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=^ 



1 



K E P O R T 



REGULAR SETTLEMENT 



ITARDOI DISTRICT. 



KtTtCTin VT E- 0. BKADFOtin, SettletMnl Qfi'rtr; 
BtrowKP BV A. H. HAEIKUTON, Ofg. tkttttfient Offhtr, 



W. OLBSN'ERHASSETT, OJTg- I^fpflj Commumi'tr, 
U- il.'t Stngal Ciril ikrvict. 




ALLAHABAD: 



XOIffH-WSSTEB!: PROVIHCSS AHO 0(7DQ QOVKSSUENT TRSS3. 



VA^t^ ,■ 




•. •• 



ouuu4w;995U 



,r 



i^2^^ 




i. 



3? 



V* 






KEPORT 



or THV 



EEGULAR SETTLEMENT 



OF THE 



HARDOI DISTRICT. 



ErrECTSD bt E. 0. BRADFORD, SeUlement Officer; 
RBroBTED BT A. H. HABINQTON, Offg, SeUlement Officer^ 

and 

W. BLENNERHASSETT, Offg, Deputy Commissioner, 
n. M^s Bengal Civil Service, 




»^^^t^^^t^t^t^t^t^*^»^^0m^»^^^r^^0^F^'^'^^ 



ALLAHABAD: 

KOBTH-WESTEBN FBOVINOIS AMD OUOH aOTXBKKXNT PBBgs. 

188 0. 



J 



y 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTEH !• 



The District. 



SECTION I.— Natural Features. 

Paras Page* 

1 General description, boundaries, area, elevations ... 1-2 

2 Physical features ... ... ... 2-3 

3 Soil and subterranean formations ... ••• 3-4 

4 x^aKes ••• «•• ••• ••• 4 

5 Forests ••• .. ••• ••• 4-5 

6 Rivers, ponds, flood discharge of Sai ••• ••• 5-8 

7 Deficiency of timber ••• ... ••• 8 

8 Fauna ... ••• ••• ... ib. 

9 Climate and rainfall ... ••• ... 8-12 
10 Medical aspects, fever, cholera, small-pox, cattle- 

Qisease ... ... ••• ... x^w^xd 



SECTION II. — Agriculture and Commerce. 

11 Crop areas : cayenne pepper, carthamus tinctorius, 

ajiaairiy jamun. ... ... ... 15-20 

12 Agricultural statistics ... ••• ..• 20 

13 Prices ... ... ... ... 20-23 

14 Food of the people ... ... ... 24 

15 Fish ... ... ... ... 24-25 

16 Cultivation backward ^statistics of opium culture ••• 25-26 

17 Trade, commerce and manufactures ... ••• 26 

18 Fairs ... .,. ... ... 26-28 

19 Imports and exports ... ••• ••• 28 

20 Railway traffic ... ... ... 28-29 

21 Roads and communications ... ... 29-30 

22 Local weights and measures ... ... 31 

23 Interest ••• ... ••• ••• 31 



SECTION lIL-^Population. 

24 Administrative divisions: number professing each 

religion ••• ••• ... ••• 32 



ii CONTENTS. 

Fara. Page. 

25 Principal castes and sects ... ••• ... 33-«34 

26 Principal Chhattri clans ••• ... ... 34-35 

27 Towns ... ••• ... ... 35 

28 Distribution of property among the Chhattri clans . 35-37 

29 Division of landed properties ... ... 37 

30 Distribution of property in Akbar's time, .1590 A.D., 38 

31 The \^rge proprietors : return of ownership and rental of 

taluqas ... ... ... ... 39-41 

32 Origin of the taluqas : R6ja Uardeo Bakhsh of Katiari, 41-43 

33 The small proprietors ••• ... ... 43 

34 Paucity of feudal lordships accounted for ... 44-48 

35 The two kinds of taluqa ... ... ... 48-40 

36 The yeomen proprietors: their difficulties ... 49-50 

37 Transfers ... ... ... ... 50-51 



SECTION lY. —Adminutrative fiaiures. 

38 Administrative divisions ... ... ... 51 

89 Magisterial staff : police ... 

40 Bevenue 

41 Income Tax 

42 Local taxation 

43 Crime and criminal classes 

44 Accidental deaths 

45 Education : return of schools 

46 Post-offices 



SECTION Y.^Eistory. 



... 



. . . ... 

. . . ... 

. • . . . • 



47 Traditions 

48 The Moslem conquest 

49 Modern events 

50 Annals of Bilgram 

51 The battle of Bilgrdm 

52 Modem Hindu history 

53 Turbulence of the district 

54 Celebrated Nazims and Chakladars 

55 The Bangar described by Colonel Sleeman 

56 An infanticide incident 



«•« ... 

••• 



••• 





52 


... • 


ib. 




53-54 




54-55 




65-5G 




56 




57-59 




60 




60-61 




61-62 




62-63 




63-69 




69-73 




74-76 




76 




76-77 




77 




77-78 



CHAPTER IL 



Gazetteer of Parganas, Towns, and Important 

YlLLAGSS. 

57 Alamnagar (pargana) .•• ••• ••• 79*82 

58 Arjunpur ••• ••• ••• ••• 82 



I7am>« 


CONTENTS. 


59 


Arwal 


• •• 


60 


Atraali 


• • ■ 


61 


Balamau 


• • • 


62 


Balamaa (pargana) 


*•• 


63 


Bangar (pargaoa) 


• •• 


64 


Bansa 


• •• 


65 


Barwan (pargana) 


• • • 


66 


Bar wan 


• • • 


67 


B4wan (pargana) 


• • • 


68 


Bdwan khds ... 


• •• 


69 


Bcniganj 


• •• 


70 


Bbagwautnagar 


••• 


71 


Bhardwan ... 


• •• 


72 


Bhatpur ... 


••• 


73 


Bbaunti ..• 


• •• 


74 


Bilpram (pargana) 


••• 


75 


Bilgraiu ... 


• •• 


76 


Chatpia 


• •• 


77 


Dharampur 


• •• 


78 


Gopainan (pargana) 


• •• 


79 


Gopamaa >«• 


••• 


80 


Qnndwa (pargana) 


• • • 


81 


Ffardoi 


• • • 


82 


Hathaara 


• • • 


83 


Jalalabad 


• • • 


84 


Kachbandaa (pargana) 


• • • 


85 


Kalydnmal (pargana) 


• • • 


86 


Katidri (pargana) 


• • • 


87 


Kaundha 


• • • 


»8 


Khajurabra 


• • • 


89 


Kbasanra 


• • • 


J'O 


Knchla Bijna ... 


• • • 


91 


Kursat kalan ... 


• • • 


92 


Kurseli 


• • • 


93 


Lonara 


• • • 


94 


Mabg&wan 


• • • 


95 


Mall&nwdn (pargana) 


• • • 


96 


Mallanw^n 


• • • 


97 


]Mdnjbg4on 


• • • 


98 


Manjbia 


• • • 


99 


Mansurnagar ( pargana ) 


■ • • 


100 


Nir 


• • • 


101 


Pacbhoha ( pargana ) 


• •• 


102 


Pali ( par£;ana ) 


• • • 


103 


P&li 


• • • 


104 


Fib&ni-Padarua (pargana) 


• • • 



• •• 

• •• 

••• 

• •• 

• •• 

• •• 

• •• 

• • • 
■ • • 

• •■ 

• •• 

• •• 

• •• 

• •• 

• •• 

• •• 

• •• 

• • • 

• •• 

• • • 
• •• 



• •• 



• •• 



■•• • 



• •• 



• •• 



• •• 



• •• 



Ul 

Page. 

82 

t6. 

ib, 

83-84 

84-90 

90 

90-96 

96-97 

97-100 

100-102 

102-103 

103 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

104-119 

120-124 

124 

••• ib, 

... 124-141 

... 141-148 

... 148-160 

... 160-162 

162 

ib. 

... 162-164 

... 165-168 

... 168-175 

175 

. . • ib, 

... 175-176 

176 

U). 

... 176-177 

177 

ib. 

... 177-186 

... 186-188 

188 

t6. 

... 188-190 

... 190-191 

... 191-195 

... 195-197 

... 197-200 

... 200-203 



IT 

Para. 

105 
106 
107 
108 
109 
110 
111 
112 
113 
114 
115 



COBTENTfl. 



Page. 



116 

117 
118 



120 
121 
122 

123 
124 

125 



PiMoi 






... 203-207 


Sandi (pargana) 






... 207-213 


Sandi • ... 






... 213-21 (> 


Sandila (parganaj 






... 216-222 


Sandila 






... 222-224 


Sara (pargana) 






... 224-229 


Saromannagar (pargana) ... 






... 229-232 


Sarouiannagar 






... 232-233 


Shahabad ^pargana) 






... 233-240 


Sbababad 






... 24U-242 


Shahabad, Colonel Sleeman's 


account 




... 242-243 


CHAPTER IIL 





DjCMABC AXIOM AND SuBVET. 

SECTION I.— Demarcation. 

Demarcation operations, 1860-61, 1861-62| and 

1862-63 ..• 
Operations of 1 863-64 
Demarcation completed in 1864-65 



..• 



244-245 

245 

245-247 



SECTION \l.— Revenue Survey. 
119 Revenue Survey, 1863-64 to 1865-66 ... 



• • . 



247 



SECTION III.— SeUlement Survey. 



System described ... ... ... 248 

Operations of 1863-64 and 1864-65 ... ... 249 

Operations of 1865-66 : special difficulties in tabsil 

fiilgn'im ... ••• ... ... tfr. 

Operations completed in 1866-67 ... ... ib. 

Cost of survey: area mapped: average cost per 

thousand acres ••• ... ... 249-250 

Comparative results of revenue and settlement 

surveys ... ••• ... ... 250 



CHAPTER IV. 



Prepabation of becobds. 

126 Contents of the misl bandobast or settlement file ... 251 

127 Two papers omitted from the Hardoi record ... 251-252 



CONTBNTS. ' 

Para. Page. 

128 Object of the Rent Schedules not attainable under 

present rules ... ••• ..• 253-254 

129 Suggestion for their preparation at a latter period... 254 

130 Cost of preparinor records, how incurred .•• ib, 

131 Waste of time and money caused by imperfect divi- 

sion of labour ... ... ... ib. 

132 Contract system ultimately introduced for all copying, 254-255 

133 Arrangements for testing correctness of copies ••• 255 

134 Preparation of records completed in 1871 ... ib. 

135 Results of imperfect division of settlement labour ... 255-256 

136 Three-quarters of a lakh saved by improvement in 

this matter ... ... ... 256 

137 Results^ in Oudh, of a different system ... 256-257 



CHAPTER V. 



Judicial Work. 

138 Statement IV.: tenures: average area of cultivation 

anu 8\^ ••« ••• ••• ... i^oo 

139 Statement VI., original suits, by what agency dis- 

posed of ... ••• ... ••• ib, 

140 Classification of claims ... ••• ... 259 

141 Results of the suits ... ... ••• ib. 

142 Statement VIA., appeals : results ... ...259-260 

143 Statement VII., area and rental of talnqas : division 

of profits between superior aud inferior pro- 
prietors ... ••• ••• 260 

144 Judicial operations, 1863-64 ... ... ib. 

145 The same, 1864-65 ... ... ... ib. 

146 The same, 1865-66 ... ... ...260-261 

147 The same, 1866-67 ... ... ... 261 

148 The same, 1867-68 ... ... ... ib. 

149 The same, 1868-69 ... ... ... ib, 

150 The same, 1869-70 ... ... ...261-262 

151 Completed in 1870-71 ... ... ... 262 

1525 Tenures not described : instead, descriptive excerpts 

given from the Judicial records as to (1) tenures ; 

(2) devolution of property ••- ... ib. 

153 Hazur tahsil... ... ••• ... 262-266 

154 Quasi proprietary status acquired by pargana officials, 266 

155 Peculiar method of dividing co-parcenery profit in 

Sandilakhas ... ... ... 266-269 

156 Mnkadams ... ... ... ... 269-275 



Vi CONTENTS. 

Para. Papt. 

357 DhirDhiira... ... ... ••* 275 

158 SaccesMOQ of illegitimates. «• ••• ... 276-277 

159 Authority of Hindu widows ... .•. 27 7 

160 Acquisition of villages by Th&kurs in dowry ... 278 

161 Muhammadan husband's and wife's rights carefully 

separated ••• ... ... ib. 

162 Childless (Muhammadan) widows not excluded ... 278 

163 (Muhammadan) daughters do not share where there 

are sons ••• ... *•. ... ^ % %j 

164 Muhammadan husband shares the equivalent of 

wife's dowry ... ... ... 27S-:i80 

CHAPTER VI. 



SECTION I.— Regular Asseisment. 

165 Assessing officers ••• ... ••• 281 

166 Mr. Bradford's method ... ... ... ib. 

167 fiased on rent, both cash and in kind ... ••• t6. 

168 Actual yield of corn ascertained ••• ... t7>. 

169 Produce rates for classified soils ... ... 282 

170 Average prices ... ... ... ib. 

171 Government share of produce *.. ... i7>. 

172 Two soil rates adopted ... .•• •.. 282-2<'S3 

173 Classification by irrigation, goind ••• ••• 283 

174 Rent-rates struck ... ... - 283-2>4 

175 Classification of villages ... ••• ... 284-285 

176 Chak system inapplicable ... ••• ... 285 

177 Local information and judgment ... ... t7>. 

178 Instances of above ... ... ... 285-286 

179 Value of a knowledge of Hindi language ... 286 

180 All irrigated land will not bear irrigated rates ... ib. 

181 Light assessment for large proprietory bodies ... 286-287 

182 Actual average yield ... ... ... 287 

183 Comparison of actual produce and revenue rates ... 287-289 

184 Disadvantages of corn rents ... ... 289 

185 Assessment of culturable land ... ... ib. 

186 Comparison of regular and summary demands ... 289-291 

187 Average rent-rates ... ... ... 291-293 

188 General result for each class of villages ... 294-296 

189 Extentof good, middling and bad land... ... 296-297 

190 Description of pargana Gondwa ,„ ... 298 

191 Ditto ditto Ealianmal ••• ••• ib. 

192 Ditto ditto Sandlla ... ... 298-299 

193 Ditto ditto Balamau ... ... 299 

194 Remarks and revenue rates in tahsil SandSla ••• ib. 



CONTENTS. VU 

Para* Page. 

195 Parganas and estates in tahsfl Hardoi ... ... .300 

196 Description of pargana Baogar ... ••> t&. 

197 Ditto ditto Bawan ... ... ib. 

198 Ditto ditto Sara ... ••• ib* 

199 Ditto ditto Gopamau ... ... 300-301 

200 Hardoi tahsfl backward ... ... ••• 301 

301 And easier to assess than tahsil Sandila ... ih. 

202 Remarks on tahsil Bilgr&m ... ... 301->302 

203 Description of pargana Bilgram ... ... 302 

204 Ditto ditto S4ndi ... ... ib. 

205 Ditto ditto Malldnwdn ... ... ib. 

206 Ditto ditto Kachhandau ... ... 302-303 

207 Ditto ditto Katiari ... ... 303 

208 Large increase in pargana Eatiiri ... ... ib. 

209 Tahsil Shahabad. Bedistribntion of parganas ••• 303-304 

210 Description of pargana Shahabad .... ••• ib. 

211 Mahomedan proprietors ... ..• ••• 304-305 

212 Description of pargana Alamnagar ••• •*. ib. 

213 Large increase justified m. ... ••.305-806 

214 Prog ressiTO demands disapproved of ... ••• 306 

215 Doubts expressed regarding pargana Alamnagar ••• 306^.307 

216 Description of pargana Pih&ni ... ... 307 

217 Ditto ditto Mausuningar ••• ••• ib. 

218 Ditto ditto Saromannagar ••• 307-308 

219 Ditto ditto Barwan ... ... 308 

220 Ditto ditto Pali and Pachhoha ... 308-309 

221 Reasons for a light demand .•• ... 309 
ib. Further reasons for tlio same ... ... ib. 

222 Comparison between former and present condition of 

the landowner ... ... ... 310 

223 Calamities of season. Transfers of property ... ib. 

224 Light demand for large communities ••• •..310-311 

225 Calamities of season ... ... ... 311 

226 Borrowing by landowners ... ... ib. 

227 Total increase in district demand ... ••• ib* 

228 Farther doubts regarding pargana Alamnagar ... 311-312 

229 Ditto continued ... ... 312 

230 Ditto ditto ... ... ib. 

231 Commencement of demand, kabuUats ... ... 313 



SECTION II.— Smtton of Assessment. 

232 KabuliatB remaining unsigned ••• ... 313 

283 Transfer of land after settlements ... ...313-314 

234 Calamities and transfers noted in annual reyenue 

reports ... ... ... ... 314-31? 



Vili COSTEXTS. 

Fara. Pao^t. 

234 Balances of rovenne ... ••• ••• 314-315 

235 General complaints of over-asaessment. -.. 315-316 
t/y. instractions how to be dealt with ... ••• ib. 
ib. Su.s[>en.sions of demand granted '•• •- ib. 

236 Method of revision of assessment adopted .*•• 317-316 

237 Ditto continued ... ••. 318-320 

238 Ditto ditto ... ... 320-321 

239 Ditto ditto ••• .•• 322 

240 Method of assessment for corn-rents ... ... 323 

241 Wasteland. Miscellaneons iteiAs, groves ...326-324 

242 Officers employed in revising demand ... «•• 324 
ib. Oeneral lesult of revision ... ••• ... 325-328 
ifr. lie venue-free tenures ... ... ••• 321^ 

243 Disturbed state of the country before assessment ••• 329 
ih. flaste in imposing increased demand ••• ... 330-331 

244 Favorable seasons prior to survey and assessment ••• ib. 
ib. Calamities immediately after assessment 

245 Result of assessing by averages ... ... 331 

246 Neglect to use a bb6r rate in tahsils Saudi la and 

Hardoi ••• ... ... — 332 

247 Result of this procedure ••• ••• .•• 333-334 

248 Incorrect distribution of shares of revenue. Unfavour- 

able partition laws ••• .•• ... 334-335 

249 Prospective assets assessed. Results ... ... 335-336 

250 Soil and situation of the district. Floods ... 336-337 

251 Percentage of Government demand to total produce... 337 

252 Remarks on corn-rents ••• .. ... ib. 
ib. High cash-n;nt8 in corn-rented villages explained ••. 338 
ib. Special rates for sugarcane^ explained ••• ... 339 

253 Progressive demands ... ••• ... 339-340 

254 Remarks on assessment of talukas ... ... 340-341 

255 Percentage of Government demand to assets, as given 

in village papers ... ... .•• 341 

256 Cost of revision of Government demand ... 342 

257 Absence of legal checks to over-assessments ... ib. 
ib. Unfavorable changes in law of malikana ; reversion 

to the ancient principle advocated ••• ... 343-344 

CHAPTER VIII. 



NOTICB OF OfFICEBS. 

S58 Settlement and Officiating Settlement OflScers ••• 345 

259 Assistant Settlement Offioors ... ••• 346 

260 Extra Assistant Commissioners ••• ••• 347 

261 8adr Munsarims ••• ..# ... 349 

262 Munsarims ••• ••• ••• ••• 350 

S63 Head Clerk and ShoriBhtadar ••• ••• ib. 



CONTENTS, IX 

Page. 
APPENDICES. 

I. — Bevenuo and field survey ... ... 352-353 

1 1.— Cost of settlement ... -. ... 351-355 

III.— Census, showing area, sex, and population ... 356-361 

IIIA. — Census, showing detail of castes ••• ... 362-377 

IIIB. — Census, showing professions and occupations ... 378-391 

IV.— Tenures, Ac., ... ... ... 892-393 

V. — General statement explanatory of the assess- 
ment as originally made ... ••• 394-399 
VA. — Supplementary general statement explanatory 

of the assessment as revised ... ... 400-403 

VI. — Statement of judicial work — original ... 404 

VIA. — Statement of judicial work — appellate ... 405 

VII — Ownership and rental of talukas ... ... 406-409 

VIII. — Return of rural police ... ... 410-411 

IX. — Crop statement — tahsil-war ... ... 412-423 

X.- Cultivation in acres, and rental ... ... 424-430 



CHAPTER L 



The DisTiticT. 

[ Thia ctapter is bj Mr. Charles McMinn, C.S., late Assistant Settlement Officer, and 

was written by him for the Ondh Gazetteer.] 

SECTION /.—NATURAL FEATURES. 

General description, levels, eleTation— Soil and subterranean formations — Lakes- 
Forests— Hi vers— Fauna— Climate — liainfail— Temperature— Medical aspects. 

1. The district of Hardoi, in many respects one of the 
most important in Oudb, is bounded along its whole eastern 
frontier by the Gumti. At the extreme north-west the little 
river Sendha separates it from the district of Shahjahdnpur 
down to its junction with the Rdmganga. The boundary tbea 
crosses the latter river and proceeds direct south, till, at the 
ferry of Sangrampur, it strikes the Ganges, which forms the 
rest of its western limit. Artificial lines of demarcation 
separate it on the north from Kheri, on the south from the 
Lucknow and Unao districts. The district forms an irregu- 
lar parallelogram running between the Gumti and the Ganges. 
Its greatest length from north-west to south-east is 78 miles, 
its average breadth is 46. It lies between 26° 54' and 2V 47' 
north latitude, and between 79° 42' and 80° 63' east longi- 
tude ; its population is 931,517, being at the rate of 40(j to 
the square mile. The entire area of the district is 2,292 
square miles, somewhat less than Perthshire ; the area in 
acres is 1,457,114, of which 844,560 are cultivated. Exclu- 
sive of grants — 

59 per cent is under crop, 

2 „ is in groves, 
5^ „ is barren, 

5 J jj is covered with water in the shape of rivers, 

lakes and ponds, 
25 „ is arable waste, 

3 „ oonsists of roads or sites of villages. 

The above have been altered from the official figures by 
a distribution among all the headings of the 2*9 percentage 
of rent-free lands. It is to be feared, however, that ^e 
barren lands are considerably more extensive than is here set 

IH 



2 HARDOI SKTTLEMKKT REPORT, 

forth. One feature of Hardoi is (he series of great lisar or 
saline plains which run through the middle of the district 
on each side of the railway from Saiidila to Shahahad : they 
are almost wholly unculturahle. Hardoi is a level district ; 
there are no mountains ; the highest point is north of Pihani, 
near the Gumti, and is 490 feet above the level of the sea. 
The country continues high along the Gumti, with a breadth 
of from 3 to 8 miles, the soil sandy, water at a distance of 
from 25 to 40 feet ; this elevated belt then sinks eastward 
into the central plain, which is from 10 to 20 miles broad. 
Down its centre runs the river Sai, which rises in Pihdni, the 
elevation of which stream varies from 437 feet at Hardoi to 
420 feet when it crosses the railway between Sandila and 
Hardoi. Beyond this plain the country again rises, forming 
the watershed between the Sai and Garra with other tribu- 
taries of the Ganges ; proceeding west the elevation reaches 
480 feet between Hardoi and Sdndi, and sinks to about 470 
between Mddhoganj and MalUnwdn. The main portion of 
the district is then the valley of the 8ai river : a valley, how- 
ever, whose slopes are almost imperceptible in places. For 
instance, Hardoi, the headquarters, two miles from the Sai, 
is only two feet above it. Beyond the river Garra the valley 
of the Ganges is met ; the elevation is low, the Ganges itself 
being only 396 feet above the sea opposite Sdndi. Tho 
drainage follows the levels above indicated. The rivers Garra 
and Rdmganga were probably much larger formerly than they 
are now, a portion of the waters of the Ganges having pro* 
bably in former times passed down their channels. For the 
general tendency of the Himalayan rivers has been to abandon 
lateral channels and concentrate their volume in the central 
and most depressed one. Many think that the main channel 
of the Ganges was formerly that of the present Garra, but 
this is, 1 think, impossible, there having been no recent 
chan<«:es uf note in the river-bed. 

2. The general aspect of the country, except towards 
the Ganges, is hardly so pleasing as in the rest of Oudh. 
There are fewer groves, and more hard grey plains. To- 
wards the Ganges, near Sdndi and Bilgrdm, the land is more 
uneven, and often rises into hillocks of sand cultivated at the; 
bases, but the summits of pure white silica rippled all over 
with every eddy of wind. These elevations arc often 



HARDOI SETTLBMENT REPORT. O 

obscured with whirling drifts of sand-like clouds on the tops, 
while the atmosphere below is quite clear. Generally these 
hills are covered with the lofty miinj grass, whose stalks are 
twelve feet high, and tapped with huge plumes of flossy 
filaments ; in some places this grass forms hedges for the 
fields in which scanty crops of barley are raised, but on the 
sand hills above Gopamau and Sdndi the arid soil raises 
nothing else. The gigantic tufts of reed-like grass are a 
most graceful feature in the landscape ; they cover with their 
swaying plumes the numerous sandy knolls which some great 
river or lake has left behind, and if any one, mounted on au 
elephant, surveys tlie scene from the highest point, it is one 
of strange and weird beauty as far as the eye can reach. 
When they are very thick they resist the wind, which only 
dimples the serried mass ; at other places the reeds bend their 
silky glories to the earth in great swathes, and toss them 
about in every gust till they present the appearance of waves 
in a chopping sea. These sand hills and their grassy brakes 
are the haunt of herds of deer, besides sandgrouse and 
pigeons. 

3. The soil of Hardoi is lighter than that of perhaps any 
other district, twenty-seven per cent, being sand, fifty -six per 
cent, loam, and seventeen per cent. clay. So much for the 
surface soil. As for the subterranean formations, a section* 
along the railway cutting for sixty-five miles through this 
district has been obtained in the process of sinking wells. It 
reveals most interesting facts. Everywhere grey, white, or 
yellow sand, wholly unmixed with clay, is met with at a 
depth of from twelve to thirty-five feet. For the first twenty 
miles from the border of the Lucknow district, proceeding 
north, the sand is met at an average distance of twenty feet, 
the extremes being seventeen feet, and for about two miles 
on each side the river Baita thirty feet. Above the sand is 
first a stratum of black clay from two to ten feet thick, above 
that again sandy clay averaging about six feet, and above that 
the surface soil, a red clay averaging about eight feet thick. 
Throughout this tract the wells can generally be dug without 
masonry linings. From Kachhona to Hardoi, about twenty 
miles further, forming the basin of the Sai, the sand comes 

* Kindly furnished to Mr. A. H. Harington bj the Assistant Eogineers of the 
Oudh and Kohiikhand Kailwav, Mr. G. V. Martyn, Mr. A. Carr, and the late Mr. 
r. White.. 



I HARDOI SITTLEMEST REPORT. 

nearer the siirfiicc, averaging about fifteen feet beneath the 
upper 8oil, which consists of sandy clay with a thin topping 
of yellow clay, while for about three miles on each side of 
the Sai the floods have deposited a surface-dressiiij^ of pure 
sand. Throughout this area wells cannot last without s 
masonry lining, unless they merely collect the surface per- 
colations. Beyond Hardoi the bottom sand sinks somewhat, 
and when the series of jhfls round Pipri, half-way between 
Hardoi and Shahabad, is reached, the sand gives place to a 
blue sandy clay ; this break was apparently caused bj" the 
channel of some ancient river. The sand again approaches 
the surface for the last six miles before reaching Shahabad. 
Throucrhout half of this section these wells should stand 
without a masonry lining. 

4. There are a number of large jhils or lakes in the 
district ; those of Sandi, Rodamau, and several near Kaclihona 
and Bawan are the most remarkable. That of Sandi is three 
miles long and one to two broad, the land on either side rising 
high above the water ; one or two large groves add their 
sombre shades to the light tints of the spring crops, and the 
emerald gloss of the lotus leaves covers large expanses of the 
lake. In the inner recess of the valley the waters are still 
and of a deep blue, but where the surrounding eminences 
widen out the wind moves the surface into sheets of fj^rey 
rippling wavelets, and often in the centre of the lake sudden 
gusts drive the water before it in green billows and bursts of 
white foam. None of the other lakes are so large or deep. 
That at Rodamau is a fine sheet of water, specially interest* 
ing because from its waters rise the ruined walls of an old 
mud fort, the scene of one of the most mournful tragedies of 
the Indian struggle in 1857, and in a little grove near at hand 
rest the remains of Brigadier-General Adrian Hope and his 
brave companions in arms. The jhils are largely used for 
purposes of irrigation, no less than 126,000 acres being water* 
ed from them. Nearly all produce the singhdra or water-nut 
in abundance. The Hardoi wild -fowl shootings are famous. 

5. There are a number of great jungles still in exist- 
ence. All along the Sai, past Tandiaon and Pihdni, dense 
jungle is still found, coming down from pargana Easta, through 
which it joins the woods which skirt the river Kathna, and 



1 



HABDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 



along its banks blends with the great forest of the tardi. 
Down these promontories of the primeval woods, stretching 
far into the cultivated lands, came down robber bands, the 
Bdchhils of Atwa Piparia, the Pasis of the Bdngar, Mitauli, 
and Ahrori in Gopamau, the Katahria of Palia, the Chamar 
Gaurs of Sara. By day they marched secretly through the 
forests, stopping at noon beneath some vast pipal or banian 
to cook the midday meal and offer an oblation of meal and 
flowers to their patron goddess BhawAni, who is partial to 
these umbrageous shrines. At night they would come forth 
from the jungle, move swiftly and silently on some village in 
which dwelt a village banker, a wealthy grain merchant, some 
Government civil or military officer retired with his savings 
to his native village; before daylight they would dive back 
into the forests, leaving mangled and tortured bodies over tiie 
holes whence their treasures had been rifled. Even now in the 
Bangar the Pdsis pride themselves on taking some evidence 
of their prowess, a penknife, a handkerchief, from the tents 
of the English officers who visit their jungles for sport, and 
with whom they are generally on the best of terms. 

There are other forests between Sandila and Mddhoganj, 
between Hardoiand Bdwan; but the main jungle tract is that 
which extends along both banks of the Sai almost continuously 
for about fifteen miles from its source, while on either side 
detached patches of jungle are scattered here and there, 
gradually getting more and more sparse further east and west 
from that river. These jungles were formerly inhabited; in 
one patch of about three thousand acres, granted as a reward 
for loyalty to Munshi Fazl Rasiil, the owner's ploughs have 
already revealed fifteen ancient wells in perfect order, covered 
with a light coating of loam from the decay of fallen leaves 
during many centuries. There is hardly any sAl forest, dhdk 
is the most common; and nowhere is the glorious bloom of 
that tree a more striking feature of the March and April 
landscape than in Hardoi. Karaunda is common, but tho 
banian tree is more abundant in Hardoi than in any other part 
of Oudh. 

6. The rivers of Hardoi are, commencing from the west, 
the Ganges, RAmganga, Garra, Sukheta, Sai,Baita,and Qumti; 
their aggregate cold-weather discharge is nearly 4,000 feet per 
second. Few of them are of any use for purposes of irriga- 



HABDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 

on. The Garra is perhaps most largely applied to tbat 
bject The Gumti during the winter and summer is here a 
eatle stream whose dry-weather discharge is not more than 

00 cabic feet; it has high sandy banks on each side, is easily 
>rdable at all places, and at certain spots is not more than 
wo feet deep. It is nowhere bridged in this district. The 
»ai, which, during the rains, has an enormous torrent of water, 

1 here an insigniBcant river, with a channel hardly sunk below 
be general surface till it gets beyond the latitude of tiardoi 
pposite Sandila. * There it has cut a channel some twenty- 
ive feet below the surrounding country. Its dry-weather 
ischarge is only thirty feet at Partabgarh; it is a mere rivulet 
a Hardoi. The Ganges, the Rdmganga and the Garra are 
lavigable by boats of 500 maunds; the banks of all are sandy, 
he bottoms never rocky, though ridges of kankar occur. The 
brds are mentioned in the accompanying table. 

Listof ghdU orford$ under Government management in the 

Hardoi District. 



Name of Tillage 

in which the 

ghit ifl sitoate. 



Bhatpart pargana 
and tahsil Sandila. 



Baniganj, pargana 
Sandila. 



Name of 
ghat. 



Bhatpur 
ghat. 



Katbingra and 
Kalyinmaly tahsil 
'Sandfla. 



lUjgbat. 



Name of 
rlTcr. 



Gamti 



9— 



Qumti •». 



Hattiaghat 



Gumti ... 



Remarks. 



This road goes from Bareli to Luck- 
now nid Bhatpar. Carts of^ grain are 
taken from Sitapar and Lakbimpar (nor* 
iherljr districto ), and sometimes carts 
go to Cawnpore viA baudils, Aaras, 
and Kasulabad. 

This ghi^t lies on the road going from 
Khairigarh via Nimkhdr and Sandila 
to Lncknow, and another from 8andila 
via Kachhona and M 4dhoganj goen to 
Mehndighit, and the third goes 
straight 9id Ghausganj to Mehndigliat, 
On these roads too, grain, &c, are 
abundantly exported. Qenerallj grain 
is sold at M&dhoganj. 

The Hattia Ilaran mela concourse 
goes through this ghit. The paasnge 
of carts daily amoants to 660 daring 
the fair. 



BABDOI SETTLEMENT RfcPORT. 



List 0/ ghats or fords under Government management in 
the Hardoi District. — ( coucluded. ) 



Name of Tillage in 

which the ghat is 

situate. 



Name of 
ghat 



Atahnakola, tahsil 
isaudSla. 

Bhainsari, pargaiia 
Qupamau, tahsil 
Hardoi. 



Kolhabar, tah^Sl 
iShahabad. 

Fali^tahsSlShaha- 
bad. 

Sandf la, tahsil Bil- 
grain. 



Dcosipur, pargana 
Katiari, tahsil Bil 
gr&m. 



Name of 
river. 



Remarks. 



.. 



Mahdewa- 
ghat 

Dudhnamau- 
ghat. 



Kolhabar- 
ghat. 

B£jghat. 



Bajghat 



Deosigh&t 



Gamti ... 
Qumti .. 



Gumt! 
Garra 
Garra 



■M 



This ghit is near Nimkhar. 



Thia gh4t is on the road to Fatehgarh 
Nanpira» and^as it is on the Siiapur 
road, travellers are passing daily in 
great numbers. 

This road goes to Muhomdi vid 
\ Pihani. 

This gh&t lies on the road from 
Shahabad to Pall. 

This road goes to Fatehgarh-Farukh- 
abad. Merchandise, cloths, copper, &c.| 
come from there. 



Gambhiri, 



This gh&t lies on the road to Fateh- 
garh-Nanpara, a minor gh4t. 



In the rains of 1872, the river Sai presented a considerable 
volume of water, 168 feet broad, 14'6 feet deep, with a velocity 
of 3'52 miles per hour, and with a discharge of 6,294 cubic feet 
per second. In ordinary monsoons the highest discharge is 
about a quarter less than this. The river is crossed by the 
railway with a girder bridge with three openings, each of 56 
feet. The flood discharges of the only other river, the Sukheta, 
of which the information has been obtained, are given below:— 



Biver, 



SnkheU 



••• 



Waterway, 
liuear feet. 



ISO 



I 



Height, 



18-3 



Mean Telocity. 



532 



Flood discharge 

per second, iu 

cubic feet. 



11,856 



There is no timber traffic on the rivers^ except on the 
Garra, 



8 IIARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 

There arc no river-side towns of any kind ; Sandih, 
Shaimhacl, Biigrum, Mallunwun, Pihani, Hardoi, are all br 
from any river. 8andi is the only place of any imporUnei 
^Jjicli in near a river ( the Garra ), but its population is not 
engaged in either trading or fishing. In fact no water tmffie 
or finheries worthy of note are met with in the district. Fine 
rohu arc to be had in the Garra and Kdmgauga. None of the 
rivers or marshes have been embanked. 

7. Ilardoi is worse off for wood than any other district • 
its Jungles cannot be called wo »d.s, and less than two per cent 
of Its area has l)een planted with groves, which is perhaps the 
reason^ it8 rainfall is so much below the provincial average. 

8. There is nothing peculiar in the fauna of Hardoi- 
it8 features are similar to those of Partabgarh and Lucknow! 
No tigers have been seen for twenty years, but leopards are 
8tili found in the jungles near Pihdni. Black buck are very 
numerous in Gopamau, and everywhere along the sandy 
banks of the Gumti herds of fifty are found. On the Ganges, 
near MalUnwdn, they are not so common, but have much 
longer horns ; 24 inches are not infrequent. NiUg^e are 
found in herds of forty in the jlidu jungle around Dharmpur 
between the Ganges and Rdmganga, also near Pihdni and 
Tandiaon in the jungles around the Sai. Spotted deer are 
found in the bamboo brakes near the villages in Gopaoiau and 
near Atwa, the residence of Thdkur Bhdrath Singh, half-\^ay 
between Sandila and Hardoi. The four -horned deer has 
recently disappeared. The writer shot one in 1865. Hares 
have become unaccountably scarce since 1868; the floods are 
supposed to be the cause. The mallard, teal, grey duck, and 
common goose are more abundant in Hardoi than in anv other 
district of Oudh. The range of jhfls which dot the" lower 
levels of the Sai valley abounds in all kinds of water-fowl. 

9. The following account of the climate and sanitary 
conditions of Hardoi has been communicated by Dr. McReddie 
the late Civil Surgeon ;— ' 

The climate of Hardoi does not differ materially from 
that of Oudh generally. Hailstorms and tornadoes are 
perhaps more common and destructive ; one in March, 1868 
destroyed crops to the value of Rs. 2,00,000. The average 



HABDOI SETTLEMENT SEPORT. 9 

rainfall is said to have been 28 inches from 1862 to 1865, 
28 inches in 1866, 55 inches in 1867, 14 in 1868, and this 
report gives the rainfall for the years 1869, 1870, 1871,1872 
at 27, 47, 40, and 51 inches. The total rainfall will then 
average for the last ten years about 32 inches, that of the 
province being about 42. There is no doubt that Hardoi is 
perhaps the driest district in Oudb, even although the returns 
for the years before 1866 may not be strictly accurate. The 
average for the last five years in the adjoining district, Sitapur, 
is 34 inches. In the revenue report for 1872 the average rain- 
fall for the last five years is given at 39 inches, as follows : — 



1867 


• • • 


67-3 


1870 


• • • 


46-4 


1868 


• • • 


24.-2 


1871 


• •. 


44-8 


1869 


• •• 


28-1 


1872 


. • • 


33-2 



In 1873 the rainfall was only 21 inches, being consider- 
ably the lowest in Oudh, and again in 1874 the recorded 
rainfall in Bilgrdm has been only 31 inches, the lowest in 
Oudh. 

The following statement gives the result of thermometric 
observations and rainfall of the Hardoi district as recorded in 
the sadr station. The statement is compiled from the records 
of the three years 1869, 1870 and 1871. Previous observa- 
tions are not reliable. The second table gives the thermo- 
metrical observations for 1871 somewhat more in detail :— 





Month. 






Mean daily 
range. 


Approximate 

mean of 

month. 


Uainfall. 










Degrees. 


Degrees. 




January ••• 


••• 


••• 




m 


59 




February ... 


••• 


.a* 




16 


6G4 


en 


March 


••• 


• •• 




16 


75 


"g 5 » 


April 


•.• 


••• 




20 


76 


•v4 


May 


... 


• •■ 




19 


92 1 


y 9tn 


June ••• 


•«• 


*•• 




\n 


94^ 


<D ^1. o 
9« ^ ^ 


July .M 


... 


•«• 




H 


87 




August ... 


••* 


... 




9 


86ft 


2 5'"' 

w t* l>« 


September «•• 


••• 


••• 




11 


894 


a& 30 00 

'" mt mm 


October ^ 


... 


... 




m 


77 


b4 S "^ 


November .•• 


Ma 


• ■• 




S3 


69 


■ ^ ^ «% 


December ... 


... 


... 


••• 


14 


61 





2h 



10 



HARDOI SKTTLnnENT BVPORT. 



Change abstract of meUoroloffical register for 1871. 



JanuArj 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 
August 
September 
October 

Norember 
December 



Mootlu 



••• 



••• 



••• 



••• 



•M 



••• 



•«• 



••« 



• M 



StAHDABD THBEXOnTBB I If 8HA1»B. 



Mean. 


Highest and 


Lowest and 


datea. 


dates. 




Itt 


15tb 


•7 1 


77-4 


56-9 




13th and Hth 


16th 


75-2 


80-4 


66*4 




SOth 


Srd and 4th 


HS'l 


79-4 


72-4 




Itth 


S3rd 


90*0 


102-4 


81-4 




90th 


2SDd 


94- 1 


105-4 


85*4 




9nd and 8rd 


99th 


91-S 


104*6 


82-4 




2nd 


S2nd 


86«8 


93-4 


79*4 




7th and 14th 


24 th and 8lBt 


85*9 


92-4 


80*4 




22nd 


17th 


85-7 


93*4 


77*4 




4th 


8l8t 


88-7 


92-4 

c 


84-4 

19th and toth 




I8t \ 


26th and «7th 


79-4 


86*4 ( 


74*2 




6th 


27th and 29th 


69* 1 


87-4 


69-4 



Hardoi is more subject to drought, hailstorms, and des 
tructive tornadoes than other districts. In Kachhandau an< 
Silgrdm the lowlands are often flooded. No embankment 
or drainage schemes have been carried out. A plan has beei 
submitted for draining the station. Locusts have occasionallj 
been destructive over small areas. None of the rivers flooc 
their banks to a serious extent, but the jhils in Bdwan anc 
' Sandila sometimes cover a large extent of ground with thcL 
overflow. 



HABDOI SETTLEUZMT BKPOBT. 



II 



9 

Another table is appended showing the rainfalls of pre- 
vious years, which are given for what they are worth ; they 
were taken at the Hardoi dispensary : — 



Year, 


Inches. 


• 


1865 




••• 


••• 


80*0 




1866 




••• 


••• 


28-0 




1867 




••• 


••• 


67*S 




1868 




••• 


••■ 


24*S 




1869 




••• 


••• 


281 




1870 




■•• 


••• 


48*4 




l»7l 




M<l 


••• 


44-8 




1872 




• •• 


••• 


83*2 




1873 




• •• 


••• 


21*0 




1874 




• »» 


••• 


41-6 




1876 


•age for 11 


••• 

years 


••• 
••• 


28*6 




ATei 


35-7 





The accompanying table exhibits the rainfall for the last 
two years of drought, 1868 and 1873, each of which was 
followed in 1869 and 1&74, respectively, by considerable 
scarcity. It will be noted that the entire rainfall was scanty, 
the distribution capricious and unusual, and there was no rain 
during individual months in which it is much needed for 
agricultural purposes. 

There are four rainfalls, each of which must be pro- 
pitious to secure a good harvest. 

1st. — The June rains, the former rains as they may be 
called. In 1873 they came only to one-third of an inch,, 
quite insu£5cient to moisten the earth for the plough and to 
water the early rice. 

2nd. — ^The main monsoon, which commences in July and 
ends at the commencement of October. This was barely 
sufficient in either year, but the fall in September, 1868, was 
only 1*8 inches, and it ceased too soon, viz., on September 
20th. 

3rrf. — The latter or October rains, which are required to 
water the late rice and moisten the land for the winter plough* 

ings. These were wholly deficient in both years. 

• 

4/^.— The January -February rains, which were wholly 
wanting in 1869 aad 187 4>, w^re only one-third of an inch. 



12 



HABDOI SETTLEMENT BEPORT. 



Speaking broadly then, the rains commenced well in 1868, 
badly in 1873. They ended with slight showers in 1868, and 
too soon ; in 1873 they were scanty for the last month, and 
fnded still earlier — in September. So far 1873 was about 
equally bad with 1868 ; there was absolutely no rain in either 
year from October till January, but in February there was no 
rain in 1869, and a third of an inch in 1874. 



Total rainfall. 



From June Ist to October 1st 

From October 1st to December 3 Ist 

In June ... .•• 

9, September m* 

^ October ... ••• 

I)ate of rain commenciog 
„ of rain ending 

Rain in January-February of ensu- 
ing year. 



••• 



• a. 



..• 



1868. 



1873. 



11 '20 


18-3 


00 


00 


2-3 


0*3 


1-8 


6-8 


00 


00 


June 17 th. 


June 16th. 


September 20th. 


September 15 th. 


0-0 


0-8 



Two severe storms passed over the district in the hot 
seasons of 1865 and 1868. They did considerable damage to 
houses, trees, &c. The wind blew from the west, and travel- 
led with considerable velocity. Slight shocks of earthquake 
have been occasionally felt, but they were not phenomena 
demanding special mention. 

1 0. Statistics of births have been discontinued from July, 

1870. The records of deaths are given 
in the accompanying tabular statements 
for the years 1870 and 1871. Deaths are recorded by the 
agency of village chaukidars. The totals are probably cor- 
rect, or at least an approximation to truth, but the causes of 
deaths given are quite unreliable. 



Medical aspects.^ 





Class. 










Causb of DBAXn. 








. 1 










i 1 




m 






«• 












a : 




o» 




• 

a 


a 

as 

E 
S 


00 


• 

en 

O 

Vi 


• 

g 


• 


1 . 


a 

o 


• 

•T3 


CD 

a 


00 



n 


• 

CQ 


00 

ja 
O 


a 

a 





o 

JS 

O 
2,131 


o 
O 


CO 


' til 


o 
CQ 



O 


'S 
o 


1.135 


3 


1 


I,3t9 


9,110 


33 


534 


9,939 


4d0 


31 


399 


19,661 



♦ By the Civil Surgeon* 



HABDOI SETTLEHRHT KKFOBT. 



Cla» 


H. ClOBE OF DEtTB. 






IP 


i->r,«. 


si 

1"' 


i 

1 

< 

1 






SuEcide. 


"Wounda. 


Accident. 


3 


ll 

II: 
""" 5 - 


,1 

:•■■- 


III 
&^ -x 

-•- 


ill 
11- 


1 


1 




IS 


! 




1. 


A 


1 


3; 


1 
1 


1 



Malarian fevers are the only preTaiJing eodemic diseases 
of the district, and they are to be attributed to the estensive 
tuarshes which abound. These diseases prevail to a small 
extent in the dry weather of the year, but subsequent to the 
close of every rainy season, *. e., from October to December 
(for about 2^ months); the deaths from these causes are very 
large. No attempt has been made at drainage of swamps, but 
increased cultivationand the clearing of jungles have no doubt 
lessened sickness and mortality due to disease of malarious 
origin. No statistics, however, exist to institute a comparison 
between the mortality now and that sixteen years ago, at least 
none worthy of confidence. Sanitary efforts are verv limited. 



14 HAEDOI SnTLEMIMT BIPORT. 

and have not in the least tended to reduce the death-rate i| 
any part of the district. 

Cholera has never had a wide epidemicity in this distriet; 
the waves of epidemics which have passed over have caused' 
small mortality, and the disease has quickly disappeared, h 
has presented no specific character, and its ravages did not 
appear confined to any particular classes of the population 
It has generally prevailed in the rainy season. The mortality 
may be estimated at fifty per cent, of those attacked. 

Small-pox prevails annually in the district, generally it 
the cold season, and, it is to be feared, causes a consideiaUe 
number of deaths amongst the infant population. Few adulo 
die of the disease, as they have all been protected by having 
had the eruption in early life. It is impossible to calculate 
the proportion of deaths to the number attacked. The return 
of deaths from this cause given in the statement includes thofie 
from measles and any other disease in which an eruption on the 
skin happens to be present ; hence the figures barely give an 
approximation to the actual fact. Small-pox is not equallj 
fatal every year. In 1867 it caused a very large mortalitv. 
Probably it would not be far from the truth to say that 80 per 
cent, of the young children died from this cause during the cold 
season of 1867-68. No other epidemics prevail in the district 

Cattle disease has unfortunately prevailed largely for se- 
veralyears ; the two descriptions of disease which call for notice 
are those fully described in Dr. K. McLeod's communication, 
and denominated respectively "pa^cAtna" or "6arrte" and 
"A:iira" (Digest of Chief Commissioner's Circulars, page 50, 
&c.) The former is a constitutional disease, the latter primarily 
local, but which destroys cattle by its eflfects ; they are induced 
by neglect, filth, &c. The prominent symptoms in paschina 
are fever, looseness of the bowels, sore-throat, ulceration of the 
mouth and fauces, no eruption on the skin ; in kura, ulceration 
and swelling of the foot. The natives make no attempt at treat- 
ment. It is impossible to state the approximate rate of mortality 
amongst the cattle attacked, probably 50 per cent, in paschina 
and 10 or 15 per cent, in kura. I hardly (nink that the exten- 
sion of cultivation has anything to do with the prevalence of 
cattle disease. Pasture lands seem to be abundant. 



HARDOI BETTLEMENT REPORT. 15 

3 The following drugg are known to be indigenous to the 
district :— 

MineraL 

Nitre or saltpetre ( shord ). 
Sal Ammonia (nansadary. 

Vegetable. 

Opinm. 

Castor-oil. 

Ginger. 

Mad4r, Asclepiadaceoe, Calotropis Hamiltonii, 

Bael, ^gle Marmelos. 

Qums, substitutes for gum Acacia. 

Liquorice, Glycerrhiza glabra. 

Squill or Kundra, Urginea indica. 

Animal. 
Tilini flj^ Mylabris Cichorii. 



SECTION //.—AGRICULTURE AND COMMERCE. 

Crops— AgricoUnral statistics— Prices— Droaghta— Hailstorms — Food of tlie people— 
Fisli-Mannfitclares— Trade — Commerce — Railway traffic— Fairs— Roads and com- 
mon ications— Weights and meaaures^Ioterest. 

11. The official returns of crop areas are apparently 
incorrect ; they are as follows in the revenue report for 
1872:— 

Acreage. 

314,182 

74,630 

838,650 

17,560 

23,306 

13,040 

522 

1,422 

6,430 

15,260 

24,762 



Wheat 


Staple. 

••• 


Rice 


••• 


Other edible 
Oilseeds 


grains 

••• 


Sugar 


••• 


Cotton 


• • • 


Opium 
Indigo 
Fibres 


••• 
••• 
••• 


Tobacco 


••• 


Vegetables 


••• 



••• ••• 

••• ••• 

••• ••• 

••• ••• 

••• ••• 

••• ••• 

••• ••• 

••• ••• 

••• ••• 

• •• •• • 



1,329,764 

The total area under crop in the year of survey was 
844,560 acres, nor is it likely that much land has been 
brought under the plough iu recent years. If so, even 



16 HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 

allowing for dofasli crops, the area in the above table nmst 
be exaggerated. Further, the table exhibits Hardoi as the 
greatest wheat-producing district in Oudh, although, according 
to the soil returns already quoted, it has a very large propor- 
tion of sandy soil which is unfitted for growing wheat. Hardoi 
produces very little rice, and that only of the common kinds; 
transplantation is not applied, and fine rice lands are often 
allowed to lie fallow. This is probably owing to the excep- 
tional dryness of the district. In Bilgrdm, Malldnwdn, and 
Sandila cultivation has attained a high pitch, and the rents 
paid by the Kdchhis for the potato and yam land near the 
towns reach Rs. 50 per acre. The latest ofiScial returns of 
rents are not trustworthy ; they mention sugarcane and cot- 
ton lands as renting at Rs. 6-8-0 and Rs. 5-2-0 per acre, which 
is under the truth. The ordinary crops and trees of Kheri as 
described under that district in the Gazetteer of Oudh, an 
found in Hardoi; the large garden grounds of the latter district, 
24,762 acres, are sown largely with pepper ; the groves con- 
sist of excellent mango and jamun trees ; aiwain is grown 
near the Ganges, and kusum^ or safflower, is sown on the 
borders of the cereal crops. Descriptions of the above and of 
their uses are subjoined. 

** Capsicum annuum (Mirch.) — This is a native of South 
America. There are several varieties of it, distinguished by 
the shape of the fruit. Cayenne pepper is the produce of 
many of the smaller species of capsicum, the fruits being' dried 
and pounded small, and mixed with salt. When gathered and 
eaten fresh, they are excellent promoters of digestion, and are 
made into pickles, and otherwise used for seasoning food. 
There are two distinct principles in the pods, one of which is 
an ethereal oil, and which constitutes the real stimulating 
principle. The bruised capsules are employed as powerful 
rubefacients, being reckoned preferable to sinapisms in sore- 
throats. They are also given, with the best results, as a gargle. 
Mixed with Peruvian bark, they are given internally in typhus 
and intermittent fevers, and dropsy. Chillies are a principal 
ingredient in all curries in ludda. By pouring hot vinegar 
upon the fruits, all the essential qualities are preserved, which 
cannot be e£fected by drying them, owing to their oleaginous 
properties. This chillie vinegar is an excellent stomachic, 
imparting a fine flavour to fish and meats. A great quantity 



HABDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 17 

is exported to Eodand, especially from the West Indies, the 
price of chillies in London being from 15*. to 25*. the cwt." — 
Drurjfs Useful Plants of India^ page 3. 

" The Cayenne pepper is prepared in the following manner 
in the West Indies : the ripe fruits are dried in the sun, and 
then in an oven, after bread is baked, in an earthen or stone 
pot, with flour between the strata of pods. When quite dry 
they are cleaned from the flour and beaten or ground to fine 
powder. To every ounce of this a pound of wheat-flour is 
added, and it is made into email cakes with leaven. These are 
baked again that they may be as dry and hard as biscuit, and 
then are beaten into powder and sifted. It is then fit for use 
as pepper, or for being packed in a compressed state, and so 
as to exclude air, for exportation." — Druri/s Useful Plants of 
India^ page 112. 

" Carthamus tinctorius (Kusum Barre ). — ^Description : 
annual ; 1 -2 feet ; stem erect, cylindrical, branching near the 
summit; leaves oval, sessile, much animated, somewhat spiny ; 
heads of flowers enclosed in a roundish spiny involucre ; 
flowers large, deep orange. Flowers in November- Decem- 
ber. — (Roxb. Fl. Ind., iii. 409. Peninsula, cultivated). 

Economic tises.-^ The dried flowers, which are very like 
saflron in appearance, have been employed to adulterate that 
drug. They contain a colouring principle called carthamitic 
acid, used by dyers, and constituting the basis of rouge. The 
flowers are used by the Chinese to give rose, scarlet, purple, 
and violet colours to their silks. They are thrown into an 
infusion ot* alkali and left to macerate. The colours are after- 
wards drawn out by the addition of lemon juice in various 
proportions, or of any other vegetable acid. 

" The flowers are imported to England from many parts 

of Europe and from Egypt for dyeing and painting. They are 

also used for cakes and toys ; but if used too much they have 

purgative qualities. Poultry fatten on the seeds. An oil of a 

light-yellow colour is procured from the seeds. It is used for 

lamps and for culinary purposes. The seeds contain about 28 

per cent, of oil. The dried florets yield a beautiful colouring 

matter which attaches itself without a mordant. It is chiefly 

used for colouring cotton, and produces various shades of pink, 

3h 



18 HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 

roBO, crimson, scarlet, &c. In Bangalore silk is djed withi;! 
but the dye is fuj^itivc*, and will not bear washing. An alkab] 
extract precipitated by an acid will give a fine rose coloorti 
Nilks or cotton. Tlio flower is gathered and rubbed downiiiti 
powder, and srdd in this state. When used for dyeing it isw 
into a cloth and washed in cold water for a long time, to renOTl 
a yellr>w colouring matter. It is tiien boiled, and yields tk 
pink dyeing liquid. The Chinese safflower is consideftt 
superior to the Indian one. Tn Assnm, Dacca, and R^jputinil 
it iscultivatccl for exportation. About 300 tons are annutik 
ship))ed fn)ni Calcutta, valued in England from :£6 to £7-10 
[ler cwt. That from liouibay is least esteemed. 

*'The mode of collecting the flowers and preparing th 
dye, as practised in Kurope whore the plant is much cultivat- 
ed, is as follows : — The moment the florets wliicL form tlie 
compound flowers begin to open, they are gathered in succes- 
sion without waiting for the whole to expand, since whea 
allowed to remain till fully blown, the beauty of the colou^ 
very much faded. As the flowers are collected they are dried 
in the shade. This work must be carefully preformed for if 
gathered in wet weather, or badly dried, the colour will te 
nuich deteriorated. These flowers contain two kind.s of colour- 
ing matter — the one yellow, which is soluble in water • the 
other red, which, being of a resinous nature, is insoluble itt 
water but soluble in alkaline carbonates. The first is nefer 
converted to any use, as it dyes only dull shades of colour; 
the other is a beautiful rose-red, capable of dyeing eveiT 
shade, from the palest rose to a cherry-red. It is therefore 
requisite, before these flowers can be made available, to sepa- 
rate tlie valueless from the valuable colour ; and since the 
former only is soluble in water, this operation is matter of 
little difficulty. 

"The flowers are tied in a sack and laid in a trough, 
through which a slender stream of water is constantly flowing; 
while, still further to promote the solution of the yellow 
colouring matter, a man iu the trough treads the sack and 
subjects every part to the action of the water. When this 
flows without receiving any yellow tinge in its passage, the 
washing is discontinued, and the saflflower, if not wanted for 
immediate use, is made into cakes, which are known in com* 
merce under the name of stripped safllower. 



HABDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 19 

*' It is principally used for dyeing silk, producing poppy- 
red, bright orange, cherry, rose, or flesh colour, according 
to the alterative employed in combination. These are alum, 
potash, tartaric acid, or sulphuric acid. The fixed oil which 
the plant yields is used by the native practitioners in rheumatic 
and paralytic complaints. The seeds are reckoned laxative, 
and have been employed in dropsy, and the dried flowers in 
Jamaica are given in jaundice.— Vegetal)le Substances, Jury 
Kept., Simmonds." — Drury's Useful Plants of India^ pages 
116-17. 

*' Ftychotis ajowan (Ajwain). Medical uses, — The seeds 
have an aromatic smell and a warm pungent taste ; they are 
much used by the natives for medicinal and culinary pur- 
poses. They are small plants of the umbelliferous order, and 
are to be met with in every market of India.— ( Koxb. ) 

"The virtues of the seeds reside in a volatile oil. They 
are stimulant, carminative, and antispasmodic, and are of much 
value in atonic dyspepsia and diarrhoea. The preparation 
known as omum-water is a valuable carminative, useful in 
disguising the taste of nauseous drugs, and obviating their 
tendency to cause griping. The fruits of the Plychotis 
Roxburghianum are valued by the natives as a stomachic and 
carminative. They partake of the properties of the former, 
but in aroma are undoubtedly inferior. — ( Pharm. of India.) 
The wild plant is said to be poisonous. It probably contains 
apiol, an oily liquid used as a substitute for quinine. — Powell's 
Fanjdb Products.'' — Drryu's Useful Plants of IndiUy page 
360. 

^^ Syzygium jambolanum (Jdmun). Economic uses. — 
The timber is fine, hard, and close-grained. The bark dyes 
excellent durable browns of various shades according to the 
mordant employed, or the strength of the decoction. ( Roxb. 
Wright). The tree attains its full size in forty years. The 
wood is dark-red, slightly liable to warp, but not subject to 
worms. It is used for agricultural implements (Balfour). 
It does not rot in water, and henoe is used everywhere to line 
wells (Fleming). A communication was made to the 
Agricultural and Horticultural Society of Bengal, (January, 
1874,) stating that with the fruit called jdmun the writer had 



20 HABDOI SETTLEMENT REPOBT. 

made in Rdmpnr Bauleah a wine that, for its qualities and taste, 
was almost similar to the wine made from the grape. The 
wine was v^ery cheap, as, from two maunds of the fruit collected 
about one maund of wine was made, which cost altogether 
three rupees." — Drury'$ Useful Plants of India^ P^e 410. 

12. A plough with two oxen will cultivate six aeres d 

Agriciuturai statistics. J^^"^ ^^ ?j Y ^oil, but eight acres of sand 

1 he capital required to cultivate a plough 
of land will be Rs. 30 for a pair of bullocks, Rs. 15 for the neces- 
sary implements, including a sugar-mill, Rs. 12 for the purchase 
of seed corn, Rs. 18 for the family maintenance for three and s 
half months till the first of the kbarif crops comes in Septem- 
ber : total Rs. 75. A plough costs about Re. 1*8 0, including 
the share ; the harrow, a log of wood, eight annas. Tlie capital 
is a trifle ; the profits of cultivation are just enough to cover 
the wage of labour. 

13. I attach a list of the grain prices since 1835 at the 
py.^g, principal mart in the district, Midho- 

ganj. The average price of wheat and 
bdjra in the last three decennial periods has been as follows 
in sers per rupee :«» 

Wheat. Bdjra. 

3841—1850 ..• ... 82-4 34 9 

1851—1860 .^ ... 35-0 358 

1861—1870 ... ... 26-9 26*4 

The average prices for the last ten years, 1861 — 1870 
are in sers per rupee : — ' 



••• ... 



Wheat ••• 

Bdjra 

Barley ... 

Gram 

Black paddy ... ••• ... 43*^ 



... ••• ... 



••• ••• 



••• ••• ••• 



... 


26-9 


••• 


26-4 


... 


32-6 


••• 


30-8 



HABBOI SETTLEHKNT BEPOBT. 



21 



These returns also show the remarkable fact that bdjra 
and the millet series are often sold to the poor by the grain 
dealers at prices actually exceeding the rates at which the 
wealthy purchase wheat. A similar return quoted in the 
Etdwah Settlement Report is as follows, the prices being in 
sers per rupee : — 



i8eo'7o. 



Wheat 
Gram 
Bijra 
Gnr 



••■ 



••• 



••• 



»•• 



••• 



••• 



»•• 



tM 



••• 




I am not disposed to place implicit confidence in this 
return. There is always a[danger that in one year the prices 
are those of harvest, in another those of seed time. It can 
hardly be, for instance, that in 1863 wheat was one maund per 
rupee, and bdjra thirty sers — one-quarter dearer. But the 
broad fact remains,borne out by this return, that the food of the 
poor is increasing in price with greater rapidity than the food 
of the rich. The average harvest prices during the last two 
years are in sers per rupee : — 





Wboat. 


Barley. 


Bioe. 


Gram. 


May, 1872 
n 1873 




• •• 


28*9 
16*6 


88*5 
24-8 


9-8 
18*2 


80* 
24-2 



nARDOI SKTTLEHEST RKPOBT. 



* Price airrent of the Madhn<rarij Baznr from the year 1833 
A.D. Ifi the year 1870 A.D, district Hardoi. 



183S 
lt39 
1810 
1811 



1818 
1M0 

lesi 

18S» 
IMS 
1SG4 
1816 , 
JSIS , 

iai7 . 



106S 

i8ie 

1867 
)8G8 
I86B 
1870 



33 S I 

M ulO S 

U 15 ou 1 



, |u S9 I) M yi 



. 3U 
. I'l 31 
. 38 8| 



ss 0| 

!o 87 f\ 

Q 26 0, 

U 3U 

l> 33 

IS e 



1 lU 
1 G 
1 1:1 

1 27 


8 


I an 




I 4 


" 


1 11) 


U 


1 31) 












1 fl 









1 15 





1 V!l 




1 U 





20 I 



3b 3! SS 

aE 00 31 010 xfi 

32 8 39 00 -n 



15 0,0 34 

£0 00 SO 
18 O'O 37 



:::,: 


,' 










1 Mi 




1 0< 




« 3S u 





1 lu 


u 


J 30 




) M « 




> 3U (i 








38U 





30 


[j 


> !8 ( 








) at ( 


1 


) as t 




) 117 t 




J S3 1 




S9 


" 



00 3fi 
31 

X8 14 



1 311 U 
» ol'l 34 H 



810 37 8 

4|o as 

1I|0 14 



37 8,0 SI 
U <i 3S 

30 Olo 38 

IB b|0 hU 
00 3S 
10 ojl G 
10 00 13 
10 o|l E 
00 37 8 

89 Oio 36 

a o;a 36 



* Procwed t? Mr. A. H. JbrisKWii, Oflcittfiif Seltiemeat OfBcer. 



HARDOI SKTTLEMENT REPORT. 



Statement showing details of produce and prices in the 
Hardoi District Jor the following years : — 





^ 


.=^1.. !-=:■.. 


..: 




.- --I .'! &- 






!- »nt«-. M« M 


o M 




m 5lj 9. ac =■ :* SS «■ 


Dc script ion of prodnoe. 


■ 1 


«g 


g|gSS= 




Is 


Hr-i\-li-J 


















" 


■= 


_± ^1 = 


■= 


a 


b| aj a <; ° "^ 


rnddy 


561 


J^l 


4*1 


J9 541 


5C1 


ss. 


"lU.i 


33) 


37-1 


|-aii>nionTie«(hu^kci]) ... 


Hi 


161 171 


15 ' l« 


la 4 


lo] 


U ■ lOi 


'?; 




BpKt nee (liuikcdj 


11 




St 


7 n 


Si 


bi 


« 1 6j 






Wlient 


an 


aei 


!Bl 


I! 19] 


Ki 


Ul 






SO -7 


WnrliT 


a& 


33, 


43) 


an . ao 


tai 


aa 


311] si'i 


S6| 


39-3 


BSj.a 




36t 


M8i 


lo at 


94 


» 


37 . ISJ 


»l 


su-» 


Juir 


37 


Ml 


3fi 


■Bl 1 iBj 


aaj 


>sl 


SftJ !« 


2Si 


KO-a 




SB] 




3fi aei'asj 


4<ij 


let 


U4j 10 


ail 


3i-7 


Ailiar, rylism --n/on 


34 i 


snt 


am so 1 M 


S3 


24J 


S;'j' IH 


3G 


aC'i 


Urd or ntaali, rhattaUs naxi- 


54 


S9i 


^Aj; SUl; IG| 


I7i 


■n% 




14 


IS 


10-7 


SSI 


s<t 


asil SOJ 21 


Sii 


SI 


SSI 


17* 


IC 


as- 1 


JIunp, fjSo-fi./iiiftimso - 


46; 


1!4| 


S-T I 1«1 


l«( 




ai>3 


vol 


l.t BIJ 




MMur, j;r«i>«/«» 


«| 


Sif; 


55il »U 




lii 


IDJ 


B»i 


11.) a^il 




Ah<iTi<.rMi«m,i-i™-™j.-i.i.m 




S3t'4fi i 41 


sa 


35 


3-) 


an 


Si] 33i 38-9 


GhuiySn, ilrNflirofeajin ... 


S81 


su\ sot 


3(11 


El! 


" i 


45 


3.H 


;iaf 35 36-9 


SMrsnn. Siiapit tlickatoaa. 


11. 


l&l IMl 


.7i 


I8J 


i;S 


17 


iSi 


iiij la iG-3 


illvitb.-) 


















Libi, Kmo^ii nigra 


»1 


Ui: 14 


191 


»S1 


s» 


S13 


sa 


J»i H SO' 


]{aw BUgnr 


ai 


3^;.. 


*i 


4J .) 


*S 


<l 


4 1 4.1 .-. 



Statement of Prices.~~Iietail sale, quantUtf per rupee. 



Articles. 


Jaiy. 


Angusi, 

18GB. 


ss. 


October, 
18t9. 


Noroni- 

ber,18BU 


Jsnuary, 


Feliru- 
iry,1870. 




M. s. c. 


M. a. c. 


............ 


M. a. c 


M. ». c 


M. s. c. 


Wheal, lit qiwlity. 


11 )4 


10 11 


II 9 8 


(J 9 13 


ID 4 


10 9 


Ditto, aadqualilj, 


13 8 


n 1 


11 3 fl 12 


10 4 


10 13 


10 14 


Gram, ditto 


11 10 


10 14 


lU 12 9 C 


4 


10 


10 4 


Biir..« 


-. 


... 


_ 1 15 IL 


IT 


17 1:1 


18 3 


Jair.. 


... 


... 


37 ao I, 


18 


18 4 


16 8 


Arbar 


IS s 


11 13 




10 




11 IS 


Urd ... 


10 « 


9 10 


g 4 8 1 


10 8 


la 


IS 


Haifa 


13 B 


IS 8 


12 7 4 


... 


... 


10 4 


Mtog- 


7 12 


7 4 


8 7 3 


6 


17 8 


IT II 


Bke,JiidqM)itT ... 


8 4 


°" 


7 3 8 11 

i 


IS 


« 10 11 


11 « 



24 HARDOI BETTLEMIKT REPOBT. 

14. The food of the people is much the same as inw 
p rest of Oudh. They take two meals ij 

day, one at noou, the second at san-don 
The food-grains are mainly maize, kodo, bdjra, juAr made into 
hread, barley and gram parched and eaten dry, pottage of peti^ 
moth and urd. 

15, Fish ought to be abundant, owing to the munberof 
rivers and lakes, but on account of the dearness of salt they 
are, as appears from the following extracts, used as manme 
at one time of the year, while there is a scarcity during tb 
remaining months : — 

" The Collector of Hardoi reports : — Breeding and very 
young fish are destroyed without discrimination, and to a grcatt 
extent. They are caught in nets and baskets in jliils, tanks, 
and rivers at all seasons, but in greater quantity duiiog the 
rainy season, and especially at its close. The smallest size of 
the mesh ot nets employed is one-sixth of an inch. Traps are 
also used to collect fish of the smallest size, and are made of 
reeds. Were it politic, there would be no difficulty in regulat- 
ing the size of the mesh of nets, but as he does not consider such 
a time has arrived, he refrains from suggesting what size of 
meshes he should consider advisable in his district. When 
fish are scarce in hilly districts, and as well elsewhere, there 
appears to be no objection against prohibiting their capture 
for a limited period when they are breeding.'' 

"The Settlement Officer of Hardoi in 1868 complained 
that there is no close season for fish here ; they are caught everv 
day of the year. Further, the meshes of the nets are made of 
any size, and occasionally fish are intoxicated or half poisoned 
by a jungle fruit termed niainphal ; but this can only be done 
in stUl-water ponds and the like. Some landowners preserve 
fish and guard them, but the bulk of the proprietary bodies 
certainly do destroy fish wantonly. They take every fish they 
can catch at all seasons, whether the females are breeding or 
not, and whether the males are what is called spent fish or are 
in full condition.'' — Francis Day's Fresh-water Fish and 
Fisheries of India and Burma^ para. 284. 

"The tahsildarof Hardoi gives the fishermen at 2,000, 
all of whom are said to also follow other occupations ; their 



HABDOI SETTLEMEKT BEPOBT. "25 

wastes are Kahdrs and Baurias, especially the latter. The 
local markets are insufficiently supplied with fish ; more, it is 
observed, could be sold. The large sorts realize from one t© 
one and a half annas a ser, the small from six to nine pies a 
ser, and mutton two annas for the same quantity. Two- thirds 
of the population are stated to be fish consumers. The supply 
is asserted to have increased ; very small ones are taken in 
large numbers, in nets and baskets of various sorts, whilst 
the minimum size of the mesh of the nets will not allow a 

frain of gram to pass. Fish are also trapped in inundated 
elds during the rains. The nets employed are tdpa, dhundhi^ 
katia, and khdncbas." 

" The tahsfldar of Bilgrdm reports that fish are often 
used as manure ; the other tahsildars that the nets will not 
allow grains of wheat or barley to pass. All state that the 
market is insufficiently supplied." — Ibid. para. 302. 

16. Cultivation in Hardoi is backward compared to the 
adjoining district of Fatehgarh. Opium culture is a fair test 
of this. The districts do not differ materially in size, but in 
1873-74 opium cultivation in Hardoi averaged 7,383^ acres ; in 
Fatehgarh. 16,012 acres ;the outturn in Hardoi averaged 7'2 
sers; in Farukhabad 8*4 sers; the imperial income from opium 
in the one district vastly exceeded that of the other. In these 
two years the Farukhabad opium amounted to 6,803 maundy 
29 sers, that of Hardoi to 2,652 maunds 22 sers. As the 
average weight of each opium cliest is onemaund 2S sers, and 
the net profit to Government Rs. 834 per chest, it will appear 
that the imperial revenue in Farukhabad was Rs. 33,37,668, 
and in Hardoi Rs. 13,01,040 ; but, indeed, this condition of 
things is general throughout the province. 

It appears from tables supplied by the Opium Agent, 
Ghdzipur, that in the twelve districts of Oudh the acreage and 
outturn of opium were as follows : — 

Acreage. Onttam in mannds. 

1873. 1874. 1^16. 1874. 

64,408 63,026 8,614 11,523 

Sers. Sers,. 

Avenij;e produce per acre ... < ^g^^ '•• ^.g^ |- mean, 632.^ 

Average acreage per district, 5,859. 

4u 



BABDOI SETTLKHUT UEPOBT. 



la the four bordering districts of the North-Westem Pro- 
viDces — Azamgarh, Jaunpur, Fatehpur, Farukhabad — the re- 
sults are as follows : — 



Arreage. 

1873. 1874. 

S3,315 33,010 



Onttam in manndB. 
1873. 1874. 

5,902 7,259 

Sen. 



Average produce per acre ...< -io-ja " 
Average acreage per district, 8,291. 



, 708'l 
, 8-79/ 



Sers. 
mean, 7-93 



It wonld appear, then, that in similar and adjoining dis- 
tricts the acreage under opium is 40 per cent, larger in the 
North- Western Frovincea than in Oudh, and the produce per 
acre 25 per cent, better. 

17. Mabmiipai, a muslin, is still produced at Shababad, 
Trade, commnce, mod but tbcre are no Other manufactures of 

muofMtoiei. any note in Hardoi ; even such local 

industries as the weaving of Tdnda, Nawdbganj, and Bais- 
-ffdra, the cotton printing of Kheri do not flourish in Hardoi. 
Swords of good temper were formerly made at Fihfijii, also 
turbans ; the latter craft is declining, the former has expired. 
It has a considerable transit trade in importing English fabrics 
from Fatehgarh, and exporting grain and sugar. There are 
no European establishments, except an indigo manu&ctorf 
which was started in 1873. 

18. The fairs are given in the following table, they all 

arc for religious purposes ; none are of 
any importance as commercial centres : — 



1 


■' 


a 


4 


6 


6 


7 
















!)■(• of fair. 


Same of 


Place where 


Object ol 


t 


i 


1 5- 






held. 




1- 


























-*^8 


KnfrRiidl.Das- 


DmbM ... 


B[1g[£m 








Mile*. 


Dli. Itttll b-.p- 














tcmbcr. 














Kirtik I'linw- 


Kitki 


Bcorsgbil.par- 


Bnihlng in the 


3 


7,000 


BO 































HABDOI S&TTLSHKNT RCPOKT. 



1 


s 


3 


4 


5 fl 1 














ill 


lit 


Date of Uir. 


Hanie of 
lair, 


Place where 
held. 


(Jbject of 
fair. 


4 




lie^s 














Milei. 


Eirtik Pfiran- 


Kitki ... 


Majbariagbiit, 


Bathing in the 


3 


7,000 


40 


ToUbi Sadi, 






Ganges. 








15th October 














Ditto „ 


Ditto 


BiriighSt, par- 
gaua Knch- 
haudan. 


Ditto 


' 


6,orrt) 


SO 


Jeth, IWhMay. 


Chorso „ 


Asooli, pargina 
Banfiur. 


Visiting t h e 
tomt. of a 
saiat (Pir). 


1 


1,600 


10 


Bth and 10th of 


1 












tho mooQ la 














Septc m b c r, 
91 b luid 10th 
of the inoao 


Usbijl ... 


Hardoi 


WoTihip of Har- 
deo Babi. 


* 


S.0OO 


10 


in March. 


1 












Aghao BvU ... 


DbaunkJagg 


Baodin „ 


Rim'B mar- 


3 


2,000 


IS 


lib and Bth of 


Debiji 


Bahar, pqrgana 


riage. 
Offering niaile 


3 


4,000 


10 


tbe nooo in 






to Debi. 








September. 














Aihtmi, Ma J 


Mahadoo ... 


Nir, pargaoa 


USering made 




1,000 


8 


«n(J Jnnc 




Gopimau. 


to Mahadeo. 








14th May. 














10th Jeth, May 


LilPir ~ 


Gopaman 


Offering made 




4,000 




and June 






at tlie iwnb 








lUb Ma J. 






of Ghazi-ud- 

ilin, a saint. 

Viaitora bathe 










Timth Debi, 


Ditto 


S 


3,000 


SO 








in a sacred 














pood or tank 








Knir Sndi Du 


Dasahra ,. 


UmrSoli, par 


Rtmlila 


3 


3,000 


10 


mi. 




gana Sara. 










Etrlik Snd 


DeothioEks 


Sacred tank a 


Bathing at the 




10,001) 


S4 




di«M. 


NBrbada,pBT 
gana Shaha^ 


aacred tank. 








J«tb or Aaiih, 


Clwri 


Ditto .. 


Offering made 
to Debi. 


' 


5,000 


2 




PramhMi-kl 

Bamidh. 


Barafija, pnrRn 
oa Sb.ibabud 


Do. to SamU 


' 


15,000 


40 


7th April 


Ditto 


Ditto .. 


Ditto ., 


1 


20,000 




Bhiulaii,Aaput Hutia Huiui 


Hattia Haran 


Bathing in tbe 


More 


100,000 




and Beptem-1 




hoi; tank at 


nr les 






bei. 


dwB aad San 
dia. 


the spot. during 
the 
mhnle 
mont! 







28 



HAVDOI SRTLXMK5T KKPO 



The religious sigDificance of the Ikirs is saffieientlj 
dicated by their njunes. The gathering at all except the 
two are small. None are of any comoiercial importance, 
none have either given rise to, or favored the attacks of, 
demic disease. They are all, those at Bilgrim and X 
excepted, strictly local gatherings. 



19. In 1872 the imports from the adjoiaing- districts* 
Import, and exporu. Cawnporc,^ Shdhjahdnpur, Fatal 

Ks. 3,19,000. 



came to Rs. 7,21,000, the exporfl 



The principal imports were— 



••• 



• •a 



Cotton 
Salt 
Country cloth 
English piece-goods 

The principal exports were — 



Gar (coarse sugar) 
Tobacco 
Edible grains 
Horned cattle (No.) 
Hides 



Maunds. 

6,462 
22,854 
... 1,55,728 



••• 



.«• 



••• 



Bm. 

1,17,602 
1,28,357 
1,55,72« 
1,U3,683 



• •• 



• .. 



• •• 



••• 



• • • 



..• 



••• 



Maunds. 

14,550 
5,743 

31,606 
5,937 



Bs. 

46,838 
23,256 
60,820 
1,16,592 
20,149 



Tobacco is much undervalued in the above table. 



20. The railway has given a great impetus to trade : 
passes through the district for 62 miles. In 1873 the on 
ward traffic amounted to 7,399 tons, nearly all grain, the h 
ward to 1,324 tons. None of this has been noted in tl 
official report given above. In 1874, as the accompanjin 
table will show, there was a still greater advance of the grm 
traffic, and the little atation of Uardoi, whose population 
6,415, has as much grain traffic as the great cities of Barf 
and Shdhjahanpur combined, whose population amounts t 
160,000. This is shown in the annexed table : — 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 



29 



^ Statement showing the weight of grain traffic^ in maunds^ 

during the undermentioned months. 



y 


Months. 




X stations. 


December, 
I87«. 


January. 
1874. ' 


February, 
1874. 


Total. 


Bareli ^ 

Hardoi 

Sitapur road 
' tiaiidlia 
I Cawopore ••• ••• 

ShahjakiLnpnr 


4,248 
4,869 
1,667 
7,463 
6,336 
1,994 


3,610 
12,704 
1,997 
9,019 
8,226 
3,724 


12,039 
8,093 
2,993 
6,733 

17,211 
16 


19,897 
26,166 

6,667 
22,208 
80,773 

6,734 


Total 


• •• 


••* 

1 


••• 


1,10,336 



This is in great measure due to the emancipation of 
buyers and sellers from the system of local cesses imposed 
by the landed proprietors. The railway company has wisely 
established a free market beside the station, in which deal- 
ings are conducted| and no charge made. 

In 1873 the traffic at the various stations on the railway 
within the boundaries of the Hardoi district was as follows : — 





OOTWARD. 




Inward. 




Stations. 


















' 


Passen- 
ger. 


Total 
amount. 


Mer- 
chan- 
dise. 


Total 
amount 


Passen- 
ger. 


Total 
amount 


Mer- 
chan- 
dise. 


Total 
amount 




No. 


£ 


Tons. 


X 


No. 


X 


Tons. 


£ 


SaadiU ... 


28,241 


887 


1,176 


332 


22,803 


834 


610 


159 


Biiamau ••• 


6,116 


226 


136 


84 


6,329 


223 


67 


24 


blcapor road, 


6,219 


179 


842 


178 


4,761 


168 


188 


77 


Hardoi 


31,735 


1,616 


4,887 


1,566 


32,673 


1,604 


6J4 


284 


•Ohandpor .«• 


2,313 


100 


61 


16 


3,978 


82 


••• 


*•• 


Aji 


11,322 


884 


308 


200 


10,784 


861 


46 


28 


Total ... 


79,046 


8,290 


7,399 


2,266 


81,218 


8,262 


1,324 

• 


666 



21. There are no metalled roads in the district. The 

Boad8 and commonica- railway runs through from Lucknow to 

^^^ Shdhjahdnpur, trains stopping at six sta. 

tions in the district in a length of sixty-two miles; it wae 



30 HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 

opened at different times in 1871-72. There are also 329 
miles of roads raised and bridged. The principal are : 

From Lucknow to Shahjabdnpar. 
yy Hardoi to Sitapur. 
yy ,y to Fatchgarb, ( only partially bridged )• 

,« ,y to Bilgram, tbcnco to Mebndi^hAt. 

^, Sandila to M6dboganj, Bilgrdm, and S&ndi. 
yy Hardoi to Pib&ni. 

None of these are imperial roads. None of the stations 
on the line of railway have as yet become centres of traffic 
Sandila, the centre of a fertile grain -producing tract, and i 
town with a population of 15,500, only contributed abou; 
Rs. 1,600 in fares and traffic receipts to the railway in i871. 
But in 1874 Hardoi and Sandila have developed a very large 
trade in supplying Lucknow with bread-stuffs ; the former 
sends 500 tons a month of grain alone. Sheds have been 
erected by the company, and as many roads converee on 
Hardoi a fine traffic may reasonably be expected. The pas- 
sengers arriving at and leaving Hardoi in the first half-year 
of 1873 were 30,340, at Sandila 24,376. 

The minor district roads are : — 

1. From Hardoi vid Bargadiaghdt to Sitapur. This is 
twenty-two miles long within this district. The stages are 
— Itauli, six miles from Hardoi ; Bharail, five miles further • 
Einau, five miles, and Nimsdr, six miles. The only river is 
the Gumti. 

2. Sitapur and Mehndighdt road, i.e., from Bargadia* 
ghdt in this district to the border of the district (banks of the 
Ganges). Total length of this road is thirty-three miles. The 
stages are — Besia, six miles from Nimsdr ; Lodhia, seven 
miles from Besia ; M&dhoganj, eight miles ; Matiamau, six 
miles ; and the bank of the Ganges, six miles. The rivers are 
the Gumti and the ELalydni. 

3. Gopdmau to Pihdni. The stages are only Gopdmau 
and Pihdni, at the distance of eight miles from each other. 

4. Fih&ni to Euldbharghdt on the Gumti. The length of 
this road is ten miles. The stages are Balberi and KuUbhar^ 
ghit, the latter at the distance of six miles from the former. 



HABDOI SBTTLBMEKT BEPOBT. 



81 



22 ,, »ld&nd 



22. The tahslldars of Hardoi and Shahabad report as 
Local weightsand mea- foUows:— A local kacha bigha 18 twenty 
sares. qadams longby twenty broad, the qadam 

being fifty-two anguls or finger's breadths. The angul is three- 
quarters of an inch, therefore the qadam is thirty-nine inches ; 
Prinsep's useful tables, the Wgha wUl then be a square of sixty, 
page 1J7. five feet, or an area of 469 square yards. 

But the bigha in general use is much larger than this. In 
Bangar, Shahabad, Pachhoha, Pdli, and Gopamau three local 
bighas go to the regulation bigha of 3,025 square yards; in 
Pindarwa, Pihdni, Mansdrnagar two and a half ; in Bdwan, 
Sara, three bighas fifteen biswas, local bighas, are included 
in the regulation bigha. The table of linear distance is as 

follows : — 

8 barleycorns "il angul 

1,000 „ « 1 kos. 

Prinsep's useful tables, The kos wiU then equal one mile and a 
pa«e 1^^ half and twenty-six yards. 

There is a local pukka ser in use, or rather in reputed 
use, weighing Rs. 96 ; these of course were the Lucknow 
Machhlishdhi rupees of 172 grains, the sers now in use being 
eighty tolas of 180 grains. The two sers then weigh espec- 
tively 16,512 and 14,400 grains. There is also a small local 
ser and maund in general use, as everywhere throughout 
Oudh. Their weight diflPers in different markets; on the aver- 
age the local maund equals eighteen regulation sers. The 
theory is that the local ser should weigh Rs. 32, or exactly one- 
third of the larger or a pukka ser. But, as we have seen with 
reference to the land measure, theory and practice differ widely. 

23. Ordinary interest is 15 per cent, on security of lauded 
Interest. prope^ty, or 24 per cent, on small trans- 

actions, but money can be got at 12 per 
cent, in very large sums. If jewellery is pledged, interest at 
Re. 1-8-0 to Rs. 2 per month is charged ; if the lien is on 
clothes or other perishable articles, interest reaches Rs. 3-8-0. 
Advances made to tenants for subsistence by the grain-dealers 
are repaid at market prices, sometimes with the addition of 
two annas in the rupee. In this way the money-lender, oa 
transactions covering a brief space of time, often gets 80 per 
cent; for his money. 



! HABIKtl HTTLBHENT BIFOBT. 

U&CTION ///.— POPULATIOX. 

fji^^i^^ fiv^aUnu— CutM^Towna with tbeirpaptiUtioa^fiittribMiMrf I 
fM>M4 t>'/|frr(y uiHHiK thB riju «nil clani— Dutiib'itian in Akhsr'i ti 
K^ Ifwlw. flaithali— The *n>«ll |>ruprtitor>— Kcmou whj tbera an _ _ 
rt>H— 'IIm tFTijittn iif (liin fiti'ixn;- Doteloprnent of f«adal povn— Iki I 
/•"M^ph p^'ipfiviar*— 1'bKir (lin)i-i):ili>>i— i;ifflculi; uttcndiog aaj tfan» 



I'jlxliU'iH— I^'xl tfiunten. 



24 I'tiu lolluwiritf table shows the admitustntni 
(liviKionft, population, and numbers nt' 

fcHMinK each religion : — 





















(.a ^«aF. 




P<,miilaM. 








1. 

1! 


lUttidt ■•/«*. 








\ 


PmWM. 


1 


1 
"l 


1 




1 


1 


1 


i 

1 




















»«.«« ... 


H 


I4B 


u 


BS.3I7 


».1B7 


80,487 


S4,0fT 






3| 


0..,«».M ,.. 




Ul 






ll,««l 


80,476 


BI,83C 




tOta, ■"«lll> •" 




4t 




i4,»aB 


701 


»,»a« 


7,968 


I7,4»S| Mt 


KftWMI « 




•■■ 






W* 


l4,lUt 


11,911 






«• 


ts 






4«7 


io,Tsa 


8,484 


i».«06 3U 




Hbahkkta ... 


143 


'" 


■1 


S<I,1T] 


11,489 


lKa,»3* 


103,900 

Sl,78> 


«».»«»[ 311 




se.e84 








Alauiiisiiar .,. 










l,tO( 


8,338. 6,b33 


1A.XXI 
















7,Gll6 


I»,l>t 


I6,80U 








Han*4m*Kir, 


!f 


M 




1),BU 




3,431 


3,849 








»1«.,««U. ... 














7,980 


















39! 


Mfll 


8,973 


Ift,S84 




















is,a44 








Totol ... 
Bllgrtm ... 


t4U 


63U 

m 


9IU 






lt,76l 


111,160 


■12,WB 
86,^44 


sm 




1«T,I«1 


«,.8( 


iie,ia8 

SB,>UO 


»7,lSi 
lld,344 




11 


71 


4»,l«3 


7,081 














a,*»( 


37,r8< 


3<,oi; 


eS.TSI 














841 


19,114' 


16,8» 


38.IS« 




Ualliuwu) .^ 






))< 




8,»7! 


40,41 




Ti.eiji 




KaehbBiidan,.. 




4' 


38 


1B,U0 


»,339 




9,3as 


SO.'US 






Toul . 


1») 


aSD 


3a 1 


13T,4a0 


SI.840 


138,815 


I1U,4SJ 


989,389 




^ / 


ftanlila 


sia 


ass 


170 


11T.M1 


1S,>IM 


7M,174 


6fi,U8>. 






ll 












1,7 61 


i3,»:: 


l.,49» 
















B-l 


6,B9S 






Ouiulwa 

Total ... 
DUtrict total. 


4lt 


6S1 






3,338 


S9,»SB 


Sa,98S 


0«,»7l 


*u« 




311 


XU4,4SS 


36,881 


131,340 


IU8,960 


1!30,SOO 


4>3 




i.iiei 


s^S:< 


1.83; 


B46,a3» 


8S^»4 


600,6Si 


430,498 


931,117 


«u« 








... 


« 


... 


U 


U 


»9 


._ 


























ITriaoDera, lie 

QUHD T0T4L, 


.- 


... 


». 




.- 


S44 


8 


36a 


~ 




M6I 


a,»»j 


I,»37 


S4S,S»9 


U,S34 


aDo,««4 


430t^tl 


931,817 


*m 



HABDOt SETTLEMENT REPOKT4 



33: 



25. The populatioa of Hardoi is 931,517, which is 406 
to the square mile; it is thus the most thinly-peopled district 
in Oudh, except Kheriand Bahraich. Muhammadans number 
85,824, Hindus 845,293. The principal castes and sects of 
both are given in the following table. There is nothing par- 
ticularly worthy of note in it, except the great number of the 
Ghamdrs, who form 15 per cent, of the whole. It is also 
worthy of remark that the Chamdr Gaurs, said to be connected 
with the Chamdrs, have their principal settlement in this dis* 
trict, where they have no less than 217 villages. Of the 
Hindus in Hardoi 54*1 per cent, are males and 45*9 are females. 
Of the Musalmans 51 per cent, are males, and 49 per cent 
are females. There is no immigration or emigration to any 
extent. During the first year after annexation there was a 
considerable reflux wave of persons who bad fled to avoid the 
oppression of the Nawdbi ; that has ceased, and there are indi- 
cations that in time emigration will commence, but it has not 
assumed any dimensions. 

Caste Statement. 





Musalmans. 






Hindus. 


- ( continued. 


) 




Mewati ... 


••• 


••• 


182 


Bhunjwa 


... 


... 


12,491 


Iraqi ... 


•.• 


• at 


155 


Bh&t ... 


• •. 


a.. 


3,834 


HHjjad ... 


... 


... 


6,350 


BaDJ4ra ... 


••• 


... 


244 


Shekh ... 


••• 


•«• 


11,926 


Buhelia ... 


••• 


... 


605 


Fath^Q .•« 


• 4* 


... 


16,684 


Bari 


••« 


■ •• 


6.7 


Mughal ... 


*■* 


..» 


809 


Barhi ••• 


••• 


.a. 


12,574 


Bhatiara... 


... 


• •. 


609 


Beldar .«• 


*•• 


• «• 


441 


Jul&ha ..• 


■ •• 


... 


11^144 


Bhaddri ... 


■ a. 


..• 


795 


Ghost ... 


••• 


• •• 


9,747 


Bhangi ... 


• •• 


. . • 


4,291 


Kanjra ... 


... 


.at 


1,510 


P4si 


... 


•a. 


62,367 


QaHai 


.•• 


» — 


2,137 


Patwa .•• 


a«« 


• •• 


953 


lihind ..* 


... 


«•• 


S94 


Tamoli ... 


r *• 


.•« 


6,862 


Dbari ..» 


• i. 


•«* 


343 


Teli 


• • • 


• • 


21,S79 


Mujiwir... 


•— 


• • . 


124 


Thathcra 


... 


• • . 


1,661 


Paturia ..« 


... 


• • . 


1.310 


Jaga 


..• 


... 


162 


Saqqa ... 


... 


... 


176 


Chamar ••• 


... 


■a- 


144,208 


Dafaii ... 
Kanki ... 


.*• 


... 


197 


Chhipi ••• 


• .. 


... 


361 


t.« 


• > . 


640 


Halwai ... 


• • • 


• . . 


1,953 


Rangrez... 


... 


• •• 


361 


Dhobi ... 


• • • 


•M 


14,877 


Saiqalgar 


. • • 


.*• 


180 


Dharkfir '% 








Othur Musalmans ... 


• •• 


9,646 


Bansphor > 


■ ■• 


••• 


9,701 




Hindus. 






Db&Quk ) 
Dhuaia ... 


ta« 


aa« 


9,458 


Brahman 


■ • • 


... 


112,101 


Dom 


... 


aw 


266 


Chhattri •« 


.•• 


... 


76,708 


Das&ndh ... 


• •* 


a.. 


167 


Vaifihya ... 


••• 


• .a 


25,631 


Darzi 


»•• 


.*• 


6,141 


K&jath ... 


•«• 


i.t 


9,479 


Hkj 


... 


,^ 


•45 


Jat 4«« 


••• 


• •• 


902 


Son&r 


• •• 


■ *• 


8,560 


Sikh 


••• 


••• 


139 


Kumhiir ... 


... 


... 


8,546 


Khattrl ... 


■.« 


• •• 


f,812 


Kurmi ..• 


... 


... 


19,976 


Arak 


•*• 


••• 


15,005 


Kah&r ... 


a*« 


«• • 


26,613 


Ahir ,., 


t*« 


••• 


65,214 


Kaiw&r •.• 

5a 


M» 


... 


6,387 



84 



BAUDOT flCTTLnKKT RKPOST. 



Caste Statement — ( concluded. ) 

HiifDUs — (etmeimded,) 



Kanjftr ., 
KoH 

Gararia •. 
G(ij«r .. 
Kiiian 
Gandhi ., 
Lodha .. 
I^nia .. 
Loliilr .. 
MurAo .. 
MAnjhi # 
Uallah I 



■•• 



••• 



••• 



••• 



••• 



149 

8.f94 

30,815 

37S 

14,086 

164 

19,876 

«,0V7 

9,671 

49,440 

1,161 



Mali 

Mochi 

Manih&r ^ 

N4ii 

Nat ^ 

Gonhain ... 

Other Faqfn 

Joiti 

Bairi;;! ... 

Sidhu ... 



m 

m 
c\ 

9 



Persona whose ca»te is not known, l\^ 
Trarellera .^ ... Mil 



The Musalmans reside principally in the large towDS, 
as Bilgnidi, Sandila, Shahabad and S^ndi, but even in these 
form the minority. As in the Bara Banki district, they ' 
in some places inhibited the building of temples, and 
when they protested against a temple l)eing erected by a Hii 
rdja on his own land in the town of Sandila, it appeared 
inquiry that no temples ever had been built in the town by 
Hindus, owing to tne bigotry of their Musalman neighf* 
But such instances are not common in Oudh. On the ot 
hand, the Musalmans often join in the Kumlila and ot 
celebrations of the Hindus ; their love of pomp and cerei 
induces them to adopt occasions for their display, even 
the ritual of the idolater, while pride rather than bigotry inda 
them to keep out of sight the temples of a rival faith. Kanj 
a predatory tribe, are very numerous in this district; 
apparently were absent when the census was taken; 
habits are nomad. 

26. The other tribes of the district call for no notiee.1 
need only mention here the principal clans of the Chhattrisi 
order according to their numbers : — 





Clans. 






Number. 


Number ot Tilkfi 












owned. 


Gaur 


.•• 


• •• 


.•• 


1 i,(>Oi) 


S3t 


ranw&r 


••• 


•*m 


• •* 


10,000 


06 


Chauh^n 


••• 


• •■ 


••• 


9.000 


So 


Sombaofll 


••• 


.«. 


•.• 


8,000 


178 


Bais 


••• 


••• 


••• 


6,000 


M 


Cbandel 


••• 


... 


••• 


8,iJ00 


61 


Jan%>6r 


••• 


t.« 


• •* 


3,000 


8S 


Bakarwar 


••• 


•*• 


... 


2,000 


73 


Bel war 


m— 


... 


... 


t.OOO 


6 


Katiar 


... 


..« 


... 


1,500 


US 


Bhadaaria 


... 


•«• 


... 


1,600 


1 


Katbor 


•*. 


... 


•a. 


1,600 


» 



HARDOI 8STTLEMENT REPORT. 



35 



In all there are forty-four elans of Chhattris, numbering 
75,078. Thev and the Brahmans are mostly cultivators or 
yeomen proprietors. There are no hill tribes or distinctively 
aboriginal castes in the district^ although there is little doubt 
that the Pdsis and Dhdnuks, with the Lodhs, probably belong 
to a layer of population anterior to the Aryan colonization. 

27. There are no less than five towns in Hardoi with a 

population above 10,000, there being only 
18 such in the entire province. It is not 
easy to say what is the reason of this. None of them are places 
of any trade; not one of them, except Sandi, is even situated 
on a navigable river. The railroad has not succeeded in attracts 
ing much trade to or from the three towns which it passes — 
Hardoi, Sandf la, and Shahabad. The principal towns and their 
population are : — 



Towns. 



Sbahabad 

Bandila 

Bil^ram 

Mall^Qwan 

IS^ndi 

Pih&ni 

Hardoi 

Gopamau 

Pali 



• • ■ 
••• 
••• 
••• 

• .• 
>•• 
••• 
••• 



«•• 

■•• 

••• 

•• 

••• 

• • . 

••• 

••• 



••• 

... 
••• 
••• 
• • • 
••• 
••• 

• • a 



18,254 

15,511 

ll,53t 

11, 670 

11,123 

7,582 

6,415 

5,9i9 

5,122 



Of these the first seven have been subjected to local taxation 
for the maintenance of police, but in Hardoi alone has a munici- 
pal committee been appointed under Act XV. of 1867 ; its reve- 
nue from taxation in 1871 was Rs. 15,675, almost entirely 
from octroi ; its expenditure was Rs. 16,657. 

28. The following are the Chhattri clans which possess 
most property in the district : — 



Name of dan. 


Number of 
Tillages. 


Somban^i 
Nikombh 
Katiir 
Gaor 


••• 

.•• 
••• 


178 

114 
112 
182 


Bais 

Sakarw&r 

Pauwir 


••• 

• •• 


94 

73 
66 



Parganas in which situated. 



B&wan 68, S4ndi 17, Pali 59, Saromannagar 30. 
Sandila50, Alamnagar S2, Fihini i9, MalUnwan 14. 
S&ndi 35, Katiari 61. 

Sara 68, Bar wan 42, Shahabad 14, Gopamau 28, Saroman- 
nagar 16, Bangar 36. 
Gandwa 81. 
Kaly&nmal 68. 
MalUnwan 64. 



I^f 



%%^:/ r -* 



p •-v^.A '/# *J#»t 









'ft 



1 . . ; ^0 



4' 

'"■■0 



-#* 






,-.i- 



,/ 





#'/ 




♦ 




M 




t 


tit 


* 


, 


7 


« 


H 


#4 ■ 


1 


'/ 


1 






If 



N/> ofli#»r <IUfrir?f irf Oiulh ran present sncb a distribution 
ifl' pM»)i«'rly tfvi?iif y-TourdanK inntead of the five or six whicli 
MM* IoimmI hi Iiiii! iJari'li or rartahparb. This i» to be ac- 
I'MMifi'il (or jMiflly hy Ui<? proximity of the district to Kanauj, 
IIm- Itln^/ ol' wliirii pliicf; would naturally settle his retainers 
IimII'ii ilMiliiiifi'ly ovi'r tlio country, and would not allow any 
• liiM In M('i|ulr(* «»xcluMivn nutliority over a large tract ; partly 
II «iMM fhlii In llin liirl tliat lliirdoi was a Kort of border land 
l«'hvi'M IIm' AIiIiiiiim to tlio nortli-east, the Gaurs to the south- 
^i"il, I III* MmIn to tin* Noulh and east, the Sombansi to the 
H»'»<l. 

No lrw« lliiih llnilcM'h of the twonty^four clans have large 
Ituulril ihlrroHiM. V\\\> ItuikwilrH lost (M villages in Balamau 
hill*!' Iho luuliny through t ho confiscation of the property of 
\\\\\v li*a»h V Ninpnt Singh. Thoro is a great Katidr colony in 
(ho I'^liiiuo uoilh woNt of tho district ; passing east we find 
^w ^\\\W\\\ SondmuHi MMtlomont ; south of it a Raikwdr and 
rhaudol i^olouv i Ntill furlhor oast wo find the Gaurs holding 
\W oouho i^f fl\o district ; thogn\ntor part of several parganaa 
lo Uh* n\\\\\\\ lonuM \\\\\ jtottlouiont of Sakarwars, Kikumbhs, 
%\\\\ \\^\^ , to fho oaM ltopamau« fonuorly belonging to the 
AU^^^^ Ku^k^donv now btN^kou up among a number of clans ; 
xsU^U u^ OiO \\ouh WW l\un\;>r>i hv^ld most of Pachhoha. 

VV^' n 'vx M^ !«nn*vo c.^vx^k ,i%N;nirtsl ^Uvlt exclusive po<sses- 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT RBPOBT. 



37 



vrith tlieir boundary, or nearly so. Vide following table :• 



Name of pargana. 


No. of Tillages. 


Leading clan. 




No. of Tillages 
held by it. 


Gundwa ... 


117 


BaiB 


••« 


81 


Kalyaomal 


72 


Sakarw&r ... 




63 


Sara 


85 


Gaor 




63 


Katiari 


80 


Kati4r 




64 


iMamnagar 


43 


Nikumbh ..» 




S8| 


4»ali 


9d 


Sombansi ... 




62 


Barwan ••• 


69 


Ditto ... 




68 



In other cases parganas were formed from the lands 
surrounding or within easy reach of some Musalman town, like 
Shabdbad, Bilgrdm, Sandila, Mansdmagar ; in other cases 
again, as in that of Gopamau, the pargana represents, not the 
possessions of a clan, but the ancient dominion of a. chief. In 
Hardoi, unlike Partabgarh, no one clan acquired predominance 
over such an extensive tract of country that it now constitutes 
a tahsll. The point will be dwelt on in connexion with the 
comparative absence of the feudal or rdja element in Hardoi 
society. 

29. The landed property in this district is more evenly 
Division of landed pro- divided Under the diiSerent tenures than 
P®"^- is usual in Oudh. The distribution is as 

follows :^ 



Taluqdari 

Zamindari 

Pattidari 



••• 



• • • 
••• 
••• 



••• 



392^ 
795i 
753 



The following is the distribution among the different clans 
and castes : — 



Chhattri 

Musalman 

Brahman 

Kayath 

Goshfiin 

Ahir 

Kurmi 

Kalw&r 

Baqqil 

Lodh 



••• 



••• 



• •■ 



• •• 



1,157 
406i 
150i 
1574 
4 

H 
16 

2 

2 

H 



Bhat 

M&li 

European 

Native Christian, 

Mixed ownership 

Government 



• • ■ 



• •• 



• •• 



Total 



• •• 



••• 



I 
1 
2 
3 
3 
45 



1,961 



. J 



&i 



nABDOI SETTLEMENT BEPOBT. 



30. The following list of the proprietors, as giTen m 

OiMribtiUob of pr,iK;rtj tlic Ain-i-Akbari, may be of interea. 

iLAJci*r'.i.a^,i5aoA.D. The district WBS then divided betwoi 

the two Sarkdrs of Khairabud and Lucknow :— * 



Khairahad Sarkdr. 



Bnme of pftrgnua. 


Proprietors. 


nu. 




Asas or Abirt. 


BawftiL 




Ditto. 


hittdi. 




8')inban8is. 


Hftra. 




( bnuhaofl. 


GoptmaiL 




Kajpuu Eanwar in other MSS. Bisen — Kiinw«. 




X'lC 


know Sarkdr. 


BilgrAm. 




Hayjads, Bais. 


SsndiU. 




Onblot. Bichbil in other MSS.^Cbandel. 


KachhaDd«a« 




(^hHDdcls. 


Gundw». 




Brabiiiaus. 


ValUnwin. 




Bain. 


Ilardoi. 




nrahmnns, now Gaur Chhattris. 


I'ibiui. 




Kajputs. 



Twelve parganas have now, it appears, been split up into 
twenty-two. A llowing for errors in the manuscript, the stabili- 
ty of property among Hindus is very remarkable. The par- 
ganasof Gopamau, Sandi, Bilgrdm, Eachhandau are held now, 
as they were held in Akbar's time, by the same Chhattri clans. 
The Chauhans, Bais, and Bdchhils have apparently lost ground, 
also the Bralimans, while tlie Gaurs, Raikwdrs, Nikumbhs, who 
are really Kachhwdlias, have established themselves since 
Akbar's time. On the whole, the Rajputs have held tbeir 
ground, one tribe giving place to another. The change which 
has been mainly efiected is the aggrandizement of the Musal- 
mans and the decline of the Brahmans. Musalmans now hold 
great part of Sandila and Pihani and Shahabad ; they are only 
mentioned in Akbar's time as the part owners of Bilgrdm. 
The Kunwars who are recorded as owners of Gopamau are the 
Ahbans, still the largest proprietors. The word is either a 
clerical error for Chdwars, the original name of the Ahbans, or 
it is applied to them as a younger branch. It is only in Hardoi 
that Brahman zamindars still have any considerable number of 
villages ; in other districts which boast a considerable Brahmau 
ownership the proprietors are all taluqdars. 



HABOOI BBTTLEKmr RlPOtlT. 



89 



31. The larger proprietors in the district are mentioaed 
in the following table : — 

Return illuitratinff the ownerahip and rental of taluqa«. 



Name of 

laluqa. 


Kamc of tnlaqdar. 


SI 

K 1 <: 


h 
P 


= 1 

1' 


1 


s 


3 ; 4 


D 


6 


K*aBiu ... 


fFaniipd ... 
CliaudhariKbaslat Huacn J Copyhuld ... 

Total 

(Firracil ... 

Th£kur Bbarath Singh j Copvlioltl ... 

(.ABcesiral... 

Tot.ll ... 

Thahnraia Dalol Knn-)~„„ . 
war, widow of Thikar J ^'""^, . - 
Chaodika Bakhsh. ) Cop?'"*''' - 

Total 

f Farroeil ._ 

Bija Waiir Cband ... 1 Copyliold ... 

(.Aucesiral... 

Total 

Total 

(-Fanned ... 

Riia Eandhir Singh ... J Copyhold ... 
(Anccitral... 

Total ... 
MunshiFazlKa^ul ... 1^™,^,^: 

Total ... 
ThikurLaltaB.th.h... {^-^,,-; 

TotJ „. 
Sa,yadWMiHaidar„. {^^li^Z 

Total 


.. 1 33.7*3 
... 7,030 
89 SS.3^K 


30,893 
17,S26 
6,8 JO 

63.830 


10.'i67 
S,093 

is,SRa 


Atwa 

LOHR^aiT- f 


43 
13 

ST) 

31 
19 


a6.»50 
S,IS4 

F93 

41,188 

18,073 

BJ:! 

19,046 

8.808 
I4,-IS2 

ai.osa 

9,3J. 
9,3US 

I8,6E0 

IB.HS 

4,801 

a4,ei3 

*,nBS 

3,330 

7.395 

13,398 
8,114 

ti,ai3 

1S,559 
B.760 


36,402 

I'oso 

1S.008 
1,S4I 


4,'e9S 
430 

S,rs8 

"*734 




18,361 


734 


klOAOK. 


T.381 

istai 


18,'8:9 
33a 




!1,8*0 


13,101 


Do. 


T.8Sfi 
11,^84 


7,784 




19,390 


7,784 


BBAEiWAH, 


IS, 184 
l,3t4 
6,017 


sisu 


JlLiLPDB ... 


S8,6in 

3,E18 
i.S93 


4,0 15 

1.968 




7,911 


1,M8 


^BUCTIABKAi 


I6,03f 


6^934 




88,174 


e,B34 


Bkaoetavdb, 


13,839 
6,146 


3.M8 




S> 


as,3i8 


19.986 


3W. 



iO tTAIlDOI SEm-KKENT REPOET, 

Return Uluilratinff the ownerthip, 4^.—^ concluded. ) 





Komt ol taluqdar. 

9 

ili,lp»miiiii.l AihrBf. 1 

MohiiBinul Znki, VCnpfhold... 

andUiliUrUuiiBlo. J 

Tobtl ... 

RiJ« HBTdco BBkhih, ( Farmed ... 
MX (Copjhold... 

Total ... 

B(iitni Amtnat FitI- f Fanned ... 
ma. I AnccHtral... 

Total ... 

Riianfp8i..h ..jS™^„;:; 

Total ... 

Tbiknr SarabJUrFarmca ... 
biagh. I Copyhold ... 

Total 

HhvrBaltUar ._ Farmed ^ 

r Farmed ... 
UlrtoAbDiadAllBcE,} 

iCopjhold... 

ToUl ... 

Hahant &ar ChBrao 
W* Copjhold ... 

BtjB UBuSr &U Ehttt, FBrned .. 


It 

is 


i 

•< 


|1 




1 


a 


4 


s 


1 


x.„„. ] 


::: 


9I,K1 
7M 


Ra Bi. 
so.8n . 
Bta 8ti 
74C 4n 




80 


SS^M 


Sl,l« 


Ml 


RAtl^H ... 


::: 


144 


43.TkB 


IfS 




« 


40,7S5 


44,441 


m 


BiiirsMAB 




ia,iioB 
6,m 


IB,OU 

7,ast 


v» 




37 


I9.S40 


M,na 


V)M 


8.,i.„.... 


;;: 


IB,BS7 
SSI 


11.088 
1,440 

~1MM 


iVJw 




as 


17,878 


l,8l« 


rAW«T<!l ... 


6 


8,1 6S 
30 


9^t 

■a 


"*30 




3, IB* 


3,S18 


to 




6 


8,37! 


8,9M 




Jauu-lb. J 


... 


4,373 
61 


»,3M 
67 


to 




10 


4,(U 


3,406 


CD 


Aaa 


S 


1,B0» 


l,«fl 


8ia 


Ha » I o Br 


s 


i!,348 


1^» 






410 


Se7,6St 


3,6S,089 


ei,ao3 



BARDOI SETTLEXKKT RBfORT. 



The following list is more recent, dating^ from 1874: — 
List of talugdari. 



Nime ot UlnqdiT. 


Naae ol taluqa 




1 
1 

■«1 


1. 1 

Ij _ 










Ra. 


X^IU B*k«tt » 


KhajnrabTaaDdAlii- 


34 


ai,?9B 


ia,i7!Cbhat»i, Bail. 


ImtiU Pitima 
Anwr Hltb 


Bihu'Eaamandl ... 
Tbamarwa 



13 


B.BSB 
7.118 


a.StiilUDaaliiMn.Sbekb' 
6,E10K*;«th, Sri Bii. 


Mnhimmvl Amir ... 
AmiDM Fitlmt ... 
R&jk Dip SiDgh 
B^* Hardeo Bakhib, 
Styrid Wa.i B»ii»T. 


Goiida lUo 
Buitnagar 

Katiiri 

ridpnr. 
Aillpur 

Atwa aad Natlrpnr, 
Jaltlpuc and Diud- 


10 

as 
ss 

*7 
it 


19,33S 

43,166 
2), 119 


T.6S7,Sh»kh. 
11,644 Do. 

13.103 

44.'i«,l|Kali4r. 
ie,4El tia/jid. 


Bhint SiDgh 
- b7 jid Fu) BwlU .„ 


45 

n 


7,«» 


4l!654 

7,906 


Dn. 
Bab. 
rtajyid. 


Bija Wufr Chatid ... 


Sarwao Barigion ... 


30 


ai,oso 


!4,03a 


fUyatb, Sri BEi. 


lUja Dnrga Farihid, 
Dalel Enawar 
Khulat Huaain ... 

HiJB Raodhic Sngb, 
Liiq Siasb 


Ditto 
Birwa „ 
KKkrill and Arwi 

Bhari-au 
MouilanU 


61 
43S 


18,871: 

G,IIO 


is.gis 

1B,88S 
SI.163 

!fl.708 
6,493 


BaU. 
3bekb. 

Batf. 




Total „ 


3e4,Ba» 


seoissi 





32. Most of tbem acquired tbeir estates by becoming 
security for rerenue, by more or less forced sales, and other 
-wrongful means. iHp Singh of Sawdjpur and possibly R^ja 
Hardeo Bakhsh of Katidri are the only acknowledged chiefs 
of clans, the only men whose talugdari title does represent 
Aud embody a real feudal power and influence over their suh- 
jects. One or two of the smaller estates, however, are very 
old and real allodial properties. The Sayyids of Bilgrdm 
acquired their estates by purchase about two hundred years 
ago for the most part. Colonel Sleeman mentions the Sandila 
laadlords in the foUowiog terms: — 

"The 'baronial proprietors in the Sandila district are 
Mardan Singh of Obarawan, with a rent-roll of Rs. 38.000 ; 
Ganga Bakhsh of Atwa, with one of Rs. 25,000 ; Chundeeka 



42 HARDOI 8RTTLKMKKT REPORT. 

Baksh, of Birwa, with one of Rr. 25,000 ; and Somere SaA 
of Rodamow, with one of Rs. 34,000. This is the reot-nl 
declared and entered in the accounts ; but it is much bell 
the real one. The Government ofEcers are afraid to meiii 
their lands, or to make any inquiries on the estates intothi 
value, lest thev should turn robbers and jpluuder thecovfef 
as they are always prepared to do. They have alwaii 
number of armed and brave retainers, ready to support^ 
in any enterprise, and can always add to their number < 
emergency. There is never any want of loose characters m 
to fight for the sake of plunder alone. A taluqdar, howev 
when opposed to his Government, does not venture toatb 
another taluodar or his tenants, stands too much in need 
his aid, or at least of his neutrality and forbearance/' 

It is rather curious that the large proprietors of Sad 
as it at present stands — *Chaudhri Iiashmat Alf, Fatehchf 
Dhanpat Rie — are not even mentioned. Theirs were ch 
laddri estates, and apparently it was not considered that tl 
farms represented property at all, otherwise it seems diffic 
to account for Colonel Sleenian's omission to mention a 
actually in his camp. The history of the Hardoi taluqd 
will be referred to further on. Here it is only necessary 
state that they are above the average in intelliTOnce i 
enterprise. The present owners of Sandila and BiJgr^m \ 
men of considerable ability. Rdja Hardeo Bakhsb of Kati 
is as fine a specimen of a feudal chief as Oudh can presc 
A just and kind landlord, an upright and truthful mai 
soldier of approved courage, an adept in all manly exercises, 
has also shown himself to be within his small range a stateso 
of prescience and broad views. He temporised with the rel 
during the first months of the mutiny of 1857: be preteni 
submission to the usurper at Lueknow, knowingthat if a sudi 
attack were made upon him in May or June he could not prot 
either himself or Messrs. Edwards and Probyn who had tal 
shelter with him. With the first fall of the rains, when 
dominion became an island in the middle of pathless fens f 
girt by swift deep rivers, he threw off the mask and bi 
defiance to the rebels. He bas been rewarded as he desen 
for his unswerving loyalty. The good service which 
rendered in war he continues in more peaceful times. ] 

•CJuMicUiri Uaahmat A]i is mentioned at page 9$9, Volume I.^A. U« U*. 



HABDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 48 

advice is always sound and unselfish, and no one's aid and 
5 society are more welcome in Hardoi, whether to those who 
follow the chase of the boar or to those who administer justice 
I in the courts. His stalwart form and frank face are well known 
I throughout. Unlike most of hi» class, his active habits induce 
I him to be constantly on horseback. Noblemen of such high 
r character are really a most important and beneficial power in 
the State. They are loved by their dependents with that fond 
fidelity which sterling goodness attracts, and which this pri- 
mitive society is ready to tender. A wise good Hindu chief 
ivho belongs to the soldier caste, who was trained in a harsh 
school, whose religion still guides him to justice and benevo- 
lence, but not to bigotry, deserves to have his portrait drawn 
in these pages. He and his estate are to a certain extent self- 
made. He is not the hereditary chief of his clan, being 
descended from a younger son, and had many struggles with 
the former sovereigns of Oudh to preserve his property and 
liberty. 

The principal feature of the Hardoi proprietary body is 
^ „ . , the enormous number of small owners. 

The small propnetors. ^,| • tt j • i r/»o -n 

Ihere are m Hardoi 1,569 villages not 
belonging to taluqdars; these cover 1,105,000 acres, and are 
owned by 21,758 proprietors, giving an average of fifty acres 
to each proprietor, of which two-thirds will be arable. Many 
of these proprietors, however, have brothers and cousins whose 
separate shares are not recorded. There are 823 zamindari 
villages, 728 pattidari, and 18 bhayacb^ra. It is very strange 
why the rdj or the feudal chiefship system should not have 
gained ground in Hardoi. It almost seems as if it was owing 
to the climate that a bolder and more independent spirit 
animated the inhabitants of Unao, Hardoi, Lucknow, and 
Southern Kheri than in bastern and Northern Oudh, the Tardi, 
and the trans-Goghra districts. 

Such large estates as do exist in Hardoi are purely the 
result of revenue arrangements, even when the owners belong 
to powerful clans. A younger scion of the Nikumbhs accu- 
mulated the estate of Atwa, another of the Cham^r Gaurs 
that of Khajurahra, another of the Katidrs that of Dharmpur, 
another the Raikw^r estate of Buia; none of these men were 
r^jas or considered their property as indivisible. 



44- HAKDOI SETTLEMENT RKPOBT.* 

34. The reasons of this are obscure. It only removes the 

The paucity of feudal inquiry a Stage further back to urge that 

lordships in iiardoi ac- the Chhattri claus were too numerous 

couuted for. ^^ j ^^^ ^^^^ intermingled in Hardoi to 

ftdniit of continuous domination by any one member of a single 
clan. It is quite true that in some cases the present propria* 
tury bodies represented the Chhattri retainers who were settled 
indiscriminately over the territory by the Moslem lords of 
Bilgram, Shahabad and Pihani. When a mixed body of Brah* i 
man and Chhattri retainers has been scattered sporadically 
over a territory it is impossible to establish a rdj which shall 
liave in itself any of the elements of cohesion or permanence ; 
such are only the attributes of a feudal chiefsnip wbich is 
coterminous with the allodial property of a numerous and 
powerful clan. Blood relationship to the chief supplies the 
place of military discipline and preserves the principality 
from external foes and internal dissensions. Another solveut 
of feudal estates was the presence of large Musalman towns,, 
such as Bilgrdm, Sandila, Shahabad, and Sandi ; the existence 
of these Moslem military stations with their republican policy, 
fanaticism, and soldierly instincts, was incompatibly with the 
neighbourhood of a great Hindu rdj like that of Partabgarb, 
Gonda, Mitauli, or Mordrmau. Moslems, as soldiers of for- 
tune, and as possessors of a faith which made all men equal, 
were bound to attack all whose wealth, Hindu faith, and noble 
Citation gave them a fatal prominence. Just as the Sayjads 
of Bilgrdm overturned the Sombansi rdja of that ilk, those 
of Sandfla the Pasi chiefs, so did the Malihabad Pathins drive 
the Bais from their borders. Further, Hardoi was on the great 
highway from Delhi to Jaunpur and Bengal. Tall poppies dq 
not grow by the roadside. These things account for large 
priucipalities never having flourished in Hardoi ; they do not 
account for large clans like the Nikumbhs, Chdmar Gaurs, 
8akarwdrs, Panwdrs never having elected a rdja. They show* 
that even when a clan had mastered a compact estate, the 
raja was regarded as an ornamental appendage which might 
or might not be added. 

The great mistake made by those who assume that ia- 
Western Oudh a rdj or a taluqa was the natural form which 
landed property assumed, the first crystallization from chaos^ 
bo to speak, is an historical one. They assume that a lidjpvt- 



HABDOI SETTLEMENT BEPOBT. 45 

clan beaded by its chief invaded Oudh from Mangi Fdtan or 
some other Pdtan in Western India ; that this chief conquered 
a principality for himself, and that he maintained in peace the 
same absolute power over the persons and property of his clan 
which was necessary in war. Now, the traditions of no clan, 
not even the Bais, the Ahban, the Kanhpuria, the Sombansi, 
the Bacbgoti, which number hundreds of thousands of mem- 
bers, point to any such wholesale immigration and conquest. 
What took place was as follows: — A single individual, or 
three brothers at most settle in the country and prosper ; they 
commence in all cases by dividing the property equally among 
all the sons, showing that the idea of a rdj, one and indivisible, 
had not entered their minds ; they succeed by some process 
of natural selection or freak of fortune ; other families give 
place to them ; they multiply and continue subdividing their 

property. If it happens that any call is 
The dcTeiopment of made on the military prowess of the family 

now become a clan, if they have constantly 
to fight for their property, or are successful in seizing that of 
others, it is not unlikely that their natural leader, the head of 
the elder branch, may either be nominated a rdja by his clan, 
or be granted the title by the supreme authority. Once 
granted or admitted, there is no doubt that the title, and the 
power which accrues to it, are apt to be permanent. Custom 
and hereditary names are all-powerful in Oudh ; but the 
writer's point is that rdj is not the natural form which pro- 
perty takes in Western Oudh at all. Bdj has hardly anything 
to do with landed property ; it represents sovereignty, military 
control, and will only develop into allodial property as a mili- 
tary usurpation in troublous times for the good of the common- 
wealth. The rdja will call in war time for a war contribution 
f^om all the subjects of the State ; he does that,' not for his 
personal gain, but as the head of the commonwealth and for 
its weal. Nor does it by any means follow that a clan will see 
the necessity of having a rdja even for military matters; there 
are clans in Hardoi who have their untitled chei&, to whom, in 
all times of turmoil, their obedience is absolute. On the banks 
of the Ganges in Kachhandau there lived a Cbandel, a yeoman 
chief of this kind ; he was the master of only one village, but 
his power and influence over the whole clan was unbounded. 
When Bdja Hardeo Bakhsh of Eatidri had no power to pro- 
tect the Fatehpur fugitives^ he secured the good offices of thiii 



46 IIABDOI SBTTLEMKMT REPORT. 

old man, who pledged Lis word for the EogIisbmen*8 ni 
he embarked in their boat, and his answer to tbe he 
challenges from tbe river bank veaa always received and oh 
as a command not to use hostile measures ; for many a 
down the Ganges his presence secured absolute safety. 1 
probably, if the Oudh anarchy had continued a few gen 
tions, this man's grandson might have become a rdja, got 
whole property of the clan into bis clutches, and antedatec 
rdj as having come in with the conquerors. It is very 
that when a rdj was once established, the power of tbe 
under its new head would be directed to conquest from o 
clans, and the new acquisitions so made would very prob 
be regarded mainly as the allodial property of tbe rua al 
with which he might reward his retainers ; but here anun 
rdj arose as the result of war and military aggression. 
have instances ( see articles Sikandarpur and Kheri distrii 
tbe gazetteer of Oudh) of the establishment or re-establ 
ment of a rdj by the voluntary election of the people in oi 
to further the common interests or protect them from the o 
mon enemy, the Supreme Government. 

The rdja's titles are generally most modern inventio 
there was no rdjaof the Bisens before Hanwant Singb; d 
of the Janwdrs till two generations a^o ; none oif the Abbt 
the oldest clan in Oudh, till Rdja Lone Singh's time ; tl 
never had a rdja in Uardoi ; there is none of the Kalbans, 
the Chamar Gaurs, of the Bdhman Gaurs ; there was n^ 
of the Jdngres till Jodba Sin^b conquered Daurabra. 
point of fact, in times of ordinary tranquillity, even of si 
tranquillity as was common in Oudh, there was no necesi 
for a rdja, and no Indian Government, unless in the 1 
3tage of decay, would have tolerated the existence of any r 
within its dominions whom it could possibly or safely redi 
to subjection. 

No doubt, at the break up of each empire, a number 
able men started into local greatness ; when the Jaunj 
kingdom was broken up, the Bais, the Eanhpuria, the So 
bansi, the Bachgoti clans found it convenient to have rdJ4 
with the establishment of settled order and the Mughal empi 
the unity of the rdj vanished, and property^ was divid 
ficcordmg to the ordinary Hindu law. Agaio; whea t 



BAfiDOI SElTtifiifENT BSPOBT. 4? 

Mughal einpire broke up, were established the Muhamdi^ 
Kaimahra, Kdla Ednkar, the Dhaurahra, the Katiari, the Dera 
principalities. Again, when the Oudh kings had lost all real 
power and devoted themselves to sensuality, there arose the 
great principalities of Oel, Shdhganj, Jahdngirabad, Mahniti-> 
dabad, Maurinwdn, Sissaindi. On what did these principalis 
ties rise? Not on the ruins of others; if so, there would be 
numerous traces left. The Bilkharia rdja, for instance, Was 
dispossessed six hundred years ago, but he has maintained 
his title and honors on a petty principality of eight villages, 
compared to which Monaco is an empire. But I hare met 
with no other banished princes ; in fact the rdj rose on the 
wrecks of village proprietary communities, and no other opinion 
can be formed by those who take care to extend their enquiries 
beyond the mere family trees of the rdjas. 

That rdjas were not congenial to the soil of Hardoi, that 
the people resisted the outward pressure of the Lucknow 
Government, and the temptation to raise a strong barrier 
against foreign oppression, goes to show that rdjas, far from 
being the natural outcome of rural life, the natural political 
result of the Hindu economy, were alien, if not distasteful, 
to the people, only accepted as a means of escape from greater 
evils, from more distant and harsher tyrants. A t any rate 
there were no rdjas in Hardoi, in the sense of hereditary chiefs- 
of great clans, and lords of their lands. Dip Singh,* of Siwdj- 
pur, is possibly an exception, and it is expressly recorded about 
him that, as fast as youjiger branches of the family came into 
existence, they were provided for independently. The mode 
in which Rdja Randhir Singh acquired his title is related in 
the Oudh gazetteer, article pargana Malihabad. 

I have elsewhere pointed out in the Kheri article of the 
gazetteer, that when the community was a mingled one, where 
any one Cbhattri clan acquired ascendancy over a large body 
of aliens, either of other Chhattris or of lower castes, their 
position was that of a military colony among a hostile subject 
race ; there was always risk of a revolt ; discipline and prompt 
action were a necessity of their position, so they yielded ready 
obedience to a single chief who became their rdja. When, oa. 

* He 18 belieTedy with tratb, to be a descendant of the R&ja Sri, whoae town of Sii- 
nagar, now fiilgrim, was captured by the Moslems in or about 603 H.> 1400 A. IX-« i 
Fi</« EUioi's History of India, toI. 1V.> pp. 97-98. 



48 HABDOI 

the other hand, a clan was really numeroas and oceupied t 
compact territory, so that it had little to fear from intend 
risings, it found no necessity for a raja ; the whole body fou^t 
together for the common interest : each component village wii 
known and entitled to the assistance of all if attacked. It wii 
cutomary to divide the estate into particular nombers of ?il* 
laffes, either chaurasi^ 84 ; or bayalii, 42, or 52, bawan; \ 
solidity and unity were thus given to the a^reg ation of atoms, 
which was useful as a rallying cry in stirring np patriotic 
and in impressing the extent of the clan s rights and interests 
upon strangers. 

In fine, the original internal polity was always repuUi- 
can, unless where any one small clan had aeqnired a politieil 
supremacy or military dominion over numeroas aubjects. If 
there arose dangers of oppression from without, or invasion by 
Moslem aliens, the frequent habit of military obedience became 
in time permanent feudal dependence, and the r&ja became the 
natural and chosen protector of the people ; when, again, the 
Musalman soldier tax-gatherer was warlike and near at band 
in some walled city, the rdja was often killed, the talaqa broken 
up, and very oppressive exactions and imposts taken from the 
people. 

Those rdjas who survived compromised with the -Go- 
vernment, paid tribute, and became mere tax-gatherers* In 
time also the Oudh Government found that it would be more 
convenient to have resident middlemen who could collect their 
dues everywhere, and the policy of introducing such was large- 
ly carried out during the last twenty years prior to annexation. 
la Ilardoi there were never any rdjas except one, of Siwajpur; 
but many large taluqas were either formed for the first time 
or aggrandized from mere zamindaris during the thirty years 
preceding annexation. 

35, There is a very considerable difference between the 
two kinds of taluqa. In the one case, the rdja is either the 
descendant of some ancient independent chieftain who ruled 
the people prior to the advent of Musalman authority, or he is 
a chief chosen by the people as a protector and a lord, when 
Internal dissensions or external dangers demonstrated their' 
need of a wise bead and a single hand at the helm. In the 
other ciuM', the false taluqdar was not chosen by the people aa 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPOBT. 49 

a ruler, but was imposed upon them by the Government, not 
to perform the functions of a ruler or judge, but simply those 
of a tax-gatherer. In India the tax-gatherer under native 
rulers has always been the most powerful element in the State; 
where there were no courts or police, he was the only autho^ 
rity ; and if localized, his existence determined the political 
and, in a great measure, the social system. 

36. The body of yeomen proprietors in Hardoi is sen- 
sibly diminishing ; the rains are more 

The yporaen proprie- ** . ry .i • . . - 

tors ; their difficuUici. precanous there than m most parts of 

Oudh ; what was only scarcity in the 
province became famine in Hardoi in 1865 and 1869; tho 
proprietors find it difficult to collect rents and pay the land 
tax. Under any circumstances, it is almost impossible for a 
body of small proprietors whoso lands are intermingled to 
abstain from quarrelling, and when once litigation commences 
it is almost certain that whoever is worsted will mortgage, and 
ultimately sell, his few ancestral acres. In fact, it is almost 
impossible that the majority of these communities of proprie- 
tors will survive ; they could resist the storms of oppression 
from without, but internal dissensions and discord commence 
at once when they have received from the justice and modera- 
tion of the British Government a fixed and definite property. 
One-nineteenth of the entire property in Hardoi was transfer- 
red from the hands of the yeomen proprietors during the year 
1871, and was mostly purchased by bankers and banians, 
sugar-boilers, usurers, distillers, and skin-dealers — men of little 
political power or value to the State. The difficulty which 
attends any efibrt to improve the circumstances of the Oudh 
military class is a complex one. On the one hand, it is con- 
sidered undesirable in a military sense to increase the high 
caste element at present in the army, lest it return to the state 
of things which preceded and brought on the mutiny of 1857. 
It is no longer an object of ambition to place Brabmans and 
Chhattris side by side in a regiment of tall and stately PiUndes, 
from which all low castes are to be excluded. Further, it 
would be an advantage gradually to wean the fighting yeo- 
manry from their ancient pursuits, and induce them to beat 
their swords into ploughshares ; their caste pride now forbids 
them to plough with their own hands, and it would only en- 
courage such folly if military service were kept before them 

7h 



r 



50 HARDOI SETTLEMENT RErOUT. 

as an employment to which all or many of tlicni could 
On the other hand, if they are granted any favours, not 
sonal, anything in the shape of a low assessment uponi 
lands, it isdifficnlt to hinder them from sellinii: the landiLi 
nothing is gained hy tran^^ferrms: the favour to othepl 
whom it is not intended. Distinctions of this kind are 
regarded as invidious and unfair hy other classes, who 
that there is no reason why they should he taxed more be 
because they are industrious and willing to labour withoj 
hands. 

This is very true, and yet somethincr apparendvi 
be done. There are 21,000 recorded proprietors (rfW 
nearly all high casto Brahniatis and Chhattris, in Hardoiab^ 
there are 14,000 in Lucknow ; altogether there are at fa 
100,000 adult male proprietors of i)atches of laud vanfe 
size from 10 acres to 200. The vast majority of tliesc li 
loss than 50 acres each, the average is about 22 acres, i 
not desirable to withdraw men of this class from theiri'^ 
and make soldiers of them ; it is very difficult to loitf' 
Government demand upon their lands ; yet, unless soodil 
is done, many out of this enormous body of pauper ve* 
will lose the one bond which unites them to the State ifiB 
their ancestral acres pass into the hands of mea whose li 
and profession they scorn, they will become a body of hh 
desperadoes, natural enemies to peace and social order, 
elements of agrarian anarchy, and a serious weakness politk 

37. The transfers of landed and immovable propi 
complete or inchoate, amounted to 5,361, during the J 
1873-74 ; the amount to lis. 15,05,818. Now the re? 
of the great estates which practically have not been mortg 
amounts to Rs. 3,53,089, that of the numerous smaller 
prietors to Rs. 11,00,341 ; in two years, then, they invt 
themselves and their properties to the extent of much 
than a year's income. The value of their properties at ti 
times the Government revenue — a fair valuation — will be 
Rs. 1,32,00,092; at this rate they should all be sold o 
8f years. But many of these mortgages are not the 
transaction, the sums entered include loans of previous y 
still, after making every allowance the prospect is a] 
ing. 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 



51 



Statement alwmiKj the aggregate value of property transif erred hy 
docianents registered in 1^73 and 1874. 



1 

* Description of deeds. 


Number of deeds. 


Amount. 




1873. 


1874 


Total. 


1873. 


1874. 


Total. 


Deeds of sale of Rs. 1 no and upwards... 
Do. less than Rs. 1 00 
Do. of mortgage of Hs. 100 and 

upwards. 
Do. less than Us. 100 ... ... 

Do. of gift ... 


297 

280 

2,383 

• • • 

9 


229 
268 

98(1 

1,016 
10 


626 
438 

3,363 

1,016 

19 


Rs. 
1,92,649 

18,162 
6,64,610 

• a. 

• •• 


Rs. 
1,29.710 

12,422 
4,16,408 

76.800 
1,137 


Bs. 
3,S2,S69 
26,604 
10,80,918 

76,806 
1,187 


Total 


2,969 


2,492 


6,361 


8,70,341 


6,36,477 


1,606,818 



SECTION IV. 
ADMINISTRATIVE FEATURES. 

Administratiirc divisions— Thanas— Administration— Police— Income-tax^BcTcnue 
— Expenditure — Local taxation— >Crime and criminal classes— Education— Post- 
office. 

38. Hardoi is divided into four tahsils and twenty-one 
....,,. ,. . . parganas. The tahsils are Hardoi, Sha- 

Admmistrative divisions. ti^-iTfc.i , in i/i mi 

babad, Bilgram and bandila. These were 
slightly altered from the previous arrangement in 1869, but 
the changes are of no importance. The pargana Sara was 
divided between two tahsfls. The police arrangements of 
Hardoi are similar to other districts. There are a number of 
town police maintained by the different municipalities. Police 
statistics are shown in the following tables : — 

Statement allowing the area of thanas. 



Ko. 


Kame of thana. 


Area in square 
miles. 


No. of villages. 


Population. 




Sbahabad 


••• 


299 


835 


132.425 




^aktaura 




972 


263 


104.839 


^^* 


Hardoi 




207 


168 


76.970 




Pihftni 




227 


196 


79,310 




Tandiaon 




162 


129 


62,397 




Beniganj 




161 


126 


66,887 




Handila ••« 




320 


261 


130,348 


8 


Kachhona 




192 


108 


80,018 


9 


Bilgr4m ... 




268 


236 


118,967 


10 


Mailanwan 

Total 


... 


179 


167 


97,811 




2,287 


1,961 


929,992 



hi 



BABDOI SETTLBHtKT IlEFORT. 



39. There arc tlircc paid European Mngistrafes aid 
. , . . , six paid native Masristrates, besides ai 

unpaid native honorary jUag^strates ; u 
these officers Itave also civil and revenue powers. Two ofthe 
paid native Civil Judges can decide cases in wbieh tbe propertj 
litigated does not exceed the value of Rs. 5,000. 

The general police number 458, and the town police 90 
their annual cost amounted to Its. 62,2G1 in 1871. Thereis 
one policeman tx) every four square miles, and to every 1,7U0 
of the inhabitants. The total coat of administration, iDclud- 
ing police, was Rs. 1,49,736 in 1873, but the table give« 
further on from the Accountant-General's returns is perhaps 
more trustworthy. 

Slalisfics ofthe police. 







M 




• 


jd 


ss 








H 


i 


S 


h 


th 


^■3 




4 

s 


n. 


% 


Js 


2a 


■n. 






= = t 




ia 


£ " 




r^^ 






















''' 








0. 




ItettnlAr police 


GMflS 


a 


7* 


370 




1 to S-IS 




Vilt»g» *Mch 
















Manicipul pulicc ... 


0.a85 


... 




J7 


... 




- 


Total 


i,«a.i5tf 


3 


lis 


3,U7I 


3,1SD 




" 



40, The revenue of the district is exhihited in tbe 
following table. It wilt be observed that 
the imperial expenditure is only 12 per 
cent, of tbe income, even excluding from the latter the reeeiptt 
from salt and opium which euter the imperial exchequer. 
The land revenue constitutes 90 per cent, of the inoome; it 
has been increased 42 per cent, at the recent settlement. TIm 
assessment coumicaced in 1864 and terminated in 1868. 

The incidence of the Government demand is: — 



Per acre of cnltivatioa 
Fer arable acre ... 



1 II 1 
13 1 



BABDOI SETTLEMKNT REPOKT, 



53 



e. 



41. The revenue derived from the ineome-tax is given 
in the table, but it is not now exacted. It will appear that 
'the landowners contributed Rs. 6,804 out of Rs. 7,607, or 85 
per cent, of the whole; yet, undoubtedly much of the wealth 
of the country is in the hands of the banking and trading 
classes. 

Revenue. 



1. Recent Bettlement reTenue coUec- 
tiODS ... ... ... 

S. Rents of Government Tillages and 

InuClS *.• ttt ••• 



8. Income-tax .•• 

4. Tax on spirits 

6. Tax on opium and drugs 
0. Stamp duty 

7. Law and justice 




Remarks. 



••• 



ft* 



••• 



Total 



••• 



*• 



There was a balance 
uf Us. 64,000. 



30,000 


31,822 


••• 


18,991 


32,007 


31,188 


10,S53 


12,900 


62,2G3 


66,199 


••• 


9,169 


16»86,7C1 


16,23,099 



Expenditurej 1871-72. 



••• 



Revenue refunds and drawbacks 

Miscellaneous refunds ••• 

Landrerenue 

Deputy Commissioners and estabUahment 

Settlement ••« 

Excise or Abk&ri ... 

Assessed taxes ••• 

Stamps... ••• 

Ecclesiastical ... »•• 

Medical 

Police 



••• 



••• 



••• 



] 



••• 

••• 
••• 



••• 



••• 



••• 



••• 



••• 

• • • 

• •• 

••• 

••• 
•••• 

••t 

•*• 
••• 
••• 
••• 
•*• 



ToUl 



Amount. 



Rs. 

1,723 
2,472 

54,962 

12,811 

8,061 

442 

1,169 

2,868 

37,321 

••• 

4,200 
66,108 

1,87.062 



Remarks. 



For 1873. 



46 UABDOI SBTTLEMKMT BEPORT. 

old man, who pledged Lis word for the Englishmen's safetf ; 
he embarked in their boat, and his answer to tbe hoane 
challenges from tbe river bank waa always received and obeyed 
as a command not to use hostile measures ; for many a mik 
down the Ganges his presence secured absolute safety. Yen 
probably, if the Oudh anarchy had continued a few genen- 
tions, this man's grandson might have become a rdja, got the 
whole property of the clan into his clutches, and antedated bii 
rdj as having come in with the conquerors. It is very true 
that when a rdj was once established, the power of the citt 
under its new head would be directed to conquest from other 
clans, and the new acquisitions so made would very probabW 
be regarded mainly as the allodial property of the r^ja alone^ 
with which he might reward his retainers ; but here again tbi 
rdj arose as the result of war and military agnession. We 
have instances ( see articles Sikandarpur and Kneri district in 
the gazetteer of Oudh) of the establishment or re-establish- 
ment of a r&j by the voluntary election of the people in order 
to further the common interests or protect them from the com* 
mon enemy, the Supreme Government. 

The rdja's titles are generally most modern inventions ; 
there was no rdjaof the Bisens before Han want Singh; dodo 
of the Janwdrs till two generations a^o ; none oif the Ahbans. 
the oldest clan in Oudh, till Rdja Lone Singh's time ; they 
never had a rdja in Uardoi ; there is none of the Kalhans, of 
the Chamar Gaurs, of the BiHhman Gaurs ; there was none 
of the Jdngres till Jodba Sin^h conquered Daurahra. In 
point of fact, in times of ordinary tranquillity, even of such 
tranquillity as was common in Oudh, there was no necessity 
for a rdja, and no Indian Government, unless in the last 
3tage of decay, would have tolerated the existence of any r&ja 
within its dominions whom it could possibly or safely reduce 
to subjection. 

No doubt, at the break up of each empire, a number of 
able men started into local greatness ; when the Jaunpur 
kingdom was broken up, the Sais, the Eanhpuria, the Som* 
bansi, the Bachgoti clans found it convenient to have rdjas; 
with the establishment of settled order and the Mughal empire^ 
the unity of the rdj vanished, and property^ was divided 
^ccordmg to the ordinary Hindu law. Agaio; when tho^ 



BAfiDOI SEHiilCinCNT BSPOBt. 4? 

Muglial einpire broke up, were established the Muhamdi^ 
Kaimahra, Edla Ednkar, the Dhaurahra, the Katiari, the Dera 
principalities. Again, when the Oudh kings had lost all real 
power and devoted themselves to sensuality, there arose the 
great principalities of Oel, Shdhganj, Jahdngirabad, Mahmti-> 
dabad; Maurinwdn, Sissaindi. On what did these principalis 
ties rise? Not on the ruins of others ; if so, there would be 
numerous traces left. The Bilkharia rdja, for instance, Was 
dispossessed six hundred years ago, but he has maintained 
his title and honors on a petty principality of eight Tillages, 
compared to which Monaco is an empire. But I hare met 
with no other banished princes ; in fact the rdj rose on the 
wrecks of village proprietary communities, and no other opinion, 
can be formed by those who take care to extend their enquiries 
beyond the mere family trees of the rdjas. 

That r^as were not congenial to the soil of Hardoi, that 
the people resisted the outward pressure of the Lucknow 
Governmenti and the temptation to raise a strong barrier 
against foreign oppression, goes to show that rdjas, far from 
being the natural outcome of rural life, the natural political 
result of the Hindu economy, were alien, if not distasteful, 
to the people, only accepted as a means of escape from greater 
evils, from more distant and harsher tyrants. At any rate 
there were no rdjas in Hardoi, in the sense of hereditary chiefs- 
of great clans, and lords of their lands. Dip Singh,* of Siwdj- 
pur, is possibly an exception, and it is expressly recorded about 
him that, as fast as youjiger branches of the family came into 
existence, they were provided for independently. The mode 
in which Rdja Randhir Singh acquired his title is related in 
the Oudh gazetteer, article pargana Malihabad. 

I have elsewhere pointed out in the Kheri article of the 
gazetteer, that when the community was a mingled one, where 
any one Cbhattri clan acquired ascendancy over a large body 
of aliens, either of other Chhattris or of lower castes, their 
position was that of a military colony among a hostile subject 
race ; there was always risk of a revolt ; discipline and prompt 
action were a necessity of their position, so they yielded ready 
obedience to a single chief who became their rdja. When, ou- 

* He 18 belieTedy with truth, to be a descendant of the Rija Sri, whoae town of Sri* 
nagar, now fiilgrim, was captured by the Moslems in or about 803 H.> 1400 A. JDl^- y 
Vid€ ElUoi'a History of India, toL iy.> pp. 97-98. 



4S HARDOI 8ITTLEMINT REPORT. 

the other hand, a clan was really numerous and oceupied t 
compact territory, so that it bad little to fear from inteml 
riiingSy it found no necessity for a rdja ; the whole body fought 
together for the common interest ; each component village was 
known and entitled to the assistance of all if attacked. It im 
cutomarj to divide the estate into particular numbers of tit- 
laoes, either chaurasi^ 84 ; or bayalis^ 42, or 52, bdtoan; % 
solidity and unity were thus given to the aggreg ation of atoms, 
which was useful as a rallying cry in stirring up patriotiAii, 
and in impressing the extent of the clan's rights and interests 
upon strangers. 

In fine, the original internal polity was always repuUi- 
can, unless where any one small clan had acquired a poUtittl 
supremacy or military dominion over numerous subjects. If 
there arose dangers of oppression from without, or invasion by 
Moslem aliens, the frequent habit of military obedience became 
in time permanent feudal dependence, and the r^ja became the 
natural and chosen protector of the people ; when, again, the 
Musalman soldier tax-gatherer was warlike and near at hand 
in some walled city, the rdja was often killed, the taluqa broken 
up, and very oppressive exactions and imposts taken from the 
people. 

Those rdjas who survived compromised with the <Ja- 
vemment, paid tribute, and became mere tax«gatherers. In 
time also the Oudh Government found that it would be more 
convenient to have resident middlemen who could collect their 
dues everywhere, and the policy of introducing such was large- 
ly carried oat during the last twenty years prior to annexation. 
In Hardoi there were never any rdjas except one, of Siwajpur; 
but many large taluqas were either formed for the first time 
or aggrandized from mere zamindaris during the thirty years 
preceding annexation. 

35. There is a very considerable difference between the 
two kinds of taluqa. In the one case, the rdja is either the 
descendant of some ancient independent chieftain who ruled 
the people prior to the advent of Musalman authority, or he is 
a chief chosen by the people as a protector and a lord, when 
Internal dissensions or external dangers demonstrated their 
need of a wise bead and a single hand at the helm. In the 
other case, the false taluqdar was not chosen by the people 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPOBT, 49 

a ruler, but was imposed upon them by the Government, not 
to perform the functions of a ruler or judge, but simply those 
of a tax-gatherer. In India the tax-gatherer under native 
rulers has always been the most powerful element in the State; 
where there were no courts or police, he was the only autho* 
rity ; and if localized, his existence determined the political 
and, in a great measure, the social system. 

36. The body of yeomen proprietors in Hardoi is sen- 
sibly diminishing ; the rains are more 

The yporaen pruprie- "^ • ,i *-*.! . a . » 

tors ; their difficuitici. prccarious there than m most parts of 

Oudh ; what was only scarcity in the 
province became famine in Hardoi in 1865 and 1869; tho 
proprietors find it difficult to collect rents and pay the land 
tax. Under any circumstances, it is almost impossible for a 
body of small proprietors whoso lands are intermingled to 
abstain from quarrelling, and when once litigation commences 
it is almost certain that whoever is worsted will mortgage, and 
ultimately sell, his few ancestral acres. In fact:, it is almost 
impossible that the majority of these communities of proprie- 
tors will survive ; they could resist the storms of oppression 
from without, but internal dissensions and discord commence 
at once when they have received from the justice and modera- 
tion of the British Government a fixed and definite property. 
One-nineteenth of the entire property in Hardoi was transfer- 
red from the hands of the yeomen proprietors during the year 
1871, and was mostly purchased by bankers and banians, 
sugar-boilers, usurers, distillers, and skin-dealers — men of little 
political power or value to the State. The difficulty which 
attends any efibrt to improve the circumstances of the Oudh 
military class is a complex one. On the one hand, it is con- 
sidered undesirable in a military sense to increase the high 
caste element at present in the army, lest it return to the state 
of things which preceded and brought on the mutiny of 1857. 
It is no longer an object of ambition to place Brabmans and 
Chhattris side by side in a regiment of tall and stately PiUndeSy 
from which all low castes are to be excluded. Further, it 
would be an advantage gradually to wean the fighting yeo- 
manry from their ancient pursuits, and induce them to beat 
their swords into ploughshares ; their caste pride now forbids 
them to plough with their own hands, and it would only en- 
courage such folly if military service were kept before them 



7h 



SlS HABDOI dETTIiSMBKT BEPOBT. 

Statement shoumg w/iere the different schools are /o^aied— (coniiiiiiedL) 



c 

a 

SB 



1 

S 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

IS 

18 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

91 

22 



NameB of schools. 



Bilf^rim 

Blalliawin 

S&ndi 

Darg&ganj 

Sadrpar 

Falia 

Jaranli 

SuIt&DgaDJ 

Atwa 

B&D9a 

R&ghanpnr 

Arjonpur 

Gaaria 

Ghannsar 

Bihta 

Admlipur 

Brljor 

Babatmaa 

Shihpar 

Midhoganj 

Khasauia 

Jarauli 



1 


Shahabad 


2 


Pih&ni 


S 


Shihpar 


4 


Saromaonagar 


6 


Naiag&on 


fi 


Baiagaon 


7 


Bandarha 


8 


UdbartDpar 


9 


Fariil 


10 


Lakhnaar 


11 


Bhnrkbani 


12 


Pali 


18 


Madnapnr 


14 


Sar&i 


15 


Rartwan 


16 


Bijg&on 


17 


FatehparGaind 


18 


Sahjaupnr 



tM 



• •• 



••• 



• •• 
••• 

• •• 



••• 

• •• 

• •• 

• •t 



••• 



••• 



••• 



• •• 
••• 
••• 

• •• 
••• 



Fargana. 



TlHStL BfLOBXir. 



Bilgr&m 
MaU&nwfta 
84ndi 
Bilgr&m 

Ditto 
S&ndi 
Bilgrilm 
MalUnvr4ii 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Eacbhandaa 
Kati&ri 

Ditto 
Sand! 
Bilgr&m 
Katiari 
Kati&ri 
Mall&nw&n 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Kati&ri 
Bilgram 



••• 

•M 

«• • 

• •• 
—* 

• •• 

• •• 
••• 

• •• 
«•• 

• •• 
t>* 

• M 

• •• 

• •» 
»•• 

• • • 

• •• 
••• 

• •• 

• •• 

• •• 



TiHstL Shahabad. 



Shahabad 


*• t 


Fih&ni 


••• 


Saromannagar 


•»• 


Ditto 


••• 


Ditto 


•M 


Pindarwa 


• •• 


Ditto 


• •• 


Shahabad 


••• 


Ditto 


• •• 


Pacbhoha 


• • • 


Ditto 


• • • 


Pali 


••• 


Ditto 


• •• 


Ditto 


••• 


AlamDagar 


• •• 


Ditto 


• •• 


Shahabad 


• •■ 


Pali 


• •• 



Kinds of schools. 



Aided rer. town school 
Aided school 

Ditto 
Village school 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 
Female school 

Total 



••• 



••• 



••• 



••• 



••• 






Hi 

m 



III 

184 

108 

40 



49 

85 



••• 



••• 



••• 



••• 



••• 



A. V. town school 
Aided school 
Village school 

Ditto ^ 

Branch to Tillage school ^ 
Village school ••• 

Branch to Baiagaon schoQl* 
Village school ••• 

Branch to Udharanpnr 
Village school 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Branch to Karawan school. 
Village school 

Ditto 



•M 



84 
85 

28 
45 
80 
§8 
80 
87 




118 
51 



41 



••• 



••• 



HABDOI SETTLEMBNT BEPOET. 59 

SkUenient showing where the different schools are located — (concluded). 



f 












upils 
the 


iS 


Name of schools. 


Pargana. 


Kinds of schoola. 




o 












o a 8 


.Q 












•055 


a 














lis 


Sz< 












sz; 


1 


2 


3 


4 




5 








TABStL ShABABAD— 














ieoneluded.) 








19 


Drhlia 


••t 


Fihini 


Village schwA 


••t 


5f 


SO 


B&satoagar 


t«« 


Sbahabad 


Ditto 


••f 


41 


SI 


Paraili 


•t. 


Ditto 


Ditto 


••• 


38 


S9 


B4ri 


».. 


Ditto 


Branch to PuraiU 


••• 


28 


S3 


Miakpur 


••• 


Pachhoha ••• 


Village school 


••• 


40 


S4 


Barw&ra 


»•• 


Ditto 


Ditto 


••t 


37 


25 


Amrauli 


••• 


Sara ••• 


Ditto 


••• 


64 


S6 


Dhanwar 


••• 


Ditto 


Ditto 


•M 


35 


S7 


Saodarpar 


••• 


Ditto ••• 


Ditto 


••t 


31 


S8 


Sakrauli 


M« 


Saromaonagar •»« 


Ditto 


• •• 


28 


89 


Sa&datnagar, Ko. I. 


.., Pindarwa 


Ditto 


••• 


55 


30 


Ditto, No. U, 


.M Sara 


Ditto 


• •• 


32 


81 


lianenrnagar 


... 


Mansomagar •.. 


Ditto 


••• 


48 


as 


Nisanii 


••t 


Saromanuagar •«. 


Ditto 


• •• 


42 


93 


Babfirpur 


••• 


Pali 


Ditto 


• •* 


44 


84 


Pindarwa 


••* 


Pindarwa 


Ditto 


•M 


41 


35 


Lakhmapnr 


••t 


Pali 


Ditto 


• •• 


29 


U 


PibAni, No. L 


... 


Pihini 


Finale school 


... . 40 


87 


Ditto, No. 11. 


••• 


Ditto 


Ditto 


84 


88 


Ditto, No. TIT. 


••• 


Ditto 


Ditto 


... 


29 


89 


Raijangarbi 


tM 


Pindarwa 


Ditto 


••• 


19 


40 


Aadharanpar 


••• 


Sbahabad ••• 


Ditto 


• •a 


27 


ftl 


Fariftl 


• .t 


Ditto 


Ditto 


• •• 


17 


12 


Karari 


• •• 


Pachhoha 


Ditto 


..• 


28 


«3 


Barwara 


tl« 


Ditto 


Ditto 

Total 


• •1 


28 




1,968 








TAHStL SAHDtLA. 








1 


SandilA 


*•. 


Sandila 


A. V. town school 


.. . 


170 


a Beniganj 


• •• 


Ditto 


Village school 


• •• 


62 


3 


Ashi 


• •• 


Ditto 


Ditto 


• •• 


29 


4 


Gboghera 


• •• 


Ditto 


Ditto 


••• 


80 


6 


B&lamau 


»•• 


Bdlaman .^ 


Ditto 


• t. 


44 


6 


Atrauli 


••• 


Gundwa 


Ditto 


• •• 


88 


7 


Gundwa 


•M 


Ditto 


Ditto 


• •« 


49 


8 


Gbaasganj 


• •• . 


Sandila 


Ditto 


• •• 


60 


9 BihDdar 


tM 


Ditto 


Ditto 


••« 


49 


Bhar&w&n 


»•• 


Gandwa «„ 


Ditto 


#9# 


68 


1 Kaliy&nmal 


—% 


KaHyinmal 


Ditto 


*.• 


88 


8 Bihnaac 


••• 


Sandila 

1 


Diito 

Total 




36 






868 



€0 



HABDOI SXmXXEST BSPttT. 



46. The post-offices in tbe four tahails of the dSutnd 

pou-^ffiM. are as follows : — 



lame of uJuil. 



fMOdlU 

Ihtto 

Ditto 
Ilitco 
Htrdoi 

jynvo 

Ditto 

Bili^4oi 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

BbihaUMl 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 



••• 
••• 



••• 



SftndfU khis. 

L'timalL 

Kachhomu 



••« 


•M 


•M 


HmrdoL 


••• 


•M 


••• 


BijgAwin. 


••• 


•M 


••• 


TaDdiaoa. 


••• 


••• 


• •• 


Bilgrim khis. 


••• 


«M 


• •• 


Saudi. 


••• 


•M 


• •• 


HaIUdwso. 


•M 


• •• 


••• 


Midhogmnj. 


■ •• 


••• 


••• 


KboiAorm. 


td 


«•• 


^ 


ShAhmted kh&s. 


••• 


• •• 


•M 


Bharkooiri. 


••• 


•M 


••• 


Pihani kbas. 


••• 


•- 


m— 


Nftktanrft. 



PottH>ffice staiUtics far 1873-74, 



LlTTBBB, 


FlFElS. 


Fiouns. 


FAMOmtM. 


No. given, 
oat for 
dtlirerj. 


No. retam- 

ed undeli* 

Tered. 


No. giTen 

OQt for 

delircrj. 


No.retam- 

ednndeli- 

Tered. 


No. giTen 

out for 

dclifery. 


No. return- 
ed UDdeli- 
Tered. 


No. gir« 
en oni 

for deU- 
Tery. 


Na re- 
turned 
undelU 
Tsred* 


189,074 


I,36S 


7,07J 


5S 


1,274 


••• 


964 


- 



SECTION V. 
HISTORY. 

Earlv hiitory— The Motlem conqoe8t«»Battle of Bilgrim— Modern Hindu histoix— 
The Chiuittri cMtea«»Turbalence of the district— The former goTemore. 



*n 



Tndlttoni. 



47. The early traditions of this district, though not so 

abundant as those of Unao, and perhaps 
Sitapur, will well repay an attentive 
research. The most remote concern themselves, not, as is 
wual| with the Bdm&yana cycle^ but with that of the Mahi- 



HAKDOI 8BTTLEMSNT REPORT^ ^l 

j^ihdrata. Bala Rdma, the brother of Krishna, in one of his 
risits to the shrine of Nimkhdr, in Sitapur, received com* 
j)laints from the Brahmans against Bil of Bilgrdm, a local 
^^nt or chieftain who used to throw dirt at the worshippers at 
^{mkhdr. The details are given under heading Bilgrdm, and 
"It need only be remarked here that a distinct conflict of several 
faiths is referred to. Bala Rdma came to Nimkhdr with the 
Brahmans; their he found the Rishis, the holy men of the 
aboriginal faith ; he struck off the head of one who would not 
rise to pay him respect with a blade of kusa grass; the Brah- 
mans disapproved the action as unseemlyi but evidently re- 
farded it as a very venial offence compared with slaying a 
(rahman. Bil, or his son Illdl, seems, however, to have been a 
Tcry profane wretch who cared for no rites of any kind, so Bala 
Bdma slew him with a ploughshare. Bilgrdm, at any rate, was 
an ancient aboriginal town situated on a bluff over the Ganges 
which then flowed beneath it. 

48. The next facts concerning Hardoi history are con- 
rru ^ 1 4 nected with the Musalmdn colonization. 

The Mofllem conquest. n. .iir^ ini/ 

Bawan was occupied by Sayyad Salar 
in 1028. The Shekhs declare that they conquered Bilgrdm 
in 1013, but the permanent Moslem occupation did not com- 
mence till 1217 A. D. Gopamau was occupied somewhere 
about the time of Sayyad Saldr; indeed it was the earliest 
conquest in Oudh effected by that prince. One of his cap- 
tains, Sayyad Makhdum Aziz-ud-din, Shekh, commonly known 
as L&\ Fir, was despatched across the Ganges from Kanauj ; he 
was slain at Gopamau, and was of course canonized ; but Sayyad 
Sal&r left two new candidates for martyrdom in that town, 
Nasrat Khan and Jdfar Khan, who survived, and whose descend- 
ants are still extant. The settlement of Fdli by a Pdnde 
Brahman, a Bisdldir, and a Shekh, all of whom are represented 
at this day by men of property in the neighbourhood, is a 
curious instance of the stability of oriental families. Isauli^ in 
Bangar, was also conquered by Sayyad Saldr, in 1030 A.D., and 
the tomb of a martyr there killed is still to be seen. Sdndi 
and Sandila were not occupied by the Moslems till long after 
the events above referred to. The latter was the capital of a 
T&81 kingdom which seems to have spread over the country 
down both banks of the Gumti and the Sai, extending from its 
original seat at Dhaurahra and MitaulL The FdsiSi it may 



62 HARDOI SSTTi:.BlCBKT BIPOET. 

be remarked, are still very powerful in Hardoi. The his- 
tories of the Musalmdn colonization, when properly studied, 
may be expected to throw more light upon the aboriginal 
inhabitants ; at present all is very dim and dubious, there is 
little to be gathered from their descendants, and except die 
mere names of Pdsi and Thathera, there is no link apparent 
between them and the races of the present day* 

49. It were easy to write an elaborate chronicle of events 

which have happened on the soil of Har* 
em even s, ^^.^ ^^ armies which have passed over it, 

of kings who have fled through it, of great battles fought within 
its borders, but such chronicles would not constitute the his' 
tory of Hardoi. Owing to its geographical situation, on the 
eastern side of the Ganges, and covering the fords near the 
;reat city of Eanauj, over which lay the road from Delhi and 
.dbul to Jaunpur, ratna, and Bengal, many great armies of 
the eastern and western empires were at different times mar- 
shalled against each other in Hardoi. There the Sharqi kings 
of Jaunpur mustered their forces and bid defiance to the Lodi 
lords of Delhi; here again the Ehilji for a brief space rallied 
his forces against the Mughals and placed the seat of lus 
empire at Bilgrdm ; between Bilgrdm and Sdndi again was 
fought the great battle between Humdyun and Shere Sh^h, 
which drove the Mughals from India. In after times again, 
Hardoi was the border land between the Wazfr of Oudh and 
the Bohilla Afghdns. Here the gallant Newal Rae perished| 
and Ahmad Khan Bangash forced his way into Oudh. It was 
this constant passage of successive armies which rendered the 
formation of any organized government in Hardoi impossibly 
till after the accession of Akbar 

The whole of north Hardoi was a jungle in his time. In 
this forest Fihdni, which means the place ot concealment, was 
founded by Sadr Jahdn. Prior to this Bilgrdm had been 
founded in the reign of Altamsh (1217 A.D.) by Shekh Mu- 
hammad Faqib. Bandfla had been conquered from the Pdsis 
in the reign of Alld-ud-din Khilji, but till Akbar's reign these 
settlements had been mere outposts — military garrisons. With 
the Mughals, as I have elsewnere pointed out, cannon came 
into general use, and the fords of the Ganges lost their 
strategical importance because the crossing of troops could 
always be protected by the new engine of warfare. Hardoi 



I 

* 



HABDOI SBTTLEHBKT RKPOBT. 6^ 

then ceased to be the natural meeting place of east and west 
India, the jungles were cleared, new colonies were founded 
at Gopamau in the reign of Akbar, at Shahabad and at Sdndi 
in the reign of Shah Jahdn. It is not clear what were the 
precise relations of these Musalmdn lords to their Hindu neigh- 
hours. Those of Bilgrdm pretend to have had authority over 
parganas Bdwan, Sdndi, and Hardoi, yet we find that they 
purchased the few villages which constitute their present estate 
one by one at dijBferent times extending over along period; in 
fact their estate is not the conquest of an invader, but the 
slow accumulation of thrift and diplomacy exercised upon 
more simple and rustic neighbours. Similarly the Sandila 
Musalmans are not even mentioned by Sleeman as landlords, 
and the major part of their property was acquired at a very 
recent date. The country was probably thinly peopled by 
Hindus, mostly covered with jungles, dotted here and there 
by the red brick forts of the Musalmans in military occupa- 
tion. 

50. The annals of Bilgrdm are epitomized as follows. 
An account of the various battles of Bilgrdm, including the 
last great fight which took place on Hardoi soil, may also 
fitly be given here.* 

From the Junaidia and Shajra-i-Taiba (family histories 
of the Bilgr&m Sayyads) I learn that in the same year (1217 
A.D.) Sayyad Muhammad, fourth in descent from Abdul 
Fazl, a Sayyadf of Wdsit in Irdk, whom political troubles had 
forced to leave his country and to flee into Hindustan, marched 
to Bilgrdm with a large force of Firshauri Shekhs, drove out 
the Hindus (Sri Rdm and the Raikwdrs), and settled there. 
The services of the Sayyads were rewarded with a rent-free 
;rant of one- tenth of the tract afterwards known as pargana 
Hlgrdm. For three hundred years, or till the accession of 
Bdbar (1526 A.D.), this grant is said to have been upheld. 
Then Bdbar, to punish the Sayyads for their opposition, here 
as elsewhere, to his conquest of India; resumed theu: grant, 
but conferred on Sayyad Bhikhbhdran the chaudhrisbip of the 

* The next f oar pages are borrowed from the draft of the Bilgiim paigaoa article- 
f or the Gasetteer. 

t '^ From him are deacended the most renowned Maaalman families in Northern 
Indi%the fiarhah and Bilgrimi Sayyads, and in Khairabad, Fatchpnr, Ha8wa» add 
many other places branches of the same stem are found." (Chronicles of Unaoy 
page 93^ 



64 HABDOI SSTTLKMEirr Bl^OIT* 

tract. It may, I tbink, be inferred tbat the special cause of 
the resumption of the j^r of the Bilgrdm Sayjads was their 
complicity in the rebellion of the eastern Afghdn chieft d 
Jaunpur and Oudh during the last two years of the reign of 
Ibrdhim Lodi. '^ At this time (just after the battle of Paniptt) 
the North of India still retained much of its orig^al Hindt 
organization ; its system of village and district administratioD 
and government, its division into numerous little chieftaioshipo 
or petty local governments, and in political revolutioiia the 
people looked much more to their own immediate rulers thsit 
to the prince who governed in the capital. Except at Delhi 
and Agra the inhabitants everywhere fortified their towns and 
prepared to resist. The invasion was regarded as a temporanr 
mundation that would speedily pass ofi*. Every man ut 
authority raised troops and put himself in a condition to act 
Those who held delegated authority or jdgirs, being generally 
Afghans, were consequently hostile to the new state of things. 
They soon came to an understanding among themselves and 
took measures for mutual co-operation." (Erskine, India 
under Bdbar and Humdyiin, I., 442.) 

^^ In the eastern provinces of Jaunpur and Oudh the 
opposition (to Bdbar's progress) presented even a more regular 
form. There the confederacy of Afghdn chiefs who had been 
in open rebellion against Ibrdhim (Lodi) for two years before 
his death still continued. The insurgents now possessed (in 
1526) not only Behar but nearly the whole territories of tiie 
old Sharqi monarchy, especially the country on the left tiank 
of the Ganges ; and had even crossed to the right bank of the 
river and taken possession of Kanauj, and advanced into the 
Dudb. 

" It was clear that the Afgh&n chiefs who till now had 
ruled with nearly unlimited authority both in Delhi and Behar 
must be ruined if Bdbar settled in Hindustan. But it was no 
sooner known that his invasion was not to be a temporary 
inroad like those of Mahmud of Ghazni and the great Taimiir^ 
but tbat he was to remain in the country and to govern it oi| 
the spot, than new fears and new hopes began to operate both 
on the natives and the Afghdns. His affairs began to brighten 
he was acknowleged by the Afghdn army of Sultdn Ibrdhim 
(Lodi), which under Shekh Bayazid Farmuli and Firoz Khan 
had been successfully employed against Sultan Muhammad 



HARDOI SETTLSHRNT RBPOBT. 65 

a Shah of Behar and the revolted chiefs of the east. Both Baya- 
m zld Farmijli and Firoz Ehan now submitted to Bdbar, who 
3 bestowed on tbem and the leading officers of their army large 
E assignments, chiefly in Jaunpur and Oudh, out of the revenue 
h of the territories that were still in the hands of the insurgents 
§ to whom they were opposed." 

In 1527 A.D, the country beyond the Ganges being still 
disturbed by the Afghdn chief Bdban, who had occupied Luck- 
now and forced Sultan Muhammad, Bdbar's governor, to 
abandon Eanauj, Bdbar ^^ bestowed the government of these 
countries on Muhammad Sultan Mirza, a grandson of the 
great Sultan Husen Mirza of Ehordsdn and one of the 
Emperor's favourite officers, and sent him with a strong army 
to recover the lost territory. Bdban no sooner heard that 
Muhammad Sultan had crossed the Ganges than he deserted 
Lucknow and retired once more into the upper country.'^ ' 
JWrf, p. 477. 

The Sharaif Usmdni mentions a farmdn of Bdbar of this 
date, addressed to this Muhammad Sultan, upholding a previ- 
ous grant of mauza Auhddpur to the Shekh Qazi of Bilgrdm, 
Abdul Ddim. 

In 1528 A.D. Muhammad Sultan, having been attacked 
and defeated by the Afghdn insurgents, *' was forced to aban- 
don Lucknow, to recross the Ganges and fall back on Eanauj,'' 
and at last to evacuate Eanauj and retire on Raberi. The 
revolt had been strengthened by the accession of Shekh Baya- 
zid with his whole army. At Bdbar's approach the Afghans 
abandoned Eanauj, ^^and, retreating across the Ganges, took 
up a position on its left bank opposite to that city, determined 
to dispute the passage of the river." 

They must have crossed close to Bilgrdm, Babar bridged 
the Ganges lower down at Ndnamau Ghdt near Bdngarmau, 
re- occupied Lucknow, and pursued and routed the Afghdns 
near Ajodhya. 

In 1534 A.D., in the reign of HumdyiSn, Muhammad 
Sultan Mirza rebelled and raised an army of six thousand 
Afghdns and Rajputs at Eanauj. In two years be had made' 
himself master of the country from Eanauj to Jaunpur, and* 



66 HABDOI SETTLEMKKT BEPOBT. 

caused the khutba to be read in his own name. '^ He fixed 
the seat of his goTernment at Bilgriim, opposite to Kanaq, 
and had gained sufScient strength to send his son Uliigii 
Mirza with a large force to besiege Jaunpur, while Swik 
Mirza, another of his sons, reduced Karra Mdnikpur. ELanao) 
too had fallen into his hands." (Erskiney 11.^ 89.) The em- 
peror's brother, Hindal Mirza, headed a successful campugn 
against the insurgents, and defeated them in the neighbourhood 
of Bilgrdm. ^' Hindal Mirza, whom the Emperor had left in 
command at Agra, marched to quell this revolt, and soon 
retook Kanauj. As soon as Muhammad Sultan Mirza heard 
of his approach, he called in all his detachments and was 
joined by Shah Mirza, while Ulugh Mirza wrote to say tiiat 
he would hasten with all possible speed to meet him ; at the 
same time urging him not to hazard a battle till his arriTaL 
Muhammad Sultan Mirza and Shah Mirza, encamping on the 
left (the Bilgrdm) bank of the river, used every exertion to 
obstruct the passage of the imperial army. Hindal, however, 
eager to engage the enemy before Ulugh Mirza could join 
them, having discovered a ford ten miles above Kanauj , left 
his camp standing and effected a passage unobserved with all 
his troops. The two armies soon met face to face, but when 
they were on the point of engaging, a strong north-wester 
rising blew such clouds of dust right in the eyes of the 
insurgents that they could not keep their position. The 
imperial troops, who had the wind on their backs, availing 
themselves of their advantage, pressed hard upon the enemy, 
whose retreat was soon converted into a flight. Hindal, after 
taking possession of Bilgrdm and the surrounding country, 
pursued the remainder of their army as they marched to 
form junction with Ulugh Mirza. He overtook them at And." 
(Erskine Il.y page 90.) Here, two months later, another 
action was fought in which the rebels were finally dispersed; 
this was in 1537 A.D. 

But the country from Jaunpur to Eanauj was still in a 
very unsettled state. *' All the materials of revolt and resist- 
ance were amply scattered over the eastern provinces. They 
had for many years been the theatre of war, the minds of the 
inhabitants were unsettled, had become familiarized to change^ 
Und were almost strangers to regular government. Though 
l^e old Shar9[i and the. more recent Lohdni dynasty had 



HARDOI SOTTLKMKNT REPORT. 67 

disappeared, and though the attempts of Mahmiid Lodi and of 
Muhammad Sultdn Mirza to revive the kingdom had failed^ 
Sher Khan Siir, a new candidate for distinction and power, had 
started up, was extending and consolidating his influence in 
Behdr, and on the side of Bengal; and by his valour in the field 
and the equity of his financim administration was gaining the 
admiration and the affection of his subjects. The Afghans in 
every part of India began to turn their eyes to him as the leader 
who at some future time might be destined to restore to them 
that proud ascendancy of their nation, the loss of which every 
man of them so deeply deplored.'' (Erskine^ 11. 109.) 

Before marching i^ainst Sher Khan, Humdyiin entrusted 
Kanauj and the adjoining country to Niir-ud-diu Muhammad 
Mirza, who had married the Emperor's sister* During 
Humdyiin's absence in Bengal (1538) this officer joined Prince 
Hindal in his rebellion at Agra. Meanwhile Sher Khan had 
possessed himself of Behdr and the country from thence to 
Kanauj. In 1539 the disaster of Chausar occurred. Sher 
Khan recovered Bengal. " He crossed the Ganges to renew the 
siege of Jaunpur, which, with the whole territory dependent 
on it, surrendered with little resistance. In like manner he 
overran the rest of the country east of the Ganges as far as 
Kanauj." (Erskine^ 11.^ 176). " In 1540 Humdyiin once more 
marched against Sher Shah, who by this time had recrossed 
the Ganges lying opposite Kanauj." 

More detailed accounts of the battles which then took 
place, and of that which preceded it almost on the same spot, 
have been extracted from the native chronicles, Erskine's Baber^ 
and other sources. The author of the Life of Humdyun writes 
as follows : — 

" I must now revert to the insurrection which took place 
during his majesty's expedition to Gujerat. Muhammad 
Zeman Sultdn (a descendant of Timur and favourite of the 
late Emperor), taking advantage of his majesty's absence, 
gained possession of tne countries situated on the north-east 
side of the Ganges, and fixed his own residence at Bilgrdm, 
but despatched his son Aleg Mirza with a considerable force 
to seize on the provinces of Jaunpur, Karra, and Manikpur. 
As soon as this intelligence reached the Prince Hindal, the 
king's youngest brother and representative at Agra, be 



68 HARDOI SETTLEMSNT BKPOBT. 

collected an army and marched to Kanauj« In conseqiuM 
of this event Sultdn Muhammad recalled his divisions aii| 
encamped with all his force on the northern bank of tb' 
Ganges, to oppose the royal troops; in this situation the cot* 
tending armies remained for some time. At len^h the emiflfr 
ries of Hindal discovered a ford about ten miles above Kanaq. 
The prince immediately took advantage of this circamstancei 
and, having ordered that his camp snould remain standing, 
marched quietly in the night, and, without being perceived bj 
the rebels, crossed the river with all his troops. 

^^ As soon as the day broke the two armies drew up ia 
order of battle ; but just as the engagement was about to coo- 
mence a very violent storm from the north-west arose and 
raised such a dust that the sky was obscured, and blew with 
so much force in the faces of the rebels that they could not 
distinguish friend from foe, in consequence of which they took 
to flight and proceeded towards Jaunpur. The Prince Hindal, 
having thus gained possession of the district of Bilgrdm, fol- 
lowed the enemy and again came up with them in the vicinity 
of Oudh; but as the forces of the two armies were now nearly 
equal, a considerable time was lost in skirmishing, and endea- 
vouring to gain the advantage of each other. At length 
Muhammad Sultan, having received information that the king 
had returned in health and safety to his capital, was afraid to 
contend any longer, and fled with all his family towards Couch 
Behar, which adjoins the territory of Bengal. The Prince 
Hindal then proceeded to Jaunpur and took possession of that 
district" (Pages 7-8 of Memoirs of Humdyun.) 

" The following day the king,* attended by the whole 
army, left the city and encamped on the plains of AUypur; he 
then reviewed and mustered the troops, the number of which 
amounted to 90,000 cavalry, but as some of them were not 
properly equipped, his majesty ordered them to be well sup- 
plied from the arsenal. He also conferred honorary dresses 
and other marks of distinction on all the principal ofiicers, and 
omitted nothing to rouse the spirits and encourage the soldiera 
for the ensuing campaign. After a few days' march the army 
reached Kanauj, which is situated on the western bank of the 
Ganges, and here learned that Sher Khan was encamped on 



HABDOI SBTTLEHENT REPORT. C0 

the other side of the river ; at this time an express arrived 
from Rdja Perb^han of Aroul, oflTering to join him with troops, 
provided the king would meet him at Pute, His majesty, 
however, would not agree to this measure, but gave orders 
for the army to cross the river at Kanauj/' (Pages 20-21 of 
Memoirs of Humdyun.) 

51. Humdydn had raised an enormous army consisting 

The battle of Bii r&m ^^ 100,000 men, with nearly 100 guns, 

1 gr m. including swivels. He moved down to 
Mehndighdt near Kanauj ; Sher Shab encamping opposite ; 
here Muhmmad Mirza and Ulugh Mirza, who had been 
received into favour again by Humdytin, deserted. Whether 
the scene of their former defeat embittered rankling memories, 
or whether they thought that their opium-eating monarch had 
no chance against Sher Shah, we know not, but their ingra- 
titude was black and fatal to the Mughal cause. On the 
other hand, the chivalrous Raja of Arol, Partab Singh, wrote 
offering to join the emperor with all his forces. Desertions 
occurred daily, and merely to stop them the Mughal force 
erossed the river and encamped with the Ganges at its rear — 
a fatal tactical error. The battle which occurred is one of 
the most remarkable in the history of the world, and has yet 
its lessons for Indian strategists. 

It is perfectly clear that fourteen years in the Indian 
plains, and unlimited indulgence in all the luxuries of the pros- 
trate land, had enervated the Mughal troops to a degree such 
as we can now hardly conceive. 

There happened to be in the line a celebrated Chaghatit 
chief, Haidar Mirza Doghlat, a distant relative of Humdydn, 
who had recently come down from the hills of Farghdna, had 
become Humdyiin's brother after the fashion of the nation, 
accompanied him in the campaign, and now witnessed with 
astonishment and disgust the effeminate and cowardly beha« 
viour of his former companions in arms, the amfrs who twelve 
years before had hurled back 50,000 of the bravest Chhattris 
of Rdjpdtdna by thqir steady and disciplined valour ; and 120 
of whom had put to flight a whole army of those very Pathdns 
before whom they were trembling. Facts, which are only 
credible because they are confirmed by the concurrent testi- 



70 HARDOT SETTLEITCNT REPORT. 

mony of several eyewitnesses, compel us to believe that the 
whole nature of the hardy Tartars had changed. 

Shortly before the battle of Chaunsa Humdydn foand 
himself beset by the Path^ns. He actually appealed to hii 
principal general, his cousin Askari Mirza, and promised to 
grant him any four boons he would ask: provided he would 
extricate him from his difficulties by marching against the 
enemy. Askari Mirza summoned his officers and consulted 
them what he should ask for, sajing his own affections were 
fixed, first on money, second on the muslins and silks of 
Dacca, thirdly on handsome girls, fourthly on eunuchs ; bis 
officers replied that the times were too risky for eunuchs and 
women, but that they would fight their bravest if the Emperor 
would raise each man a step in rank and give them a large 
sum of money in cash. 

Imagine the brigade generals on the eve of a battle being 
invited by the commander-in-chief to state on what terms they 
would consent not to run away ; and answering that they 
loved women, but that gold and promotion were more pre- 
ferable, because more portable on the march, and that he 
must pay down cash, as mere promises were useless. Most 
of these mercenary and profligate chiefs had perished on the 
field of Chaunsa. Yet the same spirit survived. 

In Samarqand Bdbar had maintained the sternest dis- 
cipline : he had shot down soldiers who dared to pillage; he had 
caused to be restored every single article which had been 
plundered from a caravan passing near his camp.* In a few 
short years the bravest and bdst disciplined army of the age 
had become a mob of cowardly and enervated debauchees. 
Not even the fearful lesson taught at Chaunsa had any effect. 
Haidar Mirza, one of themselves, shall describe his brethren:— 
" In the rest of the army were amirs only in name who enjoyed 
government and rich jdgfrs without the slightest tincture of 
prudence, or knowledge, or energy, or emulation, or nobleness 
of mind, or generosity — qualities from which nobility draws its 
name. On the day of battle they were all mounted on cuirassed 
horses and clothed in mail ; between me and the extreme left 
of the centre stood seven and twenty amirs, all having the 
horse-tail banner. On the day of battle, when Sher Khan 

"Erskinc's Babar, I., 188. 



HABBOI SETTLBMENT BBPOBT. 71 

marched out with his army in columns, of the seven and twenty 
horse-tail standards that were with these great lords there was 
not one that was not hid, lest the eoemy might see and bear 
down upon it. The soldiership and bravery of the amirs may 
be estimated from this trait of their courage. I reckoned Sher 
Khan's force at less than fifteen thousand, while I estimated 
the Chaghatai army at forty thousand heavy cavalry. When 
Sher Khan's army quitted their trenches, two of the columns 
drew up before the ditch, the other three advanced towards the 
army. On our side the centre was in motion to take the 

f:round I had marked out for it, but we were unable to reach it. 
n the Chaghatai army every man, amir, wazir, rich and poor, 
has his camp-followers (ghuldms) ; so that an amir of any note, 
if he has a hundred retainers, will for himself and them have 
perhaps five hundred camp-followers, who in the day of battle 
do not attend their master, and are not masters of themselves, 
so that they wander at lai^e ; and as when they have lost their 
master's control they are under no other, however much they 
maybe beaten, back, or face or head, with mace or stick, they 
are totally unmanageable. In a word, by the pressure of the 
masses of these men the troops were quite unable to keep their 
ranks ; the camp-followers crowding behind bore them so down 
that they were thrown into disorder, and the crowd continuing 
still to press on, some on one side, some on another, pushed 
the soldiers upon the chains of the carriages. Even then 
the camp-followers who were behind went on urging those 
before till in many instances the chains burst and every person 
who was stationed at the chain so broken, driven out beyond 
it, while the order, even of such as kept within, was totally 
broken and destroyed, and from the pressure and confusion 
not a man could act. 

" Such was the state of the centre, nor were matters more 
prosperous on the right. As Sher Khan's three columns ap- 
proached, a cry of defeat was heard, and that instant a panio 
seized the men ; and before an arrow was shot from a bow 
they fled like chaff before wind. The fugitives ran towards 
the centre. Here they found all in disorder. The camp-fol- 
lowers, having pushed clear through the line, had disordered 
everything and separated the Mir from the men, and the men 
from the Mir. But when to this confusion the rush of the 
terrified men flying from the right was added, the defeat was 



72 HARD 01 SETTLEMENT REPOBT. 

sure and the day irretrievable. The Chaghatai army, which 
counted forty thousand men in armour, besides camp-followers 
and artisans, fled before ten thousand. It was not a fight bat 
a rout, for not a man, friend or foe, was even wounded. Sher 
Khan gained a great victory ; the Chaghatais suffered a ruin- 
ous defeat. Not a cannon was fired, not a gun : the artillery 
was totally useless. 

^^ When the Chaghatais took to flight the distance from 
the field of battle to the banks of the river might be about a 
farsang. Before a man was wounded, the whole army, amirs, 
bahddurs, and common men, fled, broken and dismayed, to 
the banks of the Ganges. The enemy's army followed and 
overtook them. The Chaghatais not having time to take off 
their horse armour or their own cuirasses, plunged, accoutred 
as they were, into the stream. Its breadth might be about five 
bow shots. Many amirs of illustrious name perished, and all 
from want of [concert and control. Every one went or came 
at his own will. When we emerged from the river on the 
other bank, a monarch who at noon had seventeen thousand 
artisans in his establishments was mounted upon a wretched 
spavined horse, with both his head and feet bare. Permanence 
belongs to God alone, the King of Kings. The author had 
nearly a thousand persons, retainers and servants, of whom 
only sixty escaped out of the river, all the rest were drowned. 
From this instance the general loss may be estimated. When 
he reached the Ganges he found an old elephant and mounted 
into the hduda, where he found a eunuch of his household 
named Kdfur. He ordered the driver to cross the river, but 
the man told him that the animal was quite unequal to it, and 
would be drowned. Kdfur hinted to the Emperor that the 
man wished to carry over the elephant to the Afgh&ns, and 
that it was better to put him to death ; that he would undertake 
to guide the a nimal. On this Humdytin drew his sword and 
struck the driver, who fell wounded into the water. The 
eunuch then stepped down on the elephant's neck and directed 
him across. As they gained the banks, which were very 
steep, the Emperor found it difficult to mount them, when a 
soldier who had just gained the shore, presenting hi© hand to 
the Emperor, drew him up, Ilumdyiin asked his deliverer's 
name, and was answered Shams-ud-din Muhammad of Ghazni, 
in the service of Mirza Kamrdn. The Emperor made him' 



HABDOI SETTLEMENT BEPOBT. 78 

high promises. At this moment he was recognized by 
Makhdiim Beg, one of the Eamrdn^s nobles, who came for* 
ward and presented his own horse. Shams-ud-din afterwards 
became one of the most distinguished noblemen of the empire, 
was made Khan Azam, and was the atkeh or foster-father 
of Akbar, in those days a connection of no small impor^ 
tance." 

A more extraordinary battle never was fought. The mass 
of the Mughals had nothing to expect but victory or death* 
The Ganges — deep, rapid, and swarming with crocodiles, also 
now swollen by the melting snows — lay behind them. Na 
quarter was to be expected from their treacherous foes, no 
flight was possible through a hostile country. The men who 
lost Chaunsa were rash and vainglorious, but those who lost 
Bilgrdm were such cowards and fools as the world has seldom 
seen. Men wearing heavy cuirasses expected to swim the 
Ganges in the end of May, to escape on foot from the Fathdn 
cavalry, or to meet with mercy from Sher Shah. They had 
deserted from the line before the battle, not to join the enemy^ 
for even policy could not overcome Sher Shah's hatred of the 
Turks, but simply to look after their estates and hide them 
from the storm of wars. Where was the fierce courage of the 
Turks which was now and for a century afterwards to make 
the Kin^s of Europe and the Kaisar himself tremble for their 
capitals? Had it vanished with the snows on which it grew,, 
or with the poverty which spurred it to conquest ? Humiyiin 
declared that the dissensions of his brothers caused his defeat,, 
but three brothers fought or rather fled side by side from the 
sandhills of Bilgrdm. The native historian declared that 
women and gold were what wrecked the Mughals, but plenty 
of both has always in India been the lot of prowess and success 
with the sword. Sher Shah must have had a very tolerable 
harem if under its name he could introduce 1,200 palanquins,, 
each credited with a fair pat^senger, into the fort ofRhotas. 
I trace the cause of the great Mughal disaster at Bilgrdm 
to the fact that poor and uncultivated men were brought down 
from their native hills, were placed in a hot country with a 
most relaxing climate, in a possession of great wealth and 
perfect leisure, and their valour oozed out beneath the weight of 
profligacy, avarice, gluttony, and sleep, which make the Uvea 
of wealthy Indians. 

10 H 



74 HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. ' 

52. The history of the later Hindu inhabitants is of 
mi^ «. ^ « . interest ; other districts Iiave 

Modern Hinda History. i • ^i a. • <■ i • 

during the many centuries produeedi 
dividuals like Tilok Cband, Lone Singh of Mitauli, JodhSifJil 
of Dhaurahra, Partab Singh of Partabgarh, Balbbadar Sia^l 
of Tiloi, who really left their marks on the annals of the &\ 
trict. Hardoi cannot boast of one great name. The AhUtfi 
really Chdwar Chhattris, occupied Gropamau about 100 AJ)J 
if we are to believe themselves, and never did any thine woiAt' 
of mention up to date. The Sombansis came from Kamhii 
wdn to Sdndi about 1400 A.D. Their chief, Raja Santan, mi' 
compelled to yield to the Musalmdns ; he retained Siiibi 
Ehera, now Sdndi, for some time, and then abandoned it fa 
Siwdijpur, where his descendant still resides. The GaoTBii' 
lege that they were settled by Jai Chand of Kanauj about 1180 
A D., having come from Shiurdjpur. The Nikumbhs canit; 
they say, from Alwar about 1450 A.D.; the Eatidrs firM 
Farukhabad about 1550 A.D.; the Bais of Gundwa fromBais- 
wdra : but the head of this family, Randhir Singh of JBhaidwu, 
represents that he is descended from Tilok Chand, thirty-oBe 
generations removed, and that the title of rdja was conranred 
on his ancestor by the Emperor for bravery in the field. Now 
all the Baiswdra descendants of Tilok Chand only record 
eighteen generations from him to the present line, and the tmt 
origin of the Bhardwan rdi is related in the Malihabad artida 
of the Gazetteer. The descent from Tilok Chand is th^ 
probably as fabulous as the details are incorrect. None of 
the above families have any history worth relating ; a few 
facts are given about each under the pargana headinj^s. An- 
other account represents the Nikumbhs as being a Kachhwdha 
or Surajbans clan which left Aral or Arwal in Jaipur, and 
alternately served the Janwdr Rdja of Delhi and the Rdthor 
of Kanauj in the neighbourhood of Farukhabad. They re* 
ceived the name of Nikumbh — " nekkdm" — from RdjaSdntaUi 
whom they had by some means got released from imprison- 
nient at the court of his sovereign, Jai Chand of Kanauj. 
This derivation seems apocryphal ; another is that the word 
means low caste or illegitimate. At any rate four brothers 
got diflferent grants, one near Sondra, pargana Sandila, another 
near Sdndi, a third got one in Alamnagar, the fourth settled 
in Fari.khabad Pij>arg4on. The colony in Sdndi afterwards 
emigrated to Sandfla ; they have now 119 villages. 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPQRT. 75 

The Gaurs, who are the most powerful clan in the dis- 
trict and occupy its centre, drove out the Thathers from 
Bdwan and Sara, it is alleged, during the time of the Eanauj 
sovereignty. This was probably a seat of aboriginal power, 
for it was attacked by Sayyad Sdlir A.D. 1024, and many 
ancient sites and large wells attest its former greatn.ess. . Fur- 
ther, there is in Bdwan a Sdrajkund, or tank sacred to the 
Sun ; formerly many thousands of people used annually to 
assemble here to worship, but within tha last twenty years 
fhis cult has given place to modem Brahmanism, and the spot 
is now almost deserted. The tradition, as related at length 
in the Sara and Bdwan articles, states that two young sons of 
the Gaur Kuber Sdh of Garganjari were buried alive by the 
barbarian Tbather chieftain. They were dug up by their 
father while still breathing : one who had lost an eye was 
called Kdnoy and survived to be the ancestor of the Edne 
Gaurs ; from the other sprang the Ane. These two branches 
have now 104 villages, while two other Gaur clans, the Chaubes 
and Chaudhris, hold 50 and 24 respectively. 

In nearly all cases, that, for instance, of the. Ahbans, sprung 
from Gopi and Sopi, the Gaurs, and Nikumbhs as just related, 
we find the tribe claiming a descent from two or more brother 
immigrants from the west. The same story is told of the 
Eaikwdrs of Sailuk (see Bara Banki), of the Janwdrs of Eheri, 
of the Jdngres (see Eamp Dhaurahra), of the Sombansis of 
Partabgarh. In every case a rather monotonous tale is told. 
The high-caste Chhattris from the west wandered on seeking 
employment. Two brothers were entertained by the Bhar or 
Thather sovereign. In a few years a quarrel arose ; the 
barbarous chieftain either buried the children of the too power- 
ful subject, or endeavoured to get him killed, or wanted to 
marry his daughter ; in some way be justified reprisals and was 
killed. Now, before rejecting these traditioqs as false we must 
remember that the supersession of a master by a servant is the 
common course of all Oriental Governments. Such changes 
frequently occurred ; at any given period the reigning line had 
probably ousted one to which it was in subjection a generation 
or two back. When the Aryan or Hindu system was intro- 
duced a Chhattri origin was found for the then governing house ; 
.the preceding dynasty was left in barbarism, but the change 
of rulers was represented as a conquest by a branch of the 



76 



HARDOI SETTLEMKMT REPORT. 



Aryan race over Mlechas, or barbarians whom the retrospectiie 
caste founders did not care to ennoble. Noble pedigrees in hA 
were found for the rich and powerful, just as in another 
hemisphere ; but here they were endowed with the still higber 
distinction of having acted as pioneers and champions of 
civilization and Hinduism, and the caitiff who stabbed his 
master became a defender of the faith. 



TorbuleDCO ol the district* 



53. Ilardoi was the most violent and turbulent of all the 

districts of Oudh ; it was divided into the 
chaklas of Sandila, Sdndi-Pilli, and Tu- 

diaon ; the last in particular included the famous Bangar — the 
wild district east of and along the Sai — in which the ^^is^the 
ancestral lords of the soil, had taken refuc;e and maintained a 
guerilla warfare with all authority, Hindu or Moslem. Ahrori, 
in Gopamau, was their main residence. A number of thrir 
Chhattri neighbours, like the English lords of the pale it 
Ireland, took part with them. 

54. The following were the most celebrated n4zims and 
chakladars who ruled any part of the district during the 
Nawabi : — 



«•• 



... 



••• 



Nur AH Khan 

Ambar AH Khan .- 

B6ja Sital Parshad, a brave but 

ferocious soldier 
Fateh AH Khan 
Ghuldm Muhammad Khaa 
Alehndi AH Khan 
lUja Gnbardhan D&s Kayaih, auees- 

tor of Rkd Fateh Chand and Dhan- 

pat Bfie, Taluqdars 
Shekh Im^m Bakhsh 
Amirt M&l Fathak 



••• 



••• 



••• 



••« 



• • t 



•»• 



••• 



••• 



••• 



••• 



••• 



Fa$li. 

1185 
1191 

1192—1198 

1199 

1200 

1220—1227 



1228—1229 
1230—1233 
1234— 123G 



But in 1230-1235 Bakht Mai, a Kashmiri Brahman, 
chakladar of Tandiaon. He was succeeded by Dila Bdm firotn 
1235—1251, save that AbduUa Beg held 1240-1241, and Farfd- 
ud-din Ahmad 1248-1249. From 1251 to 1254 Tahawwar 
Khan and Husen Ali Khan were chakladars ; then Shiu N^tb, 
son of Dila Rdm, succeeded, and with Kid^r Nath as his naib 
held till annexation in 12G3 iasli (lb56). 



HARDOI SKTTLRMBNT REPORT. 7? 

In Sandila the consecutive cfaakladars were:---* 

Fuslu 
Chaudhri Hashmat Ali ... ••• 1242 

Mnrli Dhar ... ... 1252 

Kaqi Ali Khan, Naw&b, with Eun- 
war Rdj Bahadur, naib in charge 
of division of the district ••• 1255 

Khwdja Htisen Bakbsh • • 1259 

Chaudhri Hashmat Ali again ••• 1260 to annexation. 

These four chakladars changed in fourteen years ; but the 
most commended administration was, it is alleged, thatofNaqi 
Ali Khan, whose naib was a warlike Kdyath, who gained success 
by storming the forts of Jarawa and Kaia in fierce battles. 

Colonel Sleeman writes as follows, referring to Tan- 
diaon :— 

55. '* January 22nd, 1849. — Tandiaon eight miles west. 
The country level, and something between dumati and matyar, 
very good, and in parts well cultivated, particularly in the 
vicinity of villages ; but a large portion of the surface is 
covered with jungle, useful only to robbers and refractory 
landholders, who abound in the pargana of Bangar. In this 
respect it is reputed one of the worst districts in Oudh. 
Within the last few years the king's troops have been fre- 
quently beaten and driven out with loss, even when com- 
manded by a European officer. The landholders and armed 
peasantry of the different villages unite their quotas of 
auxiliaries, and concentrate upon them on a concerted signal, 
when they are in pursuit of robbers and rebels. Almost 
every able-bodied man of every village in Bangar is trained 
to the use of arms of one kind or another, and none of the 
king's troops, save those who are disciplined and commanded 
by European officers, will venture to move against a land- 
holder of this district; and when the local authorities cannot 
obtain the aid of such troops, they are obliged to conciliate 
the most powerful and unscrupulous by reductions in the 
assessment of the lands or additions to their nankar." — (FoL 

II.j pages 14-15. 

• 

56. Another incident of life among the Hardoi Chhat- 
tris may be also given from the same author :-~ 

^^I omitted to mention that at Busora, on the ^'^'^ ^ 
Rajput landholder of the Sombansi tribe came to n 



78 HARDOI SRTTLEMENT RKPOBT. 

with a petition regarding^ a mortgage, and mentioned tbatbe 
Lad a daughter, now t«<^o years of age ; that when she was 
born he was out in his fields, and the females of the famil; 
put her into an earthen pot, buried her in the floor of tk 
apartment where the mother lay, and lit a fire over the gra?e; 
that he made all haste home as soon as he heard of the birtii 
of a daughter, removed the fire and earth from tlie pot, ami 
took out his child. She was still livings but two of her fingers, 
which had not been sufficiently covered, were a good deil 
burnt. He had all possible care taken of her, and she still 
lives ; and both he and his wife are very fond of her. Finding 
that his tale interested me, he went home for the child, but 
his village was far ofiP, and he has not been able to overtake 
pie. He had given no orders to have her preserved, as his 
wife was confined sooner than he expected; but the famiW 
took it for granted that she was to be destroyed, and in run- 
ning home to preserve her he acted on the impulse of the 
moment. The practice of destroying female infants is so 
general among this tribe, that a family commonly destroys 
the daughter as soon as born, when the father is from home 
and has given no special order about it, taking it to be iiii 
wish as a matter of course/'— ( Vol 21. j pages 59-60.) 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 79 



CHAPTER II. 



Gazetteer of Parganas, Towns, and Important Villages 

57. Alamnagar pargana.y tahdl Shahabad. — A wild 
backward pargana, in the extreme north of tahsil Shahabad. 
The Sukheta stream on the west, and the Bhainsta ou the east, 
separate it from parganas Shahabad and Pihdni. On the south 
it is bounded by pargana North Sara. On the north and north- 
west it touches the districts of Kheri and Shdhjahdnpur. Its 
S*eatest length and breadth are ten and a half and nine miles, 
nly 19 of Its 59 square miles are cultivated. 

Four of its forty- three villages are uninhabited jungles, the 
property of Government. The surface is level. To the east 
and west, along the banks of the Sukheta and Bhainsta, spread 
almost unbroken belts of dhdk {Butea frondosa) and thorn 
jungle that teem with nil-gde, wild hogs, hares, pea-fowl, grey 
partridge, and bush quail. The cost and labour of guarding his 
crops from the depredations of wild animals is a heavy drag on 
the cultivator, so that wherever the neighbouring jungle is 
thickest, there rents are lowest. Down the middle of the tract, 
midway between the two streams, a partial cle&rance has been 
made, and is extending. The proportion of light and sandy 
soil (bilur) is far lower th.'tn anywhere else in the district, 
being only 14 per cent, of the cultivated area. Good loam 
(dumat) and clay {matydr) abound. The water-supply is 
copious. 

Nowhere else in the district is so large a portion, 59 per 
cent, of the cultivated area, watered. Five-sixths of the irriga- 
tion is from wells, and the rest from tanks, ponds, and the 
Sukheta. The Bhainsta dries up too soon to be of much use, 
except to moisten the fields along its banks and by percolation 
to raise the water-level in the wells. In two-thirds of the 
villages large kacha wells, worked with bullocks and a leathern 
bag, are dug for from Rs. 2 to Rs. 8, and last from two to four 
years. In three villages lever wells with an earthen pot 
\dhenkli) are used, which cost from Rs. 2 to Rs. 5, and have 
to be renewed each year. The soil is especially adapted to the 



so HARDOl SETTLEMENT RBPOBT. 

;rowth of sugarcane; and the nearness of the Rosa Factory M 
Jhdhjahdnpur, only sixteen ofiiles off, will some day develi^ 
this backward branch of the agriculture of the pargana. 

There is no scarcity of cultivators at present, bat the nei- 
sure of population upon soil, only 258 to the square inil^ii 
too light to stimulate the lazy Nikumbhs to stub their waatei 
and improve their careless tillage. 

Less than six acres is the average area of cultivation to 
each plough, a lower one than anywhere else iu the district 
Roads are much wanted. A cart-track, for it is little more^ 
runs through the pargana from north-west to south-east, oa 
the way from Shdbjahdnpur to Pihdni. The staple prodacb 
are millet, wheat, barley, gram, country cotton, and arhar. Of 
the 43 villages, 22j^ are owned by Nikumbh Rdjputs and 9 
by Chamdr Gnurs, 4 have been decreed to GoTermnent, one 
is held by Tiwari Brahmans, two by Edyaths, and 4i by 
Muhammadans. The tenures are zamindari and imperfect 
pattidari. 

The land-revenue demand, excluding cesses, amounts to 
Rs. 24,517 — a rise of 89 per cent, on the summary jama — and 
falls at Rs. 1-15-7 per cultivated acre. Re. 0-10-3 per acre of 
total area, Rs. 11-6-3 per plough, Rs. 2-4-3 per head of agri- 
cultural, and Re. 1-9-9 of total population. 

The population is 15,221. Hindus to Muhammadans tie 
13,713 to 1,508; males to females 8,398 to 6,823; and agricul- 
turists to non-agriculturists, 10,965, or 72 per cent., to 4,256. 
Three-fifths of the Muhammadans are converted Ahf rs (Gho- 
sis). A fifth of the Hindus are Chamdrs. Nikumbh Chhat- 
tris are rather less than a sixth; Brabmans, Pdsis, and Abirs, 
make up nearly a third. Of the other castes, Banians and 
Murdos are most numerous. 

No melas are held. There is a village school at Kar&wan 
(33), with a branch at Bijgawan (32). Weekly markets are 
held at ELardwan on Wednesdays, and at Pdra on Sundays. 

Until 1703 A. D., Alamnagar was included in the ^reat 
Kheri pargana of Barwdr Anjana, Sarkdr Khairabad. Local 
tradition sketches the following outline of the pargana's past 
history. Thatheras held it until, at some uncertain period in 



HARDOI 8BTTLEMENT REPORT. 81 

■ the later days of Hindu domiQion, a band of Gaur Chhattris, 

* beaded by Kdja Kuber Sab, crossed the Ganges from Kanauj 
^ and crushed them out. Later on, about a generation before 
, the fall of Kanauj, the Nikumbbs got a footing in the pargana 

* in this wise : — A body of Kachliwdha Chhatcris under the 
leadership of Naruk Sdh, left Arwal in Jaipur and sought 

* service under the Ttinwar rdja of Delhi. By him they were 
deputed to reduce the rebel Bhais Ahirs of PipargAon, in 
Farukhabad. They did their work, and were, rewarded in 
the usual fashion with a grant of the rebel tract. To Nanhar 
Singh, son of Naruk Sdh, were born four sons, — Narpatj 
Magru, Gajpat, and Jhagru. Of these, Gajpat and Jhagra 
were fortunate enough to render signal service to Sdntan, the 

Eowerful Sombansi rdja of S^ntan Ehera (Sdndi). Sdntan 
ad fallen into disfavour with his chief, the rdja of Elanauj, 
and was in durance there. The Kachhwdhas, Gajpat and 
Jhagru, procured his release. In gratitude for their help R4ja 
Sdntan conferred on them the title of Nikumbh (Nekkdm), 
and added the more substantial benefit of 52 villages for 
Jhagru Sdh in the neighbourhood of Barwdr and Londra in 
the Sandila country, and of 52 more for Gajpat Singh in what 
is now pargana Sdndi. Of these the chief were Paiia and 
Malhautu. The third son, Narpat Singh, remained with his 
father on the Farukhabad side of the Ganges. The fourth, 
Magrii Sdh, was rewarded for good service with leave to settle 
in that portion of what is now the Alamnagar pargana, which 
had not been already appropriated by the G^urs, and in and 
near Fatehpur Gaind, in what is now pargana Shahabad. 

Side by side, doubtless not without constant feuds, the 
Gaurs and Nikumbbs occupied this tract, until, in the reign of 
Akbar, the Gaurs, then headed by Rdja Lakhmi Sen, waxed 
rebellious and were dislodged by Nawab Sadr Jahdn, the 
illustrious founder of the line of Pihdni Sayyads. The fortunes 
of the Nikumbbs fell as the star of the Sayyads rose. Village 
after village fell into the grasp of the Muhammadans, until at 
last all that was left to the Nikumbbs was Bahlolpur, their 
earliest settlement in these parts. So they called it Raho 
(the last left), and by this name is the ruined site of Bahlol- 
pur still called. But the troubles of the Nikumbbs were not 
at an end. A deeper deep was in store for them. In the fol- 
lowing reign, at a wrestling-bout between GopdlSdb^ Nikumbb| 

11 fi 



Si HARDOI SETTLEMENT RBPORT. 

and Taj Khan, a Pathdn in the service of Sadr Jahio, the 
Nikumbhs and Sayyads fell out. The Nikumbhs got the 
worst of it; Hahlol|)ur, too, passed away from them, and the 
Sayyads named it Alamnagar, in honor of the reigning Em- 
peror Xlanigir the first (Auransczeb). The Nikumbhs did not 
recover their position until about ninety years afeO, when 
Asif-ud-daula resumed the revenue-free domain of the Pihani 
and Muhamdi Sayyads (then represented by the Sombansi 
pervert, Kdja Ibadulhi Khan), and gave to the depressed Ni- 
kumbhs and Gaurs an opportunity of again engagiuf^ for their 
lost possessions. 

58. Akjunpur, par ff ana Katiari, tahsil BiLOnXu. — A 
village of 331 mud houses, chiefly occupied by Eaoaujia 
Brahmans, on the Hardoi and Farukhabad border, between the 
Ramguuga and the Ganges, 7 miles north-east from Farakh- 
abad and 10 west from Sdndi. Only noteworthy as being the 
parent village, p^r trdon^ of the Katidr Chattris in the Hardoi 
district. (See Katiari.) Population 2,649. 

59. Arwal, pargana Katiari, tahsil BilqrA^m. — A Bais 
village of 518 nind houses, between the Ramganga and Gan- 
ges, 11 miles south-west from Sandi. The Bais Chattris claim 




Kanauj. The population amounts to 2,242. 



60. Athau.'i, par^ana Gundwa, tahsil SandIla. — A 
good sized Bais village, of 376 mud houses, eleven miles 
north-east from Sandila. It is one of 81 villages said to have 
been wrested from the Gaurs by the Bais eleven generations 
ago. Population 2,615. 

There is a weekly market, and a village school averaging 
38 pupils. 

61. Ba'lamau, pargana Ba'lamau, tahsil Sandfla. — A 
rich Kiirmi village of 518 mud houses, near the left bank of the 
Sai, fourteen miles north-west from Sandila, and three miles to 
the west of the Luckuow road; gives its name to the Bdlamaa 
pargana There is a daily market and a village school averag- 
ing 44 pupils. Population 2,376. 



HARDOI SBTTLBHBKT REPORT. 83 

62. BjClamaxj pargana — takdl SANnfLA. — A little 
pargana of fourteen villages, lying in the north-western corner 
of the Sandlla sub-division. The Sai flows along its western 
side, separating it from parganas Bangar and Malldnwdn; on 
the north it is bounded by pargana Goparnau, and on the east 
and south by Sandda. Its greatest length and breadth are eight 
and a half and four and a half miles. It covers twenty-five 
square miles, of wliich eighteen are cultivated. The surface 
is level, except to the west towards the Sai. The soil is product- 
ive, though light. A rich strip of * tardi ' land fringes the 
river, flooded at times after late and heavv rains, and generally 
irrigable from the river until the end of December. A gi)od 
deal of jungle has been broken up since annexation, and little 
now is left. About a quarter of the cultivated area is irrigatedy 
partly from wells, but chiefly from tanks and ponds, of which 
there are a hundred and eighty-two, and from the river. Mud 
wells can be made almost everywhere. In the light soil to- 
wards the river the cheap little hand-wells (dhenkli) are chiefly 
used. These are dug for a rupee or a rupee and a half, and 
generally have to be renewed each year. To the east, away 
from the river, where the soil is more stiff", larger kacha well» 
are made for sii and eight rupees, and last for from three to 
five years. The staple products are wheat, barley, and granu 
Beds of the nodul.ir limestone (kankar) are found in Bara 
Gumdn, Ratka, and Balaniau Eachhwdha Chhattris hold 
eight of the fourteen villages ; Nikurobhs, two ; Kdyaths and 
Kashmiri Brahmans one each ; Sukul Brahmans, two. Four 
villages are taluqdari, two zamindari, the rest imperfect 
pattidari. The Government demand, excluding cesses, is 
Rs. 20,408, and falls at the rate of Re. 1-12-6 per culti- 
vated acre, Re. 1-4-11 per acre of total area^ Rs. 11-2-5 per 
plough, Rs. 2-13-4 per head of the agricultural, and Re. 1-13-8- 
per head of the total population. The population is 11,159^ 
or 446 to the square mile. Of these, 10,329 are Hiudus- 
and only 830 Mnhammadans. A fifth of the Hindus are 
Cliamars ; an eis^hth Brahmans ; Barbais and Kdrmis each, 
make up a ninth; Chhattris are only a fourteenth- Ahirs^ 
predominate among the remainder^ 

Males to females are 5,859 to 5,300 ; agriculturists to 
non-agi-iculturists, 7,197 to 3,962. There is a daily market 
at the pargana town Bdlamau. There, too, is the only 
school, a village one, averaging 44 pupils^ 



84 HARDOI SETTLEMENT BBPOBT. 

At Kalauli, two miles east from B&Iamau, a mela is hdl 
in April, attended by some six thousand persons. 

The pargana is not mentioned in the Ain-i-Akbari, bntii 
said to have been formed towards the end of Akbar's rei» n. It 
takes its Dauie from one Balai Kiirmi, who fljinj^ northw»nk 
from Diidbia Tirw.a some tlirec liundred years a^o, to escape 
from the oppression of the Chandels, found an asylum with 
the Kachhwahas of Marhi, through whose lands he iiasKed. 
Settled by them in the neighbouring forest, he cleared and 
peopled it, and founded the village of Bsilai Khera, now BaU- 
muu. 

At first tlie pargana contained forty-two villages, W 
during the present ceiiturv Raja Gobardhan Ldl, Faqir Ma- 
hanmiad Khan and Chandhris Mansab Ali and Hashiiiat Ali, 
the Cbakladars of Mallanwdn, Kachhaudau, Sandfla, and 
Malihabad, threw two-tbirds of them into pargana Sandila. 

Another tradition tells that five hundred years ago Tiwari 
Brahmans held the tract ; that they werj expelled by Kachh- 
wahas, and that years afterwards Balai Kurmi assisted the 
Kachhwahas to beat off a Musalman raid upon Marhi from 
Koslianpiir near Bilgram, and was rewarded by them withi 
striji of their jungle. 

C3. BAN(iAK pargnua — talnil Hakdoi.— Pargana Ban- 
gar lies hig-li and level i\\o\\^ the right hank of the little river 
»Sai in the heart of the llanloi district, midway between the 
Giinjzes jind the rmmti AlDnj^ the greater part of its eastern 
side the Sai separates it from parganas (jopamau and Bala- 
man; Ij.iwan bonnds it on the north; Sdndi and Bilgrdm oq 
the west; Mallanwan on the south. 

Populous, wcll-wootled and watered, and fairly tilled, its 
96 villages cover an aren of 143 square miles, of which 85 are 
cultivated. Its greatest length and breadth are twenty nod 
fourteen miles. Rivers and streams it has none except the 
Sai, here called Bhainstn; hut a wealth of jhils and |K)nds 
(1,252; spreads over it, and a host of wells (2,73(5) attests the 
copiiuisness of the water-suj»ply. Thirteen per cent, of the 
total area is returned as brirren, 58 per cent, is cultivated, and 
29 per cent, cnlturnhle. ()t tiie eultivated area a third is irri- 
gated : tank irrigation is soniewluit in excess of thnt from wells. 
Some i.arts of the villages along the Sai are irrigated from it. A 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 85 

«third of the soil is third class /bhdr) but except towards the 
Sai on the east, where, as in the neiffhbourhood of all rivers, 
it is light, uneven, and sandy, the bhdr is generally of fair 
quality and irrigjibK*. The depth at which water is found 
ranges from 15 to 26 feet, ♦xcept near jhils, where from per- 
colation it is exceptionally near the surface. The wells most 
iu use are little hand ones, worked with two earthen pots and 
a string over a revolving pulley (charkhi), and dug at a cost 
of from one to three rupees. They water from 5 to 10 kacha 
biswas daily, or from ^^th to ^th of an acre At Tds Khera, 
near tlie Baita jhil, they are dug for six annas. The large 
leathern bucket (pur) wells worked by bullocks were found 
at survey in only two, and lever wells (dhenkli) in only four 
villages. The wells fall in for the most part and have to be 
renewed every year ; in about a fourth of the villages they 
. last for two years, and in a few places as l<mg as five years. 
Much of the jungle has been cleared since annexation, but 
a good deal still remains and almost every village keeps up 
its patch for grazing and firewood. The pargana is crossed 
by four unmetalied roads. Three of these diverge from Har- 
doi, the head-quarters of the district, at the northern apex of 
the pargana, towards Sdndi, Bilgram, and Sandila, passing 
respectively along the north-western edge, down the west 
centre, and along the eastern edge, and the south-eastern 
corner is crossed by the new road from Sitapur v^d Misrikh 
and Nimkhdr to Madhoganj and Mehndighdt on the Ganges 
near Kanauj. This road it is intended to metal. 

The Oadh and Rohilkliand Railway, too, from Lucknow 
to Sh^hjalianpur runs roughly parallel to the Hardoi and 
Sandila road within a mile of the eastern border. But the 
centre of the pargana, a triangle with its apex at Hardoi, and 
its base twelve miles south and as many in length, is without 
any made roads, — a want that keeps rents low and cultivation 
backward. The staple products are the cereals — barley, bdjra, 
wheat, arhar, and gram. At survey these occupied nearly 
four-fifths of the cultivated area, barley and bdjra alone amount- 
ing to nearly half of the whole produce; mdsh, judr, rice, 
country cotton, and moth made up nearly another fifth ; 
sugarcane was returned for only 776 acres ; and garden vege- 
tables, opium, tobacco and indigo, for only 400 acres. After 
making due allowance for suppression of assets, these figures 



86 HARDOT SETTLElfENT REPORT. 

point clearly to a backward state of cultivation. There ns 
a few beds of kankar. but no stone quarries. Saltpetre nudt 
be maiHifactured. The climate of the tract is good, especiiL 
ly to the north, towards Hardoi. The ninety -six villages ire 
grouped into fifty mahals. Thirteen villages are taliiqdari, 
thirty-eiirht zauiindari. forty-four pattidari, and one bhaiachin. 
The Chaniar Ganrs predominate amons; the proprietors witk 
fortv-four and a half out of ninetv-six villacres. The Gabilwsn 
and Dhdkaras each hold nineteen in the north-west and south- 
east of the pargana; Kayaths own ten, Sajjads two, aod 
Brahmans and Ahirs one each. The Government demand ii 
Rs. 85,990, excluding cesses, a rise of 68 per cent, on the 
summarv assessment. It has been collected since November, 
1866 The pargana contains 54,494 inhabitants, or 381 to 
the square mile. Hindus to Muhammadans are 52,337 to 
2,157; males to females 30,467 to 24,027; agriculturists to 
non-agriculturists 38,834 to 15.6G0. Chamdrs, P^is, Ahin^ 
and Gaurias constitute nearlyhalf of the population; Brahmans 
and Rajputs rather more than a sixth. There are 3,061 
Muraos and 1,796 Vaishyas, There are no fairs of any 
size or importance. At Hardoi tliere is an Ans^lo- Verna- 
cular zila school, averaging 109 pupils ; a branch (44) in 
the town, and another in Slaholia, a neighbouring village (20). 

There are village schools at Turtipur (37) and Khaju- 
rahra (37). There are no femaleschoo!s. Markets are held 
at Hardeoganj in Hardoi, and at Pakohra on Sundays Bni 
Wednesdays, and at Sathji in Khajurahra on Thursdays and 
Mondays. 

History. — The early history of the Bangar closely re- 
sembles that of pargana Bdwan The name is used here, as 
in tlie North- Western Provinces, to denote high-lying lands, 
out of the roach of river action, as distinguished from the low 
lying ' kachh ' or * khadir' tracts. 

Here, as in pargana Hawaii, the earliest historical event 
known to local memory is the passage of Sayyad Salar's 
ariiiv in 423 Hijri (1032 A.D.). In mauza Isauli is to be seen 
to tiiis day the grave of one of the martyrs (Shahid Murd). 
The expedition in which he fell may, probably, have been that 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 87 

.led by Sayyad Azfz-ud-din, the Ldl Pfr, from Satrikh, against 
Gopamau^ mentioned in Chapter III. of the Mira-at-i-MasHii- 
\ di. The date assigned by the author of this work to Sayyad 
^ S&ldr's invasion is of very doubtful accuracy. Of greater in- 
*' terest and importance are the traditional accounts of the 
^ coming of the Rajput clans, and the expulsion of the That- 
^ heras. 

The earliest Rajput immigrants seem to have been the 
Gaurs. The favorite account current at Khajurahra. the 
central village of the Gaur taluqa of (the late J Ddl Singh, 
runs thus : — Of old Khajurahra was held by the Thatheras. 
Eleven hundred years ago, our ancestor, Thakur Ragbundth 
Singh of Ndrkaujari, near Indor, served under the Rjija of 
Kanauj, and in reward for gallant service was made Xmil of 
Bangac. Bihdr was chosen by him for his residence, and 
thence he used to send the tribute collected by him to Kanauj. 
Once he had to go on special business to Kanauj to see tlie 
Raja. While he was away a son was born to him, of whom 
the astrologers foretold that his star was fortunate and that he 
would become king of the laud. The Thatheras were then 
lords of this country, and they, fearful of the future, caused 
the astrologers to spread it abroad that if the babe's fatber 
should set eyes on him, he would surely die. Thus they 
did ; and the child's mother, to avert her husband's doom, 
buried her little one alive. But when Raghundth Singh re- 
turned and heard wbat had happened, he hastened and dug 
out his child. And lo, it was still living, but one of its eyes 
was blind, and they named him Ganga Sin^h Kdna, or one- 
eyed. Aud he grew up brave and wise and when Raghundth 
Singh died, one-eyed Ganga was appointed in his stead. In 
those days the Thatheras had waxed rebellious and refused 
tribute. So one-eyed Ganga sought aid from Kanauj and 
brought an army from thence, and fought and slew the rebel 
Thatheras and crushed the revolt, and such as be did not put . 
to the sword he drove out from their homes to be wanderers 
over the face of the land. And the Rdja was glad, and be- 
stowed upon him all the realm of the Thatheras for his own- 
Now Ganga Singh had two sons, Jaskaran and Amda, and 
they divided the inheritance between them. Jaskaran took 
what are now Bardgdon and Maholia Rdwat, Hardoi, Kasrd- 
wdn, Bhitauli, Sarayydn, Mawayya, and Amddha ; and AmdA 



88 HARDOT SETTLEMENT REPORT. 

S\n<rh took KliajurAlira, and Nfr and Isauliy and Dhfr Ifabob 

and liheta Cliaiid, and Keoli, and Naiagdon. 

Another account runs in this wise : — 

Tn tlie Treta Yug, the Gaurs were of the Sdrajbans stock. 
Eii:ht hundred years ago, in the time of Rdja Jai Chand rf 
K;inauj, Kisar Bahddur Singh came from Ndrkanjari tobatlie 
&t Nimsdr. Before this time tlie Thatheraa had held tiie 
Bangar, but now the land was well nigh waste and desolate: 
and Kisar Bahadur sought and got it as a gift from Ui 
kino^ and took possession of Bangar and Bilgrdm ; but 
afterwards the Muhammadaus drove out the Gaurs, botnot 
altogether. 

The Gaurs of Turtipur thus relate the story of their 

settlement : — 

*' About 700 years ago, our ancestor Bhdt Deo came 
from Ndr Nol, near Delhi, and, under the protection of the 
Riija of Knnauj, settled at Narkanjari, about twentj-two koi 
to the south-east of Kanauj, and there he lived for maoy 
years ; and when his descendants had become great in nam* 
b(*r, one of them crossed the Ganges and took up his aiiode 
here, and named the place BhdtDeo, in honour of the foundtr 
of his house (now a deserted site at Bihdr, with an ancient 
masonry well and bargad tree), and his descendants multi- 
plied and spread themselves around on every side ; and one 
of them founded Bihar, and one, from whom we are sprung, 
founded Maholia. And from Maholia, H^ja Sdle Sinp^h moved 
to Ilardoi, and from Ilardoi Ildthi SiuQ:h and Haz4ri Singh 
cleared away the forest on all sides, and founded Turtipur on 
a deserted village site of the Thatheras, known as Deb Turti- 
pur, and kept up its ancient name ; and from that time till 
this the Gaurs held it." 

In Hardoi itself they tell a somewhat different tale;-— 
" About 700 years ago, Sdle Singh, Chamdr Gaur, came from 
Narkanjari, near In dor, with the army of Alha and Udal and 
drove out the Thatheras, who then reigned here and seised 
their lands. And SAle Singh had two sons, Anang Sinffh 
and Nardiu Singh, and the first of these had two and the 



Either three sons, and tbe five cousins divided the Hardoi 
lands among them. To the two sons of Anang Singh was 
ftiven thok Uncha, and to the three sons of Nardin Singh, 
i;hok Ran Mai and thok Chauhdn and thok AIu, and from 

I ithat time till now we Gaurs have always held the three 

; thoks." 

I. • 

^ The parent village of the Dhdkaras is Bikapur. Some 

y •of them claim to have come hither direct from Dharwdr, 

J others from Mainpuri. Thus, the Dhdkaras of Ajramau, Udru, 

I and Khajuri say : — 

*' Long, long ago, our ancestor Bhiiran Singh came from 
Dharwdr in the west and slew and drove out the Thatheras 
and seized their fort at Kordra, which lies between Ajramau 
aiid Bikapur, and his descendants spread on each side, to 
Bikapur and to Bdnapur, and Munna Singh and Subha 
Singh, from whom we are sprung, left Bdnapur and settled at 
Ajramau sixty years ago/' 

But others of the clan say : " Our ancestor was the 
Hdja of Mainpuri a thousand years ago. Thence he came 
ivith an army, to bathe in tbe sacred waters of Nimkhdr* 
Misrikh. The Thatheras then ruled in this land and 
our Kdja saw that it was good, and smote the Thatheras ia 
their stronghold of Korara, and crushed them utterly and 
seized their lands for himself.'' 

The parent village of the Gahilwdrs is Gaura. " Seven 
hundred years ago," say they, " our ancestors Ddmar Singh 
and Mohan Singh went out from holy Kdshi (Benares) 
in quest of service, and found it under Riija Jai Chand 
of Kanauj, and settled at Singhirdmpur (near Kanauj) ; 
and after a time, to reward their good service, he bestowed 
npon them twenty-four villages on this side of the Ganges, 
and they drove out the Thatheras and settled down ia 
Gaura (Gaura Khera is one of the dibs, or deserted vil- 
lage sites of the Bangar), and each of them took twelve 
of the villages. Damar Singh took Sdra and the^ villages 
that pertain to it, and Mohan Singh took Bhadaicha and 
the villages that pertaia to it, and their descendants grew and 
multiplied/' 

12 H 



tfO 



HARDOI SETTLEMKST BIPOHT. 



Moba:« Singh. 
I 

Mi3l SlMGB. 
I 



Nirpat Singb. 
Jai Singh. 
MardflD SiDgh. 

Gaoai Singh. 

I 
Bhupat 13io^h. 

I 
Naina Singh 

J 
Hanwant Singh 
(now a life). 



Bblmao Singh. 
Bbikam Singh. 

Nar&in Singh. 

I ^ 

Sew a Singh. 

FhuAhal Singh, 
^uow alife). 



The Gabilwdr pedigree does not support the 

It giFes only eight generatiiMU 
or two hundred years, since the 
time of Mohan Singh's immign* 
tiou. The Xin-i-Akbari makei 
no mention of pargana Bangv . 
It was not constituted, in fact, 
till 1215 fasli (1807 A.D.). Up 
to that time it was included ia 
pargana Bilgrdm. In that year 
pargana Biigr&m was divide4 
into Kachh and Bangar, or low- 
lands and highlands. Thedivi* 
sion had been decided on six yean 
before, in 1209 fasli, when Raja Sitalparshdd Tirbedi WM 
ndzim of Bilgrdm, but it was not eifected till 12 15 fasli, when 
Mirza Xgha Jdu became chakladar under Hakim Mehndi All 
Khan. At this time, too, both parganas were transferred to 
the nizdmat of Khairabad. Up to that time they had been 
included in Sarkdr Lucknow. 

The condition of the Bangar daring the later days of 
the native government of Oudh has been graphically describ* 
ed by General Sleemau. When he visited it twenty -three 
years ago, the term covered a far wider area than that com- 
prised in pargana Bangar only. His description will be found 
under the heading Gopamau, to which it more appropriately 
belongs. 

64. Bi^NSA, pargana Malla'nwa'ji, tahsll BiLoaiM.— 
2,116 inhabitants.— A fine thriving village of Kanaujia Kur- 
mis, six miles north-east from Mallanwdn, in the Malldnw&a 
pargana ; 618 mud houses ; a village school, averaging thirty- 
eight pupils. Bdnsa has been held by Kanaujia Kurmis for 
more than seven centuries. Their ancestor, Bdsu, for loyal 
service to the Hindu Kdja of Kauauj in expelling the rebelli- 
ous Thatheras at some uncertain period before the fall of 
Kanauj, was rewarded with a grant of land and founded 
Bansa upon it. 

65. Barwan, pargana— tahdl IIaudot.— A backward, 
roadless, and somewhat inaccessible pargana of the Hardoi 
district lying along both sides of the Garra, between the 
central " bdngar*' or high lands, and the low-lying"kachh'^^ 



HiJLDOl 8KTTLEMEKT BEPORT. 91 

odUQtry along the Ganges and Ramganga. It is the western- 
most portion of the Hardoi tahsfl, and is bounded by par* 
ganas Katidri and Sdudi on the west and south, Bdwan on the 
east, and Saroniannagar and Pali on the north. It contains 
€9 villages, and covers an area of fifty-three square miles, 
tbirty-tbree of which are cultivated. Its greatest breadth 
from east to west is ten and a half, and length seven miles. 

It lies immediately to the west of and below the sandy 
ridge that marks the western edge of the bdngar, the point 
from which, centuries ago, the Ganges and its tributaries, the 
Bdmganga and Garra, commenced their gradual recessioa 
westwards. Its natural features are a high irregular bank 
of sand on the east, sinking at first with a sudden drop of 
some twenty feet, and then more gradually westward into 
a low marshy tract, watered by winding streams and nu- 
merous jhfls, and overgrown here and there with patches 
of low dhdk jungle. The Sukheta separates this tract from 
a narrow strip of clear good land, beyond which the Garra 
flows from north to south of the pargana, dividing it into 
nearly equal portions. To the west of the Garra there is 
very little jungle, but a quantity of low level land, subject 
to floods, and covered, where not cultivated, with coarse 
grass, and changing gradually from stiff clay to light un- 
productive bhiir as it rises almost imperceptibly from the 
flood basin of the Garra to the western edge of the pargana 
midway between the Garra and Rdmganga. The Sendha 
ndia and its tributary, the Gudhia, flow along part of this 
western side, but no river or stream intervenes between it 
and the Garra, while marshes and jhils, so numerous to 
the east of that river, are here few and far between. 
The Gauria and Earwa are, next to the Sukheta, the 
chief streams in the eastern tract. After heavy rains the Garra 
and Sukheta overflow their banks and flood all the lower 
portion of the pargana. In such years the autumn crop is 
altogether lost, and ploughing for the spring harvest is delays 
ed so long as to diminish its outturn. 

The pargana seems todivide naturally into six tracts, the 
villages lying along and on the sandy eastern rid^e ; the jungle, 
and, lower down to the south, the tar&i villages between 
A^ ridge and the Sukheta ; the richj damp villages enclosed 



92^ 'habdoi settlement BEPOBT. ' 

between the Sukheta and the Garra, and lying along bodi 
banks of the Garra ; the tarai villages beyond the Garra ; and^ 
lastly, the sandy tract in the west of the pargana. Only fife 
or six villages belong to the first of these divisions. They 
are characterized by an uneven surface of very light, unpro- 
ductive sandy soil, few wells, and low rents. The villages 
on the ridge are the worst. The country gradually im* 
proves as it sinks westwards into the tardi. The jangle 
villages are tv^elve in number. All have been assessed u 
second or third class. They suffer from the ravages of wild' 
hogs and nil-gde in proportion to the extent of the adjacent 
jungle. The soil is for the mcst part fair, but in places 
clayey, stiff, and difficult to work. Water is everywhere 
near the surface, so that the lever (dhenkli) wells can be 
dug for from 1 to 3 rupees. Owing, however, to the fre* 
quent floods, they rarely last here for more thaa a year. 
Here and there the large wells worked by bullocks are made 
cheaply for Bs. 3 and 4. In this tract rents are slowly rising 
and cultivat jrs seeking for land. The jungle country fsm 
gradually southwards with the streams which water it into 
the eastern tardi ^'chak'* of fifteen villages. Among these 
there is not a single first class one. In all there is too much 
water. In only three are wells required or made. AUsu^ 
much from the overflowing of the Garra, the Sukheta, their 
afi^uents, and the jhils and tanks. Much of the soil is cold, 
stiff clay, hard to work, and indifferently productive. But in 
spite of these drawbacks none of these villages are really had, 
and all have been rated as second and third class. CrosHing 
the Sukheta you reach a belt of fourteen villages lying along* 
or near both sides of the Garra. Their liability to flood and 
diluvial action prevents most of them from being placed ia 
the first class, but they suffer less from the overflow of the 
Garra than villages farther from it to the east and west 
Irrigation here is cheap and plentiful. The lever wells are in 
vogue. They fall in every year, but are dug for one or two 
rupees. Beyond this tract lies the western tardi group of 
seven villages. It differs from the eastern tardi m oeing 
suhject to flooding from the Garra only. There is much 
less jungle. There are no jhils or ponds. The proportion 
of cold clayey soil is smaller. The lever wells are madei 
whore required, lor from Ks. 1-8 to 3. The western bhnr 
tract of fifteen villages occupies the whole of the space, be-: 



HAEDOI 8ETTLBMENT RBPOBT. Si 

tin^een this group of villages and the Seudha ndla on the 

border of the pargana. In about half of these villages the 

eoil is so sandy and bad that wells are not made at all. The 

Xaehcha wells fall in before the water is reached, and the 

people have not foresight or energy enough to apply for 

takdvi advances and build masonry ones. Here and there 

sand hills break the level, wherever the soil is lightest and 

vrater most scarce. In the other half, lever wells can be made 

for one and two rupees, but have to be renewed every year. 

The larger wells worked by bullocks are rare. Barley, 

wheat, bdjra, and rice are the staple products. Nearly a third 

of the cultivated area is under barley, a fifth under wheat, 

another fifth under b^jra and about an eighth under rice. 

Gram, arhar, moth, and judr cover most of the remainder. 

Sugarcane might be grown to a considerable extent, but 

during the year of survey only 142 acres of it were shown in 

the field registers. Roads are sorely wanted. The Sdndi 

and Shahabad road just skirts the pargana on the eastern 

ridge, but there is not a yard of road besides. 

The maps show a road from Tina to the Garra, but it is^ 
only a cart-track, almost impracticable for the greater part of 
the year. The western half of the pargana is more open, 
and carts can get along, though not without difiSculty, to 
Sdndi, Fatehgarh, and Fall after the floods have run down 
and the country has dried. Beds of nodular limestone 
(kankar) are found at Sahra, Motipur, and Chatorha. Som- 
bansi Thdkurs hold 6b of the 69 villages. The Chamar. 
Gaurs own one. 

The Government demand, excluding cesses, is Rs. 28,435, 
a rise of 53 per cent. The rate is Rs. 1-5 8 per cultivated 
acre ; Rs. 0-13-6 per acre of total area ; Rs. 8-9-10 per 
plough ; Rs. 2-1-11 per head of the agricultural, and 
!Rs. 1-7-6 per head of the total population. 

The pargana is inhabited by 18,739 Hindus and 467 
Muhammadans : total 19,206, or 362 to the square mile. 
Males to females are 10,752 to 8,454, and agriculturists to 
jsion-agriculturists 13,402 to 5,804* In the Hindu agricul* 
tural population of the pargana, half of which consists of Somr 
Ibansi Rajputs, (he percentage pf females to males is only 75*6.^ 



91 nAUDOI SETTLE3IEKT BEPOBT. 

Nowhere else in Oudb, except in pargana Chandra, in tke 
Sitapur district (75*7,) does so low a proportion of femaln 
exist in this branch of the population, the preceotage of the 
province ranging from 95'7 in Rae Bareli to 83'1 in Hardcti, 
^vith an average of 90*7. 

The only other Hardoi parganas which show aa hadlv as 
Barwan in this respect are Akmnagar and Pachhofaa (76'1) 

Sombansi Rajputs constitute nearly a third, and Chamin 
nearly a sixth of the total Hindu population. Brahmani 
one-fourteenth ; the remainder is mainly composed of Murios^ 
Kahdrs, Pasis, and Ahirs. 

On the 29 th of November and 7th April a rather large 
mela is held at Barsuia at the tomb of a faqir. From ten to 
fifteen thousand persons attend it. It lasts only one day. 

There are village schools at Barwan (50) ; Sakra (31); 
Aubddpur (35) ; Londr (35) ; and a female schocil num- 
bering 20 pupils has been started at Barwan. 

Until towards the close of the twelfth century A. D., the 
Barwan country was held by the Thatheras> tributaries of the 
Chhattri Rdias of Kanauj. Its chief village (now Barwan) 
was then called Baburhia. A strong body of Sombansis^ 
headed by Rdja Sdntan, moved southwards from Delhi, at 
some uncertain period before the fall of Kanauj, and estab- 
lished themselves at Sdntan Khera (S^ndi). Thence tbey 
gradually extended their dominion over what are now the 
&urwan, Pali, and Saromannagar parganas, expelling the 
Thatheras from all that they had been able to hold against the 
Gaur invaders under Ruber Sdh. In the beginning ot the 15th 
century (see pargana Sdndi) Raja Barwan, grandson of Sdntaa 
II., who had fled away to the Kumaun hills, was allowed by the 
Governor of Kanauj to resume possession of his grandfather's 
domain and to establish himself at Baburhia, the deserted town 
of the Tbatherasi which he re-named Barwan. 

In his old age Rdja Barwan determined to go on a pilnim* 
age to Kdshi (Benares) and sent for Lakhmi Sen, the ^dest 
el his four sons, to make over the kingdom to him. Lakhmi 



HARDOI SKTTLRMENT REPORT. 95 

Sen was out fishingf and refused to come till he had finished 
his sport; so Karan Sen, the second son, became Rdja, and 
left Barwan and settled at Siwaichpur in Fargana Pali. : 

His two other brothers, Randhir Singh and Ram Singh, 
remained at Barwan. After a time they quarrelled, and 
Randhir Singh killed Rdm Singh and fled away to his wife's 
family in Khakatmau Dahelia in Farukhabad. The widow of 
the murdered Rdm Singh returned to her father's house in 
Arba (Farukhabad), and there g^ve birth to a posthumous 
son who was named Udiajft. When Udiajit grew up he 
married a Dhakara Thakurain, and collecting followers from 
his own and his wife's clansmen, marched to Barwan, drove out 
the Thatheras who had again possessed themselves of it, and 
established himself in his grandfather's place. Udiajit had two 
sons, Askan and Har Das, and seven grandsons. Six of these 
left Barwan and settled in Chandpura, Nagamau, Gobindpur; 
Behgaon and Bardnra, villages which to this day are held by 
their descendants. The seventh, Parmanand, the son of Askan, 
remained at Barwan and built a strong fort upon the ruins of 
the old Thathera town« His three sons Bds Deo, Todar MaK 
and Bhagwdn Dds, were men of mark. Bds Deo found a career 
under his mother's father Kalka, a Bais Rdja of Part^bgarh^ 
whom he succeeded, Kalka dying sonless. Todar Mai and 
Bhagwdn Dds attended no court and paid no tribute. They 
and their clansmen were formidable archers. All attempts to 
coerce them failed. At last they were persuaded to send their 
90ns Ghdzi and Bahddur to Akbar's Court at Dehli. These 
young warriors took military service under the great emperor, 
and so won upon him by their prowess in the Deccan campaign^ 
that be bestowed upon them the title of Khan and a rent-free 
grant of Barwan. The deed of grant has been lost, but the 
grant has been respected ever since. It was one of the few 
mudfis upheld by Saddat Ali Khan, and has been maintained 
in perpetuity by our own Government. 

Pargana Barwan is said to have been constituted in 990 
Hijri (1582 A. D). The Xin-i-Akbari gives its area at 66,052 
bighas ; revenue 2,00,000 ddms, cesses 26^385 ddms; garrison 
500 foot soldiers and 20 troopers. In those days it is believed 
to have consisted of 84 villages. At preeent there are oaljr 
69. The Somfaaosii have fa#la ittmiatemtptediv for four w4 



9C harfjOI sRTTLEyK^rr ripobt. 

a half centuries. Thev have always gicen mach trouble ti 
the revenue authorities, and were, till lately, notorious thieni 
and cattle-lifters. 

Once, about a hundred years ago, the Chakladar of S&ndi 
Pali unsuccessfully bombarded the Barwan fort for nine dnji, 
Forty years ago another Chakladar of Sdndi, Qutub-nd-dii 
Husen Khan, attacked it with a superior force. The Som- 
bansis evacuated it by night. Their fort was razed, the towa 
burned, and a government police post established on its mini. 
For four months Barwan lay desolate and desei ted, but wbei 
Qutub-ud-din Husen Khan was succeeded at Sandi by Manlri 
Farid-ud-diu Husen Khan, the Sombansis were allowed to 
return and rebuild their town and fort. Once again, thirty 
years vigo, the king*s troops under Captain Barlow attacked 
Barwan, and twentv lives were lost. Aud in 1848 the villas 
was burnt down by Captain Bunbury, of the King's army, 
and his regiment ^' without any other cause," says Greneral 
Slecman, ^^ that the Barwan people could understand save tbst 
they had recommended him not to encamp in the grove close 
by. The fad was, that none of the family would pay the Govern- 
ment demand or obey the old amil Hafiz Abdullah, and it was 
necessary to make an example." In the mutiny Madho Siog^, 
the present head of the Barwan mudfidars, who had been 
appointed thdnadar of Barwan at annexation, was attacked and 
surrounded by a rebel force. Some blood was shed, and the 
town burned. At re-occupation the fort was destroyed. A 
police post has since been established at the neighbouring 
village of Naktaura, two miles north-east of Barwan. With- 
in its area of 53 square miles, the pargana contains twenty- 
one '^dihs'' or deserted village sites, most of which are believed 
to be of Thathera origin. 

66. Barwan, pargana Babwan, tahsil Harix)I. — 1,584 
inhabitants. — The village, which gives its name to the pargana, 
is now an insignificant cluster of 244 mud houses, with a popola* 
tion of 1,087 agriculturists and 407 non-agriculturists. 

It lies on the right bank of the Garra, 13 miles west of 
Hardoi, 19 miles east of Fatehgarh, and 7 miles north-west of 
Sdndi. It has little trade of its own ; but cotton, grain, timber, 
hides, and sugar pass down the Garra by boat in quantitiM 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPOBT. 97 

%roin Bareli, Shdbjahdnpur, Aniipshahr, and Pilibhft on their 
^ay to Cawnpore, Mirzapur and Benares. 

67. Bif^wAN parfrana^ tahsU Hardoi. — Pargana Bdwan, 

^district Hardoi, lies midway between the rivers Garra and Sai, 

^and forms part of the watershed of both. Parganas Sdndi and 

^Sangar bound it on the south, Barwan and Saromannagar on 

^ the west, North Sara on the north, and on the east South Sara 

^^aod Gopamau. With an extreme length and breadth of 11^ 

^^and 10^ miles, it covers an area of 69 square miles, 45 of 

^ which are cultivated. No stream or river fertilizes it, but 

1 there are numerous (591) jhils and tanks, especially down the 

middle and eastern portion of it. From these a tenth of the 

cultivated area is irrigated, and two-tenths more are watered 

from wells. 

For the most part the tract is level, but here and there 
on its western side it breaks into slight undulations, especially 
where it nears the sandy ridge that, running from north to 
south through the district, nearly parallel with the old high 
road from Bilgrdm and Sdndi to Shdbjahdnpur, seems to mark 
the easternmost point from which at some remote period the 
Ganges commenced its gradual recession westwards. Here, 
as elsewhere, the predominance of light, sandy, uueven bhiir 
indicates that the area in which it occurs wa^ once wandered 
over by a shifting river. Such soil covers two-fifths of the 
cultivated portion of the pargana. Water is procurable at a 
depth of from twelve to eighteen feet on the western side, and 
from twenty-five to thirty -five feet on the east. On the bhiir, 
hand wells (" rahti" or " charkhi*'), costing from eleven to 
three rupees, arc mainly used. They rarely last more than 
one year. On the eastern side, where the soil is more tena- 
cious, the large (pur) wells worked by bullocks are used, as 
well as the smaller hand and lever ones. 

Id the south and cast of the pargana there is still a consi- 
derable quantity of dhak (Butea froudosa) jungle, but it is 
rapidly disappearing. As the country is generally open, and 
nowhere cut up by streams or rivers, it suffers less than 
other tracts from the want of good roads. The unmetalled 
road from Lucknow to Shdhjahdnpur via Hardoi and 
Shababad traverses a great part of its eastern side, while a 

13u 



98 HARDOI SETTLEMEKT RETOBT. 

few villages on the west lie on the district road (likes 
Hardoi roads uninetalled) from Hdndi to Sliababad. 1 
south the pargaua is crossed by a cart-track leading 
Hardoi to tbe Gurra on the way towards Farukhabad. 
line of road has never been finished, and the portioi 
which was lined out as far as the Garra is not now rq 
and kept up. The Bdwan country to the west will gi 
benefit whenever funds can be found for opening up tU 
most direct route to Farukhabad, as an alfernatifel 
present road via Sdndi. 

The staple products are barley, wheat, bijra, md 
bar, millet, sugarcane, and mdsh. Of these, the first 
represent about four-sevenths of the cultivation of th 
gana. Sugarcane in the year of survey occupied ci 
twenty-fourth part of the cultivated area. Kankar is I 
in Tiiatheora and Behti near the winding Baita jhiL 

The Chamar Gaurs hold 35 villages, more than hi 
pargana; five villages belong to Kaghubansis; four to 
bansis; one each to Chandels, Raikwdrs, Bais, and Chai 
Muhamniadans own four, Edyaths two, Brahinans one. 
is a jungle-grant sold to a European. One isheldini 
alty by Gaurs, Kdyaths, and Sayyads. In 44 villagi 
tenure is pattidari, in 13 zamindari. 

Excluding cesses, the Government demand is B8.4 
a rise of 48 per cent, on the summary assessment. 1 
at Rs. l-9-3per acre of cultivation ; Rs. 1-0-6 per I 
total area ; Rs. 11-12-0 per plough; Rs. 2-6 7 perbf 
the agricultural, and Rs. 1-11-10 per head of total p 
tiou. 

The pafgana is populous. The total number of i 
tants is 26,037, or 377 to the square mile. Hindus to II 
madans are 25,173 to 864; males to females 14,108 tx> 1 
agriculturists to non-agriculturists 18,769 (72pere( 
7,268. More than a fifth of the Hindus are Chao 
fourth are Chhattris, principally Chamar Gaurs. Bn 
and Pdsisy about equally numerous, make up i 
fifth. Among the remainder, Ahirs and Gararias pi 
nate. 



101 

A bathing melawVU; v ' "■■ " '^'a'' '^% 

^Jkund, or tank of C;^^, , , ^ ""f"^!. 

3lidrion. It is said tW ' ''^ V^.;. J>-- .^. . lag the 

• and four tliousand pe,^y^> C/:^CD v. ^ of 

se of 

atdr. 

ked 

ig some tvro hundred pet;;^; ^Si^^'^^^l ^®' 







etmeats, and lij^ht small lamps iri^'** »»Virt J 
deserted city of the ThitW '>'^^"? v'\''^- '" 

There is an aided vernacular town acli a 
•auch of the zila school atThatheora (25^ ^^*^^^an(r 
3ilwan (16) ; and village schools at Kaun.il^'"^^' ii& 
npur (58). "^^^^^'^ (4())7^^ 

BAwan, the chief town of the pargana, ig ^^^ 
Q founded by Raja Bal, a Daitya (probably a t^^^*^"^^ 
ice) before Dasrath and Rama reigned in Ajodhv ^^^^'^^ 
lest historical event remembered in local traditio^'- '^''^ 
:hc arrival of Sayyad Saldr Masaiid at Kanauj, a ^ ' ^^^^ 
it of his army was despatched to Ba wan and fougiit^^^^* 
)Sftofthe invaders who fell were buried near the Su^^^" 
d in Bawan. The next and chief historical event of iS 
jana is the expulsion of the Thatheras by the Gau^^ 
ptly before the Muhanunadan conquest of India. Kalhaur 
Lilho as it is popularly called, was the chief stronghold 
be Thatheras in this part of Oudh. That it was of con* 
Table size is shown by the height and extent of its debris 
ch cover several acres in the heart of the tree-jungle of 
liclganj. The remains of a huge masonry well, 15 feet 
iameter, and a ruined tank called Ramkund, are still to 
een. Tradition says that Rdja Jai Chand of Kanauj de* 
id Mahd Singh, Gaur, of Ndrkanjari, and Kuber S&h, 
ir, of Garbganjana near Indor, to collect annual tribute 
1 the Thatheras in what are now parganas Bdwan and 
I. For three years these crafty Gaurs received the tribute, 
instead of remitting it to Knnauj, represented to the Raja 

the Thatheras were rebellious and refused to pay. So 
:ong force was despatched from Kanauj. The wretched 




100 IIAHDOI SETTLEMKKT REPORT. 

Thatlior.is were burnt out and put to the sword| i 
Gaurs settled down on their lands. 

Another form of the tradition closely resemU 
current in the Banpir (sec article Bangar). Knbe i 
^ono to Kanauj to deliver the annual tribute. While 
away from home twin sons were born to hiin. Of tl 
lirahmans in attendance on the Thathcra chief pi 
that they would achieve {greatness and expel him i 
kingdom. To avert such dis^astcr the Thathera chief 
the babes to be done away with, and the Brahinans, 
out thnt if Kuber Sah should return and look apon 1 
dren\s faccH he would die, caused them to be burie 
Hardly had the deed been done when Kuber Sdh n 
heard the evil news, and had the babes dug up. Bol 
Btill alive. One of them had lost an eye, and was ace 
ly named Kdna (one-eyed). The other was named A 
Pakhni (lit. *' under the wall''). From them are 
the Kdna and Anai (or Pakhni) sub-divisions of the 
On more than half the pargana the Gaurs have retain 
hold till now. 

The Ain-i-Akbari gives the area of the pargana tu 
bighns, and the military force posted in it as cousi 
twenty troopers and a thousand foot. A few of the 
villages have since been added to parganas R*irwan anc 
There are eleven "dihs" or deserted village sites, all o 
are attributed to the Thatheras. 

fi8. Ba'wan kha's, the principal town in pargana 
lies 6 miles west of Ilardoi, in the direction of Fai 
and 8 miles north of Sdndi. Some derive its nau 
the tradition that Thatheras originally owned a t 
fifty two (bdwan) villages lying round it, and that, 
time of Akbar, fifty-two was still the number of vill 
the pargana. Others trace the name to R^ja Bal, its 
founder, a Daitiya prince of dim and distant antiquity 

The local tradition is that Balm Lochan, the four 
Brimha, fought with and was slain by Indra. His so 
Bal (or Bali), a Daitiya, carried on the feud and routei 
and seized his dominion, and reigned at Bdwan. Tl 



HAKDOI 8BTTLEMBNT BKPOBT. 101 

rig seven generations before Dasrath reigned in Ajodhia. To 
confirm himself in his new domain, Rdja Bal, by the advice of 
his priest, prepared to celebrate the Asvamedb, and dug the 
n tank Surajkund, and to the north of it set up the image of 
J Kasha Devi. Then Indra sought aid of god (Ishvar)and Ishvar 
Ifi caused himself to be born a dwarf (Bdwan) in the house of 
^f Kasip Rikbi in Kashmir, and was named Bdwan Avatdn 
J And when he was grown ha journeyed to Bawan and asked 
^ as a gift from the Rdja for as much ground as he could cover 
i in three paces and a half. And when the Rdja had pro- 
I mised, this Bdwan took one step from east t«) west, and an- 
other from earth to heaven, and the third from heaven down 
to hell (patal) and still half a pace remained. And Rdja 
Bal said, ^' Best and most precious to a man of all things is 
his own bodyj pace your half pace on mine. And Bdwan 
stepped on to him and bound him, and then bade him in 
his turn ask a gift. But the Rdja would not. So Bdwan 
sent him down to Pdtal and bade him reign there. And to 
Indra he restored his kingdom of the sky, and to Bdnasur, 
son of Bal, he gave the kingdom of Bdwan. And Bdnasur, 
Daitiya, reigned in Bawau till he was overcome by Priabart 
Surajbans (from whom the seventh in descent was Dasrath). 
And for two hundred years the Daitiya Bdnasur, and his son 
Ndndsur and their descendants ruled in Bdwan in fealty to 
the Surajbans of Ajodhia. Then the Surajbans broke up the 
Daitiya kingdom, and now no Daitiya is anywhere to be 
found except in Pdtal." 

A detachment of Sayyad Sdldr's army fought with the 
people of Bdwan, and their tombs are still to be seen (see 
Bdwan pargana). At this time Bdwan was held by the 
Thatheras. 

The present town consists of 105 brick and 681 mud 
houses distributed into four pattis named Ibrahim (held by 
Muhammadans), Sarai Maruf (held by Kayaths), Byram (held 
by the Gaurs) and Ram Chandra (by Tiwari Brahmans). 

The census gave Bdwan a population of 3,362, of whom 
3,235 were Hindus and only 127 Muhammadans. There are 
nine shivdlaSj chiefly built in recent times by wealthy Kayath 
Kanungos« 



102 HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPOBT. 

^The Mulianimadan buildings are an Iinambara^ a mosque, 
and an Eedgah. An aided vernacular town school, a▼e^ 
aging 95 pupils, is held in patti Byrani, in the house of Kalka, 
lambardar. There is a market on Friday in patti Sarai 
Maruf and on Mond<iy in patti Earn Chandra. 

The antiquities of the place consist of two distinct and 
extensive " kheras/' One of these was, say the people, the tirath 
or temple site, they call it also the '' chaukhundi " or four- 
storied, the other the kirath or town. On both are the remains 
of more modern earrhworks thrown up by Akbar's amilorfais 
successors, and dismantled since annexation. The western 
khera or '^ kirath " is the highest and debris are found id the 
fields to a distance of a mile and more. Numerous fragments 
of stone bas-reliefs and pedestals are to be seen all about, but 
no pillars, and as the pedestals have a hole in the centre, it 
seems likely that wooden pillars were used. The surajkund 
or tank is filled up, but huge bricks are from time to' time 
dug out of it. Inside a sirsa tree is shown a stone '^ Devi." 
They tell you that by Aurangzeb's order this image was sawn 
asunder ; that blood rushed out ; and that his army was plagued 
in consequence. 

If any historic basis underlies the traditional history of 
Bawan the antiquity of its remains is greater even than that 
of the relics of the Ajodhia of Dasrath and Ram Chandra. 

09. BKNroANJ, parg^ana SANDfLA, tahsil Sandixa.— 
2.284 inhabitants. A good-sized village, mainly Ahfr, of 545 
mud houses, 21 miles south-east from Hardoi, and sixteen- 
miles north from Sandila on the unmetalled road from Sita- 
pur and N{mkhdr, which here branches off to Sandila and 
Bilgrdm. The old name of Beniganj was Ahmadabad Sar- 
sand. Its earliest owners are said to have been Jogis and 
Arakhs. Some six hundred years ago a body of Janwdrs 
who had settled in the neighbouring villages of G^ju and 
Tikari under the leadership of Dewa Kde, Prag Rde, and Nek, 
Kde, drove out the Arakhs from this and forty-seven other 
vilhiges. Rather more than a hundred years ago, Beni 
Bahddur, Kdyath, Diwdn of the Nawab Wazir Shujd-ud-daula, 
built a row of shops and called the place Beniganj. About 
eighty years ago proprietary possession passed into the bands 



HASDOI SETTLEMENT BEPOBT. 103 

of one Rdm Dds, an Ahir from Akia beyond the Ganges. 
After holding the village for twenty years the Ahirs had to 
strengthen themselves by an alliance with Gobinde Kdyath, 
Chaudhri of Khairabad, and purchased his assistance with 
half their lands. Since then Kdyaths and Ahirs have held 
Beniganj in equal shares. Ten years later it was included 
in the Kakrdii taluqa by Chaudhri Mansab Ali, father of the 
late Chaudhri Hashmat Ali. There is a police station at 
Beniganj, a village school, averaging fifty-two pupils, and a 
weekly market on Saturdays. The open plains round Beni- 
ganj teem with antelope. 

70. Bhagwantnagar, pargana MalljChw/lJ^j tahdl 
BiLGBA^M. — 3,247 inhabitants. A small town of 25 brick and 
62 mud houses, chiefly occupied by Misr Brahmans, one mile 
to the south of MalUnwdn, pargana Malldnwdn, founded a 
hundred and eighty years ago during the reign of Aurangzeb 
by Rdja Bhagwant Rde, Diwdn at the Delhi Court. It has a 
considerable manufacture of plates and drinking- vessels from 
bell-metal (phiil). Market days are Wednesdays and Sun- 
days. 

71. BnABA^wAN, pargana Gundwa, tahsil SANOfLA. — 
3,193 inhabitants, chiefly Brahmans. A large village of 684 
mud houses, fourteen miles north-east from Sandila. Kaja 
Kandhir Singh, Bais, resides at Bhardwan, and his taluqa 
is named from it. There is a village school averaging 53 
pupils. 

72. Bhatpur, pargana Gundwa, tahsU SANDfLA. — 
A Bais village of 357 mud houses, and 2,504 mhabitants. It 
lies on the right bank of the Gumti twenty-miles east-north- 
east of Sandila, six south of Bari, and twenty-one east- 
north-east from Malihabad, with which it is connected by 
an unmetalled road passing through Pipargaon. 

73. Bhaunti, pargana KALTiiLNMALy tahsil Sandixa. — 
A Chandel village of 517 mud houses and 2,105 inhabitants, 
eight miles north-east from Sandila. 

It was included in the Sarwan Bardgdon taluqa of Rdja 
Fateh Chand eighty years ago, when Kde Jai Sukh Rde, 



lot HARDOI SETTLElfEirr BXPOIT. 

Diwun of Saudat All Khan, rose into power, and formed • 
taluqa of 54 vill&gf.-.s. The CIiandeLs hold a permanent lean 
(sub-settlement) of the village. 

74. BilgrXm pare ona — iahsU BiLGBiifif. — An interest- 
ing pargana of 114 villnges in the south-west of the district 
The Ganges Auvrs along its western side, separating it from 
Farukhabad; pargana »Sandi bounds it on the north and north- 
west; Bangar on the north-west ; Malldnwdn on the sooth 
and south-east. With a length and breadth of 14 and 15 miles 
it covers an area of 117 square miles, of which 71 are cul- 
tivated, the percentages of cultivation, culturable waste, and 
barren being 58*37, l»-74, and 19 98. More than a third of the 
soil ('^5 24) is light and sandy, and less than a third (28*59) is 
irrigated from 2,065 wells and 785 tanks and ponds. 

The pargana divides naturally into two distinct tracts, 
kachh and bangar. The kachh (or lowland) comprises about 
a third, and lies to the west of the old bank of the Ganges 
that runs roughly north and south down the west centre of 
the pargana. The gradual westing of the Ganges has left 
a low moist tract between its ancient and present eastern 
banks, well watered by the Garguia naia, by the Ganges 
itself, and on the west by the Garra. In most of the villages 
in this part water is within a very few feet of the surface, so 
that percolation supplies the place of irrigation and keeps 
the surface always green and fresh. Everywhere in the 
kachh country there is much risk of loss of the autumn 
harvests from floods, but when the rivers subside in time to 
admit of timely sowing for the spring crops, these benefit from 
the thorough saturation of the soil, and by its enrichment with 
an alluvial deposit brought down by the Ganges. 

The kaclih is separated from the bdngar by an uneven 
sandy ridg(% the old bank of the Ganges, '' sometimes (as 
described by the assessing officer, Mr. C. W. McMinn; see 
Kaclihaiidau) rising into hills, sometimes mere bhiir slopes. 
The villages on this are sometimes all sandy, but more 
generally will have a corner of very good dumat beside some 
old river channel. The common features of this group of 
villages are a large ])roportion of bhiir; limited and costly 
irrigation from deep wells lined with reeds ; absence of kdchhis 



HARDOl SETTLEMEjrr REPOR'R 105 

ij and valuable crops. Beyond the above elevation the ground 
again sinks into the bdngar, jhils make their appearance, 
there is much matiy dr, rice is largely raised, water is met with 
at a distance of from 10 to 20 feet, much of the land is irri- 

, gated, and all can be at a slight expense.'' 

The pargana is intersected at its centre, the town of 

■ Bilgram, by two unmetalled roads, that from Hardoi leading 

J to Neorap:hdt on the Ganges, a few miles above Kanauj, and 

the road from Bangarmau and Mallanwan to Bilgrdm, Sdndi 

\ Shdhabad, and Sh^jahdnpur, a part of the old Shah-rah or 

\ king's highway. The staple products are barley, bajra, wheat, 

larhar, judr and gram. Tobacco is largely grown about 

Bilgrdm. There are beds of nodular limestone (kankar) at 

Balendha, Behti, Durgaganj, Katkdpur, Lalpur, and Shekhna- 

pur. The climate is good, except when the floods are falling, 

when the lowlands are infested with a bad type of malarious 

fever. 

More than half the pargana is held by Sayyads, who 

own 64 villages ; Shekhs and Pa- 

KiTkwirs 5 iSiTbVJ' ::: \ t^^^ns each hold one only ; Chhat- 
Katehrits 5 Chaubea .'.*' i tris own 27, Brahmaus 9, others 
Wdihiu 4 Mur^s^ ... j jQ^ Government 2, as noted mar- 

— finally. 

Total ... 9 * •^ 

Kdyatht ^ *« 58^ of the villages are taliiqdari, 
AWra ... I 341 zamindari, 21 pattidari. 

Bliita ... I ^ » r 

° * •• _ The Government demand, exclud- 
GoYeroiuent... J Jog ccsses, is Rs. 74,689, a rise of 

34 per cent, on the summary assess- 
ment. It falls at Re. 1-11-3 per cultivated acre; Re. 0-15-11 
per acre of total area; Rs. 14-12-9 per plough ; Re. 1-15-8 
per head of agricultural and Re. 1-5-3 per head of total po-» 
puIatioQ. There are 481 inhabitants tc the square mile, a total 
of 56,244. Of these^ Hindus to Muhammadans are 49,163 to 
7,081; males to females 29,900 to 26,344, and agriculturists 
to non-agriculturists 37,716 to 18,528. A seventh of tba 
total population are Chamars; Ahfrs are a ninth; Brahmans 
are rather less than a tenth; Muraos are numerous (4,159j; 
Chbattris only 3^173; Savyads, Shekhs and Pathans from 
1,090 to 1,600 each* 

14 H 



Kaffbubaniis 2 
-ObiindeU 1 

Total J7 



106 



HARltOI SBTTLKMBNT REPORT. 



The only market is held at Kifayatganj, near BilgriA 
on Tuesdays and Fridays. 

At Bilgrdm khas there is an Anglo-vcrnncular tiU 
scliool (pupils 154). Village schools have been established H 
Durgaganj (40), Sadrpur (30), Jarauli (38), and Behta (Ml 
At Jarauli there is also a female school (20). 

On the last day of Kartik from 40,000 to 50,000 Hinte 
bathe in the Ganges at Neoraghdt, and again on the ICHhii 
the light half of Jeth. A very successful nitSla has bed 
established during the last nine years at Btlgi*dm itself on tk 
occasion of the Ramlila festival; some 60,000 people attendii 

The pargana was formed in the time of Akbar, and ii 
mentioned in the Ain-i-Akbari as covering 192,800 bij 
and paying a revenue of 51,24,113 dams, and 3,56,690 
of cesses; as being held by Sayyads, and garrisoned bj 1,00>| 
foot soldiers and 20 troopers, lodged in a masonry forLlI 
then belonged to Sark^r Lucknow, and included f»hat is ii0^| 
pargana Bangar. In 1215 F. (1807 A.D.) the contuinacj 
the Bangar zamindars made it necessary to make Bangar iiili| 
a separate pargana. It and Bilgrdm were then transferic'l 
from the Lucknow to the Khairabad Sarkar. 

The history of the pargana, prior to the thirteenth eentanJ 

is obscure. The earliest event knowtl 
*' ^^^' to local tradition is that Bala RinAl 

brother of Krishna, at the intercession of the holy Kishis d\ 
Nimsar on the Gumti, slew a demon (dano) named Bil orl 
Bilh, who dwelt in a lone spot where now stands the town of] 
Bilgrdm, and used to persecute the worshippers at 



The legend is told in the Bhopat Krit (stanzas 78 and 79^ 
canto X.),and its translation, the Prem Sagar. In it the danav* 
or demon is called not Bil, but Hal born of Bilal. Bala R^mi, 
brother of Krishna, accompanied by Brahmans^ was making i 
tour of the hoi}* places of the land. And he came to Kimdir 
and found many Kishis engaged in hearing the sacred 
Bhagwat read ; and one of them, by name ofta, did not, 
like the rest, rise and do obeisance to the hero, where 
fore Bala Bdma took a blade of kusa grass and smote 
off his head. But the Brahmans condemned the deed, and 



KABDOI SETTLEMENT REFORT. 107 

Bala Rama repented him of it and offered to go on pilgrimage 

anywhere and do anything that they might appoint to purge 

away his guilt. So they required of him two things : that he 

^hould instal the son of Sita in his father's place, and rid them 

i|Of a terrible ddno, Udl son of Bilal, who was wont to vex the 

' Brahmans of Nimsdr by raining blood and filth whenever 

they sacrificed. And Bala Rdma consented ; and while he 

was yet at Nimsdr a mighty tempest arose, and the winds 

f blew from the four quarters of heaven, and the sky became 

. black as night, and a gruesome rain of blood and flesh began 

^ to fall, and tiie Risl^is knew that the ddno was at hand. 

jSoon he came in view, a horrible body with large teeth, 

I awarthy skin, red eyes, and grizzled hair. Then Bala R&ma 

took up his ploughshare and pestle and rushed upon the 

demon and felled him to the ground and slew him. Then the 

Rishis were glad and worshipped Bala Rdma as a god,^ and 

I put jewels upon him, and invoked blessings on his head. A 

I low mound to the east of the high ground on which stands 

I the ruined fort of Bilgrdm is still shown as the spot where 

, the legendary demon abode. It is marked by a small temple 

built some twenty -five years ago on the ruins of an older 

shrine, said by the ancients of the quarter to have stood there 

since the days of Bil himself. 

The precise historical significance of the legend is open to 
question. Apparently it belongs to the heroic age, when the 
tide of Aryaa conquest was pouring down the valleys of the 
Ganges and Jumna, and every conflict with the aborigines 
dfiified the Chhattri conqueror in the imagination of a degen- 
erate posterity, and conversely bedevilled his aboriginal 
opponents. The ddno of this and other legends probably 
represents a black-skinned pre- Aryan tribe, akin to the Dasyas 
of the* Vedas and the Asuras of the Mahabhdrata that for a 
time harassed successfully an early Aryan settlement on the 
Gumti and forced it to seek protection from a prominent 
Chhattri hero of the time. 

^^ We may conceive," saysMuir (Sanskrit Texts, II., pagd 
392), '^ the Aryans advancing from the Indus in a south-easterly 
direction into a country probably covered with forest and 
occupied by sav^e tribes, who lived in rude huts, perhaps 
defended by entrenchments, and subsisted on the spontaneous 
mp^vLCts :of the woods^ or on the produce of the chase, and pi 



lOS IIARDOI SBTTLXMENT BEPOKT; 

fisbing, or hy some attempts ata^^riculture. These hai 
^vereof dark complexion, perhaps also of uncouth appi 
spoke a language tiindamentally distinct from that of 
Ary;ms : (liflfcrcd entirely from them in their rel 
worslii]), wliieh, no doubt, would partake of the most degnlii| 
f'eticbism and (we can easily su])pose) regarded with iiita*| 
hostility the more civilised invaders who were gradi 
driving them from their ancient fastnesses. The Aipftl 
U)eanwhilc, as they advanced and gradually established ttol 
selves in the forests, fields, and villages of the aborigitfil 
would not be able all at once to secure their poRitioB,tal 
would be exposed to constant reprisals on the part of tksl 
enemies, who would avail themselves of every opportmutT^I 
assail them, to carry off their cattle, disturb tbeir rites, 'li' 
impede their progress. The black complexion, fetwsm 
aspect, V)arl>arou8 habits, rude speech, savage yells of tb 
Dasyas, and the sudden and furtive attacks which, sb^ 
cover of the impenetrable woods and the obscurity of ni^ 
they would make on the encampments of the AryanSy a^l 
naturally lead the latter to speak of them, in the h^ 
figurative language of an imaginative people in the firstsbf I 
of civilisation, as ghosts and demons, or even to conceive^ 
their hidden assailants as possessed of magical and superl 

human powers, or as headed by devils This state (i!| 

things might last for some time. The Aryans, after advaoc- 
ing sonie way, might halt to occupy, clear, and cultivate tkl 
territory they had acquired, and the a1)origines might coi- 
tinuo in ])ossession of the adjacent tracts, sometimes atpestt 
and sometimes at war with their invaders. At length the' 
further advance of the Aryans would either drive the Dasjat 
into the remotest corners of the country, or lead to thrir 
partial incorporation with the conquerots us the lowest stage 
of their communitv." 

Tn the age of Brahmanical depression and fiuddhist 
ascendancy this tract, like the rest of the district, seems to 
have been held by the Thatheras, till, at the period of 
Brahmanical revival, in probably the ninth or tontn century 
A.D., a band of Raikwars under Kaja Sri Ram crossed ov^ 
from Kanauj, and, in the usual fashion, expelled them. The 
Ganges then seems to have flowed close under the lofty tiluk 
on and round which Bilgrdm is built, aud to have made the. 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 109 

site dn admirable one for purposes of defence and trade alike. 
So the Raikwdr chieftain founded a town on it, and called 
it after his own name, Srinagar, and the Raikwdrs held it till 
the Muhammadan conquest To this day they own five of 
the villages of the pargana. 

Srinagar could not have ^own into a town of much 
importance by the time of Sultdn Mahmud's Kanauj campaign 
(1018 A.D.); otherwise, from its vicinity to Kanauj, it would 
have been noticed by the contemporary historians, and by 
the author of the Mira-at-i*Masaudi in his mention of. the 
places to which Sayyad Salar despatched detachments from 
Satrikh in his Oudh campaign (1032 A. D.) 

The Shekhs of Bilgr&m boast that they came with 
Mahmud and expelled the Raikw&rs in 405 H. (1014 A.D.) 
and re-named Srin»gar Bilgr&m. They recall the date of 
their incursion in these memorial lines : — 

IMusalman rasida ba Hindnstftn 
Zi qaum&n hami bad Siddiqian 
Jinud o jalos bud ansarian 
Tnrkwto t> aghwfin Btisfirian 
Zi ch&r o sad o khains Hijri tam&m 
Srinagarra nam shdd Bilgr&m. 

But I can find no trustworthy basis for this pretension. 
The real conquest of Bilgrdm did not take place till 1217 
A. D. It is not at all impossible that Srinagar may have 
been visited and despoiled, as wa9 Kanauj itself, by Mahmiid's 
»rmy, or that some Shekhs may have remained behind there, 
more probably from Sayyad Salar's than from Mahmud's 
expedition, as was the case at Gopamau and Mallanwan; but 
there could have been no political displacement at this date 
of Raikwars by Muhammadans. 

The oldcist Shekh tomb to which the Shekhs can point is 
that of a half mythical personage, Kbwdje Madd-ud-din, a 
holy man and disciple of Ehwaje Abu Muhammad Chishti 
ifmentioned in the Mira-at-i-Masaudi, quoted at page 525, 
Elliot's History of India, Volume II). Ehwdje Madd-ud- 
din, say the Shekhs, slew the demon Bil by enchantments, 
and converted numbers of people to the faith of IsUm. 



110 IIARDOI SETTLKHBMT BCPORT. 

In death the demon, says their tradition, entreated tfal 
the town miglit be called by liis name, Biljrr^oi^ or the abok 
of Bil. This saint used daily to walk across tbe Grangem 
worship at Kanaiij, ten miles off I Another Shekhaeeoal 
attributes the defeat of the Kaikw&rs to Q^i Yiisaf vh 
served, they say, under Sultan Mahmiid. The only noti» 
able point in this tnle is that, accordmg to it, the broths ef' 
Kdja Sri, in order to save the Raikwdr's domain, became i 
Muhamniadan and was named Mukbtdr-i-din, and his son lU- 
dri-din. A muniment (sijil) by this Qdzi Yiisuf, dated 438 & 
(A.D. 1146) is said, in the Sharaf Usmdni, to be in the pot* 
session of the descendants of the L&\ Fir of Gopamau. 

The extent to which that half of the pargana, fdiieh hs 
not been absorbed by the Sayyads into their taldqas, has beet 
parcelled out between different clans of Chhattris, and te- 
tween Brahmans, Kaydths and others, suggests the infeientt 
that the Kaikwdr colony at Srinagar had either been unable ti 
clear and occupy, or was too weak to retain, a larg^ porticii 
of the pargana up to the time of the Muhammadan conqueiL 
The can paign of Shahdb-ud-din Ghori in 1193 A.D. and tk 
fall of Kanauj must have shattered the power of the petty rijtf 
on the Hardoi bank of the Ganges, so that when, a genen^ 
tion later, in 1217 A.D., Shams-ud-din Altamsh poured it 
liis troops to complete the subjugation of the country, only 
a feeble resistance can have been made. Two MuhammadM 
captains seem to have reduced Srinagar and the country 
round ir, Shekh Muhammad Faqdi of Irdq and Sayjad Mo* 
liammad Soglira, ancestor of the taliiqdars of Bilgr&m. Of 
the former the author of '' Notes on the races and tribes of 
Oudh " writes ( page 66 ) : "A little later, in the time of 
Shams-ud-din Altamsh, 614 H. (1217 A.D.) Shekh Muham- 
mad Faqih of Irdq, with a force, took possession of Bilgr&n. 
When he and his followers had made themselves secure, they 
brought their wives and relatives from their native land^ so 
say their descendants now. These Shekhs acquired no estate, 
but in later times the legal posts of the pargana became here- 
ditary in their family." 

From the Jinudia and Shajra-6-Taiba, family histories of 
the Bilgrdm Sayyads, we learn many facts which, with the 
history of the pargana from 1217 A. D. to 1540 A. D., 
have been extracted from the pargana article to incorpor* 



HABDOI SBTTLSMBNT RBPOBT. Ill 

ate in the district chapter. The Sayyad leader above men- 
tioned was of the same family as the conquerors of Sdndi 
and Unao. We may pass to the great battle fought here 
between the rival claimants for the Delhi throne in 1540 
A.D. Humdyiin's army is stated at 90,000, Sher Khan's at 
50,000. Neither army was eager to attack. At length Mu- 
hammad Sultdn, the pardoned rebel of Eanauj and Bilgrdm, 
again deserted his master. His example was largely folio wedi 
Hum&ydn was forced to throw a bridge of boats over the Gan- 
ges and crossed. Ji, general action ensued, and Humdyiin's ar- 
my was driven into tne river ; the emperor fled to Agra, Delhi, 
Lahore and Sindh, and Sher Shah mounted the throne of 
Delhi. In his short but brilliant reign of five years ( 1 540- 
1545 ) he reformed the administration of the country to an 
extraordinary extent. ^^ He is said to have divided all Hin- 
dustan " (not including Bengal) ^^ into forty-seven districts, 
and to have appointed proper officers for the government 
and protection of each. To restore and to open the com- 
munication between the different parts of his dominions, and 
in order to fiicilitate the safe and easy transmission of intel- 
ligence, he built a line of sarais or hostelries at short dis- 
tances on the whole road from the further extremity of Ben- 
gal to the Indus through the entire length of his empire. 
These sarais were open to strangers of every rank and re* 
ligion, and were entrusted to servants who, at the public ex- 
pense, furnished travellers with water and victuals as they 
arrived. Every sarai had a post-house, and this system of 
post-houses was extended over the principal roads in his domi- 
nions. On each side of the grand roads were planted rows of 
mango and other fruit trees, affording both shelter and re* 
freshment to the tired and thirsty passenger ; and wells, sup- 
ported by solid masonry, were dug at short distances. At 
all the chief halting-places he built mosques, and provided 
for them an adequate establishment of imdms, muazzans, and 
other servants. He appears also to have made provision for 
the indigent sick. The police which he established was 
strict and vigilant. So safe were the highways that the most 
helpless person might carry a basin of gold, and sleep in the 
open country without need of a watchman." (Erskine II., 442 )« 
^'He established a law that the muqaddams of the villages where 
any traveller was robbed should be subject to fine, and for 
fear of its infliction the zamindars used to patrol the roads at 



112 HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT^ 

■night." (Note, page 438, Co well's Elphinstone). Theim 
nue reforms of Akbar and Todar Mai are believed to kt 
1)een modelled on these of Sher Khan, who ^' was intiniiteir 
acquainted with the revenue and agricultural system of M 
— a knowledge without which no ruler of that countrj, wh* 
ever his abilities may be, can hope to do justice to his nH 
jects," (Erskine II., page 442.) 



Sah'm Shah (1545-1553) displayed the same 

tive ability as his father. "The qdniingos, who keep theiefbl 
nue accounts of parginas, he employed to watch over til| 
report on the condition of the ryots and the state of the d- 
tivation of the soil, on the crops, and the extent of otfeDCtfl 
and crime. He preserved all lands granted for reliirioiu m 
charitable purposes inviolate. He kept up h^'s father's saitf 
in their whole extent, and the distribution of food to traid- 
lers, and for that purpose carefully protected all the huii 
that had been given to them. In addition, he ordered a sini 
to be built, between each two of his father's, adding^ a moaqoe;! 
a reader, a well, and a water-carrier to each. He also iravetliei 
post-houses 80 many additional horses as to enable them til 
convey intelligence with increased speed from place to plaee. 
He appropriated to himself the whole revenues of his kinr 
dom, instead of scattering them by assignations, and paidiiii 
soldiers wholly in money, (pp. 472, 474.) " Circular ordeit 
were issued through the proper channels to every district 
touching on matters religious, political, or revenue, in ill 
their most minute bearings, and containing rules and reirub- 
tions which concerned not only the army, but cultivators* 
merchants, and persons of other professions, and which served 
as a guide to the officials of the State ; a measure which 
obviated the necessity of referring to a kdzi or muffci anv 
case relating to matters which hitherto had been settleiil 
according to the principles and precepts of Muhammadan 
law." (Abdul Kadir, quoted at note page 459, Coweirs 
Elphinstone.) 

** Early in his reign he stationed large bodies of troop» 
consisting generally of five thousand horse each in different 
parts of his dominions! He seems to have kept up some- 
thing like a standing army, which his plan of bringing all- 
revenue directly into the public treasury must have assisted 



&ABDOI SKTTLEMBNr BSFOBT. 113 

bim in doing. He was anxious to keep the dread of bis 
power unceasingly before his great officers, and justice in 
civil cases was administered not by the mufti or k&zi, but by 
a munsif or amin." ( Erskine IL, p. 474). 

Under Muhamnmd Shah Adili ^^ rebellion roused herself 
from her deep slumber, and the line of firm and well-com- 
pacted policy of Shei Shah and of the steady and stem 
command of Salim Shah was snapped, so that everywhere 
things fell into disorder. ♦ ♦ ♦ The governors of pro- 
vinces were powerful and possessed armies entirely under 
their control." {Ibid IL, 492.) The dominions of Sher Shah 
fell into five divisions, the Sultdn retaining only Jaunpur 
and the greater part of the country east of the Ganges. 

Humdydn died too soon after his restoration to have done 
nmch for the restoration of settled government at a distance 
from Delhi. One of the best things he did at this period was 
to ^^ enjoin his nobles to enter into matrimonial alliances 
with the zamindars of the country," and to set the example. 

At the accession of Abkar (A.D. 1556) Jaunpur up ta 
the Ganges at Eanauj was again and for the last time inde- 
pendent. In four years he had restored the imperial authority 
and had driven the Afghans out of Lucknow and the country 
on the Ganges as far east as Jaunpur. (Coweli's Elphinstone, 
p. 500.) This was the work of his great general Khan 
Zamani Shaibani, who '^ cleared the whole north of India up 
to Lucknow of the Afghans, and acquired an immense fortune 
by plunder." (Fasc. IV., Vol. L, p. 319, Blochmann's 
Am Akbari.) 

In the seventh year of his reign Akbar abolished the 
odious jazia or poll-tax on infidels, tne rigorous enforcement 
of which by the Lodi monarchs ^^ was perhaps no inconsider- 
able cause of the facility with which the empire was wrested 
from their hands by the Moguls." (Elliot's Supplementary 
Glossary, 11., p. 192.) |n the 11th year his Diwan MuzaiSar 
Khan revised the land revenue demand of the empire. The 
existing assessment was called Jam'-i-Baqmi, '^ but the rent-* 
roll showed an assessment very difierent from the actual 
state of things, for, on account of the number of jaghir-hold<- 

15 H 



114 IIARDOl SETTLEMENT REPORT. 

ors, and the unsoltU^rl state of the couDtry, the revenue was 
increased in name for the sake of mere show. This Jam'-i- 
Kaqmi was now abolished and MuzafFar prepared a rent-roU 
according to his experience and the returns of kaniingos. 
The new rent-roll was called Jani'-i hdsil-i-hdl, or the roUof 
the present actual income.'' ( Blochmann's Ain Akbari, p. 349.) 

In the 27th year of Akbir's reign (1582) Lis Diwan^Raja 
Todar Mai, the great financier of the age, introduced ius 
celebrated revenue system. *' It only carried the previou* 
system into effect with greater precision and correctness ; it 
>vas in fact only a continuation of a plan commenced by Sber 
Shah, whose short reign did not admit of his extending it 
to all parts of his kingdom," (C'>weirs Elphinstone, p. 541, 
and based by him upon " tlie old rent-roll of that unacknow- 
ledged originator of all later Indian revenue systems, Sikandar 
bin-Buhlol (Lodi;." (Thomas' Pathan Kings, p. 437.) 

Its principal features were the accurate measurement of 
<iU cultivated and culturable lands according to a unifoni 
standard ; the classification of all lands accordinji; to their 
fertility ; the ascertainment of the average produce ; the 
fixation of the Government share at one-third the gross pro- 
duce ; and the commutation of that sliare into a money pay- 
ment. ^^ Land which never required a fallow (polich) paid the 
full demand every harvest Land which required fatlom 
(parnuti) onlfi paid when tinder cultivation. Land which haJ 
suffered from inundation or which had been three years out 
of cultivation (chichar), and recjuired some expense to reGlain 
it, paid ooly two-fifths for the first year, but went on increas* 
ing till the fifth year, when it paid the fiill demand. Land 
which had been more than five years out of cultivatioa 
(banjar) enjoyed still more favourable terms for the first-fonr 
years/' • ♦ ♦ For the puq^ose of commutation ^^statraMib 
of prices current for the nineteen years preceding the survey 
were called for from every town and village, and the prodnee 
was turned into money according to the average of the ratei 
shown in those statements. The commutation was occasion- 
ally reconsidered with reference to the actual market prioeik 
and every Imshandmau was allowed to pay in kind if 1« 
thought the money rate was fixed too high. AH these settle- 
ments were made at first annually, but their contiual Tecu^ 
rence being found to be vexatious, the settlement was aft^- 



HARDOI SnTLlVCNT RKPORT. 115 

wards made for tea years on an average of the payments of the 

* preceding ten. The above measurements and classifications 

* were all carefully recorded ; the distribution of land, and 
^ increase or diminution of revenue were all yearly entered 
^* into the village registers* The result of these measures was 
'* to reduce the amount of the public demand considerably, but 
^ to diminish the defalcation in realizing it. Abul Fazl even 
V asserts that the assessment was higher than that of Sher 
^ Shah, although he professed to take only one-fourth of the 

produce, while Akbar took one-third«" (Cowell's Elphin^ 
stone, pp. 542-3). 

There was no farming of any branch of the revenue* 
An Amil or Collector was appointed for every ten million 
dams or two and a half lakhs of rupees. (£25,000). 

" He received eight per cent, on the amount of his col- 
lections besides perquisites ; he was directed to see that lands 
were not suffered to fall out of cultivation ; to scrutinize the 
rent-free grants; to report upon the condition of the jagfrdars 
and of the subjects generally in the neighbourhood; to for- 
ward an account of all remarkable occurrences ; and to per- 
form the duties of kotwal if none were appointed in his 
jurisdiction, and whenever, on account of drought or other 
calamity, he thought advisable to depute any one for local 
enquiries, he could avail himself of the services of the Amin 
of the Subah." 

The Directions to Revenue Officers of that time enjoined 
the Collector to ''consider himself Ma immediate/riend of the 
husbandman ; to be diligent in business, and a strict observer 
of truth, being the representative of the Chief Magistrate. 
He must transact his business in a place to which every one 
may find easy access without requiring any go-between, ilis 
conduct must be such as to give no cause for complaint. 
He must assist the needy husbandman with loans of money 
and receive payment at distant and convenient periods. When 
any village is cultivated to the highest degree of perfection 
by the skilful management of the head thereof, there 
shall be bestowed upon him half a biswah out of every higha 
(- ) of land J or some other reward proportionate to his merit. 
Let him learn the character of every husbandman, and be the 
immediate prote<M;or of that class of subjects. Let him pro- 



lie HABDOI SnTLCMBHT BBPCTET. 

mote the cultivation of such articles as will prodace ffaetA 
profit and utility, with a view to which he may allow son 
remission from the general rate of coUection. In emnf » 
glance he must endeavour to act to the Matisfadian rf ik 
husbandman''. (Gladwin's Afn Akbari quoted in Calcutti 
Eev., Vol. 44, page 378.) 

Under Jehangir and Sbdhjah^n (1605-1658) I find lit- 
tie or nothing to note that in any way throws liglit on Kt 
gr^ history either in the way of special incident or by in* 
ference. Jehangir was incapable of devoting that minite 
attention to administrative details which was the secret of 
Akbar's extraordinary success, and diminished prosperity 
was the result 

^' Shdhjahdn, to the benefit of India, returned is 
Akbar's mode of reigning by mastering details ; hence 
the prosperity of the country advanced, in fact it reach- 
ed a point to which it never before nor ever afterwards at- 
tained under a Mogul Emperor." (Calcutta Review, 6 Octo- 
ber, 1869, No. 138.) '' Khafi Khan, the best historian of those 
times, gives his opinion that although Akbar was preeminent 
as a conqueror and law-giver, yet for the order and arrange- 
ment of his territory and finances, and the good admisistia- 
tion of every department in the State, no pnnce ever reigned 
in India that could be compared to Shdhjahdn." (Cowell's 
Elphiustooe, p. 600.) ^' The collection of the revenue, which 
afiects so deeply the condition of the people, and had in the 
time of Akbar been very much improved, was advanced to 
greater perfection under the diligent administration of Shdh- 
jahdn." (Mill, II., p. 266.) 

In 1639 A.D. his minister, Islam Khan, modified the 
revenue system of Akbar by deputing '' a separate amin to 
every pargana for the purpose of fixing the jama, and the 
Karori" (called Amil in Akbar's time) '^ was left in charge of 
the collections, to which the duties of fanjdar were added, with 
an allowance of ten per cent, on the collections." Later in 
his reign Shdhjahdu's vizier, SaiaduUa Khan, ^^ the most able 
and upright minister that ever appeared in India," (Elphin- 
8tonc)^^combined the duties of amin and faujdar in one person 
and appointed him Superintendent of a chakla (or circle) of 
several parganas, and placing the Karori entirely under his 



HABDOI SBTTLfilCEKT REPORT. 117 

^orders established five per cent, on the collections as the 

r lamount of the E^arori's idlowance, and of this one per cent. 

twas subsequently deducted. The business of assessment 

b and settlement was left entirely to the amin, with that the 

i] Karori had no concern, but it was his business to encourage 

agriculture, to make advances, station watchmen over the 

ripening crops, and report when any indulgence and leniency 

^ appeared expedient. This system lasted during the time of 

h Aurangzeb, and till the dissolution of the Empire." 

if* 

I Bemier enables us to form some idea of the condition of 

^ the country under Aurangzeb (1658-1707 A. D.) He says, 

• in his letter to the celebrated Colbert : — 

" The persons put in possession of the land, whether 
as timariots (jaghirdars), governors, or farmers, have an 
authority almost absolute over the peasantry, and nearly 
as much over the artisans and merchants of the towns and 
villages within their districts, and nothing can be imagined 
more cruel and oppressive than the manner in which it is 
exercised. There is no one before whom the injured peasant, 
artisan, or tradesman, can pour out his just complaints; no 
great lords, parliaments or judges of presidial courts exist as 
in France to restrain the wickedness of these merciless 
oppressors, and the cadis or judges are not invested with 
sufficient power to redress the wrongs of these unhappy 
people." (Bernier^s Travels I., p. 250, Calcutta). 

"In India the gold and silver disappear in conse- 
quence of the tyranny of timariots, governors, and farmers; 
a tyranny which even the monarch, if so disposed, has no 
means of controlling in provinces not contiguous to his 
capital ; a tyranny often so excessive as to deprive the 
peasant or artisan of the necessaries of life and leave theni 
to die of misery and exhaustion ; a tyranny owing to which 
these wretched people either have no children at all or 
have them only to endure the agonies of starvation and to 
die at a tender age ; a tyranny, in fine, that drives the cul- 
tivator of the soil from his wretched home to some neigh- 
bouring State, in hopes of finding milder treatment, or t6 
the army, where he becomes the servant of a commdn 
horseman. As the ground is seldom tilled otherwise than on 
compulsion, and as no person is found willing and able to repair 



118 HARDOI HETTLKMENT REPORT 

the ditches and canals for the conveyance of water, it ^* 
pens that the whole country is badly cultivated, and a grai 
part rendered unproductive from the want of irrigation. 

" The houses, too, are left in a dilapidated condition, then 
being few people who will either build new ones, or repair 
those which are tuinblincr down. The peasant cannot avoid 
asking himself this question : Why should I toil for a tyrait 
who may come to-morrow and lay his rapacious hands upon 
all I possess and value, without leaving me, if such should be 
his humour, tlie means to drag on my miserable existence ? 
The timariots, governors, and farmers, on their part, reason 
in this manner : — Why should the neglected state of the 
land create uneasiness in our minds, and why should we 
expend oar own money and time to render it fruitful ? Wa 
may be deprived of it in a single moment, and our exertions 
would benefit neither ourselves nor our children. Let m 
draw from the soil all the money wc can, though the peasant 
should starve or abscond, and wp should leave it, when com- 
manded to quit, a dreary wilderness. It is owing to this 
miserable system of government that most towns in Hin- 
dustan are made up of earth, mud, and other wretched mate- 
rials ; that there is no city or town which, if it be not already 
ruined and deserted, does not bear evident marks of approach- 
ing decay." {Ibid, p. 252, 253). 

" The country is ruined by the necessity of defraying; 
the enormous charges required to maintain the splendour of 
a numerous court, and to pay a large army maintained for 
the purpose of keeping the people in subjection. No ade* 
quate idea can be conveyed of the sufferings of that people. 
The cane and the whip compel them to incessant labour for 
the benefit of others ; and driven to despair by every kind of 
cruel treatment, their revolt or their flight is only prevented 
by the presence of a military force. 

" The misery of this ill-fated country is increased by 
the practice which prevails too much at all times, but 
especially on the breaking out of an important war, of selling 
the different governments for immense sums in hard cash! 
Hence it naturally l>ecomes the principal object of the indi- 
vidual thus appointed Governor to obtain repayment of the 
purchase-money which he borrowed as he could at a ruinous 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT BEPOBT. lli> 

I »ftte of interest. Indeed, whether the government of a pro- 
5j 'Wnce have or have not been bought, the Governor as well as 

. tbe timariot and the farmer of the revenue must find means 
"*• of making valuable presents every year to a vizier,. an eunuch, 
^ a lady of the seraglio, and to any other person whose influence 
? at court he considers indispensable. The Governor must 
^* also enforce the payment of the regular tribute to the king ; 
'^ and altnough he was originally a wretched slave, involved in 
^- debt, and without the smallest patrimony, he yet becomes a 

'^ great and opulent lord. 

» 

^^Thus do ruin and desolation overspread the land. The 
provincial governors, as before observed, are so many petty 
tyrants, possessing a boundless authority ; and as there is no 
one to whom tbe oppressed subject may appeal, he cannot 
hope for redress, let his injuries be ever so grievous or ever 
so frequently repeated. -It is true that the Great Mogul sends 
vakia-navises to the various provinces, that is, persons whose 
business it is to communicate every event that takes place ; 
but there is generally a disgraceful collusion between these 
officers and the Governor, so that their presence seldom 
restrains the tyranny exercised over the unhappy people." 
{Ibid, pp. 257, 258). 

*^ The rich will have every article at a cheap rate. When an 
umrah or mansabdar requires the services of an artizan, he 
sends to the bazar for him, employing force, if necessary, lo 
make the poor man work ; and after the task is finished, the 
unfeeling lord pays not according to the value of the labor, 
but agreeably to his own standard of remuneration .; the 
artizan having reason to congratulate himself if the korah 
(whip) has not been given in part payment." (Ibidj page 288)« 

There is little to notice in the special history of the 
pargana at this period. The Sayyads still maintained their 
ascendancy from 1677 A. D. (1088H.) We learn from the 
Sayyad chronicles that Sayyad Muhammad Faziltook a liundred 
foot soldiers and fifty troopers into pargana Bdwan and 
reduced it to order, and was rewarded by the emperor with 
the zamindari of the pargana and a third of its revenues ia 
jaghir. The ascendancy of the Sayyads has been maintained 
to the present time, for they still own more than half the 
pargana. 



120 IIARDOI SETTLBIISHT REPORT. 

75. UlLGRJiii— Pargana BilqhXh — TahsU BilgiA 
— BilgrAm, with its population of 11,584, ranks twelfth iMf 
the towns of Oudh. It lies near the old left bank ofik 
Ganges, 15 miles nearly south from Hardoi, 10 north-Mi 
from Kanauj, 8 south-east from Sdndi, and 33 (vid Sini) 
south-east from Fatehgarh. It is the chief town of theBil- 
grdni sub-division of the Hardoi district. There are S4H 
houses, of which 630 arc of brick. Of the population, &9& 
are Hindus and 4,601 Muhammadans. 

The " tila," round which lies the older portion of tk 
town, seems to havo been originally a high bluff on tbeedn 
of the eastern bank of the Ganges. Its natural heurht k 
been increased by successive strata of debris of the hahiti- 
tions of probably Bhils (an aboriginal tribe), Thatheras, Baik- 
wdrs, Shekhs and Sayyads. 

In no town that I have yet seen are blocks of hen 
kankar, relics of temples and palaces of the past, so freqaent 
There is reason to believe that they are the remains of tlie 
old town of Srinaffar (see Bilgram pargana), its fort, tempk^ 
and tank called Sugar. 

Six years ago, on the traditional site of Rdja SrFs tuk, 
Sdgar, in the Haidarabad muhalla, a flight of hewn kankir 
steps was found under a deposit of mud and rubbish. Then 
blocks were speedily used up for building purposes. Eveir- 
where such blocks are to be traced in the fouodations and 
lower courses of mosques and houses, in wells, and at door 
steps; many of them are grooved, showing that thej have 
been taken from some older building. This tank, S^ar, gifei 
its name to a portion of the town lying at the foot of tha 
high mound, or '* tila," on which stood Rdja Sri's fort, and 
between it and muhalla Maiddnpura. This quarter (Maiddn- 
piira) seems to have been founded on a flat piece of li w fd 
(maiddn) left by the recession of the Ganges. 

The town abounds with fragments of carved stone bas- 
reliefs, pillars, and capitals of old Hindu temples. The best 
of these are to be found at the shrine of Gddar N^tfa in 
Lamkania Tola, the Brahman's quarter lying to the north of 
the fort, round a mound (khera) attributed to the Thatheras^ 
and on which traces of their smelting-houses are still to be 



^ BARDOI StTTLEMEKT RBPO&T. l3l 

^ph. Along the ridge that separates the Haidarabad and 
i^iddnpiira muhallas fragments of boats are found from time 
j^ time in sinking wells. A little saltpetre is manufactm*ed 
^; Q^ipura. There is no indigo manufactory. 

^ ' The main buildings are the Government tahsil and thana } 

' . ^^ ^ the school, built on the remains of Rdja 

ft ncipa u ngs. g^ R^rn's fort ; a sarai in Bari Bazar, 

i^ilt sixty-seven years ago by Hakim Mehndi Ali Khan, the 

ilebrated farmer (ijdradar) of the Muhamdi and Khairabad 

^tricts from 1804 to 1819 (the water of the sarai well is bad 

^d brackish) ; an imdmbdra and two mosques, built by the 

iitne officer, and eight other imdmb^ras and mosques built 

itbin the last 90 years. 

i There are some old masonry wells ; two^ the *'Sahjan '* 
id the " Tarli," of Akbar*s time ; and three built two hun- 
fed j^ears ago. There are two bazars, the Bari and Chhoti ; 
•)th were built by Hakim Mehndi Ali Khan, ndzim in the 
Mgn of Ghdzi-ud-din Haidar. He, too, built Kifdyatganj, 
\>W an extensive grain mart, a mile and a half to the south 
t Bilgrdtn. Market days at Kifdyatganj are Tuesdays and 
^idays. Wheat and barley are despatched from it in large 
ttantities to Kanauj, Farukhabad and Cawnpore. The most 
toteworthy things made and sold at Bilgrdm are the brass 
An-boxes (gilauriddns), made by Hulds and Manrdkhan^ 
lohdrs, '^ laddu" sweetmeats, and the shoes made by Mendu. 

The Ardish-i-Mahfil gives the following description of 
flndm, partly borrowed from the Afni-Akbari, and trans** 
i,tod as follows in Mr. J. C. Williams' Census Report, App. 
I* p. vii t— 

"Bilgrdm is a large town, the inhabitants of which are- 
LeTer and poetical and men of genius. In this town there is 

•well, and if any one drinks its water for forty days conti-^ 
uously, he will be able to sing excellently. Besides this, 
>o, the people are mostly very proficient in learning. Sayyad 
aUl-ul-Kadar Abd-ul-Jalil Bilgrdmf was a great poet, and 

great proficient in the Arabic and Persian languages. He 
ourished in the time of Farrukh Sir, atid he received the 
ppointment from the imperial court of reporter of bccurren-. 
es in Sindb. After this great man came Mir Ghuldm Ali 
iz&di who was unequalled among his contemporaries for his' 

16 H 



122 HA2D0I SITTLnSHT RSFOBT. 

poetical composidon, hu eloquence, knowledge, and nil|^|^*c 
even his Arabic poems are writea with the utmost 
and in beautful diction, and are f erj voluDinoiu. ^^ 
inhabitant of Hindiist^ ever composed soch poeH M^|l* 
him. His book of odes is a proof of this, sad the dof^^l Te 
men of Arabia blosh with shame as they recite his pnia^ J. 
He was bom in the vear 1 114 H. and d^ in the 
H." 

Mr. Williams has noted opon this (Note L) : " The h»| 
ing of the men of fiilgram has been notorious for ages. 
eral works on history and philosophy, as well as poens^ Uj 
been produced here. In Volume XXIII. of the Jonndi 
the Asiatic Society for 1854 there is an article by Dr. 8p»| 
ger on the collection of manuscripts made by Sir Henry Effilj 
Among them I find the following works mentioned ^-4k1 
190, Masnavi-Mir Abd-ul-Jalil Bilgr^m. Dr. Sprenger abAs 
that this poem celebrates the marriage of the Emperor lb] 
rukh Sir with the daughter of Mahdrajah Ajit Singh in US 
A.H. or 1724 A.D., and that the author died aft DihK ni 
years afterwards. No. 175, Madsir-ul-Euram bj Mir Ghilk 
Ali Azdd. This work consists of biographies of distingdaU 
Muhammadans in India, and is Tery highly thonght oC 
The author is a descendant of the poet aboyementionedy ht 
is more famous than his ancestors. No. 180, Nasnit-ifr 
N&zirin, a history of the famous saints of Bilgribn, a oopiou 
and voluminous work of many hundreds of pages." 

To this list may be added the Jiniidia and Shajla-^ 
Taiba, family histories of the Bilgrdm Sayyads, the Sharif 
Usmani, a history of the Bilgrdm Shekhs by Ghuliun Hasu 
Siddiqi Firshauri of Bilgrtoi, and the Tabsirat-un-N^Urla 
(Persian). 

Among the learned men of Akbar^s time Abdnl Faal 
mentions Shekh Abdul Wdhid as having been born at Bilgrifaa 
and as being " the author of a commentary on theNuahat-«t 
Arwdh, and several treatises on the technical terms (istiUUlt) 
of the Siifis, one of which goes by the name of * Sanahil.' " 
(Blochmann's translation of the Am-i-Akbari, Vol. V., Fase. 
VI., p. 547). Mr. Bloehmann notices a work of great historical 
value by Amir Haidar of Bilgrdm: '* As long as we have no 
translation of all the sources for a history of Akbar's reign 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT BEPOBT. 123 

an historians should make the Sawanih-i-Akbari the 

f their labours. This work is a modem compilation, 

' ^od to William Kirkpatrick, and was compiled by Amir 

^ of Bilgrdm from the Akbdrndma, the Tabaqat-i-Badaoni 

-fta, the Akbarndma by Shekh lldhdadof Sarhindj and 

' Fazios letters, of which the compiler h^d four books. The 

*e8 in italics have never been used by preceding histo* 

This work is perhaps the only critical historical work 

.a by a native. Bilgrdm was a great seat of Muham- 

_ ii learning from the time of Akbar to the present century. 

_ he literati of the town vide the Tazkirah by Ghuldm All 

\ entitled * Sarw-e-Xzid.' " (Fasc. IV., p. 316). 

Heber visited Bilgrdm in 1824. His notes on it are worth 
tinff. ^' Our stage to-day (Malldnwin to Bilgrdm) of 7 kos 
•ugh the same level and fruitful style of country was to 
'-r&m, a place remarkable as being the station first fixed 
ror the British advanced force as it then was, which was 
-■ orwards fixed at Cawnpore. There are still (1824) several 
ices of what the king's sawdrs said were bells of arms and 
-•icers' bungalows, which certainly might be such, but were 
^^w heaps of ruins. The town itself is small, with marks of 
^ing been much more considerable, but still containing some 
tr^ and good, though old, houses, the habitations of the 
asfldar, kotwdl, &c. Here, again, after a longinterval, I found 
.good many scattered palm trees both of the date and toddy 
jjdcieSj and there is a noble show of mango trees in every 
rection. The gomdshta said the soil of Oudh was one of 
-'le finest in the world; that everything Bourished here which 
^ 'rew either in Bengal or Persia ; that they had at once rice, 
^gar, cotton, and palm-trees, as well as wheat, maize, barley, 
^'Wid pease ; that the air was good, the water good, and the 
;rass particularly nourishing to cattle; but the laws are not 
^ood, the judges are wicked, the zemindars are worse, the 
^^'Amins (Amils?) worst of all, and the ryots are robbed of 
everything, and the king will neither see nor hear. I 
f^ asked him the rent per hi^ha of the land. He said generally 
^ Ks. 4, but sometimes 6. We passed a neat garden of tomips 
handsome potatoes. These last, he said, were at first ex- 
ceedingly disliked, but were now; becoming great fiivourites 
'^ particularly among the Musalmang,wlbo find them very useful 
__^ 86 absorbents in their greasy messes?' (Journal IL, p. 101.) 





151 K-Lii-:: tZTTLCfiyr 

t}j-: :/;.-.•.:-::;: .SiTv>.> B4<r{ar AiL Chaklaidflr rf 
uri'hr .S.if:j4- i'i-'Ji:.-. ; f{'^?b3i&; Aii andCbiraekA^ ( 
difr of B'.:r, Ir ^ -. i ^ iTrr-oore under X^sif-md dbB5 
i^'^ir^t All. C;<4k!2k-iiSir ir. liAidArabad : SheUts Msi 
Ail. ^y^iikV\;kfh%T fA J&>l.abvJ under Gaazi-ad-dni 
Muh^irirri<t'l Asiur. C:^kladar of Ba5ulpar. under W^ill 

Shah. 



(KYxht Sayva^= of rJistinction were Sajyads Di 
M'lhamma'l M-lh a*, rj.?: Courts of Xlamgir and Sc 
Mir Abdul Jal.T. Mi!i:Arv Pay Master (Bakhshi) in G«|aEic: 

Bahidur All Kfjarj- C j-lof of the Police at Lacknoir, 
iifi-dauia: MfiharnniH J Koan. Mir Muosbi to the Gor 
0^rj^;ral, f orfri^rj Dfr ,artrnerit, now a pensioner 
Bi!;^r;irji; A^^u Hasan Ki-i'^n, XaibNazim ofBasulabad; 
ul-Arjiin Khan. SuWi^tr or Gujarat ; Azim-u-dia Huse 
Baljadur, C.S.I. . lato- Deputy Collector of Patna. 

70. CU AT II X-Pctr^rana Sortb Sara— TakgU SbI- 
HAfiAO (population 2.:;i4 . — A fine village of 339 mud hoiisei 
li(;loii^in^ to th^^ Chaui'lr Gaars, six miles east from Shi- 
hahad, par/una Xorth .Sara, district Hardoi. The popnlackw 

iH chiefly Chaniar 

77. DUKliKyWVR—Pargana Katiari— 7b/ijf/ Bo- 

gua'm.— niiar^inpur (870 inhabitants), a little village of 
13'i mud houses, on the ric^ht bank of the Rdraganga in the 
Kati/iri pargana, Ilardoi, eleven miles east from Fatehgarii 
and fourteen \vest from Sdndi. It is the first encamping- 
^round on the routes from Fatehgarh to Lucknovr and 
llnrdoi. It is noticeable as being the residence of the lojal 
K/ija Kir Ilardeo Bakhsh, K.C.S.I., of Katidri, and the place 
where, in 1857, he sheltered Mr. Edwards, Mr. Frobjn, and 
other fugitives from Fatehgarh, in the fort built by his 
grandfather, Thdkur Ranjit Singh, in 1792 A.D. 

78. GOPAMAU Pargana—Tahsll Hardm.— -One of 
tlie hirgest and most interesting parganas in Oudb, Gopamau 
rovers .'i28 square miles on the right bank of the Gumti. 
Along the whole of its eastern side the Gumti separates it 



HARDOI SBTTLEMBNT REPORT. 125 

from parganas Chandra and Misrikh and Aurangabad in 
Sitapur. On the south it is bounded by parganas Sandila 
and Balamau, on the west by parganas Bangar (the Sai being 
the boundary for a considerable distance), Bdwan, Sara, and 
on the north by parganas Mansurnagar and PihdnL 

Thirty miles long and twenty broad, it ha^ an area of 
328 square miles, of which 172 are cultivated. The percent- 
ages of cultivated, culturable, and barren are 51*57, 27*84, 
and 1915. A third of the soil (33*74) is classed as light and 
sandy (bhiir) ; only a fourth (25*83) is irrigated, from 2,347 
ponds (7*75), and 4,716 wells (]8*08); only 1*44 per cent, 
is under groves ; the average area of cultivation to each 
plough is 7{ acres. 

The pargana is the watershed of the Gumti and Sai, 
here called for a portion of its course the Bhainsta. Along 
the east of the pargana the oscillations of the Gumti at some 
distant period before it settled down into its present bed have 
caused the surface soil to be light and sandy. Prominent 
traces of that remote time are still to be seen in the pictur- 
esque clusters and ranges of shifting sandhills which here 
and there relieve the monotony of the landscape at distances 
of from one to three miles from the river. Near Gopamau 
these hills of sand are specially picturesque. Similar forma- 
tions are found at Tandaur, Bazidnagar, Singhaura, and Beni 
Eaidn. 

The lover of scenery finds a charm in their fantastic 
outlines, glistening white and clear in the east as the morning 
sun mounts over them. To the sportsman they furnish the 
best of all possible ambush in which noiselessly and unseen 
to stalk the wary buck. To the peasant their shifting shapes, 
brought into position by any stump or scrub which arrests the 
eddy, or scattered by the first high wind into ruinous simoom, 
are the memorials of an ever-present danger to his patient 
husbandry. For the physiographer nature has written in 
them some pages of her mystic tale of the fashioning of the 
land by the might of her tailing rivers, the tale that here in 
India is told for us each year in every char and island of the 
Ganges and Gognu 



liti MARCOI BETTLEHEKT BEPOftT. 

In tiic course of ages tfae Gumti has worn for itself aC 
and permaneat bed to which the dr»nage of the adju 
country finds its way through a maze of ever-deepa 
ravines that eat each year further and further into the H 
of the country. Dr. Butter has well described the aetii 
the surface drainage seeking its way to a deep-lying river q 
" When the first heavy fall of rain begina to abate, the I 
coiintrj' appears dotted with pools of water and intersed 
with broad shallow steams, which are soon united at | 
heads of the branching ravines, and are by these chai 
conducted into the beds of the permaaeut n&las and rin^ 
It is observed that the beds of these ravines braocli out ■ 
extend further and further into the level country every ya 
the principal undermining and abrasion of the soil tu 
j>lace at the small cascade formed by the water when quUfi 
the plain for the channel of the ravine, which may he & 
one to ten feet lower than the plain itself. Much of the a 
which has been loosened during the preceding hot winds 1, 
thus washed into the rivers, which are thus loaded with j 
greyish yellow mud. These nascent ravines, when formed \ 
in a hard kankar soil, present the most beautiful and accurate | 
miniature of an Alpine region, showing the long central ' 
ridge with its lateral branches and sub-branches and their ' 
corresponding plains, vales, valleys and ravines, all in dv 
gradation and relief." (Southern Oudh, p. 23.) 

Six well-marked ndlas fall into the Gumti at right angles 
to its course at Akohra, Bajhera, Babuapur, Sardri, Upr^ 
and Jamunidn. At the last of these places the Gaxera alidau-i 
lazily into the Gumti through some cherished haunts of spofi^L 
The bittern booms from tall flags that clothe dark half-stagnu -^ 
pools in this strange, lonely stream. At times pintail, widgeoa .^f^ 
and mallard, blue teal, and all the choicest of the duck tribe^^ 
love its shadowy reaches more than the unsheltered breadth^^ 
of Sdndi lake. Shy sandgrouse flutter down to its cool brink^^ 
from the thirsty upland slopes under which it winds. It^^ 
marshy banks teem with snipe. Hare, quail, and partridge^ 
lurk in the waving grass that fringes the swamp, and as yoa 
look up now and then towards the downs above, you may see, 
not a hundred yards away, some Straying buck from the ante- 
lope herds of Benigaoj. 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 127 

Striking inland from the Gumti, a few miles take you up 

^.of the region of uneven sand, scanty irrigation, and 

in kind, into a central plain of good soil, mostly diimat, 

led with jhils and tanks, much jungle, plenty of cheaply 

wellS| and fair money rents. The further you go from 

Gumti the better is the land met with, till in the west 

again come on uneven sandy soil^ and find yourself on 

edge of another river, the Sai. But the sand (bhdr) on 

( eide is much less sandy than on the Gumti ; the Sai 

m so much nearer the level of the surrounding country 

t much watering can be done from ic, and the scour q£ 

bee drainage is much less rapid and disastrous than on 

eastern side. Round Tandiaon in the heart of the par- 

apreads all that is left of the great Bangar jungle, the 

in Oudh at annexation, except the jungle of Gokaran^ 

It was then twelve miles long and six broad. ( Sleeman, 

^ura. 284.) Much of it has disappeared, but much still 

' IS and enables the traveller to call up some faint 

3 of one side of the wild life of the Bangar five and 

ity years a^o. Let me quote Dr. Butter as to the great 

Ydne of these jungles for pasture and in keeping the soil 

■Mntt and the air cool. In 1838 he wrote almost propheti- 

odly:— 

" With the introduction, which cannot now be far dis- 

**Qt, of a more equitable, but more strictly enforced, revenue 

^•tem, these remnants of the sylvan vesture which adorned 

J*^ country, which warded off^ by its shade and immense 

^^lispiration the fierce rays of the sun, and which thereby, 

?^ well as through the direct deposition of dew dropping 

^^^m its leaves, maintained an almost perpetual verdure on 

^^© ground, and gave origin to frequent springs of run- 

^\ng water, may be expected gradually to disappear, thus 

^TOnpleting the slow but certain process by which India, like 

^11 other semi-tropical countries (such as Central Spain, 

^uthem Italy, and the western territory of the United 

States), has its green plains, no longer capable of entangling 

and detaining water in the meshes of an herbaceous covering, 

ploughed into barren ravines by its sudden and violent thougn 

now short-Jived rains, its mean temperature augmented, its 

springs and perennial streamlets dried up, the distance of 

water from the earth's surface increased, and its rainfall and 



lis HABDOI BETTLEMEKT REPORT. 

the volume of its rivers diminished." (Southern Oudh, p. 9.) 
*' Within the last fifty, and still more within the last twenty 
years, these junjojles have been greatly reduced by the demand 
for firewood, and the country generally has been dried up ; 
from which causes the horned cattle, both oxen and buffaloes, 
have greatly diminished in numbers. In the south-west dis* 
tricts towards Manikpur, where the population has increased 
tenfold within the last fifty years, people who would formerlv 
have possessed 100 oxen and 50 butfaloea have now only 
four or five of both. Ghi, which was formerly sold at 20 
sers the rupee, is now sold at a ser and a half." ( Ibid^ p. 64.) 

The pargana is not well opened out. The Oudh and 
Bohilkhand Railway skirts its western border for aboat 
twenty miles. The Gumti provides water-waj along the 
whole of the eastern side ; and along the south runs the new 
road from Sitapur to the Ganges at mehudi Ghdt vid Misrikh, 
Nimkhar and Mddhoganj. But in the interior there are no 
roads except that from Hardoi to Sitapur, which runs nearij 
due east and west through the centre of the pargana, with a 
branch northward to Gopamau, Majhia, and Pihdni. 

The staple products are barley, bdjra, and wheat. At 
survey these occupied three-fifths of the acreage. Another 
fifth was covered with Indian-corn, gram, mash and moth; 
arhar, sugarcane, cotton and rice make up most of the re* 
maining fifth. Only 92 acres are shown under tobacco and 
116 under poppy in a total of 117,003 cultivated acres. 

The climate is considered better on the east and west than 
to the north and south. 

AhbaoB ^ 84 ^^ *^® ^^^ villages, 145 are owned by 

chandeis Z 29» Rajputs, the Ahbaus slightly predominat- 
orharwar. Z It ing as shown marginally. 

Katiars ... 14| 

5a::^J." .•: '1 .„ R'-^y^tj]" I'oW 36V, and Brahmans 2^ 
Bhadwarias ... 1 Villages. Grantecs owu 10. Shekhs Mu- 

Total ..."^ g^alS' ^^d Sayyads hold 32, 12, and 2, re- 
— spectively. 

Only 28^ of the 240 villages are taliiqdari, llli aie 
zamindari, 95 imperfect pattidari, and 5 bhaiachara. 



hardoi settlement repokt* li^ 

The Government demand, excluding cesses, is Rs. 1,75,445, 
a rise of 64 per cent, on the summary assessment. It falls 
at Re. 1-10-0 on the cultivated acre ; Re. 0-13-4 per acre of 
total area ; Rs. 11-2-10 per plough ; Rs. 2-3-8 per head of agri- 
cultural and Re. 1-9-0 per head of total population. 

There are 341 souls to the square mile, and a total of 
112,006. Hindus to Muhammadans are 103,338 to 8,669; 
males to females 60,476 to 51,530 ; and agriculturists to non* 
agriculturists 78,790 to 33,216. 

Chamars and Fasis are a third of the whole. Brahmans 
rather more and Rajputs less than a tenth. Garerias and 
Ahfrs make up another tenth. Muraos and Vaishyas pre- 
dominate among the remainder. Of the Muhammadans, Gho- 
sis are most numerous. 

There is an aided vernacular town school at Gopamau 
(74); village schools have been established at Majhia (64) and 
Ahrori (41). There are girl schools at Majhia (22) and 
Bakariya (20). On the first Monday in Jeth a two-days' fair 
is held at the Ldl Pir'a tomb at Gopamau. The average con- 
course is estimated at from ten to twelve thousaad. This 
mela is said to have been instituted soon after the saint's 
martyrdom. On the 6th of Kartik an old tank at Debi draws 
to itself about two thousand ; and twice a year, in Chait and 
Kuar, there is a gathering at Bhat Dec's shrine at Bahar. (cf. 
pargana Bangar). 

a 

The tract became a regular pargana under Humdydn in 
A.D. 1538. Being a well-known place of great antiquity, it 
is probable that Sher Shah, or even Sikandar Lodi, may have 
selected Gopamau as a * per-gaon ' or parent-village, suited to 
be a fiscal unit in the imperial revenue system. They say that 
formerly it comprised seven hundred villages, and that the 
Chandra and Maholi parganas of Sitapur were included in it# 
In the third book of the Ain-i-Akbari Todar Mai's assess*' 
ment of 1586 A.D. is recorded, with these statistics: — 

Pargana Gopaman-Nfmkh&r, Sarkar Khairabad. 

Cultivated area 107,308 bfghas 5 bisw&s. 

Land revenae 5,620,468 d^ms. 

Cesses 50,522 dams. 

Zamindars, Rajpnt Bisens and Ghawars (?) 

A masonry forty 100 troopers and 3,500 foot soMicrs. 

17 H 



130 HARDOI SETTLBMSHT RKPOBT. 

Other editions show Bachhils for Bisens, and Chai 
considered by the author of the ELhert article to mean 
''It is apparent," says Mr. McMinn, "that the Ahbaos 
at this time (1536 A.D.) various demesnes scattered oTorl 
country in Gopamau and Bhiirw&ra." 

Here, as elsewhere in this most interesting distridi] 
„. . , dawn of traditional history shows the I 

Historical eTcnts. ji • . rr»i xi • • fr»i_ •-] 

dhist Thatheras m possession. Tbenrj 
tlcments in this pargana were at Bhainsri and Mawwa 
or Mawwa Chdchar. In Mawwa Sardi there was even 
a renowned emblem of Mahddeo, known as Gopi Nath. 
this day it may be seen, a " ling *' of black stone and two 
ments of sculptured bas-relief, on one of which joa traee' 
elephant head of Ganesh, placed on a water-worn \Ai * 
kankar. 

Gradually the fame of the Nath obscured the m 
the village, and Gopimau or Gopamau became the name 
which it was known. It seems to have been still held bj^ 
Thatheras when in A.D. 1032 Sayyad Sdldr Masaiid fixedl 
headquarters at Satrikh in Bara Banki, and ^^ sent out aid 
on every side to conquer the surrounding country. 8l 
Saif-ud-din and Midn Itajjab he despatched against Bahn 
Amfr Hasan, Arab, against Mnhona ; Mir Sayyad Aiif^ 
d(n, celebrated now as the Ldl Pir, against Gopamau ani 
vicinity; and Malik Eazl against Benares and its neighln 
hood (Mira-at-i-Masaiidi. Elliot's History of India, 11. 
534.). A terrible battle is said to have been fought beil 
the Ldl Pir and the Thatheras. The battle-field is still pi 
ed out, under the name of Shahfdganj, and the writei 
been assured on the spot that as each season's rains scoa 
surface, bones of the slain there buried are laid bare. 
Chishti Shekhs of Gopamau had, but have lost, a mem< 
the LAI Pir and his campaign. They tell you that he fo 
with Ahbaos, not Thatheras ; that at first he was victa 
and encamped at Gopamau for two years; but that two ] 
after the death of Sayyad Sdldr at Bahraich^ he and his 1 
were overpowered and put to the sword. 

In the Banjdra-tola of Gopamau there are to thia da 
Muhammadan Banjdras, two men of about forty and four 
If ho style themselves Sayyad S^lari Banjdraa, and.cla: 




HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 131 

rung from those of his camp followers who survived the 
ere. 



S- The truth probably is that Ldl Pir's campaign was against 
FThatheras, and that the Chishti Shekhs belong to a later 
^ment which arrived after the Thatheras had been dis- 
hy the Ahbans. A similar difficulty is mentioned at 
of the Lncknow Settlement Report, pargana Kursi. 
the Janwdrs of Saindur seem not to have displaced the 
but yet '* somehow to have helped ifi the resistance to 
^ad Masaud's invasion. Yet the Musalmans say that they 
opposed by no one but the Bhdrs.'' 

i Besides the Sayyad Saldri Banjdras, the descendants of 
p Pathdns, Nasratulla Khan Ghdzi and Jdfar Khan, who 
Mmpanied Sayyad Sdldr in his Oudh campaign, are still 
ing there. The author of Notes on the Tribes of Oudh 
fB of this invasion and its traces (p. 64) : — 

"The tomb of Sayyad Sdldr at Bahraich is admittedly a 
notaph erected two hundred years after his death, but the 
laves which still exist at the various points of his march are 
lesumed to have been constructed by his orders. The fact 
at so small an army marched successfully through a consi- 
mble tract of country suggests that it met with less opposi- 
m than Muhammadan traditions assert, and the construction 
permanent tombs for those who died seems to favour the 
pposition. I am inclined to urge, from the preservation of 
ete tombs, that the Muhammadans were not received with 
iticular rancour, and that the extirpation of the army after 
\ defeat is doubtful. The occupation by the Muhammadan 
ree must have lasted nearly three years.'' At Nagrdm and 
methi, in pargana Mohanlalganj, '^ muhallas are stili existing, 
mtiAung, it is said, the descendants of Sayyad Sdldr's old 
Qoimm.who founded them." (Lucknow Settlement Report.) 

T 

A foil account of the coming of the Ahbans claiming ^^ a 
Dg descent in Oudh such as no other clau can rival or ap« 
oach," of their displacement of the Thatheras, and founda- 
^il.of the great Mitauli rdj, will be found in the Eheri dis- 
ct article of the Oudh Gazetteer. Here I will only give 
e tradition current among the small Ahban settlement roun d 
iftinsri, and supplemented by the oldest Brahman the writer 



-t .'- -3 - . 







^ 




- * • - - — 

.% tr.*: ^A/::. v^ ;.i.r. T:-<:r. •/'.^t axL^uLr'xaed 
str*'; r"/^T'A ].'.•// O^c *. an'i £.'•: ov:i ti 
tr'f. r;;.-fc>,vri '^ *rrof;i'hv!'l of tLe 

«:d VAiik\u.^n of cr«<; Ar« vjui4, but Go[/i passed 

Profi^f/iy tJiJH inr^flid of the Afaoans wj 
uitfi th': carrjpai;rri of Aifia and Udal who. shortlj belbffv tfce 
fa! I of Kanaiij. wrr: rfrnt by the Kanaaj monarch to ssbdae 
rlj'; Mhkrn. lu*: I>r,Hr« occupy in other parts of Ondk pft- 
ci-,^ly thf; htkiCi'i place- ill hi-tory as that ot the Thadiefaa in 
HrmJoi. 

Mr. Kutts ;rivr.-«^t.hf; ffTv^n of the name Ganjar or Gan- 
jarin. ^' Xlha and Udal advanced to Sarsanwan near Amelhi 
and aft';rwards to l)cwa, but .seem to liave got no furtber. 
Oudh must have };een a hot place for them. North from 
iiijnaur throu;rh Sarg^nw^n lies the plain of Ganjaria wkidi 
viixH then known an the Loh Gdnjar plain, or 'plain of iron/ 
HO called from the Marlike demeanour of its nativea, and it 
Hc.'Cin.s to have given the name of Garijaria to the nrhole of 
piidh/' (Lucknow Iteport.) 

The author of the Chronicles of Oonao (p. 24) speaks 
of the '* Ganjar '' as strictly applicable only to the Khairabad 
Tarai, but extending; to Sandila and Bdngarmau. The writeTi 
liowtvcr, has heard a liais zaniindar speak of a strip of low 



HARDOI SETTLRMKKT BBPOET. 133 

land cilong the Gumti, east of Lucknow, as a part;r>f Ganjaria, 
and as the scene of a great battle of Xlha and Udal. 

Gopi and Sopi are contractions for Gopdl Singh and Sarup 
Singh. It seems not unlikely that the tradition which places 
a Thathera village of Mawwa Sarai and a Nath named Gopi 
at Gopamau prior to the coming of the Ahbans is true, and 
that Gopdl the Ahban may have been attracted by the name, 
$o like his own, to leave his brother at Bhainsri and foand a 
settlement there. Thenceforth the name of Mawwa Sardi or 
Mawwa Chdchar would naturally give way to that of Gopa- 
mau. 

At this period there seem to have been Ahir settlements 
in the forest in Aberi and Ahrori, and tradition also places 
villages o( dhobis at Lodhi and Gopdr. 

From Sayyad Sdldr's invasion till the fall of Eanauj was 
a bad time for these primitive tribes. Displaced from the 
west and north by the conquering hosts of the house ot Ghori, 
Ahban, and Gaur and Chandel, Gaharwdr, Chaabdn, and 
Janwdr streamed over from Eanauj and sought to regain on 
this side of the Ganges all that they were losmg on that. 

The traditions of the coming of the Gaurs will be found 
under the headings Bangar and Mansuroagar and Bdwan ; of 
the Chandels (who displaced the Ahirs at and round Ahrori) 
under Kachbandau; of the Gaharwdrs under Bangar; of 
the Eatiars under Eatidri. All belong to the early class of 
Rajput colonists whose coming and its cause has been so 
eloquently described in the brilliant " Chronicles of Oonao." 

*'In the year 1193 A.D. Shahab-ud-din conquered 
and slew the hero of the Rajput Chronicles, Raja Frithora 
of Delhi, and in the next 3^ear he overthrew his great rival, 
Raja Jai Chand of Eanauj. These important victories wer^ 
followed up by vigorous attacks in every direction. The 
sacred mount Abu, the impregnable Gwalior, the holy cities 
of Benares, Gya, and Ajmere, and Anbulwara Patun, all the 
great centres of Rajput power and Hindu devQtion, were 
etartled by the appearance before their walls of '^ the uncouth 
barbarians ;" all, after a brave but vain resistance, fell before 
liis sword. The Brahman folded his hands and cursed the 



134 HARDOI 8KTTLEHE2CT REPORT. 

" Mulich," but not openly; the merchant sought to ton 
honest penny by him, and was oftener paid with iron 
with gold ; the Shiidiir served the strange higbl 
much as he had before obeyed his Aryan master ; bat 
the Rajput this upsettini^ of all his received ideas was iri^st^ 
lerable. It was part of his religion that his race shoaldl 
lords of the land, and to see his raja bow before a barl 
was desecration and impiety. By mutual jealousies, 
incapacity for combination, and by fatuous negligence, 
country had been taken from him, and the lives of bis 
great riljas had been lost. Now at last, thoroughly 
when it was too late, he felt that it was impossible to 

auiet under defeat. If he could not fight, at least he 
y ; some place might be found where, though only for a! 
space, he might be beyond the conquerors' reach. SoilM 
ward, then, across the Vindhya hills, noithward to EamMiB "^i 
and the Sub-Himalayan ranges, eastward to Ajoodhia, their cUj 
seat of empire, whence the iilu'irs had driven them, spread W 
various colonies of Rajputs. The Rahtore of Kanouj ui^ 
the Tonwar of Delhi migrated in a body and left not amtt 
behind. Others felt the disturbing influence in less degieOi 
but did history supply the material we should probably te 
able to trace a direct relation between the amount of piet* 
sure exercised on each clan by the Muhammadan conqueron^ 
and the quantity of colonies it threw out. Thus the Chouhu 
E6ja Prithora's clan is scattered over a wide extent of countxj 
and broken up into many small estates, while the powerfiA 
Gehlote of Cheetor and Cuchwaha of Amber maintained their 
independence for three centuries more, and sent out hardHj 
any colonies." (Chronicles of Oouao, p. 28.) 

The next historical event after the coming of the Chhat* 
tri clans is the conversion of the Ahbans of the adjacent 
pargana of Bhurwara to Islamism. " Kala Pahdr," nephew of 
Bahlol Lodi^ was the missionary of Islam to whose perana- 
sion Mill Sah succumbed in A. D. 1488, (see the Kheri dis* 
trict article in the Oudh Gazetteer). An account of the 
intercourse still kept up between the Hindu Ahbans and 
their converted brethren will be found in General Sleeman's 
Tour, II., p. 97. The next event is the footing gained by 
the Shekhs when Humayiin appointed Shekhs Mubajnak 
and Abdulla qazis of Gopamau. '^ Apparently," says Mr. 





HAEDOI SETTLEMENT BBPOBT. 135 

iiegy, [Notes on Tribes, p. 69), " they were cadets of the 
ethi family of Shekh Selim," who, about 1550 A.D., had 
h granted pargana Amethi in Lucknow on condition of 
r^ng out the still troublesome Bhdrs. The Easmandi taluqa 
till held by their descendant Murtaza Bakhsh. 

The Easmandi family account is that its most distin** 

"Sshed ancestor, Shekh Kahimulla, came to India with Tai- 

•-'^CSr and became Governor of Eashmir and Lahore. His 

and grandson, Shekh QudratuUa and Muhammad 

^^ndnuUa, also held office under the Crown. The great- 

^ndson. Sheikh Nidtnatulla, did good service to the State, 

d in reward was made by the Emperor Humdyun chaudhri 

the pargana, with two rent-free villages and a money ndn- 

r of Rs 1,700. This was in 945 Hijri (1538 A.D). Mur- 

ij^^^za Bakhsh is eighth in descent from Sheikh Nidmatulla. 

^K*he family gained further favours and villages from Alamgir, 

^nd large additions by purchase and mortgage were made 

\y Muhammad FazI, the fourth from Shekh NidmatuUa. 

From an account of Gopamau by Nawab Nasir ul-lsldm 
Khan I learn that this fortunate family monopolized the 
offices of chaudhri, qdzi, and maulvi of the pargana. A sanad 
of Shah Jahdn of 1627 A.D., shown me by Shekh Muham- 
mad Azam of Gopamau, recites that the office of qazi of par- 
gana Gopamau in the Ehairabad sarkar with two hundred and 
sixty-one bighas and four bis was of land as madadmadsh, or 
maintenance, had been held by Qdzi Abdul Halim, and that he 
having presented himself at court and pleaded age and in- 
firmity, the post had been conferred on his son, Qdzi Abdul 
Ghafdr. He is to settle disputes, claims, and complaintSi 
to perform marriages, distribute the property of de- 
ceased persons, adjust claims for plots of lands (chaks), and 
supervise weights aiid measures. All State officers, jdgirdars, 
and kroris, are to uphold his authority. The residents are to 
refer to him in all matters of religion, and to regard all 
title deeds and documents signed by him as valid. 

The overthrow of the Ahban rdj in Muhamdi in 1785 
shook) but did not displace, the unperverted Hindu Ahbans of 
Bbainsri. Mr. McMinn traces this event to the rise of the 
Gaurs. "It is probable/' he writes, "thatjthefall of the Ahban 
raj was due to the rise of the Gaurs. In 1768, the Gaurs of 



1.3- 



rAr.r''-! sett!.smfst cEroRr. 



par^rana Cban'irn. who under Chandra Sen bad entered IM 
in 1707. attacked the Alihan^^ and drove them out fromMaU 
and Mitauli.'* (See the Kheri district article in the Oi& 
Gazetteer.) 

At the ces-inn in ISOl Siadat Ali Khan introdacedb 
new revenue system. The first chakladar of the Bf"!» 
was Raja Sital Parsyhad Tirbedi. lie was posted at TainfiiDi 
with guns and a military force and threw up an earthwod 
there. Sital Parshad held the circle till A.D. 1812 wha 
cruelty led to his arrest and removal to Lucknow. Sobk 
Acharaj. a youni;^ man ot* twenty when this chakladarw 
appointed, remembers him well. His chief exploits vo 
the conquest of the Jangre Chhattris at Dhaurahra mia 
Chapi Singh, and the destruction of Narpat Sin^h and »*^q 
of Katesar, the stronghold of the Gaurs. Ue ruled the 
Bangar with a rod of iron. A delay in paying the reveatf; 
however short, cost the defaulter the los-s of his hand, oc 
horrible to relate, the mutilation of the nose or breasts it 
the defaulter's wife. II is reign of terror lasted eleven xeuk 
Ilis successors were, Sobha says, Rdja Bhawdni Paishid, 
Kayath, who oppressed none ; Aza Khan, Mughal ; Bae 
Baklit Mai, Kashmiri, who built a new fort at Tandiaon aal 
deserted the old one ; Maulvi Farid-ud-din, one of the Shekbi 
of Gopamau ; Hasan Ali Khan of Malihabad ; Rae Dilaiin. 
brother of Rae Bakh at Mai, who built a shiw&la 'vrith inoit 
and well at Tandiaon ; then his son Kdja Shiu Nath Singh, 
who strengthened the fort and held the chakla at annezatioii. 
His naib was Pandit Kidar Nath, Kashmiri, who bridged the 
Bhainsta (Sai). 

It was the Maulvi Farid-ud-din above mentioned who 
when the head of the notorious rebel, murderer, and cattle- 
lifter, Bhagwant Singh of Atwa Piparia, had been sent him 
by Pancham Singh of Ahrori in June, 1841, sent it to Luck- 
now with a report that he had at the peril of his life and 
after immense toil hunted down and destroyed this formi- 
dable rebel. Ilis Majesty as a reward for his valuable services 
conferred upon Farid-ud-din a title and a first-rate dress of 
honour. {Sleeman's Tour, 11.^ 18.) 

The Nazim seems sometimes to have made Tandiaon 
his headquarters, sometimes Khairabad. General Sleeman 
describes the increasing disorders of this part of the district 



HABDOI SSTTLSMENT BlPOBT.' 137 

? mder the contract (ydra) system. From his carnp at Taa- 
^ diaon he wrote, 22nd Janaary, 1849 : " Tuudeeawun was once 
^^ m populous place, but has been falling off for many years as 
the disorders in the district have increased. The Nazim 
^ resides here. The last Nazim, Hoseyn Allee, who was 
f' removed to Ehairabad at the end of last year, is said to have 
' ^ven an increase of ndnkdr to the refractory landholders of 
this district during that year to the extent of forty thousand 
rupees a year, to induce them to pay the Government demand 
and desist from plunder. By this means he secured a good* 
reputation at court and the charge of a more profitable and 
less troublesome district, and left the difficult task of resuming 
this lavish increase of the ndnkdr to his successor, Seo Nath' 
the son of Dilla Ram, who held the contract of the district for 
some twenty years up to the time of his death, which took • 
place last year. 8eo Nath is a highly respectable and 
amiable man, but he is very delicate in health and, in conse-' 
quence, deficient in the vigour and energy required to 
manage so turbulent a district • He has, however, a' 
Deputy in Kiddar Nath, a relative, who has all the ability, ' 
vigour and energy required, if well-supported and encourag:ed 
by the Oude Durbar. He was Deputy under Dilla Ram' 
for many years, and the same under Hoseyn AUee last year. 
He is a man of great intelligence and experience, and one 
of the best officers of the Oude Government that I have 
yet seen." (Sleeman^s Tour, 11.^ 22). 

" The headmen of some villages along the road mentioned 
that the fine state in which we saw them was owing to their 
being strong, and able to resist the Government authorities 
which disposed, as they generally were, to oppress or rack« 
rent them ; that the landholders owed their strength to their 
union, for all were bound to turn out and afford aid to their 
neighbour on hearing the concerted signal of distress ; that 
this league, offensive and defensive^ extended all over the 
Bangar district into which we entered about midway between 
this and our last stage ; and that we should see how much 
better it was peopled and cultivated in consequence than the 
district Mahomdi, to which we were going ; that the strong 
only could keep anything under the Oude Government ; and 
as they could not be strong without union, all landholders 
were solemnly pledged to aid each other to the death when 
oppressed or attacked by the local officers,'^ {Sleeman*M 

Tour, 11,11). 

18h 



138 BAADOI SCTTLIMXn EDMX 

*' The Nazim of the Tnndeeawmi or BMgtr distriet 
me OQ hifl border and told me that he was too weak 
enforce the king's orders or to collect bis leTemies ; that] 
had with him one efficient company of Gaptain Banhir 
corps, with one gun in good repair and proyided with ixm\ 
bullocks in eood condition, and that this was the only fom^ 
he could rely upon ; while the landholders were strong »!' 
fxo leagued together for mutual defence that, at the soimd rf 
a matchlock or any other concerted signal, all the men oCa 
dozen large villages would in an hour concentrate upon ui 
defeat the largest force the king's officers could aaaemble ; 
that they did so almost CTcry year and often fzeqnently 
within the year ; that he had nominally eight guns on duty 
with him, but the carriage of one had already gone to ^eea^ 
and those of the rest had been so Ion? without repair thtt 
they would go to pieces with rery litde firing ; that tiK 
draft bullocks had not had any grain for many jaara aad 
were hardly able to walk, and he was in consequence ofalued 
to hire plough-bullocks. to draw the gun required to aamts 

the Resident A laige portion of the surface iscoTeved 

with jungle, useful only to robbers and refractory landholden 
who abound in the pargana of Bangar. In this respect it ii 
reported one of the worst districts in OudL Within the last 
few years the kbg's troops hare been frequently beaten aad 
driven out with loss, even when commanded by a Enropeaa 
officer. The landholders and armed peasantry of the diffid- 
ent villages unite their quotas of auxiliaries, and concentrate 
upon them on a concerted signal, when they are in pursuit of 
robbers and rebels. Almost every able-bodied man of eveiy 
village in Bangar is trained to the use of arms of one kind or 
another, and none of the king's troops, save those who are 
disciplined and commanded by European officers, will Tentnze 
to move against a landholder of this district ; and when the 
local authorities cannot obtain the aid of such troops, they 
are obliged to conciliate the most powerful and unscrupulous 
by reductions in the assessment of the lands or additions to 
their nankar. 

^/ To illustrate the spirit and system of union among the 
chief landholders of the mngar district, I may here mention 
a few facts within my own knowledge and of recent date. 
Bbugwunt Smgh, who held the estate of Etwa Peepureeay had 
been for niome time in rebellion against his sovereign ; and he 



!: 




fiARDOl 8KTTLKMB8T RBPOIT. 139 

ttiniitted many murders and robberies and lifted many 

of cattle irithin our bordering district of Shahjebanpoor, 

e had given shelter on his own estate to a good many 

k>us criminals from that and others of our bordering 

ets. He had, too, aided and screened many gangs of 

lUks or dacoits by hereditary profession. The Resident, 

el Low, in 1841, directed every possible effort to be 

for the arrest of this formidable offender, and Captain 

s, the second-in-command of the second battalion of 

ocal Infantry, sent intelligencers to trace him. 

" They ascertained that he had, with a few followers, 
up a position two hundred yards to the north of the 
of Ahrori in a jungle of palas trees and brushwood in 
Lugar district, about twenty-eight miles to the south- 
of Seetapoor, where that battalion was cantoned, and 
Iftit fourteen miles west from Neemkar. Captain HoUings 
ide his arrangements to surprise this party ; and on the even- 
|of the 3rd of July, 1841, he marched fromNeemkar at the 
wA of three companies of that battalion, and a little before 
Unight he came within three quarters of a mile of the 
bel'er post. After halting his party for a short time to 
table the officers and sipahis to throw off all superfluous 
Ithing and utensils. Captain HoUings moved on to the 
tack. When the advanced guard reached the outskirts of 
B robbers' position about midnight, they were first cbal- 
iged and then fired upon by the sentries. The subadar in 
mmand of this advance guard fell dead, and a non-commis- 
med officer and a sipahi were severely wounded. The 
lole party now fired in upon the gang and' rushed on. One 

the robbers was shot, and the rest all escaped out on the 
posite side of the jungle. The sipahis believing, since the 
rprise had been complete, that the robbers must have left 
i their wealth behind them, dispersed, as soon as the firing 
aaed and the robbers disappeared, to get every man as 
ik^ as he could. While thus engaged they were surround- 
. by the Gohar (or body of auxiliaries whicn these landhold>* 
I send to each other's aid on the concerted signal) and 
i4 in upon from the front and both right and left flanks. 
^n by surprise, they collected together in disorder, 
pie the assailants from th6 front and sides continued to pour 

their fiire upon them ; and they were obliged to retire in 
•ate and confusion^ closely followed by the auxiliaries, wha 



140 



fi4SD0I SETTLIMIIfT BSPOBT. 



gained confidence, and pressed closer as their votel 
increased by the quotas they received from the Tillages tk' 
detachment had to pass iu their retreat. AU effiiH 
on the part of Captain HoUings to preserve order intli 
ranks were vain. His men returned the fire of their p 
sucrs, but without aim or effect. At the head (S tb 
auxiliaries were Funchum Sing of Ahroree and Mim 
Akbar Beg of Dcurcea ; and they were fast closing in spoi 
the party, and might have destroyed it, when Girwar Sii^ 
tomandar, came up with a detachment of the special polia 
of the thuggee and dacoity department. At this timetk 
three companies were altogether disorganized and dir 
heartened, as the firing and pursuit had lasted from mi^ 
night to daybreak; but on seeing the Special Police eomef 
and join with spirit in the defence, they rallied, and the » 
sailants, thinking the reinforcement more formidable thul' 
really was, lost confidence and held back. Captain Holliagf I 
mounted the fresh horse of the tomandar, and led his detti^ 
ment without further loss or molestation back to Neemka 
His loss had been one subadar, one havildar, and tbift 
8i]>ahees killed ; one subadar two havildars, one naik, $d 
fourteen sipahis wounded and missing. Captain Holling' 
groom was shot dead, and one of his palankeen- bearers ml 
wounded. His horse, palankeen, desk, clothes, andallthil 
superfluous clothing and utensils which the sipahis hill 
thrown off preparatory to the attack, fell into the handset 
the assailants. Attempts were made to take up and carry if 
the killed and wounded, but the detachment was so soi^ 

?ressed that they were obliged to leave both on the groan 
'he loss would have been much greater than it was butte 
the darkness of the night, which prevented the assailants frosi 
taking good aim ; and the detachment would, in all probt- 
bility, have been cut to pieces but for the timely arrival of 
the Special Police under Girwur Sing. 

^' Such attacks are usually made upon robber baiiA 
about the first dawn of the day, and this attack at midnigiit 
was a great error. Had they not been assailed by the auxi- 
liaries, they could not, in the darkness, have secured one of 
the gan^. It was known that at the first shot from either 
the assailing or defending party in that district^ all the villages 
around concentrate their quotas upon the spot, to fight to 
Mie death against the king a troops, whatever migh( be thoir 



fc 



BAIIDOI BBTTLBMBNT BBPORT. 1^1 

•bject ; and the detacbtnent ought to have been prepared for 
* 3uch concentration when the firing began and returned as 
jquickly as possible from the place when they saw that by 
staying they could not succeed in the object." (Sleeman's 
Tour, IL, 15-18.; 

79. GoPAMAU Town — Pargana Gopamau — Tahsll 
Bardoi. — An ancient town of 5,949 inhabitants, which gives 
its name to the large Gopnmau pargana. It lies two niileis 
west of the Gumti, fourteen miles north-east from the sadr 
station of Hardoi, and twenty west from Sitapur. 

It contains 1,614 houses ; 295 of brick, 1 of stone, 
1,318 of mud. Of the population 2,984 are Muhammadans 
and 2;265 Hindus. 

As noted in the pargana article, the town seems to have 
been founded towards the end of the twelfth century by an 
Ahbau conqueror on or near the site of an old Thathera clear- 
ing in the forest known then as Mawwa Sarde or Sarde 
Chdchar. Among the scanty relics of that dim time " Kau- 
rehruDeo" and "Bddal Deo" are still venerated as having 
been the gods of the departed Thatheras. Distinct traces 
exist of a Muhammadan element in the population dating 
from Sayyad Sdldr's three years' sojourn in Oudh, thirty 
years before the Norman conquest of England, Local tradi- 
tion, gathered from the lips of a venerable Brahman, tells 
of a still more ancient trace of Muhammadan influence in 
Gopamau. ** Before the coming of Sayyad SdUr/' it says, "Rdja 
Gopi,the Ahban, had driven out the Thatheras and established 
himself at Gopamau. To him wandered a holy darwesh from 
Sakmina in Mecca, Azmat Shah by name, and Rdja Gopi 
honoured him greatly and made him live in his own house. 
Then when Sayyad Sdldr Ghdzi conquered Kanauj, Rdja 
Fitham Kunwar, the son of Rdja Jai Chand, fled to GopamaU 
and sought aid of Rdjas Gopi and Sopi. And they said to 
him— * Are we not the servants of Jai Chand, thy father ? Do 
thou remain here and rule this land with us, None shall mo« 
lest tlice.' And these three princes were ruling at Gopamau 
and cherishing the holy man Azmat Shah, when Sayyad 
S^Ur's army came to Gopamau and the contest began. Two 
and twenty battles were fought, and in each victory waa 
with the K&jM of Gopamau. Then Sayyad Sdldr disguischi 
liimself and came to Aemat Shah by nijght and besought 



144 EABDOI SSTTLEXQIT UMPClBT. 

world. I asked of wisdom for the date and year of its btfO^ 
ing and was told by her— 

*' This is the well of * zam zam/ 

*• Full of the water of life" (979 H.= A.D. 1571.)" 

The Subahdar of Arcot, already mentioned, repaired tt 
mosque aud idgah in 1795. 

Sayyadpiira is the quarter of the Sayyads, who trace tbeir 
settlf meiit to the arrival of Sayyad Muin-ud-din from KJuanj 
in 1208 A.D., in the rei^n of Qutb-ud-din* His desceodanti; 
Sayyad Abnul Qddir and Abdul Jaldl, were appointed qin^- 
gos of the paigana by Hunmyiin. In this muhalla there ii 
an ancient mosque built by Sayyad Kamdl with a well attaclh 
ed to it, called Gondni-ka-Kuan. Up to a height of nearij 
seven feet from the ground this mosque is built of large slab 
of knnkar. One of these I found to measure 46 inches hj 
10, another 42 inches by 11. I believe them to have been 
taken from the despoiled temple of Gopi Nath or some otiier 
ancient Hiudu fane. Similar blocks are to be seen in the 
doorway and steps of the Ldl Pir's mausoleum and in the 
baradari. Qazarapiira, the qdzis' quarters, was founded dar- 
ing the reign of Humdyiin. Shekhs Mubdrak and AbduIIai 
nephews of Nizdni-ud-din Bandagi Mian of Amethi in the 
Luckuow district, whither the family had migrated from Ag^^ 
moved from Amethi to Gopamau on being appointed qim 
of the pargana. This family seems to have had much court 
interest, for its three branches acquired and held the three 
distinct posts of qazi, chaudhri, and maulvi of the jpargaiUL 
The qdziship was retained by them up to annexation. In 
this branch the most distinguished persons who have bedi 
qdzi were Muhammad Husen in the time of Akbar, and Q^ 
Muhammad Mubdiak, celebrated as the commentator oh the 
Sharah-Salam, or doctrine of probabihties of Maulvi Haraid- 
nlla of Sandila, in the reign of Muhammad Shah. His fameu 
a scholar is said to have spread from India to Persia. The 
registrarship is held by a member of the family. An^ong the 
chaudhris Ibriir Khan and Isrdr Khan and Abbds Ali^ Kbaa 
were renowned for valour, and obtained high posts in the 
Carnatic under the Subahdar of Arcot, W41a Jdh. Of 
the Maulvi branch, the most distinguished scholars hate 



HARDOI 8STTLEMBNT BEPqRT. 145 

been Maulvis Niz&m-ud-din, Itm&d-ud-din and Mian Kalb. 
Maulvi Farid-ud-din (see pargana Gopamau) was chakladar 
of Muhamdi in 1825 and 1826 and chakladar of Bangar in 
1841 and 1842. Maulvi Dost Ykr Khan rose to the rank of 
mansabdar. A double colonnade of red sandstone pillars of 
Delhi stone marks a showy addition made by him to the 
family mansion. Maulvi Ghulam Rasiil was appointed qkzi 
of Trichinopoly on its cession to the British in 1801. He 
and his son Muhammad Ydkin, alias Dost Mahomed Khan, 
built a stone mansion (bdrddari), from which circumstance 
their descendants acquired the name of Bdrddarias. 

The muhalla of the Kanauji Sbekhs was founded during 
the reign of Akbar; of this stock Nawab Anwar-ud-din Khan, 
Sirdj-ul-Umra, rose to be Subahdar of Arcot under the 
Nizdm Aiisam Jdh in 1745. Four years later he fell in battle. 
The words ^' dftdb raft'' (the sun departed) contain the date 
of the death in battle of the Nizdm's Wazfr Nawab Nazir 
Jang, who marched to avenge his death and also fell. In 
his place was appointed Nawab Muhammad Ali Khan. He 
BO filled his high post of Subahdar of Arcot that in 1760 
Sh^h Xlam bestowed on him the title of Wdla J^h, and 
in 1786, on his sending magnificent presents to Mecca 
and Medina, the Sult&n of Turkey conferred on him the 
distinguished appellation of Amir-ul*Hind Kh&dim-ul-Har« 
main. 

The eldest son of Nawab Anwar-ud-din Khan, Nawab 
Badr-ul Isldm Khan was appointed Subahdar of Katehar and 
Shekohabad by Muhammad Shah, and his nephew, Nawab 
Munir-ud-din Khan Bahddur^rose to the rank of Ndib Subah- 
dar in Bengal. The present Nawab Nasir-ul-Isldm Khan, to 
whose book I am indebted for this information, is of this dis- 
tinguished family. 

To Nawab Anwar- ud-dfn Khan the town owes a curious 
square well called ^^ ehaukuntha" and a mosque. The Wdla 
Jdh repaired the Ldl Fir's mausoleum, and rebuilt in 1786 
the Jdma Masjid of Akbar's time, which had been destroyed 
by an earthquake. The decoration is elaborate. The build- 
ing is about 62 by 26 feet. Its restoration would cost pro- 
bably about eight hundred rupees. 

19 H 



> 



146 



HABDOI SETTLEMtNT ESPOBT. 



Nawab Badr-ul-Isldm Khan built a snrde in 1775, and set- 
tletl Bliati^as in it, but being off the high road it did not thme. 

The settlement of the inuftfs in the muhalla of that name 
dates from the arrival of Sbekh Muhammad Adam Saddiqi 
in 1543, during the reign of Sher Shdh. Muhammad Ztman 
of this house was appointed mufti, a post retained in tlie 
fflmily till annexation. By far the most distinguished member 
of it was Wahdjud-din, styled Afzal-ul-Mi&l, the tutor o( 
Shah Jahdn's unfortunate eldest son, Prince D&rd Shikok 
This great scholar was the author of the celebrated Fatwa-i- 
Alamglri. 

The Zaidpuria muhalla was founded in 1562, whenSbett 
Q&zi Bhure Faruqi and Hazrat Bandagi Nizdm*ud-din migrat- 
ed hither from Zaidpur. Ghuldm Hasan Khan of this house 
was appointed Subahdar of Gujardt by Azam 8bah. 

The khdtibs or readers of the prayers for the king re 
sided in muhalla Khdtibdn. The post was hereditary and 
was held from the time of Akbar to annexation by inemben 
of the family now living here. Muhammad Ali Khan, Maahi 
Muhammad Wdris, and Munshi Abdul Ali were its most dis- 
tinguished members. 

The mutawallis, or custodians of the mosques, who inhabit 
the quarter of that name, claim to be descended from Sbekk 
GhidI, who settled at Gopamau durins^ thereign of Ald-ud- 
din Ghori. Akbar conferred on Shekh Karim the post ofciu* 
tudian of the mosque built in his reign, and it w^as retained is 
the family till annexation. Shekh Maulvi Abdul Karim of tbk 
stock was author of a work on jurisprudence, called the 
Fathdwe Majm'a-ul-Masdel. 

The muhalla of qdniingos was founded in the reign of 
Ilumdydn, who appointed Shekh Jamdii qdniingo of the pa^ 
gana. The post was retained till annexation in the family 
by which the taluqa of Kasmandi is now held. (I think thit 
the Nawab's history from which these facts are taken isia 
error here, and thattho post bestowed by Uumdyiin on the 
ancestor of the Kasmandi taluqdar was that of chaudhri, not 
kdmingo. This conjecture is confirmed by the fact that in 



HARDOI SSTTLElfKliT RKPOET. 147 

descrilnnf^ the muhalla of Kdyatlis the Nawab speaks of tbem 
as having got the qdniiogoship from Humdyiin). 

The Kdyaths of the niuhalla so called are divided into 
qdnungos and muharrirs. The first branch held the qdniin* 
goship from the time of Humdyiin to that of Wdjid 
Ali Shdh. Rde Gajadhar of Majhidn was the founder of the 
branch. Of the muharrirs Ldla Naunidh Rde ro«e to dis- 
tinction. The Hindus gratefully remember him as the build- 
er of the shrine of Gopi Ndth. The tyranny of the Mughal 
Governor constantly destroyed what Naunidh Rde had biiilt. 
At last he threw up the qdmingoship and turned faqfr. 
The revenue fell into arrears. The matter reached the ears 
of the emperor at Delhi. An order was passed that if any 
Muhammadan interfered with Naunidh Rde's building his 
hand and nose would be cut off. Naunidh Rde again took 
office. The revenue arrears of the four Bandar mahdls was 
collected by him in twenty-four hours. He then built in 
peace the fine tank and temple of Gopi Ndth. This was in 
1699, in the reign of Auraugzeb. In tlxf time of Nawab 
Asif-ud-daula thirty of the Nawab's elephants were picketed 
here for a year. They were watered at the tank and des* 
troyed the flight of steps. 

Ldlas Rdja Rdm and Mohan Ldl are the other notables 
in this branch. Mohan Ldl was employed by the chakladar 
in Muhammad Ali Shdh's time as a ndib. He planted many 
groves and built a shiwdla and a very fine tank. The 
muhalla of the Sayyad Sdldri Banjdras has been mentioned 
in the pargana article. The names of the Banjdras who 
accompanied the Ldl Pir are said to have been Ddr Khan and 
Mamman Khan. Another trace of Sayyad Sdldr's occupa- 
tion of Oudh is to be found in the muhalla of the Batwdrs or 
weighmen. These Pathdns claim descent from Nasrat- ulla 
Khan Ghazi and Jdfar Khan, two brothers who accompanied 
the Ldl Fir's army. Nasrat-ulla Khan was killed. Jdfar 
Khan settled here. His descendant was made batwdr in the 
time of Ald-ud-din^ and his line have contittued to hold the 
post to this day. 

A Government aided vernacular town school has been 
established in the house of Maulvi Tafazzul Husen in the 



148 SABDOI BITTLBMtHT ftBP<«r. 

Qazis' muballa. Two markets are held, one at the tbik 
well (built by Madda Mian) in the Qdzis' quarter on llondra 
and Fridays, the other on the west of the fort on Soadi;! 
and Thursdays. The only manufacture peculiar to ^ 
place is that of drsis, or thumb mirrors of silrer, an omameit 
said to be much prized by our Aryan sisters, and one wliicK 
if delicately fasbioned in choice gold, might perhaps find 
favour in western boudoirs. 

80. GuNDWA Pargana, TaluU Sandfla. — A trad of 
117 villages on the right bank of the Oumti, bounded od At 
north and east by the Gumti, separating it f^m parganas As- 
rangabad, Gundlamau, and Manwdn, in the Sitapur dialiid; 
on tbe south by pargana Malihabad of Lucknow ; on the wot 
by parganas Sandila and Kalydnmal. 

With an extreme length and breadth of fifteen milei^i 
covers an area of 140 square miles, of which 88, or 62*06 pff 
cent., are cultivated. The culturable area is 21*22, and the 
barren area 14*85 per cent, of the whole. 

Rather more than a third (35*91 per cent.) of the soilii 
rated as third class — that is, light and sandy (bhtir). Kit 
quite a fourth (23*46 per cent.) is watered. 

The proportion irrigated from the 941 wells is very lot, 
only 2'85 per cent. ; 1,567 tanks water the remaining 20*6 ptf 
cent. ; 1*87 per cent, is under groves ; the average area ^ 
cultivation to each plough is 7*75 acres. 

There is little to notice in the natural features of tb 
pargaua. Branching ravines, occasional sandhilhi, and poir 
uneven stretches of bhur characterize that side which lid 
towards the Gumti. Towards the south-east corner an oil 
channel of the river seems to have silted up and become con- 
verted into a network of jbils. Even when away from th 
river, the surface soil changes from bhiir to ddmat, the sun' 
still remains as a substratum, making wells difficult ud 
expensive. As in Gopamau, at intervals of every few miki 
tributary n^las drop into the Gumti and carry to it the over 
flowiogs of the jhils of the interior. Cart-tracks link tin 
main villages together^ but there are no made roads, except it 



HASDOI SBTTLEMEVT BEPOBT; 149 

unmetalled one from Bhatpura-Ghdt through Pfpargaoa to 
Malihabad. The nearest roads are the Lucknow and Sitapur 
metalled road, passing within four miles of the south-eastern 
corner of the tract, and the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway, 
and Lucknow and Sandila unmetalled road, which run within 
six miles of its south-western corner. 

The staple products are barley and wheat, which at sur-* 
▼ey occupied two-tifths of the cultivated area ; mash, gram, 
bdjra, arhar, and moth covered another two-fifths ; the re- 
maining fifth was mainly cropped with judr, linseed, rice, 
kodo, and pease. The richer products are conspicuous by their 
absence the areas returned as under cotton, sugar, opium, 
tobacco and indigo being respectively only 353, 253, 83, 56 
and 6 acres. The climate is considered good. Productiveness 
average. Kankar has not been found, more probably, I should 
think, from an absence of demand for it than from its non- 
existence. 

Of the 117 villages, 94* are owned by Chhattris as noted 

in the margin ; Brahmans hold 7, Mu- 

7rnwir.::: :;: ^i hammadans 6, Kfiyaths 7, and Kurmis 

Nikumbbs ... 1 3. The laluka of Bhardwan comprises 

c'touhlM ::: 5 48 villages ; 36 are pattidari, 30 zamin- 

— dari, and 3 bhaichdra. 

Mb^s ... ^ 6 The Government demand, excluding 

Piod^ ... •- 1 cesses, IS JKs. 1,05,146; a nse of only 

*^ nine per cent, on the summary assess^^ 

ment. Its incidence is Rs. 1-14-2 on 

the cultivated acre; Re. 1-2-9 per acre of total area; Rs. 13-5-6 

per plou(;h ; Rs. 3-5-6 per head of agricultural and Re. 1-13-7 

per nead of total population. 

The pressure of population is at the rate of 406 to the 
square mile and 1*01 to the cultivated acre, giving a total of 
56,871 ; Hindus to Muhammadans are 53,643 to 3,228 ; males 
to females 29,989 to 26,882 ; and agriculturists to non-agri* 
culturists 38,463 to 25,408. 

Chamars, Brahmans, and Ahirs are rather more than two- 
fifths of the whole ; Arakhs, Chhattris, and Murdos are nearly 
another fifth ; of the rest Pdsis and Juldhas are most ntuner- 



Shekhi .- 



150 HARDOI SITTLEVBNT RSPOBT. 

ous. The nctual numbers of Brahmans and Chhattrisire 
8,037 and 3,523. 

Village schools have been established at Atranli (38), 
Gundwa (49), and Bhai^awan (53). 

On the 8th of Kuar and Chait somd fi^e or six thoustBd 
people meet at a shrine of Debi built forty jreara ngo by Fid- 
dit Rudar Man. 

I do not know when the tract was first marked off is * 
pargana, but in the Afn-i-Akbari (third book), the foUomy 
particulars are given for Todar Mai's assessment of 15S( 
A. D. :— 

^^ Pargana Gandwa, Sarkar Lncknow :^-> 

Cultivated area ••• ... 14,803 bf^haSk 

Land revenue ... »«• 3,00,759 dAins. 

Zamindars, ••• ... Brafamana. 

Foot soldiers ... ... 100. 

No fort or cavalry force mentioned. 

The materials at mv disposal from which to outline tk. 
Historic) event,. past Wstory of the pargana are M 

what meagre, more, I think, from tv 
impossii)ility of finding time to make a more exhausti^re seaick 
tlian from their non-existence. The legends, coins, inscrip 
tions, sanads, and other materials collected during a sin^ 
cold-weather tour in a district of 2,292 square w&s Bxe • 
numerous as to convince me that everywhere this mostift' 
teresting part of Oudh teems with the relics and traditions i 
a past of immense antiquity. ^' Still the landmarks of tk 
ancient States linger on in local legend ; in the unwrittei 
chronicles of the past, which are but slowly fading away finoa 
the national memory. History has vanished from tbe laoi 
but the names survive.'' ( IV heeler's India^ IIJ.j 265). Hen 
as elsewhere the most vigorous life of local legend cliagi 
round the deserted mounds that entomb the memorials of i 
past civilization. Let me try to reproduce the tale of Bhanuvt 
Khera as noted for me by Majlis Rde, qilniingo, and as parti} 
learned from the lips of an Arakh chaukidar, and endeavouril 



HABDOI SETIXEMBNT REPORT. 151 

supply from sources unknown to them the links that seem to 
connect their folklore with the authentic history of ancient 
India : — 

" More than a thousand vears as:o a tribe of Baurias called 
Khargis settled at Bharaiya Kharauli, and became the zamm- 
dars, as it were, of the surrounding country. A hundred 
years or more later a band of Kurmis from Fyzabad drove out 
the Baurias by degrees, founded the villages of Bibi Khera 
and Bauria Khera, and threw up the strong earthwork which 
you may see at Bharaiya between Gundwa and Atrauli, and 
Tvhich we call Bbdnkargarh. And while the Kurmis were 
still in the land^ a Banjdra arrived from the north with a rich 
load of merchandize. To escape payment of the heavy dues 
^hich the zamindars would charge, he said that his load was 
only khdri (Glauber's salt), and God was wrath with him for 
liis lie. And when he came to unload his pack, behold it had 
turned to khdri^ and he was a broken man. 

Tn those days a Ndg haunted the forest and the tank, and 
in his trouble he went to the tank and prayed to the kindly 
Ndg to help him in his strait, and vowed a shrine in his 
honour if the N^g would aid him, and the Ndg listened to his 
prayer, and the Banjdra went on his way rejoicing and sold 
bis bales for twice their cost. And when he had now become 
rich be remembered his vow, and returned and built a stately 
shrine and placed in it an image of the kindly Ndg. And the 
ruins of that shrine you may still see. And some say that 
the shrine was set up because the Banjdra worshipped snakes, 
and his servant had ignorantly killed the Ndg. But be this 
as it may, all Hindus still worship at the ruined shrine and 
offer milk at it for the sacred Nag. 

•" And when the Kurmis had held the land for a hundred 
and fifty or two hundred years, then, more than seven hund- 
red years ago, Rdja Gauri Shankar Kdshiwdia (of Benares), 
a Brahman, conquered this part of the country and stormed 
the stronghold of the Kurmis at Bhdnkargarh and slew them 
with a great slaughter, so that not one remained. And to this 
day in the dead of night the lonely watcher in the fields hears 
frofn the deserted khera the shouts of the conquering Brah^ 
mans and the shrieks of the slaughtered garrison. 



152 HARDOI SETTLSnHT &BPOBT. 

'^ And one of the Kurmi women was awav at her fidWi 
house waiting for her little one to be born. And ghe boR i 
son and named him Gohna, and when he had g^rown he tool 
service with the Delhi king, and became a ^reat warrior, al 
brought an army and slew the K^hi r&JH and rooted Ui 
troops, and got back the Kurmi domain. But Bhaoknipl 
was haunted by the ghosts of the dead, so Gohna choee a 
other spot where Rdja Gauri Shankar had built a spaM 
enclosure (gonda) for his elephants and horses and otdt 
And he named it by his own name Gohna Gundwa, or tk 
enclosure of Gohna, and in time the writers changed it to 6a 
Gonda Kharauli, and now it is called Goni Gonda, (fa 
nounced Goni Gonwa). About seventy years ago the niv 
of Khairabad, Rdja Sital Parshid Tirbedi, buut a masoii 
fort, and threw up an earthwork in Goni Gonda, and poiil 
his tahsildar there, — yonder where is now the vUIage eeM 
house/' 

I know of only one hypothesis by which this 
can be made to yield a dennite residuum of historic 
From the travels of Hwen Thsarig we learn that in the 
half of the seventh century A.D. the great Magadha 
extended over the greater part of Hindustan. "" The 
ing sovereign was named Sildditya (or Harsha Vardd 
He had carried his victorious arms to the east and west 
least eighteen feudatory princes paid him homage as 
suzerain. He was a zealous patron of Buddhism. His 
dom of Kanauj was wealthy and full of merchandise.' 
Ajodhya at this time Buddhism '^ appeared to be in a 
gling condition." At Praydga (Allahabad)/^ Brahmanieo 
decidedly flourishing. At Benares also it was in the 
ant." ( Wheeler's India, III., 265.268). " It is this B 
emperor," Harsha Varddhana or Nandi Bardhdna, who is 
credited with the suppression of Brahmanism at Ajodbyai 
with the establishment of the non-caste system 
by society generally when the population at lam 
denominated Bhars." {Hisiorioal sketch of TahsU ttp 
p. 24). 

I can only account for the migration of KamuB i' 
Fyzabad to Bharaiya by supposing that they came hithtf 
the wave of religious and political conquest which xqlMi 



HABDOr SETTLEMENT REPORT. 153 

Gya to Pataliputra (Patha), from Pataliputra to Ajodhya, and 
from Ajodhya to Eanauj. Westwards the star of empire took 
it6 way at the time when Buddhist supremacy was still 
mounting. Westwards, from Ajodhya in the east, the Eurmis 
of our bumble legend followed in the wake of the Buddhist 
emperor, and obtained land and protection in the neighbour- 
hood of his great capital at Eanauj on condition of their 
throwing up and garrisoning one of a chain of earthworks to 
link Eanauj with the great fortress of Ajodhya. 

The episode of the Banjdra and the Ndg confirms this 
view. The Ndg, who in the imagination of the ignorant 
Banjdra, lay coiled at the bottom of the tank, its presence 
only revealed by the broad leaves* of the sacred lotus, was 
but the embodiment of the memories of the departed race 
of Ndga rdjas, those " ruling powers who had cultivated the 
arts of luxury to an extraordinary degree, and yet succeeded 
in maintaining a protracted struggle against the Aryan 
invaders." ♦ ♦ • " These NAgas or serpent worshippers, who 
lived in crowded cities and were famous for their beautiful 
women and exhaustless treasures, were doubtless a civilized 
people, living under an organized Government. ♦ ♦ ♦ It 
may be conjectured that prior to the Aryan invasion the 
N4ga rdjas exercised an imperial power over the greater 
part of the Panjdb and Hindustan. The clearance of the 
jungle at Indarprdstha (Delhi). was effected by the expulsion 
of the Ndgas. One of the heroes of the Mahdbh^rata had 
an amour with the daughter of a Ndga rdja. The Aryan 
conquest of Praydga (Allahabad) and other parts in India 
. are mythically described as a great sacrifice of serpents. **^ 
To this day traces of the Ndgas are to be found in numer-- 
ous sculptures of the old serpent gods, and in the nomen- 
clature of towns and villages. In Bengal barren wives creep 
into the jungle to propitiate the serpent of a tree with an- 
offering of milk, in the simple faith that by the favour of the 
serpent deity they may become mothers. ♦ ♦ ♦ There are 
strong reasons to suspect that the worship of the snake and 
the practice of snake-charming formed important elements 
in an old materialistic religion, which may at one time have 
prevailed amongst the Dra vidian populations, and of which 
the memory still lingers throughout the greater part of 
India." {ff heeler* s History oj India ^ II L^ 56). 

20 u 



154 IIAPiDCI SETTLEMENT BE?OBT. 

The Buddhist monarchs seem to have sought out and 
honoured with special distinction the traces of the departed 
K^gas. For instance : — 

'' Hwcn Thsang records that outside the town of AU- 
chhatra there was a Ndga-hrada or serpent tank, near whick 
Buddha had preached the law for seven days in Javour ^ 
the serpent king^ and that the spot was marked bjf a siupa ${ 
KingAsoka^ '^ A similar story is told at Buddha Oaya of 
the N&ga king Muchalinda, who, with his expanded hood, 
sheltered Buddha from the shower of rain produced by tbe 
malignant demon Mdra." {Ancient Geos^raphy of India /., 
360). ^' Asoka is celebrated in all Buddhist countries espe- 
cially for the construction of very many stupas, or memo- 
rial towers of Gotama Buddha." {Wheeler^ s History , III, 
238). I hazard the conjecture that Asoka's stupas mark the 
spots where Buddha Avas traditionally associated with the 
Ndgas, and am inclined to believe that what the llanjdra of 
my legend worshipped was a fragment of N^a aculptuie 
found at or near an earth stupa of Asoka's time, and thit 
he enshrined the fragment in a brick temple raised on Asoka's 
mound. That is my reading of the legend and of the brick 
debris on the lonely mound at which I heard it. At Aliabad 
in Bara Banki, in Chaudhri Ghuldm Farld's garden, there ii 
a curious mound or tila of earth of, as far as I rememberi 
about the same height. On the bank of the adjacent Bhir 
tank serpent-worship is carried on to this day. K elsewhere 
are found curious high mounds, with or without brick super- 
structures, and Ndga relics, traditions, and worship grouped 
about them, this hasty generalization would receive a oroader 
basis than I can claim for it at present. 

The massacre of the Eurmis by the Benares Rdja Gauri 
Shankar, more than seven hundred years ago, seems further 
to confirm my theory as to the Buddhist character of the 
fortified settlement at Bhdnkargarh. If the Ndg mound was 
one of Asok4*s stupas, it must have been a seat of religioiu 
worship and culture. Just as at Ahichhatra (loc.ciL) the 
stupa near the serpent tank gathered round it " twelve 
inouasteries eonbiining al)ont a thousand monks,'' so, tocom- 
])arc great things with small, it is probable that the stupa 
near Bluinkargarh had its monastery and its monks^ perhaps 



HARDOI SBTTLBMEITT BBPORT. 155 

its college or sanghardma. The date assigned to the storm- 
ing of Bhdokargarh and the wholesale massacre of its Eurmi 
garrison by a Brahman conqueror from Benares points con- 
clusively to the destruction and expulsion of the Buddhist 
monks which began with the sacking aud burning of the monas- 
teries of Sarndth in the eleventh or twelfth century, and 
crushed Buddhism in India for ever. (See Sherrinp;'» Sacred 
City of the Hindus^ pfjpc 268 ; Cunningham's Bhilsa TapeSj 
Chapter XIL; Wheeler's History, III, 359). 

The recovery of Bhdnkargarh from the Brahmans, a 
generation later, with the aid of a force from Delhi, marks, 
probably, a successful incursion of the Ghauhdn of Delhi 
into the realms of the Rdthor of Kanauj, when they were 
fititl at feud, ^^ while the Musalmans were pouring through 
the gates of India." 

The only other tradition which I had time to note tells 
of the settlement of Jagsara, the displacement of Gaurs by 
a branch of the Bais of Daundia Khera, and the origin of 
the Bhardwan taluqa. " A thousand or twelve hundred 
years ago," it runs, ** the greater part of the pargana was 
held by Jhojhas. Then it came under the sway of a Kanauj 
r&ja, Mandhdta, who settled at Jagsara and held a Jagg, or 
memorial celebration of the marriage of Rdma and Sita. 
At Parsa, close by, was his kitchen (Pdrwas). His domi* 
nion lasted a long time. One day an astrologer foretold 
that he would be struck by a thunderbolt. And when the 
rdja asked how he might escape so terrible a doom, he was 
told to build a hundred and one wells and dig a hundred and 
one tanks. And he followed this counsel, and in one of thei 
wells he set up a golden image of himself. And some say 
the image was made of wheaten flour (dta), and he and his 
pandit lived and prayed in the well. And at last the bolt 
fell, and struck the image and hurled it down to the nether 
hell (patdl). Then the rdja made over his realm to the 
Graurs, into whose clan he had married, and left Jagsara and 
settled himself at Manwdn, across the Gumti. And when 
h6 had died at Manwdn the Gaurs succeeded to his domain. 
And while they held the land, a Bais of Daundia Khera, a 
descendant in the fifth generation of Rdja Tilok Chnnd, Ram 
Chandar by name, who had married into thef family of the^ 



156 



HAHDOI SRTLIIISNT RBPOBT. 



Gaur rdja, came and settled amoDp: them. So sturdy iii 
he and astute tbat he acquired great power and inflaatf 
among them. And ai the last be rose to be the leaderot 
their army, and seized their domain and lorded over it hoi' 
self. 

*^ And he slew the Gaur Jdi whose stronghold was at Ala 
Edkemau, and who ruled the laud around through the Btf 
and established himself in his stead And R^m Chandaikii 
three sons, Alsukh Uiie, Lakm Rde and Kaas. And ooe^t 
them took Baugalpur and was called Bangdli ; from him b 
sprung Rdja Elandhir Singh of Bbardwan. And another MJ 
Fipargdon and was known as Piparha ; from . him are spro! 
Laiq Sing of Mandauli and Sdhib Singh and Raghhar Sb^ 
ofKakra. And the third took Bhaira Majhgdon and i 
styled Bhairbia ; from him are descended the zamiodais 
Atrauli and Jagsara. Still may you see the great bricb( 
the palace of the rdja of Jagsara. Of them are built 
houses of the zimiindars. And ever and unon the ph 
man'8 share strikes against one or other of the hundred 
one wells. Was not one brought to light last year?*' 

Not very much is to be got out of this tradition. Oft 
Jhojhas very little is known. The census report shows 
of them in Oudb, but in Bulandsbabr and Aniipshahr theyi 
helieved to be converted slaves of Rdtbors, Chauhdns, 
Tunwars. They arc excellent cultivators, and the com 
proverb is '^employ a Jhojha as your ploughman and you 
sit at home and play backgammon." {Elliot's OlossQry^ /, 1! 
As they are not allowed to intermarry with converted I 

{mts, it seems clear tbat they occupied the same plaeei 
ocal history as the Bhdrs, Thatberas, and Bajpasias. Ind 
north -east corner of the adjacent pargana of Malihabad 
country occupied by them was called tappa Ratan 
they had two large forts in IVldl and Ant, of which a huge 
and the foundations of one of the walls still remain ([ 
now Report^ pargana Malihabad). Mr. Butts thinks 
are converted Bhdrs, " who, with no leaders of their own — 
the invasion and defeat of their R^ja Kans of Kansmandi 
Sayyad Sdldr, yielded to the threats of the Musalmans rti| 
embraced their faith. This is the only way of accounting M 
them. They are the last people that remain in tradutel 



HABDOr SETTLEMENT REPORT. 153 

Gya to Pataliputra (Patha), from Pataliputra to Ajodhya, and 
from Ajodhya to Eanauj. Westwards the star of empire took 
its way at the time when Buddhist supremacy was still 
mounting. Westwards, from Ajodhya in the east, the Eurmis 
of our humble legend followed in the wake of the Buddhist 
emperor, and obtained land and protection in the neighbour- 
hood of his great capital at Eanauj on condition of their 
throwing up and garrisoning one of a chain of earthworks to 
link Eanauj with the great fortress of Ajodhya. 

The episode of the Banjdra and the Ndg confirms this 
view. The Ndg, who in the imagination of the ignorant 
Banjdra, lay coiled at the bottom of the tank, its presence 
only revealed by the broad leaves- of the sacred lotus, was 
but the embodiment of the memories of the departed race 
of Naga rdjas, those " ruling powers who had cultivated the 
arts of luxury to an extraordinary degree, and yet succeeded 
in maintaining a protracted struggle against the Aryan 
invaders." ♦ • • " These NAgas or serpent worshippers, who 
lived in crowded cities and were famous for their beautiful 
women and exhaustless treasures, were doubtless a civilized 
people, living under an organized Government. ♦ ♦ ♦ It 
may be conjectured that prior to the Aryan invasion the 
N4ga rdjas exercised an imperial power over the greater 
part of the Panjdb and Hindustan. The clearance of the 
jungle at Indarprastha (Delhi) . was effected by the expulsion 
of the Ndgas. One of the heroes of the Mahdbh^rata had 
an amour with the daughter of a Ndga rdja. The Aryan 
conquest of Praydga (Allahabad) and other parts in India 
. are mythically described as a great sacrifice of serpents. ♦ ♦ ♦^ 
To this day traces of the Ndgas are to be found in numer- 
ous sculptures of the old serpent gods, and in the nomen- 
clature of towns and villages. In Bengal barren wives creep 
into the jungle to propitiate the serpent of a tree with an- 
offering of milk, in the simple faith that by the favour of the 
serpent deity they may become mothers. ♦ ♦ ♦ There arc 
strong reasons to suspect that the worship of the snake and 
the practice of snake-charming formed important elements 
in an old materialistic religion, which may at one time have 
prevailed amongst the Dravidian populations, and of which 
the memory still lingers throughout the greater part of 
India." {ff heeler's History oj India ^ Ill.y 56). 

20 u 



158 nARDOI SXTTLEMBKT BEPOHP. 

had (lociJed th.it the Kahih is the Raineanga or Sai: — ^* Wl 
lie (Sultdn Malimiid) reached the hanks of the Junini, I 
Jaipdl, who had so often fled before bis troops, and who \ 
now come to assist Nanda, encamped in face of the Soiti 
but there was a deep river between them, and no one pta 
over without the Stilton's permission. But it so happei 
that eight of the royal guards of Mahrndd's armjbiTi 
crossed tlie river together, they threw the whole army off 
Jaipdl into confusion and defeated it. Piir Jaip^I with a i 
infidels escaped. The eight men, not returning to the Sulti 
advanced against the city of Bdri, which lay io the Tieiar 
Having found it defenceless, they plundered it and pulled dai 
the huathen temples " 

" Nizdm-ud-din," says SirH. Elliot, " is the only ai 
who states this. His account is fully confirmed by the i 
ment of Abii Rihdn, that Bdri became the Hindu capital 
the loss of Kauauj. Firishta says that these eight mut 
course have been officers, each followed bj his owno 
He gives no name to the city which was plundered." I 
p., 463). Utbi*s account of the battle, a contribution to ^ 
history, may be quoted in full :— 

'^ Afler the expedition against the Afghdns the Si 
turned again towards Hind with his bold warriors, wl 
greatest pleasure was to be in the saddle, which they regii 
as if it were a throne ; and hot winds they looked on all 
freshing breezes, and tiie drinking of dirty water as so 
pure wine, being prepared to undergo every kind of pri^ 
and annoyaoce. When he arrived in that country he gi 
quarter to all those who submitted, but slew those 
opposed him* lie obtained a large amount of booty I 
he reached the river known by the name of JSdhib. It 
very deep and its bottom was muddy, like tar used for 
ing scabby animals, and into it the feet of horses and 
sank deeply, so the men took otf their coats of mail and 
themselves naked before crossing it. 

" Piir Jaipdl was encamped on the other side of the rirt 
as a measure of security, in consequence of this sudden ai 
with his warriors dusky as night, and his elephants all ca 
soned. He showed a determination to resist the passage 
the Sultdn, but at night he was making preparations to 



HABDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 159 

*down the river. When the Sultdn learnt this, from Avhich 
tlie weakness of his enemy was apparent, he ordered iuBated 

^ skins to be prepared and directed some of his men to swim 
over on them. Jaipdl, seeing eight men swimming over to that 
distant bank, ordered a detachment of bis army accompanied 
hy five elephants to oppose their landing, but the eight men 
plied their arrows so vigorously that the detachment was not 
able to effect that purpose. When the Sultdn witnessed the 
full success of these men, he ordered all his soldiers who could 
swim to pass over at once, and promised them henceforward 
a life of repose after that day of trouble. First his -own per- 
sonal guards crossed this difficult stream, and they were fol- 
lowed by the whole army. Some swam over on skins, some 
were nearly drowned, but eventually all landed safely ; and, 
praised be God ! not even a hair of their horses' tails was hurt, 
nor was any of their property injured. When they had all 
reached the opposite bank, the Sultdn ordered his men to 
mount their horses and charge in such a manner as to put 
the enemy to flight. Some of the infidels asked for mercy 
after being wounded, some were taken prisoners, some 
were killed and the rest took to flight, and two hundred and 
seventy gigantic elephants fell into the hands of the Musal- 
mans." 

Can it be doubted that the river in whose vicinity was the 
city of Bdri was neither the Rdmganga, which is out of the 
direct route fromELanauj, nor the Sai, which, except in the 
rains, is too narrow and shallow to present any obstacle, but 
the Gumti? 

In the mythical episode of the threatened thunderbolt 
and the hundred and one tanks and wells may be traced, pro- 
bably, the astuteness of the Brahman priest, who saw that in the 
development of the agricultural resources of the domain lay 
his own best chance of enrichment ; that the rdja's enterprise 
would alone secure such develo))ment ; and that the rdja was 
too slothful to stir in the matter till worked on through his 
fears. The fall of the thunderbolt may perhaps be the mythical 
equivalent of a fresh shock from the Muhammadan invader, 
necessitating a further move westwards. The Sitapur history 
should throw further light on Rdja Mandbrita's settlement at 
JAsLnwin^ and the rise, decline^ and fall of Bdri. 



IGO HABDOI SEITLEKEKT BSPOBT. 

The mention of Rdm Chandar, Bais, of Daundia KkeOi* 
as fifth in descent from Tilok Gband, enables us to fix the dik 
of his displacement of the Gaurs. Mr. Benett bss shown ■ 
his brilliant monograph on the Rae Bareli clans that the am- 
age length of a generation in the Bais families was betweer 
twentv-two and twent v-four years. He has also fixed the te 
of Tilok Chand as contemporaneous with the down&U of At 
Jannpur dynasty in 1476 A.D. or 1478. Rdm Chandar tliet 
migrated from Daundia Ehera to Bhardwan between a hundnd 
years and a hundred and twenty years after this date, or from 
1586 to 1596, towards tlic end of the reign of Akbar. Tfe 
powerful house of the R^os of Baiswdra had been founded it 
Daundia Khera shortly after the general conversion to Hi* 
hammadanism during the preceding reign. 

'* DeoRde*' (grandson of Tilok Chand) "orhissonBhurar 
Das separated from the main stock, and, receivine Danndit 
Khera and four other villages as their share of the ramilj pro- 
perty, founded the subsequently powerful house of the bfibos 
or raos of Bniswdra. It is probable that their propinquity to 
the throne and the personal character of their chiefs from the 
first gave them great influence, as we find them very shortly 
afterwards contending on equal terms with ther^jas of Muir- 
niau. The division probably took place shortly after the 
general conversion just described. The end of Akhar's reign 
was a season of great vitality among the Rajput families, which 
showed itself after the usual fashion by the prosecution of the 
old, and the successful establishment of new family feads. 
It is probable that the dearth of history during this reieii 
may be ascribed to the firm and enlightened rule of the 
great emperor. When the reins became relaxed, the whole 
district was thrown into confusion,." (The Rae Bareli ClaM, 
p. 2G). 

Raja Jaj, Gaur, of the legend, is probably RAja Tez Singhi 
Rahman Gaur, with whom, according to the Malihabad aceouot, 
Ram Chandar took service. The same source makes him 
marry into the family of the Fanwars of Itaunja. {Lucknow 
Hfpor/y pnrgana Alaliababad,) 

81. IIardoi, Pargana Bangar — Tahsil Hardoi. — Har- 
doi, the headquarters of the Hardoi district, lies on the Oadh 



HARDOI rfRTl'LEMENT HKPOKT. 101 

il Roliilkliaiul Railway, sixty-three miles from Lucknow 
il thirty-niue from Slidiijahdnpur. It is thirty-six miles 
5t from Farukhabad and thirty-seven west-south-west from 
;apur. After the re-occupation it was selected, apparently 
' no other consideration than the centrality of its .position, 
the sadr station of the district. It has a population of 
56, of whom 2,027 are cultivating and 4,290 non-cultivat- 
; Hindus, and 839 are Mukammadans. Chamdrs, Chamar 
urs, and Gaurs preponderate among the Hindus.' 

Unlike the other towns of the district, there is very little 
ancient or modern interest about the place. Tradition 
ces the name to Hardeo B(iba, a devotee reputed to have 
3d here more than a thousand vears a«:o. An ancient tree 
pointed out as marking the spot where he lived, and in 
'ol)er and March a small mela is held at it in his honour. 
Dtber tale derives it from a Thathera chieftain named Rdja 
•ndkas. The fact that the debris of a Thathera fort are 

to be seen, in the shape of a high irregular khera cover- 
»b(mt sixeetn acres, to the south-west of the present town,. 
rxe the road from Sdndi enters it, lends probability to the 
^r derivation. The town itself is largely built of bricks 

out of the old Thathera remains, and traces of their 
apation are continually cropping up here as elsewhere 
► ughout this interesting district. 

The present town appears to have been founded some 
^n hundred years or more n^o by a body of Chamar 
Ja from Nfirkanjari near Indore, who, under their 
"Br Sdle Singh, drove out the Thatheras, destroyed their 
■'ess, and, as usual, settled themselves down close to its 



The place had no local importance before it was made a 
station. Now there are the usual civil buildings, kacberi, 
^ station, jail, school, dispensary, and sessions house, 
^^\l as the sub:divisional office of the tahsildar. The 
^1 is an angle-vernacular one, averaging 109 pupils, 
r^^ is a branch school with 44 boys. A hi- weekly mar- 
B^ held on Sundays and Wednesdays in Hardeoganj . There 
1^9 noAsonry apd 1,294 m.ud hquses in the town. The 
%te is healthy and seems tp. be.specvilly nd^ptedto . the 

81 H 



iiii HAKUOI SKTTLKMKKT HBPOUT. 

production of tiiio tViiit : ponchcB, mangoes^ grnpcs auJonuu' 
are exceptionally good. 

There is the usual municipal committee, and its ineoi 
is raised by an octroi. The railway journey from LucbN 
is four hours, and from Shdhjahdopur two liours andaqA 
ter. 

82. Hatuaur A— Par^rawa Sandixa — TahsUSAmm- 
(2,018 inhabitants ) A Chamdr village of 51 1 mud boo« 
10 miles north*we8t from Sandila. It was founded a Imnln 
years ago by the groat-grandfather of Bh^rath Singli,tl| 
Bais taluqdar of Atw.i. The ba»lr contaius fifty or 
petty shops. There is a <laily market. 

S3. .JAXj<LAn\D—Pargann ^lALLAWyifK — Tahiti 
ok^ilM. — Population 2,051, mostly Kanaujia Brahman& 
small town of 363 mud houses, six miles south-easi 
Mallanwdn. A market is held on Tuesdays and Sati 
at Sultdnganj, a Pathdn hamlet demarcated with Jah 
The proprietors are Kurmis, whose ancestor Zdlim 
gained it for good service many generations ago. 

8t. KAcnnANDAU Pargana — Tahtil Bilqram. — A 
lying tract of thirty -four villages thrown up by the 
westward recession of the Ganges. It lies at the 
western extremity of the Iiilgriim tahsil and of the 
district. The Gauges flows along the whole of its 
side, separating it from pargana Kanaui of Fanikhahnd. 
the south it is bounded by pargana Bangarmau of 
Unao, and on the north and east by pargana Mall&nw^ 
greatest breadth is not quite eight, its greatest length 
and a half miles. Its area is forty-seven square *' 
which twenty-eight are cultivated. 

The whole pargana is tardi, and lies about thirtf I 
lower than the country to the east of it, beyond the i 
cliii that marks the eastern edge of the ancient bed dFl 
Ganges. It is intersected by numerous small streani 
which the chief are the Kalydni, the Kama, the Bharb^l 
Gdha and the Sota. This hist, as its name shows, is a 
water of the Ganges* They rarely retain water long ei 



HABDOI SETTLEMENT RRFOBT. 163 

to be of much use for irrigation. Water is almost every- 
where near the surface, in some villages only six and seven 
feet below it, while on the opposite side of the Ganges, the 
liigh bank, the wells are from fifty to sixty feet deep. The 
assistant settlement officer, Mr. C. W. McMinn, minutely 
examined this and the Bilgrdm pargana, and found that each 
of them divided naturally into three " chaks " or strips : — 

'^ (1) The villages lying along the bank of the Ganges. 
The common features of these are absence of clayey soil and 
of irrigation, accounted for by the fact that the soil consists 
of river washings, and that the water-level is so near the 
surface that percolation from beneath supplies the place of 
wells and jhils. 

'^(2) At a distance of from two to five miles from the 
river bank there runs a sandy elevation, sometimes rising 
into hills, sometimes mere arenaceous slopes. The villages 
on this are sometimes all sandy, but more generally will 
have a comer of very good loam beside some old river chan* 
nel. The common features of this chak are a large propor- 
tion of sandy soil, limited and costly irrigation from deep 
wells lined with reeds, absence of Kdchhis, and valuable 
crops. 

"(3) Beyond the above elevation the ground again 
sinks ; jhils make their appearance ; there is much clay ; rice 
is largely raised ; water is met with at a distance of from ten 
to twenty feet ; much of the land is irrigated, and all can be 
at a slight expense." 

The greater part of the pargana is liable to be flooded 
by the Ganges. After heavy rains the autumn (kharif) crop 
is ruined ; but in such seasons, if the fioods fall soon enough 
to allow of timely sowings, the spring harvest is exception- 
ally rich. The pargana is crossed by the unmetalled road 
from Mehndighdt near Kanauj to MalUnwdn., and by the new 
road from the same gh&t to Sftapur vid Mddhoganj. Cart* 
tracks lead up to the following ferries on the Ganges :— > 
Xnkinghdt, near Sard^ Rustam Khan on the Grand Trunk 
£oad, JBiridghat opposite to Daipur, and Rdjghdt. The staple 
products are barley, occupying more than a third of tho 



lf\] HAPPOl SETTLEMENT BEFOBT. 

total crop area ; wheat and millet, covcriui^ about a founli; 
and rice aud bajra, a sixtb. The remaining foarth con^ 
mainly of gram, arhar, aud 8U2:arcane. The suj^rcane is noi 
of good quality. A very little poor iadigo and cotton ave 
raised. Tobacco and opium are scarcely planted at all. Tlw 
climate is damp, and wheu the floods arc subsiding fcTeris 
very prevalent. 

The Chandels, to whom the pargana originalljr belongeJ, 
still hold sixteen villages. Of the other eighteen, Sbeiklis 
(converted Chandels) own eight, Brahmans five, Kayathstwo, 
and Panwdrs, Xhirs aud Chamdrs each one. The imperfect 
])attidari tenure obtains in eighteen villages ; fifteen are 
zamindari ; one is taluqdari. Kxcluding cesses, the Govern- 
ment demand amounts to Ks. 33,782, aud falls at Ke. 1-15-5 
per acre of cultivation ; Re. 1-2-4 per acre of total area; 
Es. 15-0-2 per plougli ; Ks. 2-5-4 per head of agricultmal 
and lie. 1-10-5 per head of total population. 

Kachhandau is sixth among the Hardoi parganas in den- 
.sity of population. Its total ])opulation of 20,459 gives 435 
to the square mile. The Hindus are 18,120 to 2,339 Ho- 
hammadans. Of the Hindus a fourth are Chamdrs and Ahirs ; 
Chhattris are a sixth ; Murdos and Kisdns make up nearly 
another sixth ; a fact which implies that the agriculture of the 
tract is above the average. Males to females are 11,226 to 
!i,223, and agriculturists to non-agriculturists 14,463 10 5,996. 
The only market is at Kaghoi)ur ; market day is Thursday. 
At Uaghopur, too, is the only school in the pargana, a village 
one, averagin*]^ 38 i)Upils. At Biriaghat on the Ganges a 
larire bathing mcla is held on the 30th of Kdrtik and the 
25th of Jeth ; about 15,000 persons assemble. la Chait, 
on the 8th day after the Holi, a m<Sla is held at R&gho- 
pur in honour of Gancsb ; it is attended by some 4,000 
]>crsons. 

Tlic pargana is part of the kachh or moist low-lying 
country alonu the bank of the Ganges, as opposed to the 
hrmnnr or div upljind tract away from the river ; hence its 
name KacbbandiLU. It is said to have been made into a par- 
;:an:] bv SKer Sh:ih tlircc hundred and thirty years ago. To 
vuvvrc ilifj Cbjind* Is imo submission he is said to have posted 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 165 

a revenue collector at Rdghopur, and to have put him in 
charge of fifty-two villages, taken out of parganas BiU 
gram, Malldnwdn, and Bdogarmau. In the Ain Akbari it is 
mentioned as belonging to Sarkdr Lucknow, as containing 
22,066 bighas, and paying 4,30,596 ddms of land revenue and 
4,460 ddms of cesses. I'he Chandels are recorded as the 
zamindars. A detachment of five hundred foot soldiers was 
posted in the pargana. 

Kaclihandau was originally occupied by Thatheras. A 
body of Chandels migrated from Shiurdjpur in the Cawnpore 
district to Kanauj in quest of service while a Hindu king still 
reigned at Kanauj. The Kanauj rdja deputed them to cross 
the Ganges and drive out the Thatheras. They engaged the 
Thatheras at Tirwa Keoli and routed them with slaughter. 
To this day the braziers (Thatheras) of Bhagwantnagar speak 
of their lost possessions in Kachhandau aud Malldnwdn. The 
Chandels obtained by this conquest twenty -four villages, 
Tirwa Keoli being the chief. When Sher Shah marched from 
Jaunpur to Agra, circumcising and slaying all whom he met, 
the Chandels of Motidmau, Harpiira, and Baraichmau apos- 
tatized and became Shekhs to preserve their rights. They 
marry into the families of Ahbans, Raikwdrs, and Gahilwdrs 
in Bdngarmau, *who were cou verted at the same time. 

The above facts show that the Ganges must have shifted 
westward from its old bed at least eight hundred years ago. 
During the last two hundred years (if the qandngo is to be 
believed) eighteen of the fifty-two villages which in Sher Shah's 
time made up the pargana of Kachhandau have been washed 
away by the Ganges. Their names are said to be Aminpur, Ajit- 
pur, Ausangpur, Xdampur, Bahadurpur, Bahaudpur, Rdmpur, 
Klip -pur, Sundarpur, Sariii Mansur, Tsapur, Xdilpur, Fateh- 
pur Kdmu, Fdzilabad, Matarsenpur, Muhiuddinpur, Muhta- 
shimpur, and Nekpur. 

85. KALYiifNMAL Pargana — Tahsil Sandila. — This par- 
gana lies . on the right bank of the Gumti and comprises 
seventy-two villages. On the north the Gumti separates it 
from pargana. Aurangabad in Sftapur; on. the south and west 
it is bo.unded .by pargana. Sandda; on the east by pargana 
Gundwa. Twelve miles long by. seven broad at Jts longest 



I^'i UAhTyOl iTTTLEMZST BIPOBT. 

and broaoc-^t. it covers 63 square idiIcs, of which 41, or 63'X 
per cent., arc cultivated. The cultnrable area is 20*33 pci 
cr-nt.. and tho lia^ren area 13*92 of the whole. Only afitt 
of tiio soil 20 25 pf;r cent.) is rated as of the third c1mS| tbt 
is, li:rht and sandy (bbur). A fifth (24*98 per cent.) is mler- 
ed, in tiMf proportion of four parrs (19 83^ from 805 pondi 
and tnnks, and one part (5'15) from 441 wells ; 1*79 per eeiiL 
U under i^roves. Tne average area of cultiration to exb 
plou;rh i.s 7? acres. 

Its natural features are in no way remarkable. Like aii 
tlie country along the Guniti, its poorest side is towards tlie 
river, the land gradually improving towards the central lefd, 
and tailing off again as the next river or niUa is I4>praaclied. 
The IJaita nahi drains the south-western side of the panau: 
H cluster of jhils intcrf^persed with dh&k junc'Ie lies in de 
Houtli-east. There are no made roads, but the unmeldUed 
road from Sandila to lieniganj skirts the south-western bor- 
der and runs for al>out a mile within it. 

The staple products are wheat and barley, which ocei- 
I)ied at survey more than two-fifths of the cultivated aiet; 
gram and arhnr covered nearly another fifth ; the rest was 
chiefly cro[)pcd with mdsh, moth, bdjra, ju^, linseed, and 
kodo. The areas returned as under sugarcane, cotton, poppy, 
indigo and tobacco were respectively only 320, 195, 86, 78 
and 44 acres. 

Climate and productiveness are considered to be 
average. 

Kankar is found near the village of Kalydnmal. 

Of the 72 villages, 63 are owned by Sakarwdr Chhattiis, 
1 l)y HaiH, H by Kdyaths, 1 by Sukul Brahmans, 2 by 
Sayyads. Only six villages are taluqdari, in 29 the tenure 
is zamindari, in 37 imperfect pattidari. The Government 
demand, excluding cesses, is Bs. 46,169, a rise of 11 per cent 
on the summary assessment. It falls at Ke. 1-12-6 on the 
cultivated area; Re. 1-2-3 per acre of total area; Bs. 13*1-10 
per plough ; Bs. 3-6-8 per bead of agricultural and Be. 1-13-ft 
per head of total population. 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT BEPORT. 167 

Population presses at the rate of 395 to the square mile, 
or a total of 24,875. Hindus to Muhammadaus are 23, U 5 
to 1,760 ; males to females 13,277 to 11,598 ; agriculturists 
to non-agriculturists 13,511 to 11,364. Chamdrs are a fifth 
of the whole, Brahmans nearly a fifth, F&ais a tenth, Chhattris 
are onlv 1,744. 

A village school has been established at Kalydnmal. 

On the first Sunday in Bhddon some fourteen thousand 
people assemble at the spot known as Uattia Haran, a mile to 
the south-west of KalydnmaL The usual Dhanak jas^g m6la 
is held ut Kalydnmal in Aghan and is largely attended. 

The pargana is not mentioned in the Ain*i-Akbari. It 
seems to have been included in Ak bar's time in pargana Rahima- 
bad of Lucknow, and not to have been made into a separate 
pargana till the reign of Xlamgfr, when a fort was built at 
Kalydnmal and an amil with a gun and some troops quarter- 
ed there. The traditional history, as far as I have been able 
to collect it, is meagre. The oldest event referred to by it is 
the return of Rdm Uhandar from Ceylon. Rathaulia, the an* 
cient name of Kalydnmal, is traced to the staying of his chariot 
(rath) St this spot. Here he halted and visited the sacred 
pool of Hattia Haran, that he might wash away the sin of 
slaying the demon Rdwan. Another local tradition tells that 
the sacred tank was called Panchhatr, and that he bathed in 
it to get rid of a hair which had grown in the palm of his hand 
when he slew Rdwan, and that ever since the pool has been 
called Hattia Haran, or the Hurt-dispeller. According to 
Mr. Wheeler, the Rdm who slew Rdwan was not Rdm Chandar 
of Ajudhia, but a later hero, Rdm of the Dekhan. " This 
Rdm of the Dekhan is represented to have carried on a great 
religious war against a rdja named Rdwan, who was sovereign 
of the island of Ceylon. Rdwan and his subjects are termed 
Rakshas or demons, but there is reason to believe that they 
represent the Buddhists, and if so, the war could not have been 
carried on during the Yedic period but during the Brahma- 
nical revival, which seems to have commenced between the 
sixth and eighth centuries of the Christian era, and to have 
continued until our own time." {History of India ^ 1 1 Lepage 
51, note.) In this view Rdm's visit to Hattia Haran must 
have taken place later than 700 A.D. It was a sacred spot 



h\^ llAkliul SK'lTLKMKNi' RKI'UUT. 

Iicturc lie viHitod it, or lio would not liuve £;one tlieit. h 
seems to have l>cen one of the ancient Brahmauical hermita^ 
described in the Hdmayan. as old perhaps as Ajodhia itsell- 

The next c;limpse hy local tradition ia that of a Biji 
Kumdr from Baiswam expelling the Thiitheras and rulingonr 
ninety-four villA&ces from his fort at Kathauli, where noffe 
the deserted ruin called Wairi Dili. To him, nearly fe 
hundred years ago, came from Fat^hpur-Sikri a Sshm 
Chhattri of the name of Sim Mul, and became the naibordt 
puty of Rdja Kunidr. Some say that VIA^ Mai with the kb 
of a barber murdered his master and seized his domain ; oi 
that he succeeded peaceably to it on his master dying chiUks 
To Xdg Mai was born Kakal Mai. To Kakal Mai his "^ 
wife bore Kalydn Sah and Gog Sah, aud his seoond wife 
Rai. Kalydn Sdh and Gog SAh took as their share fifty 
villages and settled down atBathauli, side by side, and fi 
ed the adjacent settlements of Kalyanmal aud Goga Deo, 
Hat Raj took the remaining forty two villages. Two hu 
years ago Sakarw&rs of Goga Deo drove out the JulAhas 
Mahgdon in the south of the pargana. 

The pargana seems in primiHve times to have been 
border land of the Thaiheras and Arakhs, for while 
yiinmal Klias was held by Thatheras till they were disi 
by lidja Kumar Bais, the Chandels of Bhaunti, only six 
to the south-east, tell how between five and six hundred 
ago their ancestor Baldeo Sin<i:h marched thither from 
waichpur and expelled its primitive occupants, the Arakkj 

« 
The antiquities of the pargana are the pool at Hi 

liaran ; Wairi Dih, the remains of linja Kumar's fort ; K 

garb Dih, near Kalyanmal, site of an ancient slirine of Kfll 

Debi ; Panchabgir Mahadeo, also at Kalyiinnial, ** the Hi|1 

whereof is said to have been set up by Kdja Judhistir^aiidi 

ruined fort built for Alamgir's amil. 

80. KatiXri Pargana — Tahsil Bilgra'm — A n\ 
tract of eighty villages lying along the right bank ofl 
Ramganga and left of the Gauges between Fatehgaifa 
Kanauj. It is enclosed between parganas Pdli on the no 
Barwaa and Sdndi on the east, Khdkhatmau and Patamntf^ 



HARDOI SETTLKMENT REPORT. 169* 

f Farukhabad) on the west, arid on the south-west and south 
Bhojpur andT41igrdm(Farukabad) across the Ganges. Its 

freatest length is sixteen and breadth nine miles. The area is 
square miles, of which 61 are cultivated, or 67*45 per cent. 
The culturable area is 20*96 per cent.', and the barren area 
10*91 of the whole. Only 8*04 per cent, is rated as third 
elass. Not quite a sixth (15*94 per cent.) is artificially irri- 
gated, owing to the extreme moisture of the soil. Of the 
irrigated area rather more than half (8*85) is watered from 
1,117 wells, and rather less than half (709) from 352 tanks 
and ponds. 

The grove area (68 per cent.) is exceptionally low. The 
average area of cultivation to each plough, 12i^ acres, is 
exceptionally high. 

The natural features of the pargana explain this. Mr 
Elliott's description of the adjacent parganas of Khdkhatmau 
and Paramnasar in Farukhabad may be quoted as equally 
applicable to Katidri :— 

^^ The trans-Gangetic tract is entirely tardi or lowlands. 
No part of it is much above the level of the river-floods. 
Much of it is covered with water for two or three days to- 
gether, when the rains are heavy and the rivers high, and this 
water often leaves a deposit of sand behind. Some of the land 
is subject to constant erosion by the rivers, and the assessment 
of many villages is constantly varying with the varying 
area, as the rivers devour or cast up the culturable land." Af- 
ter mentioning the various channels which connect the Ganges 
and Rdmganga^ Mr. Elliott says : — ^^ Besides these channels 
there are several ^ sotas^' f.e., backwaters or side channels 
which run nearly parallel to their own rivers for a short way, 
or curve round and run into them agam. The Ganges, as 
becomes its great age, keeps sedately within its bed, and only 
rolls wearily from one side to another ; but the Rdmganga is 
a gambolling vagabond and wanders at his own sweet will over 
many miles of country, carving out beds capriciously for 
himself, and leaving them as iUogically. The most impor- 
tant effect of this contiguity to a complicated river-system is 
that the water is everywhere close to the surface. Irrigation 
by buckets worked by bullocks is unknown. The wells aro 

22 H 



170 



HARnOI BKTTLElfEKT KEPOKT. 



ull of the kind called ^ cInUias/— little pits in the grmuil 

or 10 feet deep, dup; in one or two days ; the sides of the mI 

are strengthened by a bin or rope of cotton and jb4o stdb 

bound together, :;.id wound round the well foradepAtf 

three or four feet, beginning from the place where witff 

begins to trickle. The depth of water is never more tks 

three or four feet ; it porcolateo slowly and is soon exlmstolf 

and the Wfdl has constantly to be cleaned of the sandwhii 

oozes in with it. TrrigHtion is effected b jr an earthet f^ i 

worked with a weighted lever, and slow as the mAdl 

exhaustion is, there are few ' chuhas ' which can be worked C0» 

tinuously the wliolc dnv, and the area irrigated is eeldm 

more than two biswas. At this rate it takes about s taf^l 

to irrigate an acre, and a cultivator can only water about! 

acres a y{\ir. These wells fall in every year and leave 

ly any trace behind. They can be dug almost everywl 

but there are many tracts in which the soil is too loose toi 

them without sloping the sides of the pit at a consic 

angle, an<l very large tracts of land are so natuialty 

that they hardly need them at all, except for the higgler 

of crops like opium. From this set of causes 

classes of effects arise. Whero the land is in 

of diluvion, and where it is swept over by water at 

flood times, the cultivator will not improve at all 

be is 10 constant danger of the land he worka 

being carried away, or the top-dressing of manure he 

down being washed off or covered with a coat of silt. 

the floods do not terrify him the land is highly improi 

and gives a large return to the class of men whoeanj' 

the fertile culture in its extremest development, and canb 

themselves all day about a few square yards of land. Hi 

a largo number of Kdchhis have settled here, and they 

out their peculiar system of cultivation with great si 

occupy very suiall areas, manure and water tbem thoroi 

and turn out really wonderful crops of opium and 

vegetables which they carry for sale to Farukhabad. 

other principal class of cultivators, Rajputs and Bi 

act on the opposite principle. Having no use to ^wIm 

their bullocks in irrigation, they use them to plough 

. quantity of land (the theoretical plough area being d 

. acres here against five acres in the hangar or highland 

vtbe.duiib), manure little, irrigate little^ but mako up 



HARDOI SfiTTLEHBMT REPORt. 171 

[■i 

Aife rior style of cultivation by a larger area of occupancy . 
^jCIiere is no land really unculturable in this tract except the 
•^rer beds ; there is no usar or land so impregnated with 
^^mlt as to produce no vegetation ; but there is much land ex- 
Jtremely sandy and almost valueless, and a little in which 

iliere is saline efflorescence enough not to kill the crops and 

^ grass altogether, but to make the land very bare and poor, 

^•mo that even under the stimulus of the present high prices 

^'('1870) it has remained uncultivated. Nothing is wanted 

fbr this land but water and manure.'' (Revenue Reporter^ 

Vol. IV., No. IL, p. 51.) 

Like these Farukhabad parganas Elatidri is intersected 
by streams and channels which in flood-time connect the 
Ganges and R&mganga. Its fertility is due to the nearness 
of the water to the surface and to the deposit of rich loam 
(seo) brought down by the rivers. The deposit of the 
Rdmganga is the most fertilising. In heavy floods the de- 
posit of seo is often eight fingers thick, sometimes as much 
as two feet In such seasons a bumper rabi compensates 
lor a ruined kharif. Very little labour is required for pre- 
paring the eeo to receive the seed — one- fourth only, the 
cultivators reckon, of the average labour expended else- 
where. 

The pargana abounds in a rich growth of grass of* 
▼arious kinds. The ^^ chaupatia" springs up freely in January 
and February, and is much esteemed by graziers for the 
quantity of milk yielded by kine pastured on it The '^ pata- 
wdr " abounds, so valuable for thatching, rope-making, and 
cane furniture. But the baneful '' sural " is also very pre- 
valent along the R^ganga and Ganges, a rank deep-rooted 
weed most difficult to extirpate. Mr. Elliott writes of 
it :-*-^^ It is greatly complained of, and is said to have 
increased much of late. In many places there is at least - 
as much ^ sural' as wheat in the wheat-fields, and its 
roots are so deep that it is quite beyond the power of an 
ordinary cultivator to extirpate it ; and if he did, the next « 
flood of the Ganges would leave fresh seeds of it in the ^ 
ground. If it does really increase, it will soon be as great 
an enemj to tbe agricultturistB as the ^ kans ' of the trans- 
JumQa." ' 



172 



IIARDOI SKTTLEHKNT RXTOBT. 



The staple products are wheat, barley, b4jni» indjiir. 
At survey wheat and barley cropped nearly half tke cib 
vated area, and bdjra and juar nearly a third. The iRH 
returned as under sugarcane, cotton, opiaxn, indigo im 
tobacco were respectively only 282, 139, 29, 8 and ^tcn 
As there are 2,385 Muruos in the pargana, either these cnf 
returns have been wrongly made up from the kIiasns,oc 
which is more prol^able, the growth of the richer crops Mi 
suppressed as the survey approached, or the amins (sr 
veyors) were induced to record inferior crops instead <tf ^ 
kachhiana ones. 

The climate is very damp, but not so unhealtkjij 
might be expected. 

There are no quarries, but kankar is found hereiii| 
there. 

Of the eighty vilkgcs 58^ are owned by Katiar CUil 
tris, 12 by Sombansis, 5 by Bachhils, 2^ by Bais, 1 by 6tf| 
and 1 by Dube Brahmans ; 19 belong to the taluqa of VA 
Sir llardeo Bakhsh, k.c.8.1., a good man and true, of Aijp 
pur ; in 4 the tenure is zamindari, in 57 imperfect patiidv 

The Government demand, excluding cesses, is Rs. 58,101 
a rise of 62*44 })er cent, on the summary assessme&L 1 
falls at the rate of Re. 1-8-4 on the cultivated acre ; Be. l^ 
per acre of total area; Rs. 18-14-6 per plough; Bs. T 
per head of agricultural and Re. 1-10-9 per head of 
population. 

The incidence of population, 35,164 80uIS| is 391 to 
square mile. Hindus to Muhammadans are 34,516 to 6il'> 

males to females 19,544 to 15,620 ; agriculturists to 
agriculturists 26,199 to 8,655. 

Brahmaus (6,310) and Ghhattris (5,145) pi^omiiato^ 
next come Cham^irs (4,450) and Kahdrs (2,912) ; then 
(2,883) and Muraos (2,335). 

Village schools have been established at Arjunpur (SSy 
Gauria (38), Admapur (28), Bcrijor (45), and Khasaura (33>M 



TfARDOl SETTLEMENT KErOET; 173 

r 



SaiaII m^iad are held in Bb&don at Bebsar in honour of an 
mncient Mah&deo, and in Asdrh at the ^'Debi" at Dhanamau. 



f 



« The pargana is not mentioned in the Atn-i-Akbari, 
^ liaving been included in pargana Sdndi till about fifty- five 
* years ago A few Pali villages were thrown into it when 
J constituted a separate pargana. 

' ' Historical sketch. — The traditional history of the par- 
gnua presents few features of interest. It shows in the back* 
ground the usual Thathera occupation. The dihs or 
deserted sites of their forts and villages are to be seen at 
Shidmpur, Baragdon, Mdrovi, Nagraura, Saia, Tenduapur^ 
Boran, and Bibiapur. Portions of tbe tract seem to have 
been held by Baihdr Ahfrs and Ohdnuks contemporaneously 
with the wider occupation by Thatheras. The displacement 
of these early tribes was effected by conquest by Somliansts 
from Sdntankhera (Sdndi) under Rdnh Randhir Singh, 
fidchhils from Barai Thana(in Shdhjahdnpur) under Udai and 
Tds, and Katidrs from Sonoria near Gwalior under Rde Deo 
Datt, ancestor in tbe twelfth generation of the present head 
^f the Katidr clan, lldja Hardeo Bakhsh, k.c.s.i. 

The date of Rae Deo's conquest may be put at about three 
hundred years ago. His clan were then called Ttimdrs. 
Family feuds led him to migrate from Sonoria to Singh! 
Rdmpur (in Farukhabad) on the Ganges ; thence he gradually 
fought his way eastward. At Khasaura he sided with the 
Baihdr Ahfrs and crushed their rivals the Dhdnuks ; then 
turning on the Baihdrs he smote and spared not till they 
accepted his dominion. After establishing himself in Kha- 
saura he attacked the Thatheras and drove them out of 
Shidmpur, Saia, Bardgaon, Tenduapur, and Boran. A career 
of massacre earned for his clan the name of Kati&rs (slaugh- 
terers). The domain thus acquired has been handed down 
from father to son to the present day. The late chief, Banjit 
Singh, ninth in descent from his merciless ancestor, Bke Deo, 
lived in a state of constant warfare with the ex-govemmeht 
Sir W. Sleeman thus speaks of him : — 

*'The estflite of Elatidri, on the left-hand side of the 
ioad .towards the B&mganga and Ganges, is held by Banjit 



174 HARDOI 8ITTL11IBNT BXPOBT.- 

Singh of the Eatidr Rajput elam His estate yields to Ut 
about one hundred and twenty thousand rupees a year, «li|| 
he is assessed at only sixteen thousand. While Hikh 
Mehndi was in banishment at Fatehgarh, about fiftees je« 
ago, he became intimate with Banjft Singh of K^ifai; 
and when he afterwards became minister in 1837, he it aii 
to have obtained for him the king's seal and signature to % 
perpetual lease at this rate, from which is deducted a tdtik 
of four thousand, leaving an actual demand of only twehi 
thousand. Were such grants in perpetuity respected in Oidh, 
the ministers and their minions would soon sell the whole 4 
his majesty's dominions and leave him a beggar. He has att 
yet been made to pay a higher rate ; not, however, oat of 
regard for the king s pledge, but solely out of that for Banjitfi 
fort of Dharampur, on the bank of the Ganges, his araiei 
bands, and his seven pieces of cannon. He has been diligendj 
employing all his surplus rents in improving his defenaiif 
means, and, besides his fort and guns, ia said to have a laigt 
body of armed and disciplined men. He has seized upoa a 
great many villages around belonging to weaker propneton^ 
and is every year adding; to his estate in this way. In this 
the old dmil, Hafiz Abdullah, acquiesced solely because In 
had not the means nor the energy to prevent it. He got liii 
estate excluded from the jurisdiction of the local autnoritM 
and placed in the Huzur Tahsil. Like others of his dan 
who reside on the border, he has a villa^ in British teiritoiy 
to reside in unmolested when charged by the Oudh antho* 
rities with heavy crimes and balances. He had been attack- 
ed and driven across the Ganges in 1837 for contumacy and 
rebellion, deprived of his estate, and obliged to reside at Fa- 
tehgarh, where he first became acquainted with Hakim MehodL 
The Oudh Government has often remonstrated against tht 
protection which this contumacious and atrocious madholder 
receives from our subjects and authorities." 



It mav be doubted whether the epithet atrodons 
ever deserved. At any rate the present generation of Oodk 
Governors is glad to forget the contumacy of Banjit Sing^ 
while gratefully remembering the unswerving loyalty of Ida 
honoured great- grandson. Raja Hardeo Bakhsh, C.S.I. In 
the dark davs of"l857 this gallant gentleman was as trae aa 
Steel to the' English Government. To his genenma hdp tba 



HAHBOT SKTTLKMK^'T REPORT. 175 

lief ciyil officers of two districts, the Collectors of Farukha- 
\d and Budaon, owed their lives. The story has been well 
"Id in Mr. R.M. Edwards' Reminiscences of a Bengal Civilian. 
he title of RAja, the Star of India, a jdgir, and other favours 
*ark the gratitude of the British Government for his loyal aid 
\ the hour of need. 

87 . Kaundha— Pargana B/fwAN— Tahsd H aedoi.— Po* 
ttlation 2,186, chiefly Chamdrs. An agricultural village of 282 
iud houses, five miles north-west from Hardoi, on the Shaha* 
ad road. Market days Mondays and Fridays. A village 
^hool was established in 1867 ; average number of pupils 40# 

£aundha is owned by Chamar Gaurs, whose ancestors 
^possessed the Thatheras in the latter days of the Kanauj 
ingdom. The Gaurs of Kaundha are notorious for con? 
unacy and evil livelihood. In the Nawibi they were always 
I trouble. In 1841 they killed the son of Maulvi Farid-ud- 
Ln, chakladar of Gopamau. In retaliation their village was 
arnt. They are a refractory, quarrelsome, ill-conditioned 
it> their one redeeming quality (owed probably to the fact 
lat they are Rajputs in name rather than in reality) is that 
lej do not murder their daughters. 

. 88. Khajurahra — Pargana Bakqau — Tahiti QABDOh--^ 
opulation 3,305, chiefly Chamdrs. The central village of 
M Khajurahra taJdqa of Thdkur Ldlta Bakhsh, Chamar unor, 
.aul^ south from Hardoi ; 536 mud houses. A petty market 
I beld on Mondays and Thursdavs in the adjacent hamlet of 
ittthri. Khajurahra has been held by the Chamar Gaurs ever 
iboe their ancestor Ganga Singh, sumamed Kdna (one^yed), 
rove out the Thatheras. (See Bdwan pargana). 
f . . . 

89. Khasauba— .Par/D^ana KatijCbI'-^ Tahiti BnjQRXu^ 
2,648 inhabitants) A well-to-do Ahlr village of 399 mad houses 
j^ng on the left bank of the Rdnsganga, 12 miles north- weft 
pom S^mdi on the road to Farokhabad; market days Soad^a 
nd Wednesdays. 

Khasaura was formerlv occupied hy the Tbatheran and 
ktih&r Ahirs. Ou their destmction by the Katiir &t|pitt« 
t was allotted to Kirat Sdb^ aoceator of the loyal Bi^ 8if 



17(1 IIARDOI RITTLRlffKlfT RKPORT^ 

Ilardco Baklish, k.c.s.i , to whose tali&qa Khasaun 
name. 

In 1857 Mr. R. M. Edwards, Collector of Bndaiu, ai 
Probyn, Collector of FarukhabacI, with Mr. Probyn'siife 
four children, were sheltered in a farmyard in KhasoB 
longing to Thdkur Kesri Singh, an uncle of Rija Htf 
Bakhsh. Two of the little ones died and are boned u 
The rest were hidden there and in the neighbouring 
of Rdmpura from the 14th June to the Ist September, 
tliey escaped by boat to Cawnpore (^vide " RemUiKM 
a Bengal Civilian, '' pages 197.292). 

90. KuciiLA Buna — Pargana SIndi — 7b>Mf BiloA 
Population 2,104, chiefly Raikwirs of the Basil gofc 
agricultural village of 350 mud houses lying on therigkU 
4)f the Rumganga, four miles above its confluence viA 
Ganges. 

Raikwdrs from Kusamkhor in Farukhabad obtaiafili 
village by conquest from the Thatheras before the fl 
Kanauj, and have retained it ever since. 

91. KursatKala'n — Pargana MalIs/ChjwXs TaM 

grXm. — Population 2,689, chiefly Kanaujia Brahmaosiil 
village ; is owned by Kurmis, and lies near the right h 
of the Sai, nine miles north-east from Mdlldawan ; itcoi 
«524 mud houses. A market is held on Wednesdajii 
Saturdays at the adjoining hamlet of Mirsaganj. 

The Thatheras held Kursat Kalin till about the Di 
of the twelfth century, when a body of Kurmis from 6h 
and Bdrha, under the leadership of Bhim and Barsu i 
them out and themselves settled here. 

92. KuBsBLiy Pargana South SXba — Tahstl Habd 
Population 2,898, mostly Pdsis ; an agricultural village 
mud houses, a little off the Pihdni road, elevea muea i 
from Hardoi. 

It is said to have been founded about four hundred 
ago by DiwAn Singh and Jagat Singh, Chamar C 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 177 

Ascendants of Kuber Sdh, the conqueror of the Thatheras. 
•ee Bawan pargana.) 

93. LoN a'ra — Pargana SakdIla — TahsU S ANDfLA — Fo- 
liation 2,947. — A Nikumbh village of 520 mud houses, 
Q miles north-west of Sandila ; noticeable only as being the 
8t seat of the Nikumbhs, when 300 years ago th^y moved 
uthwards from Muhamdi under Jhagrd Sdh, and drove out 
e Eamangars. (See pargana Sandila). 

94. Mahga'wa'n— Pnrgawa Kalya'nmal — Tahdl San- 
la — A Sakarw4r village of 394 mud houses, population 
)41, nine miles north of Sandila in the heart of pargana 
dy^nmal. Its inhabitants have a local reputation for 
nesty in conducting arbitrations. Market days Mondays 
d Thursdays. 

95. Malla'nwa'n Pargana — Tahiti Bilgba'm — This 
rgana consists of 123 villages. It is bounded by parganas 
ngar on the noirth, Bilgrdm on the north -west, Kachhandau 

the south-west, and B^ngarmau (Unao^ on the south, 
nie the Sai separates it from parganas Sandila and Bdlamau 

the east. Its greatest length and breadth are 16 and 15^ 
les, and it has an area of 136 square miles. 

Three-fifths (60-70 per cent.) is cultivated ; a sixth 
S'21 per cent.) is culturable. About a fifth (18* 11 per 
it.) is returned as barren. A fourth of the area is rated as 
ird-class, that is, sandy and light Two-fifths of the colti- 
ted area is irrigated, rather more than half the irrigated 
^ being watered from wells, and the rest from tanks and 
nds 

The area under groves, 4*89 per cent, of the whole, is 
3 highest in the district. The average area of cultivation 
each plough is 6| acres. 

Crossing the pargana from west to east the natural fea- 
!m which present themselves are these : On the west 
frards the Ganges is a strip of low tarai or ' kachh' 
id| which, like the adjacent pargana of Kachhandau, 
8 been scooped by the Ganges out of the high land 

23h 



\'6 HAhDuI :>KTTLKSfEKT REPORT. 

Ill l».-iui;.it. and li'Vi^lled uiul eiiricbed with allurul tkptf 
tl\ii'ini; the rivrr s ^railiial westward recession to itsprt 
l>L*il at the Wi\steni edj^e of KacliliancLiu. Here p^<^ 
tVoiii holow supplies the waut ofjkils and wells, lod i^ 
there are iiiiiisually long breaks in the rains, irrigitiii' 
not wautcd. The autumn crop is rarely ^od. Flmsf 
the Uauo^es may be looked tor every second year, ind 
recently, inundations were also to be feared from Ghs 
din Haidar*s canal, which runs along the whole westen 
of the pargana, just underneath the old bank of the 
The spring crops are good if the autumn floods hare 
off in time, but good agriculturists, such as the Kunmak^ 
not settle in these villages. The insecurity from floods 
them. Moreover, the cattle often die after grazbgoi[ 
sonous grasses that spring up rank and noxious atej 
(ianges flood. Rats and tield-mice make havoc ia i 
sf'nson. In many places the soil is impregnated with 
pet re, and everywhere weeds spring up luxuriantly. 

Leaving the 'kaehh* and crossing the canal yon 
sently ascend the uneven sandy ridge that marks the fart 
point eastwards up to which the Gauges has worn its 
into the hangar. The villages along this rid^e are 
uneven and bad. Wells are made with difficulty and 
fall in. The unevenness of the surface creates a coi 
scour during the rains, whereby the surface soil is WJ 
away, and ravines eat deeply into the heart of the coi 
Beyond this line the land sinks gradual!}' into a richi 
loamy plateau, dotted with occasional jhils, which beoi 
more frefpient as you cross it to the east. Here the ml 
is fairly near the surface, the subsoil is Arm, and kacha ml 
are made easily and last well. Kurmis and Kacbhis aboa 
a sure sign of the excellence of the soil ; the cultivatiai 
mngnificeut, and the rents high. 

Further to the east after the watershed has been en 
ed, and the ground begins to fall towards the basin of 
Sai, the quality of the soil again falls off. Sand re^iapnei 
the surface becomes uneven, and irrigation diflScult. 1 
villages along the Sai sufier somewhat from floods, but 
injury is partly made up for by irrigation from it, which h 
ever is difficult and not largely availed of. 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 179 

'*^' The pargana is well furnished with roads. The new 

^' Youte from Sitapur to Miranghdt below Kanauj, vid Misrikh, 
^' Kimkhdr, and Rodamau runs right through it from north- 
^i east to south-west, and it is traversed besides by unnielalled 
-^ roads from Miranghdt to Malldnwdn and Sandila, from Bil- 
& er^m to Malldnwdn and Unao, and from Bilgrdm and 
t: Sfddhoganj to Bdlamau, and the nearest railway station of 
t' the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway at Kachhona. 

i The important villages arc Bhagwantnagar, Bausa, Kur- 

f sat and JaUlpur. The main products are barley and bdjra, 
which, at survey, covered half the cultivated area; wheat 
which occupied a sixth, and juar and grain which cropped 
another sixth. Paddy, arhar, sugarcane, and cotton made 
up most of the remaining sixth. The acreage under cotton, 
cane, indigo, tobacco and poppy, was estimated at respec- 
tively 1,370, 1,231, 218, 42 and 7. 

The cliiuate is, considered pretty good. Kankar is found 
in patches in most villages, but there are no extensive beds 
of it. 

The Government demand, excluding cesses, is 
Rs.U ,02,292, a rise of 47 percent, on the summary assessment. 
It falls at 1-14-10 on tiie cultivated acre ; 1-2-9 per acre of 
total area ; 12-9-4 per plough ; 2-4-11 per head of agricultu- 
ral and 1-5-1 per head of total population. The detail of 
ownership is as follows:—- 

Muhammadans hold 29 villages; Chhattris 48; Brahnians 
21 ; K&yaths 7; Baniltns and Ealwars 4 ; Christians 1 ; Gov- 
ernment 2. The tenure is mainly zamindari. 

Population is extremely dense, 571 to the square mile, 
the highest rate in the district. The total number is 77,681. 
Hindus to Muhammadans are 71,408 to 6,273, ; males to 
females 40,411 to 37,270; agriculturists to non-agriculturists 
44,457 to 33,224. The number of Kurmis is exceptional. 
There are 14,566 or two-elevenths of the whole ; Brahmans 
are a seventh, Ghamdrs a ninth, Ahirs, Chhattris (3,449), 
V&M and Muraos (2,696) make up the greater part of the 
rest 



\fi') 



IIAIinOI SRirrLKMBNT REPORT. 



There is an aideu school at Malldnwan (134), indw 
schools at Sultanganj (49), Atwa (35), Bansa (S8),Bii 
mail (:{0), Shahpur (23), and Mudbo^nj (30). 

TIk' A'iii i-Akbari jjives the cultivated arei isSli 
hi«rhas; rev^-nue (mdl) 3:),9«,913 ddins ; Siwai 2,22,0J84l 
zainintlars, Hais; tr^uTistin 30 soivdrs and 2,000 ( pn^ 

iiiis|u'ii)t for 2U0) toot soldiers. 

There are no reli^u)us gatherings of importance. 

iSonasi Nath, two miles south of Malldnwin, i_ 
pil«rrims in Kartik on tlieir way home from bathiii; ii< 

Ganws. 



In Chait and Kuar there is an eigrht-days* gati 
perhaps 2,000 a day at the shrine of Mdn Deo in Ma 

The liamlila draws 10,i)00 or 12,000 in KuartODij 
wantna^^1r. On the 1st of llaijab Muhammadans hdll 
Mirs' in honour of the Saint Alakhdum Shdh at bistf 

to the north of Mallanwan. 

Hero, as clsewliere in the liar doi district the di« 
history shows a Thathera occupation and their expulafl 
t^hhatlri innnii;rants at soino unknown time before thel 
hannnad:in con<|uest. of Kanauj. The proximity of 
wan to Kanauj (tliere is only fourteen miles betweea 
as the crow ilies) makes it certain that its political coi 
nuist always have resenihled that of Kanauj. When I 
Avas Uuddhist, Mallanwan will have been Buddhist alflo;' 
Avhen lirahmanism revived and displaced Buddhism thi 
out the kingdom of Kanauj it was with the sword of ( 
tri chieftains devoted to its service that Buddhist people,) 
as Thathcras, Bhars, and Arakhs, were displaced froD' 
territories across the Ganges which they bad for oenti 
held and ruled. Thatheras of Mallauwdn were driven 
by Chandcls from Shiurajpur in Cawnpore serving i 
Kanauj monarch. Tirwa Keoli in Kachhandau oi 
Kanauj is tfie spot where, in Chandel tradition, the Thai 
were routed with a great slaughter. To this day the bi 
(Tliathcras ) of Bhag'wantnjigar affect to mourn over 
lost possessions in Malhiwaa and Kachhandau. Further toi 



^ HARDOl SETTLEMENT REPORT. 181 

„j3t they were forced oat of their settlements at Kursat kaldn, 
;ar the Sai, and Bdnsa by Rurmis from Gharka and Barha 
,^ded by Bhim and Bdrsu. 

There are no distinct traces of Buddhism in the anti- 
aities of the pargana. Perhaps a tradition which attributes 
u Indra, kingof the Deotas, an emblem of Mahddeo said to 
'ive been set up by him before MalMnwdn was founded, and 
ill to be seen in a shrine on the mound of Sondsi Ndth, two 
tiles south of Malldwdn, may have a Buddhistic significance. 
or Indra, the god of the sky, who marshalled the wind as 
J3 armies, and battled against the clouds for the release of 
le welcome rains, was always regarded as an enemy by 
le Brahmans, and ancient centres of his worship have been 
rongholds of Buddhism. '^ Indra is still a great favourite 
ith the Buddhist population of Burmah, who regard him as 
ing of the gods". (Wheeler's History of India, chapter III., 
ages 21 and 330). And the Ara Debi at Malldnwdn Khds 
as a seven-headed Naga hood which may be presumed to be 
F Buddhist origin. 

The next historical event of which any trace is to be 
land is the invasion of Sayyad Sdldr in A.D. 1033. The 
^mb of one of his companions in arms is shown in Mohulla 
f ncha Tila of Malldnwdn, and the Shekhs of the place claim 
) have sprung from an early Muhammadan settlement 
lade during the invasion. Tradition next connects Malldn- 
i^An with Jai Chand of Kanauj, and his alliance with and 
ubsequent conquest by Muhammad Ghori. Jai Chand is 
aid to have quartered his wrestlers here. Mdl is the coun- 
ry name for a wrestler, and to this origin the qdmingos 
race the name Malldnw&n. The favourite account, however, 
I that when the Ghori invader marched through on his way 
rem Kanauj to the east, certain humble Ahirs conciliated 
dm with an oflfering of cream {rnalai)^ whiclt^pleased him so 
auch that he forthwith ordered a settlement to be made and 
^Ued Mall&nw&n in memory of the event. 

The early Shekh settlement mentioned above is said to 
bave been discovered in 1415 A.D., bj a wandering aaint 
named Makhddm Shah, Misbih-ul-Xshiqin, who found a few 
Shekhs living here, without knowledge of their religioa. 



JIAIinoi SKm.EMKNT REPORT. 



1«2 

His pupil Misbali-ul-lsluiii, generally called Qizi _ 
uas appointed qazi of the pargaua by oue of the Wi 
perors about 1470 A.l). A book written in 1529 AJ). 
Maulvi Wali-ud.diri, aud sent me by the qazrs dcawJ 
Aiiuinat-ul-la Shab, rec^ouuts the saint's adventures, h:: 
bow on bis wav from .launpur towards Kananj be n«] 
Wajba ud-dhi, a Sayvad, who pressed the saint to risiJ 
bonie at Cbandwiira. On bis way thither the holy muh 
cd at a mud fort wbicli then stood in Malldnwdn, and 
vil |)rcsents from certain Sbekhs who lived in the net 
hood. At this period tliorc were only a few Brahmu 
Kayatb cultivators at MalUnwin, and a few faousesof 
wbo called themselves " Gobtins/' and professed to h 
nected with Abu Hakr Siddiq. But their usages and 
anee did not enable the saint to recognize them as Mn 
Tiie loveliness of the place pleased his fancy and be 
to live tbe Hie of an ascetic there. 

Here be ])erformed sundry notable miracles. A 

wbo mocked bim was presently arrested for theft and 

miserably in prison. One very hot summer a little 

of tbe faithful bad met together to pray. Thirst fell on 

but there was not a pitcber-full of water in the weU 

with to bathe or slake their drought. Then the saint 

his band upon the ground, and rubbed his face, and 

upon the Holy One who bad stopped the spring, though 

faithful wbo bad met to honour him were perishing of * 

And while be yet prayed behold one cried out that the 

had risen in tbe well to a man's bciglit. And they all 

ed and drank, and thirteen of tbe worshippers present i 

cd bin) as their s|)iritual guide. One of these was 

Bbikbari, servant of a Government official at Kanauj. 

fame of the holy man's miracles at last reached Delhi, 

the Sultan Sikandar Lodi despatched his officer Fateh 1 

to bring tbe saint before him. The mission was unsucol 

ful. A second time Fateh Khan was sent to ask that if' 

could not come himself he would send some of his disdpl 

Then Misbdh-ul-Ashiqin sent two of his followers, i 

when they told the Sultdn that it would be a good deeJ 

settle some Muhammadans at Malldnwdn, he promised n 

free grants to such Muhammadans as would settle there, 

appointed Shekh Bhikhdri to be q4zi. And at last the a 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 183 

Umself went to Delhi. And the Sultdn honoured him great- 

ily and offered him rich gifts; but these he would not take. 

'Then he returned to MalUnwan, and built himself a solitary 

^cell, and spent four months in it in fasting and prayer, and 

died in 939 Hijri (1532 A.D.) 

An interesting record of the time of Sher Shah was 

shown me in the shape of a rent-free grant issued by him in 

^ 1544 A.D., in Persian, Bengali, and Ndgri. It confers on 

^ Shekh Abdul Quddas, Shekh Abdul Razzdq, Muhammad 

' Makan, and Qutb Ibrdhim Muakin a rent-free grant of two 

' hundred bighas in mauza Mohiuddinpur, pargana Malawi, 

near fort Nehargarh alias Eanauj, on condition of peopling 

the land and residing on it, and reciting prayers five times a 

day in the mosque, and shooting ten arrows daily after the 

reading of afternoon prayers. And it announces the grant to 

Munsif Khwjde Raju, Persian and Hindi Reader, and to the 

tahsildars and kdrguzdrs of the pargana. 

The descendants of Ganga Rdm, founder of Ganga Rdm- 
pur, allege that Akbar made him chaudhri of the pargana, 
and gave him land on which he founded the village. The 
qaniingos hold an order bearing the seal of the unfortunate 
prince Ddra Shikoh, and issued by him in 1653 A.D., when 
he was admitted by Shdh Jahdn to a considerable share of the 
government. It is addressed to his trusty Shdh Beg, and 
mentions a complaint by Pdnde Dalipi Singh, that he had 
long held the qanungoship of Malldnwdn (the town, not the 

{>argana); that Shidm Ldl, grain-dealer, had forced him to 
ease it at a rupee a day, but failed to pay it. . Orders enquiry 
to be made and redress given. 

The iconoclast Aurangzeb (1658-1707) is said to have 
ordered the stone lingam at Son^i Ndth, mentioned above, to 
be sawn asunder. The wicked work was begun as the teeth 
marks shown to you attest ; but blood spurted out, a swarm 
of hornets attacked the godless host, and saved shrine and 
emblem from destruction. 

In 1726 Shitab Rde Edyath was chakladar. He had 
heen dfwdn of Bahddur Shah. The judicial records of Mus- 
t&fabad and Atwa tell how he found an unfiEiiling means of 



184 HARDOr SETTLEITRKT BEPOMT. 

ac(iuirini; lanil in tiis practice of burying^ the owiiersalm 
then inviting their heirs to execute deeds of sale. ^'Theh 
of tlio hinibardars whom he hiiried are even nowoccasioii^ 
turned up by the piou<;li in his old coin|K>und/' 

During Shujii-u(l-daula*s campaign against the Nan* 
Rampur Mallanwsin was occupied by Rofaillas. 

Ghazi-ud-din Uaidar (1814-1827) excavated tbe 
already mentioned from the Ganji^cs near Kanauj to thefii 
at Lucknow. ^' Tlic original idea," says Mr. Maconoehieii 
Unao report/' was to join the Gans^es and Gunitip hot tbeb 
were so infamously taken, and the money granted so oil 
])ropriated, that after spending lacs of treasure, and itk 
more or less every vilhiire throuirh which the canal wnsm 
the king found himself as far off as ever from the objed 
desired. It has never done aught but harm. Its bed si 
wild beasts and 1)ad characters in the dry weather, and 
off all the water from the adjacent villages in the rains: 
not merely depriving the land of the water which 
otherwise fertilize it, but causing a continual cutting 
ravining away of all the neighbouring fields." 

The Raikwars of Rodamau and Ruia deserve passii^l 
unfavourable notice. Their connection with the pargaii 
not that of conquerors. They got their footing in it bjr 
humbler method of clearing waste and by persistent &\ 
on and playing into the hands of the Nawabi officials, 
acquired in recent times many villages. They were the 6\ 
rise in 1857. It was this clan which burned the Mallto, 
court-house, and which, beaded by N&rpat Singh, deftf 
ed the fort of Ruia so stubbornly against Brigadier i 
Robert Walpole, the lamented Adrian Hope, and the Bt 
Watch. 

The obliteration of ancient proprietary title in I 
pargana was frequently noticed by the courts at setl 
mcnt. In illustration I quote some passages of interest fi 
the judicial records. 

Mauza Deomanpur.-^^^ The Kurmis are the zamindars 
are excellent landlords ; they should not be disturbed. In 



f HAUDOI SKTTLEMENT EEPORT. 185 

rgana tlie clifiudliris and qaniinscos steadily ignored the 
(flits ofall KiiniHs; but in times of difficulty the king's officers 
^•va) s cauic upon the resident communities." 

Ulauza Mustofabad.—^^ The title deeds in this pargana 
B of little value/' 

Mauza Manawar, — '' The Shekhs never succeeded in 
Lmpling out the proprietary body on the spot, Pan war Raj- 
tSj who held occasionally up to 1264 fasli (anviexation) but, 
c all the proprietors in the pargana, could not keep their 
n against the mass of chaudhris and qdniingos of the town 
Idallanw^in, who appear to have apportioned the villages of 
8 pargana amongst themselves just as they pleased/' 

Mauza BerliwaL — '' Whenever there was any transfer of 
lits, real or pretended, in this pargana, the papers always 
bilged hands, whatever may have become of the village. I 
not remember an instance to the contrary. Papers were 
len sold and mortgaged alone, but the village was never sold 
•bout the papers if there were any. In this pargana there 
« often a fresh qubtiliatdar for each year. No one's pro- 
etary rights here were very clear." 

Mauza Dakhile Kassia. — " In this pargana the white- 
ited chaudhris and qauungos ignore all Kurmis and resi- 
its of villages except when they are powerful th&kurs. They 
td to divide the pargana between themselves." 

Mauza Ddudpur. — '* This village was the ancestral pro- 
rty of plaintiffs No. 1. 'Hiey very likely sold it and mort- 
2ed it four or five times, but these transactions and the deeds 
ich record them are to my mind not wortiiy of consideration 
rIL These transfers in Malldnwdn pargaua were merely 
ended to give a plausible colour to other transactions in 
cknow. In Malldnwdn Government recognized no property 
the soil whatever; it was the Nawabi sir in which Govern- 
mt was entitled to the full balances after the expenses of 
ItivatioD and the cultivator's sustenance had been provided 
No one thought he was selling when he signed one of 
M30 purchase deeds, and the vendee never tboaght he wna 
juiring a title. These deeds were a means, among othen. nf 

24n 



tii 

f 



I. 



1 



*M 



4. 



hARnOi SKTilBJIENT RF.t>Oltt. J87 

|jtna Article mentions the rircumstrinces umlpf 
' Lodi '^1488-1516) encouraged Mubammdatis 
1^ and appointed a qii7.i. 

i|imangos and chaildhris of the pnrgaaa were also 

■ fv, and in later times tlie chakladar of Malldnwdn 

.la Used freqiieatly to reside here. To its official 

'" alone must its size be attributed, for it has little 

Uii activity. The j^raio trade of the heighbourhood 

Joii at MddhogaQJ, 6ve miles off. A deserted indigo 

started but abandoned by Mr. Cbmcber, occupies the 

lie old Nawabi fort. A matiufacture of saltpetre has 

Ijccu begun. 

town contains four mosques, a dargd't "^ Makhdiim 

*>dh-ut-AEhiqiD), tiro im&nnb^ras, fifteen sbiwdlas, 

masonry wells, and a mud sarde built hy Hakim 

^^^ 1 180S. As at BilgrAm many of the brick buildings 

J ^ ,ed with iargo hewn blocks of kanbar to a height of 

^ree feet from the ground. The dargdh of MakhdAm 

and the mosque of his pupil Quzi Bhikh^ri are thus 

broughout, the kaakar slabs being relieved here and 

.vitb red sandstone. Their style resembles that of Sadr 

.8 Mausoleum at Fihini. There is a fine well of the 

„ period, also lined with blocks of the same mntcri»t. 

^^^locks thus used in one of the mosques have evidently 

taken from some other building, but apparently at the 

1^-*'"" of the mosque, not at its original constructiua. 

^^•v inclined to believe that these kankar blocks have been 

_^^ from ancient Hindu and Buddhist shrines, of which the 

relics now to be found are such fragments, built into 

ammadan structures, and the broken sculptures that one 

i^KSo frequently grouped Under some venei-able pfpal tree. 

^he only ancient stone Hindu temple which f have yet 

tm in Oudh (at Sakar Daha in Partabgarb) the basement 

tftfie shrine consisted of several layers of precisely similar 

F«ekB of hewn kankar built up upon a solid square tope of 

iuka of great size. The Asa debi in Malldnwdo is a, relic of 

«e Bucn shrine. Its seven-beaded Ndga hood sheltering s 

■■le figtire points to a Buddhist origin. 

^- There is a bi-weekly market on Mondays and Thursdays 
^Gurcb^gaDJ, Bhsgwantnagar conuins a good many bra- 



156 HARDOI SETTLEMEKT RKPORT. 

craininc: a toinporAry footing ia the village, and that was ill 
tiirv were intended for.'' 

At annexation Mallanwdn was chosen as the civil hea^i' 
'quarters of the Malhinwiin, noir Hardoi, dkstrict. 

Wk Malla'nwj^n — Parffonn Mallanwax — Tahsil Bn.- 
uuAM— (Latitude 27";5' north, longitude 80^11' east)bii 
population fourte(M)tli in the list of Oiidh towns, and tbiri 
anionir the towns of the llardoi district. It gives ita nameh' 
tlie Mallanwdn ])argana. Its popuhition (11,670) is lodsc^ 
in IsO brick and 1.33s mud houses, and distributed insixvaii 
or mohulla'^ named Bhajrwantnai^ar, Gurdasganj, PmthinToIi 
TTncha Ti»!a. Nasratna^rar. and Qasi Tola. It lies on theoli 
route from Cawnpore to Sitapur, being 38 miles north of tk 
former and 41 miles south of the latter. From Bilgnmiti^ 
ten uule>^ marly south, and from liardoi 21 miles sootk 
TietTenthaler (A.D. ITHf)) found it 'a small town roostljbat 
of brick, thickly peopled, surrounded by trees. It hasafo 
built partly of muil, partly of bricks, and having' towers.** 

Ten.-int. in the iKixinniu^rof the present century, descrito 
It as • a very large villa;;e; in length fully two miles. Tk 
habitants are numerous, but the town is mean and irregnltf> 
con^isling ah.UKst entirely of small mud huts.*' 

As noted in the pargana article, tradition derives Ai 
name from Mai the country name for a wrestler, *i 
asserts that Raja Jai Chand of Kanauj cantoned his irrestta 
here. 

An early Ahi'r suitlemcnt calle<l Ghizipnra is saidt 
have been liero at tbc time of the Qhorian conqaest ; wU 
the Chishti Slieklis claim that a remnant of the followers ( 
S:iyyad Sjilar (ihazi survived the campaign, the only vi^h' 
ineniorial of which tliat tbey can point out is i^ tomb 
Uncha Tola of one of tbc martyr host. The preservati< 
of suob tombs, rather numerous in Oudh« is a strong oc 
roboralion of the tradition that Muhammadans of t 
invadin:; army remained in Oudh, and preserved tUo rd 
of tbc brilliant but unsuccessful crcscentadc of the Piince 
Martyrs. 



ttARDOi SETTLEMENT REPOUf. 187 

The pargaaa Article mentions the circutnstrtnces iindel: 
\vbich Sikandar Lodi 'J488-1516) encouraged Muhammdans 
to settle here, and appointed a q^zi. 

The quQiingos arid chaiidhris of the pargada were also 
located here, and in later times the chakladar of Mall^nwdn 
ftnd Sandila Used frequently to reside here. To its official 
Importance alone must its size be attributed, for it bas little 
commercial activity. The grain trade of the heighbourhood 
is carried on at Mddhoganj, 6ve miles off. A deserted indigo 
factory, started but abandoned by Mr. Churcher, occupies the 
site of the old Nawabi fort. A manufacture of saltpetre has 
recently beeti begun. 

The town contains four mosques, a darg^h of Makhdum 
Shdh (Misbdh-ul-Asiiiqin), two imdmbdras, fifteen shiwdlas, 
twenty -four masonry wells, and a mud sarde built by Hakim 
Mehndi in 1808. As at Bilgrdm many of the brick buildino-s 
are faced with large hewn blocks of kankar to a height of 
about three feet from the ground. The dargdh of Makhddm 
Shdh, and the mosque of bis pupil Qdzi Bhikhdri are thus 
faced throughout, the kankar slabs being relieved here and 
there with red sandstone. Their style resembles that of Sadr 
Jaban's Mausoleum at Fihdni. There is a fine well of the 
same period, also lined with blocks of the same raateriaL 
The blocks thus Used in one of the mosques have evidently 
been taken from some other building, but apparently at the 
restoration of the mosque, not at its original construction. 
1 am inclined to believe that these kankar blocks have been 
taken from ancient Hindu and Buddhist shrines, of which the 
only relics now to be found are such fragments, built into 
idu'hammadan structures^ and the broken sculptures that one 
sees so frequently grouped Under some venerable pfpal tree. 
In the only ancient stone Hindu temple which I have yet 
seen in Oudh (at Sakar Daha in Partabgarh) the basement 
of the shrine consisted of several layers of precisely similar 
blocks of hewn kankar built up upon a solid square tope of 
bricks of great size. The Asa debi in Malldnwdn is a relic of 
some sucn shrine. Its seven-headed Ndga hood sheltering a 
female figure points to a Buddhist origiri. 

There is a bi-weekly market on Mondays and Thursdays 
in Gurddsganj, Bhagwantnagar contains a good many bra* 



188 HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 

ziers' (Thatheras') shops. The town has :i local rcputatioa 
for its combs. 

97. Ma'njhga'on — Parfrana Sandi'la — Tahsll Sardfu. 
— Population, 1,238.— A Bais villiif^e of 246 mud houses, four- 
teen miles north-east from Sandila. This was the aacestral 
home and fort of the Bais taluqdars of Manjhg^on, who resided 
lierc for centuries until, five generations ago, they killed 
Fateh Singh, the Bais Raja ofBhdrawan, and removed tbitiier. 
Thdkur Briridr Singh and Koli Singh, the uncle and cousin of 
Bdja Randhir Singh of Bhanivvan, live at Mdnjhgdon. 

93. M ANJHiA — Pargnna GopamAU — Tahsil Hardoi— A 
prosperous little country-town of 749 mud houses, fourmiles 
to the south-cast of Piluini on the road to Gopamnu. Market 
days are Tuesdays and Saturdays A mud school-houK 
was built in 18G5. Octroi is levied for the support of a small 
body of town police. Manjhia is mainly inhaoited by Cha- 
mars, but belongs to the Chauhdns. The Chauhdns acquired it 
about 1G19 A.D. by gift to their ancestor Riip Sdh of Mainpuri, 
who entered the service of Nawab Mehndi Quli Khan of Fihdni, 
and received from him this village in recognition of his services* 
In 1777 A.D., Manjhia was attacked and laid waste by Rdja 
Sital Parshdd, the ndzim of Khairabad, of evil memory. It lay 
desolated and deserted for six years. In 1784 A.D., Mansa 
lidui, chakladar of Gopamau, restored the Chauhans. 

99. ilAXSURXAGAxi Pnrgana^^TahsU SnAUABAD.— A 
small and backward pargana of twenty-five villages lying in 
thc^ south-eastern corner of the Shahabad tahsfl. It is bound- 
ed on the north by parganas Alamnagar and Fihdoi, on the 
east by Gopamau, and on the south and west by North and 
South Sara. Its gre.ntest length is six and breadth seven 
niilos. Its area is 26 square miles, only 9 of which are cul- 
tivated. 

The Bhninsta stream, called lower down in its course 
the Sai, flows through it, but is too shallow and dries up too 
quickly to be used for irrigation. The west of the pargana 
is watered from a large jhil called Gurru, which stretches for 
about three miles north and south of the little town of Man- 
surnagar. Occasionally it ovorfio^vs and damnges the adja- 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 189 

cent lands. The luaio natural features of the pargana are 
the absence of sandy soil (bhiir), and the quantity of unclear- 
ed jungle. To 6,0G0 cultivated acres there are 7,740 acres of 
culturable waste. The pargana is crossed by the unnietalled 
roads from Hardoi to Pihdni and from Fihdni to Shahabad. 



It is a backward but very improveable tract. The soil is 
almost everywhere good, though not so rich as in the adjacent 
pargana of Sara. Cultivators are somewhat scarce. Nil- 
gde, wild hogs, and here and there wild cattle infest the jun- 
gle and ravage the crops. The country is level. Rather 

! more than two-fifths of the cultivated area is irrigated. 
Three-fourths of the area irrigated is watered from tanks and 

" ponds, of which there are 190 ; kacha wells are dug all over 

* the pargana, but rarely last for more than three years. The 

* cost of the large wells worked by bullocks varies from four 

> to ten rupees. The hand-wells (dhenkli) are dug here from 

^ two to four rupees. 
i • 

f The tillage is fair, especially in the Chauhdn villages, 

( whose proprietors are industrious and enterprizing. Wheat, 

P barley and millet are the great staples, and occupy more 

I than three-fifths of the crop area. Gram, bdjra and mdsh 

i cover rather more than another fifth. Indigo, tobacco, and 

i opium are scarcely known, and sugarcane is very sparingly 

I planted. Kankar is found at Mansurnagar. 
t 

Fifteen of the villages are held in zamindari tenure ; one 

\ is taluqdari, and nine are imperfect pattidari. The Chauhdos 

r hold four villages, the Chaudhri Gaurs six, the Gautams a 

P half village, Sayyads four, Pathdns three and a half, Brah- 

1 tnins four, and Kaiths two. One, a jungle, has been decreed 

) to Government. 

I The Government demand, excluding cesses, amounts to 

Rs. 11,128, and falls at Re. 1-13-5 per cultivated acre; 
Re. 0-10-8 per acre of total area; Rs. 12-13-1 per plough ; 

( Rs. 2-6-5 per head of the agricultural and Re. 1-1 2-4 per 

( head of the total population. 

I The pargana is more sparsely populated than any in the 

district. It contains a population of only 6,286 or 242 to 



VM) HARDOI SKTTLIMKKT REPORT. 

the square niilo. Of these i>|9(>5 are Hindus and 321) 
inadans. Pasis, Chamars and Ahirs, in almost eqa 
l>ers, make up nearly a half of the Hindu populatioi 
Rajputs are only a sixteenth of the whole. Idales to 
are 3,437 to 2,849, and agriculturists to non-agrica 
4,636 to 1,650. 

There are no markets or fairs. The only 
is a village one, with an average of 43 pupils, at I 
nagar. 

The pargana is named from the little town of ] 
nagar. The earliest inhabitants of whom tradition pr 
the memory, were Thatheras, whose stronghold 
Simaur(2:arh, three miles north of Mansarnagar. J 
uncertain period before the fall of Kanauj, the Gaurs 
the leadership of Kuber Sdh, expelled the Thatben 
Simaurgarh and, it is said, from forty-one other stroo 
the most notable being Kalhaur in pargana Bawan. 
the reign of Akbar K4ja Lakhmi Sen, Gaur, remo 
headquarters from Kalliaur to Simaurgarh, and buill 
on the ruins of the old Thathera castle, a large aii< 
fort, the outer enclosure of which measured a mile eae 
Towards the end of Akbar's reign the Gaurs of Simsi 
became troublesome, and Nawab Sadr Jahan stormei 
fort and reduced them to obedience. While the power 
Gaurs lasted the present town of Mansumagar was 
village called Nagar. Murid Khan, the erandson of ! 
Sadr Jahdn, built a brick fort there. In 1702 A.D 
Ibddulla Khan, the converted Sombansi, possessed him 
the whole jagir of the Pihdni Sayyads, and rebuilt 
Khan's fort, and named the place Mansurnagar, after ! 
Mansur Ali Khan (Safdar Jang). In 1806 A.D. lUe 
Rdm, chaklbdar of Muhamdi, took some villages out 

S.nas Sara and Gopamau, and made them into p 
ansurnagar. 

100. Nra — Pargana Gopamau — Ta/isil Habdoi— 
lation 2,481, chiefly Chamiirs. A rich agricultural villi 
miles south-east from Hardoi. It was founded by Nfr 
a Chamar-Gaur in the service of the Hindu kings of I 
who drove the Thatheras out of their stronghold at B 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 191 

Utterly destroyed it. A ruined mound of brick remains 
II marks its site. 

101. pACHHOiiA Pargana—Tahsil ^uKukb/Cd, — Lies 

tween the Garra and Sendha rivers in the north-eastern 

»mer of the Shdbabdd Tahsil and of the district. It closely 

imbles pargana Pdii in physical features, situation, and 

ipabilities. On the north it is bounded by Shd.hjahdnpur, on 

south by pargana Pdii ; on the east tlie Garra separates 

from Shdhabad, and on the west the Sendha from pargana 

fAUaganj (Farukhabad). 

It contains 90 square miles, of which 66 are cultivated, 
and 80 villages. Its greatest length is 15, and breadth 12 
viiles. 

73*87 per cent, of its total area is cultivated ; 1792 cul- 
turable ; 8*21 barren or unassessed ; only 1*85 per cent, is 
under groves. 

The proportion of third class soil, 47*22 per cent, is 
larger than in any other pargana of the district. In Pdli it 
w 46- 17. In no other pargana is it higher than 40*09. 

One-third of the cultivated area is irrig-ated ; 11*24 per 
^^nt. of it being watered from tanks, jhils and ponds, of which 
'Kere are 308, and from the Garra, Sendha and Garbai rivers, 
^tid 21*34 per cent, from kacha wells. 

Captain Young has left on record the following notes 
%yn the physical features, soils and rent rates. 

** The whole of it may be termed bhiir. There are of 
course strips here and there of diimat, and here and there by 
the side of the ndlas which bound it on the east and west, 
or by the edge of the jhils that are to be met with in all 
directions, are narrow strips of matiyar. 

^^ There are no very broadly-matked physical divisions 
further than this, and therefore, for purposes of assessment, 
any division into chaks is not pi^cticable, for the strips of 
:tarai by the side? of jhils aud n&Us are not wide enough- to 



102 HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPOBT. 

embrace whole villages, often only extending inwards llw 

depth of one field. 

*^ I should therefore recommend the adoption of two sets 
of revenue working; rates^ one to be applied to tarai land, and 

the otlier to bhiir. 

^^ The amount of tarai in villages where it exists at allcai 
be readily seen by a personal visit, and can be more or less 
well approximated by an inspection of the map, but except 
in cases where the village site is very close to the water*s 
edge, so that the manured (Gauh&ni) lands are chiefly 
in the tarai, probably one rate will sufiice as a check 
for such lands as ^except in the case of manured land) 
the tcrai does not differ in its fertility as the bliur is found 
to do. 

'' There is this broad fact also to be borne in mind in 
assessing a pargana in which the Lind is divided into two 
such marked classes as bhiir and tarai, that what is good for 
the one in the matter of rain-fall is ruination to the other, 
excessive rains destroying the kharif in the tarai, while, on the 
other hand, anything like drought destroys the prospect of 
the rabi on the bhiir lands. 

*' The bhiir seems very variable in its degrees of ferti- 
lity, some being almost as good as the best dumat, and some 
being next to worthless. 

^' I suppose that cultivation, manure, and decayed vegc- 
tition, where crops have once been sown, gives a consistencj 
in some parts near villages: at any rate, the rent-rate varies 
from two annas per kacha bigha or six annas per pakka 
bigha to eight annas per kacha bigha = Re. 1-8-0 per pakks 
bigha. There is some bhiir so bad that no one will take it 
up at any price, the fact being that population is sparse and 
land abundant. 

" There is a long strip of jungle land parts of which, 
where lately reclaimed, are giving very fine crops, but these 
crops must not be taken as a standard, for they arc on pick- 
ed bits, and| further than this, the first year is always the 



HARDOI 



JU 



best. Part, agaio, of this jai^le is usar, save in spots too 
small to make it worth any one's while to break it np. 

'' Had I assessed this pargana and pali. which adjoins 
it, and to which almost all these remarks apply. I should hoc 
have tried more than three rates for bhur and two for tarai 
land, and should have probably adopted the following rates ; 
double these being the approximate rent-rates: — 



■ 


Per kachi 
bigha. 


Per pakka 
bigfaa. 


Per acre. 


Tarai mmnared ..« 

„ anmannred ^ ... ^ 

Bhor manured .^ .^ .^ 
„ middle h&r •- ... •« 
„ oatljiog ... *.. «. 


Rj. a. p. 

19 

8 
4 
9 


K& a. p. 

9 4 
1 9 

10 
19 



Ra. a. p. 

S 10 o 
1 19 9 
9 6 

1 9 9 

9 



^' These would be nothing further than the merest check 
rates, but, for average villages, would probably be found cor- 
rect. The extremes of difference would probably be in 
Hizdmpur (pargana Pali), where Rs. 8 and Rs. 9 per pakka 
Irfgba are paid by a Tcry large number of Kachis, giving a 
revenue rate per acre of Rs. 6-12-0 and Rs. 7 on the one 
side, and Hathaura and other villages thereabouts, where 
some bhur at one anna per kacha bigba may be found. There 
18 a considerable line of traffic between Shdbjahdnpur and 
Farukhabad vid Kamalpur where the caravans generally halt, 
it being about half way. 

" I have said nothing about wells as there are none, or 
rather only kacha wells which often fall in before the field 
they are dug in has got half through the dry time when 
\ irrigation is required. 

" Villages where Kachis are to be found are of course 
[ an exception to this, and where Edchidoa is of any extent, 
as in Mizdmpur, Pdli khds, &c., special consideration will be 
required." 

There are no made roads. The staple products are 
y^JT^i ^fl^Ji ^d wheat, which together cover three -fourtba 

85h 



194 



nARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 



of the crop area. Arhar, rice, maize, and moth occapj 
greater portion of the remaining fourth. 

Sugarcane is grown here and there in the tarii TiOm 
but not as yet extensively. 






• I'aDwars 
Kals 

Katherias 

SombaiisN ... 

Tewari Brahmana ... 
mh6 

riithrtk „ 
Palhin?! 
OoTvrnment ... 

Total .„ 



66 
S 
1 
I 

S 
1 

1 

4 
S 

80 



Sixty-six of the eig'hty * villamm 
held by Pan war Bdjputs. Two bel^| 
Government. 

The tenures are imperfect pattiU, 
in 46 ; zemindari in 32 ; taldkamuiiil 

The Government demand, exchdig 
cesses, is Rs. 46,158. This is a lia 
of 78*65 per cent, on the summay 
assessment. Its incidence per cultivated acre is coh 
Be. 1-1-5 ( the lightest in the district) ; per acre of total are^ 
Ke. 0-12-11 ; per plough, Rs. 9-11-2 ; and per head of agricnt 
tural and total population Rs. 2-3-8 and Re. 1-10-6, r» 
pectively. 

The population is, for this district, somewhat sparse, only 
310 to the square mile ; in a total of 27,911, only 684 sn 
Muhammadans ; males to females are 15,761 to 12,150; and 
agriculturists to non-agriculturists 20,720 to 7,191. Asixtk 
of the Hindus are Rajputs, principally Pdnwars; Chamarsare 
nearly another sixth; Brahmans a seventh ; Miiraos a thi^ 
teenth ; Khatris, Kahars, Ahirs and Garariyas predomiotte 
among the rest. 

Markets arc held at Laknaur on Tuesday, Anajpur cm 
Mondays and Fridays, and Bharkani on Tuesdays and Satu> 
■days. 

There are no fairs of any size or importance. 

There are village schools at Bharkani (41), Miakpar (40)i 
Barudra (37), Laknaur (32), and Kurdri (25). 

Thirty-four years ago Maulvi Farid-ud-din, chakladar of 
Sdndi Pali, made the pargana by severing from the Pali Dastdr 
eighty of its villages. The new pargana was called Pachhoht 



HARDOI SBTTLBMENT REPORT. 195 

II 

ijpom its situation in the north-westerfi (pacbam) corner of the 
province. 

^ 102. Pa'li Pargana — Tahsll Shahabad — A light sandy 
:ract in the south-eastern corner of the Shahabad tahsfl, be- 
tween the Garra and Sendha rivers. On the east the Garra 
separates it from parganas Shahabad and Saromannagar, and 
P:}n the west and soutii-west the Sendha from parganas Alia- 
^^anj (Farukhabad) and Katidri. Barwan adjoins it on the 
§outh and Pachhoha on the north. In an area of 73 square 
gaiiles, of which 46 are cultivated, it contains 92 villages. In 
.^hape it is irregularly square, with a maximum length and 
">readth of nearly 12 and 11 milea respectively. Its general 
^pect is thus described in Captain Gordon Young's assessment 
'lote book : — 
I) 

^ " The whole, as a rule, is bhiir, not necessarily of one 

3i^.tandard, but generally light and sandy. There are, howover,^ 

l^trips of tardi or low-lying moist lands all along the Garra, and 

lt')y the sides of the long jhils which intersect the pargana from 

lorth to south. Between these jhib are long high tracts of 

)hiir, and along the sides of the jbils and between these ridges 

■Are strips of tardi. From Pali to Sahjanpur all is bhdr of 

.^be very sandiest, with numerous shifting sand-hilts brought 

■into position by any stump or scrub which arrests the eddy 

Jiind thus forms the nucleus of a sand-hill. If vegetation gets 

'^ hold on the hillock it is probably stationary for ever, other- 

EMriae the first high wind carries it away to another spot/' 

The villages skirting the Garra, though light of soil, are 
ihe best in the pargana. In some of them the lands by per^ 

^Jbolation from the river remain moist till March or April, so 

litihat irrigation is scarcely required. In others, where the 
river runs between higher banks and with a narrower flood - 
3Min, fine crops of opium, tobacco and vegetables are raised 

^ dong the river bank, owing to the ease with which a never- 
ailing supply of water is drawn from it by lever (dhenkli) 

Sikrells. To the west of these villages, with an average breadth 
>f about three miles, runs parallel with the Garra a belt of 
ligh, dry, uneven, unproductive bhiir. All the villages in 

i^his tract have been rated in the third or fourth class. Here. 

^ents are low and wells are few» In some of the villages there 



196 BARDOI SRTTLEIIENT BKFOBT. 



is no irrigation at all. To the west of this tract, andap ! 

the boundary stream, thu Sendha, breadths of dhik joiii 

copiously intersoctcd by narrow marshy jhils, along vhoi 

edges cultivation is gradually extendinjj^, alternate irithtrei 

less ridges of tbiuly-croppcd bbur. Many of tbe jnnglevi 

lages are fairly ])roductivc, with average soil and good wite 

supply, but in some tbe soil is cold, stiff and unproducm 

and in almost all cultivators are still scarce, rents low. fi 

the mischief done by forest animals considerable. la ti 

extreme wost of the pargana, as in the east along the Gan 

a narrow strip of moderately good villages fringes the Send! 

There is not a mile of road in tbe whole pargana. Ci 

tracks wind deviously from village to village. Along the 

except in the rainy season, a light bullock cart (Shigram)t 

be driven without much ditHculty. 

Tiic staple products are bdjra and barley, which, in 
year of survey, occupied three-fifths of the crop area. Wb 
arhar, rice, and gram made up the greater part of the remai 
er. Tobacco, opium and kitchen vegetables are raised pri 
pally in Tali, Nizampur, Amtara, Barwdra, Laknaur 
Bharkani. The nodular limestone {kankar) is found 
Morair and Behti. 

Rent-rates vary from Its. 10-8 and more per settlen 
bigha ( ^ of an acre) on market gardeners' land in Pa 
nine annas on the dry uneven lihiir. Cash rents prevail, 
here and there |)ayjuonts are still made in kind. 

Sombuusi Rajputs hold more than half the pargs 

g^,. Bralimans nearly a fifth ; Muhammai 
liiTr Brahmaus !!! 1 a tciith. Three villages have been 

Ttr^bllii " Z ^5' ^1'^^*^ *^ Government. The tenur 
Shekh-i " !!! 5' z^miindari in 56, and imperfect patti 
Pnthin' :". 1* '" ^'^ villages; 15) belong to the Sewa 

Kiyath9(Sribistan) 65 pur taluqa. 
GoBhains ••• 1 

— Excluding cesses, the Go verm 

2L demand is Rs. 37,041, a rise of 47 

cent, on the summary assessment. 

falls at only Re. 1-4-1 per cultivated acre ; Re. 0-1 2-f 

acre of total area; Rs. 10-8-5 per plough; lie. 1-13-2 



HABDoi SETTLmsrr BxriflT. T3T 

head of the agricultural and Ke. 1-5*1 per head of die toGsiI 
populatioB. 

The number of inhabitants is 28.087, or 3S5 to dtt 
square mile. Hindus to Muhamadans are 25^78 to 3.5*19^ 
males to females 15,243 to 12,841, and agTicnlturista to wm- 
agriculturists 20,298 to 7,789. More than a fourth of the 
Hindus are Brahmans ; Cham&rs and Chhattris each 
tute a ninth ; Murdos a twelfth ; Kahirs, Ahirs. and 
predominate in the remainder. 

There are no important fiurs. 

Villaore schools have been established at the foHowins 
places — P^li, Sahjanpur, Babarpur, lladnapur. Sarae. and 

Lakm^pur. 

The only market is at Pali on Sundays and Thursdays. 

For some account of the past history of the pargana see 
Pali town. The qdnungos say that P&li has been a pargami 
for seven hundred years, i.e., since Shahab-ud-din's conqae^^ 
It is probable that if not so ancient as this, its foroiatioa 
into a revenue sub*division dates at least from the rei^rn of 
Humdydo. In the Ain-i-Akbari it is mentioned as contain* 
iog 56,156 bigbas, and as paying 12,061,230 dams of rerenae, 
and 36,488 ddms are set down as jagir. No fort is meotioii' 
ed, but there was a garrison of 30 troopers and 1,WJ foot* 
soldiers. Ananas are entered as the zamindars. Pdii 
originally contained the whole of what are now fiarisanaff 
Shahabad and Pachhoha, and a part of parganas Saroraaii« 
nagar and Katidri. 

103. FALI— Pargana P/Chi—TahHl SnABABAD—V^ 

{mlation 5,122. The chief town of pargana Fdli lies in 
atitude 27''30' north, longitude 79<^ 44^ east, and is pteaMot- 
ly situated on the right bank of the river Garra on iiuf fAd 
route from Fatehgarh to Sitapur, nine miles soath«wa»t frifn 
Shahabad, 18 miles north from Sdndi, 20 norths wei^ from 
Hardoi, 19 north-east from Famkhabad^ 64 wett from iktMfm 
and 90 north-west from Lncknow. Itsgeneral appearaoe^ wm4 
thus described by General Sleeman twenty4bre« yearva^o^*- 



198 HABDOI SETTLEMENT BEPORT. 



*' The road for the last half way of this moming's 8te 
(along the Sandi road) passes over a good doomuteea kA 
The whole country is well cultivated and well studded wA 
fine trees, and the approach to Pdli at this season (Jaaisr) 
is very picturesque. The groves of mango and other fm 
trees, amidst which the town stands on the right hank of tie 
Gurra river, appear very beautiful as one approaches m 




The Garra here is fordable at Rdjgh^t for about fin 
months of the year. A ferry is kept up at other times. Tk 
river has .shifted a good deal northwards away from the ton 

within the last forty years. 

Local tradition descril)es the circumstances of its foundi- 
tion, but does not furnish any clue to the derivation of tk 
name. The tract of country of which Pali is the centre ma 
conquered from the Thatheras by the Sttmbansis under Baji 
Santan before the Muhammadan conquest. 

The name may, not improbably^ be connected with tb 
Fdl dynasty of Kanauj, from which place Pdii is distant oolj 
34 miles. 

The founding of Pali is placed by local tradition at tiK 
close of the twelfth century, shortly after the great cam- 
paign of Sliahab ud-din Gbori, and the downfall of the Rdthor 
dynasty of Kanauj. In those days the country round Pili 
was ruled from Siintannngar (Sdndi) by the Sombansi Rija 
Ilaihar, suruamed Shiusal Deo, son of B^ja SAntan. The 
office of mace- bearer at liaja Harhnr's court belonged here* 
ditarily to a powerful family called variously Gabrs (fiie- 
worshippers) and Kisaus. They lived a little to the west 
of the present town of Pali on tiie now ruined site called 
S4ndi Khera, and enjoyed the revenues of a considerable 
tract lying round it, known then as Saudi Pali. These Gabri 
(or Kisdns) seized the opportunity of the Ghorian invasion to 
revolt from their prince and possess themselves of his do- 



HARDOI SBTTLGMENT BEPORT. 199 

^ niDioD. Harhar strove in raia to recover it In his strait 
" Ae despatched Gi^m Pand6, his family priest^ to his brother, 
^ m risalddr in the Musalman garrison of Kanauj. At his re- 

Suest troops were sent from thence under the command of 
ihekh Moin-ud din Usmdni^ son of Hdji Sdldr ; the up- 
^ fitart Gabrs were crushed ; Kdja Harhar was restored. 
^ Shekh Moiu-ud-din, Gi&m Pande, and his brother, the ris&U 
^ ddr, were each rewarded with a rent-free grant of five hundred 
^ bighas. Settling down on their grants they gradually clear- 
. ed away the forest along the river bank, and founded the 
. present town of Pdli. The Brahmans estabh'shed themselves 
to the north and the Shekhs.to the south of the site. The 
former became the chaudhris and the Sbekhs the qdzis of 
the tract. At this day Shekh Moin-ud-din is represented in 
Pdli by his descendants Shekhs Nazir Ahmad, Tajammul 
Husen, and Qdzi Niwdzish AH ; Gidm Pand^ by Chaudhri 
Hanwant Singh, and the risdlddr by Chaudhris Rde Singh, 
Dariie Singh, and Buddhi Singh. Mr. Carnegy (I do not 
know upon what authority) assigns a much later date to the 
founding of the Shekh colony at Pdli under Shekh Moin-ud- 
din :— *' Then, about 1350, really began the Muhammadan 
immigration. Shekh Moin-ud-din, grandson of a lieutenant 
of Ald-ud-din Khilji, Governor of Oudh, stationed at Kanauj, 
crossed over to Pdli and established a colony which was 
' afterwards increased by the assimilation of numerous adven- 
turers." {Notes on Tribes^ page 66.) 

In the Nawabi, from 1839 to 1854, the ndib or deputy 
chakladar of the Sdndi Pali chakla, or revenue circle, was 
stationed at Pdli. 

There are five muhallas or wards— (1) the Shekhs' quar- 
ter, (2) Q&zi Sarde, (3) the Malik and Pathdns' quarters, (4) 
the Maghrabi or western quarter, inhabited exclusively 
by Pathdns, and (5) the Hindu town, in which Pand^ and 
other Brahmans preponderate. The Hindu town looks well- 
to-do, but the Muhammadan muhallas have, for the most 

. part, a decayed and impoverished appearance. The resump« 
don of rent-free grants^ and the loss of Government service 

.have been felt here as elsewhere. Out of 1,055 houses only 
32 are of brick. There are two mosques and a thdkordw^a. 



r/> 



j\ 



iynn of the mov|aei is a renr shovv florid stmeture, bak 
re^^^mtlr by Bi^^dar Imtiaz Ali, tlie pfindiMd MahmmiiiadiB 

A brick tjchool -boose was built in 1865. The sdiool ii 
a village one, with an average attendance of 60 papils. Tliere 
ix a fimall mad-built Sarae. which is repaired annoally from 
lorral fun^k. At the market on Sundays and Thuradajrs 
gruin, M\i^ ve^tables, tobacco, and cloth are booght and 
ho\i\. The only shops are those of two grain-sellers, two 
Cimff'AtiionerH and one seller of pdn-leaf. A Httie coarse 
e^iuntry cloth is manufactured. 

TinXjfi Fadabua Pargana — TbArf/ Shahabab — Lies 
)M!;tween the Gumti and Bhainsta rivers in the north-eastern 
corner of the Shahabad tabsfl and of the district It is a 
well -wooded but rather light tract of eighty-one villages with 
an area of 80 srjuare miles, 43 of which are cultivated. Its 
greatest length is 12^ and breadth 10^ miles. 

The Gumti separates it on the east from parganas 
Aurangabad (Kheri) and Chandra (Sitapur) ; the Bhainsta 
on tlic west and south-west divides it from parganas Alam- 
na^ar and Mansurnagar ; Gopamau adjoins it on the south, 
and PaHgawan (Kberi) on the north. 

53*23 per cent, of its total area is cultivated ; 24*76 cul- 
turablc ; and 17*78 barren and unassessed; 4*23 per cent, is 
under groves, a higher proportion than in any of the Hardoi 
jinrganas except Malldnwan. The percentage of third class 
soil is small, only ()'27. Rather more than a third of the 
cultivated area is irrigated, the details being 24'92 per cent 
from wells, of which at survey there were 1,102, and 9*14 per 
cent, from 692 tanks, ponds and jhfls. 

In half the villages no wells at all were found at survey. 
In twenty-seven the large pur wells, worked by bullocks, are 
dug for from iivc to seven rupees, last from one to three 
y<»arH, and water eighteen or twenty biswas a day. In 
twelvr the smaller lever wells are used, costing from two to 
Hw rupeoH, 



HABDOI 8KTTLEMENT EEPORT. 201 

These last, as a rule, not more than two years, and irri- 
gate six biswas a day. 

The villages without wells lie for the most part in the 
east, along the right bank of the Gumti. This is the worst 
fiide of the pargana and of the district Here the surface is 
uneven, the soil light and sandy, here mounded into lofty 
sand-hills, there cut up and ruined by ravines. The river 
has worn its way so deep below the level of the adjacent 
. country as to make irrigation from it very difficult along a 
great length of its course. 

In this part of the pargana cultivators are scarce, pro- 
duce scanty, rents low, and in the worst villages paid in 
' kind. 

In the west along the Bhainsta the soil and its capa- 
c bilities are good, and the water-supply fairly abundant, but, 
; as in pargana Alamnagar on the other side of the stream, 
thick jungle clothes its banks, whence nilghai and pig sally 
forth by night and root, trample, and devour the peasants* 
, crops. In consequence, rents are low and will remain so 
\ till the zamindars thin their jungles. 

. Down the centre of the pargana away from the Bhainsta 

jungles and Gumti sand lie the best villages. What bhiir 
there is resembles light diimat ; but fair diimat prevails 

. mixed here and there, especially towards the west, with stiff 

I matiydr. 

' In the northern villages along the Kheri border the 

0carcity of cultivators and consequent size of holdings (jots) 
results in indifferent tillage. On the west, as already noted, 

I, the ravages of wild animals, and on the east the poverty of 
the soil, deter the best classes of cultivators from settling. 
Then, too, the Sayyads who hold more than a quarter of the 

fiargana are for the most part slovenly husbandmen and do 
ittle for their villages, (Mir Danish Ali, of Fihdni, however, 
is a notable exception ) ; the Edyatbs, who hold seven and a . 
I balf villages, are, from their sedentary habits, no better ; while 
: the Nikumbhs, who hold nearly another quarter, are notori- 
ously lazy and averse to clearing their jungles, so that the 
tillage of the pargana is, as a rule, indifferent. 

26h 



203 



nARPOI SETTLnimT BKFOBT. 



Tribo of owners. 




No. of 

'II 






TillaKes. 


MikuaibliH .., 


■•• 


18 


Soii.bAiisia ..• 


••• 


3 


KatliOM •- 


••• 


S 


ChAndrigaura •.. 


••• 


1 


ClumiMQH 


••• 


1 


Total, Chhattria 


••• 


'24 


I)iih^ Brahmana 


• ■ ■ 


S 


Minr „ 


•• • 


91 


SuUhI „ 


• •a 


n 


Barhmchari,, 


••• 


i 


Chiiubt* ,. 


••• 


2 


l'anr< 


• «• 


1 


Awaiiti 


••• 


1 


Total, B rah ma D 8 


■ •• 


U 


Sayyacta 


• • • 


824 


Path&ns ..• 


■ •• 


6 


bhaiktiH M. 


• •• 


2 


Total, Muhammadatii 


• • • 


29; 


Kayaths 


• • ■ 


74 


(ioshainfl 


• •• 


9 


liative C-hristiani 


• •• 


2 


Ahird ,M 


••• 


1 


UoTerDiBcot 


••• 


I 


Total, Miscellaneous 


••• 


134 



Tbo staple products are barley, wheat, maize, bayn d 
gram. Tlie survey papers show less thnn two handredtcn 
of sugarraQc, but one of opium, twenty-one of tobacco, ai 
tivo hundred of vegetables. 

From Pih:iui, the chief town, unmetalled but hrii^ 
roads radiate to Shdhjahdnpur, Shahabad, Hardoi, Sitip 
and Muhamdi ; but as Pihdni lies in the south-western coff 
of the pargana, the Ilardoi and Muhamdi road, ruanini^fac 
south to uorth, is the only one that traverses the heart: 
the pargana. 

Proprietary possession is unusually mixed. Savyidsii 

Nikumbhs hold respecQit! 
rather more and rather le 
than a quarter of the pargsa 
No other tribe holds m 
than three villages except d 
Pathans, who have five, • 
the Kdyatbs, who own see 
and a half. 

In 60 villages the t«iia 
is zdmindari and in 21 impe 
feet pattidari. 

The Government demtfi 
excluding: cesses, is Rs. 40,W 
a rise of 65'26 per centi 
the summary assessment 
falls at the rate of Be, 1-T* 
per cultivated acre. Re. 0-lM 
j)er acre of total area ; ft 
9-11-11 per plough ; andt 
2-1-11 and Re. 1-2-11 perhtf 
of agricultural and total popi 
lation. 



Hindus to Muhammadit 
are 26,442 to 7,586 ; males to females 18,228 to 15,80J 
and agriculturists to non-agriculturists 18,946 to 15083 
The total population is 34,028 or 423 to the square mile.' 



HABDOI 6ETTLB1IENT BEPOBT. 203 

More than a fifth of the Hindus are Cham&m ; a seventh 
we Brahmans ; Cbhattris are only a seventeenth ; Vaishyas, 
Muraos and Ahirs predominate among the rest. More than a 
fourth of the Muhammadans are Pathdns ; Syads and Jolahas 
are each a seventh. 

Markets are held at Pihdni on Mondays and Thursdays ; 
Sadatnagar, Sundays and Thursdays; Raigaen, Mondays and 
JFridaySy and Delia, Sundays and Wednesdays. 

On the first of Kartik from two to three thousand people 
go to bathe in the Gumti at Kolhdbarghdt. 

On the second Sunday of Jeth, the anniversary of the 
death of Nawab Sadrjahdn, his mausoleum at Fibdni is visited 
by four or five hundred persons. 

A small melais held at the shrine of the Sankata Devi in 
Pih&ni during the first fortnight of Asarh, and on the 8th day 
after the Holi the Sitlaji Devi at Pihdni is honored by the 
attendance of about a thousand worshippers. 

Besides an aided school at Pihdni (112), there are village 
schools at Raigaen (50), Bandarha(31), Delia (55), Sadatnagar 
(55), and Padarua (41). Three female schools aggregating 
ninety-three pupils have been established at Pihdni, and one 
(19) at Raigaen. 

* 

When the Ain-Akbari was compiled, Pih^i Padarua 
was a part of p^rgana Barwar Anjana, Ddstur Pali, Sarkar 
Khairabad. In 1703 A.D. R^ja Ibadulla Khan, the Sombansi 
pervert of Muhamdi, contracted for the revenue of the whole 
of parganas Barwar and Bhurwara, and subdivided them into 
eighteen small parganas, in each of which he built a for^and 
stationed a Collector. Pihini and Padarua were two of the 
nine sub-divisions of Barwar Anjana, and were retained as 
separate parganas till the regular settlement, when they were 
thrown into one under their present joint name. 

105. PmXm—Pargana Piha'ni Padarva — Tahiti 
Shahabad— (Latitude 270*'38' north, longitude 80°14'east; 
A town of 7,582 inhabitants on the unmetalled road b^^tween 
Sitapur and Shdhjah&npur; 3^088 of the residents are Mubam^ 



S04 



DARDOI SETTLEIIKXT RKPOBT. 



ni«(l.ins, find 4.101 are Hindus. They are lodged u 5 
Wick aiul l.tn:> mud liouses. Its public buildiiigsaRip 
lict' station nnd a riovernuient school. Its chief intereitiB 
in its n^sociation wiih Akl)ar s celebrated chancelltfiai 



Jaitan. 



Tk 



Two ncrounts are sriven of the fuundinjs^ of PibaaL 
Hindus tiAf-e it to a Ki'ttlenient of Dub^ Brahmans i 
ir(;in Kiinauj Ky Kdja Lakbuii Son, the Gaur conquent 
tlie Tliatluni tort at Siniaurp^arh. The Muhammadan 
turv, as collcctcil hy Mr. McMiun, is this: — 

'^Vtthe date of the battle of Bil^rdm (A.D. Trf 
Ab*Iul iiliafur, Sayvad, was c|uzi of Kanauj. He hi\ 
yoi.n^fr l)r<>tbcr, Abdul Muqtadi. After Hunidvun wasi 
pi'lN.'d by Slier Sbslb, and took refu«;e with Sh^h Tubs 
4»( I'er^ia, it is alUged tbat the latter called on SherSbali| 
f^tain why lie usurped the throne which belonged pre 
to llie ]\lup;hal. Sher Shdh in return collected various 
lue) ts from nobles of India, ])roving that Humdyiia vtfi 
A ti le believer. Abdul (ibafur was required to send a "^ 
lar statcnu lit. He refused to do so, and to escape 
Sh/.irs ven^eanre, ho leit Kanauj, and concealed hiniMb! 
the jun;!;1e ou the u])[)osito side of the Ganges where 
cow stands. 

''In irir).") Huiu;iyun returned, and Abdul Ghafnr 
his bidinLC jihice sent a letter of congratulation. Hudiji 
pave him Hvc villa;;e.s rent-free in parganas Pasgawan 
rindarwa; also five thousand biji;has of the jungle in 
lie had found sheher. This sput was therefore called 1 
rinhani meaning cuncealnieut, and a town founded ia 
forest-clearing. 

**Ghafur Alam was the son of Abdul Muqtadi. Hc^ 
sent to the Q^izi-ul-Qazzdt at Delhi as a pupil. He fid 
great progress, and was brought before the £mperor Alh 
who made him tutnr to Jabangir; and was so pleased in 
the latter's suecess in his studies, that he entitled his prect 
tor Nawab Sndc Jahau, and made him sadr or chief mufti 
the empire. It is possible, however, that this promotion i 
duo to Sadr Jaliun's conversion to the new religion of wh 



1^ HAUDOI SETTLEMENT BEPORT. SOS 

, \kbar was the high priest, and into which Sadr Jahdn led 

lis two sons. The sadr was the fourth officer in the empire. 
^;le was the highest law officer. He was adrainistrator-ge- 
I'leral and inquisitor into religious opinion. Sadr Jalidn con- 
' ;iDued to serve under Jahdngfr — a proof, if any was needed, 

;hat-the latter emperor shared the free-thinkiog views of his 
^'atlier, bv he would never have allowed the official guardi- 

;>nship of the purity of the faith to be held by a pervert 

3adr Jahdn's tomb is at Pihdni. It was completed in 
Jl068 Hijri (A.D. 1657). His descendants held high office 

under the Mughal emperors. Like his masters, Akbar and 
" Jahdngir, he had married Hindu wives, by one of whom, a 

Brahmani, Parbati, he had Murtaza Khan and Irtiza Khan. 

-'Murtaza Khan was Faujdar of Gopamau, and Irtiza Khan 

■^acld the more important charge of the Rantambhaur fort* 

^adr Jahdn, another son, held both Barwdr and Kheri in rent- 

'^ree tenure. 

^ Mr. Blochmann gives some further particulars about 
^iSadr Jahdn and his descendants: — 

''^ ** MirAn Sadr Jahdn was born at Pihdni, a village near 

^anauj. Through the influence of Sheikh Abd-un-nabi he 

*was made mufti. When Abdullah Khan Uzbak, King of 

^urdn, wrote to Akbar regarding his apostacy from Islam, 

Mirdu Sadr and Hakim Humdyiin were selected as ambassa- 

.dors. The answer which they took to Abdullah contained 

"W few Arabic verses which Abdullah could construe into a 

ttenial of the alleged apostacy: — ' Of God, people have said 

.Ikhat he had a SOD ; of the prophet, some have said that he 

"Was a sorcerer. Neither God nor the prophet has escaped 

tloLB slander of men. Then how should I ? ' Miran returned 

an the 34th year and was made sadr. Up to the 40tkyear 

kke had risen to the dignity of a commander of 700 ; but later 

lie was made an amil, and got a mansab of 2,000. During 

"the reign of Jahdngir, who was very fond of him, he was pro- 

^idoted to a command of 4,000, and received Kanauj as tujfdL 

^s sadr under Jahdngir he is said to have given away more 

Xsnds in five years than under Akbar in fifty. He died in 

1020 at the age, it is believed, of 120 years. His faculties 

Remained unimpaired to the last. There is no doubt that ha 

temporized, and few people got more for it than he. He als^ 



206 HABDOI SETIXEMEKT REPORT. 

composed poems, though in the end of his life, like Bodaon^ 
he repented and gave up poetry as against the spirit of Ao 
Muhamniadan law. He had two sons : — 

''(1) Mir Badr-i-Alam. He lived a retired Fife. (2) 
Sayyad Nizdm Murtaza Khan. His mother was a Brahmaa 
woman, of whom his father had been so enamoured that be 
married her; hence ISizdni was his favourite son. He was 
early introduced at court, and at the death of his father wag 
made a commander of 2,500, and 2,000 horse. In the first year 
of Shah Jahan's reign he was promoted to a command of 
3,000, and received on the death of Murtaza Khan Sujd the 
title of Murtaza Khan. He served a long time in the Dakhin. 
His ivydl was the pargana of Dalnian, where he on several 
occasions successfully quelled disturbances. He iras also 
Faujdar of Lucknow. In the 24th year of Shdh Jahdn's 
reign he was pensioned off, and received twenty lacs of dkam 
per annum out of the revenue of Pihdni, which was one kror. 
He enjoyed his pension for a long time. His sons died 
before him. On his death his grandsons, Abdul Muqtadi and 
Abdullah, were appointed to mausabs, and received as tuydl 
the remaining portion of the revenue of Pih4ni. Abdul 
Muqtadi rose to a command of 1,000, and 600 horse, and was 
Faujdar of Khairabad." {Translation of Ain-uAkbari Vol. 
I., Fasci. v., p. 468). 

In the Kheri article (Oudh Gazetteer) will be found a de- 
tailed account (by Mr. McMinn) of the steps by which, in 
the beginning of the eighteenth century, the Sombansi per- 
vert, Kija Ibddulla Khan, possessed himself of the jdgir of 
these Fihani Sayyads. 

The decay of Fihani is attributed to Ibddulla Khan's 
encroachment, to the resumption of the j^ir by SaJkdat Alt 
Khan, and the loss of service siuce annexation. 

The oldest portion of the town is called Bari Pihdni; dirt 
and decay abound in it. Its chief ward or muhalla is Mir* 
ki-Sarde. The oldest building in it is the tomb of Abdul Ghafur. 
The date stone has been removed from it. It stands close 
to the khera or deserted site which marks the residence of 
the early founders of chak Pihdni, the Dub6s from Kanauj, 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 207 

id the first. Sayyad settlement during the reign of Akban 
^^he Sayyads seem to have obliterated all traces of the earlier 
^5cupants. No ruined shrine is to be seen, only the remains 
• - : a huge masonry well. Bari Pihdni was deserted when 
'izdm Murtaza Khan founded the nearer adjacent town of 
ciJfizdmpur, or Chhoti Pihdni, Chhoti PihAni presents an 
oikgjreeable contrast to the older town. It is altogether cleaner, 
^eitrisker, more populous ; viewed from the outside it seems 
zMh be buried in trees. The soil is good ; the water near the 
Kiiurface. The western gateway, with its huge shafts of red 
^ndstone, the bastions of the high enclosing wall, brick-faced, 
srith blocks of kankar, the remains of Murfaza Khan's fort, 
iiow tnan^ a scene of picturesque ruin. But the gem of the 
t=j<rhole place is the grand old mosque and tomb of Sadr Jahdn 
,nd Badr Jahdn in Bari Pihdni. 



.1 

i' It is a building of much beauty. A double dome, poised 
^n red sandstone pillars, rises from a pavement of brick 
^^Ased with carved slabs of stone, and shaded by tamarinds of 

^normous girth. Lightness, symmetry, and grace, delicate 
E~ti(olour, and rich but not florid ornamentation, are its charac^ 
^■^^eristics. 

In the nawdbi, Pihdni was the Damascus of Oudh, noted 
****or the temper of its sword blades. But these ^nd its wovea 
urbands (dastar) are things of the past. 

■ 

^, 106. SitfNDi Pars^ana-^Tahsil Bilgra'm — The chief 
^jub-di vision of tahsil Bilgrdm. It consists of 141 villages ; 
m the north and west it is bounded by parganas Bdwan, 
Barwan and Katidri ; on the south-west and south by the 
S'anges and by pargana Bilgrdm ; on the east by pargana 
Bangar. The Garra flows right through it from north to 
uth, and the Rdmganga flows irregularly along or near its 
western and south-western border. Its extreme length and 
dreadth are 13^ and 17^ miles. Its area is 168 square miles, 
B^f which 107 or three-fifths (61-62 per cent.) are cultivated ; 
^» fifth (19*91 per cent.) is calturable, and less than a fifth 
|rj[17'52) barren. The proportion of the cultivated area re* 
^^amed as third class, that is, light and sandy, is 15*65 per 
l^ent., only a sixth of it (16*37 per cent.) is irrii^ted, the area 
I^^Watered from tanks and ponds (11*40 r being more 



208 nARPOI SETTLCVEXT RKPORT. 

than twice as lar^^e as that watered from irells (4*97 per 
cent.) The number of wells and ponds are returned at 
1,757 and 1,157, respectively. The percentage under grorei 
is unusually low, only '95. The average area of culdvation 

per plough is 6 - acres. 

The pargana is dividorl into two distinct portions by tbe 
irregular sandy ridge which, running down through it from 
north to south immediately to the east of Sandi, marks the 
edge of an ancient channel of, as I believe, the Ganges, lon^ 
since abandoned in its gradual westward recession. All the 
villages on and to the east of this ridge are poor, uneven, 
and sandy. Irrigation is scanty and difficult. In some 
villages wells cannot Vie made at all ; in others only the small 
])ot and lever (dhenklij wells can be made, and these have 
constantly to be renewed. On the other hand, all of the 
country to the west of this ridge, being four-fififas or more 
of the pargana, is a distinctly alluvial tract, levelled and en- 
riched by the floods of three Himalayan rivers, the Garni, 
Ramganga, and Ganges, and by minor streams such as the 
iSendha. All this tract is iardi^ that is, it has been scooped 
by fluvial action out of the adjacent 6d/7^ar or original pla- 
teau, and in it the water level is always so near the surface 
that in the dry months percolation largely supplies the want 
of irrigation, while in the rainy season it is more or less 
completely flooded. It constitutes, in fact, the flood basin of 
the three rivers named above. In heavy floods such as those 
of 1871, a sea of waters spreads from Sandi twenty miles west 
to Fatehgarh, The rivers bring down a rich alluvial deposit 
locally called seo^ which greatly fertilizes the submerged 
fields atid makes manure unnecessary. The deposit brought 
down by the lidmganga is considered the richest. In heavy 
floods it is sometimes spread two feet thick over the fields. 
Besides its richness it lias this further advantage, that its 
preparation for seed involves only a quarter of the labor 
required for ordinary land. 

The autumn crops in this part of the district cannot be 
depended on, and if the floods are late in running off, the 
spring sowings suffer. Along the Garra, which flows between 
well-defined banks of from fifteen to twenty feet high, irriga- 
tion is carried on by the pot and lever (dhenkli) or by the 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT,. 209 

lift (beri). Opposite Sdadi I have seen five lifts at work to 
fetch the water up to the fields. Wheat and even opium are 
grown up to the very edge of the bank. Watering from the 
Sendha is very difficult and expensive owing to the depth of 
the stream below its banks. Much of the soil in this riverine 
tract is a hard stiff cold clay requiring large and powerful 
bullocks to force the plough through it and heavy rains to 
soften it. A natural consequence of the moisture of the 
surface and slight need of artificial irrigation is that irrigated 
and unirrigated lands in many villages fetch much the same 
rent. 

Away from the Garra the country is poorly wooded. 
There is little jungle except a patch full of nfl-gde at Jeori 
on the Sendha. In some villages, especially those along the 
Ramganga, a rank deep-rooted grass called surdi is very 
baneful. Every flood brings down fresh seeds of it, and not 
improbably it will in time be as bad a pest as the ** kdns " of 
Bundelkhand. 

In this low river-swept tract the soil of the b^ngar has 
here and there withstood the fluvial action, and has lefl a 
high isolated blufif overlooking the surrounding champaign. 
The views from these " coigns of vantage '' is very striking. 
Thus from Malauthu Khera the eye can range from the 
Christian spire of Fatehgarh church, twelve miles away 
across the Ganges on the west, to the pagan pinnacle of 
Bdwan Shiwdla, fourteen miles to the east, or from Sdndi fort, 
on the one hand, to the groves of Siwaichpur, on the other. 
Another grand view is to be had. from Sdndi fort. 

The Sdndi lake, called ^ Ddhar,' has been formed, I sup- 
pose, by the silting up of the channel of the great river which 
must have flowed close up to the sandy ridge on the east of 
it, much in the same way as the snipe-famed Baghar Tdl near 
Bahramghdt has been formed by the silting of the Sarju. It 
is two miles long, with a breadth of from four to six furlongs, 
and abounds in fish and water-fowl. 

The beauty of the groves round Sdndi attracted Sir W. 
Sleeman's attention. Writing in 1850, he says*: — "I observ- 

* Vol. II., pages 31-32, Tour through Oudh. 

27h 



210 HABDOI SKTTLIEinCNT BEPOBf. 

ed very fine groves of mango trees close to S&ndi planted 
by merchants and shopkeepers of the place. The oldest an 
still held by descendants of those by whom they were fink 
planted more than a century ago ; and no tax whatever is 
imposed upon the trees of any kind, or upon the lands on 
which they stand. Many young groves are growing np 
around to replace the old ones as they dscay ; and the gpreatest 
possible security is felt in the tenure by which they are held 
by the planter, or his descendants, though they hold no writ- 
ten lease or deed of gift, and have neither law nor court of 
justice to secure it to them. Groves and solitary mango, 
semul, tamarind, mhowa, and other trees, whose leaves and 
branches are not required for the food of elephants and 
camels, are more secure in Oude than in our own territories; 
and the country is, in consequence, much better provided with 
them. While they give beauty to the landscape they alle- 
viate the effects of droughts to the poorer classes from the 
fruit they supply ; and droughts are less frequently and less 
severely felt in a country so intersected by fine streams, flow- 
ing from the tardi forest or down from the perpetual snoirs 
of neighbouring hills and keeping the water always near the 
surface ; these trees tend also to render the air healthy by giving 
out oxygen in large quantities during the day and absorbing 
carbonic acid gas. 

The taliiqdari tenure obtains in 30^ villages ; Slji are 
zamindari, and 49 imperfect pattidari. 

The Government demand, excludingcesses, isRs. 1,27,218, 
a rise of 23'13 per cent, over the summary assessment It 
falls at Re. 1-14-7 on the cultivated acre ; Re. 1-2-10 per 
acre of total area ; Rs. 11-10-7 per plough ; Bs. 2-9-4 per 
head of agricultural and Re. 1-13-2 per head of total 
population. 

The incidence of population is 415 to the square mile* 
The leading statistics are : — Total 69,751 ; Hindus to 
Muhamraadans 64,252 to 5,499 ; males to females 37,734 to 
32,017, agriculturists to non-agriculturists 49,289 to 20,462. 
Braliinans (8,756) and Ahirs (8,240) head the list. Then 
come Kisdus and Chamdrs, Chhattris (5,984) and Murios 
(4,853). 



HABDOI BETTLSMXNT BEPOBT. 211 

There is an aided school at Sdndi and village schools 
have been established at Pdlia and Chaunadr. The opium 
department has a weighing station at Sdndi. 

The Xfn-i-Akbari contains the following mention of the 
pargana: — 

Goltivated area, 2,11,814 bighas. 
Bevenue, mal, 31,55,331) d^ms. 
SAyarghal ... 1,95,108 „ 
Zamindars, Sombansis. 
Qarrison, 20 saNvftrs and 2,000 foot soldiers* 

The chief products are wheat, barley, bdjra, gram, judr 
arhar . and paddy. At survey wheat covered a third of the 
cultivated area; barley between a fifth and fourth; bdjra and 
gram together a fourth. The areas under sugarcane, cotton, 
tobacco, indigo and poppy were, respectively, only 353, 18,979 
50, and 1 acres. 

The climate of Sdndi itself is considered very good, but 
the wells are brackish. 



The 141 villages are held thus : — 






Kati&rs 


••• 


••» 


••• 


35 


Sombausis 


.•• 


••• 


• •• 


16 


Janw^rs 


••• 


••• 


• • • 


10 


BamtiloH 


••• 


••• 


• •• 


H 


Hikumbhs 


••• 


••• 


••• 


2 


Ghaiilians 


••. 


••• 


.•• 


1 


Gaurs 


••• 


... 


. •• 


H 


Uaikwdrs 


••• 


••• 


• •• 


4 


Bais 


#.. 


... 


.«• 


2 


R&thors 


••• 


••• 


• •• 


1 


(rahalw&rs 


••• 


••• 


• •• 


1 


Katerias 


••• 


•• • 


•«• 


1 


B&chhils 


••• 


••• 


• •• 


1 






Total, Cbhattris 


••• 


80i 


Bayyads 


••• 


• •• 


... 


IH 

^ 


. Pathans 


••• 


• •• 


... 


5 


Shekbs 


••• 


• •• 


• •• 


2 


Mugbab 


••• 


• •• 


• •. 


i 



Total Muhammadans ... 26 



212 - HABDOI SETTLEMEKT . BEPOBT. 

Brahmans .«• ... ••• *lli 

Ahifs ... ••• ••• 1^ 

GoverDment ••• ••• ••• 12 

Kayaths ... ... ... 4 

Lodhs ... ••• «•• 5§ 

* Misrs, DikhiU, Xganhotris, Tiwftris and Pithiks, one MCh; MUi J 
Fandcs two; Chaubea a half. 

It is believed traditionally that Arakbs preceded Thik 
beras in holding the country round S&ndi. The display* 
ment of the Thatheras was effected by Sombansi Ghnittrii 
who bad migrated from Jhiisi. At the time of the Mnban- 
madan conquest the domains of the Sombansis are Slid to 
have extended over Sdndi, Katidri, Barwan, Saromannagg, 
Pali, Fachhoha, Shahabad, Bangar and Bdwan. The hod- 
quarters of the clan was at Sdntan Ehera or SAntannipi, 
a fort named after R&ja Sdntan Singh, lying At a short di^ 
tance to the north of the present town of Sdndi to which it 
has given its name. The Sombansis were driven out at the 
Muhammadan invasion and retired to the Kumaun hills. 

This retreat, and their complete subjugatiou did not take 
place till about 1398 A. D. Traditions still linger on the 
country side of the stubbornness of the defence of Sdntan 
Ehera, the depth of the moat, the failure of the siege till a 
channel was cut from the moat to the Garra. The ccm- 
querors abandoned Saatan Khera, and founded a new town 
about a mile and a half to the soutli-east, and named it Fateh- 
pur Islamabad. But pestilence broke out twenty^two yean 
later and caused the abandonment of the new town. The 
village of Chandiapur stands near the deserted site which is 
now known as Fatihan Khera. In compliance with the 
wishes of the inhabitants the old town was re-peopled, and 
the Muhammadans gave it the name of Ashrafabad. But the 
new title did not go down. Santan Dih or Sdndi became its 
name. The proprietary connection of the Sayyads with the 
pargana began with Sayyad Husen Tirmuzi, who was a lead- 
int; man in the conquering host, and was rewarded for his 
services with several villages in jagir. In 1061 Hijri (1650 
A. D.) his descendant, Sayyad Sad-uUa, was killed in an affray 
with certain Sribastau Kayaths of the pargana, arising out of 
ft dispute as to the ownership of the Manjha. On the peti- 
tion ul* the slain man's family Shah Jahdu deputed Bahmaa 



( 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 213 

% Tdr Khan to chastise the Kdyaths. The task was very 
•^ .thoroughly done, and none of this family of Edyatbs are to 
■^ be found in Sdndi. The same emperor bestowed the wholo 
" pargana, then consisting of 332 villages, on Ehalil-uUa Khan 
r^in jdgir; but later on in 1093 Hijri (A. D. 1681), Aurangzeb 
conferred the proprietorship of the town and of forty villages 
Vrbich had belonged to the Kdyatlis on Sayyad Fateh Muham- 
mad and Sayyad Muhammad, the heirs of the slain Sayyad 
Sdd-uUa. Sayyad Muhammad was the elder son and beads 
the bari taraf or senior line, while the junior or chhoti taraf 
(or sarkar) traces its descent from Sayyad Fateh Muhammad. 
Since then the town and the post of chaudhri and qaniingo 
have been held by this family. I learn from the Bhauapur 
proprietary rights record that " the whole of (pargana) Sdndi 
was at one time held by the chaudhris on a pargana grant 
from the throne. This ceased in 1194 fasli (A. D. 1843) or 
thereabouts. Then every village fell into the direct tenure of 
the old inhabitants. The pargana had been held by the 
chaudhris for nearly 180 years." 

The Oudh treaty of 1772 was ratified at " Camp Sauudee/' 
Vide Aitchison's Treaties XL, pp. 83-84. 

107. SXndi — Pargana Sa'ndi — Tahsil^iLoiaiKM. — (Lati- 
tude 27^17' north, longitude 80^0' east.) An interesting town 
of 11,123 inhabitants, on the left bank of the Garra on the old 
route from Shdhjahdnpur vid Shahabad to Lucknow. For its 
history the pargana article may be referred to. Tennant, 
visiting it in 1799, complained of '^the bleak, desolate, and 
dreary aspect of the country, where you are constantly sink- 
ing at every step in loose sand and blinded by showers of dust." 
Heber in 1824, gives a more cheerful account, but under-rated 
the size of the place. " The country,'' he writes, " through 
which we passed to-day was extremely pretty, undulating 
with scattered groves of tall trees and some extensive lakes 
which still (4th November) showed a good deal of water. 
The greater part of the space between the wood was in green 
wheat, hut there were round the margin of the lakes some 
small tracts of brushwood, and beautiful silky jungle-grass 
eight or ten feet high, with its long pendant beards gustening, 
with hoar-frost — a sight enough in itself to act as a tonic to 
a convalescent Eurojpean. Sdndi is a poor little village shaded 



21* HABDOI SETTLESfENT BEPOBT. 

by some fiue trees, with a large jheel in the neighbomliQri 
swarming with water-fowl, it was described to me as a nn 
dangerous place for travellers without my present advantna 
and I was told that from thence to the company's frontier ihi 
country bore an extremely bad character, and aemd 
robt^eries and murders had taken place lately. The lake vai 
half dry already, and would, they said, in three months tim 
be quite so. As it recedes it leaves a fine bed of grmsB wd 
aquatic plauts on which a large herd of cattle was not 
eagerly grazing " 



Twenty-six years later, Sir W. Sleeman noted his im* 
pressions of Sandi (Vol. II., p. 31, Sleeman's Tour in Oadh):-i 

'* The river Garra flows under the town to the nortb. 
The place is said to be healthy, but could hardly be ao wen 
this lake to the west or east instead of to the south whence 
the wind seldom blows. This lake must give out more or 
less of malaria that would be taken over the village for the 
greater portion of the year by the prevailing* easterly and 
westerly winds. I do not think the place so eligible for a 
cantonment as Tandeeawun in point either of salubrity, posi- 
tion, or soil. The lake on the south side abounds in fish, and 
is covered with wild fowl, but the fish we got from it was not 
good of its kind.'' 

The best market is that held on Sundays and Thursdajs 
in muhalla Nawabganj, but smaller Ijazars are held on Tuea- 
days in muhalla Khalisa, on Mondays in muhalla Auladganj, 
on Fridays in muhalla Mmishiganj, and on Wednesdays in 
Sdlamullaganj. The Sandi market has a local fame for its 
small cotton carpets or qdlins. 

The principal wards or muhallas are called Sayjadwin, 

Saliimullaganj. Munshiganj, Khalisa, Auladganj, Nawabganj 

and Unchatila. Unchatila has been built on one of those 

isolated blu£> where soil harder than usual haa withstood the 

river-doods of ages, and has left a sort of natural fortress 

commanding the adjacent river basin. Here, layer upon layer, 

are piled the vtsiiges of the Arakhs, Thatheras. SombnuH^ 

and SavvaJs of the past, crowned with the successive remains 

of an earthwork thrown up during the reign of Shuja-ud-daa- 

la, a lactorv built by European tnterpriie at a rather later 



HARDOl SETTLRMEMT REPORT. SIS' 

Mate, a chakladar's tahsil and fort, an English tahsil and police 
^"Mation established at annexation, and now a Government^ 
]*^*opium godown or weighing house and office. A gloomy associa«' 
^'tK>n clings to this building, for it was here, in 1870, that the 
5 opium officer, Mr. MacMullen, was atrociously murdered by 
' Ills bearer, who, in revenge for a trifling punishment by the 
' kindest and most indulgent of masters, blew out his brains 
as he lay asleep, and then gave out that his master had com- 
mitted suicide. A moment s glance at the poor victim's body 
refuted the lie; the murderer confessed his crime, and was 
lianged for it. 

In Sayyadwdra the chief buildings are a mosque and man- 
sion built by Sayyad Qutb-ud-din Uusen Khan, cbakladar at 
annexation of Bdngarmau and Sdndi. In this house is located 
the Government aided school, averaging 102 pupils. To the 
south of it is an imdmbara and mosque built in 1844. Two 
other mosques adorn the quarter raised by Munshi Mubarak 
Ali and Nnjabat Ali, reader of the khutba or prayer for the 
king. SaldmuUaganj, named after one of the Sayyad chau- 
dhris of the pargana, boasts its rauza built in 1738 by Sayyad 
Muhammad Amjad, father of chaudhri Salam-ulla, and a mos- 
que built by the same Sayyad three years later. 

To the east of the town are the dargahs and graves 
of Shdh Allah Bakhsh Darwesh, called also Zinda Plr 
and of Maulana Khalis, faqirs of great local renown, and 
claimed by tradition as companions in arms of Sayyad Sdidr 
Masaiid. 

These tombs seem to have been constructed about the 
end of the fourteenth century. One of them has evidently 
been chiefly built out of the ruins of a Hindu temple, beipg 
made almost entirely of large blocks of kankar of difierent 
sizes. At the edge and in front of the raised platform are two 
large blocks, of which the upper surface has been hewn into 
the segment of a large circle. In their present position these 
stones are without use or meaning. They have apparently 
been originally a part of the doorway of a Hindu shrine. 
Other fragments of pillars and bas-reliefs, belonging probably 
to the same building, are collected at the shrines of the 
Mangla and Gobardhani Debis. 



216 HAP.DOI SETTLEMENT BEPOBT. 

In Miinshiganj there is a masoury well of great age, svl 
to be of a date prior to the Sombansis under Saja S^ntan, ui 
calteJ Mitba kiian, or the well of sweet waters. It was ztfm 
ed during tbe reign of Saadat Ali Khan bj Mohammad AE 
Nar^i Kban, uncle of Sayyad Qutb-ud-din Uiisen Khan.. 

The Khah'sa and Aulidganj wards coDtain many gool 
masonry houses built by wealthy Bdezdda Kayaths such as tk 
Ldlas Gopal Kae, Ganga Parshad, and Shadi L&L Here, too, 
are two Thakurdwaras, erected in recent times by Beni Urt 
Misr and Chhote Ldl Pand^. 

To the east of Muratganj lies the sacred shrine of tbe 
Maiigia Debi. Here, in addition to the usual fragments of 
stone bas-relief, are two small white marble images, of wfaicb 
tbe feet and hands have been broken off, a huge block of hews 
kankar, and a fragment of a red sandstone capital. Close bj 
is the Phnl Mati Debiia bas-relief representing a pagoda-h'b 
structure, rising over a seated central figure with attendants; 
of apparently Buddhist type. 

In Nawdbganj there is a fine sarie. This ganj was boilt 
by one Sabadh Gir Goshain, a military officer in the NawibL 
In this quarter used to be cantoned some of the ez-king'i 
troops, with guns. The road to Bilgrdm and Hardoi passes 
througli Nawabgauj, which is by far the most thriving mart 
in Sandi. 

A mile from the town in Admapur at the edge of the 
lake a little spring wells up and trickles into it. The spot 
is called ^^Brahmavart, " and is regarded with peculiar vene- 
ration by the Hindus of the neighbourhood. Here a grove 
has been planted, and in it over tbe sacred spring is a little 
shrine tended by a few priests. 

108. S ANDILA Pargana-^ TahsU SANDfLA —The 
principal sub-division of Tahsil Sandila. It consists of 213 vil- 
lages. On the north it is bounded by pargana Gopamau, on 
the west by Bdlamau and Mallndwdn, on the south-west and 
south by Bdngarmau, Safipur, and Mohdn Aurds of Lucknow, 
on the cast by Gundwa and Kalyan Mai, and across the Gumti 
by pargana Aurang^abad ofSitapur. The Sai flows along the 
greater part of its south-western and southern border. 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT BEPOBT. 2lf 

In shape it is an irregular rhombus, with an extreme 
^tigth and breadth of 31 and 22 miles. Its area is 329 square 
tiiles, of which 170 or 51*14 per cent, are cultivated ; rather 
lore than a fifth (22*56 per cent.) is culturable ; a fourth 
34*7 per cent.) is returned as barren ; more than a fourth 
27*65 per cent.) is rated as third class, that is, sandy, light, 
nd uneven ; rather less than a third (31*05 per cent.) of 
ae cultivated area is irrigated in the proportion of about 
mr parts from tanks and ponds to one from wells ; the 
ercentage under groves is only 1*6 ; 7\ acres is the average 
tea of cultivation per plough. 

ji There is nothing very striking or interesting about its 
^lysical features. The statistics already given show that it 
g poorly wooded ; that the area of barren and sandy soil is 
^ry large; and that wells are scarce. This last circumstance 
I owing to the sandiness of the subsoil, a feature always 
ot with in the vicinity of Indian rivers. The worst and 
rtdiest tract is to the north near Beniganj and Mdnjfagdon. 
^re the neighbourhood of the Gumti, which forms the north- 
Sfttem border, is plainly visible for miles inland from it, in 
^ great irregularity of the surface, scantiness of wells and 
Ss, and the lightness of the sandy undulating soil. This 
^ion abounds in extensive herds of deer, whose depreda- 
Kis add seriously to the cultivator's difficulties. South- 
ards, as the scene shifts towards the centre of the pargana, 
i^ore even surface and a firmer soil is reached, abounding in 
Ljsof no great size, of which the largest is at Raison. It is 
s^^tble for the number of grebe on it, and the advantages for 
Ssk shooting presented by the embankments across it. The 
ilta nala rises among the j bils in the east centre of the par- 
^a and drains its south-eastern side. Large tracts of dhdk 
^i^le and barren waste follow its course, and it is not much 
i^ for irrigation. Towards the Sal on the west the soil 
iatin deteriorates. It becomes sandy and unable to retain 
Vter ; jhils disappear ; the surface becomes uneven ; but 
i^ slope into the basin of the Sai is neither steep nor deep^ 
'^hat there is comparatively little of the scour which so dis- 
^rously affects the Gumti side of the district. For the same 
^son the land on this side is less sandy, that iSy less denuded 
^ts loamy particles. A few spotted deer (chital) still linger 
^e Utar Guian jungle near Kachhona. 

28h 



218 HASDOI lETTLSUEHT BCPOBT. 

The main road la the uametalled one from Lacknarttl 
Sbdlijahunpur, passing through Saadila from Bfalihabidiil 
KadihoDn on ita way to Hardoi. Parallel to it now ram '■ii' 
Oudh and KohilkliantI Railway, with stations at SsadiUiill 
Kaclihona. From SaDdila other unmetalled district vm 
brauuh off Hoiith-wcstward to Bangarmau, westward to Gfaafrl 
ganj aDd Malldonan and northward to Beniganj and NimkUL I 

The chiof products are barley, wheat, b^jra, eram, idcj 
miish, paddy and jndr. Of these at surrej baney comf 
a I'oiirtli oi' the cultivated area ; wheat a fiiUi : bdjn a| 
^raui toiiPthcr rnthtir moro than a fiftli ; rather more th 
another Bftli was cropped with arhar, mdah, paddy, aadja 
The areas returned as under cotton, cane, poppy, tofauooi 
indigo were respectively 2,618, 1,789. 276, 267, and 9 

The climate is considered average, bat damp nnkfi 
unhealthy at and near Sandlla. 

The 213 villages arc held thus : — 



Nikiimbhs 
.lamvurs ... 
lt«ik<c«n ... 
JIau 

Ahbans ... 
K.chh»ttui 
Sakarwars 
Uaharvin 
Obauhuus ... 




I ~ 


... 50 
... U 






ToUl ChUtris 


... 81 


Tiw&ri Brahriutns 

DiiIm- 

Siikul 

Jiilwar „ 

^araswat „ 


'■'■■ 2 


... I 
... I 
_. 1 
... 1 
... 1 






Total Brahmans 


... 5 


gbekhs ... 
SayjaJs ... 
ratbtos ... 




■;; ^ 


... 63 
... 17 
... I 






... gl 



HARDOI SBTTLKMENT REPORT. 919 

.^ * Kayaths ••• ... ••• ••• 41 

Knrmis ••• ••• ... ••• 2 

JVftiw&rs ••• ••• ■•• ••• t. 

XiOcms ... ... ••• ••• JL 

L Total Miscellaneous ... 45 

The taliiqdari tenure obtains in 114 of tbe villages ; 70 
. are zamindari ; 26 imperfect pattidari ; 3 are bhdiyachdra. 

!^ ' The Government demand, excluding cesses, is Bs. 

!^ 1,92,553, a rise of 42 per cent, on the summary assessment. 
It falls at Re. 1-12-7 on the cultivated acre, Re. 0-14-7 per 
acre of total area; Rs. 12«14-6 per plough ; Rs. 2-11-1 per head 
of agricultural and Re. 1-6-5 per head of total population. 

The incidence of population is 417 to the square mile. 

The leading statistics are — ^total 137,275 ; Hindus to 
Muhammadans 1,17,371 to 19,904 ; males to females 72,175 
to 65,080 ; agriculturists to non-agriculturists 71,569 to 
65,275. Among the Hindus Chamdrs, Pdsis, Brahmans and 
Murdos predominate. Chamdrs are more than a sixth of the 
entire population ; Fdsis are nearly a tenth ; Brahmans 
rather less than an eleventh ; Murdos about a fifteenth. 
Among the rest Chhattris (7,054), Ahirs, Vaishyas and 
Arakhs (4,215) (the earliest children of the soil according to 
tradition) are most numerous. Among the Muhammadans 
Shekhs are strongest (5,076), then Ghosis and Julahas ; Saj- 
ydds are only 1,610. 

There is an Anglo-vernacular tahsil school at Sandila, 
and there are village schools at Beniganj, Assa, Gbausganj, 
Bainkdar and Behsar. 

The pargana is mentioned in the Ain-i-Akbari as hay- 
ing a cultivated area af 3,93,700 bfghas. 

Revenue, m&l ... ... 26,25,328 dams. 

Siyarghal ... ... 1,567 „ 

Zainindars, Chandels. 

Garrison, 20 sdw&rs and 1,000 foot soldiers. 

In the early history of this pargana Arakhs occupy the 
iplace which is filled elsewhere in the Hardoi district bj 



S20 



HABDOI SBTTLEMBNT EKFO&T. 



Tliatheras. Two brothers of the tribe, Salhia andlUk 

arc said to have founded, the one Salhia Parwa now Sia&l 

the chief town of the pargana; the other Malihabad^u tie 

adjacent par^^ana of that naineiu the Lucknow district w 

Arakhs hehl the tract till, towards the end of the 14dica>| 

ry, Sayyad Makhdiim Alh-ud-dm, the fighting apo^ 

Nasir-ud-din, the *Manip of Delhi/' undertook to driver 

the infidels, and to carry the faith and arms of Islam a 

farther to the south. The promise of a royal revem 

grant made the prospect of success as tempting to the 

as was the expulsion of the infidel to the saint. Hov! 

or how fiercely the Arakhs resisted we know not 

the issue of the contest has been remembered. To this: 

the Arakhs of Utraula on the Rdpti, 120 miles awajW 

east in Gonda, recall their lost domains in Sandila. A cetf 

and a half earlier in the reign of Shams*ud-din Altai^^ 

Sayyads had driven out the Hindu lords of Bilgribi 

settled themselves there. Sandila was their nexti 

tiou of importance in this part of the country. The 

of consolidation is thus described in the Tiirikh-iJil 

Sh^hi (Elliot'sHistory IV.,p.l3). "The frontiers of thei 

were secured (1375 A.D.) by placing them under the < 

of great and trusty amirs. Thus on the side of Him 

on the Benjral frontier, the fief (ektd) of Karra and 

and the i>/iikk of Dalmau, were placed under the cl 

Malika-ul Shark (prince of the east) Mard&n DaulatJ 

received the title of Nasir-ul-Mulk. The fief of Ooflj 

Sandila and the Shikk of Kol were placed under 

liisiim-ul-MuIk and Hisdm-ud-din Nawd. The fief ofi 

pur and Zafarabad was given to Malik Bahroz Sultdni. 

fief of Bihiir to Malik 13ir Afghdn. These nobles 

uo laxity in putting down the plots of the infidels, and ini 

their territories secure." (1394A.D.) "Throu^ 

turbulence of the base infidels the aflfairs of the fiefs off 
dustan had fallen into confusion, so Khwaja-i- Jahdn 
the title of Malika*ul- Shark ("king of the east), andtbej 
ministration of all Hindustan, from Eanauj to Bihfr, 
placed in his charge. In the month of Rajab, 796 
(1394A.D.), he proceeded to Hindustan with twenty 
phants, and after chastising the rebels of Etdwah, Kol, 
Kamil, and the environs of Kanauj, he went to Jaunpur. 
degrees he got the fiefs of Kanauj, Karraj Oudh| SI ' 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 221 

t 

(Sandila), Dalmau, Baliraicb, Bihdr and Tirbut into his own 
possession. He put down many of the infidels, and restored 
the forts which they had destroyed. God Almighty blessed 
the arms of Isldni with power and victory. The Rai of 
Jajnagnr and the king of Lakhnauti now began to send to 
Khw4ja-i-Jahdn the elephants which they used to send (as 
tribute) to Delhi. 



(1399 A.D.) " The fiefs of Kanauj, Oudh, Karra, Dal- 
nail, Sandila, Bahraich, Bihdr and Jaunpur were held by 
Khwdja-i-Jahdn. In the same year (1399) Ebwdja-i-Jabdn 
died at Jaunpur, and his adopted son, Malik Mubdrak, became 
king in bis stead, assuming the title of Mubdrak Shah, and 
taking possession of all the fiefs." 

The inventive piety of the Muhammadans dispenses with 
the traditional clue to the derivation of the name, and asserts 
that it is traceable to an exclamation of Sayyad Makhdum 
Ald-ud din, who, on his way thither from Delhi, cast into the 
Jumna the grant or charter received by him from his impe- 
rial master saying * Sanad Allah ' God be my charter. Ac- 
cordingly he named his first conquest Sanad-illa or Sandila, 
though till then it had been known as Sital Purwa. Taking 
as his own share a rent-free gi*ant of 360 bighas, he built and 
settled upon it, and it is called to this day Makhddmpura in 
remembrance of him, and his dargah stands upon it The 
tyranny and exactions of Muhammad Shah Tughlaq at Delhi 
are said to have contributed to the development of Sandila 
whither fled many a refugee, chiefly of the Brahman and 
Ghhattri castes. In the time of Sher Shah the settlement 
had become so crowded that Sayyad Husen founded a new 
town adjacent to it and styled it Ashraftola. Up to this 
time no Government ofiScer had been posted at Sandila so 
that, like the cave of ^dullam, it was a convenient refuge 
for all who wished to keep out of the way of the imperial 
writs; but about the time of Akbar the qd^i was transferred 
hither from Mahona, and the other pargana ofiScials came in 
time to be posted here. Firoz Shah twice visited Sandila 
in 754 Hijn (A.D. 1353) on his march to Lucknow, and in 
776 Hijri(A.D.1374) on the way to Bahraich. A mosque bear- 
ing the date 769 Hijri (A.D. 1367) was built by his order. 



122 HARDOI AETTLKinCNT REPORT. 

TIic restoration nf IIunu'iyuD brought Ironble ope 
Sayyad Iluscn, wlm Imd been faithful to the foitancs i 
Sber SlialK The town was plundered by Humdrdii's Ini 
Sayyad Iluseii was dispossessed of his grant, aod a force 
quartered here. Tlic lands which for thr«e centunKii 
been held l)y Sayyada were made over to Cliandels. But* 
tenure of tlic Cliandels did not last Ion";-, Xhe SsTTidi: 
f);nincd court favour and a [lortion of their lost 
Maulvi MuLamiUL'd llkloin inprntinted hims«If w 

who conferred upon hin! injdgi'rfor military 

himpur, Tiloi, and tea other villages, aod when he ifi 
liihiir, scut his corpse to Sandila to be huried with fail 
fathers. Most of the Sayyad's grants were resumed i 
charged with revenue after Shuja-ud-daula's defeatatSi 
and the remainder were resumed by Saddat Ali Khun. 

In niir own time nineteen villages were coQfemil 
Maulvi I'tizl Rasul of Jalnlpur of this family for ^imfawtf 

services duriii,^' the mutiny. 

Two severe actions were fouj^ht at Sandfla onCtlii 
7th October, 1858. 

109. SANDtl^A— Pnr^.i/m Sakdila— 7a*«f/ _ 
(Latitude 27'' 1' north, longitude 80°.^t' east), Sandila 
sixth in population ainoiiir the towns of Oudh aod IN 
among those of t)ic Hardui district. It lies nearly not 
between Liicknow and llnrdoi, at a distance of 32 miles aa 
westfromLuckninT and .'itmiles south-east from HardoL 
is 31 miles cast from liiignini. There is a station of 
Oudh and Hohilkhand lluilway at it. 

For .in account of its foundation .ind political historrl 
pargana article sliouhl be referred to. Its four tnuhalLui 
named Ashraftola, Mahctwdna, Maudi, and Mdlkdoa. 

The population is 15, 78r., of whom 7,629 are A 
and 8,157 are Muhammatlans, Tliey are lodged ia IJ 
brick and 3,986 mud-built houses. ' 

Being the headquarters of a revenue sub-division, I 
town has the usual Government offices, tabsil, police ' "* 
dispensary and Anglo-vernacular school. 



HABDOI 8STTLEMENT BEPORT. 223 

Markets are held on Tuesdays and Saturdays. Fdn and 
gbi are sold for export in considerable quantities. 

There are no buildings of special interest or antiquity. 
The Bdra Kambha, or hall of the twelve pillars, was built of 
stone a century and a half ago by an ancestor of Farzand Ali 
and Musharraf Ali. 

Sir W. Sleeman's notes on the place are worth quotings, 
written as they were six years before annexation (Volume 
II., p. 2, Volume L, pp. 336-337):— 

"Halted at Sandila. To the north of the town there 
is a large uncultivated plain of usar lands that would answer 
for cantonments, but the water lies for some time after rain 
in many places. The drainage is defective, but might be 
made good towards a rivulet to the north and west. There 
is another open plain to the west of the town, betweea the 
suburbs and the small village of Ausoo Sarde, where the 
trigonometrical survey has one of its towers. It is about a 
mile from east to west, and more from north to south, and 
well-adapted for the location of troops and civil establish- 
ments. The climate is said to be very good. The town is 
large and still populous, but the best families seem to be 
going to decay or leaving the place. Many educated persons 
from Sandila in our civil establishments used to leave their 
families here ; but life and property have become so very in- 
secure that they now always take them with them to the dis- 
tricts in which they are employed, or send them to others. 
I observed many good houses of burnt brick and cement, but 
they are going fast to decay, and are all surrounded by nu- 
merous mud houses without coverings, or with coverings of 
the same material, which are hidden from view by low para- 
pets. These houses have a wretched appearance. 

^^ Several of the villages of Sandila are held by Sayyad 
zamindarsy who are peaceable and industrious subjects, and 
were generally better protected than others under Uie in- 
fluence of Chaudhri Sheikh Hashmat Ali, of Sandila^ an. 
agricultural capitalist and landholder, whom no local au- 
thority could offend with impunity. His proper trade was to 
aid landholders of high and low degree, by becoming surety 
for their punctual payment of the Government demand, and 



221 HARDOI SITTLEMEHT BEPOBT. 

advancing the instalments of tbat demand himself wheo tkr 
had not the means, and thereby s.'ivini^ them firom the Tek 
of the local authorities and their rapacious and disordsif 
troops: hut in an evil hour he ventured to extend hisp 
teetion a little further, and, to save them from the 0|if» 
.sions of an unscrupulous contractor, he undertook to mtov 
the district himself, and make good all the Government It 
mand u|)on it. lie was unable to pajr all that he had bw 
himself to pay. His brother was first seized by the ttM 
and taken to Lucknow. He languished under the diaciph 
to which he was there subjected, and when on the pcuit ^ 
death from what his friends call a broken hearty and At 
Government authorities cholera morbus^ he was Telewil 
He died innncdiately after his return home, and Haahtf 
Ali was then seized and taken to Lucknow, where he is nnj 
confined. 

^' The people here lament his absence as a great midrl 
tune to the district, as he was the only one among them vk 
ever had authority and influence, united with a feIIow*fic!- 
ing for the people, and a disposition to promote their welte 
and happiness." 

110. Saka Pnrgana^ Tahsll Habdoi — A sub-divisioarf 
tahsil Hardoi consisting of 85 villages. Pargana Alamoag^ 
hounds it on the north, Shahabad on the west, Bdwanaa 
Gopamau on the south and south-east, Mansurnagar on tk 
east The Sai, here csiUed Bbainsta, flows along part of iB 
eastern herder. It is eleven and a half miles and thirteei 
miles in extreme length and breath, and its area is 90 s^oin 
miles. 

Rather more than half (5292 per cent) is cultivated ; a 
third (3401)) is culturable ; about an eighth (11-56) is re- 
turned as barren; not quite a seventh (14"82 per cent.) is- 
rated as third class, that is, sandy ; half of the cultivated 
area (4941) is watered from wells (34-19), and tanks (15-22); 
the percentage under groves is 143; seven acres is the 
average area of cultivation per plough. 

Thero is little to notice in its physical features except 
the excellence of the soil and the great quantity of jhils and 
marshes* Some of them are embanked, but the facilities 



HARDOI SSTTLEHKKT BEPORT. 225 

oflFered for rice cultivation are not taken advantage of. *There 
are," notes Mr. McMinn, "thousands of bigbas of splendid 
rice ground wbicb lie utterly unproductive. I bave no doubt 
the lambardars object, because the pasdhi (wild rice), which 
is their manorial right, and which grows spontaneously, 
would be superseded. They say they do not sow rice, but 
in some places Kdchhis have raised very fine crops. The 
country is rather bare of groves. Single pipal and banyan 
and pdkar trees are common, but no groves have been plant- 
ed for years. All in existence are clearly old and mostly 
barren." 

The number of forest trees still standing in the fields is 
an indication that the pressure of population has not yet be- 
come overpowering. The banks of the Bhainsta near Ha- 
riaon, fringed with low jungles and shaded by stately beeeh- 
like "arjan" trees, presents a scene of quiet beauty. A fine 
prospect may be enjoyed from the rained fort of Saddatnagar, 
on the top of Sohdwan Khera. The closeness of the water 
to the surface — it has rarely to be dug for more than 
fifteen feet — makes irrigation easy. The subsoil is so firm 
that in most of the villages wells worked with the leathern 
bucket (piir) and oxen can be dug. They cost from two to 
four or five rupees, and last generally for four years, and 
sometimes up to ten and twelve years. The pargana is pretty 
well off for roads. 

The Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway runs through its 
western side, and one of the stations is at Chdndpur. The 
north is traversed by the unmetalled road from Pihdni to 
Sfaahabad ; the Hardoi and Shahabad road skirts the west, 
while the east side is crossed by the road from Hardoi to 
Pihdni. But cross-roads are wanted to connect the heart of 
the pargana with the Pihdni and Shahabad road on the north 
There are no markets of any importance. 

The main products are wheat and barley which occupied 
at survey nearly half the cultivated area ; more than a fifth 
was cropped with bdjra and judr ; the rest was chiefly cover- 
ed with cotton, sugarcane, gram, arhar, paddy, mdsh and 
moth. The areas returned as under cotton, cane, tobacco, 
poppy and indigo were respectively 1,785, 1,586, 2,518 and 

8 acres. 

29 H 



226 BABDOI BRTLUBMT BlPOftT. 

The climate is not exceptionally bad, but with 
marshes the pargana cannot be salubrious. Kankiril 
in Kursoli, Basohn, Bdri, and Kutia Sarde. 

The eighty-Gve villages are thus distributed z^ 

O&urA ••• ••• ••• «•• 59 

Jan wars 

SSombansis 

H&ihors 

Brahmans... 

Muhaminadans 

Kayutbs ... 

Ahlrs 

Oovornmcnt 



••• 



•■• ■•• ••• 



•■• ••• 

••• ••• 



ffi 

Only one of these villages is taliiqdari ; 40 are 
imperfect pattidari ; one is bhaiyach^. 

The Government demand, excluding cesses, is Bb. fl| 
a rise of 31*30 per cent, over the summary assessmerf 
falls at Re. 1-15-5 on the cultivated acre ; Re. 1-0-8 p> 
of total area ; Rs. 14-1-2 per plough ; Rs. 2-6-0 perh 
agricultural and Re. 1-11-6 per head of total populatiot 

Population is 389 to the square mile, or a M 
34,972 ; Hindus to Muhammadans are 33,375 to 1,597 ;l 
to females 19,052 to 15,920 ; agriculturists to non-agrit 
ists 25,069 to 9,903 ; Chamars are a sixth of the whoU; 
a seventh ; Brahmans an eighth ; Chhattris only an ek< 
Ahirs, Vaisliyas, and Garerias predominate among d 
mainder. 

There are village schools at Haridon, Baholii» 
Amrauli, Dhanwdr, Todarpur, and Saddatnagar. 

There are no religious fairs. The pargana is thoi 
tioned in the Ain-i-Akbari :— - 

Pargana Sara^ Dastiir Pali, Sark&r Ehairabad ; zamindan Ok 
Area ... ... 68,832 bighas. 

(larrison ... 500 infantry ; 60 saw&n. 

llovenuo, mil ... 20,91,983 dims^ 

Siwue ... ... 8,666 d&ms. 



[ 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT BEPOBT. 2S7 

I am indebted to Mr. McMinn for the following histori*- 
Aotes : — 

" The pargana was formerly occupied by Thatheras, who 
or may not be identical with the Bhars of Soltdnpur, who 
irwards spread to the Chambal and the Ganges. Then 
lar Gaurs came in from above ten miles north of Bijnor 
Jai Chand's time. They came in under two chiefs, brings 
with them Dichhit Brahmans, who up to date are their 
agnized priests. They first settled at Basowa in this par* 
la about six miles south-east of Pihdni, on the border of a 
jhil. From thence they scattered to all quarters, coloniz- 
and conquering. They established, according to their own 
^ount, 370 villages in the parganas principally of Sara, 
Iwan, Bangar and Gopamau. They differ entirely from the 
lamar Gaurs who came from near Cawnpore, whose heredi- 
priests are Tiwdri Brahmans. The Thdkurs having 
^blished military stations rather than colonies, I <]o not 
[think that they ever condescended to touch a plough. They 

* ive held their villages with a tight hand ever since. Up to 
^the establishment of the Oudh Government they were, de facto 
^uA de jure^ lords of the soil. They were subject to the 
Hitauli riga, an Ahban Thdkur, but he does not seem to have 
interfered with their possession. Shah Xlam of Delhi granted 

• few villages rent-free to the Q4zi of Bdri, which were 
^rwards resumed by the Oudh Government, but with that 
^ception I can find no traces of disturbance in the holding of 
*ke territory till the reign of Asif-ud-daula.* In his reign, 
&ddat Khan, the ancestor of the Nawab Dost All Khan, being 
tahsildar of the pargana, and a man of great ability, managed 
through mortgages, purchases, and other well-known means, 
to become master of about forty villages in the north and east 
of the pargana, and shortly afterwards Jagan Nath, a qaniingo, 
violent and unscrupulous, mastered some more. The Thdkurs 
took to the jungles, followed by their asdmis. The new 
Kdyaths and Musalman proprietors found their conquest 
barren, and after having got sanads they gradually abandoned 
their gains. Saddat Ali Khan, with his well-known exactitude, 
finding the revenue falling, farmed the four parganas to a family 
of Kashmiri Brahmans, who had entered India with Zamdn 
Shah or jather Ahmad Shah Daur&ni, and entered the service 
of the King of Oudh. Their &rm lasted with brief interruptions 



S28 



IIARDOI SBTTLSIKliT BKPOBT. 



from 1210 fasli (A.D. 1S03) up to 1264 fasli (A.D. 1857)l !k 
taMkd.irs wore dnven out, many villages were settled Uk 
or the coUectionR made through resident Kdchhis. Theesr 
tions grew heavier and heavier, and the Tbdkurs abaotai 
village after village. There was no room for vilhge Iti^ 
dars, and no margin of profit for taliikdars. The settleBMi 
were always largely in excess of those now holding. heYtr 
village there aro desolate quarters of bare rain-washed wi^i 
which represent the old cots of the peasantry that fled in 
Kidar Natli and his Kashmiri brethren. The Thdkarsiitl 
should think, declining in numbers. They hare venrv 
children ; many not married, and plead poverty. They vc 
much opiiressed in the times of Kidar Natb, whom, howm 
they always mention with respect. His mode of adjust! 
balances was peculiar. Being a Brahman, tlioiij^h of low < 
and a smoker of the hiiqqa, he used to visit villages whichl 
not ])aid up, and place himself at the lambardar's door 
dkarntk, vowing neither to eat nor drink till the rupees 
forthcoming. The thakurs never ventured to be coat 
cious, and hurried their buffaloes to the nearest bazar. 
sometimes devolved the execution of this religious tei 
upon Brahinnn chapnisis. He was a man of conscieooei 
ever, and refused bril>es and presents." 

I have little to add to these interesting notes. The 
derivation that the qanuugos can offer for the name, is thtf 
old the pargana was a wild bandit-haunted tract, and that ' 
by degrees it was cleared and settled, it acquired the eu 
of Sara (clear). The traditional account of the cxpolsioa 
the Thatheras from parganas Sard and Bdwan by miber 
and of the origin ot the Kana and Onai branches of the 
mar Gaurs will be found under heading Bdwan (pargam' 
The Onai or Rde brancb became the more powerful of tSeti 
and obtained the chaudhriship of the pargana. Their c 
seats were at Todarpur and Sarsl. The leading men of 
stock arc Nayaz Singh of Pipri and Mohan Singh of Todarpi^l 
while the head of the Kdna branch is Padam Singh of Sinu ^ 
and Chandeli. The Gaurs had things pretty much their 
way till the reign of Saddat AH Klmn, when the 'Skm ^ 
Khairabad, Rdja Sital Parshdd Tirbedi, of evil memoiji 
set over them. Among the cruelties practised by him 
the hacking off* of men's noses and women's breasts. 1^1 



HARDOI 8BTTLKHBKT REPOKT. 229 

qandngo, Jagan Nath Parshad, assured me that he had seen 
one Manbhdwan Sombansi of Begdon, an aged man of ninety, 
who died in 1867, whose nose had been cut off by Sital Par- 
shad's orders. The pargana officials used to be thus posted : 
the qdzi at Bdri, the kanungo at Umrauli, the tahsildar or amil 
at Saddatnagar, the cbaudhri at Todai pur. 

The successive steps by which the taliika of Mustafabad 
was broken up are thus described by Mr. Bradford in his Aidri 
judgment. " The mushroom taliika of Saddatnagar or Mustafa- 
bad in 1235 fasli (A.D. 1828), after dwindling down from 39 
to 23 villages, was suddenly and completely broken up In 
1163 fasli it had consisted of 34 villages ; in 1192 fasli, of 37 ; 
from 1202 fasli to 1211 fasli, of 39; and called the Mustafabad 
taliika.'' 

The antiquarian will not find much to interest him in this 
pargana. I give the names of the twelve villages which con- 
tain dihs or deserted sites of Thathera and more recent settle- 
ments. They are Riihi, Haridon, Kurseli, Bijgdon, Uttar 
Aidri, Bargaon, Todarpur, Dhaowdr, Rdmpur, Saddatnagar 
and Kamdipur. 

111. Saromannagar Pargana. — Tahdl Shahabad. — A 
level and well- watered tract of forty-two villages lying midway 
between Shahabad and Sdndi aloug the south-eastern corner 
of the Shahabad tahsll. 

The Garra flows along its western side separating it 
from pargana Pdli ; on the south and south-east the Sukheta 
divides it from Barwan ; on the east it is bounded by Bdwan, 
and on the north by Shahabad. The greatest length is B 
and breadth 6 miles. Its area is 35 square miles, of whioh 
21 are cultivated. It is intersected by numerous streams ; 
of these the Sukheta is the largest and most valuable. It 
runs in a loop round the north-eastern comer of the pargana 
and theti stretches southwards through the heart of it tiU, 
after being joined by its principal affluents, the Gauria and 
the Kasrua, it flows along the south-eastern boundary for 
about four miles, approaching to within half a mile of the 
Garra at the southernmost extremity of the pargana. In 
the dry season the Sukheta is easily fordable except where it 
haebeen dammed up for irrigation. It is crossed by an old 



\ 



230 HARDOt SETTLElfXNf BSPOBT. 

Stone bridge at Saromannagar ; and at Dalelnagar, i 
camping grouDd on the route from ShAjah^npur to 
there is a ferry during the rains. In the hot season 
streams dry up, but by a system of dams water is ~ 
tliem till March, after which month irrigation is not 

The Garra, rising in the Himalayas, never fails. 
its bank lies a belt of rich tardi yiilages, whose land 
remains moist, so that wells are scarcely required. 
villages are subject to floods, and after heavy rains 
autuum harvest sufl'ers, but the loss is in such seasons 
good by the increased outturn of the spring crops. To 
east of these villages, about a mile away f^om the river, 
either side of the Sukheta and its affluents, but mail 
the western bank of that stream, stretches a belt of j 
villages two miles broad. In these the soil is generally fin 
and good, and almost entirely free from sand, but in sow 
places it is very stiff and hard to work. The tillage in dn 
tract is backward. The jungle is full of nfl-gde and wiU 
hogs, which do infinite damage to the crops. Rents are lot 
and cultivators somewhat scarce. Though backward, tills 
tract is highly improvable, but its villages can never become 
so rich as those which lie along the Garra. 

To the east of this belt lies a strip of sandy, light vil- 
lages, above and away from the network of streams that 
covers the rest of the pargana, but irrigable for the most 
part by wells. Here the small lever-wells (dhenkli) are 
used. They cost from one to two rupees, and last one and 
sometimes two seasons. In the jungle villages these wells 
are also used, but the large wells worked by bullocks can be 
also made for from three to five rupees, and last for three 
years. The lever and pitcher system (dhenkli) is used all 
along the Garra for irrigation, and on the Sukheta, wherever 
the banks are too high to allow of the " lift " method being 
employed. Tanks and jhfis, too, of which there are 230, 
contribute considerably to the irrigation of the pargana. 
Only two-sevenths of the irrigation is from wells ; 36 per 
cent, of the cultivated area is irrigated from wells, rivers, 
and ponds. 

Only two roads cross the pargana, the unmetalled road 
from Sandi to Shahabad, a part of the old Shdh-iUh, or king's 




HARDOI SBTTLEMENT REPORT. 231 

igbway to Delhi from the south ; and an unfinished road 
rom Hardoi to Fatehgarh, which stops short half-way at the 
NSarra, and is not kept in repair. No ferry is kept up over 
^'tiie Garra in this pargana. The nearest ferries are at Pdli 
^ and Barwao. In the dry season it is fordable in most places. 

The staple products are wheat, barley, and bdjra, cover- 
ing about two-thirds of the crop area. On the remainder 
rice, gram, and arhar are most largely cultivated. The 
.climate is not so good as in drier tracts. 

The Sombansis are the oldest and largest landowners. 
They hold twenty villages. Next to them come the Chamar 
Gaurs- with fifteen. Three have been decreed to Govern- 
ment. Brahmans and Kdyaths each own two. In thirty 
villages the tenure is imperfect pattidari, in the remaining 
twelve it is zamindari. The Government demand, excluding 
cesses, is Bs. 22,298, being a rise of 35 per cent, ovei'the 
summary assessment. The rate is Re. 1-10-5 per acre of 
cultivation and Re. 0-15-10 per acre of total area ; Rs. 9-11-2 
per plough ; Rs. 2-0-11 per head of agricultural and Re. 
1-6-10 per head of total population. 

The pargana is well populated, with a total of 15,624 
or 446 to the square mile ; there are only 293 Muham- 
madans to 15,331 Hindus ; males to females are 8,651 to 
6,973, and agriculturists to non-agriculturists 10,827 (69 per 
cent.) to 4,797. Rajputs, Brahmans, Chamdrs, and Murdos 
head the list, together making up half of the Hindu popula- 
tion ; in the other half Ahirs, Eabdrs, Pdsis, and ELisdns 
predominate. 

No fairs are held. The only market is at Saromannagar 
on Sundays and Thursdays. Schools are more numerous 
than in many other parts of the district. There are village 
schools at Saromannagar, Sbahpur, Naydgaon, Sakrami, 
and Nasauli. 

The pargana is named from its only town, which was 
founded by Rde Saroman D^ in 1708 A.D. In 1803 R^ 
Bhaw&ni Parshad, Chakladar of Muhamdi, took villages out 
of the adjacent parganas of Pdli and Sara, and made them 
into pargana ^romannagar. Like all this part of die 
country, it was originally occupied by Thatheras. About 



232 



IIABDOI SETTLUCtNT BKPOBT. 



the niiddlc of the twelfth century, and perhaps much evfa^ 

the Thnthoras seem to have been driven oat of numjrf 

their possessions by a body of Gaur Rajputs uodertk 

comimmd of Kubcr Sah. A little later, and about a p» 

ration before the fall of Kanauj, their expulsion wascoi- 

pleted by the Sombaiisis under the followinsf circnmstaBCfi 

A stronr^ body of SombanHis, heade<l by Rdja Santan, m^iHH 

southwards from Delhi and established themselves at S» 

tan Khera (Sdndi). Thence they spread over the viMft 

of the Rarwan pargana and into the Pdii and (what is nof) 

the Saromannagar country, gradually driving out the Tb* 

theras. The local tradition is that Mawdn Sah, a So» 

bansi chief, resident at Barwan, went out one day iuaeuii 

of game towards Shiupuri, a Thathera town, seven huIb 

north of Barwan. The Thatheras resented his intnuia 

within their borders; there was a quarrel, and MawinSA 

summoned his clansmen from Barwan. They drove 

the Thatheras from Shiupuri, and settling there themae! 

re-named it Bhaianguon, since corrupted into Bebgdon. 

name (Shiupuri) is perhaps worth noting as a poaaible indift 

tion that the Thatheras were worshippers of Shiva. Siaa 

then no important change seems to have taken place in tk 

ownership of the pargana. 

1 1 2. Saromannaoar— Pargana SAROMA^imAOiLB— Tald\ 
SHAHABAD-Saromannagar, the chief village in the paini 
of the same name, lies 15 miles north-west from lur&it 
south of Shahabad, and 18 north of S&ndi, at the point wkaii 
the oldShdh lidh, or king's high road from S&ndi to SUk- 
jahdnpur crosses the Sukheta ndla. 

It was founded in 1708 A.D. by Rae Saroman IMfl^ i 
SriMstar Kayath of Sdudi, in the employ af Nawah Abdolh 
Khan, the celebrated Bdrha Sayyad, Governor of AUahabiA 
and afterwards Farukh Sir's wazir, who, with his brother 
Hassan Ali, '^ made four Timurides emperors, dethroned and 
killed two, and blinded and imprisoned three/' (Blochmam's 
translation of the Ain-i- Akbari, page 391). In those days ft 
dangerous j ungle surrounded G&egh&t, as the crossing of the 
Sukheta was then called, and the spot was of evil repute 
among travellers. Rde Saroman Dds bought this wild bandit- 
haunted tract from its owuers, the Sombausis of BhadaunSi 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 233 

cleared it, bridged the Sukheta, and built in his own name a 
small fortified town. Saromannagar has a population of only 
1,452, of whom 1,303 are Hindus, mostly Brabmans. It con- 
tains two brick and 140 mud houses. A Government village 
school accommodating 100 pupils was built in 1868. The 
sarde, wall, and bastions built by Rde Saroman Dds, are in 
ruins. Market days are Sundays and Thursdays. 

Reginald Heber visited Saromannagar in 1824, and has 
thus described it: — • 

" A large village with an old fortress. The country 
improved in beauty, becoming more and more woody and 
undulating, but was neither so well inhabited nor so well cul- 
tivated as that which we had gone through before (Sdndi and 
Bilgrdm). " The fortress is pretty much like a large sarde, 
surrounded by a high brick wall, with round towers at the 
flanks, and two gothic gateways opposite to each other. 
That by which I entered had a tall iron-studded door like a 
college, with a small wicket in one leaf ; within on each side 
of the passive was a large arched recess about three feet 
from the ground where were seated twelve or fifteen men, 
armed as usual, with one or two guns, and matches lighted, 
but mostly having bows and arrows ; all had swords and 
shields. I passed on through a narrow street of mud houses, 
some looking like warehouses, and the whole having more the 
air of a place where the peasantry of a small district were 
accustomed to secure their stores, than the usual residence of 
any considerable number of people. I went on to the oppo* 
site gate, which was supplied with warders in the same way 
as the previous one, and then entered a little straggling 
bazar, which, with some scattered huts, completed the hamlet. 
A pretty stream winds under the walls of Saromannagar 
through a beautiful carpet of green wheat interspersed with 
noble trees." 

The quiet beauty of the spot moved the pious Bishop to 
note : — ^^ It is strange, indeed, how much God has done to 
bless this land, and how perversely man has seemed bent 
to render his bounties unavailing." 

113. Shahabad Pargana — Tahsil Shahabad. — A sub- 
division of tahsil Shahabad comprising 143 villages. It is 

• • HebCT'FJottrney, Il^pvge 8, 

30 H 



234 HABDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 

bounded on the nortb by the Shdbjahdnpur district; oh fti' 
west the river Garra divides it from parganas Pachhoha al 
Pdli ; on the south it is bounded by S4romannAgar; on b 
east the Sukhet-i ndla divides it from Aiamnagar and San. 

Its extreme length and breadth are 14 and 11^ vaie^ 
and its area 131 square miles. 

Three-fifths (61-71 percent.) is cultivated ; more tlitt 
a fifth (221 per cent.) is culturable ; about an eighth (12-2 
per cent.) is returned as barren. 

Bather more than an eighth (13*47) is rated as thiid 
class, i.e.^ sandy and light. Two-fifths of the cultivated area 
(41*73) is irrigated in the proportion of two-thirds from wells 
and a third from tanks and ponds. The percentage under 
groves is 3"99; 65 acres is the average area of cultivation per 
plough. 

As the rivers and streams of the pargana all flow from 
north to south the physical features will be most con venientlv 
observed by crossing it from west to east or vice versi. 
Beginning with the Garra on the west, and the villages along 
its left bank, the following characteristics will be noticed. 
The Garra, rising in the Kumaun tardi, flows past Filibhic 
and ShdhjahdnpuracrosstheOudh border into pargana Shaba* 
bad. Fed with Himalayan snows it never dries up. As 
remarked of the 8^romannagar villages which it fertilizes 
after leaving; this pargana, **along its bank lies a rich belt 
of tardi (or khddir) villages, whose land always remains moiety 
$0 that wells are scarcely required. These villages are sub- 
ject to floods, and after heavy rains the autumn harvest 
sutlers, but the loss is in such seasons made good by the 
increased outturn of spring crops." In the dry season it is 
generally fordable. The lever and pot (dhenkli) system of 
irrigation is used all alopg it, wherever the bank is too high 
to admit of the use of the ordinary ' lift ' method. Though 
the soil in these villages is light, they are the best in the 
pargana. 

East of them there is the usual strip of uneven sandy 
villages marking the edge of the 'bdngar' and the 'tar&i.' 
Further east is a considerable tract of good but backward 



HABDOI SETTLEMENT BEPOBT. 235 

^land, watered by the Narbhii and Gauria ndlas, holding one 
^or two large jhils, and thickly interspersed, in the southern 
^lialf of the pargann, with dhdk jungle and brushwood. The 
; soil here is firm and good and retentive of water, and bears 
fine rice crops, but wild animals do much damage in the 
: jungle parts, and rents are low and cultivators rather scarce. 
This tract will gradually improve. Large wells worked by 
bullocks can be cheaply dug in it for from three to five rupees, 
[ and last about three years. Further to the east the quality 
of the soil falls off, becoming light and poor. Towards the 
Sukheta, which forms the eastern boundary, a quantity of 
Mhdk' and thorn jungle is met with, full of nil-gde, wild hog, 
hare, pea-fowl, partridge, and bush quail. The cost of pro- 
tecting the crop from the depredation of jungle animals is a 
heavy drag on the cultivator. 

The Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway runs through the 
pargana, with a station near Shahabad. The road (unmetall- 
ed) from Shdhjahanpur to Hardoi also runs through it, parallel 
with and about two miles west of the railway. From Shaha- 
bad other unmetalled roads branch off from it to Pdli, Sdndi, 
and Pihdni. The road from Sitapur to Shdhjahanpur via 
Fihdni crosses the north-eastern corner. 

The chief products are wheat, barley, bdjra, gram, juAr, 
paddy, arhar and sugarcane. Of these at survey wheat oc- 
cupied nearly a third of the acreage under cultivation; barley 
covered a tenth ; bdjra nearly a tenth ; gram, judr and paddy 
together, nearly a fourth. The areas returned as under cane, 
cotton, poppy, tobacco and indigo were respectively, 2,928, 
1,292, 129, 36, and 5 acres. The nearness of the Rosa Fac- 
tory at Sbdhjabdnpur accounts for the large breadth of sugar* 
cane. 

The climate is considered good. 

The 143 villages are thus held — 



••• «t« ••• 



Sombansis 

Chamar-Gkiars ••• ••• ••• 14^ 

]!likumbhs ... ••• ••• 3 



Total Chbattris ... 21^ 






Hj^LL-OI 3ETn.£X£!»T BZPOET. 



Ti'A^n CrabniaL: 
PaiLak- 



s'Ali'ii'ji 



Ajrr-Lotris 

P'arrnbcharis 

Upaddbias 



3 
o 
8 
5 
3 

2' 
1 



Total Brabiaasa 

hhtrkli.^ ■•• ••• 

^^ayya/]5 ••• 
ratbans ..^ 


• •• 
••• 


25; 

4 

4 

64 


Total Muhammadan? 


••• 


72 


Kttvatbs 

Goshains ... ••• 

Knropeans (Messrs. Carcw) 

Govornmont 


• ■ • 
••• 

••• 


9 

1 

1 

13 


Total Miscellaneous 


••• 


24 



Twenty-six of the villages are taluqdariy 82 are zamindariy 35 

pattidari. 

The Governinent demand, excluding cesses, is B& 
93,42G, a rise of 30 per cent, over the summary assessment 
It falls at Re. 1-12-11 on the cultivated acre ; Re. 1-1-10 per 
acre of total area ; Rs. 11-8-4 per plough ; Rs. 2-3-4 per head 
of agricultural and Re. 1-6-1 per head of total population. 

Population is extremely dense*-^516 to the square mile. 
The leading statistics are— total 67,646 ; Hindus to Muham- 
madans; 56,187 to 11,459; males to females, 35,894 to 
.31,752 ; agriculturists to non-agriculturists, 42,297 to 25,349. 
Brahmans are most numerous, and are an eighth of the vhole; 
Chamdrs are rather less than an eighth ; Lodhs a tenth ; 
Murdos a twentieth ; Ahirs, Chhattris (2,523) ; Kah&rs, Telis, 
and Pasis make up most of the remainder. 

There is an A nglo- vernacular tahsil school at Shahahad, 
and village schools at Udranpur, Parial, Fatehpur Goind, 
l^iisitnagar, Puraili and jJdri, and female schools havo beea 

o.^itabliislicd at Udranpur and Parial. 



BABDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 237 

The pargana is not mentioned in the Ain-i-Akbari, not 
having been constituted till about 1745 A.D, when the vil- 
lages to the east of the Garra in wbat was then pargana Pdli 
were made into a new pargana (Shahabad). 

The leading events have been the expulsion of the Tha- 
therasj the growth and spread of their Chhattri successors, 
the successful campaign of Diler Khan, and the foundation 
of Shahabad and of the Pathdn taltiqa of Basitnagar. 

The chief Thathera settlement seems to have been at 
and round Angni Khera, the nucleus of the present town 
of Shahabad, It consisted of twenty-six villages surrounding a 
fort named Shabazpur ; Todarpur, Nizampur, Sorapur, Jang- 
pur, Muhiuddinpur, Chaudhripur, DaUwalpur, Maheshpur, 
Chdndpur, Ehokar, Niomatpur, Hdlabpur, Hdns, Bdbipur, 
Gautar, Bibipur, Udhaukal, Bahadurpur, Malikpur, Nahok, 
Bara, Jamdipur, Eautaia, Chand Thok, Muhammadpur alias 
Jamalpur, Thok Dalu, Khandi, Mominpur, Yusufpur, and 
Malhaia. These names are obviously modern. 

The conquest of this settlement is attributed to a pilgrim 
band of Pand6 Parwdr Brahmans, who, on their way from 
Kashi (Benares) to Uardwar, halted here, noticed the weak- 
ness of the Thatheras, and on t^ieir way back fell upon and 
dispossessed them. Who these Pand6 Parwdrs were is a 
mystery. The tradition gives only the name of their leader, 
Angad, and traces their origin to a Eori, who, from the 
accident of his being found with a thread (taga) on his body, 
when Brahmans were in great request for a royal "jagg," 
got irregularly enrolled among the Pand6 Brahmans, and 
was dubbed Fandd Parwdr. The date of this displacement 
of the Thatheras may be presumed to have been synchron- 
ous with the great Brahmanical revival which set in with the 
sacking of Samdth and the expulsion of the Buddhist monks 
from India in the eighth century. 

To the Pand^ leader, Angad, is traced Angni Khera, the 
name whereby the ruined site of their town is called, and 
Angad Khera, a spot which, it is said, was the ^^ akhdra" or 
Campus Martius where the Fand^ youths used to hold their 
athletic sporta. 



238 IIARDOI BKTTLUIBHT BBPORT. 

The only survivinp; Thatliera name is to be foaoJa 
tlio Tank Rutaukn, derived from Kde Tfadn, or the seatif 

Kue, a Tliiithera prince. 

The Patlida Ghorls of Jamra claim to be convotei 
Sonihansis. Their tradition goes to shoiv that the Maba- 
inadau conquest took place before tbat of tbe Tfaathensir 
Cliliattris had been completed. Rdja S&ntaD Sombansi, iff 
say, of Sdntan Khera (SdQdi)^ bad four sous who roMt 
liarwan, at Siwaichpur, at Semar Jhala and at Raigtia 
Dah'p Singh of liaigawdn fought against Ald-ud-din Glic 
for twelve years. At last, while out in search of ga* 
he was taken captive and carried to the MuhamoMB 
Sultan, and imprisoned at Delhi for twelve years. Tk 
Itis brother ransomed him. On his return home ks 
kinsmen treated him as an outcast till he should propiliifii 
the Brahmans. In spite of his protestations that he bad 
become a pervert during his captivity his brethren held 
from him, and when at last prevailed upon to eat with lDi| 
drew a line of demarcation on the floor. Stuog deeply wii 
the affront, he renounced the faith of his fathers before f 
all, took horse for Delhi, sought the Sult&n, told the tale, 
announced his desire to become a Muhammadan. Whereopf 
he was admitted as a convert and was named Mi^n Dilpastf 
Khan, and honoured with a grant of eighty-four village 
among the chief of which were Fatebpur Goind, Aigainh 
Adranpun Munjhala and Loni. And in those days two-tf 
twenty Thatliera chieftains still ruled from Anj;ni Kbent> 
the Sarju, against whom he warred with great renown. All 
he died leaving four sons, of whom Mustafa Khan dwelt' 
Loni, and there his descendants are to this day ; and Daub 
Khan lived at Piani, aud Jajhar Khan at Raigawdn, and Mik 
mud Khan at Jamra. 

The Bais under-proprietors of Bhairaia relate a thiH 
displacement of Thatheras in this pargana from Pkirdsanf 
Deords and the adjacent forest by their ancestor Pahalwii 
Singh, who, married to the sister of B&ja Satmor, left Bail 
wara, and sought distinction in his wife's country. 

The Pandc Parwurs ret^ncd possession of An^ni Ebei 
and tbe neighbourhood till the reign of Aurangzeb. In a 



HABDOI SETTLEMBNT REPORT. 239 

evil moment they plundered «a convoy of treasure on its way 
from Khairabad to Delhi. The Sultdu despatched Diler Khan, 
Afghan, a distinguished officer, to repress the bandits. Arriv- 
iog at Shdhjahdnpur, recently founded, and then commanded 
by his brother Bahddur Khan, Diler Khan rode out alone to- 
wards Angni Khera to reconnoitre. Smitten with thirst he 
begged water of an ancient crone. The gift of two gold 
mohars loosened a garrulous tongue, and he learnt from her 
the strength and ways of the Pande Parwdrs. In particular 
he heard that on a certain date the whole tribe mustered at 
the old Thathera tank to bathe. Beturning to Shdhjahdnpur 
he mustered a strong force, marched secretly to Angni Khera 
on the night of the bathing, and surrounded and slew the 
unsuspecting Brahmans* In reward for his skill and daring 
he was granted the whole of their possessions in pargana 
Shahabad and Sara in jagir, and became Nawab Diler Khan, 
Bahddur, Haft Hazdri, or commander of seven thousand. His 
descendants held the grant rent-free till Saddat Ali Khan 
resumed it. In 1677 A D. he founded the city of Shahabad 
on Angni Khera, filled it with his Afghdn kinsmen and troops, 
assigning them jungle grants in the neighbourhood, and in the 
midst raised the spacious mai^ion known as the Bari Deorhi. 
Fifty*two wards or muhallas trace their present names to the 
followers who then built in the places on which they stand« 

The further progress of the family has been thus des- 
cribed by Captain Gordon Young in his settlement decision 
regarding the village of Dariapur. ^' These Nawabs acquired 
either by purchase, mortgage, fraud, or force every village in 
the pargana, and held as proprietors till fifty or sixty years 
ago, when the family began to decay and the taldka to fall 
to bits, the old proprietors in a few instances getting back, 
mostly by purchase, from the Nawab's family. The sales 
made by the Nawabs were generally followed by possession. 
There was no question at the time as to whether they had 
the right to sell. They soldj and the vendees e:ot in and held, 
and the title was respected. In dealing with the transactions 
of those days one is reminded of the stanza — 

* The good old rule suflSceth them,— 

Toe simple plan, 
That those should take who have the power^ 

And those should keep who can.' ' ' 



240 irARDOI SETTLEVEKT REPORT, 

Elsewhere the same oIKccr writes :— 

"The sons of Nawab Diler Khan were four — namek 
Kumuhul-din Khan, Chdnd Khan, Dilddr Khan, and Fateh 
jMuhanimad Khan.'* The eldest pod and liis 8ons hare 
always been known as the ' Bari Deorhi Walas ' from the 
large fort he built, and this appellation still appertains to this 
branch of the family, which is now represented by Sarfrw 
Iluscn Khan and Ahmad Ilusen Kban. The descendants of 
Chdnd Khan arc known as the * Kbera Deorhi Walaa/ Dil- 
ddr Khan's branch is represented by the present taIiiqdar(or 
liasitnagar) Nawab IIuscmi AH Khan.'' 

lit. SnAiiABAD, Pargann SnAUABAD, Tahiti Shahaiudl 
Latitude 27^38' nortli, longitude 72^59' east. The chirfl 
town of the pargana of tlie same name in the Hardoi district 
Thornton's account of it is :--A town on the route fiwa 
Lucknow to Shdhjaliunpur, 15 miles south of the latter vA 
30 miles north-cast of Fatehgarh." Tieffen thaler describe! 
it, about A. D. 1770, '* of considerable circuit, and nearlya 
the middle is a palace of brick, strengthened with towers lib 
a fortress, with a vestibule and spacious covered coIoDDtdt 
Most of the bouses are of brick, and there is a fine mosqn 
built of the same material, and inclosed by a wall. The toff 
extends a mile from north to south ; its breadth is sometfciv 
less, but of its flourishing state little remains." When yi^ 
by Tennant, A.D. 1799, it was an expanse of ruins <<thatif[ 
peared in the form of hills and broken swells crumbliogi 
dust.'* Ileber found it, in 1824, **a considerable town* 
almost city, with the remains of fortifications and many \nm 
houses.'' According to Tieffenthaler. " it was founded W 
Angad, the nephew of Rama, King of Oudh, and if so, miutk 
of high antiquity, as Rama is considered to have reigned 1601 
years B.C., hence it is sometimes called Angadpur. If mi 
renovated hy Dildwar Khan, an Afghan chief, contempoMjl 
with Aurangzeb. At present it has a bazar and encampiiS 
ground, close to which are two tanks lined with brick, ite 
road to the north or towards Shdhjahdnpur is gopd ; to th 
south-east, or towards Lucknow, very bad. Latitude 27*39' 



longitude 80 



01 / M 



Shahabad, with its population of 18^254^ is fourth in 
list of Oudh towns and first among those of Hardoi. The pi 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 241 

portion of Mubammadans is very large, being 7,540 to 10,714 
Hindus. Tbere are 986 brick and 3,6G8 kacha bouses, 
grouped in numerous wards or muballas. Named for tbe 
most part after tbe followers and companions in arms of tbe 
founder Diler Kban ( see pargana articles ) tbey are called : — 

Sidi Kbalil, Pirzddagdn, Ibanzai Sbekhpur, Malkapur, 
Jangalia, Kbalil Nabi Basti, Wall Yeman, Sbamsber Khan, 
Gbiizi, Hakim Moin-ud-din, Mirdn-ki-Basti, Jdfar Kban alias 
Kairgarb, Bankuri, Bazid Kbalil, Hdji Haydt Kban alias 
14auldganj, Mabmiid Sulaimdni, Garbi Kaldn, Garbi Baghia, 
Bdqarzai. Tt^jpur, Sidi Kbalil Sdni, Bbiiron, Dildwalpur, 
Ikbtijdrpur, Inajatpur, Ydnas Kbalil, Bibizai, Kbera Azmat 
Kban, Gagidni, Mdbi Bagb, Baira Zainab, Kot Arobidn, Bazfd 
Kbalil, Niamat Kban, Kanauli Kbanzdda, Ibnazai, Ndlbanddn, 
Sayyadwdra, Bazid Kbalil Sdni, Mabmiid Kban, Talwa Wirdn, 
Talia Wfrdn, Kanbaia, Binoria, Bdrapur Wirdn^ Mardf IsmUli 
Kot Bdcbbil, Sajjan Kban, 

Tbe brick. fortress-like palace io tbe centre, deflcribedby 
Tieffentbaler, is tbe Bari Deorbi of Nawdb Diler Kban. 

Tbe inhabitants date tbe decline of tbe town from the 
decay of tbe Delhi empire and growth of the Nawdbi into 
power. . Its present population is said to be only a third of its 
former size. It is connected with Sbdhjabanpur, Pdli, Sdndi^ 
Hardoi, and Pibdni by unmetalled roads, and the Oudh and 
£obilkband Railway passes close to it, and has a station here* 

The sub-divisional office ( tahsil ) and police station (tha^ 
na) are located in the enclosure of the Jama Masjid, a mosque 
built by Diler Kban. Among other buildings are an Anglo- 
vernacular tahsil school, a dispensary, and a sardi built ori- 
ginally by Rae Mangli Ldl^ chakladar, and repaired by the 
present Government. 

Bathing fairs are held at tbe old Thatbera pool, Ratanka, 
and at a masonry tank built by Diler Kban and called Narbada, 
because water from that river was poured into it when it was 
opened, but they are not attended by pilgrims from any 
distance. 

There is no trade or manufacture of importance ; for 

sugar;, the jnost valuable product of tbe ueighbourbood, is 

31 u 



»4j llAUnOl RKTTtEMKKT RSPORT. 

worked up nt llio Kosa Factory at Sliabjahdnpur. Bazars 
are liclil in Sardarannj, .lanidl Khan's Gauj, Namak Uanfif 
Koshan IJazar, Niluilij^anj, Dihirganj, Saedatganj, called alao 
Katra, the Cliaiik, MaiiiriganJ and Mahmiidg^anj. Mahmudgaoj 
has beeu openod since annexation, and a daily ^rain market if 
held in it. The town is noted for its excellent mangoes, and 
grafts are exported to a distance. A native cloth cafiedSIah- 
niudi used to be manufactured here and was much prized. 

115. Sir W. Slceman's account of Shakabad (1850) ii 
worth extraitinir, as it i^ives the ori«;in of the chronic ill-fed^ 
between Muhaininadans and Hindus which has smoulederel 
over since, and broke out into active disorder at the M1l]B^ 
rain of 1808 :— 

'^ Pali is a good })lacc for a cantonment, or seat of pvlbEe 
civil establishments, and Shahabad is no less so. The ap- 
proach to both, iroui the south-east, is equally beautiful, froa 
the rich crops which cover the ground up to the houses, ail 
the line groves and majestic single trees which aurrouai 
them. 

" Shahabad is a very ancient and large town, occupeJ 
chiefly by Tathan Musalmaus, who are a very turbulent aii 
fanatical set of fellows. Subsookh Rde, a liindu, and tk 
most respectable merchant in the district, resided here, yi 
for some time consented to olHciate as the deputy of poor oU 
HaGz Abdullah for the management of the town, where Ui 
influence was great. He had lent a good deal of money to 
the heads of some of tue Pathau families of the town, bat 
finding few of them disposed to repay, he was last j'ear obliges! 
to refuse further loans. Thev determined to take advantatf 
of the coming ^luharram festival to revenge the affront ai 
men commonly do who live among such a fanatical comma- 
nity. The tazlas are commonly taken up and carried vbl 
procession ten days after the new moon is first seen at any 
place where they are made ; but in Oudh all go by the day in 
which the moon is seen from the capital of Lucknow. As 
soon as she is seen at Luckiiow, the king issues an order 
throughout his dominions for the ta/.ias to be taken in pro* 
cession ten days after. Tlie moon was this year in November 
first seen on the 30th of the month at Lucknow, but at Shaha- 
bad, where the sky is generally clear, she had been seen on the 



HAfiDOI SETTLEMENT BEPOBT. S43 

29th. The men to whom Subsookh Rde had refused further 
loans determined to take advantage of this incident to wreak 
their vengeance ; and when the deputy promulgated the king's 
order for the tazias to be taken in procession ten days after 
the 30th, they instigated all the Muhammadans of the town 
to insist upon taking them out ten days after the 29th, and 
persuaded them that the order had been fabricated, or altered, 
by the malice of their Hindu deputy to insult their religious 
feelings. They were taken out accordingly, and having to 
pass the houae of Subsookh Rde, when their excitement or 
spirit of religious fervour had reached the highest pitch, they 
there put them down, broke open the doors, entered in a 
crowd, and plundered it of all the property they could find, 
amounting to about seventy thousand rupees. Subsookh 
Hae was obliged to get out, with his family, at a back door, 
and run for his life. He went to Shdhjahdnpur in our territory 
and put himself under the protection of the magistrate. Not 
content with all this, they built a small miniature mosque at 
the door with some loose bricks, so that no one could go 
either out or in without the risk of knocking it down, or so in- 
juring this mock mosque as to rouse, or enable the evil-minded 
to rouse the whole Muhammadan population against the 
offender. Poor Subsookh Rae has been utterly ruined, and 
ever since seeking in vain for redress. The Government 
is neither disposed nor able to afford it, and the poor boy who 
has now succeeded his learned father in the contract is help- 
less. The little mock mosque, of uncemented bricks, still 
stands as a monument of the insolence of the Muhammadan 
population, and the weakness and apathy of the Oudh Go- 
vernment" — ( pp. 46-47, Tour through Oudh^ Volume H.) 



244 HARDOI SETTUEMKHT BKPOBT. 

CHAPTER III. 



Demakcation and SuBvsr. 

SECTION /.-DEMARCATION. 

11(>. The demarcation of village boundarieSi tbe eufiesi 
of settlement operations, was set oq foot in October, 18M, 
when Mr. Bradford, Superintendent of Settlement aod Siv- 
vey, demarcated tifty-one villages in tahsfl Sandila. 

In 1861-62 the work in this tiU 

"*^'^'' was completed. 

In October, 1862, District Officers were directed to "^ « 
,p,.^.g3 their influence with taliikdars and vsat 

dars to induce them to settle tbeirbov 
daries, erect pillars, and dig connecting trenches of tharon 
accord." At tirst this system seemed to work well Ibj 
Deputy Commissioner, Mr. Lindsay, employed his four taU* 
dars on demarcation work. A pargana was made over kl 
each. ''Their duty was simply to induce the samindanl^ 
settle the dispute among themselves. Where this was ifr 
possible, the case was left till he could personally visit ft 
spot. Th^kur Dal Singh, Honorary Assistant Comnussioi? 
(of Khajurahra), gave him the greatest assistance in diflf* 
ing of different cases, and his influence in the Hardoi whd 
did much to smootli down difliculties. The people tks* 
selves gave great assistance and did everything in ^ 
power to settle their disputes amicably. Out of the iriiflk 
talisil only four or five villages were dissatisfied with the 
Deputy Commissioner's decision.'' 

Under this system the demarcation of tahsils &iidili 
and Ilnrdoi was completed in the cold season of 1862-63 at* 
reduction in cost of from more than Rs. 20toRs. 7-4-10 pff 
S()uare mile, attributable to the '^ fact that the landholders 
were induced by the district authorities, acting under the 
Chief Commissioner's instructions, to demarcate the boim- 
daries of their own villages, referring disputes to a committee 
of arbitrators composed of the leading landholders, and, fill- 
ing satisfactory adjustment by them, to the demarcation offictf* 



HABDOI 6ETTLBIIXKT REPOfiT. 245 

The necessary pillars were also erected by the landowners, so 
that the work of the amins was confined to mapping the 
boundaries laid down by them." 

It was hoped that under this system the duties of the de- 
marcation officer would be almost entirely confined to the pre- 
paration of the sketch-maps (hadbast) of village boundaries. 

117* But this expectation was not realized. As early 

as the 30th December, 1863, the late Super- 
^^^^'^^' intendent of Settlement and Survey, Mr. 

John Kavanagh, reported : '^ After all that has been done by 
the arbitrators (being the principal landholders), there are as 
many disputes to be settled here by the demaration officers 
on the spot as there were in any of the neighbouring districts 
where amicable adjustment of them was not especially at- 
tempted." 

In December, 1863, Extra Assistant Commissioner Rae 
Ganeshi Ldl was deputed to the duty of superintending tho 
demarcation of tahsils Bilgrdm and Shahabad, and of disposing 
of disputes in these tahsils and in those villages of tahsil 
Hardoi which had been demarcated in previous seasons. 
Mr. Kavanagh '' estimated, guided by experience in other 
districts, that he would have about one hundred and fifty 
disputes in these tahsils (Hardoi, Bilgram and Shahabad) re- 
quiring to be investigated and decided on the spot ; but in 
Hardoi alone there were more than a hundred such disputes." 

In this season ( 1863-64) the demarcation of boundaries 
in tahsils Bilgram and Shahabad was completed, except where 
the boundaries were contested. The survey was somewhat 
retarded by the neglect of landholders to erect and keep up 
their boundary-pillars. 

In April, 1864, Rae Ganeshi Lai was disabled for out- 
door work by sunstroke. 

118. On 25th November, 1864, Mr. Kavanagh reported 
,Qj^.gg that all disputes had been settled in tah- 

sil Hardoi, but that in tahsils Shahabad 
and Bilgrim there were several hundred disputes still un- 
adjusted. 



246 BARDOI SETTLKMBNT RXFOBT. 

Extra Assistant ComiuissioDer Rae Hanukh Rae joined 
the demarcatiug establishment on the 2nd October, bat ap to 
9th January, 1855, he had not disposed of the disputes in one 
tahsil, Shahabad. He was new to the work, and did not no* 
derstand how either to settle disputes himself or to indnoe 
the disputants to settle them amicably. 

On 29th November, 1864, the Revenue Surveyor, Jjeo- 
tenant-Colonel Vanreuen, reported that iu consequence of 
the extremely defective state of the boundary demarcadou ia 
tahsils Shahabad and Bilgram, be had been obliged to shs- 
pend the revenue survey operations as regarded the dcJiui- 
tion of vilLnge boundaries, and represented that it wu of 
the utmost importance to strengthen Mr. Kavanagh's baak 
by the immediate employment of additional agency toadju 
the pending disputes. 

Accordingly the Financial Commissioner, on 13th Juo- 
ary, 1865, made over to the Settlement Officer, Mr. Bradfoii 
the decision of boundary disputes in tahsil BilgrArw Bj^ 
8th February Mr. Bradford bad demarcated the eastern Uf 
of t)ie tahsil, being as much as the Revenue Surveyor cooU 
undertake during that season, and had very nearly demarcit' 
cd the whole of the tahsil, inasmuch as there were but let 
disputes remaining in the w^estem half. 

In the whole tahsil there was the enormous number of 
286 reported boundary disputes, no less than 208 of whiek 
were in the eastern part. " Usually," wrote Mr. Bradford, **65 
or 70 disputes per tahsil is a full average; but in conseq ueooeof 
allowing talukdars and zamindars to arrange their own boun- 
daries, the result was just between four and four and a halT 
times as many disputes as there would have been in all mo- 
bablity if they had been taken up in the usual manner bv the 
demarcation department. No less than 114 of these cssei 
were amicably arranged in the month ; 48 were tried out * 44 
were referred to arbitrators. The zamindars had an i(fei 
that tbey could disturb possession of years and claim what 
they liked ; so, in consequence, I found some villages with 
every foot of their border in dispute. This was soon arranged, 
though at the expense of time ; and, on the whole, I oonmder 
them more tractable and easier to deal with, inasmuch as they 



HARDOI SBTTLKXKirr RIPOST. 347 

are more simple than the Fyzabad and Patti Bilkhnr 
men, who would with difficulty disclose the facts of a 
case. Now in Bilgram I had little difficalty on this point. 
Pandit Dina Nath, tahsildar, rendered me valuable aid 

throughout " 

The Financial Commissioner cordially acknnwledg^d the 
zeal and efficiency with which Mr. Bradford bad conducted 
this work, in addition to that of bis own office, and had there- 
by saved the State from the serious loss that would have re* 
suited from any further delay to the progress of the rerenoe 
survey. 

The close of this season (1864-65) witnessed the comple* 
tioB of demarcation operations throughout the district. 

SECTION 7/.— REVENUE SURVEY. 

119. The 2nd division of the professional revenue 
survey, under the superintendence of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Yanrenen, R.E., entered the district in the cold seasoo of 
1863-64 and surveyed 384 villages, with an area of 740 sqtuu-e 
miles. In tbe next season (1864-65) 1,166 more villages, with 
an area of 1,869 square miles, were surveyed. The work 
was in some degree impeded oviing to the boundary disputes 
not having been entirely decided, in 1865-66 the revenue 
survey of Hardoi was completed. 

It has mapped the whole district on a threefold scale. 
There are, first, the maps of clusters of villages on the scale 
of four inches to the mile, which have been bound up inUf 
tahsil volumes. These show in minute detail each natural 
and artificial feature of the country. Reduced from these 
there is, secondly, a series of inch-to-the-mile maps, showing 
village boundaries and all necessary details ; and lastly, a dis- 
trict map on the scale of four miles to tbe incli« These re* 
duced maps have been published by th? Surveyor-General of 
India. 

Of the beauty, accuracy, and value of this three-fold 
series of Revenue Survey noaps it is impossible to speak too 
highly. 



24 "S HARDOI SETTLEXCKT REPOBT. 

SECTION ///.—SETTLEMENT SURVEY. 

120. The settlement survev was commenced bv Ur. 
LiiifUay in parirana Gurnlwa, Uihsil Sandila, in the middle ci 
Novembor, 18(13. 

The system followed was that of Rae Bareli. '• TLi? 
Anuuai so;:ic-nicnt Re- consists iu first mcasuHng and correctif 
piTi. ib63 64. mapping the circumference of the vilhgt 

The interior is then divided into plots; the fields in each ^m 
are measured. If there is an error the plots will not coinodcj 
This system is a first-rate check on the amins. AgaiB.fli 
testing, a certain portion of the map may be wron^^. Bru^ 
system the entire map is not vitiated, but onlv that ploti 
which the error liea There is thus a great saving < " 
and trouble. 

'• At the head of the Survey Department was E: 
Assistant Commissioner Muhammad Ikram-uUa Khan, 
exi)erience(l and able officer, who bad superintended the 
vork in the Rae Bareti district and had giiued the appi 
tionofthe Settlement Officer of that district for his i 
diligence, and ability. To him was entrusted the testiwi 
the field maps and their registers, the cbeckinc: of the 
the account of the irrigated land, the classification of 
soils, and the diflferent details of the survey. Under 
worked the munsarims and the sadr munsarims, the * pai 
ing' or te*iting stalf. I lost no time myself, writes Mr. Bn^l 
ford, in examining on the field the correctness of as manviH 
the village maps and registers ns 1 could, without throwocl 
back the case work, which was then heavy. I tested 
interior measurements with the chain, checked the posil 
of the tri-junctional boundary marks, and examined ^1 
khasras. field by field, in the presence of the zamindars ail 
their tenants, and was )>articular in seeing that the irrigate' 
land was properly entered. Sometimes amios would entef 
more irrigated land tlinn there was, and vice versa. Tm 
quantity of hhur put down in the registers was likewise alwaTS 
compared with the ground and alterations made if necessanJ 
But, of course, the Settlement Officer cannot himself carefalK 
test many field measurements and entries. Still, by takitf 
villages here and there, he can test a sufficient number aiw 



HARDOI 



3 result obtaioed will salisfr koK aft fti 'iK 
rrectness of the recorded svrrey. «r i iiMisai 
V particular circle is neces^arr. I am. u^pnv ^ 
Br, tliat I was satisfied with the e^rrcetiicfs^ « -lu^ 
[icli has been well and carefiillv dcce. 




^' I do not mean to declare bT thi§ tku tke miIa t^^s^ 
^ays correctly classified, or that land w9A sac ^aaagf^ w 
igated when it should have been pnc dryra a» aiiap!;5rEsn^. 
i vice versd, but I mean that the sorrej pijKn 3X the 3issn 
re correct, and did not contain more errors w:aa ^muLii ji. 
works of magnitude creep in. 

'^ Some little difficulty was at fiist experie&od a&^i tit^j^j 
asioned by the landholders not coming forvard in ^^ 
ing coolies, &c. ; but the zamindar scm^o aame to ^^^ su^ir 
eh it was to his advantage to get the amin and KirifJaoa^ 
, of his village." 

121. By 30th April, 1864, 200,832 acres in ubftl 
adila had been surveyed at a eniHt of Rs. 10,369. In IM^I-^.i 
r survev of tahsil Sandila and two-thirds of tah<nl Hard^vi 
8 completed at an average cost of Ks. 5-4-12'4 per ti^xA- 
id acres. 

122. In 1865-Gf> Ilardoi was finished and t^>e irliole 

of tahsil Bilerdm surveyed at a rat^i: of 

knmial Report, 1849-64. ^ i- .1 o ^i 1 

lis. 4i-2-3 per thousand acren. 

In surveying tihsil Bilgrdm exceptional difficolty iras 
ised l)y the extent to which it is intersected by sbiftiri;r 
Brs and streams that fall into the Ganges and t^ii; itic- 
mt effacement by floods of the boundary marks in low 
ds. 

123. In 1866-67, the whole of tabsU 8liababa4 was 
veyed at a rate of only Ks. 44«l-5 per thousand acres. 

124. The field survey was completed in Aprils 18^7, at 
otal cost of Rs. 74,472.6-10 ; of this smn Vbt. 67,(^10^7 
iresent the actual cost of the survey, and Bs. \7^\W»\t'ii^ 
) salaries of the supervisiog staff. Th« total area surireved^ 

. 32u 



250 



I1AUP0I SF.TTLEMBNT RBFOBT. 



was 1,467.114 acres, and the average cost per thousand acm 
Ks. 50-8' 10. In cic^ht cUstiicts the rate has ranged from 
Rs. 61) 11-:) in FyzaUad to Rs. 87-3-10 in Lucknow. Onlv 
in Bahraich ( Rs. 47-i:>-8 ) and Kheri (Rs. 48-13-6), where the 
pro]H)rti<>n of cultnrahle waste is largest, and in Goodi 
( Its. 44-5-S ) wliich benefits by the experience gained from 
all tbe other districts, has a lower rate been attained. 

12;). A comparison of the revenue and field samj 
gives tlie followinj^ results : — 



Trth'*il. 



SnTi-I»I% 
llriril<»i 

SUiih:ib:i<l 



••• 

••• 



••• 
••• 
• • • 



Ri'Trnur sur- 



Tott'il (»f (listri<-t 



Ac ret. 

3:1:, 638 
409«554 
354,990 
347,U4(6 



I 
Field rarvey. I DUfcrciict. 



1,40.1,2:4 



Acrei. 

4<iA,3S(» 
356,995 
350,095 

4.467.114 



9Si le« 



1.M9 more 



ft. 176, 912. 

6,(»08 more 
1»168 lew 



of diflRW 



4 



That is to sav, the extent of difFereoce is less than tf 
an acre in tlic hundred. In Unao, where the generalacn^ 
nicnt between tlie two surveys was con.sidered remur^ 
good, tiie difference was one and two-fiflhs in the huni^ 
In ])argnna Kachhaiulau fluvial action occurring betvreei'^ 
two surveys caused a difference of 6'73 per cent ]■• 
other pargana docs the difference exceed 5 per cent, of aR>- 

In the details of cultivated, culturable, and barren Itf^ 
A lu *i.ne.. t'^6 differences are natunillv mii 

Annual Report, 1606-07. ,, , , ^ , ■■**iii.ti«iijr m^ 

greater, *' both from their being suntf* 
rd in different years, and from the different view of A* 
v.irioiis sorts of soil taken by the revenue and field establish* 
ments respectively : hut this is to be expected, andisnotof 
nK'iteri il conse']ueiK'e." 



HARDOI SKTTLKMENT REPORT. 251 

CHAPTER IV. 



Preparation of records. 
12G. The Hardoi records consist of — 

(1) the vernacular documents prescribed by Settlement 
Circular No. 23 of 1864, viz.^ the field and village site maps 
and registers ; list of wells; khatiauni or abstract of proprie- 
tary and underproprietary rights of occupancy; statement 
No. II of assessment details ; statement No. Ill, or khewat, 
defining the amount of the rights and interests of the share- 
holders in each estate ; darkhwdst, or engagement for pay- 
ment of the revenue demand ; w^jib-ul-urz, or administration 
paper ; and final proceeding (rubkar akhir), a brief abstract 
of all orders passed on proprietary claims in the settlement 
courts. 

(2) A copy of these papers, excepting the statement 
No. II, darkhwast, and final proceeding, for record in the 
sub-divisional (tahsil) offices. 

(3) The files of every case judicially determined by the 
settlement courts, original and appellate, in each village. 

Each of these three series of documents has been bound 
into a separate volume, so that there are three volumes for 
each village. Of these the first and third are kept in the 
record-room of the Deputy Commissioner's office, and the 
second in the office of the tahsildar. Besides these the state- 
ments No. II of assessment details in English, containing for 
each village the grounds on which the Settlement Officer has 
fixed the Government demand, have been bound up into par- 
gana volumes. 

127. Two of the vernacular papers directed to be pre- 
pared by Settlement Circular No. 23 of 1864 have been omit- 
ted from the Hardoi records. These are the first jamabandi 
or alleged rent-roll of the village at the time the assessment 
is being made, and the second jamabandi or schedule of rents 
as adjusted between landlord and tenant after the revision 
of the Government demand. '* I could not," writes Mr. 
Bradford, ^^ get in reliable jamabaudis or rent schedules 



458 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT RKPOBT. 



nftor tlic ileclAration of the new jamas. I found hardly ose 
in ion nt all ^ood of the janialmndis, nnd, Althous:h coidiiDr 
helped hy the (Xlieintinp; Deputy Commissioner, I could mc 
pt in the rent sohediiles as directer) by the Settlement Con- 
nu>si()ner. All the Settlement Officers I liave correfepoD(k'| 
with toll me the same; indeed, it stands to reason tbst tk 
provisions of Circular I. of 1S63 could never be carriedoi: 
I)y anyone between the months of Mnroh and April, wUr 
the new jamas are usiirtlly given out, and the end of Decemte 
of the same year. For rhe first year no proper rent schedaiH 
could ever he <rot in ; the complication of * batai' wonM 
quite enou*;h to prevent their beinjr filed. After the 
Kent Act became law no such schedules were of any _ 
as where a tenant is unprotected by a decree, and the bulk 
unprotected, the landlord can raise his rent just ashepleuel 
Settlement Circular No. I. of 1803 has since been canceliei] 

" It would have been worse than useless filing i 
dc»cunients, few bein^ worth the paper they were written 
as were h(*re presente<l by zamindars. Mr, McMinn, 
found in Kachhaiidau and Bil^rram that tlie rent*rolls %v 
mostly untrustworthy. I hear the same ererywhere el 
Such documents, even if true for (say) 1271 fasli, wouMl 
of no use for 1273 fasH or 1274. As long as patwdris i 
entirely servants of the landlord, removable at their pi 
sure, hU|)posetl to be paid by them, true rent-rolls or 
stalemt'nts of any sort will never be obtained. The 
lords keep the i)atwAri8 long in arrears of pay, and thrc 
to remove theuiiftliey enter facts in a rent-roll ©rot 
wise displease them.'* 

On its being represented to the Financial Commissic 
that Mr. Bradford and the Ofliciating Deputy Commissi! 
liad made every eflbrt to get in the papers* within the 
seril)ed period ; that they got in only 1,586 out of 1,950 ji-^ 
bandis and 680 out of the s.ime number of rent sckeduks 
that more than 90 per cent, of those procured were founds 
be utterly unreliable and worthless and quite unfit to 
copied and bound into the settlement volumes • and 
there were no means, at a later period in the settleu 
operations, of remedying the defect, permission was given 
omit them altogether from the Ilardoi records. 



HARDOI SBTTLEMKSt BETOftT. 2&S 

128. I venture to think that the speeial objeei<^tbe 
rent schedules cannot he attained under the present jrvkaf^ 

That object has been explained to be '^ to obtain tnuPt^ 
worthy record of the rent-roll of a villap^e an adjusted aft^ 
the declaration of the revised jama by the Settlement Offieer."^ 

But the rente to be entered in these schedulee are ^^ tlie 

Financial Commissioner's ronts payable by the underproprietom 

Circular No. 38 of 1869. ^ud tonauts fof the Jir$t year of the en^ 

forcenient of the revised jamas." Their preparation if to 
'* commence as soon as the revised assessments are announce 
ed," and '^ should be completed as far as may be before tbe 
15th April immediately preceding the commeocement of 
the year from which the new assessment comes into force* 
If patta and kabuliat have been exchanged or the rent 
has been determined by a decree of court, an entry will be 
made in accordance with the terms of the pntta or of the 
decree ; but otherwise, if no notice of ejectment baa l)een 
served, or if, the notice having been issued, it has not been 
enforced before the 15th June, the rent of the previous year 
will appear in the sch«:^dule. By this means the schedules 
can be completed by the 1st January next after the corn* 
mencement of the fasli year immediately nucceeding tbe 
introduction of the revised assessment, and they will exhibit 
the actual rents demandable for the Jlrst year of the assess* 
ment." 

It does not seem to have been perceived that a schedule 
of the actual rents demandable for the first year of the new 
assessment is not and cannot be ^^ a trustworthy record of 
the rent-roll of a village as adjusted after the declaration of the 
revised jamas, " and that, except so far as it forms such a 
record, it is of no value at all with reference to the object in 
view. 

The revised jamas are declared as soon as possible after 
the superior proprietary rights have been determined, long 
before the claims of sharers and underproprietors of all kinds 
have been tried out, and, consequently, long before the 
adjustment of rents, which it is the object of the rent sche* 
diUes to record, has been effected. 



«J54 1IARD0I SETTLKtfENT REPORT. 

Such adjustmont is a i^raihL'iI process. It only begins 
when tlie sea of litigation auhfiides, and lasts until the partitions 

• .-,41 «uch application, *>f' cstatos havB been effected. These 
were piii'iiiijr on 1st partitions are freely applied for as soon 

utwr u^' uHslTsmenrof ^^ ^'^® khcwat lias been fought out io 
the .liHtriit had been the courts, but are Dot* frencrallv nuik 
coinputei, ^^j^^jj ^^^^^ ^f^^^ ^^^ settlement' esub. 

lishinents have been disbanded. 

120. I would sufirgest the advisability of deferriDg tit 
preparation of the rent schednle of a par^ana till the reriseJ 
jama has been collected for tive years, and of then tempon- 
rily cmi)loying a small special agency for the purpose of pre- 
paring them. 

130. The totnl cost of preparin/f the records has been 
Us. 1,31,844-8-2. The work on which it has been spent mar 
be divided into rive sections : (1) the preparation of rougl 
drafts (chittas) of the various papers; (2) the testing, corr^ 
tion, and re-testing of the rough drafts until tUey cunespoad 
and are fit to be copied ; (3 ) the fair-copying in duplicate 
of the chittas for the Uilisil and sadr volumes ; (4) the test- 
ing and correction of the fair copies ; (5) the arraogeoient 
and binding of the settlement and judicial volumes. 

131. Until towards the end of the settlement thesa 
])roces9es wore not kept sutKciently distinct, and some loss 
of time and money resnltc^d from the imperfect divisioa of 
labor. The Extra Assistant Commissioner in charge of the 
records was burdened with a great quantity of case-work, 
while the Settlement Officer was absorI)ed in the threefold 
task of assessing the revenue, deciding the claims to superior 
rights, and hearing appeals from the judgments of his subor- 
dinates. As soon as the assessment and the investigation of 
superior rights was completed, increased attention was givea 
to the records and improved methods applied to their prepa- 
ration. 

132. The contract system was introduced for all copy- 
ing. Separate gangs of muharrirs were told off for the 
work of testing and correcting rough drafts and fair copies 
respectively. The contract rates for the copyists were one 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 255 

rupee for 400 entries in the khasras kishtw&r and abadi. and 
kliatiannis ; 8 annas for each Wajib-ul-arz ; 2 annas for a 
khewat, and one anna for a list of wells. 

1 33. The testing muharrirs were arranged in gangs (jors) 
of three each, viz.^ one to look at each of the fair copies. 
Each gnng cost Rs. 33* a month. Over each two gangs of 

*2atR8. 10. muharrirs was set a munsarrim on Rs. 30 

* ** » '^' or 35, with two assistant muharrirs on 

TiS. 10 and 15, whose duty it was to examine not less than ten 
percent, of the papers passed by the two *' jors '' under him and 
to keep the accounts of the contract copyists' work tested 
by them. Book-binders were procured from Lucknow who 
turned out neat and serviceable volumes at eight annas 
a piece for sadr and judicial, and five annas for tahsll, 
volumes. 

134. The completion of the records was delayed for 
two months by its being decided in October, 1870, that, after 
all, a copy of the village papers must be made for the sadr 
tahsfl as well as for the outlying tahslls. The copying and 
correction of all papers was finished in April, 1871, but the 
staff of munsarims and their assistant muharirs had to be 
retained till the 24th June, in order to compile from the khas- 
ras the pargana statements of area under the various crops, 
produce, and rental, prescribed in the Financial Commis- 
sioner's Circular No. 51 of 1870. 

On the 14th July I left the district, and by the end of 
that month the last volume of records had been deposited in 
the district record-room, and this branch of settlemient work 
was absolutely finished. 

135. In the Hardoi, as in other settlements, it is, I think, 
much to be regretted that from the first the executive work 
of preparing the records was not intrusted to executive 
oflScers only, instead of being left in the hands of munsarims 
under the supervision of sadr munsarims and an Extra 
Assistant Commissioner burd^ed with judicial work. The 
mistake is of the same kind, though not quite so serious, as 
that which charges the same officer with the assessment of 



256 lIARDOr SETTLEMKNT aRPORT. 

the Government demand and the judicial investigation into 
proprietary claims. I speak as a novice in settlement work, bot 
1 believe that the veterans of the department willsapponme 
in criticizint; this portion of the Oudh system as '^ penny wise, 
pound foolish,'* and in asserting that its results have ben 
that the assessments have been less scientific, the judicial iniei- 
tigations less thorough, the preparation of records less acci- 
rate and economical, and the expenditure of time and Uboor 
on each of these operations infinitely greater than wooM 
have been the case if from the first the necessity of that (fin- 
Hon of labor had been recognized which is the secret of 
success in nil branches of industry. 

136. The Officiating Commissioner of Lucknow, Colonel 
MacAndrcw, showed me in October, 1869, when proceeding 
to take charge of tlie Bara Banki Settlement, how even at i 
I<*itc stage in settlement o])eration8 and under the existii; 
system a partial division of labor might be effected. Tb 
application of his method in Bnra Banki and, with sonoke modi- 
iications, in Uardoi during the ensuing eighteen monAi 
resulted in tlic completion of tlie records of Bara Banki it 
months, and of Hardoi twelve months, sooner than had beet 
estimated; in a saving to the State of, I believe, not less tim 
three-quarters of a lakh of rupees, and in relieving the peopk 
for so many months from the incubus of a hirj^e body of 
temporarily entertained subordinate officials furnished witk 
extraordinary opportunities of profiting by the ignorance o( 
the people and their anxiety to conciliate a GroverumeDl 
servant, however lowly. 

137. If the partial application of a simple busioess 
rule at the very end of two settlements has effected sucb 
good results, what might not have been saved had it 
been introduced from the first and thoroughly into all th0 
settlements of the province? There would have been from 
the Financial Commissioner down to the sadr munsarim 
a complete separation of the judicial and executive func- 
tions. The Financial Commissioner would have watched 
the investigation into rights by Settlement Judges, select- 
ed Extra Assistant Commissioners and sadr munsarimi. 
The Settlement Commissioner would have controlled the 
settlement survey, assessment and preparation of records 



HARDOI 8ETTLRMSNT RBPOBT* 257 

by the Settlement Officers, Extra Assistant Commissioners 
(executive side), naib sadr munsarims and munsarims. 

Instead of allowing, as has been too much the case, each 
assessing officer to do that which has been rig-ht in his own 
•eyes, it would have been thus a special function of the Settle- 
ment Commissioner to generalize from the mass of settlement 
data that India furnishes, and to select the most appropriate 
methods of classifying soils, of ascertaining actual and pros- 
pective capabilities as to produce and rentals, of collecting 
and recording settlement statistics, and of securing accuracy, 
economy, and despatch in the preparation of the settlement 
papers. 

The reverse process has been adopted. For six and a half 
years from October, 1864, to March, 1871, the judicial and exe- 
cutive control of the Oudh settlements, as well of the reve- 
nue administration, has been vested in one officer, the Finan- 
cial Commissioner. How much time it may have been pos- 
sible to give to the executive branch of his functions may be 
imagined from the fact that in four of those years, viz.j from 
September, 1866 to September, 1870, the Financial Commis- 
sioner disposed of 5,777 settlement and 1,274 revenue special 
appeals and 434 maintenance of relatives and talukdars cases 
— an average of 1,871 caies a year. 

The Settlement Officer and his Assistants have assessed 

ft 

a district of 2,292 square miles to the amount of Rs. 14,31,063, 
and have judicially investigated 5,446 claims (two-thirds of 
these being for proprietary rights or for sub-settlements) and 
decided 1,624 appeals. 

The Extra Assistant Commissioners specially charged 
with supervision of the records have decided 10,684, and the 
sadr munsarims 7,251 cases. With these facts and figures before 
one, it is impossible to resist the conviction that under such 
a system supervision cannot be very efiectively exercised, 
and that the preparation of the records other than the re- 
cord of rights has beeii the work of a lower and less respon- 
sible agency (that, namely, of munsarims and muharrirsinsteiid 
of Extra Assbtant Commissioners and sadr munsarims/ thip 
18 generally supposed. 

33h 



Ttast: 



1 H A P T E B V 



W 






VI L 



:i^2e7 teis uskJiiSiZ tre Kos. IT- TiL, TLL 



It 

V 

Id 



Tbeiico 



i:>iif*if. rT, 



^jf tbe 1.^0 1 demarcated riEages oa! 
vfiil^ \,h%:i ^XH mo/rid. In tb«; Hardoi 
47^ villasfe^ are ovMd br ta]akdar«. in 
4^. .Sa&-s^tt;^ri.tt:a of vi«c4e rHIazes or 
Cfzi'tt^ \u 117-'. 



liaiidr 



^^ tiKr 1.5C9 rrnifriJ riilage S23 are 
ti'i^in. and 1% bLaivairhaia. 



zamindflri, 728 pt- 



Tb^ 39:! talukdari viila^res are owned bj 18 talnUn^ 
ir}ilk 2\.lh^ 'xif/arr efifrrs. beaded bv 2,521 bunhMtJaraow 
the 1 .5^;& riiufrid villages. 

The AVf-nise hoMin^^r of » resident ealuTntor n 4iM 
arrKS; and of a riou-resi'Jent 3'55 ; and the average aift 
fif the Afr or h^iiiie-farin of a proprietor is 6*67 acrea, and of a 
i^uh proprietor 7 21 acres. 



1Z9, Statement VI shows the extent and nature of tk 
S'*t«n#.M VI- orijrinal suits ami the agencj by wUA 

they were dispossd of. 23,381 daias 
were preferred ; of these 596 were adjusted by compromiae or 
consent, 1,198 were struck off for default, 532 were with- 
drawn. Of 21.055 claims tried out, 11,498 were decreed for, 
and 9.557 against, the claimants. 

Of the total number disposed of, the Settlement Officen 
got through 2,767, the AasisUnt Settlement Officers 2,679, the 
Extra Assistant Commissioners 10.684, and the aadr man- 
sarims 7,251. 



HABDOI SETTLKMBMT BBPOBT. 



259 



140. The classification of claims is rather rough: 3,020, 
or about three for every two villageSi were for the proprie- 
tary right, 564 were for sub-settlements in talukas, and 86 
for sub-settlements in independent villages. There were 
6,839 claims to shares. 

r I Subordinate rights in talukas, other than sub-settlementii, 
' were sparingly claimed, suits for sir ( in talukas ) being only 
256, and of other descriptions only 41. 

' In independent villages claims for sir or diddri were only 
^ 269, for shankalp only 3 ; but 1 2,303, or more than half the 
Votal number of original suits of the settlement, are entered 
binder the comprehensive heading '^ all others.*' 

•{ 

\ Compromises, defaults, and withdrawals, were, as is natu- 

'^1, most frequent in share cases. 

141 About a third of the claims to proprietary right 

irere successful. Less than a third of the suits for sub-settle- 

nents in talukas and a half of those for sub-settlements in 

odependent villages were decreed. Claims to shares were 

jecreed to the extent of not quite half of the claims brought* 

r 

Few as were the claims to sir in talukas, only 74 were 

accessful. About half the suits for sir in indepen^lent vil- 
^Ijg^es and two-thirds of the other claims were decreed. 

g All the claims to proprietary right were disposed of by 
!ie Settlement and Assistant Settlement Officers. The bulk of 
se other suits were tried by the Extra Assistant Commissioners 

^d aadr munsarims. 

m 

J 142. 1,624 appeals were preferred (up to the end of 

■ «utemcniviA. ^^^f^ ^^V' ^^^" ^^® Statement waa 

9 made up), or 771 per cent, on the 

1^,055 claims decided on trial. 

In three-fourths of the appeals the decisions of the 

yiwer courts were confirmed ; in only one-fourth were 

^ev reversed, modified, or returned for final disposal. The 

Juk of the appellate work fell upon Mr. Bradford and 



260 nARDOl SMTLSMKNT bkfost. 

Mr. Harington ; the former officer deciding 939, and the littar 

531 ofthe 1,G24 appeals. 

143. According to this statement the eighteen bli- 

8utem.nt No. VU. ^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ j^^^ 6,88.948, lad |Sf 

a Government demand of Rs. 3,53,089, lemriog as pwi 
Us. 3,35,858, of wliich the talukdars are estimated to letiii 
Us. 2,7 1,555, v'hile Rs. 61,303, or less than a fourth, gpeia 

the underproprietors. 

The talukas vary ereatly in size : from Mansvmp 
If ith its one village, paying a Government demand of A 
Bs. 1,589, to Kakrali with its sixty villaf^es pajingaieMM 
of Rs. 53,830. Five of the eighteen tnlukas payaGove» 
uient demand ranging from Rs. 1,589 to Rs. 3,936; three i|f 
from Rs. 7,911 to Rs. 16,251; seven from Rs. 19,890 toll 
28,516: only three jmv a revenue of from Bs. 43,397 ti 
Ks. 53,830. 

144. From the annual reports I glean a few &ekrf 

interest as to the progress of the judicial setdement di^ 

district. Up to 30t1i April, 1864,4 
'^^^'' 1,427 suits of all descriptions hid ha 

preferred, of which 551 had been dedded. The claiBit> 
proprietary rights in parganas Kalyanmal and Gnndvfti^ 
been for the most part disposed of. It ^aa notieedll^ 
as soon as a case had been decided the antagonism oti^ 
vable during its progress between talukdar and undq^ | 
prietors seemed to disappear. | 

145. 2,550 suits were preferred during the yWi^ 

which 820 were decided. Nearly' 
the claims to proprietary right in Ae 
Sandila tahsil were disposed of. In 169 villages in the tikd 
settled with talukdars only 42 ordinary claims for ilr wi 
nankar were preferred, of which only six were decieel 
Since the beginning of the settlement up to the end of Ai 
year only 93 claims to sir had been advanced in this tahii 
]Bir t and shankalp tenures appeared to be unknown in iL 

146. 2,393 claims were preferred and 2,109 deeidel 
^^^^^^ The difficulty of khewat casM was Sek 

No peculiar tenures were observedexcep 



BARDOI SirrLBMKHT &KPOBT. 261 

tiiose in and around the town of Sandila (vide infra para. 155). 
In the Hardoi tahsil the prevailing tenures were found to be 
pnttidari and bhaiyachara^ the only taluka being that of 
Kbajurahra of 24 villitges. In this tahsil all the claims to 
proprietary rights in entire villages and dakhilas had by this 
time been decided, and the khewat suits were being steadily . 
cleared off. " In Hardoi," wrote Mr. Bradford, ** suits, save 
in Muhammadan villages and one or two held by Hindu 
brotherhoods, are neither very numerous nor very difficult : 
that is, comparing them with Fyzabad, for instance, or 
Partabgarh. The facts will sometimes be hard to get at, 
but when this is done the rest is easy.'' 

1866. i8t May to soth Case work in tahsil Bil^r^m was 

»cptcmb«r. pushed ott ; 1,390 cases were aecided. 

147. 2,974 cases were disposed of against 2,812 in the 
^^^^y previous year. It was found that the 

work of deciding claims to proprietary 
right had got somewhat too far a-head of the adj udication of 
khewat and wajib-ul-arz disputes. 

Up to this date 41 villages had been decreed to Govern- 
ment, of which two had been given back to the original 
owners on payment of one or two years' summary demand. 
Three had been given to talukdars in lieu of villages taken 
out of their sanads, and two others had been recommended 
for disposal in the same way. One had been assigned as 
compensation for land taken for the civil station of Hardoi. 
Thirty remained the property of Government. 

148. 4,481 suits were decided. The result of Act 
jg^^^ XXVI. of 1866 had thus far been that 

only 62 out of 95 sub-settlements de- 
creed under the previous law had stood ; 19 of such cases 
were pending. 

149. 5,693 suits were decided; all sub-settlement cases 
186849 ^®'® finished. Mr. Bradford's first 

impressions of the Bent Act were that 
it was ^^ rather a landlord's Act." 

150. 3,526 suits were disposed of. On 1st January, 
1869-70 1870, the exemption from stamp ceased 

in all parganas. Judicial work in tahsils 



S6t HARDOl BRTLnmiy EKftwr. 

Hardoi and Sandila had beea broughl to a close, and aO tk 
judicial volumes in them had beeu mmde over to the binder, 
except 23. 

Up to this period sub-settlements had been decreed ii 
two-sevenths of the talukdari villas^ ( 100 oat of 356). h 
twelve villages hereditary farms bad bean decreed. In (I 
of the remaining 244 villages Hr land hmd been assigaedts 
the undcrproprietors to the extent of 3,679 mcree. Ithd 
been found impracticable to ascertain the extent of ifrUd 
without decree or record in the sub-settlement pspeni 

151. All original suits had been dispoted of by Ai 
„yj^„ early part of the quarter ending SOtk 

June ; all apneals except two hi^ bm 
decided by 14th July, when the Officiating Settlement Ofr 
ccr left tlie district ; all the judicial volumes were booud ui 
made over to the district office by the end of July 1871. 

152. The ordinary tenures of an Oudb diatrietkm 
been descril>ed so often and so well that I shall not enctn* 
her these pages with a repetition that would be unneeessait. 

It will I think be more interesting to the Hardoi distriet 
officers of the future, the onl^ cUss by whom this xmart w9 
ever be read, if I conclude this branch of it with such ezeenti 
from the judicial records as contain observations of valoeci 
matters peculiar to the district. I divide these extmcti »- 
der the two heads of tenures and devolution of property. 

153. (1) Tenures — The transfer of lands from the 

H«ur T.b.ii. lu'^'^'^ir u '^^ ^"i!^! »'*'horities to 

that of the Hasur tahsfl is desribed br 
Sir W. Sleeman(L, 293) as having had a mischieyoua eflfocL 
" The village so transferred," he "says, being removed fiom 
the observation and responsibility of the local authorities. 
often becomes a safe refuge for the bad characters of the dis- 
trict, who thence depredlate upon the country around with 
impunity." 

The record of the Osmanpur proprietary right casa 
pargana Kachhandau, furnishes testimony as to the ^^ 
with which false claims were admitted m Hi '^r tahsil« 



HAKMI SKTTLEMEKT R«1»0RT. 263 

In it Ragonath Parshad, of Bhagwantnagar, son of a 
chakladar, '' a man who had had much to do with oflSces 
and Nawabi work," deposed : — 

" As to Hazur tahsfl when a village was admitted, no in- 
quiry was made as to the rights of the engagers — none what- 
ever. Not that a perfectly new man could apply in a Hazur 
tahsH for a vill^e with which he had no connection what- 
ever. Some little ^ hila ' and a little money, and a connec- 
tion with the amlah, were necessary; but, on the whole, press- 
ing a false claim was much easier for a monied man in Hazur 
tahsil than before the local authorities. 

'^ The local authorities were obliged to make a form at 
any rate of attending to ancestral rights, and the old proprie- 
tors would reproach them if they did not, and they would not 
smooth matters over so easily, and they would find trouble 
in the collections. The Hazur tahsfl had no such scruple: 
they took the money and handed over the village, never 
attending to claims which they would never have to hear." 

The presiding Judge (Mr. McMinn) remarked: — 

^^ It seems clear that false claims were easily admitted 
in Hazur tahsfl, but that there must be some basis for the 
claim. 

However unreal or fabricated, it would not be scruti- 
nized too closely provided the money was not wanting." 

Another view of this tenure is given in the Kutabpur* 
Shaikhpur volume (claim to a lease): — 

'^ I think this village history shows conclusively that 
Hazur tahsil villages, practically speaking, were the Hr of the 
Lucknow Government, and that no rights in them were per- 
mitted to accrue to third parties. 

^^ Here we have Thdkurs selling their village three 
times over, and now clauning it over amin ; their vendees also 
appear, men who buy fourteien-hundred-rapee villages for 200 
rupees. I cannot conceive such documents, even when ex- 
tant, as Supporting any title, much less as in Onrli Lai's 



Sf;4 



HAlDOt SRTLIIfENT BBPOBT. 



when we have to get Lackoow evidenee tovehing ik 
puq)ort. 

'' I regard these purchase deeds as hsTing been « 
merely as some little basis for a clainiy to be urged tikn«l| 
Court favorites at Lucknow. 

'^ The parties never calculated on retaining these viflM 
for any length of time ; they had no idea that they ram 
purchased the village. The purchase deed was meidrtk 
first step in g<*tting a grant of part of the GoTemment refcne 
it was the thin edge of the wedge, to be followed up nut k 
the village property, which was worthless, but by therig^ftl 
make the collections and }>ay a mere fraction of theasfej 
the treasury. The latter was what was bought in Lacba 
The purchase deed in the village was a mere matter of fim^ 
a means of localizing the revenue grant which waslofaedta^ 
wards secured in Lucknow. 

'^ These men were all really fiirmers ; they did not W 
the village by virtue of the purchase deed, bnt by fit* 
of the Lucknow bril>e. 

''They did not care one farthing for what they en^ 
ed under the deeds which they now produce. TmW 
such perducj oflen for years. I have been sfaovi^ 
documents which had never been produced or cantf^ 
effect at all. Why ? Because they conveyed no tiA-'^ 
were merely subsidiary to negotiations in Liucknoi. ^^ 
certain that in Hazur iahsti villages Government 10* 
recognized any proprietor at all. If they did, what cailii^ 
Am I to recognise the first purchaser, or the lsst|tf^ 
middle one ? Their claims destroy each other. 

'^ In fact, when they purchased, so to speak, these viDaM 
these vendees never expected to hold them longer thandnfliK 
the pleasure of a friendly chackladar, their purchase nefS 
affected the mokuddam rights of the old zamindars." 

154. The following extracts show the way in wbicki 

Qa«iproprieury.uto. Jl^^i proprietary footing was secunl 

obtained by pargaoa offi- by the pargana oflicialSv the ehaadoi 

^^^ and kamingxM of the ex-Governmeat^ 



HABDOI SETTLXMSHT BEPOBT. 265 

*'Ia some parganas, and specially in Malldnw&n and 
Bilgr^m, there are very few Tillages indeed which at one 
time or other were not in the official, not the proprietary, 
possession of the kandngos and chaudris. I should be of 
opinion that, leaving out talukas, the chaudris and the 
kanungos of the neighbourhood held as pure farmers two* 
thirds of the villages in their respective districts mach more 
frequently than defendants held this one." (Mauza Lalpur 
Kanta, pargana Bilgrdm). 

^^ These men (the kaniingos of pargana Bilgrdm) have not 
an idea beyond the duftar. They are grossly ignorant of the 
world outside. They affixed their seals when they were 
asked during the old times to deeds of sale, deeds of gift, deeds 
of transfer, which, for aught they knew, had no validity or 
genuineness whatever. Of the deeds which have been filed in 
this court, five-sixths were executed by men who did not 
expect to get any possession at leas tunder a title." (Mauza 
Maksunamau, pargana Bilgrdm). 

''In this pargana (MalMnwdn) the chaudris and kaniin- 
gos steadily ignored the rights of all Eurmb, but in times of 
wfficulty the king's officers always came upon the resident 
community." (Mauza Deomanpur, pargana Malldnwdn). 

^' The chaudris and kaniingos of kasha MalUnwdn appear 
to have apportioned the villages of this pargana amongst 
themselves just as they pleased." (Mauza Manarwar). 

" Whenever there was any transfer of rights, real or pre- 
tended, in this pargana (Malldnwdn) the papers always 
ehangcd hands, whatever may have become of the village. I 
do not remember an instance to the contrary. Papers were 
often sold and mortgaged alone, but the village was never 
sold without the papers, if there were any. There was often 
a^ fresh kabuliatdar for each year. No one's proprietary 
rights here were very clear." (Mauza Borhwal). 

'^ These transfers in Mallunw^n pargana were merely 
intended to give a plausible color to other transactions in 
Lucknow. In Malldnwdn Government recognized no pro- 
perty in the soil whatever ; it was the NawAbi */r, in which 
Bovernment was entitled to the full baluuces after the 

34 u 



26«} HABDOI SBTTLE1IK2IT BEPOBK. 

expenses of cultivation and the cultiTator's siistenanoe H 
been provided for. Ko one thought he was se lli n g wheikil 
signed one of these purchase deeds, and the vendee dm' 
thought he was acquiring a title. These deeds were a mas 
amon^ others of acquiring a temporary footing in the ^ilOt^ 
and that was all they were intended for." (Msnass Dbuc^me,) 

'- The plaintiffs (Sombansis) never rose to die fil 
status of a zainindar in consequence of the Mnhammada 
cbaudris of Sandi claiming the whole pargsna. These hs 
refused to witness any transfers made by the m^i on tb 
soil like plaintiff, and used to put in some of themselfei 
when they could get a light jama, or else they got mosugin 
( farmers ) and sowars to engage for the village/' (Maaa 
Mirgaon, pargana Sandi ). 

" The kanungos of the pargana (Sandi) ha ve a trsdhiofr 
ary claim themselves to the whole pargana, because Sskm- 
ulla, from whom they descend, prior to 1172 fasli heldi 
farm of the whole pargana for some years, and likewise the 
chakladar lived at Sandi and was able to harass the zamin- 
durs by heavy demands they could not pay, and then to pal 
in mustajirs who gave him handsome nuzzars. (Mansa Jain 
Parsoli, pargana Sandi)." 

155. In Mahtwana, an outskirt of Sandila khas, llr. 

Peculiar method of di- McMinu fouud a curious aiodificatioaof 

Ti.iing coparcenary profits the Ordinary method of dividine coinr- 

cenary profits: — 

^^ This village, along with Alampur and Mosaffiurpur 
Fobiah, otherwise called Begamganj, were always or nearlj 
always assessed together during the Nawdbi times. They 
form a part of the Kasbah Saadila, and their village anaoge- 
ments arc peculiar. I understand by a pattidar a family share- 
holder in a village who is entitled to rendition of accounts 
and to receive a share of the village profits ; in other words, 
of the balance which remains after the Government demand 
•^vas (.lefrayed from the rack-rent. 

'' Underetood in this way, there are not now, and have not 
1)0011 for ^generations, anv shareholders in all Sandila, and no 
piTJl'iitiyrs except the mgu who engaged with Government. 



fiABDOX SETTLBHKMT KEPORT* 367 

^ " For instance, in Mahtwdna there is a body of men, all of 
^die same family, descended from one ori^nal sole proprietor, 
j\rho all exercise proprietary rights of some kind or other in 
!^lhe village. 

^ '^ First comes the lambardar Tafazzul Husain; he or his 
•&ther and one Faiz Bakhsh have held the engagement for 
^'Very many years, they made the collections, paid the Govern- 
7 ment revenue, paid the village expenses, and kept the balance 
^if any ; that is to say, each lambardar took a half of the village 
^ pro6ts and the shareholders were entirely excluded, vide evi* 
^ dence of Tafazzul Husain, and Kanhaiya Lai. 

" It is a matter of notoriety and clearly proved in the 
Jamkur& cases that such was the village custom round Sandila, 
and that the ordinary village system of exact accounts and 
distribution among a large brotherhood had died away. It will 
be seen afterwards that one or two shareholders alone re- 
ceived profits. 
• 

^^Then, again, a much lower class of proprietors appear, 
who have lost every thing but their manorial rights, which how* 
in these villages are exceptionally valuable; the right to these 
were jealously guarded, although they seem to have been in- 
difierent to the amount received : as long as the right was 
clearly testified to, a mere annual handful of grain satisfied 
them. 

" Between these two classes, however, those who had all 
rights and those who had only manorial rights, appear a tbird^ 
who either because they were very near relatives of the 1am- 
bard^ or because they were rich and influential and might 
with success apply for an engagement in their own names, 
seem to have received a sop regularly. 

Sometimes they got a few rupees out of the profits ; if 
they were agriculturists, they got sub-leases at Government 
jama rates of pattis or mauzas l^longingto the main village ; 
sometimes when the lambardar ran away or was a defaulter, one 
or other of these men took the engagement, as in Jamkura, 
Tegh Ali became lambardar, and in Mahtw&na Nisar Ali be- 
came lambardar, and Najiba's name was also entered although 
ahe did not act ; sometimes as in Mahtw&na a lot of common 



Ki nAkL<,: ? 



iarid was railed viUage mudji and difided 

tral hhar^ airiou;^ all the ancestnd propriefeOES 

dari^'erou?!. 

*' Id fact the lambardar being a mm of inflnefiee 
jealously kept under his own skirts all die i^ofila^aldB 
accounU^. an^i all the village management, and niggvdlrfc 
triliiited from shame or fear whatever was anfficiefll to ke^ 
the men ot weight in his brotherhood qnieC* I can tei ■• 
trace of rendition of accounts to any one ; even manorial nrin 
were Uxi%ely distributed, and the brotherhood menigd to mn 
been in utter darkness touching village profits. 
perhaps from negligence, partly from their lon^ 
Government employ ; chieny from the faet that toe 
was always a local resident of in6nence, in Mahtwina fkt 
fon-in-Iaw of the chaudhri Hashmat Ali, a frequent chakhdw. 
and he treated his distant relatives as he chose. 

'^ There wns a large marsh, which probably about 1254 frili 
came under cultivation, and was divided among some of tlie 
brethren including Najiba. From that time the formergrut 
of profirs ceased, the land was cultivated by asslimia, always 
or sornetinies the rents thrown into a common stock, and the 
proceeds divided according to ancestral right^ the mass of Ae 
villnc^e rcmaininc^ in the lambardar's hand. 

^' It is absolutely impossible to find how this originated; 
there are no old papers or patwdris, and the only man who 
could tell much about the village inner status. Fail Bakhrii, 
is (jiiite untrustworthy and now bed-ridden. 

'^ I surmise that the proceeds of this village mu4/l wen 
really the whole profit of the estate after the Government 
revenue had been paid and village expenses defrayed* 

^' It is probable that the Government demand had been 
gradually raised till there were no profits to divide or a mere 
triih; ; tbo hunbardar would hold on because his position was 
one of authority as well as of profit- Tafazzul Husain sayi 
in one phice that there were no profits. The pattidars ia 
time would cease to demand accounts if they uniformly found 
that there was a balance against them, or only a few "|m»i" 
ill their favor, and in time the jama and the nikasi would be 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPOHT. 269 

mimost identical ; then this marsh was brought under cultiva- 
tion and its proceeds would form the only assets of the vil- 
lage; the shareholders who had held on come forward and 
learning that the proceeds of the old arable land barely met 
the Government demand would never mind that, but claim a 
division of the proceeds of the newly broken up land. Najiba 
had influence enough to get hers, and henceforth the village 
differs from the ordinary run of zamindari only in the fact 
that instead of there being a balance of money after the Go- 
vernment demand and village expenses had been paid, there 
was a balance of land, and its whole proceeds were divided 
among the ancestral proprietors, non-cultivators themselves, 
and the estate may be considered a zamindari tenure, only 
instead of a fixed sum being deducted from the common pro- 
ceeds to pay the revenue, a fixed portion of land was allotted 
for the purpose, out of which the lambardar should take 
what he could get and pay the revenue, the rest of the lands 
should be assessed, and the whole proceeds go to the ances- 
tral shareholders. Therefore this land was locally styled 
village mu&fi| and I think was with justice considered an 
average equivalent for the village profits, especially as the 
grant of village profits ceased with the establishment of this 
system ; therefore in my opinion the shareholders in this vil- 
lage mudfi ought now to share the village profits." (Mauza 
Mahtwina, pargana Sandila.) 

„ . ., 156. The position of mukaddams 

or mabatias attracted rather frequent 
attention. 

In the Sadatnagar investigation of a Mukaddam's claim 
to Hr and nankar the claimant thus described his duties : — 

" I provided for the management ; got up the cultiva- 
tion ; kept the asdmis together ; for this I received Rs. 17 
remission and had my 'jot ' light.'' 

Mr. McMinn found in this case that the mukaddams 
engaged sometimes for the village and collected klidm for the 
chakladar. They paid light rates for their ^r, twelve annas 
where asdmis paid a rupee. They could not sell or mort- 
gage. The zamindars could not eject them. ^ They are not 
found in all villages, but here (in Sadatnagar) there are 



270 HARDOI r-iF-TTLKMKNT REPORT. 

mahatias, bcrauso this village was nearly always kaehh% 
They got Rs. 17 nankar. It is a heritable tenure. These 
mukaddams bore the burden for nearly forty years as en- 
gagers for the village. " 

Mr. Bradford remarked as to their status in maoai 
Todhikpur, pargana Snndi. 

'' Mukaddams like these, though not posaeSBed of a full 
proprietary tide, have certain rights. They state that the 
zaniindars of the whole pargana were styled mukaddams be- 
cause the kanungos claimed it all, and they made the papers. 
There is some truth in this, but still right or wrong there is 
the fact they could not sell or mortgage the village or any 
patti of it in the nawabi. But if a mustajir levanted the 
mukaddani was seized and made to pay ; if no one 
would bid for the village they were made to engage. They 
underwent a good deal for the village, and though the 
court cannot decree them the full proprietary right, it 
considers thoy have rights which must be sought out and 
recorded." 

In mnuza Mow of the same pargana Mr. McMinn found 
himself unable to difierentiate their status from that of actual 
zamindars. 

'^ The defendants are acknowledged to be niahatias' the 
local name for mukaddams, and to have held from generation 
to generation, sometimes the engagement, sometimes the 
lease, always land on a advantageous terms and generally 
nankar grants. 

" This is hardly the place for enibodying my views about 
these mukaddams. I hold that they are the old zamindars. 
I judge so from a host of circumstances, their fixity of tenure, 
their direct interest in the land, lying at the base of and over- 
topped by many others, but With much elasticity surviving 
all charges of the superior body. 

^'They at once get the engagement when there is no spe- 
cial interest in their way. Then their natural rights assert 
themselves. But the argument derives more force viewed 
negatively. 



HABDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 271 

'*If not old zamindars, who are they, whence arise their 
rights ? They are not old asdmis with prescriptive rights. 
Why ? because a chamdr never becomes a mukaddum, nor a 
pasi. Over one tract of country one caste of mukaddams will 
extend. There are three castes in the Mailanwdn par^ana, 
Lodhas, Ahirs, Kurmis, and they have their clusters of vil- 
lages just as Chandel Thakurs, Abban Thakurs have them. 

" Even the loyal grantee dare not attack the vested rights 
of mahatias. " I hold that tbey are old zaniindars and they 
are the defendants in this case who have held since 1264 fasli. 
They managed the village, got manorial rights, marriage fees, 
transit dues, grain cesses, which are the last surviving to« 
kens of proprietary title." 

In appeal No. 58 of 1870, mauza Makdumnagar, Mr. 
llarington endeavoured to define the nature of the rights 
which, in the existing state of the law, could be decreed to 
mukaddams. '' The lower court has decreed them 31 bighas 
at 1 Re. abigha. This rate is rather more than the rate shown 
in the pattas, and about half what is shown in the khatiaunis. 
In this area and at this rate the lower court has decieed to ' 
plaintifls a heritable right of occupancy, following the Maina- 
pur and Simaria precedents. 

" I am of opinion that there is not sufficient evidence to 
show that plaintiffs held at 2l fixed rent during limitation, and 
that therefore the lower court is not warranted in decreeing 
a fixed rent now. 

" Plaintiffs were at least Mukaddams. Even Colonel Beid 
allowed this. Arbitrators in 1857 pronounced that they were 
z'tmindars and in 1868 gave the reasons for that decision 
It is certain that they held the kabuliat in 1230 and 1231 
fasli and in 1234 fasli, and that for three years more^ 1238 
fasli to 1241 fasli, they held kham under Government. They 
sued for and got the engagement in 1857 and retained it ia 
1859. Eaniingo Bya Sahai stated that '^many of the wasil* 
bakis at end of the I2th century (fai^li) as (for instance) 118* 
fiisli showed defendant's ancestor as holding. 

*' Applying the principle laid down in Select Case No. IV 
of 1868, 1 find that though (by Colonel Reid's decision) I am 



* * 



272 HARDOI 6ETTLEMENT BEPOBT* 

debarred from decreeing to plaintiff either ^ or a right of 
occupancy under section 5 of the Rent Act, yet that pliin- 
tiffs are distinctly entitled to a right of occupancy of the same 
nature as that defined in the Rent Act, viz.^ at slightly favor- 
able rates, on the ground that their position approximates Tory 
closely indeed to that of exproprietor, and that their Unm 
occupancy as mukaddams plus tliU approximation to the 
status of ex-proprietor entitles them to the same beneficiary 
interest as if they really had held as proprietors within 30 
years before annexation, but had lost all under proprietary 
right. These persons held as quasi-proprietors and retaiiied 
wiiat was called their sir. I believe that just as when, as 
mukaddams, they held the kabuliat, they enjoyed all pro- 
prietary rights except the power to sell and mortgaceiSO 
when they ceased to hold the kabuliat tbey retained a herit- 
able beneficial interest in their sir, a sir only diflering 
from exproprietary sir in that it could not be sold or 
mortgaged. 

^^ Plaintiff^ Ratta before me says that the extent of his 
^^ chiir " was from two to four annas in the rupee. I consider 
that two annas in the rupee is as much as under the circum- 
stances, I should be warranted in decreeing. It is the same 
rate of benefit (12^ per cent.) as is allowed to tenants having 
a right of occupancy under the Rent Act. 

^^ I think it safer and sounder to find that plaintiffs are 
entitled to the same consideration as if they were exproprie- 
tary tenants to whom a right of occupancy under the Kent 
Act could be given, than to decree to them as Mr. Bradford 
and Mr. Benett have done in the Mainapur and Simaria 
mukaddam cases, rent-free land, land at beneficial rates, 
and nankar merely on the ground that they got these 
privileges then and therefore ought to retain them now, 
and without any sort of investigation of the very serious 
question whether and how far the courts in these cases can 
depart from the principle which, rightly, or wrongly, has 
from the commencement been laid down for the guidance of 
Oiidh Settlement Officers that "the Oudh Settlement instruc- 
tions direct the recognition of all rights existing in 1854-55^ 
hased on a former proprietary righty and also of such lights 
as have been acquired in return for a valuable consideration/* 



HABDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 273 

and tliat " the basis of an under-proprietary tenure is that it 
is held by virtue of a former 'proprietary interest in the 
soiir 

" I do not say that the Mainapur and Simaria decisions of 
my predecessors in this court were wrong. On the contrary, 
I believe that they were equitable. But I do not consider 
them safe precedents, or that they were in any way leading 
cases. In the Mainapur case Mr. Bradford has found that 
plaintift was the old niahatia or mukaddani, and entitled, see 
circular IV., Financial Comnaissioner's, dated May, 1868, 
to his rights as mukaddam. He has quoted Select Case 
No. IV., as if it were a precedent for decreeing to mukaddams 
now witbout any conditions all that they enjoyed then when as 
mukaddams they superintended the cultivation of the village. 
Select Case No. IV. nierelv affirmed that *' the courts are 
open fo all persons who choose to claim a right of occupancy 
or any other right on any grounds whatever. It is for the 
court to decide whether the claim is made out.*^ Yet Mr. 
Bradford has headed his proceeding : — " Under Financial 
Commissioner's Circular No. IV. of 1868," and has made 
a precedent of what was merely a cautious order passed 
with a view to prevent the courts from hastily dismissing 
on erroneous grounds claims which might perhaps, on inves- 
tigation, be found to be valid. 

" It is true that the Mainapur decision was upheld by the 
Commissioner and the Officiating Financial Commissioner 
(Mr. Capper), but it is clear that these courts did not ex- 
pressly affirm the correctness of Mr. Bradford's decision, for 
the Commissioner merely noted i — 

*' I see no reason to doubt the justice of the Settlement 
Officer's finding, and decline to interfere :" and Mr, Capper 
noted :— 

" I really can see no point of law which would invalidate 
these decisions, and consequently reject the special appeal." 

Thus in neither court has there been any such discussion 
and exposition of the grounds on which mukaddams' privi- 
leges are to be upheld, as to make the decisions of much 

35 u 



274 HARDOl SKTTLKMENT BEPOBT. 

value and weight, if I may be permitted to use these espres- 

sions. 

'' The Simaria decision by Mr. Benctt is still less of a pre- 
rc dent. It was nevor appealed. If it had been, I do not think 
it could have stood for it decreed to the mukaddams, besides 
land, Us. 100 cash nankar, without condition, on the ground that 
*' it was undouhtvdiy paid on account of their ex-proprietary con- 
flexion with the village," although it had been recorded by 
the special appellate court in its minute (Select Case 
No. IV.) and by all the lower courts (in the proprietary rigkt 
case) that the claimants " never rose ty the full status of pr^ 
prietors^'' and although one of the two deeds granting the 
nankar contains the express stipulation, ha shart kkairkhwaki 
aur zar rasdni (conditional on good service and puoctual 
payments.) 

" I have been thus particular in examining the only pre- 
vious decisions on mukaddams' rights in this district with 
which I am acquainted, because the subject seems to be of 
great importance, and the state of the law as interpreted bj 
the courts to be very obscure, and also in order to show that 
in decreeing to plaintiffs in the present case the same degree 
of l}eneficiary interest as they would get if they were ez-pro- 
prietary tenants entitled to a right of occupancy, I concei?e 
that I am not deciding contrary to any definite or authoriU« 
tive decree or ruling of the courts. 

'^ Two equitable courses seem to me to be open to the 
courts ; either to decree to the mukaddams the same extent 
of beneficiary interest as they enjoyed before annexation con* 
ditional on their ])erforming the same service as then earned 
them their mukaddam privileges, or to find, in some such way 
as I have done, that mukaddams who have actually held the 
engagement tolerably frequently in recent times, and htve 
since then retained land at favourable rates in virtue of pre- 
vious engagement as mukaddams, shall be considered entitled 
to the same consideration as those ex-proprietary tenants who 
are entitled to a right of occupancy under the Rent Act. Bat 
I fail altogether to see the equity, legality, or policy of up- 
holding mukaddams indiscriminately and unconditionally m 
the enjoyiiient of all that they held before annexation, whe- 
ther or no they ever epgaged for the village and approached 



HARDOr SKTTIiEMENT REPORT. 275 

closely to the status of proprietors, and whether or no they 
enjoyed their privileges subject to the performance of 
service.' 

In another case (mauza Nibhaman, pareana Malldnwdn) 
Mr. Harington found that the makaddanis of the village could 
only be decreed a bare right of occupancy at full, not benefi- 
cial rates. 

157. I reproduce, as likely to be of value to the district 
Dh4r Dhura. officers of the future, the foUowing re- 

port on the custom of Dhdr Dhiira, drawu 
up in 1869 by the Officiating Settlement Officer, Mr. W. C. 
Benett. 

" Having been only a few weeks in the district I have no 

Eersonal knowledge on the subject, but I have used the best 
earsay available. The district is intersected by numerous 
streams ; the most considerable being the Garra, the Ram- 
ganga, the Sendha, tbe Behta, the Bbainsta and tlie Sai, and 
is bordered by the Gumti and the Ganges. 

The custom of Dhdr Dhiira is prevalent but not uni- 
versal. 

In 1841 it was recorded with the consent of the zamin-* 
dars of both Governments that the river Sendha was to be 
regarded as the boundary between this district and Farukha* 
bad. The Dhdr Dhiira custom was then affirmed for every 
village along its banks but two, in one of which, the Fariikha- 
bad, and in the other, the Hardoi, proprietors hold land across 
the water. 

At the present settlement the Settlement Officers of 
both districts agreed that the custom should be maintained. 

On the Behta, the Bbainsta, the Sai, the Ganges, and 
the Gumli, the mid stream is universally recognized as the 
boundary between villages. 

On the Ramganga and the Garra, two important streams, 
the practice seems to have varied, but Dbdr Dhiira is recog- 
nized only in a very modified form. 



276 HARDOI 8ETTLEVEXT AEPOBT. 

It seems to be generally admitted that when the river 
gradually shifts its course, entering into one vilhige and re- 
treating from the other, the losing zamindar has no remedv. 
When however the river takes a sudden sweep, cutting off a 
distinct tract of land without effacing its natural features, the 
land so cut off does not change hands but remains a part of 
the village to which it originally belonged. 

This principle was adopted after a lengthy investigation 
into a dispute between the villages of Sakroli and iSani, 
Uagho at the present settlement. 

Before annexation a similar decision was given in suits 
between the proprietors of Umria and Bairampur ; Eahar 
Kilah and Pareli ; Kulia and Majganw ; Dharnpur and San, 
Bagho and Salori. 

When a large tract was cut off Bazpur and left on the 
Sonar side of the stream, the chakladar allowed the Sonar 
proprietors to retain the land so changed, but forced them to 
compensate the proprietors of Bazpur by the grant of a chak, 
Mahraanpur. 

I am inclined to think the officers of the native Govern- 
ment were generally averse to the unmodified assertion of 
Dhdr Dhtira. The Umria and Bairampur case was carried 
to LucknoWi and though the claimant, the proprietor of Umria, 
was a powerful taluqdar, it was ruled against him, that the 
custom, being opposed to equity and not distinctly proved, 
could not be recogtiized. 

It is however generally sanctioned by native opinion, and 
may be ascribed to the difficulty of communication between 
the opposite banks of a swollen stream during a season most 
important to agriculturistSi a difficulty which the advnce of 
civilization has as yet perhaps done little to obviate.'' 

158. (2) Devolution of property.— T\\q following pe- 
culiarities were noticed in the Hindu local law of inheritance. 

Mr. McMinn noticed that there seemed to be ^^ an in- 
vincible repugnance on the part of the 
j^ceMioa of uiegitu xh^fcuf brotherhood to admit Musalman 

prostitutes' sons to village shares. The 



HABDOI SETTLEMENT BEPORT, 277 

1>a8tard9 who have been largely admitted are always the sons 
Df Hindu frail ones." (MauzaPerah Maliowa, pargana Sarrai ) 
In another case the same officer remarks:— 

" In my enquiry into illegitimacy the old Thakure all 
said that beyond the third remove no heir had an indefensible 
right of inheritance as against bastard ones." (Mauza Sikan« 
tlarpur, pargana Sarra.) 

The same fact was noticed in pargana Kachhandau. 
" This case bears out the general rules which my previous 
enquiries led to, that there is no law of inheritance beyond 
the third degree of proximates/' (Mauza Karwah, pargana 
Kachhandau.) 

Mr. Bradford remarked that " in this district Rajputs of 
half blood frequently succeed." (Mauza Srimow, pargana 
Katidri.) 

In a khewat case of mauza Jamlapur, pargana Saro- 
tnannagar, it was remarked : — 

^* In other places illegitimate Thdkurs have been found 
to succeed, notably in Sikandarpur, among the Gaurs/' 
find it was established that among the Sombansis also 
illegitimates had been known to succeed, and that when 
they had obtained possession they were not subsequently 
ousted* 

159. As to the authority of Hindu widows Mr. McMinn 

was strongly of opinion that Hindu 
widow^"""*^ ^* ^^^^'^ widows can do as they choose with 

their husband's shares when there are 
no sons. " If they can, they will in many cases give their 
shares to their daughters. I have heard it repeatedly asserted 
in this district, and never heard it denied, that Thakuraia 
widows are absolute mistresses of their husband's shares. 

" Rdja Hardeo Baksh inherits largely through his mother, 
and there are other instances. In Bardolab, a Chandel vil- 
lage in £achhandau, Sabsukh, Champat, and Jai Singh^ 
Ajaini Thakur, and Mohakam Chauhan, all now have shares 



278 nARDOI SETILEXEKT SEPORT. 

which they can only have got throngli ancestresses."^ Oboa 
Babatmhow, pargana Kachhandaa.) 

The fiame officer recorded in a Sandihi ease fmaaa 
Girdharpar) : — '^ Some zainindars here state that snch widon 
may alvrays adopt, and give instances. There are severd, 
iv'idows holding the Shamspur talnka; Bhawani Singli*s widov 
(Kachwahin), Fakira Singli's widow. Mnsammat Ooma, litfr 
ly deceased. Debi Din, the old Sandila kaniingo, present 
states that all widows may adopt and transfer ; still sometunes, 
I know, the brotherhood resist, but I beliere tbev resist no- 
fairly and merely because they would resist anv thioir that 
prevented land falling in to them, whether fiiirly or other- 
wise." 

ICO. Of the acquisition of villages by Thdkurs in dowir 
Acqouition of Tillages Mr. McMinn uotes (mauza Nanipur 
by ihakari in dowrj. pargana Saodi). •* The Rahton got this 

village, it seems, as dowry from the Janwars, the former being 
a high caste clan. Such a transaction is quite comuion, vide 
Babutmbow cases and others in pargana Sarra ; all rights are 
considered to pass in full to the pure-hred Rajput who thus 
allies himself with a low caste Thdkur." 

161. Among local Muhammadan peculiarities may be 
cited the following :— 

'' As a rule," remarks Mr. McMinn, ^^ this Coart has 
Hatband's and wife's rigbu noticcd in Sandlla aod elsewhere that 
carefully sepsrated. viUagcs which belong to the SOD by vir- 

tue of his mother's rights are carefully entered in his name 
and not in bis father's. The Musalmans keep the husband's 
and wife's rights carefully seprrate." (Mauza Lufarpur, par- 
gana Bilgram.) 

162. In mauza Abdullapur, pargana Shahabad, Mr. 

cbiidicss widows not ex- Bradford found the evidence to be ^Uhat 
^^"'^®*^- childless widows here in Shahabad are 

not excluded from inheritance. The majority state the plain- 
tiff appellant should have half of her late husband's property, 
hut this is against the Sunni Muhammadans' law, and they 
(the witnesses) are not unanimous." He therefore decreed 
one-fourth only. 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT EEPORT. 279 

163. In the same pargana (Shahabad) Captain Young 
Danffhters do not share remarked a distinct divergence from tbe 

where there are ions. Ordinary Muhammadan law. 

** As to the plea that at any rate the daughters are enti- 
tled to share, there is of course no doubt on this point as far as 
Aluhammadan law is concerned, but lea: loci has often greater 
force than the sharaiat even, and there can be no manner of 
doubt that, as stated by the witnesses in the present record, 
not only in Shahabad, but in all the country side, as a rule, 
Muharomadans do not allow daughters to share where sons 
esist. There is no doubt about this being a thoroughly well- 
established rule, in this district at all events.'' 

The same custom was found by Mr. McMinn to obtain in 
pargana Sandila. 

He cites the deposition of Haiiz Shaukat Ali. ^'The 
Jamkura Shias donot^ive the daughters shares, and it is the 
same in Malhiabad, Ehairabad, Machretr, Saffipur and Unao. 
If there are no sons or widows, then only do daughters get 
their shares. This is contrary to the Muhammadan law, but 
it is a well-established custom,*' and he observes: — "No one 
knows better on this point than Hafiz Shaukat Ali, whose 
natural bias would be towards plaintiff-appellant, as the Sun- 
nis give the daughters shares and they look on the Shias as 
unorthodox. He is a valuable referee on this point, and the 
court fully relies on him." ( Mauza Jamkura.) 

164. The same officer noticed the following custom as to 
Hnsband's share consi- treating the husbaud's share as the equi- 

dered the equiyalcnt of yalcut of the wifo's dowry : — 
wife*a dowry, 

*^ There is a common rule prevalent in Sandila and pro- 
bably elsewhere, that when a man marries, his share of landed 
property is considered as the equivalent of his wife's dowry. 
If he died first, she became sole heiress, and on her death this 
property would go to her heirs, not to the heirs of the husband. 
There is the ordinary rule of Musalman law that the widow 
shall take one-eighth where there are sons, and one-fourth 
where there are none. This likewise prevails in Sandila, with 
the provision that where it is allowed, the widow has no claim 



^ 



280 HAHDOI SETTUOIKIIT BSPOBT. 

for dowry, and this fourth or eighth passes to her heirs, not to 
her husb«in(rs. The direct result of the local custom istluu 
ii'hen theic have been two marriages the one child, perhaps 
of one wife will take as much as the ten children of another, 
because the wholo property is considered as pledged for the 
two dowries equally, and the one son bein^ sole heir of bis 
mother, will take sololy her half of the whole propertj. 
(Mauza Gurswa Durra.) 

10th March, 1877. A. H. HARINGTON, 

Late Offg. Settletnent Offitff^ 






HAHDOI 8ETTLEHEKT REPORT. 281 

[CHAPTER VI. 



SECTION I. 



Eegular Assessment. 

165. The district was for the most part assessed by 

»•. Bradford. The only exception being parganas Bilgrdui 

nd Kacbandau, and 140 villages of pargana Gopamau^ 

ftsessed by Mr. McMinn; the latter officer's assessment, 

«wever, being found too high, underwent revision by 

dr. Bradford. 

166. Mr. Bradford's system of assessment is thus ex- 
Jplained by himself. " Having satisfied myself of the general 
Tair correctness of the survey records, I selected pargana 
Gondwd to begin with, and visited its villages carefully with 
the view of collecting general information, which would be 
required before the hard problem of rightly assessing the 
different properties in it could be faced. 

167. I determined to make rent the basis of my assess- 
ment, whether rents were paid in money or in kind. Id 
about half of the Sandila tahsil money rents were paid, and 
in about half, com rents obtained ; in many villages both 
^^jamai " or cash rents and " ghallai " or rents in kind 
Vere paid ; this was a difficulty at starting. 

16^. I took the corn rent in hand and examined thel 
" jamdbandis, " and the price currents of the last eight years* 
Then a number of experiments were made, having in view 
the actual yield per acre of the chief staples. These experi- 
ments were carefully conducted by my Assistant, Extra 
Assistant, and myself ; and the Deputy Commissioner and 
his tahsildars cut, carried off, threshed, and weighed the 
produce of different classes of fields. Comparing the results 
found in the more trustworthy jamabandis with the yield 
ascertained by actual trial, I began to have some idea of 
the fair produce which might be estimated from a certain 
quantity of land, according as it was irrigated, imirtJgated| 
near the village site, or in the " bhiir " '' bar '\ 

86 u 



282 HARDOI SETTLEHEKt REPOBT. 

1 69. I then divided the Innd into three descripl 
middling and inferior, and struck the produce ntai 
maunds pukka per acre for the good land, 14 maundil 
middling, and 8 for the inferior, for the rabi gio|i;| 
4 maunds all-round for the kharif. The good land 
best dumat and matiar near the village site wal 
wells ; the middling was the partially manured lindi' 
gated from tanks, and the best manured and watered "I 
and the uuirrigated land and dry bhur were put in tkl 
ferior class. 

170. Althout;h the average price of wheat hadbeei 
an average only 21 seers j>er rupee, and barley hadav 
31 seers, yet, after consultation with Mr. Tucker, it 
considered right to give a liberal price rate in order to be 
the safe side should prices fall, and they might do so 
improved communications : so 35 seers per rupee was 
tor all the rabi staples, the chief of which were wheat, bai 
and gram, and 45 seers per rupee was iixed for the selfi 
rate for the kharif lesser grains ; nothing was estimated ia 
straw and chati'. 

171. I then took one-fifth of the gross produce as repn- 
Renting the Government share, (I believe I should have adhered 
to Bikaruiajit's plan, see the Ain Akbari, and taken only one- 
sixth) and 1 afterwards found that 18 maunds per acre for the 
best land was too much. The next step in the battai yillagee 
was to turn the corn rents into monev rents, and enable me 
to apply deduced asamiwar money rent-rates to the areas 
in which the rents were paid in kind, so as to have janother 
check. But before describing my plan of assessment of vil- 
lages in which money rents prevailed, 1 must state that the 
custom in tahsil Sandila was to divide the crop equally bet- 
ween the landlord and the tenant. Sometimes low caste 
tenants were subjected to a deduction from their heap for 
village expenses '^ kharch, '' and again high caste tenants 
and those having sub-propietory rights got a little remission 
called " chhiit." ' 

172. The basis of my assessment was rent. As enjoined 
by the Chief Commissioner in his Circular No. 14-2433, dated 
2ist July, 1801,1 determined to have as few rent rates Ou 



HABDOI SETTLEiaMT RKPOKT. 283 

nls as possible, and to have a simple classification of soils, 
therefore treated '' dumat " and matiar as the same, and 
lade only for assessment purposes two soil rates '' dumat '' 
nd ^' matiar;" and ^' bhiir. '' The amins' khasrahs, and the 
a II. statements showed the matiar, but as I found the 
^nts of matiar laud and dumat laud much the same, some- 
nes one being a little higher and sometimes the other, ac- 
rding as the matiar was or was not liable to be submerged 
" ioundation, I threw them together for general assess- 
^nt purposes. If there was special reason such as sub- 
arsion every 4th or 5th year of any quantity of matiar, a 
Dre minute classification was made. 

173* My broad distinction, which I looked to most care* 
Uy, was the irrigated and unirrigated land, for on water I 
und nearly all depended. I had oue other distinction. I 
Lded up what is called '^ goind " or the best manured land 
mnd the village site, and ascertained the average rent paid 
V ^^ gauhani '' lands, and brought it to account, so I had 
iro soil rates, ''dumat " matiar, aud bhdr ; One grand dis- 
liction of irrigated and unirrigated lands, and the goind or 
38t land on which often poppy, tobacco and safHower and 
ag^tables are grown. There was no difficulty in ascertaining 
le rents paid in the '^gauhani," the difficulty was in striking 
line between goind and the ordinary fields. 



• 174. The next thing was to discover the average rents 
lirly demandable and demanded for the bulk of the cultiva- 
on. I soon found that no such understood rent-rates exist- 
i here, such as are said to obtain in some of the older dis- 
icts across the Ganges ; and a long examination of the ja- 
uabandis convinced me I could not get all the assistance I 
iquired from them. In them the rates of contiguous fields 
ould often vary. The proprietary body, who had the best 
iiids, had rated themselves very low, entries were sometimes 
Ifiified, and land kept out of the rent-rolls, and there were 
I sorts of zamindari miiafi which required to be separately 
iken up, and Thakurs and Brahmans paid below what I call 
16 market rate, for there is no brisk competition here as 
lere is in other more densely populous countries where land 
lUSt needs be scarce : I use the term to illustrate my mean- 
ig. I found that to ascertain the real as^iwar rent-rates 



884 HABDOI SITTLBICXNT BKPOBT. 

the only way was by going from Tillage to village, ndfatl 
^^ hAv " to ^' bar " note book and peocil in hand, andtfifipi' 
ly enquiring from the cultivators and plonghmen thew 
rents paid for the different descriptioa of land. Tlie Sik 
Muusarim did the same, and the Extra Assistant midelost' 
pnrate enmiiries. After having collected a suffideotiiiaie 
of particulars all over the pargana, and of course I tmcffj 
fill not to be satisfied with a few, tentative rates woeiMii 
and applied to the different areas, and the totals reckonedi 
and put into shape. These tentative rates were again 
ed and compared with the facts found in the records of 
sumninry revenue courts, where rents bad been decmli 
rent and ouster suits, and the accounts of khdm villages 
gone through, and the villages themselves visited. It 
Honiotimes possible to get true rent-rolls where there wm 
disturhini; elcmcAit of '' sir, " or land cultivated by the 
priotors ; and these rent-rolls were closely examined in 
field and the ])hysical features of the villages were noted. 
were da nacrous to argue broadly from narrow prenuseSi 
])orfectly true rent-rolls are not procurable in any nm 
still you obtain some information from even a few comet 
and no source of information can be thrown away. 
iiig and comparing the real asamiwdr rent-rates as fooaii 
tiie field to prevail by the summary suits, records, aadl 
trustworthy jamabandis, and by all the knowledge that 
1)(' brought to bear on them, after diligent enquiry, rent 
were at last struck, and applied to the different areas. 

175. I then, after some attempts, distrusted the 
system, and indeed in Sandila it, according to my i( 
would not answer. There were no broad banjar and kb 
divisions as would be found in the parganas bordering < 
large rivers. There was the Gumti to the north and^ 
Sai to the south, but theso rivers are comparatively i 
and have no large catchbasins ( khadir) ; they keep to 
banks, which are high, and rarely overiBow any considenlii 
tract of country. My plan of assessment contemplated A 
assessing of each village on its own qualifications. ItheM 
fore determined to class the villages according to the ntt 
of rent obtaining in them, <and their productive powen 
having due regard to the natural and casual variatioi 
^'•which occur trom the different proportions of supeiV 



nARDOI SETTLBinBMT BfiFOBT. 285 

r 

,id inferior soils, and of irrigated and unirrigated surfaces 
•und ill them, and from abundance or deficiency of capital, 
id from the habits and conditions of the proprietors and culti- 
Wrs.'' 

i 

^ 176. I was nearly making a North Gumti chuk of in- 
'ifFerent villages in which " bhiir '' predominated, but on fur- 
^er examination I found that there were several good villages 
^regularly situated along the left bank, and a little way 
^m it, that the homogeneity of the chuk was spoiled by 
aem, so I abandoned the chuk system. Though it has its 
ivocates, it has its faults. It is not often that, physically, 
Wo villages are the same, but even if they were, they might 
iflfer much in their rent producing powers; want of capital in 
^e landlord of the inferior one, is quite enough to account 
)r the variation, and yet his village must be equitably assess- 
d. In the chuk system everything must give way to aver- 
jg^s ; however well you may mark out your chuk, there must 
'• great individual differences, which will ruin the inferior 
illages in the chuk, unless all this is corrected when visitino* 
hem, which practically can hardly be the case. Now in the 
'lass system you must visit your villages often, and have a 
letter acquaintance with them, in order to carry out the sys- 
em properly, which demands that you inspect them carefully 
efore deciding to which class they shall belong. Here I 
lay state I visited every village of this tabsil once, many of 
hem twice and three times. 

177. Having tested your assumed rent-rates in every 
^ay possible, and classed your villages, it is necessary to * 
pply your rates, and see what they come to. They are 
^mething certainly, and the best general aid you can have, 
at you cannot simply multiply your areas by your rates, and 
X your jamas. Your local information must now be used 
ad your judgment. It may be necessary to go through the 
mabandi of a village field by field, and see where the appa* 
Hit error lies, and why your deduced revenue rate seems not 

I suit the particular village you are assessing. 

178. By conversing freely with the zamindars an oflScer 
rbo has long been in India will in a very short time find out 
jr what such and such a village used to be sublet; in what 



286 nXRDOI SETTLEUUIT REPOBT. 

8tatc it then was; liow certain villagrcs were consiJeredbf 
])ancliavet who «lividod them 7 or 8 years ago to beetp 
reut-proiiiictivc powers. This intormation and the i 
brought out in complete partition cases " bat wara," Willi 
you much. Attain, you hear what the sub-lessees pn 
^verc in a small cluster of villai^es, and thou<^h all that is! 
you may not l)c true, it is still possible to discriminatt; 
gather the worth-remembering portion of the conversatioi 
future use. 

179. Zamiiulars and our cultivators gcnerallv, ifsji 
to in Hindi and not in ITrdu, will seldom keep back irhittii 
know re^^ardini; others. Talking to them in tiicir ofrolan^ 
seems to me to touch their hearts ; however, whether tUi| 
fio or net, if you can speak to the zamiudars in their oni 
guagc Yi»u will be able to gather much valuable infoi 
regarding the rents, leases, &c. You w*ill not askfli 
about his own aOairs, nor of his brothera, nor will you 
man on bad terms with his neighbcmr regarding that i 
1>our\s alFairs, or if you do, you will take tho reply at its 
only. 

180. As observed bv Mr C. A. Elliott, Settlement 
ccr of Farukhabad, in his Chibramau assessment report 
which I too noticed, all irrigated land will not bear irrijF 
rates, though the latter are good for the bulk of watered faJ 
Some wells are mere holes in tho ground, and give butai^ 
water, tlhils in very dry weather become very shallow if i 
altogether dry. To set against this we fortunately findi 
with a fair allowance of cold weather rain the unirrigatedU 
yields large crops, much larger than you can dare to pi 
account in strikini:: an average. 

181. Where there are large proprietary bodies cnltr 
ing much WMth their own ])Ioughs, your assessment muflt 
light. The land does not increase, and one is not sure v 
thcr tho pojiulation has or has not a tendency to incie 
we have no data to prove this point in this young proviB 
a careful census 10 years hence will show which w>] 
is. The proprietary population will doubtless keep { 
with the food-supply available. There are fewer vio 
deaths now among the males ; female infanticide, it is ho| 



^MctKi^ 



^**t\j 



*^«3*t«ft 



^^>ti 



not so frequent •,WtTuu^-,^ 
far as I can learu from ,\,?;;^^^^ ^,^ ^ ^ 

n Provinces, it is douUfvxV ^S^^* ^UC4^^. 
ber Hindu proprietary V^^a;^. ^ ^^^ w ^^tvv:' 



jnoer. 



proprietary WWl;,'^^ S.\i>^'i^ 



289 

rtraw 

t and 

aere 

t at 



182 
your 



. As reported in my No. J55 ^ ^^ 

j^^. predecessor, the resnlt of SO^x^^'^^^lAftv , 
rts of the Sandila and Hardoi talisiK"*^^^^ CJj^^^^^ 
para. 20 of my report I wrote " owiu^ to th 'J'^^n'?''^ 
Tain between tlie 6th January last and the Ifttw^^^^^X* 
irrigated cereals sprung up in great vigour, an^^^'^V 
^asions I found unirrigated fields gave a Wf ^^ ^auv 



be 



an irrigated ones. 



le rainfall which was so opportune for the unW 
leat and barley did harm to the irrigated by incliuv^ ^^^* 
kut, and this helps to explain the apparent anomaly.^ ^^^ 





Description of 


Description of soil. 




AveTii«i 


' yield 




gruiu. 








pet act^. 












Maunds. 


Seers, 




Wheftt ... 


Irriirated ^oind (best soil) 


••• 


••* 


S3 


25 




Ditto 


Middling soil 


••• 


••• 


17 


35 




Ditto 


Inferior toil 


••• 


••• 


11 


8S 


» 


DiUo 


Unirrigated inferior soil 


.•• 


*•• 


10 


20 




Barley 


Ditto best soil 


••• 


••■ 


24 


10 


i 


Ditto 


Ditto middling soil 


••• 


••« 


20 


26 




Diito ^ 


Ditto inferior soil 


••• 


••• 


1« 


10 


fe 


Ditto 


Ditto bad soil 


••• 


•••• 


10 


8 



183. Excluding the very hest villages, it will be seen 
>m the statement of rent-rates that on the good irrigated 
nd the revenue rate is Rs. 2-8-0, which makes the rent-rate 
I. 5 per acre. Now where rents aVe paid in kind, it is ne- 
iBsary to know the average produce per acre ; a difficult 
atter it is true, but still approximately it may be estimat- 
L Mr. Hume, C.B., the then Collector of Etawah, in his 
^tton report, published in the Allahabad Qovernment 



ditto 


ditto. 


ditto 


ditto. 


ditto 


ditto. 



288 HARDOI SETTLKmMT BXPOBT. 

Onzetle of the 12tli September, 1864, estimated the prodBee* 
an irrigated acre as follows : — 

M. S. 

Wheat ... 16 8 Pnkhta maands 40 seers at SOiolii 
Barley and gram 

mixed ... lA 30 

Bajrah ... 12 20 

Juar ... 12 20 

If, then, we take 14 maunds only as the averasfe 
of good irrigated land, and give a selliug rate of 35 seec 
round for the rabi cereals for fear of prices falling 
pakka roads are opened, the money value of the 14 n 
will be Rs. 16. There will be besides the wheat, or barley 
gram growing together, also *'sarson" and linseed inte 
however, this will not be taken into account. Now, as 
sunied revenue rate is Rs. 2-8, 1 have not quite taken od 
of tlie whole produce. Again, with unirrigated land " dd 
if we assume eight maunds as the produce of an acre, we 
the money value of it calculated at 35 seers per rupee eq 
Rs. y-2-3; the revenue rate on this land is Re. 1-8, and Ri 
the rent-rate : here, again, the revenue rate is not quite 
^ixth of the gross produce, and the money and corn ratesi 
iiirly. Again, taking the worst land, light unirrigated bhur, 
}d for revenue purposes at 12 annas an acre : ifweassoitf 
naundsper acre as the outturn and in three years out of 
t will be 10 or 12 maunds with favorable cold weather 
)n which however we cannot depend, we have, at the 
;elling price, Rs. 4 7-1, the one-sixth of this is Re. O-ll-IO, 
iheoretically I might take one-fifth instead of one-sixth of 
;russ produce. I merely, however, here wish to compare 
noney rents with the corn rents. There will be less kharif 
ound than there is rabi, and the outturn of the kharif 
s in weight somewhat less ; and even with a still moreli' 
elling rate to meet the general cheapness of these 
t will 1)0 seen, without giving a more elaborate calc 
hat when the sugarcane and cotton cultivation and 
►rought in by straw and chafi*and the oil-seeds sown 
v\i\\ the chief staples are considered, there is no reaso« 
loubt the correctness of the money rents assumed 4 
csting standard in the batai villages, and here sugaicf 
J frequently grown in the har outlying. 



\ 



nABDOI SBTTLRMEKT BEPOBT. 289 

Mr. Hume, for instance, calculates the value of the straw 
and sarson, mustard, always sown here too with wheat and 
barley, to be Rs. 13-2 per acre, and the straw and chaff in an acre 
of mixed barley and gram ^^ bijra '' he reckons as selling at 
Rs. 6-9. It is not right to make too close an account in ^' batai'^ 
villages, but it is a fact that in dry years like the present the 
value of the sesamum sowed with the ^^ juar,'' and which sells 
readily at 10| seers for the rupee is something Very consi- 
derable. I calculated that it alone, the sesamum sown along 
with juar, per acre, sold for Rs. 4-8 or Rs. 4-12. 

184. Batai cultivation is slovenly in consequence of 
tenants taking more under their ploughs than they can till 
properly: just at present the "batai" men should be well 
off, as the present prices benefit them much ; but in making a 
settlement for 30 years one must give a liberal " nirkk " or 
the settlement would break down. Corn rents are gradual- 
ly but surely being changed yearly into money ones. They 
are bad both for the landlord and the tenant, the tillage is 
inferior, and the threshed-out corn at harvest costs money to 
guard, there is so much wastage and stealing ; it is only 
where a landlord has many male relations, grown up brothers, 
cousins, &c., to look after his share that it answers at all. 
The jamabandis in batai villages are nearly always falsi- 
fied and give little assistance to a Settlement Officer. In 
bad " bhtir " batai is fair enough, as there is always much 
risk in these lands, and few assamis can undertake it. 

185. Culturable land I assessed lightly. I allowed 20 

{)er centum free, that is, if there were 200 acres cultivated, I 
et the zamindars have 40 acres of culturable without charge, 
and after that according as there was water and population 
and an absence of ^' lisar " intermixture, I rated the cultur* 
able at 2 annas, 3 annas, 4 annas an acre. I was careful not 
to assess doubtful culturable, where there was a sudden rise 
in the demand. Indeed, I looked on the culturable as an elas- 
tic margin that would, perhaps, prevent my over-assessing, 
and was glad to see it. 

186. The following figures will show the revised jama 
pargana by pargana compared with the summary settle- 
ment jama. For the Sandila tahsil the increase per centum 

37 H 



t-i'i 



HjLkLCl TTTTLExm EnK,JlZ. 



h 2 I'd fiT n'Atiy 2-> jtf:r cetitam. Id pM^aai Saadh de 
iurrrrriiv: }iA'i Uj-.r \a,TVhhX, viz.. 42'6,tbe ressoo beiazt^tk 
Sural: UilDi|']an io that par^ana kept on eood terms vii^iie 
(:ti.ikla(Ur, wIkj, tr», f>iaii(J it >jettcr to be monieme t> Ui 
'I/;ma(j(U from tlit-m. as nith tlie inferior force at bis &poad 
lif; wnH not >>urb of Iwirin^ aV>lc to coerce tbem. Tbe soa- 
ifinry ftfiUlcment wa^i )tai>tilT nia'le on the ba^ of tbe pif 
lioijH pfiym';rit9. In tali^i'l llanloi the riae is nearlr oS per 
«<;htiitii, hut th« tahsil van vieW bear it ; the rates are lover, 
»ruj I»n<l for land the Flardoi parganas are better than the 
Karidiln oncx, the [Ktpulation is however more aparse. 

In tnhsil Hil^ratn the increase is Bs. 1.09,297, or 38% 
per centum ; not a lar^c increase, seeing that tbe suoinitrT 
jntiia wiiH a light on<r, and bincc 1858 much more land has beea 
F>rori^ht under cidtivntion, and rents hnve risen at least 30 
per i»;ntuni. The rcvcndc rate with this incre&se is onlj 
he. l-l^i-O per eultiviited acre, and there are two eood par- 
^imiiH, M.ill^twi'm and Kachandau, tlic latter a small bhidsr 
jiargiuia of only 31 vi[la<res. 

SltttemetU xlnnvinff tJie mcidenee of the rented jama. 







Pi 


i 


^ 




3 


i 
























llirRwin. 


^U 

fl 


k 


s 

li 
n 


i 


1 


h 
n 


Eou^ 


'J 




fe.9 


y.3 




















- 


- 


sa 




< 


3 


S 


• 


S 1 6 


7 


» 


p 








It.. 


lis. 


Ks. 




Us. 








14 


)8,<iia 


aa,w» 


>,89i 


13-.1 


10,916 






Kiilllnimiil... 


ii 


41^01: 


4«,1«! 


4.60< 


MOT 








IJimdwK ... 


IIT 


ei,u39 


i,ns,i4B 


0,107 


8-3( 


I,OJ,7-6 


BhowDlacotamu 
ItoB. 




Hmiililii ... 


«1.1 


i.ne.osB 


l,93,liS3 


B7,5M 


4S'B 


1.97,36? 


6 UoiD nuont 
notBhoiniha*- 












4)0 


i,l»!.C*B 


.•i,64.'JT6 




-*■* 


S,T3,3S3 


tUD]D9 4tOt. 


1 


llRwa 


E7 


niLSio 




14,73! 


48S: 


46,383 


4Mi]£SiiwQMixit 


-1 




U( 


01, lit:; 


S.^.U!.( 


34,BB1 


08 1: 


88,U<: 


i^lioiirn. 


^j 


S«rtl 


8r 


«5,:« 


•0,1 3» 


14.338 


sa-gs 


fll,C3S 


iMuiamsniaiMt 
»liowu. 


»l 




HI 


i,nn,6iB 


1.7 Mia 


6S,8»T 


6G4J 


1, 711.8.1] 


99 Muifl muat 
uot ihoira. 




Total .. 


ii\f 


»,S1,063 


a.cMii' 


i,:ii.764 


5792 


■VMS* 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 



291 



Statement showing the incidence of the revised jama'^ concluded.) 







00 


• 

CO 


» 






• 








s 




s 






S 








'O 


M 


OB 






CQ 








3 


O 


o 






o 








tl 


O 


o 






c» 








a 


bo 


t0 






t0 








*^i4 


a 


s 






c 








09 










»« 










9 


a 

.•4 




. 













t) 


V 




•*A 


o 






Fargana. 




O 

a 


X 
O 

C3 


• 


a 

b 

P4 


8 

a 

es 




• 




II 


O 

a 


CO 


s 


CO 


^3 

CO 




a 




o * 




9» 

P3 


Q 


»-4 


OS 




I 


2 


3 


4 


6 


6 


7 


8 


9 








Bs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 




Bs. 




: f BiIsnuD ^ 


•lU 


65.677 


74,689 


19,012 


8416 


76,556 




1 


Maliwan ... 


128 


69.S09 


1,02,292 


83,088 


47*80 


1,04.850 
34,%S6 




li 


Kachandau, 


94 


23,089 


38,782 


10,701) 


46*36 




H 


S4ndi 


♦Ul 


1,03,321 


l,27,2i8 


98,897 


23-13 


1,30,899 




Katiiri ... 


80 


56,204 


68,809 


22,605 


62-44 


60,279 






Total ... 


49S 


2,87,493 


3,96,790 


1,09,297 


8802 


4,06,710 




f 


Bawan 


69 


18,560 


28,436 


9,876 


68*21 


29,145 




1 


P41i 


92 


26,197 


87.041 


11,844 


470 


37,967 




f 1 Fachowlui ... 


80 


25,837 


46,158 


20,321 


78-65 


47,314 




/ fihaoi t>ao- 


81 


24,310 


40,176 


16,866 


65-26 


41,180^ 




• 


darwa. 
















Sara man- 


42 


16,467 


22,298 


5,811 


35-25 


22,856 




1 


na gar. 
















1 


Shababad ... 


143 


71,627 


98,426 


21,899 


30*62 


95,762 






A lamoagar, 


43 


12,987 


24,517 


11,580 


89*51 


25,180 




I 


Man 8 (i r n a- 


25 


8,652 


11,128 


2^476 


28*62 


11,406 




gar. 1 


575 








f 








ToUl .M 


2,03,507 


8,03,179 


99,672 


48-98 


3,10,760 























* These nombers are czclasi?c of the Tillages received from Forakhabad. 

187. The rent-rates for different classes of villages arc 
iven below. In assessing villages I unhesitatingly lowered or 
icreased particular villages, as I found it necessary to do so, 
ecording to the natural and casual variations that would 
Iways occur ; as is explainedj averages though a guide, are 
ot everything. 



13 nUDOI IBRLKinniT bkfobt. 

Aveniffe rent-ratet aeeordag to difeteiU eloMtu of auuu otafd 







QotBO- 


H^B. 








Maalufthtr 


BMir. 




i 


Pargutft. 












BMiAi 


1 








q 




t 




^ 




S 


"i 


if 


3 


g 




s 




a 


1 


5 


^ 


i3 




5 




£ 


•^ 


3 


- 




















II 


ItnlllDlBU ». 


■■8 


6-0 


40 


3-4 


s*s 




lUIblXIIkl 


J-8 


6-0 


a.0 


3-0 


a'M 


TI>e-Q«faii- 


-/ 


(i..ud-ii 


li'S 


60 


3.0 


3-0 


k't 


iscouidMl 


-I 


Hnndilft 


SI 


0-0 


g-0 


••0 


«•! 


i»VML 


A 


nulniiiau 


B-8 


SO 


8-0 


1-8 


I -14 




K^JlBIIUUll 


TO 


S-0 


ro 


>-8 


1-14 




Ui>i]ilnu 


8-1 


5-0 


3-0 


8-8 


1-14 




tsiiidiU 


81 


6-0 


80 


1-8 


1-14 




-"if 


KuUaiiiiml 


81 


4-0 


9-0 


SI 


1-8 




"l[ 


Uuudwi. 


88 


4-0 




s-s 


1-8 








6-e 


4-0 


so 


l-l 


i-a 




i 1 


UAH-Hn 


fl-H 


8 


an 


3-0 


so 




li 


iiant-nr 


70 


B-U 




S'O 


s-o 




- ( 


,<«rll 


7-8 


6-0 


8-0 


3-0 


»-o 


t ia the bhfa 


— I 


U<ipiD«U 


014 


B'O 


30 


3-0 


a-o 


3rd and U 
village* tb» 




Biin'rm 


81( 




S'8 


S-8 


i-is 


tholowiM 


■§5 


IfclLKit 


614 


8-0 


a-8 


1-S 


I'lS 


r»tes. 


5^ 


Sari 


OS 




i-s 


SB 


I-IS 






(idiMmim 


S'l 


8-0 


S'8 


1-8 


1-lS 




. 1 


UinuT. 


S-4 


40 


S-0 


9-0 


I B 




■ca 


Jimitnir 


S'lU 


40 


HO 


1-0 


1 6 




*-31 


&.rn 


G'D 


40 


S-0 


S-0 


1-6 




1 


Gciiiinuu 


«'IS 


40 


10 


so 


— 


, 


1 


ntvon M 


;v„.j 


40 


1-8 


1-8 


I'O 




Uupaliinu 








10 






{Inferior villnfies, 














' 


cLiUlj ULfir). 















HABDOI BETTLEHEHT HXFOET. S 

Fent-rates according to tJie different daiiea of mautaa arranged 

parganawdr. 



; " 


QOIND. 




Hi.. 






^ 






hiatal maHar 


'BH.— 




8 




"S 




■J 




■3 


PargBinB. 


•t 


•g 




■i 


1 


BcmarkB. 


-1 




a 


£ 


■f 


1 


1 










t 










J> 1 




" 


p 


- 


^ 




' 


3'aA.il mlgram. 
















Bilfiram « 
M-illnwun 


S'8 


e-o 


4-0 


38 


so 




II. 


*-8 




4'0 


8-8 






Kitchiuitlau _ 








3-0 






■' -a 


hBiidi 


■ ;-s 


ft-O 


4-0 




1-ia 




: ,s 


KBiUri 


6 11 


80 


40 




ao 




■'%. 


migram 


78 


SO 


30 


s-ia 


i-io 




&Iall&<nn 


SS 


so 






I'l* 




KicbmiliiEi 


J-0 


60 




ao 


1-is 




•s 


tiKHdi 






30 


3-0 


1 10 




£ 


Kitlari 


fi-lS 


6-0 


3-0 


30 


lU 




1 


BilKrHm 


;o 


*-o 

40 


SO 


It '4 


lu 






fid 


VO 




SB 


IIU 




■a 


SMdi 


S-4 


«-o 


JO 


S-i 


1-8 




* 


Kiliari 


4-1! 




so 


S-8 


l-io 




6%\ 


Molliwam 




t'O 
4-0 


1-8 
1-8 


111 

a-0 


14 

18 




'"t 


Suud! 
TahM Shahabad. 


Ml. 


40 


1-8 


1-8 


W 






Birwan 


6-B 


SO 


30 


so 


S'O 






Fall 


TS 


6-0 


40 








s 


Pachoh. 








30 


1-li 




> 


Piblui Pondarwa 






30 


30 


ao 




« 




7-8 


60 


ao 


30 








Sbihibad 


BS 






3'4 








Al«iiuii«&r 


7-H 








8-0 








7S 


SO 






a-0 






8.rwan 


i'la 


48 


V-B 


a-6 


1-8 






Pill 


6-8 


60 


30 


S-8 






rf 


pMChohi 


S-8 




2-8 


a-8 






3 

•s 


Pihaiil PMdarwB ... 


S'll 


SO 


a- 8 


34 


1-0 






68 


60 






18 




BbUabad 


;-8 


4-0 


a-8 


2-10 


1-ia 




M 


A)tiDD*gsr 


6-8 


B-0 


s-a 


3-8 


18 






Mmuanugar 


SB 


60 


38 


as 








Barwan 


6-0 






M3 


1-6 






Pill 


6*li 






ri4 


1-7 




J 




«■• 


40 


SO 


I'lO 


l'6 




3 


Plh&ni FaDdatwa ... 


SO 


40 


SO 


1-13 






1 


Saromaiiagar 


so 


4'0 




MS 






Shahibad 


eo 


41) 




SO 


1-10 




1 




mi. 


4-0 




a-0 


18 




£ 




6-0 


4*0 


SB 


so 


110 




a-trwan 


M(. 








1» 




a 


Wii 


A.I. 


4-0 


1-8 


llO 


I a 




■3 


pAchohi 


Ml. 






1-6 


10 






Pihinl Paadorwa ... 


Nil. 


4-0 


18 


1 lu 


IS 






Nil. 


40 


1-8 


I'll! 


1-4 





i'Ji 



HABDOI SETTLEMKST KIFOET. 



188. The followiag statement shows the general resalt 
for each of the classes of mauzas, and the jama demandaUe 
at the deduced revenue rates, and the jama actnally fixed. 
The vnriations alluded to, in the long mn nearly balance 
themselves, and require no special remark here. The Xo. IL 
statements give the reasons for a village being assessed abore 
or below the standard rate for the class. The capabilities (rf 
the parganas necessitated the dividmg them into three classes 
liaving separate revenue rates. These classificationB lad 
assumptions of standard rates were decided on at different 
times as the information regarding them was collected. Bnt 
in consequence of classes ot mauzas possessing similar capabi- 
lities occurring in different parganas, lam unable to exhibit 
the general distribution under three heads. As will be seen 
from the statement, there are no 3rd class Tillages in the small 
pargaua of Balamau, and its best villages are able, as will be 
ticcn, to bear the rates of Rs. 3 and Rs. 2 on the irrigated and 
uniirigated land. The jama dcmandable at revenue rates in 
tahsil Sandila is Rs. 3,66,825, and the jama total actually 
fixed is Rs. 3,73,383 after correcting the separate jamas bjsll 
hnuwn information. It will be observed that the first or highest 
class of mauzas has been subdivided. The second class, as 
might be expected, has the most mauzas, it contains 253 villages. 

Stalemmt tJiotBing lite general resalt for each of the different dauei 
of mauzas. 





ilncu 


«r.«. 


P»rgiiia. 


1° 


If 
if 

1^ 




11 

lil 

< 


1 

■ 
s 

o 


1 

t 


U 


5 

- 

1 


Bi. a. p. 
3 

SOU 

3 U 

sou 

I I I 


lis. a. p, 
■J li 

U 

I 8 (J 


Tahsil Eilgraa. 

Mollswau 
KuchuDilau 

KaliiH 
liii drain 
Mallnwan 
Ksclmniluu ... 

"""" 


6,03 V 

IG,2S0 

fi.aii 

S3,602 

2T,W16 
!!9,717 
1 1,01)9 


Ra. 
*0,wx 

U,0H9 
C8,16S 

y.M* 

I>6,78l 
S4,477 

a;!, 176 

47,&aa 


Hi. 

is,;gt 
«3,ee] 

73,9U9 
9,750 

60 706 
6».2I7 
81,607 


&i. ■. p. 

1 a I 

3 II 1 

x » s 
^ T 11 

U i 
I 13 1 
1 Ij 1 
1 16 B 
1 !0 J 
1 8 4 



HABDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 



2if5 



Statement showing the general result /or each of the different classes oj 

mauzas. — (continued). 





Revenue rate. 






a 


•*> 


1- 




















o 


M Z 


c 














Pargana. 




a o 


*« bo 

a 




t& 




a 




• 




2^3 


i 








I 






Hat 


§ ^ 
•C3 g 


08 9 




s 

9 




3 
30 

»« 
u 




I 










P a 


< 














Tahtil Bilgram^ 






















(coDcladed). 




Rs. 


Rs. 


Bfl. a. p. 


rf| 


9 


4 





1 4 





Bflfirram 


7,217 


11,507 


10,653 


1 6 2 




9 








1 4 





Mallawan 


6,082 


7,036 


6,687 


1 4 6 


3 < 


2 


4 





1 4 





Kachanda(i 


192 


S79 


256 


16 4 


g 1 


S 








1 4 





Saudi 


6,623 


8,046 


7.697 


1 2 4 


S i 


2 








1 4 





Katiari 


2^84 


2,967 


2,423 


1 1 


i( 


2 








12 





Bilgram 


S,OSO 


2,594 


2,480 


13 2 




2 








12 





Mallawan «». 


1,982 


2.149 


2,185 


1 1 8 


<»i 


2 








12 





SAndi 

Total 
TahHl Shdhabdd. 


1,147 


1,197 


1,114 


16 6 




2,19,186 


4,18,268 


4,06,710 


1 14 2 












" 


2 


8 





1 8 





Banran 


1,680 


3,346 


8,410 


2 6 




3 








2 





Pill 


1,004 


2,057 


2,109 


2 1 7 


# 


S 








2 





Pachoha 


3,648 


8.668 


7,620 


2 1 11 


a . 


2 


8 





1 8 





Pihlni Pandanra... 


905 


J, 838 


1,872 


2 1 t 


2 


2 


8 





1 8 





Saromannagar ... 


6,166 


10.471 


11,187 


2 2 8 


s 


8 








2 





8h4b4bad 


1»,76S 


31,163 


30.176 


2 6 10 




2 


8 





1 8 





Alamnagar 


4^60 


10,342 


10,037 


2 3 3 




2 







1 8 





Mansarnagor 


1,491 


3,176 


3,183 


2 2 2 


r 


2 







1 4 





Barwan 


14,827 


22,098 


20,916 


1 7 6 




2 







1 8 





PMi 


16,893 


25,088 


24,288 


1 7 


t 


2 







1 4 





Pachoha 


12.870 


18,022 


16,649 


) 4 8 


3- 

Si 


2 







1 4 





Pihani Pandanra^. 


19,833 


36,868 


83,420 


1 10 2 


2 







1 4 





Saromannagar ... 


6,269 


9.834 


9,129 


1 7 4 


2 







1 8 





Shibibad ^ 


88,699 


63,668 


68,326 


1 12 4 


1 

■ 


2 







1 4 





Alamnagar 


7,721 


16,647 


14,392 


1 13 10 


^ 


2 







1 4 





IfiDiiimagar 


4,161 


7,796 


7,696 


1 13 8 


2 








1 





Barwaa ^ 


3,610 


3,940 


3,868 


1 1 2 


. 


2 








1 





P«i 


10,196 


10,576 


1(J,400 


1 4 


s 


2 








1 





Pachoha 


18,110 


20,636 


17,413 


16 6 


^•1 


2 








1 





Pibint PtodarwA m. 


6,377 


6.37 1 


6,918 


1 1 4 


^ ^ 

§ 


2 








1 





Saromannagar ... 


2.078 


9.968 


2,640 


1 3 7 


2 








1 

1 





Shihftbad ^ 


4,369 


6,306 


6,485 


1 4 




• •• 




i ... 




Alamnagar 


151 


94 


701' 


••• 


i 


2 


4 





1 4 





Maninrnagar 


408 


694 


627 


1 7 2 


2 








12 





Banran 


1,346 


1,010 


961> 


11 4 


2 








12 





P«i 


1,463 


1,826 


1,170 


12 11 


-Bi 


2 








12 





Pachoha 


7,833 


6,608 


6,732 


119 


3 ! 


2 








12 





Pihftni Fkndarwa... 


1,984 


1,137 


1,070 


13 4 


'^ L 


2 








12 





Shihlbad 


216 


790 


776 


13 7 






Total ... 


204,001 


8,30,117 


3.10,760 


1 8 6 



2i9'Z 



HACDoi srrrLDtrsr rkpokt. 



Stalfi.m^ni JtliMcinff th^ neneral remit /or eatk of the digtr^mk 

of mayz/Jt.^icf/ntdmded). 







^^ ^^" 














— «• 


^ 


1 « 




I 


;f.Tr.!ICe BATE- 








-= M 


• 5 . 






















1 ' 1-2 


>v9 


mm 

m * 


# 














3? 


V 




















Z= ^ 


S M 




1 


a 

"7 




i 


• 




Pargaaa. 




' 1 fl 


"l^ZS 




%■ 




^ 




r 


^ 




1 




« « "T sr 


■ 9 


M « 




■ 


1 










1 

1 
1 

! 






^"5 
S.2 


is 

< 




R-. 


a. 


p. 


liu. 


a. 


p. 


. Tak%il Samdila. 


Ra. ft 1^ 


.1 Ki- 

• 


L 

Hi.a.|[, 


,.. i 


S 
















BalftTTifli 


••• 


l,M9 a.P67 


• M7« 


9 1 f 


3 








1 


8 





KaliAPHiil 


Ma 


5|308 11.841 


1 11,647 


9 3 • 


cbfi-f. i 


3 





11 




fi 





Oondwa 


••• 


96,956 6^,922 


: 57,253 


9 2 6 


3 










« 





>andi a 


••• 


27.391 69,964 


> 61,495 


9 4 1 


9nd J 


9 


8 







8 





BaiAOtan 


• •• 


9,^0 17,I0(J 


17,^45 


1 11 If 


9 


8 







8 





Ka!hnmal 


• •• 


I8.ff7l 31^8 


, 39,689 


1 19 11 


cla». i 


» 


8 







8 





Oornlwa 


• •• 


95.61.7 4«,331 


- 46,679 


1 13 S 


2 


8 







8 





Sanflila 


• •■ 


64.109 1,20^96. 


i,iM«y 


1 13 7 




9 
















Kalianmal 


• •• 


2.546 9,8rtl 


9,987 


1 i 1 


2 










n 





Oondwa 


•M 


3,135 3.459 


8y843 


1 3 7 


' 9 

i 

1 
i 
















Saodila 

Total ^. 
TaluU IlardoL 


16,398 
200,863 


18,173 


17^15 


1 Oil 




3,66,895 


3.73^163 


1 13 1 












f 


9 


8 







8 





Bawan 


• •• 


7.793 


15,914 


14,751 


1 U 1 


ist J 


9 


8 


o 




8 





Hangar 


• ■• 


94,965 


48,088 


46.550 


1 13 M 


cbtfl. 1 


2 


8 







8 





Kara 


«•• 


14,968 


3>,178 


32,649 


2 3 f 


( 


9 


8 







8 





Oopamaa 


• •• 


56,9t93 


!,0«,«i07 


1,09,364 


1 15 11 


r 


9 


8 







4 





B&wan 


• •• 


17,960 


30,910 


98.455 


1 » 4 


9nd J 


2 


8 







4 





Ban gar 


• • • 


94.619 


39.777 


37,110 


1 8 1 


clasi. i 


9 


8 


n 




4 





Sara 


••• 


13,6f8 


97.149 


26^1 


1 15 8 


I 


2 


8 







4 





Gopaman 


• •• 


34,G60 


64»887 


61,358 


19 1 


f 


2 
















Bmwan 


• ■• 


9,703 


3,180 


8,025 


1 1 11 


nrrl J 


9 
















Bangar 


••• 


3,393 


4,631 


4,480 


1 5 S 


CIOAS. i 


9 
















Sara 


• •• 


1,990 


9,619 


9,481 


14 9 


1 


2 
















Gopamaa 


••• 


10,540 


11,625 


11.999 


1 9 t 


4th r 
clasg. ( 


9 











12 





Biwan 


••• 


180 


139 


159 


13 1 


9 











12 





Gopanoaa 


••• 


8,440 


6,918 


8.810 


19 11 
















Total 


• •• 


220,510 


3,82,818 


3,75,989 


1 11 • 



189. The table following shows the extent of the good, 
middlini]: and bad lands. In tahsil Sandila the 3rd or lowest 
class is fortun.itely not large, the percentage of its cultivated 
area to the total cultivation is 10*94 or a little under one- 
ninth of the whole, the second division of the 1st class is 297, 
as will be seen. 



BAHDOI EETTLEUENI BEPORT. 297 

Suument ikowiug Uie exlaU of the good, middling and bad lands. 







■s 








?s~ 




Standard leotM, 


1 








:»! 




raliB/cirhgnf 












rat tiau. 


J 








Ill 






1 




1 


s 


■2"S 


Gencrd cIm. 




•d 


n 




t 


1 


•s 

1 


1 


1 


3 


if 




1 




s 




3 








1=1 


2 


^ 


u 


O 


c 


SandO: 


II....P. 


R....P. 












IrtcUu „ 


S 00 


10 


3 


1.1 ST 


1,641 


ITS 


■BI 


Ditto ... 


sua 


1 8 


18S 


1J4,B89 


69,aS6 


S«,S17 


»;o 


and clu« » 


18 


1 B 


lai 


106^4 


I17,S87 


44,104 


asfifi 


3rd cUm .. 


> 00 


1 00 


!« 


33,114 


1'.779 




10-94 


Total „ 


... 


... 


416 


U6,:04 


100,863 


76,968 


IW 


BvM, 
















IrtclHt „ 


« 8 


1 80 


111 


101^44 


103.019 


61,9114 


44';s 


and „ M. 


S 80 


1 40 


104 


ias,8a9 


90,186 


«,i76 




•fd n 


1 00 


I 




1T,9I6 


ie,G86 


6,097 


8-43 


4tb „ 


a oo 


11 


10 


18,131 


8,fi«l 


1,469 


3 91 


ToUl .„ 


_. 


... 


4IS 


4O3.SS0 


!W,SiO 


in,iic 


lOO' 


TmkMtagfam. 
















iBt cbM „ 


8 00 


9 00 


I!4 


SMTS 


61,611 


M,7I9 


mi 


Sod „ „ 


1 «0 


1 80 


saj 


lib in 


m,3rt 


48,101 


fiS-O 


3rd „ 


S 40 

and 
SO 


1 4 U 

and 


13 


33,75« 


11,097 


6,606 


looi 


4tb „ 


10 


19 


18 


8,717 


6,149 


I.GOe 


S'sr 


Total „ 




403 


3S6,»98 


IIR.ISS 


69.317 


loo- 


TmM Skiha. 
















bad. 
















lit CiMI « 


3 00 

■nd 
180 


1 00 

and 

1 8 


9S 


S4,M7 


31,117 


14,761 


ts H 














SDd „ 


18 

•od 
a MO 

and 

S 40 


1 80 

and 

I 4 V 

and 

I 4 


SOT 


808,908 


116,763 


<0,746 


iS-7» 


Srd n ... 


too 

aod 

14 


1 00 

aod 

1 4 


IM 


69,681 


41,190 


17,41>0 


91-71 


■*ll» » 


100 


110 


41 


16,E39 


11,831 


1,361 


•« ■ 


Total „ 


... 


» 


its 


3M,0«8 


104,001 


93,193 


too- 



•7 . * 



ffAiLOi zm'jaLvsi. us^^B. 



](iO. V^Tz^nsL Gondwa is the nearesi to Ladncv: 
it r^jurAhd fjn the north-east bj the rirer GvmtL oa tke 
rMi*.h bv the Malhiaha/1 tah'^iL LuckBow. and cm the vest 
»/y par^^ana Kalianmal and Sandila khas ; it is of an rma- 
hr rhaf/e. In area par^na Gondwa is 14u fqnare miks, 
it contain? 117 mzuzsL^/ There are in it 45 mahtls: the 
nurnoer of souls to the square mile is 350 ; it is clurfr 
inhahit&d by Ilindns. 

There arc 45,o31 Hindus and only 3,601 Mahammidaiis; 
the proprietors are mainly Bais Thakurs; one of their Chiefi) 
li^ja liandhir Singh's estate is in the pargana. 

It is rather out-of-the-way, in a comer, and is not suf- 
ficiently opened out with roads; though not fiu* from the dty 
of Lucknow its fieople are rustic and somewhat backward. 

The liai.ses are said to lie addicted to female infantidde. 
7'he vilhi(/es skirting the GuiDti are many of them of light 
soil anil are under average, but in the centre and south of tke 
pargann the bulk of the land is good average. The tract of 
^* usar " which runs up from Jhindar Malhiabad strikes into 
the southern portion of this pargana and has to be carefully 
eliminated from the assessable area. There is little jungle. 
iVIarkets are required, and, as before said, roads. The pu- 
gana has many jhiis for irrigation, which are capable of im- 
provenumt, and will doubtless some day be deepened, pud- 
dled, and dammed for the storage of rain-water, as is done in 
Kastern and South-eastern Oudh, but is very seldom done 
here. 

If>l. Fargana Kaliannial is bounded on the north by 
the Gutnti, on the south and west by pargana Sandila kh&s, on 
the east by pargana Gondwa. It is compact. In area it is 
O.'i S(|uarc miles; it contains 72 niauzas and 37 mahdis. It is 
inliahitod almost entirely by Sukarwars, a clan of Rdjputs 
wlio keep much to tlicmselves. Tlio villages are many of 
them small, and the holdings are much subdivided. There 
is much land in *' sir,'' cultivated by the proprietors, who are 
iMunerous. 

192. Pargana Sandila khas is a large tract of country 
atrctching from the Guuiti on the north to the Sai river 



HABDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 299 

on the south, in its greatest length it is 31 miles from its 
northern-most point to its southern-most, and in its greatest 
breadth towards the south it is 22 miles across. It is bound- 
ed by the Gumtion the north, and by the Sai on the south, in 
part of its line, and partly by parganas Mohan and Aunirds 
( Lueknow), on the west it is bounded by pargaoas Gopamau and 
Baldmau, and on the east by Kalianmal, Gondwa, and Malhia* 
bad, Lucknow. Its area is 329 square miles ; it contains 213 
mauzas and 84 mahdls« Its chief town is Sandila, which used 
to be the headquarters of a chakladar. The clans most met 
with here are the Nikumb Thakurs and the Janwdrs, but as 
will generally be found in the vicinity of the large towns, there 
are a good many Muhammadan and Kdyath proprietors, whose 
ancestors were in the Nawdbi service. 

193. Pargana BdMmau is very small and scarcely 
requires separate notice. Its area is 25 square miles ; it 
contains 14 mauzas and 9 mahdls. Here the Eachoha 
Kdjputs are found. It is situate on the Sai, and its land 
is fair throughout There is less lisar in this pargana than 
the others. There is little jungle. 

194. The tahsil of Sandila consists of 416 manzas 
and 175 mahdls ; its area is 557 square miles ; there are 
200,863 cultivated acres, of which 56,014 acres are irrigated 
and 144,849 acres unirrigated. The proportion of cultivated 
land to culturable is 2*61, that is, there are rather more than 2f 
acres under cultivation to each acre which in course of time 
may be cultivated. There are 67,782 barren acres. The 
revenue rate per acre on the cultivation falls thus — 



••• ••• 



... 



Bs. a. 


P- 


1 14 


2 


1 12 


7 


1 12 


a 


1 12 


6 



in Gondv^a at 
„ Sandild „ 
„ Balamau „ 
„ Eallianmal „ 

The reason the rate is a little higher in Gondwa is that 
the properties are larger in this pargana, in other words 
there are fewer proprietors. Besides, though there is some 
tisar in the pargana, there is less deterioration of the adjoin- 
ing fields from it than there is in pargana Sandila, where 
in some places a saline efflorescence crops up in small patches 
in the middle of the fields, lowering thereby the rents of them. 



800 



HARDOI BtTTLnfKRT BBFOBT. 



lf)5. In talisil Hardoi, the following; uUewiDik 
tlio size of the dittercnt parganas and the number of cM 
niul innuzns in them : — 



TahMl. 



Pargina. 



lUrdol ... « 



I 



rAwan 
Banfrar 
Sara 
Gopaniau 



••• 



Area in 
Minare miles. 




^Bntber of 


Si^i 


••MtM. 


■am 


4t 


n 


60 


« 


•6 


« 


114 


Ml 



196. Pnrgnna Bani^ar, in which the sadar statiei 
lies to the south of pargana B6wan, and is bounded « 
east by the largo pargana of Go|)amAu, on the west ittod 
Sandi, anil on the south it marches with Bilgram audi 
ianwan. 

It is inhabited by Gaur Thakurs, and Dhikun, i 
there are some Gahalwars. It is well- watered from jblOi^i 
over half of its area large wells wirh a ramp are maae,vl 
ran always be relied on. The soil is generally good^h 
is a backward pargana. 

107. Pargana Bawan is not so good as pargana fiM 
It has more *' bhur" and less permanent water-supplj, 
the '^ bhiir'* villages are not numerous, nor do theyb 
gether. It is between Sara and Bangar and has a ^ 
Gopaniau on its eastern flank, and on the west it UM 
Barwan and Saromannagar. Its watered area is not flO| 
as that of pargana Bangar. 

The Gaur Thakurs are found here too in numbeo 

a few Sombansis. 

1 98. Pargana Sara, which, on the north, touches Sh 
bdd, is bounded on the south by Barwan and partly by G 
inau, on its east too is pargana Gopamau and the SUb 
])argana laps round it on the west. Gaur Thdkurs 1 
nearly all its villages. It is full of jhils and marshes 
the soil is nearly all over good, but the pargana is bsekf 
like all the llardoi parganas. 

199. Pargana Oopamnu on the Gumti is a large | 
gana, comprising all descriptions of land from the best waU 



HARDOI SSTTLfiMENT REPORT. 301 

tnat to bad unirriorable bhiir. It stretches from Pibdni and 
kDSurnagar on tbe north to Balamau and Sandila on 
) south, and runs up to Hardoi khds on the west. It 
inhabited by Chauhans, Ahbans, Chandels, Gahalwars, 
urs, and Janwdrs^ a few Muhammadans and Kayatbs. The 
lages near Gopdman, and on the east near the Gumti, are 
ht and bad. It, too, is a backward pargana. Tbe proprie- 
j bodies are large and used to be turbulent, particularly 
) Ahri Ahrori, and Sukrori Chandels, who could not be 
^rced. owing to their thick jungles and numbers. 

200. Hardoi parganasare backward as compared with 
) Sandila ones. They have rather more culturable land 
tilled than they have cultivated acres, and rents are lower, 
rtly because there is less competition from being more land 
1 fewer souls to tbe square mile, only 300 to Sandila's 369, 

I partly because the par^anas are not so well opened out 
;h good roads, on which laden carts can travel all the year 
ind, and because there are fewer large markets and the 
itivators have amongst them more Pdsis, Dh&nuks, and 
mkhs, and these half recliumed tribes are not good at 
sbandry, though enterprising too in their way. 

201. The tahsil was an easier one to assess than San- 
a, perhaps I found it more easy from practice, but where 
sre is much jungle, it is, I think, an easier task. The 
lages were not so difficult to clasps. Rent-rates are higher 
re except in pargana Sard, which is all over good. Tbe 
d villages were easily discovered by inspection, and as 

II be seen in the statement given above there was a better 
1 larger general average of fair villages than in Sandila. 

202. Tahsil Bilgram consists of five parganas, Bilgram, 
illdwdn, E^handau, Sandi and Katidri. The villages of 
9 last two parganas, Sdndi and Katidri, are a good deal 
»rlaced. The tahsil is a large one, in area it is 558 square 
les. There are 296 mahdls in it, including the muafi rent- 
€ villages, 11 in number. 

The tahsil is well-cultivated ; there arc 219,186 acres of 
[tivation to 69,337 acres of culturable land, that is, out of 
^ry 100 acres leaving out barren, there are 76 acres under 




303. Pargana BilgrAni oti tbe soath i 
iches the Gauges. 

It consist* of 114 villages. To the west ] 
Sdndi it ia liglit, and od the cast ivhore it runs I 
there arc few inferior Tillages. The pat^^an^ 
iH a fair one, tlic south and south-west side: 
The revenue rate is Ke. 1-11-3 per acre, which ] 
reasonable. Mr. McMinn assessed tbla par| 
necessary, as will be seen in the No. II. statem 
n lew of tbe villages. 

Thereissouietaliikdnri in Bilgram : Wasi Hi 
mad Ashraf are the chief talukddrs. Tfaakur C 
has seven villages in tbe pargana. 

204. Sdndi pargana lies on the south sii 
river. It is iimcli interlaced with the Katiart v 
nortb-ca>it (tide of the p.irgana is light, but the i 
are nearly nil good. The increase here is small 

Cer centum. It was the headquarters of a cbaltj 
eing close to the znmindars, could get in tfafld 
The summary jamas were Iwised a good deal oq 
ones. Proprietary rights were very weak in] 
villages in the closo ueighlwurbood of the fortJ 
gram, there is a sprinkling of the Muhammadan a 
Sdndi the barren lands are nearly nil held by Au 
as might be supposed. The detail of the incideflj 
vised jama is given in para. 186. J 



idj 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 303 

There are only 34 villages in the pargana. The land is 
nearly the same quality all over. Differences in assessments 
of the different villages arise from there being more or fewer 
assamis in some of the villages, and from floods taking a par- 
ticular line and always injuring certain mauzas. If a village 
has few assdmis the rents in it will be found lower; the 
same is often the case if the proprietors are ill-provided With 
farming stock, or have no capital so that they are unable to 
make advances to tenants when bullocks die. Having no 
specially bhiir or light inferior villages, the revenue rate here 
ifi Re. 1-15-5. This is as it should be; allowing for floods 
and fewness of tenants in some inconsiderable number of vil- 
lages, it is plain that where there are no specially low inferior 
villages, the general average must run more evenly and high- 
er. Irrigation is not indispensable here, being khddir near the 
Ganges, the soil remains moist till late. 

207. Katidri is a river pargana; it comprises 80 mauzas; 
its area is 90 square miles. The soil is hard, tenacious, cold 
clay, requiring strong plough-bullocks, yet with favorable 
rains, going late in the season, fine crops are raised. Floods 
do good and harm. They deposit " seo,'* rich alluvial mud, 
which enriches the land much. They likewise spoil the 
kharif sometimes, and cattle die if not removed timely to the 
uplands. The revenue rate here is only Re. 1-8-4 ; all allow- 
ances have been made. The population rate is less here 
than in other parts of the tahsll. It is only 188 souls per 
square mile. 

208. The increase here is considerable. It is 62*44 ; 
but as these Katidr Thdkurs, Rdja Hardeo Bakhsh's clan, 
paid but very slight jamas in the Nawdbi owing to their 
being close to the Furukhabad boundary, over which they 
could easily decamp, I do not consider that it is high when 
compared to their rents. It has worked well and there has been 
scarcely a complaint ; indeed, as the highest class of villages 
only shows a revenue rate Rs. 2-0-5, and the average is only 
Re. 1-8-4 per acre, there can hardly be ground for complaint. 
In this pargana irrigation is not a sine qua non ; being a 
khddir tract the land remains moist till late. 

209. The Shdhabad tahsil consists of eight parganas and 
comprises 575 mauzas and 365 mahdls. Its area is 547 



doi 



BABDOI SrmXMESTT BEPOBT. 



square miles. It adjoins Sitapur and Kfaeri in the east and 
north-east and partly on the north. It likewise mns up to 
Shahjahanpur on the north and north-west, and on the west 
touches Farukhabad. Some of ihe parganas, soch as Mansor- 
na^r and Saromannagar, containing respectively onlv 25 
and 42 villages, are very small. In shape it is irregalar, 
although some redistribution of parganas have been made 
by order of the Chief Commissioner, half of Sara being pat 
inco Shdhabad, which gave up Barwan, which ngun was at- 
tached to Hardoi. 

The revenue rait falls on t/i€ different parganas as below z-— 



Pargana. 


On cnliifa- 
tkm. 


OaTottL 


Sbfthabad ... ••• ••• ••• ••• 

Fibsni ... ••• ••■ •.• .«. 

Alamoaj^T ... ••• m* ••• ••• 

Manioniagar ••• ... ... .«. 

Sarwfto ... M« ••• ••• .M 

J'^ftll •»• ••• ..• —m m— 

I'schoha ••• ••• ••• M* 

t^aromaoDagar ... ^ ... .« 


lU.a.p. 

1 IS 11 
1 7 • 
1 15 7 
1 13 • 

1 5 n 

1 4 1 
1 1 
1 10 • 


Ba a pi 
1 I» 

If a 

lo s 
10 • 
» c 

If 1 

isn 

11 10 


ToUl 


1 7 8 


lilt 



The average population for the square mile in this 
tahsil is 336 souls. 

210. Pargana Sbdhabad is a large one, it comprises 143 
mauzas and 73 mahals. Its area is 131 square miles. The 
tahsil is bounded on the west by the Garra river, and is 
separated from Sitapur and partly from Kheri by the Gnmti. 
The west side of the pargana is good, the centre average, 
and the east and south-east light. All the ^^ kh4dir " of Uie 
Gumti to the west is good. 

Floods do harm sometimes, their effect has been care- 
fully considered in assessing the different villages. 

211. More Mubammadan proprietors are found in this 
tahsil than elsewhere, and this is natural, as a cadet of the 
Moradabad Patlidn house, Dalail Khan, founded a colony at 
Shahabad 285 years ago. His descendants gradually branched 



HABDOI SBTTLEMBNT BEPOBT. 305 

off and acquired land in the neighbourhood. Nawdb 
Husain Ali Khan, a descendant^ and Sarfardz Husain Khan, 
son of Nawdb Raadandaz Khan, are still landed proprietors. 
Nawdb Husain Ali Khan has 27 villages with a jama 
of Rs. 20,708; but the representative of the elder branch, 
Sarfardz Husain Khan, has come down in the world. He 
has only two villages now left to him, and is in debt. The 
rest are small Pathdns of no note. 

There is a good deal of sugarcane grown in this tahsil. 
The coarse unrefined molasses and the canejuice find a ready 
sale at Mr. Carew's factory at Rosa near Shdhjahdnpun 
The cane tillage will increase. 

212. Alamnagar is a compact pargana lying along the 
eastern side of Shdhabad from which it is separated by the 
Sukhaitd stream. This pargana is all over good, it is well 
watered^ The wells are numerous and large, and for the most 
part the water-supply is copious and permanent. There is 
hardly any real bhiir in the pargana. It is eminently suitable 
for sugarcane cultivation, but this requires capital, and though 
there is at present some cane grown, there is not enough : it 
is held entirely by Nikumb Thdkurs, who are idle, expensive 
in their habits, and indifferent agriculturists. 

There is a great deal of fine jungle land here ; there are 
18,525 culturable acres to 12,434 cultivated, nearly half as 
much more waste than cultivated. The proportion is thus, 
out of every 100 acres there are 40*16 acres cultivated to 
59*84 uncultivated, most of which might be brought under the 
plough. The pargana is backward. 

213. The summary jama was Rs. 12,937, the present 
jama is Rs. 24,517. The increase per centum is 89*51 ; largo 
certainly. I have assessed this pargana as reasonably as 
possible. The rate on the cultivation is Re. 1-15-7 per acre, on 
the total area it is only Re. 0-10-5 ; every year as new ground 
is broken up, the rate will become easier. But even at pre- 
sent the rate for this good land is easy, the rents here are fair. 
Re. 1 and 14 annas per kham bigha, about five to the acre, are 
common ; there is some Re. 1-4-0 land; there is not much land 

anywhere under 12 annas a kham bigha, save by favor, or 

39 H 



306 HABDOI SETTLEMENT BEPOBT. 

Tvbcrc it is new banjar and chancliar. Now if 1 3 annas be takes 
as tbe rate all round for bigbi kacb&, tbis would give a re- 
yenue rate 13 annas X 5 «= 65 annas, or something over two 
rupees an acre, with 18,525 acres to be brought under plough. 
Supposing that eventually only two-thirds of the culturableig 
brought on the rent-roll, and calculating the increase, it will 
be seen that there are large capabilities for improvement ; it 
will be observed that of the cultivated land 12,434 acres, not 
less than 7,340 acres are irrigated, from this it can be seen 
what good natural capabilities it possesses. 

214. It may be said as the increase per centum is 89|) 
will not these Nikumbs find it difficult to pay up as their 
habits are formed, &c., and a sudden rise, however fair in one 
sense, will be hard to meet, and that perhaps rasadi jamas 
might suit here better ? 

To this I would reply I consider tbe remedy is in the 
hands of these Thdkurs ; there is no want of assamis, there 
is, it is true, a good deal of sir. Still they have only to break 
up the jungle and waste, which is easy jungle. With good 
water-supply, I myself think they can get on, as rents hare 
risen at least 20 per centum here, and since 1858 a good deal 
of land has been cleared ; however, there are not a dozen ma- 
bals where rasadi jamas might be required, and I have 
drawn up a statement which shows where the increase has 
Wen large. 

This is the only pargana in which I have any doubts at 
nil. It may be perhaps advisable to give here and there a 
rasadi jama, but my own opinion is against them. They stop 
progress and encourage idleness. 

215. I am of opinion that it would be as well to watch 
this pargana, and see how the revenue comes in ; I think they 
can get on, they certainly could if they try. 

The nialidls in which it may be considered advisable to 
defer the imposition of tlie full jama for eight years are as 
follows : — 



AlaliiU ... JIanjhIa. 

Ditto ... rarsai. 

Ditto ... Cliaiiia. 

Ditto ... riira. 



Mahal ... Simrawsin. 
Ditto ... Alamuagar khas. 
Ditto ... Dhia. 



HABDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 307 

20 percentumof the jama might be deferred for eight years if 
the Commissioner and the Fiaaacial Commissioner are in favor 
of such an arrangement. I should mention that these revised 
jamas were given out in January-February, 1868, and came 
into effect from the kharif of that year November- December, 
1868, and were collected for the kharif of 1869 70, and I 
think they can be worked. It is very easy to give them a 
progressive jama. 

216. Pihdni Pandarwa is the easternmost pargana of 
the tahsil running off to the Gumti, and adjoining Alamnagar on 
the west. It is a light pargana, hardly average ; the east side 
of it is sandy, and water on this side is scarce. Its area is 
80 square miles ; it contains 81 mauzas and 61 mahdls ; the 
chief town is Pib&ni, inhabited chiefly by Muhammadans, off- 
shoots, some of them, from Shdhdbad, though the chief 
landed proprietors are Saiyads. The villages here vary much, 
some of the centre, western and southern mauzas are good, 
but the eastern side and part of the north of the pargana are 
under average. There is not so much jungle, though there 
is still a fair extent of it, 12,741 acres cuUurable, including 
groves, to 27,399 acres of cultivation. The revenue rate on 
the pargana is Re. 1-7-5 on the cultivation to 12 annas 6 pies 
on the total area ; it is light. The increase per centum is 65 26 
of the revised jama over the summary jama; but here I have 
no doubt all these jamas will work easily. 

217. Mansurnagar consists of 25 villages only, it lies 
just south of Pihdni and calls for few remarks. Ic is back- 
ward, but the soil is good all over, and there is plenty of 
water, and very little " bhiir. " There is much jungle, 7,740 
acres of waste to 6,060 acres cultivated. The increase per 
centum here is small; it was well up before; increase only 
28*62 per centum. 

218. Saromannagar is a small pargana consisting of 
42 villages. 

It lies south of Shdhabad and is cut up somewhat with 
n41as, the Gauria and Narbhu. Its area is only 35 sqiuire 
miles, population per square mile 446. It calls for little re- 
mark; nere too there is waste to come up, nearly half as much 






.TP'. 



» ^r> 



.K»~^ 











sMk 



















iW fc is 






144 



fld 



-ic 



rirrsae. mii I »e dev 






7 .'.«A r/;r/. -Ar.*..^ t/^ v»r\iil«nn- Ta**^ sed » be 









%£XK& lO 



220 Vii.r/%T.^JK Pill and V^tmAa xdxj be coosidend 

\/,'jt\u^f 'iK^v :>: f/.;/f;tr-er: Par;LoLA beioV to tbe ncvth oi 
\'i..\ ^ Hftfi ',u J^», riOrth^jrr.TiO-.t liiTiits teaching Shihjabanpiir, 
•/>/..;/: //fi y.uH w*:>/. it hflWit.h the FarukLabad district 



7 h/rv; \t'Ar/huh'\ \U: r;XACtly between the riTers Gam on 
iut' i:UHt hi thijfi and the Sendha river skirting the west. 
7 h^: ifurftufiM have many feature.^ in commoiL The villages 



HABooi sraruniKNT report. 309 

running along and near the Sendha and Garra rivers are all 
eood, while the centre villages lying higher are sandy and 
Ught. Pdli is a little the better pargana of the two. There 
are more good villages met and fewer ^^ bhdr '' ones ; Pdli too 
has more jungle and ^^ diimat." Fow^ Rdjpnts held nearly 
all of Pachoha. In P£li there is a sprinkling of Muhammadans 
and Brahmans. But the principal landholders are Sombansi 
Thdkurs. There is one talukdar in Pdli, Rdjah Dip Singh, 
the chief of the Sombansis in these parts. 

I had a good deal of trouble in assessing these parganas, 
and more so with Pachoha than with Pdli, as explained in 
the No. II. statements. I was obliged to give out very light 
jamas, as these men being near the district of Farukhabad and 
Sh^jahdnpur could not be got at by Nawdbi authorities, for 
if pressed they only had to move across the Sendha river, 
and they were safe. The revenue rate on the cultivation in Fdli 
is only Be. 1-4-1 per acre^ and on the total area it is Re. 
0-12-11 only. I have every belief that these parganas are 
most resonably assessed. 

221. Indeed; as reported in the No. II. statements, I fire* 
quendy did not diure put on the mauzas the full jama as the 
co-sharers were so numerous and the rise so great. The rise 
(see para. 186) in Pdli is 47*0 per centum, this is not much. 
In Pachoha the rise can be met, I am confident, for it should 
be much more at half assets, but I dare not here make it an 
arithmetical question. Zamindars here would pay Rs. 50 or 
Rs. 40 for a village whose admitted assets were Rs. 600. Under 
anv circumstances the rise would be considerable, but their 
cultivated area now is double what it was in the Nawdbi when 
they had but a precarious livelihood, as they did not then 
care to show much breadth of cultivation when they knew 
that the fiscal authorities would be sure to demand larger 
jamas. 

In the Na\fdbi there was an appraisement yearly ; if 
much cultivation was visible in February, the jamas would be 
raised. In fact the conditions are quite difierent now ; then 
they ploughed and sowed little, now they plough and sow 
twice as much, and rents have risen 30 per centum, owing to 
the security they now enjoy under our strong Government 



'* . m 







» ■ m - • - - 

ji, y,z w :- Vjj 1a:: i»- 

J; :• rr:;.^ ti^T Lire r'^ i.V/!uH aari rue 

'v-: :-.>f^ TT^r^. vrTrrr til i»v zra:: raCL^-T? : St3 

>. -vv. -/irl-.'>z. to ^iJ^\ tL^r aLi or «.'& irc^sse M r 

'.. r,.\'i',:r^ zz^'jz^ lir.i tiid^r iLi r>lc«=:i- 




7 ;.«fT :e^!. -',f c.nr%e. tV.*4 i!>rT sia.«: mow be pnw»c 




1:25. A :4:r!r.M?^=^.i esK^ ssoold te able to 

# 

rt;*.'-': a^a oriiriiri' ci';iai::v c^a=^ sar, bv hai3 or br dn 
i; L'.: '-'^rtre; a.id I Lop^ iLe ;%m&^ of tbese estates will 
a-^.'e v^ ^,uni & tafr ti&t:. arid I t'liak thrv vilL lodecd. ^ 
writfj the bail&torrn of Ia^: Febmaiy aad the tonvaumerA 
^irj y^}*\ &r.d A?.or. r&sc*. my a^^^es-mentc are being t<JefaX>lj 
w^i; V'/tXh'i. Tf::riytr2kTj traasfers of landed propercv m.: 
alvravji take place &f:<:r rii'L^ bare been enqnirEd into a 
rf:cord^rd : they ca&not be properly conrejed till then. Ob 
tfji's fiH'iy'j'X I iiad the Lonor (o report on the 7tii September 
la-t. In my No. ool, Ih^A A. D.. I then said, para. 3, '-tbe 
prevent (\t€9\i'j^{ix, toe bail in March, the late and onseasonai^^Je 
fprin:; rain in March anl April last, when threshing-floors ac^d 
the ^stacked ^ain ^ot badly wet two or three times, bate * 
g Vid deal to do with these mortgages ; and, I maj add, ^^^ 
cau^s the cost of liti^^tion during the first 4 years and tl^^^ 
exf/eni=e8 of journeying on the part of zamindars, some ^^^ 
thjrn to .Sitapur and Lucknow, while prosecuting the^^' 
appeals." 

Besides^ there are old Nawabi debts still hampering soo^e 
of the zamindars, and all this easily accounts for mott- 
gages. 

224. In larore communities where the co-sharers cuiti- 
vate ^' sir " I have endeavoured to give light jamas. The 
assessment of these village republics, where the proprietary 
body is numerous, is difficult. 



HARDOI SETTLKMENT REPORT. 311 

They cannot all live on tbe land alone. Formerly 
lany of our xamindars amongst the Gaur Sombansis and 
'faandels had handsome profits from their ^^ chauth^^ one- 
i:i.arter of what the Pdsis stole across the Ganges, and this was 
>t a little; but this is not the worst: worse than the above is 
:© regularity and punctuality with which they must now pay 
leir revenue. They cannot take to the jungle and tire out 
le tahsildar as they did the chakladar. This they will feel 
»r some years. 



225. As before reported, the settlement has been rudely 
d. Hail in 1868, February, severe drought in 1868-69 

ox3iing on the heels of the hail, a good deal of litigation tak- 
people for months from their homes, expenses of survey 
ve had to be met and withstood, and I consider that the 
>^1^ balance sheet shows a satisfactory state of affairs, all the 
6 venue having been paid up. 

226. The zamindars have had, 1 know, to borrow money 
'^ some instances, but, as reported by me, see my No. 554, 
&ted 7th September, 1868, here and there it was to be ex- 
^oted they would have to borrow, as otherwise, how could 
fc^^y pay their old debts, and employ vakils and mukhtars 
^ conduct their law suits ; how could they get the money 
^^cessary to support them when away from their houses pro- 
secuting and defending their interests? However, all this is 
^ ^ry nearly over ; they have gone through the worst, and, 
^^^ we are blessed with fair harvests, all will pull through ; 
tliere is no doubt they have undergone much, but it must 
always be so with a new settlement. 

227. In two tahsils the revised settlement has added 

Us. 2,08,969 to the zila rent-roll, thus Bilgram tahsil increase 

Us. 1,09,297 ; Sbdhabad tahsil increase Rs. 99,672. For the 

whole zila the increase is Rs. 4,14,351, the summary demand 

was Rs. 10,16;712, the revised demand is Rs. 14,31,063. 

228. I feel confident this increase can be paid without 
pressing unfairly on tbe zamindars. 

As stated above, the only pargana respecting which I have 
any sort of doubt is Alamnagan 



312 HARDOI gRTLXMXBT BVPOBT. 

I think even there it ia not absolutely necesony to 
defer the imposition of the Goyemment denuuid for ft ftw 
years. It is one of the best parganas for soil and water: 
there is more culturable land to be broken up than there k 

cultivated. 

The population per square mile almost equals tbat of Grat 
Britain, it is 225 souls to the mile, and, according ^ ^ .^^ 
printed documents I have, Great Britain had 228 aoius to the I ^ 
square mile. ■ ^ 

The Thdkurs, though, are idle and extravagant^ fheyreil- 
ly ciunber the ground, and in these hard times I cannot id* 
vise the authorities to give them progressive jamas; note tb 
proportion of irrigation to dry fields, and this is understated^ 
for they always keep back irrigation just before survey; note^ | ^ 
again, the extent of culturable, there is half as much more 
good waste than there is cultivated land. 

The rate even now of the assessment on the cultivatioii 
is under Rs. 2 per acre and this cannot be considered high. 

229. It is possible as I am leaving that these Alamoftr- \v^ 
gar men may, although they have given in their kabnUakS) 
endeavour to get reductions, and of course they vrill not 
to work and break up their waste land, until they feel 
that the jamas are to be maintained. 

They have the remedy in their own hands, even n< 
they pay under Rs. 2 an acre and if they are to bear th^^*^ 
share of the burdens of the country they must pay as I hf"^ ^^ 
assessed them. 



230. However, the pargana altogether is a small ^^ 
the whole demand on it is only Rs. 24,517, it will be observ^w 
that by average revenue rates the demand would be Rs. 26,01^^ 
(the total of the diflTerent classes, see para. 188), and ther^^ 
rates were very carefully ascertained. Had it not been f^i" 
the sudden rise, I should certainly have put on Rs. 2SfiOO, 
because there are such capabilities for increase in this par* 
gana, there being so much good jungle and waste to come 
up. 



HABDOI SETTLEMEKT REPORT. 



313 



231. The regular demands came in force as follows: — 



Tahdl. 

Sandila 

Hardoi 

fiflgram 

Shahabad 



••• 



••• 



KhaHf. 

74 fasli 
ditto. 

75 fasli. 

76 fasli. 



The kabuliats in Sandila and Hardoi were, on the whole, 
ed readily, and I have heard of no complaints of over-assess- 
ent ; there are no kabuliats unfiled. 

I had to revise a few of my first attempts, but the pro- 
rtion was very small ; I had a little more trouble in Hardoi 
th the kabuliats, and this might have been expected as the 
16 was much greater in the Hardoi tahsil. (See statement 
ra. 186.) 



SECTION 11. 

Revision of Assessments. 

232. With regard to the kabuliats in tahsds Bilgram 
d Shahabad, Mr. Bradford makes no remarks : there would 
pear, however, to have been more trouble there, for the 
lowing kabuliats remained unfiled : — 



Name of Parganft. 



li 

choha .•• 
tiari ... 
romaniuiggar 
imnagar 



Total Number of 
irilUgcs. 



Number subse- 
quently re- 
duced. 



••« 
••• 
••• 
... 
•.• 
.. ■ 

• a. 




••• 



238. Mr. Bradford's hopes of fair harvests and re- 
led indebtedness were not fated to be realized. 

The landowners, subsequent to the settlement, have sold 

1 mortgaged their land as follows. AVhere mortgages have 

40 n 



3U 



IIAKDOI SETTLEMENT REPOBT. 



eventually rc.snlte<l in sales the traasaction will bo shown 
twice iu the stateuient : — 





Yt'ar. 


• 


Sales. 


Mortgages. 


ToUL 








Us. 


Bs. 


Rs 


I2:r, Tasli 


••■ 


••■ 


47,^20 


9»69,676 


9,16,996 


1-277 „ 




••• 


7o,t»t;7 


3,93,887 


4,64,654 


1278 ,, 




■ « • 


07,069 


9^7^10 


3.54^« 


1279 ., 




••• 


97,W« 


3,31,164 


4,98,851 


1280 „ 




••• 


1,75.999 


4,56,085 


6,32,084 


7281 „ 




••t 


1.15,928 


4,04,670 


6.90,59« 


1282 „ 




••• 


1,60,614 


9,61,411 


4,91.925 


1S(83 M 




■ •« 


1,08,419 


4.11,973 


6,19,689 



234. Except perhaps duriag '77 and '78 fasH, or 
latterly in '82 and '83 fasli, the revenue reports show 
little else hesidcs scanty cro])S, damage and destruction even 
to these, and increasinj> fallow year by year. Floods injured 
the kharif chieily in lowlying lands in '77 fasli, and almost 
destroyed it in the river parganas in 78 fasli. The large 
transfers of property are noted in the report for the year, 
and also the impoverished condition of the people, and their 
unpreparedncss for the increased assessments. The apparent 
over-assessment in talikiii Sawaijpur is mentioned, and it is 
stated that complnints against the assessment were most fr^ 
(|uent in tahsU Ilardoi, where the most culturable waste 
existed. 

In '79 fasli the almost total destruction of the kharif 
in 5 parganas, and its general failure over the district, the 
poor outturn of the rabi crops, and its destruction by hail in 
numerous villages in four parganas are noticed. 

The many changes in the ownership of property are 
said to denote '^ an annual recurring pressure which caa 
only lead to an absolute change of proprietorship." The 
Deputy Commissioner " affirms with confidence that the 
money ])orrowed during the year, save a fraction or so, was 
taken to ]>ay the revenue, and for no other purpose. The 
zamindars have been, and are, unable to meet the enhanced 
assessment. There has been a deficiency of assets f<tf 
three years. I am not in a positon to say that the settle- 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPOBT. 



315 



ment oflScer's jama, taking a favorable year, is too heavy, 
though some villages will require reduction." 

In '80 fasli the rabi crops suffered for want of rain. 

In '81 fasli the kharif was a very scanty one all over 
the district, except the river parganas. The rabi crop also 
was fiir below the average ; large tracts of land remained un- 
cultivated for want of moisture in the soil. 

The bhiir villages along the Gumti, especially in pargana 

Gopamau, suffered much ; severe frost also occurred. 

* 

The balances of revenue for six years after settlement 
were as follows : — 



Year. 




Revenue balances real. 


In liquidation. 


DoubtfnL 


IrrccoYcrablc, 


1276 Fasli, 1868-69 

1277 „ 1869-70 

1278 „ 1870-71 

1279 „ 1871-72 

1280 „ 1872-73 

1281 „ 1873-74 


•• • 

• • • 
••• 

• •• 
.•• 
••• 


Hs. a. p. 

26,358 1 
51,078 5 1 
9,281 6 11 
30,583 6 10 
25,370 4 4 
1,33,711 4 2 


Bs. a. p. 

• •• 

• t • 

13,954 5 8 
62,989 14 5 


Rs. a. p. 

3,154 10 3 
36,856 15 5 

1,635 12 9 
34,027 10 
17,577 9 4 
12,680 10 



235* Complaints of over-assessment now became nu- 
merous, and in December, 1873, instructions were issued 
regarding the method to be adopted in dealing with petitions 
against the assessment, and a careful enquiry was made in 
a certain number of selected villages with a view to ascertain 
the general correctness or otherwise of the assessment. 

In December, 1873, His Excellency Lord Northbrook 
issued instructions with a view to striking off' irrecoverable 
balances, suspending demands too suddenly imposed, and 
generally relieving the universal distress in the country. The 
following suspensions in demand were granted j>endin^ revi- 
sion of assessment, to persons only who were in actual distress ; 
'well-to-do landowners, who considered themselves aggrieved 
in the matter of assessment, were left to proceed by petition. 



316 



IIAUDOI SETTLEMENT BEPOBT. 



Suitpension of demand. 









of vil- 

• 


^1 


• 
a 

01 

§ 






1 

a 


pATgana. 




S4 

o 

.a 

a 




"SSL 


%4 

o 


Total demaiid. 




i 










amber 
which 

glTCD. 


umber 






«■ 
d 

i 








H 


e 


a 






< 














B8. m. 


p. 




Samlila 


•• • 


. ■ a 


S13 


60 


98 


191^1 13 


9 


4,189 


<tondwa 


»•» 


• ■• 


117 


17 


64 


I06,M6 5 


S 


8,137 


Kalianmnl 


••• 


• *• 


72 


6 


86 


46,834 • 


1 


4,810 


Balamau 


Total 


• •• 

• •• 


U 


4 


6 
198 


90,M7 7 


• 


1,719 




4I« 


79 


3»«l^79 





18^ 


Banf^nr 


96 


99 


98 


85.746 IS 


s 


6^2 


Bar wan 


• ■ . 


• • • 


C9 


17 


88 


96.967 O 





8,988 


^nra, South 


••• 


... 


90 


« 


11 


27,608 9 


3 


1,841 


Bawan 


••• 


••• 


57 


16 


10 


46,988 11 


8 


l,97C 


Uupamaa 


Total 
••• 


• • * 

• •• 


S40 


40 


63 


1,74,678 11 


5 


11,141 




493 


100 


146 


8,61.489 It 


8 


99,471 


Shlhabftil 


143 


9 


11 


899866 8 


4 


!.!» 


^ta^4>lllanuagar ••• 


• •a 


4S 


10 


7 


99,849 





519 


Alamnat^ar 


••• 


... 


48 


6 


9 


94,148 





1.449 


I'achpoba 


... 


... 


80 


7 


16 


46,988 S 


8 


\jk\% 


Sara, Nortli 


•>• 


«•• 


65 


16 


9 


3t,S09 4 


e 


ijm 


Maiisurnugar 


••• 


• •• 


95 


6 


8 


11.099 





Hi 


Pali ... 


• at 


M* 


93 


37 


8 


35,974 





687 


Fehani .. 


Total 
••• 


• a. 

• *. 


81 


19 


13 
75 


41,820 1 


1 


993 




661 


101 


8,03,114 12 11 


7,59$ 


Bilgram 


♦120 


6 


S8 


75,929 8 





2,711 


Katiari 


••« 


• •• 


80 


6 


10 


58,391 





2.142 


Kachhandau 


••• 


a • • 


84 


7 


26 


88,855 8 





5,190 


^^uIl(li ... 


••• 


••• 


•145 


13 


96 


1,93,686 10 





6,0«6 


MalUwau 


••• 

Total 

Total 


• •• 
••• 
••• 


123 


17 


31 


1,02,178 






8,401 

1 




511 


47 


121 


8,98,813 6 


24,70S 


Grand 


1,060 


837 


464 


14,32,689 15 


5 


73,610 



•Includes certain Tillages rcceired from Farukhabad. 



HABDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 



317 



236. The method observed in revising the assessments 
IV as as follows. 

For every mauza a janiabandi in either one or other of 
the following forms was filed : — 

No. 1. — Form ofjamabandi to be used in villages where rent is paid in cash. 



Name of 
cultiTator. 



Number of 
field. 



Name of 
field. 



Area In 

standard 

bighas. 




Bemarks. 



No. 2.- 


-Form ofjamabandi to be used where corn rents are paid. 


1 


1 


s 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 10 


11 


• 

5 


• 

u 

O 

•** 

i 

•v4 




2 


00 

2 

o 

1 


1 


iBatoi. 


Kan- 
kut. 


a 

o 
•o 


a 

Oi 

P 

a 

26 
o o 




3 


a 






O 


*^ 






ta 


a ^ 


«> 






o*C 




<M 

o 


s 






o 


fl p 


P 

•§-5 


• 


«M m 




• 


s 

a 

a 


•M 

o 

§ 


• 

a 




M 

s 

z, 


Ehasrah 

Area Htai 

■ 


Is 


s 

3 

O 

H 


Share o 
maiiEd 


O « 

-ss 

> 


OQ 

M 

s 

o 



This jamabaodi is first tenantwar and secondly jinswar. 

Column 5.— Contains the number of fields belonging to one cul tivator under the 

same crop* 

6.— The Ehasrah number of those fields. 

7.— Tbe area io standard bighas according to the khasrah of those fields. 

«.— The actual or the estimate of the whole produce of the fields in coluina 
6, as the case may be. 

9.— The landlord's share after the Ehfir, Gaon Eharch, &c., have been 
deducted and adjusted. 

10.— The value according to the price paid at the kharihan by the Bainari 
for each kind of grain. ^ 

11.— ShoiUd show the rate of division of crop and the price of grain used 
to fill column 10. ** * 



» 



» 



>i 






3H EJLJSDOI S 



The one beAg applicable to cash ieitt% the other to ton 

recti), if both prevailed both jamabandia were filed, czcepi 
where the com rents were trifling and confined to the extreae 
ontlyin^ lands of the Tillac:e, for these the panriris' moiiej 
valuation in rent rates was accepted, if at all hir^ primd/aeic 

After pnttinga fair rate on the sir and rent-firee laad 
in the case of money rents, and after raising anj fiiTOtaUe 
rates of Batai to the normal rate in com rented jamahandii 
if tie total assets differed considerably from an amoiml ckm- 
ble the revenue, a monsarim was then deputed to test and 
verify the jamabandis and to compare them with the khasnu^ 
particularly with the object of seeing whether any, and ho^ 
much, land had gone out of cultivation. The verification w^^ 
made by the examination of patw^is and of tenants as to t|^^ 
entries under their names, and, if necessary^ by an examii^^ 
tion of the lands. 

237. After verification in the case of money-rented vil. 
lages, a rent statement No. 3. iu the following form was pre* 
pared. 



BABDOI SBTTLEHEHT REFORT. 







1 

3 


^o^a 


■ 






•i 
CQ 


,.v 


■4 






■jaqtonn wrnqji | | 




1 


loaa 








-IBiV 


4 






•J-qnios wBsqn | | 




J 


ti 


■IMfl 


3 




-i3iy 






■wquinn uHsqM 1 1 






■10»a 


«£ 
^ 


' 


■MIT 




'■ 


■jaqinnK«mq3 1 | 


J 




b 


■103H 






. 


f3JV 


si 


3 


■jaqiuDNW«qM 1 | 


g 


.1 


■jnaa 


a. 
•i 




■»MY 


d 


\ 




■JaquiON 8oti(m | | 






■JOHtiiJiDQ JO amvfi 


■tV\TIS 

niojj ajigo aqi iu-p3]rfniua 
oq <n 8( jaii.d «|qi— MOV 






uqainH 










-»i«n 










■ftijpioil ;o pDja 







320 HARDOI 8KTTLEMBNT BEPOBT. 

The kinds of holdings were — 

Sir Ehud Easht. 

„ Shikmi. 

Brahmans. 

Tliakurs. 

Kurmis, Kachis, and Moraos. 

Others. 

Rent-free land. 

This classification supposes that, generally speaking, 
'^ the others " that is, people other than the first fiye classes, 
pay what may be regarded as a fair rent for their lands, and 
that their rents may be used as a basis on which to found 
rents for the remaining classes. 

The classification of soils was as follows: — 

1. Diimatjrrigated. 

2. Do. unirrigated. 

3. Matiar irrigated. 

4. Do. unirrigated. 

5. Bhur irrigated. 

6. Do. unirrigated. 

The object of this statement is to show the average rent 
recorded in the jamabandi for each of the aboye kind of hold- 
ings in each of the above classes of soil ; it shows each culti- 
vator's holding in each class of soil in one line, and as the 
arrangement is according to the kind of holding, the conse- 
quence is that we obtain as a result the actual rate of rent 
paid on the irrigated diimat, for example, by s{r holders, Brah- 
mans, Thakurs, Kachis, and Chamars, &c. 

This rent-rate is found for the Brahmans, e./f ., by adding 
the areas of the fields held by the Brahmans in the irrigated 
diimat and the rents also, and by dividing the latter by the 
former. Biswas in total areas and pies in the rates of rent 
were excluded. 

238. These areas and rents were entered in the state- 
ment No. 4, which shows in one page the average rate paid on 
each class of soil by each class of cultivator in the village ; 
under the head of " proposed '' were entered any revised rates 
that the assessing officer thought proper to put on any parti- 
cular class of land after comparison with those lands which 
paid better rents. 



HASDorBirTLnmT bbpobt. 



Ho. pnnnu. 


Statement Ho. 4, Ho. Tillage. 


Pattidari, or as It may 
be, ■DDimarj jama. 


Binjar ... 


Chklii Bigbu. 

Abi 

Dmrris«tecL 


Faoloi wells, depth. 
Katclw ditto. 


Cbipatbiud asami. 
FaU kaibt „ 


Site 
D«mr 

ToUl ... 


Dnmat BiBhu, 
Matiar „ 
Bhfir „ 




Chaukidar. 
Bnlabar. 









Z>cf<it7 


o/oMeMmeRt. 






PrcpposMi. 


1 




Cla«. 


~ 










BemarkB. 




i ^ 




^ 


-: 


a" 


£ 






5 1 


1 


a 


£ 


g 


1 




Sir I 












Rent. 


NoTE.-.Thia paper \a ta 


a 












Waste. 


be prepared In EnglUh. Tbo 


» s 












QmveB. 


No9, 1 10 6 refer U, tbe kind 


>, 4 














of «iil 1 1 fc. diimat irripilod 




» 5 












Total. 


«nd 6 is bhtir nnirri(rated. 

Odds iriigalion, erens oot. 




















The arfai are to be gitea in 


ToUl ... 














standnrci bfghas ai );i the khaB- 
m. The rate in rupees and nr<na. 


Shikml I 














The proposed Bileralions are 
mude by putting revised rates 


S 














ia the i^oluiTiQ of rntcB nnder 


>l e 














proposed. Where do rerlsed 
rate iu entered, the rate <j£ the 

.hown in tbo total. The reason 


Total ... 














for altering tbe rates eboiild bo 
given in lhi> colnmnof remarks. 


Btahiun 1 














Tbe coiutnnB area and Jama- 


» > 














bandE are to be Bllcd up before 


r. * 

« a 














Tillage, the column " propoBsd" 
after he baa done so. "Kent," 


i> e 














under rent for assesBment ia 
the rent shown in •' total" under 


Total ... 














proposed. Half tbe total o( 
rent for assessment i* the new 


And limilaily for 














jama to wliicb tbecesaes arc to 


Tba b a r-. 














l>e added, at ^1 per cent, on it ; 


Enrmi!!, &<-., 














nbat the renUfrec land is. 


DtbcTS rant-tree 














nankor, sbankalap, chnkrana. 


with a grand 
totaL 














&C-, ahould be »Uled In the 












ciolnmn of lemarka. 



322 



HARDOi smLximn kbpobt. 



239. To enable tbe assessing officer to compare the 
different classes of laud, a small book in the following rotm 
was prepared, to be taken to the village, and also a tnuiiig 
of the sbajra, colored with a ncparate color for each class 
of cultivator, by means of wbicli be could see tbe lands of 
the same description paying fair and low rents, tuid judge 
how to deal with tbe latter. 

Statement No. 5. 

Abitract elaggified rent-roll of the mmaa. 





_ J ' ^ 1 • 


B 4 




HoldiDga. 




— 





BeOMTk* Natt. 




- i 


S Si S £ 


^1 ii 






^< 








■* 


x<a^X 


■< K 5 ^ 




Sir 








Tlwmr«»caDbe«tM- 


Shikmi „ 








ed in red wid lb* 










r>i«> in bluk inL 


Thikiirs 








TbeTOteainibiKn 


Kurnii«, &c 








those of tbe Jum- 


Olheri 








budL 


BcQUfiee 




\ 






Cnltivated. 


i^hnhi. Cbhaporbuid. Usir. 


Banjnr. i 


ibi. 


Pal 


ikashL 


Jam*. 



BetDftrk* mmdc on TUIling tbe vitlagc »ai pTO|>OMd cbango of nlM deUinilticdWi 

Where there were sir lands paying low rents, therenti 
were raised after comparison with similar lands held by " tit 
otiivrs." Thakurs and BrfihniAiis holdiDg large areas vert 
in general nut compelled to pay quite so mucb as low cult 
tenants. The rates paid by Kurmis being always the higbeit 
for similar lands in the village, were not xued for assesnif 
the lands of high caste ten£.nts. 

Where the village was held by Musalmans or Kayadi^ 
tbe zamindari class appenred among " the others" and tbdl 
fields were eliminated from statement Ko. 3, and xntiff 
rates were struck ou tbe remainder. 

Half of the total under rent for assessment was taka 
as tbe jama to which cesscs at 2^ per cent, were added. 



HABDOI BVmEHSNT RXPOBT. 



S2S 



240. In the case of eorn rents jamabandis were pre- 
pared for as many years as possible up to five They were 
tested by an examination of tenants, as to the fields, crops, and 
Dutturn, and particularly as to the prices, a list of average 
prices for as many years as could be got being given at 
the foot. Also a calculation of the difference in the result 
if the lands held at more favorable rates of division had beea 
divided at the ordinary rate. 

A statement in the foUowing form was then prepared : — 



No. of Parwas 
CQltirated. 



Baojar 
Bayha 
Tals 
Site 

Usar 



••« 



••• 



Total 



• ■• 



VUUge. 



No, 



Chahi. 

Abi. 

Unirrigated. 



D&roat 
Matiar. 



F. Wells Depth. 
K.W. 



Pattidari, or as it may 
hcy Summary jama. 



Chapparbaml A&sami» 
Pahikasht do. 



Chaukidars.. 
Bulahar. 



Detail of CLSsesament. 



X'otal amoQDt o€ 
Boltmm 10 of ]»• 
HMOiaiidL 



Correction for 
lands held at 
special rato 
of Batai. 



Bant free 
laad.^ 



Waste; 



Groves. 



Total; 



Those who hold at special rates of batai shoald be mentioned. Details of the^ 
■Qt-free land should be given in the remarks, and it shoald be valued, when (be villagea 
3i» visited, with the assistance of the patw&rL 

Coiomos 1 and S can be ^ed op before the village is visited, the others after. 

This paper is to be prepared in Englishi areas tabe given in standard bSghas f ronk 
^khasra. 

Half of the total was taken aa the jama, the ce^ea being: 
dded. 

241. The officer assessing was not in all cases bound 
y these jamaS) but expected to give fully detailed reasons 
^ his remarks when departing from them. 

m 

Waste was not assessed, Tin or pattdwar grass, where sold 
^ a good price, was assessed; fish, fruits, sm^haras, pAijot, 
^^, were in general not included in the assets. 



324 HABDOi nmxiaDrr Bvon. 

Groves were rarely found to exceed the limits of 10 per 
cent, of the area, and were not assessed. 

242. The Bilgram and Sandila tahsils were revised hj 
Sayad Gulam Haidar Khan, Extra Assistant Commissioimy 
and the Shahahad and Hardoi tahsils by Mr* Bleimeriiassett» 
Assistant Commissioner, and Mirza Kalb Ali Khan, Extra 
Assistant Commissioner. The general result of the reviaioii 
is given below. The regular demand is given from the tauah, 
allowing for all changes since regular settlement, from allu- 
vion, diluvion, taking up land for Government, &c. 

The present reduction in demand amounts therefore to 
Rs. 1,1 7,7 27-7-0, and this sum will eventually decrease to 
Bs. 92,550-6-0, as the demands increase progpressivelj. 



SABDOI SSmcnBNT UPOBt. 



S25 



Kame of FArgAiia. 



8«iidilm 
GoBdwa 



BaUudbii 



Total 



ta« 



6hahabad 
Sara, North 
Pihaoi 
Paefaboba 
AUmnagar ••• 

fiaromannagar ... 
Mansomagar 
Pali 



Total 



Sand! 

Bilgram 

Katiiri 

Kacbandaa 

llaUawin 



Tbtal 



B4wan 
6aia, South 
Baagar 



••• 
••• 



••• 



h q oD 

l|| 

o 
Eh 



SJ 



SIS 

117 

72 

14 



^m 



416 



143 
65 
81 
80 
48 
48 
86 
9S 



661 



•145 

•129 

80 

34 

1S8 



611 



••• 



Ctopamau 



Tdtal 



Omam ToffAL 



••• 



67 
30 
96 
69 

S40 



49S 



1,980 



78 
71 
43 

10 



so 
t6 
96 
22 
14 
17 
8 
45 



176 



89 
83 
15 

83 
48 



168 



85 
17 
50 
50 
108 



246 



791 






B 

S 

OQ 



Bs. 

1,35,029 
97,039 
41,669 
18,012 



2,91,649 



71,527 
23,683 
84,810 
26,837 
12,937 
16,487 
8,662 
85,197 



8,08,630 



1,03,881 
65,677 
86,204 
23,08S 
69,809 



8^7,493 



30,580 
99,110 
61,138 
18,660 
1,06,618 



2,88,940 



10,16,718 



9 

*S "S 
« 00 

is 

^ IB 

I 



Bb. a. p* 

1,92,561 18 4 

1,06,026 6 2 

46,334 6 1 

20,867 7 



3,64,879 



89,666 6 4 

32,308 4 

41,320 1 1 

46,268 2 6 

84,143 

88,342 

1 1,099 

36,974 



3,03,114 19 11 



8,93,813 6 



45,286 11 8 

87,506 9 3 

85,746 12 2 

28,267 

1,74,676 11 5 



8,61,488 18 6 



14,82,689 16 5 



RSTISKD DBMIRD 
PBOORBiiSlTB. 



Bi. 



a. p. 



1,88,638 3 

92,396 8 8 

4at,003 6 I 

18,376 7 



3,35,813 8 8 



1,88,536 10 

75,928 6 

68,321 j 

33,866 6 

1,02,178 



86,614 


6 


4 


30,056 


12 


8 


39,463 


2 


8 


43,099 


2 


6 


19,498 








81,188 








10.516 








32,168 









8,82,697 7 8 



1,17,837 16 

73,218 6 

56,526 

86^)88 8 

93,850 3 



8,67,618 



42,085 1 
26,891 7 
76,779 13 
23.079 
1,51,701 3 



8 
S 
8 





3,19,986 9 



13,04,962 8 5 



In tfMM attmben we ineloded certain yilhiges receired on tnmsfcr from Farokhabad. 



326 



HABDOI SnTLElfraT BSFOBT. 



Namt of PargtiuL 



••• 



SftDdCIa 
Oondwa 
KAliaumal 
BaUmau 



Total 



Shahabad ... 

Sara, North ... 

Fihani ••• 

Pachhoha ••. 

AlamnaKar m* 

8aromanoagar ... 

MaiiBurnagar ... 
Pali 




Total 



Sandi 

Bilgram 

Katiiri 

Kachandaa 

MallawaQ 



Total 



Bawan 
Sara, Sooth 
Banffar 
Bar wan 
Gopamau 



Total 



••• 



••• 



••• 
••• 

••• 



••• 



Obahd Total ... 



S18 

117 
7S 
H 



416 



148 
6ft 
81 



78 
71 
48 
10 



SOS 



Sft 

Sfi 



80. 28 

43| 14 



4S 

9S 



661 



•145 

•1S9 

80 

84 

188 



17 

8 

46 



176 



611 



89 
88 

16 
88 

48 



168 



67 25 

80 17 

9b I 50 

G9' 50 

S40: 108 



49S 



1,980 



S45 



791 



l,8S.677 8 

92.661 8 t 

42,008 6 1 

I Ml 3 7 



8,869646 8 8 



86,889 6 4 
80,066 19 8 
89,568 8 8 



19.769 
91,189 
10,616 
32,193 



9 







6 

(I 






9,88,240 7 9 



1.17,848 16 

73,218 6 

66,6V6 O 

X6,277 8 U 

94,008 8 



8,67,874 



49.086 1 
95,891 7 
76,916 13 
23,164 
1,52,361 3 



8 
9 
S 





3,90,398 9 



18.07,168 8 6 



1,89.8U • 

99,70U • 8 

42,008 • I 

18^1 7 O 



8,86,970 • S 



87.188 6 

80.189 18 



89,668 
43,803 
80,080 
8I,l4t 
10.618 
88,193 



8 
8 







4 

o 
o 



o 



9,84,109 7 8 



1,17,868 15 

78,919 6 

66,698 

96,472 8 O 

94,418 8 



3,68,601 



42,166 
95,891 
77,509 
28,289 
1,58,271 



1 8 

7 9 
18 8 



8 



3,92,057 9 



13,10,638 8 6 



99,810 It 
48||B0S • 1 
18^489 7 t 



8^8S8W i ^ 



•7,i06 i 4 
S(^98IU t 
89,818 t 1 
48,976 2 ft 

90,660 • 
81,818 • • 

10,61ft 6 * 
88,689 • 



8,86^ 7 I 



1,18,079 IS ft 
73,880 ft ft 
56,789 ft 
96,908 9 ft 
94,674 S < 



3,89,560 1 • 



49,966 1 ft 
86,994 7 I 
77,809 13 ft 
88,413 9 ft 
1,63,880 S ft 



3,93,983 9 t 



13914,062 9 6 



♦ In these numbera are included ccrlttin viUagea received on transfer from Farokhabad. 



UkKOOt SBTtLKintm* BEPOBT. 



327 



^Usstf B — (cimHmutd), 



ItahiarfB.«B«-a<ta 



3 



B3. a, p, 

1,83,018 8 
93,002 8 2 



42,766 1 8 

20,181 7 2 

§8,469 18 2 

28,908 

1,84,717 a 



8^28,028 9 



18biail88 9 5 






Rb. b. p. 

1,83,090 8 
93,018 t 2 



42,003 6 
18,627 7 


1 




42,003 6 
18,666 7 


1 



8,86^646 8 


3 


8,36,676 8 


8 


87,824 6 
80,610 12 


4 
8 


88,024 6 
80,692 12 


4 
b 



89,968 
48,788 
20,964 
21,646 
10^649 
8^997 


2 
2 






8 
8 






89,968 2 
43^883 2 
21,357 
21,646 
10,649 
83,067 


8 
6 






2,88,281 


7 


s 


2,89,176 7 


2 


1,18,120 
78,866 
88,794 
27,464 
94,698 


16 
6 

9 
8 









1,18,890 16 
78,406 6 
66,794 
27,464 9 
94,962 3 






u 





8,70,484 


1 





8>70,747 1 






42,856 I 8 

26,181 7 2 

78,997 13 2 

24,086 

1,66,224 3 U 



8,27,344 9 



13,28,948 9 6 






Bs. a. p. 

1,83,189 8 

93,081 8 2 

42,003 6 1 

18,603 7 



8.86,777 8 3 



88,303 6 4 

80.772 12 8 

39,968 2 8 

43,979 2 6 

81,782 

21,729 

10,549 

83,256 



2,90,328 7 2 



1,18,303 16 

73,467 6 

57.02% 

27>556 9 

94,982 8 



8,71,382 1 



42,966 1 8 

26,216 7 2 

79,144 13 2 

24,244 

1,66,697 3 



8,28 266 9 



18,26,694 9 6 



00 



Rs. a. p. 

1,83,188 8 

93,046 8 2 

42,003 6 1 

18 641 7 



3,86,879 8 8 



88,808 
30,854 
39,968 
43.979 
22,098 
21,729 
10,549 
33,264 



6 
12 
2 
2 







4 
8 
8 
6 







2,90,736 7 2 



1,18,303 15 

73,467 6 

67,022 

27,656 9 

96,009 8 



3,71,362 1 



43,079 1 8 

20,216 7 2 

79,201 13 2 

24,282 

1,66.968 8 



8,28,691 9 



13,97,658 9 6 



> » 



■.">-«.-> 

«. . 



328 



HABDOI SBTTtSMSHT BBPOBCi 





a • 

« s 


• 


Kbtixbd 


DKHAifD FBOOEBflHTK^— (eoadaM.) 


































Name of Par- 


c 3 

u. ^ J! 
















gana. 




► 

o 

■a 


1 




i 












a 

9 




1 






H 
5 




H 


as 






o 






= 






Ba. a. 


p- 


Ba. 1 


a. 


P- 


Ba. a. |i 


SandSIa 


218 


78 


1,83,236 8 





1,83,236 


S 


• 


l.«S,S86 8 6 


Gondwa •«• 


117 


71 


93,063 8 


S 


93,068 


• 


S 


•3^068 8 9 


Kalian Dial ^, 


7S 


49 


42,008 6 


1 


42,008 


6 


1 


42,0(4 1 1 


balamau 


14 


10 


18,679 7 





18,717 


7 





1M61 7 6 


Total ... 


416 


SOS 


8,86,982 8 


3 


8,87,020 


8 


s 


a|87j864 8 8 


Shnhabad 


143 


20 


88,803 5 


4 


88,476 


6 


4 


88g476 6 1 


Kara, North .. 


5fi 


25 


30.854 12 


8 


30,864 


IS 


• 


aM64 n 1 


Pihani 


81 


25 


2>9,968 2 


8 


40^061 


S 


8 


4(M»1 2 • 


F^rhhoha 


80 


22 


43,979 2 


6 


44,984 


s 


6 


64|S84 2 f 


Alamnagar ... 


43 


14 


22,098 





2S,098 








SS,008 • 


baromaiiagAr... 


4S 


17 


21,729 





Sl,9II 








Sl^U 8 • 


Maruurnuagur, 


S6 


8 


10,549 





10,549 








10^649 8 6 


Pali 


98 


45 

176 


33,264 





38,468 








88^468 f • 


ToUl ... 


561 


2,90,736 7 


2 


2,91,702 


7 


s 


S,91»782 I t 


Sandi 


•145 


39 


1,18,308 16 





1,18,30S 


16 





1.I8»808 16 • 


Bilgram 


•129 


^3 


78,467 6 





73,4*7 


6 





73,467 i I 


Katiiri 


BO 


15 


67,022 





67,022 








67,029 • 


Kachhandan ... 


34 


83 


2: ,656 9 





27,782 


9 





27,782 9 • 


Mallawan 


\2i 


48 


0fi,022 3 





9VS7 


3 





96,07 8 f 


Total ... 


611 


168 


3,71,372 1 





3,71,613 


1 





8,91,618 1 • 


Bawan 


67 


25 


43,079 1 


8 


43,850 


1 


8 


48»8i0 1 1 


barn. South ... 


ao 


17 


26,216 7 


2 


26.447 


7 


S 


S6,447 f I 


Hangar 


96 


fit 


79.201 18 


2 


79,306 


13 


s 


79,106 » S 


liarwan 


69 


60 


24,391 





24,5:<6 








84k636 1 


Gopamaa 


240 


1U8 
245 


1,65,903 8 





1,66,119 


3 


• 


1,66,119 8 1 


Total ... 


492 

1,980 


3,28,860 9 





3,29,769 


9 





3,29,769 • • 


Graud Total, 


791 


13,27,940 9 


6 


13,30,095 


9 


6 


l8,8alS9 9 1 



In these uunibcrB arc included certain vjlJagtB received on transfer irom Farokhatei 

iVo(c.^£xclude8 the jungle of 5 Tillages. 



HABDOI SEITLEHKMT BXPOBT. 



32 9 



[ 



The following statement shows the area and revenue o f 
lands released either for certain lives or in perpetuity. 

The largest grant is that of Rdja Hardeo Bakhsh^ C.S.I., 
in pargana Gopamau : — 







Mud/U released for 




Mu4fis releated in 






lives. 




perpetuity. 


Fftrgaoft. 










* 






Area- in 


Jama. 




Area in 


Jama. 






apres. 






acres. 




1 


2 


3 


4 


6 








Bs. a. 


Pl 




38. a. p 


B&wm 


••• 


324 


1,384 





368 


425 


Sum, north 


••• 


414 


416 





••• 


• • t 


Sandl 


••• 


6,066 


6,114 





839 


I,7i0 


OopAmaQ M 


»•• 


7S1 


903 





12,811 


12,700 


Bflgrmm 


••• 


6 


31 





261 


448 


Kftchhandftii 


••• 


161 


•69 4 


6 


76 u 


96 


Malliwia m. 


••• 


103 


154 





111 


201 


fimidna 


••« 


3,663 


4,768 





229 


336 


Kalianmal ••• 


••• 


••• 


• • • 




• • • 


••t 


Fibiiii PAodATwan 


••• 


8,60S 


SJ89 





41 


40 




••• 


318 


451 





• • • 


••• 


AhuBiiagac .^ 


••• 


3,111 


S,081 


(t 


•*• 


••• 


Hftmnniiuigar — 


••• 


■•• 


• • • 




• t • 


••• 


rkli 


••• 


32S 


671 





*•• 


• • • 


Barwao 


•• 
••• 


•— 


••• 




1,048 


1,171 


Total 


16/»91 


19,913 4 


6 


16,773 


17,121 



These figures allow for the resumptions of revonuo-froo 

fenures up to date of this report, and lidja Aiit Singh's 

tevenue-free tenure granted subsequently to the regular 

pMessment is included, they will therefore not tally witu tho 

ifreas ^ven in* column 8, Appendix v.a. 

243. During the last years of native rule, the coun- 

pey was in a state of anarchy, and a vast number of blood feuds 

aad disputes concerning righto in land existed, which on tlio 

Itnnexatioa of the province naturally led to great and coNtly 

litigajlioii ; shortly afterwards the mutiny took place, again in- 

^E^fuang general disorder and insecurity* Ou the rouccupa- 

42 H 



330 HABDOI SITTLElfKKT BEPOBT. 

tion of the province, many orders new to tbe people sacb as 
for general disarmament, levelling forts, clearing jtmgles, 
had to be carried out by subordinate agency, a summary set- 
tlement was made, and larc^e establishments employed for de- 
marcations, survey, and field measurement, wno lived upon 
the resources of an ignorant people like a swarm of locusts. 

Litigation for the most part was carried on from tbe 
lowest to the highest courts, and a suitor failinif to obtam 
one grade of rights would commence again a suit for the lower 
grades of rights, till he succeeded or could litigate no longer; 
the money necessary for litigation was borrowed at high in- 
terest, and paid to pleaders, who enjoyed a rich harvest of 
fees. 

Large numbers of men who previous to tbe mutby 
lived on their wages as servants, being thrown out of employ, 
returned to their villages to claim a share therein, and to in- 
crease the general litigation. 

The country, in short, was passing through a revolution 
from a state of anarchy to one of civilized Government, and 
ten years after annexation it had not recovered from the evil- 
effects of its foniier state, nor had it yet experienced that peace 
and quiet for which British rule is so justly appreciated. 

The time however was one of financial pressure, and 
hence it happened that the enhanced assessments were imposed 
on a people exhausted by their struggles for their rights, 
with more than usual haste. 

244. After the mutiny a great impetus was given to 
agriculture by many persons turning their attention to it who 
had lost all other employments. The summary Government 
demand was moderate, prices were high, trade was more than 
usually active, land which had long lain fallow during nativo 
rule returned good crops, survey and assessment took place 
during the portion of the cycle of weather when good seasons 
predominated, there was an absence of floods in the hot weather 
and plentiful rain io the cold weather. The area measured as 
cultivated was therefore far above the average, and the crops 
sometimes high enough to overwhelm the settlement 



HABDOI BKTILEICSNT BXPOBT. 331 

officer's horse, though accurately weighed and measured by Go- 
yernment officers afforded no correct standard for an average 
of years. Hardly was assessment over when the order of 
nature brought back the bad seasons, hail and floods appeared 
and winter rains ceased. Export trade abated and prices fell, 
lands surveyed as irrigated from welln, ceased to be so for 
many years, owing to quicksands caused by excessive and un- 
timely rains, the worst description of cultivated land would 
hardly return the seed sown in it, and much became fallow, 
the better land gave but poor crops, and over-assessment 
aided in impoverishing the people. This state of things, 
thoQgh evident now many years after the event, was pro- 
bably by no means clear at the time it occurred, and taking into 
consideration the methods and means of assessment available, 
it was perhaps unavoidable. The district of Hardoi is by no 
means the only one suffering from similar causes, it is there- 
fore no matter for surprise that villages were classed higher 
than they should have been ; that bhur land appeared better 
than it was; that the severe effects of floods failed to be notic- 
ed; and that much land, which from its inferior quality or from 
being periodically submerged must frequently be uncultivated, 
has been assessed as a permanent source of income to the 
zamindar. 

245. Experience in the North-Western Provinces shows 
that assessments based on rates are in general favorable to 
good villages, but press heavily on poor villages (para. 64) 
Direction to settlement ofiicers. 

The assessment of Hardoi is no exception to this rule. 
large villages with good lands throughout, and extensive ir- 
rigation, with numerous resident tenants, and producing sugar 
and cotton, opium and tobacco, these villages are lightly 
assessed. Parganas Shahabad and Malldwan afford numerous 
instances. 

Villages with a fair amount of advantages and disadvan- 
tag^es appear to be on tbe whole not unfairly though rather 
Ltly assessed; villages liable to floods appear to be gene- 
[ly over-assessed, and much of the western and southern 
parts of the district come under this head, as well as other 
Tillages where there are large jhils. It is the small villages, 
with tbe worst description of soil, with no houses, or a most 




332 HABDOI SKTrLEMENT fiXFOBT. 

one or two resident tenants, and therefore dependent on pre- 
carious cultivation by tenants of other villages ; with no irri- 
gation, or next to none, villages overrun with deer and pro- 
ducing little besides the coarser kharff grains, where the 
over-assessment is most marked. Pargana Pachhoha con- 
tains some such villages. Parganas Bawan. Bangar, Pali, and 
Barwan contain more, while pargana Gopamao has perhaps 
the most. In the latter pargana numerous villages on the 
Gumti appear to have been assessed at sums higher than 
average assets, other villages have been leased for conside^ 
able periods at sums about averaging the Government de- 
mand, or mortgaged to bankers and deserted by them, or 
sold to men who iiave bitterly repented their bargains. Go- 
pamau itself is the centre of a group of villages, such as Shah* 
zadnagar, Baziduagar, Dariabad and Kachnari, &c., all heavi- 
ly over-assessed and the cause of ruin to their possessors: 
. perhaps the climax was reached in mauza Khushalpur assess- 
ed in the former settlement at Rf. 9, and at regualar settle- 
ment at Rs. 124. This village for three years yielded a 
nikdsi of Rs. 8 per annum, and for three years more went 
entirely out of cultivation, the owners out of assets amoon^ 
ing to Rs. 24 having to pay revenue amounting to Rs. 744. 

24C. The method used in revising the assessments 
being essentially diflcreut from that used at regular assess- 
ment, any comparison of soil rates under the two systems is 
a matter of great difficulty. 

There is no difficulty, however, in showing where the 
rates used at regular assessment failed : from the statements 
at paras. 187-188, it will be seen that, with very few excep- 
tions, the revenue rates used were directly based on the 
rent-rates found applicable to dumat and matiar soils, and 
although a careful enquiry had proved that bhiir rent-rates 
were universally much lower than those of matiar and du- 
mat, yet no special bhiir revenue rate was fixed. 

The worst soils were assumed to be equal to the best, the 
result being that bliiir villages were heavily over-assessed. 

For example, mauza Bazidnagar, pargana Gopamau 
4th class, contained five acres unirrigatcd dumat, and 184 acres 



HABDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. c33 

unirrigated bbiir. To this a 12-anQa rate was applied, though 
the statement at paras. 187-188 shows that according to the 
settlement officer's enquiries an eight-anna rate should have 
been used. Khushalpur, pargana Gopamau, 4th class, contains 
25 acres unirrigated ddmat, 175 acres unirrigated bhiir ; a 12- 
anna rate was used : here, again, the statement shows that an 
eight-aona rate should have been used for the bhiir. In short, 
the rate used was 50 per cent, higher than was justified by 
the siBtdement officer's enquiries ; this error is traceable 
throughout two tahsils as then constituted containing the 
parganas Balamau, Kalianmal, Gondwa, Sandila, Bawan, 
bangar, Sara, and Gopamau. In these parganas the settle- 
ment officer followed the rates entered in statement para. 187. 
In tahsil Bilgram Mr. Bradford then assessed parganas 
Malldwdn, Sandi and Eatidri ; and here for the first time a 
bhiir rate is used, and the rates reported in statement at para, 
187 are frequently departed from. In the Shahabad tahsil, 
then consisting of parganas Alamnagar, Mansurnagar, Pi- 
hani, Sbahabad, Saromannagar, Barwao, Pali, and Pachhoha, 
a bhiir rate is used when necessary. The reported rates are 
departed from, the departure being greatest in Pihani, Saro- 
mannagar, Barwan and Pali. Occasionally two or three 
different rates are used for one classification of soil, the pro- 
portions for each rate being calculated apparently in a purely 
arbitrary manner. The departures on the whole appear to be 
in favor of a more lenient rate than that reported, and indeed the 
three last of the above parganas are the worst in the tahsil. 

It would appear that the more experience the settlement 
cflBcer gained, the more he departed from the rates originally 
fixed by him. The zamindars on the bhiir who complain of 
having been assessed on '^ acres " and '' areas '' instead of on 
the value of their lands, have therefore much foundation for 
their statements. 

247. The following table will show to what extent eacli 
pargana was likely to sufier from the absence of any bliur 
rate. It has unfortunately happened that the two tahsils in 
which the bhiir rate was not used were tbose with the largest 
area of unirrigated bhiir : — 



334 HABDOI 


8ETTLEIIKNT BEPOBT. 


























iM«(. 


M 


nor. 


"'^l 
















Name of pirsuta. 






■s 




! 




^ 






■s 




'i 


'i 






•3 


s. 


,1 


i 


^ 


g, 








t 




3 














a 


a 




guijna 




M.7'7 


SS.6M 


6.S19 


10.346 


S.SSU 


», 


(iundwB 






1l),llfi 


1,4U! 


S.349 1,00] 


K 


KftlUnniuI ... 




6S8' 


1S.S0( 


P>! 


s.ojr 


IS] 


UkiiuDau 


... 


1,19! 


4,901 


1V8 




ses 




Totml 




43,991 


74.016 H,1GI 


16.01* 


a,«7! 


u, 


aopimaa 


-.. 


SI.S40 


BLtls! *,05i 


9,171 


,m 


>«. 


U.-iwaQ -. 




T,fiH 


8,30" 


441 


JBC 


1,373 








n.68- 


10,711 




9B( 






Bwigai 


- 


1I.7U4 


17,710 


l.TB* 


3.47; 


ifis* 


iM 


ToUI 


-. 


U,i*6 


73,«7 


i,asi 


14,796 


7,094 


u^ 


BilRruB 


» 


7,43* 


|I>,S17 


8,MI9 


G.7IG 


1.447 


alljt 






S.4S< 


3,3 >( 


1,6M 


»,844 


14^ 


Ult 


Kaiiiri 




*.37( 




1,»4I 


1».36» 


ISt 




ftacdi 




«.«0: 




S,4t6 




fi4( 


ftW 






lS.7<i 


14.61!4 


4.1*0 


4,76R 


l,4>,U 


IM) 


Toiil 


» 


SMS' 


71,SI4 


I4.MB 


4D,ora 


3,7ia 


40,Al 


Bh«hab«d ... 


S,S"« 


13,711 


S,4t>S 


4^13 


e,«8 


£41 


■.ttl 


Alamnagir ... 


63S 


M7( 


3.9W 


411 


1,164 


13 














S.S6G 




ll,HI 






6.3*1 


6,494 


1,6» 


a,saH 


1,013 




I'ltaint _ 




7,991 


1V44 


7IK 


j.eai 




1,111 




<M 


1,411 




l,73( 


9.9 li 


301 


M» 


MnOSDtDllgBr.., 


S3; 


1,86. 


s,3o; 


3ai 




H 


)>i 


fiuniui ,« 


<T 


4,S»i 


4,010 


s,«w 


3,^6;i 


3ie 


6.W 


Tolal 


4,S88 


ao,9ST 


69,1113 


I4,*7( 


SS,491 


6,480 


46,)(r 


GlABD TOTAI. 


i,6S3 


188, USD 


S7;.«it 


44,713 


103,411 


»,230 


«,«« 



248. It baa been remarked in settlements in Bensns 
and Kobilkliiind, tliat tlie success ofa settlement i& endanger* 
ed by tbc dcm.ind of the mabal being unjustly dietributed 
over the component pnLtic-s. 



HABDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 335 

Instances of incorrect distribution of demnnd in Hardoi- 
sufficiently numerous to show that this defect has not 
m wanting, and cannot be overlooked ; pattidars, when' 
to distribute the demand among themselves, have been 
to do so much as tigers divide their prey. If the de- 
lad is distributed by order of the settlement officer, it is 
Dally done by some subordinate official following the settle- 
mt officer's rates. It is generally found that the larger and 
tter portion of the mahdl in such distribution gets off more 
*htly than the smaller and poorer portion ; a settlement too 
opoBes only to show the constitution of the village as it 
ostS, it does not profess to leave it as it should be. 

A civil court is also unable to settle disputes among the 
v^ren ; to do tbis, a batwara popularly known as '' bando- 
ABt-ka-bachhd" is absolutely necessary ; yet, till quite recently, 
he laws have been unfavorable to the speedy disposal of these 
aws. 

" The fault is in the institutions of Government, not 
B the people. Government is bound to make such laws and 
^point such tribunals to administer and enforce those laws, 
a may enable the people to get their disputes decided in time 
to pay their revenue, and obviate the necessity of ruining a 
bibe for the perverseness of an individual." 

These remarks are peculiarly applicable to the Hardoi 
^irtrict where the pattidari tenure is so prevalent It cannot 
^ ^id that these conditions are fulfilled, or that the pattidars 
J^ in a fair position to pay the revenue, till it is shown that 
^ partitions they are so anxious to obtain, are carried out 
^^ply, promptly, and with success. 

249. Prospective assets were largely assessed, and in 
^merous cases the expectations of the assessing officers were 
t^t folfilled. Where the jungle land was small in proportion 
O the cultivated area, much progress appears to have been 
hade in breaking it up ; on the other hand, where the villages 
tre but clearings in one vast jungle, as in pargana Alam* 
lagar, Mansurnagar and part of Pihdni, and those jungles are 
*aU of pigs and monkeys, nilgais and deer, who carry on 
i constant warfare with the cultivators, night and day; 



336 HABDOI SBTTLEMSNT BSPOBT. 

here the wild animals and calamities of season combined ap- 
pear to have had the better of the contest, and little if any 
progress in breaking up jungle has been miade. 

Mauza Santraha, pargana Alamnagar, was assessed on 
557 acres culturable, as follows: — 

Fasli. Bs. 

1278 ••• .•• ••• 40 

J ^Od %•• ••• ••• «/l/ 

1292 ... ... ... 140 

12#"o •*. ... ••• 2»oO 

During the present revision it is found to have assets aggre- 
gating Rs. 3. 

250. The soil and situation of the district are probably 
below the average, and cannot be compared with those of 
some districts in eastern Oudh. Large herds of deer indicate 
by their presence the worst sandy soil, in parts little better 
than a wilderness, yielding crops only after lying fellow for 
several years to recover strength. Much of the soil recorded 
as diimat is but a shade better than bhtir; of the matiar much 
soil is of so cold and stiff a nature that nothing but " satha'' 
and " seori " or the worst description of rice can be grown 
on it. The better sorts of rice are not much grown, a pro- 
lific rice called Eurer is grown in the beds of jhils and naUs. 
Sugarcane is not much grown except in pargana Shahabad 
and Mallawdn. 

Pdn is chiefly confined to tahsil Sandila, cotton grows 
only in good soils and on high-lyiug lands. 

Tlie large area of dry sandy soil in one part of the diiH 
trict, and the large area of land liable to floods in another 
alike tend to reduce the amount of the better sorts of produce 
grown, in favor of the commoner food grains. Irrigation on 
bhtir soils is generally from small wells, which quickly fall in, 
and it cannot be relied on. The Ganges, Ramganga or Gam- 
bhiri and the Garra at times become one stream, rendering comt 
munication by boat possible between Sandi and Fatehgarh, 

The Gumti and Sukhaita, the Bhainsatha or Sai river, 
the Saindha, Gauria and other ndlas, all contribute to flood 



HABDOI SETTLEHKNT BKPOBT. 



3BT 



land and throw it out of cultivation^ and tbe same effect is 
caused by numerous jhils lying in the beds of former rivers. 

251. The percentage of the Government demand on the 
total produce, including supposed assessments on revenue-free 
tenures, according to the produce tables, is as follows : — 



Pargana. 


Percent- 
age. 


Pargana. 


Percent- 
age. 


8hahabad 


••• 


SO 


Katiari ... .., 


••• 


19 


Pachhoha 


••• 


14 


Eachhandaa .^ 


.• • 


SO 


Pili 


•• • 


17 


M alia wan ... 


«.• 


28 


Fihani ... .„ 


... 


^1 


Sandi ... .•• 


••• 


83 


Saromannagar 


•.• 


20 


Kandila ... 


••. 


S3 


fiarwan ... 


••• 


17 


Gondwa ••. 


.•• 


85 


Alamnagar 


••• 


28 


Kalianmal ... 


••• 


SI 


Hansaraagar 


••• 


S3 


Balamiiu 


••• 


S2 


Gopamaa .„ 


••• 


80 


bawan ••• m^ 


••• 


19 


Bflgram ^ 


•.• 


ss 


Sara 


••• 


80 








Bangar •• 


••• 


SI 



Produce statements are seldom prepared with much success^ 
and it cannot be conceded that parganas Pachhoha, Pali, and 
Barwan, are as lightly assessed, or that parganas Bilgram, 
Malldwdn, Sandi and Mansurnagar are as heavily assessed 
as they appear in the statement. The percentage in the four 
batai parganas of Sandila is naturally higher than in cash- 
rented parganas, for the landowners receive a larger share 
of the produce. The tahsil, too, has always paid a high 
demand. 

252. Rents in kind prevail in parganas Gondwa 
Balamau, Kalianmal, Sandila and parts of Gopamau ; the re- 
mainder of the district pays rents in cash, except in pargana 
Pibdni Bangar, Sandi, aud Bdwan, where the inferior lands 
pay in kind ; these lands are for the most part neither 
irrigated nor manured, and rates of division vary from |, J, 
h i> to ^ as the zamindar's share. 

The lower rates are for lands which are nearly worthless 
and the produce of which is merely nominal, aud much care 
is necessary in assessing such lands, in no case is it more 
necessary to avoid assessing on areas, and to look closely to 
tbe actual produce of the land. 

43h 



338 HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 

Where half IS the general rate of division, the average 
produce per bigha depends much on the distance of the vil- 
lage from the Gamti. 

In parganas Pihdni andGopamau near the Gumti Re. 1 per 
bigha appears to be the general average ; further off Re. 1-4-0 
prevails, and still further Re. 1-8-0 per bigha; in a few villages 
Re, 1-12-0 and Rs. 2 exist, but this is exceptional. In par- 
gana Gondwa in places where the river banks are high, and 
where the river has not removed the upper geological strata 
as in Pihdni and Gopamau, the rates are higher, but here 
rates in kind are general* Re. 1-12-0, Rs. 2, Rs. 2-4-0 and 
Rs. 2-8-0 are common. 

The landlord's share in such cases does not compare 
unfavorably with the cash-rents prevalent in the district. 

It is worthy of remark, however, that in villages where 
rents in kind for ordinary crops are universal, cash rents for 
sugarcane, opium, cotton and vegetables, are nearly double 
what they would be for similar crops and similar lands in 
cash-rented villages. This phenomenon has been observed in 
other districts, and has been sometimes explained as an in- 
surance by the landlord against the tenant devoting all his 
labor, capital and manure, to those cash-rented fields in which 
he would reap the full benefit, rather than to those corn- 
rented fields where the landlord would deprive him of half 
the profits therefrom. There is, however, another and per- 
ha|)s better explanation; it is that in corn-rented villages every- 
thing is based on actuals and in cash -rented villages on averages. 
Thus a field yielding in rotation produce, of which the land- 
lord's share is valued as follows : — 

Rs. a. p. 

1st year ... ... ... 8 

2nd year ... ... ... 1 

3rd year ... ••• ... 8 

4th vear ... ... ... 2 



Total ... 4 



would probably pay an annual rent of Re. 1. (It is unneces- 
sary liere to allude to any insurance allowance to the ten- 
ant tor taking on himself all variations from the average)* 



\ 



HABDOI SETTLBHENT BEPOHT. 339 

But where the variations are greater, amounting occasionally 
to total loss, and the tenant is unable to bear them, he stipu« 
lates for rents based on actuals, t.^., for corn*rents, and the 
landlord, being compelled to accept a corn-rent based on 
actual produce for the poorer grains, naturally insists on a 
rent based on actual produce for the richer crops. 

This appears sufficient explanation of what at first sight 
seems to be the startling anomaly of poor lands paying liigh 
rents, and good lands paying low ones. In pargana Malidv^dn 
a special rate for sugarcane is levied ; in pargana Bilgram 
a similar rate is sometimes levied on opium ; in the North- 
Western Provinces it is said a special rate is levied on cotton. 
Thus a field the general rent of which is Rs. 2 will, when sugar 
is grown, pay Rs. 4 extra, total Rs. 6; sometimes for the second 
year one-half the extra rate is taken, whatever the crop, 
called " bhitai," the rent will then be Rs. 4, or one-half of this 
extra rate for the third year, called " sitai, " the .total rent 
being Rs. 3. 

In pargana Shahabad, where sugarcane is largely grown, 
no special rate is levied. The reason for this divergence of 
custom appears to be that the " dagchin, '' sugarcane grown 
in Shahabad, can be grown more frequently on the same soil 
than the " mattna," a cane which the Kurmis of Malldwdn 
produce ; in the former case a general average of rent can be 
struck with certainty, and in the latter it is found impossible 
to fix an average rent which shall include the casual profit of 
sugarcane ; the tenant is unable to bear the variation from the 



average. 



The general rent-rates are therefore higher in Shahabad 
than in Malldwdn, thoufi;h the rent paid for a sugarcane crop 
in the former pargana is lower than that paid for a similar 
crop in the latter. 

253. Progressive demands were fixed where the revised 
jama was much in excess of the former jama, and the owners 
were in bad circumstances. 

In ordinary cases the increase was spread over five or 
six years, and in special cases where the increase was very high, 
the period was extended to 10 years, each village was separately 
dealt with on its merits ; much of the complaints in tabsil 
Hardoi noticed above, may be set down to the sudden iuciease 



840 



a&BDOI eXTTLmiOT bspobt. 



of revenue on men in distressed circumtaaees. Tbe zamiodais 
of tahsil SAQdilfiia many cases p&y a high jamft, but from hav- 
ing become Imbituatcd to liigh demnnds under the cbakladir, 
they do not feel the pressure in the same way that the Hardoi 
men do, for their manner of living hns accommodated itself lo 
the high demand. Where the interests of GoTemment demand 
that a zamindar's income shall he reduced to half its former 
amount, it is but just and humane to allow the zamindar some 
little time to accommodate himself to his altered circam- 



"Wesbould remember that we are assessiog notlind 
only but men." 



254. Shortly after the completion of the regnlar assess- 
ment the two largest landowners in the district, lidja Hardeo 
Bakbsh, and Chnudbri Hashmat Ali, admitted to the Commis- 
sioner tli«t the Dsaessment, ns a wUole, was noc a beavv one. 
The following statement shows the clianges iu assessment of 
tbe larger estates iu the district : — 







Total ndMttd. 




Tnloka. 




1 




Kcmwki. 




i,s 


5 


i 








^i 


S 


M 














1 






f,2 


en 


■% 


H 








2 




Porpanii Katiari, SwidL 


Biji Ilanleo n^k»h 


CI 




lo 




SanJiia lahsil. 


Cliaudhri IliuhniBt All 










Hilgram. Hangar. 


Jlilgrnin Siyildi ... 


£l2 


12 


ft 


i; 


SuDdila lahsit. 


])urK»pitrfihttdmidWflwtCbond. 












Thnkur Bhxmt Sin^h 


4G 


3 


A 






Kijn Hanrlhir ^In^li 


US 


H 


6 




I'ariwnaGondw*. 


Am»n«t Katram licKnm 


ss 






4 




Thiknr IjilM Dukah 


n 




1 




HllRmm, Batifnir. 


nip Singh 




s 


11 




Pali, Sar.<li,Kaliari. 


Amsrnath and Daijnnlh ... 






4 




Uopamtu, Bangar. 


■i'hakiimin Daliiil Kuar 










Sasdilu. 




12 








Sandtia, Ralllaaiiua. 


Gajraj Riniih 


12 




"a 




BiiiRar. 




10 








Gopa,>ma. 


Imtina Fatmiih ... 




"i 






Ditlo. 


l»Di.ll Ali 


7 








rilioni. 


Ahmed Ali Bpg ... 






A 




Qopaman. 


BiJB ShaiDiher Bahadur : 


^ 


... 






Diiw. 



HABDOI SETTLEUKNT REPORT. 341 

Rdja Hardeo B«nkhsh's assessQient is a special one, 10 per 
cent, of the assessment was remitted, and the settlement de- 
clared permanent in reward for loyalty. 

The two villages revised are recently acquired by 
liini. 

Chaudhri Hashmat Ali's son has had 13 of his bh6r 
tillages revised. Though admitting his own estate to be 
fairly assessed, Rdja Hardeo Bakhsh has always declared 
"his connection Dip Singh's estate of Sawaijpur to be over- 
Assessed, and the Gopamau pargana proprietors have com- 
plained much of over-assessment. The talukdars with the 
best villages have had the least revisions, and those with 
the worst have had the most. The most powerful taluk- 
dars probably hold better villages than their weaker bre« 
thren. 

255, The following table shows the percentage of 
the present demand on the assets given in the patwdris' 
papers, for villages revised, and those not revised, separately ; 
revenue-free villages have been excluded from the state- 
ment. 

Verification by kandngos is now extensively made, and 
though the assets are not in every case reliable, the statement 
appears to be not without value. 

The percentage is high in the bataf tnhsil Sandila, 
Hardoi comes next, then Shahabad, and lastly Bilgram. The 
percentage in pargana Sandi and Eatiari is raised by 1 per cent. ; 
if the 10 per cent, deduction granted to Rdja Hardeo Bakhsh 
be included in the demand, assets in batai tenures are liable 
to great variations. This will partly account for the high per- 
centage in tahsil Sandila. The demand of the tahsil, how- 
cveri has always been, on the whole, a heavy one. 

There is probably more sir at light rents in the pattidari 
tillages revised, than in the talukd^ villages not revised* 



HARDOI SETTLDlfNT RKFOBT. 





raiag^i r,ti,«i 




VillaSCt'tlTtVutd. 


ToMiffpcrg^m 




FarguiJL 






S 


G07cni. 


» 


QOT«ni- 


















mcDt 


AmcU. 




demuid 




p^ 


deomud- 




1 






I 




R>. 


i;s. 


Us. 


Bi. 




Ba. 


Bi. 






9,6!« 


,:.,„ "! T.,..o 


1,73,1BS 


tl 


88,478 


1,10^18 


4« 




v,»ii 


It-.tMl 66, 34,30* 






M,ST8 






>,v5e 




14,187 ij* 


10^9 


«M7a 




Sura, Nortli 
Pili-ni „ 

AlmODBglK 

1-.U :.. 




5,»»3 ,fi*; I8,0U3 


84.348 W 


11,911 


40,3S6 


M 


1MI3 


S3,5i3 !67, i;,4»a 










IO,«46 


Je.33» 




sy.iis 


69,506 SI* 


4u,08l 


77>08 




1U.37B 






ll,7iS 


1I3,0« " 


n,i«« 


43,18* 




I0,7« 


lu.iuu 


SI 
81 


avsa 


«»,lo7 *' 


S3,4M 


•T,M7 


Ml 


Toul 


J1.SB8 


I,>!i.3lt6 


l(.)HI,40'J 


4,M,77I 1? 


»,»i.7oa 


6,«.076 


4> 


Su>di]a„ 


46^08 


7e,i» 


1,38.638 


8,64,610 "il.83,SS8 


3,40,789 


64« 










7,0Ba 










iSfin 






18,11)4 




09,03 1 




UuUdwB „ 


il,V61 


<.i,.^t> 


" 


41W8S 


■ i. 


l,6fl,918 






1,14,169 


).)i.i:a 


fls;a,oa.iW6 3,88,868 a33,a;,o»i 


i.97Jii» 




llurnin « 
6ar>, Soulll 
Gopuunu 


24,173 




68 


66,181 ll,«I.SO* S6 T»,S07 


l,4S.983 




13,371 






a9,B7i 8i.,7ao 60 




M,6U 


\« 












40,ua 


'm 












47 .M« 


m 


6».iit i,t>3,'jao 

M3,9g3 ^S,IB,63S 


67 


B6,«U0 ii,7».7tu 
S,06,Mfl ;3,a7,M7 


63 




2,8%«70 
6.0tt/W3 


— 


ToUl 


8.i!9,76t. 


^ 


Bllgrun 
KouhandiQ 


10,710 19,800 


u 

61 


88,767 1,43.710 
6,»1» 1 13,106 


4S 


:3,487 

37.783 


1,63,670 
66,019 




34,ts3 ! (i;,:fi 


SI 


60,3J4 LM.;*! « 




1,S4,>I» 




Bandi ... 
Kituri .„ 














7,806 . 11,841 


•" 


49,116 'l,U4,l»3 47 


87.03* 


I,I9,»64 


"^ 


ToMI 


i,o,.an. i,3B,na 


6i;ir.7o.<M \S,»i,<MO [«;s,7i.8is 


!,»».1IJ 


i^ 


Guard Total 


«.W,5fil :6>-.2»a 167 »,e».874 |18,S7,B7C|*'J 13.311,1 aBl«.BlS0S9 



256. The revision of tlie regular assessment was carries 
out by tlie district staff and cost the sum of Bs. 9,207-18-4 e!=» 
subordinate officials, and preparation of the necessary papen^i 

257. It is worthy of remark that the revenue laws <f*> 
little else hut grant power to Govcrumtnt officers, and inflici 
penalties on landowners, and yet the resulting agrcemeat 
between the two is dcckred to be a contract, and presumed 



HABDOI SETTLEMKOT EEPORT. ^^ 

to be a just one. There are no practical checks on over-as- 
sessment, there is nothing in the law compelling a settlement 
oflBcer to look to actual assets, as well as theoretical assets, 
it is as easy for a settlement officer to increase a jama 500 
per cent, as it is to raise it 25 per cent., though in the 
former case the concurrence of a higher officer might reascm- 
My he declared necessary, a demand can be doubled or 
quadrupled at once, yet the Government would lose little 
and gain much, if every landowner had a legal right to 
demand that an increase of this nature should be made 
progressively. So far is the law from placing any obstacles 
in the way of over^assessment, that it rather encourages it. 
The law awarding malikanato proprietors dissatisfied with 
ftn assessment is so harsh and inequitable, that it compels 
the proprietors to acquiesce in over-assessment even to the 
^teut of 30 or 40 per cent, above the fair demand. 

The ancient law of malikana was a just one, and it is 
remarkable that the present law owes its falling otf from its 
original high standard, rather to inadvertence in executive 
orders, than to intentional legislative Act. Thus in its first 
stage malikana was the full measure of the landowner's rights 
guaranteed by Government in every case. Sections 44 and 
46, Etegulation VIII. of 1793, also sections 75 and 83, Regu- 
lation VIII. of 1793, section 29, Regulation XXV. of 1803, 
section 58, Regulation XXVII. of 1803, section 8, Regulation 
IX. of 1805. 

A minimum was first introduced by section 5, Regulation 
Vn. of 1822, and on the Government demand being fixed at 
two-thirds the rental subsequent to Regulation IX. of 1833, 
malikana was still such an integral portion of the landowner's 
profit as to constitute a " not unimportant " " check on over- 
assessment." Para. 59, Direction to Settlement Ofticers. 

The reduction of the Government demand to half the 
rental has brought malikana to its third and present stage, in 
Which it is little more than a compassionate allowance ; a po- 
sition that has been confirmed by section 35, Act XVII. of 
1876.^ On two occasions, therefore, the mere change in the 
meanmg of the words " Government demand " and '* jama'' 
has caused both a relative loss in malikana by increasing the 
proprietors Profits, and an absolute loss by depreciating the 
standard bj wh^eh the malikana or compensation for "those 
nereased profits were measured. What is wanted is a return 



344 HARDOI SBTTLEMEST BBPOST. 

to the principle of the old law, by which malikana sbould repre- 
sent as nearly as possible the full proprietary rights of the 
included landowners, leaving, however, a wide mar^n ia favor 
of Government to protect it froiti any loss ; such a change ia 
the law would tend largely to prevent over-assessment aod 
all its consequent evils, and to insure justice to the owners of 
the laud. 



BABDOI SETTLEMENT BEPOBT. 345 

CHAPTER VII. 



Notice of Officebs. 

258. The late Mr. Colin Lindsay, C.S., had charge from 

November, 1863, to 11th May, 1864 : dii- 

Ui^'^lSl^roitoSr*" ring his six months' incumbency the field 

survey and investigations into proprie- 
tuiry rights were commenced. 

Mr. Oswald Wood joined as Assistant Settlement Ofi^cer 
i<x November, 1863. 

On Mr. Lindsay's departure he officiated as Settlement 
Officer for seven months, till 1 0th December, 1864, when Mr. 
B2« 0. Bradford arrived from England. 

For the next five vears and a quarter, or from 10th Do- 
oember, 1864 to 23rd March, 1870, Mr. Bradford held conti- 
xinous charge of the settlement, with the exception of four 
»K)nths in 1866-67 and one month in 1869, when Captain Gor- 
don Young and Mr. W. C. Benett, C.S., Assistant Settlement 
Officers, officiated for him. 

On 23rd March, 1870, Mr. Bradford took furlough, and 
Arom that time till 14th July, 1871^ when settlement work 
^me to an end, I officiated for him. 

The whole work of assessment, the greater part of tlie 
survey, of the judicial investigation into rights, and of the 
preparation of records, has been performed by or under the 
supervision of Mr. Bradford. He has settled the district. 

It would be unbecoming in me to attempt to estimate tlio 
value of his labors. But 1 take this opportunity of acknowledg- 
ing gratefully the pains he took during the last few days of his 
incumbency to instruct me in the method on which he had 
been working, the qualifications of his subordinates, and the 
character of the leading men of the district, and of express- 
ing my admiration of his energy, ability, and devotion to 
public duties. 

^ 44 H 



l1 



31^ HABDOI SETTLXICCST BEPOBT. 

259. Mr. Oswald Wood was AssisUnt Settlement OSeer 

from November, 1863 to i I believe) Sep- 
om^.T^' ^^'"'°' teirbjr, 1865 : Mr. Lindsay eonsidend 

himself fortunate in getting the sernm ■' 
of an officer of such long experience. Mr. Bradford noted thit 
*' his qualifications and zeal were well-known.' His valuble 
services here and elsewhere in Oudh have been recogniied 
by his selection for the charge of re-settling portions of three 
districts in the Delhi Division. 

Mr. C. W. McMinn, C.S., joined in September, 1865, 
was invested with judicial powers in April, 1866, and wis 
transferred to another district in April, 1867. 3Sr. Bradfoid 
thus describes his work and its value :— 

(1865-66)— ''He visitedl38 village8(in paigana Gopamu) 
this season and drew up a succinct memo, on each, which mi 
of much assistance to me. It was through his aid that I wu 
enabled to finish the Hardoi assessments. He has had some 
very tangled Muhanunadan khewat cases to investigate and 
report on, in the management of which he acquitted hmsAl 
well. I have to thank Mr. McMinn for his ready and willing 
aid in all departments." 

(1866-67)—'' Mr. McMinn assessed parganas Bil^am 
and Kachhandau. It was very unfortunate that the exigen- 
cies of the service required his removal in April last to an* 
otiicr district, as his going gave some of the talukdars in Bfl- 
gram an excuse for not filing their engagements for the re- 
vised jamas. I believe myself that Mr. McMinn was most 
careful in assessing. I am not prepared to say that in some 
instances he may not be a trifle nigh, but this [ know, that be 
spared himself no pains in coUectting data and arriving at the 
truth, and his judgment in such matters is always ffood. Mr. 
McMinn was of the greatest assistance to me. He was si- 
ways ready for any work, and he never made any difficulties. 
His case work is generally exceedingly good, and it has at* 
tracted the favorable notice of the Financial Commissioner 
more than once. He has a taste for settlement, and takes 
to it con amores In a short time he thoroughly mastered the 
tenures here, and his leaving Hardoi is a real loss to the 
i»ettlement, for he was beginning to know neariy all the 



HABDOI SETTLEMENT BEPOBT. 347 

zamindars, and his trained legal habits ga^e him much aid in 
the speedy and at the same time thorough despatch of busi- 
ness. He was likewise a ready writer and an acute observer. 
I miss him much." 

Captain Gordon Young was a year in Hardoi, from 
April, 1867 to April, 1868. For four months he oflSciated as 
Settlement Officer. 

Mr. Bradford's acknowledgment of his services may be 
looted. *' He is a quick worker; despatches business easily, 
Ittickly, and well, and is very diligent. Indeed, single-hand- 
^ for many months, he has disposed of a large number of 
^its for proprietary rights in whole villages in tabsil Shaba- 
*^^dy which, unless he had labored unremittingly, could not 
^c^ve been decided. I am much beholden to this officer for 
-V^e labor, pains and care he has taken with the settlement 
liiring my absence. His knowledge of the language and 
^xistoms of the natives, joined to his fine temper, will always 
niake him a favorite with Hindustanis." 

260. Munshi Muhammad IkramuUah Khan has served 

Extra Assistaot Com- with high credit throughout the whole 

miMionen. period of settlement operations. It is 

due to him that I should quote at length the remarks which 

luive been annually recorded about him in the Hardoi reports. 

(1864-65).—" Extra Assistant Commissioner Ikramul- 
liUi Khan prepares his khewat cases well and his manage* 
tDent of the survey is good." 

(1865-66). — " IkramuUah Khan has done his work well. 
He continues to exercise an intelligent control over the survey 
and record departments. He certainly understands his work 
thoroughly, and his judgment usually is sound." 

(1866-67). — " Has done, as usual, first-rate work. His 
jnd^ents are always sound and well-considered. He bears 
a high character with.all people. His probity is unques- 
tionable* He is of good family, and is besides highly 



^A^^^^^A 'I 



348 HARDOI 8CTTLBHENT REPORT. 

" Ikramnllah Ebaa Las done good work. His judgmer:^ ^g 

are nearly always upheld, and from kz^jg 
^'^^ ' knowledge of the district, bis aptituc/e 

for business and his high character, he is a valuable Assist- 
ant " 



" Muhammad Ikramullah Khan has given me the mo^=^^ 

efficient assistance. As before reportetf^) 
ri868.69.) ^^ ^ ^ first-rate native oflScer of superio^^if 

ability." 

I wrote of him— '^ Munsbi Muhammad Ikramullah Kba^HD 

bas maintained the excellent cbaract^iCf 
^ " which he has always borne throughoiKj; 

his nineteen years' service. I have formed a high opinion of 
his integrity He is spoken of with respect and esteezn 
throughout the district." *' His 1,320 decisions, of which less 
than one in fifteen have been appealed, and only one per 
cent, modified, reversed, or returned for retrial, attest most^ 
strikingly the satisfaction with which his decisions are re* 
ceived by suitors." 

Extra Assistant Commissioner Harsukh Rai joined in 
February, 1868, and was transferred to Fyzabad early in 1870. 

At first his work was thought well of and Mr. Bradford 
noted of him : — 

" He has served under me with diligence, and I have been 

fully satisfied with his judicial work. 
He goes carefully into the facts and his 

judgment is sound. He, too, is a trained revenue oflBcer, 

and trained in a good school." 

" Munshi Harsukh Rai has done a good year's work, and 
(1868-69) deserves praise for the way he has con- 

ducted his duties." 

In the next year, however, he fell ofi", for in the report 
for 1869-70 I was obhged to note :—'' Of Munshi Harsukh RaL 
I have formed, I regret to say, a very unfavorable opinion. 
He left before 1 joined, so that my opinion of his work is based 



HABDOI SBtTLSMIMT BSPOHJ 3)9 

solely upon fifty-one of his decisions which came before me 
in appeal. Though he decided only between one-sixth and 
one-seventh of the cases of the year, one-third of the appeals 
instituted and nearly one-half of the orders reversed, modi- 
fied, and returned for retrial were in his cases. I fear that 
he is unfit for the department and cannot account for his 
retention in it so loni;." 

Soon after his transfer to Fyzabad he was reported as 
being ^ quite unfit to be entrusted with the trial of the difficult 
suits in land which came before him.' 

261. Syud Niaz Ahmad, a tahsildar of eight years' 

^ standing, worked .as Sadr Munsarim in 

sadr iinn^nm.. ^^^^^^ SsiudilsL till March, 1866. Mr. 

Bradford found his work ^^ always excellent. He can be re- 
lied on as a hardworking, painstaking officer." la March 1866, 
he was promoted to Officiating Extra Assistant Commissioner, 
and in October of the same year got the permanent appoint- 
ment. 

Muhammad Tahiya was Sadr Munsarim for five years, 
from the spring of 1866 to spring of 1871, when be was trans- 
ferred to Gonda, Mr. Bradford commended him as diligent 
and methodical. Captain Young found that he exercised an 
efficient control over bis subordinates, and bad every reason 
to be satisfied with his work. 

I formed a very good opinion of him. lie appeared to 
me to be straightforward and intelligent and above the 
average of native officers in judicial ability. Ue would, I 
think, make a good tahsildar. 

Mr. Bradford thought well, too, of Sadr Munsarims 
Basat Ali and Mazhar Ali. Basat Ali joined in January, 1868, 
and was transferred to Kheri in 1869 ; and Mazhar Ali resigned 
the service in 1869. 

Sadr l^Iunsarim Baldeo Singh was promoted from Naib 
Sadr Munsarim in the beginning of 1870. Ue is clever and 
industrious, and with more experience will make a useful 
judicial officer. 

45fl 



350 BABDOI SCTTLXHEKT RIPOBT. 

262. Munsarims Abdul Karim, Rikhi Lai, Nanm Husain, 

Zfthur Ali, Ahmed All Khan, Shaokar 
Mimsa «. j^^j^ Dirgpal Singh, and Firo« Ali deserve 

mention as having worked hard and well up to^the time of 
their discharge from settlement duties. 

I regret very much that none of them have yet been 
provided for, although they have all been recommended for 
re-employment, and have been seeking for it for nearly a 
year. 

268. The head- clerk, Mr. H. St. John Anthony, deserves 
commendation for excellent conduct, and for the punctual 
aud accurate discharge of all duties assigned to him. 

The Sarishtadar, Mahbub Ali, has great industry, ex- 
perience, and ability. I trust that his merits, which are great, 
will soon be recognized and rewarded by his re-employment 
in a suitable sphere. 

With regard to the revision of assessment conducted by 
Mr. Blennerhassett, I note, at that officer's request, that '^ Mirza 
Kalb Ali Khan, Extra Assistant Commissioner, and Sayyad 
Ghulam Haidar, Extra Assistant Commissioner, are both offi- 
cers of high character and ability, and they performed the duty 
of revising the assessment with care aud judgment." 

A. H. HAKINGTON, 

Officiating Settlement Officer* 



APPENDICES. 



352 



BABOOI SETTtEHENT BEPORT. 



STATEMENT. 
Comparative statement q/" 





Mame of pargana. 




«s 
S 

o 


Abba t^ 

— — » 






iZevMMi 


r mtrvty. 








• 
'9s 


6 








a 






1 

a 


« 
► 




• 
a 

S 


-i 1 


« 















« 


o / 


% 






2 


o 


u 


CQ 


H 


/ 

1 


1 


8 


3 


4 


6 


6 


7 


• 


(vundwa 


••t 


117 


66,851 


19,689 


18,093 


89.626 1 


^( 


Kalyiomal 


•• • 


72 


26,780 


9,018 


6,777 


41,675 \ 


S) 


b&lamau 


••• 


14 


11,677 


9,399 


1,808 


15,779 \ 


.iSC 


SandiU 

Total 
B&wan ••• 


••• 

••• 


913 


111,989 


62,263 


•6,423 


910,65S 


* 




416 
57 


207,190 


93,362 


67,096 


357,689 




98,927 


10,670 


4,378 


43,97fi 


si 

2 1 


BaDgar ^ 


••• 


96 


68,614 


26.216 


11,913 


91,643/ 


Sara ^ 


■•• 


85 


80,873 


19,869 


7,106 


67,84« / 


ul 


Qopimaa ••• 

Total 
Bilgrlm ^ 


••• 
••• 


240 


116,870 


69,486 


94,739 


910,08fi 






478 


949.184 


126^41 


48,199 


403,554 


J { 


J14 


43,561 


14,698 


15,935 


74,114 I . 


" 1 


Tallin wan 


••• 


1S8 


69.642 


16.616 


18,461 


86.708 \ 


g< 


Kachhaadan* 


••« 


84 


16,623 


6,897 


4,286 


27,706 I 




Sandl 


••• 


141 


69,482 


19.172 


19,613 


108,367 i 


« ( 


KaUiri ^ 

Total 
Barwan ••• 


••• 

••• 

••• 


80 


38,722 


11,411 


7,959 


68,092 


\ 




492 


220,830 
91,344 


67,993 


66,943 


354.996 




«- 


69 


7,885 


4,199 


33,4SI 




M 


Pali 


••• 


92 


28,964 


13,285 


3,976 


46,92* / 


s 


Fnchhoha ... 


••• 


80 


40,097 


13,973 


3,378 


66,74* / 




Filiaiii Padaraa 


••1 


81 


29,33S 


14,192 


7,262 


50,799 / 


r^aromannagar 


•• « 


49 


18,450 


6,027 


2,863 


92,340/ 


■ 


Shihabad ... 


••• 


141 


6 1 ,350 


22,196 


9,746 


83,292 / 


&\ 


Alamnagar 


••• 


43 


13.160 


92,070 


2,407 


87,657 / 


I 


MaoBurnagar 

Total 
Grand Total 


••• 

••• 

••1 


26 


6,916 


3,200 


2,616 


16,682 


' 




675 


903,619 


107,128 


36,639 


867,086 






1,961 


860,828 


394,644 


207,807 


1,463,274 





fiARDOi Sbttlement Office : 
The 15M Fehruary^ 



Office : ^ 
f, 1872. j 



BABDOl SETTLBMSNT BEPOB!^ 



353 



TJo. I* 
^tHnue and field surifey* 



•^OBBS BT THE 



I 

► 

•3 



56^698 

26,081 

1I»44S 

110,615 



203^6 



99,497 
69.930 

ao,c97 

117,008 
960,967 

44,099 
63,371 
17,366 
69,278 
68,687 



992,7aO 

91,778 
60,<19 
4y,361 
99,998 
I6,ft06 
63.063 
13.670 
6,133 



909»726 



666^46 






Field survey. 






90,791 
9,114 
2,495 

69,020 

"84^350 

16,065 
96,939 
20,7 31 
71,696 



129,331 



1«,947 
1A,446 
7,1 69 
93,5C9 
12,414 



76,094 



8,686 
19,906 
l],i33 
15,816 

6,197 
91,891 
91,366 

6,906 



106.406 



398,171 






lO 



13,883 
6,837 
1,702 

48,146 



68.518 



4,403 
11,585 

6,302 
21,449 



43,732 



14.733 
16,427 

4,636 
15,128 

6,»o7 



6f,181 



8,156 

3,601 

3,644 

5,655 

9^82 

9,R.'^1 

2,773 

2,373 



33,964 



202,995 



3 

o 
H 






it 



89,752 

40,639 

15,689 

910.781 



356,704 



43,965 

91,454 

67,860 

210(U41 



403,320 



75,009 
87,243 
29,470 
107,915 
57,358 



Remtrki* 



12 



356,995 j 



33,619 
46,7 26 
57,343 
51,469 
22,582 
83,835 
37,809 
16,712 



:<50,095 



l,4r7,l!4 






In Pargttift Kacbhandau % rariation of 
6*7. 'i per cent, w.is caused by allavion 
which occurred largely along the Ganges 
in tbi8 tract betwecQ the making u£ tbe- 
two surveys. 



A. H. HARINGTON, 
Officiating Settlement Off:*K 



354 



HABDOI SETTLEMINI BEPOBT; 



STATEMENT 
Statement of costs of settlement of the 



Name of pargana. 




•M 



•4 f Onndwa 
g 1 Kalyanmal 
S jB&lamau 
Q (Sandila 

Total 



Bftngar 
Bawan 
Sara 
Qppimiaa 

Total 

Mallinwan 

Kacbhandaa 

Bilgraia 

Sandl 

Katiari 



Total 

r Sh&habad 

S \Pihani Padaroa, 
§ J Facbhoha 
« \ Barwan , 

te J A lamnagar 
^ / Mansurnagar 
\ iSaromaDuagax ... 



Nomber 

of 
mauzas. 




••• 

»•• 
••« 
»•• 

••• 
••• 



••■ 



••• 



t** 



Total 



•»• 



GsAND Total ... 



S 



117 
72 
14 

218 



Number 

of 
Tillage 
papers. 



416 



96 

67 

85 

240 



478 



123 

S4 

114 

141 

80 



492 



9,120 \ 

1,874/ 

276 ( 

8,942 ) 



7.712 



COCT 



Measure- 
menta^ 



Rs.. a. p. 



21,181 8 4 



1,832) 
1,079 f 
972 " 
4,966 



5 



8,849 

2,348^ 
664 I 
2,086 Y 
2,460 I 
1,470J 



20,649 15 2 



143 
92 
81 
80 
69 
43 
25 
42 



675 



8,978 

2,566 't 

1,622 I 

1,500 I 

1,492 I 

1,822 > 

820 1 

462 I 

796J 



17,093 12 4 



1,961 



1,0580 



3,6119 



16,897 3 



'4,172 6 10 



Records. 



Rs. a. p. 



26,066 6 11 



U 



Officers. 



Bs. a. ^l 



1,84,480 12 



36,918 1 8 



89,430 11 



»M 



••• 



38,489 4 7 



1,34,844 8 2 



1,34,430 IS 9 



IJAiiD )i Settlement Office : 
Ike \st Jutt/, 18/1. 



1 



HABDOI 8STTLEMXNT BBPOBT. 



355 



0. II. 

^ai distridj up to 30th June, 1871. 



tenet al and Ju^cial, 



Pized 

iablish- 

lenta. 



C o n t i n- 
gendes. 



8 



1. a, p. 



119 4 4 



TotaL 



9 



Bb. a. p, 



38,9S8 2 7 



119 4 4 



••• 



Bs. a. p. 



2,11,778 3 1 



••t 



Grand Total, 

(of columns 4, 

6 to 9). 



10 



Cost per 

sqaare 

mile. 



11 



Bs. a. p. Bb. a. p. 



2,68,966 a 4 



••• 



Mt 



38,9fi8 2 7 



Mt 



66,468 10 



464 14 11 



89 10 1 



Percent- 
age of 
cost 
on 
rcTised 
demand. 



12 



3 

B 



13 



Rb. a. p.< 



71 1 



16 6 4 



66,524 7 4' 101 4 9 



14 3 10 



2,11,778 3 1 



48,836 7 7 



4,20,796 2 1 



89 4 6 



183 9 C 



16 I 



29 6 6 



A. H. IlARINGTON, 
OfficiaUng iSeUlemeni Ojfii^. 



356 



HABDOI SITTLEMEMT BEPOM. 



STATEMENT 
Census return showing area, creed, 



Name of par- 
gana. 



Gundwa 
Kalyanmal 
Bilamau 
SaodiU 



ToUl 

B&wan 

Bangar 

8ara 

Gopinian 

Total 



••• 
••• 

•«• 

•• • 
••• 
■•• 

••• 



Bilgrtoi wm 
Snndl 

Mallauwan ... 
Kacbhandau .•« 
Kaiiari 

Total 



••• 



Barwan 

Pali 

Pachhoha 

Pih&ni Fadarua 

baromannagar 

Bhahabad 

A lamnagar ... 

MansurnagarM* 



Total 



•M 



Grahd Total, 



i 

« 

a 



o 



2 



117 
72 
14 

aid 



416 



57 

96 

85 

240 



478 



114 

141 

12S 

34 

80 



492 



69 
92 
8il 
81 
42 
143 
43 
25 



576 



1,961 



Area ia square miles. 



3 

O 

H 



8a 



140 
63 
25 

329 



557 



69 

143 

90 

328 



630 



117 

168 

136 

47 

96 



658 



53 
73 

90 

8a 

35 

131 

59 

26 



647 



2,292 



s 



ab 



88 

41 

18 

170 



317 



45 

85 

49 

172 



351 



71 

107 

84 

28 
61 



851 



33 
46 
66 
43 
21 
81 
19 
9 



318 



1,337 



No, of ktmeea. 



10 



1,104 



1,114 



5 
3 

298 



S06 



366 
329 
568 



••« 



1,265 



••• 



86 

• • • 

204 
11 
2,905 
••• 
«•• 



3,205 



5,890 





1 


6 


6 


10.760 


10,7P0 


6,443 


5,44^ 


2,337 


2.S3r 


26,038 


27,142 



44,69{( 



5^0 
10,836 

6,887 
21,568 



44,581 



10,796 

18,496 

12,949 

4,144 

6,6ii 



45,040 



8,441 
5,063 
4,980 
€,403 
2,414 
ll,2t<5 
2,819 
1,156 



37,481 



174,700 



45,7U 




46.80S 




lMfi90 



IIABDOI SVHTLXKElirr BEPOBT. 



357 



Uo. : 


[II. 




















ieXf and populalum^ district Bardou 




POPULATION. 


HiMDDB 




Agrteulturitit, Non-agrictUturiaU, 




Adults. 


Minon, 




Adults. 


Minora* 




• 
CO 

a 




a 








« 






a 


• 
o 

« 


1 


% 


•^4 


3 

o 


• 

-a 


a 


• 
09 


• 


• 

■3 

o 


o 


a 


£ 


pq 


o 


H 


7q 


^ 


C9 


o 


H 


H 


1 


8 


9 


10 


11 


11 


13 


1 
14 

1 


16 


16 


17 


10,244 


9,148 


6,060 


6,024 


80,471 


7,438 


7,279 


4,583 


1 

3,871 28.172 


68.643 


4.483 


8,767 


2,652 


i,ir.i 


13,143 


3,218 


3,013 


2.008 


1,738 0,972 


13,116 


S»319 


2,101 


1,451 


1,147 


7,018 ' 1,010 


1,045 


66*2 


604 3,311 


10,819 


11,989 


19,086 


18,183 


11,183 


65,311 


16,646 


16,869 


10,541 


9,114 52,060 


117,371 


88.985 


34,037 


23,346 


19,565 


115,913 


18,212 


27,196 


I7.7e4 
1,395 


15,323 88,615 


114,438 


8,464 


5,868 


8,650 


1,998 


18,470 


2,197 


1986 


1,125 


6,703 


16,173 


1S,8S8 


11,113 


7,994 


6,86:^1 38,307 


6,875 


3,589 


1,563 


2,008 


14,030 


62,337 


8,800 


7,186 


4,S85 8,724 


24,295 


8,017 


2,820 


1,K23 1,420 


9,080 


3»,376 


18,161 


21,743 


15,081 


11,433 

1 


76,368 


9,491 


8,610 


6,873 


4 496 


27,970 


103,33i» 


_84,248 


45,410 


31,260 


25,617 


156,440 , 20.580 


17,005 


11,154 
2,702 


9,044' 57,788 


214,223 


11,719 


10,258 


7,292 


5,834 


36,103 


4,764 


4,426 


2,178 


14,060 


49,163 


18,655 


14,061 


9,518 


7,474 


47,708 


6,551 


6,201 


3,212 


2.680 


16,644 


64,251 


14,61)6 


11,988 


8,405 


7,211 


43,206 8,839 


9,013 


6,423 


4,928 


28,2^03 


71,408 


4,556 


3,719 


2,686 


1,994 


1^805 


1«9J3 


1,681 


978 


853 


5.315 


18.110 


9,154 


7,780 
48,801 


5,222 


8,980 
•^6,498 


26,236 


8,093 


2,304 


1,682 


1,261 


8,280 


84,615 


^ 56,790 


38,973 


166,067 
18,340 


14,140 


22,526 ■13,947 


11.790 


72,401 
6,399 


237,459 


4,919 


3,861 


1,675 


M85 


1,858 


1,606 


1,042 


883 


18,739 


8^22 


5^80 


4,042 


3,001 


18,996 


9,132 


2,168 


1.238 


1,051 


6,583 


25,578 


7.538 


5,»78 


4.085 


2,966 


20,492 


2,494 


1,993 


1,282 


99tt 


6,766 


27,227 


0,151 


4,448 


8,443 


2,660 


16,803 


8,472 


8,182 


1,177 


1.808 


10,639 


16,448 


a,7<3 


8,184 


1^63 


1,670 


10,790 


1,074 


1,344 


820 


703 


4,641 


16,831 


11,846 


1M04 


7,516 


5.938 


37,404 


6,112 


5,992 


8,606 


3,<>63 


18,778 


56,188 


8,735 


1,949 


1,980 


1,360 


9,974 


1,20S 


1,208 


668 


601 


3,739 


18,713 


1^88 


1^85 


933 


7,065 


4,460 


513 
19,527 


446 


286 


264 

1 


1,499 


5,968 


46,968 


88,184 


16,887 


20,246 
91,810 


131,234 


17,934 


11,119 


9,869^ 


p 

67,939 


189,173 


l*Hi988 


168,892 


114,466 


568,654 


92,459 


84,660 


64«004 


45,6 loj 276,639 


846,293 



358 



HABDOI SBTTtnRMT BKPOBT. 



STATEMENT 
Cerma report showing area, creed, tea, €md 















POPD 


1 












MUSAL 






AgricuttMTisU, 




Name of pargana. 


Adnlts. 


Minora. 








9 
(S4 


1 


3 
o 


1 


18 


19 


90 


91 


9f 


Gandwa ••• 
Kaly&nmal ... 
BAlamau ••• 
Sandfla 


••• 
••• 
•*• 
••• 

§•• 

••• 

••• 
••« 
••• 

••• 

••• 
♦•• 
••• 

•M 

• •• 

• •• 
■ •• 

• .. 
— 
•«• 
••• 
••• 

• •• 

• •• 

• •* 


396 

194 

69 

9,066 


316 

97 

68 

1,961 


189 

76 

76 

1,160 


169 

79 

84 

1,109 


999 
866 

179 
69968 


Total 


9.667 


9,491 


1,449 


1,870 


7,797 




B4wan 

Bangar ••• 
&ara vm 
Gopiman m* 


96 

176 

968 

1,106 


99 

141 

946 

1,064 


67 
126 
169 
668 


64 
86 

118 
689 


998 

697 

774 

8,499 




Total 


1,686 


1,648 


997 


•46 


6,U9S 




Bilgrim 
Sandi 
Ibfall&nwin 
Kacbhaudau ... 
Katiari 


874 
609 
396 
661 
76 


869 
668 
369 
600 
89 


469 
996 
948 
831 
69 


401 
816 
916 
966 

46 


S,613 
1.681 
1,969 
1,668 
963 




Total 


9,409 


9,415 


1,396 


1,147 


7,867 




Barwan 
Pali 

Pachhoha 
Pihini Padama 
Saromannagar... 
bh&habad 
AlaojDagar ... 
Mansurnagar ... 


93 

398 
99 

997 

16 

1,518 

321 
63 


19 
436 

70 
934 

13 

1,618 

991 

61 


19 

956 

48 

691 

6 

1,081 

908 

30 


8 

914 
41 

691 
9 

796 

170 
96 


69 

1,308 

968 

8.148 

87 

4,893 

991 

170 

1 


> 


ToUl 


3,436 


3,431 


9,911 


1,778 


10,865 


1 


Grand Total 


10,088 


9,810 


6,053 


5,141 


81,049 





BABDOI BIITLEUIiST KEPOBf. 



859 



Bo. III. 



opvlatiottf cU$triet fian&rf— (continaed). 



NATION. 












4Na. 






' 




HoiHtgrieultyfisti, 






Adnlti. 


Minon. 




Total, If iaal« 










nUMlB^ 




• 










« 










• 

1 


1 


rf 
& 


1 






S 


& 


n 


O 


K 




S8 


S4 


15 


26 


17 


28 


740 


890 


409^ 


497 


9,236 


8^228- 


435 


481 


182 


243 


1,392 


1,76a 


194 


SOO 


146 


111 


651 


830 


4^S66 


4,601 


1,486 


2,284 


13,646 


19,904 


_ 5,684 


6,923 


3,333 


8,035 


17,9S5 


25.762 


155 


198 


104 


108 


565 


864 


617 


490 


18» 


284 


1,630 


1,057 


aji 


263 


146 


143 


828 


1,597 


1,725 


1,795 


926 


800 


6,246 


8,668 


«,768 


2,746 


1,465 


1^86 


8,264 


13,286 


1,S95 


1,650 


795 


728 


4,468 


7,081' 


1,168 


1,881 


738 


586 


3,618 


5,499 


1,546 


1,610 


948 


917 


5,.02l 


6,273 


107 


107 


164 


lis 


681 


2,339- 


127 


113 


88 


47 


365 


648 


4,448 


4,921 


1,717 


1,391 


14,478 


21,840 


181 


115 


if! 


67 


405 


467 


489 


131 


274 


218 


1,206 


1,508 


144 


138 


71 


78 


438 


684 


1,477 


1,458 


789 


719 


4,143 


7,586 


101 


89 


48 


88 


256 


2,098r 


1,971 


1,160 


1^94 


1,151 


6,676 


11,469 


MS 


156 


HI 


88 


517 


j,6oa 


48 


51 


31 


21 


151 


321 


4^8 


4,344 


2,700 


2,880 


18,980 


24,836 


17,881 


17,975 


• 

10,215 


9,891 


34,642 


85,684 



47a 



HARDOI SBTTLKHUIT BSPOBT. 

BTATGHEKT 
CensM report thowing area, creed, tex, and 





POPtJ 




Unui. 




.^3r:c.Jnirl.U. 1 


Nuue ot pargini. 


Adalu. 


MinoTi. 


^ 




1 


1 


1 


i 


1 


IS 


la 


10 


91 


» 


K>l7tiim>l ... 

BUUMB « 

Budilft ». 


336 

m 

SI 

J.064 


SIS 

S7 

S8 

I,9GI 


189 

TS 

TS 

1,160 


ISl 

71 

34 

l.toi 


999 

aas 

179 
8^68 




^.^a7 


SMI 


1,44» 


1,370 


7,197 


Binn 

BiDgar «. 

Sam ». ■« 

Oopimtu « 


9a 


93 

i,oat 


ST 
ISS 

es3 


S4 

as 
lis 

£89 


999 

6ii 

774 
8,491 


ToUl - 


l,«0 


i,S*3 


991 


MS 


6/)^ 


Buidi 

Willinwin „. 
Kachhnudiu ... - 
Kaikrl 


674 

BBI 
T6 


S69 
SSM 

600 


4«9 

311 

GS 


491 
91S 

aia 
sea 

4G 


9.»t3 
l.SSI 
1,9S9 

i,as8 

963 


ToUl ... 


M"" 


MIS 


),39a 


1,147 


7,S«T 


B«r*in 

P»U 

PachhobK 

Fihini FftdurM - 

SaromHnnngit.,, .. 

bh&haUd 

AlaniDagnr ... 


898 

»9T 

1« 

1^18 


19 
«3t 

70 
934 

1,618 

S91 
61 


It 
S6ft 
4S 
631 

1,031 
9t>8 
3U 


8 
814 
41 
691 

S 
7S6 

i;o 

18 


GS 

'C 

3,149 

4.893 
991 
170 


ToUl ... 


3,4SS 


3,*S» 


9,911 


1,778 


io,ets 


OalHD TOTIL 


10,0«8 


9^1 


6,063 


6,141 


■1,041 



BABDOI SBTTLEMBKT EEPOTtT. 361 

Ko. III. 

poptUaiioa, diUriet Bardoi — (coDcladed). 

















Avtrai,e 
souli 


.V„.„/ 


TOTJL. 






d 


■««'»«"'*■ 


TutaL 






Uinon. 




Adnha. 


Minora. 


« 


















= 














a 


























.- 


















a 


s 


S 


^ 


'i 


i 


& 


5 


I 


a 


S 


S 


S6 


37 


38 


39 


40 


41 


43 


43 


44 


46 


46 


*,m 


4,3SS 


36,40 


IS,T4 


17,437 


11,84 


9,4S5 


B6.S7J 


5-3 


408 


646 


S^'ti 


i,B7i 


1I,M 


8,20 


7.39) 


9.01 


4,3D1 


34,975 *'i 




606 


T9I 


711 


»,9(J 


3.97 


3,4<l' 


a,-j8 


i,s:.( 








11,037 


11,31.8 


65,70 


*4,a05 


41,147 


S7,3JO 


53,883 


137,J98 


905 


417 


8UI 


ai.ii7 


iH.ssa 


10S,44 


Js,as 


09,577 


4S,»13 


.13,^83 


330,160 


J -03 


413 


73S 


1,490 


l.SSS 


T,M 


8.9oa 


7,681 


6,306 


4,389 


26,087 


6-8 


377 


678 


%»fi 


s,ii3; 


I5,ca 


IS.JBi 


1S.34f 


10,117 


fi,«8. 


54,494 






641 


1.ME 


I.SK 


»,Bli, 


1SI.3H 


10,515 


B.70( 


5,401 


34.97:; 






7t3 


V33 


'■'" 


53.210 


3B,483 


33,1112 


a 1.903 


18,318 


113,006 






6S1 


11,019 \<i.3Vi 


69,U4" 


79,2S7 


6li,7i4 


41,a7u 


3..«.3' .37.609 


im 


301 


648 


3,49' 


2,906 


1B.S2B 


18,C-4S 


1TJ03 


11 ^68 


U.I 4 1 


gs,t44 S-3 


4SI 


799 


<.9M 


a,ifl( 




93.BT1 


SI. IBS 


18,7 St 


10,859 


69,791 |9'IH 




651 


6,3J1 


6,84! 




85,361 


33,910 


15,021 


13.S76 


77.681 9-7 




934 


1,131 


9« 


G,SSI 


7,ai; 


G.MOJ 


3,99J 


a,33i 


31..458 4-» 




730 


l.TSO l^iJB 


B,665 


13,S60 


10,398 


6,994 


6,3W 


39,184 9-3 




676 


1,M4 


14,181 


86,87(1 


87,78-' 


78,663 


61.013 


41.891 


259,399 9-9 


4«6 


738 


i,ia< 


»S0 


6,B04 


6,941 


6,611 


3,811 


S,SI3 


19,9m 5-5 


883 


BBS 


)^l! 


t,»9 


7,79t 


J»,4'< 


8.3e( 




4.4S4 


93,os;S-4 




610 


1,5S! 


1,074 


7,191 


10,37 J 


8,06 S 




4,nMl 


37.911 S-6 




439 


1,U66 


S,6a7 


19.085 


ii,iye 


10,03! 


7.03C 


6,778 


34,028 6'I 




791 


86i 


741 


4,7*1 




4,560 


.1,117 


2,41' 


14,634 6-4 




744 




4.2t4 


96 3S1' 


113,447 


ao,B74 


13,4t7 


10 87( 




516 




ITl 


685 


4.291 


S,4«l 


4.60* 


2,^17 


3,213 






•01 


317 


J7S 


1,650 


2,197 


1,703 


1^8 


1,066 






698 


IV'*!'!."' 


;i,ui8 


73,417 


63^ «3 


43,917 


33.76» 


S14,009U-3 


391 


679 


M^I9 


M.607 


311,«81 


319,844 


s;b,ss7 


18V3« 


191,6SB 


930,917: 


I 1 


... 


6.-I 



362 



HABDOI SBTTLSMENT REPORT. 



STATEMENT 
Census return showing dsiail of castes 



Name of tahtil 



Name of pargana. 






SAVDtLA 



• M 



Habpoi 




Gnndwi ••• 
Kalyinnial ... 
Balamaa ... 
Sandili ^ 



Total 



BxLORiM M«S 

I 



Biwan 
Hangar 
Sara ••• 

Gopiman ... 



Total 



f 



SHiBAlUO, \ 



BUgrim ... 
MaU&nwaD... 
Kachhandaa 
Sandi .M 
Katiari ^ 



••m 



I 



Total 



Barwan 
Pali 
Fachoba ... 
Pih&Dl Padama 
SaromanDagar 
Shihabad ..• 
Alamnagar 
MansQrnagar 



Mubah 



^ 

o 

^ 



M 



••• 



t** 



••• 
••• 

••• 
•• • 



••• 



•t* 

*•• 
••• 

*•• 



••• 
••• 
••• 



••• 



••• 



••• 

••• 
*•• 
••• 



• •• 

• •• 



• •• 



••• 

..• 

• •• 

• •• 



•M 


• •• 


••• 


M« 


•M 


••• 


• •• 


•— 


••• 


t— 


• •• 


• •• 


• •• 


••• 


•m 


••• 


t«« 


• •• 



—t 



6 
77 



••• 
••• 
••• 

• a. 



••• 



81 



•3 



t«« 



119 



160 



••• 
••• 






39 



Total 



Gkamd Total 



••• 



••• 
•*• 

••• 
•*• 



39 



12t 



••• 



ISO 



'6 

I 



1 

••• 
1,610 



1,6S0 



93 
141 

67 
161 



469 



1,099 

169 

6 

357 

1 



1,637 



••• 



108 

5 

1,171 

6 

441 



1,781 



6,360 



.a 

QQ 



48 

196 

II 

6,076 



5^1 



98 

801 

89 

1,399 






1,778 



1,918 

S5S 

41 

460 

11 



9,016 



878 

1 

616 

98 

1,060 

94 

1 



9,742 



11,996 



_ 



HABDOI SKTTLEICBKT RXPORT. 

No. III. 

pop,ilat%on, dUtricl /7(i«foi— iconclniled). 

















Aoti-aijt 


V„. of 
















aonh ;«r— 


T"»L. 






3 




Tolal. 








1 




















UiDon. 




Adults. 


Ml 


""■ 








: 


1 


1 


1 




1 


1 


1 


i 


i 


t 


i 

s 


3G 


3T 


38 


39 


40 


41 


.9 


43 


" 


45 


46 






SS.tUB 




17,497 


1151" 


9,465 


66,87! 


6-9 


4M 


648 


MM 




ii.3m 


8,S6( 


7,a9j 




4,SSi 










a,96i 


3.07( 




9,98-( 


I. ^91 








I»,037 


11,3>S 
18,S6« 


«a.706 


44,805 


41,447 


97,310 


93,633 


187,8S6(i'M 






91.1 IT 


108,4*0 


7 3,38 M 


69,6 77 


4e,9l9 


38,iM 




JU3 


41S 

.177 


798 


iAm 


I'^l 


„.. 


8,90a 


7 594 


6 900 


4,585 


96.037 


d-B 


STft 




IS,66U 


IV9£ 


15.:i4S 


10.97 ! 


8,08. 


84,494 








is 




(.BUS 


11,346 
















6^398 


33,SI6 


38,483 


83,91 a 


91,993 


18,318 


119,006 








IMM 


10.3» 


68,M7 


79,!a7 


6b,7l4 


44,t!7e 


9.141 


997.509 
66.144 


6-3 


415 




3,4»T 




18,538 


18,642 


17.903 


11,958 


799 






S3^:« 


SI.18S 








B-7 








33,W< 


as,385 


93,991 












1,138 




e,9B6 


7,9ll7 


6.1K)T 














ifive 


8,66i 


]2,aso 


10.996 


6,994 


6,334 


35,184 










14,181 


S6,STS 


87.78,' 


78,be3 


S 1,013 


41.891 


1X9.999 


5S 


S69 




8,966 


UO 


5,804 


8,941 


8,011 


3,S11 


9,843 


19.306 


68! 


),*6; 


7.789 




8.3M1 


e.8ot 


4,484 


9a,osJ 








l,DT4 


7.191 


10,37! 


8,Ufl9 
















1S.U81 


II.IIK 


10,093 


T.OS< 


6,77e 


34,098 










4,7S; 


fi.6U 


4,86l> 


^,181 












n» 

317 




9S36< 




90,874 


13,4 


10 871 


6?,64( 












5,481 


4,601 




3,91! 










t7S 


l.osul 


9,1 S7 


I,TS9 


1,98 


1,0*6 










TT:?r» 






83,«>?3 
9)8,837 


43,917 
181,731 




^TT^^L-T 


391 




13,1)19 


7I,'JI» 


73,447 
318,1144 


33,76* 
161,658 


b.9 


4*;«i» 


M,«U7 


311, Ml 


93u,1i;7 







A.H. HAKIHOTON, 
(^ciatl'S SttlitmtKl Ufiev. 



364 



HABDOI SETTLKMBNT BEPOET. 



STATEMENT 

Census return showing detail of castes 



Vane of 
tahsil. 



SlRDtXJL M« 



Bardoi 



••• 



BilqrXm ... 



Name of pargaiUL 



MuaAM 



SbAbabad, « 



Gnndwii ... 
KalYiomal ... 
BilaoiBa ... 
SandfU ... 



Total 



••• 



D&wan 
Hangar 
Sara ... 

Gopamau •«• 



Total 



RilgTim ••• 

Mallinwan... 

Kachhaodaa 

Sandi 

Katiiri 



Total 



Barwan ••• 
Pall 

PAchohi M« 

FlhiDl Fadarua 

SarouiBDnagar 

Shihabad ... 

Alamnagar... 

[A Maosariiagar 



Total 



Graud Total 



... 
••• 



.a 



15 



43 



M 



16 



Ml 



17 



OS 
60 

S 

a 

« 



••• 


••• 




• •. 




S 


... 


... 




... 


•». 




••• 


••• 




••• 


2 


••• 


••• 




••• 


... 




••• 


••• 




•a. 


••« 




•M 


... 




• •* 


*m 











••• 


•«. 




■•« 


••• 




••• 


••• 




••1 


••« 




••• 


... 




••* 


.•• 




... 


••• 




•*• 


... 




••• 


••• 


• « • 




2 



tl 



SI 



... 
... 



••• 



... 



18 



••• 

••• 



■•• 


••• 


••• 


s 


••• 


• •• 


... 


• •• 


• .• 


... 


••• 


s 


• •• 


• .• 


... 


... 


• •• 


••• 


■•• 


lai 



• •• 
••■ 

• •• 
■•• 

• •• 



••• 



• •• 



••• 

... 
• .• 
••• 



• •• 



121 



8 



• •• 

• •• 

• •• 



8 



31 



124 



8 



HABDOI SETTLEXEMT BEPOBT. 



365 



No.IllA. 



i.^trttttd from the Oudk Cauiu Report) — (continued). 



■ai»u»— (eo«c/M/e<0. 










lllOUKR OAHTKll OF 
IIlNDDH. 










• 




^.* 


• 


d 


• 


• 

1 


• 


t 

N 


k4 


Ml 

.a 
a 


u a 
^1 


a 

g 


•** 

2 


•X. 


& 




& 


s 


o 


n 


£ 


Is 


SO 


SI 


22 


33 


84 


85 


86 


S7 


»•• 


18 


••• 


6 


••• 


••• 


* 464 


8,037 


3,683 


• •• 


66 


••• 


••• 


!•• 


8 


••• 


4,«76 


1,744 


• •• 


»•• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


S9 


1,259 


7641 


•■• 


56 


• 

••• 


••• 


• •• 


••• 


636 


11,540 


7,U64 


•M 


189 


• •• 


6 


• •• 


8 


1,139 


26,620 


18,081 


M* 


••• 


••• 


16 


81 


••• 


890 


2,721 


8,18H 


SI 


••« 


1 


IS 


3 


• ■ • 


165 


6,614 


4.246 


•M 


••• 


• •• 


6 


83 


!•• 


182 


4,56'J 


8,161 


149 


••• 


••• 


••• 


•• 


• •• 


650 


11,908 


9,586 


170 


••• 


1 


36 


47 


!•• 


1,817 


24,806 


20,169 


!•• 


6 


••• 


9 


••• 


• •• 


982 


5,716 


3,i78 


■M 


40 


• •• 


117 


4 


• •• 


1,138 


11,800 


3.449 


••• 


••• 


• •• 


16 


t«« 


• •• 


1,381 


1,371 


1,964 


••• 


16 


••• 


7S 


••• 


• •• 


1,0GS 


H,756 ' 


6,9h4 




••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


• • • 


78 


6,310 

1 


6,145 


•«• 


61 


••• 


213 


4 


• •• 


4,636 


33,418 


19,715 


• •• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


• •• 


US 


1,305 


5,78S 


• •• 


7 


• •• 


9 


64 


• •• 


466 


6//48 


S,:61 


••• 


*•• 


••• 


•• • 


••• 


• •• 


68 


8,976 


4,f;i| 


5 


••• 


•M 


16 


6 


• • • 


122 


3,«ll7 


l^i6 


— 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


• •• 


817 


8,217 


tr*»\4 


••• 


••• 


639 


65 


••• 


••• 


1^559 


Mj4 


^n 


••• 


••■ 


••• 


8 


••• 


••• 


81 


Mr^ 


2/H7 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


9 


• •• 


4 


468 


87'i 


5 


7 


639 


98 


79 


••• 


2,663 


»-,362 


S8,IIS 


175 


197 


640 


361 


130 


a 


9^45 


118,101 


'ifnt 



HABDOI 8ITTLXMIR1 BBPOKx. 



STATEMENT 
Statement of eoete of settlement of the 





Nomber 

of 
mauzas. 


Number 

of 
Tillage 
papers. 


Con 




Measure- 
ments. 


Becorda. 




Name of pargana. 


OfAcen. 


1 


• 

9 


S 


4 


6 


• 


^ (Oimdwa ^ 
g jKalyinmal 
g jBilamaa ^ 
B (Sandlla 


117 
72 
14 

818 


t,120x 

1,874 ( 

276 ( 

8,942 ) 


Rfl.. a. p. 
21,131 8 4 

80,549 16 8 
17^093 12 4 

16,897 3 


Bb. a. p. 
96»066 6 11 

86,918 1 8 
89,430 U 

33,489 4 7 


Bs. a. p. 
1,34,430 19 8 

••• 


Total 


416 


7,718 


M* / Bfingar ^ 
S J Bawan 

3 \ Sara ^ 
tqVQpp&maii ^ 


96 

67 

65 

840 


1,838) 

1,079 f 

972 ( 

4,966 J 


Total 


478 


8,849 

8,8481 
664 1 
8,086 > 
8.460 1 
1,470J 


j [Mallinwan 
M jKachhandau 
g { Bilgrain 
d jSandl 
« IKatiari 


IS3 

84 

114 

141 

80 

498 


Total 


8,978 

8,666 1 

1,622 

1,500 1 

1,492 1 

1,822 > 

820 1 

462 1 

796J 

1,0580 


f Sh&habad 

^ Wibani Fkdaroa, 
5 J Fachhoha 
« N Barwan 
■ i Alamnagar 
^ # Maosurnagar 
\ Saromanuagar ... 

Total 


141 
92 
81 
80 
69 
43 
85 
43 

675 


GxARD Total ... 


1,961 


3,6119 


74,178 6 10 


1,34,844 8 S 


1,34,430 If 



XIako:)! Skttlkmeht OrriCK ; 
Th€ iMtJuly, 18/1. 



I 



HABDOI SKTTLEMINT BBPOBT. 



355 



No. II. 

Bardoi distrietj up to 30th JurUj 1871. 



Qentrai and Judicial, 



Fixed 

eaublish- 

ments. 



C n t i n- 
gendes. 



8 



Ss. a. p. 



^M19 4 « 



Bs. a. p, 



38,9S8 2 7 



Total. 



9 



,419 4 4 



••• 



38,928 2 7 



Bs. a. p. 



2,11,778 3 1 



Grand ToUl, 

(of columns 4, 

6 to 9). 



10 



Cost per 

square 

milo. 



11 



Bb. a. p. Bb. a. p. 



ta« 



••• 



••• 



2,11,778 3 1 



2,58,966 2 4 



464 14 11 



66,468 10 89 10 1 



66,£24 7 4 101 4 9 



48,636 7 7 



4,20,796 2 1 



89 4 6 



Percent- 
age of 
cost 
on 
revised 
demand. 



12 



Rs. a. p.i 



71 1 



16 6 4 



14 3 10 



16 1 



183 9 6 29 6 6 



s 






19 



A. U. habington, 

Ogiciaiing ScUlmtni Officer, 



M8 



BABDOI BBTTUEIilOT BCPOBT. 



STATEMEH T 
Ceiutu return thawing detail of eeutet (egtratUd 



I 

\ 



1 










LOWBB 


GA8TB6 or 




1 


• 


• 


• 


Nameoltthrfl. 


Name of pftr^MMk 




■§ 


? 


a 










1 


46 




4S 


4S 


44 


f 


GandwA 


%— 


686 


1 




• 


fiAMIHTLA •••<! 


Kalyinnal 
fiftUmM 


— 
— 


606 
1,110 


14 


••• 

••• 


••• 


i 

1 


BftndiUi 
Bftwaii 


— 


Mi4 


66 


••• 


t 




4,666 


66 


••• 


S 


f 


667 


••• 


•M 


••• 


Babdoi -• < 


Bangar 
tern 


••• 
• •• 


436 
896 


6 
11 


6 


46 

6 


I 


Oop4mao 

ToUl 
BilgWim 


••• 


1,646 


66 


•M 


80 




6,410 


61 


6 


71 


f 


687 


••• 


81 


4 




MalUnwan 


•M 


1,136 


•M 


••• 


4 


BlMftiv ...< 


Kachhaadftft 


•M 


674 


••• 


••• 


— 




84Ddi 


tt* 


666 


41 


86 


106 


I 


Katiiri 

Total 
Banran 


— 
••• 


691 


••• 
41 


taa 


187 




6|046 


47 


246 


r 


606 


• !• 


••« 


4 


1 


PiU 


••• 


846 


••• 


••• 


84 


1 


Pachoha 


M> 


899 


4 


••• 


••« 


Bb^habad, < 


Pih&oi Padarna 
Saromannagar 


••• 


413 
811 


80 
••• 


— 


*^ 4 




Shihabad 


• •• 


866 


6 


— 


87 




AlamDagar 


• !• 


184 


••• 


••• 


••• 


k 


MaQsuriiagar 
Total 
Gravd Total 


• •• 

• •• 


84 


46 


••• 


••• 




6,466 


74 


•M 


119 




12,674 


864 


66 


441 










1 







Bo. IIIA* 

frtm efts Omtk Cmtm lijmwtr—itxej^ia^ 



«.TTB , 




rt 


It 


zti 




1« 




u- 




»•« 


S» 










t.: 


*!> 


i« 


%*SM 



m 


JM 


^ 


»:; 


*!> 


lis 


Sy451 


»u 


... 


m 


l^ti 


tt,UC 


M> 


Ml 


•,t*< 


l/OO 


- 


s 


tM 


wn 


u 


n 


an 








M 






H 


K 


I, M 








« 


M 


]«• 


: 


S» 


11 


«t» 






1 


«M 


«* 


M 
ll 


:*7 

i 


14 


I,4ii 


« 


~ 




















- 


i.i» 


l,«Si 


i:» 


3» 


l"« 


S,4W> 


37s 


,, 




















7 




K« 




;i 










a> 


17« 


u 


H 




•4 










IM 








»4 










t21 


>t> 




u 










7 


lU 




»« 






STU 








•01 


l^-« 


H 




IM 


















4« 








- 


14 


1,,M 


- 


- 


13 


... 


- 


... 


1« 


t^» 


f,MT 


*" 


US 


»SS 


S^SO 


SK 


- 


IN 


Mil 


it,M; 


^ 


1,110 


C,afi9 


Jl^ia 


l^SI 


■• 



358 



HABDOI SETTtniKMT BXPOBT. 



STATEMENT 
Centut report thowing area, creed, sex, and 





FOPU 




MCBAL 




AgriculturistB, 


Name of pargana. 


Adnlts. 


Minon. 


^ 

^ 




6 

1 


• 


1 


3 

o 


1 


18 


19 


20 


21 


21 


Qnndwa ••• ••• 

Kaly&nmal ••• 
Bilamaa — 
Sandlla ••• ••• 


396 

124 

69 

2,066 


316 

97 

68 

1,961 


189 

76 

76 

1,160 


162 

72 

34 

1,102 


992 

868 

179 

6^68 


ToUl 


9.667 


2,421 


1|449 


1,370 


7,797 


Biwan ... ••• 
Bangar ••• ••• 

Sara •^ m* 
Gopiman «m 


96 

176 

268 

1,106 


92 

141 

246 

1,064 


67 
126 
162 
668 


64 
86 

118 
689 


290 

627 

774 

8,422 


Total .M 


1,686 


1,643 


997 


•46 


6,022 


Bi1gr£ni ... ••« 
Saodi ••• ••• 

Tallin win ••• 
Kacbhaudan ... m* 
Katiarl ... ••* 


874 
602 
396 
661 
76 


869 
668 
369 
600 
89 


469 
296 
248 
831 

62 


401 
S16 
216 
266 

46 


2,613 
1.681 
1,262 
1,668 
263 


Total 


2,409 


2,415 


1,396 


1,147 


7^67 


Barwan ... ••• 
xali •*• ... 
Fachhoha ..• 
Fihini I'adarna m. 
Saromannagar... »•• 
bbihabad ... ••• 
Alaoinagar ... ••• 
Mansnrnagar .«• ••• 


23 

898 
99 

997 

16 

1,518 

329 
63 


19 

436 
70 

934 

13 

1,618 

291 
61 


12 

256 

48 

621 

6 

1,031 

208 

SO 


8 

214 

41 

691 

2 

726 

170 

26 


62 

1,302 
268 

3,143 
37 

4,893 
991 
170 


Total 


8,436 


3,431 


2,211 


1,778 


10,865 


Grand Total 


10,088 


9,810 


6,053 


6,141 


81,049 



SiBDOI 8IRLX1UIIT 

Ho. III. 

I, diHriet ^aniot— (continaed). 



959 



lUXl. 




Jfon-agrieulltirUU. 




AialtM. 


MiDO» 


J 


ToUl, Um«l- 


i 


1 


ri 


1 
O 




n 


94 


S6 


S6 


17 


18 


*,S6S 


•to 

4St 

900 
4,601 


409 

SB 3 

UG 

1,486 


437 

111 

S,184 


a,i36 

1.39S 
661 

13,646 


3,9W 

1.760 

19,»t)4 


t£S4 


6,93-^ 


3,sa3 


«.U36 


17,936 


ai.7s; 


m 

»71 
I.72S 


19S 
4«0 
S»3 
1,795 

V*6 


104 
18« 
H6 

l,4BS 


108 
964 
141 

800 

1^96 


666 

1,6)0 

8i» 
e,S46 

8.Sfi4 


864 
8,057 

^663 
1.1.186 


an 

1!T 


1,660 
1J3J 
I,«i0 
M7 
1S3 


795 
T3I 
■48 
1S4 

BS 


718 
684 
917 
119 
47 


4.469 
3,«18 
6,1)9 1 
681 

3a6 


T.08I 

M" 

6.17J 

9,339 
648 


■»,«*3 


«,9M 


J,717 


«.SBl 


U.t;g 


9I,»40 


lai 

M> 

144 

i,4i; 

101 

Ifili 

4B 


IM 
131 
133 
1,468 

),ieo 
ist 

61 


HS 
174 

71 

780 

l,!fl* 
III 
31 


67 

lis 

78 
719 
U 
],)61 
88 
91 


4DS 
1.108 

41S 
4,(43 

966 
6,676 

617 

161 


447 

9.iO« 

684 

9,09» 
11.469 
l,S09 


4^16 


4,144 


2,700 


S.380 


1S,B80 


11,634 


17,361 


ir.flTS 


10,316 


»,»9I 


31,64! 


86,684 



zii 



HABOOI SETTUIUMT BIFOBT. 



STAIEMEKT 
Centtu relwn thowing dilail of eattu {extracted 





Name of pargana. 




Lowaa CAaTBs ov 


Kame of tahaa 


1 


1 


• 

3 








Q 




63 


6» 


70 


1 


Gandws 


••• 


48S 


• •• 


161 


Kaljiomal 
Bilamau 


••• 
••• 


2»2 
114 


• •• 


4 
1,137 


SaDdiU 

Total 
Blwan 


••• 
••• 
••• 


1,S41 


■•• 


9,608 




s,ost 


••• 


8,805 


e 


soa 


•M 


1 


Haidoi ••• < 


Bangar 
Sara 


••• 


439 

377 


8 

9 


90 
89 


( 


Qopftmao 

Total 
Bilffiim 


••• 
••• 


1,061 


18 


93 


- 


2,116 


36 


146 


• 

1 


49^ 


••1 


893 


I 


Mall&nwaa 


••• 


793 


• M 


14,666 


BamiM ... { 




••• 


167 


• •• 


101 


J 


Saodi 


t** 


697 


• •• 


104 


1 


Katttd 

Total 

Barwan 


••• 
••• 


S78 


•• 


87 




S,3I7 


• •• 


16,761 


f 


910 


••• 


8 


1 


PaU 


••• 


319 


Mt 


143 


1 


Ptcboba 


tM 


936 


••• 


40 


BmiHABAD] ...i 


Pib&ni Padima 


••• 


334 


••• 


87 


Saromannagar 


••• 


933 


• •• 


8 




Bhihabad 


r»* 


693 


13 


49 




Alamnagar 


••• 


119 


••« 


••• 


k 


Mansarnagar 

Total 
Gbavd Total 


• •• 


36 


••• 


••• 




9,079 


13 


S78 




8,546 


46 


19,976 



173 



Ho. IIIA. 



n 



n 



t • 



a 
3 



r8 



MS7 > 



I 



I,5« 


S99 


S4 


ISS 


2.914 


U» 


U« 


^ 


(47 


i.Vis 


39i 


i«) 


M» 


122 


337 


a^as 


552 


.^ 


€:, 


l.C^S 


Ml* 


M 


•M 


».: 


SrK 


%fM 


«.♦•• 


34 


K5r55 


7,547 

f 


930 


ft» 


*•« 


314 


440 


Mfl 


IM 


•M 


US 


971 


MM 


]«5 


• «• 


6ib 


. 1,427 


9M 


S91 


1 21 


335 


450 


IfO 


77 


•a* 


3^» 


4C4 


1^144 


5» 


34 


1,.C4 


1,737 


147 


104 


M. 


356 


571 


ioc 


i7 


— 


53 


239 


MM 


ii37a 


45 


3^93 


6,289 


iMia 


7,636 


141 


8494 


30,815 



M66 


in 




391 


::S47 




427 


Ltt 


.. 


34 


7*1 


wmm 


916 


44 


«.. 


, 


SSi 


mmm 


v*» 


Mrs 


— 


«:« 


l^z 


— 


4,m' 


uu 


- 


»i» 


54^9 


- 


iCl 1 


ti2 




266 


1,155 




787 


4M 


41 


21> 


i.W5 


9 


34S 


S3i 


mm. 


ITS 


i.^rs 


111 


9;i64 


7'>4 


i: 


:«.5 


%2/^j 


13 






ITt 



1^T« i TO 2,:45 11,»p9 131 22: 





VI9 




10 


9 


i:^ 




• 




Ui* 


^ 




73 


7,:3& 


«*■ 




8 


•M 







89 IMll 



25 

19 




IS 



5M 


•M 


l^iOl 




54 


• •• 


597 


• «• 


450 


33 


7 






]C4 


2.696 


isr 


14,036 


164 



364 



HABDOI SETTtEinCMT BEFOBT. 



STATEMENT 
Centus return thawing detail of eagte$ 









MUHAI 






■ 




»: 


Vane of 
tahsil. 


Name of pargana. 




• 

.a 

9 




i 

Ml 

"5? 


OS 
60 

S 

a 








M 


*A 


:s 


w 




16 


16 


17 


18 


1 


Gnndwa 




... 


••• 


^ 


• a. 


SARDtXJL •^l 


KalYiomal ... 
Bilamau ... 


... 
••• 


— 


— 

••• 


••• 
••• 


••• 
••• 


1 


Sandfla ... 


•.. 


•M 


ti 


•• 


• a. 




Total 


••• 


• •• 


SI 


... 


.•• 


1 


D&wan 


••• 


2 


... 


1 


••• 


Baxooi .« < 


Bangar ••• 
Sara 


... 


... 


... 


••« 


• a« 


1 


• a. 


••• 


—% 


•.. 


• •■ 


( 


Gopamau •«• 


•«• 


••1 


... 


••■ 


••• 


( 


Total 


• •* 


2 


• •• 


1 


.•• 


r 


Bilgrim ••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


• •• 




Mall4nwan... 


• •• 


... 


• •• 


2 


••• 


BilqrXm ... < 


Kachhandau 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••. 


• •• 


j 


Sandi 


••• 


••« 


... 


••• 


••• 


1 


Katiftri ... 


••• 


... 


• •• 


•.. 


• •• 




Total 


• •. 


>ar 


••• 


2 


••• 


r 


Banran ••• 


• •• 


•.. 


• •• 


••• 


— 




Pali 


• •• 


••• 


... 


••• 


••• 




PAchohi M« 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


•M 


SbAbabad, \ 

1 


FlhiDi Fftdaroa 
Sarouiannagar 


• •• 

• •• 


... 


••• 
••• 


121 

••• 


8 

••• 


1 


Sh^habad ... 


• •* 


..• 


••• 


... 


.a. 


Alamnagar... 


... 


••« 


• •• 


••• 


• •• 


L 


Mansumagar 


• *• 


... 


• •• 


••• 


• •• 




Total 


• •• 


••• 


t 

1*1 


121 


8 




Grind Total 


• • • 


S 


31 


124 


8 



HABDOI SETTLEMEHT BSPOBT. 



365 



No. IIIA. 

(extracted from the Oudh Census Report) — (continued). 



eoneimded). 



UlOUER C1STK8 OV 

Hindus. 











• 




^^ 


• 


• 
10 




2 


• 


• 

N 




•i 




(4 

s 


.5> 




M 


U) 


OS 


'O 


*'3 


J3 


« 


'^' 






a 


M' 


M 


JS S 


?i 


Jm 


-a- 

CO 


& 




& 


a 


O 


km 


& 


19 


so 


21 


22 


S3 


S4 


25 


26 


»7 


••• 


18 


••• 


6 


•«• 


• •• 


464 


8,037 


3,623 


••• 


66 


••• 


••• 


• •• 


8 


••• 


4,t76 


1,744 


••• 


»•• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••« 


S9 


1,259 


760 


■•• 


55 


••• 


••• 


••• 


• • • 


636 


11,548 


7,054 


M« 


199 


••• 


6 


• •• 


8 


1,129 


25,520 


18,081 


M* 


••■ 


••• 


16 


21 


■•• 


8S0 


2,721 


3,188 


21 


••« 


1 


19 


3 


• • • 


165 


5,614 


4,245 


— 


••• 


••• 


6 


23 


••• 


182 


4,669 


8,151 


149 


— 


••• 


•«• 


•• 


••• 


650 


11,902 


9,605 


170 


••• 


1 


35 


47 


••• 


1,217 


24,806 


20,169 


••• 


6 


•— 


9 


■•• 


••• 


982 


5,716 


3,i7S 


•M 


40 


••• 


117 


4 


••• 


1,132 


11,260 


3,449 


••• 


••• 


•• • 


15 


••• 


»•• 


1,381 


1.371 


1,964 


••• 


1« 


••• 


72 


••• 


• •• 


1,063 


8,756 


6,984 


M. 


••• 


— 


••• 


—m 


• • • 


78 


6,310 


6,145 


M* 


• 1 


••• 


213 


4 


••• 


4,636 


33,413 


19,716 


• •• 


M* 


••• 


••• 
9 


••• 


••• 


112 


1,305 


5,732 


• •• 


7 


••• 


64 


••• 


466 


6,b42 


2,761 


#•• 


••• 


••• 


• • • 


••• 


••• 


62 


3,976 


4,611 


5 


••• 


t*. 


16 


6 


•«• 


122 


3,817 


1,526 


..« 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


217 


2,217 


2,514 


.•« 


•.« 


539 


65 


••« 


••• 


1|659 


8,4J4 


2,623 


••« 


••• 


••• 


8 


••• 


■•• 


21 


1,623 


2,067 


•.« 


••• 


••• 


•.• 


9 


••• 


4 


458 


379 


5 


7 


639 


98 


79 


••• 


2,663 


2M62 


22,113 


175 


197 


640 


361 


130 


8 


9,645 


112,101 


75,078 



lUBDoi 8nTi.iiutrr upobt. 

STATEMENT 

Ceniut TVtuni ihowUtg detml 0/ etuUi 







BiOBiB cjUTUOr HiiDDi— (eimeWiO- 1 




!i 


^ 








Kune ol Uluil 


Rome o( pirgina. 


1 


s. 


jr 


i 


2 








« 




n 






la 


>9 


ao 


31 


S» 




Gondwi ... 


I,M< 


4«0 








B«...J 


Kdlyinmal... 
Biinmoa ... 


S" 


181 
■S 


"9* 


" 


- 


1 




6,18a 


1,11 1 


ItT 


S 


ISI 




Total ... 
Biwu 


7.331 


J.OSl 


341 


B 


1SI 




9!> 


3U 


3 






buooi... ] 


Sum 


I.JM 
1,»SJ 


aos 

3(S 


344 
ISA 


4S 


IB 
71 


( 


Qopiiun ... .» 

ToUl 
attgttm ... » 


3,™ 


M4 


4) 


47 


33 




1,»U 


9,1*0 


SSI 


91 


Ml 


t 


Ha 


BIS 




1 


SOS 




MiIUdwib ... 


l,7B5 


7tS 






S3 




Eachbandaa 


IBS 


uo 










S*uJ! 


1.S6S 


649 










KatUri ... ^ 
TotJ ... 
Banran _ 






10 


IS 


- 




*M» 


l,<74 


■OS 


14 


asi 




413 


IB6 






3 




Pali 


IBO 














4« 










SliUHB 


Pihini pRdarua 


£49 


■07 


... 


9 


141 

a 




tjhihahad ... 


l,T9il 


1,009 




16 


lOS 




AUmnagir 


all 


T< 










MamCmagu 

Tola! - 
GiahdTotic 




*' 




... 


... 




6,760 


S,*73 


- 


SB 


a,i7fl 




3S,B3I 


9,479 


90) 


139 


8^11 



BABOOt SETTLEUEKT BEFORT. 



367 



o. IIIA. 



{txtraeted from the Oudh Ctntut Report) — (continued). 



LOWEB CA8TBS OF IIlRDUS. 




















• 




^ 

^ 




• 


MS 


SL 




•g 


• 






Ml 


^aS 


*"^ 




.• 


1 




a 


•♦*• 


^ 
••-» 




^ 


• 


^ 


.a 


.a 


A 


%» 


cS 


01 


cS 


ja 


^ 


< 


A 


pq 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


33 


34 


35 


36 


37 


38 


39 

1 


40 


41 


4,686 


6,769 


704 


158 


••• 


••• 


41 


71 


••• 


7sa 


1,142 


312 


184 


••• 


••• 


20 


2 


••• 


67 


644 


132 


44 


••• 


••• 


•*• 


■■• 


••• 


MIS 


6,863 


1,37U 


542 


ft t • 


94 


116 


67 


••• 


•,681 


16,317 


2,518 


928 


••• 


94 


117 


140 


M* 


••• 


1,886 


466 


86 


•• • 


■•« 


••# 


11 


••• 


160 


6,003 


898 


279 


%•• 


••• 


43 


12 


15 


US 


1,678 


601 


»6 


t«« 


••• 


••• 


11 


••• 


%fi%\ 


6,116 


1,944 


505 


••• 


96 


25 


41 


••• 


%AU 


16,S78 


3,902 


966 


••• 


96 


68 


76 


IS 


1,164 


6,333 


656 


317 


••• 


••• 


••• 


51 


«•• 


1,S64 


4,463 


812 


662 


••• 


••• 


48 


134 


••• 


68 


1,836 


201 


96 


••• 


•ft • 


••• 


4 


••■ 


«S 


8,240 


951 


171 


••• 


54 


179 


85 


27 


14 


2,888 


350 


63 


••• 


••• 


12 


21 


•" 


Vss 


23,864 


2,970 


1,209 


••• 


54 


284 


295 


27 


•m 


873 


307 


73 


••• 


• ■ • 


70 


I 


— 


'1 


1,630 


468 


95 


•■• 


• • • 


88 


22 


—m 


•■• 


1,439 


422 


98 


■•• 


••• 


1 


19 


••• 


■ ■• 


4,223 


364 


139 


8 


••• 


8 


1 


7 


••• 


906 


284 


53 


••• 


•« • 


9 


26 


••• 


41 


2,931 


9U9 


190 


33 


■•• 


••• 


71 


••• 


ISS 


1,069 


241 


63 


• • ■ 


-•• 


••• 


9 


••• 


M3 


804 


106 


80 


••• 


••• 


••• 


tt 


••• 


S87 


10,765 


3,101 


731 


41 


••• 


126 


157 


7 


li|006 


06,214 


12,491 


3,834 


41 


244 


6U5 


€67 


49 










48 s 











d«8 



flABDOI SETTtmiHT BSPOBT. 



STATEMEKT 
Cenwi return showing detail of eaeUs (esiraeted 



ISlune of tthiSl. 



SAMDfLA 



••• 



{ 



Babsoi 



••• 



1 



f 



Name of pargUMk 



Gondwa 
KalyftDBial 
fialamMi 
Sftadfla 



Total 



Bftwan 

Bangar 

San 

Oopimao 



Total 



BihQMim 



J 



BuinkMAD, * 



Bilgrim 

MalUnwan 

Kachhaadaa 

84Ddi 

Katiari 



I 



Total 



Banran 

F4U 

Pachoha 

Fihaoi Padarua 

Saromannagar 

Sh6habad 

Alamnagar 

Mansamagar 



Total 



Grivd Total 



••• 



••• 



t«« 



••• 
••• 
••• 



6 

I 

m 



4S 



«8a 

606 
1,110 



4^6 



S87 

438 

892 

1,849 



8,410 



••• 


•>)7 


•M 


1,138 


*•• 


874 


• •• 


668 


••• 


891 


• M 


\046 


••• 


806 


•M 


848 


••• 


899 


••t 


418 


••• 


Sll 


• •• 


886 


• •• 


184 


• •• 


84 


• •• 


8y468 


••• 


12,674 






48 



I 
14 

••• 
68 



€S 



S 
11 



61 



41 



••• 



41 



••• 



••• 



••• 



4 
80 



46 



74 



884 



LOWBB OABTBa OV 




••• 

••• 
••• 



••• 

••• 



16 



••• 



47 



••• 



68 



1( 
18- 



/ 



4 

84 



87 



••• 
••• 



119 



441 



BABDOI BBTTUnoniT BIPOBT. 



869 



^0. Ill A.' 



Ann tie Oudh Cen»u$ i{q)or<>— (oontinned). 




1 


1 


• 

3 






• 

i 


^ 


i 
1 


• 

1 


*^ 


» 


S 


P4 


fk 


H 


H 


H 


M 


4M 


47 

117 


48 


49 


60 


61 


69 


68 


64 




8,187 


86 


49 


617 


1,410 




••• 


M 


88 


9,439 


10 


13 


93 


698 


••• 


••• 


M* 


••• 


••• 


6 


■•• 


346 


987 


•M 


••« 


SM 


888 


19,884 


118 


998 


3,174 


3,860 


91 


••• 


t44 


868 


17,460 


199 


860 


4,060 


6,645 


91 


••■ 




188 


9,773 


7 


76 


19 


726 


9 




11 


318 


8,786 


107 


81 


147 


1,076 


1 


%>• 


f 


814 


6,999 


38 


111 


91 


910 


6 


• • • 


to 


864 


16,796 
39,696 


917 


96 


966 
615 


9,438 


986 


•■• 


108 


1,068 


369 


869 


6,144 


1,000 


••a 


i 


S88 


1,611 


49 


87 


899 


1,618 


8 


If 


64 


68 


8,006 


84 


86 


1,156 


1,489 


859 


•M 


7 


86 


148 


3 


98 


21 


469 


••• 


••• 


S84 


480 


610 


80 


147 


204 


1,412 


10 


••• 


1 


887 


60 


11 


2 


46 


687 


8 


• •• 


SOI 


1,188 


6,434 


170 


350 


1,749 


5,400 


378 


11 


T 


130 


906 




31 


12 


627 


••• 


M« 


tft 


174 


46 


14 


17 


94 


448 


••• 


• •• 


90 


190 


62 


28 


19 


34 


690 


••• 


••• 


•0 


8S8 


909 


71 


96 


134 


850 


••• 


• •• 


7 


128 


699 


36 


4 


21 


870 


••• 


• •• 


18 


601 


1,876 


86 


85 


184 


1,88<) 


959 


• •• 


••• 


60 


1,444 


■•• 


64 


46 


875 


••• 


••• 


••• 


84 


1,034 


••• 


•M 


13 


192 


••• 


••« 


147 


M16 


6,967 


915 


238 


638 


5,390 


982 


• ■• 


7M 


M»i 


62,367 


963 


1,810 


6,869 


91,579 


1,651 


11 



870 



HABDOI SXTTLSMINT RIPORT. 



STATEME 
CmsuB retvm showing detail of eat 



K«me of 
tahBSl. 



SABDrLA 



•1 



fiAKDOI 



••• '% 



BiLOBiM ... 



8Hi(BABAD, < 



Name of pargina. 



Gondwii 
Kalj&nmal ... 
B41amaa ... 
SandiU ••• 



ToUl 



B&wan ••• 
B&ngar m* 
Sara 
Gop&maii 



f 



Total 



LOWBB CA8TB8V 






66 



••• 

• •• 

••• 



••• 



.a 



66 



••• 

•M 

• *• 

• •• 



• •• 



u 

MS 

a 



67 



9,084 

6.060 

3,001 

S4^67 



40,70S 



Bilgr&m ••• 
Mallanwan... 
Kachhandau 
SandS ••• 

Kati&rf 



Total 



Barwan 

Fill 

V achoha ••• 

Pih&ni Padarnft 

SarornaDnngar 

Shahabad ••• 

Alamnagar 

MauBuroagar 



Total 



GlAND TOTiL 



J3 

o 



68 





HiBDOI SITTtBHENT SIPOBT. 



»o. IIIA. 

{utnaed from the Oudh Cennu Report) — (continned). 

























-,Sjj 
















^ 


•S& 


1 


g 


3 


i 




4; 


» 


^ 


SSS 


a 


a. 


a 


k 


a 


S 


n 


CO 


61 


es 


.. 


84 


86 


88 


AT 


173 


931 


409 


S44 






SH 




ITS 
4« 
» 

•4ft 


64 


3S3 


lus 


S3S 


IS 








SS9 


1S3 
»,160 


83 
881 


409 

a.s4i 


'l6 


" 


44 

810 


68 


tT9 


S,61T 


WH 


3,809 


30 


... 


1,840 


73 


BM 




















CO 


43S 


>t7 


167 










TO 
ITt 
IIS 
S45 


IS9 




3»7 


349 










IS 
















»2 




7S4 


sun 


118 


... 


699 


81 


447 


3,ses 


1,R30 


W07 


111 


6 


,,.» 


84 


TOS 


135 


913 


407 


4^6 






43fi 




101 

481 

S 

368 




UBfl 


613 








973 










SIS 






U4 






1,080 


«6I 












18 


480 


488 


118 




3 


IBS 


... 




















SSS 


4,0G4 


i.724 


I,7B1 




3 


1,740 


300 


I,1M 




















7 


S70 


St8 








337 




W 
147 


60 


407 


<3i 












6 


6«a 


G4a 


S48 










■is 


B75 


1,207 


171 


... 




3V4 














1S3 


Gl 




SIS 








6rfi 


G 




041 




















— 


89 


« 






... 


37 


... 






3,P30 
















331 


'■'" 


1,579 


' 


1S« 


i,63t 


188 


814 


I.0S3 


i4,S 


9,701 


.,«. 


1(« 


187 


.,,., 


84G 


8.660 



Z7t 



HARDOI 8Bm.BMKMT BIFOBT< 



STATEMEKT 
Census rawn showing dttaU of castes {extract^ 











LowBa CAaraa or 






• 




• 




Vmt of tahaCL 


Name of pargana. 




J 


1 

p4 










Q 








68 


69 


70 




1 

BAMDthJL ••• < 

1 


Gnndwa 


••t 


485 


■•t 


161 




Kalyiomal 
B&lamau 


••• 

••• 


114 


••■ 


4 
1,187 




SanJila 

Total 
Blwan 


M« 
M« 
••• 


M41 


••• 


9,508 






IfiSt 


••• 


8y805 


1 


e 


906 


«•« 


1 


f 


Haidoi m. < 


Baogar 
Sara 


••• 
• •• 


489 
877 


8 

9 


90 
89 




( 


Qopiman 

Total 

Bilgrim 


• •• 

• •• 
••• 


1,061 


18 


98 




■ 


9,»<^ 


8i 


146 




• 


497 


••• 


608 




I 


Mall&nwaa 


• •• 


798 


•M 


14^66 




BnoBiM ... < 


Kacbhandaa 


•«• 


167 


• •• 


101 




1 


Saodi 


M« 


697 


• •• 


104 




1 


KatUM 

Totol 
Barwan 


••• 
••• 
••• 


378 


•• 


67 






9,317 


• t« 


15,751 


f 


910 


••• 


8 




1 


PaU 


••• 


819 


•M 


143 




1 


Pacboha 


• •• 


938 


••• 


40 




80i(HABAD] ...•< 


Pib&ni Padama 
Saromaonagar 


• •• 


384 
933 


••• 


87 
8 




1 


Bh&habad 


*•• 


698 


18 


49 




1 


AUmnagar 


• •• 


119 


••• 


••« 




I 


MaDsurnagar 

Total 
Gbaitd Total 


— 

• •• 


86 


••• 


••• 






9,079 


18 


978 


h 




8,546 


41 


19,976 


\ 



■^ 



HABDOI 

Mo. IIIA. 

)»wi Ae Oudk Centm Report}— (couliaued). 



i 


1 


1 


i 


s 


1 




1 




»1 


71 


TS 


74 


TS 


76 


T7 


78 






ITS 




»1 












*1T 


loa 




S4 


T8I 










tl« 


66 






S9S 










^IM 


1,676 


... 


614 


3,4«8 


... 


... 






4.m 


WIS 


„. 


B39 


*••" 


-. 


- 


.- 




SSI 


14S 


11 


386 






96 






JBT 


4S5 




399 






1S9 






ta 


S8S 




67S 


i,«;s 


IB9 








*,m 


7« 


11 


1,005 


b.»«0 


13 


» 






















«,»7 


1,778 


TO 


J!,CM 


- 


181 


S27 


9 




ifin 


sn 


34 


I6S 


«. 




1.719 






IJ6M 








1,918 


9 








sn 


18} 




I Si 












V08 


S6S 




SIO 






7,788 






Via 


S6 


». 


107 


9SS 


8 


... 


». 






















9^ 


9,166 


U 


1,938 


7,667 


89 


11,111 


IB 






















930 


S» 




aiB 


440 












184 




IIS 


S7I 












lOS 




SIB 












»« 


MS 


11 


38S 


460 




64 






•10 


IT 




889 


404 


60 


697 






t,]4« 


ess 




1,164 


l,T87 


16 










lot 




366 


671 




T 






MS 


ST 


" 


61 


S39 


- 




104 


«4» 


l,S7S 


u 


8;89« 


<,S8» 


109 


i,69« 


137 


iS,«18 


T,SS« 


]«• 


MM 


sc^ais 


STl 


i4,oa6 


184 



374 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT RKPOBT. 



STATEMENT 

Census return shomng detail of castes ( extracted 



Name of tahsfl. 



SXVDthA 



Habdoi 



BlLOBiK 



Name of pargana. 



••I 



] 



Gundwa 
Kalyftnmal 
Balaroau 
Sandila 



••• 

••• 



Total 



J 



B&wan 


••• 


Bangar 


••• 


bara 


••• 


Gopamau 


••• 



Total 



Bilgrim ••• 

Mall in wan ^« 
Kachhandau ... 
Sandi 
Katiari 



•«• 



SaiHABAD... " 



I 



Total 



Barwan .•• 

Palf 

Pachoha «• 
Plbani Padarua 
Saromaunagar 
8h&habad .•• 
Alamnagar 
MaDBur nagar 



Total 



Gkahd Total 



••• 
••• 



••• 



••• 
••• 

••• 



••• 



••• 
••• 
••■ 
••• 
••• 



••• 



••• 

••• 
••• 
*•* 
••• 
••• 
... 
••• 



••« 



79 



1,418 
43 
14 

2,850 



4,826 



••• 



65 

84 

101 



240 



6 

306 

1,4^6 

26 

7 



1,762 



••• 



87 
12 

I* 

8 

8,486 



6,642 



12,876 



LOWKB CA8TB8 OF 



1 



80 



80 

19 

270 



369 



122 
46 
74 



242 



818 

96 

224 

287 
180 



1,110 



194 
6 

27 
49 
93 



876 



2,097 



3 



81 



646 

226 

114 

1,417 



2,302 



S49 

4A6 

43(1 

1,130 



2,865 



608 
853 
268 
844 
826 



2^97 



196 
297 
411 
295 
205 
784 
140 
80 



2,407 



9,671 



HABDOI SETTLEXKNT BKPOET. 



No. IIIA. 
Jrvn the Omih Ceniut Report) — (continued). 



375 



Hmous — (condmded). 







• 

1^. 


• 

.a 
'Si 


* 
c 

es 

:3 


vet 


• 

c3 


82 


88 


84 


85 


86 


87 


88 


t,19S 


47 


147 


18 


109 


1,055 


67 


1,S88 


••t 


30 


M 


65 


488 


9 


428 


••• 


31 


••• 


51 


183 


14 


9,082 


••• 


617 

• 


195 


4d8 


2,640 


385 


12,987 


47 


8*26 


227 


718 


4,306 


485 


788 


69 


33 


• •• 


68 


338 


28 


S.Otl 


8 


64 


9 


809 


693 


19 


1.687 


6 


76 


•M 


136 


642 


140 


8,643 


836 


182 


24 


383 


1,585 


43 


9,074 


408 


345 


33 


736 


3,158 


230 


4,159 


162 


349 


147 


180 


785 


142 


2,696 


4 


4S8 


77 


274 


1,385 


78 


1,508 


76 


77 


»• 


21 


484 


58 


4,853 


311 


169 


28 


830 


1,151 


264 


2,385 


24 


69 


.M 


81 


6ti6 


40 


15,646 


666 


1,148 


252 


786 


4,411 


572 


994 


14 


4 


••■ 


60 


303 


77 


2,019 


4 


38 


17 


121 


628 


77 


2,106 


21 


119 


••• 


114 


403 


21 


1,S69 


21 


lua 


59 


103 


6:)9 


38 


1,014 


14 


34 


• • • 


87 


161 


54 


8,989 


6 


869 


88 


207 


1,083 


123 


610 


9 


49 


••• 


8t) 


260 


■•• 


382 


41 


4 


••« 


18 


144 


••• 


11,833 


130 


607 


164 


730 


3,431 


385 


49,440 


1,151 


2,919 


676 


2,965 


16,306 


1,612 



19u 



HASDOI BtTILtjmn BEPO&T. 

STATBMEK ^ 
Showing pro/tttiont and oeeupatie^^" 



CLASS. 


CLASS L— 


-■ 


0«DI1. 


OaniiB I.— fioT Ban- 


UaDKR U — 
EVUAOMO !■ 


Ou 1 


FroteasioD or ocrupaiion— English 


s' 

1 
1 


1 

■3 

! 

1 


a 

:i 


1 


1 


1 

a. 


~t 

4 

s 

- 




Profewion nr oceupiilion— Vprna- 
culu name. 


S 


i 
& 

1 


1 

1 

3 


, 


5 
o 

1 


a 
3 


t>t Uh>il. 


Name of pargioa. 


1 


■ 


4 


6 


t 


BAN^tLA ... 


Gnnd<r» 

Hilauuu 
SnnUilB 

Total „ 
Biwan 
B>ng>r 
Sin 

Total ... 
BilRrara 

MallCiKran 
Xachhandau 
Saudi 
Kalinrl 

Total ... 
BnriraD 
P.Ii 

l-sohholia 

I'ibuil i'silarua _, 
SanimikniiagBr 
SWhabad 
Alamnatl.r 

Total 

District Total ... 


:: 


180 

si? 

1.0ill 


IS 

3S 


"s 


IM 
14 


« 






9 


.'OB 




EjLtDOt ... 


::: 


log 


;;;' 


™ 


11 

IT 

t«t 


1— 


- 




™ 


SU7 


B 


1 


95G 





BiLaxiM ... 


z 


93 

114 
M 

lit 
45 




"a 


163 

IBS 
23 


'.V 


/ 




-M 


^~S4 

67 
GO 
• 3 
3 
ST 
10 


... 


13 


601 


... 




SsiMlBAD, ' 


::: 


::: 


E 


IP 
» 

81 


E 






... 


3al 


... 




6* 


.« 






... 1,P»7 


'" 


13 


l.»» 


1 





BABDOI SRTTLIMCMT BEPOBT. 



377 



^1 



^0. IIIA. 

f'tn tie Oudh Cm$ut Report).— (oondaded). 



[ •««Wi, 


















a. 

m 




• 

I 








1 » «* a 


& 




« 


• 

4« 








Perso 

whose ca 

is not kno 


o> 




_l^ 


t 

96 


s 


GQ 


• 
a 

CG 


* 




1 
3 


94 


96 


97 


98 


99 


100 


101 


103 


••• 


11 


S 


96 


••• 


••• 


1,870 


182 


56,871 


*• « 


••• 


'•\ 


70 


M* 


••• 


••• 


6 


24,876 


*• & 


••• 


••• 


• • • 


• • • 


••• 


316 


1 


11.159 




••• 


• • • 


• •• 


• •■ 


••• 


639 


285 


148.204 


**% 


11 


s 


106 


• ■• 


••• 


2,324 


423 


236,109 


••• 


M* 


• •• 


2 


• a • 


2 


318 


46 


26,037 


2 


• •• 


• •• 


92 


1 


• •• 


274 


41 


54,494 


*^ 


••• 


••• 


7 


••• 


• • ■ 


248 


32 


34,972 


^^ 


••• 


••• 


••• 


• •• 


• • • 


246 


265 


112,006 


s 


• •• 


••• 


101 


1 


2 


1,086 


384 


227,609 


••• 


*•• 


••• 


••• 


»•• 


••• 


657 


42 


56,?44 


16 


• •• 


••• 


141 


•M 


••• 


435 


73 


77,681 


••• 


• •• 


• •• 


39 


••• 


••• 


23 S 


31 


20,459 


••• 


• •• 


»•• 


••• 


• •• 


••• 


434 


17 


69,751 


^^k_ ••• 


• •• 


••• 


••• 


• ■• 


• •• 


3,469 


7 


35,164 


16 


• •• 


• •• 


180 


• •• 


••• 


6,S28 
215 


170 

• •• 


259,299 


••• 


••• 


••• 


SO 


• •• 


•• • 


19,S06 


••• 


••• 


••• 


36 


• •« 


••• 


271 


86 


28,(87 


«•• 


• •t 


#•• 


••• 


••• 


• M 


••• 


87 


27,9 il 


••• 


• •• 


••• 


87 


••• 


••• 


1,695 


151 


34,028 


••• 


• •• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


.•• 


••« 


• • • 


15,624 


S 


• •• 


• • • 


31 


••• 


• •• 


338 


23 


67,646 


••• 


• •• 


• • • 


7 


• •• 


••• 


102 


6 


15,221 


••• 


• •• 


• •• 


3 


• •• 


• •• 


■ • • 


••• 


6,986 


t 


• •• 


••• 


144 


••• 


t«« 


2,521 


265 


214,009 


20 


11 


2 


631 


1 


2 


11,159 


1,242 


936,926 



A. H. HARINGTON. 
Offg. Setaement Officer. 



380 



HARDOI SRTTLKMBNT REPOBT. 



STATEMBIC^ 



Showing professions and oecupcUionM 



CLASS. 



Ordbb. 



CLASS IL— 
DOMESTIC 

Ohdeb V.~£hoaobd 
iii rntkbtiibing 

AMD PKRrORMIMQ 

PBBtOllAL OFFlCBfl 

FOR Muff. 



Profession or occupation—English 
name. 



Profession or occupation— Verni- 
calftr Name 



Name of 
Tabsfl. 



Name of pargana. 



SABDtLA 



•I 



Habdoi ••• < 

f 

BlLaBAK ... i 

I 



I 

I 

SbAbabad, { 



Onndwa 
Kalysnmal 
BHiaiiiau 
Sandila 

Total 

Rawan ••• 
Bangar .^ 
Sara 
Oopimao 

Total 

Bilgram 
Mallanwan 
Kachhandaa 
Sandi .•• 
Katiari 

Totol 

Barwan 

Pali 

Fachhoha 

Pihani PHdarua 

^aromannagar 

Shihabad 

Alamnagar 

Mansumagar 

Total 

District Total 



••• 
••• 

••• 



•t* 



••• 

••t 

••• 
• • • 
••• 

••• 

••• 



.a 

m 



0) ^ 



o 



19 



20S 
66 
33 

467 



7t7 



96 
217 
158 
416 



8b2 



184 
S56 
78 
SS4 
186 



881 



60 
107 
144 
138 

6 
387 

88 

23 



898 



i 



SO 



l»4S7 

298 

187 

8,366 

"r228 



212 

1,301 

171 

2i661 



1,018 

1,326 

16U 

726 

826 



8,640 



i78 
419 
1661 
750 
182 
),292 
100 
74 



3,161 



16,259 



a 






a 
•a 



21 



10 



••• 
••• 
••• 



10 






••• 
••• 
••• 
• >• 
••• 



••• 



• a • 

• •• 

• •• 

• •• 

• • • 



10 



Obdbb VI.-] 

WJdO BUT OB 
KBBF OB LBBD 

▲BD 0O0D8 or Til 
XIBDB, ftc. 



<u 

M 
a 



-3 



22 



96 
48 

18 
17S 



829 



19 
64 

12 



86 



118 
S50 

19 
100 

51 



598 



4 
66 
16 
96 
16 
69 
17 



2T2 



1»2S4| 



s 

I 



2S 



96 

13 

1 

201 



811 



SO 
42 
81 

40 



143 



84 
166 

194 
24 



466 



11 
72 
10 
107 
26 
95 



329 



i;m« 



24 



118 



146 



88 



26 



25 



HABDOl BBTTLEUEHT BIPOBT. 

^o. IIIB. 

from Oa Oudh Cmnu iJepor*).— (coDtinaed). 



***— COMMEBCIA L. 


CLASS iv.-Auai. 

CULTURAL. 




OiDBB TIL— E>a40iv nr t 




OBDEtVIII.-PEBSnita 




" 


P HH, 


AMHtLS AKD 


OOOM. 






INO IBS Lian, &a. 


s 


II 




s 




■5 
1 






:i 


1 






1 


II 


r 


H 


5 

1 


^1 


i 


i 


1 

2 


1 


1 




^ 


o"" 


s 


r 


& 


ij 


k 


S 




£ 


5 


































.d 














- 




























■0 


9 




1 








^ 






■^■i 










^ 
















^ 


ti 


1 


% 


d 


■ 


i 


5 


1 


3 


-:i 


n 


< 
i7 


s 




1 

9S 


ao 


3 
31 


s 

ai 


2 

33 


1 

34 


^ 


5" 


» 


38 


39 


36 


t 








4 






1! 


19 


846 


9.338 


11 


1 






i 










65 


SOI 






















n 


113 




• 


9lT 




... 












Si; 


1.771 


Sl,190| 8> 


M 






lOB 


e> 


... 


... 


It 


314 


3.838! 3T,B0Si 117 










4 










»4S, 6,485 


IS 










tj 








195 


1,S71 


]],31l 


16 








t 










iU 


1.0*f 


7, CGI 












14 




~. 


TS 


»«; 


i;i3i 


11.709 


49 




... 


... 


s 


luS 


... 




74 


ess 


9.548 


4MS1 


101 








... 


1 


... 


... 


... 


119 




ii,b7m 


96 


1! 




















13,981 




< 
















101 


SH 


3,931 


16 
















if 


4« 


I,5S( 


19,091 


30 










4 






i 








90 










































1,05] 


6,016 


51,887 


193 


... 


... 




... 


... 


... 




... 


A3 


1,018 


1915 


1 


















10^! 


911 


6,165 




i: 
















6. 




6.311 




- 




... 




SS 


... 


... 


9 


101 
41 


496 
866 


l!9S4 


17 


» 






II 








IC 


SSI 


9o; 


11,114 


as 


















1! 


C3i 


3.4B( 




— 




... 


— 


... 








10 


61 


1,838 




u 


-z- 


-1^ 


iTa 


4S 
168 


9 
9 


-zr 


IS 
131 


G94 


7,016 


41,359 


90 


SI 


1,B6* 


10,917 


i:e,89o 


609 



BABDOI SETTLCHRNT RIPORT. 

STATEMENT- 
ShowiMg profestioni and oceupaliont {extracted 



CLASS. 


CLASS IV.-AGHIUULTUBAL. 


OBOEtt. 


OlDRS IX.— PkBSONI BRQIOED IHODr All 


EoglUh name. 


Jill 

111 


1 


1 


B 


i 


s 




1. 

si 

IS 


1 

1 


1 
1 


1 

a 


} 




mmcofUhin. 


Nuiui^bf parKin*- 


ST 


38 


„ 


40 


41 


41 


fJAKUIU ._ ? 


Ganclnii 
K.i:;ir>mikl 
Uulnmau 
iSwidila 

ToWl 

BKLgar 

Totil 

Bilgriu, 

MBlUnw«n 
Knell hwidiiu 

Katiuri 

Tolal ... 
Barwaii 
Poli 

I'ttcbholLi 

I'ihiHi Puanrua „. 

Sflri.mBiinai{iir .„ 

8bdli4Lb»d 

Alftmii«K«r 

MaDiurnogikr 

District Tf.l:il ... 


!!! 


1 


... 


•4 

"(7 


60 


"if 




-. 


1 


-^ 


"ii 
"'3 


HI 


Uiaftot .. } 


- 


E 


84 
84 

US 


IS 




::: 


^ 


1 


14 


MT 


41 


BlLOKlM ... 


34 

m 

68 


9 
7 

10 




... 




... 


* 


SM 


ss 


1 

I. 


::: 


.!! 


::: 


"i: 
"; 


"m 
s 


18 
"»1 
19 

at 

'"1 








... 


I 


... 


741 


M> 



dABDOt SBTTLBHSNT BEPOBT. 38^ 

Ro. IIIB. 

from tht Oudi Centiu Report) — (continued). 











CLASS 7.- 


IBDU 


ETBIAL, 








SUIA 






Obdsb X.— Am Aim 


MECH1.IC& 








1 


'1 


■; 








II 




is 


3 


2 


ii 


h 


It 


li 


1 
i 

.J. 

a 


3 

1 

1 


: 


II 

P 




Is 
Ms 


a 
1 


.SI 
1 = 


a 

11 


B 


3 


i 


:■ 














■^ 






3 


s 


* 
















■s 


X 


3 


as 


1 

o 


1 

2 


s 

B 


i 

s 


i 


1 


fi' 


1 


i 


43 


44 


4S 


4S 


47 


48 


*9 


BO 


Gl 


5S 


,. 


", 


*« 




K8 








io 






11 


E 




I 




SC 














3 










43 














S 






IS 


... 


39S 


9 


_:!_ 




—^ 




-^ 


57 


-V 




























9 










3 














1 




ire 


2 








S 




a 










115 


11 












16 






... 


... 


343 


.» 


... 


^ 


... 


... 


... 


41 


... 




10 


... 


73U 


14 


... 


S 




6 


... 


64 


... 


-. 


s 


::: 


sua 

270 

63 


S 


::: 


~ 


::: 




::: 


8 


;;; 


... 


11 


... 


atwj 




... 


.- 


... 


' 


... 




... 


- 








^ 


— 





— 




— 


3i 






3S 


... 


81V 


1 




"' 1 


'■:. 


77 


"a 


;:: 


::: 


~. 




E 


*i 


... 


'.'.\ 


'" 6 




T5 
338 


"": 


... 


... 


z 


.■.■; 




"30 


Z 


::. 


a 


■~ 


764 


~i 


~ 


i» 


TT 


I* 


-tr 


88 

a»7 


4 


9 


lit 


»,»» 





BABDOI SETTLEIIBHT BIFOfiT, 

STATEMENT 
Showing pro/e*»iont and occupaliotu {extracted 



CLASS. 












CLASS V.- 


Obdii. 


OlDII. X.- 
AkTS AtlD 

Ubob.(nicii. 


Omdeb XL— Text ILK 


English Hbidc 


1 

i 

i 


1 

i 


1 

i 


9 


i 
s 

MO 
GO 
111 
4tS 
Mil 
41 

TS 

U 
ISO 

SI 
ST!I 

M 

7-i 
TU 

s; 

IIT 
19 

~«"78 


11 

-1 

=£ 
(5 

60 


a 




o 

5G 


i 
1 


1 

67 

15B 
10* 

la 

l,!(4l 

Mil 

1(17 
IIS 

4» 

1^.4 

»6 

3Sv 
63li 

>r 

6,911 


1 

13 

6 

'"a 
1 *» 


8 

•1 


i:«n>eofT*&^l. 


Mmme of Fargsni. 


SMuiirs ...i 


GunclBB 

SBnJtla " 
Total ... 

KBnfTBC 

S.r« 

Total „. 
Htlnrnm 

t-aiuli 
Katlari 

Total _ 

B«rwan 

I'Bli 

I'Bchhoha 

Piliatii I'lulnnii* ... 

SiroiimnniiBBr ... 

Shiilialtfi<I 

Tolnl ... 
Dintrict loliil ... 


"lO 


-i- 


6 

ts 

3« 

"si 
lu 

73 

18 
ISG 

60 

80 

aa 

» 

SMI 


1 
'so 


\ 

BnSlinbad... . 

1 


o" 

3 

3 

1 
3 

30 

"m6 

*l 
116 



HABDOl aSTTLEHKNT BEPOBT. 



Ho. IIIB. 

fn^tie Oudh Census Report) — (continuei)). 



AGKICULTORAL. 



flUIC* AFB 


D>h«B. 






Ukdh XII.— Pood 4av 


.„.. 








•.MO Ik 


















^ 






°IJ 1 














^ 


. 


*5 




i 




g-r- 






^- 


^ 


^ 


? 


? 


S 


-3 






111 




1 


° 




S 


1 


1 


1 

.5 


1 


li 


i 
1 








i 












t- 




0-" 








=1 


i 




L 


1 






.^ 


































1 


1 


•I* 
I-' 


L 

.53 


i 


■3 
'■4 


< 


1 


1 


i 
1 


1 


;i 


a 
1 




























«i 


83 


e4 


66 


a 


67 


CS 


6» 


70 


7. 


12 


73 


74 




s; 




i 




v» 


16 


400 




ti 


74 


46 
















IS 


IbT 






6 














15 












3J 






.„ 


SES 


„. 


16 




lOli 


88 


1,0 Itf 


... 


3.1 


4S* 


Ti; 


- 




315 
























~zr 


47 


... 




... 


^YT 


18 


'7^ 


—^ 


15 


ti 


— aT 


... 












42 








18 


io 














7a 


15 










39 






« 


— 






Siu 


46 


82 


Wl 






45 


Ei; 




~. 


S3 


... 


6 


an 


117 


I3i 


l.i'U:t 




«i. 


IMi 


i;ij 




~ 


_. 


... 




1)3 




■■.. 


3.0 
9S0 


... 


■* 


SM 


it 




- 


181 


... 




39 


"24 


"is 


109 


... 


"au 


2i 


'4B 


- 




se 


- 


■• 


... 




39 


97 


... 


... 






... 




»*0 


... 


•>« 


■aj 


47 


:ij 


r.:i* 


... 




MS ' KI'J 


... 




•» 












llT 














3G 








1; 


6 


IS* 














48 












133 






13 








t: 




15 








SIS 






G4 


























S ' 4 


















5S3 






33 55 
























16 ... 






6 


-.. 






s 




94 


... 


... 


S ... 




_ 


41S 


■- 


19 


7 


Bit 


BJ 


l,;4-" 




3i 


I3» IJI 




... 


1>H 




113 


G36 


asa 


ai4 


:.oj» 




191 


I.S«i 4,^5 


... 



SETTLSXtin' BIFQBT. 

STATEMENT 
'itiff profetaionf and oeeupatumi {exlratied 





CLASS. 
















CLASS v.— 


Obulb. 


Obdbr XIL— Food uddbutk. 


Ttottmsioo OT occupation— 
Eugllih name. 


5' 
1 
1- 


1 


1 
^ 



P 


% 
1 


i 


1 


1 


1 


VMoacularKuae. 


1 

;s 

10 

"is 

12 

"is" 
Si 

"i 


1 

li 

1 

1 

IE 
ISS 

"33 
"39 


1 

ST 


1 
If 




p 


'J 

1 


1 


1 

.3 


Name of 


Same o( Fargana. 


80 


81 


83 


partoi. 


Gniitlwa * 

Knljiiimal 

Bnlnmnu 

Toul 
Biwan 
Baugar 
Sara 
Gopamau 

Total ... 
BilRran. 
MaIlaD«an 
KttulihauJau 
Saiidi 
Kaliarl 

T«tal ... 
Baman 
Kali 

Puchhoha 
I'ihani Padnma ... 

A In mil agar 
MaoBumngar ... 
Toial ... 
Dislrict Total ... 


41 

To 
11 
1* 

48 

iL 
ei 

13 
iHi 

10 

IS 

10 
]« 
u 
ss 
la 

4 
J54 


li ... 

6; Z 


^ 


-E- 


i 
"'» 

9 


UT 
K7 

a»a 

IfiT 
434 

i«o 


BUgTaw.j 

Sbilia- 
ba4 


... 

... 

::: 


-T- 


r 

84 


SS5 
75 
9S4 
IS6 
"835 

lo« 
1ST 
87 
6> 

ISA 
61 

a,290 



HABDOI BETTLEHEKT BEPOBT. 

No. IIIB. 

from the Oudh Caaus iZ«port)—i continued). 



IMDUSnUAL. 



OsbbkZUL- 


-n.*- 


























DSALBKS IR TiaBTABU 


smuTjiacKa. 




wmntMm 






















g 




11 


1 


s 




1 


1 




si 




= 






II 


i 




1. 


1 
1 

1 


1 


■=. e 

2*= 


3 


1 
1 


1 


1 

3 


1 


1 

i 


1 
1 

3 


1 




























■:- 


1 

3 


1 


^ 


1 

n 


,b 


2- 


il 


1 


1 

1 




1 
1 


I 


Ml* 

1 


M 


81 


BS 


87 
331 


107 


89 


90 


91 
7 


93 


S3 


94 


«5 


96 


97 












.. 










M 




























49 






















1» 


w 




644 








10 




9 


... 


37 


... 


... 


MS 


... 


... 


1,118 


191 


... 


_. 


17 


... 


» 


... 


37 1 ... 


... 


11 






138 


•^i 






S 














14 






343 








4 














S 






SSI 






















183 


... 




731 


fiS 


... 






1 




-. 






8 


m 


-. 


... 


1,443 


2u3 


... 


... 


3!4 


' 


- 


.„ 


4 ... 


6 


' 41 














17 












< 




«. 


333 


S? 




... 


IS 


... 




... 




... 


M 


... 


... 


3S* 


41 




... 













... 


M 




... 


SDl 


S6 




... 


16 




~ 






.. 


179 




... 


\.n» 


l.U 


_ 


... 


6i 


... 


... 


... 


IJ , ... 


... 


3S 


... 




113 


1 


-. 


... 


13 






... 




... 




10 




























« 




























78 








13 




















8 






lae 


1 




















57 






464 


34 






8 








K 






9 


... 


- 


as 


S3 
G 




... 


... 
< j 










... 


~ 


»« 






1,S69 


9t 


... 


... 




... 


... 




S ... 


... 


7M 




- 


fi.ilS 


6i3 




... 


137 1 


1 


S 


„. 


63 ■ ... 


6 



388 



HABDOI SETTLEMENT BEPOBT. 



STATEMENT 
Shouting profetriotu or oceupatiotu {eatraOei 





CLASS. 










CLASS V,- 




Ordbs. 




Order XV.^-Dealbri 










o 






• 

o 










•Q 






M 








c 


00 


u 




a 








o 


0) 


0) 




B 


Profession or occupation— £DglUh 


name. 




> 

m 

o 


3 
9 


B 


2 








C9 


Brass 
mak 


a 


CO 

O 












































^i 








Profession or occupation 




• 

« 


Ml to 


S 




• 




Vernacular name. 






p. 

«4l 


• 
1m 


s 








M 


ts 


a 


%0f 


u 








Im 

«« 


s 


3 


a 
o 


O 
Xi 








H 


e 


100 


CO 


> 


Name 
of Tah»il 


Name of Purgana 


1 


98 


1*9 


101 


102 1 


8andf la. ^ 


Giindwa 


••1 


••• 


U 


••• 


47 


••• 


Kalyanmal 
Kalamaii ••• 


... 


i 

••• 


14 


1 

••• 


It 
3 


••• 


Sindila 

Total 
rfiwan 


••• 
••• 
••• 


a • 


S3 


6 


166 


••• 




1 


61 


7 


2X7 


... 


1 


••• 


1 


»•• 


86 


••• 


Uardoi. \ 


Hangar 

Sara ^ 


••• 


• •• 

• •• 


••• 
••• 


25 

1 


65 
61 


•• • 

••• 


1 


Gopaman 

TuUl 
Bilgram 


••• 

• a. 
• •• 


.•• 


1 
2 


17 


101 


••• 




• •* 


43 


238 




r 


• •• 


lb 


6 


65 


••• 


1 


Mallan^an .•• 


••• 


• •• 


••« 


••• 


48 


... 


Pilgram.^ 


Ka(;hhandaa ... 


• •• 


• •• 


••• 


• •■ 


13 


« • . 


1 


Sandi ••• 


• •• 


• •• 


S 


8 


183 


••■ 


I 


Katiari 

Total 
Bar wan 


■ •• 
••• 
• •1 


• •• 


••« 


••• 


91 


•• 




• • • 


yl 


13 


350 


••• 


r 


• •t 


••• 


... 


U 


••• 




Pali 


**• 


!•• 


••• 


••• 


84 


••• 


l^achhoha ... 


. • • 


• •• 


... 


... 


25 


••• 


Bh^ha- . 
bad. \ 


rihani Ptidarua 


••• 


• •• 


••• 


••• 


67 


••• 


Barnmannagar 


••• « 


!•• 


.•• 


••• 


14 


••• 


1 


Shahabad 


• a. 


.•« 


40 


14 


215 


.*• 


1 


Maninadrnr .., 


• •• 


!•• 


••• 


.•• 


9 


••• 


L 


Mansurnagar 

Total 
Di'^trirt Total 


• •« 


■ •. 


*•• 


*•• 


••• 


« • . 




*•• 


40 


14 


276 


.•• 




1 


114 


1 77 


1,085 


••• 



HABDOI SETTLBXENI BSFODT. 

Bo. UIB. 

hmiieOadh Centut Report) — (continaod). 

ISUCSTBIAU 



























































































^• 


If 


1 


, 


■5 
j 


1 

S 


I, 


-1 - 




1 

t 


1 


d 


e^ 


g 






f.^ 


^-^ 


tft 




£ 










































































1 




'S. 

i 






1 


a 




•i 


1 


s 


i 




1 


■s. 


■^ 


^ 
A 


I- 






" 


a 


3 






■s 


a 






s 


(B 


M 


ii 


3 


IDS 


s 


— 


ill 


lis 


d 


m 


104 


lOS 


loe 


107 


109 


113 


, 




... 


73 
23 


117 
69 


1 


43 
36 


... 


s 


7 


... 








2S 


37 














•-Cl* 


.» 


1 


S»2 


340 


19 


IIA 


... 


13 


3 


... 


1_ 


... 


1 


*09 


683 


SU 


aoo 




1« 


« 


-. 


1 

7 


~ 


I 


4B 
177 
83 


87 
I4S 
127 


'"• 


IS 

laa 

80 


;:: 


- 


;;• 




^--^ 


... 


... 


195 


361 


11 


SO 


... 


13 


... 




— !i 




1 


G«a 


710 


SO 


teu 


... 


13 


... 


... 


- 


... 


3 


137 


12S 
167 


3 


49 
16 




... 


- 


... 








4! 






















ISS 


sot 




70 










... 


... 


... 


eo 


»9 




17 


.« 


». 


... 


... 


_ 


•** 


3 


fits 


G14 


69 


iT 




,. 




... 




64 


67 














1 


09 






3S 




15 








'.'.'. 




S3 
S3 
6S 


93 
li4 
311 


30 


as 

29 
4B 


~ 






'." 






•2 


ItO 


If* 


38 


S5 


s 










z 




I 


" 




33 


... 




:: 


... 


« 


... 


3 


613 


.:r « 


2M 


8 


I.-. 


10 


... 




... 


8 


S.US« 


9,54» 


1S3 


mi 


S 


14 


... 



390 



HARDOt SETTLEMt^t BBPOBf, 



STAtEM EH* ^ 
Showing professions and occupations {extraeU^^ 



CLASS. 



OfiDlB. 



Profession or occnpation— English 
Kame. 



Profession or occupation— VcmaCQlar 
Name. 



Name of Tahsil. 



Sandila 



Hardoi 



"1 



{ 



Name of Pargana. 



••• 



Bilgram ••• ' 



Shahabad . . «; 



Guntlwa ... 
Ealyanmal 
Balamau ... 
Sandila ... 

Total 

Biwan ... 
Hangar ... 
Sara 
Gopamaa ... 

Totol 

Bilgram ••• 

Sandi 

Mallan#an 

Kachbandau 

Katiari 

Total 

Barwan ... 

Pali 

Pachhoha .•• 
Piliani Padaroa 
Saroman nagar 
Shali6bad..« 
Alamnugar 
Mansurnsgar 

Total 

Gband Total 



• •* 
••• 

• •• 

• .• 
... 
.• • 

... 



Hakdoi Sbttlbmknt Of Fice : 
The l§tJulj/f Ib71. 



'J 



CLASS VL— INDEFINrr::^ 



Ordbr 

XVI.— 

Laboreb. 



lu 






114 



2.637 

1,618 

479 

6,054 

Tb.688~ 



ORDBB XVli.— pEBauBSOV BAB 
OB PROPIsRTT WOT 
OBDBB ANT OFnOE OB OOCOF-r. 
TIOW. 



612 
1,667 

876 
4,895 



... 


7,490 


• a. 


1,089 


Ml 


2,595 


• •• 


899 


... 


1,050 


... 


806 


••• 


6,485 


*• • 


408 


• • • 


614 


... 


5S4 


• .• 


1,061 


• •. 


265 


• • • 


1,875 


• • • 


434 


.. . 


193 


••• 


5,334 


... 


29,947 



G 

o 

a 



3 



•M CO 

M «0 



115 



... 
••• 



y4i 

1 



116 

h 



••• 
... 
••• 



•a. 



••• 

• •• 
... 

• • . 



• •• 
*•• 
••• 

• •• 

• •• 



o a 

ce 'O 

a o . 

C0 0) 3 
P4 



/ 



6 

Ml 

•r-i 

00 



117 



... 
... 



... 



••* 
.•• 
... 
... 

• • • 
... 
••• 



••• 



••• 



*•• 
*•• 
.•• 
... 
... 
... 
... 



■•• 
... 
.•• 
... 



••• 
••• 
••• 

••• 



••• 
••• 
••« 
... 

... 



HABDOI SKTTIifillENT BEPORT. 



391 



No. IIIB. 

frimi (Kb Oudh Census iZfporO— (conclndcd). 



AND NON-PRODL'CnVE. 



Obdkb XVIII.— Fkesons supfortsd by tub coMMu:fiTT and of ko spxciriBD 

OCCUPATION. 



<s 



It 



118 



960 

no 

41 

762 



1,219 



J 



«C8 

n 



lltf 



18 
46 



64 




"S 

o 



ao 



1S!0 



18 



••• 



10 



*2^ I 



49 
106 

bO 



149 


1 


67 


• •• 


968 


1 


81 


6 


10 


8 



859 
"4,281' 



34 



144 



.£3 

9 



I 



J3 gj 



121 



••t 
•• ■ 

• !• 
• •• 







1^ 



o V 



■ • • 



• • • 

• •• 

••• 



3 



10 



132 



17 
16 

81 



114 



• •• 


• •• 


• •• 


21 


• •• 


17 


7 


42 


7 


80 


!■• 


61 


• •• 


ini 


• •• 


62 


• •• 


1 


1 


6 


1 


221 






s 

3 



123 



15 

4 

S 

129 



151 



7 
61 
34 

8 



110 



6 
92 

10 
75" 



28 


14 


••• 


t»* 


25 


7 


41 


2 


85 


3 


109 


66 


16 


12 


4 


••• 


258 


94 


673 


43J 



•a 

o a 
o ^ 

• g 

P>4 



I 



"a 
s a 

&4 



124 



60 

125 

20 



• a« 



195 



••• 



60 
100 



160 



o 



125 



18,798 
62,28S 

n,595 
44,845 



75,523 



8.9n5 
.9,499 
12,365 
38,500 

'79.269 



10 


18,660 


••• 


25,489 


••• 


7,251 


12 


2^984 


13 


12,562 


36 


87,986 


60 


6,951 


9 


9,440 


••• 


10,475 


52 


11,229 


•■• 


5,5/9 


100 


22,4r.7 


25 


5,506 


8 


2,(tfO 


249 


73,797 



639 



316,528 



5lB 



A. U. HARINGTOV, 

Officiating ScUlemMi Offletr, 



.ut>ot si^* 



rfftS* 






roi^'^ '"i^"^^^^*^"* 




ss-rt^Tr.ia-^ 



;r^»<='' ■• \ 



a*»»°Th.' ■* •'-'='• 



HABDOI SKTTIifillENT BEPORT. 



391 



No. IIIB. 

from th$ Oudh Census iZ^port)— (concluded), 



AND NON-PRODUCTIVE. 



Oju>M XVIII.— FkESO^S SUPrOHTKD BV THE C0XMU2fITT AHD OF KO SPSCUTIBD 

OCCUPATION. 











V 




m 








• 




a 




oi 






• 

J 




s 


o 

a 
a 

9 


r 1 1 

teller. 


>■ 

g 


rofessi 
unkno 


• 

i 

o 


Q 


eu 


^ 


» 


PEI 


H 


&4 


H 


m 






1 




• 


■ 




^ 






^ 




^ 


ym 






• 


• 


•*3 -J 


• 
•2" 


IT 


"a 

JS ^ 




2*1 


.£3 

n 


I. 


i5 




1 


1^ 




118 


119 


1 
120 


191 


U2 


128 


124 


126 


S50 


••• 


18 


•*• 


••• 


15 


60 


18,798 


170 


18 


•«• 


•• • 


17 


4 


125 


62,28S 


41 


*•• 


••• 


••• 


16 


8 


20 


n,595 


752 


46 


10 


«■. 


81 


129 


••• 


44,845 


^,218 


64 


!«8 i 


... 


114 


151 

7 


i« 


75,523 


78 


1 


• *. 


••• 


••• 


••• 


8,905 


90 


81 


• •• 


•*• 


21 


61 


60 


.9,199 


91 


a 


• •• 


•** 


17 


34 


••• 


12,365 


,._410 


3 


• •« 


7 


42 


8 


100 


88,500 


,.^_ 669 


37 


• • • 


7 


80 


no 

6 


160 


79.269 


S98 


6 


• •• 


••• 


61 


10 


18,660 


497 


••• 


••• 


•■• 


101 


22 


••( 


25,489 


184 


••• 


• •• 


••• 


62 


••• 


••• 


7,261 


S9k 


4 


• •* 


••• 


1 


38 


12 


23,984 


169 


••• 


• •• 


•*• 


6 


10 


»3 


12,562 


1^40 


9 


.•• 


••• 


291 


75 


36 


87,986 


49 


19 


••• 


•«• 


28 


14 


60 


6,961 


106 


« 


*•• 


•.. 


lia 


••• 


9 


9,440 


80 


»— 


• *. 


3 


25 


7 


••• 


10,475 


149 


1 


• •• 


. • • 


41 


2 


62 


11,229 


67 


• •• 


• •• 


• •• 


35 


3 


••• 


5,5V9 


868 


1 


mm 


••• 


109 


56 


100 


22,4S7 


81 


6 


«•« 


•.• 


16 


12 


25 


5,500 


10 


8 


••• 


... 
3 


4 


••• 


8 


2,160 


859 


34 


. 


2S8 


94 
430 


249 


73,797 


4,S&I 


144 


28 


10 


1 673 

1 


639 


316,528 



5lB 



A. U. HARINGTOV, 

Officiating SeUUmmi Offli 



HABDOI BRTUDIIST 



BtPOBT. 

STATEHE I 
Statement of Tenurety 4 







TENUBK8 AMD M UMBER OF VILLAGES, ha., ( 




Hune of p»rgkBti. 




EACU KIND. 






TjlDQtlAM. 


lanarEBOEKT. 1 

1 








^ 






i 
















i 




^ 


1 


1 














1 




S 


o 


1 




-i 




i 






I 




ii 


J_ 


> 1 e 


1 


i 

1 


9 


10 

68 


1 


1 


■i 


s 


* . fi 1_^ 


7 


8 


~ 


ij 


OuDdw* 


13 


, 


se 1 19 


3D 


SS 


B 


, 


R^lvinmal Z 


•1 




!i ' 


S8 


3a 


1 


6S 




B&luwu ■« 


11 




« ' * 


9 






10 




£ I 


Sandilft 


S7» 


"is 


CBI 114 


TO 


S6 


3 


BB 


s 




ToUtl „ 


»{| 


19 


Ml 174 


I3u 


lUO 


7 


S43 


41 


_j / 


Biwrm ». 


_ 


... 






9 


(7' 


1 


s: 


"l 


&[ 


BiQgtr 
Son 


~i 


■ 


"a| 


I 


40 


44 
44 


1 


S3 
B4 


1 

t 




Ooi)am»u ». 


!!! 


' 


" 


IS 


l»| 


9U| 


E 


ISS 


v 




Total ... 


7* 


a 


■51 


S6 


S^ 


IS>| 


7 


4fta 


41 


if 


BlIfFiim 


G 


« 


«* 


sst 


3B| 


IT 


~ 


Gfil 


11 


MatliDiTAn „ 


8* 


11 


su« 


SB 


ST 


31 




89 


1: 


•2, 


Kuhbaudau 








1 


10 


V3 




81 




-". 


Stndi 






Ml 


sot 


78 


Sit 




not 


1' 


EiLtiari 


1 


- 


IB 


IS 


7 




... 


Gl 






Totml ... 


»l 


lU 


1N| 'U4 


"istT 


laoj 


T 


948 


4 




Barwat) 


... 






™. 


B~ 


G9 


"*T 


G9 






l-nli 


"l* 




\i\ 


ri 


5S 










•s 


rachholim 






S 


s 


S% 


4a 




78 




•s 


Pibtai PadnroB 










St) 


£S 








3 1 












11 










II 


Shahitbul 


' 


1 


St 


S6 


91 


S4 

B3 


1 


117 
43 


1 


i. 




„. 


... 


' 


' 


16 


B 


~ 


34 


~ 




TolU ... 


«l 




451 1 48 


3b6 


!1I 




GS7 






Gtt*»D ToTAt, ... 


ISJi 


"77 


IjiHs" 


8iS 


788 


IS 


isa» 


1 



HIBDOI SSTTLEUEHT RBPOBT. 



»o. IV. 

** *** Bardai diitrict. 



XcrUBBX Of P&DFBtETOBS IMD 

Sdb-pkofhikiobs. 


Atkbidb ami. 




Pr^Ulor,. 




Ofh„ipeT- 


0/t(rptr~ 






s 










































1 

-. 


f 


1 


! 


i 


s 




s 


Bemu-ki. 




















1 




■s 


s 


1 


1 

p 


1 


f 






s 


1 


S 


g 


§• 


? 












K 


z 








11 


IS 


M 


IS 


IG 


IT 


18 


19 


10 


, 


671 


107 


1S8 


4-08 


ITS 


14-83 


8-63 






an 


Sfi 


IDI 




3-lB 




11 -SB 






91 




as 


366 


D-86 




6-70 




^ ' 


gas 




1,044 


3 38 


3'(i6 


8 89 


S'JO 




a 


IJI19 


3S5 


1.3S1 


8SS 


SOS 


10 90 


744 




... 


9(3 


114 




6-53 


3-70 


6 49 






1 


M9S 




ii 


a-r.o 


S'7B 




3u*se 






l.iis 








4-30 


3 3» 








1,914 


301 


5 


6-.S 


711 


6-2a 


1120 




a 


S,<48 


6&9 


87 


658 4-73 


_ *1* 


87-40 




« 


869 , 132 


216 


4 04 3 25 


2-19 






]/)08 ' SfO 


154 


3-95 ; « SB 




B-OI 






690 ' ISO 




♦ ■SO ' »-44 














437 1 280 










t.TiS 1S5 






23; 


30 




^^« 


7,143 867 


401 


411 . 3-66 
187 ; B-28 


607 
S-67 


3-91 








.. 










8M 
1,810 


61 


1 


3 GO 1 1-63 
1-70 , 3-Sfl 










451 


H9 




Si-6 a-68 


1007 








:oi 






S 73 2-37 








9 


1.848 


89 


5« 












689 






3-39 !*-7a 


674 






„ 1 


117 


31 


... 


4 11 1 »i 
33S «91 


10-4 ( 


... 






7,919 


fi7 


7 42 


14 61 




















SI 


11,738 


i,sai 


1,846 


4M , S-i6 


6 67 


7ai 





HABDOI BZTTLKHEKT BBKIBT. 

STATEUEI 

General aUUtunent escptatud 





NrHBEK 


OF Hi- 








Hit.AM.n..i. 








K>-Po«B«Tr*K.-, 










- 




& 






ja 








2 






Rime of pvguk 










^ 






















1 


■s 

1- 

1^ 


1 


i 


II 


7 






ss 








< 




1 


■ 


3 


4 


5 






4G 


7a 


BH.T.'S 


13,»3» 


1.676 




I 


EalT>niii&I ~ 


S7 


35 






717 


3M 




















HudEU ... 


■4 


1S« 


!IO,7ai 


47.4:3 


JM70 


4.GM 


1 


ToUl „. 


176 


J(*l 


M5t>,T04 


67,788 


6.134 


4.857 


7 


Minn .„ 


43 


14 


49,1 S5 


*,»5fl 


686 


1,6S7 




ItadgW „ 


SO 




e 1.431 


1I.SSS 


BOO 






















GopiinaD « 


114 


in* 


S10,U4) 


l9,Bi3 


3^8 


«,»« 


4 


ToUl 


STa 


Si.16 


4i>3.aao 


41,03? B.sae 


»>.5M 


1 


Bilcnm ... 


57 


ST 


T5,O0B 


14.1 SI 


1,438 


«7 


, 


MalBinwan... 


»3 




Slat: 


16,39( 


4,STJ 


401 






30 




S«.44l 


4,B»5 


6*; 


»l 




fipdl „ 


87 




io;.»i( 




LOW 


4,101 






40 


40 




6,»S7 


"=^ 






ToUl ... 


S^* 


lut 


35(i,»«a 


W.-94 


T,«7» 


5.006 


t 


B«rw»n ... 


Its 


,^ 


38,61 i 


3,042 


J76 


1,048 




fali 






4fi,7S< 


8,i4(- 


IA»- 






Pachhahft -. « 






fi;.34! 




1,06; 






Pihani V"'»ni« 




SO 


5],4ltl 


6.4I1. 


s,ij; 




1 




S9 


19 


SM.SB: 


8,88 


3>< 






Kliihabnd ... 


in 


)0 


8:i,H(l 




3,3GI 


35 


1 




■IS 






S,64. 




3,6fl« 






US 


^ 


Hi,7l» 


S,34» 


189 


» 




ToUl ... 


365 


SIO 


30O,O9S 


33,SB4 


0,603 


9,914 


■ 


GBiBo Tot*i. M 


,,,» 


.. 


1,447.114 


i,9a,7sj 


23.647 


4S.3M 


11 



HABDOI 8BTTLEMEST KEPORT. 



of the regular aittttment. 











■■ 






CCLTITITOEB. 




K 




Cuhi 


fll,*™ 














1 










i 


m 


J 






Iirigated. 




1 




i 
















" 






g 






% 


PS 


1 


1 




2 


i 


s 


s 


1 


5^ 


o 

10 


^ 


U 


f- 








f" 


, 


1. 


1. 


13 


^^ 


IS 


16 


17 


IB 






















a»,045 




1,590 


11.524 


4S.5i'4 


83,698 


74,743 


10,081 


I,!!! 


n*»8 










1»,44S 










5,833 






43^ 


a.324 


S.WI 




lfl,s:f, 


S,341 


317 




«,110 


9«l 


6,M9 


*7,417 


74,1 3S 




16i,349 


8S,=73 


»■'>» 


98,005 






















^t,l*^ 


V4I 


9,8U9 


4(I,40S 


14*,M9 


U0(i,1*3 


977 831 


4!,965 


.jm 


47,394 


8,788 




'i,498 


S,936 


J 9,904 


38,636 


37,424 


S,S0) 


1,0111 


4,254 


»•,>« 








36,S(il: 


5!,930 


:vfl6^i 


B,9il 


1.00! 


7,914 






10.4*t 




15,491 




50,34 E 








S8.34I 


139 


'•■"" 


8,SS8 


(•0,3 ta 


iue,3i3 


I66,;y; 




.,.„ 




^ia,MB 133 


...... 


i!6,021 


151,547 


210,3 10 


333,636 


S7,12i 


8,047 


38.171 


IfUl 4Ka 


MIB 


T.lOi 


31,265 


4V''6 


6<',5B9 


6.875 


S,6B7 


8,686 


i*,«a, *« 






31,69: 


53,031 


67.17; 




9,Sit 


9.7 19 






3.r9; 


S.^i:i: 






S4,u<l( 


S,1S< 


92! 




JldBS 


»» 




7.SS( 


65,8 1( 


60.50 i 








I3.7I9 


i2,oaa 


TiST 


17,949 


no, 174 


33,5)2 


38.681 
2iM,166 


50,708 


6,5S6 


"•' 


7,746 


^8J8(» 


16l,0B3 


S8.405 


13.450 


42.855 


8;»» 






G,403 


13,168 


2'»,9G3 


ss,J5a 


»,B03 


618 


8,flSI 




»SI 


4/8; 






29,5 4 fl 










lUJIfi 




9,oai 








5i,6»i 




a.08( 






*r, 


a.S2; 




le.ufit 




40,14( 


4.76J 




6.08B 






i.iii 


3,7«! 


B,60. 




19,381 


2.34) 




3,0>« 


I8,.'I* 


en 


H.3S! 


7,92( 


30,14i 


51,736 


7r.,!6 


7,98l 


3,40< 


(l;i84 


18.S15 




S,»r;( 


1,37S 


6.M'J. 




30.96K 


1,78^ 


43i 


2,ilS 


7,740 


... 


1,8S3 


619 


3,a5E> 


8,060 


13,8U0 


999 


165 


1,1*4 


«a,au 


l^M 


44,768 


30,553 


128.681 


804,001 


S97,«94 


U.S4S 


IS, 140 


44.9Sa 


S4>,M4 


V80 


I1I«,S6B 


)33,16S 


686,1 4U 


844,500 


1.I9T.2S4 


133.34) 


37,966 


170,808 



„«««=«■*■ ■"°t^^E MB SI 




HIBDOI &ETTLBUEHT BEPORT. 

Ho. V. 

0^ the regular anettmmt — (contmoed). 



FerciMlagt of 


J 


k 






















1 






















g 


« 






s 


3 


i 




nS 


B 


E 


1 


i 


i 
s 


1 


1 


1 
1 


1 


1 


t II 
s = = 

1 ;a" 


1- 




tl 


9S 


99 


30 


». 


ai 


33 


34 


,. u< 


37 


38 


IMM 


9131 


1-87 


H-GS 


67-31 


6-16 


3G'9I 


93-48 






1,00,146 


•w. 


W3; 




13-»I 


6S-M 


11 6d 


20-21 


24-9( 




41^69 






s-;il 








3l-9< 


2l-l( 




90.408 
1,93,558 




tO'56 


1*0 








97-66 


31-05 


9-78 3-27 


1,36.099 


1141 


ll-BS 


l-7i 


90-39 


S8-76 


™ 


29-19 


97-79 


1 
9-69. 3-61 


9,91,649 


3.64,978 


Ii'l9 


.»» 


133 


13-6S 


65-61 


VS 


40 09 


391)4 


1 
10 35 SIT 


10,5 to 


45 251 


nu 




■a; 








34 -Oi 






P6.t90 


un 


M-Oi 


\\i. 




T9-67 




14-8! 


43-41 






«i-n 


S7M 


114 


IBlfi 


63-»i 


19 97 


33 7* 


9583 


11-04 


6-43 


M6,618 


1,76,4*5 


M-er 


S8-06 


.3 


15-98 


57-8 


1018 


3a-i)* 


3197 


11-07 


6'39 


9,84,0»3 


3,86,818 


W37 


l»-7< 


191 


19-98 


il-Ofi 


93-T 


3B-94 


9839 


is-s 




















96 65 


4(i-s: 










•8*« 




1-»T 


im; 


61-66 


SS-^3 


11 11 


49-0! 








•1-61 


1991 






46-01 




15-61 










€7-45 


10-90 






.ft6-9; 




80. 


16-94 


13'3S V9I 


36,904 


88,609 


tw 


19-41 


a-16 


17-08 


60-86 


2905 


90-19 


26-12 


12S 


394 


9,87,493 


3,96,790 


•1-85 


9«-SC 


■8! 


11-17 


49-43 


27-98 


S9'B9 


3T-91 


i>l. 






28,435 


63 9; 


9*91 






40-37 






97 91 










73 8; 


11-9: 




G'3i 


4a'34 


10 6^ 




aa-ii 












ssii 






I7'78 


85-13 


8-6 


6 11 


3i-01 










40,176 














94-s; 


36 31 




17 


*«J 






■i%i 










13-*; 


41-7! 




71 


36" 






»«] 


«• 












19-0! 












36-U 


46-31 






)S-7» 


95Si 


198 


41 -SI 


10 


" 


3-8 
3-99 


8,662 


11,1<8 


M»7 


26 65 


9-74 


1934 


86-OS 


18-Sl 


9647 


3699 


9 


" 


9,03,807 


3,03,1-9 


*?« 


94-06 


l'9S 


16 44 


65-76 


I7-64 


96-71 


SO-57 


1069 


3-9 


10,16,719 


14,31,063 



404 



HARDOI SSTTLEMKNT REPORT. 



cc 






o 

CO 






> .-- 



o 









ft 

V 





Hi 
C 

M 

W 
'/. 

o 



0. 

X 



o 






o 



^1 _ • t» 



bJOUO J4 
1 U V ) VIM 



« 






O 






o 
I- 

•9 



•« to 



O 



00 «o 

00 



t'. 

: « 



'390^0 



o 

tA 

«0 






— o 



• * f 

• • • 



• - 







e 


«(• « 


r> 


«P 






c« 


<0 OD 




•o 


•Cmo; pa«JO 


o 


fO 


« 


00 




1 


o 


» o 


M 


e 




09 


-* « 


tt 


»o . 


1 


*» 


9. 


lO 


lO 


•• 1 1 



^ A 09 



o 









O 



^ *p3OTIinJ»!(I 



o 



CO 



•0 



00 •» 



* 00 






I 



'pooaodci 



to 



Ok o 






M ^ 



•»• 



'UMWpqi!AV 



1« 



n «« 



s 



• • • 

• • • 

• • • 



•0 tt I •• 

— : : • I w 



'9)JVd-X^ 



: : : t 

• • • • 



• • • 



•JinPjop ifa 



fO 



91 



00 

o 









I- 



')UdKllOO 
J O OMIUI 

-ojclnio.) K{\ 



« 



eo M 



t« I <o 



• • • • • ^ I 



c c « 



O 

O 
M 



lO 



CO 

00 






00 



B 
o 



a « 






-* -es 




« 


= -l 1 

o 5 -3 o 


• 


: .£ 

• 

c 


••= % - - 




00 CCf 


^ S M 




O 


0« t-H^ 




t« 


o 




« 



JO 

»S « g 08 

rt S S t!s: ® fc- 2 



Q*0 O'Q Oi 



Q^' 



c 

o 

■♦a . 

CT8 



•4 

•< 
H 

O 

H 






Si 






I 



IS • 

I- 



•-« 91 



HABDOI SETTLEMENT. 



405 



QO 






o 












o 

s 

o 



eg 

s: 



Remarks. 


a» 


C) r* r* »-i ^ 
cc -r o to vi 

a mm ^ «0^ 

^>"£ = 

£ o « < 

C3 « - « 

• 


•l«^ox 


00 


o» CC — lO « » 5> 

•^ '^ .^ .^ .— ^N 


* 


*6)jnOD 

Jdq^o 0) pajja^smux 


04 


Ol 


'198 od 

-stp pi»ig aoj p3ajn)9^ 


1 


«OC>«C« Ot^t»iO«0 

• 
• 
• 




'l»ff!POW 


«o 


^ eo — p^ - — 

• 
• 
• 


o 


*paflJ9A9H 


^ 


OOtOO 9«00»C0O 
Ol to •« M ri 91 

• 
• 
« 




'paougooQ 


•0 




00 


*)a9mai))9fl }o 
paa aqi o| ^aamdoaam 
-moD 9qi iaoj| paia^psoi 


Ok n -* r<»aoecokc» 




a 

1 


- 


• 

^ 1 = 

< a a 
|Ss'§<2sf5 


Total 



"-Si 

SI 



ta 

D 

h 
hi • 

GO • 



400 



HABDOI 8ETTLEHCMT &KFOBT. 



STATEMEl 
Shmoing the netul 











1 




o 
















»■ 
















tf 














« 


P 












• 

«9 


o 


cf 


• 
ae 










to 


a 


«B 


o 

u 


TahsfU 




Fargana. 






hi 

01 




c 










•s 


9 


9 


4 










o 


m 


o 


Q> 








. 


u 

2 




3«J 












B 

9 


s 

u 


§■6 


5 










^ 


< 


(L« 


H 


1 


s 


3 


4 


6 


e 




( 


Baogar 


••• 


96 


143 


881*08 


91 






Gopoman ••• 


..■ 


S40 


317 


841*48 


2,10 


Haidoi 




Sara south ... 


••• 


801 


43 


388*68 


27 




•'•) 


Bawan 


... 


67 


68 


S77-36 


43 




I 

r 


Barwan ... 

Total 
AUinnagar... 


... 

■ 

••• 

••• 


69 
492 


63 


362*36 
361*18 


sa 




624 


4,01 




43 


64 


267*98 


87 






Sbihabnd ... 


••• 


143 


131 


616*38 


89 




bara north ••• 


••• 


56 


47 


888*68 


8fl 


SeiBAJUD 


"■ 


Pihani Padaroa 


••• 


81 


80 


4S6'85 


61 


Saroroannagar 


••• 


4S 


86 


446*40 


21 




1 


Pachhoha ••• 


••• 


80 


90 


810*12 


61 




Pali 


!•• 


9S 


73 


884*74 


41 




r 


Maniarnagar 

Total 
Bilgram 


• •• 


S6 


26 


241*77 


11 




661 


686 


391*24 


3,i< 




•119 


187 


480*7X 


8^ 




1 


Sandi 


• a. 


•146 


173 


41«*73 


1,1' 


filLOBAM 


...<{ 


Katiari *•• 


• •• 


80 


90 


890*71 


6; 




1 


KachhaDdau 


»•• 


34 


46 


444-76 


2) 




Mallanwan ••• 


• •• 

••• 


lata 


136 


67118 


8! 




1 Total 


611 


682 


464*69 


6.7: 




( 


1 
Sandila 


fia 


( 330 


41719 


»,1 


Sardua 


) 


Balamau ... 


• •• 


14 


25 


446*36 


1 


•••< 


Gundwa 


■ •* 


117 


14G 


406*22 


8 




1 


Kalyanmal ... 

Total 
Gband Total 


• •• 

*•* 


7S 


[ 62 


394 -84 


4 




416 


; 658 


413*21 


3,2 




1,98G 


» 2,30C 


» 4061S 


( 14,f 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 



401 



No. VA. 

^« revised assessment. 



Minkai or Mm-^MsestabU. 



B 

O 
•■ 



o 

a 
a 

► 



8 



11,685 
19323 2,0898 



8^046 

4;e58 

8,048 



41.754 

S.545 

9,870 
8,226 
5.404 
t,88S 
8.844 
8y548 
8,349 

8,84tt7 

90,488 

16,874 

8.867 

4,685 

15,390 



1,897 
1,048 



23,148 



3,656 
354 
414 

3,748 



••• 



828 
S80 



9,2(10 



68,649 



47,478 

1,702 

18,338 

8,274 



87,782 



V^Mf 



267 
4,108 

229 
40» 

6,0(>6 



4,589 



•«• 



368 



4,957 



42,386 



9i 
O 

o 



9 



800 
8,024 
373 
586 
276 



5,U58 



846 
3^50 

456 
2,177 

314 
1,063 
1,494 

283 



28,647 



o 



10 



12.385 

43,244 

3,419 

6,541 

4^66 



69,955 



6,847 
13,574 
4 095 
11,329 
3,196 
4,707 
5,870 
2,912 



9.783 


52,530 


1,432 


22,102 


1,026 


21,002 


892 


6.649 


550 


5,404 


4,272 


20,070 


7,672 


75,227 


3,370 


56,432 


861 


2.063 


1,676 


15,009 


727 


6.369 


6,184 


78,873 



Malgczabi. 



Culiurable. 






11 



26,130 

58,841 

10.606 

8.788 

8.290 

1.I2.U64 



18,525 
18.014 

9,2 9 
12,264 

5,88o 
10.276 
11,053 

7,740 



• 




00 




o 


• 


(» 


d 


O 




h 


o 


GJ 


H 


12 


13 




9ft 19< 



• •• 

133 



92,973 



19,753 
22,364 
12,022 
6,884 
13,678 

74,701 



47,910 
2,134 

19,045 
8,238 



76,727 



3,76,5861 3,56,466 



463 
230 



••• 
••• 



464 



1,157 

241 
<•• 

••• 



34 1 



2.780 



58,474 
10,506 

8,788 
8,29u 



133 


1,12,197 


3 


18.528 


511 


18,525 


• • • 


9,219 


4i i 


12,741 


••• 


5,883 


• • • 


10,276 


2j8 


11.311 


••• 


7,740 


1,249 


94.2:^'^ 



20,216 
22,594 
12,022 
6,884 
14,l4y 

7<>.858 



47,551 
2,184 

19,045 
8,238 



76,968 



Cultivated, 



V 

■*^ 
CB 

to 

1^ 



14 



ns 
a» 




«rf 




eS 




e« 








»4 




hi 


eS 


•*4 


•»•> 


a 


O 


P 


H 



16 



K.,422 

27,978 

7,116 

9.4351! 

7,795 



68.743 



7,340 
21,567 
8.Ut5 
9,333 
4,9«.» 
13.802 
8,058 
2,502 



36 508 
80,345 
6.371 
19.204 
13.168 



16 



1,56,596 



L^»jjy 1,24.632 



12.520 

10,979 

6,165 

7,221 

21,334 

68,219 



52,930 
1,08.323 
13.487 
28,636 
20,963 



2,V4,339 



5.094 


19,434 


30.149 


61,736 


9.119 


17.134 


18,066 


i7.399 


8,6ii0 


l:>.503 


28,569 


42.361 


£1,487 


29.645 


3.558 


6.ti60 



2,r0.l72 



33.123 
56,19v 
32,512 
9,96 
31,697 



45.643 

?is^v<7 
17. 1^ 

5r.i\^i 



33,666 

2,768 

13,114 



l,63.4;»?i 2.^1.712 



74,18i. l.O'.T** 
8,68 V n.442 



M76' 19,44^; |,^,Vt* 

I I 

I 

56,014 1,44,84» :f.tX\S« 



3,59,245: 2,58,518 5,.^$^,V0 iirA>>f 



HABDOI SETTLEUGKT BEPOKi. 



STATEMEN 



Showing the reiuU ^ 



Tahsil. 


Pargana. 




r 


Bangar 


t*« 




1 


Gopaniau ..• 


••• 


Hardoi ...^ 


Sara scuth ... 


.*■ 




1 


Bawan 


••• 




I 


Bar wan 


• • * 






Total 


••• 



f 



SaKsABAJ}, { 



f 
I 

BiLOBAH ...{ 

I 

I 



Alamnagar ••• 
Shuhabad m. 
Sara north ... 
Pibani Pnd.irna 
Saroinannagar 
Pachboba .m 
Pali 
Mansumagar .•• 



Total 



Savdila 



•1 



Bilgram 
Sandi 

Katiari ... 

Kacbbandan ... 
Mallanwan ... 



Totol 



Sandila 
Balamaa 
Qundwa 
Ivaly&umal 



Total 



Gband Total 



rs 

a 

es 
« 

a 

B 
a 



52 

C 



6fi 

a 

'O 
K 

a 



b • 

I' 
a s 

IS 



17 



18 



79,069 
1,66,: 97 
:?3,99S 
37,424 
29,263 



8,36,536 



01,13S 
1,06,618 
212,110 
3C,02O 
18,660 












/m 



o 
H 

o 

s 



11 



19 



79,906 18 2 
1,66,119 3 9 
26,447 7 t 
48,860 1 8 
84,688 Q> 



f . 



^ 



S,2b,940 I 3,3»«,769 9 



... 


30,962 


12,967 





... 


70,261 


71,627 





... 


96,363 


23,683 





... 


40,140 


24,810 





••• 


19,8S6 


16,487 





• • • 


62.636 


26,837 





... 


40,856 


26,197 





• • ■ 


13,b00 


8,652 





• .• 


2,1*4,394 


2,08,680 





M» 


65,869 


65,677 





• •• 


89,763 


1,08,821 





... 


60,709 


86,204 





!•• 


24,066 


23,082 





... 


67,178 


69,209 





■ .. 


2,97,670 


2,87,498 





*.. 


1,65,349 


1,36,029 





.«• 


13,676 


18,012 


U 


... 


74,743 


97,039 





• •• 


34,163 


41,669 





••1 


2.77,831 ' 
1,206,331 


2,91,649 





• « • 


10,16,712 






22,098 
88,478 6 
80,864 12 



.1* I 



40,061 
21,911 
44,284 
38,488 
10,649 



*»9I,70S 7 



u: 



73,487 6 
1,18,303 16 
67,022 
27,782 9 
96,037 8 



3,71,613 1 



1,83,236 8 

18,761 7 

93,063 8 

42,003 6 : 



3,37,064 8 ^, 



13,30^139 




HABDOI SETTLBUEKT BEPORT. 



No. VII. 

of kdiqaa in the Ilardoi disiricl. — (concluded). 



CoTeTntncnt 

Jeoiuid. 


J'riySto— 




01 taliiq.lai*. 


Ofsuhpioprie- 


TdUL 


Bemark.. 


S 1 G 


7 


8 


S 


S>. • p.| B.. «. p. 
1S,a.19 * 9' IS,1<4 n 3 


U.. a. p. 

3,306 » 9 


H^ a. p 

13.164 11 a 
S,lt4B i 9 




IB.98S u lt,7»4 13 a 


3,30fl a 9 


19,011 u g 




20,8m 8 s' 18.661 16 4 
528 s o; 1:^7 G 1 
7i6 13 4. sag T 4 


3SI 
483 11 4 


19,BG1 15 4 

euu 6 

711 I 8 




M,lb5 » •■ «<,»lt>l:t 8: ftdS 11 4 


SJ.Ofi» M > 




43,:aa I U 4l,GS! 9 0- 

ess 9 u| 4fi7 1« U 1S3 11 D 


4I,«3i 9 U 
651 7 




*M<i o 


4:l.l1u « 41. IG3 11 


42,1'H *t " 




1S<>U T 
7.«9 8 


14,^19 9 o; 
4,UW 8 Uj 3,M0 (1 


14,319 D 
B.f76 8 U 




»a,aB3 15 u 


18,346 1 Oi aJtSO o a 


Bl,Wfl 1 <l 




11.088 O 
l.'-tO u 


70 01 1,TOO 


11.498 1 

i,aro « 




11,518 
3,M1 * 

«Gja i 


11^68 Ul I^IK) 41 t 


ii,a*s 1) » 




a.tton 4 u 

33 4 y 30 8 I 


^Gfi:l 4 

to3 12 D 




3,91b U 


3,6:1.'. a u. ■ 3,1 8 r 


n,7J6 (1 




was 


-"°! - 






ajOG u u 

GI V 


■300 "go 


S,3«:i 
63 U 




S^U A c^ 


s,«s u 0, fi- . 


s.s4a ( 




I,f6« 6 


712 BIS 


l,5fl4 




lfiS» 


1,511 


1,511 




*JS3/>89 4 


V*.5S5 6 S 61,303 b 111 


3 35,858 11 





A. ir. UARISGTOS. 

Offg. Saittrnmi Offw. 



HARDOI BnTLIVKNT BKPOBT. 















BTATBHfiSa- 














lUturMo/ R^m 








a 




3 




At^ 
















- 


Name ol r&rgona. 


1 


3 




.S 


\ 


i 


^f / 


H 




? 


? 


•s 


° 


? 




:4J 


a 




^ 
1 


1 


1 
1 


1 


1 


II 


■II 






a 


1 


a 


« 


7 


g 


J 


ConJwa 


117 


IM 


S'B 


10,790 


a«.87i 




tf« 


f 






81 




S4,B>a 




U'» 








>0 


8,337 


ii,ia» 


M 


8141 










SIH 


*7,IU 


I,37,M1 


300 


J»-4I 




ToU.1 ... 


41G 


St7 


Ba3 


4V3 


1,30,160 


5»* 


»■« 


1) 


Uaugnr 




«9 
14) 


SI 
149 


10.839 


M,ija7 

S4,4l«t 


6S 
110 






,:: 




,'1 


■.R87 

it,ass 


34^:a 

1,I»,0U« 


9t 


rrn 




ToUl 

Uilitrun 


*7« 


6» 


6tl 


*4,88J 


%,%ifim 


UB 


IWM 1 


g f 


IM 


IIT 


67 


11,185 


S«,M1 


111 










1.13 


13,117 


77,(i8l 


lit 


Bill 1 














10 4S9 












l«3 


VM 


13.8 rt 


eB,;si 




im 1 








SU 




tfiit 


si,ia4 


»7 


m. i 






*ilM 


SfiB 


G3C 


4»,soa 


«,69,i09 


6B.1 


aaii 















-- — - 






■ 




































8,148 


a8,U87 




»ia 


r 


IMiani Pudnrua ... 
baroiiiunnim« ... 
SliilisUad 


H.1 


00 
38 


aa 


4,980 
6,6«7 


34',uaj 

15,624 


74 

sa 

3* 












14,110 


fi7,Gt« 


131 


lUlU 




Uauiuruugar ,„ 


SS 




li 


I,IB6 


llt.Sll 
V86 


47 
IS 


Wit 




T^l«l .. 


S7S 


ei; 


»iS 








~^i 




4O,lii<0 


i,i4,ooa 


GS4 




CanD Total ... 


,,~ 


a,aya 


9,^23 








78U 


■ 


l,8O,5U0 


9,30,»7r 


S.S'JS 



lUlM., SmtlbMIt OfflCE : I 

iht W J«/y, lH7l, J 



HARDOI SKTTLEHKNT REPORT. 

No. vm. 

t*oltte, DUtriet Bardoi. 





1 

"5 

1 

< 


fl,-.,,™„„„. 


II 


< 


1 


1 

3 
g 


3 s 


< 


10 


II 


a 


IS 


1* 


IS 1 .6 


si!-ie 

»6'I3 
467 03 


Acrefc 
49S-U 

aosas 

fl»«>4 
70S 60 


A. E.P. 

117 
SS 

ei "o 


Bl. L p. 

B61 

St6 


H.. a. p. 
s,ii6 a 

1,473 

838 

6.5ea 


Hi. a. p. 

4.179 
l,BS9 D u 
«3M 
6.951 


lU. •. p. 

1 14 7 
1 13 S 
1 14 6 


s8:-« 


eoo'£i 


S3G 


i.a:5 


12,03* 


■ 3,597 


1 14 6 


W4IJ 
»«0-13 
40(|-03 


68614 

7trii 

67891 
760U 


7 
G9 "o 


SS8 ' B 


1,696 
3,960 

a,ai6 8 

6,3»3 


1,615 U 
!,9iO 

!.ai« 8 

e,6si 8 


3 10 
3 9 
3 1 

1 15 S 


40T-;s 


TI7-BU 


eo 




1S,1SS 8 


13,413 


2 I 


6<»70 
601-17 
a8S'44 
Ml 86 
SC>9> 


6r6-7« 

OfilflB 
S66J3 

89 IM 


6 U 
13 

IS 


86 S 
78"'o 


S^OI f) 
3,768 (I 
I,<i9< 
3,831 
8,187 


S,«I 
3,834 S 
1,091 
3.911 
3,182 u 


1 14 6 
1 1 
1 13 
t 3 3 
1 14 


4«-S7 


Gdl'OS 


34 


174 


13,374 t> 


I3,S48 S U 


1 14 8 


139-54 

aj»»s 

STTla 

«ooBa 

400 62 
3V9-It 

naao 


4B4 3I 

6Ufi-Si 
I79'l)3 

•o;so 

BOfli 
7S6-81 


3 "o 


so"'o 


1,796 
I, Ten 
1,813 
1,786 

94* 
3,199 
1,0»0 

484 U 


1,796 

!,7i'0 

i,8ia 

1,808 U 

3,199 
1.086 


S 4 
3 1 
3 I 4 
1 13 4 
3 1 

I 12 1 


3SG'30 


63194 


3 


SO 


11.888 


11,908 


1 IB 1 


404B5 


e3B-15 


333 


a,os7 


81,437 8 


53,464 8 U 


.... 



412 



HABDOI SSTTLEVSNT BKPOBT. 



STATEMENT 



Crop BtaUmmi 









h 


u 




1 










J5 


O 


Bawan. 






Sara. 




J 


^^^ 


" 






e 




L* 














Name of crop. 






a, 

• 
















o 






s« 




Area. 


Value. 




Area. 


ValM. 




1 




k 3 

^ ^ 


a »- 














CL4 




» 


aa 














M. 8. 


c. 


M. 8. c. 


Sri. 


A. r. p, 


Ka. a. 


P- 


A. r. p. 


Bs. a. 9 


Kiknn ... 


4 


o!i 


35 


1 


4 





14 3 


69 1 


Miiidwi ••• 


4 


oji 10 (J 


46 


4 


19 19 


9 


67 3 


916 19 1 


Makkik 


6 


u 


1 6 u 


30 


6 


96 10 


8 


9 2 


11 1 1 


Dhan (Paddy) •.. 


6 SU 





1 


30 


696 


3,839 9 





911 


6,010 8 1 


Mwan 


8 SO 


u 


1 10 


46 


96 1 


73 8 





92 3 V 


63 11 S 


Bajra 


6 





1 


97 


4,159 3 


90.698 IS 





3,528 


17»646 • 1 


Kapas (cotton with 


3 





10 


9 


869 9 


10,484 





1,786 1 


21,428 i 


seed). 




















KodoD ••• 


4 





1 15 


47 


848 8 


1,018 13 


1 


434 1 O 


14^63 i 


Juar 


6 


O'l Of 


98 


l,56u 9 


9,308 





3,056 8 


18,340 8 8 


Mil (Indigo) planU, 


35 


o\* 





3 2 


61 4 





8 1 


144 6 q 


Til 


9 


olo 15 


H 


5 9 


29 6 


4 


43 


229 6 4 


Manh 


6- 


1 i> 


93 


1,043 1 


5,916 4 





894 3 


4,478 12 d 


Moth ••• 


4 


1 6 


31 


9,196 1 


7,560 





713 


9,535 1 « 


Mung ••• 


3 


36 

1 


18* 


196 


663 6 


4 


4 1 


14 9 fl 


Iy)bia 


3 


1 6 


94 


61 3 


164 10 


8 49 1 Oj 


131 6 4 


SiUiai 


3 


00 19 


10 


8 


30 





10 9 ol 


106 9 


AUi 


3 


:k) 


16 


85 


510 





97 1 0.' 


538 8 1 


Wheat 


9 


o|« 39 


99 


6,340 71,895 





8,838 8 oj 


93,810 16 6 


Barley (Jau) ^ 


9 


1 10 

1 


33 


6,774 048.779 19 


10 


6,531 1 


89.896 1 


Gram ••• 


7 


o'l u 


98 


718 9 


6,099 8 





1,441 oj 
80 9 ol 

58 1 ol 


10,087 4 1 


Mattar (Peas) 


6 


oil 10 


46 


48 3 


934 





386 6 4 


Sanon 


1 


90 


IS 


39 9 


65 





116 8 Q| 


Arhar 





1 


98 


1 999 9 


9,612 8 


966 


4.880 i^ 


Masur ••• 


3 


1 


99 


44 9 U 


133 8 





9 3 


99 4 <N 


Btifrar cane 


15 


0,'0 16 


19 


1,148 


43,050 





1,586 8 


59,508 2 M 


Tobacco 


7 





J 10 


H 


24 


672 





95 


700 Ol 


PoBt C Seed ... 
(poppy) X 0\>\\xm ... 


9 





18 


12| 


41 3 


185 7 


9 


18 1 


81 1 9^ 


9 





J 4 


... 


••• 


1,503 





... 


657 d 


Vegetables 


16 





1 10 (. 


45 


74 9 


894 





199 9 


9,310 


ToUl 


... 




••• 


... 


98,335 9 


9,41,IU0 4 


6 

8 


99,891 1 


2,84,580 11 6 


Revenue with muafl. 


... 


**% 


■ 

••1 


45,159 1 


• • • 


57,717 3 10 


P«rceuinjre of revc- 




















nae on total value, 


••• 




... 

1 


... 


*.« 


19 





• •• 


20 


Hardoi : ^ 










Th€ 20th April, 1877 


. i 



















BABDOI SETTLIlIEyT SEFOBT. 



413 



Ko. IS. 



Bamoar. 



Total 



ValBC 



Art a. 



Valne- 



M. r. p 

1«S s • 

7S 3 O 

•lO O 

S Ot 

WM 1 O 

|l« 3 • 

3U 3 O 

2 • 

• 

1 • 



£l 1. p. ' 

sti o o 

4;s 3 2 

»• 6 • 

2^.127 4 

2.SCS • 

92,627 8 • 

42^12 • O 



A. r. p. 



SB 

4 

S4 

1,747 

]ft.354 



1 

S 

3 
2 
2 
2 



I 





o 

''•I 



Rf. I 

153 O; 

]S 3 2 

110 

£•,€ 1 1 4 O' 

:4 3 2 



3.77t 8 ( 



1,CS8 1 f* 19,e9S» 



4.521 

4ft«640 

2.043 

1,353 



]8#A8 
J, 037 



17 2 

421. I 

IT;Mf 3 

3 
2 



•I 3 



O. 175 

0; 2,527 
•j 2,01 .fiat 
O; 2,01,072 
35,426 
C 

o 



MU 2 

22 3 

lift • 



O 
V 



163 

»^10 

297 

24,331 

316 
4.174 
€«0M 



7 3 

8 O 
2 • 
S 4 
8 • 

14 3 

8 • 

5 4 



ft 

11 

§ 

3 
8 

12 
4 
O 
8 
O 
O 



« 
9' 

2i 

O. 


(• 

I 

9 



91 
1,905 

155 
2,463 

1.515 
1^5 
279 
9 
56 
7,75i3 
]3,6<] 
2,609 
35) 
£8 
4,302 
22 
776 
i'9 
153 





3 

3 

2 



2 

1 





• 

9 

1 

8 

3 



2 

o 

1 

1 

3 



I 

<• 



i>. 

o 
(• 
o 

(• 

o 
(t 

(• 
o 

<J 


C; 
O 
O 

(' 

o. 



243 2 9 



264 

1L454 
135 
6S;3 
12,415 
5,3*^S 
4J7 
744 
90 
3%6 
§7.671 
9>.6 1 
ll',8tl 
i,6>» 
56 
21,5}2 
€6 
29 109 
§]9 
€63 
5,8^5 
2,922 



n 

K 

2 
4 

7 
6 
O 
8 

4 

4 


3 



6 



5 







6 
<• 

I 



I 
tt 

o 

<»: 

(i 



<^. 
o 

I 

o 
o 

o! 

4 





Area. 



Valoe. 



A. r. j». Us. a, p. 



104 1 o 



1*9 

7.0J4 

6fr5 

3€.5t7 

7,6)4 

2.426 

Ii,3]9 

J 36 

457 

9.47i 

9,419 

€51 

466 

40 

€59 

40,417 

54.093 

10,057 

210 
11,6^3 

175 
6,926 

171 

329 



O 

3 

2 
3 



3 
1 

3 

2 

3 

3 

3 



2 

2 

1 

3 



2 



2 

2 



8 



O 

o 



417 
719 15 



4<s4 5 

3M61 2 
2,479 6 
1.8:^,^36 12 
93,768 



1,01 B 2 



7,063 
§5.913 O 
(• 2.363 14 

2^1 4 
47,367 6 
f 83.491 7 
2.172 8 
I' 1,3 13 5 

4fKI 

r 3,»12 
45,696 14 
3,§9,471 6 
€ 70,<04 4 
i] 4,^57 9 
bl 421 

('I 59,265 
0' 526 8 

2,2^,993 12 
4,7^6 
1,445 8 
]].§7] 
12;222 



O 

1 
1 

o 

4 
O 


o 
o 



o 
o 
1 
o 

4 

o 



o 

6 

7 


O 





o 

4 
O 



IJK/mBt • MtS,»tt 10 <^ ^^'>K4 1 ^ 3,63,224 4 5 2,36,1M 2 017,41,679 lo 

I ■ '_ 



1,€9,;22 8 

28 C 



79,:;CK; 13 2 
21 



3,51.9 8 5 6 
23 



W. BLE.NKEBHASSETT. 



408 



HARDOI SETTLEMENT REPORT. 



STATEMENT 
Return illustrating the ownership and rental 



Name of talCtqa. 



Name of taluqdar. 



Bhogaitapur ••• i 



I 

Asifpur Baghriy { 

I 



i. 



Eatiari 



( 



Basitnagar 



Sawajpur ••• < 




Sayyad Wasih Hai- C Khalsa 
dar. I Pukhta 

Total 

Mnhammad Ashraf^ 
Muhammad Hadi, | Khalsa 
Muhammad T a k i ^ Piikhta 

and Muhammad | Maurusi 

Askari. J 

Total 

Raja Hardeof Khalsa 
Bakah { Piikhta 

Total 

Amanat Fatima\ 
Begum (widow of t Khalsa 
N a w a b Basain i Maurusi 



• • • 
••• 

••• 



Fuaian 



•••{ 



Furwa Deoria 



it.., I 



Karimnagar Ja- 
lalpur 



{ 



All Khan) 



Dip Singh, 



Th&knr Sriptl 
Singh 



ToUI 

( Khalsa 
lP6khta 

Total 

C Khilsa 
(Pukhta 



•• • 
••• 

••> 

*•• 

••• 

••• 

••• 
••• 



Aojl ••• \ 

Mansurnagar ... | 



Total 

Baja Muhammad ( 
Shamsher Baha< < Khalsa 
dur, (, 

Mirza Ahmad Aii ( Khalsa 
Beg. I Pukhta 

Total 
Mohant Harcharnd f o^. .* 



••• 

...j 



T 



Area in acres. 



Dass. 

Raja Mosharaf Ali 
Khan. 



( 



Khalsa 



M. 



• •• 



A. r. p 

15,559 
_6,760 

22^19^0 ~0 



Gross rental 

of 

taluqa. 



21,261 
610 2 
7S6 2 



22,508 



44,480 3 (* 
244 1 fi 



40,725 



Rs. a. 

27,004 

11,992 



13,308 
5,982 

19,240 



16,927 
951 



17,878 



S,163 2 
30 2 



3,194 



6,271 



4,372 2 
62 2 



4,435 



1,609 



2,348 



GsAND Total ... 8,51,696 



^8,996 



40,752 ^ 
1,036 ^ 
1,459 O 



I 







43,248 



85,379 
1,337 



6 





86.716 



29,374 
14,106 



43,480 



23.686 
2,810 



26,396 



7,613 8 
180 8 



7,644 



7,680 Oj 

4,680 

130 

4,810 7» 




3,260 



S,100 



6,88,948 



XUbdoi Sbttlimbrt Office : 
Jht UtJuiy, 1871. 



( 



i 



^^"- 






\LiM, 



A. s: 3 



«i t 



WB % m 


4 1V 


j3 ' ^ 


a • 


- 


a 




*« 


IT • • 


Jim * ^ 


a . 4 


• - . 




r 


^ 


*■ * 


S9 • « 


■ ^^^^^^^ 


w < 


"• L. 




«4# 




i -" • 


I,^ C « 


ftitf -^ 1 


irf«^ - ? 


J..3i i: 


• 


■ - 




7 ^c ^ 


S4 1 « 


m :*• « 


:* < 


iS 




■ • 


»■ 


7 • . ^ 


IMi I • 


IrfflB * * 


-r»* » •' 


:«.«•(> 1 


• 


. .>:v 


* • 


.-- . ■. > • 


B* S « 


±isr 1 • 


— ^ - * 


r.*«« 


■ 


>^ 


■ 


. i J 


B 1 « 


■^-j - 


.n » r. 


1* ^ 


- 


■ 
■ ■ 




i» ; 


vm 3 • 


LX9MI « 1 


;,.r^ 1 


:l.A^ 1 


1 


•». . '■* 


) 


r. -.. N > 


IB 1 V 


su: jfc 1. 


^h 1 


;pf.u » 


M 


v 


; • 


>C^' J 


• I 11 


V I « 


lO 1 1 


2 : > 


•t 


•.. 


1 


'^^ « * 


« • • 


tia 1 1 


Cti 1 • 


^ ';»^> J 


1 


•>*J 


; t 


■-'.' ^ » 


1» I 41 


rs 1 1 


r'* I I 


..u:» 1 


m 


< " 


« 


» * 4 


4 « • 


:3 i ft 


S 1 


- '1 ■: 


9. 


• 


1 


• ■ » > 


14 I • 


m 1 1. 


■5". J J 


r-'.' I 


« 


« « 


1 • 


« f * 


11 S «l 


11 .1 1 11 


i.: 1 


.. -j > 


i 


• 


I 1 


' ^ 


IT 1 • 


DiS i *V 


;:r : • 


« « 


4 


• , * 


' i 


f / 


1» 3 01 


afL.'.-ni ui 11 


*.ji:6 i 1 


W. :- 1 


!• 


; I .•! 




' f S » ' * > > 


Mrs s « 


4:ji71 < I. 


k iS 1 i 


1.-4. » 


i 


.. «.».» 


* / 


• i^- * 4 


•» s « 


CXV.} li It 


I.-* 9 I 


*•- #•• % 




• . ».*! 


■ ; 


'>«»v^r ^ ^ 


4m z m 


1U4 1 11 


*** i I 


9.^'it* : 1 


• 


• t . ' 


« ■ 


>».'«• * 4 


W 1 •!• 


911 * )i 


r : J 


•♦ * 


J 


i^< 


5 ; 


i- S J 


•0 1 • 

3fe • • 

OS 3 • 

• 3 * 

» I • 


243 : -Ji 
«3>ft.i 19 :> 

31 '»■ 

1 I J 

9 0« 

1.49* 


29 ■: > 

4i 9 4 

7 2 

m ■ 

3:0 


I.:*: 

9*3 
4,440 


J 

1- 

c 

4 




•i V i 

* - « 

• * 

■ 

• •• 

003 


• ■ 

< 

3 > 


;^ >* u k* 

Hi' J* ^ 

y \? 

4A « Ik 


mm 


i 


••• 


••• 


1 


291 


3 


Vrf* * 


16^ S 


j 


5U73 


4aV^1S9 14 


10 

1 


67,741 


1 


5,S^6I7 14 4 



99tlSi 



13 6 

I 





95,399 3 



1 



I 

i 

S3 0. 



••• 



••• 



1,S6,133 15 



S3 



••• 



. 



54 11 



HAtooi BcntntntT bikkt. 

STATEMENT No. IX. 

Crop ttatemetU of tahill Bilgram. — (ooncloded). 





1 
1 


t 

I 


i 

1= 


TalaC 


Dune ot crop. 


Area. 


V: 


Baan 
HlDd** 
Makka 

Bawta 

KBFM(ootl«n with wed). 

sTcindrgo plMt) Z 

Ttl 

Muh 

Moth 

MUDff 

LoUa 
Banal 
Abi (liDiMd) 

Birle? 
Gram 
Mattar (pwi) 

Bareon 
ArhM 
JJanur 
Sugarcani 
Tobacco 
roit »(!«d 
Do. oplTim 
Vagetablei 
UbatiK 


.a..... 
... 

4 
6 

5 SO 

a» 

6 

3SS 

« 

sfi n « 
S « 

is; 

IB C 


Md. a. e. 

1 
1 10 

1 g 

! 10 
1 

10 

1 IS I 

10 

16 

1 

1 6 
0» 
I S 
IS 
0>0 

81 

1 10 
1 
1 lU 

oao 

1 
1 
IS 
10 u 
18 D 

4 

1 10 
030 


Sr, 

35 
«5 

ao 

30 

411 

» 

S8 

■"'■1 
«3 
81 
184 
S4 
ID 
IS 

Kl 
M 

40 

IS 
>8 
S9 
19 

IS 


A. ». p. 

■1*0 

Bi 

8J1 I 

8,110 

37) 1 

40,S8S 

!,«89 3 

m 

10.104 3 

sat 9 

IBG 1 

1,315 1 

I,T6« 3 

9S 1 

401 1 

an ■ 

IT9 1 
81,768 S 

65.ta9 a 

I3.38i 

i.eei 3 

tB* 9 
8,898 1 

SOI 3 
1.9 11 1 

:," » • 

i.e»4 s 

t» 3 


E 

S 

S9. 

■•'1: 

8. 
«. 

I.I 

s. 

1, 

8.83,; 

4,00, 

•I. 

17. 

44, 

1,0* 

s. 

1. 


ToUl ... 






... 


1,11,380 1 


".OB, 


ReTenae Inclgdiog 

nrnte*. 
retceniBgeot tcvenue 
OD total Tit DC. 


" 


•" 


... 


3,80,(31 s e 

13 U 





Til* tith April, 18TT.J 



HARDOI fiBrrLBUENT REPORT. 

No. VIII. 
Poliee Dittrkt Bardoi. 



U|T»1L OP 





1 


Bimnfration. 


II 

111 

a" 


ll 

< 


OS 

SB 


i 

° 
1 
1 - 

■< 


1^ 


< 


.^ '0 


II 


la 


IS 


u 


15 1 16 


SI 1-48 
S»613 
B9a-I8 
4S;-63 


Acres. 

49»-H 
EOS OS 

10160 


A. K, P. 

117 

B8 

61 


Bi. ■. p. 
eas 

BUS 

s«"'o 


3,tie 

1,*T3 
638 

6,SB5 D 


Hi. t.p 

4.I79 
1,849 U 
638 
S,)51 


1 14 T 
1 IS 8 


387-17 


tOO-fil 


S36 


i.s;9 


II,0!1 




1 U 6 


»4-ID 
U4-I1 
•SO- 13 


eseu 

6*6-31 
750- li 


7 

5S "o 


» 
M8'"8 


V9« 
8,960 
S.ai6 8 
6,3»3 


I.6J5 
S,950 
Ml* 8 
6,«ai 8 


S 10 
9 9 
3 1 
1 16 S 


«Tia 


raa-Bu 


CO 


»1 8 


18,155 8 O 13,413 o] 8 1 


soero 
aH'4( 

16>S> 


6:s-76 


6 
13 

IS *0 


so 
ee 8 

78*' 

■" 


ifiOl t>\ 2,SS1 
3,768 3.831 8 
l,u»l 1,091 
3,S3t 0. 3.91 > 
9,183 3,183 u 


S 1 
1 11 

1 3 3 
1 14 


*r.-ii 


60S08 


34 


174 B 


13,374 13,648 8 


I 14 ■ 


S7»6i 
3T7I8 
400 S3 

4>U-l» 


«M31 

6l)S-52 
679ti3 
•07-50 
801-15 
7aG-SI 


3 "o 


so"'o 


1,796 1.796 
t,T8') :,7MI 
1,813 1,813 
1,786 • 1,806 
9(3 »4J 
8,198 3,1» 
I.0-.6 1.086 

•"" "'" 


9 4 
S 1 
> I 4 

3 > 
I 14 II 
1 14 4« 
1 IJ 1 


>gG'30 


63194 


3 


30 


lt.«S« IJ,«)« oj 1 16 1 


*(M»5 


638- IS 


M3 


S,OST 


5I,«3; 8 U,464 J 1 IS 8 



HABDOl SnTLlltKira BITORT, 



STATKMEN 
BMmof fiw- 









J 
































A0r*m 




N«mc ol Parpin*, 


1 


■s 


i 


•5 


i 

s 






1 


i 


=K 


1 




1 




i 

K 


1 


1 


» 


H 


' 


* 


a 


* 


H'S 


6 




8 


» 




A 


Oandwa 

BllRDlUU 

SiuidfU 


IIT 




10,190 


6f.8Jl 




s»-« 




3 




ss 


81 

IS 


M37 


S4,S7S 

u.isa 


64 


»*-»( 




*13 




SID 


»7,1« 


1,37.»6S 


300 


.,-«/ 




Total 


*I6 


Gi7 


S»3 


ii,tl% 


i^O.lM 


a94 


7»-»« 




^1 


B(«mn 
Itaupir 


a; 


69 


SI 


S.JJS 


«,U37 


6fi 


»<r« 










149 




S4,4t>l 




9»U 




b| 






:iM 


ȣ 


S,(<8T 

ti^as 


(.1S,U04 




74 1» 
7«l» 






Total 

Bilftram 
Millinwrui 


4TS 


6M 


S41 


41.S87 


i.«7,iiW 


UB 


80-14 
lOMi 




p t 


111 


IIJ 


87 


fi«,l«4 


ill 




c J 








1:1:1 




77,6111 


ISS 


8711 
























"I 






I«U 


Ub 


18,8 J* 


e9,:si 




II« 
















3i,lM 


97 








Total ... 


43» 


"7^ 


MS 


«,S04 












1,69.999 


sgs 


83-11 








oa 











































44)0 
















S9,087 




inM 




S 


I'lJintii pBOarua 


ei 






4, nag 


s;,9H 


14 


6I-M 




1 


SUibBlmd 








34,ua] 


B5 


77-Tl 




I4S 








is,ei4 


a* 


11-18 










H,1I0 


e7,6*« 


13S 


loMi 




L 




ss 


UG 


IS 


1,]S6 


6>88 


47 
M 


so-ii 






Total ,_ 


SIS 


n; 


M 
























Gbiid ToilL ... 


V.:, 


S,29S 


•t,%iz 






»,W,»77 








- 


1,80^30 


9J-JS 


78(8 





Jfl« IM Ja/y, 1871, 



HARDOI SBTTLEHEtlT BEPORT. 



*«o. VIII. 
•t^eUee, Dittrict Eardot. 





J 

1 
i 

< 


Hiniii^rarioH. 


1 


k 

•1 

< 




1 

£ 

I 




:fll 

< 


10 


II 


ti 


IS 


14 


IS 1 16 


ai>(8 
mi 3 

Ki'lS 
48;-63 


493' 14 
G03 9S 

TOl'fiO 


A. K. P. 

117 

68 1) 

fil "o 


B.. «. p. 

8M 
316 

SiB""o 


H8.IL p. 

3.5I8 
1,473 

833 
fl.5S6 U 


4.179 
I.8S9 m 
638 
e.«5l 


,....p. 

1 14 T 
1 13 • 
1 14 5 
1 U 11 


S8:-«7 


800-61 


t3S 


i.5:s 


11,011 


I8.5B7 


1 14 8 


aS4'io 


6A6'I4 
7SS'I« 

76011 


7 

BS "(J 


IB 

sjs's 


),G»6 
a,960 
!JI6 8 
4.393 


I,6S5 
»,950 

S.S18 e 

8,691 8 


a 10 

3 9 
1 1 

1 16 < 


407-a 


722-80 


CO 


J87 8 


18,155 8 


13,413 


S 1 


MM 70 
WM7 
aB3-4t 

ssi-se 


675:4 

56»'N6 
668 73 


13 

IS 'o 


10 

ee 8 

78"'o 


vol 
8,783 
I.u»l 


8,S8i 
3.83* 8 
1,091 
3,!ll. 
a,18£ 


1 14 8 
1 1 

1 19 
1 .3 3 
1 14 


4S7S7 


GOI'Ol 


3t D 


174 B 


13,374 


13,548 8 U 


1 14 6 


aj»8s 

8-7IS 
40083 

4BU-I9 

JI73S0 


«M31 

■31 11 

6WBa 
6TB'<i3 

«o7io 
softs 

IKS-SI 


'1° 


»"o 


1,796 
l,78'l 
1,813 
1,786 

943 
9,I9B 
l,0«fl 

484 U 


l,7«« 
!,7c0 
1,813 
1,806 
S41 

3,199 n 

1 ,0116 
484 


9 4 
S 1 
9 I 4 
1 19 4 
S 9 
I 14 11 
1 14 40 
1 11 1 


3.0 30 


G»1D1 




10 


11,888 


U,306 


1 15 1 


4IH9S 


<i38-15 


™ « » 


i.«7 


61^7 8 o| 88,464 8 U 


1 U S 



A. II. HABINGTON, 
OgicialiKg Siiatwmu Office: 



414 



HARDOI SBTTLEHBKT REPORT. 



STATEMEKT 
Crop statement of 



Name of crop. 



Kukun 

Mindwa ... 

Makkft 

Dhan (paddy), 

Sawan ... 

3ajra 

Kapas (cotton 

with seed). 
EodoQ 
Juar 
KU (indigo 

plant). 
Til 
Mash 
Moth 
Mung 

Lobia , 

Sanai 

AIbI (linseed) 
Wheat 
Barley 
Gram 

Mattar (peas), 
Sarson 
Arhar 

Masur .. 

Sujrarcane 
Tobacco 
Post seed .. 
Do. opium .. 
Vegetables .. 
Bhang 



o 
u 

o 

u 

o 

o 

u 



M. s 



••• 



Total 



BeTenuc i n - 
eluding mu 
afis. 

Percentage of 
revenue on 
total value. 



4 
4 
5 
6 
S 
6 
3 

4 

6 

35 

2 
6 
4 
3 
3 
8 
8 
9 
9 
7 
6 
1 
ft 
3 

16 
7 
S 


16 
1 






SO 
20 





4f 

o 
o 



"0 9. 

C8 M 






•c 
32 



M.c.s. 




10 

60 


10 


10 u 



01 

6 





16 

1 

2 





















9 









1 
1 

ojo 

1 
00 
00 
0*0 



1 





01 








? 



16 

00 

6 

36 

5 u 

12 

20 U 

32 

10 



10 

20 





16 

10 

18 

4 

10 

80 



»•• 



••t 



••• 



Sr. 

85 
45 
no 
30 
46 
27 
9 

47 
28 



9* 
23 

81 

18^ 

24 

lO 

16 

22 

33 

^^ 

46 

13 

28 

29 

12 

H 
124 

... 

46 



••• 



Bilgrdi 



Area. 



A. r. p. 

11 1 

U 3 

126 I 

1,677 2 

123 

9,656 2 

590 2 



157 2 
2,405 1 



34 1 



37 

213 

8V8 

9 

98 

140 

16 

7,866 

14.052 

1,766 

295 

16 

2,449 

38 

409 

40 

10 



1 
2 
1 

1 
1 
2 
2 

a 

2 







o 






Value. 



1 

3 
3 

1 
1 


2 



816 1 



Rs a. p 

45 
40 12 9 

561 1 9 

9,226 4 

844 6 '6 

48.277 8 

7.066 U 

458 2 10 

14,431 8 

699 e 

198 10 8 

1.067 8 

1.416 
SO 

248 10 8 

1,402 8 

99 

88,496 2 

1,01,174 6 5 

12,36 J 8 

1.417 3 2 
38 8 

12,448 12 

99 *2 

15,846 14 

1,120 

46 10 8 
876 

3,783 O 



.•• 



42^96 3 3,22^44 8 6 



73,946 6 



23 



••• 



Katidru 



Area. 



A. r. p. 



29 

1(»8 

58 

30 

15 

6 

21 

11,121 

6,670 

2,875 

1,117 

144 

1,511 

112 

28i 

29 

29 



8 
1 
1 



3 
8 
I 
2 
2 
2 
1 
3 

a 

I 
2 



.•• 



16 2 

7 2 

5» 9 

964 2 

15 2 

6,616 a 

139 I 



91 2 

6,841 

8 3 






















216 3 



38,128 2 6 



57,022 



19 



Value. 



Rs. 



66 


» 


24 


O 


260 


O 


6.301 


I» 


43 


c% 


8?, 78 im 


1,671 


« 


266 


s 


35,046 


o 


163 


s 



158 16 

616 4 

189 5 

100 

40 

60 

188 S. 

1,26.119 IL 

48,025 IS 



20,128 

6,864 

289 

7,556 

338 

10,603 

819 

131 

1,062 

2,801 



9 

a 
o 

4 

2 



1 







2,99,335 10 



BARDOI SBTTLElfENT REPORT. 



413 



Ko. IX. 

^f tahM Hardin. 



Gopamam. 



I Area. 








A. r. 


P- 


•0 1 

148 t 

76 8 

9JU9 S 

810 

18,666 2 

tJUil 












Valae. 



Rt. 



901 
476 3 




2 



336 8 8' 

20,127 4 Oj 

2,268 0, 

92,827 8 O 

42,012 



1,664 1 

7,606 8 

118 8 

§68 8 

6,868 2 

8,886 

826 1 

88 8 

17 2 

421 . 1 

\ 17.846 3 

. 17^28 8 

8^088 S 

889 

81 8 

4^889 

88 1 

8^16 2 

92 3 

116 

608* 



^J07J099 2 



4,521 
46.840 
2.043 
1,363 
26.262 
18,008 
1,087 
263 
176 
2,627 
2,01.889 
2,01,072 
36,426 
2.639 
183 
23.810 
297 
94,831 
2,697 
618 
4,176 
6,096 



7 

8 

2 

6 

8 
14 

8 

6 



8 
11 



9 
8 
3 
8 

12 
4 

8 





7 







9 




8,82,966 10 6 



1,69,722 8 
80 



Bangar. 



Area. 



A. r. p. 

38 1 

4 3 

24 3 

1,747 2 

26 2 

10,354 2 O 

1,G58 1 



Value. 



91 
1,905 
7 
155 
2,483 
1,516 
126 
279 
9 
56 
7,793 
18,861 
2,808 
353 
28 
4,302 
22 
776 
29 
153 




8 
3 
2 



2 

1 









1 

8 

3 



2 

o 

1 

1 

3 


















u 









Rs. a. p. 

153 

16 3 2 

110 

9,611 4 

74 3 2 

51,772 8 

19,899 



243 2 



264 

11,434 

135 

829 

12,415 

6,388 

417 

744 

90 

336 

87,671 

99,801 

19,661 

1,698 

56 

21,512 

66 

29.109 

819 

683 

5,635 

2,922 



n 8 

8 



2 

4 

7 

8 








1 






4 

4 


8 U 

6 














5 





4 




60,854 1 8,83,224 6 5 



79,306 13 2 
21 



Total 



Area. 



A. r. p. 



104 

226 

109 

7.014 

8b5 

36.587 

7,814 

2.4 28 

li,S19 

136 

457 

9,473 

9,419 

661 

488 

40 

659 

40,417 

64,098 

10,057 

1,012 

210 

11,853 

175 

6,026 

171 

329 



1 


8 
2 
3 




3 

1 

3 

2 

8 

3 

3 



2 

2 

1 

8 



2 



2 

2 



8 

















r 







6 



o| 








Value. 



Rs. a. p. 



417 
719 15 
484 6 

38,681 2 

2,479 6 

1.82,938 12 

93,768 



1,018 2 



7,063 
86.918 

2.383 

2,441 
47,367 
83,492 

2,172 

1,303 
400 

3,912 
45,696 
3,89,471 
70,404 
4,857 
421 
69,265 
526 
2,25,993 
4,788 
1,465 
11,871 
12,229 






14 
4 
8 
7 
8 
6 



14 
6 
4 
9 





8 
19 



8 







O 

1 
1 
O 

4 
O 


o 
o 



o 



1 


4 




6 


7 
O 

o 






8 







9,16,180 9 017,41,879 lO 



••• 



••• 



3,61.906 6 8 
90 



W. BLENNERHASSETT, 

Auiatant CommUtioner, 



414 



HABDOI SETTLEMBMr BBPOKT. 



STATEMEK 
Crop tiatemem 







u 


S3 

o 
ki 

Pi 


price per 
i. 


Bilgrdm. 


Katidri, 


Name of crop. 


















o 


li 




Area. 


Value. 




Area. 


Value. 






C8 M 


M P 


1 
















CU 


»>4 


a 
Sr. 








P 








M 


. 8 C 


M.C.8. 


1 

A. r. p- 


Hs 


a. 


A. r. p. 


Bs. a 


Kiiknn 


4 





1 


85 


11 ] 


45 








18 8 


86 i 


Mindwa 


4 





1 10 


45 


IS 3 


40 


12 


9 


7 2 


84 4 


Makka 


6 





1 6 


.10 


126 1 


661 


1 


9 


6» 8 


860 1 


Dhan (paddy), 


6 


so 


1 


30 


1,677 8 


9,226 


4 





964 2 


6.304 1 


8awaQ 


S SO 


1 10 


45 


123 


844 


6 


6 


16 8 


43 


-Bajra 


6 





1 


27 


9,65)6 2 


4^277 


8 





6,616 8 


8?, 78 1 


Kapas (cotton 


3 





10 


9 


590 2 


7,0b6 








139 1 


1,671 


with seed). 












f 








Eodon 


4 


01 18 


47 


157 8 


458 


t 


10 


91 8 


866 


Juar 


6 


01 


28 


2,405 1 


14,431 


8 





8,841 


35,046 


Ml (indigo 


36 


OS 


..• 


34 1 


899 


8 





8 3 


163 


plant). 




















Til 


S 


00 IS 


9* 


37 1 


198 


10 


8 


89 3 


158 1 


Mash 


6 


01 


83 


913 2 


1.067 


8 





li»8 1 


616 


Moth 


4 


Ul 6 


31 


8V8 1 


1,416 








68 1 


189 


Mung ^ 


3 


36 


184 


9 


so 








30 


100 


Lobia 


3 


Oil 6 


24 


98 1 o 


948 


10 


8 


15 


46 


Sanai 


8 


00 IS 


10 


140 1 


1,402 


8 





6 


80 


Alii (linseed) 


8 


o!o so 

0*0 3S 


18 


16 S 


99 








81 8 U 


188 


Wheat 


9 


22 


7,866 S 


88,496 


8 





11.181 8 


1,88.119 1 


Barley 


9 


9 1 10 39 


14.062 


1,01,174 


6 


6 


6,670 1 


48,086 1 


Gram 


7 


010 ' 


:;8 


1,766 2 


19,36 J 


8 





2,875 2 


80,188 
6.984 


Mattir (peas), 


6 


u 


1 10 u 


45 


295 1 


1,417 


3 


8 


1,117 2 


8artoQ 


1 


00 90 13 
O"! O! 28 


16 3 


33 


8 





144 8 


889 


Arhar 


8 


8,449 3 


18,448 


18 





1,511 1 


^ V^ V 

7,558 
338 


Masur 


b 


01 


29 


33 1 


99 


•8 





112 3 


Sufrarcane ... 


16 


00 16 


12 


409 1 


15,846 


14 





882 3 


10,603 
819 


Tobacco 


7 


00 10 


64 


40 


1,120 








29 1 


Post seed 


8 


00 18 


124 


10 2 


48 


10 


8 


89 2 


131 


Do. opium ... 





9 0004 

1 


••• 


... 


378 








... 


1,068 
8,801 

... 


Vegetables ... 


16 


Ojl 10 


45 


316 1 


3,783 








816 3 


Bhang 


1 


""l 


80 


• • • 


•.. 


■ 9 ' 

• •• 






••« 


Total ... 




»•• 


... 


• • • 


42,996 3 


3,82^44 


8 


6 


38,188 8 6 


8,99,336 


BiTenue i n - 




••t 


••• 


73,946 6 


• • • 






67,022 




eluding mu- 




















••• 


afis. 












mmm 










Percentage of 




t .. 


••• 


• •• 


23 


• •• 






19 




revenue on 




















••« 


total value. 























HABDOI SETTLGMEin' BKPOBT. 



415 



No. IX 


• 










tahil BUgram. 






Kaeklumitm. 


Biallanwau. 


Sandi 


Area. 


Valoe. 


Area. 


Value. 


[ 

Area. ! 

1 


Value, 


A. r. p 


1 . 
Bfl. a. p. A. r. p. 


Bb. a. p. 


A. r. p. 


K*. a. p. 


10 S 


49 23 


99 


35 1 


141 4 


17 


64 6 4 80 1 


96 12 IG 


1 16 2 


.^2 12 9 


S7» 


1,684 7 1 168 1 


747 12 6 


140 


C^3 ."i 8 


l,«08 1 


8,645 6 9,484 S 


13,G6i 19 G 


>. 1,775 1 


?.*#3 14 


54 1 


161 14 4 101 1 


283 8 (] 


►i 79 2 


iii # r 


l,f81 1 


8,406 4 1,7S0 


63,900 C 


y 11.830 2 


5^.152 8 6 


17» 8 


9,157 1,370 2 

1 


16,446 C 


i l^9 3 


i.iV g 


SS 1 


64 11 7 135 


392 11 : 


915 3 


6i: :* 2 


9,906 8 


18,940 8 5,176 9 


31.059 0, 4.575 I 


S7.i^I 5 CI 


88 1 


941 14 218 

1 


3,8i5 50 2 


^jo \i 


8 1 


33 6 4 41 


213 6 ' 


1. 7-2 1 


,Vo » 4 


69 


310 656 3.280 i 


m 3^0 2 


I.?.^* # 01 


30 1 


79 379 S 1,349 5 • 


• ' 917 2 K^ 


? i • i ? 8 


4 fl 


1 13 6 4 33 1 110 13 


* 1.1 1 


CI i * 


14 1 l] 


) 38 251 609 5 


4 2> V 


:« „' 9 


91 9 C 


) 915 63 1 5V2 S 


i 


,^ * ; # 


17 8 C 


Y, 106 3l) 1 ISI f. 


li:* •: 


■ ■. *. .* ^» 


9 399 8 C 


) 96.130 16 0\ 8,535 2 96,«)2i 6 


il ■..;:? ,'. ; 


:,»Nifj s .» 


5^16 8 C 


i 41,873 6 5 


14,105 3 1,01.561 6 


5 14, ^V% : 




878 9 C 


) 6,149 8 


8,174 9 2j,.?i>1 S 


AXi : 


.^S.^5^ ;* ijl 


448 8 ( 


) 9,154 


478 2 2,296 12 10 i.:;-! ; 


C »» i 4 


10 1 ( 


) 20 8 


37 1 74 8 


i-r. /. : 


.*: < .^ 


66S 1 C 


» 3,326 4 Oj 1,639 3 8,10^ 1:2 


C>y.) • 


* ^ 


8i ( 


) 243 Oj 22 C6 


Si r^ > 


: .' s • 


688 9 C 


» 98,943 19 


1,931 1 46.171 U 


:'o ' .' 


5.:»^ :> * 


8 ( 


> 91 n 


42 9 1,190 


-i . 


1. ; ? < ' ^ 


1 < 


) 119 


7 2 33 5 


* ". '. J 


.* ,* J* 


••• 


9 


270 





A- ^ 


119 i 


) 1,428 


370 4,440 


i.O^ ,^ ' 




•M 


1 


••• ••• 


1 


* -^ y ^ 


16.988 8 { 


1 

> 1,39,4<S 9 Sj 51^75 4,09,1183 |« 

■ 


1'*^ 6:.: 11 t ,• 


>?<. r ' fc 1 


S9,1S6 18 


1 
6 Mt 


95,392 3 





. 


90 


M* 


23 

• 





1 

1 

1 





5lu 



HISDOI BBmcnilT BKNiffr. 

STATEUSNT No. IX. 
Crop ttatenunt of taMt Silgram. — (oonduded). 





i 


I 

s 

■g. 

1^ 


s. 

s 
1. 

si 


TolaL 


NuDB ol crop. 


Ann. 




Kftknti 

UiDdVA 

Makka 

Dbao (peajy) 

8awM 

Bajra 

Kapw(cotl«Dw)tbH<ed}, 

Rodm 

Kfl (indigo rl»nt) !" 
Til 
Mub 
Moth 
M«ng 
Lobia 
gaoal 

AlBi (littfWd) 
Wheat 
Birley 
Gmoi 

M.iur (pew) 
BinoD 
Arbar 
Muor 
(jngarcane 
Tobacco 
Poit .«ed 
Do. opium 
Vegetables 


Ud. 1. e. 

4 
« 
fi 

5 » 
» « 
S 

3 

4 
• 00 

MOO 

5 

6 

.10 
3 
3 

a 
f u 
» 

7 
« 
1 
GOO 
5 

le 

7 
10 

9 
IS 

1 


Md. •. e. 

1 

1 
1 10 
1 

10 

1 IG 
1 
9 

IS 

1 
1 G 

Bfl 

1 a 

» 

31 D 

1 10 

ii= 

1 
16 

18 

4 

1 10 
» 


Sr. 

4G 

30 
30 

17 

B 

47 
S8 

"•1 
sa 

31 

;:' 

10 

» 

4G 


A. t. p. 
ee s 

04 

BTI 1 

8.110 

ITS ■ 

40,B«3 

9,«a9 a o 
sa> 

10,104 3 

a<t 3 

IBS S 

1,3S8 1 

l,JflB S 

»S 3 

401 S 

»5 1 

179 > 

GI.TCS S 

GB.II99 S 

13.38S 

»,661 8 

491 t 

B,89» 1 

Ml 3 

9,911 1 

191 1 a 

49 B 

1.614 a 
111 1 


1, 

6.1 


Total ... 


... 


... 


... 


f,lT,SBO 1 


H 


Iter CD ne indadlDg 

I'ercenmse of tcTcciue 

oa tolol TlluG. 


" 


- 




3,90,681 S 6 
13 U 





,.:,.} 



HAIDOI SBTTUOBlST REPOBT. 



417 



STATEMENT Mo. IX 
Crop statement oftmhM Skakahad. 



of crop. 



o 



S J- 
"s 5 



4 

4 

5 

f »• 

a so 

ft 



wtthsced) 



...I 



• •• 



CSeea 
X Opiam 



3 
4 
< 

S5 
S 
ft 
4 
3 
t 
3 
3 
9 
9 
7 
ft 
I 
ft 
8 

IS 

7 

9 

O 

15 



ToUl 




O 
















' 

ol, 

■ 

9 i 



I 

I 



o 







M. •. M. 1. Seen 



1 o 

I 10 

1 5 

I 

I 10 

I 

10 

1 15 
1 
9 

15 

1 
I ft 

3ft 

1 5 
O 19 
90 

93 

1 10 
I O 
1 10 

20 

1 
1 
]< 

O 
18 

0{ 

1 10 



Beveooe inclodiDg miiAftf 



9A 

93 

31 

181 

94 

10 

1ft 
99 
93 
9S 
45 
18 
9H 
20 
19 

H 

>«» 

45 



••» 



sreeDUge of icfcsie on toul f tlM 



Paekoha. 



Area. 


Valno. 


A. 


r. 


Ri. a. 


P* 


19 


9 


50 




3 


9 


11 3 




14 





89 8 




1,SII 


I 


8,811 14 




6 


9 


1ft ft 




11,654 


1 


57.771 4 




31ft 





3,81ft 




lift 


9 


388 14 




1.351 


8 


8,110 8 


a 


10 


3 


188 1 





79 


9 


494 





389 


9 


1.919 8 





M94 





4.taK» 14 


3 


34 





ll.i ft 


4 


173 


9 


4«9 10 


8 


13 





IM 8 


U 


7 


9 


4> 1^ 


U 


8,7ftH 


» 


♦*.*W 9 





ft.ftAO 


« 


♦*.*♦• »» 





l.'ftO 


« 


e.tink « 


• 


9.n 





U«» ft 


ft 


9 


1 


i:k 8 


iv 


9.5:: 


\^ 


^\*M 





3«» 


9 


91 8 





ftM» 


\ 


9]k.\0ft ft 


II 


Ml 





1.891 






181 I 
yAO 8 



40,018 9 



ru 



10 8 





8.10.794 U It 



44.9ft4 9 ft 



•t« 



14 



HABDOI SETTLXMEKT BXPORT. 



STATEMENT 
Crop statetneHt of 



Ntme of crop. 



Kaknn .*• ••• 

Mindwa 

Makka •• ,.« 

Dhan (paddy) 

Sawan ,.• 

Bajra ... ••• 

Kapas (cotton with seed) 

Kodon ... ... 

Judr ... ,., 

Kil (indigo) plant ... 

Til 

Mish ... 

Bloth ... .«• 

Mung ... 

Lobia ... ,., 

Sanai ... 

Alsi (linteed) 

Wheat ... 

Barley ... 

Gram ... 

Matar (peai) 

barson ... 

Arhar ... 

Masur ... ... 

Sugar-cane 
Tobacco ••. 

Post (poppy), [|*p^ 

Vegetables .•• 



••• 



••• 



••• 
•• • 
••• 
••• 



••• 
••• 
••• 
..* 
••• 
..• 
... 
.*• 



.•• 
•• 
••• 
••• 

• ■ . 
••• 
• . • 
••• 

... 

•.. 

... 



u 
Pi 



o as 

04 



M. 8. 

4 

4 

6 

6 20 

.3 20 

6 



Totel 



3 

4 
6 
36 
S 
5 
4 
3 
8 
3 
3 
9 
9 
7 
6 
1 
6 
3 
16 
7 
2 
O 
16 



















































••• 



o 

ft. • 

^ 2 

CO u 



M. s. 





10 

6 



10 



10 

16 





16 

1 
1 5 

36 

1 5 



1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
8 







1 
1 
1 



1 
1 





12 
20 
32 
10 

10 
20 


16 
10 
18 

Qk 

1 10 



IM 



O 

o 



Pali. 



ReTenue inlcading maafls 



Seers. 
36 

46 
30 

so 

45 

n 

9 
47 

S8 



! 



S3 

31 

US 

24 

10 

16 

22 

33 

28 

45 

13 

28 

29 

12 

124 
45 



Percentage of rerenue on total ralue 



••• 



Area. 



A. r. 





2 



1,113 

43 

10,035 

72 

33 

470 

2 

128 

199 

163 

10 

164 

6 

6 

Sj-iSl 

8^69 

1,034 

79 

21 

2,P01 

SO 

195 

40 



1 

1 

8 











1 

2 

2 

2 

2 

3 



3 

2 

2 



8 

1 

1 

8 

1 



8 



120 S 
221 



28,787 a 



Value. 



! 



Bs. a. p. 

10 

7 8 8 

S « 4 

8,121 8 

120 8 6 

60,176 

864 

96 

2,821 8 

48 12 

68ft 6 4 

847 8 

681 6 4 

35 6 4 

437 6 4 

67 8 

61 

89.729 6 

69,686 IS 9 

7,863 4 O 

S80 6 6 

42 8 01 

14^008 14 C 

90 12 « 

7,312 8 < 

1,141 ( 

636 10 8 

4,»47 
2,662 



i 

* 



2,00,190 



84,039 



17 



HARIX)I SETTLEMENT REPORT. 



419 



No. IX. 
tahtfl Shahabad.-- {coniinncd). 



Pikdnu 



Am. 



Valae. 



A. r. 



J 





«s 

8 

78S 

66 

a^96 

7<6 
168 

8A^ 

6 

116 

Ifiort 

401 
l<i9 

11 

84 
177 

4,«48 

6,668 

8,027 

87 

80 

86S 

»05 

18» 

21 



202 



Ks. a. p. 



8 
1 

8 
1 
8 
8 
1 
I 
8 

2 

1 





8 



1 

1 



O 

1 

8 

1 

2 

8 

1 





27,544 2 



( 



8 

167 

88 

4«80/ 

187 

17,928 

9,816 

780 

29.816 

lOd 

617 

7,602 

1,426 

363 

29 

347 

1,062 

50,042 

47,903 

21,U9 

n't 

60 

4,313 

616 

7,106 

609 

6 

45 

2,424 





3 

14 

14 

10 




2 
2 

6 



12 



6 10 

8 

6 

6 4 

8 

10 8 

6 4 



5 
8 


13 
6 

9 
8 

12 



A 



5 

7 





12 
4 

8 10 





2,02,491 14 1 



42,883-2-8 



91 



Saromannagar, 



Area. 



6 
11 
1 
961 
6 
2,227 
180 
231 
767 
:rO 
10 
104 
UO 
25 
3 

37 
8,832 
2,912 
933 
1:55 
2 
696 
44 
213 
2 



r. 

2 

2 

1 

I 



3 

3 

2 

3 

2 

2 

2 

2 

3 



1 











3 



8 



1 



47 2 

138 3 



13,182 3 



{ 



Valae. 



Rs. a. p. 



22 

36 

6 

5,231 

16 

11,138 

2,169 

673 

4,606 

35d 

56 

5S2 

499 

65 

8 

2 

222 

37 490 

20,966 

6,531 

648 

5 

3,480 

134 

7,987 

63 

211 

1,710 

1,665 





12 9 

8 10 

14 

12 9 

12 



7 3 

8 
12 



8 

9 



13 

8 

8 
6 


8 

4 



4 





5 








8 



1 9 





1,06,548 2 1 



21,911 



20 



Baricaju 



Area. 



2 
6 
1 



r. 



2 
2 



2,396 1 

66 
3,939 

116 

109 



2 


1 
2 



462 

• • • 

13 

248 

573 2 

5 2 

200 3 

• • • 

199 

3,966 

5,999 3 

904 3 

1»9 3 



33 
7t^9 
74 
42 
14 

71 

164 



2 
3 
2 
1 
2 



20,638 1 



I 



Value. 



Ba. a. p. 

8 

17 9 7 

6 10 8 

13,179 6 O 



186 
19.695 
1,395 

318 8 
2,772 



3 

o 



5 




69 
1,240 
2,039 1 

18 6 
63S 6 



S 
o 


9 


4 


8 
4 
4 



1,194 

44,617 

43,198 

6,333 

959 

67 

3,948 

223 

6,354 

406 

816 

2 556 

1,248 



O 

8 

12 10 



4 


IS 
8 
6 









o 


o 




9 11 
O 




1,51,908 4 8 



25,707 



17 



HABDOI SBTTLEHENT BKPOBT. 



STATEMENT 
Crop itatemmt tf 



, 


1 


S 


t 








Ji 












Nme of crop. 


. Are*. 


Tkltt*. 




M. a, 


M. «. 


Seer. 


A. 


r. 


».. ..p. 


KdtDD ... 


4 


1 fl 


3S 


»3 




8TS 


MiDdira 


4 


1 10 


45 


99 




»S 9 7 


H>kka ... 


i 


1 s 


30 


9 




41 3 9 


Dhao (paddy) 


s so 


1 




4,019 




!S,I07 10 


B«wan ... 


■ so 


1 to 




77 




117 11 a 


Wjr. ... 


S 


I n 


S7 


4,B>e 




34.681 4 O 


Kai ii (cotton with wed) 


3 


m 


9 


1,SBI 




IS,5I9 


Kodoo ■« 




1 16 


♦J 






l,»01 14 S 


Juir ... 


« 


1 


»B 


4,871 




SS^O 8 O 


Nil (indigo) pUnt ... 


3S 


S 




6 




^6 4 


Til ... 


a 


15 


n 


64 




»9 


Miah ... 


5 


1 


2S 


•II 




4^68 It 


Math ... 


4 






sia 




77T la 6 


Mang ... 


» 


03« 


I8J 


IS 




60 


Lobia ... 


S 


1 6 




48 




1S8 10 • 


Santl ... 


a 


IB 




49 




4as 8 


Alii (linsetd) 


S 


» 


16 


S81 




1,884 


WbcM ... 


9 


31 




iB,m 




I,Te,««S 


Bule7 ... 


B 


1 10 


n.i 


S,»33 




37,47* < 6 




T 


1 




4,740 




83,186 4 


M.Ur (pew) 


* 


1 10 




Ml 




I.J80 l> »■ 


SMTvm ... 


t 


so 


]8 


t« 




1S3 8 


Arbar ... 


6 


1 


Si 


8,«S1 




19,898 1> 


Muur „ 


8 


] 


ta 


201 




<0t 4 


Sngftr-CMie 


16 


14 




»,9S« 




1,09,800 U 




7 


10 


^l 


M 




1,099 


Po.. (poppy, 58^l^„„ ;;: 


1 
9 


I« 
0| 


1 m 


[ r 




674 7 I 
4,618 


Vegetables .» 


IE 


1 10 


45 


460 


> 


6,404 


Tolsl 


... 






60,861 1 


4,91,»63 9 4 


BeTenne 


iDclnding maat 


■- 




88, 


ST 6 4 


Percentage of rereDn 


1 on tota 


value 


SO 



fiABDOI SRTLIMKHT BBFOBT. 



421 



Ko. IX. 

tahdl Shahahad — (concluded). 



Almmmagar, 



Am r. 



1 
6 

1< 

118 

13 

719 

1»9j7 



<1 
S55 



} 



6 

f 

197 

3^18 

1^95 

1,058 

19 

8 

111 
10 



8 
8 
8 
3 

8 
1 

1 
2 
8 
O 

s 
s 


8 

o 

4 
3 

8 
2 
2 
8 

1 
8 







Value. 




Ba. 


a. 


P 


7 







18 




6 


74 




1 


853 







8< 




6 


8^98 It 





12^7 








281 


18 


10 


21,147 









{ 



81 

829 

1,27$ 

2>8 

281 

13 

27 

789 

87,980 

13,849 

7,411 

93 

17 

8,0S3 

18 

4,171 

801 

8 

72 

788 



4 
8 



6 





4 


4 



10 8 
8 4 



8 

8 
8 
4 
9 


12 
• 

14 


14 








4 
6 

8 



O 

2 





Mamivnagar, 



18,218 



A, r. 



1 

7 



129 

22 

421 

241 

84 

1,118 



31 

844 

Sf 

9 

•»• 

3 

86 

1,42S 

1,288 

625 

3 

8 

140 

1 



8 



24,179 



/ 



2 
8 
1 

8 
2 
8 


8 



1 1 



Value. 



Ba. a. p. 



8 
94 

1 

718 



1 


2 
8 

2 

8 

1 
1 


2 



83 1 

1 

2 1 
28 



8,825 8 



{ 



2,118 
2,892 

188 

8»700 

21 

184 

1,720 
94 
82 

••• 

86 

216 

14,914 

9,i.l7 

8,676 

15 

6 

700 

4 

1,996 

28 

10 

81 




12 

I 
10 


12 

9 





9 
9 




o 



2 11 

8 

14 

10 8 



8 7 

8 






II 
9 

12 
9 


8 

14 










7 

7 









Total. 



117 

ISO 

82 

ll/>i8 

801 

87,421 

4AM 

1,828 

1,683 

60 

495 

3,89S 

2,900 

2d2 

COS 

110 

873 

44,579 

4I,79S 

13^14 

867 

904 

19,415 

594 

4,512 

185 



18^9 



23 



r. 

2 
8 
8 
1 

2 
1 
1 
1 
1 

8 
2 
1 
2 


8 

1 
8 
3 

9 
2 
3 



685 1 

1,457 1 



Value. 



Ba. a. p. 



45,999 3 10 2,0D/»66 2 



i 



470 

878 

284 

80,8t8 

848 

1J87,I07 

48/161 

8,858 

96,201 

879 

2,640 

19,47it 

10^19 

940 

1,614 

1,I<»0 

6.23f 

6.01443 

8,00,931 

93,1 »9 

4,185 

409 

89,1 1 S 

1,781 

1,69,988 

6,201 

2,378 

19,969 

17^7 





12 8 

7 1 
14 

8 9 
8 • 

8 7 
8 • 
8 • 
• O 

12 O 

14 4 

6 4 

10 8 

O 

O 

8 4 

18 19 

19 



8 

8 
12 

8 
12 

o 

16 
O 




8 



o 

• 



1 

• 





18,17,809 2 1 



2^9,479 10 8 



18 



HABDOI smLIlIINT SMtOKl. 



8TAT£MK 

Crop ttaUm 





^ 


e 


5 




0> 


ti 


a. 
i 


Nune of crop. 


!•> 


tS 


t 




1^ 


a 


\ 




H 1. c. 


y. ■. c 




KiknB 


4 


1 




Uiodwt 


* « 


1 lu 




Makki 


5 « u 


1 5 .1 




DUd 


t to u 


1 




Siiriii 


8 to >i 






Bijrt 


d II 






Kspil (COUOB) ... 








KoSon 


4 


1 li 




Jnir 


« 


1 




Nil (indigo) pU^^,sa i> 


» 




Til 


9 


la 1) 




Mtoh 


SOU 






Moth 


4 U 


1 a u 




Mnng 


3 






Lobii 


« U 






6>iiai 


SOU 






AW 


3 < 






Wheat 


SOU 






Barley (Jm) ... 


Sou 






Gram 


1 U 






UMUt (Pcm) .. 


6 CI 






SirtoD 








Atbar 








MatQr 








hagarcane 


IS I 






Tobacco 


7 U 






P<.*HPoppy)Med 


sou 






Ditto opinm .. 


S ii 


u * 




Vegelablui,&c.. 


1) 


' ■<• " 




Total ... 








Tolal rtTenne in 








cladlng DiutflK 
















lal Talu« 




■" 





m o 

SSS I Til 

101 I 0' *6t 

4,188 O' 1V*> 

TI6 I 01 1,118 

1S,I11 I «o,sfia 

S,BI8 1 81,(10 

SJ7 o; l,8Ii 

3^30 1 Ss,96S 

9 9 0' ISI « 
74 a 308 10 
6,163 a U.B<T 8 
>,&ea B,I78 6 
104 o' 3tS 10 
188 S 369 S 
£8 I u SSJ 8 
1,801 a V, 10,816 
S0,48* 1 0,!,3(i,4Sa G 
SS^eiO 3 l,8t.83T 6 
9,337 I 0| 6S,S» It U 
S,.1^S 3 d 11,1:6 I) 10 
148 8 I9T 8 O 
6,873 I 34,366 ' 
S7 O o' 111 < 

,789 67,>87 1 
i»1 S 0{ 7.490 I 



103,643 8,19,393 1 



SO 


» 


6) 


87 




t7> 


91 


1 ol 


M 


1,178 




6,479 


G99 





9,111 


4,800 




94,00> 


806 


S 


8,«< 


947 






tfiM 


;a 


11^ 



CS u 



\7- 



!.-*» O li,4t 

0.003 1 1,UI,97 

It^JO 9 W 09,M 

4,BS8 M,0( 

est 9 O 4,11 



98 

4,^31 O 



9I.« 



r, ie;T. ) 



HABDOI SRTI.KMB1«T SEPOBT. 



42a 



So. IX 












tMSondOa. 








Kaliammai, 


Baiawuiu. 


Total. 


Aim. 

i 
I 


Value. 


Area. 


Valae. 


Area. 


Value. 


A. r. p. 


Ra. a. p. 


A. r. p. 


B». a. p. 


A. r. p. 


Bs. a. p. 


too 


86 


3 


12 


163 


652 O 


le 1 


to 6 6| 


8 9 


11 3 3 


341 1 


1,092 9 


S 1 


14 7 1| 


19 


6 10 8 


128 1 


570 1 


373 S 


2,054 4 


146 3 


807 2 


5,831 1 


32,071 14 O 


m 1 


1,649 6 5; 


14 3 


41 4 10 


2,223 9 


6,226 1 9 


l^tTV 1 


6,991 4 


852 2 


4,262 8 


19,142 2 


95,712 8 


M 1 


2^43 OJ 


94 2 


1,134 


3,213 2 


38,562 


i47 


1,691 4 4 


26 


75 10 2 


2,147 3 0| 6.247 16 U 


tic 8 


6,800 8 


286 3 


1,714 8 


7,123 2 


43,741 


78 


1,866 o 


1 2 


26 4 


95 3 


1,675 10 


85 1 


188 


9 1 U 


12 


209 1 


l.ilB 


MBS 


10,260 


315 1 


1,576 4 


13,805 2 69.031 4 O 


1,488 


6»112 14 3 


502 1 


1.785 12 6' 


7,128 2 


25,345 19 7 


60 8 


908 8 


3 


2 8 


276 8 


919 2 8 


80 8 a 


81 5 4 


60 3 


162 


295 3 


» 788 10 b 


84 J 


842 8 


••• 


• • • 


91 2 


^ 915 


887 8 


5,629 


93 2 


561 


4,682 C 


^ 27»492 


8J830 


63,337 8 


2,613 3 


29.404 11 


i 37,728 2 5 


t 4.!2l.^t5 10 O 


ft.884 8 


39,894 3 2 


2,610 


18,792 6 


46.796 0, 3!:w.«ai S SI 


SA^ 1 

980 8 


17,116 12 
1,448 9 7 


1,412 1 

399 2 (1 


1 9,8b5 12 
1,917 9 8 


18,042 3 ( 
3,895 1 ( 


> 1/.>H,2»9 4 
1 lS.tii)7 3 4 


88 


76 


5 2 


11 


286 2 0' 571 


8LJ40 8 6 


10,747 8 


818 3 


4,093 12 


14,373 2 71.867 8 


94 


79 


5 9 


16 8 


230 2 6*)1 8 


980 8 


l2/)f8 8 


232 9 


8,7.8 12 


2,595 2 97,3.11 10 O 


44 6 


1,232 


11 9 


322 


37» 2 0' 10.i;26 «) 


80 


182 3 7 


23 9 


102 3 € 


460 :^,0^4 7 


S83 € 


896 
2,797 


62 2 


828 (J 
750 G 


* ••• i 1^,^S4 O 
► 1»615 1 1>,IH3 


80^946 1 6 


1,95,867 2 


10,599 1 


> 87,032 15 : 


1 

■ 1.93,11.9 3 u,:,^,::^ * s 


Ra. 




Rs. a. p. 




1 U*. !« \\ 


ftSgPOS 6 ] 


... 


18,761 7 C 


> 


3.42, KN7 «i A 


91 C 


... 


22 U ( 


> 


23 




■ 



w. ulknnkuu.vnm n 



55h 



424 



HABDOI SSTTLEMINT RIPOBT. 



STATEMENT No. X. 
Cultivated area in acret and rental. 





Dtteription of soil. 


Reui 


1 per acre. 




Total area. 


Bratal. 




1 


• 


1 




KiDd. 


t 

■♦-• 

at 
60 






• 

at 




• 

•0 


% 


-6 


1 

U 


GofJ 


m 


«t "^ 




u 






a 




*■ 


a 






^1 


b. 


5 




u 






^ 




la 


U> 






1 




















Ra. a. 


P 


bJ 


. f 


I. 


Ooind 


9 8 







..• 




• •• 


•■• 


••• 




— 1 


51 


Duniat and matiyar, 


6 





4 








446 


643 


6.U9 


a 


H. 


•a 1 


B:irjr 


3 4 





9 


2 





118 


43d 


1,310 





•«• 


II.Guiod 


8 8 







.•• 




• • • 


... 


• •• 




••• 


2 J 




DOiuat and ma^ijar, 


6 





' 3 








1.94A 


4 834 


24,227 





M« 


«L 


I 


Bhur ^ 

Total 
Oolnd 


S « 





1 


14 





250 


2,771 


5,820 10 
36,599 10 






• •« 




»*• 


"0 


... 


2,768 


8,684 


in,m 


f 


7 8 




• •• 




• • • 


• •• 


>«• 










DGmat and matiyar, 


6 


0. 


3 








2,048 


3,111 


21,621 





^ 


^ 

^ 




Bb(ir 


S 





S 


2 





4 


145 


320 2 





— 


» 


n. 


Uoind 


7 







• a. 




.•• 


*— 


• • « 




••• 


2< 




Dumat and matiyar, 


6 





3 








4,168 


ll/>22 


63,881 


• 


mm 


•J 




Bli(ir 


S 8 





1 


14 





lie 


2,663 


6,283 2 





•mt 




la 


(ioind 


8 a 







• • • 




• • • 


••• 


••• 




••• 


n3 




I)6mat and matiyar» 


4 





9 








98 


233 


868 





^ i 


I 


L 


Bhdr 

Total ... 
.Goind 


i 8 





1 


8 





47 


2,275 
19,449 


3,519 6 





- 




9~ 2 





••• 


M76 


86.476 10 





4Mjm 


f 




••• 




• • • 


•• 


• • • 




•«• 






i)6mat and matiyar, 


6 





3 








7.498 


! 3,946 


86.934 





m 


• 




BhOr 


3 





9 


2 





553 


4,588 


11,397 14 





«H 


k 


u. 


Goind 


8 9 







••• 




... 


• mm 


.*• 




m> 


e 




IXimat and matij&r. 


6 





3 








4 599 


9,129 


60,382 





•M 




Bhur 


2 8 


() 


* 


14 


u 


4JU 


11,918 


23.368 12 





m 


"1 


III. 


Goind 


6 8 







••• 




*•• 


• • • 


••• 




m 


1 




Dumatand matiyar, 


4 





2 








82 


490 


1,308 





•— 


I 


I. 


Bhur 

Total 
Goind 


^ 9 





1 


8 





45 
13,114 


2,518 
42,684 

• • • 


3,872ll0 









••• 


••* 


1,76,723 4 





93,018 1 


f 


9 :i 







... 




• • • 


• • • 




•M 






I>6'iiat and matiyar, 


1 6 





3 








10,461 


14,082 


1,05,0 i 2 





M 


r 
• 




Bhur 


3 





, 2 


2 





490 


2,846 


7,517 12 





M 


i< 


II. 


Goind 


8 2 







... 




• • • 


• • • 


• •• 




Mi 




Duniat and matiyar, 


5 





3 








19,636 


29.988 


1,88,144 





••• 






Bhur 


2 8 





1 


14 


f) 


1,399 


1,24:1 


26,843 2 





•M 


CO 


IIL 


<Joind 


6 8 


(1 




• • • 




^ 


«• t 


••• 




■ •• 






Dumiit and matiyar, 


4 





2 








1.2.39 


2,686 


10,128 





M 


L 




Khur 

Total 


2 'J 





1 


8 


C) 


441 


12.17^ 
71,132 


19.205 10 





^ 






t • • 




.1.3,660 


3,56,850 8 





i.8s;»s : 



HARDOI SETTLEUENT BEPOBT. 



425 



STATEMENT No. X. 
CuUivated area in acres and rental — (continued). 



Jfrner^dom of soil 


Rent per acre. 


Toiai area. 


BenUU 




GoFemmei 
demand. 








m 

5 




« 


t3 
60 




• 
4* 


8> 


it 


1 


Kind. 


I 










C3 

to 

u 


u 

*s 










r 


















Rs. a. 


p. 


Bs. a 


P 


1 

L 


Oofnd 


6 8 







••• 




• • ■ 


••• 


••• 




M« 




I 


DfioiAt and mat! j4r, 


6 





3 








9.811 


9,496 


21,543 





• • • 






Bhdr 


3 





2 








436 


2,060 


6,408 





• •• 




a 


Qoind 


6 10 







• •• 




••• 


••• 


••• 




• •a 






D6inat mod matiyar, 


6 





s 


8 





5,038 


6.131 


40,517 8 





••• 






Btafir 


2 8 





1 


19 





714 


6,077 


12,419 19 





• • • 




m. 


.Gcind 


5 A 







^, 




••• 


••• 


• • • 




• •• 






Dftmat and matiy&r, 


4 





s 








210 


458 


1.756 





• • • 






Bhdr 


S 





1 


6 





920 


1.815 


9,935 10 





• •• 




ir. 


Qoind — 


NU 






• • • 




••• 


• • • 


• • • 




• •• 






Dfimat and matiy&r. 


4 





1 


8 





••• 


12 


18 





• •• 






Bh6r 

Total 
Goind 


1 8 





1 








8 


165 


169 8 





• •• 






••• 


•0 


••• 


9,432 


19,204 


84,767 6 





43,350 1 


8 


I. 


7 




••• 




••• 


• •• 


••• 










D6mat and nmtiyir, 


5 





3 








7,426 


11,229 


70812 





••• 






Bb<ir 


3 





8 








1,136 


4,877 


13,162 





• •• 




n. 


Ooiod 


5 14 







• •• 




• • • 


• • • 


• • • 




• • • 






DCimat and matiyir, 


5 





9 


8 





6.377 


9 684 


51,095 





... 






Bhdr 


S 8 





1 


}9 





1^56 


8,693 


18,177 19 





••• 




ai. 


Goind 


5 10 







• • • 




••■ 


••• 


••• 




••• 






IXimat and matiyar, 


4 





9 








696 


474 


3,719 





••* 






Bhfir 

ToUl 
Goind 


a 





1 


6 





63.'j 


1,631 


3,334 9 





• • • 






••• 


• • • 


16,422 


36,5 8 


1,60,319 14 





79,306 18 


9 


L 


7 8 







• • • 




• •• 


• • • 


■ •• 




• • • 






D6mat and matiy&r, 


6 





3 








7,736 


6,879 


57,817 





••• 






Bh^r 


8 





9 








19 


662 


1,897 





••• 




u. 


Goind 


6 8 







• • • 




••• 


• • • 


«•• 




••• 






D6mat and matiyir, 


5 





9 


8 





6,149 


6,123 


44.059 8 





•.• 






Bhur 


2 8 





1 


19 





3^8 


1,968 


4 251 8 





••• 




ni. 


Goind 


6 







••« 




••• 


• • • 


••• 




.«. 






Diunat and matiyar, 


4 





9 








439 


166 


9,058 





•*• 






Bhiir •.. 


9 





1 


6 





90%/ 


1,193 


2,040 6 





... 






Total 


••• 


••• 


I6»131 


16,490 


1,19,116 6 





67,301 8 


10 



426 



HARDOI SETTLIHSMT BEPORT. 



STATEMENT No. X. 
Cultivated area in acres and rental — (continued). 





Detcription of soil. 


Rem 


t per acre. 




ToXfd area. 


RenUL 






• 

«8 


1 
•*< 






■s 






'2 




• 

Qt 


;atcd. 


GoTemment 
demaal 


(3 


o «• 


Kind. 




m 






^ 




** 


Va 










S BP 






60 






.13 

a 




eo 


hm 










ft 


3^ 






'C 








•c 


a 










Ck4 


o 






to 


— 




^ 






D 


























Ba. 


a. 


p- 


Bi. t.^ 


f 


I. Goind 


6 


14 







i** 




• • • 


• • • 


••• 






■•• 




iDumat«ndmatij&r, 


6 








3 








18,080 


29,«40 


1 78,lflU 








••t 




!Bbur 


S 








2 








bae 


7,191 


(6,890 








••• 




II.Goiud 


6 


t 







• •• 




••• 


• •• 


• •• 






••• 


• 


1 n(imat and matiy&r, 


5 










8 





6,986 


14,240 


70,630 








M* 


i\ 


Bhur 


2 


8 







12 





944 


il,8l6 


23,u38 








••• 


III.Golnd 


6 


12 







• •• 




• * • 










... 


O 


lD6mat and matiyar, 


4 
















672 


1,456 


6,198 








••• 


O 


|Bhar 


2 










e 


u 


183 


8,340 


11,833 


8 





• •• 




IV.iGoind 


Nil 


*•• 




• • • 




••• 










... 






DuMtat and matirir, 


4 










8 





265 


966 


2,469 








... 


I 


T. 


Bh4r 

ToUl 
Goind 


1 


8 













122 


7,097 


7, '80 








.•• 




••• 




• • • 




27,978 


00,346 


3 16,358 


8 





1,56,111 » • 


r 


8 


9 







• • • 


• • • 




t • • 






*•• 






Dumat and matiyar, 


6 








4 


u 





l,t60 


2,861 


21,344 








»•• 




BbOr 


S 


8 





2 


u 





7Q 


442 


1,160 


8 





!•• 




II.lGt.ind 


7 


8 







• •• 




96 




187 


8 





• •• 


3* 


Diimat and matiyar, 


5 








s 








7,884 


11,802 


74 826 








... 




Bhur 


2 


12 





1 


10 





976 


7,129 


14,268 


10 





• •• 


III. Goind 


6 


8 







• • • 




■•• 


... 


••• 






... 


la 


I )umat and matiyar, 


4 








2 








1,472 


2,354 


10 696 








... 






Bh6r 


2 


4 





1 


8 





382 


4,377 


7,425 





u 


• •• 






Goind 


Nil. 






• • • 




.. • 




• • • 






..• 






Dumat and matiyar, 


4 








1 


8 





42 


216 


499 


(* 





••• 


I 


I. 


BhQr 

Total 
Goind 


1 


12 





1 


6 

• •• 





10 
12,520 


2,084 
31,266 


2,883 








• •• 




•M 


1,33,182 

• 


10 





73,467 4 


f 


9 


8 







• •' 




• *• 


••• 


• • • 






•M 




D6ii)at and matiy&r, 


6 








4 








7.420 


6.222 


69,408 








• .• 






Bliiir 


3 


8 





2 


4 





415 


1,627 


6,113 


4 





• •• 


• 
IB 


n 


Goind ••• 


8 


8 







••• 




• • • 


*• • 


t*« 






• •• 


l< 


Dumat and matiyar, 


6 








3 








11,009 


.0,647 


86,686 








• •• 




Bimr 


3 








1 


14 





918 


7,809 


17,395 


14 





••• 


*3 
.J 


111. 


Goind 


7 










• •• 




• • • 




• • • 






•M 






Ddniat and matiyar, 


4 








2 








1,112 


2,062 


8.662 








M* 


S3 




Bliur 


2 


12 





1 


12 





122 


1,796 


8,478 


8 





••• 




IV. 


Goiud 




t • • 






•«• 




••• 




••• 








1 




Ddmat and matiyar. 


4 








1 


8 





303 


672 


2,070 








••• 


I 




Bbfir 

ToUl ... 


2 








1 


8 





35 


1,072 


1,678 








••• 






• • • 






••• 


21,334 


31,697 


1,94,381 


10 





96,037 3 





BABDOI SETTLEMKtiT BBPOBT. 

STATEMENT No. X, 
CuUivaUd area in acres and rental — (coDtinned). 





DttcripUan 0/ ««(. 


Krnt ptr arrt. 


ToW -r«i. 


KeDUL 




• 


i 




i. 


1 


£ 


t 


GoTeroaiflnt 
deDiand. 






Kiod. 
















s^ 




« 




u 








£ 


r 




t 


3 


" 


D 




















Ka », 11 


S-. a. p. 


X 


I 


Goind 


B B 




... 








|e 1 




Daoiit ud m«ti7u. 


eon 


« "(J 


S,4a6 


2,328 


S5,6Sa 




%\ 




Bb6< 


3 0b 


» U 




48» 


1,<UL U 




el 


11. 


GoiDd 














a 




DamfttudcnatiTar, 


6 3 


4,S53 


s'iST 


3P.IT6 




i 




bhflr 




IMJ 


1,£SP 


S.6M * » 






Ill, 


GoiDd 


5 8 0| ... 










K 




nainal Md mUijar, 


4 u 2 n 


3B 




450 






I 


ToUl ... 
Qoind 


V 6 U 


I 10 


... 




s a u 






... 


... 


7,221 


9,9C1 


68,860 6 


27,:B2 » 


f 


7 e « 
















[i«imUuidauiU7tr, 


6 » 11 < » 


3,»19 24.052 


l,50.na» 








BhCir 


3 "I I U D 


124 1^7 


a.90* 4 






II 


i.Dind 


1 B 0, ... 


... ... 










nenuiMmnjUijir, 


10 3 


S^SS! 18.0fi4 


61,8ti2 




ej 




Bhur 


3 0| I 10 


lau 


S,M1> 


9,-111 S U 




m ^ 


m 


tioind 


1 » 01 _ 










Si 




nuroBtutdmatiya', 


. ! .. 


"t8B 


3 '848 


9,84i> 








Bbur 


i 4 1 e 




S^Sol 


3,S3» a 






IV. 


UoiDd 


... 














DuKiat ftnd matiyir, 


< 1 « 


"« 


'404 


TBS 




^ 




BbCir 


... 


1 4 


' 


b9J 


&74 u 






1 


Tolsl 

Goind 




~ 


10,883 


51,618 


t,lB^31 U 


1,18,303 15 




6 13 
















DCmat Mid matiyir 


B Q 


4 "0 


lU 


i'lBS 


19,s'lO 








BhQr 


3 


10 


IG 


»M 


«&1 






u 


GoiDd 


5 la 












i 




D6mit tu)d m>ti;ir 


GOO 


S ii D 


6^23 


2*^05 


>B,lBi 






Bbfic 


3 < 


I IS 


137 


a.L7 


«,2]9 




S' 


III 


Goind 














u 




Dum«l aad matiyir 


4 D C 


1 "0 


161 


1." 


<,7B8 






Blmr 


S 8 


1 10 11 


3 


1« 


4ii a II 






IV 


Goind 

D6raaC and nutijir 










::: 


;■• 


1 


IBtilir 




•" 


... 




... 


... 






ToUI 


... 


... 


«.U 


a2,si 


1^7,311 1 


fi7,011 



428 



RARDOI SKTTLIHBliT BIPORT. 



STATEMENT N o. X. 
Cultivated area in acres and rental — (continued). 





DueripUon of sod. 




Rektper acre. 


9 


Total 


area. 


BentaL 






i 
g 


1 
T 






•i 




1 

1 


i 


1 


GoTeroaol 
demtni 


1 




Kind. 




at 




m 

c 


"a 




























Rs. 


a. 


P 


Ba 1^1 


r 


I. 


Goind 


• 


8 





• >• 




• •• 


• • • 


.•• 






M* 






I)6iiiat and matijir, 


6 








S 





839 


799 


6,69S 








... 






Mhdr 


3 








S 


(1 


18 


S4 


102 








• •. 




II. 


G<»ind 


6 


IS 





S 8 





87 


••. 


SIS 


IS 





... 






IXimal and matij4r. 


4 


8 





S 8 





6,764 


6,153 


88,776 


8 





• *• 


I! 




Bhfir 


S 


6 





1 8 





S70 


3,113 


6,310 li 





• *• 


III. 


Gnind — 


6 








... 




10 




60 








•M 


n 




Ddmat and matiyar, 


4 








S 





743 


1,040 


5»09S 








m 






Bhat 


1 


IS 





1 8 





S3 


1,794 


S,608 


7 





■•• 




IV. 


iioind 




• • • 




.•• 




... 




• • • 






M. 






D6mat and matiyir. 


4 








1 8 





96 


S90 


819 








*•• 


I 


I. 


Blidr 

Total 
Ooand 


1 


10 





1 t 





6 


966 
13,168 


I,08S 
60,604 


8 
16 






... 




... 


.•t 


7,/S6 


S4^ • < 


► 




8 





... 




60 


■ • t 


46(» 








•*• 






Ofiroat and matij4r, 










4 





173 


678 


3,350 








••• 






Bhfir 




8 





S 





19 


174 


414 


8 





••. 




II. 


Goind 




8 





*•• 




1S3 


• • • 


799 


8 





•M 






Htimat and Datiy&r, 










3 





4.7«Jl 


6.307 


90,4S6 








•«• 






Bhur 




8 





1 10 





679 


6,Ub3 


n,)8S 


6 





• •. 


III. 


Goind 




IS 





• • • 




10 


• • • 


67 


8 





••• 




Dfimat and matiyftr, 







c 


S 





1,335 


S,58» 


10.60« 








••• . 






Bhfir 




14 





1 7 





S4'.' 


6,618 


8,399 








mm 




IV. 


«5oind 




...• 




• • • 




... 


• • • 


••. 






•M 






Hfiroat and matij&r, 










1 8 





143 


38' 


1,14S 








•M 


I 




Bhfir 

ToUl 




10 





1 S 


u 


66 


864 


1,079 
77,Si;6 


4 
S 







• •• 




.•• 


••• 


8,058 


Sl,497 


83.468 


r 


I. Goind 




8 





• « • 




40 


• •• 


3<)i» 








• •• 


1 




Dfimat and matiyir, 










4 





1,933 


1,814 


16.464 








M 


f 




Bhfir 










1 IS 





18 


343 


664 


4 





• •• 


A 


II. 


Goind 




8 





.•• 




• • • 


• •• 


• •• 






• •• 


S 




Dfimat and aaatiy&r, 




8 





S 8 





3 940 


8,868 


S7,400 








— 






Bhfir 




C 





1 8 





1,060 


4,0122 


8,511 


IS 





*•• 


III. 


Goind 




8 





I*. 




»m» 


... 


... 






••• 


a 




Dfimat and matiyilr. 







l» 


3 





4.016 


4,810 


S5.680 








__ 




Bhfir 




10 





1 6 





1,618 


7,667 


)S,69S 








• •• 




IV. 


Goind 




• • • 




... 




• • • 


• • ■ 


■•• 






••« 






Dumat and matiy&r, 










1 8 





767 


1,783 


6.70S 


8 





mm 


I 




Bhfir 

Total 




6 





1 





431 


4,86S 


6.454 


10 





m» 




*•* 


• • t 


13,802 


S8,559 


1,0S,849 


6 





44,»4 ] 



HABDOI BtmniENT BIFOBT. 

STATEMENT No. X. 
Cultivated area in acret and rental — (continnedt. 





Daeriptionofioa. 


Rtnt ftr acrt. 


Tela! 4Tta. 


Beutal. 


QoTeinmei 






1 






■d 






"i 


t 


1 


if 


Kiad. 


i 
1 


D 




i 


1 


demuid. 




















Rs. k. 


P 


Ba.». 


9- 




I. 


r.t)ind 


7 ■ 






SSG 




S,I37 8 





... 




■f 




Dumst indmntiyar, 


8 







1,925 3,740 


17,-45 








3 




Bhiir 


8 






BS: 190 


458 








: 


n 


GoiLid 


Geo 






'4S ... 











3 




DlimM and matiyir, 


» 


3 8 





I,S96 !S18 


13,6*0 









S 




ilhii- 


a s 


I 8 





3U9 1,081 


3,644 









i 


III. 


Goind 










lUO 











nanijUmndinBli^'ir 


4 


3 "o 





flSS' 651 


3,803 










L 


Bhur 

Total 

Goind 


I U 


\ 7 





7s| 710 


1,1*6 10 




_ 








-• 


4.909 S,«00 


43,6!B 10 




S1,9II 





r 


9 8 






T«!T 


6,370 













Hiimat andmatifiir. 


6 


4 





4,733 7,Sfi6 


57,448 












Bhif 


3 4 


3 3 





*Ti 48 


354 IS 










11 


Goind 


7 S 






1.646 ... 


1S,.^45 








i 




Mtnnl and matiyir, 


5 


3 8 





12,7(7,16.183 


1,01,617 8 











Ithtir 




I IS 





379, 3,784 


7.61 S 14 









K 


IIL 


Goind 


8 






101 ... 


60 









i 




Dumat and maliyur, 


4 


3 





l,06i| l.«0 


6,756 









K 


IV. 


Bhfir 
Goind 


S 


1 10 





IBS 1,84S 


3^78 14 













DtlraatuidmatiTar, 


4 


I "■ 





■■■flo "iee 


8W 




... 








Bblir 


1 13 


1 4 





39 «4< 


858 14 











I 


Total 
Goind 


... 


- 


SI .587 80.149 


1,97,195 4 





88,476 5 


4 




7 8 n 






8n7 




3,30S 8 












Dumat and matij&r 


BOO 


3 




3,117 


i.isi 


18,S67 








rf 




Bhi5r 




I 




9 




38 








3 


II 


Gnicd 


6 8 






835 




S,ll« 8 








S' 




Diiiuat and matiyar 


S 


3 8 




8,571 


5,819 


37,433 8 








X 




Uhfir 


ISO 


1 8 


< 


4 


3 


11 








3 i 


III 


Rotod 




















•4 1 




Diimat and DuriTar 


4 "d 


s "o 





"' 7 


"I'iB 


330 









L 




BWr 

Tolal .. 


3 


1 8 













- 






- 


- 


7,84il 


6,094 


61,170 8 




«/)»8 


• 



430 



HABDOI SETTLEMEMT BKPOBT. 



STATEMENT No. X. 
Ciiltioated area in acres and rental — (concladed). 





Description of boU. 


Rent 


per acre. 


- 


loUd 


area. 


Rental 






•i 


1 




03 




1 


• 


m 


GorerDiBeat 
demand. 


I 


o 

to fl) 


Kind. 












h4 










00 


00 a2, 




60 




b 




t« 


tm 










k 


■ — 




*^4 




• •4 






.^4 










4 


JZ • 




%m 




fl 




u 


a 










P^ 


W 




U 


P 


u 


P 




D 














Rs. a. 


Rfl. a. 




Rs. 


a. 


p. 


Bf. t.^ 


r 




Goind 


6 !• 





••• 




60 


••• 


9S5 








••• 


• 

• 


I. Ddnnat and matiyar. 


6 





.*) 


n 


469 


886 


3,5US 








■M 


w 




Bhur t.. 


.1 





S 





• • ■ 


••• 


... 






••• 


m 




(inind 


5 12 





.•• 




608 


• • • 


3,496 








••t 


•^ 
p 


II. I )(iinat and matiy&r. 


6 





S 8 





6,999 


n.766 


64,410 








M 


5^ 


Bhiir ... 


S 4 





1 6 


o 


94 


436 


068 


8 


<» 


.•• 


Ooind 


5 





1 




9ft 


.•• 


IS6 








M 


III D(in\at and matiyar, 


4 





S 





1.059 


3.176 


J 0,888 








••• 


•>* 


Bhur 


1 IS 





1 6 





98 


1,089 


1,548 


9 





..• 




,(ioind 


... 








• •• 


• • • 


«•• 






• •» 


p4 


IV. Durnat and matiyar. 


14 





1 8 





71 


1,071 


1,^90 


8 





•«• 


b 


I. 


Bliur 

Total 
Goind 


1 10 





I 2 

> •• 





• • • 


149 


169 


19 





••• 




••• 


9,333 


18,066 


86.698 


14 





40,661 1 » 


• 

.r 


7 8 





* 




75 


••. 


669 


8 





••• 


M 




Diiniat and matiyar, 


5 





3 





699 


717 


6,646 








••• 


^ 
O 




Bhur 


S 





9 





••* 


• • • 


• • • 






••• 


-< 


II 


(loind ... 


6 M 





>.• 




169 


«• • 


1,053 








••• 


s- 




IXimat and matiyar, 


5 





- 9 8 





1,435 


9,445 


13,9^7 


8 





••« 


8 




Bhur 


9 8 





^ 1 8 





15 


1U4 


193 








•M 




ni.OoInd 


6 





1 ... 




• • • 


• • • 


• • • 






• •• 


S 




Durnat and matiyar, 


4 (» 





S 8 





116 


999 


1,194 








• .• 


fc 




Bhur 

Total 


S 





1 10 

1 





• •• 

9,602 


t«« 


••• 






•N 




.•• 


... 


S,558 


91,936 


8 





10,649 » 



NoTR.— A few Tillagefl are now found in different classes from those originallj fixed 
hence the details of this statement do not in every case agree with the statement at para. 188» 

W. BLENNEBHASSBTT. 

Asiietant Commiuiomgr, 



Hardoi is thus, for an Oodli district, unusually samlv. 
Imre and drv. 

5. Mr. Bradford bad been speciallv occupied in sur- 
vey operations as tbe bead of tbe demarcation department. 
and there is evidence tbat in tbe inspection and check of 
the details of tbe survey be was more careful and pains- 
taking than, perhaps, settlement officers in Ou<lh crenerall v 
irere. It was not found necessarv at the revision of his 
actual assessments to make any revision of tbe statistics 
of his survev. 

6. The district is wdl-peopledj its population is 406 
to the square mile. Tbe land is more in the bands of 
enmiodari communities than any other part of Oudli^ 
nineteen percent, only of its villages are held by talukdars, 
the communities are much subdivided. There is an 
average of 14 coparceners in each zamindari villaoe; 
•inUn.o ... IS pcj cenL among the tenantry there is ^au 

» Locknov.^ 11 ditto. o^ • **" 

^ BanBftnki, 17 ditto. exceptionally small proportion 

w Sicapnr ... 9 diiio. ■ "^ r r 

, Htfdoi ... 8 ditto. of the Kurmis and Muraos,* 
who introduce the highest agriculture and the highest 
rents. 

7. Rents in this district are, for tbe most part, cash- 
rents. But in the whole tabsil of Sandila, on the south- 
east, roughly a fourth of the district, the part in which 
Mr. Bradford began bis assessment^ and in part of the 
large par^na of Gopamau, in tabsil Hardoi, grain rents 
prevail. In the middle parganas of Saudi, Bangar, Bdwan 
and Pibdni, tbe inferior lands pay in kind : tbe custom of 
grain rents is not wholly determined by tbe preponderance 
of tbe poor and uncertain bbiir in the village soils : for 
while bbur no doubt prevails much more in tbe tahsil^ 
of Sandila and Hardoi than in those of Bilgnim and 
Shababad, tbe parganas of Bangar and Biwan, in which 
all but tbe inferior lands are on cash rent, have the hi«xhest 
percentage of bbiir in the district, and the parganas of 
Sdndi and Pibdni, which are coupled with thcni in thsi 
respect, have the lowest. In tahsil Sandila tbe custom 



( 2 ) 

of all the- parganas, towns and important villagea in the 
district, is also extracted from the Oudh Gazetteer, to 
which it was contributed by Mr. A. H. Harington ; Mr. 
Harington has also contributed the chapters on demarca- 
tion and survey, preparation of records, and judicial 
work and the notice of officers; whilst Mr. Blenner- 
hassett is the author of that on the regular assessment 
and its revision. The observations of Government will 
be mainly confined to the chapter on assessment. 

3. The district is one of the largest in Oudh. Its 
area according to the revenue survey is 2,286 square 
miles or 1,463,274 acres. The field survey made it 
3,840 acres more. The diflference is only three-quarters 
per cent. The returns of the field survey as to the area 
under cultivation and culturable receive similar support 
from those of the revenue survey. Fifty-seven and a 
half per cent of the area is under cultivation; twenty, 
four per cent, is culturable, but not cultivated. The 
j^reat extension of cultivation which is possible in this 
district might have been reasonably expected to give it 
an elasticity in bearing an enhanced revenue, which 
many other districts do not share. The proportion of 
culturable lands in tbe adjoining districts is, in Lucknow 
20, in Unao 19, in Sitapur 20. The character of these 
waste lands i^, however, evidently very diflferent. In the 
northern parganas, it is a bush-jungle with excellent soil; 
in the eastern, sandy downs with a scanty herbage. 
The area covered by jhils and tanks, (5^ per cent, of tlie 
whole), is below the average, and the district has the 
least wood of any in the province. In irrigation it com- 
])ares unfavorably with its southern neighbours. The 
percentage of cultivation irrigated is, in Lucknow 43, in 
Unao 46, in Sitapur 17, in Hardoi 30. 

4. The soils were classed as diimat, matydr and 
bhur, irrigated and unirrigated respectively. In the 
Sliahahad tahsil, the manured (goind) was separately 
demarcated. The returns show a most exceptional pre- 
])<)n(lcrauce of the sandiest soils, no less than 27 per cent, 
ol' the whole area under cultivation consists of bhiir. 



( 5 > 

for their lawless and irreirular life. Not onlv did tbey 
take to the jungles and tire out the cliakladar whenever 
he demanded a revenue such as the land could well have 
borne, but thev had sources of income independent of the 
land which are now in part or wholly closed. Mr. Brad- 
ford mentions tiiat many of the elans had handsome profits 
from their " chouth/' (a fourth of what their village Piisis 
stole across the Ganges.) and military service in the 
regiments of the Company and the King, gave sub- 
sistence to hundreds of stalwart Bnjpiits and Fathdns of 
the zamindari stocks. 

11. NotwithstandinsT the limitation of their means, 
and the novelty of fixed and punctual payments which 
followed the introduction of British Government, the 
zamindars of the district entered a f>eriod of prosperity* 
''A great impetus was given to a^rriciilture by many 
persons turning their attention to it who had lost all other 
employment. The summary Govcrnruent demand was 
moderate* Prices were lii^rh. Trade was more than 
usually active. Land which had long lain fallow rc'turned 
good crops, a cycle of good seasons predominated/' At 
this point the survey and asbesj^ment of the district took 
phice. 

12. Mr. Bradford*s description of his method of uh- 
sessment is repn^luced in his own words in puragnij>liH 
166 to 231 of the report, Tho dcfHrripiion is not s^-ry 
clear or methodicaL lie d^'tifrmlncd to nuiko rmit tho 
basis of his asse»Mnent wh(?thor tmid in mon<fy or in kind. 
It is difficult to conc/rive what i*Im<? could hnvi? bi;i-n tlio 
basis of his valuation. Th<; a«iN«*MHni<;rit \si\n rornnuMir^'d, 
as has been noticed, in the i^vtxhx-rvwwA taliMll of Handfla, 
and Mr. Bra^lford's fir^t efforts appear to ImvM bren to 
determine SLVf:n^^o^ produri?. Th« nul of what is gwni- 
rallv descrilied ai» much f;xpi*riniiuit, i*ni|uiry,itiiiHUiinHti(;n 
of village papers. androriNuUallon with othiu* oIIIimtm was 
that he estimate^! the averiiKii yiidd ol raid iTops in good 
land at 18 maunds pucka p«r nrri*, of nilddliutc IfMid at I i 
mannds, and of indifferent Inml nt N. Ii mm uUo sclllud 



( * ) 

in jyrnin-rents 13 (le^crihecl as an equal diTision of the crop 
between landlord and tenant. In the rest of the district 
the rates of division are said to vary through all the pro- 
portions from one-half to one-eighth as the landlord's 
share, the lower rates being applied to lands which are 
nearly worthless, and whose produce is almost nominal. 

8. Mr. Blennerhassett mentions the singular circum- 
stance that he found cash-rents, where they were im- 
posed for special crops in grain-rented villages, were higher 
than for similar lands in cash-rented villages. His 
explanation that in grain-rented villages, the rents being 
based on actuals and not on averages, the landlord 
demands a rent based on actual produce for the richer 
as well as the poorer grains, is ingenious and probably 
sound. It would be interesting to know, however, whether 
these rent-rates bear any relation to the "nakshi" rents 
of Kheri, in being maxima which are liable to reduction 
if the crop is seriously affected. 

!). Mr. Blennerhassett has little to say about the 
earlier condition of his district. The officer (Mr. W. C. 
Capper, C. S.,) who made the summary assessment, has 
left an interesting record, written when he was Officiating 
Financial Commissioner in 1869, of his experience. 
"Owing to the turbulence of the Rajput clans and per- 
haps the oppression of the Government officials, we 
found this territory at annexation much devastated, and 
considerable tracts of good arable land uncultivated, 
though showing signs of previous cultivation. These, 
covered with jungle, were used as places of refuge by the 
clans, when they determined to oppose or evade the 
Government officials. The revenue demand, fixed in 
185(1, was necessarily low, and the proprietors who have 
paid that rent, and have meanwhile reclaimed a large 
area, have enjoyed more than their share of the gross 
assets, and would doubtless now feel the levy of a 51:^ 
per cent of the real assets.*' 

10. The proprietary clans who own the greater part 
of Ilardoi, ^vcre sinirular even in Oudh under native rule 



( 5 ) 

for their lawless and irregular life. Not only did tbey 
take to the jungles and tire out the chakladar whenever 
he demanded a revenue such as the land could well have 
borne, but they had sources of income independent of the 
land which are now in part or wholly closed. Mr. Brad- 
ford mentions tliat many of the clans had handsome profits 
from their *^ chouth," (a fourth of what their village P«sis 
stole across the Ganges,) and military service in the 
regiments of the Company and the King, gave sub- 
sistence to hundreds of stalwart Kajpiits and Pathdns of 
the zamindari stocks. 

11. Notwithstanding the limitation of their means, 
and the novelty of fixed and punctual payments which 
followed the introduction of British Government, the 
zamindars of the district entered a period of prosperity. 
" A great impetus was given to agriculture by many 
persons turning their attention to it who had lost all other 
employment. The summary Government demand was 
moderate* Prices were hio:h. Trade was more than 
usually active. Land which had long lain fallow returned 
good crops, a cycle of good seasons predominated." At 
this point the survey and assessment of the district took 
place. 

12. Mr. Bradford's description of his method of as- 
sessment is reproduced in liis own words in paragraphs 
166 to 231 of the report. The description is not very 
clear or methodical. He determined to make rent the 
basis of his assessment whether paid in money or in kind. 
It is difficult to conceive what else could have been the 
basis of his valuation. The assessment was commenced, 
as has been noticed, in the grain-rented tahsil of Sandila, 
and Mr. Bradford's first efforts appear to have been to 
determine average produce. The end of what is gene- 
rally described as much experiment, enquiry, examination 
of village papers, and consultation with other officers was 
that he estimated the average yield of rabi crops in good 
land at 18 maunds pucka per acre, of middling land at 14 
maunds, and of indifferent land at 8. It was also settled 



( «5 ) 

that 4 maunds nn acre, all round, might be taken to be thd 
produce of the kharif crops: lookicgtothe prices-current 
of the last ten years, 35 seers for the rupee for rabi crops, 
and 45 seers for the rupee for kharif crops, were fixed as 
moderate price rates for converting the produce into 
money value. 

13. It is to be regretted that Mr. Bradford did not 
give the details of the^^e experiments and enquiries. The 
only sample of them which occurs in the report, crops up 
incidentally in para. 182. It is the record of a series of 
experiments as to the yield of wheat and barley, but con- 
ducted in a year of such abnormal winter rain, that irri- 
gated crops were under a positive disadvantage, and tha 
results are such a perplexity of uselessness, that Mr. 
Bradford's object in inserting them is not apparent. 

14. He was afterwards of opinion that 18 maunds per 
acre was too high an average to assume for the produce 
of the best land (and, if so, presumably 14 maunds in mid- 
dling land), and that one-sixth would have been a fairer 
standard for the Government revenue. But he con- 
sidered the price put upon the grains so low, that even if 
the estimate of the actual produce and of the share due 
to Government was rather high, there was margin left to. 
keep it light in actual incidence. 

15. The produce values so obtained were apparently 
then turned into rough rent-rates per acre for each des- 
cription of soil. 

16. The soil had been meanwhile carefully classed 
on the following principle:— Mr. Bradford found "nearly 
all depended on water,*' and the classification was made 
in the survey and the assessment papers into 1 goind, i.e,^ 
the highly manured and irrigated lauds beside the home- 
stead ; 2 and 3 diimat or matydr, irrigated and unirrigated ; 
4 and 5 bhiir irrigated and unirrigated. The good lands 
of the produce estimates corresponded to the goind of 
this classification; the middling lands to the irrigated 
diimat, matydr and bhiir, and the inferior to the unirri- 
gated soils. • 



( 7 ) 

17. But the produce value was only one means of 
ascertaining the landlord's assets in grain-rented lands: 
average rent-rates were compiled from the cash-rented 
lands. Even in tahsil Sandila, a large area of cultivation 
was held on cash-rents. Of the precise areas held on cash 
and grain-rents, respectively, in the different parts of the 
district, there is unfortunately no information. Mv. 
Blennerhassett says grain-rents "prevail" in this tahsil; 
Mr. Bradford, in para. 9 of his letter dated 30th Decem- 
ber, 1868, says about half the rents are money-rents. 
The area was, however, quite sufficient to permit valuable 
deductions. Mr. Bradford experienced, however, great 
difficulty in forming them. He asserts that there are in 
Hardoi no such understood rent-rates as are said to ob- 
tain in some of the districts across the Ganges. His 
Honor is not aware that the rent-rates of the North- 
western Provinces settlement reports are " understood " 
rent-rates ; that is, that in any considerable tract it is an 
" understood " thing a tenant shall pay Rs. 5 a bigha in 
goind or Re. 1 a bigha in unirrigable bhiir. The average 
rent-rates in different classes of soil are only deductions 
from a number of instances and approximations from 
which the varying circumstances of different villacres 
constantly occasion more or less divergence in fact. The 
difficulties Mr. Bradford found are not peculiar to Har- 
doi. The low rates on the personal holdings of the pro- 
prietors, the zamindari muafi, the favored rents of 
Thdkurs and Brahmans, these are the natural exceptions 
to a rent at market value which are met with every- 
where in the upper provinces. Travelling, however, from 
village to village and from " har '' to " har,'' and con- 
versing freely in the Hindi language, Mr. Bradford did 
succeed in compiling, in considerable variety, the rent- 
rates prevailing among tenants in the different classes o? 
soil in villages of three classes. For he had divided vil- 
lages also into good, middling, and bad, with occasionally 
a fourth class of very bad. He had probably in his mind 
some definite proportions of soil irrigation, manure or 
other agricultural advantage in his classification of vil- 
lages. But these are not stated. 



( 8 ) 

18. He had thus achieved a good deal of iuformation 
as to rent-rates and value. He had worked out average 
produce value for grain-rented lands, and average rent- 
rates in cash-rented lands. His report, however, is sadly 
deficient in omitting to state first^ the area from which 
the several rent-rates were deduced; secondly^ the extent 
to which the cash-rates and the produce-rates were per- 
mitted to affect each other in the single series of rates 
finally fixed for each pargana. Mr. Bradford speaks of 
the necessity of a broad basis for rent-rates, but without 
details of the data from which they were compiled, a 
supervising authority can form no conception as to 
whether these data were or were not sufficient for the 
several deductions. Again, in the combination of the 
results obtained in cash-rented and grain-rented lands, 
respectively, there was a distinct danger. Mr. Bradford 
knew, and has admitted, that batai cultivation is slovenly, 
and that where it co-exists with cash-rents, it is usually 
confined to the poorer fields, which yield the more pre- 
carious crops. There is, therefore, the risk of being too 
severe on the whole area by applying to the grain-rented 
portions a cash rent-rate deduced from experience of the 
cash-rented portion. There is nothing to show how far 
the final rent-rates were modified upon this consideration. 

19. The table in which these rates are exhibited, 
shows a very great variety on the best lands, very little 
in the inferior lands. Thus there are nine different rates 
for good land in villages of the first class in different 
parts of the district, but only two for middling land in the 
same class. This might in part be expected, for there are 
greater differences in good land than in middling, but so 
marked a cessation in variety suggests the fear that the 
rates on the inferior lands are rougher and less safe in 
their application than those on the better. 

20. These criticisms have been called for since Mr. 
Bradford has been at the pains to describe this process 
and tabulate its results. They are nevertheless to a 
certain extent valueless. In the very next paragraph to 



RESOLUTION— No. 3151R. or 1880. 

OuDH Revenue Department. 
Dated Allahabad^ the 3rd December^ 1880. 
Bead — 

Beport on the revision of the Settlement of the Hardoi district. 

Order. — The regular settlement of the district of 
Hardoi was effected by Mr. E. O. Bradford. A report on 
it was drawn up by Mr. A. H. Harington, C.S., (who 
succeeded Mr. Bradford as Settlement Officer, on that 
officer's retirement from the service) in 1872. Under cir- 
cumstances, however, which will be mentioned hereafter, 
very considerable revision of Mr. Bradford's assessments 
became necessary, and the chapter describing in detail 
the method in which the assessment was first made, and 
that in which it was revised, was written by Mr. W. 
Blennerhassett, C.S., the oflS^cer who carried out the 
revision. Mr. Blennerhassett's report was forwai'ded to 
Government in 1877, and was considered by the Lieute- 
nant-Governor in that year ; but the publication of His 
Honor's comments was unavoidably postponed in conse- 
quence not only of the numerous discrepancies between 
the figures in the body of the report and those in the 
appendices, but because the descriptive, historical, survey, 
judicial and miscellaneous sections of the report, for 
which Mr. Harington was responsible, were not forth- 
coming, and because it was necessary that these should 
be obtained, and the whole formed into a properly 
arranged report on the settlement as a whole. The 
absence, on furlough, of Messrs. Harington and Blenner- 
hassett, and their subsequent employment in districts 
other than Hardoi, caused a delay much to be regretted 
in the compilation and submission of the complete report. 
This was at length received on the 18th September last, 
arid will now be dealt with. 

2. The descriptive and historical sections are the 
work of Mr. C. McMinn, C.S., late Assistant Settlement 
Officer of Hardoi, and were written by him for the Oudh 
Gazetteer; the second chapter, which contains an account 



HARDOI BKTTLEVEHT BEFOBT. 

STATEMENT No. X. 
CidtioaUd area in acre» and rerUal — (concluded). 





Daeriplion of •oil. 


iTfulixr ocr«. 


7M .r... 


Bent>L 






i 


h 


Kind. 


! 


1 


i 


1 


OoTcniiMnt 
demuid. 


I 






J 


S 


s 


a 
to 














lU. 1. p 


K.. .. p. 






Bi. «. 


P- 


Bi. ».N 


■ 




QMaJ 






BO 




SSS 





... 




I.nil'nntandiimtiy&r, 


S A ■> 


3 n 


489 


'»■ 


S,5WS 






i 


IBbiir 


3 


too 












(Inind 


B U ... 






n,4M 







t 


U.'r>(imktandmitly&r 


6 0,80 


«,SS9 


11,'; M 


64,4 10 n 







! 


iBhiir 


8 4 1 e 


S4 


43 » 


OSS 8 






£ 


JQoinH) 


5 .., 


1.1 






o 




s 


m DfluwtMdmitiyir 


4 9 


1,011 


.MTfl 


10,988 






•5 


(Bhir 


1 IS 1 e 




1,08» 


l,S48 S 






1 


IV 


Uoind 

Iljinutt&ndmitiyur 


M "o 1 "b 


"ti 


1,071 


l.pgii 8 











BbUt 


1 10 n 


1 a 




149 


159 13 





... 




1 


Tol«l .. 
tlnind 


- 




B,3S3 


18,068 




• 


40,»8I 1 » 




T S 




7S 




56, t( 






1 




Dum&t sad matljar 


6 OS a 




*71- 


B.B46 










Bhlir 


t 0, 1 














n 


Goind 


» J s "s 






1,0SS 







1 




Mmal and inktiyar 


1,43S 


S,4** 


l.J.J-(7 8 










»J.ur 


; 5 a ' ..' ° 


IS 




198 








Uljloind 
















IMtnM BQd CMtijir 


4 e| t 8 <i 


"ll« 




1,194 











BMr 


1 a< 1 10 c 


... 


... 






- 







SfiOl 


s.)se 


91, 9M 8 




10,64> » 



NoTS.— A few Tilltgn ara now toond in diSerent clasies trom those oriicinatlr fixed 
boDCc thedetaiUot thiaatfttcDieiildonot Id erery caseaBree with the atateneDt at para. ISS. 

W. BLENNEBIIASSKTT, 

Anitlanl CommiitioKtr. 



( n ) 

the greater part of the district, there was no statement 
of the admitted rental of any pargana, much less any 
attempt to show what it would be when corrected for 
lands held rentiree or at privileged rates. 

22. The land revenue of Hardoi according to the 
summary assessment was Rs. 10,16,712. It was raised 
by Mr. Bradford to Rs. 14,31,063,an increase of 41 per 
cent., which ranged from 8 per cent, in ^ argana Gondwa 
to 89 per cent, in pargana Alamnagar. He left the 
settlement, however, in this eminently unsatisfactory 
condition, that it was impossible to say on the statistics 
he had supplied, whether it was even generally fair, and 
if so, whether or not it was fairly distributed, and equally 
just to the owners in poor villages and to the State in 
good ones. 

23. It was not long before the assessment was put 
to the rudest test. The Deputy Commissioner has men- 
tioned that it was preceded by a cycle of favorable sea- 
sons It was followed by a series of more or less dis- 
astrous harvests. The new demands came in force with 
the agricultural years of 1274-76 fasli (1867-69). In 
1277 fasli floods injured the kharif in the low lying lands, 
and in 1278 fasli almost destroyed it in the river parganas. 
In 1279 fasli the kharif was a failure throughout the 
district, and especially in five parganas, there was a poor 
rabi, and much damage in four parganas from hail. In 
1280 fasli the rabi crops suffered from want of rain. 
In 1281 fasli the kharif was scanty all over the district 
except in the river parganas, and the rabi crop was far 
below the average. 

24. In 1873, the Commissioner not having yet re- 
ported the settlement for approval, the attention of His 
Honor, at that time Chief Commissioner of the Province, 
was attracted by the exceptional extent to which land 
was being transferred in this district. An enquiry was 
ordered, which it was proposed at first to limit to a small 
area. In a very short time, however, it was placed beyond 
doubt, that whether from calamities of season, or errors in 



( 4 ) 

in grain-rents is doficribetl as an equal division of the crop 
between landlord and tenant. In the rest of the district 
the rates of division are said to vary through all the pro- 
portions from one-half to one-eighth as the landlord's 
share, the lower rates being applied to lands which are 
nearly worthless, and whose produce is almost nominal. 

8. Mr. Blennerhassett mentions the singular circum- 
stance that he found cash-rents, where they were im- 
posed for special crops in grain-rented villages, were higher 
than for similar lands in cash-rented villages. His 
explanation that in grain-rented villages, the rents being 
based on actuals and not on averages, the landlord 
demands a rent based on actual produce for the richer 
as well as the poorer grains, is ingenious and probably 
sound. It would be interesting to know, however, whether 
these rent-rates bear any relation to the "nakshi" rents 
of Kheri, in being maxima which are liable to reduction 
if the crop is seriously affected. 

9. Mr. Blennerhassett has little to say about the 
earlier condition of his district. The oflScer (Mr. W. C. 
Capper, C. S.,) who made the summary assessment, has 
left an interesting record, written when he was Officiating 
Financial Commissioner in 1869, of his experience. 
"Owing to the turbulence of the Rajput clans and per- 
haps the oppression of the Government officials, we 
found this territory at annexation much devastated, and 
considerable tracts of good arable land uncultivated, 
though showing signs of previous cultivation. These, 
covered with jungle, were used as places of refuge by the 
clans, when they determined to oppose or evade the 
Government officials. The revenue demand, fixed in 
1856, was necessarily low, and the proprietors who have 
paid that rent, and have meanwhile reclaimed a large 
area, have enjoyed more than their share of the gross 
assets, and would doubtless now feel the levy of a 51^ 
per cent, of the real assets." 

1 0. The proprietary clans who own the greater part 
of Hardoi, were singular even in Oudh under native rule 



( 3 ) 

ttardoi is thus, for an Oudli district, unusually sandy, 
bare and dry. 

5. Mr. Bradford had been specially occupied in sur- 
vey operations as the head of the demarcation department, 
and there is evidence that in the inspection and check of 
the details of the survey he was more careful and pains- 
taking than, perhaps, settlement officers in Oudh generally 
were. It was not found necessary at the revision of his 
actual assessments to make any revision of the statistics 
of his survey. 

6. The district is well-peopled, its population is 406 
to the square mile. The land is more in the hands of 
z:imindari communities than any other part of Oudh, 
nineteen per cent, only ofits villages are held by talukdars, 
the communities are much subdivided. There is an 
average of 14 coparceners in each zamindari villaoe; 

* !r LuXow ::: n ^"kZ"'' *°^^°g *^^ tenantry there is ""an 
„ BaraBanki, 17 ditto. exceptionally Small proportion 
I,' Hardoi ... 8 ditto. of the Kurmis and Muraos,* 

who introduce the highest agriculture and the highest 

rents. 

7. Rents in this district are, for the most part, cash- 
rents. But in the whole tahsil of Sandila, on the south- 
east, roughly a fourth of the district, the part in which 
Mr. Bradford began his assessment, and in part of the 
large pargana of Gopamau, in tahsfl Hardoi, grain rents 
prevail. In the middle parganas of Sdndi, Bangar, B^wan 
and Pihdni, the inferior lands pay in kind : the custom of 
grain rents is not wholly determined by the preponderance 
of the poor and uncertain bhiir in the village soils ; for 
while bhiir no doubt prevails much more in the tahsils 
of Sandila and Hardoi than in those of Bilgrdm and 
Shahabad, the parganas of Bangar and Bdwan, in which 
all but the inferior lands are on cash rent, have the highest 
percentage of bhiir in the district, and the parganas of 
Sdndi and Pihdni, which are coupled with them in thsi 
respect, have the lowest. In tahsil Sandila the custom 



( 4 ) 

in grain-rents is describetl as an equal division of the crop 
between landlord and tenant. In the rest of the district 
the rates of division are said to vary through all the pro- 
portions from one-half to one-eighth as the landlord's 
share, the lower rates being applied to lands which are 
nearly worthless, and whose produce is almost nominal. 

8. Mr. Blennerhassett mentions the singular circum- 
stance that he found cash-rents, where they were im- 
posed for special crops in grain-rented villages, were higher 
than for similar lands in cash-rented villages. His 
explanation that in grain-rented villages, the rents being 
based on actuals and not on averages, the landlord 
demands a rent based on actual produce for the richer 
as well as the poorer grains, is ingenious and probably 
sound. It would be interesting to know, however, whether 
these rent-rates bear any relation to the "nakshi" rents 
of Kheri, in being maxima which are liable to reduction 
if the crop is seriously affected. 

9. Mr. Blennerhassett has little to say about the 
earlier condition of his district. The oflScer (Mr. W. C. 
Capper, C. S.,) who made the summary assessment, has 
left an interesting record, written when he was Officiating 
Financial Commissioner in 1869, of his experience. 
" Owing to the turbulence of the Rajput clans and per- 
haps the oppression of the Government officials, we 
found this territory at annexation much devastated, and 
considerable tracts of good arable land uncultivated, 
though showing signs of previous cultivation. These, 
covered with jungle, were used as places of refuge by the 
clans, when they determined to oppose or evade the 
Government officials. The revenue demand, fixed in 
1856, was necessarily low, and the proprietors who have 
paid that rent, and have meanwhile reclaimed a large 
area, have enjoyed more than their share of the gross 
assets, and would doubtless now feel the levy of a 51:J 
per cent, of the real assets.*' 

1 0. The proprietary clans who own the greater part 
of Hardoi, were singular even in Oudh under native rule 



( 5 ) 

for their lawless and irregular life. Not only did tbey 
take to the jungles and tire out the chakladar whenever 
he demanded a revenue such as the land could well have 
borne, but they had sources of income independent of the 
land which are now in part or wholly closed. Mr. Brad- 
ford mentions that many of the clans had handsome profits 
from their ^' chouth/' (a fourth of what their village Pasis 
stole across the Ganges,) and military service in the 
regiments of the Company and the King, gave sub- 
sistence to hundreds of stalwart Bajpiits and Pathdns of 
the zamindari stocks. 

11. Notwithstanding the limitation of their means, 
and the novelty of fixed and punctual payments which 
followed the introduction of British Government, the 
zamindars of the district entered a period of prosperity. 
" A great impetus was given to agriculture by many 
persons turning their attention to it who had lost all other 
employment. The summary Government demand was 
moderate. Prices were high. Trade was more than 
usually active. Land which had long lain fallow returned 
good crops, a cycle of good seasons predominated." At 
this point the survey and assessment of the district took 
place. 

12. Mr. Bradford's description of his method of as- 
sessment is reproduced in his own words in paragraphs 
166 to 231 of the report. The description is not very 
clear or methodical. He determined to make rent the 
basis of his assessment whether paid in money or in kind. 
It is difficult to conceive what else could have been the 
basis of his valuation. The assessment was commenced, 
as has been noticed, in the grain-rented tahsil of Sandila, 
and Mr. Bradford's first efforts appear to have been to 
determine average produce. The end of what is gene- 
rally described as much experiment, enquiry, examination 
of village papers, and consultation with other oflScers was 
that he estimated the average yield of rabi crops in good 
land at 18 maunds pucka per acre, of middling land at 14 
maunds, and of indififerent land at 8. It was also settled 



426 



BAKDOI SETTLXHENT BKPORT. 



STATEMENT No. X. 
Culiivated area in acres and rental — (continned). 





Detcription of toil. 


Beni 


per acre. 




Total area. 


BenUL 




Government 
demand. 






t 

?3 




-i 








• 






s 


o o- 


Kind. 


m 








4-> 

m 














i>^ 


S ^ 




bo 




.!3 

a 




es 


h. 














ajs 

5 






- 






s 
























Ba. 


a. 


^ 


Bi. a. 


P- 


f 


I. Ooind 


6 14 





&•• 




• •• 


• • • 


••• 






••• 






iD6mBt«ndmati76r, 


6 


V 


3 





18,080 


29,240 


1 78,180 








••• 






iBbur 


S 





2 





836 


7,191 


16^90 








••• 






lUjGoiud 


« S 





•.. 




*•• 


••« 


*•• 






... 




K> 


n6mat and matiy&r, 


6 





S 8 





6.986 


14,240 


70,630 








••• 




l\ 


Bhiir ••• 


8 8 





1 12 





944 


ll,8l6 


83,u38 








••. 




III.Goind 


6 12 





••* 




■ • • 


... 


• • • 






• • . 




it 
o 




Dfimat and matiyai , 


4 





2 





672 


1,455 


5,198 








•»• 




O 




Bh6r 


2 





1 e 


u 


183 


8.340 


11,8SS 


8 





••• 






IV. 


Ooind 


Nil 


••• 


... 




••• 


• • • 


**• 






... 








IXi'itat and mativftr, 


4 





1 8 





265 


960 


2,469 








•• . 




i 


T. 


Bb6r 

Total 
Goind 


1 8 





1 





122 


7.097 


7, -80 








••• 






.•• 


• • • 




27,978 


60,346 


3.16,358 


8 





1,56,119 3 





r 


8 8 





• •• 


• • • 




■ • • 







••* 








Dumat and matiyar, 


6 





4 





I,t60 


2,861 


21,344 





»• • 








Bbiir 


8 8 





8 





7*» 


442 


1,160 


8 





••• 






IT. 


Goind 


7 8 





••• 




95 


• • • 


187 


8 





... 




li 




Dumat and matiyar, 


6 





8 





7,884 


11,808 


74 826 








• ** 




s. 




Bhur 


2 18 





1 10 





976 


7,129 


14;268 


10 





... 




r 

n 1 


III. 


Goind 


6 8 


u 


• • • 




.•< 


*.• 


••■ 






. ■• 




IXimatandmatiyir, 


4 





2 





1,472 


2,354 


10 696 








■ • . 








Bb6r 


8 4 





} 8 





382 


4,377 


7,425 








.*• 








Ooind 


mi. 




*• • 




... 


• •• 


■ • • 






... 








D5mat and matiyftr, 


4 





1 8 





42 


216 


498 








*•• 




b 


L 


Bh6r 

Total 
Ooind 


1 18 





1 6 

tM 





10 
12,520 


2,084 


8,883 








• •» 






•M 


31,266 


1,33,188 

• 


10 





73,467 6 







9 8 





.*• 




..• 


•»• 


• • • 




••• 






•Dfiniat and matiyar, 


6 





4 





7.420 


6.222 


69,408 








.*• 








Bhiir 


3 8 





2 4 





415 


1,627 


6,113 


4 





... 




• 

IB 


n 


Goind ••• 


8 6 





••• 




• • ■ 


• • • 


••4 






... 




Dumat and matiyar, 


6 





3 





11,009 


.0,647 


86,686 








..■ 




!5< 




Bh6r 


S 





1 14 





918 


7,809 


17,395 


14 





••• 




.J 


m. 


Goind 


7 





.■• 




• • • 


• • • 


• • • 






••• 




M 




Oiiniat and matly&r, 


4 





2 





1,112 


2.062 


8.652 








••• 




S 




Bbur 


2 12 





1 12 





122 


1,796 


3,478 


8 


n 


•*• 






IV. 


Goind 


... 




•*• 




••• 


• • • 


••• 






... 




1 




LXimat and matiy&r, 


4 





1 8 





303 


672 


8,070 








... 




I 




Bb6r 

ToUl 


2 





1 8 





35 


1,072 


1,678 








... 






* •• 


••• 


21,334 


31,697 


1,94,381 


10 


c 


) 96,037 3 






BABDOI SKTTI.BHENT BKPOBT. 



427 



STATEMENT No. X. 
Cultivated area in acres and rental — (coutinaed). 





Detcription of soiL 


Rent 


per acre. 




TcUl tea. 


KentaL 




GoTemmen 
demand. 




fi 


•*• 


Kind. 




• 

o 




• 

1 




• 

S 
a 


• 

ea 


t 


fi 


S ^ 














60 


JU 












a. 


I 










5 




»4 


• • • 












r 


.Goind 


8 


8 





• •• 






U» 


a. 


P 


Ks. a. 


7« 


►* 




Dumat and matiyir, 6 





U 


4 U 





: 8,486! 8,928 


26,622 
















Bb6r ... 3 








2 





'25 


483 


1,041 


o 


u 






u. 


Goind 


7 


u 





••• 




■•• 


• •• 












n 




D6mat and matiyar, 


5 








3 





4>56S 


6 137 


38,176 








••• 




c 




bhur •- 


3 








1 \2 


u 


I2i0 


1,251) 


8,663 


4 


o 


*•# 






ill. 


Goind 


6 


8 





• •• 


















M 




l>6mat and matiyar, 


4 


u 





8 





38 


• •• 

149 


••• 
450 





t) 


••• 




I 


I 


Bbur 

ToUl 
Qoind 


2 


8 


u 


1 10 





*•• 


6 


8 


2 






• •• 








• •« 


••• 


7A*2I 


9,961 


68,860 


6 


27,782 9 





f 


7 


8 





••• 




••• 


• • ■ 
















Diimatand mat! jar, 


6 








4 





3,979 24.052 


1,20,082 








• •• 








Bhur 


3 





1) 


1 It 





124 1»447 


2,904 


4 





• * • 






II. 


ifoind .«. 


6 


8 





••• 




••• 












■ 




Dfimat ann matij^r. 


6 





u 


8 





6,528 18.064 


81,8(»2 








••• 




< ■ 




Bhur ... 


3 








1 10 


u 


288 6,260 


9,411 


8 









ill. 


Goind 


6 


4 





••• 




••• 


• • 


• •• 






••• 




«0 




Dumatand matiyar, 


4 








2 





786 


3348 


9,840 








• •• 








Bbur 


2 


4 


u 


I 8 





127 


2,3»1 


3,53]( 


2 





••« 






IV. 


Goind 




• • • 




• «• 




•.« 


••• 
















Doiiiat and matijar. 


4 








1 8 





46 


404 


786 





ol 


• •• 




b 


I. 


Bh6r 

Total 
Goind 


i 


8 


u 


1 4 





t 


692 


874 


u 





• •• 






• • • 


••• 


10,883 


66,618 


2,99,231 


14 





1,18,303 16 





r 


6 


IS 





••• 




*•• 


••• 








••• 








DCimat and matiy&r, 


6 








4 





426 


4,165 


19,210 








••• 








Bhiir 


3 








i 





16 


806 


461 














u. 


Goind .^ 


6 


u 


V 


••• 




••• 


• •• 


.. 






••• 




d 




D6mat and matiyir. 


6 








8 





6,223 


24,059 


98,292 








••• 




iruTS 




Bb6r 


3 








1 IS 





137 


2.176 


4,219 








.•• 




IIL 


Goind 


4 


12 





••• 




•.• 


• • • 


• • • 






••• 






Diimat and matiyftr, 


4 








8 





862 


1,670 


4,708 








••• 








BhJir 


S 


8 





1 10 





3 


249 


412 


2 


u 


••• 






IV. 


Goind 

Dumat and matiy&r, 




• •• 

• • • 




■ . • 




. • • 


. . ■ 
••• 


•*• 

••• 










L 




Bhur 

Total 




• • • 




«•• 




••• 
6,166 


••• 


•*• 






• •a 






• •• 


••• 


82,522 


1,87,372 


8 





67,028 






( 18 ) 

This IS the statement of the full revenue. Wherever the 
increase has been very great it will not be exacted all at 
once. The revenue demand will progress by instalments 
spread over periods varying from three to eleven years, 
according to circumstances. The revenue for the first 
year of the revised assessment is Rs. 25,177 short of 
the sum which will be reached at the close of the series 
of progression. 

39. In the revision of the assessment, the princi- 
ples of the original settlement were further departed 
from, with the approval of the Government of India, ia 
exempting from assessment all waste lands not presently 
productive. Experience had shown that the anticipations 
of rapid progress were by no means realized, and that 
with the material increase of the revenue on existing: 
assets the tax of prospective gains only tended to pre- 
vent advance. 

40. There are discrepancies between the areas in 
Statement V. A., showing the result of the revised assess- 
ment, and those in Statement I., which gives the areas at 
the time of survey, and Statement V., explanatory of 
the first regular settlement. The difference is accounted 
for by the Tact that in Statement V.A. are included the 
areas of certain villages transferred from the Farukbabad 
district after the completion of the field survey, 

41. There is one other important matter in the 
report, which requires notice. It has been mentioned 
above that it was the frequency of transfers of land in 
this district which first attracted the Chief Commissioner's 
nttention and led to the revision of the assessment, which 
has now been completed. The statistics, which were 
then before him, were supplied to him independently 
by the Commissioner and the Deputy Commissioner, 
but they differed so widely in details that there was 
some evident error in one or the other compilation. 
They were, however, specified for each pargana of the 
district. Tlie only information Mr. Blennerhassett has 
given is a district total for each of the eight years from 



( 19 ) 

1276 to 1283 fasli. It would have been interesting to 
know how far transfers had occurred in the parganas 
which have been given most relief. He expressed the 
opinion at the commencement of his work in 1873, that 
it was difficult to find a village in which the real cause of 
distress was any other than over^assessment, and he has 
reproduced in this report without comment the remark 
of a previous Deputy Commissioner that "the money 
borrowed during that year save a fraction was taken to 
pay the revenue and for no other purpose." Further on, 
he lays much stress on the expensive litigation at the 
time of settlement and the incompleteness and inequality 
with which the revenue assessed on a village was often 
distributed over component mahdls« 

42. Colonel MacAndrew, the present Commissioner, 
has in his review traversed the greater part of these 
opinions. He points out that it was impossible for a 
Deputy Commissioner to verify the general statement 
Mr. Blennerhassett has quoted, and that throughout the 
greater part of the settlement litigants were exempted 
from all stamp fees, and had to conduct their suits with- 
out the expensive assistance of pleaders. 

43. Colonel Thompson, the Commissioner, in 1873, 
was of opinion, that though *^no doubt transfers of land 
had been accelerated by tlie cost of litigation and the 
enhanced demand, the embarrassments of the zamindars 
were not wholly, or even to any great extent, caused by 
a heavy assessment," but to unthrifty management, 
careless expenditure, want of capital, and exorbitant 
interest on old debts. 

44. In the entire absence of any statistical enquiry 
and information, it is impossible to say how far these 
several causes each led to the embarrassments of the 
Hardoi zamindars. But the absolute amount of their 
encumbrances is very grave. Assuming that sale, as is 
generally the case in small properties, is only the final 
stage of a series of mortgages, which really carries no 
consideration not already given, the sums raised by the 



( 20 ) 

land-owners by mortgage on their properties, in the ef^t 
years amounted, according to Mr. Blennerhassett, to no 
less a sum than Bs. 27,85,776. 

45. On this His Honor remarks, that the reduction 
which has brought the assessment certainly within half- 
assets, amounts to Rs. 92,550. The regular assessment 
of the tahsfls of Sandila and Hardoi, in which it has been 
now found to exceed half-assets by nearly Rs. 60,000, 
came into force in November, 1867 : that of tahsil 
Bilgrdm, in which the reduction has been about Rs. 20,000, 
in November, 1868 : that of tahsil Shababad, in which 
the reduction was about Rs. 11,000, in November^ 1869. 
In 1873 and 1874 remissions were givea, which were 
equal to the reductions : in 1875 and 1 876 the collections 
were for the most part made at the reduced assessment. 
Giving interest at 20 per cent, on the amount of the 
excess collections from the time of collection to Novem- 
ber, 1877, the entire sum comes only to ten lakhs, 
thus: — 

Sandila and Hardoi. Rs, 

Excess jama Rs. 60,000 for five years 1867-72 ... 3,00,000 
Interest (nine years^ @ 20 per cent, on 60,000, 
for 1868, 1,20,000 for 1869, 3,00,000 for 1872, 
3,00,000 for 1873 to 1877 ... ... 4,20,000 

Bilgrdm, 

Excess jama 22,000 for four years 1868-72 ... 88,000 
Interest similarly, eight years ••• ... 1,14,400 

Shahahad. 

Excess jama 1 1 ,000 for three years 1869-72, ... 33,000 
Interest similarly, seven years ... ... 39,600 

Total ... 9,95,000 

This is only about a third of the entire reported debt. 
The amount, therefore, by which the regular assessment 
exceeded half the net assets of the proprietors, was not 
the principal and immediate cause of their indebtedness. 
His Honor, however, does not doubt that the increased 
assessment, and the rigidity of the British system of 



( 2i ) 

atlniinistration have been, the direct occasion of these 
grave encumbrances. The system expects of the owners 
of land the prescience and the prudence that will leaxl 
them to prepare in a good year for a bad one, and to 
lay by in a season of prosperity in view of a day of 
scarcity. The expectation is everywhere disappointed. 
In the older provinces, as well as in the newer, it finds 
no basis in the character of the zamindars. Whenever 
the times are happy, the surplus vanishes in a parade of 
marriage feasts and personal vanities ; when the bad 
harvest comes there is no resource but the inexorable 
mahdjan. So long as the revenue system refuses to adjust 
itself to the character of the season, so long must debt 
and transfer be a necessary consequence of every un- 
favourable harvest. The time is not yet ripe for any 
sweeping change. The information at our command, 
our grasp of it, our means of manipulating it when gained 
are all too insufficient, and His Honor records with pain 
that he is still powerless to do more for the zamindars 
of the province than to ensure that the ordinary demand 
is no more than they can, with ordinary discretion, meet. 
It is impossible to witness the decadence of any class, 
proprietary or other, even were it due to the plainest 
improvidence and folly, without some compassion and 
regret. It may, indeed, be expected from the very nature 
of the British Government that it will encourage the 
rise and advancement of the classes accustomed to 
business habits, and prudent and steady courses. Just 
in so far is it unsuited to the brave but reckless natures, 
which gained and held predominance in generations of 
misrule. That this advance and regression must occur 
in some measure, is certain from the very conditions of 
the case. But it is a grave consideration whether British 
rule has not been introduced in forms and fashions 
which have unhappily exaggerated in effect its necessary 
action. 

46. The Lieutenant-Governor is satisfied that the 
assessment, as revised, is certainly not more than a fair 
half-asset one, where the enhancement, as compared 
with that levied during the summary settlement, was 



i 



( 22 ) 

« 

considerable, a portion of the full assessment has been 
foregone for a certain number of years varying accord- 
ing to the circumstances of each case, and the demand is, 
to repeat an expression used in a preceding paragraph, 
*'no more than the revenue payer can, with ordinary 
discretion, meet." His Honor is therefore pleased to 
sanction, subject to the confirmation of the Governor- 
General in Council, the settlement made by Mr. Bradford, 
^ subject to the modifications subsequently made by Mr. 
Blennerhassett and approved by the Lieutenant-Governor 
and Chief Commissioner in his orders on the various 
pargana reports. The settlements will continue in force 
for 30 years from the date on which Mr. Bradford's 
assessments were enforced in each pargana, and until 
such later date as they may be revised. 

47. Messrs. Harington and Blennerhassett have 
written an interesting report under special disadvantages, 
and the Lieutenant-Governor wishes to place on record 
his appreciation of the exceeding industry of Mr. Blenner- 
hassett and his coadjutors, Sayyid Ghulam Haidar and 
Munshi Kalb All Khan in the execution of their laborious 
and delicate task in addition to their regular duties as 
district officers. 

By order, &c., 

G. E. ERSKINE, 

Sect/, to Govt., N.'W. P. and Oud/i^ 

in the Oud/i Rev. Dept. 



4 

/ 

t 



»'