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Wt 



The Branner Geological Library 




IZLASTDoSlANFORDilVNIORoVNlVERSEnr 



%■ / i'", 'I •-■ > . 



f • . w 



WEST VIRGINIA 

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



VOLUME TWO 




LEVELS ABOVE TIDE 

TRUE MERIDIANS 
REPORT ON COAL 



By I. C. WHITE, State Geologist. 



Vt 



The Branner Geological Library 




UELANDoSlANFORDilVNIORo^NlVERSEnr 



COMMISSION 
ALBERT B. WHITE. Prtsident. 

GOVSRNOR OF WEST VIRGINIA 

PETER SILMAN, Treasurer. 

TREASURER OF WEST VIRGINIA 

JAMES H. STEWART, Secretary and Executive Officer. 

DIRECTOR STATE AGRICUI^TURAI* EXPERIMENT STATION 

D. B. PURINTON, President West Virginia University. 

ABRAM Mcculloch, President state Board o/ Agriaature. 



i 



SCIENTIFIC STAFF 
I. C. WHITE, SiaUCeologuU 

SUPERINTENDENT OF THE SURVEY 

B. H. KITE, Chief Chemist. 

E. S. STALNAKER, Assisiant Chetnisi, 

RAY V. IIENNEN, Chief Ciak. 

EMPLOYEES DURING rgor and igo2 
JOHN M. GREGG, Chief Clerk. 

MISS R. I,. NORRIS, Assistant Chemist. 

SAMUEL D. BRADY, Chief Coal ColUdor. 

A. P. BRADY, Assistant Coal Collector. 

R. W. EDMONDS, Assistant Coal Collector. 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



To His Excellency, Albert B. White, Governor of West Virginia, and 
President of the Geological Survey Commission: 

Sir:— I have the honor to transmit herewith Volume Two of the West 
Virginia Geological Survey, the same being the long promised Coal Report 
Two causes have operated to postpone the publication of this Report so far 
beyond the time originally promised: — ^the first and main one, being the 
failure of the Legislature to appropriate any funds for the Survey during 
the session of 1899; second, before the funds provided by the Legislature 
in 1901. became available, the State Geologist, with the approval of the Com- 
mission, concluded to broaden the scope of the Report by doing a large 
amount of chemical and calorimetric work, in order to secure reliable knowl- 
edge as to the quality and character of all the West Virginia coals and cokes. 
The proper sampling, for analysis, of every commercial mine in the State 
during 1901, consumed a large amount of time, and this work could not be 
finished with our limited resources until the spring of 1902. Then, the 
analyses, and the calorimetric determinations, necessarily required many 
months of arduous labor for the small chemical force available, so that it 
has been simply impossible to get the volume published earlier. 

It is a matter of great regret that no funds were available with which to 
provide illustrations, cuts, etc., so necessary in describing our coal resources. 
It is possible that this necessity may be remedied in the future publications 
of the Survey, since the last Legi^ture amended the Act establishing the 
Survey, so as to permit the Commission to use the funds received from the 
sales of publications in defra3ring the cost of other publications, etc There 
will be published 7,000 copies of this volume, 1,000 of which will be bound 
in cloth for library use, and the rest in paper. The Commission has fixed 
the price of the same at $1. 50 per copy, delivered to the purchaser either by 
mail or express, so that a fair publication fund will probably result, if the 
demand for the volume proves as large as the inquiries therefor would indi- 
cate. Prom the proceeds of such sales it may be possible to undertake the 
publication of Volume III, on Clays and Ores, and Volume IV, on Lime- 
stones, Building Stones, Etc. 

The preparation of a new map of the State, on a more accurate base and 
larger scale, is already under way, by Prof. Walter L. Webb, a skillful engi- 
neer and draughtsman, and Mr. Ray V. Hennen of the Survey. This map 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. VII 

should be issued by October i, and will be sold at the same price as the old 
one, viz: 50 cents. Its sale is sure to add materially to the resources of the 
Survey available for publication, since on it will be shown, with a fair degree 
of accuracy, all the main streams of the State, every railroad, every com- 
mercial coal mine, all the oil and gas pools, the principal anticlinal lines, 
and the different coal series. 

The State Geologist approves the plan of selling these publications at 
the reasonable prices fixed by the Commission, since those who wish them 
do not object to paying for the same, and it thus preserves the work for 
those who will appreciate their value. 

Very respectfully, 

I. C WHITE, 

MORGANTOWN, June 15, 1903. SiaU Geologist, 



CONTENTS 



Letter of Transmittal VI-\^I 

Ireface IX-XI 

£rrata XII-XIU 

PART I. ^La*els Above Tide, True Meridians, EU. 

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Levels i- 12 

West Virginia Central and Pittsburg Railroad Levels 13- 15 

Ohio Rivtr Railroad 15- 18 

Little Kanawha River Levels 18 

Chesai)eake and Ohio Railroad Levels 19- 21 

Elk and Gauley River Levels 21 

Norfolk and We tern Railroad Levels 22- 24 

Kanawha and Michigan Railroad Levels 24 

Pittsburg, Cincinnati and St. Louis Railroad, Wheeling Division 25 

Guyandot Valley Railroad Ivevels 25 

Charleston, Clendennin and Sutton Railroad Levels 26- 27 

Dry P'ork Railroad Levels 27 

West Virginia Short Line Railroad Levels 28- 31 

Waynesburg to Mannington Levels 31- 32 

Coal and Iron Railroad (Branch W. Va. C. and Pgh.) 33 

Little Kanawha Railroad, and Surveys for Wabash Extension, Levels 33- 36 

Monongahcla River Levels 37- 40 

Great Kanawha River Levels 41 

Precise Klevations, Grafion to Morgantown and Uniontown 42- 44 

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Richwood Extension 45 

Dis -greement of Levels ^ 46- 47 

Lii>t of Spirit Level Elevations, Established by the U. S. G. Survey 

JS98-IQ02 48- 75 

True Meridians 75- 80 

PART II.— 7:4^ Appalachian Coal Field, 

Chapter L — General description 81-84 

Structure 84- 85 

Classification 86- 88 

Thickness of the Carboniferous rocks 89- 99 

Chapter IL —The Dunkard Series 100-123 

Chapter IIL— The Monongahela Series. 124-224 

Cha;>ter IV. —The Conemaugh Series 225-332 

Chapter V. —The Allegheny Series 3J3-499 

Chapter VI. — The Kanawha Series 500-607 

Chapter VI L —The Potts ville Series '. 608-701 

Chapter VllL— The Pocono Series 7C2-7C9 

Statistics 709-716 

Index 717-725 



PREFACE 



In sending out this volume to the people of the State and the 
general public, the author knows that they will find much therein 
to criticise, but hopes they will also find much of permanent value. 
Aside from the chemical work, and the printing, the volume has 
not cost the State a penny, since the field notes for the same were 
collected by the writer during a period of many years at his own 
expense, and this has made the volume more or less of the 
patch-work style. No one realizes the imperfections and possibil- 
ity of error in this volume better than its author, but yet, if one 
should await publication until every doubtful point is cleared up, 
the present generation would never get a chance to read any por- 
tion of the same. The future rapid development of the coal in- 
dustry of the State will furnish facts for correcting the most glaring 
errors into which the writer may have been led by imperfect data 
and lack of time and means with which to make more detailed in- 
vestigations. Hence the author not only expects, but invites the 
kindly criticism of the reader in aiding him to eliminate from fu- 
ture publications any of the errors that may have been committed 
in this. 

It is quite possible that some of the analyses given for the 



X PREFACE. 

different mines may not represent the same fairly, but this has 
been fully explained in connection therewith, so that no operator 
should feel that injustice has been done to his property, since the 
main object of the analyses was to get a general average for the 
character and quality of each important coal seam, and the pur- 
chaser of fuel will look more to that than the single analysis from 
any particular mine, no matter how carefully the same may have 
been sampled. 

The Survey is greatly indebted to so many people, who have 
aided its work in every way, that it is impossible to mention all 
specifically. The railroads of the State, through their chief offi- 
cers, have been most generous in granting free transportation, not 
only for the employees of the Survey, but also for the samples of 
coal for analysis, thus bringing the same to the chemical laboratory 
at Morgantown from every portion of the State. For this kindly 
service the thanks of the Survey are especially due to the officers 
of the B. & 0. Raikoad, the C. & 0. Railroad, the N. & W. Rail- 
road, the W. Va. C. & Pgh. Railroad, the K. & M. Raihx)ad, and 
the C. C. & S. Railroad. 

To Messrs. Charles Catlett, Frank Haas, and H. M. Wilson, 
who have kindly prepared, as a **laborof love," their valuable 
papers printed in this report, the Survey is greatly indebted, as 
well as to Mr. H. L. Higginson of Boston, President of the Gau- 
ley Coal Land Association, for the use of the valuable work of E. 
V. d'Invilliers, on the Gauley coals. The thanks of the Survey 
are especially due to Hon. Jas. H. Stewart, the very able and effi- 
cient Director of the State Agricultural Experiment Station, for 
the generous aid given the Survey in the use of the station labora- 
tory and equipments, etc., without which the chemical work of 
the survey would have been impossible. Also to the Chemist of 
the Station, Prof. Hite and his assistants, Mr. E. S. Stalnaker, and 
the late Miss R. L. Norris, who did most of the chemical work on 
the Pittsburg coal, the Survey is under many obligations for diffi- 
cult and faithful services. 

The same acknowledgement is due to Mr. S. D. Brady, now 
chief engineer for the Wabash Railroad extensions in West Vir- 
vinia, who, with his brother A. P. Brady, and R. W. Edmonds, as 
assistants, collected samples of the coals, and measured the thick- 
ness and structure of the different seams at every commercial mine 
in the State. A very few of these samples were lost in transit, and 



PRBFACB. XI 

this will account for the non-appearance of the analyses from some 
mines that were in operation during 1901, since but few samples 
have been collected since that time. 

The coal operators, one and all, have kindly assisted the Sur- 
vey, and shown their appreciation of its work in many ways, but 
acknowledgements are especially due to the Fairmont Coal Com- 
pany for many courtesies extended through its General Manager, 
L. L. Malone. 

To the several oil and gas companies of the State, notably 
the South Penn Oil Co., the Carter Oil Co., the Kanawha Oil Co., 
the Philadelphia Company, the Carnegie Natural Gas Co., and nu- 
merous other oil and gas companies, as well as many individual 
operators whose names appear in the body of this volume, the Sur- 
vey is imder many obligations for valuable well records and data 
freely given for publication. The valuable work of Dr. John J. 
Stevenson, David White, M. R. Campbell, .E. V. d'Invilliers and 
many others so liberally drawn upon in the text of this volmne, is 
duly acknowledged under the references and quotations therefrom. 

It is the intention of the Survey to begin the preparation and 
publication of Vol. Ill on Clays and Ores, and Vol. IV on Lime- 
stones, Building Stones, etc., as soon as its resources will permit. 
The Legislature, at its 1903 session, provided funds for carrying 
on the topographic map work of the Survey, in cooperation with 
the U. S. G. Survey for 1903 and 1904. With these appropria- 
tions ($15,000 per year) it is hoped that all of the remaining area 
of the State not yet mapped on any scale, can be completed, and 
that then the detailed geological work and mapping of the several 
counties can be undertaken. 



ERRATA 



Page I, line 




* i6, line 




' 22, line 




* 26, line 




* 27, line 




."^o, line 




* 31, line 




* 35, line 




* 35, line 




* 36, line 




* 36, line 




' 37. line 




* 38, line 




' 41, line 




' 43, line 




' 45. line 




* 46, line 




* 46, line 




* 55, line 




* 57, line 




* 59, line 




* 71, line 




* 72, line 




* 74, line 




* 80, line 




* 83, line 




* 84, line 




* 84, line 




' 84, line 




* 84, line 




* 86, line 




' 98, line 




* 102, line 




' 103, line 




* 103, line 




* 104, line 




* 106, line 




* 108, line 




* 109, line 




* no, line 




* 113, line 




' 140, line 




' 171, line 




* 172, line 




' 173, line 



I from top, for "list'* read liNl"». 

13 from bottom, for **Mehl(lihls** read Meldihls. 
12 ** , for "Jueclion," read Junction. 

7 from top, for "slali .ns," read stations. 

16 ** , for "warer," read water. 

8 ** , for **Hishing, * read Fishing. 

12 from bottom, for **Burncsville," read Burnsville. 

14 from top, for '*fnm," read fann. 

5 *' , , for "BuUtowd, read Bulltown. 

I ** , for **Falls Hills," read Falls Mills. 

5 from top, for *'iu,*' read in. 

12 ** , f or "he," read he is 

13 from bottom, for "abatement," read abutment. 

17 from top, for "ihts," read this. 

3 from bottom, for "Morgantowd," read Morgantown. 

4 from top, for "chiee," read chief. 

10 ** , for "necssary," read necessary. 

15 ** , for "Adamstown," read Adamston. 

4 from bottom, for "Plcsant," read Pleasant. 

1 ** ,". 219873," read 738.219. 

5 ** , for "ooposite," read opposite. 

8 from top, for "Roanokl," read Roanoke. 

2 " , f or **Prrkersburg," read Parkersburg. 

4 from bottom, for "Ridgo," read Ridge. 

3 ** , for "througheut," read throughout. 

9 from top, for **th,** read the. 

2 " , for "like," read like. 

5 " , for "been," read been. 

9 " , for "Mouniain," read Mountain. 
17 " , for "tne," read the. 

3 from bottom, for "gion" read region. 

8 from top, for "measurements," read measurements, 

16 from bottom, for "masstve," read massive. 

10 from top, for "foasiliferous," read fossilifcrous. 
12 from bottom, omit period after near. 

21 " , for "sandsfone," read sandstone. 

17 from top, for "thickhess," read thickness. 

11 from bottom, "she," read the. 

4 " , for "ond," read and. 
2 from top, for "ot," read of. 

21 from bottom, for "Dunkark," read Dunkard. 

4 " , for "whos," read whose. 

15 ** , for "strati igraphical," read stratigraphicaU 

2 from top, for "Pittsburg," read Pittsburg. 

12 from bottom, for "being," read being. 



ERRATA. Xni 

176, line 19 from top, for **Eairmont,** read Fairmont. 

181, line I '• , for "opening." read opening. 

181, line 18 " , for **io," read to. 

183, line 19 " , for 8tli word, read Kanawha. 

189, line 18 •* , for •*Charlesfon/' read Charleston. 

191, line 14 from bottom, for "descends,** read descends. 

192, line 17 from top, for "caal,** read coal. 
195, line 17 '* , for "Joseph,** read Joseph. 

197, line 8 from bottom, for "McMinley,*' read McKinley. 
207. line 28 " , for "whtch," read which. 

217, line I from top, for "tne,** read the. 

218, line II from bottom, for "eveporate<l,** read evapora'eJ. 
221, line II from top, "Mr. Hass,'* read Mr. Uaa«. 

235. line 4 from bottom, for "shae,** read sUdle. 
242, line 12 from top, for "aud, * read and. 

242, line 4 from bottom, for "coai,*' read coal. 

243, line 14 from top, for "Slate,' read Slate. 
252, line 8 from bottom, for "on,** read one. 
258, line 1 from top, for "oj,'* read of. 

258. line 5 from top, for "Hemiphroiiites,*' read Hemipronites. 

265, line 1 3 " , for "genrally," read generally. 

273, line 18 ** , for "and,** read and. 

3C'9, line i from bottom, for "Te,** read The. 

344, line 4 " , for "300,* read 3 10- II. 

3S3, line 5 from top, for "Allegany, * read Allegheny. 

423, line 3 from bottom, for "betow,** read below. 

452, line I " , for "folowing," read following. 

474, line 5 from top, for "umch,** read much. 

483, for page "433»" read 483. 

503, line II from bottom, for "Blaok,** read Black. 

639, line 10 •• , for "Md. Stee,*' read Md. Steel. 



PART I. 

LEVELS ABOVE TIDE, TRUE MERIDIANS, ETC. 



The lists of elevations above tide level for the stations on all 
the railroad lines of the State were published in Volume I, Oil and 
Gas, in 1899. These have proven so useful to both civil and min- 
ing engineers that the lists given in Volume I are republished, 
along with r^iany others obtained since that date, and to these are 
added the very accurate determinations of the U. S. Greological 
Survey of many point* in the Stat.e. 

By a comparison of these with the elevations as given on Hie 
railroad profiles it is found that many elevations of the latter are 
often several feet in error. For instance, the elevation given for 
Burnsville, Braxton county, by the table of elevations for the West 
Virginia & Pittsburg Railroad by Mr. Pickinger is 748 feet, while 
the U. S. Geological Survey bench on the bridge pier over the 
Little Kanawha river there, and at least three feet lower than the 
station level, is given at 765 feet, a difference of practically 20 feet. 
These discrepancies will in time be checked off and eliminated, 
since the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad is now having a new and 
more accurate level carried over the entire system, and when this 
work is completed a general correction of elevations can be under- 
taken, and the whole list brought into harmony with the results 



2 ' ••. LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 

of tBid/l3. S. Geological Survey's roost accurate determinations. 
It-is' possible that the large discrepancy revealed at Bumsville may 
'.\>e partly due to some error in reducing the original datum of the 
West Virginia & Pittsburg Railroad to the Baltimore & Ohio base, 
'since the latter gives the elevation (988^) of Grafton only nine feet 
lower than the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey determination 
(997') of the Grafton bench on the survey from '* Ocean to 
Ocean." This was made with the greatest care, and forms the 
datum for all the U. S. Geological Survey benches in Northern 
West Virginia and Western Pennsylvania. 

The agreement of the Grafton & Belin^n Railroad level as 
given by Mr. Lemley, based upon the U. S. Geological Survey 
datum, with the West Virginia Central & Pittsburg Railroad levels 
at Belington — Lemley 1697.9' for base of rail, and West Virginia 
& Pittsburg 1698.5' for top of rail — is quite remarkable, since the 
West Virginia Central levels were carried entirely across the Alle- 
ghany mountains from Piedmont many years ago by the late 
James Parsons, Chief Engineer for the West Virginia Central & 
Pittsburg system. His datum was the orginal profile of the B. & 
0. R. R. at Piedmont. 

In the following lists, when not otherwise stated, the elevation 
gi'.en is the top of the rail in front of the center of the station 
building. 



BALTIMORE & OHIO RAILROAD. 

OF THE ChII 

November 30, 1898. 



Office of the Chief Engineer, ) 



DR. I. C. WHITE, 

State Geologist, 
Dear Sir:— Replying to your favor of the 22d inst., I beg to attach list 
giving distances and elevations of various stations along our line in West 
Virginia. 

We have no profiles of short Branches on the Second or G. A B. Division, 
and, therefore, cannot give the information on these. 

Yours very truly, 

W. T. MANNING, 

Chief Engineer. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Main Line. 



Distances 
fromCamden 
Station, Bait. 

75.6 
78.0 

78.5 
80.4 
81.0 
81.4 
82.4 
83.2 

842 
84.8 

87.9 
88.8 
89.2 



92.1 

923 
95-2 
97.0 
97.8 
100. 

lOI.O 

102. 1 

103.5 
104.7 
107.4 
107.8 

II2.2 
1 13.4 
II5.5 
II7.3 
I2I.8 
122.8 
123.8 
125.8 
128.4 
130.5 
132.4 
1333 
135.7 
138.7 
1395 
I4I.O 

143.3 
145.6 
I48.Q 
153.8 
156.7 
158.6 

161. 4 
164. 1 
168.4 
170.9 
172.5 



STATIONS 



Brunswick 

Knoxville 

Weverton 

Sandy Hook 

MounUin Siding 

Harper's Ferry 

Island Park 

Peacher's Mill 

Ran Mining & Mfg. Co. 

Engle 

Duffields 

Shenandoah Junction .... 

Hobbs 

Summit 

Stone Crusher Siding «. 

Kerneysville 

Vanclevesville 

Opequon 

Flag^ 

Martinsburg 

Baker's Stone Crusher . 

Fawver 

Tabb 

Wilson 

North Mountain 

Helper's Switch 

Cherry Run Coal Chute... 

Cherry Run 

Miller 

Sleepy Creek 

C. E. Jones. 

Hancock 

Sand Siding 

Round Top., 

Sir John's Run 

Henry\sSiding 

Great Cacapon 

Woodmont 

Lineburg 

Orleans Road 

Rockwell's Run 

Doe Gulley 

Hansrote .• 

Baird 

Magnolia 

Paw Paw 

LiUlc Cacapon 

Okonoko 

Ftt^ncb 

Green Spring 

Dan's Run 

Patterson's Creek 

North Branch. 



State 



Md 



W. Va 



Md 



County 


Elevation 
Above Tide 


Frederick 
Washington 




Jefferson 


280 
300 
335 








388 
S08 






536 






600 






Berkeley 


550 
477 
400 






Ad^ 




475 






535 
533 
540 












Morgan 


410 
404 
412 










436 








437 
453 








501 






550 






498 
495 
530 
533 
535 
540 
550 

i§ 

620 




Hampshire 




Mineral 


Allegany 



LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 



Main Lines— Continued. 



177.0 

177.2 
178.0 

181 .0 
181.3 
183.5 
185.0 

187.3 

187.5 

188. 1 
190.0 
190.8 
191.5 
195.0 
197.0 
199.2 
201.5 
206.5 

207.7 
208.5 
209.0 
211.8 
212.2 
214.3 
217.9 
219.4 
222.3 

223.3 
226.0 
226.3 
228.2 
229.4 
231.2 

231.7 
232.0 

233.4 
234.0 
235.0 
237.6 

283.3 
239.6 

240.4 
240.6 
241.6 
242.1 

247.3 
250.6 

253.9 
254.4 
259.0 
260.7 
261.8 
263.1 
263.7 
267.0 
267.4 



Steelworks 

Glass Works 

Cumberland 

Three Mile Water Station 

Robert . 

Cedar Cliff 

Brady 

New Potomac Cement 

Works 

Kenzie 

Potomac 

Lowndes 

Cresap 

Rawlings 

Black Oak 

Dawson 

2ist Bridge 

Keyser.. 

Piedmont 

W. Va. Central Junction. 

Bloomington 

Black Aear 

36 Water Station 

Crab Tree 

Frankville 

37 Water Station 

Swanton 

Wilson 

Altamont 

Deer Park 

Deer Park Hotel 

Lake Youghiogheny 

Mountain Lake Park 

McGowan Switcn 

Oakland Water Station.. 

Oakland 

Stone Crusher 

Offutt 

Skipnish J unction 

Hutton 

Corinth 

Holmes 

Hazen 

Rinard 

Riggs 

Terra Alta 

Rodemer.. 

Amblersburg, Bradshaw. 

Stoer Mill Siding 

Rowlesburg 

Anderson.. 

Tunnelton 

West End 

Smoot 

Austen 

Orr i.. 

Newburg ^ ,.. 



Md. 



W. Va. 
Md! 



W. Va. 



Allegany 



Mineral 
Garrett 



Preston 



639 
627 

'6i*2 
657 



670 
692 

736 

805 
910 

1020 

i'385 

1696 

2282 

2620 
2490 

2396 

2374 

2370 

2486 
2430 

2500 

2550 

1585 

1394 
1855 
1823 

1575 
1218 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Main Lines- Continued. 



268.6 
270.0 
271.7 

274.7 
276.0 
280.2 
281.8 
286.1 
287.9 
289.5 
292.6 

294.4 
297.4 
298.4 
300.6 
301.0 

301.7 
302.1 
303.0 
303.5 
303.8 
304.8 
.^07.4 
307.7 
312.8 

316.3 
320.0 

324.3 
3257 
327.2 
328.0 
331.8 

333.5 
336.2 
338.0 
339.0 
340.0 
341.2 
344.3 
346.4 
348.2 
351.8 
353.8 
356.3 
362.0 
363.6 
366.4 
368.6 

369.4 
370.0 
370.0 

370.1 
370.6 

369.7 



IndcDendence 


W. Va 




Presto 


Haromftn.TTr^T--- .,TTTTTt-.T-- 


Tayloj 


Irontown 




Thornton 

Painter Sidinflr 




Grafton 




T'j4 tentiim 




Bush 




Valley Falls 


Marion 


NUZlim ......... ..TTTT,--,.T,r. 




Sand Switch 




Colfax 




Benton Ferry 

King 






Palatine Mines 




Guiiton Junction 

New York Sidine 






Fairmont 




F M & P Junction 

Central Mints 






Bamtsville 




West Fainnotit S aft .. 




Barrackville 




West SidincT 




'pA.rminorfnn 




Downs 




Mannington 




Metz 




Wilfong 




Glover^s Gap 

Weirs Siding 

Burton 






Wetzel 


Hundred 




Quarry Switch. 
IJttletoti . . 






Jones' Siding. 




Floyd Siding 

Board Tree 


Marshall 


Bellton.... 




Garrett Sidincr.. 




Coflrlev 




Cameron 




Loudenville 


. 




Kaston ,,.,,.....*.».„,,., 




Roseby Rock^.... ..- 






Gatts - 




Gatla No. j..,.. 




Moundsville 




Ca m p G rou Dd J unction » . 
Moundsville Coal Bbaft... 






Moundsville Mining and 
Mauuf action ng Comp'y 

Mouudaville Glass 
Works ..., 








Moundsvillc Brick 1 




Works „,- 




Hart..» »_.... 





"55 

1073 
1040 

988 
986 

938 



885 



879 

873 
903 
9^ 

"969 

1050 
1070 

974 



IIQ5 
888 



1048 

970 

775 



642 



LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 



Main Lineft— Continued. 



Parkersburg: Branch— B. &0, R. R. 



370.9 
273.4 
374.3 

375.0 


Glendale 


W. Va. 




Ohio 
W. Va. 


Marshall 




Riverview 




McMechen 






Ben wood Junction 






376.1 
375.8 

376.5 


Bellaire 

Benwo'' I 


Belmont 
Marshall 


650 


Nolan 

Riveiside Furnace 


376. s 






377.3 
377.3 

379-8 


Boggs Run 






No. 17 Switch 






Wheeling 


Ohio 


647 



280.2 
282.3 
286.4 

287.2 

287.7 
288.2 
288.7 

290.0 
292.3 
297.6 
300.0 



301.9 



302.5 
303.1 



304.1 
306.2 
309.0 
309.8 

3M.I 
316.0 

321,7 
324.1 
326.1 
326.9 
329.2 
330.0 
332.1 
333.0 
336.3 
337.1 
338.7 
342.1 
347.4 
352.2 
353.0 
353.9 
354.9 
357.2 
360.3 



Grafton 

Webster 

Foster 

McCartney Switch 

Simpson 

Giles 

Gramm Switch 

Flemington 

Tyrconnell 

Bridgeport 

Despard Mines 

Harrison County Mines. . 

Pinnickinick Mines 

Clarksbure, old depot 

Clarksburg, new depot ... 

W. Va. & Pittsburg, and 
Monongahela River R, 
R. Junction , 

Adamston 

Wilsonburg 

Dolan Mines 

Wolf Summit 

Cherry Camp 

Salem 

Long Run 

Moreansville , 

Middle Island 

Smithton 

Ringer Switch 

West Union 

Ruly Siding 

Central 

Duckworth 

Greenwood- 

Toll Gate 

Pennsboro 

Ellenboro , 

Cornwallis , 

Reitz Siding 

Fewsmith Switch 

Cairo 

Silver Run 

McTaggart 



W. Va. 



Taylor 



Harrison 



Doddridge 



Ritchie 



988 
1005 
mo 



1086 



IOI5 
989 

371 



1030 
1014 



965 
973 

1 120 
1016 

1034 
842 
800 



784 
"&>9 

"&)'2 

937 
860 

785 
848 
771 
675 



667 
794 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

Parkwaburg Branch— B. & O. R. R.- Continued. 



361.9 
3^.1 
564.9 
859. 1 
370.1 
374.2 
375.1 
377.2 
378.1 
379.2 
380.1 
381.2 
383*5 
3&t9 



o. 

2. 

4. 

9. 
10. 
16. 
21. 
28. 
32. 



Petroleum 

Volcano 

Eaton 

Walker 

Tex tor Siding 

KHnnwhrt.. 

Sherwood Switch ... 

Davisville 

Ewing 

Jackson 

Stewart 

N. O. C. Co. Tipple 

Parkersburg 

Belpre .,„.,..,.-♦*, 



W. Va. 



Ohio 



Ritchie 
Wood 



Washington 



685 

763 
616 

599 

596 

624 

598 
629 



Wheeling & Pittsburg Branch- B. & O. R. R. 



' Wheeling,,,,, , 

Carbon 

Roney's Point ..., 

Point Mills 

West Alexander . 
Claysville 
Chartier 
Washington „>*,.< 



W. Va. 


Ohio 


647 
672 






667 






829 


Penna. 


Washington 


89I 

1043 
1 143 












1049 



Fairmont, Morgantown & Pittsburg Branch—B. & O. R. R. 



o. 
I. 
3. 
4. 
7. 
7. 
II. 

17. 

20. 
22. 
26. 



Fmrmont ............ — ... 

Junction Bridge.,....*...... 

Houlttown .».**.,.*.., 

Rivesviile , 

Prickett*s Creek Bridge.. 

Catawba 

Opeklska 

Little F^Us 

Mouth of Tom's Run 

Round Bottom 

Uffington 

Morgantown 



W. Va* 



Maiion 



Monongalia ' 



855 
822 

837 
823 
816 



o LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 

Monongahela River Branch. 

MONONGAH, W. VA., 

Decembei i, 1898. 
DR. I. C. WHITE, State Geologist, 
Morgantown, W. Va. 
Mv Dear Sir: — In accordance with your recent request I hand you here- 
with list of stations and elevations on the Monongahela River Railroad, and 
the West Virginia & Pittsburg Railroad. In the former list we give you the 
distance to the new B. & O. passenger depot at Clarksburg. In the latter 
list we begin at the old passenger station. We have no elevation for the 
new station, neither do I know the exact distance between the old and the 
new station. This information you will probably get from the data supplied 
you by the B. & O. R. R. There is a little discrepancy in the elevations be- 
tween these two roads, owing to the differences in the data furnished by the 
B. & O., as between Clarksburg and Fairmont. I presume, however, it is 
sufficiently accurate for the purpose for which you desire it. 
Yours truly, J. A. FICKINGER. 

Vice President and General Manager, 

Monongahela River Railroad. 



Monongahela River Branch. 



Distance 



0.0 

1. 10 

1.95 

2.77 

3.50 

5.87 

7.35 

7.80 

8.80 

10.00 

II. 14 

11.86 

13.24 

15.91 

19.16 

20.90 

21.60 

23.31 
24.70 
25.66 
27.08 
28.02 
31.25 
31.43 
31.89 



STATIONS 



Fairmont (B & O Depot) 

Gaston Junction 

Watson.. 

Gaston 

Thompson 

Monongah 

Prichard 

Bryan 

Highland 

Chiefton 

Worthington 

Hutchinson 

Enterprise 

Shinnston 

Lumberport 

Cheswood Park 

Maulsby 

Clark 

Haning 

Farnum 

Bartlett 

Glen Falls 

W. Va. & P. Junction 

Monongahela Junction ... 

Clarksburg (new B & O 

Depot) ^.... 



State 



W. Va. 



County 



Marion 



Harrison 



Elevation 

above tide 

(Top of rail) 



879. 
883.50 
879.30 
876.50 

884.43 
888.70 
892.22 



888.59 
890.74 
893.00 

893.65 
901.50 
900.62 
908.80 
912.23 
926.00 

921.73 
920.50 
936.00 
982.21. 

928.50 
991.96 



1014.29 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, 



West VlrginU & Pittsbiirg Branch. 



a.o 


ClarksburR (old B. & O. 


W. Va. 


Harrison 


1030 
945 
937 
947 

1009 

1174 
loia 

lOlO 
1322 


1,0 


West Clarksburg 




3-S 


MotiiiceUo 

Lynches MiD^....^«», »*...,», 


............ 


6.3 




8.T 


Mt. Clare.. 




II. a 


Bond Summit 

Lost Creek 


.J. 


IA.3 




■8.1 


Jane Lew * ...*.-*.,**. 


Lewis 


ai^o 


Fisher's Summit............ 

Riverside .................... 


3^*4 




IOI3 
1017 
1009 
1016 


23-8 


Deanville 


, 


Weston— pass, stfltion 

Bendale .» ...........,.,,, 




36.9 




Brownsville ....,.*.' 




jot6 


3^*4 


Rohrbough .„„„ ' 




J026 


36.0 


Lias Smith's ..*t**.. 




1043 
1050 
1092 

»47 
768 

9^ 

1X21 


37-6 


Roanoke ...,.,.*....,.*...*♦. 




39»6 


Arnold ,......,. 




43.3 


Peterson's. 




46.3 


Confluence ...........* 




SO' 7 


BiuTiville ,».»,.,. 


Braxton 


52.7 


Coger .....,.,„** 


57.5 


RoTlyson .......,,,, 




59.1 


Heater 


€o.Q 


Berry ........... ♦♦.,.,„.„.„. 




63.0 


Flatwoodfi ...,..*.. 




64^6 


Hopkins,....,.,,.. 






65-5 


Morrison's... ,.,.„ 




ro74 
870 
899 
917 

1056 
113^ 

1504 
1561 
1706 
I9f3 


6S.5 


Gill^pie ..*.......„.,,...,.. 




70.7 


Palmer 




73.6 


Baker's Run , 




75.3 


Centralia , „,„ 




77* a 


Custis „. 




784 


Brook's Run. 




843 


Erbacon.. ,„„„.. ...,..,„ ,„ 


Weiisier 


85.0 


Wainville ,. 


87.6 


Weese's 


*......*...» 


88.3 


Hardwood .................... 


...... 




91.3 


Halo 




94.7 


Cowen 




3239 

2039 

aoi8 


100.6 


Laurel. ,.,,..,.,.......,».„.,. 




103.^ 


Camden^n-Gauley 





Sutton Branch-W. Va. & P. R. R. 



0.0 
1.7 

5.6 



Flatwoods ..,. 

Summit 

McNutt's 

Karl's Switch 
Sutton ........ 



W.Va. 




10 LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 

Weston, Buckhannon and Pickens Branch— W.Va. & P. R. R. 



o.o 
3-9 

6.1 
7.0 

I2.0 

i6.o 
21.5 

23.9 
28.9 

32.5 
34.2 
37.8 

41.6 

43.9 
45.9 
47.5 
50.8 



Weston 

Smith's 

Nicoles 

Gaston 

Se3rmoar 

Stone Coal Summit 

Lorentz 

Buckhannon 

Hampton 

Sago 

Ten Mile 

Bean's Mill 

Alton 

Alexander 

Newlon 

Craddock 

Avondale Junction. 

McCally's 

Pickens 



Lewis 



Upshur 



Randolph 



1009 



1040 

1035 
1444 

1435 
1405 
1412 
1422 
1603 



1809 
1817 
1910 

^934 
2227 

2324 
2672 



QRAFTON & BELINQTON BRANCH— B. & O. R. R. 



Phillippi, W. Va. 

November 17, 1902. 
DR. I. C. WHITE, State Geologist 
Morgantown, W. Va. 
Dbar Sir: —In reply to your requst of Sept. 24, 1902, 1 herewith send you 
tables of distances and elevations of points on the Grafton and Belington 
Division of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad; the Hackers Run Branch of the 
G. & B. Division, B. & O. R. R.; the Point Pleasant, Buckhannon & Tygarts 
Valley Railroad, and the Bumersville Branch of the same line. 

The last column gives the elevation of low water in the streams that are 
crossed along the line at the points named. 

The elevations are based on the U. S. Geological Survey benches at Graf- 
ton (1901), and at Philippi. W. Va., (1902). 

Yours very truly, C. McC. LEMLEY, 

Assistant Engineer. 

Qrafton and Belington Branch B. & O. R. R. 



I 



o. 

2. 

3.5 
5.25 

7. 



STATIONS 



Slate 



Grafton, center 5th Divis-| W. Va 
ion track - 

Bridge oA, Three Fork 
Creek Crossing 

Park, Bridge 3A 

Yates 

Stone House, Bridge 5A.. 

Cecil 

Bridge 6A 



County 



Taylor 



Base 
Rail 



1001.4 

1005.9 
1014.3 
1014.6 



Low Water 



964 
978 

996 

990 (river j 
1002 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



11 



Qrafton and Belington Branch, B. & O. R. R.— Continued. 



Bridge SA. Sandy Creek 
Crossing 

Sandy Creek 

Lusk 

Bridge loA 

Bridge loB 

Cove Run 

Bridge iiA, Cove Run 
Stream.. 

Bridge 12A 

Bridge 13A, Teter's Creek 
14 Moatsville 

Bridge 16A, Laurel Creek 
17 Arden 

Felton 

20 Fox Hall 

Bridge 21A....... 

22 Hacker^s Junction 

Bridge 22A .. „„„ 

23 Meriden 

Bridge 23A« 

Bridge 23B 

24 Philippi 

Bridge 24A 

Bridge 25A 

28 Lillian 

30 Tygart's Junction...* 

Bridge 30A , 

Bridge 3 1 A, Laurel Creek 

Bridge 32A, Laurel Run 

Crossing 

33 Middle VuTk 

35 O'Brien 

36 Clements ...„.„ 

38 Jones ,..,.... 

19 McLean 

Bridge 39A .„ ,.„.„. 

I Bridge 41 A 

41.2 I Belington ....*.*..„.„..., 



W. Va 



Taylor 
Barbour 



1036.5 
1036.8 
1060.3 
1068.0 
1088.3 
1088.2 

1088.0 

11374 
II 70.0 
1169.9 
1242.8 
1269.5 
1302.0 
1295.8 
1298.3 
1301.6 
1299.6 
1300.2 
1300.9 
1302.9 
1208.6 

I3<^-.- 
1312.2 

1318.5 
13334 
1352.1 
1428.5 

1450-4 
150 1. 5 
15349 
1580.5 
1670.3 
1695^ 
1693.1 
1696.1 
1697.9 



1019 



1053 
1077 
1070 (river) 

1078 
1124 
1149 

1 149.5 

1232 

1260 (river) 



1280 
1 281 



1284 
129I 

1287 
•1293 



1406 
1437 



1682 
1683 
1682 (river) 



Hacker's Run Branch, B. & O. R. R. 



0.5 
3 



3-5 
4.3 



Hacker's Junclon^ Ty- 
gart^s Valley Kiver 
Croasing 

Trestle, Hacker*s Creek 
Crossing***.*. 

100 Ton Scaksi 

•*Fox Grape Summit," 
water' shed, bet. Fox 
Grape and Simpson's 
Creek 

Berryburg, opp. Southern 
Coal and Transporta- 
tion Co's tipple 



W.Va 



Barbour 



1301 .6 
1375.4 

1382 
1395 



1278 
1283 



12 LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 

Point Pleasant, Buckhannon and Tygarts Valley Railroad. 



o 

o 

I 
4 



o 

0.5 
I 

4.7 



Tygarts Junction , 

Tygarts Valley River 

Crossing 

Pitman, Shoals Run 

Crossing 

Lemley Junction 



W.Va 



Brrbour 13334 



1377.8 



1317 
1337 



LOCATION, 



4 


Lemley Junction, base 
of rail, Bumersville 
Branch 


W.Va 


Barbour 










1377.8 

1516 

1477.9 




II 


Buckhannon River 






1363.2 
1384.5 

1388.5 


Peck's Run 






Smith's Summit 

Buckhannon River, Post's 
Mills 





Upshur 


15.5 
15 




Leonard Summit. 






Buckhannon River Cross- 
ing at Buckhannon 








16 






1401.4 



Burnersvilie Branch, Pt. P., B. & T. V. R. R. 



Lemley Junction, Buck- W.Va 
hannon River crossing! 

Trestle, Big Run 

Bumersville 

Century 



BBrbour 



1381.2 
1385.8 
1405.7 
1466.2 



1355 



WESl VIRQINIA CENTRAL & PITTSBURQ RAILWAY. 

Elkins, West Va., 
Nov. 26, 1898. 
DR. I. C. WHITE, State Geologist, 
Morgantown, West Va. 
Dbar Sir: — As per instructions from President Davis of this Railroad, I 
enclose herewith list of stations with elevations and mileage of same. The 
elevations are above sea level. This, as I understand, complies with request 
contained in your letter to President Davis under date of November 21st. 

Yours truly, 

J. W. Gai^brkath, 
Chief Engineer. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



13 



West Virginia Central & Plttsburs: RaUway. 



Distance. 



STATIONS. 



o.o 

1.2 

6.1 

93 
I0.4 
II.4 

12.6 

i6.i 

17.4 
18. 1 
19.0 
20.1 
22.2 

27.5 
28.8 

31.6 
33.4 
34.5 
35.1 
38.3 
42.1 
45.5 
47.2 
52.2 
57.8 
59.9 
62.3 
64.8 
66.3 
677 
69.9 
71.5 
74.5 
76.0 

77.7 
79.0 

79-9 

88.0 

89.0 

90.3 

91.4 

94.4 

95.2 

99.8 

101.5 

105.8 

107.9 

109.4 

III.O 

1 13.2 
1 14.4 
115.3 
120.8 
121. 2 



Cumberland 

Ridgely 

Heymour 

Potomac 

Frost 

Bier 

Rawlings 

Black Oak 

Gertstell 

Dawson 

Green 

Twenty-first 

Keyser Junction 

Western port 

W. V. C. Junction 

Empire 

Wamocks 

Windom 

Barnum 

Shaw 

Chaffee 

Blaine 

Harrison 

Mchell 

Stoyer ^ 

Gorman 

Bayard 

Wilson 

'. Dobbin , 

I Henry 

Wilsonia 

Beechwood .-... 

Fairfax 

William 

Thomas 

Coketon 

Douglas 

I Hendricks 

Hambleton 

i Bretz 

I Parsons 

I Porter 

; Moore 

I Haddix 

I Montrose 

I Kerens 

Whyte 

Oilman 

Read 

Elkins 

Elkins Junction 

Buxton 

Roaring Creek Junction.. 

Harding 



8Ute. 



Md. 



W. Va. 



Md. 
W. vk. 



County. 


Elevations 
above tide. 


Alleghany. 


625.1 
622.0 

Si 








673.4 
692.^ 






724.8 




738.1 
743.7 








774.8 

794.3 
904.4 

943.6 
1078.3 
1090.0 
I 129.6 
1151.3 
1274.9 

1419.4 
1560.3 

l6^Q.il 




Mineral. 


















^943.9 
2245.1 
2267.2 


Garrett. 


Grant. 


2331. 1 

2508.2 




2596.5 
2647.3 
2744.9 
2876.6 









3060.1 


Tucker. 


288^. s 




2844.5 






1 702. 1 




1678.6 




i6s7.6 




1662.4 




1694.1 








2178. 1 


Randolph, 


1995. 1 
1937.0 
1825.3 




1920.9 






1920.0 
1909.7 
1914.0 








1871.3 




1846.4 



14 



LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 



West Virginia Central & Pittsburg Railway— Continued. 



124.3 
126.9 
128.3 
130.8 



Laurel 

Junior 

Custer 

Beliugton.. 



W. Va. 



Randolph. 
Barbour. 



1753.5 
1719.0 



Davis Branch, W. Va. Central & Pittsburg R. R. 



o. 
2.6 
3.8 
6.3 



Thomas W. Va. 

Child ! 

Pendleton | 

Davis ! 



Tucker. 



2883.5 
3010.5 
2988.4 
3001.4 



Elk Garden Branch, W. Va. Central & Pitsburg R. R. 



o. 

3.3 
7.0 



Harrison 
Switch Back 
Elk Garden 




Beverly and Huttonsville Branch W. Va 



0. 


Elkins 


1.2 


Elkins Junction 


3.1 
6.7 
8.7 

lO.O 

13.8 
16.3 
17.7 


Yokutt 


Be verl y 


R. R. Bridge over Valley 
River (top of rail).... 

Crossing Htaunton and 
Parkersburg pike 

Crawford House 


Mill Creek Bridge 


Huttonsville 



W. Va. 



1 Randolph. 


1920. 
1909.7 
1926.2 
1941.3 






2015.6 






1 


2021.6 


1 


2046.8 




2070. 1 




2077.0 



(Preliminary Survey for Gauley River Extension.) 



26 
32 

34 
35 
36 
38 
39 
46 
48 
56 
59 
63 
71 
78 



Elk Water ! W. Va. 

Brady's Summit 

Riggles 

Red Lick Run 

Elk River 

Whitacres Falls 

Big Run 

Burgoo 

I^atherwood 

Elk River 

Addison 

Payn's Summit 

Gauley River 

Williams River 



Randolph 



Webster 



2358 
2992 
2714 
2429 
2331 
2171 
2136 
1904 
1841 
1583 
1463 
2456 
2308 
2215 



Ellcins and Buckhannon Branch. W. Va. C. & P. R. R. 

(Preliminary Survey.) 



o 

7 

II 



Elkins 

Roaring Creek 

Roaring Creek Summit... 



W. Va. 



Randolph 



1920 
i860 
2368 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 15 

Elkins and Btickhannon Survey, W. Va. C. & P. R, R.— Continued. 



12 

17 
18 
21 
27 
32 



King's Bridge 

Toll Gate 

Burnt Bridge 

White Oak Summit ..... 
Buckhannon River Divide 
Buckhannon 




2450 
1851 
i84o 
2031 
1743 
i4i3 



OHIC RIVER RAILROAD. 

Parkbrsburg, W. Va., 

December 7, 1898. 
DR. I. C. WHITE, State Geologist, 
Morgantown, W. Va. 
Dear Sir: — Yours of November 21st, addressed to George A. Burt, Vice 
President and General Manager, referred to me. 

The statement enclosed is as full and correct as we are able at this time to 
make. The elevations from Wheeling to Raven Rock are correct to the 
tenth, but south of that point the elevations have been deduced from the 
original levels, and are liable to the inaccuracies that such levels usually 
are. Datum is mean tide at Sandy Hook. 
Hoping this will be satisfactory, I am. 

Yours truly, 

L. C. JAMES, 

Assistant Engineer. 



Ohio River Railroad. 



Distance 



o 

3-3 
4 



8 

11.3 
14.6 

15.8 
16.4 

17 

19.2 

20.2 

20.5 

21 

21.5 
22 
22.5 
23.2 

25 
26.8 



STATIONS 



State 



Wheeling W Va. 

Riverside 

Benwood 



Glendale 

Moundsville 

Round Bottom.. 

Hombrooks 

Chestnut Hill ., 
Captina Island.. 

Powhattan 

Cresaps 

Underwood 

Cresap's Grove. 
South Cresap's . 

Foster 

Whittaker 

Woodland 

Franklin 

Clarington 



County 



Ohio 

Marshall 



Elevations 
Above Tide 



648.4 
642.2 

645.5 
645.2 
644.2 

643.4 

646.3 

642.1 

642 

640.5 

640.6 

643.2 

644.1 

640.3 

641.2 

637.3 



16 



LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 



Ohio River Railroad.— Continued. 



29 

31.5 

34 

35 

35.9 

36.5 

37.4 

41.1 

42 

42.7 

45.5 

47.2 

48.2 

49.2 

50 

51.5 

51.8 

53.7 

54 

56 

56.2 

57 

58 

59 

61 

62 

64.1 

65 
67.2 

70.6 

71.3 
74.6 

75.2 

80 

81.4 

83 

85.1 

86.2 

88.9 

93.6 

96.6 

99.7 
101.6 
102.7 
I J. I 
5.6 
7.3 
109.6 
1 10. 1 
III. 6 
1 14.9 
118.2 
1 20. 1 
120.4 
I 06 
121. 1 



Wells' Pit 

Proctor 

Alexander 

Maud 

Baresville 

Bridgeman 

New Martinsville 

Sardis 

Paden 

Paden's Valley 

Stewart's Crossing 

Sistersville 

Wells 

Cochranville 

Davenport 

Ha3's 

Friendly 

Blaine Station 

Long Reach 

Selman 

Ben's Run 

Engle Run 

Edmund 

Raven Rock 

Spring Run 

Grape Island 

St. Mary's 

Vancluse 

Belmont 

Eureka 

Salama 

Willow Island 

Waverly 

James La?^e 

Jones 

Williamstown 

Pohick 

Kellar 

Briscoe 

Vienna 

Parkersburg (elevated 

platform) 

Blennerhasset 

Washington 

Walker's Crossing 

Mehldahls 

New England 

Lamps , 

Hams Ferry 

Lee Creek 

Humphrey .-, 

Belleville 

Lone Cedar 

Murrayville 

Williams 

Polks 

Muses Bottom 

Coleman 



W. Va. 



Marshall 
Wetzel 



Tyler 



Pleasants 



Wood 



Jackson 



636.6 

636.4 
634.6 

634.7 

632 

632 

633.7 

628.4 

629.9 

630 

630.2 

649.6 

637.4 

629.8 

627.4 

625.5 

624.3 

623.9 

624.4 

622.3 

621.8 

625.6 

623.8 

623.1 

621 

622 

623 

625 

621 

628 

623 

615 

618 

615 
617 
609 
610 

613 
616 
606 

624 

636 

599 



595 

590 
591 

586" 



WEST VIBOINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



17 



121. 6 

"3.0 
124.8 
127. I 
128.2 
12a 8 
132.1 

135.3 
138.6 

139.2 
140.6 
144.2 
148. I 
149.9 
153.0 
154.8 

157.5 
154.2 
161. 1 
161. 9 

164.3 
166.9 

169.3 
172.5 
174.2 
178.1 

179. 1 
182. I 
184.0 
185. 1 

187.5 
188.6 
189.6 
192.5 
194. 1 
195.6 
198.0 
200. 1 
201. 1 
202. 7 

205.4 
211. 2 
214.6 

217.3 
221.9 

223.0 



Mason 



Ohio River Ral E road. --Con tlnued. 



Morgan I W. Va. ! Jackson 

Portland \ ' 

Sherman 1 | 

Turkey Run | I 

Ravenswood j | 

R. S. & G, Junctioa i j 

flea*«aant View | 

Willow Grove j ■ 

Ripley Landing 

MtUwood I I 

School House 

Letart 

Antiquity 1 

Graham ' 

New Haven ' ! 

Hartford | ! 

Mason City | 

\^liaon I 

West Columbia , 

Spilman ' | 

Brownsville ' ( 

Mackers. I i 

Locust Lane I 1 

Point Pleasant ■ j 

Henderson ; , 

GallipoHs Ferry i • 

Beab* Siding 

Elwell , I 

Ben Lomond : 

Hogselt i , 

Apple Grove.. | 

Mtrcer's Bottom j 

Ashton ' I 

Glenwood j 

Lasey's Lane « ! .... ' 

McCurdy ! : Cabell 

Crown City Ferry 

Green BoUom 

Millersport Ferry 

Lesage 

Cojce's Landing 

Guyandotte 

Huntington 

Central City 

Ceredo .- 

Kenova 



586 

584 
581 
578 
582 

577 

574 

570 
575 
569 
573 
563 

'567 
563 
575 
560 
570 
563 
573 



552 
570 

550 

"56^ 



548 
548 
541 
538 
538 
545 
550 



Ripley and Mill Creek VaUey Brancli, O. R. R. 



o 
3.0 
6.0 

ao 
13.0 



Millwood 

Cottageville 
Angerona .... 

Evans 

Ripley 



W.Va. 



Jackson 



577 
583 
586 
601 
599 



18 



LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 



Ravenswood, Spencer and Qlenville Branch, O. R. R. 



o.o 


0.6 


I.O 


8.6 


12.2 


14. 3 


15. I 


17.0 


19- 5 


21.7 


22.2 


23.0 


27.0 


30- 


_ 33. 


0. 


2. 


14. 


22. 


32. 


43. 


6i7 


63- 
68. 


76. 
78. 
80. 


?5- 
89. 


92. 
96. 
98. 


lOI. 


103- 


106. 


no. 


"5- 
ir8. 


121. 


122. 



Ravenswood W. Va. 

R. S. finfl G. Junction 

Bridgeport ' 

Silverton 

Crow Summit , 

Sandydlle | 

Meadowdule 

Duncan = 

Leroy i 

Liverpool 

Handy Summit 

Seamans 

Dukes 

Reedy 

Hardman j 

Barrs I | 

Spencer I 

Little Kanawha River, 



Jackson 



'i 



Roane 



131- 



Parkersburg (low water). 

Lock One 

Lock Two 

Lock Three 

Lock Four 

Spring Creek 

Buffalo Rock 

Lower Leading Creek.... 

Down's Ripple 

Anna M a ria Cr eck 

Big Root 

Pine Creek , 

Grantsville , 

Steer Creeks 

Acre Island 

Mussel Shoals 

Tanner Pork 

Cedar Creek 

Third Run Shoals 

landing Creek 

Glenvilic 

Stewart's Creek , 

Mud Lick Run 

and Fork 

Stout's Mill 

Hyer's Run 

Oil Creek 

Burnsville 

Bennet's Run 

Bull to w n 



W. Va. 



Wood 



Wirt 



Calhoun 



Gilmer 



Braxton 



584 
581 
579 
575 
637 
592 
611 
626 

635 
661 
889 

669 
^5 
899 
710 



563 
564 
574 
584 
596 

6X2 

625 
631 
635 

641 

644 
654 

656 

666 

671 
677 
682 
687 
689 
690 
702 
702 
710 
711 
723 
735 
741 
741 
752 
760 



CHESAPEAKE and OHIO RAILROAD. 

Richmond, Va., November 30, 1898. 
DR. L C. WHITE, State Geologist, 
Morgautown, W. Va. 
DEAR SiK : — In response to attached memorandum I hand you herewith a 



WEST VIRGINIA GKOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



19 



list of elevations of stations on Main line in West Virj^nia, above sea level, 
with <Ustances of same from Ft Monroe. These elevations were copied from 
j^nule profile made in Chief Engineer's Office, 1883. 

It is not practicable to give elevations on all branches, for the reason that 
MTe have no connected levels, but I have added approximate elevations on 
Loup Creek Branch. G. A. LYELL, 

Chief Draughtsman, 

CHESAPEAKE and OHIO RAILROAD. 



Distance 
from Ft. 
Monroe 

313. ^ 
315. 5 
316.4 
317- 3 
319- ^ 
322. 6 
326. 6 

329. o 

330. 3 
332.6 

335- « 
337- 9 
339-4 
340.5 
M3- 6 
345.3 
347-2 

349-5 
352.6 
357.0 
35'S.« 
362.0 
366.6 
369.6 
374-3 
'378. 7 
380.0 

383-1 
385. o 
386.0 
387. o 

3«7. 8 
388.6 

3«9. I 
390.8 
392.2 

393- 2 
394.0 
394. 5 
396.4 
397-5 



STATIONS. 



State County 



Elevations 
above tide 



Summers 



Tuckahoe , \V. Va. Greenbrier 

White Sulphur 

Greenbrier 

Hart's Run 

Howard 

Caldv^ell 

Wliitcomb 

Ronceverte 

Rockland 

, Ft. Spring 

Hnow Flake 

Half Way 

Alderson ..% 

Mohler 

' Wolf Creek 

; Riffe 

I Stockyards 

Lowell 

'Talcott 

Hilldale 

I Don 

' Hinton 

Tug Creek 

I Brooks 

Sandstone 

I Meadow Creek , 

Glade , Fayette 

Quinnimont 

' Prince 

' McKendree I 

I Slater ' 

Buffalo 1 

Alaska ] 

I Claremont | 

Beechwood , 

Stone Cliff | 

Thunnond i 

' Dimmock \ 

' Beur>' i 

, Central i 

, Fire Creek ' 

East Sewell j 

Sewell.., 



2035 
1922 
J865 
1814 
1790 
1766 
1698 
1663 
1650 
1626 
1607 

1579 
1548 
1540 
1530 
1524 
1530 
1512 
1512 
1496 
1432 
1372 
f352 
1338 
1288 
1265 
1236 
1196 
1 192 
1141 
1 106 
1 103 
1090 
1086 
1078 
1076 
1060 

i"45 
1038 
1029 
1029 
1009 



20 



LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 



Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad - Continued. 



399-3 
400.4 
401.6 

404-3 

405.6 

406.8 

407.5 

408.7 

409.0 

410.8 

415.2 

417. 

421. 

423. 

423. 

424. 

424. 

425. 

425.1 

425.3 

425.9 

426.6 

427.5 
428. •» 
428.7 
429.6 

430.3 
431.7 
432.8 

432.9 
433-5 
434.1 
435.0 
435-6 
437.5 
438.1 
440.7 
444.5 
448.2 

449.8 
451.7 
453.6 
455.2 
458.4 
459.2 
462.9 

465.5 
466.9 
456.6 
473.2 
475.1 
476.4 
479.2 
480.5 
481.5 
484.2 
485.8 



Caperton 

Keeney's Creek 

Nuttall 

Fayette 

Elmo 

Sunnyside 

Gaymont , 

Hawks Nest 

McDougall 

Cotton Hill 

Gauley 

Kanawha Falls 

Deep Water 

Digby 

Mt. Carbon 

Powelton 

Diamond 

Forest Hill 

St. Clair 

Eagle 

Edge Water 

Crescent 

Moutgomery 

Union Coal Company, . 
Consolidated Mfg. Co... 

Handley 

Chesapeake 

Dego 

Paint Creek 

Gordon 

Crown Hill 

Belmont 

Black Cat 

Ea«»t Bank 

Coalburg. 

Cabin Cr*^k 

Winnifrede Junction ... 

Brownstown 

Maiden 

Rannwha. 

South Rufifnet 

CliEirleston 

Elk 

Black Band 

Spring Hill 

Huling 

St. Albans 

Lewis 

Scary 

Scott 

Cades 

Henderson 

Hurricane 

Kibler 

Culloden 

Walton 

Milton ^ 



W.Va. 


Fayette 








.... 




















































.... 


Kanawha 


.... 













.... 




•••■;::; 




.... 



















.... 


Putnam 




.... 


Cabell* 






984 

946 
900 
860 
843 
832 

827 
824 
792 
707 

648 
645 
639 

640 
641 
642 
642 
641 

639 
638 

634 

631 
633 
631 

627 
626 

622 

621 
623 
620 
620 

625 
625 

616 
616 
608 
606 

610 

605 

601 

598 

597 
594 
592 
592 
591 
683 
702 
972 
684 
703 
703 

619 
586 



490-3 
491.9 
494-7 
498.2 
50I.0 
50I. 2 
504.0 
5o6. 1 
508.5 
510.7 
5". 8 



390.8 
396.0 
397.0 
398.0 
4oao 
4oa5 
401.5 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

CKe^peake and Ohio Railroad—Continued. 



21 



iOna 

Blue Sulpiiur Springs . 

I Barboura^i'ille 

i Wilson 

I Gtiyandolte 

' D. K. Tower 

Huntington 

; Central City 

KeUogg 

I Ceredo « 

Kenova 



w. 


Va. 



Cabell 



WayTie 



Loup Creei( Brarcli— C. and O. R. R. 



j Thurmond 

Harvey 

I Red Star 

I Glen Jean 

' Dun Loup 

I Turkey Knob 

MacDonald 



W.Va. ! Fayette 



622 
598 
578 
556 
560 

563 
566 
540 
544 
445 
550 



1060 
1555 
1 601 
1611 
1652 

1677 
1678 



Elk River. 



o I Charleston (low water)... , 

21 Big Sandy Creek | 

24 I Queen's Hhoals 

60 Big Otter Creek 

70 I Grove's Creek .* • 

80 '■■ Birch River 1 

93 Little Otter Creek , 

i Beall's Mills • 

100 : 8utton ' 



W.Va. Kanay^ha I 
' I 



Clay 
Braxton 



556 

591 
6ii 
726 
751 
770 
794 
798 
806 



auley River. 



10 

15 

21 

25 
29 
31 
40 

46 

55 
75 
So 

85 



. Mouth of River (low wa- 

i ter) 

! Twenty Mile Creek 
(mouth) 

Little Elk Creek 

Peters 

I Camifaz Ferry 

Hughes Ferry 

Brock's. 

Beaver Creek 

! Cherry River 

I Cranberry .-,»* 

Stroud's Ferry 

I Willmuia River 

! Laurel Fork 

! Stony Creek 

' Marlines Bottom 



W.Va. 1 Fayette 



Nicholas 



Webster 
Pocohontas I 



650 

667 

'69*i 
879 
1208 
1546 
1589 
1694 
1777 

1915 
2009 
2167 
3011 
3223 
2120 



22 



LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 



NORFOLK and WESTERN RAILWAY. 



Roanoke, Va. , Decemcer 13, 1898. 
DR. I. C. WHITE, State Geologist. 
Morgantown, W. Va. 
Dkar Sir : — Your letter of November 21st, addressed to the President of 
the N. & W. Ry. Company, has been referred to me. 

In answer, 1 attach hereto a list of the stations with elevations of .same, 
in the state of West Virginia; the elevations being uniformly at sub-grade. 
To get the elevation of base of rail seventeen inches must be added. Prob- 
ably for publication purposes one foot would be best to use, although this 
elevation depends on amount of ballast we have under track. Wherever 
our track is standard ballasted this distance would be one and four-tenths 
feet above the sub-grade, rhe elevations given are the heights of sub-grade 
al)ove mean low water at Norfolk. 

Yours truly, 

CHARLES J. CHURCHIUv, 

Eng. M. of Way. 



Norfolk and Western Railway. 



Distances 
froniNorfolk 



342.41 
346. 96 
351.08 
352. 73 
353- 89 

356. 95 
358. 73 
363-08 

371. 26 

372. 92 
373- 84 

374. 94 

375. 29 

376. 37 

376. 80 

377. 42 
379- 53 
3^.39 

381. 40 

382. 94 
384. 86 
385.00 
3«5. 99 

357. 4 
3«8 -35 
3''^9- 30 
390. 84 

391- 54 
392. 40 

396. 44 
390.2 
400. 29 
406. 76 
412.86 



STATIONS. 

Wills 

Oakvale 

Hardy 

Ingleside 

Kast ^iver 

Tulip 

Ada 

Bluefield 

: Abbs Valley 

I Dayton 

I Bluestone Junction..., 

Wood 

Cooper 

Ruth 

Kast End Tunnel 

Coaldale 

Maybeury 

vSwitchback 

Knnis 

I Klkhorn 

I Powhatan 

I Kyle 

1 North Fork Juection 

Keystone 

I Eckman 

LandgrafT 

I Vivian 

; Vivian Yard 

' Norwood 

I Hugcr : 

'Welch 

Hemphill 

I Daw 

'Roderfield 



State County 



W. Va. 



Mercer 



McDowell 



Elevation 
above tide 

1614 
1708 
1865 
1944 
1990 

2139 
2218 

2556 
2291 
2287 
2281 
2272 
2266 

2359 
2384 
2336 
2147 
2070 

1995 
1882 
1796 
1760 
1700 

1935 
I5'^8 

1569 
1515 
1494 
1475 
1340 
1297 
1285 

! 1183 

1092 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



23 



Norfolk and Western Railway, Continued. 



417.70 Wilmore W. 

421.88 , laeger 

429. 29 # Panther 

432. 10 Wyoming I 

434.00 Alnwick 

437.88 Wharncliffe 

439.80 j Glen Alum 

442.78 Gray 

446.59 I Devon 

450.87 Rands 

453-73 Delorme 

456.21 Thacker 

460.70 Matewan 

465.80 Rawl 

469.59 Williamson 

473. 42 Bargcr 

477.63 Nolan... 

484.40 Naugatuck 

488. 70 Lenore 

492.01 Canterbury 

496.53 Hale 

498.85 Dingcss 

501. II Trace 

507. 27 Breeden 

512.28 Wilsondale 

516.59 Doane 

519.77 Wells Branch 

522.27 Dunlow 

527.29 Ferguson 

528. 89 Radnor 

533.40 Genoa 

53S. 48 Coleman 

538.86 Echo 

543.27 I Wayne 

549.30 'Ardeil 

552. 67 ! Dickson 

555. 62 Lavalette 

561. 38 Buffalo Creek 

566. 67 Ceredo 

567.92 I Kenova 



Va. I McDowell 



Mingo 



Wayne 



Bluestone Branch— N. and W. Railway. 



0.00 
1.47 



I Bluestone Junction I W. Va. 

I Pocohontas I 



Mercer 



0.00 
I. 16 
1.80 
5.48 
5.96 
6.15 



Cooper and Goodwill Branch— N 

Cooper" I W. Va. 

Bramwell 1 

Simmons Creek Junction ' 

Johnson's 

j Flipping Creek Junction 
jhr* 



and W. Railway. 

Mercer 



I Duhring. 
I Goodwill . 



Crane Creek Branch -N. and W. Railway. 



1019 
978 

939 
924 

897 
826 
806 
778 
754 
732 
720 
709 
690 
672 
658 
650 

643 
630 

635 
675 
880 

lOOI 

915 
811 

755 
717 
701 
688 
666 
662 

643 
626 
607 

ig 

575 
561 
556 
565 
580 



0.00 
5- 17 



Flipping Creek Junction 
I Mora I 



W. Va. 



Mercer 



2281 
2315 

2266 
2247 
2242 
2216 
2210 
2215 
2262 



2210 
2335 



24 



LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 



North Fork Branch— N. and W. Railway. 



o. oo 
0.66 
1.49 
2.75 
3.98 
4.40 
6.12 



Dist. from 
Hag«rstown 



North Fork Junction | W. Va. 

Algoma i 

Gillian I 

Rolfc 

Arlington , 

McDowell I 

Ashland 



McDowell 



1699 
1755 
1796 
1869 

1939 
1968 
2140 



Shenandoah Division— N. and W. Railway. 



0.63 
16.82 
17.71 
23. 10 

24- 47 
27.94 

'28.32 
32.56 
33.70 



STATIONS 



State 



I r>^««f„ ' Elevation 
! ^°"°^y , above tide 



Cumb. Valley Junction ... Md. 

Shepherdstown W. Va. 

Morgan's Grove 

Shenandoah Junction ( B. ' 

&0. ) I 

Aglionsbv 

Valley Branch (B. &0. , 

Crossing) 

Charlestown \ 

Wheatland 

Rippon ' 



Washington 1 
Jefferson 



575. 
497. 
428. 

509. 
526. 

492. 
512. 
501. 
514. 



Ohio Central Railroad— Kanawha and Michigan Division. 



Distance 



o 
4 
7 

10 
12 

15 
18 

19 
20 
21 
26 
31 
35 
38 
40 

42 

45 
48 
50 
51 
56 

57 



STATIONS. 



State County 



Elevation 
above tide 



Charleston W. Va. ! Kanawha , 600. 

Lock No. 6 i 592. 

Smith's ' I 588. 

Ryans I , 588. 

Sattes I 586. 

Bowling I I Putnam 584. 

Poca j I 579. 

Raymond City 1 | 586. 

Queen City | i I 579. 

Energetic | i | 576. 

Red House I 577. 

Martins I 572. 

Buffalo I 57a 

18-Mile Creek | [ 564. 

Grimm's Mason 563. 

Maupin's I 570. 

Leon ; 567. 

Beech Hill ; 562. 

Bright's 564. 

Rock Castle | 563. 

River Switch | 557. 

Ohio River Bridge at I 

Point Pleasant | ' ' 597. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



25 



Pfttebitrg, andnnatl and St. Louis R. R. —Pittsburg, Wheeling and 
Kentucky Division. 



o. 
I. 
3- 
4- 
6. 

9- 

12. 

i6. 

21. 
25. 



Steubenville 

Wheeling Junction 

Middle Ferry 

Lower Ferry 

Cross Creek 

Wellburg.. 

Beech Bottom 

Short Creek 

Glenns , 

Wheeling 



Ohio 
W. Va. 



Jefferson 
Brooke 



728. 



Ohio 



645. 



aUVANDOT VALLEY RAILWAY. 

HuNTiNGTOWN, W. Va., February 20, 1899. 
DR. I. C. WHITE, State Geologist, 
Morgantown, W. Va. 
Dbar Sir: — I have your letter of the 15th requesting distances and eleva- 
tions on the proposed line of the Guyandot Valley Railway Company. I 
enclose the same from onr survey profile, the figures being based upon the 
elevations at C. & O. R. R. Bridge over Guyandot River in Huntington, W. 
Va.. whicn is about 550 feet. * We have no survey above Pineville or Rock 
Castle, except a preliminary survey for about ten miles up the main Guyan- 
dot, which shows an elevation of about ten feet to thr •^i''». Trusting the 
accompanying information will be what you want, I aiu 

Yours truly, J. L. CALDWELL. 



Distance 


STATIONS. 




Huntington (C. &0. R. 


0.00 


R. Bridge) 


8.00 


Mouth of Davis Creek ... 


14.00 


Mouth of Merritt Creek... 


20.50 


Mouth of Madison Creek 


25.75 


Mouth of I -Mile Creek ... 


31.00 


Mouth of 6-Mile Creek ... 


35.25 


Mouth of Laurel Creek... 


42.25 


Mouth of Big Ugly Creek 




Mouth of Green Shoals 


52.50 


Creek 


60.00 


Chapmanville 


71.00 


Logan Court House 


80.50 


Mouth of Rich Creek 




Mouth of Rock House 


85.00 
90.00 


Creek 


Mouth of ElkCieek 


97.00 


Mouth of Gilbert Creek.. 


loi. 75 


Mouth of Cub Creek 




Mouth of Leatherwood 


104.00 


Creek 




Mouth of Clear Fork 


112.00 


Guyandotte 


123.00 


Mouth of Turkey Creek . 




Mouth of Rock Castle 


130.50 


Creek (Pineville) 



State 


County 


W.Va. 


Cabell 













* * 




Lincoln 



















Logan 















!!...*. 


Wyoming 























Elevations 



550 
550 
545 
558 
570 
585 
390 
595 

620 
630 
665 
715 

735 
760 
830 
870 

955 

1 1 10 
1 175 



1275 



*Guyandot station, on the C. & O. R. R. near bridge is 560. (I. C. W. ) 



26 



LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 



CHARLESTON, CLENDENNIN and SUTTON RAILROAD. 

Charleston, W. Va , February 24, 1899. 
DR. L C. WHITE, State Geologist, 
Morgantown, W. Va. 
Dear Sir: — Complying with your request of November 21st, 1898, which 
request was referred to our Philadelphia office, I have the pleasure to furn- 
ish you the following list of slations on our road between Charleston and 
Clay Court House, together with the elevation above tide, of the top of the 
rail in front of each station, showing also the distance in miles and tenths of 
miles of each station from Charleston. 

Our railroad is only completed to Clay Court House, but our surveys and 
location extend to Sutton. Over this portion I a«:ld the distance from Charles- 
ton and the tide elevati-m of proposed grade of top ot rail at several .streams 
which are crossed by the proposed extension. 

The elevation of our grade at all the points mentioned is a little above the 
ordinary Elk River bottoms. 
I trust that this information will reach you in time for your publication. 
Yours truly, CHAS. K. McDERMOTT, 

Superintendent 



Distance 



0.0 

1.5 
2-5 
3.8 
6.0 

7-3 

8.5 

10.0 

II.O 

13.0 
14.6 
15.8 
17.0 
18.6 
2a 5 
22. 7 

23- 3 
24.4 
27. 6 
28.9 

30.3 
31.8 
32.7 
35-9 
38.4 
39-5 
41. 1 
42.9 
44-2 
44.6 

46.4 
47.2 
48.1 



STATIONS. 



State i County 






' Elevation 
Top of Rail 



Charleston 

l\vo Mile 

Wilson 

Barlow 

Mill Creek 

Masons 

Indian Creek 

Pinch 

Jarrett*s Ford 

Blue Creek 

Walnut Grove 

Rich Creek 

Falling Rock 

Reamer 

Clendennin 

Morris Creek 

Blyth 

Queen Shoals 

Porter's 

Rand 

King 

Camp 

Dulls 

Shelly J unction 

Birch 

Little Sycamore 

Big Sycamore 

Pierson 

Little Beechey 

Yankee Dam 

' Big Beechey 

I Middle Cieek 

! upper Leatherwood. 



Kanawha 



Clay 



597. 13 
597. 33 
600.83 

604.93 
602.83 
606.83 
608.83 
608.83 
615.83 
613.83 
614. 83 
617.83 
617.33 

623. 73 

624. 43 
633- 23 
635.89 
637. 55 
643.83 
645. 83 
650. 83 

651.33 
652. 83 
662.83 
668.73 
671. 83 
673. 83 
677. 83 
582. 33 

684.43 
693.93 
69S. 43 
700.83 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGTCAL SURVEY. 



27 



Charleston, Clendennin & Sutton Railroad.— Continued. 



I 



50. 8 I Clay Court House.. | W. Va. 

51.9 I Buffalo Creek ' 

70. 7 Grove's Creek 

77. o ' Strange Creek 

79. 2 Birch River. 

So. 9 Fording Run 

81. 8 Upper Mill Greek.... 

87. 6 Raocoon Creek 

9V 8 Bear Creek ' 

94. 2 Little Buffalo Creek ' 

97. 6 Bi^ Buffalo Creek ! 

97. 9 Scidmore Run ] 

98. I Opposite Sutton Bridge... 
98. 7 ' Buckeye Creek 

I High warer, Sutton, 1861 j 
1975. 



Braxton 



706.03 

711.33 
785.83 
805.83 
808.83 
813.88 

813. 83 
827. 13 
840.23 
840.83 
840. 83 
844.23 
844.93 
846.33 
840. 10 

837. 30 



DRY FORK RAILROAD. 



Hendricks, W. Va., January 30, 1899. 
DR. I. C. WHITE, State Geologist, 
Morgantown, W. Va. 
Dear Sir : — I herewith enclose table showing distanc n ." j.ii Hendricks 
{which is our junction with W. Va. C. & P. Ry. ), elevations, using W. Vrf. 
Central and Pittsburg Ry., datum of 1702. i feet for Hendricks, and elevation 
of water in Dry Fork River, using same datum. The distances given are 
correct, the road having been recently measured. I cannot, however, say 
that the elevations are absolutely accurate, they having been taken from the 
location notes. i believe, though, that there are no errors greater than a 
foot or two, at the outside. Very truly yours, 

F. K. BRETZ, General Manager. 



Distance 



STATIONS 



State I County 



Elevations 



Grade iLowwat. 



0.0 

3.06 

6. 19 

7.47 

8.32 

9.07 

12.06 

13.50 

14-59 

17.50 

21. 13 

24.78 

26.44 

28.72 

30.66 
31.25 



Hendricks ! W. Va. | Tucker 

Red Run j 

Rich Ford ! | 

Mill Run....; , 1 

Elk Lick i I 

Gladwin (old station) 

Flynn's Crossing .' ! 

Mouth of Laurel Fork | 

Carr's | 

Dry Fork | 

Harman i 

Lower Dam , 

Job ; . 

Gandv I 



Whitmer, C.L.B.&L.Co... 
Horton " " I 



I f 

I I 

, Randolph! 



1702. 1 I 

1804. I I 

1864. I I 

1890. I j 

1912. I I 

195 1. 1 I 

2019. I , 

2051. I I 

2072. I I 

2177. I- I 

2334.1 j 

2497. I , 

2578.1 ' 

2657. I i 

2757.1 ' 

2805. I I 



1690. 



1795 
1843 
1880. 
1900. 
1940. 
201 1 

2039. 
2066. 
2170. 
2327 
2492 
2572 
2652 

2750 
2799 



28 



LEVELS ABOV^E TIDE. 



WEST VIRGINIA SHORT LINE RAILROAD SURVEY. 

Clarksburg, W. Va., January 20, 1899. 
DR. I. C. WHITE, State Geologist, 
Morgantown, W. Va. 
Dbar Sir : — In reply to your request I herewith send you a table of dis- 
tances and elevations of |>oints on the West V irginia Short Line Railroad 
Survey. In one column is given the elevation ot the top of the rail, while 
in the other column is the elevation of low water in the streams along the 
lines at the points named. The elevations given are above sea level, based 
on the Government levels on the Ohio River. The published levels of the 
B. & O. R. R. in Clarksburg would make these elevations i. 5 feet lower than 
here shown. Yours very truly, 

T. M. JACKSON, 

President 



West Virginia Short Line Railroad Survey. 



Distance 



10. 



10. 2 



ia6 



II. 6 



STATIONS 



0.5 
o.'s 

1.4 
2.5 
5.5 
7.2 

'8*9 I 



..0 I 



North end Third Street. 

Clarksburg 

College St., Clarksburg 
West end of Elk Creek 1 

bridge | 

West end of West Fork 

bridge ■ 

West end of Limestone | 

bridge ! 

West end Crooked Run I 

bridge 

Hepzibah Summit top | 

of cut.elev'ti'n 1063) j 
West end Lambert Run 

bridge | 

West end of Wolf Pen 

bridge I 

West end of Ten Mile | 

Creek, 1st Crossing 

(below Fortney*s).. I 
West end of Ten Mile 

Creek, 2d Crossing | 

(above McDemott*s) i 
West end of Ten Mile I 

Creek, 3rd Crossing 

(near school house) I 
West end of Ten Mile i 

Creek, 4th Crossing 1 

(below Widow Rob- I 

inson's) ' 



State 


Kiev 
County -^--^- 

1 ' Rail 


ations 


Low 
Water 


W.Va. 


i Harrison 

1 0R1 




i 1 Q7q 




1 1 yfO 




i ofiS 


923 








' :::;;;:;: ! "^ 


910 




i ^^^ 




<i67 


912 




^^' 




1 984 


922 






1 , ic;! 












, 086 


899 




1 




' 961 


897 




....... , .^. , 




' 1 • • • • 1 








1 1 Q27 


883 




' y^ 1 

1 




1 






. Q2S 1 


888 




1 










Q2«; 


897 




7* J 



















931 i 


899 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



29 



West Vii^nia Short Line Railroad Survey— Continued. 



II.8 



13-2 



15- 1 



15. 9 



17.3 



18.6 



19.3 
2a6 



21.9 



23.1 
23.7 
25.7 



28.3 



14.3 i 



16.9 I 



18.0 I 



26.3 
27.6 



29.9 



West end of Ten Mile ; 
Creek, 5th Crossing i 
(above Widow Rob- j 

inson's 1 

West end of Little Ten I 

Mile Creek, 1st cross- 1 

ing (on T.J. Robey) 

West end of Little Ten ' 

MileCreek,2d c/oss- I 

ing (on A.G.Swiger) | 

West end of Little Ten 

Mile Creek, 5th cross- ' 

ing (just above Dola) i 

West end of Little Ten , 

Mile Creek, 6th cross- , 

ing (just above Dola) ' 

Wess end of Little Ten 1 

Mile Creek, 7th cross- i 

ing (above Ritten- | 

house) j 

West end of Little Ten ' 
Mile Creek, 9th cross- I 
ing (near Edgell's ... | 
West end of Little Ten 
Mile Creek, loth cross- ' 
ing (belown Browns- I 

town) I 

West end of Little Ten , 
Mile Creek, I ith cross- 
ing (below Marsh's).. ' 
West end of Little Ten , 
Mile Creek, 1 2th cross- | 
ing (above Marsh's;.. 
West end of Little Ten ' 
Mile Creek, 14th cross- ' 
ing (near Robinson's | 

MUl) I 

West end of Mud Lick 
Creek, ist crossing ' 

(at Barnes') 

East end of Tunnel | 

West end of Tunnel j 

West end Fishing Cre'k 
I St crossing (on Dar 

vid Talkington 

Westendof Talkington 1 

Run Crossing 1 

West end Fishing Cre'k , 
3rd Crossing (on J. 

W.Starkey) | 

West end Fishing Cre'k , 
4th crossing (on An- 1 

son Cain) 

Westend Fishing Cre'k 1 
5th crossing (at I 
Sttithfield) I 



W. Va. , Harrisan 



Wetzel 



932 
933 



947 ' 
I 

'. I 

957 I 

i 

974 ; 

982 ' 



991 



1009 



1030 



1053 
1075 
1077 



990 
"963 



903 
'872 



883 



901 

913 
926 
942 
951 

959 
969 

976 

■98*5 
990 

997 
1018 

950 
922 

"873 

'857 

820 



30 LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 

West Virginia Short Line Railroad Survey.— Continued. 



30.9 



31.5 



33- o 



*33-6 
35.4 



36.5 
37.4 



39-2 



39.7 



40. 6 



43-2 



44.4 



45.2 



47.1 



47.6 
47."8 



48.2 



49.2 
51.7 



West4;nd Falling Tim- 
ber Creek crossing, 
(on Rdj:ell*s heirs).,. 

West eml Fi-^^hmg Cr^k 
7th crossing at Ar* 
chiefs Pork»*..** 

West end Eishing Cr'k 
8th crossing (on L,ew- 
WyaltK......,,., , 

West end Fishing Cr'k 
9th crossing (on Al- 
pheus Wyatl 

West ttid Fishing Cr'k 
loth crossing { at Mor- 
gan Low Gap) * 

West end Bnifalo Creek 
crossing 

W^est end Wyatt Run 
rrossns;^ (;it Miidiron 
Baker'.sl 

West <i;nd Fishing Cr'k 
I2tb cr^xs^iikg (below 
Amos Lowers house) 

West end Fishing Cr'k 
15IU crossing 1 1 mile 
above Pine Grove) ... 

West end Fishing Cr'k 

6ih crossing at Pine 

Grove 

West end Piney Fork 
Creek branch crossing 
(on Long & Wiley).. 

West end Crow Run 
crossing ( on John 
Lantzt 

West end Brush Run 
crossing (opposite 
Reeder 

W- -. V-^'-'-- Cr'k 

17th crossing ( just 
above Long Point 

West end Fishing Cr'k 
1 8th crossing ( be- 
tween tunnels) 

West end of State Road 
Run crossing ( on 
Long heirs 

West end Fishing Cr'k 
igth crossing above 
Porter's Falls) 

West end Fishing Cr'k 
3oth crossing (on Aa- 
ron Morgan) 

West end Fluharty Run 
crossing lop posite 
Minnie) 



W. Va. Wetzel 



»* CI^CI 




823 

819 

*8o'2 

792 
770 

''' 







811 












8ai 












782 










772 










749 






731 










737 
731 
723 

•7:8 

(^ 

.... 


728 










707 










701 






"695 










680 













677 










689 

"68'7 

'68'2 
.678 

"'673 
646 


676 










660 








650 










665 










650 










64o 








532 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 31 

West Vii^nia Short Line Railroad Survey.— Continued. 



59. 2 Ohio River R. R. track 

' at Junction, just be- 

low New Marti ns- 

. ville 

Low water, Ohio River, 

I at Bowman. 2 miles 

below New Martins- 

ville 



W. Va. ' Wetzel 



629 i 



501 



o. I 
2.6 

"4.6 
6.3 

7.2 
8."o 



8.5 
9.2 



10. I 
10.5 

II. 9 



12. I 
12. 2 



13- 2 
i'3.'6 



14.3 
J4.7 
15.0 



15.0 
i'5"6 



Penn'a 


Greene 


943 
922 






j 




1 




991 
1040 


J 









IHttsburg, Washington & Southern Railroad Survey. 

(Levels on preliminary survey from Waynesburg, Pa., to Mannlngton, 

W. Va. ) 



Waynesburg (W.&W.R. | 
R I 

Ten Mile Creek 

Inghram's School ^ 

House I 

Road at Omdorff's 

Road on Bran'ts Sum- ' 
mit I 

Private Road at Brick 1 
House I 

Bench Mark, Su|?ar, 
Caleb Spragg's Or- 1 

chard ' 

Road in Spraggtown 

B. M. 1st Bridge, Rob- 
erts Run, below Spragg- . 
town 

Road upper end John T. . 
Rinehart's land , 

B. M. Sycamore, be- | 
tween Rinehart's and 
Thrall's | 

M. M. , N. E. comer of j 
bridge, at William Ma- , 



I 



pel's 

Jonnson's school house .. 

Derrick on the Johnson | 
farm , 

Roberts Run Bridge at I 
Blackville ' W. 

Washington coal, along ' 
road up Dunkard | 

Wright's Run 

Barber Spring 

B. M. , Miracle Run 
Bridge, on Dunkard 
Creek 

Dunkard Creek (low wa- 
ter) 

Road above Kliab Ten- 
nant's 



Va. 



1300 
1 127 



1084 
1065 



1050 
103 1 



1023 



990 

985 



! (?) 973 



Monongalia 



955 

■*98'5 
957 
968 



968 

950 
■'968 



32 



LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 



Pittsburg, Washington and Southern Railroad Survey. — Continued. 



16.0 
16.8 



17.6 
18.0 



18.5 
19. 1 



19.5 
20.0 



20.3 
21.3 



21.4 



21.5 
22.0 



22.9 

23- 7 
24. 2 



25.7 
27.4 



27.5 
28. "i 



29.0 



29.4 
30-0 



30- 7 



31.2 

31-9 
32.8 



I Road at J. C Thomas* 
I scales 

B. M. on Bridge at Bula 

' P.O 

I Road in front of Isaac 

I Strosnider's 

I Ground back of Ebenezer j 
I Bell's house ' 

Road in front of Eli Col- i 
i lin's house | 

Road in bend, above Jon- ■ 
athan Fox*s 

Old Road at Josiah Thom- 
as's j 

I Miracle Run, on Z. S. 
i Wise's farm , 

Road at Lewis Fox's 

I B. M. . N. W. corner of E. 

' Eddy'sstable i 

, Road (Jolly town coal, 12 l 
! feetabove) ! 

Pike in Cross Roads 

j B. M. on School House 

I at Corrother's 

I MiracleRun, E. Tennant's ■ 

sugar camp ' 

' Road, lower end of Sol. 

Shriver's farm j 

' Run at Isaac Efaw's sta- ' 
ble 

Road at Fly Blow 

, Coal on Jone's farm | 
( probably Jollytown ) . . . j 

B. M. White Oak, Hog 
I Back, Riley Dickens' I 

farm 

40 feet obove Run at Nan- 1 

cy Thomas's | 

B. M. White Oak, Flat . 

Run Baptist Church I 

Road at Flat Run P. O ... 
I Road, level with derrick, I 

' W.B. Sine farm 

Road, bend below Cun- ; 
I ningham's (Wash, coal 

2 feet above ) 
Pyle's Fork (low water*., j 

Pritchard's Run | 

j Mannington, B. & O. de- 
pot, top of rail 



W. Va. ! Monongalia 



Marion 



978 
"983 



985 
995 



1005 

lOIO 



1013 



1015 
103 1 



1048 



105 1 
1056 



1057 



1071 
1097 



1134 
1431 



1 175 



1 162 
108*5 



1016 
1006 



993 

'984 
974 
979 

978 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 33 

Coal aod Iron Branch, West Va. C. & P. R. R. 



4. 95 
9.0 
19.0 
21.0 



Valley 



23.5 



29. 12 
47.00 



I Elkins 

{Tunnel No. 
, Mountain 

' Faulkner 

! Pishing Hawk 

i Cheat River Crossing 

' Tunnel No. 2, Shaver*s 

I Mountain 

I Divide between Glay's 
j Fork of Cheat river and 

Greenbrier river 

j Durbin 



W.Va. I Randolph 



1920 



2362 

2174 
2612 
2770 



2934 



3M3 
2124 



Uttle Kanawha Railroad. 

The following list of elevations on the Little Kanawha Railroad 
survey of the Wabash system, between Parkersburg and Belington, have 
been kindly furnished by Mr. S. D. Brady, Chief Engineer. These are all 
based on the Parkersburg bench of the U. S. Geolppcal Burvey, and they 
check on the Burnsville bench of the same survey within a few hundredths 
of an inch, and also check accurately at Belington with levels carried there 
from the Grafton bench mark by Mr. C. McC. Lemley of the B. & O. R. R. 



DISTANCE 



I 



VU Via 

Railroad ! River 



0.0 

ao 
0.0 
ao 

1.3 

1.8 
2.6 
3.7 
4.5 
5.8 
6.8 

a6 

9.6 
10.4 
".3 
13.9 
14.5 
16.7 
17.4 



0.0 

0.0 
0.0 
0.0 



STATIONS 



Btate 



County 



'U.S.G.S. bench mark at' W.Va. 

I Parkersburg P. O. ( used, 

as datum) j 

Bench mark on bolt,south{ 

side of Water street * 

i Plug, corner Green and. 

Third streets i 

I Green street crossing, L. 
I K.R.R 

South Parkersburg, top of 
ties, L. K. R. R 

Old Hickory, top of ties.. 

Sheffield .: 

Johnson's 

Geiger's 

Nicolette 

Creels 

Dewey 

Kanawha 

Weekley's 

Cool Springs 

Leachtown Ferry 

Slat* 

Fishing Camp 

Hughes River 



Wood 



Wirt 



Elevation 



616. II 

635.50 
^5.50 
601. 10 

603.50 
599.80 
605.20 
602.90 
608.60 
605.20 
618. 23 
608.40 
604.80 
1(605.40 

,1617.55 
IE608.60 
614. 70 
ii6i7.6 



34 



LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 

Uttle Kanawha Railroad.— Continued. 



30- 3 
34.1 



35.9 



45.0 

45.1 
48. I 

50.7 
51.4 
53.1 
60.5 
65.7 
74.0 



76.8 
78.1 
81.2 



83.1 
84.9 
85.3 



88.0 



92. 

92.5 



97.3 
101.5 



103.5 
106.5 



18.7 ; 




20.9 1 




22.5 




23.2 




*24.5 : 




26.5 




t25.6 1 




29.7 




30.1 1 




Via 


Via 


New Line 


River 


1 


31- 


1 


33- 



, Newark W. Va. 

Sandy Bend 

Roberts , 

I Standing Stone , 

Well's Lock 

, Elizabeth 

Two Ripple Summits 

'; Palestine , 

Palestine transfer 



I Wirt 



39. 
48." 



49- 
52. 
65.5 



109. 
III. 
112. 5 



114. 5 
116. 

117. 
120. 



69. 

76.5 

76.7 

79-5 
86.0 

91.5 
100. 
102. 
102.3 
102.5 
104. 
106.5 



Calhoun 



Gitmer 



Reedv Creek , 

liendereou'5 Run, Dulon 

P. O .. 

Burning Springs Run 

Opposite Crest on 

Creston **0" on water' ... 

.ga^g^^ ... 

Simpf^cm's Run 

Katy's Run 1 ... 

Yellow Creek ... 

Brooksville 

Big R(Jot tSumniit 

Leaf Branch Run 

Grantsville 

Bull River ... 

Laurel Run 

Tanner Creek 

Leiidipg Creek 

Sycamore Run 

Turkey Run i ... 

Glennvine , ... 

hitewarts Creek 

Ljmch Run (Trubada P. ,[, 

O.) ... 

Sand Fork I ... 

Dust Camp 

River, J4 niile above ■ ... 

Stout's Mill i ... 

Copen Run ' ... 

Long Shoal Run ... 

Hyer'sRun ! ... 

Oil Creek ., ... 

Burnesville, B. M. No. 157 ... 

abutment, W. Va. & P. 

R.R. bridge, over Halt 

Lick Creek j ... 

Knawl's Creek 

Knawl's P. O., Knawl's ' ... 

Creek ' ... 

Summit bet. Feather Bed 

Fork of Ktiawrs Creek , 

and Abram's Run„..... 

West Fork river (mouth' ; £ewis* 

of Abram's Run) .J • 



Braxton 



i 



I 



614. 20 
617.50 
62a 60 
622. 10 
619.30 
640.50 

783. '» 
641.50 
631.20 



599.00 
613.00 

618. 00 
665.00 
621. 37 

645.00 
660.00 
647.00 
707.00 
940.80 
663.00 
695.00 
666.00 
779.00 
686.00 
695.00 
700.00 
710.00 
735.00 
704.00 
717.00 

718.00 
729.00 
733.00 

730.00 
740.00 
741.00 
748.00 
764.51 



765.00 
825.00 



1240.00 
1062.00 



♦21. 7 New line. 



tNew line. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



35 



Little Kanawha Railroad Continued. 



108.5 
109.0 

113. 5 



114.0 
1 15. 5 

1 16. 5 

iiao 

iias 
"9.5 

i2ao 
120.5 

123.5 
124.6 

126.0 

127.0 

129.0 
130-0 



'30.5 
131. 5 

132.5 
134.0 

136.5 
14a o 
144.0 



Crane Camp KwTi. I 

Laurel Run (Crawford P. 

, O.) 

I Wilson's Summit bet left, 
fork of Fall Ru:i and! 

' Frent^h Creek i 

French Creek, K mile' 

from summit 

Summit, between French i 
Creek and Slab Campi 

Creek , I 

Slab Camp Crtek (Hyer's! 

frrm 

Summit bet. Slab Campi 

Creek and Bull Run 

Ml. Pleasand Church.' 

I-*ft Fork of Bull kun 

(Heyner farm I 

Summit between left and 

right Forks of Bull Rnn 

I (Htewarl Hverfarm , 

I Right Fork of Bull Run; 

(John Hyer farm).. 

I Summit bietween Right' 
i Pork of Bull Run and 
' Gladv Pork of Stone 

I Coal'. ; 

I Glady Fork (JohnDowell; 

I farm , 

I Summit — Glady Fork^^ 1 
I Brushy Fork (John 

I Dowellfarm) ..,.../ 

Finck Run mile above 

BuckhfiTiuon 
Clarksburg & Buckhan'n 
pike, opp. Buckhannon 

Turkey Run ***... 

Brush Run Svimmit (Co- 
lumbus Post fanu) ...... 

B. M. Summit between 
Sugar Fork of Turkey, 
Run and Pecks Run. , 
Flevalion marked byi 

U.S.G.S.— *'i558" 

' Brush Run , 

> Summit between Brush 

' and Peck runs j 

' Peck's Run 1 

I Summit bet. Pecks Run; 

I and 2d Big Run I 

I Second Big Run, 550 
I feet from Buckhannon 

River 

I Buckhannon River (June-, 
! tion with Tygarts Val- 
ley River) 

I Middle Pork river (mo*th) ! 



W. Va. Lewis | 1094.00 






IIOI.OO 


1513- 00 




1 


1489.00 
1639. 00 


Upshur 


i 


. 


1456.00 


, 


i .:::::::: 


1580.00 


. 


* •••••••••• 


1 

•••••••• 

1 


1466.00 


1 •«•>«■■■. 


1557. 00 


1 








1487. 00 
1560.00 




1 


1 




1 ..:;;:;: 
1 


1386.00 


1 •• 


i 


1442.00 






, 


1403.00 


1 


i 


I4II.00 


1 




1390.00 
1546.00 

1557. 41 




— 











1 .!!'.*.!!!* 


••••••••••• 

1428.00 
1516.00 








1398.00 
1456. 00 


1 Barbour 

1 


1 


1358.00 


' 




, 1 1314.00 


1 ••••••••• 




1479-00 



36 



LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 



Little Kanawha Railroad.— Continued. 




Tygarts Valley River (i 
mile above bridge at 
Belington) 

Hub ia center of B. & O. 
track at Belington sta- 
tion 

Alston. (Road to Beling- 
ton 



W.Va, 



Barbour 1685.00 
I 1698.70 



1741.00 



BRANCH LINE, 

Line up Leading Creek to Buckhannon River via Weston and 
Hackers Creek. 



Distances 1 

from mouth 

of Leading | 

Creek. j 

Via Line. 



STATIONS 



State I County 



Blevation 
above tide 



I 



27.0 
33-5 



33-6 
38"o 



40.5 



50.0 



Summit bet. Leading and | W. Va. 

Polk Creeks 

West Fork River (Below | 

dam at Weston High 1 

Tide 

Weston B. M. on curb E 

cor. Center and Third 

streets 

Summit bet. Little Stone 

Coal and Big Hilly Up- 

land Run , 

Big Hilly Upland Run— 

600 feet from mouth, 

/Hackers) 

Summit bet. Left Fork of 

Hackers Creek and 

and Pecks Run 



Lewis 



Upshur 



999.00 

1015. 41 
1246.00 
1071.00 
1502. 00 



LINE UP OIL CREEK. 



Dist from 
Burnesville 



4.5 
12.0 



12.5 



STATIONS 



Oil Creek at Confluence.. 

Summit between Clover 
Folk of Oil and West 
Fork of Monongahela 
River 

West Fork River (one 
mile above Jackson- 
vUle) 



Stete 


County 


-W.Va. 


Lewis 















Elevation 



770.00 
1282.00 



io6aoo 



Line Up Little Kanawha River from Knawl's Creek. 



100.5 
103.0 



131- o 
133.0 



Bulltowd (Floor County 
bridge) 

Little Kanawha River, 
above Falls at Falls 
Hills 



W. Va. Braxton 



787. 40 
799.00 



WEST VIHQINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 37 



MONONQAHELA RIVER. 

Pittsburg, Pa., February i, 1899, 
DR. I. C. WHITE, State Geologist, Office U. S. Enc inkers. 

Morgantown, W. Va, 
Dear Sir:— Referring to your request of the 24th, ultimo, I here enclose 
list of benches and levelpoints along the Monongahela river from Pittsburg 
to Dam No. 9, and the same along the West Fork from near its mouth to 
Clarksburg. 

The elevation of the lower sill masonry, lock No. 10, is to be 786. 92 and 
top of lock walls 813. 17 feet. 

From dam No. 9 to Hoults, the list of benches, etc., is given in the Annual 
Report of the C. of E., 1897, page 2407, a copy of which is at the Morgan- 
town office, which list Mr. Lucas will copy for you, and furnish, as far as he 
able, the distances from dam No. 9. Fiom Hoults to Bench No. 12, West 
Fork river, the list is given on page 2182 of my annual report for 1898, a 
copy of which is mailed you to-oay. Mr. Lucas may be able to furnish the 
distances of these benches from dam No. 9. 

Very respectfully, 

CHARLES F. POWELL, 

Major Corp of Engineers. 



Elevation of Points along the Monongahela Rlver« Referred to Mean 
Tide Level at Sandy Hook» N. J., per P. R. R. Levels. 



^Distance 

'E 

Feet 



^T J^^ Elevation. STATIONS 

01 nver. 



MUes. 



0.00 I 703.0 I Pittsburg. —Harbor level, full pool, Davis Island 
' Dam. 



I- 95 707- 40 Crest of Dam No. i 



'• 95 ^3- 50 Lower sill, lare lock 



B. M. , north side 2d Ave. at 
angle between retaining wall 
and abutment of B. & O. new 
bridge over 2d Ave., on first 
course masonry above ground 
Elevation 730. 46 A. T. 



II. 76 715. 10 Crest of Dam No. 2 IB. M. , N. W. comer bridge 

[seat, south abutment, west 
I side. Elevation, 732. 392 A. 

11.76 701.30 Lower sill, large lock J T. 



*A close aproximation. 



38 



tEVEI^ ABOVE Tibfi. 



Distance 

from mouth 

of river. 

MUes 



24.90 



24.90 



Eldvation.l 
Feet 



STATION 



723. 10 



Crest of Dam No. 3 



I 



709. 46 ! Lower sill, large lock J A. T. 



' B. M. Stone buried i foot 
between rails north bound 
track P. R. R. point of 
• curve (glass works) nearly 
opposite abutment of dam 
No. 3. Elevation 750.448 



41.33 I 733.48 



Crest of Dam No. 4 



41.33 
59.45 
69.25 
83.90 
88.90 
94.20 

*102. 70 
104. 20 

105. 95 

111. 45 

112. 20 

112.45 
117.20 

117.45 
120.95 
121.95 



718. 03 I Lower sill, large lock 



B. M. Stone buried i foot 
between rails main track 
P. R. R. , about loo' below 
lock No. 4, station build- 
ing. Elevation 759. 516 A. 
T. 



I 746.41 
1 730. 28 

760.15 
1 742. 84 
L 769.90 

754- 19 
, 780.80 
i 765. 00 

793. 40 

775. 55 
I 787. 00 
I 820. 601 

j 821.867 

j 822. 130 

I 816. 249 

I 828.852 

' 846. 1 29 

! 851.417 

I 

i 857.352 
I 
837. 780 

863.515 

868. 385 
873. 567 



Crest of Dam No. 5. 
Power sill of lock. 
Crest of Dam No. 6. 1 Elevations between locks 



I 

I Lower sill of lock. 
I Crest of Dam No. 7. 
I Lower sill of lock. 
I Crest of Dam No. 8. 
! Lower sill of lock. 
Crest of Dam No. 9. 
I Lower sill of lock. 
I Upper miter sill. 



J Nos. 4 and 9, not verified. 



{Established from R. R. sur- 
veys brought from Union- 
town, Pa. 
Eye of ring bolt, north end of Morgantown Sus- 
I pension bridge abutment, right bank. 
I North comer, noith abutment, railroad bridge. 

Decker's creek. B. M. cut. 
North corner, north abutment, railroad bridge, 

Cobun's creek. B. M. cut. 
North end of door sill, boiler house of pump sta- 
tion. Eureka Pipe Line Co. 
North corner, north-east abutment, railroad bridge. 

Booth's creek. B. M. cut. 
North comer, north-east abutment, railroad bridge, 

Tom's Run. B. M. cut 
North-east comer, east abatmeut, railroad bridge, 

Joe's Run, B. M. cut. 
Point on rock led^e above railroad, right bank, 

upper end of railroad rock cut, just below dam 

No. 13. B. M. cut. 
Point on flat rock, left shore, lock No. 14. B. M. 

cut. 
North corner, north-east abutment, railroad bridge, 

White Day Creek. B. M. cut. 
North corner, north -east abutment, railroad bridge, 

Little Creek. B. M. cut. 
East corner, south-east abutment, railroad bridge, 

Prickett's Cree k. B. M . cut. 

♦Levels from Lock No. 9 to Clarksburg were furnished by J. N. Lucas, Sub- 
Inspector U. S. Engineer Corps. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



39 



Distance 

from mouth 

of river. 

Miles 

123. 20 I 
127. 20 

128.45 

I 

129.95 I 
130. 25 I 
130-65 I 



Elevation 
Feet. 



STATION 



I 

I 

134-75 I 

135. 15 ' 



875.665 

885.474 
899.681 
886.593 

882.516 

880.083 
887. 728 

884.479 
887.673 

885. 350 

884.680 
873.386 



135. 55 900. 238 



I 
138.15 I 



139.45 



894.853 
874. 499 



139.65 


893. 323 


140.93 


894.395 


142. 05 


904.464 


142.45 


909.094 



I South-west corner of stone foundation of brick 
warehouse, Montana 

I North-east corner center pier, B. & O. R. R. bridge 

I across river below Fairmont 

i South-west corner, bridge seat of abutment, Fair- 

I mont Suspension Bridge, Fairmont en 1. 

I Extreme south-west, or upper corner, nor.h ab\i'.- 
ment, B. & O. railroad bridge, across rivcr 
above Fairmont 
East comer, north abutment. New England rail- 
road bridge. B. M. cut 

. Bottom of New England railroad bridge. 
Highest point on lower wall of abutment, Hon- 
Sacker bridge, left side of river. B. M. cut. 

' Bottom of Honsacker bridge. 

' South-east cornjr, center pier, Monongahela River 

I Railroad >.idge. B. M. cut Bottom of bridge 

I same elevation. 

I Point on upper wall, railroad culvert, lower end of 
railroad curve and cut,neai below White Rock. 

' B. M. cut 
South corner, north-east pier, railroad bridge, 

Booth's creek, Monongah. B. M. cut. 
R. R. spike in Buckeye tree, between railroad and 
river, lower edge of public road, about 230 
feet up stream from Monongah Coal Tipple 
No. 3. 
Point on rock ledge above railroad; eight feet from 
center of Main track and about 870 feet up 
stream* from mile post No. 7, and about 750 feet 
down stream from J. A. Clark Coal Tipple. B. 

' M. cut 

Point on masonry of railroad culvert, upper side 
of track, 1200 feet below Clark C. & C. Co. 
tipple, Chiefton. B. M. cut. 

, Seat for rod cut in upper wall of abutment of 
bridge across river at Worthingion, 25 feet 
back from face of abutment and 2>^ feet 
above suriace of ground, left side of river. B. 
M. cut 

i Point on lower or river end of railroad stone cul- 
vert, Worthingtou station. B. M. cut. 
Point on masonry, lower or river end of railroad 
culvert, 2500 feet up stream from tipple No. i 
of Worthingion C. &. C. Company. 
Point on north corner east pier Enterprise high- 
way bridge. B. M. cut 
Point on rock ledge above railroad, 10 feet from 
center of the track, lower end of railroad 
switch, about 645 feet down stream from 
tipple of Worthington C. & C. Co. No. 2. B. 
M. cut 



40 



LEVELS ABOVE TIDE, 



Distance 

from mouth 

of river. 

Miles 



Elevation 
Feet 



142-75 ! 895.071 



143-35 
144.65 
148. 15 
150. 55 
151. 15 



I 



803.030 
9". 566 
917.606 
923. 142 
907- 459 



152. 25 1 916. 647 



156.45 

157. 35 
157.45 



158. 95 

159. 65 
159. 75 

160.75 



160. 85 

161. 35 

161. 75 



932.904 I 

932. 325 
933- 005 

933- 328 

951. 585 

967. 638 

968.469 
966.641 

997. 135 

970. 584 

972. 330 

971. 674 

941. 782 

926. 005 
941.818 

945- 049 
944.841 



STATION 

Point on north comer lower or river end of rail- 
road stone culvert, Harrison's Run. B. M. 

cut. 
Point on lower or river end of railroad stone cul- 
vert, opposite dairy farm of Wm. Hood. 
North corner, east abutment, Shinnston highway 

bridge. B. M. cut. 
East comer, north pier of Lumberport highway 

bridge. B. M. cut. 
South-east comer of upper wing wall, Maulsby 

highway bridge. B. M. cut. 
Point on masonry, west corner, lower or river end 

of railroad culvert, 3000 feet up stream from 

Maulsby bridge. 
North corner, east pier, M. R. railroad bridge, 

across Simpson Creek, Clark station. B. M. 

cut. 
River rail, lower end of trestle No. 10, Bartlett 

station. 
River rail. Glen Falls coal chute. 
River rail, trestle No. 11, over Falls Run, lower 

end. 
River rail, trestle No. 11, over Falls Rim, upper 

end. 
River rail, upper end heavy cut, 50 feet down 

stream from small ravine, 1000 feet down 

stream from Crooked Run. 
River rail on trestle No. 12, immediately over 

stream. 
River rail, trestle No. 12, upper end. 
Point on masonry, immea lately over tile drain, 

upper end railroad stone culvert, about 420 

feet up stream from trestle No. 12. 
Point on west comer, north abutment, M. R. rail- 
road bridge over the B. & O. railroad, opposite 

Adamston. 
Bolt head, north-west plumb post, B. & O. water 

tank, left bank, Adamston. B. M. of W. Va. 

S. h. railroad. 
Up stream rail, B. & O. railroad bridge, over face 

of abutment. 
Up stream rail, B. & O. railroad bridge, over face 

of abutment on left bank. 
Top of abutment, left bank, upper inside comer.of 

Adamston highway bridge. B. M. cut. 
End of timber of Hart's mill dam. 
Lower inside comer, left abutment, highway 

bridge across mouth of Elk Creek, Clarksburg. 

B. M. cut. 
Lower inside corner, right abutment, highway 

bridge across West Fork river, Clarksburg 

(bridge seat. ) 
Lower inside corner, left abutment, highway 
bridge across West Fork river, Clarksburg 

(bridge seat. ) 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



41 



KANAWHA RIVER. 

Charleston, W. Va. , February 20, 1899. 
DR. I. C. WHITE, State Geologist, 
Morgantown, W. Va. 
Dear Sir : — in compliance with your request I take pleasure in handing 
you herewith a blue print profile of the Great Kanawha river from the 
mouth to Klanawha Palls, giving tide water elevations (Ref. mean tide at 
Richmond) of miter sills, sill of navigation pass, top of dam, coping of lock, 
lift of lock, original low water, etc. , at each lock and dam on Uie river, ex- 
eztreme high water elevations, etc. ^ with distances from the mouth of river. 
All of the lock and dam foundations are built on rock except No. 11 near 
the mouth of the river. No. 11 is built on hardpan, an indurated clay, 
from 18 to 24 feet below low water mark. A description of this hardpan is 
gii^n on page 2452 of the extract from the report of the Chief of Engineers 
herewith. The bed rock at this site is about 40 feet below low water, or 
about 470 feet above tide:. 

Hoping thts will answer your purposes, I am 

Yours very truly, 

ADDISON M. SCOTT, 

U. S. Rt^i<!uit Engineer'. 



I 

Distance! 
Miles , 



STATION 



0.00 

1-75 

11.50 

18.75 

21.50 

25.25 
36.00 
44.25 
46.00 
54.50 
58.00 
67.75 
73.75 
80.00 
85.00 
86.00 
95.25 

97.00 



Mouth of River 

Lock No. II 

Thirteen Mile Shoal 

Lock No. 10 

Buffalo 

Lock No. 9 

Lock No. 8 

Lock No. 7 

! St Albans 

I Lock No. 6. 

. Charleston, Elk River... 

' Lock No. 5 

I Lock No. 4 

I Lock No. 3 

' LockNo. 2« 

I Cannelton 

I ICanawha Falls, top 

Bed-rock, under Falls... 
I ( Ganley River ) 

\ New River ) " 



ELEVATIONS ABOVE TIDE 



Extr'e 

low 

water 



.08 

.58 

15 

.36 

.64 



504.0 



510. 
509. 
512. 

517. 

519. 

523. ,_ _ 

531. 27 526. o 

539. 63 535- 5 



Sill 

of 

Lock 



514.0 



515.0 



520.5 



548. 
552. 
556. 
564. 
571. 
581. 
586. 
637. 
590. 

650. 



011543.75 

50I 

22I552. 50 

44J559- 75 
22 566. 75 
77,578. 75 

34 

00 



of 
Lock 



508.0 



521. 25 
529.25 
537.5 



546. 50 



553- 50 
561.00 



Pool 
above 
Dam 



Top of 
lock 
wall 



521.0 
528.0 



526.0 



533- o 



534.25 
542. 25 
550. 50 



559.00 



566.50 
573. 75 
585. 75 
597. 75 



Extr'e 
high 
water 



539.5 
547. 25 
555. 50 



571.07 
571.64 
572. 22 



565. 50 



572. 50 
579- 75 
601.25 

609.75 



59L 28 



601.32 
604.88 
611.77 
622. 63 



652. 17 



665.50 



42 LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 



1899. 

PRECISE ELEVATIONS. 



TAYLOR, MARION AND MONONGALIA. COUNTIES, W. VA. 
AND FAYETTE CX)UNTY, PA. 



The elevations in the following list are the result of a line of 
precise levels ran during the field season of 1899 from Erie, over 
the Pennsylvania Railroad, to Leboeuf; thence over the Erie 
Railroad to Franklin, and fiom Franklin to Pittsburg over the 
Allegheny Valley Railway. Also from Grafton, W. Va., over the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad to Leith ; thenoe over the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad to Pittsburg. Between Erie and Pittsburg they 
are based on an aluminum tablet set in the hospital wing of the 
Soldiers' Home at Erie, marked "635.'' The elevation of this is 
accepted as being 635.640 feet above mean sea level, as derived 
from the United States Engineer's bench mark at Erie, adjusted 
in accordance with statements on page 203 of Appendix to Nine- 
teenth Annual Report, and page 298, Appendix to Twentieth 
Annual Report. Between Grafton and Pittsburg they are based 
on the United States Coast Survey chisel mark on coping stone 
at north end of central pier of railroad bridge over Tygarts Val- 
ley River. This bench mark was reduced by 0.03 meter, which 
is applied as a permanent correction from Hagerstown, Maryland, 
in accordance with the reports of the Coast Survey. 

The leveling between Grafton and Pittsburg was done by Mr. 
E. L. McNair, assisted by Messrs. J. E. Buford and John W. 
Hodges, rod- men. That between Erie and Pittsburg was done by 
Mr. C. H. Semper, assisted by Messrs. John W. Hodges and Iddo 
M. Lewis. 

All bench marks set in the course of this work were stamped 
with word "PITTSBURG," and the date "1899," in addition to 
the figures of elevations, thus referring them to the central da- 



WEST VIHGlNIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 43 

turn tablet accepted for this group of leveling, which is set in the 
foundation of the Seventh Avenue Hotel in Pittsburg, the ad- 
justed elevation of which is accepted as being 738.527 feet above 
mean sea level at Sandy Hook. This elevation comes through 
five precise lines of levels, namely: United States Coast and 
Geodetic Survey levels from Sandy Hook and from Old Point 
Comfort to Hagerstown and Grafton ; United States Coast and 
Geodetic Survey and United States Army Engineers to Albany, 
Oswego, and the lakes, to Erie ; United States Geologi(;al Survey 
levels from Albany to Dunkirk; and Pennsylvania Railroad 
precise levels from Sandy Hook via Harrisburg to Pittsburg. 



Qrafton, via. Fairmont« to Morgantown, W. Va. 

Grafton, W. Va. ; B. & O. railroad bridge across Ty^arls Valley 
river; coping stone at north end of central pier, chisel marked 
(United States Coast Survey bench mark) 996.829 

Valley Falls, 2. 9 miles east ot; bridge seat at north-east comer of 
girder bridge No. 104, 7 feet east of center of track, 4 feet be- 
low top of outer rail of curve; bronze tablet marked ''986 
Pittsburg 1899" 985.580 

Powell's flag station, % mile west of; stone arch bridge No. 108, 
coping stone of wall, j. i feet below top of rail, 7 feet north of 
center of track; aluminum tablet marked "899 Pittsburg 1899" 899. 029 

Benton Ferry, 160 feet south of sign board at; bridge seat at south- 
west corner of small girder bridge No. 111, 4}4 feet below top 
of raU and i8>^ feet south of center of track; bronze tablet 
marked '*885 Pittsburg 1899" 885.090 

Fairmont, B. & O. station, i^ miles north of the Baltimore & Ohio 
railroad bridge No. 371, across the Monoiigahela river; copine 
stone at north end of east abutment; bronze tablet marked 
-885 Pittsburg 1899" - 885. 034 

Catawba, o. 8 mile south of; B. & O. railroad one-span truss bridge 
No. 369; coping stone at north end of east abutment, 3 feet l^- 
low rail and 8 feet north of; bronze tablet marked "873 Pitts- 
burg 1899" 872.611 

Little Falls, lyi miles north-west of; face of rock, bluff, 9)^ feet 
west of west rail and 4 feet above same, ^ mile north of 
bridge No. 366, bronze Ublet marked "859 Pittsburg 1899" 858. 862 

Uffington station, 400 feet north of; coping stone of abutment at 
north-west comer of one-span truss bridge No. 364, 3 feet below 
top of rail and 7 feet north of rail; aluminum tablet marked 
* '828 Pittsburg 1899** 827.908 

Morgantowd, B. & O. railroad station, 480 feet south of; coping 
stone of abutment at north-west corner of truss bridge over 
Decker's Oeek; bronze tablet marked "821 Pittsburg 1899" . . 820. 900 



44 LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 

Morgantown. W. Va., to Uniontown, Pa. 

Vanvorfais, i mile south of; bridge seat at south-east corner of steel 
girder bridge No. 559; bronze tablet marked ''815 Pittsburg 
1899'' 815.253 

Point Marion station, X ^^^ north of; copins^ stone at east end of 
north {>ier of six-span truss and giraer bridge No. 356 across 
Cheat river; bronze tablet marked ° 81 3 Pittsburg 1 899' ' 8 1 2. 91 1 

Outcrop flae station, o. 2 mile south of; northeast of B. & O. tunnel 
east side of track, 3.7 feet above rail; bronze tablet marked 
"1084 Pittsburg i899»* 1083. 891 

Fairchance, B. & O. station, 550 feet north of; bridge seat at comer 
of small girder bridge No. 338; aluminum tablet marked *'io65 
Pittsburg 1899'* 1065. 243 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 45 



The following letter a::dlist of elevations were received too late for publi- 
crtion in the proper place with the B. & O. levels : 

THE BALTIMORE & OHIO RAILROAD COMPANY. 

OFFICE OF THE CUIBB BNGINBBB, 
J. M. GRAHAM. 

Baltimorb, Md., Dec. i6th, 1902. 
DR. I. C. WHITE, State Geologist, 
Morgantown, W. Va. 
Dear Sir : — Your letter of the 4th inst to Mr. Lemley referred to me, and 
in answer I send you the enclosed table of distances and elevations, as I was 
able to obtain. I trust that this wiil give you the information desired. 
Yours truly, P. H. IRWIN, 

Asst Chief Bugineer. 
Cherry River Extension from Camden-on-Qauiey to Richwood. 

Station Distances from Weston Elevation 

Miles 
Camden-on Gauley 

i.o 77. 9 2021.0 

Arlington 78.9 2021.0 

Bonner 2021.0 

Enoch Run Sidinji: 

6.5 miles 2011.5 

Cranberry 

1.9 miles 85.4 1936.0 

Curtin 

4.0 miles 87. 3 

Lytton 

5.4 miles 91.3 2037.0 

Richwood ,.„,, 96. 7 2192.0 



46 LEVEI^ ABOVE TIDE. 



DISAGREEMENT OP LEVELS. 

It is not to be expected that the levels of the several railroad 
lines of the State will be in exact agreement with one another, or 
Tiyth the results given by the river surveys of the U. S. Engi- 
neers. 

In order to determine the amount of this disagreement at 
some particular point, Clarksburg was selected, and Prof. T. M. 
Jackson, President of the West Virginia Short Line Railroad, 
kindly had the necssary levels carefully made, connecting the Bal- 
timore & Ohio, and the West Virginia Short Line wiih the levels 
of the U. S. Engineers, who have carried the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road datum from Uniontown across to the Monongahela river at 
Lock No. 9, and up the same to Clarksbnrg. The point chosen 
for comparison was the Bench Mark of the U. S. Engineers at the 
"Bolt head, north-west plumb post, B. & O. water tank, left 
bank, Adamstown, 970.584 feet," according to the river survey 
above mentioned with the Pennsylvania Railroad datum. The 
same point (970.584 feet) by the West Virginia Short Lines datum 
is 969.08 feet, and by the B. & O. datum of 1030 feet for snb- 
grade of the old passenger station at Clarksburg, is 966.45 feet, 
thus giving a difference of (970.584—969.08) only 1.504 feet 
between the Short Line Railroad datum and that of the Govern- 
ment Engineers, and (970.684—966.45) of 4.134 feet between the 
latter and that of the B. & O., results much nearer in agreement 
than usually found when different railroad and river levels inter- 
lock. 

Prof. Jackson also had the elevation of the new passenger sta- 
tion of the B. & 0. R. R. at Clarksburg determined, which on the 
basis of 1033.49 feet for the water table of the old passenger sta- 
tion under west window (a bench accurately established from the 
B. & 0. profile many years ago) gives for the top of the south 
rail at line of the east wall of tae new passenger station 
an elevation of 1010.16 feet, and a bench mark on doorstep of the 
north east door of the station building 1011 80 feet. Also the top 
of south rail at west end of the platform, Adamston station, B. & 
0. R. R., 961.15 feet, and for the B. & 0. bridge seat across the 



WEST VTROINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 47 

North- Western Turnpike at Adamston, bench mark top of stone 
wall, south-east comer of abutment, 954.91 feet. The elevation 
of the new passenger station is given in the table on page 31, vol.1, 
at 1000 feet, while Adamsion is 952 feet, both of which are too low 
by 10 feet approximately, even on the B. & 0. datum of 1030 feet 
for sub-grpde at the old passenger station. The four pointa on 
the B. & O. given above, brought into agreement with the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad datum carried from Uniontown to Clarksburg 
by the U. S. Engineer, would be for the south rail at Clarksburg 
new station 1014.294 feet; (for the bench mark on the door sill, 
same place, 1015.934 feet) ; f >r the south rail at Adamston, 965- 
. 284 feet ; and for the bench mark on bridge seat over North- Wes- 
tern Turnpike, 959.044 feet, above tide. 



48 LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 



PRECISE AND SPIRIT LEVELS. 



ESTABLISHED BY THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

1898-1902 



The following account of the methods pursued by the U. S. 
Geological Survey, in its work of establishing accurate elevations 
and bench marks in connection with the co-operative topogiaphic 
map work of West Virginia, has been kindly prepared for the 
Survey by Mr. H. M. Wilson, Geographer in charge of the Atlan- 
tic Division of the U. S. Geological Surve3^ 

Mr. Wilson also gives in this connection a list of such eleva- 
tions accurately determined, together with their locations in the 
several regions of the State. It is needless to say that these bench 
marks will prove of great value to engineers, railroads, and all 
manner of public improvements based upon accurate levels, since 
it will enable all work of this kind to be correlated upon the same 
accurate and reliable datum Mining engineers especially should 
connect their mine levels in all cases with tide elevations, and for 
this reason these elevations find an appropriate and prominent 
place in the volume on Coal, so that not only mining engineers, 
but all others, may have the data at hand for connecting their 
surveys with tidal elevations. 



WBST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 49 



SPIRIT LEVEL ELEVATIONS. 

Since 1896 the U. S. Geological Survey has been running 
very careful spirit levels for the control of its topographic work, 
and the elevations resulting from the same have been marked by 
permanent metal tableta^set not farther than six miles apart. These 
elevations are listed below, the work being executed in accordance 
with the following instructions issued for the guidance of the field 
force : 

INSTRUCTIONS. 

SPIRIT LEVELING. 

1. A sufficient amount of accurate spirit leveling will be 
done to insure the placing of at least two permanent bench marks in 
each township or equivalent area surveyed, except in forest-clad and 
mountain areas, and in the region east of the 95th meridian, 
where at least one shall be established; and these shall be estab- 
lished, whenever practicable, near the township comers of the 
the public land surveys. In addition to these, other bench marks 
should be located in prominent places, where tbey may be of ser- 
vice in the prosecution of future public or private surveys. 

2. For each general locality of field work some centrally sit- 
uated place will be chosen in which an elevation above sea level 
can be determined with approximate accuracy from railroad or 
other surveys. In this place is to be established a central datum 
bench mark, preferably a tablet cemented in some solid masonry 
structure, to which will be referred all other bench marks in its 
neighborhood. 

3. Permanent bench marks established in the course of the 
subsequent work should be so located that, like the central datum 
benches, they will not be liable to injury or disturbance, yet should 



50 LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 

be SO prominently situated that they will be easy to find. They 
should consist of bronze or aluminum tablets, fastened with Port- 
land cement into solid rock or masonry structures, as the founda- 
tions of buildings or bridge piers; or of the standard bronze- 
capped iron posts, which should be so set in the ground as to pro- 
ject about one foot. The intersection of the cross lines is the 
bencli mark. 

4. Primary level lines should be run with one or two rod- 
men and one levelman, and when necessary, a bubble tender. 
Wherever practicable such lines should be run in circuits which 
will check back upon themselves or other lines. Where long, 
unchecked lines are run, two rodmen must be employed. 

5. Single-rodded Lines. Levelman and rodman must 
keep separate notes and compute differences of elevation immedi- 
ately. As levelman and rodman pass, the former must read the 
rod himself, record and compare readings, then compute the H. L, 
and after computations are made compare results with the rod- 
man. No comparisons should be made until the record is com- 
plete. If the results differ, each must read the rod before com- 
paring anything but results. 

6. Work on primary lines should not be carried on during 
high winds or when the air is '*boiling" badly. During very hot 
weather an effort should be made to get to work early and to 
remain out late, rather than to work during midday. 

7. Fore and back sights should be of equal length, and no 
sight over 300 feet should be taken excepting under unavoidable 
circumstances, as in crossing rivers at fords or ferries or in crossing 
ravines. In such cases extraordinary precautions must be taken, 
as repeated readings at changed positions of rod and level, etc. 

8. If it is impracticable to take equal fore and back sights, 
as soon as the steep slope is passed take enough unequal sights to 
make each set balance. In this case extra care must be taken to 
insure correct adjustment of the level. 

9. Distances along railroads can be obtained by counting 
rails; at other times stadia ox pacing may be used, according to 
the quality of the work. The distances in feet of both the fore 



WEST VIBOINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 51 

and back sighte must be recorded in both note books in proper 
columns. 

10. Always level the instrument exactly before setting the 
target After setting it and before giving the signal '*all right," 
examine the level bubble. If found to be away from center cor- 
rect it and reset target. 

11. The level must be adjusted daily or oftener, if neces- 
essary. The adjustment of the line of collimation and of the 
level tube is especially important. 

12. Provide rodmen with conical steel pegs, 6 to 12 inches 
long, with round heads, to be used as turning points. Nevet take 
turning points on rails, ties, or between them. Always drive the 
pegs firmly into the ground. 

13. When the rod is lengthened beyond 6.5 feet, both the 
rodman and the levelman must examine the setting of the target 
as well as the reading of the rod vernier. When the rod is closed 
see that the rod vernier indicates 6.6 feet, not depending upon 
the abutting end to bring it back to place. Keep the lower end 
of the rod and the top of the turning point free from mud and 
dirt 

14. Plumbing levels must always be used and kept in ad- 
justment, and lonp; extensions of the rod avoided. 

15. Leave temporary bench marks at frequent intervals, 
marked so that they can be easily identified. These may be on a 
solid rock well marked, a nail driven in a root of a tree or in a 
post, or on any place where the mark will not be disturbed for a 
few weeks. One such bench mark should be left for every mile run, 
in order to give sufficient points to which to tie future levels. 
Mark in large figures, in a conspicuous place when possible, the 
elfvation to the nearest foot. Make notes opposite all elevations 
at crossings of roads^ railroads, streams, bridges, aad in front of 
railway stations and public buildings, and of such other facts as 
may aid the topographer in his work.. 

16. Endeavor to so locate permanent bench marks that the 
observed elevation shall be within one tenth foot of the marked 
elevation. The figures of elevation must be stamped well 



52 LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 

into the metal cap before the word ''feet," and to the nearest foot 
only, also name or initial letter of the central datum point after 
the word **datum.'' 

17. A complete description, accompanied by a large scale- 
sketch, must be made of each bench mark, giving its exact eleva- 
tion as computed, from the mean of the two sets of notcB. After 
bench marks are stamped both levelman and rodman must exam- 
ine them, and record in note books the figures stamped thereon. 

18. The limit of error in feet should not exceed 



.05\/distance in miles. 

19. Use the r^ular Survey level books; keep full descriptive 
notes on title page of every book, ociving names, dates, etc. Each 
man should be responsible for his own note book; and under no 
circumstances should erasures be made, a single pencil line being 
drawn through erroneous records. 

20. A.t the end of each day's work columns of fore sights 
and back sights must be added; the difference between the sums ap- 
plied with proper signs to original elevations should give the clos- 
ing elevation. 

21. When errors are discovered as the work progresses, they 
must be reported at once to the topographer in charge. 

22. Keep each set of notes separately and independently as 
taken, paying no attention whatever to other notes except to com- 
pare results. If on comparison errors are discovered, correct them 
oaly by new observations or computations. All notes must be 
recorded directly in note book. Separate pieces of paper for fig- 
uring, or temporary records must not under any circumstances be 
used. 

23. An index book or list of bench marks must be kept 
posted in the field, in ink, for all classes of leveling done. In 
these, location sketches of permanent bench marks may be made, 
and descriptions should in every case refer, with distance, to some 
village, section corner, or other place of local importance. All 
circuit closure errors should be distinctly noted, with cross refer- 
ence by page to the connecting lines. 

24. In long, single rodded lines make two target settings on 
each turning point, by first signalling "up" or *^down" to a set- 



WEST VIBGINIA GEOLOGICAL SUBVEY. 53 

ting, which is recorded by the rodman, then unclamping and sig- 
nalling in an opposite direction to a setting. If the two differ 
more tnan .002 of a foot, additional readings must be made. The 
rodman should record .Ul readings, using in his computation only 
the first of the pair adopted, and the levelman the last. 

25. DottbLe-rodded Lines.- -In running unchecked or single 
primary lines with two rodmen, they should set on turning points 
10 to 20 feet apart, but each at equal distances for fore and back 
sights ; otherwise the above instructions are to followed with the 
following modifications: 

26. The tripod clamping screws should be loosened when the 
instrument is set, and tightened only after the legs are firmly 
planted; and the instrument must be shaded at all times by the 
bubble tender. 

27. The laborer should place the steel turning points for 
foresights and then return and not remove the back-sight points 
until the levelman has set targets on the new fore sight, so that 
there shall be in the ground at all times two turning points, the 
elevations, of which are known. 

28. Bench marks left at termination of work at night, or for 
rain or other cause, should be practically turning points in a con- 
tinuous line. They should consist of large wooden pegs driven 
below the surface of the ground, with a copper nail firmly imbed- 
ded in the top. One of these pegs is to be used as the final turn- 
ing point for each rodman. They are to be covered with dirt, or 
otherwise hidden, their location being marked by sketches in note- 
books showing relation to railroad ties, telegraph poles, etc. 



u 



LEVELS ABOVfe TIDfe. 



GRANT, BERKELEY, HAMPSHIRE AND MINERAL 
COUNTIES. 

The elevations in the following list are based on a bronze tab- 
let set in the Allegany County Court House at Cumberland, Md., 
and marked ''C 688." This bench mark is based on the U. 8. 
Coast and Geodetic Survey transcontinental line of precise levels, 
and dependent on this its height is accepted as 687.627 feet above 
mean sea level. These elevations were connected at various places, 
as shown in the following list, with other bench maiks of the 
Coast Survey transcontinental line besides that at Cumberland. 
All of these Coast Survey bench marks have been reduoed from 
the elevations published in the Appendix for the report of 1882 by 
the amount — 0. '03 meters, the constant correction found at Ha- 
gcrstown as published in the Coast Survey Report for 1896. 

The leveling was done in 1898 under the general direction of 
Mr. J. H. Jennings, topographer, by Messrs. Hargraves Wood and 
C. B. Bailey, levelmen. 

All bench marks dependent on this datum are marked with 
the letter "C" in aadition to the figures of elevation : 

Pratt Post OflBce, >( mile east of; bronze tablet in ledge of rock south 
side of road, 150 feet west of Robinette's old house, marked 
**938 C" 937. 903 

Little Orleans. Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, aqueduct over Fifteen- 
Mile Creek; north end east coping; bronze tablet marked 
"459 C" 459. 288 

Hancock, westward along Baltimore Pike to Bench Mark 

near Harvey's. 

Chesapeake and Ohio Canal aqueduct; coping stone middle of north 
wall, same being about 6<x) feet east of bridge; U. S. Coast and 
Geodetic Survey bench mark marked ''iSyS F" 420. 813 

Hancock Bank, front of; bronze tablet on stone door sill, marked 

**448 C" 448. 122 

Hancock, 5. 15 miles west of; X niile east of "Harvey's," 100 feet 
west of road to Woodmont; bronze tablet in solid rock on 
south side of pike, marked "946 C" 945. 552 



WEST VIBGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 55 

Hancock to Sleepy Creek Station, via Berkeley Springs, 
Rock Gap and Stotler's Corners. 

Berkeley Springs, Morgan County Court House; west face of south- 
west comer stone; aluminum tablet marked *'6i2 C** 611.894 

Rock Gap Comers, 700 feet west of Feamow*s house, 10 feet north 
of road at summit of gap, in rock; aluminum tablet, marked 

"761 c" 760.755 

8totler*s Comers, }i mile north of, at first ford of Sleepy Creek; 
ledge of rock east side of road 25 feet north of north entrance 
to rord, in cleft of rock about four feet above roadway, alumi- 
num tablet marked "662 C" 662. 053 

Lock 5o, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, along Chesapeake and Ohio 
Canal to McCoy's Ferry, thence across and up Back Creek. 

Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Lock 50, northeast wing; aluminum 

Ublct, marked **402 C*' 402.372 

Frankfort, (Alaska), ^ mile northwest of; copper bolt iu west end 
of north abutment highway bridge over Patterson's Creek, 
marked "589 C'» 588.628 



KANAWHA, PUTNAM, LINCOLN, BOONE, LOQAN, MINQO, 

Mcdowell, wyominq and mason counties. 

The elevations in the following list are based on a l)ench mark 
determined by trigonometrical leveling by the U. S. Coast and Geo- 
detic Survey at St. Albans west base raoi.ument. The leveling in 
connection with this work was done chiefly by Mr. Hargraves 
Wood, levelman, under the direction of Mr. Hersey Munroe, to- 
pographer, during the seasons of 1896 and 1897. 

In the spring of 1898 Mr. E. L. McNair, levelman, conected 
levels brought from Hamden Junction bench mark of the trans- 
continental line of precise levels of the United States Coast and 
Geodetic Sarvey, via Thurman and Gallipolis, Ohio, to Point 
Pleasant, W. Va, At this place connection was made with bench 
mark of the United States Engineers on coping of Lock 11, on 
Great Kanawha Rirer The result was a difference of 4.780 feet. 
which is added to the elevations determined by the United States 
Engineers on Great Kanawha River, and a permanent bench mark 
was left in Point Pleasant bearing the accepted elevation as brought 
from the Coast Survey. 

The following elevations are ba^ed on a datum tablet placed 
in the State Capitol building in Charleston in 1897, and marked 



56 LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 

'*C 602,'' is now accepted as being 601.597 feet above mean sea 
level. The bench marks dependent upon this datum have been 
marked with the letter "C" in addition to the figures of elevation. 



Charleston up Two-nilc Creek and along Charleston and SissonvlIIe 
Road to Wallace's Store on Tupper Creek. 

Charleston, State Capitol, in south-west corner of; bronze tablet, 

marked "602 C" 601.597 

Two-Mile Bridge, 2j^ miles north of; about 200 feet south-west of 
Methodist church known as Wesley Chapel, copper bolt in 
boulder, marked *'6o4 C** 604.751 

Wallace's store, ^ miles east of: copper bolt in ooulder on south 
edge of road and about 600 feet east of James Wallace's house, 
marked "668 C" 1 667.677 



Wallace's Store on Tupper Creek, via Martin's Branch and 
Pocatallco River to Poca. 

Martin's Branch Road, south side of and }( mile above mouth; 175 
feet west first crossing near schoolhouse; copper bolt in rock 
ledge, one foot above grade, marked *'C 592" 591. 942 



Poca, along Kanawha and Michigan Railroad 
to St. Albans. 

Poca Station, 300 feet south of; copper bolt on west side south abut- 
ment highway bridge over Correly Branch; marked *'C 572"... 573. 266 

Lock 7, top coping; equals 555. 50 United States Engineer's ele- 
vation 560.280 

Scott railroad station, 75 feet south of; iron i>ost in Pine's orchard, 
50 feet south of Chesapeake & Ohio railroad tracks, marked 
"693 C" 693.781 

St. Albans, west base monument, located in fence line on west side 
of First street, 60 feet north of the north rail of the C. & O. 
railway track; center of monument is marked by limestone 
post projecting one foot above ground in top ot which is a cop- 
per bdt, the elevation of which is 595. 616 



Lock 6 to Tyler Creek Schoolhouse. 

Tyler Creek road, }i mile southeast forks of road near Tyler school 
house; copper bolt in rock 20 feet west of drain across, marked 
**C 623" ^ 624. 296 



WEST VIRGINIA GSOLOQICAL SURVEY. 57 

Lock 6 up niddle Fork of Davis Creek to Mouth 
of Long Branch. 

Lon^ Branch, 900 feet north of; between second and third cross- 
ings north of school house; copper bolt in large nouHei west 
side of Middle Fork Davis Creek, marked *^C 659 66a 187 



Lock 5, up Len's Creek to Racine, and down Coal River 
to Mouth of Ltek Creek. 

Lock 5, coping; equals 572. 50 U. S. Engineer's elevation 577. 280 

Chesapeake & Ohio railway culvert over Rush Creek, X mile north- 
west of; a copper bolt in middle one of three ledges of rock, 
west side of nght fork Rush Creek, marked **C 639'* « 639. 868 

Hemshaw, about one mile south of; copper bolt in 3x5 foot ledge 
of rock south side road, south bank Len's Creek, near A. Hoff- 
man's house, marked **C 722" 723. no 

Peytona, about two miles northwest; copper bolt in ledge of rock, 
south side road down Coal river, 100 feet northwest Laurel 
branch; one mile below White Oak branch, marked *'C 665"... 666. 326 

Lick Creek, 200 feet north of mouth of; copper bolt in rack west 

side of Coal riverroad, marked "C 648" 649. 300 



Racine* via Comfort and Hopidnst to Mouth 
Robinson Creek. 

Comfort, yi mile north of; cofmer bolt bottom, of rock cliff, >^ 
mile south mouth of Joe's Creek, east side Coal river road, 4 
feet above grade, marked **C 673" 674. 413 

Hopkins Pork, 200 feet southeast mouth of; bronze tablet in face 

rock cliff, marked **C 734'* 735-313 

Robison Creek and Pond Creek, 500 feet from confluence of; cop- 
per bolt sunk in protruding ooulde^ in Ballard Brown's field 
on east side of; ana 300 feet from road, marked **C 746" 747. 772 



St Albans, via Tackett Creek, Young's Store and Tornado, 
to StarUng Point. 

St. Albaxis, west base monument, located in fence line on west side 
of PizBt street, 60 feet north of the north rail of the Chesa- 
peake & Ohio railway track; center of monument is marked 
by limestone post, projecting one foot above eround, in the 
top of which is a copper bolt, the elevation of which is 595. 616 

Young's store, first house south of; on south side of road, belong- 
inp to Jolm Hodges; copper bolt set in east chimney, six feet 
from ground, marked *^U. S. G. S. 737 feet B. M. " 219873 



58 LKVELS ABOVE TIDE. 

Trace Fork of Mud River, 200 feet below mouth of Two-mile 
branch, 400 feet northwest of Anderson McAllister's house; 
copper bolt in huge rock on north side of stream, marked *'U. 
S.G.S. 669feetB.M.'* 670.050 

Tornado, i>^ miles southwest of; on road up Pall Creek; iron post 
on south side of road 150 feet above first crossing of Pall 
Creek, marked ••614" 614.653 



Qarrett's Bend to Sand Qap, Sugar Camp Knob, Down Laurel 
Fork of Horse Creek to iladison. 

Garrett*s Bend, one n ile southeast of, up Trace Pork; nail in root 

of sycamore tree, east side of road, near foot-log and saw mill 671. 540 

Sand Gap, 500 feet west of fork of roads, at; copper bolt in huge 
rock above John A. MidkifT's house, niarkea '*U. S. G. S. 1079 
B.M. " 1,079.470 

Laurel Pork, 200 feet above confluence with Horse Creek, copper 
bolt in rock ledge on eabt bank, opposite James McClure*a 
house, near last crossing of Laurel, marked **U. S. G. S. 673 
feetRM. " 673.547 

Trace Branch, one mile above mouth; copper bolt in large boulder 
on .left side of right-hand hollow in Trace Branch of Horse 
' Creek, marked *'U.S.G. S. 766 feet B.M." 766.^56 

Camp Creek, X ^^^^ north of; copper bolt in small ledge of rock 
on east side of road going up Little Coal river, 300 feet above 
B. Stolling*s, marked '*U. S. G. S. 660 feet B. M. " 661.095 

Lick Creek, 3>^ miles above mouth of and X ^^^^ above Cham- 
ber's house, on right-hand fork of Lick Creek; copper bolt in 
boulder above coal bank, 25 feet i»ast of creek, between two 
walnut trees, one of which is blazed; bolt is marked **U. S. G. 
S.820 feet B.M." 82a328 



Madison up Spruce Creek to ng Post Office. 

Madison, sheriff's office; bronze tablet in front wall, marked **704" 704. 146 

Spruce Pork, >i mile above mouth of Beech Creek, on north side 
of Spruce Pork. 300 feet below splash dam, opposite William 
Coleman's bam, copper bolt in ledge of rock, marked *'U. S. 
G. S. 846 feet B. M. " 846. 234 



From noutli of Hewett Creek to l^k and up Quyandot 
River tc Lx>gan 

Hewett Creek, 300 feet above mouth of; copper bolt in ledge of rock 
opposite school house and on south side of creek, marked **U. 
S. G. 8. 767 feet B. M. " 767. 954 



WX8T VIROIKIA GSOLOGlCAL SURVEY. 59 

Peck, 31^ mile south of post office; on the northwest side of Mill 
creek, 300 feet above month; cojmr bolt in northwest comer 
of huge bowlder, marked "U. S. G. S. 653 feet B. M. " 653. 549 

Logan, bronie tablet set in wall at northeast comer of court house, 

marked ••678." 678.822 



Logan to Mouth of Big Huff Creek, and up Quyandot 
River to QfllMrt 

Rich Creek, opposite mouth of; copper bolt in rock 20 feet north of 
Methodist Episcopal Church, marked **U. & G. S. 725 feet B. 
M. " 725. 559 

Buffalo Creek, }( mile above mouth of, opposite Martin Doss' and 
60 feet above foot W, on west side of Buffalo; copper bolt in 
rock, marked "U. S. G. S. 728 feet B. M. ** 728. 511 

Buffalo Creek, west side of valley, 3 miles above mouth of; copper 

bolt, marked "U.S. G.S. 808 feet B.M." 808.539 

Rockhouse Creek, west side of and one mile above mouth; copper 
bolt in rock near south end of cliff, marked **U. S. G. S. 792 
feet B. M. " 792. 749 

Big Huff Creek, east side of, and 300 feet above mouth: copper 

bolt in rock, marked **U. S. G. S. 727 feet B. M. " 727. 962 



Qill>ert, via Wiiarnciifffe, to State Comer between Virginia. 
West Virginia and Kentuclcy. 

Gilbert, opposite Alexander Stafford's store; iron post in field, 

marked "832" 832. 571 

Kentucky, Virginia and West Virginia, comer of state lines, }4 

mile south of Whamcliffe; iron post, marked * ^825' * 826. 087 



Kentuclcy, Virginia and West Virginia Comer, via Moutli of 
Lx>ng Pole, and up same to near Oalc Brancli. 

Long Pole Creek, 1,200 feet below Oak Branch; iron post on south 

side of road; marked **io5o" 1,051.209 



Up Big Huff Creole, via Cyclone, to its Head 
and to Eciuut. 

Cyclone, copper bolt in rock ooposite Henchman's house, marked 

**U.8.G.S.854 feet B. M. '» 854. 917 

Toney Fork of Huff Creek, south side of, about two miles above 
mouth; copper bolt in ledge of rock, marked **U. S. G. S. 1234 
feet B. M. " 1,235. 414 



60 LEVELS ▲BOVE TIDE. 

Road Gap Branch, 600 feet below; iron post on east side of road 
up Big Huff Creek, 100 feet above D. fi. Cook,s store, marked 
*^io6^» 1,068.525 

Bchart, east bank of Pond Fork of Coal River, opposite mouth of 
Skin Pork; copper bolt in ledge of rock, marked **U. 8. G. S. 
1423 feet B. M. " 1,423. 950 



Echart, down Pond F6rk of Little Coal River, via Bald 
Knob and Crook, to Mouth of West Fork, 
and up flame to Mouth of 
Brown's Branch. 

Bald Knob, east side of valley at; c(n>per bolt in boulder opposite 

Eddy Workmim*s, marked U. S. G. S. iioi feet B. M 1,101.980 

Cow Creek, north side of; ^ mile from mouth and 800 feet from 
Jim Gonnoe's; copper bolt in ledge of rock, marked U. S. G. S. 
1039 feet B.M. " i,Q4ao20 

West Pork of Pond, 1000 feet above junction of Pond Pork; copper 
bolt in rock, northeast side, marked **U.S.G.S.8o8 feet B. 
M.'» 809.939 

West Pork of Pond, 800 feet below Brown's Branch; copper bolt in 
ledge of rock on west side of road, a little above and nearly 
opposite small water mill; bolt is marked *'U. d. G. S. 884 feet 
B.M." 885.250 



Junction of West and Pond Forlcs of Little Coal River 
to Madison. 

Robinson Creek and Pond Fork, 500 feet from confluence of; cop- 
per bolt sunk in protruding boulder in Ballard Brown's field, 
on east side of and 300 feet from road, marked U. S. G. S. 746 
feet B. M. " 747- 772 



WEST VIBGWTA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 61 



MONONGALIA AND PRB5T0N COUNTIES. 
Moryantown Quadrangle. 

The elevations published in the following list are based on a 
bronze tablet 500 feet south of Morgantown station at the north- 
west comer of coping stone of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 
bridge, marked "821 Pittsburg 1899" set by this bureau, the ele- 
vation of which is accepted as 821 058 feet above mean sea level as 
determined by the U. S. Coast Survey adjustment of 1900, and as 
published in Appendix No. 8 to the report of the Superintendent 
of that bureau for 1898-99. 

The leveling was done in 1899 under the direction of Mr. 
Frank Sutton, topographer, by Mr. William Crtnnell, levelman 

All permanent bench marks dependent on this datum are re- 
ferred, through the precise level net, to an aluminum tablet in the 
Seventh Avenue Hotel at Pittsburg, the elevation of which is ac- 
cepted as 738.527 feet above mean sea level, and are marked with 
the letters ''Pittsburg'* in addition to the figures of elevation. 

ilorgMitown via Dellslow. Masontown and Cold Spring 
to Morgantown. 

^The error distributed in this circuit slightly exceeds the allowable limit. ) 

Dellslow, north side of creek; 30 feet east of bridge over; in top of 

large boulder; aluminum tablet marked "994 Pittsburg 1899'* 994*034 

Masontown, Methodist Church; in southeast corner of foundation 

of; aluminum tablet, marked "1843 Pittsburg" 1842.609 

Cold Spring, o. 5 mile north of; near watering trough west of pike; 
on large sandstone; aluminum tablet, marked *'2ii3 Pitts- 
burg** 2112. 759 



62 LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 



WAYNE cou^r^v. 

Ceredo Quadrangle. 

The elevations published in the following list are based upon 
bench mark LIII. of the transcontinental line of precise levels of 
the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, near Hamden Junction^ O., 
the elevation of whicn is accepted as 706.252 feet above mean sea 
level. 

The elevations herein published are based directly upon two 
bench marks of U.S.G.S., one at Greenup, Ky., a bronze tablet set 
vertically in a stone at entrance to clerk's office, stamped ^'538 I," 
and one at Ironton, O., at the northwest comer Fourth and Rail- 
road streets; a bronze tablet in the southeast corner of Memorial 
Hall and Public Library, the corrected elevations of which arc 
accepted a« 540.692 feet above mean Rca level for Greenup, and 
546.965 feet for Ironton. 

Bailed upon the above a central datum has been adopted 
the for the following work, which is a bronze tablet at Kenova, 
W. Va. , in the west side of the door sill at the entrance to the 
men's waiting room at Union Station. The elevation of this is 
accepted as 567.606 feet above mean sea level, or about 0.4 foot 
greater than the elevation derived for this bench mark in the field. 

The leveling was executed in 1900 under the general direc- 
tion of Mr. W. N. Morrill, topographer, by Messers. C H. Sem- 
per and J. E. Buford, levelman. 

All bench marks in this list, being referred to Kenova as a 
local base, are stamped with the letter '*K" in addition to their 
figures of elevation. 



Kenova, W. Va., along Ohio & Big Sandy R. R , 
to Rockville, Ky. (Buchanan). 

Unadjusted 
Eleva.— Ft. 
Kenova, Union Station, west side of door sill of men*s entrance to 

waiting room; aluminum tAblet marked*' 567 K'* 567.606 

Savage Branch station, one mile south of; in David Lockwood's 
house, in foundation on left side of front steps; bronze tablet 
marked **586 K" 586.801 



WEST VIRGINIA GBOLOQICAL SURVEY. 63 

Bachanan, 150 feet south of; overhead railroad bridge, (B. 8. 189) 
in top stone east end north pier; bronze tablet marked '*554 K 
1900" 554.919 

Catlettsburg, Louisa street J>etween Franklin and Clay strets, in 
courtyard; northwest corner of clerk's office; one foot above 
water table; aluminum tablet marked ' '549 K 1900* ' 550. 991 



Buchanan, along Big Sandy R. R. to Louisa. 

Fullers, 300 feet north of station; 5 feet west of railroad at east 
edee of highway; 30 feet north of white house; in sandstone 
ledge; bronze tablet marked **572 K 1900" ^ 571. 562 

Louisa, U. S. BngineeTS B. M. , No 13 Big Sandy at Lock No. 3, in 

Engineer's office yard; (by U. S. Engineers, 569. 570) 569. 769 

Louisa, county court house; north face west side; in foundation of; 

aluminum tablet marked "584 K 1900" 583. 107 



Louisa, along Big Sandy R, R. to Gallup. 

Gallop, G. C. McClure's house; in stone step to house; bronze tablet 

marked **59i K 1900" 590.059 

Gallup, o. 6 mile west of; U. S. Engineer's B. M. , No. 5 Big Sandy, 
50 feet south of west end of trestle No. 403; (by U. H. Engi- 
neers, elevation 591.559 feet) , 590-977 



Qallnp, via Adam's Store to Hawes' Mill. 

Adams, 2 miles south of post office; M. R. Hayes residence; in 
southwest comer of foundation; bronze tablet marked "667 K 
1900" 667.279 



64 LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 



WBTZEL. MONONGALIA, TAYLOR, HARRISON, BARBOUR 
AND LEWIS COUNTIES. 

The elevations in the following list are based upon bench 
marks of the precise level net at Fairmont, Grafton and Webster, 
the elevations of which are accepted as corrected by the U. S. 
coa£t Survf y and published in Appendix No. 8 of their report • 
for 1898 99. 

The leveling on the Fairmont and Philippi quadrangles was 
done in 1901 under the directijn of Mr. W. Carvel Hall, topogra- 
pher, by Mr. G. L. Gordon, levelman, j»nd that on the Clarki^burg 
and Weston sheets under the direction of Mr. W. N. Morrill, to- 
pographer, bv J. H. Hodges, levelman. 

All permanent bench marks are referred through the precise 
net to an aluminum tablet at the entrance of the Seventh Avenue 
Hotel at Pittsburg, the elevation of which is accepted as 738.527 
feet above mean sea level, and are marked with the letters 
"PITTSBURG" in addition to their figures of elevation. 

Fairmont, via. Farmington, ilonongah, Boothsville and 
Mead villa to Bridgeport. 

Unadjusted 
Eleva. 
Fairmont, i^ miles north of; B. & O. bridge No. 371, across Mo- 
nongahela river; north end of east abutment of; bronze tablet 
in coping stone marked *'885 Pittsburg 1889*' 885. 175 

Farmington, George's Creek Coal and Iron Co's store; northeast 
corner of front; face of water table; bronze tablet marked "952 
Grafton 1901" 951.843 

Monongah, B. & O. R. R. plate girder bridge over Booth*s Creek; 
west face of north pier; two feet from southwest corner in sev- 
enth stone from the top; bronze tablet marked "874 Grafton*'.. 874. 041 

Boothsville, covered bridge over Hustead's fork; west face of north 
abutment; 3. 5 feet from southwest comer and 4. 5 feet from 
the top; bronze tablet marked "954 Grafton" 954. 241 

Meadland, brick house owned by L. J. Stark; front or east face of; 
foundation, one foot from northeast corner; bronze tablet 
marked "1319 Grafton" 1318.640 



WEffT YIBGINIA GBOLOGIGAL SURVEY. 66 

Biidgeport, railroad bridge No. 6 over Simpson's Creek; west abut- 
ment of; south end; third stone from top and second above 
bridge seat; center of east face of; bronze tablet marked 
"979 Grafton" 978. 867 



Qraftoo. via. Webster, Simpson, Hemington, Rosemont, Oral 
and Bridgeport to Ciarlcsbarg. 

Graiton, B. & O. R. R. bridge, over Tygart's Valley Creek; on top 
of north side of central pier; chiseled square, marked *'Unitea 
States Coast and GeodeUc Survey B. M. 1878" 99^. 954 

Webster, B.& O. S. W. R. R. bridge No. 2 over Bartlett's Creek; 
south abutment wall of; 1. 15 feet from east comer; bronze 
tablet marked "1014 Grafton" 1013.867 

GarksbuTg, post office comer Third and Pike streets; northwest 
comer; two feet above ground; aluminum tablet marked **ioo6 
Grafton*' 1007.791 



Monongaheia Junction to Monongah. 

Shinnston, west branch of Mononj^ahela river; highway bridge 
over; southwest comer of retaining wall; bronze tablet marked 
"909 Grafton 1901" 910. 551 

Worthington, southwest abutment of highway bridge; south end 

of; on top of seat; bronze tablet marked "098 Grafton 190 1**... 899. 336 

Monongah, plate girder R.R.bridge over Booth's Creek; west face of 
north pier; two feet from southwest comer; in seventh stone 
from top; bronze tablet marked **874 Grafton 1901" 874. 041 



Bridgeport, via. Berryburg, Switzer and Pleasant Creole 
to Webster. 

Berryburg, Southern Coal and Transportation Company's tipple; 
retaining wall of; west of tipple and in front of power house; 
fourth stone from top; bronze tablet marked "1390 Grafton"... 1389. 600 

Pleasant Creek, brick residence of A. I. Cole, west comer of south 
foundation: fifth stone from top and fourth from gnmnd; i. 45 
feet from comer; bronze tablet marked "1170 Grafton" 1170. 140 



Switzer, via. Philippi, etc., to Peck's Run. 

Philippi, brick school house; north side of front entrance; center 
north face of foundation stone; bronze tablet marked *'i3ri 
Grafton" 131a 781 



66 LBVELS ABOVE TIDE. 

Philippi, lo. 4 miles south of; (Buckhannon or Tygart*s Junction); 
Tygait's Valley river; plate girder bridge No. i over; west 
abutment of; north side of first stone above bridge bid; in 
center of east face; bronze tablet marked "1334 Grafton* 1333. 636 

Volga, B. & O. R. R. bridge over Wash Run, north abutment of; 
east face of; iu center of first stone from top; bronze tablet 
maxlced ** 1404 Grafton ' 1403. 955 



Peeks Run, via Peel Tree and Overfield to Pepper. 

Peel Tree, residence of Dr. Isaac Smith; retaining wall in front of, 
at opening for steps; west face of south wall; third stone above 
third step from sidewalk; in center of; bronze tablet marked 
••1069 Grafton" 1068.885 



Peck's Run to Buckhannon. 

Buckhannon, Upshur county court house; front entrance; west side 
of; base block of square column; west face; in center of; alum- 
intun tablet marked "1433 Grafton ' 1432.977 



Buckhannon to Ruraldale. 

Ruraldale, o. 6 mile west of; near fork of road by old mill; 200 feet 
east of residence of V. H. Reger; in face of large rock; bronze 
tablet marked "1121 Grafton 1901 ' 1122. 212 



Ruraldale, via. Johnstown. Quiet Dell, etc., to 
West Mllford. 

Johnstown, o. i mile west of; ledge of rock north of road; in face 

of: bronze tablet marked *'io62 Grafton 1901" 1063.040 

Quiet Dell, o. 5 mile south of: 600 feet from cross roads; large boul- 
der on west of road; aluminmn tablet in top, mark^ "1050 
GnsLfton 1^1" 1050. 872 

West Milford, highway bridge over West Fork; southwest comer 
of; on top of bridge seat; bronze tablet marked "979 Grafton 
1901" 979. 459 



Clarksburg to West Milford. 

West Milford, highway bridge over West Fork; southwest corner 
of; on top of bridge seat; bronze tablet marked "979 Grafton 
1901** 979-45Q 



Mr 



WEST VIBGIOA GEOLOGICAL 8UBVEY. 67 

Enterprise, up Bingamon Creek West and South, via Wyatt, 
Margaret (Henpeck) and Brown to Lynchburg. 

Margaret, Quaker Fork of Bingamon Creek; covered highway 
bridge over; in northwest corner of; bronze tablet marked 
"1032 Grafton 190c'* 1032.200 

Browns, o. 2 mile west of; Short Line Railroad brids^e over Little 
Ten Mile Creek trestle 404; southwest abutment of; in top of 
cap stone; bronze tablet marked ''999 Grafton 1901" 999. 108 



Clarksburg. West via. Adamston, Wlisonburg, Wolf Summit 
and Lynchburg to Bristol. 

Wolf Summit; William M. Bolan's store; southeast comer of; in 
end of stone curbing; bronze tablet marked *'ii33 Grafton 
1901" 1134.422 



WETZEL AND MONONGALIA COUNTIES. 
Blacksville Quadrangle. 

norgantown. Northwesterly to Blacksville. 

Cassville, 20 feet north of road and 20 feet west of road running 
north; stone door step of post office; bronze tablet marked 
"999 Grafton" 999. 386 

Core, 2. 2 miles northwest of; 10 feet south of road; bridge over 
east sMe of Doll's Run, southwest abutment of; bronze tablet 
marked "913 Grafton" 913-445 



Single Spur Line, West to Blacksville. 

Blacksville, 3. q miles west of Worley and 13 miles west of Cass- 
ville; 10 feet east of center of road; bridge over Dunkard 
Creek; 5 feet north of bridge floor; bronze tablet in stone 
abutment, marked "958 Grafton" 957*496 



Dunkard Creek, South along Highway to Amos, thence 
Southeast along Highway to Catawba. 

Amos or Fairvlew, 7. o miles south of Ponetown; east side of door 

step to post office; bronze tablet marked "1000 Grsftbn" looe. 064 



68 LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 

OHIO, MARSHALL AND BROOKE COUNTIES. 
Wheeling Quadrangle. 

The elevations in the following list are based upon bench 
marks Nos. 90A and 81A of the Army Ihfigineer Corps, near the 
Ohio River at Wheeling and Short Creek, respectively. The ele- 
vations accepted for these are derived by applying corrections to 
the elevation given by the Army Engineers, by interpolation be- 
tween Pittsburg and Bel pre, at which points connections were 
made with the precise level net adjusted by the Coast and Geo- 
detic Survey in 1900. 

The leveling was done in 1901 under the direction of Mr. W. 
C. Hall, topographer, by Mr. W. A. Freret, Jr , levelman. 

All permanent bench marks dependent on this datum are re- 
ferred through the precise level net to the U. S. Coast and Geo- 
detic Survey bench mark **M'' at Grafton, and are stamped with 
the letters "Grafton'' in addition the figures of elevation. 



Wheeling, along National Pike via Elm Qrove to 
Triadelphia. 

Unadjusted 
Eleva.— Ft. 
Wheeling, City building; on north front of; 37 feet east of north- 
west comer of; a chiseled square, (U. S. Engineer Corps bench 
mark No. 90A; their elevation 678. 463 feet) 678. 453 

Triadelphia, M. E. Church, brick building; southwest comer of; 
south face, in foundation stone; alumiuum tablet marked ''745 
Grafton" 744- 77S 



Triadelphia, along Middle Wheeling Creek, via. Twilight 
to Valley Qrove. 

Valley Orove, B. & O. railroad bridge No. 174 (Pittsburg Division) 
in north face of south pile; bronze tablet marked •'953 Graf- 
ton" 952.860 



Valley Qrove, along National Pike and McQraw's 
Run to Bethany. 

Bethany, o. 3 mile west of; Bethany College, front face of build- 
ing; first entrance west of mam entrance; north side of en- 



WMT VIBOINIA GBOLOQIGAL SURVEY. 0\9 

trance; east face stone of water table; aluminum tablet marked 

"932 Grafton 1901" 93i- 988 



Bethany* along Pike to Short Creels 

Short Creek, brick store and post office; west face of; 25 feet from 
aonthwest comer and two feet above ground; aluminum tablet 
maked *'6e8 Grafton 1901'* 66a 178 



BRAXTON WEBSTER AND NICHOLAS COUNTIES. 
Sutton (Platwood) Quadrangle. 

Heaters, vfau Baltimore & Ohio Railroad and County Road 
to Sutton. 

Shaversville, Dr. M. B. Squires' drug store; o. 8 feet west of and 3. 5 
feet south of northwest comer; iron post marked **lo7i Graf- 
ton'» 1071.013 



Heaters, along Baltimore & Ohio Railroad and County 
Road vU. Sutton to Birch River. 

Sutton, suspension bridge over Blk River at; northeast tower; north 
face; a 9 feet above foundation and 2.4 feet east of corner; 
bronze tablet marked **843 Grafton" 842. 953 

Sutton,8.o5 miles south of; forks of road, o. oi mile north of; mouth 
of Bear Run, o. 03 nile north of; left side of road; outcrop of 
rock; bronze tablet marked "1073 Grafton" 1073.052 

Birch River, aluminum Ublet at; marked **iio8 K N W A" 1108. 842 



HARRISON, DODDRIDQB, LEWIS AND QILMER COUNTIES. 
Vadis Quadrangle. 

West Union via. West Union and MUton Pike to New MUton. 

Sugar Camp, as mile southeast of; Middle Island Creek, iron 
bridge over; east abotment, southwest comer; bronze tablet 
marked "830 Grafton" « 30. 047 



70 LBVELS ABOVB TIDE. 

West Union, via. New MUton, Coldwater and Churchville 
to Weston. 

Churchville, o. 55 mile southeast of; main road to Weston: left side 
of road; west side of middle of large rock; aluminum tablet 
marked ''972 Grafton" 972. 023 

Weston, Baltimore and Ohio railroad bridge near round house; 

north end of east pier; bronze tablet marked **ioi7 Grafton'*.. 1017. 877 



West Union, via. New Milton, Coldwater and Cliurcliville 
to Camden and tlience to Alum Bridge. 

Camden, P. E. Fetty's front yard at; i foot south of fence; S}4 feet 

west of porch; iron post marked "1096 Grafton*' 1095. 897 

Alum Bridge, Alum Fork of Leading Creek at; iron bridge over; 
west abutment; southeast comer of; bronze tablet marked 
**8io Grafton** 810.253 



West Union, via. New Milton, Coldwater, Camden, Alum 
Bridge and Lynn to Vadis. 

Lynn, i. 75 mile northwest of; Fink Creek at; iron bridge over; east 
abutment; northwest comer of bridge seat; bronze tablet 
marked "766 Grafton" 766. 142 



West Union, via. New ililton, Coldwater, Camden, Alum 

Bridge and Lynn to llurst and tlience 

to St. Clair. 

Hurst, cliff at; facing south; 4}^ feet below top of; bronze tablet 

marked •*8i5 Grafton*' 814.970 



West Union, via. New Milton, Coldwater, Camden, Alum 

Bridge, St. Clair and New Milton to 

West Union. 

New Milton, 1. 1 mile northwest of; Middle Island Creek; iron 
bridge over; east abutment, southwest comer; bronze tablet 
marked "830 Grafton*' 830.047 



Avon, via. County Road toward Big Isaac. 

Avon, 1. 8 mile southeast of; Double Camp Run; forks of road at; 

north angle; iron post marked **884 Grafton** 884. no 



WEST VIRGINIA QBOLOGIGAL SURVEY. 71 

LEWIS, BRAXTON AND QIIJVIER COUNTIES. 
BumsvlUe Quadrangle. 

Weston, via Baltimore A Ohio Railroad and County Road 
to Arnold. 

Weston, o. 8 mile north of, round bouse; B. & O. railroad bridge 
near; north abutment, southwest comer; bronze tablet marked 
"1017 Grafton" 1017.877 



Weston, via. Roanokl and Arnold to Btimsvllle. 

Roanoke, i. 8 miles southwest of; Arnold, o. 6 mile northeast of; 
B. & O. railroad bridge No. 38, over the Monongahela river; 
south pier; southwest comer of; bronze tablet marked **i«58 
Grafton*' 1058. 094 



Weston, via. Roanoke, Arnold, Confluence and New 
Bumsvllle to Stout's Mills. 

Stent's Mills, iron bridge over the Little Kanawha River at; east 
abutment, northwest corner; bronze tablet marked "750 Graf- 
ton" (marked on bridge tmss *'B. M. 750'*) 749. 985 



Weston, via. Arnold, e and Bumsvllle to 

Bulltown. 

Bnlltown, Little Kanawha River at; covered bridge over; west abut- 
ment, north face; 9. 8 feet below bridge seat and 8. i feet west 
of comer; bronze tablet marked **777 Grafton" 777. 903 

Weston, via. Arnold. Confluence, Burnsvllle and 
Bulltown to Rollyson. 

Bulltown, 5. 4 miles west of; Co^rs, 5. o miles south of; Rollyson, 
o. I mile north of ^ B. & O. railroad bridge No. 57D; south abut- 
ment, bridge seat; northeast comer; bronze tablet marked 
**797 Grafton" « 797048 

Weston, via. Arnold, Confluence and Burnsvllle to Cogers. 

Confluence, 4. 2 miles southwest of; Burasville, o. 5 mile north of; 
B. & O. railroad bridge over the Little Kanawha river, No. 50A; 
northeast pier; top of east corner; bronze tablet marked "765 
Grafton" 764. 730 



72 LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 

WOOD OOUNTY. 
Prrkerabitrg Quadrangle. 



Marietta, O.* B. M. at Court House to Fleming* M. C. & C. 
Railway, Ohio. 

Marietta, O. , bench mark 'n conrt house at 616. a6o 

Little Hocking, O. , foundation of B. &0. railroad bridge over Lit- 
tle Hocking Creek 623.278 

Parkersburg, south side of post office near west end at; bronze 

tablet placed in water table, marked **6i6 Grafton 1902** 615. 705 



WOOD, RITCHIE AND PLEASANTS COUNTIES. 
Waverlv Quadrangle. 



Parkersburg, out Northwestern Pike Eastward to Bench Mark 
1 1-2 niles Southeast of Tally Ho Post Offke. 

Parkersburg, Custom House at; near southwest corner in water 

table; bronze tablet marked **6i6 Grafton 1902" U. S. G. S 615. 705 

Parkersburg, cut on water table; south front, near western corner 

of the post office and court house — U. S. G. S 615. 871 

Parkersbui^, 9. 5 miles east of and i. 5 mile southeast of Tally Ho 
post office, opposite Shiloh United Brethren church; at forks 
of road in large boulder; aluminum tablet marked '*7i4 Graf- 
ton 1902" 713.696 



Bench Mark 1 1-2 Mile. Southeast of Tally Ho Post Office 
via Deer Walk Post Office to Borland Post Office. 

Borland post office, 100 feet east of, on south side of Bull Creek; 

bronze tablet marked "683 Grafton "1902" 68t. 963 

Briscoe Station, O. R. R. R. and P. O. , in face of rock ledge oppo- 
site public highway; bronze tablet marked **594 Grafton 1902" 593. 924 



Willow Uland Station, W. Va., East via. Newport. 

Willow Island Station, O. R. R. R. ; northeast comer foundation 
wall of Joseph Norris' dwelling; aluminum tablet marked 
**6i6 Grafton 1902** 615. 728 



WEST VIBOINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 73 

PRESTON COUNTY. 
Bmceton Mills Quadrangle. 

rUiAontown to Albright. 

Ifaaontown, M. E. cbnrch at; bronze tablet in foundation..... 1842. 609 

Masontown, W. Va., via* Herring, AlbrightsvUle, Lenox and 
Bruceton MUls to Blllottsville, Pa. 

LenoK, M. £. church, about 2% miles north of; bronze tablet in 

southwest comer of stone foundation, marked **i85r* 1850.500 

Lenox, about 6>^ miles north of; residence now occupied by Mar- 
shall A. Wolfe on Little Sandy Creek; bronze tablet in the 
southeast comer of cut stone foundation 1577. 724 

Lenox to Bruceton MIIU. 

Lenox, post office at; aluminum tablet in southwest comer of stone 

foundation, marked "2123*' 2122.548 

Bmceton Mills, aluminum tablet in northeast comer of stone foun- 
dation of Lutheran church at; marked **I549 G" 1549. 462 

Branaonville, W. Va., to Elllottsvllle, Pa. 

Brandonville, i>^ miles east of; bronze tablet in southwest comer 

of cut stone foundation of residence <»f William H. Willett 1832.000 

Masontown to Albright. 

Herring post office, church at; bronze tablet in southwest comer of 
stone foundation of church at Herring post office, marked 
"2042" 2042. 281 



MONONGALIA AND MARION COUNTIES. 
Mannington Quadrangle. 

From Bench Mark i 1-4 fllles North of Fairmont on Wheeling 
and Qrafton Branch of B. & O. R. R. to Beilton. 

Mannington; bronze tablet placed in pillar on north of door of 
Bxchange Bank, comer of Railroad and Market streets; 
marked "975 Grafton 1902" 975 153 



74 LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 

Mannington, over Wheeling and Qrafton Branch of the 
B. & O. R. R. to Bellton. 

Glovers Gap; station B. & O. railroad; bronze tablet placed in south 

foundation of signal tower, marked **io4o Grafton 1902" io39- 74© 

Hundred Station, o. i mile northwest of; bronze tablet placed in 
top of bridge seat, northeast abutment of bridge No. 128; 
marked *'ioi3Grafton 1902'' 1013. 199 



Mannington, 1.0 Mile Northwest of; up Flat Run via. Qallatin 
Post Office to Blacksvllle. 

Gallatin postofBce; bronze tablet placed in face of rock on north 
of road, 300 feet east of Gallatin post oflfice; marked "1452 
Grafton 1902" 1452.168 



Cross Roads down niracle Run to Blacksvllle. 

Cross Roads post office, 2. 9 miles northeast of; in face of large 
rock on north of road down Miracle Run, 30 feet east of Mrs. 
Marberley's dwelling, bronze tablet marked "1014 Grafton 
1902'* 1014.479 



MARSHALL COUNTY. 
Cameron Quadrangle. 

Moundsville, via. Waynesburic Pike to Limestone. 

Moundsville, Marshall county court house; \oi B: on top of 
water table of foundation of; bench mark is on front of build- 
ing, 17. 2 feet east of center of door sill, marked 690. 921 

Limestone, brick dwelling of R. S. Peters; front of; on foundation, 
top stone, 2. 7 feet northwest of center of door; bronze tablet 
marked **I377 Grafton" 1377. 184 

Lone Oak School House, via. a Ridge Road, Hazeldell, I. e., 
Irish Ridgo School House 

Pleasant Valley, 5.8 miles northeast of; Hazeldell, or Irish Ridge 
school house; front of; southwest corner stone, center of; 
bronze tablet, marked ** 1322 Grafton*' 1321.942 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 75 

Mouodsvillet via. Liniestone and Rock Lick to Cameron. 

Rock Lick, o. 5 mile south of; school house; south side, southeast 

comer; second stone; aluminum tablet marked "1464 Grafton*' 1464. 195 

Cameron, brick public school building at; west end; water table: 
a 9 feet north of southwest comer; bronze tablet marked "i 170 
Grafton" 1170. 254 



Moundsvllle, via, Liniestone, Rock Uck and Cameron 
to Beliton. 

Woodruff, i.o miles south of; o. i mile north of Bellton; southeast 
cornet of northwest abutment of B. & O. railroad bridge No. 
136; 2. 7 feet above bridge seat; bronze tablet marked "888 
Grafton'» 887.963 



Moundsville, via. Limestone Rock, Rock Lick, Cameron, Bellton 
and Meiglien to Roseby Rock. 

Meighen, school house No. 5 at; east side; o. 8 foot from southeast 
comer, top stone of foundation; bronze tablet marked ''691 
Grafton** 691.047 

Roseby Rock, Big Grove Creek at; iron bridge over; top of north- 
east abutment; one foot below bridge seat; 12 feet southeast of 
center of bridge ; bronze tablet marked * * 779 Grafton " 778. 706 

Moundsville, Marshall county courthouse; south front of; 17. 2 feet 
east of center of doorway and i. 2 feet below the above; bronze 
tablet marked "690 Grafton" 689. 695 



TRUE MERIDIANS. 



In 1898, the U. S. G. Survey, in co-operation with the West 
Virginina Survey, established true meridians in or near the county 
seat of each county in the State. These lines were marked with 
stone monuments, properly designated with bronze and alumi- 
num tablets, and the detailed results published in Vol. I., Oil and 
Gas, pages 51 to 122, to which the reader is referred for a full de- 



76 LEVELS ABOVE TIDE. 

scription, since we can publish here only the tabulated results, 
giving the declination at the date of the determination and also 
the corrected variation for January 1, 1903. 

As known to all surveyors, the variation of. the magnetic 
compass is now increasing uniformly in West Virginia toward the 
west at the rate of approximately three minutes of arc per an- 
num, so that by adding three minutes for each year from the 
date of any actual determination of recent years, we shall get 
for that particular point approximately the variation for any fu- 
ture year during most of the present century. In the early part 
of last century this secular variation of the compass was to the 
east in West Virginia, but since that time the line of no variatiou 
has passed entirely across West Virginia, and, as stated above, is 
now uniformly to the west in every county, being greatest in Mor- 
gan and least in Wayne, as will be seen from the accompanying 
table. To obtain the variation for any other date than January 1, 
1903, as, say May 1, 1903, instead of adding three minutees, we 
would add only one-third of that or one minute, or for March 1 
one-half minute, the amount to be added to the declination for 
January 1, 1903, being in direct proportion to the time elapsed. 
It must also be remembered that the variations given in the t^ble 
are only for the station or locality where the monuments are 
placed, and that in our large counties, the variation of the east 
boundary will be several minutes different from that at the west 
boundary, and hence, unless the surveyor has determined his 
local variation by the methods described in Vol. I., he should 
always state on the plat, of every survey made, the date of the 
same, and the amount of the variation he had set off, in order 
that future surveyors may be able to pick up his lines when some 
of his coiners or boundary monuments may have been lost or 
destroyed. 

The table in question is as follows : 



C/) 

C 



QJ 



3 






0) 






PART II. 



THE APPALACHIAN COAL FIELD. 



CHAPTER I. 



GSNEBAL DESCRIFMON, AREA, STRUCTURE, CLAS8IFICAT0N, 
ROCK THICKNESS, ETC. 



Those who seek gold, silver, copper, tin, lead and other costly 
metals, should waste no time in West Virginia. Traces she may 
have of all, but none in commercial quantity. Volcanic distur- 
bances, great faults, quartz veins and extensive metamorphism of 
sedimentary rocks which always accompany the rare metals are 
comparatively unknown within her borders. But while precious 
stones, gems, and metals, have been denied the Little Mountain 
State, yet gsnerous nature has so richly dowered her with common 
minerals and with other common things that her natural wealth is 
unsurpasbed by any equal area on the continent These are 
some of her riches : A genial climate, midway between the ex- 
tremes of heat and cold, with an average rain fall of forty-five 
inches, well distributed throughout the year, giving abundant 
moisture for crops, as well as ample water supply for the numer- 
ous streams and rivers ; a fertile soil, yielding abundant returns 



82 THE APPALACHIAN GOAL FIELD. 

to agriculture, grazing, horticulture, and unsurpassed for apples, 
peaches, pears, cherries, and all of the smaller fruits ; virgin for- 
ests of both hard and soft woods, more extensive than those of 
any other state in the Union ; clays, shales and silica beds, for 
brick manufacture of every description, and glass of every qual- 
ity ; limestones of purest composition and of exhaustless quan- 
tity ; building stones of every kind except marble, granite, and 
other raetamorphic rocks; and natural ^s fields, far exceeding 
those of her sister state, Pennsylvania; and last but not least, 
coal in great variety and quantity. These are some of the com- 
mon possessions of West Virginia which, within the last few 
years, have attracted to her domain investment capital from many 
portions of tho world. 

It is only within the last two years that the richness and 
value of her coal fields have been realized, first bv capitalists out- 
side the State, and finally by her own citizens 

To the greatest coal fields in the world, geologists have given 
the name, Appalachian. Beginning near the northern line of 
Pennsylvania, latitude 42®, longitude 77**, it extends southwest- 
ward through West Virginia, southeastern Ohio, eastern Ken- 
tucky, and central Tennessee, ending in Western Alabama, lati- 
tude 33°, longitude 88**, nine hundred miles from its northeastern 
terminus. 

The shape of this field is that of a nide canoe, the two prows 
of which lie in Pennsylvania and Alabama respectively, while the 
broadest portion of its body is found in West Virginia. 

Three great railroads cross this coal field, and a fourth, the 
Wabash, is building. The B. & crosses the northern portion 
of the State, the N. & W. the southern portion, while the C. & 0. 
and the Wabash are intermediate. These railroads all cut the 
Appalachian field nearly at right angles to its length, and the fol- 
lowmg distances from the eastern margin of the coal field west- 
ward to the Ohio River, as measured along each of tbem, will give 
some idea of the coal area of West Virginia: 

Baltimore & Ohio R. R. , Piedmont to Benwood 162. i miles 

Chesapeake & Ohio R. R. , Hinton to Huntington 147. o *' 

Norfolk & Western R. R. , Bluestone Junction to Kenova 194. 08 •' 

W. Va. C. & Uttle Kanawha R. R. , Westernport to Parkers- 
burg 245.00 " 



WEST VIBGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 83 

These are the distances between the southeastern margin of 
the coal field and the Ohio River boundary of the State. The 
West Virginia Central, Little Kanawha and the N. & W, lines 
show greater widths than the others, but this is largely accounted 
for by the moie circuitous routes of these railroads in following 
the courses of streams, etc., so that the actual distance across the 
coal field between the eastern edge of the coal field and the Ohio 
River at all the points named is practically the same, and in 
straight or air lines would be considerably less than the figures 
given above —in fact only about one hundred miles. 

The length of the West Virginia field is given by the distance 
table of the Ohio River railroad, which foots up 211.7 miles be- 
tween Moundsville and Kenova, or about one hundred and fifty 
miles air line measurement. Hence in a rough way the Coal 
Measures area of the State may be said to occupy an irregular 
rectangle, one hundred miles wide by one hundred and fifty in 
length, and extending from the Alleghany Mountain region north- 
westward to the Ohio River. This would give 15,000 square 
miles as the approximate area of the West Virginia field, over and 
under which the Coal Measure rocks extend. But not all of this 
15,000 square miles is underlain by good coal of Commercial 
thickness, since the drill of the petroleum seeker finds many re- 
gions in the central portion of the basin where there is apparently 
very little coal in the entire Coal Measure column of rock?, and 
hence it is possible that if proper allowance were made for these 
barren zones, there would remain noi more than 10,000 to 12,000 
square miles of productive coal territory within the State, reckoned 
by the standard of thickness and quality as exhibited in the areas 
now operated by drift mines. This question will be referred to 
again under the description of the individual coal beds. 

Ab to how far eastward from the Alleghany mountains the 
Coal Measures may once have extended we can only conjecture, 
but reasoning from such isolated patches as the Broad Top field of 
Pennsylvania, preserved in a deep wrinkle of the strata far east- 
ward of the Alleghany escarpment, we can well believe that if 
the synclines in Morgan and Berkeley counties, near the North 
Mountain region, which now hold some coal beds of the Pocono, 
or Lower Carboniferous age, had been two or three thousand feet 
deeper,, we would find, as in the case of Broad Top, several small 



84 THE APPALACHIAN GOAL FIELD. 

areas of genuine Coal Measures bound up in their stony embrace, 
and the coal in all probability, like the Pocono coal there now, 
converted into a good quality of anthracite by the intense crump 
ling and consequent slight metamorphism to which all the strata 
of that region have been subjected. It is even possible, and in- 
deed quite probable, that the Coal Measures may once have ex- 
tended entirely across the Shenandoah Valley to the ancient shore 
line of the present Blue Ridge, since the deep trough of Massa- 
nutton Mountain, in the center of this valley, is reported still to 
hold a small area of the Pocono beds in its summit, from which 
erosion must have removed many thousand feet of sediments in 
the long aeons since the Carboniferous beds were deposited. 

The easily destructible nature of the Greenbrier Limestone, 
and the soft Mauch Chunk Red Shales, which immediately under- 
lie the Coal Measures, would readily account for the complete re- 
moval of the latter over iM the steeply folded area between the 
eastern ridge of the Alleghanies and the Blue Ridge region. Hence, 
although the deeply buried Coal Measures along the western or 
Ohio River border of the State have been preserved from erosion, 
they may in many localities prove cjomparatively barren of good 
coal beds, while the same measures which have been destroyed by 
the ceaseless ages of rain, heat and cold from all the southeastern 
region of the State, probably once contained richer and thicker 
coal beds than any of the areas remaining, since the individual coal 
beds, with rare exceptions, exhibit a tendency to thicken eastward 
analogous to that of the series themselves. 



STRUCTURE. 

The central or deepest portion of the Appalachian basin or 
geo-syncline enters West Virginia from Greene county. Pa., at the 
southwest corner of the latter state, and cn^ssing Western Monon- 
galia and eastern Wetzel counties continues on through the State 
in a general southwest course across eastern Tyler, western Dod- 
dridge, central Ritchie, Wirt and Jackson, cutting eastern Mason 
and western Putnam, and central Cabell, to enter Kentucky from 
northern Wayne, ten miles above the mouth of the Big Sandy 
river. Where the axis of this great basin enters the Stat^., and on 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 85 

to the southwest as far as Poddridge county at least, the Pittsburg 
coal 18 buried to a depth of 1300 to 1500 feet under the highest 
summits, or say 100 to 160 feet above tide, but from Doddridge 
county on southwestward, the basin begins to rise, and at the 
Kentucky line the Pittsburg coai overlooks the Big Sandy waters 
from an elevation of 800 feet above tide in the deepest portion of 
the trough. 

From this central line of the general basin the strata rise to 
the northwest at the rate of 30 to 75 feet to the mile, interrupted 
occasionally by low anticlinal fold^, until the last of the Coal 
Measure rocks pass into the air from southeastern Ohio. To the 
southeast from the same center, the general basin is traversed by 
a series of folds which get stee[)er and higher, (though not deeper) 
until we come to the eastern boundary of the West Virginia coal 
fields at the most eastern ridge of the Alleghany mountains. 

The most prominent of these anticlinals are shown upon the 
West Virginia Survey map, where it will be seen that they are 
rudely parallel to the Alleghany mountains, and have a bearing 
of 30°-40** S. W. or N. E. as the case may be. One notable ex- 
ception to this rule is that of the Volcano anticlinal, which runs 
from the Ohio River in Pleasants county, S. only 11® W. through 
Wood, Wirt and Ritchie counties into Roane. All of these arches, 
however, great or small, flatten out and disappear to the south- 
west, or are replaced by others, which may start up from what 
was a previous trough or syncline, so that there is not much regu- 
larity in the folds. 

To the southwest beyond the Great Kanawha river, there 
appears to be only one prominent anticlinal: viz, the one which 
enters Kentucky near Warfield. This comparative absence of 
prominent flexures from the coal area of southern West Virginia 
has been ascribed by Profs. Fontaine and Stevenson to the great 
system of faults along the southeastern margin of the coal field 
in the edge of Virginia, which relieved the tension on the rocks 
over the southwestern portion of the Appalachian field, and thus 
prevented their folding as in Pennsylvania and northern West 
Virginia, being aided in this resistance to flexure by the greatly 
thickened and massive members of the Pottsvillo series of the re- 
gion in question. 



86 THE APPALACHIAN COAL FIELD. 



CLASSIFICATION. 



The Pennsylvania and Virginia geologists, under the lead of 
the illustrious Rogers brothers, long ago discovered that the Car- 
boniferous uystem of the Appalachian field could be subdivided into 
eight series, separated from each other by very distinct and nat- 
ural features. This generalization was founded upon a very care- 
ful study of the rocks over a wide area, and the subsequent work 
of other geologists has fully established its general truthfulness, as 
well as its great Udefulness in stratigraphic and economic 
geology. 

The more detailed studies of recent years, rendered possible 
by the vast mining industry, have only modified the Rogers 
cla8sification,and hence it has become so thoroughly engrafted into 
geologic nomenclature, and so familiar to practical coal operators, 
that it would be very unwise to make any radical changes. It is 
true that in minor details the original nomenclature for some of 
these seiies was imperfect, but those slight defects do not mate- 
rially aflfect the ?rand truths expressed in the general frame work 
of the classific ition, and hencii it has been deemed best to modify 
and supplemem this time-honored work of the nestors in geology, 
rather thantot upplant and throw it away entirely, as some of our 
iconoclastic geclogists have suggested in recent years. 

The classification adopted in this report is substantially the 
same as that proposed by the writer in Bulletin 65 of the U. S. 
G. Survey, page 19. In this, the attempt is made to preserve 
whatever of the Rogers nomenclature has been found useful and 
helpful to geologists, while at the same time such new features 
are introduced as seem necessary from oui wider and more inti- 
mate knowledge of these rocks. 

The entire Carboniferous system of the northern Appalachian 
gion splits up naturally into three great divisions founded upon 
conditions of deposition, and these in turn subaivide into eight 
series, as shown in the following scheme: 






ill 



3 1 






8 






I 

"3 



I 

J 

a 
d 



> 

! 







I 



o 



s 
3 



o 



a 






k 



I ^ E3 

' It 



i 

> 






si 



/I 



CI 






mp 












S 









S8 THE APPALACHIAN COAL FIELD. 

In this table, the terms "Upper'' and ''Lower*' Productive 
I'oal Measures, have been discarded as misleading, since at the 
time they were given by the Rogers brothers to the Monongahela 
and Allegheny series, it was not known that the Pottsville also 
lield productive coals (New River) in the souJbhern portion of the 
Appalachian field. The terminology has also been shortened b^ 
dropping the term croek, river, etc., as suggested by Dr. William 
B. Clark, of the Maryland Survey. With the changes thus indi- 
cated it is believiM that no further simplification of Carboniferous 
nomenclature is desirable. The term "series' ' is used instead of 
'^forniation" for th* larger subdivisions, since there is yet too 
much variance by diiT.rent writers in the use of that term, some 
of the U. S. Survey guv)logist8 making it represent a succession of 
entirely unlike beds, lithologically considered, while others restrict 
it to a single stratum of the same physical appearance througl\out. 
Of course if the latter usage should prevail, it could not appro- 
priately be used to represent such diverse beds of sandstone, shale, 
t;oal, limestone, etc., as those included under the terms Dunkard, 
Monongahela, Allegheny, etc., and for this reason the- name, 
sKRiES, has been retained as more appropriately describing the 
h(^tcrogeneous chanicter of the rocks constituting the beds in 
question. < 

As will be seen from the foregoing diagram, the line separating 
the Middle and Upper carboniferous divisions passes directly through 
the center of the Conemaugh series. This is due to the fact that 
marine conditions ceased never to return in the Appalachian field, 
at least, with the deposition of the Ames, or gr«en crinoidal lime- 
stone and its associated beds, midway in the Conemaugh, thus separ- 
ating it into two divisions, of almost equal thickness, the lower one 
abounding in marine life, while the upper has nothing but brack- 
ish and fresh water forms. The faunal change at this horizon is 
siifliciently great to warrant the separation of these beds into two 
series, but owing to the fact that the marine type of the Ames 
limestone is not peisistent over the entire Appalachian field, and 
that the lithological characteristics are very similar for some diS" 
tance, both above and below the horizon in question, it is deemed 
best to maintain the integrity of the Conemaugh formation as 
modified by the Pennsylvania, Maryland and West Virginia 
geologists. 



WEST ^^RGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 89 

THICKNES8 OF THE CARBONIFEROUS SYSTEM. 

The entire thickness of the rocks in the Carboniferous 
system varies much in diff'erent portions of the State. In a gen- 
eral way the several series composing the system thicken eastward 
gradually in the northern portion, but very rapidly in the south- 
we^te^n region. This gives a rapid thickening southwestward 
along the western flanks of the Alleghany mountain range, as 
will be shown more fully in a future cha])ter in connection with a 
detailed discussion of the series. 

There are given here the results of l^orings which have 
been drilled to the base of the system, aii-l they are located in 
several groups, passing from the Ohio river .• istvvard across the 
State. In these sections, no attempt is ma.U- -o classify the for- 
mations definitely, the main object being t • exhibit the geijeral 
composition of the whole system, and its thiukne^a at the several 
localities as deu-rmined by the oil well drillers. 

In order to bring these m.easurements to the same standard 
of comparison, there is added to the to?) of each, in every case, 
1100 feet for the thickness of the Dunkard series, which caps the 
Carboniferous system in the state. This is the greatest thickness yet 
found tor the Dunkard in any of the deep oil well borings, though 
some isolated peaks in the great trough of the Appalachian basin, 
along the Wetzel- Marion-Monongalia line, may hold a few feet 
more, but not over 100 feet in any case, and possibly not so 
much. 

The first line of sections will begin on the Ohio rivtjr at 
Moundsville and pass eastward across the Carboniferous system. 

Here we are aided by the carefully kepi record of the Gallagher 
well No. 1, which begins above the PitUbr.rircoal, and was drilled 
through the '^Big Injun' ^ Oil Sand. 

Combining this record with the surface measurements, and 
adding the Dunkard beds, we get the following: 

Feet 

Dunkard iioo 

Monongahela 2 75 

Conemaugh 5t>o 

Allegheny 280 

Pottsville 150 

Total 2305 



90 THE APPALACHIAN COAL FIELD. 

Still farther to the southwest, in Meade district, Marshall 
county, the well No. 1 on A. S. I^each, bored by the South Penn 
Oil Company, gives the following: 

Beet 

Dunkard iioo 

Monongahela 294 

Conemaugh & Allegheny 769 

PottsviUe 157 

Total 2320 

Farther east, in Church district, Wetzel county, the record of 
well No. 1, on the Winona Shough farm, gives the following: 

Feet 

Dunkard iioo 

Monongahela 353 

Conemaugh, Allegheny & PottsviUe 998 

Total 2451 

Still east of this, in Battel le district, Monongalia county, the 
South Penn Oil Company's well No. 1. on Samuel Eakin, gives 
the following: 



Feet 

Dunkard iioo 

Monongahela 377 

Conemaugh, Allegheny & PottsviUe 989 

Total 2466 

The same Company s' well at Brown's Mill, on Dunkard 
Creek, and farther east near the Pennsylvania- West Virginia line, 
gives the following: 

Feet 

Dunkard iioo 

Monongahela 350 

Conemaugh 560 

Allegheny 280 

PottsviUe 180 

Total 2470 

The thickness at Morgantown, ten miles farther east, as re- 
vealed by a boring, is as follows: 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL 8UBVEY. 91 

Feet 

Dunkard uoo 

Monongahela *.... 370 

Conemaugh 585 

Allegheny & Pottsville 460 

ToUl 2515 

A boring made at Newburg, Preston county, 13 miles south- 
east of Morgantown, by Hon. J. M. Guflfey, reveals the following 
measurements: 



Feet 

Dunkard 1100 

Monongahela 370 

Conemaugh 645 

Allegheny 285 

Pottsville ^ 275 

ToUl 2675 



The Potomac basin, near Piedmont, offers the farthest point 
eastward where it is possible to measure all of these formations ex- 
cept the Dunkard, and estimating it the same as in the others, we 
get the following : 

Feet 

Dunkard ^ iioo 

Monongahela 360 

Conemaugh 600 

Allegheny i 308 

Pottsville ^ 473 

Total 2841 

These several measurements reveal a gradual and somewhat 
r^ular increase in the total thickness of the Upper and Middle 
Carboniferous system from west to east across the northern line 
of the State of 536 feet be^.ween the Ohio river at Moundsville, 
and the Potomac river at Piedmont. 

In estimating the thickness of the Monongahela in the Pied- 
mont section, the measurement is that found at Frostburg, Md., 
twenty miles distant, and the top of the Monongahela is there 
placed, not at the Koontz coal as suggested by Dr. W. B. Clark, 
State Geologist of Maryland, but at the top of the coal ^^ one 



92 



THB APPALACHIAN COAL FIELD. 



hundred and twenty feet higher in the measures, the Koontz coal 
being regarded by the writer aa representing the Uniontown coal 
instead of the Waynesburg. 

In the boringd at Morgantown and Newburg only the base of 
the Monongahela is found in the summits of the hills, and the 
thickness given for it in both cases is the one found nearest on the 
weht. 

At the mouth of Ben's Run, on the Ohio river, in PJeasants 
county, forty-five miles southwest from Moundsville, we get a 
measurement of the Coal Measure rocks through the record of the 
James Wells boring No. 1, by adding the usual thickness of the 
of the absent series: 



Feet 

Dunkard iioo 

Monongahela 275 

Conemaugh, Allegheny & Pottsville 1066 

Total 2441 

Near Central in Doddridge county, twenty-five miles south- 
east from Ben's Run, we get another measurement from the rec- 
ords of the Hudson well No. 1, as follows: 

Feet 

Dunkard iioo 

Monongahela „ 300 

Conemaugh, Allegheny & Pottsville 1135 

Total 2535 

On east of this, in Lewis county, the South Penn Oil Compa- 
ny's well No. 1, on the Emma Jones land, Freeman's Creek dis- 
trict, gives the following: 

Feet 

Dunkard iioo 

Monongahela 325 

Conemaugh, Allegheny & Pottsville 1169 

Total 2594 

Near Phillippi, Barbour county, we get another measure- 
ment, carefully made by the Elk Creek Oil and Gas Company at 
its No. 1 well on the Hall farm, which is as follows: 



WEST VIRGIKIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 93 

Feet 

Dunkard iioo 

Moiion);ahela 350 

Conemaugh 720 

Allegheny 285 

Potteville 256 

Total 271 1 

On east of this thirty miles, at the hfead of the Potomac 
b^isin near Thomas, on the Black Water, Tucker county, we find 
the following thickness for these beds: 

Feet 

Dunkard iioo 

Monongahela 37o 

Conemaugh 600 

Allegheny 315 

Pottsville 734 

Total 31 19 

Along this line, which is about lorty miles southwest of the 
former, we find the same progressive thickening eastward, but 
attaining a greater total by 278 feet, between the Ohio river and 
the eastern margin of the Coal field. 

Passing southwest along the Ohio river seventy odd miles, 
from Ben's Run to Ravenswood, for another line of measure- 
ments southeastward across the system, we get the following on 
the Ohio river from the record of a well drilled one-half mile be- 
bw Ravenswood, Jackson county: 

Feet 

Dunkard iioo 

Monongahela 300 

Conemaugh, Allegheny and Pottsville 1086 

Total 2486 

At Spencer, Roane county, twenty-five miles southeastward 
from Ravenswood, the meadurement of the Asylum well No. 1 
gives the following: 

Feet 

Dunkard iioo 

Monongahela 300 

Conemaugh, Allegheny and Pottsville 1468 

Total 2868 



94 THE APPALACHIAN GOAL FIELD. 

About forty miles east by south of this, the Haymond well, 
two miles below Sutton, in Braxton county, gives the following 
measurement, estimating the- Dunkard and Monongahela at the 
same thickness as in the last : 

eel 

Dunkard loo 

Monongahela ooo 

Conemaughy Allegheny and Pottaville 1800 

Total 3200 



Thirty miles southwostward from Sutton, we get another 
measurement at Camden-on-Gauley, through the record of a bor- 
ing made there by the Hon. J. N. Camden. Estimating the Dun- 
kard, Monongahela and Conemaugh at the same thickness as in 
the last, we get the folio ving: 

Feet 

Dunkard iioo 

Monongahela 300 

Conemaugh 750 

Allegheny-Kanawha 650 

Pottaville 900 

Total 3700 



This line of measurements brings out clearly, not only the 
thickening toward the southeastern rim of the Coal Measures, 
but also the progressive thickening southwestward, slowly along 
the Ohio river,- -from 2305 feet at Moundsville to 2486 feet at 
Ravenswood, and rapidly along the southeastern side of the Appa- 
lachian coal field, — from 2841 feet at Piedmont to 8700 feet at 
Oamden on-Gauley. 

Going fifty miles farther down the Ohio river from Ravens- 
wood, opposite Gallipolis, seven miles below the mouth of the 
Great Kanawha, we get the following measurements from the 
record of the C. T. Beale well No. 1, in Mason county: 



Feet 

Dunkard iioo 

Monongahela 300 

Conemaugh, Allegheny and PottsviUe 1 130 

Total 2530 



WEST YIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 95 

Following up the Great Kanawha river from tbia eoutheast- 
ward to the margin of the coal field along New River, we get a se- 
ries of interesting measurements. Twenty five miles southeast 
from the mouth of the Great Kanawha, and one mile below Win- 
field, Putnam couuty, the well No. 1 of the Hurricane Oil Com- 
pany gives the following, by combining its record with the usual 
estimates of the Dunk&rd formation : 

Feet 

Dnnkard iioo 

Monongahela 300 

Conemaogh, Allegheny & Pottaville 1500 

Total 2900 

Twenty miles farther southeast, at Charleston, Kanawha 
county, we get another measuremert by combining the surface 
exposures with the record of Edwards well No. 3, bored on the 
banks of Elk river, as follows : 

Feet 

Dunkard iioo 

Monongahela 300 

Conemaugh Soo 

Allegheny-Elanawha 574 

PotUville 580 

Total 3354 

About twenty-five miles southeast from Charleston, we get 
another correct measurement of everything below the Black Flint 
from the carefully kept record of a well bored by the Powellton 
Coal Company at its mines on Armstrong Creek, combined with 
accurate spirit levels from the mouth of the well up to the Kana- 
wha Black Flint. These, added to the other formations as given 
at Charleston, make the following results at Powellton: 

Feet 

Dunkard 1100 

Monongahela 300 

Conemaugh 800 

Allegheny-Kanawha 1050 

Pottaville 821 

Total 4071 

Abont twenty miles farther to the southeast, and in the vi- 
cinity of Fire Creek, Fayette county, we get a complete exposure 



96 THE APPALACHIAN CX)AL FIELD. 

of the Pottsville series alonfj the gorge of New river, and combin- 
ing its thickness there with that of the other formations as given 
above for Powellton, the following total is obtained : 

Feet 

Dunkard iioo 

Mouongahela 300 

Conemaugh 8cx> 

Allegheny— Kanawha 1050 

Pottsville 1400 

Total 4650 

A result greater by 4650—2530=2120 feet than that found on 
the Ohio rivt-r only ninety miles distant. 

One more series of measurements along the Kentucky or 
Bouthwest border of the state will complete the number. 

At Central City, forty- five miles below the mouth of the 
Great Kanawha, and six miles above the mouth of the Big Sandy 
River, in Cabell county, the record of a deep boring gives the fol- 
lowing thickness, by combining it with the usual measurements 
above the surface: 

Eeet 

Dunkard iioo 

Monongahela 300 

Conemaugh 660 

Allegheny and Pottsville ^ 605 

Total 2665 

About twenty-five miles up the Big Sandy River, and five 
miles below the mouth of Tug Fork, tlie Rigdon well No. 2 gives 
the following results : 

Feet 

Dunkard iioo 

Monongahela 300 

Conemaugh 700 

Allegheny— Kanawha and Pottsville 925 

Total 3025 

At the northern line of Mingo county, and opposite Warfield 
Kentucky, thirty-five miles southeast of the last locality, we get 
another measurement for the lower portion of the column through 
the carefully kept record of a gas well drilled by Guffey & Queen, 
the upper portion being based on the Charleston measure- 
ments as follows: 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 97 

Feet 

Dunkard iioo 

Monongahela 300 

Conemaugh 800 

Allegheny— Kanawha 700 

Pottsville 6t8 

Total 3518 

Ten miles east from this, near Dinj^ess Tunnel, on the head- 
waters of Twelve Pole Creek, Mingo county, a well was once drilled 
for gas, which gives another measurement of the system as 
follows : 

Feet 

Dunkard iioo 

Monongahela 300 

Conemaugh 800 

Allegheny— Kanawha 825 

Pottsville T021 

Total 4046 

This exhibits a \er\ rapid rat»» of thickening, especially in 
the Pottsville beds, which have had 400 tVet added in only ten to 
twelv3 miles. 

About forty-five miles southea.^-t from Dingess is VVelch, in 
McDowell county, and there we get nearly all the Pottsville ex- 
posed in the hills, and revealed by borings IxOow the valleys of 
Elkhorn and Tug river. Combining the surface exposure? with 
the record of a boring on Brown's creek, ouc-lif^If mile above its 
mouth, at the Miner's Hospital, and esiinuuing the Allegheny- 
Kanawha series at only its maximum, 1050 feet, (measured on 
the Great Kanawha), we get the following for the region of 
Welch : 

Feet 

Dunlcard iioo 

Monongahela 300 

Conemaugh 800 

Allegheny— Kanawha 1050 

Pottsville 1655 

Total 4905 

In this measurement, 800 feet has been added for the portion 
of the Pottsville estimated to liave been removed by erosion 
from the tops of the hills at WcU-h, while of course all the other 
formations above the Pottsville have been so removed, bince they 



98 THE APPALACHIAN COAL HELD. 

come in successively to the north and west. It is possible that 
the Allegheny-Kanawha formation is really thicker than the 1050 
feet given, since no accessible boring records are at hand in the 
region of Glen Alum and other mining towns, where the top of 
the formation first appears in the hills along the river, thirty 
miles northwest fiom Welch. The indications are that it cannot 
be less than the 1050 assumed, and it may be 100 to 200 feet 
more. 

We can now compare the measurementb shown at the north- 
eastern or Pennsylvania border of the state with those along its 
southeastern or Kentucky boundary, and also the intermediate 
stations of the Ohio river on the west, and the eastern margin 
of the Appalachian coal field on the east, as follows : 

Feet Feet 

Moundsville 2305 Piedmont 2841 

Ben*s Run 2441 Thomas 3099 

Ravenswood 2486 Camden-on-Gauley 3700 

Gallipolis „ 2530 Fire Creek 4650 

Huntington 2665 Welch « 4905 

In other words while the same formations have thickened 
only 2665 • —2305 • =360 feet in the 200 miles along the Ohio 
river, between Moundsville and Huntington, yet they have thick- 
ened 4905'— 2841 • =2064 feet in the 200 miles beiween Pied- 
mont and Welch, along the eastern border of the coal field. Hence 
these beds, r^arded as a solid, present the form of an irregular 
wedge, its breadth twice its length, and its northeastern side 
being thinner than it« southwestern, or in other words, the wedge 
thins away in two directions, northwestward and northeastward, 
the amount of such thinning being shown in the table above 
given. 

Of course the Dunkard, Monongahela, and most of the Cone- 
maugh formations are absent from the southeastern edge of the 
Appalachian field in all except the Piedmont and Thomas sections, 
since owing to the soft and easily diaintegrating nature of their 
beds, they have been eroded, except where preserved in the shel- 
tering embrace of a deep fold like that of the George's Creek basin 
from Piedmont to Frostburg. 

The presence of these highest formations in that far eastern 
portion of the Appalachian field, however, leads to the conclusion 
that they were once co-extensive with the Pottsville beds, hence 



WEST VIBGIMIA QBOLOOICAL SUBVBY. 99 

their average thickness at the west has been added to that found 
foond for the Pottsville and A.llegheny-Eanawha beds along all 
the eastern margin of the West Virginia coal field, although as a 
matter of theory, such thickness should have been increased east- 
ward in proportion to that observed for these latter formations. 
Should this be done, the result would show a much greater 
thickening southeastward than that indicated in the measures 
above tabulated. 



CHAPTER II. 



THE DUNKAKD SERIES, NO. XVI, PERMIAN, 
OR PERMO CARBONIFEROUS. 



Under the name, Dunkard series, the writer has included all 
of the beds above the Waynesburg coal of the Monongahela series. 
The dividing line is drawn where Permian plants have first been 
observed in the fossil flora. Hence, although there is no observa- 
ble unconformity between the top of the Monongahela series and 
the base of the Dunkard as now defined, yet the existence of a 
thick, coarse, conglomeratic sandstone of wide distribution, just 
above the Waynesburg coal horizon, denotes a very great change 
in physical conditions. It is also quite probable that considerable 
erosion took place in some portions of the Appalachian field dur- 
ing the deposition of this basal conglomerate of the Dunkard se- 
ries, and hence, although there is no appreciable unconformity in 
the dip of the beds, there can be no doubt thnt the currents which 
brought in the great deposit of coarse sand and gravel just after 
the epoch of the Waynesburg coal, also transported the elements of 
a new flora, several species of which are found only in the Per- 
mian beds of Europe while others are even near relatives of Tri- 
a&sic types. 

From all of these considerations it is quite possible that the 
column of rocks included in the Dunkard series should really be 



WEST VTRGiyiA GSOLOGICAL 8UBVBY. 



101 



split up'^into two or three divisions each of which would* tKen be 
comparable in time to any of the other series. The age of 
these beds will be further considered at the close of this ciMtpter. 

Erosion has completely removed these rocks from severs^ 
thousands of square miles in the State where they once doubtiees 
existed, and also has very probably reduced their total thickness, 
by many thousands of feet, if we can infer that the beds removed 
above even the highest rocks yet preserved, were of the same soft 
and easily destructible type as the most of those that remain. 

The maximum thickness of the series preserved is somewhere 
between 1,100 and 1,200 feet. One of the oil wells on the 
Rush farm, north of Pine Grove, Wetzel county, located on the 
summit of a high knob near the center of the great Appalachian 
trough, found 1,100 feet of these Dunkard beds, and it is fairly 
certain that no other areas can exceed this thickness by more 
than 100 to 200 feet. 

As exhibited in West Virginia, the rocks of this series con- 
sist of a succession of brown and gray sandstones, interstratified 
with much red shale, many beds of limestone, and several thin, 
impure, and unimportant coal beds, the entire series being slight- 
ly gypeiferous throughout, though no accumulations of gypsum 
have taken place owing probably to the absen* e of any consider- 
able thickness of limestone beds. 

In Ohio and norihern Marshall counties, like Greene and 
Washington of Pennsylvania, this series holds less red shale and 
a greater proportion of limestone and gray limy shales than 
farther to the southwest. The coal beds are also more numer- 
ous, and the sandstones less massive, the whole resulting in a 
gentlf rolling topography, finely adapted to grazing and agricul- 
ture, except along the immediate gorges of the streams. 

As we pass south-westward, however, the coal beds all disap- 
pear except one (the Washington) before we reach the Little Kan- 
awha river, and the Limestones with one or two exceptions thin 
away into great masses of marly red shales holding only nuggets 
of lime, while the sandstones thicken up, and, capping the ridges 
in long lines of cliffs, often make a sugged topography better fitted 
for grazing and fruit culture than for agriculture. When the 

massive sandstones disappear from the ridges or uplands, however, 
there frequently occur limited areas of beautiful, JroUing lands 



102 •;••/ DUNKARD SERIES OR PERMIAN. 

whicljjK^d abundant crops, the red marly shales being quite fer- 
tile frcftfr the disseminated limestone nuggets. 

^ '.The soils formed by the disintegration of the Dunkard beds 
hiuv]g-the reputation of producing a fine quality of wool in which 
itfe-feber is peculiarly firm and strong, so that its area is often 
known as the ^^sheep belt" of West Virginia, since probably 90 
'.per cent of the sheep raised in the state are grown upon the out- 
crops of the Dunkard series. These rocks occupy a belt about 
40-60 miles in width bordering the Ohio river, and extending east 
from the same over portions or all of the following named coun- 
ties: Ohio, Marshall, Wetzel, Tyler, Monongalia and Marion 
(west of the Monongahela river), western Harrison and Lewis, 
Doddridge, Pleasants, Wf'od, Wirt, Ritchie, Calhoun, Gilmer, 
Roane, Jackson, and the uplands of Mason and southern Putnam, 
but tailing out into a narrow belt, which soon overshoots even 
the highest hills of Wayne, a short distance east from the Big 
Sandy river at the Kentucky boundary. 

This series was named by the writer from its fine develop- 
ment and'exposure along Dunkard creek, a large stream which 
rises in western Monongalia, and adjoining regions of Greene 
county, Pennsylvania, and flowing eastward, sometimes in West 
Virginia, and again in Pennsylvania, empties into the Mononga- 
hela five miles north from the West Virginia-Pennsylvania line. 

The following sections of the rocks exposed along that stream 
from the head of its Pennsylvania fork in Gilmore township, 
Greene county. Pa., to Mount Morris, is taken from Bulletin 65, 
U. S. Geological Survey, page 22 : 

DUNKARD CREEK SECTION. 

Ft In. Ft. In. 

Concealed from top of Shough's knob 165 

Sandstone, masstve, Gilmore 40 

Shales, with limestone at base 15 

Sandstone and shales and concealed 100. 

Shale, red 2 - j^ 480 

Shales, gray 20 

Shale, marly 2 

Sandstone and shale 35 

Red shale 3 

Sandstone and Shale 50 

Red Shale 3 

Shales and sandstone, Nineveh 25 

Shales 20 

Coal, Nineveh i 6 

Shales 28 

Limestone (No. X), Nineveh 7 

Shales, sandstone and concealed 100 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



103 



Sandstone, massive, Fish Creek 20 

Shales with fossil plant* 10 

( coal </ 5^1 

Coal, Dunkard <slale.....o i V i 

(coal o 6 j 

Limestone i 

Sandstone 10 

Shales 17 

Limestone, Jollvtown i 

Shales and sandstone 25 

Coal, Jollytown i 

Calcerous shale, foasiliferous, fish teeth o 

Limestone, Upper Washington 4 

Shales and sandstone 115 

Limestone, Middle Washington 3 

Shales 40 

Sandstone 35 

Shale 5 

fcoal, impure i^ y^^ 

Coal, Washington "A" i fire day 2 6 K 4 

[coal o 6 J 

Shales and sandstones 60 

Limstone, Lower Washington 5 

Shales 5 

Coal, Washington, slaty 5 

Hhales and sandstones, including coal bed near center no 

Coal, Waynesburg **A*' 2 

Shales 10 

Sandstone, Waynesburg 50 

f^hales, with fossil plants (Cassville) 5 

Waynesburg coal 



223 



276 8 



Total 1162 3 

Shough's knob is wooded, and the rocks in it are not exposed 
but it probably contains the highest beds of the Dunkard series, 
existing anywhere in the Appalachian basin. 

The following detailed section of these beds made by the 
writer at Board Tree, Marshall county, combined with the record 
of an oil well located near, on the Nuce farm, is also taken from 
Bulletin 65, above cited, page 25 : 



BOARD TREE SECTION. 

Ft. 

Sandstone, gray and concealed 55 

Gray limestone, Windy Gap 5 

Red shales and concealed 100 

Coaly slate i 

Concealed to base of a massive sandstone 35 

Concealed, sandstone and red shale to Board Tree 

Tunnel 175 

Sandy shales 15 

Sandstone, Nineveh 15 



In. 



Ft In. 



401 



104 



DUNKARD SERIES OR PERMIAN. 



Limestone, Nineveh.. 



19 



Coal, Nineveh i 

Gray shales 15 

Sandstone, massive 12 

Shales 3 

'limestone i' ' 

black slate 3 

, limestone and 

limy beds 15 

Variegated shales '. 9 

Sandstone 5 

Shales, limy ^ 7 

Sandstone to level of track at west portal 5 

Concealed shales and sandstone 100 

Massive sandstone, Pish Creek 30 

Shales 3 

Coal, Dunkard, to level of bore hole. 2 

Interval, shales, sandstones and limestones, with two 

thin coal beds 50 

Shales, sandstones and red beds 

Coal, Washington 5 

Shales, limestones and sandstone 150 

Coal, Waynesburg 



261 



.300 
155 



Total 1117 

In the vicinity of Bellton, 8 miles west from Board Tree, the 
exposuroB are more complete, and there the writer once measured 
a section which combined with the record of an oil boring gives 
the following succession, as published in Bulletin 66, U. 8. Geo- 
logical Survey, pages 26 and 27 : 

BELLTON SECTION. 



Ft In. 



Limestone, Windy Gap 5 

Shales 30 

Coal, Windy Gap, blossom o 

Concealed, sandsfone and shale 30 

Shales and sandstone 60 

Sandstone, massive, gray 20 

Red shales and concealea 75 

Sandstone, massive 40 

Red shales and sandstones 50 

Limestone 3 

Shales and concealed « 20 

Coal, Nineveh i 

Shales and sandstone 35 

Limestone and shales, Nineveh 10 

Shales, sandstone and concealed 100 

Sandstone « 5 

Shales 10 

Limestone ■. o 

Coal o 

Shales and sandstone 15 

Redshales 5 

Concealed^ '. 20 

Coal I 

Shales and concealed « 30 



Ft In. 



WB8T VIBOnaA aiOLOOIOAL 8UBVKT. 



105 



o«i.i>«i»k«id {^.^!*:r;,l^ } « 3 



Limy shales and fire day.. 
Shales 



Limestone, gray, Jollytown. 
Shales and sandstones 



313 



Coal, Jollytown 

Limestone, gray. Upper Washington, (continned from 

oil well record 

Sandstone 

Shale 

Sandstone 

Shale 

Fire clay 

Ssndrtone 

Shale 

Sandstone...,. 

Coaly shales 

Sandstone 

Shale 

Sandstone 

Shale 

Sandstone 

Shale 

Sandstone 

Shale 

Sandstone 

Shale 

Sandstone 

Coal, Washington 

Sandstone 

Limestone. 

Shale 

Sandstone 

Shale 

Sandstone 

Shale 

Limestone 

Fire clay 

Limestone 

Sandstone 

Place for Waynesbnig coal 

Total 1078 8 

PRINCIPAL HORIZONS OF THE DUNKARD SERIES. 
The Summit of the Dunkard series appears to be crowned by 
rather massive sandstones separated by red shales and thin lime- 
stones with only one coal or coaly horizon. 

The Gilmore sandstone of Prof. Stevenson and another mas- 
sive one 50 to 75 feet higher, have protected these highest mem- 
bers of the Dunkard from complete erosion, although the topmost 
beds in the great plateau of western Monongalia, Marion, Wetzet, 
Marshall, Tyler, Doddridge, and western Harrison, remain only in 
a series of conspicuous knobs, rising 100 to 200 feet above the gen- 



5 

2 

30 
o 

5 
12 

7 
II 
12 

7 
25 
12 

17 
9 
9 
5 
4 

16 

4 
30 

2 

35 
27 

20 
8 
19 
15 
18 

25 

4 

10 

3 
4 
16 



148 



106 



DUNKABD SERIES OR PERBOAN. 



eral level of the surface, and 500 to 700 above the immediate vaU 
leyfl of the draining streams. 

The uppermost of these sandstones has not been named, but 
it caps a high knob one mile south from Windy Gap Church, in 
Greene county, Pennsylvania. There,anoil well (Earnhardt No. 1) 
starting on its top, found the VVaynesburg coal or base of the 
Dunkard series at 1075 feet, so that the sandstone in question 
comes near the very top of the Dunkard beds. 

WINDY GAP LIMESTONE. 

One of the highest limestones of the Dunkard series, traceable 
over any considerable area, has been named from a locality in 
Greene county, Pa., the Windy Gap limestone. 

Like all other limestones of this Dunkard series, it is of fresh 
water origin, and contains only minute lossilc^, apparently bivalve 
Crustacea, but as these forms have never been studied, nothing 
definite is known of their specific or even generic type. The 
rock weathers to a light gray on the surface, but on fresh fracture 
is dark or bluish in color, and the several layers have a thickhess 
aggregating 8 to 10 feet. 

This limestone occurs near the summits of the hills at Board 
Tree, and Bellton, in Marshall county, and also in most of the high 
knobs of Marshall, Wetzel, and western Marion and Monongalia. 

Oil well No 65 of L. S. Hoyt & Co., situated on a high ridge 
separating Big and Little Fishing creeks, 6 miles north of Pine 
Grove, Wetzel county, starts 15 to 20 feet below this limestone, 
and it reached the Pittsburg coal at 1270 feet and the base of the 
Dunkard series at 970 feet, thus making the horizon of the Windy 
Gap limestone practically 1000 feet above the base of the series, 
or 50 to 75 feet less than that shown in the Board Tree, and Bell- 
ton sections. This discrepancy, however, may be accounted for 
by some westward thinning and also from the fact that the latter 
were based upon barometric measurements (,nd therefore not eo 
accurate as the oil well result. 

At many localities in Wetzel, Marshall, Marion and Monon- 
galia, another limestone several feet thick is found ut an interval 
of 100 to 120 feet below the Windy Gap bed, and this may fre- 
quently have been confused with the latter. The L. S. Hoyt oil 
wells Nos. 30 and 31 of Wetzel county both start at the horizon ot 
this lower limestone and get the Pittsburg coal at 1160 feet. The 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



107 



two limestones in question coming as they do high up on the ridge 
lands of the counties mentioned, contribute much to the fertility 
of these upland soils of the Permian area. 

THE WINDY GAP COAL. 

At 26 to 30 feet below the Windy Gap limestone, there occurs 
an impure coal or coaly shale which has been observed at a few 
localities in West Virginia. It is the highest known bed of any- 
thing approaching coal in composition, in the Dunkard series. 
Where seen in the tops of the kno])s near Bellton, Marshall coun- 
ty, or near St Cloud, Monongalia county, it appears to be little 
better than a highly bituminous shale, although near Windy Gap, 
Greene county, Pennsylvania, some actual coal occurs at this 
horizon, although ;is f ir as kncvn it has never been dug for burn- 
ing, and is of interet only as being the highest known bitumi- 
nous stratum yet found in the Appalachian basin. 

THE GILMORE SANDSTONE. 

A massive bed of coarse yellowish browii sandstone, 25 to 30 
feet thick comes into the series a short distance below the Windy 
Gap coal horizon. It was named by Dr. John J. Stevenson, the 
Gilmore sandstone from its occurrence in the township of that name 
in Greene county, Pennsylvania, and is there frequently con- 
spicuous in long lines of cliffs near the summits of the hills. It is 
known under several names at different localities, as the **Fox 
Rocks," *'Pethtle Rocks," etc. In western Monongalia, the same 
stratum is called '^Efaw Rocks" from a locality near Wadestown 
where it litters up the ground with large boulders. 

This sandstone has been, as already stated, one of the princi- 
pal agencies in preserving the higher portions of the Dunkard series 
from erosion, and holding up the "ridge lands" into broad arable 
fields favorably located for agriculture. The stratum is very fre- 
quently not exposed in a cliff, but simply makes a well defined 
bench in the topography. 

The interval of 200-250 feet immediately b^hm the Gilmore 
sandstone is seldom well exposed, but appears to consist of red 
shales, brown, micaceous sandstones and thin limestones, none of 
which is sufficiently characteristic to merit a special name. 



108 DUNKARD SERIES OR PERMIAN. 

NINEVEH SANDSTONE. 

At a littie over 200 feet below the Gilraore sandstone there is 
quite generally foupd another great sandstone horizon, and this 
has been called the Nineveh sandstone from its position a few feet 
above the coal of the same name. 

This, like the Gilmore above, often gives rise to cliffs, espec- 
ially in Marshall, Wetzel, western Monongalia, Marion, Harrison 
and Doddridge. The rock is yellowish gray in color, and has 
frequently been quarried for building stone, though at times its 
texture is not firm enough to prevent crumbling when exposed to 
frost, etc. An attempt was made to quarry it near the eastern 
portal of the Short Line [B. & 0.] Railroad tunnel in western 
Harrison, but the sand grains are so loosely cemented that the 
rock crumbles too easily for building into exposed structures. It 
appears to be this stratum that crops out in bold cliffs along the 
B. & 0. Railroad between Salem and Long Run in Doddridge 
county, and also at Littleton in Wetzel county, half way up the 
hills. The same sandstone has been quarried on the land of 
Thomas White, one mile below Maple, Monongalia county. 

BELLTON STAGE. 

In Bulletin 65, U. S. Geological Survey, the writer has de- 
signated the beds beginning with the Jollytown coal and ending 
with the Nineveh coal as the Bellton group or stage, and the 
thickness as shown in the Bellton section foots up 284 feet, 8 
inches. These thin coals are rather persistent over the counties 
of Marshall, Wetzel, and the western portions of Marion, Monon- 
galia and Harrison, but to she southwest they thin away and dis- 
appear completely, none of them ever having been seen south of 
the Parkersburg branch of the B. & 0. Railroad. 

The coals are five in number at Bellton, but only three of 
them extend over any considerable area; viz, the Nineveh, Dun- 
kard and Jollytown. These coals are of no economic importance 
except locally where other and thicker beds are not available. 
Occasionally one of them may cover a small area along the valleys 
of the streams, where only a little stripping will uncover many 
bushels of fuel. In such cases these coals can be profitably mined 
by the farmers for their own use. 



WEST VIBGINIA GBOLOGICAL SURVEY. 109 

THE NINEVEH COAL. 

The Nineveh coal, so named by Dr. John J. Stevenson from 
the village of Nineveh, Qieene county, Pa., is the highest member 
of the Bellton stage. It is frequently seen along the roads and 
streams in western Monongalia, Marion, Wetzel and Marshall 
counties and appears to be rather pure, having been used occa- 
sionally foi smithing purposes. It is seldom more than one foot 
thick, though occasionally thickening to 25 inches, and also thin- 
ning down to 6 inches or less. This coal may be observed crop- 
ping out above the arch of Board Tree tunnel on the B. & 0. 
Railroad in Marshall county, and also at the Glover's Gap tunnel 
on the line between Marion and Wetzel counties. 

A. coal was once mined in the hill at Burton, Wetzel county, 
about 130 feet above water level, and it is probably this coal. 

THE NINEVEH LIMESTONE. 

Below the Nineveh coal at an interval of 25-30 feet, there id 
found a limestone that appears to have a very wide distribution. 
It usually occurs in several layers, and these may be separated by 
marly or sometimes, bituminous shale, the whole often 20 or more 
feet in thickness. Some of the layers of limestone are of fair 
quality while others are quite impure. The outcrop of this lime- 
stone is finely shown at either portal of Board Tree tunnel, on the 
Marshall- Wetzel county line; also at the foot of the hill on the 
road between Maple and St Cloud, Monongalia county. Its crop 
may be seen along the public road leading from Si. Cloud to 
Hundred, J mile east of the Winona Shough oil well, and 70 feet 
above the derrick floor, thus making its position there 960 feet 
above the Pittsburg coa), since the latter was found at a depth of 
890 feet. It appears to be this "same Nineveh limestone that 
cropis through Wood, Wirt, and Jackson counties, extending nearly 
through to the Big Kanawha river, and occurring well up in the 
summits of the hillff. It is known south of the Little Kanawha 
river as the **Ridge" limestone from its occurrence along the 
ridgee, and it adds much to the fertility of the soil. It gives 
name to Limestone Hill P. 0., on the Parkersburg ond Charles- 
ton turnpike, near the corner of Wirt, vVood and Jackson counties, 
where it crops on the summit and appears to be nearly 30 feet 
thidk 



110 DUNKABD SERIES OR PERMIAN. 

This limestone was called No X in Dr. John J. Stevenson's 
Report K of the Second Geological Survey ot Pennsylvania, while 
the Windy Gap limestone, 300 feet higher, was called No. XIV. 

The rock interval for the next 100 feet below the Nineveh 
limestone, consists of shales, bandstones and red beds, and occa- 
sionally a thin coal may occur 75 to 100 feet down, but it does not 
appear to be persistent over any considerable area, having been 
seen only in the region near Burton, Wetzel county. 

.FISH CREEK SANDSTONE. 

At 135 to 160 feet below the Nineveh coal there occurs another 
sandstone horizon known as the Fish Creek sandstone of Steven- 
son. It makes great clififs along the stream of that name in Mar- 
shall county, and also along the B. & 0. Railroad between Little- 
ton and Burton in Wetzel county, where it has been extensively 
quarried for building stone, of which it produces a very fair 
quality. 

This stratum, like the Nineveh and Gilmore sandstones 
above, makes a distinct terrace in the topography, so that its 
presence can be easily detected, even when it does not stand out 
as a bold cliff. 

THE DUNKARD COAL. 

Below the Fish Creek sandstone at an interval of 1 to 20 feet 
there often occurs another coal which from its outcrop along the 
bed of DunkaVd Creek, 'for a considerable distance, was named the 
Dunkard coal by Dr. Stevenson, in his Greene County, Pa. Report. 
It is seldom more than 12 to 15 inches thick, but is almost always 
double bedded, having a thin layer of slate near its center. This 
coal occurs so close to the Jolly town coal below, that it has doubt- 
less often been erroneously identified with the latter. It covers a 
considerable area in western Marion, Monongalia, and in Wetzel 
and Marshall counties and has occasionally been mined by strip- 
ping along the streams. The root shales generally contain num- 
erous well preserved fossil plants, and Dr. David White finds among 
them some well marked Permian types, along with well known 
Coal Measure forms. This bed crops above the B, & 0. Railroad 
in the vicinity of Bellton, Marshall county, for two or three miles, 
and may also be seen near Glen Easton in the same county. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. Ill 

In Monongalia county it was once mined by stripping, on the 
land of Thomas White, one mile below Maple. 

JOLLYTOWN COAL. 

The lowest coal seam of the Bellton stage is known as the 
JoUytown bed from its outcrop in the village of that name in 
Greene county, Pa. It has probably been mined more frequently 
and used for domestic and other purposes to a greater extent than 
any other member of the Bellton group, being usually thicker and 
more persistent, having a wide distribution in western Monongalia, 
Marion and Harrison counties, and also founa quite generally in 
Wetzel,Marshall, and Tyler. It is a fine ''key'' rock from which to 
estimate the depth of the Pittsburg coal below the surface where 
the latter stratum is so deeply buried in the central portion of the 
Appalachian basin^ since the Jollytown coal is usually found at 
750 ♦© 800 feet above the Pittsburg bed, except along the western 
border of the State where the interval has thinned to 700 feet or 
even less. 

The Jollytown coal has been mined in the vicinity of Wise, 
Monongalia county, where it is 18 to 24 inches thick and of fairly 
good qualitv, on the lands of Mr. Wiley and others. It has also 
been opened on the land of Zadock Wise, below Cross Roads on 
Miracle Run. 

In Wetzel county it crops along the banks of Fish Creek at 
Burton, and is frequently seen between there and Littleton, being 
30 feet above the bed of the stream at Hundred, 40 to 50 feet 
above at Littleton, and underlain closely by the Washington 
limestone. 

At Bellton, Marshall county, this coal is only 4 to 6 inches 
thick and crops near the bed of Fi^^h creek 40 to 50 feet below 
another [Dunkard] coal bed. 

Along the Short Line Railroad this coal crops at railroad 
gnide one-half mile above Wallace, Harrison county, and also 
comes out on the other side of the divide at Folsom station in 
Wetzel county, being only 8 to 10 inches thick at either point. 

THE WASHINGTON LIMESTONE. 

Three lime-tones were named from Washington, Pennsyl- 
vania, by Dr. John J. Stevenson — an Upper, Middle and Lower — 
and the Upper one comes immediately below the Jollytown coal. 



112 DUNKARD SERIES OR PERMIAN. 

There is frequently a bed of bituminous slate or shale immediately 
overlying the limestone, which is filled with fish remains. 

The Middle Washington limestone while frequently present 
in Greene and Washington counties of Pennsylvania, does not ap- 
pear to be persistent in West Virginia. 

The Lower one, however, is often seen in the roof shales of 
the Washington coal, and is one of the factors utsed to identify that 
important geological horizon. This Lower Washington limestone 
is quite generally present in Monongalia, Marion, Harrison, Wet- 
zel, Tyler, Marshall, and Ohio counties, but disappears southwest- 
ward in Doddridge, Ritchie and adjoining countied. 
THE MARIETTA SANDSTONES. 

The interval of rocks 200 feet or more in thickness which sep- 
arates the JoUytown coal from the Washington coal is often largely 
occupied by an immense sandstone deposit 100 or more feet in 
thickness, and in two or three great ledges separated by shales. 
The writer has termed the sandstone horizon the Marietta sand- 
stones from their occurrence near that city on the Ohio river where 
they have long been quarried for grindstones, of which they make 
an excellent quality. The color of the rock is generally of a yel- 
lowish brown and they often form immense clifiTs as at Raven 
Rock, on the Ohio river. 

In Roane, Jackson, Mason, Calhoun, Gilmer, Wirt, Lewis 
and Ritchie counties especially, there are many localities where the 
Marietta sandstones form long lines of clifiTs on the summits of the 
ridges, and often weather into fantastic shapes which from a dis- 
tance resemble a closely crowded group of immense haystacks. 
One of these localities in Roane on the lands of Mr. Munson Jack- 
son has given rise to the term ^'Jackson Rocks" under which 
name this outcrop is locally known over a considerable r^on. 
These sandstones, though frequently coarse in grain, rarely hold 
pebbles of considerable size, only one such locality (along the 
Parkersburg and Staunton turnpike near the line between Gilmer 
and Ritchie counties) being known to the writer. Occasionally 
the shales which usually separate this sandy horizon into two or 
three separate strata, thin away as at Rock Lick, Marshall coun- 
ty,and then we get a solid mass of sandstone 100 feet thick. 

This horizon has recently been quarried for grindstones to a 
considerable extent between Parkersburg and Letart along the 



WK8T VntOINIA QBOLOGIGAL 8UBVBT. 113 

Ohio river, and it is quite probable that in many other regions a 
valuable grindstone grit could be found at this geological level. 
THE WASHINGTON STAGE. 
Beginning directly beneath the Marietta sandstones and ex- 
tending down to the top of the Wayneshurg sandstone, we find a 
group of beds which in the northern end of the state contain sev- 
eral quite persistent coals, and which might be called the Wash- 
ington STAGS after the name of its principal coal bed. 

The coals of this stage which have received distinct nameb 
are in descending order the following : 

Washington *^A." 
Washington. 
Little Washington. 
Wayneshurg '*B." 
Wayneshurg "A.'' 
They occupy 180 to 200 feet of measures and are separated 
by shales, sandstone, and often two or more beds of limestone. 

The Washington **A'' coal at the top is of no importance 
and of very limited extent, occurring principally along Dunkard 
creek in We&tem Monongalia where it is often only a mass of 
bituminous ghale and thin slaty layers of coal, the whole being 4 
to 5 feet in thickness. 

The Washington coal is the thickest and most important, 
and widely extended coal of the Dunkark series. It is generally 
a multiple seam, having several alternate layers of coal and slate 
in its upper half, and generally 18 to 20 inches of fairly good 
coal in its lower portion, the entire seam often attaining a 
thickness of 10 feet 

The following section from near Farminglon, Marion county, 
will illustrate this latter type of structure : 

Coal o' 6^1 

Shale o 3 

Coal and shale o 8 

Coal I o 

Shale o 4 

Coal JO 5 

Shale o 3 y 10^ 9^ 

Coal I o 

Shale o 4 

Coal I I 

Shale o 3 

Coal, fair 2 o 

Slate o 2 

Coal, good 2 6 . 



114 DUNDABD SERIES OR PERBHAN. 

Here the only good coal in the entire 10^ 9^ is the 2^ feet 
at the bottom. 

This coal was first described by the writer from Brown's Mill, 
on Dunkard creek near the village of New Brownsville, Monon- 
galia county, where it has the following structure : 

Bituminous shale 2^ o^ 

Coal, impure i 9 

Shale o 4 [ ^ ^' 

Coal, slaty i 4 

Shale o 3 

Coal, good 2 4 

It is persistent over all of the western half of Monongalia, 
Marion and Harrison counties, and appears to be universally 
present in Ohio, Marshall, Wetzel, Tyler, Pleasants, Doddridge, 
Ritchie, Gilmer, Calhoun, Wirt, Wood, Jackson, and Roane, and 
hence becomes an important **key" from which to estimate the 
depths to underlying formations. 

The position of this coal at Wheeling, in Ohio county, is only 
360 feet above the Pittsburg bed,but this interval increases gradually 
eastward until in Marion and Harrison counties near Mannington 
and Brown respectively we find 560 feet of rock thickness 
intervening. 

On the main line of the B. & 0. Railroad this coal passes 
beneath water le^^el about two miles west of Mannington, and does 
not reappear until we come to near Roseby's rock, Marshall 
county. 

On the Short Line Railroad it goes under water level 2 miles 
above Brown, Harrison county, on the land of Templeton Smith, 
and comes out again between Sroithfleld and Jacksonburg, being 
frequently seen in the cuts of the railroad for several miles beyond 
Pine Grove in Wetzel county, and has frequently been mined for 
domestic supply between there and New Martinsville as well as at 
the latter town where it is about 160 feet above the Ohio river. 

At Sistersville this bed crops near the watering trough on the 
Middlebourne pike high up in the hills, and looks to be 2^ to 3 
feet thick. 

In the region of Marietta, this coal is thin and known as the 
**Hobson'' vein generally by the Ohio geologists. 

At Parkersburg it is at low water just below ♦he mouth of the 



WEST VmGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 115 

little Kanawha, and is slaty and worthless, being only 1^ to 2 
feet thick. 

On the Parkersburg branch of the B. & 0. Railroad, this coal 
is first observed in the roof of the tunnel just east of Cherry 
Camp, Harrison county, and it passes below water level at the eas- 
tern line of that village to come out again on Middle Island waters 
two miles east of Long Run station in Doddridge county, and is 
frequently visible along the railroad to Cairo and beyond, crop- 
ping out a few feet above the^reat clifF sandstone, well up in the 
lulls, but only one to two feet thick and of no economic 
importance. 

In the region of Ritchie Mine, this coal bed is left unchanged 
by the dike of Grahamite which intersects all the strata from the 
bottom to the tops of the hills. It is also to be seen near Richie 
Court House where it is only 12 to 18 inches thick. It is mined 
for local supply at Smithville where it is less than two feet thick 
and 150 feet above the bed of Hughes river. 

On Tanner's Fork in Gilmer county this coal occurs high up 
in the hills and is from 2 to 3 fert thick. Its occurrence high up 
on the ridges and hills through Gilmer, Calhoun and Roane coun- 
ties has led to its being generally known as the "Chestnut Oak' ' 
vein, and occasionally as the'*Hickory'' vein. 

This coal has be«n mined in the vicinity of Spencer, Roane 
county, where it is 2^ feet thick and crops 75 feet above the level of 
Spring creek. The coal is slaty and of poor quality except about 
12 to 15 inches of the bottom portion. 

From Spencer on across to Walton this coal is frequenly visi- 
ble, being mined near Looneyvilie, and many other points where 
no other coal is accessible. 

One mile and a half below Walton, this vein was once mined 
on the land of P. H. Lee in the bluflf of Poca river, and 50 feet 
above the same. It is here only 18" thick, rather impure, arid 
comes 40 feet above a great pebbly mas^sive sandstone, the top of 
which is only 10 feet above water level. 

On Rock creek, a tributary of Poca river, emptying from the 
south near Oakville, Mr. Joseph Moore has a\ined the same coal to 
a small extend. It is 12 to 24 inches thick but slaty and sul- 
phurous, and comes only lO feet above the top of a great pebbly 
cliff 60 feet high. 



116 DUNKARD SERIES OR PERMIAN. 

This bed may possibly extend farther to the southwest but it 
has not been reported as mined any farther in that direction. 

It is in the roof shales of this coal that the Permian plants, 
Callipteris conferta, (y. LYRATA, and other Permian types have 
been found at Price's and Brown's mines below Worley in Mon- 
ongalia county. 

A sample of the Washington coal from the region of Pine 
Grove, Wetzel county, collected by Mr. Thomas Pettigrew, 
engineer of the Short Line Railroad was analyzed by Prof. B. H. 
Hite, Chemist for the Survey, with the following results: 

Moisture 8.46 pr. ct 

Volatile matter 46.75 " 

Fixed carbon 31.66 •* 

Ash 13. 13 " 

Total 100.00 ** 

Sulphur 2.64 ** 

The analysis reveals a coal very high in moisture, volatile 
matter, and ash, thus keeping up the progressive ratio of increase 
for these elements in passing upward from the base of the Coal 
Measures. 

WAYNESBURG '*A" COAL. 

The only other coal in this group which is ever of any eco- 
nomic importance is the Waynesburg *'A" bed, 80 to 90 feet 
below the Washington coal and the bame interval above the 
Waynesburg, or base of the Dunkard series. This bed is quite 
generally present 10 to 15 feet above the massive Waynesburg 
sandstone, through Monongalia, Marion, Harrison, Doddridge 
and Tyler counties, and occasionally attains a thickness of 8^ 
feet. The coal contains much ash and other impurities, however, 
and makes only an indifferent fuel. It has been mined to a 
sm&ll extent in western Harrison and eastern Doddridge for local 
domestic use. Its presence is generally marked by a line of 
springs which come out of the groimd on top of the impermeable 
clays and shales just below, and which, easily disintegrating, give 
origin to very bad roads with deep sticky mudholes along their 
line of outcrop. 

These coals, limestones, shales, sandstones, etc., of the 
Dunkard series, will be described with more minuteness and their 
floras and faunas carefully studied when the detailed geology of 



WEST VIBGINIA GBOLOGICAL SURVEY. 117 

each county is taken up and worked out for publication, since 
only a small space could be allotted for their consideration in this 
report, because its main purpose is the description of the important 
fuel resources of the Commonwealth. These thin and impure 
beds of the Dunkard will only become important in the far distant 
future when the thick, pure coals of the other series below have 
been practically exhausted. 

THE WAYNE8BURG SANDSTONE. 

The Dunkard series began with the setting in of the strong 
currents which first deposited the Cassville plant shale in imme- • 
diate contact with the imderljnng coal (Waynesburg), and also 
introduced along with many old and well known Coal Measure 
plants, several new and strange forms which characterize a higher 
terrane in the fossil flora of Europe. 

The grey, sandy, fossiliferous Cassville shales were succeeded 
abruptly by a coarse, massive, yellowish white conglomerate which 
the Pennsylvania geologists long ago named the Waynesburg 
sandstone from its occurrence in great cliffs along Ten Mile creek, 
just east from Waynesburg, Greene county, Pennsylvania. 

The sandstone in question appears to rest conformably upon 
the underlying Cassville plant shale, so far as dip is concerned, 
but the latter is frequently absent entirely and then the sandstone 
rests directly upon tiie Waynesburg coal. The fact, however, that 
the Cassville shale has thus frequently been eroded by the rapid 
currents which transported the coarse sand and quartz pebbles of 
the Waynesburg sandstone, would lead to the conclusion that a 
great change in physical conditions had taken place, even although 
there is no marked unconformity in dip, or any large amount of 
erosion. 

There is some evidence in the south-western portion of the 
state that there may have been considerable erosion of the under- 
lying Monongahela series in that region during the deposition of 
the Waynesburg sandstone since the thickness of the Monongahela 
is about 100 feet less than it is to the northward, and the Waynes- 
burg coal is seldom to be found. 

It is a singular coincidence that the dawn of Permian time 
should have been marked both here and upon the continent of 
Europe by turbulent currents — in the case of Europe carrying 



ll^ DtNKAfiD S&RIES Oft PEftMlAK. 

such immense boulders that some geologists see in the deposits, 
evidence of glacial conditions. The great, coarse, Waynesburg 
conglomerate so different from any of the beds in the section for 
several hundred feet below it, and entirely unlike any of the beds 
above, coming as it does at the beginning of the Dunkard epoch, 
is certainly good evidence for a marked change in physical con- 
ditions and therefore the proper horizon to expect a change in the 
faima and flora. 

The Waynesburg sandstone has a very wide distribution, 
extending as a great, coarse deposit entirely across the state. 
Being seldom less than 6(y and often 76' in thickness it makes a 
line of rugged cliffs along its eastern outcrop from where it enters 
the state in Monongalia county, across Marion, Harrison, Lewis, 
Gilmer, Calhoun, Roane, Kanawha, Putnam and Cabell to where 
it leaves the Appalachian trough in Wayne county near the Big 
Sandy. It is especially massive and pebbly where it rises from 
the bed of Poca river just below Walton and for many miles down 
that stream, as well as in all the country to the southward where 
the southeastward rise of the strata carries it up into the hill tops 
before it disappears from the same a few miles west from Elk 
river. 

This same stratimi comes out of the Ohio river along the Ohio 
shore in the vicinity of Blennerhassett Island, and its massive top 
is frequently visible at low water in the bed of the Ohio at many 
localities between Parkersburg and Letart. Here the Ohio river 
veers to the Northwest and the emergence of the Waynesburg 
sandstone makes ^^Letart Falls." It appears to be this same 
stratum that forms the great cliffs along the B. & 0. railroad 
between Ellenboro and Cairo, as well as along Hughes river for 
long distances above McFarland. 

It usually makes a good quarry rock for piers and other large 
structures, as it splits readily into great blocks of any desired size, 
dresses easily, and resists weathering action fairly well. It has 
frequently been used for bridge piers along the line of the B. & 0. 
railroad in Marion, Harrison, Ritchie and other coimties. 

In its western outcrop in Ohio, Marshall, Wetzel and Tyler 
counties, this rock, while occasionally massive, is not nearly so 
thick nor coarse as on the eastern side of the Appalachian basin. 



WEST VIRGINIA QBOLOGICAL SURVEY. 119 

From the fact that this stratum always makes a conspicuous 
bluflf it has been dubbed the **Bluflf Sand" by the petroleum 
drillers in the logs of their well records. 

THE CASSVILLE PLANT SHALE. 

The first and lowest member of the Dunkard series laid down 
in immediate contact with the highest bed (Waynesburg coal) of 
the Monongahela has been named the Cassville Plant Shale by 
Prof. Wm. M. Fontaine and the writer, from the village of 
Cassville, Monongalia county, seven miles northwest from Morgan- 
town. It varies from to 20 feet in thickness, and its lowest 
layer is usually interstratified with the Waynesburg coal, since a 
very rich flora as well as insect fauna occurs in a layer of gray 
shale 6"-12" thick just below the **ro()f" member of the Wa)nies- 
burg coal, and in immediate contact with the main coal stratum. 

The first of the new elements discovered in the flora of the 
Cassville shale was a fragment of T.enioptkris picked up by the 
writer in 1875 which the keen eye of Prof. Win. M. Fontaine at 
once recognized as a fonn entirely new to the Coal Measures, and 
which was later described in Report PP of the Pennsylvania 
Greological Survey under the name of T.eniopteris Lescuriana. 
Further search by Prof. Fontaine and the writer led to the finding 
of TvEXioiTERis Newberrvana, and the genera Baiera, and 
Saportea a nearly allied form, plants unknown in the European 
flora before the dawn of Permian time. 

These facts together with the finding of Callipteris Conferta 
and other Permian types in the roof shales of the Washington coal 
higher up in the Dunkard series, led Prof. Fontaine and myself 
to conclude that this whole series of rocks above the Waynesburg 
coal should not be included in the Coal Measures, but that they 
were of Permian age, and this opinion was so published in the 
Pennsylvania Survey Report PP, 1880, to which the reader is 
referred for a full discussion of the evidence. Chapter III, 1. c. 
pages 105 to 120. 

While European geologists have almost universally accepted 
our conclusions, American geologists, for reasons best known to 
themselves, have not done so. * During the present year (1902), 
however, Mr. David White, the eminent palaeobotanist of the 
U. S. Greological Survey, and of the National Museum, has spent 



120 DUNKABD SERIES OR PERMIAN. 

several weeks in the field and in reviewing the collections made 
from the Cassville shale by Fontaine and the writer. He concludes, 
in a paper announced for the Washington (December, 1902) 
meeting of the Gleological Society of America, that the Dimkard 
beds, at least as far down as the roof shales of the Washington 
coal, are of the same age as the Lower Rothlieoende of western 
Europe, but is not yet fully convinced of the Permian age of the 
intervening beds down to and including the Cassville Shale, 
largely on account of the many Coal Measure types which survive 
and are foimd commingled with the Permian forms. 

Mr. David White intends to make a more detailed study of 
these beds later, but as he has accepted our main contention, viz: 
the Permian age of the larger portion of the Dunkard* series, it is 
to be hoped that American geologists generally will now adopt his 
opinions, since he has discovered much additional confirmatory 
evidence. 

The following letter from Mr. White will show the nature of 
the evidence in question: 

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 

United States Geological Survey. 

Washington, D. C. Dec. 24, 1902 
DR. I. C WHITE, 
State Geologist; 

MORGANTOWN, W. Va. 

Dear Sir: 

In teply to your inquiry concerning the results of my search for 
Permian species in the Dunkard series during the past season, I cannot jrivc 
you a full rcjort, since the collections are not yet completely identified. 
The foUowinj^ species I regard as characteristic of Permian though some of 
them may nut be confined thereto: 

1. Calwpteris conferta Sternb. , small variety in lower Wash- 
ington limestone, but normal forms in roof shales of Dunkard coal. 

2. Callipteris lyratifolia Gopp. var. coriacea F. & W. The 
same as ftPHENOPTERiS coriacea F. & W. , Ix)wer Washington limestone. 

3. Callipteris curretiensis Zeill. , near Nineveh limestone. 

4. Gonioptbris Newberryana F. & W. =Pecopteris foeminae- 
formis(Schloth) ZeilL , forma diplazioides Zeill. ,from thePermian of Brieve. 
Cassville shale. 

5. Alethopteris gigas Gutb. , near Dunkard coal. 

6. Pecopteris GERMAri (Weiss) F. & W. , Cassville shale. 

7. Odontopteris Obtusiloba Naum. , near Dunkard coal. 

8. Cauw)Pteris Gigantea F. & W. =Ptychoptcris gigantea (F. & 
W. ) Zeill. , from the Permian of Brieve, Cassville. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVBY. 121 

9. Equisbtitbs rugosus Schimp. , Cassville. 

la 8phbnophyi«i«um Fontaineanum S. A. Miller, common; prob- 
ably identical in Europe. 

II. SiGiu^RiA APPROXIMATA F. & W. In European Permian. To 
these might be added the species common to the Coal Measures and Per- 
mian, such as Pkcopteris Candou^bana, P. pteroides, p. OREOPTER- 
IDIA, etc. 

A new and yet undescribed OdontopTERIS from the Cassville shale at Mt. 
Morris, Pa. , seems to suggest TaeniopTERIS pi^uensis Sterzel, but is not 
that. It, like some of the types of Mesozoic facies, points towanl Permian. 

ASTEROPHYI«I«ITES EQUISETIFORMIS and SlGII^I^RIA BRARDn, are 

among species found this summer. The former f^oes high up in the 
Dunkard. 

Very truly yours, 

DAVID WHITE. 

The Permian age of the Dunkard series is also confirmed by 
the existence of practically the same flora in the Wichita beds of 
Texas as shown in a paper by the writer published in the Bulletin 
of the Geological Society of America, Vol. III., pp. 217-218, 
April 22, 1892. In a small collection from Texas the species of 
which were identified by Prof. Wm. M. Fontaine, the genus 
Waxchia proved to be the only form not yet discovered in the 
Dimkard beds of West Virginia. 

The fossil insects described from the Cassville shale by Prof. 
Scudder in Bulletin 124, U. S. G. Survey, also furnish additional 
evidence of Permian age. 

A single wing of a fossil insect was found by Fontaine and 
White in 1876, and described by Scudder under the name of 
Gerablattina balteata in Report PP, of the 2nd Greological 
Survey of Pennsylvania, 1880. The specimen occurred in a layer 
of soft gray shale only a few inches thick, on top of the main 
body of the Waynesburg coal but just under th8 **roof ' member 
of the latter. 

Several years subsequently, the late R. D. Lacoe, of Pittston, 
Pa. , who did such admirable work in collecting fossil plants from the 
Coal Measures all over the United States, sent one of his keenest- 
eyed collectors, Mr. C. L. Eakin, of Wadestown, Mc»aongalia Co., 
W. Va., to make a thorough exploration of the Cassville locality. 
Mr. Eakin spent several months at the work, and dif^- ov red fifty- 
six (56) species all of which proved new to science, li^tributed 
among five (5) genera. This wealth of fossil insects was confined 
entirely to the few inches of gray shale at the very base of the 



122 DUNKARD SERIES OR PERMIAN. 

Dimkard series between the upper division of the Waynesbiirg 
coal, and its thin (6" to 12") *'roof" member above. 

Mr. Lacoe turned over all of the collection made by Mr. Eakin 
to Prof. Samuel H. Scudder, of Cambridge, Mass., for study and 
description, the results of which are given in Bulletin No. 124, 
U. S. G. Sun^ey. The following general statements concerning 
the Cassville specimens as well as those from near Steuben ville, 0. , 
given by Prof. Scudder on page 12 of the Bulletin referred to will 
explain more fully the Pennain evidence furnished by the fossil 
insects in question: 

* The West Virginia locality is at Cassville, Monongalia Co., 
not far from Morganto\>Ti, and the specimens were found in rocks 
lying above the Waynesburg coal, in what is termed by Prof. I. 
C. White the Dunkard Creek series, and referred very positively by 
him and Prof. Wm. M. Fontaine to the Permian. The blattarian 
fauna as thus far determined is uncjuestionably younger than any 
known from the Pennsylvania or Illinois rocks, on which we have 
hitherto depended largely for our knowledge, and consists of a 
vast assemblage of forms, which will undoubtedly be increased by 
further search. They number fifty-six species, belonging to five 
genera, the bulk of them (thirty-six species) to Etoblattina. 

The Ohio locality lies at the edge of the township of Richmond, 
on Wills Creek, in the near neighborhood of Steubenville, Jeffer- 
son county, and though far less extensive and less thoroughly 
worked than Cassville, has already yielded twenty-two species 
belonging to three genera, of which the larger number (seventeen) 
belong to Etoblattina and the others to the genera represented at 
Cassville by more than a single spacies. 

It is a curious fact, to which I called partial attention when 
first describing some of them, that these species represent for the 
most part a distinct group of cockroaches of the genera Etoblattina 
and Gerablattina, characterized by great length and slendemess of 
the intemomedian area, by a remarkable openness of the neuration 
in tha middle of the tegmina, and by their frequently exceptional 
length and slendemess. They comprise, indeed, nearly 76 per 
cent, of the species of these two genera at Richmond, and hardly 
occur elsewhere excepting at Cassville, where they compose about 
25 per cent, of the species ef these two genera. The only occur- 
rence of a similar form in Europe is Etoblattina elongata from 



WEST yXBOINIA GBOLOOICAL SURVBY. 



123 



the lower Dyas of Weissig, Saxony. The occurrence of this type 
of cockroaches is the characteristic feature of Richmond, and 
must place this fauna high in the series, as the stratigraphical 
evidence itself warrants. Its horizon, according to Mr. Huston, 
who alone has explored the location, is in the Barren Coal- 
measures, a little above the crinoidal limestone. 

It is remarkable that, notwithstanding the close relationship 
in general features of the two rich faunas, of Cassville and Rich- 
mond, not a single species has been found common to the two. 
One species, indeed, I formerly regarded as found in both, but a 
closer study convinces me that there are in this case two nearly 
allied forms, and they are accordingly separated in this paper. 
Further than this, with one or two exceptions, no American 
species has been found in two different places, and without ex- 
ception the American species are completely distinct from the 
European." 

The complete list of these Cassville species as given by Scudder 
on page 14, Bulletin 124, U. S. G. Survey, is as follows: 
BtobUttina laU 





Etoblattimia ezpugnata 


aagittaria 


obatra 


mediana 


imperfecta 


ovata 


secreta 


debUis 


invisa 


balteaU 


occulta 


patiens ^ 


defossa 


mucronata 


reddiva 


detecta 


Gerablatina inculta 


residiia 


perita 
diversinervis 


faneraria 


cassvici 


expuncta 


abdicata 


aperta 


concinna 


eakiniana 


unifbrmis 


'accubita 


permanenta 


expulsata 


permacra 


Kratioaa 


eversa 


maceiBta 


deducta 


immolata 


radiata 


mactata 


lata 


communis 


rotundata 


exaecuta 


ovata 


arcta 


Anthracoblattina virginiensis 


praedulcis 


Poroblattina sratiosa 

U>88a 


angusta; 


macilenta 


complcxinervls 


rogi 


Petrablattina haatata 



CHAPTER IIL 



MONONGAHELA SERIES, NO. XV. OP ROGERS. 



THICKNESS AND GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS. 

This series begins at base with the celebrated Pittsburg coal, 
and extends up to the Cassville shale. The thickness varies from 
260 odd feet along the Ohio river boundary to over 400 feet in the 
central portion of the great Appalachian basin. 

Within this interval there belong six distinct coal beds, viz: 
Waynesburg, Little Waynesburg, Uniontown, Sewickley, Redstone 
and Pittsburg. These coals have their greatest development along 
the waters of the Monongahela river, and hence the series was long 
ago named after that stream by Prof. H. D. Rogers. 

In the northern part of the state, nearly one-half of the rock 
material composing the Monongahela series is limestone, red 
shales are unknown, while massive sandstones are seldom found 
except along the eastern side of the Monongahela outcrop. The 
disintegration of these Umestones, limy shales and other soft rocks 
at the north, gives origin to a gentle topography, and an extremely 
fertile soil, thus forming in Monongalia, Marion, Harrison, Lewis, 
Marshall, Ohio and Brooke counties, as well as in portions of 
Upshur, Barbour and Taylor, the finest agricultural and grazing 
regions in the state. 

In passing southwest from Harrison, Taylor and Lewis coun- 



WEST VntGIlTIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 125 

ties, however, the limestones practically disappear, along with 
most all the coal beds, while red shales come in as the limestones 
go out, apparently replacing the latter, and the sandstones grow 
more massive than in the northern area, thus giving origin to a 
rugged topography, and less fertile soils. 

These rocks extend over a wide area along the Ohio river and 
for many miles south of it, as far as the Great Kanawha, and in a 
narrow belt from that point to the Big Sandy where in the center 
of the Appalachian trough, the lowest of these beds passes into 
the air before reaching the Kentucky line. 

No marine fossils have ever been discovered in any of the 
limestones of the Monongahela series, and everything indicates 
that the deposits are of fresh water origin. The black slates 
always contain fish remains in the shape of scales and teeth, but 
nothing is known of their aflBnities, because they haver never been 
studied. The water may have been estuarine, and slightly 
brackish, but the minute Cyprian, and Estherian-like forms whose 
skeletons — mostly broken and pulverized — make up the principal 
mass of the Monongahela limestones, testify clearly -against their 
marine origin. 

The number and thickness of the several coal beds, and the 
character of the interstratified rock material as well as the total 
thickness of the Monongahela series in the different regions of the 
State will now be shown by several detailed sections. The first 
one of these is from a few miles north of the State line in Fayette 
Co., Pennsylvania, where the deep Lambert shaft of the American 
Coke Co., in the Klondike region just east from the Monongahela 
river, passes through the entire series. The record of this was 
kindly furnished by Mr. 0. W. Kennedy, General Supt. of the 
Frick Coke Co., and reads as follows: 

LAMBERT SHAFT SECTION. Febt. Fbbt. 

r coal y ^ 

Coal, Wavnksb*rg ^ slate 2' \ 8.0 

L coal y J 

Pireday • 2.0] 

' sandstone 12.0' 1 

sandy shale 3.0' 

white sandstone i.o^ 

dark sandy slate 17.8' J I- 71.0 

Coal. Lrrri^E Waynesburg 0.2 [ 

Slate 70 

Limestone, Waynesburg 24.0 

Sandstone 4-oJ 



Gilboy sandstone 



.33.8 



126 



THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 



COAI,, UnIONTOWN 2. 0' 



Black slate 2.0' 

limestone .....69.(/ 

sandstone s.o' 

limestone 23.0^ 

Great limestone I soapstone i.o^ 

of Rogers {• gray slate 5.0' 

limestone 19.0' 

sandstone 2.0^ 

eray slate 3.0^ 

t umestone 34.0' 



159.0 



Fireclay. 



2.5 



186.0 



Dark sandstone, Sewickley 15.6 

Black slate 6.9 

Cannbi, Si^TB, SswickXby coai« horizon 4.0 

Fireclay 3.0 

Limestone, Sewickley 18.0 

Fireclay 16.5 

Black slate 6.0J 

CoAi«, Redstone i.o 



43.5 



Limestone, Redstone 15.0 

Fireclay 

Sandstone and slate 



15.0) 
6.0 V 
17.0 J 



38.0 



Pittsburg **roof' 

COAI^S 



coal i.c/ 

black slate i.o 

coal 0.8 

black slate 0.5 

coal 0.3 

black slate 0.8 

I coal 0.5 J 

Black sandy slate 18.6 

Sandstone 

CoAi«, Pittsburg 9.0 



8.61 
2.0/ 



4.9 



20.6 



Total 388.0 

Here we find the **roof ' coals of the Pittsburg bed separated 
from the main coal by an interval of slate, etc. , of 20 feet, and the 
Monongahela totaling 388 feet in thickness. Of this mass, 44 feet 
is included in the several coal beds and black slates of the series, 
202 feet is limestone, and the remaining 142 feet is sandy and 
shaly sediment. But of the 44 feet of bituminous material, only 
20 feet or less than half could property be designated as coal. 

On Scott's Run, Monongalia Co., the writer once measured a 
section between Cass^dlle and Osage, which gave the following 
results (Bulletin No. 65, U. S. G. Survey, page 47): 



WEST VIBGINIA GSOLOOIGAL SUBVBY. 



127 



SCOTTB RUN SECTION. 



Ft. in. Ft. in. 



Coal, W aynbsburg 



coal a'c/^ 

shale, foasiliferona i o 

coal I 4 

shale, gray i 6 

coal 5 o 

Black slate .' i 

Sandy shales, with iron ore 25 

Limestone, Wa^esburg 8 

Sandy shales, with limestone layers 50 

Sandstone massive 20 

Limestone and shales... 15 

Black slats, rbprbssnting Uniontown coal 



Coal, Pittsburg 

"ROOF" 



Coal, Pittsburg, main 

BENCH 



Total. 



coal.. 

slate., 

coal.. 

slate . 

coal.. 

slate 

coal.. 

slate.. 

coal.. 



3/ 6^ 



Limestone, interstratified with thin shales, cement beds 1 

near base 105 o 

Sandstone, Sewickley 40 o] 

Coal, Sewicklby 

Shales 5 o I 

Sandstone 10 o 

Limestone 5 ol 

Shales, greenish gray 8 o • 

Concealed 15 o 

Limestone, steel gray 7 o 

Concealed . 15 o 

Ft. in. 

Coal, R«dstonb 

Limestone, Redstone 18 ol 

Shale and fireclay 5 0! 

Slate, black 5 o ) 

J coal & 3"' 

shale ^ ° J. 

, coal 10^ ^ ^ 

I clay I o 



9 7KJ 



9900 



2 o 



145 o 



5 o 



65 o 



Ft. in. 
4 00 

28 o 



13 io>i 



.372 8>i 



Near the head of Indian Creek, Monongalia Co., and not far 
from HaganB P. 0., a test hole was completed during May, 1902, 
through the entire Monongahela series by Mr. Joseph E. Barnes, 
of Uniontown, Pa. The boring began 126 feet above the Waynes- 
burg coal and as a core was taken out through the whole series, 
the record is a very valuable one, since it gives exact measure- 



128 



THE MONONQAHELA 8EBIBS. 



ments between important strata. The boring was made on the 
land of D. J. Eddy and kindly placed at the disposal of the Sur- 
vey by Mr. Barnes. It reads as follows: 



D. J. EDDY BORING RECORD. 



Ft. in. Ft. in. 



CoAi«, Waynksburg 



coal o 6) 

shale X 3 

coal 5 10 

I 5 



Shale 

Shale with streaks of lime 3 o 

Sand shale 23 o 

LiMBSTONK, WaYNBSBURG 7 O 

Sand shale 7 o 

Sandstone 16 o 

Shale 6 o 

Limestone i o 

Sand shale 9 o 

Sandstone 3 o 

Sandshale « 9 o 

Limestone 10 6 

Sand shale ' 13 o 

Limestone 30 6 

Blue shale 2 6 

Limestone 14 6 

Shale 5 o 

Black shale x o 

Limestone 9 o 

Blue shale 5 o 

Limestone 10 o 

Limestone 4 o 

Lime shale •.. 6 o 

Sandstone, Sewickley 53 6 

COAI«, Skwicki^by 6 8 



Shale. 



4 lol 

Lime shale 2 oj 

r limestone 3 o^ 

I lime shale i o 

Limestone J limestone 8 o 

Sewickley | soft shale 2 o 

I shale 2 o 

L limestone. 18 oJ 

Lime shale 5 o 1 

Soft shale '. 3 o j 



7 7 



225 o 



6 8 



6 10 



34 o 



8 o 



COAI,, RRDSTONB.. 



Black Slate 14 o" 

Sand Shale i o 

Limestone, Redstone i 00 

Blue shale ^ 7 o 

Black shale 4 6. 



27 6 



WEST VIBGINIA GEOLOGICAL BUBYXY. 



129 



Cojl "roof" 

Coal, Pittsburg.. 



Total. 



I 6 

7 7 

355 7 



Just east from Farmington, Marion Co., W. Va., a diamond 
drill boring was made on the land of J. L. Davis by the George's 
Creek Coal and Iron Co. in 1897, through the Pittsburg coal 
which there underlies Bu£Falo creek by about 230 feet The writer 
examined the core and connected its record Mrith the surface ex- 
posures above the level of the bore hole. The following section 
of the Monongahela series results: 

FARMINGTON SECTION. 



Coal, Waynbsburg 



Ft in, 

coal o 6' 

shale o 2 

coal I o 

fireclay i 4 

coal 3 oj 



Concealed 4 

Sandstonb, Gilboy, maasive 30 

Concealed and sandy shales.. 2, 

Limestone, yellow magnesian I 

Shales, limy 7 

Sandy shales and massive sandstone 30 



CoAir, Uniontown, impure . 




Ft in, 



6 o 



104 o 



2 o 



Concealed and sandy shales.. 

Black slate 

Limestone , 

Sandy shale 

Sandstone 

Shales., 



Limestone, yellow and impure 

Red shale 

Limy shales and concealed to top of bore hole 

Sand and clay (surface) 

Limestone, yellow and gray 

Shaly limestone and green shale 

Limestone, giay 

Shale, green 

Limestone, gray 

Limy shale 

Sandstone, Sewickley, micaceous with streaks of sandy 

shale 

Black slate 



16 o^ 

I 
2 

10 
5 
5 
8 

5 
27 
13 

9 
30 

5 

5 
14. 

6 



Coal, Sbwickley 



coal., 
slate., 
coal.. 



• o") 

; 2") 



31 I 

I o 



193 9 



6 4 



130 



THE MONONOAHRLA SERIES. 



Shale, soft and gray 6 6 

Limy shale 5 6 

Sandy shale 2 6 

Limy shales, gray, and getting sandy at base i8 o 

Limestone, gray 20 o 

Shales, green 3 6 

Limestone, gray 3 o 

Limy shales ana impure limestone 25 8 

Sandstone, Pittsburg, micaceous and interstratified 

with dark sandy shale 16 5 

Shale, sandy 6 i 



X07 2 



CoAi«, Pittsburg 



coal, "roof i 5 ") 

over clay oy}^ 

bone coal o 2>^ ! 

coal, good 

coal with thin slates. 

coal, good 



o 4 
3 10 J 



9 I 



426 4 

This is the thickest measurement known for the Monongahela 
series, except the one at Berryburg, Barbour Co. The massive, 
pebbly Waynesburg sandstone crops out in a bold clifiP just above 
the horizon of the Waynesburg coal which is mined in the hills at 
Farmington, although not visible in the concealed interval at the 
top of this section. 

The Redstone Coal is entirely absent here as also in the vi- 
cinity of Fairmont farther east where these rocks are exposed at 
the surface. 

In contrast with this thick section of the Monongahela may 
be set the one shown in Chapline Hill, Wheeling, Ohio Co., where 
in the 50 miles of northwestward thinning, between Farmington 
and the Ohio river, the total section has decreased nearly 160 feet. 
This measurement was made by the writer and published in Bul- 
letin 65, U. S. G. Survey, page 49, as follows: 

CHAPLINE HILL, WHEELING. 



CoAi,, Waynbsburg 

Concealed 5 

Flaggy sandstone, filled with plant fragments 4 

Concealed * » 4 

Limestone, shales and concealed 60 

Sandstone, massive, gray 5 

Limestone and concealed 20 

Green shale 5 

Limestone, interstratified with shales 55 



Ft. in. Ft. in. 

2 o 






158 o 



WEST VIROINIA GBOLOQICAL SURVEY. 131 



f coal 

Coal, Sbwicki^BY < saody shales with plants 12 o [• 13 8 

I coal 



I o-» 

12 O V 

8J 

8 o^ 

10 o> 

1 o) 



Shales 8 

Sandstone, rather massive, micaceous, current bed'ded 20 o ^ 29 o 
Limestone, impure, flaggy, filled with fossil ferns. . 

Coax*, Rbdstonk o 10 

Limestone, mostly huffish and impure 55 o ) 55 o 



{coal **roof' 
shale 2 
coal, main bench 5 



2 o] 
20 V 
5 o) 



Total 267 6 

Here the Sewickley coal appears to be split into two widely 
separated -layers, and the Redstone representative as well as the 
Waynesburg is thin and unimportant, so that the Pittsburg bed 
is the only merchantable coal in the entire series. 

Mr. J. E. Bames, of Uniontown, Pa. has put down several 
drill holes through the Pittsburg coal in the southwestern portion 
of Marshall Co., 20 odd miles south from Wheeling and has gen- 
erously placed these records at the disposal of the State Survey. 

One of these drilled on the Anderson farm, Whetstone run, 2 
miles south from Pish creek, passes through the Monongahela ser- 
ies and gives the following accurate record of the several strata as 
kept by the driller: 

ANDERSON FARM BORING RECORD. 

Ft. in. Ft. in. 

Coal, Waynbsburg 2 o 

Sandstone 2 o^ 

Shale 6 o 

Sandstone » 3 o 

Shale o o 

Sandstone 4 o 

Red shale 6 o 

Blue shale 2 o 

Mixed shale 13 o 

Shale 5 6 

Red shale i 6 

Sandstone , 4 o 

Sandshale 5 6 

Shale 13 6 

Red shale * 4 o 

Shale and limestone 9 o 

Shale..... I o 

Limestone 2 o 

Blue shale 20^ 207 o 



132 



THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 



Red shale 2 o 

Irimestone i o 

Sandstone 4 o 

Red shale i o 

Blue shale i o 

Sand shale .*. 3 6 

Red shale 4 o 

Sand shale 12 o 

Limestone 4 o 

Sand shale i o 

Limestone 9 o 

Limestone 5 o 

Blueshale 2 o 

Lime shale 5 o 

Limestone 6 o 

Lime shale 22 o 

Soft shale 4 o 

Coal, Sbwicki^ey 3 

Sandstone 3^ 4^' 

Limestone 34 o 

Sand shale 5 o 

Blueshale i o 

Lime shale 2 o 

Blueshale i o 

Sandstone 4 o 

Blueshale 3 o 

Limestone 2 o 

Dark shale 2 o 

Limestone 3 o 

Green shale 2 6 

Lime shale 5 6 

Limestone 9 o 

Softshale 3 o 

Band shale i o 

Soft shale 6 7 

Coal, Pittsburg 



.87 II 



5 5 



Totel 306 o 

This last record gave no trace of either the Uniontown, or 
Redstone coal, but at another well drilled by Mr. Barnes on the 
land of David Abersold, one mile north from Proctor, Marshall 
Co. , we find representatives of both these beds as shown in the 
following: 

DAVID ABERSOLD BORING RECORD. 



Ft. in. 

Surface 6 o 

Sand and gravel 12 o 

Clay 3 o. 

Clay and gravel 7 o 

Sandstone 4 o 

Sand shale 17 o 

Red shale 14 o 

Sand shale 12 o 

Blueshale 2 o 



Ft. in. 



y 77 o 



WEST yiKQINIA OEOLOGICAL BUBVEY. 



133 



Ft. in. 



COAZ^ Uniontown 

Blue shale 5 

Sand shale 15 

Sandstone 2 

Sand shale 3 

Red shale 2 

Blue shale 3 

Limeshale 4 

Soft shale 2 

Limestone 4 

Red shale i 

Limestone 4 

Lime shale 12 

Mixed shale 2 

Red shale 4 

Sand shale 3 

Mixed shale 2 

Limestone 10 

Blue shale 4 

Red shale i 

Blue shale 2 

Limestone 10 

Lime shale 5 

Limestone 5 

Light blue shale 3 

Limestone 17 

Shale and limestone 7 

Limestone 5 

Shale and limestone 6 

Blue shale i 

Soft shale 2 



Ft. in. 
. o 9 



COAI,, Sewicki^by 



\ bone coal o 8 J 



Sandstone 3 8 

Limestone with streaks of shale 11 6 

Shale 4 6 

Limestone 6 6 

Lime shale 2 6 

Limestone ^ 3 o 

Lime shale 4 o 

Sand shale 18 o 

Sandstone 4 o 

Blue shale 2 2 

CoAi,, Redstone 

Blue shale 2 9 

Limestone 14 o 

Blue shale 4 o 

Soft shale 2 10 

COAI«, Piin^BURG 



.146 3 



2 4 
.59 10 

I I 

23 7 
5 II 



Total 316 9 

This boring starts where the horizon of the Wayne^urg coal 
is covered up by the 12 feet of **8and and gravel" near the top, 



134 



THE MONONGAHELA 8EBIES. 



for in the previous section the interval between the Waynesburq 
COAL and the Sewickley coal is 207 feet, hence if we subtract this 
from the interval between the Sewickley coal of the Abersold bor- 
ing and the surface, we find that it would extend to within about 
17 feet of the top of the boring, and there would be the horizon of 
the Wayxesburg coal. 

Another hole drilled by Mr. Barnes on the C. Higgs farm near 
Franklin Station, Marshall Co., in this same region is interesting 
as showing the ^^roof' division of the Pittsburg coal as follows: 

C. HIGGS BORING RECORD. 



Ft. in. 



Ft. in. 



.130 o 



Surface 20 o 

Shale 3 o 

Limestone and shale 9 o 

Limestone 17 o 

Shale 7 o 

Limestone i o 

Shale I o 

Limestone 37 o 

Lime and shale 3 o 

Limestone 12 o 

Limestone snale 8 o 

Limestone 9 o 

Shale 3 o 

CoAi,, SEWICKI.EY 3 6 

Soft Shale i 61 

Sandstone 5 o 

Shale and lime 17 o 

Limestone 6 6 

Sandstone 13 6 

Limestone 6 o 

Lime and sandstone 3 o 

Sand shale 11 o 

Shale I o 

Limestone 10 o 

Lime and shale 2 o 

Shale 7 o 

rcoal "roof** 2 o] 

Coal, Pittsburg. i slate 06 

(coal 5 3J 



.83 6 



7 9 



Total 224 9 

This boring begins })elow the Waynesburq coal, and also be- 
low the horizon of the Uniontown as shown in the last record. 

Another hole drilled by Mr. Barnes on the Nellie Workman 
farm, near the mouth of Little Tribble run, on Fish creek in this 
same region of Marshall Co., gave the following results: 



WEST vnfcGnriA geological bubvet. 



185 



NELLIE WORKMAN BORING RECORD. 



Ft. in. 



Sand, shale and gravel 9 

Red shale 5 

Sand shale 3 

Limestone 2 

Blue shale 5 

Limestone 9 

** with shale partings 10 

shale 5 

Soft shale 2 

Red shale i 

Sand shale ^ 2 

Limestone shale.. 5 o I- 144 o 

Soft shale 2 

Limestone .• 3 

Sandstone 4 

Shale 3 

Lime shale 11 

Limestone 10 

Green shale i 

Sand shale 3 

Limestone 5 

Lime and shale mixed ^ 13 

Limestone 7 

Limestone and shale mixed 4 

Shale ^ I 

Coal, Sewicki^ey 3 6 

Sandstones 8 o' 

Limestone 33 6 

Sand shale 3 o 

Limestone 4 o 

Blue shale 5 o 

Limestone 3 o 

Hard shale i 4 

Blue shale 3 o 



CoAi,, Redstone 

Shale 

Limestone, mixed with shale.. 
Black shale 

CoAi,, Pittsburg 



8 31 
7 o\. 
II loj 



60 10 

I 2 

27 I 

5 7 



Total. 



242 4 

This section shows both the Sewickley and Redstone coals, 
the latter twenty-seven feet above the Pittsbubg, and the former 
eighty-nine feet above the same datum. It started too low, how- 
ever, to catch the Waynesburg bbd which should crop in the 
hills about seventy feet above the top of the boring. The inter- 
vals between the Sewickley and Pittsburg coals in these last 
five sections show remarkable uniformitv as follows : 



136 



THE MONONGAHSLA 8SBIBS. 



Ft, In. 

Chapline Hill Wheeling 84 10 

Anderson Farm 87 11 

David Abersold 84 6 

C, Higgs 83 6 

Nellie workman 89 i 

Passing southeast from the region of these Marshall county test 
borings a distance of twenty odd miles to Pine Grove, Wetzel 
county, we get an accurate view of the character and thickness of 
the Monongahela series there, from the record of a bore hole 
drilled by Hon. J. N. Camden, near the junction of the North 
and South Forks of Fishing Creek. The writer personally in- 
spected the core and verified the character and thickness of the 
several strata given in the record as brought up by the core drill. 
It reads as follows : 

PINE GROVE BORING RECORD. 

Ft. in. Ft. in. 

CoAi,, Wavnesburg o 6 

Fireclay 5 3' 

Sandstone 4 

Fireclay ^ 2 

Sandstone, Gilboy 32 

Soft shale, gray 7 

Sandy shale 3 o\ ^ o 

Soft «hale, gray 4 

Sandy shale 2 

Sandstone, blue 8 

Sandy shale and sandstone 23 

Soft shale, gray 5 

Coal, Uniontown, top bony i 6 

Fireclay o 

Sandstone 7 

Soft gray shale 2 

Sandstone 22 

Limestone 10 

Sandy shale 2 

.Limestone 17 

Sandy shale 3 

Sbft gray shale 4 

Sandy shale » 2 o 143 n 

Limy shale 5 

Limestone so 

Gray shale 3 

Limestone 10 

Oray shale «. » 

Limestone 31 

Softgray shale 3 

COAI,, Skwicklby ^ t 2 

Sandstone. 4 o' 

Soft gray shale 11 10 

Limestone 6 o 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
9} 



WEST VIBGINIA GEOLOGICAL SUBVEY. 



137 



Ft. In. 

Limy shale lo o 

Sandstone 6 o 

Limy shale 4 o 

Limestone 5 o 

Sandstone 16 o 

Shales, gray 8 o 

Shaly sandstone 3 o 

Shale, gray - 5 8 

CoAi«, Redstone 

Sandy shales 3 9 

Limestone 12 o 

Soft gray shale 2 o 

Sandstone 2 o 

Shales, gray ,. 5 o 

Coal, Pittsburg 



Ft. In. 
79 6 

I 7 

24 9 

2 2 

351 9 

The Waynesburg coal is only six inches thick here and lies 
eighty feet below the bed of Fishing creek, while the Washing- 
ton COAL of the Dunkard series crops out forty-five feet above the 
stream, and has been mined to a small extent to supply the vil- 
lage. Curiously enough it contains more fuel than any member 
of the Monongahela series below, since even the Pittsburg coal has 
dwindled to only twenty-six inches, the basal three inches <rf 
which is slate and bone. 

The thickness of the Monongahela rock series has increased to 
near its normal, and all of its five main coals, though thin and 
poor, are represented at the proper horizons. 

Mr. Camden thought the Pine Grove boring had struck a **roll" 
or **fault'' in the Pittsburg coal, and concluded to put down 
another test boring two miles farther down Fishing Creek, near 
the mouth of Piney Fork, where an oil well boring had reported 
six feet of Pittsburg coal. The boring was located only a few 
feet distant from the oil well, but when the Pittsburg coal was 
struck the core barrel brought up only twenty-four inches of coal 
and thirty-six inches of black slate. The records of these two 
borings constitute the data for drawing the productive outcrop of 
the Pittsburg coal to the east of Pine Grove. 

About twenty-five miles southeast from Pine Grove, Mr. 
Barnes drilled another test well through the Pittsburg coal, on the 
land of Mr. J. Hudson, near Sedalia, Doddidge county, three 
miles west from the Harrison-Doddridge county line, with the 
following results : 



138 



THB MONONQAHELA SERIES. 



J, HUDSON FARM BORING. 
Ft. In. 



Ft. In. 



6z o 



OoAL, Uniontown 



3 2 



Surface 27 o 

Blue sand shale 5 o 

Red shale 12 o 

Sandstone 2 o 

Blue shale 2 o 

Blue shale 2 o 

Sandstone 5 o 

Blue sand shale 6 o 

Bl^CK AND GRAY SHAI.K, WaYNKSBURG "A" (?) 2 O 

Blue shale 4 

Sand shale 12 

wayuesburgc?) {sSdr::::::;:::.::: ^ °^ "' ' 

Blue shale 17 

{coal o 
shale partings., i 
coal I 

Blue shale 15 

Lime and shale mixed 7 

Lime and shale 31 

Red shale 6 

Lime and shale 4 

Soft blue shale 4 

Blue shale 8 

Limestone 52 

Blue shale 29 

Blue shale 28 

Coal, Sewickley o 6 

Soft white shale o 6 

Blue shale 6 o 

Redshale 4 o 

Blue shale 4 o 

Green shale 10 o 

Blue shale 5 o 

Redshale 2 oV 83 o 

Soft white shale 3 o 

Sandy shale 10 o 

Sandshale 2 o 

Sandstone 26 o 

Black shale 2 o 

Shale 2 6 

OOAI,, PITTSBURG 6 lo 



o 

o 

o 

o 

8J 

8 

2 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
oj 



.184 2 



Total. 



..457 4 



This boring begins in the base of the Diinkard series and 
reveals the complete absence of the Waynesburg coal. The 
Dniontown coal appears at its proper horizon, 267^ 8^^ above the 
Pittsburg bed, while a great thickness of sandstone comes into the 
measures at a short interval above the former coal. It is quite 



WEST VmOINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 139 

possible that this is the Waynesburg sandstone, here having cut 
into and eroded the upper portion of the Monongahela series in- 
cluding the Waynesburg coal, since this would agree with condi- 
tions found neariy everywhere in the southwestern portion of the 
state, where the interval from the Waynesburg sandstone to the 
Pittsburg coal appears to be much less than at the northeast. 

This last section can be better interpreted by comparison with 
the carefully kept record of an oil well boring made by the [writer 
and Prof. T. M. Jackson at Brown in Harrison county, only ten 
miles distant to the northeast. There the Waynesburg coal, the 
overlying massive pebbly sandstone, Waynesburg coal ''A,'' and 
the characteristic multiple bedded Washington coal all crop to the 
surface, so that the identifications are unmistakable. The Monon- 
gahela series has there the following structure as revealed by the 
oil well record in question : 

BROWN Oil. Wnhh RECORD. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Coal, Waynesburg 3 o 

Shale ^ 15 o) 

Sandstone, GiLBov, hard, white 35 o [• 130 o 

Shale, soft, limy 80 o) 

Coal, Uniontown 5 o 

Limestone, hard 30 o 

Shale, soft 15 o 

Limestone and shale 112 o 

Shale, soft, some BL AC k( He wickley coal) 60 o 

Limestone, hard 15 o 

Shale 33 o 

CoAi,, Pittsburg 10 o 

Total 413 o 

A comparison of these two records only ten miles distant 
along a N. E. — S. W. line ^\ill be sufticicnt e\4dence thatjthe 
Uniontown coal is the same in both, since in the Hudson farm bor- 
ing near Sedalia, the interval from the Unionto^vn coal to the Pitts- 
burg, as exactly measured there, is 268 feet, while at Brown the 
interval is 265 feet, or if we allow three feet for **roof" coal at 
Brown, which is represented ])y black slate, etc., at Sedalia, they 
would be exactly the same. Hence, in any event, there can be no i)ossi- 
ble doubt of the identity of the Unionto^vn coal in both sections. The 
conclusion from this is that either the Waynesburg sandstone, a 
great massive pebbly rock over all the region at Bro^m, and south- 



265 o 



140 THE MONONOAHELA SERIES. 

westward along its crop, has entirely thinned away and its under- 
l3dng.coal has also disappeared from the Sedalia region, or else the 
great sandstone mass, struck at seventy-nine feet and eighty- 
three feet thick, is the Waynesburg stratum whos dei)ositing cur- 
rent has there eroded at least 100 feet of measures from the top of 
the Monongahela series. As already stated, this latter condition 
of affairs appears to exist in many other regions, and it seems the 
more plausible theory for Sedalia. 

At Clarksburg, Harrison county, a hill known as *'Pinnic- 
kinnick'^ rises more than 300 feet above the Pittsburg coal, and 
probably includes the entire Monongahela series. Mr. J. L. John- 
ston, C. E., once measured a section from the top of this knob to 
the Pittsburg coal which was | published in Bulletin 65, U. S. G. 
Survey, page 49, as follows : 

CLARKSBURG SECTION. 

Ft. In. Ft. In, 

Coal, Wa\'nesburg, absent or not seen o o 

Concealed and yellow^sandy shales 65 9' 

Randstone 25 o 

Concealed, with some limestone 80 o 

Sandstone 20 o 

Concealed 5 o 

Sandstone 15 o 

Randy shales 6 o 

Sandstone, Sewicklky 25 o 

Shales 10 o. 

Coax,, Sewicklev i 

Limestone {|^; ;•;;;; )' ^''} 9 

Concealed 3 o 

Shales, sandy 14 o 

Shale, with iron nodules i o 

Shales, sandy 4 o 

Sandstone i o 

Concealed 8 o, 

COAI,, Rehstone, slaty 3 o 

Shale, dark, bituminous 5 o] 

Limestone, Redstone 6 o I 

Shale, greenish 13 of '^ 

Slate, bituminous i oj 

fcoal 3 5) 

Coax,, Pittsburg -j bone ° ^ r ® ^ 

Icoal 5 oJ 

Total 328 6 

Here nothing is seen of the Waynesburg coal, and it has 
probably been eroded, if ever present, by the deposition of the 



.251 o 



40 o 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 141 

overljmig massive rock which appears to correspond to the 
Waynesburg sandstone. 

The Sewickley coal, which attains a thickness of five to six 
feet for forty miles along the Monongahela river, between the Fair- 
mont region and the State line, has here dwindled to only 
one foot, while the Redstone bed, which is absent entirely at 
Fairmont, has reappeared in the section, slaty and worthless it is 
true, but soon to become a very important member of the series in 
other portions of Harrison, Barbour and Upshur counties. This 
condition of affairs is shown by the following section measured in 
the vicinity of Berryburg, Barbour countyby C. McC. Lemley,Asst. 
Engineer B. & 0. R. R., as follows: 

BERRYBURG SECTION, BARBOUR CO. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Coal, Waywesburg, not seen (A. T. 1868) 
Concealed to top of bench ( sandstone ) . . . 1 28 o 

Concealed (mostly sandstone) 98 o 

Concealed (mostly sandstone) 62 o- 413 o 

Concealed , limestone and shales 54 o 

Sandstone and concealed 71 o. 

CoAi,, Redstone 5 o 

Shales 11 o] 

Limestone, yellovnsh, Redstone 11 o [• 32 o 

Shales 10 oj 

CoAi,, Pittsburg (Above T. 1410) 8 o 

Totil 458 o 

The Waynesburg sandstone is very massive, pebbly, and caps 
the highest knobs around Berryburg. The white limestone seen 
about 175 feet above the Pittsburg coal, is only five feet thick, and 
Ls the only representative of the Great limestone farther north 
where it is 150 feet thick. 

This location is the farthest east of any point in the state 
where the total thickness of the Monongahela series has been ob- 
tained, and as was to be expected, it exhibits the greatest thick- 
ness of rock material. 

Nothing was seen of either the Waynesburg or Sewickley coals 
and they are probably both absent. The measurements from the 
Redstone coal to the Pittsburg were made west from Berryburg, on 
Gnatty creek. 

The Redstone coal is quite an important bed in this region 
of the state, having a thickness of four to seven feet, and carrying 
little or no bony material. It is mined on an extensive scale by 



142 THB MONONQAHELA SERIES. 

the Century Coal Company at Bnmersville, and covers an area of 
several thousand acres in the Berryburg and Bumersville region, 
where it lies twenty-eight feet above the Pittsburg coal, from which 
it is separated by shales and yellow limestone. 

Southwestward through Lewis, Gilmer, Calhoun, Ritchie, 
Roane, Mason and Putnam, a great pebbly, massive sandstone 
corresponding to the Waynesburg stratum is often found, but no 
corresponding coal occurs at the proper horizon above the Pitts- 
burg to correlate ^\4th the Waynesburg coal. True, we often find 
a thin coal below the sandstone in question just as in the Sedalia 
well record, but it corresponds to the Uniontown coal, and not to 
the Waynesburg. As a type of this condition we may take a sec- 
tion from Leading creek near the eastern border of Gilmer county, 
as given in Bulletin 65, U. S. G. Survey, page 53, as follows : 
LEADING CREEK SECTION. 

Ft. In. Ft. lu. 

CoAi,, Waynesburg (absent) o o 

Shales lo o | 

Limestone, brecciated 3 o 

Shales and concealed 35 o 

Sandstone, yellow, soft, massive, pebbly 40 o 

Shales *. 10 o V 235 o 

Limestone, impure 2 o 

Shales ....V- 40 o 

Sandstone, massive 40 o 

Shales 55 oJ 

I coaly shales 2 o 

clay o ID 

I bony slate o 4 I 

[coal 2 oJ 



8 o 



Total 243 o 

Where the Pittsburg coal rises out of the Ohio river, near 
Hartford, Mason eounty, we get a great cliff of Waynesburg sand- 
stone higli up in the hills, and measuring from its base down, we 
get the succession published in Bulletin 66, U. S. G. Surv^ey, page 
64, as follows : 

HARTFORD SECTION, MASON CO. 

Ft. In. , Ft. In. 

CoAi,, Waynesburg, absent o o 

Red shale 10 o 

Gray shale 5 o 

Sandstone 6 o 

Shales, brown and sandy 10 o 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



143 



Ft. In. 

Shales, red 2 o 

Concealed 14 o 

Red shale with limestone nodules 10 o 

Sandstone 20 o 

Shales, variegated with limestone no- 
dules near base 28 o 

Concealed 20 o 

Red shale 5 o 

Concealed 20 o 

Red shale 15 o 

Sandstone, massive Pittsburg 70 o 

Shales, gray, fossil plants 15 o^ 

Coal, Pittsburg 



Ft. In. 



.250 o 



5 6 



Total 255 6 

Here the only coal in the series is the Pittsburg, and all that 
is left of the great limestone of the northern portion of the State are 
a few limestone nodules near the center, while much red shale 
contrastij strangely with its complete absence at the north. 

Near Arbuckle, Mason county, on the Great Kanawha 'and 
eighteen miles above its mouth, a coal bed comes into the section 
under a very massive sandstone which appears to be the Waynes- 
burg, and the following section was compiled there by combining 
the surface exposures with the record of a drilling through the 
Pittsburg coal, as published on page 54, Bulletin 65, U. S. G. 
Survey : 

ARBUCKLE SECTION, MASON CO. 



Ft. In. 



Ft. In. 



CoAi,, Waynesburg 



'coal, slaty o 

coal, sulpherous o 

shale, dark o 

coal, good o 

coal, slaty o 

8hales, sandstone and concealed 150 

Sandstone, blue « 4 

Shales, red 2 

Sandstone, blue and hard 14 

Shales, variegated 8 

CoAi,, Sewicklev I 

Sandstone 6 o) 

Shales, red 4 oV 58 

Shales, variegated 48 o) 

CoAi*, Redstoke Horizon, impure fireclay 2 

Sandstone, coarse, white, Pittsburg 29 

Coal, Pittsburg Horizon, fireclay and shale with a 
little slaty coal at bottom 10 



10 
8 

5 
8 

5 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



3 o 



178 o 



Totel. 



..281 o 



144 



THE HONONGAHBLA SERIES. 



This coal at the top of the section occupies the same geologi- 
cal horizon as the Uniontown bed in Harrison, Doddridge, Lewis, 
Gilmer and Calhoun, and is most probably the same stratum in- 
stead of the Waynesburg as formeriy supposed. 

About twenty miles farther up the Great Kanawha, at Red 
House, opposite Winfield, Putnam county, the entire Monongahela 
series is exposed in the steep hill side and there exhibits the suc- 
cession given on page 55, Bulletin 66, U. S. G. Survey, as 
follows : 



RED HOUSE SECTION, PUTNAM CO. 
Ft. In. 



CoAi,, Waynesburg 

Red shale with limestone nodules 5 o 

Sandstone, shaly 10 o 

Concealed 10 o 

Red shale 10 o 

Sandstone, flaggy 30 o 

Red shales, with limestone 10 o 

Sandstone, shaly ^ 20 o 

Red shale 25 o 

Sandstone, shaly 10 o 

Red shales 10 o 

Sandstone, flaggy 10 o 

Concealed 10 o 

Red shale with limestone nodules near 

base 15 o 

Sandstone, red, and gray shales 75 o 

CoAi,, PiTTSBumc Horizon fireclay 



Ft. In. 
o o 



.250 o 



Total 250 o 

This section is peculiar in revealing a complete absence of any 

coal in the entire Monongahela series. There are doubtless many 

localities like this in the region southwest from the Parkersburg 

Branch of the B. & 0. R. R. 

Farther up the Great Kanawha river the Pittsburg coal again 

comes into the section, and in the vicinity of Raymond City we 

get the section published in Bulletin 65, page 66,U..S. G. Survey, 

as follows : 

RAYMOND CITY SECTION, PUTNAM CO. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

CoAi,, Waynbsburo, absent o o 

Concealed, with shale 60 

Red shale 30 

Sandstone, ^y, micaceous 4 

Limestone, in red shale 5 

Red shale 15 

Sandy shale, gray....*,.^ 30 



.229 o 



WEST' VIItOIIfIA GEOLOGICAL BUBVEY. 



145 



Ft. In. 



Ft. In. 



Red shales 40 ol 

Sandy shales, yellowish gray 45 o J 

Coal, Rbdstonb Horizon, black shale 2 o 



Sandstone, Pittsburg 40 

Shales 10 



;}■ 



Coal. Pittsburg, 
"roof" 



Coal, Pittsburg. 
main bench 



coal o 4 

shale o 4 

coal o 6 

shale o i 

coal, slaty i o 

fireclay i 6 

{coal, good.. 6 o 

slate o X 

coal, slaty o 10 



I' ^' 



(/ ix^yi' 



50 o 



..10 ^% 



Total 291 7>i 

In the Potomac basin the Monongahela series is no where 
fully preserved, the Sewickley coal being the highest known mem- 
ber recognized in West Virginia. But in the adjoining region of 
Maryland, the entire column is found along the George's Creek 
basin. The summit of the series has there been plaoed by Dr. G. C. 
Martin, of the Maryland Survey, at the Koontz coal, which lies 
only 230 to 240 feat above the Pittburg bed. This is the proper 
horizon for the Uniontown coal of the region west of the Alle- 
ghanies, and as there is another coal about 100 feet above the 
Koontz bed in the George's Creek basin, it seems preferable to re- 
gard it as the Waynesburg horizon at least tentatively, instead of 
the Koontz. With this idea in view, the writer has rearranged the 
nomenclature of the section given by Dr. Martin in page 142 of 
the Geology of Garrett county, Maryland Geological Survey, as 
follows : 



GEORGE'S CREEK SECTION. 
Ft. In. 



Ft Itu 



no o 



COAA, Waynbsburg 4 

Concealed, with thin coal, (Little 1 

Waynesbnrg) no oj 

Coax,, Koontz, (Uniontown) i 

Concealed 20 o 

Limestone 5 7 

Silicions fireclay 3 11 

Sandstone o 10 

Shale ^ 4 10 

Sandstone i 8}- 115 11 

Shale to o 

COAI, o 5 



146 



THE MONONGAHELA 8EBIE8. 



Ft. In. 

Shale 5 8 1 

Sandstone, Sewickley 14 2 

Shale 38 oj 



COAI,, Srwicki,ey 
(Tyson) 



rcoal o 10] 

•< shale... 3 o 

(coal ^ I 8j 



Shale 16 o] 

Sandstone 4 o 

Shale 25 o 

Sandstone i oJ 

CoAi<, Redstone.. 

Shale 18 o 

Sandstone o 10 

Shale 9 6 

Limestone, Redstone 5 6 

Shale 7 8 

Coal and shale, Pittsburg * 'ROOF*' 7 4 

Shale 18 o 

Sandstone i 2 



CoAi,, Pittsburg. {^}.^°i'!l*^.^:;; 



3 7\ 

9 6r 



Ft. In. 

. 5 6 

. 46 o 

. 2 6 

. 68 o 

13 I 



Total 366 9 

In this rearrangement of names in Dr. Martin's section, the 
name **Uniontown" takes the place of what he provisionally 
termed Wayxesburg, and the name ^'Redstone" is given to what 
Dr. Martin called Lower Sewickley, the Redstone of his section 
being considered more probably a **roof" division of the Pittsburg 
similar to that shown in the Lambert shaft section of Fayette 
county, Pa., page 125 of this volume. 

Of course, it may eventually turn out that Dr. Martin's inter- 
pretation is the correct one, but as this would necessitate the dis- 
appearance of 150 feet of strata between the Waynesburg and Se- 
wickley COALS, while the interval from the Sewickley to the 
Pittsburg has remained the same as found west of the Alleghe- 
nies, the identifications suggested appear to be more in harmony 
with all the facts, including the general eastward thickening of all 
underlying series. 

Ha\dng now given a general view of the Monongahela series, 
the more important individual members will be described in detail. 

THE WAYNESBURG COAL. 

This highest member of the Monongahela series received its 
name from Waynesburg, the county seat of Greene coimty. Pa., 



WEST VIROINIA OEOLOOIGAL 8UBVEY. 147 

just eajst from which it has long been mined to supply the sur- 
rounding region. The seam is always multiple bedded, being gen- 
erally separated into a *'roof,'' **upper" and **lower" divisions by 
shale and fire clay partings, the whole often nine to ten feet in 
thickness. This coal appears to attain its maximum thickness 
and importance in Marion and Monongalia counties, and the ad- 
joining region of Greene county, Pennsylvania, since it thins 
down in every direction when traced away from these regions. 

The coal is always high in ash and moisture, and hence is a 
jx)or steam coal, and is used for that purpose only when nothing 
better is accessible. Of course there is always some good coal in 
the bed, but it is generally mixed up with the poorer quality in 
mining and the resultant fuel is never of first-class grade. 

The following section of this coal at David L. Myers' mine on 
Scotts run, Cass District, Monongalia county, made by Mr. John 
M. Gregg, will reveal the usual structure of the coal when thick : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Coal 4 s) 

Impure fireclay o 8 [- 9 2 

Coal 4 3J 

Mr. Gregg collected a sample of this coal entirely across the 

bed for analysis. It yielded the following results to Prof. B. H. 

fiite. Chemist for the Survey : 

Moisture 1.69 

Volatile matter 30.04 

Fixed carbon 44-93 

Ash 23.34 



Sulphur 1.98 

Phosphorus .' 0.012 

Some of the mines will probably yield a coal lower in ash 
than this, but none will run much under fifteen per cent, as an 
average for the whole bed. The lower half of the seam has usu- 
ally less ash and sulphur than the upper. The **roof ' coal is not 
shown in this section, but it is generally present at one to three 
feet above the upper bench from which it is separated by a gray 
shale full of fossil plants and insects in the region of Cassville, 
Monongalia county. 

The following section of this coal near Cassville, will show 
the triple-bedded structure so common to it in both Monongalia 
and Marion : 



148 THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Coal**roor» i 2I 

Gray fossiliferous shale .. o 10 | 

Coal, upper bench a 6 )• 10 o 

Impure fireclay i 6 I 

Coal, lower bench 4 oj 

This fossiliferous shale on top of the main coal bed contains, 
as lieretofore stated, a rich fossil cock-roach fauna, and many Per- 
mian types of plants, so that although apparently a part o the 
Waynesburg coal, it has been included by the writer as the basal 
member of the Dunkard series under the term Cassville plant 
SHALE, seepage 119 of this volume. 

The impure fireclay which separates the two main divisions of 
the Waynesburg coal, varies much in thickness, often within a 
few yards swelling from six inches to as many feet. It is usually 
termed a **horse-back" by the miners, and hence the coal is often 
locally known as the **horse-back'' vein. 

The following structure is exhibited by this coal just east of 

Barracksville, Marion county : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Coal, **roor' o 12 1 

Bhale o 6 \ 

Coal I 3 )- 6 o 

Impure fireclay o 3 I 

Coal 3 oJ 

This shows a considerable reduction in thickness from the 
Monongalia county type. 

About three miles west of Farmington, Marion county, an 
idpening in the Waynesburg coal, 120 feet above the B. & 0. R. R. 
shows the following: 

Ft. In. Ft Itt. 

Coal, **roof" o i] 

Gray shale with fossil 

plants 3 6 I 

Impure fireclay o 4 

Coal, lower bench 3 o 

Here the upper bench is split into two portions by a layer of 
shale, but otherwise the coal has the same type as that ia Monon- 
galia, except that there is less thickness of actujj coal. 

Weetward from this point the coal dips down and passes un- 
der Buffalo creek near the eastern boundary of Mannington, where 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 149 

it thins to less than two feet before going below water leveL When 
this coal comes out to daylight along theX)hio river hills just below 
Moundsville, it exhibits the following structure : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Coal, bony o 

Impure fireclay i o }■ 3 o 

Coal, slaty 



6) 

1 o\, 
I 6j 



The stratum is here 275 feet above the Pittsburg seam, and 
although thin and worthless, still retains its double-bedded struc- 
ture. The coal is of practically no ecomomic importance at any 
point yet known along the Ohio river. 

In the vicinity of St. Marys, Pleasants county, a coal was 
formerly mined to a small extent under a massive sandstone. It 
varies from one to two feet in thickness, and was once supposed to 
represent the Waynesburg coal. It appears, however, to be iden- 
tical with the Macksburg coal of Ohio, and this correlates with the 
Uniontown coal of the Monongahela series. 

There is also a coal found at 250 to 275 feet above the Pitts- 
burg seam at many localities in Lewis, Gilmer, Ritchie, Calhoun, 
Roane, and on through to the Great Kanawha, that has always 
been considered identical with the Waynesrurg bed, but it may 
possibly represent the Uniontown horizon. It has been mined at 
several places along Tanner's creek, Gilmer county, and is two and 
one-half to three feet thick, generally single bedded, and makes a 
fair domestic fuel. It is nrined in the hills at Tanner postoffice 
140 feet above creek level, and 125 feet vertically above another 
coal which appears to come at the horizon of the Sewickley coal. 

This same coal which is mined in the hills along Tanner 
creek extends northeastward onto Fink and Leading creeks, and is 
also found on the tributaries of Sand Fork in Lewis and Gilmer 
counties. It is seldom more th^n three feet in thickness and is 
sometimes called the * 'Chestnut Oak" vein because it. crops high 
up in the hills where that tree abounds. 

Between Long Run and West Union, Doddridge county, a bed 
of coal two and one-half to three feet thick is frequently seen below a 
massive, pebbly sandstone, and has been opened in several locali- 
ties. It furnishes a fairly good fuel for domestic use, and is sup- 
posed to represent the Waynesburg bed, though it may possibly 
be the Uniontown. 



150 THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

On account of its high per centage of ash the Wayxesburg 
COAL is not of any present economic importance anywhere in the 
state, except for local domestic use, where no l>etter fuel can be 
obtained. It is possible that when mined on a connnercial scale, 
and the bone coal discarded, some of the areas in Marion and Mon- 
ongalia may furnish a n^arketable grade of steam and domestic 
coal. 

THE LITTLE WAYNESBFRG COAL. 

I'nderlying the main WAYXESBURCi coal, at an interval of ten 
to twenty feet, we frequently find a thin streak of coal from six to 
twelve inches thick, which Dr. John J. Stevenson has termed the 
Little Waynesbukg bed. It never attains minable thickness and 
hence is of no economic importance. 

THE (JILHOY SANDSTONE. 

Very frequently, and especially along the eastern crop of the 
Waynesburg COAL, a great sandstone mass comes into the section 
at five to ten feet ))elow that coal, cutting out the Little Waynes- 
Bii^j coal and its underlying limestone completely. This stratum 
is very j)rominent in what is known as "Gil))oy'' cut on the B. & 
(). R. R., just east from Mannington, and has been designated 
from that locality. It was formerly termed the Bi^owxtown sand- 
stone from a locality in Harrison county, wlu?re it is very mas- 
sive, but as there is a Brownstown sandstone in Kanawha county 
it was conr^kKied l)cst to change the name of this one to Gilijoy. 

The stratum in ([Uestion is a very hard, rather fine-grained, 
grayish white rock, seldom (Containing any pebbles, and when 
j»rcscnt forms a boM clitT or bhitT brlow that of the Waynesburg 
p«'bbly sandstone above. It is especially prominent in Marion, 
Lewis and (Jilmer e<)iinties. 

THE rXlONTOWN COAL. 

At W to 125 feet below the ^\'AV^KSIU•H(; coal, another rather 
jHM'sistent seam is fouinl, whieli from i«(s oeeurn-nee at I'niontown, 
Pennsylvania, wa'-j named by the First IVnnsylvania (ieologieal 
Survey from that loeality. 

It is seldom more than three feet tliiek, often only two, and 
sometimes represented merely l.)y J'.lack slate, so that from an 
economic standpoint it is of little present value, since in most 
cases it is rather high in ash and other impurities. 



WEST VIRGiyiA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 151 

This stratum crops along the B. & O. R. R. between Famiing- 
ton and the George's Creek Coal and Iron C<)nii)any-s shaft just 
east, and may also be seen along Littla Ten ^lile creek below Brown. 
Its position above the Pittsburg coal is shown in the Brown. l)oring 
record page 13*.), and also in the one at Sedalia, from which it ap- 
j)ear8 possiblie that the coal often found under a massive sandstone 
through, Lewis, (tilmer, Roane, Jackson and Mjison, and usually 
considered as identical with the Waynkshuhg, may really be the 
Uniontown bed. The question is left open for future detailed 
study of the stratigraphy of the region. Should this suggestion 
of identity prove true, it would show as heretofore intimated a 
widely spread erosion of at least 100 feet of strata from the top of 
the Monongahela series, by the rapid currents which deposited the 
Waynesburg conglomeratic sandstone, bringing witli them the 
new, or Permian tiora, which characterizes the Dunkard series. 

The Macksburg coal of Ohio is regarded by the Ohio geolo- 
gists as identical with the Tmoxtown coal, and as already stated, 
this latter is probably the ^'Koontz" coal of the (leorge's Creek 
basin. 

The interval that separates the WAVNESiumi and I'moxtown 
COALS fre<iuently ap})ears to hold another massive sandstone just 
above the latter coal, and when present it is called the Tmontown 
SANnsTo:<E. • 

THE GREAT LIMESTONE. 

Lying between tlie rNiONTOWX <'0al and th(? Sewicklev coal 
horizon, 200 feet lower, we. find in northern West Virginia and the 
adjoining region of Pennsylvania, a great mass of limestone and 
limy shale? well shown in the Lambert shaft record, page 125, 
where tltey have a thickness of 159 feet. To these limestones the 
First Pennsyjivania Survey gave the name (theat Limestone. It is 
a fresh or brackish water deposit, since no marine forms have ever 
been seen in the entire mass, tlie only fossils known bi'ing minute 
bivalve crust^icea, an<l other undesitril^ed tvpes, alomr with tish re- 
mains of unknown aiHnities. 

Some of the limestone layers are highly magnesian. and oth- 
erwise impure, and these are so interstratified with the purer layers 
that very little economic use has ever been made of theuL For- 
merly some of these were quarried in the vicinity of Wheeling and 



152 THE MONONOAHEUk SERIES. 

iiBed as a flux- in the manufacture of pig iron, but such use has 
now been discontinued entirely. Many of the layers make fine 
road material, and also bum into a good quality of lime for build- 
ing and fertilizing purposes, and they are occasionally so used by 
the farmers. 

As already stated, these limestones disappear and are largely 
replaced by red shale and sandy beds in passing from the northern 
end of the state southwestward, so that when one reaches the lit- 
Ue Kanawha river only a few thin layers of impure limestone can 
be found in the entire series, and this condition of affairs continues 
on southwestward to the Great Kanawha and beyond. 

The portion of the Great Limestone immediately below the 
Uniontown coal is generally termed the Uniontown limestone. 

SEWICKLEY SANDSTONE. 

Along the eastern crop of the Monongahela series, a thick, 
massive sandstone frequently comes into the section and cuts out a 
large portion of the Great Limestone. This sandstone overlies the 
Sewickley coal closely and hence has been termed the Sewickley 
sandstone. It is especially prominent along the Monongahela 
river between Morgantown and Fairmont, and may be seen mak- 
ing great cliffs opposite Beech wood, where it is sixty feet thick. 
Through Harrison, Lewis, Gilmer and other southwestern counties 
along the line where the Monongahela series crops to the surface, 
the Sewickley sandstone, together with the underlying Pittsburg 
sandstone, often forms a bold cliff rising to a height of 125 to 150 
feet above the horizon of the Pittsburg coal. 

Occasionally the Sewickley sandstone is a good building rock, 
as at the Stokes Tunstill quarry, high up in the hill along Polk 
creek, two miles south from Weston. 

THE SEWICKLEY COAL. 

At 100 feet above the basal member of the Monongahela se- 
ries, there comes a widely persistent coal bed, named the Sewick- 
ley COAL by the First Geological Survey of Pennsylvania. This bed 
attains its maximum importance along the Monongahela river in 
Monongalia and Marion counties, so far as its surface outcrop is 
known, since it is universally present and of workable (five to six 
feet) thickness entirely across the river front of these two coimties 
from the Harrison-Marion line to the Pennsylvania boundary, a 



WEST VIROnTIA eEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 153 

a distance of more than forty miles. The records of oil and gas 
borings also reveal its presence under all of the great basin between 
the Monongahela and Ohio rivers, through western Monongalia 
and Marion as well as under all of Wetzel and Marshall, although* 
when it crops to the surface at the Ohio river it is only three to 
three and one-halt feet thick. It is generally called the ' 'Maple- 
ton" coal (from a village in Greene county. Pa.) by the oil well 
drillers. This coal also attains considerable importance in Bel- 
mont^ Harrison, Guernsey, Monroe, Morgan, Muskingimi and No- 
ble counties of Ohio, and has there been mined under a variety of 
names, among which are **Upper Bamesville,'' **Upper Bellaire," 
* 'Cumberland,'' * 'Meigs Creek'' and several others. The late Dr. 
Edward Orton while intimating the identity of this Ohio coal with 
the Sewickley of Pennsylvania, preferred to call it by the name 
* 'Meigs Creek" from a stream in Morgan county along which the 
coal has a good development. 

This coal appears to be present everywhere in the George's 
Creek-Potomac basin, where its horizon has been preserved from 
erosion, and is always there a coal of good quality, being known 
as the "Gas" or "Tyson" vein. It also extends over a con- 
siderable area in Greene, Fayette and Westmoreland counties, 
Pennsylvania. Although so constantly present in the northern 
portion of the Appalachian basin, this bed thins down and disap- 
pears entirely southwestward from Marion county, so that little of 
it is found of workable thickness in Harrison, except for a few 
miles west of the Marion county line. It appears to thin out en- 
tirely as a workable vein before passing the Parkersburg branch of the 
B. & O. R. R., since it is only six inches thick in the Sedalia bore 
hole record, and twelve inches in the Clarksburg section. 

There is a coal bed which crops along Tanner creek, in Gilmer 
county, between Tanner postoffice and the mouth of the stream, 
which may be the Sewickley. It varies from two to three feet in 
thickness and is of fair quality. If the coal im the hills, 125 feet 
above it, be the Uniontown seam, then there can be no doubt 
about the lower bed at Tanner representing the Sewickley ooai^ 
but if the "hill" coal be the Waynesburg, then the bottom coal 
would represent the Uniontown instead of the Sewickley. This 
question will be cleared up in the detailed study of the county ge- 
ology, to be undertaken in the future. It can be stated as a gen- 



164 THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

eral fact, however, that there are no areas of the Sewickley coal 
south from the Grafton-Parkersburg branch of the B. & 0. R. R. 
that will furnish coal of commercial thickness, 

The areas in Marion, Monongalia, Wetzel and Marshall, how- 
ever, together with a portion of northeastern Harrison, may be 
counted upon as having valuable deposits of this Sewickley 
bed. 

Lying as it does only 100 feet above the great Pittsburg 
seam below, the two beds can be operated from the same shaft or 
drift plant as the case may be. 

The coal has a fine reputation for domestic use among the 
farmers of Marion and Monongalia, who generally prefer it to the 
Pittsburg coal below, on account of its more open burning, and 
less fusing character in the grate. The coal is usually interlami- 
nated by thin layers of mineral charcoal, and this stnicture causes 
it to bum up with a bright flame, leaving only a fine ash with lit- 
tie clinker, although it carries more ash and sulphur than the 
Pittsburg coal below. The coal is rather too hard to coke well 
without crushing and washing, but it mines in large blocks with no 
more fine coal than the Pittsburg, and bears transportation equally 
well. 

The coal, when possessing its normal thickness of five to six 
feet, is generally split into two members by a layer of slate one to 
three inches thick, near the center, and sometimes one or both 
members may be again subdivided by one or more thin slates. 
This coal is now successfully mined on a commercial scale by the 
George's Creek Coal and Iron Company at its shaft just east from 
Pannington, Marion county, where its structure is reported a^ fol- 
lows by Mr. S. D. Brady, C. E. , who collected the sample from it 
for the analysis repoited on a subsequent page : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In 

'coal o 9" 

slate o ^ 

Upper bench -^ coal., o 6^ ^ 7H 

slate o }4 

^coal I 3J - 6^ 

Slate o I 

I/)wer bench 3 4/ 

Butts run S. 78° E. Face N. 12° E. Greatest ri^e, one per 
cent., elevation 752 feet above tide. The coal is shipped for steam 
purposes and is reported to give general satisfaction. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



155 



Hekns run and Tevebaugh run put into the West Fork river, 
near Worthington, in Marion county, and as the Pittsburg coal 
is there below water level the Sewickley bed has long been 
mined in the region for local steam and domestic use. 

The following sections in that region showing the structure of 
the Sewickley coal, as well as the character of the strata imme- 
diately above, were measured by Mr. William S. Stevenson, of 
Fairmont, W. Va. , who has kindly placed his results at the dis- 
posal of the Survey. 

The section at the Charles Jackson Mine, one-fourth mile 
above the mouth of Tevebaugh Run, is given as follows by Mr. 
Stevenson : 

Ft. In. 

Limestone, visible 4 o 

Shales and sandstone (Sewickley) 21 o 

Shales and soft coaly slate 2 6 



Coal, 
Sewick- 
ley. 



Ft. In. 

coal o 5 

slate I ij4 

coal I o 

Upper \ slaty coal o }i 

bench, coal o 4 

bone coal., o 2 

I coal o 7}^ 

[slaty coaL. o i}4 



Ft. In. 



2 10' 



Lower 
I bench. 



f coal. 



7 io>< 



slaty coal., o }4 

coal 2 o 

bonecoaU i o 



5 >^J 



Fireclay 

Another measurement at the same mine on the working face, 
200 feet from the drift opening, gave the following : 



Ft. In. 
.. 2 2X 



Ft. In. 



6 6)^ 



Ft. In. 

Roof coal, not very good o 7 

Slate, sulphurous o % 

Coal I 7 ) 

Coal bony o i>4 

Cbal, lower bench 4 3 

Thm lenses of slate, from 0" to ^" thick and from 0' to 3' long, 
occur irregularly at this mine. 

Just below where the Sewickley coal passes under Tevebaugh 
it exhibits the following structure at the Finley Oakes' heirs 
opening : 



156 



THE M0N0N6AHELA 8EBIESL 



Sandstone . 
Slate 



Ft. In. 



I o 



Coal, upper bench 2 3 

Slate - o }4 

Coal I iiyi 

81ate o i}4 

Coal I 9 



Ft. In. 



6 i^ 



At fifty feet in the mine the coal has the~following structure : 

Ft. In. Ft. in. 



Coal, upper 
bench. 



fcoal.. 
I slate.. 
-j coal., 
slate., 
I coal.. 



Ft. In. 

o I 
o 5 
o i^ 
o 6 



Slate o 4 

Coal, lower bench, good to bottom 3 8, 



6 2 



On Helena run, three-fourths of a mile above its mouth, 
the Sbwickley coal shows as follows on the land of^^Mrs. Tetrick: 



Ft. In. 



Hard slate., 
Soft slate... 



Ft. In. 
I o 
o 6 



Coal, upper bench, thin sulphur bands 2 o 

Bone o 5 

Coal, lower bench 3 3 

Coal, with sulphur balls, bottom not seen 



5 8 



On Mill Fall run which puts into the West Fork river on its 
north bank just below Monongah, Marion county, this coal shows 
the following mea.surement at the Millard Boggess mine, according 
to Mr. Stevenson : 



In. 
5 



Ft. In. 

. 5 7H 



Ft. 

Coal, upper bench 3 

Slate o 

Coal o 

Slate o 

Coal, lower bench, Tisible i 

The coal is six feet, three inches thick at the mouth of the 
entry, and at one point in the mine seven feet, six inches. 

Hon. J. W. Paul, State Mine Inspector for West Virginia, 
made an examination of the Sewickley coal in this same region 
of Marion county for Mr. George F. Duck, of Clearfield, Pa., dur- 
ing October, 1900, the results of which have been kindly given 
the Surv^ey by Mr. Duck, as follows : 



WB8T VIRGINIA OEOLOQICAL 8UEVEY. 



157 



Section and atialysis of Sewickley coal seam from mine 
on Tevebaugh creek, about one mile from the West Fork river. 



Analvsbs. 

^ (I) 

Moisture 1.03 

Volatile matter 3990 

Fixed carbon 47.19 

Ash 11.88 



(2) 

0.89 

41.07 

48.18 

9.86 



Sulphur . 



100. 00 100. 00 
.. 4.80 4.50 



Skction of Coai,. 



(i) Bone coal roof 

(2) Coal & ^ 

(3) Bone o i 

(4) Coal o 7 

(51 Bone o \% 

j6) Coal o 9 

(7) Slate o I 

(8) Coal 3 7 



5 ^yi 



Analysis No. (1) omits Nos. 3, 5 and 7 of the section. 
Analysis No. (2) is of the lower bench No. 8 only. 

Section and analysis from mine of D. T. Martin on Little 
Bingamon creek, near Sturm's Mills : 



Anai,ysbs. 

(I) 

Moisture 1.40 

Volatile matter 38.15 

Fixed carbon 4987 

Ash 10.58 



Sulphur . 



100.00 
- 3.47 



(2J 

1.43 
38.67 
5t.2i 

8.69 

100.00 

4.42 



Skction op Coai,. 



(1) Coal o^ 3^ 

(2) Bone and sulphur o \% 

(3) Coal o II 

(4) Parting o oX 

(5) Coal o 4^ 

(6) Slate o 0% 

(7) Coal 3 o 



4 8H 



Analysis No. (1) omits Nos. 1 and 2 of the section. 
Analysis No. (2) omits Nos. 1, 2 and 6 of the section. 
Sulphur balls up to four pounds weight in bottom of No. 7. 

On Indian creek, near the Marion-Monongalia line, this Se- 
wickley coal is mined quite generally for local supply, and varies 
between six and seven feet in thickness, with a thin (one to two 
inches) slate near the center. It furnishes a very satisfactory 
steam and domestic fuel. The sample for analysis from that re- 
gion, given in the table, was collected by Mr. W. F. Hood, of 
Lowsville, from the mine of Mr. J. A. Cox. 

The coal has a good thickness and a fine reputation both for 
steam and domestic use from Indian creek entirely across Monon- 
galia to the Pennsylvania state line, along all of its eastern crop 
which borders on and is just west from the Monongahela river. 



158 



THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 



Gregg, on 
its struct- 



In. 



I}- 



The following sections, measured by Mr. John M. 
Scotts and Robinsons Runs, Monongalia county, show 
ure there: 

WILLIAM DEBTS MINE, SCOTTS RUN. 
Ft. In. Ft 

Coal, upper bench 3 

Slate o 

Coal, lower bench 3 

On the land of William Baremore, Scotts Run, the Sewickley 
sandstone comes down and locally cuts out the upper bench of the 
coal, so that Mr. Gregg found there the following: 

Ft. In. 

Sandstone, Sewickley 7 o 

Slate o 7 

Coal 4 o 

At the mine of C. C. Lazzell, Robinsons run, this coal shows 
as follows, as measured by Mr. Gregg: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Coal, upper bench 26) 

Slate o ^V 5 ^ 

Coal, lower bench 2 6 J 

The chemical character of the Sewickley coal is approxi- 
mately shown by the following table of analyses, all of which 
were made by Prof. B. H. Hite and assistants except Nos. 6 and 
7, quoted from Hon. J. W. Paul's Sewickley coal report: 
SEWICKLEY COAL ANALYSES. 



I 



^ 



(0 

*o 









(A 

< 



I , 1.03 ! 35.83 53-93i 9.21 

2 1.64 : 34.55 51.87 11.94 

3 1-23 i 33.23. 54,67! 10.87 

4 064 I 34.57 1 54.22, 10.57 



L25 
1. 13 
1.03 
1.40 

0.75 



o 



100. 
100. 
100. 
100. 
100. 



"p 



xn 

5 
o 

.£3 

8 






38.47' 51.57; 8.71 

37 29, 49. 26 12. 32! 100. 

39.90! 47.19 II. 88| 100. 

38. 15, 49. 87 10. 58 100. 

34. 17 52.24 12.84, 100. 



2. 72 I o. 01 1 
3.59 I o. 010 
1.45 I 0.008 
2. 88 o. 005 



0.0057 
0.006 



4.62 
4.91 
4.80 

3.47 , 

2.82 I 0.015 



^3355 
12859 

13417 
12983 

13231 
12726 



12642 



Average . 



L13 



36.24 51.641 10.99, 100 



3.47 



.0067 



13030 



10.. 



0.76 19.37 69.38 10.49 100. 1.73 0.025 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 159 

LOCATION OF MINES FROM WHICH SAMPLES WERE TAKEN. 

1. Wm. Baremore mine, on Scotts run, Monongalia county. 

2. Wm. Deets mine, on Scotts run, Monongalia county. 

3- C. C. Lazzell mine, on Robinsons run, Monongalia county. 

4. J. A. Cox mine, Indian creek, Monongalia county 

5. Millard Boggess mine, ^ mile above mouth of Mih Fall run, Marion Co. 

6. Chas. Jackson mine, on Tevebaugh run, Marion county. 

7. Mine on Tevebaugh run, i mile from West Fork river. 

8. D. T. Martin's mine, near Sturm's Mills on Little Bingamon Creek, 

Marion county. 

9. George's Creek Coal & Iron Company's mine, Chetham shaft No. 2, 

}^ mile east of Farmington, Marion county. 

10. Gas Coal mine, at Windom, Mineral county. 

These analyses do not fairly represent the coal, since all except 
two were collected near the crop, and hence are higher in both ash 
and sulphur than would be found under normal mining condi- 
tions. 

Making due allowance for the crop coal character of most of 
the samples taken from near the surface in country banks, (because 
the coal has not yet been mined on a commercial scale except at 
the two localities mentioned, Fairmont and Windom), it is read- 
ily observed that the coal will run higher in ash than the Pitts- 
burg by three to four per cent. , and probably one per cent, higher 
in SULPHUR, with approximately the same amount of volatile 
MATTER, but less of FIXED CARBON by two to thrce per cent., while 
moisture and phosphorus are nearly the same. 

The open burning character of the coal will largely offset the 
greater percentage of ash and sulphur, so that for steam and do- 
mestic uses this coal, when mined in a commercial way, and prop- 
erly freed from slate and bone, will not fall much below the Pitts- 
burg coal in general fuel results. 

The high percentage of sulphur would appear to forbid its 
manufacture into coke, unless crushing and washing should greatly 
reduce this undesirable element. 

The sample No. 10, from Windom, belonging as it does in the 
highly folded, and incipiently metamorphosed region of the semi- 
bituminous coals, near the most eastern ridge of the Alleghany 
mountain range, is of course much higher in fixed carbon, and 
lower in volatile matter, than the unchanged coals west of the 
Alleghanies, and hence does not properly belong in a table of bi- 
tuminous coals. 



160 TEJB MONONOAHELA SERIES. 

SEWICKLEY LIMESTONE. 

At a short interval below the Sewickley coal there nearly al- 
ways occurs a gray limestone, five to twenty feet in thickness, 
which bears the same name as the coal. Its position is well shown 
in the Lambert shaft section, as well as in many of the other sec- 
tions already given. It is usually fairly pure and makes an excel- 
lent building or agricultural lime. 

THE REDSTONE COAL. 

Lying fifty to seventy feet below the Sewickley coal, and thirty 
to fifty feet above the Pittsburg bed, there occurs another coal ho- 
rizon which in two or three districts of the State attains considera- 
ble importance. It was first discovered on Redstone creek, Fay- 
ette county. Pa., and was designated the REDSTONE COAL by 
the First Geological Survey of that state, although it does not ap- 
pear to occur in good thickness at any locality within Pennsyl- 
vania. 

On Scotts and Robinsons runs, in Monongalia coimty, five 
miles northwest from Morgantown, there is a small area where the 
coal attains a thickness of four to six feet, and is apparently of 
about the same quality as the Pittsburg bed, forty feet below. It 
was formerly mined there for domestic purposes to a limited ex- 
tent, but as the Sewickley coal above and the Pittsburg below 
are so convenient, the mines on the Redstone have all been aban- 
doned and are now fallen shut, so that no samples for analysis 
could be secured from that region. It was once analyzed, how- 
ever, by Dr. John J. Stevenson, who reported it to contain about 
three per cent, of sulphur. It is a good fuel for either steam or do- 
mestic purposes. 

In passing both north and south from the Scotts and Robin- 
sons run localities, the coal thins away before reaching the Penn- 
sylvania line on the one hand, or the Marion county line on the 
other, since in the Fairmont region only a trace of the coal re- 
mains in a fireclay horizon at the proper interval above the Pitts- 
burg COAL. 

Still farther south, however, it reappears in the section at 
Clarksburg, too thin and impure to be valuable, but thickening up 
farther south into a very important and valuable coal seam, in 
southern Harrison, and adioining regions of Barbour, Upshur, 
Lewis, and possibly some portions of Gilmer. 



WEST VIBGINIA GEOLOGICAL SUHfVBT. 161 

This coal is mined and shipped to Baltimore and the east on 
an extensive scale by the Century Coal Company, at Century, Bar- 
bour county, near the line between the latter and Upshur county, 
by a shaft 150 feet in depth. The following sections of the Red- 
stone coal, as measured in the Century mine by Mr. A. P. Brady, 
exhibit the structure of the coal, and also the analysis, and calor- 
ific value of the same as determined in the laboratory of the Sur- 
vey by Prof. Hite and his assistants. 

Analysis. 
Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Slate 

Draw slate i o Moisture 0.67 

Coal o 7 ) Volatile matter 36.89. 

Bone Goal o Xr— 5 5 Fixed carbon ^-41 



071 
o KL 
4 9^J 



Coal 4 9^ J Ash 7.03 



Total 100.00 

B. T. U. (British Thermal Units)=i3634 Sulphur 2.43 

Phosphorus 0.009 

'*Butts" run S. 78^ E., Face S. 12^ W., Greatest rise S. 50^ 
E. Sample for analysis taken from southwest side of mine on C. 
Heading. 

Another portion of the Century mine exhibits the following 
structure for this coal according to Mr. Brady: 

Ahalysis. 
Ft. In, Ft. In, 

Sandrock 

Slate Moisture 0.67 

Bone coal 04] Volatile matter 36.21 

Coal 50 ( . TTi/ Fixed carbon 54.38 

Slate o ^f"5ii>5 ^sh 8.74 

Coal o 7 J 

Total 100.00 

B. T, U.=i33i4 Sulphur 2.90 

Phosphorus 0.035 

Sample for analysis taken from northeast side of mine, A 
heading, room No. 2. 

These analyses reveal a coal of fine quality, which comes out 
of the mine in handsome cubical blocks, stands shipment well, 
and has already established a fine reputation for ifself as a steam 
and general fuel coal of the highest excellence. It has an excellent 
roof, much better than the underlying Pittsburg bed. 

This coal covers an area of several thousand acres on the 
heads of the tributaries of Elk creek, adjoining the Century and 
Berryburg region, where it overlies the great Pittsburg seam by 



162 THE MONOXGAHELA SERIES. 

only twentjr-eight to thirty-five feet. The Centun'^ company's 
shaft, 185 feet in depth, goes on through the Pittshurg coal which 
is found to be eight feet thick and twenty -eight feet under the 
Redstone. 

Thii^ coal was not seen at the Berry burg mine which operates 
the Pittsburg coal exclusively, but Mr. O'NeaU the superintendent, 
states that the Redstone is present an J about four feet thick, thirty 
to thirty-five feet above the Pittsburg. 

On Freeman's creek and Kincheloe creek southward from Jar- 
visville, Harrison county, there is another large area of this Red- 
stone coal where it is four and one-half to five feet thick, and 
quite generally mined for domestic use. 

In many regions of Lewis county, there are also two coal beds 
thirty to forty feet apart, and the upper one while generally iden- 
tified with the Pittsburg seam, may really be the Redstone. The 
latter always overlies a yellow limestone in the Clarksburg, Berry- 
burg and Century regions, and as a yellow limestone comes a 
short distance below the upper of the two coals at Weston, Lime- 
stone run, Polk creek, and other localities in Lewis where the two 
are present, it is quite possil)le that the upper one may represent 
the Redstone, unless the lower one which is seldom more than 
three feet thick in Lewis, should be the Little PiTrsBrR(;, since 
it also occurs under a yellow limestone in Monongalia, Marion and 
elsewhere. 

This stratigraphic qut-stion will be cleared up in the later 
detailed studies for the county re])orts. 

Through Gilmer and Braxton and on across Clay, Roane and 
Kanawha, only one coal is present, and it has always been iden- 
tified as the Pittsburg, but should the upper one of the two in 
Lewis prove to be the Redstone, then the coal in Braxton, Gilmer 
and on to the. Great Kanav;ha would be the same. The two coal 
beds lie so close together, that the (juestion is not of serious im- 
portance, since both belong in practically the same coal forming 
epoch. 

REDSTONE LIMESTONE. 

Lying only a tew feet under the Redstone coal, there nearly 
always occurs, especially when the Redstone Coal is of merchantable 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 163 

thickness, a yellowish, impure limestone, named the Redhtone 
L1ME.ST0XE h}' Dr. John J. Stevenson. It has a thickness of five 
to twenty feet, sornetines extending down nearly to tne Pittsburg 
•coal, and giving much trouble in supporting the mine roof of the 
latter. The limestone is usually too impure for economic use and 
hence it is seldom, quarried except for road material. 

THE PITTSBURG SANDSTOXPl 

In the Fairmont region and especially along the eastern crop 
of the Pittsburg coal, there is often found a thick, coarse, gray 
sandstone, usually very soft, ar.d readily disintegrating when ex- 
posed to the weather. When this sandstone is present in a 
massive condition the overlying Redstone Coal and Limestone 
are nearly always absent. For instance on the east side of the 
Monongahela river at MorgantoWn, and on eastward to Cheat 
river, the sandstone is present in a massive condition, only two to 
live feet above the Pittsburg Coal, while not a trace of the 
Redstone Coal is to be seen, but on the west side of the Monon- 
gahela. only two miles distant, the sandstone is gone entirely, 
while the Redstone Coal and Limestoni-: are both present. 

When massive, the sandstone contains much feldspathic 
material and easily disintegrates into a bed of coarse sand where 
exposed along the roads, etc. It has been quarried to some extent 
for building stone in the Fairmont region, but it furnishes a poor 
quality which stains badly and will not k»ng endur« the action of 
the elements. 

Southward through southern Lewis, eastern Gilmer, and 
southern Braxton a great cliff rock appears to come at this 
horizon, being very conspicuous for many miles above (ilenville, 
on the Little Kanawha river, as well as south west wanl through 
Braxton, Roane and Kanawha counties. It also forms cons]>icuous 
cliffs in the region of Hartford, Pomeroy, Point Pleasant and 
other localities along the Ohio river between Hartford and 
Huntington. 

It occurs in some high knol)s south of Klk river, near the 
mouth of Strange creek, and }»ossibly in Mt. Pis.i!;ah, near Clay 
Court House, a mile east of the abandoned Chatau(pia grounds. 



164 THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

THE PITTSBURG COAL. 

Among the rich mmeral deposits of the great Appalachian 
field, the Pittsburg coal bed stands preeminent. Other coal beds 
may cover a wider area, or extend with greater persistence, but 
none surpass the Pittsburg seam in economic importance and 
value. It was well named by Rogers (H. D.) and his able assist- 
ants of the First Geological Survey of Pennsylvania in honor of 
the city to whose industrial growth and supremacy it has contrib- 
uted so much. Whether or not the prophetic eye of that able 
geologist ever comprehended fully the part which this coal bed 
was to play in the future history of the city which gave it a name 
we do not know; but certain it is that the seven feet of fossil fuel 
which in Rogers' time circled in a long black band around the hills, 
and overlooking the site of Pittsburg from an elevation of 400 feet 
above the waters of the Allegheny and Monongahela, extended 
up the latter stream in an unbroken sheet for a distance of 200 
miles, has been the most potent factor in that wonderful modem 
growth which has made the Pittsburg district the manufacturing 
center of the world. 

That this claim for the supremacy of the Pittsburg district 
(including Wheeling and the Monongahela river region) is valid 
can hardly be doubted, when we see its iron, steel, glass and other 
products going to every part of the western continent, and even 
invading the long established manufacturing dynasties of Europe. 

AGE. 

The Pittsburg coal is the lowest member of the Monongahela 
series, and so far as one may judge of relative age when comparing 
the coals of distant countries would correlate closely with the great 
bed at Commentry in central France. 

Just where in the series between the Pittsburg and Waynesburg 
coals, the Permian flora found in the roof of the latter was first 
introduced, we do not know, because no systematic collection of 
fossils has ever been made at any horizon in the Monongahela se- 
ries, below the top member, in fact, none until marine conditions 
are found 300 feet under the Pittsburg coal. 

The coal making epoch of the Appalachian Carboniferous 
really culminated and its decline began with the deposition of the 
Upper Freeport bed at the summit of the Allegheny series of 



WEST vnwiiriA geological survey. 165 

Rogers (No. XIII), since the few fossil plants found in the 600 
feet of the Conemaugh strata, which supervene between the Upper 
Freeport and Pittsburg coals, are either identical with or closely 
affiliated to Coal Measure types of plants that survive into the 
Permian flora of Europe and Texas. This is also mainly true of 
the last marine faunal types occurring at the horizon of the Ames 
limestone, about 300 feet below the Pittsburg bed, and therefore 
in Bulletin 65, U. S. G. Survey, page 19, the dividing line between 
the Upper and Middle Carboniferous was drawn through the middle 
of the Conemaugh (No. XIV), at the close of the Ames limestone 
stage when marine life became practically extinct in the Appalach- 
ian sediments. Hence the 600 to 700 feet of strata extending 
from the Ames limestone to the Waynesburg coal, and enclosing 
the great Pittsburg bed near the center, may possibly be of Per- 
mo-Carboniferous age. 

The Lescuropteris Morh Schimp. (Lx.) and the large reptil- 
ian tracks found by Lyell near Greensourg, Pennsylvania, point to 
the same conclusion with reference to the age of the Pittsburg bed; 
namely, that it belongs to the closing stage of the Carboniferous 
system rather than to the middle of the same. 

AREA. 

Before the drill of the Petroleum seeker had penetrated every 
region of the great Appalachian basin, it was supposed that the 
Pittsburg coal spread in a continuous sheet under every portion of 
that area where its outcrop was buried from view. This conclusion 
was based upon the unfailing continuity of the bed southward for 
200 miles from Pittsburg to the headwaters of the Monongahela, 
and also westward into Ohio, and its reappearance on the river of 
that name at Pomeroy, as also on the Great Kanawha at Raymond 
City, Pocatallico, and Charleston. But the studies of Prof. Orton 
and others in Ohio, and my own in West Virginia, aided 
by the petroleum drilling there, have shown that the coal is ab- 
sent, or but poorly developed over large areas where it had for- 
merly been considered present. Hence to the list of counties of 
West Virginia named in Bulletin 65, United States Geological Sur- 
vey, page 64, viz : Calhoun, Roane, Ritchie, Pleasants and 
Wood, where this coal is absent or in poor development, must now 
be added the most of Doddridge, Jackson, Tyler and probably 
half of Wetzel, since two tests with the diamond drill near the 



166 THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

center of the latter county, found only two feet of coal at a depth 
of 425 feet below the valley of Fishing Creek. This area, to- 
gether with that previously known to be barren, or to have only 
a patchy development in West Virginia and Ohio, will aggregate 
between 4,000 and 5,000 square miles, a rather startling figure 
when substracted from the supposed area of a coal bed so valua- 
ble as the Pittsburg in its developed regions. 

There has has been much speciilation as to the area which this 
coal may once have covered. The isolated patches of the bed in 
the Greorge's creek and North Potomac region; the few knobs of it 
in Preston, Barbour and Upshur counties of West Virginia, to- 
gether with its presence in the solitary peak of Round Top in Bed- 
ford county, Pennsylvania, forty-five miles from any other outcrop 
of the bed, and far east of the Alleghany mountains, have led 
some geologists to believe that it may once have extended north- 
westward to the Lake region, and eastward possibly to the North 
mountains, or even to the Blue ridge, having been removed from 
all this wide expanse by the enormous erosion to which it has been 
subjected since Carboniferous time. Whether the limits thus as- 
signed were ever attained by the spread of Coal Measure swamps, 
we shall never know to a certainty, but that there is no inherent 
improbabiUty in the hypothesis, will appear from the fact that the 
oldest member of the Carboniferous system, the very hard and 
erosion-resisting sandstones of the Pocono, with its included coal 
beds, extends to the North Mountain region at several points along 
that great ridge. Of course, if the Coal Measures ever covered an area 
as wide as this lowest member of the Carboniferous, the probabili- 
ties are that the area of the Pittsburg bed, which has escaped ero- 
sion, is only a fragment of its former extent. But however this 
may be, its entire area of workable coal remaining in the states of 
Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia and Maryland, does not proba- 
bly exceed 6,000 square miles. 

STRUCTURE. 

Dr. J. J. Stevenson, of the University of New York, was the 
first geologist to make a detailed study of the Pittsburg coal bed, 
and to describe the peculiar structure which so distinctly charac- 
terizes it, that the coal seam may be thereby identified with consid- 
erable certainty over a wide area. In Report K, Second Geologi- 



WEST VIRGINIA eEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 167 

cal Survey of Pennsylvania, he shows that a series of thin parting 
slates and clays subdivide the bed into several definite members, 
which may be grouped as follows : 

**Roof " coals. 
'*Over"-clay. 
**Breast" coal. 

Parting. 
*'Bearing-in^' coal. 

Parting. 
'*Brick" coal. 

Parting. 
* 'Bottom'' coal. 

**The ''roof coals are a number of thin layers of coal (two 
to twelve inches each) separated by shales or clays of varying 
thickness. Some of the layers are good coal, while others contain 
much dirt and other impurities. Their number ranges from one 
to eight, or even more, and their combined thickness seldom ex- 
ceeds three and one-half to four feet, while the separating slates 
and clays may be only half as much, or they may often exceed 
the coal in thickness by two or three times. In practical mining 
operations all this ''roof coal is wasted, because the coal layers 
make a good support for the over-lying strata, and are, therefore, 
left as the roof of the mine. In this way about 2,000 tons per acre of 
the Pittsburg coal is always lost without any attempt to recover it. 
This waste is so large that some of the mining companies are con- 
sidering the question of putting in crushing and washing machin- 
ery with a view to taking down these roof coals, and thus pre- 
venting the great loss of fuel which their abandonment entails 
upon any mine. There is no doubt that the time will come, many 
generations hence, when at great cost, the Pittsburg bed will be 
remined to secure the coal which is now rejected, both in its roof 
and bottom members, since all of it would be valuable fuel if freed 
from the included slates and clays. 

The "over-clay'' is an impure fire clay, and varies much in 
thickness, sometimes almost disappearing, and again thickening 
up to two or even five feet. The clay is usually mottled and much 
slickensided, so that it becomes a dangerous trap when left as a 
mine support, since large pieces of it will drop from the roof with- 
out any warning sound. Hence it is generally taken down at 



168 THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

once, and the miner has, therefore, given it the name of ''draw- 
slate" in many regions. It often contains what appears to be 
stems and rootlets of plants. 

The next succeeding (downward) division of this seam, the 
*T)reast coal" of the miners, also often termed the **main bench," 
is usually the most important and valuable division of the whole 
bed. Its thickness gradually increases from the Pittsburg r^on, 
(where it is usually about three feet), up the Monongahela, attain- 
ing a maximum of six feet at Brownsville, while to the eastward in 
the George's creek and North Potomac basin of Maryland and 
West Virginia, it increases still more to seven and one-half or even 
ten feet. The top of this member is nearly always of a bony na- 
ture for a thickness of one to four inches, and frequently this must 
be separated and rejected in mining, but even where this is not re- 
quired, the top of the **breast" coal is distinctly harder than the 
rest of It, and inclined to a cannelly structure. Westward to the 
Ohio river this **breast" division thins, and in the Glendale and 
Moundsville shafts is only two feet thick, according to A. P. Bra- 
dy's measurement. It is still perfectly distinct, however, with the 
twin slates, one-half an inch thick each, and enclosing four to six 
inches of **bearing-in" coal immediately below. 

The **bearing-in" coal is so named by the Monongahela river 
miner, because in mining operations the under-cutting of the 
*T)reast" coal is made in this layer, the latter then being wedged 
or blown down, and the **brick" division subsequently taken up. 
The **bearing-in" coal is usually brilliant and pure, varying in 
thickness from three to six inches, and enclosed by two thin part- 
ing slates, so much alike in color and structure as to be almost in- 
distinguishable. Their color is usually a dark, mottled gray, in 
the Pittsburg to Brownsville region, and they vary in thickness 
from one-fourth to one inch. In West Virginia, however, espe- 
cially from Morgantown to Clarksburg, they are generally a dark 
bone, and will sometimes bum up with the coal. The persistency 
of these twin slates over all the regions drained by the Mononga- 
hela, and east to the George^ s creek and North Potomac field, 
while westward to Wheeling, Bellaire and the neighboring regions 
of Ohio they still appear to be present, is one of the remarkable 
features of this coal bed. When, however, the areas of this coal 
south of the Little Kanawha river in West Virginia, and west from 
the Muskingum in Ohio are examined, these twin slates are not 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL 8UBVEY. 



109 



found, or if represented are no longer recognizable as the Mon- 
ongahela partings, but the **roof ' coals and **over- clay" appear 
to be present. 

The **brick" coal comes next under the lower of the twin 
slates, and was so named by the Monongahela river miners because 
it comes out in oblong, rectangular blocks, resembling the shape 
of common bricks. It is usually about one foot thick. The part- 
ing which separates the **brick" coal from the next lower member 
is always present along the Monongahela from Brownsville to 
Pittsburg, and it is also represented in the George's creek and 
North Potomac field, but in the Fairmont region it is rarely pres- 
ent, the bed there being generally undivided below the ^^bearing- 
in" coal. 

The "bottom'' member is from twelve to twenty inches thick 
along the Monongahela in Pennsylvania, and contains so many 
thin, slaty, sulphurous laminae, that it is often not taken out in 
mining, and thus another thousand tons per acre of this bed is 
wasted, though in the Fairmont and Cumberland (George's creek) 
regions, it is mined and marketed with the rest of the coal. 

The structure here described can be best illustrated by 

giving an actual section of the coal at its type locality. In the 

Ormsby mine at Twenty-first street, Pittsburg, where mining 

operations have been carried on for more than sixty-five years, 

Mr. J. Sutton Wall look the following measurements (K 4, Second 

Geological Survey, Pennsylvania, page 177): 

Inches. 

rCoal 6 

Clay 2 

.Clay 8>^ 

Parting o}^ 

Coal 2 

Clay 9 

Coal 8 

*Roor\...^ Parting o}^ [ 56^ 

Coal 9 

Clay o>^ 

Coal 5 

Parting o}^ 

Coal 2 

Parting o}^ 

Coal 2 



170 



THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 



'*Ovcr'*-clay 

••Breast" coal 33'^ 

Parting oX 

. ••Bcaring-in**'coal. 4 

Parting o}^ ^ 61^^ 

••Brick** coal 10 

Parting o^ 

"Bottom** coal 14 

Total thickness 10^ 63^^^ 

Substantially this structure may be seen at every mine 
between Pittsburg and Brownsville, and on beyond for many 
milee (see Reports K and K 4, Second Geological Survey, 
Pennsylvania). 

East of the Monongahela on the Youghiougheny river, the 
same structure is well illustrated by a section which Mr. W. S 
Gresley, F. G. S. A., measured for me with great care at the 
W. L Scott estate mines, of which Mr. Gresley was formerly 
superintendent This section, near Scott Haven, Pennsylvania, 

reads as follows : 

Inches. 

I'Coal, several films of dirt ^}^' 

Shale, black, earthy 2 

Coal 23/ 

Shale, gray, streaks of coal near top.... 1 1 
Bone (hard, dull, impure, coaly, layer) i 

Coal 2}^ 

fehale, black 0J4 

•Roof**..... ^ Coal 13^ \- 48^^ 

Shale, black, coaly i 

Coal 3 

Slale, gray, with irregular coal streaks 4}^ 
Coal, compact, free from "binders" ... 9X 

Slate, with coal streaks i/^ 

.Coal 2;^ J 

• Over'*-clay, impure, fireclay, light gray above, 
getting browner and then a much darker ^ay 
with coal streaks of irregular shapes, especially 

toward base lo^'-' 

••Breast*' coal, (with i>^ inches of bone at top, and 

next 10^' harder than the rest of bench) 41*/^ 

Shale, dark grayish brown, mottled o^ 

•*Bearing-in** coal, clear and brilliant 4 

Shale, dark grayish brown, mottled o}4 \l2y%'' 

••Brick" coal, clear and brilliant 11 

Shale, parting 0% 

{Coal with a few thin dirt layers ...I2>^ 
ehale 0% 
Coal, bright, clean 2 j 

Total thickness of bed 10^ ^%^^ 

How perfectly this great coal-bed preserves the Pittsburg 
type of structure over wide areas, is shown from the following sec- 
tion sent me by Mr. R. L. Somerville, superintendent of tlie 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 171 

George's Creek Coal and Iron Company, Lonaconing, Maryland. 
The locality is east of the Alleghany mountains, and 150 miles 

from Pittsburg. It is as follows: 

Inches. 

**Roor* coal with slate parting below 20 

••Breast'* coal, 6^'' of bone on top 91 

**Slate" I 

••Bearing-in'' coal ^% 

Slate o3^ 

"Brick" coal 16 

Slate 0% 

••Bottom" coal 15 

Total thickness of bed 12' /^%^^ 

This type of structure is practically universal over all of the 
Pennsylrania, Maryland and eastern Ohio area of the bed. The 
different members vary considerably in thickness, as for instance 
the gradual increase of the ^^breast" coal from three feet at 
Pittaburg to six at Brownsville, 58 miles up the Monongahela 
liver, or to seven and even ten feet in the Georges creek and North 
Potomac regions of Maryland and West Virginia, or a decrease 
may take place in the same to thirty and sometimes to twenty 
inches, as in the Wheeling and Bellaire regions, but each of the 
main sub-divisions can be distinctly recognized, so that whether 
at Fairfax Knob, on the summit of the Alleghany mountains, 
3,200 feet above the sea, or deep down in the center of the 
great Appalachian trough buried under 1,500 feet of sediments, 
the explorer can readily identify this great coal-bed, not only 
from its associated rocks, but from its strata graphical elements as 
well, and from even the fracture of the coal. The writer once had 
a practical illustration of this latter peculiarity of the Pittsburg 
seam. About the year 1880 a coal-bed was discovered near the 
summits of the hills, south from Huntington, West Virginia, and 
on one of the excursions to ihe southern portion of the state, 
with the University students of geology, the mayor of Huntington 
requested me to determine, if possible, to what horizon the coal 
belonged. It proved an easy problem to identity it since the 
Ames and Ewing limestones, with their characteristic fossils, were 
readily found in the bed of Four Pole oeek, fifty feet above the 
Ohio, and above them the ordinar)' rock lucce^siun of the 
Conemaugh series. But, anxious to know what the miner who 
was digging the coal thought of the matter, he was interrogated, 
and he replied as follows: **I don't know anything about 



172 THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

geology, but I dug coal several years in the Pittsburp; seam, 
along the Monongahela, and this coal reminds me of the Pittsbnrg 
in the way it breaks into blocks." Thus had the miner correctly 
diagnosed the horizon of the bed by his own peculiar methods, 
though 300 miles distant from where he had learned its structure, 
with only the tools of his trade and his bright observing mind as 
his guides, strong testimony to the persistence of even the internal 
structure of the bed. 

The oil-well driller is required to identify this coal correctly 
in the great petroleum districts of West Virginia and Pennsyl- 
vania, between the Ohio and Monongahela rivers, where it is 
buried from sight by the Permian beds all the way from 600 to 
1,500 feet. It is there a key-rock for determining the amount of 
casing and the depth of the oil sands, and thus many dollars of 
expense depend upon the coirectness of the driller's identification. 
This he does by observing the character of the drillings as brought 
to the surface by the sand pump, or in other words he observes 
the stratigraphic succession in his own peculiar way, and in the 
hundreds and even thoupands of hole« drilled in this area, he has 
only two or three mistakes charged against his accuracy of 
discrimination. 

This coal is always traversed by two systems of joints or 
cleavage planes approximately at right angles to each other, making 
in miners' parlance the ^'butts'' and **faces" of the mine. The 
direction of these planes is fairly constant for the same region, 
and they ^ive to the coal its characteristic appearance on the cars. 
Along the Monongahela river in Pennsylvania the butts run from 
N. 60° W. to N. 70° W., or what is the same thing, S. 60° E. to 
S. 70° E., and theru appears to be a gradual increase in theangh 
from Pittsburg southward up the river. The ^^face" be«.ring is of 
course at rignt angles to that of the **butts," and for the Fairmont 
region generally, the two have the following courses more 
frequently than any other, viz: *'butts'' S. 75° E., **faces" S. 15° 
\V., as determined by Mr. S. D. Brady. Further south in the 
Clarksburg reiiion the angleb are S. 78° E., and S. 12° W. 
respectively. In the Tyrconnell district between Clarksburg and 
Grafton the angles are 80° to 81^° and 10° to 8^°. Berryburg 
gives, *'buttV' S. 79° E., ^^faces'^ S. 11° W. In the Wheeling 
region the angles as reported by Mr. Brady, read S. 73° E. and 
S. 17^ W. 



WEST VIRGINIA GE0L0GIC2AL SURVEY. 173 

In tne Hartford district, Mason county, Mr. A. P. Brady 
reports the **butts" running due north and south, while the 
* 'faces" run east and west. 

The Pittsburg Coal is also remarkable for the number and 
size of the *'clay veins" which penetrate the bed in every region 
where it has been mined, whether along the Monongahela or the 
great Kanawha, 200 miles distant. True, in some districts, they 
are more frequent than in others, but they occur in all. 

Mr. W. E. Gresley, the eminent mining engineer, is inclined 
to believe them due to earthquakes which opened fissurei that 
have been filled with earthy material from above, but the writer 
does not concur in this view, preftrriijg to regard them in most 
cases as due to earth movements which squeezed up the under-clay 
into and often through the overlying coal. 

As already stated they occur in every region where the Pitts- 
burg bed is mined, but are probably more numerous in the 
Raymond City and other regions along the Great Kanawha river. 

In the vicinity of Brownsville, Pa., the '^breast" or main 
upper bench r f the Pittsburg coal has a thickness of 6 to 6 feet, 
while the portion below the "bands", including both the **brick" 
and '*botiom" coals is only about three feet thick. 

When this coal is traced into West Virginia, forty miles 
south from Brownsville, this structure is practically reversed, 
there being only two to three feet above the '*bands", and four to 
five feet below them, the **brick" and "bottom" divisions having 
coalesced, the usual separating slate being entirely absent and the 
whole forming the purest portion of the bed. 

Where opened by the Fulmer Coal Co. on the Sturgiss farm, 
two miles southeast of Morgan town, the following structure is 
exhibited: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sandstone, Pittsburg 25 o 

Draw slate o 6 

rbreastcoal i 8^ 

Coal, Pittsburg J bands o 6^ 7 6 

(bottom coal 5 4J 

Elevation, 1190 feet above tide, by barometer. 

Here the dark bands are an inch thick each and enclose four 
inches of coal, while there is no apparent slate or parting in the 
sixty-four inches of '*brick" and **bottom'' coal below, which has 
here become the main portion of the bed. 



174 THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

One mile east of the Fulmer mine, the coal exhibits this 
structure at the I. A. Motris bank, near Easton: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sandstone, visible lo o 

rcoal o 61 

Roof coal -^ shale ^ o 4> i 4 

(coal o 6j 

Over-clay o 8 

Breast coal 3 2^ 

Bands o 6 >• 7 4 

Bottom coal 3 8) 

Elevation, 1170 feet A. T., by barometer. 

In the Beech wood mine of the Fairmont Coal Co., half way 
between Morgantown and Fairmont, A. P. Brady reports this 
structure for the Pittsburg coal : 

BEECHWOOD MINE 

Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sandrock 

Draw slate 

rcoal I 

Breast coal ^ bone o 2 [-...2 5j4 

(coal 



o 2 y ...2 



fbone o ^^ \ -" ^ S'A 

Bands -j coal o 2>^ I 

I bone o i {**' ^ 

Bottom coal 3 8 

Butts, S. 71^ E. Face, S. ia° W. Greatest rise, S. 57^ E. 
Elevation, 907 feet above tide. 

Here there is a bony streak near the middle of the * 'breast'' 
or upper division cf the bed. The same structure is also seen in 
the Opekiska mine of the Fairmont Co. 10 m\les below Fairmont 
as follows: 

OPEKISKA MINE. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Roof coal o II 'I 

Black slate o 5 j '"^ ^ 

rcoal I 8 

Breast coal -^ bone o }^ \ ... 3 4>i- 

(coal 



I 8 ) 



•►...8 



rbone o 

Bands ^ coal o 5 [►... o 6}^ 

(bone o 3^ 

Bottom coal 4 i j 

Butt«, S. 72° E. Face, 18° W. Greatest rise, S. 57° E. 
Elevation, 1040' A. T. 

The following structure is reported by S. D. Brady at the 
Montana mine, five miles below Fairmont: 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



175 



7 4>^ 



Greatest rise, S. 57^ E. 



MONTANA MINE. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sandrock 

Black slate 

Over-clay 3 o 

Breast coal 3 o ' 

{bone o }^^ 
coal o 7 f o 8>^ 
bone o I j 

Bottom coal 3 8 

Butts, S. 74° E. Face, S, 16° W. 
Elevation, 871' A. T. 

Here the third bone or slate has disappeared from the 
**bands" but it reappears at the Aurora mine, three miles above 
Montana, as shown in the section measured there by A. P. Brady, 
as follows: 

AURORA MINE. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sandrock 

Draw slate 

Breast coal 2 4 | 

fslate 01^ 

I coal o 3 

Bands -fslate o ^ )- o S}4 \ 6 7X 

I coaI o 2^ 



[slate o I 

Bottom coal 3 

Butts, S. 74° E. Face, S. 16° W. Greatest rise, S. 57° E. 
Elevation, 905' A. T. 

Here, Mr. Brady calls the partings **slate", but they contain 
much bituminous matter along with 50 to 60 per cent, of earthy 
material, and hence, whether called '*bone" or **blate", they 
should always be discarded from the coal, since they rarely hold 
enough carbonaceous material bo permit combustion into ash. 

Just west from Fairmont is the Shaft mine of the Fairmont 

Coal Co., and there the following structure is given by 

S. D. Brady: 

SHAFT MINE. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Limestone, sandstone and slate.. 130 o 

Over-clay ... 

Breast coal 3 o 

(bone o }4) 

Bands -^ coal o 7 V .... o 7}^\" 7 ^'A 

(parting - J 

Bottom coal -. 4 i 



176 



THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 



...O 7X K. 7 llH 



Butts, S. 76^ E. Face, S. 14^ W. Greatest rise, S. 54^ E. 
Elevation of pavement (137 feet below surface), 744 feet 
above tide. 

At the George's Creek Coal & Iron Co.'s mine, near Farming- 
ton, ten miles west from Fairmont, the following structure was 
ol)served for this coal in their Chatham shaft by A. P. Brady: 
CHATHAM SHAFT NEAR FARMINGTON. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. 
Breast coal 3 4 

slate o XI 

coal o 2 

Bands • slate o }^ 

coal o 3)^ 

slste o I 

Bottom coal 4 

Butts, S. 78^ E. Face, S. 12^ W. Elevation of pavement (230 
feet below Buffalo creek), about 685 feet above tide. 

The Gaston mine of the Fairmont Coal Co. on the West 
Fork river, two miles above Eairmont, gave the following 
succession to A. P. Brady: 

GASTON MINE. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sandstone 

Over-clay 

Breast coal 3 11 * 



Bands. 



bone., 
coal.., 
bone, 
coal.., 
bone. 



o'l^-' 
o 2 

O I 

o 4 

O I 



.0 9 



8 5 



Bottom coal 4 9 J 

Buttfi, S. 77^^ E. Face, S. 12^° W. Greatest rise, S. 54^ E. 

Elevation, 889' A. T. 

The New England mine of the same company on the east 

side of the river just opposite Gaston gives ihe following as 

measured by S. D. Brady. 

NEW ENGLAND MINE. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sandstone 

Black slate ^. 

0^'e^-clay 

Breast coal 3 o' 

'bone o }^ ] 

coal -.0 2}^ 

Bands -j bone o i V o S} 8 

coal o 3 

bone...... o i 

Bottom coal 4 4J 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 177 

Butts, S. 78° E. Pace, S. 12°W. Greatest rise, 54^E. El- 
evation, 926'' A. T. This mine lies in the junction angle of the 
Tygarts Valley and West Fork rivers, and a great delta deposit of 
quicksand, clay, boulders, etc. covers the surface at some points 
to nearly 100 feet in depth. 

There is a good thickness of rock at the mouth of the mine 
between the coal and the delta deposit, but the eastward rise of the 
strata brings the coal up to the level of the ancient river bottom 
(950 to 960 feet above tide) when the Monongahela drained north- 
ward into the St. Lawrence system, and hence had cut out the coal 
entirely over a large area under the thick deposits made during 
the Glacial Ice Dam epoch, and had also cut away all but a few 
feet of slate over another considerable area. 

In the operation of the New England mine, one of these thin 
places in the roof rock was encountered a few years ago, and the 
overlying quicksand broke through and rapidly filled one of the 
entries where it was more than 100 feet up to the surface of the 
ground. Since that event, mining under the delta deposit is made 
with great caution, and frequent tests of the thickness of the rock 
roof, but in spite of this, many acres of valuable coal will doubtless 
be lost, owing to the semi-fluid (quicksand) nature of the first Ice 
Dam deposit which overlies the thin rock roof of the coal, 140 feet 
above the level «f the present rivers. 

About 1 mile east from the New England mine, is the plant of 
the Virginia & Pittsburg Coal & Coke Co., on the west bank of the 
Valley river, and there A. P. Brady measured the following struc- 
ture : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sandstone 

Draw slate 

Breast coal 3 o 

slate o }i^ 

coal o 3 

Bands \ slate o ^ L..o j}^ \ ,„ 8 2^ 

coal o 3 

slate o }^^ 

Bottom coal 4 7 

Butts, S. 78° E. Face, S. 12° W. Elevation, 960 feet above 
tide. 

At the Monongah mines of the Fairmont Coal Co., on the 
West Fork river, 6 miles above Fairmont, the following sectioms 
were measured by S. D. Brady : 



178 



THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 



MONONGAH NUMBER 6 (SLOPE). 






3 4 



o 9 



8 lo 



Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. 
Draw slate 

B«airtcoai{^y^vzr:;:r::r? ^ - ^"' 

rbone o 

Bands .... -J coal o 7 

(bone 01, 

Bottomcoal 4 9J 

S. 75*» E. Face, S. 15** W. Greatest rise, southeast. Ele- 
vation, 820 feet A. T. This mine is 1000 feet north of Monongah 
station, and the coal is reached by a slope which goes below the le- 
vel of the West Fork river. The 10 inches of bony coal at the top 
of the **breast" division is not taken down in this mine, being left 
for a roof support. This **top" coal contains more ash and sul- 
phur than any portion of the seam, but it is seldom so impure that 
it will not undergo complete combustion. 
The following is the structure at : 

MONONGAH NUMBER 2. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. 
Draw slate 



Breast 



coal... I 



top coal, bony o 



Bands. 



10 1 

4J 
5^1 



3 2 



bone o 

coal o 

■ bone o ^ 

coal b 

bone o 






.0 8X 



.8 2X 



Bottom coal 4 

This mine is 600 feet south from the station, and the butts 
and faces have the same direction as in Number 6 slope. The 
rise is southeast at the rate of 52 feet to the mile, while the eleva- 
tion of the coal at the mine mouth is 885 feet above tide. 

Monongah No. 3, 1 mile south from the station, shows the 

following structure for the coal : 

MONONGAH NUMBER 
Ft. In. Ft. 

Black slate i 

Draw slate i 

Breast coal 3 

rbone o I 1 

Bands -! coal o 7 V..o 

Ibone o iX j 

Bottomcoal 4 

Butts, S. 75° E. Face, S. 15° W. Greatest rise, southeast, 
70 feet to the mile. Elevation, 892 feet above tide. 

The rest of the mine sections between Monongah and Clarks- 
burg as measured by S. D. Brady are so similar to those already 
given that they can be best exhibited in tabulated form as follows : 



In. 
8 
6 
o 

9X 



Ft. In. 



•8 i}4 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



179 



Name of Mine. 



Marion ,3 6 

Pennoia. J3 3 

Anderson la 3 

Highland 

Middleton 

Chiefton 

Hutchinson .... 

Bnterprise 

Melrose 

Viropa 

Riverdale ja 

Harbcrt '3 



o 
6 
6 

5 
o 
o 

2 
3 o 
3 ii>^ 
3 o 



0) 

e 

& 

Ft. in. 



i 

Ft. in. 



1 

Ft. in. 



Gjysy 

Ene 

Meadow Brook.. 
Cook C. & C. Co 

Ehlen 

Solon 

Pamum 

Globe........ 

Pmnickinnick^D. 2,3 

Briar Hill No.ii '3 

Glen Falls I2 

Perry (Adamston ..'2 

Fairmore 12 

Waldo 2 

Wilsonburg I2 6 

O'NeilNo. I ,1 I 

O'NeilNo. 2 Ii 9 

L7diaiWolf S.) ji 7 

PiJinicFk No. I (3 2 

Despard No» 2 13 6 

Highland No. 4 3 4 

Ocean........ 3 5 

Reyuoldsviile a 

Dixie a 

Lynch .2 

Two Lick .,.....;a 

West Fork..... 2 

Cork near Ml. Clare 2 

Interstate No. 2 2 

later State Mo. Ih..„ none 
Tyrconn'U (Colon'lj.3 4 
Flemin^on. . .,....,,3 
New York ............. '2 

T. B. Davis.... ,2 

Sand Lick... '3 

Fosier......* ...I2 10 

Roacmont.., ..'3 2 



5 

k 

4 



7>4|4 
4X14 

Q I4 

8^14 

8 4 
8>44 



4 
10 4 

io>i!4 

9 is 

6^4 
6 Is 
8^!4 
8>^j4 
10K4 
9>^'S 

Hs 

'As 

9'Aa 

io>^i4 

6 -S 
loXS 

' 1^ 

9 14 

10 |4 

7 5 



H5 
%^ 

1 Is 

I 5 

i>^4 
l^Si4 
ij^4 
1 3 
1^4 



10 
3 
4 
7 
4 
4 
7 
4 
6 
o 

8>i 
o 

9 

I 

3 
o 

7 

10 
8 
o 
o 
o 
8 
8 
3 

o 
o 
6 
o 

2 

2 
II 

o 

6 

I 

6 

3 

o 

2 

o 

8 

o 

2 

4 

9 

o 
ro 

3)^ 



8 iX 

8 2X 

8 2>^ 

8 iX 

8 5 

7 8J<: 

8 3 

8 t% 

7 9>i 

8 I 

8 6>^ 

8 6>i 

8 9>^ 

8 10 

\t 

8 S>^ 

8 6>4 

8 3X 

8 S>^ 

8 A% 

8 6>^ 

7 ii>^ 

7 6>4 

7 9 ^ 

7 7 

S 10 

7 I 



Butts 



7 
8 

9 
8 
8 
7 10 
7 S 
7 7 
7 aK 

7 ^ 

8 o 

7 
6 



7 

4 

8 1% 
S 8>i 

% 

I 

5?^ 



S.7S **E, 

8.7SJ^ E. 

S.7S E. 

S.77ji: E. 

S.7S E. 

S.75 E. 

S.75 E 

S.7S E. 

S.75 E. 

S.7S E. 

S.75 E. 

S.74 E. 

5.74 E. 
S.78 E 

5.77 E. 

5.78 E. 

5.75 E. 
«.7S E. 

8.79 E. 
^•79 E, 
8.78 E. 
S.78 E. 
S.78 E, 
S.78 E, 
S.78 E 
S.78 E 
S.7S E 
S.78 E 
S.78 E 
S.78 E 
S.78 E, 
S.76>^ E, 
S.78 E, 
8.78 E, 
S.75 H, 
S.7S E, 
S.78 H, 
8,78 E 
S.78 F, 
S.78 E, 
S.78 E, 
S.78 E. 
S.Si>^ E. 

5.80 E. 
S.78 E. 
S.78 E. 
S.80 E. 
S.78 E- 
S.81K H- 



Rise 



Eleva- 
tion. 

Ft. 
A.T. 



S.io 
8.69 
S.69 
S.69 
S.S9 



860 




180 THB MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

These several measurements will show the average thickness 
of the coal throughout the area in Monongalia, Marion, Harrison, 
and Taylor counties. They show that after making all due allow- 
ance for 6 to 8 inches of bony **top'' coal, and some loss in the 
* 'bands,'' as well as occasionally 2 to 3 inches of sulphurous coal 
at the base of the bed, we shall still have over 7 feet of clean coal 
as the average of the Pittsburg bed throughout the region in ques- 
tion. The "roof coal, 5 inches thick, was noted above the **over- 
clay'' or **draw-slate" at both the Hutchinson and Enterprise 
mines. 

These sections represent what might be called the heart of 
the Pittsburg coal region of West Virginia as developed by mining 
at the present time, and over this area probably ten thousand tons 
of merchantable coal per acre can be secured by careful mine work. 

The Chestnut Ridge anticlinal crosses the Parkersburg branch 
of the B. & 0. R. R., 2 miles east of Bridgeport, and throws the 
Pittsburg coal into the air along iis crest between the Tygarts Val- 
ley river near Valley Falls, and the West Fork river at Jackson's 
Mill, 3 miles below Weston. 

The Tyrconnell, Flemington and Simpson field of this great 
coal bed lies in the trough or syncline east from the Chestnut 
Ridge uplift, and extends southward into Barbour, Upshur, Lewis 
and Gilmer counties, in all of which are some valuable areas of 
Pittsburg coal though no mines on a commercial scale have yet 
been operated in the last three counties owing to absence of ship- 
ping facilities, near where the bed is of good thickness. 

In Barbour county, however, a branch of the B. &. O. R. R. 
has recently been built from the Valley river across to the head 
waters of Elk and Simpson creeks and extensive mines opened at 
Berryburg, 4 miles west from the river. 

The coal has a fine development in the Berryburg region, and 
sometimes attains a thickness of 10 to 12 feet for short distances. 
No regular partings or slates have been observed according to A. 
P. Brady who measured the bed in the two main entries of the 
Southern Coal & Transportation Co., as follows : 

WEST OPENING, BERRYBURG. 

Sandstone 

Slate 

Coal 8 feet. 

Butts, S. 79^ E. Greatest rise, S. 46"" E. Elevation, 1422 feet A. T. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. ' 181 

The south openiug gave the same succession except that the 
coal was 8 feet, 2 inches thick, and the elevation 1427 feet A. T. 

The Pittsburg coal extends from the Berryburg mines south- 
westward over a wide area on the head waters of Elk creek and its 
tri]butaries, connecting through to the Century mines near Bur- 
nersville, where as already stated it exists 8 feet thick and only 28 
feet under the Redstone coal which is the only bed mined on that 
property at present. 

This Pittsburg bed is also found over a considerable area in 
northern Upshur county, and has been mined to some extent in 
the tops of the hills northwest from Buckhannon for local supply, 
where its thickness is reduced however to only about 4 feet. 

It has also been mined near Lorentz where it rises above the 
level of the valley and is frequently opened by the farmers be- 
tween that point and Weston along the line of the B. & 0. R. R., 
but no commercial mining has yet been attempted. 

Several local openings in this bed in the vicinity of Weston 
supply considerable coal io the town, but at none of them does the 
coal much exceed 4 feet in thickness, the**breasV' or upper divis- 
ion appearing to be generally thin, and this is the condition of af- 
fairs over a large area in I^ewis county. 

On Limestone run, south from Weston, two coals are found 
35 to 40 feet apart, and separated by several layers of impure yel- 
lowish limestone. The upper coal is supposed to represent the 
Pittsburg, since it is 4 to 5 feet thick, while the lower one is less 
than 3 and seldom mined, but as previously stated, it is possible 
that the upper one may represent the Redstone bed, although the 
probabilities are equal that the lower one is the Little Pittsburg 
instead of the main Pittsburg bed. The question is not of much 
economic importance since the two beds lie so close together. 

The Pittsburg coal thickens up again and attains much im- 
portance along Leading and Fink creeks in the region of Vadis and 
Alum Bridge in Lewis county. 

On the land of James Roony near Vadis, Lewis county, S. D« 
Brady measured the following section of this coal : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Breast coal 3 lo] 

Bone o 2 [• 7 2 

Bottom coal 3 2] 



;}• 



182. THE MONOXGAHELA SERIES. 

r 

The analysis orthe coal is given in the table on a subsequent 
page. 

On the Walnut branch of Fink creek, near Vadis, the writer 
once made the following measurement at the mine of James Davis: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Breastcoal 3 10 

Bone 01}- 7 II 

Bottom coal 4 o 



}■ 



This rivals the Fairmont coal in thickness, ahd the quality 
appears to be quite as good in every way. Just before the coal 
passes under Fink creek, it exhibits the following structure at the 
mine of Means and Radcliff : 



Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Breastcoal i 

Bone o i Y 6 2 

Bottom coal 



4 4 J 



At the mouth of Fink creek we are approaching the western 
edge [of the thick Pittsburg coal, and there find the following' 
structure on the land of Homer Famsworth : 



Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Breastcoal o 6 1 

Bone o >i y 4 5 

Bottom coal 3 io>iJ 

This is an illustration of the thinning of the coal all through 
Lewis and Gilmer counties; i. e., the upper portion is the first to 
disappear. A short distance west from this and before we reach 
Troy, the coal disappears entirely. 

The Moses Famsworth bank on Leading creek has thick coal 
as follows : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Breastcoal 3 9 

Bone o i }• 7 10 

Bottom coal 4 o 



}■ 



The Eckert bank, one-half mile above this and near the Lew- 
is-Gilmer line, shows the following: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Breastcoal 3 6 

Bone o i )■ 8 o 

Bottom coal 4 5 



}■ 



Near Alum Bridge, Le^vis county, the following measurement 
was made at Mr. A. M. Allman's bank : 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



183 



Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Breastcoal 23") 

Bone o i |- 6 i 

Bottom coal 3 9 J 

From Linn post office on Leading creek, the coal passes under 
the divide and comes out on the head of Stewarts creek, which 
puts into the Little Kanawha, 2 miles above Glenville. 

The Peter Messenger mine on Stewarts creek exhibits the fol- 
lowing structure : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Breastcoal 30) 

Bone o 2 v ......7 4 

Bottom coal 4 2 J 

Glenville, Gilmer county, is at the western edge of the Pitts- 
burg coal area, since beyond that it appears to thin away entirely 
in a westward direction, not being known at all on the north bank 
of the Little Kanawha. On the south bank it occurs however 
about 250 feet above water level and has long been mined there for 
local use, being 4 to 5 feet in thickness. 

The coal appears to thicken southwestward toward the great 
trough or syncline that crosses the Little Kauawha at the mouth of 
Sand Fork creek above Glenville, since it has a good thickness on 
all of the streams that put into the river above Glenville before the 
coal dips under water level. 

Dry, Duck, and Bear runs put into the Little Kanawha from 
the south a few miles above Glenville, and the coal has been mined 
along each, as well as on the north side of the Kanawha, for use in 
Glenville and the adjoining regions. The structure and thicknees 
shown at several of these mines is as follows : 



Name of Mine. 



Charles Nonis 

Hewitt 

John W. Keith 

W. J. Clovis 

Elliotts 

J. P.Coberly 

L. L.D.Peters 

Adam Messenger... 
Qac's Fork of Ellis) 



Breast. 
Ft. In. 



I 

3 

2 

3 

2 
I 

3 
I 



9 

3 
4 
o 
10 
I 
3 



Bone. 

Ft. In. 

o z 
o 2 
o 2 

O 2 
O 2 
O 2 



Bottom. 
Ft. In. 



4 
4 
3 

4 
4 
4 
4 
4 



o 

2 

4 

I 

3 

2 

3 
o 



Ft. 



5 
7 
6 

7 
6 

5 

7 
5 



10 
7 
7 
3 
4 
5 
7 

10 



184 THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

The coal comes out in fine large blocks, and being a little 
harder than the Fairmont coal, would bear transportation in splen- 
did shape. The single band, present occasionally in the Fairmont 
i^on, often around Clarksburg, and generally in the Flemington 
i^on, appears to be universal in the Glenville district. 

On the South side of Duck run, a local irregularity was ob- 
aerved along the road for some distance, which splits the coal as 
follows : 

Ft. IM. Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Breast coal 3 2 ] 

Bone o 2 I 76 

{coal o 10 1 I ' 

dark shale ... i 8 [ 4 2 J 

coal I 8 J 

On the north side of the stream, however, the coal resumes its 
normal structure as revealed in the Emory Goflf bank as follows : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Breastcoal ^. 20] 

Bone o 2 [■ 6 2 

Bottom coal 4 o j 

Dipping rapidly southeast from the crest of the Chestnut 
Bidge anticlinal which crosses the Little Kanawha river at Glen- 
ville, the Pittsburg coal passes under water level just above the 
Coberly mine, 1 mile below the mouth of Sand Fork creek. Its 
horizon does not get more than 100 feet below the river however 
in the broad Sand Fork basin or syncline, since the coal is reported 
in oil well borings at about that depth. 

To the northeast, in the oil field along Sand Fork, and Indian 
creeks, the Pittsburg coal is frequently not found by the drillers, 
and is generally quite thin when observed at all. It is possible 
that the coal may be too thin for commercial purposes over a wide 
area in Gilmer and Lewis counties, where its horizon is buried from 
sight along the Sand Fork trough, since the coal is only 3 to 4 feet 
thick where it passes under the West Fork river, near the mouth 
of Limestone creek above Weston. 

On the east side of the Sand Fork basin along the Little Kan- 
awha, the rocks begin to rise rapidly to the southeast, just below 
Stout's Mill, and the coal comes above the water level again about 
1 mile above, and ^ mile farther south is 40 feet above water level. 
Here it exhibits the following structure on the right bank of the 
iver at the Charles Whiting mine : 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL 8UKVEY. 



185 



Ft. In. 



Ft. In. 



Breast coal i 

Bone o 

Bottom coal 3 



3 

2 
10 



Copen run comes into the river from the south nearly opposite 
the Whiting mine, and i mile above it, the coal exhibits the fol- 
lowing structure on the left bank of the river at the Isaac Stout 



mine ; 



Ft. In. 



Ft. In. 

Breast coal 2 o "j 

Bone o 2 >• 6 o 

Bottom coal 3 10 J 

The coal is 75 feet above the river and rising rapidly to the 
southeast. It soon thins down to only 18 to 20 inches as we pasB 
up the river, and at Bumsville, 6 miles above, the coal cannot be 
found at all, although its horizon is about 300 feet above water 
level, so that as a merchantable coal the bed disappears completely 
to the south along the Little Kanawha until its horizon passes into 
the air 10 miles above Bumsville. 

The coal has a fine development along Copen run, as shown 
by the following sections : 



Name of Mine 



Hezekiah Stout — 
Richard Williams. 

W. T. Brosius 

George Nutt 

(H d of Copen)... 



"Breast" 
Ft. In. 



10 
8 
6 
o 



Bone 
Ft. In. 


**Bottom'» 
Ft. In. 


2 
2 
2 
2 


4 
4 
4 
4 



Total 
Ft. In. 



8 o 

7 10 

7 8 

5 2 



Hyer run puts into the Little Kanawha above the mouth ol 
Copen, and its upper waters are only a mile south from Copen. 
There is only one coal mine on it, and at this the upper division 
is thin like that shown in the George Nutt bank above. 

On the waters of Cedar creek, southwest from Copen run, the 
Pittsburg coal is mined for local use and frequently has a fair 
thickness. The H. J. Bragg mine on Slab Camp run, has the f<J- 
lowing structure : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Breast coal 3 6 ^ 

Bone o i V 7 7 

Bottom coal , 4 o J 



186 THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

The coal is here 75 feet above Slab Camp run, and has been 
opened at several places along that stream and in the vicinity of 
Oitlipville. At the Meda Cutlip mine near this village we get the 
following : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Breast coal 2 8 

Bone o i [■ 6 9 

Bottom coal 4 

This is 175 feet above Cedar creek. 



■} 



Northward from Cutlipville this coal dips rapidly do>\Ti into 
the Sand Fork syncline and disappears under Cedar creek, near the 
mouth of Butchers run, 3 miles above Cedarville, where it is only 
4 feet thick. It comes out again one mile and a half above Cedar- 
ville however and is there only 2 feet thick, but just south of the 
village, the coal thickens to 4 J feet, having the **bone'' near its 
top, and at one mine the main ^^breast'' coal comes in so that it 
shows as follows on Upper Level nm at the Jackson Snyder mine : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Breastcoal 2 8 

Bone o i [- 6 9 

Bottom coal 4 o 



}■ 



The coal is thin on below Cedarville and of little importance. 
It keeps 20 to 30 feet above the level of Cedar creek, and is seen 
for the last time J mile below the mouth of Lower Bull run, where 
it was once opened on the land of John Lawson and found to be 
only 2 feet thick. This is the line of its disappearance west from 
Glenville, and there are evidently no good areas of the coal, except 
in a patchy condition, to the northwest of Cedarville. 

Southwest from the head of Cedar creek, on the tributaries 
of Little Otter flowing into Elk river, and the head branches of 
Steer creek, we find the Pittsburg coal 4 to 5 feet thick over a belt 
of country several miles wide, extending from the Elk river hills 
northward to Belfont, Survey, and Sleith, but thinning away al- 
most completely before reaching the Braxton-Gilmer line at Rose- 
dale, and then reappearing in patchy areas around Stumptown, 
where the coal is only 2 to 3 feet thick. 

At the head of Rock Camp run, a branch of 'Brien's Fork 
of Steer creek, the Pittsburg coal shows as follows on the land of 
Andrew Skidmore, J mile northwest from Belfont post oflSce : 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 187 



Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Breastcoal o 4 ^ 

Bone... o i [• 3 9 

Bottom coal 3 4 J 



On the Mill Fork of Steer creek, 2 miles above Rosedale, the 
Pittsburg coal has been mined on the land of Martha Cox^ and 
there has the following structure : 



Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Breastcoal I 4 1 

{slate 02^ 

coal o 3 V o 6 y 4 4 
bone.... o ij | 

Bottom coal 2 6 J 

The bed is here 180 feet above creek level and rising rapidly 
to the southeast. 

The coal extends into the high knobs just south from Elk 
river, opposite Frametown, Braxton county, and has there been 
mined for a long time on the land of Eli Taylor, where the follow- 
ing structuie is exhibited : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Breastcoal 3 o 

Slate o 3 

Bottom coal 3 7 

The coal lies at an elevation of 550 feet above Elk, and a great 
massive sandstone (Sewickley) caps the knob, 175 feet above the 
mine. 

The coal is mined in the vicinity of Elmira post office by 
Samuel Gibson, David Hall, Worth Barr, Samuel Morrison and 
others where it is 8 to 4^ feet thick. 

It is probably this coal that is found on the head waters of 
Sandy creek, north from Newton in Roane county, at Ira Drake's 
where it is only 30 inches thick. 

On the Ashley Camp branch of the Left Hand Fork of Sandy^ 
there is also a coal mined by W. H. Seargent, about 200 feet above 
water level and 2^ to 3 feet thick, which may represent this same 
coal. 

There are isolated areas of the coal across northern Clay and 
southern Roane until they connect up with the well known Pitts- 
burg bed in Kanawha and Putnam counties, but the bed is seldom 
more than 4i feet thick and often not more than half so much. 



188 THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

The horizon of this coal comes out from under Pocatallico 
river near the mouth of its West Fork, a mile or two above Sisson- 
^alle, Kanawha county. The coal however is represented by only 
a few inches of impure, slaty coal and some fireclay. The clay 
and COAL horiz/^n rises rapidly and opposite the Sissonville mill 
is 110 feet above water level, but contains no coal until 2 miles be- 
low Sisson\'ille when the coal suddenly comes in on the waters of 
Tupper creek, at John Fishers, Ira Umphries and others. The 
coal is 3 J to 4 feet thick at the Fisher bank where it has long been 
mined for local supply, and nas no partings of bone. The coal lies 
150 feet above the level of Tupper creek and only J mile distant 
(south) from Poca river. The coal has never been found here on 
the north side of the latter stream however, and hence is most 
probably absent. 

The Umphries bank, just south from the Parkersburg and 
Charleston pike, and one mile and a half from Sissonville, is 220 
feet above the level of Tupper creek. The coal is 4 feet thick and 
has 2 inches of bone at top. The quality of the coal is good at 
both Fisher^ s and Umphries', and the coal comes out in large 
blocks characteristic of the Pittsburg bed. 

On the Monday branch of Tupper creek the Pittsburg bed is 
mined for local supply by A. J. Young at whose bank the coal is 
44 to 54 inches thick and reported all good. This is only 9 miles 
north fiom Charleston. 

There are many local mines in this coal on the head waters of 
Tupper creek, and south from there on the head of Two Mile creek. 
At one of these mines on the head waters of Two Mile, 8 miles 
from Charleston, the coal thickens up to a splendid bed and ex- 
hivits the following structure at the mine of Beryl Holmes : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Roof coal.... o 6 

Over-clay I o 

B-astcoal {^^^±1 1} 3 6 

Bone o i 

Bottom coal 3 6 



...8 



This is almost the exact type of the coal found along the Mon- 
ongahela river, and except that the coal is here harder, and more 
inclined to the **block" condition, one could not convince himself 
that he is not in a mine on the latter stream. The coal is exten- 
sively mined by the farmers along Two Mile among whom are the 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 189 

Haines Bros. , Dr. Davis and many others. The coal is from 5 to 
7 feet thick and of most excellent quality. The fuel is wagoned 
to Charleston and sells at the highest price. 

About 2 miles above the mouth of Two Mile creek (which puts 
into the Great Kanawha river just below Charleston), the crop of 
the Pittsburg coal occurs in the top of a high knob, 400 feet above 
the stream, and there the following structure is exhibited at an old 
abandoned mine : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sandstone from top of high knob 70 o 

Shale I o 

Roof coal o 6 

Over-clay I 6 

Coal 2 o 

Black slate and coal i o 

Coal 2 o 

The coal is poor in (quality compared to the mines farther up 
the stream. 

The Pittsburg coal has been mined for a long time near Ray- 
mond city, Putnam county, on the waters of Pocatallico river which 
empties into the Great Kanawha from the right bank. 

The section of the coal varies much at the different mines of 
the Marmet-Smith Coal and Mining Co. which carries on the prin- 
cipal operations. The following is given by R. W. Edmonds of 
Charlesfon, (who collected most of the samples for analysis along 
the Great Kanawha), as the structureof the Pittsburg coal at one 
of the Mannet-Smith Co.'s mines 2^ miles northeast from Ray- 
mond City : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sandstone 

Hhale 10 o 

Sulphurous coal, shaly 2 o 

Draw slate o 8 

Coal 5 6 ■ 8 S )4 

Black slate o }( 

Bone coal o 6 

Elevation, 725 feet above tide. The structure of the "roof 
coals as m(?asured here by the writer is given in the general section 
of the Monongahela series, page 144. The coal is quite hard and 
interstratified with many laminae of mineral charcoal which gives 
it the appearaBoe of a **block" coal. The mines are interrupted 
by many **clay veins,'' and occasionally a black slate in the roof 
of the mine will thicken up and supplant the coal entirely, accord- 



190 THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

ing to Mr. Edmonds. **Rolls'' of the overlying sandstone also 

come down sometimes and cut out the coal completely, this being 

the condition of affairs in the river hills below the mouth of Poca- 

tallico, or 'Toca" as this stream is popularly called. 

Three miles farther down the Great Kanawha, this same coal 

is operated by the Plymouth Coal & Mining Co., in whose mine 

Mr. Edmonds measured the following succession : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sandstone 

Shale 8 o 

Hard sulphurous coal « 2 o 

Draw slate i o 

Coal 5 8 

Slate o I 

Hard sulphurous coal o 8 

Butts, S. 68** E. Elevation, 625 feet A. T. ** Vertical clay 
veins from 6 inches to 8 feet thick occur frequently in this mine." 

The coal at tMs and the Raymond City mine is shipped by 
rail and river and used mostly for domestic purposes for which it 
is admirably adapted. 

On the west side of the Kanawha in this region, the Pittsburg 
coal thins down to an insignificant bed only 2 to 3 feet thick. It 
was once oj)ened on the land of Hon. Jas. H. Stewart, opposite 
Raymond City, 220 feet above river level, but was found too thin 
to warrant mining. 

Between Plymouth and Winfield the coal disappears com- 
pletely, there being nothing but a bed of fireclay to represent the 
coal horizon at Red House, opposite Winfield. 

Three miles below Winfield the coal comes in again on the 
west bank of the Kanawha and has been mined by the Oak Ridge 
Coal Co. It is only 20 feet above river level, and ttie main bench 
is 4 feet thick, below which is 8 to 10 inches of impure coal. 

Near the mouth of Big Hurricane creek, 4 miles below Win- 
field the coal is in the bed of the Great Kanawha river on its west 
shore and a shaft was once sunk to it there by Mr. J. T. Bowyer, 
who reports the succession in the shaft as follows : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

River clays, sand, etc -.. 40 o 

Clays with iron ore , 12 o 

Sandstone i^ o 

(coal o 10 

shale 5 o 

, *v^* , black slate i o [ 10 6 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 191 

J I sandstone i 8 I 
,overi.ay':^'!^r.::::;:::'....°...i x 3 

[^•^{rtVc;;;^-::::::::::^ i } 3x1 

To the southeast up Hurricane creek the coal rises and soon 
comes above water level. It has been mined by the farmers oc- 
casionally along the waters of Big and Little Hurricane creeks be- 
tween the Kanawha river and Teays valley, but is seldom more 
than 8 t o4 feet thick and not very pure. 

On below the mouth of Big Hurricane creek the coal dips 
down into the center of the great Appalachian trough and thins 
away entirely, since a test boring near Arbuckle, Mason county, 
found only a fireclay and a few inches of slaty coal 90 feet under 
the Great Kanawha on the land of G. W. Craig, 18 miles from 
the Ohio river. 

In passing down the Kanawha from Arbuckle, the horizon of 
the coal begins to rise, within a few miles, and at Point Pleasant, 
along the Ohio river, gets to 20 to 30 feet above the river bottom 
deposits. It has been opened here on both sides of the Kanawha, 
but is only 2 feet thick and rather impure. 

From Point Pleat^ant down the Ohio the horizon of the coal is 
constantly above water level, and the coal has occasionally been 
mined for local use, but it is evidently too thin and impure for 
commercial purposes. 

A few miles alove Huntington the rocks begin to rise rapidly 
as one descends the Ohio, and when the hills so.uth from Hunting- 
ton are reached the Pittsburg coal lies about 400 feet above the 
river, and covers a few small areas where it exhibits the following 
structure : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Coal root o 6 

Over-clay o 6 

Coal 3 6 

Blaty coal o I 

The coal is occasionally found along the central line of the 
syncline across Wayne county, but it never much exceeds 3 feet 
in thickness. It is last seen to the southwest, in Wayne county, 
near the summits of the hills in the center of the syncline, 10 miles 
above the mouth of the Big Sandy, where it has been mined for 
local use and is 38 inches thick. The strata are all rising to the 



192 



THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 



southwest, and none of the hills on the Kentucky side of the river 
rise high enough to catch the coal, so that probably mot a single 
area of the Pittsburg bed is to be found in that state. 

From Point Pleasant northward along ihe Ohio river, the 
Pittsburg coal remains thin and unimportant and is not mined for 
commercial use until Spilman is reached, 10 miles above. Here 
the coal is operated by the Consumers Coal Co. , B. D. Spilman, 
manager, at an elevation of 60 feet above the Ohio River R. R. , or 
100 feet above the river. The coal has the following structure at 
the Camden mine No. 1, according to A. P. Brady : 



Sandstone.. 
Hlate . 



•roof. 



Ft. In. 



Coal 

Slate 

rcoal o 

Coal i slate o 

(caal 3 



n 



Ft. In. 



4 'A 



Ft. In. 



5 lo^ 



Butts, north and and south. Face, east and west. Greatest 
rise, northwest. Elevation, 627 feet above tide. 

The **New Castle" mine of this company at West Columbia, 
and one mile above Spilman, gives the following succession : 



Sandstone. 
Slate 



Ft. In. 



Ft. In. 



Ft. In. 




Butts, north and south. Face, east and west. Greatest rise, 
northwest. Elevation, 607 feet, A. T. The coal is rather high in 
sulphur, but is a good steam fuel, being used on the Ohio River 
railroad engines and elsewhere for that purpose. The sandstone 
above the coal is very massive in this region, and crops in a great 
cliff forty to fifty feet high. 

On above West Columbia, and one-half mile south from Ma- 
son City, the coal is mined by the Beech Grove Coal Company in 
whose entry A. P. Brady reports the following succession : 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 193 

BEECH GROVE MINE. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Draw slate o 2 

Coal o 2 

Slate o yi 

Coal o 3 

Slate o ^/i 

Coal o 3 J-......4 8 

Slate o yi 

Coal « o 3 

**Hom'* coal o 3 

Coal ^ 3 5 

Butts, north and south. Face, east and west. Greatest rise, 
northwest. Elevation, 600 feet A. T. The layer of bony coal on 
top of the main bench is locally called **hom'' coal by the miners 
of this region. 

The Hope Salt Company's mine, one-fourth mile farther up 
the river, shows practically the same succession as at Beech Grove, 
and the coal has an elevation of 688 feet A. T. 

The following structure was measured by Mr. Brady at the 
Klondike Coal Company's mine, one mile and a-quarter above 
Mason City. 

KLONDIKE MINa 

Ft In. Ft In. 

Sandstone 

81ate o to 20 o 

Draw slate y o ^ 

{coal o 10 1 
**horn" coal o 2 >■ 4 10 
coal 3 10 J 

Butts, north and south. Face, east and west. Greatest rise, 
northwest. Elevation, 590 feet above tide. 

One-fourth mile farther up the river the coal shows practically 
the same structure at the Mason City Mining Company's plant, 
where the elevation of the coal is 585 feet A. T. 

One-half mile below Hartford the coal is mined by the liver- 
pool Salt and Coal Company for its use in the manufacture of salt, 
and the following section was measured there by A. P. Brady : 

Ft In. Ft In. 

Sandstone 

Slate o to 20 o 

Draw slate o i 



(top coal 071 

Coal] **horn»' coal o 2 L 

Icoal 39) 



194 THE MONONQAHELA SERIES. 

Butts, north and south. Face, east and west. Greatest rise, 
northwest. Elevati<m, 560 feet A. T. 

The Hartford City Salt Company has a mine farther up the 
river where the coal sinks to 520 feet above tide, or only a few feet 
above low water in the Ohio river, and it shows almost exactly 
the same structure as that last given. 

The coal continues to dip rapidly to the southeast and soon 
disappears below water level, as one passes up the river, and at 
Antiquity, five and one-half miles above Hartford City, it has at- 
tained a depth of 100 feet below low water, where the coal has 
long been mined by shafting. It exhibits the following structure 
at the bottom of the shaft, 170 feet below the surface : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Coal, with a bony band 2 6 

Slate o 2 [■ 5 8 

Coal 3 o 



}■ 



The coal continues to dip up (southeast) the river and when 
Letart is reached, four miles above Antiquity, the coal, if present, 
would be more than 300 feet below the Ohio. From near Letart 
the river turns to a northeast-southwest course and the horizon of 
the coal continues at between 300 and 400 feet below water level 
on up to Parkersburg and beyond. 

Just how far up the Ohio from Antiquity the coal extends in 
commercial thickness, or how far southward from the river the 
productive area may he found, are questions that only the core 
drill can answer satisfactorily. Some of the well borings report it 
of fair thickness, while others do not find it at all, but of course 
the oil well record cannot be depended upon to determine fhe 
thickness or quality of any coal bed with accuracy. 

A well bored just south from Ravenswood, Jackson county, 
and probably forty-five feet above ow water in the Ohio river, re- 
ports finding five feet of coal at 346 feet, which would be near the 
Pittsburg horizon, but whether the coal is that thick, or whether 
it is of good quality, is only conjecture. 

In the vicinity of Parkersburg, and elsewhere in Wood county, 
the Pittsburg coal has not been reported in the hundreds of oil 
wells that have there been drilled, though lust northwest from 
Parkersburg it is found by the drill in Washington county, Ohio, 
although thin and patchy. 

It is also absent in Pleasants county so far as the oil well rec- 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 195 

ords can determine, and when its horizon is brought up to daylight 
by the great Volcano- Burning Springs anticlinal arch at Eureka, 
Belmont, etc., no coal whatever is visible at the Pittsburg horizon. 

Practically the same conditions are found along the Ohio river 
through Tyler county, since of the many hundreds of oil wells 
drilled in Tyler along the Ohio valley, only a very few report find- 
ing any coal at the Pittsburg horizon, there being probably a half- 
dozen that show about three feet of coal 200 feet below river level 
at Sisterville. 

As one proceeds up the river however into Wetzel county, 
the coal comes in as a regular stratum before New Martinsville is 
reached, though it is there only three feet thick and possibly not 
of commercial value. It soon grows thicker, however, since at the 
David Abersold boring on Beaver run, just north from the Wetzel- 
Marshall line, seven miles above New Martinsville, a good thick- 
ness (5' 11") occurs as reported from the diamond drill record 
there, (see page 133), by Joseph E. Barnes of Uniont^wn, Pa., as 
well as at Franklin and other points in the surrounding region. 
Hence, there can be little doubt that from, say the mouth of Proo- 
tor creek on up the Ohio river to where the Pittsburg coal rises to 
the surface near Benwood, it is of good development and thick 
enough to prove of great value commercially. 

In the northwest bend of the Ohio river, three miles below 
Moundsville, the Pittsburg coal comes up to the bed of the stream 
on the Ohio shore, but is probably fifty to sixty feet below the sur- 
face of the river bottoms on the West Virginia side. It dips down 
toward Moundsville to the southeast from Round Bottom, and in 
the shaft of the Moundsville Coal Company, as reported by A. P. 
Brady, lies at an elevation of 494 feet above tide, or 100 feet below 
the Ohio. The coal has the following structure in the Mounds- 
ville Coal Company's shaft Siccording to Mr. Brady : 

MOUNDSVILLE SHAFT MINE. 

Ft In. Ft. In. Ft In. 

•Roof*' coal 2 o 

**Over-clay'* o lo 



* 'Breast" coal 

r slate o }i 

*'Bands'* -^ coal.^^ o 6 

(slate o }i 

{coal I 6 1 

"copper band"., o }4 \ 3 }4 . 

coal I 6 J 



;} 



.8 5>i 



196 THE MONOKGAHEUL SERIES. 

Butts, S. 75** E. Face, S. 17° W. 

The **copper band'' of this section is a pyritiferous slate 
which occupies the same relative position as the parting slate on 
the Monongahela river that separates the **brick" from the "bot- 
tom" division of the Pittsburg bed. This parting is seldom pres- 
ent in the Fairmont and Clarksburg areas of the Pittsburg coal, 
but is occasionally found in other regions of West Virginia, and 
appears to be generally present in the Ohio river area of this bed, 
between Moundsville and Wellsburg. 

The Glendale Coal Company also operates this coal by a shaft 
at its mine on the B. & 0. R. R near Glendale, Marshall county, 
two miles north from Moundsville, and there A. P. Brady reports 
the following structure : 

GLENDALE SHAFT MINE. 

Ft. In. Ft In. Ft in. 

"Roof* coal, mixed with slate 

**Breast** coal 2 ^ ' 

fslate o )i] 

"Bands^^coal o 4 V o 5 

tslate^ o }i} 

"Brick" coal i 5 

Parting slate o X 

"Bottom** coal o 10 

Butts, S. TS** E. Face, S. 17** W. Elevation, 75 feet below 
the B. & 0. R. R. 

The several divisions of the coal here given are not known by 
those names among the miners of the regions, but they have been 
so arranged by the writer to show how accurately and completely 
the detailed frame work of the bed agrees with the type structure 
of the same coal along the Monongahela river, between Pittsburg 
and Brownsville, sixty miles distant. See page 166. 

At Ben wood, five miles north of Glendale, the coal rises to 
the level of the B. & 0. R. R., and has there been extensively 
mined by the WTieeling Steel & Iron Company, in whose mines A. 
P. Brady measured the following structure : 

BENWOOD MINE. 

Ft In. Ft In. Ft In. 

Limestone 

Shales, soft 5 o 

Roof coal 16) 

Draw slate o i J ' 



.4 8¥ 



Breast coal 2 6 

f slate o i^ 



1 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



197 



Bands j coal o 4 [- o 

[slate o I J 

Brick coal i 

Trace slate 

Bottom coal i 



6 I 



Butts, S. 73° E. Face, S. 17° W. Elevation, 645 feet A. T. 
Here the main body of the coal foots up six and one-half feet, and 
including the **rooP' division, eight feet. 

This section also reveals the complete absence of the Pitts- 
burg sandstone, which is such a conspicuous member of the series 
at Fairmont and Morgantown along the eastern crop of the coal, 
as well as at Hartford, Mason, Point Pleasant, Raymond City and 
Huntington on the southwest. Its horizon is occupied by lime- 
stones in the Moundsville-Wheeling region, which extend up to 
the Redstone coal horizon fifty feet above the Pittsburg seam. 

This coal is also mined by the Boggs Run Mining and Manu- 
facturing Company, at Benwood, near the level of the B. & 0. R. 
R. , but the section of the coal measured in its mine is so nearly 
like the one just given that it is simply a duplicate of the latter. 

At the mouth of Wheeling creek, in the center of the city of 
Wheeling, four miles above Benwood, the northward rise of the 
strata elevates the Pittsburg coal to 100 feet above water level, and 
this gives fine exposures of this bed for mining purposes along the 
latter stream until the eastward dip carries it below the same just 
east of Elm Grove, on the Pittsburg Division of the B. & 0. rail- 
road. 

There are several mines located near Wheeling and along 
Wheeling creek, and the structure of the coal at these may be tab- 
ulated as follows : 



Name of 1 Roof ^YS^ Breast Bands 

Mine ' ! ^^^^ I 

^^°^ Vt In Ft In.Ft In Ft In 



Brick 
Ft In 



I, 



Elevation 
Ft above 
Ft In Ft In! R.R. 



Bot m Total 



McMinley ... 

Jocklum 

Manchester.. 
Elm Grove 

(shaft) 



ii>^;o 
II 'o 
io>^|o 
ii>^'o 
3 P 



3K; I 3 
4K no part'g 

3 I I 5 
5 no part'g 
8 



§ 's 

1 



10 45 

4}^\ 65 
6>^i 50 
2>^' 40 
6^^600^ A. 



In all of these mines, the butts run S. 73® E., and faces S. 
17® W., according to A. P. Brady. In all of the sections there 
are two bands of slate, each one-half to one inch thick, enclosing 



198 THE MONOXOAHELA SERIES. 



two to four inches of bright coal, and corresponding exactly to the 
'^bands'' in this bed along the Monongahela river. There is also 
a parting slate or pyritiferous layer (* 'copper band'') separating 
the **brick" and **bottom" divisions at all of the mines except 
the McKinley and Manchester, where Mr. Brady did hot note any 
partings. 

Traced north from Wheeling along the Ohio river, the Pittsburg 
c gal continues to rise, and at the Richland mine of Mr. J. P. Gil- 
chist, three miles from the mouth of Wheeling creek, is 145 feet 
above low water. The following structure is reported from the 
Richland mine by A. P. Brady: 

RICHLAND MINE. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Roof coal o S I T 8 

Draw slate o 6 / 



Breast coal i ii 

{slate o J4) 
coal o 3 !■ ... o 4>i 
slate o I J 

Brick coal i 4 

Sulphur streak 

Bottom coal -13 



4 io>4 



Butts, S. 73° E. Face, S. 17** W. 

Two miles south from Wellsburg, and fourteen miles north 
from Wheeling, the Pittsburg coal has attained an elevation of 340 
feet above the Ohio river, and exhibits the following structure at 
the Brown Coal Company's 

BIG FOUR MINE. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Roof coal o 5 

Draw slate i 2 

Breast coal i 11 

< slate o 

Bands...-! coal o 

Islate o 

Brick coal x o 

Slate, trace 

Bottom coal i o 



7 






4 



Mr. J. M. Gilchrist operates the Pittsburg bed one-half mile 
south from Wellsburg at an elevation of 355 feet above the river 
on the Waltz land, and there A. P. Brady measured the following 
structure : 



WEST VIBOUriA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



199 



Ft. In. 



Ft In. 



Ft. In. 



Roof coal o 

Draw slate i 

Breast coal 2 

{bone date 01) 
coal 03 L.. o 
slate o I J 

Brick coal i 

Slate, trace 

Bottom coal i 



5 

2 

5 



iH 



The last mine to the north ajong the Ohio river operating an 
this coal at the time of A. P. Brady's sample collecting tour, in 
December, 1901, is one mile north of Lazearville, and owned by 
the Gilchrist Coal Company. The structure there is as follows : 



Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Roof coal o 5 

Draw slate i 2 

Breast coal 2 

r slate 



Ft. In. 



} 



o I 

Bands... -j coal o 2 

(slate 01 

Bottom coal 2 



}... 



1)^1 
4 

2MJ 



4 8 



There is a **8ulphur'' band one inch thick near the middle 
of the **breast'' division, but no parting slate is noted in the ''bot- 
tom" member. 

The detailed analyses showing the chemical composition of 
the Pittsburg coal in the region along the Ohio from Moundsville 
to Wheeling and Wellsburg; are given in a subsequent table to 
which the reader is referred, where all the analyses of this coal 
from every region of the State are grouped together. The average 
of the thirteen samples collected from the region in question reveal 
a coal of the following composition : 

Moisture 0.93 

Volatile matter 39*4^ 

Fixed carbon 51-35 

Ash 8.26 



Toial 100.00 

Sulphur 3.86 

Phosphorus 0.0067 

This result discloses a coal high in sulphur, but low in phos- 
phorus and moisture. The volatile matter is also high, and were 
it not for the excessive sulphur, the coal would be of ideal compo- 
sition for gas making purposes. It is too hard for coking, and the 



200 THE MONONGAHBLA SERIES. 

sulphur forbids that, unless crushing and washing would remove 
considerably more than half of the latter. 

It is possible that this could be done, at least the great demand 
far coke in the Wheeling district would warrant extensive experi- 
ments in such attempts, and even if the sulphur could not be re- 
duced low enough for the general man\ifacture of iron and steel, 
there is no reason why a fair grade of * 'foundry" coke might not 
be secured by the proper treatment of the coal. So far as the 
writer knows, no tests of the character indicated have been made 
in the Wheeling district, but the coal is used entirely for steam 
and domestic purposes. 

The thickness of the bed in the Wheeling district will average 
about five feet exclusive of the **roof ' coal, and making due al- 
lowance for Joss in the removal of slate and sulphur (* ^copper'') 
bands, wiU yield approximately four and one-half feet of clean 
coal, or about two and one-half feet less than the same bed in the 
Fairmont and Clarksburg districts. With modem mining meth- 
ods the yield per acre should not be less than 6000 tons of fuel. 

A small area of this coal is caught in the deep syncline in the 
tops of the hills at Newburg, Preston county, but the most of it 
has already been mined, and that remaining is in isolated knobs. 

The writer once measured the coal there and found the follow- 
ing structure in the summit of Scotch Hill : 

SCOTCH HILL SECTION. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. 
Sandstone, Pittsburg 

Tcoal, slaty o 8 

Roof -j coal o 9 

I coal o lo 

Over-clay 2 o 

Breast and brick coal , 9 o ^ 

Shale o 3 V lo 9 

Bottom coal, slaty i 6 j 

The * ^bands' ' probably exist in the main body of the coal 
here, but they were not noted when the measurement was made. 

The next, or Kingwoqd basin, still east from Newburg, also 
catches a few small isolated areas of this celebrated coal. One of 
these is Copeman's knob, near Albrightsville, three miles from 
Kingwood, Preston county, while several others are found in the 
same basin just northeast from Belington, Barbour county. None 
of these areas exceed ten acres in size, and are of interest only in 



j: 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL 8UHVEY. 201 

showing the great extent of country from which this bed has been 
removed by erosion. 

This coal has evidently once existed over all the region be- 
tween the Kingwood-Belington basin and the Elk Garden or 
North Potomac region, across the entire extent of the Alleghanies^ 
since we find two small areas of it near Fairfax, at the head of the 
Potomac, and several hundred acres at Elk Garden, Mineral coun- 
ty, as well as several thousand farther to the northeast in the Mary- 
land area of the same Potomac basin. 

^Vhen this Fairfax knob area was first opened in 1885, it was 
carefully measured by the late James Parsons, then Chief Engi- 
neer of the W. Va. Central R. R., who reported to the writer the 
following results : 

Ft. In. Ft. in. 

Roof coal 2 o \ Q 

hhales 6 o / ^ ° 

Coal 8 2 

Slate o 2 [- 9 6 

Coal 



82) 
02!- 
I 2 J 



Shales 5 o 

Ivirnestone 4 o }> 16 o 

Shales 7 'O 

Coal, good. 4 6 

Fireclay and shales 18 o 

Coal, slaty 7 o 



Total 63 o 

It has been considered possible that this sixty- three feet might 
represent simply the Pittsburg bed with greatly expanded partings 
separating the "^^breasf* (Oi'), **brick^^ (4^'), and ^^bottom" (7') 
members, but this interpretation is probably erroneous. The two 
lower divisions of the coal, four and one-half feet thick and seven 
feet thick, respectively, very probably represent the Little Pit»- 
BURG COALS, of which there are sometimes two. 

The following structure is reported from the Elk Garden mine^ 
in Mineral county, by S. D. Brady : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Slate 

Coal 8 o 

Hlate o 4 )• 10 8 

Coal 2 



Elevation, 2268 feet above tide. 



202 THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

At some localities in the mine the coal thickens to twelve feet. 

If more than one slate **band'' is present here Mr. Brady did not 

note the fact. 

The analysis of a sample of the coal collected from the Elk 

Garden mine No. 6, by S. D. Brady, is reported as follows by Prof. 

mte: 

Moisture 0.31 

Volatile matter 17.17 

Fixed carbon 76.91 

Ash 5.61 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur 0.81 

Phosphorus 0.017 

^ T TT / Parr calorimeter 14285 

u. 1. ^-^ Williams calorimeter 14788 

This, like the Sewickley coal in the same highly folded region, 
18 of course low in volatile matter, and high in fixed carbon, thus 
placing it among the semi-bituminous coals, midway between the 
ordinary type of this coal and anthracite. 

Two parting riates are found in the Piedmont region, as shown 
by the following section of the bed which the writer once measured 
at the old Franklin mine in the summit of Westemport hill, oppo- 
site Piedmont : 

FRANKLIN MINE, WESTERNPORT, MI). 

Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. 



fcoal 08) 

Roof coal -^ shale 4 o L.. 5 8 

(coal I o J 

Over-clay i o 

Breast coal, no partings 10 o 

{slate o 2 1 
coal o 9 V... o ii>^ 
slate o H) 

Coal - 2 o 



19 I'A 



It is possible that only one of the usual **bands'' is present, 
and that the nine inches of coal included within the "bands'' of 
of this section is really the **brick" portion of the bed, instead of 
the **bearing-in" division of the same, as indicated. 

The areas of the Pittsburg coal in the West Virginia portion 
of the Potomac basin have been largely mined out, since only 
about 600 acres of it was preserved from erosion, and most of that 
in one body near Elk Garden. 

Hence, although the bed is a splendid type of the ideal steam 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 203 

and general fuel coal, yet on account of its near approach to com- 
plete exhaustion, it has little besides a scientific interest for West 
Virginia, although a few thousand acres of it yet remain unmined 
in the Maryland area of the George's creek- Potomac basin, so 
close to the boundary lines of the two states, that the coal will 
necessarily be used for a long time in the adjoining regions of West 
Virginia. 

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, 

CALORIFIC VALUE, AND ECONOMIC USES OF THE 

PITTSBURG COAL. 

In this discussion, the bituminous type of the coal west from 
the Alleghany mountain region, is for reasons just given, the only 
one considered. 

The lack of financial resources has prevented the Sur\'ey from 
undertaking the more detailed and elaborate investigations required 
in ultimate analyses, so that the work done by Pruf. B. H. Hite 
and his assistants has been confined to that of determining the 
usual four constituents of the ordinary proximate analysis : viz 
moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon and a:8h, with separate and 
usually duplicate determinations of sulphur and pliosphorus. 

The samples of coal for these analyses were all taken with 
great care under the immediate supervision of Mr. 8. D. Brady, 
now Chief Engineer of the Little Kanawha Railroad, Parkersburg, 
W. Va. In all cases, a complete strip of the coal was dug from 
the working face of the mine, including all partings or slates not 
separated in mining operations. These samples, averaging about 
twenty-five pounds in weight, were all shipped in properly labeled 
bags to the laboratory af the West Virginia Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, Morgantown, where they were resampled, ground 
and analyzed by Prof. B. H. Hite, Chief Chemist of the Survey, 
and his assistants, the late R. L. Norris, C. D. Howard, and E. S. 
Stalnaker. 

The calorific determinations of Prof. Hite and his assistants on 
the Redstone and Sewickley coals, were all made with Parr Stand- 
ard Calorimeter, a new instrument recently devised by Prof. S. W. 
Parr, Professor of Applied Chemistry in the University of Illinois, 
for which accuracy as well as rapidity is claimed by Prof. Parr, 
after many comparisons of its results with those obtained by the 



204 THE MONONQAHELA 8EKIES. 

. uBe of the more expensive Bomb calorimeter. The detenninations 
of Prof. Hite, made with the Parr instrument, cheek fairly well 
with Mr. Haas' results obtained by using the Mahler Bomb calori- 
meter, except that they appear to be systematically 400 to 500 
units lower. 

The laboratory of the Experiment station has just 
acquired one of the new and improved Bomb calorimeters, recent- 
ly devised by Mr. Henry J. Williams, the eminent chemical engi- 
neer of Boston, Mass., and the calorific values of the Allegheny, 
and Potts\411e coals will be checked and controlled by it. In ac- 
curacy of results it is conceded by all experts to be superior to the 
best calorimeter in use pre\dous to the improvements made by 
Williams. 

The few checks on the Parr instrument with the Williams 
that were possible before **going to press," confirm the too low re- 
sults obtained by the use of the Parr calorimeter. The average 
increment seems to be about 500 B. T. U., and this sum should be 
added to all those given for the Redstone and Sewickley coals 
which were determined with the Parr instrument. 

To those not familiar with the technical term *'B. T. tJ.''= 
British Thermal Units, it may be explaiiu-l 'hat ^me British 
Thermal Unit is a quantity of heat sufficient to rai^e one pound 
of water one degree Fahrenheit, and hence when a coal is said to 
possess say 14,000 B. T. U.s, it means that one pound of the coal 
will develop in complete combustion sufficient heat to raise 14,- 
000 pounds of water on? degree Fahrenheit, provided all the heat 
jrenerated could be made effective. Of course this theoretical heat 
in the combustion of coal is never attained in actual practice, 
since combustion is never perfect, and much heat is lost through 
radiation, and imperfect conduction of boiler plates, tubes etc. , and a 
still larger quantity goes out of the furnace chimney into the air 
without accomplishing any result, so that but little over half of 
the heat values locked up in coal are utilized in the heating of wa- 
ter or generation of steam by the ordinary methods. 

In order to bring all these analyses made under the supervis- 
ion of Prof. Hite into a single view for ready comparison, they 
have been arranged in geographical order, and here presented in 
tabular form, to be followed by corresponding numbers under 
which the locations of the several mines are given. 



WEST VIBGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



205 



ANALYSES OF THE PITTSBURG COAL. 



Analyses 
Nos, 



9 
to. 

II . 

13 , 
U' 

14 
15- 

i6. 

17. 
18, 

19- 
ao. 
31 . 

23 , 
n- 

as- 

26. 

27 , 

38. 

29. 

3^* 

31 ■ 

32- 

33 

34^ 

35 

36- 

37. 

38. 

39- 

40. 

41 ' 
42, 

43- 
44^ 
45- 
46, 

47' 
48. 
49. 
5«- 
51 ' 



I i 

lureJ Matter. iC'rb*nl 

' I [ 



Ash 



Total. 



Pr, Cl, Pr. Ct. Pr. Ct. Pr Ct. F¥. a, Pr. Ct. 



0-95 
0.63 
o. 78 
r.44, 
58 
58 
90 
07 
97 
69 

^34 
J. 07 
J. 08 

J. 40 

o. 46 
o. So 

0.44 
0.39 
0.47 
o. 46 

33, 
70: 

89 
18 
74' 
99 
0-55 
o. 76 
cx8j 
o, 69 
0-79 

«>-93 

o. 581 

o 74 
1. 01 
o^S3 
0.85 
0,87 

a S3 
0.64 
0.81 
r.07 
0.99 
1-03 

0.6s 
0.44 



37- 45 
39-43 
35- 18 
37- 3^ 
40. 19 

40- 65 
40. 69 
39-40 
4t. 15 
39-40 
40. 9S 
4[. It 
40. 05 
34-1^ 
37- 10 
34^^ 
34 2^ 
36. zr 
36. 6R 
35-98 
35- 38 
37- 54 
35-89 
37*47 
36-75 
36.58 
37' 13 
36.87 
36.53 
35- 39 
36- 50 

36.87 

37- «3 
37- «i 
36.43 
35- 78 
37-34 
38-34 

38- 97 
58.65 
38. 64 
38.84 
38-58 
39- 78 
38.71 
38.90 
38.03 

39' 33 
39-24 
38^ 4« 
38*36 
39- *7 



5'* 59 
50- 63 
, 53- 53; 
51^36 
50.66 
50. S6: 
53- 65. 

( 50.88 
50. 35, 
50. Q4 

' 49-73 

56.99 

54' 04 

58- 89 

58.91 

57- 9^ 

56. a6 

57-58 

. 56.42 

54- 9^ 

' 5S^ 87 

I 56. 3' 

55. 8o' 
' 55- 56 

56.67 
I 54*47 

57* 8r 

5^. 45. 

59- 17 
' 56. 69 

56. 21: 
55-85 
58,29 
58. 02 
54 94 
55-76 
54-33 
54*03 

55-04 
54-39 
54-66 

53- 56 
54.18 
54-70 

53- 7 r 
54.06 

S^ 53 

54*75 
55-35 
54*71 



I phur. 



10. 01 
9 331 

10, 5(| 

IS' 

7*91 
4.76 
7-50' 
7.00 
9 56! 
7-64; 
8.09 

6.65' 
7-45 
7*99 
5*96' 
6. 28 
5,06 

6.00 
7-8r 
7.08I 
7*78 
5-89- 
6^75' 
6.97 
5' 02 
7.92' 
4.67 
5.61* 

4 57 
5*631 
6.07^ 

6. 35; 
4*48 
5-37' 
6,84' 
5* 42 
6.o6j 

6*3i| 

5*49! 
5-93i 

5 89i 
6,83 
6.47 
5 59 
7*^9 
5-62 

7. 20 
6.31 
5-74 



00 

00 J 
00 , 
00 

c» 
00 . 
00 
00 , 
00 I 
CXI I 

00 

00 ' 

00 

00 

00 

00 

no 

00 

00 

00 

00 ; 

00 I 

00 I 
00 I 

00 

00 

00 
00 
00 
00 

00 1 

00 I 

00 1 

00 I 

00 

00 

« 

00 

00 
00 

OQ 

too 

00 
[OO 
00 

00 
00 
00 
00 



Fhoa- 
pboru«. 



4*35 
4*43 
4^47' 
3 41: 

3-98: 

3*02l 

3*97i 
3-67, 
4*39 
4*661 

4. t6 

2.S8 

3-13 
1.46 

1*97 
I. 71 

'-54' 

2. 03| 

0.71- 

1*72' 

1*73 
1-30, 
r. 62 
.48 
o, 
o. 
o. 70' 
o,S6 
1.06^ 

0. 76I 
L65f 

1. lOj 
Q. 70; 

a 82 

1. 22; 
I. 7it 
1,761 

3, 611 

3.13 
1*67 

3. 02I 

3- 43! 
2,88! 
3. 6! I 

3.961 

3.481 

3^31 

1*96 

T. 92 

3*371 



0*73' 
0.621 



Pr, Ct. 
0.012 
ao[3 
a 007 
o. 0105 
0,005 
a 0095 
o. 0065 
0*0045 
0.0025 
0.0045 
0.0045 
aoo4 
0.005 
0.013 
0.007 
0.0045 
a 005 
a 040 
0.007 
o- 0195 
0.0215 
0,010 
0.028 
a 005 
aoi3 
0.007 
0.003 
0,004 

O. Ot2 
0.008 

0.039 

aoT5 
o. ooS 
a 037 
aQ039 
ol 0097 
aooS 
0,0019 
Ol 0% 
aoo4 
0.017 
o. 010 
0.006 
a 036 

0l02J 

o.o3r 
Q1037 
0.016 
0.033 
a 009 

OwOtO 

o. 003 






13949 
14143 



J4133 
I4i»3 



J3758 



206 



THE MONONGAHEIA SERIES. 



I 



53 — 

54.... 

55...- 
56 .... 

57 ...• 

58.... 

59.... 

60... 

61 .... 

62.... 

63... 

64 ."• 

65.... 

66.... 

67 

68 .... 
69.... 
70.... 
71.... 
72 ... 
73.... 
74.... 

75 — 
76.... 
77.... 
78.... 
79.... 
80.... 
81.... 
82.... 

83 „. 

84 »^. 

!5 " 
86.... 

87.». 
38. „. 
89,... 
90..» 
91 »» 
9i.». 
93"" 
9* — 
95-- 



a 85 

0.931 
o. 8oj 
0.99' 

o.73i 
0.65 
0.78 

o.97| 
I. oil 
0.85, 
0.88 
0-54J 
0.77! 
0.54 
o. 76, 

0. 71 
0.28 
0.50 
0.58, 
i-5'l 
0.37I 
0.31- 
o-35| 
0.531 
0.66 

0.47: 
0.58I 
a 71 
0.74 

I.OIi 

1. 16 

I. 00 
1,30 

1.96 
1.77! 

1.83 
o- 71 

1-3* 

3,83 

a. Sol 

1-59^ 
a. 07, 



38.68 
40.42 
39.57 
39.28 

38.41 
38.39 
40. 12 
37.81 
39.72 

41.39 
40.66 

39.70 
41.37 
41.01 
40.65 

39.14 

40. II 
40.36 
40.03 
38.09 
36.96 
38.00 

37.99 
36.71 
35.29 
37.60 

37.95 
37.64 
37- 01 
40.99 
40.74 
40.5* 
+i.4[ 
39-25 

41. 39 
39* 50 
42,47 

36^94 
39.79 

39-44 
38.08 



54.22I 
52.20' 
52. 71 1 
52. 45 
53.08! 
52.20 
50. 15! 
55.78 
52.81 
51.87 
51.93 
52.63 

52.01. 
53.961 

52. 77 
i 53- 94I 

! 53.08 

54. 87: 

i 54. 19 

I 53- 64' 
55.71J 
56. 301 

I 58.90 
56. 82 

I 55-711 
56. 25. 

I 53-41 

' 48.34 
50.601 

I 50-40 

50.39 

, 45-93 

I 46.58 
50.58 
44-03 
I 46.49 
' 50. 10 
I 4^64 

49-9': 
62 



t 



6.25 

6.45 
6.92 

7. 28i 

7. 781 

8.76 

8.951 
5.44 
- 46 
89 
53 
13 
93 
. 57 
6.58 
6. 19 
6.84 
5.20, 
6.31! 
5.53| 
8.48! 
8.05 

5951 
6.48, 

5. 15I 
5. II 
5-761 
5.40' 
8.84 
9.66I 
7-50 
8.09, 
6.90I 
12- 95 
10. !7| 



15' 
ti. 67 

9' 17, 
9. 81: 
11,60, 
7-50' 
6.35, 



100 

100 ; 
100 I 
100 
100 I 
100 ' 
100 
100 
100 

100 ! 
100 
100 , 
100 I 
100 
100 

100 ! 

100 

100 , 

100 

100 

100 I 

100 

100 

100 I 

100 

100 

100 

TOO 

100 ] 

100 

100 

100 

loo 
loo 

100 

ICO 

100 
[00 

100 I 

100 
JOO 

loo 
roo 



Average „ J 0.89: 38^52 ' 53-55, 7>o4. 100 



I 
3.02! 

3.34 
3.23 
3.24 
3-45 
4.50, 
3-87 
2.331 
3.131 
3-05 
3.36 
3.49! 
2.25 

2.52, 
3.31 
3-i3i 
3.16 
2.98 

3.i« 
2.02 

3-24! 

2.98 

i.q8, 

3. 31 1 
1.74 

2. i6| 
2. 25I 
2.78 
3-54 
3-39 
1-79 
2. 17 
I, 80 
1-95 



2. 02 
1.63 

I. So 



0.007 

a 0125 

0.007 

a 004 

0.032 

0.020 

0.020 

0.016 

0.004 

0.003 

0.002 

0.003 

0.004 

0.003 

0.003 

0.006 

0.004 

0.006 

0.008 

0.013 

0.004 

0.021 

0.008 

0.005 

0.022 

0.008 

o. 009 

0.009 

0.006 

0.0306 

0.0096 

0.0061 

0.0045 

0.013 

O. OIO 

0.013 
0.028 

O, 070 
0.015 
0.026 
0.017 

o. 028 
a 061 



2,48 o. 0121 



14249 



14072 



14062 

1447 1 
14402 



LOCATIONS OF MINES FROM WHICH SAMPLES OF PITTSBURG 
COAL WERE TAKEN FOR ANALYSIS. 
Sample 

X * Gilchrist mine, one mile north of Lazearvtlle, Brooke county. 

a Wellsburg mmc, one-half mile souifa. of Wellsburg. Brooke county. 

3 Big Four mine, two and one-quarter miles south oAvelUbutg, Brooke 

county. 
A Richland mine, three miles north of Wheeling, Ohio county. 
t Whittalter mine. East Wheeling. Ohio county. 
6 McKinley mine, East Wheeling, Ohio county. 



WEST VIBGDOA GEOLOGICAL SUBVET. 207 

7 Jochlum mine, East Wheeling, Ohio county. 

8 Manchester mine, Bast Wheeling, Ohio county. 

9 Elm Grove mine, near Elm Grove, Ohio county. 

10 Boggs Run mine, near Ben wood, Marshall county. 

1 1 Benwood mine, near Benwood, Marshall county. 

12 Glendale mine, near Glendale, Marshall county. 

13 Moundsville mine, near Moundsville, Marshall county. 

14 Garlow mine, on Robinson Run, Monongalia county. 

15 Jasper Stone mine, on Robinson Run, Monongalia county. 

16 Beechwood mine, about half way between Morgantown and Fairmont, 

and in Monongalia county. 

17 Opekiska mine, eleven miles northeast of Fairmont, Marion county. 

18 Murray mine, ten miles north of Fairmont, on the F. M. & P. 

R.R. 

19 Montana mine, six miles north of Fairmont, on the F. M. & P. 

R.R. 

20 Aurora mine, two miles west of Fairmont, Marion county. 

21 Chatham shaft No. i one-fourth mile east of Farmington, Marion 

county. 

22 Shaft mine, near Fairmont, on Wheeling Division of B. & O. R. R. 

23 New England mine, at Watson, two miles south of Fairmont, on B. 

& O. R. R. 

24 Gaston mine, at Watson Marion cotmt^. 

25 Monongah No. 6 mine, at Monongah, six miles south of Fairmont, on 

B. & O. R. R. 

26 Monongah No. 2 mine, on east side of railroa I, 600 feet south of Mon- 

ongah. 

27 Monongah No. 3 mine, on east side of railroad, one |mile south of 

Monongah. 

28 Marion mine, one-fourth mile south of Everson, whtch is eight miles 

south of Fairmont, and in Marion county. 

29 Pennois mine, one-fourth mile north of Everson. 

30 King mine, at Kingmont, about three miles south of Fairmont. 

31 Anderson mine, at Anderson, about nine miles south of Fairmont 

32 Highland mine, on east side of railroad, 500 feet south of station. 

33 Middleton mine, at Middleton, one-fourth mile south of Highland. 

34 Chiefton mine, at Chiefton, ten miles south of Fairmont. 

35 Same name and place, (bottom coal of vein). 

36 Chiefton mine, on east side of railroad. 

37 Hutchinson mine, at Hutchinson, twelve miles south of Fairmont. 

38 Enterprise mine, at Enterprise, thirteen miles south of Fairmont 

39 Riverdale mine, one-fourth mile north of Shinnston, which is fifteen 

miles south of Fairmont. 

40 Briar Hill mines, Nos. 5 and 7, one-fourth mile below G3rpsy, which^is 

twenty-one miles south of Fairmont. 

41 Briar Hill No. 6 Maulsby mine, about three-fourth mile above Gypsy. 

42 Khlen mine, at mouth of Shinn*s xun^ near Hhinnston. 

43 Holon mine, one-half mile south of Shmnston, on M. R. branch B. & O. 

44 Famum mine, at Farnum, six miles north of Clarksburg, on the M. 

R. branch of the B. & O. R. R. 

45 Globe mine, at Famum, on south side of railroad. 

46 Pinnickinnick mine. No. 2, at Glenn Falls, Harrison county. 

47 Briar Hill mine. No. 11, about two miles north of Clarksbui^g, Harri- 

son county. 

48 Glenn Falls mine, about two miles north of Clarksbuxjg.. 

49 Erie mine, six miles north of Clarksborg on Short Line B. R. 

50 Columbia or Highland mine, No. 4, two and one-half miles east of 

Clarksburg. 

51 Ocean or Highland mine, No. 5, three and one-half mUes east of 

Clarksburg. 



208 THS MONONGAHELA 8ERIE8. 

52 Perry No. 1 mine, near Adamston, one mile north of Clarksburg. 

53 Fairmore mine, near Adamston. 

54 Waldo mine, one-half mile east of Wilsonburg, which is four miles 

west of Clarksburg, on the Parkersburg branch of the B. & O. 
ILR. 

55 Wilsonburg mine, at Wilsonbnrg, opened in 1872. 

56 L^dia mine, at Wolf Summit, about seven miles west of Clarksburg. 

57 Pinnickinnick No. i mine, one mile east of Clarksburg on the B. & O. 

R.R. 

58 Despard No. 2 mine, about two miles east of Clarksburg. 

59 Meadow Brook mine, at Meadow Brook, nine miles north of Clarks- 

burg. 

60 Cooke Coal and Coke Company No. i mine, on Simpsons creek in 

Harrison county, about one mile south of MeadowBrook. 

61 Reynoldsville mine, at Reynoldsville, Harrison county. 

62 0*Neil No. I mine, at O Neil, Harrison county, on the B. & O. R. R. 

63 O'Neil No. 2 mine, ** ** " •• *♦ ** 

64 Melrose mine, one-half mile north of Viropa, Harrison county. 

65 Viropa mine, on east side of railroad at Viropa. 

66 Dixie mine, one mile from Clarksburg, on east side of railroad, near 

Monticello. 

67 Lynch mine, six miles south of Clarksburg, on the W. Va. A P. R. R. 

68 Two-Lick mine, six miles south *' '* *' *' 

69 West Fork mine, at Mt. Clare, Harrison county, on the W. V. & P. 

R. R.. 

70 Cork mine, at Mt. Clare, eight miles south of Clarksburg. 

71 Interstate No. 2 mine, near Mt. Clare, eight miles south of Clarksburg. 

72 Interstate No. i mine, one-half mile south of Mt. Clare. 

73 Foster mine, six miles west of Grafton. Taylor county, on the B. & 

O. R. R. 

74 New York mine, at Simpson, Taylor county, seven miles west of 

Grafton. 

75 T. B. Davis mine, at Simpson, on south side of railroad. 

76 Flemington No. 2 and 4 mines, at Flemington, Taylor county, north 

of B. & O. R. R. 

77 Sand Lick mine, at Sand Lick, Taylor county. 

78 Tyrconnell mine, at Rosemont, Taylor county. 

79 Rosemont mine, at Rosemont, Taylor county. 

80 West Opening mine, at Berryburg, Barbour county. 
8r South Opening mine, at Berryburg, Barbour county. 

82 James Rooney mine, at Vadis, Lewis county. 

83 W. J. Clovis mine, on Bear run, Gilmer county. 

84 Ellis mine, on Coal run, tributary to Big Ellis, Gilmer county. 

85 George Nutt mine, on left prong of Middle Fork of Copen Run, Gil- 

mer county. • 

86 Hope mine, one-half mile south of Mason City, Mason county. 

87 Beech Grove mine, one half mile south of Mason City, Mason Co. 

88 Klondike mine, one and one-fourth miles above Mason City. 

89 New Castle mine, at West Columbia, Mason county. 

90 Camden No. i mine, at Spiiman, Mason county. 

91 Mason Ci*v mine, one and one-half miles above Mason City, Mason 

county. 

92 Jackson Furnace mine, at Hartford, Mason county. 

93 Hartford mine, at Hartford, Mason county. 

94 Plymouth mine, one mile northeast of Pljrmouth, Putnam county. 

95 Raymond City mine, two and one-half miles northeast of Raymond 

City, Putnam county. 



WEST VIBGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 209 

The average results of all these analyses give in round 
numbers, moisture, 1 per cent., volatile matter 38^, fixed carbon 
63J, ash 7, sulphur 2^, and phosphorus one-hundredth part of 
1 per cent.. These figures give the average for the coal over the 
entire state, but as some districts are higher in sulphur, ash and 
volatile matter than others, the average has also been computed 
by districts. In this computation the mines on the Monongahela 
and Little Kanawha waters have all been included in one district; 
the mines on the Ohio river in Mason county make a second 
group; those on the Great Kanawha in Putnam county, a third 
and those along the upper Ohio in Marshall, Ohio and Brooke 
counties, a fourth. As thus arranged by districts the results are 
as follows: 

Fairmont and Moisture Vol. Mat. Fix. Car. Ash Sulphur Phosphor. 

Clarksburg 0.75 38.16 54.63 6.45 2.30 0.0117 

Brooke, Mar- 
shall and Ohio... o. 93 39. 46 51. 35 8. 26 3. 86 o. 0067 
Mason county ... 1.88 40.21 47-78 10.13 2.20 a 0160 
Raymond and 
Plymouth 1.83 38.76 51.86 7.55 1.72 0.0450 

An inspection of this table of averages will show that the coal 
from the Fairmont-Clarksburg district stands first in the order of 
excellence, Putnam county, second. Wheeling, third, and Mason 
county, fourth, or last, on account of its high percentage of ash 
and moisture. 

Of course some of these analyses given will prove too high in 
sulphur, and some too low for the average of the respective mines 
from which the samples were taken, but this could not be avoided 
without undertaking the analysis of a greatea number of samples 
from each mine than the resources of the Survey would permit, 
but as the coal has been carefully sampled, and accurately ana- 
lyzed from a large number of mines in the same region, it is con- 
cluded that the general average of all will fairly represent the com- 
position of the coal. 

The chemical work of the Survey has very fortunately been 
supplemented and checked by the vastly more extensive and elab- 
orate analytical work of the chemical department of the Fairmont 
Coal Company. Through the courtesy of Mr. L. L. Malone, the 
General Manager of that corporation, Tand the kindness of Mr. 
Frank Haas, its Chief Chemist, the Survey is enabled to present 



210 



THE MONONQAHRLA SERIES. 



these highly instructive and useful results in the following very 
interesting article, prepared expressly for these pages. 
The letter and report of Mr. Haas follow herewith : 

Fairmont Coal Company, 
general offices. 

Fairmont, W. Va., 

December 20, 1902. 
Dr. I. C. White, 

State Geologist, 

Morgantown, W. Va. 
Dear Sir : — 

I send you under separate cover the paper on the Fuel Value 
of Fairmont (Pittsburg) coal. 

As I have explained to you verbally, the article has been re- 
vised by cutting out the coke part. This was done because our 
coke product will be entirely changed from what it is now and such 
results as I might have used would not represent the fkcts as they 
will exist in the future. 

Yours truly, 

Frank Haas. 

ANALYSES AND FUEL VALUE OF THE PITTSBURG 
COAL IN THE FAIRMONT REGION. 

A full discussion of the chemical properties and fuel value of 
the Pittsburg coal in West Virginia is, perhaps, premature at this 
time, from the fact that it has only been a year since the coal com- 
panies have started a systematic examination of this subject. 
Furthermore, there is but a very small area of the Pittsburg seam 
exposed, and this on the extreme eastern border; far too small a 
portion to draw conclusions for the vast territory still undeveloped. 
The discussions and conclusions drawn should be taken as appar- 
ent tendencies or theories when the whole field is considered, to be 
substantiated or revised as the work progresses and more territory 
is exposed. 

It would have been desirable from a scientific as well as a 
practical standpoint to attack the problem with the ultimate anal- 
ysis of the coal, but the practical demands were so pressing, and 
the ultimate analysis so laborious, expensive and difficult, that as 
a preliminary, the universally used and much abused proximate 
analysis was employed, supplemented by the Mahler Bomb Calori- 
meter for fuel values. 



WEST VIRGINIA OEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 211 

There is a growing opinion that the proximate analysis, so far 
as the Volatile and Fixed Carbon determinations are concerned, is 
worthless and misleading except for the identification of a coal. 
The Volatile Matter has been used as an index of the coking qual- 
ity of a coal, and the quantity of gas that it will produce. The 
first has too often failed and the second is only a very rough ap- 
proximation as to quantity, and of no information as to quality. 
The Fixed Carbon as an index to the quantity of coke is only an 
approximation and fails completely in coking coals of very high 
Fixed Carbon. As a measure of the heating value of a coal, the 
Fixed Carbon determination has been extensively used, but the 
results calculated by this method are so at variance with those ac- 
tually determined, that with the coal in this region it cannot be 
relied upon to give even approximate results. 

With coals from the same seams and the same region the Vol- 
atile matter should, if unifonnly determined in all samples, show 
if any great change has taken place from one mine to another. The 
indications were, after a few preliminary samples were taken, that 
there was no great change in the actual coal, but that the sulphur 
was practically the only disturbing influence and the work re- 
solved itself almost entirely into locating this troublesome element. 

It was found thifit if samples were taken every tenth room on 
all butt entries, or an equivalent distance, (500 feet), that the av- 
erage so detennined could be relied upon to represent the mine to 
within two-tenths of one per cent, in sulphur, and one-fourth of 
one per cent, in ash, even in the extremely high sulphur coals. In 
taking samples a piece of canvas was spread on the floor d the 
mine and a groove cut into the face of the coal about two inches 
wide and two inches deep from top to bottom, bringing down 
twenty to thirty pounds of coal. This was halved down to about 
five pounds, which, after taking to the laboratory, was crushed 
and pulverized to a laboratory sample of two ounces. Following 
this general rule some 1500 samples were taken. 

The extreme limits of this investigation extended from Beech- 
wood, Grays Flat and Chatam mines on the north and west, to 
Berrj'burg, Interstate and Wolf Sunmiit mines on the south and west, 
with the bulk of samples along the West Fork river between Fair- 
mont and Clarksburg. The territory enclosed by the extreme 
limits is approximately 500 square miles. 



212 



THE MONONGAHEUL SERIES. 



The Pittsburg seam in this region has two persistent bands; 
the lower half consists of one-half to one inch of bone coal four 
and one-half to five feet from th^bottom of the seam. The sec- 
ond band is six to eight inches above the lower bone .A third 
parting is occasionally present between the two mentioned. The 
coal immediately below the slate, and known as the top coal, is of 
an inferior quality and on average about one foot thick. If the 
height of the seam is diminished below its normal thickness]|of 
eight and one-half feet, it is invariably at the expense of the top 
coal. A general section of the Pittsburg seam of this region may 
be represented by the accompanying sketch : 



Top Coal 



2}i' Middle Coal 



(/' 



m' 



= }i'' Bone Coal 
,^ }('' Bone Coal 



4' 6^ 



Bottom Coal 



The bottom coal includes most of the bed and is almost in- 
variably better than the rest of the seam. A test made in various 
parts of the field to determine this, resulted as follows: 



WEST VlRGIiriA QEOLOGICAL BtTBVKY. 



23S 



MINE. 


BOTTOM. 


MIDDLE. 


TOP. 


Ash. 


Sulphur. 


Ash. 


Sulphur. 


Ash. , Sulphmr. 


Shaft 


5.94 
6.50 
6.42 
6.40 
6.05 
6.80 
4.68 


2.48 
1.38 
1.26 
2.48 
1.03 

1.89 


9.12 

4. 05 
6.40 

7-45 
9.85 
8.60 
7.68 


2.55 
1. 14 
1.70 
3.25 
1.55 
3.54 
3.43 


17. 04 ^. 10 


Anderson 


15.15 
14.74 
12.65 
11.50 
14.25 
17. 18 


2.19 

3.» 
4.07 
3.W 
5.32 
3.07 


Enterprise 

Mon'ng'h, No. 3 
Chiefton 


Harbert 


Ocean 



The dividing line between the middle coal and the top coal is 
not clearly marked and it is probable that, if the facts had been 
suspected and more care taken in making the separation, the raid- 
die coal would have been found more uniform and lower in ash 
and sulphur, while the top coal would have been more uniformly 
bad. 

In the table of average analyses given below, all mines are 
arranged in order from Beechwood, the mine farthest down the 
river, up to the headwaters of the West Fork: 



MINE. 



Moisture. 



Volatile. 



Fixed 
Carbon. 



Ash. 



Sulphur. 



B. T. U. 



Beechwood ... 

Murray 

Luther , 

Montana >. 

Aurora , 

Stafford 

Federal 

Chatam , 

Shaft 

O'Donnel 

Gaston , 

New England 
Monong'h No. 6| 

" 5I 
" 2 
" 3 

Anderson 

Highland ' 

Middleton ' 

Chiefton ' 

Hutchinson 

Enterprise ! 

Melrose 

Viropa | 

Riverdale , 

Ehlen 

Solon 

Harbert 



56 
44 
40 
20 
58 
14 
35 
63 
39 
61 

25 
37 
34 
73 
45 
56 
78 
39 
62 
64 
82 
62 

37 
09 

27 
60 

45 
60 i 



35.39 
35.82 
35-61 
35.49 
35.57 
35.04 

35. 65 
35- 74 
36.63 
35.41 
37.61 
36.29 
35.48 
35.88 
36.29 

37.34 
36.01 

35.17 

36. 21 
35. 75 
36.66 

36.79 
37-41 
39.22 
37.42 
38.62 

37.93 
38. 74 



50. 

56. 

56. 

56. 

55. 

55. 

55. 

55- 

54. 

56. 

53. 
' 55. 
I 55. 

! 56. 
I 55. 

53. 

56. 

57. 

55. 

54. 

54. 

54. 

51. 

52. 

52. 

51. 

52. 

51. 



18 
82 
37 
30 
79 
94 
09 

99 

31 
13 
77 
36 
70 
42 
48 
29 
34 
13 
82 

30 
23 
44 
85 
62 
72 
34 
23 
93 



6.87 

5.92 
6.42 
7.00 
7.06 

7.88 

7.91 
6.64 
7.67 
6.85 

7.37 
6.98 

7.4'^ 
5.97 
6.78 
7.81 
5.87 
6.31 
6.35 
8.31 
7.29 

7.15 
9.37 
7.07 

8.59 
8.44 
8.39 
7.73 



1.86 


14138 


2.07 


14281 


2.01 


14216 


2.05 


14151 


1.99 


14090 


1.52 


14085 


1.74 


1402 1 


0.92 


14256 


2. 46 


13969 


2.77 


14028 


2.49 


14044 


2.02 


14132 


2.01 


14059 


0.97 


14356 


1.85 


14171 


2.71 


13892 


1.34 


14321 


1-23 


14326 


1.35 


14270 


1.74 


13914 


1.46 


14078 


1.94 


14076 


3- 72 


13559 


2.91 


14058 


2.91 


13791 


3.26 


13720 


2.97 


13788 


3. 35 


13823 



214 



THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 



Gypsy. 

Maulsby 

iiieadow Brook 

Globci 

Farnum 

Glen Falls 

Dunham 

Pinnickinnick ..I 

Columbia ! 

Ocean 

Colonial j 

Rosemont 

Flemington 

Wilsonburg 

O Neil, No. I....: 

Wolt Summit...! 

Dixie 

i^yuch i 

Two Lick ; 

West Fork j 

Interstate ■ 

Berryburg 



1-31 


39-3^ 
38.74 


1. 07 


1. 18 


39-99 


1.45 


38.97 


1.54 


38.68 


1.46 


37-94 


I. 61 


36.66 


1.53 


38.01 


1.35 


37.76 


1-43 


36.26 


1.34 


36.85 


I. II 


36.90 


1.20 


36.90 


1.89 


38. 46 


1.35 


40.65 


1.36 


40.98 


1.48 


40. 20 


1.35 


40.48 


1.23 


40.54 


1.70 


38.60 


T.55 


39.20 


1.27 


39- 39 


0.68 


38.60 



50.95 
52.87 
51-83 
53-30 
52. 87 

53- 25 
53.77 
53- 53 
53- 23 
54.74 
55.74 
55.88 

54. H 
50.23 

49.47 
51.15 
51.04 
51.23 
50.79 
53.25 
53.19 
51.92 
53.09 



8.38 
7.32 
7.00 
6.28 
6. 9£ 
7.35 
7.96 
6.93 
7.66 

7.57 
6.07 
6. II 

7.79 
9.42 
8.53 
6.51 
7.28 

6.94 
7.44 
6.45 
6.06 
7.42 
7.63 



3.71 
2.63 
3.18 
2.65 
3-24 

3.19 
2.81 

2.59 
2.57 
2.96 
2.42 

2.47 
3.08 
4.52 
3.52 
3- 29 
3- 92 
3.92 
3.72 
2.67 
2.87 

3.51 
3.06 



I 725 
14065 
14024 
14156 
13974 
13924 
13849 
14048 

13964 
13921 

14233 
14257 
13908 

13377 
13717 
14060 

13846 
13920 
13884 
14089 

14149 
13905 
14017 



Averajje . 



1.43 



37. 47 



53.83 ' 7.27 



2.59 



14014 



The Moisture column, while it shows a considerable varia- 
tion, does not follow any regular change from the northern end to 
the south. High and low averages are of only local occurrence 
and the nonual percentage is regained in the following mine. 
The Volatile Matter gradually increases from thirty-six per cent, 
at the northern end to nearly forty per cent, at the southern. The 
increase is due partly to a greater percentage of Volatile Sulphur 
in coal around the Clarksburg end than in the northern end of the 
field. 

Just what relative quantity of Volatile or organic sulphur 
exists in the total, has not been determined. The Fixed Carbon 
follows inversely the change suffered by the Volatile Matter. The 
Ash is fairly constant and such variations as exist are in nearly 
every case caused or accompanied by variations in the sulphur. 
The sulphur is very erratic, varying from three-fourths of one per 
cent, to nearly four per cent. 

Efforts to indicate the cause or indications of high sulphur 
coals met with failure. All the theories of the practical miner, such as 
heavy cover, local basins or depressions in the seam and even the 
effect of water courses, failed to throw any light on the subject. 
There are areas which can be well defined as development con- 
tinues that are practically uniform and low in sulphur. 



WB8T VIRGINIA eEOLO«ICAL SURVEY. 215 

Of the three kinds of sulphur in coal the inorganic, or that 
combined. as sulphide of iron, furnishes the greater quantity. 
This is indicated by the comparatively high iron content in the 
ash. The sulphates furnish but a small quantity and this is mostly 
from the sulphate salts, which are deposited between the joints rf 
the coal by the water percolating through the stratifications above, 
charging iteelf with lime and magnesia carbonate, which in part 
changes to sulphate when in contact with the sulphides in the coal. 
There is, however, but a small amount that suffers from this 
change. It has been found that by far the most of the white scaly 
material, so common in this coal, is either carbonate of lime oir 
magnesia. 

The segregated masses of sulphide of iron, known as sulphur 
balls, are found in nearly all of the mines of this coal. Thdr 
frequency occurs in proportion to the sulphur in the coal proper. 
In such of the mines as run less than one per cent, sulphur, they 
are comparatively rare, while in coals of three or four per cent. 
sulphur, they are most abundant. It appears that four per cenl 
is the point of saturation of this coal, if such a term can be ap- 
plied to a solid body, and all over this amount is segregated in 
these masses. An analysis of a sulphur ball shows that the sul- 
phur and iron are in such combination as is equivalent to the bi- 
sulphide or pyrite form. These masses go to pieces very rapidly 
when exposed to atmospheric agencies. The pyrite changes to sul- 
phate or iron and disappears as a soluble compound, leaving a 
soft, pasty and sooty material behind. This action was shown in 
the coking of some slack which had been exposed on a dump for 
several years. The resulting coke had an ash content of seven to 
eight per cent, and sulphur one per cent., while the coal as taken 
out of the mine would show eleven per cent, ash and two per cem. 
sulphur. 

In coking, about one-half the sulphur is volatilized; this factor 
is variable to some extent, depending on the total sulphur present; 
for all coals containing over one and one-half per cent, sulphur the 
factor will hold. Roughly, if the sulphur in coal is multiplied by 
eight-tenths, it will give the sulphur in the resulting coke. 

The Heating Value of the average coals of each mine was de- 
termined by the method described in the Transactions of the A. I. 
M. E., Volume XXVII., page 259. Briefly, the method consists 



216 



THE MONONGAHRLA 8EBIES. 



in determining a quantity '*H'' which represents the heating value 
of the average coal, free from Moisture, Ash and Sulphur, and 
then deducting the losses due to each of these impurities in any 
one analysis. This method was successfully employed in the va- 
rious Ohio coals, and the results so far obtained in this field are 
as uniform as on any coal yet tried. The general formula as used 
is * 

B. T. U. = *^H'' (100-Ash-Sul.-Mois.) +(Sul. x4050). It fol- 
lows that knowing **H,'' Ash, Sulphur, and Moisture, the calor- 
ific value can be determined. Since the method has not been ap- 
plied to West Virginia coal, the manner in which the constant **H'' 
was found, wUl be given, also to show that so far as the work has 
progressed the Formula can be relied upon to give results within 
one per cent, of the actual detcnnination of the Calorimeter. The 
Mahler calorimeter need not be described here, nor the manner of 
operating it; for such information, reference is made to the paper 
previously mentioned. It is conceded that the instrument is the 
best, and perhaps the only reliable one for the practical determi- 
nation of the calorific values of fuel. 

Twenty samples taken at different points in the field were 
tested with the calorimeter and the B. T. U. actually determined; 
the results are given in the following table : 



Moisture. 


Volatile. 


Fixed 
Carbon. 


Ash. 


Sul. 


Calori- 
meter 
B. T. U. 


Calcula- 
ted 
B. T. U. 


Diff. 
Per Ct. 


1.40 


37.00 


55.48 


6. 12 


2.59 


14147 


14196 


--0.3 


1.50 


36.84 


53.45 


8.21 


3.13 


13819 


13790 


—0.2 


1.45 


35.05 


53.20 


10.30 


2.56 


13505 


13536 


-1^.2 


1.55 


35.85 


55.05 


7.55 


1.58 


13975 


14066 


-1-0.6 


1.65 


39.80 


53.45 


5.10 


2.48 


14243 


14329 


-1-0.6 


0.92 


37.60 


52.56 


8.92 


3.23 


13861 


13758 


-0.7 


1.85 


36.95 


55.80 


5.40 


1.60 


14279 


14353 


-1-0.5 


1.07 


37.40 


55.44 


6.09 


2.48 


14405 


14265 


-<5.97 


1.50 


40.15 


50.72 


7.63 


3.48 


13818 


13840 


-l-o. 2 


2.28 


36. 12 


57.40 


4. 20 


0.76 


14660 


14571 


—0.6 


1.49 


36.18 


54.79 


7.54 


2.34 


T3947 


13988 


-1-0.3 


1.24 


36.66 


55.95 


6. 15 


I. 51 


14338 


14342 


-1-0.0 


1.25 


37.15 


55.38 


6.22 


1.67 


14305 


14310 


-|-o. 


1.58 


35.72 


55.56 


7.14 


2.32 


14066 


14039 


— 0. 2 


1.38 


37.80 


54.21 


6.61 


1 2.71 


14193 


14108 


-0.6 


1.95 


35.85 


56.95 


5.25 


0.83 


14453 


14451 


—0.0 


1.50 


35.63 


56.86 


6. or 


1.93 


1 14212 


14274 


-1-0.4 


I. 17 


35.64 


55.59 


7.60 


2. 70 


1 13867 


13987 


--O.9 


1.90 


35.78 


55.78 


1 6.54 


1.38 


j 14274 


14192 


—0.6 


1.25 


40. 10 


51.70 


! 6.95 


3.33 


1 14033 


14003 


-0.2 


1.49 


„.3f?6_ 


54.77 


' 6.78 


1 2.23 


14120 











WEST VIRGimA QEOLOOICAL SURVEY. 



217 



Tne average Moisture, Ash, and Sulphur from the analyses, 
and the average B. T. U., were substituted in the following for- 
mula : 

Average B^ T. U.—( Average Sul. x 4050) 

100 — (Average iVsh + Sul. + Mois.) 



- = ^*H' 



**II,'Hhe only unknown quantity in the equation, is determ- 
ined and may be represented by 15()75. Now tliis (piantity (15675) 
is substituted for ^^I'' in the Formula,— B. T. U.= "H'' ( 100 
Ash — Sul. — Mois. )-f (Sul. x4050), and applying it to each sep- 
arate analysis, the seventh column in the table is pro- 
duced. An eighth has been added to show the dif- 
ference between the actual and calculated detenninations. The 
largest difference so far found is 0.1)7 per cent. Considering the 
fact that dupliciites with the Calorimeter sometimes vary one-half 
to one i)er cent. , the fonnula gives close results and well within 
the limits of j)ractical demands. When tests on steam boilers are 
made that can account for the last one jrt cent in the heat bal- 
ance, it may bec^ome necessary to furnish results less in error, but 
of this there is no immediate danger. 

The calorific value of coal in this country, where fuel is abun- 
dant and cheiip, has not l>een considered important until within 
recent years. At the j)resent time, as the i)ractical man is taking 
this into account, the tendency is to overestimate and exaggerate 
the relative value of the various coals. 

The following tible gives a com])arison between average Fair- 
mont coal and average sam]>les of Pocahontas, New River, and Ka- 
nawha coals: 



COALS. Mois. Volatile. iPix. Car.! Ash. | Sul. ! B. T. U. 



NewRiver i. 6i 27.16 

Posahontas [ 0.73 1 18.10 

Kanawha ; o. 89 32.61 

Fairmont ' 1.50 36.70 



67- 54 i 3. 69 I o. 68 

74. 52 I 6. 65 I o. 59 

60. 10 I 6.40 I 1.03 

54.80 • 7. 00 I 2. 10 



14976 
14588 

14349 
14100 



Relative 
Value. 



96 

94 



An average elementary analysis of the coal of this region can- 
not be given at this time for lack of sufficient data. From some 
boiler tests, in which elementary analyses were reported, made on 
Fairmont coal in 1900 by Professors Lord and Hitchcock, of CJo- 
lumbus, Ohio, an average elementary analysis has been calculated. 



218 THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

The tests referred to were on five coals from different parte of the 
field and samples taken from car lote. 

The Carbon- Available Hydrogen ratio was practically constant, 
showing no great change in the ultimate composition of the coal. 
The elementary analysis, which may be considered as fairly rep- 
resentative of the field, is as follows : 

Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Sulphur Ash 
77.00 5.52 6.82 1.56 2.10 7.00 

The question is frequently asked: **How much water will 
Fairmont coal evaporate per pound of coal?'* An answer cannot 
be given unless curtailed with suppositions or conditions. The B. 
T. U. , as given, shows the heat that the coal will deliver if the coal 
is completely burned, independent of how the coal is fired, or the 
kind, make or condition of the boiler. With a theoretical boiler, 
a coal with 14100 B. T. U. will evaporate 14.6 pounds of water 
from and at 212 degrees Fahrenheit. Since neither the methods 
of firing are perfect, nor the absorption of boilers complete, the 
above theoretical figure is never reached and seldom ever approach- 
ed. Some few plants with modem appliances for automatic firing 
and boilers of special design and construction have been able to 
extract eighty per cent, of the heat in the coal and deliver it in 
available steam. In other words, they have attained an efiiciency 
of eighty per cent. Such perfonnances are very rare and seventy- 
five per cent, might be called the best practice, while seventy per 
cent, would be very good, sixty-five per cent, the average and sixty 
per cent, the common practice in smaller plants. 

Assuming now the various efiiciences, the following table will 
^ve the water eveporated : 

With So per cent, efficiency Fairmont coal will evaporate ii. 68 pounds 
water from and at 212 degrees F. 

With 75 per cent, efficiency Fairmont coal will evaporate 10.95 pounds 
water from and at 212 degrees F. 

With 70 per cent, efficiency Fairmont coal will evaporate 10.22 pounds 
water from and at 212 degrees F. 

With 65 per cent, efficiency Fairmont coal will evaporate 9. 49 pounds 
water from and at 212 degrees F. 

With 60 per cent, efficiency Fairmont coal will evaporate 8. 76 pounds 
water from and at 212 degrees F. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



219 



Now comparing New River, Pocahontas, and Kanawha with 
Fairmont, we have the following table : 



COALS. 


80 per ct. 


75 per ct. 


70 per ct. 


55 per ct. 


— ■ — *« — 
JO per ct. 


New River 


12.40 
12.08 
II. 8q 
11.68 


11.63 

11-33 
II. 14 

10.95 


10.85 

10.57 
10.40 
10.22 


10.08 
9.82 
9.66 
9.45 


9.30 
9.06 
8.91 
8.76 


Pocahontas 


Klanawha.. 


Fairmont 



Under the ordinary method of firing, Fairmont coal is known 
as a smoking coal. WTiile smoking qualities are to a considerable 
extent inherent to the (;oal, yet it can, to a very great extent, be 
controlled, and in some cases entirely overcome. The modem 
contrivances, known as smoke consumers, are very effective in 
their action on this coal and in smaller plants, where extensive 
contrirances for this purpose are unwarranted, a care in the man- 
ner of firing will in part suppress the dense black smoke. Firing 
often and not much at one time will remedy the evil to a great ex- 
tent, and keep the conduct of the stack within the requirements 
of the law. It has been ernmeously supiwsed that the black 
smoke was an indic^ition of considerable loss of carbon, but this 
has been carefully tested and determined by various authorities, 
and it has been found that the loss in smoke is trifling, less than 
one per cent., even in extreme cases. 

Sulphur has littlejor no effect on coal as a fuel. It is true 
that it replaees a certain amount of carbon, but the replacement 
is not entirely lost, as sulphur is combustible, having a heating value 
of about throe-eighths of that of carbon. Moisture, on the other 
hand, not only replaces combustible matter, but requires additional 
combustible for its evaporation. 

Clinkering, or running on grate bars, is made possible by the 
composition of the ash, but it is due more to the manner in which 
the coal is fired. Sulphur has nothing to do with it, and only 
indirectly affects the composition of the ash by being a carrier for 
the iron. 

Following is a table of analyses of the ash of some of the coftls 
of this region : 



220 



THE MONONQAHELA SEitlES. 



AVERAGE ANALYSES OF ASH FROM COKE. 



MINE. 



II Si02 



AlfOs FejjOs CaO 

I I 



d iPsoJsOs 

^ I I 



KsO 



Montana 'I 42. o8{ 24.33 

Mon ng'h No. 2 . 39. 34' 22. 21 
Mon'nghNo.3 |l 36. 44| 21.44 
Beechwood ..... 44. 96 25. 94 
New England.. | 34. 151 18. 24 

Gaston j 35.39! 21.10 

Enterprise 36. 57 1 19.67 



28, 07' I. 70 o. 39 o. 48 o. isio. 72 'o. 87 

28. 07 4. 6o'o. 88 o. 52 '2. 24 o. 89! I. 30 

29. 7i!5- 700. 760. 492. 620. 89'!. 45 
23. 57 I. 600. 97 o. 47 o. 27|i. 07,1. 33 
29. 36 8. 20 o. 97 o. 56 5. 25 o. 94 I. 36 
30.8616.040.930. 592. 41 i I. 21 1 1. 22 
28. 57 6. 90 I. 14 o. 78 4. 50 1. 03 1. 35 



Totals. 



98- 79 
100.05 

99-50 
100. 18 

99- 03 

99.75 

100.51 



The analyses represent the average of over one hundred sepa- 
rate samples and eliminate, to a considerable extent, the accidental 
variations of single samples. It appears from this that the real 
basis of the Ash is Silica and Alumina im the proportion of 1.7 of 
Silica to 1 of alumina. The iron varies with the sulphur in the 
coal. The most of the lime ap])ear8 to be a foreign element to the 
coal, and an intrusion after the coal was formed in the manner 
previously suggested. The Alkalies, on which so much stress is 
laid by some as the cause of clinkering, are here shown 
to be present in a very small and uniform quantity. 

Speculating as to the fusibility of the Ash. from the above 
analyses, it would appejir from the relatively higii ratio of Alumina 
to the Silica, that it would require a very high temperature to con- 
vert thi.s compound to cinder. The relative fusibility would be 
luarked by the sum of the Fcj O3 and CaO, the higher this quantity 
the more fusible the comp*mnd. 

Taking now the physical conditions into account, we find that 
the Ash is not a simple chemical compound but a mechanical mix- 
ture of several. For instance, it has been shown that a consider- 
able portion of the Fe, Og can be removed by mechanical separa- 
tion. Furthermore, anyone familiar with coal under steam boil- 
ers; has noticed that considerable of the Ash is carried over the 
bridge wall. The Ash so carried over by the draft is practically 
free from iron and nearly pure Silica and Alumina. This action 
taking place would soon leave on the grate bars a compound con- 
siderable higher in iron and lower in silica, which would tend to a 
more fusible mixture. This probably explains why, under exces- 
sive draft and extreme temperature in the fire box, the coal from 
this region sometimes clinkers. A sample of clinker taken from a 
locomotive boiler showed : 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL BUKVEY. 221 

Silica (SiOs) 32.40 

Alumina (Al, Oa) 23.38 

Sesqui-Oxide of Iron (Fe« Oa) - - 38.28 

showing a tendency in this direction. 

FRANK HAAS, C. E., M. E. 

Fairmont, West Va., 

December, VM2. 



It is instructive to place the average chemical results for the 
Fairmont-Clarksburg region obtained by Professor Hite and his 
asaistante in a comparative column with those for the same dis- 
trict by Mr. Hass, as shown in the following table: 



CHEMIST. ^Moisture ' ^o^^^^^^.^ | ^^^^ j Ash. I Sulphur. | B. T. U. 

I ' I i I . 



HAAS j 1.47 ' 39.46 I 5T. .^6 7- 27 , 2.59 

HITE I 0.75 I 38.16 54.63 6.45 j 2.30 



These results agree as closely as one could expect in view of 
the different methods of sampling, and also in view of the wider 
area of the coal field covered by Professor Kite's work, viz.: from 
Monongalia to Gilmer counties, while Mr. Haas' analyses extend 
only over the Fairmont-Clarksburg district. 

The greatest ratio of difference is in the moisture, and this is 
probably due to the fact that Professor Ilite's samples were stored 
in a rather dry room for some considerable time before analysis. 

GAS AND COKE. 

The great value of the Pittsburg coal consists in the variety of 
uses for which it is adapted. Yielding fine results as a general 
steam and domestic fuel, it is also unexcelled as a gas producer 
and with proper care to exclude the sulphurous portion, makes a 
good quality of coke. 

The coal from the Fairmont region has long been used in the 
principal cities for the manufacture of illuminating gas, the jdeld 
per ton being quite as large and the quality as good as £hat from 
the same coal obtained at the famous gas coal mines of Westmore- 
land county, Pennsylvania. 



222 THE HONONGAHELA 8EBIE3. 

This three-fold use is not a common one to the thick coals of 
any region, and it is this that adds additional value to the Monon- 
gahela river area of the Pittsburg coal, since the excessive amount of 
sulphur in this coal along the Ohio river would forbid its manu- 
facture into either gas or coke in the Wheeling district, unless 
some practical mothod could be devised for largely reducing its 
quantity of sulphur. 

It appears to be a general law that the proportion of sulphur 
in any of the coals increases westward acrosa the Appalachian 
field, the purer ones lying along its soutlieastem side. For instance, 
if we take the Pittsburg coal as an example, the analyses show its 
sulphur contents increasing, in round numbers, westward, from 
its most eastern area as follows : 

Sulphur. 

. ' Potomac Basin (Elk Garden) 0.80 

Connellsville Basin i. 00 

Monongahela River (Fairmont) 2.50 

Ohio River (Wheeling) : 3.50 

Western Crop in Ohio 4. 50-5. 00 

This law will also hold true, in a general way, for any of the 
other coal beds of wide geographical extent, and there niust con- 
sequently be some general cause which has operated to . produce 
such results. It is sufficient here to note the fact as an explana- 
tion why the same bed of coal may be of quite differt*nt quality 
in one region from that in another, and hence not well adapted for 
the same purposes in both. 

It has been the custom of the coal operators in the Fairmont 
and Clarksburg regions to coke only the fine coal, or screenings, 
the **lump" coal being 6hipi)ed for steam and fuel purposes, and 
hence the manufacture of coke has ])een more in the nature of a 
by-product, than of the production of coke per se. For this reason 
the coke product of the region has always held a deservedly poor 
rating among the iron and steel working fratt^rnity, since the lack 
of care in excluding impurities, left the resulting coke high in lx)th 
ash and sulphur. This haphazard method, however, as stated by 
Mr. Haas in the letter accompanying his article on the Fairmont 
coal, is not to continue, since his chemical investigations have lo- 
cated the portion of the coal in which the chief quantity of the 
sulphur occurs, as well as large areas of the same where there is 
but little more sulphur in the general body of the coal (excluding 



WEST YIRGIinA QEOLOOIGAL BUBVST. 



223 



its top) than there is in the average of the Connellsville basin. 
With the inauguration of the new methods contemplated by the 
Fairmont Coal Company for the manufacture of coke, there can be 
little doubt that a great improvement in quality can be achieved, 
and that the resultant coke will compare favorably with the present 
average of the Connellsville product, including Klondike and other 
new areas recently opened in Pennsylvania. Hence the following 
analyses of the coke from the Pittsburg coal in the Fairmont- 
Clarksburg region are to be considered only as the type of the old 
and careless methods, and not what can and will be done in this 
line for the future. 



FAIRMONT-CLARKSBURG COKE (FROM PITTSBURG COAL.) 



Anal. 
No. 



I Mois- 1 Volatile 
, ture. I Matter. 



Fixed i 



Carbon. 



Ash. 






ll Sul. 



I 



Phos. 



o. i8 

0.02 
0.04 
0.15 
0.04 
0.48 
0.50 

o. 69 



1.24 

1.02 
I. 20 
I. 29 
2.00 
2.67 

3.58 

o. 76 



83.45 
87.51 
85.35 
85.79 
86.71 

84.56 
78.75 
92.77 



Coking 
Time. 



' 15.13 

j J».45i 
13.41 

I i2.77 

1 11.25 

I 12. 29 

I 17. 17 

i 5.78 



100 
100 
100 
100 

lOO' 

100, 
100 
100' 



2. 17 

1. 12 
1.79 
I. 81 
I. 10 

1.86 
2.09 
2.43 



Average..! 0.26 1.72 I 85.61 i 12.41 100! 1.79 



o. 0265 I 48 hours^ 

0.0200 72 ** 

0.0300 ' 72 ** 

0.0300 I 72 ** 

0.0060 j 48 ** 

72 ** 

0.0190 48 ** 

o. 0320 48 ** 



o. 0243 



LOCATION OF MINES FROM WHICH SAMPLES FOR COKE WERE 

TAKEN. 
Sample 
No, 

1 From Beech wood mine, about half way between Morgantown and 

Fairmont. 

2 From Montana mine, six miles north of Fairmont, Marion county. 

3 From Gaston mine, at Watson, Manon county. 

4 From New England mine, near Watson, Marion county, two miles 

south of Fairmont, on the B. & O. R R. 

5 From Kiugmont ovens, Kingmont, Marion county. 

6 From Monongah, No. 3, i mile south of Monongaii, Marion county. 

7 From Hutchinson mine, at Hutchinson, Marion county, twelve miles 

south ot Fairmont. 

8 From Briar Hill, No. i, about twenty miles south of Fairmont. 

The Montana and Monongah mines are the only ones that 
make any attempt to reduce the impurities by washing the fine 
coal. 

There can be little doubt that if a foot or more of the highly 
sulphurous and bony **top'' coal were discarded, and all the rest 



224 tHS MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

of the bed properly crushed and washed, a most excellent coke 
would resuli. 

It is highly proper, before closing this chapter on the Pitts- 
burg coal, to call attention to its exceeding richness in volatile 
combustile matter, and of the great and unpardonable waste of 
heat and most valuable by-products when it is coked in the ordi- 
nary bee -hive oven. The coal is one which would yield very rich 
results if coked in some form of the by-product oven, and now 
that one very strong and wealthy corporation controls practically 
all of the Fairmont-Clarksburg coal mines, it is hoped that it will 
not repeat the wasteful folly of the Connellsville producers in its 
future coke operationsi 



CHAPTER IV. 



THE CONEMAUGH SERIES, NO. XIV. 



This is the rock series which was formerly called the Lower 
Barren Measures, Elk River series, etc. 

Dr. William B. Clark, State Geologist of Maryland, has re- 
cently called attention to the fact that the name Conemaugh, given 
to these beds by Franklin Piatt in 1878, antedates all other geo- 
graphical terms, and should, therefore, have precedence. The name 
is also quite appropriate, since the series in question has a fine de- 
velopment along the stream of that name. 

As now limited, it includes all of the strata from the floor of 
the Pittsburg coal down to the top of the Upper Freeport bed, the 
whole having an average thickness of 600 feet, though it varies 
from 400 on the western margin of the Appalachian field in Ohio, 
to 800 feet near Charleston, W. Va. 

The series as thus limited above and below, consists of two 
widely different members, lithologically considered, the upper 
composed largely of soft, red, and marly ahale^ the lower of mas- 



226 THE OONEMAUGH SERIES. 

sive, pebbly sandstones. The difference in the rock type is so 
marked, and especially in the character of the topography made 
by each, that the First Geological Survey of Pennsylvania and 
Virginia placed them m two different series, the massive sand- 
stones, at the base of the Conemaugh, being classed with the un- 
derlying Allegheny. That assignment, based primarily upon dif- 
ference of rock type, was more philosophical than the present 
limitations, but the fact that no definite boundary (a sandstone al- 
ways being subject to sudden and rapid changes in both thickness 
and'character) could be assigned to either the lower limits of the up- 
per one, or the upper limits of the lower one, led Profs. Stevenson, 
Lesley, and other Pennsylvania geologists to extend the limits of 
the * 'Lower Barren Measures'' of Rogers down to the horizon of 
the Upper Freeport coal, a well marked and vridely persistent 
stratum. This arrangement gives definiteness to classification, a 
great desideratum, but it has the fault of bringing together rocks 
of very different type, and hence, while apparently preferable to 
the old and indefinite dividing line between the two series, is yet 
not altogether satisfactory. Hence, it is possible that a future and 
more detailed study of the series in West Virginia, may reveal 
some more desirable dividing plane between the Conemaugh series 
and the underlying Allegheny than the present one, (U. F. coal), 
which will retain all of the desirable features of the Rogers classi- 
fication and at the same time relieve it of indefiniteness. 

Viewed from the standpoint of change in physical conditions 
the proper place for such a dividing plane between the Cone- 
maugh and Allegheny beds, would be the first general appearance 
of RED ROCKS, near the horizon of the Bakerstowm coal about 100 
feet under the Ames or Crinoidal limestone horizon. That a 
great physical cnange took place soon after the deposition of the 
Mahoning sandstone rocks, the present basal members of the 
Conemaugh series, must be conceded, since no red beds whatever 
are found from the base of the Pottsville up to the top of the 
Allegheny, and none worth considering until after the epoch of 
the Upper Mahoning sandstone. 

The sudden appearance or disappearance of red sediments 
after their absence from a great thickness of strata is always 
accompanied by a great change in life forms, and the present one 
is no exception. In fact, the invasion of red sediments succeed- 
ing the Mahoning sandstone epoch of the Conemaugh may well 



WB8T VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 227 

be considered as the '^beginning of the end'' of the true Coal 
Measures, both from a lithological as well as a biological stand- 
point, and hence it is possible that the best classification aside 
from the conveniences of the geologist, would leave the Mahoning 
sandstone in the Coal Measures, and place the rest of j|the Cone- 
maugh, as well as the Monongahela series above, in the Permo- 
Carboniferous. This reference is also confirmed by the charac- 
ter of the fauna and flora, both of which contain many forms that 
characterize the Permo-Carboniferous beds of Kansas and the west 
as may be seen in the lists published on a subsequent page under 
the detailed description of the principal Conemaugh strata. 

As already stat^^d, the two types of rock (hard and soft) in- 
cluded in this series, give rise to two widely distinct varieties of 
both soil and topography. The uppermost 400 feet of soft beds 
with their included thin limestones, and limy, red, yellow, and 
greenish shales, interstratified vdih two to three rather massive 
sandstones, give origin to a beautiful, rolling topography often 
finely adapted to grazing and agriculture, especially where these 
beds cover the uplands not dee])ly trenched by draining streams. 
When the hills are liigh and steep, however, the red marly shales 
exhibit a great tendency to landslides, and hence where such 
topography abounds, grazing rather than agriculture should be 
the chief occupation for these Conemaugh soils. 

A wide band of red marks the crop of this soft portion of the 
Conemaugh entirely across the State from the Pennsylvania line 
on the north to the Big Sandy river at the Kentucky boundary, 
250 miles distant to the southwest. 

The line of this red band so distinctly marked by the great 
Pittsburg coal at top, and the massive, pebbly sandstones below 
that no one could fail to recognize it, passes across eastern Monon- 
galia and Marion, western Taylor, Barbour and Upshur, across the 
Pan-handle of Lewis into Braxton, and following the west side of 
Elk river rudely parallel to the same, crosses western Clay, east- 
ern Roane, and central Kanawha counties to the Great Kanawha 
at Charleston; then crossing the latter stream, extends in a broad 
belt into Putnam, through central Cabell and Wayne to the Big 
Sandy river at the Kentucky line. 

South from Taylor and Barbour counties, the red beds of the 
Conemaugh are reinforced by the reds which there begin to replace 



228 THE OONXMAUOH BERIKS. 

the limestones of the Monongahela series, so that the belt of red 
SOIL broadens out westward to the Ohio river after crossing the 
Little Kanawha, and includes not only the Conemaugh and Mo- 
nongahela series, but also the Dunkard. The Conemaugh reds, 
however, are sharply delimited from the overlying ones by the 
gray, pebbly sandstones at their base, which, together with the 
complete absence of red beds from the underlying Allegheny-Kan- 
awha, and Pottsville series, causes the entire disappearance of red 
SOILS at a few miles east from Elk river, until the Mauch Chunk 
REDS of the Lower Carboniferous are brought to the surface many 
miles to the southeast in Webster, Pocahontas, Greenbrier, Sum- 
mers and other counties along the southeastern border of the state. 

The lowest 150 feet of these reds is known among oil well 
drillers as the '*Big red cave,'* since it gives much trouble to them 
in drilling for gas and oil. The wall of the well through this por- 
tion of the column of rocks must be quickly lined with casing, or 
it will '*cave" and crumble into the hole from the pressure of the 
overlying strata, thus often imprisoning the drilling tools and lead- 
ing to the abandonment of the boring. The nuggets of hard lime- 
stone scattered through these red shales constitute the chief agent 
in this imprisonment, since they readily tumble out from the 
walls of the hole, and impinging against the drilling tools, princi- 
pally at the *'jars," prevent their withdrawal. 

For these reasons, every oil well driller becomes an expert 
stratigrapher in tracing these red beds underground, and they 
have been so traced in hundreds of borings entirely across the 
state, when deeply covered by the overlying Monongahela and 
Dunkard series, so that whether at the surface and visible in broad 
bands of RED SOIL around the hills, or buried under 2000 feet, of 
higher sediments, the same deep purple and red shales exist in this 
portion of the geologic column along the belt of country west from 
the mountain region of the state. Hence the color is not the re- 
sult of recent oxidation, but is evidently due to the deposit of red 
sediments derived from the erosion of old land areas of pre- carbon- 
iferous time. 

When these red beds of the upper Conemaugh are traced 
eastward into the Allegheny mountain area, however, the colors 
often fade out into green, yellow and gray, so that frequently the 
geologist might be led to infer their complete absence, if his obser- 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



229 



vations were confined entirely to the rocks exposed at the surface. 
The fact that the diamond drills bring up these reds when bur- 
ied below the level of the present drainage systems in mountain 
areas, leads to the conclusion that the absence of the red beds, €0 
universal over the area west from the AUeghanies, is only apparent 
and due to the action of carbonated waters, which have largely 
leached the iron from the superficial beds in mountain regions, 
thus decolorizing the strata and almost completely depriving them 
of the pur|)le and red colors which make the outcrop of this series 
so conspicuous throughout their entire area in West Virginia, 
Pennsylvania and Ohio, west from the AUeghanies. The writer 
has personally observed the red materials brought up from these 
borings in the Alleghany mountain region, and hence can testify 
that its absence from the surface outcrops in those regions is due 
to the secondary causes mentioned, and that although there may 
be an increase of sandstonp and gray sandy sediments eastward, 
yet in the unleached portions of the Conemaugh there are alwaya 
some red beds to be found. 

These red beds cause great expense and trouble, not alone to 
the oil well drillers, but also to the railroads, highways, trolley 
lines and other public improvements, which are compelled to be 
cut through their outcrops. As these reds are reconverted into muddy 
sediments and **cave'' into the oil wells soon after water pene- 
trates them, so they return to mud at the surface, when exposed to 
the weather in cuttings, and thus give rise to slides which obstruct 
railroads and highways, and in addition give origin to a deep, 
sticky mud along the latter, through which wagons pass with the 
greatest difficulty. The railroad or highway engineer should 
avoid cutting into the slopes of these red beds wherever possible, 
since when the angle of repose is once disturbed, they virill alide 
into the exciavation continually thereafter, until the condition of 
equilibrium is again attained. It is these soft red beds which have 
given the Pennsylvania railroad so much trouble in landslides at 
Pittsburg, where immense retaining walls have finally been built 
to hold back the movement of the ste^^p slopes, in the vicinity of 
the Union depot, and also along the Pan Handle railroad on the 
south side of the Monongahela river. Where long steep slopes 
must be traversed with deep cuttings through these rocks, it would be 
less exoensive to construct tunnels, or heavy retaining walls, in the 
beginning. 



230 



THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 



In strong contrast with these soft, yielding, unstable beds, 
which make the upper two-thirds of the Conemaugh series, may 
be placed the massive, gray, pebbly sandstones, which form its 
basal members. These rocks are quite hard, and the sand grains 
being cemented with peroxide of iron, or silica, resist erosion and 
form a protecting roof to the underlying Allegheny- Kanawha coal 
series, long after the soft red beds above have disappeared. Along 
all the larger streams, they crop in bold, precipitous cliffs, and on 
the smaller tributaries form narrow gorges, water falls and rugged 
scenery generally. As a topogra])hic element in the landscape, 
they can be followed with the greatest ease from knob to knob, 
and hill to hill. 

In the northern portion of the state tliese massive sandstones 
occupy 150 to 200 feet of the basal portion of the Conemaugh, 
but in pasdng southwestward they thicken up and occupy 250 to 
300 feet of the series on the Elk and Kanawha rivers, and the 
«ame condition of affairs continues to the Big Sandy river, and 
beyond into Kentucky. 

Having given a general description of the Conemaugh series, 
some sections will now be presented which exhibit the measure- 
ments and detailed character of these strata in several widely dis- 
tant regions of the state. 

At Morgantown, the Pittsburg coal is in the summit of the 
hills and the Upper Freeport comes up to the bed of the Monon- 
gahela river, on the crest of a low anticlinal wave, near the Eureka 
Pump Station, thus giving an almost complete exposure of the Con- 
emaugh series, as published in Bulletin 65, U. S. G. Survey, page 
79. 

MORGANTOWN, MONONGALIA COUNTY. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Pittsburg Coal 

Fireclay 2 o 

Sandy shales and sandstone 32 o 

Coal, Little Pittsburg i 6 

Sandy shales 17 o 

Limestone i o 

Yellowish shales with iron ore 10 o 

Sandy shales, and concealed 17 o 

Sandstone, rather massive 25 o 

Sandy shales, and concealed 15 o 

Massive sandstone, Connellsville 20 o 

Bluish green sandy beds 20 o 

Black slate, fosiillferous i o 

Limestone, Clarksburg i o 



-227 



WIST VIKOINIA GEOLOGICAL SUKVEY. 



2SI 



Shales and sandy beds 45 o I 

Sandstone, Morgantown 20 o J 

Elk Lick Coal 3 

Shales, and concealed 55 

Limestone Crinoidal, Ames i 

Variegated shales 85 

Limestone, Upper Cambridge i 

Shales 14 o ^ 

Sandstone, Buffalo 3 6 

Shales and Shaly sandstone 30 o 

Massive sandstone, Upper and Lower 

Mahoning 100 o 

Shales 40 o 



o 
o 
6 
6 
o 



187 6 



Total 561 o 

In the vicinity of Little Falls, nine miles above Morgantown, 
the basal members of the Conemaugh can be seen more in detiil 
than in the Morgantown section, and the following gives the stnieK 
ture there. Bulletin 65, U. S. G. Survey, page 80 : 



LITTLE FALLS, MONONGALIA CO. 



Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Pittsburg coal 

Shales, sandstone and concealed 100 o 

Sandstone, in knob 5 o 

Shales 15 i 

Massive, coarse yellow sandstone, 

Connellsville 21 7 

Coaly shale, Little Clarksburg o 6 

Limestone, fossiliferous Clarksburg ..10 

Concealed, shales and sandstone 47 o 

Limestone, nodular 3 o 

Gray and yellow shales 9 o 

Black slate 3 7 



Fl. In. 



205 9 



J 



:■■)■ 



1' rcoal. 

Coal \ slate 

Coal, Blk Lick - ( coal 

Concealed with red 

shale 15 o 

Coal, good o 6 

Shales 8 6 

Limestone, gray and buff in several 

layers, Elk Lick 6 o 

Flaggy sandstones and shales 22 10 

Sandstones, massive, pebbly at base 

for four feet 15 o 

Concealed, probably shales 31 o 

Fossiliferous shale, crinoidal (Ames L. 8) 10 

Concealed, red shales and impure limestone 65 

Limestone, light gray, Upper Cambridge i 



16 II 



83 



105 



Shales and flaggy sandstones 24 6 

Sandstone, rather massive 10 10 

Concealed and shales 16 3 

Sandstone, Upper Mahoning, mas- 
sive 53 6 

Coal, Mahoning i 



o 
6 
o 



THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

Shales and concealed tj o 

Shale, greenish, sandy xi o 

Sandy shale and flaggy sandstone... 5 2 

Shale, greenish yellow 12 o 

Concealed , probably shale «• x 7 o 

I/>wer Mahoning sandstone ^ 26 6 

Coal, Upper Freeport 



98 8 



Total 587 3 

Near Webster, Taylor Co., in the syncline east of the Chest- 
mxt Ridge anticlinal, the Pittsburg coal is caught in the summits 
of the hills. A diamond drill boring was recently sunk near the 
B. A O. R. R. at Webster to test the Allegheny coals underijdng 
the valley. Mr. Charles II. Washburn kept a careful record of the 
■lata penetrated by the drill, and combining those results with 
measurements up to the Pittsburg coal in the simimits of the hills 
I mile south, he obtained the following section : 

WEBSTER, TAYLOR COUNTY. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Pittsburg coal 

Concealed 104 o to 104 o 

Connellsville sandstone 20 o ** 124 o 

Concealed, flaggy sandstones and shales.. 53 o '* 177 o 

Limestone, massive, visible 30** 180 o 

Concealed, variegated shales and sand- 
stone loi o •* 281 o 

Sandstone, flaggy 24 o ** 305 o 

Shale, sandy 30** 3^ o 

Limestone, Crinoidal, Ames 10'* 309 o 

Shales, dark 30'* 312 o 

Coal, Crinoidal, Ames 20*' 314 o 

Shales, variegated 30 o ** 344 o 

Limestone 10 o ** 354 o 

Shales, variegated, and flaggy sandstone.. 23 o " 377 o 

Shales, yellow 50** 382 o 

Coal, Bakerstown, Barton, etc 20" 384 o 

Red shales, sandstone, and concealed 77 o "461 o 

TOP OF DIAMOND BORING. 

Yellow clay, gravel, -etc 10 6 " 471 6 

Fire clay and shale 64** 477 10 

Shale... 14 10 '* 492 8 

Shale, limy, probably horizon Lower Cam- 
bridge Limestone 80** 500 8 

Fire clay and black shale 2 10 ** 503 6 

Coal, Mason 09" 504 3 

Limestone, impure, Irondale 12 11 " 517 2 

Fireclay 11 6 '* 528 8 

Shale, light green 70** 535 8 . 

Fireclay 17 6 ** 553 2 

Sandy shale and massive sandstone, Up- 
per Mahoning 32 3 ** 585 5 

Sandy shale 15 7 ** 601 o 

Fire clay and shale 7 3** 608 3 

Shale, sandy 50" 613 3 



WEST yiBGIJOA «EOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



o 


<l 


624 


^ 


o 


t( 


626 


^ 


II 


tt 


646 


2 


o 


it 


653 


2 


o 


(( 


667 


2 



679 3 



ShalCf streaked with coal seams 11 

Coal, Mahoning 2 

Fire clay and sandy shale 19 

Limestone, dark greenish gray, Mahon- 
ing 7 

Shale and fire clay, with lime nodules 14 

Sandy shale and ^icaceous sandstone, 
Lower Mahoning 12 

Coal, Upper Freeport , 

It is possible that the measurement was made a few feet 
thicker than it should be in connecting the surface outcrops with 
the mouth of the bore hole, but the error is probably not greater 
than 25 to 30 feet, since a few miles east of this at Newbuig; 
Preston Co. , where the Pittsburg coal has been mined in the Bmn- 
mits of the hills, and the upper Freeport is mined by a shaft below 
the level of the valley, the following section was once measured by 
the writer : 

NEWBURG PBESTON COUNTY. 

Ft. Ft 

Pittsburg coal 

Fire clay 5 1 

Concealed 14 I 

Sandy shales 30 M59 

Concealed 210 J 

Coal, Elk Lick, slaty 4 

Concealed 16 " 

Sandstone, pebbly 30 

Concealed 15 

Sandstone, flaggy 10 

Shales, sandy 10 

Shales, dark, fossiliferous, (Ames Limestone ho> 

rizon) 13 

Coal, Crinoidal. Friendsville .'. 2 

Concealed 20 

Red, marly shale 5 

Concealed 40 

Sandstone, yellow 10 

Concealed 15 

Fire clay and shales 5 

Sandstone, massive 20 

Sandy shale 10 

Sandstone, massive 10 

Surface in shaft 9 

Coal, Mason .'. j 

Sandstone, Upper Mahoning « 1 

Shales 25 / ^ 

Coal, Mahoning i 



94 



95 



49 



(Sandstone 40 
Shale 2 
Sandstone xa 
Shale I 
Sandstone 3 

Coal, Upper Freeport 



80 



Total. 



Ms 



SM 



THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 



On east from this in the central portion of the Alleghany 
itains, and not far from the northern line of Preston county, 
De. G. C. Martin, Geologist of the Maryland Geological Survey, 
measured the following section near Friendsville, Md., Geology of 
Ganett county, pages 130-131 : 



FRIENDSVILLE. GARRETT COUNTY. MD. 



Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Probable position of Pittsburg coal 

Strata removed by erosion lo o 

Concealed 62 o 



Coal, Little PitUburg 



coal o 6 

shale o 2 

coal I 5 

shale o i 

coal I 6 



3 8 



Limestone 

Concealed 

Flaggy sandstone 

Concealed, and massive conglomerilic sandstone.. 

Fine grained sandstone 

Shale 



{limestone 2 6 
shale I o 
limestone 3 6 



Shale 

Concealed 

Shale 

Concealed 

Sandstone and shale 

Fine-bedded sandstone 

Massive conglomerate 

Shaly, cross-bedded sandstone 

Coal Elk Lick 

Gray, calcareous shale 

Massive sandstone 

Shaly limestone and fossiliferous shale, Ames L. S. 

Coal. Friendsville 

Yellow shale 

Fine-grained, cross-bedded sandstone 

Gray shale 

Concealed 

Sandy, fossiliferous shales 

Yellow shales and concealed 

Black shale 

Coal, Bakerstown 

Shale and sandstone 

Red shale 

Limestone 

Red and green shales 

Pandy shales 

Limestone 

Sandy shales 



I 
6 
26 
50 
8 
2 



I 
15 

5 
18 

15 

21 

9 

18 

o 

3 

20 
10 

I 

5 
30 

I 

31 
4 

15 
2 
I 

36 
2 
2 

7 
, 10 

I 
. 27 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
6 
o 

o 

3 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
6 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



WEST VIRGINIA GBOLOGICAL BURVEY. 235 

Black fossiliferous shales 5 o 

Limestone, Lower Cambridge o 6 

Black shale 5 o 

Coal, Maffon - i 9 

Concealed 8o o 

Black shale, with coal smut on top 6 o 

{bone o 7 1 

shale o 6 }■ I lo 

co^l o 9 J 

Black shale lo o 

Sandstone o 4 

Shale 4 o 

Concealed 25 o 

Approximate position of Upper Preeport coal 

Total 635 4 

At Fairfax Knob, Tucker county, the following measurezottnt 

results by combining the exposures there with the record of a well 

drilled to test the Upper Freeport coal below the bed of the North 

Potomac near its headwaters : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



.... / 
[ 29 



Coal 



Shales ^ 5 o 

Limestone 4 o 

Shales 7 o 

rcoal 4 6 

Little Pittsburg < fire clay and shales..^ 18 o 

(coal, slaty 7 o 

Shales, and concealed 85 

^ coal 29^ 

Coal, Little Clarksburg < slate « o ^ V 3 9 

( coal 06 J 

Shales 40 o 

coal, slaty o 10 ] 

coal ^51.- 

slate I o [ ^ "^ 

[coal I o J 

Fireclay and shales 10 o 

Blue shales with iron ore 15 o 

Black slate 2 o 

{coai 08] 
slate 04^20 
coal « I o j 

Concealed with sandstone and shales 200 o 

Coal and black slate, (Mason) 3 o 

Shales 50 o 

Sandstone, massive .... 25 o 

Concealed 9 o 

Sandstone, soft i o 

Clay, yellow 6 o 

Sandstone ^20 o 

Limestone, Mahoning 20 o 

Soft .shale i o 

Hard shale ^ 9 o 

Soft shale i o 

fcilate, light blue 10 o 

Slate, dark , 19 o 



236 THE OONEMAUGH SERIES. 

Sandstone 2 o 

Upper Freeport coal 

Total 583 6 

This section is the same as the one published in Bulletin 65, 
U. S. G. Survey, page 82, except that a dififerent interpretation 
is put upon the two layers of Little Rtt«burg coal which with the 
16 feet of strata above them was referred to the main Pittsburg bed 
in Bulletin 65, but is now considered to belong to the Conemaugh 
series. Since these strata are now removed from the Monongahela 
series, the next underlying coal bed will be the Little Clarksburg 
instead of the Little Pittsl)urg as correlated in Bulletin 65. 

The 3 feet of coal and black slate 200 feet under the Elk Lick 
coal has been correlated with the Mason coal horizon, but it may 
be a little too high above the Upper Freeport coal for that bed, 
since in the Henry shaft, as well as in the Elk Garden section, the 
Mason coal lies only one hundred and twenty feet above the base 
ot the Conemaugh. 

At Elk Garden, Mineral county, the Pittsburg coal is mined 
in the summits of the hills, and in descending from it to the North 
Potomac river at Blaine, Dr. G. C. Martin obtained the following 
section, Geology of Garrett county, page 128 : 
BLAINE, MINERAL COUNTY. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Coal, Pittsburg 

Concealed 180 o 

Sandstone 3 o 

Concealed 108 o 

Sandstone 2 o 

Concealed 60 o 

Sandy shales 4 o 

fcoal I 2 ^ 

coal. Bakerstown..]^!;^}-;;;"^-^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ° ' 

i^bone 04^ 

Concealed /.. 26 o 

Shale 6 o 

fCoal „ 04) 

Coal...-) shale 16^21 

(coal o 3 j 

Concealed 36 o 

Black shales 10 o 

Fossiliferous, disintegrated limestone. Lower Cam- 
bridge o 8 

Black shales ^... 8 o 

icoal 12) 
bone o i }■ i o 
coal o 6 J 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



237 



Concealed no o 

Flaggy sandstone 7 o 

Sandy shales 5 o 

Coal, Upper Freeport 

Total 571 6 

Barton, Allegany county, Md., in the George's Creek-Potom- 
ac coal basin is a type locality for the Barton coal (Bakerstown) 
andjthe following section of the Conemaugh series constructed 
there by Dr. Martin is given in the Geology of Garrett county, 
page 127, as follows : 



BARTON, ALLEGANY COUNTY, MD. 



Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Coal, Pittsburg 

Concealed, shale toward the base 

Gray shales 

Concealed , 

Black bituminous shale 

Yellowish shales, with iron-band markings. . . . 

Concealed, with sandstone near base 

Arenaceous shales and thin-bedded sandstones. 
Concealed.. 



Coal, Franklin... 



f coal 

shale 

coal 

Bitummous shales .. 

coal 

shale 2 

i^coal 2 

Ferruginous shales 

Concealed 

Dark gray shales t 

Coarse, t-andy shales 

Massive gray cross-bedded sandstone 

Concealed 

Brownish gray massive sandstone 

Concealed 

^ bone o 

Coal, Bakerstown.. < coal 2 

( coal and shale o 

Concealed 

Sandy shales , 

Coal, Mason 

Sandy shale 

Shale 

Sandstone 

Bhale 

Sandstone 

Shale 

Coal, Upper Freeport 



41 
8 

18 
2 

26 

29 
8 

10 



n 



4 
26 
20 
10 

9 
94 

7 
84 



6 10 



77 
15 

I 

3 
12 
28 

8 
33 

3 



o 
o 
7 
5 
o 
o 
o 
6 
6 



Total. 



•594 



238 



THB CONEMAUGH SERIES. 



About five miles northwest from Philippi, on the head waters 

of Elk creek, th^ Pittsburg coal crops high up in the hills, and an 

oil well record on the Hall farm, beginning at the horizon of the 

Crinoidal Limestone, gives the lower portion of the Conemaugh. 

Mr. C. McC. Lemley, Assistant Engineer of the B. & 0. R. R., 

Philippi, W. Va., is authority for the following measurements 

made on the Hall farm and connected by him with the record of 

the Hall well No. 1 of the Elk Creek Oil and Gas Company. 

HAI,!, FARM SECTION. 

Ft. Ft. 

Pittsburg coal, base 1365 A. T 

Interval, shales, sandstones and concealed 259^ 

Sandstone, massive, Morgantown 20 

Shales 3 

Coal, Elk Lick a 

Limestone, Elk Lick 5 • 331 

Shales, and concealed 16 

Red shales, containing two layers of fossiliferous 

^marine) limestone, Ames 15 

Borehole record begins here 

Surface sand and wash 11^ 

Black slate and coal, Friendsville 

Black lime 15' 

Lime shell 20 

Red and black lime 20 

Red rock and slate 15 

Light slate and lime 10 

Sand 25 270 

Red rock and sand shell 13 

Black slate 62 

Blue lime 75 

Sand, white ....'. 5 

Sand, black 10 

Coal, Mason 

Black sand 15 

White sand 10 

Black lime 15 

Black sandy lime 55 

Sand 15 J 

Coal, Upper Freeport 

Total 722 

The oil well driller makes use of the word **lime" to indicate 
any rock whose drillings come up fine and limy-looking. The 
rock may be a sandy shale, or even a shaly sandstone, with 
scarcely a trace of lime in it, so that terms given in a well driller's 
log often fail to convey an adequate idea of the rock in question. 
This section near Philippi shows a thick measurement of the 
Conemaugh, but that it is correctly made is confirmed by the next 
one, several miles to the southwest, also the result of accurate lev- 
eling by a civil engineer. 



WEST VIBGINIA 6B0L0OIGAL SUBYXT. 



239 



In the Pan Handle of Lewis county, near Ireland, both the 
Elk Lick coal and the Bakerstown, or Barton beds have been 
mined, and as the Pittsburg caps some of the highest summits in 
the vicinity, a vertical section from it to the Upper Freeport coal 
has been accurately measured by Mr. J. Perry Thompson, of Fair- 
mont, by combining the surface outcrops with the record of a bor- 
ing, as follows : 

IREI.AND SECTION. 

Ft In. Ft. In. 

Pittsburg coal 

Interval 240 6 

fcoal I 3 

I slate o 2 

Coal, Elk Lick-j coal i 4 

slate ..01 

[coal I 8 

Interval 127 8 

Coal, good, bright, Bakerstown 2 4 

Concealed 40 o 

Shaly sandstone 15 o 

Coal, thin 

Interval 182 7 

{coal I 6 1 
black slate o 3 r 3 5 
coal I 8 J 

Sandstone, Lower Mahoning, massive.. 84 o 

Coal streak 

Interval 21 o 

Upper Freeport coal 



Total., 



.721 



This measurement exhibits the same tendency to thicken east- 
ward and south westward shown by the previous one near Philippi. 
In the region of Charleston on the Great Kanawha the Conemaugh 
appears to attain its greatest development, as shown by the follow- 
ing section compiled by the writer along Two Mile creek, and 
southward to the junction of the Elk and Kanawha rivers, as 

follows : 

TWO MILE-KANAWHA SECTION. 

Ft. Ft. 



320 



Pittsburg coal 

Concealed, sandstone and red shales 150 

Sandstone, massive, Connellsville 30 

Red shales, sandstone and concealed ', 80 

Sandstone, massive, Morgantown 20 

Concealed and sandy shales 40 

Coal, impure. Elk Lick ,,. i 

Dark limestone 2 

Concealed and massive sandstone 27 

Deep red shales, with Two Mile limestones and 
iron ore 50 



240 



THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 



Flaggy sandstone 20 \- 162 

Coal, impure, Bakerstown (Barton) 3 

Sandstone, massive 15 

Shales, with gray limestone, two feet thick 20 

Sandstone, massive 25 J 

Fireclay 8 

Sandstone and concealed 85 \j^ 

Sandstone, massive, pebbly, Buffalo 75 / 

Coal, Mason 2 

Shales 10 

Sandstone, with streaks of coal near center, ( Ma- 

honiufO 120 |- 147 

Shales, sandv 10 

Black flint 5 

Shales 2 

Upper Freeport coal 



Total. 



.800 



The 50 feet of deep red shales with two gray fresh-water lime- 
Btones 20 feet apart api^ears to represent the horizon of the Ames 
or Crinoidal limestone of the northern portion of the state, though 
here the limestones hold only a spirorbis like form of fossil. About 
60 miles west from Charleston, however, the marine type of the 
Ames limestone appears in the vicinity of Huntington 
between which town and Kenova Prof. A. G. Selby once measured 
the following section of the Conemaugh, see page 84, Bulletin U. 
S. G. Survey : 

HUNTINGTON-KENOVA SECTION. 



Ft. 



Ft. 



197 



Pittsburg coal 

Red shale, containing limestone nodules 28 

Randstone, shaly 16 

Red shales and sandstones loi 

Coal, Little Clarksburg 2 

Sandstone, massive, Morgantown 50 

Elk Lick coal 2 

Fireclay 3 I ^ 

Shales, deep red 103 p°^ 

Limestone, crinoidal, Ames 2 

Coal, Crinoidal, Friendsville 2 

Red shales 4 \ 

Limestone 4 [.183 

Shales and sandstones 175 j 

Limestone, Lower Cambridge 2 

Shales jq 

Coal, Mason ,,,„ j 



Shales 30 1^ 

Sandstone, Mahoning 125 / 

Upper Freeport coal 



155 



Total. 



.660 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 241 

This Huntington-Kenova section reveals all of the main fea- 
tures shown at the northern line of the state, 260 miles distant. 
The Mahoning sandstone is double bedded at Kenova, where it 
crops along Twelve Pole river, and the Mahoning coal is occasion- 
ally present about midway between the Mason and Upper Free- 
port seams. 

The Ames and Lower Cambridge limestones are still filled 
with their characteristic marine fossils, although only fifty miles 
distant from Charleston, where only fresh water or estuarine types 
are to be found at these horizons. 

To show the wide spread uniformity of this Conemaugh se- 
ries, there will now be introduced a section from the region of 
King's creek, Brooke county, the most northern outcrop in West 
Virginia of the Pittsburg coal, where it is possible to measure a 
section between it and the Upper Freeport, as follows : 

OSBURN'S MILI., BROOKE COUNTY. 

Ft 

Pittsburg coal, about 1195 feel A. T 

Concealed, red shwles and sandy beds 175 

Sandstone, massive, Morgantown 25 

Shales, with thin coal (Elk Lick) 10 

Concealed and shales 40 

Limestone, Crinoidal (Ames) very fossiliferous 10 

Red and marly shales and concealed 60 

Massive sandstone ^ 40 

Coal, Bakerstown, Barton 2 — ^4 

Shales and concealed 25 

Limestone, fossiliferous, Upper Cambridge 2 

Red shales 10 

Shales, sandstone and concealed 60 

Dark, fossiliferous shales, Lower CamBridge L. S 5 

Coal, Mason, blossom i 

Limy shales 5 

Concealed and massive sandstone 45 

Coal, Mahoning (No. 7) 3 — 5 

Concealedand sandstone .60 

Coal, Upper Freeport 

Total 580 

In the deeply buried region between the Ohio and Mononga- 
hela rivers, where even the top of the Conemaugh series is occa- 
sionally 1500 feet below the summits, the continuity of the beds 
remains unbroken, as revealed by numerous oil well borings. 

The Brice Wallace well No. 1, just east from Fairview, Marion 
county, drilled by the South Penn Oil Company, is one of the few 
in which the Upper Freeport coal has been observed, as well as the 



242 



THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 



Pittsburg above. The record of this well reads as follows through 
the Conemaugh series : 

BRICE WALLACE WELL NO. i, MARION COUNTY. 

Ft. 

Pittsburg coal 

White slate 31 

Limestone 40 

Slate, light 15 

Red rock 25 

Shale and white sandstone 50 

Red rock and sandstone 165 

Limestone 15 

Red rock and slate 40 

Sandstone 25 

Coftl and slate (Mason) 30 

Sand, hard, (Upper Mahoning) 35 

Slate, dark 45 

Sandstone, (Lower Mahoning) 40 

Coal, Upper Frteport 

Total 556 

Here the Mahoning sandstone is clearly differentiated into two 
members, and the coal above apparently belongs at the horizon of 
the Mason bed. 

In Grant district, Doddridge county, near the Tyler county 
line, this series has the following thickness according to the record 
of^the William Sandy well No. 1, drilled by the South Penn Oil 
Company : 

WILLIAM SANDY WELL NO. i, GRANT DISTRICT, 
DOHDRIDGE COUNTY. 

Ft. 

Pit»sburg coal .,... 

Slate 10 

Limestone 30 

Slate 35 

Red rock 15 

Hand 30 

Limestone 10 

Red rock 10 

Slate 5 

Red rock 75 

Sand 100 

Slate 10 

Limestone 35 

Red rock 10 

Limestone 25 

Coal 8 

Slate 15 

Limestone 20 

Sand 25 



WBST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 243 

Slate 15 

Limestone 20 

Slat^ and shells 25 

Total 528 

The records of borings to the southwest across the state reveal 
a thickening in that direction, thus confirming the observations 
from the surface outcrops. 

The Hudnall well No. 1, near Stouts Mill, Gihner county, 
reveals the following structure for the Conemaugh series on the 
Little Kanawha river, as recorded by the GuflFey & Galey Oil Com- 
pany : 

HUDNALL WELL NO. i, STOUTS MILL, GILMER 

COUNTY. 

Ft. 

Pittsburg coal 

Limestone 29 

Slate 2 

Saod 68 

Red rock 7 

Slate 5 

Limestone 33 

Red rock 10 

Slate 5 

Redrock 30 

{sand 65 
slate, break 2 
sand, hard 18 

Slate 5 

Limestone 5 

Sand, hard 31 

Slate 10 

Coal, Friendsville 3 

Limestone ....^ 17 

Red rock 4 

Slate 5 

Red rock 40 

Limestone 15 

Slate 10 

Pink rock 35 

Limestone 15 

Sand 20 

SWe 30 

PinK rock 20 

Slate 10 

Sand, L'pfier Mahoning 65 

Limestone. M -honing 15 

Sand, I^Aer M.ihoniug 65 

Total 694 

Ha\nng now given a general view of the Conemaugh series, 



244 THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

we shall give a more particular description of the Important mem- 
bers of the same. 

The chief coals of the series are quite variable both in thick- 
ness and quality, and they are generally high in ash and other 
impurities. Locally, however, some of the beds thicken ud into 
quite important coals of commercial quality and thickness, over 
limited areas. Considered as a whole, the series was very appro- 
priately named by the First Geological Surveys of Pennsylvania 
and Virginia, the **I^wer Barren'' Measures, on account of the 
uncertain, impure and variable nature of the coal beds in the 
same. 

The following beds represent the more important and widely 
distributedrm embers of the Conemaugh series, and have received 
Geographical names: 

Lower Pittsburg sandstone. 

Little Pittsburg coals. 

Pittsburg limestones. 

Connellsville sandstone. 

Little Clarksburg coal. 

Clarksburg limestone. 

Morgantown sandstone. 

Elk Lick coal. 

Birmingham shale. 

Ames limestone. 

Friends ville coal. 

Pittsburg rod shale. 

Saltzburg sandstone. 

Bakerstown coal. 

Upper Cambridge limestone. 

Buffalo sandstone. 

Ix)wer Cambridge limestone. 

Mason coal. 

Upper Mahoning sandstone. 

Mahoning coal. 

Lower Mahoning sandstone. 

Other beds, like the Kanawha black flint, Upper^ ^d Middle 

Cannelton coals, etc., have received distinct names, but as they 
are of limited distribution, they are not enumerated in the general 
table of the nomenclature. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 246 

The interval immediately below the top of the Conemaugh, 
for about 100 feet, is probably the most variable portion of the 
series in its rock constitution. Sometimes there will occur shales, 
limestones, thin coals, with some red beds, down to the horizon of 
the Connellsville sandstone, and again a very massive sandstone 
may appear only three to ten feet below the Pittsburg coal. 

At only one locality in the state (eastern Monongalia) do the 
Olyphant iron ore beds, so conspicuously developed in Fayette 
county. Pa. , make any show of their presence in the column of 
rocks. 

The first stiatum under the Pittsburg coal would naturally be 
a fire clay deposit, but such is seldom found ; in fact, the coal 
often rests on sandy shales, without any apparent intervening 
clay, or old fossil soil, except a very thin veneer, which makes no 
show whatever at the surface. This absence of underclays from 
the coal beds is quite general in all of the upper two-thirds of the 
Conemaugh series, and it also is universal in the Monongahela ae- 
ries above, since at no locality in the Appalachian field has any 
fireclay deposit been noted in the latter series of rocks. The high- 
est known fireclay deposit of any economic value is one at the 
horizon of the Mahoning coal, near the base of the Conemaugh. 

THE PITTSBURG^ LIMESTONES. 

Two well marked limestone horizons belong in this variable 
100 feet of measures at the top of the Conemaugh — one five to six 
feet thick, and usually found twenty-five to thirty-five feet below 
the Pittsburg coal, the other eight to ten feet thick and fifty to 
sixty feet below the latter. They are usually known as the Upper 
and Lower Pittsburg Limestones, and are excellent landmarks for 
determining the horizon of the Pittsburg coal above. They are 
often rather earthy and impure, and hence of little economic im- 
portance, except for farm use. 

The lower of these two beds may be seen in fine exposure 
along the B. & O. R. R., just west from the station at Fairmont, 
Marion county. 

THE LITTLE PITTSBURG COALS. 

Two coal beds of little economic value are also often seen in 
this variable interval at the top of the Conemaugh — one immedi- 



246 THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

ately under the Upper Pittsburg Limestone thirty to forty feet 
from the Pittsburg coal, and the other immediately over the next 
underlying Pittsburg limestone. Both coals are seldom present in 
the. same section, and hence it is frequently difficult to distinguish 
the one from the other on account of the extreme variation in the 
character of the enclosing rocks, so that both horizons have been 
designated Little Pittsburg coal. 

,t ; In the section at Fairfax Knob, Tucker county, given on page 
286 of this volume, the two beds appear to be only eighteen feet 
apart. The upper one is there four and one-half feet thick, and 
has been mined commercially. It is known as the * ^Coking seam" 
locally, from its columnar structure resembling a typical coking 
coal. Formerly the writer was inclined to believe that this bed 
represented the **Brick" division of the Pittsburg coal, the main 
body of which lies only sixteen feet above, but further studies of 
the structure of the Pittsburg coal in the Potomac basin has con 
vinced him that this conclusion was erroneous. 

On Limestone rim, and other regions of Lewis county, near 
Weston, a coal bed two and one-half to three and one-half feet 
thijck occurs over a considerable area at forty feet below what has 
always been considered the Pittsburg coal. A yellow limestone, 
eight to ten feet thick, overlies the coal in question, and the latter 
would appear to represent the I^ittle Pittsburg bed, unless the coal 
forty feet above should be the Redstone (which hardly seems pos- 
sible), and in that event the lower bed would be the Pittsburg 
proper. The detailed studies soon to be undertaken in Lewis 
county will settle this question finally, but with the present 
knowledge the coal under the yellow limestones on Limestone run, 
and other localities in Lewis county, where it has occasionally 
bc^n mined, must be regarded as the first coal below the true 
Pittsburg bed, and therefore one of the Little Pittsburg seams. 
Where mined for local use, it is reported as of good quality, fully 
equal to that of the main Pittsburg bed above. 

The lower one of the two Little Pittsburg coals is seldom of 
any economic value in West Virginia, so far as know^n, and is 
often absent entirely, or represented by only a few inches of black 
siJLTE or impure coal, just above the Lower Pittsburg limestone. 

Dr. G. C. Martin, of the Maryland Geological Survey, identi- 
fies with this coal a bed w^hich has some economic importance in 
Ganrett county, Md. , where it overlies immediately the low^er of 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 247 

the Pittsburg limestones, the quarrying of which by the farmere 
has frequently exposed the coal. 

In a section near Friendsville, Garrett county, (page 130 Ge- 
ology of Garrett county) Dr. Martin places this coal at seventy- 
two feet under the horizon of the main Pittsburg bed, and finds it 
exhibiting the following structure : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Coal 06^ 

Shale o 2 I 

Coal .• I 5 I- 3 8 

Shale o i 

Coal I 6 J 

The writer was fit first inclined to believe this a thin represen- 
tative of the main Pittsburg coal, but as Dr. Martin appears to be 
quite confident his conclusions are correct, and as he has studied 
the region in great detail, his decisions should be conclusive. 

THP] CONNELLSVILLE SANDSTONE. 

Only a few feet below the Lower Pittsburg limestone there is 
often found a massive sandstone of great economic importance. 
The stratum in question rises from the bed of the Youghiogheny 
river at Connellsville, Pa., and was named by Dr. John J. Steven- 
son from that locality. 

When massive, this rock is one of the finest building stones in 
the entire Coal Measures. The sand grains being cemented by silica 
and peroxide of iron, are almost weather proof, so that for all 
structures like bridge piers, outside walls, etc., it has no superior. 
The iron in the rock often permeates the entire mass so thoroughly 
as to give it a uniform reddish tint, and again it may have a 
speckled type, much resembling gray granite. 

The Asylum for the Insane at Weston, as also the B. A O. 
station building there, were constructed largely from this rock, ob- 
tained at Mt. Clare, Harrison county, while the suspension bridge 
piers at Morgantown, as well as the postoffice building there, are 
built of the same stratum. The suspension bridge piers have 
stood for more than fifty years, and exhibit no tendency to disin- 
tegration. 

The rock splits readily into any desired size and, although 
quite hard to carve into delicate shapes, yet it **masons" very 



248 THE 00NEMJLUQ8 SSRIES. 

readily into beautiful forms for natural or uncut *'rock face" 
work. 

Being one of the chief rocks in the Conemaugh series, it has 
played a very important part in shaping their topography. It is 
especially hard, massive, and often pebbly in the Potomac and 
George's Creek basin, and the rounded hills that hold the **Big" 
(Pittsburg) ^*vein'' rest upon a platform of this Connellsville 
sandstone which, owing to its resistance to erosion, makes a bold 
terrace far up the mountain sides, after the Pittsburg coal and all 
other soft beds above its horizon have disappeared. It is this hard 
bed of pebbly sandstone that caps the summits in the center of the 
Potomac basin southwest from Elk Garden, forming almost level 
plateaus over thousands of acres where the great Pittsburg coal is 
missed by only a short interval. 

This stratum varies in thickness from twenty to fifty feet, and 
may be seen making huge cliffs at many places along the Monon- 
gahela river between Morgantown and Fairmont. It is also con- 
spicuous near the base of the hills at Berryburg, Barbour county, 
and at many localities along Elk creek in Barbour and Harrison. 
It forms the principal quarry rock in the vicinity of Clarksburg, 
and is now extensively used at Morgantown for all building work, 
street curb, etc. 

The interval between the Connellsville sandstone and the 
Pittsburg coal is seldom less than sixty feet, and often ninety or 
more. When the sandstone is not present as a massive rock, its 
place is filled with sandy shales or flaggy sandstone. 

TnE LITTLE CLARKSBURG COAL. 

Just under the Connellsville sandstone there comes a widely 
persistent coal bed, which the writer named from the city of 
Clarksburg where it crops along the valley of Elk creek and the 
West Fork river. The coal is often double, with tw^o to three feet 
of elate or shale separating as many feet of impure, bony coal, so 
that in the Allegany and Garrett county, Maryland, area, the bed 
is frequently termed the '^Dirty Nine-Foot'' coal. This double char- 
ter of the coal is exhibited along Elk creek, below Quiet Dell, in 
Harrison county, and also in the vioiiii^ of Berry burg, Barbour 
county, as well as on Gnatty Creek and other tributaries of Elk in 



WB8T VIRCftlfIA ©BOLOGICAL SURVEY. 249 

Harrison county. The same feature has been noted in Lewis and 
Upshur. 

Economically considered, the coal is of little importance, 
since it is coarse and bony, and makes a very indifferent fuel, 
even at its best. The bed has been termed the Franklin coal at 
many localities in Maryland, and Dr. Martin gives it the following 
structure at Barton, Allegany county, ]Md. : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Coal o 9 

Shale o 2 

Coal o 3 

Bituminous shales 10 |- 6 10 

Coal o 8 

Shale •••.,.••., 2 o 

Coal « 2 o 

its position is 130 to 150 feel bdow the top of the ConemaUgh 
series, and as the coal overlies directly a widely distributed lime- 
stone, it is easily identified. 

Very frequently a few Inch^B of black slate Is the only rep- 
resentative of the Little Clarksburg coal, and it is generally filled 
with the teeth, scales and bones of fossil fishes. In fact, when 
the coal is present, it is often underlain by this fossiliferous strat- 
um, which then rests directly upon the Clarksburg limestone. 
This stratum was named the Little Clarksburg coal by the writer 
because in the vicinity of Clarksburg, where the bed was first 
studied and described, the main Pittsburg coal, which is there 
extensively mined, is locally known as the * 'Clarksburg'' coal. 

TUB CLARKSBURG LIMESTONE. 

Directly below the last d£»8Gribed coal and its underlying fos- 
siliferous black slate, there often occurs a limestone which is finely 
exposed in the vicinity of Clarksburg along Elk creek, at its junc- 
tion with the West Fork river, and was- named by the writer from 
that locality, the Clarksburg limestone. Its upper portion is gen- 
erally rather slaty and filled with fossil ostracoids and fish re- 
mains, but the lower layers are compact and massive. The whole 
stratum is often twenty to thirty feet thick, and some of the layers 
are quite ferruginous, so much so that they were once mined as 
ore and used in the manufacture of iron at an old charcoal furnace 
on Elk, near Clarksburg. Some iron ore was also obtained for 



250 THE OONEMAUGH SERIES. 

this furnace from the ferruginous shales just above the Little 
Clarksburg coal. 

The Clarksburg limestone has a wide distribution in the north- 
em end of the state, and has frequently been quarried and burned 
into lime for fertilizing purposes. It also makes excellent road 
»naterial and has been extensively used for that purpose on the 
streets and roadways in the vicinity of Clarksburg. 

THE MORGANTOWN SANDSTONE. 

At a few feet below the Clarksburg limestone, and separated 
from it by soft shales, there occurs another of the great sandstone 
horizons of the Conemaugh series. This stratum was named by 
Dr. John J. Stevenson from its fine exposures in the vicinity of 
Morgantown, Monongalia county, where it was once extensively 
quarried and used in the construction of the State University 
buildings and other structures. At this typical locality the 
top of the sandstone lies a little more than 200 feet below the 
Kttsburg coal, and the stratum has a thickness of twenty-five feet. 
It is usually of a yellowish gray cast, and splits readily into 
building blocks of any desired size. The rock contains much 
feldspathic material, and occasionally some lime, and in weather- 
ing the rock changes from a bluish gray cast to a dirty brown, and 
frequently decomposes readily, so that as a building stone for ex- 
posed surfaces, it is not a success, some of the stone work at the 
State University in Morgantown having disintegrated badly within 
a period of only twenty-five years. 

Several of the locks along the Monongahela river, between 
Morgantown and Pittsburg, have been constructed of this stone, 
and the disintegration of the lock walls is a constant source of 
expense. 

This sandstone is one of the most persistent members of the 
Conemaugh series, and usually forms a line of cliffs or steep oluffs 
wherever its outcrop extends. Although the stratum is usually 
only twenty-five to thirty feet thick, yet occasionally, as on Crooked 
run in Monongalia coimty, near the West Virginia- Pennsylvania 
line, it thickens up to one hundred feet in a solid and massive 
wall. 

Through Monongalia, Marion, Tyler, Preston, Barbour, Up- 
shur, Lewis, Braxton, Clay, Kanawha, Putnam, Mason, Cabell 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.. 251 

and Wajme, this stratum can be traced from the Pennsylvania 
line on the north to the JJIentucky boundary on the south west.534 
is well exposed along the Ohio river in the region of Huntington, 
where it makes clififs fifty to sixty feet high along the hills back' 
from the river valley. It is also conspicuous in cliffs along the 
Guyandotte, Mud, and Coal rivers, as well as along the Great Kan- 
awha, where it has been frequently quarried and used in builiiitfg 
the locks below Charleston. ' ' 

This stratum produces oil in the * 'Shallow sand'' districts of 
Washington, Noble and Monr6e counties of Ohio, as well as Bi 
some localities in Wirt and Ritchie of West Virginia, whereit 
has occasionally been confused by the oil well drillers with the 
Dunkard or ''First Cow Run'' sand of Ohio. It also produced 
oil in one well on Dunkard creek, Greene county, Pennsylvania^ 
at about 200 feet below the Pittsburg coal. 

THE ELK LICK COAL. 

Immediately under the Morgantown sandstone, or separated 
from it by only a few feet of shale, there comes a coal of very wide 
distribution which often obtains workable dimensions. The name, 
Elk Lick, was given the coal in question by the First Geological 
Survey of Pennsylvania, but the exact place of the bed in the Con- 
emaugh series remained uncertain till the Messrs. Piatt, of the 
Second Pennsylvania Survey, determined the matter finally by 
identifying the massive sandstone above it at the type locality in 
Somerset county, Pennsylvania, as the Morgan town. The coal 
attains a thickness of four feet on Elk Lick creek (which puts ioto 
the Castleman river from the southwest near Meyersdale, Somerset 
county, Pennsylvania), where it was once mined for local use. 

This coal is quite generally present in eastern Monongalia and 
has been mined along Deckers creek in Morgantown, and farther 
up the stream, where it is three to four feet thick, but contains 
much ash and bony material. It burns well, however, if broken 
into small lumps. 

It has been mined for local use at a few localities in Presjbon 
county, north from Cheat river, where it is known as the ' 'top vein," 
and is close to four feet thick. 

In Scotch Hill, at Newburg, Preston county, it was (Mice 
opened along the old incline leading up to the Pittsburg coal, 



•252 



THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 



where it is 260 feet below the latter bed and called the * Tour- 
Foot' ' seam. The coal is slaty, however, and could not be mined 
for commercial purposes. 

In Taylor and Barbour counties this bed has occasionally been 
opened high up in the hills along the Tygart's Valley river, and 
mined by the farmers for domestic use. 

In the deep syncline, east from Philippi, this coal has been 
mined locally by the farmers, and it is also caught in the summit 
of Friedly Knob, near the crest of the Laurel Hill anticline, 
where it has been mined on the lands of Hessel, Ui)ton and others, 
and is three feet thick. The crop of the coal is visible here along 
the Nestorville road, near the school house. It also makes a broad 
band of black crop in the fields north of the road, and has there 
been mistaken for the Pittsburg bed, which belongs two hundred 
and fifty feet higher. • 

In the vicinity of Buckhannon, a coal has been mined quite 
extensively for local use by Maj. Heavner, Mr. Reger and others, 
and exhibits the following structure at the Reger bank : 

Ft. In. ' Ft. In. 

Randslone, massive 

Slate I 6 

Slaiy coal c r | 

Coal o b I 

Slate parting o j 

Coal I I 

Slate o i^ 

Coal I 6 

The coal makes a fair domestic and steam fuel, and a])pear8 
to be identical with the Elk Lick, although its interval (oOC) be- 
low the Pittsburg bed appears large. 

This coal is the source of domestic supi)ly for a large area in 
the Yicinity of Vandalia, I^ewis county, where it is mined by 
many of the farmers and is called the ^'Four-Foot'^ vein. 

It first emerges from the bed of Big Skin creek at the upper 
end of the Gould fann, one mile below Vandalia, and is well ex- 
posed in a cutting along the road, wliere it has the following 

structure : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Coal ^ o lo 

Bone o 3 

Coal o 9'/^ 

Slate and bony coal ,.. o 5 

Coal, good - ^ 2 8 



4 ii>^ 



VrSSW VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 253 

The bed lie« 250 to 275 feet below the Pittsburg coal, and 
will furnish fuel of commercial value over a considerable area in 
this portion of Lewis. 

The coal thins down to two feet or less a few miles above Van- 
dalia, however, and i.s no longer mined to the eastward : 

This coal has also some importance southeast from Arnolds, 
in the vicinity of Ireland, along the West Fork river, where Mr. J. 
P. Thompson reports it as exhibiting the following structure : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Coal I 3 1 

Slate o 2 I 

Coal 141-46 



Slate . 
Coal 



. o r I 
.. I 8 J 



Ai Glenvillo, (Tilnier county, there is a small bed of coal re- 
ported eighteen to twenty inches thick near the level of the Little 
Kanawha river, and as ita horizon is about 250 feet IxjIow the 
Pitt^burji: bed, it is probably thi^ Elk Lick coal. 

Southeast from the Little Kanawha, through Braxton, Clay, 
Roane and Kanawha counties, the Elk Lick coal is usually ciuite 
thin, and of little importance so far as surface outcrops would in- 
dicate. 

In the section on Two Mile creek, near Charleston, it is rep- 
resented by one foot of blac^k, coaly slate, at o*J0 feet under the 
Pittsburg coal. 

The same coal thickens up to two and one-half to three feet 
just south of Huntington, where it lias been mined to a small ex- 
tent under the massive ^lorgantown sandstone along the waters of 
Four Pole Run. 

In the section from Huntington to Kenova, page 240, Prof. 
Selby reports this coal as only two feet thick. 

In the northern Pan Hanrlle of Brooke and Hancock, this 
coal is thin (12") and slaty, and never of any economic import- 
ance, so far as developed at present. Its crop may be seen along 
the road leading up from Colliers station, at an interval of two 
hundred feet below the Pittsburg coal, and forty feet above the 
Ame^, or Crinoidal Limestone. 



254 THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

The Elk Lick coal is not reported as having been mined in 
the Potomac basin of Garrett and Allegany counties by Dr. Mar- 
tin, since the sections given for the Conemaugh show it only a few 
inches thick. 

In the Fairfax Knob section, given on page 235 of this vol- 
ume, the Elk Lick bed has been identified as the one a little over 
200 feet below the top of the Conemaugh, but it is there only two 
feet thick and parted with four inches of slate. 

THE ELK LICK LIMESTONE. 

Lying only a short distance below the coal just described, and 
210 to 225 feet below the Pittsburg coal, the Messrs. Piatt found 
in Somerset county, Pennsylvania, a widely persistent limestone 
to which they gave the name Elk Lick in Report HHH, of the 
Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania. 

This limestone is of common occurrence in Monongalia, Ma- 
rion, Taylor, Barbour and Lewis counties, at a few feet below the 
Elk Lick coal, and a thin representative of it may be seen as far 
to the southwest as Two Mile creek, near Charleston. 

The stratum is frequently ten to fifteen feet thick in several 
layers, separated by shales. The limestone is of fresh or brackish 
water origin like all of those in the series above it, but some of the 
layers are fairly pure, and burn into a good quality of lime for 
building or fertilizing puri)oses. 

The place of this limestone in the series is shown in the Mor- 
gantown section on page 230, and the Hall fann section on page 
238 of this volume. It is usually gray in color and resembles the 
Clarksburg limestone, sixty to eighty feet higher, so closely in 
physical aspect, that it has probably been frequently confused 
with the latter. 

THE BIRMINGHAM SHALE. 

The interval between the Elk Lick limestone and the Ames, 
or Crinoidal, limestone, forty to fifty feet lower, is quite variable, 
often being occupied by a sandy shale, and again a massive, peb- 
bly sandstone makes its appearance therein. Dr. Stevenson named 
the shales from theiV fine exposure at Birmingham, on the south 
side of the Monongahela river, Pittsburg, where they haveja 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 255 

jointed appearance, and give much trouble to the Pan Handle R. 
R. by sliding down onto its tracks from the almost vertical face of 
the hill. 

In the region of Grafton, Taylor county, a massive, pebbly 
sandstone appears to crop out at the same horizon, only twenty 
to thirty feet above the Ames or Crinoidal limestone. It has been 
quarried in that vicinity and yields a fair building stone of a yel- 
lowish gray color. The same massive stratum is visible at many 
localities along Three Fork creek, and also in the vicinity of New- 
burg, where it clearly underlies the Elk Lick coal opened in the 
hills above. But for this evidence, the rock in question would be 
considered as representing the Morgantown sandstone, with the in- 
terval between it and the Ames limestone greatly reduced. 

RICHMOND, OHIO, INSECT FAUNA. 

In the shales a short distance above the Ames limestone, at 
the edge of the township of Richmond, on Wills creek, near Steu- 
ben ville, Ohio, Mr. Samuel Huston, of the latter city, has discov- 
ered a rich fauna of fossil cockroaches. These have been described 
by Prof. S. H. Scudder in Bulletin No. 124 of the U. S. G. Sur. 
vey, and of the twenty-two species enumerated, all except five 
belong to the Etoblattina which is so largely represented in the 
fauna of the Cassville plant shale. The following is the list of 
species and genera given by Prof. Scudder from[^the Steubenville or 
Richmond locality. 

Etoblattina fossa. 

strigosa. 

jeflersoniana. 

fasciata. 

remosa. 

willsiana. 

maledicta. 

benedicta. 

funesta. 

exsensa. 

tenuis. 

hustoni. 

hastata. 

marginata. 



256 ¥HE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

Etoblattina gracilenta. 

Btipata. 

▼ariegata. 
Gerablattina apicalis. 

richmondiana. 

minima 
Poroblattina longinqua. 

ohioensis. 

These fossil insects are described by Professor Scudder in con- 
nection with those given on page 123 of this vokime, from the 
base of the Dunkard creek series at Cassville W. Va., 600 feet 
higher in the stratigraphic column. The Richmond insects, while 
entirely different specifically from those at Cassville, nevertheless 
agree with them in their resemblance to the Permian types found 
in Europe, only in the lower Dyas of Weissig, Saxony. The com- 
ments by Prof. Scudder on the geological relations of both the 
Cass\Tille and Riclimond fossil insect faunas are quoted at length on 
pages 122-128 of this volume, and are of special interest as con- 
firmatory of the Permo-Carboniferous age of the main portion of 
the Conemaugh series suggested by the writer as a possibility. 

THE AMES, OR CRIXOIDAL, LIMESTONE. 

We come now to one of the most interesting deposits, from a 
geological standpoint, in the entire Appalachian field, the ^*Green 
Fossiliferous' ' limestone of the First Geological Survey of Penn- 
sylvania, the ^'CrinoidaP' limestone of Stevenson, and the ^'Ames" 
limestone of Andrews and Orton in the Ohio Geological 'Survey 
Reports. 

This stratum, and ite overlying limy shales, are the first beds 
found in descending the column of rocks through the Carbonifer- 
ous beds, that contain clearly marked marine fossils. True 
there occurs occasionally a * 'Black Fossiliferous" limestone, in the 
vicinity of Pittsburg and elsewhere in Pennsylvania, twenty-five 
to thirty feet above the Ames limestone, which is sometiixies fos- 
siliferous, but this is only the upper limit of this same marine 
fossiliferous zone, which then disappeared never again to reappear 
in the Appalachian field. 

During the time (1868-1871) that Dr. John J. Stevenson was 



WK8T VIRGI^^A GEOLOGICAL BTOVET. 257 

Professor of Geology in the State University at Morgantown, he 
made a large collection of the fossils found in the Ames limestone 
and its associated limy shales above, which was carefully studied 
and its fossils identified by the late F. B. Meek. The list of fossils 
thus obtained, together with the letter of Mr. Meek making inter- 
esting comments on the same, w^as published in the Third Annual 
Report of the Board of Regents of the West Virginia University, 
1870, pp. 67-71. Since this publication is out of print, and only 
a few copies of the same are extant, the letter of Mr. Meek to Dr. 
Stevenson, under date of November 8th, 1870, and its accompa- 
nying list of fossils, are hprewith republished as follows : 

**The specimens sent from the lower Coal Measufea are nearly all forms 
common in the coal series of Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, 
etc. , though few of them have before been found so far eastward. In some 
of the states mentioned, nearly all of these species range through the whole 
of the Coal Measures. Some of them, however, are locally more restricted. 
This great range of the species of invertebrate remains in the Coal Measures 
of the western states has long since satisfied me that these fossils cannot 
generally be relied upon as a means of identifying particular bedsor horizons 
in our Coal Measures throughout wide areas; though particular grouping of 
species may sometimes serve as guides in this respect, within limited areas. 
The Coal Measure forms, however, enable us at once to distinguish beds of 
that age from any of the lower Carboniferous or older rocks. 

The great length of time through which most of these fossils must have 
continued to live, will be better understood when it is stated that nearly all 
of the species enumerated in this list from the lower Coal Measures ot West 
Virginia, also occur even in the upper Coal Measure beds in Nebraska, re- 
ferred by Profs. Marcou and Geinitz to the Pennian or so-called Dyas, In- 
deed, the collections from these tw^o widely separated localities and horizons, 
contain so many ot the same species, that if shown to almost any geologist 
unacquainted with the range of species in our Coal Measures, he would 
scarcely hesitate to adopt the conclusion that they came from exactly the 
same horizon in the series. Yet from what is known of the geology of 
your region, and that of the states farther west, it is probable that the beds 
from which your collections were obtained, hold a position from i.ooo to 
1,500 feet or more below those alluded to in Nebraska. 

From such facts as this, it would seem that although there were many 
elevations and depressions, as well as other consequent changes, the <limatic 
and other physical conditions affecting animal life, must have remained re- 
markably uniform throughout the whole of the long continued coal period. 

Very truly yours, 

F. B. MEEK." 



268 THE OOKEMAUGH SERIES. 

Lisi Of Fossils identified by F, B. Meek from horizon oj the Crinoidal or 
Ames Limestone^ near Morgantown^ West Virginia : 

*Crinoidal fragments — Some pentagonal, star-shaped discs of columns. 

Crinoidal columns. 

Hemiphronites crassus Afeek and Hay den, 

Chonetes sniithii Norwood and Pratteft, 
Chonetes. Peem to differ from C. granulifera Owen, only in being smaller. 

*Productus nebrascensis Owen, 
. *Productu9 pratlenanus Norwood. 

*Productus semireticulatus Martin sp. Seems to be rare in our beds. 

*Discina nitida? (?) 

*Pseudouionotis. (Monotis of some authors but not of Brown. ) A 
fragment, but showing exactly the irreeular regulating costae and striae, with 
vaulted scales seen on the ribs in that genus. 

*Aviculopecten carbonarius Stevenson sp. — Pecten broadheadi Swallow^ 
and Pecten hawni Geinitz. 

*Myalina subquadrata Shumard, var. ampla. 

Myalina. Undetermined species. Very small. Probably a young 
shell. 

Allorisma. Undetermined species. 

*Nucula ventricosa Hall, 

*Nncula parva McChesney. 

tNucula anodontoidea Meek, 

*Nuculana bellistriata Stevenson^ sp. A very small attenuated variety. 
Common in the so-called upper Dyas, Nebraska City, Nebraska. 

Astartella. Undetermined species. 

tMacrodon obsoletus Meek. 

Macrocheilus primigenius Conrad. 

*Macrocheilus ventricosus Hall. 

Macrocheilus. Undetermined species. 

*Bellerophon montfortianus Norwood and Praiten. 

*Bellerophon percarinatus Conrad. 

*Bellerophon carbonarius Cox. 

Bellerophon raeekianus Swallow. 

*Pleurotomaria grayvilliensis Norwood and Pratteft. 

Pleurotomaria. Undetermined species. A very small depressed 
species. 

*Orthoceras cribrosum Geinitz. 

*Nautilus occideutalis Swallow. 

Nautilus. Undetermined species. 

Productus. Undetermined species. Very small, concentrically wrinkled. 

*Athyris subtilita Hall. Very abundant and presenting all the usual 
varieties. 

*Spirifer (Martinia) planoconvexus Shumard. 

*Spirifer cameratus Morton. 

*Species known to range through the whole of the Coal Measures in the 
West, even into the upper beds at Nebraska Cit>, Neb. , referred by Profs. 
Marcou and Geinitz to the Permian or so-called Dyas. 

tNew species. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 259 

Aviculopecten. Undetermed species. Probably Am occidentalis Shu- 
mard. 

Dr. John J. Stevenson was the first geologist who adequately 
described and recognized, the value of this limestone as a geologi- 
cal horizon or **key" rock for Coal Measure geology. Coming al- 
most exactly midway in the Conemaugh series, it forms a splendid 
datum plane, easily recognizable, from which the observer can 
measure either up, or down, to determine the identity of impor- 
tant strata. Wheti once thoroughly known, it cannot be confused 
with any other stratum in the series, since in addition to being the 
highest limestone to contain marine fossils, it has a peculiar lith- 
ology over a wide area that is distinctly different from any other 
rock in the series. Dr. Stevenson thus aptly describes its main 
characteristics : *^Dark bluish or greenish gray, tough, and breaks 
with a granular surface, much resembling that of a coarse sand- 
stone. * * * In all cases it is fossilliferous, and contains immense 
nmnbers of crinoidal stems and spines or plates.'' 

The marine type of the bed can be traced from central West 
Virginia in l>wis county northward into Pennsylvania, and con- 
tinuously through Greene, Fayette, Westmoreland, Allegheny and 
Beaver counties into Ohio, whence it can be followed without a 
break across that state to where it reenters West Virginia near 
Huntington in Cabell county, to disappear finally under water level 
at the Kentucky line in Wayne county, eight miles above the 
mouth of the Big Sandy river. 

The same type of fossiliferous bed is also exhibited all along 
the great Volcano anticlinal from the Ohio river at Eureka across 
Pleasants, Wood and Wirt counties to Burning Springs on the 
Little Kanawha river. Dr. Martin has also recognized this impor- 
tant fossiliferous horizon away up on the Alleghany mountain 
plateau of Garrett county, and there can be little doubt that the 
fossiliferous Mill creek limestone near the summit of the Pennsyl- 
vania anthracite coal series in the Wilkesbarre basin, represents 
the same geological plane, since nearly every species described 
from it by Prof. Angelo Ileilprin (see Geological Survey of Penn- 
sylvania, Annual Report, 1885, pp 451-458) is found in this list 
published above from the Crinoidal or Ames limestone in the vi- 
cinity of Morgantown. 

The only commentary necessary to make on Mr. Meek's letter 



260 THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

is to state the fact that the Ames horizon does not belong so low 
in the Coal Measures as he supposed, so that instead of coming 
1000 to 1500 feet below the Nebraska horizon holding the same 
fossils, it probably comes at about the same geological level, and 
hence as previously stated in the beginning of this chapter, it is 
possible that the Ames limestone and all the rest of the Conemaugh 
series down to near th^ top of the Mahoning sandstone, should, 
with the overlying Monongahela series, be classed among the 
Permo-Carboniferous beds. The great series of red sediments 
which underlie the Ames limestone fossiliferous beds give credence 
to this idea of their relationship to Pennian time. 

The Ames limestone is seldom more than 1 to 2 feet thick, 
and often is represented simply by a row of limestone nuggets im- 
bedded in fossiliferous shale. In the Northern Pan Handle, how- 
ever, opposite Steubenville, Colliers, and other localities, the 
limestone has a thickness of 10 feet. This stratum and its accom- 
panying fossiliferous beds are finely exposed in the vicinity of 
Morgantown, in Falling run, Purinton's hollow, the ^Teninsula,'' 
and other localities. It can also be seen in the hills at many 
points between Morgantown and Fairmont whenever the Pittsburg 
coal is 350 feet or more above the Monongahela river. It may also 
be observed cropping in a bold layer H to 2 feet thick along the 
B. & 0. R. R. for three or four miles in the vicinity of Colfax, and 
is constantly pree^ent in the hills from that point to Grafton, where 
it may be seen in the roadside at Mr. Poe's residence, near the 
Northwestern Turnpike, 2S0 feet above the station level. 

In the section at Newburg, this horizon is marked by fossilif- 
erous shales only, though the limestone is present high up in the 
hills near Austen, three miles above. 

At Bridgeport, Quiet Dell, Haymond's Mill, and many other 
points along Elk creek in Harrison county, this limestone is con- 
spicuous, as also on the headwaters of the same stream in Barbour, 
near Philippi, and in the summits of the hills around that town. 

The Chestnut Ridge anticlinal brings this bed up to daylight 
along the West Fork river in Lewis county where it is well exposed 
between the old Jackson Mill and Woodford^ s Crossing below Wes- 
ton, and also for a considerable distance below the Jackson mill. 

At Burning Springs, California House, Petroleum, Volcano, 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SUBVEY. 261 

Eureka and at hundreds of other localities along the great anticli- 
nal parsing through these points, this limestone and its character- 
istic fossils may be seen, sometimes down near the valley floors, 
and again high up in the summits, along the crest of the arch. 

Southwest from Eureka, the Ames limestone dips rapidly 
under the Ohio, and its horizon remains below the same until we 
come to the vicinity of Huntington, 150 miles below, where it again 
emerges from its rocky covering, and is finely exposed in the 
banks of Four Pole creek, south from the C. & 0. SUition, where 
both it and the overlying shales are still filled with the marine for- 
sils that characterize them in the northern portion of the state. 

When this geological hf^rizon rises from the bed of tbe Great 
Kanawha, however, below Charleston, in the region of thickening 
sediments, the limestone horizon and its accompanying red bods 
below, are present, but the marine fossils are gone, and only Spir- 
orbis, and other fresh or brackish water types are found. The 
same thing is also true at Burnsville in Braxton county, where 
this horizon comes out from under the Little Kanawna river, and 
at all localities between there and Charleston where this horizon 
is exposed in the hills along Elk river, and its tributary streams 
toming in from the north. 

The inference from these facts is that in passing southeast- 
ward from the parallel of Charleston, Burnsville, etc, we are ap- 
proaching the mouths of those ancient rivers that transported the 
thick delta deposits which filled up the Appalachian gulf, and 
hence the cstuarine waters would be too fresh to permit the exis- 
tence of marine life. / 

THE CRINOIDAL OR FRIENDSVILLE COAL. 

The sudden transition from peat bogs to marine limestone . 
making conditions which recur several times in the history of the 
Appalachian field, is finely illustrated by the thin coal which fre- 
quently underlies the Ames limestone without any intervening 
shale or other rock whatever. In fact large imbroken sheila of 
Allorisma, Myalina and other forms, are frequently found partly 
imbedded in the upper part of the coal itself, although still in con- 
tact with the overlying limestone. This is especially noticeable in 
the vicinity of Burning Springs, Wirt county, where the coal has 
been mined for use in drilling for oil, although only eighteen to 
twenty inches thick. 



262 THE OONEMAUGH SERIES. 

This bed has usually been tenned the Crinoidal coal, on 
account of its relationship to the overlying limestone. Recently, 
however, Dr. G. C. Martin, of the Maryland Geological Survey, 
h^ proposed the name Friendsville as a geographical term, from 
its c^urrence near the village of that name in Garrett county, 
Maryland, and since this is the first clear geographical designation 
the coal has received, it has been adopted into the West Virginia 
nomenclature. Dr. Martin finds the coal of some economic im- 
portance in the Castleman river valley, where it is locally known 
as the 'TossiP' coal, and is frequently mined by the fanners for 
domestic use, being fifteen to eighteen inches thick. He has also 
identified this bed one mile west from Mt. Savage, Allegany 
county, Md., where it has been mined with a thickness of twenty- 
^%ht inches. He adds that Charles Lyell visited a mine in the 
same coal bed, nearby, in 1842, and listed the fossils observed in 
its limestone (Ames) roof. 

Splendid exposures of this coal, and its accompanying lime- 
stone, may be seen in the great cuttings along the Pan Handle R 
R. in the vicinity of Saw Mill run, and westward at Pittsburg, Pa., 
wHere the Ames limestone is in direct contact with the coal. 

So far as kno^vn, there are only two or three regions in West 
Virginia at which this coal has been mined by drifting. One of 
these is at Burning Springs, Wirt county, previously referred to, 
where the coal was mined for fuel in the petroleum developments 
of the early '60's. Another locality is in the vicinity -of Hay- 
mond's Mill, on Elk Creek, five miles above Clarksburg, Harrison 
county. At this latter locality the bed is known as the **Shell" 
coal, from the fossil shells in its roof, and it has been mined by 
several farmers for domestic use. It is twenty-one inches thick, 
without any perceptible partings, and is a bright, pitchy-looking 
coml of fair quality. 

This coal has also been dug into in the ravine at Xewburg, 
Preston county, where it crops 135 feet above the shaft to the Up- 
per Freeport and Lower Kittanning beds, and appears to be twenty 
to twenty-four inches thick. 

About two miles south-east from Newburg, the same coal has 
been mined for domestic use by the farmers high up on the hill- 
side. 

This coal crops along the hills at Grafton, Taylor county, 
about 320 feet above the river, and also at many points along the 



WEST VIBGnTU GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 268 

B. & 0. R. R. between Grafton and Clarksburg, in the vicinity of 
Webster, Tyrconnell, and Bridgeport, but it is there never more 
than two feet thick, and frequently only one. 

In Lewis county this coal is seen above Woodford's Crossing, 
below Weston, where it is only four to eight inches thick, and 
quite impure. 

In Monongalia county the coal is frequently absent from the 
measures, and when present it is only six to twelve inches thick, 
so that generally it is not ol much economic importance. 

The writer has not seen this bed in the southwestern end of 
the state, but Prof. Selby reports it as two feet thick in his Hunt- 
ington-Kenova section, page 240. 

It is possible that at some of the localities in the Potomac 
basin, and other regions of the state where the Ames limestone is 
absent, this coal may have been confused with the one ( Bakers- 
town) which comes fifty to one hundred feet lower in the series. 

PITTSBURG RED SHALE. 

As a rule the Friendsville coal, or in its absence the Ames 
limestone, reats directly upon a soft red, or purple shale which, 
from its fine exposure along ihe grade lines of many railroads at 
Pitteburg, has been named from that locality. Occasionally there 
is some limy, gray, or red shale under the overlying coal or lime- 
stone, as the case may be, and then comes another limestone bed 
quite different in color and texture, and only slightly fossiliferons. 
This limestone is found occasionally in Ohio, and has there been 
named the Evving limestone, by the Ohio geologists. It has been 
seen at Huntington and a few other localities in West Virginia, 
but does not appear to be very persistent. As a rule, the measures 
below the Ames limestone and Friendsville coal,consist of deep red 
and variegated shales, often marly and containing nuggets of im- 
pure limestone and iron ore. The red beds extend from the Ames 
limestone downward from fifty to one hundred feet. Although 
RED SEDIMENTS may occur at any horizon in the Conemaugh series, 
between the Mahoning sandstone and the Pittsburg coal, yet these 
near the middle of the series are the thickest, most persistent, and 
striking of all. It is this band of Pittsburg red shale, thirty to 
100 feet thick, which makes such a conspicuous belt of red soil 



264 THE CONEMAUOH flEBIES. 

entirely across the state, from the Pennsylvania line at the north 
to the Kentucky border on the Big Sandy river. 

All of the red shales in the Carboniferous system are soft, 
yielding, and easily reduced to mud, but this one is particularly 
so, giving rise to bad roads, slips, landslides and other troubles at 
the surface, and great annoyance and anxiety to those who attempt 
to drill through it, even when buried from siglit hundreds of feet 
below ground. Its peculiar character of returning to mud when 
wet, and * 'caving'^ or running into the holes drilled by the oil and 
gas well contractors, adds from $1,000 to $1,500 to the cost of 
every deep well bored through it in the state, and frequently by 
imprisoning the drilling tools, leads to the loss of both well and 
tools, so that the derrick must be moved to a new location. Oc- 
casionally this disaster happens not only once, but even twijce and 
thrice before the oil or gas well contractor succeeds in completing 
an open, steel-lined hole to tlie coveted oil or gas sand, 1,000 to 
2,000 feet below this red horizon. On account of this tendency to 
'*cave," this particular stratum has been dubbed the **Big Red 
Cave" by the oil well drillers of West Virginia and Pennsylvania. 
It is the belief of the drillers that it is not the red suale itseU 
which imprisons the drilling tools, but the nuggets oi Imrd lime- 
stone imbedded in these soft shalexi which, falling out from the 
wall of the well with the * 'caving'' muddy sediments, impinge 
against the drilling tools, principtiUy at tlio "jars,'' and thus pre- 
vent their withdrawal. It is on account of this tendency of these 
beds to "cave" and give trouble in drilling through them, until a 
lining of steel or iron casing is firmly anchored on the top of the 
Mahoning or Dunkard sand below, that these beds have been so 
readily traced underground across the state, with much certainty 
from the Pennsylvania line to the Great Kanawha, and on beyond 
to the Big Sandy river, even when buried from sight by hundreds 
of feet of superincumbent strata. 

Very little economic use has aa yet been made of these red 
shales of the Conemaugh in West Virginia. They would make a 
fine grade of red brick, and some of the layers would doubtless 
make a good quality of ornamental tilkig for hearths, mantels, 
etc., as they do in the vicinity of Pittsburg. 

At Huntington, Cabell county, a good grade of red roofing 
tile is manufactured from these red shales of the Conemaugh, the 
State University Library, at Morgantown, having recently been 



WEST VIBOINIA G80L00ICAL BUBV1SY. 265 

roofed with the Huntington tile. They are quite hard and great 
durability is claimed for them by the manufacturers. 

THE SALTZBURG SANDSTONE. 

Sometimes a very massive sandstone comes into the series and 
displaces, or has eroded, a large quantity of the red beds described 
above. In the vicinity of Saltzburg, on the Kiskiminitas river, 
Westmoreland county, Pennsylvania, such a stratum occurs with 
a thickness of 100 feet, and its top extends to 260 odd feet above 
the horizon of the Upper Freeport coal. To this sandstone Dr. 
John J. Stevenson gave the name, Saltzburg sandstone. This 
stratum is (juite prominent in Preston county, in the vicinity of 
Reedsville, Masontown, Kingwood and other points, where it over- 
lies the Bakerstown (Barton) coa) at a short interval, and is often 
quite pebbly and massive. 

This stratum is seldom seen in Monongalia county, or if rep- 
resented, it is not very massive; but in the tier of counties ex- 
tending from Braxton along Elk to the Great Kanawha and be- 
yond, it appears to be genrally present and quite massive. It is 
poEsible that tliis stratum may represent what has often been 
termed the **Fir8t Cow Run Sand'' of the oil drillers, since its 
position in the series would correspond very closely to the horizon 
of this petroliferous rock at Moundsville and elsew^here in West 
Virginia. 

This stratum has a great development along the Pan Handle 
R. R. near Colliers, in Brooke county, where it immediately over- 
lies the Bakerstown coa!, and extends half way up to the Ames 
limestone. 

It also appears to be this rock which crops in great cliffs along 
Buffalo creek, near its mouth, at Wellsburg, in the same county. 

THE BAKERSTOWN (BARTON) COAL. 

At an interval of sixty to one hundred feet below the Ames 
limestone, and three hundred and fifty to four hundred feet below 
the Pittsburg coal, theie occurs a coal bed of wide persistency and 
of considerable economic value, which the writer once described 
under the name Bakerstown goal, from its occurrence near a vil- 
lage of that name in Richland township, AUeghenj county, Penn- 



Coal, Bakerstown. 



266 THE CK)NEMAUGH SERIES. 

sylvania. (See Report Q, Second Geological Survey of Pennsyl- 
vania, pp. 162-3). 

The following section from page 163, 1. c, will show its 
structure and relationship to other well-known horizons : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Ames (Crinoidal) limestone 2 

Concealed 90 

coal „ I 6 " 

slate o X 

coal o 4 

slate o % 

coal o 3 

slat^ , o % 

[cannej o 6 

Interval to Upper Freeport coal, about ...200 

The coal is seldom more than four feet thick and is some- 
times called the **Three-Foot" seam, and again the **Four-Foot," 
being locally designated by both terms in the George^ s creek-Po- 
tomac basin, according to Dr. MfJrtin, of the Maryland Survey, 
who correlates with it the Barton ooal of Allegany county, as 
shown in his section from that region reproduced on pape 237 of 
this volume, where the bed in question is three feet thick, with 
impure top and bottom. 

The Barton coal was so named by Prof. Philip T. Tyson in 
his description of the *Trostburg Coal Formation of Allegany 
county, Maryland," published in the Trans, of the Maryland 
Academy of Science and Literature, 1837, and hence it has pri- 
ority over the name Bakerstown, which was not given until 1876, 
and first published in 1878. This Barton coal lies 183 feet above 
the Upper Freeport bed in the Barton section of Dr.. Martin re- 
ferred to above, and 408 feet below the Pittsburg coal. Should 
this suggested identity be confirmed by further detailed studies, 
then the name, Bakerstown, will become a synonym, and be re- 
placed by "Barton" in agreement with the law of priority. 

The Bakerstown or Barton coal has been mined extensively 
for several years near Collier's station, Brooke county, on the line 
of the Pan Handle R. R. , at what is known as the Blanche mine 
of the Pan Handle Coal Company. The principal output is used 
in coaling the engines of the railroad company. There has been much 
local discussion as to the horizon of the coal at the Blanche mine, 
lome even regarding it as identical with the Pittsburg bed. The 
writer, however, finds it 370 feet below the Pittsburg coal, which 



WEST VmOINIA QSOLOGICAL SURVEY. 2^7 

crops in the high knobs south from Colliers. It is about 100 feet 
under the Crinoidal or Ames limebtone which, filled with its char- 
acteristic fosfiils and ten feet thick, crops in the hills above, while 
twenty-five to thirty feet under the coal in question lies the Upper 
Cambridge limestone, also fossiliferous and unmistakable, so that 
there can be no doubt that the Blanche mine bed comes at the 
horizon of the Bakei-stowu coal of Allegheny county, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Mr. A. P. Brady, who collected the sample of coal from the 
Blanche mine for analysis, reports the following section there. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

' Sandstone (Saltzburg) 

Slate 12 o 

n^^^ f coal, softer i ii \ . 

^°*^-i coal! hard 2 3 M ^ . 

Butts run N. 68^ W. Face N. 22^ E. Elevation above IL 
R., 20 feet. 

Prof. Kite's analysis of the coal sample gives the following 
results : 

Moisture o. 78 

Volatile matter 4i- 25 

Fixed carbon 52. 36 

Ash 5.61 i 

•\ 

Total 100 GO 

i 

Sulphur 3.15 

Phosphorus 0.0055 

The coal is rather high in sulphur, but as it is low. in ash, 
it gives excellent res'jlts as a steam producer. The deposit n^r 
Colliers appears to he quite patchy, since in passing eastward the 
overlying SaUzhurg sandstone comes down and cuts out ^he 
coal entirely within a short distance from the mine entry. The 
bed is also thin or poorly represented on the south side of the 
Pan Handle R. R. tracks. 

In the vicinity of Morgantown this coal appears to be absent 
entirely, there being only some impure fireclay and limy deposits 
al its horizon, but the coal comes into the section six miles eafit, 
along the Ice's Ferry road, near its junction with the Tunnefton 
pike. It has there been mined by Mr. Bayles for domestic use, 
and has a thickness of three feet, but thins to less than two feet 
where lajst seen along the Morgantown road a few hundred yards 



268 THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

west. It lies 100 feet below the Ames limestone and its under- 
lying Friendsville coal, visible at the roadside farther up the hiU 
to the west, and appears to be of fair quality. 

The coal is also seen above the road just west of the Cheat 
Canyon Club House, where it is 200 feet above the level of Cheat 
river at the point where the Upper Freeport coal rises out of the 
same. 

On the east side of Cheat at Ice's Ferry, this coal was once 
mined by stripping and used at the old Green Spring iron furnace 
operated there lialf a century ago. It is reported as three and 
one-half to four feet thick, and of very fair quality for general 
fuel i)urposes. 

Tbis coal thickens and obtains \U best development eastward 
from ^fonongalia and Marion counties, since it is unknown at the 
numerous localities along the Monongahela river between Morgan- 
town and Fairmont, where its horizon is exposed, and it also 
ai)|X3ars to be absent, or but feebly represented, Ixitween Fairmont 
and Grafton. 

East from the Chestnut ridge anticlinal, however, in the vi- 
cinity of Masontown, Reedsville and other points in the Preston 
county basin, this coal has frequently been mined ond has a thick- 
ness ol* time to four feet, being known as th^ * Tour- Foot" bed. 
It is highly v«ilued as a domestic fuel, and geneially juvferred to 
that of the ri)})er Freeport coal below. 

The writer described this coal in tlie vicinity of Masontown 
in Bulletin (>") of the U. S. G. Survey, as the one which underlies 
the Lower <''<nnhri(lii:e limestone, and named it the Masontown 
ooal. This was an error due to an unexpected and unperceived 
rapid dip in the strata, which greatly increased the 
supposed interval between this coal, which crops at Ma- 
POntONyn, and the Ui)per Freei>ort mined along Decker'* creek, 
just west of the village. 

The interval was supposed to be only 125 to 140 feet, but re- 
cently a bore hole starting eleven feet below the level of the coal 
in question, passed though 180 feet, 8i inches of rock material 
before encountering the Upper Freeport coal. It alpo passed 
through the Lower Cambridge limestone, and its accompanying 
dark, fossiliferous shales, at a depth of sixty-seven feet, or one 
hundred and thirteen feet above the Upper Freeport coal, so ' 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 269 

that the conclusion is unavoidable that the coal hitherto known as 
the Masontown at its type looalit>, is in reality the Bakerstown, 
and hence the name Masontown must be dropped from the nom- 
enclature, siiiCe the coal it was intended to designate belongs just 
under the Lower Cambridge fossiliferous limestone and dark 
shales. The rock cores brought up by the diamond drill from the 
boring referred to on the land of Amos Ashburn, along Dillon 
creek, two miles southwest from Masontown, were presented to 
the State University Museum by the Hon. S. B. Elkins, under 
whose direction the drilling was done. The writer has carefully 
examined these oaves and they reveal the following succession be- 
tween the Upper or ^ ^Four-Foot'' coal bed, mined in the hills at 
Macontown, (cropping near the bore hole) and the Upper Free- 
port coal at the banie of the Conemaugh below : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Coal, Bakerstown, Barton 4 o 

Concealed and shales no] 

Surface clays from top of driU hole 12 o 

Green shale and clay 17 10 - 77 9 

Gray sandstone & conglomerate, Buffalo 23 11 

Dark shales, fossil plants and shells ..13 o 

LmiesLone, liOwer Cambridge, fossiliferous i 5 

Shales, dark, sandy, fossiliferous 70] 

Fireclay 10 9 

Gray and ffreen shales 8 o [■112 S}4 

Gray, mas3vQ sandstone, Mahoning 86 4 I 

Black slate, pyritous o 7}4j 

Upper Fr^port coal 



Total 195 8)4 

This section reveals the two members of the Mahoning sand- 
stone united into one solid mass eighty-six feet thick, with only a 
few coaly streaks to indicate the Mahoning coal horizon, sixty to 
seventy feet above the Upper Freeport seam. 

There is alBo a massive sandstone which makes a steep bluff 
at a short interval above the Bakerstown coal, and this would 
represent the Saltzburg sandstone horizon. 

This coal ha^ been mined on the land of Samuel Kirk by 
stripping, a short distance west from the Prtsbyterian church and 
cemetery at Masontown, where it lies fifty feet above a massive, peb- 
bly Isandstone, aod the ipame distance below the top of another 
gray, massive sandstone, which caps the knob above it. The coal 
has the followisgi Structure : 



270 THE CONEMAUGQ SERIES. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Gray and yellow shales 5 o 

Bituminous shale o 6 

Coal, bony ^ 4 \ a ^ 

Coal, good, hard 28/^ ° 

The coal has been mined on many of the farms in the cen- 
tral portion of the syncline east from Chestnut ridge in Preston 
county. An opening just north from Reedsvitle gives the follow- 
ing measurement : 

Ft. In. 

Dark shale : i o 

Bony cannel : ♦! 3 

Coal, good 3 o 

It is possibly this coal that has been mined in the summit of 
the hill, 350 feet above Sandy creek, and one-half mile west of 
Bruceton, instead of the Elk Lick bed as supposed. 

This coal has been mined by stripping along the road near 
Albright's bridge across Cheat river, three miles east of Kingwood, 
and there the following succession may be seen : 

Ft. In. 

Sandstone, rather massive, Morgantown 30 

Concealed 55 

Shale, drab 15 

Sandstone 2 

Shale and fireclay 8 

Shale, green, sandy 10 

Sandstone, massive, Saltzburg 30 

Shale, drab 15 

Shale, dark blue 8 

Coal, Bake rstown (Barton) 2 6 

Concealed „ 5 

i" Limestone, nodular 2 

Concealed 23 

Sandy shale 7 

Sandstone, greenish 13 

Shale 5 

Concealed to Cheat river at tlie Albright bridge 25 

This is the same section published by the writer in the Pro- 
ceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 1882, page 493, 
in a paper read before the Society October 20th of that year. At 
that rime, however, this coal shown in the section was supposed 
to belong lower down in the measures, but as the Mahoning sand- 
stone rises out of the Cheat nearby, and the well-known Upper 
•Freeport coal has recently been opened up under it, there can re- 
main scarcely any doubt that the coal in the. section above is^the 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL BUBYBY. 271 

Bakerstown bed, since it comes about 200 feet above the Upper 
Freepcrt, and 400 feet below the Pittaburg bed, of which latter 
coal a few acres are caught in the summit of Copeman's Knob, 
one-half mile distant. 

It is probably this Bakerstown coal that has been mined along 
the Morgantown and Kingwood turnpike, one mile west from 
Kingwood, and also along the W. Va. Northern R. R., a mile or 
BO southwest from the town, at each of wjiich localities the coal is 
three feet thick, and a very good domestic and steam fuel. 

It ip probably this bed which caps the summits near Mr. A. 
G. Harsh barger's house, at Anderson, Preston county, two miles 
east from Tunnelton. 

There are also frequent openings in this coal high up in the hills 
along the Valley river, between Grafton and Philippi, where it has 
been mined by the farmers for domestic supply." 

In the deep syncline between Philippi Ind Big Laurel moun- 
tain, this coal has been opened on many of the farms lying along 
that great trough from Fellowsville, past Valley Furnace, Nestor- 
ville, Meadowville, and Belington. It is usually called the * Three- 
Foot" bed in this region, but occasionally the name * Tour-Foot" 
is heard. Its reputation is good as a domestic fuel. 

Southwestward through Upshur, at Centreville, or Rock Cave, 
and vicinity, this coal is frequently mined, although only two and 
one-half feet thick, or less in many cases. 

In the Pan Handle of Lewis county, near Crawfordsville, 
Walkersville, Ireland, Duffy and other points, this coal appears to 
furnish the main local supply, together with the Elk Lick bed, 
which, in the region of Ireland, overlies the Bakerstown coal by 
an interval of 127 feet, according to J. Perry Thompson, C. E., 
who has accurately determined the same. Through all this region 
it varies from two and one-half to three feet in thickness, and ap- 
pears to be a satisfactory fuel. 

This coal was once opened near the eastern end of the tunnel, 
at Morrisons, Braxton county, but is there rather poor in quality. 

It is probably thib same bed that has b^n reported as pres- 
ent, eighteen to twenty-four inches thick, in some of the cellars 
excavated at the town of Sutton, since its horfeon would come at 
about that level. 

It appears to be this coal which has been mined in the vicin- 
ity of Newton, at the Three Forks of Sandy oreek,in the sodthern 



272 THE CONEl^UGH SERIES. 

portion 'of Roane county, where it is twenty-eight to thirty 
inches thick, with a slate parting near the middle. 

Along Two Mile creek in Kanawha county, a coal has been 
mined occasionally, one mile above the mouth of the stream, at 
sixty to eighty feet under the Ames limestone horizon. This ap- 
pears to be identical with the Bakerstown horizon. It is reported 
as three feet thick and rather impure. 

In the Castleman basin of Garrett county, Maryland, the 
Bakerstown coal has considerable value, according to Dr. Martin, 
of the Maryland Survey, and is locally known as the ^ Honey- 
comb" seam. 

At some localities in the George's Creek-Potomac basin, this 
coal is rained and shipped on a commercial scale, and appears to 
give satisfactory resnlts as a fuel. It is probably this bed which 
has been opened thirty feet above the mouth of the shaft at Hen- 
ry, on the line of th« W. Va. C. & P. R. R., where it is two feet 
thick, and about 240 i*dei above the Upper Freeport coal in the 
shaft. 

In Somerset county, Pennsylvania, the * Trice'' and possibly 
the **R(>8e" coals are found at this geological horizon. 

IRONDAUB LIMESTONE AND IKON ORE. 

Near Albright's Bridge, Anderson, and other points in Preston 
countv, a bed of ferruginous limestone immediately underlies the 
Bakerstown coal. At Gladeville and Irondale in the same coun- 
ty, a limestone 4 to 5 feet thick overlies ^ to 2 feet of silicious, 
limy iron ore, and although no coal is to he seen immediately 
above the limestoue, it is quite probable that it represents the 
limestone frequently found just under the Bakerstown coal, since 
its geological horizon appears to be not far from that level. The 
limestone is of fair quality but not of marine origin, and was used 
as a flux in the Iroodale furnace. The iron ore is a carbonate but 
rather lean, having only 35 per cent of metallic iron, and 12 to 15 
per cent of silicioua matter* It was mined by stripping atGlade» 
ville, and at Irondale by both stripping and drifting, the limestone 
above being taken out for flux, and thus making room to get the 
ore. The latter was roasted before mixing with "Lake" ores for 
use in the furnace. The ore is too lean for successful iron manu- 
facture, and the tnrOAOd has been out of blast for twenty years. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, 273 

UPPER CAMBRIDGE LIMESTONE. 

At an interval varying from ninety to one hundred and twen- 
ty feet below the Ames or Crinoidal limestone, there often occurs 
another fossiliferous limestone which sometimes has a slight re- 
semblance to the Ames, and may have been occasionally confused 
with it. This resemblance is notably marked along Harmans 
creek, between Colliers and Hollidays Cove, Brooke county, 
where the I-^ower Cambridge limestone, one to two feet thick, and 
filled with marine fossils, immediately overlies a bed of dark red 
shale. The presence of the Ames limestone in the hills 120 feet 
above, and also the presence of the Pittsburg coal bed on above 
the latter limestone at the proper interval, forbid any error of 
identification here. 

This same Upper Cambridge limestone has a wide distribution 
in Brooke and Hancock counties, being seen on King's creek and 
also just below the summits of the hills at New Cumberland, 
where it overlies the MahoniLg coal (No.. 7 of the Ohio series), 
by an interval of 140 feet, aud is 210 feet above the Upper Free- 
port coal horizon, while the Ames bed, much thicker, caps the 
summits farther east, 100 to 120 feet higher. 

Thia bed was termed the * Pine creek*' limestone by the 
writer in Report Q of the Second Geological Sur\'ey of Pennsyl- 
vania, from a locality in Allegheny county where it comes 120 
feet below the Ames bed, and 60 feet above thq underlying Lower 
Cambridge ("Brush creek'') limestone. 

But as the names Upper and Lower Cambridge had been used 
by Dr. Orton to designate the same horizons in Ohio, the ^Tine 
creek" and **Brush creek'' terms have been replaced by the for- 
mer in the nomenclature of the Conemaugh series. 

The Upper Cambridge limestone is present in the section at 
Morgantown, and generally along the Monongahela and Tygarts 
Valley rivers between Morgantown and Grafton. It is usually 
dark colored on fresh fracture, but weathers to an ashen hue on 
exposed surfaces, and while not so full of marine fossils as the 
Ames above, jet it contains an abundance of them. No syste- 
matic collection has been made from it in West Virginia, but the 
forms are apparently much the same as those in the Ames above, 
except that Crinoidal fragments are not so abundant. The rock 
is generally quite silicious, and has seldom been burned for lime. 



274 THE OONEMAUGH SERIES. 

It is possible that this marine type of the Upper Cambridge lime- 
stone may belong mt the same geological horizon as the fresh or 
brackish water Irondale limestone, since both have never been 
observed in the same section. 

THE BUFFALO SANDSTONE. 

The last described limestone immediately overlies a massive 
sandstone in northern Allegheny and southern Butler counties, 
Pennsylvania, which from its great development along the waters 
of Buffalo creek in Eastern Butler county, was named by the 
writer the Buffalo sandstone, in Report Q of the Pennsylvania 
Reports. 

At its type locality the stratum is very massive and quite 
conglomeritic, its top being 175 feet above the base of the Cone- 
maugh, and its bottom 125 above the same datum. 

The rock is exposed in a massive stratum along Decker's 
creek at MorgantowTi, in the rear of the High School building, 
where its deposition has eroded the underlying shales in a very 
striking manner, well illustrated in the cuttings of the Morgan- 
town and Kingwood railroad, so that at this horizon there is much 
local unconformity. The sandstone itself is seen to vary from five 
to twenty feet in thickness within 200 feet. 

The sandstone has a fine development in the vicinity of Graf- 
ton, Taylor county, where it makes great clififs along the bluffs, fif- 
ty to one hundred feet above the B. & 0. railroad grade, and has 
been extensively quarried for building purposes. From Grafton 
southward, along the Valley river to Philippi, in Barbour county, 
it is almost constantly in sight above water level, and frequently 
high up in the hills. It is apparently this stratum which covers 
the surface for several acres, three miles above Grafton, and has 
recently been quarried for use in rebuilding the bridge piers along 
the Grafton and Belington branch of the B. & 0. railroad. It is 
usually a grayish-white rock with a tinge of pink, and splits read- 
ily into blocks of any desired size. 

It makes high cliffs half way up the hills around the town of 
Philippi, and immense blocks of the sandstone lie scattered over 
the surface along the little stream which enters the Valley riv- 
er from the south. These blocks have been quarried for build- 
ing stone at Philippi, of which they make an excellent quality. 



Wm VIBGUriA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 275 

This sandstone is most probably the one which underlies, by 
twenty to thirty l«it, the town of Buckhannon, in Upshur county, 
and rises to the surface two miles south along the Buckhannon 
river, where it haa been quarried for building stone on the lands of 
Mont. Reger and Minter Jackson. 

Farther up the Buckhannon it makes prominent cliffs in the 
hills, especially between the mouth of Outright' s run and Sago. 
It is a gra3rish- white rock, slightly reddened with iron, and makes 
excellent building material. 

This stratum is generally below the horizon of all the soft red 
shales of the Conemaugh series. When any red shales are found 
under this stratum and still in the Conemaugh, the color is seldom 
original, but is superinduced by weathering of exposed ferriferous 
shales. 

Southwestward from Upshur, through the Pan Handle of 
Lewis, to Sutton in Braxton county, this stratum appears to be 
always present at the proper horizon, and is generally conspicuous 
as a bold cliff around the hills. It caps the summits at Gillespie, 
and Palmer, and may be seen at many points along Holly river 
n Webster county where it crowns the highest points with its 
massive layers. 

It rises from the bed of Elk river, one mile above Sutton, and 
makes great cliffs along that stream southward to the mouth of 
Holly and beyond. 

A few miles below Sutton this stratum comes above the level 
of Elk river again, and is constantly in sight from there to Charles- 
ton, sometimes down near the water, and again high up in the 
summits of the hills as at Clay, and other points where the dip of 
the strata elevate or depress its horizon as the case may be. It is 
probably this stratum that makes such a massive cliff near the mill 
at the Three Forks of Sandy or Newton in the southern end of 
Roane county. 

At Clondennin, Mason, and on down Elk through Kanawha 
county to Charleston, this stratum is constantly in sight, and it 
forms the top of the bold bluffs at the junction of the Elk and 
Great Kanawha rivers. 

It extends southwestward from the Great Kanawha across 
Lincoln, Boon©, Cabell and Wayne counties to the Kentucky Une, 
making great cliffs along the Big and Little Coal, Mud, Guyan- 
dot. Twelve Pole, and the Big Sandy rivers. 



276 THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

The stratum is frequently very pebbly, and occasionally the 
disintegrated matrix leaves a thick bed of rounded (juartz gravel, 
some an inch or more in diameter, on the summits of many ridges, 
between the Great Kanawha and Big Sandy rivers. 

Should the dividing plane (Upper Freeport coal) now used to 
separate the Conemaugh series from the underlying Allegheny, 
ever be changed, it would naturally be moved up to either the base, 
or top of this Buffalo sandstone, since immediately above it red 
SEDIMENTS begin to appear, denoting a great change in physical 
conditions. The fre(|uent evidences of erosion at the base of this 
rock render it probable that this stratum is more closely allied with 
the overlying beds than with the underlying ones, and hence if 
any portion of the Conemaugh scries belongs in tke Pormo-Carbon- 
iferous rather than in the Coal Measures, the most natural place at 
which to draw the division plane would be at the base of this Buf- 
falo sandstone, or the limestone just below. 

THE LOWER CAMBRIDGE LIMESTONE. 

In Allegheny, Butler and Beaver counties of Pennsylvania, 
there fre(iuently occurs a dark, very fossiliferous hmestone over 
some black shales in the roof of a rather pei^sistent coal bed. Its 
geological horizon varies between sixty and ninety-five feet under 
the Upper Cambridge limestone, and 180 to 2CX) feet below the 
Ames or Crinoicial bed. The limestone in question was first desig- 
nated from Brush creek, a stream in Cranberry township, Butler 
county, where it is fre<iuently seen above the dark roof shales of a 
coal bed, and it was described as the * 'Brush creek" limestone in 
Report Q of the Pennsylvania Geological Survey. 

The following section quoted from page 176 of the above 
named Report, measured in the steep bluffs of Killbuck run, one 
mile above its mouth in Ohio township, AUegbcuy county, will 
show the relationship of this Brush creek {Lcvfex Cambridge) 
limestone to the well-known and important strata above, as follows: 

KILLBUCK RUN, ALLEGHENY COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA. 

Ft 

Massive sandstone (Morgan town) 20 

Concealed *.»«*•>.» 65 

Limestone, Crinoidal (Ames) ^*- 2 

Red clay (Pittsburg) 30 

Concealed 85 

Pine creek (Upper Cambridge) limestone 2 

Massive sandstone, Buffalo 75 



WB9T VIBGDIIA QEOLOCDQ^ SimVEY. 277 

Shales 3 

Brush creek (Lower Cambridge) limestone i 

Concealed to level of run 3 

Total 286 

Another section from the same Volume (Q) page 181, meas- 
ured in the steep blufifs of the Ohio river, opposite Economy, Bea- 
ver county, will further illustrate the stratigraphic horizon of this 
bed : 

SBCnON OPPOSITB ECONOMY, BEAVER COUNTY, PENNA. 

Ft. Ft. 

Limestone, Crinoidal(Ames) 4 

Red shales (Pittsburg) 25 ) 

Concealed 100 > ...195 

Finely laminated sandstone, Buffalo 70 ) 

Brush creek (Lower Cambridge) limestone 4 

Dark shales 12 

Coal. Brush creek (li^ason) i^ 

Sandstone, Mahoning, visible 35 

Concealed to horizon of Upper Freeport coal.... 50 

Total 301% 

One more section from Allegheny county, giving all three of 
these fossiliferous limestones and their relation to each other, as 
well as to the base of the Conemaugh below, obtained from the 
record of a diamond drill boring at Sewickley, Pennsylvania, will 
be useful here in illustrating the varying interval between the 
Lower Cambridge limestone and the base of the Conemaugh. It 
is taken from Bulletin 65, U. S. G. Survey, page 73, and only the 
portion of the section from the Ames limestone down is given as 
material to the point in question. It reads as follows : 

SEWICKI^EY, ALLEGHENY COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 
Limestone, Crinoidal(Ames) 2 o 



196 o 



Coal, Crinoidal (Friendsville) i o 

Red shales and sandy beds no o 

Limestone, gray, Upper Cambridge 2 o 

Shales and concealea 40 o 

Sandy shale (Buffalo S. S.) 32 o 

Dark slate H o 

Limestone, dark, Lower Cambridge , i o 

Dark shales .'. 11 o 

Coal, Masontown (Mason) o 5 

r sandstone, mica- 
ceous, gray 13 8 

fire clay, saudy o 6 

sandstone, It. gray 22 o 



Sandstone, 
Upper Mahoning ' 



36 



278 THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

Shale, dark gray 8 4 

Sandstone, gray o 8 

Shale, sandy 6 8 

Shale, blue 6 5 

Sandstone o 8 

Slate, gray 3 4 

Fire clay, variegated at base, impure 25 11 

r sandstone, gray, mi- 
Sandstone, caceous 38 5 

Lower Mahoning ' shales, sandy, blue.. 8 6 

(^sandstone. It. gray.. 8 6 
Upper Freeport coal 



55 5 



Total 354 o 

The base of the Conemaugh is correctly identified in this 
bore hole record, since the boring was continued on below the 
Lower Kittanning coal. It reveals an interval of 147 feet between 
the Lower Cambridge limestone and the Upper Freeport coal, or 
practically double the minimum rock thickness between these two 
important horizons, when the Mahoning sandstones are poorly de- 
veloped, or mere sandy shales. 

This Lower Cambridge limestone is seldom exposed at the 
surface in West Virginia, since its horizon is so often concealed by 
the debris from the massive Buffalo sandstone above. 

In the bore hole near Masontown, Preston county, the record 
of which is given on page 269 of this volume, this limestone is very 
fossiliferous, as also the dark shales immediately above and below, 
and its interval above the Freeport coal is 112 feet, 8^ inches. 

It has also been observed by the writer a short distance below 
the mouth of Cutright's run, four miles above Buckhannon, Up- 
shur county, where the underljdng coal and the fossiliferous 
shales are both well exposed in a cutting along the Weston and 
Pickens branch of the B. & 0. R. R., one-tenth mile below the 
forty-fourth Clarksburg mile post. Here the dark shales just below 
the irregular lens-like layer of fossiliferous Lower Cambridge lime- 
stone, is a mere mass of fossils, only twelve to eighteen inches above 
the underlying thin coal, which there emerges above the rail- 
road grade, while the massive Buffalo sandstone forms a great cliff 
along the hills a few feet higher. At this locality the following 
section was measured : 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 279 

BEWW MOUTH OP CUTRIGHT'S RUN, UPSHUR 

COUNTY. 

Ft. 

Massive sandstone, Buffalo and concealed 65 

Blue shales, with lenses of fossiliferoos limestone (Low- 
er Cambridge) 10 

Dark fossiliferous shales 5 

f coal o' 8'^ ) 

Coal, \ slate 04}. i^ 

(coal o 6 j 

Concealed to Buckhannon river 25 

The horizon of the limestone and its fossiliferous shales is 
about 160 feet above the Upper Freeport coal, which rises out of 
the Buckhannon river two miles above this locality. In the fossil- 
iferous shales were noted Chonetes mesolobus, Productus Nebra- 
censis, a species of Bellerophon, and many crinoidal fragments. 

In the Huntington-Kenova section of Prof. Selby, page 240 
of this volume, the Lower Cambridge limestone is placed 166 feet 
above the Upper Freeport coal, and 185 feet below the Ames, or 
Crinoidal limestone. 

On Twelve Pole river, Wayne county, three miles above Ce- 
redo station, on the N. & W. R. R., this limestone horizon is ex- 
posed in a railroad cutting where the Wayne turnpike leaves the 
river, as follows : 

Ft. 

Massive sandstone lo 

Sandy shales 6 

Sandy limestone, fossiliferous , 4 

Shales lo 

Limestone, dark, fossiliferous, Lower Cambridge ^ 

Dark blue shales lo 

Coal, Mason ., i 

Concealed and shales 14 

Sandstone, Upper Mahoning, massive, visible in bed of 
Twelve Pole 10 

Here the sandy limestone is filled with crinoidal stems as well 
as other marine forms, and on its weathered surface exactly resem- 
bles the **fo8sil sandstone" found by Dr. G. C. Martin in Garrett 
county, Maryland, at this same horizon. 

The dark. Lower Cambridge limestone, ten feet below the **fos- 

sil sandstone,'' is also quite fossiliferous, though thin and impure. 

This same section is also exposed three miles farther up 

Twelve Pole, near the mouth of Buffalo creek, in a cutting along 

Hhe N. & W. R. R. 



280 THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

Along the Big Sandy river, in Wayne county, this fossiliferous 
limestone is frequently seen in the roof shales of the Mason coal, 
opposite Louisa, Kentucky, and on northward to the mouth of 
Blaine creek and beyond. It is also to be seen in the Ohio river 
hills near Catlettsburg, at the mouth of the Big Sandy. 

These limy, fossiliferous shales are present high up in the 
hills at New Cumberland, Hancock county, at 120 feet above the 
Upper Freeport coal horizon, and eighty feet below the Upper 
Cambridge Umestone. They are also present in the section at 
Osbum's Mill, on King creek, in the same county, though no dis- 
tinct stratum of limestone was observed either there or at New 
Cumberland. 

In Garrett county, Maryland, Dr. G. C. Martin, of the Mary- 
land Geological Survey, finds this Lower Cambridge limestone and 
its accompanying dark fossiUferous shales, the most persistent and . 
characteristic members of the Conemaugh series, so that they have 
proven most valuable stratigraphic guides in tracing and identify- 
the coals of the Allegheny mountain plateau, where the dips are 
frequently steep and the exposures few. 

Dr. Martin's section on the North Potomac at Blaine, near 
Elk Garden, Mineral county, quoted in this volume, page 236, 
reveals the presence of the Lower Cambridge limestone there, im- 
bedded, as usual, in black, fossiliferous shales. Its horizon in the 
Blaine section is 132 feet above the Upper Freeport coal, and 439 
feet below the Pittsburg bed. 

Dr. Martin has kindly sent the Survey a list of fossils, which 
he has identified from thp Lower Cambridge limestone. He states 
that the list is preliminary and incomplete, since he has only par- 
tially studied the collections from this horizon. He also states 
that the Mason shales, below, contain a marine fauna somewhat 
different from the overlying limestone, and that it has not yet 
been carefully studied. The locality from which these fossils were 
collected is in Garrett county, Maryland, one mile north from Sel- 
bysport. This list as determined by Dr. Martin is as follows : 

LOWER CAMBRIDGE LIMESTONE FOSSILS. 

Phillipsia sangamonensis Meek and Worthen. 
Orthoceras sp. 
Temnoc/ieilus Bp. 
Pteurotomaria tabulaia HaU. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 281 

PUuroiamaria sp. 

Macrocheilus sp. 

Bulimorpha sp. 

Siraparollus catilloides Conrad. 

BelUrophon percarinatus Conrad. 

Bellerophon carbonarius Cox. 

Allorisma subcuneatum Meek and Hayden. 

Astartella vera Hall. 

Nucula ventricom Hall. 

Yoldia carbonaria Meek. 

Pfvductus nebracensis Meek. 

Chonetes mesolobus Norwood and Pratten. 

Derbya crassa Meek and Hayden. 

Seminula sp. 

Eupachycrinus mooresi Whitfield. 

Zaphrentis sp. 

This list reveals about one-half of the species common to the 
Ames limestone above, as given by the determinations of Mr. 
Meek on page 258. Possibly when larger collections are made, 
and thoroughly studied, a larger proportion of species may be 
found common to the two horizons. 

THE MASON SHALES. 

The dark or black shales immediately under the Lower Cam- 
bridge limestone, frequently contain marine fossils, in their upper 
half especially, in Pennsylvania, Maryland and northern West 
Virginia, while in the basal portion of the same, many fossil plant 
remains occur. They are especially rich in fossil plante at Mason, 
on Elk river, seven miles above Charleston, Kanawha county, and 
this shale has been designated from that locality. The same ho- 
rizon is rich in fossil plants in many other repions, viz: in Wayne, 
Clay, Braxton, Upshur, Preston and other counties. 

Mr. David White, the eminent paleobotanist of the U. S. G. 
Survey, has studied the collections of fossil plants made by him- 
self, Mr. M. R. Campbell, and others, from these shales at Mason, 
Clendennin, Pleasant Retreat, and other localities in Clay and Ka- 
nawha counties, and from apparently the same horizon ai Furnace 
Hollow and Lavalette, Wayne county. The lists of plants identi- 
fied from this horizon are given in a paper published by Mr. 
White March, 1900, in the Bulletin of the Geological Society of 
America, pages 170-172, inclusive, from which the following quo- 
tations are made : 



2S2 TH£ OONEMAUGH 8ERIES. 

Floras succeeding the Kanawha Forbiation 

PLANTS less than 200 FEET ABOVE THE **BLACK FLINT." 

"As bearing upon the qnestion of the position of the Stockton flora in 
the Pennsylvania region, while further showing the occurrence of the typi- 
cal Pennsylvania floras, it is of interest to glance at the floras succeeding 
the Stockton in the southern West Virginia section. I therefore append 
three lists of plants from higher horizons in the same section. " 

*'The first of these floras, from localities * which Mr. Campbell informs 
me lie 200 feet above the Black Flint, is as follows:" 

Name. Locality. 

Pseudopecopieris obtusiloba (Stemb. ) Lx Wayne. 

** squamosa (l,ii.)^^\sx^,.,i ^Clen., Wayne. 

Mariopteris sillintanni (Lx.)J Gr., Wayne. 

•* nervosa (Brongn. ^2^ill Wayne, Liz. 

*• newberryi (Lx. )t Clen. 

Sphenopteris solida Lx.f Wa>ne. 

** charophylloides (Brongn.) Presl t..Clen. 

" mixta Schimp.f Wayne, Liz. 

** ophioglossoides{liK,)-\ Clen., Cob., Wayne, Liz. 

Ptcopteris emarginata (Goepp.) PresL f Cob. , P. R. 

*• unita Brongnf Clen. , Wayne, Liz. 

*• solida Lx. f Clen. 

** villosa Brongn. ? f Or., Clen., Cob., Wayne, Liz. 

** vestita Lx. f Clen. 

** oreopteridia (Schloth.) Stemb. f Gr. ? 

** cf.y^wwo'^' D. W. f...: Wayne 

** milloni (Artis) Ff: P. R., Wayne. 

Aleihopteris serlii ( Brongn ) Goepp Way ne. 

Neuropteris rarinervis^vmhy t P. R., Liz. 

*• vermicularis lin, t G. H. 

Neuropteris fimbriata Lx. t Clen. , Wayne. 

•• ^z/a/aHoffm. t ^Clen., P. R„ Wayne. 

** scheuchzeri Hoffm. t Gr., Clen. , P. R., Wayne. 

Odontopteris subcuneata Bunbyf Gr. 

'* {squaJis Lx. f Liz. 

Catamites cistii Brongn Clen. 

Annutaria ramosa Weiss Wayne 

♦ The collections here roughly listed are Graham mine, Mason (Gr.); along 
the Elk river, one mile above Clendennin (Clen.); Cob mine, near Clenden- 
nin (Cob. ); from an horizon about 200 feet above the Black Flint, one-half 
mile east of Pleasant Retreat ( P. R.); Left Fork of Mill creek, Wayne county 
(Wayne); south of summit on Belva and Lizemore road (Liz.); Gunter hol- 
low, near Mason (G. H.). 

t Forms apparently identical with those in the Allegheny series. 



WEST VIBGIiaA GEOLOGICAL 8UBVHY. 283 

Name. Locality. 

Annularia sUlUUa (Schloth.) Wood* Gr., Cob., P. R. Wayne. 

" sphenophylloides (Zenk.) Gutb. ♦...Gr. , Wayne. 
Sphenophyllum emarginatutn Brongn. * Clen., Cob., Wayne, Liz. 

•• majus Bronn* Clen., Wayne. 

Lycopodites pendulus Lx Wayne. 

LepidophyUum bremfolium Lx .'...Clen. 

** oblongifolium Lx* Clen., Liz 

LepidocysHs vesicularis'LiT. Wayne, Liz. 

SigiUaria camptoiamia Wood* Clen. 

** fissa Lx* .' .Wayne. 

Cardaicarpon gutbieri Geiti* Wayne. 

CarpolUhes ellipticus Sterab* Cob. 



PLANTS 200-300 FEET ABOVE THE **BLACK FLINT. 



n 



**A small collection of plants from the road north of Clay Court House 
is reported by Mr. Campbell as probably between 200 and 300 feet above the 
Black Flint, although his stratigraphic field notes are not yet compiled so as 
to more precisely fix the position of the horizon. Another lot of fossils, 
from an horizon possibly no higher, is from Granny branch of Indian creek, 
near Mason. These small lots contain:" 

Name. Locality. 

Pseudopecopteris squamosa (Lx.)t Gran. 

Mariopteris sphtnopteroides (Lx.) Zeillf Gran. 

** sillitnanni (Lx.)t Gran. 

Sphenopteris pinnatifida Lx?t Clay. 

•* cf. stipulata Gutb Gran. 

** sagillalus {h^.)^ Clay. 

Pecopteris dentata Brongnt Clay. 

*• villosa Brongn?t Gran., Clay. 

•* milUmi Artist Clay. 

Neuropteris rarinervis Bunbyt Clay. 

" ovata Hoffmf Gran., Clay. 

" fimbriata Lx.t : Clay. 

** scheuchzeri Hoffmt Gran., Clay. 

LinopUris obliqua (Bunby) Pot* Clay. 

Odontopteris wortheni Lx* Gran. 

Annularia siellata (Schloth) Wood* Gran., Clay. 

Sphenophyllum em^arginatum, Brongn* Gran., Clay. 

Lepidodendron modulaium Lx* Gran. 

LepidophyUum jenneyi D. W.* Gran. 

•* hastaium Lx* Clay. 

Sigillaria campiotcenia Wood* Clay. 

CarpolUhes ellipticus Stemb* Gran. 

*Forms apparently identical with those in the Allegheny series, 
t Identical species in the Allegheny series. 



!284 TEbB OOXEMAUGft SERIES. 

SPECIES 300-400 FEET ABOVE THE * 'BLACK FLINT." 

"Two other small collections from horizons said by Mr. Campbell to be 
between 300 and 400 feet above the Black Flint were obtained near Lava- 
lette (Lav.), on the Huntington pike and Furnace Hollowt ,(Fur.), Wayne 
county. They include :** 

Name. Locality. 

Mariopteris nervosa (Brongn.) Zeill Fur. 

PecopUris dentata Brongn Fur. 

*• villosa Brongn.? Fur. 

*• oreopteridia (Schloth.) Stemb .Fur., Lav. 

** polymorpha Brongn Lav. 

** n. sp? Lav. 

Alethopteris pennsylvanica Lx.? Fur. 

Callipteridium inaquale Lx Fur. 

Neuropteris rarinervis Bunb.? Fur. 

** scheuthzeri HofiFm Fur. 

** agassizi Lx.? Fur. 

Annularia sphenophylloides (Zenk.) Gutb. van intermedia Lx Fur., Lav. 

Sphenophyllum emarginaium Brongn Fur. 

** majus^ronvL Fur. 

ihoni Mahr. ? Av. 

Lepidodendron modulaium Lx Fur. 

Lepidophloios s^ Fur. 

Lepidophyllum oblongifolium Lx Fur. 

ALLEGHENT FLORAS ABOVE THE **BLACK FLINT." 

**It needs but a glance at the first two of the three preceding lists to re- 
cognize the typical constitution of the Allegheny floras. While it is not my 
present purpose to attempt by analysis to arrive at an estimation of the ap- 
proximate positions of these plant associations, I may here eocpress the 
opinion that the collective flora enumerated in the first list shows so high a 
degree of identity and so similar a composition to the floras of the Kittan- 
ning group of Pennsylvania, as to strongly argue for a reference of some 
portions at least of the beds within 200 feet above the Black Flint to the lat- 
ter group. Likewise, for reasons which cannot here be discussed, I am 
inclined to believe tliat the small flora from beds between 200 and 300 feet 
above the Black Flint may be from terranes not later than the Freeport 
group. The species in the third list, though few in number, do not appear 
to indicate a stage very far above the horizon of the Upper Freeport coal, 
the upper limit of the Allegheny series. The evidence on this point is, how- 
ever, at present too insufficient to justify further consideration. " 

♦Identical species in the Allegheny series. 
tNear the mouth of Labor creek. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 286 

The resemblance of this flora to that in the Allegheny series 
below is so great and well marked that it misled Mr. David White 
into placing these shales in the Allegheny series, 150 to 200 feet 
lower, based not upon any stratigraphic evidence, but solely^ upon 
the presence of many fossil plants which had survived into this 
horizon from the older beds below. This fact is another argument 
showing the close relationship of these basal members of the Con- 
emaugh series, and especially of those which precede the appear- 
ance of RED SEDIMENTS, with the Allegheny series beneath, and 
confirms the correctness of the old Rogers classification which in- 
cluded them in the same series with the Allegheny. 

As already suggested by the writer, on pages 226-7, 260, and 
elsewhere in this volume, in discussing the age of the Conemaugh 
series from entirely different lines of evidence, it would be more 
philosophical to return substantially to the old classification, ex- 
cept that the dividing plane might be drawn at the base of the Buf- 
falo sandstone just above the Lower Cambridge limestone, instead 
of at the top of the Mahoning sandstone, as was done by the 
Rogers classification. This is a question which the detailed study 
of the beds carried from county to county, may be expected to set- 
tle definitely when it is taken up systematically hereafter. 

THE MASON COAL. 

It has already been related on pages 268 and 269 how the 
writer was once led into error in defining the place in the Cone- 
maugh series of a coal which crops in the vicinity of Masontown, 
Preston county, and that consequently it becomes necessary to drop 
the name Masontown entirely, since at its type locality the bed 
designated as the Masontown turns out to be the Bakerstown, or 
Barton coal, at an horizon sixty to seventy-five feet above the coal 
bed which it was intended to describe. So far as known, the re- 
gion around Masontown is the only locality where this error was 
made, and as one of the most widely persistent coals of the Con- 
emaugh series belongs at the horizon for which the name was in- 
tended, it becomes necessary to adopt another. Fortunately this 
can be done by simply dropping the final syllable of the old name, 
since the coal it was the intention to name has long been mined at 
the village of Mason, on Elk river, seven miles above Charleston, 
Kanawha county, so that in this volume the coal which belongs 



286 THE CXDNEMAUGH SERIES. 

next under the Lower Cambridge limestone horizon, has been dee-- 
ignated as the Mason coal. 

In the Gr^^ham mines,* operated by Mr. J. G. Vaughan, at 
Mason, Kanawna county, Mr. R. W. Edmonds measured the fol- 
lowing structure for this coal at its type locality: 

1'^ In. Ft. In. 

Sandstone 

Shale, Mason 3 o 

fcoal 2 io>^' 

slate o 2}^ 

coal o 6 

Coal, Mason - bone coal o ^5-4 7X 

coal o 1)4 

slate o 4 

coal o 6^. 

Butts run N, 45° E, Face S. 45° E. Elevation 630 feet A. 
T. 

Prof. Hite reports the following analysis of the sample col- 
lected by Mr. Edmonds : 

Moisture o. 72 

Volatile matter 36. 58 

Fixed carbon 52. 25 

Ash 10.45 



Total 100.00 

Sulphur 2. 69 

PhcKsphorus ; 0.006 

The coal is hard, bright, and makes an excellent fuel for 
both steam and domestic purposes. 

The dark gray shale (Mason) in the roof of the coal is filled 
with fossil plants, and from the mines in this vicinity the fossils in 
one of the lists of species previously given were obtained by Mr. 
David White. 

The dip of the rocks carries this coal below the water level of 
Elk on above Mason, and it is not mined to any considerable ex- 
tent until Clendennin is reached, at the mouth of Sandy creek, 
twenty-five miles above Charleston, where the coal again comes 
above water level, and has been mined at several local banks for 
the village supply. One of these mines, on the north bank of 
Elk river, a mile above the mouth of Sandy creek, operated by 
Jackson and Osbum, exhibits the following structure: 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SUBVEY. 287 

Ft. In. Pt. In, 

Shale 

Fireclay, impure , i 6 

{coal ,. o lo ") 
bone o 2 V 3 o 
coal ^ 2 o J 

Farther back under the hill, the portion of the coal above the 
bone increases to twenty inches, and the entire bed is then four 
feet thick. The bottom portion is the best coal, clean, bright, and 
highly valued for domestic use. The coal has an elevation of 
thirty to forty feet above Elk, but on the south side of the stream 
is considerably higher, and it has been opened and mined there in 
several places. 

The strata continue rising up Elk from Clendennin, and the 
Mason coal gets higher and higher above water level until the un- 
derlying Kanawha black flint comes up to the bed of Elk, and 
makes Queen Shoals in the same, five miles above Clendennin. 

The Mason coal is mined near Queen Shoals by the Elk Run 
Collieries Company, and shipped to market over the C. C. & S. 
R. R. 

Mr. S. D. Brady, who collected the sample for analysis from 
the mine, reports the following section there: 

Pt. In. Ft. In. 

Sandstone « 

Slate, gray i 6 

Coal ^ ^ ,^.....A.^ »......« t o 

Sandfitoiic ^ ..•...^,. 4 4 

Shale ciarkf ISaaon, filled with fossil plants j o 

fcoal o 5 1 

bone o )^ 

Coal, Mason ^ coal 10 4 4>^ 

slate, gray o i 

[coal 2 10 

Mostly sandstone to level of the Elk river 200 o 

Butts run S. 55° E. Face S. 35° W. Greatest rise, S. E. 
The analysis of the sample from this mine yielded the follow- 
ing results to Prof. Hite : 

Moisture 1.09 

Volatile matter 38. 14 

Fixed carbon 54-^ 

Ash 5.89 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur 0.93 

Phosphorus a 005 



288 THE OONEMAUGH SERIES. 

This analysis illustrates a coal of the highest excellence, and 
the demand for it in the coal markets exceeds the capacity of the 
mines. It is shipped west and north, principally for gas and 
steam purposes. The coal is very hard, but very bright and pure 
looking, and if crushed would make a most excellent coke. 

The stratigraphical position of the coal is here about 176 feet 
above the Kanawha black flint, the horizon of which is above 
water level along Elk, immediately below the mine. The follow- 
ing section of the rocks between the Mason coal and the Kanawha 
FLINT is exposed immediately below the mine: 

SECTION NEAR QUEEN SHOALS. 

Ft 

Mason coal 

Fireclay and shales t 

Handstone, massive 20 

Shales, sandy, gray, containing nodules of iron ore 40 

Sandstone and concealed 20 

Coal blossom* Mahoning - 

Concealed and massive sandstone to level of C. C. & S. 

R. R 80 

Concealed - 15 

KANAWHA BLACK FLINT horizon, here concealed by debris.. 

This is in the region of thick sediments, where the Cone- 
maugh series is 800 feet or more in thickness, and where the low- 
est RED SEDIMENTS of that scrics lie 410 feet above the horizon of 
the Kanawha black flint, or more than 200 feet above the Mason 
coal, the most of which latter interval is made up of the greatly 
thickened Buffalo and Sal tzhurg sandstones, which make great peb- 
bly cliffs along Elk above the Mason coal horizon. 

The Kanawha ulack flint comes out from under its cover- 
ing of rock debris at the mouth of Spread Shoals creek, a mile or 
more above the Elk Run Company's mine, where it is five to sev- 
en feet thick and quite massive, presenting the typical appearance 
of this peculiar stratum along the Great Kanawha, so that there 
can be no doubt of its identity with the latter rock. Then, too, 
at the mouth of Porter creek, a mile above Spread Shoals, the 
thick coal, which so frequently underlies the Kanawha flint, makes 
its appearance seven feet below the latter. Hence, here on Elk, 
the horizon of this important Mason coal may be said to be about 
equally distant (200 feet) between the lowest red beds above, 
and the Kanawha black flint below. 

This Mason coal extends along the Elk river hills from Queen 



WEST VIBQINIA QBOLOGIQ4I« UimrtY. 289 

Shoals to Clay, with a thickness of three to three and one-half feet, 
and has been exploited on the lands of the Thompson estate, one 
mile above Yankee Dam, and five miles below Clay, where it has 
been opened at 45G feet above the C. C. & S. railroad grade, and 
310 feet above the Splint, or Coalburg, seam. The Mason coal 
exhibits the following structure on the Wilson survey of the 
Thompson estate: 

Ft. In. ' Ft la. 

Coal 09) 

Slate, gray o %\ 3 4>i 



Ooal. 



The coal is very bright, pure, and Mr. Thompson reports that 
it cokes well. It lies 150 feet below the top of a great pebbly sand- 
stone, above which come reddish shales, with deep red beds 100 
to 150 feet higher. 

This coal has been opened near the pike on the north side of 
Elk, at Clay Court House, by Mr. Reed. It is high in the hills 
— 350 feet above Elk River — ^and reported to be three feet thick, 
with a thin slate or bone near the top. 

Its crop is also visible on the new road which ascends to Mt. 
Pisgah, or Asbury Heights, on the south side of Elk, twenty feet 
above the massive pebbly sandstone (Upper Mahoning), which 
forms the top of the great cliffs that surround Clay, 800-400 feet 
above the valley of Elk. Since this coal is an important link in 
connecting the Kanawha coals with those in the typical Allegheny 
series at the northern line of the state, a section measured from the 
summit of Asbury Heights to the bed of Elk river below, will 
now be given to illustrate the associated rocks, as follows ; 

SECTION AT CLAY COURT HOUSE, CLAY COUNTY. 

Ft 

Concealed, aud much deep red shale Qo 

Coarse, gray, pebbly sandstone -*• oo 

Concealed and shales, some pale red ~ leo 

Sandstone, very massive large quartz pebbles. 6o 

Concealed and sandy shales 130 

Coal, blossom, Mason ...^.. 2-3 

Fireclay and shales 10 

Sandstone, Upper Mahoning, very massive, pebbly 90 

Concealed and massive sandstone I Lower Mahoning).... 160 

Black slate and thin coal (Upper Freeport)^ ^ 3 

Maasive sandstone, and concealed.... ««.«...««. icx> 

Coal, Coalburg (Lower Freeport?) 6 

■ . Sandstone and concealed to Elk river 15 



29Q THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

It is from the horizon of this Mason coal at Clay that the 
collection of fossil plants, listed on page 283, was obtained by Mr. 
David White. 

The Kanawha black flint thins away as we pass up Elk 
beyond Porter's Creek, twenty miles below Clay, where it is last 
observed in a massive condition, but as its geological horizon is 
constantly above Elk, and since the Mason coal can be readily 
traced, the horizon where it belongs is well known, viz: just above 
the three feet of black slate and coal, 121 feet from the bottom of 
the section. In fact, a thin layer of the flint is reported as pres- 
ent at this horizon, in the rear of the Court House, on the north 
side of Elk. 

The coal at the base of this section is the same one that has 
been mined at several points in the vicinity of Clay, and also near 
Yankee Dam, six miles below, where it lies 310 feet vertically be- 
low the Mason coal, which has been exploited in the hills above 
by M. Thompson, Jr. The interval of 363 feet in the Clay sec- 
tion, between the same coal beds, is probably thirty to forty feet 
too great, since the rocks are rising southward, and the section tra- 
verses the rocks northward with no allowance for dip. 

This is in the region of greatly thickened deposits, and where 
the Conemaugh series is probably thicker than at Charleston (80(y ) 
since 700 feet of these beds may be seen in this section, and the 
Pittsburg coal horfeon must over-shoot the deep red shales at the 
top by an interval of not less than 200-300 feet. There are some 
PALE RED shales in the mostly concealed interval, 190 feet above 
the Mason coal, but nothing that resembles the great Pittsburg 
BED shale until we come to ninety feet below the summit of As- 
bury Heights, when the dark purple shales, so characteristic of that 
horizon, make their appearance in the section. 

About two miles south of Clay the Mason coal has been mined 
by Hedge Triplett, near the Nicholas county road, where it is re- 
ported as three feet thick, with only one thin bony streak. 

This coal has been mined occasionally high up in the Elk 
river hills, between Clay and the mouth of Big Otter creek, and it 
is probably this same coal Avhich is reported to be two feet thick 
on the latter stream, three miles above its mouth. 

A coal is reported as four feet thick ncmr the junction of BiicR 
river With the Elk, one-half mile up the former sti^arn, ahd it id 



WIST VTBQimJL QBOLOGIOi^L 8UEVEY. 291 

poesibly this bed. It overlies a heavy sandstone bluff, which ex- 
tends along Elk to Frametown, four miles above. 

A coal was once mined there, forty feet above the Elk river, 
just above a massive ledge of sandstone, on the land of David 
Evans. It is reported as two and one-half feet thick and very 
probably represents the Mason coal, since it is 140 feet above it up 
to the lowest red bed of the Conemaugh, and 550 feet up to the 
Pittsburg bed, which crops in the summits of the hills on the land 
of Mr. Evans, one-half mile north from Frametown. Here very 
deep red shales with gray limestone (Two Mile) crop about 300 
feet below the Pittsburg coal, and 250-300 feet above the one (Ma- 
son) near the Elk river. The dip to the northwest is more than 
100 feet to the mile, so that at least 700 feet of the Conemaugh 
series would be above water level at Frametown. 

A few miles above Frametown the horizon of the Mason ooai 
dips under the Elk, and does not reappear until the course of tbi 
river veers to the southeast above Sutton, when it comes up with 
a rapid rise in that direction, one mile above the town, and has 
long been mined on both sides of the river for local supply. At 
the Josiah Hawkins mine the coal is twenty to twenty-four inches 
thick, having two inches of soft coal on the bottom, and the rest 
rather hard, but very pure and bright, except a streak of bone 
near the top. 

About two miles above Sutton, Mr. Henry Evans has a mine 
in this coal, eighty feet above Elk river, one-fourth mile below the 
mouth of Bee run, where it is twenty-two to twenty-four inches 
thick, bright and clean, and overlain by three feet of dark gray 
shales (Mason), filled with fossil plants, above which is a layer of 
ooal four inches thick. 

Near Palmer, at the mouth of Holly river, this coal has been 
mined to a small extent by Mr. 0. W. Gum, high up in the hill, 
one-half mile northwest from the town, where it is about 150 feet 
above the Upper Freeport coal, and 160 feet below the first red 
beds above. The coal is twenty-eight inches thick at Mr. Gum's 
bank, with four inches of bony coal at the top. 

On the stream which puts into Elk river below Gillespie, this 
ooal has been mined by both Mr. Hoover and Mr. P. G. Gillespie, 
along the B. & 0. railroad track one mile south of Morrison's tan* 
iel, and 140 feet below the Bakers town coal. The Mason plant 



292 TBS OONfiMAUOH SERIES. 

shales are very fossiliferous here and are exposed in the following 
section at the old Hoover mine : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Dark gray plant shales (Mason) visible 3 o 

rcoal 04^ 

Coal, Mason... ^ shale, gra^ o 5 r 2 5 



i shale, gray . 
coal, good.. 



The same coal, apparently, was once mined by the Hardwood 
Lumber Company in the summit of the mountain south from Elk 
river, five and one-half miles below Addison, where the coal lies 
1250 feet above the level of Elk river, and exhibits the following 
structure: 

Ft. In. Ft In. 

Gny slate with fossil plants (Mason) 2 o 

{coal o 9 1 
dark bony slate o 5 V 2 11 
coal, good I 9 J 

The coal gave excellent results as a steam producer on the 
heavy grades of the Hardwood Lumber Company's railroad. 

This coal has also been opened in a few places by the farmers 
along the high ridges west from Holly river, in Webster county, 
as also in the Pan Handle of Lewis, where it is 150 feet above the 
Upper Freeport coal, and two and one-half to four feet thick, fre- 
quently being mined by the farmers for domestic use. 

One mile below Abbott^ s store, on the waters of French creek, 
Upshur county, this Mason coal has long been mined on the old 
Burr fann, now owned by Taylor Heavner, Guy Colerider and 
others, where it exhibits the following structure : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Slate, dark 

Coal, hard o 9 

Black slate o i 

Bone coal o 6 

Coal, good 2 10 

Black slate o 3 

Coal, hard, good - o 11 

The two feet and ten inches of coal is softer and purer than 
the rest, and known as ^'shop coay since it is used for smithing 
purposes. A very massive, pebbly sandstone (Upper Mahoning) 
crops'only ten to fifteen feet under this coal, along French creek, 
knd makes bold cliflfs around the hills. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 298 

This same coal is also mined on the land of A. A. Morgan, 
near the Burr farm on French creek, where it has the following 
structure : 

Ft In. Ft IiL 

Coal and bone o 8 

Coal, good 4 o 

Shale, gray ^ o 2 

Coal I 4 

The best coal is the lower two-thirds of the four-foot bench, 
the top of it being more or less bony. 

This coal was once mined on iSrench creek by Dr. Newlon and 
others, of Buckhannon, who built a branch railroad to it from the 
Pickens line of the B. & 0. R. R., about three miles up French 
creek from its mouth. The slate and bone in the coal at that lo- 
cality proved quite thick, however, and the mine has been aban- 
doned. 

At Sago, on the Buckhannon river, this coal has been mined 
by stripping, on the land of W. L. Burner, where the following 
section is visible: 

Ft In. Ft. In. 

Shales, gray, visible 3 o 

Dark flhale i o 

Coal .• o 8 

Coaly slate o 3 

Coal, good 2 6 

Shale, gray o 3 

Coal, hara .• o 6 

The coal has a good reputation as a domestic fuel. It lies at 
an elevation of 160 feet above the Upper Freeport coal, which was 
once mined along the base of the hills just above the grade of the 
B. & 0. (Pickens branch) R. R. at Sago. 

At the mouth of French creek, near Hampton, the Mason 
coal has been mined on the lands of Messrs. Westfall, Outright, 
and others, where it is sixty to seventy-five feet above the B. & O. 
R. R. grade, and three and one-half feet thick. 

A short distance below Hampton, this coal is exposed at a 
quarry in the underlying massive Upper Mahoning sandstone, 
where there is only five to seven feet of fire clay and shales be- 
tween the two strata. 

A short distance above the mouth of Outright' s run, the Ma- 
son coal has been mined by M. A. Outright, and there the follow- 



294 ^E^ a>N4SAJkOQH 0fiBftS« 

ing section is exposed in the steep bluffs of the Buckhannon 
river: 

CUTRIGHT SECTION. 

Ft 

SilidonB Hmestone, topof knob ^ s 

Deep red shales and concealed 70 

Massive sandstone, Saltzburg „ 30 

Coal, blossom, Bakerstown 

Marly ^lales and concealed 35 

Massive sandstone 25 

Concealed 50 

Coal, Mason 3 

Fire claj and shales 6 

Sandstone, massive, Upper Mahoning to B. & O. R. R. 

grade , 30 

Concealed to Buckhannon river.... » 25 

Here a thin coal is reported in a well boring just under the 
bed of the Buckhannon- It would represent the Mahoning coal, 
since the Upper Freeport would lie at least eighty feet below the 
river at this point 

The silicious limestone which caps the summit here, is veyy 
probably a representative oi the Crinoidal or Ames limestone, but 
it appears to be non-fossiliferous. 

The massive sandstone, which has been identified with the 
Saltzburg, is the same one which underlies the town of Buckhan- 
non, five miles north, and whose top comes about 120 feet under 
the coal, which has there been identified as the Elk Lick, at the 
mines of Major Heavner, Mr. Reger, and others. Its horizon 
would come about fifty feet above the top of the Cutright section. 
This section is an important one in stratigraphy, since only one 
mile north of this the Lower Cambridge limestone, with its under- 
lying fossiliferous (Mason) shales, is seen at the B. & 0. R. R. 
grade. 

In this connection the structure of the Mk Lick coal in Maj. 
Heavner' 8 mitie, near Buckhannon, has an important bearing on 
the stratigraphic succession, and is as fallows : 

Ft. In. Ft In. 

Slate. ...^ « ~ ., ..•. .♦. 

Coal «... .^...^ o 8 

Bone ..r«*««*w>.».rtv»«#«»..#«^>r**<..^.««.^..«....».KA o \\/^ 

CbaU «».... I fr ' 3 8>^ 

Slate ....*. o I r 

Coal ^ 1 10^1^ 



WEST VIRGINIA QEOLOGICAI. ftUBVBY. 295 

That this coal holds the above structure over a wide area in 
Upshur and Lewis counties, may be seen by reference to pages 262 
and 253 of this volume, and also by the following additional seo^ 
tion of it, three miles southeast of Roanoke, Lewis county, meas- 
ured by Mr. W. T. Blackiston, of Piedmont, W. Va. 

Ft. In. Ft In. 

Coal o 7 

Slate o 3 

Coal I 3 

Dark slate o 2 

Coal 2 o 

This digression is pertinent here because there is no doubt 
that the Buckhannon coal belongs about fifty feet above the 
top of the limestone in the Outright section, and the above struc- 
tures prove it to be the Elk Lick bed, because at Vandalia and 
elsewhere in Lewis and Upshur a coal with this same structure 
lies 260 to 275 feet below the Pittsburg bed. This would put the 
Elk Lick coal 265 feet above the Mason coal of the Outright se<y 
tion, and as the latter is 150 feet above the Upper Freeport coal at 
Sago, only two miles above, it would be about 415 feet above the 
base of the Oonemaugh series, another line of evidence that the coal 
mined 120 feet above the river at Buckhannon is the Elk Lick bed* 

At the mouth of Outright' s run, a short distance north of the 
last locality, the Mason coal has been mined twenty feet above the 
B. & O. R. R. grade, and reported to be three feet thick. It over- 
lies the Upper Mahoning sandstone by an interval of only ten feet, 
and the latter crops out in a bold ledge along the run and river. 

On Outright' s run, one mile above its mouth, Mr. Jacob Out- 
right mines the Mason coal for local use, and it is there three and 
one-half feet thick, though farther up the run, near the Beverly 
pike, it contains only two feet of good coal where stripped out of 
the bed of the stream on the land of J. W. Strader. 

One mile below the locality of the Outright section, the Lower 
Cambridge limestone, and Mason shales filled with marine fossils, 
oom^ down to the B. & 0. R. R. grade, as shown in the section on 
page 278. It is possible that the coal shown there may belong 
twenty to twenty-five feet above the regular Mason vein, and is 
simply a **roof " member of the latter, since such a coal is occa- 
sionally pre^ient a few feet above the Mason bed. The Mason coal Is 
milled on the land of Mr. Shaw, opposite the mouth of Outright d 
run, and in the region between Sand run and the Buckhannon 



296 THB 00HKIUT3OH 6KRIKB. 

river, there are several mines operated on this coal for do- 
mestic use by the fanners, blacksmiths, and others. It varies 
from two to four feet in thickness and appears to give very satis- 
factory service as a general fuel, as well as smithing coal. 

In the vicinity of Philippi, Barbour county, the Mason coal 
crops in the hills eighty to one himdred feet above the Valley river, 
and ten to thirty feet below the massive Buffalo sandstone, which 
makes such a great cliff around the hills at that point. It is known 
as the ^ Three- Foot" bed, and has been dug at several localities, 
but not mined to any extent. 

It is well exposed along the Nestorville road, two milea south- 
east from Philippi, where the road descends to Ford's run, in the 
following section : 

FORD'S RUN SECTION. 

Ft. In. Ft lu. 



Sandstone, massive Buffalo 30 o 

Concealed 10 o 

Black shales (Mason) containing fossil plants 10 o 

{coal o 10 ] 

bone o 6 r 3 5 

coal -. 21) 

Concealed and sandstone (Upper Mahoning) 75 o 

CoAi,, Mahoning 3 & 



Farther down Ford's run the Freeport coal comes out and is 
mined at Meriden, forty feet under the Mahoning coal, thus mak- 
ing the Mason coal about 118 feet above the base of the Conemaugh 
series in the Philippi region. 

This coal has been mined on the land of Samuel Moats, one 
mile up Teter's creek from its mouth, and high up in the hills to 
the south, where it is about four feet thick, and has a thin slate or 
bony coal ten inches above the bottom, and another near the top. 
It lies ninety-nine feet below another coal bed eighteen inches 
thick, and 160 feet below a deep red shale with marly shales, and 
a coaly streak, above which, thirty-two feet, comes another coal 
bed, possibly the Bakerstown, four feet thick, on the land of Jas- 
per England. 

Just below the mouth of Teter's creek, at Moatsville, and 250 
odd feet above the Valley river, the Mason coal appears as a bed 
of cannel in the following section on the land of Daniel Moore : 

F't. Ih. n. Ift. 
Coaly slate..... ; i b 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL 8BUVBY. 297 

Fireclay shales 3 o 

<=-.>^-- {rli^irer'^'!::;/^ U ^ » 

Massive sandstone (Upper Mahoning) and concealed 84 o 

Coal, Mahoning ^ 3 o 

Fireclay and shales 5 o 

Sandstone, very massive, Lower Mahoning 31 o 

Concealed 22 o 

Coal, Upper Freeport, visible ^ 3 o 

Concealed 10 o 

Massive sandstone, Upper Freeport and concealed 

to bed of Valley nver 90 o 

Total ^.255 2 

Here the Mason coal turns to a fairly good bed of cannel, 
which has been mined and burned to a small extent by Mr. Moore. 
By the thickening up of the Mahoning sandstone members at this 
locality, the Mason coal is thrown 146 feet above the base of the 
Conemaugh. 

A bed of cannel coal is frequently found along the waters of 
Sandy creek, in Preston county, and it very probably belongs at 
the horizon of the Mason coal. 

The Daniel Moore section just given is an important one, 
since the massive pebbly rocks below the Upper Freeport coal here 
were formerly (Bulletin 65, U. S. G. Survey, page 128) considered 
by the writer as belonging in the Pottsville series, instead of the 
Allegheny, while both the Mason coal at the top of the section, 
and the Mahoning coal below it, were included in the Allegheny 
series. The section given for MoatsviUe in BuUetiti 65^ feferred to 
above, waa made about one-half mile above the mouth of Teter's 
creek, where the exposures are not so good as at the Daniel Moore 
locality, below the mouth of the same stream. The occurrence of 
RED BEDS, however, only 150 feet above the Mason coal, and the 
Bakerstown coal on above in the hills back from Moatsville, ren- 
der it certain that the former interpretation of the Moatsville sec- 
tion was in error, and that the great, pebbly, massive sandstones 
in the bluffs and bed of the Valley river there, are the Upper and 
Lower Freeport sandstones respectively, since the entire series can 
be traced from Moatsville to Philippi, where the measures extend 
up to the Pittsburg coal in the hills, two miles west from the 
river. 

The Masontown coal is occasionally mined between Moats- 
ville and Grafton, Taylor county, but in approaching the latter 
place, it appears to grow thin and slaty, since in a cut one-fourth 



2198 THE OONEMAUGH SEBIBS. 

mile below the B. & 0. railroad station in Grafton, it exhibits 
the following structure in the section measured there from the sum- 
mit of the hill : 

GRAFTON, TAYLOR COUNTY. 

Ft 

Massive, yellowish gray, pebbly sandstone 20 

Shales and conceal^ 25 

I^imestone, fossiliferous, Ames 2 

Coal, Friendsville ^ i 

Shales, marly, grayand red 30 

Shales, sandstone and concealed 160 

Sandstone, massive, Buffalo 55 

Dark shales (Mason) fossil plants 5 

Coal, Mason % 

Fireclay and sandy shales 15 

Sandstone, top of Upper Mahoning 10 

Concealed to Valley nver ^ 35 

The base of the Conemaugh would probably underlie the 
river here at about sixty to seventy feet, since the Upper Freeport 
coal comes out of Three Forks creek, one mile east from this local- 
ity, at about 125 feet below the Mason coal. Here the Ames lime- 
stone and its underlying coal are finely exposed at a cutting on the 
road at Mr. Poe's residence, near the summit of the hill, and as 
the limestone (although earthy and shaly) is a mass of fossils, 
there can be no doubt about the place of the Mason coal and other 
nicks in this section. 

The maedve sandstone above the Ames limestonG^ nrhicb h0» 
been much quarried around the Grafton hills, appears to be a new 
member of the Conemaugh which comes into the series along 
Three Forks, at a short interval below the Elk Lick coal, and it 
might be appropriately named the Grafton sandstone. It makes 
cliffs along the hills at many points between Grafton and New- 
burg. 

In the coal shaft at Newburg, the Mason bed is reported as one 
foot thick, and it is apparently this seam which crops under a 
heavy sandstone along the B. & 0. railroad tracks a few hundred 
feet west. 

Three miles east from Newburg, the Upper Freeport coal rises 
to the level of the B. & 0. railroad at Murray tunnel, near Austen, 
and the basal members of the Conemaugh are there well exposed 
in the following section descending from the hills above : 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 296 

MURRAY TUNNEI. SECTION. 

Massive, pebbly sandstone, Buffalo 25 

Concealed 20 

Coal, Mason 2 

Concealed 20 

Massive sandstone (Upper Mahoninfi^) 40 

Concealed, with fireclay at base (Mahoning coal) 40 

Massive sandstone (Lower Mahoning) 50 

Upper Freeport coal 

The Mason coal was once opened here by a farmer, who re- 
ports it as two feet thick, and fairly good. The drift was closed 
when the locality was visited, so that the coal could not be seen. 

In the Belington region of Barbour county, this coal has been 
mined within the limits of the town^ and just east of it for local 
supply. It is two and one-half to three feet thick, cropping 
twenty to thirty feet above the top of the Upper Mahoning 
sandstone, and about 140 feet above the Upper Freeport coal. 

It has been mined by many farmers along the western edge of 
Randolph and eastern Upshur, between the Tygart's Valley and 
Little Kanawha rivers, and is seldom less than two and one-half 
feet thick. 

Through Webster and Nicholas counties, this coal increases 
in importance, and has frequently been opened by the farmers high 
up in the summits of the hills. In Powell mountain, Nicholas 
county, it makes ft large outcrop along the Sutton pike, J50 feet 
above the Upper FreepOl* ^^ ^liicb mm OW* UliBieii e( that lo- 
cality. 

About one mile southwest from there, the Mason coal has long 
been mined for domestic supply on the land of James McCarron, 
450 feet above the level of *'Muddlety*' (Mumble-tho-peg) creek, 
where it exhibits the following structure: 

Ft. In. Ft In- 

Coal ,,...v..^ I o 1 

Bone . 04 > 3 10 



Coal 2 6 



The coal is very bright and rich looking. It is used by the 
smiths and appears to be a very pure coal. Through this district 
it is known as the **McCarron" vein. 

In the region of North Coalburg (Shrewsberry) and Cedar 
Grove, Kanawha county, this Mason coal thickens up to a large 



300 



THE OONEMAUOH SERIES. 



size, and is locally known as the **Big" bed. It lies 160 to 175 
feet above the Kanawha black flint, and exhibits the structure 
shown in the following section measured by the writer in 1884 : 



NORTH COAI^BURG, KANAWHA COUNTY. 

Ft In. Pt In. 



Sbales, with iron ore 

Massive sandstone, Buffalo 

Shale, blue (Mason plant shale) 
fcoal 



Coal, Mason . 



black slate o 

coal, good 4 

shale 2 

coal o 

shale 5 

[coal, slatj 3 6 

Massive sandstone (Upper Mahoning) and con< 
cealed 

fcoal o 8 
shale o 2 
coal I o 
bone o 4 
coal I 8 

Concealed and sandstone. Lower Mahoning .... 

Kanawha black flint 

Concealed, with Stockton coal near top 

Sandstone, massive , 

fcoal, splint o 5 

bone or **niggerhead*'.. o 6 

coal, splint 3 

fire clay, shale 2 

[coal, soft I 

Concealed 

Sandstone, visible 

{coal 03) 
shale 08}- 
coal 2 8 1 

Concealed, containing *Teerless** coal bed, thirty 

above base 

Coal, Blacksbui^g 

Concealed to level of the Great Kanawha 



10 o 

50 o 

3 o 



17 8 



90 



3 10 



65 
7 

65 
25 



Coalburg coal.. 



o 
6 
6 



300 
10 



100 

4 
20 



7 " 



3 7 



This section, measured between North (Doalburg and Cedar 
Grove, is introduced to show the relation of this Mason ooal to 
the Kanawha black flint bed, as well as to the underlying Ka- 
nawha COAL SERIES, which is here exposed nearly to its base, since 
the Blacksburg bed is the lowest member of the Campbell's creek 
coal, the *Teerless" being the upper member of the same. 

The Cedar Grove Colliery Company has a mine in the Mason 
coal near Cedar Grove, where Mr. S. D. Brady measured the fol- 
lowing structure : 



5 8 



14 8 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 301 

Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Slate (Mason) 

Black slate o 3 

Coal, left np o 3 

Coal I 3 

Bone or *'niggerhead" o i 

Coal o 6 

Bone or **niggerhead** o i 

Coal o 9 

Slate o 2 

Coal ^ 2 7 

Sandy shale 5 6 

Coal, reported 3 6 

Butts, E. Face, N. Elevation, 1300 feet A. T. Grcateet 
rise, S. E. 

The three and one-half feet of coal at the bottom of the bed 
is not mined, and it represents the impure coal of the same thick- 
ness shown in the North Coalburg section. 

The analysis of the sample collected here by Mr. Brady gave 
the following results : 

Moisture 1.03 

Volatile matter 33. 73 

Fixed carbon 53.07 

Ash 12. 17 



Total ....100.00 

Sulphur a 73 

Phosphorus 0.009 

The Kanawha and Hocking Coal and Coke Company's min^, 
in the same coal, one-half mile below Cedar Grove, Kanawtnet 
county, is given by Mr. Brady as follows : 

Fi. In. Ft. In. 

Sandstone 

Shales (Mason), 3 o 

Coal I 4 1 

Slate o 6 

Coal 410 12 9 

Hard slate 3 7 

Coal 2 6 , 

Butts S. 60** W. Faces S. 30^ E. Elevation 1350 feet A. T. 
Analysis of sample : 

Moisture 0.60 

Volatile matter , 36. 24 

Fixed Carbon 55. 14 

Ash 8. 02 



Total loaoo 



302 THE^OONEMAUOH SERIES. 

Bulphur I. 21 

Phosphorus o. 002 

What Mr. Brady identifies as the same coal is operated by the 

K. & H. C. & C. Company, on Kelly's creek, one mile above 

Mammoth, Kanawha county, where he measured the following 

succession : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sandstone 

Slate 

Coal ' ° ) 

**Niggerhead" o 4 }• 6 4 

Coal 5 o J 

Slate ? ? 

Coal ? ? 

Elevation 1325 feet A. T. Greatest rise S. E. 

Analysis of sample : 

Moisture a 91 

Volatile matter 36. 35 

Fixed carbon 55.02 

Ash 7. 72 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur « o. 70 

Phosphorus 0.003 

The coal is highly valued as a steam and domestic fuel, and 
is shipped both east and west by rail, and south by river. 
These analyses show more ash and a little less volatile matter than 
4ift6 same coal at Queen Shoals, the analysis of which is given en 

The general section at North Coalburg also demonstrates that 
the **Big bed'' there is the same as the one at Queen Shoals, since 
both have practically the same interval above the Kanawha black 
flint. 

In the region of Cedar Grove and North Coalburg (or Shrews- 
berry) this Mason bed has been confused with the Mahoning coal 
below it, and termed '*No. 5'' in the local mining parlance, 
whereas No. 5 is ninety feet under the Mason bed, as shown by 
the general section at Cedar Grove and North Coalburg on page 300 
above. 

In passing north down the Great Kanawha from Coalburg, 
the Mason coal gets thinner, and is not mined to any extent except 
for country use. 

On Lick, Porter, and Ferry runs, which put into the Kanawha 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 303 

river from the south, a mile or more above the Charleston C. & 0. 
R. R. station, this coal was formerly mined to a small extent for 
domestic use. It is known there as the *'Joel Ruffner'' bed, from 
a mine on Lick Rim, where the coal is forty inches thick, with 
some bone at the top and much black slate in its roof. 

Captain Swan and others have exploited it on Porter's run^ 
where it appears to be split into two beds by a layer of sandstone^ 
as exhibited in the following section: 

PORTER'S RUN SECTION, NEAR CHARLESTON. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sandstone, massive, Buffalo 80 o 

Coal o 4 

Fireclay, impure 4 o 

Concealed 20 o 

Iron ore, sandy ...., o 6 

Blue shale 3 o 

^ coal o 2 1 

Coal, Mason... < shale -.. i 6 I 2 2 

(coal o 6 j 

Blackslate i 6 

Massive sandstone .,. 15 o 

Coal, good, **Jocl Ruffner'* (Mason) i 6 

Sandstone, Upper Mahoning, massive 60 o 

Coal, slaty, Mahoning i 6 

Sandstone, Lower Mahoning 50 o 

Rhales and concealed 30 o 

Kanawha black flint 5 o 

The lower bench of the Mason coal is the only one minecj^ 
and it varies from eighteen to thirty iTChcs in tbickneaB. 

It is probably this coal which comes down to the lerel of <&& 
C. <fe 0. R. R. grade one-half mile below the C. & 0. R. R. 
Charleston station, where it has the structure exhibited in thk 
section: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Sandstone, massive, Buffalo 75 o 

icoal o 6 I 
blackslate 2 6 !• 4 6 
coal I 6 J 

Concealed to Kanawha river 50 o 



It is also possibly this same coal that is mined on the land of 
Col. Robert Carr, three miles southwest from Charleston, along a 
branch of Davis creek, and waggoned extensively to the city for 
domestic use. It is about three feet thick, and Col. Carr reports 
it as having one or more bony streaks. It makes an excellent 
domestic fuel when properly freed from bony material. 



304 THE CONEMAUOU SERIES. 

This bed occurs at many localities along Twelve Pole river, 
between Ceredo and Wayne, ten to fifteen feet under the fossilifer- 
ous Lower Cambridge Limestone, and has been mined three miles 
above Ceredo where it is reported as two feet thick. 

It is possibly the same coal that crops above the N. A W. R. 
R. at Wayne, and has been mined at a few localities in that re- 
gion, and southward, but is only two to two and one-half feet 
thick. 

No particular study of this bed has been possible between 
the Kanawha and Big' Sandy rivers in Lincoln, Boone, Logan and 
Mingo counties, but it doubtless exists in workable conditions 
at many localities across the counties mentioned. 

It is possibly this bed which has been opened high up in the 
hills along Big Sandy, one mile above Nolan, Mingo county, 
by the Hatfield Colliery Company, where it lies 480 feet above 
the coal (Winifrede?) mined by that company, and 650 feet above 
river level. The coal in question comes sixty feet above three and 
one-half feet of splint coal (Mahoning) and 170 feet below the 
the top of a great, pebbly sandstone, above which are red beds. 
The coal exhibits this structure at the opening : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Massive sandstone, pebbly 90 o 

Sandy shale o 6 



fcoal o $ 1 

Coal... -j gray shale* o 4 V 

Icoal, good I 4 J 



2 I 



The coal now described under the term "Mason" was for- 
merly given the name **Brush Creek" by the writer from a locality 
in Cranberry township, Butler county, Pennsylvania, (see Report 
Q, Second Geological Survey, pages 34 and 35), where it was sup- 
posed to be only seventy-five feet above the base of the Cone- 
maugb, and to be identical with the coal which is now termed 
the Mahoning. But subsequent investigation revealed the fact 
that the coal along Brush Creek lies more than 100 feet above the 
base of the Conemaugh, and is the second coal above the Upper 
Freeport seam, instead of the first, so that the name '*Bru8h 
creek," having been given under a misapprehension, had to be 
dropped. 



WEST VIROINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. SOt 

The coal which was thus described has the following struciDre 
at the type locality, Mr. Hains' bank, on Brush Creek, Butler 
county. See page 35, Report Q, referred to above : 



Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Limestone, Lower Cambridge ( Brush creek ) i o 

Dark shales iq o 

{coal I o 1 
slate o I V 2 5 
coal I 4 j 



In the Potomac basin of Mineral and Garrett counties, this 
Mason coal is almost universally present at 110 to 140 feet above 
the base of the Conemaugh. In the deep shaft at Henry, it was 
struck at 138 feet above the Upper Freeport coal and is sixteen 
inches thick. 

It is also present in every region of Garrett county, where its 
horizon is exposed, according to Dr. G. C. Martin. 

This ooal does not appear to be present in Monongalia county, 
unless the one at ninety-eight feet above the Upper Freeport bed, 
in the Little Falls section, page 231 of this volume, should be 
the Mason instead of the Mahoning, which is not at all improbable. 
Of course, in that event, the overlying massive, pebbly sandstone 
would be the Buffalo saiidstone instead of the Mahoning, as given 
in the section indicated. 

In Hancock county this coal is only about one foot thick, and 
crops high in the hills at New Cumberland, 50 to 60 feet above 
the Mahoning coal. 

THE MAHONING SANDSTONE STAGE. 

Separated from the Mason coal by five to thirty feet of fire- 
clay and shales, there comes in below, almost univerpally, a very 
massive sandstone group, sometimes in one massive solid ledge 
eighty to one hundred feet thick, but more frequently separated 
into two sandstones by an intervening coal, and an underlying 
limestone — fireclay, or both; po that when all of thp members are 
present the Mahoning stage is made up of the following succes- 
sion : Upper Mahoning sandstone. 
Mahoning coal. 
Thornton fireclay. 
Mahoning limestone. 
Lower Mahoning sandstone. 

•Hie sandstone members of this stage have played a very coi>- 
^fcdous part in shaping the topography along their lines of xynh 
crop, since, together with the massive Buffalo and Saltzbutg 8$nd- 



W^ THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

Stones above, they form a friendly cover which has often protected 
the underlying Allegheny series from complete erosion. Being 
hard, freqently pebbly, and the sand grains cemented largely by 
peroxide of iron and silica, these sandstone beds often cap the high 
ridges and peaks with an almost indestructible roof, and thus 
preserve the underlying softer rocks from destruction. Thib is 
especially true in the southwestern portion of the state, from Up- 
shur, Webster and Randolph counties, across Nicholas, Clay, Ka- 
nawha, Fayette. Boone, Lincoln, Logan, Wayne, Hingo, and 
western Wyoming and Raleigh, while the same massive beds 
make the steep blufifs along the Ohio river through Hancock 
county in the northern Pan Handle of the state. The elevated 
peaks of * Turkey Boue," in Randolph, and Cottle Knob, in 
Nicholas, rising more than 1200 feet above the nearest valleys, 
are each crowned bv the hard rocks of this stage, while in west- 
em Fayette, Raleigh, and Wyoming, and on through Logan and 
Mingo to the Kentucky line, the summits formed by these mas- 
sive, pebbly sandstones often attain an elevation of 1500 feet 
above the valley floors. 

Wherever they emerge, whether along the lower slopes of the 
hills, midway up the same, or capping the summits, long lines of 
cliffs and rough, broken topography result. 

The massive sandstone beds are generally traversed by two 
systems of jointing planes, and hence large blocks of these sand- 
stones frequently descend into the valleys or litter up the slopes 
wherever they can find a lodgment. 

Theee sandgtones split readily into blocks of desirable size, 
and have been frequently quarried for building and bridge ma- 
sonry. The stone in the Capitol at Charleston, the Court House 
at Buckhannon, and many other structures throughout the state, 
come from the rocks of this stage. Occasionally, either from the 
presence of pyrites, or other easily destroyed constituents, theee 
sandstones break down and weather into all kinds of shapes, a 
fine example of which mav be seen in Monongalia county, one- 
half mile east of the Mon()ne;ahela river, along the banks of 
Booth's creek, at the locality known as **Raven Rocks.*' There 
the: Upper and Lower Mahoning beds, having united into one 
DiBfis, make a cliff nearly one hundred feet high, the face of which 
is ^^ealbered iniX) many fant^tic shapes and pitted with holes and 
cavities of every description. 



WEST VIBGIIOA QBOLOGIOAL SURVEY. Mf 

The Upper Mahoniog is generally the more massive member, 
and the better quarry rrxsk of the two. Occasionally its basal beds 
take on a greenish tinge, as at Philippi, Barbour county, where 
they have recently been quarried for building purposes by Mr. 
Hall, along the west bank of the Valley river. 

The name Charleston sandstone was given to these beds, and 
the overlying BuflPalo sandstone, by the U. S. G. Survey in its 
Oharleston Folio, but as the name Mahoning, given by the First 
Geological Survey of Pennsylvania from the Mahoning river in 
that state, has priority, the new one cannot be adopted without 
violating one of the fundamental laws of nomenclature. 

The oil well drillerp usually term these beds either the **Dun- 
kard" or **Cow Run*' band, and the Upper Mahoning especially 
is often quite rich in petroleum, some of the wells in Wood and 
Pleasants counties having produced as much as fifty to one hun« 
dred barrels an hour for many days when first completed. 

THE MAHONING COAL. 

Lying between the two Mahoning sandstones just described, 
there frequently occurs a coal bed which is of considerable 
economic importance in some regions of the sta-te. The 
bed in question was once (Report Q, Second Geological Survey of 
Pennsylvania) termed the **Brush Creek'' coal by the writer 
under an erroneous view of the geological horizon of the type lo- 
cality on Brush creek, Butler county, Pa., which turns out to be 
the same as the Mason coal, or the next higher bed of this report, 
and hence in Bulletin 65 of the U. S. G. Survey the term **Brush 
creek" was abandoned and that of ^ ^Mahoning" substituted for 
this important coal horizon. 

In Ohio this bed is known as No. 7, and is occasionally an 
important coal, especially in Columbiana county, where it is often 
termed the **Groff vein" along the Ohio river. 

In the adjoining county of Hancock, this Mahoning bed has 
long been mined, high up in the hills at New Cumberland, and 
recently a standard gauge railroad has been built up Hardins run 
to reach the new mines of the Marquette Coal Company, which 
operates this seam two and one-half miles east from the towo^ 
and 350 feet above the Ohio river. The coal at the Marqu^te 
mine has been assigned to most every horizon from the Pittsburg 



3QB THE OONEMAUGH SERIES. 

bed down to the Upper Freeport, but it is the same one that has 
been mined in the river hills at New Cumberland fifty to sixty 
feet below the Mason coal, and its overlying fossiliferous limy 
shales, and eighty to ninety feet above the ^ 'Roger'' vein of that 
region, which, by the Ohio geologists, has always been considered 
identical with the Lower Freeport bed of the Allegheny series. 

The coal at the Marquette mine is single bedded, aside from 
a streak of '^sulphur," which is not regular in its position. The 
following section was measured there by A. P. Brady, who also col* 
lected the sample for analysis : 

Ft In. Ft. In. 



Sandstone, upper Mahoning 

Blate lo o 

fcoel 

Coal, Mahoning -j sulphur o }4 [ 5 ^)( 

(coal 

Fireclay 



O ><[ 
2 2 j. 

Butts run N. 68*^ W. Faces N. 22*^ E. Greatest rise, north- 
east 

Prof. Hite reports the following analysis of the sample col- 
lected here : 

Moisture 1. 15 

Volatile matter 36.38 

Fixed carbon 56. 55 

Ash 5.92 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur 1. 45 

Phosphorus. « 0.005 

The coal is shipped east and west by the Pan Handle r&ilroad 
for steam and domestic purposes, and is in very high favor for 
either. 

This coal is also extensively mined by Mr. Porter, adjoining 
the Marquette mine, and waggoned to New Cumberland for use in 
the brick factories. It is from three and one-half to five feet 
thick in the Porter mine, with no visible partings. 

The bed was also once extensively mined in the hills north- 
east from the New Cumberland cemetery, st the old Chatam 
mine3, and taken to the valley below over a long incline, but 
these mines have now been abandoned. 

The coal has a coarse, massive sandstone (Upper Mahoning) 
at a short interval above. 



WEaT VIROINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

The thick deposit of this coal covers only a limited area and 
appears to thin down to only two or three feet when traced away 
from the region of Hardins run and one or two farms adjacent. 

The coal is mined for local purposes on the land of Thomas 
Doak, just above the * Tails,'* on Hardins run, and 200 feet verti- 
cally over the bottom of the same, and 330 feet above the Ohio 
river. The coal shows five and one-half feet at the entrance to 
the mine without any visible partings, but within less than one- 
half mile to the south it is only three feet thick, and is mined no 
more in that direction on the West Virginia side of the Ohio 
river. 

The horizon of this coal dips below water level on the Ohio 
river just above Steubenville, and remains below it along that 
stream until the rise of the strata brings it up to daylight again 
near Ceredo, in Wayne county, nearly 250 miles below. Here 
there is some clay and limestone (Mahoning) between the two 
massive members of the Mahoning sandstone, but no coal is 
visible. 

When we pass eastward to the waters of the Monongahela, 
however, the coal is generally present, though thin in many re- 
gions. In the diamond drill boring to the Upper Freeport coal, 
made on the Gamble lot. Deckers creek, by Hon. S. B. Elkins, 
a coal was encountered at a depth of 104 feet, as shown by the 
following record : 

DECKERS CREEK BORING, MONONGALIA COUNTY. 

Ft In. 

Surface 8 io>^ 

Shale, green 7 4 

Shale, red 13 5 

Sandy shale, gray 3 4}^ 

Sandstone, graj, Buffalo? 12 o 

Fireclay ^. 2 o 

Sandstone, Upper Mahoning? ~ 47 3>i 

Black slate 8 8>i 

Dark limestone, very fossiliferous i o 

CoAi«, Mahoning? i 3 

Fireclay, soft, Mahoning 19 o}i 

Sandstone, shaly, Lower Mahoning 30 3^^ 

Slate I 3>i 

Bone coal o 6 

Slate o 2}i 

Bone coal o 5 

Fireclay shales 6 3 

Upper Freeport coal 

Total 163 3 

Te coal is quite bright and pure looking, and comes at an 



310 THE (X)NEMAUGH SERIES. 

interval of fifty-eight feet above the base of the Conemaugh se- 
ries, immediately below which is the typical Upper Freeport 
coal. 

The black slate and dark fossiliferous limestone in the roof of 
this little coal bed are exactly like that seen in the roof of the coal 
found in the Abhbum boring, Preston county, page 269, above, at 
an interval of 112 feet above the Upper Freeport coal, and also in 
the Watson farm boring, page 310, below, at only 86 feet above 
the same coal. The marine fossils are quite numerous, and the 
limestone rests in direct contact with the underlying coal; and, 
although the interval is only 58 feet here, or but a few feet more 
than half what it is in the Watson boring, the conclusion is una- 
voidable that it is the same limestone and coal in each of the three 
borings; and hence, if the fossiliferous limestone in the Watson 
farm boring is the Lower Cambridge, then that in the Ashbum 
and Gamble borings is also, and the overlying sandstone would be 
the Upper Mahoning. It is possible that the Mahoning and Mason 
coals may have been frequently confused on account of such rapid 
changes in the character and thickness of the intervening rocks. 
These problems can only be solved by careful, detailed studies in 
the future county work contemplated. 

The steep southeast rise of all the strata toward the Chestnut 
ridge anticlinal from Rock Forge, or the locality of the last sec- 
tion, soon brings this little coal to the surface, and it is ex- 
posed along the Decker's creek road, where it descends the steep 
hill to the valley of the stream, between Rock Forge and Dells- 
low. 

The bore hole on the Sanford Watson farm, Dillon creek, 
Preston county, less than a mile distant from the Ashbum 
boring, found a thin coal at a depth of ninety feet, and eighty-five 
feet above the Upper Freeport coal, but it was only nine inches 
thick and must be the same as the Mason bed of the Watson boring, 
since a fossiliferous limestone is in the roof of each. The record of the 
Watson diamond drill boring, as given by Mr. Davis Elkins, pres- 
ident of the M. & K. R. R., reads as follows from the surface 
down to the base of the Conemaugh : 

SANFORD WATSON FARM BORING, PRESTON COUNTY. 

Ft. In. 
Interval from crop of Bakerstown (Barton) coal 

(no allowance for dip) to top of boring 45 5 

Surface 2 o 

Sandstone, fine grained, gray, Buffalo 8 6 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 311 

Fireclay 4 o 

Shale, green, sandy 15 2 

Sandstone, gray, large pebbles for 20 feet near the 

middle ^ 54 7 

Blackslate 4 i 

Irimestone, fossiliferous i 8 

COAI. o 9 

Fireclay, soft, limy 10 6 

Green shale and sandstone, mixed 20 i 

Fireclay, soft 11 10 

Sandstone, gray, some green, shale in lower half, 

Lower Mahoning 35 4 

Slate o 6 

Bone coal and slate o 11 

Slate and shale 5 11 

Upper Freeport coal 

Total 221 3 

This section is a good illustration of the rapid changes which 
take place in the Mahoning sandstone stage, since in the Ashbum 
boring, less than one mile distant, a solid mass of sandstone, 
eighty-six feet thick, occurs, while in the Watson boring thick fire- 
clays and shales replace the Lower Mahoning sandstone, thus 
largely decreasing the interval between the little coal and the 
Upper Freeport coal bed, so that instead of the 112 feet as 
shown in the Ashburn boring, on Dillon creek, page 269, it is 
here eighty-five feet, or twenty-seven feet less. 

The limestone in the roof of the little nine-inch coal bed is full 
of marine fossils, corals, gastropods, brachiopods, etc., and lenses of 
it are interstratified with the top layers of the coal. The writer 
was inclined to regard this thin coal bed of the Watson boring as 
a different coal from the one found in the Ashbum boring at 112 
feet above the Upper Freeport coal, but when he saw the core, 
showing the same dark shales and fossiliferous limestone in its 
roof as found in the latter, the conclusion is inevitable that they 
are one and the same. It is even possible that both may repre- 
sent the Mahoning coal, instead of the one that has been termed 
the Mason bed in this report. 

In many regions of southern Preston, eastern Barbour, west- 
em Randolph, eastern Upshur and the Pan Handle of Lewis coun- 
ties, a bed of coal identified with the Mahoning thickens up to 
three and one-half and four feet, and becomes an important bed 
of fuel. When the Lower Mahoning sandstone is thin and shaly, 
this coal is found within forty feet of the Upper Freeport bed, as 
at Philippi, Nestorville, and other localities, but when the sand- 



312 THE CONBHAUCm SERIES. 

stone in question tliickens, and grows massive, the interval in- 
creases to seventy-five feet or more in Randolph, Upshur, Lewis, 
Braxton, Webster, Nicholas, Kanawha and southwestward. 

Opposite the western end of the mill-dam at Philippi, the 
Mahoning coal is mined on the land of Mr. Hall and there the fol- 
lowing section is exposed : 

PHILIPPI SECTION. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sandstone, massive, Buffalo 40 o 

Shales and concealed 30 o 

Coal, Mason, slaty 3 o 

Concealed 25 o 

Sandstone, Upp>er Mahoning, massive, flaggy at base 50 o 

{coal 3 o] 

bone o 2 >• 4 3 

coal I ij 

Concealed to Upper Freeport coal just under the 

bed of Valley river 40 o 

The coal is bright, hard, and makes a fairly good domestic 
and steam fuel. 

The coal has long been mined at the Tolbert bank, just below 
the west end of the wooden bridge across the Valley river at Phil- 
ippi, and there, in the mines of the M. E. Tolbert Coal Company, 
Mr. A. P. Brady measured the following section: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Blue sandstone, Upper Mahoning 

"Draw** slate o 6 

{coal 25] 
slate o I V 3 II 
coal I 5 J 

Elevation, 1295 feet, A. T. 

The analysis of the sample collected at the Tolbert mine is 

reported as follows by Prof. Hite : 

Moisture o. 74 

Volatile matter 31. 17 

Fixed carbon 57.37 

Ash 10.72 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur 2. 69 

Phosphorus 0.018 

At the W. T. Ice mine, on the west side of the Valley river, 

above Philippi, Mr. A. P. Brady reports the following section : 

Ft. In. Ft In. 

Blue sandstone, Upper Mahoning ^ *..^. 

*'Draw*' slate... ^ .*. ..^..^, „ o 6 

1 bone coal 02") 

Coal . ^?^^ ^ ^^i A 2 

^^* slate o H\ ^ 

.coal , I 5 J 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 313 

The analysis of a sample collected from this mine gave the 
following results as reported by Prof. Hite : 

Moisture , 0.81 

Volatile matter 30.71 

Fixed carbon 56. 14 

Ash 12.34 



Total 100.00 

Sulphur 2.37 

Phosphorus 0.015 

These analyses reveal a coal rather high in ash and sulphur. 
It is used for both steam and domestic purposes at Philippi, and 
appears to give general satisfaction. 

The coal is mined on the land of Mrs. Morrill, one mile be- 
low Philippi, near the mouth of MorrilPs run, on the east bank of 
the Valley river, and there the following section is revealed : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Sandy shales 3 o 

Black slate o 3 

{coal ^ ^ ) 
shale, gray o 3 f 3 i' 
coal 14) 

Concealed 5 o 

Sandstone, flaggy. Lower Mahoning 35 o 

Upper Freeport coal , 



Here the Upper Freeport coal has been stripped out of the 
bed of Morrill's run, directly under the Mahoning coal. 

At the Lillian mines, two miles above Philippi, and the Meri- 
dan mine, two miles below the town, this coal has been pierced 
by the air shaft from the Upper Freeport bed below, and the exact 
interval is reported to be forty feet in each case. 

This coal was once mined on Laurel creek, seven miles from 
Philippi, by J. W. Miller, where it has a massive sandstone (Up- 
per Mahoning) above, is forty-five feet above the Upper Freeport 
coal, and is reported as three and one-half to four feet thick. Mr. 
Miller has abandoned this bed and mines the Upper Freeport 
below. 

About one mile beyond Laurel creek, the Mahoning coal is 
mined along the Nestorville, or Valley Furnace pike by A. O. 
Bennett, at whose bank the following structure is exposed: 

# Ft. In. Ft. In. 
Sandy shales .*. 



314 THE CONEHADGH SERIES. 



Coal, slaty ^ i o 

Coal, good 3 o 

Shale, dark gray o 3 

Coal I o 



5 3 



A very massive sandstone (Upper Mahoning) crops only a 
few feet above the coal. This bed is also mined by J. D. Stemple on 
the opposite side of the road, where the following structure is vis- 
ible : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sandstone, massive, Upper Mahoning 30 o 

Shales, sandy 3 o 

{coal 2 9 'I 
slate o I \ 3}i o 
coal o 8 j 

There are several openings in this coal at Nestor ville, and it 
is the principal source of domestic supply from there over a wide 
region. 

It is mined below Nestorville at the junction of Brushy Fork 
of Teter's creek with the main stream, just above the Valley Fur- 
nace road, where it is four feet thick and lies forty-five to fifty feet 
above the Upper Freeport coal which was once mined at this lo- 
cality by stripping along the bed of Brushy Fork. 

In the section at Nestorville, page 297, this coal is reported as 
only three feet thick by Daniel Moore, who opened it fifty-eight 
feet above the Upper Freeport bed. 

In the Roaring creek basin of Randolph county, and extend- 
ing southwestward into eastern Barbour, Upshur and Lewis coun- 
ties, there is quite a large area of the Mahoning coaJ, where the 
bed is three and one half to four feet thick, and will prove of much 
economic importance in the general fuel resources of the region. 
The coal lies seventy-five to eighty feet above the large Upper 
Freeport seam, and is usually called the **Four-Foot" vein. 

About one mile southwest from Roaring Creek Jimction this 
coal has been opened on the land of Patrick O'Connor, where it 
lies seventy-five feet above the Upper Freeport bed, opened along 
Grassy run below, and is four and one-half feet thick. It mines 
in large blocks, which exhibit the **peacock'' hue throughout, 
thus indicating the presence of sulphur in considerable quantity. 

This coal has also been mined for local supply on the land of 
Peter Kain, where it is four and one-half ieei tfcick and has six 
inches of bony coal and slate near the center. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 315 

This coal was once opened high up in the hills near Ford's 
Hotel, on the Beverly and Buckhannon pike, 70 feet above the 
Upper Freeport bed. 

Several openings in this coal have been operated by the farm- 
ers for domestic use between Kingsvillc and Talbot, and on be- 
yond to Hall's mill, on the Middle Fork river, where the Mahon- 
ing coal has been mined along the pike and dug into at sevend 
localities. It lies here eighty feet above the Upper Freeport seam, 
and above it two other thin coals crop at 65 and 115 feet respect- 
ively. 

Just over the divide, between Laurel run (which empties into 
the Buckhannon river) and the Middle Fork of Valley river, one 
mile from D. 0. Hall's mill, the Mahoning coal has been mined 
quite extensively for local 8Ui)ply on the land on Peach Campbell, 
where it exhibits the following structure : 

Ft In. Ft. In. 



Shale roof 

Coal 2 o 

Slate o I 

Coal o 4 

Slate o }i 

Coal I lo 



3K 



This is called the 'Tour- Foot" bed, and near Mr. Campbell's 
house the ^ Three- Foot," or Mason coal, was once opened 80 feet 
above the Mahoning. 

Several openings in the Mahoning coal have been made along 
Laurel run between P. Campbell's and the Buckhannon river, 
three to four miles distant. 

On Sand creek, Upshur county, which empties into the Buck- 
hannon river ten miles below Buckhannon, this Mahoning coal 
has been mined by nearly every farmer between its mouth and 
several miles above. In this region the coal is from three to four 
feet thick, and has the usual slaty partings near the middle. It 
is mined by *Toke" Foster, M. H. Kiesley, Luther Shreeves, B. 
F. Hamilton and many others. The interval appears to be thin- 
ner between it and the underlying Upper Freeport coal along Sand 
creek than elsewhere, since at some localities it is only thirty to 
thirty-five feet above the latter coal, as illustrated in the following 
section measured just below the mouth of Big Laurel Fork of Sand 
creek : 



316 



THE CX)NEMAUGH SERIES. 



Ft In. Ft. In. 



Black slate . 



Coal, Mahoning., 



fcoal o 2 

slate o 1)4 

coal I 3 

slaty coal o 9>i 

coal I 6 



3 lo 



Coal, local., 



Flaggy sandstone and sandy shale i8 

fcoal o I 

shale o 3 

coal o 2}^ 

shale o 10 

[ slaty coal i 6 ^ 

Gray, sandy shales 10 

Black slate o 

Gray, sandy shales 2 

Upper Freeport coal 



io>4 



Total 37 5^ 

Here a sporadic, slaty coal makes its appearance (as frequent- 
ly happens) a few feet above the main Upper Freeport bed. 

At Mr. Kiestling's mine on Sand creek, one mile below the 
mouth of Big Laurel branch, the Mahoning coal is sixty feet above 
the stream, and has the following structure : 



Ft. lu. Ft. In. 
3 



Coal o 

Slate o >^ 

Coal I 7 

Slate and coal o 8 

Coal I 8 



2)4 



The Upper Freeport coal crops along the bed of the stream 
here, and a black slate and coaly streak shows in the hills 70 
feet above the Mahoning coal, while 115 feet higher a massive 
sandstone makes a terrace around the hills, capping which, at 235 
feet above the Mahoning coal, is a bold cliff of massive, pebbly 
sandstone. 

The Mahoning coal has been mined along the Buckhannon 
river just below the mouth of Sand creek, and at the mouth of 
Handy Camp branch, where it is thirty-five feet above the water 
level. 

Just below this the coal has been gouged out of the hills along 
the left bank of the Buckhannon, only twenty feet above the 
water, while above it occurs a rather massive sandstone cliff (Up- 
per Mahoning) at fifty feet, and a very bold one near the top of 
the hill 250 to 300 feet higher. 

One mile below the mouth of Handy Camp the Buckhannon 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL BRUVBY. 



317 



river veers east, and the Mahoning coal rises rapidly to seventy- 
five feet above the same, where it exhibits the following structure at 
the mine of J. H. Wentz : 

Ft. In. Ft In. 

Soft, gray sandy shales lo o 

I coal id" 
slate o 3 
bone o 2 
coal ^ I lo 

The heavy sandstone, just under the Upper Freeport coal, 
comes up to the bed of the Buckhannon here, and makes rapids 
along the same. 

In the southwestern portion of Upshur, and the adjoining re- 
gion of Lewis and Ikaxton counties, the Mahoning coal has fre- 
quently b(^en mined for domestic use. It comes about eighty feet 
above the thick (W-IS') and impure Upper Freejwrt bed of that 
region, and is two and one-half to four feet thick. 

About one mile above tlie mouth of Cherry Fork of the Lit- 
tle Kanawha, the Mahoning coal has been mined on the land of 
George Davis, where it is four feet thick, with a slaty streak of 
three to four inches, near the center. The same coal is mined on 
Glady creek by IjCc Cochran, where the section is as follows : 

Ft In. Ft In. 

Massive sandstone, Upp>er Mahoning 

Shale 2 

{coal I 6 ^ 
slate o 2 V 4 2 
coal 2 6 j 

On Cherry Fork, two and one-half miles above its mouth, 
both the Mahoning and Upper Freeport coals have been mined on 
the land of Harrison Clayplole, where the following section is ex- 
posed near the I^ewis- Upshur county line : 

Ft In. Ft In. 

Shale 

coal o 9 

coa,, Mahoning . ^y,^^;^-;;-;-;; I I 

[coal 2 6 

Concealed and sandstone 8o o 

Upper Freeport coal 

The same coal has been mined in the hills above the Upper 
Freeport bed at the head of Fallen Timber run, Lewis county 



4 2 



318 THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

by Lorenz Famash. It has also been opened along the pike high 
up in the hills above Little Wild Cat Creek, west from the Little 
Kanawha river. 

Below BuUtown, Braxton county, a coal eighteen to twenty 
inches thick, has been mined at an elevation of ihiriy to forty feet 
above the Little Kanawha, which is either this coal or the Mason 
bed above. 

On the Great Kanawha river, in southern Kanawha county, 
as well as northern Fayette and the adjoining region of Nicholas 
county, a bed of coal has been mined to a considerabe extent high 
up in the hills under the name of *'No. 5,'' or '*Block" coal." It 
lies from sixty to seventy feet above the Kanawha black flint, 
and was formerly supposed to be identical with the **Big" bed at 
North Coalburg, but the section given on page 300 shows that 
view to be erroneous, since the '*Big,'' or Mason coal, is there 
found ninety feet above coal *^No. 5.'' The Mason bed has thus 
been confused with the true No. 5, which was named long ago in 
the region of Montgomery, where it is only sixty to seventy feet 
above the Kanawha black flint, because it was regarded as the fifth 
workable bed above the valley floor. 

The Mason coal over-shoots the hills in the Montgomery re- 
gion, however, or is not mined, at least, and hence further south, 
near Cedar Grove, North Coalburg, etc. , where the Mason coal be- 
comes workable, it, too, hiis been dubbed ^^No. 5" by the opera- 
ators, simply because its horizon lies above the Kanawha black 
flint. 

The general section referred to, however, on page 300, sets the 
matter at rest, and shows that the **No. 5'' of the Montgomery, 
Eagle, and Powelton regions, is not the **Big" or Mason coal bed, 
but one nearly between it and the Kanawha black flint, and that 
it answers to the horizon of the Mahoning coal of the northern end 
of the state. 

The coal is a genuine **block" in its structure and aspect, and 
was formerly used in the *'raw" state to some extent in the Ash- 
land, Kentucky, furnaces. In these ^^block'' coals, the thin, 
bright, pitchy layers of coal are interstratified with layers of **min- 
eral charcoal," which cause the fuel to burn freely without fusing 
to any considerable extent. 

The bed in question is operated in the summit of the moun- 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL 8UBVEY. 319 

tain at Mt. Carbon, by the Great Kanawha Colliery Company, 
and there A. P. Brady measured the following section. 

Ft In. Ft In. 



Sandstone, Upper Mahoning 

Coal ; I 4 

Fireclay o 4 

••Block" coal o 8 

Slate, trace 

••Block" coal 6 o 



8 4 



Elevation, 2060 feet A. T. 

The analysis of the sample is reported by Prof. Hite as 
follows : 

Moisture 1.20 

Volatile matter 33.36 

Fixed carbon 60.46 

Ash 4.98 



Total loaoo 

Sulphur 0.76 

Phosphorus 0.004 

The coal is shipped north and west by the C. & O. R. R. for 
steam purposes. 

The Carver Bros, have a mine in this coal one-half mile west 
of Eagle, Fayette county, nine miles below Mt. Carbon, where A. 
P. Brady reports the following : 

Fi. In. Ft. In. 

Sandstone 

Coal o 3 

Slate 10-20 o 

{•'gas*' coal 17) 
slate o i>^[ 7 6>i 
"block' coal 5 10 ) 

Elevation, 1639 feet, A. T., or 1000 feet above the C. & O. R. 
R. grade. 

The analysis of the sample is reported by Prof. Hite as 
follows: 

Moisture 0.84 

Volatile matter 37-78 

Fixed carbon 57- 08 

Ash 4. 30 

Total ^ loaoo 

Sulphur 0.84 

Phosphorus 0.004 



320 



THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 



Mr. W. R. Johnson mines the coal at Crescent, a mile below 
the last locality, and there A. P. Brady reports the following 
structure : 

Ft. Jn. FL In. 

Sandstone a 

'*Draw" slate ^ i 6 

top coal, left up i o * 

slate o 3 

*'No. 5"...] coal o II 

slate o I 

block coal « 5 2 

Elevation, 1593 feet A. T. 

Analysis of sample, reported by Prof. Kite as follows : 

Moisture 1. 11 

Volatile matter 34*63 

Fixed carbon 59. 07 

Ash 5. 19 



Total 100.00 

Sulphur o. 74 

Phosphorus o. 01 

Here the thick overlying slate of the previous section has 
thinned to only a few inches. 

The Davis Gordon Company mines this coal in the same re- 
gion between Eagle and Montgomery, and there A. P. Brady 
measured the following succession: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sandstone 

Draw slate o 6 

[hard ("block") coal o S}i 

' slate o I 

hard ("block") coal 4 o 

"gas" coal o 10 



"No. 5" 



T>^ 



Elevation, 1584 feet A. T. 

Analysis of sample reported by Prof. Hite as follows : 

Moisture 1.07 

Volatile matter] 34. 46 

Fixed carbon 59-31 

Ash 5. 16 



Total 100.00 

Sulphur o. 77 

Phosphorus o. 004 

These analyses all reveal a coal of great excellence, being 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 321 

very low in both ash and sulphur and high in fixed carbon. It is 
greatly prized as a steam coal, and bears tranpix)rtation extremely 
well. The coal from all of these mines is sent to market both 
east and west over the C. & 0. 11. R. , being carried down to its 
grade over long, steep inclines, 1000 feet in vertical elevation. 

The analysis of this coal, so difTerent in the amount of ash 
from that of the '*Big'' bed (Miison) in the Cedar Grove region, 
is almost suflicient in itself to prove the two ]>eds are separate and 
distinct coal horizons, as the section on page 800 conclusively dem- 
onstrates. 

Traced northward along the Kanawha river from the region 
of Montgomery, this **No. 5,'* or Mahoning coal, appears to 
dwindle in size, so that no extensive mining operations have been 
undertiiken upon it below Montgomery, so far as known to the 
writer. At the old Peabody mines above Watson's Hollow, on the 
north bank of the Kanawha, near Cedar Grove, ten miles north 
from Montgomery, the main body of the coal is only three feet 
thick, and that is split with a bone or **niggerhead.'' The coal 
still retains its **blocky'' character and lies ninety feet below 
the *^Big'' or Mason bed, which is mined in the hill above, and 
sixty-five feet above the Kanawha black flint, which crops around 
the slopes below. 

In the region of Charleston, where this coal horizon dips under 
water level, the bed is only a few inches thick, and occasion- 
ally disappears entirely in the great sandstone (Upper and Lower 
Mahoning) mass, which surrounds that city. 

In the region between the Great Kanawha and Big Sandy 
rivers, through Boone, Lincoln, Logan, and Mingo counties, this 
coal has not been studied, but it doubtless exists in good develop- 
ment at many localities, since in northern Wyoming county the 
writer has observed a bed of coal cropping at this horizon under 
the great cliffs of sandstones which cap the mountains north from 
Hufl creek. 

One mile above Nolan, Mingo county, the Hatfield Colliery 
Company has exploited a coal bed at 420 feet above the one (Win- 
ifrede) now mined, and 600 feet above the Tug Fork of Big Sandy 
rtver, which is most probably this same coaJ, since it posseeses the 
* 'block" or splinty type, so characteristic on the Kanawha, and 
appears to come at the proper geological horizon in a great sand- 



322 THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

stone (Mahoning) mass, that crowns the river hills. It has the 
following structure at the locality near Nolan : 

Ft. In. Ft In. 

Massive, coarse sandstone, Upper Mahoning, visible lo 

i soft, slaty coal ©5 
splint, or **block** coal i 3 
bone o 2 

(^splint or "block" coal 2 i 

A coal which would correlate with the Mason bed has been 
opened in the hill, sixty feet above this, and then at 230 feet, over 
immense cliffs of sandstones (Upper Mahoning, Buffalo, etc.), 
reddish shales make their appearance near the summits, so that as 
this is practically the same succession as that found on the Great 
Kanawha above the *^No. 5,'' or Mahoning coal, there can be but 
very little doubt about the correctness of the suggested identity. 

The Hatfield Colliery Company is extending its '^incline*' up 
the hill to this bed, and will mine it on a commercial scale. 

Where opened in the opposite side of the mountain, on the 
land of Virginia Hatfield, the following structure is reported by 
the Hatfield Co.'s mine superintendent : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Soft coal 11^ 

Slate o 2 [5 5 

Coal, splint 4 2 J 

The same softer coal in the roof of the bed appears to charac- 
terize this coal on Tug river as on the Great Kanawha. 

In the section at Irondale, Preston county, the Mahoning 
coal is three feet thick and seventy feet above the Upper Freeport 
bed. The same coal is also exposed in the cuts along the B. & O. 
R. R., between Grafton and Fairmont, on either side of the Chest- 
nut ridge anticlinal, but the bed is only two to two and one-half 
feet thick, and about sixty feet above the base of the Concmaugh 
series. 

THORNTON FIRECLAY. 

Just under the Mahoning coal, and occasionally replacing it, 
there occurs a fairly good bed of fireclay in a few regions of the 
state. It appears to have more importance in the vicinity of 
Thornton, Taylor county, than elsewhere, and the stratum hua 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 323 

been designated from that loeality, where it is mined and shipped 
to the brick factory at Hammond and other points. 

It crops along the B. & 0. R. li. for several miles between 
Grafton and Tunnelton, and should prove of considerable value, 
since it contains both the hard and plastic varieties of clay. The 
bed appears to have a thickness of five to six feet where exploited. 
It has not been mined in any other portion of the state so far as 
known to the writer, but a fireclay is frecjuently present at this 
horizon. 

MAHONING LIMESTONE. 

A bed of gray, impure limestonci is occiisionally found in the 
shale interval which separates the two members of the Mahoning 
sandstone. The stratum occurs in the vicinity of Irondale fur- 
nace, and is there four to six feet thick and of a buff or yellowish 
hue. No marine fossils have been seen in the rock, and it is evi- 
dently a fresh or brackish water deposit. 

It is also present about twenty feet above the Upper Freeport 
coal at the Meriden mines, below Philippi, where it is exposed in 
a cutting along the B. & 0. R. R. It crops in the hill at Moats- 
ville, ten miles below Philippi, twenty feet above the Upper Free- 
port coal, and was there erroneously referred by the writer to a 
much lower horizon (just above the Ix)wer Kittaning coal) in Bul- 
letin No. 65, U. S. G. Survey, page 128. 

It is possibly this limestone which has been mined for agri- 
cultural purposes m the hills, sixty to seventy feet above the level 
of Sandy creek, near Bruceton, Preston county. 

In the southwestern portion of the state, limestone is very 
rare at this horizon, but near Ceredo, Wayne county, some nug- 
gets of limstone may be seen just under the Upper Mahoning sand- 
stone in the cuts of the N..& W. R. R. 

The Johnstown Iron ore of Cambria county, Pennsylvania, 
belongs at this horizon, but aside from scattered nuggets of ore, 
and ferruginous shales occasionally present, no iron accumulations 
have been noted at this geological level in West Virginia. 

THE UFFINGTON SHALE. 

The interval which separates the Lower Mahoning sandstone 
from the Upi)er Freeport coal varies greatly both in thickness and 



324 THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

character. Frequently a massive, and usually bluish-gray, 
sandstone, rests directly upon the underlying coal without any in- 
tervening shales whatever. At otlier times a dark, sandy, fossil- 
iferous shale, twenty to forty feet thick, will intervene for short 
distances, to be entirely displaced by massive sandstones within a 
few hundred feet, mostly by erosion, which took place during the 
deposition of the sandstone. 

These shales are well developed at the village of Uffington, 
near the mouth of Booth's creek, three miles south from Morgan- 
town, Monongalia county, and they have been designated from 
that locality. 

They contain marine fossils as well as many i)lant remains, 
and it is from this horizon, and mostly from the Uffington locality, 
that Dr. John J. Stevenson collected the specimens identified by 
Mr. Meek, and published in the Third Annual Report of the 
Board of Regents of the West Virginia University for the year 
1870. 

Since this publication is now unobtainable, the list of fossils 
is herewith republished. The letter of Mr. Meek transmitting 
this list to Dr. Stevenson, along with that from the Crinoidal, or 
Ames limestone, has already been given on page 257. 

As this is the only systematic collection of marine fossils 
made at this horizon in West Virginia, and identified by one so 
eminent in paleontology, the list which follows possesses especial 
interest for all geologists: 

List of Fossils in Roof Shales of the Upper Freeport Coal, Near Morgan- 
town, Monongalia County, West Virginia. 

*Crinoidal columns. 

Erisocrinus. Undetennined species. 

♦Aviculopecten carbonarius Stevenson sp. — Pecten broadheadi Swal- 
low, and Pecten hawni Geinitz. 

AHorisma. Undetermined species. 

*Nucula ventricosa Hall. 

tNucula anodontoides Meek. 

♦Nuculana beUistriata Stevenson sp, — A very small attenuated variety. 
Common in so-called upper Dyas, Nebraska City, Nebraska 

fYoldia carbonaria Meek. 

tYolda stevcDsoni Meek. 

*Schi2odu8. Undetermined species. 

*Edmondia aspenwalensis Meek. 

Astartella. Undetermined species. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 826 

Macrocheilus primigenius Conrad, 

*Macrocheilus ventricosus I/aii. 

Macrocheilus. Undetermined species. 

Polyphemopsis peracutus Meek and U^ortAen, 

*Euomphalus rugosus //aii. 

*Bellerophon montfortianus Norwood and PniUen, 

*Bellerophon percarinatus Conrad. 

*Bellerophon carbonarius Cox, 

Bellerophon meekiana Swallow, 

*Pleurotomaria grayvilliensis Norwood and PniUen. 

*Orthoceras cribrosum Geinitz, 

♦Nautilus occidentalis Swallow, 

♦Phillipsia sangamonensis Meek and Worthen, 

♦Productus nebrascensis Owen, 

*Productus prattenanus Norwood, 

*Athyris subtilita Hall, Very abundant and presenting all the usual 
varieties. 

Productus. Species undetermined. Very small, concentrically 
wrinkled. 

*Spirifer (Martinia) planoconvezus Shumard, 

*Spirifer cameratus Morton, 

Aviculopecten. Undetermined speciea Probably A, occidentalis 
Shumard, 

*Hemipronites crassus Meek and Hayden, 

A considerable number of these species will be found common 
to the Lower Cambridge limestone fauna, as given by Dr. G. C. Mar- 
tin, page 280-1 of this volume, while several also pass on up into 
the Ames limestone fauna, 200 feet higher. (See list given on 
page 258.) 

No large collections of fossil plants have been made from the 
UfTuigton shale in the northern end of the state, but in the Great 
Kanawha valley Mr. David White has made large collections from 
the roof shales of the Stockton coal, which the writer considers as 
identical with the Upper Freeport bed at the north. A list of the 
fossil plants identified by Mr. White from the shales above the 
Stockton coal has been published in the Bulletin of the (^logical 
Society of America, Vol. II., pp. 168-9, from which the following 
quotations are made : 

*Species known to range through the whole of the Coal Measures in 
the West, even into the upper beds at Nebraska City, Nebraska, referred by 
Profs. Marcou and Geinitz to the Permian or so-called Dyas. 

tNew species. 



326 THE OONEMAUGH SERIES. 

Plants in the roof of the Stockton coal,— * 'The Stockton coal, which has been 
identified with the Upper Freeport coal of the Allegheny valley by Dr. I. C. 
White, and has accordingly been made by him the topmost stratum of the 
Allegheny series in his correlations of the terranes along the Kanawha river, 
lies from 30 to 50 feet below the Black flint, beneath which the upper boun- 
dary of the Kanawha formation is drawn by Messrs. Campbell and Menden- 
hall. 

The plant collections from the roof of the Stockton coal at a number of 
localities t include the following species:** 

Name. Locality. 

Pseudopecopteris cf. nummularia (Gutb.) * Lx Bel. , Buff. . Sp. 

Mariopteris muricata (Schloth.) Brongn Hor. 

*• nervosa (Brongn. )Zeill. % Bel. 

Sphenopteris karwinensis Stur Buff., P. G. 

cf . trichomanoides Brongn. * Buff. 

cf. broadh^adi D. W. * ..P. G. 

tenella Brongn. [Lesq.] Buff. , P. G. 

iwt'jr/a Bchimp. * Bel., P. G. 

cf. crepini. Boul Buff., St. 

ophioglossoides (Lx.)?* Buff. 

hymenophylloides Lx. * Hur., St , P. G. 

Pecopteris villosa Brongn. ?* [Lesq.] P. G. 

Alelhopteris serlii (Brongn.) Goepp Buff. , Sp. 

Neuropteris cf. gigantea Sternb Sj. 

** rarinervis Bunhy* Bel., Huff., Hur.,8t.,P.G. 

ovata Hoffm. * P. G. 

** sp. cf. carrii'L^.* Sp. 

** scheuchzeri Hoffm.* Bel., Hur., St. , Sp. 

Catamites ramosus Artis St. 

Asterophyllites equisetiformis (Schloth.) Brongn. *..Bel. 

Annularia ratnosa Weiss Bel., St. 

stellata (Schloth.) Wood* Bel. , St. , P. G. 

" sphenophylloides (Zenk.) Gutb Buff., St., P. G. 

Sphenophyllum cunei/olium (Sternb.) Zeill Buff., St. , Sp., P. G. 

** tescurianum B. W .* „Buff. , P. G. 

** entarginatum Brongn.* Sp. 

Lycopodites meekii Lx. * Hur., St 

Lepidodendron cf. brittsii Lx. • Bel. 

** tanceolatnm h^,* Hur. , St. 

** tnodulatumltx.* P. G. 

Bothrodendron cf. minutifolium Boul St 

Lepidostrobus cf. variabilis L. and H Bel. , St 

Lepidophyllum lauceolatum L. and H. ? St 

Lepidocystis vesicularis Lx Buff. , St 

Sigillaria cf. fissa Lx. * Hur. 

Poacordaites sp p. g. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 327 

Cordaicarpon cincium* P. G. 

circularis Lx. ?* St. 

PalcBOxyris appendiculata Lx. * St. 

THE STOCKTON COAL FLORA AN ALLEGHENY FLORA. 

**It needs but a brief comparison of the foregoing lists with the lists of 
Allegheny plants to show the large proportion of forms (marked with the 
asterisk) identical with those found in the Allegheny valley. Moreover, the 
forms so designated are in general typical of the Allegheny series, and, so 
far as I recollect, have not been found elsewhere than in that or the higher 
terranes. The Stockton flora is almost completely composed of species 
found in the Allegheny valle> in Pennsylvania, at Mazon creek, Illinois, or 
in Henry county, Missouri. In short, we have here a normal association of 
the identical and characteristic forms of the Allegheny series — ^a typical Al- 
legheny flora. 

It is not within the scope of this paper to more precisely discuss the equiv- 
alence in the Pennsylvanian section of the several Kanawha terranes. It is, 
however, proper to add that the absence of the higher Pecopterids, the pre- 
sence of certain phases of the species, certain older elements, as well as the 
proportion and range of the identical forms, bespeak for the Stockton flora 
a place not higher than the Clarion group in the Allegheny series. It seems 
very improbable that it can in any event be so high as the Upper Elittan- 
ning.'» 

From these observations of Mr. David White, it will be seen 
that his preliminary conclusions, based solely upon his fossil plant 
studies, differ vitally from those of the writer, based largely upon 
the stratigrapic order, since the Stockton fossiliferous shale, which 
the writer would correlate with the Uffington shale of the northern 
region of the state, is, from the standpoint of its included fossil 
plants, regarded by David White quite as low down in the Alle- 
gheny series as the roof shales of the Clarion coal. In other' 
words, while the writer places the Stockton coal of the Great Ka- 
nawha valley at the top of the Allegheny series upon stratigraphic 
and other grounds, Mr. David White, on paleobotannic evidence, 
would place it at the bottom of that series. The question as to 
which is in error has very important economic consequences, and 



t Belmont mine, near Crown Hill ( Bel. ) ; Buffalo Lick fork, five miles above 
Cannelton (Buff.); n*ar the mouth of Hurricane creek (Hur.); Stanton 
mine on Kelly s creek (St.); Spanglers fork of Blue creek (Sp. ), and from 
the drift back of the schoolhouse north of Pond gap (P. G). 

I Form characteristic of the Allegheny series. 

♦Identical with species in the Allegheny series. 



328 THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

hence is of more than purely theoretic interest. The evidence pro 
and con will be more fully discussed in the next chapter, and ref- 
erence is made to the question here merely to call the reader's at- 
tention to the fact of the difTerence in conclusions as to the geolog- 
ical horizon of the shales in the roof of the Stockton coal of the 
Great Kanawha valley. 

THE KANAWHA BLACK FLINT. 

In the midst of the shales (UfTington) which separate the 
Stockton coal from the massive sandstone (Lower Mahoning) 
above, in the Great Kanawha valley, there rises from the bed of 
the river at Charleston, a very peculiar and characteristic deposit, 
known as the Kanawha black flint. The stratum soon rises to 
the level of the C. & O. R. R. grade, and is well exposed in the 
cuts of the same a short distance south from its Charleston station. 

It is a popular but a mistaken belief, first voiced by the late 
Prof." William B. Rogers, in his Fifth Annual Geological Report of 
Virginia, that this stratum i^nsses under the bed of the Kanawha 
river at the mouth of Elk, and thus gives origin to the * ^shoals'' 
which fonnerly existed there before the Kanawha was slack-wa- 
tered, but this view is erroneous, since the black flint is only ten 
feet from water level just under the highway bridge across the Ka- 
nawha, and its rapid northwest dip would carry it beneath water 
level at the old ferry, near the C. & 0. R. R. station, and since this 
rapid dip continues on northward to the mouth of the Elk, one- 
half mile distant, the horizon of this rock must be many feet (40- 
60) below the beds of both rivers at their junction. 

Hence if any rocks other than loose boulders are ever exposed 
in either river at Elk **shoals," it would be one of the massive 
Mahoning sandstones which crop above the black flint. 

The character of this Kanawha black flint can be very 
well seen along the C. & 0. R. R. at the point referred to between 
the C. & 0. Charleston station and a few hundred yards south. 
Every gradation between a compact, structureless flint and a dark, 
stratified, sandy, fossiliferous stratum may there be observed. In 
it the writer has recognized Productus, Spirifera, Discina, and 
fragments of other marine forms which appear, to be of the same 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGirAL SRUVBY. 329 

type as those collected by Dr. Stevenson from the Uffington shale 
at the northern end of the state. 

This fact has an important bt^aring upon the origin of the 
flint deposit, whether it is an original accumulation of silicious 
matter like the flint in chalk, from the silicious skeletons of dia- 
toms and other minute forms of life, or whether the silica is de- 
rived by solution from the overlying sandstones, and has invaded 
this horizon from above by a kind of chemical replacement. The 
latter theory appears the more plausible from the facts already at 
hand, although it is possible that both agencies may have opera- 
ted to produce the flint in question. 

In weathering this rock breaks up into rudely rectangular 
forms two to three inches thick and (»ight to ten inches long which, 
being practically insoluble, line the streams and cover the ground 
with their bluish-black fragments up to the line of outcrop. 

The weathered surface of this bed presents a peculiar wavy 
or undulating structure which appears to be characteristic of the 
deposit over a wide area. The distribution of this Kanawha 
BLACK FLINT was formerly supposed to be confined entirely to 
Kanawha and Fayette counties, but the writer hae recently found 
it in Clay and northern Nicholas. 

From Charleston southward this rock risas rapidly, and soon 
attains an elevation of several hundred feet above the Kanawha, 
its hard and resisting nature having contributed much to the pres- 
ervation of the precipitous slopes of the Kanawha valley, as well 
as the underlying coal series. Its crop gets higher and higher 
above the valley floor until it escapes from the summits at Ans- 
ted, in Fayette county, where it overlooks the junction of the 
Gauley and New rivers from an elevation of more than 1600 feet 
above the valleve. 

On the Elk river the horizon of this flint is below water 
level, from Charleston to twenty-five miles above, where the emer- 
gance of the hard mn^ssive flint stratum from the bed of the river 
makes the rapids known as Queen **shoals." A mile farther up 
Elk the stratum crops along Spread "shoals'* run and at Porter 
creek, another mile beyond it rises to the level of the C. C. & S. 
R. R. grade iu a massive ledge 7 feet thick. 

Between this point and Clay, it disappears as a conspicuous 



330 THE CONEMAUQH SERIES. 

bed, but traces of it are reported to occur near the Court Hoase in 
the town of Clay. 

Buffalo creek puts into the Elk from the south at Clay, and 
although the horizon of the flint is constantly above water level, 
it has not been observed until near the head of its Lily fork at the 
northern edge of Nicholas county. Mr. W. Thompson, Jr. first 
reported its presence in that region, on the line between Clay and 
Nicholas counties, and the writer subsequently found it« outcrop 
three miles eastward where the Clay-Nicholas road crosses the 
Lily branch. It there juts out of the bank, 10 feet above the wa- 
ter, in a ledge 5 feet thick. 

No one has reported its presence definitely in Boone county, 
and the writer has not made the necessary examinations to deter- 
mine its presence or absence there. 

Being so conspicuous in appearance, when once carefully ob- 
served, it can never be confused with any other stratum in the 
Kanawha series, and hence it was Jong ago designated by Prof. 
Wm. B. Rogers as the dividing line between the two coal series. 
His description of this bed is so apt that it may well be quoted 
from his Fifth Annual Geological Report to the State of Virginia 
in 1839, as follows : 

*'The landmark to which I here allude, and which was first recognized, 
and afterwards diligently traced by my brother Prof J. B. Rogers, consists 
of a band of black or bluish black silicious rock, approaching the character 
of a flint or hornstone, which is found in the hills at the height of several 
hundred feet above the river near the falls (Kanawha), and which, accom- 
panying the subjacent strata in their various undulations, and their ultimate 
steady western dip as they extend down the river, is seen to disappear below 
the water level at the Elk river shoals. 

This stratum from its striking peculiarity of character, and its constan- 
cy of geological position, furnishes a standard line with which to compare 
the rocks and coal seams both above and beneath, and may be regarded in 
this region as clearly defining the boundary between the upper and lower 
series. As will be seen hereafter, throughout the tract extending from the 
falls (Kanawha) to the point at which the flint comes down to the river lev- 
el, no seams of coal, but such as are local and of insignificant extent, occur 
in the hills above this stratum, but as we proceed toward the west, and thus 
in virtue of the westerly dip of the rock, pass successively into strata higher 
in the geological order, we meet with one or more coal seams (Pittsburg) 
associated with the shaly rocks already noticed as predominatiner in the up- 
per series." 

And again on a subsequent page, 1. c, he says : 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 331 

''BLACK SILICEOU8 ROCK, FUNT OR H0RN8T0NE.'' 

"This remarkable deposit which here appears of the thickness of seven 
feet, and at an elevation in the hills above the road at Ryder's creek of 466 
feet, may be traced by its debris from near the falls (Kanawha), and seen 
capping the hills in broken masses at the head waters of Scrabble creek. It 
is found up the northwest side, forming the tops of the hills, but cannot be 
traced in this direction above Twenty Mile creek. Thence it proceeds with 
a general gentle dip to the northwest, and is found up all creeks flowing into 
the Kanawha river. At Smither's, Ryder's and Hughes's creeks it occupies 
a considerable elevation in the hills, being overlaid by a coarse sandstone, 
which as low down as Keller's (Kelley*s) creek, is found to be a conglomerate. 
It is readily distinguished from all the associated strata by the resistance 
which it furnishes to disintegrating agency; and by its always presenting a 
regular bedding and an angular sharp structure. No fossils can be detected 
in it, but at Ryder s creek the blue shales upon which it reposes are observed 
to contain a few impressions of shells. 

Although throughout, the structure of this rock is remarkably uniform, 
sometimes it assumes the character of a black siliceous shale, particularly 
in its lower portion. And above, it is so dense and vitreous as to be readily 
mistaken for true flint, and properly entitled to the name of homstone. " 

This bed has been used as a **key" rock in the cor- 
relation of the Kanawha coals by everyone who has attempted 
their classification since Rogers ( W. B. ) firet described and named 
it the BLACK FLINT, sixty-five years ago. It was one of the 
sources of arrow material made use of by the Indians, and arrows 
manufactured from it are scattered through many adjoining 
counties. 

A light gray flint occurs in this same geological zone at the 
crest of the Volcano-Burning Springs anticlinal, on Hughes' river, 
near the California House, Wirt county, and a silicious shale, hav- 
ing the same peculiar physical aspect, crops near the western iend 
of Cut No. 80 at Anderson, Preston county, ten to fifteen feet 
above the Upper Freeport coal. 

A few feet above the black flint in Fayette county, West 
Virginia, there occurs an impure, slaty bed of coal which in Bul- 
letin No. 65, U. S. G. Survey, was termed the "Middle Cannel- 
ton'' coal, the "No. 5 Block'' coal above being named the "Up- 
per Cannelton," and the Stockton coal below the flint, the "Low- 
er Cannelton." It is now believed that the "No. 5 Block" coal 
represents the Mahoning bed, and that the thin, impure Middle 



33^ 



THE OONEMAUOH SERIES. 



Cannelton layer is simply the **rider" so often observed in the 
roof of the Upper Freeport bed, a few feet above the main body 
of the latter coal, and since the name Stockton coal, or Stockton 
cannel bed, is much in vogue for the name of the first coal under 
the BLACK PUNT, the entire list of **Cannelton*' names is dropped 
from the terminology in this volume. 



CHAPTER V. 



THE ALEGHENY SERIES, NO. XIII. 



Below the last described (Conemaugh) rock series, and bound 
up between two great sandstone deposits, the Mahoning above and 
the Homewood, or Tionesta, below, the First Geological Survey of 
Pennsylvania discovered a group of strata holding valuable coal 
beds, not sporadic and irregular as those in the Barren or Cone- 
maugh series above, but extending in valuable thickness and 
quality over wide areas. Since these beds were first developed and 
explored along the Allegheny river, this coal series was designated 
from that stream, and alsor termed the Lower Productive Meas- 
ures, as well as No. XIII in the Rogers scheme of Fonnation 
Numbers. 

As already related, the original nomenclature of Rogers in- 
cluded the Mahoning sandstone in this series, thus extending 100 
to 150 feet above the present top of the Allegheny beds as limited 
by later geologists. That these sediments thus formerly included 
in the Allegheny measures are more nearly related to the. main 



384 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

portions of the Allegheny beds below than to those which overlie 
the Mahoning sandstones with great masses of red shale, and 
holding faunas and floras closely related in many respects to the 
Permo- Carboniferous rocks of the west, has already been stated. 
Whether convenience and reasonable certainty in classification 
should outweigh real affinity, is the only question involved as to 
whether the classification should remain as now constituted, and 
used in this volume, or whether it should be revised by a 
a substantial return to the less convenient but more philosophical 
usage of the earlier geologists of Pennsylvania. This question 
can hardly be decided until after the entire Coal Measure sedi- 
ments have been carefully studied in detail, with the aid of the 
new and more accurate maps, and vaster mining enterprises, shafts 
borings, etc., to which the younger school of geologists will have 
access, but which were denied to their predecessors. 

The Allegheny series, as here limited, is capped at the top 
with the widely distributed, easily recognized, and valuable Upper 
Freeport coal bed, and extends down through several beds of fire- 
clay, limestone, coal, shale, and sandstone, until a marked change 
in lithology takes place, the sandstones becoming harder, more 
massive, often very pebbly, and of a lithologic type quite different 
from the ordinary sandstones of the Allegheny series, accompa- 
nied, of course, with a change in the character of the imbedded 
fossil plants. The physical change at the base of the series is 
generally very striking, so that the observer, once familiar with 
the lithologic type of the Allegheny sediments, finds but slight 
diflBculty in differentiating the basal beds of the latter from the 
underlying Pottsville. True, sometimes the members of the 
Freeport sandstone grow very massive and conglomeratic and as- 
sume a type that is so like the Pottsville as to readily Ipad the 
stratigrapher into error, especially where the full series is not ex- 
posed, but this is only a local and temporary phase, and can 
always be avoided by a careful study of the overlying Conemaugh 
beds. 

The thickness of this Allegheny series varies greatly in differ- 
ent portions of the field. Entering the state from Pennsylvania 
in Monongalia and Preston counties, the series has in Monongalia 
a minimum thickness of about 225 feet, which soon expands east- 
ward to 275 to 300 in Preston, and slightly more in Mineral and 
Grant. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



335 



Traced southwestward, the series rapidly expands along its 
eastern crop through Barbour and Upshur, so that at the head of 
the Buckhannon, in Randolph, and on the Little Kanawha, in 
Webster and I^ewis, the series has a thickness of 500 to 600 feet, 
which thickens up still more through Nicholas, Clay, and Fayette, 
so that when the Great Kanawha is reached, 1000 feet of sediments 
occur between the Upper Freeport coal, or the closely overlying 
Kanawha black flint, and the top of the undoubted Pottsville 
beds below. This thickness holds through southern Kanawha, 
Boone, northern Wyoming, southern Logan and Mingo, to the 
southern line of the state, and may even be greater there. 

Just how this great thickening of the sediments takes 
place is not exactly clear, whether by the gradual introduc- 
tion of new and older beds entirely unrepresented at the north- 
east, or by the thickening of the sandstones, shales, etc., which sep- 
arate the several coal beds. 

From the fact that the same number of commercially valua- 
ble coals exist on the Great Kanawha river as on the Allegheny, 
together with the known fact that the interval between the Ka- 
nawha BLACK FLINT and the Campbrli^s creek coal thickens from 
410 feet at Campbell's creek to 650 feet at Montgomery, twenty 
miles south, in which distance both beds are constantly above 
water level, and can be traced without probability of error — these 
facts led the writer to believe that as the Upper Freeport coal, at 
the top of the series, appeared to extend through to the Kanawha 
river continuously from the northern line of the state, so too, the 
other coal horizons, persistent over all of western Pennsylvania, 
very probably extended on southwestward like the Upper Free- 
port, and that the sediments separating them at the north simply 
expanded three to four fold in passing southward to the Great 
Kanawha region, where observations had shown that not only the 
Allegheny series had greatly expanded, but also the Conemaugh 
beds above, as well as the Pottsville, Mauch Chunk, and Green- 
brier series below. 

Mr. David White, the eminent authority on Carboniferous 
fossil plants, however, has reached conclusions opposed to those 
outlined above. He concludes on the evidence of the flora alone, 
not that the main mass of the Kanawha series belongs in the 
Pottsville (for his views coincide with the writer's as to the top of 
the Pottsville beds on the Kanawha), but that the bulk of the 



336 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

sediments represent new elements unknown at the north, and in- 
termediate between the Allegheny and Pottsville sediments, and 
representing the Lower Coal Measures of Europe, the flora of 
which had not j)reviously been found in America until Mr. White 
took up the study of the Kanawha series. Whether the one or 
the other of these views is correct, or whether the truth will finally 
be found in a combination of causes which partially supports 
both theories, must be left for future and more detailed studies, 
since it has been impossil)le as yet (owing to lack of time and the 
undeveloped condition of large intervening areas) to trace the 
Allegheny series as a whole continuously from Barbour county, 
where the thickening begins, across to the Great Kanawha, al- 
though it fias been possible to follow the Upper Freeport coal at 
its top with a high degree of certainty until it merges into the 
Stockton cannel seam, the first coal below the Kanawha black 
FLINT, thus confirming the conclusions of Rogers and his assist- 
ants in placing the black flint at the base of the Conemaugh series 
instead of at the base of the Allegheny, where Mr. David White's 
conclusions would correlate the Kanaw ha flint with the Ferrif- 
erous, or Vanpout limestone of Western Pennsylvania. This 
conflict of evidence, in which the fossil i)lants must yield to the 
stratigraphic results at the toj) of the Kanawha series, of course, 
weakens the argument derived from them as to the other coal beds 
of that region, 800 to GOO feet below the black flint, being older 
and lower in the geologic time scale than any of the coals of the 
Allegheny series. 

This question will be further considered when the Upper 
Freeport coal is discussed, and traced from the northern line of 
the state south westward to the Great Kanawha river, in subsequent 
paejes of this volume. 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

The topography made by the Alh^glieny series is generally 
very much the same, except where the thickness is greatly in- 
creased. The outcrop of the beds makes a fairly rich soil, covering 
slopes often quite broken and rugged, and frequently too steep for 
convenient tillage, but usually bearing a fine growth of timber, 
and forming excellent grazing lands. The hills are usually ter- 
raced with a series of benches, rudely parallel to each other, which, 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOIXXJICAL SURVEY. 337 

as Prof. Ivcsloy long ago showed in liis classic work, **Coal and 
Its To])ogra|>hy/' mark the outcrops of the several coal beds, 
since the soft rocks (sliales and clays), usually found in connect- 
ion with ev('ry coal bed, are more readily eroded than the hard 
beds (sandstones) either above or below. The coal bench terraces 
are not confined to the topography of the Allegheny series, since 
they are due to a general law of erosion, and occur in the Cone- 
maugh and Monongahela series above, as well as in the Potteville 
below. The terraces are more strikingly illustrated in the Alle- 
gheny, however, because the coals are closer together and more 
numerous in these measures than in the others. 

Through the southwestern portion of the state, where the 
Allegheny. Kanawha series attains great thickness, say from Web- 
ster county on through to the Big Sandy river at the Kentucky 
boundary, the crop of these rwks is marked by such steep and 
cliff-like sloj)es, that much of the surface is not arable, while a 
conv«^iderable portion is even too steep for grazing, except along 
the narrow valleys, from which the slo])es rise at angles of 25**- 
40° up to the long narrow ridges caj)j)ed by the Mahoning sand- 
stones, 1000 to 1500 feet above. 

Whfu thes(i beds dip beneath the surface of the ground, 
westward fn)in the eastern margin of the Appalachian field, the 
only knowledge of them obtainable is from the n^ordy of oil and, 
gas well borin^^, since^ except in Hancock county, along the 
northern Pan Ilaiidle of the state, they do not come to the surface 
again until the northwest(?rn side of the Appalachian field is ex-^ 
posed in Ohio. 

The records of niany hundreds of gas and oil wells, drilled 
in nearly every portion of this deeply buried area, do not bear 
out the ])romise of valuable coal beds in the Allegheny series 
over a considerable ])oition of the state, since very many records 
reveal no coal whatever, and others find only thin streaks at the 
• horizon where valuable beds occur at the surface. Except for the 
general thinning westward, the series holds its thickness all right, 
but the coal beds are simply not present in valuable quantity if 
we can believe the evidence of the oil well drillers. True, they 
do not drill for coal, and the latter is only noted incidentally, as a 
rule, and hence there is a slight chance that in some of the areas 
at least, where )io coal has been reported by the oil and gas well 



338 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

drilling, the diamond or core drill may yet be able to discover one 
or two workable beds. Still, it is merely a chance, and hardly 
probable in view of the many wells giving the same negative re- 
sults over such wide areas. 

In the early operations for oil and gas, which were confined 
largely to the northern region of the state, especially the vicinity 
of Mannington, Marion county, a thick bed of coal was generally 
reported about 200 feet below the top of the Allegheny series. 
The same reports came also from Wheeling and Parkersburg, and 
hence in discussing this subject of the existence of valuable fuel 
in the Allegheny series, under the central portion of the Appa- 
lachian field, in Bulletin 65 of the U. S. G. Survey, the evidence 
appeared to be in favor of the presence of at least one or more 
coals of merchantable thickness under the entire area where these 
beds are deeply buried. Since then, however, so many more oil 
and gas wells have been drilled in the other counties of the state, 
where no coal of any importance was found in the Allegheny ae- 
ries, that the writer is prepared to believe that but little or no 
coal of commercial value will be found in the Allegheny series 
under the counties of western Monongalia, Marion, Wetzel, Ty- 
ler, Pleasants, Wood, Ritchie, Doddridge, Harriwon, Lewis, Gil- 
mer, Calhoun, Wirt, Roane, Jackson, Mason, and large areas of 
central Cabell and Wayne, and hence that the original idea of 
Dr. John J. Stevenson may finally prove the correct one, viz : 
that most of our principal coal beds were deposited in a fringe or 
zone, many miles in width around the edges of the Appalachian 
field, while the main inner area was barren ground so far as coal 
deposition is concerned. 

We know this is true for the Pottsville coal series of Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio and West Virginia, and except over the northern end 
of the Appalachian trough, appears to be true for the great Pitts- 
burg bed of the Mongahela series. Of course, this fringe of pro- 
ductive coal beds is twenty to thirty miles in width, but even, 
that is a narrow belt compared with the great barren areas lying 
between the two borders of the trough. 

The main beds of the Allegheny series, which have received 
distinct names in western Pennsylvania, are the following: 

Upper Freeport coal. 
Upper. Freeport limestone. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 339 

Upper Freeport sandstone. 

Lower Freeport coal. 

Lower Freeport limestone. 

Ijower Freeport sandstone. 

Upper Kittanning coal. 

Johnstown (cement) limestone. 

Middle Kittanning coal. 

Ix)wer Kittanning coal. 

Lower Kittanning fireclay. 

Lower Kittanning sandstone. 

Buhr stone, iron ore. • 

Ferriferous (Vanport) limestone. 

Clarion coal. 

Brookville coal. 
Other beds in this series have been named whose distribution 
is only local, but those given above are the principal ones which 
can be traced and identified over wide areas. 

The late Dr. Edward Orton, Sr., State Geologist of Ohio, has 
shown that all of the main strata in the Allegheny series of west- 
ern Pennsylvania, can be traced bodily across that state from 
where they enter it in Columbiana county to where they leave it 
to enter Kentucky from Lawrence county, 250 miles from the 
Ohio-Pennsylvania boundary. 

In this intervening distance, some of the coal beds may 
change in thickness^ or disappear entirely over areas of consider- 
able size, but they ultimately come into the section again, so that 
the integrity of the persistent beds of the Allegheny series in Penn- 
sylvania, is maintained entirely across the state, and this is true, 
not only of the coal beds, but also of the limestones, sandstones, 
FIRECLAYS and even the iron ores, so that a section in Lawrence 
county is practically a duplicate of one in Columbiana. 

This simplicity and regularity of the stratigraphic column in 
Ohio along the northwestern crop of the Appalachian coal field, 
does not hold good when we cross to the souttiwestem border and 
attempt to follow it southwestward across West Virginia, since in 
the intervening region between the Pennsylvania- West Virginia 
boundary, and the Kentucky- West Virginia border, there occnra 
that enormous thickening of the entire Coal Measure column of 
rocks, which interrupts the continuity of individual b^, bo 
beautifully illustrated in Ohio, where the measures maintain prac- 



340 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

tically the same thickness, and hence a section through the Alle- 
gheny series in Monongalia and Preston counties, at the northern 
line of the state, bears very little physical resemblance to one in 
Mingo county at the Kentucky border, through what appears to he 
the equivalent of the Allegheny series at the northern line of the 
state. 

It is known with a high degree of certainty that the great 
coal bed (Upper Freeport) at the top of the Allegheny series, ex- 
tends across this southeastern border of the Appalachian field in 
an almost continuous sheet, but whether or not the five other 
main coal beds below, viz : Lower Freeport, Upper Kittanning, 
Middle Kittanning, Ix)wer Kittannmg, and Clarion, maint^iin 
their continuity through the mass of thickening sediments and 
emerge on the Great Kanawha as the five coal beds found there 
in the Kanawha series, below the Stockton cannel (Upper Free- 
port) viz: the Coalburg, Winifrede, Cedar Grove, Campbells 
creek, and Eagle beds respectively, cannot yet be demonstrated. 
The evidence drawn by inference from the continuity of the coals 
on the northwestern side cf the Appalachian field tends to induce 
the belief that as we find the same number of more or less per- 
sistent coal beds between the Conemaugh series and the Potts- 
ville beds in the southwestern portion of the state that we do at 
the northoastorn border, it may be possible that they represent 
the same [coal horizons witli greatly thickened intervening sand- 
stones and shales. 

Of course, the other view of the matter is that held by Mr. 
David White, the paleobotanist, in his paper on the **Relative 
Ages of the Kanawha and Allegheny Series as Indicated by the 
Fossil Plants," i)ul)lishe(l in the Bulletin of the G. S. A., Vol. 
XL, pp. 145-178, March, 11)00, in which he maintains from the 
evidence of fossil j)lants, that the Kanawha coals, except ])ossibly 
the two highest beds, (Stockton and Coall)urg), are entirely below 
the Allegheny series; that they represent a series hitherto unknown 
in the Ai)palachian field, viz: the Low^erCoal Measures of Europe, 
between the Allegheny series and the Lower Potts ville. 

While the writer is convinced that Mr. White is in error con- 
cerning the Upper limits of the Allegheny series on the Kanawha 
river, he cannot say that there may not be coal beds in the lower 
half of the Kanawha series which are unrepresented in the typical 
Allegheny series of Pennsylvania, and, as heretofore stated, the 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 341 

question remains open for future investigation. In this volume 
wherever the thick sediments are found, we shall term them the Alle- 
gheny-Kanawha series, thus leaving the question of identity an 
open one. 

There will now be given a number of detailed measurements 
of the Allegheny series in the different regions of West Virginia, 
adding two or three from Pennsylvania, Maryland and Ohio for 
ready comparison. 

The following section from Miller's Eddy, near the mouth of 
the Clarion river. Report VV, Second Geological Survey of Penn- 
sylvania, page 123, represents the Allegheny series in that region 
of the Allegheny river: 

MILLER'S EDDY SECTION, CLARION COUNTY, PA. 

Ft. In. 

Coal, Upper Freeport 3 o 

Interval 28 3 

Iron ore 2 o 

Concealed and slate 103 o 

Coal, Upper Killanning, {Middle) i 6 

Interval „ ao o 

Sandstone 30 o 

Interval 16 6 

Coal, Lower Killanning 3 6 

Interval 10 o 

Sandstone 19 10 

Litneslone, Ferriferous, ( Vanport) 9 o 

Shales 6 o 

Sandstone 28 6 

Coal, Clarion 2 4 

Blue shales 29 o 

Sandstone, massive, (Pottsville) 

Total 312 5 

The words in parenthesis have been added by the writer: 
Another typical section from the banks of the Allegheny 

river at Kittanning, Armstrong county, Pennsylvania, will be of 

service here to show the continuity of the series along that stream. 

This section was made by the writer and is quoted from Bulletin 

65, U. S. G. Survey, page 109, as follows : 

KITTANNING SECTION, ARMSTRONG COUNTY, PA. 

Ft. In. FU In. 

Coal, Upper Freeport .,. 4 o 

Shales and concealed 35 o 

Coal, Lower Freeport 2 o 



342 



THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 



Concealed and massive sandsone 35 o \ ^c 

Shales and sandstone 40 o / '^ 

Coalf slate in center, Middle Kittanning i 

Fireclay 40^ 

Sandy shales 6 o 

Fireclay 3 o 

Flaggy sandstone 17 o 

Shides, dark, sandy, with iron ore 40 o 

(coal I 10 

slate o 2 

coal o 8 

bone o i 

coal o 6 

Fireclay 5 o 

Sandstone and sandy shales 40 o 

Shales, with iron ore 5 o 

Iron ore, Buhrstone o 6 

Limestone , Ferriferous , * Vanport 11 6 

Sandy shales 15 o 

Coal 



' 70 o 



3 3 



50 o 



[ 27 



o 3 

Sandy shales and sandstone 21 o 

Coal^ Clarion ..^ i o 

Concealed to top of No. XII. sandstone 25 o 

Total ..315 o 

The interval between the Upper and Lower Freeport coals, 
in the above section, is probably too small by twenty to thirty 
feet, since a subsequent visit reveals a greater interval than that 
given in the section, due to the discovery of a new exposure where 
the crops of both coals may be seen in a nearly vertical section. 

The exposures at the classic locality of Freeport, on the Alle- 
gheny river, twenty miles below Kittanning, have also much in- 
terest in a study of the coals in the Allegheny series, and the fol- 
lowing from a detailed section by the writer, made at Freeport and 
published in Bulletin 65, 1. c, page 111, will prove convenient 
for reference: 



FREEPORT, PENNSYIvVANIA. 



Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Coal, Upper Freeport 



coal 2 8 

slate, gray o \% 

coal o (i% 

slate, dark g^y.'... o oyi 

[ coal sulphurous o 5 

Fireclay i 6 

Limestone, Upper Freeport 3 6 

Sandy shales 20 o 

Coal, Middle Freeport 2 o 

Sandy shales and sandstone 39 o 



3 9>i 



66 o 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



343 



Coal^ Lower Freeport 



'cannel slate 5 

slaty coal 4 

fireclay with lime- 
stone 2 

[slaty coal 2 

Pireclayand shales 2 

{sandstone, massive... 45 
coaly slate, U. Kittan 0-4 
sandstone, gray,mas. 15 

Coal, Middle Kittanning 

Fireclay, with limestone nodules in upper half. 



14 o 



64 o 

I 6 
6 o 



44 o 



Totel 155 %% 

It will be observed that the Upper Freeport coal is multiple 
bedded at its type locality, a characteristic which it maintains ev- 
erywhere in West Virginia. Also, that there is a local coal twen- 
ty-five feet beneath it before reaching the Lower Freeport bed 66 
feet below, and that the horizon of the Upper Kittanning coal 
is in the middle of the Lower Freeport sandstone. 

Coming still closer to West Virginia, we find the following 
section of the Allegheny series reported from the Ligonier Basin 
of Fayette county, Pennsylvania, by Dr. John J. Stevenson, in 
Report KKK, Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, page 89: 

FAYETTE COUNTY, PA. , SECTION. 

Ft Ft In. 

Coal, Upper Freeport 3 o 

Clay 3 ^ 

Limestone, Freeport 5 

Fireclay, Bolivar, and shale 16 

Shale, sandy, ( Upper Freeport sandstone) 20 

Coal, Lower Freeport o 8 

Shale, sandy 30 o 

{coal 2' 3^) 
clay o 4 \ 5 II 
coal 3 4 J 

Clay 3 1 ^ 

Sandstone, Lower Freeport, in part 40 f 83 o 

Concealed, mostly sandstone 40 j 

Coal, Middle kittanning blossom 

Handstone 10 \ « o 

Concealed 25 / ^ 

Coal, Lower Kittanning blossom 

Concealed 60 o 

Coal, Clarion or BrookvUle 2 3 

Shale and clay 10 o 

Sandstone, massive, top of No. XII 

ToUl ; 273 10 

In the adjoining county of Preston, West Virginia, and in the 
same (Ligonier) basin, Hon. S. B. Elkins has recerfUy completed 
a diamond drill boring through the entire Allegheny series, the 
core of which the writer has inspected. The boring is located on 



344 



THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 



the land of Sanford Watson, Dillon creek, near Masontown, and 
the record reads as follows: 

SANFORD WATSON FARM, DILLON CREEK, 
PRESTON COUNTY. 

Ft In. Ft. In. 

fcoal o 4X 

bone o ^^ 

coal o 2 

bone o i>^ 

coal o 7X 

coal, bony streaks o lo 

coal 2 [i>^ 

slate o 2}i 

coal I 1}^ 

slate I o 

coal I 5}^ 

slate o i>^ 

coal, slightly sul- 
phurous o II>^, 

Fireclay, limestone, (Upper Freeport) and 
sandstone 21 

Green shale and sandstone 14 

Gray sandstone. Upper Freeport 29 

Coal, Lower Freeport... { ^^i^. ~"!.::::;;::: % 



Upper Freeport coal,. 



1% 

2 

8 

2 

II 

2 
4 



10 2^ 



- 64 11^ 



Fireclay, very soft 4 

Green shales and sandstone 3 

Gray sandstone, hard, pebbly. Lower 

Freeport 76 4 J 

Black slate, upper half very bituminous, Middle Kit- 
tanning coal horizon 8 

Slate, strewed with sandy layers 37 11 \ .. 

Shale 69/^ 

Fireclay, top of this, horizon of Lower 

Kittanntng coal 17 

Shale 10 

Gray sandstone, very hard 6 

Slate o 

Coal streak o 

Shale 7 

{coal and slate i 
Fireclay 6 
coal, slaty and bony i 

Fireclay 7. 12 

Gray sandstone, very hard, top Pottsville series 



o 

10 

I 

II 
I 
6 
5 
5 
3 



83 10 



42 5 



10 



Total 277 6 

This boring is the continuation of the section given on page 
300, where the lower portion of the Conemaugh series above was 
penetrated. It also passed through the underlying Homewood or 
Tionesta sandstone, the great top member of the Pottsville con- 
glomerate series, so that the section is a very important one, since 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



345 



it gives an exact measurement of the thickness and character of 
the Allegheny sediments near the northern line of the state, where 
there can be no controversy as to the identity of the several ele- 
ements of the series, since nearly all of the principal members of 
the same are present or represented in such manner as to be un- 
mistakable. The Freeport stage, as the upper portion of the Al- 
legheny series might be termed, is in typical development, all of 
its members being represented except the Upper Kittanning coal, 
the horizon of which belongs near the middle of the Lower Free- 
port sandstone, which is here seventy -six feet thick in one 
solid mass of coarse, gray sandstone, very pebbly toward the 



Although the middle and Lower Kittanning coal beds are 
completely absent as coal, yet their horizons are distinctly 
marked — ^in the case of the first by a cannel-like stratum of very 
bituminous slate, four and one-half feet thick, and the latter by 
its underlying Kittanning fireclay, indicating that its accompanying 
coal is only locally absent, and may appear at any other locality 
not far removed, as it actually does at Newburg, in the same basin, 
a few miles distant to the south wesx. 

The great multiple-bedded coal, (Upper Freeport), at the top 
of the series, reveals here the same characteristics, only on a larger 
scale, that we find at its type locality in the section given on page 
343. The pure and valuable portion of this coal is the five and 
one-half feet near the center of the bed, which is separated into 
three benches by two layers of slate, one twelve, the other two and 
one-half inches in thickness, known respectfully as the **Big" and 
"Little'' slates of the miners. Including these, the workable 
coal bed measures six feet, eight and three-quarter inches. 

The coal at the base of the series, split by the large bed of 
fireclay into two members, has been identified as the Clarion coal, 
since, as Mr. Chance has well shown, the Clarion bed is nearly 
always double in Pennsylvania, and it reveals the same charac- 
teristics where exposed at the surface in Preston coimty. It is 
possible that the **Brookville'' coal of Pennsylvania is only the 
lower member of the Clarion bed. 

The boring on the Gamble lot, near Rock Forge, Monongalia 
county, a portion (the Conemaugh) of which record is given on 
page 309 preceding, was also continued by Mr. Elkins down 
nearly to the base of the Allegheny series. This locality is about 



346 



THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 



seven miles northwest from the Watson farm boring, near the bot- 
tom of the steep dip of the rocks along the western slope of the 
Chestnut ridge anticlinal, and one mile southeast from the center 
of the Connellsville syncline. It is of interest as showing the 
changes which take place in the character of the fragmental or 
clastic sediments that constitute the main mass of the Allegheny 
series. The writer has also examined this core, (which, together 
with that obtained at the Watson farm, is now in the museum of 
the West Virginia University) and it gives the following record: 

GAMBLE BORING, ON DECKER'S CREEK, NEAR ROCK 
FORGE, MONONGALIA COUNTY. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Upper Freeport coal 



Upper Freeport ' 
sandstone 1 



o 



bone coal o 

coal 3 

slate o 

coal I 

slate o 

[coal o 

Fireclay, Bolivar 

r gjray sandstone 15 8 ^ 

fireclay and sandstone... 8 8 >- 

[ gray sandstone 28 10 J 

Fireclay, with streak of coal {Lower Freeport) at 

top 

T^«,-.^ «^^^^^. f sandstone and fireclay... 7 7 1 
^^!«^c^It? 1 black slate with streaks \ 

sandstone | of gray sandstone 15 

{coal ... 2 
slate o 
coal o 

Slate 

Fireclay, greenish cast, sandy streaks 

Black slate 

coal, slaty o 11 

bone coal o 3^ 

black slate, streaks 
of gray sandstone 6 9 

[coal o I J 

Fireclay, streaks of sandstone 

Sandstone, streaks of slate , 

Gray sandstone. Clarion 

Shale 

Coal^ Clarion 

Fireclay to bottom of boring 



5 7 



4 J 
7>%\ 



7 


7 


53 


2 


22 


8 


22 


II 


2 


io)i 


I 


io>^ 


29 

I 


2 
,6 



Middle and Lower 
Kiitanning coals 



8 o}i 



14 ii>^ 
19 2 
35 o 

2 4 

I 6>^ 
II 6>^ 



Total 239 II 

It cannot be more than ten feet additional in this boring down 
to the base of the Allegheny series, thus giving these beds a total 
of 260 feet in thickness, or a thinning of thirty feet in the seven 
miles between the Watson and Gamble borings. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL 8RUVBY. 



347 



At the horizon where the great Lower Preeport sandstone oc- 
curs in the Watson boring, seventy-six feet thick in one solid mass, 
we find in the Gamble boring mostly clays and sandy shales, with 
the Upper Kittanning coal near the center of the mass. 

At the head of Booths creek, two miles or more above Clin- 
ton Furnace, Monongalia county, and about seven miles south- 
west from the location of the (Jamble boring, the following section 
of these members is exposed on the lands of Samuel Dalton and 
E. J. JeflFry: 

BOOTHS CREEK SECTION. 

Ft In. Ft In. 



'coal, bony 2 o 

coal, good 2 6 

Coal, slate o 2 

Upper Freeport ' coal, good o 10 

slaty coal o 2 

[coal, good o 4 

Concealed 60 

Coal, Lower Freeport, reported 4 

Concealed, with a thin coal above middle 120 

Coal, Lower Kittanning, good 2 

Concealed to top of Pottsville series 50 



6 o 



Total 242 3 

The Lower Freeport bed was once mined at this locality, but 
the mine is now abandoned and has fallen shut. 

At Newburg, Preston county, on the main line of the B. & O. 
R. R., and near the center of a deep syncline which holds small 
areas of the Pittsburg coal in the summits of the hills, both the 
Upper Freeport and Lower Kittanning coal beds have been pene- 
trated by a deep shaft, and the section continued on below by a 
diamond drill boring. The Lower Kittanning bed was formerly 
mined there, but a disastrous mine explosion, and the great ex- 
pense of sinking an additional shaft for ventilating purposes, 
caused the abandonment of the lower coal bed, so that now opera- 
tions are confined to the Upper Freeport seam. The combination 
of shaft and drill hole records gives the following as the structure 
of the Allegheny series under Newburg: 

SHAFT AT NEWBURG, PRESTON COUNTY. 

Ft In. Ft In. 
Coal, /coal 3 

8 o 1 



Upper Freeport \ coal and slate 2 4 | 



5 4 



348 



THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 



45 o 



Sandstone i8 o 

Limestone, Upper Freeport 8 o 

Shales 6 o 

Iron ore i o 

Shales 4 o 

Fireclay, ( horizon of Lower Freeport coal ) 2 

Shales, gray 14 o 

Shales, dark 11 o 

Shales, gray 9 

Sandstone, Freeport 74 

fcoal I 



Coal, Middle Kittanning 



slate o 

coal, slaty 2 

fireclay 2 

coal, good 2 



o 
o 
o 

3 
o 
o 
o 



-108 o 



7 3 



Fireclay and shales, with iron ore nodules 15 

fcoal o 10 

shale, gray o 10 

coal o 6 

coal, bony 03 ^ 9 5 

coal, main bch. 4 6 

black slate o 6 

[coal 2 o 

Sandstoneand shale 38 

Pebbly sandstone, top of Pottsville series 



Coal, Lower Kittanning 



Total 230 o 



This locality is in the same basin as the Watson farm boring, 
given on page 344, above, and not more than ten miles distant 
therefrom in a southwest direction, and yet the Lower Kittanning 
coal bed, of which only a trace exists in the Watson boring, comes 
into the Newburg section with a fine development, although a few 
miles east, at Tunnelton, it is again thin and unimportant where 
struck in a boring. 

The Middle Kittanning coal also comes into the section here 
according to the record given by the Superintendent of the Aurora 
Coal Company. 

The top member of the Pottsville was eighty-eight feet thick 
in one solid mass of hard, pebbly sandstone in the boring, which 
passed on below the bottom of the shaft. 

A deep well was drilled for oil at this last locality, and as it 
began near the mouth of the shaft, it will prove interesting to give 
its record of the strata passed through in the Allegheny series. 
The well was drilled by Hon. J. M. Guffey, of Pittsburg, Penn- 
sylvania, and according to the contractor the following strata were 
penetrated: 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



349 



OIL WELL BORING RECORD AT NEWBURG. 

Ft 
Slate in place of coal (Upper Freeport) at 170 feet 

below surface 20 

Slate, white, and shale 120 

Sandstone, hard, firm (Lower Freeport) 30 

Slate, white 20 

Coal (Lower Kittanning) 10 

Slate, white 15 

Sandstone, gray, very hard, top of Pottsville 

Total 215 

The drill probably encountered a locality where the Upper 
Freeport" coal had been mined out, and hence none was found, al- 
though its proper horizon is noted at 170 feet below the surface. 
This would add at least five feet to the total thickness of the Alle- 
gheny series, thus making it 220 feet as against 230 in the diamond 
drill and shaft record, an agreement quite as close as one could 
expect. 

All of these measures come to the surface along the B. & 0. 
R. R. in descending the Cheat river grade from Cut 80, near An- 
derson, seven miles east from Newburg, and there the following 
succession may be seen: 



CUT 80. B. & O. R. R., PRESTON COUNTY. 



Coal, Upper Freeport 



In. 
o 



8 

5 
6 

2 
10 
o 
o 
o 



Ft 

coal, slaty 2 

shale o 

coal 2 

fireclay shale o 

hard, dark slate, 

bony I 

coal, slaty o 

shale o 

[coal o 

Fireclay and sandy shale » 8 

Sandstone 8 

Shales, with ferruginous nuggets 5 

f limestone, gray 

pure I 8 

fireclay shales. .5 o 
limestone, gray 

shaly 6 o 

Shales, with much iron ore in nuggets 17 

Sandy shales and hard sandstone 5 

Dark, coaly slate, Lower Freeport coal horizon o 

Fireclay, with ferruginous nuggets -lo o 1 

Concealed, estimated on dip 60 o V 85 

Massive sandstone, Lower Freeport, visible 15 o J 

Coaly Middle Kittanning, slaty, visible 2 

Concealed and shales, estimated 60 o 

Fireclay and sandy shales, some coaly ap- 
pearance, iron ore nuggets 30 o 



Ft. In. 



Limestone, Upper 
Freeport 



12 8 



o 
o 



8 6 



55 8 



V 



360 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

Coal, slaty i o 

Fireclay and sandy shales i8 o 

rcoal.slat; 2 3 ^ 

Coal, Clarion -j fireclay 5 o f 8 3 

I coal I o j 

Black slate i o 

Very massive white sandstone, top of Pottsville se- 
ries 



Total ^ 271 9 

Here we find, resting almost in immediate contact with the 
uppermost member of the Pottsville conglomerate, the same coal, 
split with a thick bed of fireclay, as that observed in the basal 
portion of both the Watson and Gamble drill holes. I have called 
this the Clarion coal, but of course it may represent the Brook- 
ville bed, and the coal next above it may be the Clarion. 

The iron ore nuggets in the thirty feet of shales have an 
oolitic appearance and remind one of the Ferriferous or Buhrstone 
ore of Pennsylvania. This is the same geological horizon as the 
latter, but no limestone is visible here. 

These sections across Preston and eastern Monongalia reveal 
the normal thickness of the Allegheny series as found in 
the adjoining regions of Pennsylvania. This condition of* 
afifairs continues on eastward, as shown by the following section 
published by Dr. G. C. Martin in **The Geology of Garrett county, 
Maryland,'' page 116, from the locality of Jennings Mill, Garrett 
county. It is the result of a diamond drill boring, and the record 
is as follows: 

SECTION OP ALLEGHENY SERIES IN BORE HOLE AT 
JENNINGS MILL, GARRETT COUNTY. 

Ft In. Ft In. 

(coal o 2 
wa°ckshai^::::::;::io il '35 
coal 22 

Shale 4 o 

Shaly sandstone 9 o 

Gray shale 35 5 

Brecciated fireclay o 8 

Gray shale 12 o 

Coal o 2 

Gray shale 11 7 

Black shale o 9 

Coal, Lower Freeport i 2 

Black shale i o 

Gray shale 18 9 

Sandy shale 15 o 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



351 



8 lo 



Coal, Middle and 
Lower Kittanning 



14 



Coarse sandstone 12 o 

Gray shale i o 

Coarse sandstone 

Black shale 

'coal I 4 

black shale 3 o 

gray shale 2 4 

coal o 10 

gray shale 5 3 

[coal I 10 

Gray shale 8 

Coarse sandstone 10 

Coarse cross-bedded sandstone 20 

Coarse sandstone 11 

Shaly sandstone 10 

Gray shale 6 

Sandy shale 7 

Dark gray and black shale 7 

Coal, Clarion o 8 

Gray shale 4 o 

Gray sandy shale 5 o 

Black shale 5 o 

Coal, Brookville(?) i o 



ToUl 257 6 

In Mineral county, on the North Potomac, the Allegheny se- 
ries is well exposed from Piedmont up to Gorman. Dr. Martin 
measured a section of these beds on the east, or West Virginia, 
side of the Potomac, opposite Harrison, which is published on 
page 115, 1. c, as follows : 

SECTION OF ALLEGHENY SERIES AT HARRISON. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Coal, Upper Freeport... 



coal .. 
shale 
coal .. 
shale 
coal .. 



5 4 



.134 



Concealed 

Black shale 3 

Coal, Upper Kittanning ^ 3 

Concealed 37 

Sandstone 5 

coal 2 o 

shale o 9-12 

coal o 6 

shale o 6 

[coal 2 4 

Concealed 20 

Massive sandstone 45 

Concealed 15 

Coal, Clarion 2 

Concealed 35 

Total .311 



Coal, Middle 
and Lower 
Kittanning 



6 4 



352 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

About one mile iand a-half above Harrison, the writer once 
measured the following section in the steep bluffs of the North 
Potomac, opposite the Maple Swamp Water Tank. (See page 127, 
Bulletin 66, U. S. G. Survey: 

MAPIvE SWAMP WATER TANK SECTION. 

Ft In. Ft In. 

{coal o 5 1 

bone and slate i 4 V 4 3 

coal 2 6 j 

Concealed 60 o 

Coal, Lower Freeport i 2 

Concealed 55 o 

Coal, Upper Kittanning ; i o 

Concealed and slate 45 o 

{coal 30) 

slate 2 o >• 6 5 

coal I 5 J 

Concealed and sandstone 85 o 

Coal, Clarion 2 6 

Shales and concealed 45 o 

Massive sandstone, top of Pottsville 

Total 305 4 

Above Gorman and Bayard, on the North Potomac, the Al- 
legheny series sinks entirely below water level, and for several miles 
its structure is known only through borings and shafts. A boring 
was sunk by the Davis Coal & Coke Company at Hambleton, near 
Henry, Grant county, West Virginia, the record of which is pub- 
lished by Dr. G. C. Martin on pages 112-113 of **The Geology of 
Garrett County, Maryland.'' It shows a slight thickening in the 
measures, and reads as follows: 

SECTION OF ALLEGHENY SERIES. BORE HOLE NO. 1, 

HENRY, GRANT COUNTY. 

Ft In. Ft In. 

Mahoning sandstone, etc 

Coal. Upper Fr^port...{^»>;;=;^;;;"—^^ } 5 a 

Shale 2 2^ 

Limestone o ii>^ 

.Shale 7 6>i 

Sandstone with streaks of shale lo 3 

Sandstone 13 3 

Conglomerate i 7^ 

Conglomeritic sandstone 5 6 

Light gray sandy shale 13 3 

Sandstone 17 5 

Shale 2 o 

Shaly sandstone 21 3 

Shale 15 I 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



363 



Shaly sandstone 24 10 

Bone o 2 

Shale 3 o 

Sandstone i 10 

Shale I I 

Limestone i o 

Shale 16 3 

Black shale with streaks of bone i i 

Shale II 6)i 

Sandstone and shale 14 5^ 

Black shale 3 i^ 

Sandy shale 3 8 

Sandstone 2 ^J4 

Black shale 2 4 



'coal o 



Coal, Middle and 
Lower Kittanning ' 



2 
I 
9}i 

1% 
o 

o 
I 

2>i 



shale o 

cx)al 2 

shale o 

bone o 

coal 2 

shale o 

coal 2 

shale o 

[bone o 

Shale , 19 

Rough coal and shale ("split six"; 2 

Sandstone and black shale 4 

Black shale 4 

Shale and bone o 

Shale 6 

Limestone ^ 2 

Shale 12 

Hard flinty sandstone 13 

Conglomerate 7 

Sandstone 5 11 

Hhale and sandstone 22 11^ 

Sandstone 8 ^yi 

Shale I 2 

' coal with sulphur o 11 1 

Coal. Clarion t^:::::zz::::::z:.l %n » 

[sulphur o I J 

Shale 10 

coal I 5 

shale o ^% 

Coal, Brookville -j bone o 2% 

shale and bone o s% 

coal o S 



8 5X 



2>i 

1% 

4 
5 

5 
8 

8>i 
o 



^% 



3 5^ 



Shale 

Homewood sandstone, etc 



4 7^ 



Total 341 8>i 

Dr. Martin identifies the coal at the bottom of the section 
with the Brookville, but it probably represents simply the Lower 
Clarion, or the '*split'' division of the latter, just as the **8plit- 
six" division higher up in the section represents the lowest layer 
pf the Lower Kittanning or **SiX-Foot" vein. 



354 



THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 



At the head of the North Potomac, and just over the divide 
on the Cheat river drainage, the shafts of the Davis CJoal & Coke 
Company, at Thomas, together with the surface outcrops along 
the Cheat river grade of the W. Va. C. & P. R. R., reveal the fol- 
lowing section of the Allegheny series: 

Ft In. Ft In. 



rcoal 26^ 

Coal, Upper Frceport... -j bony coal 2 6 V 8 o 

Icoal 3 o J 

Sandy shales 50 o 

{coal 02^ 
shale o 4 V I 6 
coal I o j 

Shales 20 o 

Sandstone, massive, Lower Freeport, pebbly at base 75 o 

Fireclay and shales 40 o 

("coal 15^ 

slate o 4 

coal I o 

- slate 03 ^ II o 

coal 3 6 

shale, gray i 6 

[coal, slaty 3 o 

Fireclay andshales 5 o 

Sandstone, massive , 20 o 

Shales 2 o 

Iron ore (Buh»-stone?) i o 

Limestone, gray, horizon of Ferriferous or Vanport ..20 

Shales and sandstone T 35 o 

Coal, Clarion, slaty 3 o 

Shales and concealed to top of Pottsville series 40 o 



Coal, Middle and 
Lower Kittanning 



Total. 



313 6 



Here, at the proper horizon below the Lower Kittanning coal, 
we find a gray limestone supporting a layer of silicious iron ore, 
in the same manner as the Van})ort or Ferriferous limestone of 
Pennsylvania. It does not contain marine fossils, however, and 
hence, while its geological horizon is the same as that of the Penn- 
sylvania stratum, it evidently originated in fresh or brackish 
water. 

Passing westward to Valley Falls, Taylor county, where the 
Chestnut ridge anticlinal elevates the strata to daylight, we get the 
following section in the steep bluffs on the south side of the Ty- 
garts Valley river: 

VALLEY FALLS, TAYLOR COUNTY, SECTION. 

Ft. In. Ft In. 
Coal, Upper Freeport 3 o 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL 8URVBT. 



855 



Coal, Lower Freeport. 



Concealed and shales. 60 

Sandstone 15 

Blue shales 4 

coal o 

slate, graj o 

coal I 

shale 2 

coal, bony,cannel o 

coal o 

gray shale o 

[coal I 

Dark shales 37 

Sandstone, Freeport 15 

Shales, blue 3 

{coal ^ 3 
shale, gray o 
coal, bony o 

Shales, dark grayish 

Coal, Middle Kittanning 

Shales and flaggy sandstone 8 

Limestone, silicious i 

Sandstone, flaggy 2 

Shales, containing iron ore nodules 5 

Limestone, dark olue i 

Shales 20 

(cannel slate o 
b^^;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; I 
coal 2 

Fireclay 5 

Sandstone, flaggy 5 

Sandy shales and concealed 20 

Sandstone, hard, micaceous 15 

(coal o 

Coal, Clarion ..< shale o 

(coal o 

Shales and concealed 

Sandstone, massive 

{coal I 
slate o 
coal I 

Fireclay and gray shales 

Massive sandstone, top of Pottsville 



o 
o 
o 

3 
6 

3 

II 

6 

8 

4 
3 
o 
o 
o 
I 
I 
7 



79 o 



7 8 



55 o 



3 9 



16 
I 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
5 
9 
I 

9 
o 
o 
o 
o 

2 
10 

2 



U 



25 

15 



37 o 



5 o 



45 o 



I 2 



3 6 



Total 308 I 

It is barely possible that the coal identified in this section as 
the Lower Freeport bed, may prove to be the Upper Freeport, 
with the interval between it and the Lower Kittanning much re- 
duced at this locality. 



The writer formerly regarded the massive sandstone above the 
lowest coal in the Valley Falls section as the Homewood or Tio- 
nesta, and that may yet be the correct reference, but the coal un- 
der it would then be in the Mercer group. If, however, there be 



356 



THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 



a Brookville coal in the Allegheny series, distinct from the Clarion, 
the coal under the massive sandstone, at the base of the section 
above, would represent that bed. It has some importance in the 
vicinity of Valley Falls, but its crop is near water level above the 
Falls, and the coal soon goes imder the river on a rapid south- 
east dip. 

Near Webster, Taylor county, on the Parkersburg branch of 
the B. & 0. R. R., a diamond drill hole was recently put down to 
test the Allegheny series by Messrs. Wilgus and Grant, of Mor- 
gantown. The record of the strata passed through was carefully 
kept by Mr. Charles H. Washburn, of Webster, and is given here- 
with : 

UNDER WEBSTER, TAYLOR COUNTY : 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



coal o 

black slate o 

Coal, Upper Freeport.. *^^^ ° 

black slate i 

[coal I 

Dark slate and sandy shales 13 

Limestone, Upper Freeport 9 



Shale 10 o 

Black slate, thin seams of coal 2 o 

Fireclay 2 4 

Shales, sandy 6 10 

^coal o 2 

2 
2 
4 
4 
8 



Coal, I<ower Freeport. 



black slate i 

bony coal « o 

coal 2 

bony coal o 

coal I 



Fireclay, hard 

Shale, sandy, some limestone 

Sandstone, hard, massive, light g^ay 27 

Sandstone or sandy shale, dark 12 

Sandstone, hard, base pebbly, coal streaks 
in center, base of Lower Freeport sand- 
stone 39 

Sandstone and sandy shale 

Sandstone, hard, white, pebbly 

Dark sandstone, with coal seams 

Very hard conglomerate, Pottsville 



4 9 



44 o 



5 10 

6 o 
4 o 

78 4 



31 10 
60 o 

3 o 



Total 237 9 



This is a very curious section, as it reveals the complete ab- 
sence of the entire Kittanning series of coals, unless thin streaks 
of coal in sandstones and conglomerates may be said to represent 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL 8RUVBY. 357 

coal beds. This is a continuation of the boring, the Conemaugh 
part of which is given on page 232 of this volume. The drill 
passed on' into the hard Pottsville conglomerate, at the base of the 
Allegheny for forty-seven feet, and was still in it when the hole 
was abandoned. 

We are here approaching a region where the Kittanning group 
appears to be cut out occasionally by massive conglomeratic sand- 
stones, which are difficult to distinguish from the Pottsville beds, 
even at the surface. They arc very massive and pebbly, between 
Grafton and Philippi, especially in the region of Moatsville, 
where they make the falls and rapids in the bed of the Valley 
river, and crop along its bluflfs, in great vertical cliffs so bold and 
pebbly, that the writer was once deceived into correlating them 
with the Pottsville series, instead of with the Upper and Lower 
Freeport sandstones of the Allegheny, to which they really belong, 
unless, indeed, it could be possible that the Allegheny beds could • 
thin away, and be crowded into an interval of less than 100 feet 
upon a great mass of Pottsville conglomerates. As already ex- 
plained on page 297, the section given by the writer in Bulletin 
65, U. S. G. survey, page 128, from Moatsville, Barbour county, 
is erroneous, if the Allegheny beds maintain their customary 
thickness along the Valley river. 

In the region of Philippi, Barbour county, several holes have 
been bored for oil, and they all passed through the Allegheny se- 
ries. Well No. 2 of the Tygarts Valley Mineral and Oil Company 
begins on top of the great Buffalo sandstone, which surrounds the 
town with its bold cliffs, 150 feet above water level, and the con- 
tractor reported for it the following record: 

OIL WELL RECORD AT PHILIPPL 

Ft Ft 

Surface M-— - 5 

Iron ore aud hard limestone 5 

Very hard sandstone, Buffalo 30 

Shale, blue, tough *.. 60 

Coal^ Mason 2 

Fine grained sandstone 19 

Shale 59 

Coal ^Mahoning 3 • 106 

Shale 10 

Fine, hard sand 15 



358 



THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 



Coal, Upper Freepori 4 

Shale 20 

Sandstone, hard, close 45 

Coal, Lower Freeport 7 

Very hard sandstone «... 30 

Shales 40 

Hani sandstone 60 

Slate 5 

Dark limestone? 15 

Shale « 10 

Hard sandstone, water, top of the Pottsville 

series 25 

Slate 5 

Limestone (?) very hard 8 

Slate rock 100 

Hard sandstone 50 

Slate and "shells" 40 

Hard sandstone 20 

Hard "limestone" 18 

Slate rock « 10 

Hard, close sandstone, base of Pottsville 

series 14 

Bright red shale , Mauch Chunk series 



236 



290 



The Pottsville series, below the Allegheny, is given here 
to show the thickness of the 6ame down to the undoubted Mauch 
Chunk beds. The Bakerstown coal comes into the hills about 
forty feet above where the record . begins, and then at 130 feet 
higher, in the midst of red shales, another coal bed, probably the 
Friendsville, has been opened. 

The Mason, Mahoning, and Upper Freeport coal beds have 
all been mined along the Valley river, near Phihppi, and the inter- 
val from the Mason to the Upper Freeport found to be 115 feet 
by accurate measurements, hence the driller's record of 106 feet is 
not more in error than might have been expected. The principal 
error of the record appears to be in the measurement of the inter- 
val between the Mahoning coal and the Upper Freeport. This 
is given as only twenty-five feet, whereas, two or three accurate 
measurements at Philippi give it as forty feet. 

The section is of interest as revealing a complete absence of 
the Kittlanning group of coals, just as was shown in the diamond 
drill record at Webster, Taylor county, their horizons being occu- 
pied by massive sandstones. The **limestone'' of the driller's 
record may be only a hard, sandy stratum, or fine grained sand- 
stone, and hence the base of the Pottsville series is supposed 
to extend down to where the **brightred" Mauch Chimk shale 
was struck. 

About four miles northwest from Philippi another well was 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



359 



drilled for oil on the Hall farm, and its record was kept with much 
care by Mr. C. McC. Lemley, Assistant Engineer of the B. & O. 
R. R. Company. The top or Conemaugh portion of this record is 
given on page 238 down to the Upper Freeport coal. The mouth 
of the well is near the crop of the Ames limestone, filled with its 
marine fossils, while the great Pittsburg coal is mined in the hills 
300 feet higher, and hence the record of the boring, combined 
with the surface outcrops, gives a measurement of the entire Coal 
Measure column of the region. In the Hall well record the Potts- 
ville series will also be included as in the previous section, as 
follows: 

ELK CREEK OIL AND GAS COMPANY'S HALL WELL, FOUR MipES 

NORTHWEST OF PHILIPPI. 

Ft Ft 

Upper Freeport coal 3 

Limestone and sandstone 15 

White slate 30 

Black slate (Lower Freeport coal horizon) 5 

White slate 5 

White sandstone 52 

White slate 25 

Limestone 10 

CoaL Middle Kittanningi 5 

Sandstone, dark 15 

Coal^ Lower Kittanningi 5 

Sandstone, pebbly at l^ise • 56 

Brown shale 24 

Coal, Upper Clarion} 2 

White slate 18 

Coal, Lower Clarion! 2 

White slate 13 

Sandstone, dark, top of Poltsville series 40 

Black Slate 35 

Coal (one of the Mercer group) 3 

Shale, brown 23 

Black ''lime** 20 

White sandstone 25 

Black slate 10 

White sandstone 55 

Black slate 30 

White *1ime" 5 

Black slate, base of PoHsville series 10 

Red rock and lime, Mauch Chunk series 



285 



256 



The total thickness of the Allegheny and Pottsville series in 
the Hall well foots up 541 feet, as against 506 feet for the same 
measures in the Philippi well, or a difference of only thirty-five 
feet. 

It will also be noted that the Kittanning group of coals, as 
well as the Clarion, was noted in the record. An interrogation 



360 



THE ALLEOnENY SERIES. 



point has been placed after these members, since the identity in 
each case is uncertain. 

Southeastward from Philippi there appears to be a great de- 
velopment of sandstone and conglomerate in the Allegheny series, 
as well as a thickening up of the same, and a decrease in the quan- 
tity of the coal usually found in the Kittanning group, as we 
learn from the records of borings made with the diamond drill in 
the Roaring creek basin of Randolph county. 

The Upper Freeport coal bed is extensively mined in the 
western edge of Randolph county by the Junior Coal Company 
and others, between the mouth of Roaring creek and Belington, 
and especially along Beaver creek, where it crops 200 to 250 feet 
above the level of Valley river. The W. Va. C. & P. R. R. Com- 
pany put down a diamond drill hole one mile north from the 
mouth of Beaver creek, in 1892, to test for coal below the Upper 
Freeport bed. The exposure between the mouth of the drill hole 
and the latter coal is complete, so that the following record, furn- 
ished by Mr. F. S. Landstreet, Vice President of the W. Va. C. 
R. R. Company, gives the structure of the rocks to a depth of 417 
feet under the Upper Freeport, or '*Roaring creek" seam, as it is 
locally termed: 

DIAMOND DRILL HOLE ON COBERLY FARM, ONE MILE NORTH 
OF BEAVER CREEK, RANDOLPH COUNTY. 

Ft In. Ft In 



Upper Freeport coal,. 



coal, slaty i 6 

shales dark 2 o 

coal 2 8 

bony coal and slate i 3 

coal 3 I 

slate, gray o 6 

coal I 8 

slate o 4 

[coal, slaty i o 

Fireclay and sandy shales 10 o 

Gray sandstone 60 o 

Hard, dark sand rock 23 6 

Soft, brown sand rock 19 8 

Hard, coarse sand rock, with streaks of 

conglomerate 78 7 

Coarse, dark sand rock 5 2 

Soft fireclay 2 5 

Hard sandrock, light 6 8 

Dark sandy slate 7 2 

Small pebbled conglomerate rock 15 3 

Soft, smooth blue clay i 2 

Small pebbled conglomerate rock 26 3 

Light, soft fireclay i 10 



14 o 



292 4 



WEST VlllGimA GEOLOGICAL SURVEV. 



361 



Small pebbled conglomerate rock lo 8 

Fine grain sand rock 13 10 

Blackslate 2 o 

Hard gray sand rock o 6 

Black slate i 8 

Dark sandy slate 6 o 

Coal, Lower Kitianning o 4 



Blackslate i o 

Dark gray shale 12 o 

Hard, dark sandstone, fine grain i 2 

Hard gray sand rock 37 5 

Dark sandy slate i 10 

Dark sand rock 5 o 

Dark sandy slate 2 6 

Gray sand rock o 6 

Dark smooth slate 4 4 

Black slate 2 o 

Dark, sandy slate 22 11 

Fine gray sand rock 5 9 

Dark sandy slate 7 5 

Coal, Upper Clarion} i 2 

Dark sandy slate 11 11 

Coal, Lower Clarion f 2 o 

Light smooth fireclay 3 

Dark sand rock to bottom of boring 2 



103 10 



15 I 



Total 431 3 

Here we get, immediately under the Upper Preeport coal, a great 
sandstone and conglomerate mass 282 feet thick, 187 feet of which 
is without any partings of shale or fireclay. It is this coarse con- 
glomerate which makes the * 'falls" in Roaring creek and gives ori- 
gin to the name of the stream. The entire mass represents the 
Upper and Lower Freeport sandstones of the Allegheny series. 

A thin (4") streak of coal at 292 feet below the Upper Free- 
port bed, may represent either the Middle or Lower Kittanning, 
, while the double bed- at 396^-411^ may represent the Upper and 
Lower Clarion beds. The section reveals Uie fact that unless the 
coal at 409^ feet should thicken up into a merchantable one, there 
are no workable beds in the Allegheny series below the Upper 
Freeport 

The Junior Coal Company also bored a test hole for these 
lower coals opposite the mouth of Laurel run, and its results 
have been given the Survey through the courtesy of its president, 
Mr. John T. Davis, of Elkins. The Upper Freeport coal crops 
about 200 feet above the top of the boring, and connecting the 
surface rocks with the record of the well the following section 
results: 



362 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

SECTION AND BORING OPPOSITE MOUTH OF LAUREL RUN, NEAR 

THE RANDOLPH-BARBOUR COUNTY LINE. 

Ft In. Ft In. 

Upper Freeport coal, three partings lo o 

Concealed and massiye sandstone to top of 

diamond drill hole 200 o 

Boulders and gravel 12 2 

Gray sandstone 8 10 [-293 10 

Sand, slate, fireclay, streaks, sandstone ... 24 8 

Gray sandstone 25 5 

Sandstone and sand slate, mixed 22 9 

Coaly Lower Kittannin^ i 2 

Sand slate, fireclay and sandstone streaks 29 i 

Sandstone and sand slate, mixed 18 o 

Gray sandstone 7 4 

Black slate .. 89 )- 94 n 

Sand slate 5 3 

Gray aindstone « 11 5 

Sand slate and sandstone, mixed 15 i 

399 II 

Gray sandstone; top of Pottsville series 141 11 

Coal o 6 1 

Gray sandstone, pea conglomerate, mixed 2 10 I tq q 

Sand slate, little streaks of sandstone 5 i | ^ 

Coaly little sulphur mixed 2 4 J 

Fireclay and sandstone 94") 

Gray sandstone 24 5 



Gray sandstone, little streaks of slate and 
conglomerate, mixed 29 



62 9 



Total 615 4 

The coal struck at 294 feet below the Upper Freeport bed in 
this bore hole, appears to be the same as the one at 292 feet in the 
previous section, but the double bed, 103 feet below, has no rep- 
resentation whatever in the Laurel run section, which foots up 398 
feet as the thickness of the Allegheny series down to the top of 
the great (142 feet) sandstone mass beginning at that depth. 

This is the region where both the Allegheny and Pottsville se- 
ries begin that wonderful expansion toward the southwest, which 
quadruples both at the Kanawha and New rivers over their average 
thickness near the northern line of the state. 

This thickening is first clearly visible in the surface outcrops 
at the head of the Buckhannon river between Newlon and Pickens, 
where we first recognize the Allegheny- Kanawha series and find 
nearly 600 feet of measures between the unmistakable Upper 
Freeport coal bed at the top and the undoubted Pottsville at the 
5. 

No complete exposures between the Upper Freeport coal and 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 363 

the top of the massive Pottsville beds below, has been obtained at 
the head of the Buckhannon, since where the Pottsville comes 
above Viver level below Pickens, the crop of the Upper Freeport 
bed is thrown out of the tops of the hills, and the dip being 200 
to 300 feet to the mile, renders an accurate vertical section impos- 
sible. The Upper Freeport bed is caught in the summit of Tur- 
key Bone mountain, south from Pickens, and in other high points 
west from the Buckhannon river, so that the following is an ap- 
proximate section of the region around Pickens: 

Ft. In. Ft In. 



Upper Freeport coal, blossom lar^e 

Concealed, with very massive sandstone 150 o 

{coal, good 10) 
shale o 6 > I 9 
coal, bony 03) 

Shales and sandstones, with several thin coals 300 o 

Coal 2 o 

Shales 25 o 

{coal I 9 1 
slate o I >• 3 o 
coal I 2 j 

Concealed, sandstone and shales with another coal 
bed ( "Gimmel'*) near base, to top of the Pottsville 
series 100 o 



Total 581 9 

The Pickens coal of this section has been mined for local use 
around the village of that name by James Pickens, James Thomas 
and others. It correlates with the Campbell's creek bed of the 
Kanawha series, which, on the theory of the latter being the ex- 
panded Allegheny, would represent the Lower Kittanning coal of 
the latter. 

The **Gimmer' coal has been mined in the bed of the Buck- 
hannon river, three miles below Pickens, and is three and one-half 
feet thick with a streak of bone near the center. It is a coarse- 
grained, blocky coal, and lies only about ten feet above the top of 
the Pottsville series. 

The Upper Freeport coal bed has a great development from 
Roaring creek, on the Valley river, across to the Buckhannon, and 
from there to the head of the Little Kanawha. Being several feet 
in thickness, including its parting slates and other impurities, it is 
readily traced and identified from one point to another. 

On the left bank of the Little Kanawha river, above the 



364 



THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 



mouth of Glady creek, the following section was observed in des- 
cending from the W. T. Wilson coal bank : 

MOUTH OF GLADY CREEK, LEWIS COUNTY. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Upper Freeport coal 



I coal, soft, some bone 5 

shale I 

coal o 

bone o 

slate o 

coal 2 

slate o 

coal, hard i 

[coal, soft o 

Sandstone and concealed 125 

Coal, blossom 

Concealed 80 

Coal, blossom 

Concealed and sandstone 175 

Coal, blossom 

Sandstone 20 

Shales to level of Little Kanawha river 25 

Interval to top of Puttsville in borings for oil with a 
thick (7-10 feet) coal bed reported 20 feet above 
base 65 



12 9 



Total ..502 9 

In the region of T^ittle Wild Cat, and the mouth of Glady 
creek, along the Left Fork of the Little Kanawha, several wells 
have been sunk for oil, and most of them are reported to pass 
through a thick bed of coal a few feet below water level, and its 
horizon is indicated near the base of the section given above. It 
is possibly the same as the ^'Gimmel" bed of the Pickens sec- 
tion. 

The Upper Freeport bed is easily traced from the Little Ka- 
nawha across the divide to the head of Holly river, where it keeps 
well up in the summits along that stream to its mouth at Palmer. 

In descending the left bank of Holly at Allen Anderson's 
mill, two miles below Hacker's Valley P. 0., Webster county, the 
following section is visible: 

SECTION OF ALLEOHENY-KANAWIIA SERIES AT ALLEN ANDER- 
SON'S MILL, HOLLY RIVER, WEBSTER COUNTY. 

Ft. In. Ft, In. 
' coal, splinty 3 2 



Upper Freeport coal 



slate, aark o 4 

coal, soft I 4 

bony coal o 4 

coal, soft I 8 , 



6 10 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 365 



Concealed and sandstone 120 o 

Caal^ visible o 6 

Concealed no o 

Caal^ blossom 

Concealed 150 o 

Massive sandstone 25 o 

Concealed 10 o 

Coal^ blossom 

Concealed 85 o 

Massive, gra3d8h white sandstone 20 o 

Black slate « o 6 

{coal, hard, coarse 2 o ^ 

slate and bony coal o 6 V 4 o 

coal I 6 j 

Interval below Hollow river to top of Potlsville se- 

series, about 30 o 



Total ^61 10 

The coal near the base of the section is mined at many 
points along Holly river between its head waters and the 
Forks of Holly above Palmer. It appears to be the first bed of 
merchantable coal above the top of the Pottsville series, and is 
possibly identical with the Eagle coal of the Kanawha valley. 

The thick coal at the top of this section can be followed down 
to the mouth of Holly river, at Palmer, where it is 300 feet above 
water level and ten feet thick, with two to three feet of sandy shale 
and rock in its middle. It and the coal near the base of the Alle- 
gheny-Kanawha series, appear to be the only ones of workable 
thickness along the I^f t Fork of Holly river. 

The same Upper Freeport coal can be followed up Elk river 
from Palmer until it over-shoots the io\m of the mountains, five 
miles below Webster Springs, where nearly all of the Pottsville 
has risen above the surface. 

The following measurement of the Allegheny- Kanawha series 
and Pottsville beds was made from the summit of the mountain 
at the head of Cold Spring hollow, which puts into the left bank 
of Elk river one-fourth mile above the mouth of Big run, six 
miles below Webster Springs, Webster county: 

(X)LD SPRING HOLLOW SECTION, SIX MILES BEI/)W 
WEBSTER SPRINGS. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Upper Freeport coal 



cannel, impure 2 o 

coal I 2 

slate, gray o % 

coal 2 6 



5 " 



366 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

Concealed 30 o 

Sandstone, massive and concealed 150 o 

Concealed 170 o 

Sandstone, massive 25 o 

Dark shales and concealed 85 o 

Coal, blossom 

Shales and concealed 100 o 

Tcoal o II 1 

Coal ..-I bone o 2}^y i 9^ 

(coal o 8 j 

Shales and concealed to top of Pottsville series 40 o 

Total ^ 607 Syi 

Pottsville conglomerates, with several thin coal beds 
Xo Mauck chunk red shale 700 o 

The coal near the base of the Allegheny-Kanawha series is 
most probably the one seen along Holly river near the water level 
for several miles. 

The Mauch Chunk red beds come out of Elk river a few 
hundred yards above the line of section, thus bringing the entire 
Pottsville series above water level in the same section with the 
Allegheny-Kanawha series. There are four or five coal beds in the 
Pottsville here, none of which appear to be more than two and one 
half feet thick, but they are of the soft, coking, or New River t3rpe, 
and at Webster Springs, six miles southeast, one of them attains 
a thickness of five feet. 

It is interesting to observe that as we pass southwest from the 
noi;them portion of the state, both the Allegheny and Pottsville 
series thicken at nearly the same rate. 

Passing southwest over to the waters of Laurel creek, we find 
the Upper Freeport coal ranging along under the summits of the 
highest peaks, protected by the great overlying Mahoning sand- 
stone series. Here, in the vicinity of Weese station, twelve 
miles above the mouth of Laurel creek, the following section is 
exposed: 

Ft. Ft 



Coal, Upper Freeport, large blossom 5 

Concealed 10 

Massive sandstone 90 

Coal^ blossom 

Sandstone no 

Dark slate 5 }- 285 

Concealed 170 

Black slate, with coal blossom 

Concealed 10 

Massive sandstone, visible 30 

Concealed 30 



1 100 

! 

[ 70 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 367 

Coal 2 

Blue shales 15 \ 

Concealed 10 / ^ 

{coal 2^ 5' 1 
slate o I V 
coal o 6 j 

Concealed «ioo 

{coal i' 2^ 1 
slate o I V 2 
coal o 9 j 

Shales and concealed to top of Pottsville 25 

Total 617 

This is practically a vertical measurement, and as the Potts- 
ville conglomerate series forms bold cliffs at the base for 75 to 100 
feet above the bed of Laurel creek, there can be no doubt about 
either the top or bottom of the Allegheny-Kanawha series in this 
section. 

We are here approaching the region in which the coal bed 
termed the Campbells creek can be traced continually across to 
Gauley river, and down the tributaries of the same through Web- 
ster, Nicholas, and Fayette counties to the Great Kanawha river, 
where it merges into the *^No. 2 Gas," or lower bench of the 
Campbells creek bed. 

Likewise the Upper Freeport coal, at the top of the section, 
can be followed across to the Gauley river waters, and down to the 
Kanawha, keeping high in the summits of the ridges, crowned 
and preserved by the Mahoning sandstone series above, until it 
passes into the Stockton cannel bed, just under the famous Ka- 
nawha BLACK FLINT. 

Where this coal emerges to daylight on the Gauley river side, 
at the head of Stroud creek, five miles north from Camden-on- 
Gauley, it exhibits the following structure on the land of William 
Hayhurst: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Cannel, impure, slaty 2 o 

Coal, soft 2 3 

Shale, gray o 5 

Coal, splint 3 6 

Dark slate, floor , 



8 2 



There is probably another division of the coal not exposed 
under the dark slate at the bottom. 

The same impure layer of cannel shown here was also ob- 
served in the sections on Laurel and Elk. 



368 



THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 



Cottle Knob is a conspicuous point fivo miles belowCamden- 
on-Gauley, which rises almost sheer from the broad plain along 
its base to a height of llOQ feet above the level of Grauley river, 
or about 900 feet above the terrace of the Pottsville beds at its 
base. The summit is capped by great cliffs of the Mahoning 
sandstone, and the entire Allegheny- Kanawha series is found in 
its steep slopes facing Gauley river. The Upper Freeport 
coal bed is not exposed, but its place is closely defined by the 
great Mahoning cliffs above, and a prominent bluff just below its 
"bench" or line of crop. The following measurements were made 
here in descending Cottle Knob to the southeast: 

SECTION IN COTTLE KNOB, WEBSTER COUNTY. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Massive Mahoning sandstone in three ledges, for 200 
feet from summit of Cottle Knob to horizon of 

Upper Freeport coal htncYi 

Concealed and massive sandstones 255 o 

coal o 8 ' 

slaty coal o 3 

coal o 8 

bone o 2 

coal I 3 

Concealed and sandstone with two or three thin coals 300 

Sandstone, massive and concealed 30 

Coal, Campbells creek, 4 to 6 inches of slate near the 

middle 3 

Concealed 20 

Coal I 

Concealed (estimated) to top of Pottsville 50 



Coal 



3 o 



Total 662 6 

The concealed interval at the base of the section is an esti- 
mate only, since a wide plain, a mile or more in width, extends 
from the crop of the lowest coal bed at the foot of the steep slopes 
southeastward to the Gauley river. This plain is underlain by 
the Pottsville series, the bold crop of which makes great cliffs 
along the immediate banks of Gauley, but the massive beds at its 
top dip northwest under the plain toward the base of Cottle Knob 
and are concealed by a thick covering of debris, so that the inter- 
val between the Pottsville and the small coal, where the steep slopes 
of the mountain begin, could not be measured. This interval, 
however, cannot be less than the fifty feet given, and may possibly 
be fifty feet more. The section reveals the gradual expansion of 
the Allegheny- Kanawha series southwestward toward the Kanawha 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 369 

river, since at the mouth of Gauley, forty miles distant, the series 
is 1000 feet thick. 

The three and one-half feet of coal seventy-one feet above the 
base of the series is identical with the Campbells creek bed of the 
Kanawha series, since from this point it can be traced continu- 
ously southwestward to Summersville in Nicholas county, and 
thence in a constant line of workings down Peter's creek. Bell 
creek, and Gauley to the Kanawha river. Both it and the coal 
330 feet above have been mined in Cottle Knob by Mr. John 
Woods, though the lower one is not now operated. The upper 
one comes near the horizon of the Winifrede coal, and may be 
identical with that bed. 

The Upper Freeport coal just misses the top of the high knob 
called Summersville mountain, at Summersville, or Nicholas Court 
House, while the Campbells creek coal is mined at many localities 
around the base of the mountain, and about 600 feet below the 
summit. 

At Gilboa, on Peter's creek, six and one-half miles below 

Summersville, the following section is seen in descending the high 

mountain, along the new road, which crosses to Twenty-Mile 

creek: 

GILBOA, NICHOLAS COUNTY. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Upper Freeport coal, large blossom under 150 feet of 

massive Mahoninj^ sandstone 

Concealed and massive sandstone 70 o 

Coal, blossom 

Concealed 60 o 

Coal, blossom 

Concealed 30 o 

Coal, blossom 

Concealed and massive sandstone 90 o 

Coal, blossom 

Concealed 90 o 

Cannel coal and black slate 3 o 

Concealed and massive sandstone 100 o 

Concealed 75 o 

Shales, gray 15 o 

Sandstone, flaggy 10 o 

Shale, blue 20 

coal 10] 

slate ''^[36 

coal 20!'^ 

[splint » o 2 J 

Concealed to top of Pottsville series 120 o 



Coal, Campbells creek.. 



Total 668 6 



370 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

The great pebbly cliffs of both the Upper and Lower Mahon- 
ing sandstones, with the Mahoning coal showing between them, 
here crown the summit of the mountain. Just imder the lower 
one and at the roadside, an uprooted tree exposes a very thick, 
rotten outcrop of coal, which is the Upper Freeport bed. The 
other outcrops of coal are exposed in cuttings along the road, and 
their thickness can only be sunnised. 

The Campbells creek .coal, at the bottom, is mined for local 
supply on the land of Curtis Stevenson, where it exhibits the 
structure indicated. 

This is a very important section, since it reveals the All^heny 
Kanawha series with nearly its typical thickness between its top 
and the important Campbells creek coal, so that the main expan- 
sion from here to the Kanawha river takes place between the 
Campbells creek bed and the top of the Pottsville. Then, too, 
only two miles west from this, the Kanawha black flint comes 
into the section, high up in the mountain, just over the great cobI 
bed at the top, which, with its overlying sandstone mass, has been 
followed from Sago, on the Buckhannon river, in a practically 
continuous outcrop of thick coal, to this point, where it crowns 
the summit of the Kanawha series, below which is at least 1000 
feet of Pottsville sediments. 

Mr. James Livesay, of Zela, Nicholas county, reports the 
Kanawha black flint, and its underlying coal, high up in the 
hills on the waters of Twenty Mile creek, only two miles west from 
where this section begins, and showing the following succession: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Kanawha black flint 8 o 

Shales « lo o 

coal, slaty 5 o 

shale 4 o 

coal, **«plint'* 24 [^ 15 4 

slate 2 o 

^coal, *'splint** 2 o 



Coal, Upper Freeport 



This same thick coal, with much slate and other impurities, 
can be followed into the summits of the hills along Peter's creek 
and Twenty Mile, down to the mouth of the latter and on to the 
Great Kanawha, where, at the mouth of Armstrong creek, the 
following succession was once measured by the writer: 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



371 



Coal, Cedar Grove 



372 o 



2 5 



165 o 



MOUTH OF ARMSTRONG CREEK, FAYETTE COUNTY. 

Ft. In. Ft In. 

Sandstone, massive, Upper Mahoning 80 o 

Shales 10 o 

Coal, Mahoning, (^^ n ! 1 c ^ 

Concealed 5 o 

Sandstone, massive, Lower Mahoning 65 o 

Concealed 5 o 

Kanawha black flint 10 o 

Shales and concealed to base of Conemaugh series..... 12 o 

Coal, Upper Freeport 3 o 

Sandstone and concealed 170 o 

Sandstone, massive 60 o 

Concealed and sandstone 115 o 

Limestone, silicious 2 o 

Sandstone, massive, gray 25 o 

fcoal o 6 

shale o 8 

coal ^ o 5 

shale o 6 

coal o 4 

Fireclay and concealed 5 o 

Sandstoae, massive 20 o 

Shales, concealed, and sandstone 20 o 

Concealed 20 o 

Sandstone and shales 20 o 

Sandstone, massive . . 25 o 

Shales and concealed 20 o 

Sandstone 25 o 

Sandy shales 10 o 

{coal I I 
shale o i 
coal o 6 

Shales, sandy 

fcoal, "Peerless'* 2 o 

shales, bluish 15 o 

coal, sulphurous .. 05 

slate o 0% 

coal , o 6 

Campbells creek 1 coal, splint on 

parting o o^ 

coal o 7 

slate o 0% 

[coal 2 10 

Fireclay 

Shales and sandstone 

{coal I 
shale 2 
coal o 

Shales and sandstone 

Coal 

Concealed and sandy shales 40 o 

Limestone, silicious i o 

Shales 10 o 

{coal o 8 
shales i 4 
coal, slaty o 6 



Coal. 



12 o 



22 4 



10 J 



5 
35 



4 4 



15 
I 

51 



a 6 



372 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

Sandy shales 20 o 

{coal o 2 1 
shales o 8 [• 3 8 
coal 2 10 j 

Shales and sandy beds 20 o 

Coal, Little Eagle i 6 

Fireclay and shales 5 o ) 

Sandstone, massive 10 o !■ 55 o 

Shales, sandy 40 o J 

Limestone, fossiliferous, Eagle .' i 



Dark shales, fossiliferous 5 ° \ 80 

Shales, sandstone and concealed 75 o j 

Bituminous shale 2 

Shales 30 o 

Limestone, silicious i o 

Shales, sandstone and concealed 100 o 

Massive sandstone, top of Pottsville ^ries 



[131 



Total of Allegheny-Kanawha series. 1006 7 

Here the Allegheny-Kanawha series has thickened up to more 
than 1000 feet, and contains an immense amount of massive sand- 
stone, just under the Upper Freeport coal. 

Cannelton, on the north bank of the Great Kanawha river, is 
a classic locality for the study of the Kanawha coals, and a section 
which the writer once measured there, reads as follows, beginning 
in the Conemaugh series : 

CANNELTON SECTION. 

Ft. In. FL In. 

Massive, pebbly sandstone, and concealed 200 o 

Coal^ *^No. 5 Block'* (Afahoning) in several divisions 6 6 

Concealed and massive sandstone 75 o 

Kanawha black flint 7 o 

Shales 15 o 



Coal, Stockton Cannel, 
upper Freeport 



'coal 05] 

slate o 2 I ^ 

coal I 8 I 5 o 

cannel 2 9 J 

Shales 15 o 

0?a/, several partings 6 o 

Sandstone and concealed 500 o 

Coal, CampbelVs creek 5 o 

Concealed and shale 75 o 

Silicious limestone, cement rock 2 6 

Shales and concealed 55 o 

Coal, Eagle 2 6 

Concealed to level of Great Kanawha 10 o 

Interval to top of Pottsville, estimated 250 o 



Thickhess of Allegheny-Kanawha series 906 o 

The portion of this section, below water level, is only an es- 
timate, based upon the known thickness of the rocks between the 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



373 



Eagle coal and the top of the Pottsville a few miles farther to the 
south. 

One more section of the Allegheny-Kanawha series on the 
Great Kanawha river will be given from the Wyoming Coal Com- 
pany's mines, near Handley, Fayette county, in order to show the 
relation of the several beds, in the upper portion of the series, to 
each other, and to the Kanawha black flint, as follows: 



Coalf Stockton ^ 

Upper Freeport 



4 
o 

u 

I 
7 



ALI.EGHENY-KANAWHA SERIES NEAR HANDLEY. 

Pt In. Ft. In. 

Kanawha black flint 5 o 

Shales and concealed 25 o 

'coal, **splinf* .... 2 o 

coal, soft o 

coal, slaty i 

coal, * 'splint" i 

coal and slate 4 

slate o 

coal, "splinf* .... o 

slaty coal o 

Icoal, soft I 

Concealed « 30 

{coal, •*8plint*» o 10 ) 
**niggernead*' o 3 f 4 
coal, "splint" 3 9 J 

Concealed and massive sandstone 53 

{coal 06) 
rock o 6 [• I 
coal 06) 

Bhaleand sandstone 30 

coal, "splinty" 3 6 

slate o 2 

coal o 6 K 5 3 

dark rock o 4 

[coal » o 9 

Concealed 

Coal, Peerless ."'2 

Concealed ^ 25 

Coaly Campbells creek,'* No, 2 Gas'' 4 

Concealed to Kanawha river 85 

Interval io Eagle seam .' 25 

Interval to Pottsville, estimated.. 250 



Coal, Winifrede 



.370 



Total 917 4 

Only one other important coal bed of the Kanawha r^on is 
not shown in this section, and that is the Cebab Grovb bed, 
which belongs about 120 feet above the Peerless bed in the con- 
cealed interval of 370 feet. 

The Peerless seam is simply the upper bench of the Camp- 
bell's creek bed, which separates from the lower, orBlacksbuig 



374 



THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 



member, the '*No. 2 Gas," in coming southward up the Kanawha 



nver. 



The Kanawha black flint and the twenty-five feet of shales 
below it, at the top of this section, belong in the Conemaugh se- 
ries and, of course, should be deducted from the Allegheny- Kan- 
awha series in estimating the thickness of these measures. 

Guyandot mountain is a high, broad ridge, extending around 
the heads of Big and Little Coal rivers, through Raleigh and Wy- 
oming counties. Several years ago Captain M. A. Miller, Chief 
Engineer for the Trans-Flat Top Land Association, made a section 
from the top of Guyandot mountain eastward,, along the Oceana 
pike to the Marsh Fork of Big Coal river, which exhibits the fol- 
lowing succession: 

GUYANDOT MOUNTAIN, RALEIGH COUNTY. 



Pt. In. Ft. In. 



Coal, Upper Freeport^ not seen 

Sandstone, massive, 

Shales 

{coal 3 
slate o 
coal , o 

Shales 

Coal 

Shales 

{coal I 
slate o 
coal 2 
slate o 
coal o 

Sandstone, hard, gray 28 

Bhale 81 

Sandstone ^ 8 

Shale 14 

Sandstone, hard, gray 53 

Shale 32 

Sandstone 24 

Shale, yellowish 7 

f coal o 

slate o 

coal o 

slate o 

coal I 

slate o 

coal I 



83 
15 



10 

I 
9 



4 8 



43 

2 

12 



Coal, Cedar Grove ? 



Sandstone, soft, yellow 19 

Coal o 

Fireclay i 

Shales, yellowish 36 

fcoal o 

Coal,,A fireclay 2 

(coal I 



3 

2 

3 
I 
I 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 

7 

I 

9 

u 

o 
I 

2 
o 
I 
o 

I 



3 10 



247 o 



4 o 



56 3 



3 2 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL 8RUVBY. 



375 



Fireclay o 6 

Sandstone, soft, yellow 15 o 

Sandstone, hard, gray 22 o 

Sandstone, soft, yellow, micaceous 21 o 

Shales, yellowish 67 o 

Coal 



Firecliy i 

Slate, black 16 

Sandstone, soft, yellow 35 

Shales, yellow 39 

rcoal I 

slate 4 

fireclay 2 



Coal, Eagle., 



coal 
clay , 
coal . 
clay . 
coal 
clay . 
coal , 



"5 



o 2 



91 4 



9 8 



^ 46 



Sandstone, hard, gray 13 

Sandstone, soft, yellow .33 

Coal, LittU Eagle o 3 

Fireclay 10" 

Bhales, sandy, yellow 46 o 

Sandstone, soft, yellow 70 o 

Shales, sandy, yellowish 58 o 

Sandstone, flaggy 7 o 

Shales, yellow, to top of Pottsvillc series .. 26 o 



'2o8 o 



Total 955 5 



The two highest coals appear to be the Coalbubq aND WiHi- 
FREDE, respectively, but the identity of the ones between the WjN- 
IFREDE and Eagle beds is a matter of conjecture. 

Practically, thid same thickness of Allegheny-Kanawha de- 
posits extends across Wyoming and McDowell counties to the Tug 
Fork of Big Sandy at the Kentucky line. 

No mining operations have been undertaken, however, on the 
Upper coals of the series uniil we come to the Norfolk <fe Western 
railroad along Tug river. 

In recent years a valuable coal bed, known as the Thackeb 
VEIN has been extensively mined in southern Mingo county, re- 
ceiving its local name from the town of Thacker, near which it 
was first opened. 

The Grapevine Coal Company has mines in this bed, high up 
in the hills between Thacker and Delorme, and in descending 
from the mines to Tug river, we get the following section ; 



376 



THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 



SECTION BETWEEN TRACKER AND DEI.ORME, MINGO 
COUNTY. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sandstone, massive 

Slate 4 o 

coal, soft 3 o 

*'splint" coal 2 6 

coal, softer i 8 

fireclay o 4 

coal o 7 

fireclay o 11 

coal o 2 

bone o 2 

coal, soft I 4 

slate, gray o 2 

[coal, soft I 4 

Concealed 5 

Sandstone, massive 65 

Coal, reported 5 

Concealed 25 

Sandstone, massive 200 

Concealed and sandstone, with some thin coals, to 
level of Tug river 385 



Coal, Thacker 



12 2 



Total 701 2 

There has been much speculation as to the geological horizon 
of this Thacker coal bed. There must be at) east 300 feet of meas- 
ures below water level here, down to the top of the Pottsville, 
which would put it near the summit of the Kanawha series, so 
that it would be either the Stockton or Coalburg seam, most prob- 
ably the former, since its great thickness and multiple character 
resembles the structure of the Stockton or Upper Freeport coal in 
the Handley section on the Great Kanawha river, page 373, 
above. 

This same coal has been mined high up in the hills near 
Naugatuck by Dr. Waldron, where we get the following section 
in descending from the summits to Pigeon creek: 

SECTION NEAR MOUTH OF PIGEON CREEK, 

MINGO COUNTY. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Mostly sandstone, coarse, massive 120 o 

Concealed and massive sandstone 40 o 

Shales 10 o 

Coal ^ No. $ Block {Mahoning) 4 o 

Concealed and massive sandstone 100 o 

Blate o 2 



WEST VIRQINIA GE0LCX31CAL SURVEY. 



377 



Thacker coal 
Stockton 
Upper FreepoH 



Coal, Winifrede . 



coal, ''splint*' a o 

slate o o}i 

coal o 4 

g^ray slate o 2^ 

coal I o 

"splint," bony at top. 2 o 

dark slate i 8 

[coal, softer i 3 

Concealed and sandstones 250 

coal o 8 

slate o I 

coal I 2 

bone o i 

[coal I 6 

Concealed : 70 

Sandstone, massive 65 

Coal, **splint,*' one inch of bone below center^ i 

Sandy shales 20 

Coal o 

Shale 5 

Sandstone and concealed to bed of Pigeon creek 40 



8 6 



3 6 



.444 3 



Total of Allegheny-Kanawha series 

It cannot be less than 300 feet under Tug river down to the 
top of the Pottsville, thus making the Allegheny- Kanawha series 
about 750 feet thick at this locality. 

About eight miles south of Naugatuck, a long section, which 
takes in the lower half of the Conemaugh series, was obtained in 
descending from the summit of a high knob, about one mile above 
Nolan, Mingo county, wherp the Hatfield Colliery Company has 
its mines. The section there, between the simimit of the moun- 
tain and Tug river, is as follows: 

ONE MILE ABOVE NOLAN. MINGO COUNTY. 

Ft In. Ft In. 

Sandstone, massive, very little shale 90 o 

Reddish^ limy shales 30 o 

Sandstone, very massive, pebbly 45 o 

Concealed and shales 35 o 

Sandstone, massive, pebbly 90 o 

Sandy shales o 6 

{coal ° 5 ) 

shale gray o 4 >- 2 i 

coal, j^>od I 4 j 

Concealed and massive coarse sandstone 60 o 

(soft, slaty coal o 5 1 

"splint" coal i 3 I -, ,. 

bone o 2 I ^ " 

••splint" coal 2 i J 

Fireclay, 5 o 

Mostly very massive coarse sandstone, wilh a ••b^ich*' 

and concealed near middle 150 o 



878 



*rkE ALtEQftEirt' SfeRlfaS. 



2 O 



f coal, **spliiif * I o 

Coal, Stockton \ slate, dark o 4 

(coal, "splint** o 8 j 

Concealed 100 o 

Coal blossom, 

Concealed 150 o 

coal, "splint" o 8 " 

gray slate ^... o 3 

coal, "splint" i 8 

coal, sorter o 8 

slate, dark o i 

coal, "splint" o 6 

clay o I 

coal, soft o I 



Coal^ Winifrede - 



Concealed. 
Coal 



4 o 



.160 o 
2 6 



Concealed to Tug river 50 o 

Total .980 o 

This looks like the same succession as that observed in the 
previous section near Naugatuck, at the mouth of Pigeon creek, 
seven miles below, except that the Stockton coal is not fully ex- 
posed, and may have thinned very much also. If we regard this 
bed as the Stockton seam there will be 466^ feet of the Allegheny- 
Kanawha series above water level here, and 511^ of the Cone- 
maugh beds, while at least 300 feet more of the Kanawha series 
would extend below water level down to the top of the Pottsville 
beds. 

In the region of Dingess, near the northern line of Wayne 
county, we get a complete measurement of the Allegheny-Kan- 
awha series by combining the surface measurements with the record 
of a gas well, bored there by GuflFey and Queen, which gives the 
following succession: 

DINGESS. MINGO COUNTY. 



Ft. In. 



Ft. In. 



Massive sandstone 

coal I 6 

fireclay i 10 

Coal, black slate o 2 

Stockton ' fireclay o 5 

Upper Freeport coal i 6 

bone o 5 

[coal 2 3 

Concealed and sandstone ...140 

Coal, visible, Winifrede? i 

Concealed and sandstone 195 



8 I 



WBST VIRGINIA OEOLOOICAL SURVEY. 



379 



Coal.CedarGrovef 



'coal I 2 

gray shale o 4 

coal o 5 

dark slate o a 

[coal I o 

Sandstone, massive 40 o 

Coal 



o 10 



Shales, dark 10 

Sandstone, massive 35 

Shales, dark 30 

Sandstone, massive 25 

Shales, gray 10 

fcoal I 

dark slate o 

coal 2 

bone o 

[coal I 

White sand (gas well record) 15 

Slate, black 10 

Sand, white 46 

CoaL. 



Dingess coal 
Campbells creek 



100 o 



4 8 



71 o 



I o 



Slate, sandy 78 o ] 

Slate, black 80 o [,,,-, 

Sand,white 10 o f^^^ ° 

Slate, white, to top of Pottsvillc ..65 o J 

Total ^.797 8 

There can be little doubt that the big bed at the top is the 
Stockton or Upper Frebport, while the Dingess coal is the 
Campbells creek bed, and the same as the one mined at War- 
field, Kentucky, along Tug river, a few miles distant 

In the gas well record at Dingess, we get 1021 feet of Potts- 
viLLE sediments before reaching the Mauch Chunk red shale at 
its base. 

In passing northwest from the region of Dingess, the Alle- 
gheny-Kanawha series dips under the waters of Twelve Pole river, 
within a few miles, and at the same time thins rapidly down to its 
normal thickness at the northern end of the state, since, when the 
series comes up again near Ironton, Ohio, just below the south- 
western comer of West Virginia, and fifty miles distant from Din- 
gess, the following section of typical Allegheny beds is exposed. 
See BuUetm 65, U. S. G. Survey, page 135: 

SECTION. NEAR IRONTON, OHIO. 

Ft. In. Ft In. 

Coal, upper Freeport 2 o 

Rhale and sandy beds 50 o 

Lower Freepori coal 3 o 

Massive sandstone 40 o \ .. . 

Shale 5 o /^ ® 



880 



THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 



Middle Kitianning coal 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



fcoal I 

fireclay i 

coal I 

fireclay 2 

[coal 2 

Fire..lay 5 

Sandstone, massive 40 

Lower Kittanning coal 2 

Shales and fireclay ....*. 25 

Limestone^ Ferriferous^ ( Vanport) 5 

Fireclay and shales 10 

Coal^ Clarion i 

Shales and concealed 40 

Massive sandstone, topof Pottsville 



7 o 



}« 



Total 235 6 

Above these beds come the typical Conemaugh series, and 
below them 250 feet of Pottsville carries the section down to the 
Mauch chunk shale, or Greenbrier limestone, so that the 1728 
feet of Coal Measures (including the Pottsville) at Dingess, dwin- 
dle to less than 500 feet near Ironton, only 50 miles distant. 

Passing now to the extreme northern point of West Virginia, 
at the mouth of Little Beaver river, we find the Allegheny series 
exhibiting the following structure near the corner of West Virginia, 
Pennsylvania, and Ohio: 

MOUTH OF LITTLE BEAVER RIVER AT NORTHERN 
LINE OF HANCOCK COUNTY. 



Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Upper Freefyorl coal 3 o 

Sandy shales 50 o 

Lower Freeport coal 2 o 

Sandy shales 20 o \ 

Sandstone, massive 50 o [-105 o 

Sandy shales 35 o J 

Middle Kitlanning coal 2 o 

Fireclay 5 o ^1 

Shales, containing nodules of iron ore 15 o / 

Lower Kittanning coal 2 6 

Fireclay,. Lower Kittanning 10 o \ go q 

Sandy shales and shaly sandstone 50 o / 

Limestone^ Ferriferous^ Vanport i o 

Sandy shales 8 o 

Bituminous shale, C/^lrM7» a7a/ 5 o 

Shale, sandy 15 o 

Massive sandstone, top of Pottsville 

Total « 273 6 



West Virginia geoIxxsIcal survkV. 381 

As will be observed, except for a slight expansion in thick- 
ness, this section is nearly an exact duplicate of the previous one 
near Ironton, 250 miles distant, and is in remarkable contrast with 
the change that takes place in the structure of the series in the 
fifty miles, only, between Ironton and Dingess, when passing in a 
southeastern direction across the southern portion of the Appa- 
lachian coal field. 

Practically the same structure as that found at the mouth of 
the Little Beaver occurs at New Cumberland, Hancock county, 
where the Allegheny series is all exposed in the Ohio river hills 
except its basal portion, which is largely concealed under the cov- 
ering of gravel and debris along the valley floor. The following 
measurements at New Cumberland give an idea of the structure of 
the series there: 

NEW CUMBERLAND, HANCOCK COUNTY. 

Ft In. Ft In. 

Upper Freeport coaly not present 

Fireclay and limestone, Upper Freeport 5 o 

Concealed and sandstone, massive 40 o 

Flaggy sandstone and sandy shales 20 o 



fcoal a o 
slate o a [• 3 4 



Coaly *^ Roger" ^ veitiy 

Lower -Preeport ^^j , , 

Shales and concealed 30 o 

Sandstone, massive. Lower Freeport 70 o 

{coal 10^ 

shale 01 V 2 II 

coal , I 10 j 

Fireclay and sandy shales 30 o 

Lower Killanning coaly hony aX ioi^ 3 o 

Fireclay, Lower Kittanning 8 o 

Sandy shales and concealed to low water in Ohio 

river ^ 50 o 

Interval, estimated, to (op of Potts?ille 25 o 

Total ^ 2B7 3 

The Ohio geologists have alwajrs regarded the "Roger** bed 
along the Ohio valley as identical with the Lower Freeport coal 
of the Allegheny series, the Upper Freeport being thin or want- 
ing altogether as in the New Cumberland section. The late Dr. 
Orton regarded the **Steubenville shaft" coal, as also the one 
in the deep shaft at Wellsburg, in Brooke county, as the same 
Lower Freeport coal. 

When the Allegheny series passes under the overlying Cone- 
maugh,Monongahelaand Dunkard series, deep down into theAppa- 



382 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

lachian basin of the state, we know its constitution only through 
the records, more or less imperfect, of the oil and gas wells drilled 
over a wide region. As already stated, while the rock series can 
be univerfially recognized in these records, many of them exhibit 
no coal whatever, and hence it is possible that over large areas, 
wh^re these beds underlie the surface, they may not contain any 
coal of commercial thickness and value. True, the oil and gas 
well contractors do not drill for (X)AL, and the presence of the lat- 
ter is noted only incidentally, and hence there is some slight 
chance that in many wells where no coal has been reported, it has 
either been overlooked or passed through at night, when it might 
have been classed as black slate or missed entirely. We shall 
now present some of these records selected at random from differ- 
ent portions of the area where the Allegheny series lies deeply 
buried, and let them speak for themselves. 

As a rule the record of the first well drilled in any region is 
kept with more detail and with greater care than any of those sub- 
sequently bored, so that in making selections from hundreds of 
records throughout the state, we shall, wherever possible, give 
those that were first drilled in their respective localities. 

The South Penn Oil Company drilled a gas well on the Brown 
Heirs land, Dunkard creek, in western Monongalia, near the Penn- 
sylvania-West Virginia state line, where the Upper Freeport coal 
was struck at a depth of 1090 feet, and the following record made 
of the Allegheny series there: 

BROWN HEIRS WEI.L NO. i, NEAR ANDY. 
MONONGALIA COUNTY. 

Ft 

upper Freeport coal ^ 2 

Slate and shells 53 

Sand, white, ''Big Dunkard,'' {2d Cow Run) 15 

Slate and shells 30 

Upper Kittanning coal 3 

Slate and shells 7a 

Sand, gray 40 

Slate and shells 35 

Sand, gray 20 

Clarion or Brookville coal 2 

Slate 8 

White sand, top of Potisville 

Total 280 



WEST VlftGlNlA GE0LCX3ICAL StJRVEV. 383 

The same Oil Company drilled a well on the Lee R. Shriver 
farm, only one mile east from the Brown Heirs well, where the 
Upper Freepobt cx)al was also noted, and it will be interesting to 
compare the two records, since both were kept with more than 
usual detail. The top of the Allegany was struck at 1110 feet in 
this well, and the record reads as follows: 

LEE R. SHRIVER WELL NO. i, ONE MILE EAST OF 

ANDY. MONONGALIA COUNTY. 

Ft 

Upper Freeport coal a 

Slate 93 

Upper Kittanning coal a 

Slate and shells 73 

''Gas sand,'' Freeport 40 • 

Slate 7 

Sand 43 

Slate 6 

White, sand, top of FbUsmlle 

Total , 266 

These records are especially valuable in giving the exact thick- 
ness of the Allegheny series, since the Upprr Frekpobt coal bed 
was noted in each, at the proper interval (565 feet) below the 
thick Pittsburg coal above, and then the base of the Allegheny 
was sharply defined by a great thickness of white Pottsvillb ( **Salt 
Sand'' of the drillers) sandstone below. 

While three of the Allegheny coals are reported in the Brown 
well, and two in the Shriver, none of them appear to be thick 
enough to be considered commercially valuable at present, al- 
though in the distant future any good coal of three feet in 
thickness, or only two, for that matter, will be mined even at great 
depths, just as such beds are now in Britain, France, Belgium, 
Grermany, and other older countries, where the easily won coal has 
long been exhausted. 

Just south from Monongalia county, in the northern edge of 
western Marion county, the Allegheny series is well defined in a 
well drilled by the South Penn Oil Company on the land of Brice 
Wallace, just east from Fairview, or Amos. The record is as fol- 
lows: 



3^ THE ALtEGfiENV SEBlES. 

BRICE WALI.ACE WELI. NO. i. ONE MILE EAST PROM 

AMOS, MARION COUNTY. 

Ft. 

Coal and slate ^ Upper Freeport 20 

Dark slate and sandstone * ~i6o 

Sand 30 

Slate and sandy shells 60 

White sand, top of Pottsville 

Total - 270 

Here the Upper Freeport coal was noted at a depth of 1090 
feet, but its thickness was not separated from that of the accom- 
panying slate. Its interval below the Pittsburg coal is here 556 
feet. 

West from this in Wetzel coimty, the D. H. Cox well No. 1, 
three miles east from Pine Grove, gave the following record through 
the Allegheny series, the top of which was struck at 1176 feet, 
and 568 feet below the Pittsburg coal: 

NEAR PINE GROVE WETZEL CO. 

Ft. 

Slate and shells \ 38 

Slate 17 

Sand 44 

"Cave" (fireclay, possibly) • 5 

Slate 10 

Sand 50 

Slate and shells 15 

Slate to top of Pottsville series 22 

Total 201 

Here no coal whatever is reported, and this is only a sample of 
hundreds of borings in Wetzel county, so that if the Allegheny 
series does hold valuable coal there, no oil well records known to 
the writer have yet disclosed the same. 

In the adjoining county of Marshall, the Carter Oil Company 
drilled a well five miles north from Loudensville, (near Cameron) 
and this record reveals one coal bed in the Allegheny series, as 
follows : 

COX FARM, FIVE MILES NORTH FROM LOUDENS- 
VILLE, MARSHALL COUNTY. 

Ft. 

Upper Freeport coal ^ absent 

Slate 20 

Sand 20 

Slate 35 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 386 

Lower Freeport coal 5 

Slate 10 

"Gas sand/' Lower Freeport 70 

SlzXit X.O Fbttsmlle series 70 

Total 230 

The coal given above was struck at a depth of 1195 feet, 615 
feet below the Pittsburg coal, and hence is most probably the 
**8teubenvillb shaft" or '*Roger" vein, of the Ohio valley, which 
appears to correlate with the Lower Freeport bed of Uie Alle- 
gheny series. 

In Ohio county, next north from Marshall, where the Pitts- 
burg coal rises to the surface, and is 100 feet above water level at 
Wheeling, two coals have been reported in a boring made for gas 
at the Central Glass Works, within the city limits, as follows: 

CENTRAL GLASS WORKS, WHEELING, OHIO COUNTY. 

Ft 

Upper Freeport coaly absent 

Shale, blue 50 

Lower Freeport coal .' 7 

Sandstone and shales 96 

Upper Kittanning coal 5 

Shales and sandstone to Pottsville 112 

Total 270 

The coal at the top of the series was struck at 556 feet below 
the Pittsburg coal, and 450 feet under the bed of the Ohio river, 
and hence has been correlated with the Lower Freeport coal, or 
Roger vein of the Ohio valley, rather than with the Upper Free- 
port BED, although it may possibly be the same. 

At Wellsburg, Brooke county, next north from Ohio county, 
the record of Barclay well No. 1, drilled at the mouth of Buffalo 
creek, gives the following; for the Allegheny series there: 

BARCLAY WELL NO. i, WELLSBURG, BROOKE COUNTY. 

Ft. 

Upper Freeport coal ^ absent 

Fireclay 40 

Slate 12 

Coaly Roger vein y Lower Freeport 5 

Fireclay 10 

Slate 20 

Slate and shale 40 

Sand, white 40 

Slate and shale to top of Pottsville 74 

Total 241 



386 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

The coal given above was once mined at Wellsburg, by a 
shaft 235 feet in depth. It has always been regarded as identical 
with the **Steubenville shaft'* coal, only a few miles above, 
which, as already stated, the Ohio geologists are quite certain rep- 
resents the Lower Freeport coal of the Allegheny series. In 
this report the writer has accepted that determination, although 
not entirely satisfied as to its correctness, since he had always in- 
clined to the view of Dr. Newberry: viz, that it was the Upper 
Freeport coal. It is certainly one or the other, and as the two 
horizons are only fifty to sixty feet apart along the Ohio valley, it 
does not make much difference in the economic results. 

The coal in question lies 324 feet below the Ames limestone at 
Wellsburg, and 664 feet below the Pittsburg coal, both of which 
crop in the Ohio river hills. 

The Allegheny series does not apparently hold coal of much 
value under Harrison county, if we majr judge from the oil well 
records. 

About four miles sputheast from Clarksburg, a well was bored 
on the Carr farm by the Harrison County Oil Company, and a very 
careful record of the strata penetrated was kept by Prof. T. M. 
Jackson, of Clarksburg, one of its officers, which exhibits the Al- 
legheny series as follows: 

CARR WELL NO. i, NEAR QUIET DELL, HARRISON COUNTY. 

Ft. 

Upper Freeport coal, absent 

Slate, black 33 

White slate and shells 25 

Limestone and sand 8 

Soapstone ~ 7 

Sandstone, Rray 33 

Shales, sandy 35 

Sand, black ... 4 

Slate, white 21 

Black, hard sand 4 

Sand, white 6 

Lower Kit tanning coal ~ i 

Shale, black 31 

Blate, black 15 

Slate, white, to top of white sandstone, {PottsvilU) 27 

Total 250 

Here the only coal in the entire series is a thin streak near 
the horizon of the Lower Kittanning bed. 

In a boring made within the city limits of Clarksburg, a 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 387 

slightly different result was obtained from that given above. This 
boring is known as the Despard gas well, and it was located near 
the junction of Elk creek and West Fork river. Prof. T. M. 
Jackson furnishes the following record of this well in its passage 
through the Allegheny series. 

UNDER CLARKSBURG, HARRISON COUNTV. 

Ft Ft 



124 



Upper Freeport coal ^ absent 

Shales, sandy 29 

Sandstone, white 7 

Shales 6 

Sandstone, white, Lower Freeport 72 

Sandstone, dark 10 

Middle KiUanning coal i 

Shales, black 21 

Sandstone, gray 

Sandstone, white 

Lower Kittanning co€U, vdth slate 4 

Sandstone, hard, gra^ 4 

Sandstone, hard, white 36 

Shale 

Top uf PbtlsvilU white sandstone 



4 

36 1 54 
14 J 



Total 232 

Here another thin streak of coal was found above the Lower 
Kittanning, but the Lower one has thickened up to four feet, 
though half of this may be black slate, from the fact that the 
driller noted slate in connection with the coal. 

In Taylor county, near the Harrison line, the South Penn Oil 
Company drilled a well on the land of R. L. Reed, in the Booth's 
Creek District, where the following record was made through the 
Allegheny series: 

R. L. REED WEI<I< NO. i, BOOTH'S CREEK DISTRICT, 

TAYLOR COUNTY. 

Ft 

Upper Freeporl coal 5 

Slate and shells no 

Sand, Lower Freeport 60 

Slate 20 

Sand 20 

Slate 25 

Total 240 

In Doddridge county very few of the wells report coal in the 
Allegheny series, the top of which is there buried from 800 to 
1500 feet below the surface. 



388 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

The following record, from Well No. 1, on Ruley Brothers 
land, in Central District, is a fair sample of the records the drillers 
report from Doddridge county for the AUegheny series: 

RULEY BROTHERS WELL NO. i. CENTRAL DISTRICT, 

DODDRIDGE COUNTY. 

FL 

Upper Freepori coal ^ absent 

Slate 50 

Limestone 40 

Slaie 15 

Limestone 25 

Sand 20 

Slate and limestone 10 

Sand, white 55 

Slate, black 7 

Limestone 21 

Slate 15 

Limestone 15 

Total 273 

The word **limestone,'' or **lime," as used by the average oil 
well driller, can usually be translated into **light gray shale," so 
that the excessive quantity of limestone reported in many oil well 
records, is thus accounted for. The top of the Allegheny series 
was struck at a depth of 1025 feet in the Ruley Brothers well. 

About two miles from Long Run station, on the B. & 0. R 
R., the South Penn Oil Company driled a well on the land of J. 
D. Crabtree, where a coal was found in the Allegheny series of 
Doddridge county, as follows : 

J. D. CRABTREE WELL NO. i. NEAR LONG RUN STA- 
TION, DODDRIDGE COUNTY. 

Ft 

Upper Frceport coal, ehs^ni 

Slate 63 

Lower Freeport coal 5 

Slate 31 

Sand 45 

Slate 10 

Sand 59 

Slate, to top of Potlsville... 19 

Total 232 

The coal was struck at a depth of 1088 feet, 652 feet below 
the Pittsburg bed, and hence has been identified with the LowEB 
Freeport coal, rather than with the Upper one. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

In the adjoining county of Ritchie, many hundreds of wells 
have been drilled, and the contractors report a general absence of 
coal in the Allegheny series. Sometimes thin traces of it are en- 
countered, but no thick or valuable beds, according to their rec- 
ords. 

The Keystone Oil and Gas Company drilled a well near Har- 
risville of which a fairly good record was kept, and, although 
some coal was found, both in the Monongahela series and the Con- 
emaugh, above, only a trace appeared in the underlying Allegheny 
series, which was recorded as follows: 

KEYSTONE OIL AND GAS COMPANY'S WELL NO. i. 
HARR18VILLE. RITCHIE COUNTY. 

Ft. 

Upper Freeport coal, absent 

Slate, blue 23 

Sand, hard « ^ 15 

Slate, white 6 

Limestone 31 

Sand, sharp 36 

Rlate, dark (show of coal at 1320 feet) 38 

Sand 6 

Slate, white 4 

Sand, white 57 

Blate and shells, dark, to top of Pbttsville 52 

Total ^ 268 

In the Whiskey run oil pool of Ritchie county, the record of 
well No. 1, on the Baumgardner farm, was very carefully kept by 
Mr. John F. Carll, the geologist of Venango county, Pennsylvania, 
who reports the following succession through the Allegheny series: 

BAUMGARDNER WELL NO. i, WHISKEY RUN OIL 

POOL, RITCHIE COUNTY. 

Ft. 

Upper Freeport coaly absent 

Slate, light gray 145 

Wate, dark, limj - 80 

Coaly Lower Kxttanning « a 

Slate and shells to top of PiottsvilU 68 

Total 295 

The coal was struck at a depth of 1355 feet, 850 feet below 
where the Pittsburg bed had been noted, and 402 feet above the 
Mountain, or Greenbrier limestone. 



390 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

Near Cairo, Ritchie county, the record of a well on the Lee 
farm was kept for the Survey with much care by Mr. William A. 
Clark, of the Clark Oil Company, who reports the following suc- 
cession through the Allegheny series: 

I<BE FARM WEI<L NO. 6, NEAR CAIRO. RITCHIE 
COUNTY. 

Upper Free^ort coal ^ absent « 

White slate and **8heir 50 

Sandstone 25 

Black slate and **lime shells'' 47 

Sand 15 

Slate, black 33 

Sand 35 

Dark coaly shales (**cave*'), cased at 1310. 6j^ inch 45 

^^ Casing sand** 40 

Slate, black, to top of Pbttsville 15 

Total 305 

Here the only coal in the entire series is a thin bed found in 
connection with the '^ black cave," as the shales which cave so 
badly are named by the drillers. This **black cave*' comes^at 
about the horizon of the Lower Kittanning fireclay and its 
overlying dark shales. 

In the neighboring county of Tyler an oil well has recently 
been drilled by the Carter Oil Company, two miles south of Wick 
Post Office, the record of which was kept with great care by the 
drilling crew, and a set of the samples was kindly presented to the 
Survey by Mr. W. H. Aspinwall, of the Carter Oil Company. The 
well begins in the Permian, and found petroleum in the Pocono or 
"Big Injun*' sand of the Lower Carboniferous, so that it pene- 
trated nearly all of the Carboniferous system. The record is a very 
interesting and important one, and is here given in full as follows: 

Samp. Strata. Top. Bot. Thick. 

1 Soil and clay 055 

2 Red rock 5 55 50 

3 Brown shale.. 55 67 12 

4 Red rock 67 90 23 

5 Sandstone 90 150 60 

6 Green slate 150 160 10 

7 Sandstone, hard 160 180 20 

8 Dark gray slate 180 192 12 

9 Sandstone 192 230 38 

10 Sandstone 

11 Green slate 230 234 j4 

la Red rock 234 280 46 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



391 



13 Sandstone, hard 280 

14 Blate 295 

15 Slate, irtice of coed at 31$ 305 

16 Sandstone, micaceous 325 

17 Red rock 410 

18 Limestone f 425 

19 Limestone \ 440 

20 Slate 450 

21 Red rock 452 

22 Sandstone, gray coarse 472 

23 Black slate, trace of coal at $06 

\ Inionlownf) 502 

24 White alaie 5'o 

25 Sandstone 530 

26 White slate 540 

27 Red rock. 542 

28 Slate, 10-inch casing 557 feet .. 557 

29 Limestone 597 

30 Slate 629 

31 Lime and sand shells 635 

32 Sandstone 690 

33 Slate 700 

34 Limestone « 710 

35 Limestone 730 

36 Sandstone 742 

37 Pittsburg coalt 759 

38 Sandstone 760 

39 Sandstone 800 

40 Lime and sand shells 806 

41 Limestone, sandy 856 

42 Sandstone 881 

43 Black slate, /ro^ (^OMi/ 893 

44 Red rock, '^BigRed** 908 

45 Limestone, sandy 960 

46 Coarse sand, steel line 990 

47 Black slate 1030 

48 Limestone, sandy 1046 

49 Red rock 1052 

50 Limestone and limy shales... f 1058 

51 •• " .. 1080 

52 *' *• ..." 1120 

53 Limestone I1140 

54 Slate r 1161 

55 •' I "75 

56 Sandstone, hard 1200 

57 Shale 1212 

58 Sandstone 1237 

59 " 1247 

60 Limestone, hard **«.,*,„ ».* 1253 

61 "Break," &oft.-.., ^ 1288 

62 Limestone, hard -1293 

63 Preeport sandstone., «,» f 1299 

64 Steel line -.:,....,„. I 1319 

65 •• S-inch casing 13 lo' I 1339 

66 '• L1429 

67 ''Break** of black slate, trace 

coal at 1464 1434 

68 r ri464 

69 Salt sand, Pottsville, water ^ 1479 

70 \ at 1550. I 1549 



295 
305 
325 
410 

425 



450 
452 
472 
502 

5«o 
530 
540 
542 
557 
597 
629 

635 
690 
700 
710 

730 
742 

759 
760 
800 
806 
856 
881 

960 

990 
1030 
1046 
1052 
1058 



I161 

1200 
1212 

1237 
1247 

1253 
1288 

1293 
1299 



15 
10 
20 
85 
15 

25 

2 

20 
30 

8 
20 
10 

2 

15 
40 

32 
6 

55 
10 
10 
20 
12 

17 
I 
40 
6 
50 
25 
12 

15 
52 
30 
40 
16 
6 
6 

103 



39 
12 

25 

10 

6 

35 

5 

6 



1434 135 
1464 30. 



Monongahela 
series 349 feet 



Conemaugh 
series 493 feet 



All^heny series 
211 teet 



Pottsrille series. 



THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 



71 
72 

73 
74 
75 
76 

77 

78 

P 
80 

81 

82 

84 

85 
86 

87 
88 

89 
90 



1652 
C1658 

Black slate 1666 

Sandstone 1752 

Black slate, 6f^ casing 1776'... 1764 
Black grit, very hard and wore 

bits 1776 

Shells 1826 

Maxton sand 1836 



Black lime rock 1891 

Limestone, **big lime'* f 1910 

I 

^^Keenet*^ sand 1976 

Top of Big Injun 2008 

Big Injun sand 

" ** 2018 

*• ** oil. Steel line ..2029 

•* •• 2095 

Total depth, steel line 



1666 

1752 
1764 
1776 

1826 
1836 



1891 
1910 

1976 
2008 



2101 



202 J 
86 
12 
12 

50 
10 



55 J 
19 

66 

32 



Mauch Chunk 
series 225 feet 



Steel line, little gas. 
Gas. 



Commenced November 29, 1902; completed January 11, 1903. 
Drilled by the Wilson Drilling Company. Drillers, John Sayres and 
Chas Swab. Tool dressers, Earl Martin, Ross Monroe and Edward Wil- 
liams. 

It is possible that the suggested identification of the Pittsburg 

coal in this record is not correct, and that its horizon would belong 
higher up in the well. The identification is based upon the posi- 
tion of the lowest red bed which is seldom more than 400 feet be- 
low the Pittsburg coal. Then, too, this identification gives the 
interval between the Pittsburg coal and the top of the * 'Keener'* 
division of the **Big Injun" oil sand as 1216 feet, which is about 
right. The important thing of the section is that it reveals no 
merchantable coal in the whole Carboniferous system. The large 
quantity of limestone found by the drillers is significant in this 
connection, pointing as it does to conditions of sedimentation un- 
favorable to the accumulation of coal. 

The trace of coaly material first noted at 1464 feet was skim- 
med from the water which rose in the well and was brought up in 
the bailer. 

Pleasants county adjoining Tyler has the same reports of the 
absence of thick coal veins as the latter, and Wood county is but 
little better, as the following record of the Judge John J. Jackson 
well No. 1, drilled by the South Penn Oil Company, will illus- 
trate. It begins in the Permian red beds, and goes through the 
entire column of Carboniferous beds below, down to the Berea Grit 
of Ohio in the top of the Devonian, and reads as follows : 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



393 



JUDGE JOHN J. JACKSON WELL NO. i, FIVE MILES 

N. E. OF PARKERSBURG. 

Feet 

Conductor „ 25 

Red rock 25 

Sand, gray 50 

Slate, white 25 

Sand, gray 25 

Red rock 15 

Limestone 10 

Slate, white 25 

Red rock 15 

Sand, gray 15 

Slate, white 10 

Red rock 25 

Sand, white 25 

Red rock 100 

Slate, white 10 

Hand, white 5 

Slate, white 15 

Limestone ^ 10 

Sand, white ^ 15 

Red rock 20 

Limestone ^ 10 

Slate, black 25 

Red rock 30 

Slate, black 20 

Sand, white 25 

Slate, white 25 

Red rock 105 

Slate, white 50 

Sand, white 20 

Slate, white 10 

Sand, white 15 

Red rock 30 

Slate, white 20 

Sand, white 15 

Slate, black 25 

Cow Run'' sand (Mahoning) water at 915 feet ..no 

Slate, white 50 

Sand, gray 30 

Slate, white 37 

Slate, black 30 

Sand, white 120 

Slate, white 30 

Slate, black 60 

**5ii//5l3«^'* (water at 1390) Pottsvillc ^100 

Limestone 15 

Slate, white 15 

''Big Lime'* 18 

r sand, white, water at 

1525 140 

sand, black 10 

sand, white 40 

[sand, black 15^ 

Slate and shells .283 

Slate, black 30 

Shells, {Berea), dark and poor, no oil or gas 52 



to 


25 




50 




100 




"5 




150 




165 




175 








215 




230 




240 




265 




290 




390 




400 




405 




420 




430 




445 




465 




47* 




500 




530 




550 




575 




600 




705 




755 




785 






800 




830 




z 




890 




1000 




1050 
1080 




1117 




1 147 




1267 




1297 




1357 




1457 




1472 




1487 




1505 



''Big Injnn" sand 



1710 



1993 
2023 

2075 



394 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

The top of the Allegheny series would come at about 1000 
feet in this well, and extend down about 250 feet. No coal what- 
ever is reported from any of the wells drilled in the oil fields of 
Wood county, but in a well bored at Parkersburg by the Camden 
Oil Refinery a bed of coal, seven feet thick is recorded at a depth 
of 1096 feet. This would probably be a representative of either 
the Middle or Lower Kittanning seam. It is possible that some 
portion of the seven feet was bituminous shale, since the oil well 
drillers do not, as a rule, distinguish between the two. 

In Wirt county some of the wells report four feet of coal in the 
Allegheny series. In Casio well No. 1 the record gives four feet of 
coal at 1156 feet, and 555 feet above the top of the Big Injun oil 
sand. This is most probably one of the Kittanning beds, and the 
same as that reported in the Camden boring at Parkersburg. 

The Roberts well No. 1, near Burning Springs, Wirt county, 
does not report any coal in the Allegheny series, and gives the fol- 
lowing record through it : 

ROBERTS WELL NO. i, NEAR BURNING SPRINGS, 

WIRT COUNTY. 

Ft 

Upper Freeport coaly absent 

Gray and blue shales 57 

Sand 31 

Shale 33 

Sand, gray, shelly, '*Gas'* sand, Lower Freeport 55 

Shale, gray, tx) /*(?//^z/?7/^ 79 

Total „ 255 

The base of the Allegheny beds comes here, 475 feet above the 
top of the "Big Injun' ' oil sand, and hence the coal reported in 
the Casto well would come just under the Lower Freeport or 
''Gas'* sand of the drillers, and be one of the Kittanning beds. 

A coal is also reported in the Allegheny series under Calhoun 
county at about 600 feet above the Big Injun oil sand and it is 
probably the same as the one found in Wirt county. 

The Cornell well, drilled by Messrs. Courtney and McDer- 
mott in Calhoun county had eight feet of coal reported at a depth 
of 1300 feet and 590 feet above the Big Injun oil sand. In order 
to show the character of the strata in the Allegheny series of Cal- 
houn as well as the geological horizon of the deep coal found there 
we shall give the complete record of a well in the Yellow creek oil 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



395 



field drilled on the Jackson farm by Hon. J. M. Guffey, of Pitts- 
burg, as follows : 

JACKSON WELL NO. i, ON YELLOW CREEK. CALHOUN 

COUNTY. ONE-HALF MILE N. E. OF METZ WELLS. 

Feet. 

Unrecorded o to 45 

Sand 15 ** 60 

Red rock 15 ** 75 

Lime 15 ** 90 

Slate 15 " 105 

Lime 10 '* 115 

Red rock 20 *' 135 

Slate 85 •• 220 

Red rock iii ** 331 

Shell 5 *• 336 

Red rock 20 ** 356 

Slate 10 •• 366 

Sand, white « 15 ** 381 

Red rock 71 ** 452 

8and, white 23 " 475 

Slate. 10 ** 485 

Lime 20 ** 505 

Red rock To " 515 

Sand, white 45 ** S^o 

Lime 10 ** 570 

Red rock 122 ** 692 

Slate 53 *' 745 

Sand 40 '* 785 

Slate 30 ** 815 

Sand 15 *• 830 

Slate 10 ** 840 

Sand 20 •♦ 860 

Broken lime 35 ** 895 

Sand 200 " 1095 

Black shale 40 ** 1135 

Sand 30 ** 1165 

White lime 10 ** 1175 

Black shale 34 ** 1209J 

Whitesand 26 ** 1235 

SlateandsheU 50 ** 1285 

Lime 20 ** 1305 

Sand 25 •' 1330 

Slate 30 ** 1360 

Lime 15 ** 1375 

Slate and shale 90 ** 1465 

Sand 25 " 1490 

Slate 10 *• 1500 

Sand 30 " 1530 J 

Lime 10 ** 1540 

Red rock 20 " 1560 

Slate 10 •* 1570 

Lime 20 ** 1590 

Sand 30 ** 1620 

Little lime 25 *' 1645 

Slate 10 *• 1655 

"BigLime" 70 '* 1725 



Allegheny aeries 
314 feet 



Pottsville series 
321 feet 



Mauch Chunk 
series 125 feet 



396 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

*'Big Injun'' 45 ** 1770 

White slate 40 ** 1810 

Slate and shell 270 ** 2080 

Black shale 26 ** 2106 

Bereasand 12 ** 2118 

Slate, black 5 ** 2123 

Slate and shell 246 ** 2369 

Slate and shell to bottom 2442 

As will be perceived, no coal whatever is recorded frpm this 
well, but it is possible that the black shale struck at 1095 feet 
may hold the coal reported in the Cornell well by Courtney and 
McDermott, since the bottom of this stratum (1136) comee 590 
feet above the top of the Big Injun Oil sand, or exactly the same 
as the top of the eight foot coal in the Cornell farm well, so that 
there may be unnoted by the drillers, a coal bed of good thickness 
masked in the forty feet of black shale in question. 

In the W. L. Camden well No. 1, drilled by the South Penn 
Oil Company in Sherman District, Calhoun county, the following 
succession is reported for the Allegheny and Pottsville series : 

W. L. CAMDEN WELL NO. I. SHERMAN DISTRICT, 
CALHOUN COUNTY. 

Ft. 

Sandstone 172 

Slate 20 

Sand 95 

Black shale 164 

Sand 40 

Black slate 20 

Sand, hard 26 

Slate and shell 155 

Sand, white, base of Pottsville 51 

Black slate 10 

Red shale 8 

8hale 2 

''Big Lime'' 118 

Big Injun oil sand 

ToUl 881 

The heavy sandstone at the top of this section was struck at a 
depth of 927 feet, and is evidently the same one as that at the top 
of the Allegheny series in the Jackson well, since the top of the 
latter lies 830 feet above the *'Big Injun" Oil sand, and the top of 
the sandstone of the Camden well comes 881 feet above the same 
datum. It is possible that the upper half of this imriiense thick- 
ness of sandstone may belong in the Conemaugh series, the driller 
not observing any slate division between. 



6i5 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 397 

In the region of Stumptown, Gilmer county, the Stumptown 
Oil and Gas Company has drilled several wells for gas, and found 
a coal bed of fair thickness in the Allegheny series at a depth of 
over 1100 feet below the level of Steer creek. This is in the region 
where the great eastward expansion of the Allegheny-Kanawha 
series has begun, and the following record of the Gas Company's 
well No. 4, received from Mr. John T. Harris, of Parkersburg, 
Secretary of the Stumptown Company, shows this succession : 

NBAR STUMPTOWN, GILMER COUNTY. 

Ft Ft 

Unrecorded 140' 

Red rocky lime and sheUs 185 

Coal, Bakerstown 4 615 

Red rock, lime and shells 166 

First Cow Run sand (Mahoning) base of Cone- 
maugh series 120^ 

Upper Freeport coaf, absent 

Limestone, shells and slate 95' 

Sand 18 

Limestone and slate 67 

Sand, Lower Freeport 113 

Limestone, shells and slate 287 

Coal 9 

Limestone, to top of Pottsville (gas) 26^ 

This well starts about 100 feet below the horizon of the Pitts- 
burg coal and hence the thick sand struck at 495 feet is the basal 
member of the Conemaugh series, and the coal in question comee 
580 feet lower. It is barely possible that this coal is in the Potts- 
ville series, since in a deep well drilled near Stumptown the top of 
the Big Injun sand was reported at a depth of only 4(X) feet below 
five feet of coal struck at a depth of 1145 feet, which must be the 
same as the one showing nine feet in the record just given. 

About two miles southwest of Stumptown, Gilmer coimty, the 
Rush well No. 1 got two beds of coal ninety feet apart, the upper 
one seven feet at 953 feet below the surface, and the lower 
one six feet at 1060 feet, the top of the **Big Injun" Oil sand 
being reported at 1550 feet. These beds would both belong in the 
Allegheny-Kanawha series, since the lowest red bed of the Cone- 
maugh series is only 370 feet above the top of the upper one. 

Near Spencer, Roane county, the record of No. 1 well on the 
Asylum farm was kept with much care. It begins near the base 
of the Dunkard series, and was drilled through the entire Carbon- 
iferous system. The only coal reported by the drillers was some 
coal and slate ten feet thick at 1224 feet, and 227 feet below the 



398 THE ALLEGHENY 8EBIEB. 

base of the Conemaugh series. Hence it would be in the Alle- 
gheny beds and probably at the horizon of the Lower Kittanning 
coal. 

In the southern edge of Roane county, Greary district, Mr. 
Grosscup, of Charleston, drilled a gas well on the W. A. Geary 
farm, in which five feet of coal is reported at a depth of 347 feet, 
and 1132 feet above the top of the Big Injun Oil sand. This is in 
the region of the thickened Allegheny-Kanawha series, and would 
probably be about the horizon of the Upper Freeport coal, since 
the lowest red beds crop only 100 feet above the level of the boring. 

The Elk River Oil and Gas Company drilled a well on the P. 
A. Tallman farm near the line between Clay and Roane counties, 
and the President of the Company, Mr. E. M. Hukill, of Pitts- 
burg, reports the finding of two coal beds, one ten feet thick at 440 
feet, and the other six feet thick at 525 feet, while the '*Big In- 
jun" Oil sand was struck at 1670. These two coals belong at the 
top of the Allegheny-Kanawha series, and probably represent the 
Upper and Lower Freeport beds, or what is the same, the Stock- 
ton and Coalburg coals of the Kanawha valley. The bottom of 
the Potts ville series was struck at 1400 feet, 870 feet below the 
lower of the two coal beds. 

The Carter Oil Company drilled a deep well near the line be- 
tween Roane and Calhoun counties, four miles southeast of Trip- 
lett Post Office, the record of which was kept with much detail and 
kindly given the Survey by Mr. W. H. Aspinwall, of the Carter 
Oil Company. The well begins in the base of the Dunkard series 
and passes through the Carboniferous system into the Devonian. 
Its record reads as follows : 

WELL NO. I, ON S. CONLEY FARM, NEAR ROANE- 
CALHOUN LINE. FOUR MILES SOUTHEAST 
OF TRIPLETT. 

Feet 

Unrecorded 55 to 55 

Sand 15 •* 70 

Red rock 10 " 80 

Sandstone 20 ** 100 

Slate 50 " 150 

Lime 25 *• 175 

Slate 25 '* 200 

Sand 25 *' 225 

Red rock 15 ** 240 

Lime 20 ** 260 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Sandstone lo 

Slate 30 

Lime 35 

Lime 15 

Slate 30 

Shell.., ... 4 

Coal 4 

Lime » 12 

Slate 55 

Lime 15 

Slate 10 

Red rock 15 

Lime 5 

"Big Red»* cave 80 

Lime 20 

Slate 100 

Red rock 10 

Slate 40 

Lime 25 



8and. 

Lime 

Slate 

Lime 

First Cow Run sand (Mahoning).. 



8 

7 

60 
29 
59 



270 
300 
335 
350 
380 
384 
388 
400 

455 
470 
480 

495 
500 
580 
600 
700 
710 
750 
775 
783 
790 
850 
879 
938 



upper Freepori coal 2 ** 940 

Sand 20 ** 960 

Slateandlime 52 ** 1012 

Sand 10 **.io22 

Lime 18 •* 1040 

Slate 20 '* 1060 

Lower V'^^^^^'' 75 ** "35 

^^P^Usand 60 ** 1200 

Slate 55 •' 1255 

Sand 45 *' 1300 

Black slate (cave) .40 " 1340 

Sand 50 ** 1390 

Slate 80 " 1470 

Lime 30 ** 1500 

Slate 45 " 1545 

Lime.** 35 ** 1580 

Slate 10 '* 1590 

Salt sand, water ( 1620 feet) 135 ** 1725^ 

Unrecorded .- 53 ** 1778 

Maxton^nd 9 •* 1787 

Slate „ 13 " 1800 

Little Lime 15 '* 1815 

Slate 5 ** 1820 

Sandstone, hard. 10 " 1830 

"Pencil cave*' 5 "1835 

'^Big Lime^'„., 61 ** 1896 

Big Injiiti sand ..104 ** 2000 

Small gas at 1936 feel. 

Slate 30 ** 2030 

Lime 24 '* 2054 

Slate 71 " 2115 

Sand 10 ** 2135 

Slate 50 " 2185 



Allegheny-Kanaw- 
ha series 402 feet. 



Pottsville series 
375 feet. 



400 THE ALLBQHENT 8ERIBB. 

Lime 15 " 2200 

SUte 160 ** 2360 

Limy sand (^^r(f a) 10 " 2370 

Slate 50 ** 2420 

Shells 50-55 ** 2475 

Slate 53 •• 2528 

Sand, limy, **8tray", gas show 7 ** 2535 

Slate 15 " 2550 

Gordon sand (shell) ^ 3 ** 2353 

Slate to bottom 51 " 2604 

The coal at 384 feet may possibly be the Pittsburg bed, al- 
though its interval (SSO') above the base of the Conemaugh series 
is hardly large enough for that seam. 

A deep well was drilled for oil in the Great Kanawha valley 
about five miles below Charleston, which begins about 300 feet 
under the Pittsburg coal. Its record as given by J. W. Penhale 
is as follows : 

NEAR LOCK NO. 6. 

Ft 

Conductor 45 

Sandstone to base of Conemaugh series 405 

Coal, Stockton, Upper FreepoH 5 

Sandstone 35 

Slate and shale 220 

Sandstone 10 

Slate and shale 40 

Sandstone 50 

Shale 10 

Lime 35 

Sandstone 45 

Coal 3 

Sandstone 7 

Shale to top of /b//5z/i7^ 35 

Sandstone, PottsvilU, to top of Greenbrier 
limestone 480 

The coal at the top of the Allegheny-Kanawha series is near 
the horizon of the Upper Freeport coal, since the Pittsburg bed 
crops at about 300 feet above where the boring begins, and this 
would give an interval of 750 feet between it and the Stockton coal 
as against 800 feet between the Pittsburg coal and the Stockton 
bed at Charleston. 

The coal near the base of the Allegheny-Kanawha series in 
the record may be either the Eagle or Campbells creek bed, most 
probably the former. 

About one mile below Winfield, Putnam county, a boring was 
once made for oil on the left bank of the Great Kanawha river, 



Allegheny-Kanaw- 
ha series 495 feeL 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



401 



Conemangh series 
609 feet 



twenty miles north from the locality of the last boring. It begins 
near the horizon of the Pittsburg coal, and the record reads as 
follows, according to Mr. M. R. Campbell, in the Huntington 
Folio, U. S. G. Survey, page 3 : 

BORING NEAR WINFIELD, PUTNAM COUNTY. 

Feet 

Shale 20 

Sandstone 7 

Limestone 5 

Slate 87 

Sandstone • 25 

Shale 5 

Red shale 10 

Shale 5 

Red rock 25 

Sandstone 15 

Red rock 15 

Sandstone 10 

Slate 85 

Sandstone 10 

Slate 37 

Sandstone 40 

Slate : 43 

Sandstone 35 

Slate , 25 

Sandstone 10 

Slate 25 

Sandstone, Lower Mahoning 70 

Coal (Upper Freeport) and slate 20 

Sandstone 108 

Slate 52 

Sandstone 20 

Slate 37 

Sandstone 21 

Slate 15 

Sandstone 19 

**Shells'» 13 

Sandstone 45 

Slate 10 

Sandstone 20 

Slate 15 

ri?a/ (Eagle?) and slate 25 

Sandstone 45 

Slate 45 

Sandstone 15 

Slate 20 

Sandstone 255 

Dark sandstone 20 

IJm^sXon^^ Mauch Chunk 15 

Sandstone 5 

Limestoney Greenbrier 175 

Slate 25 

Sandstone, "Big Injun" oil sand 25 

This record shows the gradual thinning of the Allegheny-Kan- 
awha and Pottsville series northward from Charleston after the 



Allegheny-Kanaw- 
ha series 420 feet 



Pottsville series 
400 feet 



402 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

members of the same have all passed below water level. The ooai 
beds at the top, aiid niear the base of the series were not separated 
by the driller from the enclosing shales, and henoe the coal report- 
ed may not be of commercial thickness. These two beds are evi- 
dently the same as the two in the boring five miles bdow Charlee- 
ton, given above. It will be observed that in the Lock No. 6 well 
the Allegheny-Kanawha series has a thickness of 495 feet as 
against 420 in the Winfield boring, while the pottsvillb thins 
from 480 feet at Lock 6, to 400 at Winfield, and thus each series 
decreases northward at about the same rate, and maintaining prac- 
tically equal thicknesses, just as the Allegheny and PottsviUe do 
everywhere in western Pennsylvania and in the northern portion 
of West Virginia. 

In a boring at Charleston, five miles south from the Lock 
No. 6 well, the Allegheny-Kanawha series has thickened to 516 
feet, and the PottsviUe to 580 feet. 

Passing northward to the Ohio valley and five milee below 
the mouth of the Great Kanawha, the C. T. Beale well in Mason 
county, opposite Gallipolis, gives the following intervals between 
the Pittsburg coal and the base of the PottsviUe series. 

C. T. BEALE WELL NO. i, MABON COUNTY, OPPO- 
SITE, GALLIPOLIS, OHIO. 

Feet. 

Pittsburg coat 

Interval to derrick floor 150 

Quick sand and gravel 58 

Red rock 72 

Sand, white 7 

Slate and red rock 113 

Sand and slate 10 

Limestone 5 

Slate 7 

Coat 2 

SUte 18 

Sand 10 

Hlate and very soft red rock 50 

Sand, gray 5 

Slate 25 

Sand, white (Mahoning) base of Cone- 

maugh series 67 

Slate 63 

Coat 7 

Hand, white, saltwater 213 

Slate 30 U28 feet 

Sand, salt water, PottsviUe 170 

Slate to top of the Greenbrier time- I PottSTille series 

stone 45 J 



Conemaugh series 
597 feet. 



Allegheny series 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL BRUVBY. 403 

Here the' Allegheny and Potteville series thin from 820 feet at 
Winfield to only 528 feet in the Ohio valley, thirty miles distant, 
and again attain their normal proportions, while the Conemaugh 
series above, retains its average thickness of nearly 600 feet. The 
coal bed at sixty-three feet below the top of the Allegheny series 
is probably a representative of the Lower Freeport bed. 

At Huntington, Cabell county, one boring reports three good 
beds of coal within an interval of ninety three feet, beginning at a 
depth of 475 feet at the C. & 0. R. R. round-house, while a few 
miles below, the Central City deep well passed entirely through 
the Allegheny and Pottsville series without recording any coal 
whatever, except about two feet somewhere in the Pottsville ser- 
ies. The Allegheny and Pottsville beds have a combined thick- 
ness of 605 feet in the Central City well, probably about equally 
divided between the two series. The record of the well at the C. 
& Oi R. R. round-house is probably not reliable. 

No one should take it for granted that the Allegheny series 
holds valuable coals anywhere within the large area where its beds 
lie deeply buried from view, without first making thorough tests 
with the core or diamond drill, since the records of oil and gas 
wells, so far as thickness and quality of the coal are concerned, 
cannot be depended upon. 

Having now reviewed the general structure of the Allegheny 
series in the several regions of the state, we shall take up the in- 
dividual coal beds and consider them in detail, beginning with the 
highest one. 

THE UPPER FREEPORT COAL. 

At the top of the Allegheny series, and marking it off from 
the Conemaugh rocks above, there occurs a very important coal 
bed. The First Geological Survey of Pennsylvania long ago named 
it from the town of Freeport on the Allegheny river, where the 
coal in question crops half way up the hills, and has the structure 
shown by the section given on pages 342-3. As may be noted in 
the section at its type locality, the Upper Freeport coal is a com- 
posite or multiple bed, and this peculiarity characterizes it every- 
where in the state. 

Next to the great Pittsburg bed, at the other limit of the Con- 
emaugh series, the Upper Freeport coal is probably of more impor- 
tance than any other single bed of coal in the entire Appalachian 



404 THE ALLEGHENY 8ERIEB. 

basin. Unlike the Pittsburg, it does not thin down and vanish to 
the southwest, but appears to extend entirely across the state, at 
least along the belt of its eastern crop, and is quite as important in 
southern Mingo county at the Kentucky line as in eastern Monon- 
galia and Preston at the Pennsylvania border. 

Like the Pittsburg bed, however, it thins away whentollowed 
westward from the belt of its thick development, and disappears 
or becomes unimportant under a large area of the state where its 
horizon underlies the surface. Along many of the principal streams, 
like the Buckhannon, Little Kanawha, Elk, Great Kanawha, 6ay- 
andot. Twelve Pole, and Tug rivers this westward thinning may 
be observed, just like that of the underlying New River beds, be- 
fore the coal bed in question dips under the grade of the streams, 
thus confirming the results of oil and gas well drilling as to its 
general absence over such a wide area of the state deep down in the 
central sweep of the Appalachian basin. 

When this coal horizon comes up to daylight again on the 
western side of the Appalachian trough near Kenova on the south- 
west, and New Cumberland on the northeast, it is either missing 
entirely as at New Cumberland, (unless, indeed, the **Roger" vein 
of the Ohio valley may prove to be this bed) or is thin, slaty and 
worthless as at the Big Sandy river near Kenova. Hence, it fol- 
lows, that aside from the limited area of this coal in the Potomac 
basin of Mineral, (irant, and Tucker counties, its principal area in 
valuable thickness and quality will be found in a belt ten to thirty 
miles in width, extending across the state through Monongalia, 
Preston, Taylor, Barbour, R;mdolph, Upshur, Webster, Braxton, 
Clay, Nicholas, Fayette, Kanjiwha, Boone, Lincoln, Wyoming, 
Logan, and Mingo counties. 

Westward from this belt of thick coal, the presence of this bed 
is so uncertain that nothing but extensive exploration with the 
diamond or other form of core drill can be relied upon to locate any 
areas of the coal where it may possess valuable thickness and 
quality. 

The character of this coal changes gradually in its passage 
across the state from a soft, typical, coking coal with columnar 
structure in Monongalia, Preston, Taylor, Barbour and Randolph, 
to a harder or ^^splinty'' type, which beginning in southern Up- 
shur and Webster, continues a feature of the coal on southwest- 



WEST VIROINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 405 

ward to the Kentucky line, although usually a portion of the bed 
will contain some layers of soft coal. 

Another peculiarity of this coal worthy of note, is its tendency 
to cannel, especially in the southwestern end of the state, since 
nearly all of the cannel deposits of Fayette, Kanawha, and Wayne 
counties appear to come at this horizon. An impure, slaty cannel 
is also often present, in the roof of this coal, in the northern end 
of the state. 

This coal bed enters Monongalia county from Fayette county, 
Pennsylvania, along the steep northwest slope of the great Chest- 
nut Ridge anticlinal, and has been mined at several localities for 
domestic use near the foot of the mountain, between the Pennsyl- 
vania line and Cheat river. It rises above this latter stream on a 
steep northwestern dip just above Ice's Ferry, and was long ago 
mined there for use at the old Green Spring Furnace. This was 
probably the first coal to be made into coke for the manufacture 
of iron anywhere within the state, it having been burned for that 
purpose fifty to sixty years ago in heaps covered with earth, after 
the manner of charcoal manufacture, and used along with charcoal 
in the old Green Spring Furnace, which stood on the right bank of 
Cheat river, near Ice's Ferry. 

The coal rises rapidly to the southeast from Ice's Ferry, and 
comes up to the level of the Bruceton pike just opposite Mt. Cha- 
teau Hotel, where it has been mined for local use and exhibits the 
following section: 

Ft In. Ft In. 

Sandstone, massive 

Shales, sandy, gray lo o 

r coal, bony i 8 " 

coal 2 8 

•little'* slate, gray o 2 

coal I 2 



Coal 



5 8 



Under the bottom portion here, there should be another ply of 
coal, just below what is termed the *^big slate," the thin one, 
shown above, being termed the ^'little" slate in mining parlance, 
but its horizon is concealed at this level, and it is not known 
whether the lower division of the coal is present or otherwise. 

This bed soon passes into the air southeastward over the great 
Chestnut Ridge anticlinal, and does not come down again in that 
direction till we come to Pisgah, Preston county, where it catobee 



406 



THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 



the highest knobs, just east from the village, dipping rapidly down 
into what corresponds to the Ligonier basin of Pennsylvania, and 
which has its main axis along the waters of Sandy creek, in Pres- 
ton county. 

About one-half mile east from Pisgah, the Upper Freeport 
coal is mined on the land of Mr. D. A. Ryan, where it exhibits 
the following structure: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Gray shale 

Cannel, impure o 2 

Coal, fair i 6 

Coal, bony i o 

Coal 2 II 

**Uttle'* slate o 2 

Coal, good I o 

"Big" slate 



6 9 



Another ply of coal belongs under the *^big" slate, but it was 
not seen at this opening. 

The coal shows practically the same section at J. T. Gribble's 
bank, two miles south from Pisgah, and at P. J. Rogers' opening, 
one mile southeast of Gribble's, it has the following section: 



Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sandstone, massive, I/Ower Mahoning 40 o 

Gray, sandy shales 8 o 

fbonycoal o 4 

coal I 6 

bonycoal i o 

coal 3 o 

slate, 'nittle" o i 

coal I o 



Coal... 



6 II 



The upper portion of the coal, above the three-foot bench, 
is seldom taken down, since it is bony and slaty. The bed will 
average about four feet of clean, soft coal, excellent for both coke 
and steam purposes. The same coal is mined by 0. Walls and 
Brother, and also by Lockard Birtcher in the bluff of Sandy creek, 
near the center of the syncline, 600 feet above water level, and 
550 feet above the base of the Pottsville series, since the bright 
RED SHALES of the Mauch Chunk crop fifty feet above Sandy creek 
and almost vertically below the Birtcher mine, where the Upper 
Freeport bed exhibits the following structure: 



6 8 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 407 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

8andy shales 8 o 

Bony coal o 4 

Coal I 3 

Bony coal I o 

Coal 2 II 

"Uttle" slate o 2 

Coal 10, 

Many farmers have openings on the coal in this basin, north 
from Cheat river, and there is not much variation from the type 
given above. The two and one-half to three feet of coal in the 
roof of the mine contains some good coal, but if it is all rejected 
there will remain about four feet of pure fuel. If the roof coal 
could be crushed and washed, not less than two feet of good fuel 
could be obtained from it. 

At Bruceton, this coal has long been mined for village use, 
and appears to be thinner than elsewhere in the basin, since it 
gives the following section in Mr. William Miller's bank: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Blatycoal i o 

Coal I 10 

Slate, gray o 2 

Coal I 3 



4 3 



This is just east from the center of the trough, since the coal 
dips to the northwest. 

The coal continues rising to the southeast and arches into the 
air again over the crest of Laurel Hill anticlinal, the eastern boun- 
dary of the Ligonier basin of Pennsylvania. This coal comes 
down again, however, and has a good development in the Muddy 
creek basin of Preston county, or the Wilmore basin of Pennsyl- 
vania, which lies along the eastern slope of Laurel Hill, and cross- 
es Cheat river just below Albright, where it carries the Upper 
Freeport coal below the level of Cheat river, and is deep enough 
to catch a small area of the Pittsburg coal in Copemans Knob, be- 
tween Albright and Kingwood. 

In this Muddy creek basin the Upper Freeport coal bed has 
practically the same structure as in the Pisgah region, so that the 
portion of Preston county north from Cheat river, holds two valu- 
able basins of this coking coal, while Monongalia county holds 
another just west from the Chestnut ridge arch. This last area 
lies between Chestnut ridge and the Monongahela river, being 
practically the southwestward extension of the Connellsville syn- 
cline. 



408 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

These three troughs or synclines, viz: the Connellsville, 
Ligonier,and Muddy creek, extend completely across both Preston 
and Monongalia counties, and appear to hold good coal through- 
out their entire extent, although in the westernmost one (Connells- 
ville) the Upper Freeport coal gets thinner in southern Mononga- 
lia than it is farther north. 

The next eastern one, (Muddy creek), which corresponds to 
the Wilmore basin of Pennsylvania, as already stated, crosses 
Cheat river just below Albright, and its central line, cutting across 
Copemans knob, passes east of Kingwood, half way between that 
town and Cheat river, and, crossing the B. <t 0. R. R. near An- 
derson, goes on southwestward through Preston into Barbour and 
Randolph. 

The Upper Freeport coal has not been mined for shipment in 
a commercial way from the northern end of this basin, except at 
Tunnelton, and between Tunnelton and Kingwood. There it has 
the same structure (see section page 349) as in the Ligonier or 
Sandy creek basin, north from Cheat river, except that the lowest 
ply of coal is present or exposed under the **big" slate, the latter 
being only eighteen to thirty inches thick. 

Near Howesville, Preston county, the Kingwood Coal Com- 
pany operates a mine on the West Virginia and Northern railroad, 
the output being shipped east for general steam and fuel purposes. 
A. P. Brady reports the following section at this mine: 

HOWKSVILLB MINE. 

Ft. In. Ft In. 

Bone coal o 4 

Coal 2 3 

**Little" slate o 2 

Coal o 6 

Solphur streak o o»^ 

Coal I 2 

•*Bie" slate o 10 

Coal, not mined i 6 

Butts run S. 73° E. Face S. 17° W. 

The coal below the **big'' slate is not taken out, and was not 
included in the sample taken for analysis, for which Prof. Hite re- 
ports the following composition: 

Moisture 0.57 

Volatile matter 30. 52 

Fixed carbon 54*91 



6 9}i 



WEST VTRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 409 



Sulphur 3-45 

Phosphorus » 008 

B. T. U. Wil. Cal 13.031 

The Irona Coal Company also mines this bed along the West 
Virginia & Northern railroad, between Tunnelton and Kingwood, 
and Mr. Brady reports the following structure at the 

IRONA MINB. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Slate 10 o 

Bone coal i 3 

Coal 2 8 

**Little'* slate 01 j- 7 11 

Coal I 5 

**Big" slate i o 

Coal I 6 

ANALYSIS. 

Moisture 0.65 

Volatile matter 28. 46 

Fixed carbon 62. 54 

Ash a 35 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur X.47 

Phosphorus a 026 

Butts run S. 62° E. Face, S. 28° W. Greatest rise, N. 70® 
W. 

The Merchants Coal Company, of Baltimore, has extensive 
mines on this coal at tlie eastern end of Kingwood tunnel, Tun- 
nelton, Preston county, just east from the crest of the Laurel Hill 
anticlinal, and there A. P. Brady made the following measure- 
ments: 

MERCHANTS COAL COMPANY'S TUNNELTON MINES. 

North Side Mine. South Side Mine. 
Ft In. Ft. In. 

Bone coal o lo o ii 

Coal 27 34 

Slate, **little»» 02 02 

Coal 19 16 

Slate, **big*' x 3 not measured 

Coal I 



I 



Totals 8 



410 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

Butte run S. 73** E. Face S. 17** W. Elevation A. T., 

1872. 

ANALYSES 

North Side Mine. South Side Mine. 

Moisture 0.62 0.72 

Volatile matter 31.00 28.75 

Fixed carbon 57.66 63.84 

Ash 10.72 6.69 

Totals 100.00 100.00 

Sulphur 3.41 1. 31 

Phosphorus 0.009 0.025 

B. T. U. (Wil. Cal.) 13,846 14,807 

These mines supply the B. &. O. R. R. locomotives with fuel. 
The above analyses probably show too much sulphur for the aver- 
age coal at the North Side mine, and too little at the South Side 
mine. 

The coal, as may be seen from the calorific detenninations, 
gives very efficient resulte as a steam fuel, although, owing to the 
large sulphur con ten te, there is a tendency to **clinker," which 
the firemen do not like. The ^*bottom" division of the coal is not 
mined, and was not sampled for analysis. 

Just west from Kingwood Tunnel, the Gorman Coal and Coke 
Company operates two mines on the Upper Freeport coal, where 
A. P. Brady made the following measuremente: 

GORMAN COAIy AND COKE COMPANY'S MINES. 

No. I Mine. No. 2 Mine. . 

Ft. In. Ft In. 

Bone coal o 8 08 

Coal 28 2 II 

Slate, •kittle" « o 2 02 

Coal 17 19 

Slate, "big* i 6 not measured. 

Coal I 6 

Totals 81 56 

Butts run S. 73° E. Face S. 17° W. Altitude No. 2, 1662 
A. T. Greatest rise, N. 65° E. 

ANALYSES. 

No. I Mine. No. 2 Mine. 

Moisture 0.83 0.91 

Volatile matter 28.26 29.15 



8 I 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 41 1 

Fixed carbon 62.42 58.76 

Ash , 8.49 II. 18 

Totals 100. 00 100. 00 

Sulphur I. II 2.81 

Phosphorus 0.032 a 003 

B. T. U. Wil Cal 13,515 

Just west from these last mines, we come to those of the Aus- 
ten Coal & Coke Company, where this coal has been mined and 
coked for probably forty years, and there A. P. Brady made the 
following measurement: 

AUSTEN COAL & COKE COMPANY'S MINES. 

Ft In. PL In. 

Bone coal o 8 

Coal 2 8 

Slate, "little" o 2 

Coal I 7 

Slate, "big'* i 6 

Coal I 6 

Butts run S. 78° E. Face S. 17° W. Elevation 1535 A. T. 
Greatest rise S. E. 

ANALYSES. Coal. Coke. 

Moisture 0.72 0.18 

Volatile matter 28.67 i- 30 

Fixed carbon 63.78 86.33 

Ash 6. 83 12. 19 

Totals 100.00 100.00 

Sulphur 0.94 0.86 

Phosphorus 0.048 ao67 

B. T. U. Wil. Cal , 14,403 

The bottom ply of coal is not mined, and was not sampled 
for analysis. 

This same coal is mined west from Austen by the Orr Coal <fe 
Coke Company, and also by the Hite Coal & Coke Company, at 
their ** Vulcan" and^^Dixie" mines respectively, but the measure- 
ments of the coal, reported by Mr. Brady, are practically the same 
as those given for Austen. Prof. Hite reports the analyses of the 
coal in each as follows : 

ANALYSES, Dixie Mine. Vulcan Mine. 

Moisture 0.69 0.73 

Volatile matter 30.01 30.02 

Fixed carbon 57- 72 61. 23 

Ash 11.58 8.02 

Totals 100.00 100.00 

Sulphur 3. 04 2. 41 

Phosphorus 0.069 0.03 



412 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

At the Newburg shaft, two miles west from the Vulcan and 
Dixie mines, the Upper Freeport coal has dipped 150 feet below 
water level, or from 1360 feet above tide at the Vulcan mine to 
1038 feet above the same datum in the bottom of the deep eyn- 
cline, where even the Pittsburg coal is caught in the summits of 
the hills. The Newburg shaft was sunk through the Upper Free- 
port bed down to the Lower Kittanning coal, and the latter was 
the only one mined until a disastrous explosion of mine gas par- 
tially wrecked the mine, and led to the abandonment of operations 
on the Kittanning coal. 

In recent years, the Upper Freeport bed, which lies 170 feet 
down in the shaft, has been mined by the Newburg Coal &, Coke 
Company, and A. P. Brady reports the following measurement for 
the same: 

NEWBURG SHAFT MINE. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



"Draw" slate o 3 

Coal 2 4 

Slate, ''litUe" o i^ 

Coal I 5 

Slate, "big" i 6 

Coal o 10 



6 2% 



Butts run S. 76° E. Face S. 14° W. Greatest rise, south- 
west. Elevation 1038 A. T. 

Prof. Hite reports the following analysis for sample collected 
from the shaft: 

Moisture o. 64 

Volatile matter 30.42 

Fixed carbon 56. 72 

Ash 12. 22 



Total 100.00 

Sulphur 2.33 

Phosphorus 0.007 

B. T. U. Wil. Cal 13,516 

This is near the center of the deep syncline west from the 
Laurel Ridge anticlinal, and the rocks rise to the northwest, and 
also to the northeast, so that the coal comes to the surface on 
Three-Fork creek, and has long been mined in the region of the 
old Hardman Furnace. It was also manufactured into coke until 
that furnace went out of blast several years since. Recently the 
mines have been reopened by the Monarch Coal and Mining Com- 



7 9^ 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 413 

pany, one mile and a-quarter north from Hardman, and there A. 
P. Brady reports the following succession : 

VICTORIA MINE, NEAR HARDMAN, TAYLOR COUNTY. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Coal I 6 

Draw slate i 6 

Bone coal o 3 

Coal I 7 

Boneooal o 2 

Coal 2 5 

Slate, "little" o o^ 

Coal 04 

Prof. Hite gives the following analysis for the coal below the 

upper bone: 

Moisture a 81 

Volatile matter 2a 78 

Fixed carbon 61.46 

Ash 8.95 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur ^ 1.99 

Phosphorus o. 097 

There has been some discussion among the local mining fra- 
ternity as to the horizon of the coal at the Victoria mine, some even 
claiming it to be identical with the Lower Kittanning, but while 
the structure of the bed has changed slightly, there is no difficulty 
in recognizing the main features of the Upper Freeport seam. The 
**little'' slate is thinner than usual, as well as the ply of coal im- 
mediately under it, but the main body of the coal above the slate 
has the same thickness and quality as in the other mines farther 
east. True, a new layer of coal makes its appearance in the roof 
of the mine, but this is a common feature with the Upper Free- 
port bed. Then, too, there is only a slight rise of the strata from 
the Newburg shaft northwestward, and for the Lower Kittanning 
to get up to the surface on Three Fork, it must rise over 300 feet 
in less Uian three miles, an impossible proposition from the known 
rate of dip. 

In the region of Masontown, Preston county, near the center 
of this same coal basin, (Ligonier), Hon. S. B. Elkins has recently 
put down two test borings for coal. One of these, on the 
Sanford Watson farm, published on page 344 of this volume, and 
summarized, shows the Upper Freeport coal with the following 
structure: 



414 



THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 



FL In. Ft. In. 



lo 2}i 



Coal and bone mixed 2 4j(^ 

Coal 2 iiX 

Slate, **little'* ^ o 2^ 

Coal, **mining pljr" i i>i 

Slate, "big" i o 

fcoal I 5>i) 

Coal, bottom -^ slate o i^ >• 2 6^ 

(coal o ii>i j 

Here the **bottom" division of the coal has nearly doubled 
its usual thickness, but otherwise the coal has its typical structure 
for Preston county. The coal was struck in this boring at 176 feet 
below the surface. 

In another test boring made by Senator Elkins, on the Amos 
Ashbum farm, about three-fourths of a mile distant from the Wat- 
son, this coal was struck at a depth of 181 feet, and exhibits the 
following structure: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft In. 

' coal, sulph. o 2^ ' 

bone o 8 

black slate., o iJj4 

Coal, **top" coal, sulph.. o 8>^ 

bone o 3 

coal o 2>i 

[bone o o>^ ^ 

Coal, **main bench" 2 

Slate, •♦little" o 

{coal I 2}4) 
slate o oyi f I 7 
coal o 4 J 

Slate, "big" o 11 

{coal, sulph.. I 4>^ "I 
slate 02 > 2 syi 
coal on ) 

Fireclay 5 o 

Limestone, in several layers, separated by fireclay 

shales 20 o 



• 3 o}4 



3 
2^ 



10 SH 



Here, although the bed shows a thickness of nearly eleven 
feet, it holds only four feet of available coal, unless the **big" 
slate should be taken up and the * 'bottom'' coal mined. It would 
be a great loss of fuel to leave so much coal in the ground as a 
waste product, but under present mining conditions no other re- 
sult may be feasible. It is possible that in the far off future both 
the ''top" and '^bottom*' members of the coal may be crushed 
and washed, and thus three to four feet more of valuable fuel re- 
covered from this bed. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 415 

The Upper Freeport coal rises above water level on Deckers 
creek, one-half mile northwest from Masontown, and has been 
mined for village supply at the Scott bank, where it exhibits the 
following structure: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Gray shales 5 o 

Slaty and bony coal 2 2 

Coal, good, main bench 2 9 

Slate, ••little'» o 2 

Coal, "mining ply" i 4 

Blate, **big*» o 9 

Coal, **bottom,'* visible « 2 2 



9 4 



The bottom division of the coal is not fully exposed, and it 
holds two inches of bony slate near ihe center. The *^big'' slate, 
which is really an impure fireclay, varies from six to twelve inches 
in thickness, and is occasionally taken up in this mine to secure 
the underlying coal, which the farmers **report'' as the best in the 
mine. Its appearance, however, would not confirm the ''report," 
since it looks coarse in grain and rather high in ash. The ''min- 
ing" ply and the "main bench" above, however, are both very 
pure, bright, and clean-looking, of the typical coking fades. 

At the "Falls" tract opening, near this, the coal has practi- 
cally the same structure as at the Scott mine, and the Lower Ma- 
honing sandstone makes a massive cliff only five feet above the 
coal. 

This coal has been mined at many localities on either side of 
the basin, just north from Masontown, and also near the center of 
the same where Bull run cuts down to it on its course to Cheat 
river. The central line of the basin appears to pass between Nich- 
olas Posten's opening and that of Henry Eddy, one mile and a 
half north from Masontown. The coal exhibits the following 
structure at the Posten mine: 

Ft In. Ft. In. 

"Top** coal, impnre, bony 2 9 

Coal, main bench 2 9 

"Little" slate o 2 

CoEd, "mining ply" i 6 

slate o 9 

''bottom*' visible 2 o 



'Big'* s 



9 II 



The coal shows practically the same section at Henry Eddy's 
bank, nearby. The upper half of the *'top'' coal appears to be 



416 



THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 



fairly pure, and it may furnish some good fuel, but the lower por- 
tion is interstratified with bony and slaty layers, so that probably 
all of the '*top'* coal will be lost in ordinary mine work. The 
*'main bench" and the * 'mining ply" are both excellent looking 
here, ss also the '^bottom" division. The *'big" slate is only six 
to twelve inches thick in this region, and hence, as the underlying 
coal is more than two feet thick, it may prove profitable to mine 
this bottom member. 

The central line of the Ligonier basin crosses Cheat river near 
the mouth of Bull run, where the Upper Freeport coal is about 
750-800 feet above the level of the water. It is mined by Forbes 
Blaney, Daniel Lyons, and several others in the hills which over- 
look Cheat river. 

About four miles southeast from the central line of the ligo- 
nier syncline, we come to the crest of the Laurel Hill antidinal, 
and find the Upper Freeport capping a knob at Cameron ESUott's 
bank, on the very crest of the arch, exhibiting the following 
structure: 

FL In. Ft In. 



Sandstone, massive, Lower Mahoning ao o 

•Top" coal 2 o ^ 

Coal, main bench 2 6 

•Xittle" slate o 2 

Coal, **mining ply'* i 3 

**Big" slate o 10 

Coal, two inches bone in center 2 7 



9 4 



Here the '^bottom'* division of the coal is taken out, and is 
fairly good, except two inches of bony slate near the center. 

On the Morgantown and Kingwood turnpike, this coal is 
mined by Davis Stutzel and William Miller, two and one-half to 
three miles east from Reedsville, where it exhibits practically the 
same section as those already given. West from the Miller and 
Stutzel mines, the coal dips rapidly to the northwest, and under- 
lies Reedsville, in the center of the syncline, by a depth of 200 
feet or more. The axis of the basis lies just west of Reedsville, 
and the coal soon begins to rise rapidly to the northwest. It un- 
derlies Deckers creek at the turnpike crossing, one mile west of 
Reedsville, by a depth of not less than 140 feet. One mile west 
from this, however, the coal gets up into the hills, and has been 



WEST VIRGINIA aBOLOGICAL 8RUVBY. 417 

mined along the Morgantown road on the lands of the Keck heirs, 
John Sharp, and others, where it has the same structure as that 
already given. 

Farther west the Chestnut Ridge anticlinal throws all of the 
Allegheny series into the air, and the Upper Freeport bed does not 
appear again till we come to Dalton's coal bank, in Monongalia 
county, six miles east from Morgantown, where it has long been 
mined for domestic supply, and has the same structure as in Pres- 
ton county, except that Uie **top'' and **bottom" coals are thin- 
ner. The **main bench" and **mining ply'' still measure about 
four feet, however, and their coal is very bright and good. 

Two large mining operations have recently been started on 
this bed along Deckers creek, on the Morgantown and Kingwood 
railroad, four miles southeast from Morgantown, by the West Vir- 
ginia Coal Company and the Deckers Creek Coal & Coke Company, 
respectively. The former has its mines on the north bank of the 
stream and the latter occupies the south bank of the same. 

The coal shows the following structure in the West Virginia 
Coal Company's mine: 

Ft In. FL In. 



13 o 



Gray shales 

Blade slate 2 4 

Impure cannel o 6 

Bonycoal o 8 

Coal, "main bench** 2 10 

"Little** slate, firra> o 2 

Coal, ''mining ply** i 2 

•*Big»* slate (fireclay) 4 o 

Coal, "bottom** i 4 

Fireclay and sandy beds 10 o 

Limestone and iron ore, Upper Fxteeport 8 o 

It requires but a glance at this structure to perceive the same 
type as that shown in Preston county. The main mass of the 
**top'' coal has changed to a black, cannelly slate, the bottom por- 
tion of which is genuine cannel with conchoidal fracture, while the 
^^big" slate at the bottom has thickened up to four feet at the 
main opening, and within fifty yards is seen to thicken to ten feet 
of fireclay and sandy beds. The **main bench'' and "mining ply" 
divisions remain constant, however, in both thickness and quality, 
separated by the **little" slate of the miners, a dark gray stratum 
one to two inches thick. The **main bench" varies from thirty- 
two to thirty-six inches, and the "mining ply" from twelve to 



418 



THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 



sixteen inches, so that the average available i 
feet. The bony coal at the top runs from 
thickness, and is taken down only in the main en| 

The coal is soft, bright, and quite pure, a tj 
and the West Virginia Coal Company is build 
ovens (50 of which are now in operation) for th^ 
coke. 

Both the coal and coke have been analyzed 
Steel Company of Baltimore, with the following 

COAL. 
Top. Middle. Mining ' 

Volatile matter 31-77 32. 95 34« 2*' 

rixed carbon 60.10 62.41 61.01 

Ash 8.13 4.64 3..S* 

Totals 100.00 100.00 100. r^ 

Sulphur 0.73 0.56 I. 

Phosphorus 0.316 aoi4 o. 

The Maryland Steel Company also analyze 
coke with the following results: 

I. II. I 

Volatile matter o. 96 i. 02 < ' 

Fixed carbon 85.45 86.49 ^7 

Ash 13.59 12.49 J' 

Totals 100.00 100.00 i<x 

Sulphur 0.67 0.76 < 

Phosphorus 0.321 0.246 o. 

I., II., III., samples analyzed by Marylaii 
IV. sample analyzed by E. S. Stalnaker, . 
West Virginia Geological Survey. 

Mr. Stalnaker also took a general sample 
the *^main bench'* and **niining ply," whicl 
lowing results: 

Moisture 

Volatile matter 

Fixed carbon 

Ash 

Total 

Sulphur 

Phosphorus 

B. T. U 



r vxHonnA gbologigal bubvet. 421 

^ bench'' has thinned to only eighteen inches, 
'" to only four, while the * 'bottom" division 
pletely. 

watch-box" the river veers west and the coal 

ind do^ not reappear imtil we come to two 

tt below Little Falls, where it emerges from 

I and has been mined on the land of Mr. 

T-t above low water, where it is about three 

j'arting. 

iltle Falls Station the coal has been mined 
'<*al use, and it exhibits a section like the 
h mile below the mouth of Joe's run, in 
>. railroad track. 

Ft. In. Ft In. 



wer Mahoning 20 o 

', o 6 

'M' 2 2 1 

o 2 }• 3 2 

v" O 10 J 

tone to railroad track. 20 o 



y coal and the * 'bottom" divisions 

lit the "main bench," the ''little" 

lain. The Upper Freeport lime- 

s separated by shales, beginning 

'-d and extending down to track 

uth of Joe's run, the coal dips 
11 under the Monongahela, and 
' Fairmont. 

the coal dips down into the 

) sixty feet below water level, 

is passed, three miles up the 

' soon brings the coal to the 

iiisler, where it has been mined 

. 1 continues to rise faster than the 

i^f, four miles above the mouth of 

^t above water level and is mined on 

ni, at whose bank the following succes- 



420 THE ALLEGHENY 8EBIEB. 

face, and exhibits the following section as determined by the test 
hole put down on the Gamble lot by Senator Elkins in 1901: 

Ft In. Ft. In. 



Bone coal o 2}i' 

Coal, "main bench'* 3 4^ 

Slate, •*little»» o 2>^ 

Coal, mining plj" i o 

Slate, "big" o 3 

Coal, "bottom" o 6^. 



5 7 



Here the ''main bench" has thickened slightly, and the 
''big" slate of the miners has nearly disappeared. 

The coal continues to dip to the northwest down into the cen- 
ter of the Connellsville basin, which crosses Decker's creek two 
miles below Rock Forge, half way between the latter point and 
Morgantown, where the coal would lie 250 feet below water level 
at the Hamer bottoms. From this point it rises gently westward 
to the crest of the Indiana anticline, which passes across the 
measures just west from Morgantown; but the coal does not get up 
to water level until we come to the Eureka Pipe Line Pumping 
Station, two miles south from the mouth of Deckers creek. Here 
the coal was formerly (60-70 years ago) mined by stripping from 
the bed of the Monongahela at low water, and is reported to be 
three feet thick. 

The coal keeps about level with the bed of the river up to the 
mouth of Booths creek, at Uffington, and there, on the east bank 
of the Monongahela, it rises above water level and has been mined 
by drifting, just under the B. & 0. R. R. bridge, and only four or 
five feet above Jow water. The coal has also been stripped out of 
the bed of Booths creek, one-half mile above its mouth, where it 
is reported as three feet thick and quite pure. 

About three-fourths of a mile above UflSngton, the coal rises 
above the grade of the B. & O. R. R., near the "watch-box," and 
there exhibits the following structure on the land of Ed. S. 
Kinsley: 

Ft In. Ft. In. 

Shales 5 o 

(coal ' ^ ) 

Coal ..< slate o 2 V 2 o 

(coal o 4 j 



WEST VIRGINIA QBOLOGICAL SURVEY. 421 

Here the **main bench'' has thinned to only eighteen inches, 
and the **mining ply" to only four, while the **bottom" division 
has disappeared completely. 

Just above the **watch-box" the river veers west and the coal 
dips down under it, and does not reappear until we come to two 
and one-quarter miles below Little Falls, where it emerges from 
the bed of the stream and has been mined on the land of Mr. 
Prum by stripping, just above low water, where it is about three 
feet thick, with a slate parting. 

In the vicinity of Little Falls Station the coal has been mined 
by several parties for local use, and it exhibits a section like the 
following, seen one-fourth mile below the mouth of Joe's run, in 
the bluff above the B. & 0. railroad track. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sandstone, massive, Lower Mahoning 20 o 

Shale, gray o 6 

{coal, ''main bench** 221 

slate, •'little*' o 2 [• 3 2 

coal, "mining ply'* o 10 J 

Fireclay, shales and hmestone to railroad track 20 o 



Here both the **top" bony coal and the **bottom" divisions 
of the bed are entirely absent, but the "main bench," the "little" 
slate, and the "mining ply" remain. The Upper Freeport lime- 
stone is exposed in several layers, separated by shales, banning 
about ten feet under the coal bed and extending down to track 
level. 

A short distance above the mouth of Joe's run, the coal dipa 
imder the railroad tracks, and then under the Monongahola, and 
we see it no more in the direction of Fairmont. 

In passing up Booths creek, the coal dips down into the 
Connellsville basin, and gets fifty to sixty feet below water level, 
until the center of that syncline is passed, three miles up the 
creek, when the southeastward rise soon brings the coal to the 
surface again on the land of Mr. Chisler, where it has been mined 
and is three feet thick. The coal continues to rise faster than the 
stream, and at Jackson's store, four miles above the mouth of 
Booths creek, gets thirty feet above water level and is mined on 
the land of lliomas Jackson, at whose bank the following succee- 
sion is visible: 



422 



THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 



Ft In. Ft In. 



Coal. «'top'».. 



Tcoal, bony i o 

I shale o 8 

coal, bony o 7 

J shale o 5 

coal, bony o 5 

[shale I o 

Coal, ''main bench" i 11 

Slate, •'litUe" o i 

Coal, **mining ply** i o 



4 I 



3 o 



Here the **top" division of the coal makes its appearance, al- 
though it is only about one mile through the hills to Little Falls, 
where it is entirely absent, and the massive Lower Mahoning sand- 
stone rests directly upon the *'main bench" of the coal. 

In passing up the right hand fork of Booths creek from Jack- 
son's store, the rocks rise quite rapidly toward the Chestnut Ridge 
anticlinal, and carry the Upper Freeport coal high up in the hills, 
in the region of Clinton Furnace, one mile and a-half above Jack- 
son's store. The 0. C. Johnson bank, near Clinton Furnace, ex- 
hibits the following structure: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Coal, "top,** bony 2 o 

Coal, **main bench" 2 7 

Slate, *little" o 2 

Coal, ••mining ply" i i 



5 10 



The **top" coal is mined for domestic use along with the other 
divisions below, but it is very poor coal and could not be used in 
a commercial way. The coal has now recovered the type seen 
everywhere in Preston county, and along Deckers creek in Monon- 
galia, and it retains this type (which gives about four feet of good 
coal in the two divisions under the bony *^top'' coal) on eastward 
to and beyond the Preston county line, as well as northeastward 
to Deckers creek. 

The coal has also been mined for local supply at the head of 
Booths creek, by Samuel Dalton, William Howell, Mr. Weaver, 
and others, in all of whose mines at least four feet of good codl 
occurs. The structure at Mr. Howell's mine, at the head of the 
left fork of Booths creek, is as follows; 

Ft. In. Ft, In. 



Bony coal, "top" 2 o 

Coal, '•main bench" 3 o 

Slate, ••litUe" o 2 

Coal, "mining ply" i 4 ^ 



6 6 



WEST VIRGINIA OBOLOGICAL SURVEY. 423 

The lower four inches of the "mining ply" division is slaty 
and impure. 

A sample of the coal at the Howell mine was analyzed by 
Prof. Hite with the following results: 

Moisture i. 39 

Volatile matter 33- 05 

Fixed carbon 57-87 

Ash 7. 69 

Total loaoo 

Sulphur 2, 40 

A carload of this coal was coked in the ovens at Montana, 
Marion county, and a sample of the coke, analyzed by Prof, Hite, 
yielded the following results: 

Moisture 0.06 

Volatile matter a 80 

Fixed carbon 87.72 

Ash 11.42 

Total loa 00 

Sulphur 1. 50 

The sulphur is rather high in this sample, but the farmers and 
smiths of the region all agree that the Howell bank holds more 
sulphur than any of the others. 

Where this coal comes up to the surface, along the Valley river 
in eastern Marion and western Taylor coun^es, on the crest of the 
Chestnut Ridge anticlinal, it is not yet certainly identified, though 
in the section at Valley Falls, Taylor county, given on page 366, 
a bed of coal has been classed as the Upper Preeport, which occurs 
nearly 200 feet above the Lower Kittanning. This may be erro- 
neous, however, and the thick coal bed seventy-nine feet lower, 
only 120 feet above the Lower Kittanning, may possibly be the 
Upper Freeport bed, instead of the Lower, as indicated in the 
section. 

This thick (6-7 feet) coal, only 120 to 130 feet above the Low- 
er Kittanning bed, and containing much slate, bone, and impure 
coal, is foimd over the entire area of the exposure, from where it 
rises above the Valley river, one mile below Powell, until it dips 
under the same again, just below Bush. It will be described un- 
der the Lower Freeport coal, though it may turn out to be the Up- 
per one. 



424 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

At Bush, Taylor county, a coal bed occurs at forty-two feet 
above the coal just referred to, which exhibits the following struc- 
ture at an old opening, where it was once mined for domestie 
supply: 

Ft In. Ft. In. 



Coal o ID 

filate o I 

Coal I 8 

Slate o I 

Coal o 8 



3 4 



The coal is known locally as the * Tour-foot'* seam, and it re- 
minds one of what has been termed the Mahoning coal, forty feet 
above the Upper Freeport bed, of the Philippi region, and if the 
coal now being opened up for shipment, forty-two feet lower, at 
Bush, should prove to be the Upper Freeport seam, then the 
"Four-foot" bed, at Bush, would be the Mahoning coal. 

These questions of identity will be carefully worked out in 
the future county reports, since it has been impossible to make 
such detailed studies as would settle many of the doubtful cases 
of correlation like the present one. 

This coal dips under the Valley river a short distance above 
Bush, and does not reappear until we pass up Three Fork creek, 
one mile beyond the Grafton station, where it comes above water 
level for a short distance and reveals two and one-half feet of coal 
under some coaly shales, twenty feet below a very massive sand- 
stone. 

On the Valley river, above Grafton, the Upper Freeport coal 
horizon does not rise over the tracks of the Grafton <fe Greenbrier 
branch of the B. & 0. R. R. until we come to Sandy creek, eight 
miles from Grafton. 

Near Cove run, eleven miles above Grafton, this coal changes 
to a bed of impure cannel, five to six feet thick, where it has been 
opened on the lands of Messrs. Whitescarver, Phelps, and others. 

In the vicinity of Moatsville, at the mouth of Teter's creek, 
the Upper Freeport coal has been mined for local use on both sides 
of the Valley river. It lies on top of a very massive, pebbly sand- 
stone, which makes great cliffs along Valley river, 125 feet above 
the water. On the west side of the river, the coal is mined along 
the public road, on the lands of John Wilson and others, where it 
exhibits the following structure: 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



426 



Ft. In. Ft In. 



Coal, visible ^ i o 

Shale I 6 

Sandstone 3 o 

Coal, good 3 o 

Fireclay shale i 2 

Coal, visible i o 



10 8 



On the east side of the river, at Moatsville, the coal has been 
mined by Daniel Moore, Thomas Cline, Thomas Gener, and oth- 
ers, just above the great cliff of pebbly sandstone. 

This coal is constantly above water level along Teter's creek, 
' from its mouth, at Moatsville, up to the mouth of Brushy Fork; 
just below Nestorville, where it was once stripped out of the bed 
of the creek, forty feet under the Mahoning coal. 

Above the mouth of Brushy Fork of Teter's creek, this coal 
dips under the stream into the southwestward extension of the 
Muddy creek basin of Preston county, and hence is below water 
level at Valley Furnace, until its horizon comes out again one mUe 
above, and shows the following structure on thia land of Mr. A. C. 
Keyser: 

Ft In. Ft. In. 



Coal, bonj i 6 

Coal, good I 6 

Shales .-. 8 o 

Coal, bony o 6 

Coal I 6 



13 o 



This coal comes ten feet below a limestone which was once 
mined and used as a flux at the old Valley furnace. The lime- 
stone appears to be identical with the one seen in the roof shales 
of this coal, both at Moatsville and Meriden, below Philippi, and, 
according to preliminary identifications, would correlate with the 
Mahoning limestone of the Pennsylvania section. 

At the headwaters of Sandy creek, in Preston county, south 
from the B. & 0. R. R, the Upper Freeport coal swells up to a 
thickness of twelve feet, on the land of Jonas Wolf, where it has 
long been mined for local supply. The section measured there is 
as follows: 

Ft In. Ft In. 



Coal 2 

Gray shale 2 o }• 12 o 

Coal, with some bone 8 



i} 



426 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

This is in the steep dip (16°) along the northwest slope of 
Big Laurel mountain. 

The same coal is also mined on the Orr lands, farther to the 
northeast, but it is there only about six feet in thickness. 

The steep dip along the foot of Big Laurel, extends from San- 
dy creek across Barbour and Randolph counties, through to the 
Valley river above the mouth of Roaring creek, and, although 
this region has been but little explored, it holds valuable areas of 
Upper Freeport coal along the entire distance. The bed is often 
split it into two distinct seams by three to ten feet of shales and san- 
dy beds, and it frequently happens that the farmers open only one 
of them, and are not aware of the presence of the other. 

This coal has been mined for several years in the vicinity of 
Arden, Barbour county, and used for coaling the B. & 0. loco- 
motives. It is also shipped east and west for general steam pur- 
poses. 

The Laurel Coal Company's mine is one-half mile north from 
Arden, and there A: P. Brady reports the following structure: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Sandstone 

Slate 

Draw slate 

Coal '. 2 8 

Bone coal o 7 }■ 5 9 

Coal 2 6 



} 



Butts run S. 78° E. Face S. 12° W. Elevation 1326 feet 
A. T. 

Analysis of sample reported by Prof. Hite as follows: 

Moisture 0.62 

Volatile matter 31. 35 

Fixed carbon 59-58 

Ash 8.45 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur 2. 60 

Phosphorus 0.006 

B. T. U (Wil. Cal. ) 13863 

The Tygarts Valley Coal & Coke Company operates this 
coal at Arden, where A. P. Brady reports the following measure- 
ment: 



Sandstone 




Slate .- 


Draw slate 


oil 


Coal 


" ^ 

2 2 1 


Bone coal..... 


. I o r 


Coal 


: 3 2 



WEST VIRQINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 427 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



5 lo 



Butts and face same as preceding. Elevation 1321 feet A. T. 
Analysis of sample reported by Prof. Hite as follows : 

Moisture « a 66 

Volatile matter 30.78 

Fixed carbon 55. 39 

Ash 13.17 

Total loaoo 

Sulphur a. 52 

Phosphorus a 010 

B. T. U. (Wil. Cal.) 13474 

The Philippi Coal & Mining Company operates this same ooal 
at Meriden, two miles below Philippi, and there A. P. Brady made 
the following measurement in its No. 1 mine: 

Ft In. Ft In. 

ffandstone 

Slate 

Draw slate o i 

Coal 2 3 

Bone coal o 7 

Coal 2 4 }- 5 7 

'*Mud seam" o i 

Coal o 4 

Butts and face same as preceding. Elevation 1291 feet A. T. 
Analysis of sample reported by Prof. Hite as follows : 

Moisture ^ a 53 

Volatile matter 39.44 

Fixed carbon - 62.93 

Ash : 7. II 

Total loaoo 

Sulphur 2. 51 

Phosphorus a 024 

B. T. U. (Wil. Cal. ) 13896 

The P. C. <fe M. Company, through one of its officers, (Hon. 
A. O. Dayton), gives the following measurement of mine No. 1, 
which appears to differ slightly from Mr. Brady's: 



428 THE ALLEGHENY 8EBIE8. 



Ft. In. Ft In. 



Coal, upper bench 2 3 

Bone o ^}i 

Coal, mining bench o 10 

Slate o 2 

Coal, lower bench 2 i)i 

Fireclay, soft o 2 

Bottom coal o 4 



6 2 



The section at Mine No. 2 reads as follows, according to Mr. 
Dayton: 

Ft In. Ft In. 



Coal, upper bench 2 2}^ 

Bone o 7 

Coal, mining bench o g}i 

Parting slate o i 

Coal, lower bench i 7 

Fireclay, soft o 2 

Coal, "bottom" o 3 



5 8 



There is another ply of coal, one and a-half to two feet thick, 
and ten to fifteen feet, below the coal as given above. It comes on 
top of the great sandstone deposit, which underlies the Upper 
Freeport coal, and forms the cliflfs along the Valley river, between 
Arden and Moatsville. 

As we pass up the Valley river from Meriden, the Upper Free- 
port coal dips under the level of the latter, and is ten to fifteen 
feet below it where the Clarksburg pike crosses the stream. The 
river soon veers to the south, however, and the coal rises above 
water level, and then above the B. & 0. R. R. tracks, where it 
has been mined at Lilian, one mile above Philippi. The coal ap- 
pears to hold more bony material at Lilian, however, since the 
mining plant established there has been idle for sometime. 

The coal continues to rise up the Valley river southeastward 
to the crest of a broad anticlinal, which crosses the river at Clem- 
ents, one mile above the mouth of Middle Fork of the Valley 
river, and elevates the coal to about 176 feet above water level, 
where it is over seven feet thick on the lands of Messrs. Brown, 
Enlow, and others, but contains much bony material, so far as one 
may judge from the outcrop, which is, of course, badly weath- 
ered. 

From Clements southeastward, the coal dips down and passes, 
under water level again, three miles below Belington. It is mined 
on the southside of the river, opposite Jones crossing, where it is 
over six feet thick, and interstratified with nearly a foot of bony 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 429 

material, in four different layers, as shown by the following section 
made by Mr. A. P. Brady at the mine of the Valley Coal & CJoke 
Company: 

Ft In. Ft In. 



Sandstone . 
Slate 



Avraw siau; 

Coal 


„ o lO 1 


Bone coal 

Coal 


>•••••• M**««aM ••..«•*. O 3 

O Q 


Bone coal 


O 2 


Coal 


I 6 


Bone coal 

Coal 


O 2 

., I C 


Bone coal 

Coal 


••*••••••••• ••••• •». J 

O 2 

I O 



6 3 



Butts run 8. 78^ E. Paces 8. 12^ W. Greatest rise N. 45** 
W. 

Analysis reported by Prof. Hite as follows: 

Moisture o. 6o 

Volatile matter 29.38 

Fixed carbon 54. 40 

Ash 15.62 

Total loaoo 

Sulphur 3. 20 

Phosphorus o. 06 

The coal makes a very poor showing, but of course may im- 
prove at other localities in the region. 

From the mine just mentioned, on the Belington & Northern 
railroad, the coal dips rapidly under the Valley river, and at Be- 
lington, near the center of the deep syncline, which catches the 
Pittsburg coal in a few summits to the northeast, this Upper Free- 
port coal would probably be 100 feet or more below water level, 
and not very valuable, if one may Judge from the character of the 
coal at Jones Crossing, and also by the thinned and slaty condi- 
tion of the same where it emerges from the Valley river again, 
three miles above Belington. It was formerly supposed that 
THICK coal would always be found in synclinal areas, but in West 
Virginia, with but few exceptions, the coal thins perceptibly in 
passing into the synclines, while its thickest measurements are 
found high up on the slopes, or on the crests of the anticlines. 

The Junior Coal Company has mines on the Upper Freeport 



430 THE ALLEGHENY 8ERIEB. 

coal, where it rises above the grade of the railroad at Junior sta- 
tion, four miles, south from Belington, and there A. P. Brady 
made the following measurement: 

Ft In. Ft In. 



Sandstone 

Coal and slate mixed 

Coal I g 

Slate o 2 

Coal o 8 

Slate I o 

Coal 3 2 

Slate o 8 

Coal I I 



8 6 



Butts run S. 78** E. Face S. 12** W. Elevation 1735 feet 
A. T. 

Analysis of sample reported by Prof. Hite as follows: 

Moisture a8i 

Volatile matter 28. 73 

Fixed carbon 61.^ 

Ash 8.48 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur 1.07 

Phosphorus 0.01 

B. T. U. (Wil. Cal.) 14080 

Only the two lower divisions of the coal were in the sample 
analyzed. A sample of the coke manufactured at Junior gave the 
following results to Prof. Hite and his assistants: 

Moisture 0.08 

Volatile matter - o. 90 

Fixed carbon 84.97 

Ash i4«o5 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur o. 94 

Phosphorus o. 018 

This coke is first-class in every respect except a little too much 
ash. The Junior Coal Company also operates mines and makes 
coke from this same coal at Harding, Randolph county, four 
miles above Junior, where the coal lies about 200 feet above the 
Valley river. A. P. Brady made the following measurements 
there: 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SRUVBY. 



481 



Ft In. Ft. In. 



Sandstone 

Slate 

Coal 



II 8 



o 6 

Slate I 6 

Bonecoal o 3 

Coal ^ I 10 

Slate o 2 

Coal o 3 

Slate o 5 

Coal 3 2 

Slate., o 6 

Coal I 9 

Fireclay o 6 

Coal o 10 

Butts run S. 82** E. Face S. 8^ W. 

Analysis of sample from only the two lower main benches re- 
ported by Prof. Hite as follows: 

Moisture a 74 

Volatile matter ... 30. 38 

Fixed carbon 59'59 

Ash 9.29 

Total 4 100.00 

Sulphur 1.65 

Phosphorus. 0.023 

B. T. U. (Wn. Cal.) 13901 

A sample of coke made in the Harding ovens, forty-eight 

hours burning, gave the following analysis according to Prof. 

Hite: 

Moisture a 12 

Volatile matter a 87 

Fixed carbon 82.62 

Ash 16.39 



Total 100. 00 

Sulphur I. 24 

Phosphorus 0.034 

The Maryland Smokeless Coal Company operates the Weaver 
mine, on Beaver creek, Randolph county, where A. P. Brady 
made the following measurement of the Upper Freeport coal. 

Ft In. Ft. In. 



9 6 



Slate - - - - 


Coal 


^61 


Draw slate 


A 


Coal 


X A 


Slate 


A 


Coal 


2 . 



432 



THE ALLBOHSHT SBBIB8. 



a23 

I. lO 

82.25 
16.42 


loaoo 

1.24 
a 021 



Butte run 8. 78** E. Face 8. 12** W. Greatoet rise, Bouth. 
A sample of the coal and coke from Weaver gave Prof. EQte 
the following: 

Coal. C<^e. 

Moisture a 62 

Volatile matter 29. 81 

Fixed carbon • 58. 29 

Ash II. 28 

Totals loa 00 

Sulphur 1. 63 

Phosphorus a 031 

B. T. U. (WiLCal. ) 13785 

Only the coal from the two lower benches was in the sample 
taken for analysis, since the upper bench is apparently not mined. 

A new mine opened near Monroe Junction is operated by F. 
P. Reese, where A. P. Brady reports the following structure. 

Ft In. Ft In. 

Coal I 4 

Bone coal o oj4 

Coal I i^ 

Bone coal o ojH 

• Coal o 3 

Bone coal o o}^ [- 10 7 

Coal 3 2 

Slate 05 

Coal I 8 

Fireclay o 6 

Coal ;. 2 o 

This structure appears to correspond exactly to that of the 
Upper Freeport coal in Preston coimty, and summarized would 
appear as follows: 

Ft. In. Ft In. 

**Top*' coal, bony 2 10 

'*Main bench** coal 3 2 

"Little" slate o 5 

**Mining ply" coal i 8 

•*Big" 3ate o S 

**Bottom** coal 2 o 



10 7 



Analysis of sample, which included all the layers of coal ex- 
cept the * 'bottom,'' reported by Prof. Hite as follows: 

Moisture a 63 

Volatile matter..... 28.72 

Fixed carbon 62. 23 

Ash 8.42 



Total , 100. 00 



WEST VIBGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



438 



Sulphnr i. 51 

Phosphorus o. 10 

The Maryland Smokeless Goal Company has a mine in the 

Upper Freeport bed at Leiter, on the south side of Valley river, 

below the mouth of Roaring creek, where A. P. Brady reports the 

following structure: 

Ft. In. Ft In. 



Coal 

Blaie 


5 

5 


Coal 


. .::.: ..: o i 


Draw slate 


I 


Bone coal 


I 2 


Draw slate 


2 


Coal 


% 2 


Slate 


I 


Coal 


I 6 


Pireclay •• 


I 


Coal 


5 



Butts run 8. 77* W. Face S. 13** E. 

Analysis of sample reported as follows by Prof. Hite: 

Moisture a 54 

Volatile matter 3a 82 

Fixed carbon 60.20 

Ash 8.44 



Total 100.00 

Sulphur 1.86 

Phosphorus a 025 

B. T. U. (WiLCal.) I3,749 

A large fault, or ' Vant," runs through this mine and cuts 
out the coal for an unknown width. 

Mr. Reese operated the mines at Womelsdorf for Berwind, 
White <fe Company, when A. P. Brady visited the region, but all 
of these mining interests have since been purchased by Hoa. 
Henry 6. Davis, of Elkins, the principal owner of the Junior 
Coal Company. 

Womelsdorf is on Roaring creek, seven miles south from its 
mouth, and at the foot of Rich mountain, near the Bevwly and 
Buckhannon pike. The Upper Freeport coal at the Womelsdorf 
mine has the following structure, as measured by A. P. Brady: 

Ft. In. Ft, In. 

Coal o I 

Bone coal ; o 2 

Coal 2 2 

Slate o i}i} 7 7}i 



434 THE ALLBGHENT SERIES. 

Coal 3 4 

Slate o 3 

Coal I 6 

Butts run S. 80** E, Face S. 10^ W. Elevation 2260 feet 
A. T. Greatest rise S. 30^ E. 

Analysis of sample reported by Prof. Hite as follows: 

Moisture a 69 

Volatile matter 28.45 

Fixed carbon 62. 17 

Ash 8.69 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur 1. 51 

Phosphorus 0.033 

B. T. U. (Wil. Cal. ) 13656 

These sections and analyses of the Upper Freeport coal in 
what has been termed the ' 'Roaring creek" field, reveal a coal bed 
which furnishes six to seven feet of good fuel after the removal of 
the slate and bony partings. Ii also makes a good coke which is 
in great demand. 

Eastward from the Roaring creek field, the Upper Freeport 
bed arches into the air over Rich and Big Laurel mountains, and 
does not descend into the West Virginia hills again, so far as 
known, except possibly in a small area of the Corinth basin, east 
from Terra Alta, Preston county, until it comes down along the 
eastern slope of Back Bone mountain, at the head of the North 
Potomac coal basin, in Tucker and Grant counties. 

It has been mined for several years by the Davis Coal & Coke 
Company at Thomas, Tucker county, on the West Virginia Cen- 
tral and Pittsburg railroad, both by drifts and shafts. S. D. 
Brady reports the following measurements of this coal in Nos. 1, 
2 and 3 drifts at Thomas: 



No. I D. 


No. 2D. 


No. 3 D. 


Ft. In. 


Ft In. 


Ft. In. 



Sandstone . 

Black slate 1-15 o 3-8 o i-io o 

Draw slate o 3 

Coal I 9 I 7>i III 

Coal and bone 2 2>^ 2 8 25 

Coal 34 36 36 



Totals 7 3^ 7 9>i 7 10 

Elevation A. T. (feet) 2900 3065 2885 

Greatest rise S. io*> E S. io<» E. S. 10® E. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 436 

The structure of the coal bed at Thomas resembles that in the 
Roaring creek field very much, except that the * 'mining ply'' and 
* 'bottom" divisions appear to be absent. The **top" coal is fairly 
good, and the *'main bench," at the bottom, is very fine, but the 
central two and one-half feet is made up of alternate layers of 
good coal and bony coal in such a mixture that the separation of 
the bone from the coal is hardly practicable by the methods of or- 
dinary mining. The bed is locally known as the ''Thomas'' 
seam. Samples taken from each of the mines }delded the follow- 
ing results on analysis, as reported by Prof. Hite: 

No. I D. No. 2 D. No. 3 D. 

Moisture 0.46 0.42 0.49 

Volatile matter 21. 11 22.81 22.71 

Fixed carbon 71.23 70.30 70.62 

Ash 7.20 6.47 6.18 

Totals 100.00 100.00 100.00 

Sulphur 0.43 0.51 0.52 

Phosphorus o. on 0.004 0.010 

B. T. U. (WU. Cal) 14.699 

A sample of coke from No. 1 drift is reported by Prof. Hite 
as follows: 

Moisture o. i8 

Volatile matter i. 43 

Fixed carbon 83. 87 

Ash I4«52 

Total 100. CO 

Sulphur o. 70 

Phosphorus 0.03 

This basin is comprised within the great folds of the Alle- 
gheny mountain region, and hence its coal has suffered a partial 
metamorphism, so that the volatile matter is about one-third less 
than in the Preston, Barbour and Randolph areas, and the coal 
would be called semi-bituminous. It is low in ash and sulphur, 
and has a most excellent reputation for both steam and coke, its 
heat value being quite high, as shown by the calorimetric tests. 

A very large area of this coal extends under the North 
Potomac basin, cropping against the Back Bone mountain on the 
west and the East Front Ridge of the Alleghenies on the east, 
through Tucker, Grant, and Mineral counties. 



436 THE ALLEGHENY SBRIEB. 

In the deep shaft of the Davis Coal & Coke CcHupany 
at Henry, Grant county, this coal was struck at about 220 feei^ 
and it exhibits the following structure, as measured by A. P. 
Brady: 

Ft In. Ft In. 

Sandstone 

Draw slate o 6 

Coal o 8 

Bone coal o 4 

Coal o 4 ' 5 4K 

Bonecoal o 4j4 

Coal, good $ 8 , 

Elevation A. T., 2428 feet. 

The analysis of the sample collected here is reported as fol- 
lows by Prof. Hite: 

Moisture a 58 

Volatile matter ai. 89 

Fixed carbon , 69.63 

Ash , 7.9b 

Total loaoo 

Sulphur 2.60 

Phosphorus 0.035 

The large increase in the quantity of sulphur shown here, 
over that in the same coal at Thomas, is especially noteworthy. 
It is possible that the coal will make a better showing in this 
respect when the mine gets longer into operation, since it is new, 
and the sample may not fairly represent the sulphur contents of 
the coal. 

This bed comes to the surface near Bayard, five miles below 
Henry, and gradually gets higher above the line of the West Vir- 
ginia Central & Pittsburg railroad, until near Gorman, where it is 
about 100 feet above the same, and was once mined by drifting, 
just below the Northwestern turnpike, on the north bank of the 
Potomac, in the edge of Garrett county, Maryland. From this 
point through Mineral county to Piedmont, thirty odd miles below, 
the coal is constantly above water level, and often 300 to 400 feet 
above the same, though its thickness has diminished to such an 
extent that it is known as the * Tour-foot' ' seam, instead of the 
'*Big,'' **Eight,'' *Ten" or ^Twelve-foot" seam of the other 
regions. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 437 

The Smith Coal Company has recently opened a mine on this 
bed, one-half mile south of Blaine, Mineral county, and there A. 
P. Brady made the following measurement: 



Ft In. Ft. In, 

Bone coal o 5 

Coal o 5 

Slate ^ o II 

Coal J o 



4 9 



Butts run E. Face 8. Elevation 1960 feet A. T. 
Analysis of sample reported by Prof. Hite as follows: 

Moisture a 67 

Volatile matter IS* 79 

Fixed carbon ^ 71. 27 

Ash 12. 27 



Total ..loa 00 

Sulphur 3.30 

Phosphorus a 041 

The same coal has also been opened by the Big Vein Coal 
Company, one mile and a-half north from Shaw, where A. P. 
Brady reports the following succession: 

Ft. In, Ft. In. 

Bone coal o 8 1 

Coal 26 [• 3 ID 

Bone coal o 8 J 

Elevation 1600 feet A. T. 

This is also called the "Four-foot" seam by Mr. Brady in his 
notes. 

The analysis of sample gives the following results as reported 
by Prof. Hite : 

Moisture a 51 

Volatile matter 16.68 

Fixed carbon ^ 7i- 37 

Ash 11.44 

Total loaoo 

Sulphur ;. 3. 22 

Phosphorus a 036 

The samples of these last two mines were taken from near the 
crop of the coal, and that possibly accounts for some, but not aU, 
of the deficiency in volatile matter. 



438 THE ALLEGHENY 8EBIEB. 

Dr. O. C. Martin, of the Maryland Survey, publishee a section 
of this coal, taken near Blaine, on page 196 of his Garrett County 
Report, which gives the bed the following structure : 

Ft. In. 

Coal o 6 

Shale o a 

Coal o II 

Shale o a 

Bony coal i i 

Coal 2 o 



Total 4 ID 

Also a section on the same page from near Bamum, as fol- 
lows: 

Ft. In. Ft In. 



Bone o 3 

Coal I 7 

Shale o o^ 

Coal o 3 



2 i}i 



Another section from four mUes west of Bayard, given on 
page 197 1. c, shows the structure of the Upper Freeport coal 
there as follows: 

Ft In. Ft In. 

Coal I 10 1 

Slate - o 4 V 6 o 

Coal 3 10 j 

In the region of Piedmont and Westemport this cioal is about 
six feet thick, but has nearly two feet of shale and sandy material 
near its center, and is generally known as the **8plit seam." 

Returning now to the Roaring creek region of Randolph 
county, and passing westward to the waters of Middle Pork (of 
Valley) river, we find the Upper Freeport coal still an important 
bed, but not so thick as in the Roaring creek field. In the vicinity 
of Ford's Hotel, or the Half-way House, on the Beverly and Buck- 
hannon pike, this coal exhibits the following structure on the land 
of G. F. Ford : 

Ft In. Ft. In. 



Coal o 6 

Shale, gray i i 

Coal 2 2 

Slate, dark o 9 

Coal I 7 



6 I 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL 8RUVBY. 



439 



One mile east from this the coal gets thicker, on the land of 
John Ford, at whose bank the following section was measured by 
the writer: 

Ft In. Ft In. 

Coal o 6 

Slate, dark o a 

Coal o 8 

Slate with coal streaks ^ o jo 

Coal 141-91 

Dark slate and boDe o 10 

Coal I II 

Slate I 3 

Coal I 7 

These parting slates, which make tip more than three feet of 
the total thickness, may, of course, grow thinner when followed 
into the hills in mining operations, since it is a general law that 
the parting slates of coal beds show thickest at their outcrops. 
This area of thicker coal appears to trend southward to the Kettle 
creek region of the Middle Fork river, where the Upper Freeport 
bed has a fairly good development. 

In the region of Kingsville, the coal has thinned to only four 
feet, or even less, and from there to Talbot's store, in the edge of 
Barbour county, it is occasionally mined by the farmers for do- 
mestic use, but is seldom more than three and one-half to four 
feet thick. 

About one mile above Hall's Mill, on Middle Fork (of Valley) 
river, and three and one-half miles above its mouth, the Upper 
Freeport coal has been mined quite extensively for local supply on 
the land of O'Brien and others. It has the following structure at 
O'Brien's bank, 150 feet above Middle Fork river: 

Ft. In. Ft In. 



Sandstone, massive, visible 20 o 

Cannel slate o 10 ^ 

Coal I 10 

Fireclay, Sandj * o 5 

Coal o 6 

Fireclay, sandy o 9 

Coal ; I 10 



6 a 



A great sandstone makes cliffs direcUy below the ooal, and at 
the mill the stream falls over it in cascades. 

This coal is also stripped out of the fiat, just opposite Hall's 
Mill, where only four feet of it is exposed. 



440 



THE ALLBQHENT 8RAIE8. 



On the north bank of Middle Fork, and about one mile above 
Hall's Mill, this coal is mined on the land of J. B. Strader» where 
the following structure is exhibited: 

Ft IiL Ft In. 

Gray shale m.... i o 

Cannel slate o 4 

Gray shale. - 1 3 

Coal X xo 1 

Fireclay o 8 

Coal 0866 

Fireclay o 10 

Coal 2 6 , 

About five miles southwest from Hall's Mill, this ooal has 
been mined on the land of Samuel Price, where it exhibits the fol- 
lowing section: 

Ft In. Ft In, 

Cannel slate x o 

Coal X 6 

Shale o 7 

Coal ^... 04 j- 7 10 

Fireclay X o 

Coal 2 4 

Splinty cannel, impure x i 

The coal at the bottom of the bed is more of a ''splint" than 
caimel, but it is called cannel by the farmers. 

This coal has been mined at the head of Laurel fork of Sand 
creek, or Big Sand run, as it is often called, on the land of Rich- 
ard Campbell, where the following section was measured: 

Ft In. Ft In. 



Black slate 

Coal X 10 

Slate o 5 

Coal o a 

Fireclay o 10 

Coal a o 

Slate o X 

Bplinty coal o 7 



5 II 



The coal exhibits this split-up condition along Sand creek, 
where it is exposed in the bed of the same, between its mouth, at 
the Buckhannon river, and its head, several miles above. 

The following section of this coal, taken on the right bank of 
Sand creek, one-half mile below the mouth of Laurel Fork, is a 
continuation downward of the section given on page 316 of this 
volume: 



WEST yiRGiniA GEOLOaiCAL SUBVEY. 



441 



7 7 



Ft In, Ft IlL 

Cannel slate o 3 

Shale, fi^y a o 

Slate» £rk o 6 

Coal I 6 

Shale, gray o 10 

Coal, slaty ^ o 10 

Shale, gray o 8 

Coal I o 

Fireclay, impure.^ 6 o 

Sandstone, Tery maasiye 

Here the great sandstone which underlies this same ooal in 
the Roaring creek region, is in the bed of Sand creek, while the 
exposures in the hills above, render it certain that this is the same 
bed as the ''Roaring creek" coal, although it makes such a poor 
showing in the section just given. 

One-half mile farther down Sand creek, the ooal improved, 
however, and exhibits the following section at Creed Talbot's 
mine: 

Ft In. Ft In. 

Coal, bony at top x xi 

Shale, gray i o 

Coal 



o 3 

Shale, gray #•«••••• o 7 

Coal, bottom splinty a 8 

Slate o X 

Coal, splinty o 10 



7 4 



In passing down Sand creek, or Big Sand run, from the last 
opening in the coal, it is mined by two or three other parties near- 
water level, and then dips under the same and continues below to 
the Buckhannon river, but as the latter turns eastward it soon 
comes up again, and has been mined at the mill, one mile below 
the mouth of Sand creek, where it exhibits the following struct- 
ure: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Sandstone^ massive, Lower Mahoning 

Coal X 6 

Hhale, gray o 8 

Coal o I 

Shale, gray o xi 

Coal a o 



5 a 



On down the Buckhannon, and just below where the Bumers- 
ville branch of the B. & 0. R. R. crosses the river at Lemley 
Junction, this coal was once mined only a few feet above the level 
of the water, but the mine is now abandoned and the coal not 



9 9 



442 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

fully exposed. About one-fourth mile east, however, the rapid 
rise of the strata in that direction brings the coal up to seventy- 
five feet above the Buckhannon, and it exhibits the following sec- 
tion on the land of B. E. McCray: 

Ft In. Ft In. 

Coal 3 o 

Slate o 3 

Coal o 6 

Shale, gray o 8 

Coal and slate o lo 

Coal o 8 

Shale, gray o 3 

Coal 2 o 

Coal, hard, splinty i 7 

This measurement approaches that of the Roaring creek re- 
^on in point of thickness, and the quality of the coal is fairly 
good. 

The coal keeps seventy-five to one hundred feet above the 
level of the Buckhannon from this point on down to its mouth, 
at the Valley river, five miles below, and has been mined occa- 
sionally by the farmers for domestic use. 

In passing up the Buckhannon river from the mouth of Sand 
creek, or Big Sand run, the course bears westward and the north- 
west dip of the strata carries the Upper Freeport coal far below 
water level, between that point and the town of Buckhannon, 
where its horizon is probably not lees than 300 feet below the bed 
of the river, since the Elk. Lick coal is only 130 feet above the 
same, and the Pittsburg coal caps the hills one mile north of the 
town. At Buckhannon, however, the course of the river turns 
south as we ascend it, and the southeastward rise of the rocks 
brings the Upper Freeport coal to the surface, between Hampton 
and Sago, seven miles above. It rises above the level of the B. <fe 
0. R. R. at Sago, and was once mined near Sago station, where it 
exhibits the following structure on the land of G. W. Burner: 

Ft In. Ft. In. 

Coal ^ ^ ) 

Bonycoal 06x46 

Coal 2 6 j 

Concealed 10 o 

Sandstone, very massive, to bed of Buckhannon 
river 25 o 

The sandstone under this coal is the one which makes the 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 443 

great cliffs along Roaring creek, and along the Valley river, be- 
tween Roaring creek and Moatsville. It is constantly in sight from 
Sago to the head of the Buckhannon river, getting higher and 
higher in the hills and protecting the same from erosion, until it 
escapes into the air from Turkey Bone mountain, Webster county, 
at an elevation of 3500 feet above the sea. Its bold, pebbly out- 
crop, often fifty to seventy-five feet in vertical height, enables the 
observer to keep hold of the overl)dng coal in passing up the Buck- 
hannon river from Sago into the region of the thick Allegheny- 
Kanawha sediments appearing between Newlon and Pickens. 

One mile and a-half above Sago, the Upper Freeport coal has 
been opened on the left bank of the Buckhannon by Peter Eagle, 
at whose mine the following structure is exposed: 

Ft In. Ft. In. 



Black slate 2 

Bony coal i o }• 7 o 

Coal 



20] 
I o [ 
4 o i 



The coal lies ten to twelve feet above a very massive, pebbly 
sandstone, which makes a bold cliff below the outcrop of the 
coal. 

Two miles above this last locality, the coal has thickened 
greatly, and we see the following succession on the west bluff of 
the Buckhannon, at an opening on the land of Jesse H. Sharp, 
one mile and a-half below Ten Mile station. 

Ft In. Ft In. 

Coa/ blossom in clay 

Black slate, cannelly 3 o 

Coal 3 7 

Shale, gray a o 

Coal, bony o 6 

Shale, gray i a 

Coal, bony I o 

Coal, good a o 

Shale I o 

Coal o 8 

Concealed 10 o 

Sandstone, massive, Roaring creek 50 o 

Cannel slate la o 

{coal a o 1 
shale a o I- 5 o 
coal I o J 

Shale, gray 3 o 

Concealed 10 o 

Sandstone, massive, in bed of Buckhannon river 5 o 



II II 



444 



THE ALLBQHENT 8ERIE8. 



The portion of this section under the Roaring creek sandstone 
is exposed one-half mile further down the river tiian Mr. Sharp's 
coal opening, but as the great cliff sandstone and its underlying 
coal are constantiy in sight along the cuts in the railroad between 
the two points, there can be no error in the relative position of the 
two coal beds. It is interesting to compare the section of the Up- 
. per Freeport coal here with that at Sago, only three and one-half 
miles distant, since it has nearly tripled its thickness, and then 
there is more coal above the black slate that has not been included 
in the bed, which would probably increase the thickness to sixteen 
feet or more. 

It is only a few miles northeast from this point, on Stone Coal 
branch of Big Sand run, or Sand creek, where this coal thickens 
up and forms the famous "Twenty-two foot'* bed of coal, de- 
scribed in Bulletin 66, U. S. G. Survey, page 161, as follows: 

Ft In. Ft. In. 

Black slate 2 6 

Coal I o 

Bonycoal o 8 

Coal 2 o 

Black slate 3 o 

Coal I o 

Gray slate 4 6 

Coal I 5 

Slate dark i 4 

Coal I 10 

Slate, dark o 5 

Coal, slaty o 5 

Slate, gray o 6 

Coal I 5 

This wonderful expansion of the Upper Freeport coal bed, 
takes place in the region where the great thickening of the Alle- 
gheny-Kanawha sediments begins, and, although the entire bed 
totals up twenty-two feet, yet only a little more than one-third of 
it is COAL, and practically none of that is in available form to 
mine under present conditions. 

At Ten Mile station, thirteen miles above Buckhannon, this 
coal has been mined at one hundred feet above water level, and 
there the following measurement was made: 

Ft. In. Ft In. 

Coal I 3 

Shale, gray 4 o 

Coal o 6 

Shale I 4 



WK8T VIRGINIA GBOLOGIOAL SUBVST. 



445 



Coal 3 o J- 13 3 

Black slate o 5 

Coal I o 

Slate o 6 

Coal X 3 

Concealed ^ 10 

Sandstone, massive, pebbly - 40 

Concealed to Buckhannon river 50 



Here there is an immense thickness of material, but only five 
feet of available coal in the entire bed. 

Prom Ten Mile southward, this coal has been mined oc- 
casionally, especially in the vicinity of Alton, where it lies on top 
of the great Roaring creek sandstone, and just above it another 
(Lower Mahoning) massive, pebbly rock forms a bold escarpment 
along the hills. 

Prom Alton southward, the rocks rise rapidly, and when we 
come to Alexander, at the mouth of the Left Fork of the Buck- 
hannon, three miles above, the Upper Freeport coal is 276 feet 
above water level, and has been mined for use in the Alexander 
Lumber Company's mills. The section measured there is aa 
follows: 

Ft In. Ft In. 



Sandstone, Lower Mahoning, very massiTe, pebbly.. 60 



Concealed . 



Coal, Upper Freeport 



coal- o 8 

shales, gray 4 6 

coal I 5 

ilate, hard, gray o 3 

cannel, impure o 6 

slate 2 o 

coal o 4 

fireclay i 2 

coal 2 6 



13 4 



Concealed 10 o 

Sandstone, massive, pebbly. Roaring creek 60 o 

Shale, dark 5 o 

Coal, visible 2 o 

Concealed and sandstone to level of the Buckhannon 

river aoo o 

The Upper Freeport coal has an elevation of aboutJSlOO feet 
above tide at Alexander, and is rising quite rapidly to the south- 
east, so that it soon passes over the immediate hills along'^the 
Buckhannon river, but the coal is still caught in the higher sum- 
mits, back from the stream, and on both sides of it, until we 
come to the summit of Turkey Bone mountain, on the divide be- 
tween the Buckhannon and Elk river waters, where the bed has 



446 



THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 



an elevation of 3560 feet above the sea, and has been dug into for 
local use. 

About one mile and a-quarter west from Avondale, and five 
miles below Kckens, we find the crop of the Upper Freeport coal 
about 500 feet above Avondale, on the land of D. G. Thomas, and 
dipping rapidly to the northwest, so that when we come to May- 
ton, on the land of W. R. Thomas, the elevation of this coal is 
800 feet lower. 

It has the following structure where mined by W. R. Thomas: 

Ft In. Ft In. 



Coal, bony i 8 

Coal, good 2 7 

Bone o 9 

Coal, good 2 6 



7 6 



This is at the head of the Right branch of the Little Kanawha 
river, near the line between Upshur and Webster counties. There 
is a large area of this coal, where it has a thickness of six to seven 
ieet, on the headwaters of the Little Kanawha river, in Webster 
and Upshur, though, of course, the bed always holds two or three 
partings of bony coal or slate. 

The coal shows as follows at the McKissick bank, on Lynn 
Camp branch, near Kanawha Head: 

Ft In. Ft. In. 

Coal, bony 2 o 

Coal, good 2 6 

Bony coal o 9 

Coal, good 2 6 

Slate o 6 

Coal, visible i 7 

The coal is overlain by a very massive sandstone, which 
makes bold cliflfs along Cave run, and the valley of Lynn Camp. 

Where this coal emerges from the bed of the Left Fork of the 
Little Kanawha, one-half mile below Georgetown or Stillman, it 
exhibits the following succession: 



9 10 



Ft In. Ft In. 



Sandstone, massive 

Coal I 

Shale ~ I 

Blaty coal i 

Coal o 

Bone o 

Coal, visible ....... 3 



7 o 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL gURVEY. 447 

It is possible that there are other divisions of the coal on be- 
low the lowest portion exposed. 

From this point, which is two miles from Rock Cave, the coal 
is above water level on down the Little Kanawha, and its tributa- 
ries of Cherry Fork, Glady, Trace, and others. In attains a great 
development in the region about the mouth of Cherry Fork, the 
measurement given on page 364 being from a locality a short dis- 
tance below the mouth of Cherry, in the *Tan Handle" of Lewis 
county, between Upshur, Webster and Braxton. 

The following measurement of this bed, from the land of 
James Rexroad, on Cherry, one mile above its mouth, will illus- 
trate the great expansion of the bed in that region: 

Ft In. Ft In. 



4 7 



7 6 



Coal I 2 

Shale, gray o 6 

Coal 9 o 

Slate, dark o i 

Coal o 10 

Sandy shale o xi 

Coal o la 

Slate and bone o 6 

Coal ^ I o 

Bone o 6 

Coal, hard i 3 

Slate. o 5 

Coal o 8 

Coal, splinty 2 2 

Total 13 o 

The ^ 'sandy shale" division shown above is a constant feature 
of this region, and occasionally attains to eight feet in thickness, 
and then is often sandstone. In such cases, the farmers frequent- 
ly mine one of the beds without knowing the presence of the oth- 
er, either above or below, as the case may be. The rock parting 
is often only two feet in thickness, while the coal above it is about 
five feet thick and of a softer type than that below, which is fre- 
quently seven feet thick, and inclined to be ''splinty" in its 
nature. 

At Thomas Kincaid's, below the mouth of Glady, this rock 
parting thickens to eight feet, and at the head of Fallen Timber 
run, where the lower portion of the coal is mined on the land of 
Lorenz Famash, it appears to be even thicker than eight feet 



448 



THS ALLBQHSNT SSRHS. 



On litUe "Wild Cat run, this coal is partially opened on the 
land of George Kincaid, and there the following interesting section 
was measured: 

Ft In. Ft IiL 

coal I 6 

sandy shale o 7 

coal o 3 

coal,bony o 4 

coal I I 

spllntycoal a 6 



Coal, Upper Freeport 



6 3 



Concealed 

Sandstone, massive, Roaring creek 

Coal 



Sandstone, flaggy. 
Shale 



Coal, Lower Freeport 



coal o 7 

shale, eray i 2 

slate, dark i 4 

coal r 9 

slate, dark.. o 6 

coal I 4 

fireclay 3 o 

coal I 3 

bone coal o 7 

coal o 3 



5 o 

85 o 

o 8 

15 o 

a o 



II 9 



This section was puzzling at first, since the coal at the bottom 
is so thick, but the finding of the Mahoning coal, on above the 
Upper Freeport, and the Mason bed still higher in the hills, made 
it certain that the coal at the top of the section is the Upper Free- 
port bed, and hence that the one under the great Roaring creek 
sandstone below, is the Lower Freeport coal, or the same one shown 
in the section below Ten Mile station, on the Buckhannon river. 

The Upper Freeport coal has been partially opened by L. 
H. Malcomb, on the right bank of the Little Kanawha river, and 
250-300 feet above water level, opposite the Devil's Backbone, 
where it exhibits the following: 

Ft In. Ft. In. 



Coal I 6 

Slate, gray..^ o 3 

Bony coal o 4 

Coal o 9 

Shale, gray i 4 

Coal, visible 2 o 



1 



6 2 



The underlying Roaring creek sandstone forms great cliSs 
here along the river. 



WK8T VIBOINIA GBOLOGICAL SUBVEY. 



449 



This coal dips down to the northwest more rapidly than the 
river falls, in descending the same, and when we come to the month 
of Short run, the coal is about 175 feet above water level, and gives 
the following succession on the land of Taylor Brohard: 

Ft In. Ft In. 



Sandstone, massive, pebbly 60 

Concealed and sandy shales « 90 

fcoal o 10 

coaly slate o 6 

coal o 5 

bone o 6 

coal I 6 

dark slate o 3 

coal a 4 



Coal, Upper Freeport 



6 4 



Concealed 5 o 

Sandstone, massive, Roaring creek 80 o 

Slate, gray o 7 

Coal I 8 

Concealed to Little Kanawha river 50 o 

The Upper Freeport coal thins down rapidly as we descend 
the river, and where it is last mined, one mile above the ''FallSy" 
has the following structure: 

Ft In. Ft In. 
Coal 2 xo 1 



Shale o 

Coal I 



4 9 



The 'Tails" of the Little Kanawha river is in Braxton county, 
and there the Upper Freeport coal has got down nearly to water 
level, as shown by the following section: 

Ft In. Ft In. 



Sandstone, massive. Lower Mahoning 90 

Slate, black, cannelly i 

Shales and fireclay ao 

fcannel slate a o 

shales 5 o 

cannel slate 2 o 

coal o 7 

Fireclay ^ 10 

Shalv sandstone - 10 

Sandstone, massive, Roaring creek, in bed of Little 
Kanawha river xo 



Coal, Upper Freeport 



9 7 

o 
o 



Here the great coal bed we have seen around the heads of 
the Little Kanawha, has practically disappeared in a mass of oan- 
KELLY slates and shales, just before it dips down out of sight and 
passes under water level. The '^Falls'' is over the massive top 
of the great Roaring creek sandstone, which here rises from the 
water, and makes such a prominent feature in the topography 



460 



THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 



southward along the waters of the Little Kanawha, and across to 
the Buckhannon and Valley rivers. Northward from this no coal 
is found except the thin (W') Mason bed, which is mined about 
Bulltown, three miles below the * Tails," for local supply, until 
we come to the crop of the Pittsburg bed below Bumsville, twenty 
miles distant. 

In passing southwestward from the Little Kanawha waters to 
Holly river, the Upper Freeport bed maintains its large size, as 
witness the following section of the coal at the bank of M. S. 
Chipps, on Williams Camp run, a tributary of the Right fork of 
the Little Kanawha river: 

Ft In. Ft. In. 



Shale 

Coal I 4 

Bonecoal o lo 

Coal o 3 

Slate , o 5 

Bony coal o 7 

Dark, sandy shale o 10 

Coal I 2 

Slate o 

Splinly coal 2 

Slate o 

Coal I 

Bony coal o 



0% 
4 

8 

2 
4 



5 o 



9 "M 



The coal rises rapidly as we pass up the Right fork, and when 
we come to Cleveland, the top of the Pottsville is near water level, 
and the Upper Freeport bed is 600 to 600 feet higher in the hills, 
and has been mined on the land of Wilson Snyder, northwest of 
Cleveland one mile, at whose bank the following section is visible: 



Ft. In. Ft In. 



Sandstone . 



Coal, Upper Freeport.. 



coal . 
slate 
coal , 
slate , 
coal 
slate 



coal, soft I 

slate o 

coal, splinty a 

slate, gray o 

coal I 



5 o 



8 I 



At the working face of the coal, the following structure is 
visible: 



WE1§T VIRGINIA GBOLOGICAX SURVEY. 



451 



Ft In. Ft. In. 



S1atvcoal» top 

Coal I o 

Slate « o I 

Coal, soft I 6 

Coal, splinty i o 

Slate - o ID 

Coal ^ X 9 



6 2 



The coal is here 400 feet above the Little Kanawha river, and 
rising toward it, so that at Cleveland its horizon would be at least 
600 feet above water level, and possibly more, since the south- 
eastward rise is quite rapid. 

On Buffalo run and its tributaries, two miles southwest from 
Cleveland, the Upper Freeport coal has been opened on the land 
of Mr. Ferril and others, where it exhibits the following structure: 

Ft In. Ft. In. 



Blatycoal i o 

Coal I 6 

Slate o I 

Coal I o 

Slate o 3 

Coal, visible o lo 



4 8 



The coal has an elevation of 700 feet above the river at Cleve- 
land, and a very massive sandstone crops just below it in high 
cliffs. This is probably only the lower division of the coal, since 
the parting between the upper and lower half of the coal is often 
five to ten feet thick in the region between the Little Kanawha 
and Holly rivers. This is shown by the following section on the 
land of F. Wiedrig, near the Pickens and Hacker's valley road, 
in Webster county: 

Ft. In. Ft In. Ft. In. 

Coal o 8 ) 

Slate, dark o i h 5 3 

Coal 4 6 J 

Sandy beds and concealed 5 10 

Coal o 7 

Slate o 7 

Coal o 6 

Slate, gray o 5 

Coal I o [- 5 3 

Slate, gray o 2 

Coal ^ o 8 

Slate o o}l 

Coal I 3>iJ 



x6 4 



452 THE ALLBGHENY SERIES. 

On the land of Henry Spies, two miles east from Hacker's 
valley, the lower portion of this coal is exposed in the following 
section: 

Ft. In. Ft In. 

Coal, blosaom. 

Shales, sandy 5 o 

Coal, bony i 3 

Coal I a 

Bone o i 

Coal o II 

Fireclay o 7^ 

Coal o 7^ 

Slate, black ^ ;. o ij4 

Coal o io)< 



5 8 



The blossom of coal in the clay above the five foot of sandy 
shales, shows there is more of this coal bed in the concealed inter- 
val above. 

Farther down Holly, river, this coal has been mined in the 
summits of the hills, near Allen Anderson's mill, and its stmct- 
ure there is shown in the section given on page 364 of this volume, 
though it probably is not fully exposed at that locality. 

This coal is found in the hills along the Left fork of Holly 
river, below Anderson's mill, and has occasionally been mined by 
the farmers. 

Mr. Heron has an opening in the coal along the road to Pal- 
mer, one mile northeast from Mollahan's mill, where the coal is 
only partly exposed. The rock parting is about three feet thick 
at Heron's opening, and there is thirty inches of coal above it, 
and four to five feet of coal below the same. The bed has an ele- 
vation of 640 feet above Holly river, which is flowing in the top of 
the Pottsville series at MoUahan's mill. 

In passing down Holly river from Marpleton, at the forks of 
Holly, the rocks dip rapidly westward, and bring the Upper Free- 
port coal nearer water level, so that it is no longer in the summits 
of the hills, but only half-way to the summits, when we come to 
Palmer, at the mouth of Holly. 

The coal has been mined by Mr. Salsbury, on Bock run, 
about one mile northeast from Palmer, where it exhibits the fol- 
owing structure: 



4 5 



12 



WEST VIRGINIA GBOLOGICAL 8UBVBY. 463 

Ft In. Ft In. Ft. In. 

Sandstone, massive 30 o 

Darkshale o 6 

(coal I o 
shale, dark o 3 
coal I o 
bone o 4 
coal I 10 . 

Rock and slate parting 2 

f coal, slaty 16) 

Coal, <*bottom*M fireclay & shale.. 2 3 V 5 
(coal, good 2 o j 

The coal has the same rock parting here that characterizes it 
farther up Holly, and on the head of the Little ICanawha in 
Braxton, Lewis and Upshur counties. 

About one mile below Palmer this coal was once opened in the 
steep hill along Elk river, and an attempt made to mine it for use 
in the Holly River R. R. locomotives. Here we get the following 
section in descending from the summit to Elk river: 

Ft In. Ft In. 

Concealed and deep red marly shales 40 o 

Sandstone, massive and conceeded 140 o 

C4M1/, Mason, bony at top 2 4 

Concealed and massive, pebbly sandstone 130 o 

Shales, dark 5 o 

{coal, with bone 40^ 

sandstone and shale 30 V 10 o 

coal, slaty 3 o J 

Concealed and massive sandstone 160 o 

Concealed, with two coal beds 40 o 

Sandstone, massive 40 o 

Concealed to Elk river 50 o 

The section extends up into the marly red beds of the Cone- 
maugh, and shows conclusively that the great double-bedded coal 
which has been followed from the Buckhannon river to the Littie 
Kanawha, and across to Elk, can be nothing else than the Upper 
Freeport bed. 

We are also here in the well developed Kanawha series of 
rocks, since along both Elk and Holly rivers, the interval between 
this double bed of coal at the summit of the section, and the top 
of the Pottsville, is more than 600 feet. 

The Upper Freeport coal was transported down to the Holly 
River R. R. here through a chute constructed of boards, but the 
coal proved too slaty and poor to warrant its use in the looomo- 



454 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

lives, and the mine has been abandoned. The rock parting is 
about half sandstone at this locality. 

There are two slaty and impure coal beds in the forty feet of 
concealed interval, 160 feet below the Upper Freeport coal, each 
two and one-half to three feet thick, and ten to fifteen feet apart. 
They have both been opened and show in the cuts of the railroad 
near Palmer Junction, one mile below this locality. 

Where the B. & 0. railroad leaves Elk river along Flatwoods 
run, three miles below Palmer Junction, a fine exposure of the 
Upper Freeport coal is made by the cutting along the steep hill 
side, and there the following section was measured between the 
top of the steep grade and Elk river at Gillespie, below: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sandstone, massive 20 o 

icoal I 6 1 

shale o 6 > 2 8 

coal o 8 J 

Dark shale «. o 6 

Fireclay and shales 10 o 

Dark shales 10 o 

Concealed 2 o 

Sandstone, massive and concealed 80 o 

Shales and concealed 50 o 

{coal I 6 
shale I 6 
coal 2 o 

Sandy shales 15 o 

Coal I 3 

Shales 6 o 

Coal o 3 

Concealed to Elk river at Gillespie 10 o 

The coal at the top of this section is all that is left of the Up- 
per Freeport seam, which, with its rock parting, is ten feet thick 
only four miles distant, in the section below Palmer. The Lower 
Mahoning sandstone rests in immediate contact with the coal, and 
has evidently cut away the upper bench of the bed entirely. 

As we pass down Elk river from Gillespie, the Upper Free- 
port bed dips rapidly, and goes under water level near the mouth 
of Bee run, two and one-half miles above Sutton, while the mas- 
sive Mahoning sandstone makes a great cliff along Elk. The coal 
has been mined at the roadside, one mile above Bee run, where it 
is splinty and two and one-hall to three feet thick, and all in one 
bed, unless, indeed, ten to twelve inches of coal thirty feet above, 
and directly under a great cliff of pebbly sandstone, could repre- 



.... yj V 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOQIGAL 8UBVET. 466 

sent the upper division of the Freeport coal with the parting rocks 
greatly thickened. 

Fletcher Morrison has a mine in this coal on Wolf creek, a 
short distance above its mouth, from which the town of Sutton, 
three miles below, is partly supplied. The coal is three feet 
thick and has about twelve inches of ^^splinty" coal near its 
center. 

About four miles southward up Wolf creek from its mouth, 
this same coal thickens to five and one-half feet, and has been 
mined by Mr. Stalnaker just above a great cliff of massive sand- 
stone, and 200 feet above water level. The coal is hard and 
splinty, with a slate parting two and one-half inches thick naar 
the middle. 

When the coal dips imder the level of Elk river, above Sut- 
ton, it remains beneath the same imtil we paaa the mouth of 
Strange creek, twenty-five miles below. There an anticlinal roll 
brings the coal once more above the level of Elk river, where It 
has been mined on the land of John Duffy, just^below tibe moatii 
of Tate creek, and near the Clay-Braxton county line. It is about 
sixty feet above the water level of Elk river, and reported to be 
four feet thick. 

It is this coal which thickens up to six feet at the mouth of O'Bri- 
ens creek, two miles farther down Elk and has long been mined 
there for local supply. The thick coal is **pookefy," however, 
since it thins away both up and down the river. Some of the coal 
at O'Briens creek is of the soft, coking tyi>e, which characterizes 
the bed in the northern end of the state. The opening had fallen 
shut when visited, so that no details of the structure eould be ob- 
tained. That the deposit is local, however, is shown by the fact 
that, although the horizon of this coal is above water level aloi^ 
Elk, from O'Briens creek down to Clay Court House, eightoen 
miles below, no workings or openings exist on the bed, and ai 
Clay it is a mere mass of black slate, in which we find only a few 
inches of coal, 90 to 100 feet above the river, and it continues un- 
important on down Elk, so far as known. 

Where the Charleston road leaves the immediate vaUey of 
Elk river, twelve miles below Clay, this coal is exposed <m a little 
stream, and there the following section was measured : 



456 



THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 



Ft. In. Ft In. 



Sandstone, massive 15 o 

Coal, slaty o 6 

Fireclay shales 3 6 

Coal, bony o 6 

Coal, splint, good 2 o 



Bone o 10 

Fireclay i 6 

Bony coal i 6 

Coal, good I 2 

Dark shales and concealed to Elk river 



II 6 



35 o 



This begins again to resemble the thick type of the coal seen 
on Holly and Elk rivers, except that the portion above the parting 
shales is thin and unimportant. In the hills at this locality, we 
come to the top of a great, massive sandstone, 430 feet above the 
Upper Freeport bed, and then come the red beds of the Cone- 
maugh series. 

The Upper Freeport coal is seen for the last time as we de- 
scend Elk river, at the mouth of Porters creek, twenty-three miles 
below Clay Court House, and there the following interesting sec- 
tion was measured: 

Ft. In. Ft In. 



Kanawha black flint 

Dark, sandy shales 

fcoal o 

slate o 

coal, good I 

shale, gray i 

coal, bony 2 

shale, dark 3 

coal, splint i 

shale o 

coal o 

shale 2 

[coal, good « I 

Concealed to level of Elk river 



Coal, Upper Freeport 



5 o 
7 o 



« 5 



20 o 



On above this thick coal at about 200 feet, we find the outcrop 
of the Mason coal, and then at 420 feet we come to the lowest rbd 
BEDS of the Conemaugh series, so that there can be no doubt that 
the thick bed of coal shown in this section is identical with the 
thick coal in Braxton, Webster, Upshur, Lewis, Randolph and 
Barbour, which we have now followed across the state until the 
Kanawha black flint appears in its roof, thus fixing the horizon of 
the flint at the base of the Conemaugh series. 

On below Porters creek, the coal dips under the river silts, and 
soon gets below Elk river, since at Queen Shoals, three miles 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 457 

farther down, the black flint itself goes under the Elk, and noth- 
ing more is seen either of it or the underlying coal until we come to 
Charleston, where both rise from the bed of the Great Kanawha> 
under the bridge across that stream, one-half mile or more above 
the mouth of Elk river. 

The different phases of this coal bed in the Great Kanawha 
region, and beyond there to the southwest, we shall discuss when 
treating of the Allegheny-Kanawha series. 

This coal has been opened on Buffalo creek, near the mouth 
of Sand Fork, in Clay county, by Mr. McMuUpus. The coal is 
only partially exposed at the digging by the roadside, and exhibits 
the following structure: 

Ft. In. Ft In. 

Coal, blossom 

Shales, dark 5 o 

Coal ^ 3 1 

Whale o 8 

Coal o 5 4 7 

Shale o 9 

Cofll, visible 2 6 

There is the appearance of coal in the clay above the five feet 
of dark shales, and this is most probably the upper bench of this 
coal. 

The coal rises southward about as fast as the beds of the 
streams, and two miles up Dog run we see the following at an 
opening near the Clay- Nicholas road: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sandstone, massive 

Concealed 10 o 

Blue shales 4 o 

{coal 2 6 1 
shale, gray 3 4 f 7 2 
coal, visible i 4 J 

This is near the line between the Cameron-Brokerhoff land 
and that of W. T. Hamrick. 

It has also been dug into one mile and a-half farther up Dog 
run, not far from the Clay- Nicholas county line, and 200 feet be- 
low the top of a very massive, pebbly sandstone deposit 

Where the Summersville road crosses the Lily fork of Buffalo 
creek, in the northern edge of Nicholas county, this coal and the 
overl3ring Kanawha black flint are both present, although the 
coal is quite thin, as shown by the following section: 



458 



THB ALLBQHBNT SERIES. 



Ft In. Ft In. 

Kanawha black flint, visible 5 o 

Dark, sandj shale ~ 2 o 

{coal o 10 ) 

fireclay o } }• i 9 

coal o 8 J 

Fireclay 2 o 

Sandstone to creek level 5 o 

About four miles southeast from this, and nearly 500 feet 
higher, this coal has been opened on the waters of Muddlety creek, 
by Joseph Robinson, just north from the Summersville road, and 
one-half mile from Muddlety creek. The coal is only partially ex- 
posed, but four feet of splinty coal is visible. 

One mile below this, and opposite the old Valley Hotel, on 
the land of H. B. Herold, the Upper Freeport coal has been mined 
for local supply 400 feet above Muddlety creek, where the follow- 
ing measurement was made: 

Ft In. Ft. In. 



Coal I 6 

Shale 46 

Cannel, impure o 8 

Coal, soft 2 6 

Slate, dark i 8 

Coal, splint 2 6 



13 4 



Here the coal has recovered its great thickness shown in Lew- 
is, Upshur, and Webster. It is possible that where it shows so 
thin under the black flint, only five to six miles distant from 
this locality, more of the coal may be present under the sand- 
stone, shown in the bed of the stream. 

At the head of Glade creek, about three miles east from Her- 
old' s bank, a small area of this coal is caught in the summits of 
the hills, on the land of J. R. Tyree, where it has long been mined 
for local supply. The coal has the following structure at Tyree' s 
bank: 



Ft In. 



Sandstone and concealed from top of knob 

'coal, soft 5 



Coal, Upper Freeport 



shale, jrray, sandy... 2 o 

coal, splint i 10 

bone o 2 

coal, splinty 4 10 



Ft In. 
• 75 o 

13 10 



The lower bench of the coal was mined for several years be- 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



459 



fore it was known that there was any coal above, when finally a 
'*f all-in'* of the roof took place, and revealed the five feet of coal 
above. The upper bench is not mined, but it looks like good coal 
and is much softer than the lower bench, much of which is a gen- 
uine splint coal, and highly prized for domestic purposes. 

This coal lies more than 600 feet almost vertically above Mc- 
Millan creek, and along it K. B. McCue has opened a coal forty- 
two inches thick, with one inch of dark gray slate near its center. 
The coal is only fifteen feet above the level of the creek, and 
would be one of the Kanawha series, either the Cedar Grove, or 
uppermost division of the CampbelTs creek bed. 

At the head of Stroud creek, near the line between Webster 
and Nicholas counties, the Upper Freeport coal has been mined 
on the land of Dr. D. M. Lewis and others, and it exhibits the 
following succession at the Lewis mine: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Upper bench 



Lower bench - 



S lo 



cannel o 5 

coal, splinty .... 4 o 

coal, soft o 4 

black slate o i 

coal o 6 

[ black, coaly slate o 6 

Parting slate, gray 3 o 

f coal, soft I 10 1 

fireclay i o I 

coal, soft o 10 y 40 

slate o I 

coal o 3 



^ 12 10 



r 



In Powell mountain, Nicholas county, at the head of Mud- 
dlety (Mumble-the-Peg) creek, this coal has been mined for local 
use, and there the following section was observed in descending 
the Weston and Gauley Bridge Turnpike from the summit of Mud- 
dlety creek: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Massive, pebbly sandstone from top of Powell Mt 180 o 

Coal, laree blossom, Mason 5 o 

Concealed 5 o 

Sandstone, massiye 85 o 

Coal, blossom, Mahoning 

Sandstone and shales 50 o 

fcoal, blossom i o 



15 3 



[Coal... -j black slate .. o 3 
(coal, splinty.. 2 o 
Concealed, sandstone, and shales 50 



460 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

{coal ^ ' ^ 1 

shales 80 V 10 o 

coal I o 3 

Sandstones, shales and sandstone 80 o 

Coal 2 6 

Sandstone and shales 50 o 

Coa/, blossom i 6 

Concealed and shales 50 o 

Coaly slate i o 

Sandstone and shales • 30 o 

Coal 2 o 

Shales, sandy 15 o 

Coaly streak and black slate 10 o 

Concealed to bed of Muddlety creek ^ 50 o 

Total - .672 3 

Of this section, 325 feet at the top belong in the Conemaugh 
series, while the balance (3470 is in the Allegheny- Kanawha se- 
ries, and hence it is probably 200 feet or more down to the horizon 
of the Campbells creek coal, which comes out of the bed of Mud- 
dlety creek, four miles below the locality of the section, at 550 to 
600 feet imder the Upper Freeport coal. 

From Powell mountain, this coal can be followed in the sum- 
mits northeastward to Laurel creek, as shown in the section on 
page 366 of this volume, and thence to the Elk river and across to 
Holly, capping the Allegheny-Kanawha series at about 600-650 
feet above the Pottsville, while above it, and crowning the highest 
peaks, we find 150 to 300 feet of the great cliffs of massive, pebbly 
sandstones, which everywhere form the base of the Conemaugh. 
From Holly to the Gauley river waters on Stroud creek, t"he Up- 
per Freeport coal coming, as it does, high in the summits of the 
lofty hills, has been but slightly explored, though all of the farm- 
ers appear to be aware of its presence. When opened, only one 
bench of the coal is usually mined, so that its entire thickness is 
seldom seen within the region in question. About five to six feet 
of coal is generally reported at this horizon along Elk, Laurel, and 
Birch. 

From Herold's, on Muddlety creek, south westward, this thick 
coal can be followed in the summits of the hills across to Peters 
creek, and down the same until the Kanawha black flint again 
comes into its roof, and remains with it on south westward to the 
Qreat Kanawha river, where this coal has been termed the Stock- 
ton CANNEL, and where we shall leave it now to be taken up again 
when we come to describe the Allegheny -Kanawha series. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL BRUVHY. 461 

MIDDLE FREEPORT COAL, 

In the type section given from Freeport, Pennsylvania, page 
342 of this volume, a small coal bed occurs at twenty-five feet be- 
low the Upper Freeport bed, and intermediate between the latter 
and the Lower Freeport coal. It is possible that this stratum is a 
local offshoot from the main Upper Freeport coal above, and rep- 
resents the **bottom" member of the same below the **big" slate 
of Monongalia and Preston counties, since at one point on Deck- 
ers creek this parting slate is observed to thicken from four up to 
ten feet within a few yards. 

Along the Valley river in the Philippi r^on, and also in the 
Roaring creek field farther south, there is often found a bed of 
coal, two to three feet thick, and only ten to twenty-five feet below 
the main Upper Freeport bed. It is possible, indeed quite proba- 
ble, that this stratum represents the coal below the **big" slate of 
Preston county, and when separated so far from its parent bed, 
may be termed the Middle Freeport coal. 

Although it has been noted at many points along the Valley 
river, it has been fully exposed and mined at only one, viz: at the 
plant of the Maryland Smokeless Coal Company, below Leiter, near 
the mouth of Roaring creek, Randolph county. Here it lies 
twenty-three feet below the Upper Freeport bed, and exhibits the 
following structure: 

Ft. In. Ft In. 



Coal o lo 

Bony coal „ o 6 

Coal I 8 

Sandy shale and bone o 8 

Coal I 3 



4 II 



The coal, as will be perceived from the section, contains much 
sandy and bony material, but the coal itself looks very rich and 
good. 

There are doubtless other localities where this coal is thick 
enough to mine, but so far as known it has not been mined else- 
where separately from the Upper Freeport bed above. 

THE BOLIVAR FIRECLAY. 

The Bolivar fireclay, which is quite important at many local- 
ities in Pennsylvania, has not yet been developed to any extent in 
West Virginia. 



462 THB ALLBGHSNY SERIES. 

On Deckers creek, near Dellslow, Monongalia county, this 
clay has been opened and tested at many localities on the Pixler 
iann, where it contains some very good hard, or flint clay, as well 
as several feet of soft, or plastic clay. 

This horizon will doubtless furnish fireclay at many localities 
in the state when properly exploited and opened. 

THE UPPER FREEPORT LIMESTONE. 

Lying at an interval of five to twenty feet under the Upper 
Freeport coal, there occurs in Preston and eastern Monongalia a 
limestone of wide distribution in Pennsylvania, but so far as ob- 
served in West Virginia, with the exception of Hancock county at 
the north, is confined to the two counties mentioned. It has been 
quarried by the farmers at many localities in Preston, and burned 
into lime for agricultural purposes. It is usually found in several 
layers, separated by shales, the whole having a thickness of ten to 
fifteen feet It is a fresh, or brackish water deposit, no marine 
fossils having been seen in it either in West Virginia or Pennsyl- 
vania. 

The uppermost layers of the limestone are sometimes changed 
to carbonate of iron, as on Deckers creek, near Dellslow, where 
some iron ore was once mined and used in the old furnace there. 

THE ROARING CREEK SANDSTONE. 
(Upper Freeport Sandstone.) 

Cropping a short distance below the thick Upper Freeport coal, 
there occurs, over a wide area of the state, a very massive and of- 
ten pebbly sandstone, which appears to come at the same horizon 
as the Upper Freeport sandstone of Pennsylvania. It is especially 
well developed and massive along Roaring creek, in Randolph 
county, forming the '^falls'' on that stream, fifty feet or more 
in heighth, which gave origin to the name of the creek. The 
stratum is frequently fifty to seventy-five feet in thickness, and oc- 
casionally, as near the mouth of Beaver creek on the Valley river, 
appears to unite with the next underlying sandstone, and form 
one solid mass of nearly 200 feet. It is this rock which comes out 
of the Valley river below Philippi, where ihe rapids in that stream 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 463 

begin, and forms a line of bold cliffs on either side of the valley 
for several miles down the river, being especially prominent at 
Moatsville and vicinity. The stratum is generally quite pebbly, 
and immense blocks of it, much resembling those from the Potts- 
viUe series, litter up the surface whenever its massive crop appears 
above water level. The upper portion of the stratum has been 
quarried to a small extent along the Valley river in the vicinity of 
Junior and above. It is quite hard and durable, though it does 
not split very regularly. It is this stratum which makes the 
**FallB" of the Little Kanawha in Braxton county, and it is espec- 
ially massive on all of the headwaters of that stream, and across 
to the Buckhannon river, along which it makes a constant line of 
great cliffs, from where it rises above water level at Sago, until it 
passes into the air from the summits of the mountains above 
Pickens. 

At many points along the Great Kanawha river, and across to 
the Tug fork of Big Sandy, a sandstone at this horizon assumes 
enormous proportions, often 200 to 300 feet in thickness, appar- 
ently, by coalescing with underlying sandy deposits. In such 
cases the coals which belong under the Roaring creek sandstone 
disappear entirely. 

The rock is termed the Roaring creek sandstone in preference 
to Upper Freeport sandstone, since there is some doubt about the 
identity of the rocks in question, and then, too, the name **Upper 
Freeport'* is already preoccupied by the coal and limestone liyeds 
above. 

THE LOWER FREEPORT COAL. 

At forty-five to seventy-five feet below the great coal deposit 
at the top of the Allegheny series, there generally occurs another 
coal horizon, which was also named from the town of Freeport, on 
the Allegheny river, by the First Greological Survey of Pennsyl- 
vania. The section from its type locality, given on pages 342-3 of 
this volume, shows that the Ix>wer Freeport coal, like the Up- 
per one, is also a multiple bed, and that possibly in other regions 
of Pennsylvania and West Virginia, it may have separated into 
two distinct seams, thus adding to the difficulty of the strati- 
grapher in the correlation of the coal beds. 

In the northern Pan Handle of the state, the Lower Fres- 



464 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

PORT COAL overshadows the Upper one in its development, since, 
according to the identifications of the Ohio geologists, the latter- 
is thin or wanting entirely along the Ohio river, while the former 
is the **Roger'' vein or main workable bed of the group. The 
writer accepts this identification tentatively, but is not entirely 
satisfied therewith, since it is possible that the rock intervals have 
thinned in the Allegheny series and that the **Roger" vein may be 
the Upper Freeport bed. However, we shall call it the Lower 
Preeportfor the present, and describe the ''Roger" vein of the 
New Cumberland region, under the name of the Lower Freeport. 
It was formerly opened and mined at many places in the hills 
overlooking New Cumberland, but in recent years it has been ne- 
glected for the Mahoning coal, higher up in the hills. One small 
mine in operation on the land of William Chatman, along the 
old incline, up to the abandoned mine in the Mahonmg coal, re- 
veals the following stnicture: 

Fl In. Ft In. 

Mahoning coal 4 o 

Concealed 40 9 

Sandstone, massive ao 6 

Bhales, sandy 30 o 

Coal, "Roger," f«^^ % \\ , . 

Lower Freeport \^ -—"-Zl ^ \ ^ ^ 

The upper bench is the better coal, there being more sulphur 
in the bottom. A section of the coal farther in the mine exhibits 
the following structure, which the miners say is more general than 
the one given above, from near the mine mouth: 

Ft In. Ft. In. 



Coal 

Slate o 2 [" 2 9 

Coal 



I 6 I 

2 [" 

1 I J 



This coal lies only about 120 to 130 feel above the Lower Kittan- 
ning coal, with its great underlpng fireclay, and it is this short in- 
terval, as well as the great interval, (330 feet) from it up to the 
Crinoidal limestone, in the summits of the hills, which induced 
the later Ohio geologists to correlate this bed with the Lower Free- 
port seam of Pennsylvania, although Dr. Newberry, in Vol. Ill, 
Ohio Geology, pages 756-762, holds to its equivalency with the 
Coal No. 6 of the Ohio series, which he elsewhere correlates with 
the Upper Freeport bed. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 465 

About one-half mile above the mouth of King's creek, which 
puts into the Ohio river three miles below New Cumberland, this 
coal is seen at the fine exposure made by Caspari's stone quarry. 
It is there only twenty to twenty-four inches thick, and 100 feet 
above the Middle Kittanning coal, which is exposed directly under 
the great quarry sandstone. 

About two miles above the mouth of King's creek, this coal 
is at the roadside, where it has been mined and exhibits the fol- 
lowing structure: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Sandstone, massive, visible lo o 

Sandy shales, with iron ore nodules 15 o 

{coal 23) 
slate, gray o a V 3 8 
coal I 3 J 



The coal is known as the 'Tour-foot" seam on King's creek, 
and has been mined near Osbum's mill for local supply, where it 
exhibits the following structure on the land of R. A. Osbum: 



Fc In. Ft. In. 

Coal 29) 

Blate, gray o 2 V 4 3 

Coal I 4 J 



The coal varies from four to five feet in thickness, and has a 
very good reputation, both for steam and domestic purposes. 

The coal is mined in this region by Frank Morrow, Hugh 
Forsha, David Henderson, and William Logan, and on the land 
of the latter it dips under King's creek, about three miles west 
from the Pennsylvania- West Virginia line. 

About two miles south from the mouth of Kings creek, the 
southward dip of the rocks carries the horizon of this coal below 
water level of the Ohio river, and when we come to the Pan Han- 
dle Junction, opposite Steubenville, the coal is more than 100 feet 
below the bed of the Ohio, according to the late Dr. Newberry, 
who, in Geology of Ohio, Vol. III., page 759, states that this coal 
has been mined under the bed of the Ohio river to the West Vir- 
ginia side of the same, by the Rolling Mill shaft of the Jefferson 
Iron Company, at Steubenville, and that the coal is 120 feet below 
low water on the Ohio side» and 140 feet below the same datum 
2000 feet east, near the West Virginia side of the river. 

The coal is stated to be three feet, eight inches thick, with a 



466 THE ALLBQHENY SERIES. 

parting of slate nine inches above the bottom. In the shaft of 
the Cincinnati Coal & Coke Company, near the JefFerson's, the 
coal is three feet, nine inches, to four feet in thickness, and has a 
parting of day, one inch thick, twelve inches above the bottom. 
This structure, given by Dr. Newberry, agrees with that shown 
at New Cumberland, and on King's creek, and there is no doubt 
that the '^Steubenville shaft" coal is the Fame as the '*Roger" 
vein of the hill mines at New Cumberland, and opposite on the 
Ohio side. 

This coal was once mined by a shaft at Wellsburg, Brooke 
county, which started on the river terrace about forty-five feet 
above low water. No details of the structure of the coal are ob- 
tainable, but it is reported to be four feet thick at 235 feet below 
the mouth of the shaft, or about 190 feet below the bed of the Ohio 
river. 

On the opposite side of the river, the LaGrange Coal Comjm- 
ny (P^e 760, Vol. Ill, Ohio Geology) reports the coal as 183J 
feet below low water, with the following structure: 

Ft. In. Ft In. . 



Coal 2 lo 

Slate o I 

Coal I 8 

Slate o I 

Coal o 7 



5 3 



At this point the coal lies 640 feet below the Pittsburg bed, 
which crops in the hills above. 

Farther south, at the Rush run shaft, this coal thickens lo- 
cally to nine feet, according to Dr. Newberry, but it there has 
more slate partings, and is not so pure as when thinner. The 
coal was formerly successfully coked, and used in the manufacture 
of iron at Steubenville, Mingo, and other points in the Ohio 
valley. 

The following analyses oy Prof, T. G. Worm ley, of the Ohio 
Survey, quoted from page 779, Vol. Ill, 1. c. will give an idea ol 
the chemical composition of this coal along the Ohio Valley: 

I II III IV V VI 

Water 1.40 1.90 1.77 r. 81. 2.00 1.40 

V. M 32.30 31.30 38.73 39.21 34.60 3a90 

F. C 60. 60 62. 20 57. 21 53. 96 58. 60 65. 90 

Ash 4.80 4.60 1.65 3.76 4.80 1.80 



WEST VIRGINIA GBOLOQICAL SURVEY. 467 

Sulphur 2.08 2.06 0.64 1.26 2.20 0.96 

Sulphur in coke 1. 12 0.96 ^ a 38 

I. Upper bench at Rush rmn shaft, 

ir. Lower ** ** '' 

III. Upper bench at LaGrangt shaft. 

IV. Lower ** " " 
V. Minp;o shaft. 

VI. SteubenviDe shaft. 

These analyses reveal a coal very low in ash and of excellent 
quality generally, so that its importance to the future of the iron 
industry of the Ohio valley may be very great, especially in th^ 
vicinity of Wheeling, where this coal, as recorded by the boring at 
the Central Glass Company's works, occurs at a depth of about 
450 feet below the level of the Ohio river, and 563 feet below the 
Pittsburg coal, with a reported thickness of seven feet. It is pos- 
sible that in the near future the great iron industries of Wheeling 
may find it necessary to exploit this coal for coke as their cheapest 
source of supply, if proper exploration with the diamond drill 
should prove it to have commercial value. 

It is probably from the base of this same coal bed at Linton, 
Columbiana county, Ohio, opposite the northern end of Hancock 
county, that Dr. Newbeiry discovered the rich Fish and Batra* 
chian fauna desciibed by Cope in Vol. II, Paleontology of Ohio, 
pages 351-411. 

This coal is represented in eastern Monongalia county at the 
head of Booth's creek, where it is sixty feet below the Upper 
Freeport coal, and reported to be four feet thick, with a slaty 
parting below its middle, having formerly been mined on the land 
of Mr. Dalt^m and others. 

This coal also shows in the cut at Deep Hollow, on the M. & 
K. R. R., near Dellslow, where it is only a foot thick and about 
fifty feet under the Upper Freeport bed. Its horizon is also indi- 
cated by a coaly streak on top of a fireclay deposit in the Gamble 
lot boring, (page 346) at fifty seven and one-half feet under the 
same coal. 

In Preston county this coal is known as the * 'Three-foot' ' bed, 
and has been mined occasionally by the farmers. An old opening 
in this coal, on the land of D. K. Ryan, one mile east from Pis- 
gah, shows it forty-five to fifty feet below the Upper Freeport bed, 



468 THE ALLEGHENY 8EBIE8. 

where the coal is reported to be three and one-half feet thick, 
and of good quality, though it has a slate parting one foot above 
the bottom. 

On the south side of Cheat, in the river hills near the mouth 
of Bull run, this coal has been dug into on the land of Daniel 
Lyons, at sixty feet under his opening in the Upper Freeport 
ooal. The bed is not fully exposed, but a slate parting is visible 
one foot above the bottom, and the coal is somewhat bony and 
slaty, on the crop at least. 

In the Sanford Watson boring (page 346) this coal was struck 
at sixty-five feet below the Upper Freeport bed, but it was only 
thirteen inches thick, while in the sections at Cut 80 and Newburg 
(pages 348-9) its horizon is indicated only by fireclay and some 
coaly slate, at fifty-five and forty-five feet respectively below the 
Upper Freeport bed. 

Where the Chestnut ridge arch crosses the Valley river, near 
the line between Marion and Taylor coimties, we find a bed of coal, 
five to six feet thick, at 125 to 140 feet above the Lower Sattanning 
seam, which appears to correspond with the Lower Freeport coal, 
though, as stated on page 423, it may yet turn out to be the Upper 
one, with the interval between it and the Lower Kittanning bed 
greatly decreased. It is exposed for about six miles along the 
main line of the B. & 0. R. R. • from where it rises above water 
level, one mile below Powell siding, in Marion county, to where 
it again dips under the Valley river at Bush, in Taylor county. 

This coal has recently been opened by the Valley Falls Coal 
& Coke Company, of Pittsburg, a short distance below Bush, Tay- 
lor county, where preparations are being made to coke the coal, as 
well as to ship it for fuel. The following sections, made in differ- 
ent portions of the mine, will exhibit the structure of the coal at 
Bush: 

I II 

Ft. In. Ft In. 

Gray slate 

Cannel 03 04 

Coal 13 14 

Bony coal 07 08 

Coal, good 24 28 

Totals 45 50 

The upper bench of the coal is rather hard, and occasionally 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



469 



contains streaks of bone, but the lower bench is a beautiful, bright, 
pure-looking coal, and should make an excellent quality of coke, 
so far as one might judge from its physical appearance. 

The dip is quite rapid to the southeast, and at the mouth of 
Wickwire run, one mile above the coke ovens, the coal is about 
100 feet below the Valley river, thus indicating a dip of more than 
150 feet to the mile. 

At Valley Falls, two miles below Bush, this coal thickens up 
to nearly eight feet, but it contains much slate and bone, as shown 
in the section on page 355. 

At Hammond, Marion county, two miles below Valley Falls, 
this coal has been opened up by the Hammond Brick Company, 
and it is there exposed in the following section: 

Ft In, Ft. In. 

Sandstone, massive, Lower Mahoning 6o o 

Shales and concealed, with a thin coal bed 8o o 

rslatycannel i o 1 

<^^^1 ^ ° I 6 o 

shale, graj i o I 

[coal 2 o J 

Concealed 35 o 

rr^^i /coal, good 2 o \ , ^ 

^^''^••l coal and clay mixed 16/^^ 

Fireclay, plastic 8 o 

Sandstone, massive, and concealed loo o 

C<?a/, Lower Kittanning o- 3 o 

Fireclay 5- 10 o 

Concealed to level of B. & O. R. R. at Hammond, 
(formerly Nuzums) and to near the top of the 

Pottsville series 70 o 

This section is quite puzzling, since it raises a doubt as to 
whether the coal called Lower Freeport, may not really bd the 
Upper one, the interval between it and the Lower Kittanning bed 
below, having thinned away. Of course, in that event, the coal 
twenty-five feet below it would be the Lower Freeport bed, and 
the blossom of the coal in the concealed interval above, would be 
the Mahoning instead of the Upper Freeport. This question is 
left open for future detailed studies to settle. 

Near Powell siding, below Hammond, this coal shows the 
following structure in a section exposed in the steep hill along the 
B. & 0. R. R, where once mined for domestic use: 



Coal^ Lower Freeport 



470 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 



Ft. In. Ft In. 

Sandstone, massive, pebbly (Upper Mahoning) 50 o 

Concealed, flaggy sandstone, and shales with lime- 
stone nodules 95 o 

Sandstone, massive, coarse 10 o 

Gray shales, sandy 15 o 

fcannel, impure o 6 

coal I 10 

bonycoal o 8 

coal o II 

slate o I 

[coal I 7 

Concealed and shales 40 o 

Sandstone, massive 22 o 

Cofl/, visible 2 o 

Concealed to level of Valley river 60 o 



Coal, Lower Freeport 



5 7 



A mile below this point the coal dips under the bed of Valley 
river and we see it no more, in that direction, (west), until it re- 
appears on the other slope of the Appalachian basin, in Hancock 
county, as already described. 

In the boring at Webster, Taylor county, the record of which - 
is given on page 356, this coal was struck at a depth of 267 feet, 
and forty- four feet below the coal identified as the Upper Freeport 
bed. It has a thickness of nearly six feet there, and exhibits 
practically the same structure as in the last section, near Powell 
siding. 

Just above Moatsville, Barbour county, two to three feet of 
coal occurs along the cuttings of the B. & 0. R. R., and sixty-five 
to seventy feet under the Upper Freeport bed, which probably 
represents the Lower Freeport coal. It is squeezed out entirely at 
some places along the railroad, in the great mass of coarse sand- 
stone, which appears there below the Upper Freeport coal. 

In the Roaring creek basin, a thin coal is seen under the great 
sandstone, (Roaring creek) near the mouth of that stream, which 
may possibly represent the Lower Freeport bed. 

On Buckhannon river, this coal first shows along the railroad, 
near the old mill, two miles above Sago, just beneath the great 
Roaring creek sandstone, and seventy-five to eighty feet below the 
Upper Freeport coal, both of which are shown in the section on 
page 443 of this volume. It crops near track level for about four 
miles, along the Buckhannon above this point, but nowhere has 
enough coal in one layer to be commercially valuable. 

On Little Wild Cat run, in the Pan Handle of Lewis county, 
this coal swells up to a thickness of nearly twelve feet, where 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 471 

opened on the land of George Kincaid, as shown in the section on 
page 448, but more than half of this is slate and bony material, so 
that the bed is practically worthless. The coal is here about 108 
feet below the Upper Freeport bed. 

Near the mouth of Short nm, on the LitUe Kanawha river, 
seven miles above the **Falls,'' a coal has been dug by strif^ing, 
on the land of Milton Rexroad, which probably represents this 
bed, since it comes about 100 feet below the Upper Freeport coal, 
and just under a massive sandstone. Only twenty inches of the 
coal is visible at the Rexroad stripping. 

When traced across to the Great Kanawha river, this coal ap- 
pears to correlate with the Coalburg bed, 80 to lOOJeet below the 
Kanawha black flint, but it will be described in that portion of 
' the state under the next chapter on the Allegheny-Kanawha 
series. 

It is probably the Lower Freeport bed which is mined along 
the Elk river, in the vicinity of Clay Court House, Clay county. 

In the North Potomac basin of Tucker, Grant, and Mineral 
counties, this coal is often represented by a thin bed at forty to 
sixty feet below the Upper Freeport seam, but it has never been 
mined on a commercial scale, so far as known, because it is seldom 
more than one to two feet in thickness. The place of this coal in the 
section together with its thickness in the Potomac basin is shown 
by the sections on pages 352 and 354 of this volume. 

THE FLORA OF THE FREEPORT COALS. 

Mr. David White, of the U. S. G. Survey, Washington, D. C. 
has studied the fossil plants found in the roof shales of both the 
Upper and Lower Freeport coal beds of Pennsylvania, and has 
published a list of the same in the Bulletin of the Geological So- 
ciety of America, Vol. XL, pages 153-5, which is here quoted, as 
follows: 

FREEPORT GROUP, 

^' Plant beds and localities. —The term. "Freeport group'* has been ap- 
plied*to the remaining upper portion of the Allegheny series, including the 
two Freeport coals, and extending from the top of the Upper Kittanning 
coal to the top of the Upper Freeport coal. This division of the aeries 
is subject to considerable variation, chiefly by the expansion of the two 
Freeport sandstones; but in Clarion county it appears to average about 150 
feet in thickness. 

♦Report of Progress, Second Geological Survey Pa^ VV, pp. 33, 54* 



472 THE ALLBQHENT SERIES. 

"In considering the flora accompanying the Upper Preeport coal, I in- 
clude the plants in the roof of that coal, though, strictly speaking, the shales 
belong to the base of the Mahoning sandstone, as that name is customarily, 
but often inappropriately, applied. From the roof of the Lower Preeport 
coal, collections of plants have been made at Big Soldier run (R. ) near Rey- 
ftoldsville; Elk run (B. R.), and Horatio, (H. ), near Punxsntawney, in Jef- 
ferson county, and at the Dubois shaft (Dub. ) and the Shawmnt mines 
(Shaw. ), in Clearfield county. 

"The roof of the Upper Preeport coal contains good plant fossils at the 
Brackenbush mines (Brack. ) about two miles east of Preeport, at Sheliley 
(Sh. ), at the Gilpin (Gil. ), and Hiddon (Had. j mines near Bagdad, and at 
Pine run, near Vandergrift (Van. ), all in the vicinity of Preeport, Armstrong 
county, and at Coal Glen, C G. ), in Jefferson county. 

^*SpecUs from the Freeport gronp, — ^As in the preceding lists, the plants 
from each horizon may be separated by grouping the species according to 
the localities, as indicated in the abbreviated forms therein given. 

Name. I/>cality. 

Mariopteris nervosa (Brongn. ) Zeill Shaw., Hon, Gil., E. R. 

" sillimani (Brongn) D. W R., Dub., Hor, 

Puudopecopteris squamosa (Lx.) (large) Dub., Sh. 

Sphenopteris pseudomurrayana Lx.? Hor., E. R. 

" cf. mixta Schimp Dub. 

Pecopteris dentata Brongn Hor. 

" unita Brongn R., C. G. 

** squamosal,^ 

" villosa Bongn.? Hor., Dub., Gil., Sh., Had., 

E. R., Gil., R., Shaw. 

** pennceformis Brongn. [Lesq.J Sh., C. G. 

** oreopteridia (Schloth.) Brongn Hor., Dub., Gil., Sh., E. R., 

R. , Shaw. 

** polymorpha ^Ton^n Hor., Dub., Had., E. R. 

** pteroides Brongn? Dub. 

A lethopteris serlii {Brongn.) Goepp Hor., Gil. 

** pennsylvanica Lx C. G. 

Callipteridium neuropteroides Lx? Dub. 

Neuropteris ovata Hoffm Brack., Gil., Sh., Hor., E. R. 

Dub., R., Shaw. 

** clarksoni Lt^ Hor. 

'* scheuchzeri Hoffm Had., Brack., Gil., Sh., Hor. 

E. R., Shaw., P., Dub.y 
C. G. , R. 

Linopteris obliqua (Bunby) Pot Hor.. E. R„ R. 

Catamites cistii Brongn Sh., Hor. 

sp ,...Dub. 

Calamitina sp R., Hor. 

Asterophyllites equisetiformis (Schloth) Brongn.Hor., E. R.,;Dub. 



WEST VIBGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 478 

Annularia sUl/aia {Sch\oth,) Wood Had., Hon 

** sphenophylloides (Zenk. ) Gutb Hor. 

Sphenophyllum emarginatum Brongn Brack., Gil., R., Hor., B. R., 

Dub., CO. 
Lepidodendron lanceolatum Lz? Dub. 

" dichotomum Sternb? Van., Sh., R., Hor. 

** madulaiumt,^ Hor., Dub. 

Lepidostrobus cf. variabilis L. and H..... Had., Van. 

** geinitzii Schimp? Hor. 

Lepidophyllum cultriforme IvX R. 

hasiatum Lx 8h. 

•• lanceolatum L. and H Hor. 

Sigillaria comptoi(tnia Wood R., Hor. 

CordaiUs sp 

Rhabdocarpus (Pachy testa) cf. mansfieldi Lx ...Hor. 

THE LOWER FREEPORT SANDSTONE. 

Below the coal just described there occurs a great sandy 
horizon occupied in Pennsylvania by what was first called the 
Freeport sandstone, but which was later modified by Prof. Lesley 
into the term Lower Freeport sandstone after it was learned that ^ 
massive sandstone is often found above the Lower Freeport coal 
as well as below that horizon. Bo^h of these sandstones huve a 
fine development in the Sanford Watson bore hole, n^ar Mason- 
town, Preston county, the record of which is given on page 344 of 
this volume, the Lower one having a thickness of 76 feet in one 
unbroken body of solid massive rock much Of which is pebbly. 
This is one of the most persistent sandstone horizons in the 
Allegheny series. The Upper Freeport sandstone is often replaced 
by sandy shales, clays and limestones, but it is rare indeed that 
some hard, massive sandstone is not present at the horizon of this 
Lower Freeport stratum. The rock is usually quite hard, 
micaceous, and often pebbly, but does not split evenly and hence 
is seldom quarried for building purposes. It always makes a steep 
slope in the topography of the Allegheny series, and frequently 
crops in bold cliffs along the hills. 

When it first enters West Virginia from Pennsylvania and 
Ohio in the northern Pan Handle of Hancock county, it is quite 
massive and often 75 to 100 feet in thickness. It crops in a bold 
bluff at New Cumberland, and is the great cliff rock at the "falls" 
on Harden run, one mile east from that town, where it is nearly lOQ 
feet thick in one massive ledge. 



474 THE ALLEGHENY 8ERIE8. 

It is also this same stratum that crops in high clififs at the 
mouth of King's creek, three miles below New Cumberland, and 
which is quarried on a large scale by S. Cnspari, one-half mile up 
that stream, where it shows an unbroken face of sandstone ninety- 
five feet in height. It yields stone of many grades, and much of 
it cannot be used, except for the coarser grades of rough founda- 
tion structures. This is the only locality in the state, known to 
the writer, where this rock has been successfully quarried. 

Two miles below the mouth of Kings creek this stratum sinks 
below water level of the Ohio, and it is seen no more along that 
stream until we pass beyond the southwestern boundary of the 
state, where it finally comes up again and makes bold bluffs near 
Ironton, Ohio, as shown in the section given on page 379 from 
that locality. 

To the east this stratum dips down into the Appalachian ba- 
sin, and the oil well drillers call it by various names, such as *'Ga8 
sand," **Big Dunkard," **Second Cow Run Sand," etc. Occasion- 
ally, it has yielded some oil, as in the Youst well No. 1, at Amos, 
Marion county, and it is probably one of the oil sands in the 
* 'shallow" sand district of Washington county, Ohio, and Pleas- 
ants county, of West Virginia.^ Some gas is often found in this 
stratum, though not in commercial quantity, and hence its name 
of **gas" sand among the oil and gas well drillers. 

When this horizon comes up to the surface on the western 
slope of the Chestnut Ridge anticlinal, in eastern Monongalia and 
Marion counties, it is not so thick and massive as in Hancock, 
and it frequensly holds a coal bed (Upper Kittanning) near its 
center, but east from Chestnut Ridge, where it crops along Raccoon 
creek, above Austen, it thickens to seventy-five feet or more in one 
unbroken mass, and the same thickness was found in the Newburg 
shaft, a few miles west. 

There is also much massive sandstone at this horizon along 
Valley river, between Powell and Bush, over the crown of the 
Chestnut Ridge arch, at the Marion-Taylor line. 

This stratum is especially massive and pebbly between Grafton 
and Philippi, along the bed of the Valley river, on either side of 
Moatsville, where it occasionally appears to unite with the over- 
lying Roaring creek sandstone, and form one solid mass more than 
100 feet thick. The numerous rapids and cascades in the Valley 
river, in the vicinity of Moatsville, are made by this stratum. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 475 

Farther up the Valley river, between Junior and Harding, 
this sandstone again unites with the overiying one, and we get an 
unbroken mass of rock, in a nearly vertical cliflf, 200 feet high, 
great boulders from which have broken away and encumber the 
bed of the stream below. 

On the Buckhannon, the upper waters of Elk, between Gilles- 
pie and Webster Springs; across to Gauley and down its tributaries, 
from the north to the Great Kanawha, this is preeminently a sand- 
stone horizon, and often weathers into * 'chimneys," '^pinnacles," 
^'turrets/' and other fantastic shapes, so that the beds are fre- 
quently termed the '^Chimney rocks." In Summersville moun- 
tain, Nicholas county, there appears to be nearly 300 feet of solid 
sandstone at this horizon, formed by the union of the Lower Free- 
port and Roaring creek beds. This enormous deposit of sandstone 
is especially massive in the lofty hills about the junction of the 
Gauley and New rivers, and along the Great Kanawha, where it 
forms long lines of vertical cliflfs of the '^Chimney rock" type for 
many miles down that stream, cutting out both the Coalburg and 
Winifrede coal seams when the thickness of the sandstone mass 
becomes so great. 

This same sandstone extends to the Guyandot, and across to 
the Tug fork of the Big Sandy river, along both of which streams 
this horizon is one of the principal elements in making the steep 
slopes of the mountains, which enclose their narrow valleys, and 
those of their tributaries. 

THE UPPER KITTANNING COAL. 

When the Lower Freeport sandstone breaks up into two members 
by a parting of shales, a coal frequently makes its appearance 
therein at 90 to 120 feet below the top of the Allegheny series. 
This coal assumes much importance in Somerset and Cambria 
counties, of Pennsylvania, and has there been termed bed **D," 
as well as "C," and was finally called the Upper Kittanning by 
Mr. Piatt and Prof. Lesley. 

In northern West Virginia, there is frequently a coal bed at 
this horizon, but it is seldom of any economic importance, although 
in eastern Monongalia it attains a thickness of three feet on the 
waters of Booths creek, and has occasionally been mined by the 
farmers for domestic use. In the Gamble boring on Deckers 



WEST VIBGINIA GBOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



MIDDLE KITTANNING COAL. 



477 



The interval between the coal last described and the next lower 
coal bed, is generally occupied by sandstone, which, in the south- 
western portion of the state, especially along the Great Kanawha 
river, becomes very thick and massive. Just below it, we often 
find a coal bed, two to three feet thick, of great purity and gener- 
al excellence. In western Pennsylvania and eastern Ohio, this 
coal occurs only twenty to thirty feet above the Lower, or main, 
Kittanning bed, and Prof. Lesley named it the Middle Kittanning 
coal. 

Farther east, along the Allegheny river, the interval between 
it and the Lower Kittanning bed increases to sixty or seventy feet, 
as shown in the sections on pages 341-2. 

The coal is of considerable economic importance* in Hancock 
county, where it has been mined for use in the manufacture of 
brick and tile, by the Claymont Brick Company, and others. 
Where mined by the Claymont Company, just belpw the mouth of 
Holbert's run, it exhibits the following structure. 

Ft In. Ft. In. 



Coal I o 

Slate, dark o i }• 2 ii 

Coal 



I lo J 



The coal is quite pure, making excellent fuel, and as it is un" 
derlaid by a bed of fireclay, which is mined for use in the brick 
plants, the coal, although thin, can be taken out to advantage. 

Just north from the Claymont Company's mine on this coal, 
the great sandstone above comes down and cuts the coal out en- 
tirely, as w^ go up the river, but it soon comes in again, since on 
the Ohio side of the river at Freeman's station, opposite New 
Cumberland, it crops just above the grade of the C. & P. R. R., 
and is three and one- half feet thick. 

At the mouth of King's creek, three miles below New Cum- 
berland, this coal is well exposed in a cutting along the railroad 
grade, and exhibits the following structure: 

Ft. In. Ft In. 



Sandstone, Lower Freeport 8o 6 

{coal o 9 1 
shale o 2 [• 2 7 
coal I 8 j 

Fireclay to railroad level lo o 



Plreclay 
^oncealc 



Concealed to Ohio river 40 o 



476 



THE ALLEGHENY BEBIE8. 



creek, page 346, it was struck at 107 feet below the Upper Free- 
port coal, and is nearly three feet thick; 

This coal does not appear in the bore hole on the Sanford Wat- 
son farm, near Masontown, page 344, its horizon being occupied 
entirely with the massive Lower Freeport sandstone. 

On the crest of the Chestnut Ridge arch, near Hammond uid 
Valley Falls, there is a coal at this horizon, shown in the section 
on page 855, which is of some economic importance in eastern 
Marion and^fwestern Taylor counties, though it has never been 
mined to any extent in a commercial way. It has a thickness of 
three to four feet along the Valley river, in the region referred to, 
and the coal looks well on its crop. 

•In the North Potomac basin this coal is occasionally present, 
and of commercial thickness. The section from near Harrison, 
Mineral county, given on page 351, shows the bed as three feet, 
seven inches thick, at forty-two feet above the Lower Kittanning 
coal, and 137 feet under the Upper Freeport coal. 

In the hills at Piedmont and Westemport we find two feet 
of coal at this horizon, 100 feet under the Upper Freeport coal, 
and sixty-five feet above the Lower Kittanning bed. 

On the head of the Buckhannon river, where the horizon of 
this coal comes up, we find a seam less than two feet in thickness, 
at 150 feet below the Upper Freeport coal, as shown in the section 
near Pickens, given on page 363. 

On Elk river, at Gillespie, Palmer, and other localities in that 
region, a coal bed five to six feet thick, with much included bony 
and slaty material, occurs at 150 to 160 feet below the Upper Free- 
port coal, as exhibited in the section on page 454, and it probably 
belongs at the horizon of the Upper Kittanning seam. 

The same coal has been opened on Wolf creek and Birch river 
where it also contains much slate and bone. 

It is probably the same coal that is mined high up in Cottle 
Knob, Nicholas county, by John Woods, where it is three feet 
thick and contains two layers of bony coal, as shown on page 
368. 

Just what this Upper Kittanning coal may represent on the 
Great Kanawha, and in the region southwest from there, is as yet 
uncertain, but it appears to harmonize fairly well with the Wini- 
freds SEAM, a detailed account of which will be given in connec- 
tion with the discussion of the Kanawha coals. 



WEST VIRGINIA GBOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



MIDDLE KITTANNING COAL. 



477 



The interval between the coal last described and the next lower 
coal bed, is generally occupied by sandstone, which, in the south- 
western portion of the state, especially along the Great Kanawha 
river, becomes very thick and massive. Just below it, we often 
find a coal bed, two to three feet thick, of great purity and gener- 
al excellence. In western Pennsylvania and eastern Ohio, this 
coal occurs only twenty to thirty feet above the Lower, or main, 
Kittanning bed, and Prof. Lesley named it the Middle Kittanning 
coal. 

Farther east, along the Allegheny river, the interval between 
it and the Ijower Kittanning bed increases to sixty or seventy feet, 
as shown in the sections on pages 341-2. 

The coal is of considerable economic importance* in Hancock 
county, where it has been mined for use in the manufacture of 
brick and tile, by the Claymont Brick Company, and others. 
Where mined by the Claymont Company, just below thq mouth of 
Holbert's run, it exhibits the following structure. 

Ft In. Ft. In. 



Coal I o 

Hiate, dark o i }• 2 ii 

Coal 



I o I 

I [ 

1 ID J 



The coal is quite pure, making excellent fuel, and as it is un" 
derlaid by a bed of fireclay, which is mined for use in the brick 
plantp, the coal, although thin, can be taken out to advantage. 

Just north from the Claymont Company* s mine on this coal, 
the great sandstone above comes down and cuts the coal out en- 
tirely, as wf» go up the river, but it soon comes in again, since on 
the Ohio side of the river at Freeman* s station, opposite New 
Cumberland, it crops just above the grade of the C. & P. R. R., 
and is three and one- half feet thick. 

At the mouth of King's creek, three miles below New Cum- 
berland, this coal is well exposed in a cutting along the railroad 
grade, and exhibits the following structure: 

Ft In. FL In. 



Sandstone, Lower Freeport , 80 6 

{coal o 9 1 
shale o 2 [• 2 7 
coal I 8 j 

Fireclay to railroad level 10 o 



II 



Concealed to Ohio river 40 o 



478 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

The coal passes under the bed of the Ohio river at Brown's 
Island, three-fourth's of a mile below the mouth of Kings creek, 
and we see it no more along that stream until it rises out of the 
water above Ironton, and becomes the important coal of that 
region. 

The late Dr. Orton identified with this coal the main Hocking 
Valley seam, at Straitsville, New Lexington, and elsewhere, so 
that the Middle Kittanning bed is one of the moftt important coal 
beds in the Ohio column of Coal Measures. 

The relation of this seam to the other members of the Alle- 
^eny series in the Ironton region, is shown by the section on 
pages 379-80. The numerous local names it has received in Ohio, 
according to Dr. Orton, of which the following is only a partial 
list, will serve to illustrate its wide distribution and importance in 
that state: **No. 4'' in the Ohio and Yellow creek valleys; *'No. 
6" in Stark county and south westward; **Hammondsville strip 
vein,'' **Onasburg," *Tike Run," '*Dennison," ^'Coshocton," 
**Upper Zanesville," **Upper New Lexington," * 'Nelson ville," 
**Straitsville," **Great Vein" of the Hocking Valley, * 'Carbon- 
dale," * 'Mineral City," ''Upper Zaleski," "Washington Furnace," 
"Sheridan, etc. 

This coal does not appear to be represented in the Gamble 
boring (page 346) of eastern Monongalia county, and in the Wat- 
son boring (page 344), near Mason town, Preston county, it ap- 
pears to be represented by a bed of bituminous slate, much re- 
sembling impure cannel. 

This is a cannel coal horizon in western Pennsylvania, since 
the great bed near Darlington, in Beaver county, as well as the thick 
deposits in Armstrong, Clarion, and Jefferson couties, belong at 
this geological level. 

There is a bed of cannel coal on the right fork of Holly 
river, seven miles above Palmer, Braxton county, which probably 
comes at this same horizon, but it is only one and a-half to two 
feet thick. 

In the Newburg shaft, Preston county, this coal is only fifteen 
feet above the Lower Kittanning bed, and has the structure given 
on page 348. 

In the region of Valley Falls and Hammond, a thin bed of 
coal, one to two feet thick, is found at fifteen to twenty feet above 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



479 



the Lower Kittanning seam, which most probably represents this 
Middle Kittanning bed. 

In the North Potomac region of West Virginia and Maryland, 
this coal bed appears to coalesce with the Lower Kittanning coal 
below, by the thinning away of intervening shales, though at times 
the latter thicken to twenty feet or more. 

This view is also maintnincd by Dr. G. C. Martin, of the Ma- 
ryland Survey, as indicated in the section quoted from his Garrett 
County Report on page 351 of this volume. Hence at many lo- 
calities in Mineral^ Grant, and Tucker counties, this coal is be- 
lieved to be represented by the uppermost ply of the **Davis," or 
Lower Kittanning seam, and it is included in the measurements 
given for the latter bed through the region in question. 

In the Great Kanawha valley this coal would correlate with 
the **Cedar Grove' ' seam, at an interval above the Lower Kittan- 
ning or Campbells creek coal varying from sixty to one hundred and 
fifty feet. 

On McMillen's creek, Nicholas county, a bed of coal two and 
one-half feet thick has long been mined by the Baker heirs and 
others, for local domestic supply, which would appear to come at 
this same horizon. It is a beautiful, bright, and soft coal, of the 
coking type, and contains only a thin streak of bone, six inches 
below the top. 

In Hancock county, as well as in Beaver and Columbiana 
counties, adjoining, the rock interval separating the Middle 
Kittanning coal from the one next below, is only twenty to thirty 
feet thick, as already stated, and consists largely of dark shales, 
filled with plant remains. Nodules of iron ore are also present in 
considerable quantity, and occasionally a bed of fireclay underlies 
the coal. 

Mr. David White, of the United States Geological Survey, 
has made a study of the fossil plants found in connection with the 
several Kittanning coals of Pennsylvania, and in his paper on the 
'^Relative Ages of the Kanawha and Allegheny Series,'' published 
in the Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, Volume XI., 
pages 150-153, he gives a list of these, with some general remarks 
on the same, which may be appropriately quoted here, as fol- 
lows: 



480 THB ALLBGHENY SERIES. 

KITTANNING GROUP. 

** Plant beds of th€ group, — That portion of the series extending fit>in 
the top of the Ferriferous limestone to the top of the Upper Kittanning coal 
has been termed the Kittanning group. In the typical region this gronp 
fembraces about 120 feet, including the three Kittanning coals, the middle 
one of which is very rarely of workable thickness. That portion in the vi- 
cinity of the Lower and Middle Kittanning coals is usually largely occupied 
by dark shales, often black and fissile, whose more common fossils are ma- 
rine or brackish water mollusks. Plant remains, except fragments of the 
more indestructible tissue, are generally very rare and very poorly pre- 
served. The upppermost portion of the series is more arenaceous and phy- 
tiferous. 

"Since the plants of the shales forming the immediate roof of the Upper 
Kittanning coal mark the date of the latter, I include that flora in the same 
group. From the shales accompanying the Lower Kittanning coal, or the 
**Dagus*' coal, which is generally regarded as equivalent thereto, fossil 
plants have been collected near Snowshoe, fSn. ), Center county, the Dagns 
mines, Elk county, and Hommers (Honi.) in Clearfield county. The Miller 
coal from the roof of which plants wpre ccllected at Trout run (T.R ) Cambria 
county, is supposed to represent the same horizon. Plants have been found 
at the horizon of the Middle Kittanning near Logansport Log. ), Armstrong 
county, and along the railway between Powelton and Electric (Bl. ', in 
Clearfield county. The environing shales of this coal generally contain 
little but stem and Lycopodineous leaf fragments. The roof shales of the 
Upper Kittanning are, however, frequently the matrix of well preserved 
plant remains Fossils have been collected at this level at Kittanninjjj (Kit.) 
and Kel leys station (K. S. ), Annstrong county; Euclid (Eu. ), Butler coun- 
ty; Fairmount (Fair. ), Clarion county; and along Toby creek (T. C), in 
Clearfield county. The very rich flora from Cannelton (Can. ), Beaver 
county, described in **The Coal Flora'* by Lesquereux, is said by Dr. I. C. 
White t to have come from the floor of the Darlington coal, which is corre- 
lated by Dr. White with the Upper Kittanning coal. 

^''Species front the Kittanning group. —In the following list of species 
from the Kittanning group those marked with the asterisk (*) are. so far as 
is known, characteristic of the post-Pottsville terranes in the Pennsylvanian 
sections. A large portion of the species from Cannelton are cited on the au- 
thority of Prof. Lesquereux. 

Name. Locality. 

Rhacopteris elegans ( Ett. ) Shinip. [ Lesq. ] f Can. 

Pseudopecopteris macilcnta (L. and H.) Lx. typ..Can. 

*' squamosa {\,yi.Y T. C, Can. 

hispida (Lx.^ Can. 

** nummularia (Gutb.) Lx. * Can. 

'* plukenetii (Schloth ) Lx.*[Lesq] .Can. 



fReport of Progress, Second Geol. Survey Pa., Q, pp. 51, 54. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 481 

Mariopteris sillimanni ( Brongn. )* T. C. , Can. 

" nervosa (BroDgn. ) Zeill Sn., Can. 

** netvberryi {h:L. )* Can. 

Sphenopteris stipulata Gwih, [Lesq.] Can. 

** canneilaniD.W* Can. 

*• suda/ala Weiss* [Lesq. ] Can. 

*• chcsrophylloides (Brongn. ) Presl* Can. 

•• goniopieroides Lx.^ El. 

Ahiopieris ztnnsiovti D.W.* Sn., T. R., Can. 

•* erosa (Gutb. J? Can. 

Plecopieris dentata Brongn.* Sn., T. R., Can. 

NeuropUris rarinervis Bunby. * Can. 

** ovata Hoffm. * Kit., Log., En., Fair., Sn., 

Horn., T. R., El.. T. C, 
Can. 

*• fimbriata Lx.* Sn., Can. 

** vermicularisl^^,* JK.S.. El., T.C., Can. 

'* aspera Lx Can. 

** scheuchzeri Hoffm.* .Kit., T.C., En., K.S., Pair., 

Sn., T. R., Can. 

** clarksonil,^.* K. 8., Can. 

" oblongifolia Lx. * Can. 

** rogersi Lx.* .• Can. 

** agassizi Lx.* [Lesq.] Can. 

** crenulala Brongn}* [Lesq. J Can. 

Linopteris obliqua (Bunby.) Pot.* Fair., El., T. C, En., Can. 

OdontopUris comuta Lx.* Can. 

Caulopteris mansfieldi Lx.* Can. 

*• obtecia Lx.* Can. 

•* cistii (Brongn.) Presl* Can. 

Rhachiopteris squamosalix. Can. 

AphUbia adnascens (L. and H. ) Presl Can. 

** comuta (Lx.) [Lesq. J Can. 

" filici/ormis (Gutb.) [Lesq.] Can. 

* * trichomanoides ( Goepp. ) [ Lesq. ] Can. 

" tricoidea (l,iL,) [Lesq.] Can. 

** ihalliformis (Lx.) Can. 

Calamites ramosus Artis Can. 

** suckowii Brongn Sn., Can. 

*' approximatus Brongn Can. 

Asterophyllites equiseiifonnis (Schloth. ) Brongn*. Can. 

Annularia ramosa Weiss Can. 

stellata (Schloth. ) Wood* T. C, Can. 



t"Lesq.*- iu brackets indicates identification or interpretation of the 
species by Prof. Lesquereux. 



*Series characteristic of the post-Pottarille beds. 



482 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

Annularia sphenophylloides (Zenk.) Gutb.* T. C, Sn., T. R., 

Can. 

Calamostachys brevifolius Lx Can. 

Sphenophyllum majus B^ongn^^ ^Sn., Hiim., Can. 

emarginaium Brongn* K.S., S«., T.R., T.C., EL 

Can. 
*' schlotheimii Brongn.* [Lesq.] ...Can. 

Lepidodendron cf hrittsii Lx* Kit. 

" dichotomum Sternb Log., Fair., Eu., Can. 

aculeatum^X&TvXi Can. 

*• viodulatum Lx.* 8n., Dag., Can. 

** rigens Lx ..Can. 

Lepidophloios auriculatus l^n* Can. 

*' dilatatus Lx* ..Can. 

Halonia mansfieldi \,Ti* Can. 

Lepidostrobus cf. variabilis L. and H Sn., Horn., Can. 

butlerih^.* Can. 

** goldeft berg it i^chimp* [Lesq.] ...Sn., Can. 

*• spectabilishii* Can. 

Lepidophyllum adtrifonne Lx,* Can. . 

" foliaceum Lx EL?, En.?, Kit., Can. 

** lanceolatum L. and H.* Can. 

*' mansfieldi Lx* Can. 

Lepidocystis truncatuaVm Can. 

" vesicularish^ Can. 

Sigillaria camptotccnia Wood* T. C. , Can. 

** iesselata {^\^\'i\\v.) Brongn. [Lesq.] ..Sn. 

Tamiophyllum brevifolium Lx* Can. 

•• deflexum Lx* Can 

** decurrens Lx* Can. 

Desniiophyllum gracile Lx Can. 

Dolerophyllocarpum pennsylvanicum Dn* Can. 

Cordaites borassifolius (Sternb. ) Ung. [Lesq. )... Can. 

** inansfieldi Lx* Can. 

•* serpens hn. * Can. 

*' cosfaius hx. * Can. 

** radiatus Lx. * Can. 

Cordaisirobus grand' euryi Lx. * Can. 

Cordianthus ovatus Lx. * Can. 

" mansfiieldi Lx.* Can. 

'* costatus lyx. * Can. 

Cordaicarpon gutbicri G^'in* Sn., Can. 

** ovaium Gr'Ey.* [Lesq.] Can. 

" cinctum Lx. * Can. 

" cosiatum Lx.* Can. 

Cardiocarpon marginatum (Art. ) Gein. * Can. 

•• ellipiicum (vSternb.) Lx.* Can. 

'* pusillum Lx.* Can. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL 8RUVBY. 483 

Trigonocarpon adatnsii Lx.* Can. 

** menzelianum Geopp. and Berg. 

[Lesq. ] Can. 

'* grande\tJi Sn., El., Can. 

'* schultzianum Goepp. and Berg. 

[Lesq.] Can. 

Rhabdocarpus arcuatus Lx Can. 

** subglobosus Lx ..Can. 

** tenax Li.* Can. 

•* inflatus Lx Can. 

* * beinertianus Goepp and Berg Can. 

** jacksoniensi5\jii!''\\fiSK\,'\ Can. 

* * ( Pacuy testa ) mansfieldi Lx. * Can. 

** abnormalis Lx Can. 

** matnmillatus Lx.* Can. 

Dicranophyllum dichototnum Lx. * Can. 

** dimorphum Lx.* Can. 

Carpolithes cetasi/ormis PresL [Lesq. 1 Can. 

*• minimus Si^mh Can. 

*• perpusillus hx. Can. 

The locality near Cannelton, Beaver county, Pennsylvania, 
which has furnished so many fossil plants in this list, was discov- 
ered by Hon. I. F. Mansfield, of Beaver county, and the rich flora 
given above, from the pavement of the Middle Kittanning coal, 
was collected entirely through his efforts, and identified by the 
eminent paleobotanist. Prof. Leo Lesquereux. 

THE LOWER KITTANNING COAL. 

One of the most persistent coal beds of the Allegheny series 
in Pennsylvania, was long ago named the Kittanning coal, by the 
First Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, from the town of that 
name on the Allegheny river, in Armstrong county. The struc- 
ture of this coal at its type locality is given on page 342. When 
Prof. Lesley remodeled the Pennsylvania coal nomenclature, by 
adding the names Upper and Middle Kittanning to the same, he 
gave the name. Lower Kittanning, to the coal bed which had previ- 
ously been the only member to bear the name, Kittanning. 

This coal, while so regular and widely extended in Western 
Pennsylvania, and persistent entirely across the Ohio coal field, 
is not so regular and persistent in West Virginia, being frequently 
interrupted and absent entirely as a workable bed in many regions 
of the state. 



484 THB ALLEGHENY SERIBB. 

In the Gamble and Watson borings of eastern Monongalia 
and western Preston counties, respectively, pages 344 and 346, 
only traces of this coal were found, although the coal appears to 
be present in the section at the head of Booths creek, given on 
page 347. 

The Newburg shaft, in Preston county, found a good thick- 
ness of this coal, as shown on page 348, at a depth of 360 feet be- 
low the surface. The coal proved an excellent fuel for steam and 
domestic use, and was successfully coked, but a disastrous explo- 
sion and poor mine engineering led to the abandonment of the 
workings. 

There is doubtless a large area of this valuable coal under the New- 
burg region, and to a considerable distance to the southwest, since 
Mr. Sliney found six feet of good coal at this horizon in a boring 
made several miles southwest from Newburg, on the land of Jonas 
Wolf. 

Where brought to the surface by the Chestnut Ridge arch, at 
Hammond and Valley Falls, on the Tygarts Valley river, this coal 
has a thickness of five feet, as shown in the section on page 354, 
but it is subject to great and rapid changes, being cut out entirely 
at many localities by the underlying fireclay. 

In the New Cumberland region of Hancock county, this cosl 
is present over the great bed of fireclay mined there, but it is thin 
and impure, being only two to three feet thick, and sometimes it 
is cut out completely by the overlying sandstone. It is not mined 
there on a commercial scale, except that in some of the fireclay 
entries it is taken down and used in burning the brick and tile. 

A small area of this coal is caught in the eastern edge of Pres- 
ton county, at Corinth, where the deep first bituminous basin of 
Pennsylvania enters the state from Garrett county, Maryland. The 
coal is mined at Corinth by the Oakland Coal and Coke Company, 
at whose mine A. P. Brady made the following measurement: 

Ft. In. Ft In. 

Sandstone, 

Sandy slate o 4 

Coal 2 7 

Slate o I 

Coal o 9 

Fireclay 3 o 

Coal, reported ^ 3 8 

Butts run S. 70° E. Face S. 20° W. Elevation 2430^ A.T. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 486 

The bottom coal was not seen by Mr. Brady, but its thickness 
was given him by the mine boss. It is not taken out, the over- 
lying fireclay shales being too expensive to remove. The sample 
for analysis was taken from the two plys of coal above this bottom 
member, and the composition is reported as follows by Prof. Hite: 

Moisture a 64 

Volatile matter 22.43 

Fixed carbon 65.37 

Ash 11.56 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur 1.39 

Phosphorus 0.055 

B. T. U. (Wil. Cal.) 13876 

This coal has also been successfully coked, but the ovens (56) 
were not in operation when the plant was visited by Mr. Brady. 
As this Corinth region is just east from the first great ridge of the 
Alleghany mountains, it is, of course, within the area of the semi- 
bituminous coals, as shown by the low percentage of volatile 
matter. 

Passing eastward over the great Backbone mountain of the 
Alleghany range, we come to the North Potomac coal basin at its 
southern end, where the measures come to the surface on Grlady 
fork of Blackwater (Cheat), in Tucker county, along the line of 
the West Virginia Central & Pittsburg railroad. This coal has 
been mined very successfully for both fuel and coke, by the Davis 
Coal & Coke Company, for twenty years, in the vicinity of Coke- 
ton and Thomas, Tucker county, and in this region S. D. Brady 
made the following measurements: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. 

I II III IV 

Sandstone 

Fireclay 

Coal 13 16 09 19 

Slate o 3 04 03 03 

Coal on 03 17 12 

Slate 02 03 02 02 

Coal 36 36 35 37 

Slate 36 36 16 20 

Coal 2 10 30 

Totals 97 94 10 6 II II 

Greatest rise S. 10® E. S. 10® E. S. 10® E. S. 10® E. 

Elevation A. T 2850 2870 2850 2713 



486 THE ALLBQHENT SEBIEB. 



ANALYSES. 



Moisture 0.22 

Volatile matter 21. 70 

Fixed carbon 71-99 

Ash 6.09 



a29 


a5o 


0.48 


23.15 


21.42 


20.72 


70.53 


70.76 


72.29 


6.03 


7.3a 


6.51 



Totals xoo.oo 100.00 100.00 loaoo 

Sulphur 0.65 a 62 0.59 a S2 

Phosphorus 0.019 0.021 0.21 o.o3 

B.T.U. (Wil. Cal.)... 14520 14728 14506 



I. No. 1 mine, Coketon. 
II. No. 2 mine, Coketon. 

III. No. 3 mine, Coketon. 

IV. Thomas shaft, 187 feet deep. 

These analyses reveal a coal of exceptional purity, especially 
in its low percentage of sulphur, and this has given it a q)lendid 
reputation as a smithing coal, for which purpose it is shipped to 
every portion of the United States, and even to Mexico and Can- 
ada. The bottom member of the coal is separated from the rest 
of the bed by an impure fireclay shale, varying in thickness from 
two to five feet, and as this lower coal is not so pure as ihe other 
plys, it is not mined. In the Thomas shaft, this bottom ooal has 
the following structure: 

Ft In. Ft In. 

Coal I 8 ) 

Sulphur band o 2 [■ 3 o 

Coal I 2 J 

The sample of this coal from above and below the "sulphur 
band,'' collected by Mr. Brady, yielded the following results on 
analysis by Prof. Hite: 

Moisture o. 57 

Volatile matter 22.15 

Fixed carbon 67.01 

Ash 10.27 

Total -100. 00 

Sulphur 2. 13 

Phosphorus , 0.005 

B. T. U. (Wil. Cal. ) 14024 

While this coal is much higher in both ash and sulphur than 
the rest of the bed, it would make a fairly good steam and general 
fuel. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 487 

The Lower Kittanning bed is also mined by the Cumberland 
Coal Company, at Douglas station, one mile below Coketon, where 
A. P. Brady made the following measurement: 

Ft In. Ft. In. 

Sandstone 

Blue slate 3- 10 o 

Draw slate o 6 

Coal I 7 

Slate o 2}i 

Coal o 10 

Slate o 2 I- 9 9>i 

Coal 3 6 

Slate (fireclay) I 10 

Coal I 8 

Butte run S. 75° W. Face S. 15°E. Elevation 3000 feet A. 
T. Greatest rise, west. 

The bottom ply is not mined, as the slate above varies from 
eight to thirty-six inches in thickness. 

Analysis of sample reported by Prof. Hite as follows: 

Moisture o. 63 

Volatile matter 23. 18 

Fixed carbon 68.94 

Ash 7.25 

Total loa 00 

Sulphur o. 58 

Phosphorus 0.019 

This coal has been very successfully coked at Thomas, Coke- 
ton and Douglas, Tucker county, in connection with the mines 
from which the samples of coal were taken for analysis. Mr. 
Brady also sampled the coke made at these mines, and the analy- 
ses of the same, reported by Prof. Hite, read as follows: 

COKE (I.OWER KITTANNING COAL. ) 
Analyses Coking 

No. Mois. V. M. F.C. Ash. Totel. Sul. Phos. Time. 

1 0.15 0.74 90.02 9.09 100. 0.63 a 0310 ... hre. 

2 o. II 0.44 91.27 8.18 100. 0.62 0.0460 72 hrs. 

3 0.12 1. 17 88.68 10.03 100. 0.74 0.0270 .. hrs. 

4 o. If 0.57 87.22 12.10 100. 0.89 a 0180 72 hrs. 

Average 0.13 0.83 89.29 9.85 100. 0.72 0.0280 

LOCATION OF SAMPLES. 
I. From No. 2'ovens, Thomas shaft, Thomas, Tucker connty. 



488 THE ALLEGHENY SERIESB. 

2. From No. 2 ovens, No. 2 mine, Coketon, Tucker coauty, two miles 
south of Thomas. 

3. From Coketon No. 3 ovens, Coketon, Tucker county, two miles 
south of Thomas. 

4. From Douglas ovens. Douglas, Tucker county, three miles south 
of Thomas. 

These results reveal a coke of most excellent quality in every 
respect, except that it contains a little more phoephorus than is 
desirable for the manufacture of iron and steel. It is possible that 
this could be reduced by eliminating some particular layer of the 
coal, which may hold the principal portion of the phosphorus. 

The main upper bcAch of this coal is supposed to represent 
the Middle Kittanning coal, since just above it comes seventy-five 
to eighty feet of massive, pebbly. Lower Freeport sandstone, and 
then, near Davis, this upper ply of coal separates from the main 
bench by twenty feet or more. 

The Lower Kittanning coal underlies a wide area in the North 
Potomac basin, and, being so near tide water, must prove of great 
value in the future history of the coal and coke industry. This 
bed is locally known as the **Davis" seam, while the Upp)er Free- 
port seam, 190 feet higher, is termed the **Thoma8" seam. 

At Henry, Grant county, near the North Potomac river, and 
one-half mile east from the center of the basin, this coal is mined 
by a shaft, sunk by the Davis Coal & Coke Company to a depth of 
over 400 feet, at the bottom of which A. P. Brady reports the coal 
exhibiting the following structure: 

Ft. In. Ft In. 



Sandstone 

F'ireclay 

Coal 2 I 

Slate o 10 

Coal 4 2 

Bone coal o i 



7 2 



Butts run S. 54J° W. Face S. 35f ° E. Greatest rise S. 64° E. 

Elevation, 2231 feet A. T. 

Analysis of sample reported by Prof. Hite as follows: 

Moisture o. 65 

Volatile matter 18.46 

Fixed carbon 68. 64 

Ash 12. 25 



Total 100.00 

Sulphur 2. 21 

Phosphorus o. 014 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



489 



In a bore hole near this shaft the coal has the following 

structure: 

Ft. Ft. In. In. 

Coal o 2 

Shale o I 

Coal 2 9>i 

Shale, gray : o 4}^ 

Bone o 7^ 

Coal 2 o 

Shale o i}i 

Coal 2 o 

Shale o i 

Bone / o 2)^ 

Shale 



8 5>4 



19 2^ 



Rough coal and shale 2 J}^ 

The **rough coal" at the bottom of this section is most prob- 
ably the same as the **bottom" division of the bed at Thomas and 
Coketon, but here separated farther from the main bed. This 
is the view held by Dr. G. C. Martin, of the Maryland Survey, 
who identified this division with a similar coal in Garrett county, 
known as the * *Split-six, ' ' the main Lower Kittanning bed being 
generally termed the **Six-/oot" seam in that county. 

Where this coal comes out to the surface, near Stoyer, Garrett 
county, twenty miles below Henry, the following structure is ex- 
hibited, as measured by Dr. G. G. Martin, page 119, Geology of 
Garrett county, Md: 



Ft In. Ft. In. 



Coal, M. Kittanning.. 



coal o 4 

bone o i 

coal o 9 

bone I o 

coal I 6 





fcoal 


<> 5 1 




bone 


I 




coal 


5 


Coal, L. Kittanniog.. 


bone 


i)^ 




coal 


4 




bone 


I 




coal 


I II 



Shale 



3 8 



8 4 



4 4 



I o 



Limestone, Ferriferous i o 

Here the two coal beds, which are practically one in the Henry 
shaft, and in the mines at Thomas and Coketon, are separated by 
eight feet of dark shales. 



490 



THB ALLEGHENY SERIES. 



William Taylor has a mine in what A. P. Brady identifies as 
the Lower Kittanning coal, one mile and a-half northwest of Em- 
ory, Mineral county, where the following structure is found: 



Ft In. Ft In. 



Sandstone 

Slate 

(bone coal o 7)^ 
S^::;;:;!";:::::!:;:::::z:!;:!:.:!!!Z o o>i 
coal ^ 2 %%, 



4 8K 



Elevation A. T., 1900 feet. 

Mr. Brady refers this to the Lower Kittanning bed doubtfully, 
and hence it may be some other coal, since the structure is more 
like that of the Upper Freeport bed along the Potomac. 

The analysis of this coal is reported as follows by Prof. Hite: 



Moisture a 56 

Volatile matter 15-35 

Fixed carbon 75. 78 

Ash 8. 31 



Total loaoo 

Rulphur 2. 54 

Phosphorus o. 022 

The Smith Coal Company has a mine in the Lower Kittanning 
bed, one- half mile south from Blaine, Mineral county, and there 
A. P. Brady made the following measurements: 



Ft. In. Ft In. 



Sandstone, massive., 
Slate 

coal 

slate 

coal 

slate 

coal 



Coal .. 



2 o 

I 2 

o 7 

o>^ 

1 3 



5 0% 



Butts run E. Face S, Elevation, 1710 feet A. T. 
Analysis of sample reported as follows by Prof. Hite: 

Moisture 0.85 

Volatile matter 15.40 

Fixed carbon 72.55 

Ash II, 20 



Total 100.00 



WEST VIRGINIA OBJOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



491 



Sulphur 2.54 

Phosphorus 0.034 

This coal has long been mined in the vicinity of Piedmont, 
Westernport, and Bloomington, where it is known as the "Six- 
foot'' seam. 

Near Piedmont, the Piedmont & Potomac Coal Company op- 
erate a mine called the "Virginia,'' and there A. P. Brady made 
the following measurements: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Sandstone 

Fireclay 5- 6 

Draw slate o 

coal o 10 

bone coal o 4 

coal I 9 

Coal .. j slate o o^ 

coal I 10 

sulphur o o^ 

coal o 9 



5 7 



Elevation A. T., 1215 feet. 

Analysis of sample reported by Prof. Hite as follows: 

Moisture 0.52 

Volatile matter.. 15. 29 

Fixed carbon 74. 13 

Ash 10.06 



Total 100.00 

Sulphur I. 76 

Phosphorus o. 031 

The Davis Coal and Coke Company mines this Lower Kittan- 
ning bed at its **Hampshire" mine, where A. P. Brady reports the 
following structure: 

Ft. In. Ft In. 

Draw slate o 2 

"Soapstone**.. o i 

rbonecoal o 2 

coal , o 5 

f^^, bone coal o 5 l - ,iz 

^^^•jcoal I § r 5 i>i 

slate o I 

coal 2 4>i 

Greatest rise S. 65° E. Elevation A. T., 1248 feet. 
Analysis of sample leported by Prof. Hite as follows: 



492 THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 

Moisture 0.64 

Volatile matter 15. 98 

Fixed carbon 71. 41 

Ash 11.97 

Total icaoo 

Sulphur I. 39 

Phosphorus 0.055 

These last three analyses, from the lower end of the Potomac 
basin, exhibit a marked decrease in the quantity of volatile mat- 
ter over that shown for the same coal bed in the vicinity of Thom- 
as and Coketon. 

In the bore hole at Webster, Taylor county, the record of 
which is given on page 356, this coal appears to be cut out entire- 
ly by the development of massive, pebbly sandstones, and when 
this horizon comes to the surface along the Valley river, above the 
mouth of Roaring creek, in Randolph county, the coal cannot be 
certainly recognized, since it is thin and of no commercial value, 
so far as can be determined by the borings put down, near the 
mouth of Beaver creek, the records of which are given on pages 
360-1-2. 

The same state of affairs is found at the head of the Buck- 
hannon river, in the vicinity of Pickens and below, where the Al- 
legheny-Kanawha series has thickened up to nearly 600 feet A 
coal bed occurs there at about 450 feet below the top of the series, 
which may represent tlie lx)wer Kittanning bed, but it has been 
impossible to demonstrate the supposed identity. It has been 
mined for local supply on the lands of James Pickens, and others, 
and is two and one-half to three feet thick, while above it, twenty 
to twenty-five feet, is another coal two feet thick. The Pickens 
coal is most probably identical with the Campbells creek coal, 
of the Great Kanawha, since it am be followed from Pickens to 
Holly river, and across fnmi P]lk to Gauley waters, and down the 
latter stream to its mouth, in the Great Kanawha, but whether or 
not the Campbells creek bod represents the Lower Kittanning 
coal is only conjectural. This matter will be discussed later in 
connection with the chapter on the Kanawha coals. 

In the deep oil and gas well borings of Marion county, around 
Mannington, a thick coal is frequently noted at the horizon of the 
Lower Kittanning bed, about 800 feet below the Pittsburg seam, 
and some coal is reported at this horizon in the adjoining counties 



WEST VIROINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 493 

of Harrison and Monongalia, but it does not appear to be thick 
enough for commercial purposes, so that the Marion area of thick 
coal may be of limited extent, like that in the Newburg region of 
Preston county. 

THE KITTANNING FIRECLAY. 

Directly below the coal just described, there is nearly every- 
where, in western Pennsylvania and eastern Ohio, a very valuable 
bed of fireclay, which in Hancock county has given rise to an ex- 
tensive brick, sewer pipe, and pottery industry. The clay is mostly 
of the plastic variety, though some flint clay is nearly always 
found, and the whole bed varies in thickness from five to fifteen 
feet. 

In only one other region of the state, outside of the New 
Cumberland region of Hancock county, has the Kittanning fireclay 
been mined and utilized, and that is at Hammond, in eastern Ma- 
rion county, where the great Chestnut Ridge anticlinal brings this 
horizon 100 feet or more above the level of the Valley river. The 
clay has a thickness of five to eight feet, and one to three feet of it, 
is hard, or flint clay, while the rest is plastic. 

When the clay is in good development, the overlying coal is 
absent, and vice versa. The presence of this clay deposit at Ham- 
mond makes the identification of the horizon certain when taken 
in connection with the associated beds. 

THE FERRIFEROUS (VANPORT) LIMESTONE. 

The marine type of the Ferriferous limestone of Pennsylvania, 
now known as the Vanport limestone, does not appear anywhere 
within the boundary of West Virginia, so far as known, except in 
Hancock county, where it is thin and impure, and underlies the 
Lower Kittanning coal by an interval of sixty feet, the most of 
which is sandy shales and shaly sandstone. This stratum and its 
overlying iron ore have been traced entirely across the Ohio coal 
field, however, from Mahoning and Columbiana counties on the 
east, to where it emerges from the Ohio river silts, three or four 
miles above Ironton in Lawrence county, and about the same dis- 
tance from the southwest comer of West Vii^ginia at Kenova, so 
that the marine typ>e of the limestone very probably underlies the 



494 THE ALLEGHBNT SERIES. 

Adjoining portion of Wayne county at the southwestern extremity 
of the State, although the stratum is below water level. 

Where this horizon is exposed at Valley Falls and Hammond 
in Taylor and Marion counties, some iron ore is present, but no 
limestone, and the same is true of the exposures in Preston and 
elsewhere in the northern portion of the State. 

In the Potomac basin, however, a limestone of fresh water 
origin, makes its appearance at a few feet below the Lower Kit- 
tatming coal, carrying on its top a layer of carbonate ore just like 
the "Buhrstone" iron ore of Pennsylania and Ohio, and hence this 
limestone and iron ore have been referred to the Ferriferous and 
Buhrstone horizons of Pennsylvania. The relation of the lime- 
stone and its ore to the other members of the series may be seen in 
the section on page 354 from Coketon, where both are well ex- 
posed in the cuttings along the W. Va. C. <fe Pgh. R. R. 

The same limestone is also visible in a small stream near 
Sloyer in Garrett county, where it lies much closer to the Lower 
Kittanning coal, as shown by the section quoted from Dr. Martin 
on page 489. In the Great Kanawha valley there are two lime- 
stones in the lower half of the series, either one of which may 
be the representative of the Ferriferous, viz., the' Campbells creek 
limestone, 20-30 feet above the coal of the same name, or the 
Cannelton Cement limestone below the coal in question, seventy-five 
to one hundred feet. If the Campbells creek coal be the represen- 
tative of the Clarion of Pennsylvania, then the limestone above it 
would represent the Ferriferous horizon, but if it be the Lower 
Kittanning coal, then the Cannelton Cement limestone would come 
at the horizon referred to. 

THE CLARION SANDSTONE. 

In Pennsylvania and in the northern Pan Handle of West 
Virginia, a massive sandstone, much resembling the top of the 
Pottsville, occasionally makes its appearance in the interval be- 
tween the Lower Kittanning coal and the next underljring coal, to 
which the name Clarion sandstone has been given by the Pennsyl- 
vania geologists. It is seldom present except when the Ferriferous 
limestone is absent, or but poorly developed. 

Other localities in West Virginia, outside of Hancock county, 
at which this sandstone can be identified with a fair degree of cer- 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOOIOAL 8RUVBY. 495 

tainty, are at Valley Falls, nfeftr the Marion-Taylor line, where it 
forms a massive ledge over the Clarion coal, just above the **Falls" 
in the Valley river; also along Cheat river in Preston and Monon- 
galia, and in the North Potomac basin of Tucker, Grant and Mineral 
counties, where a massive sandstone is frequently present at this 
horizon. 

THE CLARION COAL. 

On the Allegheny river, the lowest bed of coal above the top 
of the Pottsville was named the Clarion by the First Geological 
Survey of Pennsylvania. True, there is occasionally a thin coal 
(Scrub Grass) above it, and sometimes there was supposed to be 
another one, the Brookville, below it, but H. M. Chance has shown 
that the former is only a ^^split" from the Clarion, and has called 
the Scrub Grass bed the Upper Clarion, and the main division of 
the coal, the Lower Clarion, and it is very probable that the Brook- 
ville coal bed is simply a local phase of the Clarion, since along the 
Allegheny river, the type locality for the series, there are certainly 
no other coals than the Upper and Lower Clarion beds between the 
Ferriferous or Vanport limestone, and the top of the Pottsville 
series. 

On Bee Run, near the line between Preston and Monongalia 
counties, a coal bed has been mined on the land of Z. C. Gibson, 
about one mile south from Cheat river, which appears to represent 
the Clarion coal. The section there is as follows: 

Ft. In. Ft In. 



Sandstone, massive, Clarion 20 o 

fcoal 3 

Coal .. -I fireclay i o 

(coal 2 



20 o 

^ ) 

o [- 6 o 

o J 



The upper bench of the coal varies from three to three and 
one-half feet, while the parting fireclay shale varies from Ax to 
eighteen inches within a short distance, and the lower bench of the 
coal is equally variable. The coal has been opened at several local- 
ities farther up the Run from the Gibson bank, and appears to 'be 
of fair quality. The dip is to the southeast, and the position of 
the coal is 190 feet below the Upper Freeport bed, which is opened 
in the hill on the land of Forbes Blaney, one mile east, so that it 



496 THE ALLBQHENY SERIES. 

interval vertically below the latter coal cannot be less than 250 to 
300 feet. 

In the Sanford Watson boring (page 344), near Masontown, 
Preston county, the top of this coal was struck at 245 feet under 
the Upper Freeport bed, and it is split into two divisions by six 
and one- half feet of fireclay shales, while in the Gamble lot boring 
(page 346) it is single bedded and 221 feet below the Upper Free- 
port coal. Where the B. & 0. R. R. turns west from Cheat river 
in Preston county, this coal lies almost in direct contact with the 
uppermost member of the Pottsville series, and has the structure 
shown in the section on pages 349-50 of this volume, in which, aR 
will be observed, it is still split into two benches by five feet of 
fireclay. 

About one mile farther down Cheat river from the outcrop on 
the B. & 0. R. R. in Preston county, just referred to, this coal has 
been opened and exhibits the following structure: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Coal, sjaty 2 lo ^ 

Fireclay shales 7 o > I2 8 

Coal 2 ID j 

Here the parting has thickened to seven feet of fireclay and 
sandy shales. The upper bench of the coal is rather slaty and 
bony on its crop, but the lower one appears to be of fair quality. 
A great cliff of sandstone (Pottsville series) crops immediately 
under the coal bed. 

At Valley Falls, near the Marion-Taylor line, this coal has 
been mined for local use on the south side of the valley river, only 
a few feet above water level near the '^Falls'' in the stream, where 
it has the structure shown on page 855. The coal is also double 
bedded at this locality, though the parting is only one half foot 
thick, and the coal appears to be of fair quality. 

On the North Potomac river, the position of this coal is re- 
vealed in the section near Harrison, Mineral county, measured by 
Dr. G. C. Martin, of the Maryland Geological Survey, and quoted 
on page 351 of this volume. The coal is generally present in the 
North Potomac basin at seventy-five to eighty feet below the Lower 
Kittanning bed, but is usually coarse in texture and inclined to be 
impure and bony. 



VVEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 497 

At the head of the Buckhannon river a bed of coal occurs 
about 100 feet under the Pickens seam, and is known as the 
'*Gimmer' vein, which would represent this coal if the 'Tickens" 
bed should prove to be the Lower Kittanning, as seems probable, 
or possible at least. 

This same coal crops along the left fork of Holly and has been 
mined near its head by Henry Spies for use in the locomotives on 
thenanow guage R. Rs. which lead from Pickens across the divide 
to the head waters of Holly and Elk rivers. The coal lies a few 
feet below a very massive sandstone, and is about three feet th^ck 
with a slate or bony parting below the center. The same coal is 
also mined below Hacker's Valley by Charles Curry, Dr. Elliott and 
others, and also at Allen Anderson's mill, where it lies 522 feet 
below the Upper Freeport bed, and has the structure given in the 
section on page 365. This coal on Holly river can be traced 
through to the Great Kanawha, where it appears to correlate with 
the Ea^le seam of that region; so that if the bed which crops along 
the left fork of Holly between Mollahan's Mill and its head, is the 
Clarion, then the Eagle bed of the Kanawha series is also the same. 
We shall refer to this Holly river coal again under the chapter on 
the Kanawha coals. 

A thick bed of fireclay often underlies the Clarion coal in 
Pennsylvania, and the same is true in the Watson and Gamble 
borings near Masontown, Preston county, and' Rock Forge, Monon- 
galia county, but so far as known it has not been utilized any- 
where in West Virginia. 

The horizon of the Clarion coal and its underlying clay is cov- 
ered by the Ohio river silts in the northern end of Hancock county, 
so that although the coal is above water level, nothing is known of 
its thickness or quality in that region. 

Mr. David White gives the following resumb of the flora of 
the Clarion group in the Bulletin of the Geological Society of 
America, Vol. XI, pages 148-150: 

CLARION GROUP. 

^^ Plant beds of the group' — The interval embracing the lower portion of 
the Allegheny series, from the top of the Homewood sandstone (Pottsvillc 
formation) up to the top of the **Ferriferous limestone." is known as the 
Clarion group. The ordinary thickness of this group is about seventy or 



498 THE ALLBGHBNY 8BBI|B. 

seventy-five feet in the Allegheny valley. Two coals— aometimes three or 
more, two of which are locally workable — are usually present in 1 his section. 

**In the Clarion group of western Pennsylvania determinable fossil 
plants are generally very rare, most of the scarce material from this region 
being badly macerated and abraded. Nevertheless, specimens have been 
collected from the roof of the Brookville coal, which usually occurs within 
a few feet of, or almost on the top of, the Pottsville formation at Point Bar- 
nett, near Brookville (Br. ), and from the roof shales of the Clarion coal at 
Somerville (Som. ) near the Clarion county line. Fossil plants occur in this 
group in Butlei and Mercer counties, where they have been collected at 
Grove aty (G. C), Pardoe (Par. ), and Filer (Fil. ), from above the "Pardoe'* 
coal. This coal is regarded by Dr. I. C. White as equivalent to the Brook- 
ville coal, though it is thought that it possibly represents the Clarion coal. 
Its reference to the Clarion group is, however, certain. 

^^ Plants of the Clarion group, — For the sake of economy of space, the 
species collected from the relatively small stratigraphic interval included in 
the Clarion group, may be combined in one list, from which the plants of 
each horizon may be separated by referring to the abbreviations given 
above. The identifications are the result of a preliminary study, and are, 
as such, subject to revision. " 



Name. Locality. 

Mariopieris ci, aspera ^xongn Fil. 

Plecopteris villosa Brongn* Fil., Som. 

cf.vestita Lx.* , Br. 

Alethcpteris serlii (Brongn.) Goepp G. C 

Neuropteris desorii Lx.* Fil. 

•• rarinervis Bunby* G. C. , Par. 

•* ovata Hoffm.* Br. , Fil. , G. C , Som. 

*• vermicularis Lx.* Som. 

" scheuchzeri Hoffm. * Br. , Fil. , G. C. , Som. 

Caulopteris sg ; Fil. 

Annulan'a sUllata (Sohloth.) Wood* Fil. 

" sphenophylloides (Zenk. ) Gutb.* Par. 

Sphenophyllum emarginatum Brongn. * Br. 

Lycopodiles meekii Lx Par. 

Lepidodendron dicholotnutn Stemb Fil. 

** ci.andrewsihii,* Par. 

•' clypealum Lx Fil. 

Lepidoslrobus geinitzii Schun'g* Fil. 

Lepidophyllum lanceolatum L. and H.* Par., Som. 

Polysporia sp , Fil. 



*Forms characteristic of post-Pottsville beds. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 499 

Sigiliaria ci.brardii Brongn Fil. 

{RhytidoUpis) sp Fil. 

Cordaites lacoei Lx.?* Fil. 

Cardiocarpon sp - Fil., G. C. 

Rhabdocarpos fnu/lisirta^us (Sternb.) Lx.* Fil. 

'The species in the above list comprise a flora representative of the 
lower portion of the Allegheny serits. " 

*Forms characteristic of post- Potts ville beds. 



CHAPTER VI. 



THE KANAWHA SERIES. 



As already stated many times in this report, the Allegheny 
series of Pennsylvania and Ohio, and its principal members are 
easily recognized and readily identifiable in the northern region of 
West Virginia, and even at the southwestern end of the state, just 
across the line in I^wrence county, Ohio. Yet when we attempt 
to follow the Allegheny scries along its eastern crop across the 
state, from Monongalia and Preston counties through Barbour, 
Randolph, Upshur, Webster, Nicholas, and Payette, to the Great 
Kanawha, we find the interval between the Upper Freeport bed, 
at the top, and the undoubted Pottsville below, expanding to 
twice, thrice, and finally four times its average thickness at the 
Pennsylvania border, so that while there appears to be a general 
agreement and harmony as to the number of coal beds on the 
Great Kanawha, with those in the typical Allegheny series of 
Pennsylvania, yet the correlations below the highest member of 
the series, are not yet altogether conclusive, and hence it has been 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 601 

considered beet to describe the coals of these thickened deposits 
under a separate chapter, and term them for the present the Ka- 
nawha Series with the understanding that the deposits in ques- 
tion include not only the Allegheny Series, but also any beds 
intermediate between the latter and the Pottsville, which may have 
made their appearance as we pass from the Pennsylvania border 
south westward to the Great Kanawha river. This treatment of the 
matter is also desirable since Mr. David White, the eminent author- 
ity on fossil plants of Coal Measure age, has recently claimed 
(Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, Vol. XI, pages 145 
to 178) that the Kanawha coals are distinctly older than the Alleg- 
heny series, and represent a group of strata heretofore unrecognized 
in America, viz. , the Lower Coal Measures of Europe, thus coming 
in between the Allegheny series proper and the top of the Potts- 
ville. From this standpoint Mr. White would place practically all 
of the Kanawha series, as here defined, below the Allegheny, since 
he states in the paper to which reference has been made, that the 
Stockton coal at the very top of the Kanawha series would appear 
to be no higher in the geologic time scale than the Clarion goal 
of the Allegheny series (see page 170 1. c). 

The writer has given reasons (Bulletin of the Geological So- 
ciety of America, Vol. XIII, pages 119-126) for dissent from this 
conclusion of David White, as to the horizon of the Stockton coal 
of the Kanawha valley, which, as shown in this report, is believed 
by the writer to represent the Upper Freeport coal at the top of the 
Allegheny series instead of the Clarion coal, as claimed by David 
White, at the base of the Allegheny beds. But as to the other 
members of the Kanawha series below the Stockton coal, the writer 
has not been able to trace them with such certainty as the one re- 
ferred to (Upper Freeport), and hence the question as to their 
equivalency is left open for future and more detailed study than it 
has been possible to devote to the solution of the problems involved. 

Regarding the Kanawha series as a whole, we find along the 
Great Kanawha river, between the Kanawha Black Flint bed 
and the top of the Pottsville series, six coal beds which appear to 
be persistent over considerable areas. These six beds have received 
local names along the Kanawha valley and are as follows, with 
their supposed equivalents in the Allegheny series: 

Stockton (Cannelton) = Upper Freeport. 



602 THE KANAWHA SERIB8. 

Coalburg = Lower Freeport. 
Winifrede = Upper Kittanning. 
Cedar Qrove = Middle Kittanning. 
Campbrils Creek = Lower Eattanning. 
Eagle = Clarion. 

Other local names like '^Lewiston,'' 'Teerless,'' "Coal Val- 
ley," **No. 2 Gas," *'BIack8burg," "Tunnel Seam," etc., are also 
in use, but these are for the most part synonyms of those already 
given, or of different phases of the same bed named where; identity 
has not been recognized. 

The foregoing is the correlation suggested by the writer in Bul- 
letin No. 66 of the U. S. G. Survey, 1891, and previously, in a 
paper published in "The Virginias" for Januaiy, 1886. Tliis last 
was the first serious attempt to correlate the coals of the Kanawha 
valley with those in the Allegheny series, and the studies upon 
which the results were founded were made during the summer of 
1884. 

The writer does not insist that this order suggested above has 
been demonstrated with a reasonable degree of certainty, except 
for the coal at the summit of the series, in fact future detailed 
stratigraphic work may overturn or greatly modify the suggested 
correlations, but they are presented as a working hypothesis to 
remain as probable until they are shown or demonstrated to be 
erroneous. 

As already stated in a former chapter, Prof. Wm. B. Rogers 
long ago (1888) described the Kanawha Black Flint, and dis- 
cerned its value as a key rock in the study of the Kanawha coals, 
as well as its place in the stratigraphic order, separating two im- 
portant coal series from each other. 

The coals above the Black Flint in the Kanawha valley have 
already been described under the Conemaugh series, as the Mason 
and Mahoning, or ^*No. 5 Block" coal, and we shall now give a 
series of sections along the Great Kanawha river from Charleston, 
where the Black Flint bed first appears above water level, on 
southward to where it passes into tlie air from the summit of Gan- 
ley mountain at Ansted. 

As stated under the Conemaugh series, the Pittsburg coal 
comes into the summits of the hills a short dit?tance northwest from 
Charleston, and a connected nearly vertical measurement of the 



WEST VIBGINIA GEOLOGICAL 8RUVBY. 503 

rocks puts its horizon about 800 feet above the level of the Ka- 
nawha BLACK FUNT, as showu by the section on pages 239-40. 
There can be no doubt that the Two Mile limestones shown in that 
section represent the horizon of the Ames, or Green Cbinoidal bed 
of the Huntington region, only fifty miles distant, though these 
limestones contain only fresh water types of fossils like Spirorbis 
CARBONARius at Charleston. 

The hills surrounding the city of Charleston extend far up 
into the red beds of the Conemaugh series, while the lower bluffs 
of the valley are made by the Mahoning and other massive sand- 
stones, which form the basal members of the Conemaugh. The 
following section measured from the simmaits at the head of Coal 
branch run, a small tributary of Elk river, a short distance above 
Charleston, will serve to show the character of the rocks above the 
Kanawha black flint: 

Ft 

Sandstone, massive, pebbly 30 

Concealed and limestone^ Two Mile 30 

Deep red shales, with iron ore 20 

Shales and concealed, with iron ore nafi^ts 160 

Sandstone, massive 40 

Concealed, shales and fireclay 20 

Sandstone, very massive 70 

Concealed, with thin ATo/ (Mason) 5 

Sandstone, massive 40 

Coal and shale i 

Sandstone, massive 35 

Concealed to the horizon of the Kanawha black flinty 
below the bed of Blk river 60 

The Two Mile limestone horizon is also caught in the summits 
of the hills at the head of Porter's run on the south side of the 
Kanawha, above Charleston, where the blaok flint is above water 
level, and the limestone has been quarried and burned on the lands 
of Capt. Swan. In descending Porter's run from the limestone 
quarry the following succession was measured: 

Ft. In. Ft In. Ft In. 

Sandstone, massive 20 o 

Shales 10 o 

{limestone 18^ 

shales, gray 6 o V 9 o 



(limestone i 



Red shale, with iron ore nuggets 35 o 

Concealed 65 o 

Sandstone, pebbly 25 o 

Concealed and massive sandstone 150 o 



504 



THE KANAWHA 8EBIEB. 



Coal^ Mason , 2 

Concealed 50 

Sandstone, massive ^ ^ -.. 50 

Sandy shales 50 

Kanawha black flint 5 

{coal o 6 1 
slate 06 V 3 
coal 2 6 j 

shale, gray ^ 5 

black slate o 

shales, blue 14 

coal, splint I 

black slate o 

Sandstone, massive 35 

Coal, slaty, impure i 

Shales and flaggy sandstone 20 

{coal, slaty at top 2 o 1 
fireclay , o 6 >- 2 
coal and slate o 5 J 

Shales 3 

Sandstone, massive 



Stockton 
Qoal 
horizon 



o 
8 
o 
6 
4 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



25 o 



o 

3 
o 

II 



This section in itself shows the improbability of the hypothe- 
sis that the Kanawha black flint represents the horizon of the 
Ferriferous limestone of Pennsylvania and Ohio, and 
that consequently, the Allegheny series of coals, except the low- 
est or Clarion, must be looked for above the Black Flint. The 
Charleston people have looked very diligently for coal above this 
horizon, and with the exception of the small bed (Mason) noted 
in the section, they have found no coal of value between the Black 
Flint and the Two Mile limestones at the top of the section, and 
indeed none of any importance until they pass 375 feet or more 
above the latter and reach the Pittsburg bed northwest from the 
city; so that if the Allegheny series is to be foimd above the 
Black Flint, two very strange things have occurred in the Charles- 
ton region, viz., 1st, practically all of its five coal beds (Upperand 
Lower Freeport, Upper, Middle and Lower Kittanning) have dis- 
appeared, while at the same time, in a region where all the other 
underlying formations have expanded many fold, the Allegheny 
series has shrunk to half its normal thickness, since even in north- 
em West Virginia and western Pennsylvania, the ordinary interval 
between the Ames limestone and the Ferriferous limestone is 
550 feet, while here at Charleston this same interval would be only 
a little over 400 feet if the Black Flint represents the Ferrifer- 
ous limestone, as claimed by Mr. David White in the publication 
to which reference has been made. The ordinary interval from the 
Ames limestone to the top of the Allegheny series, or Upper Free- 



WEST VIRGINIA GBOLOGICAL SURVEY. 605 

port coal, is about 300 feet in the northern portion of West Vir- 
ginia and the adjoining region of Pennsylvania, and as it is only 
slightly over 400 feet from the horizon of the Ames limestone here 
to the Stockton cx)al, it is not a violent assumption, to say the 
least, to consider that this interval has increased by only 100 feet, 
while, as is well known, the underlying Kanawha and Pottsville 
series have each quadrupled in thickness in passing from the north- 
em end of the state to the Great Kanawha valley. 

Aside from any evidence derived from the direct tracing of 
the beds, the measurements themselves, and the character of the 
intervening strata at Charleston, where we can pass directly from the 
undisputed Pittsburg coal, in the summits of the hills along Two 
Mile creek, within sight of Charleston, to the black flint ledge^ 
where it emerges from the bed of the Kanawha, near the C. & 0. 
railroad station, would seem to be conclusive in placing the latter 
stratum at the base of the Conkmaugh series, as the writer has 
done on stratigraphical evidence, instead of at the base of the 
Allegheny series, as Mr. David White has done on paleobotani- 
cal evidence. 

Of course, it is possible for most of the five coal beds, above 
the Ferriferous limestone, to disappear, and the measures them- 
selves to shrink to only half their normal thickness, in a region 
where all other rock series are expanding many fold, but it hardly 
seems probable, and hence, until more evidence can be adduced 
in favor of Mr. David White's hypothesis, we must continue to 
regard the black flint of this section as the basal member of the 
Conemaugh series, and the underlying Stockton coal as equivalent 
to the Upper Freeport bed of the Allegheny series. 

In this section along Porters run, the lower portion of it was 
measured between the mouth of the stream and the mouth of 
Lick run, next above. The Stockton coal is here split by slate 
and shales, and spread through an interval of twenty-five feet. 
This is made plain by a section on the north side of the river, 
only a mile and a half distant, where the following succession is 
found in descending from the summits of hills, on the land of 
Mr. Ruflfner, one-half mile below the mouth of Wilsons run: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sandstone, mas&ive, coarse 30 o 

Concealed 20 o 



506 



THE KANAWHA BKRTIW. 



Sandstone, massive, gray 40 

Concealed i.;.. 40 

Sandstone, very hard, white 5 

Concealed (contains Mason coal) .'• ^5 

Sandstone, massive ..^...^xoo 

Concealed 20. 

Kanawha black flint 4 

Shales, sandy , dark my 7 

rcoal, alaty o 10 ^ 

shale, dark o 

coal, bony in center 3 

Coal, Stockton - shale o 

black slate o 

shale, dark gray o 

[coal, bony o 

Sandy shale .« .T o 

Sandstone, massive 40 

Concealed to level of Great Kanawha river 125 



5 
o 

I 

I 

5 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



5 10 



The Stockton coal was once mined at ibis locality by Mr. 
RufiFner, but it contained much slaty and bony material along 
with some impure cannel in the center of the main bench. 

The CoALBURG COAL, locally known as the **Brook8" Vein, be- 
longs in the concealed interval about sixty feet below the Stockton 
seam. 

The rocks rise rapidly southward, and at the mouth of Wil- 
sons run, the following measurement was made, which reveals 
another coal bed under the Coalburg seam: 

Ft In. Ft In. 

Kanawha black flint 5 o 

Concealed, with coal blossom 12 o 

Sandstone, gray, micaceous 45 o 

Concealed 75 o 

Sandstone 15 o 

Coal I 6 

Fireclay I o 

Sandstone 20 o 

Coaly * 'Point*' seam, blossom 

Concealed to Kanawha river 35 o 



Here a thin coal, the representative of the Winifrede bed, 
makes its appearance at 147 feet below the Black flint. ^ It has 
been mined for local use on Wilsons run, but as it does not exceed 
twenty inches in thickness it is of little economic importance. 
The coal twenty feet below the Winifrede bed has been mined 
on the south side of the river near the mouth of Chapel run, where 
it is locally known as the ^Toint^' seam, and has the relation to 
the BLACK FLINT shown in the following section: 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



507 



Ft In. Ft. In. 

Kanawha black flint 5 o 

Coal, Stockton 5 o 

Concealed 140 o 

Coal, IVinifrecU 2 o 

Sandstone 25 o 

fcoal 07) 
**niggerhcad*» 09^33 
coal I II j 

Concealed to Kanawha river 145 o 



The Kanawha miners give the name **Niggerhead" to any 
hard black slate or bone in the coal seams of the region. The 
*Toint'' seam was once mined on Chapel run by the late Dr. Hale 
of Charleston, who gave me the structure for it shown above. The 
Stockton coal was also mined near the mouth of Chapel run but it 
proved slaty and impure. 

Black Hawk run puts into the north bank of the Kanawha 
river nearly opposite the mouth of Chapel run, and descending the 
steep hill one-fourth mile up the former stream, the following 
section was measured: 

Ft In. Ft. In. 



Massive sandstone and concealed 285 

Shales and concealed 20 

Kanawha black flint 5 

Bandy shales 5 

Coal, Stockton, and concealed 5 

Fireclay and sandy shales 5 

Sandstone, massive 60 

fcoal, slaty o i 

shale, blue o 4 

coal o 10 

Coal, Coalbur^y I fireclay 2 o 

''Brooks vetn'' shale, sandy i 3 

coal I o 

shale and fireclay i 6 

.coal I 4 



8 4 



This coal is locally known as the * 'Brooks" seam, and it has 
been mined quite extensively for use in the old Daniel Boone salt 
furnace. Its horizon is midway between the Stockton coal and the 
Winifrede bed. 

The Stockton coal was also once mined here in 6lack Hawk 
hollow for use in the salt furnaces by Dr. Hale, who reported it as 
three and one-half to four feet thick but very slaty and sulphurous. 

Campbells creek puts into the north bank of the Great Ka- 
nawha four miles above Charleston, and at its mouth a very 
important and widely persistent coal bed rises from the bed of the 



508 



THX KANAWHA 8EBI18. 



river, and has been extensively mined along Campbells creek. The 
following section was measured in descending from the sammit of 
a steep hill, one mile and a-half above the month of Campbells 
creek: 

Ft In. PL In. 



Coalburg, or 

''Brook^' coal ' 



Concealed from summit «. 45 

Sandstone, very hard, white 10 

CoafyslAtt 2 

Sandstone, coarse, soft 50 

Sandstone, bluish gray, hard 40 

Concealed 40 

/Canawha black flint 5 

Concealed, with blossom of coal near top 90 

fcoal, splinty 16^ 

"niggerhead'* o 6 

coal, good X 6 

shale o 6 

[coal, slaty i o 

Concealed ...I35 

Sandstone, massive ..125 

Coal, ••Arno" (Cedar Grote) i 

Shales, sandy 15 

Limestone silicious» Campbells creek i 

Shales and sandstone 34 

'coal, splint i 10 

slate o I 

coal I I 

Coal, Campbells creek \s\2X^ o i 58 

coal o 10 

shale o 6 

,coal I 3 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



The interval between the Campbells creek coal and the black 
FLINT, foot up 406 feet as measured with the aneroid barometer, 
and Mr. Lovell of the Pioneer Coal Co., reports an accurate instru- 
mental determination of 410 feet for the same, made by the mine 
engineer. 

Here we get three new elements appearing in the Kanawha 
series, viz., the Cedar Grove coal, locally known as the "Amo" or 
''Trimble'' seam, a silicious limestone, exhibiting cone-in -oone 
structure, and the most important coal of the Kanawha series, the 
Campbells creek bed. 

This coal as mined along Campbells creek often presents the 
following structure: 



Ft. In. Ft In. 



Coal . 
Shale 
Coal.. 



4 o ) 
I o \ 
I 6 J 



6 6 



WEST VIBGINIA OEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



509 



In which there are only two benches, the upper one solid coal 
with no partings, and separated from the lower bench by a parting 
of gray shale which varies in thickness from six inches to three 
feet, even in the same mine, and as we pass up the Great Kanawha, 
thickens to twenty and even thirty feet, thus separating the Camp- 
bells creek coal into two distinct beds of coal, both of which have 
been mined, as we shall see later. 

Georges creek puts into the north bank of the Kanawha at 
Maiden, one mile above the mouth of Campbells creek, and in de- 
scending a steep hill, one-half mile above the mouth of the former 
the following section was obtained: 

Ft. In. Ft In. 

Sandstone, massive, coarse 50 o 

Concealed 20 o 

Kanawha black Jlini 5 o 

Concealed 25 o 

Sandstone, massive, micaceous 50 o 

Concealed 25 o 

Sandstone, massive 85 o 

Concealed 60 6 

Sandstone, massive no o 

Concealed 80 o 

fcoal 26' 

shale o 8 

Coal^CafnpMlscreek<cosX o 6 5 3 

I shale 04 

[coal, visible i 3 

Concealed 3 o 

Shales, blue, sandy 15 o 

Sandstone, massive, visible 25 o 

Concealed to Kanawha river 45 o 

On the south side of the Kanawha at Maiden, and a short dis- 
tance above the C. &. 0. R. R. station, the following section was 
obtained in descending from the summit of the hill: 

Ft In. Ft In. 

Sandstone, massive 90 o 

Concealed 20 o 

Kanawha black flint 5 o 

Concealed, with ami/ blossom (Stockton) 15 o 

Sandstone, massive .*..... 50 o 

Concealed 30 o 

Sandstone, massive, micaoeous 65 o 

Shale, sandy, gray 3 o 

Concealed 20 o 

Sandstone, massive, micaceous 50 o 

Shales, sandy 2 o 



610 



THE KANAWHA SERIES. 



CocU, ''Pbint' seam 



fcoal 



■■} 



3 8 



o 8 

rhead*' o ii 

2 

Fireclay, sandy ; 2 

Concealed 55 

Sandstone, massive ' X50 

Coal, Cedar Grove, '*Amo,'' ek w... o 

(Concealed and shades..... , 15 

Sandstone.... ...i 2 

Shales, sandy « r....<. ..,.* 10 

Limestone, Campbells creek,,..,,,, i 

Shales and sandstone.... '. 35 

'coal 20^ 

fireclay shale i 2 

coal.. o 4 

fireclay shale i 10 

slaty coal o 8 

coal o 10 

slate o 2 

[coal I 8 

Fireclay and sandy shale 7 o 

{coal, slaty o 6 1 
fireclay 12 > I II 
coal o 3 J 

Shale 2 o 

Sandstone, massive, visible 25 o 

Concealed to Kanawha river 50 o 



Coal, 
Campbells creek ' 



8 8 



Here we get an immense development of massive sandstone 
which increases the interval between the Campbells creek coal and 
the BLACK FLINT to 489 feet, and throws the 'Toint" seam seventy 
feet farther below the black flint than it was at Chapel and Wil- 
son runs, two and one half miles north. 

In this general thickening of the measures the parting slates 
of the Campbells creek coal bed also appear to participate, and the 
little coal seven feet under the main bed is most probably only a 
**split'' from the former. 

The ^Toinf' seam was once extensively mined here for use in 
the old salt furnaces. The coal is rather hard and some of it bony. 
It is possible that this bed may sometimes have been mistaken for 
the Winifrede seam which belongs above it. 

The rocks continue rising southeastward up the Kanawha river 
until we come to the vicinity of Brownstown and Burning Springs 
run, nine miles above Charleston, where the black flint attains 
an elevation of 700 feet above water level, and in descending from 
a high point on Burning Springs run to the Kanawha river, the fol- 
lowing succession was measured: 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 511 



Ft In. Ft. In. 

Sandstone, massive 45 o 

Kanawha black flint 5 o 

Concealed 5 o 

Sandstone, massive ; 45 o 

Concealed and sandstone 430 o 

fcoal * ^ 1 

Coaly CampbelU creek \fScL9\t&^nAc!anGt6L^ ^,10 o V 24 10 

I coal 2 4 J 

Sandstone, massive 35 o 

Shales and concealed 35 o 

Coaly Brownstown 2 o 

Fireclay and shales 5 o 

Sandstone, massive 15 o 

Sandy shales 10 o 

Coalv slate o 5 

Sandy shales 15 o 

Coaly shale o 6 

Concealed to level of Kanawha river 50 o 



Here the Campbells creek coal has separated into two well de- 
fined beds exactly twenty feet apart, and both have been opened 
and mined at several localities along Burning Springs run. The 
upper portion of the bed, which farther up the river becomes the 
*Teerless" coal, is 480 feet below the black flint, while the lower 
member is 502^ feet below the same datum, thus showing a thick- 
ening of nearly 100 feet between these two horizons in the four 
miles from Campbells creek. 

At the mouth of Rush creek, below Brownstown, on the south 
side of the Kanawha, the following section is exposed: 

Ft In. Ft. In. 

Coal^ probably Campbells creek 

Concealed 80 o 

Sandstone, massive, visible 20 o 

Shales, sandy 25 o 

Coaly slaty o 6 

Sandstone and sandy shales 15 o 

Limestone, siliciouSy Cannelton (Stockton) i o 

Sandy shales and sandstone 40 o 

Concealed 5 o 

Coaly (Eagle)y reported in bed of Rush creek 3 o 

Two other members of the Kanawha series make their appear- 
ance here near the bottom of the section, viz., a limestone which 
appears to be identical with the one at Cannelton, which Mr. Stock- 
ton once burned for cement, and hence is often termed the Stock- 
ton CEMENT BED. Then below this, in the bed of Rush creek, a 



512 THE KANAWHA 8SRDEB. 

coal, with a thickness of three feet, is reported to have been found 
when the C. & 0. R. R. piers for the bridge across that stream were 
built This would come at the horizon of the Eagle seam found 
at Cannelton and southward. 

On the north side of the Kanawha just opposite the Browns- 
town ferry, the following section wais measured from the top of the 
steep adjoining hill: 

Ft In. Ft. In. 

Concealed from summit 30 o 

Kanawha black flint 5 o 

G?^/ and shale, Stockton S o 

Concealed 10 o 

Sandstone, massive 95 o 

Shales and concealed 30 o 

Sandstone, massive 40 o 

Sandy shales and concealed 25 o 

Sandstone, massive, micaceous 160 o 

Shales, sandstone, and concealed, with Campbells 

creek coal nesLrheiae 130 o 

Sandstone, massive 40 o 

Concealed 35 o 

Coalf Brownstown , 

Concealed to river level 150 o 

This is the crest of the anticlinal wave which crosses the Great 
Kanawha at Brownstown, and carries the black flint to an eleva- 
tion of 720 feet above water level. From this point southeastward 
up the river, the rocks decline and the flint comes down to within 
600 feet or less above the Kanawha river a few miles above. 

On Simmons creek, which puts into the north bank of the 
Great Kanawha just above Brownstown, the Cedar Grove coal has 
been mined, and there the following succession was observed: 

Ft In. Ft In. 

Sandstone, massive 

Coal^ Cedar Grove 3 4 

Concealed 75 o 

Fireclay 2 o 

Concealed 23 o 

Coal, Campbells creek 

Sandy shales and concealed « 40 o 

Sandstone, massive 40 o 

Sandy shales and concealed 25 o 

Coal^ blossom 

Shales..... 5 o 

Sandstone, massive 30 o 

Sandy shales and flaggy sandstone 35 o 

Limestone, silicious i o 

Shales, sandy 15 o' 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 513 

Slate, black o 6 

Shales 7 o 

Sandstone, flaggy, to creek level ,....20 o 

At the mouth of Simmons creek both the Cedar Grove bed and 
one of the benches of the Campbells creek bed have been mined 
and exhibit the following relations to each other: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sandstone, massive 25 o 

Coal, Cedar Grove 3 4 

Concealed 10 o 

Sandstone, massive 15 o 

Concealed 75 o 

Coal, Campbells creek 

Concealed 20 o 

Sandstone, massive 30 o 

Concealed 25 o 

Coal, Brownsiown 

Shales and concealed 5 o 

Sandstone, massive 35 o 

Concealed 45 o 

Sandstone, massive 25 o 

Concealed to level of Kanawha river 45 o 

About one mile and a-quarter above the mouth of Simmons 
creek the following section was measured near the mouth of a small 
stream: 

Ft. In. Ft In. 

Sandstone, massive 100 o 

Concealed 20 o 

Kanawha black flint 5 o 

Concealed 20 o 

Sandstone, very massive 75 o 

Shales and concealed 65 o 

Gray shales 5 o 

Coal, IVini/rede, visible 2 o 

Concealed and massive sandstone 100 o 

Coal, blossom 

Concealed and sandstone 190 o 

Sandstone, massive 50 o 

fcoal o 5 1 

shale o 6 V 3 I 

coal 2 2 J 

shale .'.... 10 o 

[coal 

Concealed 7 o 

Sandstone, massive 35 o 

Concealed and sandy shales 35 o 

Coal, Brownsiown 

Shales 5 o 

Sandstone, massive 25 o 

Concealed to level of Kanawha river 65 o 



Coal, 
Campbells creek ' 



614 



THE KANAWHA 8ERIEB. 



In this section the Campbells creek coal is found at 607 feet 
below the black flint, and the latter at 692 feet above the Ka- 
nawha river, instead of 720 as at Brownstown, thus showing that 
the dip has changed to the southeast Both benches of the Camp- 
bells creek coal have been opened here, but the lower opening had 
fallen shut and the thickness of that member could not be measured. 

Witchers creek puts into the north bank of the Great Kanawha 
two miles and a-half above Simmons creek, and along this stream 
between its mouth and Laurel branch two miles above, Mr. C. C. 
Lewis of Charleston, once constructed a very accurately leveled sec- 
tion of the strata which reads as follows, beginning at the highest 
summit. 



Ft In. Ft In. 



Sandstone, hard, white, pebbly 35 

Coal, Mason^ blossom 

Concealed 175 

Kanawha black flint 5 

Concealed 18 

Coal.Stockton 2 

Concealed and sandstone ', 23 

Coalf hard, LewisUm 4 

Sandstone and concealed 54 

{coal 2 o 1 
slate I o }• 4 
coal I o J 

Concealed 50 

coal 2 4 

slate, gray : o i 

coal 2 o 

slate, black o i 

[coal 20^ 

Sandstone, massive and concealed 78 

Ca;f»^/ r(9a/ and bituminous slate 2 

Concealed and shaly sandstone 21 

Coaly streak 

Concealed ,.,.. i8 

Coal I 

Concealed (steep bluff) 86 

Coaly Cedar Grove 3 

Concealed to level of Laurel run 77 

Interval to Kanawha river 120 



CoalWinifrede 



6 6 



This measurement puts the Cedar Grove coal 370 feet below 

the BLACK FLINT. 

The coal called Lewiston is probably only a ''split'* from the 
Stockton seam above. The original **Lewiston" bed was the one 
now called Wlnifrede, but by a singular popular error the name 
has been transferred to the horizon in question. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



615 



Macfarlane's old coal works are about one-half mile above^ 
the mouth of Witchers creek, and in descending the steep hill at 
that locality the following section was measured: 

Ft In. Ft In. 

Concealed to top of knob.. 3oo o 

Kanawha black flint 

Concealed 15 o 

Sandstone, visible jo o 

Concealed 180 o 

i coal, soft o 8 
splint coal i 8 
coal, soft I 4 )- 4 
shale o 2 
"gray" splint o 4 

Concealed 175 

Sandstone, massive 20 o 

Coal, Cedar Grove ' 2 o 

Concealed 100 o 

Coal, Campbells creek 

Concealedto river level 85 o 

About one mile southeast from this last locality, and at the 
mouth of Fields creek or Winif rede junction, the Winifrede coal 
was once extensively mined, and in descending from the summit 
there the following section was constructed: 

Ft In. Ft In. 



Coal, ''Pdinr seam.. 



Sandstone, massive 25 

Concealed 20 

Kanawha black flint ; 5 

Concealed 170 

Coal, Winifrede 3 

Concealed, (mostly sandstone) 45 

fcoal o 8 

cannel slate i o 

shale, g^y 2 6 

coal o 10 

shale, gray o 2 

[coal V I 2 

Concealed 45 

Sandstone, massive 5 

Concealed and shaly sandstone 50 

Coal, blossom 

Shaly sandstone and concealed, 90 

Limestone, silicious i 

Sandstone, massive 20 

Concealed 20 

Coal, blossom 

Shales, sand^ and concealed 35 

Limestone, silicious i 

Sandstone, massive i 25 

Coai, Peerless, upper bench of Campbells creek 2 

Fireclay I 

Concealed and sandstone 25 



6 4 



516 THB KANAWHA EOEBISB. 

' Coal^ Blacksburg, (lower bench of Campbells creek 

bed) ^ 4 o 

Concealed to Kanawha river 50 * o 

The interval here between the black flint and the upper or 
'Teerlese" member of the Campbells creek coal toots up 517 feet^ 
and the elevation of the funt above the Kanawha river is about 
600 feet, or 120 feet less than at Brownstown, on the crest of the 
anticlinal. 

Two well defined members of the Campbells creek coal have 
been opened and mined here, though the upper one, called the 
Peerless seam, is the better of the two, being very free from slate 
and a rich gas coal. 

About half-way between Brawleys run and Coalmont a small 
stream descending the steep hillside has imcovered a fine section 
in the lower portion of the Kanawha series as follows: 

Ft. In. Ft In. 

Sandstone ; 10 o 

Limestone, silicious i o 

Shales and shaly sandstone 20 o 

Coal o 6 

Shales ao o 

Coal, Cedar Grovel i 2 

Concealed 40 o 

Sandstone and sandy shale 7 o 

Coaly slate and fireclay i o 

Shales, gray, fossil plants 8 o 

Coal^ Peerless 2 6 

Fireclay, sandy 2 o 

Sandstone, shaly 8 o 

Omi/ and coaly shale i 4 

Sandy shales 10 o 

[coal I 6 1 

shale o 8 

Coal^ Blacksburg ■ coal o 2 1-44 

shale I 2 I 

[coal o 10 J 

Sandstone, massive, to C. & O. R. R. level 10 o 

All of the coal from the Peerless bed down, belongs at the 
horizon of the Campbells creek coal bed. 

Near Brawley's run the following section was measured: 

Ft In. Ft In. 

Kanawha black flint 5 o 

Concealed 5 o 

Coal, hXossom, Stockton «... 

Sandstone and concealed 85. o 



WEST VIBGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



617 



Coal^ blossom, Coalburg... 
Concealed and sandstone.. 

Coal 

Shales , 



Winifrede coal 



Concealed . 



coal o I 

drawslate o 8 

**niggerhead** o \% 

coal 2 9 

slaty coal o 1% , 



65 o 
o 8 
6 4 



3 9 



365 



Coal^ Peerless (Campbells Creek) .... 2 

Concealed to C & O. R. R 30 

Concealed to Kanawha river 47 



The interval from the black flint to the upper member 
("Peerless") of the Campbells creek coal is 530 feet, and the black 
FLINT is 610 feet above the Kanawha river in this section. 

On the north bank of the Kanawha river, at Lock No. 4, a 
fine exposure of the strata has been made by the Government 
quarry, and in descending the hill at this point the following in- 
teresting section is exposed: 



Ft 111. Ft In. 



44 I 



Sandstone, massive 30 

Concealed 20 

Sandstone 5 

Shales, gray 5 

{coal, impure o 6 1 
shale o 4 f 3 
coal 2 2 J 

Shales and concealed 40 

Limestone^ Campbells creek i 

Shales, sandy 20 

fcoal I 3 \ 

sandy shales 70 !> 9 9 

coal I 6 J 

Coaly fireclay, sandy 20! 

Campbells \ 9AXi^'s^xm!t 14 o |>22 6 

creek, I sandy shales 6 6 J 

coal o 10 1 

I shales, sandy 10 8 > 11 10 

Lcoal o 4 J 

Concealed to E^anawha river 75 



By the thickening up of parting slates the Campbells creek 
coal occupies 44 feet of rock interval at this locality, while possi- 
bly some other layers below are not included. The top portion of 
the bed represents the 'Tberless goal," extensively mined on the 
opposite side of the Kanawha riyer as a gas coal. The Campbells 
creek LIMESTONE exhibits the cone-in-cone structure and is impure 
and sandy. 



518 



THE KANAWHA 8BRIIB. 



One mile above this last locality, Mr. C. C. Lewis of Charles- 
ton, many years ago leveled a section from the smnmitB of the 
lofty hills opposite Goalburg, to the Kanawha river, securing a 
nearly complete exposure of the different strata. This section was 
published in 'The Virginias," page 137, Sept. 1882, and is as 
follows: 



Ft In. Ft. In. 



Sand rock, top of river bluff., 

Slate 

Conglomerate rock 

fcoal 



33 6 

12 O 
II O 



Coal, ''Big'' bed, 
{Mason) 



o 

slate 2 

coal 2 

**niggerhead** o 

coal 4 

aoapstone 3 

[coal 4 

Limestone nodules i 

Hard sand rock 39 

Rotten sandstone 17 

Coarse, white sand rock 37 

Red sandstone 3 

Fireclay - i 

rofl/ (Mahoning, Nas Block, etc. ) 

Coarse sandstone 

Iron nodules 

(Kanawha) black flint ledge. 



8 
o 
o 

4 
6 
o 
6 
6 
o 
6 
6 
o 
o 



• 17 o 



99 6 



Hard sandstone 13 6 

Coal 261 

White sandstone 4 5?' (Stockton)... 11 5 

Coal, "Lewiston" .. 4 6 j 

Slate 2 6 

Sandstone 32 4 

Coal, Coalburg 4 o 

Slate 8 o 

0?a/, outcrop showing 2 o 

Sandstone ^76 6 

Coal, slate and iron ore mixed ( Wini/rede) 

Slate 2 o 



2 o 

64 8 

I 6 

7 o 



Sandstone ..44 

Slate, with iron ore nodules 23 

Coal, outcrop 2 

Sandstone .59 

Slate 3 

Iron ore i o 

0?a/, outcrop i o 

Sandstone .....71 4 

Dark slate ir 4 

Coal, Cedar Grove 

Fireclay 5 o 

Friable sandstone 42 9 

Coal 

Sandstone 

Coal, Campbells creek, upper (Peerless). 
Sandstone 



I o 



.25 6 J 



150 3 

5 o 

220 I 

. 2 8 

74 3 

15 6 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 819 

Coal^ Campbells creek, lower r middle) bed 3 o 

Sandstone 15 o 

Coal^ Blacksburgy (Campbells creek, lower) 4 6 

Concealed to low water of Kanawha river 26 6 



Total ^830 o 

From black flin t to top of Campbells creek coal 452 3 

bottom '^ " ** 493 3 

Kanawha black flint above Kanawha river 519 6 

The names in parentheses were added by the writer, otherwise 
the identifications are those made by Mr. Lewis. 

This section shows beyond any question that the Campbells 
creek coal is represented by the ^Teerless" and "Blacksburg" 
seams of this region, with frequently an intermediate bed. Also 
that the ^^Lewiston" bed is simply a '^split" from the Stockton 
seam. 

The interval given by Mr. Lewis between the black flint and 
the Coalburg seam is less than the writer found in this region, and 
it probably resulted from his not finding the Coalburg bed opened 
immediately below the crop of the flint, since near this same local- 
ity, the writer's measurement foots up ninety feet between the 
Coalburg bed and the base of the black flint. With this correc- 
tion, which would add about thirty-five feet to the interval in 
question, and put the top of the Campbells creek coal (Peerlesss 
member) 487 feet below the flint, the section will agree fairlywell 
with that published on page 300, and made in this same region, or 
rather one mile above. This addition would make the interval 
between the black fiint and the base of the Blacksburg bed 515} 
feet, or only twenty- two and a-half feet more than that given (493). 

Between Coalburg and East Bank, on the south side of the 
Kanawha river, the following section was measured: 

Ft. In. Ft In. 
Sandstone, massive 35 

fcoal o 3 

1 shale o 8 

I coal ^ o 6 

I black slate o 6 

Kanawha black flint 5 o 

Concealed with coal blossom (Stockton) 40 o 

Concealed, sandstone and shales 45 o 

fcoal, splint o 8 

*'niggerhead" o 8 

coal, splint 2 4 

slate, gray i 4 

coal, soft. I 2 



^-'•- S 



Coalt Coalburg 



6 2 



520 



THE KANAWHA 



960 O 



93 6 



Concealed 50 o 

Coal, splint, Wini/rede ^ I 8 

Concealed aoo o 

Sandstone, massive 24 o 

Shales and concealed 23 o 

Limestone,silicious i 6 

Sandstone, massive 8 6 

Shales, gray, full of fossil plants 3 o 

Coal, Cedar Grove a 11 

Fireclay 2 o 

Concealed and shales 35 o 

Coal o 6 

Shales, sandstone, and concealed 35 o 

Coal, streak ^.. 

Shales 10 o 

Limestone, Campbells creek i o 

Shales and concealed 10 o 

' coal. Peerless i 8 

shales 10 o 

{coal .JO 3 1 
shale.4 o }• 4 7 
coal .x> 4 J 

shales, bluish. 10 o 

coai r coal. I 10 ) 
Blacks- \ slate.o 4 V 3 10 
burg (coal. I 8 j 

Concealed and sandstone 30 o 

Sandy shales and shaly sandstone to Kanawha river.. 20 o 



Coal, 
Campbells creek 



y> I 



This section gives a complete exposure of the three members 
of the Campells creek coal and also shows an interval of 502 feet 
between the black flint ledge and the top (Peerless) member of 
that multiple bed. 

About half way between Crown Hill and Paint creek stations^ 
the following section was measured in descending the steep point 
above the old Doddridge coal openings: 



Ft. In. Ft In. 



oal, blossom 

Kanawha black flint .- 5 

Concealed and massive sandstone 25 

{coal, splint o 8 "j 
"niggerhead" o 2 V 4 
coal, splint 3 5) 

Concealed and sandstone loo 

coal, splint i o 

"niggerhead'* o 4 

Coal, CoalburgX coal, splint 3 o 

shale o 10 

coal, soft I o 

Concealed and sandstone 50 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 621 

'coal, slaty o 4 

shale 2 o 

coal, slaty o 6 

Coal, Winifreds shale o 6 [^ 8 7 

coal, slat^ o x 

fireclay, impure i 8 

t coal, splint 3 4 

Concealed to Kanawha river level 465 o 

The elevation of the black flint is here 659 feet above the 
level of the Kanawha river. The center of a syncline crosses the 
river near Cedar Grove and East Bank, nince the rocks rise to the 
southeast quite rapidly above those points, the flint being seventy- 
seven feet higher from water level in the last section than in the 
one near Bast Bank. 

On the north side of the Kanawha, and just below Cedar 
Grove, the following section was measured: 

Ft. In. Ft In. 

Sandstone, massive, g^ray 30 o 

Sandy shales 25 o 

Coal I o 

Fireclay and sandy shales 5 o 

Sandstone 10 o 

Shales 5 o 

Coal o 4 

Shales 5 o 

{coal, soft 06] 

coal, splint 2 5 V 3 i 

coal, softer o 2 j 

Concealed 100 o 

Coal, Blacksburg 4 o 

Concealed to Kanawha river 25 o 

This is the type locality of the Cedar Grove coal which, al- 
though thin, has been extensively mined in this region on both 
sides of the river. 

The Blacksburg division of the Campbells creek bed was once 
mined here by a tunnel under the public road, and hence has been 
frequently called the 'Tunnel" seam. 

Three miles above Cedar Grove the following section was 
measured near Lock No. 3 at the Government quarry: 

Ft In. Ft. In. 

Sandstone, flaggy 10 o 

Shales, 8and> 4 o 

Coal • o 4 

Shales 4 o 

Coal^ Cedar Grove 2 10 



522 



THE KANAWHA 8ERIBB. 



Concealed 75 o 

CbaA blossom, Peerless 

Sandy shales * 12 o 

Coal 2 o 

Fireclavand shales 17 o 

Coal, Blacksburg 2 4 

Fireclay and shales 10 o 

Sandstone, massive, grajr 20 o 

Concealed to Kanawha river « 80 o 

About one-half mile above Lock No. 3, a very high point rises 

abruptly from the river, and in descending the same the following 
section was measured: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Concealed from top of knob 75 o 

Sandstone, massive, pebbly 25 o 

Concealed and sandstone 75 o 

Sandstone hard, gray 55 o 

Coal, Mason, visible 2 o 

Concealed 20 o 

Sandstone, gray, massive 130 o 

Shale, sandy and concealed 15 o 

Coal, blossom 

Shales, sandy .• 5 o 

Sandstone, massive 25 o 

Shale, sandy 10 o 

Coal I o 

Kanawha black flinl 7 o 

Sandy shales 35 o 

fcoal, bony 04" 

coal, splint 2 5^ 

slate o oji 

coal o 4 

•niggerhead" o 2 

t coal, splint i 10 

Shales 10 



Coal, Lezidston. 



5 2 



Sandstone 2 o 

Fireclay i o 

Coaly slate i o 

Shale 5 o 

(splint 4 9 ) 

Coal,Coalburg<s\BXt^ o i >• 5 4 

(splint 06) 

Concealed X5 o 

Sandstone, massive 45 o 

Concealed 15 o 

Coal, blossom, Winifrede 

Concealed and massive sandstone 30 o 

Concealed 20 o 

Sandstone, massive 20 o 

Coal, blossom 

Concealed ..20 o 

Sandstone, massive 10 o 

Shales and concealed 5 o 

Coal, blossom 

Shales 15 o 

Sandstone, massive » 10 o 



250 o 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 528 

Shale 20 o 

Sandstone 25 o 

Concealed 70 o 

Shale, fossil plants 5 o 

Coal, Cedar Grove 3 o 

Concealed 30 o 

Limestone, Campbells creek /imyxxx^ i o 

Concealed 25 o 

Coal, Peerless 2 6 

Concealed 35 o 

{coal 2 10 1 
shale o 8 V 4 6 
coal I o J 

Concealed to river level ...145 o 

This section exhibits one of those sudden changes in the inter- 
vals, separating important strata, for which the Kanawha region is 
noted. The upper member of the Stockton coal is gone entirely, 
while the interval separating the Lewiston division of the Stockton 
coal from the Coalburg bed, is reduced to only nineteen feet, thus 
putting the latter bed only fifty-nine feet below the black funt, 
instead of 90 to 100 feet, its customary distance, unless indeed 
the coals could both be members of the Stockton bed, which hardly 
appears possible in view of the short interval between the black 
FLINT and Blacksburg coal, viz., 486 feet, instead of 515^ as 
given by the section on page 300, thus indicating a thinning 
of the intervals in the Kanawha measures, possibly as a correlative 
of the thickened intervals shown by the great sandstone deposits 
above the black flint, since the immense sandstone below the 
Mason coal stands out in a.giant wall, 130 feet high without a 
break. The coal blossom, fifteen feet below that great sandstone, 
probably represents the **No. 5 Block" seam of the region, although 
it is only forty-one feet above the flint, instead of sixty to seventy 
feet, the usual interval. 

Another low anticlinal wave crosses the Kanawha river at the 
mouth of Paint creek, and the rocks dip to the southeast slowly 
for about three miles as we pass up the river. 

Just above Dego we see a concretionary limestone deposit at 
about sixty feet under the Blacksburg coal, and ten feet above the 
C. <fe. 0. R. R. grade. This would represent the Cannklton lime- 
stone, or cement bed. 

About two and a-half miles above Dego, we get the following 
section of the measures in descending from the summit of the hill 
on the south bank of the river: 



524 



THE KANAWHA SERIB8. 



Ft In. Ft In. 

Kanawha hUuk flint « 5 o 

Concealed and shales 60 o 

coal, splint i 9 

**niggerhead" o 2 

Co€lI^ Coalhurg* coal, splint o 10 

dark ^ate o 3 

[coal, soft o 10 

Concealed 70 

Sandstone 5 

{coal, splint 30] 
slate, nard, sandy o 4 V 4 
coal o 10 J 

Concealed 375 

coal, gas 24' 

slate and impure coal ... o 4 

Coal^ Blacksburg' coal i 4 

fireclay 3 6 

[coal o 10 

Concealed to river level 75 



3 xo 

o 
o 

2 

o 
8 4 



Black flint above Kanawha river 601 4 

** ** Blacksburg coal 518 o 

About three- fourths of a mile above this last locality, we come 
to the property of the Kanawha Mining Co., and there get the sec- 
tion already given on page 373. This is a very important section, 
since it reveals the Stockton seam separated from the black funt 
by an interval of twenty-five feet, and also shows that the **Lewistoti" 
bed is simply a **8PLIt" from the main Stockton coal, here fully 
developed. Then, too, in their proper order below, come the Coal- 
burg, Winifrede and the multiple bedded Campbells creek coal, the 
basal member of which, the Blacksburg division, is here beginning 
to assume much importance. 

About one-fourth of a mile above the last locality, the follow- 
ing section was measured at the Union Coal Co.'s works; 

Ft In. Ft. In. 



Sandstone, massive 25 

Concealed ^ 35 

Kanawha black flint 5 

Concealed 175 

coal, soft o 6 

splint o 3 

coal, soft o 10 

splint o 3 

coal, soft o 8 

Coaly I splint o 4 

Winifrede \ coal, soft o 10 

slate, gray o 4 

coal, soft o 3 

black rock » o 4 

splint o 2 

coal, soft o 8 



5 5 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SRUVBY. 



626 



Fireclay 2 o 

Concealed 20 o 



Coal . 



coal 06" 

shale o 2 

coal I 2 

shale o 2 

[coal o 10 

Concealed 330 

coal o 10 

coal, hard, splinty o 6 

coal o 

shale o 

coal o 

shale o 

coal 2 

shale o 

[coal o 10 

Concealed to level of Kanawha river 125 



2 10 



Coalf Blacksburg 



8 

4 

I 
2 
8 
6 



6 7 



The Winifrede bed exhibits layers of soft bituminous coal al- 
ternating with the hard splint coal, the whole making an admira- 
ble steam fuel. 

The Blacksburg bed is shipped as a gas coal, except the splinty 
layer near the top, which is separated for fuel. The whole bed is 
termed the **No. 2 Gas*' seam in this region. The Peerless mem- 
ber of the Campbells creek coal occurs fifteen to twenty feet above 
the Blacksburg member, but was not visible in the immediate line 
of the section. 

On the north side of the Kanawha river, just opposite the 
mouth of Paint creek, the following section was measured in de- 
scending the steep hillside: 

Ft. In. Ft In. 

Kanawha black flint 5 o 

Concealed 400 o 

Sandy shales 20 o 

Coal ^ Cedar Grove 3 o 

Concealed 30 o 

Limestone, CamJ>beUs creek (cone'-\n<xme) 2 o 

8hales and sanostone 18 o 

Coal, Peerless 2 o 

Sandy shales 25 o 

Coal, blossom 

Shales 10 o 

Coal, Blacksburg 3 o 

Shales, sandstone, and concealed to Kanawha river... 135 o 

The Campbells creek limestone in the section, exhibiting the 
'*cone-in-cone" structure, which characterized it all along the val- 
ley, is an important witness to the correctness of the stratigraphic 
correlations shown in these sections. 



526 THE KANAWHA SBRDBB. 

At the quarry where the stone for Lock No. 2 was obtained, 
one mile below Cannelton, on the north side of the Kanawha river, 
the following section was measured: 

Ft In. Ft In. 

Coal^ blossom, Peerless 

Shales 40 o 

Coal ^ o 4 

Shales 15 o 

{coal 46) 

slate o 4 V 5 6 

coal o 8 j 

Fireclay and sandy beds 5 o 

Sandstone, massive ^ 35 o 

Coal I 8 

Concealed and shales 35 o 

Limestone, Cannelion{SUxkXou a^m^nt) 2 4 

Shales and concealed to Kanawha river 55 o 

About one-fourth of a mile above the locality of this last sec- 
tion, and at the mouth of Staten run, the following section was 
measured: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Coal^ blossom, Cedar Grove 

Concealed 1 5 o 

Sandstone, massive »... 40 o 

Shales, sandy 25 o 

Coal o 10 

Shales 5 o 

6ba/and shale o 10 

Sandy shales, with nuggets of cone-in -cone limestone 

near center 10 o 

Coal, slaty o 8 

Shales, sandy 15 o 

Coal, Peerless .• i 9 

Shales lo o 

Coal o 4 

Shales, sandy 15 o 

Coal, Blacksburg 5 o 

Concealed and sandstone 35 o 

{coal I 6 1 

fireclay and shale 2 o [■ 4 o 

coal o 6 J 

Shales and sandstone 35 o 

Limestone, Cannelton 2 3 

Shales and sandstone 35 o 

Coal, top only visible in bed of run i o 

Concealed to Kanawha river 20 o 

• 
Here a bed of coal appears in the bottom of Staten run, which 

comes at the horizon of the *^Eagle'' seam, mined farther up the 

river. 

The limestone above it is the one formerly burned into cement 

by Mr. Stockton, and hence often called the Stockton Cement bed, 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



527 



but which was named by the writer the Cannelton Umestone, from 
the town of Cannelton just above where this section was made. 

A short distance above Staten run we come to the town of 
Cannelton, and the plant of the Cannelton Coal Co., which mines, 
or at least formerly mined, the Stockton cannel coal in the sum- 
mit of the mountain, as well as the **No. 5 Block" coal on above 
it, and where the writer once measured the section given on page 
372. This is the locality where the coal at the summit of the Ka- 
nawha series received the name **Stockton,'' and which was later 
termed the Lower Cannelton coal by the writer in his * 'Virginias" 
paper, heretofore mentioned. The name Stockton, however, has 
been retained by the U. S. G. Survey, and is still used by many 
of the operators, so that the name, Cannelton, has been discarded 
in this report, and the old one (Stockton) used instead. 

The Blacksburg division of the Campbells creek coal has been 
extensively mined at Montgomery and on Morris creek, which puts 
into the south bank of the Kanawha just below that town. On 
this stream the interval of twenty feet or more, which often sepa- 
rates the Peerless division of the Campbells creek bed from the 
lower or Blacksburg member, is seen to thin away almost com- 
pletely about one mile from the Kanawha river, as shown in the 
following sections, the first of which, at the Excelsior Company's 
mine, shows the usual section thus: 

Ft In. Ft. In. 



Coalf Peerless^ 2 

Shales 20 

'coal o 5 

shale o i 

coal o 10 

splint o 2 

coal o 

*blackband" o 

coal o 

shale o 

coal 3 

shale 2 

[coal I 

Concealed 

Limestone, Cannelton 2 

Concealed to creek level 5 



Cofl/, BUicksburg 



8 

3 

2 
2 
6 
6 



75 



9 9^ 



At the Eureka mine, three-eighths of a mile farther up Morris 
creek, the following section is exposed: 



Coal, Blacksburg 



528 THE KANAWHA 8SRIEB. 

Ft In. Ft In. 

Sandy shales 30 o 

Coal, Peerless 2 8 

Shale and black slate i 6 

coal 3 o 

shale o 3 

coal 03 > 5 10 

shale o 4 

tcoal 3 o 

Fireclay shales 2 o 

Concealed 10 o 

Icoal 08) 
shale o 6 V 2 o 
coal o 10 j 

Rhales and sandy beds.. 10 o 

Coal I 8 

Fireclay and shales 15 o 

Here the twenty feet of shales separating the Peerless bed from 
the Blacksburg coal of the previous section, has thinned down to 
only one foot and a-half, while just across the creek, at an aban- 
doned mine, the interval thins to only six inches, and the Peerless 
bed was once mined along with the main Blacksburg division be- 
low, but farther back in the mine, the intervening shale thickened 
up rapidly, and the Peerless division could no longer be mined 
with the Blacksburg bed. We know that this upper coal is the 
Prerlkss, because this division of the Campbells creek coal has a 
peculiar physical structure unlike any other members of this mul- 
tiple seam, and hence there can be no doubt that the coal bed 
which is twenty feet above the Blacksburg seam, at the Excelsior 
opening, is only one foot and a-half above the latter at the Eureka 
mine. 

As a correlative for this thinning above the Blacksburg bed, 
it is quite probable that the two and a-half feet of shales separating 
the bottom member from the main seam at the Excelsior mine, 
has thickened to twelve feet at the Eureka. These facts are given 
as an illustration of what is a common feature of the Kanawha 
series, viz., sudden changes in the intervals which sepapate not 
only the different coal beds of the series, but also the several mem- 
bers of the same coal bed. 

In the region of Montgomery (formerly called Coal Valley) 
this Blacksburg coal is often termed the Coal Valley seam, as well 
as **No. 2 Gas'' coal, since the Eagle bed below is frequently called 
**No. 1 Gas,'' because it is the lowest workable coal of the Ka- 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



529 



nawha series, and in order to distinguish it from the **splint," or 
**block*' coals found at the horizon of the Winifrede, Coalburg, 
Stockton, etc. 

A short distance above Montgomery the Blacksburg coal has 
long been mined by the Coal Valley Coal Company, and the fol- 
lowing section was measured in descending from the summits of 
the hills at that point: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 



Coal^ 
Stockton, 



Coal (No. 5 Block) blossom 

Sandstone, massive 50 o 

Concealed 15 o 

Kanawha black flint 5 o 

Concealed 18 o 

'cannel, visible o 10 

shales 6 o 

coal and slate 2 o 

shale with streaks of coal 4 o 

[coal, slaty. Lewiston 4 o 

Sandstone, massive and concealed 90 o 

Coal, blossom, Coalburg 

Concealed 10 o 

Sandstone, massive and concealed 90 o 

fcoal o 2 1 

I shale 2 10 

Coal^ Winifrede -< coal o 2 54 

I shale 02 

[coal 2 o 

Concealed and sandstone 40 o 

Coal^ blossom 

Concealed and sandstone 55 o 

Coaly slaty, blossom 

Concealed 120 o 

{coal 14^ 
slate o 2 }- 3 6 
coal I o j 

Concealed 145 o 



- 16 10 



Coaly Blacksburg 



7 0% 



coal, bony o 4 

slate o 0% 

coal, soft o 6 

coal, splint i o 

slate o 0% 

coal, soft o 6 

shale o 2 

coal, soft 3 o 

shale o 8 

[coal o 10 

Concealed 115 o 

{coal 12^ 
shale o 4 >• 3 6 
coal 2 o J 

Concealed to Kanawha river 50 o 

Interval of black flint above Kanawha river 768 feet. 

** Blacksbm^ coal 592 •* 



530 



THB KANAWHA SBBIS8. 



Here the development of massive sandstones has thickened u] 
the interval between the black funt and the Blacksbubg ooal bj 
nearly 100 feet over what it is within a few miles north, as may b< 
observed from the sections given. 

The Eagle coal was opened by Mr. Thoma, the superintend- 
ent of the Coal Valley Company, who reported its thickness and 
structure. It comes near the C. & 0. R. R track level, and 115 
feet of debris was passed through before the crop of the coal was 
found. 

As we go south from Montgomery, the strata continue to rise 
rapidly, and we soon get exposures below the Eagle coal, the fol- 
lowing section being visible a short distance below Eklgewater 
(formerly Frederick): 

Ft In. Pt In. 



Coal, Blacksburg • 



II 

7 



Shaly sandstone 5 

Coal, PeerUss 2 

Shales, dark blue 15 

r coal, sulphurous o 5 

slate o 

coal, gas o 

splint o 

parting o 

coal, gas o 

slate o 

[coal, gas 2 10 

Fireclay 5 

Concealed 100 

Sandstone 5 

Shales, sandy 5 

fcoal o 3 

**niggerhead'* o 2 

coal o 

slate o 

coal o 

slate o 

[coal 2 

Fireclay and sandy beds 6 

Sandstone 6 

Sandy shales 8 

Coal, Little Eagle i 

Fireclay, impure 5 

Sandstone and sandy shale 50 

Limestone, Eagle (black marble) i 

Shales, dark, fossiliferous, to C. & O. R. R. level 10 



Coal, Eagle 



9 
I 

3 

3 

10 



o 
o 
o 



5 4 



o 
o 
o 
o 



4 7 



The Eagle coal is soft and a typical coking coal. The Blacks- 
burg BED was formerly mined prmcipally for gas making purposes, 
the layer of **eplint'' coal shown in its section being separated for 
fuel. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 531 

The **Little Eagle" bed exposed twenty feet below the main 
Eagle seam, is a beautiful coal of the coking type, and is the low- 
est coal bed seen by the writer in the Kanawha series, there being 
nothing but sandstone and shales, with some black slates on below 
the section just given, until we come to the top of the Pottsville. 

The Eagle limestone is known locally as the **Black mar- 
ble," but it is simply an impure limestone darkened with carbon, 
and exhibiting the * *cone-in-cone" structure. 

The bituminous shales under it are filled with marine fossils, 
Productus Nebrascensis p. LONGispiNUs, Spiriper cameratus, Eu- 
OMPHALUS RUG08US, and many other forms being present. 

Near Eagle station, two miles above Montgomery, Fayette 
county, the Eagle coal has the following structure at its type local- 
ity, where first mined and named by Mr. Weyant: 

Ft. In. Ft In. 

Coal o 2 

*'Niggerhead'* o 2 

Coal o 10 

Shale o i 

Coal o 2^}- 4 6K 

Shale o 3 

Coal 2 4 

Cannel o 2 

Coal o 4 

The streak of cannel near the bottom of the seam is not always 
present. 

One mile farther south we come to the mouth of Armstrong 
creek, and in that vicinity find the section already given on pages 
371-2, where the Pottsville makes its appearance in the bed of the 
Kanawha, and the entire Kanawha series, over 1,000 feet thick, 
is exposed between the black flint in the top of the mountain, 
and low water, below. 

In the Mt. Carbon region, one mile above the mouth of Arm- 
strong creek, several openings in the Blacksburg coal reveal the 
same condition of affairs with reference to the Peerless coal, as 
on Morris creek, near Montgomery, viz. , a great variation in the 
thickness of the shale separating it from the Blacksburg member. 
This interval is fourteen feet at the main entry, but within 100 feet 
thins to eight, and in one-half mile farther to the southwest is only 
six inches, as shown in the following section: 



532 



THE KANAWHA 8KBIXB. 



Ft In. Ft In. 



Shales 

Gw/, Peerless, . 
Shales 



coal o 3 

shale o 5 

coal I a 

shale o 4 

^coal 3 o 



[Q o 

a II 
o 6 



Coal^ BUuksburg 



Coalf Brownstaum - 



Shales and sandstone 40 o 

coal X 4 

shale o 3 

coal 04 '37 

shale X o 

.coal o 8 . 

Concealed, sandstone, and shales ..80 o 

{coal 02) 
shales o 8 V 3 8 
coal a xo J 

Shales and sandy beds ao o 

Coal, Little Eagle 2 o 

Concealed to top of PottsviUe .300 o 

Concealed to level of Kanawha rifer 50 o 

The coal termed Brownstown here, ia possibly the same 1 
which thickens up and is mined on Armstrong creek under 
name of the *Towellton" seam. 

At the mouth of Armstrong creek the black flint has an c 
ration of about 1,625 feet above tide, but as the rocks rise rapi< 
to the southeast, it gets higher and higher above water level, a 
when we come to the junction of the Gauley with New river, 1 
miles east, its position is nearly 1,500 feet above water level, 
2,200 feet above tide. 

Messrs. Clark and Krebs, civil and mining engineers of I 
nawha Falls, W. Va., have measured a section exposed along Sa 
branch, which puts into the Gauley, one mile above its junction w 
New river, and have kindly given the Survey a copy of the sar 
The section, while accurately leveled, is made from west to es 
without taking into account the rapid dip, and hence some of 1 
intervals are much too large. The coals were numbered, from 
lowest one found in the Kanawha series up to its top at the BLi 
FUNT, and the section as compiled by them reads as follows: 

Ft. 

Kanawha black flint 

Interval 77. 9 



WEST VIRGINIA QBOLOQICAL SURVEY. 533 

Coal, No. 14 (thickness not given) 

Interval ^ 19. 7 

Coal, No. 13, splint coal ^ 12. 5 

Interval 182. 7 

Coal No. 12, Coalburg seam 4- 3 

Interval 55- 5 

Coal No. II o. 5 

Interval 58. 2 

Coal No. 10, Winifrede seam 4«o 

Interval 72. 2 

Coal No. 9 o. 5 

Interval 16. 5 

Coal N0.8 i.o 

Interval 26.0 

Coal No. 7 2.0 

Interval 64. 3 

Coal No. 6, soft (Cedar Grove) 1 3. 7 

Interval 75. 4 

Coal No. 5, soft, (Peerless'. 45 

Interval 37. 9 



Coal No. 4, Ansted 



coal.. .. 3 o 1 



slate o 

coal o 6 [- (Blacksborg) 9.0 

slate .0 7 

I coal 4 o J 

Interval, fireclay and sandstone 61. i 

Coal No. 3, soft (Brownstown, Powellton) ^ 4.0 

Interval 54.6 

{coal 2 6 ^ 
slate o 4 >• 5.10 
coal 3 o J 

Interval 49.0 

Coal No. I (Uttle Eagle) i.o 

Interval, sandstone, etc., to C. & O. R. R , Twenty 
Mile branch, at mouth of Sand branch 589.0 

Total 1494*7 

Interval from dlack Jlint to Anstead (Blacksburg, 
Campbells creek) coal 750. 6 

Interval from blcLck flint to top of Pottsville series 
(by adding 300 feet for Kanawha series below Coal 
No. 1 1245.9 

The words in parentheses have been added by the writer. The 
measurements, as stated, make the intervals too large, and hence 
probably 100 feet or more, should be deducted from the interval 
(750.6) between the black flint and the Ansted or Blacksburg 
coal. Owing to this uncertainty, the writer can give no opinion 
as to the correctness of the identification of the Coalburg and Wini- 
frede seams by Messrs. Clark and Krebs. 

Nos. 13 and 14 most probably represent the Stockton coal, in- 
cluding its lower division, the ^^Lewiston," or **Crown Hill'* splint 
coal. 



634 THB KANAWHA SBRIS8. 

Maj. Wm. N. Page, C. E., President of the Gauley Mou 
Coal Company, has also measured a section from the top of 
ley Mountain at Ansted to the bed of the New River at H 
Nest on the C. & O. R. R. Through the courtesy of Maj. Pa 
copy of this interesting section is published herewith, along 
the following explanatory letter: 

Anstbd, Faybttb CouhTy, W. Va., April i, 190: 

Dr. I. C Whitk» State Geologist, 

Morgantown, W. Va. 
My Dbar Doctor:— 

I am just in receipt of yoar favor of the 30th ult, and endose hen 
a section from the New River level at Hawks*s Nest station to the tc 
Gauley Mountain, above the Ansted mines, which is capped with the Ma 
ing sandstone. The elevations on this section are all taken by actttal 1 
referred to the Chesapeake & Ohio tide water datum line, as taken fron 
Hawk*s Nest bridge seat, and is correct with the exception of a oofr» 
on account of dip of strata. From the starting point at New River U 
Ansted seam, an interval of 980 feet, the distance is a little more than 
miles in a straight line, the direction bein? very nearly due north, in w 
line of direction the dip here would be about seventy feet to the mile. I 
the Ansted seam to the top of Gauley mountain, or to the Mahoning s 
stone, is very steep, and the dip may be practically ignored. 

Trusting that the section may be of some service to you, I remain 

Very truly and sincerely yours, 

Wm. N. Pagb. 

Ft In. Ft In. 

Sandstone and concealed 331 o 

Coai ("No. 5 Block,' Mahoning, etc.) 9 o 

Concealed 90 o 

Kanawha black flint 4 o 

Slate 10 o 

Coal (Stockton) 9 o 

Concealed 50 o 

Cba/ (Lewiston?) 3 6 

Soft sandstone and shale 137 o 

Coal (CoalhvLTg) 10 o 

Hhale 27 6 

Coal 2 6 

Sandstone 49 4 

Coal (Winifrede) 4 8 

Concealed 54 o \S^i 

Sandstone, massive 80 o 

Concealed 20 o 

Shales, dark 15 o 

Sandstone 60 o 

Cba/ (Cedar Grove?) o 7 

Shale, black ; 3 o 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



635 



400 o 



Sandstoue 15 o 

Shale 17 o 

Sandstone 50 o 

Limestone, hydraulic (Campbells creek)... 2 o 

Slate, argillaceous 21 o _ 

Ow/ (Ansted, Campbells creek) 11 o 

Slate 3 o ^ 

Shaly sandstone 27 o 

6b<2/ ( Brownstown, Powellton) 3 

Sandstone, gray, massive 58 

Shale 2 

r<7a/lEagle) 2 

Shale 28 

0?d/ (Little Eagle) i 

Hhale 35 

Slate, black 3 

"'Black Marble*' (Eagle limestone) 2 

Shale, dark 10' 

Shale 52 

Coal 3 

Shale 30 

Slate, black 18 

Sandstone, gray, shaly 20 

Shale, hard 10 

Coal 2 

Shale 4 

Sandstone, argillaceous 32 

Shale 5 

Coal 4 

Shale, ferriferous 45 

Sandstone, massive, top of Pottsville .... 167 

Shale 10 

Coal 3 

Shale, soft 45 

Sandstone, massiVe 108 

Shale soft 15 

Sandstone, massive 50 

Slate, black 5 

Coal (Sewell, Nuttall. etc. ) 3 4 

Slate, laminated 30 o 

Coal o 6 

Shale 54 6 

Sandstone, hard (Raleigh) to level of New river at 
780 feet A. T 60 o 

Kanawha black flint to Ansted coal 641 i 

.* ** to top of Pottsville series 1051 i 



o 
o 
o 
o 

4 
8 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
6 
o 
o 
o 



403 o 



The words in parentheses in this section have been introduced 
by the writer. Maj. Page has not shown the parting slates in any 
of the coal beds, but has simply given the gross measurements, in- 
cluding partings, etc., thus giving the several coal beds of workable 
size much more thickness than they actually have of minable coal. 

Comparing this section with the one on pages 371-2, from the 
mouth of Armstrong creek, we see that the interv