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K t 





JORDAN Library of Zoology 




Geological survey 




Part II. 



>.tl8i,il StunronJ, ]r\ 


The publioationB of the University Geological Survey of Kansas 
are for free distribution, on receipt of proper postage, or they may be 
sent by express^ charges collect. 


Volume 1, 1896 — Reoonnaissanoe Report on Gtonersl Stratigraphy of 

Eastern Kansas. (Edition exhausted.) Postage, 

'^ II, 1897 — General Greology of Western Kansas 24 cents. 

*• III, 1898— Special Report on Coal 28 •• 

'* IV, 1886— Paleontology, Part I, (on the Upper Cretaceous) .... 32 '' 
'* V, 1899 — Special Report on Gypsum and Gypsum Cement 

Plasters 16 ** 

" VI, 1900 — Paleontology, Part II, (Carboniferous Invertebrates 

and Cretaceous Fishes) 28 ** 

Report on Mineral Resources of Kansas for 1897 4 

Report on Mineral Resources of Ejinsas for 1898 8 

Report on Mineral Resources of Kansas for 1899 4 


Volume VII, 1900 — Special Report on Lead and Zinc. 
*• VIII, 1901— Special Report on Oil and Gas. 

Address all applications to 


__ Lawbbncb, Kak. 



• Cbancellor, and ex officio Director. 

Department of Chemistry. 

Deimrtment of Historical Qeology and Paleontology. 

Department of Physical Geology and Mineralogy. 


SAMUEL W. WILLISTON, Paleontologist. 
JOSHUA W. BEEDE, Assistant Paleontologist. 
A LB AN STEWART, Assistant Paleontologist. 

Chancellor F, H, Snou\ 

Ex officio Director of the Unitieraity Geological Survey: 

Sir — I have the honor herewith to submit to you for your ap- 
proval the second part of my report upon the Paleontology of Kan- 
sas, to constitute Volume VI of the University Geological Survey of 
Kansas. It is with great pleasure that I again acknowledge to you 
my appreciation of the uniform encouragement you have shown in 
the prosecution of the work. Respectfully, 

Samuel W. Williston. 

Depaktmsnt of Historical Geologt, 

Uniybbsitt op Kansas, June 1, 1900. 



University Geological Survey Publications iii 

Members of the University Geological Survey iv 

Letter op Transmittal v 

Preface vii 

PART I. — Carboniferous Invertebrates. By Joshua W. Beede 1 

Introduction 3 

Classification of Fossils 5 


CoBlenterata 11 

Echinodermata 26 

MoUusooidea 51 

MoUusca 107 

Explanation of Plates 175 

Plates I to XXII, inclusive 189 

PART II.— Cretaceous Fishes 235 

Frontispiece, Kansas Cretaceous Sea. Plate xxiii 234 

Selachians and Pycnodonts. By S. W. Williston 237 

Myliobatid» 237 

ScylliidfiB 244 

Lamnidse 246 

Pycnodontidse 254 

Lepidosteidse 256 

Teleosts of the Upper Cretaceous. By Alban Stewart 257 

Introduction 257 

Teleostei 269 

Ichthyodectidse 262 

Saurodontidae 310 

StratodontidsB 326 

Osteoglossidse 340 

SalmoDidse 348 

Pachycormidse 362 

Clupeidae 371 

Enchodontidae 373 

Dercetidae. By S. W. Williston 380 

Mugillidae 383 

Range of American Cretaceous Teleosts 385 

Appendix 391 

Explanation of Plates 394 

Plates XXIV to lxxiii, inclusive 405 

General Index 509 



The present volume on the paleontology of Kansas deals with 
the Carboniferous Invertebrates and the Cretaceous Fishes. 
The latter part has been made as complete as the present state 
of the collections and knowledge will permit ; the part on the 
Carboniferous Invertebrates leaves yet several classes to be 
treated, but which, it is hoped, will find a place in the next or 
succeeding volumes of the series. The work on the fishes com- 
pletes our present knowledge of the paleozoology of the Kansas 
Cretaceous, with the exception of that of the pterodactyls and 
plesiosaurs. It was the intention of the writer to make the dis- 
cussion of these two groups of reptiles a part of the present vol- 
ume, but the stress of duties in other directions has rendered 
this impossible ; he can only hope to treat them fully in the 
early future. 

It has been the aim to so treat the fossils of Kansas in the 
preceding and present volumes of this series that the work will 
be of immediate use to the people of Kansas. For this reason 
full descriptions and figures of every species have been given, 
so far as it is possible. Some of the descriptions and figures 
might have been omitted, giving merely a catalogue, of use only 
to the scientist, but such a plan would defeat the chief object 
intended — the preparation of manuals or texts for the use of the 
student in Kansas geology. 

Messrs. Beede and Stewart, the authors of much the largest 
portion of the present volume, have been students and assist- 
ants in the paleontological laboratory of the University. While 


viii University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

their work has been done under general directions and advice, 
the merits or faults of their papers are their own. The zeal, 
intelligence and earnestness which they have devoted to the 
work w^ill be sure to have produced valuable results. Doctor 
Beede, it is hoped, will be able in future papers to complete the 
review of the paleozoic invertebrates. 

At the present time, Mr. E. H. Sellards, assistant in the de- 
partment of paleontology, has well along a work on the paleo- 
zoic plants which, it is expected, will soon be published. 

The writer desires to thank Mr. Sydney Prentice, who has 
made all the drawings of this volume, for the care and faithful- 
ness he has given to the work. 





Plates I to XXII. 

A thesis presented to the Faculty 

of the University of Kansas for the 

degree of Doctor of Philosophy, 

June, 1889. 



TN this report the terms Lower and Upper Coal Measures are 
■^ only used relatively. The lowermost portion of the Coal 
Measures is referred to as the Lower Coal Measures, and the 
upper part as the Upper Coal Measures. As there is some 
•controversy concerning the boundary lines between these two 
divisions, and as the material at hand is not of a decisive 
nature, no attempt is made to draw any sharp division line, if 
indeed one can be drawn otherwise than arbitrarily. The 
collections studied, covering the entire Coal Measures area in 
a very general way, show no very distinct faunal division 
between the upper and lower rocks of the Coal Measures. 
There are several species present in the lower portion of the 
rocks that are absent in the upper, but for the most part the 
species disappear gradually. 

Cleiothyris roysii and Chonetea meaoloba are common to the 
lowermost strata only, and apparently below what is called the 
Erie limestone by the University geologists. Somewhat above 
this limestone Lophophyllum weatii fades out, and in the Garnett 
limestone are found the last of Productua cora americanua and a 
wide variety of the same species, and also Pleurotomaria miaaou- 
rienaia. However, this is considerably above what is generally 
taken to be the limit of the Lower Coal Measures. For con- 
venience, until a better and more complete study of the faunas 
can be made, the limestone known in the Kansas reports as the 
Erie limestone will be considered as the base of the Upper Coal 

In almost all cases the labeling of the fossils herein described 
is not specific enough to tell whether or not they are from below 
•this limestone ; consequently, their exact position with refer- 


4 University of Kansas Geological Sfircfy. 

eace to it can only be guessed at. Nevertheless, it is distinct 
enough to show that, in the Kansas area at least, there is no 
abrupt change in the faunas of the upper and lower parts of 
the Coal Measures, though the statement has been made that 
*' the change in faunal features is striking." ' 

The upper limits of the Coal Measures, as defined by Prosser, 
are followed in this report. 

The fauna of the Coal Measures of Kansas presents some 
very interesting and important features. The vertical range 
of species is very great for both brachiopods and pelecypods. 
The fauna also seems to be a young one in some respects, 
though, as a whole, it is certainly that of the Coal Measures. 
There are several species ranging through it which are charac- 
teristic of the English Permian, some of them being even 
restricted to the lower portion. This would not be so very 
remarkable were they all brachiopods, but several of them are 

For the area and thickness of the Coal Measures, the reader 
is referred to Volume III of these reports. 

The writer wishes to gratefully acknowledge the kind assist- 
ance of Dr. S. W. Williston in many ways in the preparation of 
this report; also to thank Prof. Charles S. Prosser, of the Uni- 
versity of Ohio, and Mr. Charles Schuchert, of the United States 
National Museum, for the loan of many valuable specimens and 
for offering many valuable suggestions and encouragement in 
the work. To Mr. Austin F. Rogers, of the University, much 
credit is due for assistance. The drawings for the illustrations 
accompanying this article were made by Mr. Sydney Prentice. 

1. Keyes, Amer. QeoL, zxiii, p. 303, 1899 (May). 



O Q a 

^ §5 i> 2 " 6 

« ZZ to O O B^ 

















SPONGI.r. p. 11 


Somphospongia . 










A ulopora, 






6 Carboniferous Invertebrates. 


A S g S I S a; 
2 S5 i> 2 I g B 

M 3X (» O CD o k 

I I I 1 I I , 











Eapaehycrin us. 


AgasaizoorinidBB . 

Echinozoa. ^ gmsizocrinys. 



Archseocidaridse . 

A rchceocidaris. 

Melon! tidsB. 

MOLLDSCOIDEA. Oligoportis. 















A ulacorhyncua. 



Bebdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 


MoLLUSOOiDEA — continued. 

BRA CHIOPODA—continued. 

























8 Carboniferous Invertebrates, 


a a o ^ 

§ «i -S 5 I g 8 

fifl s-v^ CO O Qo o « 

MoLLUscA — c<?/? tinued. 

PELEC YPODA — continued. 

ASIPHONIDA— co/i</wMed. 
















Ca rdiom o rp h u . 





*Of uncertain position in this order. 



The foraminifera are an order of that class of animals known 
as rhizopods, the name meaning root-footed. The rhizopods 
are very minute animals, resembling, under the microscope, a 
mass of jelly full of little bubbles. They move about by push- 
ing out portions of this jelly-like substance into thread-like pro- 
trusions, which may be absorbed back into the animal. This 
is how they get the name ''root-footed." Food particles are 
taken into the body anywhere, as there is no mouth, and digested 
and the waste portions thrown out wherever they happen to 
be, as there are no digestive organs. The animal can best be 
understood as a minute bit of jelly-like substance, called sar- 
code, capable of motion and the assimilation of food. Some 
of these rhizopods have shells with minute holes in them 
through which the thread-like feet are protruded. These feet 
often interlace, forming a network about the animal. These 
animals are* called foraminifera on account of the little holes in 
the shell. They live in both fresh and salt water, but are much 
more numerous in the oceans, where, minute as they are, their 
shells make up masses of deposits which become hardened 
into limestone and extend over vast areas. 

The only foraminifera which have been made known from 

the rocks of eastern Kansas are those often called ''petrified 

wheat." Their scientific name is Fusulina secalica, the latter 

name meaning a rye grain. They are very numerous ; often 

layers of limestone from two to ten feet thick, made up almost 

entirely of these shells, extend across the state from north to 

south. For further information, the reader is referred to Mr. 

McClung's article in Volume IV of this Survey, entitled 

" Microscopic Organisms of the Upper Cretaceous," on page 

2-vi (9) 

10 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 


Fischer, Oryet. Moscoa, p. 126, pi. XVIII, fF. 1-fi, (1887). 

FuBiUina secalica. Plate I, figs. 1, lb. 

Miliolites aecalicua Say, Long's Ezped., p. 151, foot-note, (1823). 

Fu/iulina eplindrioa Fischer, ibid., (1837); Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. 
Surv. Neb., p. 140, pi. i, f. 2; pi. ii, f. 2; pi. v, f. 3; pi. vii, ff. 8a, b, 

For further synonomy, see Weller, Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv., 153, p. 280, 

Meek's description: ''Shell small, fusiform or subcylin- 
drical, more or less ventricose in the middle, somewhat obtusely 
pointed at the extremities, which generally have the appear- 
ance of being a little twisted. Surface smooth excepting the 
septal furrows, which are moderately distinct, more or less 
regular, and a little curved as they approach the extremities. 
Aperture apparently linear, and not visible as the specimens 
are generally found. Volutions 6 to 8, closely coiled, the spaces 
(near the middle) being rarely more than twice the thickness 
of the shell walls. Septa about 20 to 33 in the last or outer 
turn of adult specimens, counting around the middle ; compara- 
tively straight near the outer walls, but strongly undulated 
laterally within ; foramina passing through the walls, moder- 
ately distinct in well-preserved specimens — as seen under a 
high magnifying power, in transverse sections near the mid- 
dle of the shell, somewhat radiating, and numbering in the 
outer turn of a medium-sized specimen, from 12 to 20 between 
each two of the septa. Varying considerably in size and form. '' 

Range and distribution : Very abundant throughout the 
Upper Coal Measures of the state. 

There have been two species and three varieties of this little 
shell described from the rocks of the United States. These varie- 
ties were considered species by their author at one time and were 
later reduced to varieties by him. Nearly all the forms that 
have been described are found in the rocks of the state. They 
are : Fusulina gracilis, rohusta, and F, ventricosa Meek, as well 
as F. elongata Shumard: In dividing these foraminifera into 
species, it is to be remembered the conditions for their growth 
were extremely favorable here during Carboniferous time, for 

Bekdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 11 

their skeletons make solid strata of limestone several feet in 
thickness, extending over vast areas. Under such conditions 
we always find a single species appearing in many forms, and 
consequently great care should be taken in separating them into 
species and varieties. So far as the external form and appear- 
ance of the Kansas Fusulinas are concerned, I think it will be 
impossible to divide the species, though a more careful study 
of the minute structure of the interior of large numbers of in- 
dividuals may reveal certain constant variations worthy of va- 
rietal or even specific recognition. But even then, when the 
fact is taken into account that they are but simple undifferen- 
tiated animals, susceptible of such great variations from environ- 
ment, great care would have to be taken in not making too 
many divisions of them. 

Say's description of Miliolites secallcus is good enough, when 
the locality from which his specimens were taken 'is brought 
into account, so that it is practically impossible for it to be 
missapplied, and consequently that specific term, together with 
Fischer's generic designation, will stand. 


The sponge is a rather loose collection of single cells variously 
grouped into one mass, forming a compound organism. The 
connection of the different cells with each other is slight. These 
cells are arranged in a series, so that canals are formed running 
through the sponge, the cells facing the canals. The inner ca- 
nals are generally larger where they flow together for the water 
to flow out, and this enlargement is called a ^' cloaca." Water is 
kept flowing through the canals by means of rapidly moving 
cilia which some of the cells possess. These little whips also 
aid in the capture of particles of food, which are taken from the 
water as it flows through the canals. 

The cells of the sponge are held together by horny, calcareous 
or flinty needles called spicules. The sponge of commerce, as 
we generally see it, is not the entire animal, but only its skele- 
ton, made up of horny fibers so interlaced as to form a network. 

12 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

The larger holes in it indicate where the larger canals were lo- 
cated. In most of the fossil sponges these fibers of the skeleton 
were made of lime or flint, and are known as calcisponges and 
silicisponges, respectively. The spicules are often compound 
and possess several points. Some are simple, like a needle 
pointed at each end ; some have three points, some four, and 
some six ; some are anchor-shaped and some are dagger-shaped. 
Most sponges are attached to rocks or other objects during 
their life, but some are free. They inhabit both fresh and salt 
water, but are, for the most part, found in the sea, in moder- 
ately shallow water. The only fossil sponges known from the 
Kansas rocks are calcisponges in which the spicules are rarely 



Beede, Kans. UnW. Qnart., VIII. i>. 128, (1889). 

A globular to mushroom-shaped calcisponge, attaining a large 
size, and generally possessing a more or less spherical-shaped 
cloaca near the base ; the canals are all very irregular and 
crooked, distributed over the entire surface, and moderately 
large. A rather thick dermal layer is present. They were 
free, apparently resting with the base in the mud in the adult 

Somphoftpongia multiformis. Plate f, figs. 6-10; plate II, figs. 1-5. 

Somphospongia multiformis Beede, Kans. UdIv. Quart., viii, p. 128, pi. 
xxxiii, n. 1-10, (1899). 

A small to very large sponge, varying in form from globular 
to mushroom-shaped, free, and gregarious. Connecting with 
the cloaca there is an irregular, branching canal system, which 
communicates with the exterior over the whole surface, though 
in large individuals they are smaller and probably nearly use- 
less at the base. These canals are very irregular in shape, and, 
when viewed on the surface, appear to be labyrinthine ; they 
become smaller and less numerous as they proceed inward to- 
ward the cloaca. When not worn the entire sponge is covered 
with a moderately thick dermal layer, the folds in which form 
the walls of the canals. There is no sign of attachment in any 
of our specimens, and the young ones seem to have rolled about 

Bkbdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 13 

until they had gained some considerable size, as the pores are 
about equally developed all over them ; they are somewhat 
globular in form. Where they were abundant, as is generally 
the case wherever they are found, they soon come in contact 
with each other and form a solid mass, sometimes appearing to 
coalesce, but generally in breaking they part along the line of 
contact, and neither specimen seems to be ruptured. As yet 
spicules have not been positively made out. There are no sili- 
ceous spicules, and several thin sections have failed to show 
any calcareous ones. The absence of siliceous spicules and 
chert in the specimens, and the absence of chert in the rock, 
makes it practically certain that they are calcareous sponges. 
There is on weathered specimens, where the dermal layer has 
been removed, a peculiar, more or less haphazard arrangement 
of pits, surrounded by elevations, which is probably caused by 
an internal calcareous skeleton, composed of fused spicules. 
The different individuals of this species vary from half an inch 
to a foot in diameter, but seldom are more than six inches high. 

They are found in abundance in the northwestern part of 
Atchison, in western Doniphan and eastern Brown counties. It 
is not uncommon to find them making up a stratum of lime- 
stone six inches thick. They are confined to a single narrow 
horizon in the Burlingame shales. 

The cloaca is generally filled with limestone, which, except 
at the center, is arranged in concentric layers as it was filtered 
in, giving the cloaca and the parts immediately surrounding it 
much the appearance of a concretion. 

The sponge evidently belongs to the Pharetronea, and appears 
most closely related to Corynella and Siellupongia. It differs 
from the former in not having the cloaca funnel-shaped, and 
the fact that the cloaca does not terminate below in vertical 
branching tubes any more than it does above, and possesses no 
distinct exhalent aperture. It is much more closely related to 
the latter, but is simple, and appears quite different in its spic- 
ules, while the cloaca is confined to the base. 

14 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 


Amblysiphoiiella prosseri. Plate I, figs. 2-2f ; plate II, fig. 6. 

Amblyaiphonella proaseri Clarke, Amer. GreoL, xx, p. 387, pi. xxiii, ff. 
1-9, (1897). 

Clarke's description : ** The bodies from Netawaka and Weep- 
ing Water are simple subcylindrical individuals, straight or 
gently curved, the largest fragment measuring 70 mm., and in- 
dicating an entire length of not exceeding 100 mm. The fossils 
are from a calcareous shale and have, for the most part, been 
somewhat compressed. Their interior cavities, the cloaca and 
interseptal chambers, are filled with compact gray limestone, 
distinctly and fine oolitic, and their exteriors are frequently 
entangled with encrusting Bryozoa and the remains of other 
fossils. The septate or annulate aspect of the exterior is always 
shown, and when this external surface is free from other or- 
ganic remains and cleansed from the attached matrix, it presents 
the aspect of a Fistulipora or of a small-celled Alveolites; that 
is, the mesh work of the skeleton is made up of polygonal cells, 
all of a small size, not always opening directly outward, but in 
places frequently presenting oblique apertures. So fine is this 
superficial network, and so uniform the size of the cells, that 
one might casually interpret the entire fossil as a macerated 
Orthoceras, overgrown with an encrusting bryozoan. 

'' One of the specimens is preserved with its aperture entire, 
which shows it to have been a simple-, narrow, circular cavity. 
On cutting these bodies along their longer axis, we observe, first, 
a continuous central cloaca, relatively much wider than would 
be the siphon of an orthoceran of the same size, but slightly 
constricted at intervals, where its walls meet the septa. This 
cloaca is delimited by a well-defined circular wall, and thus has 
no communication with the septal chambers or the cavities of 
the annuli, except through the perforations in this wall. The 
septa are at quite regular intervals and are convex upward. On 
the gastral surface they project slightly inward, as observed, 
into the cloaca. Each of these septa presents a former apertural 
surface, and the sponge affords, thus, an interesting instance of 
periodical intensity of growth force. The walls of the sponge 

Bbedb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 15 

thus exposed in section are very thin, approximately uniform in 
this respect, and are all perforated with straight, simple, rela- 
tively large canals. Those traversing the gastral walls (ex- 
halent pores) are larger than the rest and appear to be of 
uniform size. The canals perforating the septal (that is, aper- 
tural) and exterior walls are inhalent pores, and, with this 
necessary interpretation, the septal cavities may properly be re- 
garded either as chambers for the accumulation and discharge 
into the cloaca, or as true ciliary chambers. We find that, for 
the most part, these skeletal walls have been, perhaps by sec- 
ondary changes, converted into crystalline calcite, and this 
change has obliterated the spicular structure, and in some 
places the perforate structure of the walls. Elsewhere, espe- 
cially on the external walls, there has often been a deposit of ad- 
ventitious calcite which, in sections, gives the wall an unusual 
thickness. It is to be noted that there is no breach in the con- 
tinuity of the external wall of any given annulation. The septal 
or enclosed portions of the wall do not meet the outer or exposed 
part as they meet the gastral wall, but the entire external wall 
is arched from the peripheral base of the chamber beneath to 
the apertural margin of the cloaca." Thin vesicular tissue 
often extends from the gastral to the dermal wall and some- 
times between each other. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Thayer, 

I have a single specimen of this species from the Topeka 
limestone. It agrees very well in all respects with the speci- 
mens figured by Clarke. The smaller end was broken away 
before fossilization, making it appear to have the aperture at 
the smaller end of the specimen, and the septa sag downward in- 
stead of curve upward. There are several specimens probably 
of this species from Thayer, which are too poorly preserved in- 
teriorly to determine specifically, but the exterior resembles 
very much this species, to which it is referred. Associated 
with the above, at Thayer, is a smaller variety, very much more 
constricted at the juncture of the septa and the outer wall, giv- 
ing it very much the appearance of a row of large beads set 

16 University Geological Snrvei/ of Kansas. 

together. It has a very different externa! aspect from the 
specimens of the form above mentioned from the same place,, 
and is probably a different species, but until specimens can be 
secured showing the internal characters, it is referred provi- 
sionallj to this species. 


Corals are exclusively marine animals. The reef'building 
corals are found in comparatively shallow water, while some 
other forms are found as deep as 1500 fathoms. The corals here 
treated are all closely related to the reef-building forms, and 
consequently indicate that the rocks in which they were formed 
were laid ^owu in shallow water. The coral is an animal with a 
distinct digestive sac and body cavity. There are three layers of 
the body walls — the outer layer or ectoderm, the middle layer 
or mesoderm, and the inner layer or endoderm. The hard parts 
or skeleton are deposited by the inner layer between the inner 
layer and the middle layer. This hard part forms a complete 
layer around the lower part of the animal beneath the skin. 
There are thin walls of the hard part projecting inward in the 
folds of the mesentery. These walls are called septa. There 
are often cross>plates or table- ..f 

like platforms across the lower 
part of the hard parts extend- 
ing clear across the body ; these 
are called tabulir. Around the 
mouth of the polyp, as the ani- 
mal is called, there is a row of 
tentacles, or feelers, which are 
used to create currents of water 
and assist in securing food. 

Corals very often increase by 
budding ; that is, by a little 
bud-like projection growing out 

. . 1 • 1 1 . PlD. 1. TranHTena lectlaD of > 110111111 ooral 

of one Side of a coral and in a (artarNicholtoo). t,BepHim;e,oolnmelIa. 

Bbsdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 17 

short time becoming a polyp exactly like the first and connected 
with it. In a little while such a coral will form a cluster. 
Some kinds bud much more abundantly than others, when the 
cluster becomes a solid mass and is called a compound coral. 

At Fort Scott there is a large limestone stratum almost en- 
tirely made up of a coral called Chsetetes milleporaceous. At the 
time when the corals were living it was a small coral reef. 
The other fossil corals in Kansas are much more rare, though 
large masses of two other families are often found. 


Milne-Edwards and Haime, Brit. Foss. Corals, pi. LXYI, (1850). 

Lophophyllnm profimdnm. Plate II, fifirs. 7-7b. 

CUjaihnxonia pro//«nr/a Milne-Edwards and Haime, Mon. des Polyp. Foas., 
p. 323, (1851); etc. 

Cyathaxonia prolifera McChesney, Descr. New Pal. Fobs., p. 75, (1880); 
ibid., pi. II, ff. 1-3, (1865); etc. 

Lophophyllum profiferum Meek, U. S. Greol. Surv. Neb., p. 149, pi. v, 
ff. 4a, b, (1872); etc. 

Lophophyllum profunda Foerste, Bull. Den. Univ., iii, p. 136, (1888); 
Worthen, Geol. Surv. 111., viii, p. 79, pi. x, ff. 14, 14a, (1890). 

Meek's description, in part: '^Corallum elongate-conical, 
more or less curved, or sometimes nearly straight, tapering to a 
pointed base ; epitheca very thin, with more or less distinct 
encircling wrinkles and striae of growth, crossed by longitudinal 
striae; rarely sending off a few spines near the base. Calice 
nearly, or quite circular, moderately deep ; columella promi- 
nent, compact in texture, compressed above, with its longer 
axis coincident with the general curve of the cor all um ; septa 
from about 30 to 50, every alternate one being generally con- 
siderably shorter than the others, which latter are extended to the 
columella, near which they are sometimes a little tortuous." 
Columella formed by the enlarged prolongation of one of the 
septa ; tabulae moderately remote, arching from the columella 
outward and downward, sometimes a little upwards at first. 
Septa striated obliquely upward. Columella striated by some- 
what revolving longitudinal striae. Measurements : Length , 
30 mm. ; width of calyx, 9 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper and Lower Coal Measures ; 

18 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

Fort Scott, Marmaton, Bourbon county, Thayer, Olathe, Kan- 
sas City, Lawrence, Lecompton, Topeka, McFarland, Grand 
Summit. Common throughout the Coal Measures. 

In young specimens, the septa, except the cardinal, do not 
reach quite to the columella. 


LophophyUum westi. Plate II, figs. 8, 8b; plate III, fig. 12. 
AmplexHs westi Beede, Kans. Univ. Quart., vii, p. 17, (1896). 

Corallum simple, subcylindrical to attenuate-conical, straight, 
curved or geniculated, epitheca thin, longitudinal striae promi- 
nent, and concentric lines and undulations of growth distinct. 
The septa extend about half the distance to the center, 18 to 24 
or more in number ; the counterseptum extends to the center, 
where it is somewhat enlarged ; others of about equal length ; 
indications of secondary septa visible but very small. The 
tabulae are well developed 1 to 3 n^illimeters distant and 
* reaching from wall to wall ; on leaving the walls they are di- 
rected obliquely upward for a short distance, and then, slightly 
arching and undulating, cross the center, occasionally branching 
at or near the bend. Length, 60 mm. ; diameter in lat^^er part, 
9 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 
Lecompton, Neosho county. 

This species is very variable in size and shape as well as de- 
gree of development of the septa. It was at first referred to the 
genus Amj)lexus, as it seemed to have no columella, but more 
material showed that many of the specimens had the cardinal 
septum prolonged to or beyond the center and slightly enlarged, 
which seems to make it agree more closely with LophophyUum 
than Amplezus. That the species is intermediate between the 
two genera there can be but little doubt, as different specimens 
of the same species seem to possess the characters of each genus 
about equally. 

It is the fossil usually identified by collectors as Cyathaxonia 
distorta Worthen, and indeed there is no external difference 
visible (judging from Worthen's figures) in the smaller, more 
distorted forms. But if his species is a true Cyathaxonia it is 

Bbbdb,] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 19 

of course specifically distinct from our coral. I have been un- 
able to secure specimens of Worthen's species for comparison, 
and in his description he does not mention the generic charac- 
ters nor does he figure the interior of the specimen so as to show 
whether or not it had any tabulae. If it turns out to be a Lo- 
phophyllumf his name will, of course, have priority. 


Milne-Edwards and Haime. Brit. Foss. Corals, pi. LXVIII, ( 1850). 

Oampophyllnm torauium. Plate IV, fig. 1; plate V, figs. 1-4. 

Cyathophylhim (x^erinicularef) OweD,Geol. Rep. Wis., Iowa, and Minn., 
tab. IV, fig* 3, (1852). 

Cyaihophyllum torquium Owen, ibid., tab. iv, f. 2. 

Cyathophylliim flexuosum'(f) Owen, ibid., tab. iv, ff. 3a, b. 

Campophyllum torquium Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 
145, pi. I, If. la-d, (1872); etc. 

Meek's description, in part : '' Corallum simple, attaining a 
rather large size, elongate conical, and often geniculated or bent 
when two or three inches in length, but becoming nearly 
straight, subcylindrical and considerably elongated in the larger 
half of adult individuals. Epitheca thin, with small encircling 
wrinkles and strong undulations of growth, showing no traces 
of septal costse when unabraded, but, where even slightly worn, 
exposing the regularly disposed septa and thin intervening dis- 
sepiments distinctly. Calice circular or slightly oval, compara- 
tively shallow, with thin margins, from which it slopes rather 
steeply inward for some distance and then descends very 
abruptly into a deeper, narrow, central depression ; provided 
at the outside of the general curve of the corallum with a mod- 
erately distinct septal fossula, formed by the shortening of one 
of the primary septa, and the bending down of the tabulse at 
that point. Principal septa from 30 to 48, extending from 
about one-half to two- thirds the distance from the exterior 
toward the center, stout and usually straight inside of the 
outer vesicular zone, but becoming distinctly more attenuated 
(as seen in transverse sections) and somewhat curved or a little 
flexuous in crossing the vesicular area, where they alternate 
with an equal number of very short, thin ones ; tabulse very 
wide, or occupying about two-thirds the entire breadth, as seen 

20 University Geological Survey of Kansas, 

in longitudinal sections, and passing nearly horizontally across^ 
with a more or less upward arching ; dissepiments thin and 
forming numerous obliquely ascending, small vesicles, in trans- 
verse sections seen to pass across between the costse with an* 
upward curve. Entire length unknown." 

In young specimens the cardinal septum and all the other 
septa on that side of the corallum are very greatly developed 
laterally after passing inward from the vesicular zone ; the in- 
ner wall of the vesicular zone is also thickened on that side of 
the corallum. As a result of this great thickening of the septa 
the interspaces are small, producing a peculiar appearance in 
cross-section. The septal development . becomes less and less~ 
marked as the specimen advances in age, until in old specimens 
it is hardly noticeable, save in the cardinal septum, though a 
close comparison generally shows them a little larger on the^ 
outside of the general curve. These peculiarities may be seen 
by sectioning the large and small ends of any adult specimen*. 
The thickness of the dissepimental zone and also the number of 
tabular dissepiments are very variable. The young specimens 
are either rather slender or quite turbinate. 

Range and distribution: Kansas City, Jefferson, Douglas^ 
and Chautauqua counties. 

Some specimens in the University Museum are about nine 
inches long and apparently incomplete at both ends. Such 
specimens are usually a little crooked through the entire length.. 


Milne-Edwards and Haime, Brit. Foss. Corals, pi. XXI, (1850). 

Azophyllam rndis. Plate II, fie:s. 9-9c. 

Axophyllum rudis White and St. John, Trans. Chic. Acad. Sci., i, p. 
115, (1867); Meek and Worthen, Geol. Surv. 111., vi, p. 525, pi. xxxii,ff. 
6a, b, (1875): White, 13th Add. Rep. St. Geol. Ind., pt. 2, p. 118, pi. 
xxiii, ff. 8, 9, (1883): Keyes, Geol. Surv. Mo., iv, p. 107, pi. xii, flf. 5a, b,. 


Corallum simple, occasionally clustered by gemmation at the 
base, turbinate, curved or geniculated, generally attached at 
the base or side. The outer portion of the calyx is shallow and 
the central portion is rather deep ; pseudocolumella flattened^, 
moderately prominent, and approaching subquadrate when seen^ 

Bbbds.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 21 

in a section below the calyx. The septa are alternately equal, 
the larger nearly or quite joining the pseudocolumella. Sur- 
face marked by irregular concentric wrinkles ; spines or rootlets 
^re sometimes present ; septal furrows moderately distinct. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 
Lawrence, Osage, Cowley and Elk counties. 

This coral tapers very rapidly from the calyx to the apex, 
4>eing about as broad as long. 


de Koninck, Deacr. Anim. Foss. Belff., p. 29, ( 1S42). 

Michelinia eugenes. Plate II, figs. 12-12b. 

Miehelinia eugenece White, 13th Rep. St. Geol. Ind., 18&3, pt. ii, p. 119; 
pi. XXIII, ff. 14-16, (1884). 

Original description: '*Corallum usually in the form of a 
small globular or irregularly ovoid mass*, higher than broad, 
with the corallites usually opening upon all sides, except its 
very small base, which is often concave and irregular ; corallites 
small, but very irregular in size and shape ; calyces moderately 
•deep, their walls rather thin and margins narrow or even sharp. 
Height on one of the larger masses in the collection, 26 mm. ; 
diameter of the same, 17 mm. Diameter of the larger calyces, 
^ mm. ; of the smaller ones, 1 mm.". 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Pomeroy, 
Wyandotte county, Kansas. 

He also remarks that ''usually the calcyces cover the whole 
outer surface of the corallum except the small base, which was 
evidently attached to some foreign body ; but occasionally a 
considerable surface above the base is free from calyces, and is 
•covered with a wrinkled epitheca." It may be interesting to 
note that we have younger masses of but few corallites, one of 
which is attached to a crinoid stem. 

22 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 


MilnorEdwards and Haime, Pol. Fosa. d. Terr. Pal., p. 806, (1851). 

Trachypora auBtini. Plate V, fig. 8; plate VI, figs. 7-7b. 

Trachypora austini Worthen, Greol. Surv. 111., viii, p. 81, pi. xi, fl, 1-ld, 


Worthen's descriptioa : '*Corallum dendroid, the branches 
generally cylindrical, sometimes irregular, from 15 to 25 mm. 
in diameter, and infrequently divided. Corallites conical, 
diverging from an imaginary axial line to open on all parts 
of the free surface. The calyces all oval or circular, very 
variable in size, the larger ones 1.1 mm. in diameter, and 
either level with the general surface, or with an elevated mar- 
gin. Each orifice is adorned with small tubercles or short 
ridges arranged in a radiate manner around the calyx margin. 
Openings of the corallites separated by dense calcareous tissue 
of variable thickness, but apparently always as wide as, or 
wider than, the diameter of the tube orifices. Sections show 
that the tubes are prismatic and in contact with each other, 
that their walls are greatly thickened by a calcareous deposit 
on the inner side of the tubes, and that the amount of thick- 
ening increases toward the orifices. Mural pores of large size 
are present, but apparently not numerous. Tabulse are best 
developed in the axial region, where they cross the tube cavity 
at intervals equaling once or twice the diameter of the tubes. 
Tangential sections show that the corallite cavities are sur- 
rounded by blunt, thick, septal ridges. The walls are now com- 
posed of fibro-crystalline calcite, and the change has destroyed 
the finer details of structure." 

Range and distribution: ''Coal Measures; Labette county ^ 

''In all important respects the species described here re- 
semble the Trachypora ornata Rominger sp., from the Hamilton 
group, and I do not think any reasonable objection can be urged 
against placing them in the same genus. Specifically they are 
quite distinct, the corallum of Rominger's species being much 
smaller, the corallites much less variable in size and not so 
prominently margined, nor are the interspaces so thick." 

Bbbde.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 28 


Goldfasv, Petraf. GeniiM P. 82. ( 1826). 

Aulopora? prosseri. Plate III, fig. 2; plate IV, fig. 2. 

Auloporaf prosseri Beede, Kans. Univ. Quart., vii, p. 18, pi. — , f. 2, 


Corallum large, prostrate, bifurcating, the calyces rising ver- 
tically or obliquely from 3 to 7 mm. or more ; average diameter 
2 mm. or less; average diameter of prostrate portion a trifle 
less. Calyces not campanulate, cylindrical, openings nearly 
circular ; corallites wrinkled ; weathered specimens show longi- 
tudinal strise indicating rudimentary septa ; the corallites are 
one to three diameters distant. In the lower portion of the 
corallite the cavity is nearly or quite closed on account of the 
internal thickening of the wall. Tabula" generally wanting, 
occasionally present in moderate numbers and pass from wall 
to wall, sagging regularly near the center. Size of corallum 
unknown. Colonies twenty-two inches across were recently 
collected in the southeastern part of Douglas county, and still 
appear to be incomplete. The base of this species broadens rap- 
idly, and in good specimens appears somewhat like coarse lace. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Lyndon, 

Osage county, Lecompton and near Twin Mounds, Douglas 

In large slabs this species looks not a little like Syringopora, 

but differs from it very markedly in the absence or sparsity of 

tabulffi and the fact that the tubes are always rather short. 

Aulopora? anna. Plate III, fig. 3. 

Auloporaf anna Beede, Kans. Univ. Quart., vii, p. 18, pi. — , f. 3, (18d8). 

Corallum prostrate, diffusely branched, branches interlacing 
and anastomosing at every contact ; walls thin, save at the base 
of the corallite ; tubes very short, slightly subconical, immedi- 
ate openings slightly flaring, circular to oval ; no tabulae dis- 
tinguishable ; septa occasionally represented by a faint ridge in 
the best-preserved corallites ; diameter of calyx opening, 2 mm., 
contiguous to one or two diameters distant. Corallite low, a 
little larger at upper extremity than at the base. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Morehead. 

24 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

This species is profusely branched baso-laterally and anasto- 
moses to such an extent as often to form solid mats of coral. 
It differs from Aulopora in having no tabulse, in which respect 
it agrees with Cladochonus^ but it is prostrate, and does not seem 
to reproduce by lateral gemmation as does the latter ; hence it 
is referred, provisionally, to Aulopora. At first it was thought 
to be the base of a colony of Syringopora, as it was attached to 
the top of a colony of that species, but, on examining the bases 
of Syringopora, they were found all to contain very great num- 
bers of tabulae, which clearly separates the genera. 

It differs from AJ prosseri in the proximity of the corallites 
and the degree to which it anastomoses, and the corallites are 
generally shorter and the mouths more flaring. 

OladochonnB? bennetti. Plate III, fig. 1; plate V, tig. 7. 

Cladochonusf bennetti Beede, Kans. Univ. Quart., vii, p. 17, pi. — , f. 1, 


Corallum loosely fasciculate ; corallites one or two or more di- 
ameters distant ; erect corallites larger than the basal branches, 
often five times as high as thick, upper portion budding and 
sending off branches as at the base ; epitheca strongly wrinkled, 
upper portion of the wall of the calyx thin, opening circular, 
deep, funnel-shaped by the thickening of the wall interiorly, iu 
the lower portion of which, as a rule, there is only a small cap- 
illary opening, though sometimes larger. Average diameter of 
corallite, 2 mm. ; length, 6 to 18 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper and Lower Coal Measures ; 
Fort Scott, Howard. 

This species resembles Aulopora f prosseri more closely than 
any other Kansas species. It differs from this, so far as known ^ 
in having no tabulse, and in the manner of budding profusely 
at the upper part of the corallites. It resembles Romingeria 
umbellifera Rom., but the absence of tabulae removes it from 
this genus. It agrees with Cladochonus McCoy, save that they 
are only funnel-shaped when young, and very slightly so then. 
The corallites are long and very stout, resembling Syringopora 
in general appearance. 

Bbbde.] Carboniferous Invertebrates, 25 


Goldfass, Petref. Ghtrm., p. 76, (1826). 

Syringopora multattenuata. Plate II, figs. 10, 10b; plate V, fig. 6. 

Syringopora multattenuata McChesney, Deso. New Pal. Foss., p. 75, 
(1860); ibid., pi. ii, ff. 4a, b, (1865); Traos. Chic. Acad. Sci., i., p. 2, 
pi. II, f. 4, (1867); Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 144, pi. i, 
flf. 5a-d, (1872): White, U. S. Geogr. Surv. West 100 Mer., iv, p. 100, 
(1877); Keyes, Geol. Surv. Mo., iv, p. 122, pi. xiv, f. 6b, (1894). 

Corallum forming large masses ; corallites subcylindrical, 
somewhat tortuous, spaced one to two diameters distant ; epi- 
theca wrinkled, thick; septa obsolete; tabulae very numerous, 
somewhat funnel-shaped, often forming a tube down the center 
of the corallite, running into each other laterally, forming vesi- 
cles. Size of corallum unknown, specimens eighteen inches 
in diameter appearing incomplete on all sides. Connecting 
tubules numerous and irregularly placed. The diameter of the 
corallites varies from 3 by li to 2 by 2 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Atchison, Le- 
compton, Lyndon, Osage county. 


Trooat, manuscript (1849T). Milne-Edwards and Haime. Monog. des Polyp. Fobs., 

p. 272, (1851). 

ChsBtetes milleporaceas. Plate II, figs. 11-llb. 

ChcEtetes mUleporaceus Milne-Edwards and Haime, Monog. des Polyp. 
Fobs., p. 272, (1851); Hist. Nat. des Corr., in, p. 271, (1860); White, 
PowelPs Geol. Uinta Mts., p. 88, (1876); U. S. Geol. Surv. West 100 Mer., 
IV, p. 98, pi. VI, f. 2a, (1877); Keyes, Geol. Surv. Mo., iv, p. 123, pi. xiv, 
ff. 12a, b, (1894). 

Corallum large, massive, somewhat globose ; corallites very 
closely arranged, very long, same size throughout the entire 
length ; walls thin, roughly five- to seven-sided, one diameter 
usually longer than the other ; average diameter about a third 
of a millimeter. Tabulae about a third to a seventh of a milli- 
meter distant, horizontal, not always uniform throughout the 

Range and distribution : Coal Measures, Girard ; very abun- 
dant in the Oswego limestone, in which they form large masses. 

Specimens of this species often attain a very large size. Some 
from the Oswego limestone are thirty inches in diameter, and 
still appear to be incomplete. 
3— vi 

26 University Oeological Survey of Kansas. 


Crinoids are those animals known as sea-lilies or stone- 
lilies. The J live in the sea at varying depths, from shallow 
water to 3000 fathoms. They were very abundant during geo- 
logical time, and probably reached their maximum development 
during the Carboniferous period. They are not well adapted 
for preservation as fossils. Their skeletons are made up of 
angular pieces fitted together, but which usually fall apart 
when the animals decay, so that the preservation of an entire 
individual is a comparatively rare occurrence. It is not uncom- 
mon to find masses of stone almost entirely made up of these 
pieces, since the animals were gregarious, living in colonies as 
they do at present. During the Carboniferous and Triassic 
periods they were much more abundant than now. 

Most of the crinoids are attached to the mud by stems which 
have rootlets at the base to anchor them. However, some of the 
forms are free during most, or all, of their lives. These stems 
had small canals running through their centers. They were 
either round or three- to five-sided. They are often found 
w.eathered out in the forms of little discs, which are generally 
called '* Indian beads." Upon the upper end of this stem rests 
the calyx or cup-shaped base of the animal. The calyx is 
generally composed of three circlets of plates. First, the in- 
frabasals, or the plates which rest on the top of the stem. 
There are usually five of them, and they are quite small, and 
occasionally are united into one, or they may be entirely want- 
ing. Above these are the basals, or second ring of plates, which 
are longer and generally six-sided. Upon these rest the third 
row, or the radials, which support the arms and the top part 
of the animal. There are usually five of the radials, which 
are fiat on top and five-sided. On the posterior side of the ani- 
mal there is often a series of plates supporting the ventral tube, 
above which the anal opening is situated. These plates often 
take part in the formation of the cup, and are called the anal 


Carboniferous Invertebrates. 


Resting on the radials are the arm plates. The arms are 
five or ten in number. They are composed of short plates laid 
one on top of another, and 
capable of motion. The 
inner side of the arms has 
usually a groove, along 
each side of which is a 
row of smaller armlets or 
pinnules. These grooves 
connect at the base of the 
arms with what are called 
the ambulacral areas, 
which in turn connect 
with the mouth, wh6re 
food particles which are 
carried in the water are 
selected out. 

The ventral side or top 
of the animal is often pro- 

Fio. 2. DiaATBmmatio view of a crinoid with the plate* 
separated, showing their relative form and posi- 
tions. The black spot in the center is the hole in 

aUCea into a ventral sac, the base of the calyz that communicates with the 
^ . . stem. Jb, infrabasals; 6, basals; r, radials; hr^ 

QT anal tube, as it is some- c^ostals; a, anal. The remainder are arm plates. 

times called. The anal 

opening is either on top or in one side of this sac. The mouth 

is almost always centrally located. The crinoids are more closely 

related to the starfish and the sea-urchins or sea-cookies than 

to any other animals. 

In the accompanying figures the various parts of the crinoid 

are shown and designated. 


Hall, Geol. Surv. Iowa, p. 550. (1858). 

Scaphiocrinas? waslibnrni. Plate VI, figs. 2, 2a. 

Scaphiocrinuaf washbumi Beede,KaDs. Univ. Quart., i, p. 21, pi. v, fP. 2, 
2a, (1890). 

Calyx broadly obconical, somewhat wider than high, rather 
stout, and smooth. Infrabasals rather large, bent upward at 
outer end, exterior outlii^e pentagonal, plainly visible in the 
side view of the calyx, well defined. Column large, circular, 

28 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

composed of alternately thick and thia pieces, the outer half 
of the sutures radially milled, the median canal of moderate 
size. Basals large, three hexagonal, and the posterior and right 
posterior ones heptagonal for the reception of the anals ; the 
plates are nearly all equal, and the sutures are placed in a 
shallow, rounded furrow, which in branching at the angles of 
the plates gives them a rounded appearance, so that the plates 
appear subsemicircular in outline. The radials are the largest 
plates of the calyx, all pentagonal, all about equal, save the 
right posterior, which is smaller than the rest ; the entire sur- 
face truncated above, edge slightly beveled, wider than high, 
entire upper surface faceted ; the transverse ridge is milled, the 
lateral corners of the plates drawn in, apparently leaving a pore 
which connected with the body cavity of the calyx ; there is a 
dorsal canal piercing the upper surface of the plates ; the inner 
edges of the plates are drawn in at the center and extend in the 
form of a ridge to the canal. Costals 1x5, about half the size 
of the radials, pentagonal, line of articulation with the radial 
gaping, lateral edges constricted and apparently not in con- 
tact, about twice as wide as high. The -first interradial is large 
and situated well down in the cup, supported by the posterior 
basal and the one at its right, on the sides by the special anal 
and the right posterior radial, and supports another anal above 
it on its truncated top. The special anal is moderately large 
and hexagonal, bounded on the right by the two interradials, 
below by the truncated upper surface of the posterior basal, on 
the left by the left posterior radial and the space between it and 
the costal ; it is about half within the calyx. Above the first 
interradial is a second, somewhat smaller, pentagonal plate 
which is about, or a little less than, half within the calyx. 
This plate, together with the special anal, supports the pos- 
terior portion of the ventral sac (apparently two columns of 
plates) , which seems to be composed of rather stout five- to 
seven-sided plates with no or very small pores at the angles ; 
they have a botryoidal surface. At one side and on the top of 
the sac there seems to be a madreporite plate pierced by large- 
sized pores. The sac was apparently about the size of the calyx, 

Bbbdb.] Carboniferoxcs Invertebrates. 29 

or perhaps the calyx and costals together. Arm plates rounded 
on the exterior, not at all or very slightly wedge-shaped at 
the base, and moderately stout. Pinnula" present and of mod- 
erately large size. 

Height. Width. 

Column 8 mm. 

Infrabasals 3 mm. 5 *^ 

Basals 10 '• 11 " 

Radials 8 " U »* { ^**tJL??C*°' 

First interradial 8 " 9}" ^ smaiier. 

Second interradial 5 " 6 •* • 

Special anal 8 *• 8 ** 

Costal 6 " 11 " 

Calyx 17 ** 28 •» 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Topeka, 
Kan., from the horizon of the Osage coal. Now in the collec- 
tion of Washburn College, in honor of which it is named. 

This species seems to belong to the Poteriocrinoidea, though 
there is some difficulty in locating it generically, as it seems to 
combine some of the characters of several genera. It agrees 
with Homocrinns in having a round dorsal canal piercing the 
first radials, but differs from it in that it has pinnules, a robust 
calyx, and the entire top of the radials truncated. According 
to the definition of Poteriocrinns, the presence of the round dor- 
sal canal in the radials removes it from that genus, as would 
also the fact that the facets of the radials face upward rather 
than outward. It differs from Scaphiocrinus in having a circu- 
lar column, and the fact that the transverse ridge does not oc- 
cupy nearly the whole of the upper surface of the radials and 
the brachials are not long. However, it agrees in other respects 
with this genus better than any other, and it is provisionally , 
referred to it. 


Troost, Cat. Foss., (1850). 
Hall. G«ol. Surv. Iowa. p. 511. ( 1858). 

Zeacrinns? robustus. Plate VI, figs. 1, la. 

Zeacrinusf robnatus Beede, Kans. Univ. Quart., i, p. 21, pi. v, fif. 1, la. 

Calyx shallow, saucer-shaped or nearly flat, unsymmetrical, 
five or six times as broad as high, deeply concave at the base ; 
plates tumid, and the sutures are in depression ; surface finely 
granular. Infrabasals five, equal, half concealed by the col- 

30 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

umn, deeply concave and superior to the basalSi forming a 
large elevation in the interior of the cup, nearly one-fourth its 
entire width and fully one-half its height ; column round, com- 
posed of thin plates, which are carinated, and the sutures are 
crenulated; the canal is round and small. Basals five, large, 
tumid, three hexagonal and two heptagonal, unequal, situated 
below the infrabasals and forming a large part of the real body 
cavity of the cup. The three anterior basals are equal, about 
as broad as high, very convex, the posterior one compressed 
laterally, superior lateral edges longer than the others ; trun- 
cated side for the support of interradial short, side next the 
radianal long ; the right posterior basal heptagonal very broad, 
left posterior side very long, side adjacent for the reception of 
the radianal very short, the latter being situated between the 
posterior basal and the right posterior radial. Radials five, 
large, very moderately ascending, placed superior to the basals, 
five- to seven-sided, quite massive, more than twice as large. as 
the basals, convex, twice as wide as high, upper exterior por- 
tion much beveled and concave ; plates separated at the corners 
and often along the line of union ; at the upper union there 
seems to be an opening that communicates with the calyx cav- 
ity between the arms ; right and left posterior radials forced 
apart fully one-half the diameter of either by the interradial 
and radianal ; the upper surface is faceted the entire width of 
the plate, two external ridges present and milled ; the remainder 
of the surface is nearly flat or a little concave ; the plane of 
these surfaces is not horizontal but the inner side of each is 
higher than the outside, so that if each were produced inward 
they would form rather an obtuse cone ; the inner notch occu- 
pies about a third of the upper surface of the plate. Radianal 
long, coffin-shaped, curving upward above, about twice as long 
as wide, pentagonal, side adjacent to the right radial much the 
longer ; the superior side supports an anal which is hexagonal, 
very thick, six-faceted above, touching right radial for a short 
distance, one and one-half times as high as wide, widest above, 
mostly without the calyx. Anal large, heptagonal, very thick, 


Carboniferous Invertebrates. 


one-third within the calyx, broadest above ; height one and 
one-half times the width. 

A portion of the vault of this specimen remains, somewhat 
crushed down into the calyx. It appears to have been in the 
form of a pyramid, about as broad as high, composed of rather 
heavy plates, which were rather rough. It appears to have 
been rather angular, though it may have been conical. Several 
rather irregular plates are preserved, three of which seem to be 
from around the aperture ; they are rather massive, five- or 
six-sided, nearly smooth on the exterior ; articular surfaces are 
deeply faceted and roughened, while the articular surfaces of 
the other plates of the sac are milled. 

Heiffht. Width. 

Column Begments 1 to 1} mm. 4^ mm. 

lofrabasals 4 ** 3 

Three anterior basals 8 " 9 

Right posterior basal 9i '* 11 

Posterior basal 9 '* 7J 

Radial 9 ** 19 

Radianal SA ** 4{ 

Interradial l\ ** 5} 

Anal 8 *' 4i 

Calyx 7 " 36 

Range and distribution : The specimen is labeled," From the 
Upper Coal Measures; Kansas City." University of Kansas 

It is impossible to locate the specimen generically with any 
degree of certainty without having more of the specimen pre- 
served. The ventral sac seems to have been angular and the 
stem round. For this reason it is left with Zeacrinus. The up- 
per extremities of the radials do not meet, but leave a small 
aperture, which seems to communicate in life with the general 
body cavity. I know of no Coal Measures crinoid with which 
it is likely to be confounded. 

32 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 


White. U. S. GeoL and Geoffr. Bur?. Wyo. and Idaho for 1878, p. 12$, ( 1883). 

OeriocrinuB craigi. Plate VI, figs. 9, 9b. 

Eupachycrinus eraigii Worthen, Geol. Surv. III., vi, p. 527, pi. xxxii, 

f. 1, (1875). 

CerloorinuH eraigii Wachsmuth and Springer, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phil., p. 178, (1886); Rev. Paleocrin., in, p. 251. 

Calyx basin -shaped, smooth, concave at base, about three 
times as broad as high, roundly pentagonal in outline when 
viewed from below. Infrabasals hidden by the column, situ- 
ated within the calyx. Basals probably pentagonal or hexa- 
gonal, if they have two short sides at base, except the dorsal 
one, which is truncated for the support of the interradial ; height 
about equal to the width, strongly incurved at the base to meet 
the infrabasals. Radials pentagonal, nearly equal, convex, 
twice as wide as high, upper edge beveled, with a slight depres- 
sion in the center, upper side faceted over the entire top of tlie 
plate, ridges prominent, crenulated, the large one not notched 
interiorly , furrows distinct, inner portion of the plate depressed. 
Interradial small, hexagonal, compressed laterally, about half 
within the calyx, upper portion curving strongly inward. Cos- 
tals live, short, obtusely spinous, extending half their length 
beyond the calyx ; lower interior surface faceted to articulate 
with the radials, upper surface faceted to the tips of the spines 
for the reception of the two distichals, each of which supports 
an arm. There is a strong keel on the upper side of the plate 
extending to its inner edge ; it also gives rise to two lateral 
ridges which diverge from the tip of the upper surface to the 
corners of the plate ; the ridges are crenulated ; between these 
ridges are long depressions. The surface of the calyx is smooth. 

Height. Width. Length of spiue. 

Basals 7J mm. 7J mm. 

Radials 6J *• 12 " 

Interradial 4A " 3 ** 

Costals 6 ** 10 ** 9 mm. 

Calyx 6 " 21 •* (slighUyoomprwed). 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City. 
According to Worthen, C. craigi differs from C. fayettensis in 


Bbkdb.J Carboniferous Invertebrates. 33 

its ** larger size, more robust form, and less convex plates." In 
these respects, judging from the figures, our specimens agree 
more closely with C. craigi, 

OeriocrinuB? monticulatns. Plate VII, fig. 2. , 

CeriocrinuH? montieulatus Beede, Kans. Univ. Quart., viii, p. 123, pi. 
XXXII, f. 2, (1899). 

Calyx basin-shaped, moderately deep, slightly concave at base ; 
arms moderately stout, their number not known ; pinnules mod- 
erately long. Infrabasals not known, but probably small and 
nearly covered by the stem. Basals large, hexagonal, convex, 
curved regularly inward at the base, about as high as wide, 
upper lateral edges sometimes a little unequal on account of 
the unequal radials, which makes some of the. upper and lower 
lateral edges unequal also. Radials a little unequal in size, 
pentagonal, the uppt^r edges beveled, about twice as wide as 
high, upper surface faceted, the line of articulation with the 
costal gaping. Costals five, pentagonal in outline, somewhat 
produced exteriorly but not spinous, twice as wide as high, with 
single facet below to meet the radial and two above for the ar- 
ticulation with the distichals. Distichals 2x5, quadrangular 
or pentagonal according to the number of arms supported, ap- 
parently faceted above and below ; those supporting two arms 
very similar in shape to the costals. There are often one or two 
palmars before the postpalmars are reached, at the base of the 
arms. Arms long, rather stout, somewhere from fourteen to 
eighteen in number, ten in view above three radials ; they are 
made up of two series of short, stout; interlocking, cuneiform 
plates, each bearing a single, long pinnule. Pinnules com- 
posed of at least eight long, slender joints, slightly grooved on 
the inner side ; along each side of the groove is a row of closely 
set nodes, or little plates. The entire surface of the cup and 
arms is covered with monticules and fine granulations. 

Height. Width. 

Basals 10 mm. 10 mm. 

Radials 6 »» 11 " 

Costals 5 " 10 " 

Distichals 5 " 7 " 

Arms 53 ** 3 to 4 " 

Pinnules 11 " i " 

Calyx 12 *' 2i " 

34 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Topeka, 
horizon of the Osage coal. 

On account of the general resemblance of this species to some 
of the species of Ceriocrinus^ it is left there for the present, un- 
til the azygous plates and infrabasals can be determined. 

OeriocrinuB hemisphericus. Plate VI, figs. 5, 5b. 

PoterinerhiUH heminphericus Shumard, Trans. St. L. Acad. Sci., i, p. 221, 

Scaphiocrinusf hemisphericus Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Suit. Neb., 

§. 147, pi. V, ff. la, b, pi. VII, £f. la-c, (1872); Meek and Worthen, Geol. 
ury. 111., V, p. 561, pi. xxiv, f. 5, (1873). 

Ceriov.rinus hemiftphcrictis Keyes, Geol. Surv. Mo., iv, p. 220, pi. xxviii, 
if. 2,5,(1894). 

Meek's description : '* Body below the summit of the radials 
subhemispherical, with the under side deeply concave. Base 
very small, pushed or inverted entirely within the cavity of the 
body, and nearly or quite hidden externally ; column facet 
round and deeply sunken. Radials of moderate size, very 
nearly equal, having a general pentagonal form, excepting on 
the anal side which is a little truncated above by the anal 
piece so as to give it a general hexagonal outline ; each, how- 
ever, has an additional very obscure mesial angle at its connec- 
tion with the base, and all are strongly incurved below to form 
the concavity of the under side. Radials nearly twice as large 
as the basals, twice as wide as high, and equally pentagonal, 
the upper side being longer than any of the others and all 
evenly truncated. Costals (at least the two on the anal side) 
comparatively narrow, but still wider at the base than high, 
rounded on the outer side, a little constricted in the middle, and 
pentagonal in form, the two upper sloping sides supporting the 
first divisions of the arms, which are composed (at least for the 
first three ranges) each of a single series of wedge-formed pieces. 
First anal piece comparatively small, a little concave, resting 
upon one of the basals and connecting with the radials on each 
side, above which it projects, supporting upon its slightly in- 
curved upper edge a second piece, the form of which is unknown. 
Surface smooth, or only with traces of minute granules." 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Jefferson 
county. Now in the collection of Washburn College. 

Bbbdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 35 

OexiocrintiB missonriensis. Plate VI, fig. 6. 

Delocrinus missourienais Miller and Gurley, Jour. Cino. Boo. Nat. Hist., 
xiii, p. 14, pi. II, ff. 11-13, (1890); 16th Rep. St. Geol. Ind., p. 336, pi. 
II, flf. 11-13, (1890). 

DelocrintM hemisphericua Miller and Gurley, ibid., p. 335, pi. ii, fl. 8-10, 
pi. X, f. 5; Jour. Cine. Soc. Nat. Hist., xiii, p. 12, pi. ii, ff. &-10. These 
species referred to the proper genus by Weller, Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv., 
153, p. 172, ( 1898 ). 

Calyx basin-shaped, shallow, pentagonal in outline viewed 
from below, nearly four times as broad as high, base quite con- 
cave. Infrabasals small, not entirely hidden on the exterior. 
Basals five, moderately large, pentagonal (the angle at the base, 
if it exists, is so small that it is almost impossible to discover it) 
except the posterior one, which is truncated for the reception of 
the interradial, giving it a hexagonal outline, about as high as 
wide ; supralateral edges about equal, basal edge very short ; 
plates not very sharply convex in the center. Radials five, 
nearly equal, about twice as large as the basals, and about 
twice as wide as high, upper edge beveled and upper side 
faceted, ridges of facet crenulated. Interradial small, laterally 
compressed, the upper portion bent strongly inward. Costals 
five, roughly triangular in outline, stoutly spinous, faceted be- 
low for the articulation with the radials, entire surface of the 
inner portion faceted above for the support of the two arms ; the 
spines are stout and blunt. The arms are composed of two 
series of cuneiform interlocking plates which are rather convex 
on the exterior on the base of the arms. The surface is smooth. 

Height. Width. Length of spine. 

Basals 8 mm. 6 mm. 

Radials 6 •' 12 " 

Ck)stal8 8 " 11 " 14 mm. 

Interradial 5 " 3 " 

Calyx ( another individual ) 6 *' 21 '* 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 

It is impossible to distinguish this species from C. craigi by 
the calyx alone ( if it is distinct from that species ) unless the 
base is so preserved as to show whether or not the infrabasals 
are concealed, unless the costals be present. The only differ- 
ence between the two species is that in C. missouriensis the 

36 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

spines are much longer, the infrabasals not hidden by the col- 
umn, and that the cup is perhaps, a little shallower, as is also 
the concavity of the base. 

If Meek's determination of C. hemisphericus is correct, it does 
not have the costals developed into spines at all, and hence it 
is distinct from the spined forms. The minute differences be- 
tween the two spined forms, as figured by Miller and Gurley, are 
of little value. 


Traat£cbold. Mod. Kalkbraecke tod Mjatschkowa, p. 122, n879). 

Phialocrinus masnificus. Plate VI, fi^. 10. 

.Efiiocrhiuft magnificus Miller and Gurley, Jour. Cine. Soc. Nat. Hist., 
XIII, p. 15, pl.'ii, 'f. 1, (1890). 

PhialoerinuH magnifivaH Carpenter, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 96, 
(1891); Keyes, Geoi. Surv. Mo., iv, p. 220, pi. xxviii, f. 4, (1894). 

Calyx bowl-shaped, base truncated, of medium size, surface 
finely granulated. Infrabasals five, cuneiform, pentagonal, 
half covered by the column, stem facet radiately furrowed. 
Basals five, hexagonal, posterior one heptagonal ; the two sides 
at the base rather indistinct, edges straight ; plates convex, 
curving inward at the base to meet the infrabasals, very 
slightly wider than high. Radials convex, nearly equal, the 
right and left posterior ones occasionally a trifle smaller than 
the rest, pentagonal, width about one and one-half times the 
height, upper outer edges beveled. Interradial resting on the 
truncated upper surface of the posterior basal, large, pentago- 
nal, within the calyx, \vider above, greatest width equal to 
the height, supporting two anals. First brachials large, quad- 
rangular, the lower outer edge beveled. The second brachials 
pentagonal, highest in the .center, superior side faceted for the 
support of the two arms, about twice as broad as high 
Arms ten, slender, often 100 mm. long, pinnulate, pinnuhe 
often 10 mm. long. The arms are composed of a single series 
of slightly cuneate plates, the inner side of which is fur- 
nished with a deep, broad groove. Above the interradial rest 
at least two anal plates which curve moderately inward. The 
proboscis is long, rather slender, subquadrate in transverse out- 
line ; in adult specimens, between the lobes of the tube, are 

Bbedb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates, • 37 

deep reentrant angles, giving it the appearance of four vertical 
tubes closely placed. In young specimens it is more round and 
less rough than in the adult. The plates are so closely united 
that it is difficult to make out their exact outline, but they are 
very convex on the exterior. The upper plates in young speci- 
mens are almost smooth, becoming more highly ornamented as 
the base is approached, while on old specimens the plates are 
highly tuberculated and the sides are ornamented by raised 
ridges which seem to surround apertures in the plates. 

Height. Width. 

Inf rabasals 3i mm. 3 mm. 

Basals 5J " 6 " 

Radials 5i " 9 " 

Interradial 4 •* 5 ** 

First costals 2J " 8 " 

SecoDd costals 3 " 7 •* 

Distichals 3A " 5 •• 

Proboscis 58' " 11 '* 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City 
and Argentine. 


Meek and Worthen, Am. Joar. Soi., LXXX, p. 174, (1865). 

Erisocrinus megalobrachius. Plate VII, figs, la, 16. 

Erisocrinua megalobrachius Beede, KaDs. Univ. Quart., viii, p. 124, pi. 
XXXII, ff. la, b. 

Calyx basin-shaped, quite concave, ornamented by very 
coarse granulations, which are sometimes arranged in wavy 
rows. Infrabasals unknown, covered, or nearly so, by the 
small column. Basals large, convex, the lower portion curved 
upward to meet the infrabasals forming a deep cavity in the 
base of the cup, the inner (or lower) end of the basals being in 
about the same horizontal plane as the upper end, and hence 
forming most of the base of the calyx and leaving the infra- 
basals entirely within the body cavity; higher than wide, all 
about equal, and apparently pentagonal, the lower side (or 
sides, if two) short, superior and inferior lateral edges nearly 
equal, the apical angle extending upward between the radials 
to fully one-half the height of the latter. Radials five, equal, 
pentagonal, twice as wide as high, massive, convex, consider- 
ably beveled at the upper edge ; upper surface faceted for the 

38 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

reception of the costals, the line of articulation with which is 
gaping, raised portions of the facet milled. Costals five, mas- 
sive, stoutly spine-like, pentagonal in outline, lower inner sur- 
face faceted to meet the radials, upper surface faceted, except 
the portion protruding in the form of a stout spine to support 
the large arms. Distichals either one or two to each arm, more 
commonly two in our specimen, the lowermost quadrangular in 
outline, massive, a little more than twice as wide as high ; the 
second distichals are very variable, from four to six times as 
broad as high. There are ten arms which are very broad and 
stout, each made up of two series of wedge-shaped, interlock- 
ing plates which are twice as long as high in the lower portion 
of the arms ^nd each supporting a single pinnule. The pin- 
nulse are not well preserved, but are stout, composed of rather 
large, square plates near their junction with the arms, while 
farther away they assume a cylindrical form. Where not worn 
the entire specimen is covered with coarse granulations which 
are usually a little prolonged. 

Height. Width. Length. 

Basals 11 mm. 10 mm. 

Radials 8 " 16 " 

Costals 5 ** 15 " 9 mm. 

1. Distichals 1-2 " 8 '* 

2. Distichals 2 " 4 " 

Average lower arm plate 2 ** 4 *' 

Calyx 10 ** 27 " 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Topeka, from 
the horizon of the Osage coal. 

This species agrees in many respects with Ceriocrinus craigi 
( Worthen) W. and S. and C. hemisphericus ( Shumard ) W. and 
S., but each of these possesses an anal plate ; the specimen in 
hanid, though preserved in very perfect condition, shows no in- 
dication of such a plate. It is also very much like Erisocrinus 
typus as figured and described by White (Contributions to In- 
vertebrate Palaeontology No. 6, p. 126, p. 33, f . 5) , but the 
arms of our species are flatter, plates much less convex later- 
ally, and granulated on the surface instead of smooth. The 
brachials also are more spine-like in our specimen, and the 
basals are not nearly so sharply convex as in that species, and 

Bebdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 39 

the cavity in the base is deeper and the calyx is not so high. 
It may belong to Stemmatocrinus, as the infrabasals are not 
known, but as that genus is not yet known from this country, 
it is more probable that it is an Erisocrhius. 

Erisocrinus typus. Plate VI, figs. 4-4b. 

Erisocrinvs typun Meek and Worthen, Amer. Jour. Sci., xxix, p. 174, 
(1865); Geol. Surv. 111., ii, p. 317, f. 33; Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. 
Surv. Neb., p. 146, pi. i, £f. 3, a, b, (1872); Meek and Worthen, Geol. 
Surv. 111., V, p. 561, pL'xxiv, f.6. (1873); White, Greol. Uinta Mountains, 
(Powell's Rep.), p. 89, ( 1876); Cont. Inver. Pal., No. 6, p. 126, pi. xxxiii, 
f. 5a, (1880). 

Erisocrinus nebraaccnuia Meek and Worthen, Amer. Jour. Sci., xxxix, 
p. 174, (1865). 

Philocrinus pelvis Meek and Worthen, Amer. Jour. Sci., xxxix, p. 350, 


Meek's description: ''Body below the summit of the first 
radials [radials] , basin-shaped, rounded below, and obscurely 
subpentagonal in outline as seen from above or below ; com- 
posed of thick, smooth, slightly convex plates. Basal pieces 
[infrabasals] small, occupying a shallow convexity of the under 
side, about half hidden by the column, all pentagonal in exter- 
nal form. Subradial [basal] considerably larger than the basal 
[infrabasal] , and all equally hexagonal in form. First radial 
[radial] pieces four or five times as large as the subradials 
[basals] , wider than long, equal, and all pentagonal ; support- 
ing upon their broadly and evenly truncated superior sides the 
second primary radials [costals] , which are of nearly the same 
size and form as the first, but have their sloping sides above 
instead of below, while they each support above two first bra- 
chials [distichals] , or a series of secondary radials [distichals] 
yet unknown. Surface smooth. Breadth of body below the 
first primary radials, 0.72 inch ; height of same, 0.35 inch." 

Range and distribution : The specimen here under discussion 
is from the Upper Coal Measures, Jefferson county, and now in 
the collection of Washburn College. 

The specimen is a beautifully preserved calyx and a single 
costal. It differs very materially from the type specimen 
figured by Meek and Worthen. The calyx is much higher, 
which is due largely to the very much larger basals, which, in- 

40 University Geological Survey of Kayisaa. 

stead of being one-fourth or one-fifth the size of the radials, are 
nearly as large. The costals show a marked spinous develop- 
ment on the upper side, but in one of the figures (Geol. Surv. 
111., V, pi. xxiv, fig. 6) of the Illinois forms the costal is shown 
as being somewhat extended above. It is quite different from 
the figure of the species by White above referred to, in being 
quite plain and in having the plates less convex. It is also 
more sharply pentagonal in outline than most of the members 
of the species. However, this is a somewhat variable species, 
and our specimen is probably a true E. iypus, but presenting 
interesting variant features. 


Meek and Worthen, Proe. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., p. 109, ( 1865). 

Enpachycrinns magister. Plate VI, figs. 3-3b. 

Eupachycrinua fnagister Miller and Gurley, Jour. Cine. Soc. Nat. Hist, 
XIII, p. 4, pi. I, ff. 1, 2; 16th Rep. St. Greol. Ind., p. 328, pi. i, S, 1, 2, 
pi. X, ff. 6-8, (1890); Keyes, Greol. Surv. Mo., iv, p. 218, pi. xxvii, ff. 
la, b, 3. 

Original description : *' This species is very large ; calyx low 
and broad y somewhat saucer-shaped, bulged a little on the 
azygous side, height about half the width, sutures deep, ex- 
cavation extending about half the thickness of the plates, plates 
very strongly tuberculated, tubercles conical, elongated, and ir- 
regular inform and distribution. The five basals [infrabasals] 
are sunk in a cavity on the other side, projecting only half their 
length beyond the column ; even this projection is tubercular ; 
they form in the interior of the calyx a pyramid, which is 
pierced at the summit by a five-rayed opening connecting with 
the canal in the center of the column ; the points of the rays 
are rounded. The basal plates are made pentagonal by the 
truncation made at the points of the rays for the central canal. 
The diagrammatic views which have been made of the basal 
plates in this genus are incorrect, in so far as they indicate a 
pentagonal opening with the angles directed toward the sutures, 
instead of truncating the plates with the concave depression for 
the five-rayed opening to the columnar canal. The two basals 
on the azygous side of the species before us are larger than the 
others, being nearly as large as the other three. 

Beede.] Carbon if trous Invertebrates, 41 

'^The subradials [basals] are very large, extending into the 
basal cavity, and curve gently upward; three hexagonal, 
the two longer sides unite with the subradials ; the two up- 
per sloping sides, uniting with the first radials, are a little 
shorter, and the two under sides, uniting with the basals 
[infrabasals] are very short; two are heptagonal, the one on 
the right of the first azygous plate being much larger, and, ex- 
cept the two short sides uniting with the basals, the other sides 
are of subequal length ; the one upon the left has, in addition 
to the two short sides uniting with the basals, a short side unit- 
ing with the second azygous plate. Four of the first radials are 
pentagonal, twice as wide as high; the upper face is the full ' 
width of the plates, and projects over the interior of the calyx so 
as to give the appearance of having great thickness when viewed 
from above. The other first radial, upon the right of the azygous 
plates, is quadrilateral, except a very slight truncation by the 
second azygous plate below the depth of the suture. The first 
radial is separated from the second or brachial piece, on the 
outer face, by a wide suture, but within a crenated ridge ex- 
tends from one angle of the plates to another, forming a penta- 
gon, except as separated by the second azygous plate ; the ridge 
has a furrow upon the outer side in the central part of each 
plate, and within this is a wide expansion which supports the 
brachial arm pieces. The first azygous plate has four sides, 
rests between the upper sloping sides of the two subradials and 
along the under side of the first radial on the right, with the 
shorter side abutting on the second azygous plate. The second 
azygous plate is hexagonal, curves inward, and supports upon 
its two short inner faces the third and fourth azygous plates, 
side by side. The vault and other parts unknown. '' In our 
specimen the right posterior radial seems to be covered by one 
of the plates of the ventral sac. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City. 

4 — vi 

42 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 


de KoDinck. Bull. Acad. Boyale Belffiqoe, vin, pt. ii, p. 18, (1868.) 

'HydreionocrinuB kanBasensis. Plate VII, figs. 4-7. 

Hydreionocrinua kansascnsis Weller, Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci., xvi, p. 
372, (1896.) 

Weller's description : '* Dorsal cup depressed, nearly saucer- 
shaped, more than twice as wide as high, truncated below. 
The margins of all the plates, except the lateral margins of the 
infrabasals, ornamented by narrow papillose bands parallel to 
the sutures. Exclusive of the papillose bands the plates are 
. smooth. Infrabasals five, large, extending far beyond the 
column, anchylosed into an irregularly hexagonal, nearly flat 
disc, the sutures marked by slightly elevated ridges ; central 
portion of the disc slightly excavated for the attachment of the 
column, the excavation surrounded by a low ridge. Basals 
five, four of them broader than high, spherical-triangular in 
outline, in lateral contact only at the extreme lateral angles. 
The posterior basal higher than wide, quadrangular in outline, 
truncated distally for the reception of the special anal plate, 
the lateral and proximal sides curved as in the four other 
plates. Radials large, twice as wide as high, the three anterior 
ones heptagonal in outline, the two posterior ones hexagonal. 
The proximal sides concavely curved to conform to the curved 
sides of the basals, the proximal angles meeting the distal angles 
of the infrabasals and the lateral angles of the basals. First 
brachials twice as wide as high, pentagonal in outline, bearing 
upon the two upper sloping sides of the two main divisions of 
the arms. Arms uniserial, the component plates broader than 
long, except near the tips, rectangular in outline except the 
axials, which are pentagonal. In the right posterior arm, the 
only one known, each main division bifurcates several times, 
the most posterior one showing ten divisions at the tip. Radi- 
anal nearly as large as the basals, pentagonal, higher than 
wide, lying upon the truncated right posterior infrabasal and 
between the posterior basal and the right posterior radial. 
Special anal larger than the radianal, hexagonal, higher than 
wide, lying upon the truncated posterior basal and between the 

Bbbdb.J Carboniferous Invertebrates. 43 

radianal and the left posterior radial. First tube plate partially 
included in the calyx, higher than wide, lying upon one of the 
upper sides* of the radianal and between the special anal and 
the right posterior radial. Ventral sac very large, expanding 
above and surrounded at its summit by a row of large, spatulate, 
spinous plates which form a crown of diverging spines around 
the summit of the sac." 

Range and distribution : *'From the Upper Coal Measures, 
about 700 feet below the horizon of the Cottonwood limestone, 
at Neal, Greenwood county, Kansas." 

'* Remarks : The form of the plates in the dorsal cup of the 
species differs materially from the other species of the genus, 
but the ventral sac, which is the most remarkable feature of the 
genus, and which is said by Wachsmuth and Springer* to be 
the best character for distinction, in all respects like that in the 
remaining species.. This organ is much crushed and only 
partially preserved in the type specimen, but enough is present 
to show its great expansion toward the summit and the crown 
of large, spinous plates. Eight of these spatulate spinous 
plates are recognizable in the specimen, all of them belonging 
to one side, so that there must have been at least fifteen or 
more altogether. 

**The dorsal cup is remarkable for the large size of the in- 
frabasals which extend far beyond the column and do not rest 
in a deep cavity, but are consolidated into an irregblarly hex- 
agonal flat disc. The spherical-triangular form of the basals 
is different from any of the other species of the genus, and the 
manner of meeting in one point of the distal angles of the in- 
frabasals, the proximal angles of the radials and the lateral 
angles of the basals is quite remarkable." 

Hydreionocrinus subsinuatus. Plate VII, fig. 14. 

Hydreionocrintis subBinuatus Miller and Gurley, Bull. 3, 111. State Mu- 
seum Nat. Hist., pp. 40, 41, pi. vi, ff. 11-14, (1893). 

Original description- *' Calyx depressed, saucer-shaped, 
slightly conciive below, longitudinally concave on the ventral 
side; sutures distinct; surface smooth. When viewed from 

2. BeWslon of the Paleocriooidea, I, p. 130. 

44 Univeri<itij G((^fofjical Surrey of KansoH. 

above or below, hexagonal, in outline, by reason of the trun- 
cated first radials, and the concave, wide azygous area. Column 

**Basals form a pentagon one-half wider than the column, 
with a central, columnar cavity surrounded by an external rim, 
for the support of the attaching column. Subradials of moder- 
ate size, three of thenl apparently pentagonal, though as each 
one abuts upon two basals, where there is an obscure angle, 
they are really hexagonal. The two adjoining the azygous area 
are heptagonal. They curve very slightly down to the basals, 
and upward, toward the acute angles between the first radials. 
They are not uniform in size or shape ; the heptagonal plate on 
the right of the azygous area is the wider, and the one on the 
left the longer one. First radials twice as wide as high, trun- 
cated the entire width above, much thickened within, and sep- 
arated from the second radials, on the outer face, by a gaping 
suture, but immediately within a straight ridge extends from 
one outer angle to the other, having a furrow on each side so 
as to form a hinge on which the second plates articulate ; be- 
hind this hinge, in the middle part of each plate, there is a 
socket for the reception of a tooth-like projection. Second ra- 
dials short and heavy and p)roduced externally in a moderately 
strong spine. 

** First azygous plate longer than wide, pentagonal, upper side 
short, abutting below on a subradial and resting very slightly 
oblique between another subradial and the under sloping side 
of the first radial on the right. Second azygous plate longer 
than wide, truncates a subradial, abuts upon the superior lat- 
eral side of the first radial on the left, and the first and third 
azygous plates on the right. Third azygous plate longer than 
wide, truncates the first azygous plate, and abuts upon the su- 
perior lateral side of the first radial on the right. The second 
and third azygous i^lates are hexagonal, but the plates abutting 
the superior side are not preserved in our specimens. A small 
part of a proboscis is preserved in one of our specimens, that 
shows some heavy, transversely furrowed plates. Other parts 
not preserved. 

Bebdb.] Carboniferous Invertehrates, 45 

**This species is so different from any other referred to this 
genus, that no comparison will serve further to distinguish it. 
There is a possibility that it is a Zmcrinus, but we think it is 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Cameron's 
Bluff, near Lawrence. 


Troost, Joar. Amer. Aseo. Adv. Sci. Camb. Meeting, p. 00, (1850). 
Wachsmuth and Springer, Re vis. Paleocrin., Ill, p. 262, (1885). 

Agassizocrinus carbonarius. Plate VI, ^g. 8. 

AgasBizocrlnuf* carbonariuH Worthen, Geol. Surv. 111., v, p. 566, pi. xxiv, 
f. 4, (1873). 

Infrabasals large, completely fused, semielliptical. The up- 
per faces of the infrabasals are quite concave, and consequently 
angular at the suture. The cavity is moderately deep. Meas- 
urements : Height of the infrabasals, 10 mm. ; diameter at their 
summit, 11 mm. The faces of all five plates are equal. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City. 

The infrabasals of this species were figured by Worthen, with- 
out description, from Illinois. It is the only species of the genus 
known in the Coal Measures of the United States. The radials, 
basals, arms, etc., of this species are not yet known. 

46 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 


The ''sea-urchins/' ** sea-eggs," ** sand-dollars," and'* sea- 
cookies," as they are variously called, are animals varying in 
form from spheres to discs. They live in moderately shallow 
water, especially near oyster beds, while some bury themselves 
in the sand, and one kind is known to make holes for itself in 
the solid rock. They always inhabit the sea. The parts that 
are generally found fossil are the spines and the plates, which 
are here explained. 

The body of the animal is encased in a kind of box made up 
of calcareous plates, which are united at their edges. A more 
or less long spine is attached to each of certain plates. The 
spines project out from the body in all directions. They are 
attached to the plates by a sort of ball-and-socket joint, and are 
movable. There are two kinds of plates — those with, and those 
without, spines. The latter are called the ambulacral plates, 
or the plates through which the tube-feet project, while those 
with spines are called the interambulacral plates. The am- 
bulacral plates are arranged in five bands, or areas, between 
which the interambulacral plates are arranged. Each band 
generally extends from the top to the center of the bottom of 
the animal. 

The mouth is located at the center of the bottom side. In 
some sea-urchins the mouth is provided with five long teeth 
and a complicated set of calcareous supports. The whole ar- 
rangement is known as ''Aristotle's lantern." ^ On the top 
side of the animal near the center there is a sieve-like plate, 
which connects with a long membranous tube beneath. This 
tube runs downward to the base of the inner cavity and con- 
nects with another tube which forms a ring around the esoph- 
agus. There are five branches to this latter tube, one extending 
along the center of each ambulacral ^area. In the ambulacral 
plates there are series of holes through which the numerous 
branches of these tubes extend to the outside of the shell. 

These branches, or tube-feet as they are called, extend out- 

Bbbdb.] Carboniferous Inver'tebrates. 47 

ward for quite a distance and end in little disc-like suckers. 
This tube system is filled with water, and is known as the 
'* water-vascular system." By filling these tubes with water, 
and dilating them, the animal is enabled to move along. How- 
ever long the spines may be, the tube-feet may be extended 
beyond them. The figures illustrate the hard parts which are 
generally found fossil. There are at least four kinds known in 
the Kansas rocks. 


McCoy, Garb. Foss. Ireland, p. 173, (1844). 

Archseocidaris trudifer. Plate VIII, fig. 10. 

ArchcpocidaHs trudifer White, Prelim. Rep. Invert. Foss., p. 17, (1874); 
Powell's Rep. Geol. Uinta Mts., p. 89, (1876); U. S. Geog. Surv. West 
100 Mer., iv, p. 104, pi. vi, f. 8, (1877); Keyes, Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci., ii, 
p. 191, (18d5). 

White's description: ** Interambulacral plates compara- 
tively broad, rather thin, having an elevated border all around, 
which is apparently composed of a series of small tubercles ; 
areolar surface apparently plain ; central tubercle small, per- 
forated at the center, surrounded at its base by a very slightly 
raised ring, and immediately outside of that by another ring, 
which is so much elevated as to form a little cup with its rim 
somewhat expanded. Diameter of the largest plate in the col- 
lection about 20 mm. Spines very long and slender, one of 
these in the collection having been, when perfect, about 
12 cm. in length, terete; diameter of the basal ring, which 
expands from the shaft, greater than that of any portion of the 
shaft ; diameter of the shaft nearly uniform for more than half 
its length above the basal ring, the upper portion gradually 
tapering to a point. Greatest diameter of the shaft of the long 
spine referred to, scarcely 5 mm. ; diameter of the basal ring, 
7 mm. Surface of the spine for a short distance above the basal 
ring apparently smooth, but, from that portion to the distal 
end, it is ornamented with numerous small points or incipient 
spinules, which are often removed by weathering, but in well- 
preserved specimens they are seen to be arranged around the 
spine in imperfectly spiral lines. The very long, slender, terete 
spine, having a basal ring often much greater in diameter than 

48 Unfrei'fiitjj Geological Surrei/ af h'aitsas. 

any part of the shaft, together with the other characters de- 
scribed, distinguish this species from all others/* 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Topeka lime- 
stone, Topeka. 

Our specimen is a single spine with the proximal end buried 
in the matrix, the distal three-fourths being exposed. The ex- 
posed part agrees more closely with this species than any other 
yet described, and it is provisionally referred to it. 

Archseocidaris agassizi. Plate VIII, figs. 6-6e. 

ArchcrocUlariH af/auMfzi Hall, Geol. Iowa, i, pt. ii, p. 698, pi. xxvi. ff. 
la-d, (1858 1 : Keyes, Geol. Surv. Mo., iv, p. 127, pi. xv, f. 5, (1894); 
Jackson, Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., vii, p. 213, (1896); Keyes, Proc. Iowa 
Acad. Sci., ii, p. 185, pi. xviii, f. 5, (1895). 

Hairs description : *' Body unknown ; plates small, hexago- 
nal, except those adjacent to the ambulacral area, which are a 
little rounded on that side, becoming pentagonal ; central tu- 
bercle slender, elongated, tubuliform, and projecting above the 
surrounding annulation, the latter abruptly elevated, and leav- 
ing, between its inner face and the central tubercle, a deep 
cavity. Surface of the plate, immediately around the annula- 
tion, elevated in a distinct low, annular ridge, beyond which it 
is depressed and again elevated towards the margin, which is 
ornamented by a series of low elongated nodes. Spines elon- 
gated, compressed, contracted below and swelling out above, 
so that the greatest diameter is about one-third the length 
above the base ; from this point very gradually tapering to the 
summit. Surface of the lower contracted portion smooth, mu- 
cronate above, with small spiniform tubercles, which, on the 
lower part,. are arranged in somewhat distant curving annulat- 
ing rows, becoming more curved above, or in oblique ascending 
rows, giving a quincunx order. Point of attachment somewhat 
elongate, the thickened annulation strongly striate.'' 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Topeka. 

This species was described from the Burlington by Hall. We 
would hardly expect Coal Measures specimens to be conspecific 
with the Burlington, but I am unable to detect any differences 
that could be called specific in our specimens, which consist of 

Beede.] Carbon iferoHfi Invertebrates. 49 

spines and plates. Without doubt, if we had entire specimens 
from both formations to compare, they would be found to be 
different ; but until such differences are found it is best to leave 
them in the same species. 

Archaeocidaris megastylus. Plate VIII, fig. 7. 

ArchrpftcidartM mrgatitylvM Shumard, Trans. St. L. Acad. Sci., i, p. 
225, (1858); Keyes, Geol. Surv. Mo., iv, p. 189, pi. xv, fl. 2a, b, (1894); 
Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. ii, p. 189, pi. xviii, flf. 2a, d, (1895). 

Shumard's description : **The interambulacral plates of this 
species in the collection are large, hexagonal, wider than long, 
and rather thick. The areolar surface is very broad, nearly 
circular, slightly concave at its exterior portion and rising 
gently to the base of the central boss. It is encircled by a 
single series of small, secondary tubercles. The boss is broad, 
smooth, and the central tubercle deeply perforated. The pri- 
mary spines are long, robust, cylindrico-fusiform, and the 
transverse section circular. The surface is very finely striated 
longitudinally, and studded either rather distinct granules or 
minute short spines, arranged spirally or promiscuously. The 
ring at the base is oblique to the axis, its border neatly crenu- 
lated, and the diameter less than the greatest diameter of the 
spine. The socket is deep, rather wide, and its margins smooth. 
The neck is marked with a slightly raised ring, which is finely 
striated longitudinally." 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City. 

This species often attains a length of three inches or more. 
Our specimens are but spines, and they are worn so that the 
minute surface markings are all removed, but, from their size 
and shape, there is little doubt of their identity. 


Moek and Wortben, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., p. 474, (1860). 

Oligopoms? minutus. Plate VII, fig. 3. 

OlUfoporuHf minutUH Beede, Kans. Univ. Quart., viii, p. 126, pi. xxxii, 
f. 3, (1899). 

Small, depressed globular, melinitic ridges not very distinct. 
There are four columns of pores, each column consisting of two 
rows, in each ambulacral area ; each row is generally, though 
not always, made up of two pores placed side by side and very 

50 University Geological Survey of Kansas, 

close together ; each of the two series is apparently separated 
by a row or two of imperforate plates at the ambitus. Both 
series are in contact at the apex and near the mouth. Number 
of columns of interambulacral plates unknown, but apparently 
about three. The ambulacral area is very wide and the two 
series are widely separated at the ambitus. Some of the inter- 
ambulacral plates seem to be pierced by a single pore, or, some- 
times, two. Indistinct elevations seem to be present in three 
columns, one of large and two of small size. 

Diameter of specimen 23 mm. 

Maximum diameter of ambulacral area 6 '* 

Maximum diameter of each series 2 ** 

Maximum diameter of interambulacral area 7 " 

Pores distant in vertical rows . ^ | *• 

Pores distant in the same series l| '^ 

Pores distant in single pair \ ** 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures*; collected 
from the Deer Creek limestone, near Topeka. 

The specimen is badly worn and somewhat compressed ; the 
surface markings are almost entirely removed. It agrees to 
some extent with Oligojjorus, but the ambulacra are divided into 
two series with, apparently, two columns of imperforate plates 
between them. However, this is not unquestionably shown by 
this specimen. It will, in all probability, be found to belong to 
an entirely different genus. It is referred to Oligoporus for con- 
venience, until better material can be secured. It does not 
seem to present the appearance of any other Carboniferous sea- 
urchin with which I am acquainted. 

Bkkdb.J Carboniferous Invertebrates. 51 


Brachiopods are small animals with a two-valved shell, re- 
sembling the clams somewhat in external appearance, though 
they are very diflferent in internal structure. They are in some 
respects much more closely allied to the bryozoans, or sea-mats, 
and worms, than to the clams. They are strictly marine 
animals, living, as a rule, in rather deep water. Their distri- 
bution, in this respect, has been divided into five zones,** which 
may be described as follows : Shore zone, or the beach between 
high and low tide-marks ; the shallow-water zone, or water to 
a depth of 90 feet ; the moderately deep zone, or water from 90 
to 300 feet deep ; the deep zone, or water from 300 to 1668 feet 
deep ; and the very deep zone, or water from 1668 to 17,670 feet, 
or three and one-half miles deep. In each of theSe zones there 
are species which do not occur in any of the others, while some 
are common to two or more zones. There are, according to 
Hall and Clarke, about 147 species of living brachiopods known, 
which are distributed over the Atlantic, Pacific and Arctic 
oceans, ranging from the island of Spitzbergen, north of Nor- 
way, to Cape Horn, but being most abundant in tropical and 
temperate waters. As a rule, they are distributed along coast- 
lines and in the vicinity of islands. 

The living brachiopods are but a remnant of what was once 
one of the most abundant and varied classes of animals of their 
size that ever inhabited the earth. While the known living 
forms are only 147 in number, the fossil species known at pres- 
ent probably reach the enormous number of 6000, and of these, 
upwards of 2000 are represented in the American rocks. They 
are among the earliest fossils of which we have any record, and 
culminated in the earlier part of geologic time. In the Cam- 
brian, or earliest period of which we have any definite knowl- 
edge of life, there are about 125 species known ; in the 

8. This introdnction ii lar^ly drawn from Eastman's Translation of Zittel's Handbook of 
Paleontolon*, Schnohert's Synopsis of American Fossii Brachiopoda (Balletin of the U. S. 
Oeoloffieal Surrey No. 87), Paleontoloffy of New Yorlc. vol. VIII, ana Annual Report of the State 
Geologist of New York for 1891, to which the reader ia referred for more detailed information. 

52 Unirci'i^iii/ Geological Snrn y of Kansas. 

Devonian they reached their highest point in respect to num- 
bers, about 1400 species ; while at the close of the Paleozoic era 
they appear to have fallen back to less tlian 100 species, and to 
have continued to the present comparatively few in number. 

Before entering upon the description of the Kansas species, it 
may be well to give an idea of what the animal was and what 
the markings found on the shells mean. In the first place, there 
are two shells, or valves, generally unequal in si/e. The hinge, 
or the place of union of the two v<alves, is considered the pos- 
terior, or hind end, and the opposite edge the front end, while 
the two sides at right angles to the hinge are the lateral mar- 
gins or sides. The animals were attached to some foreign object 
during all or a part of their life, either by a pedicle , a long mus- 
cular projection from the shell, or by a portion of the shell being 
cemented to the object. Those having a pedicle usually have 
an opening in the beak on one of the valves, the pedicle val re, 
sometimes called the ventral valve, near the hinge, while the 
others simply have the pedicle extended between the posterior 
ends of the valves. 

The front portion of the shell is lined by a membrane which 
divides the cavity into two parts, the anterior or brachial carity, 
and the posterior or risccral cavity. In the latter are located the 
visceral organs and the muscles which open and close the shell 
and retract and protude the pedicle. The nervous system con- 
sists of a single ring around the esophagus, in which there are 
located two ganglia which give off branches to the diflFerent 
organs of the body. The digestive canal consists of but a single 
convolution, and terminates blindly in the living forms, though 
it probably communicated with the exterior in certain fossil 
forms. The pair of muscles which close the shell, the addftctors, 
are large muscles which extend directly from the postero-central 
part of one valve to the other. By their contraction the shell 
is closed. The impression left in the shell by these muscles is 
usually quite prominent. The diducfors, or muscles which open 
the shell, are large muscles attached to the middle of the rear 
end of the pedicle valve just outside of the adductors, while the 
other end is attached to a prolongation of the other, brachial, 


Fio. 3. A, I.iiiaula ini-Tplilaiia (afMr Hall bdiI Clarke), showiog tlie [udicle, which Is 
Rreatlj' developed in this iteaas: B. UotitUaytia flavrtefit (after Sclmcfaart, in Eaatmua'a 
Trane. of Zittel): C. Beminula argenlla: D. PrudnHvi iHimnleuM (after Schucliert, in East- 
nan'." trBDalatloa ol Zittol) ; E. Dirbya robutla; F. Prmluclat temirtUeHlalut; □, adduc' 
tora; i-c, dldnctun: t/, spiral bracbia: fii. same aa seen In a foiail; <ff. dlTerfiiD« lines; dll, 
 dpllidium: at. adductoTscar; «i. cardinal araa : rji.cardiDBl proCflBB; /.foramen; A. [ringo 
on brachia; Am. binge line: Ir. ridgi; divprslng from base nf cardinal process; iHi. mpsiBl 
septum; M, teelb; z. alimentary caual: r, mouth: ini. brachial merbiags. 

54 Univeraify Geoloylcal Survey of Kansas » 

sometimes called dorsal valve. This process extends beyond the 
hinge backward under the beak of the other valve, and when 
the muscle contracts acts as a lever opening the shell. 

In the front cavity are situated the brachia or arms, as they 
are called. They are often of coiled or spiral form, supported 
by horny or calcareous supports which are sometimes preserved 
in the fossils. These brachia carry a long fringe, which by its 
vibration keeps a current of water flowing through the shell, 
from which the animal separates its food. There are no special 
organs of respiration, which is performed probably by the 
blood flowing through many thin membranes which are con- 
stantly in contact with the current of water passing through the 
shell. The figures on page 53 serve to illustrate the parts of 
the animal and the muscular impressions found in the shells. 

The full synonymy is given for the species herein described, 
but not a full bibliography. For a full bibliography, the reader 
is referred to Mr. Charles Schuchert's work on the North Ameri- 
can Brachiopoda, Bulletin No. 87 of the United States Geological 
Survey of 1897. 


Brofraiere. Encyc. Metho.. I, p. 250, (1792). 
Meek and Hayden, Pal. Upp. Mo., p. 6S, (1861) ; etc. 

Lingnla mytiloides. Plate VIII, fig. 5. 

Lingula mytiloidcH Sowerby, Min. CoDch., i, p. 55, pi. xix, flf. 1, 2, (1813); 
Meek and Hayden, Geol. Surv. 111., v, p. 572, pi. xxv, f. 2, (1873). 

f Lingula uinbonaia Keyes, Geol. Surv. Mo., v, p. 38, pi. xxxv, f. 4, (1895). 

Shell small, elliptical, posterior extremity slightly narrowed ; 
beak extending to the hinge line, not prominent. Anterior 
margin broadly rounded , lateral margins subparallel ; the great- 
est diameter about the middle of the shell. The surface is 
marked by fine concentric lines of growth. Length, 7 mm. ; 
breadth, 5 mm.; larger specimen, length, 11 mm.; breadth, 
7 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 
Topeka, Burlingame. 

Bbbdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 55 


d*Orblffiiy. Prodrome de Pal. Strat., Im>. 44, (1890). 
Dall, Ball. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ill, p. 87, (1871) ; etc. 

Orbiculoidea xnissoariensiB. Plate VIII, figs, l-lc 

Discina missouriensiM Shumard, Trans. St. L. Acad. Sci., i, p. 221, (1858). 

Discina nitidaf Meek and Worthen (non Phillips), Geol. Surv. 111., v, 
p. 572, pi. XXV, f. 1, (1873); White, 13th Ann. Rep. St. Geol. Ind., p. 121, 
pi. XXV, f. 10, (1884); etc. 

Discina meekiana Whitfield, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., ii, p. 288, (1882); etc. 

Orbiculoidea missourienstH Schuchert, Bull. 87, U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 281, 

White's description (in part) : *' Shell small, subcircular, de- 
pressed conical, the sides sloping nearly straight from the apex 
to the margin ; apex prominent, situated about one-third the 
diameter of the shell from the posterior border ; lower valve fiat 
with the usual depression around the foramen ; surface of both 
valves marked by concentric lines and fine lamellations. Di- 
ameter of an average example about 8 mm.'' 

In this shell the height of the apex is about one-third the di- 
ameter of the shell. The concentric lines are prominent in 
well-preserved specimens and are sharply elevated, separated 
by wider, shallow furrows. The sulcus extends two-thirds or 
all the distance to the posterior margin. The inner laminae of 
the dorsal valve show a radiate structure. 

Range and distribution : Upper and Lower Coal Measures ; 
Fort Scott ; Rosedale, Wyandotte county ; Lansing, Leaven- 
worth county ; Topeka. 

Orbiculoidea convexa. Plate VIII, figs. 3, 3b. 

Discina convexa Shumard, Trans. St. L. Acad. Sci., i, p. 221,(1858); 
White, 13th Ann. Rep. St. Geol. Ind., p. 121, pi. xxv, f. 9, (1884); etc. 

Orbiculoidea convexa Schuchert, Bull. 87, U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 278, (1897). 

White's description: *' Upper ^valve broadly but somewhat 
prominently convex ; subcircular in marginal outline ; the 
height nearly equal to one-half the diameter ; apex somewhat 
obtuse, but moderately prominent, situated about one-third the 
diameter of the shell from its posterior margin ; surface marked 
by the usual distinct lines of growth. A small under valve was 
found in the same locality as the upper valve above described, 
and probably belongs to this species. It shows a similar sur- 

56* UniversUi) Geolofjlcal Survey af Kansaa. 

face, which is nearly flat, but it is depressed above the foramen, 
which is of the usual character ; the foramen is situated just 
beneath the beak of the upper valve." The posterior portion 
of the shell of one individual which has the outer portion of 
the shell exfoliated shows distinct, discontinuous, alternating, 
radiating ridges, from near the beak to the posterior margin. 
** Diameter of the upper valve just described, 27 mm. ; height, 
12 mm." 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 

Orbiculoidea manhattanensis. Plate VIII, figs. 2-2b. 

IHsoina inanhattanmHls Meek and Havden, Proc. Acad. Nat. Phil., 
(1859), p. 25. 

Orbiculoidea manhaifnnensis Hall and Clarke, Introduction to Study 
of Brach., pt. i, pi. v, f. 12, (1892): Pal. N. Y., viii, pt. i, pi. iv, f. 20, 

Shell of medium size for this genus, nearly circular, dorsal 
valve moderately elevated ; umbo situated about one-half of a 
diameter from the posterior margin ; surface of dorsal valve 
marked with concentric lines, which are much heavier near the 
margin and finer and more wavy near the apex. The anterior 
slope is slightly convex, posterior a little concave, distinctly so 
in casts. The ventral valve is flat, shell quite thick ; sulcus in 
distinct depression, extending about half way from the center 
to the margin ; opening linear-elliptical. There is a thick 
callosity near the outer margin which is marked by radiating 
ridges corresponding to those of the other valve. Diameter of 
large specimen, 12 mm. ; height, 2^ mm. Outer surface 
marked by concentric lines similar to the convex valve. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Wabaunsee 
formation ; black shale in *vagon-road cut east side of Blue 
Mount, Manhattan, Kan. In collection of E. A. Popenoe. 

This species differs from 0. wiasouriensis in being more com- 
pressed, thicker shelled, shorter sulcus, and in having more 
distinct concentric lines; from O. convtxn^ in being much less 
convex and much smaller. 

Bbedb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates.' 57 


Retzias, Schrift. Ges. Naturf. Frenende, Berlio, II, p. 72, (1781). 
Hall and Clarke. Pal. N. Y., pt. I, p. 145, (1882) ; etc. 

Crania modesta. Plate VIII, fig. 4. 

Crania modesta White and St. John, Trans. Chic. Acad. Sci., i, p. 11&, 
(1868); White, 13th Rep. Ind. St. Geol., p. 121, pi. xxxv, f. 9, pi. xxxvi, 
f. 5, (1884). 

Crania carbonaria Whitfield, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., ii, p. 229, (1882): 
Geol. Ohio, vii, p. 484, pi. xi, ff. 11, 12, (1895); etc. 

Whitfield's description : *' Shell small, none of the specimens 
observed exceeding three-eighths of an inch in diameter ; subor- 
bicular in outline, or varied in form by the outline of the objects 
to which they are attached. Free valve depressed convex, 
marked by a few concentric lines of growth ; attached valve 
thin, but with a slightly thickened margin. Posterior muscular 
impressions large and submarginal, the others being nearly 
central and forming a small elevation just posterior to the 
middle of the valve. '* Measurements: Diameter, 9 mm.; 
height, 3 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 
Eudora, Grand Summit. 

The specimens are attached to Produdns scmireticidatus, and 
the convex valves reproduce the markings of the host. One 
near the front of the shell shows the large radiating costir quite 
plainly, while on the reticulated area shows both the radiating 
and concentric marks, while still another situated partly on the 
reticulated area shows the reticulated markings on one side and 
only the radiating on the other. Two specimens on worn shells 
show none of the markings of the host. The attached valves 
are thin, but show the muscular markings quite distinctly. 


Waagen. Pal. Indioa, ser. XIII, I, pp. 576, S91, (1884). 
Hall and Clarke, Pal. N. Y., VIII, pt. I, p. 261, (1802) ; 11th Ann. Rep. N. Y. St. Geol., 

p. 286, (1896), for 18941 

The genus Derby a has been divided by Waagen into groups, 

but I see no sufficient reason for such divisions for our American 

A consideable stress has been laid upon the nature of the 

hinge area in the different American species of the genus. I 

5 — Ti 

58 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

find, upon examination of the Kansas Coal Measures forms, 
that the length of the hinge and the height of the area, as well 
as the relative convexity and bilobation of the brachial valve, 
are quite variable. The diverging lines which pass from the 
apex of the deltidium obliquely to the hinge line, nearly bisect- 
ing the area, are common to all the well-preserved specimens 
from the Coal Measures that I have examined. The same is 
true of the vertical striation of the area between these lines. 

The area between the diverging lines is composed of two 
large dental plates not entirely united to the remainder of the 
hinge area. This is clearly shown by specimens with the area 
crushed. In such cases it almost always breaks along these 
lines with smooth fracture. 

They also present some striking peculiarities in the surface 
markings of the shell. Upon a cursory examination there 
seem to be two distinct kinds of surface markings — those shells 
in which the stria* are small, somewhat rugose, separated by 
wider channels ; and those with naore rounded, crowded, rugose 
ridges with narrow valleys. Upon examination of several 
specimens of different species, the difference in these respects is 
found to be due, either to weathering or to wearing previous to 
fossilization. The stria* are rounded, thicker at the top of the 
ridge than at the base, furrows and ridges crossed by numer- 
ous fine, concentric lamellae, which are raised into rugao on 
the ridges and nearly imperceptible in the furrows. In the 
slightly worn specimens a portion of the top and sides of the 
ridges are worn away, making them appear keel-shaped, with 
wider furrows. The wearing of the shell does not seem to di- 
minish the roughness of the stria* very perceptibly, while it 
seems to bring out the concentric markings of the furrows more 

Bbsdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 59 

Derbya bennetti. Plate VIII, figs. 8-^. 

Derhya bennetti Hall and Clarke, Pal. N. Y., viii, pt. i, pp. 263, 348, pi. 
xi-A, ff. 34-39, (1892); Ann. Rep. St. Geol. N. Y. 1894, p. 347, pi. v, ff. ^-8, 

Original description : *' Shell subtrihedral in general aspect, 
quite irregular in its growth. Hinge line short, its extremities 
on both "valves being auriculate. Pedicle valve much more 
irregular in growth, sometimes retaining the scar of attachment 
at its apex. Cardinal area usually high, narrow, erect or 
slightly incurved, and frequently distorted ; delthyrium curved* 
GeVieral surface of the valve depressed, convex in the middle, 
sometimes rapidly sloping in all directions, at others concave in 
the umbonal region ; as a rule very unsymmetrical. The 
brachial valve is deep, more regularly convex, and has a full 
rounded umbo and a conspicuous median sinus. On the in- 
terior the pedicle valve bears an extremely high median septum 
which is united with the dental ridges near the apex. The 
cardinal process is high, erect and deeply bilobed, each of its 
apophyses being strongly grooved on its posterior face. Other 
internal characters unknown. The surface of both valves is 
covered by fine, elevated, thread-like stria^ increasing very 
slowly by intercalation. The edges of these striae bear numer- 
ous minute asperities which may be due to the crossing of fine 
concentric lines. Irregular lines and wrinkles of growth are 
abundant near the margins." 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Lecompton. 
Mr. Bennett informs me that the type specimen which was sent 
Professor Hall, and upon which the description was based, was 
from near St. Joseph, Mo., instead of Kansas City. 

Hall and Clarke described another species from Kansas City 
(D. broadheadi) with very much the same characteristics as the 
species given above. Among the specimens before me I am 
unable to separate the two satisfactorily, and believe that they 
will have to be united under a single species. D. broadheadi, in 
some of its forms, approaches D. affinis so closely, being so 
slightly bilobate, that the two forms seem to merge completely, 
as well as the Qharacters of the beaks, which also approach each 

60 University Geological Survey of Kanms. 

other closely ) so that it would be better to leave D. hennetti for the 
species, should the two be found identical. D. hroadheadi may, 
perhaps, be varietally distinct from D. hennetti, but our mate- 
rial would hardly seem to indicate it. 

Derbya cirmbula. Plate XII, fig. 10. 

Derby a vymbuln Hall and Clarke, Pal. N. Y., viii, pt. i, p. 348, pi. xi>b, 
flF. 2, 3, (1892); Rep. N. Y. St. Geol. 1894, p. 348, pi. vi, ff. 1, 2, (1896). 

Original description (in part) : *' Shell large ; marginal outline 
transversely subelliptical. Hinge line straight, its length l^e- 
ing about two-thirds the greatest diameter of the shell. On 
the pedicle valve the cardinal area is high, its base being one- 
third longer than- its sides, and it may be somewhat unsym- 
metrical from distortion. Its surface is finely striated both 
longitudinally and transversely, and is divided into an outer 
and inner portion by two lines diverging from the apex and 
meeting the hinge line half way between its extremities and 
the edges of the deltidium. Deltidium broad at the base, rap- 
idly narrowing for one-third its length, thence tapering more 
gradually to the apex ; its surface is marked by a well-defined 
median groove for its entire extent. The surface of the valve 
is elevated in the umbonal region, and slopes irregularly to a 
low depression over the pallial region and about the margins. 
The brachial valve is broadly concave at the umbo, but rapidly 
becomes regularly convex, the greatest convexity being in. the 
middle of the valve, whence it slopes almost equally in all di- 
rections. There is no tendency to irregular growth in this 
valve. Surface covered with numerous fine, sometimes irregu- 
lar striae, increasing by implanation. Over the umbonal and 
pallial regions these stria* are of about equal size, but above 
the margin the tendency to fasciculate arrangement is more 
apparent.'* The mesial septum of the pedicle valve very high, 
attach to the teeth, which extend to the top of the deltidium 
for about a third of its height, and extending about a third of 
the distance to the front of the shell, highest at the anterior 
end. Teeth of the brachial valve narrow, extending well into 
the opposite valve, where they curve inward, locking around 


Babde.] Carboniferous Livertehrates, 61 

a process from the cardinal process of the brachial valve. 
Cardinal process of the brachial valve large, elongated, and 
expanded laterally, divided by a deep sinus at the summit, 
each lateral lobe having a very deep groove on its posterior 
side extending nearly its entire length. The cardinal process 
is very strongly recurved backwards, fitting closely into the 
deltidium of opposite valve, and backing the process on either 
side are two high plates extending well back into the visceral 
cavity, and attached to die brachial valve. Measurements: 
Length (hinge to front), 45 mm. ; width, 58 mm. ; convexity 
(maximum), 39 mm.; length of hinge, 35 mm.; height of 
area, 13 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures, and base of 
Permian? Kansas City, Cambridge, Cowley county. 

This species can be easily recognized and separated from the 
preceding by its larger size, relatively lower beak (as a rule), 
and its non-bilobate brachial valve. Hall and Clarke have 
described another species from Kansas City, D. affiitis, which 
is, to say the least, exceedingly closely related to D. cymbula, 
the principal difference being in the location of the point of 
greatest convexity in the pedicle valve and smaller size. So 
far as the topography of the pedicle valve is concerned in this 
genus, except, perhaps, the relative length and height of the 
hinge area, it seems to be governed largely by the immediate 
surroundings of the individual. The location of the point of 
greatest convexity, and, even as to whether or not there is a 
concavity in the valve, vary greatly in those species which 
have a convex or raised valve. In the specimens of D. cymbiila 
in our collection I find no two with the same topography of the 
pedicle valve, and they vary from regularly convex from the 
apex of the beak to the extreme front margin to irregularly 
concave over the same area. Some are regular in their growth, 
while others are very irregular. It seems to me that the speci- 
mens described as D, affinis are young or stunted forms of D. 
cymbula^ for it is almost impossible to separate the two forms 
at all, if we possess the specimens of the two species, and we 
have specimens that answer the descriptions very closely. 

62 University Geological Survey of Kansas, « 

Derbya crassa. Plate VIII, figs. 11, lib. 

OrthiB arachnoMeM Roemer (non Phillips), Kreidebildung Texas, p. 89, 
pi. XI, f. 9, (1852); etc. 

Orthisina crassa Meek and Hay den, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1858, p. 261. 

Orthis lanallensU McChesney, Desc. New Pal. Foss., p. 32, (I860); ibid., 
pi. I, f. 6, (1865). 

Orthis richvnonda McChesney, ibid., p. 32; also pi. i, f. 5. 

Hemipronitcs crassus Meek and Hayden, Pal. Upp. Mo., Smiths. Cont. 
Knowl., xiv, 172, p. 26, pi. i, f. 7, (1864); Meek, Fin. Rep. U. 8. Geol. 
Surv. Neb., p. 174, pi. v, f. 10, pi. viii, f. 1, (1872); etc. 

Orthis crenf stria Geinitz (non Phillips), Carb. u. Dyas in Neb., p. 46, 
pi. Ill, ff. 20, 21, (1866). 

HcmiproniteH lasaUensis McChesney, Trans. Chic. Acad. Sci., i, p. 28, 
pi. I, f. 6, (1868). 

Hemipronites riohmonda McChesney, ibid., p. 28, pi. i, f. 5. 

Ilemipronites crenintria White, Wheeler's Expl. Surv. West. 100 Mer., 
IV, p. 124, pi. x, f. 9, (1875). 

StrcptorhynchuH richmondi Hall, 2d Ann. Rep. N. Y. St. Geol., pi. xl, 
ff. 10, 11, (1883). 

Derbya crassa Waagen, Pal. Indica. ser. xiii, i, p. 592, (1884); etc. 

Meek's description (in part) : '* Shell varying from nearly cir- 
cular to truncato-subcircular, or transversely suboblong, generally 
wider than long, varying from compressed to distinctly convex ; 
hinge margin equaling or shorter than the greatest breadth of 
the valves, rectangular, or sometimes more or rather less than 
rectangular, at the extremities ; anterior outline forming a more 
or less regular semicircular curve. Dorsal valve always convex, 
sometimes very distinctly so, the greatest convexity being near 
the middle ; beak not distinct from the cardinal margin. Ven- 
tral valve varying in convexity at the umbo, sometimes very 
prominent, and occasionally distorted there ; less convex, flat- 
tened, or not unfrequently a little concave, around near the 
front ; area varying in height in proportion to the elevation to 
the beak, and either flat or with the beak a little arched, usually 
rather distinctly striated ; its closed fissure varying in the pro- 
portions of height and breadth with the greater or less eleva- 
tion of the beak ; interior always provided with a prominent 
mesial septum extending from the beak forward to near the 
middle of the valve ; surface on both valves marked by numer- 
ous strong, raised radiating stride of unequal size, there being 
generally one or several smaller ones between each two of the 
larger ; crossing the whole are also numerous fine, regular con- 

Bbsdr.] CarhoniferouB Invertebrates, 63 

centric striae, more or less defined both between and upon the 
radiating strise, to which latter they impart a neatly crenate ap- 
pearance." The dental lamellae are narrow and thin in younger 
specimens, more rounded and heavier in old ones, extending 
the entire length of the deltidium and projecting beyond the 
hinge margin. Muscular impressions of this valve are usually 
indistinct in young specimens, but are well impressed in the old, 
thick-shelled individuals, varying from nearly circular to linear- 
elliptical in outline, in some cases extending two-thirds the 
distance to the front of the shell, though as a rule it only covers 
the central portion of the posterior half of the valve. There is 
a faint mesial ridge in the posterior portion of the brachial 
valve, extending about half way to the front in old specimens. 
The muscular scar is nearly circular and marked by longitudinal 
ridges extending about half way to the front and sides of the 
valve. Cardinal process moderately prominent, bifid at its apex, 
and possessing a lateral lobe on each of the supporting plates 
near their anterior portions. Measurements : Length, 25 mm. ; 
width, 31 mm. ; length of hinge, 20 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper and Lower Coal Measures ; 
Fort Scott, Kansas City, Lawrence, Topeka. 

This little depressed or moderately convex shell is very easily 
distinguished from the other species by its smaller size, moder- 
ately low hinge area, and thick, or sometimes thin, shell. 

Derbya keokok. Plate VIII, fig. 13; text fig. 3, £. 

OrthiH crenislria Yandalland Shumard, Cont. Geol. Ky., pp. 19, 21, (1847). 

Orthia keokuk Hall, Greol. Surv. Iowa, i, pt. ir, p. 640, pi. xix, f. 5, 
(1858); etc. 

SireptorhynchuH keokuk Hall, 2d Ann. Rep. N. Y. St. Geol.,*pl. xli, ff. 
1-S, (1883). 

Streptorhynchua creniatria Waloott, Mon. U. S. Geol. Surv., viii, p. 279, 
pi. XVIII, f. 14,(1884). 

Derby a keokuk Hall and Clarke, Pal. N. Y., viii, pt. i, p. 262, pi. xi, ff. 
1-3, a892). 

fOrthis umbraculum Owen (non Sohlotheim), Greol. Surv. Wis., Iowa, and 
Minn., pi. v, f. 11, (1852). 

f Orthia robusta Hall, Geol. Surv. Iowa, i, pt. ii, p. 743, pi. xxviir, f. 5, 

f Streptorhynchua robusta Hall, 2d Ann. Rep. N. Y. St. Geol., pi. xl, if. 
12-17, (1^83). 

f Derbya robuata Waagen, Pal. Indica, ser. xiii, i, p. 592, (1884) ; Hall and 
Clarke, Pal. N. Y., viii, pt. i, p. 262, pi. x, ff. 12-17, pi. xiB, ff. 7, 8, ( 1892). 

64 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

Hall's description (in part) : ''Shell resupinate, somewhat 
broadly semielliptical in outline, depressed hemispheric ; car- 
dinal extremities rounded. Ventral valve flat or slightly con- 
cave ; area low, extending to the hinge extremities ; foramen 
forming an equilateral triangle, closed by a pseudo-del tidium. 
Dorsal valve broadly convex, the greatest convexity a little 
above the middle, and often equal to one-third the width of the 
shell. Surface marked by even rounded radiating striir, which 
increase by bifurcation and interstitial addition, and are crossed 
by fine concentric stria*.'' Interior of pedicle valve marked by 
large, deep, semicircular impression, with raised irregular per- 
iphery, moderately high mesial septum extending to the front of 
the muscular impression, which is marked by irregular radiat- 
ing ridges and furrows of variable size. Area of the valve out- 
side of the impression finely pitted to the edge, where the 
striations of a new layer of shell form a radiate periphery. 
Hinge area possessing the usual diverging lines, within which 
are vertical stria*. Entire hinge area marked by horizontal 
lines or lamella*. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures to Permian ; 
Kansas City, Carbondale, Topeka, Cambridge, Cowley county. 

This shell agrees in many respects with the description of />. 
keokuk and in others with D. rohusta. If tlie previous remarks 
on surface markings of the valves and the hinge area hold good 
for the genus, there is little doubt that the two will prove syn- 
onymous. The fact that our Coal Measures shells have the out- 
line and also the interior of the pedicle valve almost exactly as 
D. robusta and, where the shells'are not worn, the markings of 
1). keokukf would seem to indicate that they are the same. 
Specimens broken from limestone always leave a portion of 
the shell attached to the stone, which makes the specimens 
look like those with the markings ascribed to Z), robusta. Some 
of our specimens differ from D. keokuk in that the hinge is 
hardly as short as ascribed to that species, though some of 
them approach it quite closely. However, the length of thef- 
hinge is not a very constant character in any species of the genus 
that I have examined. The front and lateral margins expand 

Bekdb.J Carboniferous Invertebrates. 65 

much more rapidly than does the hinge after the shell reaches 
middle age. 

Professor Clarke writes me concerning these two species that 
'* There can be no question of the close similarity of these two 
species, and D. robusta was founded upon a single specimen 
remarkable for the convexity of its brachial valve and its sub- 
circular outline, but I recollect distinctly that we had a com- 
paratively meager representation of this species from the Coal 
Measures. I have little doubt that one represents the continu- 
ation of the other specific type, perhaps with some slight varia- 
tion, and that the genus attained its culminant variability of 
expression in the Coal Measures." 

The relative convexity of the brachial valve varies to a con- 
siderable degree, though the most of them are very convex. Con- 
sidering these points as a whole, the only grounds left, so far as 
I can see, for D. robusta to rest upon, are its relatively little 
longer hinge and greater convexity of the pedicle valve, both of 
which are variable characters, and the two species approach each 
other very closely in this respect. However, it may be suffi- 
cient to distinguish them, though I think that they will prove 
to be the same. 


White and St. Jobo, Trans. Chic. Acad. Sci. I, p. 120, ff. 4-6, (186S). 
Hall and Clarke, Pal. N. Y. VIIX, pt. I. p. 264 (1892) ; etc. 

' Meekella striatocostata. Plate XII, figs. 9-9c. 

Plioaiula Htriatovoataia Cox, Greol. Surv. Ky., iii, pt. i, p. 568, pi. viii^ 
f . 7, ( 1857). 

OrtkiHina HhumavdianuH Swallow, Trans. St. L. Acad. Sci., i, p. 183, 

Orthfsina minHourirnHia Swallow, ibid., p. 219: etc. 

(Jrlhis struttocoHtata Geinitz, Carb. u. Dyas in Neb., p. 48, pi. iii, ff. 22- 

Meekella siriatocoHioia White aod St. John, Trans. Chic. Acad. Sci., pp. 

129, 122, ff. 4-6 (1868); Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 175, 

pi. V, f. 12, (1872); etc. 
StrpptorhynchvM (Meekella) tilriatocostata Hall, 2d Ann. Rep. N. Y. St. 

Geol., pi. XL, ff. 18-23, (1883). 

Meek's description (in part) : * ' Shell trigonal-subglobose, be- 
coming very convex with age, generally a little longer than 
wide ; hinge line very much shorter than the breadth of the 
valves. Dorsal valve convex, the greatest prominence near the 

66 University Geological Survey of Kansas, 

umbo, thence rounding over to the front, being usually some- 
what flattened over the central and anterior regions, but with- 
out any mesial sinus ; beak strongly incurved, and with its 
most prominent part sometimes projecting a little beyond the 
hinge line, but in others flattened, and with its immediate 
apex nearly always terminating at the margin of the hinge ; 
posterior lateral margins laterally compressed and converging 
toward the umbo at nearly a right angle ; surface ornamented 
by about ten to thirteen large, radiating, more or less angular, 
simple or rarely bifurcating plications, which are themselves 
(as well as the furrows between) marked by flne but distinct 
radiating strii^^, which, toward the front, instead of continuing 
parallel to the furrows and plications, converge forward on each 
side of the latter so as to intersect along the crests of the same 
at acute angles. Crossing all of these, there are usually toward 
the front and lateral margins a few strong zigzag marks of 
growth. Ventral valve more convex than the other, the great- 
est convexity being at or near the beak, which is elevated and 
usually more or less distorted, being sometimes twisted to one 
side, and in other examples straight or somewhat arched back- 
ward ; cardinal area narrow transversely, but proportionally 
high, being often distinctly higher than wide, but well defined, 
and usually finely striated transversely and vertically, either 
flat or more or less arched backwards ; false deltidium closing 
the fissure, narrow, and provided with a slender, rounded, 
prominent mesial ridge extending to the apex of the beak ; sur- 
face as in the other valve.'' The two dental lamelhv of the 
pedicle valve extend from the apex of the beak to the hinge 
and forward about half the distance to the front of the shell, 
dividing the beak into three nearly equal compartments. The 
cardinal process of the brachial valve is curved forward and 
upward, long, and thickened at the extremity. Measurements 
of average specimen : Length, 23mm. ; width, 29 mm. ; convex- 
ity, 18 mm. ; length of hinge, 14 mm. ; height of cardinal area, 
9 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper and Lower Coal Measures ; 
Fort Scott, Olathe, Kansas City, Eudora, Lawrence, Ijecomp- 

Bbbdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 67 

tdh, Topeka, Beaumont, Grand Summit. Widely distributed, 
but moderately rare throughout the Coal Measures and base of 
the Permian. Abundant near the base of the Permian. 

The individual variation of this species is very great. In 
most of the larger specimens the widtli is considerable greater 
than the length as indicated by the above measurements. The 
distinctness of the plications varies with age, being very faint 
in young specimens and very distinct and sharp in old ones. 
Young specimens are much less convex and comparatively 
longer than the old ones. The comparative height of the car- 
dinal area varies greatly, some specimens having the beak only 
moderately elevated. 


Fisher and Waldheim, Oryct. du Qon?. de Moscou. pt. II, p. 184. pi. XXVI, ff. 8, 9. ( 1837 ). 
Hall and Clarke. Pal. N. Y., VlII, pt. I, firachiopoda, p. aus, pi. KV-a, ff. 11-18, pi. XVI, ff. 1-11. 

14, 15, 18-27, 32-86, 89. 48, 44, 48. ( 1892 ). 

Prior to 1844 species belonging to this genus were described 
under the generic terms Pecten, Hysterobjthes, Terehratulites , 
Leptifna^ Orthis^ Spirifera, Strophomena^ Produdm, and Delthyris. 
Since that time the genus has been better understood. 

After giving the generic description (loc. cit.) , Hall and Clarke 
say of the genus : ^'Chnnetcs is remarkable for the persistence 
of its characters. From its appearance in the middle of the 
Silurian to its disappearance in the Permian, this type of struc- 
ture has been maintained with few essential modifications. On 
account of this stability in its features it is difficult to establish 
any satisfactory subdivision of its members, especially since the 
genus has been left more compact by the recent elimination of 
some of its more aberrant forms.'' 

The following is a summary of the sections of the genus, as 
compiled by them, now accepted by leading authorities; these 
sections are mechanical and arbitrary : 

I. — Concert fric(r, those with concentric folds or undulations, like C. con- 

II. — Striata^ those with more than thirty radiating strise. 
III. — PliooscBf those with less than thirty striae. 
IV. — Bugo8ce, those with rugose radiating strise. 
V. — Chrandicoatatce, those with high, strong radiating costs. 
VI. — Lceves, those with smooth shells. 

68 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

All of our Kansas shells fall within two of these sections, ^he 
second and the sixth. The Striata^ include : C\ mesolobus, rer- 
7iuiliann8f and granulifer. The L^ves include C. glaber Gein. 

Chonetes Rlaber. Plate IX, fif;. 2. 

Choncies glaber Geinitz, Carb. u. Dyas in Neb., p. 60, pi. iv, ff. 15-18, 
(1866); Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 171, pi. xiv, f. 10, pi. 
VIII, ff. 8-8c. 

Chonetes gcinitzfana Waagen, Pal. Indica, ser. xiii, vol. i, p. 261, (1884). 

Chonetes latvin Keyes, Ppoc,. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., p. 229, pi. xii, f. 3: 
Cleol. Surv. Mo., v, p. 55, pi. xxxvu, f. 5, (1895). 

Chonetes geinitzianus Miller, N. Amer. Geol. and Pal., p. 339, (1889). 

Chonetes glaber Schuchert, Bull. No. 87, U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 74, (1897 l 

Meek's description: ** Shell thin; transversely subsemicir- 
cular, length being more than half the breadth ; hinge line a 
little longer than the greatest breadth of the valves, at any 
point farther forward ; lateral extremities abruptly pointed and 
sometimes slightly recurved ; anterior and anterior lateral mar- 
gins, forming a semicircular curve in outline, excepting that 
the former is generally faintly sinuous in the middle ; lateral 
margins curving abruptly outwards just before intersecting the 
hinge extremities. Pedicle or larger valve moderately convex, 
the most gibbous part being in the form of two broad, rounded, 
undefined prominences, which diverge from the beaks to the 
anterior lateral regions, leaving a rather broad, rounded, deep 
mesial sinus between them, extending nearly to the beak, but 
widening and deepening rather rapidly to the front ; outside of 
these prominences the posterior lateral regions are more or less 
compressed; beak small, compressed, slightly arched, and 
scarcely projecting beyond the cardinal margin ; area narrow, 
inclined obliquely backward; its fissure small, nearly semi- 
circular and partially closed by the cardinal process of the other 
valve ; cardinal margin armed on each side of the beak by four 
or five slender, moderately long, oblique spines, with sometimes 
remains of one or two much smaller rudimentary additional 
ones near the beak ; cardinal teeth compressed, their longer 
diameter ranging nearly parallel to the hinge line — as seen 
under a strong lens, finely striated on the outside, at right 
angles to their length. Interior, excepting the regions of the 

Bbbdb.] Carboniferous In vertebrate f(. 69 

muscular impressions, with numerous, rather distinct granules, 
arranged in radiating rows — immediately within the fissure, 
provided with a short, rather prominent, compressed ridge 
ranging at right angles to the hinge ; muscular impressions 
very obscure. 

** Dorsal or concave valve, following nearly the curve of the 
other ; area of about the same size as in the dorsal [ventral] 
valve, inclined forward from the hinge ; cardinal process small, 
not very prominent, and, as seen on the outer side, somewhat 
trilobate, the middle lobe or ridge being divided by a linear 
sulcus ; socket ridges very oblique ; interior granulated as in 
the other valve. A very small, obscure linear ridge occupies 
the middle of the valve, without, however, extending up to the 
hinge; muscular impressions unknown. 

'* Surface of both valves nearly smooth, but showing obscure, 
concentric marks of growth. In some conditions of weathering 
there is a faint appearance of radiating markings, but this is 
due rather to the structure of the shell and not to proper ex- 
ternal lines. When a single one of the thin valves is cleaned, 
and examined by the aid of a good magnifier and a strong trans- 
mitted light, very scattering punctures or pores are seen arranged 
in quincunx, and passing obliquely through the shell. These 
appear to have been connected with minute tubular spines, 
arranged over the whole surface, during the life of the animal." 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Topeka. 

Chonetes granulifer. Plate IX, figs. 1-lc. 

Choneten granylifera Owen, Geol. Rep. Iowa, Wis., and Minn., p. 583, 
tab. V, f. 12, (1852); Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 171, pi. 
IV, f. 19, pi. VIII, f. 8, (1872); etc. 

Chonetes smiihii Norwood and Pratten, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., iii, 
p. 24, pi. II, f. 2, (1854); etc. 

Chonetes mucronatn Meek and Hayden, Proo. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., p. 
262, (1858); Pal. Upp. Mo., p. 22, pi. i, f. 5, (1864); etc. 

Chonetes granuUferus Beecher, Am. Jour. Sci., 3d ser., zli, p. 357, pi. 
XVII, f. 15,(1891). 

Chonetes granulifer Schuchert, Bull. 87, U. S. Geol. Surv., (1897). 

Meek's description: ''Shell attaining a rather large size, 
semicircular in outline, having its greatest breadth on the 
hinge line, which often terminates in extended mucronate ears. 

70 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

Larger or ventral valve moderately convex, the greatest con- 
vexity being in the central region, or rather on each side of it, 
as there is usually a broad, shallow, mesial depression ; ears 
and lateral regions compressed ; front somewhat straightened 
along the middle ; beak small, rather compressed, a little 
arched, and scarcely projecting beyond the cardinal margin, 
which is provided with from seven to eleven oblique spines on 
each side of the beak ; area rather narrow, ranging nearly 
parallel with the general plane of the valves, its fissure broad, 
partly closed by the arching deltidiutn ; hinge teeth well devel- 
oped, compressed, and minutely striated; interior with impres- 
sions of cardinal muscles subovate, diverging, attenuate above ; 
adductor muscular scars small, narrow-subelliptical ; mesial 
ridge prominent near the beak, much lower, and nearly extend- 
ing forward to the central region ; most of the interior occupied 
by granules, which are largest and most crowded on a narrow 
space around and near the front and lateral margins ; but 
around the immediate margin they are much smaller, and ar- 
ranged in distinct radiating rows. Dorsal or smaller valve 
following nearly the curve of the other, the beak and central 
regions being concave, and the ears fiat; area well developed, 
but narrower than in the other valve ; bifid cardinal process 
and mesial prominence, nearly or quite closing the fissure of 
the other valve. From the base of this process there are ex- 
tending, on the inner side of the valve five radiating ridges, 
two of which pass obliquely outward, forming the inner mar- 
gins of the dental sockets, while a third mesial one extends at 
right angles to the hinge, a little more than half way to the 
front ; the other two are much shorter, oblique, and occupy in- 
termediate positions between the middle and two latter ones ; 
granules of the interior as in the other valve. Surface of both 
valves ornamented with a few subimbricating marks of growth, 
crossed by very fine, obscure, regularly and closely arranged 
radiating striae, of which about 150 can be counted around the 
free border of a large individual, where about eight or nine of 
them may be counted in the space of one line." 

Bbrdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates, 71 

Measurements: Length, 15mm.; width, 28mm. ; convexity, 
5 mm. 

Range and distribution : Common throughout the Coal Meas- 
ures ; from Kansas City to Topeka and Manhattan, Grand Sum- 
mit, etc. 

There are two specimens from Grand Summit, Kan., which 
show a remarkable variation from the average specimens of this 
species. In these the ears are elevated, distinctly and deeply 
notched, the lateral margins curving inward, then, making an 
acute angle, are directed outward and backward to the hinge 
tip. In all other respects, so far as can be determined from the 
exterior appearance, they are exactly like the above species. 
Two other specimens from eastern Kansas also show this re- 
markable characteristic, though in a less pronounced manner. 

This species differs from the preceding in possessing radiat- 
ing strisB on the surface of both valves and a thicker shell ; it 
is more broad, and the ridges on either side of the mesial sinus 
are less prominent. 

Chonetes meaolobus. Plate IX, figs. 3, 3b. 

ChonHen mraolobtis Norveood and Pratten, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., in, 
p. 27, pi. II, f. 7, (18&H; White, Wheeler's Geog, Surv. West 100 Mer., 
IV, p. 123, pi. IX, f. 7, (1875); etc. 

Shell small, broader than long, moderately convex, trans- 
versely subelliptical or subquadrate in outline ; hinge line a 
little more than equal to the greatest width of the shell. Mesial 
sinus extending from near the beak, broadening and deepening 
to the anterior margin, bifurcating near its origin and enclosing 
a mesial fold. Anterior margin nearly straight or slightly sinu- 
ate ; antero-lateral margin sharply rounded, then passing nearly 
in a slightly convex line directly backwards to the hinge line, 
making a slight outward turn before joining it. Cardinal area 
narrow, foramen broad and shallow, nearly filled by the small, 
trifid process of the other valve. Surface ornamented with 
fine radiating stria?, rather coarsely and sparsely punctate. 
Four or five small spines on eather side of the beak point 
obliquely backward from the hinge line. The markings on the 
interior of the ventral valve are rather similar to the preceding. 

72 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

The mesial septum is apparently short and thick. Two small, 
sharp elevations mark the location of the double sinus on the 
exterior. The adductor scars are located close beneath the 
beak, oblique and ovate-elliptical in outline, and rather deeply 
impressed. The pustules are arranged as in (\ granulifer, ex- 
cept that they are not always arranged in radiating rows 
around the periphery, though they are in some specimens. 
The interior of the dorsal valve is different from the rest of our 
species. The sinus dividing the extremity of the deltidial proc- 
ess splits into two, making the end of the process appear trifid. 
The radiating ridges are nearly as in the preceding species, ex- 
cept that the middle pair are recurved, forward and inward, 
enclosing a depression resembling a muscular marking. The 
meeial septum extends fully half the length of the shell, ending 
in a slight enlargement. On either half of the valve, corre- 
sponding to the folds of the other valve, are rather crescent- 
shaped brachial areas, the outer edges of which are beset with 
large, rather long, pustules. Pustules of the remainder of the 
surface as in the other valve. In the anterior half of the shell 
is a deep double sinus, enclosing a mesial fold, corresponding 
to the sinus and fold of the ventral valve. 

Range and distribution : Lower Coal Measures ; Fort Scott 
and Bronson, Bourbon county. 

The features which distinguish this species from the re- 
mainder herein described are the mesial fold in the ventral 
valve and the short hinge line. Its range is restricted to the 
lower part of the Coal Measures. 

Ohonetes vernenilianus. Plate IX, figs, i ic. 

Chonetes verneuUianus Norwood and Pratten, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 
Ill, p. 26, pi, II, f. 6, (1854); Newberry, Ives' Rep. Col. Riv. of West, p. 
128, (1861); Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 170, pi. i, f. 10, 
(1872); Hall, 2d Rep. N. Y. St. Geol. pi. xlvii, flf. 20, 21, (1883); White. 
13th Ann. Rep. St. Geol. Ind., p. 128, pi. xxv, ff. 7, 8, (1884); Hall and 
Clarke, Pal. N. Y., viii, pt. i, pi. xvi, ff. 29, 21. 

Meek's description (in part) : "Shell rather small, varying 
from subsemicircular to suboblong ; hinge line more or less 
extended beyond the breadth of the valves at any other point ; 
sometimes greatly produced. Ventral valve very convex, with 

Bbsdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 73 

a deep rounded mesial sinus, starting near the beak and deepen- 
ing and widening rapidly to the anterior margin, to which it 
imparts a distinctly sinuous outline, thus dividing the gibbous 
part of the valve into two prominent rounded lobes or diverg- 
ing ridges, separate from each other by a broad rounded de- 
pression ; ears more or less angular, sometimes extended and 
acutely pointed, slightly arching, and a little re flexed ; beak 
rather prominent and recurved ; area moderately developed 
and common to both valves, but widest in the ventral ; fora- 
men wide ; cardinal margin provided with four oblique spines 
on each side of the beak. Dorsal valve following rather nearly 
the curve of the other, and provided with a mesial ridge corre- 
sponding to the sinus of the other valve." The interior of the 
ventral valve possesses a short, sharp mesial septum extending 
beneath the umbo ; each side of the septum', close under the 
beak, there is an oval muscular depression, the broader end ex- 
tending obliquely forward ; near the posterior end is a small 
elliptical scar. Immediately in front of the scars the shell is 
smooth. Around the visceral cavity are large pustules, while 
exterior to these, on the periphery of the shell, are smaller ones 
arranged in radiating order. There is a small, distinct tooth 
on each side of the foramen. The deltidial process of the dorsal 
valve is reenforced by five radiating ridges on the interior of the 
valve, the first pair of which are nearly parallel to the hinge 
line, but pointing a little forward and disappearing before reach- 
ing the margin. Immediately in front of the process, which is 
somewhat elevated and broad, is a small depression or cavity. 
The second pair of ridges extend obliquely forward from in 
front of this cavity. The mesial septum reaches about half 
way to the front of the shell. On either side of it is the semi- 
circular brachial area. Pustules on the surface of the valve 
arranged as in the other valve. *' Surface [exterior] of each 
valve ornamented with about 100 fine, bifurcating, radiating 
striae, and sometimes near the front, by a few marks of growth." 
Length, 9 mm. ; width, 15 mm. ; convexity, 4 mm. 

Range and distribution : Lower and Upper Coal Measures ; 

6— vi 

74 University Geological Survey of Kansas, 


Bronson, Bourbon county, Kansas City, Buffalo Mound, Wa- 
baunsee county. 

This species is easily distinguished by its deep mesial sinus 
and strong bilobate appearance, together with a long hinge. 


Sowerby, Min. Cod., I. p. 153^ (1814). 

de Koninck, Hecher. Anim. Fom., I. p. 11, ( 1847 ). 

Hall. 29th Rep. N. Y. St. Cab. Nat. Hist., p. 245 (1867) ; Pal. N. Y., IV, p. 146. (1867). 

Hall and Clarke, Pal. N. Y., VIII, pt. I, p. S21, (18K) ; Uth Ann. Rep. N. Y. St. Qeol., p. 297, (1894). 

This genus has been divided into groups, as follows : 

Group I. Lineati Waagen. ** Surface covered with fine radi- 
ating costae which are rarely spinous, and are not crossed by 
concentric plications or wrinkles. The shells are greatly pro- 
duced and sometimes the anterior margins of the shells are 
modified by the development of a fold or sinus. The shells 
were very fragile and have usually been subject to much dis- 
tortion in fossilization."* 

Group 11. Irregulares WsLAgen. ** Elongate shells very nar- 
row at the beak, mytiliform in outline ; mode of growth quite 
irregular. Surface as in the Lineati; spines grouped almost 
wholly about the cardinal line." * 

Group III. Scmireticulati de Verneuil. "The longitudinal 
ribs are sparsely spinous ; surface of visceral disc covered with 
concentric wrinkles."* 

Group IV. Spinosi de Verneuil. ** Surface strongly tubercu- 
lose or spinous ; not reticulated." * 

Group V. Fimbriati de Koninck. "Surface without radiate 
stria* or ribs ; covered with concentric ridges or plications, 
bearing rows of small thickly set spines." * 

Group VI. Horridi de Verneuil. "Surface without concen- 
tric or radiating plications ; pedicle valve with a deep sinus." * 

Group VII. Mesolobi de Koninck. " Surface without radiat- 
ing or concentric plications except a prominent median rib." * 
* All of our Kansas species come in groups I, III, IV, and V. 

I. — Lineati: P, cora and its varieties. 
III. — Semireticulati: P, srmireticulatus, cotttatus, pertcnuis, longispinun. 
IV. — Spinosi: P, nebraHcrnsis, 

V. — Fimbriati: P. puncfatuM, HymmetricuH. 

4. Hall and Clarke, Pal. N. Y., VIII, I, p. 326. 

BsBDB.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 75 

Concerning the synonymy of the American species of Prodtictus 
there is considerable difference of opinion. As far as our Kan- 
sas forms are concerned, they have not heretofore been collected 
and preserved in a manner that indicates the exact range of the 
different forms, or, indeed, the exact location of the specimens 
themselves ; in fact, if we are to judge from the localities given 
in paleontological papers, there has been very little if any ac- 
curate systematic collecting done in the Coal Measures west of 
the Mississippi river, except that of Meek in southeastern Ne- 
braska. As a natural result, the range of the different forms 
is not known, or even the degrees of variation in the same hori- 
zon. Under these circumstances, it seems best to be quite con- 
servative in the number of species recognized until further and 
better work is done ; however, I am of the opinion that some 
of the forms here referred to a single species will, on more care- 
ful study of range restrictions, be separated. This is especially 
true of P. cora, though the data at hand will hardly permit of 
it now. 

Prodnctus cora. Plate XI, figs. 1-lf. 

Prodwtwi cora d'Orbigny, Voy. dans I'Am^r. M<5r. Pal., p. 55, pi. v, flf, 
8-10, (1842); Owen, Geol. Rep. Wis., Iowa, and Minn., pp. 103-106, pi. ' 
V, f. 2, (1852); White, 13th Rep. St. Geol. Ind., p. 126, pi. xxvi, ff. 1-3, 
(1884); etc. 

Productus lyeUi de Vemeuil, Lyell's Travels in North America, ii, p. 221, 
(1845); Dawson, Acad. Geol., p. 219, f. g, (1855). 

Productus Memireticulatus Hall, Stanberry'a Expl. and Surv. Valley Gt. 
Salt Lake, Utah, p. 411, pi. ni, ff. 3, 5. 

Product fts prattenianus Norwood, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., iii, p. 17, 
f. 10, (1854); Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 163, pi. ii, f. 5, 
pi. V, f. 13, pi. VIII, f. 10, (1872); etc. 

Prodnctufi flemmt'ngi Greinitz (non de Vemeuil), Garb. u. Dyas in Neb., 
p. 53, pi. IV, f. 5, (1866) ; etc. 

ProductuH calhounianua Geinitz, ibid, (non Swallow). 

Meek's description of Prod uctus prattenianus (in part) : '* Shell 
attaining a medium to large size ; breadth generally exceeding 
the length, especially when the ears are entire ; cardinal mar- 
gin usually somewhat longer than the transverse diameter of 
the valves at any point farther forward ; anterior and antero- 
lateral outline regularly rounded. Ventral valve distinctly and 
rather evenly convex, with or without a shallow mesial sinus ; 

76 University Geological Survey of Kanms. 

umbonal region gibbous; beak incurved, but scarcely passing 
the hinge margin ; ears large, rather compressed, and provided 
with a few large, strongly defined concentric folds, which as- 
cend a little upon the sloping sides of the umbo and extend 
more or less along the postero-lateral margins, but never cross 
the shell; surface ornamented with rather small, regular, 
rounded cost^e or strise, and armed with stout, erect, long 
spines, those along the hinge margin are more frequent, larger, 
directed backward, with an inward curve. Some specimens 
seem to be nearly destitute of spines. Dorsal valve concave, 
sometimes a little flattened in the visceral region , and following 
the curve of the other valve around the front and anterior 
lateral margins ; ears with folds as in the other valve, and each 
separated from the concave central region by an oblique ridge 
or prominence ; surface without spines, but with radiating 
striae, as in the ventral valve, and usually crossed by very ob- 
scure concentric wrinkles and a few imbricating marks of 
growth, particularly near the front and sides ; cardinal process 
small but strongly prominent and bifid, while from its base a 
slender mesial ridge extends forward to, or a little beyond, the 
middle. ' ' The internal markings of this valve are obscure. Pro- 
boscis well developed, bifid, and well produced into the beak 
of the other valve. Lateral ridges small, straight or curved 
backward, soon disappearing; adductor scars dim, placed well 
to the posterior, nearly semicircular in outline ; brachial mark- 
ings indistinct, enlarging and bending to the front at the ex- 
tremities. A cast of the interior of the pedicle valve shows a 
narrow, short beak, with a small depression on either side, 
faint mesial ridge extending across the central portion of the 
visceral area ; adductor scars long and narrow, placed close be- 
side the ridge ; exterior to these are the linear markings of the 
diductors. Anterior marked by fine pittings. Length of fair- 
sized specimen, 50 mm. ; width, 70 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 
Eudora, Lawrence, Lecompton, Topeka, Geary county, Melvern, 
Osage county. 

The size of the costse in this species is variable, those with 

Bbbdb.] Carboniferom Invertebrates,, 77 

the larger ones possessing the larger and more numerous spines, 
while those with fine costae seem to be nearly destitute of spines. 
The forms of this species with the front margin emarginate 
are restricted, or at least seem to be, to the base of the Upper 
Coal Measures, and are for this reason worthy of varietal dis- 
tinction. There is also a very wide form that is very much less 
gibbous than the ordinary form,' which is likewise restricted to 
the same rocks as the preceding, and will probably prove varie- 
tally distinct from the species. Waagen ^ suggests that Pro- 
ductus cora should be divided into two series of forms, one with, 
and the other without a mesial sinus in the visceral area. This 
will hardly hold for our western forms, for those of the form 
described by Swallow as P, americanus and those without the 
fold characteristic of that form both possess the sinus. The 
form that is the most common in the Kansas Coal Measures is 
that described by Norwood as P. prattcnianus , found abundantly 
at the Nebraska City, Neb., locality of Meek, and throughout 
the Kansas Coal Measures. 

Prodnctus cora americanus. Plate XI, fig. 2. 

ProductuH americanus Swallow, Trans. St. L. Acad. Sci., ii, p. 91, (1863). 
xvii-A, flf. 22, 23, (1893). 

ProductuH cequicoatatuM Hall (non Shumard), Pal. N. Y., viii, pt. i, pi. 

This shell differs from the preceding species in possessing a 
fold in the anterior portion of the shell, which is less developed 
anteriorly than the sides, forming a deep sinus in the anterior 
margin. In the most distinct forms of the variety the shell 
is sometimes less gibbous and more alate than is true of the 

Range and distribution : Upper and Lower Coal Measures ; 
Kansas City, Eudora, Anderson county. Seems to be confined 
to the base of the Upper Coal Measures and to the Lower Coal 

5. Pal. Indica, Salt RaDge Foss.f 676. 

78 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

Productns semireticnlatiu. Plate X, figs. 2-2d; text fig. 2, f. 

AnomiicB ttemireliculatua Martin, P^tref. Derb., p. 7, pi. xxxii, ff. 1, 2, 
pi. XXXIII, f. 4, (1800). 

Prodticttis inca d'Orbigoy, V07. dans 1' Am^r. M^rid. Pal., p. 51, pi. iv, 
ff. 1-3, (1842); Derby, Bull. Mus. Ck>mp. ZooL, in, p. 280, (18T6). 

ProductuH semiretienlatnft Norwood and Pratten, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phil., Ill, p. 11, (1854); White, 13th Ann. Rep. St. Geol. Ind., p. 125, 
pi. XXIV, ff. 1-3,(1884); etc. 

Producius setigeiMS Hall, Geol. Surv. Iowa, i, pt. 11, p. 638, pi. xix, f. 3. 

Productns aetigeruH var. keokuk Hall, ibid. 

Productm martini A. Winchell, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., p. 4, (1863). 

Productua mar/nus Hall and Clarke, Pal. N. Y., viii, pt. i, pi. xvii-a, f. 15, 


Shell large, very convex, broader than long ( measured from 
the hinge to the front) ; hinge line straight, equal to the great- 
est width of the shell ; cardinal area very narrow but distinct ; 
beak prominent, appressed, barely arching around the hinge 
line. Pedicle valve much inflated, greatly prolonged anteriorly 
in old individuals. Beak broadening rapidly from its point at 
the hinge toward the anterior; ears nearly flat, well defined, 
separated from inflated portion of the shell by a gentle curve ; 
mesial sinus beginning well toward the beak and continuing 
to the anterior margin. Surface marked by radiating costsF, 
and the visceral area is also marked by more or less regular, 
concentric costsp, giving the shell a semireticulated appearance. 
Sometimes both sets of stride extend over the ears, the concen- 
tric taking the form of wrinkles, which, together with the bases 
of stout tubular spines, make the ears appear quite rough. 
Spines sparsely and irregularly distributed over the costsp of 
the shell but thickest on the ears ; radiating costtr increasing 
by bifurcation and insertion. The interior of the valve is 
marked on the ears, anterior and lateral border by a pitted sur- 
face. Adductor scars are elongate-elliptical, arborescent, hav- 
ing their anterior extremities raised, situated centrally in the 
shell. Longitudinal linear lines or folds are present on the 
outside of these impressions. The dorsal or brachial valve is 
strongly concave, visceral region nearly flat, in front of which 
it curves abruptly downward. A slight indistinct mesial fold 
is present, corresponding to the sinus of the other valve. Ears 
and surface markings same as in the other valve, except that 

Bbbdb.J Carboniferous Invertebrates. 79 

there are no spines. Beak extending back of the hinge, produc- 
ing a concavity below. Proboscis not visible from exterior of 
complete specimens, only a minute projection seen fitting into 
a small notch in the hinge of the other valve. The entire inner 
surface of the valve coarsely punctate, except the portion oc- 
cupied by the brachial and adductor markings. Proboscis pro- 
jecting, obovate in outline, trifid, at the base of which there 
are three radiating ridges ; two high lateral ones, which roll 
slightly backward, extend nearly to the ears, where they fade 
out; the third ridge extends directly forward, smaller and 
sharper than the others, to the anterior portion of the flat sur- 
face, where it ends abruptly. Situated about one-third, or less, 
the distance from the posterior to the front of the flat surface 
and close to the mesial ridge are the arborescent adductor 
markings, triangular to elliptical in outline.- The brachial 
markings extend nearly directly outward from the anterior end 
of the adductors, then bending forward and expanding, ap- 
proaching very close to the antero-lateral extremity of the fiat 
surface of the valve. The front inner portion of these mark- 
ings extends forward to the anterior end of the mesial ridge, 
the posterior portion connecting with the front of the adductor 
scar. In some specimens the brachial area is finely crinkled, 
as are some other parts of the surface back of the muscular 
scars. There are sometimes short, sharp pustules on the front 
curve of the valve. Length, hinge to front, 40 mm.; width, 
58 mm. ; convexity, 40 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 
Lawrence, Lecompton, Topeka, Alma, Marysville, etc. Com- 
mon throughout the Coal Measures of the United States and 
the world. 

ProdnctUB costatus. Plate IX, fig. 8; plate X, figs. 1-lc; plate XI, fig. 4. 

Productua costatus Sowerby ? Min. Con., vi, p. 115, pi. dlx, f. 1, (1827). 

Prod actus costatus de Koninck, Recher. Anim. Foss., pt. i, p. 92, pi. viii, 
f. 3, pi. X, f. 3, pi. VII, f. 3, (1847); Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. 
Neb., p. 159, pi. VI, f. 6, (1852); Hall and Clarke, Pal. N. Y., viii, pt. i, 
pi. XIX, flf. 8-13, (1892); etc. 

Productus jjortlockianus Norwood and Pratten, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phil., Ill, p. 15, pi. I, f. 9, ( 1854). 

Productus vtminalfs White, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., ix, p. 29, ( 1862). 

80 University Geological Survey of Kansas, 

Meek's description (in part) : ''Shell of medium size, wider 
than long, very convex ; hinge margins about equaling the 
greatest breadth of the valves. Pedicle valve exceedingly gib- 
bous, and very strongly incurved, with a deep rounded sinus 
extending from near the beak to the front, to which it imparts 
a sinuate outline ; umbo prominent and strongly incurved, so 
as to pass somewhat within the hinge margin ; ears well de- 
fined, arched and rather distinct from the abrupt swell of the 
umbo, from which they are sometimes separated by a small 
ridge or fold. Brachial valve flattened in the visceral region, 
and more or less abruptly curved or geniculated toward the 
front and anterior lateral margins, the former of which usually 
shows a small mesial ridge. Surface of both valves ornamented 
with distinct, rather unequal, depressed and rounding radiat- 
ing costte, which sometimes bifurcate, or, in other instances, 
two or more of them coalesce in front of the visceral portion, 
to form a larger one ; crossing all of these, on the visceral re- 
gion, are numerous, well-defined, concentric wrinkles, produc- 
ing a distinct reticulated appearance, while the whole surface 
of the ventral valve is sometimes provided with a few scatter- 
ing, rather stout, erect spines, somewhat regularly arranged in 
quincunx. Sometimes nearly all the spines, excepting those on 
the lateral regions, apparently wanting.'* The internal mark- 
ings of the ventral valve consist of long, narrow, arborescent 
adductor scars mesially situated along the vaulted part of the 
shell, with, exterior to these, the long linear folds, or line-like 
diductor scars. The beak, as shown in a cast, is quite pointed, 
possessing a depression on either side running obliquely back- 
ward, near the posterior end of which there is an elevation, in 
front of which the pit is deeper than back of it. Above this de- 
pression is a rounded ridge on each side of the mesial sinus. 
The proboscis of the dorsal valve extends beyond the hinge 
line, and is backed by three radiating ridges, one of which ex- 
tends directly forward to the front of the flattened area, 
rounded, not prominent ; one extends antero-laterally on j^aich 
side of the mesian ridge, running nearly outward until the 
edge is approached, when it curves forward, joining the border 

Bbbdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 81 

of the flattened area, and fades out. Adductor scars moderately 
small, elliptical in outline, placed longitudinally and close to the 
median ridge, a little anterior to the lateral ridges. Brachial 
markings not prominent and generally indistinct, extending 


outward from the anterior end of the adductor scars, curving 
forward and ending near the antero-lateral portion of the 
flattened area. Other internal markings unknown. Length, 
20 mm. ; width, 35 mm. ; convexity, 33 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas 
City, Turner, Wyandotte county, Lawrence, Topeka, Wabaun- 
see county. Common throughout the Coal Measures and 
lower portion of the Permian. 

This species differs from the previous in being smaller, hav- 
ing a more distinct mesial sinus, ears separated from the body 
of the shell by a ridge which generally bears spines and un- 
equal costfp on the anterior slope. 

The markings of this shell vary considerably in different in- 
dividuals. They are not so distinct as those of a Russian ex- 
ample in the collection, and the shell is smaller ; though the 
ridge separating the ear from the shell is present and spinous, 
it is not nearly so pronounced as in the Russian specimen. 

Prodactus longispinus? Plate IX, fi^s. 9-9d. 

Producius lotifjUpinuH Sowerby? Min. Con., i, p. 154, pi. lxviii, f. 1, 
( 1814 ). 

Prodactus longittpintiH Salter, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., xvii, p. 64, 
pi. IV, f. 2, (1861); Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 161, pi. 
VI, f. 7, pi. VIII, f. 6, (1872); etc. 

Prodactus flrmmingi Roemer (non deKoninck), Kreidebildung Texas, 
p. 89, pi. XI, f. 8, (1852); etc. 

Productus spfcndrns Norwood and Pratten, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 
Ill, p. 11, pi. I, f. 5, (1854); etc. 

Prodactus wabdshensis Norwood and Pratten, ibid. 

Productus orbign,yanas Greinitz ( ?non de Koninck ), Carb. u. Dyas in Neb., 
p. 56, pi. IV, ff. 8-11, (1866). 

Prodactus horridus Geinitz, ibid., f. 7. 

Meek's description (in part): ** Shell small, thin, wider than 
long ; hinge line generally longer than the transverse diameter 
of the valves at any point farther forward, and terminating in 
more or less distinct, rather vaulted, and often reflexed ears ; 
anterior and anterior-lateral outlines approaching a semicircu- 

82 University Geological Survey of Kansas, 

lar curve, but the middle of the front is generally rather dis- 
tinctly sinuous. Ventral valve gibbous, the greatest conyexity 
being usually behind the middle, and the curve to the beak 
more rapid than to the front, provided with rather deep mesial 
sinus ; posterior lateral slopes descending nearly vertically to 
the ears ; umbonal region moderately prominent, and usually 
projecting rather distinctly beyond the hinge, as seen in look- 
ing down upon the shell when lying with the dorsal valve be- 
neath ; beak small, strongly curved, but scarcely passing beyond 
the cardinal margin ; surface ornamented with generally rather 
obscure, somewhat variable radiating costas which are often 
obsolete in the umbonal region, or, in some examples, over much 
of the valve farther forward, in other specimens quite distinct 
to the beak, sometimes bifurcating, and in other instances 
coalescing to form larger, faintly defined ribs in front ; fine, in- 
distinct marks of growth are also sometimes seen, and occa- 
sionally very obscure traces of small, concentric wrinkles may 
be observed near the beak ; spines stout, erect, long, scattering, 
and arranged in quincunx. Ventral valve distinctly concave, 
or following nearly the curve of the other, and provided with a 
small mesial ridge corresponding with the sinus of the latter ; 
surface marked as in the other valve, but apparently always 
without spines.'' Proboscis short, trilobate ; two ridges extend 
laterally from its base nearly parallel to the hinge line, until 
the border of the visceral region is reached, where they bend 
abruptly forward, and in very old individuals form a ridge 
entirely around the visceral and brachial cavity, but in many 
adult specimens it fades out before it reaches the front side of 
this cavity ; the lateral borders of the shell are often striated 
from this ridge to the margin ; mesial ridge faint, extending 
nearly to the front of the viscero-brachial area. Adductor scars 
small, not prominent, ovate, placed close beside the mesial 
ridge, well to the back of the shell, directed obliquely for- 
ward ; directly in front of these the brachial markings extend 
toward the antero-lateral margin of the brachial area, near 
which they enlarge ; in front of these the surface of the valve 
is marked by many or few (according to the age of the shell) 

Bbbdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 83 

spinous projections ; the remainder of the surface of the valve 
is smooth. Length, 11 mm. ; width, 16 mm. ; convexity, 10 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City 
and Turner, Wyandotte county, Eudora, Lawrence, Lecorop- 
ton, Topeka, Wabaunsee county. Common or abundant 
throughout the Coal Measures of the state. 

This species is easily distinguished from the preceding by its 
smaller size, fainter surface markings, longer hinge, and in the 
shell being more transverse in appearance, as well as having no 
fold separating the ears from the umbo. There is also great 
difference in the internal markings of the two, as can be seen 
by referring to the plate. 

This species is quite variable in the distinctness of its mark- 
ings, spines, distinctness of the mesial sinus, and size. The 
internal markings vary greatly with age, the very old speci- 
mens presenting the marginal ridge surrounding the visceral 
and brachial areas, which forms the generic characters of Mar- 
ginifera; but I am inclined to think that characters that are 
only developed in aged specimens are not of generic value in 
the brachiopods. 

Productus pertenuis. Plate IX, figs. &-5c. 

ProductuB cancrini Geinitz, Carb. u. Djas in Neb., p. 54, tab. iv, ft, 6 
a-d, (1866). 

ProductuH pcrtcnwR Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 164, pi. 
I, ff. 14a-c, pi. VIII, flf. 9a-d, (1872); Drake, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., 
XXXVI, p. 4a5, pi. IX, flf. 8-10, (1898). 

Meek's description: '* Shell small, very thin, truncato-hem- 
ispherical ; sides and front regularly rounded ; hinge line 
usually less than the greatest breadth of the valves. Ventral 
valve without any traces of a mesial sinus, moderately gibbous, 
the greatest convexity being slightly behind the middle, from 
which point it rounds off in all directions, but most abruptly 
toward the beak and ears, which latter are flattened and sub- 
rectangular ; beak small, slightly prominent, and but little in- 
curved beyond the hinge line ; surface witTi fine, regular, 
radiating strisej crossed by small, rather distinct and regular, 
concentric wrinkles, which latter are generally most strongly 

' 84 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

defined on the ears ; over the whole there are also regularly 
arranged in quincunx, very slender spines, .20-.30 inch in 
length, rising from the slight prominences or swellings of the 
radiating striae. Dorsal valve distinctively concave, following 
nearly the curvature of the other valve, its greatest convexity 
being in the Central region, while its ears are nearly flat ; sur- 
face with concentric wrinkles and radiating stria' as in the 
other valve, but apparently without spines, though a series of 
rather distinct pits are arranged over it in the same order as in 
the other valve." Length, 8 mm. ; width, 11 mm. ; convexity, 
5 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 
Eudora, Lawrence, Lecompton, Topeka. 

This species differs from the preceding ones of the genus in 

the absence of the mesial sinus, thin shell, very small size and 

semicircular outline, as well as being much less gibbous. It is 

1 ikely to be confounded with no other shell of the Coal Measures 

of Kansas. 

Produotas nebrascensis. Plate IX, figs. 7-7f. 

Productus ncbrasccnsfA Owen, Geol. Rep. Wis., Iowa, and Minn., p. 584, 
pi. V, f. 4, (1852); Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 165, pi. ii, 
f. 2, pi. IV, f. 6, pi. V, ff. lla-c, (1872); etc. 

Productua rogerni Norwood and Pratten, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 
2d ser., in, p. 9, pi. i, f. .3, (1854); etc. 

Prodnctua aapertia McChesney, New Pal. Foes., p. 34, (1860); etc. 

ProductuH tcilberanua McChesney, ibid., p. 36; etc. 

Strqpholoaia horrcncena Geinitz (non Murchison, etc.), Carb. u. Dyas in 
Neb., p. 49, (1866). 

Meek's description (in part) : ** Shell of about medium size^ 
approaching subhemispherical ; length most usually a little 
less than the breadth ; hinge line nearly or quite equaling the 
greatest transverse diameter ; anterior outline nearly straight, 
or a little sinuous near the middle, rounding into the lateral 
margins, which are generally straight posteriorly, and ranging 
at an angle of from 90 to about 100 degrees with the hinge ; 
ears nearly rectangular or a little rounded in outline at the 
immediate extremities. Ventral valve rather convex, most 
gibbous behind the middle, thence rounding regularly to the 

Bbbdb.] Carboniferous Tuvertebrates. 85 

front and more abruptly to the beak, generally with a moder- 
ately distinct mesial sinus; posterior lateral slopes descending 
almost vertically to the ears ; umbonal region gibbous, and with 
strong incurved beak projecting beyond the hinge line. Dorsal 
valve somewhat flattened in the visceral region, but most con- 
cave near the beak and near the anterior lateral regions, the 
concavity widening rapidly forward, so as to leave a kind of a 
broad, obscure, oblique ridge between it and the flattened ears, 
and another in the middle; anterior and lateral margins fol- 
lowing the curvature of tjie other valve ; cardinal process 
prominent, bifid, and rather narrow; interior with mesial 
ridge, narrow, well defined, extending forward beyond the 
middle,'' bifid, at its connection with the cardinal process en- 
closing a moderately deep pit. The two lateral ridges are well 
defined and parallel with the hinge, fading out before the ex- 
tremity is reached. The adductor scars are either subsemicir- 
cular or spatulate in outline, placed well to the posterior, with 
the smaller end forward, ending in a small elevated lobe. The 
brachial markings of this species are very obscure ; they extend 
from the anterior extremity of the adductor scars outward and 
a little forward, rounding off near the antero-lateral edge of 
the flattened area. The markings of the interior of the other 
valve are rather indistinct. The adductor scars are long, slen- 
der, subspatulate, with the larger end toward the beak, situated 
in the middle of the visceral area ; the two are separated in the 
extreme posterior portion by a low mesial ridge ; exterior to 
these are the diductor scars, occupying a rather large space, in- 
dicated by longitudinal folds or nearly parallel lines. "Sur- 
face of the ventral valve with more or less defined, rather broad 
concentric undulations, and obscure striae of growth, over the 
whole of which are arranged two sets of spines, connected at 
their bases with short interrupted ribs or elongated tubercles. 
One of these sets consists of small, short, appressed spines, and 
the other of stout, more erect, long ones. Surface of dorsal 
valve with small concentric ridges and striae, with many little 
pits; spines nearly or quite all small, short, and appressed." 

86 University Geological Survey of Kansas, 

Measurements : Length, 26 mm. ; width , 30 mm. ; convex- 
ity, 16 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 
Turner, Eudora, Lawrence, Lecompton, Topeka, Manhattan, 
and Grand Summit. Common throughout the Upper Coal 
Measures of the state. 

This shell, when found with the shell and spines well pre- 
served, looks so very diflFerent from specimens which are ordi- 
narily found with the spines removed that one could hardly 
imagine that they were the same. Those without the spines 
seem to be complete specimens, with regular, concentric zones 
of elongated tubercles, betraying very little indication that they 
are the bases of detached spines. 

This shell is very readily distinguished from the foregoing 
species by its narrow, prominent beak and its peculiar surface 
markings. The concentric zones of spines are found on none 
of them. 

ProductUB symmetricas. Plate IX, figs. 6-6b. 

Productus symmetricus McChesney, New Pal. Foss., p. «35. (1860); Trans. 
Chic. Acad. Sci., i, p. 25, pi. i, f. 9, (1868); Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. 
Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 167, pi. v, f. 6, pi. viii, f. 13, (1872); etc. 

Meek's description (in part) : "Shell of medium size, sub- 
orbicular, or a little wider than long ; hinge line somewhat less 
than the greatest breadth ; sides rounding regularly to the 
front, which is rather broadly rounded in outline ; ventral 
valve somewhat compressed, or only moderately convex, with- 
out any traces of a mesial sinus ; ears compressed but not 
abruptly separated from the swell of the umbo, obtusely an- 
gular or a little rounded at the extremities ; beak moderately 
large, incurved, but not curving much within the hinge margin. 
Dorsal valve rather evenly, and only moderately concave, car- 
dinal process slender, prominent, curved [not always], trifid, 
the middle division being more prominent than the others, and 
emarginate at its extremity, the emargination being caused by 
a distinct mesial furrow that extends the entire length of the 
process [and sometimes two-thirds the length of the mesial 
septum] .'' Lateral ridges elevated, extending outward parallel 

Bbbde.J Carboniferous Invertebrates. 87 

to and a little in front of the hinge nearly to its extremity, 
where it turns abruptly forward, forming a margin to the vis- 
ceral area, and disappearing about the middle. Mesial ridge 
distinct, broad posteriorly, narrowing and rising to the end, 
which is two-thirds the distance to the anterior margin. Ad- 
ductor scars distinct, the two nearly forming a circle or broad 
ellipse, ending in an elevated anterior lobe. Scars placed well 
to the posterior. Brachial markings very indistinct, beginning 
at anterior end of adductor scars and extending outward, as 
nearly as can be made out, similarly to those of the preceding 
shell. **The remainder of the interior covered with pustules. 
Surface of both valves ornamented by small, rather obscure, 
more or less regular concentric wrinkles, and covered by numer- 
ous ^small, short, rather appressed spines, which are larger on 
the ventral valve where they are often connected with little, 
sometimes elongated tubercles." Measurements: Length, 40 
mm. ; width, 59 mm. ; convexity, 25 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 
Lawrence, Topeka. 

This species can be distinguished from the preceding by the 
less convex pedicle valve, which has no sinus, narrower con- 
centric wrinkles, and the fact that it has but a single set of 
spines, which are small and appressed. In some respects this 
species is intermediate between the one preceding and the fol- 
lowing, and is sometimes hard to distinguish from them with- 
out good specimens. 

ProdQCtos pnnctatas. Plate X, figs. 3-3e; plate XI, fig. 3. 

Atiomitea punctatus Martin, Petref. Derb., pi. xxxvii, f. 6, (1809). 

ProducUm punctatus f Morton, Amer. Jour. Sci., xxix, p. 153, pi. xxvi, 
f. 38, (1836). 

Productus punctatus Shumard, Marcy's Rep. U. S. Expl. Red Riv, 
Louis., p. 201, pi. I, f. 5, pi. II, f. 1, (1853); Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. 
Surv. Neb., p. 169, pi. ii, f. 6, pi. iv, f. 5, (1872); etc. 

Productua semipunctatus Shephard, Amer. Jour. Sci., xxxiv, f. 9, (1853). 

Proiluctus tubuloapinus McChesney, New Pal. Foss., p. 37, (1860). 

Meek's description (in part) : *' Shell attaining a rather large 
size, thin, varying from rotund-subquadrate to longitudinally 
subovate, being sometimes wider than long, and in other ex- 

88 University Geological Sun^ey of Kansas. 

amples longer than wide, with all intermediate forms ; hinge 
always shorter than the greatest breadth of the Talyes ; anterior 
outline regularly rounded, or faintly sinuous in the middle. 
Ventral valve more or less gibbous, with a moderately distinct 
mesial sinus extending from near the beak to the front ; beak 
incurved a little beyond the cardinal margin [considerably so] ; 
ears rather compressed, but not distinctly defined from the swell 
of the umbo. Dorsal valve moderately concave with a small 
mesial elevation. Surface of both valves ornamented with 
numerous rather regular concentric ridges, increasing in size 
from the beaks toward the front, but becoming again smaller 
and more crowded in adult shells near the margin; in the 
ventral valve these ridges are a little prominent at the margin, 
separated from each other by smoother spaces, and support 
numerous small appressed spines, those of the upper row of 
which are larger and less crowded than the others ; on internal 
casts, or partly exfoliated specimens, the spines are represented 
by small tubercles ; surface of the dorsal valve as in the other, 
excepting that the ridges are represented by little furrows." 
Interior of the pedicle value with a very small, thin, nearly 
obsolete mesial septum ; adductor scars long, narrow, larger at 
posterior extremity, situated well to the back part of the shell. 
Diductors occupying a large space outside of the adductors, in- 
dicated by longitudinal folding ridges or parallel lines. In 
the brachial valve, the cardinal process is long, arched, bifid, 
slightly enlarged at the extremity ; mesial ridge prominent, 
extending three-fifths the distance to the front margin, and is 
slightly thickened at the end. Lateral ridges strong, situated 
just in front of the hinge and parallel to it, but disappearing 
before the edge of the shell is reached. Adductor scars promi- 
nent, situated well to the front, varying in outline from nar- 
rowly elliptical to nearly ovate, with heavy, narrow lobe at the 
anterior end. Traces of brachial markings very hard to obtain 
and nearly obsolete. They extend outward from the ante- 
rior end of the adductor scars and make a broad, subelliptical 
loop forward to a point which is back of the end of the mesial 
ridge. Measurements : Moderately large, perfect specimen : 

Bbedb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 89 

Length, 58 mm. ; width, 75 mm. ; convexity, 35 mm. A smaller 
specimen : Length, 36 mm. ; width, 36 mm. ; length, 36 mm. ; 
convexity, 23 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 
Turner, Lawrence, Lecompton, Topeka, Moline. 

This species can be distinguished from the previous by its 
mesial sinus and corresponding fold of the dorsal valve, more 
recurving beak, longer, more arched cardinal process, more 
slender and elongate adductor markings on dorsal valve, and 
also by the lateral ridges, which do not turn forward. 

There seem to be two forms of this species in Kansas : 
One, a large, rather depressed shell, occurring in the lower part 
of the Upper Coal Measures at Kansas City ; and the other, the 
more common in the upper part of the stage, more narrow, gib- 
bous and smaller. They may possibly prove to be varietally 
distinct, occupying different horizons. 

Dittmar, Verhand. Kais. Min. Gesellsch. St. Petersburg, 2d ser., VIII, p. Q, pi. I, ff. 1-13. (1871). 


isellsch. St. Petersburg, 2d ser. 
HaU and Clarke. Pal. N. Y., VIII. pt. II, p. 311, (l&SSf. 

AnlacorhyncliiLS xoillipnnctatiis. Plate XI, ^g, 6; plate XII, figs. 1, lb. 

Chonetesff millipunctata Meek aod Worthen, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
PhU., p. 35, 1870; Geol. Surv. 111., v, p. 566, pi. xxv, f. 3, (1873). 

laogramma millipunctata Meek and Worthen, ibid., p. 568. 

Aulacorhynchua millipunctatus Hall and Clarke, Pal. N. Y., viii, pt. ii, 
p. 312, pi. Lxxxiii, fF. 14, 15, (1893). 

Meek and Worthen 's description : '' Shell attaining a large 
size, very thin, transversely subsemicircular, or more than 
twice as wide as long, with lateral extremities rounded. Dor- 
sal valve nearly flat, or but slightly and evenly concave ; hinge 
line a little less than the greatest transverse diameter ; car- 
dinal process rather stout, with an obscure linear ridge (or 
sulcus) extending forward from its base nearly to the front ; 
cardinal edge slightly thickened within so as to form a faintly 
defined ridge extending about half way from the cardinal proc- 
ess toward each lateral margin, but apparently without any 
sockets for the reception of teeth in the other valve ; muscular 
and other internal markings unknown ; surface ornamented 

7— vi 

90 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

by numerous slender, exceedingly regular, closely arranged 
concentric lines, extending parallel with each other and the 
front and lateral margins. Ventral valve unknown. Length 
of medium-sized specimen, 1.3 inches; breadth, 2.95 inches." 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 

Two small specimens very similar in form and markings to 
the one above described were collected by the writer at Topeka. 
They were only about an inch in width and only the cast of the 
shells remain. They are probably specifically different, but 
too poorly preserved to admit of description. There is a very 
large form in the University collection which is quite convex 
and seems to possess an extra number of ''platforms" from 
the one figured by Hall and Clarke, and may belong to a dif-^ 
ferent species. It is figured in plate XII, figure lb. 

BUpidomella pecosi. 

OrthU pecosi Marooa, Geol. N. Amer., p. 48, pi. vi. f. 14, (1858); etc. 

Orthis carbonaria Swallow, Trans. St. L. Acad. Sci., i, p. 215, (1858); 
Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 131, pi. i, f. 8, (1872): etc. 

Meek's description : '' Shell small, suborbicular, slightly 
wider than long, moderately convex in adult specimens ; lateral 
margins rounded, or, in some examples, faintly straightened 
posteriorly ; front more broadly rounded, but usually very 
slightly sinuous in the middle ; valves nearly equally convex ; 
hinge line very short, or only equaling about half the breadth 
of the valves. Ventral valve usually most convex in the um- 
bonal region, sometimes a little flattened anteriorly, so as to 
give the shell slightly the form unusually called ' resupinate,' 
though in gibbous specimens this character is nearly obsolete ; 
beak moderately prominent, rather pointed and arched ; area 
small, well defined, and arching with the beak ; foramen nar- 
row. Dorsal valve usually most convex between the middle 
and the beak, which is small, and nearly as prominent and 
arched as that of tlie other valve, generally with a shallow 
sinus extending from the middle to the front ; area well de- 
veloped but smaller than in the other valve, arched, and divided 

Bbbde.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. ' 91 

by a proportionally shorter foramen. Surface of both valves- 
ornamented with concentric marks of growth and fine radiat- 
ing crowded striae, which increase mainly by intercalation, and^ 
as in many other species of the genus, show occasional perfora- 
tions toward the front, apparently left by the removal of very 
small tubular spines/' '^Length of a well-developed gibbous 
specimen, rather above medium size : .38 inch ; breadth, .43 
inch ; convexity, .27 inch." 

Range and distribution : Upper and Lower Coal Measures ;. 
Fort Scott, Kansas City, Eudora, Lawrence, Lecompton. 


de Waldheim, Oryet. Goav. Moseon* p. 108, tab. XXVI, ff. 6, 7. 
Waaicen, Pal. Indica, ser. xiii, I, p. 590, (1884) ; et4S. 

Enteletes hemiplicata. Plate XII, figs. 6, 6b. 

Spirifer hemiplicata Hall, Stansbury's Ezpl. Gt. Salt Lake, p. 409, pL 
IV, f . 3, ( 1862 ). 

Rhynchonella anpulata Geinitz (nonLinn^), Carb. u. Dyas in Neb., p. 37,. 
pi. Ill, ff. 1-4, (1866). 

Syntrielasma hemiplicata Meek and Worthen, Geol. Surv. 111., ii, p. 323,. 
f. 36, p. 324, f. 37, (1866); Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 177» 
pi. VI, f. 1, pi. VIII, f. 12, (1872); etc. 

Meek's description : "Shell in young examples only moder- 
ately convex, and having all the external appearances of a true- 
Orthis; in adult specimens, often globose, or even more con- 
vex than long or wide. Hinge line very short, or not more 
than one-third the greatest breadth of the valves, and, owing ta 
the gibbosity of the shell, imparting little or no angularity to 
the outline of the lateral slopes. Dorsal valve more convex, 
than the other, and very strongly arched, particularly in ma- 
ture shells; umbonal region gibbous, and often, in adult ex- 
amples, projecting somewhat beyond the beak of the other 
valve ; beak strongly incurved , so as to bring its apex under 
the beak, and nearly against the area of the other valve ; area, 
rather narrow, and distinctly incurved with the beak. Ventral 
valve convex, beak moderately prominent, and arched or more 
or less incurved ; area triangular, small, about one-third as 
high as wide, and moderately well defined ; its triangular fora- 
men scarcely as wide as high. Surface of both valves orna- 
mented with rather fine, regular, crowded, radiating strise, and 

92 University Geological Surx^ey of Kansas. 

a few very large, rounded or more or less angular, radiating 
plications, which latter are never formed on the umbones, but 
occupy the anterior half, and become more prominent toward 
the front, where they often terminate in deeply interlocking 
angular marginal projections. Of these plications there are two, 
rarely three, on each side of the larger and more prominent one 
forming the mesial fold on the dorsal valve, while on the ven- 
tral valve there are three, rarely four, on each side of the mesial 
sinus ; a few zigzag marks of growth also traverse the anterior 
and lateral margins of the valves, parallel to their deeply 
notched edges." The measurements of three specimens are 
here given — one rather large, one medium, and one young speci- 
men : Length, 23 mm., 16 mm., 8 mm.; width, 29 mm., 28 
mm., 9 mm. ; convexity, S2 mm., 20 mm., 5 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 
Independence, lola, Edwardsville, Eudora, Lawrence, Lecomp- 
ton, Topeka. 

Besides the variation in size and age, this shell often pre- 
sents very much the appearance of a Pugnax, which is caused 
by the mesial plication being divided into two, and the presence 
of a small fold to correspond in the mesial furrow of the other 
valve. This gives the brachial valve quite a large mesial fold> 
and a correspondingly large sinus in the pedicle valve. This is 
hardly noticable in the majority of specimens, but in some it is 

very marked. 


HaU and Clarke, Pal. N. Y.. VIII, pt. II, p. 202. ( 1883 ) ; Ann. Rep. N. Y. St. QeoL. p. 208. for 18M. 

Pugnax rockymontana. Plate XII, figs. 8, 8b. 

Terehratula rockyinontana Marcou, Geol. N. Amer., p. 59, pi. vi, f. 13, 


Bhynchonella eatoniceformis McChesney, New Pal. Foss., p. 49, (1869). 

RhynconeUa rockyinontana White, Wheeler's Expl.Surv. West 100 Mer., 
IV, p. 131, pi. IX, f. 1, (1875). 

Pugnax eafoniifonnis Hall and Clarke, Pal. N. Y., viii, pt. ii, p. 204, 

Pugnax rockymontana Schuchert, Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv. 87, p. 336, 


White's description: "Shell rather large, inflated, subtri- 
hedral in outline, broadest near the front ; sides somewhat regu? 
larly rounded from the antero-lateral portions to the beaks« 

Bbbdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates, 93 

Ventral valve having its greatest convexity toward the beak ; 
sides sloping away from the middle with a slight convexity and 
becoming flattened or sometimes a little concave near the lateral 
margins ; beak rather small, prominent, and closely incurved 
over that of the other valve ; mesial sinus very broad but not 
deep, prolonged far upward at the front, becoming obsolete 
about the middle of the valve and is entirely wanting upon its 
posterior portion ; from two to four depressed, angular plica- 
tions occupy the mesial sinus and disappear with it, the sides 
and posterior portion being free from plications. Dorsal valve 
more capacious than the ventral ; mesial fold distinct at the 
front, and, like the mesial sinus, becoming obsolete about the 
middle of the valve ; from three to five plications like those of 
the other valve mark the fold, but the surface upon each side of 
it is plain, like that of the posterior portions of both valves. 
The whole surface marked by fine striiv of growth, but no radi- 
ating stride have been detected." Measurements of two speci- 
mens : Length, 19 mm., 23mm.; width, 19 mm., 23 mm.; 
convexity, 15 mm., 16 mm. 

Range and distribution: Lower Coal Measures; Coffey ville, 
Montgomery county, Kansas City. 

Our specimens seem to agree very well with White's figures 
and description, the principal difference being that the lateral 
angles at the beak seem to be a little smaller. While there are 
no radiating striae in our specimens, the shell is very fibrous 
and where exfoliated might appear to be striated. It differs 
from P. pugnu8 missouriensis in having no plications on the 
sides of the shell, and also in outline. 

Pugnax Utah. Plate XII, figs. 7-7c. 

Terehratula uta Maroou, Geol. N. Amer., p. 58, pi. vi, f. 12, (Feb. 1858). 

Rhynchonella {Camarophoria) oaaf/ensis Swallow, Trans. St. L. Acad. 
Sci., I, p. 289, (June, 1858). 

Bhynchonclkt utah Meek and Hayden, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., p. 27, 
(1859); etc. 

f Bhynchonella species Salter, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, London, xvii, 
p. 64, pi. IV, f. 5, (1861). 

Camarophoria globulina Geinitz (non Phillips), Garb. u. Dyas in Neb., 
p. 38, pi. Ill, f. 5, (1866). 

Hhf/nchonella osagcnsls Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 179, 
pi. I, f. 9, pi. VI, f. 2, (1872); etc. 

94 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

Pugtvax Utah HftU and Clarke, Pal. N. Y., viii, pt. ii, p. d(H» pi. lx, ff. 3^ 
&, ( 18d3). 

JRhynchonella uta Keyes, Geol. Surv. Mo., v, p. 103, pi. xu, f. 7, (1895). 

Meek's description: "Shell small, more or less variable in 
form, often subtrigonal, generally wider than long, more or less 
gibbous ; front truncated, or sometimes sinuous in outline ; an- 
terior lateral margins rounded in outline ; posterior lateral mar- 
gins convex, or nearly straight and converging toward the 
beaks at an angle of from 90 deg. to 120 deg. Dorsal valve 
more convex than the other, greatest convexity near the middle 
or between it and the front, which has a broad, rather deep, 
marginal sinus, for the reception of the corresponding projec- 
tion of the front of the other valve ; mesial fold somewhat flat- 
tened, but slightly prominent, and rarely traceable back of the 
middle of the valve ; generally composed of three, but some- 
times four — rarely more — plications; sides rounding down 
rapidly on each side of the mesial fold, and each occupied by 
about three or four simple plications ; beak curving strongly 
beneath that of the other valve ; interior with a faint linear 
mesial ridge, on each side of which is a raised curved line en- 
closing an ovate space, occupied by the adductor muscular 
impressions. Ventral valve distinctly less convex than the 
other, with a broad, shallow, short sinus occupied by about two 
or three short plications ; anterior lateral margins on each side 
of the sinus, with from two to four plications ; beak moderately 
prominent, and more or less arched, rather pointed ; foramen 
small." Measurements : Length, 8 mm. ; width, 9 mm. ; con- 
vexity, 7 mm. 

Range and distribution: Upper Coal Measures; Bronson, 
Bourbon county, Kansas City, lola, Olathe, Lawrence, Lecomp- 
ton, Topeka, Beaumont, Grand Summit. 

The young of this species are perfectly plain and betray no 
indication that they are of the same kind as the folded, plicated 
adults. It can be readily distinguished from the previous spe- 
cies by its smaller size, shallower and more ill-defined sinus, and 
the presence of plications on its sides. 

Bbbdb.] Carboniferotis Invertebrates, 95 


King (non Phillips), Mon. Penn. Foas. Eog. Pal. Soe.. p. 46, (1850) ; etc. 

Kinff, Proo. Dublin Unir. ZooL Rot. Asio.. I, p. 200, (18M). 

Beecher and Schnebert, Biol. Soc. Wash.. VIII, pp. 71-^, (1893). 

Hall and Clarke, Pal N. Y.. YIII, pfe. II, p. 298. (1883) ; etc. 

Dielasma bovidens. 

Terebratula hovidens Morton, Amer. Jour. Sci., xxix, p. 150, pi. ii, f. 4, 
(1836); Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 187, pi. i, f. 7, pi. n, 

f. 4, (1872); etc. 

Terebratula milltpunctata Hall, Ezpl. Surv. R. R. Route Miss. R. to Pao. 

Ocean, iii, p. 101, pi. ii, ff. 1, 2, (1856); etc. 
Terebratula efongata Shumard (non Schloth.), Trans. St. L. Acad. Sci., 

I, p. 393, (1858). 

Terebratula geniculoaa McChesney, New Pal. Foss., p. 82, (1861); ibid., 
pi. I, f. 2, (1865). 

Dielasma f bovidens White, Wheeler's Expl. Surv. West 100 Mer., Prel. 
Rep., p. 21,(1874). 

Terebratula {Dielasma) bovidens White, ibid.. Fin. Rep., iv, p. 144, pi. 

XI, f. 10, (1875). 
Terebratula hastata Waloott (non Sowerby), Mon. U. S. Surv., viii, p. 

224,(1893); etc. 

'Dielasma bovidens Hall and Clarke, Pal. N. Y., viii, pt. ii, pp. 295, 296, 
f. 213, pi. Lxxxi, ff. 29-35, (1893). 

Meek's description (in part): '* Shell ovate, rounded and 
rather compressed at the anterior and anterior lateral margins, 
and the most convex a little behind the middle ; valves nearly 
equally convex ; ventral valve strongly arcuate longitudinally, 
and'presenting a regularly increasing curve, from the front to 
the beak, which is moderately prominent, and very strongly 
and closely curved over and upon that of the other valve ; 
foramen a little oval and not truncating the immediate apex of 
the beak, but situated directly outside of it ; mesial sinus rather 
wide, and rounded at the front, but narrowing and becoming 
less deep further back, until it dies out near the curve of the 
umbo, which is sometimes slightly flattened. Dorsal valve 
often nearly straight, or but slightly convex along the middle, 
from the beak to the front, where its margin is usually some- 
what raised for the reception of the sinus ; sides sloping from 
the middle to the lateral margins along nearly the entire length 
of the valve, but terminating directly under that of the other 
valve, without any distinct curvature. Surface nearly smooth, 
or showing moderately distinct marks of growth ; and, by the 
aid of the magnifier, exhibiting very distinctly the moderately 

96 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

large regularly arranged punctures." The dental lamellae do 
not extend much beyond the teeth, and are situated close to the 
sides of the shell, so that the lateral space enclosed is very small. 
There seems to be a rounded, indistinct ridge extending about 
two-thirds the distance to the front on the interior of the ventral 
valve. Loop situated a little posterior to the middle of the 
shell, and is about one-third the length of the shell, the two 
pointing obliquely forward. Measurements of two specimens 
illustrating the variation: Length, 21 mm., 25 mm. ; width, 
14 mm., 19 mm. ; convexity, 10 mm., 16 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures : Kansas City, 
Eudora, Lawrence, Lecompton, Topeka, Grand Summit. 


d'Orbigny. Paris Acad. Sci., Comptps ReDdos. XXV, p. 288, (1847 ). 
HaU aod Clarke. Pal. N. Y., VIII, pt. II. p. 51, ( 1^3) ; etc. 


Spiriferina cristata. 

Terehratuliies cristalus Schlotheim, Beit, zur Naturg. der Verst., Akad. 
der Wiss. zu Muenchen, pi. i, f. 3, (1816). 

Spirifer ocloplicatof Hall (non Sowerby), Stansbury's Expl. Gt. Salt 
Lake, p. 406, pi. iv, f. 4, (1852). 

Spirifer kentuckt/ensis Shumard, Geol. Surv. Mo., i, p. 293, (1855); etc. 

Spiriferina crUinta Davidson, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, p. 170, 
pl.'ix, f. 6, (1863); etc. 

Spirifer laminonuH Geimtz (non McCoy), Carb. u. Dyas in Neb., p. 45, 
pi. Ill, f. 19, (1866). 

Spirifer kcntuckyrnBin var. propatulns Swallow, Trans. St. L. Acad. 
Sci., II, p. 489, (1866). 

Spiriferina kentiickyenais Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 
185, pi. VI, f. 3a-d, pi. viii, f. 11a, b, (1872); etc. 

Spirifer (Spiriferina) kentuckyensis Hall, 2d Rep. N. Y. St. Geol., pi. 
LXi, ff. 14-16, (1883). 

Spiriferina cristata Schuchert, Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv. 87, p. 410, (1897). 

Meek's description : '* Shell rather small, varying from sub- 
globose to semicircular, or even subfusiform, always wider than 
long ; breadth sometimes twice or even three times the length ; 
hinge line always equaling the greatest breadth of the valves, 
occasionally greatly extended, and terminating in slender mu- 
cronate ears ; anterior and lateral margins generally forming 
a nearly semicircular curve. Ventral valve somewhat more 
convex than the other, the greatest convexity being between 
the beak and the middle ; beak moderately prominent and 

Bbbdk.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 97 

rather distinctly arched or incurved; area arched, usually of 
moderate height, well defined, and extending nearly or quite 
to the lateral extremities, while it increases rapidly in height, 
with concave lateral margins toward the beak ; foramen gen- 
erally higher than wide, with a marginal furrow on each side, 
and, so far as known, not closed by a deltidium ; mesial sinus, 
narrow, rather deep, sometimes with a small obscure rib along 
its middle, but more frequently without it ; plications on each 
side of the sinus about five to eight or nine, rather narrow, 
simple, prominent, and a little rounded ; mesial septum of the 
interior moderately prominent. Dorsal valve with greatest con- 
vexity near the middle ; beak scarcely projecting beyond the 
hinge margin, more or less incurved; area very narrow, and 
incurved with the beak ; mesial fold narrow, not very promi- 
nent, nor greatly larger than the first plication on either side, 
most generally rounded, but not infrequently with an obscure 
sulcus along the middle, near the front ; lateral plications as 
in the other valve. Entire surface of both valves ornamented 
with numerous closely crowded, very regularly arranged, sub- 
imbricating lamellae of growth, strongly arched in passing over 
the costse; over the whole may also be seen, by the aid of a 
magnifier, numerous granules, apparently connected with the 
punctures passing through the shell which are comparatively 
large and distinct, though regularly arranged." Measure- 
ments of an average specimen : Entire length, 9 mm. ; width, 
15 mm. ; convexity, 7 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper and Lower Coal Measures ; 
Fort Scott, Bronson, Bourbon county, Thayer, Kansas City, 
Lawrence, Lecompton, Topeka. 

Not having foreign specimens for comparison, Schuchert is 
followed in referring our specimens to S. cristata. 

98 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 


Sowerby, MId. Cnn., II, p. 41 ( 1815). 

Hall and CUrke. Pal. N. Y.. VUI. pt. 11, pp. l-M, (1883) ; ate. 

Billlnffs. Can. Jonr., YI. p. 253, ( 1«61) ; etc. 

This genus is very grealty developed in the Paleozoic rocks of 
America, though there are but two forms that have been recog- 
nized with certainty in our Coal Measures. Hall ( loc. cit.) di- 
vides the genus into six groups, as follows : 

I. Radiaii. '' Smooth, radially undulated or plicated; fold 
and sinus smooth ; entire surface covered with fine, filiform ra- 
diating striae which may be minutely crenulated or granulose." 

II. Laviellosi. " Radially plicated ; surface covered with nu- 
merous concentric lamelhe. In Silurian species the fold and 
sinus are non-plicate ; the later forms usually bear a low median 
depression on the fold accompanied by a corresponding median 
ridge in the sinus." He further divides this group into two 
smaller ones — the Septati^ those possessing a mesial septum in 
the pedicle valve, and the Aseptati, without this septum. 

III. Fimhriati, ** Shells with a few low plications or none ; 
hinge line not greatly extended, often shorter than the greatest 
diameter of the shell ; dental lamelhe moderately, sometimes 
notably, developed ; a low median septum may exist in thd 
pedicle valve. Surface covered with concentric rows or fringes 
of fine spines." He also divides this group into two smaller 
groups — the Unicispineif those species in which the concentric 
fimbriae are made up of short, simple, hollow spines {Delthyns 
Dolman) , and the Duplicispinei^ those with larger, compound, 
hollow spines {Reticularia McCoy) . 

IV. Aperturati. Those having plications on the fold and 
sinus. These are the typical Spirifers. They are divided into 
several smaller sub-groups which are of little interest here. 

V. Ostiolati. Median fold and sinus without plications. 

VI. Glabcrati. Surface smooth ; fold and sinus faintly devel- 
oped. These he divides into two smaller groups, the Aseptati 
and the Septati, according to the presence or absence of the 
dental lamellae and mesial septa. These are equal to Martinea 
of McCoy, Martinopsis Waagen, and Mentzelia Quenstedt. 

Bbsdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates, 99 

Our two species, Reticularia perplexa and Spirijer cameratuSy 
belong to the Fimbriati and Aperturati respectively. Spiriferina 
is, in some respects, more closely related to the Lamellosi, 

flpixUiir euMrattifl. Plate XII. figs, 5-5e. 

Spirf/er camercUus Morton, Amer. Jour. Sci., xxix, p. 150, pi. ii, f. 3, 
(1836); etc. 

Spirifer meusebachaniu Roemer, Kreidebildunff Texas, p. 88, pi. xi, f. 7> 


Spirifer triplioatus Hall, Stanbury's Expl. Suit. Gt. Salt Lake, p. 410, 
pi. iv,f. 5, (1852). 

Spirifer fasige^ Owen (non Keyserling), Greol. Surv. Iowa, Wis., and 
Minn., pi. v, f. 4,(1852). 

Spirifer incquicoatatua f Owen, ibid., p. 586, pi. v, f. 6, (1852). 

Sjyirifer striatua var. triplioatus Maroou, Greol. N. Amer., p. 49, pi. vii, 
f. 3, (1858). 

Spirifera camerata Newberry, Ives' Rep. Colo. Riv. West, p. 127, (1861); 

Spirifera camerata var. kanaasensis Swallow, Trans. St. L. Acad. Sci., 
II, p. 409, (1867). 

Spirifer {Trigonot ret a) camerata Meek, King's U. S. Expl. 40th Parallel, 
IV, p. 91, pi. IX, f. 2,(1877). 

Shell medium to large in size, greatest convexity back of the 
middle, variable in outline from subsemicircular to trigonal; 
anterior margin sharply rounded to truncate-sinuate ; lateral 
margins slightly cur,ved to nearly straight, pointing outward 
and backward to the ears ; hinge line equaling the greatest 
width of the shell, sometimes prolonged into attenuate ears; 
cardinal area broad, extending to the extremity of the hinge 
line ; foramen broadly triangular and nearly equilateral, partly 
closed in the upper part by a pseudo-del tidium ; beak high, 
prominent, somewhat recurved over the cardinal area, which is 
sometimes slightly arched ; mesial sinus prominent, beginning 
at the beak and broadening and deepening until the front mar- 
gin is reached ; fold of the dorsal valve to correspond, and the 
beak of the same moderately rounded beneath that of the other 
valve. Interior of pedicle valve marked by a subelliptical 
muscular impression in the vicinity of the beak, posterior end 
of this impression extending to the hinge line or beyond, 
bisected by an indistinct mesial ridge, radiating from which 
are small indistinct ridges for the attachment of the muscles. 
The cardinal area projects over a portion of the visceral cavity. 

100 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

leaving a large space beneath ; the shell here is well pitted ; a 
small tooth and depression are developed on the inner corners 
of the cardinal area. Shell of the brachial valve thin, muscu* 
lar marking distinct ; hinge line at beak broadly and shallowly 
arched, one prominent socket on each side of the arch, for the 
teeth of the other valve ; two small elevations in the center for at- 
tachments. The exterior markings of the shell consist of rather 
large, bifurcating, radiating striae or costiP, almost always fascicu- 
lated, covering the entire shell to the tips of the ears, where 
they are nearly parallel. There are, in un weathered, unworn 
specimens, minute pustules arranged in somewhat radiating 
order, as well as lines of growth visible on the front border. In 
exfoliated specimens the fasciculation is less distinct. Meas- 
urements of average specimen : Length, 32 mm. ; breadth, 44 
mm. ; convexity, 21 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas 
City, Lawrence, Lecompton, Topeka, Grand Summit. Com- 
mon throughout the Upper Goal Measures to the base of the 

The variation in outline, convexity and length of the hinge 
line is great in this species. This species has been considered 
by some as identical with S, striatm ( Martin ) Davidson. Schu- 
chert has pointed out characters which separate it from that 
species.* There is also a marked difference in the spires of the 
two, those of S, siriatus being long, loose, and acute, while those 
of S. canieratus are short, compressed, and obtuse, and they en- 
close a slightly smaller angle. The striip of S. cameratits are 
nearly always fasciculated, while those of S, striatns are not. 

There is also a marked variation in the interior of the pedicle 
valve of this shell. In some specimens the muscular scar in 
this valve is elliptical and extends well back beneath the del- 
thyriura into the beak, the teeth are not supported by heavy 
deposits of shell or lamelhr, and the cavity formed by the jut- 
ting of the cardinal area forms a general posterior cavity ex- 
tending across the shell, only slight. ridges being present below 

6. Bull. U. S. Geol. SarT.87, p. 884: "The latter species ftV. xtriatunh however, is closely and 
finely reticulated with concentric growth lines, while in «S. etimeratus the plications are covered 
with small pastales, which are arranged in radiatinir lines." 

Bbbde.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. ' 101 

and behind the teeth. In other specimens the posterior of the 
shell is much thickened, the muscular impression not extending 
beneath the beak or hinge line, that portion of the cavity being 
filled with shell, which has encroached upon the muscular area 
until it is small and nearly circular. This heavy deposit of 
shell also forms strong supports for the teeth, dividing the pos- 
terior cavity into a right and a left cavity. 


Hall, 13th Rep. N. Y. St. Cab. Nat. Hist., p. 71. fF. 1-3. p. 72, ff. 4-6, (1860). 
Meek and Hayden. Pal. Upp. Mo., Smiths. Cont. Knowl., XIV. 172, p. 20. (1864) ; etc. 

Ambocoelia planoconvexa. 

Spiri/er planovonvexa Shumard, Qeol. Rep. Mo., p. 202, (1855); etc. 

AmbQcceUa gemmula McChesney, New Pal. Fobs., p. 41, (1860); ibid., 
pi. I, f. 3, (1865). 

Spiri/er [Martinia) planoconvex a Meek and Hayden, Pal. Upp. Mo., 
Smiths. Coot. Knowl., xiv, 172, p. 20, ff. a~e, (1864); Meek, Fin. Rep. 
U. S. Geol. Suit. Neb., p. 184, pi. iv, f. 4, pi. viii, f. 2; etc. 

Martinia planoconvexa McChesney, Trans. Chic. Acad. Sci., i, p. 34, 
pi. I, f. 3, (1868). 

Amboccelia jHanoconvexn Hall and Clarke, Pal. N. Y., viii, pt. ii, p. 56, 
pi. XXXIX, ff. 10-15, (ISaS). 

Meek's description : *' Shell very small, plano-convex, or very 
rarely a little concavo-convex, sometimes wider than long, in 
other examples slightly longer than wide ; hinge margin always 
shorter than the greatest transverse diameter of the valves, and 
rounded at the extremities ; lateral margins and front regularly 
rounded ; surface apparently smooth, excepting a few very ob- 
scure concentric marks of growth, but, when examined by the 
aid of a magnifier, showing the remains of the bases of minute 
hair-like spines. Dorsal or smaller valve truncato-suborbicular 
in outline, generally nearly flat, with faint longitudinal depres- 
sion in front, sometimes slightly convex near the beak, and con- 
cave around the anterior and lateral margins ; beak scarcely 
distinct from the cardinal margin ; area narrow, but well de- 
veloped, or about half as large as in the other valve; socket 
plates projecting like diverging teeth on each side of the small 
fissure. Ventral valve very gibbous, particularly in the umbonal 
region, sometimes with obscure traces of a narrow longitudinal 
depression along the middle, but without a proper mesial sinus ; 
beak very prominent and strongly arched back over the hinge ; 

102 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

area subtriangular, being moderately high under the beak, but 
narrowing rapidly, with moderately defined concave margins, 
to the extremities of the hinge, and arching with the beak; 
fissure rather narrow, or higher than wide, apparently rounded 
above under the beak, and spreading at the hinge." Measure* 
ments : Length, 9 mm. ; width, 10 mm. ; convexity, 5 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper and Lower Coal Measures ; 
Fort Scott, Fredonia, Eudora, Lawrence, Lecompton, Topeka, 


MeCoy. Garb. Fobs. Ireland, p. 142, ( 1844 ). 
Waaicen, FaL Indiea, (»er. ziii, I. p. 538, ( 1868). 

Beticularla perplexa. Plate XII, figs. 4-4c. 

Spirlfer lineatua Shumard, Geol. Surv. Mo., p. 216, (1855); etc. 
Spirifer perplexus McChesney, New Pal. Foss., p. 43, (1860). 

Spiri/er lineatus var. perplexus Swallow, Trans. St. L. Acad. Sci., ii, p. 

406, (1866). 

Spirifera lineata Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., pi. ii, f. 3, 
(1872); etc. 

SpiHfer {Marti nia) perplexa Derby, Bull. Cornell Univ., p. 16, pi. iii, 
ff. 27, 39, 40, 45, 50, pi. viii, f. 13, ( 1874). 

Spirifer {Mariinia) lineata f White, Wheeler's Expl. Surv. West 100 
Mer., Ill, Appendix, (1881); later without query; etc. 

Spirifera perplexa Keyes, Geol. Surv. Mo., v, p. 84, (1895). 

Reticularia perplexa Schuchert, Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv. 87, p. 342, (1887). 

White's description: ** Shell moderately gibbous, trans- 
versely subelliptical in marginal outline, the front and sides 
regularly rounded ; hinge much shorter than the width of the 
shell ; cardinal extremities rounded ; cardinal area distinct,, 
arched, and moderately high ; ventral valve convex ; umbonal 
portion prominent; beak prominent, incurved; area small,, 
without median sinus, but there is a slight flattening of the 
valve in front, which gives the front margin a slight sinuosity ; 
dorsal valve regularly convex, both transversely and longitudi* 
nally ; umbonal portion prominent, but not so much so as that 
of the other valve ; beak moderately prominent and projecting 
a little beyond the hinge line ; surface marked by very numer- 
ous very faint radiating lines and somewhat stronger concentric 
lines, the latter being impressed and finely crenulate, the 
minute crenulations apparently marking the bases of hair-like 

Bkkde.] Carbo-niferoua Invertebrates. 103 

spines when the surface of the shell is perfect.'' Measure- 
ments : Length, 19 mm. ; width, 23 mm. ; convexity, 15 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper and Lower Coal Measures ; 
Fort Scott, lola, Lawrence, Topeka, and so on to the base of 
the Permian. 

The shell varies a great deal in marginal outline, some hav- 
ing the beak prolonged and sides somewhat compressed, giving 
it a very different appearance from the normal form. 


HaU and Clarke, Pal. N. Y., VIII, pt. II, |>. 120, (1883) ; 13th Ann. Hep. N. Y. St. GeoL. 

p. 197, (1805). 

Hustedia mormoni. Plate IX, figs. 10-lOd; plate X, fig. 3. 

Terebratula mormoni Marcou, Geol. N. Amen, p. 51, pi. vi, f. 11, (Feb. 
1858); etc. 

Retzia punctulifera Shumard, Trans. St. L. Acad. Sci., i, p. 220, (June, 
1858); Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 181, pi. i, f. 13, pi. v, 
f. 7, (1872); etc. 

Retzia mormoni Meek and Hayden, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1859, p. 
27; etc. 

Retzia subglobosa McChesney, New Pal. Foss., p. 45, (1860); ibid., pi. i, 
f. 1, (1865). 

Retzia eompresBa Meek, Geol. Surv. Cal., i, p. 14, pi. ii, f. 7, (1864); etc. 

Retzia radialia Walcott (non Phillips), Mon. U. S. Greol. Surv., viii, p. 
220, pi. 7, ff. 5d-h, (1893); etc. 

Eumeirla punctulifera Derby, Bull. Cornell Univ., i, p. 4, pi. viii, flf. 4, 
5. 7. 8, 10, pi. IX, f. 3, (1874). 

Hutttedia mormoni Hall and Clarke, Pal, N. Y., viii, pt. ii, p. 120, f. 196, 
pi. LI, ff. 1-9,(1893). 

Meek's description: ''Shell small, ovate; in mature speci- 
mens, gibbous ; hinge line short, or scarcely extended enough 
to show distinctly the little ears at the extremities. Ventral 
valve more convex than the other, the greatest convexity being 
between the middle and the umbo, which is prominent, rounded, 
more or less strongly arched, and provided with a moderately 
large circular foramen ; area well defined, triangular, and arch- 
ing with the beak. Dorsal valve most convex near the middle ; 
beak extending a littla beyond the hinge margin, and distinctly 
incurved. Surface of each vajve ornamented by fourteen or fif- 
teen (very rarely sixteen to seventeen) simple, rather prominent, 
radiating costse, one or two of which are sometimes slightly 
more depressed than the others, near the front of the ventral 

104 Univeraity Geological Survey of Kansas 

valve, so as to cause some appearance of an obscure mesial sinus, 
but without producing any corresponding mesial elevation on 
the other valve, or visibly inturrupting the general straightness 
of the uniting margins of the two valves ; lines of growth ob- 
scure ; punctures visible under a good pocket lens, and very 
regularly disposed." Measurements : Length, 10 mm. ; width, 
8 mm. ; convexity, 7 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Fort Scott, 
lola, Kansas City, Lawrence, Lecompton, Topeka, Beaumont. 


Moo. Perm. Foss., Pi 
til and Clarke. Pal. N. Y., VIII. pt. II, p. 90/ (1898) ; ete. 

Oleiothyris roissyi. Plate XII, fig. 2; plate XI, figs. 5-5c. 

Kioff (non Phillips). Jipq._Perxn.JFgs8.. Pal. Soc.. p. 187. (1850). 

Spirffer de roissyi L^Eveille, M^m. Soo. Geol. de France, ii, p. 39, pi. ii, 
ff. 1&-29, (1835). 

Terbratula royaii Maroou, Geol. N. Amer., p. 51, pl. vi, f. 10, (1858). 

Afhf/ris sublamelloaa Hall, Geol. Surv. Iowa, i, pt. ii, p. 702, pl. xxvir, 
f. 1, (1858); etc. 

AthyriB parvirostria Meek and Worthen, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 
1860, p. 451. 

Spirigera americana Swallow, Trans. St. L. Acad. Sci., ii, p. 89, (1863). 

Spirigera pectenifera Swallow (non Sowerby ), ibid., p. 88. 

Athyris planosulcata Geinitz (non Phillips), Garb. u. Dyas in Neb., p. 42, 
(1866); etc. 

Spirigera planosulcata f White, Wheeler's Rep. Qeog. Expl. Surv. West 
100 Mer., iv, p. 257, pl. iv. flf. 10, 11, (1877). 

Athyris hirsuta Walcott, Mon. U. S. Greol. Surv., viii, p. 222, pl. xa'iii, f. 5, 

Cleiothyris royssii Hall and Clarke, Pal. N. Y., viii, pt. ii, p. 91j pl. xlvi, 
ff. 23, 24, pl. Lxxxiv, f. 32, (1893). 

Cleiothyris sublamellosa Hall and Clarke, ibid., p. 91. 

Meek and Worthen's description : *' Shell of medium size, 
quadrato-subcircular, moderately gibbous, length and breadth 
nearly equal, sometimes a little wider than long (other ex- 
amples a little longer than wide) ; greatest convexity at the 
middle ; .yalves equally gibbous ; lateral margins usually promi- 
nent, and narrowly rounded in outline at the middle, thence 
converging with a slightly convex outline to the faintly sub- 
truncate front; postero-lateral margins a little inflected, so as 
to form slight concavities, converging to the beaks at an angle 
of about ninety-seven degrees. Both valves destitute of a mesial 

Bbedb.] Carhoniferous Invertebrates. 105 

fold or sinus, but each sometimes slightly flattened in the mid- 
dle near the front, where they meet without the slightest sinu- 
osity in the margin of either. Beak of ventral valve small, 
pointed, closely incurved upon that of the other' valve, which is 
but little less prominent ; foramen round and very small. Sur- 
face with small, obscure, concentric marks of growth. Spiral 
appendages each making about twelve turns. Surface ( proba- 
bly exfoliated ) showing only small, obscure, concentric ridges." 
Measurements, two specimens : Length, 10 mm., 10 mm. ; width, 
11 mm, 13 mm. ; convexity, 6 mm, 5 mm. 

Range and distribution : Lower Coal Measures ; Fort Scott, 
Marmaton station, Bourbon county, Prescott, Linn county. 

This rare little fossil is rather variable in form. Most of our 
specimens are rather more straight along the hinge than those 
usually figured from this country, approaching, in this respect, 
the form figured by C. Nikitin from the Upper Carboniferous 
and Lower Permian of Europe, one specimen in particular be- 
ing quite straight and wide along the hinge. The shells, in un- 
worn specimens, show the surface fimbriae very well. 


McCoy, Garb. Foss. Ireland, pp. MO, 558, (1844). 
Hall and Clarke, Pal. N. ¥., VIII, pt. II, p. 93, ( 1893) ; etc. 

Seminnla argentea. Text fig. 3, C. 

Terebratula argentea Shephard, Amer. Jour. BcL, xxxiv,p. 152, f. 8, (1838). 

Terebratula roifvi d'Orbigny [non L'Eveille], Voy. dans I'Am^r. M<5r. 
Pal., p. 46,(1842). 

Terebratula aniiaienaia d'Orbigoy, ibid., p. 46, (non 36). 

Terebratula peruviana d'Orbigny, ibid., pi. iii, flf. 17-19, (non p. 36). 

Terebratula aubUlita Hall, Stanbury's Expl. Gt. Salt Lake, p. 409, pi. iv, 
ff. 1,2,(1852); etc. 

Terebratula f aubt'diia Davidson, Mon. Brit. Carb. Brach., p. 18, pi. i, ff. 
21,22,(1857); etc. 

Spirigera subttltta Meek and Hayden, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., p. 20, 
(1859); etc. 

AthyDria differentia McChesney, New Pal. Foss., p. 47, (1860). 

Athyria aubtilita Newberry, Ives's Rep. Colo. Riv. West, p. 126, (1861); 
Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. G^l. Surv. Neb., p. 180, pi. i, f. 12, pi. v, f. 9, pi. 
VIII, f. 4,(1872); etc. 

Seminula aubtilita Hall and Clarke, Pal. N. Y., viii, pt. ii, p. 95, ff. 66, 
67, p. 86, ff. 58, 59, pi. xlvii, ff. 17-31, (1893). 

Athyria argentea Keyes, Geol. Surv. Mo., v, p. 92, pi. xxxix, f. 11, (1895). 

Seminula argentea Schuohert, Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv. 87, p. 377, (1897). 


106 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

Meek's description (in part): "Shell ovoid, being usually 
widest a little in advance of the middle, and nearly always 
somewhat longer than wide, moderately convex, becoming 
rather gibbous with age. Ventral valve usually & little more 
convex than the other, its greatest convexity being generally 
behind the middle ; beak prominent, rounded, and distinctly 
incurved upon that of the other valve ; foramen round, of mod- 
erate size, and truncating the immediate apex of the beak ; 
mesial sinus absent, or very shallow, in young or compressed 
individuals, but well defined, and round, flattened or angular 
in adult gibbous specimens, in which it rapidly increases in 
size, from near the middle to the front, where it produces a 
more or less prominent marginal projection, fitting into a cor- 
responding sinuosity in the margin of the other opposite valve. 
Dorsal valve moderately convex, the greatest convexity in small 
or compressed specimens often near the middle or between it 
and the umbo, but in large, gibbous individuals, with a well- 
defined, prominent mesial fold, sometimes near the front ; beak 
rather distinctly incurved under that of the opposite valve. 
Surface of both valves nearly smooth, or with mere lines of 
growth, in young shells, but in large or mature specimens with 
well-defined, imbricating marks of growth on the anterior half ; 
exfoliated surfaces also show, under a magnifier, obscure traces 
of radiating striae/' The spires are large and generally acutely 
pointed.. Measurements of two specimens: Length, 36 mm., 
26 ram. ; width, 37 mm., 23 mm. ; convexity, 26 mm., 18 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper and Lower Coal Measures ; 
Marmaton station, Bourbon county, Tola, Kansas City, Eudora, 
Lawrence, Lecompton, Topeka, Manhattan, Grand Summit. 
Very abundant throughout the Coal Measures of the state. 

Hall has figured this species as having the ascending edges of 
the spire straight and forming an obtuse angle at the apex. In 
all the specimens at hand the sides of the spires are concave 
and the tip of the spire is acute. However, they vary a great 
deal in this respect. Swallow has described another form, S. 
capvtserpentist^ from the Kansas Carboniferous, but I am able 

7. Trans. St. L. Acad. Sci., II, p. 90, 1863. 

Bbbde.] Carboniferous Invertebrates, 107 

to recognize but the one species, and think there is but little 
doubt that his Spirigera caputscrpentis is the same as the form 
above described. The shells vary enough to easily include 
Swallow's description. The microscopic indications of striae 
mentioned in the various descriptions of this shell are probably 
due to the fibrous structure of the shell, which is quite coarse. 


Pelecypods (sometimes called lamellibranchs) are a group 
of animals known under the names of mussels, clams, and oys- 
ters. They live in fresh and salt water, and are covered by a 
shell which is made up of two halves, or valves. Brachiopods 
have one valve on top and one on the bottom of the animal, but 
the halves of the clam shell are located one on the right side 
and one on the left. The body is nearly enclosed in a mantle 
or fleshy membrane, which nearly surrounds the soft part of 
the body. It is divided into two parts or halves, called lobes, 
which secrete the two halves of the shell. Sometimes this 
mantle is somewhat grown together for a large part of the way 
along the lower sides of the animal near the open edges of the 

In those with the mantle edges fastened together there are 
two openings in the rear end ; t^hese openings are sometimes 
prolonged into tubes called siphons, which are used in breath- 
ing. A current of water passes constantly in through one of 
these and out through the other. In those which do not have 
the mantle united there is generally no siphon. 

The edge of the mantle is also attached to the shell, impress- 
ing a line nearly parallel with the edge of the shell. When the 
siphons are present there is an inward notch or angle in the 
line in the back part of the shell, caused by the muscles used in 
pulling the siphon into the shell. When the siphons are ab- 
sent the notch is not present. The line formed by the edge of 
the mantle is called the pallial line« 

Near the front of the shell lies an organ called the foot, which 

108 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

is generally a muscular organ, hatchet-shaped in most fresh- 
water clams ; it aids the animal in moving. Sometimes this 
organ secretes a substance which hardens quickly on being ex- 
posed, and by this means the animal cements its shell firmly 
to some rock or other object. The foot generally becomes 
small in such cases on account of disuse. There is an opening 
in one of the valves for it, so that the attachment may be more 
certain. This opening is called the byssal groove or notch, and 
the foot, in this case, is called the byssus. 

There are other muscles in the clam which are important. 
One or two large muscles are used in closing the shells together, 
and run nearly directly across from one shell to the other, and 
when two are present one is located near the front of the shell 
and the other near the rear of it, and are known as the anterior 
and posterior adductors, respectively. These muscles are firmly 
attached to the shell, causing a depression in it, showing the 
size, shape and position of the muscle. 

The pelecypods have no true heads. In the front part of 
the animal is an opening, or mouth, surrounded by a pair of 
membranous flaps. In the oyster these flaps are called the 
beard. This opening is the end of the esophagus, or gullet, 
which leads to the stomach, which is generally surrounded by 
the liver. From the stomach the intestine is somewhat convo- 
luted, generally passing through a part of the heart, and finally 
ending near the back part of the shell. 

The circulatory system consists of a heart, having two or 
three chambers and a few arteries. The heart propels the blood 
from the gills through the body of the animal. The respira- 
tory organs consist generally of two pairs of gills. The water, 
in the siphoned clams, enters through one side of the siphon, 
or one tube, flows over the gills, constantly bathing them with 
fresh water, and then flows past the mouth, where the food 
particles are selected out of it, when it passes out of the other 
siphon tube. 

The nervous system consists of two knots of nerves near the 
mouth and one near the posterior adductor muscle. 

Now, since we have a general idea of the anatomy of the 

Bbbde.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 109 

pelecypod, let us^ turn our attention to the shell. The hard 
parts of animals are the only ones preserved in the rocks. In 
the clams the shell only is found , and the impressions on the 
inside of it are all we have to judge from as to the exact nature 
of the animal which inhabited it ; consequently, it is of great 
importance to know what these markings are and what they 

The elevated portions of the shell, which project upward near 
the hinge, or where the two halves are fastened together, are 
called the beaks or umbones. These generally point toward 
the front of the shell. If we hold the shell so that the beaks 
point away from us, the half on the right side will be the right 
valve and the other half the left valve. The edge of the shell 
on which the beaks are situated is the dorsal edge or portion of 
the shell. The side opposite ( below) this is called the ventral 
portion, and its edge is called the ventral or pallial margin. 
The line where the two halves are united is called the hinge 
line. The hard, gristly material that forms the hinge is called 
the ligament. The projections along the hinge line, which fit 
into the corresponding sockets in the opposite valve, are called 
the teeth. We have previously mentioned the adductor scars, 
the pallial line, and the notch in the pallial line caused by the 
muscle (retractor) which pulls in the siphon. 

The pelecypods described in the following page were inhabi- 
tants of salt water. 

I wish to acknowledge the kind aid in this work given by Mr. 
Austin F. Rogers. He has also found and worked out several 
species in the following list since the work closed. For full 
bibliography the reader is referred to Weller, Bull. U.S. Geol, 
Surv. No. 153, (1898). 

Fro. 4. I. ADKtomj'otablTslTenioUiuk, Muaarenaria {after Woodward ) : UHtbIts and 
maotle lobe, and halt ths tlphooi, are remoted: >i, TBtplratorr alpbons (tbs arrows lodioaM 
Ui« dliecUonot tbs enrtentaj ; aa', addnctor toasclea; b, giUa; h, heart; o, mootb, *Dmnmd*d 

Bebde.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. Ill 


Morris and Lyeett, Mon. Foss. Qreat Oolite, ( 1853). 

Placunopais carbonaria. Plate XX, fig. 18. 

Pfacunomi^ onrhnnnria Meek an^ Worthen, Proc. Chic. Acad. Sci., i, p. 
13, (1866); Geol. Surv. 111., v, p. 578, pi. xxvii, f. 2, (1873). 

Meek and Worthen's description: ''Shell orbicular, com- 
pressed subhemispherical, extremely thin. Upper or right 
valve irregularly convex, sometimes rather gibbous ; hinge 
margin straight, generally equaling about one-third to one- 
half the diameter of the valves, and usually showing slight 
disposition to develop small, obtuse ears at the extremities ; 
beak very small, sometimes compressed and nearly obsolete, 
marginal, but not projecting distinctly beyond the cardinal 
border, located at the middle of the hinge, and showing a slight 
forward curvature. Under valve flat or conforming to the in- 
equalities of the surface to which it was attached ; beak mar- 
ginal, and very nearly obsolete. Surface of both valves marked 
with irregular, undulating or interrupted radiating lines, with 
broad, faint, irregular concentric wrinkles, and a set of obscure 
strise of growth. Often there is also an entirely independent 
series of parallel ridges, crossing the umbonal region, or some- 
times the whole surface obliquely and partly, or sometimes 
almost entirely, obliterating the other markings. Diameter of 
the largest specimen found, from the hinge to the pallial mar- 
gin, 1.30 inches; oblique parallel ridges uniformly numbering 
seven to eight in 0.2 inch.*' 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Topeka. 

by (») labial palpi ; /, foot ; r, anas ; m, eat edge of the mantle (after Nicholson). 2. Left yaWe 
otCythcria chione (after Woodward) : ^1, anterior margin : R, posterior margin; C, ventral 
margin or base ; u, ambo; A, ligament; c, cardinal tooth; rf, lateral teeth; a, anterior addac- 
tor; a', posterior adductor; m, pallial line; «, pallial sinas caused by the retractor muscles of 
the siphons (after Nicholson). 3. Diagrammatic representation of the anatomy of a sipfaonate 
peiecypod; the left yalve and the left mantle lobe are reiQO?ed, and the siphons are cnt short: 
11, umbo ; ca^ cartilage pit: o, the moath ; /;>, labial palpi ; a. stomach, sarrounded by liver ; t, 
intestine ];>erforating the heart; r, rectum, terminating in the anus; ad^ anterior adductors, 
pcf. posterior adductors; n, supraesophageal or cerebral ganglion (the month is a little 
displaced upwards, so that the ganglion comes to lie below the gullet instead of above it) ; n', 
parieto-splanchnic or branchial ganglion ; /, foot ; xx^ cut edge of the right mantle lobe ; r«, 
retractor muscles of the siphon ; br, branchiae of the left side ; g^ renal organ ; «, inhalant si- 
phon ; «S ezhalant siphon (after Nicholson). 

112 University Geological Survey of Kansas, 


Bm^eire. Encrcl. Metb., (1791). 
Deshayes, I>e8C. de Coq. Fobs, des Idt. de Paris* (1824). 

Lima retifera. Plate XIII, fig. 5. 

Lima retifera Shumard, Trans. St. L. Acad. Sci., x, p. 214, (1858); Meek, 
Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 188, pi. ix, f. 5, (1872). See Weller, 
Bull. 153, U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 324, (1898). 

Meek's description: ''Shell obliquely subovate, moderately 
convex, apparently not gaping in front ; hinge line short, or 
between one-half and one-third the antero-posterior diameter 
of the valves ; base forming a nearly regular semicircular curve ; 
anterior side extended obliquely forward, rather narrowly 
rounded below, and straight or slightly concave in outline, with 
a rather long, oblique slope to the hinge above ; posterior side 
distinctly shorter than the other, and rounding from near the 
ear into the base ; ears subequal, the front margin of the ante- 
rior one forming an obtuse angle with the hinge line, rather 
distinctly flattened from the swell of the umbo, and somewhat 
extended along the anterior margin below ; posterior ear a little 
more convex than the other, with its upper margin incurved, 
and its lower margin separated from the umbo by a faint ob- 
lique furrow, sometimes faintly sinuous behind, and nearly 
rectangular at its extremity ; umbones rather convex or mod- 
erately compressed, extending very little above the cardinal 
margin, and placed near the middle of the same ; surface orna- 
mented by about twenty-five slightly irregular, angular, radiat- 
ing costsD, about equaling the spaces between, and occasionally 
bifurcating on* the umbones and lateral margins of the body 
part of the valves, where they become obsolete ; crossing all of 
these, as well as on the ears and lateral margins, are numerous 
fine concentric striae. Height, 15 mm. ; length, 18 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Lawrence, 

BsBDE.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 113 


Meek, Geol. Snnr. Cal. II. 

Entolinm avicolatum. Plate XIX, fig. 1. 

Pecten aviculalus Swallow, Trans. St. L. Acad. Sci., i. p. 213, (1858). 

Entolium aviculatum Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 189, pi. 
IX, ff. lla-g, (1872). 

Meek's description : '* Shell compressed lenticular, very thin, 
nearly or quite equivalve, suborbicular, or broad subovate in 
outline exclusive of the ears, the antero-posterior diameter 
being often a little less than that at right angles to the same ; 
sides and base more or less regularly rounded ; lateral margins 
above the middle apparently a little gaping, straight, and con- 
verging to the beaks at an angle of 115° to 125''; cardinal 
margin very short, or less than one-third the transverse diam- 
eter of the valves, and in the left valve generally concave, or 
more or less sloping in outline from the extremities of the ears 
to the beaks ; straight or nearly so in the right valve ; ears 
small, fiat, very nearly equal, obtusely angular at the extremi- 
ties, and separated from the body of the valves by an impressed 
line, not defined by any proper sinus in either valve, though 
the broad obtuse notch separating the anterior one from the 
straight, sloping adjacent margin is slightly more defined than 
the other ; beaks small, rather compressed, equal, and not pro- 
jecting beyond the cardinal margin. Each valve with two 
shallow undefined impressions diverging from the beak nearly 
to the anterior and posterior margins ; that on the posterior 
side being longer than the other. Surface with very fine close 
concentric striae, scarcely visible without the aid of a magnifier ; 
crossing these are sometimes seen traces of extremely minute 
radiating striae, curving gracefully outward toward the lateral 
margins." In a foot-note he says: '*In most of these speci- 
mens these radiating striae are entirely obsolete, even as seen 
under a magnifier ; and it is generally only on specimens that 
have been slightly weathered that they are most distinctly seen, 
while even on these they seem to be more due to some pecul- 
iarity of the shell structure than proper surface sculpturing, the 
shell showing a disposition to crack along these curved lines. 

114 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

Both these and the concentric strise are almost invisible to the 
unassisted eye." 

"Anterio-posterior diameter of a specimen a little under me- 
dium size, 0.85 inch ; height, 0.89 inch ; length of the hinge 
line, 0.27 inch. Specimens are sometimes found of nearly 
double these dimensions." In some delicately preserved casts 
there are traces of zigzag markings on the anterior of the ven- 
tral margin of the left valve. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Lawrence, 


McCoy. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hiat.. 2d aer.. VII, p. 171, (1851 ). 

Avicnlopecten occidentalis. Plate XIII, fig. 7. 

J^ecten ocoidentalis Shumard, Greol. Rep. Mo., p. 207, pi. c, f. 18, (1855); 
Newberry, Ives's Colo. Expl. Exped., p. 128, (1861). 

Pecten cleavelandicus Swallow, Trans. St. L. Acad. Sci., i, p. 184, (1858). 

Avfculopecten f Meek and Hayden, Pal. Upp. Mo. (Smiths. Cont. 

Know!., XIV), p. 50, pi. ii, f. 10, (1864). 

Avioulopecten occidpntalis Meek and Worthen, Geol. Surv. 111., ii, p. 
331, pi. XXVII, ff. 4-5a, (1866); Meek, U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 191, pi. 
IX, f. 10,(1872); etc. 

Pecten missourienais f Geinitz, Garb. u. Dyas in Neb., p. 35, pi. ii, f. 18, 


Meek's description: ''Shell distinctly inequivalve, not ob- 
lique ; subovate exclusive of the ears ; lateral and basal mar- 
gins regularly rounded ; hinge margin nearly or quite equaling 
the greatest breadth of the valves ; cardinal plate of moderate 
breadth. Left valve convex, with ears subequal ; anterior 
one with distinct radiating costao, more convex, shorter, 
and more obtuse than the posterior, as well as more defined 
from the swell of the umbonal slope ; posterior ear flattened 
and more angular at the extremity than the other, some- 
times without radiating costse, but in other instances having 
them more or less developed, each separated from the mar- 
gin below by a rounded, rather broad, more or less deep sinus. 
Right valve nearly flat and having the general outline of the 
other excepting that its beak is scarcely distinct from the car- 
dinal margin, and its anterior ear much narrower and defined 
by a deep, sharp angular sinus. Surface of valve ornamented 

Beedb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates, 115 

with rather depressed or flattened irregular radiating costse, of 
which only about twelve or fourteen of the largest reach the 
beak, others dying out at various distances between the mar- 
gins and the umbo; in proportion to size, the larger of the 
intercalated ones being longer than the smaller. Crossing all 
of these are numerous fine concentric stria>, some of which on 
the ears, particularly the anterior one, often form little vaulted 
scales ; in well-preserved specimens these vaulted projections 
are strongly developed on one of the posterior costa) of the body 
part of the valve. Surface»of right valve generally with only 
very obscure radiating costse and fine crowded lines of growth." 
Measurements : Length, 24 mm. ; height, 26 mm. ; convexity, 
about 5 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Turner, 
Eudora, Lawrence, Topeka, Wabaunsee county. 

Aviculopecten rectilaterarins. 

Avicula rectilateraria Cox, Greol. Surv. Ky., iii, p. 578, p. ix, f. 2, (1857). 

Aviculopecten reclilaterariua Meek and Worthen, Geol. Surv. 111., ii, p. 
326, (1866). 

Shell variable in outline, about as long as high ; ventral mar- 
gin rounded, nearly semicircular ; posterior margin nearly 
straight, meeting the hinge at nearly a right angle ; anterior 
margin slightly sinuate at the lower part of the ear, then, round- 
ing upward, meets the hinge line ; lower anterior margin more 
abruptly rounded than the corresponding posterior one ; hinge 
line slightly shorter than the shell, the beak not extending 
above the hinge ; posterior ear not separated from the shell by 
a sulcus, anterior ear separated from it by an indistinct furrow. 
The anterior ear of the right valve contains a sharp byssal 
notch. The shell is marked by fairly prominent, slightly sinu- 
ous, radiating striae, which increase by implanation and bifur- 
cation ; on the posterior ear of the left valve these striae are 
very dimly visible ,but are more prominent on the anterior ear. 
These striae are crossed by very fine, close, concentric striae and 
larger lines of growth. Measurements, two specimens : Length, 
18 mm., 18 mm. ; height, 19 mm., 15 mm. 

116 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Leaven* 
worth, Wyandotte county. 

Specimens are abundant in the shales at Topeka which may 
belong to this species or to ^. whit^i. The material in hand is 
too poor to assign with certainty to either species. The proba- 
bility is, however, that they belong io A. whitei. 

This species can be easily distinguished from A. occidentalis 
by its smaller size, thinner shell, and the fact that the posterior 
ear is not so distinct and the shell is less elongate vertically. 

Avicillopecteii interlineatus. Piste XIII, fii;. 6. 

AviculopecUn interlineatua Meek and Worthen, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phil., p. 454, (1860); Geol. Surv. 111., ii, p. 329, pi. xxvi, if. 7a, b, text 
fig. (1866); Whitfield, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., v, p. 694, pi. xvi, flf. 10, 
11, (1891); Keyes, Geol. Surv. Mo., v, p. 112, pi. xlii, f. 6, (1894); 
Whitfield, Geol. Surv. Ohio, vii, p. 489, pi. xii, ff. 10, 11. 

Aviculopecten f inierlineatus White, U. S. Geog. Surv. West 100 Mer., 
IV, p. 149, pi. XI, f. 3, (1877); 13th Ann. Rep. Ind. St. Geol., p. 145, pi. 
XXX, f. 9, (1884). 

Meek and Worthen's description : ** Shell (left valve) rather 
small, compressed, broad ovate or subcircular exclusive of the 
ears, not oblique ; length and breadth nearly equal ; hinge 
straight, about equaling the greatest breadth of the valve 
below, ranging at right angles to the vertical axis of the shell. 
Base regularly rounded ; posterior and anterior margins 
rounded from below the ears to the base. Anterior ear tri- 
angular, flattened so as to be very distinct from the umbonal 
slope ; posterior ear somewhat larger than the other, com- 
pressed, triangular, the hinge side being longer than either of 
the others, rather acutely angular at the extremity. Beak com- 
pressed, a little nearer the anterior than the posterior extremity 
of the hinge ; umbonal slopes diverging from the beaks at an 
angle of about 78°; anterior one subangular. Surface orna- 
mented by about fifteen regular, very prominent, slender, and 
obscurely crenulated concentric costse, which are separated by 
spaces from four to six times their own breadth, excepting on 
and near the ears ; spaces between the costiP occupied by numer- 
ous fine, regular, closely arranged concentric striae, which are 
crossed by faint indications of radiating ribs. Diameter, from 

Bbkdb.J Carboniferous Invertebrates. 117 

the pallial border to the hinge, 15 mm. ; breadth, from the 
anterior to the posterior margin, 16 mm. ; convexity, 3 mm. 
Right valve unknown." In the discussion they also add : 

** This exceedingly beautiful species seems to have varied a 
little in the details of its surface markings at different ages. 
In young shells the regular concentric costse seem to be nearly 
or quite smooth, but as the shell advanced in its growth, they 
gradully assumed a regularly crenulated outline, and became 
themselves ornamented with extremely fine longitudinal striae, 
not visible without the aid of a lens. These striae are very 
much finer and less distinct than those occupying the spaces 
between the costa?. The faint indications of radiating costse, 
seen crossing the concentric strii« in the depressions between 
the concentric ribs, are also wanting in young shells." 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City. 

The absence of radiating striip and costal and the strong con- 
centric cost86 with the fine concentric striie between them easily 
and clearly distinguish this species from all others of the genus 

Aviculopecten carboniferus. Plate XIII, fig. 9. 

Pecten carboniferus Stevens, Amer. Jour. Sci. and Arts, xxv, p. 261, 


Pecten broadheadti Swallow, Trans. St. L. Acad. Sci., ii, p. 97,(1862). 

Pecten haumi Swallow and Greinitz, Carb. u. Djas in Neb., p. 36, pi. ii, 
ff. 19a, b,( 1866). 

Aviculopecten carbon if erua Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Greol. Surv. Neb., 
p. 193, pL IV, f. 8, and pi. ix, ff. 4a, b, (1872). 

Meek's description: ''Shell rather small, slightly oblique, 
moderately convex, length and breadth nearly equal ; hinge 
line nearly or quite straight, and somewhat less than the great- 
est breadth of the valves, provided with a marginal ridge in 
both valves ; basal margin regularly rounded. Left valve tnore 
convex than the other ; posterior ear rather well defined from 
the swell of the umbo, somewhat extended and terminating in 
an acute point, separated from the margin below by a deep, 
rounded sinus ; anterior ear about two-thirds as long as the 
other, and rather more distinct from the umbo and more ob- 
tuse, but still rather acutely angular, defined by a moderately 
distinct subangular sinus. Right valve nearly flat, or distinctly 

118 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

less convex than the other ; its anterior ear narrow, and de- 
fined by a deep, rather sharp sinus ; posterior ear of the same 
size and form as in the left valve. Surface ornamented in the 
left valve with about fifteen or sixteen regular, distinct, angu- 
lar, radiating plications separated by furrows of the same size, 
each one of which terminates at the free border in little spine- 
like projections, with curved-up margins ; lines of growth fine 
on the body of the valve, but becoming more distinct and irreg- 
ular on the ears, where there are rarely any defined radiating 
costse. At a few distantly separated intervals there are promi- 
nent imbricating lamellae of growth, showing the same digitate 
margins as the free borders of the shell. In the right valve 
the surface markings are somewhat like those of the other valve, 
but much more obscure, excepting on the anterior wing, where 
there are a few more distinct radiating costoe." 

Measurements: Height, 29 mm.; length, 22mm.; convex- 
ity, about 4 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 
Turner, Eudora, Lawrence, Lecompton, Topeka. 

The strong radiating costae with the vaulted and spine-like 
projections of the free margins and larger lamellae of growth 
distinguish this species from all others of the genus. When 
broken from limestone, the larger lamellae of growth are gen- 
erally broken away. 

Aviculopecten maccoyi. Plate XIII, fig. 10. 

Aviculopecten Afccoui Meek and Hayden, Pal. Upp. Mo., p. 50, pi. ii, f. 
9, (1864); White, U. S. Geog. Surv. West 100 Mer., iv, p. 150, pi. xi, f. 
2a, (1877). 

Shell below medium size, moderately convex, subovate in 
outline exclusive of the ears ; hinge nearly or quite equaling 
the greatest length of the shell, slightly failing from the beak, 
which extends a trifle above it ; posterior ear larger and more 
acute than the anterior. The ventral margin is broadly 
rounded ; the posterior margin is more abruptly rounded than 
the lower anterior margin ; anterior ear separated from the 
shell by a moderately deep, rounded sinus, and from the body 
of the shell by a distinct, moderately deep, rounded depression ; 

Bbbde.] Carboniferous Invertebrates, 119 

anterior extremity of the ear somewhat rounded ; posterior ear 
separated from the margin by a larger and rounder sinus, and 
from the shell by a nearly equal depression with that of the 
anterior one ; the sides of the beak converge at an angle of 
about 85°. The surface of the left valve is ornamented with ra- 
diating striae, from three to six of which are marked at intervals 
with vaulted, scale-like projections, give them a rough appear- 
ance ; between each of these are four to eight smaller, slightly 
flexuous strise, increasing by implanation ; crossing all of these 
are fine, closely set, concentric striae and occasionally larger 
lines of growth ; anterior ear marked by radiating and fine con- 
centric striae ; the radiating striae on the posterior ear are less 
distinct. Measurements: Height, 21mm.; length, 29mm.; 
convexity, 4 mm. ; length of the hinge line, 19 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Turner, 
Lawrence, Lecompton, Topeka, Cowley county. 

This species can almost always be distinguished by its larger 
ribs, with the vaulted scale-like elevations and smaller striae 
between. Care must be taken, however, not to confound it 
with PseudomonotiSf which it resembles to a considerable degree, 
in an outward way, but it is much more regular and has the 
ears better developed than in Pseudomonotis, 

Aviculopecten providencesis. Plate XIII, fig. 2. 

Pecten providence 81 8 Cox, Geol. Surv. Ky., iii, p. 556, pi. viii, f. 1, (1857). 

Avieulopecten providence 8 is VfoTihtn^ Greol. Surv. 111., viii, p. 116, pi. 
XXI, ff. 4,4a, (1890). 

Aviculopecten fa8ciculatu8 Keyes, Geol. Surv. Mo., v, p. 113, pi. xlii, f. 

Shell large, broadly subovate in outline, somewhat oblique ; 
margins, except the ears, broadly and regularly rounded, the 
beak extending very slightly beyond the hinge line, which is 
shorter than the length of the shell; height about equal the 
length. Ears large, well defined, the posterior one much more 
acute than the anterior, which is somewhat rounded, and sepa- 
rated from the body of the shell by a somewhat shallow, distinct 
sinus ; posterior ear separated from the swell of the umbo by a 
sharp depression and from the margin by a distinct sinus. Sur- 

120 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

face of the shell ornamented by about twenty-three radiating 
costse, each consisting of three to five strise, which extend nearly 
to the beak ; these bundles are separated by rather broad depres- 
sions or grooves. There are fine crowded lines of growth visible ; 
they are prominent on the margins of large specimens as lam- 
ellar striae. The anterior ear is ornamented by ten to fifteen 
simple radiating striae and concentric lines of growth ; the 
posterior ear is similarly marked, except that the radiating lines 
are fewer and less distinct. Measurements : Height, 69 mm. ; 
length, 64 mm. ; length of hinge, 40 mm. ; convexity, 12 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 

The truncation of the posterior side, nature of the fascicles, 
ears and the general appearance of this shell are so similar to A . 
providencesis of Cox that I do not hesitate to refer it to that 
species. Worthen evidently considered it as belonging to that 
species, for he borrowed a fine specimen from Mr. W. J. Parrish, 
of Kansas City, to figure, in the volume above referred to, for 
comparison, with his new species which he named ^. chesterensis. 
Mr. Parrish, so he informs me, collected the specimens figured 
by Worthen from the Kansas City rocks. Some of our speci- 
mens are from the same locality. It is therefore probable that 
they are the same as Keyes's A . fascicidatus , which also is from 
Kansas City. Keyes, in his diagnosis, gives no characters 
which distinguish his species from that of Cox. It difi*ers from 
Worthen's species in the larger fascicles and the truncated 
upper posterior extremity of the outline, as well as haying a 
comparatively longer hinge. Our specimens are also much 
more convex than those of A, chesterensis. . 

The species can be easily separated from the remainder of our 
Carboniferous species by its large size and the fasciculation 
of the striae. 

Bbbdb.] Carboniferotia Invertebrates. 121 

Ayicnlopecten hertzeri. Plate XIII, figs. 8, 1, lb. 

Aviculopecten (Strebfopleriaf) hertzeri Meek, Proo. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phil., 1871, p. 61; Pal. Ohio, ii, p. 330, pi. xix, flf. 13a-c, (1875). 

Aviculopecten hertzeri Herrick, Bull. Den. Univ., ii, p. 25, pi. i, flf. 5, 10. 

Meek's description: ''Shell usually under medium size, 
higher than wide, rather compressed, the right valve being 
nearly flat, and the left only moderately convex ; subovate in 
general outline (exclusive of the ears) , with a slight backward 
obliquity, caused by the greater prominence of the anterior 
margin ; basal outline semicircular and rounded regularly into 
the rather prominently rounded anterior margin ; posterior 
margin less prominent than the anterior, and forming a longer 
and more or less gentle curve from the posterior ear into the 
base ; hinge distinctly shorter than the antero-posterior di- 
ameter of the valves; posterior ear in both valves very small, 
flattened, very obtusely angular, and much shorter than the 
margin below from which it is only separated by a slight sinu- 
osity, though it is well defined from the umbo ; anterior ear of 
each valve distinctly larger than the posterior, though not 
nearly so projninent as the anterior margin below, rather 
strongly compressed or flattened, so as to be abruptly separated 
from the umbo, and in both valves defined by a distinct sinus 
from the margin below, the sinus being deeper and more angu- 
lar in the right valve ; beaks compressed, scarcely projecting 
above the cardinal margin, and placed a little behind the middle 
of the hinge, as well as that of the valves. Surface of both 
valves elegantly ornamented by numerous, sometimes sharply 
elevated, nearly equal, very regularly arranged radiating and 
concentric lines, which are larger and more strongly defined on 
the anterior ear of the right valve, particularly the radiating 
markings, which there sometimes assume the character of small 
cos tae,. while the concentric markings there in some examples 
project as little lamellas above the hinge margin, so as to give 
it a subtended appearance. Height of one of the largest speci- 
mens seen, 1.32 inches ; antero-posterior diameter, 1.20 inches ; 
convexity, about 0.18 inch." 

9— vi 

122 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

Range and distribution: Upper Coal Measures; Topeka. 
From the horizon of the Osage coal. 

The fine, regular, cancellated stria) and the larger striae on 
the anterior ear distinguish this species from any of the pre- 
ceding. We have a single specimen from Topeka which seems 
to agree very well with this species. 

ATicnlopecten sculptilis. Plate XIII, figs. 3, 3b. 

Avicuiopecten sculptilis Miller, 17th Ann. Rep. St. Geol. Ind., p. 702, pi. 
XX, f. 5, (1892). 

Shell a little large, somewhat oblique, ovate in outline, taper- 
ing to the beak at an angle of 90° or less, very moderately con- 
vex; beak extending to or a trifle beyond the hinge line, and 
located back of the middle of it. The ears are small, the 
anterior flattened, and separated from the swell of the umbo by 
a deep depression, and considerably larger than the posterior 
ear ; the margin of the ear makes a deep sinus at its junction 
with the margin of the shell ; however, the anterior border of 
the shell generally extends beyond the ear ; posterior ear small, 
well defined, margin not separated from the mai^in of the shell 
by a very distinct sinus ; the posterior is about two-thirds as 
long as the anterior. Both ears (in the left valve) are marked 
by small, well defined, concentric striae. Entire border below 
the ears regularly rounded and subsemicircular. The shell is 
marked by numerous,, closely set radiating striae, which are 
crossed by about equally prominent closely set concentric stria?, 
giving the shell a beautifully cancellated appearance ; the radi- 
ating striae increase by implanation. At the anterior border 
the shell often becomes quite rough in appearance on account 
of the enlarging of the striae. The anterior ear seems to be 
crossed by a few indistinct radiating striae. According to Mil- 
ler, the anterior ( ** posterior " ) ear of the right valve is marked 
by more prominent radiating striae which '*give it a strongly 
pitted aspect.'* Measurements: Height, 49 mm. ; length, 40 
mm. ; length of hinge, 23 mm. ; convexity, about 8 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City. 
Taken from the oolite. 

BsBDB.] Carboniferous Invertebrates, 123 

This species dififers from A. hertzeri Meek in being much 
larger, in having a much more (20") acute beak, which makes 
it a more slender shell. Aside from the species just mentioned, 
it can easily be distinguished from our other Coal Measures 
species by its strongly reticulated surface. 

The specimen at hand agrees very well with Miller's descrip- 
tion and figure, though there are a few minor differences, but 
both are from the same locality, so there can be but little doubt 
of their identity. 

Aviculopecten germanns. Plate XIII, fig. 4. 

Aviculopecten germanua Miller and Faber, Jour. CIdd. Soc. Nat. Hist., 
XV, pp. 81, 82, pi. I, f. 9, (1892.) 

Original description : '' Shell small, a little higher than long ; 
inequilateral ; oblique ; base regularly rounded ; antero-basal 
and postero-basal margins rounded. Hinge oblique, nearly 
straight, not quite equaling the greatest length of the valves 
below. Posterior ear extends to the lateral border, with which 
it forms nearly a right angle ; it graduates into the shell below 
without the presence of a sinus. Anterior ear rather shorter 
than the posterior one, angular at the extremity and rounding 
on the margin below into a notch, and arching from the wing 
into a deep and distinct sinus that separates it from the poste- 
rior margin of the shell. Umbo tumid and umbonal slopes 
diverging to the margin. Beak high, pointed and projecting 
beyond the cardinal margin a little forward of the middle of 
the hinge line. There are two costae on the posterior ear, and 
three or more finer ones on the anterior ear. There are about 
twelve principal radiating ribs on the body of the shell and 
about as many rudimentary and intercalated shorter ribs be- 
tween them ; they are separated by wider flattened spaces. It 
is diflBcult to tell from our specimens whether or not there were 
any concentric lines, though they are quite well preserved ; if 
there were such lines they were very fine. 

"This species approaches more nearly to A. rectilaterarhis than 
to any other, but it may be readily distinguished by the scarcity 
of the radiating ribs and the wide flattened spaces between 

124 University Geological Survey of Kansas, 

them ; the beak, too, is higher and more pointed, as well as 
having a more tumid umbo." 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Lawrence. 

ATicnlopecten coxanus. Plate XIX, fig. 2. 

Aviculopecfen coxanus Meek and Worthen, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 
p. 453, (1860); Meek, U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 196, pi. ix, ff. 6a,b, (1872). 

Meek's description: ** Shell very small; thin, compressed, 
slightly oblique ; broad subovate exclusive of the ears ; basal 
margin rounded ; anterior margin more or less rounded, rather 
straight and oblique above ; posterior margin more prominent 
than the anterior, often subangular at the point where the pos- 
tero-basal margin rounds up to meet the obliquely sloping edge 
above. Hinge generally a little less than the greatest breadth 
of the valves below. Left valve with anterior ear of moderate 
size, flat, triangular, with the extremity generally a little less 
than a right angle, sometimes very slightly rounded, separated 
from the margin below by an abruptly rounded or subangular 
sinus ; posterior ear slightly larger and much more acutely 
angular than the other, but shorter than the most prominent 
part of the margin below, from wliich it is separated by a mod- 
erately deep rather broadly rounded sinus ; beak small, com- 
pressed, scarcely projecting beyond the cardinal margin, and 
placed a little in advance of the middle of the hinge ; surface 
ornamented with linear, simple, often more or less flexuous 
costae, which alternate in size, the smaller ones dying out ut 
varying distances between the free margins and the umbo — 
crossing all of these are numerous, extremely fine, regular, 
closely arranged concentric striae, which, like the costae, are 
more or less distinctly defined on the ears, as well as on the 
body of the valve. Right valve unknown." 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Lecompton. 

A single specimen "of a left valve of this species agreeing very 
well indeed with Meek's description and figure was collected in 
the shale underlying the Upper Oread limestone at Lecompton. 

Bbbdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 125 


Pteria longa. Plate XVI, fig. 4. 

Oervillia longa Geinitz, Carb. u. Dyas in Neb., p. 32, pi. ii, f, 15, (1866). 

Avieufa lonaa Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., p 199, pi. ix, f. 8, 
(1872); Meek and Worthen, Geol. Surv. 111., v, p. 578, pi. xxvi, f. 1, 
(1873); etc. 

Meek's description : " Shell nearly or quite equivalve ; body 
part obliquely elongated and more or less arcuate ; posterior 
end narrow and abruptly rounded ; base nearly straight and 
parallel to the cardinal margin behind, but ascending obliquely 
forward from near the middle of the valves ; anterior side ob- 
lique, and broadly and faintly sinuous under the ear. Hinge 
line about three-fourths the length of the valves, and provided 
with a marginal ridge, produced behind into a very narrow, 
elongated ear, considerably shorter than the oblique portion of 
the valves, from which it is separated by a deep sinus which 
narrows to an abruptly rounded or subangular extremity close 
under the ear ; anterior ear shorter and much broader than the 
other, in the left valve convex, with its extremity pointed, and 
faintly sinuous just below the point — separated from the swell 
of the umbo by an oblique sulcus extending from the anterior 
side of the same to the back part of the broad, shallow marginal 
sinus of the ear. Beaks of both valves convex, very oblique, 
placed one-fourth to one-fifth the length of tliB hinge back of 
the anterior extremity ; in the right valve, rising a little above 
the hinge, but in the left somewhat more prominent, according 
to Professor Geinitz's figures. Length of medium-sized speci- 
men, measuring obliquely from the extremity of the anterior 
ear to the posterior end of the body part of the valves, 9.61 
inch ; height, measuring at right angles to the hinge, 9.33 inch ; 
length of hinge, about 9.23 inch.'' 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Lawrence, 


126 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

Pteria sulcata. Plate XVI, fig. 3. 

Oervillia sulcata Geinitz, Carb. u. Dyas in Neb., p. 33, pi. ii, f. 16, (1866). 

Avieufaf sulcata Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Greol. Sur^. Neb., p. 200, pi. ix, f. 
9, (1872). 

All the specimens before me having the ears either broken off 
or not visible, Meek's description of Geinitz's figure is given, 
with remarks on the specimens at hand. '^ Rhombic oblique 
shell, with short, compressed, triangular anterior ear, defined 
by a faint, wide marginal sinus ; and a larger compressed, some- 
what elate, posterior ear, with a^ marginal ridge, showing a 
tendency to be produced into a narrow appendage behind, sepa- 
rated from the margin below by a rather deep, rounded sinus. 
The posterior basal extremity is rather narrowly rounded, but 
not much produced ; while the outline of the base is broadly 
semielliptical, and the umbo convex, and rising somewhat above 
the hinge line, which is apparently shorter than the greatest 
length of the valve. Surface ornamented by fine lines of growth , 
and before by two or three sulci, extending from the anterior 
side of the beak to the an tero- basal margin, leaving ridges be- 
tween which are more or less crenated by the crossing of the 
marks of growth ; just behind the posterior one of these sulci, 
the margin of the latter is ornamented with regular, rather 
strongly defined wrinkles, or little folds, some of which are pro- 
longed backward parallel to the lines of growth." 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 

Most of our specimens are younger than the one figured by 
Meek and Geinitz, and, as a result, somewhat less ornamented. 
The ornamentation is varied somewhat in different individuals. 
In some the ridge between the sulci is very crenate, and less so 
in the others. It may easily be distinguished from the other 
species by the ornamentation of this part of the shell. 

Bbkdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 127 


Meek and Worthen, Proc. Chio. Acad. Sci., I, p. 29, (1866). 

Lixnopteria longispina. Plate XVI, fig 6. 

Oervillia longigpinn Coz, Geol. Rep. Ky., iii, p. 568, pi. viii, f. 6, (1857). 

Monopteria longispina Keyes, Qeol. Surv. Mo., ▼, p. 114, pi. xliii, f. 1, 

Shell elliptical-subquadrate in outline ; antero-dorsal margin 
nearly straight to the anterior margin, which is nearly circular, 
the curve rapidly decreasing again to the extremity of the shell, 
where it is sharply curved, almost angular ; the posterior mar- 
gin is a deep U-shaped sinus between the acute point of the ear 
and the extremity of the shell. Beak placed well forward ; shell 
very oblique ; umbonal ridge very prominent, extending to the 
extremity of the shell, greatest curve about one-third the distance 
from the beak, which protrudes slightly beyond the hinge line. 
Anterior portion of the shell quite convex. The deflection of 
the margin anterior to the beak, forming the lunule, is very 
sharp, almost angular, and extends backward some distance. 
The internal muscular impressions very faint, as excellently 
preserved casts show practically no traces of them. Spine acute, 
about three-fourths the length of the shell. The posterior ear 
is separated from the shell by a mo&erately well-defined depres- 
sion, which falls directly from the umbonal ridge, which is very 
prominent. Surface marked by concentric striae of growth 
which are nearly parallel to the outline of the shell. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 
Turner, Lawrence. 

Some specimens from Lawrence are extremely long when 
measured from the tip of the ear to the anterior margin. The 
great length of the ear, with the convexity of this portion of 
the shell, are its principal features. « 

128 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

Limopteria marian. Plate XVI, figs. 5-5c. 

Monopferia mnrian White, Prelim. Rep. Idv. Foas., p. 22, (1874); U. S 
Geog. Surv. West 100 Mer., iv, p. 151, pi. xi, ff. 4a-c, (1877). 

White's description (with additions): "Shell of moderate 
size, slender, nearly or quite equivalve, narrow and much ex- 
tended posteriorly, the curvature being much the greater in 
the anterior half of the shell, the posterior half being nearly 
straight ; body of the shell gradually tapering to near the pos- 
terior end, which is abruptly rounded ; a more or less promi- 
nent ridge, which is sometimes in part raised as a distinct 
carina, extends along the middle of the body of each valve 
from the beak to the posterior end ; from this carina, or angle, 
the sides slope abruptly to both the inferior and upper borders, 
so that a cross-section of tlie shell behind the ear would have a 
rhomboidal outline ; beaks moderately prominent, separate ; 
hinge equal in length to about one-half the full length of the 
shell, and its direction is nearly parallel with the posterior 
half of the body; posterior wing well developed, not sharply 
defined from the body by an auricular furrow ; its cardinal 
portion narrow and moderately extended ; anterior ear obso- 
lete ; lunule moderately large and deep, the borders of which 
are slightly prominent laterally, but its margins sharply 
rounded inward. Surface smooth in aspect, but it is marked 
by very numerous fine lines of growth. Length, from the front 
to the posterior extremity, about 4 cm. ; height, from the base 
to hinge margin, 18 mm. ; average width of the body of the 
shell, about 1 cm." 

We have a left valve, probably of a large specimen of this 
species, showing part of the muscular impressions. The ad- 
ductor is located behind the umbonal ridge, just above and in 
front of the rp^rginal sinus formed by the ear and the body of 
the shell. From the lower side of the impressions a slight line 
runs directly forward across the umbonal ridge, then turns 
abruptly and runs toward the anterior end of the lunule, but 
fades out at about two-thirds of the distance. In front of the 
scar, and crossing the front edge of it, is a line at right angles 
to the first, beginning a little above the scar and fading out 

Bbbdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 129 

about half way to the lower end ; beyond the line appears to 
be a very indistinct furrow near to the ventral margin. In a 
cast of what appears to be a right valve of another specimen 
the adductor impression is shown , located nearly opposite to 
that of the left as described above. It is situated mostly be- 
hind the umbonal ridge but extends over it, is deeper and 
roundly ovate. The pallial line extends from the lower side 
of the impression a little forward and then upward, reaching to 
the anterior edge of the beak. The umbonal ridge appears to 
be much less sharp in this specimen than in the other. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Turner, 

This species may be easily distinguished from the foregoing 
by its more slender form, more gently curving front, and less 
spinous ear. 

Limopteria gibbosa. Plate XVI, fig. 9. 

Pt€rinin{^fonopfer^ct) gihbnsn Meek and Worthen, Greol. Surv. 111., ii, 
p. a%, pi. xxvii, flf. 11-llb, (1866). 

Monnpferin gibhosa White, 13th Ann. Rep. Ind. St. Geol.,p. 139, pi. xxx, 
flF. 11,12,(1884). 

Monofiterin ( Pferinfa) a^bbo^n Heilprin, 2dGeol. Surv. Penn., Ann. Rep. 
1885, p. 455, f. 11a, p. 444, f. 11, (1886). 

White's description : '* Shell, exclusive of the wing and pos- 
terior prominence, irregularly suborbicular in marginal out- 
line ; the valves moderately convex or a little gibbous ; the 
anterior and basal margins forming an almost regular semicir- 
cular curve; posterior portion of the shell produced, narrow 
and narrowly rounded, or subangular, at the extremity; wing 
slender, compressed and extending backward as far as the nar- 
row extremity, between which the posterior margin forms a 
deep, broad notch, that is narrowly rounded at the bottom; 
umbonal ridge moderately distinct; beaks equal, not so far 
forward as the front margin of the shell ; anterior lunule deep ; 
cardinal border not so long as the full diameter of the shell ; 
surface marked only by the ordinary lines of growth. Length, 
from posterior extremity to front, 27 mm. ; height, from base 
to beaks, 23 mm." 

130 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 
Turner, •Lawrence. 

The short, gibbous shell with a moderately long spine sepa- 
rates this species from the rest of the genus. 

Limopteria alata. Plate V, fig. 6. 

Monopteria gibbosa alata Beede, Kans. UdIv. Quart., vii, p. 188, f. 5, 


Shell small, extremely thin, laterally compressed; beak ex- 
tending a trifle beyond the hinge line, prominent on account of 
the lunule, but not much elevated, and placed well back for a 
member of this genus ; umbonal ridge less prominent than in any 
other species of the genus and less curved . Posterior ear very 
greatly developed, about equaling the entire body of the shell 
in area. Antero-dorsal margin sinuate on account of the turn- 
ing down of the margin to form the lunule ; anterior margin 
circular nearly to the postero- ventral extremity of the shell, 
which is acute ; the posterior margin consists of a broad, shal- 
low sinus, extending from the postero-ventral end to the point 
of the ear, which is apparently rounded and obtuse. The ear is 
not separated from the shell by a distinct depression, but slopes 
gradually from the umbonal swell, save at the extreme lower 
edge, where the depression is more abrupt. Very fine con- 
centric lines of growth are visible, all of which pass around the 
shell with a double curve to the ear, where they again curve 
backward, and then forward to the hinge line. Length, 20 
mm. ; depth, 18 mm. ; convexity of single valve, a trifle less 
than 4 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Turner, 
Lawrence . 

This shell differs from L. gibbosa M. and W., to which it is 
most closely related in some respects, in being much less gib- 
bous, the ear much larger and more obtuse, antero dorsal out- 
line more sinuous, umbonal ridge more nearly straight and less 
prominent, beak placed farther back, and the depression sepa- 
rating the ear from the umbonal ridge more shallow. 

Bkbdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 131 

Limopteria snbalata. Platr XXI, figs. 3a, 3b. 

Monopteriaf auhalata Beede and Rogers, Kans. Univ. Quart, viii, p.* 
133, pL XXXIV, ff. 3a, 3b, (1899). 

Shell moderately small, subcrescentic in outline, gibbous, a 
little longer than high ; valves subequal, but beak prominent, 
slightly projecting, somewhat inflated, situated about one-fifth 
the length of the shell from the anterior margin, which is trun- 
cated, on account of the lunule which is formed by the turning 
in of the shell. The anterior margin is convex below. Ventral 
margin broadly rounded to the postero-ventral extremity, where 
it is abruptly rounded to meet the concave posterior. Hinge 
short and straight; posterior ear but slightly developed ; um- 
bonal ridge prominent, somewhat sickle-shaped, sloping abruptly 
posteriorly, forming a cavity broadly convex anteriorly. Sur- 
face marked by moderately distinct lines of growth. Length, 
16 mm. ; height, 14 mm. ; convexity of single valve, 4 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Lawrence, 

At two localities in the lower part of the Upper Coal Meas- 
ures are found great numbers of Limopteria, Beside the three 
large species are found two smaller species, L. alata and i. mb- 
alata; one with an exceedingly large wing and compressed shell, 
and the other with a gibbous shell and the wing almost want- 
ing. There are many variations of the two species and they 
seem to grade into the other species to some extent, but differ 
sufiiciently, so far as we can observe, from even the young of 
those, to be considered as distinct. 

The size of the shell and the exceedingly small ear easily 
separate L. aubalata from any other member of the genus. 

132 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 


Beyriflh, ZoitMh. der Deatach. GeoL QeaellMh., XIV, (1862). 

PsendomonotiB hawni. Plate XIII, figs. 11-^llc; plate XV, figs. 1-lf, 2, 2a. 

MonotfB hawnf Meek and Hayden, Trans. Alb. Inst.^, iv, p. 76, (1858); 
Proo. Aoad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1859, p. 28. 

Eumicrot^tM hawni Meek and Havden, Pal. Upp. Mo., p. 54, pi. ii, ff. 
5a-<3, (1864); White, 13th Ann. 'Rep. Ind. St. Geol., p. 142, pi. xxx, 
MO, (1884); etc. 

Meek and Hayden's description: ** Shell subcircular, or 
subovate ; hinge straight, equaling about half the length of 
the valves; beaks subcentral, short, not oblique; ears nearly 
obsolete ; base rounded ; antero-ventral and postero- ventral 
margins rounded, the latter being somewhat more prominently 
rounded than the other. Left valve convex ; anterior mar- 
gin sometimes slightly sinuous near the hinge above ; poste- 
rior margin intersecting the hinge at an obtuse angle ; beak 
convex, extending but little beyond the hinge line. Right valve 
nearly or quite fiat ; beak flat, not projecting beyond the hinge ; 
byssal sinus narrow, deep, or extending back parallel to the hinge 
to a point nearly under the beak. Surface of both valves, par- 
ticularly the left one, ornamented by more or less distinct radi- 
ating costse, which are usually separated by spaces three or four 
times their own breadth, and armed with regularly disposed 
vaulted, spinelike prominences, formed apparently from the pro- 
jecting laminae of growth. Between each two of the principal 
radiating costse from one to three or four much smaller radiat- 
ing ribs or lines are usually seen, crossed by obscure concen- 
tric markings. Hinge and muscular impressions unknown. 
Length, 1.47 inches ; height, 1.42 inches ; convexity, about 0.40 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Turner, Law- 
rence, near Topeka. 

To the above synonyms should be added, I think, P. radialis 
Meek, described in the Nebraska report. From his description 
and figures, it seems to agree more closely with P. kaxvni than 
with any other form. 

BsBDB.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 188 

Psendomonotis kansasensis, nom. dot. Plate XIV, figs. 1-ld. 

Pseudomonotis tenuiatriata sp.? var.? Beede, Kans. Univ. Quart., viii, 
p. 81, pi. xvni, ff. 1-ld, (1899).8 

Shell large, ovate in outline, rather compressed ; beak moder- 
ately prominent, projecting beyond the hinge, which is nearly 
straight. Anterior ear small, rounded to meet the hinge, rather 
fiat, the shell rising rather abruptly to the swell of the umbo. 
Anterior margin slightly sinuate ; antero-ventral margin broadly 
rounded to the ventral portion of the shell, where it becomes 
nearly straight, then rounding more abruptly to the posterior 
ear, which is also rounded to the hinge. Greatest convexity a 
trifle below the beak, but it is very slight. The surface is 
marked by many fine, wavy, radiating striae of uniform size, ex- 
tending from the beak to the ventral margin ; occasionally one 
striation will be a trifle larger than another on the central por- 
tion of the shell, but it soon loses itself, and on old individuals 
the striae on the ventral border are all about equal. They in- 
crease by implantation and are rather sharply defined, sepa- 
rated by troughs from one to three times their width, and are 
generally crossed by fine concentric lines or laminae. Right 
valve unknown. Height, 62 mm. ; length, 69 mm. ;• length of 
hinge, 23 mm. ; convexity, 10 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Turner, To- 
peka. Auburn (Shawnee county). This species dififers from 
P. ha^vni in always having small, regular striae and shorter 
hinge in the large individuals, as well as being a larger species. 

PseudomonotiB? robnsta. Plate XIV, figs. 2-2c. 

Pseudomonotisf robuata sp.? yar.? Beede, Kans. Univ. Quart., viii, p. 
82, pi. XVIII, flf. 2-2c, (1899). 

This shell dififers from the preceding in being much more con- 
vex and arcuate, in having a longer hinge, higher umbo, beak 
very much more compressed and scarcely distinct from the 

8. Throuffh the kindness of Mr. Charles Sohnchert, my attention was oall#d to the description 
of a species of this genns nnder the name tenuistrUUa, by Mr. Bittner. The paper was pnb- 
lishea in the Jahrbnch der K. K. G^log. Beichsanstaltt xliz, hefts iii and iv, (1889). The species 
i« from the Triassic of central Asia. As the paper probably appeared before my article, the 
name of the Kansas species will have to be changed. Kan9aseniiis is proposed as the new name 
of the species. 

9. The specimen need as the tvpe is somewhat crushed on the posterior end, making tiw shell 
appear longer than it really is. The length given here is that of the specimen in Its crashed 

134 University Geological Survey of Kansas, 

umbo, not projecting very sensibly above the hinge. The striae 
are more regular and much fainter, and either very indistinct 
or absent on at least the upper third of the shell. Both concen- 
tric wrinkles and lamellse of growth are distinct. Length, 48 
mm. ; convexity, 18 mm. ; height, 42 mm. ; length of hinge 
about 28 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Turner. 

This species differs from P, hawni in being very arcuate, hav- 
ing a plain umbo, and full anterior and posterior marginal 
outlines, and fine, even striae on the margins. It differs from 
P. kansasensis in its broad, smooth umbo and indistinct beak, 
long hinge, and more circular outline. 

Pgeudomonotis hawni eanistriata. Plate XIV, figs. 3-3b. 

Pseudomonotis hawni equistriata Beede, Kans. Univ. Quart., O. 82. pi. 
XVIII. flf. 3-3b, (1899). 

Shell of medium size, ovate in outline, moderately to quite 
gibbous, a little oblique with respect to the hinge ; beak moder- 
ately prominent, extending to or a little beyond the hinge, which 
is about half the length of the shell and somewhat arcuate. 
Umbo quite gibbous. Posterior ear very slightly developed, 
merging into and forming a slight sinus in the posterior mar- 
gin ; ventral, antero- and postero-veutral margins regularly 
rounded ; anterior margin sinuate in the upper portion on ac- 
count of the anterior ear, which is small and round. The sur- 
face is marked by fine, somewhat regular, rather wavy striae, 
which increase by intercalation, each fourth to tenth being 
usually a little larger than the remainder, though not very con- 
spicuously so. Small lamellae of growth sometimes distinguish- 
able. Some of the striae extend nearly to the beak. The right 
valve is flat, or a little concave ; otherwise unknown. Measure- 
ments, two specimens: Height, 31 mm., 84 mm.; length, 24 
mm., 26 mm. ; convexity, 7 mm., 13 mm. ; length of hinge, 12 
mm., 16 mm. These two specimens represent the extremes of 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Turner. 

This variety differs from P. hawni in being a shorter shell and 

BsBDB.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 135 

a little more convex, having regular striae, and in being a little 
smaller. P. cf, hawni, in the article above referred to, should also 
be considered as a true member of the species. The species here 
separated are, I believe, distinct from P. hawni; and this variety 
is worthy of varietal distinction, as often shells of these kinds are 
found in localities where the others are absent and some method 
of distinguishing the two forms of the species is necessary. 


Bronn. Leth. Geogn., (1837). 

Poaidonomya? recnrva. Plate XIX, figs. 6-6c. 

Posidonomya f recur va Beede, KaDS. Univ. Quart., viii, p. 126, pi. xxxii, 
f. 6, (1899). 

Shell of medium size, lenticular, oblique, and thin. The hinge 
line is nearly straight, about two-thirds the length of the shell. 
The beak is moderately prominent, recurved, projecting very 
slightly beyond the hinge. The greatest convexity is on the 
upper half of the shell and constitutes the umbonal swell, which 
is moderately prominent and curved backward, making the 
shell oblique. The surface is marked by concentric undula- 
tions of growth, and fine, closely set, concentric stria?. Height, 
23 mm. ; length, 23 mm. ; convexity of valve, about 4 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures; Lawrence. 

A specimen from the dam, at Lawrence, and shown in figs. 
6b, 6c, Plate XIX, is probably of the same species, though it has 
a somewhat different appearance and outline. It shows the 
beak projecting beyond the hinge, and the cast of the interior 
shows the beak to have been hollow beyond the hinge. The 
cast figured is of both valves in place, one of which is slightly 
crushed. It may be a distinct species, though as it is from the 
same horizon it is probable that the difference is individual 
rather than specific. 

The character of the hinge and the internal markings are too 
poorly shown in our specimens to permit of accurate location 
of the species. It resembles very much in appearance species of 
the genus Posidonomya, to which it is provisionally referred, and 
with which it agrees in its surface markings and in having a 

136 University Oeologiccd Survey of Kansas. 

very thin shell. It also agrees very well in these respects with 
Paracyclas, but that genus is not at present known from the 

Posidonomya? pertennis. Plate XIX, fig. 5. 

PoHdonomya f perienuis Beede, Keds. Univ. Quart, viii, p. 127, pi. xxxii, 
f. 5, (1899). 

Shell a little larger than in the previous species and less 
oblique. Transversely ovate in outline, very thin, quite com- 
pressed. Hinge line is nearly straight, about equaling half the 
length of the shell. The posterior? margin is somewhat trun- 
cate and nearly straight ; anterior extension of the hinge longer 
than the posterior, rather flat, not separated from the shell by 
well-defined depression. The front and ventral margins regu- 
larly rounded. The shell is compressed, probably most convex 
near the middle ; beak obtuse, not very prominent, protruding 
above the hinge line. The surface is marked by concentric un- 
dulations of growth, and fine, close, concentric striae. Height, 
40 mm. ; length, 36 mm. ; convexity of single valve, 4 or 5 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Lawrence. 

This species belongs to the same genus as the preceding. It 
has some resemblance to the figure of Keyes,^® which he refers 
to Placunopsis carbonaria, though it is very difficult to see why 
it should be referred to that genus or species ; his species may 
be the same as the one here described. 


Lamarck, Hist. Nat. les Anim. sans Vert., ( 1801). 

Modiola subelliptica. 

Clidophorus (Pleurophorus) occidentals Geinitz, Carb. u. Dyas in 
Neb., p. 23, pi. II, f. 6, (1866). 

Modiola f Mubelliptica Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv Neb., 211, pi. 
X, f. 5, (1872;. 

Meek's description : ** Shell narrow, subelliptical, rather con- 
vex, extremely thin, usually a little more than twice as long as 
high ; basal margin nearly straight, or sometimes very slightly 
convex or sinuous near the middle, rounding up at each ex- 

10. Geol. Snrr. Mo., V, p. 106, pi. zliii, fig. 9. 

Bkeds.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 137 

tremity ; anterior margin narrowly rounded ; posterior extremity 
more compressed, and more broadly rounded, sometimes a little 
oblique above ; cardinal margin somewhat straightened along 
the middle, but rounding imperceptibly into the anterior and 
posterior extremities ; beaks much depressed ; or scarcely dis- 
tinct from the cardinal margin, moderately convex, and placed 
very near the anterior margin, but not terminal ; umbonal slopes 
forming a very obscure narrow ridge, which extends, with a 
slight curve from each umbo, to the posterior basal margin. 
Surface marked with moderately distinct lines of growth, which 
on the posterior dorsal region above the umbonal ridge are 
crossed by very minute or microscopic radiating and rather dis- 
tinctly divericating stride. Length of the largest specimen seen, 
1.03 inches ; height of the same, 1.43 inches ; convexity, about 
0.25 inch.'' 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Topeka. 


de Koninck, Desc. Anim. Foss. Garb. Belgr., p. 125, (1814). 

Myalina swallovi. Plate XVI, fig. 7. 

Myalina swallovi McChesney, Desc. New Pal. Foss., p. 57, (1860); 
Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 201, pi. ix, ff. 7a, b, (1872); 

Aucella hausmani Greinitz, Carb. u. Dyas. in Neb., p. 25, pi. ii, f. 8, 

Meek's description: "Shell rather small, nearly or quite 
equivalve, modioliform or mytiloid, convex, or even subangu- 
lar, along the umbonal slopes from the beak to the anterior 
basal margin ; posterior and postero-dorsal regions, cuneate ; 
cardinal margin nearly straight, and about half the length of 
the shell, passing almost imperceptibly or without any angu- 
larity into the posterior margin, which rounds down with a 
semicircular curve to the narrowly rounded basal extremity ; 
antero-basal margin ascending obliquely forward, more or less 
sinuous near the middle or sometimes a little above, usually 
swelling out into kind of lobe or protuberance above the middle 
in front of the umbonal slope, as in Modiola. This prominence 
sometimes extends a little beyond the beaks, and varies more 


138 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

or less in breadth. Beaks small, very oblique, not projecting 
beyond the cardinal margin, and located so near the anterior 
extremity as often to appear very nearly terminal. Surface 
rather smooth, but showing fine concentric lines, which in well- 
preserved specimens are sometimes crossed by very fine, ob- 
scure traces or radiating strisB that curve upward on the 
posterior dorsal region." 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 
Topeka, Turner, Lawrence. 

Myalina sabguadrata. Plate XVI, fi^s. 10, 10b. 

Myalina auhquadratrt Shumard, Greol. Surv. Mo., p. 207, pi. C, f. 17, 
(1855); Meek, Fin. Rep, U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., 202, pi. iv, f. 12, pi. 
IX, f. 6(1872); etc. 

Meek's description : ** Shell large and thick, oblong or sub- 
quadrate, the height being greater than the antero-posterior 
diameter ; right valve nearly flat ; left convex, both somewhat 
compressed and alate above and behind the umbonal promi- 
nence. Hinge line nearly straight, about equaling the greatest 
breadth of the valve, and ranging at right angles to the vertical 
axis ; the basal margin regularly rounded ; posterior margin 
nearly vertical, rounding into the base below, a little sinuous 
above the middle, and intersecting the hinge above at very 
nearly right angles; anterior margin thickened within, round- 
ing into base, thence rising nearly vertically with a broadly 
rounded concavity mainly above the middle. Beaks terminal 
and directed forward. Cardinal plate or area usually rather 
broad, with cartilage furrows distinctly defined. Surface of 
the left valve marked with fine concentric striae, and stronger 
imbricating lamellsB of growth. These markings are much less 
distinct on the right valves." 

Range and distribution: Kansas City, Melvern (Osage 
county), Topeka, Lawrence. 

This species can readily be distinguished from the previous 
by its much larger size, by the hinge forming about a right angle 
with the vertical axis, and by the sinuosity or at least straight 
manner in which the margin approaches the posterior end of the 

BsBDB.] CarboniferovAi Invertebrates. 139 

Myalina ampla. Plate XVI, figs. 1, lb. 

Myalina ainpla Meek and Hayden, Pal. Upp.lMo., p. 33, ff. A, B, (1864). 
Myalina aubquadrata Meek and Hayden, ibid., p. 32. 

Meek and Hayden's description : ^' Shell attaining a large size, 
compressed and somewhat alate in the postero-dorsal region, and 
convex anteriorly — considerably higher than long ; posterior 
margin forming a broad gentle curve, being nearly straight and 
ranging almost vertically near the middle, and curving forward 
so as to intersect the hinge at an obtuse, undefined angle above, 
while below it arches regularly forward into the rather narrowly 
rounded base ; anterior margin thickened within above, broadly 
arcuate or concave in outline, its curvature being nearly paral- 
lel to that of the posterior margin. Beaks terminal, directed 
forward; umbonal ridge most prominent and obUque above, 
and in adult shells curving downwards so as to range nearly 
vertically near the middle. Hinge line straight, and ranging 
nearly at right angles to the longer or vertical axis of the 
valves ; cartilage furrows distinct, straight, and in mature shells 
numbering about ten or twelve ; area broad. Height, about 4 
inches ; antero-posterior diameter at the middle, 2.40 inches ; 
convexity of a left valve, 0.83 inch." 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; the type 
specimen was collected at Leavenworth. 

There is one specimen in the collection from the type locality 
which probably belongs to this species, the only difference 
being that the lines of growth do not bend quite so sharply 
forward as in the ones figured by Meek. The principal difi^er- 
ences between this shell and M. aubquadrata are : Very convex 
posterior outline instead of a straight or concave outline, greater 
/Size, and the curving forward of the lines of growth. 

Meek was in doubt as to whether it was the same as M. sub- 
quadrata of Shumard or not. He proposes the name at the close 
of the description of the shell, and comments upon it, stating 
that he is of the opinion that it is a distinct species. Later, in 
the final report on Nebraska, he states, in the discussion of M. 
aubquadrata (page 203) : **The large species figured by Doctor 
Hayden and the writer on page 33 of the Paleontology of the 

140 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

Upper Missouri as M. suhqtiadrata is, as we then suspected, a 
distinct species, differing in having the posterior margin round- 
ing forward into the hinge above, and not sinuous or meeting 
the hinge at right angles, as in M. subquadrata. It will have to 
take the name M. ampla, suggested by us for it, in case it should 
be found distinct.'* 

I have collected a large specimen of this species near Topeka 
with both valves present, but separated. 

Myalina kansasensis. Plate XVI, fig. 11. 

Mynlina kanHaaensiH Shumard, Trans. St. L. Acad. Sci., i, p. 213, (1858); 
Keyes, Greol. Surv. Mo., v, p. 117, pi. xliii, f. 5, (1894). 

Original description: ** Shell sub-rhomboidal, sub-inequi- 
valve, inequilateral, gibbous, the left valve more gibbous than 
the right ; height about double the length ; in young specimens 
the greatest length is at the cardinal border, but in the adult 
toward the pallial margin ; cardinal margin oblique, slightly 
arched, and forming with the posterior border an angle of 
about 120° ; posterior margin rather strongly arched in adult 
specimens, and very gently rounded in the young ; pallial mar- 
gin rounded ; buccal margin concave ; umbones very prominent 
anteriorly, and declining with a moderate slope to the posterior 
margin; anterior slope very abrupt; beaks terminal, attenu- 
ated, directed obliquely forward, incurved ; surface with strong, 
imbricating, sub-equidistant, concentric lamellae, whose free 
edges are often irregularly crenate ; lamellse most prominent 
on the left valve. The ligament face is broad, marked with 
equidistant, close, deeply impressed lines parallel to the cardi- 
nal edge, the number varying with the age of the shell ; be- 
neath these is a rather broad, smooth space, which is continuous 
with a similar space extending from the pallial region. Each 
valve exhibits a singular muscular impression, which is large, 
ovate, and situated towards the posterior margin. Height, 2i 
inches; length, 1.17 inches; thickness, 0.88 inch. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Argentine, 
Cowley county, Neosho river near Council Grove. 

This species may be easily recognized by the arched lamellae 

BsxBB.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 141 

of the shell when these are not worn away, and also by the 
convexity of the left valve and the small angle formed by the 
hinge line and anterior margin (exclusive of the beaks) . 

Myalina? ezasperata. PJate XIX, fi^. 4. 

Myalinaf exasperata Beede, Kans. Univ. Quart., viii, p. 128, pi. xxxii, 
f. 4, (1890). 

Shell cuneate-ovate in outline ; beaks pointed, terminal ; shell 
very thin, apparently composed of a single layer, compressed; 
valves nearly or quite equal. The anterior? margin nearly 
straight above, and merging into the narrowly rounded ventral 
region ; the posterior? region similar to the anterior, but more 
oblique. The surface is granular and marked by indistinct, 
rather broad, concentric striae. Height, 43 mm.; length, 28 
mm. ; convexity, 3 mm. ; length of hinge, about 29 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Topeka. 

The hinge of this shell is not suflSciently well shown to per- 
mit of its proper classification. It is left in Myalina for the 
present, for want of better information concerning its beak and 
muscular impressions. The extreme thinness of the shell makes 
it very probable that it does not belong to that genus. 

Myalina perattenuata. Plate XVI, fig. 8. 

MynUna peralfp.nuatn Meek and Hayden, Trans. Albany Inst., iv, p. 77, 
(1858); Pal. Upp. Mo., p. 32, pi. i, ff. 12a, b, (1864). 

Meek and Hayden's description : ** Shell very thin and frag- 
ile, obliquely elongate, narrow and slightly arcuate ; valves 
convex anteriorly, and compressed behind. Beaks pointed, 
terminal, and attenuate ; hinge line equaling rather more than 
half the entire length of the shell, and ranging at an angle of 
about fifty degrees above the oblique anterior margin. Posterior 
border sloping from the end of the hingCj nearly parallel to the 
anterior side above, and rounding to the narrow antero-basal 
extremity below ; anterior margin of the valves a little arcuate, 
and rather abruptly deflected inward from the umbonal ridge 
above the middle, and in outline nearly straight below. Um- 
bonal slopes prominent from the beaks down the anterior side. 
Surface with obscure subimbricating marks of growth. Length, 

142 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

from the beaks to the postero-basal extremity, 1.50 inches ; 
breadth, 0.65 inch ; convexity, about 0.44 inch.'* 

Range and distribution : Upper Goal Measures ; Topeka. 

This species can be distinguished at once from M. subquadrata 
by the small angle at the beaks. It differs markedly from M, 
swallovi in its attenuate beak, and the fact that the beak is not 
recurved and the umbonal ridge is more nearly straight. 

Myalina congeneris. Plate XVI, figs. 2, 2b. 

Myalina congeneris Walcott, Pal. Eureka Dist., Mon. U. S. Geol. Surv. 
No. 8, p. 237, pi. XIX, f. 6, pi. xxii, f. 10. 

Walcott's description : ** Shell oblong, the height being twice 
the width even in the broad examples ; hinge line straight and 
ranging at an angle of &0^ with the nearly straight anterior 
margin ; base narrow, but rather broadly rounded, posterior 
very broadly rounded, curving slightly inwards towards the 
cardinal line. General surface of the valves strongly convex 
towards the front border, and beaks becoming more depressed 
on the posterior portion. Surface of both valves marked by 
slightly imbricated lamellae of growth." 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Topeka. 

Walcott does not mention the nature of the hinge line in his 
description. In one of our specimens the beak is exposed, 
showing it to be acute, extending a little beyond the hinge. 
The hinge line is similar to that of M, swallovi in having a sin- 
gle groove, but there is no swell in front of the beak. Our 
specimens agree more closely with the narrow form as figured 
on Plate XIX. 

Our Kansas forms are from nearly the same horizon as M. 
perattemiata, to which they are most closely related, but differ 
in having their anterior and posterior margins parallel, and, as 
a consequence, are not trigonal in outline and the anterior 
margin is straight, while that of M, perattenuata is concave. 

Bbede.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 143 


Meek. Amer. Joar. Soi., XLIV, p. 283, ( 1867 ). 

Aviculopinna amerioana. Plate XVIII, fig. 2. 

Avicula pinnceformia Geinitz, Carb. u. Dyas in Neb., p. 31, pi. ii, f. 13, 
(not S. pinnceformis Geinitz, 1848), (1866). 

Aviculopinna nmerfcana Meek, Amer. Jour. Sci. ser. ii, xliv, p. 282, 
(1867); Fin. Rep. U. 8. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 197, pi. ix,ff. 12a-d, (1872); 
Pal. Ohio, II, p. 337, pi. xx, f. 2, (1875); Herrick, Bull. Den. Univ., ii, 
p. 38, pi. I, f. 20, (1887); Keyes, Geol. Surv. Mo., v, p. 115, (1894). 

Meek's description ; '* Shell small, compressed, with the slen- 
der elongated form of some of the Carboniferous species of Pinna ; 
cardinal and ventral margins generally nearly straight (the 
latter being more convex in outline) and converging gradually 
from behind to the rather obtusely pointed anterior extremity ; 
posterior side truncated, rounding into the base, and inter- 
*secting the posterior extremity of the hinge very nearly at 
right angles — a little sinuous just below the extremity of the 
hinge. Cardinal margin so slightly convex in outline as to ap- 
pear quite straight, very nearly equaling the greatest length of 
the valves, and provided with a well-developed marginal ridge, 
which narrows to a mere line, or dies out before reaching the 
beaks, and widens gradually to the posterior extremity. Beaks 
nearly or quite obsolete, extremely oblique, and very slightly 
behind the very narrow, obtusely pointed, anterior extremity. 
Surface with two or three broad, nearly obsolete radiating 
ridges on the posterior dorsal region, and ornamented by nu- 
merous slender, very regularly disposed and abruptly elevated 
lines or lamellae, much narrower than the spaces between, and 
curving gracefully parallel to the posterior border, while on 
the basal half of the valves they are closely approximate and 
curved forward.'' 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 
Lansing (Leavenworth county) , Topeka. 

Aviculopinna illinoiensis. Plate XVII, figs. 1-lc. 

Aviculopinna illinoienRis Worthen, Bull. No. 2 III. St. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
p. 13, (1884); Geol. Surv. 111., viii, p. 128, pi. xx, flf. 5, 5a, (1890). 

Shell of medium size, both valves convex ; dorsal and ventral 
margins moderately curved, converging at an angle of about 
20°. Beak very small and indistinct but placed about as in 

144 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

A. aviericana. Surface ornamented with concentric lines paral- 
lel to the posterior end of the shell. They are directed from 
the hinge line obliquely backward until they pass the central 
part of the valve, where they curve rapidly forward, finally be- 
coming nearly parallel to the ventral margin before reaching 
it. These lines are sharp, thread-like elevations or lamellae, 
abruptly elevated from the surface of the shell and separated 
by broad, shallow spaces of several tirae^ their width. Length 
of specimen ( the posterior portion is shortened by compres- 
sion), 65 mm.; height, at the posterior end, 19 mm.; con- 
vexity, 9 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 
head of Deer creek ( western portion of Douglas county ) . 

This specimen agrees with Worthen's description and figures, 

except that the angle formed by the dorsal and ventral margins 

is a little smaller. Itdifi^ers from A. americanam being a little 

more convex, larger, in having the lines farther apart and 



Lianieas, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., (175S). 

Pinna peracuta. Plate XVII, figs. 3, 3b. 

Pinna peracuta Shumard, Trans. St. L. Acad. Sci., i, p. 214, (1858) : Meek, 
Fin. Kep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 198, pi. vi, flf. 11a, b, (1872); White, 
U. S. Geog. Surv. West 100 Mer., iv, p. 151, pi. xi, f. 5a, (1877); etc. 
See Weller, Bull. 153 U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 429, (1898). 

Pinna adamsi, McChesney, New Pal. Foss., p. 74, (1860). 

Meek's description: ** Shell thin, very narrow, elongated, 
and tapering gradually and regularly from the larger to the 
smaller extremity ; convex or almost subcylindrical, excepting 
toward the posterior extremity, which is compressed and ob- 
liquely rounded, or subtruncated. Hinge margin very long, 
and almost perfectly straight — carinated in consequence of the 
sudden erection of the dorsal edges of the valves ; ventral mar- 
gin equally as straight as the dorsal, and ranging at an angle of 
about 12° with the latter. Surface nearly smooth, or showing 
very obscure lines of growth." 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 
Lawrence, Topeka. 

Bbkdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 145 

Pinna subspatulata. Plate XVII, fig. 2; plate XVIII, figs. 1, Id, and 3. 

Pinna subspatulata Worthen, Greol. Surv. 111., vi, p. 524, pi. xxx, f. 4, 


Shell very large, triangular in outline, cardinal and ventral 
margins diverging at an angle of about twenty degrees ; com- 
pressed laterally. Dorsal and ventral margins nearly straight, 
the dorsal slightly convex. Surface ornamented by very fine 
lines of growth with occasionally larger ones ; beginning at the 
dorsal margin, which is ridged, the lines pass across the cen- 
tral portion of the valve nearly transversely and curve rapidly 
forward, finally reaching the ventral edge several centimeters 
in front of their origin in the dorsal margin. The hinge fur- 
row down the dorsal margin makes a corresponding ridge on 
the outside of the shell. Length of specimen, incomplete at 
both ends, 23 cm. ; from broken posterior edge to the beaks, or 
apex of the angle formed by the sides, 27 cm. ; height at the 
posterior end, 5.5 cm. ; convexity ( both valves), in the central 
portion of the shell, about three-sevenths the height at that 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Topeka. 

This species differs from P, peracuta Shumard in being much 
more compressed, and the angle of the dorsal and ventral mar- 
gins being about twice as large. If the concentric lines of 
growth cross the shell and reach the ventral margin nearly as' 
directly as the figure indicates, and the angle at the anterior 
end of the shell is as small as represented, they will sharply dis- 
tinguish our species from P. subspatulata Worthen. He makes 
no statement concerning the convexity of the shell, but accord- 
ing to the figure it appears nearly flat, even more so than our 

Some large specimens from near Kansas City, all of which 
are either incomplete or crushed, may belong to this species, 
or may be exceedingly large specimens of P. peracuta Shumard. 
Near the anterior end they are very much more convex than 
the Topeka specimens while they are nearly fiat at the poste- 
rior end. The angle of divergence of the anterior end is about 
the same as in P. peracuta. 

146 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 


Lyoett, UuTch, Oeol. Chelt.. (1845). 

Macrodon sangamonensiB? Plate XX, figs. 2-2b. 

Macrodon aangamonenaia Worthen, Geol. Surv. 111., viii, p. 123, pi. xxi, 
ff. 3, 3a, (1890). 

Worthen'8 description : " Shell large, transversely elongated, 
hinge line equal to about four-fifths of the entire length of the 
shell. Posterior margin compressed and obliquely truncated, 
so as to meet the hinge line at a rather acute angle ; posterior 
extremity quite narrow and rounding gently downward to the 
basal margin. Anterior margin regularly rounded from the 
anterior extremity to the basal margin, which is slightly sinu- 
ous about the middle. Beak depressed, strongly incurved, 
placed about one-fifth the length of the hinge line from the 
anterior extremity. A gradually widening depression extends 
from the beaks to the posterior extremity on the dorsal margin, 
and on this flattened portion six or seven strong striae may be 
seen, which extend from the beak to the posterior extremity. 
Strong lines of growth extend around the basal margin, and 
minute transverse striae are visible under a lens, especially on 
the anterior portion of the shell. Length, 2i inches ; length of 
hinge, If inches; height, || inch; convexity of the valve, -j\ 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Turner (Wy- 
andotte county) . 

It is with much hesitation that I refer these specimens to 
this species, even provisionally. The specimens from Turner 
are very closely related on the one hand to M, sangavionensu 
Worthen, and on the other to M. siriains ( Schloth . ) . They differ 
from the former in not possessing minute radiating striae on 
the anterior portion of the shell, but striae larger than on any 
other part of the shell except on and above the umbonal ridge, 
and in possessing a large shallow sinus with obsolete costae in 
the central portion of the shell. It differs from M, striatus also 
in the obsolete area in the central or sinuate portion of the shell, 
and very markedly in the nature of the teeth in the front of 
the hinge ; in M. striatus (as represented by King) there are 

Besdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 147 

three or four teeth on the anterior of the hinge which are but 
slightly oblique, having a small angle with the long teeth of 
the posterior part of the shell. The first three teeth are much 
more oblique, and just back of them are six small, round teeth, 
back of which are two or three teeth oblique in the opposite 
direction to those on the front of the hinge. It differs from M. 
carbonariu^ (Cox) in the area of obsolete striae, in having the 
beak placed farther toward the rear, in having the coarse striae 
in front, and the posterior margin curving farther forward to 
meet the hinge. 

These specimens are from about the same locality as that 
figured by Keyes as M, sangamonensis ? Keyes's" figure agrees 
exactly with neither M. sangamonensis as figured by Worthen, 
nor entirely with our specimens, and, inasmuch as there is no 
description given that will distinguish this from several other 
species of the genus, I am in doubt as to whether his figure 
represents a specimen more like M. sangamonensis or like ours ; 
but he has the hinge line indicated as longer than the rest of 
the shell and the umbonal ridge as nearly destitute of striae, 
while our specimens possess large striae at this place. 

It is with some difficulty that the young of these specimens 
can be distinguished from JIf . tenuisiriatus Meek, but the striae 
are much heavier on the anterior than on the central portions 
of the shell, even in the young specimens. The outline and 
general appearance aside from this are very similar. 

Macrodon obsoletus. Plate XX, figr* 13. 

Macrodon ohsoletuH Meek, List Carb. Foss. W. Va., v, (Ex. Rep. Reg. 
Univ. W. Va.), (1871); Geol. Surv. Ohio, ii, Pal., p. 334, pi. xix, f. 9. 

Shell oblong, elliptical, of medium size ; hinge line about 
equaling the length of the shell ; anterior margin making a 
right angle, or sometimes less, with the hinge line, and round- 
ing gradually into the ventral margin, which is a little sinuate 
near the center and nearly parallel with the hinge line ; pos- 
terior margin abruptly but regularly rounded, curving forward 
to meet the hinge line. Sinus across the shell from the umbo to 

11. Gen. Surv. Mo., V, p. 121, pi. xlvi, f. 2, (1894). 

148 University Geological Survey of Kansas, 

the ventral margin nearly obsolete ; sinus along the hinge line 
widening considerably at the posterior extremity, making the 
posterior umbonal convexity narrow. Valves rather convex. 
There are three long teeth on the posterior portion of the hinge, 
nearly parallel, but apparently do not reach more than one-third 
the distance from the posterior to the anterior end of the shell ; 
beneath the umbo there are four or more small, comb-like, trans- 
verse teeth. In front of these there is a thickening of the shell ; 
anterior to the thickening of the shell, and near the front, are 
one or two large, oblique teeth making an angle of about 45^ 
with the hinge line. Concentric lines of growth visible, dis- 
tinct but not prominent. Length, 20 mm. ; height, 7 mm. ; 
convexity, single valve, 5 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Olathe, Tur- 
ner, Lawrence. 

I am able to find no trace of radiating striae, mentioned by 
Meek, on these specimens. However, the specimens appear ta 
have been water- worn before being enclosed in the matrix, and 
may have been abraded. The specimens seem to be identical 
with some from Carbon Hill, Ohio, except that the latter are a 
little larger. The hinge markings are also very similar. The 
anterior margin of the shell often meets the hinge line at an 
angle of less than 90° ; otherwise it seems to correspond very 
well to M. obsoletas. 


Likn, Ro8t. Samml., Ill, p. &5, ( 1807). 

Nncnlana bellistriata. * Plate XX, figs. 14, 14b. 

Leda bellistriata Stevens, Amer. Jour. Sci., (2), xxv, p. 261, (1858). 

Nucfda (Leda) kazanenais Swallow, Trans. St. L. Acad. Sci., i, p. 190, 


Nucnlana bellistriata White, 13th Rep. Ind. St. Greol., p. 146, pi. xxxi,. 
flf. 8,9, (1884). 

White's description : '* Shell transversely elongate-subovate, 
gibbous anteriorly and attenuate behind ; basal margin broadly 
convex, straightened in the middle ; anterior margin narrowly 
rounded ; posterior margin very narrow ; postero-dorsal mar- 
gin nearly straight, sloping backward and a little downward 
from the beaks ; umbonal ridges well defined, situated near to- 

Bbbde.] Carboniferous Invertebrates, 149 

the postero-dorsal margin, their outline, as seen from above, 
forming an elongate ellipse which has a concave surface on eack 
eide of the median ridge, which is formed by the upflexed 
margins of the valves there ; umbones prominent ; beaks in- 
curved, situated about two-fifths the full length of the shell 
from its front; surface marked by fine, regular, concentric, 
raised strioe, which are obsolete upon the umbonal ridges and 
the space which they enclose." 

Length of our specimen, 27 mm. ; height, 14 mm. ; con- 
vexity, 10 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 
Rosedale, Lawrence, Topeka. 

Kucnlana bellistriata attenuata. 

Nuculana belliairiata var. attenuata Meek, Fin. Bep. U. S. Geol. Surv. 
Neb., p. 206, pi. x, flf. 11a, b, (1872). 

Some are inclined to doubt the validity of this variety. There 
are forms of N, bellistriata which are more pointed, more finely 
striated and considerably smaller than others. The striations 
on this small shell are much smaller, and are separated by much 
narrower spaces, than the corresponding striae of the umbonal 
regions of the larger specimens. I believe they are varietally 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 


Lamarck, Anim. Sans Vert., p. 87, (1801). 

Nucnla beyrichi. Plate XXII, fig. 8. 

Nucuta beyrichi Geinitz, Carb. u. Dyas in Neb., p. 21, pi. i, ff. 36, 37, 
(1856): Meek, Fin. Rep. U. 8. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 203, pi. x, f. 18, 
(1872); etc. 

Meek's description: '* Shell very small, longitudinally sub- 
ovate, moderately convex, widest posteriorly ; anterior end 
somewhat narrowly rounded ; base forming a semiovate curve, 
the most prominent part being near the shorter end ; posterior 
side comparatively wide, and subtruncated ; beaks near the 
posterior extremity ; hinge line nearly rectangular at the beaks ; 
denticles comparatively large, about seven on the longer side. 

150 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

and five or six on the shorter ; surface marked with moderately 
distinct regular concentric striae. Length, 0.16 inch; height, 
0.10 inch." 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Grand Sum- 

A single worn specimen, probably of this species, is in the 
University collection, from Grand Summit. The markings are 
abraded, and most if not all of the shell is gone. However^ 
it agrees very well with the figures of the species given by Meek 
in the base of the plate in the Nebraska report. 

Nucula ventricosa. Plate XXII, figs. 9, 9b. 

Nucuin ventricosa Hall, Geol. Iowa, i. pt. ii, p. 716, pi. xxix, ff.,5a, b, 
(1858); Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 204, pi. x, ff. 17a-c, 


Meek's desription : ** Shell small, thick, subovate, very con- 
vex ; the greatest convexity slightly in advance of the middle 
of the valve ; posterior ( shorter ) end obliquely truncated from 
the beaks to its narrowly rounded or subangular -connection with 
the base, rather deeply excavated just behind the beaks ; ante- 
rior ( longer ) end rather narrowly rounded, its most prominent 
part being near or slightly above the middle ; dorsal outline de- 
clining gently, with moderate convexity from the beak to the 
anterior extremity ; basal margin forming a nearly semiovate 
curve, being a little more prominent before than behind the 
middle ; beaks convex, rather prominent, and placed about half 
way between the middle and the most projecting part of the 
postero- ventral extremity. Surface with (at least near the base) 
fine, regular, concentric striae. Length, 0.42 inch; height, 
0.22 inch." 

Description of the cast : The posterior adductors are strongly 
developed, ovate in outline, situated at the lower part of the 
posterior extremity of the shell, nearly beneath the beaks ; pal- 
lial line very heavily impressed, forming a somewhat oval curve. 
Anterior adductor scars also prominent, considerably larger 
and more circular in outline than the posterior, situated on the 
upper side of the extremity of the umbonal ridge. Immedi- 
ately to the rear of this are a pair of small pyriform impressions. 

Bbbdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 151 

There is a depression on some casts on the anterior side of the 
umbones extending somewhat below to about the elevation of 
the upper part of the posterior scar, in front of which is a cor- 
responding nodose ridge. This character varies greatly in dif- 
ferent specimens, but the characters are generally sufficiently 
developed to be detected. In the cast, the beaks are rather 
widely separated and the top of the cast in front of them is 
slightly concave, yet nearly flat. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 
Rosedale, Turner, Topeka, Grand Summit. 

This species may be easily distinguished from the preceding 
by its larger size, longer shell, and more robust appearance. 

Nncula pulchella. Plate XXI, figs. 5a-c. 

Nucufa pulchella Beede and Rogers, Kans. Univ. Quart., viii, p. 132, pi. 
XXXIV, ff. 5a-c, (1899). 

Original description : *' Shell very small, subtrigonal in out- 
line, ventricose ; anterior border straight, rounding abruptly to 
the ventral margin, which is rounded ; posterior abruptly trun- 
cated nearly at right angles with the ventral margin. Beaks 
prominent, incurved, situated nearly at the posterior end of 
the shell ; lunule not well defined. The greatest convexity is 
'at the umbo. The surface is ornamented by fine, elevated, 
concentric striae and undulations of growth. Length, 4i mm. ; 
height, 3i mm. ; convexity, 3 mm." 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Lawrence. 

This species differs from N. beyrichi in being more triangu- 
lar, shorter, and the beaks more prominent. It differs from 
N. ventricosa, also, in the above respects, as well as being very 
much smaller and having very much more prominent surface 

152 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 


liooller, Kroyer's Nat. Tid.. IV. p. 91, (1842). 

Toldia snbscitula. Plate XX, fig. 8. 

Ledn subsoitvla Meek and Hayden, Traos. Alb. lost., iv, p. 79, (1858). 
Yofdia subscitulnf Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 205, pi. x, 
f. 10, (1872); etc. 

Meek's description: "Shell longitudinally subovate or sub- 
elliptic, compressed, the greatest convexity a little in advance 
of the middle, about twice as long as high ; anterior extremity 
wider than the other but rather narrowly rounded, the most 
prominent point being usually slightly above the middle ; out- 
line of base forming a broad semiovate curve, being more 
prominent anteriorly than behind ; posterior side narrowed, its 
margin rounding up gradually from the base, so as to meet the 
dorsal margin at nearly right angles, sometimes faintly truncate 
at the immediate extremity ; posterior dorsal margin compressed 
or cuneate, and declining gradually, with a nearly straight, or 
slightly concave outline; anterior dorsal margin not cuneate, 
sloping forward gradually, and a little convex in outline ; beaks 
rather depressed or subcentral, or very little in advance of the 
middle ; umbonal slopes without any defined ridge or angle. 
Surface smooth, or only showing traces of very minute con- 
centric striae. Length, 0.77 inch ; height, 0.37 inch ; convex- 
ity, 0.14 inch. 

*' It is with considerable doubt that I have concluded to refer 
this shell to F. suhsciUda M. and H., because the specimens from 
Nebraska City are distinctly more compressed than the type 
upon which that species was founded, their convexity being 
uniformly not more than half as great proportionally. The 
five or six individuals in the collection are constant in this 
character, and yet show no evidences whatever of accidental 
compression. Otherwise the two forms are very similar in their 
general outline, but we know nothing of the internal and hinge 
characters of the form under consideration. I strongly suspect, 
however, that it will be found to be a distinct species, in which 
case I would propose to call it Yoldia propinqua, from its near 
resemblance to Y. subscitula.'^ 

Bbbdb.] Carboniferoua Invertebrates. 153 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Topeka. 

Only a single left valve of this species has been collected by 
the writer, at Topeka, Kan. It agrees so well with this descrip- 
tion that it is referred to it, though the lines of growth pass 
forward on approaching the hinge and become nearly parallel 
to it. 

Toldia glabra. Plate XXI, figs. 4a, b. 

Yoldia glabra Beede and Rogers, Kans. Univ. Quart., viii, p. 133, pi. 
XXXIV, ff. 4a, b, (1899). 

Shell of medium size for this genus, truncate-subelliptical in 
outline, nearly flat, greatest convexity at the umbo, sloping 
gently in all directions from the central portion of the. valve; 
anterior dorsal outline nearly straight, sloping gently, and 
broadly rounded into the anterior ventral margin, which forms 
an elliptical curve to the posterior end-, where it is somewhat 
truncate, meeting the hinge at an obtuse angle. Hinge line 
back of the beak nearly straight. Beaks depressed, nearly 
central. Surface nearly smooth, with traces of obscure, dis- 
tant, concentric stria* parallel to the ventral outline ; lines of 
growth visible on the postero-dorsal region. Measurements : 
Length, 14^ mm. ; height, 7 mm. ; convexity of single valve, 
1^ mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Lawrence. 

This shell differs from Y. levistriata M. and W., from the St. 
Louis group, in having its posterior border truncated, striae 
distant rather than closely arranged, and in being much less 
convex. It differs from V. subscitulaf Meek, or }'. propinqua 
Meek, in being more depressed and the posterior end much 
more broadly rounded. 

11— vi 

154 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

Toldia knoxenslB? Plate XX, fig. 4. 

Leda polita McChesney, New Pal. Foas., p. 53, (1860). 

Leda knoxetuiis McChesney, 111. New Spec. Foes., pi. ii, ff. Oa-c, (1865). 

Yoldia knoxensi** McChesney, Trans. Chic. Acad. Sci., i, p. .^, pi. ri, ff. 
9a-c, (1868). 

Shell rather large for this genus, ovate in outline. The hinge 
line in front of the beaks bends* somewhat downward; the en- 
tire anterior and ventral border from near the beaks around to 
the antero-dorsal border forming a regular, perfectly ovate 
curve, the broad end of which is placed foremost; postero- 
dorsal border rounded more sharply but not angulated, turning 
considerably forward to meet the hinge, in an almost straight 
line. Hinge, back of the beak, nearly straight ; teeth numerous 
and very fine ; valves moderately convex ; umbones not promi- 
nent ; beaks closely approximated and incurved. Greatest 
convexity in front of the middle of the shell ; the greatest 
vertical diameter near or a little in front of the center ; beaks 
placed about one-third the distance from the front end of the 
hinge. There is a faint depression extending from back of 
the umbo, near the hinge line, obliquely backward over the 
umbonal ridge but soon vanishing. This is so faint as to be 
hardly noticeable, yet it is present in every specimen before me. 
Surface ornamented by rery fine, regular, concentric lines of 
growth. Length, 28 mm.; height, 16 mm.; convexity (both 
valves), 8 mm. Specimen a little larger than the average. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Leavenworth, 
Lansing coal-shaft. 

This shell agrees very well with McChesney 's description of 
r. knoxensisy Proc. Chic. Acad. Nat. Sci., i, pi. ii, f. 9, but dif- 
fers from the figure of the species in being about as wide just 
back of the beaks, near the center of the shell, as at any other 
place, in being less attenuate behind, less abruptly rounded on 
the posterior extremity, and meeting the hinge line at a very 
much greater angle than is shown by his figure, which shows 
the posterior extremity of the shell to be subtruncate. 

Bkbde.] Carboniferous Invertebrates . 155 


Kiii«, Ann. Ha«r. Nat. Hlat., XIV, p. 818, (1844). 

Schizodus wheeleri. Plate XXII, figs. 1-lc. 

Cypricardiaf wheeleri Swallow, Trans. St. L. Acad. Sci., ii, p. 96, (1862). 

Schizodua obscurus Greinitz, Carb. u. Dyas in Neb., p. 20, pi. i, ft. 30, 31, 


Schizodua wheeleri Meek, Fin. Bep. U. S. Greol. Surv. Neb., p. 209, pi. x, 
«f. la-f, (1872). 

Meek's description : '' Shell attaining a medium size, longi- 
tudinally subovate, moderately convex; anterior side wider 
than the other, and regularly rounded; posterior side nar- 
rowed/ and obliquely truncated ; basal outline rather promi- 
nently rounded anteriorly, and straightened, or slightly sinuous 
between the middle, and sharply rounded or subangular pos- 
terior basal extremity ; dorsal margin straight, and sloping 
from the beaks to the truncated posterior edge ; beaks rather 
depressed (for a species of this genus), incurved, placed about 
half way between the middle and the front, or perhaps nearer 
the middle ; posterior umbonal slope rather prominent, or 
usually forming a rather obtuse ridge near the posterior basal 
extremity ; surface with merely fine lines and obscure marks of 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 

SchizoduB hari. Plate XXII, figs. 2-2d. 

Schizodua harii Miller, 17th Ann. Rep. St. Geol. Ind., p. 701, pi. xx, ff. 
1-3, (1892); Keyes, Geol. Surv. Mo., v, p. 123, pi. xlvi, f. 4, (1894). 

Shell moderately large, quite convex, rather obliquely sub- 
ovate in outline, transverse outline ovate. The outline is regu- 
larly rounded from near the beaks around the anterior end to 
the postero- ventral margin, where it bends rather abruptly up- 
ward and forward to meet the hinge line, which is somewhat 
arcuate. Beaks placed well forward, moderately prominent, 
somewhat incurved, pointing a little forward, and moderately 
approximate. Valves very regularly convex for this genus. 
Greatest gibbosity a little in front of the middle ; umbonal 
ridge very indistinct or almost wanting ; the depression ex- 
tending back from the beaks along the cardinal line very 

156 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

indistinct and ill defined. Posterior portion of the shell some- 
what wedge-shaped. The fine concentric strijiR of growth are 
most apparent on the anterior and posterior ends and along the 
ventral margin. The interior of the shell is marked by rather 
deep adductor scars, the anterior being situated very near the 
anterior dorsal margin, rather broadly elliptical in outline, 
while the posterior is situated near the posterior end of the liga- 
ment and is much larger, rather ovate in outline. The pallial 
line is indistinct, but seems to pass rather closely to the ventral 
margin around to the anterior end, where it curves rather regu- 
larly upward to the anterior adductor. There is a ritlge in 
the interior of the shell extending from the umbo obliquely 
backward about one-half to two-thirds the distance to the pos- 
tero-ventral margin. In the right valve the tooth is quite large 
and extends obliquely forward and downward, and is largest at 
its extremity ; in front of this is a depression or socket for the 
smaller anterior tooth of the left valve, while back of it is a 
larger cavity for the large central tooth of the left valve ; back 
of this cavity there is a slight sharp elevation extending ob- 
liquely backward. In the left valve there is a small, thin tooth 
extending obliquely forward, back of which is a large socket for 
the reception of the large tooth of the right valve. Posterior to 
this there is a thin, deep depression, extending nearly parallel 
to the hinge, for the reception of the thin posterior tooth of the 
right valve. Length, 52 mm. ; height, 40mm. ; convexity of 
single valve, 13 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 
Lansing ( probably from the penitentiary coal-shaft ) . 

One specimen, somewhat below the average size, was worked 
from the shale, showing the internal and external features of 
both valves, including the hinge. 

Bbbdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 167 

8chizodn8 subcircnlaris. 

Srhizodus subcircnlaris Herrick, Bull. Den. Univ., ii, p. 41, pi. iii, f. 24, 
( 1887 ). 

Schizodus MubcirciUaris Girty, U. S. Geol. Surv., xix, pt. in, p. 582, pi. 
Lxxii, f. 8a, (1899). 

Herrick's description (in part) : **. . . The anterior and 
lower margins are continuous parts of almost a circle, which 
is only a little produced posteriorly ; the posterior margin is in- 
clined ; beak submedian, posterior umbonal ridge not sharp. 
The shell is moderately convex and is nearly smooth, except for 
the distant lines of growth. Length, 0.63 inch ; width, 0.59 
inch ; convexity (single valve), about 0.20 inch." 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Lawrence. 

A single right valve from the dam rock at Lawrence agrees 
well with Herrick's figure and description. It is a little smaller 
and, apparently, better preserved than Herrick's specimen, for 
it shows excedingly fine, inconspicuous concentric striae in addi- 
tion to the distant lines of growth mentioned in his description. 

Schizodns compressus, n. sp. Plate XXII, figs. 6, 6d. 

/Schizodus whrderi Herrick, Bull. Den. Univ., ii, p. 42, pi. in, f. 15, (1887 ). 

Shell medium size for this genus, not very convex, elongate 
subovate in outline, cuneate posteriorly. Antero-dorsal mar- 
gin non-sinuate ; anterior margin broadly rounded ; ventral mar- 
gin quite convex, terminating posteriorly in a rather prominent 
acute angle ; posterior margin obliquely truncate ; dorsal mar- 
gin nearly straight, curving very slightly upward. Hinge line 
straight, a little less than one-half the length of the shell. 
Beaks depressed, incurved, inconspicuous, scarcely elevated 
above the hinge line, located about one-third the length of the 
shell from the anterior end. Umbonal slope subangular, 
rather prominent, becoming obsolete towards the posterior 
angle of the shell. Greatest convexity of the shell below and 
slightly behind the umbo. Posterior to the umbonal slope 
the shell is much compressed. Adductor scars small, sub- 
elliptical in shape, anterior one situated near and a little above 
the middle of the anterior margin ; posterior one placed close 
to the dorsal margin, a little behind the beak. Pallial line sub- 

158 University Geological Survey of Kansas, 

parallel to the ventral margin. Surface smooth, showing oc- 
casional very faint undulations of growth. Length, 31 mm.; 
height at beak, 21 mm. ; convexity of single valve, 5 mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Lawrence. 

There is but little doubt that our shells are specifically iden- 
tical with Herrick's specimen, as far as can be learned from his 
figure and brief description. At any rate, our species is not S, 
wheeler i! It is much more nearly related to S. cheslerensis M. 
and W., from the Chester group of Illinois. The beak is less 
elevated and placed farther back, the shell is less convex, and 
the posterior adductor scar is placed farther forward than in 
that species. It bears some resemblance to S. meekanus Girty," 
but the beak is a little less prominent, the shell less elongate, 
and the ventral margin curves up more rapidly posteriorly, the 
posterior angle being nearer the hinge line than in that species. 

A large number of these shells have been collected from the 
dam rock at Lawrence, and from its equivalent at Cameron's 
BlufiF. They all agree well with the above description and rep- 
resent a distinct species. 


Lamarck, Hist. Nat. Anim. sans Vert., V, p. 488, (1818). 

Solenomya parallella. Plate XXI, fig. 1. 

Solcnoniya parallclla Beede and Rogers, Kans. Univ. Quart., viii, p. 131, 
pi. XXXIV, f. 1, (1899). 

Shell large, moderately convex, elongate-subquadrate in out- 
line ; anterior margin broadly rounded to nearly truncate, 
meeting the hinge at a little more than a right angle ; dorsal 
and ventral margins straight, nearly parallel ; postero-dorsal 
margin sloping obliquely downward, meeting the rounded pos- 
terior margin at an obtuse angle. Beaks depressed, incurved, 
situated about one-fourth the distance from the posterior to the 
anterior end of the shell. The greatest convexity is at the 
umbo, the shell gaping a little wider anteriorly than behind. 
Surface marked by flat, radiating plications, which become 
obsolete at either end of the shell, the whole surface of which 

12. U. S. OeoL Snry., 19th Ann. Bep., pt. Ill, p. 583, pL LXXII, ff. 7a-c, (1899). 

B BEDS. J Carboniferous Invertebrates. 159 

is apparently covered with radiating strise parallel to the plica- 
tions. Neither the plications nor the striae radiate directly 
from the beak, but from a point above the beak and a trifle in 
front of it. These are crossed by fine obscure lines of growth. 
The anterior and posterior adductors are prominent ; the pos- 
terior one is triangular, located between the beak and the pos- 
terior margin, along its anterior side, and extending above it 
is a ridge caused by the thickening of the shell, which produces 
a slight oblique furrow in the cast. The anterior scar is lo- 
cated on the upper side of the shell, near the anterior angle. 
The pallial line is indistinct, parallel to the ventral margin, 
curving backward to meet the anterior adductor scar. Length, 
53 mm. ; height, 18 mm. ; convexity of single valve, about 
o mm. 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 

Solenomya trapezoides. Plate XXI, figs. 2a, b. 

Solenonn/a sp. Meek and Worthen, Geol. Surv. 111., v, p. xxvii, £f. la, b, 


Solenomi/a frnpezoidea Meek, Amer. Jour. Jci., (3), vii, pp. 582, 583, 
(1874); Bnede and Rogers, Kans. Univ. Quart., viii, p. 132, pi. xxxiv, if. 
2a, b, (1899). 

Shell large, subelliptical in outline, length from two to two 
and a half times the height, convex, open at both ends. Ven- 
tral margins slightly convex, curving abruptly upward on the 
posterior extremity and more gently on the anterior ; posterior 
side obliquely truncated above ; hinge straight in front of the 
beaks, which are depressed, approximate, located about one- 
fourth the length of' the shell from the posterior extremity. 
Surface niarked by rather obscure concentric undulations of 
growth, crossed by faint radiating striae, which seem to radiate 
from the beak. Posterior adductor scar moderately prominent, 
more or less irregularly subcircular ; the ridge in front of the 
scar is broad and its outline is rather indistinct, nearly perpen- 
dicular to the hinge, curving backward below ; anterior scar 
indistinct, somewhat subcircular ; pallial line extending back- 
ward "and downward from the lower side of the posterior scar, 

160 University Geologkal Survey of Kansas, 

then curving abruptly forward parallel to the ventral margin to 
the middle of the shell » where it becomes too indistinct to trace 
in our specimens. Measurements of a specimen a little below 
the average size and a larger specimen: Length, 66 mm., 76 
mm. ; height, 24 mm., 33 mm. ; convexity, 15 mm., 25 mm., 

Range and distribution : Near the junction of the Upper and 
Lower Coal Measures, at Porterville, Kan., and Westport, Mo. 

Solenomya radiata. Plate XXII, figs. 5-ob. 

Solenomfja radiata Meek and Wortheo, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., p. 

Soleaomya radiata Meek and Worthen, Geol. Surv. 111., iix, p. 349, pi. 
XXVI, ff. 10a, b, (1866). 

Meek and Worthen's description: ** Shell thin, narrow ob- 
long-oval or subelliptical, moderately convex, nearly closed at 
the each end ; pallial margin rather straight or very slightly 
contracted along the middle, and rounding up more gradually 
in front than behind ; anterior (longer) side narrowly rounded, 
its most prominent part being above the middle ; posterior 
(shorter) side narrowly rounded below and obliquely subtrun- 
cate above ; dorsal outline nearly parallel to the base ; beaks 
much depressed, located less than one-fourtli the entire length 
of the shell in advance of the posterior extremity. Surface 
with obscure marks of growth, crossed by Hat, nearly obsolete 
radiating plications, which are sometimes separated, near the 
middle of the valves, by spaces greater than their own breadth ; 
plications very oblique and more closely arranged on the an- 
terior side. Length, 1.17 inches; height, 0.47 inch; convex- 
ity, about 0.33 inch.'^ 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures; Topeka. 

Bbbdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 161 


Kinff. Ann. Hag. Nat. Hist., XIV. p. 318, ( 1844 ). 

Pleurophorns sabcostatus. Plate XX, figs. 11-llb. 

Pleurophorus subcostatus Meek and Worthen, Proc. Acad. Nat. Soi. 
Phil., p. 246, (1865). 

Pleurophorus aubcoatatus Meek and Worthen, Geol. Surv. 111., ii, pp. 
347, 348, pi. xxvii, if. 2, 2a, (1866). 

Meek and Worthen's description: ''Shell elongate-oblong, 
moderately convex ; umbonal ridges the most convex part of 
the valves, and extending obliquely from the beaks toward the 
postero-basal margin ; anterior ventral region somewhat com- 
pressed ; basal and cardinal margins very nearly straight and 
subparallel, the former being usually somewhat sinuous or ar- 
cuate along the middle ; extremities rather narrowly rounded, 
the posterior being generally a little wider than the other, and 
sometimes faintly subtruncate obliquely. Hinge line long and 
nearly straight ; posterior lateral tooth of each valve elongated 
parallel to the hinge margin, very remote from the cardinal 
teeth, and extending back a little beyond the posterior muscular 
impression. Beaks depressed upon a line with the dorsal mar- 
gin, small, somewhat compressed, and placed about one-ninth 
the entire length of the shell behind the anterior margin. Scar 
of the anteri'or adductor muscle deep, trigonal-subovate, pointed 
above, and strongly defined by the prominent vertical ridge 
just behind it ; those of the pedal muscles small, nearly mar- 
ginal, and located directly over the anterior adductors ; posterior 
adductor scars larger and more shallow than the anterior, sub- 
quadrate in outline, and placed close up under the posterior 
hinge teeth. Pallial impression well defined. Surface of casts 
showing traces of a few obscure concentric markings, crossed 
on the postero-dorsal region by traces of about three equal ob- 
scure radiating costip. Exterior surface and cardinal teeth un- 
known. Length of a medium-sized specimen (internal cast) , 
0.88 inch ; height of same, 0.37 inch; convexity, 0.26 inch. 
Some larger specimens, of same proportions, measure 1.33 
inches in length. *' 

Range and distribution : Upper ('oal Measures ; Kansas 
City, Mo. 

162 University Oeological Survey of Kansas. 

PlenrophoruB tropidophoniB. Plate XX, fig. 7. 

Pl'urophoriis tropidophorus Meek, Geol. Surv. Ohio, ii, Pal., p. 338, 
pi. XIX, ff. 10a, b, (1875). 

Original description : " Shell transversely oblong, much com- 
pressed, with length a little greater than twice the height ; 
posterior margin flattened and bifurcated, the lower truncation 
being nearly vertical, and the upper sloping obliquely down- 
ward and backward from the hinder end of the hinge ; cardinal 
margin straight, equaling about two-thirds the length of the 
valves ; anterior rounded below and sloping abruptly forward 
from the beaks above ; basal margin long, parallel to the hinge, 
nearly straight for most of its length, or faintly sinuous near 
the middle, rounding up anteriorly, and forming a more or less 
defined angle at its connection with the lower part of the pos- 
terior margin behind ; posterior umbonal slope distinctly an- 
gular from the beaks to the angular posterior basal extremity, 
while a second carina passes obliquely backward and downward 
along the middle of the dorsal space above the umbonal ridge 
of each valve ; beaks depressed to the line of the cardinal 
margin, very little projecting, and placed one-fifth to one-fourth 
the length of the valves from the anterior margin. Surface 
marked by distinct concentric lines of growth, that become 
strongly defined on the flanks and anterior parts of the valves, 
but are less distinct on the space above and behind the umbonal 
angles. Length, 1.10 inches; height, 0.52 inch; convexity, 
about 0.20 inch." 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas 
City, Mo. 

Pleurophorus costatus. 

Area costata Brown, Trans. Man. Geol. Soc, i, p. 32, pi. vi, ff. 34, 35, 


Pleurophorus eostatus Brown, King, Cat., p. 11, (1848); King, Men. 
Perm. Foss. Eng., p. 181, pi. xv, ff. 13, 14, (1850). 

Pleuro2>horus costatiformis Meek and Worthen, Geol. Surv. 111., iii, p. 
535, pi. XIX, f. 8, and text fig., (1868). 

Meek and Worthen's description : ** Shell elongate, suboval, 
moderately convex, slightly arcuate ; the dorsal and ventral 
margins rather long, and more or less nearly parallel, the 

Bbbdb.] Carboniferous Inverkhrates. 163 

former being a little concave in outline, and the latter convex ; 
extremities narrowly rounded. Beaks small, depressed, or ris- 
ing little above the hinge line, very oblique, somewhat com- 
pressed, incurved, and placed very near the anterior end ; 
lunule apparently small and deep. Surface ornamented by 
concentric stria? of growth, and a few larger, obscure, concen- 
tric wrinkles, crossed on the postero-dorsal region by five dis- 
tinct, equidistant and radiating ridges, extending obliquely 
from the beak to the posterior margin, the lower one being the 
largest, and forming the umbonal ridge, while the upper one 
runs parallel to the cardinal margin, and forms the edge of the 
long corslet, or escutcheon. Length, about 1.10 inches ; height, 
0.46 inch ; convexity, near 0.43 inch.'' 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas 

Citv, Mo. 

I see no reason for putting this shell in a distinct species. 
Our Kansas City specimens agree well with King's descrip- 
tions and figures, being longer than Meek and Worthen's fig- 
ures. It seems that the principal reason for making a distinct 
species of this shell was the fact that it came from a much 
lower horizon than the European forms, but this is true of sev- 
eral species of fossils which are common to the Coal Measures 
of 'the Missouri valley and the Permian of Europe. The lines 
of growth (or striii*) on our specimens meet the hinge at a very 
obtuse angle, while Meek's figure represents them meeting 
nearly at right angles. In this respect it is like costatiis. 


Hall. G^eol. Iowa, pt. II, p. 715. 

Astartella vera. Plate XXII, fig. 10. 

Astarlella vera Hall, Greol. Iowa, pt. ii, p. 715, pi. xxix, flf. la-c, fl858); 
Keyes, Geol. Surv. Mo., v, p. 125, pi. xlvi, f. 6, (1895); etc. 

Original description : *' Shell somewhat rhomboid -ovate, gib- 
bous on the umbones ; beaks subanterior, elevated, approxi- 
mate ; anterior end slightly concave below the beak and rounded 
below, posterior end obliquely truncate. An oblique undefined 
ridge extends from the beak to the posterior basal margin, hav- 
ing the space between it and the ligamental area flattened ; 

164 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

lunule cordi'form, strongly impressed ; ligamental area deeply 
marked, and extending to the posterior extremity. Anterior 
and posterior muscular impressions distinct; hinge strong. 
Teeth of right valve separated by a deep pit ; the anterior tooth 
with a longitudinal pit in the summit, and a callosity on the 
inner margin at its base. Surface marked by strong concentric 
furrows, which are separated by sharp angular ridges ; the in- 
termediate space finely striated." 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Grand Sum- 


Bronn, Leth. Geo., I, p. 92, ( 1835). 

Oonocardium parrislii. Plate XX, fig. 9. 

Conocardium parrishi Worthen, Geol. Surv. 111., viii, p. 112, pi. xx, f. 
7, (1890); Keyes, Geol. Surv. Mo., v, p. 124, pi. xlvi, ff. 6a, b, (1894). 

Worthen's description : ''Shell obliquely triangular, hinge 
line straight, beaks depressed, umbonal ridge elevated into a 
strong rounded fold, with faint traces of fine stria* towards the 
lower extremity. Anterior side evenly and rapidly sloping 
from the umbonal fold to the extremity, traversed by radiating 
costal, only four or five of which extend to the hinge line, but 
increasing by division and implantation so that ten or more 
may be counted on the margin of the shell, the one nearest the 
umbonal ridge being somewhat stronger than the others. Pos- 
terior side flattened towards the extremity, and marked by 
eight or more flattened stria?, nearly all of which extend to the 
hinge line. Length, about -^^ inch.*' 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas 



Hall, Pal. N. Y., Ill, p. 266, (1860). 

Oypricardinia? carbonaria. Plate XX, fig. 16. 

Cypricardinia f carbonaria Meek, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. PhiL, p.l63, (1871». 

Ct/pricardf'nia f carbonaria Meek, Geol. Surv. Ohio, ii, Pal., p. 342, 
pi. XIX, ff. 8a, b, (1875). 

Meek's description: ** Shell small, longitudinally oval, less 
than twice as long as high, the widest (highest) part being 
under the posterior extremity of the hinge ; rather gibbous, 
with usually a broad impression extending from the beaks ob- 

Bbbdk.J Carbaniferoits Invertebrates. 166 

liquelj backward and downward to the middle of the base of 
each valve ; anterior side extremely short, ot nearly obsolete, 
convex, and rounded; posterior side broader, more compressed 
or cuneate, with its upper edge straight and sloping obliquely 
backward to the regularly rounded posterior margin ; base 
broadly and slightly sinuous in the middle, and rounding up- 
ward at the extremities ; hinge line straight, between one-half 
and two-thirds as long as the valves, ranging at an angle of 
about twenty-five degrees with the oblique, longer axis of the 
shell, so as to meet the sloping upper edge of the posterior 
margin at a very obtuse but moderately well-defined angle, thus 
imparting to the somewhat compressed posterior dorsal region 
a very faintly alate appearance ; beaks extremely oblique, de- 
pressed nearly to the dorsal margin, very nearly terminal, and 
scarcely projecting beyond the rounded outline of the anterior 
extremity. Surface ornamented by about fifteen to twenty ex- 
ceedingly regular, well-defined, subimbricating, flattened, con- 
centric ridges or undulations, that gradually become smaller 
and more closely approximating on the umbones.'' 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; in the oolite 
at Rosedale and Turner. 


de Koninck, ADim. Foss. Carb. Belg., p. 101, ( 1844 ). 

Cardiomorplia migsonriensis. Plate XX, fig. 17. 

Cardiomorpha mtHSOurienais Shumard, Trans. St. L. Acad. Sci., i, p. 
207, (1858) ; Meek and Worthen, Geol. Surv. 111., v, p. 588, pi. xxvii, f. 8, 

yucula mervrrvnHiH McChesney, Trans. Chic. Acad. Sci., i, p. 40, pi. ii, 
flf. 12a-c, (1868). 

Nucula ciflindrica McChesney, New Pal. Foss., p. 54, (1860). 

Original description : '* Shell inequilateral, elliptico-subquad- 
rate, very thin, length double the height; superior and infe- 
rior borders subparallel ; cardinal margin long, slightly arcuate, 
inferior border slightly arched ; anal and buccal margins strongly 
rounded, the latter being very short ; umbonal region moderately 
convex in young specimens, and very gibbous in the old, great- 
est convexity short distance below the beaks ; beaks situated 
near the anterior margin, rounded, closely incurved and nearly 

166 University Oeological Survey of Kansas, 

approximate ; surface marked with very fine crowded, concen- 
tric strise, which hre sometimes more or less flexuous. Length 
of full-grown specimen, 1.30 [inches?] ; height, 0.64; thick- 
ness, 0.62." 

Range and distribution ; Upper Coal Measures ; Topeka. 


de Koninek. Anim. Fosa. Garb. Belir., p. 66. ( 1844). 

Edmondia nebrascensis. Plate XX, fig. 5. 

Aaiarte nebrascenais Geinitz, Carb. u. Dyas Id Neb., p. 16, pi. i, f. 25, 


Edmondia nebraacetwie Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 214, 
pi. X, f. 8-8b, (1872). 

Meek's description: '* Shell subovate, compressed, more or 
less rounded at the extremities ; length nearly once and a half the 
height ; basal margin broadly semielliptic or semiovate in out- 
line ; dorsal margin sloping from the beaks, but more abruptly 
in front than behind, rounding into the extremities ; beaks 
moderately prominent, and located somewhat in advance of the 
middle. Surface marked by broad, rounded, rather regular 
concentric furrows, separated by sharp, moderately prominent 
concentric linear ridges, sometimes show under a magnifier in- 
dications of being minutely crenate ; impressions or furrows 
between the ridges, showing concentric striae, which, by the aid 
of a lens, in a cross-light appear to be crossed by fine, nearly 
obsolete radiating markings. Length of the largest specimen 
seen, 1.35 inches; height, 0.95 inch; convexity, about 0.30 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 
Turner, Topeka. 

Bdmondia aspinwallensis. Plate XXII, fig^s. 3-3b. 

Edmondia aHryinwallenms Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 
216, pi. IV, flf. 2-2c, (1872); etc. 

Original description : '* Shell longitudinally subov4te, moder- 
ately convex, the greatest convexity being a little in advance of 
and above the middle ; base nearly semielliptic in outline ; pos- 
terior side rather narrowly rounded, or sometimes very faintly 
subtruncate obliquely above ; dorsal margin nearly straight just 

Bkbde.] Carboniferous Invertebrates.. 167 

behind the beaks, but very gradually declining, with a slightly 
convex outline posteriorly ; anterior side quite short, declining 
very abruptly from the beaks above, and rounded below ; beaks 
rather depressed, incurved, and located nearer the anterior end 
than the middle. Surface of cast with moderately distinct, ir- 
regular concentric undulations, showing behind the beaks dis- 
tinct impressions of the cartilage fulcra. Length, 1.45 inches ; 
height, 1.03 inches ; convexity, about 0.68 inch.'' 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures; Cherry vale, 
Kansas City, Turner, Topeka. 

This species may be distinguished from the foregoing by its 
more undulate and less carinate concentric ridges, which are 
never crenate, and the absence of the nearly obsolete radiating 


Kioff. Ann. Maff. Nat. Hist., XIV, p. 315 (18U). 

Allorisma geinitzi. Plate XX, fig. 6. 

Allori»ma elegans GreiDitz, Garb. u. Dyas in Neb., p. 13, pi. i, f. 31, 
(1866), (DonKiDg). 

Allorisma {Sedgwiekia) geinitzi Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., 
p. 219, pi. X, flp. 16a, b, (1872). 

Allorisma geinitzi Meek, Geol. Surv. 111., v, p. 586, pi. xxvi, f. 23, (1873). 

Meek's description : ** Shell small, rather compressed, longi- 
tudinally subovate, abruptly narrowed from the beaks posteri- 
orly ; umbonal slopes distinctly carinate from the beaks to the 
posterior basal angle ; anterior side subtruncate, with an ab^ 
rupt slope from, the beaks obliquely forward above, and round- 
ing into the base below ; basal margin somewhat prominently 
rounded anteriorly, and nearly straight or faintly sinuous be- 
hind ; posterior end compressed, its margin abruptly truncated 
vertically, so as to make its upper and lower parts nearly rec- 
tangular ; cardinal margin sloping, with a slightly concave out- 
line, from the beaks to the truncated posterior end ; beaks 
elevated, incurved, and placed about half way between the 
middle and the anterior extremity of the valve. Surface or- 
namented with numerous minute, closely crowded granules, 
which, on the umbones and other parts of the valves in front 
of the angular umbonal slope, show a tendency to arrange 

168 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

themselves an radiating lines, which are crossed by more or 
less distinct lines of growth ; on the compressed corselet, above 
and behind the umbonal carina, there are usually two or more 
obscure radiating ridges and furrows, crossed by moderately 
distinct, granular lines of growth, parallel to the truncated 
posterior margin. Length of the largest example seen, 0.50 
inch ; height of the umbones in the same, 0.30 in&h ; height of 
the truncated posterior end, same, 0.16 inch ; convexity, about 
0.13 inch." 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Topeka. 

Allorisma granosum. Plate XX, fig. 10. 

Leptodomus granosus Shumard, Trans. St. L. Acad. Sei., i, p. 207. 

Allorisma { Sedqwivkia) granosa Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. 
Neb., p. 220, pi. ii, f. 8, ( 1872). 

Allorinma granosum Keyes, Greol. Surv. Mo., v, p. 128, (1895). 

Meek's description : '* Shell very thin, approaching an irregu- 
lar, oblong form, the length being less than twice the height, 
very convex, most gibbous part being near the middle of the 
valves ; beaks prominent, incurved, somewhat flattened on the 
outer side, and placed about half way between the middle and 
the front. Dorsal margin striie straight behind the beaks and 
nearly parallel to the general outline of the base, inflected so 
as to form a distinct, flattened, lanceolate, lunule-like area, 
bounded on each side by a well-defined subangular ridge ; pos- 
terior side nearly or quite closed, obliquely truncated, with 
sometimes a faint sinuosity near the middle ; anterior side 
rather abruptly sloping forward, and straightened above, and 
rounding into the base below, near which it seems to be a little 
gaping ; base somewhat straightened, or even a little sinuous 
in outline, just in front of the middle, at the termination of a 
broad, very shallow cavity, extending a little obliquely down- 
ward and backward from the umbonal region ; behind this rather 
prominent, thence ascending obliquely, with a slightly convex 
outline, to the truncated posterior margin. Posterior umbonal 
slopes very prominently rounded above, and continued as a low 
undefined ridge, obliquely backward and downward ; posterior 
dorsal slope, above the umbonal ridge, with an oblique, shal- 

Bbsdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 169 

low, rounded sulcus, extending from the back part of the beaks 
to the middle of the truncated margin behind. Surface marked 
with fine lines of growth and small irregular, concentric wrin- 
kles, which latter are not defined on the posterior dorsal region 
above the umbonal ridge ; crossing these are the usual radiat- 
ing rows of minute granules. Length, 2 inches ; height, 1.15 
inches; convexity, 1 inch." 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas 
City, lola, Lawrence, Lecompton, Topeka. 

This species may be very easily distinguished from the fore- 
going by its very much larger size and less angular and more 
robust form, and the sinuosity of the ventral margin. 

Allorisma snbcnneatum. Plate XX, figs. 1-lb. 

Allorisma regularisf Owen, GeoL Rep. Wis., Iowa, and Minn., pi. v, f. 
13, (1852). 

Allorisma subeuneata Meek, Fin. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Neb., p. 221, 
pi. II, ff. 10a, b, (1872); etc. 

Meek's description : '* Shell attaining a large size, longitudi- 
nally elongated, or twice to three times as long as high, pro- 
portional length increasing with age ; greatest convexity a little 
in advance of the middle and in the umbonal region ; cuneate 
and a little gaping behind, where the margin is more or less 
narrowly rounded in outline. Basal and dorsal margins nearly 
parallel, the latter being more or less concave in outline, or 
nearly straight, and inflected so as to form a lanceolate kind of 
false area, bounded by an obtuse ridge on each side, just out- 
side of which there is a shallow undefined sulcus ; basal margin 
slightly convex, or somewhat straightened along the middle, 
and sometimes very faintly sinuous just under the beaks, round- 
ing up more abruptly before than behind ; anterior margin 
very short, a little gaping and rather prominently rounded be- 
low ; beaks convex, incurved, and placed near the anterior end, 
rather depressed, but rising moderately above the dorsal margin. 
Surface ornamented with fine striae of growth, and well-defined 
concentric undulations usually more distinct and regular on the 
beaks and umbonal region. Length of the largest specimen 


170 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

seen, 4.81 inches ; height from the ventral to the dorsal mar- 
gins, near middle, 1.76 inches; convexity, 1.57 inches." 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Westport 
(Mo.), Kansas City, Mont Ida (Anderson county), Lawrence, 
Lecompton, Topeka, Elmont, Grand Summit. 

This species is distinguished, on account of its larger and 
more graceful form, from either of the preceding. 

AUorisma costatom. Plate XX, fig. 12. 

AU^risma coatata Meek and Worthen, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1869, 
p. 171; Geol. Surv. 111., v, p. 585, pi. xxvi, f. 15, (1873). 

Meek and Worthen's description : " Shell under medium size, 
longitudinally oblong, the length being more than twice the 
height, very thin, rather convex in the central umbonal regions ; 
anterior margin rather short, closed and narrowly rounded ; 
basal margin forming a long, rather semielliptic curve, with a 
very slight sinuosity in front of the middle ; posterior side com- 
pressed, but apparently a little gaping and distinctly truncated 
nearly vertically from the base about half way up, and thence 
a little obliquely forward and upward to the dorsal margin ; 
posterior dorsal region compressed above the umbonal ridge ; 
cardinal margin equaling about two-thirds the entire length 
of the shell, very nearly straight, and inflected so as to form a 
narrow or lance-linear corselet, extending over its whole length ; 
beaks convex, rising a little above the cardinal margin, and 
placed slightly more than one-sixth the length of the valve be- 
hind the anterior extremity ; lunule well defined and lance- 
ovate in form. Surface ornamented by about twenty-five very 
regularly arranged, distinctly elevated, concentric costaB, which 
commence near the lunule and extend backward parallel to the 
base, to the well-defined, angular umbonal ridge leading from 
the beaks to the posterior basal extremity, at which ridge they 
become suddenly obsolete, or very nearly so, being mainly rep- 
resented on the more compressed posterior dorsal region by 
distinct lines of growth, which are crossed on the middle of 
this area by a second oblique linear ridge extending from the 
beaks to the middle of the posterior margin. Some indications 

BsBDB.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 171 

of the usual minute surface granules appear to be visible in 
some of the molds left in the matrix. Length, about 1.20 
inch ; height, 0.53 inch ; convexity, 0.44 inch." 

Range and distribution : Upper Goal Measures ; Kansas City, 
Lawrence, Topeka. 

This species may be easily distinguished by its large, even, 
sharply elevated ribs and the radiating costae on the upper pos- 
terior portion, as well as its long, graceful shape. 


McCoy, Synop. Carb. Fobs, Ireland, p. 61 (1844). 

Sedgwickia topekaensis. Plate XX, fig. 3. 

LeptodomtM topekaensis Shumard, Trans. St. L. Aoad. Sci., i, p. 208. 

Sedgwickia topekaensis f Meek and Hayden, PaJ. Upp. Mo., p. 40, 

A, B, (1864). 

Allorisma topekaensis Kejes, Geol. Surv. Mo., v, p. 128. 

Meek and Hayden 's description : '' Shell depressed subovate, 
about twice as long as high, extremely thin and fragile, gib- 
bous in the region of the beaks and along the oblique umbonal 
slopes. Sides flattened above, and becoming a little concare 
towards the base in front of the middle. Dorsal border nearly 
horizontal, and slightly concave in outline behind the beaks, 
where its inflected edge is margined by a rather distinct ridge ; 
ventral border presenting a broad semiovate outline, excepting 
a very slight sinuosity just in advance of the middle — round- 
ing up abruptly in front and more gradually behind ; anterior 
side prominent, gibbous, and narrowly rounded below, obliquely 
truncated above ; posterior side compressed, narrowed, and 
apparently subtruncate and somewhat gaping at the extremity. 
Lunular impression in front of the beaks (in casts) moderately 
distinct, defined by a faintly impressed line. Beaks prominent, 
gibbous, a little flattened, incurved, and placed between the 
middle and the anterior extremity, but nearer the former. En- 
tire surface, in well-preserved specimens, closely covered with 
minute granules arranged in radiating rows ; and ornamented 
with small concentric ridges, which are almost regular and dis- 
tinct on the umbones, and end abruptly along an impressed 
line extending from the posterior side of each beak obliquely 

172 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

towards the postero-basal margin, thus leaving the compressed 
postero-dorsal region comparatively smooth. ( Muscular and 
pallial impressions unknown.) Length, about 2 inches ; height, 
1 inch ; convexity, 0.75 inch." 

Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Topeka. 

Our specimens differ somewhat from those figured in having 
the sides less depressed near the beaks and ventral margin ; they 
having shells a trifle thicker than the description calls for. 


Moek, Pal. Upp. Mo., p. 42, (1864). 

Ohsnomya leavenworthensiB. Plate XIX, figs. 3-3b. 

.AUorismnf leaven worthensit* Meek and Hay den, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phil. 1858, p. 263. 

ChcBnomya leavenworthensh Meek and Hayden, Pal. Upp. Mo., p. 43, 
pi. II, ff. la-c, (1864); etc. 

Meek and Hayden's description : ''Shell subcylindrical ; 
anterior side rounded, a little compressed and apparently 
entirely closed ; posterior side long, truncated, and very widely 
gaping, the margins being even a little reflexed. Base nearly 
straight, or slightly convex in outline, rounding up gradually 
in front, and very abruptly behind ; dorsal side concave in out- 
line from the beaks to its elevated posterior extremity, and 
nearly parallel to the base. Beaks rather depressed, somewhat 
flattened, incurved, nearly or quite touching, and located about 
half way between the middle and the anterior end. Surface 
marked by fine lines of growth, and a few irregular, nearly 
obsolete concentric undulations, which curve up abruptly be- 
hind, parallel to the truncated posterior margin. Crossing these, 
the radiating rows of minute granules may be seen by the aid 
of a good lens, on well-preserved specimens. Internal casts-of 
this species show quite distinctly the scar of the anterior ad- 
ductor muscle^ which is oval, and located near the buccal 
margin, with its longer axis nearly at right angles to that of the 
shell. At its upper extremity the small oval pedal scars are also 
well defined in both valves. The posterior muscular impres- 
sions broad, oval, and rather faintly marked; from near the 
middle of the under side the pallial line descends with a gentle 

Bebdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 173 

forward curve, so as to form a broad, rounded, very shallow 
sinus. Length, 2.85 inches ; height, from the ventral margin 
to the middle of the dorsal side, 1.36 inches ; length, from the 
base to the line drawn from the beaks across to the most ele- 
vated part of the posterior extremity, 1.50 inches; greatest 
convexity, near the middle, 1.11 inches ; breadth of the posterior 
hiatus, 1.07 inches ; height of the posterior hiatus, 1.44 inches.'' 
Range and distribution : Upper Coal Measures ; Kansas City, 


NoTB.— The page nnmben printed in the following matter refer to where the deioription ie 
given. Nnmbera ( 1, 2, 8, etc.,) refer to figures on the plate. The platee will be fonnd be- 
ginning on page ISO. 

J*%tsulina secalica^ (p. 10.) 

1. Illustrates the different forms and sizes of these shells. 

\b. Longitudinal section of a specimen, showing the foramina in the inner 
walls (/). 

Arr^lysiphonella prosaeri, (p. 14.) 

2. Longitudinal section much enlarged, showing pores in the walls and the 

thin gastral tissues. (After Clarke.) 
26. Cross-section enlarged to show the structure. (After Clarke.) 
2c. Longitudinal section about natural size, showing the cloaca in the center 

and the apertural walls. (After Clarke.) 
2d. Average-sized specimen. About natural size. (After Clarke.) 
2e, Section of specimen as seen in matrix, from Topeka. Oblique longitu- 
dinal section. 
^. Specimen of different form, and possibly different species. 

Somphoapongia mttltiformUi, (p. 12.) 

6. Drawing to illustrate the thickness of the dermal layer. Magnified. 

7. Outline of larger specimen, showing mushroom form. One-half natural 


8. Tracing of a section through the top of one of the sponges, showing the 

arrangement of the canals, which are stippled. The unstippled 
portion is the body of the sponge. One-half natural size. 

9. Semldiagrammatio section through the cloaca of a small individual, show- 

ing canals, which are stippled, and the semiooncretionary nature of 
the outer part of it. 

10. Portion of the surface of a weathered specimen, showing what appears 

to be the body skeleton of the sponge. Magnified. 


Somphoapongia muliiformiay (p. 12.) 

1 to 5. Photographs showing tho various forms of the smaller specimens, the 
last showing the manner in which the tops of the sponges weather, 
bringing out the canals. Less than natural size. 

Amblyaiphonella proaaerU (P- 14.) 

6. Specimen showing aperture. About natural size. ( After Clarke.) 


176 University Geological Survey of Kansas, 

Lophopht/llum profiindum, (p. 17.) 

7. Side view of specimen, with part of the calyx broken away, showing the 

protruding columella. Natural size. 
lb. Section of a specimen, showing the tabulee. Natural size. 

Lophophi/liuni wftid, (p. 18.) 

8. Side view of moderately large specimen. Incomplete. 

Sb. Cross-section of the same, showing the tendency to form a columella 
from the counter septum. 

Axophyllum ruditt, (p. 20.) 

9. Side view of the average- sized specimen. Natural size. 

96. View from above, showing the interior of the calyx and the pseudo- 

9<\ Cross-section of a specimen below the calyx, showing the structure of 

the pseudocolumella in the center and the arrangement of the septa 

and vesicles around it. Magnified. 

Sifrinyopora inuliaiienuata^ (p. 25.) 

10. Enlarged cross and oblique sections across the top of a specimen as it 

appears when polished, showing the funnel-shaped tabulae. 
106. Longitudinal section, showing funnel-shaped tabulae. Enlarged. 

VhivteteH millcporaeeun, (p. 25.) 

11. Longitudinal section, showing tabulae and arrangement of the oorallites. 

116. Cross-section of the same, showing shape of the corallites. Enlarged. 

Jfichelinia eugenecpj (p. 21.) 

12. Side view of average specimen. Natural size. 

126. View of base of another specimen, showing its attachment to a crinoid 


Cladoclionus bcnnctti, (p. 24.) 

1. Side view of type. Enlarged two diameters. 

Auloporaf prosticrij (p. 23.) 

2. View from above. Natural size. 

Aulopora anna^ (p. 23.) 

3. Top view, showing the way in which it anastomoses. Natural size. 
Lophophylliim westi, (p. 18.) 

12. Side view of type. About natural size. 


Campophyllum lorquium, (p. 19.) 

1. Typical slab of these corals. Reduced in size. 

Auloporaf prosMeri, (p. 23.) 

2. View of base, showing how the individual expands, and the absence of 

tabulaB and septa. Reduced in size. 

Bbbdb.] CarboniferouH Invertebrates. 177 


Canipophi/Uum (orqufum, (p. 19.) 

1. Cross-section of young individual, showing the thickening of the septa on 

one side. Natural size. 

2. Cross-section near the calyx of an older individual, showing the septa 

nearly equal, except the counter septum, which is thickened. 
Natural size. 
.3. Longritudinal section of a rather young individual, showing the compara- 
tively simple tabula* and a narrow vesicular zone. 

4. Side view of young individual, showing a rapidly expanding form. Twice 

natural size. 

Limoptrria alata^ (p. 130.) 

5. View of right valve. Twice natural size. 

Sf/rlngopora iiniltattenu(i(<iy (p. 25.) 

6. Side of specimen. Nearly natural size*. 

Fjophophyllum iveati, (p. 18.) 

7. Longitudinal section of specimen, showing nature of the tabulae. 


Trarhypora au8tini\ (p. 22.) 

3. Lateral view of specimen. (After Worthen.) 


Zrarrhtuaf .* rohutitufi^ (p. 29.) 

1. Base of calyx of type. Natural size. 
la. Side view of same (inverted). 

SfftphiocrhiUHf wanhbHrni, (p. 27.) 

2. Azygous side of calyx, showing base of arms. Natural size. 
2<i. Opposite side of type. Natural size. 

Kitpai'hifvrinuH mar/hfcr, (p. 40.) 

3. Side view of calyx, showing the anal plates on the right. Natural size. 
36. Base of calyx. Natural size. 

KriHOfrinas tifpu^, (p. 39.) 

4. Base of calyx. Natural size. 

46. Side view of calyx. Natural size. 

(Urlocrlnus hcminphcrieuH^ (p. 34.) 

5. Base of calyx. Natural size. 
56. Side view of same. 

Crriocrinwi mifmouriensU^ (p. 35.) 

6. View of the base of the calyx. 

Trnchypora austiniy (p. 22.) 

7. Cross-section. (After Worthen.) 

76. Section showing microscopic structure. (After Worthen.) 

AgassizocrinuH carbonarlus, (p. 45) 

8. Side view of calyx. 

178 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

Ceriocrinus craigi, (p. 32.) 

9. Base of calyx. Natural size. 
96. Side view of same. 

Phialocrinus magnificus^ (P* 36.) 

10. Side view of specimen, showing calyx, arms, and anal tube. Natural size. 


EriBOcrinui inegalobrachius, (p. 37.) 
la. View of base of type. Natural size. 
16. Side view of same. 

Ceriocrinusf montfculatus, (p. 33.) 

2. Side view of type. Natural size. 

Oligoporusf infnutus, (p. 49.) 

3. Apical? view. Natural size. Type. 

ITf/dreionoerinus kansancnsis^ (p. 42.) 

4 to 7. Showing structure and appearance of various parts. ( After Welier. ) 
H. subsinuatus. See plate VIII. 


Orbieuloidea miagouriensis^ (p. 55.) 

1 and 16. Upper and lower aspects of the flat valve. Enlarged. 
\v. Convex valve as seen from above. Enlarged. 

Orbieuloidea manhattanensis, (p. 56.) 

2. Internal appearance of the flat valve, showing the peripheral ridge. Nat- 

ural size. 

26. Convex valve. Enlarged. 

Orbieuloidea convexa, (p. 55.) 

3. Convex valve. About natural size. 

36. Flat valve, perhaps of this species, internal view. Natural size. 

Crania niodcHta^ (p. 57.) 

4. Upper view of specimen on a smooth shell. Natural size. 

Lingula rnytiloides^ (p. 54.) 

5. Specimen. Natural size. 

Archceocidarifi agassizi^ (p. 48.) 

6 to 6c. Illustrations of plates and spines. 

6e cross-section of 6rZ. All natural size. (After Hall.) 

ArchcBocidaris megastylns^ (p. 49.) 

7. Mass of spines and plates. (After Keyes.) 

Derby a bennelti, (p. 59.) 

8. View of brachial valve. 
86. View of hinge area. 

8c, Lateral view of specimen. (All after Hall.) 

Arehceoeidaris irudifer^ (p. 47.) 

10. Spine. Natural size. (After White.) 

Bbbdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 179 

Uerbya crassa, (p. 62.) 

11, 116. External and internal views, reepeotively. Natural size. 

Derby a bUobaf 

12. Specimen, perhaps of this species, from Lecompton. (Rogers.) 

Derby a keokuk^ (P-63.) 

1.3. Brachial vaWe. Natural size. 

Hydreionocrinua sub%inuatu8y (p. 43.) 
14. Basal view of calyx. Natural size. 


^*hone(es granulifcr, (p. 69.) 

1. External view of pedicle valve. Natural size. 

Ih. Internal view of brachial valve, showing radiating ridges, indications of 
the brachial areas, and the granular inner surface. 

Ic. External view of a peculiar specimen of this species, showing the auricu- 
lation. Natural size. 
Choneir.H glaber, ( p. 68.) 

2. Exterior of pedicle valve. Natural size. 

Vhonetea mesolobus^ (p. 71.) 

3. Pedicle valve. Natural size. 

36. Interior of brachial valve, showing the cardinal process, brachial and 
other markings. Enlarged. 

Choneten vernenilianuSj (p. 72.) 

4. Pedicle valve of long-eared variety. (After Meek.) 
46. Same of short-hinged specimen. Natural size. 

4f. Interior of brachial valve, showing the markings. Natural size. 

4f'. Interior of pedicle valve, showing adductor and diductor scars. Natural 

Proiluctus pertenuiHf (p. 83.) 

5. Pedicle valve. Natural size. 

56. Brachial valve, interior view, markings removed. Natural size. 

5c. Longitudinal section, showing the relation of the valves in this species. 

Producius symmetric U8, (p. 86.) 

6. Interior of brachial valve, showing adductor markings, lateral ridges, and 

mesial ridge. Natural size. 
66. Pedicle valve, {lartially covered by matrix. Natural size. 

Producius nebrascrnnh^ (p. 84.) 

7. View showing the curvature of the beak and the relation of the pedicle 

to the brachial (or flatter) valve. Natural size. 
76 and 7d. Lateral and full view of pedicle valve of the same specimen. 
7c, Cast of specimen, showing adductor and diductor scars. Natural size. 
le. Pedicle valve, showing the nature of the spines when not removed. 

Natural size. 
7/. Interior view of brachial valve, showing the cardinal process, large pit 

immediately back of it, mesial septum, adductor markings, and a 

dim outline of the brachial marks. Natural size. 

180 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

Productus costatuSf (p. 79.) 

8. View of ooDcave side, showing the relation of the two valves. Natural 


Productua longiapiniut^ (p. 81.) 

9. Interior of brachial valve of very old specimen. The lateral ridges are 

well developed and extend entirely around the valve, forming a very 

prominent feature. Natural size. 
96. Brachial valve, showing relation of that valve to the pedicle valve. 

Natural size. 
9c. Pedicle valve, spines removed. Natural size. 
9c?. Interior of brachial valve of younger specimen ( full grown ), showing the 

lateral ridges developed along the hinge only, with slight turn to 

the front where they fade out. Natural size. 

HuHivdia mortnonf\ (p. 103.) 

10. View of brachial valve. 
106. Lateral view. 

10c. View of pedicle valve. All natural size. 
lOrf. Surface enlarged to show punctures in shell. 


Productus coHtatus, (p. 79.) 

1. Pedicle valve, showing the ridge between the umbo and the ears on which 

are spines. Natural size. 
16. Side view of same. 
1(\ Interior of brachial valve, showing adductor markings, cardinal process^ 

mesial ridge, lateral ridges, and brachial markings. The border in 

front is matrix between the brachial and pedicle valve. Natural 

Productus srmireticulatuH, (p. 78.) 

2. Exterior of brachial valve, showing hinge and beak. Natur^il size. 

26. Pedicle valve. The umbo of this specimen is narrower than most of 
the Coal Measures forms, which are probably varietally distinct 
from the one figured, which is from the Permian, but is figured here 
on account of its being a much better specimen. Natural size. 

2c. Interior of pedicle valve, showing adductor and diductor markings. The 
central ones are the adductors. Natural size. 

2d. Interior of brachial valve, showing adductor, brachial and other mark- 
ings. Natural size. (Small specimen.) 

Productus punctaiuSf (p. 87.) 

3. Pedicle valve. Natural size. 

36. Brachial valve, exterior view, showing the beak and hinge. Natural 

3c. Lateral view of the same specimen. 

3c?. Pedicle valve of young specimen. Natural size. 

3^. Cast of interior of the pedicle valve, showing the adductor and diductor 

scars. Natural size. 

Bebdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates, 18J 


I^roductus corn, (p. 75.) 

1. Pedicle valve of the common form. Natural size. 
16. Cast of pedicle valve. ( After Hall.) 

Ic. Brachial valve, interior view, showing traces of brachial markings. 

Natural size. 
If/. Pedicle valve of large specimen. Natural size. 

If. Spine as seen on a slab of shale, from a large specimen. Natural size. 
If, Pedicle valve of broad, large variety. Natural size. 

Pi'oductua cora americanuH, (p. 77.) 

2. Pedicle valve of typical form. Natural size. 

Productim punctatusy (p. 87.) 

3. Interior of brachial valve, showing adductor scars. Natural size. 

Product u8 vostatusy (p. 79.) 

4. Cast of pedicle valve, view of beak. Natural size. 

Clriofhijria royssii, (p. 104.) 

5. Outline of specimen with nearly straight hinge. 

56. Brachial valve and beak of pedicle valve of specimen. 
5e. Lateral outline of specimen. All natural size. 

Aulacorhynchus millepunctatttSf (p. 89.) 

6. External view of one of the valves. ( After Meek and Worthen. ) 


Aufaeorhynchus millcpunctatiift, ip. 89.) 

1. Interior of brachial valve. (After Meek and Worthen.) 

16. View of a specimen from Kansas City, showing indications of extra plat- 
forms, and probably a different species. Natural size. It is quite 
convex for the genus. 

<'leiotht/rls roi/ssii, (p. 104.) 

2. Side view of more robust specimen. Natural size. 

Ifustcdia mornioniy (p. 103.) 

3. Hinge apparatus. (After Hall.) 

Rf'ticularia perplcra, (p. 102.) 

4. Pedicle valve. About natural size. 
46. Opposite valve of same. 

4e. Side view of same. 

id. Surface enlarged. (After Grity.) 

Spirifer cameratu9y (p. 99.) 

5. Interior of brachial valve, showing sockets for cardinal teeth. Natural 

56. Pedicle valve of long- eared form. 
5c. Brachial valve and hinge area of robust form. 
bd. Young specimen. All natural size. 
5r. Spire of one of this species (broken). Natural size. 

182 University Oeological Survey of Kansas. 

EntelefcB hemiplieata, (p. 91.) 

6. Side yiew of specimen. Natural size. 
66. Front view of same. 

Pag n ax utah^ (p. 83.) 

7. Brachial side, showing beak of the opposite valve, with the pedicle open- 

ing. Natural size. 

76. Front view of same. 
7c. Side view of same. 

Pugnax rocky montana^ (p. 92.) 

8. Side view of specimen. Natural size. 
86. Front view of same. 

MeekeUa Btriatocoatata^ (p. 65.) 

9. Lateral view. 
96. Pedicle valve. 

9c. Brachial valve and hinge area. All natural size. 

Derby a cymbulOj (p. 60.) 

10. Interior view of hinge apparatus. 


Aviculopecten hertzeri, (p. 121.) 

1. Left valve. 

lb. Surface markings enlarged. 

Aviculopecten providencenaU^ (p. 119.) 

2. Left valve. Natural size. 

Aviculopecten sculpt iNSj (p. 122.) 

3. Lateral view of left valve. Natural size. 
36. End view of same. 

Aviculopecten gcrmanus, (p. 123. » 

4. Left valve. Natural size. (Rogers.) 

Lima rctifera, (p. 112.) 

5. Left valve of shell. Natural size. 

Aviculopecten interlineatus, (p. 116.) 

6. Left valve. Natural size. 

Aviculopecten occidentalis, (p. 114.) 

7. Left valve. Natural size. 

Aviculopecten hertzeri, ' p. 121.) 

8. Right valve. (After Meek and Worthen.) 

Aviculopecten carboniferus^ (p. 117.) 

9. Left valve. Natural size. 

Aviculopecten mccoyi^ (p. 118.) 

10. Left valve. Natural size. 

Paeudomonotis hawni^ (p. 132.) 

11. Interior view of flat valve, showing byssal notch. 
11&. End view of convex valve. 

lie. Lateral view of convex valve. (All after Meek.) 

Bbxdb.] Carboiiiferous Invertebrates. 188 


Psettdomonotis kansatcnsis, (p. 133.) 

1. Left Yalve of type. Fbetero-ventral portion crushed, probably giving it 

undoe prominence. The strise are finer and more crinkly than rep- 
resented in drawing. About natural size. 

la. Outline showing convexity of the same. 

16. Outline showing the convexity of the adult long-hinged forms. 

Ic and Id, Young specimen of the long-hinged form, showing different de- 
grees of development of the hinge and ears. About natural size. 

neudomonotis robuata^ (p. 133.) 

2. Left valve of type. The stria? are finer and more wavy than represented, 

and the upper third is practically glabrous, only the faintest traces 

of striae being present. About natural size. 
2a. Anterior view of the same shell, showing gibbosity and arcuity of shell, 

as well as concentric lines of growth. About natural size. 
2/) and 2c. Anterior and lateral views of the left valve of a young individual 

of the above shell. About natural size. 

Pncudwnonotis hawni equistriaiaj (p. 134.) 

.3. Left valve of type. A little less than natural size. 

3a and 36. Anterior views of two left valves, showing variation in convexity 
aud indistinctness of beak. About natural size. 


Pseudomonotia hawni, Lobed variety, (p. 132.) 

1. Convex valve, showing the bending of the costa? and the lobe on the end 

of the shell. All natural size, 
la. Interior of left valve, showing retractor soars and adductor scar. 
16. Outline showing convexity of same. 
Ic. Hinge view of a specimen, showing the indistinctness of the beak and 

' the great convexity of the shell. 
Id. Specimen showing the stronger lobing of the shell. 
1^. End of outline of a specimen, showing the great convexity of the beak 

in some individuals. 
1/. Hinge view of a specimen, showing the great convexity and the manner 

in which the shell fiattens out on the end where the lobe is located. 

2. Large, old specimen, showing umbonal region with only the finer striae. 
2a. Flat valve of the same specimen, showing the place of attachment to 

foreign object. 

Pseudomonotia kansaeensiSt (p. 133.) 

3. Enlargement of the surface of the type, showing the lines of growth ex- 

tending backward up the furrows and down farther toward the 
ventral margin on the ridges. 

184 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 


M If (din a ainpla, (p. 139.) 

1. External view of shell. (After Meek.) 

16. Interior of same. Both reduced one-half. 

Myalina conr/f ticriH^ (p. 142.) 

2. Exterior of specimen. (After Walcott.) 
2h, Another specimen. (After Walcott.) 

Pirria sulcata, (p. 126.) 

3. Left valve enlarged. (After Meek.) 

Plena lout/ a, (p. 125.) 

4. Left valve of specimen. Natural size. 

Limopferia marian, (p. 128.) 

5. Right valve. Natural size. (After White.) 
;V>. End view of specimen. (After White.) 
5<'. Surface markings enlarged. 

Limo])irria lotiffUpinay (p. 127.) 

6. ( After Keyes. ) 

Mjfalhia swallovi, (p. 137.) 

7. Left valve. Natural size. 

Myalina perattenuata, (p. 141.) 

8. Bight valve of specimen. Natural size. 

Limoptcria gihbosa, (p. 129.) 

9. Right valve. (After White.) 

^f^/alina Hubquadrata, (p. 138.) 

10. Impression of left valve. (After Meek.) 

106. Part of left valve broken away, showing the interior of the right valve 
and outline of the specimen. ( After Meek. ) 

Myalina kansuHensis, (p. 140.) 

11. Specimen showing left valve. (After Keyes.) 


Aviculopinna illinoienHis, (p. 143.) 

1. Outline of cross-section. 
16. Specimen. Natural size. 

lo. Surface markings. Enlarged. 

Pinna snhspatulata, (p. 145.) 

2. Drawing of cast. Reduced one-half. 

Pinna j^eraeuta, (p. 144.) 

3 and 36. Lateral and dorsal views. (After Keyes.) 

Bbbdk.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 185 


Pinna aubspatulata, (p. 146.) 

1. Semidiagranixnatio dorsal aspect. Does not show dorsal ridge. 
16. Aspect of broken right valve. 

Ic. Same of left valve. 

Id. Cross-section. All natural size. 

Aviculopinna americana^ (p. 143.) 

2. Lateral view of shell. Natural size. 

Pinna subapatiilata, (p. 145.) 

3. View of another cast from different locality. 


Entoliutn aviculaium, (p. 113.) 

1. Left valve. (After Meek.) 

Aviculopcctcn coxamm, (p. 124.) 

2. View showing left valve. Natural size. (After Rogers.) 

(^hcRnomya Icavrntrorthensia, (p. 172.) 

3. Lateral view of specimen. (After Meek.) 
36. Dorsal aspect of same. 

Myalinaf exasperata, (p. 141.) 

4. Left ? view of type. Natural size. 

Posidonomt/af pcrtcnttlHf (p. 136.) 

5. Left ? valve of type. 

Posidonomyaf recurva, (p. 135.) 

6a. Left? valve of type. 

66. Right ? valve of another specimen. 

6r*. Left? valve of the preceding, with a part of the shell adhering on one 
side. The beak is somewhat crushed and twisted, so that it does 
not seem to extend above the hinge. All natural size. 


AUorisma Buhvuneatum, (p. 169.) 

1. Lateral view of specimen. (After Keyes.) 
16. Dorsal aspect of the same. 

Macrodon aangamonensis f (p. 146.) 

2. Dorsal view of left valve. 

26. Lateral view of same. Natural size. 

Sedgewickia topekaenais, (p. 171.) 

3. Left valve of specimen. 

Yoldia knoxenBisf (p. 154.) 

4. Specimen with valves distended. By mistake, this is not the specimen 

described in text, and may possibly be a different species. 

Edmondia nehrascensis^ (p. 166.) 

5. Left valve of specimen. Natural size. 

13— vi 

186 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

Alforisma geinitzif (p. 167.) 

6. Right valve of specimen. Natural size. 

PleurophoruH tropidophorutt^ (p. 162.) 

7. View of right valve. Natural size. 

Yoldia subscitula, (p. 152.) 

8. Right valve. Natural size. 

Conocardtum parrishi, (p. 164.) 

9. Left valve. (After Keyes.) 

AlloHsma granosa^ (p. 168.) 

10. Left valve of specimeu. Naturs&l size. 

Pleurophorus subcostatuSn (p. 161.) 

11. Cast of left valve. (After Meek and Worthen.) 
116. Dorsal aspect of the same. 

AUorisma costatum, (p. 170.) 

12. Right valve of specimen. Natural size. 

Macrodon obaoletus^ (p. 147.) 

13. Right valve of specimen. (After Meek.) 

Xuculana brllUtriata, (p. 148.) 

14. Dorsal view of specimen. Natural size. 
14&. Left valve of same. 

y^ucula ventricosoj (p. 150.) 

15. Exterior view of specimen. Natural size. 
(^ypricardiniat carbonariay (p. 164.) 

16. Left valve. Natural size. 
Cardiomorpha misaouricnafSj (p. 165.) 

17. Right valve. Natural size. 
Placunopsis carbonaria, (p. 111.) 

18. Lateral view of specimen. (After Meek and Worthen.) 


Solenomya j}arallela, (p. 158.) 
1. Side view of type. 

Soletwmya trapr zoidea, (p. 159.) 

2a. Left valve. Anterior adductor scar and pallial line a little too strong. 
3b. Dorsal view of another specimen. 

Limopterf'a subalaia^ (p. 131.) 
3a. Side view of left valve. 
3/>. Side view of right valve. Both natural size. 

Yoldia glabra y (p. 153.) 

4a. Side view of type. Natural size. 
46. Surface markings. Enlarged. 

Xuctda pulcheila^ (p. 151.) 

5a. Side view of type. Enlarged. 

56. End view of same. 

5c. Surface markings. Greatly enlarged. 

Bbbdb.] Carboniferous Invertebrates. 187 


Svhizodus whederi, (p. 155.) 

1. Dorsal view of cast. (After Keyes.) 
1&. Side view of specimen with shell on. 
Ic. Side view of No. 1. 

Schizodus hariy (p. 155.) 

2. End view of specimen. Natural size. 
2b. Left hinge. 

2c. External view of right valve. 
2d. Internal view of same. 

Edmondia aHpenwa liens is, (p. 166.) 

3. Lateral view of right valve. (After Keyes.) 
36. Dorsal aspect of same. 

Sofenomi/a radiatcit (p. 160.) 

5. Lateral view of specimen. (After Meek and Hayden.) 
56. Dorsal view of same. 

Snhizodus eompressus Rogers. N. sp., (p. 157.) 

6. Internal apparatus of a worn right valve. 
66. Same of left valve. 

6c. Outline showing convexity of shell. 

6cf. Outer appearance of better specimen. All natural siee. 

Nnculana belliHtriata atfcrniafa, (p. 149.) 

7. Lateral view. Enlarged. 

76. Surface markings. Enlarged. 

Nucida beyrichiy (p. 149.) 

8. Side view of specimen. (After Meek.) 

Nucula ventricosa^ (p. 150.) 

9. Cast showing adductors and pallial line. Natural size. 
96. External appearance of shell. 

AHtartella vera, (p. 163.) 

10. View of right valve of specimen. 


Page 18: Following Lophophi/Uum westi, after fig. 12, add ** plate V, fig. 7." 

Page 24: Following Cladochoiius? ben n eft i, after fig. 1, erase "plate V, fig. 7.*' 

Page 43: After Hydreionocrinua suhshiuatus^ instead of "Plate VII, fig. 14," 
read "Plate VIII, fig. 14." 

Page 78: Following Productua acmireetivAdatus, after figs. 2-2d, instead of 
"text fig. 2, f," read "text fig. 3, f." 

Page 103: Following Hustcdia mormoui, for "plate X, fig. .3," read "plate 
XII, fig. 3." 

Page 149: After Nuculana hcUi striata attenuaia, add "Plate XXII, figs. 7, 7b." 

TTairenitii Geo'octeal Banty at Kaniat. 

VOLDin VI. Pb4TK I. 

-i»ui>' •'^ ai!#* 



'i^^ (,^i» 



SVRINaorORA, 10. 

UniTanltj GMdoRleal Bnrrejr ot Kaaua. Voldkb VI. Plate IV. 


UnlTCnitr a«olo«lral Snner of Kbdh 


Doireraity Osological 8nrTe>- of Ki 

R VI. Plate VI. 




initf U«olc«iMl Bum)' of Kinua. 

T01.DIU VI. Plats VII. 


UniTSnity Oeolosical SuriBr or Kbd 

VoLcn VI. Plitb VIII. 


iti^Sm ^~v 


t'alTsnlly Qaolocteil Saner ot KaDiaa. 

VoLDHB VI. Plate tX. 





CH0NETE8, 1-1. PRODUHTUS, .■-St. HU8TEDIA, 10. 

t (Jeolocioal Sarrsi' of Kaoxaa. Voldhb VI. Plats X, 


Uniienitr Qeolosleal Sam]; o( RaDUf. 


VoLOMt TI. Plats xii. 

JX. 7%, 




PUUNAX, 7,e 






DKRBVA, 10. 

UolTenit)' Osolociul BDrrer o( Kaoui. 

VoLUMs VI. Plate XIIl. 



lit! QsologicBl SurTsy or Kaneai. Volume VI. Plate XIV, 



Uoinrsitf Oeolosi«l Bunej at Kbdbb: 

ToLCUK VI. Plate W. 


UoiTonitj ChxiliwlGRl Soriey of KantM. 

ToLt'in VI. Flats XVI. 

MYALINA, i, 3, 7, 10, 11. PTERIA, 3, i. LIMOPTERIA, 5, 6 

nitjr Qeolosical Surra; of Kanus. 


t'alTOnity Geolociwl BarTar of K>dui. Voldmb SI. PblTI SVIII. 


UolTSnity Ottolocieal Barrtj o 

UaiTardty Q«olosleal Surref of KiDiai. 

VoLDHs VI. run XX. 

ALLOBI3UA, 1,0.10.12. 
HACBODON, 2,13. 


NUCCLA, 15, 

Uniiersity Cbologieal Surte 



UnlTfirglt)' Oeolosioal Survey uf Ki 

.t-HB VI. Platk \X1I. 

16— vi 




Bt s. w. williston. 



Plates XXIII to LXXIII. 







Plates XXIII to LXXIII. 



The following notes and descriptions of selachian and 
pycnodont teeth are based upon the material that has accumu- 
lated in the University of Kansas Museum during the past ten 
or twelve years, supplemented by a collection kindly loaned for 
study by Mr. T. W. Stanton, of the National Museum. The 
material is by no means exhaustive, nor even sufficient to settle 
several doubtful points, but I trust that, incomplete as it may 
be, it will be of service in the determination of our numerous 

''The specific determination of the detached teeth of sharks 
and skates is little more than guesswork, and to decide upon 
their generic relationships with any approach to certainty is 
also often very difficult."^ Nevertheless, because such de- 
tached teeth are so often found, and connected series so rarely, 
an attempt at their determination is desirable. Fortunately, 
in the present collection there are several forms represented by 
such complete specimens that the positive addition they afford 
to the knowledge of the species and genera is very welcome. 


Teeth with the crown more or less elevated and overhanging, 
ornamented with transverse or radiating ridges, and surrounded 
by a larger or smaller, finely marked area. Surface of root 

This genus of Upper Cretaceous selachians was for a long 
time placed among the cestracionts, but recent discoveries of 
the nearly complete dentition render it more probable that its 

1. Wcx>dM'ard : Proc. Geol. Assoc., XIII, p. 190. 


238 University Geological Survey of Kansas, 

proper location is with the Myliobatidsc. The living members 
of the family y the sea-devils, are broad, flat fishes, allied to the 
rays, with a disk-like body. Many attain an enormous size, 
fifteen or twenty feet in length, and weigh a thousand pounds 
or more. In some the pectoral fins take on almost the charac- 
ter of limbs, and are said to be used in scooping up their food 
and transferring it to the mouth. The teeth are flat and pave- 
ment-like, and are used for crushing crabs and shell-fish. The 
fish are viviparous, and for the most part live in tropical or 
semitropical waters. 

The teeth in Ptychodvs are not less than 600 in number in 
each jaw, at least in some species. They are arranged in par- 
allel rows, decreasing in size from within outward, except that 
in the supposedly upper jaws the median row is composed of 
small, low and smooth teeth, very much unlike the immediately 
adjacent ones. In P. mortoni there are eight rows on either 
side of this median row, or seventeen in all. The lateral teeth 
become more transversely elongated, the surface markings less 
conspicuous, and the form more unsymmetrical. About fifteen 
species of the genus have so far been discovered, all from the 
Upper Cretaceous. One or two species, including our most 
common one, have been discovered in both Europe and North 
America, and it is not improbable that the identity of yet others 
will be established when they are better known. The teeth vary 
so much in size and shape in the same individual that the iden- 
tification from single specimens is often impossible or a matter 
of great uncertainty. 

Ptychodus mortoni. Plate XXV; plate XXVI, fig. 1; plate XXVII. 

Pli/chodus morto7ii (MaDtell) Morton, Joum. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., viii, 
p. 215, pi. X, f. 7; Agassiz, Poiss. Foss., iii, p. 158,.pl. xxv, ff. 1-3; Leidy, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., (1868), p. 205; Ext. Vert. Fauna, p. 295, pi. 
XVIII, ff. 1-14; Cope, Cret. Vert., p. 294; Woodward, Quart. Joum. Gool. 
Soc., xLiii, p. 130; Cat. Foss. Fishes Brit. Mus., i, p. 159; Proc. Greol. 
Assoc., XIII, p. 191, pi. V, f. 4; Williston, Kans. Univ. Quart., ix, p. 30, pi. 
VII, VIII, f. 1, pi. IX — Alabama, Mississippi, Niobrara of Kansas, English 

This species is the most common one of this genus in the 
Kansas Cretaceous, occurring only in the Niobrara beds, so far 
as I am aware, and, for the most part at least, in the lower part 

WiLLiSTON.] Cretaceous Fishes. 239 

of the beds. I have before me at the present time two excellent 
series of teeth of this species ; one, including about eighty teeth, 
obtained from the estate of the late Joseph Savage ; the other 
collected in the vicinity of Castle Rock, in Trego county, by 
Prof. G. E. Rose — an exceedingly interesting specimen, be- 
cause most of the teeth are in place in the matrix. A number 
of the teeth of the Savage specimen have been arranged serially 
and photographed in plate XXV. Of course the arrangement 
is not the natural one, but the plate will show in an excellent 
way many of the characters of the teeth better than they can 
be described. In plates XXVI and XXVII are given three 
views of portions of the Rose specimen ; that of plate XXVI 
(fig. 1) shows a little more than one-half of the upper view. 
One end (the left of the figure) has been folded underneath 
obliquely. This folded end is shown in plate XXVIII, fig. 1. 
Figure 2 of the same plate gives a view of a transverse series, 
as arranged from the loose teeth taken from the right end of the 
specimen — the one that protruded from the chalk when discov- 
ered. About 550 teeth, all told, have been obtained, and doubt- 
less not a few had been lost before the specimen was discovered. 
The set is referred to the upper jaw, on the supposition of 
Woodward that the small median teeth belong in this jaw. 

Not a trace of osseous substance is preserved in the specimen. 
The cartilage of the sharks' jaws is often preserved in a soft, 
calcified condition, but it is evident that the material in which 
the teeth of Ptychodus were lodged was of a more perishable 
nature, accounting doubtless for the fact that Ptychodus teeth 
are so rarely found associated. 

The teeth of this species differ markedly from those of all 
other known species, in having the center of the crown raised 
into a conical apex, the summit of which is crossed by a short 
transverse ridge from which other diverging ridges run. In 
the smaller lateral teeth these ridges become less well marked 
and occupy a relatively smaller space, becoming almost obsolete 
in the fifth row. The marginal araa is formed of fine reticula- 
tions in many of the larger teeth, though in most of these and 
in all the smaller teeth the markings are more like a fine punc- 

240 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

tulatioD, clearly visible only with the aid of a lens, giving a 
uniform, finely roughened appearance. The median upper row 
is composed of low, flattened teeth, transversely oval or sub- 
quadrate in shape, with a slight elevation in the middle, and 
finely roughened throughout the whole coronal surface, there 
being only the slightest trace of the divergent ridges on the 
summit of the elevation. This does not quite agree with Wood- 
ward's description of these teeth, in which he states that they 
are ^'not marked with the radiating ridges, but exhibit a mi- 
nute smooth eminence in the middle of the crown." Possibly 
this effect is due to wear. 

PtychodUB polygyms. Plate XXIX, fig. 9: plate XXX, fig. 14. 

PtychoduB poly gy run (Buckland) Agassiz, Poiss. Foss., iii, p. 156, pi. xxv% 
ff. 4-11, pi. xxv-B, ff. 21-23; Gibbes, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., i, p. 2d9, 
pi. II, ff. 5,6: Leidy, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1868, p. 208; Cope, Cret. 
Vert., p. 294; Wocdward, Cat. Fobs. Fishes Brit. Mus., i, p. 143, pi. v, 
f. 7 — Senonian, Turonian of Europe, Rotten Limestone of Alabama, 
Niobrara of Kansas; Williston, cf. cit. 31. 

f Ptychodua latissimus Agassiz, 1. c, fig. 8; Dixon, Foss. Sussex, pi. xxx, 
ff. 1, 2. 

A single tooth of very l^rg© size from the lower beds of the 
Niobrara Cretaceous of the Smoky Hill river is referred to this 
species provisionally. Until numerous specimens are examined 
there can be no certainty of its correct location, though the re- 
semblances are sufficiently great to render the determination 
not improbable ; at least with some of its varieties. 

PtychodUB martini. Plate XXVIII. 
PtychoduH martini Williston, cf. cit. 32. 

A large series of teeth, 110 in number, found together in the 
Niobrara chalk of the Smoky Hill river, and collected by Mr. H. 
T. Martin, cannot be identified with any described species. I 
have photographed them, arranged as symmetrically as possible, 
but with no assurance that the arrangement is a natural one. 
In fact, it is not improbable that the teeth belong to both upper 
and lower jaws. The teeth apparently from the lower median 
row are much elongate transversely, with a very flat crown, 
wherein they differ from the teeth of other known species. The 
ridges are nine or ten in number, and reach nearly to the lateral 

WiLLiSTON.] Creiaceou9 Finhes. 241 

margin. In some of the teeth several of the ridges form loops 
near the extremities. The marginal area of granulations is 
small, and presents scarcely any distinct vermiculations. The 
teeth of the lateral rows are less elongated than those of the 
middle one, though still more so than is usual. The granula- 
tions become rather more extensive in area proportionally in 
the small teeth, as is the case with other species. A series 
(left vertical row of the plate) that may belong in the medio- 
lateral rows of the upper jaws are more nearly square in^shape, 
and the crown has a distinct, though low, convexity extending 
over nearly its whole area. Antero-posteriorly the surface is 
nearly flat, with a moderate convexity of the margin. The 
surface posterior to the large grooves on the upper part shows 
small, radiating and branched ridges. 

The largest teeth measure 45 by 20 mm. ; the ones more 
nearly square, 35 by 25 mm. 

Ftychodns anonymus. Plate XXIX, figs. 5-8, 16-18, 20-22, 24. 
Ptychodu8 anonymus WillistoD, cf. cit. 32. 

Seven teeth of nearly uniform size, four of them united in 
the matrix, from Walnut creek, Kansas, seem to belong to a 
species distinct from any previously described (figs. 16-18). 
They are of about the same size as those described as P. whip- 
pleyi and P. occidental is, but will be distinguished from the 
former by the more broadly conical crowns. In the teeth of 
this size of P. ivhippleyi the crown is much compressed, stand- 
ing up, tooth-like ; in the present specimens they are nearly 
straight or gently concave from the apex to the rims. From 
P. occidentalis the species will be distinguished by the very dis- 
tinctly reticulate marginal areas, the transverse ridges not 
reaching to the rims of the crown. Other specimens agreeing 
in these characters are from the Niobrara. The horizon is 
probably Benton. 

242 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

PtychoduB occidentaUs. Plate XXIX, fig. 4; plate XXX, fig. 13. 

Ptpchodus occidenfalitt Leidy, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1868, p. 207; 
Ext. Vert. Fauna West. Terr., p. 308, pi. xvii, if. 7, 8, pi. xviii, ff. 15-18; 
Cope, Cret. Vert., p. 244; WillistoQ, cf. cit. 33— Niobrara, Benton of 

Two teeth, one from the same conglomerate that yielded the 
teeth referred to P. janewayii, the other, without locality, from 
Mr. Joseph Savage's collection, I refer to this species. The 
species differs from the following in having the transverse 
ridges continued to the lateral rims, and not separated by an 
area of fine reticulation. The anterior surface has finer, elon- 
gated, nearly straight ridges and grooves in this species, while 
in the others the markings are reticulate or vermiculate. 

PtychoduB janewayii. Plate XXX, figs. 9, 10, 11. 

Sporefodus janewaf/ii Cope, Hayden's Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv. No. 2, 
(1874). pi. XLvii. 

PtychoduB Jane tea f/ii Cope, Cret. Vert., p. 244; Williston, cf. cit. 33. 

** Surface irregularly convex, covered with a dense layer, 
which does not exhibit pores, and is thrown into transverse or 
oblique ridges. Surface with four folds, which traverse it 
obliquely from border to border. At the base of the outer, at 
one end, is a series of adherent tubercles ; at the basis of that, 
at the opposite end, is a broken fold, with tubercles at its outer 
base. Length, 0.0045 m. ; width, 0.0025 m. A portion of a 
larger and more central tooth has the surface with an unsym- 
metrical convexity, and is crossed transversely by five folds, 
from border to border.'' - 

Three small teeth, shown enlarged in plate XXX, ff. 9-11, 
from the conglomerate containing specimens of Corax curvatus^ 
appear to belong to this species. The horizon of the conglom- 
erate is near the line of contact between the Dakota and Ben- 
ton, in Ellsworth county. Cope's type was from a bed of 
conglomerate containing Lanina and Isurtis teeth of small size 
near Stockton. It is probable that the horizon is the same in 


 t I. I  

2. Cope, 1. c. 

WiLLiSTON.] Cretaceous Fishes. 243 

PtychodoB whippleyi. Plate XXIX, figs. 10-15. 

PtychodtiH whmpleyi Marcou, Geoi. North Amer., p. 33, pi. ix, f. 4; Leidy, 
Ext. Vert. Fauoa, p. 300, pi. xviii, ff. 19, 20; J. S. Newberry, Rep. 
Expl. Exp., p. 147, pi. Ill, f. 2; Cope, Cret. Vert., p. 294 : WillistoD, cf. cit. 
34 — Cretaceous, Texas ( Marcou, Leidy); Kansas, Arkansas Valley (Cope): 
Colorado, New Mexico. 

Thirteen teeth from Dallas, Tex., and a number of others re- 
ceived from Mr. Frank Springer, collected in the vicinity of 
Las Vegas, in New Mexico, agree with the descriptions and fig- 
ures of this species, as given by Leidy. The same species has 
been referred to the Niobrara chalk of the Arkansas valley by 
Cope. If his determination and locality are correct the species 
must be referred to the Benton of Kansas, since the Niobrara 
does not occur in the Arkansas valley. A single specimen from 
the Benton of Kansas in the museum, without definite locality, 
seems to agree pretty well with the Texas specimens, but the 
specimen is an uncharacteristic one and may pertain to some 
other species. 

Some of the teeth referred to this species show a marked re- 
semblance to those figured by Woodward' (P. rugosus) , and by 
Dixon (P. altior Dix.) 

The European species is described as having the sides of the 
median elevation of the crown smooth, which is not the case 
with the present species, the grooves continuing midway into 
the lateral granulations. 

Ptychodus, sp. Plate XXIX, figs. 2, 3: plate XXXI, fig. 53. 
PtffchodaSy sp., Williston, cf. cit. 34. 

Four teeth of moderately large size, from the Benton Creta- 
ceous, of Salt creek, Russell county, and two others of smaller 
size, also from the Benton, seem to belong to a species distinct 
from any hitherto known. The larger ones will be distinguished 
from those referred to the upper series of P. martini, which are 
of nearly the same size and shape, by the smaller area of trans- 
verse ridges, and the much larger area of marginal reticula- 
tions, which are coarser. The teeth are more nearly square and 
the convexity of the crown is greater. The two teeth of smaller 

3. Cat. Foss. Fishes Brit. Mas., I. pi. V, fiff. 2. 

244 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

size probably belong with the others. It is possible that some 
of these teeth may belong with P. polygyms. 

The other described species of this genus are the following : 

PiychoduB mammilaria Agassiz. — Senonian, TuroniaD, and CeDomanian, 

Ptychodus rugosus Dixon. — Senonian, England. 

Ptii/chodus decurretis Agassiz. — Senonian, Turanian, and Cenomanian, 

Ptychodus multistriatus Woodward. — Senonian and Turonian, England. 

Ptycfiodtis latissimus Agassiz. — Turonian and Senonian, Europe. 

Ptychodus papilloaus Cope, Cret. Vert. 294. — Upper Cretaceous, Colorado. 

Ptychodus triangularis Reuss. — Upper Cretaceous, Bohemia. 

Ptychodus lev is Woodward.— Lower Chalk of England. 


The family Scylliidae comprises small sharks with sharp- 
pointed cuspidate teeth, arranged in numerous series. The fol- 
lowing genera are given by Woodward : * Paleoscyllium Wagner, 
Lower Kimmeridgian of Bavaria; Scylliorhinus Blainv., Turo- 
nian and Senonian ; Pristiurus Bonaparte, Lower Kimmeridgian 
of Bavaria; Mesiteia Kramb., Senonian and Middle Eocene; 
Chiloscyllium Muller and Henle, Molasse ; Crossorhinus Muller 
and Henle, Gault; ( 'antioscyllium Woodw., TuronisLn; Gingly- 
mostoma Muller and Henle, Danaian, Eocene. 

Numerous teeth from the Lower Cretaceous of Kansas seem 
in all probability to belong in this family, and agree pretty well, 
though rather large, with the teeth of Scylliorhinus , to which I 
refer them provisionally. 

Scylliorhinus rugosus. Plate XXIV, fig. 5. 

Scyllium rugoHum Williston, Kans. Univ. Quart., ix, p. 35. 

Central cusp broad, pointed, nearly symmetrical, the cutting 
edges nearly straight, one of them a little longer than the other 
and slightly convex near the tip ; a single pair of lateral den- 
ticles, which are nearly equilaterally triangular in shape ; prin- 
cipal cusp with six or seven strong ridges on the basal two-fifths ; 
denticles with four or five similar ridges reaching two-thirds of 

4. Cat. FosB. Fishes Brit. Mas., I. p. 338. 

WiLLiSTON.] CreiaceoHS Fhhes. 245 

the way to the apex ; root narrow, apparently not at all pro- 
duced at the angles ; thinned and not at all tamid. 

Type No. 1949, U. S. National Museum, Greenleaf sandstone 
at Greenleaf ranch. 

Height of middle cusp 7 mm. 

Width of same at base 4 ** 

Height of denticles 3 ** 

Width of same 2i •♦ 

ScylliorMnus planidens. Plate XXIV, fig. 7. 

Scyllium planiilenn Williston, Kans. Univ. Quart., ix, p. 35. 

Central cusp broad, pointed, convex from side to side, with 
sharp, non-crenulate edges; lateral cusps sharply pointed, 
smooth, two in number; root thin, narrow, moderately pro- 
duced below the posterior denticle, smooth. 

Height of median cusp 4 mm. 

Width of same at base 3 " 

Width of base of tooth 6 '• 

Height of denticles 1\ ** 

Type No. 1949, U. S. National Museum. From same horizon 
as the preceding species. 

I refer provisionally to this species numerous other speci- 
mens from the same horizon and collection. They differ in the 
relative size of the denticles, the more posterior direction of the 
main cusp, and the size. One tooth seems to lack the anterior 
denticle, which is always the smaller of the two ; its absence 
may be due to injury. 

Scylliorhinus (Lamna? ) gracilis. Plate XXIV, fig. 6. 

Sci/llium {Lamna f) gracilu Williston, Kans. Univ. Quart., ix, p. 35. 

Main cusp elongate, slender; inner surface smooth, gently 
convex longitudinally, more so transversely, with sharp, smooth 
edges ; the interior edge nearly straight, the posterior somewhat 
concave; denticles of nearly equal size, small, slender, acute; 
base narrow, prolonged into a slender root at each extremity. 

Height of tooth 9 mm. 

Length of middle cusp 6 *' 

Width of same at base 3 •' 

Length of denticles 2 ** 

One specimen. No. 1949, U. S. National Museum, with the 
preceding species. 

246 University Geological Survey of Kansas, 


The Lamnidse comprise the largest and most voracious of the 
sharks, represented by a number of species in the oceans of the 
present time. They are elongated fishes, the dorsal fin without 
spine ; there is no nictitating membrane to the eye, and the gill 
openings are wide. The teeth are solid in the adult, and are 
300 or more in number. The teeth are found very commonly 
in the Cretaceous deposits of Kansas, as elsewhere, usually 
scattered singly, though occasionally found more or less con- 
nected by the calcified cartilage of the jaws in several rows. 
Owing to the great variation of size and shape of the teeth in 
the same individual, it is often difficult or impossible to cor: 
rectly determine the forms. Doctor Eastman has recently fig- 
ured and described the nearly complete dentition of Isurus 
mantclli, the most common species of the family in Kansas. 
Doubtless similar variations will be found in the different spe- 
cies of the other genera of this family. 


This genus differs from Lamna only in the prevailing absence 
of the lateral denticles of the teeth. The teeth are large. The 
genus occurs from Jurassic to the present time. 

Isurus mantelli. Plate XXXI, figs. il-iQ; plate XXXII, figs. 2-2m. 

Oxt/rhina mantellf. (Geinitz) Agassiz, Poiss*. Foss., iii, p. 282, pi. xxxiii, 
ff. 1-5, 7-9; Eastman, Paleontographica, xli, pp. 149-192, pU. xvi-xviii 
(where additional extensive synonymy will be found); Woodward, Proc. 
Geol. Assoc, xiii, p. 19G — Cenomanian, Senonian and Turanian of Eu- 
rope; Kansas, Texas, New Jersey, Alabama, Colorado, etc. 

Oxyrhina extenta Leidy, Ext. Vert. Fauna, p. 302, pi. xviii, ff. 21-25. 

** Moderate-sized, stout, three-cornered teeth; the crown on 
the outer side nearly flat, with one or more vertical wrinkles ; 
on the inner side, lightly convex and smooth ; root long, thick, 
low, moderately deeply furcate, usually obtuse at the ends, and 
on both sides more or less flattened."^ 

This species is very common in tlie Kansas Niobrara, in fact, 

5. Eastman, 1. c. 

WiLLiSTON.J Creiaceou% Fishes. 247 

the most common of all, and not infrequently it is represented 
by many associated teeth. From the plates, and from East- 
man's figures, it will be readily identified in all its forms. 


Teeth, except some of the hindmost ones, with a narrow, 
compressed, conical cusp, with one or two pairs of small, pointed 

Some of the following species may belong to Odontaspis, 
which can hardly be distinguished by the teeth alone, differing 
only in the relatively less high and less subulated character of 
the anterior ones, and in the usually larger size of the lateral 

Lamna appendicnlata. Plate XXVI, figrs. 3-Dc; plate XXXI, figs. 47-19. 

Otodua appendicuiatuM (Roemer) Agassiz, Poiss. Foss., iti, p. 279, pi. 
XXXII, ff. 1-25; Davis, Trans. Roy. Dubl. Soc., iv, p. 402, pi. xli, ff. 1-il. 

Lamna nppendicufata Woodward, Cat. Foss. Fishes Brit. Mus., i, p. 393; 
Proc. Geol. Assoc, xiii, p. 196; Williston, cf. cit. 37 — Senonian, Cenoma- 
nian, Turonian ( ?), Danian of Europe, Niobrara of Kansas, and Green- 
sand of New Jersey. 

** Teeth robust, with a thick root, having a much flattened 
postero-inferior face, the nutritive foramen not in a groove. 
Outer face slightly convex or flat, often with a few indefinite 
vertical folds on the basal half ; inner side of crown markedly 
convex, smooth ; cutting edges prominent ; a single pair of 
lateral denticles, broad, but pointed. Anterior teeth narrow 
and upright ; lateral teeth much inclined backward, the anterior 
teeth much more arcuate and longer than the posterior ones.''*' 

Several teeth from the Niobrara chalk agree sufficiently well 
with the foregoing description, and especially with Woodward's 
figures, to permit their allocation here. They are somewhat 
broader than the specimens figured by Woodward. Two of the 
specimens differ markedly from the others in having the base 
flatter and the roots much less prolonged downward, the notch 
of the base shallower and shorter. Another tdoth from the 
base of the Benton, in the conglomerate containing the speci- 
mens of Corax curvatvs and Ptychodus janewayiL agrees well 

8. Woodward. 1. c. 

248 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

with these last specimens and apparently belongs to the same 
species, if distinct. Their resemblance to Odontaspis kopingen- 
sis Davis likewise cannot be denied, but the lateral denticles are 
more triangular in shape. 

Lamna sulcata. Plate XXIV, figrs. 1-lb. 

Otodus BulcatUH Geinitz, Char. Schicht. u. Petriffact, saechs-boehm Krei- 
deb. 5, pi. IV, f. 2. 

Otodua divan'catus Leidy, Ext. Vert. Fauna, p. 305, vol. xviii, flp. 26-28? 
Cope, Cret. Vert., p. 295. 

Lamna HxUcafa Woodward, Cat. Foss. Fishes Brit. Mus., i, p. 388 (where 
additional synonymy will be found): Proc. Geol. Assoc, xiii, p. 197: 
Williston, cf. cit. 37 — Cenomanian and Turonian, England, France, 
Belgium, Saxony. Bohemia: Senonian, England; Cretaceous, Texas, 
(Leidy): Jewell county, Kansas, (Cope): Mississippi (Cope). 

*' Teeth very robust, the crown sometimes attaining a height 
of nearly 50 mm. Outer face of crown slightly convex, gener- 
ally uneven ; both the inner and the outer faces with more or 
less prominent series of vertical wrinkles near the base, usually 
irregular. A single pair of large, acuminate lateral denticles, 
slightly divergent, often incompletely separated from the prin- 
cipal cone. Root with a considerable inward prominence im- 
mediately below the base of the crown."* 

**A name given to very large, robust teeth with vertically 
wrinkled crown and slightly divergent acuminate lateral denti- 
cles. There are specimens in the British Museum from un- 
determined horizons in the chalk of Kent, Surrey, and Sussex." * 

This species is unknown to me. It occurrence in Kansas is 
given on the authority of Cope. The horizon is evidently the 

Lamna mndgei. 

Lamna mudgei Cope, Cret. Vert., p. 207, pi. xii, flf. 11, 12; Williston, cf. 
cit. 38— Niobrara of Kansas, Greensand of New Jersey. 

'* Indicated by three teeth from the Niobrara epoch of Kan- 
sas and one from the Greensand No. 4, from New Jersey. 
These teeth are rather stout, especially at the base, and the 
crown is not very elongate. The root is excessively protuber- 

7. Woodward. 1. c. 

8. Woodward. 

WiLLiSTON.] Cretaceous Fiahes. 249 

ant, projecting horizontally beyond the convex side, and flat 
or truncate below the protuberance. The enamel is entirely 
smooth. Length, 14 mm." 

This species is unknown to me, or unrecognizable from the 
description and figures of the mutilated type specimens. 

Lanma macrorhiza. 

Lamna macrorhiza Cope, Cret. Vert., p. 297, pi. xlii, ff. 9, 10; Woodward, 
Cat. Foss. Fishes, Brit. Mus., i, p. 399; Williston, cf cit. 38— Niobrara of 
Kansas; Albian, of England; Cenonian, of S. £. Russia (Woodward). 

''Teeth of small size, elevated though robust, the maximum 
total height being about 25 mm. Outer coronal face flat, or 
nearly so, with a faint median longitudinal elevation, and 
often a few folds at the base ; inner coronal face very convex, 
smooth ; cutting edges sharp ; a single pair of relatively large, 
narrow, acuminate lateral denticles, divergent, also often 
marked at the base by minute vertical folds ; root with a 
prominent inward projection below the base of the crown ; 
nutritive foramen in a groove." 

The above description by Woodward is drawn from a Euro- 
pean specimen, while the type described and figured by Cope 
is from Ellis county, Kansas, probably Niobrara. I do not 
know the species. 

Lamna (Odontaspis?), sp. Plate XXX, fig. 5. 
Lamnci (Odontaspis f), sp., Williston, cf. cit. 38. 

A single tooth from the Lower Cretaceous ( Kiowa shales, 
Clark county), resembles the figure of Odontaspis kopingensis 
Davis, as figured by that author® except that it is smaller and 
has the base rather more prominent, more triangular, and more 
pointed . The tooth has also resemblance to Lamna appendicnlata^ 
but the denticles are stouter (compare Woodward. )*° Height 
of crown, 15 mm. ; width of base, 18 mm. ; width of base of 
crown, 9 mm. ; distance between points of denticles, 14 mm. 

9. Trans. Roy. Dubl. Soc., IV, XXXVI, fi«s. 27, 28. 
10. Proc. Oeol. Aasoc., XIII. pi. VI. fig. 26. 

17— vi 

250 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

Lanma, sp. Plate XXX, fig. 6. 
Lamnaf sp., Williaton, cf. oit. 39. 

A somewhat injured tooth, of larger size than the last, dif- 
fers in having a larger and stouter base, the inner projection 
in the middle of the latter stouter and broader, and the lateral 
denticles smaller and more obtuse. Height of tooth (approxi- 
mately), 32 mm. ; width of base of crown, 12 mm. ; width of 
base of tooth, 25 mm. 

One specimen, Kiowa shales, Clark county. 

Lamna aninqnelateralis. 

Latnna quinquelateralitt Cragin, Colo. Coll. Studies, v, p. 189; Williston, 
cf. oit. 39. 

''The specific name quinquelateralis is applied to a species of 
shark whose vertebrae differ from all others of which I have any 
knowledge. The type vertebra is short, much broader than 
high, shallow-cupped, and more or less sharply pentagonal 

'' Measurements : Height, 20 mm. ; length, 12 mm. ; breadth, 
12 mm. The two upper angles measure each about 130 deg. ; 
either lateral angles about 105 deg. ; the lower angle is broad 
and rounded. 

** Occurrence : A single vertebra of this form was found by 
the writer at Belvidere, Kan., with the above-described remains 
of PtesiocIielySy in the upper part of No. 4 of the Belvidere sec- 

Possibly this vertebra belongs with one or the other of the 
above-described teeth from these same deposits, but the corre- 
lation cannot be made until the teeth and vertebrte are found 
associated, which may be long hence. 


RhinognathuB Davis, Trans. Roy. Dubl. Soc. (2), iii, p. 480. 

Scapanorhynehus Woodward, Cat. Foss. Fishes Brit. Mus., i, p. 351, (1889). 

f Mitsukurina Jordan, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 2k)ol., i, (1886); Amer. Nat, 
XXXIV, p. 234. 

The genus Scapanorhynchm, first proposed by Davis under a 
preoccupied name, has been more closely defined by Woodward. 
The teeth themselves cannot in many cases be generically dis- 

WiLLiaTow.] Cretaceous Fishes. 251 

tinguished from those of OdoiitaspiSf under which name some 
were originally described. 

Recently Doctor Woodward ^' has identified a modern genus 
of sharks, from the deep sea off Yokahama, Japan, with this 
supposedly extinct type — Mitsukurina Jordan. 

Possibly the positive identification is premature, but there 
seems to be no doubt of the close relationship of the two forms ^ 
at least. 

BcapanorhyncuB rhaphiodon. Plate XXVI, fig. 4; plate XXXII, fig. 5. 

Lamna (Odontaapis) raphiodon Agassiz, Poise. Foes., iii, p. 296, pL 
xxxvii-A, ff. 12-16. 

Scapanorhynchus rhaphiodon Woodward, Cat. Foss. Fishes Brit. Mus.,. 
I, p. 353 (where additional eynonjinj will be found); Proc. Geol. Assoc. 
XIII , p. 19(S — Cenomanian , Russia and Ghilicia ; Cenomanian and Turonian ,. 
France, Saxony, and Bohemia ; Cenomanian-Senonian, England ; Upper 
Cretaceous, 8. India; Upper Cretaceous of Texas, Mississippi, New 
Jersey ; Benton Cretaceous of Kansas. 

Lamna texana Roemer, Kreideb. von Texas, p. 29, pi. i, ff. 7 ; Leidy, Rep. 
U. 8. Geol. Surv., i, p. 304, pi. xviii, ff. 46-50; Cope, Cret. Vert, p. 296. 

Teeth of considerable size, slender, the anterior ones without 
lateral denticles ; inner coronal face conspicuously and finely 

A number of teeth before me from the Cretaceous of New 
Jersey and one from the Benton Cretaceous of Kansas agree 
fairly well with the figures given by Leidy of specimens from 
Mississippi, New Jersey, and "from near the mouth of Ver- 
milion creek, in Kansas," and which agree with those from 
Texas called Lamna texana by Roemer. 

The specimens agree so well with the European species, 
especially as figured by Woodward (1. c. ; I have no European 
specimens for comparison) , that I think there cannot be much 
doubt of their identity, a conclusion suggested by Woodward. 

The Kansas specimen described by Leidy was said to have 
been obtained by Hayden from a ''gray sandstone from near 
the mouth of Vermilion river.' • The Vermilion in Kansas runs 
its whole length through the Carboniferous in eastern Kansas ; 
nor do I think there is any gray sandstone (necessarily Dakota 
Cretaceous) in the state which will yield these teeth. In all 

U. Amer. Ma«. Nat. Hist, III, p. 487 (1809). 

252 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

probability the specimens did not come from this state. How- 
ever, a specimen in our collection agreeing with the species was 
obtained in the state, and probably from the Benton, though 
possibly from either the Niobrara or Fort Pierre. 


The genus Corax is confined wholly to the Cretaceous, and 
is )'et incompletely known. Its distinction from Galeocerdoy 
under which name some of its species have been described, is 
based upon the solidity of the teeth — those of Galeocerdo have 
a hollow cavity within. The teeth are small, compressed, more 
or less triangular, with marginal serrations, though this charac- 
ter may be more or less wanting in young individuals. They 
vary not a little in shape in the same individual. In some the 
crown is nearly bilaterally symmetrical, but they more usually 
have the crown directed more or less obliquely backward, the 
anterior margin convex, the posterior more or less straight and 

Three species of the genus are known in England — C.Jalcatus, 
C. pristodontuSy which is hardly distinct, and C affinis. In ad- 
dition, C. antiquus Desl., C. incisus Egert., C. Ivcvis Gieb. and 
C. pygmscus Munst. have been described from Europe, and C. 
crassidens Cope and C, hartvelli Cope from the United States. 

Ooraz falcatus. Plate XXXI, fi^s. 1-40; plate XXXII, fi^. 1-11. 

Corax falcatus Agassiz, Poiss. Fobs., in, p. 226, pi. xxvi, f. 14, xxvi-a, ff. 
1-15; Woodward, Cat. Foss. Fishes Brit. Mus., i, p. 424 (where additional 
synoDymy will be found) ; Proc. Greol. Assoc. , xiii, p. 198, pi. vi, ff . 13-15 — 
Cenomanian and Turonian of England, France, Switzerland, Saxony, 
Bohemia, Galicia, and Russia ; Senonian of England and France ; Cre- 
taceous of Texas, New Jersey, and Mississippi; Niobrara of Kansas. 

Oaleocerdo falcatus Leidy, Ext. Vert. Fauna West. Terr., p. 301, pi. xvn, 
ff. 29-42. 

The very variable shape of the teeth referred to this species 
will be seen in plate XXXI, figs. 1-40. Possibly the specimens 
there figured represent distinct species. C. {Galeocerdo) crassi- 
dens Cope seems to be represented by fig. 24, and C {Galeocerdo) 
hartvelli Cope" by fig. 23. Possibly this species also includes 

12. Cret. Vert., p. 244. 

WiLLiSTON.] Cretaceous Fishes. 253 

C pristodontus and C. lindstromiy both of which seem to be im- 
perfectly differentiated from C. falcatus at present. 

In plate XXXIII, figs. 1-1/, are shown a number of teeth per- 
taining to a single individual and found associated with many 
Others, by Mr. Martin, in the Niobrara Cretaceous of the Smoky 
Hill valley. Isolated teeth of this species are the most abun- 
dant of the selachian teeth in the Niobrara of Kansas. Only in 
very few instances have many teeth been found associated, so 
that it is yet impossible to fully understand the dentition. The 
species occurs rarely, if at all, in the lower Niobrara horizons, 
where those of Istirus and Piychodxis are the most abundant. 

Oorax curvatns, d. «p. Plate XXX, figs. 7, 8. 

Two specimens from the same block which yielded those of 
Ptychodus janeivayii and Lamna species, antea, seem evidently 
specifically distinct from the foregoing. These teeth, while not 
diflFering much in outline from certain ones referred to C. falca- 
txtSf show a marked variance in structure. In C. falcatus the 
outer surface of the tooth stands out but very slightly. In C, 
cnrratus the crown is attached to the root very obliquely, so that 
when resting upon a plane the tooth forms a high arch, touch- 
ing only by the extreme tips of the roots and crown. The inner 
surface, also, is very much more uneven and convex, the crown 
separated from the root by a marked, narrow, transverse ridge, 
which is scarcely indicated in the teeth of C. falcatus. Altitude, 
8 mm. ; greatest width, 14 mm. ; horizon, lower or lowermost 
Benton of Ellsworth county. 


WUlietoQ, Kans. Univ. Quart., IX, p. 42, 1900. 

Leptostyraz bicuspidatus. Plate XXIV, figs. 15, 15a; plate XXVI, fig. 7. 
Lcptostyrax bicuspidatus Williston, cf. cit. 42. 

Principal cusp long and slender, flattened upon the outer 
side, with sharp, smooth edges and a median convexity in the 
middle of the flattened surface ; for the most part convex lon- 
gitudinally, gently concave before the apex. Inner surface 
strongly convex from side to side, concave on the lower half 

254 University Oeological Survey of Kansas. 

longitudinallj, gently convex on the upper part. A single 
denticle present, slender, flattened cylindrical, with an anterior 
and posterior carina ; it arises below the base of the main cusp, 
and is directed more outwards, its inner surface concave longi- 
tudinally. Immediate base of crown of both main cusp and 
denticle with short ridges. Base of tooth short, truncate ( ? ) 
below the main cusp, prolonged downward below the denticle. 
Length of main cusp, 19 mta. ; width of same at base, 5 mm. ; 
length of denticle, 5 mm. ; width of same at base, 2i mm. ; 
height of tooth, 26 mm. ; width of base, 10 mm. 

A small tooth of the same form found with this has a total 
length of 14 mm. The base is deeply emarginate below, with 
two slender roots ; that below the denticle the longer. Mentor 
beds, 4i miles southwest of Marquette, Kan. 

U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 1979. 


The pycnodonts are a peculiar group of ganoid fishes, whose 
remains have been found in the Jurassic, Cretaceous and Eo- 
cene deposits of Europe, North America, Asia, and Australia. 
They are all rather small fishes, very much flattened and oval 
in shape, covered with rhomboidal scutes having close-lying 
spines, which give a ribbed appearance. The united palatine 
and vomer of the upper jaws are provided with five rows of 
round or oval, smooth-pavement teeth ; the premaxillary with 
two or four chisel-like teeth. The dentaries below have a like 
number of teeth, similar to those of the premaxillary, while on 
the splenial there are three, four or five rows of pavement teeth 
similar to those of the vomer. 

CoBlodus brownii. Plate XXIV, fig. 12. 

CceloduB hrovmii Cope, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., ix, p. 447, pi. xx, 
f.l9; Williston, cf. cit. 28. 

A fragment of the left lower jaw, containing two rows of 
teeth, the middle and the inner. There are four crowns pre- 
served on the inner row, nearly corresponding in length with 

WiLLMTON.] Cretaceous Fishes. 255 

the six teeth of the middle row, of which only two have the 
crowns preserved. Cope's type had only the middle and ex- 
ternal rows, and none of the teeth had well-preserved crowns. 
The middle teeth seem to correspond exactly in size with the 

On the inner side the jaw projects as a rather broad trough, 
with a thin edge, apparently broader posteriorly than anteriorly. 
Its width here is nearly as great as the width of the inner row 
of teeth. The inner teeth are large, their width equal to nearly 
half their length. The surface of the crowns is smooth and 
convex, more so antero-posteriorly than transversely. The 
middle row has the teeth placed a little obliquely to the others, 
and the surface is more flattened transversely in the middle. 
The axes of the crowns of the two rows are placed at a distinct 
angle with each other. 

Length of four teeth, inner row 36 mm. 

Transverse diameter of crowns, inner row 17 '* 

Length of five teeth, middle row 31 '* 

Transverse diameter of crowns, middle row 12 " 

Thickness of jaw, at middle row of teeth 22 '' 

The specimen was collected from the Kiowa shales, near Bel- 
videre, by Mr. C. N. Gould. 

OoeloduB Btantoni, n. sp. Plate XXIV, fig. 12; plate XXVI, fig. 6. 
Ccelodus atantoni Williston, of. cit. 28. 

A fragment of the right lower jaw, containing two perfect 
crowns of the internal row, together with the bases of four 
teeth of the middle row, evidently represents a species distinct 
from the previous one. The teeth are much smaller in size, 
more elongated and distintly kidney-shaped, the ends narrowed. 
The surface is smooth, strongly convex antero-posteriorly, and 
gently so from side to side. The jaw is much less robust than 
in the preceding species. 

Transverse diameter of tooth, internal row 14 mm. 

Antero-posterior diameter of same 5 J 

Length of four teeth, middle row 17 

Transverse diameter of tooth, middle row 11 


The middle teeth seem to be larger in proportion to those of 
the internal series than in the preceding species. Kiowa shales. 

256 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

Mesodon abrasus. 

Mrsodon abrasus Cragin, Colorado College Studies, v, 1894; Williston, 
Kans. Univ. Quart., ix, p. 29. 

''This name is proposed for certain pycnodont teeth of low, 
rhomboidal form and feebly convex upper surface which occur 
in No. 3 of the Belvidere section, southwest of the Belvidere 
railroad station, and seem to agree with the large mandibular 
teeth of Mesodon. The specific name refers to the occurrence 
in the type species of two small, oblique facets produced at one 
end by attrition. The type has a height (above root) of 3 mm., 
a length of 13 mm., and a breadth of 5 mm. 

"To the vomerine set of the same species may belong the 
rotund, oval or nearly hemispherical teeth of similar height 
but smaller size, which occur not uncommonly at the same 
locality and horizon, the largest now available example of 
which measures about 6 and 7 mm. in major and minor hori- 
zontal diameters.'* 

In the National Museum collection there are several teeth, 
occurring singly, corresponding to the vomerine teeth described 
by Cragin. That they belong with the other teeth there de- 
scribed is very doubtful — indeed it is doubtful whether the other 
teeth belong with Mesodon, since it is impossible to locate the 
genus from single teeth. It is not at all impossible that the 
vomerine teeth are identical with Cope's M. diastematicus. The 
larger teeth may be the same as those of either the above- 
described species of Caiodus, 

The largest of the specimens in the present collection meas- 
ures 10 by 7i mm. ; several smaller examples have diameters 
of 6 and 5 mm. ( See plate XXX, fig. 4.) 


Lepidotus, sp. 

In the National Museum collection there is a single example 
of a scute pertaining to some lepidotid fish { No. 1063, Kiowa 
shales). Cope has described Macrepistius of this family from a 
stratum between the Upper and Lower Trinity Sands of Texas. 
It seems very probable that the teeth referred to the vomer of 
Mesodon abrasus really belong here. 




About two years ago, through the kindness of Dr. S. W. 
Williston, I was given the privilege of working up for publica- 
tion the excellent University collection of teleost fishes from the 
Upper Cretaceous formations of western Kansas, the results of 
which are given in the following pages. At the time the work 
was begun the literature on the subject was poorly represented 
in the University library, and, as some of it was very hard to 
obtain, the work has been delayed on this account, causing 
a later appearance of it than was first expected. However, it 
is hoped by the author that it is fairly complete, and that it 
will be a guide to students of the Cretaceous ichthyology of 
North America, and especially that of Kansas. 

For more than twenty years past the Kansas Cretaceous fishes 
have been almost entirely neglected by writers on ichthyology, 
and not since the publication of Professor Copers '* Vertebrata 
of the Cretaceous Formations of the West," in 1875, has any 
work appeared beyond a few scattering papers on some special 
form or group ; and, with the exception of those by Prof. 0. P. 
Hay and myself, these have all been written by students of Ger- 
man universities, from collections which have been made in 
Kansas and sent to the museums there. Thus, it seems very 
proper that there should be a more complete work undertaken 
at home, where the collecting grounds are easy of access and 
the collections are probably more complete than elsewhere." 

In addition to the original collection made by Chancellor F. 
H. Snow, Dr. S. W. Williston, and others, the geological ex- 

13. See also the Appendix to this part.— &'. W. W. 


268 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

pedition to western Kansas during the summer of 1898 ob- 
tained some valuable material from the Niobrara and Fort 
Pierre formations, among which several new types have ap- 
peared. Before entering into the work in detail^ I wish to ex- 
press my indebtedness to Dr. S. W. Williston for advice in the 
preparation and revision of the work, and also to Prof. 0. P. Hay, 
of the United States National Museum, of Washington, D. C, 
for the loan of his type specimen of Ichthyodectes cruentt^ for 
comparison with some of our specimens, and also for informa- 
tion on some of the points on which I was in doubt. I must 
also express my sincere thanks to Mr. W. O. Bourne, of Scott, 
and Mr. Travis Morse, of lola, for the loan of material from 
their collections of fossil vertebrates; and also to Mr. H. M. 
McDowell, of this city, for his present of the fine skull of 
Saurodon xiphirostris. The drawings from which the plates 
were made were all done by Mr. Sydney Prentice, under the 
writer's direction. 

Lawbbncb, Kan., May 15, 18W. 

Stiwabt.] Cretaceous Fishes. 259 


The fishes belonging to this order are usually characterized 
by the margin of the upper jaw being formed of the maxilla 
and premaxilla and by the absence of spinous rays in the pelvic 
iin. Some of the Cretaceous forms are exceptions to this, as 
the pelvic fin eften is provided with spinous rays. The parietal 
bones are united in the median line and the scales are usually 
cycloid. This order comprises the most generalized types of 
bony fishes, which are closely related to the bony ganoids. 
They are among the most abundant fossils obtained from the 
chalk of western Kansas, and are usually in an excellent state 
of preservation, which makes them easy to collect and study. 
They range in size from the gigantic XiphaciinuSj which often 
attains a length of nearly twenty feet, to Enchodm and some 
of the other small forms, which are often less than a foot in 
length. They are found most abundantly in the Niobrara group, 
not because they were more abundant in that period, but prob- 
ably because the conditions which prevailed at that time were 
more favorable for fossilization than in the Fort Pierre and Fox 
Hill time which followed. They include several families, which 
will be described and discussed below. 

A. S. Woodward," of the British Museum, has divided 
these fishes into six groups, which are given below. 

** I. Laterally compressed fishes with large and powerful maxillas and pre- 
maxillse, bearing teeth, the dentary being the only tooth-bearing bone of the lower 
jaw, provided with a single series, the palatine and ectopterygoid toothless. The 
teeth are placed in complete sockets. Vertebrae, except near the head, deeply 
two-grooved on each side in addition to possessing pits for insertion of neural and 
hsemal arches. Ex.: Porfheua [Xlphaotinus), Ichthi/odcctc8, Daptinus (Sau- 
rodon)y SaurocephaluA (forming the family of Saurodontidce of Cope). 

^' II. Fishes somewhat less laterally compressed, provided with scales or bony 
scutes, or both, and having the premaxillas and maxillse large, bearing powerful 
teeth in one or more series. The teeth not implanted in sockets, but anchylosed 

14. Proc. Oeol. Amoc., vol. X, 1888, pp. 309, 310. 

260 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

to the jaw-bones. AbdomiDal vertebne, at least, without deep lateral pits, but 
longitudinally striated. Ex.: PachyrhizoduH^ Empo (/), Stratodtta. 

'* III. Fishes only moderately compressed from side to side, naked, or pro- 
vided with scutes. Both maxilla and premaxilla long and slender, the former 
about half excluded from the margin of the upper jaw by the latter; the maxil- 
lary and premaxillary teeth small. Palatines and ectopterygoids powerful, and 
bearing a single series of large teeth, upon expanded, anchylosed to the bone. 
Dentary bone of lower jaw with one series of large teeth and one or more series 
of small teeth similarly anchylosed. Vertebra with two deep lateral impressions 
and pits for the neural and haemal arches. Ex.: Enchodun^ EurygnathuB^ 
EtirypholiSj lachyrocejihalus^ Cimolichthya, Pomagnathua. 

'*IV. Elongated fishes,' with powerful dentition, and the trunk armed with 
several longitudinal series of bony scutes ; not yet precisely defined and separated 
from groups II and III. Ex.: Dercctifi {Leptotraohehis)^ Pclargorht/nrJiuSt 

**V. The ProtoaphyrceaidoR (ErisicMheidce Cope), with much elongated 
snout (ethmoid bone), and long maxilla loosely connected with the premaxilla; 
also believed to have an unusually complex mandible. Ex.: Protosphyrcpna. 

**VI. Clupeoids and salmonoids.'' 

After making a careful study of the material at hand, I think 
it advisable to make some changes in the above grouping for 
the American genera, which are given below. 

I. Fishes with skull laterally compressed; jaws powerful, 
and bearing a single row of cylindric teeth, without nutrient 
foramen or notches below the internal alveolar border ; preden- 
tary not present ; vertebrae deeply grooved, with pits above and 
below for the insertion of the neuro- and hipmapophyses. Em- 
bracing the genera, Xiphactinus, Icthyodcctes, Gillicus, and Clado- 
cydm: family J Icthyodecti<Kr. 

II. Fishes with skull laterally compressed ; jaws powerful^ 
and bearing a single row of compressed, knife-like teeth, with 
nutrient foramina or notches below the internal alveolar bor- 
der ; predentary present and without teeth. Including the 
genera Saurodon and Saurocephalus ; family, Saarodontido'. 

III. Fishes with skull depressed, the top of which is beauti- 
fully sculptured ; jaws provided with one or more series of con- 
ical teeth, which are firmly anchylosed to the bone; vertebrie 

Stewart.] (ycfaceous Fishes. 261 

striated and contracted medially. Including the genera Evipo, 
Stratodus, ^^ nnd {?)Cimolichthys; family, Siratodontidir . 

IV. Fishes with an elongated compressed body ; palatines 
usually provided with a single large tooth ; dentaries with an 
internal row of large teeth , and usually an external fringe of 
smaller ones. Including the genera Encliodus, Tethfodus(f); 
family, Enchodontidit. 

V. Fishes with skull depressed, beautifully sculptured, and 
probably covered with bony plates. Maxilla^!, premaxilhr and 
dentaries with many rows of minute teeth.* Vertebra^ striated 
and contracted but little medially. Including one genus, 
Anogiiiius; family, Osteoglossidir. 

VI. Fishes with maxilla* and dentaries provided with a 
single row of cylindric subequal teeth, all of which are partially 
enclosed in alveoli and partially anchylosed to the bone. 
Bones of the skull Avithout ornamentation. Vertebnr longi- 
tudinally striated. Including the genera Pachyrhizodus and 
Oricardinxis ; family, Salmon idit . 

VII. Fishes with the ethmoid bone prolonged into a rostrum 
anteriorly. Teeth laterally compressed, lanciform in two series, 
the largest of which are set in alveoli. Predental bones prob- 
ably present bearing teeth. Including one genus, Protosphyrama ; 
family, Pachycormidn^^ 

VIII. Body covered with large cycloid scales. Abdomen 
frequently compressed into a serrated edge. Dorsal fin elongate ; 
caudal fin often deeply cleft. Including the American genera 
LeptichthySf Sardinius, and Spaniodon; family, Clupcidir. 

IX. Body slender and covered with several rows of bony 
scutes. Teeth in a single series. Including the American 
genera Dercetis (Leptotrachelus) , TruvnaspiSy Ichthyotringa, and 
Leptecodon ; family, Dercetidse. 

15. Dr. A. S. Woodward, of ihe British Maseum, has since examined our specimen, and 
thinks the large size of the parietals, their meeting medially and the general shape of the top 
•of the skull would indicate that Stratodus was closely related to Dercetis. 

16. Vertebrate Palaeontology ( A. S. Woodward ), p. 111. 

262 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

X. Body short and covered with ctenoid scales. Mouth 
oblique. Jaws with many yilliform teeth. Embracing the one 
genus, Beryx; family, Berycidx, 

XI. Body somewhate elongate, compressed, and covered with 
large or medium-sized cycloid scales. Lateral line doubtfully 
present. Dental bones short and without teeth. Eye lateral. 
Gill openings large. Dorsal fin often elongated. Embracing 
the genera SyUcmus, (?) Apsopelix, and (?) Pelecorapis; family, 


Saurodontidce Cope; SaurocephalidcB Zittel. 

The family name of Ichthyodectidw as characterized by Doctor 
Crook^^ embraced the genera Xiphactinns, IchthyodecteSj and 
Saurodon, and was intended by the author to be used instead of 
the family name Saurodonfidsp , as given to this group of fishes 
by Professor Cope." The reasons given by Doctor Crook for 
changing the name of this family are that the teeth are not like 
those of saurians, and that the name Saurodontidw was pre- 
occupied by a family of ganoid fishes. Concerning this Pro- 
fessor Cope says :** ** In the first place, the author [Crook] has 
not observed that I have on several occasions published the 
fact that the name Dapiinus Cope is a synonym of Saurodon 
Lea,*^ which was proposed many years previously. It was from 
this genus that I gave the family name first proposed of Sauro- 
dontidw. The fact that Professor Zittel many years later gave 
this name to a very distinct family does not authorize the giving 
of a new name to the family first called by me, as is done by 
Mr. Crook." Doctor Crook also removes the genus Sauro- 
ceplmlus from this group, and places it in the family Proto- 
sphyrienidse (Pachycormidie) , concerning which he says of the 
maxilla, premaxilla, and dentary which he examined :^^ 

" Sie ist so ganzlich verschieden von den jenigen der anderen GUeder 
dieser Familie, dass dies Merkmal allein gentlgt. um Saurocephalus 

17. Paleontographiea, 1892, p. 120. 20. Should be Hays. 

18. Proo. Am. Phil. Soo. 1870, p. 529. 21. 1. c, 120. 

19. American Natarallat, yoL XXVI, p. 911. 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 263 

einer anderen Gnippe zazuweieen. Diese Annahme wird nooh mehr 
bestAtigt durch den Charakter der Maxilla und Dentale, die Foramina 
and die Art und Weise der Aaf einanderf olge der Zfthne. Auf Grand 
der Gleiohartigkeit der Zabneundderauserordentlichen Aehnliohkeit 
der PraBmaxilla mit derjenigen von Protosphyrmnan dUrfen wir 
Saurocephalus bis auf weiters in die Familie von Protosphyroma 

I have been unable to discover the similarity between the 
premaxilhB of the two genera mentioned above. In fact, they 
are very widely different, and I am inclined to think that Doctor 
Crook mistook the predentary for a premaxilla of Saurocephalus. 
However, this genus is too closely related to Saurodon to be far 
separated from it, and" if one of these genera is removed from 
this family the other would have to follow. 

As it is evident that these genera cannot be placed in the 
Pachycormidw^ and as some new characters have come to light 
since Do<?tor Crook's paper appeared, I deem it advisable to 
separate these two forms from the original group and place 
them in a separate family, to be known as the Saurodontidae , 
and to use the name Ichthyodectidfe to include the three genera 
Xiphactinus, Ichthyodectes, and Gillictcs. 

Concerning the same Sauroceplialidw Zittel, it can only be 
said that even if the name Saurodontidx had been used by Doc- 
tor Zittel to distinguish his family of ganoid fishes before Pro- 
fessor Cope applied it to his group, it would have to be 
abandoned in light of the fact that Cope's family is founded 
on the genus Saurodon, which would give it priority over another 
family of the same name. 

In this family the tooth-bearing elements are each provided 
with a single row of teeth, and the upper border of the mouth 
is formed by the maxilla and premaxilla. The supraoccipital 
is raised into a prominent crest and the maxilla is bound to the 
skull by means of the palatine. 

This family embraced some of the largest physostomous fishes 
of the Cretaceous period of North America, and from the size of 
the jaws and the powerful dentition we may suppose that they 
rivaled the Mosasaurs, the smaller ones at least, in strength 

264 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

and ferocity. Below is the synopsis of the family Saurodoniidit , 
as given by Cope : 

I. Jaws without foramina on the inner face below the alveolar margin : 

a. Teeth cylindric : 

Teeth of unequal lengths ; some of them greatly de- 
veloped Portheus, 

Teeth of equal length Ichthyodectrs, 

aa. Teeth compressed, knife- like: 

Teeth of unequal length; some of the anterior 

greatly developed ErUicthe. 

Teeth equal Dapiinus, 

II. Dentary bones pierced by foramina below the alveolar border: 

Teeth with subcylindric crowns Saurodon. 

Teeth with short, compressed crowns Saurocephalua, 

Professor Cope also says : '* There are some other forms to be 
referred to this family, whose characters are not yet fully de- 
termined. Thus Hypsodon Agass., from the European chalk, is 
related to the two genera first above named, but, as left by its 
author in the 'Poissons Fossiles,' includes apparently two 
generic forms. The first figured and described has the man- 
dibular teeth of equal length. In the second, they are unequal, 
as in Portheus, to which genus this specinfen ought, perhaps, 
to be referred. Retaining the name Hypsodon for the genus 
with equal mandibular teeth, its relations to Ichthyodectes re- 
main to be determined by further study of H. lewesiensis. The 
view of the superior walls of the cranium given by Professor 
Agassiz presents characters quite distinct from what I have ob- 
served in Portheus,^' Hypsodon has since been shown to be a 
synonym of Pachyrhizodus, Portheus a synonym of Xiphactinxts^ 
Erisicthe a synonym of Protosphymna, and Daptinus a synonym 
of Saurodon. Thus, it is seen that the old synopsis will no longer 
hold, so I give the following revised one : 

a. Teeth large and of unequal length Xiphactinutt. 

h. Teeth medium, of equal length Ichthyodectes. 

c. Teeth small and fringe-like OiUicuB. 

The two large oval scales from the chalk of Lewes, figured by 
Agassiz** as Cladocydus, bear a close resemblance to those of 

22. Poiss. Fos8., vol. V, pi. XX Va, fl^. 5, 6. 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 265 

IchthyodecteSy and it may later be found that the two genera are 
identical. However, as Cladocyclus is so imperfectly known, it 
would hardly be safe to say that the two genera are synonymous. 


Xiphactinua Leidy, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1870, p. 12; Rep. U. S. 
Qeol. Surv. Terr. 1873, p. 290, pi. xvii. 

Portheua Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 1871, p. 175; Cret. Vert. West, pp. 

The genus Xiphactimis was first described by Leidy*' from the 
remains of a pectoral fin-spine from the Cretaceous deposits of 
Kansas. Three years later the spine was more completely de- 
scribed and figured by the same author in his Contributions to 
the Extinct Fauna of the Western Territories, ( p. 290, pi. XVII.) 
Professor Cope recognized the relationship of this spine to his 
family Saurodontidae, in a paper published in Hayden's Second 
Annual Report of the Geological Survey of the Territories, 1871, 
( p. 418,) but assigned it to the genus Saurocephalus , and always 
claimed that Xiphactinns was distinct from Portheus and Ichthyo- 
dectes, although he never stated in what way they differed. 
It has since been shown, without doubt, that Portheus is a syno- 
nym of Xiphactinns, the latter name having the priority by 
about a year. 

This genus is represented in the museum by two specimens 
which are more than twelve feet in length each, and these are 
only medium-sized individuals ; so there can be but little doubt 
tliat the species attained a length of twenty or more feet in the 
largest specimens. Besides their large size, the genus is well char- 
acterized by the tooth-bearing elements, which are all covered with 
a powerful dentition. The premaxillse are firmly united with 
the maxillae and usually have one or more large, fang-like teeth 
projecting downward from the alveolar border. The maxillae 
are large and provided with a single row of teeth which vary 
greatly in size. The upper anterior portion of the bone is pro- 
vided with two condyles which serve to bind the jaw to the 
skull. The dentaries are deep and also provided with a single 

23. Proe. Acad. Nat. Sci. PhiL 1S70, p. 12. 
18— ?i 

266 University Geological Survey of Kansas, 

row of teeth, very irregular in size. The larger of these teeth 

are very deeply set in the jaw and Professor Hay has recently 

shown* that those near the symphysis descend nearly to the 

lower border. The pulp cavities are very large at the base and 

the displacement takes place by the young crown rising within 

the pulp cavity of the functional tooth and the absorption of 
the old root. 

In the early work upon this genus, a great deal of stress 
was placed upon the number, size and arrangement of the teeth 
in the determination of the species, which characters have since 
been shown to be very inconstant.** The reason for the great 
inconstancy is easily explained when we consider the fact that the 
old teeth are being constantly shed and new ones taking their 
places, thus having fully developed and young teeth on the same 
jaw. The palatines and pterygoid bones are probably toothless ; 
at least there are no teeth of any size upon them. The palatine 
is peculiar in having a malleolar portion connecting the max- 
illa with the skull. It is connected with the quadrate by means 
of the pterygoid bones, thus forming a strong arch. 

The skull is provided with a prominent supraoccipital crest 
posteriorly. The orbital cavity is large and the orbit is sur- 
rounded by a heavy sclerotic ring, and also a chain of supra- 
and suborbital bones. The pterotics form prominent posterior 
lateral angles of the skull and also furnish the principal sup- 
port for the hyomandibular. The parasphenoid forms a strong 
lower axis of the skull and has prominent transverse processes 
just in front of the brain case. 

The opercular bones are large and thin, and probably all 
present. The pectoral fin is large and its rays powerful, prob- 
ably forming weapons of offense and defense. The pelvic fins 
are supported by the pelvic actinosts, which are heavy, compact 
bones, strongly united in the median line by means of suture. 
The vertebrae are mostly two-grooved. , The known American 
species are : 

Xiphactinus audax Cope, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 
Xiphactinus lestrio Cope, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 

21. Zool. Ball., vol. II, i>. 88. 

2B. Kana. UniT. Qaart., vol. VII, pp. 11^-119, pi. VII-X. 

Stbwabt.] Cretaceous Fishes. 267 

XiphactinuB mudgei Cope, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 
Xiphactinu9 lowii Stewart, Fort Benton Cretaceous, central Kansas. 
 Xiphactinus br achy gnat hua Stewart, Niobrara Cretaceous, central Kansas. 

In a paper recently published by Professor Hay, of the United 
States National Museum,^ the author recognizes two more spe- 
cies, X, molossus and X. thaumas, not mentioned in the list given 
above, and says that it is quite probable that A", audax is the 
same as some one of Professor Cope's species of Portheus. He 
also recognized the great variation in the size and arrangement 
of the teeth, but thought that the two species could be recog- 
nized by the difference in form of the superior condyles of the 
maxillse, the variation of which will be discussed later. 

Now it seems to me that, if X. molossus and X, thaumas are 
distinct species, Professor Cope failed to designate any constant 
characters by which they can be determined, and, until it is 
shown that such characters exist, we can do nothing more than 
call them synonymous. I have carefully compared the descrip- 
tion and figure of Doctor Leidy's specimen with specimens of 
fin-spines in our collection that undoubtedly belong to one of 
these species, and find them identical with the description. 
This being the case, we must, for the present at least, consider 
X. molossus and A", thaumas Cope as synonyms of Xiphactinus 
audax Leidy. 

XiphactimiB audax. Plates XXXIII to XLVII. 

Saurocephalus thaumas Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 1870, p. 533. 

Saurocephalus audax Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 1870, p. 533. 

Portheus molossus Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 1871, p. 174; Cret. Vert- 
West., pp. 194-196. 

Portheus thaumas Cope, Cret. Vert. West., pp. 196-201. 

Xiphactinus audax Leidy, Proc. Acad. Nat. 8ci. Phil. 1870, p. 12; Rep. 
17. S. Geol. Surv. Terr. 1873, p. 290, pi. xvii. 

This species is by far the best represented of the physostomous 
fishes in the University collection, the material consisting of 
several individuals, some of which are almost complete and 
others remarkably well preserved in certain parts, so that from 
this material a better idea of the anatomy can be gained than 
from any of the other collections that have been described. 

28. L c, p. 27. 

268 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

The premaxilla is large and oval in outline, convex externally 
and very irregular internally. The bone thickens toward the 
lower border, where there are alveoli for the large teeth, which 
are never more than three in number, and even three is an ex- 
ception. The teeth are acutely pointed at the apex, non-striated, 
and directed slightly forward. Considerably more than half of 
the bone is supported on the anterior lamina of the maxilla, 
and in the larger specimens the posterior union with this bone 
is usually by a dentate suture. In the smaller specimens the 
suture is usually an undulating line, which seems to indicate 
that the dentate character of the suture becomes more evident 
with the age of the animal. There was no sutural union with 
its fellow on the opposite side, but, from the tubercular nature 
of the anterior border in some of the specimens, it seems that 
there may have been a cartilaginous or ligamentous union be- 
tween the two. In some of the specimens there are a number 
of tubercular exostoses just above the alveolar border, but this 
character is as inconstant as the focm of the suture mentioned 

The maxilla is a large lanciform bone, much thickened to- 
ward the anterior end and thin posteriorly. Just back of the 
premaxilla the alveolar border is rather thin, and contains 
alveoli for several small teeth, usually four. Back of this the 
bone swells considerably for the accommodation of several large 
teeth, which are acutely pointed, non-striate, and vary in cross- 
section from a cylinder to an oval. Back of this the border is 
occupied by a varying number of small and medium-sized teeth, 
the alveoli of which are probably not all filled with functional 
teeth at once. The bases of all of these teeth are cylindric, or 
nearly so. 

On the next page is given a table showing the great variation 
in the size and arrangement of the teeth on both the maxilla 
and premaxilla. The numbers in the left-hand column are 
the catalogue numbers of the specimens. 


Cretaceous Fishes, 






































"1 ' 





































From the above table, it is seen that in not a single instance 
do the size and arrangement of the teeth exactly agree witli 
either of Cope's species, A', inohssus or A', thaumas. The num- 
ber of teeth is also as varied as is the size and arrangement. 
Two more or less constant characters are observed in the above 
table, viz. : The four small teeth on the anterior portion of the 
maxilla and the two large teeth on the premaxilla which are the 
least variable. 

From the above, it is seen that the size and arrangement of 
the teeth on the maxilla cannot be taken as specific in char- 
acter. The teeth on the premaxilla show a diversity in size 
and arrangement which is quite as marked as the size and 
arrangement of those on the maxilla. While the two large 
teeth are fairly constant, and in some specimens are about 
equal in size, yet in other specimens the anterior is much the 
larger of the two, while in still others the opposite is the case. 

The outer surface of the maxilla is somewhat rugosely 
marked just above the alveolar border, while the internal sur- 
face is nearly smooth at this point. This surface curves regu- 
larly into the superior with no sharp break between the two, 
except near the posterior extremity, where the bone becomes 
very thin, but the external surface ends abruptly above and 
forms a slight shelf for the attachment of probably a jugal bone. 

270 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

In some specimens this shelf is somewhat groove-like, while in 
others it is broad and flat. Near the anterior end superiorly 
there are two condyles, of which the posterior is large, irregular 
in outline, and slightly convex. Professor Hay is inclined to 
think that two forms can be determined from these condyles, as 
he says :" '* I believe that the two species maybe identified from 
the condyles of the maxillary. At least, these condyles are quite 
different in the two species which I have been able to examine, 
X. thaumas and .Y. molossus. Fig. 2 represents the maxillary of 
the former species, fig. 3 that of .Y. molossus. From these fig- 
ures, it will be seen that in X. thaumas the posterior condyle is 
notched behind, while that of P. molossus [should be A", molossus] 
is excavated in front. It appears, too, that the condyle is more 
extended longitudinally in X. thattmas, more transversely in X. 
molossus.'^ I am inclined to think that Professor Hay laid too 
much stress on this and the anterior condyle in the determina- 
tion of his species, as a glance at the series of drawings of these 
parts on plate XLI will show that there was quite as much va- 
riation in these condyles as there is in the teeth, as shown 
above. I cannot be so sure about the variation of the anterior 
condyle, as it is broken away in many of the specimens. How- 
ever, the constancy or inconstancy of this one minor character 
is of little specific value. 

The anterior condyle, mentioned above, is oval in outline, 
convex, and occupies the extreme anterior part of the laminar 
portion of the maxilla, being thus well separated from the pos- 
terior condyle. The two condyles are more in line with each 
other antero-posteriorly than in Ichthyodectes. Just in front 
of the posterior of these condyles, the thickness of the maxilla 
becomes suddenly less and forms an abutment, against which 
the posterior portion of the prem axilla rests. In front of this 
the bone is laminar and supports more than one-half of the 
premaxillary bone. The posterior extremity is very thin, and 
in some specimens it is nearly straight, while in others it is 
curved strongly upward. 

27. Zool. Ball., yol. II, No. 1, p. 84. 


Cretaceous Fishes. 


Manila : Distance from anterior condyle to posterior extremity, 338 mm. 

Depth of bone at posterior condyle 92 

Distance between the two anterior condyles 44 

Length of alveolar border 245 

Thickness at posterior condyle 35 

Premaxilla : Length of lower border 67 

Depth 112 

A table of measurements showing the great variation in size 
of the maxillae in different individuals is given : 




from pre« 


Depth at 



from pre- 


Depth at 
























The dentary is deep, strongly built, and not incurved ante- 
riorly. The alveolar border is slightly concave, and bears two 
large teeth at the anterior extremity, which are usually sepa- 
rated by a transverse groove from those following. Just back of 
this groove there are three or four large teeth which are followed 
by a number of medium-sized and small ones, the diversity in 
size and arrangement of which is shown in the table following 
this description. The teeth are all strongly implanted, with 
straight conical crowns, non-striate except under the microscope, 
and are cylindric in cross-section. The symphyseal portion 
slopes strongly backward and is very thick, but the principal 
articulation with the opposite jaw seems to be on the internal 
side, where the bone is very rugose. The lower border is rather 
sharp, and usually has a row of large nutrient foramina leading 
inward and forward just above it. The internal side is broadly 
vertically concave in the posterior portion, but becomes much 
less so anteriorly. At the end of the alveolar border the bone 
is projected upward and slightly outward into a weak coronoid 


University Geological Survey of Kansas. 










I- g 















"ii * 









































The articular portion as described by Hay*^ is composed of the 
derm and antarticulars, but I am inclined to think that this 
author was somewhat mistaken in the extent of the last of these 
elements, as he says in the description of this part : '' Relying 
on two good specimens of Xiphactinus and one of Ichthyodecte», 
I am confident that the proximal end of the antarticular is con- 
tinuous with the long, sword-shaped process described by Cope, 
and that this process is entirely distinct from the dermarticu- 
lar." Professor Cope states^ that the articular is distinct, short, 
and irregularly wedge-shaped, and supports half of the cotylus. 
In this Professor Cope was correct, as the antarticular is not con- 
tinued forward in a long, sword-shaped process, but is separated 
from this portion by a suture, which is indistinct in many of 
the specimens, and it is probably owing to this fact that Hay 
was unable to find it. 

The dermarticular is a large bone; and in most of the speci- 
mens it supports less than one-half of the cotylus. On the ex- 
ternal side it is exposed for some distance beyond the cotylus, 
when it is covered by the dentary, and continues forward on 
the internal side, as a long sword-shaped process, for nearly 
two-thirds the length of the jaw.- The cotyloid process is promi- 

28. Zool. Bull., vol. II, No. 1, p. 87. 

29. Cret. Vert. West, p. 191. 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 273 

nent and curved upward on the external side of the cotylus. 
In addition to the above bones, there is another, which is not 
mentioned by either Cope or Hay. It is a small bone, which 
lies in front of the antarticular, and is marked sp. in the figure 
of the lower jaw on plate XXXV. It presents a small facet 
above, which seems to have had attachment with something. 
This bone occupies about the same position as the splenial in 
some fishes, which name I will give it provisionally. 

Length of alveolar border 260 mm. 

Length of dentary from cotyloid cavity 325 *' 

Depth at symphysis 94 *' 

Depth at coronoid angle 136 " 

Length of articular from cotyloid cavity 224 '* 

The above measurements are of a single specimen, No. 88 in 
the following table, which shows the great variation in the size 
of the mandible of this species : 


Lfongth of 

Depth at 


Leofftb of 



Depth at 











' 179 















The hyoid arch is represented by only one bone, the cerato- 
hyal, and is the same bone figured by Cope^ and described by 
Crook" as an interopercular. The bone is elongated, and in out- 
line is somewhat the shape of a parallelogram with one side 
crushed in. The posterior end is the broader of the two and 
bears an elongated, narrow and concave facet for the articula- 
tion with the epihyal. The anterior end is more irregular in 
outline and bears two facets for the hypo- and urohyals. The 
bone is thin and finely striated throughout. 

aO. Cret. Vert. West., pi. XL, fig. 7. 
31. Paleontoffraphica, 1892, p. 117. 

274 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

Ceratohyal : Greatest length 238 mm. 

Width across anterior end 86 ** 

Width across posterior end 97 *' 

The palato-quadrate arch is made up of six bones — the pala- 
tine, pterygoid, metapterygoid, mesopterygoid, symplectic, and 
quadrate. The first and last of these mentioned form the ex- 
tremities of the arch , the other four intervening. The palatine 
presents a prominent malleolar portion, which has an articular 
face above and below for the prefronto-palatine articulation for 
binding the maxilla to the cranium, so characteristic of the 
Saurodontidx and Ichthyodectidw . The lower of these faces is 
the larger and is slightly concave, while the upper is somewhat 
convex. The external surface presents no markings other than 
a prominent tuberosity on the posterior side. Just back and 
above this portion there are two prominent tubercles of bone, 
one of which may give attachment for a nasal bone. 

The pterygoid and mesopterygoid are joined to the palatine 
posteriorly. The first of these is a long, thin bar of bone, 
which extends backward and downward nearly to the condyle 
of the quadrate and forms most of the lower border of the arclf.* 
The mesopterygoid is a somewhat triangular-shaped bone oc- 
curring just above the pterygoid. It is evidently united to the 
metapterygoid by means of a very broad squamose suture, as 
the bone appears to be rather small when seen externally, while 
the internal side, as figured by Professor Hay** seems to be 
nearly as large as the metapterygoid. I have been unable to 
discover any teeth on the external side of this and the ptery- 
goid, and none on the internal side of the pterygoid, as far as 
can be examined, which seems to be beyond the point where 
Professor Hay has shown them to be in his specimen. A sec- 
ond specimen shows that in this region there was a great deal 
of ossified cartilage covered with denticles, some of which is 
adhering to the matrix on the internal side of the mesoptery- 
goid, and I am inclined to think that it was some of this carti- 
lage that Professor Hay mistook for teeth on the bone. The 


32. ZooL Bull., vol. II, p. 39. 

Stkwart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 275 

metapterygoid is a broad, flat plate just above the quadrate, 
and is corered with fine striso on the lower portion. 

The symplectic is a rather small element, occupying a groove 
on the inner side of the quadrate. On its superior end it pre- 
sents a small articular facet. 

The quadrate is very thin above where it joins the metaptery- 
goid, but in passing downward to the condyle it becomes more 
robust and is contracted into a neck. The condyle is somewhat 
elliptical in outline, the ellipse being invaded by a deep notch 
on the external side, and is strongly convex from before back- 
ward. On the internal side there is a deep groove for the sym- 
plectic, and just back of this groove, posteriorly, there is another 
smaller groove into which the anterior border of the preoper- 
culum fits. The anterior border articulates with the pterygoid 
by means of a squamose suture. The bone is minutely striated, 
both externally and internally. 

Greatest leogth of arch 342 mm. 

Anterior depth of malleolar body 40 " 

Between malleolar body and condyle for the quadrate 261 *' 

An tero- posterior length of palatine 296 *' 

Depth at center of the arch 131 *^ 

The opercular bones are represented by the operculum, pre- 
operculum, and a supposed suboperculum. There is still another 
bone (plate XLIII, fig. 3), which may represent an interoper- 

The operculum is a broad, flat plate of bone, near the anterior 
superior portion of which there is a deep elliptical pit for articu- 
lating the bone with the hyomandibular. This pit is projected 
slightly outward from the rest of the bone, very closely resembling 
the corresponding portion of Saurodon in this respect. Just above 
this pit there is a sharp angular projection at the point where 
the anterior and superior borders meet, but I am inclined to 
think that this character will not be constant in all specimens. 
From this point the superior border extends backward and down- 
ward in an irregularly curved line to the lower border, which 
is less curved and somewhat striated just above it. The ante- 
rior border, extending from the articular portion just mentioned 
downward, is nearly straight and somewhat thickened. Back 


276 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

of this border the bone is very thin, thus making it difficult to 
collect in perfect condition. 

The preoperculura is a somewhat triangular-shaped bone with 
a very thick and concave anterior border. The lower portion 
of this border is directed forward at quite an angle, and is re- 
ceived in a slight groove on the back portion of the quadrate. 
Extending backward from the extremity of this portion there is 
a row of large, shallow foramina, the posterior ones of which 
have shallow grooves leading into them from behind. Below 
this line of foramina the bone is not so thick, and is covered 
with numerous fine striip. The superior portion has a rather 
broad process extending upward, formed by the anterior and 
superior borders. The posterior portion of the bone is thin and 
striate on both sides of the upper portion. 

There is still another opercular bone, which I regard as a 
suboperculum. The bone is broad and fiat, thin along the bor- 
ders, and thickened toward the central portion. The posterior 
extremity is the broader of the two and is somewhat rounded. 
The anterior end is much more narrow and bears a small ellip- 
tical facet on a slight elevation of the bone. It also presents a 
beak -like process, separated from the above by a slight depres- 
sion. Both the external and internal sides are striated, the 
stria) becoming very pronounced near the posterior end of one 
of the sides. Measurements of the opercular bones are : 

Operculum : Length of the anterior border * 373 mm. 

Length of the anterior border below facet for the 

hyomandibular 268 " 

Length of facet for the hyomandibular 55 *' 

Transverse width of facet 22 ** 

Preoperculum : Greatest length * 345 ** 

Width near superior extremity 80 " 

Width of inferior end * 170 " 

Subopercular : Total length 290 " 

Width across anterior extremity * 90 

Width across posterior extremity * 146 

There are four other bones, some of which are fragmentary, 
which are figured on plate XLIV. They were all found in con- 
nection with the skull and evidently belong to it. The first of 
these bones, figs. 1 and 5, is an elongated bone, expanded at 

* Estimated. • 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 277 

one end and contracted into an elongated, narrow and some- 
what thickened process at the other, at the extremity of which 
there is a roughened surface which probably gives attachment 
for cartilage. On one side of this process there is a long, thin 
lamina of bone extending toward the narrow extremity, and so 
closely applied to it that at first sight it has the appearance of 
being the border of a groove on the edge of the process. The 
expanded end is thickened and bears a small articular surface, 
the face of which is almost in line with the process mentioned 
above. This bone was figured by Cope'' as a '*?hyomandibu- 
lar," which has since been shown to be incorrect. 

The second of these, fig. 2, is represented by portions of two 
bones, neither of which is complete. They are thin on one bor- 
der, while the other is much thicker and is invaded by a shallow 
groove. This thickened portion was probably continued out- 
ward in a process beyond the end of the bone. The third, fig. 3, 
is plate-like and more or less sculptured on both sides. On one 
of the sides there is a broad, triangular-shaped depression, which 
is invaded by a notch from the edge of the bone, and on the 
other side there is a prominent ridge extending away from the 
apex. I have found a bone almost identical with this in con- 
nection with the supposed operculum of an unknown fish, which 
will be discussed later. This was figured by Cope as an *' un- 
certain bone.*'" 

The fourth and last of these bones (fig. 4) I have described 
as probably an infraopercular,** but it is probably a fragmentary 
coracoid. It is the largest of the four under consideration, and 
is very thin and flat, excepting near the posterior end, where it 
suddenly thickens into a prominent ridge, which probably con- 
tinues to the point where the bone articulates with the scapula. 

The hyomandibular is a large and somewhat triangular- 
shaped bone, with the base of the triangle above, where there is 
a long, narrow articular face for articulating this bone with the 
pit on the side of the skull for its reception. The face is convex 

88. Cret. Vert. West., pi. XL. 

84. 1. 0., pi. XL. 

8B. KatiB. UdW. Qaart., toI. VIII, p. 21, pi. XI, tig. 4. — 

278 Univeraity Geological Survey of Kansas, 

transversely and slightly concave in the middle. Extending 
downward and backward from near the anterior end of this 
facet there is a ridge, which becomes very prominent just in 
front of the condyle, and, continuing downward, forms a deep 
groove with the posterior border, into which the anterior border 
of the preoperculum is received to some extent. The anterior 
portion of the bone is thin and continued forward quite a dis- 
tance. The condyle for the operculum is long, narrow, and 
situated about 45 mm. below the superior condyle. Just in 
front of this condyle, externally, there is a large and deep pit, 
which has another smaller one just above it. On the internal 
side there is a prominent crest, which ends opposite the lower 
end of the condyle just mentioned, and has another prominent 
excavation in front of it. The lower end of the bone is some- 
what bluntly pointed, but it does not seem to possess a facet at 
this point, as is found in Saurodon, 

Hyomandibular : Length 265 mm. 

Length of superior condyle 87 *• 

Length of condyle for operculum 50 '* 

Greatest width of bone (estimated) 160 '' 

The ethmoid is much thickened and narrow in front, where 
it forms a small beak, and broad and thin behind, where it 
joins the frontals by a somewhat dentate suture. The bone is 
moderately deep, and on the median line below there is a well- 
marked median ridge, on either side of which there is a small 
facet for the anterior condyle of the maxilla. In addition to 
this there is also a small pit on each side, which probably 
accommodates a part of the superior edge of the premaxilla. 
The upper anterior portion is often covered with numerous 
tubercles of bone, which fade out posteriorly. 

The frontals are broad, flat plates, and are the largest bones 
entering into the formation of the top of the skull. Just back 
of the ethmoid they join the prefrontals, and back of this form 
the superior rims of the orbits. Posteriorly they unite with 
the postfrontals, parietals, and supraoccipitals. The two 
bones are united in the median line by a distinct suture, and 
possess no characteristic markings other than an irregular 

Stewart ] Cretaceous Fishes. ' 279 

articular surface near the anterior extremity, which probably 
gives attachment for a preorbital bone. 

The prefrontals are stout bones, and are especially character- 
ized by the presence of a large anterior facet for articulation 
with the malleolar portion of the palatine. In the figure of the 
skull of Xiphactinus, as given by Crook/* the prefrontals are 
represented as extending well backward and forming a portion 
of the anterior and superior rim of the orbit. In this I am in- 
clined to think that he was in error, for in several more or less 
disarticulated skulls in the collection I find that this supposed 
posterior portion of the prefrontal is a distinct bone which has 
become separated, showing a well-marked suture where it 
united with this bone and the frontal. This bone is the supra- 
orbital mentioned above, and is rather thick and lunate in 

The parietal bones have been much in doubt by most authors, 
probably owing to the fact that this portion of the skull is often 
much distorted and crushed, thus obliterating many of the 
sutures, or making them so indistinct as to render them un- 

Cope first thought that the supraoccipital might represent 
the conjoined parietals,^^ but concluded later^ that this was not 
the case, and that the bones he had called epiotics were the 
parietals. Crook states that the parietals are completely sepa- 
rated in the median line by the supraoccipital,'^ but seems to 
have been somewhat in doubt about the exact extent of these 
bones, as the anterior portion is but poorly defined in his figure 
of the specimen on plate XVIII. Professor Hay has described 
them*^ as wedge-shaped narrow bones which lie between the 
anterior ends of the pterotics and the posterior ends of the 
frontals, probably meeting each other in the median line, and 
including the elevated granular portion assigned by Crook to 
the supraoccipital, in which I think he is right. -If we ex- 
amine a well-preserved skull of Ichthyodectes we will at once 

86. Paleontographica. 1882, pi. XVII. 88. Paleontoffraphica, 1882, p. 115. 

87. Crat. Vert., p. 183. 40. Zool. Ball., toI. II, pp. 28, 28. 

88. 1. e., p. 188. 

280 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

see that this portion is entirely distinct from the supraoccipital, 
and that the bone he calls parietal is included in the pterotic 
and is not separated from it by suture. 

The epiotics are wedged in between the pterotics and supra- 
occipital and form prominent inner processes of the skull. 
They become narrow anteriorly and are provided with promi- 
nent ridges along the superior borders, which end in slight 
upward projections posteriorly which are thickened at the ex- 

The supraoccipital forms a prominent crest and is projected 
well backward and upward. In some of the specimens having 
the posterior end preserved, I find that there are a number of 
tooth-like projections which closely resemble a suture, but they 
probably gave attachment to muscles alone. The bone is 
moderately thick and is somewhat rounded along the superior 
border. I think that I can detect the suture which separates 
this bone from the granular portion mentioned above. The bone 
is somewhat irregularly striated on the sides, and posteriorly it 
descends almost to the basioccipital, forming a prominent narrow 
ridge in the median line. 

The pterotics lie just external to the epiotics and back of the 
parietals, and form prominent outer processes of the skull. The 
bones are very robust, and have deep grooves along the external 
borders, which articulate with the superior condyles of the hyo- 
mandibulars. The posterior extremities are somewhat ex- 
panded, and have small elliptical surfaces internally, which are 
covered with coarse striae radiating from near the center. These 
surfaces probably are connected with the post-temporal. The 
sutures separating these bones from the parietals are often in- 

The postf rentals form prominent processes just back of the 
orbital cavities, and anteriorly they form the posterior sides of 
the consptcuous notches which accommodate the posterior su- 
praorbitals mentioned above. Posteriorly, by their union with 
the pterotics and prootics, they give a small support to the hyo- 
mandibulars, and are excavated along the sides for this purpose. 
Internally they unite with the parietals. 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 281 

The prootics have been correctly interpreted by Professor Hay 
as being the largest of the otic bones. They are irregular in 
outline and extend from the groove for the hyomandibular 
above to the parasphenoid below. Posteriorly they unite with 
the opisthotic, but are not separated from the basioccipital by 
the opisthotic, as Professor Hay has figured them in Tarpon at- 
lanticus,^^ Just below the hyomandibular facets there is a large 
foramen on each side, which, according to Professor Hay, trans- 
mits the glossopharyngeal nerve. Just back of these foramina 
there are large fossa), the boundaries of which are formed by 
the pterotics, opisthotics, and prootics. 

The sutures separating the lower portions of the opisthotics 
from the basioccipital and the prootics are well defined, but the 
ones separating them from the pterotics above are almost oblit- 
erated, although I think they can be traced in one of our speci- 
mens as extending downward just back of the articular face 
for the hyomandibulars. They are small bones and do not 
separate the prootics from the basioccipital, as mentioned above. 
The basioccipital is deeply concave, and the exoccipitals are not 
well defined in any of our specimens. 

The. parasphenoid is triangular in section and forms a strong 
lower axis of the skull. The posterior extremity of the bone is 
deeply emarginate where it joins the basioccipital, a short dis- 
tance in front of which it sends up a short process on each side 
for union with the prootic. Extending outward from the sides 
of the bone, just in front of the brain-case, there are two well- 
developed transverse processes which are bluntly pointed and 
directed slightly forward. At the base of each of these proc- 
esses there are two foramina which, according to Crook, trans- 
mit the facialis and trigeminus. Just above the transverse 
processes there is a Y-shaped bone, called basisphenoid by Hay," 
which unites with the prootic above. The anterior end of the 
parasphenoid is somewhat broadened and bifurcated for union 
with the vomer. The latter bone is not well defined in any of 

41. Zool. BtOl., Yol. II. No. U n. 28. 

42. 1. 0., p. 82. 

19— Vi 

282 University Geological Survey of Kansas, 

the specimens, owing to the crushed condition of this part, thus 
making the line of separation indistinct between it and the 
ethmoid. The orbito- and alisphenoids are also in a much dam- 
aged condition, so as to render their boundaries only conjectural. 

The orbital cavity was large, and bounded above by a chain 
of thickened supraorbital bones, and below by a chain of thin 
suborbitals, which seem to be quite large. Below this there 
seems to be a sheet of thin membranous bone covering the hyo- 
mandibular and the bones of the palato-quadrate arch. The 
sclerotic ring is composed of two pieces, which are found in 
place in one of our specimens. The outer borders of these are 
very heavy, but become thin internally and form a slight ring, 
which is extended inward. 

Just below the suborbital ring there is a long, thin bar of 
bone which rests on the superior border of the maxilla, and is 
covered with minute canals leading inward. This I take to be 
the same bone called a '' supernumerary bone" by Cope,*' and 
an * * extraknochen " by Crook.** It seems to me that both of 
these authors have been in error in regard to this bone, and 
that it is the jugal. Crook thought that the jugal was found 
just beneath this, and has it so marked in the figure of his skull 
of XiphactiniiSy*^ but I am unable to find any such bone in our 


The pectoral girdle is represented by numerous specimens, 
some of which are preserved almost complete, thus giving a 
more correct idea of the form than any of the specimens hereto- 
fore described. This part was not well understood by the early 
writers on this form, and it was not until about a year ago that 
Professor Hay demonstrated** that this portion had been de- 
scribed in an inverted position. 

The girdle is composed of the cleithrum, scapula, coracoid, 
and precoracoid, of which the first is the largest and the second 
the smallest and most compact. The cleithrum is a long bar of 
bone composed of two parts, which are bent almost at right 

43. Cret. Vert. West., p. 194. 45. 1. c, t. XVIIL 

44. Paleontoffraphica, 92, s. 115, 116. 46. Zool. Ball., vol. II, p. 42. 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes, 283 

angles with each other, and are separated by a slightly con- 
stricted neck just in front of the scapula. The anterior portion 
is directed slightly downward at the extremity and is very thin, 
fragile, and it is probably owing to this fact that it is secured 
in so few specimens. Just above the scapula the cleithrum be- 
comes very broad and continues so to near the upper extremity^ 
when it suddenly contracts in width toward the anterior border, 
and ends in a somewhat thickened process^ below which there is 
a well-marked dentate suture for the anterior end of the precora- 
coid. The whole of the anterior border is firmly united with the 
precoracoid, and the external side is covered with coarse striae, 
which radiate upward and backward from just over the scapula. 

The scapula is a rather small bone, composed of a heavy com- 
pact portion which bears the glenoid surface and a rather thin 
lamina of bone which extends upward along the internal side 
of the cleithrum. The glenoid portion is united to the cleithrum 
above by means of a well-marked undulating suture, and bears 
three condyles, of which the uppermost is the largest, and is 
separated from the middle one by a slight ridge. The middle 
condyle is the smallest and is separated from the lower one by 
a slight groove. The condyles are all convex from before back- 
ward, the superior one very much so. Just internal to the 
glenoid surface there is a large irregular surface which gives a 
strong attachment to the coracoid, and also gives a partial sup- 
port to one of the basiosts posteriorly. Just above this portion 
the precoracoid is united by a strong suture and extends up- 
ward as a broad bar on the internal side of the cleithrum. 

The coracoid has been figured by Hay*^ as a broad, thin plate 
of bone which extends forward to probably the anterior end of 
the lower arm of the cleithrum. It is not well preserved in 
any of our specimens, but from the portions that are present I 
am inclined to think that it is the same bone described and fig- 
ured by myself as a probable infraopercular.*^ It is somewhat 
thickened where it joins the scapula and has one deep pit and a 
portion of another for the extremities of two of the basiosts. 

47. 1. 0., p. 48. 

48. Kans. UniT. Quart., toL VIII, p. 21, pL XI. 

284 University Geological Survey of Katisas. 

There is a great variation in the size of the various specimens, 
and the measurements given are below the average, this speci- 
men being selected on account of its completeness. 

Cleithrum : LeDgth from scapula superiorly 233 mm. 

Length from scapula anteriorly 230 

Precoracoid : Length 190 


Numerous fragments of fins and fin-spines are present, which 
show that these formed powerful weapons of defense ; they have 
been described by Crook as resembling ribs. The first pair of 
these are closely applied to each other and are each provided 
with articular surfaces at the proximal extremity, the first of 
which articulates directly with the upper condyle of the scapula 
while the second articulates with one of the basiosts. The first 
of these is broad and thin, while the second is slightly narrower 
but thicker toward the proximal end. The two opposing sur- 
faces are much roughened while the outer surfaces are finely 
striated. The following rays decrease greatly in width and are 
much smaller from above downward. They are slightly bent 
at the proximal extremities and the cross-segmented character 
has disappeared throughout. The basiosts are three in 
number. The first of these is an irregular-shaped bone which 
is provided with two facets internally for articulating it with 
the two lower condyles of the scapula. These two are some- 
what oval in outline, flat, and well separated from each other. 
The external facets are also two in number, one of which is 
nearly circular in outline and flat, while the other is irregular 
and strongly convex from above downward. The two remain- 
ing basiosts are somewhat thickened bars of bone which are 
slightly expanded at the extremities and are provided with con- 
vex condyles, the proximal ones of which are received into the 
pits on the coracoid and scapula for their reception. About 
midway between the extremities of each of these basiosts there 
is a thin transverse process extending outward. 

The pelvic actinosts, called femora by Professor Cope,** con- 
sist of two parts — a massive posterior portion, bearing the 
facets for the attachment of the pectoral fin, and the thin, 

49. Cret.Vert.We8t., p. 188. 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 285 

somewhat wing-like, anterior portion, whose entire structure is 
not known. In the median line the two halves are strongly 
united together by suture, and at the point of union there is a 
prominent swelling of the bone all around. There are four 
facets on each for the fin attachment. The upper and lower 
are large, flat facets, somewhat ovoid in outline, and support 
the upper and lower halves of the first ventral fin-ray. When 
seen in cross-section from behind they are obliquely set, but 
hardly so much so as in Ickthyodectes. The lower one of these 
facets is the larger, and has two more facets between this and 
the upper, of a somewhat tubercular nature. The last two are 
for succeeding rays or basiosts. In front of the articular por- 
tion the bone becomes thin and somewhat expanded. On the 
outer border of this portion there is a prominent crest both 
above and below, of which the upper is the larger. It is likely 
that this crest did not extend very far forward, but was prob- 
ably succeeded in front by another smaller crest or tuberosity, 
as something of the kind is shown in the figure of this part by 
Professor Hay,*® but not described in the text. On the internal 
border there is a prominent ridge of bone extending forward on 
both the superior and inferior surfaces. These two ridges 
nearly coincide with each other, thus forming a rod of bone, 
which extends forward, but how far is not known. These two 
bars are separated by quite an interval, as is shown in the cut. 
There seems to be some difiference between this specimen and 
the one figured by Professor Hay. In his specimen the distance 
across the external crests was probably about 15 cm., and the 
distance between the internal ridges about 4.8 cm. In our speci- 
men the first of these measurements is 12.3 cm.," while the last 
is 5 cm., making the distance between these ridges proportion- 
ally greater in our specimen. 

Distance across superior facets 83 mm. 

Distance across inferior facets 52 ** 

Distance across middle faciets 86 '* 

Vertical depth of articular ix>rtion 52 *' 

There are none of the pelvic fin-rays present, but they were 

50. ZooL Bull. 1888, p. 44. 
61. Approximated. 

286 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

probably eight or nine in number, of which all were very feeble 
excepting the first. 

There are five vetebral columns of this genus preserved, two 
of which are practically complete, and the other three only par- 
tially so. There are also portions of several more columns, but, 
as they have not been numbered in the positions they occupied 
in life, I will not use them in the table given below. The most 
complete column has 77 centra present, which I think is all 
the animal had in life, with the exception of one of the terminal 
caudals. The other contains 73. Unfortunately, the neural 
and hsemal arches are gone, or so badly preserved that their 
characters cannot be made out in most instances. The first 
anterior vertebra is much shorter than those following, and the 
anterior end is not so deeply concave. It presents deep pits 
above for the neurapophyses, but none below for the pleura- 
pophyses, the points where they should be being marked by scars. 
This one and the two or three following are usually without 
lateral grooves, but the second and third sometimes show them. 
The pits for the neurapophyses are large in these, as in the first, 
and the pits for the pleurapophyses become functional at about 
the third or fourth. 

Back of the vertebrae just mentioned, the pits for the neura- 
pophyses begin to assume the elongated form found farther back 
in the column, and the number of lateral grooves on the sides 
become somewhat varied. 

To illustrate this last point, I have arranged the following 
table to show the individual variation in the different speci- 
mens. In this table the numbers at the heads of the columns 
represent the catalogue numbers of the various specimens, 
while those on the left are the numbers of the various vertebrae 
from the skull. A blank is left in some places where the ver- 
tebra is badly injured. The grooves are represented by 1-1 
when there are two well developed, 1-0 when only one is pres- 
ent. When there is one well developed and another slightly 
so, they are expressed by 1-1 — or 1-0+ , 1-1 — expressing a 
slightly greater development than 1-0+ . 


Cretaceous Fishes. 

















i X 



1 1 




1 1- 
1 1- 
1 1 




1 1 


1 1— 
1 1- 
1 1- 
1 1— 

1 0- 

1 1- 


1 1- 
1 1- 
1 1 



1 1— 


1 1- 
1 1 
1 1— 
1 1- 


1 1 

1 0+ 

1 1 


1 1 
1 1- 
1 1 
] 1 
1 1- 
1 1— 
1 1 
1 1 


1 1 


1 1 


1 1 





1 1 
1 1 

1 1 


1 1 
1 1 
1 1 
1 1 
1 1 
1 1 



1 1 
1 1- 


1 1 


1 1— 


1 1- 


1 1 
















































































The ribs are not joined directly to the vertebra, but articulate 
with small masses of bone set in deep pits on the side of the 
centrum. Each of these has a concavity for the head of the rib. 

According to Professor Cope, there are six vertebrsB in the 
terminal caudal series," none of which, I am inclined to think, 
bore lateral grooves. They all, with the exception of the last, 
have broad surfaces below for the attachment of the haema- 
pophyses, which are modified into two surfaces, one behind the 
other, in next to the last vertebra. The last is a small tubercle 

52. Crat. Vert. West, p. 198. 

288 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

of bone with a quadrilateral face in front and a small spine pro- 
jecting upward and backward behind. On the internal side 
there is a large, slightly concave facet, which has the appear- 
ance of haying been united with a similar bone on the opposite 
side. All of these vertebrae are curved slightly upward. 

Four of the ha3mal spines from this region are present in one 
specimen. The two anterior of these are very similar, being 
broad, flat, and in contact with each other throughout. At the 
upper extremity of each there are two large, roughened, sutural 
surfaces for uniting the spine to the centrum. Between these 
two surfaces runs the small haemal canal. The one following 
these two is not so flat but slightly thicker, and has the upper 
end expanded into a knob-like mass of bone. The articular 
surfaces have become conjoined and form a saddle-shaped ar- 
ticulation with the centra, the hsemal canal having become 
somewhat depressed. The spines following this have become 
modified into somewhat fan-shaped hypural bones. The upper 
extremities of these present convex condyles, which are proba- 
bly received into pits on the last two vertebnp mentioned above. 

There is one hsemal spine from somewhere in front of the 
caudal region which is of a different form from those described 
above. It is a Y-shaped bone with elongated and roughened 
articular surfaces on each of the arms for uniting it to the cen- 
trum. The haemal canal is very large and below it the bone is 
rather thin. 

The caudal fin-rays are represented by a mass of spines, only 
one of which is complete. The anterior of these are rod-like, 
but those following become expanded at the upper end, where 
they are longitudinally striated. These are followed by rays 
which are broader and probably shorter, on which the striir 
just mentioned are more pronounced. 

The neural spines are represented, in good condition, by only 
three or four from just back of the skull, some of which I have 
been able to fit to the vertebrae to which they belong. They all 
have knob-like expansions at the lower end which are received 
in the pits on the top of the centra. The two halves are in con- 
tact w^ith each other above the neural canal and nearly or quite 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 289 

so below. Extending backward from above the neural canal 
there is a somewhat expanded mass of bone which has an artic- 
ular surface on the front of the arch following. These have a 
superficial resemblance to the zygapophyses of the higher verte- 
brates. Just opposite to this on the external side there are two 
more processes which extend outward and backward. These 
are what Professor Hay calls epineurals.*^ They are largest at 
the head and become much smaller at the fourth or fifth vertebra, 
and probably become insignificant or entirely disappear further 
back. The neural spines of these are directed upward and ob- 
liquely backward. 

As we have no well-preserved neural arches farther back than 
those described above, I will quote Professor Hay's excellent 
description of the structure of these in the caudal region. 
Copies of his figures are given on plate XLII.** The neural 
arches here, as elsewhere in this fish, are connected with the 
centra by suture, and have usually fallen out before burial, 
leaving long grooves where their bases were inserted. This was 
the case with the third vertebra behind the right-hand one 
shown in fig. 1. When we come to examine the arches more 
closely, we discover that each lateral half is not a single piece, 
but consists of two pieces, a basal piece (a, n, a) and the arch 
proper (71, a). That the proper arch is a distinct piece is 
shown not only by the existence of a suture, but likewise by 
the fact that in the vertebra on the left hand of the figure the 
arch has fallen out of its place before fossilization. The basal 
or accessory piece is inserted by a shallow gomphosis into the 
centrum for nearly the whole length of the latter. It rises high 
in front, and projects so far forward as to come in contact with 
the basal piece of the next vertebra in front. Behind, the basal 
piece is directed upward and backward in a rather slender 
process, which abuts against the anterior edge of the basal 
piece of the next vertebra behind. It is thus seen that these 
basal pieces provide the anterior and posterior zygapophyses. 
They remind us of the articulating processes of certain other 

63. Zool. Ball., vol. II, No. 1. p. 51. 

54. See, also, Zool. Ball., vol. II, No. 1, pp. 47-51. 

290 University Geological Survey of Kansas, 

fishes {Mugily etc.) Between the anterior and posterior processes 
the basal pieces are excavated to receive the bases of the neural 
arch, as shown in the figure. The two basal pieces of each 
vertebra are distinct. Together they seem to form a saddle in 
which the neural arch rides. 

I find this same structure of the neural arches in some of 
the vertebra) belonging to specimens in the United States Na- 
tional Museum ; but in one section of connected vertebrae an 
arch like those above is succeeded in the next vertebra by an 
arch in which every trace of a suture between the arch and the 
apparent basal piece is lost. This vertebra is shown in fig. 2. 
The form of the base of the arch is not greatly different from 
that of the arch with accessory piece in fig. 11," and we may 
even convince ourselves that we can trace a part of the bound- 
ary line between the two portions. There is evidently at this 
point of the vertebral column a sudden change from neural 
arches furnished with basal accessory pieces to arches without 
these, or consolidated with them. Further backward the form 
of the arches becomes modified somewhat, so that they resemble 
the one shown in fig. 3. A section fourteen inches long and 
containing seven vertebrse having arches of this kind is before 
me. This condition shows us that the neural arches which are 
provided with basal pieces are confined to the anterior or middle 
portion of the tail region, while the hinder portion contains no 
such vertebral structures. We are reminded that in Amia the 
middle portion of the caudal vertebral column is composed of 
two for each muscular segment, while the anterior and poste- 
rior portions have the vertebral centra of the ordinary kind. 
It seems as if the tail portion of the vertebral column of the 
amioid fishes and of the Isospondyli retained primitive condi- 
tions longer than the abdominal portion. 

It is difficult to determine what explanation is to be given of 
the presence of these basal pieces. The so-called zygapophyses 
of fishes are regarded as being outgrowths of the neural arches 
— exogenous and not autogenous processes. It might be said, 

r "155. Fig. 11. in Professor Hay's article, refers to the pelvio aotinosta, and seems to have no 
oonneotion with the sabject. 

Stbwabt.J Cretaceous Fishes. 291 

possibly, that the basal pieces are the proper arches, while the 
pieces which are borne on them are the spinous processes. I 
hold that there are two objections to this view. The first is, that 
what are sometimes called spinous processes are always un- 
paired pieces. The second is, that when the lateral halves of 
the arches remain distinct from each other and are prolonged 
into spines, as they are in various fishes — Amia and Salmon for 
instance — the spinous portion is never, so far as we know, de- 
veloped in the embryo as pieces separate from the base of the 
arcula. This is true in the case of Amia, which I have investi- 
gated. We must, therefore, seek some other explanation. The 
key to the understanding of the problem is, it seems to me, to 
be found in the vertebral column of that primitive fish, Amia. 
We may call this fish to our assistance, since the Isospondyli are 
believed to have ancestors not far removed from Amia, 

In the middle region of the tail of Amia there are, for each 
muscular segment, two vertebral rings, the one bearing the 
arches, upper and lower, the other archless. If a transverse 
section be taken through the arch-bearing ring, there will be 
found an X of cartilage, the upper arms of which are continu- 
ous with the cartilage of the neural arch. In like manner, the 
lower arms will seem to be continuous with the cartilage of the 
haemal arch. If a section is made similarly through the arch- 
less disk, a similar X of cartilage will be found, but the arms 
project beyond the outer surface of the disk but a short distance. 
These archless disks are developed in Amia from ossifications 
arising in the intercalated cartilages, upper and lower, and the 
arms of the X are the unossified portions of these cartilages. 
There appears to be no reason why these intercalated cartilages 
should not sometimes take on a hypertrophied growth. In the 
sharks they often become considerably larger than the neural 
arches themselves. 

In case these intercalated cartilages should become thus en- 
larged and arch-like, each might develop a bony investment 
that would simulate the bony neural half-arch, and thus would 
rest on the top its proper epicentrum.^* 

56. For flflrores illastratioff the architeotare of the Tertebral oolamn of AmiOt see the May 
namber of the American Natoralist, 1898. 

292 Univeraity Geological Survey of Kansas. 

Coming now to the anterior region of the vertebral column 
of Amia, we find that each vertebra is formed through the 
suppression of certain of the elements which, in the tail region, 
constitute the vertebral rings or disks, and the union of the re- 
maining elements of each muscular segment into a single mass. 
The lower intercalated cartilages are suppressed. The upper 
intercalated cartilages hypertrophy, and their ossifications unite 
with the bones developed in the bases of the lower arch, thus 
giving origin to the centrum. The ossification that we might 
expect to find developing in the base of the cartilaginous neural 
arch, the epicentrum, is absorbed, while the ossification of the 
enlarged intercalated cartilage, the pleurocentrum, pushes 
itself into the place of the epicentrum, and thereafter supports 
the neural arch. 

Now, we have the choice of two suppositions, neither of which , 
however, may be the true one. We may hold that a distinct 
bone was developed in the somewhat elongated and projecting 
intercalated cartilage, and this, of course, rested on top of the 
pleurocentrum ; when the latter was pushed forward beneath 
the neural arch to take the place of the aborted epicentrum, 
this newly developed bone was carried along, and thus brought 
between the pleurocentrum and the base of the neural arch. 

Or, we may hold that the bone which I have found in Xiphac- 
tinus supporting the neural arch is simply the epicentrum itself, 
aborted, indeed, in Amia, nevertheless persisting in Xiphactinus, 
but crowded upward out of its original seat on the notocord. 

Neither of the above suppositions presupposes that the upper 
half of the vertebral centrum takes its origin from the pleuro- 
centrum. Professor Cope held that the vertebrae of fishes are 
**intercentra" — that is, have originated in the suppression of 
all the other elements through the excessive development of the 
hypocentra. But the very existence, in many genera, of a 
cartilaginous X in a transverse section of the centrum is proof 
that its upper portion was derived from either the bases of the 
upper arches or the pleurocentra. The deep gashes in the ver- 
tebral centra of Xiphactinus, where the arches have fallen out, 
furnish evidence that this cartilaginous X was present. 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 293 

Xiphactinus lowU. Plate XLVIII, fig. 2. 

Portheus lowii Stewart., Kane. UdIv. Quart., vol. vii-a, p. 24. 

This species is based on the dentary bones of a single indi- 
vidual found at Fairbury, Neb., in the same horizon of the Fort 
Benton Cretaceous with Desmatochelys lowii, and was sent to the 
museum by Mr. M. A. Low, of Topeka, in whose honor the 
species is named. While this specimen has not been reported 
from Kansas up to the present time, yet it no doubt occurs 
here, as the same horizon from which it was obtained is found 
just across the line in this state. Special interest is attached 
to this specimen, as it is the first of this genus to be reported 
from so low a horizon as the Fort Benton. 

The dentary is short, with a more oblique symphysis than in 
any other specimen of Xiphactinus that I have examined. It is 
also not so roughly marked at this point for the attachment of 
ligaments as in A", audax. The alveolar border is short, and 
does not have the prominent swelling just back of the symphy- 
sis which is found in the species just mentioned. The posterior 
extremity is projected upward into a short coronoid process, 
which is bent outward but slightly. The teeth are slightly 
oval in cros^-section, acutely pointed, directed slightly back- 
ward at the extremities, and non-striate even under the micro- 
scope. Their arrangement is as follows : One large, two small, 
one large, ten or eleven medium and small. The number and 
arrangement will no doubt vary with the individual. 

LeDgth of alveolar border 177.0 mm. 

Length of symphysis 79.5 ** 

Depth of bone just back of symphysis 65.0 ** 

Depth of dentary at middle 64 .5 " 

Xiphactinns brachygnathus. Plate XLV, figs. 3, 4. 

Xiphactinus brachygnathus Stewart, Kans. Univ. Quart., vol. viii. 

In addition to the forms described above, there is one speci- 
men that I am unable to locate as X. lestrio or X. mudgei, 
described by Professor Cope. As has been shown above, Cope 
based most of the specific differences on very inconstant char- 
acters in his description of X. molossus and X. thaumas, and as 
he has used much the same characters in his description of the 

294 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

two species mentioned above, I am inclined to think that tl:iose 
will have but little specific value until the type specimen s^ ^^ 
each are redescribed and figured in a way to render them t9<^o0^ 

The specimen, No. 155, consisting of the upper and la^^^^^ 
jaws almost complete, fragments of the skull, and numero^^ 
vertebrae, was collected by Prof. B. F. Mudge from the Niobra^^ 
Cretaceous, four miles north of Gorham, Kan. 

The premaxilla is somewhat oval in outline, and the anteric^^ 
portion is thickened instead of the central, as is usually the cas 
in A", audax. The posterior border is thin, and is peculiar i: 
having the internal side of the bone beveled off to meet it, some ^ 
what similar to that found in Ichthyodectes and Sanrodon. Thi^ 
alveolar border is quite elongate, and supports three teeth on 
one side and an empty alveolus for a fourth, all of which are 
small, with the exception of one. 

The maxilla is especially characterized by the manner in 
which it unites with the premaxilla, for instead of having the 
abrupt change to the laminar portion in front of the posterior 
condyle, the bone is gradually beveled off to a sharp anterior 
edge, similar to the condition found in Ichthyodectes. Both of 
the superior condyles seem to be small, and the anterior one is 
directed inward to a considerable extent. The two are well 
separated from each other. The bone is quite deep at the pos- 
terior condyle, and the superior border, back of it, presents a 
conspicuous groove for the attachment of the jugal. There are 
nineteen or twenty teeth on one side, the most of which are 
small or medium in size. 

Premaxilla : Length of alveolar border 62.0 mm. 

Greatest depth of bone 90.0 " 

Maxilla : Length of alveolar border 220.0 *' 

Depth of condyle 83.5 •• 

The dentary bones are short and deep, thus giving them ^^ 
very robust appearance. The bones are much thickened at th& 
symphysis, and slope backward nearly as much as in X. lowii^ 
The alveolar border is short and is remarkable for the small 
number and large size of the teeth toward the anterior extremity - 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 295 

The arrangement is three large, two small, one large, and the 
twelve or thirteen medium and small. Many of the alveoli are 
empty, so the size of these teeth has to be estimated ; the num- 
ber of these, however, no doubt varies with the individual. 
The coronoid process is but poorly developed. The dermar- 
ticular invades the dentary but little externally, and the cotyloid 
process of this bone is not so well developed as in -Y. audax. 

Length of alveolar border 215 mm. 

Depth of coronoid process 118 ** 

Length of symphysis 105 ** 

Depth of bone just back of symphysis 100 '* 

Length of bone from cotylus 270 " 

There are fragments of several other bones, among which 
are the ethmoid, a prefrontal and palatine, and several verte- 
brae. The ethmoid is acutely pointed anteriorly, and the pos- 
terior suture is very dentate. The prefrontals are small, as are 
also the malleolar portions of the palatines. The external 
tuberosities of the latter are not so prominent as in .V. audax. 
The vertebrae do not seem to differ materially from the species 



Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 1870, p. 586. 

This genus is so closely related to Xiphactinus that it does not 
need to be characterized, beyond pointing out some of the prin- 
cipal differences between the two forms. The teeth are more 
regular in size and never reach the enormous development of 
those in Xiphactinus. They are cylindrical in cross-section and 
are usually directed slightly inward at the apices. 

As indicated by the size and dentition, this genus was much 
less ferocious than the form mentioned above, which no doubt 
preyed upon them to a great extent. The known American 
species, all from the Niobrara Cretaceous, Kansas, are : 

Ichthyodectes anaidea Cope. Ichihyodectes goodeanua Cope. 

Ichthyodectes ctenodon Cope. IchthyodecteH acanthicus Cope. 

Ichthyodectea kamatua Cope. Ichthyodeotea pernlcoaua Cope. 

Ichthyodectea prognathua Cope. Ichthyodectea cruentua Hay. 
Ichthyodectea multidentatua Cope. 

During the past summer, while collecting in the Fort Pierre 
group, at Lisbon, Logan county, Kansas, I discovered a string 

296 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

of five vertebraB which I am iDclined to think belong to this 
genus. They are about the same size as those of /. anaides, 
but, as there is nothing about them that would characterize 
them specifically, nothing more can be done with them until 
more complete specimens are found. 

Ichthyodectes anaides. Plate XLIX, figa. 1-3. 

lohthyodectes anaides Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. 8oc. 1871, pp. 338, 340. 

This species is represented by the remains of several indi- 
viduals, including the jaws, portions of the vertebral column, 

and one skull without the jaws, which probably belongs to this 
form . * 

The maxilla is represented in one specimen in a compressed 
and somewhat fragmentary condition, the posterior extremity 
being absent. The bone, as a whole, is about the same size as 
the maxilla of /. cruentuSy but is much thinner in cross-section 
than in this form. The bone is moderately deep at the posterior 
condyle, which is slightly convex. Back of the condyle the su- 
perior border presents a sharp ridge which continues for some 
distance. Just back of the premaxillary surface the alveolar 
border is slightly concave and then slightly convex. The teeth 
are small, about 4.5 occurring to the centimeter. 

Maxilla : Depth at posterior condyle 33 mm. 

Thickness back of condyle 10 " 

1 am inclined to think that the dentary bone figured by Pro- 
fessor Hay" as that of J. cruentus belongs to this species. The 
bones are short and deep, with moderately sloping symphyses. 
There are also two convexities in the alveolar border, the pos- 
terior of which is not shown in Hay's specimen owing to this 
extremity of the border being absent. The coronoid process is 
not prominent, and the border seems to be very steep below and 
back of it. The teeth are large, directed slightly inward at the 
apices, and without strise. The lower border is thin and has a 
number of large foramina just above it. 

Dentary : Length of alveolar border 99 mm. 

Depth of symphysis 41 " 

Depth at coronoid process (estimated ) 59 " 

Number of teeth in one centimeter 3 

57. Amer. Jour. Sci., VI, p. 227. 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 297 

The quadrate is thin and fan-shaped, and has the condyle 
bent forward to a considerable extent. 

The skull that I regard as belonging to this species is much 
crushed, so that many of the sutures on the top cannot be made 
out. The otic region, however, is well shown. The ethmoid 
seems to have been rather blunt. The frontals are narrow, and 
each has a broad and prominent ridge which extends outward 
and forward from just in front of the supraoccipital and ends 
just above the prefrontals. They seem to have had supraorbital 
bones attached along the border. The prefontal condyles are 
large, and the postfrontals are prominent and offer a consider- 
able support for the hyomandibular. The pterotics are crushed 
beyond recognition above, but laterally the groove for the hyo- 
mandibular is very prominent. I am unable to make out the 
parietals in this specimen, but in another and much smaller 
skull I find no suture separating it from the pterotic, as figured 
by Crook, ^ and am inclined to think that the expanded por- 
tion of the supraoccipital represents the coalesced parietals, as 
has been suggested by Professor Hay." The supraoccipital 
crest extends upward and backward at quite an angle, but the 
extremity is broken away. The epiotics are prominent and do 
not extend far forward. The prootics and opisthotics are very 
similar to those of Xiphactinus. The basioccipital is deeply 
concave and expanded in front of the condyle. The parasphe- 
noid is bifurcated posteriorly, triangular in section, with rather 
small transverse processes in front of the brain-case. 

So far as can be determined the vertebrse are all two-grooved, 
but near the posterior end of the column they become rather 
faintly marked. The neural spines are long and longitudinally 
expanded at their proximal ends. The caudal fin was much 
expanded and composed of large rays, which become flattened 
and longitudinally split toward the distal ends. The scales are 
large, with small grooves radiating outward from near the cen- 
ter on one of the sides. 

58. Paleontofotiphica, p. 92, pi. XV. 

59. L c, p. 230. 


298 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

Ichthyodectes liamatns. Plate XLVII, fig. 2; plate L, figs. 1-7. 
IcMhyodectes hamatus Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 1872, p. 3i0. 

This species is represented by a fragmentary skull and ante- 
rior vertebrae of one individual and a portion of a dentary and 
a hyoniandibular of another. 

The maxilla is a long, slender bone,* which is thickened 
along the superior border and rather thin along the inferior. 
The alveolar border is remarkable for the way in w^hich it is 
directed downward anteriorly just back of the premaxilla. This 
border is concave from before backward, and supports alveoli 
for nearly fifty teeth, about half of which are functional at once. 
The surface for the premaxilla is directed inward and is coarsely 
striated. It is similar in many respects to J. cruentus, and the 
premaxilla was no doubt directed downward as in this species. 
The posterior superior condyle is irregular in outline, and has 
its internal portion continued downward on the inner side. 
The anterior condyle is rather small^ directed inward, and sepa- 
rated from the posterior condyle by a long, smooth space. In 
front of this the anterior border descends almost vertically. 
The posterior extremity is expanded and directed slightly 
upward. The external surface is finely striated above, and 
covered with small pits just above the alveolar border. Un- 
fortunately the premaxilla is not present. 

Maxilla : Length of alveolar border 117 mm. 

Depth of posterior condyle 30 ** 

Distance between superior condyles 20 " 

Number of alveolse in one centimeter 4 

The condyle of the quadrate is elliptical in outline, and is not 
projected forward as much as in /. ctenodon. The groove for 
the symplectic is broad, and reaches downward to within 22 
mm. of the condyle, below and back of which the bone is much 

Only the upper portion of the dentary is preserved, which 
shows this part to be thicker in cross-section than in /. anaides. 
The anterior extremity of the alveolar border is produced up- 
ward into a hook-like process, from which character the species 
probably derives its name. This portion bears two teeth and is 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 299 

directed slightly inward. The symphysis is much thickened 
and was about the same slope as that of /. anaides. Just back 
of the hook-like process mentioned above the alveolar border 
is somewhat excavated, and back of this slightly convex for a 
distance of 55 mm., when it is directed slightly upward. The 
teeth are closely set with elliptical crowns, the long axis of 
which is placed obliquely to the tooth line. 

Dentary : Length of alveolar border (estimated) 125.0 mm. 

Length of long axis of oross-section of tooth 4.5 '* 

Length of short axis of cross-section of tooth 8.0 ** 

Number of teeth in one centimeter 3 

The hyomandibular shows the anterior and posterior portions 
of the superior condyle to be more robust and the central por- 
tion to be more concave than in Xiphdctmus. The condyle for 
the operculum is also proportionally longer and not projected 
backward so far as in the above. The groove for the preoper- 
culum is deep. 

Hyomandibular : Length of superior condyle 35 mm. 

Length of condyle for the operculum 30 *' 

Total length of bone (estimated) 115 ** 

Length of groove for the preoperculum (est. ) . 03 ** 

The preoperculars are preserved in part. They are rather 
thick on the anterior border and are probably projected forward 
to the angle of the mandible below. Superiorly, there is a long, 
slender process of bone extending upward, which is much more 
prominent than in the corresponding portion of Xiphactinus. 
This portion is somewhat roughly striated externally. The re- 
maining portion of the external surface is nearly smooth, ex- 
cepting along the superior border, where there are numerous 
strise leading out to the border. 

The malleolar portion of the palatine is rather thin in a ver- 
tical direction, resembling /. anaides somewhat in this respect. 
The inferior articular surfadb has the same general outline as 
the posterior condyle of the maxilla. Anterior to this, the bone 
is beveled off antero-superiorly, causing the prefrontal articular 
surface to be produced forward beyond the inferior. This sur- 
face is nearly fiat. On the external side of the bone there is a 
prominent tuberosity. 

300 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

The ethmoid is rather broad posteriorly and pointed anteri- 
orly. The prefrontals are heavy masses of bone with large 
facets for the superior condyles of the palatines. The frontals 
are broad, and each has a prominent ridge extending from near 
the median line posteriorly, and curving outward to a point over 
the prefrontals. The parasphenoid is triangular, the base of 
which is below. The transverse processes are long and not very 
slender. The orbit is surrounded by quite a heavy ring of scle- 

The centra of several vertebrae are preserved. They are 
deeply concave and without lateral grooves in the anterior re- 
gion. The more posterior vertebrae are grooved, and have the 
ribs attached to small processes of bone which fit into pits on 
the sides of the centrae. 

Ichthyodectes cmentus. Plate L, figs. 8a, 8b, 9, 10a, 10b. 

Ichthyodectes cruentus Hay, Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. vi, 1898, pp. 225-228. 

This species of Ichthyodectes has been recently established by 
Professor Hay from a fragmentary maxilla and a portion of a 
mandible supposed to belong with it, from the Butte creek re- 
gion of western Kansas. Through the kindness of Professor 
Hay, I have been allowed to examine his type and compare it 
with a specimen of the same species in our collection, which 
fortunately is somewhat more complete than his. 

The premaxilla is especially remarkable for its great depth 
and for the length of the alveolar border. The outer portion of 
the bone is very convex from before backward, especially so 
just above the alveolar border, where the bone is covered with 
minute canals, which give it a somewhat rugose appearance. 
The inferior third of the bone receives no support from the 
maxilla, thus causing it to be projected downward to a consid- 
erable extent. The bone becomes contracted in width supe- 
riorly, and bears an articular facet above, probably for the 
ethmoid. The lower portion of the anterior border is much 
roughened, probably for ligamentous union with its fellow on 
the opposite side. Alveoli for nine teeth are found, all of 
which are broken away. 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 301 

The maxilla of this species is very similar in general form to 
that of /. hamatus, with the exception of being less slender and 
more robust. So far as can be seen, the superior border is 
nearly straight and much thickened, with a groove along the 
external side for the reception of the jugal. This border rounds 
ofiF regularly into the internal. The condyle for the palatine 
is similar in form to that of /. haviatus^ beneath which the bone 
is very thick. The anterior condyle is oval in outline and situ- 
ated quite a distance from the last. The surface for the pre- 
maxilla is bent inward and is much roughened. The anterior 
border is very sharp and the lower is separated from the alveolar 
border by a prominent notch. This last border is very concave 
in the anterior portion and has a prominent hook-like projection 
extending downward in front, which is broken away in Professor 
Hay's specimen. The teeth are rounded in cross-section and 
non-striate under the microscope. Both the external and inter- 
nal surfaces of the bone are finely striated. 

Premazilla : Greatest depth 50 mm. 

Length of alveolar border 32 " 

Maxilla : Depth at posterior condyle 31 *' 

Distance between superior condyles 21 '* 

Number of alyeoli in one centimeter 3 

Fragments of the dentaries show these parts to be remarkably 
thickened at the symphysis. At this point the alveolar border 
is directed slightly upward, forming a slight hook-like pro- 
jection, below which the symphysis descends almost vertically. 

Dentary : Greatest lateral width at symphysis 11 mm. 

Number of teeth in one centimeter 3 

This specimen, No. 180, was obtained from the Niobrara 
Cretaceous of Gove county by Mr. E. P. West some years ago. 

Ichthyodectes acanthicas 7. Plate LI, figs. 1-11. 

Ichthyodectes acanfhicua Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 1878, p. 177. 

This species, as described by Professor Cope, is the smallest 
member of the genus, but the description, as a whole, is so very 
meager that the species cannot be identified with any degree of 
certainty. There are two specimens in our collection which are 
much smaller than any of the other species described by Cope, 

302 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

but I am far from certain that these belong to /. acanthicus. If 
they prove not to be this, I would propose the name of lehthyo- 
dectes parvus for them. 

The maxilla is long and slender, with the superior border 
moderately curved back of the posterior condyle. This condyle 
is slightly convex, and is invaded by a notch from behind. The 
surface for the premaxilla is bent inward to a considerable ex* 
tent, and has a small tubercular condyle above and in front. 
The alveolar border is somewhat concave anteriorly, thin, and 
bears a row of teeth which do not seem to decrease much in size 
toward the posterior extremity. The teeth are cylindrical in 
cross-section, acutely pointed, and directed slightly inward at 
the apices. The premaxilla is thin and plate-like, with seven 
teeth on the alveolar border. 

Premaxilla : LeDgth of alveolar border 18 mm. 

Maxilla : Depth at posterior condyle 19 *^ 

LeDgth of alveolar border ( estimated) 77 *' 

Number of teeth in one centimeter 8 

Besides being smaller in size, the alveolar border does not 
have the two convexities found in /. anaides, but is convex in 
front and slightly concave in the middle and posterior portions. 
The symphyses are but slightly sloping and not much thick- 
ened. The coronoid process is poorly developed and the border 
back of it slopes gradually to the cotylus. The teeth are cyl- 
indrical in cross-section and directed slightly inward. The derm- 
articular extends well forward in a long, sword-shaped process 
which is very robust below. The antarticular is wedge-shaped 
and similar in general form to that of Xiphactinus. 

Dentary : Length of alveolar border 75 mm. 

Depth of symphysis 26 ** 

Depth at coronoid process 33 ** 

Number of teeth in one centimeter 4.5 

Only the anterior portions of the palatines are preserved, 
which show the malleolar portions to be projected outward in a 
manner similar to that found in /. hamatus, but differs from 
this form in having them proportionally broader and not so 
deep. The articular facet for the prefrontal is the smaller of 
the two and is nearly flat, while the one for the posterior con- 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 303 

dyle of the maxilla is slightly concave and much broader than 
the condyle articulating with it, thus forming a rather loose 

There are numerous vertebrae present which show them to 
be two-grooved, and, with the exception of the difference in 
size, very similar to those of J. anaides. The pectoral fin is 
represented in a somewhat fragmentary condition, but enough 
of the rays are present to show that the upper ones are sword- 
like and but slightly less curved than in Xiphactinus. The 
pelvic actinosts are very similar in many respects to those of 
the genus just mentioned. The two halves are strongly sutured 
together in the median line, where the bones are massive for 
the support of the pelvic fin. The facets are obliquely set and 
are four in number on each side. The upper and lower of these 
are large and flat, while the two median ones are round and 
somewhat tubercular. Extending forward, both above and be- 
low, there are ridges of bone which are not so prominent as in 
Xiphactinus, which may have formed bars of bone on each side. 
External to these there are wing-like processes. 

Ichtliyodectes ctenodon. Plate XLIX, figs. 5-7 ; plate LI, figs. 12, 13. 
IchthyodertcH ctenodon Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 1870, p. 536. 

There is one specimen, consisting of the mandibles, a portion 
of a maxilla, and other bones, which do not seem to differ ma- 
terially from those of the specimen described and figured by 
Professor Cope. It evidently does not belong to any of the other 
American species, and for the present at least I will leave it here. 

The dentary is about the same size as that of J. anaidcs, de- 
scribed above, but differs from this in the absence of the pos- 
terior convexity of the alveolar border. This border unites 
with the symphysis at an angle of about 75 deg., which is 10 
deg. more than Cope describes of his specimen. There seems 
to be some discrepancy between Cope's description and figure, 
for in the latter the angle seems to be about the same as in our 
specimen, which evidently shows that Cope was wrong in one of 
the two. The teeth are large anteriorly but somewhat smaller 
posteriorly, round in section, non-striate, and directed inward. 

304 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

Cope describes his specimen with the posterior teeth slightly 
larger than the anterior, which seems rather remarkable for 
this family. The posterior extremity of the maxilla shows this 
portion to be upturned, as Cope has indicated in his figure. "^ 

The quadrate has its condyle twisted forward until the face 
is almost in line with the anterior border. The upper border is 
straight and the groove for the symplectic narrow. The cerato- 
hyal is concave posteriorly, convex and contracted in width an- 

Dentary : Len^h of alveolar border 101 mm. 

Length of symphysis 43 ** 

Length of crown, anterior 7 " 

Number of teeth in one centimeter 3 

This specimen was obtained from the Niobrara Cretaceous, 
five miles northeast of Russell Springs, Logan county, Kansas, 
by the geological expedition of the summer of 1898. 


Hay, Amer. Jour. Soi., vol. VI (1888), p. 320. 

The genus GiUicus has recently been proposed by Professor 
Hay, to include Ichthyodcctes arcuatus Cope and /. polymicrodus 
Crook, which differ materially from the other species of Ichthyo- 
dedeSy especially in the form of the teeth and tooth-bearing 
elements. Before entering into the description of this interest- 
ing form, it will be well to give a short resume of the discus- 
sion which has taken place over these two species, as is also 
done at some length by Professor Hay." 

In 1875 Professor Cope first described his Portheus arcuatus 
from some very imperfect remains from the yellow chalk of the 
Solomon river, Kansas. It is diflBcult to say just why Professor 
Cope first referred this to Xiphactinus (Portheus) , as the dental 
and other characters are entirely different from that genus. 
Cope evidently discovered his mistake soon afterward, as he 
refers it to Ichthyodcctes in 1877.** Nothing more was done with 
this species until 1892, when Doctor Crook published his paper 
entitled ** Uber einige fossile Knochenfische aus der mitteleren 

flO. Cret Vert. West, pi. XLVI, fig. 1. 82. Proc. Am. Phil. Soo., XVII, p. 177. 

61. 1. c, pp. 228, 229. 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 305 

Kreide von Kansas/' in which he described his Ichthyodectes 

polymicrodus . Shortly after this Professor Cope reviewed this 
paper in the American Xaturalist,^ and claimed that Crook's 
species is the same as the one already described by him as J. 
arcuatus. He further states that if it had not been for certain 
conditions, figures of this species would have been published, a 
statement which I think means that more characteristic parts 
would have been figured and described. 

Cope was evidently in doubt about the specimen figured as 
Ichthyodectes {Portheus) arcuatus y as on plate XLVII of the 
** Cretaceous Vertebrata," he refers to it as f Portheus arcuatus, 
while on the opposite page, in the explanation of the plate, it is 
Portheus ? arcuatus. Furthermore, on page 220 B of the same 
work, he refers to these figures of an unknown species of 
saurodont. Altogether I am inclined to think that Professor 
Cope's description and figures are for entirely different speci- 
mens, but the description, so far as it goes, does not seem to 
differ from the description and figures of 7. polymicrodus of 

When we take into consideration the fact that Professor Cope 
was able to recognize his species in Crook's description, and 
also that this form is so abundant in the chalk of western Kan- 
sas that it could hardly be missed by a party collecting fossil 
fishes for any length of time in that locality, I do not think we 
should hesitate to regard Gillicus (Ichthyodectes) polymicrodus 
Crook as a synonym of Gillicus arcuatus Cope. The characters 
in which Gillicus Hay differs from Ichthyodectes Cope are 
enumerated as follows by Professor Hay :** ** While these forms 
can by no means belong to Cope's Portheus (Xiphactinus of 
Leidy) , they can hardly belong to the genus Ichthyodectes. In 
the latter genus the maxilla is long, nearly equal to the distance 
from the tip of the vomer to the occipital condyle. The gape of 
the mouth must therefore have been large. In Doctor Crook's 
species and related forms the maxilla is short, between one-half 
and two-thirds the distance referred to above ; hence the gape of 

83. XXVI, p. 942. 

64. Amer. Jour. Sei., toI. YI, p. 229. 

306 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

the mouth must have been rather small. The maxillse of typ- 
ical species of Ichthyodectes are nearly straight along the tooth 
line, or sinuous, or, in /. hamatjis, strongly concave. In /. 
polymicrodiis the tooth line is strongly convex, except just be- 
hind the palatine condyle. The teeth of 7. polymicrodus are 
numerous and feeble ; in the other species, strong and in small 

Gillicas arcnatus. Plates LII, LIII, and LIV. 

Portheus arcuatus Cope, Cret. Vert. West., pp. 204, 274, pi. xlvii, figs.T-S.** 

Ichthyodectes arcuatus Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 1878, p. 177; Amer. 
Nat., Yol. XVII, p. 942. 

Ichthyodectes polymicrodus Crook, Paleonto., 1892, p. 112, pi. xvi. 

Ichthyodectes nrcuafus Cope, aod Ichthyodectes polymicrodus Crook 
and Hay, Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. vi, p. 228. 

This species is represented in the museum by the remains of 
three individuals with the skull in good condition, and frag- 
ments of several more. 

The maxilla is a broad and thin bone, with the greater part 
of the alveolar border very convex. Just back of the surface 
for the premaxilla this border is directed sharply upward, form- 
ing a rather deep concavity near the anterior end, back of which 
it is gently curved. This border gives support to a single row 
of minute teeth, which are bent slightly inward at the apices. 
Doctor Crook says that twenty-four of these occur to the centi- 
meter, in which I am inclined to think that he is mistaken, unless 
he intended it to apply to the posterior end, where the number 
will probably reach that many, but at the anterior extremity I 
have been unable to make out more than from seventeen to 
eighteen. The surface for the premaxilla is bent inward to a 
considerable extent and is separated from the alveolar border 
by a slight notch inferiorly. The condyle for the palatine is el- 
liptical in outline, slightly convex, and elevated slightly above 
the rest of the bone. Professor Hay was able to distinguish 
some differences in the form of these condyles, as he says :" ** In 
looking over my specimens it seems to me that I can observe 
characters that indicate two species. In one maxilla I find that 

65. It is doabtfal if these flfiures refer to this species. 

66. Amer. Joar. Sci., VI, p. 2*29. 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 307 

the posterior or palatine condyle is comparatively short, and 
has, in its hinder border, a distinct notch ; in other maxillse the 
condyle is longer and, apparently, without the posterior notch. 
The distance between the condyles appears to be greater in 
some cases than in others." 

I have been unable to discover any such difference in any of 
our specimens, but, if this difference does occur, I think that it 
could not be called a specific character, as there is likely to be 
almost as much individual variation in Gillicus and Ichthyodectes 
as in Xipli^ctinuSj in which the variation is remarkably great. 
The superior border of the bone, back of the condyle, is slightly 
concave and presents a slight shelf, which probably accommo- 
dates the jugal. Unfortunately the premaxilla is preserved with 
none of the specimens, nor has it been found with any of the 
specimens described by other authors. It was, no doubt, a 
very small and light bone, thus easily washed away when the 
soft parts disintegrated. 

Maxilla : Length of alveolar border (estimated) 97 mm. 

Depth at posterior condyle 24 '* 

The dentaries are remarkable for their short length and great 
depth. The symphysis is very deep, almost vertically directed, 
and smooth. Just back of it on the internal side there is a 
broad, shallow and somewhat elliptical-shaped pit, similar to the 
one found in Saurodon and Saurocephalus. The alveolar border 
presents a slight convexity near the anterior end, back of which 
it is slightly concave. The teeth are all very small and form a 
fringe on the edge of the jaw. The coronoid process is not 
developed at all, and the lower border is very sharp. Pos- 
teriorly the bone descends very abruptly to the symphysis. 

Dentary : Depth at symphysis 45 mm. 

Length of alveolar border 55 *' 

Length of mandible from coty lus 81 ** 

The ceratohyal is preserved in one specimen. It is very thin, 
much contracted at the center, and expanded at the ends, the 
posterior of which is concave and the anterior convex. 

The palato-quadrate arch is represented by the palatine, 
mesopterygoid, pterygoid, and quadrate. The palatine consists 

308 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

of a broad, thin posterior plate and the malleolar portion. 
This latter is somewhat deeper than in Ichthyodectes acanthicuSy 
and does not have a tuberosity on the external side. The two 
portions of the bone are separated by a constricted neck. 
Nothing more can be said of the mesopterygoid than that it is 
a very thin bone. 

The quadrate is very deep, as might be expected from the 
corresponding depth of the mandible. The upper portion is 
very thin and has a slight groove on the internal side for the 
symplectic. The condyle is very convex and directed well for- 
ward. The upper border seems to be nearly straight and prob- 
ably unites with the metapterygoid in a manner similar to that 
found in Xiphactinus, The preoperculum is very thin, broad 
below, and narrow above. 

The ethmoid is very similar to this bone in Xiphactinus and 
Ichthyodectes, being formed into a beak anteriorly, and thin, and 
united with the frontals by a dentate suture posteriorly. The 
frontals are separated by a well-marked non-dentate suture, 
which is shown throughout its length in one of the specimens. 
Over the orbital cavities the bones are somewhat thickened, and 
evidently gave attachment to a chain of supraorbital bones, as 
in Xiphactinus, Posteriorly they unite with the postfrontals, 
parietals, and probably the pterotics. 

As there has been some doubt as to the exact position of the 
parietals and pterotics, I quote the following paragraph from 
Professor Hay,®^ which seems to me to be the correct explana- 
tion of these parts : 

*' Crook has interpreted the bones of the posterior upper re- 
gion of the skull of his /. polymicrodus as he has those of Por- 
theus (Xiphactinus) ; but, as in the case of the latter, I am 
compelled to differ with him. However, many of the sutures 
are very difficult to demonstrate. According to Crook, the su- 
praoccipital is greatly expanded in front, while the parietals lie 
laterad to the epiotics. It seems to me that the supposed ex- 
panded portion of the supraoccipital is really the area belong- 
ing to the parietals. There is a very distinct fold running along 

67. Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. VI, p. 230. 

Stkwakt.] Cretaceous Fishes. 309 

the hinder herder of the expansion, and this, continuing up to 
the midline, has the appearance of a suture. In the crushed 
specimen before me there is, along the middle line of the ex- 
pansion, a break in the bone, but whether due to a fracture or 
to the parting of the bones along a suture I cannot determine. 
Possibly the parietals were coossified along the midline." 

As to Crook's parietal, I cannot convince myself that there 
is any suture cutting off the area assigned to it from that as- 
signed to the pterotic. I regard as pterotic the whole area ex- 
tending from the posterior external angle of the skull to the 
lateral expansion considered by Crook as supraoccipital.^ 

In one of the specimens before me the portion under consid- 
eration above is so well marked that there can be no more doubt 
that the expanded portion called supraoccipital by Crook is a 
separate and distinct bone, which is not separated by suture in the 
middle line. The portion called parietal by the same author 
often has numerous cracks running through it, which will easily 
lead one to believe that they are sutures. 

The prefrontals are small, triangular-shaped bones which lie 
below the frontals and give attachment to the palatine, as in 
Xiphactiuus, The postfrontals form prominent processes, and 
are somewhat irregular in form. They form the posterior 
boundaries of the orbits, and present grooves externally which 
support about one-fourth of the upper faces of the hyomandibu- 

The parasphenoid is completely preserved in three specimens. 
It is more slender than in either Xiphactinus or Ichthijodectes, 
and is quadrilateral in cross-section, instead of triangular, as in 
the forms mentioned. The transverse processes seem to be well 
developed, just back of which there are very thin lateral proc- 
esses which extend upward to the prootics, just beneath which 
the bone is strongly bent at an angle of about 55 deg., thus giv- 
ing a strong upward direction to the anterior portion of the skull. 

The sclerotic ring is unusually large for the size of the speci- 
men, the distance across the orbit being 37 mm., a distance 

68. See Crook's fig. 5, pi. XVI, Sq. and Pa, 

310 University Geological Survey of Kansas, 

which is even greater than in Xiphadinus. The bones are very 

One specimen has fifty-seven vertebrae preserved, and there 
are probably several more missing. So far as can be deter- 
mined, this specimen was at least four feet in length, and, 
judging from the skull, it does not seem to be larger than the 
other specimens. 


The characters that separate this family from the Ichthyodec- 
tidm are found in the presence of a predentary in the mandible 
and in the form and manner of succession of the teeth. In 
other respects the skull is very similar to that of the Ichthyo- 
dectidse, except that it is likely that Saurodon possesses a tooth- 
bearing element not found in this family. The predentary is a 
long, triangular element, pointed at the extremity, and was used 
as a weapon of oflFense. Contrary to what would be expected, 
this bone is not paired, and is also edentulous in both genera 
of this family, Saurodon and Saurocephalus. Doctor Crook*" has 
removed one of these genera, Sawocephalus, to the family Pachy- 
cormidR!, the reasons for which are : 

"Das Dentale hat andere Proportionen als dasjenige von Ichthyo- 
dectes und Portheus \^Xiphactinua^ indem es viel niedriger und gegen 
die zahntragende Oberflache dicker wird. Die maxilla ist mehr dick 
als tief , die Prsemaxilla dreieckig und lang, die l&ngste Seite als zahn- 
trflgender Rand ausgebildet. Sie ist so gftnzlich verschieden von 
denjenigen der anderen Glieder dieser Familie, dass dies Merkmal 
allein genilgt, urn Saurocephalus einer anderen Grappe zuzuweisen. 
Diese Annahme wird noch mehr bestatigt durch den Cbarakter der 
Maxilla und des Dentale, die Foramina und die Art und Weise der 
Aufeinanderfolge der Zahn. Auf Grund der Gleichartigkeit der 
Zahnea und der auserordentlichen ^hnlichkeit der PrsDmaxilla roit 
derjenigen von Protosphyrmna ddrfen wir Saurocephalus bis auf 
welters in die Familie von ProtosphyrcenidcB einreihen." 

Concerning the above, I would say that I have been unable 
to recognize the great similarity between the premaxillae of the 

09. Paleontoffraphioa, 1892, p. 120. 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 311 

two genera from the specimens in the museum. Furthermore, 
if Saurocephalus were removed to another family, Saurodon 
would have to follow, as the two genera are too closely allied 
to be far separated from each other, and the absence of the long 
rostrum, paired and toothed predentary, and the presence of 
more than one row of teeth on the maxillse and mandibles would 
preclude any close relationship with the family to which he re- 
fers it. I think the two genera should be placed in a distinct 
family, as has been done above. 

Revised synopsis of the Saurodoniidse : 

Foramina below the alveolar border internally. 

Teeth with short compressed crowns Saurocephalus, 

Deep notches below the alveolar border internally. 

Teeth with subcylindric crowns Saurodon. 


Hays. Trans. Am. Phil. Boc., 1830, p. 476. 
Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1873, p. 339. 

In the year 1830, Doctor Hays'^ described the genus Saurodon 
from a portion of a skull and jaws from the Marl of New 
Jersey. He also examined the type specimen of Saurocephalus, 
described by Doctor Harlan^^ six years before, and decided that 
the two genera were synonymous, and, as Doctor Harlan's genus 
was founded upon erroneous characters, the name Saurodon 
should take precedence over it. In 1856 Doctor Leidy ^^ rede- 
scribed both of the above specimens and decided that the name 
Saurodon should be abandoned and Saurocephalus used instead. 
Nothing further was done with either of these forms until 1873, 
when Professor Cope added the genus Daptimis, which he later 
recognized as a synonym of Saurodon. 

The exact date of Professor Cope's retraction I have been un- 
able to exactly determine, but it was probably not until after 
1878, as during this year Mr. E. T. Newton^' described a fish 
from the Lower Chalk of Dover and provisionally placed it in 
Daptinus. A little later in the same year, Mr. Newton pub- 
lished another paper ^* in which he carefully goes over the 

70. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc.. vol. Ill, p. 471. 73. Trans. Am. Phil. SoCm toL XI, p. 91. 

71. Joar. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., yol. Ill, p. 831. 74. 1. c, No. 136, p. 786. 

72. Qaart. Joar. Qeol. Soc.. 1S78, No. 135, p. 489. 

312 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

ground, and finally concluded, as Doctor Leidy had already 
done, that the name Saurodon should be no longer used. 

It has since been shown that there are two distinct genera, 
the differences being found mainly in the more slender mandi- 
ble and the occurrence of deep notches instead of foramina at 
the bases of the crowns of the teeth in Saurodon, There is also 
some difference in the shape of the teeth in the two forms. 

Below is given a list of the known American species : 

Saurodon leanua Hays, Marl, New Jersey. 

Saurodon phlebotomus Cope, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 
Saurodon hroadheadi Stewart, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 
Saurodon xiphiroatris Stewart, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 
Saurodon ferox Stewart, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 

Saurodon phlebotomus. Plate LVII, figs. 4 and 5. 

DapiinuH phlebotomus Cope, Cret. Vert. West, p. 213. 

Saurocephalus phlebotomus Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 1870, p. 530; 
Hayden's Ann. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. 1871, p. 416. 

There are remains of several specimens of this species, in- 
cluding the jaws, vertebrae, and portion of one skull, in the mu- 

The maxilla is more slender than in S, hroadheadi^ and the 
surface for the premaxilla is bent inward very strongly, al- 
though this may be due to distortion. The alveolar border is 
nearly straight, and has alveoli for twenty-nine subcylindric 
teeth, which have the characteristic notches for nutrient ves- 
sels at the base of each. The posterior extremity of the border 
is edentulous, curved slightly upward. The condyle for the 
palatine is not elevated as in Xiphactinus, and is flatter than in 
Saurocephaliis. The internal side of this condyle is invaded by 
a slight notch, which is absent in S. hroadheadi and S, ferox. 
The anterior condyle is broken away, but it seems to have been 
elevated upon a slight pedestal, and was probably very small. 
The upper portion of the bone is striated ; the lower portion, just 
above the alveolar border, is covered with numerous punctations. 

The dentary is slender, and the symphysis is not so straight 
as in SaurQcephalus dentatus, but is slightly convex in front, with- 
out the prominent bony tubercles which are so pronounced on 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 313 

the internal side of the symphysis of the form just mentioned. 
Back of the symphysis there is a slight concavity in the alveolar 
border, just over the large shallow pit at this point. This pit, 
which is probably for the Mento-Meckelian ossicle, is much 
smaller than in Saurocephahts and the swelling above it is less 
pronounced. The alveolar border supports thirty-six teeth, the 
anterior ones of which are very small and the posterior ones 
about twice the size of those on the maxilla. The crowns are 
subcylindric, knife-like, and extend nearly to the coronoid proc- 
ess, which is rather weak, and not curved upward and outward 
as in Xiphactinus. The lower border of the bone is very thin, 
with numerous fine striae extending obliquely upward and for- 
ward on both the external and internal sides. 

The articular portion is divided into the dermarticular and 
antarticular portions. Owing to the crushed condition of the 
specimens these portions cannot be made out with certainty, 
but seem to be very similar to the same parts of S. ferox, de- 
scribed below. The predentary is not preserved in any of the 



Maxilla : Length of 96.0 mm. 

Depth at center 25.0 ** 

Length of palatine condyle 11.5 *' 

Number of teeth in one centimeter, 5. 

Length of crown 4.0 mm. 

Breadth of crown .^ 2.3 " 

Depth of bone at palatine condyle 30.0 '* 

Mandible : Length of bone from cotylus 116.0 

Depth of symphysis 26.0 

Depth at coronoid angle 41.0 

Length of alveolar border 92.0 

Number of teeth in one centimeter, 4. 

Sanrodon broadheadi. 

Daptinus broadheadi Stewart, Kans. Univ. Quart., vol. vii, pp. 24, 25. 

This species was established upon the left maxilla and one of 
predentaries found in Wallace county, Kansas, collected by Mr. 
Geo. W. Cooper. The catalogue number of the specimen is 212. 

The maxilla is less elongate and ends more abruptly than in Sau- 
rocephalus. The anterior border slopes forward more obliquely 
than in Xiphactimis. The premaxillary surface is continuous 

21— vi 

314 University Geological Survey of Kansas, 

with the outer surface of the maxilla and is provided with numer- 
ous small protuberances, which probably fit into corresponding 
depressions in the premaxilla. It is seen from the above that the 
premaxil]a is not so immovably fixed as in Xiphactiniis, where 
this bone fits into a deep depression on the maxilla and has a 
thin lamina of bone extending forward nearly to the anterior 
extremity, which gives it additional support. The ramus is 
thin above and thickens but slightly at the alveolar border. 
The bone does not materially thicken below the palatine condyle 
as in Xiphactiaus, and the anterior condyle is situated much 
nearer to it than in this form. The palatine condyle is elon- 
gated, elliptical, nearly fiat, and does not have the internal 
notch found in S, phlebotomvs. The teeth are closely set, with 
compressed, knife-like crowns and smooth enamel surface, ap- 
pearing very slightly striated under the microscope. Alveoli 
for thirty-one are found, below each of which there is a deep 
notch, characteristic of this genus. 

A predentary was found on the same slab with the above 
which has the form of the predentary of Saurocephahis. It is 
short and triangular, the posterior surface of which is very 
rough for cartilage, binding it to the symphysis. The upper bor- 
der is edentulous, the lower thin and sharp, and the two meet 
at quite an acute angle in front. 

Maxilla: Length (estimated) 122.0 mm. 

Depth at center 37.0 ♦* 

Depth at palatine condyle 44 .0 ** 

Number of teeth in one centimeter, 3.5. 

Predentary : Length ( estimated ) 30.0 mm. 

Depth at symphysis 28.5 ** 

Saurodon xiphirostris. Plate LV. 

Saurodon xiphiroHtriH Stewart, Kans. Univ. Quart., vol. vii, p. 178. 

This specimen consists of a skull crushed obliquely, the centra 
of several vertebrae, and also a portion of a shoulder girdle in a 
very bad state of preservation. The specimen is of nearly the 
same size as that of the type of Saurodon (Daptinns) broadheadi'^ 
described by myself. 

75. Kans. Univ. Qaart.. yol. VII, pp. 21-29. 

Stewart] Cretaceous Fishes. 315 

The maxilla is short and deep, the depth not being as great 
as in S. broadheadi. The alveolar border is nearly straight and 
has alveoli for about thirty-one teeth, which are about the size 
of those described in the above species. The posterior extrem- 
ity cannot be examined, as there is a suborbital bone covering 
this portion on each side of the skull, but it is probably very 
similar to that of the figures of Saurodon ferox described below. 
The superior border is sharp, and gives attachment to some 
bone, probably a suborbital or jugal. The palatine condyle 
seems to be very similar to that of S, broadheadi already de- 
scribed. The bone, just above the alveolar border, presents a 
somewhat shagreened appearance. Farther than this, there 
seem to be no characteristic markings upon the external sur- 
face. As the maxilla is firmly attached to' the skull, the inter- 
nal surface cannot be examined. 

The premaxilla is plate-like, and nearly twice as deep as 
broad. The superior border is irregular and presents no con- 
dyle at this point. The external markings are very similar to 
those found in Saurocephalus dentatus, and the bone is directed 
more obliquely backward than in that form. The anterior bor- 
der is directed sharply inward, giving the external surface of 
the bone a very convex 'appearance. This border is very rugose, 
probably for ligamentous union with its fellow of the opposite 
side. The alveolar border is very convex, and has alveoli for 
twelve teeth, which are of about the same size as those on the 

Maxillary: Length of alveolar border (estimated) 82 mm. 

Depth at palatine condyle 33 '* 

Number of teeth in one centimeter, 4. 

Premaxillary : Greatest depth 50 mm. 

Greatest length 30 

Length of anterior border 30 

In the mandible is found one of the chief characters that 
separate this genus from Saurocephalus ; instead of the upper 
and lower jaws terminating at about the same vertical plane as 
in the other member of the Saurodontidie, the mandible projects 
fully an inch beyond this point. The dentary is long and 
slender throughout; in Saurocephalus it is short and deep. 

316 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

This difference is well illustrated by comparing the types of 
Saurocephalus dentatus and Saxirodon ferox; the maxilla of the 
first is considerably longer than that of the second, but with 
the dentaries the reverse is the case. Only a small portion of 
the dentary can be seen, as most of the external and superior 
portions are hidden by the overlying maxilla*. The bones are 
irregular and shallow at the symphysis and seem to have given 
strong attachment for the predentary. The lower border is 
thin and sharp. Only twenty-seven millimeters of the alveolar 
border can be seen in the specimen, upon which the teeth are 
small and twelve in number. At the base of each tooth is found 
the deep notch for the nutrient vessels, so characteristic of this 
genus. As the articular portion does not seem to differ materi- 
ally from that of S, ferox ^ its description may be deferred. 

Contrary to anticipations, there is but one predentary, as is 
proven by the discovery of all of the parts in place. It is long 
and slender, triangular in outline, with a broad, elliptical articu- 
lar surface at the posterior extremity. When this element was 
first made known"' in this genus, I was under the impression 
that it was paired, which is not the case. This slender pro- 
jection was no doubt used as a weapon of ofi*ense, analogous to 
the rostrum of Protosphyrmna. In connection with the descrip- 
tion of Saurodon hroadheadi'"^ I figured a predentary of an en- 
tirely different form from the above, which was found on the same 
slab with the maxilla described ; the form is the same as that 
found in Saurocephalus. Whether the two bones belonged to 
the same individual or not only future discoveries can deter- 
mine. After carefully comparing the type of S. dentatus with 
that of the species under consideration and S. ferox, I am con- 
vinced that there is but one predentary in the mandible of this 

form, as one would expect from the great similarity of 'the two 

Mandible : Length from cotyloid cavity 155 mm. 

Depth at symphysis 23 ** 

Number of teeth in one centimeter, 4.5. 

Predentary : Length ( estimated) 73 mm. 

Depth of symphyseal surface 23 *' 

Width of symphyseal surface 12 ** 

76. Kans. Uniy. Quart., vol. VII, p. 24. 77. 1. c, pi. II. 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 317 

The ethmoid is broad and flat posteriorly, becoming thickened 
and pointed at the anterior extremity. The lower surface can* 
not be seen, but it probably is not materially difl^erent from that 
of Ichthyodectes. In Prof. E. T. Newton's description of S, in- 
terinedius'^ he says, concerning this part: * 'Anterior to the 
f rentals, upon the upper surface of the skull, there are two 
bones (fig. 2) separated by a median longitudinal suture; 
towards the front of these an osseous band passes across at 
right angles, obliterating the suture.'' In our skull I am un- 
able to detect any indication of a suture at this point such as is 
shown in the figure referred to above. I have also examined 
all of the specimens of Xiphactinus and Ichthyodectes in the 
museum, and find no trace of such a suture in any of them. 
It seems probable to me that the skull described by Mr. Newton 
was of a younger individual than are any of ours. 

The frontals are broad, flat bones extending from the ethmoid, 
with which they are united by a squamose suture, back to the 
parietals. Laterally, they form the superior borders of the 
orbits. In the median line they are separated by a suture. 
The bones are probably in contact with the supraoccipital, but^ 
owing to the crushed condition of this region, this point cannot 
be definitely determined. 

The parietals (?) are small elements in contact with the pter- 
otics and epiotics posteriorly. They are probably very similar 
to this portion of Xiphactiniis and Ichthodectes, although this re- 
gion of the skull is so crushed as to render the determination of 
this portion somewhat difficult. There seems to be a faint su- 
ture between the pterotic and sphenotic. The epiotic does not 
seem to be produced as far backward in this species as in S*. in- 
termedius, figured and described by Mr. Newton.^' They are 
heavy projections of bone, and form the inner lateral processes 
of the skull as in other members of the Satirodontidw and Ichthyo- 
dectidse. Mr. Newton*^ seems somewhat in doubt about the 
bones in this region and is unwilling to accept the bone called 
parietal by Professor Cope, stating, for his reason, that the lines 

78. Quart. Jouni. Geol. Soc., toI. XXXIV. No. 135, p. 444, pi. XIX. 

79. 1. o., p. 444, pi. XXXIV. 80. 1. c, pp. 444. 445. 

318 University Oeological Survey of Kansas. 

indicative of the direction of growth were from the extreme pos- 
terior angle of the skull, instead of from the anterior portion, as 
we would expect if this bone were the parietal. In skulls of 
XiphactinuSt Ichthyodectes, and GilUcus^ before me, I find the 
same condition, which seems to confirm Mr. Newton's idea. 
Recently Professor Hay'** has shown wherein Professor Cope was 
wrong in his identification of this part of Xiphactinus and Ich- 
thyodectes, and, as the top of the skull as a whole seems to be 
very similar to that of the two genera mentioned, I have no 
doubt but that the same explanation will apply to Saurodon. 
The pterotics are large bones and seem to be very dense in 

The supraoccipital is very much crushed and partially broken 
away, but enough remains to show that the bone was raised 
into quite a prominent crest. It extends backward beyond the 
points of the epiotics, a condition different from that described 
by Newton.** It probably does not join the frontals in front, the 
parietals intervening. 

The orbit is sotnewhat smaller than in Ichthyodectes and is 
surrounded by a thin ring of sclerotic bones similar to that 
found in the genus just mentioned. Just in front of the orbit 
there is a small triangular bone attached to the frontal above, 
which I take to be a preorbital. The same bone is figured by 
Newton** but not named or described by the author. Just in 
front of this there is a long slender bar of bone, which seems 
to articulate somewhere in the palatine region. On one side 
the anterior end is crushed down to near the posterior condyle 
of the maxillary, but on the other side it fits in just back of the 
superior condyle of the palatine, and as a palatine of another 
specimen shows a sutural surface at this point, I think it not 
unlikely that this is the correct position of the bone. This 
may be the bone that Newton** figured as a *' nasal bone," (?) 
although it is of an entirely different shape from that shown in 
the cut of his specimen. The bone Newton calls " jugal" (?) 
I am inclined to think is one of the suborbital bones, as found 

81. Zool. Ball., vol. II. p. 28. 88. 1. c, p. 444. 

82. 1. c, p. 444. 84. 1. c, pi. XXXIV. 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fisluis. 819 

in Xipkactiniis, especially as there seems to be a suture indi- 
cated between this and a bone just above which articulates with 
the jugal ( probably a suborbital ) above. 

Owing to the crushed condition, the prefrontals are almost 
entirely covered by the ethmoid and frontal. The description 
of the palatine will be given with the next species. Parts of 
the operculum and preoperculum are present. The first is a 
broad flat plate of bone which articulates with the hyomandibu- 
lar in a manner similar to that found in Xiphactimis and Ich- 
thyodectes. The anterior border of the preoperculum is deeply 
concave, the anterior inferior extremity reaching forward to the 
angle of the mandible. The hyomandibular of this species is 
not visible. 

The vertebra* are deeply concave, with deep grooves closely 
situated above for the neural arches. The ribs articulate with 
small ossicles set into pits on the side of the centrum. Just 
above these ossicles there is a deep pit on each side. 

A part of the shoulder girdle, including a fragmentary fin, 
is present. The fin seems rather small. 

The skull as a whole is especially remarkable for the extreme 
length of the mandible, and also the long predentary in front. 
This portion probably had a dermal covering similar to that 
covering the sword-fishes' sword, and was no doubt used as a 
weapon of ofi*ense. In an animal with such a weapon as this 
we might expect to find powerful fins, but this is not the case 
with this species. In other respects the skull does not mate- 
rially differ, excepting in details, from the skull of other mem- 
bers of the Saurodontidie and Ichihyodectidvc. 

The type of this species was found in Gove county, Kansas, 
by Mr. H. M. McDowell, who presented the specimen to the 

Sanrodon ferox. Plates LVI and LVII. 

Saurodon ferox Stewart, Kans. Univ. Quart., vol. vii, p. 18.3. 

This species is represented by the jaws, including the pre- 
dentary, and other disarticulated bones and vertebrae. 

The maxillary is larger than the one just described. The 

320 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

posterior condyles above are somewhat elliptical in outline and 
but slightly convex from before backwards. Just anterior to 
this there is a large protuberance, which may support a condyle 
above, and on the external side of this there is a small facet, 
which probably gives articulation with the ethmoid. The sur- 
face for the premaxillary is very irregular and is directed in- 
ward, becoming thinner toward the anterior border, which is 
sharp. The superior border is strongly concave and sharp, and 
presents a sutural surface on the external side, probably for a 
jugal. The alveolar border is convex and has alveoli for forty 
or forty-one teeth, which are non-striate and knife-like. Each 
tooth has the characteristic notch at the base. The posterior 
extremity at the bone is very shallow and turned slightly up- 
ward. Aside from the shagreened surface of the bone above 
the alveolar border the external surface has no characteristic 

The premaxillary is very similar to that of the species de- 
scribed above, except that there are ten instead of twelve teeth. 
On the internal side, the bone is beveled off toward the pos- 
terior border in order to fit the surface for its reception on the 

Maxillary : LeDgth of alveolar border 115 mm. 

Depth at condyle for palatine 45 ** 

Greatest length of bone 128 *' 

Number of toeth in one centimeter, 3.5. 

Premaxillary : Depth 60 mm. 

Length 32 " 

The dentary is elongate and slender. The alveolar border is 
slightly incurved at the symphysis and supports forty-six teeth, 
similar in form but about twice as large as those upon the max- 
illa. Just back of the last tooth there is a slight coronoid 
process, somewhat similar to that found in Xiphactinxis. The 
symphysis is very similar to that found in the last species de- 
scribed, and has a long, slender pit just back of it on the internal 
side. It is more elliptical than the corresponding pit in Sauro- 
cephalus. The lower border of the bone is sharp. 

The dermarticular supports only a small portion of the cotylus,. 
in the lower portion of the cavity. It sends a long, sword-shaped 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 321 

process forward internally, but does not encroach much upon 
the dentary externally. Posteriorly it sends a lamina of bone 
backward, which I think would be well named the cotyloid 
process, as in most of the genera of this family it is the only 
portion of this bone which articulates directly with the quad- 
rate. Just beneath the cotyloid process there is a prominent 

The antarticular is a small element not extending forward be- 
yond the sixth posterior tooth, and is fitted into a groove in the 
dermarticular. It supports nearly the whole of the cotylus, 
which is somewhat elliptical and concave from above downward. 
The predentary is not so elongated, but is slightly deeper than 
in the species described above. 

Mandible : Length of alveolar border 149 mm. 

Length from cotyloid cavity 174 

Depth at symphysis 27 

Depth at coronoid 46 

Number of teeth in one centimeter, 3. 

Predentary : Length 55 mm. 

Length of symphyseal surface 24 


The quadrate is a broad, fan-shaped expansion. The condyle 
is elliptical in outline and convex. Extending upward from 
the condyle on the external side there is a ridge, which ends 
above in a deep notch, which accommodates a portion of the 
symplectic. This groove continues downward on the internal 
side for more than one-half the depth of the bone. The poste- 
rior border has a very slight groove, and extends upward the 
whole extent of the symplectic. The superior border probably 
articulates with the pterygoid and metapterygoid, as in Xiphac- 
tinus. The anterior border is sharp. Both the external and in- 
ternal surfaces are covered with minute strise radiating upward 
from the condyle. The symplectic is a long, slender element. 
The upper end presents an articular surface similar to that 
found on the superior border of the quadrate. 

The whole of the palatine is preserved. It is an irregular- 
shaped bone, presenting a ragged sutural surface above and be- 
low for the pterygoid and mesopterygoid. The bone is especially 
remarkable for the great depth of the malleolar portion, being 

S22 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

nearly half as deep as the corresponding part in Xiplia^iinus^ 
The superior articular surface is small and oval in outline, 
while the lower is larger and more elliptical. The depth of the 
malleolar portion is 20 mm. 

The hyomandibular is very similar to that found in Ichthyo- 
dectes. The superior condyle is elongated , and depressed in the 
central portion. In the skull of S. intermediuSy figured by 
Newton,** this condyle is shown to be regularly rounded from 
before backward. As all the figures and descriptions of the 
hyomandibular of this family and the Ichthyodectidpc show the 
depression described above, I am inclined to think that this 
portion may h(ive been distorted in the specimen figured by Mr. 
Newton. Extending downward from the anterior and posterior 
angles there are two slight ridges, which converge toward the 
center and form a much larger one, which extends downward to 
nearly the lower extremity of the bone. It forms the outer 
border of the groove for the preoperculum. There is also 
another ridge on the internal side, just in front of the condyle 
for the operculum, but it is not so prominent as the one just 
mentioned. The condyle for the operculum is elongated, as in 
Ichthyodectes , 

The lower extremity of the bone presents an articular surface 
similar in size and character to that found at the upper end of 
the symplectic. I think it is very likely that these two bones 
articulate at this point. 

A small portion of a scapula is preserved. It shows only two 
distinct articular condyles, one large and one small, instead of 
three, as in Xiphactinus, Portions of several spines are pre- 
served, of which one complete and a portion of another are 
shown in the figure and need no further consideration. 

The first anterior vertebra has the posterior end deeply con^ 
cave, but the anterior end is not so deep, and has a slight pro- 
tuberance projecting forward above. On the superior surface 
there are two deep, rounded pits for the neurapophyses ; aside 
from this there are no other grooves displayed upon the centra. 

A small toothed element was found on the internal side of one 

86. 1. c. pi. XXXIV. 


Stbwart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 323 

of the maxillae at about the point where the pterygoid should 

lie, but it is too large to be a portion of this bpne. There are 
nine teeth upon it, which are about the size of those on the 
anterior portion of the maxilla. 

The type of the above was found in Gove county, Kansas, by 
Mr. W. O. Bourn, of Scott, Kan., who loaned it to the Univer- 
sity for study. 


Harlan, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., vol. Ill, p. 3S7. 

Saurocephalus is similar in many respects to the genus just de- 
scribed. Unfortunately the skull has never been found in either 
this country or England, but from the great similarity of the 
jaws to those of Saurodon a close relationship in general struc- 
ture to this form can be expected. In Saurocephalus the mandi- 
bles are not so slender as in Saurodon ^ and do not project forward 
as in this form. There are distinct foramina instead of deep 
notches below the alveolar border internally, and the teeth have 
very short and compressed crowns instead of the subcylindric, 
knife-like crowns of Saurodon, 

Thus far four species have been described from America, as 
follows : 

Saurocephalus lanci/ormfs Harlan, Cretaceous, Missouri river. 
Saurocephalus arapahoviua Cope, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 
Saurocephalus dentatus Stewart, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 
Saurocephalus pamphagus Haj, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 

Thus it is seen that only three species have thus far been dis- 
covered in this state, of which one, S. arapalwvius, was founded 
upon only a small portion of a maxilla which presents but few 
characters that can be called specific. It is very hard to refer 
specimens to this species with any degree of certainty, and I 
am inclined to think that it may prove to be a synonym of S. 

fiaaroeephalnB dentatas. Plate LVIII, 3a and b, 4a and b. 

Saurocephalus dentatus Stewart, Kans. Univ. Quart, rol. vii, pp. 25-27. 

This species differs from &*. arapahovius in having the teeth 
slightly striated and never overlapping on the maxilla. It is 
also a slightly larger form. It was established upon the left 

324 University Geological Survey of Kaiisas, 

maxilla, premaxilla and mandible of one individual and the 
left mandible of another, and was collected from the Niobrara 
Cretaceous of Wallace county, Kansas, by Mr. E. P. West. 
The catalogue number of the specimen is 82. 

The maxilla is much larger and more elongated than in S. 
hroadheadiy and the superior border is very thin and more ele- 
vated just back of the condyle for the palatine than in this 

This condyle is very convex ; anterior to it there are two more 
condyles, which are probably for the ethmoid and vomer. The 
most posterior of these is broken away, but from the base it 
appears to have been elevated, as in Saurodon. The anterior 
condyle is large and triangular in outline, and is bounded in 
front by a shallow pit not found in the form mentioned above. 
There are alveoli for thirty-eight teeth, which decrease in size 
toward the posterior extremity, where they rise but slightly 
above the alveolar border. 

The premaxilla is more or less plate-like ; externally it is con- 
vex from before backward and the anterior border is quite ob- 
lique. There is probably no close connection with its fellow on 
the opposite side, and the upper portion of the bone is covered 
with fine lines radiating upward and backward from the ante- 
rior inferior angle. The teeth seem to be somewhat smaller 
than those on the maxilla ; alveoli for nine are found. 

The ramus of the mandible decreases more in depth toward 
the symphysis than in Saurodon. The lower border is very thin, 
but becomes thicker toward the alveolar border, though it never 
attains the robustness seen in Xiphactinus. Just back of the 
symphysis and below the alveolar border there is a prominent 
swelling, below which there is an elongated ovoid pit, near the 
position of the Mento-Meckelian ossicle in Amia. The predental 
surface descends in almost a straight line from the alveolar bor- 
der, and has numerous bony tubercles internally, probably for 
ligaments attaching the two jaws. Just beneath the dentary 
there is a long thin element which seems to be united to it by 
suture and forms the lower border of the jaw. If this be true, 
it may represent a new element in the mandible, although more 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes, 325 

material will have to be examined before this can be accurately 
determined. The teeth are compressed and appear minutely 
striated under the microscope. From the center to the anterior 
extremity of the dentary the teeth decrease in size, while those 
on the posterior portion are nearly twice the size of those on the 
maxilla. Spaces for about forty-two are present, but quite a 
number of the teeth seem to have been shed and never replaced, 
as the alveoli seem to be entirely closed in some instances. 

The dermarticular sends a long, dagger-like process forward 
internally nearly to the ovoid pit mentioned above ; externally 
it is soon covered by the dentary. The cotylus is somewhat 
vertically directed, narrow laterally, and slightly convex from 
above downward. 

The predentary is a triangular element joined to the dentary 
by a very irregular surface, broader above than below. The 
superior border is finely rugose a^d edentulous, and the tip is 
acute. This bone is unpaired, as in Saurodon. 

Length of maxilla and premaxilla 161.5 mm. 

Depth of bone posterior to condyle for the palatine 44.5 '* 

Height of condyle for palatine above the alveolar border 48.5 '* 

Length of premaxilla, inferiorly 31.5 ** 

Average height of crown 3.9 ** 

Average anterior posterior length of crown 3.3 ** 

Number of teeth in one inch, 9. 

Mandible : Length from cotylus 161 .0 mm. 

Length of alveolar border 140.0 ** 

Depth of predental surface (estimated) 33.0 ** 

Average height of crown, posterior 6.0 ** 

Average length of crown, posterior 4.4 '^ 

Predentary : Length 29.5 

Depth 34.0 


326 University Oeological Survey of Kansas. 


The family Stratodoniidn , as accepted by Professor Cope ia his 
*' Cretaceous Vertebrata," embraced certain genera of physosto- 
mous fishes which bear a general relationship to Esox, and in- 
cluded the genera Stratodus, Empo, PachyrhizoduSf Enchodus, 
TetheoduSy and Anogmixis, for which the following synopsis was 
given : 

I. Premaxillary with several rows of teeth : 

Palatine teeth numerous, large; all with pulp cavity, Stratodun, 

II. Premaxillary with two rows of teeth: 

Maxillary bone short; dentary with equal large inner 

teeth and outer rows en broase Emjjo, 

Maxillary bone very long; one row of equal dentaries, PachyrhizoduH, 

III. Premaxillary with one or no row of teeth: 

A large premaxillary fang; anterior maxillary and 
dentary teeth enlarged; cutting edges not oppo- 
site ; unsymmetrical Enchodun. 

Premaxillary toothless; anterior maxillary and den- 
tary enlarged Tethcodus, 

The characters of these genera are so varied that I have 
thought it best, in the present work, to divide the old family of 
the Sfratodovtidir into four separate families, and to use this 
name for Stratodus, Ewpo, and Cimolichthys, which may seem 
remarkable when the great difference in the form of the teeth 
and tooth-bearing elements of the genera are taken into con- 
sideration. In Stratodus the teeth are all small and present 
a great similarity throughout the whole dental series, while in 
Empo they are of a diCFerent size and form on the several parts^ 
and all are different from those in Stratodus. There are also 
marked differences in other parts, as the form of the palatine 
and the different lengths of the premaxillae. 

Notwithstanding all these differences, when we examine the 
top of the skull of each, a remarkable similarity between the 
two is seen, from which resemblance of the two forms we must 
conclude that there is a close relationship between the two^ 
notwithstanding the differences of habits indicated by the 

Stbwart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 327 

The top of the skull is very flat in both genera, and made up 
for the most part of the elongate, triangular-shaped frontal s, 
which are united in the median line by means of a long, 
straight suture. These bones are covered on the superior sur- 
face by small ridges or striae, which radiate from a point inter- 
nal to the postorbitals and are most strongly marked in Emjw. 
The supraoccipitals are small and invade the top of the skull 
but little. It is raised into a slight crest in Empo^ and prob- 
ably so in Stratodus, 

Below is given a revised synopsis of the family : 

I. Premaxilla short, with several rows of teeth : 

Palatine and mandibular teeth numerous, in several 

rows Stratodus, 

II. Premaxilla elongate, with one row of small teeth: 

Mandibular teeth in two series, of which the outer are 
small and in several rows, while the inner are very 
Palatine teeth large and in two rows Empo, 

III. Premaxilla and maxilla elongate, with very small teeth : 
Palatines and ectoptery golds provided with powerful 

teeth, some of which are semibarbed in shape Chnoh'rhthys. 


This genus, as characterized by Cope, is remarkable for the 
small size, great number and peculiar form of the teeth. Un- 
fortunately the material from which the descriptions have been 
made was very fragmentary, from which no adequate conception 
of the cranial characters could be obtained. The jaws as well 
as most of the bones are very fragile, and it is probably owing 
to this fact that no perfect specimens have been collected. The 
geological expedition of 1898 to western Kansas obtained a 
specimen belonging to this genus from near Twin Buttes, Wal- 
lace county, that shows some points not known before. The 
specimen is far from perfect, but it is much better than any 
specimen heretofore described. 

The premaxilla is small and has three or four rows of teeth 
on the lower side, of which those on the inner are the largest. 
The dentaries are very slender and are covered with numerous 
rows of small conical teeth on the internal side which are all 

328 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

provided with a large pulp cavity. The teeth are largest on the 
external row, but toward the symphysis they are all reduced to 
nearly the same size. The symphysis is very shallow. The 
palatines ( ?) are long and slender plates of bone, which are cov- 
ered with teeth probably similar in form and size to those found 
on the dentary. Fortunately the top of the skull is preserved, 
showing it to be slender, flat, with the different elements arranged 
very much as in Empo. The vertebrae are very similar to those 
of this genus.^ ** Their centra in both abdominal and caudal 
regions are elongate and contracted medially. There is a shal- 
low longitudinal groove at the bases of the neural and haemal 
arches, which are divided vertically by a median rib-like but- 
tress. The median lateral portion is smooth or nearly so.'' 
The known American species are : 

StraioduH opicalis Cope, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 
Siratodus oxi/pogort Cope, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 

Stratodus apicalis. Plate LX; plate LXI, fig. 1. 

Siratodua apicalis Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 1872, p. 348; Cret. Vert. 
West, p. 227. 

This species is represented by portions of the skull and tooth- 
beariDg elements as mentioned above. 

The dentary is elongate and covered with several rows of 
teeth above and on the internal side. These teeth are largest 
in the outer row, where they are seven millimeters or more in 
height, but become very small toward the inner and lower row. 
The teeth are round in section, acutely pointed, and with 
slightly recurved crowns. They are entirely without striae even 
under the microscope. Toward the symphysis the number of 
rows diminish until only two remain at the extremity, with the 
exception of three or four small teeth situated external to the 
outer row. The symphysis is very shallow, in fact, there is only 
a small articular facet at this point, which shows that the jaws 
were very loosely united here. Throughout its whole length 
the dentary is very shallow and covered with coarse longitudinal 
striae on the external side. Unfortunately the articular portion 
is not preserved. 

86. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 1878. p. 181. 

Stewart ] Cretaceous FMes. 329 

There is a bone which I think represents the premaxilla. The 
teeth are arranged in three or four rows, the largest being in- 
ternal. The external face of the bone is non-striate, and ex- 
tends upward and backward, while the internal side is grooved 
for the maxilla. 

In the description of this part, as given by Cope,®^ he says 
that the premaxillary teeth are in two series. What he means 
by this statement I am unable to say, as four rows of teeth are 
shown in the figure of his specimen, and there does not seem to 
be any abrupt change in size transversely. 

The palatine (?) is a long, slender plate of bone, contracted 
at both extremities, and covered with teeth on the lower side. 
The number of rows decrease toward both ends and -the size 
of the teeth also becomes less toward one of them. The up- 
per surface is divided longitudinally by a ridge and the three 
grooves mentioned by Cope,** but they are not so strongly 
marked as to attract particular attention. 

Dentaiy : Greatest width of dental band 10 mm. 

LeDgth of dental band (estimated) 137 ** 

Premaxilla : Length of dental band 28 *' 

Greatest width of dental band 9 *' 

Palatine: Length 121 ** 

Greatest width 17 " 

The top of the skull is preserved completely, or nearly so. 
The bones represented are the frontals, parietals, exoccipitals, 
and probably the epiotics and pterotics. 

The frontals are very long bones, broad behind, and probably 
tapering to a point in front where the extremities are covered 
with matrix and other bones. On the upper surface the bones 
are beautifully sculptured with long, coarse strise extending 
forward from near the center of each bone, while the back por- 
tion presents only an occasional stria. These bones are espe- 
cially remarkable for their great length and fragility. The 
suture between the parietals and the epiotics cannot be made 
out, although this portion is entirely free from matrix. For 
this reason I am inclined to think that these two bones are co- 
st. Cret. Vert. West, p. 228, pi. XLIX. 
88. Cret. Vert. West, p. 227. 


330 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

ossified iu the specimen. They are somewhat triangular in out- 
line and meet each other in the median line, thus separating 
the suprabccipitals from the frontals. They do not seem to 
possess any very characteristic markings. The pterotics (?) 
are prominent processes of bone that project outward from the 
parietals and join the exoccipitals below. The supraoccipitals . 
do not seem to be present in this specimen, but are probably 
not raised into a crest. The exoccipitals are rather large bones 
projecting upward and outward from the basioccipital and form 
a large portion of the back part of the skull. Each sends a fan- 
like process of bone backward. There is still another long, flat 
bone not connected with the rest of the skull that may repre- 
sent a portion of the hyomandibular or an opercular. It is 
somewhat irregular in outline and presents a sharp longitudinal 
ridge near one of the borders. Measurements of skull are : 

Distance from supraoccipital to anterior extremity of frontals, *16G mm. 

Transverse distance across pterotics 65 ** 

Greatest transverse distance across frontals 60 ** • 

Just back of the skull there is a bone that is no doubt con- 
nected in some way with the vertebral column. It somewhat 
resembles a terminal caudal vertebra or urostyle. It is con- 
tracted and convex at one extremity and expanded and deeply 
concave at the other. Near the center of the convex end there 
is a foramina leading inward which probably continues through 

to the other side. 

EMPO Cope. 

This genus is represented in the museum by the remains of 
several individuals, more or less perfect, from the Niobrara 
Cretaceous and a portion of one specimen from the Fort Pierre 
of Kansas. It is probable that they include four species. 

The palatines are much elongated and bear two rows of teeth 
on the anterior portion, of which the external are large and the 
internal somewhat smaller. The ethmoid is contracted into a 
rather sharp beak anteriorly and bears a number of small teeth 
on the median line below, which are either arranged in one or 
two rows or form a small cluster near the anterior extremity. 


Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 331 

The dentaries bear several rows of teeth, of which those on the 
external side are minute and somewhat thickly placed, while 
those on the internal side are large, set upon expanded bases, 
and are well separated from each other. The outer surface of 
the dentary is covered with numerous well-marked sulci. The 
cotylus is bifurcated in the center, each half appearing as a. 
small hemispherical pit. There are several othfer tooth-bearing 
elements, among which is a long, slender bone with a single 
row of small conical teeth on the lower side, which probably 
represents a prem axilla. 

The top of the skull is elongated and somewhat triangular in 
outline. It is especially remarkable for the great extent and 
delicate markings of the frontals, as well as of the other bones 
of this region. The supraoccipital is small and enters slightly 
into the formation of the top of the skull. The parietals are 
small and do not extend farther forward than the anterior ex- 
tremity of the supraoccipital. 

Throughout the whole extent of the top of the skull there i& 
^ a close resemblance to the corresponding portion of StratoduSy 
the principal difference being found in the larger size of the 
parietals and their meeting along the median line. 

There is one specimen at hand that has the vertebral column 
preserved completely, and another one nearly so, from which 
we see that there were altogether about fifty-three vertebrae. 
Those in the cervical and dorsal regions are finely striated, 
while those near the end of the tail are deeply grooved on the 
sides, the grooves commencing on the eighth or ninth vertebra 
from the end of the series. The neural canal is bounded by a 
lamina of bone on each side, outside of which the neuropophyses 
rise and form a vertical ridge on the side. The haemal canal 
is bounded by laminae similar to those described above. The 
haemal arches are located outside of these, so that in a detached 
vertebra it is often difficult to determine the two sides. 

In Cope's description of the vertebral column of E. nepseolica^ 
he says that up to the fourteenth vertebra the neural canals are 
not bounded by vertical laminae ; in this I cannot agree with 

89. Cret. Vert. West, p. 230. 

332 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

him. I have been able to examine some of the detached ver- 
tebrae from near the head, and so far as I can judge the sides of 
the neural arches do not differ materially from those farther 
back in the column. 

The abdominal cavity is short, with well-developed ribs. The 
caudal fin is not well preserved in any of the specimens, only 
the bases of the' rays being present. On one of the slabs there 
are a number of small rays and other fragments just back of 
the abdominal cavity, which is probably a portion of the pelvic 
fin. The rays are small and have no great length. The pec- 
toral rays are also rather delicate and curved near the proximal 
extremity, while near the middle portion and distal end they 
are cross-segmented. Along the back there are numerous dermal 
plates, the most of which have no characteristic markings. 

The known American species are : 

Empo neiyceolica Cope, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 
Empo semianceps Cope, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 
Empo contracta Cope, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 
Empo tnerrilli Cope, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 
Empo liibonenais Stewart, Fort Pierre Cretaceous, western Kansas. 

Bmpo nepsBolica. Plate LIX. 

Empo nepoiolica Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 1872, p. 347; Cret, Vert. 
West, p. 230. 

Empo sulcata Cope, Hayden's Bull. U. S. Greol. Surv. No. 2, p. 46. 

CimolichthyB suleatus Cope, 1. c, p. 351. 

This species is represented in our collection by the remains 
of several individuals, among which is a skull almost complete, 
from which a fair idea of the anatomy of this portion can be 

The bone described and figured by Cope as a premaxilla has 
since been shown to be a palatine by specimens in the British 
Museum which have the maxillae and premaxillse in place. 
The bone is elongate and curved longitudinally, and at the an- 
terior extremity there is a rostrum-shaped apex of dense bone 
which projects forward beyond the last tooth. On the superior 
border there is a slight crest of bone, which probably serves to 
loosely connect this portion to the skull. The teeth are arranged 
in two series. At the anterior extremity there are several large 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 333 

teeth extending backward for three or four centimeters from the 
extremity, which are followed by a series of much smaller ones 
occupying the inner side of the bone and extending backward 
to near the posterior extremity, where there are usually one or 
more teeth much larger than any of the others. Near this point 
those on the internal side become very small. The bone called 
maxilla by Cope is probably a pterygoid. It is short, bar-like, 
and bears a single row of teeth, which decrease in size poste- 
riorly. The posterior extremity is edentulous and somewhat 

Palatine : Length to large posterior tooth 86 mm. 

Greatest height 25 ** 

Transverse distance across alveolar border near cen- 
ter 11 ** 

Pterygoid (?): Length (estimated) 67 •* 

The dentaries are very much elongated and contracted regu- 
larly toward the symphysis, where the bones are very shallow. 
The symphysis is not very deep, consisting, for the most part, 
of a small flat facet on the internal side which meets its fellow 
on the opposite side, and to which it is probably united in a 
manner somewhat similar to that found in Pachyrhizodus . 
Cope"^ describes this part as presenting a marked fossa which I 
am unable to find in any of our specimens, and I think it not 
at all unlikely that this was an individual peculiarity of his 
specimen. The alveolar border supports two series of teeth, of 
which the internal are the larger of the two. There are usually 
about ten teeth present in this series, and room for probably as 
many more, which are often represented by the tooth scars of 
the shed teeth. These teeth are set upon hemispheres of bone 
firmly anchylosed to the jaw. The teeth are compressed, finely 
striated, and directed inward. The external series consists of 
several rows of teeth of which those on the internal row are the 
larger. They are all directed inward and seem to have both 
anterior and posterior cutting edges. Toward the posterior 
extremity both series fade out, leaving a considerable space 
between the last tooth and the end of the bone. The external 
surface of the dentary is covered with deep longitudinal sulci, 

90. Cret. Vert. West, p. 231. 

334 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

while the internal is nearly smooth and deeply grooved. The 
articular portion sends a long, sword-shaped process forward, 
but how far cannot be determined, as the anterior portion is 
covered by the overlying ceratohyal. The cotylus is very broad 
transversely but has no great vertical extent. It is composed 
of two concave facets separated from each other by a well- 
marked ridge. The external of these facets seems to be slightly 
the larger of the two. 

Premaxilla : Length 117 mm. 

Maxilla : Length (estimated ) 114 

Dentary : Length of alveolar border to last tooth 182 

Length of mandible from cotylus 252 

Transvere diameter of cotylus 14 

Length of articular from cotylus ( estimated ) 133 


The quadrate is compressed and fan-shaped ; extending down 
its posterior border there is a deep groove, which probably 
accommodates the preoperculum. Just in front of this 
groove, on the internal side, there is still another groove 
which extends over half way down to the condyle, in which the 
symplectic probably fits. Cope'* was unable to discover a sym- 
plectic in the specimen of E. semianceps which he described, 
and I am inclined to think he was of the impression that this 
genus did not possess this bone, but from the presence of this 
groove we can assume that it was proportionately broader than 
in the Saurodontidie , The anterior border is very thin and is 
.projected upward, with a small portion of the superior border, 
into quite a prominent process of bone. The condyle is bifur- 
cate in the center and has a superficial resemblance to the distal 
end of the mammalian femur. The external side cannot be 

The preoperculum is long and very slendor in the superior 
portion. Near the lower extremity the bone bends suddenly 
forward and broadens out into a thin plate below. The upper 
portion is only slightly curved and very roughly and irregularly 
marked. A portion of one operculum is present, showing the 
internal side. It is a broad, thin plate of bone, with a small 
condyle for the hyomandibular. The condyle is not situated so 

91. Cret. Vert. West, p. 229. 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes, 335 

near the superior border as in the Ichthyodectid^r, and has a 
strong ridge extending backward from it on the internal side. 

The hyomandibular presents two articulating surfaces above 
for union with the skull. These are slightly grooved longi- 
tudinally and are separated from each other by a deep notch. 
The anterior of these is projected well forward. The condyle 
for the operculum is situated probably more than one-half the 
distance down the side of the bone, and is elliptical in outline 
and very irregular. Just in front of the condyle there is a 
prominent ridge which extends downward, but not to the lower 
extremity of the bone. The inferior portion is rather narrow ; 
the anterior very thin. 

The cerato- and epihyals are preserved in one specimen, while 
the urohyal is shown in another. The epihyal is very thin and 
has the anterior extremity slightly convex for the ceratohyal. 
Near the postero-superior end there is a deep notch, probably 
for the accommodation of the interhyal. Both the external and 
internal sides are covered with fine stritc. The ceratohyal is 
an elongate, slender bone, expanded at the extremities and con- 
tracted slightly at the center. Both sides are covered with 
striae, which are especially noticeable toward the extremities, 
which are nearly flat. The urohyal is a small, triangular ele- 
ment, badly crushed, with a small facet on the anterior end for 
its fellow on the opposite side. 

There is a long, thin plate of bone that I am inclined to 
think represents the palatine. It is contracted to a blunt point 
at both extremities, and covered with fine strise on one side 
which radiate from a point near the superior border and about 
one-third the distance back from the anterior end. The central 
portion of the lower border is covered with a single row of 
small conical teeth, each of which seems to be firmly anchy- 
losed to the bone, with the apex directed forward. The ex- 
tremities of this border are edentulous. 

The ethmoid is a symmetrical tongue-shaped bone covered 
with teeth below. Professor Cope ^ says this bone is sometimes 
symmetrical and sometimes unsymmetrical, and he was in- 

92. Cret. Vert. West. p. 228. 

336 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

clined to think that it represented a superior or inferior phar- 
yngeal. In all of the specimens that I have examined it seems 
to be entirely symmetrical, and in one specimen it is in place 
at the anterior extremity of the skull, so there can be no doubt 
of its being an ethmoid. I am inclined to think that the 
asymmetry of Cope's specimen was due to distortion. The an- 
terior end is extended forward into a beak of dense bone, which 
is directed slightly downward. Just back of the beak, on the 
lower side, there are a number of small teeth, which are ele- 
vated considerably above the rest of the bone when it is re- 
versed. There seems to be a great deal of irregularity in the 
arrangement of these teeth. In some specimens they are 
grouped together, with the largest near the center, while in 
others there are a number of large teeth anteriorly, with a 
single row of smaller ones extending back from them. The 
upper surface of the bone is covered with numerous stri<r radi- 
ating from the apex. 

There are fragments of other bones whose location cannot be 
determined. One of these is a long bar of bone which has an 
articular surface at the anterior end and is expanded at the 
other ; another is a flat semicircular plate, finely striated ; while 
others are irregular in outline. 

The whole of the upper part of the skull is preserved, either 
by the bones themselves or by their impression in the chalk. 
It is very flat and bears a marked resemblance in general out- 
line to the top of the skull of Stratodus. The frontals form the 
greater part of the upper walls of the skull and the two are 
separated by a well-marked suture in the median line. The 
two bones together are somewhat triangular in outline and are 
beautifully sculptured, on the upper surface, by radiating 
ridges. These ridges are especially marked just internal to 
the postorbitals, from which point they radiate toward the 
front and back of the skull. They are in contact with the 
supraoccipital posteriorly. The supraoccipital enters but little 
into the top of the skull. It projects backward in a small 
crest, which is probably not raised above the rest of the skull. 
The postorbitals form beak-like processes on the sides and are 

Stbwabt.] Cretaceous Fishes. 337 

directed slightly downward. Inferiorly they form a prominent 
ridge on each side which extends inward toward the median 
line. The occipital condyle is rather fiat in this specimen, but 
in another specimen, where the back of the skull is shown, the 
condyle is deeply concave. It is likely that this specimen may 
be of another species, as it seems to be more narrow than the one 
under consideration. It is crested below and united with the 
exoccipitals by well-marked sutures. There are several other 
bones at the base of the skull, but they are so badly crushed 
and their sutures so obliterated that they cannot be made out 
with any degree of certainty. 

Total length of skull 239 mm. 

Distance across postorbitals (estimated) 126 


A portion of the pectoral fin is present, with fragments of the 
pectoral'girdle. The rays are small in size and seem to be very 
numerous. They are nearly straight, excepting near the proxi- 
mal end where they are strongly bent. The distal end of each 
ray is cross-segmented. 

Empo lisbonensis. Plate LXI, figs. 10a and b. 

Empo Ihboncnsia Stewart, Kans. Univ. Quart., vol. viii. 

This species was established on the left palatine of a single 
individual from the Lisbon shales. Fort Pierre Cretaceous. 
The specimen was found by myself one mile northeast of Lisbon, 
Logan county, Kansas, and is in a fair state of preservation. 
It indicates a fish of about the size of E. nepxolica Cope. The 
catalogue number of the specimen is 328. 

The palatine is much more depressed than in the species just 
mentioned, but is broader across the alveolar portion, giving 
the bone a very robust appearance when seen from below. The 
anterior extremity was probably not so acutely pointed as in 
the other species of this genus. None of the teeth are preserved 
complete, but there are alveoli present which show that there 
was an outer row of large teeth and an inner row of small ones. 
The outer row are reduced in size toward the distal extremity, 
and may entirely disappear before the end is reached, as there 
are no tooth scars on this portion. At the posterior end of the 

338 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

internal row there is a very large tooth, back of which there is 
a broad shallow pit. 

Length to the large posterior tooth 82 mm. 

Greatest transverse width 19 ** 

Einpo semianceps. Plate LXI, figs. 6-9. 

Chnolicihys semianceps Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 1872, p. 351. 
Empo semianceps Cope, Cret. Vert. West, p. 233. 

The material, consisting of the palatines, fragmentary mandi- 
bles, and portions of other parts, is referred to this species with 
some doubt. It seems to correspond with the figure and de- 
scription of this species as given by Professor Cope,**' but it may 
possibly be a specimen of E, merrillL The specimen, No. 278, 
was collected from the Niobrara Cretaceous of Graham county 
by Messrs. Overton and Martin during the summer of 1895. 

The palatine is nearly straight on the internal side and de- 
pressed above. The teeth are arranged in two series, as in 
E. nepuoolica. The most anterior one of these is rather small, 
but is followed by two or three that are somewhat larger. The 
teeth following are of about the size of those just mentioned, 
excepting toward the posterior extremity, where they become 
slightly reduced in size. There seems to be a considerable dif- 
ference in the arrangement of the teeth on the internal side in 
the two palatines of this specimen. On the bone of the right 
side there is a continuous row which are directed strongly 
backward, while on the left there are but two tooth scars pres- 
ent on the internal side. The pterygoid is very similar to that 
of E. nepfeolica described above. 

Palatine: Length -166 mm. 

Greatest transverse width 10 '* 

The dentaries are elongate and contracted in depth at the 
symphysis, where the lower edge is beveled oflf to meet the su- 
perior border, thus forming an acute apex. The external side 
is covered with longitudinal striae which are not as strongly 
marked as in E. nepseolica. These stride are more noticeable on 
the external portion of the articular than on any other part. 
The lower border is rather sharp but soon becomes thickened 

03. Cret. Vert. West, p. 233, pi. LIII, fig. 6. 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 339 

above, especially in the posterior portion, where there is a strong 
bar just below the articular. The internal side is finely striate 
and deeply grooved. The small teeth on the external side are 
in two rows, of which those on the external row form a minute 
fringe, while those on the internal are larger and are directed 
slightly forward. Those of the internal series are large at the 
center but decrease in size toward the extremities. Each of 
these is set upon a bony tubercle, as in E, nepwolica. The ar- 
ticular portion is very similar to that portion of the species 
just mentioned. 

Length of alveolar border 121 mm. 

Depth at last tooth 38 

TraDsverse diameter of cotylus 11 

There are numerous other bones, including the ceratohyals, 
postorbitals, and a fragmentary ethmoid. The ceratohyals do 
not differ materially from those of E. nepvcolica excepting in 
size. The ethmoid is more blunt than in the species just men- 
tioned and bears a single row of eight or nine teeth on the 
median line below. The postorbital is somewhat hook-shaped 
and has a roughened articulating surface internally. 

Empo contracta. 

Empo contracta Cope, Hayden'a Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr. No. 2, 1874, 
p. 46; Cret. Vert. West, p. 232. 

The specimen referred to this species consists of the greater 
portion of palatine and dentaries, the hyoid arch, numerous 
vertebrae, and other bones. As the original description of this 
species is rather vague and the figures are of fragments only, it 
will always be difficult to identify this species with any degree 
of certainty unless access is had to the type specimen for com- 
parison or until it is more completely described and figured. 
The specimen is much smaller than the one described above as 
E, semianceps. 

Only the internal sides of the dentaries are shown. The ex- 
ternal series of teeth do not seem to be as large as in E. semian- 
ceps described above. The teeth of the inner series are long, 
acutely pointed, and directed slightly inward at the apices. 
The maxillae are present with probably all of the teeth, which 

340 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

are elongate, with anterior and posterior cutting edges, and are 
recurved. Their size seems to diminish very suddenly toward 
the posterior extremity, which is expanded. The epi-, cerato- 
and urohyals are in place on one side but do not seem to diflFer 
materially from those described above. A portion of the pec- 
toral fin shows the rays to be cross-segmented as in E. nepse- 
olica, but the proximal ends are straighter than in this form. 
The bones are for the most part in so fragmentary a condition 
that only approximate measurements can be made ; hence they 
are omitted. 


The genus Anogmius, described by Professor Cope,'* was left 
by the author in his family Straiodontidfc , to which, it seems evi- 
dent, it does not belong. 

After carefully studying the material at hand, it seems to bear 

a close relation in many respects to the genus Plethodus, recently 

described and figured by Dr. A. S. Woodward,"* which the 

author is inclined to place in the family Osteoglossidw. For the 

present, at least, I think that Anogmius should be left in this 



Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 1870, p. 170. 

This genus was first described by Professor Cope*^ from ver- 
tebrae and fin remains of an individual from the Niobrara Cre- 
taceous of western Kansas ; the name Anogmius contractus was 
applied to it, and, later, two more species,*^ A, favirostris and 
A. evolutusy were added to the genus by the same author. The 
first of these was a small individual, while the second was much 
larger, and is probably the same form described as f Beryx multi- 
dentatus,^ described by myself. Professor Cope also mentions 
another species, A, aratus ^hut so far I have been unable to find 
any other reference to it. I am inclined to think that this was 
a slip of the pen on the part of Professor Cope, and that A. con- 

94. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 1871, p. 170. 97. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 1878, pp. 178-180. 

96. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 1870, p. 170. 98. Kans. Univ. Qaart., toI. VII— A, p. 196. 

96. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, ser. 7, vol. Ill, pp. 353-361. 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 341 

tractus was intended to be expressed, as the author says :'*^' '* The 
characters of the genus Anogmius Cope having up to the present 
time rested upon but one species {A. aratus), it is satisfactory 
to be able to confirm them by the study of new material/' etc. 

This genus is well characterized by the tooth bearing elements, 
all of which seem to be covered with villiform teeth. The pre- 
maxillse are triangular in outline and covered with a semiellip- 
tical band of teeth below. The maxillae are elongated and 
slightly concave on the lower border, which is covered with 
several rows of small teeth. The jaws are bound directly to the 
«kull by means of a small condyle above, which presents a 
roughened surface, probably for cartilage. The dentaries are 
also covered with small teeth similar to those on the maxillae 
and premaxillse, and are incurved and loosely united at the 
symphysis. The angle is prominent, and the mouth as a whole 
is quite oblique. 

The top of the skull is flat, and beautifully sculptured with 
coarse striae radiating from near the center of each of the prin- 
cipal bones. The frontals are long, while the parietals are 
rather small. The supraoccipital is depressed and invades the 
top of the skull very little, if any. The orbital cavity is large 
and the sclerotic ring very thin. In this region there are 
numerous membranous bones which probably form a covering 
for the top of the skull to a greater or less extent. The oper- 
<;ular bones are thin and covered with coarse strise. 

In one specimen of A. polymicrodus there are seventy- two ver- 
tebrae exposed to view, and there are probably eight or ten 
more hidden by the opercular bones just back of the skull, 
making, in all, eighty vertebrae in the complete column. The 
centra are all rather short and do not present the lateral grooves 
found in the Saurodontidie and Ichthyodectidw, but are striated 
and somewhat resembling the vertebrae of the genus Pachyrki- 
zodus Agassiz in this respect, and it is probably for this reason 
that Zittel gives Anogmius as a synonym of this genus. ^^ Just 
in front of the caudal fin the vertebrae are crowded together, 

99. 1. Cm p. 178. 
100. Zittei's Handbaeh der Paleoatoloffie. b. III. s. 268. — 

342 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

and those supporting the fin are very much so. The last 
vertebra is succeeded by a fan-shaped expansion of bone or 
urostyle, which presents a well-marked lateral ridge on the side 
exposed. The neural arches fit into pits at their bases, and in 
the caudal region they have laminiv of bone projecting down 
the sides, forming yoke-like articulations with the centra. The 
arches are expanded at their bases and are largest in the anterior 
region, where they are directed backward but slightly, while in 
the region of the fiftieth posterior vertebra the arches are very 
slender and directed strongly backward. The manner of attach- 
ment of the hivmapophyses cannot be made out with certainty, 
although they were probably inserted in gomphoses, as are the 
neurapophyses. The ribs are long and slender and slightly ex- 
panded at the proximal extremity.* They seem to be inserted 
in pits on the sides of the centra. The caudal fin is homocer- 
cal, and is composed of numerous rays which articulate with the 
centra by means of the yoke-like articulation mentioned above. 
Toward the distal extremity these rays gradually split up into 
many small filaments, which makes this portion very difficult 
to collect in perfect condition. One of the smaller specimens 
of this genus shows an imperfect impression of the dorsal fin. 
It seems to have been composed of short spines rather far 
separated and extending along the greater extent of the back. 
There are no . remains of the other fins sufficiently well pre- 
served to show their important characters. 
The following species are known : 

Anogmius contractus Cope, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 
AnogmiuH aratua (/) Cope, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 
Anoy mills cvoluiuH Cope, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 
AnofjmiuH polymicroduH Stewart, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 

Anogmius polymicrodus'. Plate LXIV; plate LXV, figs. 1-7; plate LX VI; 
plate LXVII, fig. a. 

Beryx polymicrodus Stewart, Kans. Univ. Quar., vol. vii, pp. 195,196. 

This species was first described by myself as Beryx polymi- 
crodus from some fragments of jaws collected in western Kansas 
several years ago, but the* material was too fragmentary to give 
any idea of the animal. During the past summer the geolog- 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 343 

ical expedition to western Kansas was fortunate enough to find 
several good specimens from the Butte creek region of Logan 
county, and was also loaned an almost complete specimen, the 
fins excepted, by Mr. Travis Morse, of lola, who secured it sev- 
eral years ago while collecting vertebrate fossils in this part of 
the state. From this specimen a good idea of the anatomy can 
be gained. 

The bone called premaxilla in the preliminary description is 
evidently not a premaxilla, but some other bone, the location 
of which I have been unable to determine. The premaxilla is 
rather short, with a semiellipitical tooth band on the inferior 
side covered with several rows of villiform teeth, all of which 
seem to be directed inward. Above the tooth band, on the ex- 
ternal side, there is a thin wall of bone extending upward, 
which is covered with coarse longitudinal striip on the posterior 
portion, while the anterior part, just behind the apex, is cov- 
ered with minute tooth-like tubercles, which extend backward 
for some little distance just over the tooth band. The internal 
side of the bone is deeply concave, the width of the concavity 
becoming very narrow at the anterior end. The union between 
this bone and the maxilla was no doubt very loose, allowing 
this bone to be moved very freely. The two bones were proba- 
bly not united anteriorly. 

The maxilla is moderately long and thin transversely toward 
the posterior extremity. It bears a tooth band on the lower 
border, which is slightly concave longitudinally in front, where 
this band is the broadest. Posteriorly the tooth band gradu- 
ally contracts in width until the two borders come together at 
the posterior extremity. The surface for the premaxilla is 
directed slightly inward, and in some of the specimens it is 
slightly roughened for the ligaments binding the two bones to- 
gether. Just back of this, on the superior border, there is an 
elevated articular portion which serves to bind the maxilla to 
the skull proper. It is rather rough above and does not allow 
the free motion of the upper jaws found in some of the other 
families of physostomous fishes. Just back of this there is a 
thin crest of bone extending backward over one-half the length 

344 University Geological Survey of Kansas, 

of the jaw. Both the external and internal sides of the bone 
are covered with coarse longitudinal striir, the intensity of 
which varies in different individuals. 

Maxilla : Length of tooth band 118.0 mm. 

Height at posterior extremity 34.0 

Premaxilla : Length 81 .0 

Greatest height 37.5 

The dentary has a tooth band above, covered with teeth very 
similar to those on the parts described above. It is nearly flat 
in front, but soon becomes directed downward internally, giv- 
ing it a somewhat beveled appearance, which may be due to 
compression, although it seems to occur in all of the specimens 
examined. The band is broadest near the center and is over- 
hanging externally and in front. The symphysis is composed 
of two parts : an upper facet, which is directed inward and 
comes in contact with a corresponding facet on the opposite 
side ; and a lower one, which is directed forward and enters but 
little, if any, into the articulation of the two jaws. At the sym- 
physis the bones are shallow, but they soon broaden and be- 
come very deep at the coronoid process. There are very coarse 
ridges and grooves on both the external and internal sides. 
The articular extends well forward on the external side, and is 
united with the emargination in the dentary by an indistinct 
suture. The cotylus is supported principally by a thick shelf of 
bone extending inward from the main portion of the bone. It 
presents a small concave facet which looks slightly forward, 
back of which the angle is slightly recurved, and has been de- 
scribed by Professor Cope^®^ as resembling a boot with the toe 

Length of mandible from ootylus 204 mm. 

Depth at coronoid process (estimated) 65 

Depth at symphysis 17 

Length of tooth band (estimated) 155 


The bone originally described as a premaxilla'"- may be a 
pterygoid, as it cannot be a vomer or palatine from the descrip- 
tion of these parts, as given by Professor Cope. It is slightly 
curved longitudinally and has a broad tooth band on one sur- 

101. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 1878, pp. 179, 180. 

102. 1. c, p. 195. 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes, 345 

face, which bears denticles slightly larger than those on the 
parts described above. On the opposite surface from the tooth 
band there is a ridge extending its full length, which is over- 
hanging on one side, thus forming a groove, which is probably 
for the reception of some other bone. 

Length of tooth band 69 mm. 

Greatest width of tooth band 17 " 

There are two other bones which are covered with small pits, 
and somewhat resemble those found on the tooth-bearing ele- 
ments described above, although it is* likely that these bones 
never bore teeth. One of these is a cordiform bone, and is 
probably a pharyngeal. The pitted surface is slightly de- 
pressed in the middle, and the sides slope sharply toward the 
edges. The other element is not so thick as the one just men- 
tioned ; it has a broad band of these pits on one side and a 
median ridge on the other, somewhat similar to that found in 
the supposed pterygoid described above. At one of the ends 
there is a roughened articular surface. There is another long 
and slender element that bears a superficial resemblance to the 
palatine bone of Stratodua apicalis, which is no doubt the same 
bone described as a palatine by Professor Cope.^°' It is broader 
at one end than at the other. The lower (?) surface is covered 
with small pits similar to those described above, but there are 
no teeth present in any of the specimens that I have examined. 
The upper surface is somewhat striated at the anterior (?) ex- 

The ceratohyal is a broad and thin bone, concave at the pos- 
terior end and somewhat irregular in outline at the anterior, 
where there are two surfaces, for the hyo- and urohyals, re- 
spectively. The bone seems to be striated, especially so toward 
the extremities. Its length is 98 mm. 

The quadrate is fan-shaped and very thin anteriorly. The 
<;ondyle is very convex and has a superficial resemblance to the 
distal end of the mammalian femur. Extending upward from 
this, along the posterior border externally, there is a prominent 

108. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 1878, p. 179. 
23— Vi 

346 University Geological Survey of Kansas, 

ridge which continues upward to the superior border. The 
groove for the symplectic seems to be very small. 

One specimen shows the top of the skull with most of the 
bones in place. The frontals are long, extending backward as 
far as the pterotics externally. They meet in the median line 
by a suture which is probably dentate, although this cannot be 
determined with certainty. On each side there is a small post- 
orbital process. The bones are beautifully sculptured above 
with coarse sulci, which radiate from near the centers of each, 
internal to the postorbital processes. The parietals are small, 
meet each other in the median line, and are covered with mark- 
ings very similar to those on the frontals. The supraoccipital 
is in a poor state of preservation, but probably entered but little 
into the formation of the upper part of the skull. It seems to 
have been projected backward for quite a distance and was de- 
pressed, as is the rest of the top of the skull. The epiotics and 
pterotics seem to be united on the side of that skull in which they 
are preserved. The pterotics form prominent angles of the 
skull, while the epiotic processes are not so prominent. The 
two are covered with small pits and tubercles of bone. Just 
back of the skull there are portions of two other bones, which 
may be parts of the hyomandibular and supratemporal. The 
first of these presents two articular surfaces, one of which is 
extended outward from the rest of the bone, the two being sepa- 
rated by a wide space somewhat similar to that found in the 
hyomandibular bone of Empo. The other is an irregularly 
shaped bone and has an articular surface on the side next to 
the skull. There are numerous other small bones, sculptured 
in a manner similar to the bones of the top of the skull. Three 
of these are joined together in a chain, and from their position 
would indicate that they might form a part of the rim of the 
orbital cavity. The remainder of these bones are small and 
scattered along the top of the skull, indicating that this part 
was covered with dermal plates. The orbital cavity is quite 
large, and the orbit is surrounded by a very thin ring of bone, 
the number of pieces composing which cannot be determined, 
owing to their fragmentary condition. Just in front of the or- 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 347 

bital cavity, and separated from it by the chain of bones just 
mentioned, there is a bone that occupies about the position of 
the ethmoid. It seems to be rather thin and crushed down on 
the opposite side, so that its remaining characters cannot be 
made out. 

The opercular bones are thin and scale-like and are all in 
place. They are all covered with fine striae and are so thin at 
the edges that the different directions that these striae take is 
the only means of locating the boundary lines between some of 
the different bones. The preoperculum is small, narrow above, 
and extended well forward below. The operculum is large and 
is extended for some distance above its articulation with the 
hyomandibular. The inter- and suboperculars extend back- 
ward as far as the operculum. 

Anogmius evolutas. Plate LXV, figs. 8, 9, and 10; plate LXVII. 

Anogmius evolutus Cope, Proe. Am. Phil. Soc. 1878, p. 179. 
Beryxf multideniatua Stewart, Kans. Univ. Quart., vol. vii, p. 196. 

This fish was first described by Professor Cope from an en- 
tire left mandible, of which no figure is given, and I am in- 
clined to think that it is the same form as was described by 
myself as Beryz ? multidentatuSy^^ the paper containing the de- 
scription by Professor Cope ^^ having escaped my notice until 
after my article was published. As Anogmius evolutus Cope has 
priority, Anogmius multidentatus will have to remain a synonym, 
unless there are other characters in Cope's specimen not men- 
tioned in his description that will separate the two forms. 
About the only difference is in size, and I do not consider that 
sufficient to separate them. 

The principal points of difference between this species and 
A. polymicrodus, just described, are found in the differences in 
form of the symphyses, the extension of the teeth over the 
external sides of the dentaries in this species, and the differ- 
ence in form of the cotyloid cavities. 

The dentary is elongated and slightly incurved at the sym- 

104. ]. o., p. 196. 
106. 1. c, p. 179. 

348 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

physis. The symphysis presents but one articular surface, which 
is roughened, and does not have an extension of the tooth band 
overhanging it. In these respects the jaw bears a superficial re- 
semblance to that of some of the recent siluroids. The symphysis 
is slightly deeper than wide. The tooth band is broadest at about 
the center and narrowest at the posterior extremity, where the two 
borders of the band are suddenly drawn inward. The teeth 
continue over the side externally, and the whole band is inclined 
inward toward the center and posterior extremity. The dental 
pits are small, and densely packed in somewhat irregular longi- 
tudinal rows, there being forty or more of these rows at the 
broadest portion of the band, which is ten more than Cope 
found in his specimen. The articular is more robust through- 
out than in A. polymicrodus, and the form of the cotylus is dif- 
ferent, for, instead of being partially supported on a shelf-like 
expansion of bone, as in this species, it rests directly ia.cro8s the 
main part of the articular. It is concave longitudinally, slightly 
convex transversally, and is directed slightly backward instead 
of forward, as in the species just mentioned. 

There is a small portion of a maxilla present, and also a frag- 
ment of another bone, which is probably a palatine, although 
it differs somewhat from that of -4. polymicrodtts. The tooth 
band of the maxilla seems to be more convex transversally than 
in the species just mentioned > and there seems to be a total ab- 
sence of the coarse strise which ornament the external and in- 
ternal surfaces of the bone in this form. The supposed palatine 
is a long and thin plate of bone which is covered with small 
tooth pits on one side, which decrease in size toward one of the 
extremities. At the end where the teeth are the largest there 
is a projection which probably serves to bind the bone to some- 

Below are given the principal measurements of the mandible 
of our specimen and the one described by Professor Cope. 

Cope. K. U. 

LeDgth of tooth band 150 mm. 165.0 mm. 

Depth of symphysis 16 '* 19.5 " 

Width of symphysis 21.0 " 

Stbwakt.] Cretaceous Fishes. 349 


Pachyrhizodontidce Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., vol. xii, p. 343. 

In the year 1873 Professor Cope described his family Pachy- 
rhizodontidse, to include the genus PachyrhizoduSf and which he 
characterized as follows :^^ *' This family of physostomous fishes 
differs from the last, Saurodontidee and Ichthyodectidsey in the na- 
ture of its dentition. Instead of elongated conic fangs sunk in 
deep alveoli, it has shorter and stouter fangs occupying alveoli, 
of which the inner side and part of the antero-posterior walls 
are incomplete. The teeth are, in fact, more or less pleurodont, 
but the extremity of the root is received into the conic fundus 
of the alveolus. 

*' The premaxillary bones are well developed, but the maxilla- 
ries are more so, and enter largely into the composition of the 
border of the mouth. There is a well-developed angle of the 
mandible, but no coronoid bone is preserved in the specimens. 
The coronoid region is, however, broken in all of our specimens. 
The other characters of the family are not determinable from 
our imperfect material." 

In the '* Cretaceous Vertebrata/' published in 1875, Professor 

Cope abandons the name Pachyrhizodontidse and includes Pachy- 

rhizodus in his family StratodontidsOf to which it evidently does 

not belong. It seems to show some relation to the Salmonid^^ 

in which family it should probably be included, along with Ori- 



Dizon, Oeol. of Sassez, p. 374, 1850. 

The muzzle of this genus is fiat and the bones of the skull 
more fragile than in members of the Ichthyodectidse and Sauro- 
dontidwy consequently indicating a less powerful and rapacious 
fish than those belonging to these families. The mandibles are 
loosely united at the symphysis and bear a single row of teeth 
which are somewhat pleurodont, sharply pointed, and bear a 
superficial resemblance to some of the Mosasaurs. Their mode 

100. l.e.,p.343. 

350 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

of succession, as described by Professor Cope, is as follows :'^ 
''The crown of the young tooth was developed in a capsule at 
the base of the crown, or on the inner side of the apex of the 
thick root. The absorption which followed excavated both the 
former and the latter ; but the crown was evidently first shed. 
Finally the old root disappeared and the new one occupied the 
alveolus, leaving a iree separation all round. Finally, on the 
accomplishment of the full growth of the root, it became an- 
chylosed all round.*' The articular portion of the mandible 
does not seem to be formed of the derm and antarticulars, as in 
Saurodon, etc. 

The premaxilla? are much more elongated and of an entirely 
different form from those of the Stratodontidie. They bear a 
single series of teeth on the external side and two more larger 
ones internal to the regular series. The maxillae are rather 
shallow and are not united with the palatine, as in the Ichthyo- 
deciidse and Saurodontidfc mentioned above. There are several 
other elements covered with villiform teeth whose position is 
not known. 

There is no complete skull preserved in the museum, but 
Professor Cope says:^^ "The cranium is flat and wide, and 
pressure has probably somewhat increased the efifect in this 
instance. Exoccipital, supraoccipital, epiotic, pterotic, parietal 
and frontal bones are clearly distinguishable, but there are 
points where the sutures are obscure. The best defined are the 
epiotics, which are subtriangular bones presenting the apex 
inward and bearing a small round facet for the supratemporal 
on the posterior angle. The pterotics and postfrontals may be 
easily distinguished from adjoining bones, but not so well from 
each other. They have a thin outer margin, and their superior 
surface is marked by bands of irregular small fossae and an 
obtuse longitudinal ridge. The middle line of the skull is 
occupied by the supraoccipital. Its proximal portion probably 
separates the exoccipitals, but this is not certain. It extends 
well forward, and the line of separation from the frontal is not 

107. Cret. Vert. West, p. 220. 

108. 1. c, pp. 220a, 220b. 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 351 

well defined. Its anterior part has a massive transverse eleva- 
tion, which sends a short median process backward, producing 
a T-shaped body ; the frontal suture is probably in front of 
this. The supraoccipital is contracted behind this bodj^, and 
its postero-exterior suture presents a remarkable peculiarity in 
a straight and wide truncate articular face. This is opposed 
by a corresponding face of the parietal bone. The latter is of 
an irregular form, and carries on its outer portion next the 
pterotic a stout protuberance. This is at the inner end of a 
strong ridge, which disappears near the outer edge of the 
pterotic. The protuberance looks as though adapted for an 
articulation. The f rentals send a process backward, between 
the ' supraoccipital' and the pterotic or postf rental, to the base 
of the tuberosity of the parietal. The suture between the 
exoccipital and parietal is not clear. A suture is distinct 
enough, bounding the latter behind, but whether an expansion 
of the supraoccipital intervenes or not is not certain. The ex- 
occipitals appear to be flat and quadrant-shaped, having convex 
antero-lateral borders. Each bears a strong condyle.'' 

The vertebrip present no deep lateral grooves, but are longi- 
tudinally striated and rather elongated back of the cervical 

The following species have been described from Kansas : 

Paohyrhizodua kingi Cope, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 
Pachyrhizodua latimenium Cope, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 
Pachyrhizodtis shearer i Cope, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 
PdchyrhizoduH canfnua Cope, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 
P'lchyrhfzodus lepiopHU Cope, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 
Pachyrh'zodua leptognathuH Stewart, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 
Pi<ihyrhizodu9 vefox Stewart, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 
Pachyrhizodus min'»mus Stewart, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 

Pachyrliizodas leptognathus. Plate LXIX, fi^. 1. 

Pachyrhizodus leptognathus Stewart, Kans. Univ. Quart., vol. vii, p. 193. 

This species is represented by the left mandible, quadrate, 
syraolectic, preoperculum, and two broad, flat plates of bone, 
which are probably the operculum and suboperculum. With 
the exception of the anterior portion of the dentary, only the 
internal sides of the bones can be examined, as they are too 

352 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

fragile to be removed from the matrix. The catalogue number 
of the specimen is 75. 

The dentary is elongated, very slender, and bears eighteen 
small, conical teeth upon its superior border, each of which is 
set on a small, bony tubercle of bone, similar to those in P. 
caninus. The teeth are directed backward and inward, decrease 
in size from the center toward the extremities, and end pos- 
teriorly within about an inch of the coronoid process. The 
symphysis is of a more or less tubercular nature, similar in 
many respects to that found in P. latimentum, and there are no 
teeth arranged in a triangle here, as in P. caninus. The external 
surface of the dentary does not seem to possess any very char- 
acteristic markings. 

The articular extends forward fully two-thirds the length of 
the mandible, and is deeply grooved. The cotylus is concave 
from before backward, and strongly convex laterally. The 
quadrate is triangular in outline and thin above. Toward the 
lower portion the bone thickens and assumes a somewhat 
twisted appearance at the condyle. The condyle is somewhat 
excavated at the center in order to fit the cotylus. On the in- 
ternal side there is a well-marked ridge extending from the 
condyle upward through the center of the bone. The superior 
border presents a long, narrow sutural surface for uniting this 
with the metapterygoid. Just> back of the quadrate, and articu- 
lating closely with it, there is a long, narrow element which 
may be the symplectic. It is covered in part by the preoper- 
culum, so that its characters cannot be made out. 

The supposed preoperculum consists of a horizontal and a ver- 
tical portion which meet each other at almost right angles. 
The horizontal portion possesses no marked characters beyond 
that it is the broader of the two parts. The vertical portion is 
broad below, but soon becomes more narrow as the upper ex- 
tremity is approached. Just back of the anterior border there 
is a well-defined ridge extending downward to the juhction of 
the two parts. The two flat bones which may represent por- 
tions of the operculum and suboperculum possess no characters 
beyond those shown in the figure. 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 353 

In addition to the above there is a tooth-bearing element that 
may be a portion of the maxilla, but I think the teeth are too 
small to be a part of this bone. The teeth are closely set upon 
small, bony rostrums similar to those of the lower jaw. The 
external surface is nearly smooth. 

Mandible: Length of alveolar border 110.5 mm. 

Length from cotyloid cavity 123.0 ** 

Depth at ooronoid angle (estimated) 20.0 *' 

Number of teeth in one inch, 5. 

Quadrate: Depth 32.0 mm. 

Length of superior border 34 .5 *' 

Pachyrhizodus velox. Plate XLIX, fig. 2. 

Pachyrhizodua velox Stewart, Kans. Univ. Quart., vol. vii, pp. 19^195. 

This species is represented by a maxilla, both mandibles, 
fragmentary quadrate, numerous portions of branchiostegal 
rays, and a fragment of another bone that I first described as a 
portion of one of the hyoids.^^ I have since reached the con- 
clusion that it must be some other part, as the bone is too much 
contracted back of the extremity to be a portion of a ceratohyal. 
The catalogue number of the specimen is 316. 

The maxillary is long and slender and of about equal depth 
from the superior condyle backward. The condyle is elevated, 
but how much cannot be determined, as the superior portion is 
not preserved. Just beneath the condyle the bone thickens and 
the outer surface contracts inward. External to the condyle 
there is a broad shelf of bone which is very roughly striated. 
The premaxillrfry surface is not preserved. The alveolar border 
supports about forty-seven teeth, as near as can be estimated. 
They are conical, directed slightly inward, and closely set. The 
crowns present a smooth enameled surface. The whole of the 
posterior portion of the bone is finely striated. Just above the 
alveolar border in the anterior half of the bone there are many 
small, nutrient foramina leading inward. 

The mandible differs from that of P. latimentum Cope in not 
having a tooth on the symphysis within the anterior one, and 
in having a greater depth at the coronoid with reference to its 

109. Kans. UniT. Quart., vol. VII, p. 19 A. 

354 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

The dentary is short and strongly incurved at the symphysis 
The symphysis is divided by a groove into an external and in- 
ternal portion. The external is small and tubercular in its 
nature. The internal is probably the only part that is in con- 
tact with its fellow on the opposite side, and it has a well-marked 
ridge extending backward which becomes more indistinct toward 
the posterior portion . This ridge causes the bone to be thickened 
just below the alveolar border. The lower portion of the 
dentary is thin and smooth externally, except on the lower 
border, where there are short and deep striae extending back- 
ward. The alveolar border supports probably thirty-eight or 
forty teeth. These are closely set, non-striated, and directed 
inward. The external alveolar wall rises considerably above 
the internal. 

The character of the cotyloid cavity cannot be made out, 
owing to the quadrate being firmly in place. The outer surface 
of the articular is covered with striae, which become coarser 
toward the lower portion. 

The head of the quadrate seems to be broad and bifurcated, 
as in P. leptognathus. Above the head the bone broadens ante- 
riorly, and has a strong ridge extending upward along the pos- 
terior border. Between the jaws there are several pieces of 
ossified cartilage covered with minute denticles, somewhat re- 
sembling shagreen. 

Maxillary: Leogth from premaxillary surface 135.0 mm. 

Depth of condyle (estimated) 26.0 ** 

Mandible : Length from cotyloid cavity 157.0 ** 

Length of alveolar border 122.0 '* 

Depth at coronoid angle 48.3 ** 

Number of teeth in one inch, 8. 

Hyoid ( ? ) : Distance across anterior end (estimated) 23.0 mm. 

Pachyrhizodus leptopsis. Plate LXX, fig. 1. 

Pachyrhizodu8 leptopsis Cope, Cret. Vert. West, p. 225, pi. li, figs. 8a, 
b, and c. 

Represented by a portion of the right dentary bone of one in- 
dividual and a small portion of the left dentary of another. 
The number of the specimen is 289. 

The dentary is elongate and the upper portion forms a thick- 

Stewart.] Cretaceotia Fishes. 355 

ened bar with a broad superior surface. This bar is bounded 
by a well-marked ridge antero-internally, from which the inner 
wall descends almost vertically. The teeth are not closely set, 
the interspaces being occupied by the sockets of the shed teeth ; 
they are all set on stout bases and are larger than in P. leptogna- 
thus. These bases vary from round to oval and the apices are 
about on a level with the external alveolar border."" **The 
teeth diminish in size from the middle of the dentary bone to 
the symphysis ; beside the latter are two teeth of reduced size," 
but on the posterior portion the teeth are but slightly reduced. 
Just back of the last tooth there is an edentulous portion of 
about an inch in length, which is followed by a somewhat ele- 
vated coronoid process. This process is bent outward and cov- 
ered with irregular longitudinal striae on the external and 
internal sides. The lower portion of the bone, below the alveo- 
lar border, is thin and laminiform, smooth externally, and cov- 
ered with coarse striae internally."* ** The symphy seal part of 
the ramus is not incurved as in P. caninus and P. kingi but is 
obliquely truncate, indicating that the chin had a compressed 
form, and was not rounded, as in them." 

Depth of ramus at last tooth 60 mm. 

Diametor of base of tooth 7 •* 

Distance from tip of coroDoid to last tooth 78 ** 

Number of teeth in one inch, 2.5 to 3. 

FachyrMzodas caninns. Plate LXX, figs. 3, 4, 5, and 6. 

Pachyrhizodus caninua Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., vol. xii, 1872, pp. 344 

This species is represented by portions of -the premaxilla and 
mandibles of two individuals. There is also a flat plate of bone 
accompanying the mandibles whose identity cannot be deter- 
mined. The numbers of the specimens are 145 and 315, 

The teeth on the dentary are supported on a shelf of bone 
that becomes narrow toward the distal extremity. This por- 
tion ends abruptly below and is continued into an acute lower 
border. The jaw is probably shallow throughout its extent, 
and toward the symphysis the bone is incurved and swollen. 

no. Cret. Vert. West, p. 226. 
111. 1.0.. p. 225. 

356 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

The symphyseal surface is of an irregular form, slightly convex, 
with an emargination entering from the internal side. The 
jaws were probably loosely united by cartilage at this point. 
The distal extremity is edentulous, and forms a rather thin 
coronoid process, coarsely striated internally. There are spaces 
for from twenty-nine to thirty- two teeth, which decrease in size 
toward the extremities, and at the symphysis a triangle is 
formed by three of these. The teeth are rather closely set in 
places, with enlarged striate bases, while in others the teeth 
are separated quite a distance from each other where the head 
crown has not been replaced. The external alveolar wall does 
not rise as high as in P. leptopsis, mentioned above."- ** The ar- 
ticular cotylus is composed more largely of the angular than 
the articular. Its long diameter extends inward and backward, 
and is strongly convex; in the transverse direction, slightly 
concave. Below and in front of it the lower margin of the jaw 
is acute. The angle is oval and rather small ; it is prominent 
on the middle line on the inner side ; the edges are thin, the 
upper curved outward, concealing part of the cotylus. '* 

The premaxilla is elongated, and in the posterior portion of 
the bone it is narrow transversally. Toward the anterior ex- 
tremity it becomes much wider and presents alveoli for two 
large teeth situated internal to the regular series. It is likely 
that only one of these teeth is functional at a time, as in most 
of the specimens that I have examined I find only one tooth, 
and an empty alveolus for the other. The surface for its fellow 
on the opposite side is roughened by small protuberances of 
bone. The teeth are slightly larger than those upon the den- 
tary, but this may be due to the difference in size of the two 
specimens. There are four preserved on the outer row, but 
there were probably several more, as Professor Cope describes 
ten in his specimen. The external surface is finely striated. 

The plate of bone mentioned above shows one surface to be 
covered with small pits except at the central portion, which is 
smooth. These pits at first remind one of the empty alveolus 
on the tooth-bearing elements of Anogmius and some of the 

112. Cert. Vert. West, p. 222. 

Stbwart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 357 

recent Siluridiv. The opposite surface is irregularly marked, 
and one of the extremities is convex. 

Length of alveolar border of dentary 174.5 mm. 

Depth of symphysis 17.0 ** 

Number of teeth in one inch, 5. 

Pachyrhizodus latimentam ?. Plate LXVIII; plate LXX, figs. 9, 10. 
Pachyrhizodu9 latimentumf Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 1872, p. 346. 

This species of Pachyrhizodus is the largest American member 
of the genus, and probably outrivaled some of the largest forms 
of Ichthyodectes, The specimen was found by myself in the 
Butte creek region, in Logan county, Kansas, during the summer 
of 1898, and consists of a portion of a disarticulated skull, the 
glenoid portion of a scapula, and a number of vertebnie. The 
catalogue number of the specimen is 316. 

Both the extremities are broken away from the maxilla, so 
that the exact length of this bone cannot be determined. It is 
finely striated externally and internally, and is somewhat 
coarsely striated on the superior surface. The teeth are large 
and closely set, but they are not all functional at once. The 
bases of these are somewhat striated and hidden from view ex- 
ternally by the downward extension of the outer alveolar wall. 
The teeth probably end some distance from the posterior ex- 
tremity, as there is an edentulous portion back of the last tooth 
that continues as far as the alveolar border is preserved in this 
direction. The greatest depth of the fragment is 35 mm. 

The premaxilla is more slender and pointed anteriorly than 
in P. caninus. There are seventeen teeth and tooth scars on the 
outer border, and there are spaces for one or two more that 
show no indication of ever having borne teeth. The teeth seem 
to be very similar to those found on the maxilla, with the ex- 
ception that they are slightly smaller. The external border is 
nearly straight, while the internal is beveled off toward the 
anterior end, giving the extremity a slightly blunted appear- 
ance. Internal to the regular series there is a tooth that is 
much larger than those in the external row which has a deep 

358 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

pit in front of it, probably the empty alveolus for the second 
large tooth. Measurements of premaxilla are : 

Length of alveolar border 107 mm. 

Greatest transverse diameter 24 '* 

Greatest depth (estimated) 36 '* 

The mandible seems to be slightly larger than the one de- 
scribed by Professor Cope. Only the posterior portion is pre- 
served, showing the articular and a portion of the dentary, 
including several teeth. The dentary is coarsely striated ex- 
ternally and has a rather indistinct groove just below the alve- 
olar border. The teeth are probably not much reduced toward 
the coronoid process and their bases are partially hidden on the 
outside, as in P. leptopsis. The last tooth is separated from the 
coronoid by a long, thin crest of bone which is somewhat ele- 
vated. The exact line of separation between the dentary and 
articular cannot be traced, probably owing to the fact that the 
outer portions of the bone are injured and broken away in some 
places. The cotylus is large, deeply concave from before back- 
ward, and convex laterally. On the external side posteriorly 
there is a wall of bone projecting upward that forms a slight 
groove with the external side of the cotylus and receives the 
outer rim of the quadrate. Just above and in front of the 
cotylus there is a shallow pit, which seems to be not so well 
marked as in the specimen described by Professor Cope. The 
angular is a small element, and does not enter into the forma- 
tion of the cotylus, as in P. caninus. It is irregularly marked 
and has the appearance of being partially anchylosed to the 
articular. The posterior extremity shows a roughened surface, 
which is probably for muscular attachment. 

Length of ramus ( estimated) 390 mm. 

Distance from cotylus to last posterior tooth 118 ** 

Depth at coronoid angle (estimated) 83 '* 

Depth at cotylus 36 " 

The quadrate is a rather long bone, which is probably not 
very greatly expanded above. The condyle is deeply concave 
transversally, with sharp edges both externally and internally. 
The anterior portion is thin above the condyle, while the pos- 
terior portion is much thickened and has a well-marked ridge 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 359 

extending upward on the external side. The superior border 
is badly preserved. 

Greatest depth 101 mm. 

Transverse diameter of cond}^le 24 *' 

There are several other tooth-bearing elements, the exact 
location of which cannot be determined. Two of these are 
long, slender bars of bone covered with denticles on one side, 
somewhat resembling shagreen. Another is more flat than the 
above and covered with somewhat larger denticles. Still an- 
other is very thin and covered with various-sized denticles on 
one side. 

The basioccipital is separated from all of the surrounding 
bones. The condyle is deeply concave and broader above than 
below. Just in front of the condyle there are two lateral facets 
for the attachment of the exoccipitals, which are much rough- 
ened and look outward and forward. In front of these facets 
the bone is narrow and has a median ridge, which is continued 
downward on the anterior end. On the lower portion the bone 
has a deep carina, which extends forward to near the extremity 
and forms a sharp projection posteriorly. There is a slight 
groove in the median line that Professor Cope"' thought repre- 
sented the muscular tube. 

Transverse diameter of condyle above 39 mm. 

Vertical depth of condyle 35 

Length of superior bonier 57 



There are several other bones present whose location cannot 
be determined, although they are probablv located in the pos- 
terior part of the skull. Figures of these are shown on plate 
LXX. There are a number of vertebrae with the specimen, 
which are larger than in the largest specimens of Ichthyodectes 
that I have examined. The sides are devoid of lateral grooves, 
but are covered with numerous small ridges which inosculate 
with each other, giving the outer surface of the vertebra a some- 
what lace-like appearance. In this respect the vertebrae have 
a superficial resemblance to those of Anogmiusy but when they 
are examined closely it is found that the ridges are more irregu- 

113. Cret. Vert, p. 220a. 

360 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

lar and more sharply defined, especially at the extremities of 
the centrum. The tieural arches probably fit into pits above, 
and the ribs seem to have been attached to tubercular processes 
of bone set into pits, as in the Ickthyodectidie. Those in the an- 
terior region are very thin, and the pits for the neural arches 
are large and widely separated. 

Nearly the whole of the scapula is preserved. It shows a 
large convex superior (?) facet with a smaller one just below it, 
the two being separated by a sharp ridge. Just back (?) of the 
larger facet there is a large foramen, the anterior border of 
which is broken away. 

There is a second specimen of a shoulder-girdle and a mass 
of fiu-rays which probably belong to the same geuus as the 
above, but probably a different species. Tlie chief difference is 
found in the absence of the small facet on the articular portion 
oE the scapula. At the lower extremity there is a large rough- 
ened surface that probably unites with the coracoid. The 
coracoid (?) is a broad, flat plate of bone which is thickened 
at the posterior extremity and presents a roughened articular 
surface for the scapula. The cleithrum is too fragmentary to 
determine its exact form, but it was probably concave on the 
internal (?) side and somewhat irregular and roughened on the 

The proximal portions of the fin-rays of both sides are pres- 
ent. They are large and very numerous, fourteen being pres- 
ent on one side, and this probably does not represent all of 
them. The larger of these are slightly bent at the proximal 
extremities, and the smaller ones strongly so. 

Lower jaws of Fachyr/ihodui minimum, one- half natural si 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 361 

PachyrhizodaB minimus. 

Pachyrhizodus minimus Stewart, Kans. Univ. Quart., toI. viii, pp. 37, 38. 

This species is represented by the mandibles alone, which are 
characterized as follows : The dentaries are slender and slightly 
incurved at the symphysis, where they also seem to be bent 
slightly downward. The symphysis is bifurcated by a deep 
groove on the external side, but internally it is continuous from 
above downward. On the external side there is a shallow groove 
just below the alveolar border, which becomes indistinct toward 
the symphysis ; the lower border of the bone is sharp and nearly 
straight. There are eleven teeth preserved upon one of the 
rami, and room for at least as many more. They are conical, 
non-striated, and directed inward; the last is situated quite a 
distance from the coronoid angle, below which there is quite a 

Only a small portion of the articular is exposed on the ex- 
ternal side, but internally it extends well forward. The cotylus 
is very convex transversally and situated well up toward the 
coronoid process, while below and extending backward from it 
on the external side is the prominent hook-like, angular process 
found in this and other genera of fishes. 

Length of alveolar border from coronoid angle 52.0 mm. 

Depth at coronoid angle 10.0 " 

Length of bone from cotyloid cavity 56.0 " 

Number of teeth in one centimeter, 4. 

The specimen. No. 327, was found by myself in the Butte 
creek region of Logan county, Kansas, during the summer of 

24— vi 

362 University Oeological Survey of Kansas. 


Pelecopferidce Cope. Erisichtheidce Cope. 
Protosphyrcenidas Woodward. 

This family is very peculiar in having the ethmoid bone pro- 
longed into a long rostrum or beak, and includes the single 
American genus Protosphyrasna. For a long time this form was 
not well understood, as Professor Cope described the pectoral 
fins as belonging to the genus Pelecopterus , and the cranial por- 
tions to the genus Erisichthe^ from which arose the family names 
of Pelecopteridse and Erisichtheidsp. It was later discovered that 
these two genera were one and the same, and also that they 
were synonyms of the genus Protosphyrssna, which was described 
by Leidy several years -before. 


Protosphurcena Leidy, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc., vol. XI, pp. 91-05. 

Xiphiaa Leidy, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc., vol. XI, pp. 91-95. 

Erisichthe Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1872, p. 280. 

Pelecopterua Cope, Cret. Vert. West, p. 244 C. 

"*'*The teeth are laterally compressed and lanciform, with- 
out marginal serrations, and, when found in connection with 
the jaw, are seen to be fixed in distinct sockets. They were first 
noticed in 1822 by Doctor Man tell, "'^ who described one example 
as belonging to an unknown fish, and referred a second to an 
undetermined species of shark. Twenty-one years later Profes- 
sor Agassiz studied the fossils, and thought that they were most 
probably identical with certain teeth discovered by Doctor Har- 
lan"® in the Cretaceous strata of North America, which had been 
described under the name of Saurocephalus lanciformis^ and 
erroneously placed among the Reptilia. They were accordingly 
made known as such in the great work on the *' Poissons Fos- 
siles,""^and the determination was subsequently adopted by 
Dixon,"* in 1850, who figured more satisfactory specimens. At 

114. A. S. Woodward, Proc. Geol. Assoc., vol. X, 1888, pp. 320, 821« 
116. FosB. South Downs, p. 227, pi. XXXIII, figs. 7-9. 

116. Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phil., vol. Ill, 1824. pp. 831-337, pi. XII, figs. 1-IS. 

117. Poiss. Fobs., toI. V, pt. I, p. 102, pi. XXVc, figs. 21-29. 

118. Fobs. Sussez, p. 874, pi. XXX, fig. 21 ; pi. XXXI, fig. 12 ; pi. XXXII. flg. 1 ; pi. XXXIV, fig. 2. 

Stewart.] Cretaceovs Fishes. 363 

this time, moreover, an important addition to our knowledge of 
the species was rendered possible by a fine fossil in Sir Philip 
Egerton's collection, which showed that the fish had a remark- 
ably elongate snout. Six years afterwards Professor Leidy*^* 
carefully reexamined Doctor Harlan's original American speci- 
mens of Saurocephalus, and soon became convinced that Agassiz 
was mistaken in supposing that the English fossils were identi- 
cal with these even generically. He thus proposed a new ge- 
neric and specific name — Photosphyr&sna ferox — for the specimens 
figured by Mantell, Agassiz, and Dixon ; wrongly suggesting^ 
however, that Sir Philip Egerton's fossil rostral bone truly be- 
longed to a swordfish, which might be appropriately termed 
Xiphias dixoni. Between 1875 and 1877 remains similar to those 
of the English Chalk were actually discovered in America, and 
not only proved that Egerton and Dixon were right in deciding 
upon the reference of the long snout to Protoaphyrsenay but 
further added important anatomical details. Professor Cope^ 
however, who described these fossils,**^ proposed the difficultly 
pronounceable name of Eruichthe, which happily becomes a 

The frontals of this genus are broad and fiat, and are more 
or less covered with short corrugations. Anteriorly they unite 
with the ethmoids, which, with the prefrontals, vomer, and 
parasphenoid, form the long and pointed rostrum mentioned 
above. The frontals form the superior boundary of the orbits, 
which are large and surrounded by a ring of sclerotic bones. 
The pterygoids are covered with small, conical teeth, thickly 
set, and elevated upon small, bony hemispheres. The meso- 
pterygoid is a broad and thin bone, covered with teeth similar 
to those found on the pterygoid. The upper jaw is composed 
of the maxilla and premaxilla. The first of these is slender 
and bears two rows of teeth, the inner of which is composed of 
large teeth with anterior and posterior cutting edges, each of 
which is set in a separate alveolus. The outer row is composed 
of small, conical teeth united directly with the bone. The 

119. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc.. ▼ol. XI, 1860, pp. 91-95. 

120. Cret. Vert. West, pp. 217, 218. and Boll. U. S. Qeol. Sarv. Terr., vol. Ill, 1877, pp. 821-823. 

364 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

smaller of these teeth are mere tubercles of bone. The pre- 
maxillaries are small, triangular elements, loosely united to the . 
maxilla. They bear both large and small teeth, of which the 
large are sharply pointed, smooth, and have anterior and pos- 
terior cutting edges. The predentary is paired, and bears both 
large and small teeth. 

The fins of this genus were first described as the dorsal fin- 
spines of a shark, Ptychodus, by Agassiz,^*^ but were later recog- 
nized by Cope^" as belonging to a teleost, and described by him 
as a new genus, Pelecopterus , indicating a new order, Actinochiri, 
and family, Pelecopteridse. These fins seem to form powerful 
spines, and are composed of slender, parallel rods of bone, 
closely placed. The anterior border is usually undulated more 
or less, and, in the smaller species, with tooth-like processes 
which are often covered with a substance which closely resem- 
bles enamel. Remains of this genus are found in the Fort 
Benton, Niobrara and Fort Pierre groups in Kansas. 

There seems to be some doubt concerning the structure of the 
Jower jaw, as the two authors, Cope and Felix, who have writ- 
ten upon the subject, seem 'to entertain somewhat different 
opinions. Cope^^^says: ''A remarkable feature of the genus 
is displayed in the mandibles. Each of these is compound in 
the region usually composed of the simple dentary bone. It 
there consists of three parallel elements — an internal and an 
external, embracing a median element. The inner bears a band 
of teeth en brosse on its inner and superior aspects, and the ex- 
ternal a few teeth of similar character on its superior edge. 
The large, lancet-shaped teeth are borne by the middle element, 
•excepting some of the largest near the symphysis. Two of these 
on the inner side of the ramus originate in the internal bone." 
•Concerning this point Felix "* says : 

"Wenn wir auch den Unterkiefer, abgesehen von dem Articular 
und Angular, aus vier Sttlcken gefunden haben, dem Prsedentale und 
Dentale, sowie einem vorderen und einem hinteren Spleniale, so 
konnen doch dies nicht die Elemente sein, welche Cope meint. 

121. Poias. F088., vol. Ill, pp. 56-59. 128. Ball. U. S. Geol. Snrr. Terr., p. 821. 

122. Cret. Vert. West. pp. 244. A-F. 124. 1. o.. 287. 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 365 

Denn das hintere Spleniale reicht vorn nur bis an das bintere Ende 
des vorderen Spleniale, nirgends liegen drei Elemente parallel neben 
einander, keins von ihnen kann 'middle element' genannt weiden. 
Vergleioht man mit der citirten Beschreibung der frUher von ihm 
gegeben Abbildung*^^ des vorderen Mandible-Theils, so muss man es 
auoh befremdlich finden; dass Cope die grossen Fangzabne, mit 
Ausnahme allerdings von zwei, welche er in dem inneren Knocben 
entsteben Iftsst, von dem mittleren Tbeil getragen werden lAsst, da 
dieselben dem ausseren Rande so nabe steben, dass zwiscben ibnen 
und jebnen nur eine sebr dUnne Knooben-lamelle gedaobt werden 
kann. Was sollte diese aber in osteologiscber Hinsicbt darstellen?" 

ProtosphyrsBna bentoniana. 

Protoaphyrcena bentonia^*^ Stewart, Kans. Univ. Quart., vol. vii a, pp. 

This species was established upon the rostrum and numerous 
fragments of other bones which were, for the most paj't, in too 
poor a condition for identification. They were found by Dr. 
S. W. Willis ton in the Lincoln marble, on Rock creek, in south- 
ern Mitchell county, Kansas. The low horizon from which the 
specimen was obtained attaches special interest to it, as it is the 
first time that a specimen of this genus has been found below 
the Niobrara Cretaceous in America. 

The proximal portion of the rostrum, bearing the large teeth, 
is not preserved. The base is broad, becoming more narrow 
toward the distal extremity, where it suddenly contracts, forming 
a rather blunt apex. The anterior portion is oval in outline in- 
stead of semicircular or round. The lower surface contracts 
more rapidly than the upper, causing the apex to be slightly 
above the center of the shaft. The superior and inferior sur- 
faces gradually grade into each other, and are not separated by 
the angular ridge found in some of the species of this genus. 
The outer surface, where preserved, shows the rostrum to be 
covered with irregular longitudinal ridges which inosculate 

125. Cret. Vert. West, pi. XLVII, fl«. to. 

126. Throagb a tjrpoffraphical error, this species first appeared as P. benionia instead of P. 
bentoniana^ as was intended. 

366 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

more or less with each other, and give the outer surface of the 
bone a somewhat net-like appearance. 

Length of rostral fragfment 199 mm. 

Transverse diameter 136 mm. from distal extremity 34 '* 

Transverse diameter 22 mm. from distal extremity 22 ** 

Frotosphyrsena recarvirostris. 

ProtosphyrcBna recur viroatria Stewart, Kans. Univ. Quart., vol. vii a, 
pp. 191, 192. 

The material upon which this species was based consists of a 
complete rostrum, No. 373, with the adjoining portions of the 
vomer and parasphenoid, and differs from P. nitida in the fol- 
lowing characters : The superior distal surface is regularly 
rounded and not flat, as in that species, and the cross-section at 
this point is round instead of semicircular or oval. The speci- 
men corresponds in some respects with the rostrum of P. pene- 
trans, and is more closely related to this species than to any of 
the other forms that have been described. I was inclined to 
it call P. penetrans until I found a rostrum of that species, when 
I discovered that it diflfered from it in a number of points which 
were sufficiently great to be called specific. The rostrum is more 
slender as a whole and is contracted to a more acute point than 
in P. penetrans. The markings are more sharply defined and 
the ridges inosculate with each other but rarely. In P. pene- 

Rostram of Prototphyrcena reeurviroslrist one-half actual size. 

trans the markings are more or less reticulate. In the anterior 
portion of the species under consideration the ridges are closely 
placed to each other, while posteriorly they become scattered and 
are not so well marked as in the anterior portion of the bone. 
Their direction also becomes more varied in this region. On 
the posterior half of the inferior surface, the ridges become less 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fislies. 367 

numerous and are larger than those on the superior surface 
and on the sides. In P. penetrans there is no difference of 
markings on the superior and inferior surfaces. A part of one 
of the large teeth at the base of the rostrum is preserved, and 
presents a smooth, enameled surface and probably anterior and 
posterior cutting edges. 

A point that I have noticed is, that all of the figures and 
specimens of this portion show only one tooth, the alveolus for 
the other seeming to be filled with bone or matrix. This would 
lead to the belief that these teeth were alternately functional. 
The rostrum, as a whole, is slightly recurved. 

Range and distribution : Niobrara Cretaceous, Gove county, 

ProtosphyrsBna gigas. 

Proiosphyrcena gigas Stewart, Kans. Univ. Quart., vol. viii a, p. — . 

The material upon y^hich this species is based was obtained 
from the Lisbon shales, Fort Pierre Cretaceous, one mile north- 
east of Lisbon, Kan., during the summer of 1898. The specimen 
consists of the distal portion of a pectoral fin-spine, and is inter- 
esting in showing that this genus persisted into the Port Pierre 
group. As only the distal portion of the fin is preserved the 
length of the fin cannot be determined, but judging from the 
width near the middle portion of the fragment it must have 
been larger than P. gladius Cope, which makes it probably the 
largest member of this family. The catalogue number of the 
specimen is 338. 

The spine is made up of parallel rods closely placed. Near 
the center of the fragment there are about twenty-five of these, 
and probably more in life, as the posterior border is broken 
away and the exact number cannot be determined. These are 
broad in the central portion and become more narrow toward 
the distal extremity, where the spine seems to be regularly 
rounded on the end. Toward the anterior border the rods be- 
come much thicker and the border forms a rather blunt cutting 
edge, which differs from P. gladius^ in which this margin is 
acute. This border is somewhat irregularly notched, the notches 

368 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

seeming to be more pronounced than in the species just men- 
tioned, and are covered with an enamel-like substance. 

p. oigan, P. gladitit.* 

Total lenfifth of fragment 49.0 mm 

Width near the middle 195.0 •' 175 mm. 

Thickness, posterior, near the middle 11 .5 *' 12 ** 

Thickness, anterior, near middle 30.0 '* 

ProtosphyrsBna, n. sp. ? 

Proto^phyrcena^ sp. nov., Kans. Univ. Quart., vol. vii a. 

The material upon which this description is based consists of 
a right premaxilla from the Niobrara Cretaceous of western 
Kansas. Locality and collector not known. This material I 
consider too scant to justify a specific name being given until 
more complete specimens are found. It may prove to be the 
premaxilla of one of the other species of Protosphyrsena that are 
at present known only from the rostral bones and fin remains. 
At present it will have to be considered as a new species with 
an interrogation. It is evidently differ&nt from the premaxilla 
of P. nitida described by Felix. "^ 

When seen from the side the bone is triangular in outline, 
with a thin superior and posterior border. The anterior ex- 
tremity is broken away, but it was probably acutely pointed, as 
in P. nitida. The principal differences which characterize this 
from the premaxilla of the species just mentioned are found in 
the size and arrangement of the teeth. Near the center of the 
bone there are alveoli for four large teeth, the anterior three of 
which are almost complete, while the posterior one is broken off 

* Measurements after Cope, Cret. Vert. West, p. 244 F. 
127. Zeits. d. Deatsch. (leol. Oes. 1890, vol. XLII, p. 288. 

Stbwakt,] Cretaceous Fishes. 369 

at the base, but enough remains to show that this and the an> 
terior one were the smallest of the four. The two in the center 
are of about the same size; they are all directed forward, the 
anterior slightly more so than the rest. These teeth all hare 
broad lanciform crowns, with anterior and posterior cutting 
edges and slightly striate enameled surfaces. Just back of the 
most posterior of these large teeth there is a row of small teeth, 
the anterior of which are scarcely more than bony tubercles, 
but posteriorly they assume definite dental characters; ten of 
these are preserved in the specimen. There are other teeth like 
these on the anterior portion of the border, but owing to the tip 
beiug broken away, the exact number of these cannot be deter- 
mined. The surface for the maxillary contracts toward the an- 
terior end, and is bounded below by a narrow shelf of bone 
extending inward. 

Approximate leogtb of the alveolar border 88 mm. 

Depth juat back of laat large tooth 27 " 

Height of first large tooth 15 " 

Height of aecond targe tooth 19 " 

Frotoapbyrsna penetrans. Plate LXIII. 

Proloiphf/rtFiia pcnr.trans Cope, Bull. U. 8. Geol. Surt. Terr. 1877, vol. 
Ill, No. 4, p. 821. 

This Species is represented in the museum by only one speci- 
men. No. 372, consisting of a rostrum with a small portion of 
the apex, and the basal portiou with the large teeth absent. 

Boatrum of ProtmphuTteHa penetmm, oae-balt nataral size. 

The superior distal surEace was probably rounded in life, but, 
owing to depression, it has become slightly flattened, giving the 
cross-section at this point a somewhat ovoid or elliptical outline. 
In P. nitida this surface is finely rugose, with a strong angle 
bounding the superior plane on each side, while in this species 
there is no such angle, and the markings on this surface vary 

370 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

but little if any from the markings on the front and sides of the 
bone. The markings on the inferior surface are similar to those 
on the sides, and do not become larger and more scattered, as 
in P. recurvirostris. The bone is pointed at the apex, giving a 
more acute shaft than in P. nitida, in which the rostrum con- 
tracts suddenly to a tip, but less acute than P. recur virostris, 
where the shaft is more slender and the apex drawn to a more 
slender point. The markings are not so sharply defined and 
inosculate with each other more often than in the species just 
mentioned, especially on the anterior portion and sides. Nio- 
brara Cretaceous, western Kansas. Collector, E. P. West. 

There are remains of several pectoral fin-spines, and an- 
other which may be the pelvic fin, that I will refer to this 
species with doubt. They are much smaller than those de- 
scribed by Cope as ^ Pelecopterus / and also differ from these in 
other minor details. Doctor Crook mentions in his paper on 
the *' Kansas Cretaceous Pishes " ^*^ that he had a right and a left 
pectoral fin-spine of this species in his possession at the time of 
preparing his paper, but failed to describe them, which makes 
the determination of the remains before me very difficult. 

The fin is composed of parallel rods of bone, which are very 
slender at the posterior side, but toward the anterior border 
they become broader and slightly curved. The anterior 
border is nearly straight for a distance of 45 mm., when it 
begins to assume ^an undulated appearance, which becomes 
less marked and farther separated beyond the center, and prob- 
ably finally disappears before the extremity is reached. In P. 
nitida these undulations assume a dentate appearance, and con- 
tinue thus to the extremity, while in P. gladius and P. chirurgus 
this border is devoid of such undulations. This portion is cov- 
ered with a thin layer of enamel-like substance, which seems to 
be thickest on the apices of the undulations. The spine is 
moderately broad at the base, where there are forty or more 
rods, but becomes more narrow distally. There are portions of 
probably seven basiosts, the anterior ones of which are probably 
paired. These are all provided with well-rounded condylar 

128. Uber ein. Knoch. fis. a. d. mitt. Krei. Kans., Paleontoffraphica, 1882, 110. 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 371 

heads where they articulate with the fin, and they probably 
have similar expansions at the other extremity. 

p. agilU, P. nitida. P. gladiuM, 

Length of spine fragment 360 mm. 705 mm. 1,040 mm. 

Width at base 62 " 67 " 120 •• 

Thickness at base 6 •* 12 ** 

The spine mentioned above, and thought to be pelvic, is about 
the size of the one described above, but differs from it in having 
the anterior border nearly straight, without the undulations, 
and but very little of the enamel-like deposit mentioned above. 
At the base of the spine there is a mass of bone which presents 
a large, flat articular surface, above and in front of which there 
is a large, pointed process of bone extending upward from the 
base of the anterior border. The spine is probably more narrow 
than the one just described. 

Length, apex wanting 428 mm. 

Width near center 45 ** 

Width at base (estimated) 53 " 

Long diameter of oondvle at base 31 ** 

Short diameter of oonayle at base 21 '* 

I am unable to say to what species the pelvic fin-spine, de- 
scribed above, may belong. It is of a different individual from 
the pectoral spine described as belonging to P. penetrans, but 
for the present, at least, I will consider it under this head. 


The family Halecidx ^^ was made by Agassiz to include the 
two families Salmonidx and Clupeidse, fossil specimens often 
being so closely related to both of the above families as to ren- 
der their exact relation to either of the above two families some- 
what doubtful. 

The tendency among ichthyologists seems to be to revive the 
two old family names ; thus I use the name Clupeidas to include 
the single genus Leptichthys, which seems to bear a close rela- 
tionship to this family in many respects. 

129. Am. Geol., vol. XXIV, pp. 78, 79. 

372 University Geological Survey of Kansds. 


Stewart, Am. Oeol., toL XXIV. px>. 78, 79. 

There are several specimens of Cretaceous fishes in our col' 
lection that seem to differ from any of the other genera that I 
have seen described, and for which I have ventured to propos© 
the generic name of Lepiichthys. This genus seems to be related 
to Osmeroides Agassiz in some respects, but differs from it in the 
presence of a short dorsal fin and non-striated scales. It also 
differs from Apsopelix Cope in the anterior position of the dorsal 

The body is ellipsiform, and covered with large, thin cycloid 
scales, which are concentrically striated ventrally, but seem to 
lose this character to some extent in the dorsal region, where 
they are somewhat rugosely marked. The pelvic bones seem 
to be formed of heavy transverse bars of bone, which are thick- 
ened externally for the attachment of the pelvic fin. These 
bones probably had some anterior extension, but how much 
cannot be ascertained from the specimens at hand. The dorsal 
fin is short and composed of numerous rays, which are situated 
in front of the middle portion of the body. The pectorals are 
broad and rather elongated. The pelvic fin is broad and short. 
The caudal fin is deeply cleft. The skull seems to be rather 
bluntly pointed in front. The dentaries are short with acutely 
pointed teeth , and the lower borders of the bones are directed 
upward in front. The vertebrae are two-grooved, and are longer 
than deep. Only one species is represented in our collection, 
which is described below. 

Leptichthya agilis, sp. nov. Plate LXXII, fig. 1. 

Scales large ; about ten or twelve series to be seen across the 
body. The pectoral fins are composed of at least fourteen rays, 
the first two or three of which are cross-segmented, while the 
remainder are longitudinally split. The pelvic fins are situated 
posteriorly and the cross-segmentation is absent from their rays. 
The dorsal fin is composed of twelve or more short bony rays. 

Stbwart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 873 

Length of body to cleft of caudal fin 290 mm. 

Length from anterior extremity to base of dorsal fin 112 *^ 

Depth of body at dorsal fin 59 *' 

Length of pectoral fin 46 

Width of pectoral fin at base 16 

Length of pelvic fin 29 

Width of pelvic fin at base 10 

Length of mandibular rami 32 



This family may be characterized as comprising fishes with 
laterally compressed bodies, either naked or covered with scutes. 
The maxillfie and premaxillsB are elongated and covered with 
small teeth, which are firmly anchylosed to the bone. The den- 
taries are provided with a single row of large teeth, and usually 
one or more rows of smaller ones on the external side. Pala- 
tines and ec top tery golds powerful, and bearing a single series 
of large teeth on expanded bases. 

It is probable that the only representative of this family in 
the American Cretaceous is the type genus Enchodus. There 
are several other European and Asiatic genera belonging to this 
group of fishes, among which are Eurypholis, from the Lebanon 
beds of Syria, Pomognathus, from the Chalk of Europe and Leb- 
anon, and Ischyrocephalus f from the Upper Cretaceous of West- 


AflrassiZiPoiss. Foss., toI. V, pt. I, p. 64. 
Leidy, Rep. 17. S. UeoL Sarr. Terr., 1. 1873. p. 289. 

The remains of this genus are constantly met with through- 
out the Chalk of Kansas, but unfortunately in very fragment- 
ary condition, consisting for the most part of the palatines and 
mandibles. The skull, as described by A. S. Woodward,** is tri- 
angular in form, with the roof flattened and slightly depressed, 
with the posterior lateral portions sculptured. The premaxilla 
is thin and deep, while the* maxilla is long and slender, with 
small teeth along the lower border. The palatines, called pre- 
maxillsB by Cope, are dense masses of bone, with a single large 
fang extending downward from the anterior extremity. This, 

ISO. Proc. Qeol. Aasoe., vol. X (18&8). p. 815. 

374 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

as well as the other teeth, is firmly anchylosed to the bone. 
The ectopterygoid, which joins the palatine posteriorly, is a 
long, thin bar of bone, with a number of teeth on the lower 
border of an irregular size. The mandible is moderately deep, 
and bears two series of teeth. Those on the internal side are 
very large and situated far apart, while those on the external 
side form a minute fringe. 

The succession of the teeth, as described by Professor Cope,"* 
is very peculiar: "The first teeth appear on the alveolar sur- 
face at a considerable distance apart. The second teeth appear 
immediately in front of these, and by their presence create the 
irritation which results in the absorption of the root and shed- 
ding of, the crown of the first. The teeth of the third series 
appear in advance of the second, occupying the space between 
them and the empty space previously occupied by No. 1. These 
may coexist for some time with teeth No. 2, as the specimen 
indicates, but the result is as before — the shedding of the 
adjacent older teeth. In the case of the anterior long tooth of 
each side, the movement is reversed. Here the successional 
tooth appears behind the position of the functional, which is 
consequently shed, and in the old fish this tooth occupies a 
position behind a concave symphyseal portion, which is con- 
cave and edentulous, or only provided with the small teeth of 
the marginal row." 

The vertebrae are deeply grooved laterally. 

There are several bones of a single specimen which I refer to 
this genus with doubt. These are figured on plate LXV, figs. 
8, 9, and 10. The largest of these bones, fig. 8, is no doubt an 
opercular. It is very thin, excepting near the anterior-superior 
portion, where the bone is much thickened and presents an an- 
terior and internal articular portion, for the hyomandibular, 
and also another along the lower border, where there is a long 
and narrow facet, probably for attachment of one of the other 
opercular bones. This bone is finely striated both externally 
and internally. 

The second of these bones, fig. 9, presents an articular facet 

131. Cret. Vert. West, p. 901. 


Stewart. I Cretaceous Fishes. 375 

at each extremity, one of which is much longer than the other. 
Along one of the borders there is a deep groove which is bounded 
on each side by a thin lamina of bone. The third, fig. 10, is a 
thickened mass of bone of an irregular shape, with a roughened 
articular surface at one end, which extends beyond the remainder 
of the bone in a spine-like projection. The fourth and last of 
these bones, fig. 10, is very peculiar, in that it is almost iden- 
tical with that described and figured by myself as an opercular ^^ 
bone of Xiphactinus. I would be inclined to think that I was 
mistaken in referring this to Xiphactinus were it not for the fact 
that Professor Cope has figured this in his "Cretaceous Verte- 
brata''^*^ as an ** uncertain bone " of this genus. This bone is' 
similar in structure, color, and in the matrix surrounding it, to 
those described above ; so there is little probability of it having 
become mixed in collecting. The known American species are : 

Enchodus ferox MortoD, Leidy, below Greensand No. 5, New Jersey, 
Enchodua preasidena Cope, Greensand, New Jersey. 
Enchodua petroaua Cope, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 
Enchodua dolichua Cope, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 
Enchodua calliodon Cope, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 
Enchodua oxytomua Cope, Cretaceous, New Jersey. 
Enchodua tefracua Cope, Cretaceous, Delaware and New Jersey. 
Enchodua ahumardi Leidy, Cretaceous, Dakota. 
Enchodua {Phaaganodua) dirua Leidy, Cretaceous, Dakota. 
Enchodua {Phaaganodua) gladiolua Cope, Niob. Cret., western Kansas. 
Enchodua {Phaaganodua) ancepa Cope, Niob. Cret., western Kansas. 
Enchodua {Phaaganodua) carinatua Cope, Niob. Cret., western Kansas. 
Enchodua {Phaaganodua) aemiatriatua Marsh, Cretaceous, New Jersey. 
Enchodua aniicrodua Stewart, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 
Enchodua minimua Stewart, Niobrara Cretaceous, western Kansas. 

Enchodns shumardi. 

Enchodua ahumardi Leidy, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1856, p. 257; 
Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr., i, 1873, p. 289; Cret. Vert. West, p. 238. 

Represented by the dentary bones of several individuals col- 
lected by Professor Mudge from the Niobrara Cretaceous of 
Kansas, the exact locality of which is not known. 

The d^ntaries are small and slender and are about 85 mm. in 
length. The internal alveolar border supports six large teeth, 

132. Kans. UoiT. Qaart., yol. VIII A. 
188. 1. c, pi. XL. figs. 8. 9. 

376 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

all of which are firmly anchylosed to the bone. The largest of 
these, situated just back of the symphysis, has a slightly ex- 
panded base and is directed inward at the apex. It is strongly 
striated and stands 8 mm. above the alveolar border. The 
teeth following are smaller than this one and all are probably 
of about the same size, except the last, which seems to be 
smaller than the ones in front of it. They are minutely 
striated under the microscope. The symphysis is incurved, 
and seems to have a strong articulation with its fellow on the 
opposite side by means of the prominent bony tubercles so char- 
acteristic of this portion of Enchodus. The external alveolar 
border bears a single row of minute teeth, the exact number of 
which cannot be determined on account of the greater part of 
them being broken away. 

Enchodns petrosus. Plate LXX, %. 11. 

Enchodus petrosus Cope, Haydeo's Bull. U. S. Greol. Surv. Terr. No. 2, 
p. 44 ; Cret. Vert. West, p. 238. 

This species is represented by the palatines of numerous in- 
dividuals and a small portion of one ectopterygoid. 

The palatine is dense in texture and supports a very large 
tooth at the anterior extremity, which is directed downward 
and slightly forward. The anterior portion of this tooth pre- 
sents a sharp cutting edge, which extends from the apex to 
near the base, along the sides of which the enamel is nearly 
smooth, while posteriorly it is covered with conspicuous vertical 
striae. Posterior to this tooth there are a number of curved 
lines or scars formed in the replacement of this tooth, back of 
which the border is slightly carinate. The upper and posterior 
portions are very irregular. 

Enchodns dims. Plate LXX, fig. 14. 

Phasganodus dirus Leidy, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1857, p. 167. 

This species was first described by Doctor Leidy, ^** from a 
mutilated dentary bone from the Cretaceous deposits of J)akota, 
as Phasganodus dirus, making the specimen the type of a hitherto 

184. L c, p. 167. 

Stbwabt.] Cretaceous Fishes. 377 

unknown genus, which was later shown by Professor Cope to 
be a synonym of Enchodus.^^ The specimen here represented 
consists of a fragmentary mandible, No. 322, and was obtained 
by Mr. E. P. West from the Niobrara Cretaceous deposits of 
western Kansas, the exact locality of which is not known. 

Only the internal side of the dentary is exposed, which shows 
four large teeth on the alveolar border, which are probably fol- 
lowed by one or two more. The most anterior of these is set 
upon an expanded base and has a sharp cutting edge antero- 
externally, while postero-internally it is rounded and covered 
with well-marked striae. The cross-section is thus seen to be 
pyriform. At the base of the tooth, anteriorly, there is a slight 
pit, in front of which there are two small teeth near the sym- 
physis. The second of the large teeth is the smallest preserved. 
It is non-striate and has anterior and posterior cutting edges 
directed slightly outward and inward. The third and fourth 
are slightly striated near the base and have the anterior cutting 
edges directed outward more than in the second. The sym- 
physeal portion is not well preserved, but the bone probably 
becomes very shallow at this point. A well-marked fossa for 
the articular extends forward to a point about half way between 
the second and third large teeth. 

Length of first large tooth (eetimated) 32 mm. 

Distance from symphysis 12 

Lenth of second large tooth 14 

Distance from symphysis 47 

Length of third large tooth 21 

DisUmce from symphysis 77 

Length of fourth large tooth ( estimated ) 20 

Distance from symphysis 101 

Encliodas dolichas. Plate LXX, fig. 12. 

EnchoduB dolichua Cope, Cret. Vert. West, pp. 239, 240. 

This species is represented by portions of several individuals, 
consisting of the palatines, ectoptery golds, and fragments of 
other tooth-bearing elements. 

The palatine is much smaller than in E. petrosus, and presents 
the long, fang-like tooth at the anterior extremity, which is non- 
135. Cret. Vert. West, p. 301. 
25— vi 

378 University Geohgical Survey of Kansas. 

striate externally and has a cutting edge in front. Back of this 
tooth the bone is more slender than in the species just mentioned, 
and is very irregular above and behind where it joins the ecto- 
pterygoid. The ectopterygoid (?) is a long, slender bar of bone, 
called maxilla by Professor Cope, and is covered below with teeth 
well separated from each other. These teeth are large in front 
but become smaller toward the posterior extremity. There is 
one other tooth-bearing element that I have been unable to lo- 
cate with any degree of certainty. It is expanded at one end 
and contracted at the other, long, very thin, and covered with 
small teeth on one of the edges. There are fragments of sev- 
eral mandibles which may belong to this species, but as none 
of them are associated with the palatines their identity as such 
cannot be ascertained. 

Palatine : Length 35 mm. 

Greatest depth 8 

Length of anterior tooth 18 

Enchodus parvus. 
Enchodus parvus Stewart, Kans. Univ. Quart., vol. vii a, p. 192. 

This species is based on the right mandible of a single in- 
dividual from Gove county, Kansas, the catalogue number of 
which is 321. It is of about the size of E, shinnardi but diflfers 
from it in several characters. 

The dentary is very thin and presents nine or ten large teeth 
on the border above. The first of these is the largest, but this 
is smaller than in the species just mentioned. The second of 
these is the smallest, while those following are of about the 
same size. 


Left dentary of Enehodus parvus, Bight dentary of Enchodus amierodust 

natural size. nataral siEe. 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 379 

Enchodus amicrodus. 
Enchodus amicrodus Stewart, Kans. Univ. Quart., vol. vii a, p. 103. 

This species is represented by the type specimen only, which 
consists of the right dentary, the external side of which is ex- 
posed. The catalogue number of the specimen is 324. 

The principal character that distinguishes this species from 
the others belonging to this genus is found in the absence of a 
row of minute teeth on the external alveolar border. The 
dentary is shallow and supports nine or ten large teeth. The 
anterior of these teeth is slightly recurved at the apex, and the 
base does not seem to be expanded as in some of the other 
species. The external surface of this tooth seems to be non- 
striated. The following teeth are mostly broken away but their 
bases show them to have been irregular in size. 

Length of alveolar border 63 mm. 

Height of anterior tooth above border 10 

Distance from symphysis 5 

Depth at symphysis 6 

Enchodos, sp. Plate LXX, fig. 13. 

This species is represented by the remains of the mandiblea 
of several specimens, which may belong to E. dolichus. Aa 
Professor Cope did not characterize this portion in a way ta 
render it recognizable, it will have to remain in doubt until the 
specimen mentioned by Cope is more fully described. 

The dentary is rather elongated, and thin inferiorly. The 
alveolar border is slightly thickened, and bears teeth, of 
which those on the external side are very small, while those 
on the internal side are larger, less numerous. There are 
nine or ten of these large teeth, the anterior of which is the 
largest and slightly striated. The remaining eight or nine are 
non-striated, and extend farther back than do those on the ex- 
ternal row. The posterior extremity of the dentary is toothlesa 
and directed slightly upward, forming a slight coronoid process. 
The depth of the bone decreases rapidly toward the symphysis, 
where there are numerous bony tubercles for attaching the two 
jaws together. The external surface is smooth, with the excep* 

380 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

tioQ of several conspicuous striae, which extend backward along 
the middle of the side. 

The articular fits into a deep emargination in the dentary, 
and rises almost vertically from the cotylus. The bone is thin 
throughout, and is covered with rows of bony tubercles. The 
cotylus is very small, indicating a very weak articulation with 
the quadrate. 

Length of dentaiy 76.0 mm. 

Depth at coronoid 25.5 

Length of articular 60.0 

Length of first large tooth 16.5 


HoplopleuridcR Pictet and Humbert. 

Leptecodon rectus. Plate LXXIII. 

Lfptecodon rectus Williaton, Kans. Univ. Quart., vol. viii a, p. 113. 

Slender and elongate ; head elongate, the jaws slender, the 
anterior extremity in the specimen wanting. The hind end of 
the mandibles is represented by an impression situated below 
the posterior end of the skull. Teeth numerous, small, pointed, 
slender. The orbit is situated posteriorly ; is of moderate size 
and round. Scapular arch strong, the large opercular space in 
front showing indications of the thin opercular bones. Verte- 
brae about forty-five in number, elongate, more than three times 
as long as deep, much constricted in the middle. Pectoral fins 
small, composed of seven or eight rays. Ventral fin very small, 
situated about the middle of the vertebral column ; caudal fin 
small, the rays feeble, evidently cartilaginous, the outline in- 
dicated on the stone ; the shape of the fin is regular apparently, 
the angles produced. Other fins wanting or not preserved. 
The side of the body, as preserved, shows three longitudinal 
rows of large, firmly united scutes, apparently of the same 
number in each series as the vertebrae. The scutes are in the 


WiLLisTON.] Cretaceous Fishes. 381 

form of a double trapezium, with the V posterior, the middle 
raised into a well-marked carina, which runs from the head to 
the tail. Apparently there are five rows of these scutes on the 
body. At the front the topmost row is near the middle line, 
the lateral row has its lower edge over the line of the vertebrae, 
while the lowest row has the carina just below the pectoral fin. 
The scutes have a finely roughened appearance, due to minute 
rounded and shallow pits. There are no indications of small 
scutes on the body intermediate between the larger ones. 

LeD^th of fish, as preserved 240 mm. 

Estimated length 250 " 

Leng^th of vertebral column 175 " 

Greatest N^idth, just back of pectoral fin 27 '* 

Leogth of caudal fin, upper lobe 22 *' 

Length of pectoral fin 7 •• 

Length of ventral fin 9 " 

The specimen lies on the shell of a large Inoceramus, explain- 
ing its excellent preservation. Close by are the remains, as 
seen in the illustration, of several examples of a small fish of 
unknown affinities, hitherto undescribed. The horizon is the 
Niobrara Cretaceous of the Smoky Hill river. The specimen 
was collected by Mr. H. T. Martin in 1895. 

"The family Hoplopleuridfe was established by Pictet for 
fishes which were devoid of scales properly so-called, but which 
are protected on the back and sides by rows of scutes. The 
head is long and the jaws are provided with pointed teeth of 
unequal size. The bones of the head are frequently sculptured 
or granulose. The genera associated in this family by M. Pic- 
tet are : Dercetis Agassiz, Saurorhamphus Heckel, Leptotrachelus 
Von der Marck, Plinthophorus Guenther, Ettryophilus Pictet, Pe- 
largorhynchus Von der Marck. The fishes included in the genus 
Dercetis were considered by Agassiz to resemble the sturgeons in 
the arrangement of the dermal scutes, and were grouped among 
the ganoids. Heckel held the same opinion with respect to the 
position of Saurorhamphus, and Von der Marck also places the 
genera PeJargorhynchus and Leptotrachelus amongst the ganoids, 
but regards Ischyrocephalus as a teleostean. A careful review 
of the whole of the genera, assisted by additional specimens o 

382 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

Leptotrachelus [Dercetis] and Euryophiltis discovered in the Chalk 
of Mount Lebanon, convinced M. Pictet that they formed a 
group naturally associated, especially by the great analogy af- 
forded by the peculiar arrangement of the series of scutes, and 
that they formed a family of the teleosteans, to which he gave 
the above name.""^ 

Cope long ago described three species and two genera of this 
group of fishes from Dakota, which seem to have been over- 
looked by subsequent writers.*" Concerning the relationships, 
he says: *'The relationship of the family of dercetiform fishes 
has been discussed by various authors, especially by Pictet and 
Von der Marck. The former regards them as teleosts ; the 
latter as * ganoids.' As I do not adopt the division signified by 
the last name, I find Professor Pictet's view nearer to the point. 
The specimens indicate, further, that the Dercetidse belong to the 
Actinopteri, and probably to the order Hemibranchii. The only 
alternative is the order Isospondyli, and the characters which 
separate the two are not clearly shown in the specimens. Dis- 
tinct bones below the pectoral fins may be interclavicles, which 
belong to the Hemibranchii.'' 

The genus Trisenaspis, from the Niobrara of Dakota, there de- 
scribed, has the dorsal and ventral scutes triradiate, the median 
branch of the three directed anteriorly, together with numerous 
band-like scutes. Ichthyotringa Cope, from the same locality, has 
the body covered with small, round scales. The third species is 
Leptotrachelus longipennis Cope, in which the dermal scutes con- 
sist of median, dorsal and ventral rows of tripodal form. 

From all these, as well as other forms, the present genus seems 
distinct, though evidently nearest allied to Aspidopleurus Pictet 
and Humbert, from the Lebanon Cretaceous.*** 

137. DaTis, On the FosBil Fish of the Cretaceous Formations of ScandinaTia, Trans. Bo} al 
Dabl. SoOm IV. p. 428. 

188. BalL U. S. Geol. Sarv. Terr., IV, 67. 

189. Pictet and Humbert, Nout. rech. s. les. Poissons fossiles dn Mont Liban, p. lOB. pl. X, 
flff. 1 : Davis, On the Fossils Fishes of the Chalk of Mount Lebanon, Trans. Royal Soc., Ill, pL 
XKXVlII. flff. 4. 

Stewabt.] Cretaceous Fishes. 383 


The family Mugilidse is represented in our collection by only 
one genus, Syllsemus, and it is very doubtful if this belongs 
to it. In fact, it presents some characters which evidently do 
not belong to this family, which are the presence of the lat- 
eral line and more than four spines in the anterior dorsal fin. 
There are also more than twenty-four vertebrae, but it seems 
likely that this could hardly be called a family character. On 
the other hand, the absence of teeth seems to point to the Mu- 
gilidse, and for the present, at least, I think that it should be 
left in this family until more complete specimens are found 
which will determine its exact position. 

STLLJEMUS. Plate LXXII, fig. 2. 
Syll<Bmu8 Cope, Rep. U. S. Greol. Surv. Terr., vol. ii, p. 180. 

Cope has characterized this family as follows :"° ''A short, 
spinous dorsal fin. Ventral fins abdominal, posterior to the spi- 
nous dorsal. Pectoral fins subinferior in position. Coracoid 
bones forming a compressed, keeled body. Scales large, cycloid ; 
lateral line present, extending along the middle of the sides. 
Parietal bones less than epiotics, entirely separated by the 
supraoccipital. Frontal bones large, wide, their common suture 

** The opercular apparatus extends obliquely backward, while 
the mandible is produced forward. Hence the inferior part of 
the hyomandibular and the symplectic are directed obliquely 
forward. The opercular bones are, and their inferior borders 
reach the median line of the inferior side of the head." 

The body is covered with moderately thick scales, which are 
covered with fine concentric striae. The mandible is short, and 
the dentary apparently toothless. In some respects our speci- 
mens do not agree with Cope's, for there are evidently two 
dorsal fins in one of the specimens, which are separated from 
each other by a short space. The anterior of these is well de- 

•^^^-^^—■^»' —  I t m^m^m^^^m^^^  l ii   i ii li ■iil^— ■^■■a  ii ^^^^^  ^   i^^^i^^— — ^ ii i ^^M^^^^ 

140. Rep. U. S. Gtool. Surv. West 100th Mer., yol. IV, 1877, p. 26. 

384 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

veloped, but the posterior was probably composed of only a few 
feeble spines, which were probably not preserved in the speci- 
men described by Professor Cope. 

SyllflBmas latifrons. Plate LXXII, fig. 2. 

Syllcemus latifrons Ck>pe, Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr., vol. II, p. 181. 

This species is represented by only two specimens in our col- 
lection, from the Fort Benton Cretaceous, the exact locality of 
which is not known. 

The body is elongate and slightly larger than that of Leptich- 
thys. The head is broad, flat, and, so far as can be determined, 
the frontals form the greater part of the roof of the skull. They 
are separated medially by a well-marked suture and possess no 
markings. The orbits are large and the skull is rather acutely 
pointed in front. The dentaries are short and seem to be with- 
out teeth. The opercular bones are large and are directed well 
downward. The pectoral fin is situated rather inferiorly, and 
is made up of numerous small rays, fifteen to twenty in num- 
ber, which are strongly bent at the proximal ends. The ante- 
rior dorsal fin is short, and is made up of thirteen or more rays. 
The posterior dorsal is small, and with but few rays, which 
seem to be well separated from each other. The pelvic fin is in 
too poor a state of preservation to determine its characters, and 
the caudal fin is broken away in both of our specimens. Verte- 
brae longer than deep, about thirty-six present. 

Length of specimen to base of caudal fin (estimated) 315 mm. 

Length of specimen to base of dorsal fin 132 

Length of specimen to base of pectoral fin 90 

Depth of body at anterior dorsal fin 68 

Length of mandibular rami 39 

Length of skull 70 •« 

Width of skull posteriorly 33 '* 


Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 385 


After hHving treated the teleost fishes of the Kansas Creta- 
ceous to as full an extent as our material will allow, I think 
it will be well now to devote a little space to tables show- 
ing their range in geological time, as well as to compare the 
fauna with those of some of the other principal localities that 
have yielded Cretaceous fishes. This work has already been 
done with the fish faunas of Syria and Westphalia by Doctor yon 
der Marck, in his able paper entitled *' Uber die Verwandschaf t 
der syrischen Fischschichten mit denen der obern Kreide West- 
falens," but as yet I believe no work of this nature has been 
done with the fish faunas of America and England. In the 
present attempt, the selachians and ganoids will be omitted, as 
they are beyond the scope of the foregoing paper. The species 
of each genus are also omitted, as the other localities are so 
widely separated from America as to have no great similarity 
in this respect. The tables of Syrian, Westphalian and Eng- 
lish genera have been copied from the works of Davis, von der 
Marck, and A. S. Woodward. The list of American genera has 
been collected from the various government reports and scien- 
tific journals in which they have been described, and is thought 
to be fairly complete, although there may be a few genera which 
have escaped my notice. 

Notwithstanding the fact that very little has been done on 
Cretaceous ichthyology in America during the past two de- 
cades, twenty-six genera have already been described from its 
deposits, and from the rich fish faunas of some of the localities 
we may expect that in after-years the number will be mate- 
rially increased, when more carefully and systematic collections 
are made with this end in view. 

Following is a table showing the distribution of the American 
genera in time, the most of which have been found in Kansas : 


University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

Cretaceous No. 


AncistrodoD. . . 




Cimolichthys . 



Enchodus , 


Ichthyodectes. . 

Ischy rhiza 


Leptichthys. . . . 


Pachyrhizodus . 




Saurocephalus . 







XiphactinuB . . . 






Pachyrhizodus is probably represented from the Fort Pierre by 
a fragment of a maxilla or dentary found by myself near Lisbon, 
Kan., during the summer of 1898 ; the specimen is in a very 
poor state of preservation, but bears a close resemblance to this 
genus. Anogmius is represented from the Fort Benton by two 
poorly preserved specimens, which were identified by Professor 
Cope as Anogmius aratus. 

Next is given a table of genera of teleost fishes from the Up- 
per Cretaceous deposits of Hakel and Sahel-Alma, in Syria, 
Baumberge and Sendenhorst, in Westphalia, England, and the 
United States. 


Cretaceous Fishes . 


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{ III 

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If '■ 


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IL. . .. 

sell? I II 

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si to 

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Is 411 ill 


University Geological Survey of Kansas, 






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Cretaceous Fishes. 


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390 University Oeological Survey of Kansas, 

In the foregoing tables, we see that there have been twenty- 
eight genera of teleost fishes found in the Upper Cretaceous 
deposits of North America, twenty-nine from England, twenty- 
eight from Westphalia, twenty-six from Sahel-Alma, and twen- 
ty-two from Hakel. Of these, we find that England has thirteen 
genera which are found in the American Cretaceous deposits, 
Westphalia two, Sahel-Alma four, and Hakel three. 

The genus Stratodus has been reported from the Chalk of Eng- 
land by A. S. Woodward,"^ who has described one species, S. 
anglicuSf from Sussex. From the figures given in plate I, I am 
inclined to think that it is rather doubtful if this is Stratodus^ as 
the dentary (fig. 4) is entirely diflferent from that portion of S. 
apicaliSf described in the foregoing pages. There is also hardly 
enough of the palatine (fig. 3a) to determine its exact relation- 

UL Proc. GeoL Assoe., yoL X, pp. 814, 815. 


In justice to Mr. Stewart, it should be said that his absence 
in the field during the printing of the foregoing paper has 
made it impossible for him to see the proof. Its correction, 
therefore, has devolved wholly upon myself, and I cannot hope 
to have done as well as would have the author. While in the 
printer's hands an important paper on the Kansas Cretaceous 
fishes was received from its author, Mr. F. B. Loomis,* too 
late to be recognized in the text. A brief review of this article 
is given below by Mr. Stewart, and the present writer has added 
thereto a list of the species and genera treated by Mr. Loomis 
in systematic sequence. — S. W. Williston. 

A recent article on the Kansas Cretaceous fishes, by Mr. 
F. B. Loomis,* reaches me while engaged in field-work, where 
I do not have access to the literature or the manuscript of 
the foregoing article on the Cretaceous fishes of Kansas, and 
while the work itself was rapidly going through the press. I 
can, therefore, make only the briefest and most general com- 
ments upon the paper. As a whole, the paper is to be com- 
mended, though I am inclined to think that the author has 
erred in some instances, which I may here point out briefly, 
reserving a more extended commentary upon the paper for a 
more propitious time. 

On page 229 of the cited work, the author describes, under 
the name of Thryptodus, a large part of the skull of a fish which 
I am confident belongs to the genus Anogmius, as herein de- 
scribed. The Kansas Museum specimen shows the top of the 
skull well preserved with the exception of the ethmoid and 

• Die Anatomie and die Verwandsehaft der Ganoid nod Knochenflsehe aus der Kreide For- 
mation Yon Kansas, Paleontugrapbica, fid. XCIV. 


392 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

nasals, and all of which are so closely associated with the 
mandibles, vertebrse and other bones belonging unquestionably 
to Anogmius that there can be doubt of their generic identity. 

The bone figured on plate XXII (fig. 5) , as a third cerato- 
branchial of the right side of the new genus Pseudothryptodus^ 
appears to be the anterior internal portion of a maxilla of Anog- 
mius. The bones shown in figures 4, 6 and 7 I have seen among 
our specimens in a fragmentary condition. 

On page 252 and plate XXV, the author figures and described 
a portion of the skull of Saurocephalus broadheadi Steward (sic) *. 
I have described but one species of Sauroceplialus {S. d^ntatvs)^ 
which, on the preceding page, the author places as a synonym 
of S. lanciformis Harlan. It seems evident that the author has 
in some way got my two species, Saurocephalus dentatus and 
Saurodon broadheadi, badly mixed. Later I will show conclu- 
sively wherein S. dentatus differs from S. lanciformis. Under 
the name Osmeroides the author describes material which I have 
placed in the genus Anogmius. Whether or not the author is 
right in doing so, I cannot say. I may be permitted to state, 
however, that Dr. A. S. Woodward, after an examination of the 
material in the University Museum described in the foregoing 
pages, expressed his opinion that the genus to which it belonged 
was different from anything that he knew. Possibly a more 
thorough examination of better material might induce Doctor 
Woodward to reverse this opinion. Nevertheless, the opinion 
of so able an ichyologist is worthy of much consideration. 

On page 265 is described '^Pachyrhizodus ferox Steward." Evi- 
dently intended for Pachyrhizodus velox Stewart. 

The name Enchodidae is inadmissible on etymological grounds 
— it should be Enchodontidse. A. Stewart. 

KiMMSwiCK, Mo., November 3, 1900. 

'Everywhere throaghoat this paper, and in nnmerous places, Mr. Stewart's name is wrongly 
spelled.— 8. w. w. 

Cretaceous Fishes. 393 

List of Kansas Fishes Described and Fignred by Mr. Loomis, cf. c. 


Protosphyrcena penetrans Coiw, p. 224. 

obliquidens Loomis, p. 225. 
tenuis Loomis, p. 225. 
nitida Cope, p. 227. 


Thryptodua Loomis, p. 229. 

zitteli, p. 234. 

rotundus Loomis, p. 235. 
Pseudothryptodus Loomis, p. ^5. 

intermeditAS Loomis, p. 236. 


Ichthyodectes occidentaVs Leidy, p. 242. 

hamatua Cope, p. 243. 
multidentatus Cope, p. 243. 
ctenodon Cope, 244. 
anaides Cope, p. 244. 
Portheus Cape, p. 246. 
Saurodon Hays, p. 247. 

phlehotomua Cojw, p. 248. 
pygmceus Loomis, p. 248. 
Saurocephalus Harlan, p. 249. 

lanciformis Harlan, p. 251. 
broadheadi Stewart, p. 252. 


Syntegmodua Loomis, p. 252. 

altus Loomis, p. 253. 


Oemeroides Agassiz, p. 255. 

polymicrodus Stewart, p. 256. 
evotutua Cope, p. 257. 


Pachyrhizodua Dixon, p. 258. 

caninua Coi>e, p. 262. 
latimentum Cope, p. 263. 
aheari Cope, p. 264. 
fepitopaia Cope, p. 264. 
leptognathua Stewart, p. 264. 
ferox (sic) Stewart, p. 265. 
curvatua Loomis, p. 265. 


Cimolichthya Leidy, p. 267. 

nepceolica Cope, p. 271. 

merilli Cope, p. 272. 

aemiancepa Cope, p. 273. 

contracta Cope, p. 273. 
Enchodua Cope, p. 278. 

petroaua Cope, p. 278. 
dolichua Cope, p. 279. 
ahumardi Leidy, p. 280. 
amicrodua Stewart, p. 280. 

26— vi 


Kansas Cretaceous Sea. (Page 234.) 


Figs. 1, la, lb,—Lamna sulcata Geinitz, after Leidy, natural sise. 

Figs. 2, 2a.—Scapanorhynehus rhaphiodon (tezana) Agaasiz, natural sue, 
after Leidy. 

Fig. 3. — Leploatyrax bictupidatus Willist., from the side, natural sise. 

Fig. ^.—ScylliorhinuB (Latnnaf) graoilU Willist., enlarged. 

Figs. 7, 8. — ScyUiorhinuB planidenB Willist., enlarged. 

Fig. 5. — Scylliorhinus rugosus Willist., enlarged. 

Figs. 9, 10.-— Fragments of undetermined teeth from Kiowa shales. 

Fig. H.—Calodus atantoni Willist, imperfect right splenial dentition, natural 

Fig. H.—CdRlodua brownii Ck>pe, imperfect left splenial dentition, natural size. 
Figs. 13, 13a. — Amphibian atlas from Laramie Cretaceous. 

Fig. 14.— Undetermined shark tooth (Coraxf) from Benton of Colorado, en- 

Figs. 15, 15a.'-L€pt08tyrax bicuspldatus Willist., natural size. 

Middle figure of plate— Selachian verbebra {Coraxf) from Niobrara Cretaceous. 

Ptychodu8 morioni Mantell, natural size. 


Fig. "L—Ptychodus mortoni Mantell, part of dentition of upper jaw, as pre- 
served in the matrix, four-sevenths natural size. 

Figs. 2, ^—Seapanorhynchtts rhaphiodon Agassiz, natural size. 

Fig. S.—Lamna appendiculata Agassiz, natural size. 

Fig. 5. — laurua mantelU Agassiz, natural size. 

Fig. 6,—'C(Blodu8 etantoni Willist., crowns of two teeth from internal row, 
lower jaw, much enlarged. 

Fig. 7. — Leptoatyrax bicuapidatuB Willist., enlarged. 


Stbwart.] CretaceouB Fishes. S9& 


Fig. 1. — Ptychoduu mortoniy end of superior dentition, continuous with left 
end of fig. 1, plate XXVI, but less reduced. 

Fig. %—Ptychodu8 mortoni^ a transverse series of teeth, arranged more loosely, 
from near the right extremity of fig. 1, plate XXVI, about two-thirds natural 
size; the upper series belong one at each end of the lower series. 


Ptychodus martini Willist., three-fourths natural size; the teeth were disooy- 
ered disassociated. 


Figs. 1, 2, 3.— 'Ptychodus, sp. indet. 

Fig. A.—PtychodtiS oecidentalis Leidy, natural size. 

Figs. 5-S,— Ptychodus anonymus Willist., natural size. 

Fig. 9,— Ptychodus poly gyrus Buckl., a little enlarged. 

Figs. 10-15. — Ptychodus whippM Marcou, nearly natural size. 

Figs. 16-18, 20-22, 24. — Ptychodus anonymus Willist., nearly natural size. 

Figs. 19, 23, 25, 26, 21.— Ptychodus, spp. 


Figs. 1-3. — ^Undetermined lanmids from Kiowa shales, Lower Cretaceous, en- 
larged one-half. 

Fig. 4. — f Mesodon ahrasus Cragin, enlarged one-half. 

Figs. 5, 6." Ikimna, sp., from Kiowa shales, enlarged one-half. 

Figs. 7, S,—Corax curvatus Willist., from without and within, enlarged nearly 
two diameters. 

Figs. 9-11.— f Ptychodus janewayii Ck>pe, enlarged. 

Fig. 12.— Zamna, sp., enlarged nearly two diameters. Kiowa shales. 

Fig. 1^,— Ptychodus poly gyrus, from the side, natural size (the same toothi 
figured on plate XXIX, fig. 9). 

Fig. 13. — Ptychodus oecidentalis, enlarged nearly two diameters. 


Figs. l-'40»—Coraz falcatus Agassiz, about nine-tenths natural size; isolated 
teeth from many individuals. 

Figs. 41-46, 60-52. — Isurus mantelli Agassiz, nearly natural size. 

Figs. 47-49. — Lamna mppendiculata Roemer, nearly natural size. 

Fig. 53. — Ptychodus, sp., enlarged one-fourth. 

396 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 


Figs. 1-1/. — Corax falcatua Agaseiz, from a single individual. 
Figs. 2-2L— Taunts manteHij from a single individual. 
Figs. 3-3c. — Lamna a2^pendiculata. 
Figs. 4, 5. — Scapanorhynchus rhaphiodon Agassiz. 
Figs. 6, l.^Isurus mantelli. 
All six-sevenths natural size. 


BikxxW ot Xiphactinus audax Leidy, one- third natural size: pmx, premaxilla; 
mXf maxilla; cfen, dentary; cfar, dermarticular; eth^ ethmoid ; /r, frontal ; 
pa, parietal ; soc^ supraoooipital ; epoty epiotic ; ptot^ pterotic ; pa, parietal ? ; 
prf^ prefontal ; pfr^ postf rontal ; pal^ palatine ; sor^ suborbital ; «t<or, supra- 
orbital; 8C, sclerotic ring; p«, parasphenoid ; «u, jugal?; hm^ hyomandibu- 
lar; pop, preopercular; op, opercular; «op, suboperoular; g, quadrate; /,f, 
vertebrae; n, n, yi, neural spines. 


Left mandible of Xiphactinua audax Leidy, external view, one-half natural 
size: cfen, dentary ; cfar, dermarticular. 


Left mandible of Xiphactinua audax Leidy, internal view, one-half natural size: 
c/en, dentary ; dar^ dermarticular ; auar^ autarticular ; ap, supposed splenial. 


Xiphactinua audax Leidy, one-half natural size. 
Fig. 1.— Sclerotic ring. 
Fig. 2. — Premaxilla. 
Fig. 3.— Maxilla. 


MaxillsB, premaxillsB and mandibles of Xiphactinua audax Leidy, one-fourth 
natural size, showing the great individual variation in these parts. 


No. 155. Maxilla, premaxilla and mandible of Xiphactinua hrachygnathua 


Buperior maxillary condyles of Xiphactinua audax Leidy, one-thiid natural 
Bize, showing variation in the same. 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 397 


Figs. 1, 2, 3. — VertebrsB of Xiphactinua audax Leidy (after Hay), ooe-sixth 
natural size; ana^ basal piece of neural arch; na^ neural arch; cen^ centra. 

Fig. 4. — Palato-quadrate arch of Xiphactinus audax Leidy, one-third natural 
size: pal, palatine; mpg, mesopterygoid ; mtpg, metapterygoid; pt, ptery- 
goid; 9, quadrate; «^m, symplectic. 

Fig. 5.— Hyomandibular of XiphacHnus audax Leidy, one- third natural size. 

Fig. 6. — Pelvic aotinosts of XiphacHnus audax Leidy, one-third natural size. 

Fig. 7. — Ceratohyal of XiphacHnus audax Leidy, one-third natural size. 


Opercular bones of XiphacHnus audax Leidy, one- third natural size. 
Fig. 1. — Operculum. 
Fig. 2.— Preopercular. 
Fig. 3. — Supposed suboperculum. 


Cranial bones of XiphacHnus audax Leidy, one-half natural size. 
Figs. 1, 2, 3, 5. — Bones of uncertain position. 
Fig. 4. — Probably a fragmentary coracoid. 


Shoulder-girdle of XiphacHnus audax Leidy, one-fourth natural size. 

Fig. 1. — External view: cle, cleithrum; «c, scapula. 

Fig. 2. — Internal view of upper end of cleithrum and preooracoid, pcor. 

Figs. 3, 4. — XiphacHnus hrachygnathus Stewart: pmx, premaxilla; max^ 
maxilla; den, dentary ; dar, dermarticular — one- third natural size. 


Bones of XiphacHnus audax Leidy. 

Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. — Fin-spines and rays, one fourth natural size. 

Figs. 6, 7. — Hypural bones, one-half natural size. 

Figs. 8, 9, 10.— Basiosts from pectoral fin, one-half natural size. 

Figs. 11, 12.— External and internal view of neural arch from near the skull, 
one-half natural size. 

398 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 


Bones of Xiphaciinus audax Leidy, one-half natural size. 

Figs, la, b, c— Superior, anterior and posterior views of first anterior verte- 

Fig. 2. — Side view of second anterior vertebra. 

Figs. 3, 4, 5.— Third, fourth and sixth anterior vertebrae, seen from the side. 

Figs. 6, 8. — Haemal arches and spines. 

Figs. 7a, 6. — Posterior and side views of vertebrae from near the extremity of 
caudal fin: cen, centra; hs, haemal aroh and spine. 

Fig. 9.— Superior view of maxilla and premaxilla. 


Fig. 1. — Xiphactinu8 audax Leidy, portion of caudal fin, showing the upturned 
condition of the vertebral centrae in this region, about one-half natural size. 

Fig. 2. — Top view of skull of Ichthyodectes hamatus Cope. 


Figs, la, 6, c. — External and internal views of maxilla and side view of pre- 
dentary of Saurodon broadheadi Stewart, two- thirds natural size. 

Fig. 2. — Dentary of Xiphactinus lowii Stewart, two-thirds natural size. 


Ichthyodectes anaides Cope, one-half natural size. 

Fig. 1.— Skull: e<^, ethmoid; /r, frontal; «o, supraoccipital ; epo^ epiotic; 
pto^pterotic; po/r, postfrontal; p/r, prefrontal ; op^, opisthotic; pro, 
prootic; 6o, basioccipital ; t;, vertebra; 68, basisphenoid; par^ parasphe- 

Figs. 2a, 6. — Maxilla and dentary. 

Fig. 3. — Hyomandibular, probably belonging to this species. 

Fig. 4. — Skull of Ichthyodectea or Oillicus^ one-half natural size: pa^ 
parietal ; other lettering as in fig. 1. 

Figs. 5, 6, 7. — Mandible, posterior end of maxilla and quadrate of Ichthyo- 
dectes ctenodon f Cope, one-half natural size. 


Ichthyodectea hamatua Cope, one-half natural size. 
Figs, la, 6. — Side and top views of maxilla. 
Figs. 2, 3. — Top and side views of palatine. 
Fig. 4. — Preoperoulum. 
Fig. 5.— Quadrate. 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 899 

PLATE Ij— continued. 

Figs. 6a, &. — Posterior and top views of first anterior vertebra. 

Figs. 7a, &. — Side and top views of maxilla and premazilla Ichthyodectes 
cruentis Hay. 

Figs. 8a, b. — External and internal views of premaxilla. 

Fig. 9. — Front view of dentary bones. 

Figs. 10a, &.— Top and side views of maxilla of type specimen from Professor 
Hay's collection. 


Ichthyodectes acanthicus ( f ) Cope, one-half natural size. 

Figs. 1, 2.— Superior and side views of maxilla. 

Figs. 3, 4. — External and internal views of mandible: den, dentary; aut, 
autarticular; der, dermarticular. 

Figs. 5a, b. — External and internal views of premaxilla. 

Fig. 6. — Portion of scapula. 

Fig. 7. — Palatine seen from side. 

Fig.^8, — Side view of vertebrae. 

Figs. 9a, &, c« d, — Pectoral fin-spines and rays. 

Fig. 10. — Pelvic actinosts. 

Fig. 11. — Portion of caudal fin, probably of this species. 

Fig. 12. — Tchihyodfctes ctenodon Cope, oeratohyal. 

Fig. 13. — Bone of uncertain position. 


OillictM arcuatus Cope, one-half natural size. 

Fig. 1. — Skull: ethj ethmoid; /r, frontal; pa, parietal; so, supraoooipital ; 
epOf epiotic; ptot, pterotic; pofr, postf rental; hmnd, hyomandibular ; 
p/r, prefrontal; 8C, sclerotic ring. 

Fig. 2. — Maxilla, external view. 

Figs. 3, 4, 5.— External and internal views of mandibles. 

Fig. 6.— Ceratohyal. 

Fig. 7.— Quadrate. 

Fig. 8. — Palatine and mesopterygoid. 

Fig. 9. — Preoperculum. 

Fig. 10.— Fragment of sclerotic ring. 


Palato- quadrate arch and opercular bones of GHllicus arcuatus Cope, about 
seven-tenths natural size: g, quadrate; mtpg, metapterygoid ; pg^ ptery- 
goid; pop, preoperculum; op, operculum. 

400 University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

OilUcus arcuatue {f) Ck>pe. Caudal fin, slightly under one-half natural size. 


Saurodon xfphirostris Stewart, about three-fifths natural size: pden^ pre- 
dentary; den, dentary; dar, dermarticular ; max, maxilla; pmax, pr»- 
maxilla; eth, ethmoid; /r, frontal; pfr, prefrontal; pa and ptot, pterotic; 
«rpo^, sphenotic; Am, hyomandibular; qu, quadrate; na, nasal; prop, pre- 
operculum; op, operculum; pal, palatine; sc, sclerotic ring; i,f, J, ver- 


Saurodon ferox Stewart. 

Fig. 1. — Upper and lower jaws, one-half natural size: max, maxilla; pmax^ 
premaxilla; den, dentary; pden, predentary; dar, dermarticular. 

Fig. 2. — A small toothed element, the exact location of which is not known, 
natural size. 

Fig. 3. — Right quadrate, one-half natural size. 

Fig. 4. — Ceratohyal, one-half natural size. 

Fig. 5. — Centra of first anterior vertebra, natural size. 

Fig. 6. — Glenoid portion of scapula, natural size. 

Figs, 7, 8. — Portions of pectoral fin-spines. 


Saurodon ferox Stewart. 

Fig. 1. — One-half natural size:, maxilla; pm>a, premaxilla; den, den- 
tary; pden, predentary; dar, dermarticular; auar, autarticular. 

Figs. 2, 3. — Internal view of right quadrate and hyomandibular. 

Figs. 4, 5. — Saurodon pMebotomus Cope, external view of right maxilla 
and mandible. 


Figs, la, b, — Premaxillce of Protosphyrasna occidentalis Stewart, natural size. 

Figs. 2a, &.— Outline and external markings of rostrum of Protosphyrcena ben- 
toniana Stewart ; the first natural size, the second one-fourth natural size. 

Figs. 3a, &.— Maxilla, premaxilla and dentary of Saurocephalus dentatus 
Stewart, one-half natural size. 

Figs. 4a, &.— Internal view of maxilla, premaxilla and dentary of same. 

Stewart. J CretaceoiLS Fishes. 401 


JBmpo nepceolica Cope, one-third natural size. 

Fig. 1.— Top view of skull: eth^ ethmoid; /r, frontal; po, pojtorbital; «o, 
supraoocipital ; eo, exoccipital. 

Fig. la. — Pectoral fin-rays. 

Fig. 2. — Inferior view of skull. 

Fig. 3a. — Palatine. 

Fig. 36.— Mandible: den, dentary; art, articular. 

Fig. 4. — External view of dentary. 

Fig. 5.— Ethmoid seen from below. 

Figs. 6a, bf c. — Hyoid bones. 

Fig. 7.— Quadrate. 

Fig. 8. — Preoperculum. 

Fig. 9. — Operculum. 


StratoduB apicalis Cope, slightly over one-half natural size : ak, top of skull ; 
pmx, den, dentary ; pal, palatine. 


Stratodua apicalia Cope. 

Fig. 1. — Top view of skull, one-half natural size: /r, frontal; pa, parietal; 
pt, pterotic; eo, exoccipital. 

Empo nepcBolica Cope, one-half natural size. 

Fig. 2. — VertebrsB seen from the side. 

Fig. 3. — Ethmoid seen from below. 

Fig. 4. — Hyomandibular. 

Fig. 5.— Piemaxilla( ?). 
JBmpo aemianceps Cope, one-half natural size. 

Figs. 6a, b. — Palatine, inferior and side views. 

Fig. 7.— Mandible. 

Fig. 8.— Ceratohyal. 

Fig. 9. — Posterior view of cotylus of articular. 
Empo lisbonenais Stewart. 

Figs. 10a, b, — Inferior and side views of palatine. 

Proioaphyrcena gigaa Stewart, slightly under one- third natural size. 

402 University Oeological Survey of Kansas. 


Fin-spines of ProtosphyrcRna penetranB {fU slightly under one-half natural 


Anoginius polymicrodus Stewart, one-half natural size: den^ dentaiy; art^ 
articular; mx^ maxilla; pmx^ premaxilla; 9, quadrate; cA, ceratohyal; «c, 
sclerotic ring; a^a^ a, a, dermal plates; op, operculum; pop, preoperculum; 
iop, interoperculum ; 8op, suboperculum ; or, supposed orbital bones. 


Anogmiua polymicrodus Stewart. 

Fig. 1. — Top view of skull, one-half natural size : fr, frontal ; po^ postorbital ; 
pa, parietal; pt, pterotic: hnind, hyomandibular. 

Fig. 2a, &.~FirBt anterior vertebra, posterior and superior views. 

Fig. 3a, b. — Abdominal vertebrsB, top and side views. 

Fig. 4.~Premazilla. 

Fig. 5.— Condyle of quadrate. 

Fig. 6. — Superior view of cotylus. 

AnogTniua evolutus Cope. — Superior view of cotylus. 

Figs. 8, 9, 10.— Opercle and other bones, probably of Enchcdus, 

AnogmiuB pofymiorodua Stewart. — Caudal fin, about one-half natural size. 


Anogmitia evolutuj Cope, slightly under natural size: den, dentary; pal, 
supposed palatine; mx, fragmentary maxilla; phar, supposed phaiyngeal 
bone of A, pofymicrodus Stewart; a, bone of uncertain position. 


PachyrhizoduB latimentum f Cope, one-half natural size. 
Fig. 1. — ^Right mandible: den, dentary; art, articular. 
Fig. 2.— Premaxilla. 
Fig. 3.— Maxilla. 
Fig. 4.— Quadrate. 

Fig. 5. — Condyle of quadrate, seen from below. 
Figs. 6a, b, c. — Bones of uncertain position. 
Fig. 7.— Vertebrae. 
Fig. 8. — Glenoid portion of scapula. 

Stewart.] Cretaceous Fishes. 403 


Fig. l.—Pachyrhizodu8 leptognathus Stewart, natural size: den^ dentary; 
aH, articular; g, quadrate; jpop, preoperculum; op, operculum ? ; a, bone 
of uncertain position. 

Fig. 2.^Pachyrhizodit8 velox Stewart, one-half natural size; ma;, maxilla; 
den, dentary; art, articular; hy, bone of uncertain position, probably a 
ceratohyal, natural size. 


Pig. l.—Paohyrhizodu8 leptopsis Cope,— Internal view of dentary, one-half 
natural size. 

Fig. 2. — Superior view of dentary of Pachyrhizodue oaninus Cope. 

Fig. 3. — Premaxilla. 

Fig. 4.— Bone of uncertain position. 

Figs. 5, 6. — Superior and posterior views of vertebra. 

Figs. 7, 8.— Posterior and side views of basioccipital of Pachyrhizodus lati- 
mentum f Cope. 

Figs. 9, 10. — Superior and posterior vertebrae of same. 

Fig. 11. — Palatine of EnchodiAS petroaua Cope. 

Fig. 12. — Palatine of EnchoduB dolichua Cope. 

Fig. 13.— Dentary of Enchodua, sp. 

Fig. 14.— Internal view of dentary of Enchodua dirua- Leidy. 

Shoulder-girdle and pectoral fin of Pachyrhizodua, about one-half natural size. 


Fig. 1,—Leptichthya agilia Stewart, about one-half natural size. 
Fig. 2. — Sylcemua latifrona Cope, slightly under one-half natural size. 

Leptecodon rectua Williston, about three-fifths natural size. 

GeolodcBl SuTsr o( K 

VoLQa VI. Plats XXIV. 




UulTanltT Qeolosleal Sorrer a< lanui. Tolviu VI. Plat> SXT. 


nnlvsnity Qeologiosl Sarrej of Kviuj. Tot-DHB VI. Plitb SXVl. 

UniTenitT QmloBicBl Snrrej ot Kbdui. VOI.DKI VI. Pi.ATa XSTU, 


CDiveraiU Oeologrickl Bamr ot Eanaas. Voll'HB VI. Plitb XXVIII. 

PTYCH0DU8 MARTINI., O-ologiwa SnrTW rf Kmnw^ 

I VI. Flat* XXIX- 


tlniTenltf UsoIokIekI Sarray of Kmaeai. Volume VI. Plate SXS. 

LAMNA, 1-3, 5, 6, 12. MESODON ?, 4. CORAX, 7, 8. PTYCHODUS, 9, 10, 11. 1.1, U. 

UoiTenit; Owiltwleal Sorraj at Ksnwa. Toluh* VI. Platb XXXI. 

CORAX, 1-40. I3URUS, 41-lC, 50, 52. PTYCHODUS, 53. 

Dninnlty Oeolosioal Surrey of Kanras. 

VoLDKB VI. Platb XXXriI. 


OoItbi^»» Q«d(wio»l Sumjr of KviMt. VoLDm VI. pLiiB XXXVIU. 

.; -^-*^jJi(kJ^-^ 




Otfvanitr Qsolosieal Sarnj of Kaaus. 




DalTenit; OulnalfBl 

VoLcm TI. Fi.An SLI. 


DDiranity Qaological Sarrey ot Kaiuat. Voluiii Tt. pLVtm XLII. 


UniTeni^ Owlofrieal Bamr ol K>D-ar. Vulchi VI, Platb XLIIl. 


OatTaralti Oeological Sarrer of Kbdbm. Toldmb VI. Plati SLIT. 


DnlTenity Qaolofical Barrey of EanitB. 

VoLUKl VI. Platk XLTI. 


Unlrenlty Oeoloaieal Surref ol Eanug. 

TOLltn TI. Platb XLVII'^. 


DniTsnitj Osoloslml Sanvj ol Kuua*> 


DniTBnity Qtolotietl Barreji ot Ka&Mi. Voldh* TI. Pi.ats SUS. 


CoiiBniU QaoJogleal Snrrer of Kanaai. 

VoLOMi VI. Plath ti. 


UniTanlt; Qeolosioal Suftm of Kbhus. Votnici VI. Platk LIII. 

UaireraitT Qeolosietl Snrrej of Kautu. 


Vnlnnit)! Geoloctoal SarTer ot KsDaai. 

ToLCMi YI. Plati LXI. 

8TRATODU8, 1. EMPO, 2-10. 

Ualranitr Oeological Surrar ot Kmant. T01.DNR TI. Plats LXII. 


DulTsnlty G»olo«lc«l Sarrej of KiniiRa. VoLDMI TI. Pi^ii L 

/. i. 


Uninnltr O«olocloal Sarny ot Katuaa. 

YoLDMS TI. Plate LXV. 

DaiTerelty GeoloBieal Sarvet oF KaDEas. Yolche VI. Plats LXYL 

Unirenity Qaologlcal Barrer of K 



J Qeolocliial Surrer of Kan 

Vol CHI Vt. Flatb LSS. 


j^i I 





a^siocriDUs magnificus 

Agassi zocrinidic 

Agassi zocrin us 0, 



Allorisma 8, 





leaveDwor then sis 





Amblysiphonella 5, 


Ambocwlia 7, 





Anogmius 340, 




ADomites punctatus 


Anthozoa 5, 





Archseocidaris 6, 











































Archseocidarida* 6 

Asiphonida 7, 8 

Astartella 8, 16:5 

vera 163 

Astartida* 8 

Athyridiv 7 

Athyris argentia 105 

differentis 105 

hirsuta 104 

parvirostris 104 

planosulcata 104 

sublamellosa 104 

subtilita 105 


Aucella hausmani 137 

Aulacorhynchus 6, 89 

millipunctatus 89 

Aulopora 5, 2.3, 24 

anna 23 

prosseri 23 

Auloporida' 5 

Avicula longii 125 

pinna»formis 143 

rectilateraria 125 

sulcata 126 

Aviculida* 7 

Aviculopecten 7, 114 

carboniferus 117 

chesterensis 120 

eoxanus 124 

fasciculatus 119 

germanus 123 

hertzeri 121, 123 

interlineatus 1 16 

maccoyi 118 

occidentalis 114 

providencesis 119 

rectilaterarius 115 

sculptilis 122 


University of Kansas Geological Survey. 

Aviculopinna 7, 143 

americana 143 

illiDoiensis 113 

Azophyllum 5, 20 

rudis 20 


Beede, J. W., article by 3 

Beryx multidentatus 347 

polymicrodus 342 

BourDe, W. 258 

Brachiopoda 6, 7, 51 


Camerophoria globulina 93 

Campophyllum 5, 19 

flezuosum 19 

torquiam 19 

vermiculare 19 

CardiidsB 8 

Cardiomorpha 8, 165  

missourieDsis 165 

CeriocriDUs 6, 32 

craigi 32, 38 

fayettensis 32 

hemisphericus 31, 36, 38 

missouriensis 35 

moDticulatus 33 

Chaenomya 8, 172 

leavenworthensi'i 172 

ChsBtets 5, 17, 25 

milleporaceus 25 

ChaBtetidse 5 

Chonetes 6, 67 

granulifer 68, 69, 72 

geinitziana 68 

glaber 68 

laevis 68 

mesolobus 3, 68, It 

millepuDCtatus 89 

mucronatus 69 

smithi 69 

verneuiliaDus 68, 72 

Cimolichthys 393 

semianceps 338 

Bulcatus 332 

Cladochonus 5, 24 

bennetti 24 

Classification of fossils 5 

Cleidophorus occidental is 136 

Cleiothyris 7, 104 

roissyi 3, 104 

sublamellosa 104 

ClupeidcB 371 

Cnidaria 5 

Contents vi 

Coelenterata 5 

Coelodus brownii 254 

stantoni 255 

Concentricae 67 

Conocardium 8, 164 

parrishi 164 

Corals 16 

Corax 252 

curvatus 253 

falcatus 252 

Coryoella 13 

Crania 6, 57 

carbonaria 57 

modesta 57 

Craniidae 6 

Cretaceous fishes, described by 

families 259 

Cretaceous, Upper 9 

Crinoidea 6, 26 

Crinoids 26 

Cyathaxonia 17, 18 

distorta 18 

Cyathophyllidse 5 

Cyathophyllum 19 

Cypricardia wheeleri 155 

Cypricardinia 8, 164 

carbonaria 164 


Daptinus broadheadi 313 

phlebotomus 312 

Delocrinus hemisphericus 35 

missouriensis 35 

Delthyris 67 

Derbya 6, 57 

affinis 59, 61 

bennetti 59 

broadheadi 59 

crassa 62 

cymbula 60 

General Index — Vol. F/. 


Derbya : 

keokuk 63 

robueta 53, 63 

Dercetida» 389 

Dercetis (Leptotrachelus) longi- 

pennis 382 

Dielasma 7, 95 

bovidens 95 

Discina meekiana 55 

missouriensis 55 

Ditida 55 


Discinidse 6 

Echinodertnata 6 

Echinoidea 6, 46 

Echinozoa 6 

Edmondia 8, 166 

aspenwalleDsis 166 

nebraficensis 166 

Elopida? 393 

Empo 330 

contracta 339 

lisboDeDsis 337 

nep^Bolica 332 

semianceps 338 

sulcata 332 

Enchodidit 392, 3a3 

Enchodontidiv 373 

Enchodus 373, 393 

amicrodus 379 

dirus 376 

dolichus 377 

parvus 378 

petrosus 376 

shumardi 375 

EInteletes 6, 91 

hemiplicata 91 

Entolium 7, 113 

aviculatum 113 

Erie limestone 3 

Eryfiichtheidae 361 

Erisichthe 362 

Erisocrinus 6, 37, 39 

meg:alobrachiu8 37 

typus ;J8-40 

Eumetria punctulifera 103 

Eumicrotus hawni 132 

EupachycriDUs 6, 40 

craigi 32 

magister 40 

Explanation of plates 175, 394 


Families of Cretaceous fishes 259 

Favocitida* 5 

Fimbriati 74, 98 

Fistulata 6 

Fistulipora 14 

Foraminifera 5, 9 

Fusulina 5, 10, 11 

cylindrica 10 

elongata 10 

gracilis 10 

robusta 10 

secalica 9, 10 

ventricosa 10 

Fusulinidse 5 


Galeocerdo 252 

Grervillia longa 125 

Gillicus 304 

arcuatus 306 

Glaberati 98 

loDgispina 127 

sulcata 126 

Grandicostata^ 67 


Halecida* 371 

Hay, O. P 258 

Hemipronites crassus 62 

crenistria 62 

lasallensid 62 

richmondi 62 

Homocrinus 29 

Homomyaria 8 

Hoplopleurida^ 380 

Horridi 74 

Hustedia 7, laj 

mormoni 103 

Hydreionocrinus 6, 42 

kansasensis 42 

subsinuatus 43 

Hysteroly thes 67 


University Geological Survey of Kansas, 



Ichthyodectes 295, 

acanthicus ? 










Isogramma millepuDctatum 






LsBves 67 

Lamellosi 98 

Lamnidae 246 

Lamna append iculata 247 

macrorhiza 246, 249 

mudgei 248 

quiDquelateralis 250 

raphiodon 251 

sulcata 248 

texana 251 

Leda bellistriata 148 

knoxensis 154 

polita 154 

subscitula 152 

Leptaena 67 

LepidosteidsB 256 

Lepidotus 256 

LeptecodoD 380 

rectus 380 

Leptichthys 372 

agilis 372 

LeptodotnuB granosus 168 

topekaensis 171 

Leptostyrax 253 

bicuspidatus 253 

Leptotrachelus 382 

Letter of transmittal v 


' Lima 7, 112 

262 retifera 112 

393 Limopteria 7, 127 

301 alata 130 

296 gibbosa 129, 130 

306 I longispina 127 

300 marian 128 

303 subalata 131 

298 I Lioeati 74 

306 I Lingula 6, 54 

382 murphiana 53 

8 mytilotdes 54 

74 umbonata 54 

89 Lingulidffi 6, 54 

246 ' Lophophyllum 5, 17, 18 

246 profundum 17 

I proliferum 17 

^ I westi 18 

Loomis, F. B., paper by 391, 393 

Low, M. A 293 


Macrodon 8, 146 

carbonarius 147 

obsoletus 147 

sangamonensis 146 

striarus 146 

tenuistriatue 147 

Magellania flavescens 53 

Marginifera 83 

Martinia planoconvexa 101 

McClung, C. E 9 

McDowell, H. M 258 

Meekella 6, 65 

striatocostata 65 

Melonitidae 6 

Members of the Survey iv 

Mesodon abrasus 256 

Mesolobi 74 

Michilinia 5, 21 

eugeneae 21 

Miliolites secalicus 10, 11 

Mitsukurina 250 

Modiola 7, 136 

Bubelliptica 136 

Mollusca 7, 8 

Molluscoidea 6, 7 

7 I Monomyaria 7 

General Index — VoL VI, 


Monopteria alata 127 

f^ibbosa 129 

loDgispina 127 

mariana 128 

snbalata 131 

Monotis hawni 132 

Morse, Travis 258 

Mugillidee 383 

Myalina 7, 137 

ampla 139 

congeneris 142 

exasperata 141 

kansasensis 140 

perattenuata 141 

subquadrata 138, 139 

swallovi 137 

Myliobatidae 237 

Mytilidae 7 


Neotremata 6 

Nucula 8, 149 

beyrichi 149 

cylindrica 165 

kazanensis 148 

missouriensis 165 

pulchella J51 

ventricosa 150 

Nuculana 8, 148 

bellistriata 148 

bellistriata attenuata 149 


Odontaspis, sp 

Oligoporus 6, 49, 


Orbiculoidea 6, 55, 

coDvexa 55, 


missouriensis 55, 

Organisms, microscopic 


Orthis 62, 



creoistria. 62, 

keokuk &3, 





62 ' 

Orthis : 

pecosi 90 

richmondi 62 

robusta 6.3, 61, (y) 

striatocostata 65 

Orthisina crassa 62 

missouriensis 65 

shumardiana 65 

Osteoglossidie 340 

Osmeroides 372, 393 

Ostiolati 98 

Otodus appendicuiatus 247 

divaricatus 248 

sulcatus 248 

Oxyrhina mantelli 246 


Pachyrhizodontidae 349 

Pachyrhizodus 349, 393 

caninus 355 

ferox 392 

latimentum 357 

leptognathus 351 

leptopsis 354 

minimus 361 

velox 353 

Pachycormidaj 363 

Pecten 67 

aviculatus 113 

broadbeadi 117 

carboniferus 117 

cleavelandicus 114 

hawni 117 

providencesis 119 

missouriensis 114 

occidentalis 114 

PectenidaB 7 

Pelecopterus 362 

Pelecopteridop 362 

Pelecypoda 7, 8, 107 

Pelmatozoa 6 

Permian ( English ) 4 

Perischoechinoida 6 

Phasganodus 374 

dirus 376 

Phialocrinus 6, 36 

magnificus 36 

pelvis 39 


University Geological Survey of Kansas. 

Pharetronos. . . 5, 13 

Pinna 7. 144 

adamdi 144 

peracuta 144, 145 

subspatulata 145 

Pinnidae 7 

Placunopsis 7, 111 

carbonaria Ill, J.'iG 

Plethodidae 393 

Pleurophorus 8, 161 

costatiforniis 162 

costatus 162 

subcostatus 161 

tropidophorus 162 

Pleurotomaria roissouriensis 3 

Plicatula striatocostata 65 

PlicoFje 67 

Porifera 5 

Portheus 265, 3a3 

arcuatus 306 

lowii 293 

molossus 267 

thaumas 267 

Posidonomya 7, 135 

pertenuis 136 

recurva 135 

Poteriocrinidte 6 

Poteriocrinus 29, 34 

Preface vii 

Prentice, Sydney 4, 259 

Productida* 6 

Productus 6, 67, 74 

i»quicostatus 77 

americanus 77 

asperus 84 

calhounianus 75 

cancrini 83 

cora 75, 77 

cora americanus 3, 77 

costatus 79 

flemmingi 75, 81 

horrescens 84 

horridus 85 

inica 78 

lon^ispinus 81 

lyelli 75 

raagnus 78 

rjiirtini 78 


nebrascensis 84 

pertenuis 83 

portlockianus 79 

prattenianus 75, 77 

punctatus 87 

rogersi 84 

semipunctatus 87 

semireticulatus 53, 57, 75, 78 

setigerus 78 

splendens 81 

symmetricus 85 

tubulospinus 87 

viminalis 79 

wabashensis 81 

wilberanus 84 

Proeser, Charles S 4 

Protospondyli SaS 

Protozoa 5 

Protsphyraena 362, 393 

bentoniana 365 

bentonia 365 

gigas 367 

penetrans 369 

recurvirostris 366 

Protosphyrajnidae 362 

Protremata 6 

Pseudomonotis 7, 132 

hawni 132, 134 

hawni equistriata 134 

kansasensis 133, 134 

radialis 132 

robusta 133 

tenuistriata 133 

Pseudothryptodus 393 

Pteria 7, 125 

longa 125 

sulcata 126 

Pterinia gibbosa 129 

Ptychodus 237, 364 

anonymus 241 

foreign species 244 

janewayi 242 

martini 240 

mortoni 238 

occidentals 242 

polygyrus 240 

whipplei 243 

General Index — Vol. VI, 


Publications of the Survey iii 

Pugnax 7, 92 

eatoniformis 92 

rockymontana 92 

Utah 93 

Pycnodontidae 254 


Radiati 78 

Retzia compressa 103 

mormooi 103 

puDctulifera 103 

radialis 103 

subglobosa 103 

Reticularia 7, 102 

perplexa 102 

Rhinoguathus 250 

Rhipidomella (5, 90 

pecosi 90 

Rhizopoda 5, 9 

Rhynchonella angulata 91 

eatonisBformis 92 

osagensis 93 

rockymontana 92 

Utah a3 

Rhynchonellidat 7 

Rogers, A. F 4 

Romingeria 24 

RugoesB 67 

Ro8e,G. E 239 


Bahnonidae 319, 393 

Saurocephalus 323, 393 

audax 267 

broadheadi 392 

dentatus 323, 392 

thaumas 267 

Saurocephalidse 262 

Saurodon 311, 393 

broadheadi 313 

ferox 319 

xiphirostris 314 

phlebotomus 312 

SaurodontidsB 262, 310 

Scaphiocrinus 6, 27 

hemisphericus 34 

washburni 27 

Scapanorhynchus 250 

rhaphiodon 251 

Schizodus 8, 155 

chesterensis 158 

compressuB 157 

hari • 155 

meekanus 158 

obscurus 155 

subcircularis 157 

wheeleri 155, 157, 158 

Schuchert, Charles 4 

Scyllidte 244 

Scylliorhinus 244 

(Lamna) gracilis 245 

rugosus 244 

planidens 245 

Scyllium 244 

Sea-urchins 46 

Sedgwickia 8, 171 

topekaensis 171 

Selachians 237 

Seminula 7, 105 

argentea 105 

subtilita 105 

Semireticulati 74 

Siphonida 8 

Sinupalliata 8 

Solenomya 8, 158 

paraliela 158 

radiata 160 

trapezoides 159 

Solemyidae 8 

Somphospongia 5, 12 

multiformis 12 

Spinosi 74 

Spirifer 7, 67, 98 

cameratus 99 

cameratuB var. kansasensis ... 99 

de royssi 104 

f asiger 99 

inequicostatus 99 

kentuckyensis 96 

kentuckyensisvar. prcpatulus. 96 

laminosus 96 

lineatus 102 

meusebachanus 99 

octoplicata 96 

perplexus 102 


Untversit}/ Geological Survey of Kansas. 


planocoDvexa 101 

etriatuB 100 

striatus var. triplicatus 99 

triplicatus 99 

Spiriferid^ 77 

Spiriferina 7, 96 

cristata 96 

kentuckyensis 96 

Spirigera americaaus 104 

caput- serpent is 106, 107 

pectinifera 104 

planosulcata 104 

subtilita 105 

SpoDges 11 

SpoDgise 5, 11 

SporetoduB janewayi 242 

Springer, Frank 243 

Stanton, T. W 237 

Stellispongia 13 

Stemmatocrinus 39 

Stewart, Alban, article by 257 

Stratodus 327 

apicalis 328 

Stratodontida^ 326 

Streptorhynchus crenistria 63 

keokuk a3 

richmondi 62 

robusta 63 

striatocostata 65 

Striatfe 67 

Strophomena 67 

StrophomenidiP 6 

Sycones 5 

Syllaemus . ." 383 

iatifrons 384 

Syntegmodus ;^3 

SyntrialaBina hemiplicata 91 

Syringopora 5, 24, 25 

multattenuata 25 

Syringoporidffi 5 

Teleost fishes, genera of 


Terebratula antisiensis.. 



de royssi 






rocky mon tana 





Terebratulites cristatus 

Thryptodus 391, 

Trachypora 5, 



















Williston, S. W., paper by :J80 

Woodward, A. S 259 


Xiphactinus 265 

audax 267 

brachygnathus 293 

lowii 293 

Xiphias 362 


Yoldia 8, 152 

glabra 153 

knozensis 154 

subscitula 152 

T. I Z. 

Table of contents vi Zaphrentidae 5 

Teleosts of the Upper Cretaceous . . 256 ! Zeacrinus 6, 29, 45 

Teleostei 259 , robustus 29 

3 klDS Dia iiS ISO