs; although the halves of these pairs are operated inde- 
pendently of one another. Internally, the chief difference is, 
as Qsual, in the handling of the oil. The generator ** A '* is 



U 





•^ 



M 



\M 



^ 



M I. L J1L:-IJ-1 



nr 



crnsT 



rnrnTTTrrTTTi 

1 !' I I I I I [ I I I I P P^ 



f T;i:" . ii Ji iTrnTrT 

LJJ.J]liliJ.lUiliJ-LLii- 



imnnmnn 



TT fT ! [ ] I ; I I 




fired, dnd hydrogen gas made in the usual manner. Upon 
leaving the generator the gas passes into a ** D '* shaped retort, 
aled around three sides of the top of the superheater In 
retort the oil is admitted and vaporized, the water and <ul 
gases traveling through it together arc^und the shell, back to 
the starting point, where they descend the vertical flues ** M " 
to base of superheater, to be fixed in the usual manner This 
apparatus, first erected at Middletown, Prnn,, in 1881^ has 



since been introduced upon a large scale in Boston, Cbica] 
Jersey City, New York, etc. Other plants have been erecC«dj 
in St. Jago, Cuba; Duluth, Minn; Wilmington, Del., etc. 



ffiri > 



C,. 



□ 



Wy^. 



> 



Fn;. 26,— Thk McKay^ritchlow ArrARATUS, 

T/ic AfcKiiV'Critc/titm* Af>paratus : — In Fig. 26 I show a cutof 
what is ctmimcHily known as the McKay-Critchlow appara- 
tus, although^ strictly speaking, byilt under the patents of 
Peter English, of 1884, These patents were for a water gas 
generator in a single shell, having the sole distinctive feature, 
as shown by the cut, uf a solid arch, separating the generator 
from the superheater, around which the gases pass, instead of 
the usual perforated arch through which the gases may pass. 
By reason of this, ** greatly improved results " were claimed; 
upon just what basis is t>eyond my comprehension. 

The first plant of this form was erected in London, Ont., in 
18S2, About 18S4 Messrs. McKay t^' Critchlow, holding pat- 
ents for the carbureiiug of natural gas, by means of a cupola^ 




Although natural gas can undoubtedly be carbureted in very 
many diflercnt ways, yet I think I am right in saying that the 
most successful efforts, commercially speaking, have been un- 
der the above patents, with the use of a cupola^ in which the 
gas simply replaces in part, the steam of an ordinary water gas 
pn^cess — passing through a generator and being decomposed 
by the coal, and afterwards being carbureted and fixed in a 



189 



* 



fomi rrf apparatus, known us the Martin. This is similar to 
other lypes in operation and sequence uf parts, but differs, as 
usual» in the introduction of the oil. 

In this apparatus the connecting flue from generator to 
superheater is broadly ex pan fled, and has at its upper part 
**A/'a tile or slab upon which the enriching naphtha is drtipjirtl 
frum inlet pipes above. This oil is vaporized by the hut water 
gas and carried on to the superheater, where the two are 
"fixed " as usual 

Plants of this descnptnui have been ttrected at St. Paul, 
Minn,; Newburgh, N. V\; VVashinj^ton, I>, C; Macon, ()a,, etc. 

The Prait &" Ryan Apparatus:— ^U\\ another form of the cu- 
pola, or single shell type, and the last that has appeared upon 
the commercial field, is the Pratt tV Ryan apparatus, dating 
from 1887, which [ show in Fig. 28, You will see at once thai 
in general arrangement it is the same as some of the preceding 
fomis, but differs somewhat in the filling of the superheater. 
In place of the usual checker brick is a scries of fire brick 
arches; each of which also serves as an oil inlet, the arches 
bein^ cored and perforated. The oil is admitted in the centre 
<>f each arch, radiates throvigh each arm, and emerges into the 
chambers between each, where it is taken up by the flow of 
Water gas; any particular arch is used at pleasure, according to 
the heat of the superheater. Several large cupola generators 
«» Chicago have recently been remodeled to this construction, 
Jind smaller plants have been erected ^t Croshen, Ind : Crrston, 
Inwa, etc. 

The Van Sieenhurj^ Apparatus :^Tht apparatus under the 
patents of B. Van Steenburg, i88r, which I illustrate in Fig. 29, 
may be taken as a fair example of numerous attempts (such as 
the Averill, Boeklen, etc.,) to make a compact generator-super- 
heater all in one chamber. In this case it is accomplished by 
inserting fire-brick tile '* D " in the top of the generator^ to 
give superheating or ** fixing" capacity. These tiles, while 
heated by the gases from the generator, do not begin to utilize 
all the heat therein — simply absorbing the sensible heat— no 
secondary air supply being given for combustion. From this 
ver)' minimum superheating capacity, it is obvious that the ap- 





panitus is tiniited tu ;i moderiite make, anil tu tl»e use uf the 
lightest hydro-carbons (naphtha» etc.) to produce a gas at all 
fixed. 




ip^7"t^ 





6 £i O 



t^ 



E^ 



Oi Ok a 

3» 33 -p 




Vni. ?9. — Van Stremii rs; r.ENKkArnR. 

Several plants of this form were erected some years back, at 
Goshen, Herkimer^ Amsterdam, etc., N. Y, 

TAe L&omis Apparattfs; — While the Loom is system has been 
mostly pushed upon the lines of a non-luminous fuel gas, there 
is one plant of this name erected at Cottage City, Mass,, in 
1884, that conies within the scope of the class we are now con- 
sidering* This apparatus, which I show in Fig. 30, is of con- 
siderable interest, as illustrating an attempt to use soft coal in 
the regular generator-superheater process, and to that end, in 
the superheater, instead of having the usual checker brick 
work, we find a series of thin partition walls» for superheating 
surface— the idea being to allow no lodging place for ashes or 
soot that might accomjiany the use of soft coal. Any such 
deposit, failing entirely to the bottom of each vertical division, 
where are hand holes for cleanings etc. The generator, also, is 
somewhat different, the air blast passing dmvn through the coal 




of a iioii'luniinuus fuel gas, in generators only, any |j(irtiati of 
which, if desired for illuminaiing pnrposes, is afterward car* 
l)ureted in retorts, in the manner of the preceding class. 

The whole subject of fuel or non-luminous water gas* and 
the .ii>paratus for its manufatrture, not bcin^ within the scope 
tif this pai>er, I shall not enter upon, but will leave to abler 
pens than mine, the description of the various apparatus and 
systems adv(t:ateil by Messrs. I. owe, Strong, Kvans, Rew, 
McMillin, I.ooniis, Ihimphreys, Clark, etc. 

Now to what process have all these forms of apparatus 
which I have enumerated, dating back an hundred years, led 
up to> as the successful system of water gas manufactured to- 
day ? Obviously, the answer to this is : That which has been 
most generally adfiplcd, Ihis, then, becomes not a matter of 
opinion but of statistics, and tfiree lines will show it, viz. : — 
(Taken from the list of water gas plants appended.) 

Number of retort prnrcss plants 9 

Number of generator process plants, Section **A" .,. 46 
Number of generator process plants, Section ^* B '*. * . , 312 

Undoubtedly it is the last type— and the great feature of 
this type which has so far outstripped the others— 1> — /y the use 
of an inter mtliy fired superheater^ the getting of all the necessary 
operations of water gas making into one com|)act apparatus, 
which, costing the least for erection, operated wnth a minimum 
of labor, and above all, by the utilization of heat previously 
wastetl, has matle a direct saving of heat, of energy, and of 
dollars. The successful apparatus of to-day is built upon 
these lines; appearing in a di>zen different forms, differing as 
is but natural, in design, proportion and efficiency, according 
to the %'^arious construction, but all having the great point in 
common— of the use of an internally fired superheater (the in- 
veiititm of which, by T. S. C Lowe, has been so strongly 
upheld by the late decision of Judge Wallace) this type of ap- 
paratus has been erected throughtuit the country, and with the 
greatest success. 

Many localities I can indicate where it is superseding older 
forms of water gas apparatus, which have now almost ceased 
to be erected, and so completely is the generator-superheater 




type the process of to-day, that while knowing of at least 25 
oew plants of the same, erected this season^ I can scarcely 
find enough of the others to count. It is not to be wondered 
at Compare it for instance with the other type of this class, 
where the blowing up the coal in the generators to incandes- 
cence, an en(»rmons amount of heat is lost up the chimney, and 
ibst)lutely w^asted {a criminal offence in these days of high 
efficiencies) and then a second fuel account is started to car- 
burel and fix the gas. Is it any wonder that a system which 
(leaving out all other questions of labor, repairs, convenience, 
etc.) combines these two operations in one, has so rapidly dis- 
tanccil the others? 

I do not mean any disparagement on the one hand, or praise 
upon tl»e other, of any particular apparatus, but I do mean, in 
contrasting the several ty/ts^ that the generator-superheater 
system, all-in-one-apparatus, is pre-eminently the choice of 
those adopting water gas to-day. lam nut here to recount 
ihc old arguments for or against water gas, to rehearse the 
efforts of those interested, to stay its progress, or to condone 
the "serpentine*' methods which were used, unfortunately, at 
times, by both sides, "We are confronted with a condition, 
not a theory," and that condition is, that water gas is to-day 
one of the largest and most prosperous branches of the gas 
mdustnp\ Fourteen years ago there was scarcely a plant in 
ihe country; to-day, over 300 cities and towns, or nearly thirty 
pt'rcent of all the gas towns in America, have over 350 dis- 
tinct plants, and the output of water gas constitutes, probably, 
'^ne-half of all the gas made in the United States. Since 1886, 
t>r within the last three years alone, water gas has doubled— in 
that year there being less than 150 cities using it. 

I'Ook at the map yonder and notice how water gas, indicated 
by the red dots, has spread throughout the country. From 
Maine to California, from Florida to Winnipeg — we find it 
everywhere. Look at New York, with fifty water gas towns; 
look at Pennsylvania; out of ro8 gas towns over fifty per cent. 
*rc water gas, 1 do not mean " auxiliary " plants, but out and 
(MJt Water gas, only three of these points making coal gas. But 
you say, Pennsylvania is especially w^ell adapted for water gas 
'rom nearness to the hard coal and oil fields. Look then upon 
Jd 




Vermont — without a coal gas works in the State; upon Florida 
— where six out of nine gas points are water gas. Oil is the 
cheapest gas making material to transport to these distances. 
Look at Ohio, in the centre of the soft coal field. A few years 
ago there was scarcely a water gas plant in the Stale; to-day 
there are 20 and steadily increasing. In Massachusetts, with 
laws cleverly passed to prohibit it, a dozen plants are daily 
mannfaclurmg it, and so on, from one end of the country to 
the other. 

Now what is the cause of this wonderful growth to its present 
proportions? I answer, the intrinsic worth oj the system itself. It 
must be so, or it would never have grown to its present position. 
The London Journal of Gas Lighting speaks of water gas as 
"Almost an ideal system," Certainly a method of manufac- 
ture, that occupies a minimum of floor space, uses a minimum 
of labor, and costs the minimum for repairs — a system of enor- 
mous cajiacity. that can be started into full operation at a few 
hours' notice, completely utilising gas making materials of min- 
imum bulk, having no residuals, and giving their highest caudle 
powers, is houml to prosper. And when, in addition to the 
above, in a majority of cases, a direct reduced cost of gas in 
the holder, is added, a stiH more potent reason is seen for its 
adoption. Equally well is it adafUed to the largest and the 
smallest works, for while the largest plants are in use in New 
York, Brooklyn, Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, San Francisco, 
etc., and nearly every other large city, yet have I seen also a 
water gas plant of the smallest size, (in a town of 2,000 popu- 
lation, with no mills and but i 1-2 miles of street mains), com- 
pletely installed in an old church building 50x50 feet. The 
generator in the Sunday-schoi>l room, the hulder in the audito- 
rium, the oil lank in the pulpit, and a pipe shop in the organ 
loft. Although this plant burned down without insurance, yet 
the owner immediately refniilt, for even on as small a scale as 
this, there was money in it. 

Much as water gas apparatus has been improved since its be- 
ginning, its capacity doubled, the quality of gas made vastly 
better^ the ability gained to use crude oils, tars and distillates, 
wMth entire success, likewise coals and cokes heretofore deemed 
impracticable, and the far better mechanical construction of the 



195 



apparaiLis, there is still ample field for the water gas engineer 
to work in. Details of design and proportion that are by no 
means yet agreed upon» the utilization of the highest degree of 
the heat of the escaping gases» in the more perfect beating of 
the incoming oils, steam, blast, etc., the perfect shaking grate, 
and the absolute utilization of all kinds of fuel, are problems 
as much yet to be solved as those to which the coal gas engi- 
neer looks forward in striving to perfect his bench^ or to utilize 
his residuals. 

I believe that these problems will be solved, and in the near 
future; that soft, or bituminous coal — the cheapest fuel in 
nearly every locality — which in the past has been the mainstay 
of the gas maker, will so continue to be; but wiU be used direct 
and completely m a water gas apparatus, and enriched with 
some form of petroleum. Regarding the future supply of this 
desirable commodity, 1 am neither pro[>het nor oil expert, how- 
ever, from the very many places of its discovery— Pennsylvania, 
Ohio, New York, Tennessee, Texas, Wyoming, Colorado, Cali- 
fornia, Canada, etc.. (to say nothing of the fields as yet undis- 
i^ovcred), and the great fields of Russia (beside which our own 
pale iulii insignificance) which are but awaiting a pretext to 
utilize the 1.300,000 galhm tank steamers already built, to lay 
their products at our doors — I believe that we need have but 
little fear of the oil supply question. 

Until that millenium day of fuel gas, when, with mains and 
lioKlcrs quadrupled, we shall be senrling out unlimited quanti- 
ties of an uncarbureted gas, or at least as long as we continue 
l*^ make an illuminating gas, I agree with Dr. Walther Hempel, 
that *'*rhe water gas process is, without any doubt, one of the 
greatest inventions connected with the gas industry since gas 
was first made use of,** and also believe, with the eminent chem- 
'St, Rutlolph Wagner, that ** water gas appears to be the iliumi- 
aaiing gas of the future/* 

The subject is almost endless. My paper now is much be- 
yond the length 1 rontemplatedj with many points but touched 
Upon, and sidl more entirely omitted. I trust your patience has 
not been too severely tried. 

In closing I would call your attention U) the list of water gas 
towns to date, attached to this paper, which I have prepared 



196 



with some care, also to ihe list of reference papers consulted, 
which may be of use to the student; which papers form about 
the only, and largely unsatisfactory literature, upon the subject 

1 also wish to herewith express thanks to numerous con- 
structors of processes herein described, for their courteous 
replies to my request for information ccmcerning the same, for 
this i>aper. 

Before the discussion is opened upon this paper I would like 
to call the attention of the Association to the charts which 1 
have placed on the wall. The first I have referred to in my 
paper I think you will find it interesting as showing the dis- 
tribution of gas towns throughout the country. My object 
in preparing that chart was to show any one who thinks 
that water gas does not amount to much in North Amer- 
ica, or who thinks that water gas is confined to local districts, 
or who thinks that water gas has not grown to any great extent, 
that he is labnrnig under a mistake. I respectfully invite any 
such person to count the red spots on that chart. The red spots 
indicate ctjni panics which have adopted water gas wholly or in 
part; and the green spots represent all the coal, or wood gas, or 
whatever you please. The data is taken from ** Brown's Gas 
Light Directory," which is about the only source of authority 
we have in snch matters, coupled with informatit>n which I have 
already obtained. In this cliart I call your attention to a little 
diagram which indicates the growth of water gas, by years. 
Each one of those spaces, from one side of the sheet to the 
other, represent one year. You will see that in 1858 the first 
water gas appeared— that of Sanders; and two or three plants 
were erected about that lime. We find none others until i86j. 
Then there is one at Newark; and in 1868 we tlnd the first 
plant under the Gwynne-Harris system. In 1873 the Lowe 
patent a[>pears and from that date the Lowe plants were erected. 
tlach one of these spaces indicate 50 comjiantes. We wdl see 
from that date to the present time that there are over 500 com- 
panies formed within fourteen years, and that during the last 
three years alone the number has gone from 150 to 300^ thus 
duplicating itself within three years. The proportional table 
given below indicates the number of plants which have been 
erected. The third line here indicates the substance of my 






■4 



197 



er, which is this: That the superheater apparatus is the ap* 
"Ittratus for to-day. That is shown by statistics and indicated 
jfraphically by these three lines at the bottom. On such a sub- 
ject as this it is very difficult lo get absolutely correct informa- 
tion, and I presume one or two mistakes are made in the list of 
water gas companies; but I think that it is correct as a whole, 
and I believe that the percentage of error will be found inside 
of nne per cent.* 



Discussion. 

The President — ^The paper of Mr, Shelton is a very com- 
prehensive presentation of the progress and present condition 
of water gas in this country. I hope gentlemen wishing to ask 
any question, or who have any remarks to make will now do so. 

Mr. Scriver — I presume that the cost of oil differs in differ* 
cnt localities the same as coal 

Mr. Shelton— Undoubtedly. 

Mr. Scrjver — The price must certainly enter into the ques- 
tion. The company that I represent manufactures coal gas 
'=nt»rclj\ and by comparison with the Toronto Gas Company, 
*hich manufactures part coal and part oil gas^ we find our 
f«sults to be more satisfactory than those at Tor€>nto, in figures 
^'^ dollars and cents. 

Mr. Shklton — That ts a question that one would have to go 
'•^tovery fulfy, and lake all the points into consideration, before 
^friving at a definite conclusion. 

Mr. ScRivRR->-ln discussing the cost of coal gas you have to 
take into consideration the sale of your residuals; and that is 
nt>w we beat the Toronto company. We get a very good price 
"'four cuke, and for our otlier residuals — coal tar and aoinioni- 
acal liquor. So that, taking into consideration the prices we 
get for our residuals, we beat oil gas all to pieces. 

Mr. Shelton -Of course it is a question of dollars and 
^'cms. If a company is so situated as to get coal cheaply, and 





i 



caa obtain high prices for residuals, coal gas may be less cv 
pensive than water gas; but in a roajority of places I think ii ^^ 
not so. 

Mr. Pearson— I did not catch all that Mr. Scrivcr said. 
understood him to say that he was making a cheaper gas ^^ 
Montreal than wc are in Toronto. I do not wish to enter iH^^ 
any personal discussion, and I will merely say that Mr. Scriv^^ 
can get his coal at Montreal for about half the price that %*'*'' 
can buy our coal in Toronto. That is a very important consi^*' 
eration. I will say tn Mr. Scriver that we have been making 
about half and half coal and water gas with our old coal gif^ 
works, Wv have been making gas by the old Lowe gas proce*^ 
in Toronto, and we contemplate making a change. I am quit^ 
aware that wc might make gas a good deal cheaper by that pro— 
cess; but I do not know exactly how he makes out that his ga^ 
is cheaper; I do not accept that, however, on his mere statements 

Mk. SuKiYtK — What I have slated is entirely correct, al— 
though Mr. Pearson may forget it at the present time. I thinlc 
at the time we made our comparison Mr Pearson was makingr 

gas almost entirely from oiK 

Mr. Nettleton — We are drifting somewhat away from the 
paper. Speaking fur myself I want tu say that the paper and its 
teachings have been a great surprise to me. I had no idea that 
water gas had grown to the enormous extent stated in the paper 
and represented on the chart. I think that all of us must realtie 
that Mr. Shelton has gone to an enormous outlay of labor 
in collecting all these statistics; and it seems to me that a hearty 
vote of thanks are due to him for preparing such a paper as 
this. Further than that, I know Mr. Shelton so well that 1 ani 
confident he does not make the statement that he thinks he is 
within one per cent, of being correct, or that the error is not 
more than one per cent,, unless he is very sure that it is so, 1 
am confident that this paper will go down as being an absolutely 
reliable paper of reference on the subject of water gas down to 
the present year. I move that a hearty vote of thanks be given 
to Mr, Shelton for his very able paper on water gas. I do not 
intend by this motion to cut off the discussion. 



Mk. E. C Bkown — Mr NettieUm has stated what 1 had in- 
tended to say, and so I will merely second hij; motion. [The 
moiiun prevailed.] 

Thf: President — We will next lij^ten to the reading cif our 
last paper, by Mr. Charles 1.. Rowland, entitled 

GASHOLDERS: THKIR CARE AND iH'KRATlON. 

Somewhat more than a century ago, when ^Mses first began 
to attract the attention of scientific men, the gasometer or 
holder was invented by the great French chemist, Lavoisier. 
Owing to this inventitm, the utility of gas for lighting purposes 
iKjciimc practicable, for [jrevious to this the only means f(*r the 
'itaragc of gases has been bladders. The m<tst ancient holders 
e square or rectangular in form, and designed as a meas- 

r ijf gas fur experimental purposes only* hence the term 
gasometer- Gradually, however, as gas became a commercial 
article, and has finally proved itself the light of the Nineteenth 
Century, the gasometer developed into a reservoir for the mere 
^lurage of gas, and as now used, the simple name of gasholder 
IS more appropriate. 

These holders, in their early days, were made in one section 
^^nly; and operated in wooden tanks. lu 1814, the English 
government was strongly urged to restrict gas companies (rum 
constructing holders exceeding 6000 cubic feet capacity ; since 
then, however, the dimensions of gasholders have increased at 
a marvelous rate, especially so during the last fifteen years; 
■»nd nowhere are they built on so large or grand a scale as in 
the same country where the restriction was sought. The 
tiecessity for increased storage capacity at a low cost» brought 
W the idea of building holders of more than one section, by 
^S'C of the hydraulic cup and seal, This method is commonly 
calJcd the telescopic system, and has proved to be entirely 
5»uccessful, demonstrated as it is by the practical operation of 
the enormous three and four sectioned structures of the pres- 
W day. Thus, we now find gasholders consisting of two 
types, viz.: the single lift, and telescopic; the latter type em- 
hradng all made in more than one section or lift, and to dis- 
tinguish them are called, ctjuple, trij>!e and quadruple lifts, 




in the operaskai of 

m dkmaacr, is that^ \ 
tiie ciBdcs whli as IHi 
£riGlktf» as itfiMiBjJL, withat fcctiii^ ooi of fevt^ to any apjiT^' 

;SB«Attl% 4^ JSfMers :^ljct «s raoader Oie holder as a tctC^^ 
cai cjrliiider« aod soe vh j it shoald be irmtililr and liable to g^^ 
«Mif)e or le» out of krcl : as&aimni: tbe oeaier of graritr to l^^ 
Cli€ ptrctat point- If the cjUodcr b^ no tisp, its center cf» 
graritr (a&^anilog its sides to be of equal weij^t tbroo^oat) ^ 
would be in the centre of its length or hcigbt, and it would o^ 
COUTm; be in equilibrium. Now, then, m^ dose the lop end 
ax^ 10 BO doing add as much or more wei^t at the top thaix 
we hare in the sides, the result being our cTlinder is top- 
beary, and would overturn unless supported and held in posi- 
taon. For instance, a gasholder of ordinary constmcdon, loo 
feet diameter and ten feet height of section, would b* 
out of proportion. The cylinder in this case being to<» - 
for its diameter, would be quite unstable. There would be 
about twice the weight in the roof that there is in the ' 
and the center of gravity in consequence would be ver} 
being close under the center of crown. Such a vessel would 
prove extremely troublesome, the natural sequence being that 
it would be ever ready to invert upon slight provocation. The 
operation, therefore, of a holder, depends largely on its prop* 
tiouH anil structtini! character, a knowledge of which should 
jj(>!*)*rssti(l by those who have the structure in charge, in order 
to know the cause of difficulties which may occur in its opera- 
tion from time to time. It ofiL^n happens that more pressure 
is requireil than the nalural weight of the holder will give, and 
tkH nvinrt\u\Hns is all that is needed to obtain the desired pres- 
iiure» the first impulse is to load the roof. It may perhaps be 
the cawe that the holiler is of shallow section which already is 
oveilf»a(k'd at ihe tupj and if its weight is to be increased, it 
lihoiild be adili'ci nt or near the bottom of the section as pos* 
nililr, Whni ihr iircchsity of this added pressure is impera- 
live, it \h boiiii'titiitn unwisely decided to obtain it in the easiest 
inanner, and lit i iMi?<e(inrnee the operation is ofttrmes attended 
wiih ilutistiHiin rtJjiults. 1 would, therefore, caution those in 



The I 
1!^ 




Itf^^oo^welMnto the matter before deciding bow m- 
^-ii^ased pressure shall be obtairted. To the want of proper 
precaution under the above conditions may be ascribed the 
Tiany instances where gas companies have sustained serious 
<laraage to, and in many cases the total loss of, a holder. 

Hydraulic Sea/. — ^In all telescopic holders the hydraulic seal 
Itljust be cared for, the old style of construction being as shown 
itjyFig. 31. Although the cup rises from the tank filled with 
^«raier, there is always with this form quite a loss of the'seal, 
due to the fact that as soon as the gas pressure is exerted 
Upon the inner portion of the cup, the water at A is depressed 
as many inches and fractions thereof as there 
is gas pressure, causing an equivalent amount 
of water to overflow at B, the top of the sec- 
tion coupled, thus greatly diminishing the 
depth of the seal. The more modern and 
improved method is shown by Fig. 32. And 
although as will be seen the only difference 
in construction consists in carrying the dip 
sheet some six inches or more above the 
top of the dip; nevertheless, it is an import- 
ant feature, as it forms a dam which pre* 
vents the overftuw and consequent loss; the 
Fj(i 31. water in the latter case being depressed 

equivalent to only one-half the pressure at A, and rising to 
the same extent at B and confined by the dam^ 
thus reducing the percentage of loss of seal 
one-half. There is also an important differ- B 

^"ce in the operation which is much in favor 
"' the latter style. When the water accumu- 
l^tej; from steaming the cup in the former 
nieihod, it overflows the dip, and in cold 
ihcr forms large masses of ice on the side 
'the section; while the latter style will, if 
^»t dam be sufficiently high, simply confine the 
^atcr while it rises at both A and B, and until 
the cup overflows at A, inside of the holder, 
3s in Fig. J3, at which time the efficiency of 
the cup is complete. Fig, 32. 




Ki4f. n 



m the cap f reeling* t 
m^ m portion of tbc bc^ 
id cannected with one ^ 
,bf aie&iis of flexible sufl^ 
to the cup a few lai^ 
«f Ike water, and supported i» * 
, so slot the steam u)ion bd«^ 
turned on, w9i ctmsit tkt wmter tci circulate cotf^ 
plctelf mromti die bcMer. 

The Clips mtt qoite apt to be the receptacles f*: 
small stones aftd «tlMT mssilcs, especially wh<ri 
lijcatcd near the (nMic tlironMi^hf;ire and expos 
to the mischieTCMis small bof oi the nejghburhm»4 



'Jliuy ihould occasionally be examined by feeling into thee 
Wli»<»i they arc near the surface of tbe water, and nearly higl 
firMMiifh hi enf^age with the neiit outer scdtoii. 

Caff During Storms, — I ha%"e frequently been asked t 
II |a impI Will to lower the holder doring high winds. A 
Jlml iIimhkIh thih would seem a rational thing to do, an( 
hif fk hImijIi' lift holder it would be quite proper Fur tel 
ii<o|rl( lioldirs however, it is not wise; the better way be 
1 11^ to iiiUr tfifin till the outer section is copped, for coup- 
IImK lilt* two ttcitions or three, as the case maybe, doublci 
or lii'lrfrn the k^rjj{lii of the cylinder* thereby lowering the] 
iMiliT of K^**vity» and otherwise causing greater stability. 
'I'lMn iiu rra>ied Htability, caused as it is by the addiliimal 
lnnifHi of the cylinder, more than compensates for the greater 
HIM faf '• t'*(ioHL'd tr> the force of wind; of course, this action^ 
mn Ih' biken r»nly when twr) or more holders are in use. The 
«iiinr iriflhod should be employed in caring fur a holder in 
timet* of lieavy snow falL During such storms the men should 
be emfiloyed in clearing the r**of, the precaution being taken 
to equalize the working force, so that like parts of llie roofj 
will be cleared at the same time, keeping the holder as ncarl 
an t»raf tiriable in e(|uilibriym, care being exercised to throw the 
unow well a way, so that in falling it wi 



>- 

% 




water be kept up to the proper level, and that stones and other 
solid matter be prevented from falling in, which might in time 
be the cause of serious injury. The overflow should be fre- 
quently looked after» and kept free and clear. 

CffunUnuaghtiftg, — Where the local conditions make it feasi- 
ble, on general principles it is well to eliminate all coiuiter- 
wcighlin^, but as specific statements under this head would 
o()en the door for considerable discussion, and as this feature 
may be considered as relating more properly to construction, I 
refrain from going into the matter in detail, but will simply 
state, where counterw^eights are in service, and it is desired to 
lliHTunlinue their use, it would be well to remove from the t;n- 
tire structure all the weights and counter gear 

Lraks.--h\\ leaks, however small, should be prnm[)tly at- 
tentleil to as soon as detected; let them be repaired by a 
cnmpetent man» and furthermore iuie who will not as far as 
appearances are concerned, convert a new holder into an old 
"He hy injudiciously putting a patch here and another there, 
when all that is really needed is good judgment and the caulk- 
ing tool. 

Painting, — ^No precise rules can be laid down fcjr determining 
now often a holder should be painted, as some climates are 
'wurh more severe in their effects upon tiie painting than 
oth^:rs, it being necessary in some localities to paint the 
holders every year, while in others a good coat in two or three 
years will suffice; but when it is done let it be thoroughly and 
*ell done, and no half way work about it. llie mere coating 
l^e holder with the paint is the least part of the job when the 
^*Jrk is done as it should be. Before painting, the sheets 
should be carefully scra[>ed, removing all blisters and scales, 
leaving a good service for the new coat to adhere to. If the 
painting is done without such a previtms preparation, the ob- 
jects ought, /. <* , the preservation of the structure, will not be 
attained. Undoubtedly the new coat of paint would greatly 
enhance its appearance, but oxidation and decay would be con- 
stantly doing their w^firk under the cover of good looks. 




Mft, BuTTKiewaitTa — I vmilcl tike to ask Mr. 

he would »txip ^mall leaks in the scan of a I 

Mat. KowhAW — ^The small, ordifiarT leaks tint cook ii^ 
iimt of holders should be stopped with a raitlkn i g tod. as ^ 
pofiftibic. It can generally be done, onless tibc utm i§ F^, 
^well decayed. Almoiit any competent Bian caa do ml 
that kind. 

Mr. GLAfi<;ow — I agree with Mr. Rowland aboot raisiii^ i 
bolder when you bee a storm coming op. bat mj ideas of 
it are dilferent from his. 1 want to raise my bolder I 
naturally want to have sufficient gas on hand ready for the 
creased constimption during the darkness caused by tfae^ 
Of course it is very desirable to hare the center of 
below the geometrical center of the holder, bat I do oat se^ 
how to accomplish that by raising the holder. When you rais^ 
ihc holder you have the application of the wind higher up, aiid 
you have a larger surface exposed to the wind. I am oofoctQ' 
nate cn<jugh to operate a 500,000 holder which has tobe watche 
every time it cups. This holder was constructed for the Kan^^ 
ftaii(!ity (;as J.fght and Coke Company in 1876, When it 
huilt itiere were blocks laid, upon which the sections were buitll 
(in size 6 by 6, and about 18 inches long), and when the holders' 
were fiileil those biticks were not extracted from the insidc. 
Sbr/rtly afler I went to Kansas City I was walking around the^ 
(bolder one day^ and I found that it was very badly canted^fl 
<*ne Mtle wan bulged in badly. This canting occurred a second 
Umt% and al thai lime the holder was so badly damaged as to 
make it impraclicaljle for us to let it down; and we did a job 
of rei>airs upon it which seemed to me ahnust impossible when^ 
1 tVrsi louked at it. 'I'he channel of the outer section wasV 
twisiled stj badly that, after we had it uncupped, it was tilted 
and the s|inni; remained in il al an angle of 25 dcg. honzon-*a 
tally. luNide of the cup the sheet was lorn all to pieces, andV 
the outside sheet had a crack in it six feet long, where the chan- 
nel had bent out and kinked it in. 1 will not describe how we^ 
r»xetl it, lis 1 supfKjse each of you know it l>eUer than I canfl 
HliUe U; but we did fix it, and after that we had no further 



hedw 
aii«fl 
wasi 
uMm 
lersf 





205 



trouhle. I do not think that holders occasion a great deal of 
Irouble in their care and operation, provided they are properly 
constructed. In a holder that is* being erected under my super- 
vision, the foreman of the iron works inquired how much out of 
plumb the walls were. He was told thai they were a quarter 
of an inch out in the worst place. He expressed a great deal 
of surprise and satisfaction^ and said that if they had been 
three inches out it would have made no difference, as the wall 
plates could have been easily sprung in to conform. He said 
that frequently ihey were five or six inches out, but that if they 
could get the girders on t!iere was not much trouble in tilling 
the columns over, and it did not give any great trouble in con- 
struction. Of course when a man goes out Mke that, and ex- 
pecus to put up a large holtler, and the superintendent permits 
the work lo be done without supervision, it would be no won- 
*i«:r if a good deal of trouble was occasioned, and that the carif 
and operation of the holder give a great deal of anxiety. 

1 once had a holder which I used to go around every day 
looking for leaks. It was such a shell that it had to be coated 
periodically with tar— which I considered a very bad thing lo 
put on a holder — and water blisters had accumulated under the 
tar and rusted the holder and it was a mere shell in many places, 
1 could see holes as large as pin heads, and I could run my fin- 
ger at places into the shell Then I would stop it up tempora- 
n^y with something that I always carried in my hand when I 
^cnt round the holder. 1 would put a patch on it. We found 
"0 difficulty in patching up such a leak anywhere if we could 
get at it^ — by a plan which may be common and universal, but 
*hich was original with me at the time. And that is simply 
having an iron saucer, and a rectangular shaped nut or screw, 
probably three inches long, three-quarters wide, and a quarter 
of an inch thick. We would drop that inside of the hole, with 
^ string tied around the top, then would fill up the saucer with 
^preparation of red litharge and glycerine, or any other good 
setting stuff, and draw the string through the centre of that and 
then put the screw in and clamp it up tight In one day we 
put on a dozen of those on places where you could put your 
^nger in. I am glad to say that that holder has since been 
renewed. 



206 

Mr. Rowland— -I would say that in speakii^ of couplingthe 
holder I have reference to the safety of the holder during a 
gale. The holder after coupling, forms a longer cylinder than 
before coupling. In the case referred to by Mr. Glasgow a new 

holder was undoubtedly needed. 

Mr. Glas<;ow— I do not see how the center of gravity is 
lowered with regard to the geometrical center of the holder. 

Mr. Rowi.AND—But the center of gravity is lowered. 

Mr. (Ilasc.ow— Relatively to the exposed part. It may come 
down from the top, but it travels up from the bottom. 

Mr Rowland — To illustrate: We will assume that the cen- 
ter of gravity is about here^ (making sketch) in proportion to 
its heijjht. Now, when we double the length, instead of the 
center of jjravity being up here, it is away down here. 

Mr. (ilasc.ow — That is just what I say. It is lowered from 
the top but it has come up from the bottom. 

Mr. Rowland— It is much nearer the bottom than it was 

before. I could illustrate to you by a diagram. 

On motion of Mr. Nettleton, a vote of thanks was given to 
Mr. Rowland for his interesting paper. 



THE QUESTION BOX. 

( I ) '* L\ui Electric Li^^hts he Sold at a profit in Towns of S.OOO 
Inhohitants in Competition wit/i Gosf 

Till. PuKMDKNr — If any of our members have had experi- 
rnn- nnder such conditions we would like to hear from them. 

Mh. hoARDMAN— I am interested in a gas company which is 
nprrating an electric light station in a town of about that num- 
liri of inhai)itants ; but I do not know as I am prepared to an- 
hwrr tiie (juestion whether it will pay in competition with gas. 
\Vc- rrrlainly are in competition with ourselves. The electric 
liglil is sold in competition with the gas which we sell our- 
Niivrs; but as we have the regulation of the price of both, it is 
hardly fair to say that there is competition. In this particular 



207 



' we do make money on the electric light. I will state that 
we charge $2 per thousand for our gas (with ten per cent, olT 
for prompt payment, or Jr. Ho net); ant! while we are not using 
the incandescent light from an incandescent circuit — ^we are 
using what is called series lighting— we charge for 32-candle 
power lights $3 per month, and for 65-candle power lights $5 
per month. The arc lights we sell at from $10 to ^12,50. 

Mr. Gribdel — Is that an all night circuit ? 

Mr. Boardman — The street lighting is an all night circuit, 
but the other is by the moon. For our 12 o'clock lights for 
stores Tve get $12, 

The President- — ^ Perhaps Mr. Prichard can give us some 
mformation on this subject, 

Mr. Prichard — I think it is entirely dependent uptin Icical 
circurnstances. In one company with which I am connected 
we have had about the same experience that Mr. Boardman 
speaks of, and have made it a commercial success. 

(2) ** IV/tert Shouiii a Gas Compares Ownership of Sennet 
Pipes Ttrmhmk-^at the Street Curh^ Lot Line^ or the Meter T' 

Mr, Tauer — ^1 would like to answer that question, ami to 
angwer it pretty liberally, I Ihmk a gas company ough^ tn 
supply its own pipe to the meter ; and I say so advisedly, be- 
cause in these days of sharp competition, if you are going to 
undertake to so run a business as to make* money on these 
ntmor details, you will lose your trade. 1 am perfectly satis- 
^^tl of that in my own judgment, because I have seen it tried 
ttiai way in the matter of coke. We used to sell our cuke and 
^c buyer wtjuUI have to hire a hcjrse and wagon to cart it, and 
then hire a man to put the coke in. Under these circum- 
Jitances we never sold any coke worth speaking of. After we 
bought a horse and w^agon of our own and employed a man to 
put the coke in, we could sell what we pleased. I think that 
'1^ these days, when competition ts so great with electricity and 
*atergas, that we had best be a little less cautious and a little 
'^ore liberal in our expenditures. Of course, if the service 
P'pe is a long one it would be well that the parties should pay 
'•J^it; but in most of our smaller towns the gas company can 




well altunl to pay for ihtr four ur fivt^ ffet t>f stTviccf pijje^ 
rather than try to collect anything for it. In our locality we 
find that that plan works decidedly the best. 

Mk. BoARliMAN — There is another very strung reason in 
these days why a j^s company should own its own services* 
Besides being- able to put in such pipes as they choose, in 
order to properly pnjtect themsefves in case of leakage, they 
can also say when an opposition company sets up, '* We own 
our sers^ices, and if you are ^oing for our patrons you must put 
in your own services/* Then they will have to dig up the 
sidewalk a^ain, which will prove very obnoxious to the house- 
holder, and he will very quickly give you a chance to talk with 
him after the opposition has seen him rather than have his 
sidewalk torn up, I would advise it by all means* whether it 
is a short service or a long one^ that a gas company own its 
services and its meter connections. 

Mk, Ni TTi.EroN — Mr. President^ have you any tibjection to 
stating what the custom is in Providence ? 

Thk pREsiDENT^We own our services, run all our services 
to the meters and set the meters without any charge to the 
consumer. 

Mr. Butter worth— I have here a list of ten moderate 
sized cities of the country where they dispute that point as to 
the ownership of services. Only three out of the ten run their 
services free, even to the lot line; six of the others run to the 
curbstone: and one runs the services free only twenty feet 
from the main. 

(3) ^^ /s 1/ economy to use illttmimttini^ coal gas for fuel umicr 
knlers, with price of soft coal ai $4.^0 per ton f If it is^ what 
kind of burners are generally used, and about what do same cost per 
set for furmue f If not, why not f 

Mr. John Young — In reply to that question I would say 
that everything depends upon the price at which you can buy 
gas. If you can buy it for something like twelve cents a thou- 
sand feet it might be worth while to try the experiment. Coal 
at 84.50 per ton would be a little over 17 cents per bushel, A 
bushel of coal will develop a little over one million heat units, 



209 



aDOUt i,joo feet of illuminating,^ gas to pro- 
duce ihe same number of heat units* From that data the calcu- 
lation can be made as to whether it would be more economical 
to use coal at $4.50, or coal gas. It depends entirely upon the 
price that must be paid for the ^as. 

(4) ** What propprtwn of ihf totalis the present day ca mump - 
(ion ef ^as in an atferage American City f* 

Mr, Bitttek worth — I do not know whether Columbus* 
Ohio, would be considered a rej^resentative American city or 
DOt/but I know what our day output is there, and what pro- 
portion of the total it is; and I can describe the city. It has 
100,000 inhabitants; it has a fair quota of <fas stoves; it is 
huik on rising ground; it has no pall of smoke resting uptm it; 
its streets are broad, and the buildings are not particnfarly 
high: and it has a large manufacturing interest for a Stale 
Capital. I am not booming the city for thr World's Fair at all 
The output there from six A. M, to six P. M. is about 22I per 
Cent, of the total. 

Thk PRKSIDENT — Have you any idea what number of gas 
stoves you have in use ? 

Mr, Butterworth— 1 have not. 

(5) ** Is it wise to make a sptcial discount on gas used for cooh'ng 
iithi /teatingt" 

The President — I think there are some companies making 
special rates for gas stoves, or for gas used for mechanical 
purjwses. 

Mr. Scriver — I may say a Hitle something on that subject. 
I can say a good deal, but time would not permit. I think that 
^^t company (Montreal) was the pioneer company to make a 
^Jiffcrent rate for gas stoves, gas engines and for manufacturing 
purposes. It is now about ten years since we commenced the 
't'trnduciion of gas stoves. We then made up our mind that it 
Would be an advantage to our company to make a reduction, 
^'e were then selling gas at $1.70 for all illuminating purposes, 
and we made the price of gas for cooking stoves $1.20. The 
pnce to-day for illumination is $1.50, and we are selling gas for 




cooking anil heating purposes for $i. We think it is a very 
great advantage to us. It might not be an advantage to every ^ 
gas company in America, but we are pretty clearly of the opin- | 
ion that for ourselves it is a very great advantage. At the present 
time we have about 3,000 gas stoves in use. Our consumption 
for gas stoves, and for healing and for manufacturing purposes, 
amounts to about one-fifth of our make. The revenue derived j 
from the gas stoves for these purposes is about one-fifth of our j 
whole revenue- We calcnlate that we sell for these purposes 
ninety million feet of gas per annum. That it is a very large 
business of itself, and we wnuld nnt like to lie w^ilhoiit it. The 
average price of gas with us would be about $1,25, We think 
we can manufacture gas and sell it at that price and make a 
handsome dividend or profit besides. We think that it pays — 
and I suppose that is the principal question. We think it pays 
very handsomely at these figures, in fact I know that it does. 
Other consideratintis might enter into this question, as, for in- 
stance^ the ctuisideralion of philanthn^py: but 1 do really think 
that we ought to be philanthropic. I think that we ought to be 
generous, and treat our customers in a liberal and generous 
way. That is a very great point to be gained. It is commonly 
supposed that gas companies are very selfish, and since the in- 
troduction of the electric light, I believe it is our policy, more 
than ever before, to be lilieral and generous to our customers. 
We, therefore, have made this reduction, and treat our custom- 
ers in this generous manner. Of course you will easily under- 
stand that to manufacture the ninety millions of extra gas that 
we are making, over and above what we would manufacture 
without this business, causes us to employ an extra number of 
men. It also means to us the carbonization of about 9,000 tons 
of coal extra, and that means employment to a large number of 
mtn in variou.s way.s, and it means the support of a large num- 
ber of families. 1 would not like to take up your time further 
in expandmg this consideration. I do not know that it is of 
very great interest to you, but still I mention these things in 
order that we may fully understand that we should be generous 
and philanthropic also. (Applause). 

Mr. Pearsun^ — We have been selling gas at a reduced price 




for the purposes which have been alluded to, during a period of 
about eight years, I am satisfied that selling it at a reduced 
price has %^ery greatly increased the consumption. Our selling 
price for gas, when we began to sell it cheaper for heating pur- 
poses, etc.» was $1.50; and we reduced the price for those pur- 
poses to $1. Our present selling price for illuminating purposes 
is $1.25, coming down to $mo, and we have kept the other 
price at $1. I find that consumers are very ready to take gas at 
St, but when, under certain circumstances, we talk of charging 
$L25» because we did not think that the consumption was large 
enough to warrant such a low price, our consumers strenously 
objected- During the past year the gas stove companies in 
Toronto have sent out at least a thousand gas stoves and heat- 
ing apparatus^ and I believe that they could not have sent out 
one-half that number had we not reduced the price, 1 think, 
moreover, that we can afford 10 sell gas f*>r those purposes be- 
cause it is very largely a summer consumption, and a day con- 
sumption, -and by that means we utilize our plant more fully» 
and during a greater portion of the year than we otherwise 
would do. 

Mr. Nettleton — I would like to ask Mr Pearson for what 
purposes he sells gas at $1. 

Mk, Pearson — For cooking, heating, power; and for me- 
chanical purposes where they burn enough — such as for solder- 
ing irons, jewelry stores, and for anything except for illumina- 
ting. We have a separate meter and do not charge any rent 
for it. We lead pipes from the other meter to where the gas is 
to be used. They simply pay the expense of the piping from 
where the pipe enters the house to where the meter is. I might 
add that the amount of gas that we are sending out for those 
purposes is about thirty million feet, and we are getting paid 
for four hundred million feet for all purposes. 

The President — Do you know how many gas stoves you 
now have in use? 



Mr, Pearson — I have no memorandum of the number with 
me. We have a good many gas fires as well as gas stoves. I 
think altogether, of gas fires and gas stoves, we have about 



212 



1,500. Am] heskWs that we have a great deal of gas useil fofl 
mechanical purposes which does not come under the low price,! 
because they have not got separate connections. I am quitdj 
certain that we send out thirty million feet of gas for thos€ 
purposes. 

Mr. SiRtvER — Tlie reasf>n why our consumption is so large 
and why we have so many stoves out, and why we pay such 
attention to this branch of our business, is that we manufacture 
our own g*is stoves^ and we sell them to our consumers at a, 
very sma!l profit. We fit I hem in their houses free of charge J 
We do not (harge them anything for atiachmg to the meter, nor 
do we charge for the pipes leading from the service to the gas 
stoves, but we do charge a small annual rental for the meter. 



(6) *'/j ///f scheme of inirodncing air inta gas f&r the purpetse 0/ 

retnvifying the iron a success?** 



Mr. Buttkrworth — At Columbus, Ohio, we introduce a Ul 
t!e air into our gas for the purpose of prolonging the life o| 
oxide in the boxes, and we fmd it a great aid. We have a ver 
poor local coal, which has probably almost as much sulphur in it 
as any coal in the market, and we ll nd that the introduction of 
air is a great relief when using that cr>al. f )nf-half of the coal 
is of that kind. The operation has not been coudvicteil WMth 
view of collecting any accurate data that would be of any great- 
value from a scientific point of view» but only rn a praclic; 
way. I do not know exactly what proportion of air we use. At 
first we tried to regulate and measure the air by passing it 
through an ordinary sixty-light meter, but like all other mete: 
registering gas it got to going too slow and we abandoned 
Now we simply use it by drawing the air through a sealing ol 
one-tenth f)f an inch of water. We watch it closely, and fin 
that we keep our candle power up to 18 or 19 by using from fouf 
and a half to five per cent, of cannel coal 



i 

It 

of 

I 

it 

I 

idfl 



Mr. RoHEkT YouNo— ^Do I understand Mr. Kutterworth ti 
say that he has no means of ascertaining how much air he in- 
troduces into the gas? 

Mr. Butterworth— I am not prepared to say. 



4 



213 



Mr. Rorert Young — Nor how much it tHminishes the illu- 
jlinating power? 

Mr. Blttter worth — Except by the fact that we keep it up 
iS or 19 candle power by using 4^ to 5 per cent, of cannel 

"oal, I do not think that we introduce more than one percent. 

_pf air. 

(7) ** H'/iai progress has been made this year in the matkr of 
generative furnaeesf^ 

The President— I think that Mr, Weber will answer that 
aestion. 

Mr. O. B. WeiiER — I du not know what actual progress has 
been made except from the fact that we have introduced more 
this year than we did last year. As against 80 last year we 
have this year introduced 13S, and tliey have been used as far 
North and West as Victoria, B. r.» and as far South as Venez- 
uela, S. A. 

The President — Thiii rjuestiun is [lerhups a litlle indefiuiLe. 
The writer doe^ not state whether he means progress in the kind 
furnace used, or in the number that has been introduced, 
erhaps he means both. 

Mr. O. B. VVebb:r — As to that I may say there has been an 
uprovement in the consirnclion of the furnace, in the way of 
iking it more lasting; and wc have also been able to reduce 
be formation of clinker. In fact, we are able tu get along with- 
jt any clinker at alb They have also t)cen improved in the 
ay of more readily controlling the heat. Beyond that we 
ive made no improvement; but, of course, those are very 
ential, and have brought the furnace to the point of success. 

(8) ** Haw should fit e brick and lilts be laid-^ivei or dry/" 

i The Prfsiuent— I think Mr. Weber can answer that ques- 
on also. 

Mr. O. B. Weber— I should answer it by saying that they 
bould be laid neither wet or dry, but dipped, so as to allow the 
bortar to adhere more easily and stronger. Unless fire brick 
^laid in that way there is a strong tendency for the mortar to 
ale off; and, therefore, we dip our brick. 



214 



Mr. Brrdel — If the brick is largely silica it has to be laid 
wet; on the contrary, if the brick is largely aluminiim, it has to 
be laid dry. 

(9) ** fV/ttjf composition of gas unU give the highest iiiuminating 
power when burned with a common fishtail t^urncr passing j feet 
per hour, and convert ail the carbon into CC l^,/" 

Mr. Robert Younx*^ — I would answer by saying a gas con- 
taining the largest amount of hydrogen and the smallest per 
cent, uf marsh gas. The percentage of hydrogen and carbon 
would be the same in both cases. 

(10) •* What specific gravity of oil will yield the greatest amount 

of gas with the highest illuminating poiverf* 

Mr. Robert Young — I think the oil with the lightest specific 
gravity that you can find will give the highest illuminating 
power. I would like to hear some discussion upon that pointy 
as it is a very important question in view of the large aniount 
of water gas used. 

The President — ^I think Mr, Rusby can give us some infor- 
mation. 

Mr. Rusbv — r hesitate to say anything on the subject^ but 
my experience in water gas, with crutle oil and lieavy oil, has 
been very successful; and I have always been led to believe that 
the greatest amount of illuminating power could be obtained 
from nil uf the highest .spet ific gravity. 1 have heard of figures 
which rather led me to the opposite belief. But until 1 have 
had a greater amount of experience, or have heard some figures 
quite dilTerent from those which have been given me, I shall 
have tu adhere to my present opiniun, 

Mr. McPIlrov— I would say that oil of the highest gravity 
is the better oil. I was using for a considerable length of time 
the lightest crude oil that could be had. It bears a premium 
now of 25 cents — that is when ordinary oil is $1 per bbl. it sells 
for $1.25. I find that naphtha at sj'j.ys is cheaper than oil at 
$1.25. I use naphtha of from 68 to 70 gravity, 

' What chemical 



4 



4 




215- 



rarhm if exposed to <r Mgh temperature and made mto a permanent 

iliuminating gas? 

Mr. Fritchard — I think that the compound would be broken 
up by the deposition of carbon, and that there would be more 
hydrog^en than carbon remaining 

(12) ** What tamo my is there in using naphtha at 4 j-4 cents per 
gatlon as an en richer^ instead of goad can net coal at Sj f*fr ton?** 

Mr, Laksuen — It depends upon what process and apparalys 
you use,and how you handle your naphtha. In some apparatus 
it is very much cheaper. I think it is clieaper to do it by sim- 
ply putting a pipe into the retort — with can n el at ^7. 



VOTES OF THANKS. 

The V^RKSiDFiNT — We have no further business on the table. 
Has any member any business to bring up ? 

Mr, Laxsukn — I wish to move a vote of thanks to our 
worthy Secretary who has so admirably arranged the papers 
and carried out everything pertaining to his duties. Although 
wc have been deprived of his services a part of the time^ I wish 
to move a hearty vote iif thanks to him. 

The President — It gives me pleasure to put that motion. 
There is hardly a member in the room who realizes the 
amount of work done by our Secretary, unless he has bad occa- 
sion to fill a similar position. The work done by the President 
i$ mainly done here at the meeting, and amounts to nothing at 
all as compared with what is d«:)ne by the Secretary, [The 
motion wa& unanimously carried,] 

Mr, Ramsuell — I desire to make a motion which I am sure 
will meet wMth a hearty rcspt»nsc% which is that a vote of thanks 
be extended to President Slater for the able and efficient man- 
ner in which he has presided over our meetings. 

[The motion was put by Mr. Harbison^ and carried unani- 
mously by a rising vote] 




EIGHTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING 



AMERICAN Gas light association, 



1)E Stno HOUSE, SAVANNAH, (;a., 

fh IMRFR 15, 16 AND 17, 1890. 



FiusT Day — Murninc; Skssion, 

The cigUtt^t'tUii annual iiitetiiii^ of ihc American Ciaji Light 
Association was called to order, in the Dc Soto House^ Savan- 
nah, Ga,, on the morning of Wtnlnesday, October 15, at 9:30 
A. M.» liy the President, Mr. Enverson McMillin^ of St. Louis, 

Welcumkij rv ink M UN rip alii v. 

Mr, Huvid DoLijjflas, PresidtMU nf the Mulnal Gas Light Coni- 
j>any tjf Savannah, staled that the Mayttr, Aldermen and others 
of tl»e city officials were in waiting for the purpose of welcom- 
ing the Association in the city, Therenpon, Mayor Schwarz, 
Aldermen Baifey, Parsttn, Meyers, Reed, Nichols and Falligant, 
(Merk oi ihe t'onncih Keharer, t'ity Marshal Wade, and the 
Hons. Robert Falligant and A. P. Adams entered the room and 
were introduced by the Presitlent. 

M A V u R Sc Ji w A u / — A s 1 1 le M ayor of Sava n nah I have come 
to tender yon the freedom of the city, and I will call upon the 
Ht»n. A, P. Adams to address you in my behalL 

Hon. a, P- Adams— My friends, fur so I would address you 
— let it be understood at once that y*ni are our guests ami are 



219 



Ur Wends. I do not feel that I speak to strangers, and so 1 

^U not speak in purely conventiunal phrase, nor in the formal 

wuage of cold and distant courtesy ; but, in behalf of this 

municipaUty that I am permitted in part to represent, aiul in 

alf of the citizens of Savannah, I g^reet you. I salute you 

the greetings of affection, and to every member, friend 

attendant upon this Association I extend a hearty and 

heartfelt welcome. (Applause.) We know, sir, the high 

jacter of your Association, and the worth and distinction 

tts representatives as they come to us from every section of 

beloved Union (Applause), and from the great Dominion 

lich is our near, and our very dear^ neig^hbor. (Applause.) 

efeel honored by this presence; and you have aggraiidiiEed 

X\i\% honor, if you will permit me to say so, by the presence of 

many brilliant, accomplished and graceful women, who shall 

the fair, fond and special guests of the occasion. (Applause.) 

this Forest City of ours is beautiful tu our eyes. Her senti- 

icnts and Her traditions are dear to our hearts. We trust that 

kere you will find that which will entertain and interest you, 

1(1 will render all the incidents and reminiscences of this 

tihit memorable and enjoyable. And, above all, do we fer- 

tcntly hope that in the social intercourse and amenities that 

ilUullow there will belaid foundations of mutual sympathy 

infl regard, and of mutual friendships, to be augmented by 

Imie and form an enduring contribution to the joy and the 

ppincss with which may ever your lives be fraught. We beg 

^you to remember that while you are here you are at home. 

Thiij city is yours. Our homes are yours. Our hearts are 

'aurs* Come, enter, and take possession, (Applause.) 

PHESIOENT McMiLiJN— All those who would return to the 
^iyoT, to the speaker, and to the Board of Aklermen^ their 
cry sincere thanks for this reception, and extend tu them the 
ourlesics of the Association, and, seats in this convention, will 
pltasc rise to their feet. (All rose.) Mr. Mayor and guntle- 
Dcn, wc shall be pleased to have you take seats with us at 
Jfour convenience. 

American Gas Light Association will now come to order 
transaction of business, 



^20 

Under our rules the first business in ord^r is the reading o< 
the minutes of the last meeting. 

On motion of Mr. Baxter, the reading was dispensed with. 

APPLICATIONS FOR MEMBERSHIP. 

1'he President — The report of the Council upon the appli- 
cations and transfers of membership is next in order. 

The Secretary read the following report: 

Savannah, Ga., Oct. 15, 1890. 

To the Members of the American Gas Light Association — 

Gentlemen : — The Council having approved of the following 
applications for membership, respectfully submft them to the 
Association for acticni. 

Active Members. 

W. R. Aclclicks, Engineer Bay State Clas (^>mpany, Boston, 
Massachusetts. 

*F. P. Addicks, Trcas., Boston (las Li^Iit Company and Bay 
State (las Company, Boston, Mass. 

*J. V, Aldrich, CcMri Manager Mutual Fuel (ias Company, 
Chica)ii^o, 111. 

*|. Bucknian, Mana^^a-r, Bristol Cas l.i^i^iu Company, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

*(]. I). Blanvelt, Sec'y and Supt. (ias and Electric \i\^\\ 
C'onipany, St. Au^^^^ustine, Fla. 

*C. R. Collins, Engineer Titusville Cas Company, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

*J. A. P. Crisfield, Assist. Supt. and Sec'y, Mutual C.as Light 
Company, Savannah, Ca. 

♦Robt. M. Di.xon, Engineer Safety Car Heating and Light 
Company, also Engineer Pintsch C,as Coijipressing Company 
New York, N. V. 

♦J. M. Daniels, Supt. and Agent Columbia (ias Light Com- 
pany, Columbia, S. C. 



* Present al this meeting. 



221 



k F. Fit/» Supt. El^in Amencan Gas Company, Elgin, 1)1. 

W, S. Humes, Sec^y Gas Company, Altoona, Pa. 

•C S. Hammatt, Supt. Citizens Gas and Electric Company, 
f ami Jacksonville Elertric Light Company. JacksonviUe, Fla. 

J. T. Hernin, Supt. Citizen** Gas Company, IJulTafo, N. Y 

•L L, Kellogg, Supt. (ias Light Company, Si(jux City, la. 

Wm, B. Miller, Supt. Cartersville Improvement, Gas and 
l^aicr Com|>any, Cartersville, Ga. 

Henry Mactier, Chief Engineer Metropolitan Gas Light Corn- 
any, Rlixabeth, N. J. 

•Benj. F, Mardonald, Scr'y and Treas, Consumers Gas Com- 
pany. Newlnifg, N. V. 

•Jas. S. Mr Ilhenny, Assist. Snpt. Gas Light Company. Wash- 
ington, l» < 

F, McKicgc» Sei:y Standard lias Light Company, New York, 
N Y. ' 

K R. Phelps, Treas. Citizens Gas and Klt'ctric Company, 
, White Mains, N. V, 

Tlios. Ringwood, Prest. llion and Mohawk Gas Light Com- 
pany, Ilion, N. Y. 

J» J, Ru-sseM, Supt. National Gas Company, Shebtiygan, Wis. 

*W. L. Uilliams, Supt. U. G. L Company, and Peoples 
I'^orks, Paterson, N, J. 

*J. VV, Wilcox, Supt, Macnii lias Light and! Water t'ompany 
Macon, Ga. 

*C K. Zeek, Supt. Gas Company, Pensacola, Fla, 

•J. W, Gwynn. Supt, Gas Light and Fuel Company, Ituiyrus, 
[Ohio. 

V^iHiani J Winegar, l*rest. Gas Light and Fuel Company, 
\ Palatka, Fla. 

Chas. J. Hayes, Supt. (Jas Light and Fuel Company, Palatka, 
' Florida, 

*Win. S. Bowen, Assist. Supt. Gas Company, West Chester, Pa. 

*R. M. Searle, Geii'l Foreman. 44th street station, Consoli- 
I d«ed Gas Company, New York, N. Y. 

•JohnGimnr r, Manager Gas Company, Leavenworth, Kansas. 



* ?r<*sent at this meetiDg. 



222 



Assodatf Memhfrs^ 

•Jerome Croiil, Vice-Presl. Gas Light Company, Detroit, 
Michigan, 

W, S. Essick, Scc*y J one*; Meter and Stove Company, Roy- 
ersfont, Pa, 

*S. F. Haywaril, with Connelly & Co., Mfrs. Gas Apparatus, 
New York, N\ Y. 

♦Andrew Harris, of Harris Bros. & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

♦C, S. Knight, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

♦E. M. Rnssell, Agt. Parker Russell Mining and Mfg. Com- 
pany, St. Louts, Mo. 

*H. M. Hubbard, Sec'y, George M.Clarke Gas Stove Com- 
pany, Chicago, III. 

ELELTION riF NEW MEMBERS. 

On nif>tion of Mr Liltlehales, the Secretary was empowered 
to cast the ballot of the Association for the election of the gen- 
tlemen named as members of the Association. That duty hav- 
ing been performed, the gentlemen were introduced to the Asso- 
ciation by the President. 

In making the introdnction, the President sard— I trust the 
gentlemen who have just been elected to membership will feel 
that they have as much right in the .\ssociation as the oldest 
member, and will feel it nc»t only their privilege, but their duty, 
to take a very active part in the proceedings of the meeting. 

The Secretary then read the following 

REPORT OF COUNCIL. 

Savannah, Ga., Oct. 15, 1S90. 
To the Members of the Assoriafion: 

Gen iT^EMEN— Your Council would respectfully offer the fol- 
lowing report on the work of the Association for the past year: 

The Council have approved the following papers to be read j 
during the meeting— 

* Present at this meeiing. 





223 



"The Mismanagement of Gas Works/' by E. G. Cowdery, 

'*The Extension of the Use of Gas for Purposes Other than 
Illumination/* by E. G, Prati. 

'*Gas Coals of the United States." by H. C. Atbms. 

'*The Practical Efficiency of an Illuminating Water Gas Set- 
ting," by A. G, Glasgow. 

" Inclined Retorts,*' by Frederic Egner 

"The Gas Engineer and His Pencil/* by F. H. Shclton. 

"Purification of (jas/* by A. E, ForstalL 

"Pintsch System/' by R. M. Dixon. 

'* Hints on Electric Lighting by Small Gas Companies/' by A. 
E. Board man. 

The Council have appointed the following gentlemen to serve 
as the Committee on Nominations^ namely: 

Thomas Turner, Chairman, Charleston, S. C\; A. 11. Slater, 
Jr., Providence, R. L; A. W. Littleton, (jnincy, 111.; J. F. 
Scrivcr, Montreal, Canada; W. K, Parks, Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Council recommend that the Secretary proceed with the 
publication of volume No. 9 of the proceedings, sending ont* 
cupy to each member. 

The Council recommend that the Secretary be instructed to 
furnish each of the Gas Journals with a copy of the proceed- 
ings of ibis meeting, with the understanding that each paper 
pays its share of the entire expense of reporting the proceed- 

The Council recommend that as a matter of economy the 
practice of printing copies of the President's Address be dis* 
continued. 

For the same reason the Council recommend that the custom 
^ of printing the papers in advance be discontinued. 

The Finance Committee have examined the books of the 
Trea.surer as per report attached. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Em e rson M c M I l l 1 n, Presidrnt. 

REPORT OF FINANCE COMMFfTKE. 
To the OrnmU: 
Vour Finance Committee have examined the books and 



224 

vouchers pf the Secretary and Treasurer, C. J. R. Humphreys, 
for the year ending September 30, 1890, and find the same to 
be correct. 

C. W. Blodgkt, I Financt 
A. E. BoARDMAN, \ Committee, 

Mr. Littlehales moved the adoption of the report. 

The President — There are some recommendations here 
that it will be well for us to consider. If those who have 
hitherto favored the printing of the papers in pamphlet form, 
in advance of the meeting, knew the condition of the treasury, 
they would hardly object to a discontinuance of the practice. 
It is almost a matter of necessity; for since we made the large 
expenditure a year or two ago, for procuring badges for the 
members of the Association, our treasury has been practically 
empty. We started a number of little economies, last night a^ 
our meeting, and hope that we will, after a while, get back to 
where we can again take up the publication of the papers i^ 
advance. But when we again do that, I hope the publicati^r^ 
will be made two or three weeks in advance of the meetinii- 
Finding the papers at the meeting affords no particular advari' 
tage to the Association. 

The rcj)ort of Council was adopted. 

REPORTS OF SKCRETARY AND TREASURER. 

'I'he Secretary read the following reports: 

Report of the Secretary and Treasurer for year ending Sep- 
tember 30, 1890. 

Dues for year 1887 ^^25. 00 

" 1888 40.00 

1889 170.00 

" " 1890 1,010.00 

1891 755.00 

Initiation fees 360.00 

Account of stenographic report of Toronto 

meeting 96.83 



225 

»y of Proceedings, Baltimore meeting.. . • . . $24.75 

Ige 400 

:ra copies, Shelton's paper 38.00 



$2,523.58 

ount brought forward from last year ^99-76 

$2,723.34 

Expenditures, 

penses, Baltimore Meeting $254.54 

ary of Secretary and Treasurer 600.00 

nling and Stationery 439>44 

mped Envelopes, Stamps, and Sundries 587.92 

penses of Reporting Baltimore Meeting.. . 222.60 

vertising 90 00 

pense Attending Council Meeting 7500 

penses Savannah Meeting 3500 



$2,304.50 
nount carried forward to next year 418.84 

$^,723j;4 

ish in Merchants National Bank of Lawrence $402.4 r 

ish in hand 16.43 



$41^84 
ue from Members $1,330.00 

Honorary Mtmlhrs. 

umber on roll Oct. I, 1889 6 

'ttl (luring the year i 

Number on roll Oct. i, 1890. ... 5 

Active Members. 

umber on roll Oct. i, 1889 338 

Emitted Oct. 16, 1889 26 

364 



226 

Resigned during the year , lo 

Dropped " " 6 

Died " " 8 

Number on roll Oct. i, 1890 ; . . . 340 

364 

Associate Members. 

Number on roll Oct. i, 1889 5 

Admitted Oct. 16, 1889 10 

Number on roll Oct. 1, 1890 15 

Deceased Members, 

Honorary. 

Gen. Charles Roome, New York City. 

Active. 

Cushinj^, (). K., - - - Lowell, Mass. 

D()ujj:las, S. H., - - - Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Forstall, Theobald, - - Chicago, 111. 

Kinjj, K. J., ... Jacksonville, 111. 

Fullaji^ar, John, - - - Napa City, Cal. 

Houston, Walter B., - - Rah way, N. J. 

Parrish, William, - - Seneca Falls, N. Y. 

Rollins, J. II., - - - Worcester, Mass. 

On nu)tion of Mr. Greenough, the reports were received and 
filed. 

Mr. A. C. Humphreys, Chairman of Committee of Arranjje- 
ments, announced that the Committee had decided to make 
an innovation, in that they had extended to the ladies accom- 
panying members of the Association, and to the ladies of the 
reception -committee, an invitation to be present at the ban- 
quet on Thursday night. (Applause.) 



227 



The Secretary read letters of invitation and proffers of 
courtesies from the Savannah Yacht Club, and the Catholic 
Library Association, of Savannah. On motion of Mr. Baxter, 
the invitations were accepted with the thanks of the Associa- 
tion. 

ROLL CALL. 

The roll call showed the following members were present : 



Active ^f€mbcrs. 



Abel, W. (;., 
Adams, H. C, 
Adams, William C, 
Baitin, Isaac, 
Haumji^ardncr, J. H., 
Haxler, Isaac, 
Baxter, W. H., - 
Heal, \V. R., ■ 
Benson, F. S., - 
Blod;ret, C. \V., 
B^ardmun, A. K., 
Board man, H., 
BnririKT, C, 
Brdel, F., - 
Bush, J. S., 
Biitterworth, I., 
Byrne, T. E., - 
(*al).)t, J., - 
Cartwriirht, M., - 
<'ha(hvi(-k, H. J., - 
^-hamhcrs, J. H., 
C:h(.llar, B. K., 
Clark, W., 
Muffin, J. A., 
Cogirsluill, H. F., 
Collins, A. P., 
Connelly, T. Iv, 
Cornell, T. C, 
Cosgrove, W. L., 



Atlanta, Ga. 
Philadelphia, Fa. 
Richmond, Va. 
Omaha, Neb. 
Lancaster, Pa. 
Detroit, Mich. 
Petersburg, Va. 
New York City. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Macon, (ia. 
Baiiii^or, Mc. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
New York City. 
New York City. 
Cohinibus, O. 
Brooklyn, N. V. 
New York City. 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Lock port, N. Y. 
Trenton, N. J. 
Topcka, Kan. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
(Gloucester, Mass. 
l''itchl)urj^, Mass. 
New Britain, Conn. 
N'cw York City. 
Yonkers, X. Y. 
Atlanta, Ga. 



228 



Cowdery, E. G. 
Cowing, J. H., - 
Crockett, J. B., 
Ciirlev, T., 
Dell J., - 
Diall, M. N., 
Dickey, C. H., 
Doujj^las, D., 
EgncT, F., - 
Elkins, W. L., Jr., 
Findlay, J. H., 
Flemming, D. D., 
Floyd, H. E. 
Fodcll, W. P., - 
Forbes, J., - 
Forstall, A. E., - 
Foster, T. G., 
Fry, C. C, 
Gardner, J., Jr. 
Geggie, D. H., - 
Glasgow, A. G., 
Goodwin, \V. \V., 
Graeff, G. W., Jr., - 
Greenough, M. S., 
Griffin, J. J., 
Hamhleton, F. H., 
llanford, L. C, 
Harbison, J. P., 
Harper, G. H., 
Harris, J. A., 
Helme, W. E., 
Hookey, G. S., - 
Humphreys, A. C, - 
Humphreys, C. J. R., 
Lansden, T. G., 
l.each, H. H., - 
Learned, W. A., 
Littlehales, T., - 
Littleton, A. W., - 



Milwaukee, Wis. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
San Francisco, Cal. 
Wilmington, Del. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Terre Haute, Ind. 
Baltimore, M. D. 
Savannah, (la. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Ogdensburg, N. Y. 
Jersey City, N. J. 
New York City. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Chicago, 111. 
Montgomery, Ala. 
Lynn, Mass. 
Pittsburg, Pa. 
Quebec, Can. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Boston, Mass. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Norwalk, Conn. 
Hartford, Conn. 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Augusta, Ga. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Lawrence, Mass. 
Washington, D. C. 
Taunton, Mass. 
Newton, Mass. 
Hamilton, Ont. 
Quincy, 111. 




229 



Z., ' - - Brooklyn, N, Y. 

, - - - - Baltimore, Md* 

, A. J., " - Philadelphia, Pa. 

CIO, J-, - - - Allegheny, Pa. 

U W., - - * Albany, N, Y, 

J. H., - - - PittKbiirgh. Pa. 

^% J., - ' - Philadelphia, Pa. 

E,, - - - Cokimbus, O. 

/. N., - - - New York City, 

[C. M., - * - Sl Joseph, Mn, 

»Vm., - - - New York City. 

W. H., - - - Pontiac, Mich. 

, ' - - Jersey City, N. J. 

*., - . - Fall River, Mass. 

IC., - - - Philadelphia, Pa. 

J., - - - Kansas City, Mo. 

J., - - - Des Moines, la. 

C. F., - - - Lynn, Mass. 

>., - - - Nashville, Tenn. 

K., - - - Newport, R. I. 

G. G., - - Vincennes, Ind, 

v., . - . Springfield, III. 

T., - - - Connersville, Ind. 

M., - - - Jersey City, N. J. 

K R., - - - St. Louis, Mo. 

F., - - - Montreal, Can. 

'. H., - - - Philadelphia, Pa. 

N., . . - Albany, N.*Y. 

B., - - - Providence, R. I. 

B., Jr., - - - Providence, R. I. 

1, J. B., - - Baltimore, Md. 

, - - - - Wilkesbarre, Pa. 

H., - - - Holyoke, Mass. 

J, J., - - - Indianapolis, Ind. 

B., - - - New Bedford, Mass. 

H., - - - Warren, O. 

. R., - . - - New York City. 

., - - - - Charleston, S. C. 

3l, E., - - Newark, N. J. 




Weber, O. B„ ^ 
Williams, E. IL, - 

Young, l\, * 

Ass0€iaif Mfmher, 
Barrows, W. E„ Phila., Pa. 

At lliis point Vice-Preside in Harliisun took the chair, an 
President McMilliii read the following addrc^^s: 

PRESIDKNT'S ADDRESS. 
Mtwbers of Amerkan Gas IJj^/ff Assoriation: 

Gentlemen — With hcariy jLiout! will and fellowship I address 
you lO'day, glad to find that, though surrounded with unfamiliar 
scenes, there are yet many familiar faces here. 

\\ c have nut fur the twofold purpose of profit and pleasu 
That we will receive both in full measure is scarcely to 
donhtcfl. We will counsel irigcther u[ion subjects of deep ini 
port to our fraternity. In tniion there is strength; we may, 
ihervrorc, hope that under the hroad light of discussion some 
truths will stantl revealed^ and some errors vanish like mist be- 
fore I lie sun. 

Though these meetings have !)een held regularly for nearly 
score of years, we still find wt^rk to do, and willing hanib to do 
it. Old ([uestions, beheved to have been inlelligenlly solved in 
former years, present ihcn^selvcs anew, clothed in another garb, 
inciting pluises of thought probably not dreamed of a decade 
ago. 

With the array of talent that has knidly consented to address 
us on topics of interest, this must almost of necessity be a 
profitable meeting. Should it be otherwise, the result will be 
due to an absence of interest on the part of members, or a lack 
of ability in the presiding officer to conduct the proceedings tn 
a manner leoiling to expeditious and connected discussion. 

Vou will have presented to you papers upon the following 
subjects; 



b^ 



M 



231 



The Extension ot tite Use of (ias for Purposes other il 
Illumination/' by E, G, Fratl. 

**The Mismanagement of Gas Works," by E, Cn Cowtlery. 

"Gas Coals of the United States/* by H. C. Adams. 

'^The Practical Efficiency of an Illuminating Wattfr Gas Set- 
ting/' by A- G. Glasgow. 

•vbiclined Retorts/' by Frederic Egner. 

"The Gas Engineer and his Pencil/* by F. H. Shelton. 

'^Suggestions of Methods and Systems for Recording the 
Histories and Accounts of Gas Light Companies/' by Wm, P. 
Fndeli, 

"Purification of Gas/* by A. E, Forstall. 

'*The Undertaking of Electric Lighting by Small Gas Com- 
[>anics/' by A. E* ISoardman, 

"The Pinlsch System/' by Robert M. Dixon, 

It is to be regretted that the Council failed to obtain a paper 

"pon a subject which, to my mind, will in the near future be 

<iTJc of great interest to our fraternity. 1 refer to the question 

of municipal control of lighting. From this direction danger 

. to the lighting industry looms up portentously. 

That much may be said in favor of municipal control of 
lighting cannot be denied by dispassionate and unprejutliced 
investigators; but that much greater reasons can be urged 
against it, I verily believe. Nothing can well be said in favor 
of municipal control of lighting that might not with almost 
tqual force be applied to municipal control of street railways 
^d telephones. The municipality is not a patron of either the 
street railway or the lek'[>hone to the same extent that it is of 
lighting companies; but if control is to be assumed upon the 
gryuiui that the public streets are to be occupied, theti the argu- 
tuent must apply w\ih much greater force to railways than to 
gas companies. 

Again, if the idea is to assume municipal control because of 
the quasi-public character of the business, and for the reason 
that so great a percentage of the citizens of the municipality 
are indirectly interested, then the application can be made with 
]?rcater force to railways than to gas conijianies. 

\Vrir# iv w\\Q have taken the aliirmative si tie of the tpifsiiun 



232 

base their argument on the assumption that in a business that 
must be practically a monopoly, it is best that the municipality 
conduct it, in order, not that the work will be better done, but 
that the people may be served at a less cost. Does experience 
warrant the assumption that monopolists, as the term is applied 
to lighting companies, charge more for their salable wares than 
is charged in lines of business where competition, so-called, ex- 
ists? 1 think it does not. 

That competition exists amongst manufacturers and jobbers, 
will not be questioned, but that conij^etition in prices exists to 
any marked extent in the sale of goods generally to consumers 
in cities may be seriously questioned. Grocers of towns and 
smaller cities have their uniform price for certain brands of 
flour, coffee, sugar, canned fruits, etc. The retail iron mer- 
chants have their card of prices from which they seldom vary, 
and bakers in almost every city have a uniform price for a defi- 
nite weight of bread, and the same rule applies to the dealing 
in most all commodities. 

But the Nationalist may say that the absence of monopolistic 
privileges tends greatly to reduce prices in these lines, and that 
the public derives benefit in that way. Is this true? 

l^o retailers of dry goods, boots and shoes, or even the oper- 
ators in the lines above named, receive a less return on the 
money invested than do gas, electric or street railway compa- 
nies? I venture the assertion that double the percentage of 
profit on investment is made in the very lines of business that 
are supposed to be in strongest competition, (ias and electric 
companies of Massachusetts paid 5 per cent, last year, and 
earned 7.1 per cent, on a capital representing less than the actual 
cash investment. 

Again, does experience warrant the assumption that munici- 
palities will, or can, sell to the public at lower prices than do 
incorporated companies operating under municipal franchises? 
The preponderance of evidence is very largely against that 
assumption. One of the ablest and also one of the fairest arti- 
cles, written upon the affirmative side of this subject, that has 
come under my notice, is from the pen of a St. Louis citizen, and 
was published in the Noven^ber, i8^^9, number of the Forum. 

I believe the writer niakes no pretentions to any practical 



knowletlge of the gas industry. Hut he is a gentleman of keen 
distcrnmeni, a forceful writer, of unqucsiioned fairness, and a 
Nalinnalisl from principle. Mistakes that are made are due, I 
believe, to lack of an intimate knowledge of the business, and 
not from a desire to misrepresent. In the Forum article refer- 
ence is made to results obtained in the eight gas works in the 
United States owned by municipalitit*s, and those results are 
accepted by the author as pmof that gas works ought to be 
Controlled by municipalities. Had the writer been an experi- 
enced gas manager he probably wtmhl have accepted the results 
as allording positive proof that municipalities should not con- 
trol gas works. 

Some of the named works arc quite small, and it has not been 
possible for me to obtain the re|ii>rts of their superintendents. 
Bui reports can be bad from two of the largest — Philadelphia 
And Richmond — ^and I have accepted the Forum figures respect- 
ing Wheeling and other smaller places. 

Philadelphia has now (and for aught I know) has always had 
•Tiielligent management. While selling gas at a price much 
al)ovc the prices of some other cities similarly conditioned, it 
has but recently shown a profit at all commensurate with the 
nJagniiude' of the business tlone. During the last fiscal year, 
aitcr purchasing nearly one-third of its gas from a private cor- 
pf^rabon at 37 cents per i^ooo feet, it is able to shi>w for the 
year a profit much smaller than would have been made by a prt- 
vale company manufacturing all its gas. On the gas purchased 
^ saving of more than $200,000 was made, That is, it cost 
^^n,5oo less money to purchase from a private ctmipany 900,- 
^^.000 feel of gas than it would have cost the city to make 
^liftl quantity. If a private company owned those works it 
<^ould, and probably would, sell gas at ^1.25 per 1,000 feet, and 
^am more than 6 per cent, on a capital of ^525,000,000, 

At Philadelphia coal should cost 20 per cent, less than in Bos- 
^^n; a private corporation in the latter city, selling less than 
naif the g'jks that is sold in Philadelphia, charges from $1 to 
*'-3o per 1. 000 feet, the average being abuut $1,25, or nearly 
^0 per cent- less than the price charged in Philailelphia (J$i.5o), 
>'ctthe Boston company paid 10 per cent, dividends on the par 
value of its capital stock last year. It is fair, however, ti> stale 




that the capita) stock does nol correctly represent all of the 
money invested. Hie total quantity of gas sold in the State of 
Massachusetts last year, in villaijcs, towns and cities, was sold 
at an average price that was less than gas is sold for in Philadcl- 
phia, and this, too, notwithstanding the greatly increased cost 
of coal in Massachusetts, and the additional disadvantage that 
the total of 75 different companies sold but little more gas than 
was sold in i'hikulelphia by the municipality. ApolngisLs for 
the condition of affairs existing in the Quaker City say that it ts 
an exceptional rase, and that other departments of public ser- 
vice there are also managed extravagantly. I neither admit 
the implied charge, nor do 1 see the force of that argument* 

But let us turn to Richmond, Va,, where conditions are be- 
lieved to he at least normal, and 'the management also intelli- 
gent, Riclvmond sells gas at a price (^1.50) 50 j)er cent, above 
that charged in another capital city located but little farther 
from gas coal fields. (Jiving Richniund the benefit of $1 per 
1,000 feet for gas now acttnilly furnished free for city use, the 
profits in the business are then less than the jjrofits to stock- 
holders of the company with which I have compared it, notwith- 
standing the fact noted above that Richmond taxes its patrons 
50 per cent, more for its gas than does the private company. 

Wheeling may fairly be taken as a case in point which demon- 
strates the advantage of nui nici[>al control. There gas is sold 
at 75 cents per 1,000 feet. Vet even that will not be a striking 
instance, when the conditions are analyzed. 

Coal at Wheeling costs (less amount received- for residuals) 
but 4.5 cents per 1,000 feet of gas; it will, therefore, be readily 
seen that there are other works in the country controlled by 
private companies who sell their gas at as low figures as does 
Wheeling,//^/.? additional cost of coal. In the article referred 
to it is asserted that did the Wheeling works belong to a private 
company gas would now be selling at $1.50. The best reply to 
this is to note the fact that the Pittsburgh Gas Company, simi- 
larly located, sold gas at %\ per j,ooo feet^ long before Wheeling 
did, and that another capital city of about the same population 
as Richmond, making about the same quantity of gas, and 
located 250 miles from the giis coal field, sells gas for ^1. 

If it is a fact that the municipal governments generally secure 




intelH^m management fur their gas works, then why is it that 
the net results are not as good as those of private companies? 
There arc two or three reasons for this, all, however, being 
based in a greater or less degree on the fact that the municipal 
works arc under political domination. The Forum article lays 
great stress (and properly too, though important items of ex- 
|)rnse were omitted) on the figures given by our deceased Past- 
fVesideat, Thco. Forstall, in his annual address in 1883; yet in 
that address Mr. Forstall put tlie cost t>f labor for gas in holder 
at 15 cents per 1,000 feet, while the cost, as nearly as may be 
ascertained, is at Philadelphia, 31 cents; Richmond. 50 cents; 
Banville, ^5.8 cents; Alexandria, 34 ^rents; Charlottesville, 34 
cent^: Wheeling, 26 cents; Bellerotitainc, 32,8 cents; Hender- 
son, 23.8 cents. For the total gas made, the cost of wages is 
more than roo per cent, above the estimated figure of cost 
made by the gentleman on whose statements are based many 
of the condusicins in the Forum article. 

Probably in no other one item would the baneful influence of 
politics be so strikingly exemplified as in that of labor. Not- 
«fiihstanding the present high cost of labor at the works of one 
^S the municipalities named, the item appears to be low under 
ilic present regime, compared with that of former years. I 
t[iJtiie from the very interesting report of the chief officer. He 
says, speaking of the condition in the Spring of J887: '*Thc 
tnen numbered 2»257, and the cost of skilled and unskilled 
labor, especially the latter, was startling. The maniifacturmg 
capacity was insufficient to meet the demand at the period of 
grtalest consumption, and the pipes and mains were totally in- 
JWlejliMle to distribute ihtr gas made. In fact the works were 
*bon of cvciy thing but men/* 

Workmen are voters, and in municipal works they are often 
tnorc than that, they are political workers, and mxist be taken 
^rc of, and the gas works managers are impotent to control the 
s'JCof the pay roll, and did they attempt it, doubtless their em- 
ployment by the city would soon be a thing of the past. 

It i^ asserted that while go per cent, of the water works of 
1^*^ country are under municipal control, there is not an instance 
on record of political corru[)tion. 'V\\^ a.sscrtion is not based 
<>o fact, but if it were, gas interests in general, unikr private 



rrr 




management^ may readily submit to a comparison with 
works under nmnicipai control. *X\\t average price charged 
gas now in the United Stales is not 50 per cent» wi the 
charged 2(1 years ago, while it is safe to say there has been 
practically no re*hirtion in the average price charjE^ed for water 
during tlic same period. The customary charge for water in 
residences is 20 cents per 1,000 gallons; 20 cents muliipUed by 
7,5 gallons etpials 5^1.50 per j,ooo feet, or actually a higher price 
th,in is chargetl in ni(»st large cities for gas. 

Much is made of the fact that with lighting companies tmderl 
municipal control, the street lighting practically costs nothing. 

A more unfair prat t ice than the une that makes the assertion 
virtually true, would he hard to conceive. The private patrons 
of the works, generally much less than half of the population* 
are by this practice made to pay not only their own gas bills, 
but also the entire cost of street lighting and the lighting of * 
public buildings. 

The prciiii'tion is now made that the policy inaugurated by 
l*hiladelphja, that of buying gas from manufacturing stations 
and distributing through municipal mains, it^tH become contagioui. 
It will be a<lvoiivtfd by Nationalists and communists generally. 
In this way duplication of mains will be avoided, while compe- 
tition may be had in manufacture. What ahan-est this will fur- 
nish fur the patentees of ** cheap processes!" 

That conununilies are occasionally im[>osed upon by lighting 
compvinics cannot be truthfully denied. That gas companies 
are often put to enormous expense to maintain their rights is a 
fad familiar to us all. What plan can be suggested tending to 
fairer tlealing in the future? There are three plans or modes of 
protection thai suggest themselves. First: That of having a 
State gas coiuuiission, as in Massachusetts. The trial of that 
plan has proven eminently successful. Second: Statutory con- 
trol, with provisions limiting dividends, but allowing increased 
dividends on reduction of pricx» thus giving the public an op- 
portunity to profa by new and improved processes. This is 
praclicjilly the pUn practiced in England, and which practice 
has contnbuleil largely to give g^^ to the English public at 
about halt the price |>aid elsewhere. 1 his has not teuiled to 
bciielil electric conapanictv Thinl: The i>hto plan which gives 




to rrly councils the right to fix the price of gas. The Supreme 
Court of Ohio has in two instances decided that law to be con- 
slit ulional; but It has also said that the price fixed shall be a 
reasonable one. The United States Courts have decided in 
siitailar cases that prices thus established shall not only be rca- 
sonable* but that the question of reasonableness must be ju- 
dicially ascertained. 

The Ohio plan is weak in this, that it does not specifically 
guarantee freedom from the raids of so-called competitive ct>nri- 
panies. But while the law Is thus defective by omission in its 
wording, the practical effect has been to virtually exclude would- 
be competitive companies from Ohio cities. It may be safely 
asserted that any plan adopted for the benetit of the people 
which does not proliibit the duplication of gas mains must ulti- 
mately fail of its object, 

A few years ago there were strifes existing between various 
systems of gas making; coal gas men were solidly arrayed 
against water gas advocates. To-day there are few large cities 
in the country but what are supplied, at least in part, with 
irater gas. Indeed, it may well be an open question whether 
iKf. annual production of coal gas in the United States is now 
AS large as the production of water gas. 

There are no longer men who pride themselves that they are 
—under any and all circumstances — strictly coal gas, or strictly 
water gas engineers. They are gas engineers. Possibly a few 
years hence they will be iighi engineers. The wcjrld moves and 
llie members of our Association do not lag behind. 

While there may be companies making water gas that might 
with advantage to their stockholders have continued to make 
coal gas, 3'et, on the whole, it will be admitted that if no water 
gas was made in this country at the present lime, we would all 
be deriving 5 to 10 cents less on the 1,000 feet of gas made for 
^^"r residuals than we are now obtaining: ,\ngels are some- 
hmes entertained unawares even in modern times. 

There is one branch of the gas industry that does not seem to 
^t making rapid progress, the much aljuscd and much praised 
fuel gas. The question as to whether it is to become a factor 
«f importance in our business is apparently almost as far from 
^ting solved to-day, as when we met a year ago. A few more 



S88 



daring spirit* have ined and are trytof iL Tfie btt^t umprt 
blast corner from Boston* Jackson, Micli^ coatsmii^ to make 

it, and pra* * he same parties I believe, hxwc receotJjr 

commenced ^ u;. at Hjdc Park, Chicago. The effort at 

Akrufi, O^ in repoited to haTe prospects ol final soccesa. Fo^ 

«^i1*[y many * tried and are tiring it on a small 

"^r^ik*. Not I :tient can t>e drawn from these scat- 

tering attempts after the promises of success that have bees 
herulded li road cast for three or four years. 

On the other hiind^ 1 know of no orcnrrence that should be 
regarded ^n cftpccially discouraging. On the whoVe. we majr 
conclude that «>ome advance has been made: quite as much, 
l^erhapM, as was made duritig the first three years in the history 
of water ga*( makin}>, or iluring a similar period in the history 
of rncancle*»reiit electric lighting. 

Theoretically, it can be clearly shown that fuel gas cannot be 
made l)y any known process so cheaply as to be able to com- 
pete wjlh cciul for domestic use. But this does not stgnify much, 
after alL There are cities in the country where soft coal can 
be bi»d for ^1,50 to iSa per kui; and yet, in these same citie^i, 
many thousands of tons of anthracite coal are annually sold at 
$6.50 to $8 per tttn. Why? Because it is a cleanly fuel. Will 
Ut)t the same rule hokl ^ockI as to gas fuel? 

But tlif water j;as atlvot ate says producer gas will not do for 
fuel. Ir is loo heavy to transport, aiul it is very low in heat 
uitilfc, anil the llaiiie is so easily extinguished as to make the gas 
ilangerous lo use. The producer gas man's reply should be, 
** Well, water gas man, go on and sell ytnir non-illuminating fuel 
water ijas, if you want to; I will not disturb you, nor try lo 
compel you lo use even a mi-vture of producer gas/' 

The coal ga» advocate not only endorses all that the water 
gas man say* about producer y:as, but he will exhibit an array 
of Ugurcs, that to liis mind, should convince any sane man that 
fuel water gas. owing to its low calorific value, must, of neccs- 
Mty. be very mucli dearer for the potir consumer to use than 
would be plain 17 eandic coal gaa i)f course he does nut for- 
get lo bring oui all the expert testimony showing the absolutely 
puiiionou!! |>rupcrtieji of water ^as. 

Both the producer gas and water gas advocates will tell the 



thai while his product is all ri^ht» his prices must 
be such that after the consumer hus paid for warmiug his prem- 
ises with coal gas during the month of December, the said cou- 
!iumcr would be g\iu\ to inhale a little carbon monoxide as an 
anaesthetic; that indeed the dose would need to be quite largt? 
to restore the nervous system to its normal placidity. 

Now, if each and every one of us would devote more of our 
lime and energy to reilucing lo a commercial commodity our 
own ideas, and less of our time trying to convince the world 
that our confreres arc wrong, I believe that when we assemble 
a year hence the doubt that now hedges about the fuel gas 
question will have been dispelled, and it will be pronounced a 
failure, or admitted to possess the elements of future success. 

Unless a// be failures, some one of the processes or systems 
will be better than the others. Both fame and fortune will 
reward the successful inventor, therefore it is not wise to waste 
tmr lime trying to convince others that they are on the wrong 
road. Let ihcm alone! Their mistakes tend to increase our 
chances of success. 

The twin industry, electric lighting, has, during the last year, 
been making strides unparalleled. Its progress since the first 
light was commercially used is almost beyond conceptton. Like 
water gas, this industry was first received by the members of 
our Association as a subtle enemy of the gas business. Now it 
i!>s;ud that more than 300 gas companies emjjioy it^some with 
the result of increasing their dividends, while others are appar- 
ently using it as an agency for disbursing surplus. 

Ati authority asscried*a year ago that thtfre were then 300,000 
arc and 3,000,000 incandescent lights in the United States. 
There must be many more now. When we remember that 20 
years ago there was not an electric light commercially used in 
all the world, we may well be amazed at the progress made. 

I need not tell you that twt ail of this wonderful success has 
l>t'cn due lo the real merits of electric lighting. Part is due to 
Hicrit, part to the charm that attaches itself to anything new, 
liUl a greater part to intelligent promotion, energetic and scien- 
tific management, and to astonishing liberality. Officers of 
many gas companies might with profit sit at the feet of some 
c managers and gather crumbs of wisdom. 




Possibly ill the not far distant future your Council will recom- 
mend lu the Association an amenilment to the constiiution. 
The amendment will strike out the word ♦•Gas" in the name of 
the Association, or suggest the alternativ^c proposition to add 
the words, "and electric." 

How to popularize gas lighting, is as live a question to-day 
iis it was JO years ago. ('onsumers continue to discredit the 
meter, and too often also the meter reader, and not seldom the 
whole office force, it is not uncommon to hear a man say that 
while electric lights may cost him more than gas, he has the sat- 
isf action of knowing beforehand just what he has to pay for his 
light, while with gas, he says, it is always the unexpected that is 
happening. Errors in reading do sometimes occur^ yet, we all 
know that, taken one month with another, the consumer pays 
only for the gas that is consumed on his premises. But he feels 
that he is at the mercy of the gas company, and, knowing the 
weakness of human nature, he concludes that he is occasionally 
taxed for more gas than he has used. 

As gas company officers and clerks cannot ever hope to en- 
tirely disabuse the average consumer's mind of his erroneous 
ideas respecting the mea-surement of gas, it behooves us to try 
in other ways to please our patrons. Too often sufficient per* 
sonal attention is not accorded a consumer. I have many times 
seen a consumer approach the pay window of a gas company's 
counter to pay a bill, wait there for two or three minutes, and, 
receiving no attention, move to another window, only to wait 
two or three minutes more. Hy this time he begins to feel pro- 
voked, and perhaps concludes to go to his office and let the gas 
company collector come there for his money, possibly saying to 
himself, *' If I cannot be wailed on when I have taken the 
trouble to come to the gas office, they will have to do as I have 
to do with my accounts— send after them/' 

Of course instances of this character occur only when clerks 
are busily engaged at other work, but no other work should 
ever stand in the way of giving a customer immediate atten- 
tion, even though his visit may be to find fault instead of io 
pay a bill. 

It is not an uncommon sight in the offices of large gas com- 
panies to see consumers formed in a line in order to secure 



241 



window, and this» too, when perhaps 
there are several other pay windows with no clerks in attend- 
ance. It is unwise to permit this* One may good naturedly 
gel into line with a dozen others before him, if he is after a 
ticket to the opera; he then does it of choice, and for his con- 
templated pleasure. Rut in a gas office he will feel that he is 
being inconvenienced, and possibly iiumiliatcd, wholly for the 
gas company's benefit* 

Some large companies have introduced the practice of hav- 
ing a number of sub-offices or pay stations scattered through- 
out the city, these offices being controlled by some express 
company. The practire is popular with consumers, 

In cities of 100,000 to 500,000 inhabitants there mi\y well be 
\o to 40 pay statitjns. The gas bills are delivered by mail or 
by hand to the consumer's residence or office. Before the ex- 
piration of the discount period — if one is allowed— the* con- 
sumer steps to the nearest pay station, generally a drug store, 
and pays the gas bill. He has saved one or two street car 
litres and perhaps an hour's time ; he has attended to the mat- 
icT at his leisure, generally after usual business hours. For 
this convenience he pays the agent 5 cents on bills of ^5 and 
under, and 8 cents on bills over $3. The next day the agent 
turns over the gas collectitms and half the commission to the 
ss c(»mpany. For ///> trouble he retains one-half the com- 
• '11 and probably makes a sale to the gas consumer befi^re 
ht leaves the store. The express company receives as com- 
pensation for its trciuble and responsibility half the commission, 
.uid largely increases its express business proper by having 
ihesc convenient stations for receiving parcel packages. 

While it is both right and politic to tin all we can consi>L- 
ciitly to keep our patrons satistk'd, it is also important, not 
'*"!) fnim a financial standpoint, but from a humanitarian view, 
that we endeavor to render pleasant the condition of our em- 
ployes, especially those engaged in and about the generating 
plant. The life of a gas maker is a dreary one at best, and a 
link attention on the part of the company to his ]>crsonal com- 
ff'fU will generally be appreciated. Reading rooms, card 
rooms, bath rooms, a hall in which to hold meetings, and 
u 




where the younger element may occasionally enjoy an evening 
dance, may be safely considered a good investment, Tfy it. 

Raiders are still abroad in the land. The men with pro- 
cesses that can make gas for almost nothing, and still have a 
valuable residual, do not seem to despair in their efforts to get 
a standing in cities already well supplied. If they were only 
modest enough to go to* small towns not now supplied with 
gas, and demonstrate the value of the process there, they 
would merit the evcrlastmg gratitude of existing companies. 
Until statutes of the several States have made raiding impossi- 
ble, the consumer will not be able to purchase gas at the 
possible minimum price. 

In Association matters, I am pleased to report a continued 
growth in membership. The active members now number 340; 
the associalf niLiidji-rs 15; honorary numbrrs 5; t<»tal member- 
ship 360, 

While the mtiidiership is increasing satisfactorily, the unpaid 
dues are also increasing tt) an alarming extent. Personally, I 
had supposed that members failed to pay simply through 
neglect or forget fulness; but the Secretary informs me that 90 
per cent, of sight drafts made on members (who had previous 
notice that tbe drafts would be madt) were returned unpaid. 
The dues are certainly not so largt as to be burdensome, and 
yet in the aggregate the unpaid dues make a total sum that is 
indispensable to the Associatifui. May we not hope that mem- 
bers will give heed ti> this appeal, and promptly remit to the 
Secretary ? 

The American Association for nearly a score of years has 
been almost annually tbe recipient of hospitality at the hands 
of gas companies, and from our friends engiiged in business 
kindred to that of our own. In nearly all the large cities in 
the country we have been royally entertained; several of the 
cities have so contributed to our enjoyment on two or more 
occasions. It has doubtless been a pleasure to the donors to 
thus contribute, and the courtesies have been greatly appre- 
ciated by the attending members. But may I not ask, without 
being misunderstond, if the time has not almost arrived when 
the tender of a banquet may be declined with propriety, and 
without giving offense ? 




243 



earnestly 5ag^e§t~tliat action be taken at this mectir_ 
iookftig to the ulnmdonment of free l>anquets, and tluit tUe 
rule of having each member pay for his seat at the banquet 
board be inaugurated at our next meeting, the Association pay* 
ing only fur invited guests. 

The question of when the term of newly elected officers of 
the Association shall begin and when terminate, is one that at 
some future date may be of importance, and 1 respectfully sug- 
gest that the question should be finally determined during this 
meeting. 

The constitution provides that officers shall be elected an- 
nualty, and that they shall assume (/flice immediately after the 
meeting at which they have been elected. That is not quite 
clear. What constitutes the meeting referred to? The consti- 
lutit)n says that the annual meeting shall be held on the third 
Wednesday of October, It does not provide for a three days* 
session, but no one would question the right of the Association 
to continue the meeting by adjournment from day to day; and 
if this is admitted, then it has the same right to adjourn from 
week to week and month to month. If this be true, and the 
me^tin^ continues until an adjournment witlunit day is taken, 
the officers elect might be kept out of office until the next 
annual meeting. Of course, such a proceeding is not likely to 
nccur. The question can be definitely settled by the Associa- 
tion adopting a resolution in substance as follows : 

** Rfsifhed, That it is the sense of the Association that under 
the provisions of the constitution the officers elect should 
enter upon the discharge of their respective duties on the 
Saturday succeeding the third Wednesday in October of each 
year." 

It has been the practice to have the old officers hold over 
during tlic three days of assembly. This seems proper enough, 
bat if a sine tHe adjournment is had on the evening of the 
second day, then for the officers to hold over on the third day 
would seem to be an infracticm of the constitutional rule, a 
rule in this instance more honored in the breach than in the 
observance, 

Thirt- IS rnniM Imwfvt r, !(» t[ueslion the propriety of the old 



244 

officers holding their positions after adjournment on the day ikat 
formal announcement has been made of the result of annual election. 

But whether or not this construction of the constitution is a 
fair one, it is quite clear that the Association may by resolu- 
tion declare that construction to be the intent of the wording 
of the constitution and the desire of the Association. I, there- 
fore, suggest to you that a little spice might be added to our 
proceeding by making this the practice. The officers are 
elected on the first day. The president-elect can prepare a 
short address during the evening and assume the chair on the 
following morning. This gives him an opportunity to deliver 
his inaugural at the beginning, instead of, as by the anomalous 
practice now in vogue, delivering an inaugural at the close of 
his term. Of course, this same officer would submit a message 
at the succeeding annual meeting. 

Should this view of the question meet your approbation 1 
suggest that the following preamble and resolution be adopted: 

*' Whereas, The constitution provides that the annual meet- 
ing of the Association at which officers are to be elected shall 
be held on the third Wednesday of October of each year; and 
wfureas, The constitution also provides that the officers-elect 
shall assume office immediately after the meeting at which 
they have been elected, now, therefore, be it 

" Resolved, That it is the sense of the Association that the 
election of officers shall occur on the third Wednescfay in Octo- 
ber of each year, and that the officers-elect shall assume office 
the morning of the day succeeding their election." 

1 feel I may with propriety recommenti this change in our 
practice as it tends to curtail my term of office if it is adopted. 

We may expect at this meeting a preliminary report from 
the Committee on the World's Fair. In this connection I re- 
spectfully submit to your consideration whether — not only our 
Council, but also our sister Associations, may not have erred, 
if I may be pardoned the word, in the composition of their 
committees. 

I believe all the Associations, except the Ohio, have associate 
members, and I fear that class has not received adequate rec- 
ognition on the committee. If a mistake has been made, we all 



H is the result of oversight, and not intentional. It is 

l»tfiil if 20 persons eligible under uur present constitution 

[active membership, will make any sort of an exhibit at the 

It expOHilion. Is it not eminently proper, then, that the 

of membership that is expected to make the diisplay 

aid in a very large measure dominate the committee of ar- 

gfcmcnts ? I suggest that at least a large representation on 

^committee should be offered to associate members, and to 

pre members who arc engaged in manufacturing gas ap- 

, feci tl a duty incumbent, though by no means a pleasant 

to warn the Association that there is possible danger 

ad, and that it will retpiire caulion and nerve to [irevent us 

tiog a debt in connection with the VV^irld's Fair exhibit that 

embarrass the Association for years to come. As the 

imitlcc is now constituted, we all know that no money will 

[expended injudiciously, but if the Association should order 

no debts be incurred for which the Council has not made 

^ »p[)roprian<^in, and that the Council be instructed to make 

I appropriation for which the money is not at the time in the 

&siiry, it would be an additional safeguard, and could do ncj 

sible harm. 

Jever before in the history of the Association has death 
Ic SQch inroads in the list of mir membership. Nor have 
Jevcr before in any year had lo chronicle the death of so 
ay who Were eminent in our profession. In the order of 
imc : 

tdward J. King, died October 28th, 18^9; Oliver E, Cushing, 
|uary 17th, 1890; 'I'heoliald Forstall, January 19th, 1890; 
liam Parrish, January 19th, 1890; Walter B. Houston, April 

1890; James Henri Rollins, June 19th, 1890; General 

rics Roorae, June 28th, 1S90, 

our living membership could seven names be selected of 

Hims who, taken all in all, have done more to influence the 

r«» ami mould the character of the American gas engineer 

>*day, than did the departed friends whose names consti- 

ihiJi sad list ? P;ist- Presidents of the American Associa- 

Piasl- Presidents of sister Associations, men eminent for 



246 

their engineering talent, for their scientific acumen, some of 
them distinguished for their long years of faithful and success- 
ful service. All honored for their personal worth, their integ- 
rity and high sense of honor, and for their social amenities. 
They are gone, but their example remains. To their friends 
they are dead, but to the profession the influence of their lives 
is yet a living reality. 

To the members who have kindly prepared papers to be 
read at this meeting, I tender my sincere thanks. 

For the distinguished honor of having been called to preside 
over the affairs of the Association I feel deeply grateful. 

Committee on President's Address. 

The Chairman — Gentlemen of the Association, you will 
agree with me, we have been permitted to listen to words of 
wisdom as written out in the address of our President. What 
is your pleasure with regard to this address ? 

On motion of Mr. Cowdery, the address was referred by the 
Chairman to a committee of seven for consideration and re- 
port. The gentlemen named on the Committee were Messrs. 
K. Ci. Cowdery, Oscar Weber, A. Ci. Glasgow, Isaac Ba.xter, D. 
H. Geggie. W. H. Baxter and G. S. Hookey. 

\Vrut>MiNr. CoMMissKWKR Barker. 

Thf Pkk>iim n 1 — I see tliat the Association has this morn- 
ing I lie b.iMior ot" the j>ro>cnce oi a member of the Massachu- 
setts State Ga^ I onini:s>i<»n. In your behalf I would invite 
Mr. ranker iv> wmuc ivMwarri and give us the honor of his pres- 
ence on the p'.ait'oriii. lie:.iienien oi the Association, I take 
pleaM'.ie in '.p.ii vh'.v.v "nc t.» you Mr. Barker, of the Mas.sachu- 
>etls lia> l\^iv.!'.:.>>.or.. w :uMn ir.ar.y oi you, and indeed all of 
u>, aiiwuiy kr.ow. 

M K. B V K k I K— .?/ i ' .*. • \: V .• V.;* Jf:ff:.\'rs of the Association: 
I vlul i^.v^: /.r.viv :^:.r c. ::...: t' :> \\.i> a part of the programme. 
I v-.ppv^vev". I :'/;;■/: >v 'v ' :v ru v'. !:ke the Past-Presidents of 
I'u A^>vH a:.v^'^ .v^-- > \, : • :..kt .. >^a: upon the platft>rm, and 
r.v ; tv .is'v*. vi iv :,.ke ; / >.;.:•-. \\::h anything like an ad- 
d;c». I '.v.ax. lunvcxv:. :';\i:*k :>.;. Chairman for the courteous 



247 

i«rords of invitation fie lias been pleased to tender lu me in my 
official capacity. I am especially i^aieful fur the very cordial 
invitation which I had previously received to attend this meet- 
ing of the Association, The Board is under great obligations 
to the members of this Association for the very kind and cor- 
iiia.1 assi-stance which it has been tendered in the past ; and the 
very pleasant welccime which I have already received from 
the members uf this Association (from muny (if them indlvid- 
ually) at this reunion, indicates that they are still to conthiue 
lo assist us in our work, and t*> thtrrtby be of very substantial 
benefit to the various companies within our jurisdiction, I am 
aware^ Mr. Chairman, that there is a very interestinjy;:, and 
quite a large amount nf business to be transacted; 1 am inter- 
t^stcd in it myself; 1 know that the Association is here for 
business purposes; and the very large attendance which is 
here forbids abstilutely that I should occupy any more uf your 
bme, I thank you very cordially for your courtesy, and for 
your pleasant words, (Applause) 

REroRT OK Committee on Nominations. 

The Prf.sident — Is the Committee on Nominations ready 
to report ? If so, the Secretary will read the report of the 
committee. 

The Secretary read the following report: 

The Committee on Nominatifins beg to report that they 
*^€commend the following gentleman as officers for the ensuing 
year: 

Prtsiikni — John P. Harbison, Hariford» Conn. 

F/V*-./'r«iV/ir///j— Wm. H/White, New York; A, E, Boardman, 
Macon, Ga,; W. H. Pearson, Toronto, Canada. 

Secretary and Treasurer — C. J, R. Humphreys, LaWTence, 
Mass, 

Mtmbtrs &f Ci>undi — (Term expires 1892) — Charles H, Net- 
tlcton, Birmingham, Conn,; James Somerville. Indiana|>oIis, 
^nd,; A. W, Littleton. Quincv, 111.; Frederic Egner, St. Louis, 
Mo. 

For the Committee, 

I noMAS ruKNEK, Chairman, 



248 

ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 

On motion of Mr. Littlehalcs, the report was adopted, and 
the Secretary was instructed to cast the ballot of the Associa- 
tion in favor of the election of the nominees. Having reported 
to that effect, the following introductions and responses en- 
sued : 

The Prksident — Gentlemen, you have elected to preside 
over the meetings of the Association for the coming year 
(and, I h()j)e, commencing to-morrow morning at lo o'clock) 
my esteemed friend, Mr. Harbison, who will please come to 
the platform. It affords me a great deal of pleasure to intro- 
duce to you, Mr. Harbison, of Connecticut, and a sample of 
the noble yeomanry of New England. Many of you have not 
before seen him, but all have heard of him. I hope you will 
lend him the same assistance in his work for the coming year 
as you have to the present incumbent of the chair. (Applause.) 

Mr. Harhison — Mr President, gentlemen, brothers of the 
American Cias Light Association : — I feel deeply grateful for 
the honor conferred upon me, as I should. To be chosen the 
presiding olhcer of the American Gas Light Association is an 
honor to which any member ought to aspire. I know of no 
greater honor that can be put uj^on a man in our profession, in 
any i)art of the country, than to be called to preside over the 
deliberations of such a body of men as is before me. As I re- 
view the |)ast, and remember who have ()ccu])ied this honorahle 
position, I feci the resi)onsibilities which devolve upon me; 
and I accept the honor conferred with fear and trembling, 
knowing with what honor, grace, dignity and efficiency, the 
President's chair has been and is now fdled. I shall relv upon 
the cordial co-operation, hearty symjKithy, efficient and active 
service of every member, active, associate and honorary, of 
this Association, for the success of (uir gathering during the 
year to which we are looking forward; and I hope, as I shall 
earnestly strive, that when it shall be my pleasure and privi- 
lege to introduce my successor, 1 may have in some small de- 
gree, come up to your exinctations in the conduct of the 
business oi the year to which we are kH)king forward. Again, 
gentlemen, I thank you for the honor. (Applause.) 



THi Prfsidint — Ynii have elected for your Vice- Presi Jems 
William Henry White, of New York, A. E. Boardman, of 
Macon, and William H. Pearson, of Toronto. Captain White 
isnnt here, and I believe that Mr. Pearson is not here, There- 
iW Mr, Boardman will spealt for the other two as welJ as for 
himself. 

Mr. Boardman — It is a very unexpected pleasure that T 
have of addressing you In behalf of my brother officers as well 
as of myself. It is not often that I get a chance to say any- 
thing, and fur that reason I am more than grateful to ihe 
President for giving me this chance. You also will probably 
t)t very grateful that my remarks will be very brief. Having 
two associates in the Vice-President's chair^ 1 will give yoy the 
thanks of those gentlemen for the honor you have conferred 
upon them; and I hope, when, in their turn, it is necessary for 
ihcii) to conduct the business of the meetings, they will be 
i^bk to do it as gracefully as those who have and are presiding 
"ver them. Again I thank you for myself and for them. 

The President — For members of your (VRuiril you have 
dectfd Mr. C. H, Nettleton, whn is unfortunately absent, Mr. 
J^mt'S Somer^^ille, Mn A. W, Littleton (the honored Secretary 
"f the Western Association), and Mr, Frederic Egner. 

Mr. SoMERViLLK — Gentlemen, I thank ytiu very much fur 
^tang me t<» this honorable position. 1 will try to do my 

^Ir, Egner — Mr. President and gentlemen, I thank you for 
'he honor conferred. I cannot say very- much, because ever\'* 
thinjr hii^ been said by niy predecessors, and 1 hope, therefore, 
)'"u vtill excuse me. I trust, also, that I will do my duty, as 
"^^Somcrville has promised. I will try tu, anyway. 



Reading the Papers. 

^^rrent routine business having been disposed of, the Presi- 
^^ni introduced Mr. E. G. Cowdery, of Milwaukee, Wis., who 
^^^tl a paper entitled — 




THE MISMANAGEMENT OF GAS WORKS, 



There has recently been expressed some difference of opin- 
ion as to the cause of the wonderful success achieved within 
the past few years among gas companies. Formerly it was 
thought impossible to make gas as cheaply as il is now sold. 
Such advancement has been made, however, within a compara- 
tively short time, and right in the face of the advancement of 
electricity as a lighting agent, and right at a time when the out- 
side public expected to see us lose ground, if not become 
extinct altogether. Why is this so? How I»as il been accom- 
plished? This question has caused many to consider; and while 
some have given the credit of accomplishing such a result to 
good, sound, business management, others have considered thai 
our companies, if not our works, were not yet conducted upon 
such a basis. It would not be consistent in me to assert which 
of the above interpretations is right. Individually, I do not be- 
lieve the cause can be attributed wholly to good management. 
It has been very largely brought about by the condition of the 
times — fortunate conditions, which have given the business a 
lift in spite of itself. No doubt the advancement has been 
helped by business methods, which if not altogether good, have 
shown such a marked improvement over those immediately pre- 
ceding that they have seemed to many remarkably good. At 
the same lime there is no doubt but that the business and pro- 
gress in it is, and has been, greatly retarded by methods which 
are not sound in principle, but greatly speculative in their 
nature. 

In the management of our works great improvements have 
been achieved within the past few years, and at the present day, 
while there are very many things practiced by managers which 
are far from right, yet, among the majority, I believe, the man- 
agement IS good. Whether or not this summary of the situa- 
tion is correct, the argument of the question will call for a very 
complete analysis. My present effort will be devoted, not to 
making any positive argument upon either side of this question* 
but simply to open the subject by bringing to your notice such 
points of mismanagement as have come to my notice. It is to 
be hoped that this Association will feel such interest in this sub* 



251 



that it will take ?t up with the earnestness that has charac- 
^lerized it with other subjects which always developed a great 
deal of good, 

I do not mean to convey to you at the outset, that our methods 
arc all wrong at present; but that the combined thought and 
I efforts of this Association cannot help but cause a decided im- 
provcment in any line to which il devotes its attention. To 
criticise the management, as carried out in different places^ will 
lead to our selecting the best points developed, and, certainly, 
lo bellering our methods. It is quite difficult to make a dis- 
tvnclion between conducting the affairs of a gas company and 
those of a gas works, as they are ordinarily carried out. With 
a great many companies, and, I venture to say, with a majority, 
il would be hard to locale the responsibility for any mistakes; 
for such a responsibility is assumed in part by so many different 
officers^ and not at all by any of them. To accomplish any- 
iliftig there is but one right way, Tu manage the alTairs of any 
corporation there is but one right way, aud that is to have a 
head to it. Such head I assume to be the manager, and such 
manager would of course, manage all the affairs of the corpo- 
ration. With a gas company it is particularly so. Somebody 
luusl assume responsibilities which interweave themselves one 
withiii the other in such a manner that if divided between two 
'»r more parties, they can find so many opportunities to operate 
on*; agamst the other and shirk the responsibility that it would 
be difficult to obtain the best results. If the management place 
one man at the head of the works, another at the head of the 
street department, another at the head of the meter department, 
all without a practical man over them, each supreme in his own 
department, then who assumes the responsibility for leakage? 
Who assumes the responsibility of satisfying the consumer? 
Who is responsible for the financial success of the company? 
U is wiihiu the power of any one of the above departments to 
be very* detrimental to the success of the company, and in such 
away that it would be difficult to fix the responsibility. 

It seems llie proper way to overcome this difficulty and give 
ihc best management, to have at the head of the company a 
pracitcal man acting as manager, and to have such manager 
capable of assuming all responsibility, Ii may seem to some of 




you that the above comes rather more urnler the head of the, 
management of gas companies; but Ft is introduced into this 
article to show that the manager of a works having excliisiveiy 
the works to look after, cannot do justice to himself or the 
company, 

Agaioj the fixing, shaping, and following of the policy of 
management is one of the very important points needing our 
attention. It involves^ of course, the policy of the company; 
but it must also involve the policy to be carried out in the 
works. If such policy be a proper one, it will be that the pub- 
lic shall be served as the merchant serves his customer when 
seeking to make a name and a business, while engaged in ex- 
cessive competition. That is, they shall be served with the best 
possible article at the least possible cost. A gas company 
should follow this same principle, only making such profits Z9 
will return them a dividend on their capital such as the times 
will admit of or demand, 

1 do not mean, of course, that they shall do else than to lay 
aside a sufficient amount of surplus to cover depreciation. 

A company should have ever}thing that is right and fair for 
them to have; but everything in excess of this is due to the 
public to have the benefit of. 

A semi'public corporation, such as a gas company, owe thts 
much to the public, and when they honestly serve them under 
such a policy, they may look for public appreciation. In these 
days of corruption they w^ould be as sure to get it as the night 
is to come, and would be assured of a long and profitable life 
with a fair return upon their money always. How much better 
would such an investment be than one returning immense profits 
one year and little or none for several years following. 

It has been mentioned above that the true policy is to furnish 
the best possible article. It is but recently that managers have 
come to realize that because a i6-candle power gas was consid* 
ered good at one time, it could not always be so considered. It 
is quite true that among gas engineers there lurks a tendency to 
slick to existing and well known methods. It may not be more 
so than among others in other lines of business, but it is notice- 
able in our line. While the man should not be too enthusiastic 
over any new idea which his conser^*ativc judgment considers to 



258 



merit tie <ihoiim give such new idea due consideratiun. If 
Ihe public pronounce the incandescent electric light superior to 
gas light, what is the use of devoting our every effort to argu- 
ing thern out of it; better devote our efforts to making the gas 
light of such t|uality that they cannot help but iiee the differ- 



Within the past 15 years, gas companies have realized the 
I necessity of reducing the cost of light to the consumer; they 
^hive, consequently, realized the necessity of studying economy, 
and have kept up a continual warfare against careless and ex- 
travagant methods until they have accomplished wonders. 

The cost IS now where they can afford to, and the tinies de- 
mand that they shall, supply a better light, 
Let theai now apply their energies in this direction. 
The best managed companies to-day are those that supply 
ihcir works with such apparatus as will produce the very best 
atiil strongest light. The days of i6-candle power gas are 
rapidly going by, and he that quickest makes up his mind to 
this will profit most by so doing. 

We shall find plenty of opportunities to criticize the manage- 
ment of the works more directly as we enter the works. 

What kind of management would you call it where the re- 
sponsible officer cannot tell you the cost of his gas in detail? 
Where, because some item costs more than his neighbor, he 
oinnot tell you why? What kind of management is it that 
keeps no record of all this detail? What kind of management 
i^ it that has no system to work under, but works from hand to 
mouth as each day*s necessities are presented? What kind of 
management is it that wmM stick to old methods and customs 
and appliances until every one else has discarded them, fur fear 
the newer would not be so greatly a decided success, when^ by 
a little investigation and the exercise of a little judgment, it 
should know the new w*as superior to the old! There is no 
question of how you will answer the above queries. You all 
know these methods are the foandation of mismanagement; it 
I IS not necessary to dwell upon it. The best management will 
[look after ever}* detail in the works, will know its cost each 
month, and will know and carry out the possibility to do better. 
It is not necessary that the best management will always make 




254 



the best gas the cheapest^ but that it shall make the mr>5t of 
the advantages m its particular locality. 

The cost of material, the value of residuals, the wages ttiai 
labor ileinands, is different in different places, all the circuio* 
stances are different, perhaps, and it would be extreraelf unfair 
to judge of the management by the cost of the product. 

The cost is also greatly influenced by the arrangement and 
location of the works. Above all, to obtain the best results. to 
make ^od management show its best in the returns, the v*orb 
should be properly built and arranged. 

The mistake of adding here and there, of modifying portions 
of old works, etc., has been, and is to-day, frequently made. 
Many times a comparatively small amount of additional money 
would have allowed one to make the improvements of a more 
permanent character; but the necessity of satisfying directors 
by the ver>" smallest expenditure has prevented. It is a great 
mistake in management to let a small amount of additional 
capital stand in the way of completing a works and putting'^ 
in shape to produce the best known results. In such arrang- 
ing and building, one should provide for every probable emer- 
gency. Too ofteOj again, is the desire shown to save in the 
first cost by omitting necessary portions of apparatus. 

To call your attention to a works supplying a city of ^^ooo 
to 10,000 people abstain tely with no other means of pruduciiig 
gas than a single water gas cupola, will seem to you absurd on 
the part of any management; but such a works is in operation, 
and doubtless there are many equally absurd methods prac- 
ticed in other places. In many cases the management iwaj 
mean well enough, but such unwarranted risks should never be 
carried for a single day. To rank with the well managed the 
works should be kept in good repair 

It is significant of pot^r management when the works is I<f^ 
run down through a desire to devote every cent to make* 
showing upon the yearly returns. The only reasonable cxcu><? 
tfie management can make for such an action is that ihcj 
really cannot afford it. In a season of sunshine prepare fori 
storm; so in seasons of prosperity in business, make prepara* 
tions for the fruitless years. 

We cannot do this better than by keeping our works in good 




rrefjair; then, when misfortune overtakes us and it is necessary, 
t<: can discontinue our repairs for a year or two without se- 
riously mcnacinj^ the condition of our works. 
Another mistake very common at the present day h the teti- 
ftncy among managers to force gas upon the consumers by 
tvressive pressure. 

Managers are ambitions to keep up their increase in con- 
^iimpiion, not only because it is a nice thing to talk about, but 
^ liclps in reducing the cost of each i,ooo feet made. 

As electricity has a tendency in some cases to take away the 
gas consumer, and, again, the reduction in the selling price has 
4 tendency to reduce the income, the manager cannot wholly 
fcsirain his inclination to make the public shoulder the loss. 

Such a proceeding is wholly unwarranted and should never 
be practiced ; rather make the consumer's bill as light as prar- 
licabk% than to force him to consume a large amount. 

If wc are looking for all the errors of management, w'e must 
fail those that are introducing an excess of air into the com- 
position of gas. We all believe the least possible portion of 
^iris an injury. We know that an amount exceeding t per 
cent, is ver)* injurious and quickly noticeable. 

Ally excess of air stratifies in the holder and settles to the 
Mlom^ if the holder is at rest and undisturbed fr>r two cvr 
three hours. 

When gas is turned on the street, from such holder, the 
effect is a dull, red, heavy-looking light, with very little lumt- 
ftosiiy. After a half hour or an hour, according to the quantity 
tjf air, this effect is lost and the gas appears all right. I'he 
JiJencral effect upon the pul>lic is even w^orse than an evenly 
pw»r gas, as it gives them the comparison and forces it to their 
nutice. As stated before, we all believe this an injury, but, as 
in the case with most of us, the uscMjf oxide purifiers requires 
the introduction of such air. 

The mistake is made in carelessness in introducing it. The 
i*nly safe anil satisfactory way is to draw no vacuum with your 
Wthauster, and thus preclude the possibility of introducing it in 
*uch a manner, but to inject the air back of the exhauster l>y 
nicans of a steam injector, or otherwise, always measuring the 
Mioum of air by drawing it through a meter. In no case let 




ttris amtjunt of air l>i* estimated, and in nu case let it exceed i 
per cent. If your oxide purifiers do not act properly under 
this amount, get better oxide. Analyze your gas frequently 
for nitrogen, and if the amount of nitrogen exceeds 5 per cent., 
you may be sure you are introducing a surplus of air some- 
whtTu. 

Many, 1 believe, either do not or will not believe their gas 
contains an excess of air; but an analysis would easily prove it 
to them. It is possible that the present management might be 
improved by giving the disposal of residuals more attention. 
In our Association this subject has been discussed, at length, 
at different times, with the result, no doubt, of increasing our 
energies and btttering results in this direction. We know 
these residuals are valuable, and we know that it is possible to 
greatly increase our income from this source, if we could only 
iVnd the proper way to do it. Uur ammonia, in many cases, is 
disposed of at one-half what ought to be obtained for it. Coal 
tar has not, in years, brought anything like what it ought, until 
lately. In the West some companies are receiving 85 per bar- 
rel, and in Chicago it is retailing for $8. These prices are no 
doubt good, but perhaps not more than it is worth. Our spent 
oxide has to be thrown away, and, in many cases, we have to 
pay some one to take it away, when it ought to sell for enough 
to pay for its first cost, or even more. 

To remedy this why should we wait for someone to invest 
his money to help us out ? Why not follow the now well- 
established custom of combinations and trusts, and put all our 
residuals in one pot? 

Have gas companies within a certain radius of some con- 
venient center, through the managers tjf the contributing com- 
panies, elect a management to operate a plant for ulilixing and 
disposing of all residuals. It would then pay to carry im an 
extensive works for this purpose. 

Competition would then be reduced to a minimum, and our 
companies w^ould get the l>enelit of all that could be obtained 
from this source. 

in the years previous to the formation of our conventions, 
managers, or those in control of the gas companies, did not 
acquaint themselves suffictently with the operations of their 



267 



tieighboring conipanre?;. They visited each other, perhaps, hut 
there had nut gruwn up between them that open, free exchange 
of ideas and results that an association of men generates. 

Consequently, progress in the profession did not begin to be 
made with anything like the rapidity that it has since. 

Although ver>^ generally acknowledged now as necessary to 
the success of any company that its managing officers should 
attend these meetings to gain such information as they find it 
possible, yet, I believe, some companies do not yet recognize 
its importance. It is one of the most serious mistakes that 
can l>e made in the proper management of any industry, to not 
give its manager every opportunity to learn, no matter how 
lilUe, of that which will benefit it in the least. 

Lei us attend these meetings; make it our business to visit 
other works at least once a year; subscribe for and read every 
periodical bearing upon our business that time will permit, and 
be sure to make time for the most important. Let us not 
think, because we have visited a certain works once, we cannot 
learn anything by going again. That works is perhaps under- 
going improvements, and may be working out ideas that have 
not occurred to us. If we follow^ these ideas we will not rank 
mnng those ** mismanaging " gas works. 

Thus far there have been enumerated, probably, the most 
'important of the ideas which should be brought to the notice 
<>! the management of our gas works, Attemjit has not been 
made to criticise the management of the detail in operating a 
gas works. It seemed best to leave this for others to under- 
take. Much of this detail is a question of conditions and 
<»pinion, and I believe a number of equally well managed works 
inight have as many methods of carrying out the details. 

in general, those works that are properly arranged in the 
first place, where sufficient care is given to the quality, where 
ffiachinery is introduced in every place where it will pay in that 
particular works, so that all the labor possible is dispensed 
with» where all the labor and the apparatus of the works is con- 
ilucied under a proper system, where sufficient attention is 
^ven to the measurement of and to the condensation of the 
?^s manufactured, where economy is practiced In all depart- 
iiicnts, and sufficient attention is given to the disposal of resid- 

IT 



258 



uals — tn such a place the works will be well managed lei ihcj 
dtftail be carried out as it will. 

Disctissian, 



The President having temporarily vacated the chair, thcl 
chairman pro tern, (Mr. A. E. Boardman) said: You have heard! 
a very able and a very valuable paper from Mn Cowdery. It \% 
now open for discussion. 

Mk. Ijttlfhat.es — I have listened to the paper with a great 
deal of pleasure; but 1 think it is somewhat misnamed. I think 
the title should have been, ** How to Manage Oas WorkM 
P^fficiently," instead of being the ** Mismanagement of Gas| 
Works/' Of course, while the converse holds jjood, that a lack 
of those qualities which the writer of that paper has suggested 
means a mismanagement of the works, yet» 1 would have liked 
to have had it more defniitcly pointed out where the particula 
items of mismanagement come in in gas works. Unfortunateljl 
a great many of those points are such that a practical manage 
cannot control; and a great many of those arise from the direc 
torate who look at the thing from one standpoint, while th4| 
practical manager who is responsible for the results has to \oo% 
at things from a totally different standpoint. The directc 
rate usually look at it from the shareholders' point, and ncv€ 
come in contact with the consumer; whereas for the whole r« 
suit in the case of any failures, or in the case of the price > 
gas being kept too high, the man at the office has got to sian^ 
all the racket of it, and occasionally gets it in pretty libera 
doses. The point m the paper about there being a unit of man-^ 
agement 1 entirely agree with. I think that some man w*ho_ 
comes in contact with the public, and who knows the whoM 
ramifications of the business, should, as far as possible^ have the 
whole control, certainly of the methods adopted and the polic| 
carried out. Of course, so far as the management of the finance 
is concerned, that must be in the hands of the directorate 

Another important point from my view, and which is pcrha^ii 
the cause of a great many difficulties that arise in our busines 
is that works are often entrusted to the hands of men not at alf 
trained in the gas business. Now, we know that it is within tlie 



259 



it? of the average business man, if he has time enough, to 
learn the gas business the same as anything else; but in the 
tDeantime, while he is learning his business, the consumers are 
having to pay for that education. Mistakes are often made 
through a false economy; as perhaps thinking to save a little 
im the salary of a skilled man, the works are entrusted to an 
unskilled man, and the result is mismanagement — not an inten- 
tional niismanagement, but simply from a lack of experience 
that must produce mismanagement. And there is another point 
where I think mismanagement often arises, I think that every 
foreman should have charge of his own men — of the appoint- 
metit of those men, and the discharging of them. I know that 
that is often done in the office; but my own experience has led 
nit to adopt another rule, and I have found it to work very 
well. If you want a foreman, either in the works or of an out- 
side department, to take a thorough interest in his work, he 
must have charge *of his men; for he is often In a better posi- 
tion lo tell which man is most efficient in his special work, or 
more apt, than the superintendent: and if he has the control 
fiut lo his position, I think you would often find very much bet- 
ter results obtained. It gives the man a greater interest in his 
ilepartment, and more attention is paid to it. Now, if a raan-^ 
Iworkman. we will say — is sent to the foreman from the office, 
it Will often happen that the foreman has no control over him, 
Jnd there is not as good a result obtained, 1 think that ts one 
f<r4turc of mismanagement. I think it would be better policy 
from that standpoint if the practice were adopted of letting 
each foreman of a department have entire control so far as the 
employment of men is concerned. There is another point of 
miMii^inagement, especially in small gas works. We all know 
how mipurtant it is to have the retorts well set. In small works, 
perhaps in a majority of cases, some local bricklayer is em- 
ployed to set the retorts. It would be better management to 
Srend two or three hundred miles for an experienced retort set- 
t«r. You w^ould save the extra expense in the wear and tear of 
'ctorts. I have often found it the case in small works that an 
Jlvcrage bricklayer, accustomed perhaps to throwing in joints 
half an inch thick, would be employed; but instead of their bc- 
<ngajiy saving, the ultimate loss would be three times over the 



cost and expense of bringing a good man tu du the woflf' 
That is one point of mismanagement, as it strikes me. Anolb<^f 
point is in the lack of system in bringing in the meters rcg^' 
larly. Now, however good the meters you have may be ^^* 
start with, where they are worked Iniermriteniiy marc or less o^ 
the number will get out of order and allow gas to pass, i?oti»* 
companies bring \n their meters very regtdarly and systemat*' 
cally» and examine them frequently, other companies do na^' 
I think these are like points of mismanagement where li>^ 
actual items could be pointed out. My own experience is th*^ 
you cannot bring in the meters, too often, within reasonable 
limits: and that there should be some regular system by whicls 
you will know when every meter has been brought in and over- 
hauled. In many of these little ways, if a systematic course is 
pursued, we would get very much better results. Another 
thing I was very glad to notice in the paper was the importance 
of giving prompt attention to all complaintk I have met with 
cases where (very much like what the President said in his re- 
marks) there was a lack of attention even when customers went 
to the gas otlice. I entirely agree with those remarks. The 
first thing should be to let everything else stand and attend to 
those who come in. My instruction to our clerks alwa>*s is 
never to let a man leave the door or the counter, if it is possible 
to satisfy him in any shape or form. Whatever time is neces- 
sary to do that, even .though it takes an hour of a clerk's time, 
should be taken. Employes sometimes hesitate to give that 
necessary time. My own experience is that no time is better 
spent by the clerks or in the manager's office than that which is 
spent in trying to satisfy customers by listening to their com- 
plaints and trying to remove the little difticulties. Often a call 
from the superintendent himself will straighten a difTicuky out, 
for the customer feels that be is being treated well by reason of 
the mere courtesy that is shown him. 1 think these little mat- 
ters must and will recommend themselves to every One of you, 
and I think the man who will practice them will accomplish a 
great deal of good, 

Mr. SoMEKvn Li: — One point of mismanagement which I 
think is worth dwelling upon is in the matter of distribution. 
W'c all bestow a great deal of attention to the making of our 



261 



gas, to making the g^as gootl, litrI to makini^ the gas chemically 
pure; and then some lose from lo to 1$ per cent, of it in dis- 
tribution. Now, that is what I call mismanagement. I do not 
Jtnow of a place where we can bestow attention with lietter re- 
sults than in seeing that our mains are laid sound and light, so 
that instead of losing the gas we may sell it to consumers. I 
^ave actually known of cases where the pipe laying has been 
let out to contractors at so much per foot; and the directors of 
the company thought they were doing a great thing, and mak- 
ing a splendid job, when they put a man to doing the main lay- 
ing for about one cent per foot cheaper than it should cost 
tHem. They thought it was a good trade; but we know the re- 
sult of that sort of thing. They put the pipe down, cover it 
*'Ter, and go on to the next; and then when the gas is turned 
in they find that it has to be done all over again, or if it is not 
done over again, it ought to be. *rhis is a point that I would 
like to impress upon all— to look out for the main laying. Try 
not to lose a foot of gas if it is possible to avoid it. I hope the 
day is coming when this matter of leakage will be a thing of 
the past; that we will be able to direct our energies to getting 
sound and tight pipe that will retain the gas. There is some 
talk about wrought iron pipes, and I think it is a good idea. 
We want to do anything that will stop this leakage. It is 
wrotig for us to have any such thing as leakage in these days. 
Mr Littlehales' remark about meters is very good. Bring in 
the meters very often. Do not wait until they stop, but bring 
them io regularly and test them. 

Mr. Lansdf.n — I think this reference in the paper to pump- 
ing air into the mains may be, to outsiders, misleading to some 
■ extent. I hardly think Mr. Cowdery meant to describe the way 
Pthat be introduced air into his gas, but to describe a method of 
revivifying the oxide, as 1 understand it. We all believe that 
■the least possible [lorlion of air in the gas is an injury. We all 
^■inderstand why he introduces a certain portion of air in the 
HE>xide in revivifying, I do not like to have it go out that gas 
^Cfimpanies are doing what they have been accused of doing for 
the last 25 years— pumping air into the gas — without having it 
Ippcar why some of us who use a certain metliod of purihca- 
ion introduce air to revivify the oxide; while others of us 




who use lime purification are slill able to swear that we do not 
use any air. , 

The Chairman— I think it is very proper that the paper, and 
the remarks upon it, should be brought to the notice of our 
boards of directors, and that the paper will do much good \n 
that way, as it will undoubtedly be brought to their attention by 
the engineers who are here present. 

On motion of Mr. Egner the thanks of the Association were 
voted to Mr. Cowdery for his paper. President \k Mi 11 in re- 
sumes the chair, 

C0^fMITTEE ON PLACE OF NkXT MtETtNG, 

The President — I think it would be well to provide a com- 
mittee to select a place for the next meeting of the Association 
before having the next paper read. 

On motion of Mr, Greenough the President thereupon ap- 
pointed the following gentlemen to serve as such committee: 
Messrs. JohnS. Hush, Isaac Battin, T. Littlehales, H. C. Adams, 
and Henry B, Leach. 

Thk pRF.siDENT — We Will oow listen to Mr. ForstalPs paper* 

Mr, A. K. Forslall, of Chicago, Ills,, then read his paper on 

THE PURIFICATION OF GAS, 

The manufacture of gas would be a very simple matter i I 
the products of distillation came from the retorts or generator's 
in a fit condition to be passed directly through the station mete^ 
to the holder, ready for immediate distribution, Unfortunatel ; 
this is not the case, ihe crude gas containing componenis th£»^ 
must be more or less completely eliminated before the goal of 
salable article can be reached. Every operation to which ilr 
gas is subjected in its passage from retort to meter, has for £3 
object the removal of one or more of these impurities, Ihetr 
fore» all steps in gas manufacture, after the accomplishment *> 
distillation, are properly inchided under the head of purifier 
tion. They may be subdivided, according to the nature of th^"' 
object, into two classes. First, those for the condensation <^ 



263 



Dti vapors present in the highly heated 
crude gas, but which the same gas, at lower temperatures, is un- 
able to hold in suspension; and, second, those for the removal 
of fixed gases, which are deleterious either in themselves or by 
reason of forming noxious compounds when burned. The first 
class, employing mechanical and physical means, friction and 
cbngc of temperature, is known as the process of condensa- 
tion, while the second, working by chemical reaction, comprises 
the operations of washing or scrubbing, and that final one to 
which in ordinary nomenclature is applied the name of purifica- 
tion, though it is really only a single step in the long series of 
purifying operations. Either on account of this arrogance of 
name, or because being an iniermitled process it obtrudes itself 
more upon our notice than the others^ which will, to a certahi 
exieut, run themselves, I think most of us commit the mistake 
i)i ilevoting extra energy to this branch of purification that 
might more profitably be given to condensation and scrubbing, 
•ind it is to these that I wish to call your attention. 

The successful solution of any problem is dependent upon a 
clear comprehension of the object to be attained, and a knowl- 
«lge derived from the properties of the substances tu be acted 
»lK)n, of the principles involved. In condensation, the objec- 
tive point is the complete, harmless, and facile removal fmm 
the gas of those vapors, the deposition of which, inevitable 
Under conditions certain to be met during its passage through 
the works and mains, will cause great annoyance, and damage 
iHe illuminating power of the gas, if not effected at the proper 
points and in the proper manner. At the same time, nvt hydrrt- 
Qrbons should be taken out» that the gas can be made to re- 
tain with advantage. Condensation is perfect only when the 
gas leaves the apparatus containing just enough hydro-carbon 
^'^por to fully saturate it at the minimum of temperature and 
Maximum of pressure to which it is to be subjected in the fu- 
hire. This, then, is the result to be sought, and the general 
PnncipJes to be followed for its attainment have been the sub- 
l^Jctof much experiment, by which the truth of the following 
*^ceins to be well established. All heavy tar should be removed 
from the gas while it is quite hot, at any rate above 100 " F. 
^*>"tacr bftween gas and heavy tar should be reduced to a 




minimum, and under no circumstances should the gas be 
allowed to bubble through tar. Contact between gas and the 
lighter tar or oils is not detrimental, and in some cases has 
seemed to be beneficial when occurring at moderately high 
temperature. Sudden chilling of the gas is to be avoided, es- 
pecially during the last stages of condensation. 

These principles necessitate the observance of the following 
points in constructing and arranging the apparatus. The hy- 
draulic main should be so designed and taken care of as to 
preclude any possibility of the gas having to pass through tar, 
provision being made to keep the dips always sealed in liquor. 
The fuul main, in which there is unavoidably mure or less con- 
tact between gas and tar, should be so protected as to prevent 
any marked full in the temperature of the gas while passing 
through it; and, if very long, the tar should be drawn off at 
several points, thus diminishing the length uf contact. Some 
species of tar extractor should be placed before the condenser, 
to free the gas from all heavy tar before the final cooling be- 
ginsj leaving only the lighter oils to be brought down at the 
lower temperatures. The reduction of temperature from the 
outlet of this extractor to the outlet of the condenser should 
be very gradual, the condensed liquids being drawn off at each 
stage of the process to prevent the contact between them and 
the gas as it cools, these oils possessing the property of absorb- 
ing, at the expense of the illuminating power, vapors that would 
otherwise remain in suspension. Atmospheric condensers are 
not as efficient as those using water, not being under as per- 
fect control as the latter. The area of radiating surface should 
be large enough to permit the cooling to take place with a 
maximum difference of five degrees between the gas and water 
at any given point, and the smaller this difiTerence the better 
will be the work done. With a jiroperly designed condenser, 
the final temperature can be advantageously kept lower than is 
usually the case, though, of course, no benefit is to be derived 
from making it lower than the lowest temperature the gas will 
reach in its future progress. 

These data have been established by observation and expe- 
rience in handling coal gas, but there is no reason why they 
4>hould not apply equally as well to carbureted water gas. 




,:p^^Ly^^^ ^— 



.-^ 




26S 



Practiiaily, the same mixture of hytlrti-carbon gases and vapors 
is under treatment, the tar formed when crude oil is used 
bt^ing almost identical with coal tar; so that methods of con- 
densation proved to be the best in one case should also be 
best in the other. In most water gas works very little atten- 
tion seems to be paid to condensation, the only care being to 
make it thorough enough to save trouble in the purifiers, and 
at the consumer's burner 

There has been no incentive to do more from the pecuniary 
point of view, as until lately the residual tar has had no market 
value, and the loss of illuminating power due to improper 
handling at this stage of the manufacture does not c<ime home 
as a question of dollars and cents. Htiwever, as even ordinary 
coal gas, when improperly condensed, has only three-quarters 
t»f the theoretical candle power it might be made to possess by 
fHjffect treatment, and as the damaging effects of had treat- 
ment increase rapidly as the gas becomes richer, it can easily 
be seen that the loss may be a very serious one. Up to the 
present, the increase in yield of candle-feet per gallon of oil, 
that has gradually been obtained since the introduction of 
iHuminaling water gas, has been almost wholly due to improved 
methods and care in distilling the oil Bitt we have also a rich 
field for improvement in condensation, one that will well repay 
tmic and money spent in its development. Combined effort 
along both lines, distillation and condensation, may change the 
present ideas as to the illunrinaling value of a gallon of oil 
very materially. 

However, whether treating coal or water gas, it is not suffi- 
cient that the apparatus should be improved in construction 
and arrangement. The most perfect apparatus will not take 
care of itself, and good results depend upon continuous, careful 
vigilance, Hiermometers and pressure gauges should be placed 
wherever it is important to knuw what is taking place. Es- 
pecially is this the case with the ccmdenser, where a knowledge 
of the temperatures of both water and gas is absolutely neces- 
sary for intelligent working. Having provided the inslru- 
ments, it should be made the duty of some particular person 
to read their indications at regular intervals, and adjust the 
tcr supply accordingly, with reference, not only to initial 





and iinal temperatures^ but also to the regular and gradual de- 
crease from one to the other, and the comparalive tempera- 
tures of gas and water. With a properly constructed condcniser 
this can be very easily done, A record should be kept of the 
average daily temperatures alonj^ the whole line of the con- 
densing plant, which should be as carefully looked over and 
studied by the manager as is the record of any other operatic^ 
involved in gas manufacture. Just as much attention sbtmld be 
paid to securing the best possible gas from the products of dis- 
tillation as is paid to increasing the volume of these products. 

Having the gas properly condensed, it is now, in the case of 
coal gas, to be put through the washers or scrubbers. With 
water gas there is no analogous step, the so-called washers 
used being really tar extractors. The mam object of this 
operation is the com[Tlete removal of the ammonia present in 
the gas, tnii it must not be supposed that this is all thai is to 
be done, There can be no greater mistake. The real problem 
is the removal of the ammonia in combination with as much nf 
the carbonic acid and sulphureted hydrogen as it can be made 
to take up, thus reducing the work of the purifiers to a cor- 
responding extent. When oxitle of iron is the sole purifying 
material used, it is friost important to saturate the ammonia 
with carbonic acid, and so increase the illuminating power. 
Unfortunately* however^ there is no control over the relative 
amounts of carbonic acid and sulphureted hydrogen t^aken up, 
all that can be done being to make sure of the saturation by 
both acids^ and preferably to form as far as possible those com- 
pounds in which one atom nf ammonia unites with two of acid. 
As the carbonates and sulphides of ammonia are readily de- 
composed by heat, carbonic acid and sulphureted hydrogen 
being given off, it follows that the temperature shoukl be kept 
low as possible during the scrubbing. 

It is also advisable to use in the scrubbers the liqutu' frnni 
the hydraulic main and earlier stages of the condensation, as 
containing a large proportion of uncombined ammonia it will 
lake up a corresponding amount of acid impurities. However, 
the scrubbing should be completed by the use of water free 
from ammonia, as in no other way can this be totally ehtni* 
nated, and unless very cold water, or an immoderate quantity 



J 



^1 



IS Qjveil, iht' cftect on the illuminating power will not be appre- 
ciable. The contact between gus and liquor must be made as 
complete as possible, and the time should not be cut too short. 
Here, also, records should be kept of the progress of the 
♦operations, samples uf liquor being drawn off at varicHis places 
and tested for contained ammonia and aciils. Only in this way 
can we be certain of doing our best. Before there can be any 
hope of improvement in working, there must be an accurate 
and thorough knowledge of what is being done* Constant 
tests at all stages of the progress of the gas through the ap- 
paratus, are absolutely necessary for the attainment of the 
Hest results, and attention cannot be too often called to their 
vahie and importance. 

I have confmed myself strictly to outlining principles with- 
out any application of them to particular forms of apparatus, 
as I consider it of the first importance that we should have 
dear, well-defined ideas of what is to be done, and how it is 
best done, and also think that these can be better tibtained by 
approaching the question from its theoretical side. When we 
begin to treat of special machines^ our prejudices and pre- 
possessions are very apt to come into play, clouding our minds 
35 to the real points at issue, but the true theory established, 
the application will follow as a matter of course. I have, there- 
Dre, endeavored tf» make plain the theoretical ends, towards 
lich we are striving, with the theoretical lines along which 
our efforts should be directed to make these ends attainable, 
being confident that if 1 could succeed in fixing attention upon 
what ought to be done it w^ould not take long for each one to 
put theory into practicCt in the shape best suited to the condi- 
tions imposed by his own circumstances and surroundings. 



XOTTK. — On thi* subject wc The Report of ihc Coundl of the r;as Institute 
for lSi^3. in the Transactions for that year: also, vol, 41, page 1084, of /our. 
ntii &f G-iis Lig/ttittg, etc*: The Chcmicaf Tbeon* of the iVoductiun of lUuini- 
n.^ting (ias, by M. Cluejfuen, vols, 43, 44. and 45 Ibid; Some notes on Has 
t^i(|Uor and Ammonia iHintkation, by Lewis T. Wright, Ibid, vol. 48, pa^ 
2S0; Condcn^adon, by M. Abvoinc, Ibid, vol 48, page 65; also, Journal des 
UsinesA Ga2, tSSs, pag:e 2.831; Condensation, M. Coxe, Ibid. 1886. page 
212; T.«vagc el Epunition du <^iaz. Ibid, page 213; also, the Comptc Rcndus 
da Societe Technique du Ga/ en Prance, for these years; Condensation, by R, 
B, Taber; Pmceedings of American tias IJght As,soci:ilitvii for 18S5-18S6, page 
302; aUo, American Gas Light Journal, voL 45, page 213, 



'2(i8 



I)j^iinyi(tft, 



■ 



The Presiment — We will now discuss the points suggested 
in the very able paper which has been read in your hearing. 1 
hope that modesty will not prevent any one from speaking. 

Mr. Greenoui;h -I do not want this paper to pass without 
expressing my appreciation of it. It is a very carefnlly thought 
out paper, and it is a great pleasure lo have young Mr Forsiall 
read to us so good a paper as is his contribution to this special 
occasion. It show\s the training that he has had, and the care 
with which that training has been applird. What he says about 
the condensation and purification of coal gas \% I think, sub- 
stantially true; and 1 think there is no portion of a gas com- 
pany's business which is more frequently slighted. What Mr. 
Forstall says about the necessity of watching the temperature 
is most unquestionably correct; and yet I have in mind a visit 
paid not long ago to one of the largest, if not the largest, gas 
works in this country, and on my asking some question about 
temperature 1 was told that there was not a thermometer in the 
entire place — which is, in my judgment^ as much as saying that 
the ^vhole business of purification by that company was earned 
on absolutely without careful management from beginning to 
end. I have nothing further to suggest than to express my ap- 
preciation of the paper 

Mr. Littlehales — I am sure that every member of this 
Association has a pleasant recollection of the name of Forstall 
in connection with the Association, and I can only say that the 
paper just read does credit lo the name. 1 am sure if the ex- 
President of this Association could look and see what is going 
on he would experience a great amount of gratification to see 
his son following so ably in ibe footsteps of one whose memor)' 
shall always be cherished by us, and showing such excellent 
promise for the future. (Applause.) 1 agree with the paper, 
in the main. I would like to ask Mr. Forstall if he had come 
to any conclusion as to the relative importance, or the relative 
cost of lime or oxide, or of both combined? I have had some 
experience in -the three methods. With lime alone, with oxide 
alone, and with lime and oxide together. I found some years 



269 



a^ in ptihfying^ that we were doing pretty fairfy as we thought 
In purifying about Irom 5,000 to 6,000 ftct per bushel of lime. 
0\it boxes were very small in proportion to our make, and the 
gas was rushed through very rapidly. We put in ii larger set of 
purifycrs — very large as some would consider, in proportion to 
our make — and ibis enabled us to carry out the system which is 
Ifcnerally adopted across the Atlantic, using the lime for the 
carbonic acid, arvd using the oxide for the sulphureted hydro- 
gen. In the last year that we used lime exclusively our cost for 
purifying material was about $i,8oo, or equal to 3.8 cents per 
1,000 feet made. The next year we hatl got in our oxide (and 
I may say that we used the natural oxide), and that year eight 
months were with lime alone, and four months with the oxide 
and lime in the manner indicated. We charged one-quarter of 
the cost of the oxide to that year, assuming that the oxide 
would last four years — we find that it will last very much longer 
than that; hut we assumed that it would last four years, and 
consequently charged one-quarter of the cost. That reduced, 
for this year, our cost from 3,8 cents to 1.9 cents, or from $1,878 
to $928. The next year, 1887, was the first year that we had 
fairly working and under way the new method of lime first and 
oxitie second, and our cost for thai year, for 47,962,000 feet, was 
$285.70, or .6 of a cejU per r,ooo. In 18 88, for 52,809,000 feet, 
the cost was .4 of a cent. The oxide did more work in the 
second year than it did in the first. We ^Iraost invariably find 
that with the native oxide, after it has been in once or twice it 
runs a longer period than ii does the first time it is put in. Our 
cost that year was .4 of a cent. The next year the rate was the 
same. For the year ending January 31st, 1890, the cost of the 
purifying material was ^182 05, which was .3 of a cent per 1,000 
feet. For this current year, having only $167 still standing 
against the oxide account, it will cost us as near as I can esti- 
mate, for the few weeks remaining of our financial year, .2 of a 
cent per 1,000 feet. That is pretty low. It has this additional 
advantage— that I am perfectly sure that the oxide will last two 
years more, and during that whole time it will cost us absolutely 
nothing for material. We do not revivify it in the boxes, be- 
cause while that is perfectly practicable, I find there is a ten- 
dency to a little caking of the oxide, and 1 find it docs better to 



270 



take it out DCcasionaJIy than to revivify it in the boxes. If I 
did revivify it in the boxes, 1 wonld never think of patting air 
in with the gas; but when the gas was turned oii I would run 
a little steam and air through the boxes, I would never think 
of putting in the air with the gas for the sake of getting one* 
nuh oxygen out of the air^ and having four-fifths nitrogen going 
off to dilute your gas — for that is where the trouble comes w^ith 
the air process. I tJiink yon will not find many places where 
the purification has iieen done more successfully and cheaper 
than is shown by the figures I have given you. I have no doubt, 
as Mr. Forstall indicates, that the time will come when the ox- 
ide will l>e In such demand for making sulphuric acid and other 
sulphur products* that it will be worth just as much as the origi- 
nal cost after being used for purifying. There are many works 
in London that get their oxide supplied by the sulphuric acid 
makers, and taken away after use, free of cost, because of the 
sulphur which it contains. When they want to make pure 
sulphuric acid ihey usually get the sulphur from the sulphur 
mines of Sicily, and it costs probably ^40 per ton. Now, an 
oxide can be run up until it contains from 45 to 55 per cent, of 
its weight of sulphur, in which case it should be worth half (or 
about one-half) the amount of sulphur. So you see that by- 
and-by, if a sufficient number of companies are purifying by 
the oxide method.s, the same companies will no doubt be inter- 
ested to recover the sulphur from the oxide, and then will make 
the oxide a merchantable article. I know that there is a great 
difference of opinion as to the relative merits of the natural 
oxide and the manufactured article. My own experience is al- 
together in favor of the native article. You have it distributed 
over large areas in the United States, and we also have it in 
Canada; and I am perfectly certain in my own experience that 
there is no comparison between the two results. I find that the 
quantity we have purified per bushel since we have had it in 
operation is something pretty large. I have here the figures of 
what we have passed through it, per bushel and per ton. Dur- 
ing the whole of this year, from January 31st up to date, we 
have simply changed three boxes of lime and three boxes of 
oxide. That is rather a small number for nearly a year's work. 
For the whole year ending January, 1890, we only changed four 



271 



ox^iiie boxes and six lirae boxes. That is rather a small niiTnben 

Mr. Greenough— What is the size of your boxes ? 

Mr. Littlehales— The purifiers are 20 by 18 by 4^ feet. 
* *^at is a point that I want to call the attention of the Associa- 
tion 10. I think that there has been a tendency to unduly 
curtail the size of the boxes. 1 have been asked on several 
'^crasions with reference. to small works that I was constructing 
t>r reconstructing, *' What is your rule for calculating the size of 
tb^ piij-ifiers ?'* One simple rule is the ftnancia! ability of the 
company to build large ones, and that is the general rule that I 
pu rsue. I think very few of us realize, until we come to test 
tti^ thing practically, what a difference in result there is when 
wc work the boxes very slowly. It is almost impossible to 
purify the gas when it is pushed through rapidly. The purifi- 
catioii of gas is necessarily a chemical operation — lime is re- 
<\uired to do it properly ; and when the gas is rushed through 
rapidly there is no chance for it, I think the size of the boxes 
^s a matter worthy of more attention from members than it has 
received. 1 do not attribute all of our success at Hamilton to 
the method, but partly to the very large size of the boxes, and I 
^n\ sure the members will find that they will work more econom- 
ically in every respect by having more liberal purifying space 
than is the usual rule. 

Mr. Harpkr — I have listened with great attention, and in- 
terest to Mr. Forstalls paper. He seeks to emphasize points 
which are very generally known here, bnt which are not by any 
means generally practiced. The subject that he has brought 
before us to-day is one of the greatest possible importance. I 
do not want to take up time in discussing it, but I would like 
especially to emphasize the importance of that part of his paper 
where he deals with the thermometer. I think that that point 
is of very great importance indeed. I shall be inclined to call 
that scientific practice as distinguished from scientific attain- 
ments, It is my impression that our business would make 
much more rapid progress than it has done if there were a 
more general idea of the chemical operations involved in the 
department of purification which Mr. Forstall has dealt with. 
It is evident to us all that here a greater or less knowledge of 




^^^ 




chemical operations is involved. It appears to me there is i 

business of the magnitude and importance of ours which has so 
little literature of a chemical nature as ours has. I think it is 
of very great importance that this literature should be obtained 
rather by experts in the profession than by someone outside of 
il. It seems to me that the words "gas analysis/* or anything 
of that kind, are a pretty large stumbling block to the average 
gas manager; but it seems to me that a man does not require 
to be really an expert chemist in order to do a great many of 
the things that are necessary to be done in properly managed 
gas works. A great deal of that, as you are aware, is more or 
less of a mechanical o[)eration than otherwise. I saw in a book 
not long ago published, in which a man sits down to address 
gas managers, the statement that ** coke is a black, solid car- 
bon;*' and a few pages further on it speaks of a ** standard 
acid/' and there are similar phrases given as being things well 
known to chemists. It appears to me that that is the very thing 
that we want to know* so that we may not have to presuppose. 
I think that a man might just as well sit down and tell us what 
he means by a standard acid, how it is prepared, what it is used 
for, and how used. And the same as to gas analysis. The 
analysis is simple; its operation is simple; and I think that we 
can understand what is meant by a " concentrated solution/' 
and what is meant by a ** moderate concentrated solution/' I 
think that a man would derive a great amount of benefit from 
the information, and he would know that he was on the right 
track; and, therefore, I think that our business on the scientific 
side is one which, if properly developed, can be very rapidly 
advanced. 

Mr. Lit 1 1. ekai.es— 1 have here the figures as to the amount 
of gas that we have purified by the oxide up to the loth of Oc- 
tober, 1890. We have purified, per ton of oxide, 4,85 7,700 ^feet^ 
or, as the buslfel weighs about 80 pounds, it is equivalent to 
194,305 feet per bushel. That is the result at our works. 

Mr. Slater, Jr. — To revert to that branch of purification of 
which the paper read by Mr. Forstall treated, I would like sim- 
ply to call attention to one fact with regard to condensation, 
and that is— in most w^orks, and especially those of older con- 



273 



struction, we find that the condensers are designed simply to 
coo) the gas down to a certain temperature^ apparently without 
regard to what happens in the gas during that process. In 
some works different varieties of coal are used, all put through 
the same process of cooling the gas, and various results are ob- 
Uliied, which, with proper attention to condensation, might be 
changed; so that some coals which in certain works bear a very 
high reputation, might be made to show very low results, and 
others that show very low with some few, might be made to 
show more uniformly with others. In connection with bad con- 
densation, there is another much mooted question whi<!h has 
been considered before the Association, and that Is the question 
of napthalinc. I think it will be generally found that one of 
the most commonly recognizable causes of the formation of 
iiapthaline would be the cooling, particularly the sudden cool- 
'Hg. of gas containing more or less moisture or aqueous vapor 
Where the condensation is done very rapidly, although the gas 
raay be successfully cooled to 60*^. if that is done very suddenly^ 
and the gas contains much moisture on entering the condensers, 
Ihc almost invanable result will be plenty of napihafine in the 
condensers. But if the condensation is imperfect, and the gas 
's not cooled to a proper point, then of course the natural ex- 
pectation would be to find napihaline at such points in the 
progress of the gas as where the temperature was reduced. I 
think that the point of slow condensation — not merely fo reduce 
^he temperature to a given degree, but to cool the gas very 
slowly— is a point that many of us would do well to consider. 

The President — Will Mr. Scriver tell us about the oxygen 
process in Montreal ? 

Mr. Scriver — I have no information to give you with regard 
to the oxygen proces*?, as we have not yet got it in operation. 
We are now constructing our works, and expect ^to be through 
with the construction in about three weeks. Down to the 
present time I cannot say anything about the effect that it is 
going to have upon our gas. We heard something abt^ut that 
lattycar. I think the information that we obtain in this way is 
very valuable; but at the present time we can add nothing to it. 
Id 



274 



'I'hk PkEsfDENT — Van may consider yourself booked for a 
paper rui that subject at llic next meeting* 

Mr. GKt;GiK«l thiak the putiU Mr Forstall made, having in 
view the purification in closed vessels, is a very good one. I 
hope he will continue on in the good work until we get rid of 
lime, and oxide, and all these other things. 1 think also that 
his remarks on condensation are very correct I think slow 
condensation is of great benefit to the gas. In my works I 
have two condensers, passing the gas first through an annular 
condenser, and then through a scrubber condenser. I do not 
have any napthaline at all, and never had any stoppage because 
of it. I attribute its absence alttjgether tu the slow condensa- 
tion, 1 think if we would pay more attention to condensing 
the gas slowly, and quit rushing it through so rapidly, we should 
have no further trouble with napthaline, 

Thi: rnKsiDKNT — I think there are many gentlemen here who 
would lake pleasure in introducing you to the naptha!ine. Are 
there any further remarks? If no one else desires to speak, 
Mr. Forstall will reply to the remarks which have been made. 

Mr. Foksi all — I would like to ask Mr. Littlehales if the 
figures which he gave were for just the expense of the oxide. 

Mk. 1ji I KKiiALES — For the purifying materials alone. 

* Mr. Forstall — Does that include lime only, as well as both 
Ume and oxide ? 

Mr. Li iTLKiiALBS — In all the figures given the cost of the 
purifying material was referred to, whether that was lime alone, 
or lime and oxide together. 

Mr, FoKS'i all— 'I have had no experience at all with the use 
of lime and oxide together. We used lime at first, and then we 
changed to all oxide. The figures for the oxide averaged with 
us about I cent for labor, and 0.7 to 0.8 of a cent for material, 
(^f course, in the case of lime it was much greater. I think 
that Mr. Littlehales* results are largely due to the size of his 
boxes. We had at one time a new purifying house with a 
capacity of two million feet per day, and only passed 600,000 
feet through it; auti 1 did not have to change the purifying 



275 



te5 more than once rn three weeks, or once in a month, we 
started and worked it up to 1.800,000 feet, and then changed 
that same material in the boxe^, sometiroes every two days, and 
sometimes every day, so that the change was much greater in 
proportion to the amount of gas going through — changing much 
oftener than could be e^ipccted from the amount of gas passed, 
twant to express my thanks for the very kind remarks of Mr. 
Greenough and Mr Littlehales. 

Mr, Shelton — I think that we can do no less than to extend 
a very hearty vote of thanks to Mr Forstall for not only a most 
instructive paper, but for an extremely well written paper. 
(Adopted.) 

The President — Gentlemen, I want to return you my sin- 
cere thanks for the interest that has been manifested here this 
morning, for the order that has been kept, and for the system 
that all have observed in the discussions. If the members will 
all be kind enough to address the President, and wait fcir his 
recognition before they begin to speak, I think we will make 
better progress. That has been done this morning, and I hope 
it will be continued, On the second page of the printed pro- 
gramme I find in red ink this little paragraph: ' Pay your an- 
nual dues at this time at the Secretary's desk in ante-room 104." 
The hour for adjournment having arrived^ we will now take a 
recess until 2 o'clock. 



First Da v— Afternoon Session. 

The Association was called to order at 2 o'clock, and the 
President introduced Mr, Frederic Egner, of St, Louis, Mo,, 
who read his paper on 

INCLINED RETORTS. 



Our subject is one to which the attention of gas mak<?rs has 
Ijecn frequently invited of late years, and when the Council of 
Admnnstration of the American tias Light Association honored 
me with an invitation to prepare a paper with the above title, to 

1: 




ably were informed that the Laclede Gas Light Company had 
in course of erection a stack of benches to lie fitted with retorts 
in the inclined position, and was spending a large sum uf money 
on apparatus which was at that time still regarded by many 
very much in the hght of an experiment. The completion of 
these benches has been delayed beyond all reasonable limits, by 
the firm which had agreed to furnish the necessary irun work; 
so much so, indeed, that although it was expected that some of 
the benches would be under Are by the middle of last May, it 
was well in September before heating up could be commenced. 
Hence ray experience with that kind of retort setting is not ex- 
tensive; but the facts and figures gathered, and observations 
made, arc herewith presented, in the hope, on the part of the 
author, that you may fnid them interesting enough to compen- 
sate you for the lime spent in listening to or reading them. We 
find ^* Inclined Retorts** spoken of in ** King's Treatise on Coal 
(ias/' In a paper read before the Western Gas Association, by 
Mr, Henry Pratt, May, iSSS, and published by the gas journals 
of that day, we are given some historical, theoretical, and not a 
little practical information on the same subject, which was again 
brought before the same society by Mr. R. D. Walsh, a year 
later. The Sckntific Ameruaff Supplement, of Nov. 28, 1885, 
contained an illustrated description of ** Coze's System of Gas 
Retorts," giving a very fair represenlation \y{ the system as de- 
veloped at that date. Prior to this, viz,, July 28, i88j, the Sci- 
tntifu Amcruiin printed an article in which an inclined retort 
was shown in connection with a water gas generator, and quite 
recently profusely illustrated papers have been published in a 
number of technical journals, stating almost everything that can 
be said about inclined retorts, so that one can hardly escape the 
suspicion of plagiarism, however unfounded^ when writing any- 
thing at all on that subject, I will, therefore, confine myself to 
simply describing to you the so-called inclined benches which 
were erected at one, and give you the comparative results ob- 
tained from a bench in operation at another, of the works under 
my charge. 

About two and one-half years ago, a bench with five inclined 
retorts was put in operation at the works of the St. Louis Gas 
Company. *rhcse works are now known as "Station A" of the 



277 



I 



I^fede Gz% Li|fht Company^ of St, Louis. This bench is 
located by itself in a shed alongside of one of the retort houses, 
but is connected with the principal gas mains of said house by 
means of a 12 -inch pipe. It is 10 feet 9 inches wide; 13 feet 5 
iuches long; and 16 feet 2 inches high. The retorts are " D's/' 
15 in. by 23 in. by 11 ft. 3 in,, set at an angle of about jo*", and 
arc heated by means of an ordinary' retort bench furnace 14 
inches wide and 5 feet deep. 

rhe retorts were charged the first time on May i, 188S, and 
irere in continuous operation for a little over two years, when 
the bench was let down, the furnace relined, and one of the 
coal charging chutes, which needed it, repaired; thert the bench 
was again fired up, charged, and is doing good work now, ever)^- 
thing considered. At present we coke 9,400 pounds of Pitts- 
burgh coal in that bench in 24 hours, using 24,06 pounds of the 
coke to each 100 pounds of coal carbonized, or about 40 per 
cent, of the coke made. The greatest amount of coal carbon- 
ized in 24 hours was i r,5oo pounds, with the same proportion 
*>[ coke used. 

\Vt have some benches of 5's (with horizontal retorts^ of 
coarse) at another station. The retorts are 14 in. by 22 in. by 
8 ft. 3 in. D*s, with the same kind of furnace as that mentioned 
Wore, excepting that it is oidy 4 ft. 6 in. deep. In these 
benches we carbonize 7,950 pounds of coal per diem, using 
23,94 pounds of coke to the loo pounds of coa! treated, or 38 
per cent, of the coke made. In these benches we coke 99.37 
pounds of coal per square foot of ground occupied, while in the 
inclined bench we carbonize at present only 70.07 pounds of 
coal per square foot. If, however, the latter bench was as favor- 
al»ly situated as our ordinary benches are, there would perhaps 
l>e no difference between the two in that respect. 

Comparing the first cost of our ordinary, and the inclined 
bench of 5'$, we find that the inclined bench requires about 741 
cubic feet more of solid brick work; about 1,000 pounds more 
of ftreclay settings; 50 per cent, more labor to set the retorts 
and iron work, and 5,705 pounds mure of iron material. There- 
fore, if any of you would like to know approxiniately how much 
raorc an inclined retort bench would or ought to cost than a 
bench with horizontal retorts, you can get very close to it by 




278 



adding what the above rlems would cost you to the prices paid 
for the kind nf benrh you may now have. To this estimate 
there would have to be added the cost of the charging and coal 
hoisting apparatus; although Mr, Henry Pratt, whom 1 have 
quoted before, stated in his paper that he found that charging 
the retorts with a sroop shovel works very well; and 1 think the 
same could be ihww with a whtel barrow; hence, even in a small 
works where there would be only one or two benches, the in- 
clined retort system nm/i/ he used without the necessary machin- 
ery desirable in the operations of a larger works. 'Mr. Pratt's 
opinion^ based on his experience with the system^ was that it 
would not pay to use inclined retorts in any works requiring less 
than 2oo»ooo cubic feet per diem. Mr. Gimper, Manager of the 
gas works at Leavenworth, Kansas, and Sprinj; field, Mo., is now 
engaged in solving the abtjve question for himself at the latter 
city; and as Mr Ciimper's friends know him to be a thorough 
gas man, both in theory and practice, it is x\o\ unlikely but that 
we shall soon get some valuable and reliable information on the 
subject of whether or not it pays to run only one bench of in- 
clined retorts where only one or two benches are required. So 
far as works of the size of the Lactede are concerned, I can 
say that it would not pay to run only one such bench, if the 
men atteiuling it couhl not be otherwise employed, w^hich in our 
ease they are. But the single bench has been valuable to us in 
a number of ways. We ftuind without a doubt that a setting of 
inclined retorts would last as well as any other kind; that they 
could be scurfed, patched and heated as easily^ and the charges 
as thoroughly and as quickly carbonized as the same in the com* 
mon settings. And we found that with such settings the labor 
of drawing the coke and filling the retorts became such a sim- 
ple and easy matter that anyone possessing the strength of a 
i6-year-old boy, and no more intelligence than a plantation 
darkey, could do the work after one showing, as well as the 
same could be done after years of practice in the ordinary way, 
by, our sometimes, a little unreasonable friend, the retort house 
fireman. He could not help but see that benches luted with 
inclined retorts and heated by means of regenerative furnaces, 
would not only make a gas company about as independent of 
the retort house autocrat as a fust -class water gas apparatus 



would forever do away with the awfully bard 
laibor required of men making gas in the old way, and must re- 
sult in economy to the manufacturer besides, even though the 
first cost of the benches was much greater. And that is why 
we determined to erect a stack of ei^^ht benches of 7*s on the 
inchned retort system, 

IJmited space at thai time only prevented us fruiu buikling 
more than the number stated. The benches just now about 
completed at the old Laclede gas works, were built in accord- 
ance with plans made by the late Alfred Arndt, Engineer of the 
Chicago Gas Light and Coke Company, modified, and we hope 
improved, in some particulars, by alterations suggested by Mr. 
McMillin and myself. I have brought with me a blue print of 
the original design (see Fig. 34), and a drawing (see Fig. 35), 
showing the changes made by us. The original tlesign of the 
settings of these inclined retorts was furnished by Mr. A. Coze, 
of Rheims, France, and Mr. Ai'ndt's work consisted in adapt- 
ing his regenerative furnace to Coze's settings. We made some 
changes in the brick and iron work, as can be seen by compar- 
ing the blue print and drawing referred to; and although we 
made these after careful consideration, we have yet to demon- 
Mrate by practical operation the superiority of our theoretical 
improvements, but hope to be able in the near future to decide 
ihai question affirmatively. 

Uefore proceeding with the description of our new benches, 
I desire to call your attention to a few facts in relation to this 
whole system of inclined retort setting. We all know tluit the 
Idea of setting retorts *' inclined " is not new. A retort set that 
J with a mouthpiece at each end, is described in ** King's 
Treatise on Coal Gas/' as previously mentioned. Some manu- 
facturers of retorts assure us that if we want such benthcs, we 
can have them without regartl to Coze's patent. Coze, in his 
United States patent, numbered 3^8,953, and date*! Sept. 4, 
1887, makes the following claim: 

"/>W/. The inclined retorts, A, placed one above the other, 
combined with the charging mouths, B, whose open ends are all 
on the same level, whereby the retort may be charged from 
trucks on the same level, substantially as set forth. Sti-an*/. 
The foregoing specification of my improvements in retorts (or 



s.-:--r 



■ * 




irg^otter 
worthy of a serious thought until Andre Caze tciok the matter 
in hand, and with ihc aid of genius, perseverance, and with the 
expt-ndfture of much time and money* demonstrated to the 
*t>rfd that the inclined reti>rt was not the worthless thing it 
evidently was previously thought to be by everybody excepting 
himself, Thtn^ after he had published to the world the results 
of his successful experiment, the customary imitators appeared. 
However, it is probably safe to say» that but for Andre Coze 
the inclined retort would have been suffered to remain for- 
gotten ; and for that reason he should receive substantial re- 
ward by all who will use inclined retorts, whether they make 
U5C of ** Coze's patent,'* or adopt some modification of the 
originally dead idea» revived to the benefit of the world by 
our respected fellow-worker in the gas profession in far-away 
Fnuice, It should be a point of honor with all who can make 
successful use of inclined retorts to give practical recognition 
ti)him who did more than the original inventor with the in- 
clined retort. 

I will now proceed with the description of our new benches. 
The a(i(iiti<nT to our retort house, in which they were erected, 
iscf the same width and height as our old house. The stack 
0^ benches occupies a floor space of 27 feet by 50 feet 5^ 
niches, exclusive of the chimney, which is at one end of the 
'•^Jtise. Less room is required between the wall and front of 
Ihese benches than in the comrafni setting, because the coal is 
Mvcred on lop of the bench, and drawing the coke also re- 
quires less space than is required by the former. The distance 
^fOtti bottom of foundation to the fluor line is 12 feet, 9^^ 
inches, and from that point to top of bench is 16 feet, 11 
inches. The arches are 9 feet, 8 inches wide inside, and 9 feet, 
7i inches long, from outside to outside, with a space of 7 feet, 
rt inches wide, and 8 feet, 10 inches high, between the rear 
Mdsof the retorts^ thus fornjing a passage at the back of same, 
*hich ts made continuous by means of arched doorways 18 
'^ches wide, piercing the dividing walls between the benches, 
''he space between the backs of the arches contains at its 
West point the main flue to the chimney, into which all the 
Ukt'-uff iltits ,tf the benches enter. Above the flue, Arndt's 




design provided for three arched, hollow spaces* not communi- 
cating, which were merely built thus tu save brick; but Mr. 
McMtlUn thought these places; would act as pockets^ in which 
dangerous gases might accumulate, leading eventually to disas- 
trous explosions, and advised to fill them up solid^ which w\is 
done. The retorts, D's, are 16 inches by 2jJ inches at the 
mouthpiece, 14 inches by 24 inches at the middle section, and 
12 inches by 22 inches at the upper or charging end, and 10 
feet, 10^ inches long from inside of lower to inside of upper 
mouthpiece. The arches are closed up around the retorts with 
T3i^-inch walls, s<j that 8 feet, 7 inches of its length is inside of 
the furnace. I hold I hat the ctfective floor surface of a ** I) " 
retort is that portion of it which is within the furnace walls, 
and that determines the gas making power of the same, if 
other conditions are equal. It is not the heating surface of 
the retort, as that is always bniind tt* be great enough, com- 
pared with the area of the floor, of the style of retort men- 
tioned. 

Thus we find that the flijor ii( our inclined retorts is equal to 
18.7 square feet each, which is about the same as we could 
have if we rebuilt our old benches with horizontal *^ through " 
retorts. I fear I shall weary ytm if I go into greater detail 
with regard tn these Ix^nches, and yet, if this paper is to be of 
any use^ 1 ought to do it. 

In order that you may readily be enabled to determine the 
possible benefits to bt derived from the use of in( lined retorts, 
the cost of their construction must be considered, compara- 
tively with that of the horizontal retort. 

Should we replace our common w^ith regenerator furnaces, 
and instead of sixes, build benches of sevens, we would obtain 
the same gas making capacity, and require the same amount of 
substructure in such benches, a^ we have in our ** inclines,** 
that space of 7 feet, 9 J inches between the backs of the arches 
aione excepted. We would have room enough in our retort 
house as it is, and could employ stoking machinery for fdling 
and drawing our retorts. As to what would be the best thing 
to do— to use stoking machines or inclined retorts— we cannot 
say positively as yet. We know what can be done with the 
former, but not yet what saving can be effected by the latter 



J 



283 



retort house on a large scale. The far 
^eatcr simplicity of the inclined retort system is a strong 
argument in its favor, however, and the greater first cost of 
benches is after all for items which do not wear out 
sily» and can be used with many suhseqvient settings. 
The first column below shows the quantity of material which 
vas actually required for each bench, including the chimney, 
and for convenience of comparison I have given in the second 
column the same information of what would have been needed, 
had benches wnih horizontal retorts of same size and like fur- 
naces been built, instead of the ** inclines;" for very much of 
what may seem to be an excessive amount of material used, is 
due to the furnace, which would of course be the same for 
cither style of setting. 

Inclmed Retort HoHxontal Rttori 

Bench, Bench. 

Redbrick 20,593. 7,500^ 

Building sand . , 6 cubic yards. 2 cubic yards. 

Lirae (So pounds dry per 

bushel) ,...,.,*,,• 35 bushels, 12 bushels. 

No. I fire brick. 16,229. 12,000. 

XXX No. 1 square brick. 575. 575, 

Soap brick ,...•.*,,.... 650, 650, 

Split brick 275. 275. 

Arch brick and skew backs 730. 730. 
Various shaped blocks and 

tiles 81,146 lbs. 74,896 lbs. 

l>ry milled clay 60 bbls. 48 bbls. 

Ground brick. 12 " 10 ** 

Retorts 7 7 

All iron work complete.. 21,884 lbs. ^3*3^5 '^s. 

Labor to build (two men) 105 working days. 35 working days. 

The coal to be used is elevated to the top of the stack and 
delivered into hoppers by means of a link- belt and bucket 
elevator 

From the hoppers the wagonettes are filled, and the latter are 
then rolled opposite the retorts to be charged, and the coal 
dumped. From the lime the first lump of coal enters the ru- 




torts until the lid is closed usually takes eight seconds. To 
remove the coke takes longer; but the labor is of such a nature 
that a man could do it with his coat and collar on, without 
inconvenience. 

The coke dropping from the retorts is to be removed by a 
conveyer, operated by a steam or gas engine, to the coke 
but as we expect to make other improvements at our works nes 
spring, that matter has been postponed for the present. I had 
hoped to be able to state at this meeting what results we ob- 
tained from these new benches; but as yuur Stjcretary informed 
me that he must have the paper by September 24th, I shall have 
to close without doing so; to which may be added that the 
benches may not after all be ready to charge at the date of this 
meeting. But we shall soon know^ what we can do, and by the 
third Wednesday of May, 1891, when the Western Gas Associa- 
tion will have its fourteenth annual meeting, at Louisville, Ky., 
a statement of results with the inclined bench, both at a large 
and small gas works may be luoked for, and as the proceedings 
of that Association are published by the gas press, you will of 
course get that which I n-gret not to be able to give you now; 
and thus I leave the subject in your hands. 

Having read the paper, Mr. Egner made the following addt* 
tional remarks: 

This paper was written about the iid of September Since 
then we have charged the benches. We WHiuld not have got 
them hot atid charged them if it had not been for Mr. McMillin 
— for 1 was slow about it; but as he said to push them a little 
more, we pushed them to the point of working them^ If I had 
this paper to write over again, I would probably make it shorter 
and more interesting; but as it is I have here a supplement 
which I wish to atkl to the paper, as follows: 

Since the preceding paper was written the benches described 
were charged, and I can now give you some facts in connection 
with the practical working of the system on a larger scale than 
that with a single bench only. It is true, we have had only 
eight tiays of practical experience with our new benches with 
inclined rettuts; but in writing about them 1 am reminded of 
the story about a littk colored girl who, when asked how old 



286 



she wass replied; *'Vs most leben years old; but if 1 reckon the 
fun Vs had* Is 'bout a hundred/' VVc have had eight days of 
experience with these inclined retorlii, but we have learned a 
gcK>d many things in those few days. 

ist. We found that we can save about 55,3 per cent, in the 
number of men needed to handle an equal amount of coal (as 
compared with our old works) from be^innin^ to end of the 
carhoni^ting operation. 

7d. That, owing to the class of lal)or which can be employed, 
we can save 61.6 per cent, in money paid for wages as com- 
pared With the old system, and yet pay better wages by 12 per 
cent, at least than the same men could earn elsewhere, 

jd. That there wtis an unmistakable prejudice among the 
men employed at the works against the new system, which 
prejudice did not stop there, but was given expression by a 
number of contemptible tricks played on the new apparatus and 
machinery connected therewith; and while the large majority 
of our men are honest, good, intelligent, and well-meaning, 
^ome one among them was a disji^race to the name of an honest 
working man — the latter the noblest creature on earth. 

4ih. That our retorts ought to have been set at a little 
greater angle, and that the curve of the coal chute at the upper 
and back end of the retorts should have been that of a parab- 
ola, and not that of a circle, as is the case with our coat chutes. 

5th. That the coal chute castings shtJuUl be carefully and 
very smoothly made. Any humps in the casting are a detri- 
ment to the successful working of the retorts. 

6th. That if we had made our retort house a few feet higher 
and wider, it would have been much more comfortable for the 
men employed^ and might have resulted in a further saving of 
wages. 

7th. That in all other respects we seemed to have hit upon a 
good practical construction of the original idea of Andre Coze* 

A number of other little so-called ** tricks of the trade *' were 
learned during our short experience. As these are likely to 
occur to any gas worker, I will not further take up your time 
by relating them here, but will only add that if I had the ex- 
perience of the past few days before writing the p:iper, I dare- 
say I could have made it much shorter and more interesting. 




Discussion. 



Mr. Muunev — I think there is a little error in Mr. Egner^s 
paper, in the statement that Mr. Coec had revived a dead mat- 
ter, as Mr. Cathels. a few years before his death, designed an 
inclined retort and a method fur successfully charging and 
drawing the same. His first idea was to have a long chute for 
charging the retort, bnt after experiments at the gas works at 
Rockaway Beach, L. I., he adopted the plan of charging by 
means of a short chute and a double bucket— that is, a bucket 
within a bucket, the outer one emptying and the inner one fal- 
lowing afterwards. The drawings were made by Mr. Arndt, 
and were obtained by me fmra Mr, Forstall a few weeks before 
his death. 

The President— The drawings were made before the date 
of the patent? 

Mr. Mooney — Yes, and w^ere t[uite old drawings. 

Mr. LiTTLEHALES— I Can corroborate what Mr. Mooney has 
said, because the first experiments that Mr. Cathels made with 
reference to the angle of the chute were made in my own works. 
He was working on that for a long time, and it must have been 
at least three years before we heard anything of the Coze sys- 
tem that his drawings were completed. Hence what Mr, Egner 
says about their being free from any patent rights is perfectly 
clear. 

Mr. Coggshall — I would like to ask the practical result of 
the eight days* work, in the amount of coal used, coke con- 
sumed, and gas produced. 

Mr, Egner — We had arranged to run the gas through a 
separate meter, with an exhauster and a se[)arate system of 
condensers, scrubbers, and purifiers. When the first six re- 
torts were starttrd, our exhauster stojipcd shnrt, and we could 
not turn it over. We had run that exhauster the day before, 
just to see that everything was clear. We opened the ex- 
hauster then and found within it handfuis of cotton waste and 
rave lings of man ilia rope, and several handfuis of iron borings. 
In the meantime we conveyed the gas another way and started 



287 



the benches. Wc could nut run the gas made by the '• inclines** 
through a separate meter, and fur that reason cannot tell how 
much we made ; but tht; imk^ comes out well carbonized. We 
have every reason to suppose that we got as much gas from 
the coal operated upon by the ** inclines*' as we would in the 
ordinary way, because the coal is thoroughly coked. The 
amount of coke that we use in the furnace is about 20 per cent. 
WTe charge 400 pounds of coal to a retort every four hours, and 
couJd charge more, because the furnace can be handled in any 
way you please. By opening the primary and secondary air 
drafts we could burn out the retort in a few hours. The coat 
we use will give 4.91 cubic feet of 17 candle power gas to the 
pound without an enricher. 

Mr. Lansdf.n — ^Will Mr. Egner give us his reason for chang- 
ing the Coze system, with regard to taking the gas from the 
back end of the retort instead of the front ? Coze takes the 
gas from the front; but I see by Mr. Egner's drawings that he 
lakes it from the same chute where the coal is charged, at the 
back end. 

Mr, Egner — I do not know that I am at liberty to use Mr. 
McMillins name in connection with this, but he was consulted, 
and we thought that thing over very carefully. We thought 
there would be an advantage in changing, having in mind the 
systL-m of Davidson, who charged his retorts only half way 
from the back end, and claimed to get better results by doing 
so. Of course he had the front part of the retort as a super- 
heater, and he did get more gas from a pound of coal than ha<i 
been g<it before when charging retorts in the then costumary 
manner. Ab*»ut 17 years ago I was sent by the Tresident of 
the gas company that I was with then, to investigate that sys- 
tem. You all know that when we charge a retort we shove the 
coal l^ck from the mouthpiece a little way, and you know why 
that is dont*. Now, with tmr inclined retorts, if we take the 
gas from the lower end, and as we know that much of the coal 
would run down there, we also know that any vapors coming 
from the coal at that point, which iiTiglit be converted into gas 
by passing the heated surface of the retort if we take it off at 
the uffrr endy would go directly into the hydraulic main if we 



288 



take off the ji^as at the lower entl, atui l>e deposited there only 
as very rich tar; ajitl wliiie we could )tjet a good price for the 
tar, we are not in the tar busines^s, and would rather make gas 
of it. We thought we woidd obtain better results per pound of 
coal by usinji; only abtuit twu-thinls of a charge, fdling the re- 
torts only part way up, using the upper jiart of the retort as a 
superheater or fixer, so to speak; and that is the reason we put 
the outlet pipe at the upper end. 

Mr. Lansukn— I would like to ask Mr. Eijrncr whether he 
found, in passing the tar up that way, that the condensation 
took place in the charging neck, the same as it would in a 
stoppeil stand-pi]*e? Would it not have interfered with the 
flow of the Ciial freely running down into the retort ? I am in- 
terested in this matter because 1 am putting some in myself. 
This is a new departure, and I want t<.) get all the information 
that I can. 

Mr. Egner — We found no difficulty except frrmi the fact 
that the chutes w^ere made with a wrong curve^ and the coal 
would drop down into them and lay there. These chutes, for 
a short distance, have the same angle of inclination as the re- 
tort itself, and in charging, the coal would sometimes fdl the 
neck of the chute and lodge there. We overcame that ditR- 
culty by taking a sheet of No. 16 iron, and before charging the: 
coal we run that sheet iron down into the back of the mouth- 
piece, and then dump our coal down l>etween. Any one build- 
ing an inclined retort l>ench should not forget to make a 
steeper curve on the mouthpiece than I have. Another thing 
to be remembered : In our bench of sevens we have a double 
curve at the two lower retorts, and that is not a good thing. 
The coal chute castings shouid be watched very carefully in 
the making, so as not to have them rough, ami not to make 
them at all flat, anywhere ; because if you do. the coal will 
lodge there. We had no difficulty or trouble in charging after 
using that i>iece of sheet iron; but when we first started wc 
got some of the bottom chutes stopped up, and when wc 
dum[jed the coal in, the coal laid there and would not slide 
into the retort^ and fdled the chute right up to the top. But 
that was not on account of the tar. That happened the very 



289 



first chargr inai ul- |>iu III. Nfccssity btfiiij^ the mother of in- 
vention, we got this sheet iron, and it worked very nicely. 
There is no patent on that, and nobody can get one on it now. 
as it is free lo the world. 

M», Lansden — Mr. Egner speaks of the addition which he 
has made to the system of charging. I wish to say that an 
English patent which gives that same short chute, w*hich is at- 
tached outside (and it would perhaps have the same effect) 
was brought to my attention in New York by a gentleman who 
had the patent for sale. It was a plan to do away with that 
abrupt angle. I do not know whether Mr. Egner has seen (t 
or not. It is patented in England, and they are undertaking to 
introduce it here. 

The President — That is entirely different from the Coze. 

Mr. Egner — In reply to that I will say, I have seen the 
English patent, and that ^t was got out by Mr. Trewby, who, 
as I understood, put the sheet iron into the retort, and charged 
under it, so as to make the coal He at any depth he chose to 
have it lie. He was charging under that sheet, withdrawing it 
after the charge w^as deposited in the retort. That is my im- 
pression of it, though 1 may be mistaken. 

Mr. NoRRis— I would like to ask Mr. Egner the object of 
contracting the lowxr ends of this retort. I notice there is a 
decided depression there. 

Mr. Egker— I think that was a very foolish thing to do. 
We had nothing lo do with that. Those were plans furnished 
to us; and I would not advise anyone to do that, but in build- 
ing inclined benches to avoid this contraction. It ought not 
to be there. 

Mr. NoRRis — How is the coal stopped when it comes down? 
Does the coal come clear dowMi to the lower part, or do you 
put in some arrangement to stup it wiihin the furnace walls ? 

Mr. Egner — We have a shield made of sheet iron, with two 
arms; and before the retort is charged w^e put thai in. This 
shield extends just beyond the brick wall, l^he arms are abcnit 
15 inches long and the ends rest against the lower retort lid. 

19 



290 



The coal brings up against that. The first lumps of coal strike 
the shield in charging, and then it fiUs up evenly to the top or 
end of the charge. When the coke is removed we open the 
door, as in ordinary retorts, and the shield is taken out. It is 
usually found to be a dull red. It is laid on the floor, and then 
out comes the coke. 

Mr. N orris — I would like to ask the reason which induced 
Mr. Egner to say that the exterior angle is too rtat. Is the 
difficulty in charging or discharging ? 

Mr. Eoner — The difficulty is in the charging. It is not the 
retort angle, although the retort might be a little steeper with- 
out hurting it any; but the angle, or curve, rather, is too fiat 
in the charging chutes which we have. The cast iron chute at 
the upper end is the «me I mean. That should have the curve 
of a parabola, not of a circle. When sometimes we just touch 
the coke it rolls out the whole charge. Our retorts set only at 
an angle of 29 \ It would be better^f the angle was about 32^. 

Mr. Norris — In charging is there any difficulty in regard to 
the coal coming clear to the bottom ? In other words, do you 
get a uniform distribution of coal m your retort ? 

Mr. Egner — Yes; we have a uniform distnbutif>n of coal 
throughout the retort. 

Mr. Norrts — What is the mechanical condition of the coal ? 
Is it very fine, or very clean, or just about enough fine stuff in 
it to fill up the cracks between the coal ? 

Mr. Egkf.r— We take the coal at the shed, and allow no 
lumps larger than a man's fist to go into the hopper. There is 
a fine and coarse coal altogether; but it all rolls dow*n very 
nicely, and I have no trouble with it except that spoken of 
before, 

Mr, Mitchell — How does Mr. Egner explain the stopping 

of the coal in the bend of the chute — what caused that ? 

Mr. Egner — ^I think the bend was so slight that before the 

coal had a chance to roll down, it would bunch up and stoj) 

it would not go any further. 

Mr. Mitchell — I understand that the time of the upsetting 



2tn 



of the wagon had *iomething lu clu with the coul dug^in^ ia 
tiiere^ — whether it was upset iiuickly or slowly. Would not 
thai cause the coal to stop at the bend ? 

Mr, Egner — No. 1 was going to say further that the cast- 
ings arc very rough; and that as they wear smoother they 
work better. We tried rolling it down slowly at first, and we 
thought that would overcome the difficulty, but it did not. 
When we would throw it down quickly it would shoot down 
nicely — and that even in the chutes with the double bend — or 
rather, sometimes it would and sometimes it would not, until 
we introduced the light sheet iron shield, which we made very 
steep, then it went down, without bunching up, when carefully 
duojped, without any trouble. 

Mr. CoGGSHAix — I would like to inquire if the coal at the 
further end of the incline was as well carbonized as the remain- 
ing coal through the retorts. 

Mr. Egker — The coal right near the mouthpiece, of course, 
had some tar with it, and it was not as well carbonized as that 
which was a little further in. We thought, therefore, to make 
the shield about 6 inches longer. In fact, before 1 left I gave 
orders to have pieces put on to the arms, so as to keep the coal 
op a little further. It was not as well coked as that further up. 



The President- 
subject? 



Shall we hear from Mr. Clark on this 



Mr. Walton Clark — The points that I desired information 
upon have all been brought out by Mr. Egner's paper, and in 
the answers to the questions put to him. I am very glad to 
know the success that Mr Egner has attained by the use of the 
inclined system. We all believe in it, and I believe that all gas 
works will eventually use inclined retorts. There are opportu- 
nities there for economizing in labor, and I think also In the 
fuel used in heating the retorts; and not only in the labor and 
fuel, but also in the brickwork and In the construction. For in 
the larger floor area of the retorts there will be very considera- 
ble opportunity for economy in first construction, after we have 
thoroughly mastered the details connected with the building. 




2»2 



The PkKsiDLNr— Someone has suggested that we would like 
to hear from Mr. (Ireenouglu 

Mr. Grkenouoh — I cannot imagine why such a suggestion 
could he made, hecaiise I du not know anything ahont the sub- 
ject. 1 was about rising to ask Mr. Rgner if he could give any 
figures as to the number of men required to run that retort 
stack, in order that sonic coiuparison migiit he made as to the 
amount of labor rec|nired tf^ run the retorts in that way as com- 
pared with the amount of lahtrr re(|uired to run retorts by draw- 
ing machines. You have seven benches in a stack? 

Mr, KtiNKK — Hight benches of sevens. Before I tell you 
how many men we employed^ I want to say this: You all know 
that in different sections of the cijuntry things are very differ* 
ent as to men. For instance, down in Old Virginia if you make 
a man wtirk very hard he will throw down the shovel and go to 
work on the oyster l)eds; for he would rather work there for tj 
per week than in a retort house at s?2 per day. In New York, 
a good many years ago, year in and year out we charged eight 
benches of sixes with 350 pounds of coal per retort every four 
hours, and employed six men on each watch to do it. That was 
heavy work. If we tried to do that in St. Louis every man in 
the place would walk out. To handle the same amount of coal 
at St. I.ouis that we are now handling with the inclined retorts, 
we would have to have, including the foreman, 17 men on a 
shift, or 34 men in all; whereas with the inclined retorts we need 
have only 1 1 men on a shift. When we started this work we 
took men who had never been inside of a retort house to work. 
We picked up green men. We did not want to take the old 
men, but preferred to take strange men who had not worked in 
the retort house at all. It did not take long to get them in 
pretty good training. 

Mk, Dkll — I would like to ask Mn Egner what is the maxi- 
mum charge that he has made so far? 

Mr. Egner — The maximum charge is 400 pounds for each 
four hours. 

Mr. Dell — You also said that it took 20 per cent, of the 
coke made? 



293 



» 



I 



Mk. EoNtR — Ves. 

Mr. DELt — Was the bench then running at the maximum? 

Mr. Eoner — No; I think we could have done better than 
that; and if' the men had had more experience, or if n»f had had 
more experience, we could have done better. It was as well as 
we could do for the first eight days. 

Mr. Dkul^ — I have had considerable experience with those 
furnaces* and I think it will be safe to say when the furnace is 
in thoroughly good working condition, and when the bench and 
everything connected with it is in good working order, the pro- 
portion of fuel used would be lo pounds of coke to loo pounds 
of coal carbonized. 

The President— That is encouraging. 

Mr. Somerville— I think I may preface the question which 
I am going lo put lu Mr. Egner by saying we all know the fact 
that the carbon in our retorts will form into ridges right across 
the floor of the retort after a certain period. It seems to me 
that the success of the retort will depend greatly upon having 
a smooth floor surface* so that the coal will run down without 
any hindrance. The questioo that was troubling me was this: 
If these ridges of carbon were to collect (as they do collect in 
our horizontal retorts) how would that affect the ct*al as it is 
put in? Of course, it would be im[>ossible for it to run over 
these little ridges as it was running through the new retort. 
Have you had any experience in that yet? Have you had the 
device long enough to see if this difficulty was reaily of impor- 
tance? I am, of course, certain that the cuke would not be able 
to slide out so easily with the carbon in the retort as it WTJuld 
without the carbon; and, therefore, I think in a year or so we 
wilt be belter able to judge of the working of these retorts. I 
would like to ask Mr Egner if he has seen anything of that 
before^ 

Mr. Egnf.r — Ves, sir. You will remember that we have run 
one bench of 5*s in St. Louis for over two years, every day in 
the year, until May, when we let it down as the furnace was 
bumed out. We relined the furnace, put another coal chute on, 
and it is running now. If we had not had the experience sug- 





gested by Mr, Somcrvillc we would not have put up the addi- 
tional benches. We would not have gone to that expense if 
had not had the two years' experience with the one bench. The 
retorts are in position there just as good as the day when they 
were put in» I will say, however, that it happened sometimes 
when visitors were at those works the men who were taking out 
the coke would prod away at the charge and take nearly three 
times as long as when no one was looking at thero. They did 
that in my opinion in order to prejudice people against the in- 
clined retorts. But after running the thing for two years and 
then starting that old bench up again^ we claim to have had 
enough experience with that one bench to warrant us in build- 
ing more, and, of course, with eight benches we will know more 
about it hereafter. 



Mr. Boardjian — I would anticipate some trouble in scurfing 
these retorts from the long chute of the lower retorts in the 
bench, which is made of cast iron, I presume, I would antici- 
pate that you might encounter trouble there in scuriing them, 
and getting that too hot and cracking the cast iron. I would 
like to ask if that has been Mn Egner*s experience? 

Mr, Egner^— No. Of course I have not had charge of the 
old St. Louis works, except since January last, when the Laclede 
took hold of them: but I came down every ouce in a while to 
look at them. I was interested, and desired to see how the 
thing was going on. The scurfing was a very simple thing. 
They would open the upper and lower lids, the air would rush 
through, and in a few hours the carbon was loose enough to be 
taken out easily. 

Mr. Boa RDM an — I can well understand that you scurf very 
readily — it is eminently adapted for that; but 1 should antici- 
pate trouble from that cast iron chute getting too hot. I would 
ask if that has been the case, or if it could be guarded against 
by the closing of the lower door? I want to know what experi- 
ence you have had in that. If those chutes should burn out or 
crack from excessive heat it would be quite a costly thing to 
put them back into the interior of the furnace* 

Mk. EivNtiR — In the bench that we did run we had one burned 



^ 



296 



anrt^nmuh piece, but it was not caused by the scurfing, la the 
original bench the mouthpiece was filled in all around. When 
we put the new chute on we put the wall back of it, but did not 
fill it up solid, and it did not crack again, I should think it was 
caused by that, and not on account of scurfing. We have 
scurfed retorts several times since the bench was started, and 
they are all in good condition except that one. 

Mr. Greenough — I think this is a matter of very great in- 
terest. If the inclined retort is the best thing that can be used, 
and if we have got to come to it, we want to know it; and of 
course we have to watch what Mr Egner does with a great deal 
of care. He will know a great deal better what difiiculties are 
experienced after he has run a plant of this kind for a year than 
he can tell to-day. Do I understand him to say that the ri 
men mentioned as running this stack do all the work there is — 
taking out the coke, and everything else? I want lo make com- 
parisons in ray own mind as to what can be done with the 
machinery; and so I w^ould like to know just >vhat those it men 
do. 

Mr. Egner — They bring in the coal, quench the coke, and 
attend to the furnace. One man attends to 8 furnaces. They 
draw the coke, charge the coal and clean up the house. 

Mr. Greknough — Do they run the machinery with which 
the coal is lifted up? 

Mr, Egner — Yes. The coal rs brought in in wheelbarrows, 
and IS then delivered by a bucket elevator into the square coal 
hoppers, and from the hoppers it is slipped into the wagonettes, 
and from those dumped into the retorts. One of those 1 1 men 
is a foreman who watches the whole of the proceedings. 

Mr. Greenough — U is possible that if this series of 8 benches 
that are now put up were t6 instead of 8 there would be a still 
further economy in tlie amount of lalwr required to run them. 
As the comparison stands at present, with what can be done by 
machiner}', and considering only the question of labor, I am not 
sure there h any economy. A large gas company can put coal 
iota the retorts and draw it out again quite as economically by 
machines. We are putting into one stack of retorts as much as 



296 

45© pounds of coal every 4 hours, without any difficulty, and 
working it off. If so large a charge as that can be handled by 
hand, it may reduce the labor materially if carried on to any ex- 
tent. Although it would look as though Mr. Coze had been 
followed up by Cathels (I have never looked at the drawings of 
Cathels myself, although they were in my office for some time, 
but nobody had the courage at that time to try the plan) cer- 
tainly these gentlemen in St. Louis are entitled to very great 
credit for the success with which they have carried out the 
scheme; but before we throw up our hats and say that this is 
what we have all been looking for, let those of us who are en- 
gaged in making gas in other ways wait a little while and see 
how this plan works during the coming year, and then we will 
be a little more enthusiastic about it than we are to-day; al- 
though to-day we are prepared to congratulate these gentlemen 
on their success, thus far. 

Mr. a. C. Humphreys — It certainly seems as if gravity 
ought to be able to do the work better for us than machinery; 
and, as Mr. Greenough says, it seems as though everything 
was in favor of the inclined retort, or at least was pointing in 
that direction. I do not know whether the paper answers the 
question or not, but I would like to know, if it is not stated i^ 
the paper, how long it takes to discharge each retort of th^ 
bench. It is the handling of the coke which seems to me i^ 
be the chief item of saving of this system. Of course the que^' 
tion of the handling of the coke has to be combined with th<^ 
question of putting in the coal — because there comes in th^^ 
angle; but if we have an angle which is i)r()per for handling 
the coal so as to lay it in the retort evenly, how will it then bc^ 
as to discharging the coke ? What is the result of your experi-^' 
ence as to the length of time recjuired for discharging eacl^ 
retort ? I was surprised to find at the Southall works, London^^ 
England, where the Coze system is in operation in accordance 
with the modified drawings of the patent which I think has 
been referred to, that they take a very much longer time to 
discharge than I had any idea of; for I did not suppose that s(» 
much time could be consumed in discharging a retort. To be 
sure, there is an explanation in stating that the.se retorts were 



iUkc a!» tu the length. 



jreMjrfecHpitlec 



M*. Egker— I would say that the average time of discharg- 

[ tfcc retorts would be about 30 seconds. It has one good 

fccl upon our regular retort house men — ^they try to dis- 

argc the rcti^rt quicker than the inclined retorts would let 

the coke out, I used to te^l about a fireman that I had (who 

ha*5ince become a superintendent himself, and has managed 

gis works for some years) ^that he, another fireman and a 

lid[>cr used to draw and charge a set of ten retorts every two 

hotirs, with 250 pounds of coal in each, in 8 minutes, and that 

thty did that alt day long. They had to charge two scoops of 

coal into each retort, and they had only one scoop to do it 

»rlh, t used to tell our men that, and try to get them to 

" hustle/' as we say out West; but they would not " hustle/' 

^QW that we have the inclined retorts they dt? try to get the 

cqkcout of the horizontal quicker than the men can get it out 

of the inclined retorts; but they cannot do it. They can draw 

a horizontal retort in less than a minute, but the ** inclined '* 

lien can take it out in less time than that. I would state from 

Observing it, as I have done very carefully, that it takes about 

Je Skecnnds to draw an inclined retort. Some come out quicker, 

^nd wjth some it takes Jonger; but there is not over S seconds 

difference. 

Me. Ru!SS£Ll — I would like to ask whether it is 8 seconds 
per retort or 8 seconds per l)ench ? 

Mr, Egkkr — Eight seconds per retort. 

Mn. A, C. HuMPHRKVs— While the conditions at the London 
works 1 have referred to might have been a little unfavorable 
on the day that I saw the exhibition made, I will say it took 
from 4 to 4I minutes to discharge each retort. The trouble 
abtiut it was the length of the retort : and I think they recog- 
m/.ed that trouble. I call attention to that point so that those 
who arc working the inclined retorts had better think a long 
lime before they put in any of such lengths. 

Mm. Kivnkr — I would say tn Mr. Greenough that we are not 
, caoiltlitted t'> tlu^ inclined retorts. We are doing pretty 




well with them, but we are not irrevocably committed to ustn^ 
only inclined retorts. We are looking at charging and drawing 
machines also, and at water gas apparatus as well 

On motion of Mr, Humpbreys the thanks of the Association 
were voted to Mn Egner, 

Mn Edwartl G, Pratt, of Des Moines, Iowa, then read his 
paper on — 

THE EXTENSION OF THE USES OF GAS FOR PUR- 
POSES OTHER THAN ILLUMINATION. 



The subject indicates, at once, that I am expected to enter 
that field of thought to which most of us have had our minds 
directed during the past 2 or j years^ and which, it seems to me, 
is bound to occupy more and more of our attention during the 
same period of time now before us. *' Gas for fuer* touches 
the popular chord, and more especially in localities w^here a large 
proportion of the fuel used is bituminous coal, and where, as a 
consequence, the inhabitants are suffering from the resultant 
smoke and dirt. To such, the question of convenience seems to 
be of only secondary consideration^ as with each recurring 
period when necessity demands the kindling of fires, and each 
chimney represents a miniature volcano, then dtjes the suppli- 
cation go forth, "Oil, if We only could obtain some other fuel 
than this miserable soft coal" 

Is it sympathy with this suffering people that the same chord 
is set vibrating within our own breasts? I think not, else some 
means would have been devised long ago, whereby a suitable sub- 
stitute would have been procured. It is true we have done our 
best to keep up the supply of a substitute in the shape of coke, 
and at prices fluctuating with those of anthracite coal, so that 
as far as expense to the consumer is concerned, it has been 
nearly as great and quite as troublesome. 

To those living in more favored localities, as pertains to the 
subject of fuel, these unpleasant experiences cannot be fully 
appreciated; hence the fuel problem, to them, is simply a mat- 
ter of convenience. In this'age of progress, however, the two 
W(Jrds necessity and convenience have become nearly assimilated 



29f> 



arrcTwhal scc-ms applicable to one ts fitting to the other What, 
then, has been the motive thai has caused us to energetically 
pttsh our business in a direction^ that, until the past few years, 
received but little of our attention and encouragement? 

Formerly we were satisBed, seemingly, in doing that business 
that came to us, without making any special efiforts, or offering 
^ inducements that would attract attention, for our business was 
that of furnishing gas for light; and thai we discouraged its use 
for any other purpose is true, as the oft repeated question to a 
consumer who had reason to believe his bill was excessive, ** Do 
you use a stove in your house/* clearly indicated that any de- 
vice, aside from the ordinary burner that consumed gas, we were 
L in doubt about, and was not sanctioned by us, inasmuch as the 
H loo excessive gas bill was attributed to its use. Now, how differ* 
^Kttl« being on the alert always, any gas-consuming device that 
^pw can consistently recommend for a purpose meets with our 
m approval, because it fills a want and helps increase our gas sales 
account. 

In my endeavor to answer this question, these thoughts nat- 
arally suggest themselves: 

While gas companies of the large towns and cities through- 
out this country report large increases in their sales each year, 
may it not be attributed more to the increased demand for gas 
for domestic and mechanical purposes, contingent upon reduced 
rates, than to any other reason? Is it a fact that we have been 
■ stimulated to seek other methods of disposing of our product 
on account of the demands made and the success attained by 
electricity? And, somewhat contrary to the law governing such 
things, by which the demand precedes the supply, are we not to 
a great extent indebted to the numerous manufacturers of gas 
' appliances for the energy and skill displayed in the devices they 
naw aid us with? 

Graming these, our duty lies clearly in keeping up with the 

possibilities as they appear before us, for we have reached a 

iod now where the growth of our business depends upon 

astanl vigilance; indeed, it is about as necessary that we 

create a demand as that we supply it. 

At the works under my charge we have made special efforts 
during the past season to create an impression upon the minds 



300 



i}( the public favorable tu the Uhe uf gas fur fuel purposes, that 
is, to an extent consistent with its economical use; and, while 
we are aware that there are others who have made g^reater pro- 
gress in this direction than ourselves, we are satisfied with hav- 
ing done better than was anticipated- And, while it rs true that 
we have worked energetically, we have been very cautious about 
recommending only that which merited our approval, realizing 
that one defective or inferior appliance would do us more harm 
than 50 perfect ones would do us good. For this reason, as much 
as for any other, we have been opposed to the rental s)'stem. 
Stoves kept in stock for rental purposes naturally become old 
stoves, and perhaps have been turned into this stock because 
they were unfit to sell^ hence, in my opinion, they are unfit to 
use. 

We do, however, approve of payment by the rental system: 
that is, a sufficient charge for rental is made to secure the pay- 
ment of the stove in full within, say, six months. By this 
method you reach a class who otherwise could not afford to 
purchase outright. We secure a consumer, and good care of 
the stove is assured, and there is less liability of its working be- 
ing condemned. 

Previous to this year, we labored under the disadvantage of 
not having sufficient space to show off a stock of stoves, having 
depended entirely upon the few samples displayed in our 
office, and from which sales were made. 

This was very unsatisfactory, for, aside from the fact that 
it required the attention of a clerk from his regular work, and 
who, perhaps, was unable to talk stove or gas for fuel, the idea 
of having to wait until we coukl order from the sample se- 
lected, oftentimes precluded an opportunity for sale; and, 
judging from the dispatch with which some manufacturers 
have failed to fill orders this season, it is very fortunate we 
laid in a stock early, as the desire would have languished by 
the time the stove was received. Influenced, therefore, by 
what others of good judgment have done, we rented a store- 
UHim on a prominent corner, and stocked it with as many 
stoves, both cookers and heaters, as space would permit, not 
forgetting to arrange them in as attractive a manner as was 
possible, making also a display in the windows, 



801 



The difTerent types and sizes of stoves and cJlhcr j^^as appli- 
ances were connected up ready to show at any time. Then we 

nployed a man, competent to make practical demonstration 
of what could be done with a stove — in other words he could 
cook, with instructions not to allow a customer to escape 
through any doubt as to whether this thing or that could be 
done satisfactorily with a jbt^is stove. Then we advertised — wc 
advertised in everything that would advertise us— and it is 
wounderful the number of advertising mediums there arc, and 
the friends you have, when once you have expressed a dispo- 
sition to advertise. 

The fact that we had gas appliances to sell, however, was 
not of so much importance as that, for gas used for fuel pur- 
poses, we made a special rate of $1.50 per M., the former price, 
and also, that for illuminating purposes being $2 per M. The 
stoves were sold at about 10 per cent, advance over the manu* 
facturers* prices, and we set them up at no expense to the 
purchaser- These three things — reduced price of gas, stoves 
at cost, and no contingent expense fur setting up — -have done 
more to assist our enterprise than anything else. It has not 
only resulted in getting many of our regular patrons for light 
to use stoves, but has attracted the attention of many who had 
not thought of using gas for light even, to place a stove in 
their homes; skeptical though they were at firsts some of our 
best references now come from this class. 

Realizing, too, that we had a powerful competitor in the 
vapor and oil stoves, w^e have lost no opportunity of displacing 
these whenever such opportunity presented itself, and have 
made liberal allowances for such in exchange, knowing full 
well that a gas stove once set was a consumer gained. And 
because a gas stove had been recommended to them as being 
an expensive luxury, finding it otherwise, we have in these our 
strongest advocates. 

To lend interest to what already had been tlone, we, very 
early in the season, engaged the services of a young lady, well 
ap in the art, to give a series of cooking lessons, using, of 
course* a gas stove in the preparation of the food. It is un- 
necessary to say that this was a very taking feature; and being 
quite inexpensive, inasmuch as an admission was charged to 




give tone tu the alfair, vvhicii paul the expenses, resulted in 
very much good to us; for, besides creating an interest in be- 
half of the gas stove for those who hail never used one, the 
fact was clearly denionstraitMl to ulhers who had, that there 
were many things possible in their operatitm that they had no 
previous knowledge of. 

These practical iilustratiuns d em oust rated the fact that a 
gas stove is not only a summer stove, but is invaluable for 
winter use as well, where cooking is reduced lo a science by 
means of quick regulation and easy operation; and we have 
several instances now in mind where arrangements for warming 
the kitchen in winter by the furnace have been ,made, the in- 
tention being to perforn^i the family cooking with a gas stove 
thnmghoul the yean !lence» while it has been previously 
supposed that about all the slcjves we could dispose of must be 
during three of the summer months — ^and to a great extent it 
has been true — J believe it to be a good policy to keep them 
before the people in such a way that they will have cause to 
know there are many things for which they can be used and 
concerning which we are familiar. Heating stoves are looked 
upon with favor, especially for intermittent work, and we are 
very careful in explaining to what extent a gas heating stove 
may be ecunomical. They are, as is well known, convenient 
things, and will be largely used when the price of gas will 
admit. 

The same thing wH)uId partially apply to the gas engine, 
though from experience 1 can say little in regard tu them, as 
we have none in operation in our citVj the two there having 
long since been displaced by electric motors. It seems to me, 
however, that the first cost of a good gas engine precludes 
their mure general use for one thing; then, again, the manufac- 
turers of the various types of electric motors have canvassed 
every town and city in the country where they could obtain 
current for the sale of their goods. Might not something be 
accomplished if the gas engine manufacturers displayed the 
same enterprise ? 

There is no doubt but with gas at $i or $1.25 per 1,000 a 
gas engine of from or\e-horse power to lo-horse power could 
be operated quite as cheaply as the prevailing charge for elec- 



303 



trie current, and certainly more satisfactory, fur it cuuld lit- 
depended upon, which cannot be said of the electric motor. 

Of course, very much depends upon location, as Ui the cost 
of making steam, and the cunsequent success of a gas engine; 
but it seems to mc that with some assistance from the manu- 
facturers, and an effort on our own part tu make a rate for gas, 
consistent with their operation being made economical, there 
is an opportunity for the gas engine, such as it has never yet 
had. Having had but little practical experience with a gas 
engine, I am not [>osted as to their efticicncy, though I have 
received statements from superintendents of gas companies 
operating electric light stations, which would indicate that 
other fuel must be very cheap to compete with them, at the 
cost they charge themselves u[> with ff>r gas. If this be true, 
and I have no reason to doubt it, then 1 believe that gas com- 
panies operating electric lighting stations should, where possi- 
ble, in making future improvements, adopt the gas engine. If 
we have any confidence in the gas engine and expect to have 
it in more general use we must, at leasts use it ourselves, and 
the manufacturer of engines, together with the manufacturer 
of stoves, must give us the best possible apparatus for the 
least possible money, so that the average purchaser can afford 
to buy. 

Since May ist of this year, when our special rate went into 
effect, we made a practice of setting a separate meter for each 
consumer where gas was used to any extent for fuel purposes; 
the question of estimating gas for such purposes being unsatis- 
factory, necessitating an argument with each settlement, in 
which the consumer usually aflRrmed that there had been ver)^ 
little gas used for light. 

The question here arises whether it is good business policy 
to make differential rates favoring that used for fuel, especially 
if it becomes necessary by so doing to set a separate meter 
where there is one already set; to which I would say, yes, un- 
less it be that there isn't enough difference between rates for 
light and that for fuel to warrant it; and then I would be 
tempted to say, make another reduction in your fuel rate. 

Upon this subject 1 have been very much interested in read- 
ing an article in the Amcrkan Gas Lig/ti Journal of January 28, 



804 



l889» ^^^i*^^ ^ think I ominut do better than quote one parag^raph 
therefrom : *' The recommendation of such measures (refer- 
rinj^: to differential rates) by the slow acting but ever studious 
authorities of the dcrman government plainly shows that they, 
at least pay no heed to the thought that has made so strong 
an impression on the policy of some American gas companies 
— the idea that special rates may prejudice them in the regard 
of the consumer in general; and the statistics given must 
cause an extension of this verdict to the Cerman gas com- 
panies in general, the proprietors whereof are content in the 
knowledge that a wise system of discriminative rates has 
neither involved them with their consumers as a class, nor in- 
terfered with their receipt of a legitimate profit. Indeed, quite 
to the contrary in the latter regard. A public clamor in re- 
gard Xo the shrinking of gas rates in any department of supply 
to the lowest possible figure is not to be feared — at least where 
the maximum rate is a reasonable one; and it would seera to 
be, to say the least, supersensitiveness to entertain such a 
belief in localities thai have considered the public interest in 
consulting their own.*' 

In our city of 52,000 people, with the gas consumption aver- 
aging nearly 5,000,000 cubic feet per month, our gas sales have, 
during the eight months of 1S90, increased 22.18 per cent, over 
a corresponding period of time in 1889; 70 per cent, of which 
increase I attribute to fuel purposes, made possible by a reduc- 
tion in the price of 50 cents per 1,000, 

I estimate that of all gas sold, the percentage for fuel pur- 
poses for five months previous to September 1, was about as 
follows: April, 7 per cent,; May, to per cent; June, 14 per 
cent.; July, 17 percent.; August, 16 per cent. 

During that period we sold 121 stoves of different sixes, re- 
ceiving therefor $1,945.42, The net value of all stoves, etc., 
on hand September 1, over that of April i, w*as $916.83. 

Our total expenditures for everything incident to gas appli- 
ances, during the same period of time, amounts to $3,520,79. 

Deducting value of stoves on hand September 1, as above 
($916.83), leaves our net expenses at $2,603.96, being in excess 
of receipts for stoves, etc., 8658.54. The profit derived from 
the gas consumed in these stoves during the period covered by 



305 



theaccDuni (dve months) was in excess of the loss shown oa 
the stove acxount, and the stoves continue to use gas at the 
rej^ular price. Our Company beUevcs the investment tcj be a 
good one and that it will be returned to us many fokL 

Incidental la this we have been obliged to lay two miles of 
mains, brought about through the interest created in gas for 
fuel, in a district remote from the center of distrduition^ and 
previously covered by the electric light. We expect to secure 
liberal patronage, not only in the use of gas for fuel, hut for 
light as weiL I might mention that we supply the electric light, 
but that makes no diiTerence, for we had just as soon relieve 
ourselves of an electric light patron as we would a competitor. 
Already I have had numerous inquiries made as to the feasi- 
bility of heating residences by gas, and hardly a day passes but 
that I am besieged by some enthusiast who ** believes he has an 
idea " that he ran heat his house economically by gas during the 
aiiproaching winter, and seems really disappointed when in- 
formed that at this time, and the present price, we would not 
care to make the attempt, knowing full well what the result 
would be. 

"All things are possible," however, and we hail the day when 
it will be our privilege to conscientiously proclaim ** Eureka/' 

Discussion, 



The Prfsidext — Gentlemen, you have listened to a paper 
which interests every member of the Association. It is a paper 
which should receive your careful consideration and discussion, 

Mr. BL'TTERWorth — The subject gives rise to a very dis- 
couraging and hopeless retlection on the part of a great many 
gas companies located in towns in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and 
Indiana, where they have natural gas. The question of interest 
togas companies there is not so much how to extend the use of 
gas for purposes other than illumination, but is rather how shall 
we be able even to hold the r<insumptinn we have for illumina- 
tion, as against natural gas. Heretofore, and previous to the 
introduction of natural gas in Columbus, we sold gas stoves at 
cost, and did everything we could — changing gasoline stoves 
for gas stoves, and sold gas at $i per thousand feet. Now wc 




would be very lliankful if we could get back the old consump- 
tiuii thai wc had for illumination. Wc cannot hope to compete 
with natural gas at lo cents per thousand and artificial gas at 
$1 ptfr thousand for purposes other than illumination, 

Mr. a. C. Humi'Hreys^— I would like to suggest one hopeful 
thought to Mr. Buttcrworth, which is that perhaps the natural 
gas regions are the njost favored in this regard, for they will 
have their people there so educated on the gas tjueslion that 
they will never want to abandon the use of gas. If they will 
ju^t hang on by the teeth until natural gas goes out, ihcy will 
have a chance when illuminating gas again comes in. One point 
in Mr. Pratt's paper ought to receive very careful attention at 
the hands of our members. I refer to these words: ** If wc 
have any confidence in the gas engine, and expect to have it in 
more general use, wx must at least use it ourselves, and the man- 
ufacturer of engines must give us the best possible apparatus 
for the least possible money, so that the average purchaser can 
afford to buy/' 1 think we have a perfect right lo look to the 
gas appliances manufacturers to do even better fur us than they 
have done in the past. Although Mr. Pratt in his paper has 
given theni great credit for their work in the past, I feel that, 
especially in the line of gas stoves, we have a right to expect 
more; thai we have a right to expect better stoves at lower 
prices* I prophesy that if the gas appliances men do not give 
them to us, w^e will get them for ourselves. It is coming, as 
sure as can be. And the same thing is true w^ith regard lo gas 
engines. If the gas engine men will not give us the proper gas 
engine, we will get it outside of their help; and even if we have 
to wait until the patents expire, we will have it then. I do not 
think, though, that the patent question will interfere. We have 
a few good gas engines, but I am free to say 1 do not think the 
gas engine interest in this country has been handled with the 
slightest degree of liberality, I refer especially to the one en- 
gine which has made the greatest advance, I think we have 
every right to expect better and more liberal treatment from the 
gas appliances men. If other fjuestions in connection with our 
business had been handled in the same way that those questions 
have been, I do not know where the gas business would now be. 



30" 



Mr. Tabrr — I would throw in a compliment to our gas men 
because I think Mr. Pratt has rather imderrated the percentage 
of gas sold for gas stoves in the summer time. I remember 
that in our Guild in Boston we had a comparison of tig^ures as 
to the amount sold for lighting and couking purposes by New 
England companies during the sammer» and 1 think I am not 
wrung in saying that the average came nearer 25 or 30 percent, 
of the daily consumption than what I take it to be here in this 
paper — 16 or 17 per cent. It was certainly very high. Perhaps 
the reason is to be found in the fact, from some figures that I 
tried to get awhile ago» I ha\"e reason to believe that the gas 
companies have been instrumental in getting out more than 10- 
000 gas stoves in New England within the last three or four 
years. I think we ought to encourage ourselves in that matter, 
and not alone in respect to cooking stoves, either Some three or 
fuur years ago a gentleman who was connected with our Com- 
pany told me very gravely he thought we would not get out any 
more gas stoves; but since then we have got out 500 gas stoves. 
So 1 do not think that many of us know to what extent this 
will develop. In the heating stove, as in the cooking stove, 
there Is great room for advance. Last winter 1 had occasion to 
heat a block that had previously been heated by ordinary coal 
stoves. 1 put 14 gas stoves into that block and succeeded per- 
fectly. I had no difficulty whatever. I throw that out as a sug- 
gestion to many of you. It seems to me that we generally think 
the gas stove season is over when the birds go Soutti; but 1 
thmk that the money part of it comes just when they go; for 
there is more money (if we do not tell the public of it) in gas 
heating stoves than there is in cooking stoves. As to this mat- 
ter of special and differential rates I may say we had quite a 
question over that, and I want to say a word about how we did 
in New Bedford. Our regular price at that lime was $2, with 
10 per cent off. In order to facilitate the introduction of gas 
stoves we made a special rate to anyone who would use over a 
certain amount of gas every month — say about 4,000 feet. We 
counted the house lighting and the fuel gas together, and if a 
party used over about 4,000 feet per month, we put the price at 
•1.50. In that way we avoided the necessity for an extra meter 
(which Mr. Pratt put in), and accomplished our object very sat* 




308 



isfactorily. I think there is a i^rcat future ahead of us; and I 
am glad lo see tliat < luring the past summer so matiy novelties 
and so many conveniences have been added to the gas stoves 
which ha%'e been lately developed. I am very glad to re-echo 
the remark which has been made, that the best gas stoves are 
going to be very much cheaper than we have had them here- 
tofore. 

Mr. Boaruman — Mr. Pratt calls attention lo the employment 
of the gas engine by those gas companies which are engaged in 
electric lighting. Having occasion to go into electric Hghting, 
I took the opportunity to look into the matter of substittiting 
the gas engine for the steam engine^ under the conditions there 
existing, and, considering the size, the demands upon them, and 
the cost of fuel and the cost of gas in the holder, I found that 
for loo-horse power the cost for fuel to a gas engine running 12 
hotirs was ^13.50 as against ^8.25 for coal to he used under the 
boilers to generate the same power Allowing for the labor 
additional in the case of coal, and it leaves about $j per day (or 
night) against the gas engine. 1'he first cost of the gas engine 
to get that power was a little in excess of the cost of the boiler 
and engine using steam. 

The Presidknt — Will you also give us the price of coal per 
toDj and the price of gas per i»ooo feet? 

Mr. Boardman — At that time my gas was costing me 45 cents 
per 1,000 feet, and the cost of coal was $2.75 per ton. I am 
figuring on the large consumption of coal which was necessary 
at that lime when I was using high speed engines. More econ- 
omy can be obtained in the coal than that, but I do not think 
that much more econ<miy can be obtained in the gas engines 
than 1 have stated. Another thing that deterred me was it 
would take about 20 per cent, of all the gas that I could at that 
time supply to furnish the gas engine; which would force me to 
have a bench in operation when 1 only had use for one- half of 
the gas that it ought to make. I did not think the economics 
to be derived^ or the advantages in setting a good example, 
were quite sufficient at that time to induce me to get the gas 
engine. I merely state this as a piece of information which you 
may think over. 



Mr. Taber^-^I will supplement that piece of information by 
saying that in one of our New England stations the Superin- 
tendent and I went carefully over the figures together, and we 
found that in the gas engine the horse power was developed 
with gas equivalent to about three pounds of coal That is, we 
could supply the gas at the cost of three pounds of coal per 
horse power 

Mr. a. C. Humphreys — What we are speaking of is the 
Dnsumption of gas per horse power per hour; and I would ask 
Mr. Boardman whether he has taken into consideration the fact 
that the cost of his gas is not any longer 45 cents per 1,000 
if he has added 20 per cent, to his output. 

Mit, Boardman — I was figuring on the gas consumption, 
which was about 25 feet per horse power per hour. I did not 
lake into consideration the fact that the cost of my gas w*ould 
be reduced by increasing the output; but I found that the de* 
crease in the cost of gas by reason of increased output w^juld 
be to some extent lessened on account of my not being able to 
use the full bench for that purpose. 

Mr, Dtxon — I beg to say that it seems to me that for large 
engines, say 25 -horse power, gas cannot compete with coal; 
but that for small powers it is away ahead, and that it is also 
away ahead of the electric motor, 1 know that in looking up 
the figures for the cost of small powers in New York, I found 
thai electric motors could be furnished by electric companies 
in New York at the rate of $1 per day, and that a gas engine 
would require for the same power, at the cost of gas in New 
York, 75 cents per day. There is a saving of 25 cents. If the 
gas engine builders would be as liberal in furnishing their motor 
as the electric companies are now furnishing the electric motors 
the difference w^ould be still more apparent. Kut for such small 
powers it is now considered cheaper in New York 10 hire the 
motor and the power all in one lump. 

Mr, Coggshall — If gas engine builders had put the same 
amount uf work into disposing of their guuds that the electric 
Ught manufacturers do with their apparatus there would be no 
ditBculty m gas companies having somtttung to do with the 




810 



gas engine. There is nut a town or a city where there is an 
electric light station but w^hat you find men canvassing for 
motiirs. A ^reat deal t»f that is done. Take» fnr instance, the 
oil stove. Vou ranntit i^ti through our city% or ihn»ngh any 
othf^r rit\% and pirk ui> a newspaper but you will find an advo- 
cacy of certain kinds of oil stoves. \\]u\ jjayH for it? The oil 
stove manufat lurers, to my ixTtain knowltnlge. Hul, for any- 
thing else than an oil slove, as for instance a gas stove, if we 
advertise that» we have to do it at our own expense. If the 
manufacturers wonkl join with the gas companies the business 
could be increased to a large extent. 

Mr. Sl river — It seems to me the questicm of the price of 
gas stoves lies entirely in our own hands, for we can manufac- 
ture them ourselves ami furnish them to our consumers at the 
very lowest cost, and a ^ood deal ehea|ier than by buying I hem 
from manufacturers and selling them at a prohl. That is one 
reason why gas stoves are not more extensively used. In my 
city we have paid sjiecial attention in this brunch of industry. 
We sell *iur gas anil have, from the beginning of the introduc- 
tion of gas stoves, at a very murh lower rate than for ordinary 
purposes. Wc put our gas down to $1 per 1,000. We con- 
sidered that it was a wise step and that it is a wise policy. We 
have intrreased our manufacture of gas to a very great extent 
by the introduction of gas stoves. We have sold and put out 
a great many gas stoves for the reason that wc have been able 
to manufacture our stoves ourselves^ and sell them at a very 
small profit. It is a surprise to me, when we consider that 
there is a very targe business with gas engines, that the gas 
companies have not taken hold of the gas engine industry and 
w^orked it with greater vigor, but I can easily understand why 
a gas company should have let alone mostjof the gas engines 
on account of the extreme price. Manufacturers of gas en- 
gines will not make a gas engine and sell it unless they can 
get about the same profit proportionately that the manufac* 
turers of sewing machines or pianos do, which we know is ver>^ 
excessive. I will give you one comparative instance only of 
gas vs. coal as fuel. We have a large number of gas engines 
out in Montreal, but in one particular case a 7 -horse power gas 
engine has been running, in a printing establishment, for the 



311 



fast 7 or S year^, at a cost of about 80 cents per day, for 10 
hours' running:. Previous to that they had a little steam en- 
gine and ]>oiler in their printing room, which caused a great 
(iai of inconvenience in summer on account of the heat, and a 
^eat deal of inconvenience at all seasons of the year on ac- 
count of the dust that it created. They introtlateil the ^as 
engine, and they are very much pleased with the result in 
ever)- way. The cost, as I have said, is about 80 cents per day 
fnr the g'as eng^ine, while the steam engine cost them at>uut 
|r.2o per day — showing a (Jiflerence of at least 40 cents per 
day in favor of the gas engine, I believe if we were all to 
work up the gas engine trade as well as the gas stoves we 
would find our output of gas materially increasing from year 
to year, I believe that there is another point we ought to take 
hold of. I have not yet seen a gas burner that was adapted 
to heating water in our boilers for heating our hcjuses. Not 
a Fall that comes when I do not have a large number of per- 
sons who ask us, **Can we not heat our houses with gas? Can 
you not invent a burner that we ctudd use in our boilers for 
beating our water ?*' A large numl)cr of our houses in Mon- 
treal are heated by hot water and steam — the greater propor- 
tion of them: i*nd when the time has arrived that we can have 
a perfect burner for heating the water in our boilers, then 
I think we can all exclaim, in the last word of this paper, 
** Eureka !" 

Mr. Littlehales — I would like to ask the last speaker if he 
can give us an idea what his stoves cost when manufactured by 
his company, 1 may say that we in Hamilton experienced the 
same diflictilty that others have referred to with reference to 
ihe cost of stoves. We found that after paying import duties, 
in order to sell the stoves at a very small profit, the consumer 
would have to pay tzo or $30. Now, those stoves are being 
made at a cost of $17. We are selling them at $17, cash, or 
we rent them at $4 per year, and after the fifth year they be- 
came the purchaser's own. The cost for a four-hole stove, 
about the size of a No. 8 stove, is $r7. I would like to inquire 
how the cost of Mr. Scriver's stoves compares with that. 

Mr, Scrivrr — ^Such a stove as Mr. Littlehales speaks of we 
could not sell in Montreal at all. r hey are too cheap. 




Mr. LiTTLEHALES — I Will Say that the stove that we are sell* 
ing at $17 is as good a stove as any that Mn Scriver has in his 
place. 

Mr. Scriver — We sell and put up in consumers* houses a 
stove similar to the Ctuodwin Nu. 8 or Nu. S A, with four holes 
on top, extension wings, and all the latest improvements, cast 
iron front and top, and nicely nickle plated, including all the 
fittings to the stove frum the service pipe, and including an 
extra meter, with the fittings antl stopcock complete, f^r $30. 

'Fhk Presidenj — I have been compelled during the past 
summer to concede the fact that there are two sides to the 
question of cheap stoves. That has been something of a 
hobby with me for some years at Cohmibus — selling stoves at 
cost, or at manufaciarcrs* prices, and selling them up for 
nothing. The plan was so successful there that I got to be- 
lieve that that was the only way I could make the stove trade 
successful. After going to St. l.uuis, the time for the stove 
trade came around, and the ipiestion was raised as to how they 
should be handled. There was a very considerable oppc»sition 
to the idea of the gas company handling stoves at all. We 
finally agreed to set up without charge the stoves of any com- 
pany that \vould sell their stoves at manufacturers* prices. We 
were alilc to get one Lotuern who agreed to do that — ihey hav- 
ing nothing to do with the stove except to keep it in their 
warehouse and sell it. Our man would go to the warehouse, 
get the stove, and set it without cliarge, A manufacturer of 
stoves in the city did not think that there was any money in 
that sort of business for him, and so he wanted us to set his 
stoves for nothing, and let him sell at a profit of 40 per cent. 
above the manufacturers* charge. We w^ould not agree to do 
that unless he would sell more than J50 stoves. If he sold less 
than that during the summer he was to pay us $350 for setting 
his stoves up; and if he sold more than that we would make no 
charge for setting those stoves. As I said, there w^as another 
good stove there which was offered at manufacturers* prices. 
I think that over 1,300 stov^es have been set in St. Louis during 
the past summer; and even now, this late in the season, they 
are being set at the rate of 50 or 75 per month, I venture to 
say that 80 per cent, of them w^re stoves of the man who had 



313 



thf 4<5 P^^ cent, profit. He csiabhshed about 50 statfonsi in 
the city for the sale of his stoves. He >*oulcl put a stove in 
the house of everyone who would ucll a stove or handle them 
at alL He had 50 solicitors throughout the city, and he 
pushed his work for all that there was in it; and he has made 
a great deal of money, and we have sold lots of gas. 

Mr, McDonald — I w^onld like to ask Mr, Scriver where 
ihcy set the meters that are used in connection with gas 
stoves ? 

Mr, ScRtVKR — We set them as close to the service pipe as 
we can get them. 

On motion of Mr, Mcilht niiy, a volt of thanks was tendered 
to Mr. Pratt. 

Mr. Robert M. Dixon, of New York city, read his pa[>er on 



THE PINISCH SVSrKM, 

An account of the Fintsch gas system involves a description 
of the apparatus (invented by the late Julius Pintsch of Berlin, 
Germany,) which has made the use of compressed oil gas a 
practical, econonuca!» ai\d satisfactory method of railroad car 
illumination. The use (»f oil gas for lighting cars, boats, float- 
ing buoys» etc., possesses distinct advantages over the use of a 
{as of lower candle power. Clil gas can practically be made of 
l>ijut 75 candle power, and this, after subjection to the losses 
due a compression, to say 200 pounds per square inch, will still , 
be from 60 to 65 candles, while 19 candle gas, after the same 
treatment, wilt not be more than 10 or 1 r candles. The use of 
compressed coal gas has been tried oti a large scale^ and under 
the most favorable conditions, both in Fairtjpe and America, 
and has been decidedly unsatisfactory. The receivers, for 
arrr^nng the gas under the cars, have to be oi greater size, 
rid the charging stations must be more frequent, and equipped 
with expensive compressing and storage apparatus of large 
capacity, some six times as much coal gas as oil gas being re- 
quired for a given amount of light. The cost, also, is in favor 
of oil gas. This can be made and delivered to cars, according 
to the Fintsch method, at a total cost of less than $2 a 1,000. 




City gas at $1.25 a 1,000 will cost put in cars, $3.J5 a 1,000, and 
six times as much is required, making the relative costs as 
abuut I is to 8. 

For mantifacturing the gas and compressing it for delivery 
to the receivers under the cars, requires a plant considering of a 
gas works, naturally of small dimensions, which may be located 
at any available place, and pipe lines connecting them with the 
car yards and stations. For the pipe lines three-fourths X 
strong iron pipe is used, and if the length be great, and quick 
charging of cars is desired, an accumulator, from which the gas 
is drawn for the c^rs, is placed ai the yard. In laying the 
lines no provision is needed for draining or drips. All moisture 
and vapors are effectively removed during the process of com- 
pression. 

The gas works themselves comprise furnaces for the produc- 
tion of the gas, some small condensing apparatus, a plate 
washer, j hi ri Tiers, a station meter and gasholder, together with 
compressors and large store holders, into which the gas is 
forced and held ready for delivery through the pipe lines to 
the cars. Each furnace consists of a setting of tw^o retorts, 
one arranged above the other. At one end of the furnace, a 
double mouthpiece connects the ends of the two retorts. The 
oil is fed into the other end of upper retort, and the outlet pipe 
for the gus is taken from the end of the lower retort just 
below. 

The retorts are heated by a fire below* them, separated from 
the lower retort by a fire-brick wall. The products of tombus 
tion pass along the sides of the lower retorts, heating them tj 
the proper lemperalure for gas making, and passing into the 
chimney along the sides of the upper ones, heating them also, 
but to a less degree, by the heat which would otherwise be 
wasted. 

The cleanliness of the retorts is found to have considerably 
influence, not only upon the amount of fuel used, but also upo^ 
the yield of gas from a given quantity of oil. In order tha 
they may be easily cleaned, each end of each retort is provide 
with a cover, and an iron pan is used in the upper, into whicfl 
the oil falls, serving to prevent its coming into direct contact" 






315 



With the hot retort, and facilitiiling the removal of non- volatile 
dements contained in the oil. 

The lesser heat of the upper retort vaporizes the oil, and in 
this Londition it pas*ies to the lower retort, the g^reaier heat of 
iihich serves to bring it to the condition of a fixed gas. The 
gas passes to the water seals located below the level of the re- 
torts, and in the conveying pipe is placed a try-cock for deter- 
mining the quality of the gas that is being made. The amount 
of oil fed into the retorts is liased upon the indications from 
the gas at the try-cock, and more or less supplied to accord 
with the temperature. After the gas is condensed, washed^ 
and purified, it is metered and reaches the gasholder. The 
compressors are driven by steam and are especially constructed 
for the purpose intended- The gas is received by them from 
the gasholder, compressed, and forced into large storage cylin- 
ders ready for deUvcry to the cars. 

The oil required for t,ooo cubic feet of gas made in these 
furnaces, is from 15 to 16 gallons of crude petroleum or naph- 
tha. Our men prefer to use Pennsylvania crude petroleum, and 
the amount of coal required in the furnace for producing this 
1,000 cubic feet is about 100 pounds, of course depending upon 
the quality. For compressing the same amount, about 80 pounds 
of coal is required in the boiler for making steam. 

Gas is carried on cars in receivers suspended underneath the 
framing of the floor. For cars with a total of 150 candles light, 
and not more than tw^o nights service away from the charging 
plant, one receiver, about 9 feel long and 20 inches diameter is 
used, containing under 150 pounds pressure, which is our stan- 
dard, about 200 feet of gas which is sufficient. For cars having 
a greater amount of light, and in service 00 trips which carry 
them away from the charging plant more than two nights, addi- 
tional receivers are used. Frequently 2 or 3, and sometimes a 
total of 4 receivers are used on each car. 

On each side of the car is arranged a valve for attaching a 
gas supply hose, and this valve is connected by pipes to the 
receivers. It requires from 2 to 5 minutes to supply a car, or if 
more than one car is to be supplied at once, 5 or 6 can be sup- 
plied in as many minutes, provided they are all connected by 
hose to the gas distrilHiting pipe lines at the same time. 




In order that high pressure on the gas receivers may be reduced 
10 the small one needed for the burners, and the latter be con- 
stantly maintained, a regulator Is used. The l*tntsch regulator 
will absolutely and automatically control all pressures from (,500 
pounds per square inch down tonne-half pound per square inch, 
and maintain a constant pressure of about 1.4 inches of water 
at its outlet, no matter whether f or 100 burners arc lighted, or 
whether all are shut off. The regulator is placed underneath 
the car, near the outlet of the gas receivers, so that all gas 
under high pressure is kept outside of the car and away from 
the ends^ sn that in case of accident they are not liable to be 
broken. 

The principle upon which the regulator works is that of an 
equitibrium of forces. 'I' he high pressure from the receivers 
passes through a very small orifice at the mlct of the regulator, 
which orifice is closed more or less by a valve, held against it 
by a system of levers and links. The latter to connect with a 
leather diaphragm of 50 inches area, and a variation of from i 
pound to 500 pounds at the inlet cannot appreciably affect the 
outlet pressure. The leather of this regulator ts especially pre- 
pared to withstand the destructive action of gas on such mem- 
branes, and experience has demonstrated the thoroughness of 
this treatment. Many thousands of them are already in use, 
and it has never failed except from abuse or the breaking of the 
cast iron case enclosing it. 

From the outlet of the regulator the gas is carried along by 
a } inch pipe to some convenient place under the car, where a 
pipe leads it to the top of the roof. At some available point in 
the pipe leading up through the car is placed a main controlling 
cock, by which the flames of all the lamps can be regulated. 
The pipe passes along on lop of the roof of the car, which 
branches off to each of the lamps or burners in the car. The 
gas supply to each lamp is also controlled by a cock. 

The satisfactory illumination of a passenger car requires a 
sufficient amount of light so distributed as to give an even, 
brilliant light the entire length of the car. A lamp of high can- 
dle power is not used, and if used would not be satisfactory. 
A sufficient number of lamps should be placed in a car to ena- 
ble reading with perfect case at any part of it, and to do this 



317 



properly 11 IS fiecfifisary to have ihe lamps not more than a 
tain distance apart. \( spaced too widely apart then the shadows 
at the point between the lamps Is so great as to be inconvenient, 
and lamps of not extraordinary power are therefore more effici- 
ent in lighting. 

If the attempt is made to light with lamps of very high candle 
power, then in order that the proper amount of light may be 
had at the points of minimum lighting, other parts of the cars 
irtll be over lighted and over heated, and the amount of gas 
burned and consetjijent expense of lighting will not increase di- 
rectly as the amount of over lighting, but according to the rule 
of squares. It has» therefore, not been the aim of the Fintsch 
system to use lamps of very high candle power, those rangmg 
from 40 to 60 having been found suftitieul. In fact, those of 
40 candle power have been found the most satisfactory in even 
illumination. 

The Pintsch lamps consist of the main body of the lamp sus- 
pended frura the roof of the car either by a center column or 
by outside suspending arms. From a body is suspended a trans- 
parent bowl, which, with a white reflector extending entirely 
across the top of the bowl, with the exception of an annular 
space which serves as the entrance to the chimney, forms a 
chamber in which the gas is burned in fishtail flames. From 
two to six burners are used in a lamp, depending upon the light 
required at the location of the lamp in the car. 

The upper part of the lamp consists of a glass crown or dome. 
The lower end of the flue or chimney of the lamp consists of a 
mica chimney, the upper end of regenerative passages. The 
light which escapes up the flue is reflected out through the 
raic^i chimney and the glass crown of the lamp, producing a 
pleasing and effective illumination of the ceiling of the car. 
The products of combustion pass up through the tiues of the 
regenerative portion of the chimney, and the air for combus- 
tion is taken in near the top of the lamp and the lop of this 
flue, and passing down outside of the mica chimney and be- 
tween the reflector and a deflecting diaphragm, is highly heated 
before entering into the combustion chamher of the lamp. 
The effect of this absolutely shadowless and draught-proof 





lamp ill car lighting is mr>st pleasing* and pnxltices a mos^ 
brilliant and efficient light. 

The Pintsch system is alrt;ath* applit-d u> over 36,000 railwaf 
carriages, and is rapidly being adopted by the railroad systems 
of America. (las works for the supply ot cars arc now in 
operation or course of construction at Boston, Stonington, 
Conn., New York, Jersey City (4), Syracuse, Marion, (K, Chi- 
cago, Cincinnati, St. Louis, Denver, Ugden and Atlanta, and 
over 1,200 cars are lighted by this system in the United State 



The Chairman— You have listened to a very interesting 
paper Will Mr. A. C. Humphreys lead off, and tell us how : 
make it profitable and practicable to the gas companies ? 

Mr. a. C\ Hcmphrevs — 1 suppose that the only way 
which the established gas companies of the United States 1 
make a profit of this business is by co-operating with thi 
Pintsch system — perhaps by operating their plants, which I 
understand companies are now doing at some points. I think 
it is a good idea. It is unquestionably the fact that we of the 
regular line are. not equipped for this business. And still, I 
think we should not consider this an outside business; but we 
should be willing to encourage anything in any line that will 
take hold of and spread the gas business where we are not 
properly equipped for that particular work. 1 lfiereff»re think 
that Mn Dixon is eminently one of us, and that his systec 
should be encouraged by us. It is not perhaps amiss to nc 
that the system as we have it in this country is by very Ion 
odds superior to what it is in the country of its birth, or eve 
in the other countries around it. While we have to thank tl 
Pintsch father and sons for the admirable way in which the 
have worked up the details uf construction of their apparalu 
they did not find it necessary to provide for very brilliant illti- 
mination in cars. It seemed to them wasteful to light a car i 
is done in this country by the Pintsch system. They cannd 
understand why it is necessary for us to use lamps with mo^ 
than a single flame. There they depend, or have in the pa 
depended to a great extent, upon travelers having their oh 



S19 



aips. Bui wc know that that will nut tin in this coun- 
try. In England, also, it is not the habit tu provide ill umi na- 
tion in the cars to the same extent as is done here. It is only 
fair to say that great credit for what has been done here in the 
development of the practically efficient lamp now used by the 
Pintsch system is due to Mr, Dixon, I think it would be well 
to forestall criticism on Mn Dixon's part for him to say that in 
comparing the cost he is comparing the bought gas with the 
manufactured gas. But that is a small matter, as it is unques- 
lionably very much cheaper to light a car by means of com* 
pressed high candle power gas than it is by low candle power 
gas. We know^ that by experience in our ow*n line. We are 
compressing at some of our stations ordinary city gas, but the 
cost tu the consumer w^l not compare favorably for this pur- 
pose with the cost of lighting by the Pintsch system. I think 
that the point made by Mr. Dixon with regard to the way that 
the lamps should be distributed in the car cannot be questioned 
for a moment, for, especially in car lighting, we must secure a 
uniform distribution of light. I think if any gentleman here 
has occasion to examine a car lighted by this system in this 
country, he will find that he can sit and read in any of the 
seats of the car, and if he can for the moment forget where the 
lamps are placed, I doubt if he by the effect on his page can 
tell where the lamps are located. That may seem to be a 
strong statement, but I think that observation will verify what 
1 say. I do not want to close without saying a word about the 
Pintsch regulator. I suppose that the credit for this instru- 
ment is entirely due to the Pintsch family. I do not know 
that any changes have been made in this country. I think it 
is about as near perfection as anything that we can use. Some 
of the stories that \ have told about the regulation of gas by 
the Pintsch regulator are such that 1 am afraid that some of 
my friends are almost willing to doubt my veracity; but I kmnv 
that it has done work for me that I could not in advance have 
believed to be possible. 

The Chairman^ — Mn McMillin will please add a few words. 

Mr. McMillin— I do not think that I will carry on the dis- 
cussion further than to make this remark: The question might 




arise in the minds nf many g^as people here, ** Why do large 
gas roni panics tare Im bother with the Httle Pintsch system in 
works for lighting a few cars ?" That is the question which 
wuLihl naturally be suggested by those who have not fully con- 
sidered Lite iTialter. 1 do not know whether there is any profit 
in the business; and although llic figures presented show a very 
handsome profit, 1 am miable to accept them in good failb. 
Rut, whether there is a ])rofil or not, I feel that it is absolutely 
dangerous to permit anybody but a gas company to have even 
a small gas works in your city. You do not want any other 
man to start works in a little place where he can make even a 
few hundred feet per day, because the demand for the gas will 
keep growing and growing, and he extends his works, and after 
a while you will have a competitor. IjL was to prevent anythmg 
of that kind, nu>re than it was for the sake of the money thai 
was in k, iliat induced me to undertake it in St. Louis, I am 
frank to say, however, that I believe it will be as profitable as 
any other branch of our business. 

Mk. Dixon — Mr, Humphreys and I hail no arrangement of 
"you tickle me and I will tickle you/' but I want to say that I 
owe it to Mr. Humphreys in being started in the right direction 
in this system; and that it was he who did more than anyone 
else to bring the system up to what \vas demanded by American 
railroad companies. 

Mr. Boakdman — Before giving up my position in Macon I 
had been working to put in a small Pintsch works there for the 
purpose of lighting the cars on the C'entral Railroad system and 
other railways centering in that place. It occurred to me that 
not only could it be useful in this particular way, but that it 
might be used to advantage as an educator and feeder for my 
regular gas plant. To my mind, in all cities, and especially 
here in the South where the cities are growing rapidly, a large 
portion of new territory is being built upon by the better class 
of people \vh<i desire to get away from the noise and dust of 
the busy streets with which we are troubled in this climate, hut 
who, being beyond the reach of our mains, and likely so to be 
for a number of years, and until the district which they grad- 
ually people has been built up sufficiently to pay the cost of 



kain there, are priicticaUy without i:jas unless they 
introduce oil gas systems, or ** greased air " systems. I accord- 
ingly thought it might pay to educate these people, to get them 
to put gas pipes, chandeliers, and fixtures in their houses, and 
thus become gas consumers final iy, by furnishing them the 
i*mtsch gas, by delivering it to them in wagons, weekly or 
monthly, in smalier cylinders than are employed by the power 
companies. Then when the time shall arrive when we can 
afford lu lay mains in that section we shall secure thcra perma- 
nently as educated gas consumers. 

Mr, Somervillk — If you go to a railroad company for this 
business, and say that you will light their cars as cheaply with 
gas, and that you will give ihcm a much belter light than they 
are now paying for oil, they naturally expect that it would be 
profitable for gas companies to do it at that rate. 

On motion of Mr McMilHn a vole of thanks was tendered to 
Mr, Dixon for his paper. 

The Association then adjinirneel tu Thursday, 0< t. 16, at 
9. JO A. M. 



Second Day—Morning Session. 

The Association was called to order at 9.30 A, M., President 
McMiliin in the chair. 

The President opened'the proceedings by reading the fotlow- 
'iig telegram: 

" To the President of the American Gas Light Assoeiation: — 
Charles ,Hunt, of IVirmingham, Hngland, sends from Brrniiiig- 
ham, Alabama, greeting to his American brethren assembled at 
Savannah, and heartily wishes them a successful and enjoyable 
timing.** (Applause.) 

Mr. F. IT Sheltun, of Philadelphia^ read his paper entitled 

THE (;AS engineer AND HIS PENCIL. 



X(r, President and Mcmhrs of the American Gas Light Assa- 
ci(iiwn^GeNtiefnen:—TQ lake a slii^rhl Hlierty with an old proverb 




ay bej 



(by omitting one letter), the *iiiccessful gas engineer maybe 
said lo be a veritable ** Jack -oral U trades and master of 
For most of us recognize that the modern gas man must 
at least a smattering a( knowledge of many callings besides his 
own, and that lo successfully keep the public satistk'd and his 
stockholders happy he must at various limes act as lawyer or 
lobbyist, diplomatist or politician, financier or economist, me- 
chanic or engineer, chemist or electrician, architect or draughts- 
man, as the case may be; and, in short, have knowledge of a 
thousand and one points beside his direct craft of how to de- 
liver gas at the burner at the lowest possible figure. 

In selecting the subject that 1 have I wish to call to your at- 
tention the importance, from a gas standpoint, of one of the 
vocations above of which the versatile gas manager is supposed 
to have some knowledge, and which I think is but loo often un- 
appreciated and neglected. I refer to the gas man as a draughts- 
man, and in offering the suggestions that I shall, I desire to say 
that they are chietly for those who may, perchance, be unfamil- 
iar with the subject from lack of a technical education, and for 
those who, from having a w*orks too small lo support a regular 
draughtsman, find that w^hatever work of this nature is lo be 
done must be done by themselves. 

If one but stops to think of this subject it is almost self-evi- 
dent !iow desirable and important the ability to use the pencil 
is to a gas man, whether managing but an oil gas plant or the 
largest works of a metropolis, for the economic and satisfactory 
carrying on of his work. Plans of works and of buildings; 
drawings of firebrick wx>rk. of apparatus or connections; maps 
of street mains, tic, are often to be made, and all bespeak the 
importance of knowing how to clearly depict the same. The 
knack of sketching or quickly setting forth one's ideas by a few 
lines is of almost daily use, and whether one is chalking the out- 
line of some shape of iron on a blacksmith's floor, or is sketch- 
ing on the back of an envelope an odd connection to one's fore- 
man, he wishes to succeed in conveying the idea and lo be more 
successful than the traveler in a restaurant abroad, who, desir- 
ing to have some mushrooms, and unable to speak the language^ 
made a sketch of one. The waiter, apparently comprehending, 
rushed ofif and returned with an open umhreiia. 



323 



Wry many j^as men do almost nothing in tlie way of draught- 
ing, and very many works are lamentably lacking in plans and 
records thai should most undoul)tedIy be on file. I believe that 
if more attention were paid to this detail of the business the 
effort would be well repaid, and it is my hope to show in this 
paper, in calling your attention to the subject, that the matter 
is not such a bugbear as some may imagine— that the skill of a 
professional and accomplished draughtsman is not required, nor 
a costly lot of instruments, but that a moderate degree of skill, 
viih some liille care and system and a few standard instruments, 
will be all-sufficient to enable one to properly make and keep 
ihc "pencil records/* so to speak, that I think ought to be kept* 
and which I shall pomt out. 

Regarding instruments: A drawing board, or broad, tlat- 
topped and firm table, a T-square, one or two triangles^ a scale, 
ai dozen thumb-tacks, a nioderate-sized pair of compasses, with 
pen and pencil attachments, and a ruling pen are really all the 
essential implements required, 1 advise, however, on account 
of their great convenience, the having, in adtlition to the above, 
of a small pair of spring dividers, a scale, an " irregular curve,*' 
and a larger pair of compasses with extension leg for large 
curves and circles. The following cut (Fig. j6) shows such an 
outfit complete. 

The drawing board or table is best, of course, with trued and 
squared edges and sides, from which to work the T-sqnare in 
any direction. If unable to secure such, however, true and ver- 
tical lines at right angles with the horizt>nlal can be readily 
made by working with the T-square from the left hand edge 
only, and using the triangles along the edge of the square, as 
^hown in Tig, 36. 

Paper of any style preferred and liquid India and colored 
inks can now be bought at almost any stationery store, while 
pencils and rubber erasers one usually already has. Five dol- 
lars to ten dollars will cover such an outfit, excepting the table. 
Of course, any amount of money can be spent for a greater 
variety of instruments, for greater convenience, or for special 
work; but precisely as Benjamin West painted his first great 
picture with a brush made from tlie tail of the household cat, 
aud as some of the finest specimens in taxidermy have been 



325 



set! 



v^ell 



iged 



manag 
In Disiribulion,** and **At the 



ft! of the gas en^tneer should be 
company, viz, ** The works/ 
Office/* 

The Worki. — One of the most fitting things, and one that ts 
at the same time both useful and ornamental, that can be hung 
in the gas office, is a well drawn and neatly framed " property 
plan " of the gas works. Many may doubtless say that they 
"know every inch of the works/' and do not need'such. !*os- 
sibly. ^wt I veotiire to say that if, to prove this belief, you at- 
tempt to draw even a general plan of the works, and put in the 
(lata fr?jm memor>% you will find that yuu do not know a great 
deal that you think you do, and will soon be looking up the 
facts; and if you do make such a plan you will be surprised at 
the number of limes that you will use it^ and will not willingly 
relinquish it. When cogitating upon changes, at the works, 
such a plan helps wonderfully; and whether demonstrating to 
the ubiquitous insurance man that your works are more safe from 
fire than (iibraltar, or to the tax collector that there is really 
nothing at all worth assessing at the works, or whether you are 
in correspondence with some constructing firm lis which you 
wish to send a plan of building or works, or are simply talking 
with your foreman regarding changes in apparatus or connec* 
lH>ns» you will find it equally useful and convenient, and saving 
many trips to the work^. 

Such a plan should be pre-eminently an accurate rectirtl of 
the chief data of construction and arrangement of the works, 
and to lay out and make such 1 herewith offer ihe follnwi ng 
liiiggestions as to method that may be followed and points that 
should be embodied: 

First, get the exact property lines from the original deeds, 
which should be \x\ the archives of the company in the safe. 
Then, for curiosity's sake largely, take an accurate tape line (steel 
or wire woven preferred) and a small boy to hold the end of it, 
a pad and a pencil, and a half day's time, and check off the 
properly lines by actual measurement, noting how nearly cor- 
rectly located or not ynur fences may be. If the lines do not 
agree, the city engineer or surveyor should be called in to ver- 
ify the fads* Remember that, in certain Stales at least, the 
law is such that if part of your land has been unused by you 




for 20 years, 11 rs liable to claim by your neighbor, if during 
that time he has had the use of it, without protest (unless, of 
course, by permission), and is disposed to so trouble you. Then, 
with the tape line, take the exact location and measurements of 
all buildings; the size inside of all rooms; the location of aJl 
doors^ windows, stairways and pilasters; the depth of cellars; 
the height to eaves; the location of all apparatus and connec- 
tions, and of every valve, and of all joints accessible. Locale 
your gates, driveways, water service (and stop-cock in same), 
sewers and drain pipes, oil pipe line from railroad and railroad 
switch, if adjacent. In short, secure everything by measure- 
ment that you can think of and constantly take several meas- 
urements from different points to the same object, in order to 
"lie in " and check your wurk. Yuu can hardly get too much; 
and the more complete the Inushed plan, the greater w*rll be 
your sat isfai lion. When ready to make the drawing, determine 
ujjun tlie sca!e. Do not have your sheet too small, but of such 
size that the data and notes and drawing proper can all be put 
on without an appearance of crowding. For a small works, a 
scale of 8 to 12 feet to the inch, on a sheet perhaps 56 by 24 
inches is a good size. For larger works, of course the sheet 
must be enlarged in proportion, until, if necessary, it is 4 to 6 
feet square. 1 have noted very admirable property plans of 
this approximate size in the offices of the l^oston, Montreal, St. 
Louis, and other ccnnpanies. 

In making the drawing and transferring the data to the sheet 
take time and ensure accuracy, and thus avoid the soiled effect 
that follows if you have to erase ink, Vou will be surprised as 
you go along, at the number of little changes and corrections 
that you will make, and as you cannot erase ink satisfactorily^ 
have everything rights in pencil, before touching ink. When 
inking in, put in all underground pipes, etc., in doited lines, and 
indicate the depth of such, when known, by numerous little 
figures such as this, ^ (the figure under the horizontal line in- 
dicating (he Jepth bi'titath the surface^ of the pipe at the point in 
question). Put in all the rest of the work in full, clear lines, 
and the walls of brick or stone buildings in solid black if you so 
please. Or, if you are good at coloring, the walls may be 
painted, after inking in, with a light wash of red or gray, ac- 



Imj^Mfcttpy are of brick or stone. The main gas pipes may 
be cololHrili the same way, an iron gray, the drain pipes a 
terra catta or light brown, and, if in great detail, the steam 
pipes blue, the water pipes green, and the oil pipes red. The 
apparatus proper may be then shaded and colored according to 
the respective part, and the grass portion of the works given a 
wash of very light green. Such a plan as this can, of course, 
be elaborated indefinitely almost, according to the skill of the 
artist. When neatly done everything stands out in good relief, 
and all the connections, etc., may be traced with -great ease. 
When all is completed put on your notes, in neat lettering, with 
pen and ink. 

This whole work is primarily a record for reference, and I 
believe that in addition to the usual general measurements, the 
following and all such kindred memoranda should appear, viz., 
iKe size inside of all rooms; the distance in the clear in gates 
u\d driveways; the distance between buildings in the clear; the 
names of streets or railroads, or of rivers or other water, and of 
property owners adjoining; whether the water service is city or 
private; ditto, regarding sewer; railroad switch — ^whether owned 
by the gas or the railroad company; if switch is elevated, height 
of rails above coal shed floor; capacity in tons of coal shed; 
diameter and height of each holder or holder lift, and working 
capacity of same; pressure cupped and uncupped; diameter and 
depth of holder tanks; diameter, depth and capacity of oil, 
water, and ammonia tanks; harbor line; depth of water off 
dock at high and low tide; height uf dock still above water at 
mean tide; names and makers* names of each part of the gas 
apparatus, year installed, and capacity of same; horse power of 
engines and boilers, and speed required on blower fur given 
pressure, etc. I presume some of you will think that I am un- 
necessarily particular in recommending such detail (and I grant 
that the gas manager is supposed to carry the greater part of 
this in his memory), but it is just such points as these that are 
constantly, for the moment, being forgotten. At such a time a 
glance at a plan, as outlmed above, may save a trip to the gas 
works to get the information desired, ur much vexatious delay. 
I am sure, also, that should any unexpected change of ad- 
ministration occur, the incoming superintendent would be very 



f 



328 

grateful to his predecessor for such information so well re- 
corded. 

In finishing up the plan put in an arrow to indicate the 
points of the compass, and a title in clear lettering. Frame 
and hang by wire, not by cord. Rust will not affect it, and 
moths will not corrupt it and cause all to come down with a 
crash, as I have known to occur. 

1 give herewith a cut (Fig. 37,) which shows the general ap 
pearance of such a plan as I have in mind. Owing, however, 
to the sm4ll scale upon which it must necessarily here be 
drawn, I have been compelled to leave off very many measure 
ments and memoranda which should appear upon an actual 
full-sized plan. 

A plan as above, I believe, should be on record in every ^as 
office. It should be supplemented by like property plans of 
any outlying holders or other property of the gas company, 
and any elevations of holder houses or buildings or pho- 
tographic views add to its completeness. 

In addition, plans and drawings of all apparatus at the works 
should be kept safely at the office, for reference in case of re 
pairs, relinings, alterations, etc. Such .plans of the detail of 
plant and apparatus the gas manager is usually no.t called upon 
to make himself, but can get from the constructors of the parts 
in (jucstion al the time of erection. In this latter case, see 
that the drawings as sccnired are corrected in accordance with 
the many little chanj^es almost sure to have been made in 
course of erection. 

Distrihution. — Whatever may be said/r^? or con about the im- 
portance of the fore^^oinjj:, there can be no question about the 
necessity of full and complete records of street mains. 

How many of iis are dependent upon our foreman for this 
most important knowledj^e; and how many of us would be 
caught if such foreman should unexpectedly strike, leave u.s 
be taken ill, or die ? I hold that there should be in every gas 
office complete records of every foot of main and of every 
special; of every service, lamp post, drip and valve, so that in 
case of the defection of the street man for any reason, the su- 
perintendent has the knowledge on record with which to in- 
struct his succesor. 



329 



The whole subject of street main reconis is an exhaustive 
one, and I can here refer only to the portion in which the pen- 
cil of the gas engineer comes into play. 

The foundation of such records is a large, complete, and cor- 
rect map of the city or territory supplied. Such a map can 
nearly always be found or else made by enlarging a snjall one. 
If this latter is necessary » perhaps the easiest way for the gas 
mn to do it is by liie system of squares. In this method the 
smaller map is ruled off into small squares^ and each one of 
these is then readily transferred by copying on to the larger 
sheet on the scale desired. On the large map every foot of 
street main should be indicated, in the proper streets. These 
mains may be shown by lines of one color with figures written 
over them to denote the size of pipe, or they may be put in with 
various colored inks and combinations of dots and dashes for 
the iliflerent siJtes, In this latter case a key to the colors should 
be put in one corner. The latter is much the more preferable 
way, and I am disposed to recommend the folluwing plan as one 
<3f the best for carrying out the detail. The leading feature of 
the plan, Is to show to the eye by a glance, when familiar with 
and by a careful selection of colors, the general size of the 
R5ains in any district. 

For instance — we start from the gas works with some dark 
<'oloretl line (as purple or blue) to indicate our largest main. 
-^5i the main gets smaller the line is broken by dots and dashes, 
giving a lighter effect to the eye, and indicative of the next 
smaller size pipe. After say three sixes of pipe have been so indi- 
cated by different combinations of dot and dash, but all of the 
same color, a lighter color is used in the same manner for the 
fiext three smaller sizes and so on down, until the lightest color 
attainable (yellow) indicates the smallest, or 5 and 2 inch main. 
For lA'inch, and li-tnch ** main ** .so-called, or for large service 
pipes 1 prefer to write the size in small figures right in the col- 
ored line rather than multiply colors. A main system so de- 
picted shows very clearly to the eye, by the gradual lightening 
of the colors, the decrease in the size of pipes as one gets away 
from the gas works and can usually be indicated by the use of 
but 3 or 4 colored inks. 



332 

The Office, — I wish to call to your attention a dire( 
wherein a pencil of the gas man may come into play al 
office; draughting, which while perhaps not as important as 
preceding work indicated, yet, to my mind, is of great int 
and well worth the doing. That is, the graphical plotting 
charts of the figures of output, leakage, or other data 
monthly and yearly record, reference, and comparison. 

There is nothing like a cold fact in black and white, 
stantly before one's eyes, to spur one on to renewed efforts, 
1 think that plotted charts of what we may be doing, ser 
distinct and useful purpose in that way. If, for instance 
such a chart, the line indicating the percentage of leakage sh 
take a sudden rise, it must be an eyesore to the conscienl 
superintendent until he can restore it to its normal position; 
if the line indicating the output for a just closing year si 
not the usual growth over that for the preceding year, it 
constant reminder and incentive for him to watch more clcj 
every means by which he may increase his consumption. 

To make a graphical chart 6f this nature is not difficult, 
a large sheet of paper, lay off a base line, say 24 inches Id 
At intervals of two inches erect perpendicular lines, sajfj 
inches high. Then across these lines and parallel with thel 
line draw a series of lines, say a quarter or a half an inch ap 
Your sheet is then ruled both ways. The vertical columns 
resent months, the horizontal divisions thousands or million 
cubic feet of gas output, according to the size of yourcomp 
and should be so marked. A convenient paper for this purp 
is what is known as engineer's paper," which can be bought ) 
ready ruled in both directions in fine blue lines one-tenth of % 
inch apart. As many of these lines can be taken as needed, Ij 
a given space desired, and heavier ones ruled in to suitti 
works or data in consideration. 

It will be readily seen that if your output for January is ifl 
000,000 and a mark be put in the tenth horizontal line in tl 
column for January, and if your output for February be 8,00c 
000, and a mark be put in the eighth horizontal line in the CC 
umn for February, and so on throughout the 12 months, and 
line be drawn through and connecting all these 12 points, stu 
a line will represent very clearly the fluctuations of one's on 



333 



put for the yean The succetling year's output should be put 
on the same sheet in the same way; anti it will be seen that if 
theomptit is increasing, and is, say, a 1,000,000 feet or s*j larger 
for each month tJiun the preceding year, ihc second year's out- 
|Mil will be proportionately higher up on the sheet, and oppor- 
tunity for most direct Cf>mparisun given. If the annual outputs 
do not vary much, and the lines cross and recross, culured inks 
should be used for the various lines in OfLlf r 10 preserve clear- 
ness. The hnes fur a series of years so plotted make most in- 
teresting and instructive data, and show very clearly the pro- 
gress of the company. When abrupt changes in the output 
occur and the line has noticeable fluctuations in it, the reason 
should be stated in a foot note. For example — '* i\>tomac Mills 
closed for two months;" ** eighty-two lamp posts disconnected 
this month," or, **gas stc»ve business entered upon, this date," 
etc, etc. 
Thi^ pU^lting of the output by months as above is usually the 
[ chief feature uf the sheet. Additional spaces, however, should 
be ruled off intci appropriate size for the plotting of the yearly 
ioatputs, and especially for the plotting of the monthly percent- 
[aige of leakage. The direct showini^ of this latter item I con- 
[5ider as perhaps the most imporiant matter on the sheet. There 
[is no getting away from it, and its tendcfjcy, from its " silent ac- 
tion " on the superintendent's mind, toward the reduction of the 
leakage account is most beneficial. Plotting may, of cotirse, be 
(carried out to a much greater extent if desired. The percentage 
[of annual increase of output; the daily, the weekly, or quar- 
terly outputs; the number of meters in use; the number of gas 
Istoves: the yield per pound; all such figures may be graphically 
I delineated at the fancy of the supcrintenilent, if so disposed. 
It is also well to have a column at one side of the sheet, in 
[which to keep a record of monthly station meter readings, and 
mother in which to note the estimated annual population of ihc 
Icity. I give herewith a cut (l*ig. 3S) showing a few samples of 
such plotting. 

In framing, the sheet should be so arranged that it can be 
readily removed, in order 10 make the monthly continuations of 
^ihe lines or other entries. 

If well planned at the start, such a chart may be made to 




334 



cover aperioil of lo years or mure; and if well kepi up h 
only furnishes cunstiint fuod for reflection, as it may be studied, 
but becomes, in a degree, a visible history of the progress of the 
company. I believe it to be well worth the keeping. 

In closing, I wish tcj disclaim more than a very raf^derate 
amount of knowledge of the subject of which I have written, 
and to aptjlo^rjxe to those to whom I have, perhaps, said noth- 
ing new. kutrwing that all of that which I have recommended 
is practiced in some companies, while to others much of what 
1 have said will not apply. At the same time there ar^ some 
<:ompanies which would be bettercil were the pencil of the gas 
engineer used more freely — bettered in themselves from having 
the benefit of and the satisfaction of complete records, and in 
the eyes of others from the fact that if work in this direction 
is seen tt* be thorough, it argues thoroughness throughout. 

To the managers of such companies 1 would emphasise once 
more the desirability of keeping all possible pencil records. 
Kven if you feel, perchance, that exact and elaborate drawings 
sXTv beyond your ability or the time you can give to this work, 
then make free hand sketches. Such rough drawings are far 
better than ntme at all, an<l in some cases are even better than 
an elaborated drawing to scale, as they permit of the enlarging 
and bringing out the more clearly of certain prominent points, 
or a central idea, if so desired. Free hand sketches* however, 
when not drawn to scale should have the measurements all the 
mare fully and more clearly marked upon them. 

Tv» ihtise of you who desire a jijood and simple treatise upon 
dniughiing I would recommend a series of papers entitled 
^Lessons in Mechanical I drawing," that appeared in the .SWVii* 
ti0€'^ JmeriitiM SmffUmenK in 1876 and 1877, by Prof. Charles 
VV. MacCord, of Stevens Institute, Hoboken, K. J., (since 
i$:^utd iin hook furm by Munn & Cocnpany, N. Y,,) and to a 
$4?nesi of three hand-KH>ks entitled *'|anioT» Intermediate and 
Scnu»r ct>HT%rs in Mcchankat l>rawtng»** by Wm. H. Thome, 
M. K^ nire% u^ of the l>rmviiig School of the Franklin Insti* 
tmc, r* ' ^ ^ ^*:i., tS^D. (Williams. Brown & Earle, Chest* 
nitt ail ,^ l^ibdelp4iia.) 

If ttn xiiiy 01 )^>» I havif awakened iKe draaghtsng conscience, 
.«. i . ,...,.... i^_..» .,| ^rvtcc l^y si^gg^mno^ I ^m well pleased. 



MB 



I He PgttfTpKNT — You have heard read a very interesting, 
ami, to my mind, a very profitable paper, that I trust will be 
thoroughly and expeditiously discussed. Mr. Shelton is ready 
to answer any questions that may be asked him. 

Mr, Egnkr — Only a few days ago I had a little example of 
how much memory is worth and how true Mr. Shelton s re- 
marks are in the matter of how beneficial it would be to put 
ile^igns down on paper. CominjEf along on the train a friend 
said tij me, ** Mr. Rgner, can you draw the face of your watch ?" 
1 said, "Yes, no doubt I can/' My friend remarked that it 
seemed to be not very much of a thing to do, but that there 
was a good lesson attached to it. I took out pencil and paper 
and drew the face of my watch — I thought I could not make 
any mistake in that, as I saw the face of my watch many times 
every day — so I drew the face of my watch, correctly, as 1 
thought. In fact, I thought I had made a very nice sketch of 
it. I handed it over for inspection, and was then asked to 
show my watch, when, to my surprise, 1 found that it was as 
unlike the drawing as could be, 7'his part (the chain ring) 
was not where it ought to be at all, for I drew it there (about 
haif-way to the right of its proper position), and even the fig- 
ures were wTong. How much more can we be mistaken in our 
more complicated gas works, even though we see them every 
day. We think we know just where every valve, pipe or drip 
is, but the time may come when we will find that we are mis- 
taken. Therefore, I think the suggestion of Mr. Sbeiton, that 
we should have sketches of everything about the gas works, is 
a very good one, and has l>een done, no doubt, by most gas 
engineers \n the past. 

Mr, Moonev — I agree with all that Mr. Shelton says about 
having plans and maps, and I would have the office plastered 
with them; but I think they need not be made by the engineer 
of tlie works. He has other things to do. He is paid a high 
salary, so the company could not afford to ha%T him spend his 
time making plans. He is compensated for doing other things. 
Again, 1 don't think you can teach these bald-headed men by 



336 

|2^etting drawing; boards and getting them lu go to work ano 
lake lessotib. Tlicy will nut lUi it, 1'ljt»y luivc no time fur ii 
It is a thmg that has lo be learned from youth. I think the 
engineer has too mnrh work lo do now, and he cannot afford 
to go lo work and learn how to draw plans, 

Mr. a. C. Hu mphrlvs — 1 would like lo reply lo Mr. Mooney, 
I think it would be a very sad thing, after hearing that excel- 
lent paper read, for anyone to go away with the impression 
that he cannot do ihc W(»rk that Mr. Shelton has mapf)ed out 
As Mr. Shclton says, if yim have not the lime lo devote In the 
study, so as to be able in make a regular met'hamcal drawing, 
you can do the same work by free hand sketches. There is 
not a man in this room, who, after studying for three months 
in the evenings, cannot do practical ly everything that Mr. 
Shehon asks for in that paper. I say ihat without any reserva- 
tion at all. It is ncrt necessary that he should make a finished 
drawi»ij4. He simply wants to record the facts. One of the 
most inqiortant things in thai paper is the pointing out of the 
fact that it is not necessary to make these drawings to scale; 
but *f a man cannot do any better, he can have systematic 
order ahunl il, and can have things in such shape that he can 
get at his facts, and he can easdy learn to show them in free 
hand drawings, on an enlarged scale, in one direction, or have 
no scale at all, but simply show what he wants, and put the 
figures in, and lit; has got his facts. If we are all going to be 
draughtsmen like some of the engineers of our body» then we 
must make provision for a proper course of study, and follow 
this plan up. I confess that I would not want lo start in now 
to make a finished drawing, for my hand is ** imt/' and the 
work would be slow, ami the young men in my office can do ii 
better and tpiicker; but still I would be able to go to work and 
make the original record sketches, and do it rapidly: and 1 
think there are very few men in this room who have less facility 
than 1 have in this direction, I sincerely hope that the mem- 
bers will not be discour^iged from attempting to follow Mr. 
Shelton's advice. 

Mr. Choli.ar — The paper of Mr. Shelton pleases mc in a 
very high degree: and many nf the points made in it are those 



887 



, which I have b^tn trying to solve for many years. I agree 
with the gentleman who has just preceded me in thinking that 
there are very few engaged in the gas business, who are willing 
to devote an hour or so a day to a systematic record of their 
works, but will find that in the course of a year or so they have 
accomplished great things. There are one or two points in 
the paper with regard to keeping of the record that personally 
I have found not to work well. One is in recording the lines 
in colors. Most people might succeed ver>' well in it, but I 
have found myself unable to follow out the plan. I know I am 
partially color blind—and many people are so who do not 
know it — and I find that colors are not as reliable as character- 
istic dotted lines and marks. Another point is this: It is 
necessary to have tw^o maps, one on a small scale^ — a bird's eye 
view — and another on a larger scale for giving detail. I have 
worked at this latter a great deal, and do not know yet if I 
have got the thing right. We find a necessity of keeping the 
record on a large scale in such a way that it will not duplicate 
any part of the pipe system. I will make a little sketch (see 
diagram) on the blackboard to illustrate w^hat I tiiean. In 
making a sectional plat of a pipe system, it is a little difficult 
to get it so that on any two sheets you will not have some part 
of the system on both. If you have any part on two maps, it 
leads to confusion. I have a plan which I have at last adopted, 
and it economizes space a good deaL For instance, here is a 
street intersection. Now, suppose that we ha%^e a main going 
down this w^ay, another one going that way. If we make a 
general map in sections we are liable to get some part of the 
pipe» on two or more sheets. My system is to stop right at 
the line (property line) here, and here, and here. This part of 
the plat takes in only the intersection of the streets, and is for 
^ convenience put at one corner of the sheet. That part goes 
across the block from one property line to the other. This is 
the street crossing the other one, 1 put it here at right angles 
with the first. We do not put dt>wn the inside of the block at 
lalU but simply the street. This gives plenty of room for divid- 
fiog off for lot lines, and it is not possible to dufiUcate any part 
of the mains on any of the maps, and by reason of leaving out 
the inside of the blocks, you have plenty of room for putting 




f 


t .H 
>1 i 




1 : 



like to say that on the street corners of the large scale plat, I 
put the elevations of the curb stones, the corners of the blocks, 
and also the elevation of the pipe lines aiul the water pipes. 

Mr. a. C. Hlmphkfys — I would like to ask now» after hav- 
ings had it explained by Mr. Chollar, if any man in the room 
cannot get up and make that sketch. 

Mr. Egner^I think that anybody in the room can do it as 
well as Mr. Chollar. (Laaghten) 

Mr. Chollar — I see that I have made a mistake, and have 
shown one of the pipe lines on the wrong side of the street. 1 



» 



<Jo not think that Mr. Egner could make a sketch like it. He is 
always so busy that he can't find the time. 

Mr. M. S. Grebkough — I agree with Mr. Humphreys that 
'tis not wise to let the impression go out that this matter of 
putting our data on paper in the way suggested by Mr. Shelton 
's something so difficult that we cannot all do it. Mr Shellon 
^las taken all the maps which he has seen in our office in Boston, 
3j)d I am quite sure that he has been examining uur archives as 
Well as what he has seen upon the wall; because I think that 
We have on paper practically everything that he has suggested, 
with the possible exception of one of the diagrams. I think 
that a diagram at the gas works, showing the make of gas by 
Weeks, rather than by the month, is a still more instructive dia- 
gram than that of Mr. Humphreys. We also have diagrams 
showing the increase or decrease in the labor account per 1,000 
Icet of gas made; and also the cost of handling the coal, and 
other things which perhaps are not necessary in small works, 
but which are interesting as showing just what is being done. 
The only criticism thai 1 would make would be this: I think it 
isver>^ doubtful whether it is worth while to put on to any map 
anything except the gas pipes; and I also question to some ex- 
lent the use of the various colors. That is a thing that we have 
been trying, and I have vainly endeavored to accustom myself 
to it. Our old maps were always made with the gas pipes col- 
ored red, and I find it very difhculi to look at a map which is 
colored red, brown, yellow and green and to keep in my mind 
that any of those pipes are gas pipes except as indicated by the 
red color It is at any rate much better, if quite a number of 
different colors are put on a map, that there should be no pipes 
cm it of any kind except for gas. I have in my office a map 
showing the whole territory of our city, with all the suburbs, on 
which no pipes appear which are less than 12 inches diameter, 
and that is the map which I find I use a great deal more than 
oy of the others. 1 find that the detailed maps which are in 
the Assistant Engineer's office, and which contain all these dif- 
ferent colors, and showing the gas pipes, water pipes and sewers, 
so confuse me that it is very difficuit to use them as readily as 
I can the old-fashioned map, on which there Is nothing except 
gas pipes, and they are in red. It is quite eajiv to make a 



S40 

map in which there shall be a number of dots showing the sizes 
of pipes until you get up to i8 or 24 inches; and you can read 
such maps just as readily and as quickly as you can any combi- 
nation of color. I take no other exception to the paper, and I 
think it is an admirable thing to carry out so far as we have 
time to do it, 

Mr. AiMMS — I think, perhaps, no one has greater cause to 
know the great difficulty in keeping records, particularly with 
regard to the classificatinn and the earlier processes of gas 
making, than I have; and I think that if there could be a gen- 
eral move in the direction of keeping records of comparative 
yields, and particularly of the yields of residuals under certain 
conditions (which are now becoming a great factor i« the ques- 
tion of gas making) it would be one of the best things that 
could possibly be done by this Association; and if these results 
could be compiled, brought here and exposed at the meetings, 
I am certain it would be productive of great good, I heartily 
second Mr. Shclton's appeal for more systematic and exhaustive 
records of the work done by the various gas companies in the 
United States. 

Mr. Harbison — I want to state a personal experience of the 
value of just such maps as Mr. Shelton has suggested m his 
paper, to emphasize if possible, what he has said on this sub- 
ject. I thought years ago that I had a pretty familiar knowl- 
edge of the Hartford gas works, and of their property. Four 
years ago or so I undertook the work of laying a larger distribu- 
ting main or feeder across the city, and to do the thing prop- 
erly I began at tlie fountain head — at the gas works. 1 thought 
I knew where every pi[>e untierground was located, and about 
its depth below the surface. But it took me several weeks, with 
a large gang of men, before I could get outside the yard into the 
street, in order to get the system in the gas works as it should 
be and as I wanted it — simply and only because my knowledge 
of the matter in my memory was at fault. The pipes had origi- 
nally been laid by the former manager. They were laid at 
every angle, and at every conceivable depth. To-day I would 
not have any difficulty in finding any of the pipes in the gas 
works, and not much difiiculty in finding any in the streets of 




I 



I 



Ui 



the city, because I have carefully prepared maps. Quite a num- 
ber of years ago it was my pleasure to visit the ofirce of the 
PrDvidence Gas Company, and there to interview my friend Mr. 
Slater who is an encyclopicdia in gas matters himself; and the 
statistics of his office are as complete as they can be. In his 
office I saw such a chart with regard to output as Mr Shelton 
alludes to in his paper, and when I returned home I deputized 
llie duplicating of that work to one of the young men in the 
office, and we have kept it up ever since, I should regret ex- 
ceedingly if that chart were destroyed, I also set him at work 
(because he then had some leisure) in making: a map of our 
street mains and I find that it is of exceedingly great value. I 
thought I knew just where every street main in Hartford was 
located; but we have so added to our pipes, the water company 
have added to their pipes, and the sewer pipes have been so 
multiplied, that without the assistance of the chart we could not 
tell just where our pipes are. I have kept a record of them all 
on our books, and it is of exceeding great value. The cost of 
doing it will be ten times repaid, even if you have to employ an 
engineer or draughtsman to do it for you. In five years every 
man in this room would save more than the time and expense 
required for making such a map, even if he has to go outside 
and hire the work done by a draughtsman. I have felt re[>aid 
the cost many times by the annoyance which has been saved 
me personally in managing our business, in being able, in the 
street or in the ofhce, to instruct the foreman just what to do, 
and in being able t(* know myself where things are, and to make 
my plans accordingly, 1 would advise with regard to the street 
mains map, that your foreman, and you yourself, should have it 
in mind continually, and every time you see the surface of the 
ground broken for any street connection, by anybody, or any 
excavations whatever made, to get the measurements to your 
own pipes, and to verify those measurements, and also verify 
the positions of the water pipes and of the sewer pipes; so that 
whenever you have to put in any new pipe you will know just 
what grade to make it in order to make it work successfully, 
I'here is not a suggestion in Mr, Shel ton's paper which is not of 
practical value to every man in this room, and to every man con- 
fleeted with our business^ whether he is here or absent. I think 





342 



5t IS one of the most valuable papers that we have had before^ 
us for many years; and when the proper time comes I am ready^ 
to raise both hands for a vote of thanks to Mr. Shelton. 

Mr. Rantspell— I have been using that system for keeping 
the records of the amount of gas sold, etc., and 1 have found 
it practicable. I think in works where there is not a very large 
increase, and the lines intercross each other so much, it is a 
good plan to take a trial balance paper, which has 12 columns, 
and put the names of the respective months at the heads of the 
columns, with the years at the side, taking one sheet for each 
of these items that you wish for comparison, and then, by sim- 
ply filling in the figures each month, you have the whole thing 
on one sheet for as many years as you want it; and you have it 
perfectly plain. Take any month, and, by looking right down 
the column, you can see just exactly how the gas in that time 
has (luctuated» either in the amount of gas sold or in the out- 
put. I have found this to work better in my own case than 
using a diagram. 

Mk. Harbison — May I say a word further, on another thought 
that occurs to me? It is not to be expected that any gentleman 
in writing a paper for the Association, of a practical nature, of 
this kind, can outline the details of a plan which will suit every 
works. What is wanted for the city of St. Louis, with its large 
business, would not perhaps be just as practical in all its details 
for the city of Hartford; and what w^ould be advantageous for 
us in Hartford would not be just the thing for some other works 
not as large as ours. But wdien you get the general idea, every 
man can then work it out and keep his details according to his 
own requirements as will be best for him. It is a general idea 
that 1 think Mr, Shelton wants to impress upon you — to get us 
all started in the right direction, if we have not already com- 
menced; and then every man can work out the details to suit 
his own convenience, his own wants, and his own requirements. 

Mr. John Yoling — In the natural gas bu.siness it is some- 
what of a difficult matter to keep a record of the manufacture 
of the gas. The works are so situated that they are not very 
easily got at, btit in distributing the gas we have to exer* 
cise considerable vigilance aod care. The gas being carried at 



m 



1 com para lively high pressure— a much hight;r pressure than 
illuminating gas is — we have consequently to exercise more 
care in the case of leakage, and the gas having no odor makes 
it still more dangerous. The plan that I have pursued with 
regard to the pipe laying has been this: My foreman keeps a 
record of every day's work. If he is laying a piece of pipe he 
notes the depth at which it is placed, the distance from the 
curb stone, the location of the valve, of the joint, of the 
branches — exactly where they are situated — and at the end of 
the month he sends me in a report of all the work that has 
been done during the month, for every day in detail. That 
report is given to the typewriter, printed, and put on a lile; so 
that we could begin to-day and make a correct report of every 
pipe in our street from these records. At various time^ these 
reports are taken to the draughtsman, who puts them into the 
maps. We have a complete record up to within a month or 
two of every pipe that is laid, and of every valve and connec- 
tion in the city of Allegheny. I find, as Mr Harbison says, 
that to trust to memory^ is a very deceptive thing. I some- 
times think that I know exactly what size of pipe is in a certain 
street, but when I examine the map I find that I am mistaken. 
I find sometimes that il is a 6-inch main when I thought it was 
an S-inch, or vice versa. I do not know that there can be any- 
thing more important for a gas superintendent to have, than a 
map of every pipe that he has, and of all the data that he can 
get to bear upon it. He will find that it will be of great im- 
portance and assistance to him. 

M». LiTTLEHALKs — It seems to me that the logical result of 
the paper^ and of the discussion that has followed, to para- 
phrase an old remark, will be that from this time those of us 
will figure who never thought of it before^ and those who 
i always figure, now will figure all the more. (Laughter,) 

Mr, Hambleton — The paper has my very decided approval, 
and is very much in accordance with my practice, except that it 
is carried out in more detail in some respects than I have been 

I doing, I have been placed in a position where I have had to 
do a very extraordinary amount of pipe laying, and have had a 

[good deal of pipe taking up to contentl with; but I have man- 



344 



aged by dint of regular records to keep a thorough account of 
it, and have verified the accuracy of our maps^ when changing 
the prices in diderent districts where anew company laid some 
hundred miles of pipe, A map was made and put down in the 
lower office, showing all the new p»pe^ and when a man came 
in to have his price changed because he lived in the opposition 
district, it coincided almost exactly. I have been obliged to 
keep a map of all the companies which have come to lay pipes 
in our territory (as well as of my own), and without that map 
we would have been absolutely lost, or in a hopeless tangle. 
But by dint of keeping such a record, and having everything in 
the way of pipe laying brought in and put on the map as soon as 
it was done, we have been able to keep our systems all separate 
and in perfect operation. One thing in addition to the locat- 
ing of stopcocks that I have done is having an arrow showing 
the directions in which the screws turn. I have the book 
which has been suggested with a sketch of the location of all 
the stopcocks, and arrows to show the direction, so that any 
man can take that book and locate a stopcock, and turn it 
either shut or open with certainty. In the matter of the re- 
cording of data, I may say I have tlone a great deal in that 
line, and find it pays most decidedly. It has enabled me to 
make changes and improvements that I could not have made 
otherwise. I can only say I have no doubt that the paper of 
Mr. Shelton will be fruitful of a great deal of good, I have 
myself been greatly benefited by whatever I have done in that 
direction. 

Mr. Shelton—I am %'er>^ thankful to the gentlemen who 
have spoken so kindly of my paper. I will reply to two or three 
points which have been suggested. If Mr. Young's w^orks are 
so much covered under the dirt that he cannot see them, and 
if they are in such a warm place that he has very little famiU 
iarity with them, that fact does not lessen the suggestion of 
my paper of the importanqe of having a record of what he docs 
know about them. He can make a beginning, and adopt the 
practice of Mr. Harbison, and every time he gets a chance to 
put down another point, put it down, and then in the course of 
a few years he may have a complete record. In reply to Mr, 
Greenough*s remark about the colors oo the map, I will say I 



345 



am not here to lay down any empirical system, but simply to 
make suggestions. The company that I am connected with 
h^ found the system of coloring suggested in the paper to 
work very advantageously, and I recommend that. But of 
course there are many other ways w^bich I presume are equally 
as good, Mr Muoney raised the point that a gas engineer 
sihould not be a draughtsman, I do not agree with him in that. 

On motion of Mr. Boardman the thanks of the Association 
were voted to Mr. Shelton. 



Report of Committer on President's Address. 

Committee on President's Address, having announced that 
their report was ready, Vice-President Boardman, at the re- 
quest of the President, assumed the Chair. 

Mr. Cowdkry — In making the report upon the President's 
Address, your Committee found an unusual task before them. 
The Address contains so many points of interest, and so many 
valuable suggestions, that a great deal of time was necessary 
in order to give to each the proper consideraticMi. 

Your Committee reports as follows: 

GeniUmen: — Your Committee respectfully recommends the 
close and earnest study of the masterly and unique presenta* 
tton of the many points of interest embodied in the President's 
Address. 

\*our Committee especially calls attention to his remarks up- 
on the municipal control of lighting, and its consetjuent ex- 
haustive treatment. 

The experience of conducting, with commercial success or 
failure, the manufacture of fuel gas must be, by virtue of the 
importance of such data, highly valuable to the modern gas 
manager. • 

Of ecjual interest, and treated with consummate skill, will be 
read the results of the increase of electric lighting. 

We regret that it should be necessary to stimulate the lag- 
ging interest in the financial prosperity of the Association, of 
^o large a number of the members, by calling attention to it, 




atKl it h tu be luiped that the next report of the Treasurer will 
show the healthy result of such a stern reminder. 

We concur most heartily with and indorse the manly stand 
taken by out President in reference to establishing and main- 
taining the independence of this Association, and to this effect 
we recommend the adoption of the following resolution; 

**That at all subsequent meetings no hospitality, in the shape 
of a banquet, be accepted by the Association, in the city 
visited." 

The importance i>f designating beyond any peradventure the 
question of the tenure of office is concisely and clearly stated. 
In order to obtain the legality of thtf beginning and expiration 
of the term of office, and to avoid the misinterpretation likely 
to result from the andiiguity of the existing clause in the C*)n- 
stitution, we recommend the adoption t»f the following resolu- 
tion : 

**That it is the sense of the Association that, under the pro- 
visions of the Constitution, the officers-elect should enter upon 
the discharge of their respective duties on the Saturday suc- 
ceeding the third Wednesday in October of each year." 

And your Committee further recommends to the Council the 
following change in the Constitution, for linal recommendation: 

** That the election of officers take place immediately before 
the close of the final business session of the Association/* 

The approaching World's Fair demands that the large and 
varied interests of the gas profession be treated and displayed 
in a generous and liberal manner In order to accomplish this, 
and to show the wonderful progress and genesis of the mdus* 
try, it will be found useful and equitable to enlist the enthusi- 
astic services of the kindred manufacturing industries which 
are integral to our business. To this effect we recommend to 
the Council that the ideas suggested by the President be car- 
ried out. 

E. G. CowDERV, I. C. Baxter, ^"J 

O. Fi. Webkr^ W. H. Baxter, y CommiUe^, 

A. G. Glasgow, G. S. Hookey, > 

Mr. McClearv — I desire to ask whether the Address of the 

President is to be printed, except in the minutes, 

Mr, Cowderv — It was not intended to ^o recommend. 



341 



The Chairmak— I think the President's Address is not sep- 
arately printed unless so recommended by the Association; 
but it is printed in the minutes, and appears in the Amerkan 
Gas Light JmtrnaL 

Mr. McCleary — That is what I want to know; •because 
some of us who are engaged by municipal corporations would 
like an opportunity to digest the Address, 

The Chairman — Vou have heard the report of the Commit- 
tee, and it seems to me that it covers quite a number of items; 
and it might be well, as the Address treats of such a variety of 
subjects, that you take up the recommendations of the Com- 
mittee seriatim^ cull out what you wish to pass, amend what 
you desire to amend, and then pass the report as a whole when 
you have thoroughly digested the matter. Shall we adopt it as 
a whole, or take it up in sections ? 

On motion of Mr, Fodell, it was determined to receive the 
report, and to discuss its recommendations separately. 

1 Hi: Chairman — The report is received. The first note I 
have made is in respect to municipal control. Is there any- 
thing you wish to do with that, or any recommendation further 

in the importance that has been attached to it in the report 
of the Committee ? If there is no objection I will read that 
recommendation again: ** Your Committee respectfully recom- 
mends the close and earnest study of the masterly and unique 
presentation of the many points of interest embodied in the 
President's Address. Your Committee especially calls atten- 
tion to his remarks upon the municipal control of lighting, and 
its consequent exhaustive treatment.'* 

On motion of Mr. Harbison, that recommendation of the 
Committee was adopted, without discussion, 

The Chairman — The next point brought out is the increase 
of electric lighting, to which the Committee called the attention 
of the body, regretting that it is necessary to call our attention 
to it in order to stimulate and protect our own industry. What 

ii you do with that ? 

Mr. Harbison^ — I move that the suggestion be adopted. 
(Carried.) 



348 



The Chairman — The third point covered is the endorse- 
tnerU of tht? independence of the Association, and the resolution 
that, in effect, we furnish our own banquets hereafter, 

Mr, LiTTLEHALES — I think that is an eminently suitable reso- 
lution to be adopted by the Association, While every member 
must feel that the places we have visited from time to time 
have been unlimited in their hospitality, yet I think the time 
has come when the Association should take an independent 
stand in that matter and decline all future hospitality. I have 
much pleasure in moving the adoption of that item. 

Mr. Lansden — ^Do I understand this is a recommendation 
that we shall not have a banquet, or does it only leave it in 
such a way that we can refuse or accept hospitalities at points 
where we meet ? With regard to having a banquet, will not 
that question come up each year; or will it be settled this year 
for the next ? And if we adopt that, do we settle the idea of 
whether or not we are to have a banquet and pay for it our- 
selves ? 

The CHAiRMAN-^There is no second to the motion, and if 
you will allow me, in order to bring it more fully to mind, 1 
will read the resolution as it stands^ and then you can discuss 
it more intelligently: " That, at all subsequent meetings, no 
hospitality in the shape of a banquet be accepted by the Asso- 
ciation, in the city visited/' I think the point is perfectly 
clear. 

(Mr. Harbison seconded the resolution offered by Mr. Little- 
hales.) 

Mr. Goodwin — I would like to make a suggestion. While I 
concede that the resolution is eminently proper, still, if you 
ever come to IMiiladelphia we do nut want to be blocked out, 
should we feel disposed to tender you the hospitalities of the 
City of Brotherly Love. If the resolution could be changed so 
as to read that it is the sense of this body that it should furnish 
its own banquets, the door is left open to such of us as might i 
wrant to extend hospitality to do so. If that resolution prevails 
as it is, it would shut us out entirely. If it could be modified 
in the manner suggested, so as to make that the expression of 



J 



349 



n^ense of tni^mceting, I should be very glad to help pass 
it, and I know some others who would like to sec that limita- 
tioa, 

Mr. Harbison — I hope the resolutfon as proposed by the 
Committee will not be changed in any respect, for it does not 
cut off our friends in Philadelphia or anywhere else from prop- 
erly taking care of the ladies who may come with us, or from 
extending any other little hospitality our hosts may see fit to 
lender us — except the banquet. It only has reference to the 
banquet. There are many places where we can have a social 
dinner party on Mr. Goodwin's invitation^ or on that of other 
distinguished men in Philadelphia^ without having a set ban- 
quet. 

Mr, Littlehales — There is no reason why Mn Goodwin's 
suggestion should be favored. We know his largeness of heart, 
for we have had specimens of his treatment; and if we should 
have the pleasure of meeting in Philadelphia again^ I have no 
doubt there would be the same largc-heartedness still. I trust 
the motion will pass in its entirety, as it stands. 

(The announcement uf the Chairman that the mcjtion was 
carried was received with applause.) 

The Chairman — The next recommendation is as to the ten- 
ure of office. Following the preamble stating the necessity to 
fix some decided date for tenure of office, the resolution reads: 
'*That it is the sense of the Association that, under the provi- 
sions of the Constitution, the officers elect shou!d enter upon 
the discharge of their respective duties on the Saturday suc- 
ceeding the third Wednesday in Octuber a( each year/' 

(On motion of Mr. Littlehales the recommendation was 
adopted.) 

The Chairman — The fifth point to which attention is called 
is the change with reganl to the election of officers — carrying it 
over from the third W'ednesday, to the last day of the meeting 
which convenes on the third Wednesday. 

Mr, Harbison — I move that recommendation be referred to 
the Council. 



350 



The Chairman— 1 will read the recommendation so that 
will understand it: ** The Committee recommends the follon 
wg change in the Constitution: *That the election of ofticers" 
lake place immediately before the clnse of the final business 
session of the Association.* " I 

Mk. ILvuinsoN — I move the adoption of that recommenda- 
tion. 



Mr. a. C. IUmi'HKIcvs— If that resolution is adopted will 
the Council be able to act on it so that it shall come before this 
meeting, and so that it can be acted on at the next meeting? 

Mr. MlMili.in — Yes; I think we can. 

The Chairman— I think it will be necessary to have thi 
Council meet before the close of this business meeting. I may 
be in error, but I think thai that is what would have to be done 
if it is ado[>tcd. 

Mr. a. C. Humphrkvs— Could the Council have that meet- 
ing and act on the recommendation so that the Association can 
take It up provided they agree with the suggestion? 

The Chairman — I think the Council will promptly attend to 
anything that the Association requests. Are you ready for the 
question? (The motion was carried.) The recommendation is 
adopted. The Council will please take notice, and act accord- 
ingly. The sixth item before me is that with respect to the 
World's Fair. A suggestion is made by the President with re- 
spect to adding associate members to the Committee. That 
recommendation is taken up by the Committee on the Presi- 
dent's address, who think that '* It will be found useful and 
equitable to enlist the enthusiastic services of the kindred man- 
ufacturing industries which are integral to our business;'* and to 
that end they recommend to the Council that the ideas sug- 
gested by the President be carried out. 

Mr. LiTTLEiiALEs — I move the adoption of that. I under- 
stand this is to be taken in connection with the suggestion 
made in the President's address that no expense be incurred by 
the Council except they have the money in hand, so that it will 
not involve the Association in any expenditure. 



IS 

I 



361 



I 



I 



The Chairman — I think the idea of the Comnuiicc evidently 
is that the recommendations of the President shall be taken in 
^hcir entirety. It is moved anti seconded that the recommenda- 
tion of the Committee in this respect be adopted. Are there 
.any remarks? (The motion was carried,) The resolution is 
adopted. Will you take up the report now as a whole? 

Mr, Somervillk — One other point I desire to call attention 
ru, which I think you have perhaps overlooked among the 
recommendations of the Committee. The President made allu- 
sion to it. The subject is one which I have never before heard 
mentioned in a President's address, I was very sorry indeed 
that he was obliged to mention this subject. It was painful to 
me to hear it. It is painful for me now to speak about it, I 
think it is the duty of some member who is not an oflicer of the 
Association to call attention to it. Of coursie you ail know to 
what I allude — the financial condition of the Association, 

Thf- Chairman — I overlooked that. I am very glad you 
have called the attention of the Chair to that point. It is a 
very important matter. The recommendation of the Commit- 
tee in this respect is: ** We regret that it should be necessary 
to stimulate the lagging interest in the financial prosperity of 
the Association, of so large a number of the members by call- 
ing attention to it, and it is to be hoped that the next report of 
the Treasurer will show the healthy result of such a stern re- 
minder.'* What is your pleasure as to this? 

Mr. Littlehales— I move the adoption of the report, I 
will simply call attention t«» it. We will suppose that the mem- 
bers have merely overlooked it— a thing which they ought not 
to do, since we are all so fond of cutting off the gas when our 
customers da not pay. (Laughter.) 

Mr, a, C, Humphrkv^ — If it be a proper question I would 
like to hear what penalty the Ctuistitution affixes for the non- 
payment of dues, and I would like to have the Treasurer report 
what amount of dues he has collected at this session after the 
very urgent appeals he has made. A reference to the unpaid 
dues having been made twice already at this meeting, T Wiudd 
like to know how much effect the reference has had. 



352 



The Chairman— I believe that that is not quite in order on 
the present motion, 

Mk. a. C HUxMphrevs— Is it not in order to ask for any in- 
formation from the officers of the Association which will help 
Uii in forming an opinion on the subject before us? 

Thf Chairman — That is proper, if you ask for information. 

The Secretary — The Constitution says, Article 51: "No 
member who owes 2 years' dues shall be entitled lo vote or par- 
ticipate in the deliberations of the Association, or to receive a 
copy uf the proceedings.*' *rhe next Article reads: "Any 
member whose dues shall remain unpaid for a term of 3 years 
may be dropped from the roll of membership by a vote of the 
Council/" On the other point I will say in reply to the ques- 
tion, that 1 have received the large sum of about ^135, out o! 
some $ii30o due. 

Mr, a. C. Humphrevs— May I ask one more question? How 
far have we followed the Constitution with regard to the distri- 
bution of records of proceedings? Do these members continue 
to gel the proceedings, and has the Council been good natured 
about it, hoping that the dues would be settled up? 

The CHAiRNfAN— Perhaps the Secretary can answer that 
question. 

The Secretary — Article 51 has not been enforced; Article 
52, with regard to dropping members, has been enforced. 

Mk. MiMii rjN — I will say that we had a list made purposely 
and placed on the outside of the doi»r, arranged alphabetically, 
so that each man could see whether he was two years behind or 
not, and we trustetl tu his honor not to lake part in the discus- 
sions if he found himself two years behind. 

The CHAtRKrAN — I think Mr. Humphreys* question was di- 
rected to the distribution of the reports; was it not? 

Mr. A. C. Humphreys — Yes, mure especially. 

The Secretary— I will say, in reply to that, that I have 
been instructed by the Council, when I had Vol. 9 prepared, not 
to send it to any member owing two years* dues. 



363 



I 
I 



The Chairman — I think that answers Mr. Humphreys* 
Question. 

Mk. LiTTLEHALKS— I would like to ask, in ihis connection, 
^^bethcr it is the understanding of the rule that when a mem* 
t>^rhas paid up his arrears he retains his membership* 

The Chairman — I think so. 

Mr, LiTTLEHALES — He is then reinstated? 

The Chairman — That is a matter which would properly 

Come before the Council, I think. The Constitution provides 

t^hat, *• A member dropped from the roil for non-payment of 

Uues may, upon paying the amount he owes the Association, be 

reinstated at the option of the CounciL" 

Mr. Lansden — I do not like to have the impression go out 
that a body of gentlemen who meet here as we have are not 
paying our dues; and I want to ask if it is not true that a vast 
majority of those who stand as delinc^ents are members who 
are not here. I do not wish to have the impression go out that 
those of us who are here, and a great many who have not the 
privilege of meeting with us, have not paid their dues. In look- 
ing over the list I see that a large number of the delinquents 
are members who are not jjresent al this meeting. Although 
they are marked as delinquents, it is probable that they will pay 
their dues in a short time. 

The SEcfcETARV -We only have about 150 members here, out 
of 340, Of course, a great many of the delinquents are not 
present. I have not checked those who are present on that 
Jist, and so I cannot say just how many are present here who 
have not paid. 

The Chairman — Are there any further remarks on the (jues- 
lion of adopting the President's Address? It has been moved 
and seconded that the report of the Committee on the Presi- 
dent's Address be adopted. 

(The motion was carried,) 

The Chairman — We will pass to the next business. Is the 
Camcnittee on the place of the next meeting ready to report? 




854 



Report of Committee on Place of MFfrrNO, 

Mr. Ljttlf.hales, frum the Coinmitlee, subniitied the * 
lowing report: 

To the Presidtnt and Members 0/ the Amenean Gas Light J,i.^^=^^^ 
ciation: 

Gentlkmfn — ^Your Committee on next place of meeting l^^-**^^ 
to report that cordial invitations have been receiveLl from Ha 
fordj Conn., and from Montreal, Can., and after full consider^ 
tion of the question recommend that the city of New York ^S 
the next place of meeting. 

Respectfully submitted, 

John S. Bish, Chairman. 

The Cji airman — The mtrtiun is that the report of the Com 
mittee be adopted, (Tlie motion was carried.) The report x^ 
adopted. New York will be the pUice of the ne.xt meetings 
We will now listen to the paper of Mr, FodelL 

Mr. \V. P. Fodell, of Philadephia, Pa., read his paper, entitled 



SUGGESTIONS OF METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR RE- 
CORDING THE HISTORIES AND ACCOUNTS 
OF GAS LIGHT COMPANIES. 

Each and every business requires a different system for keep- 
ing its histf>ry and accounts, if nut in the principal books used, 
at least in the auxiliary ones. 

The machinery and tools empkiyed in manufacturing, the 
labor expended, and products obtained, must be charged and 
credited respectively with their pecuniary value. The proprie- 
tors and the purchasers of the product must be registered, and 
their several accounts kept The bills must be made, pre- 
sented and collected. Finally, the pro fits ur losses must be 
determined, and a division or assessment made among the 
proprietors. 

In our particular held — the distillation of coal and other sub- 
stances used for obtaining illuminating gas and other products 



^I have prepared what I believe a proper divisiun of the busi- 
into four departments, each having its distinct field and 
^stem of books, those of the first three converging into the 
last as follows: 

First. Engineer's Department, for manufacture and distri- 
bution of the products, 

Second. Registrar's Department, for registration of con- 
sumers. 

Third. Receiver's Department, for rendering and collection 
of bills and forwarding collections to Treasurer*^ lleparlment. 

Fourth. Secretary and Treasurer's Department, for record- 
ing the acts of the managers, general supervision of the ac* 
counts and books, receiving all moneys, payment of interests, 
dividends and purchases. 

In large works these departments would be sub-divided, and 
in small ones combined. 

It is of prime importance that a careful and accurate note of 
each events and record of each rc^ceipt and expenditure be 
made for present and future reference, that the exact history 
and cost of the operations jnay be tletermi ned at any time dur- 
ing the entire life of the concern. I suggest, thercfure, thai a 
complete set of books for this purpose be opened when the 
first bond is given or the first certificate of stock issued, and 
that the distinct charges to capital and profit or loss be accur- 
ately stated in each instance. There may at times foe doubt in 
the mind of some as to which accr>unt certain expenditures 
should be charged. Some accountants fall into error by charg- 
ing the expense of renewals to capital; but a moment's thought 
should correct this, when it is remembered that such items 
should properly be charged to profit and loss, for the reason 
that they take the place of once paid for machinery. 

Betterments, such as extensions, additions and other im- 
provements, in so far as they increase the capacity t)f the plant, 
would he pniperly chargeable to capital to the extent of the 
increased productiveness. 

It is the custom (jf some manufacturing concerns, 2iX\A it 
would seem a proper course to pursue, to charge, at certain 
periods, a per cent, of depreciation of the plant, where the ma- 
chinery in use is being constantly worn away. This amount 




should be sufficieiU to provide funds for the erection of an 
entire new plant at the end of a limited niiraber of years. 

Other concerns rate their capital not upon the actual cost 
but upon its productive value at the prevailing rate of interest 
A corporation would be justified in increasing its assets by ihc 
appreciation of the real estate and other assets. 

Another important matter to be carefully attended to in uur 
business is to prepare and keep a plan of the plant, including 
street mains, with space for additions and extensions. It 
would also be of great advantage if all the pipes, valves, etc, 
in and about the works be exposed, so far as practicable, so 
that easy access could be bad for alterations, repairs or stop- 
pages; and for the facility that would be afforded for the loca- 
tion and detection of leaks. It would be of great advantage to 
gas companies if, in laying out a town, the streets could be 
tunnelled sufficient to lay all pipes, and even culverts therein, 
— as is the case in parts of Paris. Our leakage account would 
then be almost nothing, so easily could we detect, locate and 
remedy any leaks. The whole difference In the volurae of gas 
between the station meter and the consumer would then be 
almost wholly condensation, — except leaks from service pipes, 
— ^and even these could be soon remedied if the service pipes 
were laid inside of larger pipes. * 

Before using the books of the subordinate departments, ref- 
erence to the books of the treasurer is necessary; beginning 
with those of bonds and stock certificates, which having been 
issued, an entry is made in the cash book noting the cash re- 
ceipts therefrom. Upon the purchase of a site, credit is taken 
in the cash book for the amount paid. Like credits are taken 
for the cost of the erection of the works, laying of mains, and 
purchases of machinery, tools, etc. Upon the completion of 
these important preliminaries, the cost of , material, supplies 
and labor will similarly be entered on the cash L>ook, 

The plant having been completed, the material being on 
hand, and the laborers ready to begin business, the auxiliary 
books — i. £',, those necessary in the varied details of the busi- 
ness, must now^ be brought into use.* 



•For fonns of these books, see the Hide book published by A, M, Callender 
Sc Co,, for me* 



357 



These books naviB|f been properly kept, the works in opera- 
tion, the gas manufactured and distributed, and all the receipts 
and expenditures noted — at the end of six months or other de- 
sired period, by referring to these books, it will be found that 
they will reveal the component parts of protits earned, and also 
the losses sustained. 

Making out the statement of profit and loss should be a very 

iple operation. First, the actual cash receipts from sales of 
gas, coke, tar» ammoniacal liquor, etc, and an estimate of the 
amount of gas delivered during the six months, for which the 
cash has not yet been collected; the value of sold and unsold 
roke, tar, ammoniacal liquor made during the six months. 
This is contained on one side of the statement. The other 
side should contain the storage cost of coal distilled during the 
same period; the cost of repairs, including those to stack, 
benches, etc., cost of labor of setting retorts, placing stand- 
pipes, mouth -pieces, etc., wages, taxes, rents, and current ex- 
penses. Deducting one side from the other will show the 
profit or loss. 

A very important matter to be determined in the conduct of 
the manufacture of the gas, is its cost, as well in the holder as 
of its distribution and the management. 

Inllndingcost in holder, for any stated period, we shouhl 
charge the amount of coal or oil used at its storage cost; the 
wages paid in carbonizing, purifying, etc.; the cost of purifying 
material; the fuel used; the repairs and renewal of stacks, 
benches and retorts; the salary of the engineer, or so much of 
his time as is devoted to the manufacturing; proportion of 
water and taxes. In fact, all charges up to the holder. From 
these charges must be deducted the value of the coke, tar, and 
ammoniacal liquor obtained, and of spent lime left for sale — if 
lime is used — during the same jieriod. 

In obtaining the cost of distribution, include all costs of re- 
pairs, etc., wages and proportion of salaries, from and including 
the holder, up ti> manager's department. 

The cost of management would be, salaries, stationery, etc., 
iocldent to the collections and general business. 

The cost of gas must of necessity greatly vary in different 
localities, as the prices of material and labor obtain therein 



358 



It has been the practice of some to ask and expect th<»se tom- 
panies, far away fruni the coal mines, and where labor is com- 
paratively high, to manufaclure and sell gas at as low rates as 
those corporations who are located at the %'ery mouth of the 
mines, and where labor does not command so high a price; and 
it is a sad commentary upon the intelligence of the age, to note 
the effort of municipal legislators to determine the price of gas 
by statute. \V*hy this is the only one manufactured article 
singled out for this purpose, it is difficult to understand. 
\\'ould it not be more just to go further back^— behind this 
point — and fix by statute the prices of the material the manu- 
facturers arc obliged to use and the labor to employ ? 

I>tscuss9on. 

The Ghairmak— You have heard a very interesting paper, 
and I think the Secretary has made a good selection in having 
it follow the one just read — **The Engineer and his HenciL" 
Here we have the ''Secretary and his Pen," The paper is open 
for discussion. 

Mr. Sh^lton — I think this is a most important subject. 
There is cvRlently a necessity for keeping pen records as well 
as pencil records. I note that Mr. Ramsdell has just come in, 
and as I believe that he is on the Committee of the Western 
Association with regard to securing uniformit}' in gas accounts, 
I suggest that he might have something to say on this subject. 

Mr. Ramsdell — I was called from the room, and so did not 
hear all of the paper which was read by Mr, Fodell; but I was 
very much interested in what I did hear. I think this ts one of 
the most important subjects to come before our Association. 
From my study of the subject when getting up the report for 
the Western Association I found there was a great want of uni* 
forraity of system in keeping the accounts of gas companies, 
most companies having systems of their own. If I should have 
to write that report again I would change it a little from what 
it was as made. Having experimented a little since then, the 
change I would make would be in the distribution of the fixed 
charges. If you study it I think you will find it is quite a knotty 
pfoblem, and one that requires a great deal of study to solve it 



869 



satisfactorily, *io as to suit the various kinds of work and the 
various modes of manufacture. Mr. Fodell makes one change, 
and that is in the item of depreciation, which, in my report, was 
recommended to be treated as a fixed charge. Mr FodelPs ex- 
planation of it as given in his paper would seem to cover exactly 
Ibe same grounds; for he suggests the idea of laying aside for 
a number of years a fund which in time would be sufficient to 
re erect the works, This would be the same practically as the 
plan which the Coraraittee recommended in their report. 

Mk. LiTTLEHALES — ^One item in reference to that has often 
ap|>ealed to me. It will be a great advantage to e%*cry member 
of ihis Association if it were practicable (as possibly it might 
not be) to follow the precedent set on the other side of the 
tatcr Often we fail to get as good results as we might by not 
knowing what our friends are doing. As you know, alt the Brit- 
ish companies publish the details of what they are doing. Frob- 
ably that would not do for this country. If a scheme could be 
devised in any way by means of which we could each know the 
iletails of the other's working — classified and analyzed — it would 
btof Immense advantage to us. I do not know whether that is 
practicable. 1 may say that 1 have for years past, in the com- 
P<inies I have been connected with, kept such a detailed record 
—taking the leading items for our balance sheet, and dividing 
them by the number of tons of coal used, so as to show each 
'tern of cost per i,ooo feet of gas made, anil per i,ooo feet sold. 
I take the income and the capital, and divide ihem in the same 
*ay. It would be of great advantage to every one of us if 
^mc such s>stem could be adopted. I do not know whether 
^^i<^ feeling of the members would be in favor of publishing their 
accounts in that shape; but any member of the Association is 
Welcome to see my accounts. 

Oti motion of Mn Mcilhenny a vote of thanks was tendered 
^ Mr. Fodell. 

At this point the President resumed the chair and said— While 
"^i"- Adams* paper is being distributed I desire to refer again to 
Ihe report of the Commiltee on the Tresident's Address. At 
^"€ litne the vote was taken on the adoption of that report 
another member was entitled to the floor or 1 would have made 




my remark at that ttme, I want to say that, in my opinion, the 
ComiTiittee, out of some very common material^ erected a pretty 
handsome edifice. I owe them my sincere thanks for the com- 
pliment paid me in recommending the adoption of the various 
suggestions which I made. I feel greatly comph'mented also 
because the Association adopted these suggestions. I think the 
Assuuiation really ought, and doubtless does, give the members 
of that Committee their thanks for the interest they manifested, 
and for the work they did in connection with that report. 

We will now listen to Mr: H, C, Adams, of Philadelphia, Pa., 
who will read his paper on 

THE GAS COALS OF THE UNITED STATES— THEIR 
GEOGRArHiCAL AND ClEOUKilCAL LOCA- 
TION AND AREA, AND THEIR PHYSI- 
CAL CHARAC1T.RISTICS. 



In the contemplation of the subject of Gas Coals and their 
use, w^e arc struck with the beautiful example they present of 
the conservation of energy. The sunbeams of thousands upon 
thousands of years ago, hidden in this form in the bowels of 
the earth, were apjiarently lost forever. But the wise Architect 
of the Universe dues nut waste material: and Nature. His 
handmaiden, though seemingly prodigal, ever works with care- 
ful economy of her forces to the desired end. So, after a lapse 
of ages of a duration almost incomprehensible to our minds, 
we find the energy and material absorbed in the formation of 
these coals, given out again by the hand of man in the form of 
light and heat at the present day. Surely this is a monument to 
design in the planning of the creation; a mark of wise fore- 
thought in an omniscient Providence, to whom, when these coals 
were formed, their use in future ages was part of the stupendous 
but symmetrical plan that built our world. 

Is there not much food for thought In that light that makes 
bright our nights in the long buried but now regenerated sun- 
beam, that centuries ago fell apparently wasted upon the w^orld? 
And if we incline to philosophize further upon the subject, may 
we not find that the bright colors, imprisoned deep in this black 



361 



mass of coal, do, when released^ cause the flowers of the infant 
world to bloom again ? 

To turn now to the practical aspect of the matter before us, 
we find that a gas coal is technically and commercially known 
as one having, !^a3% 30 per cent, of volatile matter, not over t 
per cent, of sulphur, and a low percentage of ash. But^ as a 
matter of fact, the percentage of volatile matter is not so much 
the criterion as is the quality. For, as we shall fmd, a coal 
lower in volatile matter than another, may yet yield a greater 
quantity of richer gas, and be unqualifiedly superior for gasifi- 
cation. So whde low percentages of sulphur and ash are essen- 
tial pre -requisites of a good gas coal, the volatile matter is qual- 
ified by the question of quality. In a country like our own, 
where so many different grades of coal are used in gas making, 
it is difficult to precisely define a gas coal, save to say that it is 
such a coal as may be practically used in gasification in the pro- 
duction of illuminating gas. It must have, of course, a certain 
percentage of volatile matter charged with illuminating hydro- 
carbons. We may, perhaps, safely draw the line at or about 60 
candle feet, and say that no coal is used in this country in gas 
making that yields much less than that quantity and quality. 

The essentials of a good gas coal are a low percentage of ash, 
say 5 per cent.; and of sulphur, say i of one per cent.; a gen- 
erous share, say 37 to 40 per cent., of volatile matter, charged 
with rich illuminating hydrocarbons. And it should yield, under 
present retort practice, 85 candle feet to the pound carbonized. 
It should also be sufficiently dense to bear transportatinn well, 
so that when carried long distances, it may not arrive at its des- 
tination largely reduced to slack or fine coal of the consistency 
of sand. And it should possess coking qualities that will bring 
from the retorts, after carbonization, about 60 per cent, of clean, 
strong, bright coke. 

Our theme is readily divisible into two principal parts. The 
first of which, and the one to which we shall confine our atten- 
tion in this paper, relates to the geographical and geological lo- 
cation and area of the gas coal deposits and their physical char- 
acteristics. The second part has to do with the relative com- 
mercial values of the different coals, and their behavior and re- 



362 



suits in gasification, and is beyond the scope *»f nur present 
inquiries. 

In considering, then, the geological, geographical, and physi- 
cal aspects of the coals, we must begin at the beginning, ami 
take our way with hasty footsteps along the pathway of crea- 
tion, until we reach the carboniferous jungles that were the 
source and origin of our subject Starting with the nebular 
hypothesis, for want of a better one, and gazing upon our world, 
a globe of gaseous matter suspended by the laws of gravity in 
ID id -space, we see it cooling, solidifying, and shrinking, until wc 
have a molten mass enveloped with a hardening, cooling, wrink- 
ling crust. Then comes the precipitation of great masses of 
vapor, and the appearance of a universal ocean reigning su- 
preme. Through this the tightening crust thrusts its wrinkled 
granite head, and we have the foundation of our continent. 
Against these attacks upon its supremacy Old Ocean fiercely 
fought, and dragged out into its depth great quantities of sedi- 
mentary matter, which, thickening as time passed on, placed the 
first story upon the house of our habitation. So went on 
through countless years the building of the world, until at last 
a great area of dry land in the northern part of our continent 
was raised by one of the volcanic throes that characterized this 
period. Upon this broad area, covering our Northern and Mid- 
dle, and part of our Southern States, now ripe for planting, were 
sown by the Creative Hand the seeds of vegetation that burst 
forth with incredible luxuriance, and flourished and increased 
with wonderful prolificacy. Swam|>s and jungles grew, and fell 
rotting upon the ground, to be succeeded by others equally pro- 
ductive, and these again returned to earth to make way for their 
successors, Thus a great depth of vegetable matter was de* 
posited; how great we may perhaps imagine, when we consider 
that it has been estimated that 1,200 years' growth of the most 
luxuriant vegetation of to-day would furnish the material for a 
coal seam of a thickness of only 6 inches. 

Now, a sudden subsidence of the continent occurred, and 
over these vegetable deposits the ocean roUed, carrying with it 
and piling upon them masses of sand and mud which pressed 
heavily upon the i]n deriving stratum of vegetation, and gradu- 
ally but surely, in the slow process of Nature, changed it iuia 



363 



^eoal. The sand and nmd in their turn become the s u perineum - 
rocksj and we find we have proceeded une step in the for- 
mation of the coal measures. 

Then another upheaval took place; again vegetation flour- 
ished. Again the giant ferns, ciubmosses, and reeds spread out 
their leaves and branches. Then came another sinking of the 
land, another reig^n of Old Ocean. Again are the vegetable 
masses crushed under thousands of tons of sand and mud, and 
solidified, preserve to us in the form of coal the carbon that in 
the form of carbonic acid their greedy lungs had sucked from 
the atmosphere of those days. So, with like repeated processes, 
vein upon vein of coal is formed and the coal measures com- 
pleted. Not, however, in their present area or condition, for 
subsequently glacier and flood wrought sad havoc in these fields, 
and the upheavals and disturbances of the unsettled earth crust 
distorted and displaced Ihem. But here we see again the hand 
of a foreseeing, provident Architect. Had not these glacial, 
aqueous, and volcanic disturbances displaced these measures, 
had they not been cut into or lifted up, had they lain in their 
original planes, they would have been forever buried beyond 
man's reach and ktiowledge. 

The conditions we have just described characterized what 
has been aptly termed the Carboniferous period; and it forms, 
with two small exceptions, the sole source of our coal deposits 
in our Eastern, Southern and Middle States. Subse(|uent like 
conditions at a later period, the Triassic, but iiptm a small 
scale, led to small deposits of coal in Virginia and in Ntjrth 
Carolina, but they are of such restricted areas as to be of only 
local importance. 

Upon a more extensive plan, however, were the deposits of 
a still later age, known as the Cretaceous, in which were formed 
the extensive but generally inferior coal fields u( the western 
part of the United States, 

The relative ages of these coal fields are determined by the 
fossils contained in the measures, which form ready and sore 
indices. The original deposits were probably all of a bitumin- 
ous character, varying in kind according to the various condi* 
tions of pressure and locality. The difference in the quality of 
the volatile portion is probably due to the different kinds of 




vegetation that entered into the composition of the coats in 
different regions. The physical treatment, of course, had 
much to do with changing the character of coals formed from 
identical kinds of vegetation. Beginning with peat, the first 
and h>west form of bitumized vegetation, and passing on 
through the bituminous, semi-bituminous and anthracites, we 
find that the laburat*iry of Nature formed them successfully, 
according to the conditions imposed upon them. An original 
bituminous deposit subjected to the heat and disturbance of 
volcanic action, has its volatile matter slowly distilled off, and 
there remains the carbon or anthracite. The degree and dura- 
tion of heat in distillation regulate the quantity of volatile 
matter left in the original coal, and stamp its character as bitu- 
minous, semi-bituminous, semi-anthracite, or anthracite, or pro- 
ceeding one step further, graphite. 

Caunel coal is supposed to be the product of masses of finely 
macerated vegetable matter, collected in the form of carbona- 
ceous mud, in lagoons or small lakes* This would account for 
its compact and homogeneous structure, and for the fact that 
it is generally found in small ** pockets " of limited area. And 
it would account also for its retention of a high percentage of 
the original volatile matter contained in the plants, and for the 
high percentage of ash. 

Now, taking a bird's eye view^ of the United States, the area 
under discussion, we see first a long deposit of coal stretching 
down from New Vork to Alabama, almost parallel with the sea 
coast. This is the great Appalachian field, the original and 
principal one. It lies in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Virginia, West 
Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and crossing the northwestern 
corner of (Georgia, terminates tn the northern part of Alabama. 

Next w^e find the middle coal field, lying principally in 
Illincus, but extending eastward into Indiana, and southward 
into Western Kentucky. 

Then comes the western field of Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska, 
Kansas, Arkansas, and Indian Territory, Finally, we see the 
great cretaceous deposits ot" the Western States and Territo- 
ries, whose areas and values have not yet been fully and accur- 
ately determined, but which are rich in promise. Through 
these fields we shall take our way in search of gas coals. 



365 



i 

I 
I 



rvania^ on the Atlantic seaboard, we shall 
pass southward to the Gulf, and thence again north and west- 
ward to the Pacific, 

At the outset we must halt for some time in Pennsylvania, 
The importance of her deposits merits more lengthy considera- 
tion at our hands than do those of any other State, for from 
ber coal beds are drawn the principal gas coal supplies of the 
Middle and New England States; and the West, the Southland 
Southwest likewise look here in some measure for their supply. 

Pre-eminent as a coal producer among all the States stands 
Pennsylvania, whether we regard her vast anthracite forma- 
tions, peculiar to her own confines, or her vast area of semi- 
bituminous steam coals: her great bed of worJd-renowned 
coking coal, or her magnificent area of standard gas coal She 
sent out to the markets of the country in the year 1889 one- 
half of all the coal shipped over the wide area of the United 
States; and the next most active of her sister States, Illinois, 
sent out only one-fifth as much. Blessed as she is with all these 
various grades of coal, in none of them is she more fortunate 
than in her gas coal, having regard to quality, quantity, and 
accessibility, the three prime essentials. In speaking of gas 
coal, we need consider only, at present, that pre-eminent bed 
lying in the southwestern corner of the State, adjacent to the 
city of Pittsburgh, from which it derives its name — antl w^hich 
in area, uniformity, and quality is not approached in the coal 
fields of the world. It is spread over the five southwestern- 
most counties, and exposed to commercial operation in profu- 
sion in all directions by the erosion of the many and noble 
streams that flow thnuigh it. The Allegheny river to the 
nortji, Youghiogheny and NJonongahela to the stuith, joining at 
Pittsburgh to form the mighty Ohio, are lined with coal mines 
along their banks, and expose long lines of virgin coal in the 
more remote regions, awaiting the expansion of the coal pro- 
duction that will necessitate their development. It seems as 
though such magnificent water ways had been made to order 
through this region, so manifold and so serviceable are they. 
These streams are wide and shalb>w, and Nature has to be 
assisted somewhat to render them navigable with any degree 
of regularity. Hence, great dams have been built across them 




866 

to back up the water and give a floating depth to the coal- 
laden barges and the steamers that tow them. These dams 
have been built at varying distances along the Monongahela, 
from Pittsburgh clear up to the Pennsylvania State line. There 
formerly were some in the Youghiogheny river, to furnish 
slack-water navigation there; but the fierce competition in the 
river coal trade, combined with the extension and competition 
of railroads, have forced them into disuse, and they have fallen 
to decay. Owing to the natural navigability of the Allegheny, 
no dams have ever been erected in its waters. 

As a basis for the slack-water navigation of its tributan* 
rivers, an immense dam was built at Davids Island, on the 
Ohio, a short distance below Pittsburgh. This provides for 
water up to the first dam of the Monongahela, opposite the 
city of Pittsburgh. Other dams at varying distances, to the 
number of seven in all, reach to within a few miles of the West 
Virginia line. The second dam is located lo miles above the 
first, near the town of Braddock. The third dam is just below 
the town of Elizabeth, 12 miles or more above the second. 
The locations of these dams have been described thus minutely, 
because they have been used to define to a certain degree the 
limits of the best gas coal. The slack-water area between the 
ditfercnt dams is known as a '*pool;" thus the water between 
the first and second dam is known as the first pool; and the 
water between the second and third dam, or say, between Brad- 
dock and Elizabeth, is known as "second pool." In the laiier 
term a well-known and generally used trade name will be rec- 
o^nizctl, tlcsignating the best grade of gas coal. Thi^ ha> 
come about, because the slack water above the second dam, 
extending clown the Youghiogheny as well as the Monongahela 
river, lies in the belt of best gas coal, although it by no meaib 
defines its limits, but serves as a general indication of the 
(juality retjuircd. 

When the coal for river shipment is brought out of the 
mines in the pit wagons, it is run out into a dumping house or 
"tipple," as it is called in these regions. It is then "dumped" 
over separating screens into l(-)ng, shallow barges wailing in 
the river below. Some of these barges will be filled with 
screenings, others with lump coal, etc., etc. The barges hold 




I 



367 



alK»ul 500 tons, or 12^000 bushels each. These are then gath- 
ered into a " tow," representintj bumctimcs 10,000 to 20,000 
tons, 2 or 3 acres of coal, and placed in front of one of the 
river steamers, long, shallow craft, with a great sitern-wheel, 
and pushed duwn the river, along the Ohio and Mississippi to 
the Southern markets, where the coal is sometimes held in 
large quantities and for a lung time in storage, awaiting a rise 
in the market when coal becomes scarce through a **shut down'* 
in the river workings, owing to the low stage of water, or from 
other causes. So much for the water ways. 

In facilities for transpurtaliun by railroad, certainly this re- 
gion is unapproached. Each of the great valleys that form the 
principal sources of coal supply has a railroad on each side of 
it. For the Eastern market the great trunk lines, Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad and the Baltimore tV Ohio Railn^ad, are the 
carriers. For the Western^ the Baltimore & Ohio^ the Penn- 
sylvania Company Lines, and the Pittsburgh &: Lake Erie, with 
its connections, take the bulk of the tonnage. While north- 
ward to the lakes all those lines, with t*thers of lesser impor- 
tance, carry the immense tonnage shipped annually from Cleve- 
land and other ports. Branch roads are run from the main 
lines of the roads along all the valleys that are productive of 
coal, and in most of these it lies cropping along the lines of 
railroads, so as to admit of the easiest and cheapest loading. 
The operations are rare where the distance from the mine 
mouth to the railroad car is over a few hundred feet, and it is 
generally much less than that. The ctial, when brought from 
the mmes^ is run inti> the dumping houses, or " tipples," and 
^dumped ** over the screens into the cars. That which passes 
over the uppermost screen, the bars of which are generally ij 
inches apart, is known as the lump cual; that which passes 
over the next lower screen, generally uf bars three-t[uarters of 
an inch apart, is known as the nut coal; while the final small 
residuum is known as the ** slack *' of the coal. 

Thanks to the magnificent work of her State Geological 
Surveys, the gas coal region of Pennsylvania may be readily 
defmed and tl escribed. The measures that confine it belong 
to the Carboniferous period of the Paleozoic Age, The strata 
trend in an almost due north easterlv and southwesterly direc- 



868 



tioil, slowly sinking into the earth as they pass to the south- 
west. Over their northeastern exposure^ or crop, the plane of 
erosicJii has passed with glacier or flood, cut down the over- 
lapping measures^ and exposed the seams of coal to comnrercial 
operations, discovering them in their successive geologic 
order. If these measures had been left in their original holl 
zontal planes, the gas coals would have been sunk half a mii 
below the surface, and would have been immensely more 
pensive to reach and remove. 

These carboniferous measures, some 2,600 feet thick, com- 
prise within them all the coal beds, both gas and steam, of 
Western Pennsylvania. They have been separated by the 
Pennsylvania Geological Surveys into four divisions: 

1. The Upper Barren, say j,ioo feet thick, containing scV| 
era I inconsiderable seams of coal, fit only for steam or manu 
facturing purposes. 

2. Upper Productive, say 500 feet thick, containing 2 or j 
small beds of only local importance as steam coal, and havind 
at their bottom, the famous Pittsburgh coal bed. 

3. The Lower Barren measures, say 600 feet thick, from tli 
Pittsburgh bed to the Mahoning sandstone— that useful ge<l 
logical landmark — ^and containing no workable coal beds. 

4. The Lower Productive measures, say 450 feet thick, coii^ 
taining the Freeporl and Kittaning coal beds, which in other 
parts of the States appear to a limited extent as gas coals, but 
are of great importance and value as steam coals, where they 
are more readily accessible and not contiguous to the Superior 
Pittsburgh scam. In the upper series of these coals are fre- 
quently deposits uf amorphous cannels; of small value, how- 
ever, for gas making, owing to their large per cent, of ash and 
sulphur. 

At the base of all these measures lies the well-known Putts- 
ville conglomerate, below which there is no coal to be found, 
excepting a few small anil unimportant seams in the sub- 
carboniferous measures. But some 2,000 feet below the coal 
measures here he the famous gas *' sands,"/, 1?,, sandstones, run- 
ning from a pebbly conglomerate to a fine, porous sandstone, in 
whose pores and interstices are confined the natural gas and oil 
that need only the tap of the drill to bring them rushing to the 



369 



surface of the earth. We have seen that as we descend into the 
depths of the earth we find only one considerable vein of gas 
coal in this locality, and that, the Pittsburgh, to which we shall 
now confine our attention. That seam, which erosion has 
placed within w^orking reach only in Westmoreland, Washington, 
Greene, Allegheny, and Fayette counties, in fact, in the suulh- 
western corner of the State, lies in successive shallow basins, 
with fairly well defined summits, i. e.^ anticlinals, and troughs, 
/. ^,, syclinals, to use the technical but now familiar names; 
these basins all have the northeast and southwest trend, with a 
gentle southwesterly dip. The dip or incline of the coal in the 
several parallel basins is generally gentle from trough to sum- 
mit, though, owing to the narrowness of the basiin, or to some 
irregularity in formation, it sometimes rises steeply up the sides. 
This comparative regularity of dtp and trend is of great value 
in mining, and careful regard must be had for it. The economy 
of placing a shaft at the bottom of a basin, where it may draw 
upon coal with the aid of gravity from nearly three-quarters the 
area of a circumscribed circle, does not need lengthy demon- 
stration. The coal bed has been nearly completely eroded from 
northern Allegheny county, while in the eastern part it is left 
oDly in isolated patches. In Westmoreland county it runs from 
a solid body, on the southern part, out to torn and ragged horns 
projecting out to the Conemaugh river, its northern boundary, 
where we can see how the anticlinals, or uplifted ridges, have 
been swept bare of coal, leaving it in the sunken trtnighs of the , 
synclinals, Fayette County, too, has suffered from this erosion, 
but the vein lies solid and undisturbed in Washington and 
tireene counties, where it is deep beneath the sheltering cover 
of the superincumbent measures. 

Now of this famous and magnificent vein, /aciic princeps 
among similar deposits, only a jxirt is gas coal, properly called. 
As it passes to the eastward it becomes the famous coking coal 
of the Connellsville region, and to the southeast, the famous 
Cumberland steam coal of Maryland. The change in quality is 
gradual, but may be fairly well defined. 

Roughly speaking, there is no gas coal in this seam in Pcnn- 
syivania west of Pittsburgh. As the vein passes to the westward 
of that point the |>er cent, of volatile matter decreases and the 




structure of the coal changes somewhat, and becomes of a more 
dense character and what is known as *' block '* rather than a 
gas coal — and the richer hydro-carbons seem to have been lost. 
Taking Pittsburgh^ therefore, as a starling pointy if we travel 
northeastward along the Allegheny river, to, say, Logan's Ferry» 
we shall ha\'e traced the northwestern limit. If we pass thence 
Suulheastward in the ttiwn of Salem, in Westmoreland County, 
we shall have drawn the line of the northern extension. Then 
if, leaving Salem^ we trace an arc of a circle so nth westward, w^iih 
Pittsburgh as a center, from Salem to Lock No. 4, on the 
Monongahela river, we shall have the easternmost boundary; 
and if we return thence to Pittsburgh, diverging slightly to the 
westward of a direct line> we shall have determined the bound- 
aries of the area of the gas coal That, tt may readily be imag- 
ined, is a difficult and dangerous task. The lines named, 
however, do practically define the limits as commercially recog- 
nized. There may* of course^ be some good gas coal without 
those lines, and there is some bad gas coal within them. To 
the eastward of Pittsburgh there is no gas coal beyond the 
Irwin basin, of which the town of Irwin, Pa., defines the trough. 
Passing beyond that town, over the next crest to the trough of 
which the town of Greensburg is the center, we find the coal 
softer, having lost volatile matter, and fit only for steam coal. 
The sulphur, too, rises as we go on to the east. In the next, 
or Connellsville basin, the volatile matter has fallen to 30 per 
• cent. J and the seam thickened out to 10 or 11 feet, entirely 
changed \n aspect. 

So, also, as we go southeastward up the Youghiogheny, and 
southward up the Monongahela, we find the coal thickening, 
the volatile matter lessening, and the sulphur increasing slightly; 
the coal gradually passing from a gas to a steam, and thence to 
the yet softer coking coal. The thickening of the seam as we 
pass up the river is occasioned by the disappearance of the im- 
purities in the way of slates, etc., in the seam, permitting to be 
mined there what is found unmerchantable in the gas coal re- 
gion proper. This thicker coal is mined and sold for a tixed 
rate below the better coal lower down the river. 

To the southwestward of Pittsburgh the coal changes in char- 
acfer# as described in speaking of the coal directly west of it. 



871 



y|ecomes more uf the nature of a bltick coal; and soon after 
^K the Allegheny county line sinks below the upper meas- 
Hnft becomes, literally and liberally speaking, beneath 
^PHlton. 

^■aYaiiable Pittsburgh coal bed in its entirely in Pcnnsyl- 
It is estimated to cover some 2,500 square miles — say 
|&ooo,ooo tons of steam and gas coals. In the region to 
^Bre have con^ned the gas coal proper, only a very small 
Tint, has been mined out. Over that whole area lies a 
L body of virgin gas coal of the finest quality. Roughly, it 
r be cstiimated (allowing 50 per cent, for wastage, etc.) at 
^5^000,000 tons — sufficient to supply the whole United States, 
Kasit may, for centuries to come. 



Sec it on 



Shate, 



Coal, fo 

Slate. 3' 

Coal i' i' 

Ft re Ct ay, I , i 



"//// 



J^^ainCoaL 3*6 



States i 

coat, J 

Siaie.foat,! J 

Coat, 1*00 

Fire Clay. 4 

Limestone 



wMimmnfn 




In the gas coal regif>n proper the vein is capped by a heavy 
sandstone, called the Pittsburgh, separated from the coal seam 
by only a thin seam of shale, which in some places disappears, 
leaving the santlstone resting upon the coal. The seam proper 
is divided into two divisions — the upper or roof division, and 
the lower division — the total thickness being from 9 to lo feet. 
The roof division, being full of impurities in the way of suN 
phur and fine slate seams, is regarded as unmerchantable, and 
left intact, forming the roof of the rooms and entries of the 
mine. About one foot of fireclay, called ** slate *' by the miners, 
divides the two divisions^ and this slate is always removed after 
mining away the coal beneath. It is responsible for more 
deaths in the gas coal mines than any other cause, for the rca- 
son that the work of mining beneath it works it loose from the 
roof coal; and while seemingly securely attached, a slight jar 
suftices to drop tons of it upon the heedless miner, and crushes 
hira to death. In nearly every case, however, such an accident 
is directly the result of the miner's carelessness, born of the 
contempt for such menaces that long familiarity engenders. 

The lower division of the seam, from which is cut the coal 
that is shipped to market, extends in a clean, solid mass from 
the ** slate '* just mentioned a distance of 3 feet 6 inches down- 
ward, constituting the ** breast " of the coal, as it is called, and 
here is found the cleanest and best coal of the seam. Then 
two small I 'inch bands of slate occur, about 3 or 4 inches apart, 
that define the portion of the vein where the miner cuts iu with 
his pick or his machine before he ** breaks down " the coal, or 
loosens it from the overlying " slate." Below these slates again 
is a foot of good coal, which is taken up and shipped. Below 
that again, separated by a small slate parting, is a foot of bot- 
tom ci>al, as it is called, which, owing to its impurities, is left 
untouched in the mines. Below the seam is a fine four-inch 
band of fireclay resting on a shale or limestone. Thus, of a 
seam 9 feet to 10 feet in thickness, but 4 feet 6 inches to 5 feet 
is mined out. 

This vein runs over the whole gas coal area with almost iden- 
tity of structure, and with a wonderful persistence of form. 
Occasional breaks or faults occur in the form of clay veins. 
where, through some abrupt upheaval or rupture of the strata, 



373 



the breaks in the seam become filled with a mass of clay or 
shale through infiltration from above. Again, where the strata 
has been crushed or jarred together upon itself, what is called 
a slack vein will occur, where for a time the otherwise dense 
coal of the seam will be of a loose, sandy nature. Horse backs 
or roof disturbances, and swamps, or temporary subsidence of 
the coal below its normal level, or the erosion or even total dis- 
appearance of it, likewise disturb at times the regular progress 
of mining work. Near these irregiiiarities the coal frequently 
loses its normal form and character, and at times presents a 
tough, gnarled, splint-like appearance, and loses much of its 
value as a producer of gas. 

Physically, the Pittsburgh gas coal is of the highest class of 
bituminous coals — /. <•., the richest in bitumen. In appearance 
it is black and shining with a resinous luster. It is compact, and 
of sufficient density to "stand up " well, and to submit to the 
rough usage of transportation without crumbling or being 
ground by attrition to fine, powdery coaL In fact, after an in- 
credible amount of tumbling about in the course of shipment 
and reshipment, it retains the large lumpy form in which it 
leaves the mines. 

It comes from the mines in large cubical blocks, or nearly of 
that form, caused by its rectangular cleavage planes. The main 
plane of cleavage is a vertical one, running regularly through 
the region nearly north, 25' east, showing a clean, shining, 
smooth, vertical plane of coal This cleavage or ** face," as it 
is called, determines the direction of the driving of entries into 
the coal, so that in the working places given the miner to cut 
the coal, rooms, as they are called, he may work against and 
along this cleavage plane, being thus aided in the extraction of 
the coal. 

The horizontal fracture is conchoidal, and striated through 
the coal in horizontal plane is always more or less mineral char- 
coal, in thin seams, with a branch-like structure, showing clearly 
the wood}', fibrous nature of the carbonized substance repre- 
senting some vegetation that, for some reason or other, suffered 
more complete carbonization than the surrounding masses. 
While generally present in the coal, its bulk is inconsiderable. 
Thin seams of amorphous cannel appear occasionally running 



374 



thrrmgh the center of the vein. These, however, are of 
limited area, and run from one to six inches in thickr 
sufficient lo have any appreciable effect upon the average of ihe 
quality of the coal 

Occasionally small, white, scale-like deposits are found on the 
vertical faces of the coal. These are calcite or carbonate of 
lime, probably formed by i)ercolation from superincumbent lime- 
stone. The quantity is, however, inconsiderable. 

Now, in the matter of the discolorations so frequently noticed 
and so often complained of by gas engineers, they are generally 
of a nature that does not depreciate the coal in any respect for 
gas making, or, at the most, so minutely as to be incalculable. 
Sometime there will be a fine light-green or gray coating along 
the face, generally from coals mined below water level, which» 
however, is nothing more than silt or pulverized clay, which has 
found its way down from the superincumbent clays through the 
partings or cleavings of the coal. Again, through a slight efflo 
rescence of sulphate of iron, a yellowish -white stain forms 
the coal; but in this case, as in the others, the quantity is 
small as not to affect the value of the coal at all. 

But, however, when the coaling becomes general and thick, 
and more particularly is of a rusty or reddish-yellow^ hue, it is 
almost always an indication that the coal has been mined near 
the i>utcrop, and is stained by the drainage of the surface waters 
through the coal carrying with them the clays or earth that stam 
the coal. In this case there is generally irridescence on the 
faces and on all the vertical fractures, caused by the percolation 
down the faces of thin films of oxide of iron, and the coal be- 
comes rainbow-hued. Those coals mined near the surfaces are 
generally freer from sulphur than those mined further under 
cover, and higher in ash; but their worth as gas coals is consid- 
erably diminished, owning to a depreciation in the quantity and 
character of the yield of gas, due lo the action of the contin- 
uous flow of the s^urface waters over them. 

We now turn to the impurity of chief moment to the gas 
maker — /. i*., sulphur. Sulphur we must find, for sulphur in coal 
is like bark on a tree— it is always there, varying in quantity. 
It Is principally present in combination with iron as iron bisul- 
phide or iron pyrites. This occurs generally in thin b 







375 



flakes, hard and brittle, with a bright, metallic luster, and hence 
the name for it of •* fool's gold/' It is also present at times in 
large flat scales, and again in globular masses of the size and 
shape of the familiar cobble-stone. The thin flakes or scales 
are universally distributed through the bed of coal; but, for- 
tunately, the larger stones are of comparatively rare occurrence, 
and generally lie in well-defined groups or beds. When such 
beds are met it is the best mining practice to drive through or 
around them, and not to attempt to extract the stones as they 
come to light, and then market the coal These sulphur stones, 
when in appreciable quantity, almost always occur in the upper 
and lower portions of the "breast coal,** within well-marked 
limits. 

The percentage of sulphur in Pittsburgh gas coal varies from 
A *^ A *^f ' P^^ QcnL It should average about ^ of i per 
cent, in the long run. Experiments have shown that besides 
the sulphur in combination with iron as pyrites F^ S^, there is a 
varying quantity of free sulphur present: probably about 40 per 
cent, in the Pittsliurgh coal, though that per cent, is variable. 
Experiments did determine, however, that whether sulphur ex* 
isted in the coal free or as F^ S^ it made no difference in the per 
cent, volatilized in the process of coking or carbonization. It 
was found that about 40 per cent, of the sulphur was volatilized 
in carbonizing; leaving 60 per cent, in the coke. But that per 
cent, of sulphur is precisely the per cent, the residual coke bears 
to the coal. Thus we come to the important conclusion, veri- 
fied by experimentation, that a coal high in per cent, of sulphur 
will yield a coke of like high per cent. A coal foul with sul- 
phur, therefore, cannot make a clean coke. 

When subjected to heat, the Pittsburgh coal cakes and swells; 
hence the name '* caking/* as applied to tt and others exhibiting 
a like characteristic, The volatile matter of the coal making 
its way through this intumescing, fusing mass, leaves a series of 
pores and cells, composed of the carbon of the coal; and if, 
after the volatile matter is distilled off, the heat be withdrawn, 
the familiar porous^ cellular mass of coke is found. 

In analysis, the standard Pittsburgh gas coal will, on the aver- 
age, determine as follows: 




Volatile matter . , 35 to 40 per cent. 

Carbun 54 to 58 

Sulphur y«(^ of I ** 

Ash ,, 3 to 5 ** 

Water, at 255 ... 1/, 

Per cent, coke ... » 60 " 

A glance over tlie above analysis suffices to show why this 
coal ranks as the standard gas coal of the United States; and 
why other coals are classed as good or bad, according to their 
appnmch to it. Here is represented the happy medium; no ex- 
traordinary yield of rich gas, with a tremendous evolution of 
sulphur; no high percentage of volatile matter loaded down 
with an over-balancing burden of worthless ash» The volatile 
matter yields a fair return; the coke is plenty, clean and mer- 
chantable; the sulphur within limits that admit of its ready and 
cheap elimination; the ash, representing the residuum of im- 
purities, wonderfully low. In fact, if we must have sulphur and 
ash, as necessary evils, here they are to be found at a minimum. 

The uniformity of structure and analysis over the immense 
area of this bed of coal is wonderful The exhaustion of thou- 
sands of acres, the driving of tunnels or entries for miles, into 
and under the hills through the heart of the seam, bring to day- 
light and thence to market coal that is practically identical 
with that found at the beginning of operations. 

This persistence of chemical and physical structure is of no 
small importance to gas companies. It enables them to predi- 
cate certain results in carbonization through a year's work or 
through a course of years. It gives them a constant as the 
base of their calculations, without which progress were imprac- 
ticable. We need not fear comparison here with our English 
cousins. I'heir best gas coals average about the same as our 
standard coal in volatile matter. In ash they average better 
than we do, not running much over 2 to 2^ per cent.; but tii 
sulphur, the far more important consideration, they average 
about double that of our standard coal. While as compared 
with the Provincial gas coals of this country, from the Cape 
Breton district, we stand decidedly superior, both in quantity 
and quality of gas; and also in freedom from sulphur, the Pro- 



oil 



rincial coals containing nearly six times as much of the latter 
impurity; and finally, we excel in greater yield of a superior 
quality of coke. 

The Pittsburgh gas coals first reached the seaboard markets 
in the early 50*5, The coals from the Pennsylvania Railroad 
main line were the first brought forward. The Youghiogheny 
coals of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroads were considerably 
later, owing to the lack of necessary railroad facilities from that 
district, the railroad from Pittsburgh to Connellsvtlle being then 
operated as a separate line. 

When the first attempt was made to sell these Pittsburgh 
coals to the seaboard gas companies, it met with most decided 
pposition in the prejudice that existed in favor of Newcastle 
Pictou coals. The gas engineers of those days could with 
difficulty be persuaded that any good gas coal could be found 
in the United States^ and ibey were loath to try experiments 
with such unknown quantities. Finally, however, after h)ng 
and persistent efforts on the part of those having in hand their 
sale, successive trials were made with these coals, with the 
never-failing result of their final adaptation as the principal raw 
material of carbonization. They promptly demonstrated their 
superiority over the Provincial coals, and their at least equality 
with the best of those from Newcastle. They became at once 
the recognized standard of gas coal, and their consumption has 
since kept equal pace with the growth of the gas business of 
the country. The use of these coals in the West and South, 
and generally in the interior of the country, has been rotempo- 
raneous with the establishment and operation of gas companies, 
no other suitable material offering as a substitute or prede- 
cessor. 

Leaving the famous Pittsburgh seam, we fmd only two other 
gas coal districts in Pennsylvania to command our attention. 
(1) The Reynoldsville region of Jefferson county, and (2) the 
Beaver river region of lleaver county. 

lo Jefferson county the lower Freepnrt vein of coal, which, 
in investigating the Pittsburgh seam, we found lying some hun- 
dreds of feet below it in the lower productive coal measures, 
rises both in position and quality, and is spread over the whole 
county, and of workable thickness wherever found; and while it 





is principally of the composition best fitting it for steam coal, 
yet in certain localities it attains the dignity of a gas coal. 
This seam here lies in parallel troughs with the same northeast 
and southwest trend that we found in the Pittsburgh coal, and 
it is of best quality and principally mined in Winslow Town- 
ship, on the eastern edge of the county, in the basin or trough 
in the center of which the town of Reynoldsville lies, and to 
which it gives its name. The coal from this region reaches the 
markets of the North and Northc^ast, where it is principally 
consumed, by way of the Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh 
Railway and the Western New York and Pennsylvania Railroad, 
Owing, however, to the incursions of the superior Pilisbargh 
coal at low prices over competitive routes, the use of this Rey- 
noldsville coal for the manufacture of illuminating gas has 
practically ceased. Its gas making properties, however, fully 
justify its consideration here among the gas coals of Pennsyl- 
vania. As a steam coal, it is mined and shipped in large and 
constantly increasing quantities^ and it is from this region thai 
the Northern and Northeastern markets principally depend for 
their steam coal supply. In physical appearance, the coaJ is 
bright and lustrous and compact; but it has not so deep a res- 
inous luster as the Pittsburgh, nor is it so dense. Hence, from 
its greater friability, it does not stand transhipment so well. 
It has numerous charcoal partings throughout, and is quite 
pyritoiis. The total thickness of the vein here is some 15 feet, 
but the upper part of it is composed of successive thin strata of 
coal and fireclay, and only the bottom member, 5 to 6 feet in 
thickness, contains merchantable coal 

A fair average analysis of the best of this coal is: 

Water, at 225 , 1.12 per cent. 

Volatile matter. » , , * . 33.00 to 35.00 per cent. 

Carbon 60.00 to 59.00 ** 

Sulphur 1.27 to 1.43 " 

Ash 3.00 to 5.00 *' 

The Beaver county region owes its existence to the presence 
along the valleys of its rivers, at accessible points, and in work- 
able quantities and merchantable quality, of the Darlington or 
Upper Kittaniog seam of coal, another of the veins of the 



I 



879 

Lower Productive measures lifted into prominence through the 
rise in the measures, and the absence of the Pittsburgh coal. 
This Kiitaninj^ seam is very irregular in thickness and charac- 
ter through Beaver county. On the average, however, it runs 
from 2 to 3 feet thick, not of a dimension to recommend it to 
extensive development, as thin seams of coal are necessarily 
troublrsume ant! expensive to mine. 

At Darlington, in Beaver county, it attains a wonderful thick- 
ness, and carries with it a thick vein of cannel, a purely local 
deposit, however. The seam here is at times some 20 feet in 
thickness. At the bottom is a small bituminous seam i^ feet 
thick, then comes 6 to 12 feet of cannel, and above that again 
some 6 feet of cannel. gradually passing into a cannel like 
shale. Sometimes so much as 12 feet of good cannel have 
been taken from this deposit, but the average is about 6, The 
area of the gas coal is found in Darlington and Beaver Town- 
ships, in Beaver county, and up along the Big Beaver Valley in 
LawTence county. The coal here, however, has met the same 
fate as that of Jeffers^on county. The advent of the* cheap and 
superior Pittsburgh coal has ousted it from any market as a 
coal for the manufacture of illuminating gas. The cannel, of 
course, continues so to be used; but it, too, suffers from the 
competition of the superior Southern cannels. 

The cannel is of conchoitlal fracture, compact, with dull, 
lusterless appearance. It analyzes: 

Water , i . 1 60 

Volatile matter ^.. 48.015 

Carbon . , 38 24 1 

Sulphur ., . .599 

Ash . 1 1 9^5 

A very respectable showing. 

The gas coal of this bed is compact, bright, with clear, resin- 
ous luster; in places it is remarkably pure, though generally 
high in sulphur. An average analysis is: 

Water, at 225. , 1.78 

Volatile matter , 40.00 

Carbon . , , 4900 

Sulphur 3.00 

Ash . . 4*o6 



In West Virginia we find the remaining two of the thre< 
principal gas coal regions of this countr)'. In the northeastern 
part of the State lies the ** Wdst Virginia Gas Coal " region, as 
it is commercially known, and in the southwest lies the great 
Kaniiwha field. This State is blessed above all of her sister 
States, with few exceptions, in fhe richness and extent of her 
mineral deposits. Steam, gas splint, and cannel coals all 
abound within her borders. On every side is coal of one or 
another quality to be found. Of the 54 counties in the State, 
only 6 lack workable coal beds. 

The coal measures of West Virginia are of the same general 
system as those described in Pennsylvania, of which they are 
an extension. In the northern part of the State we find the 
Pittsburgh bed, and in the southern part, the lower measures 
furnish the various seams. So far as gas coal is concerned, we 
may make two great divisions: (i) the West Virginia region, 
lying in the Monongahela Valley; (2) the Kanawha region^ 
lying in the valley of the great Kanawha. To the first of these 
we will now turn our attention. The same river, the Monon- 
gahela, almost synonymous with coal, along whose banks, in 
Pennsylvania, we found gas coal lying in such abundance^ 
crossing the Pennsyhania State line, Hows southward, forking 
out to the southeast and southwest, through the northeastern 
part of West Virginia, and cutting down through the superim- 
posed strata, exposes the Pittsburgh seam again along its 
course through Monnngaliela, Marion, Taylor, and Harrison 
counties, and defines the gas coal region. Through this broad 
valley runs the Baltimtire and Ohio Railroad, the outlet of this 
region to the various markets, East and West. To the east- 
ward the coals pass along the Baltimore and Ohio rails to Bal- 
timore, where they are transhipped into vessels and carried to 
the gas companies of the Atlantic seaboard, and in this direc- 
tion the greater part of the tonnage is carried. Outlet is had 
to the Northwest and to the Lakes at Cleveland by way of 
Wheeling; and to the West and South by way of Parkersburg 
branch to the Ohio river Grafton, in Taylor county, repre- 
sents the railroad center of the region, and from that radiate 
the various branches of the Baltimore and Ohio, carrying the 
coals to the markets above described. These coals appeared 




381 



m the markets early in the history of gas making in this ooun- 
trVt and were among the first United Stales coals carbonized. 
In the early 50's the shipment of them to New York. Philadel- 
phia, Boston and Baltimore was begun, and in spite of the com- 
petition of other and more newly developed regions, it is still 
maintained. Owing to the fact that many of the operators coke 
their screenings, large-sized screens are foond among these 
mines; in fact, they run from |-inch to j-inch apertures. This 
should make the proper cleaning of the coal an easy matter, 
and more than compensate for the lesser density of the coal 
and their greater liability to loss from attrition than the Penn- 
sylvania coals in being carried to market. 

The Pittsburgh seam, which underlies the whole northwestern 
half of the State, and which is found again in the easternmost 
counties and across the Maryland State !ine as the famous big 
vein Cumberland coal^ is the sole source of gas coal in the West 
Virginia region. While it is mined along the Ohio river on the 
western border of the State, and in other parts, it is nowhere of 
the sufficiently strongly marked ** gas '* character as in this dis- 
trict. We may name Monongalia, Preston, Taylor, Harrison, 
and Marion counties as defining the gas coal area. There are 
no gas coal operations east of Newburg, which lies close to the 
eastern crop of the seam, nor west of Wilsonburg^ beyond which 
point the vein sinks, to rise again as it approaches the Ohio 
river. The coal measures here lie in the parallel northeast and 
southwest basins which we found characteristic of the Pennsyl- 
vanla coal measures. The light dip of the coal in the wide 
basins and the general parallelism of the strata render mining 
easy. The coal is everywhere within easy reach in the Monon- 
gahela Valley. At Newbnrg, cm the east, it is found in the hill- 
tops; at Fairraount and Gaston it has fallen to the level of the 
railroad. So accessible is it that there is only one shaft in the 
entire district, Fairmount, in Marion county, may fairly repre- 
sent the center of this region. As we go thence down the 
Monongahela we find the quality of the coal deteriorating, and 
becoming more impure and sulphurous. Following the valley 
to the south, below Clarksburg, we find the seam thinning out, 
and the coal falling in value. At Clarksburg and Fairmount, 
and between those two points, the coal is a magnificent seam, 




f 382 

running from 8 to lo feet of clean coal. The entire section 
the seam here is 15 feet* The first 4 feet compose an intermixe 

shale coal and slate roof division; then comes the main benchT 
say 9 feet of good, clean coal; then, below a small, j inch part- 
ings comes an 18-inch bottom bench of poor, slaty coal. The 
whole 9 feet of coal is taken out, being undercut at the bottom. 
Such a splendid breast of coal should afford an opportunity 
for bringing out coal in first-class condition, with little labor 
and expense. This main bench of coal is generally clean and 
free from slates, though they occasionally occur near the top. 
In density the coal is nearly equal to the Pittsburgh coals of 
Pennsylvania. It has a clear, sharp, cubical cleavage and conch- 
oidal fracture. The cleavage, at times, however, is seen as slaty 
or splint-like, bringing out the coal in long slabs, instead of the 
familiar cubes. The luster of the coal is bright and resinous. 
It has, in fact, the same general characteristics as the Pennsyl- 
vania coals. Through its lesser density it does not bear trans- 
portation so well, and has a tendency to slack in rehandling and 
transhipment, which of course, reduces its value for gasification 
at that point of delivery. It is, further, highly pyritous, and, 
in fact, the chief inferiority of this coal to the Pennsylvania 
coal is in its greater sulphurousne&s. All through the region it 
is impregnated with this impurity, which runs extremely high 
towards the limits of the gas coal area, and which really, to a 
large extent, defines it. 

The two mining centers are Fairmount, in Marion county» and 
Clarksburg, in Harrison county, and around these two towns are 
grouped the principal mines of the district. While the general 
characteristics of the coals in these two districts are the same, 
yet generally speaking, the coal near Clarksburg is likely to be 
more sulphurous than that around Fairmount, Locally, the 
coals of the West Virginia region vary so, that it is difficult to 
give a general statement as to their chemical composition. An 
average of a large number of analyses of the standard coals 
gives the following approximate determination: 

Volatile matter 55 to 40 per cent. 

Fixed carbon S3 to 5 7 ** 

Sulphur I ** 

Ash .,,... 4107 »* 



88S 



In gasification, this coal, owmi; u> its high percentage of sul- 
phur, is rarely used ** straight ;** but generally in a mixture with 
other less sulphurous coals. 

No mention of the gas coal districts of West Virginia w6uld 
be complete without mention of the once famous Ritchie niin- 
cTal^ a species of asphalt that was found in a vein 4^ feet thick, 
vertically, extending over a small area in Ritchie county. This 
pocket, as such small isolated deposits are generally called, was 
soon exhausted, and the supply ceased. 

The deposit closely resembled the Albcriite of the Province 
of New Brunswick, and, like it, proved of great value as an en- 
richer of coal gas. It analyzed 55 per cent, of volatile matter, 
42 per cent, of carbon, and only 3 per cent, of ash. It gave 
26 to 28 bushels of fair coke to the ton carbonized— a favorable 
comparison with the best cannels of to-day. 

Passing on south westward we come into the great coal -field 
of the Kanawha Valley. The containing measures here are the* 
equivalents of the Lower Productive, 1. €., the Freeport and 
Kittaning, veins of the Pennsylvania series, and are of great 
thickness and commercial value. 

The Pittsburgh seam, which has heretofore furnished the 
principal field for our inquiries, does not enter to any consider- 
able extent the field of the Kanawha Valley operations. Its 
outcrop or limit passes south westward through almost the cen- 
tre of the State, strikes the Kanawha River near the western 
boundary line of Kanawha county, passes on down into Camp- 
bell county, and turns thence northwestward into Ohio. .\nd, 
while It is worked at points along the Kanawha River between 
Kanaw^ha county and its junction with the Ohio, yet it is so 
small a factor comparatively with the enormous developments 
in the lower measures further up the river, that it deserves men- 
tion only as defining the southernmost limit of that famous 
seam. 

The Kanawha River, which defines the important region to 
which it gives its name, has its head w*aters in North Carolina, 
thence they flow northward across the western half of the State 
of Virginia, and entering West Virginia near the point w*here 
Mercer, Summers and Monroe counties join on the State line, 




flow northwestward, across the southern half of the State, to 
Point Pleasant, where they meet the Ohio River. 

The Kanawha proper extends only from the Ohio to its junc» 
tion with the Gauley River, near Kanawha Falls, Above that, 
it is known as the New River. The river system has been de- 
scribed above at length, because it so clearly marks the scene of 
operations in the coals, and, roughly speakings its divisions like- 
wise divide the grades of coal for our purposes. 

The New and Kanawha rivers have really no valleys, in the 
sense of broad areas of level country, contiguous to their course. 
They run in a deep and narrow cafton, which they have worn 
down through the Lower Productive measures, exposing the 
various coal seams at successive levels along their precipitous 
banks. We find here the same characteristic that held of the 
Pittsburgh seam, in our researches through its course to the 
northeast of this region, /. ^r,, the gas coals on the west, and the 
steam and coking coals on the eastern side of the field. Along 
'the New River lie the great fields of steam coals to which thai 
stream has given name; while on the Kanawha proper, from 
Kanawha Falls to Charlestown, and extending, say. jo miles 
north and south of the river, we find the gas coal region, or the 
area of the best gas coals. From Kanawha Falls, west ward » 
these veins lie above water level; but near Charlestown, as they 
approach the Pittsburgh seam, they sink, and pass below water 
level, and out of the reach of commercial operations. 

There are exposed in that district 4 or 5 seams of coal along 
the river bank. The lower one lying, 10 take a typical section, 
some 20 feet above the river level, and containing 4 feet to 4 
feet 6 inches of good bituminous coal. Then next above, per- 
haps 100 feet above, comes the second seam, 6 feet 7 inches 
thick, containing the gas coal. Further on, at 500 or 600 feel 
elevation, is found a vein of splint coal, about 100 feet above 
which, in a splint seam some 6 feet thick, comes in the famous 
cannel of this region. And capping all, about 800 feet above 
the river, is found a seam of some 6 feet block coaL Thus, tak- 
ing a fair example of the river bank, we see an extraordinary 
exhibit of seam upon seam of coals of different but all of good 
quality, exposed at accessible points, and all of workable thick- 



385 



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The moderate dip of the measures to the northwciit, 40 to 60 
feet to the mile» permits of easy and cheap mining. The coal 
^hen brought out is lowered to the river on inclined planes, and 
there ** tippled'" into boats or cars, as may be desired. The gas 
coal seam, which is known as seam No. 2; runs from 4 to 7 feet 
in thickness, made of 3 benches with clay partings, and with 
seams of splint, 4 to 14 inches thick, interstratified. Fhe coal 
itself is clean, with a clear black, resinous luster, of cubical 
cleavage and conchoidal fracture. Its density is not quite so 
great as that of the Pennsylvania gas coals, and it consequently 
suffers more than they do from attrition of transhipment. Its 
general preparation for market is the same as that of Pennsyl- 
vania coals, save that it is screened over one and one-half inch 
screen to increase its lumpiness. It is also more highly sul- 
phurous; but with those two exceptions it is quite the peer of 
the Pittsburgh coal, giving a large yield of high -can die gas, and 
having a very low percentage of ash. This region possesses 
ver>^ valuable facilities for shipment to the markets of the East, 
West and South. The United States Government has built a 
very extensive and complete system of free slack -water naviga- 
tion on the Kanawha, similar to that described in the Mononga- 
hcta. And by means of it the Kanawha coals are shipped by 
water at very low rates to points along the Ohio and Mississippi 
valleys, where they have become very large and dangerous com- 
petitors of the Pittsburgh shippers. The only rail carrier of 
these coals from the mines is the Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, 
which takes them to the markets of the West and Northwest 
by way of Point Pleasant. To the Eastern market they are 
carried by rail to Newport News, where extensive shipping piers 
are erected, and shipped thence by vessels to the various gas 
companies of the Atlantic seaboard, where they are no incon- 
siderable factor in the gas coal market, which they first entered 
about the year 1876. I'hey are, however, owing to their general 
High percentage of sulphur, compared with the Pennsylvania 
coals, for the most part used in admixture with the latter, and 
only in a few instances are they carbonized '•^straight/* 

Analysis of the product of some of the various gas-coal 
mines in this region determines: 

25 



386 

Volatile matter.... 35-1 4^42 34.9' 35 9^ 37 351 

tari)oii 64.9 56 61.75 61.96 56.257 

Sulphur 1.48 (not given) (nut given) ,65 i.aS^ 

Ash 2 3 2.40 2.35 3.850 

Water .50 (not given) i.t2 1.250 

Valuable deposits of cannel coal occur in this region, the 
chief of which is in the neighborhood of the town of Cannelton. 
These deposits are, as usual, in the form of pockets of limited 
area, and generally referable to seam No, 4, or the supposed 
equivalent of the Upper Freeport seam of Pennsylvania. The 
cannel is found interstratified with splint or bituminous coal, 
and of varying thickness, though at Cannelton it gives ji feet. 
These cannels are of the usual dull gray slate color, and lie in 
the vein in layers, with a well-defined parting. Owing to their 
density and position, they are expensive to mine. They are 
extremely hard, and difficult to break in the vertical plane. 
Horizontally, they break with greater readiness, show^ing con- 
choidal fracture. Originally, this coal was mined for distilla- 
tion for oil; but about 1873 was brought into the market as a 
gas enrich^r, where it has since held a position as one of the 
standards. There are in this region, no doubt, many valuable 
deposits of cannel as yet undiscovered, which further develop- 
ment of the coal-field will bring, literally and liberally speak- 
ing. ** to light." At present, the extensive use of oil as an 
enricher uf gas, curtailing as it does the use of cannel, does 
not stimulate investigation of the available area and supply of 
this grade of coal. 

In an analysis, this cannel yields: 

Volatile matter 43-10 and 5S 

Carbon , 56.90 ^3.50 

Ash 7.40 1S.50 

Sulphur , 1,162 (not given) 

Mr. E. V. D'Invilliers, in his early and extensive investiga* 
tions in the great Flat Top region about Pocahontas, suggested 
the likelihood of the same conditions prevailing in that region, 
in regard to the relative qualities of the coals in the wide area 
extending thence westward through Virginia and northwest- 
ward through West Virginia and Kentucky along their mutual 



387 



I 

I 
I 



boundary line, as we find in the Pennsylvania and also in the 
Kanawha fields. That is to say, a gradual increase in volatile 
imatter as we pass to the west and northwest. Hence, we 
would expect to find gas-coals or coals of approximate charac- 
ter as we pass to the west and northwest along the line indi- 
cated through the Quinnimont (the Conglomerates of Penn- 
sylvania) series of coal measures, as they are termed in this 
region. Very recent research on an extended scale along the 
proposed Ohio extension of the Norfolk ^: Western Railroad, 
northwest from Pocahontas, Va., to the Ohio River, through 
Martin county, Ky,, and Wayne and Logan counties in West 
Virginia, has justified that inference. Coals have been dis- 
closed, high in volatile matter, and, so far as analyses and 
physical characteristics go, suggestive of valuable gas coal. 
They have not yet, however, been subjected lo test in gasifica- 
tion, so that all that can be said is, that it is likely that that 
dUtrici contains a large area of good gas coal. As we found 
the W'est Virginia field lying southwest of the Pennsylvania 
coals^ and the Kanawha southwest of the West Virginia, so we 
find the district in question lying in a continuation of that 
southwest line through the Kanawha field. 

Investigations pursued in the sotilheastern end of the field 
In the valleys of Coal Creek in Tazewell county, Va,, and 
in adjacent districts along the Clinch Valley Division of the 
Norfolk & Western, show that of the three seams generally 
exposed, one shows indications of a good gas coal, in a seam 
likely to average three feet clean. The analyses of samples 
indicate a good cual, and, so far, tests on a small scale have 
borne out the prophecies of the analyses. The working has 
not, however, as yet been of sufficiently extended character 
to warrant a positive statement as to the qualities for gasifica- 
tion. The most important question yet to be determined is 
whether the seam will run, on the average, sufficiently thick 
and clean to enable it to be mined readily and profitably. 
That, only further development can decide, I understand that 
active operations towards that end are to be undertaken at 
once. 

Turning aside for a moment from our southwesterly course, 
we find in the vicinity of Richmond, Va,, a small but interest- 




388 



ing deposit of coal, running from a high bituminous to a 
natural cuke, /. ^., where the igneous action has been more 
rapid than in the case of anthracite, and a less perfect resuH* 
attained in carbonization. These deposits were of a mucl> 
later period of continental life than the coal fields of the west' 
ern part of the State, and are believed to have been formed if*- 
what is known as the Triassic Age. The deposits of the bitu— 
mi nous coals are in places extremely thick, running as high as- 
40 feet. The best presents the following analyses : 

Clover Hill. Midlothian. 

Ash ....,, 10.152 14,75 

Water 1.559 2.55 

Volatile matter , 50.984 29.75 

Carbon * ,. 56,851 55.01 

Sulphur.,... .5r4 .580 

While these analyses make a good showing, yet in actual 
practice the coal as shipped to market is so highly charged 
with sulphur, and carries with it so large a percentage of ash, 
as to make it practical iy of small value in gasification in the 
presence of the superior grades of gas coal found in the mar- 
kets tu which it could be shipped. These Triassic coals have 
been used on a small scale in gas making, but in the short lime 
at our command no recent record of its working could be ob- 
tained. Little work has been done in this field for many years. 

There are also in North Carolina two small areas of Triassic 
coal. Little work has been done in these ilelds, likew^ise, of 
late years; but some of the coal^ from what is known as the 
Deep River field, has been used in gasification, with results 
said to be satisfactory. But of this no record could be had. 

The coal-fields of Kentucky are of two principal divisions, 
the eastern and the western. The eastern is of the Appa- 
lachian system of coals, and is an extension of the Kanawha 
and West Virginia and Southwest Virginia deposits, and covers 
the eastern half of the State. The western division is an ex- 
tension of the great middle or Illinois coal-fields. Kentucky, 
in her eastern counties, is rich in coal veins. Her coal- 
measures are tilted over at an inclination that exposes success- 
fully their whole section, A dozen or more searas are found* 



389 



persistent and recognizable, in different and distant locali- 
ties. She has been blessed, however, rather with number than 
excellence. Of the whole ten principal veins of coal none is of 
such uniform thickness as to make it of great commercial 
value. At times they show workable thickness of excellent 
coals* but the seams vary so, both in sections and in physical 
quality, that little dependence can be placed Ufjon them. It is 
unlikely that they will be extensively developed while in the 
adjacent States thick veins are accessible. As in number of 
seams, so in variety of coal. We find nearly everything but an- 
thracite here. The principal formations, however, are splint or 
block coal and free-burning, non-coking, bituminous. Good 
coking coals are found, but gas coals are a rarity; and where 
they are discovered, none are of such generous formation as to 
make it likely they will ever be a considerable factor in the 
market, though analyses of local coals show excellent chemical 
compositions. The comments made upon the eastern coal* 
fields will serve as well for the western field, so far as general 
characteristics and its status as a producer of gas coal are con- 
cerned. The various seams, running from shale or bituminous 
coals to cannel, have made nurat^rous and unders^jread deposits 
M the latter. It can be found in one or the other of the sev- 
eral seams, in varying quantities and of varyir^g quality, nearly 
everywhere in the area underlaid by these coals. At times and 
Id certain localities it attains an excellence of quality and mag- 
nitude of area that have made it a commercial possibility, and 
it is from this State that the majority uf our best known and 
most desirable cannels come. To tht-se we will now turn our 
attention. Of Kentucky it may be said that no other State has 
such a large area of rich and thick cannels. They are found in 
both the eastern and western fields and of good quality in 
nearly every county in the Slate underlaid by coal, llie best 
cannels of the eastern field are generally found un what is 
known as seam No. 4 of the upper coals; but it is impracticable 
to relegate ihe best cannels in either field to a particular seam, 
so difficult is the determination of their e([ui valency. The 
cannels are found here, as elsewhere, in detached basins, in 
|>ockeis of variable extent in area, and of no uniformity of 
thickness; hence, any estimate of their area in any locality is 



390 



largely conjectural. The vein is generally very thin, runninf 
from eighteen inches to three feet, and composed of superim- 
posed thick lamina, like slabs of slatie placed one upon the 
other, underlaid by inferior shale or bituminous coal or clays. 

Through these underlying'strata the "bearing in/* or under- 
cutting, is done. The mining is generally very dilTicuU and ex- 
pensive. The color is the familiar dull, slaty gray, with, at 
times, highly polished fracture, which is always conchoidal. 
The coal is remarkably dense and tough, and strongly resists 
cross fracture, while it parts with comparative ease horizontally 
in the line of the lamina. These physical characteristics give 
it, of course, a structure that resists the rough handling of trans- 
portation, and admits of its being carried the longest distance 
in good condition. The chief carrier through the State is the 
Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, though those coals along the Ohio 
River are loaded on barges and shipped along that great water- 
way to the Southern and Western markets. In some instances 
these cannels were first developed for the distillation of oil prior 
to the discovery of the large fields of free natural oil; as many 
as 1 20 gallons of oil being diHtilled, it is said, from 1 ton of the 
best of these coals. In the eastern field, Greenup, Carter, Boyd 
and Johnson counties are the principal producers of cannels; 
though in the centre of the field, about the head waters of the 
Kentucky River, in Breathitt and adjacent counties, excellent 
deposits are discovered. In the western field, Hancock and 
Breckinridge counties are the chief producers, and are famous 
the world over for the excellence of their coal. 

The analyses submitted below will show the comparative com- 
position of these coals in the various localities: — 

Pike County. Perry County. Breathitt, Breathitt, 

Volatile matter 43.4 44.^6 68,28 53,8 

Carbon 46.3 49.4 29.73 45 

Sulphur 689 .766 ,83 .722 

Ash 8.3 6 3.64 , 5.54 

Hancock and Breckinridge, Breathitt. Greenup. 

Volatile matter, ..... , 60.90—77.5 58.80 47*46 

Carbon.... 27 —21.05 35-30 5^,84 

Sulphur 1.89 4,07 1.55 

Ash 12.10 11,40 



391 



I 

I 

I 

I 

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analyses will serre, tn a gfeneral way, to show the ran^e 

"quality and the general characteristics of the coals. In cok- 
ing they vary greatly, some producing a good merchantable 
quality, that maybe readily mixed and sold with that of coking 
coals; while others,, and the majotity, make a small, soft, fria- 
ble, and nearly worthless coke. The best of these coals com- 
pare favorably with the best Knglish cannels and approach the 
celebrated Australian shale, and are already shipped to foreign 
countries in competition with them. So favorable have been 
the results of comparative tests that a large export trade in the 
future is confidently looked for. It is a matter for congratula- 
tion that the determined area of some of the most valuable de- 
posits reaches over a wide extent of country, running into the 
thousands of acres in some instances, thus insuring a practically 
limitless supply. Inadequate railroad facilities have been the 
chief obstacle in the way of the more rapid development of 
Kentucky cannels. 

It is likely that the activity in railroad extension and indus- 
trial development through the South will render the markets of 
this country and of the world more readily accessible to the 
already developed coals, and lead to the discovery of many val- 
uable, but as yet unknown, deposits. 

The coal-measures of Tennessee are an extension of those of 
Kentucky, and, entering from that State in a belt some seventy 
miles wide, continue the general southwest trend through the 
Stale, generally narrowing as they pass southward until they 
enter Alabama, cutting across the extreme northwestern corner 
of Georgia. They occupy and are entirely confined to the 
Great Plateau of the Cumberland Mountains, a vast, narrow 
table-land running entirely across the State, north and south. 
There is no systematic geology of the State of recent determi- 
nation, and as the Government make little or no provision for 
the compilation of statistics, or the liling of general informa- 
tion as tq^the progress of development of her coal fields, indi- 
vidual reports must be re!ied upon entirely. Therefore, it is 
difficult to make a complete or exact statement covering the 
whole area of her coal field. 

Wc may divide the field into northern and southern divisions. 
In the southern the coals are of a semi bituminous character, 




and generally quite soft and friable, and extensively mined for 
the manufacLore of coke; but towards the northern border of 
the State, in Scott, Campbell and Anderson counties, some very 
good ^as coals and some excellent cannels are found. 

These coals lie in the upper coal -measures,, in which are found 
in this district eighteen or more different seams of coal, all vary- 
ing in thickness and in quality, and changing at times from bitu- 
minous coals to cannels or shales, as we found to be the case in 
the Kentucky fields. Most uf the seams are thin and irregular 
and worthless, but there is one seam, to which each successive 
explorer has given a different name, that is of comparatively 
uniform and persistent thickness, and which furnishes the best 
coal, and ^le gas coal and cannel, in the northern field. In the 
vicinity of Jellico Mountain, in Campbell county, is found an 
excellent grade r»f canneL which has been extensively shipped 
through the county for the purpose of gas enriching. The de- 
posit is estimated to cover some twelve hundred acres, which 
insures its permanency in the markets. The coal analyzes as 
follows: — 

Volatile matter , 4985 

Carbon 35.03 

Ash ....», , 15.12 

Sulphur . , .74 

The bituminous coal from the same district is a clean, hard 
coal, with cubical cleavage, and bears transportation well That 
it will serve well as a gas coal, the following analysis will 
demonstrate: — 

Ash 1,60 

Carbon 60.60 

Sulphur... • 1. 16 

Volatile matter , 35-44 

A very good gas coal, perhaps the best in this district, is 
mined in the southern part of Scott county. It is said to be 
similar to the best Pennsylvania coals in general physical char- 
acteristics, and to aj>proach them in value in gasification. The 
coals found in the adjacent county, Anderson, are likewise of 
excellent quality. Some analyses are submitted to show their 
general character; — 



393 



ANDERSON COUNTV COALS. 

Coal Crrck District. Poplar Creclt District. 

Carbon,.. 57-52 60.67 56.120 

Volatile matter ,,. 38.82 5^-53 39 33 

Ash 3.09 1.75 2.8 1 

Sulphur ,2 .78 

All of which indicate a first-class gas coaL These coals are 
supplied principally to the local Southern markets, and are not 
extensively shipped as gas coals beyond the limits of the State, 
The greater part of the production of these mines is sold (ur 
tlomesttc or steam-raising purposes. 

ALABAMA. 

Of the Alabama coal we may say, as Csesar said of Gaid, that 
it is divided into three parts. Those three parts were origi- 
nally one whole field, lying in the northern half of the State; 
but subsequent geological disturbances threw up dividing an- 
ticlinal ridges that cut it into three pieces along its south- 
eastern border. These three divisions have been named after 
the rivers that flow^ through and drain them» the Warrior, the 
Cahaba, and the Coosa fields, respectively. The coals con- 
tained within them cover an estimated area of 8,660 square 
miles, and are in numerous seams, of varying thickness. Geo- 
logically, the upper coals are of the inter-conglomerate series, 
and the lower coals of the sub-conglomerate measures. These 
coal-measures are of astounding thickness, in some places 3,000 
feet, and containing 30 or 40 seams, aggregating nearly fifty 
feet of coal. They are the most southern coals in the United 
States, and are the terminus of the great Appalachian field, 
with which we started our inquiries in Pennsylvania, and whose 
southwestern course we have thus far followed steadily. 

Mining was first begun in this State in the Cahaba field in 
1853, and the growth of the development is well-nigh incredi- 
ble. In i860, only 1 1,000 tons were mined. In 1870,30,000; 
In 1880, 300,000; while 1890 will produce close to the enormous 
quantity of 4,000,000 tons, placing it fifth in the rank of coal- 
producing States. 

Taking up the various fields, we find the Cahaba lying along 



394 



aii€ 



the river of that naoie, in Bibb, Shelby, and partly in JetTerson 
and St. Clair counties. The area is 400 miles. The coals are 
generally semi-bitLiniinous coking coals, running 25 to jo 
cent, in volatile matter, though in some districts the volatii 
matter rises to 35 per cent, and the coal h reputed to serve 
a gas coal. AUhotigh h has as many as twelve seams of coi 
some two feet six inches thick, the mining is expensive 
difficult, on account of the sleep dips of the seams, due to the 
disturbances of the containing measures. 

We may say much tht- samt- of the Coosa field, lying to thi 
east and northeast of the Cahaba, and having a like area of 400 
square miles. Its coals are semi-hiturainous, friable, and bei 
.suittnl for coking. The raining of them is likewise difficult, c 
account of the disturbance of the strata and their irregularis 
and stL^ep inclinations. 

In the grt^at Warrior field, whose area is ten times as lar] 
as that of the other two combined, we find the principal d 
posits of good coals of all bituminous varieties, coking, g; 
block, and splint. This field lies principally in Jeffersoi 
Walker, Fayette» Marion, W^inston, Cullman, Blount, and Tui 
caloosa counties. In Marion, Winston, Cullman, and Fayett< 
counties the seams are generally thin or split up, and unwork- 
able; the coal is of a semi-bituminous character, and is not ex- 
tensively mined. In Jefferson county is the principal cokin: 
region, where the coal for that purpose is taken from the 
famous Pratt, Black Creek, and New Castle seams, ranging 
from two feet six inches to four feet six inches in thickness, 
and furnishing an excellent coke. The coals are too low, how- 
ever, in vc^latile matter^ to rank as gas coals. 

In Tuscaloosa county^ while some of the coals, from their 
analyses, appear to be good gas coals, yet the seams containing 
them are either, on the one hand, too thin to be cheaply and 
easily worked, or, when thick, they have slates and clays so in-^ 
terstratified with them as to make it well-nigh impracticable 
prepare them properly for the gas coal markets; hence they d 
not, to any extent, appear there. 

In Walker county, the coals are all highly bituminous, of the 
nature of gas, block or splint. The seams here are horizontal, 
easy accessible, thick and numerous. There are 35 over 1^ 



r' 



I 




I 



Inches, and 6 oirer 4 feet. The larger seams, and that furnish- 
ing the gas coal, have the familiar face and butt structure de- 
scribed in the Pennsylvania coals, rendering clean mining easy. 
We recognize here, though more highly bituminous, the great 
coking searas of Jefferson county. 

The only commercial gas coal, properly speaking, is found in 
a deposit of area, of, say, 15,000 acres in the southwestern part 
of Walker county, in what is locally known as the Corona seam. 
It is mined in the Coal Valley, Cane Creek and Wolf Creek re- 
gion. The seam runs 3 feet 6 inches to 3 feet 8 inches thick, 
with one slate parting. The coal is clean, bright, hard, with 
bright resinous luster, and of sufficient density to bear handling 
well. It has rectangular cleavage, comes out in cubical blocks, 
with conchoidal fracture, and resemblts very much the Penn- 
sylvania gas coals. In preparation for market, the coal is first 
** forked ** in the mine — 1\ ^,, loaded into the mine wagons by 
forks, with tines three-fourths inch a[>art, and then outside the 
mine is dumped over one-fourth inch screen. It is supplied to 
the local gas companies through the State, and in the adjacent 
States along the Gulf. The Georgia Pacific and Kansas, Mem- 
phis and Birmingham Railroads traverse this region, and are 
the principal carriers of the coals. 

The analyses of the Walker county coals are: 

Corona Distrkt. Coal Valley District. 

Carbon , . , 58.81 50. 67 56.60 

Volatile matter 3774 41^12 32*67 

Ash ........ 1.90 7,36 9.41 ' 

Sulphur 1.94 42 

Cane Creek District, Wolf Creek. 

Carbon .<. 57 58.811 

Volatile matter. 33-78 37 735 

Ash 6.96 1-953 

Sulphur ,. 73 

Small streaks of cannel are from time to time fountl running 
through these seams of coal, but none of commercial value or 
importance. The thickest seam is one found in Fayette county, 
running from 4 inches to 10 inches thick, which, while it is ap- 




parently of excellent quality, is, of course, not of a workable 
thickness. 



OHIO, 



I'he coal deposits in Ohio cover an area estimated at some 
10,000 square miles. They are in the northwestern portion, 
and the limit in that direction of the great A|>palachian field. 
They cover the eastern part of the State, running — roughly 
speaking— from Trumbull county on the north to Scioto county 
on the south, in a northeast and southwest trend. The measures 
here correspond directly to those of Pennsylvania, of which 
they are indeed a direct extension. They are, geologically, 
divided into two parts, the upper and the lower measures. In 
the upper, we find the familiar Pittsburgh seam; and in the 
lower, the equivalents of the Freeport and Kittaning veins of 
Pennsylvania. The principal seams are numbered from No, 1 
to No. 8, beginning at the lowest or Sharon coal, and passing 
upward to the Pittsburgh. From the westernmost crop, where 
we find the lowest coal, No. i, the measures sink towards the 
east, and expose the successive higher seams as we pass along 
in that direction, until, in the eastern part of the field, along 
the West XHrginia and Pennsylvania State lines, we find the 
Pittsburgh seam. 

The seams are characterized by regular dip and moderate in- 
clination, permitting of easy and cheap mining. The general 
dip of the mt^asures is towards the south and southwest, and 
here, as in Pennsylvania, we find ahing the general dip gentle 
folds or undulations, having the same northeast and southwest 
trend. The bulk of the coal mined in Ohio comes from the 
lower measures, the Freeport and Kittaning seams, the most 
important of which is the great No. 6 vein, of the Hocking Val- 
ley, the equivalent of the Middle Kittaning. 

Ohio's coals are all bituminous, and may be divided into 
three classes; (1) The i\Ty, open-burning block or furnace 
coal; (2) the caking or coking coals, which are by far the 
larger part; and (3) the cannels. 

The Ohio (ieological Survey, in speaking of the classification 
of these coals, says: **Tbe division between coking and free- 
burning coals may be geographically made; generally speaking. 



W from 



~sm~ 



from Perry" county, south wartl, the coal is open -burning; to the 
northward and eastward it is of the cementing or coking type.'* 
This, of course, is a very general statement, as the must famous 
block coal of Ohio is the Briar Hill, of the Mahoning Valley, in 
the northeastern part of the State. 

The principal use for Ohio coals is for steam. The block 
coals of the northeastern counties and of the Hocking Valley 
were largely used in blast furnaces; but the advent of furnace 
coke from Pennsylvania has nearly, if not quite, driven them 
out of use. So with the use of her coals for gas manufacture. 
The coals of Columbiana, Jefterson, Hocking, Meigs, and other 
counties were originally largely used (or gas-making in the 
numerous gas works that dot the State, But the incursion of 
the better coals from the adjacent Pennsylvania field, at low 
rates, has quite driven the Ohio coals into the background. It 
is doubtful if to-day half a dozen gas works in the Stale use 
the native gas coals; and then it will be found to be r^nly 
where, so to speak, the coal is mined next door to the retort 
house, and almost shoveled from the mines into the retorts. 
The Pittsburgh seam, the principal deveiupment of which is 
^''Jilong the Ohio River and in Meigs county, depreciates in char- 
acter and quality as it passes from Pennsylvania into Ohio. 
The vein thins out, and becomes less clean and pure. The ash 
and sulphur rise rapidly, and while the volatile matter remains 
as high as fn the best gas coals found in this seam in Pennsy!- 
vania, yet neither is the volume of gas distilled found to be as 
great, nor the quality as good, by many degrees. A section of 
the coal in Meigs county, near Pomeroy, where perhaps the 
best gas coal in the State is founds shows a decided inferiority 
over the same bed as shown in section in Pennsylvania. 

An average of analysis of ten coals from ten different mines 
in this region gives: 

Moisture , ,. 4.81 

Volatile matter 38.60 

Carbon 50 05 

Ash , 6.51 

Sulphur ... 1.42 

The next field in importance, as a producer of gas coals, is 




the Hftckinif Valley, which at one time furnished a large quan- 
tity for gas making, coming from the great No, 6 seam^ or Mid- 
dle Kittaning, Ttje seam runs from 5 to 12 feet in ihickneiis, 
but is interstratified with clays and bone coals, necessitating 
separation in mining, so that the whole depth of the seam can- 
not be mined out clean. The coal is hard» with bright, resin- 
ous luster, holds a moderate amount of mineral charcoal, comes 
out in cubical blocks, and stands rehandling and iransportatiun 
exceedingly well. Streaks of cannel are occasionally found 
running through the upper bench of this seam, which, of course, 
there greatly enhances the value of the coal in gas-making, but 
this cannot be relied upon, as the deposit is irregular, changing 
indefinitely into a shale or horn coal. 

Here we find a good lesson as to the value of analyses in the 
determination of the exact value of gas coals, and. in fact, of 
any coals. The average analysis of ten of the best Hocking 
coals gives: 



Moisture ..,».,. 5.9J 

Volatile matter 36,48 to 37.58 

Carbon 52.4 1 

Ash , 5. 1 J 

Sulphur. , i.og to ,516 



i 



which would, judging from the analysis alone, give a coal that 
might compete un ihcir own ground with Pennsylvania gas 
coals; yet the volatile matter, when distilled, gives a yield de- 
cidedly inferior in quantity and in quality to that which a Penn- 
sylvania gas coal of same analysis would have produced. 

This variation and the rt-asons for it will, however, be a mat- 
ter of future consitleration, as space for it is not afforded here. 

The same considerations apply to the other coals mined in 
different parts of the State, w^ht^n used in gas- making. While 
making a good showing by analysis, they give decidedly poor 
results in the retorts. Their general characteristics are an un* 
duly high percentage of sulphur and ash, which, of course, 
atfords a very inferior grade of coke. As it is, owing to the 
proximity of the high grade Pennsylvania gas coals, Ohio may 
scarcely be said to possess any within her borders. Were her 
fields, however, mure remote from or more inaccessible to the 



899 



Pennsylvania deposits, they would be largely drawn upon by 
her gas companies; for by t^nrichiiig the native gas coals witfj 
the native cannels, which we shall now consider, a good and 
cheap gas could readily be made. 

The Ohio canncls are widely distributed through the State. 
They appear in the usual pockci deposits. They suddenly re- 
place the bituminous coals in one of the regular seams, and 
then as suddenly disappear. Their area runs from a few acres 
in some deposits to 10,000 or 12,000 acres in others. They are 
principally referable to the lower coals, the Mercer (No. 3) and 
the Brookville (No. 4}. 

There is a large deposit in Muskingum county, in the Brush 
Creek basin, said to be 10 feet thick and to cover a wide area. 
In Coshocton county, Bedford and Jefferson townships, lies per- 
haps the largest deposit in the State, from i to 6 feet in thick- 
nesSy and covering an area 12,000 to 13,000 acres. Considera- 
ble areas of it are found also in Holmes, Licking, Jackson, 
Scioto and Mahoning ctiunties. In the last named county it is 
known as the Canfield cannel, and is considered the equivalent 
of the Darlington deposit of Pennsylvania. 

The Ohio can n els are of small economic value. I'hey are 
rarely or never developed on their own account, but generally 
in connection with the mining of some adjacent bituminous 
coals. They are not high in volatile matter, do not yield a rich 
gas, and have an excessive quaniiiy of sulphur and ash, which 
latter averages 12 per cent. They are used locally within the 
State in gas enriching, and in adjacent States, at points nearby. 
Wherever they meet the Southern cannels of higher grade on 
Lompetitive grounds, they are generally soon driven from the 
field. To give a general idea of the composition of these coals 
a few analyses show the following determinations; 

Coshocton Co, Jackson Co. FHot Rid^e. Licking Co. 

Bedford Ciinnel. Canncl, S^h'ctfif. 

Water 2.35 2.32 3.47 About 

Volatile matter ,.. 47.05 44-52 45^5 the 

Carbon 37 4i*»3 43 7^ same. 

Ash 13.60 12.03 S.96 

Sulphur . 2.^^ .84 .76 



400 



As we turn westward from the Appalachian system we shall 
find little gas coal, projierly so-called, and few deposits that arc 
drawn upon more than locally for that purpose. The Pittsburgh 
coals are carried out into the far \Vest» and their use at as far 
distant points as the towns of Iowa, Missouri and Nebraska is 
conclusive proof of the non-existence in those neighborhoods 
of native gas coals of much worths Following the course of 
Empire, we find next after the Appalachian, the great middle or 
Illinois coal fields extending over the State of Illinois, and over 
the western part of the State of Indiana, and the northwestern 
part of Kentucky, l*hen next adjacent we find the western 
coa! field of Iowa and Missouri, extending southward into Kan- 
sas, Arkansas, Texas, and Indian Territory. In this field lie the 
westernmost deposits of the Carboniferous period. Towards the 
Pacific coast the coals in the fields of Colorado, Washington, 
Wyoming Territory, Dakota, Utah and Oregon are of much 
later formation, known as the Cretaceous age, and of much 
higher geological order. They are lignites^ or bituminous coals 
of the liij^nitic order 

Turning first to the great middle or Illinois coal field, we find 
we have already considered that portion of it that lies In the 
northwestern part of Kentucky, so that there remains for our 
inquiries only those portions lying within the States of Indiana 
and Illinois, Since there is in those States no gas coal, properly 
speaking, or any deposits of great importance as a producer of 
gas coals, it will not be profitable for us to take up the sys- 
tematic geology of the coal-measures; we shall confine our- 
selves, therefore, to a few cursory comments upon the general 
character of the coals. 

In Indiana, as in Ohio, we find that the carboniferous meas- 
ures in the southwestern part of the State contain a great vari- 
ety of coals, running from a splint or cannel up to a high-grade 
bituminous. With the exception of the cannel, we find no coals 
of much economic value as gas coals. Although in analysis 
many of the coals show excellent composition, their behavior in 
the retorts disqualifies them from use in gas making, except to 
a limited extent. Generally the coke is poor, and the gas yield 
small in volume and poor in quality. The native coals of Indi- 
ana are now little, if at all, used by the gas companies within 



401 



I 



I 



her borders. The superior Pittsburgh gas coals, brought at low 
prices from the adjacent field* have supplanted those native 
coals that formerly were so used, and it is not likely that a re- 
turn to ihem will ever be made. In Daviess county* the coal 
from the seam known as ** K" was once quite extensively car- 
bonized by adjacent gas companies. It is a clean, bright coal, 
analyzing as follow*s: 

Carbon ...,,. 60 

Ash 4.50 

Volatile matter * ,. 35^50 

which will give a general Idea of the character of this coal» 
which, with other like ones, the advent of the Pittsburgh coal 
shut out of the gas coal market. 

Also in Daviess county is an extensive deposit of cannel, 
rained from a vein 3 feet 8 inches to 5 feet thick, and of very 
fair quality. It comes from one of the upper beds of the coal- 

easures, known as ** I," and an analysis determines as follows r 

5h - . 6 to 20 per cent. 

irbon 40 it) 27.473 [ver cent. 

Volatile matter 5 [ to 50.80 per cent. 

Water 5 to [.29 per cent. 

There is also a large deposit of cannci of fair grade in Perry 
county and local pockets are found at many points throughout 
the coal regions; none of these, however, have more than local 
reputation or use. 

Almost the whole Slate of Illinois is underlaid by her coal- 
measures, w'hich covers an area of some 36,000 square miles, 
and contain some 15 distinct beds. The available veins are 
generally of good working thickness, and readily accessible, 
though for the most part through shafts, owing to the depths 
at which the best veins lie. The principal centres of operation 
lie as yet upon the margin of the field, but are being rapidly 
developed and extended. The annual output is enormous. In 
1S89, it rose to nearly 12,000,000 tons, placing this State second 
ID the rank of coal producers in the United States. A territory 
of such great productiveness would seem to merit lengthy con- 
sideration at our hands; but it does not. While there is more 

2ft 




native coal used in gasification in Illinois than in Indiana, it i 
not because the coals are better, but because of their great 
remoteness from the Pittsburgh field. The Illinois coals af 
all of a bituminous nature, and of excellent quality for steam 
production; but of small value as gas coals. They are for the 
most part highly charged with moisture, running from 6 to S 
per cent,, and al^o high in sulphur. They are very friable, and 
liable to disintegrate on long exposure, or in the handling in- 
cident to transportation. Those faults alone preclude their use 
as gas coals to any great extent. The yield of gas is low in 
quantity and quality, and the coke generally poor, light, and 
soft In fact, the use of the native coals is generally confined 
to those points where they, so to speak, underlie the gas-works. 
as is true in many cases, and the cost of transportation is re- 
duced to almost nothing. The constantly declining price a^ 
which Pittsburgh coal is being offered, is gradually ousting tl; 
Illinois coals, and with the further lowering of freight rate 
from Pennsylvania, we may look for their total exclusion fron 
the gas-coal arena. So far as can be ascertained, no coal is 
carried frt^m Illtnois to any adjacent State for the purpose i 
gasification. 

A few analyses are submitted tt> shf>w the general charact 
of the coals: — 

Big Muddy District. Duquoin District. Belleville District.^ 
Jackson County. Perry County. Si, Clair County. 

Water 6.5 8,5 6.8 

Volatile matter ji.2 40.4 3355 

Carbtm 60,8 59,6 54*55 

Ash 1.5 3 5,9 

Danville, Vermillion County. La Salle Coimty. Bloomington. 
Water.,.. .....* 4 10 7.90 

Volatile matter.* 40.58 27.40 34.02 

Carbon 4*^78 55 53-1^ 

Ash 8.64 7.60 4.96 

Sulphur 1.97 

Leaving out of consideration what is known as the third, ' 
** Michigan " coal-field^ which is of small economic value, and 



403 



not i^nthin the scope of our enquiries, we turn with interest to 
the fourth, or Western field, representing the western bounda- 
ries uf the carboniferous measures. Here we find two gas coal- 
fields of no inconsiderable consequence, each supplying a large 
adjacent area, and each of wide and well-defined reputation. 
Kansas and Indian Territory are the two possessors of this 
distinction, and will command our attention for the most part 
in considering this field. Iowa, representing the northern por- 
tion of the Western field, has within her boundaries no gas 
coals, and draws, curiously enough, her entire supply from 
Pennsylvania. Her own coals are high in moisture, sulphur 
and ash, and of the same general physical character as the 
Illinois coals. The explanation of the general use of Pitts- 
burgh coals in this State is likely to be that the low through 
rates bring the Pennsylvania product to her gas- works as 
cheap as it is laid down at p^>ints much farther east. Of 
Nebraska, it may be said that she has no gas coals, and not 
much of any other 

Missouri demands more extensive notice. While Kansas 
and Pennsylvania coals dispute for the gas-coat supply, still 
some native coals are used, where the deposits are of fair 
quality, and so near by as to make the cost of transportation 
low. The coals are all of bituminous character, and the opera- 
tions are principally found in the western and southwestern 
counties, adjoining the Kansas field. The most imptjrtant coal 
center is in Hates County, where a vein of good workable thick- 
ness is found. The seams run from 3^ to 5 feet thick. There 
is no extended and systematic recent survey of the fields, and 
little information in regard to them. The coals are, however, 
not of high grade, being soft, friable, sulphurous, and high in 
sulphur and ash. 

A characteristic analysis is submitted'*— 

Lexington Coal, from Fayette County . 

Ash. , . ... 7.71 

Carbon 45-32 

Volatile matter J6.34 

Water io.6j 

Sulphur 2.93 



404 



There are large deposits of cannel coal in Missouri, \ 
large pockets in the Osage River field and along the Missouri 
River. The principal developments are in Moniteau and 
Cooper counties. The cannel pockets, which are simply Ic 
irregular, and varying enlargements of the regular bitumtnoJ 
veins of coal are of great thickness at times, running as hr 
as 72 feet. No record of the use or value of this cannel 
gasification (or of its physical characteristics or its analysis 
has been obtainable, 

The coal-fields of Kansas lie in the eastern part of the Statd 
in the counties along the Missouri State hues and extend from 
Missouri through Kansas into Indian Territory. The thickest 
and most %'aluable deposits are found in the Cherokee vein, as 
it is called, in Crawford and Cherokee counties* in the extreme 
southeastern part of the State* Here only is the gas coal 
found. The other coal lields of the State, in Osage and other 
counties, are characterised by very thin veins, seventeen to 
twenty inches, of lean^ poor coals; and in the center of the 
State, beyond the boundaries of the coal-field proper, some in- 
ferior lignites are developed, but nothing approaching a gas 
coal has been discovered. 

The Cherokee vein crops through the eastern part of Craw- 
ford and Cherokee counties, and is in an accessible bed some 
twenty miles long, in a northeast and southwest line, and of 
one to two and a half miles wide. The vein dips slightly 
towards the northwest, while the general containing measures 
sink rapitlly towards the west and southwest, disappearing in 
the western part of Cherokee county, to rise again in Indian 
Territory, The workable cual runs from three to three and a 
half feet thick, though in some places it rises as high as four 
feet, and is badly cut up by disturbances known as horse backs 
and clay veins, rendering mining at once expensive and un- 
certain. 

The mines in this district are very large, and well equlpp« 
and developed, and the output is quite large. The coal 
black and lustrous, with a cubical cleavage, and fairly firm ani 
dense, though it disintegrates rapidly, like most of its western 
neighbors, upon exposure to the atn:iosphere. 

It is high in suli>hur and in ash, but not in water. It maj 



405 

fairly be said to be a good gas coal» though the high percentage 
of sulphur and ash are great drawbacks. It yields a fair quan- 
tity of gas, of good illuminatiTig power, and the coke is strong 
and plentiful, say sixty per cent,, but, of course, highly suU 
phurous. The average analyses of nine samples of this coal 
determined as follows: — 

Water *,.... , i ,94 

Volatile matter 36.77 

Carbon 52.45 

Ash 8,84 

The sulphur runs from two and one*ha!f to five per cent, and 
as high as eight [>er cent, in some of the coals. 

The Cherokee supplies nearly all the Kansas gas companies, 
and the majority of those of Missouri^ but it has a formidable 
competitor in the Indian l*erritory coals. 

In considering Indian Territory as a gas coal producer, we 
shall find that the only field lies in what is known as the Choc- 
taw country, which is that portion set apart for the use of the 
Choctaw Nation of Indians, lying in the southern part of the 
Territory. From that nation the operators in this district are 
obliged to secure leases, subject to governmental ratification, 
before developments may l>e proceeded with; and from the 
royalties thus secured a handsome income is had. 

The coal-measures are a part and cimtinuation uf the great 
Fourth Field, and an extt^nsion westward luid southward of the 
Arkansas, Missouri and Kansas deposits, though they are here 
found of far greater thickness than in any other part of the 
field so far as now explored, and show a total depth of some 
8,500 feet. Although this region has long been known as a 
producer of excellent coal, yet particular attention has been 
recently attracted to it through new and extensive develop- 
ments that are being made within it. To Mr. H. M. Chance, 
of Philadelphia, who has conducted the careful and widespread 
researches into the resources of coal deposits that have led to 
these new operations, we are indebted for the information in 
regard to them. 

I'he coal developments are embraced in the region lying be- 
tween the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railway and tlie Arkansas 





State line, and we have now to note again» as charactenstlc 
this region, also that the coals toward the east are low in vola-^ 
tile matter, semi-bituminous in character; while as we pass west 
ward, over what are known as the Mitchell and Mayberry 
basins, we find a gradual increase in volatile matter until we^J 
reach the high percentage found in the gas coal of the Gradj^H 
or McAlester beds. The original operations in this district 
were at the town uf McAlester, on the Missouri, Kansas iV 
Texas Railway, and that town has given its name to the bed 
principally worked, and in fact to the whole region. 

IMie developments of the best coals are all from veins lying 
in the lower part of the coal-measures, ami are principally con- 
fined to two, the McAlester, which is next to the lowest bed in 
measures; and the *' Grady,** which is the lowest deposit. The 
McAlester, the most largely worked bed up to the present time | 
and also the most extensive in area, long ago demonstrated the 
superiority uf it& coal over that of adjacent States; but the re- 
cent development of the Grady basin has brought to light a coal 
which, while of the same general character as the MrAlester, ia 
of greater and surprising excellence. 

These veins run from three and one-half to five feet in thickJ 
ness, and are generally entirely clean^ t\ ^., free from bone or 
slate binders. They are mined by drifts near the outcrop, and 
by shjpcs or shafts at puints further in the basin, where the coal 
sinks away from the crop line. The coal is bright, clean, and 
hard; has the luster and general appearance of the Pittsburgh 
coal. It stands transportation well, and does not disintegrate 
readily, as might be supposed, upon exposure to atmospheric 
intluence. It possesses a well-defined cubical cleavage, and is 
interst rati lied with the mineral charcoal so abundant in th^ 
Ea.stern coals. It is mined in large, clean, cubical lumps, an^ 
to the eye of even an expert it might readily pass for the Pitt 
burgh seam lliis is particularly true of coal from the Grady" 
bed. It may, perhaps, be safely said, that here is to be found 
the best coal west of the Appalachian fields. In its freedom 
from sulphur, ash, and moisture, m its density. Its superior coking 
qualities, and in its general physical characteristics, it may be 
s;ud» considering the field from which it is drawn, to be truly a 
wonderful tleposit. 

The lollowmg analyses coiifiroi the above statements: 



al 

1 



i is 

th^^ 

in^^l 

ttaS 

adv I 



407 



Crady Rasin. Crady Basin, McAlcjitcr Bed. Cirady Bed. 

Water * 79^ *'7°9 1.804 2^478 

Volatile matter 40,207 38,668 37-»7' 37-797 

Carbon. 51-785 5»-482 53404 55-27o 

Sulphur t^333 1,006 .S96 ^950 

Ash 4.833 7,135 6.725 3.505 

As we leave the district lying at and immediately east of 
McAlester, the coals deteriorate m quality and rise in impuri- 
ties^ particularly in sulphur and moisture. This McAlester re- 
pon is now being very rapidly developed, and the badly needed 
facilities for transportation are being famished with all possible 
baste. The coal lias found its way to the gas companies of 
Texas. Arkansas, and Kansas, and no doubt it will rapidly ex* 
tend its market as more distant ones become accessible. 

In gasification, this coal gives a large yield of good gas and 
excellent coke. In fact, its restdts approach with surprising 
closeness those obtained from the standard gas coals of Penn- 
sylvania. 

Standing on the western edge of the fourth or Western coal- 
field, which we have just considered, and looking over the wide 
area of the western half of the United States^ we find that all 
the coal deposits are of recent formation^ comparatively speak- 
ing. With the Kansas and Indian Territory fields we have left 
the coals of the carboniferous measures behind us, for while 
rocks of the carboniferous era are found further out through the 
West» they do not contain coal That which is found in the 
area under present consideration belongs to the Cretaceous age, 
and is generally lignite, or coal of lignilic character, heavily 
charged with moisture and high in ash. To that rule there are 
some exceptions, notably in the Colorado fields. 

What treasures in the shape of gas coal the vast unexplored 
Wild West may have hidden in the bowels of its hills and 
mountains, we cannot say. But we can, however, safely pre- 
dict that it is not likely that any will be found equal to the 
best gas coals of the East, though some may be discovered 
that will approach them. 

Owing to the lack of development and discovery of native 
resources, the Pacific Slope draws nearly its entire supply of 




g^as coal from Australia. Recent increased facilities in trati 
portation, however, have brought the native coals to the fron 
and no tloubt their use will be largely increased in the ne 
future. The principal native source of supply for the Pacit 
Slope is the Slate of Washington. The principal coals of it 
State used in gasification are the " South Prairie *' coal, 
the Northern Pacific Railway just south of Tacoma, in Kir 
County^ and the '* Roslyn ** coal, in Kittitas county. 

The "South Prairie" coal is mined from a bed four feet 
thick. It is soft, rather dull in appearance, and gives seventy 
to eighty candle feet of gas to the pound carbonized. The 
coke, while of fair quantity, is poor in quality, soft and light; 
No analysis of the coal could be had. 

7'he ** Roslyn " coal is mined from a vein some five feel 
thick, covering an area of some twelve thousand acres, and its 
principa! use, so far, as is also the case with the South Prair 
coal, has been for steam purposes on the Northern Pacil 
Railway. Its yield in gas-making and its general physic 
character are like the South Pratrit! coal. In analysis 
determines; — 

Carbon 60.6 1 

Volatile matter , , 27.72 

Water ..,..* * » • . 2.77 

Ash , 8.80 

Sulphur... ..., .10 

It is slated, how^ever, that, as the development of the^ 
Washington fields j>roceedSj a belter quality of coal is beir 
found, and i>nc which gives more satisfactory comparative 
suits in the retorts. 

In Montana^ the " Ciniiibar" coal, mint'd in what is knoii 
as the Bozeman field, in Madison county, is used in gas-makinj 
by the adjacent gas companies in M<mtana and VV^ashingio^j 
with fairly good results. It is described as of medium densitjj 
with cubical cleavage, and of fairly clear anil bright color 
yields sixty-eight to seventy^five candle feet of gas to li 
pound, and gives a good quantity of medium quality cok€ 
Detailed information and analyses of the coal of this field 
could not be had, 



-::ij 



409 



Colorado affords a striking example of tlie fertility of a well- 
developed field, not long ago comparatively unknown. Within 
her borders we find nearly all grades of coal, froin a high bitu- 
minous to anthracite, and thence even to graphite. 

The State has suffered severe volcanic action, and thus the 
original bituminous deposits have been carbonized, as it were, 
into anthracites by the heat evolved by and consequent there- 
upon. The formations are all of tbe upper Cretaceous period, 
but the deposits are of remarkable excellence for that era. 
Little lignite, which comprises so large a portion of the general 
cretaceous formation is found; while the coking and anthracite 
fields together cover an area of some 30,000 square miles. The 
coal taken from Ctjlorado and used for gas-making, is found in 
two fields, the Trinidad, near the Raton Mountains in Las 
Aninias county, on the southern border of the State; and in 
^he Crested Butte field, in Gunnison county, near the center of 
the State. 

The Trinidad field covers an area of 750 square miles, and 
extends to the southward into New Mexico. The main seam 
Worked, known as the Trinidad, is from 6 to 14 feet thick. 
^t has the face and butt cleavage described in the Pittsburgh 
^oals, has a bright bituminous luster, and comes out in large, 
^^■m blocks, and does not slack rapidly on exposure. The coal 
'^okes well, and gives in gasification a good yield of fair quality 
^^^s, reported as 81 candle feet, 
A fair set of analyses gives: 

Water .. .-..•- .61 1,26 2.66 

Volatile matter 33*^^ 36.40 36.71 

Carbon , 57.56 53.10 51.41 

Ash 8,65 9.24 9.22 

Sulphur 751 f.ii 1.57 

wHith certainly show remarkably low percentages of ash, moist- 
WTe, and sulphur — always bearing in mind the age of formation 
of tbe coal, and the region in which it lies. 

Turning to the Crested Butte region, we find ourselves at the 
famous anthracite formation, which, though a pure, bright, hard 
coal, is of so small area as to be of small imp^irtance commer- 
cially for the future. The adjacent deposits of bituminous coal 



410 

are not quite equal in quality to those of the Trinidad bed, be- 
ing softer and more friable. The seam that is worked runs 
about six feet thick, and is highly charged with fire-damp, mak- 
ing great care necessary in mining. It is a clean, bright, coai, 
making a firm, compact coke, yielding 60 to 70 per cent. It is 
reported to give over 80 candle feet of gas to the pound car- 
bonized. 

In analyses it determines: 

Water i . 1 7 t .94 

Volatile matter 36.80 j8.i8 

Carbon , . . 58.01 56.80 

Ash . . ^ 4.02 3.08 

Sulphur 454 

These determinations disclose here also coals closely allied in 
their chemical composition and physical characteristics to the 
best Pennsylvania coals, and approaching them in economic 
values. 

The Colorado fields supply the gas coropantes of that and ad- 
jacent States, So far as can be ascertained by necessarily hasty 
search, there is no other deposit of coal in the vast Western ter- 
ritory, lying beyond the fourth coal field, where coal is more 
than locally used in gasification. Here and there are gas com- 
panies drawing upon deposits lying, comparatively speaking, at 
their doors, but disclosing no field of large development ur great 
promise. 

It is, however, by no means hence to be argued that such fields 
do not exist. They may lie as yet undiscovered, awaiting the 
further growth and development of the country to disclose 
them. It is, in fact, fair inference to say that ihey do exist. 
The results of recent exploration in adjacent regions justify 
that assertion. And, furthermore, as to whatsoever the Great 
West may lay claim, who can say it nay? 

What thought is uppermost in our minds, after having made 
this long journey through the coal-fields of our country? What 
fact remains must persistently before us? What fruit has this 
search borne to us? This, I take it: that we have discovered a 
vast deposit of raw material, which merits more than passing 
consideration at our hands. 



y 
I 



We have found in one State alone, a deposit, and that the 
best, sufficient, rough speaking, for centuries to come. We 
have found other deposits of appniximate excellence scattered 
ihrcKigh our bruad land at convenient distances. The total area 
of these is almost incalculable; and yet we have looked at only 
the known and the developed resources. We believe there are 
as yet undeveloped and unknown resources equally great. 

Here, then, is a constant factor in the problem of raw mate- 
rial. Here is a freld which we may confidently till Here is a 
rock upon which we may safely build the castle of our calcula- 
tions. VV' hat other raw material for the manufacture of gas pre- 
sents these same advantages? I think we may safely say, there 
is none. 

Two problems present themselves in these considerations. 
The first is to the miner and vendor of these coals to reduce 
the cost of their extraction from the earth, and of their trans- 
portation to market. The second and greater one is to the gas 
engineers* to develop the resources and anqilify the product of 
the coal 

In the first task, progress has been rapid of late years, and if 
not equal, yet continual progress may be looked for in the 
future. 

The better methods and more scientific practice of mining 
tend to reduce the cost of the coal at the pit mouth. Yet that 
is in this land of magnificent distances a small factor in final 
cost. Cost of transportation is the chief element in its deter- 
mination. And here we may look for the principal reductions. 
The improved road-beds, the more powerful machines, the more 
intelligent management of our railways, have already greatly 
reduced the cost of carrying raw material And the extension 
and development of our already enormous railway systems will 
accomplish much more. In hardly any other line of mechani- 
cal engineering is more promised and confidently looked fur 
than in this question of cheap and rapid transportation. The 
advances of the last ten years speak for themselves; should 
they be more than duplicated in the next decade which we may 
confidently hope for, have we not much to expect? 

So much for the delivery of the coal at the point of its manip- 
ulation. The task of resolving the secret resources^ of devel- 



412 



oping and determining its possibilities, is a much higher and 
difficult one. And here we are led to ask whether this task has 
been wrought upon as it deserves? Has it not to some extent 
lain neglected? Is the apparatus of the manufacture and reso- 
lution of the coal of high mechanical order or great ingenuity 
of design? Have we not lingered here too long, perhaps, id the 
ways of our fathers? Have the same ability, energy, enter- 
prise, money and time been devoted to the development of a[h 
paratus for the extraction of gas fri»m coal as have character- 
lEed the researches and developmhit of other processes of illu- 
mination? 

Is this because the possibilities of gas coal as a source of pro- 
duction of illuminants have been exhausted? I'hat can hardly 
be held to be so. Have we reached the Ultima Thule, in our 
search after the perfection of development? Certainly it does 
not seem that we have? Who can say that all the energy of the 
coal has been developed, or that its hidden treasures have been 
discovered? Is the prt^cess of retort distillation to be the last, 
as it was first, method of extraction of the gas? Is that prac- 
tice which drags its slow length along, the measure of our abil- 
ities and ingenuity? Is there no more rapid, effective, am! 
economical method within reach of our inventive genius? Du 
we exhaust the coal of its illuminants in our carbonization as at 
present practiced, or do we pour out and practically throw away 
into our tar-wells more light-producing elements than we have 
carried into our holders? 

These and a hundred other questions crowd upon us in look- 
ing over this field of work. And do they not merit serious con- 
sideration? 

It is not within the scope of this paper to dwell upon these 
questions, or to answer them; but it is perhaps within its prov- 
ince to suggest them, The answers lie with the gas engineers; 
and they, that have committed to them this magnificent task of 
furnishing light to their fellow-men, must take some thought for 
the morrow. 'Ihey must build upon lines of stability and perma- 
nence. How high and lasting a superstructure may be erected 
upon the broad and lasting foundation we have disclosed!* 

♦TUE ApPEimiX— The author desires to acknowledge his indebtedness lo 
the iitoiogmil Survty of Pfnnsylvania^ with especia.! reference li> ihc «i>rk of 



413 



I 
I 






Dis€ussion, 

The President — Gentlemen, you have listened to a very 
valuable and interesting paper, Mr. Adams and his paper are 
placed somewhat at a disadvantage here, it being impussiblc to 
treat a question of this kind In a paper as short as we ordinarily 
have presented to the Association. I think each and every one 
of you will find it advisable to retain a copy of this paper, and 
not only to read it but to study it. It is a paper that requires 
absolute study and quiet consideration. Mr. Adams will be glad 
to answer any questions that you may ask. 

Mr. A. C, Humphreys— I would like to follow in the line 
that the president started in on, and to say that I think we 
ought to try to impress upon Mr. Adams that no discourtesy is 
intended to him by the absence of members, or by the neces- 
sity of skipping portions of the paper. It is of a class of 
papers that must be carefully read to be appreciated. I think 
that it would be to our interest in the near future, when the 
finances will permit, to have the papers printed in advance of 
each meeting, and distributed to the members, and then they 
need not be read before us in full, but read by title. We are 
now depriving ourselves of many valuable papers^ — or rather of 
the opportunity of discussing them — by lack of opportunity to 
study them beforehand. This is certainly a most valuable paper 
and one that will be useful to us. 

Mr. Adams — I thank you for your kind words, and 1 present 
this paper to the Association as a record of what I have done. 
I hardly think it is a paper that can be discussed in this short 
time. 



Mr. E, V. D'lnvillicrs; KtHtueky Geoloj^Ual SurvQ'; Aitthtma Giohtgual 
Surtfty: OMw Ce^'itfgiia/ St4rvty: Indiana Gfohi^iail Surety: StnU Univfr* 
tity of Kansas; Colorado Schooi of Mittes; Oncers of ihe Xnrfolk &* IVest- 
trn R&U-UHiy; Officers of the Choctaw Coal ^ Railximy Company; Minint; Sta- 
Hstus Oivistiift of the Census; State Mine /nspeitors &f West Virginia^ of 
liUnoLf^ and nf Kansas; Frankiin institute^ ol Philadelphia. Pa.;/!. N, 
ffumpkreys, of Irwin, V;l,[ K. //. Sanders^ of Philadelphia, Pa. Also^ to 
many others for their kind ct^MStAncc; but finally, and most especially, to the 
olficcrs of the gas companies of Ihe country for prompt and full replies to the 
mquiries m»ide of them. 



414 

Mr. a. E. Boardhan— Mr. President, I agree with your- 
self and Mr. Humphreys in your estimate of the value of this 
paper. I would add that I think it is one of the most import- 
ant papers that has been presented to us, and I believe it will 
remain as one of the standards for reference, not only by this 
Association, but by all who are interested in the production, 
distribution and sale of coal generally. It marks a new depar- 
ture in the papers presented, read and discussed at these meet- 
ings. It is one of the few papers that we have had presented 
in years which is too great for our consideration at the meet- 
ing, but which will become a matter of reference for us in 
years to come, and will be copied not only in the Journal^ but 
will have a life in the future beyond that. None of us would 
care to discuss the points made or the conclusions stated by 
an expert in this business. We will have to accept this paper, 
feeling sure that it has been compiled from reliable sources. 1 
hope that it is the beginning of many more such papers that 
will take the time and study of members of this Association,— 
not papers that are ephemeral in their nature, to be disposed 
of at one meeting, and perhaps never again referred to, but 
such as will become a permanent record of a valuable literature 
which will grow up around our profession. 

Mr. LiTTLEHALES — Can you give us an idea of what is the 
actual limit of sulphur that you have found in coal ? I ask the 
question because I had a dispute with a member yesterday as 
to the amount of sulphur that could be found in gas coals. 

Mr. Adams — I believe in some gas coals the sulphur runs as 
high as 5, 6, and 7 per cent. I think Mr. Choliar can bear me 
out in that assertion, as the Kansas coals probably contain 
more sulphur than is found in any other sorts. 

Mr. Chollar— In reply to that question I cannot say posi- 
tively what the percentage of sulphur is in some of our West- 
ern coals, but I think that the gentleman is about right in 
saying that it is as high as 6 per cent. It has been so bad that 
I have frequently appealed to our coal dealers to put a little 
more coal in with the sulphur. 

On motion of Mr. Beal the thanks of the Association were 
voted to Mr. Adams. 



415 

AfFOINTING A COUMITTEE OK ArRANGEMKNTS. 

Thi President — The Council suggest ihc following names 
ailhtf committee nf arrangements for the New York meeting: 
Mtfi5i>. VV. R. Heal, VV. H. Bradley, Eugene Vanclerpool, Osear 

Weber, F. S. Benson and the Secretary. What will you do 
with that recommendation? (Adopted, oi^ motion of Mr. 
Boardman.) 

The President — The (juestion was raised a while ago 
whether there would be a meeting of the Council to take into 
consideration the recommendation of the committee on the 
President's Address with respect to amendments to the con- 
ilitution. In looking over the ctinstitution I find that such a 
meeting is not nece*isary. If the proposition is suggested at 
this meeting, the Council may at the next meeting offer it for 
adoption; and they must do so if requested by five members. 
It was re«iuested by five members, and the request was ratified 
by the entire Association; so that they are pretty sure to bring 
il in at the next meeting, A suggestion was made that we 
Have taken no action relative to the announcement of deceased 
members. At our Council meeting that question was taken up^ 
and the suggestion w*as made that it had been customary here- 
tofore to have the proper notices printed in our proceedings, 
but there was no special action taken at the meeting. That is 
the reason that the Chair has not suggested that there be a 
committee appointed. It is an unusual custom with this Asso- 
ciation (although it is the custom in other associations), but 
iHe Chair is ready to hear any suggestion which may be made 
upon that point. 

The Secretary — I will say that many letters of regret have 
ll0en sent in, by members unable to attend, but it seems im- 
possible to read them all. Among them are letters from Gen- 
eral Hickenlooper, Mr C. H. Nettleton, Mr Edward Lindsley 
i>«tJ many others, all expressing special reasons for not being 
present. 

The Association then took a recess until 2 P. M. 



416 



Skconi» 1>A\ — Akternoon Session. 

The Association was calkd tu urdf r at ^ V. M. On motion 
of Mr F'uilcll, seconded by Mr. Harbison, the following resolu- 
tion was adopted: 

That the Committee of Arrangements for the New York 
meeting be authorized to provide a bantfaet at that meeting:, 
and ti> make all proper arrangements therefor; it being under- 
stood thai the expense be assessed pro rata upon each membet 
attemling. The resokiiton was adopted. 

Mn A. G. Glasgow, of Philadelphia, Pa., then read the ft»l' 
lowing paper on 



THE PRACTICAL EFFICIENCY OF AN ILLUMIN 
IXG WATER-GAS SETTINt;. 



J 



As a prefatorv' note, let me slate that this paper treats exclusively of walrr*-^ 
gus apparatus of the Lowe type, — /, e*., where the energy of the gcticralor bb&t 
products is utilized in gfasifying the enriching oil through the medium of a. 
'* superheater." 

I will alM] state that the results given herein ttjl refer to a thousand cubic 
feet of un pun tied carbureted gas, and that the gases are reduced to 60® F. 

The secret of fnel economy in the manufacture of water-gas 
lies in the following apothegms: 

Keep the generator fxre in a uniformly hot and healthy con- 
dition, varyinj^ as little as possible from the best temperature 
for gas production. This necessitates short runs and blows, 
their relative lengths being determined experimentally. 

Never admit an excess of steam. 

Always admit a sufficiency of steam. 

So adjust the blasts that the generator and superheater shalf 
reach their i>roper respective heats simultaneously, whde 

.\ll the oxide produced is being consumed in superheater 
with 

No excess of air. 

Keep the superheater bricks clean. 

These conditions being fulhlled, as closely as practice per- 



dyi 




I 
I 



411 



mits, have we then reached for all time the highest attainable 
efficiency ? 

If not, where shall we look for further improvement? 

The desire to answer this last question with accuracy, has 
led to several weeks of experimental work, some of the results 
of which are incorporated in the paper about to tax your pa- 
tience. 

The chief aim of these investigations has been to establish 
an equation* or heat balance, in which there shall be no un- 
known quantity, the one sick- representing the fuel consumed 
in the apparatus, and the other the itemized energy obtained 

ror dissipated therefrom. To this end. the first step was to 
weigh the total fuel (anthracite coal) ftnl into generator, and 
the ash and unconsunied coal recovered — the difference being 
the total combustible used. This combustible may, without 
appreciable error, be considered pure carbfm, with a heating 
equivalent of 14,500 British thermal units per pound, 

A carefully selected average t>f results gives, per thousand 
cubic feet of un purified carbureted gas: 

TaNe /. 

Total anthracite charged - . . 35.4 lbs. 

Ash and unconsumed coal recovered 9.9 '* 



Total carbon consumed 23.5 " 

The average composition, weight, and sfjecific heat of the un- 
purified carbureted gas, the uncarburetcd water-gas, the blast 
products escaping from superheater, and the generator blast 
gases are recorded below in the order named: 

Tabic JJ ^— Carbureted Gas, 

Com|Ki«ltloo 



CO 

t^H 

H 

N 



2T 



jCofniKmlMofi hj 
1' Vukiitne. 

':' "" 3-8 " 

I 14.6 

28,0 

35-6 
1.0 




Wi'tjfhi i«T 
100 Cubic Pi^el. 

.465^42 

M 39968 
2.1868 

-75854 

.1991464 

.078596 



by W*>l«hL 



loo.o I 4.8188924 




Specillc Heat. 



.02088 
.08720 
,1 I 226 
.093 1 4 
.1404 I 
^0039^ 

,45786 



419 



Ht the heat rendered laiint in the gasfication of the oil. 
I, ihc sen-sible heat in the ash and iinconsumed coal recovered 
oni the generator. 

Our equation, therefore, reads: 
A=B+C+D+E+F+G+H+I; A being known. 

To find B: 

\\% \% first necejwary to determine the volume of pure water- 
^■*p€r M; M being always understood to mean a thousand 
Pubtc feel of iinpurified carbureted gas, 

Tiiking C^) as an index, a comparison of Tables 11 and III 
tfiows that i5J» or 64,5* per cent, of the volume of the carbu- 
leicd gas is pure water-gas» distributed as shown in Table VL 



TahU VL 



CO, 
CCr 

N-. 



64.5 per cent. 



One pound of CO % 60^ F. contains 13.531 cubic feet. The 
rO per M, ihtrtfore, weighs 280^13.531 = 20,694 lbs. Hence 
the energy of the CO is 

8=20.694x4395.6=91043 heat units. 
To determine C, the energy absorbed in the ilecomposition of 
be ste«im: 

Tabte VI shows that 334 cubic feet nf H are liberated in the 
generator* per M of carbureted gas made. A poimd of H # 
^ F 1 oni.iin^ 189.2 cubic feet, hence 

334-T-t89.2== r.7653 pounds IL 
i\cc«rding to Thomscn, the cunibusiinn of a pound of IT de- 
'elopH 61524 units of heat. In the experiments under consider- 
ation, tiic steam entered the generator at a temperature of 331" 
J**, We have, therefore, to dediict from rhornsen*s figure the 
total heat required to raise the product of combustion of one 
pound of H from 75' to 331" K., 75 ' being about the tempera- 
Uire to which his products were reduced. *rhis gives 
1 140.2 X JS.^ii:^ 10239 heat units. Therefore, 



funn of ufioirbureted jrns, made dlreiily into the rrlicf bolder, 
6<i jirr ctrii. of rlic nvcrugi; c^rhiircic<l tn«kc. 




61524 — 10^39 = 5**^^5 h*^^^ units, is the energy absorbed in the 
generator per pound of H liberated, and 

C=5i285x 17653 = 90533 heat units. 

It now becomes necessary to know the temperatures at which 
the illuminating gas and blast products leave the superheater, 
as well as the vohime nf ihe blast products. A very brief de- 
scription of how these determinatirins were made will suffice. 

The temperatures were determined by means of copper baits 
and a calorimeter, every precaution essential to accurate scien- 
tifjc work being observed. In addition, a pyrometer w^as used 
t' note the variations in temperature of the illuminating gas, 
its rea(lini(s being checked l>y means of the copper balls. Special 
care was taken that the halls should reach the full temperature 
of the gas before being removed, that no heat should be lost 
during iransmission from the apparatus to the calorimeter, and 
that no ebullition should lake place when the heated ball was 
plunged into the water. These latter points were successfully 
guarded against by enclosing the ball in a small copper cup im- 
mediately upon withdrawing it from the superheater, the cup 
being completely envelojied in a pair of wooden tongs. From 
the time the ball w^as withdrawn from the superheater until it 
was submerged in water averaged about nine seconds* 

The average temperatures were: 

TahU VII 

Illuminating gas ,....,.. 1450' F, 

Blast products. ... . . ^55o'' 1'- 

The temperature of the oil entering carbureter was. . . 235^ F. 

The temperature of the entering blast was , , 76 ' F, 

The blast was measured by an anemometer provided (by the 
maker) with a special table of corrections. To keep the anemo- 
meter from overrunning its limit of speed, a short section of 
ihirty-two-inch pipe was placed in the main line of sixteen-iuch 
blast pipe, and in this the instrument was located on a movable 
bearings a glass window enabling it to be read while in place. 
In spite of carefully-designed baffling plates in either end of the 
thirty-two'inch section, the rate of flow was found to vary 
largely with the position of the anemometer. In a given posi- 




tioii, however, and under the 
same canditions the instrnment 
invariably indicated the ^Hime 
velocity, This uniformity was 
utilized in maknig a careful 
average of the rate of flow, and 
laying out graphically a loca- 
tion in which the instrument 
ought to indicate this average 
velocity. When the anemome- 
ter was hoisted to this ptjsition, 
it registered precisely the rale 
of flow determined upon. 

The average registration was 
2457 cubic feet per M.* 

The method pursued in de- 
termining the heat lust by ra- 
diation and convection may be 
approjinately explained now, 
and will concbule the descrip- 
tive (iigrcssi*Hi. 

It is obviotis that there are 
two sources of loss of heat 
from the shells; the one by di- 
rect radiation, and the other 
due to the air currents induced 
by the high temperature of the 
she 1 Is. By means of the device 
illustraied, these two determi- 
nations were made simulta- 
neously. 



r*9m «*■ t4H.T 



J 



•Table IV shcms an excess of air of 152 per cent, of the total air passed 
tbnmi^h apparatus. It will be interesting^ to see how this cimipare^ with the 




422 



The sketch represents the radiometer especially made for 

this purpose. The back is a water-tank three inches thick, the 
face of which is copper and heavily lacipblacked. The inner 
sides are of bright tin. The hollow space of one inch between 
the two casings is filled with asbestos^ both on the sides, at the 
back, and at the top and bottom. The top and bottom arc 
closed, excepting the lower nozzle to which the hose is fastened, 
and the upper nozzle through which the heated air issues. A 
thermometer is located m each of these nozzles. When in con- 
tact with the shell of the apparatus the radiometer embraces a 
strip one foot wide and four feet high» making four square feet 
of radiating surface. 

It is evident that when the radiometer is brought into air-tight 
contact with the shell of the apparatus^ the temperature of the 
enclosed portion of the shell will begin to rise, due to the jack- 
eting action of the instrument. This effect was prevented by 
passing surh a current of air through the radiometer, that the 
enclusetl shell was kept at its ordinary working lenjperature. In 
other words, we produced artificially the precise conditions of 
convection and radiatif*n that prevail in practical working. By 
metering the air used and observing the initial and final temper- 
atures, the loss due to convection was accurately measured, 
while the observed rise in temperature of the known weight of 
water contained in the cjilcjrt meter, plus the aqueous etjuivalent 
of the latter, gave with equal exactness the loss due to radiation. 



anemometer registration of 2457 cubic feet of air per M of carbureted gas. 

The quantity of LJirbon consumed by this air, is the total combustible, 23,5 
pounds, less the <.arb(m thai combined with I he oxygen f»f the steam to form 
(1 able \'l) 23 piirls iO<t and 280 parts CO. 

23-^3.(123—3,667 ptiunds to, and 

280 H- 13,531—20.604 pounds CO. 

C in COa =2.667 X J|— .73 pounds, 

(; in rn-«2n.6tj4Xi|f==8,87 pounds. 



Total C combined with O of steam— 9,60 pounds. 
23-5 — 9.6— 13. Q— total pounds of carbon consumed per M during blast. 
13.9X } J-^37»l Kivcs the pounds of O required for its combustion. 
37.tX Il.84-r20.8^2li2 gives the cubic feet of air required for perfect CJom- 
bustion. 

2457— 2112'— 345 cubic feet excess; 345 -2457i*-i4 per cent, of total air osed. 



It is a nice problem tt> deterraitie correctly the temperature of ^H 
the skin of a heated shell. For this purpose small and very ^^M 
light cups of cast irim were screwed to the shell and fdled with ^^M 
roercury, the mercury being in contact with the surface uf the ^^M 
shelL A thermometer dipped in the mercury would indicate, ^^M 
witTiin practical limits, tlie exact temperature of the skin of the ^H 

^1 

Determinations were made with the radiometer at sixteen ^^M 
different points on the shells^fonr on the generator, four on the ^^M 
carburetor, and eight on ilie superheater — two or more tests be- ^^H 
ing made at each point. 1 he average temperature of the ^^M 
water in the radiometer was adjusted to equal that of the wall ^^M 
cjr surrounding apparatus towards which the portion of the shell ^^M 
measured was radiating. Below is an average of the results ob- ^^M 
tained in units of heal: ^^M 

Tahie VIIL^Loss of Heat hy Radiathn from Shells, ^^k 


hum per Hqu«r«, ^ 

l«gSyf.ccptT ,„^,^„.,,K,,,, M Hour.. 
24 lloura. 1 


Lo«a per M (126.2 ^^| 
M per 24 Hours). ^^H 


Generator . ., 

Carburetor. , 
Superheater, 


5930 208 
4»5» 293 
547« ^ 485 


1233440 

I421343 
2652950 

5307733 


2894 H 

3335 ^H 
^1 




I 


T^rM' IX^Ihai Lost ify 


ConvcctiotL ^H 




IjittM per Square 

Foot of lU»Ji»t Total Surfnco in Total Mas iwr 
tng 8iirf*ec t*er Square F©«1. ^ 34 Houra. 
24 lluura. | 1 


Loaa per M (43«.S ^^| 
M per 24 Bour«). ^^| 


lienerator .. , 
Carburetor. . 
Superheater, 


7216 18^.5 

6334 1 346.5 
6000 522.5 


1360216 

2*94731 
3*35000 


7356 H 


* 1 


7689947 


15696 ^1 


•The "neutrar* portion, or that part of the shel! that radiates to the ailjoin- ^^| 
ing shell or shells, has been stricken out, as well as the portion of generator ^^| 
below the ^ratc line. ^^| 




Wc are nuw prepared to determine the remaining items of 
heat. 

Referring to Tables II and VII, we find that the heat lost, 
due to the escaping iiiuminaling gases, is— 

— 48.29 (weight) X. 45786 (sp. ht.)txi2i5'' (rise in temp.) 
==26864 heat units. 

In the same way, referring to Tables IV and VII^ we have, 
for the heat carried off in a thousand cubic feet of the escaping 
blast products^ 86.592 (weight) X 23645 (sp. hi.) x 1474° (rise 
in temp.) =30180 heat units. 

Hence the total heat so carried off is. 

E = 3oi8oX2. 457 — 74152 heat units. 

From Table VIII we see that the loss by radiation is. 
F= 12454 heat units, 
and Tabic IX gives us for convectiun, 

(1=15696 heat units. 

To determine H, the heat rtrnkrcii latent in the gasification of 
the oil : 'I'his can be found by taking the difference between 
all the beat fed into the carburetor and superheater, and the 
total beat dissipated ibcrefroin. It is evident that the excess 
of the former over the latter will represent the heat rendered 
latent in the gasification of the oil 

1 1 is first necessary to find the energy contained in the gen- 
erator blast gases per M of carbureted gas. 

Reference to Table IV shows that all the CO in the generator 
blast gas is consumed in the carburetor and superheater, with an 
excess of air equal to 15,2 ]ier cent, of the total volume of air 
used; the volumes of ibe resulting products being equal to this 
total volume of air, 2457 ^^ibic feet. 

The generator blast gas contains (see Table V) 17.8 per cent, 
CO, 

17.8 parts CO 4-42,4 parts air, yield on combustion, 17.8 parts 
CO J +33. 5 parts N, increasing the volume of generator blast gas 
to '33-5 P^irts. 

Adding the excess of air, we have i.3JS-t-,848=i.575 for the 
relative volume of the final blast products. 



fThe sped Ik heal of the entering oil is approximately that of the Is^iagf 



leoce, 14S7-T- 1.575 = 1560 cubic feet, is the volume of the 
erator blast gaseji per M. 
ls6oX.i7«==277,68 cubic feet CO per M. 
177,68-4-13,531 = 20.5 pounds CO perM. 

10,5x4^95.6=90110 units of heat generated per M by the 
[ibustion of the generator blast gases. 

^'o obtain the total energy fed into carbureter and super- 
llcr. the sensible lieat in the above gas must be added to this 
fig ure. This we find from Table V to be 

■ 82.775 X. 2407 Xf.56oKi474'*=45Si 2, 

Kikiag the total energy sought 

^B 90110^45812 = 135922 units of heat. 

VThis energy is disposed as follows: 

^ll,the difference between the sensible heat in the escaping 
inuminating gases and the entering oil 
JhK, the heat carried off by the escaping blast products. 
^VF', tlir lif-at ]itsi l>v ratlialion from the carburekr and sti/^tr- 

G', the heat carried away from the carburtier and superheater 
J» conveciiun, 
V Ht the heat remitrfti htettt in the gasification of the oil. 

Hence, 

H==i3S922-(l>-f-K-f^" + r/) 

==i35922--(26864-f74 152+9560+ 12505) 
f 812841 units of heat. 

The sensible heat in the ash and unccjnsumtd coal is 
1 = 9.9 X 1500" X. 25 (sp. ht.)=^37i2 heat units. 

VTbts completes the heal determinations of which the follow* 
ing tabic is a 



kit t«mper»ture was ncu dett;rmin«d« but is assumed to be the same as that 
Gihe blast product!) escaping froiri superheater. 
rittt ific|uite« alsti ilir hrai carHed off tn the vapors that condense to tar. 




Anthracite coal fed into generator. 
Ash and unconsymed coal recovered. 
A, total combustible (carbon) 



B, the energy of the CO produced 

C, the energy absorbed in the decomposition 

of the steam . . ..,.....,, 
1>, the difference between the sensible heat of 

the escai)ing illuminating gas and the en 

tering oil . , ,,.»..», , . . 

E, the beat carried off by the escaping blast 

products , .,.»,.... 

l\ the heat lost by radiation from the shells.. , 
(i, the heat carried away from the shells by 

** convection *' (air currents) 

H, the iieat tenikred latent in the gasification 

of the nil , . . . ........... ... 

I, the sensible heat in the ash and unconsumed 

coal reco%^ered 



Total energy accounted for, . 
Unaccounted for (4 per cent). 



1,852 26864 



5*"5 
.85S 

1.0S2 

.886 

.256^ 

22.572 
.928 



371 



Air iiseil per M, in cubic feet , , 2457 

Candle power 31 

(iallons of oil [>er M 5 

Candles [)er gallon ., 6,2 

Specific gravity(calcnlated) * , -^355 

The energy accounted for may be divided into 

Energy utilized '3409 ) „q„^,i. 

Energy wasted ,. 9,163 | P^""^^' 

Considering the total unaccounted -for energy as uiibiei 
there is a waste of jVgVo ^"^ 39 P*^"" ^^"t. of total corabustibli 
and the absolute efficiency of the apparatus considered as a heat 
machine is \\\i\ or 61 per cent. 

The eommcrckii efficiency, or the efficiency of the apparati 
regarded as a producer of a finished product, is influenced 
an additional functicnu — namely, the percentage of the total 
consumed that is utilized by con%^ersion into gas. 

In the above experiments five gallons, or thirty-five pounds 



I 




427 



of crude petroleum were fed into the carbureter per thousand 
cubic feet of gas made. 

Deducting five pounds for tar recovered, leaves thirty pounds 
of petroleum, or 

30 X 20000^600000 units of heat 
to be accounted for per M. 
The heating power, per M, of the carbureted gas is 
CO, 38.0 

CjH,* t46.ox .T 17220X 21222.0=363200 
CO 280,0 X .07S 100 X 4395.6^ 96120 
CH( 170.0X ,04462ox 24021.0= 182210 
H 356. ox .005594 X 61524.0= 122520 
N 1 0,0 



1 000.0 764050 

The heating power <jf a thounand cubic feet of uncarbureled 



gas js 



CO, 35 o 

CO 434.0X. 078100 X 43956=148991 
H 5 18.0 X. 005594x6 1524.0= 178277 
N 13.0 



1000.0 327268 

Since 64.5 per (.enu, by vrilume, of the carbureted gas is pure 
waier-gas» 

764050 — 32 7 268 X. 645 ==553000 heat units, 
represents the energy of the oil converted into gas, the uuac- 
counted for difference of 47000 heat units being 8 per cent, of 
the total. This discrepancy I shall not at present attempt to 
explain, beyond slating that it is probably due to overestimat- 
ing the healing value of the oil, and not recovering all the 
vapors condensed to tar and oil. 
The commercial efficiency of the apparatus — /. <f., the ratio of 



*Thc heating value of the iHuminants C» Hu is assumed to equal that of 
C'» Ht . In the former dcteriiiination*! of density* and spctilic heat C-j H^ was 
tiLktn. As 00 determinations were made of the individual hydro-earbons pre- 
sent, this is, in bolh ca^s, purely an assumplion. 




the energy contained in the finished product to the total cncrg 
(coal and oil) introduced— is therefore 8i per cent. 

The writer apologizes for the crude shape in which the abov? 
results have been submitted to you» and realizes that he has 
scarcely opened a very broad subject He hopes, however, lo 
be able, in the near fiittire, to fnlUiw it nut to a profitabt;i 
conclusion. 



OisrusstdfL 



4 



4 



The President— Gentlemen, you have heard another very 
interesting and valuable paper, and if 1 could not have procured 
a copy of this pa[jer in any other way I would have been per- 
fectly willing to pay the entire cost of coming to this meeting 
to have the data which he has furnished us. 1 shall not take 
up your lime, Mr. Glasgow is prepared to answer any question 
that anyone is inclined to ask. 

Mr. Fokstall — 'iliis is a paper that ought to be studied 
over for three of four months before we can really understand 
it. A very good plan would be to see what is the total theo- 
retical quantity of carbon actually necessary to produce i,o( 
cubic feet of gas, without taking into account any losses 
convection and radiation, or the heat of the escaping gases. 
That would show us what we might hope to save by improvcil 
design in the apparatus. Beyond that, of course, we could not 
go. To do that I have figured on the analyses of water gas I 
already have, to see how much t>f the total carbon is repre- 
sented in the water gas, and how much is actually necessary lo 
raise sufficient heat lo decompose the amount of hydrogen that 
was present in the gas. 1 did that in two ways. I lirsl look it, 
taking the conditions that actually existed in the machine, 
where, owing to the depth of fut^l necessary to produce good 
water gas, we art nut able lo burn the carbon used up entirely 
to carbonic acid, l>ut must convert a large part into carbonic 
oxide. Then I also did it by taking the carboJi as enlircly con- 
verted into carbonic acid, getting uji the heat for gasifying oil 
in some other way. I had no data for the first case, and had 
wait until Mr Glasgow's paper gave them to me. My resull 



were that for my analysis we had in the water gas 9,1 1 



pouc 



429 



krbon. U we cun verted the carbon, in tht; proportions 
usually present, into carbonic oxide and carbonic acid, we 
would need 11,2 pounds to decompose the steam, which would 
give us 20,31 pounds of carbon to be used in the generator. 
So that in that regard the only gain left to us would be 3 
pounds of the total amount of carbon used in the generator. 
Assuming that we convert the carbon into carbonic acid, we 
would have 9.11 pounds in water gas, we would need 4 pounds 
to raise the heat necessary to decompose the hydrogen, and we 
i^ould need 0.793 pounds to gasify the oil, or a total of 13.9 
^unds. So that if we could save all the heat lost to the illu- 
minating gas by convection and radiation, we would have a 
saving of about 9 pounds. I think that is all we can possibly 
gel. 

Mr. Norris — Tht; assumption that the specific heat of oil 
jjas h practically the same as that of the oil, I think introduces 
a slight error. Take the case of water. The spt^cific he:at in 
the form of liquid is 1 while in the form of gas, if I recollect 
rightly, it is about .48. The point that I want to bring up, 
however, is that of the analyses. 1 he analyses of blast gases 
have bothered me a great deal. I cannot make them check; 
whereas these check very well. All the oxygen appearing in 
these blast gases must ct>me from the air whirh is introduced. 
The nitrogen in the analyses gives us a way of finding out how 
much oxygen has been supplied. That is the debit side of the 
calculation. The credit side would be the oxygen in the car- 
bonic oxide and the carbonic arid. As I said, these analyses 
figure up pretty closely; but we are constantly seeing analyses 
of producer or blast gases which do not so check up. I would 
like to get some information from Mr Glasgow, and from mem- 
bers, as to what their experience has been in this direction, I 
sec, in ** McGregor, on the Gas Engine " an analysis of blast 
gas which gives a discrepancy in the proportion of 12 parts of 
oxygen supplied to 5 parts accounted for. In <ither words 
there seems to be a disappearance of the oxygen. The question 
is, what becomes of that oxygen. In working up a paper of 
this sort correct analyses are very important, ^nd the way to 
get these analyses is what bothers me. I would like to ask 
whether anyone who has had occasion to make these analyses 



4S0 



has figured them up in this way to set; if they will check; and 
if they do check, what system of analysis they used. The one 
that I have used has been the Hempcl, and there is always too 
much oxygen, or too little nitrogen, whichever way we look at 
it. Mr. Glasgow has either been mure fortunate or more 
skillful. 

Mr. Somehvillf:— I agree with yuu that Mr. tikisgow de- 
serves the very highest credit for this paper I would like to 
ask Mr, (Uasgow if 1 understood him to say that the heat of the 
machine in prarti<:e gave 61 per cent, of theoretical t-flririf^niy; 
or that 61 per cent, was the practical result arrived at 

Mr. Glasgow — If the Fresideui will permit me I will try to 
answer tliese questions before 1 forget them. 1 said thai 61 
per cent, was the practical efhciency of the apparatus consid- 
ered as a heating machine, and nut as a manufacturer of a 
salable prndncl. What I mean tiy that is that 61 per cent, of 
the total combustible consumeil in the generator was uiilixed, 
Mr. Forstall [>oints it out correctly when he says that we can 
save 9 pountls t>f fiieL I'he energy acconnted for may be di- 
vided into the energy iitUizeib 15.-? »5 pounds, and energy wasted 
9.163 pounds. In reply to Mr. Norris* last statement 1 will say 
that I can entirely sympathize with him in his suggestion uf 
the disa])])ea ranee of the oxygen. I have had trouble in that 
way myself. These analyses are not 4 he actual average of all 
the analyses 1 made, but ihey are the selected average. l*hat 
is, I have presented here what J believe to be the facts; and 
when 1 made analyses that I*had reason to believe were incor- 
rect^ I excludeil them. 1 believe the trouble is not so much in 
the awkardness of manipulation as it is in the absorption^ of 
carbonic acid when yon collect and analyze the gas over water 
Mr. N orris asked me a question in the beginning that I do not 
recall at the moment. 

Mk. NoRRts — The assumption as to specific heat. 

Mk. (iLAscow — The assumption is nut that the specific heats 
are identical, but that their difference is immaterial. The 
specific heat of the gas 1 have determined here to be .457S6; 
the specific heal of petroleum from the best authorities I can 



431 

get (and which I do not vouch for) is .434. That rs a very 
small difference; and so I have excluded it as not worth treating. 
Mr. Forstail certainly arrive«i at just the same conckij^ions I have 
here; that is, that there is a possibihly of saving 9 pounds by 
saving all losses. In other words» the ultimate g;oal that we 
may strive for, but never hope to attain^ is a consumption of 
13.215 pounds of carbon per r^ooo cubic feet of ^as. In reply 
U3 Mr. Somerville's question, I would further say that what I 
have reported, 61 per cent, as the efheicncy of the machine, 
must be understood as relating to the combustible consumed, 
and not to the coal shoveled in. I used 33.4 pounds of anthra- 
cite per 1,000, and only consumed 23.5. Kveryone will see 
that here is iht real chance for economy; that is, to ^et some 
kind of grate that will not allow as much coal to escape with 
ash. Of course you can recover some of this cinder by screen- 
ing; but there the incident of labor comes in, which makes it 
questionable whether it is worth while or not. 

Mr. Forstali- — With reference to the unc<msumed coal, I 
think it docs pay to screen it. A man can screen out per day 
enough to make his wages, and make the coal that you recover 
cost only one-third that of the orij^inat coal that you put hi, 
and I have never been able to find but that that coal was just 
as good after il has been screened as it was when first put into 
the machine. 

Mk, Rusby — I am very much pleased to see this paper cr>me 
out. I feel confident that not only does it contain information 
which has never before been put in this condensed form, but a 
great deal of it has been matter of conjecture altOi{elher. A's 
this experimental work has given us figures on which we can 
rely in our own works it is of very great value to us. I'he thing 
which will interest most o( us specially is the outcome, and the 
amounts of heat lost in various ways. I call attention to the 
fact that the loss in the blast gases coming out of the stack is 
greater than all other sources of loss combined. As Mr. For- 
sxslU and Mr. Glasgow have mentioned, there is only a possible 
saving of some 9 pounds of coal; but it leads us u[> to one sub- 
ject, and that is the heating of our blast, which rur^ht to be 
done with the heat of the waste gases. Anil although we may 



482 



not save a very large per cent, of tlie heat that these contain, 
yet I think that there is also an incidental saving, which will be 
considerable, in the inqreased capacity of the set, and |K>ssibly 
an incidental economy in enabling us to use our fuel better. 
Between 20 and 25 per rent, of the total heat goes out with the 
blast gases, and if we can recover one-half of that it is quite an 
item. Besides there are the incidental economies, which it 
seems rcasunable would be considerable, in increasing the ca- 
pacity of the set, and in utilizing the fuel that is put in. 

Mr, Ciinij.AR — It ?;eems to me that this Association has 
never before had presented to it such a mass of statistics in so 
small a compass; and I feel that it is utterly impossible in any 
discussion which can be brought out here extemporaneously to 
begin to do justice to the subject, or to the wrUen The paper 
will be as valuable— and more so — ten years from now as it is 
to-day. I move that a real and earnest vote of thanks be given 
to the writer. 

Mr. Boardman — I second the motion of Mr. Chollar, and I 
do so with very great pleasure. I have looketl around upon the 
members here present, and 1 have felt with them and for them. 
I am glad to .see that the younger members of this Association 
are taking an interest and a stantl whith is theirs by right of 
education, and by right of the experience that has been be- 
queathed to them, and which they are carrying on to higher re- 
sults than any uthers of us have attained. J mean in the scien- 
tific analyses of our business. I have looked around upon this 
assemblage during the reading of this paper, and since the 
discussion began, and I have nftticed that none of the old 
stagers have had much to say. The discussion has been car- 
ried on by the younger men; and 1 am glad to see it. Even the 
President did not stop a very earnest discussion of this paper 
between the members for fear they were getting ahead of him 
in the discussion of the paper; and Mr, Chollar gave it up— for 
I saw him put up his glasses, as much as to say, ** I have got to 
study this thing more.** Gentlemen, this is a hopeful sign. In 
seconding the motion of Mr. Chollar 1 feel humiliated that in 
the busy conflicts of this world in amassing wealth, in striving 
to attain the mighty dollar, I, and many of the older members 



488 



I 



I 



of the Association, have not kept up with the progress of the 
limes. I welLome ihis paper, and I wish to encourage every 
member who will give such a paper lo the Association, as the 
earnest of a brighter day for our Association, when the ultimate 
analyses of our profession shall be as trite in our discussions 
here as is the subject of naphthaline. (Applause.) 

Mr. Harper — I do not wish to take any farther part in the 
discussion of this paper than to say that i had occasion to see 
most of this work of Mr. Glasgow as it was carried on from day 
to day; and I wish simply to say that I can vouch for the con- 
scientious way in which the whole of this work has been tlune. 
I think so far as the figures can be made reliable Mr Glasgow 
has made them so. 

The: President — Before putting the question 1 would like to 
ask Mr. Glasgow whether the piece of 30- inch pipe w^hich was 
introduced into the 15-inch for the purpose of starting up the 
current was of a conical shape, or whether there was not an ab- 
rupt enlargement. 

Mr. Harbison — Before that question is answered may I ask 
whether I understood the President correctly as stating that a 
30-inch pipe was inserted into a 1 5-inch? (Laughter.) That is 
the way I understood his question. 

The Frksident — ^That question is from one of the older 
members. (Laughter) 

Mr Glasgow — In reply tu the President's question, 1 will say 
that this 32-inch pipe was about 6^ feet long from end to end; it 
was cylindrical for about 4 feet of its central portion and shaped 
off conically at the ends. About 6 inches from each side» where 
the cone cut the cylinder, a diaphragm was put in, which was sim- 
ply drilled with 2-inch holes distributed so that the aggregate 
would be equal to a cross-section of 18-inch pipe, and distributed 
so as to throw the blast out towards the side. 1 was amai^ed to 
find that after having such a plate, both fore and aft, the blast 
was not distributed. It was extemely local. It was three times 
as fast in some places as in others. In determining this aver- 
age we laid out a life-size plan, and noted the speed as deter- 
Euined by this anemometer in different places of the section, and 

95 




this we did every day, always preserving the conditions to the 
closest possible limit of the previous day's work. We averaged 
it all and divided^tip the section, giving each portion its speed, 
and determined upon a place where it ought to indicate average 
speed* On putting the anemometer into this place we found 
that it indicated precisely that speed. In reply to Mr. Forstiilfs 
remarks about the ash, 1 do not want to ^o on record as not 
encouraging the screening of cinders from hard coal; but I 
have found that in the use of the Kansas coke the game was 
not worth the candle. However, this coke burns up cleaner 
than coal. We ran on 30^ of coke, where we had been using 
3jJ of anthracite coal— the amount of combustible being the 
same — so that the difference is in the screenage. I thank you, 
Mr. President and gentlemen, for your very courteous recep- 
tion of this paper. 

The pREsrDi:N t^-I asked the cjuestion because 1 had had 
considerable experience in the use of the anemometer in con- 
nection with natural gas; and in my earlier experience I noticed 
that unless the pipe was enlarged conical ly stj as to take up 
about the position that the gas would take in expanding on 
coming out of the pipe, it was very difficult to get anything like 
accurate measurements through an anemometer By having 
the cylinder conical we got very accurate results. You have 
heard the motion to give a hearty and earnest vote of thanks 
to Mr. Glasgow for his paper. [Adopted.] 



An Explanation in Riispeli to the Committee om World's 

Fair. 



Mk. Harbison — The honored President of this Association. 
Mr. McMillin, during the year went to Europe, and during his 
absence it devolved upon me, as First Vice- President to call 
together the World's Fair Committee, and to have somewhat an 
active part in the formation of that Committee, by consulta- 
tion and advice with those who are interested in the matter. 
The President in his Address referred to the fact that the in- 
dustries connected with our profession have been apparently 
overluoketl in the selection of the personnel of the VVorld's 
Fair Committee, as appointed by the various Associations^ and 



485 



rte tnougtit it was an oversig^ht and a mistake. Vour Com- 
mittee on the President's Address has recommended, and you 
have adopted the recommendations, that the Council take note 
of that, thinking it was an uversight on their part. I desire to 
say, if you will permit me, that it was desij^n^dly so, and only 
after careful consultation with various gentlemen engaged in 
the industries connected with our profession; and for this rea- 
son: It was impossible to put on a Committee that would be 
efficient, a representative of every mannfacturinjj concern in 
the country of gas stoves, gas engines, gas works supplies, and 
everything of that kind — all of whom w^e hope will come for- 
ward and make an elegant dispUiy. We thought if we made a 
selection from amongst the number jealousies would at once 
crop out. And so, in consultation with representative men in 
the various industries, after making the suggestion to them, 
they said, " You arc right. Put no one on the World's Fair 
Committee that is engaged in the manufacture of any supply for 
the gas profession. Then all will be treated alike, and your 
exhibition will be a success." In naming the personnel of the 
various committees representing the various Associations, one 
further matter was kept carefully in view, namely, that we 
wanted to keep down the expense attending the work of this 
Committee to the lowest possible dime. Hence yuu will find, 
if you look over the personnel of the various members of that 
Committee, that some are named by some 2 or 3 different Asso- 
ciations, so that you need nut have too large a number in numer- 
ical strength. They did not propose that this Committee should 
be a junketing aflair, to travel over the United Stales, for their 
own pleasure, at the expense of ihe Associations, but that they 
should do the work without compensation, the Associations 
paying only what was absolutely necessary for actual expenses. 
The Committee do not propose (and I know that I voice the 
sentiment of every member that has been named) to have the 
Committee as a Committee, whh all the members present, to 
attend to the detailed work, but to appoint executives, or sub- 
committees to whom shall be delegated the various duties to 
be performed, so as to keep the work of that committee down 
to the lowest possible item of expense. It appears to me, Mr. 
President and gentlemen, that your Committee (with perhaps 




the one single exception on it) is the best selection you could 
have made; and I think it would be a mistake to have any change 
made in the present arrangement of that Committee, Vour 
Committee is lar^e enough. The duties will be confined prin- 
cipally, I apprehend, first of all, to get sufficient space from the 
World's Fair Committee in Chicago for a gas exhibit, and see- 
ing that the gas industries are well located in the building; and 
then to interest manufacturers in bringing their exhibits lo the 
fair. I apprehend that those will be the duties of your commit* 
tee» and those only. I say this much by way of explanation, 
and in behalf <>f the Council to whom you have referred por- 
tions of the President's Address, so that if they did not take 
any action you will understand the reason why. If you have 
any orders to give in connection with the matter I have no doubt 
your Committee will strictly obey them. 

The Seer eta rj^ reatl the following telegrams: 

** Toronto, October i6th, 1890. 
"C. J. R. Humphreys, Secretary: — Please convey my sincere 
thanks to the Association for the honor done me in electing me 
Vice-President* Much regret my inability to attend the meet- 
ing. 

W. H. Pearson;' 

•* To the Presiiient of the American Gas Light Association: 

** Savannah, Ga. 
"Dear Sm: — I am instructed by the Board of Directors to 
extend to the officers and members of your Association and the 
ladies accompanying them, the jirivileges of the Savannah Cot- 
ton Exchange during their stay in the city. 

Very respectfully, 

J. B. Meridan, Supt. 

On motion of Mr. Harbison the invitation was accepted with 
the thanks of the Association. 

The President— Perhaps you have not known about it, but 
there is a wonderfully fine exhibit of gas burners, gas stoves, 
and gas appliances of all kinds in the basement at the corner of 
this building. By accident I found it myself; and I think that 



437 



the gentleman who arranged the exhibit ought to be repri- 
manded for not having made it known before this time, 

Mr, A* E, Boardman, of Macon, Ga., then read his paper en- 
titled 



HINTS ON ELECTRIC LIGHTING 
COMPANIES. 



SMALL GAS 



" Once upon a time ** the London Pum-h was asked advice by 
a young man about to be married. With that admixture of 
wisdom and drollery which characterized him, he summed up a 
world of warning, which he was perfectly well aw^are would not 
be heeded, in the single word, *'Dont.*' 

So, with equal seriousness, and with equal certainty that my 
*idvice will not be taken, I give my first hint to small gas com- 
panies about to engage in electric lighting. It is contained in 
the single word, *^*' DontT 

This doubtless seems a radical departure from the position 
which I have hitherto maintained in the discussions on this 
subject before this Association, and demands a word of expla- 
nation. It is not so much a new departure as a change of 
front made necessary by fuller knowledge. As our eminent 
Secretary of State explains his reciprocity scheme to be, not a 
step in the direction of free trade, but a logical and natural 
outgrowth of the principles of prutectiun, derived from expe- 
rience, and carried to its fullest extent; so the warning 1 would 
give in regard to electric lighting is the natural outgrow*th of 
the experience I have had in following the course that I have 
heretofore recommended, namely, to consolidate the two light- 
ing systems under one management. All that has been said of 
the advantages to be derived in the lessening of salaries, office 
expenses, etc., by having the gas and electric works under one 
management, is true. It is also true that a gas company can 
aflTord to generate, distribute, and sell electric light cheaper 
than an electric company doing o*tIy that husitiess. 

But it is not true that, therefore, the gas company will make 
more money by undertaking the electric lighting than by not 
undertaking it. 

To say that no money can or will be made by the gas com- 




pany in electric lighting would be untrue, for, in many cases, 
fair profits arc realizccl; hui if the s;unc umtiuni of nioney ihat 
is necessary to equip an electric station and construct circuits 
were devoted to mipnn^ing the gas plant and extending and 
enlarging mains, greater profits could and would be made in 
the long run. 

Those of you who have recently talked with agents of ihel 
various electric lighting systems, and have carefully figured ! 
with theni on the cost of installtng and operating an electric^ 
light plant, making the usual large allowance for incidental ex- 
penses and repairs, will be inclined to question this statement. 

Those of you who have been in charge of a station, and havcj 
collecled the rents and paid the operating expenses foj a ycarj 
or two, will probably have a suspicion that tfiere is some truth j 
contained therein. 

One reason why electric lighting does not pay as well as we I 
are led to expect is, that we arc charged entirely too much forj 
the apparatus in the first place, and the same extortion is prac- 
ticed u]Jon us throughout for material needed in operation and 
repairs. Enormous profits are made by the electric companies 
on all the electric appliances entering into the business, and 
these profits are taken out of the capital invested by the local 
optTating companies and their earnings. 

Another reason is lhat mishaps frequently occur, through 
freaks of the electric current entirely beyond our control or 
knowledge, and from lightning strokes and short circuits, often 
entailing expensive repairs, if we are fortunate enough to escape 
damages through the courts. These are never calculated upon, 
because there is no reliable data on which to base calculations; 
still, they always happen more or less often. 

Again, an electric plant pays best when the total number of 
lights for which it was built are in use; any less number makes 
the capital invested, the labor and superintendence too great 
for the most economical working. That is the point we strive 
to reach, and when accomplished, we find it a very distressing 
|>osition. If one or two more lights are demanded, we roust 
either lower the candle power of all in use, erpct more ma- 
chin er)% or refuse the demand. If we try the first plan, there 
is a very general kick; if the second is determined upon, we 



439 



place ourselves bark to a less economical workinj{ point; and if 
the last is resorted to, another electric company is promptly in- 
vited to partake of our ** pie." 

As the first hint given you will certainly not be taken, since 
the circumstances governing each case are difTerent, and they 
deternnine the question of whether you will or will not engage 
in electric lighting, the other hints are in order. 

In the first place purchase your electric machinery and appli- 
ances of the best and most reliable manufacturers. Oi course, 
1 could tell you where and of whom, but that is professional 
knowledge which would require some consideration before it 
could be disclosed. In contracting for it the best practice is, 
probably, to have the electric company furnishing the plant to 
erect it and turn it o%^er complete, and after a month's working 
test. This obviates any question arising as to where the blame 
attaches, should anything go wrong. Much trouble and ex- 
pense will sometimes be saved if your contract states that when 
finished, the entire plant shall be inspected by the expert em- 
ployed by the insurance association of your district, and that it 
shall be made to comply w^ith the requirements of the board of 
underwriters and city authorities. The most reliable company, 
with every desire to erect you the most complete and thorough 
work, has to depend upon workmen w:ho are not always as care- 
ful as they should be, and a thcirough inspection of every part 
(if the plant by a competent and impartial expert is absolutely 
necessary. As the insurance board will demand your compli- 
ance with their rules, their expert is a suitable one to say when 
the plant is properly installed. Besides, the fact of his having 
passed upon it would have strong bearing upon the question of 
liability for damages caused by imperfect connections, should it 
be brought before the courts. 

Another thing that is well to have embodied in the contract 
is your right to use any and all of the patented appliances pur- 
chased in connection with the plant, and that you be protected 
in said use from costs and damages through suits brought by 
others claiming such right. 

In your talks on the subject with the agent of the electric 
company which you have selected to close your contract with, 
you will have become convinced that a high-speed engine with 




direct belting is, on tlit whole, the best power for you to pur- 
chase; both on account of the economy of first cost and the 
compactness of the plant. Also, as obviating the extra friction 
of the cuuntershafting and increased liabHity of slipping belts, 
and wear and tear of the same. You may have started into the 
matter with conviction, bused upon theory, that the cheapest 
power, in the long run, is the comparatively slow-speed engine 
with countershaft, from which can be belted one or mure 
dynamos. You may even have studied the subject some, and 
read reports frotu American and English sources, as to the best 
practice. In both you will find different opinions, and while 
the English practice is mostly with the countershaft, they ac- 
knowledge that in the "States** many are successful with the 
use of direct belling on high-speed engines. 

The general ]yractice in this country has been with this class 
of engines, and it is in this country where electric lighting 
has made the greatest advances, and is more generally used. 
Therefore, it will be argued, the direct belting on high-speed 
engines must be the best. And so many instances of this 
kind of plant will be quoted, that you will hardly dare to put 
your judgment, based on theory, against the general verdict. 
Especially will this l>e the case if you are a modest man, as are 
most gas men. Right here I will give you another important 
///>//. If Vfni have about concluded to install a high speed en- 
gint^ and direct belting, the advice of Punchy before quoted, is 
again applicable — ** Dtnitr 

The advice of the electrical agent is all right from his stand- 
point. In order to induce your Board of Directors to purchase 
an electric plant at all, it is necessary to make the first cost as 
little as possible; and since the price of the electrical machin- 
ery must nut be scaled, in justice to his employer, the lowest 
priced steam |>lant must be recommended. And since many 
others have used it with success, why not recommend it? He 
may tell you, and with entire trutli, that it does not matter to 
him what system of power you use, and that if he is to supply 
it, he will charge you only the net amoimt that it costs him. 
That may be so, stili the bias is there toward the lower cost for 
power, so the large cost of the electric apparatus will not make 
so great an impression when the total price of the plant is 
considered. 



441 



here as a target for the advocates of nig^h- 
speed engines to fire at, nor am I employed to advocate the use 
of the other class, I am only giving //////j derived from personal 
experience. I may have been unfortunate in geltlng the worst 
engines of the particular make, or in being incompetent my- 
self to manage a high-speed engine, or have depended upon 
careless and incapable engine men; be that as it may, the high- 
speed engines that I have used, from three different and highly 
recommended makers, have proven quite expensive to operi^te 
and maintain; and in two stations I have substituted the slower 
speed engines with countershafts, and with very gratifying re- 
sults. The high-speed engine giving the most satisfactory ser- 
vice, under my observation^ is one furnishing the power to 
operate a street car line, where the lt»ad is constantly varying, 
between wide limits, and in such a case, the prompt and efficient 
automatic governor, regulating the speed to a nicety, is of ver}^ 
great value. Even here» I believe, economy of fuel and repairs 
would be greatly on the side of a slower engine with counter- 
shaft. 

Having spoken so often of high and low-speed engines, it 
might he well to explain what is meant by the two terms. It is 
not necessary to go into an elaborate definition, but it will an- 
swer our present purpose to consider the high-speed engine to 
be one making say 180 revolutions per minute; and the slow- 
speed engine as making about half that number per minute. 
The piston speed in feet per second may in both cases be the 
same. Should that be the case, the diameter of the cylinder in 
engines of equal power would be the same; but the length of 
cylinder, and therefore of stroke in the low-speed engine would 
be double that of the high-speed engine, and the number of 
strokes, and hence of changes in direction of all the moving 
parts, of the latter will be twice as many as in the former. It 
is this frequent change of direction, as well as the adtbtional 
liability to hot journals, in the more rapidly revolving main 
shaft and crank pin that causes much of the extra expense In 
operating the high-speed engine. 

It may be argued that the cut-off remaining say at one-quar- 
ter of the stroke in both instances, the amount of steam used 
will be the same, whether in the cylinder of 18 inches in length 



442 



or that of 9 inches. It certainly would seem so. However. I 

am convinced that more steam will be used, in practice, to de- 
velop the same power in the high-speed engine. The exact 
proportion I am unable to state. One reason why this is so» I 
presume, is because double the amount of inertia ts developed 
in the high-speed engine, cunsecjuent upon doubling the num- 
ber of changes in direction of the moving parts; and this iner- 
tia is developed at the cost of the power. The wear upon con- 
n toting rod and main shafts journals, crank pin and brasses, 
and main pillar blocks is also doubled, since the knock, if one 
tx curs, be it ever so slight, is twice as often and the correspond- 
ing jar to the entire engine is twice as frequent. More oil, and 
that, loo, of a better quality and higher price is necessary. 
The stoppages of the engine and consequent intemiption in 
thf light are also much more frequent, and this is a matter 
which causes more gray hair on the manager and more profan- 
ity in the community than any of the other evils mentioned, 
If my trouble resulted from slack management and incapable 
help, many of my hearers are liable to be similarly unfortunate, 
for the Superintendent cannot always be present, and engine 
men are ** pretty much of a muchness/* 

Beware of the insulation around your main wires, and for that 
matter, around all your wires. When 1 had absorbed all the 
information which my friend, the electric agent, could or would 
sup]>ly, and had read the glowing descriptions of the various 
insulated wire manufacturers, each one making the best, I came 
to the conclusion that the safest to use was " Underwriters " 
wire. That surely must be all right, for the name indicated that 
it would satisfy the insurance men, and the records showed that 
more of that kind was in use than of any other. Besides, it 
was quite cheap as compared with the **Okonite '* and such. In 
my stupid ignorance I did not dream that the name was due to 
the fact that it was iibout the only kind of covered wire, claim- 
ing to be insulated, that the Ufuienvrikrs objected to. It*!^ all 
right ittsitif of a building when thoroughly protected from rain, 
steam, dampness, rats, and rubbing, and might possibly protect 
the wire from catching fire if exposed to a gas flame, but to 
confme the current of electricity, out of doors and on a rainy 
night, and prevent it from running to ground at every point of 



443 



i>ntaci, ana nenavtng in ihe most unaccountable ami unseemly 
manner — that must not be expected of it. 1 hope that the time 
is not far distant when " Underwriters ** wire will be prohibitcti 
from being used in electric lij^jhting by the municipal authorities. 

Having, through force of circumstances, entered the electric 
lighting field, stick to Arc lighting. Don't be induced to under- 
take the incandescent business. The expense of operating and 
maintaining the incandescent light is much greater and the in- 
come to be derived therefrom nuich less, compared to the cost 
of the service. Besides, you enter into competition with wur- 
itlfy the worst form of competition. If you furnish a good 20- 
candle power gas you will be forced to furnish 20-candle power 
glow lamps or not give satisfaction. This will reduce your rated 
capacity 20 per cent., and without your being able to get a cor- 
responding increase of rental per lamp. If you can afford to 
sell your gas at $1.50 per 1,000 you will have to sell your elec- 
tric lamp at Sr,5o per month, with discount to large customers. 
Even at this price you will not be able to pay large dividends 
upon your electric business. You cannot induce customers to 
pay for renewals of lamps burned out, through no carelessness 
of theirs: neither can you limit the number of hours that they 
will burn your lamp, when they can have it burning with no 
extra cost to themselves. The time may come when you will 
be able to sell the electric current by meter, but it is not yet. 
Regarding the life of the lamps, I have had more satisfactory 
results from using the 52-volts lamp than either the 75-vults or 
no-volts. Of course the inside wiring must be of larger co|)- 
per, but the extra life of the lamps will snon recoup the differ- 
ence in first cost of wiring. 

I have tried incandescent lighting by means of a separate 
dynamo and circuits, and by means of the series lamps on the 
arc circuit. The two methods at dtHferent works. I consider 
that neither has proved to be a paying investment or business. 
The only possible consolation I have been able to derive from 
it is that in one case it helped me to destroy ruinous competi- 
tion in the gas business, and in the other it has kept out com- 
petition in the electric field. In both instances the gas works 
alone, if safe from wreckers, would pay much better upon the 
investment. 




What has here been said may seem too discouraging to those 
contemplating entering the electric lighting field. That is not 
my object. There are many cases where it would be desirable 
and advisable, and where I should undertake it myself, were I 
the superintendent of the gas works at those places. 

This paper is written with two objects in view: 

One is to point out some of the diAiculties and disappoint- 
ments encountered in the field of electric lighting which are not 
anticipated in our calculations when we are about to install a 
plant, but which, if more fully known, "might give us pause.*' 
In our desire to compass the entire field of artificial illumina- 
tion we are apt to forget that it is often best to ** make haste 
slowly." 

The other object is to provoke discussion. While there is 
little positive information contained herein, no figures on which 
to base calculations, and no data to aid you in making the 
proper allowance in your estimates of expense in operating an 
electric plant, still there are hints that may set you to thinking 
and enquiring, and by that means may draw forth valuable sta- 
tistics from those around you who are much more able to sup- 
ply them. 

Some papers are valuable on account of the information con- 
tained in themselves, others for the information they elicit in 
the criticisms they provoke. I live in hopes that this may at 
least attain to this seci>nd class. 

Discussian. 



Thk Pkesident— You have doubtless observed that the older 
members compare pretty favorably with the younger ones after 
all Probably at no meeting have we had more diversity in the 
nature of the papers presented than at this. This is certainly 
a very valuable paper, and one that we shall be glad to hear 
discussed thoroughly. 

Mr. Ecner — I cordially agree with Mr. Hoard man in his 
opinion about high and low-speed engines. I have built and 
operated steam engines both on land and sea, and I know that 
what he says is true. There is no denying that the repairs to 
high-speed engines are much greater. 1 do not want to say 



445 



much about it, except that 1 believe from my own experience 
that Mr, Boardman is right I would recommend to everyone 
to let high-speed engines severely alone. 

The President — Is there any high-speed gentleman in the 

house, 

Mr, Glasgow — There is another low-speed gentleman. I 
|lliit to echo Mr, Boardman's sentiments with regard to engines, 
tnd lo call attention to this fact, which he, of course, is familiar 
with, but probably did not bring out very strongly in his paper 
— and that is that there is another cause, other than the wear 
and tear, for the loss in the frequent changes of motion in a 
high-speed engine, and that is because in the better class of 
low-speed engines there is an entirely different valve gear— the 
Corliss valve gean 

Mr. Ecner — Although I say let high-speed engines severely 
alone, yet there are occasions where you may have to employ 
them. For instance, with the Westinghouse engine there are 
times, occasions, and reasons when that ei»gine would be better 
than another kind, and perhaps with other high-speed engines 
there are occasions when they might be used to advantage; 
but wherever you can use a slow-speed engine in preference to 
a high-speed engine it is better to do it. 

Mr. Hammatt_I would like to ask if anyone here has had 
any experience with the Evans friction system ? 

Mr. Buardmax— That is a device for doing away with direct 
belting ? 
Mr. Hammatt— Yes. 

Mr, BoARDMAN^-^Friction on the circumference of the fly- 

ieel ? 

Mr. Hammatt— Yes. 

Mr, Gimper-— Mr. Board man says don't go into electric light- 
ing, because the expense of the machinery for electric lighting 
is so great, I>oes Mr. Boardman wish to imjily that the ex- 
pense of electric machinery is greater for a gas man than it is 
for other men ? 

Mr. Buardhan — No. 



446 



Mr. Gimper — If others can afford to pay that price for ma- 
chinery why cannot gas companies afford to pay It ? I do not 
entirely agree with all that Mr, Hoard man said with regard to 
this, 1 had some experience for more than a year with electric 
light plants in connection w ith the gas business, and am satis* 
fied liiat an electric light plant in connection with gas is a good 
thing for the gas company; but I would not advise it for 
smaller gas companies. That is, I would not advise them to 
go into comjjeiition against another electric light plant. If 
they have the whole thing to themselves^ then I think it is 
proper, even though they would not make as much upon it, to 
go into it, although they may simply protect their gas plant in 
many instances. As to the Evans friction system, 1 cannot say 
much about it now, but we will be ready within about two 
weeks to start such a machine. We adopted it after an investi- 
gation, and think it a very good thing. We have made in- 
quiries and investigated it in places where it is in use, and it 
has been very highly spoken of. It is a system by which you 
take away entirely all belts. Special pulleys are provided for 
that purpose, 

Mr, Coggshaij.^I would like to ask Mr. Board man if his 
incandescent lighting was by the alternating current or by the 
direct current ? 

Mr. Boardman^ — Hy the alternating current. 

Mr. Co(.r.sHAi.L — 0( course, if gas companies are prepared 
to do arc electric lighting thuy must be prepared to do incan- 
descent electric lighting, 1 do not see any difficulty myself in 
fixing a price that will afford a profit in incandescent lighting 
as w^ell as arc lighting. Your experience is very much like my 
own. At the same time, if I were situated as I was before we 
undertook to do electric lig^hting I should venture to do it, I 
should advocate it to my directors. So far wv have not seen 
anything to regret in going into the electric lighting business. 
I know of an Evans friction pulley that had been operated for 
a year, and the parties using it did not like it; it had given 
them a great deal of trouble. 

Mr, BuTTERWQRTH^Mr. Board man says, in speaking of in- 
candescent electric lights: ** Neither can you limit the number 



447 



of hours that they will burn your lamp, when lb<^y can have it 
burning with no extra cost to themselves,** 1 wuiikl like to ask 
Mr. Boardman if the electric light meter is not reliable and 
satisfactory, and if it does not do away with that objection. 

The President — Mr, Boardman will make a note of these 
questions, and will answer them all at once, 

Mr. Findlav— I would like to ask Mr. Boardman if he ever 
had any connection with gas works, and an outside company 
having an electric light plant in the same town ? 

Mr. Eoner— I can answer that with your permission. 

Mr. Boardma^i— I would he very glad to have yon do so. 

Mr, Eoner^ — I built a coal gas works, about two years ago, 
in a town where they had both arc and incandescent lighting. 
There was no other light there. Our gas made the electric 
light people very sick. We gut $2 for every dollar that we put 
in, when w^e sold out; and the electric light people were iht^ 
ones who were very glad to buy us out. 

Mr. Fjndlav — That would be my experience, perhaps, ex- 
cept I might have to start out and butt against that company 
nnii] they had spent all their money, before they sold i>uL 

Mr. Boardman — Before answering the questions which have 
been asked me I wnsh to state that when this paper was written 
I was out of the reach of data, so that I could not put the fig- 
ures in it that might have been valuable to you. My former 
assistant, and mm successor, is in the room, and I would like 
to ask him what the comparison of fuel^ for instance, has been 
in his experience in operating high-speed engines as compared 
with a low-speed engine. I made the assertion when 1 was 
some distance from the central station, and made it from 
memor^^ 1 would like to ask Mr. Wilcox, of Macon, Ga., what 
has been his experience in hjgh-speed engines in the one case^ 
and in the comparatively low-speed Corliss engine in the other, 
in the mere matter of fuel: and also his general experience 
with regard to the use of high and loW'Speed engines. 

Mr. Wilcox — I have in my pocket a memorandum of the 
fuel used. It is a statement that 1 make up every week of the 



MTW= 




comparative difTerence between the high and h»w-speeil en- 
gines. I did not know that Mr. Boardmari was going to call 
upon me. I have one Corliss engine that makes 75 revolutions, 
and one high-speed engine that runs 250 revolutions. With 
those two working together the consumption of fuel is 4.27 lbs, 
per horse power; but using the Corliss singly I use 3.60 lbs, per 
horse power. Running the high-speed engine by itself for 
street car purposes, making 285 revolutions, I use 5.13 lbs. per 
horse power. I keep my fuel account for the engines in such a 
way that I can make the comparison between the two; and wc 
make that test regularly every week. The high-speed engine 
requires about three times the amount of work on it that the 
tow-s|)eed engine dtjcs. It requires extra labor to attend it. 
For the low-speed engine we can use an average man. and sup- 
ply the necessary intelligence from the office. You can use a 
great deal less fuel with the slow-speed engine. 

The President — Do you consider that the two engines are 
equally fair representatives of the two types— about equally 
new, and in ei]ually gcnnl order ? 

Mr. VVh,('ox — Yes. I have a No. 1 Corliss engine, and one 
of the best high* speed engines made; the other two rate about 
second inu\ third, 

Mr, Boardman — Mr. (iinnper asked if I had had competition 
from electric light companies in the same field. The entering 
upon electric lighting by my company at the time I wa^ rn 
charge was forced upon us by the fact that the Brush Electric 
Light Company luul entered the field, and we were compelled 
to go into it. They took the entire street lighting of the city 
from me, and my directors, (under my advice) thought it was 
better to enter into the competition on that line. The result 
was that we came into possession at a merely nominal price, as 
compared with what it cost them, of the entire plant. There- 
fore, I think it was a good move in my company to enter that 
field. We got a plant for $15,000 which cost over (33,000; and 
it w^as not worth $15,000 when we bought it. (Laughter). I 
will say in connection with that thai the incandeseetit lighting 
was not entered ini<j until we hatl a competitive gas plant, and 
then we went in for giving all the light that was required, ami 



449 



thai we could furnish. If it had not been for the Standard Oil 
Company I would have sold kerosene oil to beat them. Mr, 
Gimper ask*^ with regard to the Evans friction pulley, with no 
belt. I am not prepared to speak on that ques^tton, as I have 
never seen it in operation; but it strikes me that, unless an ex- 
cess] veh^ lar^e flywheel is employed, you will have to depend 
upon the high-speed engine in that case as in the other, and 
upon the various devices for insuring sufficient friction to move 
the dynamo. Those of you who have had experience in that 
matter will bear me out in saying that a mere line of friction 
will necessitate excessive bearings to turn the dynamo without 
slipping, when we have so much trouble with a belt which 
covers over two-thirds of the surface of the driving pulley; and 
X am a little skeptical as to that until I see it further, Mr. 
Coggshall asked, and I answered, in regard to incandescent 
lighting by alternating currents. We use the alternating cur- 
rent and reduce it to 52 volts by the interposition of the 
apparatus used for changing the voltage. 

We have found it necessary to fix our price so as to compete 
with our gas» else we have got to shut down our electric light 
plant, and the capital we have invested in that and the ma- 
chinery employed in it must lie idle. We have to compete 
with our gas plant. Mr. Butterworth asks if the number of 
hours of burning can be estimated^ and if the meter is not a 
success, I am sorry to say that human nature is such that un- 
less you have separate circuits, by means of which you can put 
it out at the station at a certain hour, you cannot depend upon 
your consumers. They will nui takt tht- trouble to turn it off 
when they can go out of the slme and leave it burning with no 
extra cost to themselves. 1 am sorry to state that that is the 
fact. We might be in the same condition if we were con* 
sumers; but being in a positimi to criticise the consumers, we 
must lake advantage of it as best we can. They criticise us in 
OUT office whenever they have a chance, I think those who 
have had experience in the matter will bear me out in this 
statement. And it is hut natural, A man^ be he ever so de- 
sirous to do what is right, cannot strictly attend every night to 
the turning off at a certain hour i>f all the electric lights in his 
establishment. He must leave it to his help, and the help who 




450 



may have a ball or a picnic on hand, are in a hurry, and forget 
to do it. These things do occur. I have had no practical ex- 
perience with the meter, but I have talked with those who have 
had, and I have been in towns where the electric light station 
was in full operation, and selling electric light, both incandes- 
cent and arc, I have seen in hotels and in other places where 
the meter was installed, the lights cut out and no electricity 
used; whereas those places which had a contract at so much 
per year were in full blast. I do not think it is yet practicable 
to use a meter in distributing electric power. Every man is at 
liberty to have his own opinion about it. Mr. Findlay asked if 
we had ever had any opposition in electric lighting, and I think 
that came in Mr. Gimpers question — as to whether w*e had had 
competition of other lamps. 

Mr. Lansuen — I would like to ask whether or not the intro* 
duction of electricity in a city, in opposition to the gas com- 
pany, is not a benefit to the gas company? Is it any detriment 
to the interests of the gas company for them to undertake to 
furnish the two kinds of light? 

Mr. Hammatt — I have had the same experience that Mr. 

Buartlman has. We had 15 consumers who contracted to turn 
out their lights, but 14 of them left them burning all night on 
that circuit. We had to cut them out at the station, or make 
other arrangements, 

Mr. Boa RDM an — In answer to Mr. Lansden's question I will 
state that in my opinion the ullimate effect of the introduction 
of electricity, either by a rival company or by your own, is an 
increase in the sale of gas. In either case it is my opinion that 
the party benefiting you loses money, be it the electric light 
company which introduces the light, or be it yourself. 

On motion of Mr. Egner a vote of thanks was tendered to 
Mr. Board man. 

The paper list having been exhausted, attention was next di- II 
rected to the I 



4S1 



QUESTION-BOX. 



The first query read was — 

*' fs there any instance on record of a ^as company ofitafA 
damages from a corporation on acamnt of a change in the estab- 
Hiked grade of a street^ necessitating the loitfering of a gas mainf* 

Mr. PkAiT — We had a year ago such an instance in our 
town (Des Moinus, Ia„) where, after ohtaining the grades from 
the City Engineer, later in the season the grade was changed, 
necessitating a h>wering of our pipes. We did so, and we called 
upon them to pay damages. 

The Prksi dent— Were the damages paid voluntarily, or col- 
lected by suit? 

Mr, Pratt^ — After we had appeared before the Commiliee 
and explained the situation, the claim was paid without any 
contest. 

Tfit: Prestdent—1 have had a similar experience. 

Mr. Bowen— I had the same experience, in Westchester, Pa., 
where the pipes had been laid according to grade, and the grade 
was afterwards changed, The cost of the change in our pipe 
system was paid by the authorities, without question, 

Mr. Phati — I would also like to add that at the time, in 
order to head off any difticulty thereafter, we succeeiled in get- 
ting an ordinance passed by the City Council directing the City 
Engineer to give lis a written statement respecting the grades, 
aful that in case these gratles were not foHowed, the city shduUl 
remunerate us thereafter. 

Question A^o. II — **/x there any good reason why Gas Compa- 
mes shontd not, as a means of encouraging and increasing the con- 
st/ mpt ion of gas^ do pipe fitting of houses at cost^ and also furnish 
at cost chandetiers^ gas fixtures and (turner sV^ 

Mr. Pratt— I think there are no good reasons for so doing, 
das companies that )yut in their own piping will have to carry a 
large stock of material that they have no use for, and will also 
have a great deal of waste. The styles in fixtures are con- 
stantly changing, and \ do not think we should have anything 




to do with them except where it is necessary to secure a cus- 
tomer. If we find we shall lose a customer if we do not do it, it 
might be a good idea to follow the plan in that particular case; 
but as for carrying a stock of fixtures, I do not think it will pay. 

Mr. Bowrn — I beg to differ with the gentleman upon thai 
point. The Company with which I am connected have had con- 
siderable experience in every branch of the business. In the 
last few weeks we have not only contracted to do all the pipe 
fitting and changes, and everything else connected with a very 
large inslitntion in our town, but we have bten compelled to do 
it by the competition with the electric light people. We find w^e 
are able to do the pipe filling at a cheaper rate than ordinary 
gas filters can do it, and can do it as well. If we can get a cus- 
tomer by so doing, w*e ilo ii. We also furnish gas fixtures the 
same as we would furnish gas stoves. I think it is perfectly in 
line for a gas company not only to furnish gas stoves and burn- 
ers, but gas fixtures as well, whenever it is necessary to extend 
the business. 

Mr. Glasgow — I think the conservative answer to that ques- 
tion would be: There are reasons why gas companies should 

not undertake this work, and there are also reasons and cases 
where ihey should uuderlake this work, and thai these reasons 
will have to be balanced in eac h parlirnlar case. 

Mr. FiNDLAV — ^II is a matter of localiiy entirely. It depends 
altogether upon how you are situated. If you are fight mg some- 
one else, then it would be better to do it; or if someone is fight- 
ing against you, you had better do it. 

The President — ^Then you had better do it anyway? 

Mr. Find I. ay — That is my opinion. 

Mr. LiTTLEHALES^One reason why we should not do it is 
in this simple fact: Most towns have at least half a dozen 
plumbers and gas fitters who have a personal interest in secur- 
ing work for themselves — they are permanent canvassers for 
that class of work— and you, by leaving It to them, gain a cer- 
tain am t Hint of interest in their work; and I hey in turn are 
interested to promote your work. The moment you lake it 
in hand you will antagonize those men. I think the average 



gas man, if he looks after the manufacturing and distributing 
plant properly, will have lots tcj do. 

Mr. FoRSTALt — In connection with that I would like to ask 
how the legal status of a gas company with reference to explo- 
sions would he affected hy their undertaking to do internal fit- 
ting — whether it would not make them more liable for damages 
for explosions on the insidt! ui buildings. 

The President — I think that might be answered afhrma- 
lively by almost anyone. 

Mr. Rushy — Would they be any more liable for damages 
than would any private person? Could the ownur of a house 
recover damages from a plumber in case of accident arising 
from carelessness? 

The PRr.siiiENT — His charges do not make him liable at all; 
but a gas company, being a corporation, would in every instance 
be held liable if the sufferer could possibly establish the fact 
that the injury occurred through the negligence <.^f the com- 
pany or its agents. Plumbers are generally not corporations. 

Question NiK /// — "''Afr, Ej^ner states i/tat 400 /nmmfs of ami 
it re i'/iar^tii into an inclined retort {Coze system) in 8 secomis. If 
the iiii is ctoseii before any gas escapes^ can he approximate the sav- 
ing in gas bet^veen this Style of charging ami tiie ordinary charging 
by s hovel f* 

Mr, Egnf.r — That would be rather guesswork; but from the 
volume of gas escaping from the mouth of the retort when 
charged by the shovel, and the very Hltle that escapes when 
put in by the wagonette and inclined retort, I should say that 
probably 10 or 15 feet are saved at each charge. Still, that is 
only guesswork, as 1 have not metered that gas. 

Question JVo, I ^ — *' Ah\ Egncr is asked wiicther he prefers in- 
clined retorts or water gas. By special request*' 

Mr. Eckkr — That is another thing that depends on the loca- 
tion, the cost of material used, and the process employctl. At 
St. Louis, for instance, if we use the process wtiich we now 
have^ and only have to pay for tlie material what it now costs 
us, 1 would say right here that we could make water gas cheaper 



454 

than wc could make roal gas with the apparatus that wc have, | 
We have unly enough to make about 350,000 feet, and we did 
not fmd out how gotid it was until within the last year 

The President — The gentleman will not under any circum- 
stances mention whose apparatus it is. 

Mr. Egner — I Will iH»l Mr President; I ani too modest to 

say that. (Laughter and a[>plau5c,) 

Votes of Thanks. 



Mr. Haruison— It has been very gratifying to me personally, ' 
as I know it has been to every other member of this Associa- 
tion, to see so large an attendance at this meeting. Many of 
us have couje from a great distance; and many of us have come 
for the first time into this section of the country, that we have 
heard so much about. Many have brought with them members 
of their families. We have had special care taken of us while 
here, and from what we have already received we expect that 
care to continue wiiilc we yet remain. I think before we sepa- 
rate it should be our duty, as I know it is our pleasure, to put 
on our record a vote of thanks to those who have done so much 
for us by way of attention to our comfort. I therefore move 
that the thanks of this Association be voted to our hosts^ the I 
United Gas Improvemt;nt (Company, of Philadelphia; to the 1 
Committee of Arrangements which you appointed to look after 
our affairs here in the way of providing for our business meet- 
ings and for our entertainment, in providmg us with such hotel 
accommodations; to the local Gas Company, through its repre- 
sentatives and managers, for the exceedingly attentive care they I 
have given us, and the liberal provision they have made for our I 
comfort and welfare. These thanks are due from us as an Asso- 
ciation as well as from us as individuals. 

Mr. Boardman — I arose to do what my friend did quicker 
than I; but I cannot refrain from stating, as a member of the 
Committee of Arrangements, that the entire credit is due to the 
U. G. I. Company, and to its efficient staff, who so ably seconded 
the endeavor of the General Superintendent to add to our 
pleasure. I will second the motion of Mr. Harbison, with the 





456 

request, with his permission^ that tu that vote of ihanks. be 
added the thanks of the Assoriatiun to the Ladies* Reception 
Conimittee, and to those gentlemen who have so kindly seconded 
them in receiving the fairer guests of this Association, and wel- 
coming them to the city of Savannah and to this meeting, 

The Pkesident^AH in favor of that motion will rise to 
their feel. It is carried unanimously. What further bus«iness? 

Mr, Glast.ow — I move you that the (Council of this Associa- 
tion be requested to put in rigid execution that clause of the 
Constitution which forbids members owing two years* dues par- 
ticipating in the deliberations of the Association, (Seconded 
by Mr. Findlay, and adopted unanimously.) 

At this point President McMillin vacated the chair, which 
was taken by President-elect Harbison. 

Mr. LiTTLLHALKS — Ml Chairman: 1 move a hearty vote of 
thanks to our President for the able manner in which the busi- 
ness of this Association has been conducted. I do not remem* 
her of any meeting that 1 have ever attended where business 
been put through with greater (iromiitness, or conducted in 

Iter order I am sure that every one will coincide with my 
remarks upon that point, and that my motion will meet your 
hearty appreciation. 

Mr. A. C. HUMPHREVb— I second the motion. 

The Chairman— It has been moved and seconded that the 
hearty thanks of the Association be tendered to President 
McMillin for the very able and efficient manner in which he 
has presided over our deliberations during the year. It is not 
necessary to add another word to what has been said by Mr, 
Littlehales. All in favor of the motion will manifest it by 
rising. 1 will not call for the opposite vote, for I see that every 
member is on his feet. 

Mr. McMillin — I think you are mistaken, Mr. Chairman, 
for I did not get up. I feel very grateful for this vole, but 
shall not take any of your time by attempting to make a htling 
response. I only want to say that it has never been my good 
fortune before to preside over a body of men that I enjoyed 



rTiet! 




presiding over iiiort? than I have the American Gas Ltght Ass^ 
ciation. It has not been my got>d fortune to preside in aiii 
place where there were more eflfrcient workers, and where they 
kept to the points under discussion, or where they observed all 
the little rules that are necessary fur the expedition of bu seines 
than has been done by this Association. Much of the wor 
that has been accomplished has been due to the very great aii 
that I have had from the Secretary, and from the two Vied 
Presidents. You will remember that the First and Secoc 
Vice-Presidents have t^ccupied the chair about as much as i 
have; and if I had been kept in the chair all the time I wouIj 
have got pretty stupid before now; but through their assistanc 
I think we have had a very good meeting. (Applause.) 



Thk Chairman — Is there any 
before the Association ? 



furthtrr business to cor 



Mr. FokSTALL — AVhile the President has had a good deal 
do with the actual meeting, yet 1 think that, the larger i>art 
the work on which the success of a meeting depends usually 
falls upon the Secretary, I, therefore, move that the thanks i 
the Association be tendered to our Secretary and Treasure 
Mr. Humphreys, for the large amount of work that he lias doll 
in getting ready for the meeting. 

Thk CHAikMAN — It is moved and seconded that the than 
of the Association be tendered to Secretary Humphreys for 
very efficient work during the past year as Secretary a; 
Treasurer of this Association, Are you ready for the que: 
tion ? Those who favor the vote will rise. It is unanimously 
voted. Mr, Secretary, the Association tenders you a unanimoi 
vole of thanks for your efficient services during the year. 



usl^ 

ss<^^ 



TiiK Secretary— Mr. Chairman, and Gentlemen of the A 
ciation: As you arc ver>' apt, in your over-appreciation of the 
work of the Secretary, to extend to him an annual vote of 
thanks, you must expect that his annual acknowledgment 
be pretty much the same old story. However, 1 thoroughl 
appreciate your kind vote, and thank you very much for it, T 
would just Uke to add one word more: I have now been Sec- 
retary of this Association since 1883, During that lime the 



M 




451 



duties of the office have increased very much — so much so that 
I do riot feel justified in continuinij in office longer. 1 have 
not felt justified in taking the office this year, but I was over- 
persuaded by the President-elect to accept the office for another 
year. I think, however, it is only right that 1 should say at 
this time that my connection with this office must cease at the 
end of the coming year. I presume that in making a statement 
of this kind, in declining an office which really has not been 
tendered to me, 1 am laying myself open to a charge of incon- 
sistency^ hut I make the statement now so that you may have 
ample opportunity to find my successor, 

Mr, McMiLLiN — The remarks of the Secretary leave us in 
rather a bad position. We hardly know whether to applaud or 
not. We w^ould like to applaud his speech, but we do not like 
to applaud the sentiment. 

The CHAiKMAN^Permil me to say that it has only been by — 
if I may so state it — almost my ccnnniand that he has consented 
lo serve in the position of Secretary for another year, and for 
this I know that every member of the Association feels pro- 
foundly grateful (Applause.) 1 have that feeling of regard 
for Mr. Huni[)hreys (which I am happy to believe he has for 
me — undeserved as it is) tliai I doufjt very much, and I am 
conceited enough to think that it is perhaps true, that for no 
other member of this Association w^ould be have consented to 
serve another year. Knowing the importance of the [>osition, 
the duties to be performed, and the comparatively few men 
there are in our midst who, although capable, can devote the 
necessary time to the successful performance of the duties of 
that office, the matter should be carefully canvassed in advance, 
so that when the time comes for you to make the selection of 
his successor no mistake shall be made. l"he interests of the 
Association have grown and are growing, and the position of 
Secretary becomes more and more important every year. I 
make this statement of the case to you so that your minds may 
be circulating around among the membership, to see who of all 
is best fitted to perform the duties, and who can devote the 
necessary time to them. 

(President McMilliii resumes the chair.) 



458 



Mr. Egner— Mr. President, I would now like to make m^ 
motion. The First Vice-President having done something herc^ 
as Vice-President, for which he certainly ought to have a vote 
of thanks—- for he himself has said it — therefore I think he ought 
to have it. And although the other Vice-President has said 
nothing, we think he ought not to be neglected ; hence I move 
a vote of thanks to the First and Second irice-Presidents of the 
Association for the aid they have given us. (Seconded by Mr. 
Glasgow.) (Carried.) 



On motion of Mr. Harbison the business 
i^ociation were declared closed. 



of the As- 



NINETEENTH ANNUAL MEETING 

OF THK 

AMERICAN GAS LIGHT ASSOCIATION, 

HELD AT 

SCOTTISH RITE HALL, NEW YORK, 
octobkr 21, 2 2 and 23, 1 89 1. 

First Day — October 21 — Morning Session. 

The Association was called to order at 10 A. M. In the ab- 
sence of the President, Mr. John P. Harbison, the First Vice- 
president, Capt. William Henry White, took the chair. In the 
absence of Mr. C. J. R. Humphreys, Secretary, Mr. Alex. C. 
Humphreys acted as Secretary. 

On motion of Mr. Slater the reading of tii^ minutes of the 
last meeting was dispensed with. 

Roll call. 

The following members were in attendance: 

Honorary Member. 

Prof. E. G. Love, New York, N. Y. 

Active Members. 

Abel, W. G., - - - Atlanta, Cia. 

Adams, H. C., - - - Philadelphia, Pa. 

Adams, W. C., - - - Richmond, Va. 

Addicks, F. P., - - - Boston, Mass. 

Addicks, W. R., - - - Boston, Mass. 




m 



A a, A. L., 
Andrew^ J., 
AtwutKi, H. A., 
llailcy, C. It,, 
Bales, J. U., 
HiiumgardtKir, J. H., 
Baxter, I, C, 
Baxter, R., 
Beai, W, R., 
Bcuiiyii, F. B., 
Betls, E., 
Bill, O. 1>., ' ' 
Rlaiivclt, C. I)., 
Blutljjett, C. W.. 
Hoard mail, A, 
boardman, H., 
Borgner, C - 
Bo wen, \V, S., 
Bradley, W. H., 
Bredel, F., 
Brown, E. C, 
Buckman, J., 
Biirtis, P. T., 
Bush, J. S., 
Butterworth, I., ■ 
Byrne, T. E., 
Cabot, J., - 
Cartvvright, M., - 
Cartwright, W., 
Chad wick, H. J., 
Clarke, Ci. S., 
Clark, W., 
Coggshall, H. F., 
Cole, T. W., 
Collins, A. P., 
Collins, C. R., 
Connelly, J. S., 
Connelly, T. E., - 
Copp, A. M., 



H 



Poyglikeeps^itf. N- V, 
Chelsea, Ma^s. 
Ply mouth, Ma^Sc 
Washington, I J, i\ 
Huboken. N. J. 
l^ancasler, Pa. 
Detroit, Mich. 
Halifax; N. S. 
New York, N\ V. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Wilmingiun, Del 
Maiden, Mass. 
St. Augustine, Fla, 
Brooklyn, N, Y. 
Macon, Ca. 
Bangor, Me, 
Philadelphia, Pa_ 
West Chester, Pa, 
New York, N. Y. 
Milwaukee, Wis. 
New York, N. Y. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Mt. Holly, N. J. 
New York, N. Y. 
Columbus, O. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 
New York, N. Y. 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Lockport, N. Y. 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Fitchburg, Mass. 
Altoona, Pa. 
New Britain, Conn. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
New York, N. Y. 
New York, N. Y. 
Boston, Mass. 



461 

C. H., - - - Brooklyn, N. Y. 
r. C, - - . Yonkers, N. Y. 

, K. (J., - - - Milwaukee, Wis. 

J. H., - - . Buffalo, N. Y. 

., - - - Boston, Mass. 

►. W., - - - Northampton, Mass. 

A. D., - - - Fort Wayne, Ind. 

J. A. P., . - - Philadelphia, Pa. 

, J. B., - - - San Francisco, Cal. 

Detroit, Mich. 
P., - - - Wilmington, Del. 

R., - - - - Jersey City, N, J. 

J. M., - - - Columbia, S. C. 

J., ... Waltham, Mass. 

R., - - - Athol, Mass. 

St. l^ouis, Mo. 
J. H.. - - - Baltimore, Md. 

R. R., - - - Dayton, O. 

F. A., - - - Philadelphia, Pa. 

.. M., - - - New York, N. Y. 

D., - - - Savannah, Ga. 

, (;. B., - - - New York, N. Y. 

., - - - New York, N. Y. 

Vm. L., Jr. - - - Philadelphia, Pa. 

:. R., Jr., - - Toledo, (). 

J H., - - - Ogdensburg:, N. Y. 

g, D. D., - - Jersey City, N. J. 

. W., - - - New York, N. Y. 

[. K., - - - New York, N. Y. 

. R., - - - New York, N. Y. 

V. P., - - . ' Philadelphia, Pa. 

T. B., - - - Astoria, N. Y. 

f., - - - Chattanooga, Tenn. 

A. K., - - - Newark, N. J. 

J., - - - Philadelphia, Pa. 

'., - - - - Lynn, Mass. 

, J., Jr. - - - Pittsburg, Pa. 

. W., - - - Hamilton, Ontario. 

D. H., - - - Quebec, Canada. 



H^ 9^^^^^^HI 


1 


462 


i 


^^V (lerouldf C. L., 


, 


Brooklyn, X. Y. ^^H 


^H (;eroii]d, U R, - 


- 


Brooklyn, N, V. ^M 


^^H Glasgow, A. G ^ 


- 


Philadelphia, Pa. ^H 


^^M (iordun, J. J.. 


- 


Cincinnati, O. ^H 


^M Gracfif. G, \\\, Jn. - 


- 


Philadelphia, Pa. ^M 


^^B Graves^, H. C, 


- 


Dayton, O. ^M 


^m GrihbcKJ., - 


- 


New York, N. Y. ^M 


^1 Griffin, J. J., 


- 


Philadelphia, Pa. ^M 


^^H (fvwnn, J. W , 


. 


Bucyriis, O. ^H 


^^^B Hallett. J, L.. 


- 


New York, N. Y. ^M 


I^^H Hamhltfton, i\ H.* 


. 


Baltimore, Md. ^H 


^^1 Harbison, J. P,, 


- 


Hartford, Conn. ^H 


^B Hauk, C. IX, 


- 


Chica|,^o, UK ^H 


^H Hay ward. T. J., ^ 


* 


Bah t more, Md. ^H 


^1 Helme, W. E^ 


- 


Philadelphia, Pa. ^H 


^^P Hf)nkey, G. S., 


- 


Augusta, Ga. ^^^^U 


^H fhimes, W. S., 


- 


Ahoona, Pa. ^^^^| 


^^M Humphreys, A, (!,, 


- 


Philadelphia, Pa.^^H 


^^B Krcisclier» G, F., 


- 


New York, N. Y. ^^H 


^^M Riiehn, J. L., 


- 


York, Pa. ^H 


^^m Lamson, C. D.. 


- 


Worcester, Ma<»s. ^H 


^^m Leach, Henry B.^ 


. 


Taunton, Mass. ^^M 


^^M Learned^ E. C, 


- 


New Piritain, Cotni. ^H 


^^m Learned, Waldo A., 


- 


Newton, Mass. ^H 


^^m Lindsky^ Edward, 


. 


Clevehmd, O. ^M 


^H Littlehalcs, 1\/ 


- 


Hamilton, Ont. ^H 


^H Lutlfion, A. W., 


, 


Quincy, Hi. ^| 


^^M Looniis, Burdctte, 


- 


Hartford, Conn, ^H 


^^m Liidlam, Edwin, 


- 


Brooklyn, N. Y. ^M 


^H Macdtinakl. H. j.. 


- 


Newluirgh, N. Y. ^^M 


^^H Mayer, Frederick, 


.. 


Baltimore, Md. ^H 


^H McCleary, A. J., 


- 


Philadelphia, Pa. ^M 


^H McCullongh, E. IL, 


- 


Philadelphia, Pa. ^M 


^^M McCnU'hcon, J., 


- 


Allegheny, Pa. ^^^^^ 


^H McDonald, W., 


- 


Albany, N. Y. ^^H 


^H McElroy. J. H.. 


- 


Pittsburgh, Pa. ^^^B 


^^B Mcllhcnny, J.. 


, 


Philadelphia, Pa. ^M 


^H Mcllhcnny, J. S„ 


- 


Washington, D. C, ^| 


^H McKeige, F., 




New York, N. Y. ^M 



463 



McMillin, E., - 
Merrifield, P. S., 
Miller, A. S., - 
Milsted, W. N., 
Mitchell, K. M., 
Murphy, H., 
Neal, G. B. 
Nettleton, C, 
Nettleton, C. H., 
Norris, R., - 
Nute, J. E., 
Q-Brien, W. J., 
Odiorne, F. H., 
Page, G. S., 
Park, W. K., 
Pearson, W. H., 
Pearson, W. H., Jr., 
Perkins, J. D., 
Peters, M., 
Phelps, E. R., 
Pratt, E. G., 
Prichard, C. F., 
Quinn, A. K., 
Ramsdell, G. G. 
Richardson, F. S., 
Rogers, J. F., 
Roots, D. T., - 
Rowland, C. L., 
Rowland, W. L., 
Rusby, J. M., 
Russell, D. R. - 
Scrafford, Wm. H., 
Seaverns, F., 
Scriver, J. F., 
Shelton, F. H., - 
Sherman, F. C., 
Sisson, F. N., 
Slade, J., 
Slaney, H. C, 



Columbus, O. 

New York, N. Y. 
Omaha, Neb. 
New York, N. Y. 
St. Joseph, Mo. 
Sing Sing, N. Y. 
Boston, Mass. 
New York, N. Y. 
Birmingham, Conn. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Fall River, Mass. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Boston, Mass. 
New York, N. Y. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Toronto, Ont. 
Belleville, Ont. 
New York, N. Y. 
New York, N. Y. 
White Plains, N. Y. 
Des Moines, la. 
Lynn, Mass. 
Newport, R. I. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
North Adams, Mass. 
Jamaica Plain, Mass. 
Connersville, Ind. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Jersey City, N. J. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Bath, N. Y. 
New York, N. Y. 
Montreal, Can. 
Chicago, III. 
New Haven, Conn. 
Albany, N. Y. 
Yonkers, N. Y. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 



^K ^^^^H^^^HJ 


■ 


464 


J 


^^^ Slater, A. B., 


- 


Providence, R, I. ^H 


^H Sbter. A, B., Jr., 


- 


Providence, R. I. ^H 


^H Smith, J. W,, 


- 


Philadelphia, Pa. ^H 


^H Smith. M . 


- 


W^ilkes Rarre, Pa. ^| 


^H Smitti, K. A. C, 


- 


New York, N, V. ^^ 


^H Snow, W. H., 


- 


Holyoke, Mass. ^H 


^^H Sonierville. J., 


- 


Indianapolis, Ind. ^H 


^^H Spaulding, C. l\^ 


- 


W aliham, Mass. ^H 


^H Spaulding, C S,, 


- 


Brook line, Mass. ^H 


^^H SpaiiUliti*^^ W. H., 


- 


Clinton, Mass. ^^| 


^^H Stacy, W'm., 


- 


Cincinnati, O. ^^| 


^H Stanley, Ira N., 


- 


Brooklyn, N. V ■ 


^^m Sled man, VVm. A., 


. 


St. Louis, Mo. ^H 


^H Tabei% R. 11, 


- 


Boston, Mass. ^^| 


^B Thomas J. R,, 


- 


New York, N. Y. ^| 


^^H Town send « S, S., 


. 


New York, N. Y. ^1 


^^H Turner, T\, 


* 


Charleston. S. C. ^H 


^H Van Benschoten, C, C. 


» ' 


New Rochelle, N. Y, ] 


^^B Vanderpool, E., 


_ 


Newark, N. J. ^A 


^H Waldo, C S., 


- 


Boston, Mass. ^H 


^m Waldo, J. A., 


- 


Boston, Mass. ^H 


^^1 Watson, C, 


- 


Camden, N. J. ^^| 


^H W eber, O. B., 


- 


New York, N. Y. ^| 


^m White, l\ A., 


- 


New York, N. Y. ^H 


^H White. \\\ IL, 


- 


New York. N. Y. ^| 


^H Whittier, C R.» 


- 


New York, N. Y. ^| 


^H Wilcox, H. R, 


- 


Middletown, N. Y. ^| 


^H Williams K. H., 


* 


Waterbiiry, Conn. ^H 


^H Williams, W. L., 


• 


Paterson, N. J. ^H 


^H WcK)(J, A. C, 


- 


Syracuse, N. Y. ^^| 


^H W. A.. 


. 


Dorchester, Mass. ^H 


^H Yorke, E H., 


- 


Brockton, Mass. ^^| 


^m Young, l\, 


- 


Knoxville, Tenn. ^^| 


H 


Associate Mem^rs, ^H 


^H Crane, \\\ M., 


- 


New York, N. Y. ^| 


^^H Essirk, \\\ S., 


- 


Rciyersford, Pa. ^H 


^^H Hayward, 8* l\. 


- 


New York, N. Y, ^| 


^^m Nonon, H. A,, 




Boston, Mass, ^H 



^^^^^^^^V 465 


^ 


^^H 


Osius, G., - - ^ 




Detroit, Mich. ^^^^^^H 


Persons, F. R., 


* 


Chicago, IIU ^^^^H 


REPORT OF COUNCIL. ^^M 


The Secretary read the following report: ^^M 


The Council has approved of the 


following applications for ^^| 


membership, and submits ihem to 


the 


Association with a recom* ^^H 


mendation for favorable action: 




H 


ft Acfivf Member 


^^Hi 


■ ♦Africa, Walter G,, 




Manchester, N. H, ^^^k 


■ Beadenkopf, Geo., - 


- 


Baltimore, Md, ^^| 


\ »Beadle. A. B., 




St. Albans, Vt. ^H 


BeaK Thaddeus, 


- 


New York, N. Y. ^H 


♦Bennett, C, A., Jr., - 




Freehold, N. J. ^H 


♦Clary, E. D., 


- 


Burlington, Iowa. ^^^k 


♦Collins, John, - 




Fishkill, N. V. ^H 


♦Crowell. F. B.. 


- 


New York, N. Y. ^1 


Dougherty, Daniel J., - 




Brunswick, Ga. ^^| 


♦Douglas, Henry W,, 


- 


Ann Arbor, Mich. ^^^k 


Dyer, Frank H., 




Salt Lake City, Utah. ^H 


■ •Fowler, Samuel J., 


« 


Springfield, Mass. ^^H 


I Fiillagar, Wm. E., 




P(»rt Jt-rvis, N, Y. ^H 


W ♦Gandey. A. C, 


- 


LamhertvElle, N. J. ^^H 


♦Giblin, John A., 




11 ion, N. V. ^H 


♦(;ifTf>rd, N, W., 


- 


New Bedford, Mass, ^^^^1 


♦Guiidlin, O. N., 




Akron, Ohio. ^^^^1 


♦Hunt, Thomas, 


- 


Tonawanda, N. Y. ^^H 


♦Jenkins, E, H,, 




Columbus, Ga. ^^^k 


Jourdan, J. H., 


- 


Ikooklyn, N. Y. ^^H 


♦Keppelman, John H , 




Reading, Fa, ^^H 


Knight, E, B , 


- 


Hagerstown, Md. ^^H 


Lane, J as. W., 




Akron, Ohio. ^^^k 


♦Lillie, Lewis, 


- 


Pensacola, Fla. ^^H 


McMillin, Geo., 




La Crosse, Wis. ^^^k 


Miller, C. O. G., 


- 


San Francisco, CaL ^^| 


H •Present at this meeting. 




^1 


■ 99 


■ 


^^1 



H^ ^^^^^^^^Bl 


1 


466 


1 


^m Nash, A, F., 


. 


Ontario, Can, ^^^H 


^H *Pmkney, E, A., 


- 


Utica, N. Y. ^^H 


^^1 Procter, Wm. L, 


- 


Ogdensburg, N. Y.^^^B 


^H Rawn, J, C, 


- 


Roanoke, Va. ^^^H 


^H *ReilIy/ John W. 


- 


Wilmington, N. <^*^^^B 


^M ♦Serriil Wm. J., 


- 


Allen town, Pa, ^H 


^1 ♦Smith. W. }C 


- 


Bayonne, N. J. ^| 


^H . Stet:k% Henry, 


' 


Ha][^erstown. Md. ^^ 


^^M *Thompson, Geo. T-, 


- 


St. Louis, Mo. ^H 


^^M *1Vac7, John, 


- 


Ponghkeepsie, N. Y. ^| 


^B * Walters, A. H., 


- 


Johnstown, Pa. ^H 


^H *Warmington, Daniel R,, 


- 


Cleveland, O. ^M 


^^m Watt, Anthony, 


- 


Cunnorsville, Ind, ^B 


^M White, H. H., 


- 


Belleville, 111. H 


^»^ *Whitney, H. C. 


- 


Watertown. N. Y. _^^ 


^^^^f Associate Metftfftrs. ^^^1 


^^r *Adums, Chas. F , - 


_ 


Buffalo, N. Y. ^M 


^^1 Gray, Jt-rome B., 


- 


Philadelphia, Pa. ^| 


^^B *Higgins, C M., 


- 


New York, N, Y. ^^B 


^H ♦McDunakl, Donald, 


- 


Albany, N. Y. ^^| 


^^1 ♦Mannioij, J as., 


- 


New York, N. Y, ^^B 


^H Steen, Wm. B., 


- 


Philadelphia, Pa. ^M 


^H ♦Yuille, Geo. A., 


- 


Chicago, 111., ^H 


^m *Page, Harry DeB., 


- 


New York, N, Y, H 


^^B ♦Page, Albion L., 


- 


New York, N. Y. ^^B 


^B Bradley, Carl I)., 


- 


Chicago, 111. ^^^B 


^^M Transfer fnym 


Associate to Active, ^^^H 


^H CronI, Jerome, 


- 


Detroit, Mich. ^^H 


^^B Summary: Activej4i; Associate, i< 


3; Transfer, i; tota^^^H 


^^m Members, 51. 




■ 


^H It is to be noted this is the 


largest 


number ever applying for 


^^m membership at one meeting. 




a 


^^H Respectfully 


'♦ 


■ 


^1 


Henry 


White, VicePrcsiden^M 


^H Albx. C. Humphreys, Acting Secretary, ^H 


^^H ♦Prcsicnl at this meeting. 




m 



467 



ELECTION OF MEMBERS. 

The President — You have heard the list of applicants lot 
membership of the several classes. These names have been 
under consideration by your Council, and this report is from 
the Council The gentlemen are therefore all eligible to elec- 
tion. On motion of Mr. Cornell, the Secretary cast the ballot 
of the Association for the gentlemen named. 

Thr President— I have the pleasure of announcing the 
tion of the gentlemen whose names have been read to you. 
many nf the gentlemen as are present here will please rise in 
their places. Gentlemen, i have the pleasure of extending to 
you a hearty welcome from the Association into its raembership. 
Gentlemen of the Association, I ask you to look upon your new 
members and extend to them the right hand of fellowship, and 
a hearty greeting. 

The new members present arose in response to the introduc- 
tion of the Chairman, 

The President — You will now give your attention to the 
reading of the report of your Council on the management of 
the affairs of the Association during the year. 

^The Secretary, (reading): 
^5 



RKFORT OF COUNCIL. 



New Yohk, October 20th, ]89i. 
Tff the Mtmi*ers of the Association: 

Gentlemen: — Vour Council begs leave to report that the 
following papers have been approved, to be read at this meet- 
ing. 

" Leakage," by C, IL Nettleton, Birmingham, Conn. 

" Meter Rent, a Question of Policy/* by Walton Clark, Phila- 
delphia^ Pa, 

**The Illuminating Power of Mixture of Coal and Water 
Gases/' by Dr. E. G, Love, New York. 

" Theoretical Effect of Preheating Blast, Steam and Oil in 
Water (ias Manufacture/' by Rollin Norris, Philadelphia, Pa. 

" Lime/' by Dr A. W. Wilkinson, New York. 



468 

" Intensity of Light," by A. B. Slater, Jr., Providence, R. I. 

** Manipulation of Tar from Carbureted Water Gas," by 
David Douglas, Savannah, Ga. 

The following have been appointed as the Committee on 
Nominations: 

• E. G. Cowdery, Chairman, Milwaukee, Wis.; C. W. Blodgeti, 
Brooklyn, N. Y.; Alex. C. Humphreys, Philadelphia, Pa.; Thos. 
Turner, Charleston, S. C; A. B. Slater, Jr., Providence, R. I. 

Your Council has to report that, owing to lack of funds, it 
was unable to proceed with the publication of Vol. 9 of the Pro- 
ceedings, as authorized at last year's meeting. This shortness 
of funds was largely owing to the indifference displayed by the 
members as to the payment of their dues. It is to.be remem- 
bered that October, '90, it was necessary to drop from our roll, 
for non-payment of dues, 13 active members, and at the meeting 
just held it has been necessary to take action looking to the 
dropping of 6 more. 

The members are respectively urged to remit their dues 
promptly each year to the Treasurer, on Oct. i, and not to wait 
for the time of the meeting. If left until then it is apt lobe 
neglected in the rush of business, and it is also not so conven- 
ient a time for the Treasurer to receive money. It is to be re- 
membered that our Constitution makes the dues payable Oct. 1 
of each year, in advance. Members in arrears are urged to 
make immediate settlement. 

An estimate made as to the condition of our treasury for the 
current year shows that if the members will give attention to 
the above ai)i)eal, we shall have sufficient funds to pay for print- 
ing Vol. 9, of our Proceedings. We therefore recommend that 
this volume be printed, to contain not only the years '89 and 
'90, as last year contemplated, but also '91. 

Your Council also urges upon the members, as a means of 
affording further relief to the treasury, and also as a wise move 
on the |)art of the members individually, that all those who have 
not comi)lete sets of the Proceedings should purchase from the 
Association the missing volumes. Certainly every member of 
the Association should have access to a complete record of its 
Proceedings. For Vol. I (paper cover) is charged $1 each; for 
all the other volumes, $1.50 each. 



4BJ» 



It has been dcenietl wisic to make certain changes In the reg- 
ulations as to papers for meetings. Hereafter the authors of 
papers will be selected and arranged for not later than Jan, i, 
of each year, and in so arranging it will be nndcrstoud the 
papers must all be in the Secretary's hands not later than Sept. 
I. It is thought that this will be the opposite of a hardship, If 
once inaugurated. This will enable the Secretary to arrange 
very cheaply for the printing and distribution to members in ad- 
vance of the papers to be read, and your Council recommends 
this course for the future. It is estimated that the cr>st per 
year will not exceed $100 on an average. 

Your Council urges upon the members the propriety of giv- 
ing prompt and accurate replies to the inquiries sent out by the 
Secretary, in connection wit!i the [>reparation of the yearly list 
of members. In the past some of the members have exhibiteci 
great indifference on this subject, until this indifference resulted 
in the list showing their names or accomjianying statements in- 
correctly; then a complaint has generally been promptly made 
by the hitherto indifferent members. 

In the preparation of future lists of members it has been 
decided to print, under an approjiriate heading, the names of 
all members who have from the first died while upon our roll 

Your Council recommends that the Secretary be instructed 
to furnish to the American Gas Lt^ht Jtmrnai^ Lii^/tf, Heat and 
Ptntfer^ and Progressive Age, each one copy of the proceedings 
of this meeting, and collect from each of these papers one-third 
of the total cost of the reporting of the proceedings. 

As the question has been raised, it is to be noted that to pre- 
vent question as to the personnel of the Council during the last 
day of the meetings^ and to extend by one day the time for 
which railroad ticket certificates can be made valid, the final 
adjournment each year will be had at the end of the entertain- 
ment programme of Friday. 

Your Council recommends the adoption of the following, as 
an amendment to Section 6 of the Constitution. Add at the 
end: 

♦' Or occupy such a position in his company as is usually 
designated by one of the titles herein specified/* 

The present rule has worked unfairly in some instances, and 




it is believed that this amendment will safely correct this ten- 
dency. Your Ccaincil recommends the adoption of the follow- 
ing amendments to the Constitution: 

Sec. 46 — After the word " shall '* and before the word ** in- 
clude" insert the word "not." 
Sec. 47— The same change- 
Sec. 16— After the words ** initiation fee" iDsert the words 
**and one year*s dues as provided for in Sees. 48 and 49/* 

The FinaJice Committee has examined the books and accounts 
of the Treasurer and of the acting Treasurer, and has found the 
same to be correct, as shown by its report herewith submitted. 

Respectfully submitted, 

\Vm, Henry White, Acting President. 
Alex. C. Humphreys, Acting Sec. and Treas, ' 

The President — You have heard read the report and recom- 
mendations of your Council. Is it your pleasure to act upon 
the report as a whole, or will you have each suggestion presented 
and considered? What is the desire of the meeting? 

Mr. Lamson — I move that the recommendations of the Coun- 
cil be adopted as a whole. 

The President— You understand that this practically in- 
cludes certain amendments to the Constitution. 

Mr. Gates— Would it not be well to read those particular 
portions again, because we cannot understand them as read. 

The President — It so strikes the Chair» I think if you pass 
everything contained in the report in an omnibus bill, except 
the suggested amendments to the Constitution, it would be well. 
If you choose you can amend your motion to that effect — that 
all but the suggested amendments to the Constitution be con- 
curred in. 



Mr. Gates — I move that, [Unanimously carried.] 

TliK President — The Secretary will now read the propose 
amendments to the Constitution- first reading the articles as 
they arc, and then ihe proposed change. 

The Skckktarv — The first proposed amendment refers to 



n 



B? Cunstitutujiv, as to clij^ibiliiy for aenv^Sembtfr- 

ship» The section reads at present: 

**6. To be eligible as an active member, a person must be a 

president, secretary » treasurer, engineer, consulting engineer, or 

superintendent of a gas company, or a manager of a gas works." 
It is proposed to add lu that section the words as follows: 
**()r occupy such a position in his company as is usually 

designated by one of the titles herein s|>e< iHed/' 

Thk Prksiolnt — The object of that amendment is this: The 
Council finds itself every year confronted with this dilemma — 
that applications are made for active membership by gentlemen 
who are clearly engaged in the duties of, or are acting as, supcr- 
intemlents, yet \tho at the same time only hold rank as assist- 
ant superintendents; or the applicant is a practical man, such a 
man as ought to be here with us, and whom we want to have 
with us, but as to whose admission your Council entertained 
varying view^s. They desire to have this clearly and delniilely 
brought before you, in order that it may be made a part of your 
Constitution. It strikes the Chair that this is a very desirable 
amendment. What is your pleasure in connect inn with this 
amendment ? 

Mr. Cohnbm — I move that it be adopted. 

Mr, pREsiDENr — ^It has been regularly moved and seconded 
that the proposed amentlment to Section 6 of the Constitution 
be adopted. l)oes anycme desire to speak tui the motion ? 

Mr. a. C. Wood --I scarcely see the object of this jiroposed 
amendment, for it occurs to nic that the matter is fully defined 
in the Constitution as it now reads, and this, then, seems to me 
to be a re-enacting of a previous provision in this section. Will 
the Secretary read that again, so we may all clearly understand 
it? 

The Secrei .arv — Section 6 as it is now^, provides that a man 
to be "a President^ Secretary, Treasurer, Engineer, Con- 
sidting Engineer, or Superintendent of a (ias Company, or a 
Manager of a Gas Works," in order to be eligible as an active 
member. The proposed addition is, ** or occupy such a position 
in his company as is usually designated by one of the litletj 



herein specifit-tl/* It has been found in past years, and was 
found this year, that applicatinnt^ fur membership were made by 
young men who did not bold any of those titles, but who did in 
effect hold one of those positions — they were not designated by 
either of those titles, but they had the position. They were 
managers of gas works, and perhaps had the title conferred up- 
on them of assistant superintendent; nevertheless^ they were 
under an assignment of duty which clearly made them man- 
agers of a gas works. In the same way, an assistant engineer 
is not eligible under the strict reading of that section, but stiil 
there may be an assistant engineer of a large company, having 
a number of different wurks in one city, who is not only the 
manager of a gas works, but he may be the manager of two nr 
three gas works» under the chief engineer, and ranking as the 
manager of the works. I can enumerate two or three sudi 
cases that I have personally come in contact with. The object 
of this amendment is simply to give the Council the right to 
act within the law, instead of trying to stretch the law. 

The Secketarv^ — The amendment adds right on to this sec- 
tion, after it mentions the officers that may be eligible for ac- 
tive service, the statement that those who occupy such a position 
ID the company as is usually designated by ooc of the titles 
therein specified, shall be eligible to active membership. The 
Councd^ in taking the matter under consideration last night, 
unanimously came to the conclusion that with such an amend- 
ment, if they were upon investigation led to find that a man 
who was an a^istant superintendent., was really by assignment 
of duly by his superior officer, made manager of a gas works, 
he could come in under this amendment; whereas, it might be 
a little stretch of the section to bring him in under the Consti- 
tution as it now reads. In the same way, anassbtant engineer, 
tf it could be shown that he was in charge of a gas works* 
would be clearly cox^ereit by this amendmenL In the same 
way a Vice-rnrsidenl, by this CoDstituttoa, ts not eligible for 
active memberships but with this proposed addition to Section 
0, he would be eligible, if he was an active man, because he 
I would be cither a manager^ by assignmeiat of duty, or else be 
la ting as president. It ts to cover those cases, where, after in- 
Yeaigatton* ti WHS found that a num was occupying a position 



473 



equar to one of those designated iinc!er the Constitution, that 
we LiKild let him in as an active member without violating the 
rules. 

The Presiuekt— Does any gentleman desire tu further dis- 
cuss the subject ? How shall this ballot be taken ? 

Mr. Nkttletok — I move that the Secretary cast the ballot 
of the Association. 

Thf. President — Unanimous consent is necessary before he 
can do that. Is there any objection? There being no objec- 
tion, I will ask Mr. Slater again to act as teller, while the Sec- 
retary casts the ballot of the Association for the proposed 
amendment. 

The Secretary — Unless I hear an objection^ I shall cast the 
unanimous vote of this Association in favor of the adoption of 
the proposed amendment. Is there any objection? 

The President — There is no objection, and you will cast 
the ballot. 

Mr. Slater^I have assorted and counted the ballots, and I 
6nd it to be a unanimous vote. 

The President — I declare the proposed amendment tu Ser- 
tion 6 of the Constitution unanimously adopted. 

Please give your attention to the reading of the second pro- 
posed amendment. 

The Secretary — This other recommendation rather looks 
as though two or three amendments were included, bi4 they all 
cover one point, and to effect this change it is necessary to 
change the wording of the Constitution in three places. The 
idea is that instead of having the ioittation fee of §io include 
the first year's dues in advance, as is now the case, to have that in- 
itiation fee not include the first year's does. In other words, a 
man who is elected to membership will be called upun to pay 
an initiation fee of 810, and at the same lime he will also be 
called upon to pay his annual dues in advance, the same as the 
rest of the members. To bring about that residt It is necessary 





to amend Sections 46 and 47 by inserting the word 
each section, so that they shaJl read, as amended: 



' not JTi 



"46. Every person elected as an Active Member shall pay 
an initiation fee of ten dollars, which shall not include the dues 
for the current year.*' 

** 47. Every person elected as an Associate Member shall 
pay an initiation fee of ten dollars, which shall not include the 
dues for the current year/* 

It is necessary also to amend Section 16 by inserting the 
words "and one years dues as provided for in Sections 48 and 
49." Sections 4S and 49 simply state that *' every active mem- 
ber shall pay annually, in advance, the sum of ^ve dollars,*' and 
*' every associate memt>er shall pay anntially, in aulvance, the 
sum of five dollars,** This Section 16, with the proposed amend- 
ment, will read: 

" 16, Any person elected to the AssoaatioA, excepting Hon- 
CNiuy Members, must subscribe to the rules, and pay to the 
Treasurer the initiation fee, and ^mi jtcrt iuts as fr^fviJid for in 
Sft'iiOMts 4S and ^, before he can receive a certificate of mem- 
bership. If this is not done within six months of notifH:atioD 
oC election the election shall be iroid/* 

The PitiuSil>ENT — What is the pleasure ui tiie Association 
with respect to tlicsc proposed amendments ? 

Mk. Gati^ — 1 iQuve that the Secretaiy cast the ballot of the 
Association for their adopt ton« 

Mk. L^ttlehales — VTxih all due r^»ect to the recommenda- 
tious ol the Council upon the matter^ I think that is a mistake, 
and Cor this reason. It means an addttionaJ fee to be p^td by 
those jiuntnj^ the Associalkm. That might be one means uf 
raising the wiml« but 1 think it woold be mnch more in accord- 
ance with the fitness of things if ejisting manbers paid op 
their dnes, and reiidered this oolkction ffom new members on- 
necessary. As most of the pcospectiTe members of this Assu- 
cialioii will be cooaected with soiilkr works^ it would seem to 
he raih«^ Kanl to iiKrease the aamont vhtch they shall pay on 



475 



g members. As the larj^^trr companies are nearl\ all 
represented, and ihc prospective membership must come from 
the smaller companies, many of those men have to pay the 
dues themselves — they are not paid by their companies. There- 
fore» I think It is a mistake U> raise the entrance fee nnduly 
high. 

The pRKSiDENT — The Chair might state for the information 
of gentlemen the reasons which led the Council to take this ac- 
tion. Some of you may possibly have forgotten the fact that a 
few years ago the Association voted to present to each member 
a badge, and to all incoming members the badge practically 
represents a cost of $5, Therefore, the incoming member, 
upon paying an initiation fee of 810, gets at once $5 worth of 
badge handed back to him, and $5 for his first year's dues; so 
that he practically gets his $10 hack the first year. The pur- 
chase of those badges depleted the treasury, and the Associa- 
tion has not yet recovered from that condition. We have fur- 
nished ourselves with badges costing $5 apiece (and of course 
for small numbers the price is increased), and we felt that gen- 
tlemen coming into the vX^ssociation hereafter would not object 
to paying $5 for their badges. Therefore, this amendment was 
presented l>y the Council. It is presented for your considera- 
tion. In olTering it, the Council simply re[)resent their own 
ideas on the subject, and are very glad to have yours. They 
desire to have the question fully discussed. The matter is still 
open for your discussion. 

Mr, Gkaeff-^I think if the Secretary would glance at the 
rolls of some of the eletjtric light associations he will find that 
Ihey are growing quite as rapidly as this /\ssociation, and yet 
they have an initiation fee of $20, at tlie lowest. 

The pRfc:siDENT — I think you are quite right, and that we re- 
quire a very small initiation fee in proportion to the benefits to 
be derived from membership in this Association. I do not think 
that the requirement of an additional 65 would prevent anyone 
from coming in. The Chair will say, in reply to the suggestion 
of Mr. Littlehales, that, as our recruits are to come from the 
young men, it would seem that the young men would be very 
glad to pay 8^5 for the privilege of w*earing this handsome deco- 



m 



ralioiK Is there any further discussion? U has been movd 
and seconded that this recommendation of amendments lo the 
Cunstitutjon be adopted, and that the Secretary cast the unani* 
moQs vote of the Association, He can only do so by your 
unanimous consent. Is there any objection Lo such course? 
There being no objection, the Secretary will please cast the bal- 
lot, and Mr. Slater will again oblige us by acting as teller. 

1'hk Sfxre TAkY-«Is there any objection to my casting the bal- 
lot of the Association for the adoption of the proposed amend- 
ments? Hearing nnne» I cast the ballot of the Association, 

Mk, Slater — ^Vour teller has assorted and counted the 
ballots, and finds a unanimous vote in favor of the adoption of 
the [proposed amehdments. 

The President — The Chair announces that the proposed 
amendmetits in the Constitution tm the subject of initiation fees 
and dues have been unanimously adopted. 

REPORTS OF SECRETARY AND TREASURER, 

You will now give your attention to the reading of the reports 
of your Secretary and Treasurer, and also of the Finance Com- 
mittee. 

The Secretary read the following report; 



Rkfort oi (Acting) Secretary kur the Year Ending 
Sept. 3o» 1891. 

Homrary Afemifers. 

Published list of 1 890 6 

Died between publication and Secretary's final report 

to Association, Oct. I, 1890 i 

Shown by Secretary's report, Oct, 1, 1S90 5 

No change during year now on Roll. 



477 

Active Members. 

Published list of 1890 shows ,,,,.,.,...,,. 343 

Died between publication and Secretary's report^ Oct 

1890 2 

Resigned during same period 3 5 

Shown by Secretary's report, Oct. i, 1890 340 

Elected October 15, 1890 , . 32 

Of which one did not qualify •.....» \— — 31 

37» 

Resigned during year , , . 3 

Dropped for non-payment nf dues 13 

Died ..-.......,- -.,,..,..... 7 2:^ 

*348 
Associate Afemhers, 

Number on Roll, by Secretary's Report, Oct. i, 1S90 15 
(Agreeing with published list, 1S90.) 

Elected October 15, 1890 ........ . 7^-_ 22 

Died during the year 1 

Now on Roll, agreeing with published list, 1891 ,.. . ai 

Total membership, October i, 1891 .. . 374 

MKMRERS WHO HAVti DIED DURING THE VEAR, 

Active. 

B. F. Sherman, New York, N, Y., Oct. 31, 1890. 
Nathaniel Tufts, Boston, Mass,, Nov. 9, 1890. 
Wm. Mooney, New York, N, Y., Jan. 2i» 1891. 
Wm. H. Down, New York, N. Y., Feb. 15, 1891. 

(•The published list of 1891 shows 350, as it mdudes the names of F. H. 
DcSaussiire, who did not qu-ilify, and the name of Samuel Prtchitt, who died 
since publication of list.) 



478 



I. Linton, Ravenna, Ohio, March, iS^t* 

J. M, Sterling, Monroe, Mich,, May iS, 1S9K 

Samuel Prichitt, Nashville, Tenii*, Sepi- 11^ i%i. 

E. M, Ruf^sell, St. Louis, Mo.^ May tS, 1891. 

Alex C; Humpukets, Affmg S^^rrMrjf* 
Philadelphia, Oct. i, 1891, 

Report or the (Acting ) Treasurer for the Year Endikc 
Sept. 30, i%i. 

Dues for year 1S89. »,,,,,,,., . • , . . , . • . $5.00 

" f S90 ...*,*,. , . . . * * • 1 5.00 

" 1 89 1 ... * 6S0.00 

** 1 892 . , , 940.00 

$1,640.00 

Initiation fees — members elected Oct., 1890. 380.00 

Payment in advance for 1891 . 10.00 

Sale of one set of *' Proceedings " 9.75 

Reports of meetings: 

Light, Heat and Power, Toronto Meeting. $96.83 

Baltimore " 24.75 

Savannah '* 82.00 

Amer. Gas Light Journal, " " 82.00 

Progressive Age, Baltimore " 24.75 

Savannah " 82.00 

$392-33 

Note discounted 300.00 

Total receipts $2,732.08 

Cash brought forward from last year.. . 418.84 

Total to account for ^3,^50.92 



479 

Expenditures. 

Advertising : 

Light, Heat and Power, Baltimore Meeting, $33-35 

" " ** Savannah ** 10,00 

Amer, Gas Lt. Journal^ ** " 20.00 

Progressive Age, ** " 40.00 

Reporting Savannah Meeting 

Printing papers in advance, Savannah Meet- 

>ng --> -• 

Silk Badges, Savannah Meeting (bal of acct). 

Printing Circulars, etc., for Savannah Meet- 
ing • 

Association Expenses at Savannah^ Sec'y's., $233,40 

General, 104.29 

Expenses of Secretary attending meeting of 

Council, in LouisvilJe 

Stamps and stamped envelopes • , 

Telegrams 

Stationery^ 

Initiation fee returned (paid twice in error). 

Note paid 

Interest , ... 

Printing list of members, 189 1 , , , 

Printing Circulars, New York Meeting..*. • 

Wages — Clerks ... 

Salary of Secretary 

Sundries * 

Cash carried forward to next year. 

Balance in First Nat. Bank of Pbila.. $511.96 
Petty Cash 2.52 

As above. $5 14.48 



$246.00 

259*75 
30.00 

56.00 



33769 



$2,656.44 

514.48 



S3, '50-92 



480 

Due from Members. 

For year 1888 $5.00 

*' 1889 40.00 

" 1890 55.00 

" 1891 215.00 

'* 1892.. ' 900.00 

Total $[«2i5.oo 

Alex. C. Huiiphrex^ 

Acting Treasurer, 

Examined and found correct. 

A. E. BOARDMAN, 

A. W. Littleton, 
Charles H. Nettleton. 

Finance Committee, 

New Yqrk, October zo, 1891. 

Report of Finance Committee. 

The Finance Committee submitted the following report: 
Your Finance Committee has examined the books and vouch- 
ers of the Secretary and Treasurer, C. J. R. Humphreys, and of 
the Acting Secretary and Treasurer, Alex. C. Humphreys, for 
the year ending Sept. 30, 1891, and has found the same to be 
correct. 

A. K. HOARDMAN, 

A. W. Littleton, 
Charles H. Nettleton. 

Finance Committee. 

The President— You have heard read the reports of the 
Secretary, of the Treasurer, and also of the Finance Commit- 
tee, upon the condition of the books and accounts. Is it your 
pleasure that they shall be received and placed on record? If 
there is no objection, such course will be taken. If any mem- 
ber desires to ask any cjuestions in connection with those 
at rounis, he now has opportunity to do so, as the Secretary 



481 



and Treasurer will be glad to reply, and to give an^esireafii- 
formation. If there is no such desire expressed, we will consider 
that order of business duly closed. Mn Secretary, what special 
comrnittees are to report at this meeting? 

The Secretary — ^The Committee on the World's Columbian 
Exposition. 



I 



REPORTS OF Sl*ECIAL COMMITTKES. 

The President; — The Chairman of that Committee is your 
President, Mr. Harbison, who is unfortunately detained at 
home by illness. The Comniittee has but h'ttle to report. As 
3 member of that Committee, having made a visit to Chicago 
in this connection with Mr. Harbison, I am probably the only 
member of the Committee present who can tell you anything 
about il; hence, I may, in an off-hand report, tell you the posi* 
lion in which that World's Fair matter is: Your Committee met 
the officers of tfie World's Fair in Chicago, and found that there 
was no disposition upon the part of the commissioners to per- 
mit us to make there any extended or extensive display of gas 
as an tlluminant. They would permit us, if we desired so to do, 
to erect a buthJing (at our own expense), in which we might do 
anything we pleased that would mn infringt^ the rules of the 
commission. They further agreed that all exhibits of gas ap- 
pliances, of any nature, should be grouped as much as possible 
in one building, and that in that building we rfiight make any 
exhibitions wt* pleased; but that the building itself would be 
lighted by the electric light. They assuretl us that the entire 
ground, and all the buildings, would be lit by the electric light, 
and by nothing else; that no gas lamps would be allowed, 
further than the privilege, if we desired, to exhibit one or more 
peculiar or novel street lamps, or large lamps for out-door ser- 
vice; they could be put up immediately contiguous to this build- 
ing, but they would have to be subjected to any competition 
with the neighboring electric lights that were burning. In 
other words, they wuuld not put out an electric light that might 
be in the neighborhood in order to accommodate these gas 
lamps. There seemed to he no disposition upon the part of 
the officers that wc met to give gas any show there at all. They 

31 



482 



are going to introduce one of the nio*?i magnificent electric 
plants in the wnrlih Arrangements have already been made to 
that effect, and 1 think I may say without any risk of contra- 
diction that it will be the most wonderful electrical cxhibitioa 
that ever has been shown to man. Your Committee found that 
to be the condition of affairs, and could make no steps in the 
direction proposed, because the Committee were without power 
to act, and were sent there simjily to find out what could be 
done. It struck both Mr. Harbison and myself that as this was 
to be the state of affairs, the matter had better be relegated to 
those who are engaj^ed in the industry of producing gas aj^pa- 
ratus and machinery, and, as they would be the exhibitors, they 
would really be the men to state what they wanted to do, and 
how they wanted to do it. It seemed to iis iille to expect that 
the gas companies of this country wotdd contribute a fund of 
money to be disposed of by us, as a t^omniittee, or by anybody 
for the purpose of erecting a building there which should be 
specially devotee! to the exhibition of gas in its various uses. 
The only reccjmmendation that I can make from the Committee 
is that you receive this as a report from that Committee and 
dismiss us from further consideration of the suliject; and then, 
if you w^ish to take up the subject again as a body, I would sug- 
gest that the next committee be composed of gentlemen in our 
membership who are actively engaged in the manufacture of 
gas apparatus. What