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Full text of "Reports of the Department of the Interior, Volume 2"

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LL5 811.13 



l^arbarlr College l^ibrars 



FROM THE 

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 



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REPORTS OF THE 

DEPAKTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

lOR THE FISCAL TEAS ENDED niNE 30 

1919 



VOLUME II 

INDIAN AFFAIB8 
TSRRIT0RIE3 




WASHIHOTOH : eOTKKHXKKT TKnTtUfQ OFnCK : 193« 



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^s ^'^(.l^ 



/ Harvard CoUegre Library 

Oct. 21, 1920 

From the 

United States Qovernmexit 



REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

AdminLstrative reports, in 2 volumes. 
Vol. I. Secretary of the Interior. 

Bureaus, except Office of Indian Affairs. 

Eleemosynary inertitutiDns. 
Vol. II. Indian Affaiis. 

Territories. 



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CONTENTS. 



Pace. 

Beport of the (Commissioner of Indian Affairs 3 

Releasing Indians from Government supervision 3 

Competency 3 

Patents In fee 4 

Citizenship 6 

War as a civlllzer , 8 

Distinguished service 12 

Thrift campaign 14 

Indian Service thrift campaign, 1919 1 15 

Education 17 

A radical departure as to enrollment 18 

A progressive policy 21 

' Enrollment in public schools 22 

Closing of certain boarding schools 22 

Construction _ 23 

The field personnel 24 

Indian fairs 24 

Indian employment 25 

Health 25 

Suppression of the liquor traffic 31 

Farming 32 

Experimentation 35 

Cboperatlve extension work 36 

Stock raising 37 

Irrigation 38 

Yakima 38 

Fort Hall 38 

Uintah 39 

Wind River 39 

Crow 40 

Fort Belknap 40 

Mission reservations 40 

Colorado River 1 40 

Gila River 40 

Pnpago wells 41 

Navajo and Hopl of Arizona and New Mexico 41 

Pueblo 42 

Forestry 42 

Road and bridge work 43 

Allotments 44 

Allotments in National Forests 44 

Public domain allotments 45 

Appraisement and reappraiseraent of surplus reservation lands 45 

Extension of trust period 45 

Sales of Indian lands 45 

Leasiu z 4^ 

Five Civilfzed Tribes 46 

Regarding taxation of lands purchased with restricted funds 48 

Tootle Riley rase 49 

Eastman Richards case 49 

Probate work in Oklahoma 49 

Probating estates of deceased Indians and approval of wills 51 

Osage oil and gas leases 52 

Oil and gas In the Five Civilized Tribes in Oklahoma r>3 

Metalliferous minerals 53 

Oil and gas outside the Five Civilized Tribes and Osage Nation 53 

Quapaw Agency 54 

Reimbursable funds ^ n4 

Individual Indian moneys 55 



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IV CONTENTS. 

Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs — Continued. Page 

Annuity and per capita payments 56 

Segregation of tribal funds 56 

Indians In New York 57 

The Seminoles of Florida 58 

Alabama Indians in Texas 59 

Homeless Indians in California 59 

Papago land litigation 60 

Legislation 61 

. Court decisions 63 

Purchase and transportation of supplies 64 

The Indian exhibit at the Interior Department exposition 65 

Conclusion 65 

Statistical tables : 

Table 1. Work and force of Indian Office since 1899, compared.. 67 

2. Indian population of the United States, 1918 67 

3. Allotted and unallotted Indians and those holding tr«st 

and fee patents 77 

4. Marriages, missionaries, churches, English language, 

dress, citizenship, crimes, misdemeanors 80 

6. Areas of Indian lands, allotted and unallotted 86 

6. Reservations, authority for establishing 90 

7. Lands set aside temporarily for mission organizations.. 108 

8. Patents in fee Issued to mission organizations 109 

9. Industries other than farming or stock raising 109 

10. Incomes of Indians 116 

11. Use of agricultural lands, farming, leasing 122 

12. Use of grazing lands, stock raising, leasing 127 

13. Employment of Indians 132 

14. Vital statistics^ housing, and disease 136 

15. Hospitals and sanatoria 141 

16. Indians, self-supporting, and those receiving rations and 

miscellaneous supplies issued 145 

17. School population, number in school, capacity 149 

18. Schools, location, enrollment, attendance 156 

19. Schools, average attendance and appropriations since 

1876 165 

20. Demonstration farms 166 

21. Experimentation fbrms 166 

22. Suppression of liquor traffic 167 

23. Timber on reservations, sawmills, timber cut 168 

24. Areas irrigable and under projects, expenditures 171 

25. Miles of ditches, use of Irrigated areas 174 

26. Allotments approved, and made 177 

27. Sales of allotted lands 178 

28. Patents in fee Issued 180 

29. Removal of restrictions on alienation of land 182 

30. Certificates of competency issued under act of June 

25, 1910 183 

81. Certificates of comi)etency issued to Kaw and Osage 

Indians 183 

82. Lands leased for mining, production of minerals, and 

royalty 184 

83. Buildings erected 186 

84. Buildings under construction 187 

35. Live stock belonging to Indians, sold and slaughtered ISO 

36. Government property valuations classified 194 

87. Property of Indians, tribal and individual, value 198 

38. Employees in Indian school and agency service 203 

89. Employees, miscellaneous, field 207 

40. Employees in Indian Service, recapitulation 208 

41. Account of Commissioner of Indian Affairs 208 

42. Sales of Indian lands, receipts and disbursements 209 

43. Treaty liabilities of the United States to Indians 211 

44. Pro rata shares of tribal funds settled 213 

45. Volume of business In Indian warehouses 214 

46. Expense at warehouses 214 



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00NTBKT8. V 

Page. 

Report of the Board of Indian CJommissioners 215 

Board's semicentennial 217 

Law and order 218 

Heroic Indian Service employees 220 

Medical service reorganization 220 

Effect of low salaries 222 

Navajo Indians 222 

Indian labor in Arizona 223 

Purchase of supplies 224 

Inspections and surveys 225 

Meetings 229 

Appendices : 

Navajo Indians, Arizona and New Mexico 229 

Supplemental report of the Navajo Indians by Malcolm McDowell 242 

Sac and Fox Sanatorium and Fox Reservation, Iowa 244 

Crow Reservation, Montana 247 

Flathead Reservation, Montana 249 

Blackfeet Reservation, Montana , 250 

Tongue River Reservation, Montana 252 

Fort Belknap Reservation, Montana 260 

Wind River Reservation, Wyoming 263 

Mount Pleasant School, Michigan 266 

Shawnee superintendency, Oklahoma 269 

Seminole Indians, Florida 271 

Eastern Cherokee Reservation, North Carolina 274 

Papago Indians, Arizona 278 

Zuni Reservation, New Mexico 291 

Pueblo Indians, New Mexico 297 

Schools among Five Civilized Tribes, Oklahoma 323 

Health conditions in Oklahoma 335 

Liquor suppression office, Indian Service 337 

Report of the Superintendent for the Five Civilized Tribes of Oklahoma. 339 

Introduction 341 

Land division 342 

Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations 343 

Cherokee Nation 343 

Creek Nation 344 

Seminole Nation 344 

Auction sale of unallotted, timber and surface, of segregated coal 

and asphalt lands 345 

Sale of miscellaneous tribal land 349 

Appraisement of coal and asphalt deposits in the Choctaw and 

Chickasaw Nations 349 

Sale of coal and asphalt deposits In the Choctaw and Chickasaw 

Nations 350 

Appraisement of land and Improvements on the segregated coal 
and asphalt lands in the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations re- 

serve<l for mining purposes 352 

Applications of lessees to purchase the surface of the segregated 
coal and asphalt lands In the Choctaw and Chickasaw nations 

reserved for mining company 352 

Recording of deeds and other Instruments 353 

Rental of the surface of the segregated coal and asphalt lands. _ 353 

Town sites 353 

Certified copies 354 

Illegal conveyances of allotted land 354 

Tribal records 355 

Tribal governments and attorneys 355 

Creek enrollment cards 356 

Field division 356 

Industrial work — Government farmers 358 

Special inspections 359 

Restrictions division 359 

Removal of restrictions 360 

Inherited land cases 362 

Lease division 362 

Leases filed 362 



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"VI OOFTENTS. 

Beport of the Superintendent for the Five Giyillxed Tribes of Okla- 
homa — Continued. 

Lease division— Continued. P^ge. 

EHsposltlon of leases filed 363 

Assignments 364 

Pipe lines 365 

Segregated coal land leases 365 

Applications for additional acreage 366 

Rentals for agricultural and grazing lands 366 

Royalty division 366 

Open accounts and classifications 366 

Leases, cancellations, and claims 367 

Income and gross production tax 367 

Casing-head gas 367 

Nine months* drilling requirement 367 

Receipts and disbursements 368 

Cashier's division 368 

Receipts 369 

Disbursements : 370 

Recapitulation of disbursements 373 

Mall division 374 

United States oil inspector 374 

Oil and gas operations 374 

Prices of crude oil 375 

New pools 375 

Other districts 376 

Pipe lines 377 

Storage of oil 377 

Fire losses 378 

Casing-head gas 378 

OH and gas Inspectors 380 

Use of cement In oil wells 380 

Reports received during fiscal year 881 

Probate , 381 

Law and order 382 

Summary of recent legislation 382 

Court decisions 383 

Tootle Riley case 384 

Eastman Richard case 385 

Health 386 

Education 387 

Needed legislation 387 

Conclusion 3S8 

Report of supervisor of Indian schools 389 

Report of Ohoetaw-Ohiokasaw mining trustees 397 

Report of the governor of Alaska 403 

Introduction 405 

Disasters during the year 407 

Influenza 407 

Consolidation of Government authority 409 

Police protection 411 

Naval patrol 412 

Population 412 

Mining conditions 413 

Gold and silver 413 

CJopper 414 

Chrome ^ 414 

Coal 414 

Petroleum 415 

Other minerals 416 

Mining in Alaska in 1918 416 

Mineral production 416 

Copper mining 417 

Gold placer mining 417 

Gold lode mining 417 

Mineral fuels 418 

Tin mining 418 

Miscellaneous mining 419 



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CONTENTS. VII 

Report of the governor of Alaska — Continued. 

Introduction — Continued. P«««. 

Review by districts 41l» 

Southeastern Alaska . 4r.> 

Copper River region 420 

Prince WUHam Sound 421 

Matanuska coal field 421 

Cook Inlet — Susltna region 422 

Yukon Baain 422 

Seward Peninsula. . 423 

Kobuk River 424 

United States Geological Survey 425 

Water-power investigations in southeastern Alaska 425 

The United States Bureau of Mines 427 

Fisheries and fur-bearing animals 428 

Child labor . 429 

Fish piracy 429 

Bureau of Fisheries 429 

Salmon hatcheries 43^) 

Number of persons employed 430 

Investments in Alaska fisheries 430 

Quantity and value of products 430 

The salmon industry 431 

. Salmon canning ,. 431 

Mild curing of salmon 432 

Pickling of salmon 432 

Other salmon Industries in 1918 432 

Halibut 432 

Cod 433 

Herring 433 

Whales . 434 

Minor fishery products 434 

Fur-seal service 434 

Censuses of the seal herd 435 

Minor fur-bearing animals 436 

Furs shipped from Alaska 437 

Leasing of Islands for fur farming 437 

Territorial fish commission 437 

Agriculture 438 

Experiment stations 439 

Public lands 440 

National forests 441 

National parks and monuments 443 

Government railroad, 1 444 

The Alaska insane 445 

Washington-Alaska military telegraph system 446 

Naval communication service 447 

Commerce : 448 

Transportation 449 

Federal roads in Alaska 451 

.Territorial noads . 453 

Natives of Alaska 453 

Alaska native school service 454 

Immediate needs of the natives 455 

Alaska native medical service 456 

Alaska reindeer service 457 

Musk oxen . 458 

Relief measures 459 

The Pioneers' Home 459 

Game and game laws 460 

Bone-dry Alaska 462 

Aids to navigation 463 

Coast and Geodetic Survey 464 

Mall service 465 

Weather conditions 466 

Temperature and precipitation 469 

The Alaska fund 470 

Territorial finances 471 

Territorial banks 472 

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Vin CONTENTS. 

Beport of the governor of Alaska — Gontiiiiied. 

Introduction — Continued. Page. 

Corporations 472 

Incoi-porated towns 473 

S<lhools 473 

In incorporated towns 474 

Outside of incorporated towns 475 

Places of birth of Alaska children 475 

Citizenship night schools 476 

Alaska Agricultural College and School of Mines 477 

Elections and contests 477 

Territorial legislature 477 

Labor conditions 479 

480 
481 
485 
485 
486 
486 
487 



Territorial bureau of publicity 

Selective service 

Food administration 

Tourist travel 

PubUc buildings u 

Ofllce of the governor 

Recommendations 

Appendices : 



A. Statement of library and museum fund 489 

B. Register of Federal and Territorial officials 492 

C- Report of the collector of customs, Juneau , 499 

D. Newspapers in Alaska 508 

B. Incorporated towns 508 

F. Post offices in Alaska 508 

G. Foreign consuls in Alaska 510 

H. Laws relating to Alaska passed at the third session of 

the Sixty-fifth Congress and the first session of the 

Sixty-sixth Congress 510 

L Government publications on Alaska 522 

Beport of the governor of Hawaii 583 

General conditions 535 

Prohibition in Hawaii 536 

Harbor improvements 536 

Map of Honolulu Harbor water front 537 

Homesteadlng 538 

Geological Survey 538 

Pearl Harbor dry dock 539 

Elections 539 

Legislature 541 

County and city and county governments 543 

Finances 544 

Territorial bonded indebtedness 544 

Receipts and disburaements 544 

Special funds 548 

Taxes 550 

Corporations 553 

Banks 554 

Insurance 555 

Commerce 556 

Port accommodations 558 

Transportation facilities 559 

Traffic with the mainland 559 

Through service 5C0 

Interisland traffic 561 

Steam railroads 561 

Street railroads 562 

Lighthouses 562 

Telegraphs and telephones 562 

Postal service 563 

Population, Immigration, and labor 565 

Public lands 568 

Homesteads 568 

Leases, licenses, transfers, exchanges, and purchases for public 

purposes , 568 ; 



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COIJTBNTS. IX 

Beport of tbe governor of Hawaii— Continued. Page. 

Patents and commatations 569 

Revenues and disbursements 569 

National parks 570 

Survey department 570 

Field work 570 

lAnd court petitions and flies 571 

Office work 572 

Bureau of agriculture and forestry 572 

Forestry 572 

Entomology 573 

Plant inspection 574 

Animal industry 575 

Division of hydrography & 575 

Agricultural experiment station 576 

Public works 578 

Oahu 578 

Hawaii 581 

Molokal 581 

Board of harbor commissioners 581 

Island of Oahu 581 

Island of Hawaii 583 

Island of Maui 583 

Island of Kauai 584 

Public utilities commission 585 

Industrial accident boards 585 

Loan funds ^ 586 

Public improvements 586 

Loan fund commission ^ 586 

Schools 586 

College of Hawaii . 588 

Board of industrial schools 588 

Library of Hawaii 589 

Archives of Hawaii 589 

The courts 590 

Territorial courts 590 

Juvenile court 592 

Land court 593 

Federal court 593 

Attorney general's department 593 

Territorial prison 594 

Public health 594 

Vital statistics 595 

Infant mortality 596 

Births 596 

Marriages 597 

Morbidity statistics 598 

Sanitary engineer 398 

Sanitation , 598 

Rat campaign 599 

Government physicians 599 

Medical inspection of schools 599 

Antituberculosis bureau 600 

Pure food bureau 601 

Insane asylum 601 

Leprosy 602 

United States Public Health Service 610 

National Guard of Hawaii 610 

United States Internal Revenue Service- 611 

Weather Bureau 613 

Appendix : 

Territorial officials 615 

Federal officials 618 

Hawaiian department 618 

Fourteenth naval district 619 

Newspapers in Hawaii 620 



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ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page. 

Honolulu Harbor water front 587 

Map of Indian reservations At end. 

Maps of Territories of Aiaaka and Hawaii ^ At end. 

X 



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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF 
INDIAN AFFAIRS 



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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 



Dbfabtacent of the Intebiob, 

Ofpiob of Indian Afpairs, 
WasUngUm, D. C, September SO, 1919. 
Sib: I have the honor to submit this, the eighty-eighth annual 
report of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, for the fiscal year ended June 
30, 1919. 

RELEASING INDIANS FROM GOVERNMENT 
SUPERVISION. 

CoMPBTBNGY. — For several years I have recognized as of urgent 
administrative importance the separation of competent Indians 
from the incompetent and their release from Government control. 
The main agencies in the accomplishmant of this end are the work 
of field competency commissions, and a consistent practice of the 
general policy of declaring competent all Indians of one-half or less 
Indian blood who are able-bodied, 21 years of age, and not mentally 
defidant. The result of these activities shows that during t^ fiscal 
years 1917, 1918, and 1919, 10,956 Indians have been declared 
competent. The effect of the new policy on the issuance of fee 
patents is clearly shown by reason of the fact that under the acts of 
Congress approved May 8, 1906 (34 Stats. L., 182), and June 25, 1910 
(36 Stats. £]., 855), 9,894 fee patents were issued to Indians from 
1906 to 1916, a period of 10 years, while during the past 3 years there 
have been issued 10,956 fee simple patents. Oonsequently, there 
have been issued more fee simple patents to Indians under the new 
policy within a period of 3 years than during the preceding 10 
years. 

There is no longer any doubt that with adequate provision for 
the expense of proper inquiry as to competency and with faithful 
adherence to the broadened declaration of policy we shall speedily 
sift the Indian who should stand on his own merits, pay taxes, 
discharge the service and exercise the freedom of citizenship, from 
those who will require the protection of the Government for some 
time before taking on such responsibilities. 

Of the large number of Indians still under the supervision of this 
bureau, it should be understood that fully 75,000 are situated prac- 
tically the same as the reservation Navajo, Hualapai, Hopi, and 

3 



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4 OOMMISSIONEB OF IiaDIAlT AFFAIBS. 

Apache in Arizona, whose property can not now, nor for many 
years to come, be wisely aUotted. There are thousands of full- 
bloods, and near full-bloods, whose landed interests and whose 
personal possessions and prospects are suggestive of a capacity for 
independent self-support, but who are not qualified to withstand 
the competitive tests that would follow a withdrawal of federal 
guidance. To abandon these at the point in their prepress where 
elementary acquirements are shaping into self-reliance and a com- 
prehension of practical methods, would be to leave them a prey to 
every kind of unscrupulous trickery that masks itself in the con- 
ventions of civilization. 

I shaU not be outdone by anyone who would hasten Indian prog- 
ress by the extension of freedom and obligation to those who are 
ready for this status, nor shall I be swerved from what I believe to 
be a course of just aid and protection to the less fortunate and less 
progressive Indian. 

Patents in fee. — ^Within the year 4,679 applications for fee 
patents were received, of which 344 were denied and 4,376 approved, 
involving an area of 778^698 acres. 

In the declaration of policy, issued April 17, 1917, 1 announced 
that greater liberalism would thenceforth prevail in Indian ad- 
ministration, to the end that every Indian as soon as he had been 
determined to be competent to transact his own business affairs 
would be given full control of his property and have all his lands and 
moneys turned over to him, after which he would no longer be a ward 
of the Government. 

This movement brought justifying results and on March 7, 1919, 
I addressed the f oUowing letter to the superintendents of various 
Indian reservations: 

You are requested to submit to this office, at the earliest practicable date, a list of all 
Indians of one-half or lees Indian blood, who are able-bodied and mentally competent, 
21 years of age or over, together with a description of the land allotted to said 
Indians, and the number of the allotment. It is intended to issue patents in fee 
simple to such Indians. Advise the office at once the approximate date when this 
list can be furnished. 

This order was mailed to all superintendents having jurisdiction 
over Indians holding land under trust patents, and from the lists 
that have been submitted it is apparent that approximately 4,500 
fee patents will be issued to Indian allottees under this order. 

The attention of the Indian Office is now being directed to the 
clearing up of inherited estates. Many of these allotments were 
made 35 years ago and the 25-year trust period has been extended 
for an additional 10 years on many Indian reservations. Of all the 
Indian land that has been allotted approximately 50 per cent of it is 
now held by heirs. In many cases there are twenty or more heirs 



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COMMISSIONER OF IKDIAK AFFAIBS. 5 

and for the ptirpose of settling up these estates and bringing them 
within the declaration of policy, the following order was promulgated: 

To mpenntendents: 

Your sttention ia invited to the provieioDB of the act of Juzte 25, 1910 (36 Stats. L. , 866) 
regarding the disposition of inherited Indian estates. "Hie act provides: 

"That when an Indian to whom an aUotment of land has be^i made, or may here^ 
after be made, dies before the expiration of the trust i>eriod and before the iasoance of a 
fee simple patent, without having made a will disposing of said allotment as herein 
after provided, the Secretary of the Interior, upon notice and hearing, imder such ruleB 
as he may prescribe, shall ascertain the legal heirs of such decedent, and his deciedon 
thereon shall be final and conclusive. If the Secretary of the Interior decides the heir 
<H* heirs of such decedent competent to mamige their own afhirs, he shall issue to such 
heir or heirs a patent in fee for the aUotment of sach decedent; if he shaU decide one or 
more of the hein to be incompetent he may in his discretion, cause such lands to be sold : 
Provided, That if the Secretary of the Interior shall find the lands of the decedent are 
capable of partition to the advantage of the heirs, he may cause the shares of sndi as ars 
competoit, upon their petition, to be set aside and patents in fee to be issued to them 
therefor." 

That part of the act which r^tes to the partition of Indian estates was modified by 
theactof May 18, 1916 (39 Stats. L., 123-127), which provides: 

' * Provided furthar, lliat if the Secretary of the Interior shall find that any inherited 
trust allotment or idlotments are capable of partition to the advantage of the heiis, he 
may cause such lands to be partitioned among them, regardless of their competency, 
patents in fee to be issued to the competent heirs for their shares and trust patents to be 
issued to the incompetent heirs for the lands respectively, or jointly set apart to them, 
the trust period to terminate in accordance with the terms of the original patent or 
order of extension of the trust period sdt out in said patent. " 

It will thus be noted that in all inherited Indian estates where the 
land is held in trust there is authority of law to issue patents in fee 
to the heirs, if competent; to partition the land, if it appears to the 
interest of the heirs to do so, and issue fee patents to the competent 
heirs, and trust patents to incompetents, or to seU the land. 

Examiners of ixiheritance have visited the various Indian reserva- 
tions, held hearings, the evidence and findings have been presented 
to this office and passed upon, and the heirs have been determined 
in accordance with the act of June 25, 1910, above cited. 

The records of this office show that throughout the Indian country 
there are approximately 20,000 Indian estates where the heirs have 
been determined. 

It is the purpose of the office to make an extra effort to settle 
and close up the inherited estates, where the heirs have been deter- 
mined, either by the issuance of fee patents, or the partitioxunent or 
sale of the land. 

Under the law disposition may be made of these estates whether 
or not the Indian owners make application to dispose of them, but 
it is not the purpose of the office to compel the sale or partition- 
ment of inherited estates, if it is manifest that it is not for the 
interest of the heirs. 



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6 OOMMISSIONEB OF IITDIAN AFFAIBS. 

The following instructions were issued to those having to do with 
inherited lands: 

(1) Any Indian who has been found competent and has received a patent in fee 
covering his own allotment may be given a patent in fee covering all of hia inherited 
land. If he is an adult, able-bodied Indian of one-half or leas Indian blood, and 
mentally competent, he should be recommended for a patent to all of his land, allotted 
and inherited. To segregate the interests of competent heirs, it may be necessary to 
partition the estate, if the land is capable of partition. 

(2) Where incompetent or old and feeble Indians are the heirs to Indian estates, the 
land should be offered for sale, and, if sold, the funds used for their support, or for the 
improvement of their allotted lands. 

(3) In all cases where there are a great many heirs to the estate, and it is not practi- 
cable to partition it, the land should be offered for sale. 

You are directed to go carefuUy over the list of inherited estates under your juris- 
diction, where the heirs have been determined, and submit applications for fee 
patents covering aU cases that may come under class 1 with your report thereon. You 
are also directed to take up the other inherited estates where heirs have been deter- 
mined at an early date, with a view of partitioning the lands or offering them for sale. 

These instructions relate principally to the mass of cases heretofore decided. It 
is not proposed to dispose of estates inmiediately after the heirs have been determined, 
particularly in estates where the inheritance case is a contested one. In other words, 
before attempting to clean up the new cases, a reasonable time must be allowed for 
filing motions for review. 

CITIZENSHIP. 

The question of Indian citizenship has become of foremost inter- 
est, and has been the subject of several bills recently introduced in 
Congress. 

As far back as 1817 provision was made in a treaty with the Chero- 
kees by which any member of that tribe who desired might become a 
citizen of the United States. Subsequent treaties and acts of Con- 
gress contained provisions by which members of other tribes might 
become citizens. 

The question whether under the fourteenth amendment to the 
Constitution an Indian could, by severing his tribal relations, and 
completely suirendering himself to the jurisdiction of the United 
States become a citizen thereof was determined in the negative by 
the Supreme Court in Elk v. Wilkins (112 U. S., 100). 

No general law provided a means for citizenship of all Indians until 
1887 when Congress passed the general allotment act (24 Stats. L., 
388), which provided for the allotment of lands in severalty and de- 
clared all Indians bom within its limits who shall have complied with 
certain conditions, to be citizens of the United States. The broad 
citizenship provisions of this act were modified by Congress when on 
May 8, 1906, it passed the Burke Act, since which law the issuance of a 
fee-simple patent has been the primary legal requirement for citizen- 
ship of Indians. In my judgment, the controlling factor in granting 
citizenship to Indians should not be based upon their ownership of 



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GOMMISSIOITER OF IKDIA^ AFFAIB8. 7 

lands, tribal or in severalty, in trust or in fee, but upon the fact that 
they are real Americans and are of right entitled to such citizenship. 

The act of 1887 excluded from its provisions as to citizenship mem- 
bers of the Five Civilized Tribes, but on March. 3, 1901 (31 Stats. 
L., 1447), Congress amended the sixth section of the general allot- 
ment act by inserting after the phrase *^and has adopted the habits 
of civilized life" the words and "every Indian in thelndian Territory." 
Under this amendment, 101,000 Indians of the Five Tribes who 
received allotments and now living, and their children, are citizens 
of the United States. 

Gtizen Indians are not only entitled to look to the United States 
for protection in their rights as citizens, but also to the States in which 
they reside for protection in the exercise of the privileges guaranteed 
to them as citizens thereof, which are distinct from those of citizens 
of the United States. In the language of Mr. Justice Washington, in 
the case of Corfield v, Coryell (4 Washington's Circuit Court, 371), 
they are confined to *' those privileges and immunities which are 
fundamental, which belong of right to the citizens of all free govern- 
ments, and which have at all times been enjoyed by citizens of the 
seyeral States which compose the Union from the time of their becom- 
ing free, independent, and sovereign. What these fundamental prin- 
ciples are it would be more tedious than difficult to eniunerate. They 
may all, however, be comprehended under the following general 
heads: Protection by the Government, with the right to acquire and 
possess property of every kind, and to pursue and obtain happiness 
and safety, subject, nevertheless, to such restraints as the Government 
may prescribe for the general good of the whole." 

Indians who become citizens of the United States are entitled to 
receive from the government of the State in which they reside full 
protection in those fundamental privileges and immunities *' which 
belong of right to the citizens of all free governments and which have 
at all times been enjoyed by citizens of the several States." These 
fundamental principles and immunities are civil in their character and 
may be further defined as those which are granted to him by his 
Creator and for the protection and restriction of which governments 
and courts are established. Besides these there are other privileges 
and immunities enjoyed by certain classes of citizens of the several 
States which the Indians possessing the proper qualifications will be 
entitled to claim and enjoy as citizens thereof. These are artificial, 
such as may be granted by the body politic and may be termed poli- 
tical liberties. They embrace the rights to participate in the govern- 
ment of the State, to vote, to hold office, and such other privileges and 
immunities of a like character as may be granted by the State to its 
citizens. In compensation for his protection by the State in all these 
privileges and immimities, or such as he may be qualified to exercisoi 

140923**— INT 1919— VOL 2 2 



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8 COMMISSIONEB OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 

the Indian as a citizen will owe allegiance to the government of the 
State, but it must be constantly borne in mind, as was well stated by 
the Supreme Court of the United States, (241, p, 691), thaf when 
the Indians are prepared to exercise the privileges and bear the 
burden of one sui juris the tribal relation may be dissolved and the 
natural guardianship brought to an end, but it rests with Congress 
to determine when and how this shall be done and whether the eman- 
cipation shall at first be complete or only partial. Citizenship is not 
incompatible with tribal existence or continued guardianship, and so 
may be conferred without completely emancipating the Indians or 
placing them beyond the readi of congressional regulations adopted 
for their protection/' When, however, an Indian has been given a 
fee simple patent for all of his lands, both original and inherited, and 
all individual and tribal funds of whatsoever nature turned over to 
him, that particular Indian will have become a ftdl fledged citizen of 
the United States in the f uU sense of all that term implies. He will no 
longer be subject in any respect to supervision by the Government, 
but will have the same right as any other citizen. His contracts will 
not be subject to governmental approval, but wiU stand on an equal 
footing witJx those of other citizens* There will be no restriction as to 
trade with him, and in fact whatever rights may be enjoyed by 
citizens of the United States will be his and he will no longer be 
subject to arrest at the instance of a United States superintendent 
or by the Indian police, nor to trial and punishment by the courts of 
Indian offenses for misdemeanors over which those courts now 
have jurisdiction. 

WAR AS A CIVILIZER. 

Certainly not all wars have advanced civilization, but many of 
them have changed the course of events to that end. War is a civili- 
zer if it is the only means of preserving liberty and justice. War is a 
civilizer if from the blood and ashes of its battles flower the blessings 
of truth and enlightenment, although the fruit may be centuries in 
ripening. 

Wo are not wont to check up to-day's doings with the calendar of 
long ago to note that the original Frenchmen at the Battle of Tours 
probably saved us from the law of the Koran, or that except for Mara- 
thon we might now be xmder the rule of a Persian satrap. Much surer 
are we that the advent of representative democracy was in the victory 
of the Colonial arms at Saratoga, and that out of our Civil War came 
a new South of marvelous progress. 

What of America's last great war adventure ? 

Our soldiers are returning from the world's deadliest battle fields. 
They who went away as boys, come back as full-grown men. Tlie 
other day I stood for an hom* to see a brigade of these bronzed cm- 



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OOMICISSIONEB OF INDIAN AFFAOtS. 9 

saders go by. Their superbly trained movements were sbnost in- 
voluntary. They seemed unconscious of their full aoooutrements 
and trappings, ^ir wound and service stripes, and honor badges. 
The cheers of the throng glanced from their steel helmets, and appar- 
ently they did not know that they were a spectacle to thrill the gods, 

It was their last review; the transition of soldier to civilian, and in 
this matchless realism I saw the picture of America passing by — 
America, erect, daimtless, helmeted in the victory of her righteous 
cause, going forth responsive to the beckoning years. I saw the 
order, the precision, the discipline of her democracy, and the passing 
ranks sounded the irresistible march of her civilization in the meas- 
ured step of men wbo had trampled autocracy in the dust. 

In that triumphal scene were descendants of men who were Ameri- 
cans before '^Attila's fierce huns'' were beaten at Chalons, perhaps 
before the Si^e of Troy. There is something in this fact that will 
hold a page in history to the latest generation. Its meaning will un- 
fold as the years pass, but even now it may be said that probably 
nothing more helpful has come to this ancient Indian race than the 
enrollment of 10,000 of its sons simply as American soldiers to chal- 
lenge the barbarous rule of central Europe. 

The immediate benefit comes from the equal opportunity they had 
with white comrades for gaining knowledge, for maturing judgment, 
for developing courage through contact with events and conditions 
that trained and toughened character in the defense of a just cause 
and a great ideal. No education serves a man better than this in 
any circumstances. It puts into him the ability to *' go over the top " 
anywhere. The great lesson mastered by American soldiers, as 
their achievements clearly show, was to get things done. They are 
not likely to forget how. No Hindenbuig liue across the field of 
civil progress can stand against such fellows. They are destined 
for to-morrow's leadership. The wondrously multiplied interests 
of trade, industry, education, the professions, statesmanship, await 
them. The same sort of splendid initiative and self-reliance should 
find expression in action wherever the Indian soldier returns to his 
people. There are already assurances of this. Encoura^ng re- 
ports have come from superintendencies showing the Indian's war 
acquisitions, many of them indicating that he has discovered his 
educational needs and the equipment he must have to be successful, 
which is a most hopeful sign. 

The following from some of the reports will show the general trend 
of aU. 

Tte superintendent of the Five Civilized Tribes writes: 

I am oonviAced that the Ijidians in the military Benoce, especially the f oU-bloodSi 
have received inestimable benefit from their association with white comzades and the 
training to which they have been subjected. Only a few days ago a special officer 



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10 COMMaSSlOMfSSL OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 

connected witih this superintendency advised me of having met a number of full- 
blood Cherokeee lately returned from the anny, none of whom could speak a word of 
English on their entering the service^ who now talk KwgHgh 'fJuently . He stated that 
old acquaintances of these young men were amazed at the transformation they had 
undergone. 

The superintendent of a large nonreservation school in South 
Dakota says: 

Of the 57 boys who enlisted from the school, about half of them have returned. 
There are a number of them who have again taken up their studies. They all feel 
that the experience has been a wonderful advantage to them; they also feel that they 
are in need of further education. A number of them \'isited here after being dis- 
charged and intend to return to take up their work next fall. One boy in conversa- 
tion regarding school work stated that he found when placed in contact with white 
young men that his education was very limited and that he needed to go to school 
several years and that he intended to return in the fall. Another boy who is in school 
stated that he found that a man could not get anywhere, even in the Army, unless he 
knew something and for that reason intended to complete his work here at the echooL 

This from an Indian school superintendent in northern California: 

In every case that I have encountered where an Indian has returned to his jurisdic- 
tion I have found that the Indian young man was greatly bettered through his work in 
the Army, both physically and mentally. I do not know of a single case where it has 
not benefited the Indian to such a degree that it is plainly noticeable and commented 
upon by the whites of his community. I was over at an Indian's home just the other 
day who had returned from active service in the trenches of France. This Indian, 
Phillip Jim, had the remarkable record of going over the top more than 30 times. He 
walked into the recruiting office at Quincy on his way home and laid down $100 for a 
Victory bond, saying that he was done fighting, now he could help some other way. 
This Indian went straight home to farm, and started hard work of putting in a garden, re- 
pairing his fences, buildings, etc., that had gotten in bad condition since he left, for 
his father was afflicted with an incurable disease and his mother was HI. He says that 
he knows much more than he did and that he wants to do more now than he ever did. 

From a Minnesota superintendent: 

I believe that the realization that millions of others have been under discipline, 
and that discipline and order are necessary to the proper conduct of any work will be 
of much benefit to the Indian boys. I believe, too, that the necessity for being on the 
job day in and day out, with no chance to quit just as soon as something goes a little 
wrong, will help them greatly when the Indian boys come back and go to work again. 
The steady grind of daily work,with its touch of monotony, has always been distaste- 
ful to the Indians, it has seemed to me, and I believe that the service in the Army in 
common with so many others will show them that it is only by "sticking to it*' that 
they can succeed. 

Another Minnesota superintendent says: 

There seems to be a more general willingness among the young men who have re- 
turned to engage in useful occupation which affords them an opportunity to earn 
support, and it is believed that the contact with life foreign to reservation conditions 
has resulted in fostering generally advanced ideas. Several of the young men are 
planning to resume their school work on account of the need of an education that 
has been impressed upon them anew. 



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COMMISSIONER OF INDIAK AFFAIB8. 11 

From an Arizona superin tendency: 

Five of these soldier boys returned to the reservation recently from their work in 
France and they come with a broader outlook on life than when they went away and 
with a desire to do something creditable to themselves and to their people. 

Prom an Oklahoma reservation: 

One Cheyenne, typical, no account, reservation Indian with long hair went to 
France, was wounded, gassed, and shell shocked. Was returned, honorably dis- 
charged. He reported to the agency office square shouldered, level eyed, courteous, 
self -reliant, and talked intelligently. A wonderful transformation, and caused by 
contact with the outside world. He is at work. 

A Washington superintendent referring to the enrolled Indians 
of his reservation who have returned to civil life says: 

In every case which has come to my attention there is a distinct improvement 
in the general demeanor of the soldier, and his experience while in the service is of 
unquestionable benefit to him. 

From southern California a superintendent reports: 

Those who have returned to the reservation up to the present time show amazing 
progress in many ways; self-reliance, industry, personal habits, and proper respect for 
authority. 

Prom a large reservation in North Dakota the superintendent in 
an interesting letter of some length says: 

I know of no greater benefit or education derived by these Indians than by their 
enlistment in our recent war. Upon notice of draft or that volunteers would be ac- 
cepted, practically all of our young Indians took the matter up with enthusiasm, and 
although by right of their being trust patent Indians they could have pleaded exempt 
tion under rulings of the Army board, I do not know of any case in which an Indian 
was exempted for noncitizenship. They showed a most laudable interest in their 
coimtry by endeavoring in every way to assist by enlistment or by charitable contribu- 
tions. The refusal by your office to permit segr^ation of Indian troops or volunteers, 
ordraf tees, was one from which the greatest benefit could be derived, as I find by per- 
sonal investigation that they were in practically all cases the sole Indian in a com- 
pany and therefore compelled to take up in every way the life and manners of the 
white man. They have not only returned disciplined, but have taken up the better 
part of the white man's life as it is brought out by discipline in the Army. I notice 
upon the return of these boys that they are more alert and take more interest in local 
aOairB, and I do not believe that we will have difficulty with Indians of this class. I 
safely say that our returned soldiers now constitute the best type of young Indian 
manhood. 

The superintendent of a large western school from which many 
young men entered both the Army and Navy strongly epitomizes the 
results of the Indian's war experiences as follows: 

He has lost much of his timidity. 
He has greater self-confidence. 
He is more courteous and more polite. 

He has been made to feel that he is as capable of fulfilling his obligations to his 
coimtry as any other race of people. 
He understands more fully his patriotic duty to his country. 



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12 G0iClCISSIONfi& OF OriHAX AFFAISS. 

He realizes more than ever that there is a place for him in the community; that he 
is a unit in the great Commonwealth. 

H« his Been and learned many things <rf educational value, and d^ights in telling 
ef his expenences whetiber in the Aimy cam;», or tiie Navy, at borne, or abroad. 

He has improved very perceptibly in the use of Englirii. 

His contact with the outside world and his associations with disciplined men has 
meant for him much mental discipline. As a result of such discipline he returns to 
school a bofttorand moredesixablestsdent, and to his borne a better citisea. 

The '* Welcome home" which the Indians give their young men 
returning from military service is usually of the most coixiiid and 
commending character. Occasionally tiiey fed that by reviving th« 
native costume and some form of old war-time dances they can best 
express complete approval of tjiose who enlisted under the banner of 
American freedom. But nothing more noteworthy, perhaps, has 
transpired than thefimeral of a young man from theBosebud Reserva- 
tion, S. Dak., who died of influenza at Camp Dodge, Iowa, and whose 
body was returned home for burial. The obsequies were arranged 
by the Indians according to their own ideas and as an expression of 
their deepest emotioi^B. Hie official reporting the incident says: 

The boy's father's home is situated on a very high hill, so that for a long time before 
we reached it we could see the great crowd of Indians who had gathered to pay their 
last tribute. Long before we reached the home we could also see Old Glory floating 
from a tall flagpole that had been set up since the news of his death had reached the 
reserv'ation. Each of the five yoimg men who were pailbearezs had qualified for mili- 
tary service though some had been rejected on account of ph^mcal unfitness and 
others had not yet been examined. Each one of them, howev^, had pinned to the 
lapel of his coat streamers of red, white, and blue, and they rode on swift Indian ponies 
b^ind the automobile which carried the body of the young soldier. Over this car 
floated a very laige flag. In front of the procession rode another young Indian brave 
carrying Old Glory also. It was so impressive in its complete demonstration 
of loyalty that one could not keep back the tears. 

Distinguished behvice. — I mentioned courage as the soldierly 
quality that would win civil triumphs; of course something more than 
physical prowess and with no taint of mere bravado, but moral 
courage inspired by a greatness of purpose and lifted to the plane of 
high service and valiant sacrifice. It is such heroism that holds the 
current affairs of a people to the standards of rectitude and puts 
security into the days of peace. I can not think that this kind of 
heroism was lacking in the brilliant achievements that won personal 
distinction for so many of our soldiers, and am proud to know that 
Che Indians, who were numerically as wdl represented as any people 
of the allied powers, wotc proportionatdy their equal in the record 
of individual valor. 

As a rule the Indian bears his honors very modestly and his re- 
luctance to any display has somewhat hindered definite information 
in many cases. I shall, however, give a few instances as of repre- 
sentative significance: 



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COMMISSIONEB OF INDIAIT AFFAIRS. 13 

It is reported that Francis Lequier, a young Chippewa, in company 
with two or three others, attacked a machine-gun nest, and when left 
as the only survivor, faced all that remained of the machine gunners 
and killed or captured the entire group. He was said to he recov- 
ering from 11 wounds received in action. 

James M. Ekon (deceased), of the Tulalip Reservation, was cited 
by his commanding officer for guiding sentry squads to an isolated 
post in no man's land, and for guiding patrol to outskirts of BrieuUes, 
securing information of enemy occupation, and showing exceptional 
skilly courage, and coolness under fire. 

The superior officer of Richard Bland Breeding, a young Creek of 
Oklahoma, said of him: ^^He was the most capable, daring, and 
fearless platoon leader in the division. " 

Among those who won the croix de guerre was volimteer John 
Harper, a full-blood Uncompahgre Ute, of which details are lacking 
at this time; Chester Armstrong Fom-bear, a full-blood Sioux of 
South Dakota, cited for bravery in swift running as a messenger at 
Bellicourt; Ordnance Sergt. James M. Gordon, of Wisconsin, cited 
for rescuing while under shell fire a second lieutenant of the French 
Army who was wounded while on an inspection tour; Nicholas E. 
Brown, a full-blood Choctaw, who when killed was a corporal in the 
142d Infantry composed largely of Oklahoma Indians, the honor 
being posthumously awarded; Marty Beaver, a full-blood Creek, on 
the military records as Bob Carr, an orphan boy who enlisted in Com- 
pany F, 142d Infantry, Thirty-sixth Division, details at present 
lacking. 

Alfred G. Bailey, a Cherokee of Oklahoma, had been in regular 
service with Gen. Pershing in Mexico. He was a sei^eant when 
killed in action in France and was awarded the distinguished service 
cross for creeping into the enemy^s lines alone far in advance of his 
regiment where, unaided, he killed two German machine gtmners and 
captiu^d a third together with his gun. 

Walter G. Sevalia, oi Brule, Wis., a corporal in Company F, Seventh 
Engineers, was cited for ''extraordinary heroism" in action near 
Breuilles, France, in November, 1918. He swam the Meuse under 
terrific fire with a cable for a pontoon bridge, and later carried 
another cable over the Est Canal and across an open field covered by 
enemy machine gims. At this time he was wounded but returned 
bearing a message of great importance. 

Sergt. O. W. Leader, a three-fourths blood Choctaw, was foreman of 
a cattle ranch in Oklahoma when we entered the war. Greatly to 
his chagrin an idle rumor gained currency that he was a Hun spy. 
He qiut the cattle business at once and enlisted as proof of his Ameri- 
can loyalty. He was cited for bravery in battle in the coiuse of a 



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14 COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 

brilliant record of which the following is a synopsis: Fought at 
Cantigny, May 28, 1918; fought at Soissons, Chateau-Thierry, July 
18, 1918; fought in St. Mihiel salient, September 12, 1918; fought 
at Argonne Forest, October 1, 1918. Twice wounded and twice 
gassed. In addition to this military record is the interesting fact 
that Sergt. Leader was selected by the French Government as the 
model original American soldier of whom an oil painting should be 
made to hang upon the walls of the French Federal building where 
will be displayed types of all the allied races. 

Probably no more brilliant instance is recorded than that furnished 
by Pvt. Joseph Oklahombi, a full-blood Choctaw, of Company D, 
141st Infantry, whose home is at Bismarck, Okla., and who received 
the croix de guerre under the order of Marshal Petain, commander in 
chief of the French Armies of the east. A translation of the order 
follows: 

Under a violent barrage, dashed to the attack of an enemy position, covering about 
210 yards through barbed-wire entanglements. lie rushed on machine-gun nests, 
capturing 171 prisoners. He stormed a strongly held position containing more than 
50 machine guns, and a number of trench mortars. Turned the captured guns on the 
enemy, and held the position for four days, in spite of a constant barrage of large 
projectiles and of gas shells. Crossed no man's land many times to get information 
concerning the enemy, and to assist his wounded comrades. 

Such deeds of highest service to unborn generations are a part of 
the glorious conclusion wroxight by American arms and will outlive 
ail memorial bronze and marble, for they will inspire the song and 
story of immortal tradition, and though recorded history may fail, 
these things that have been written into the psychology of huBian 
freedom and justice will endm-e. 

Theift. — ^It has long seemed to me that no single benefit from the 
war would be of greater value on the practical side of our civilization 
than the impulse acquired toward thrift, and I have desired to turn 
this opportimity to the advantage of the Indians as far as possible. 
Incident to the patriotic urge back of all our bond sales and of almost 
equal weight was the investment feature. 

The Indians' part in the purchase of Liberty Bonds was a definite 
training in the direction of a safe and wise use of money. Their 
application for bonds of the fifth, or Victory, loan, to the extent of 
nearly $4,000,000, brought their total subscriptions to approximately 
$25,000,000, or a per capita sum of about $75 for the whole population. 

I have felt that the time and circumstances were opportune for 
continuing to stress along with industry the lessons of economy and 
careful management. The Indian, and for that matter every other 
man, needs few things more than honorable productive occupation of 
some kind and a disposition to conserve his income, to spend less 
than he earns. To work and save wiU go far toward relieving the 



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COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 15 

economic distress of which some people always, and most people some- 
times, complain. The remarkable progress made by many of the 
Indians in handling their possessions so as to make definite gains each 
year, not only as to material and industrial conditions, but in the ele-' 
vation of home life which nearly always follows, is evidence of a 
thrifty spirit which should be awakened and extended as widely as 
possible because of the truth as old as human nature that the man 
in a community who does well and gets ahead arouses emulation and 
becomes an educational example of practical value. 

It seemed to me most desirable to make use of the further sale of 
War Savings Stamps as an opportunity for spreading the gospel of 
thrift among the Indians in the hope of forming, especially among 
the yoimg, the beginnings of provident and progressive habits that 
will bring to them, besides personal success, the right sort of in- 
fluence upon others. The circular appearing below was, therefore, 
sent to the field service and portions of it widely distributed among 
the Indians. The reports received seem fully to have justified this 
campaign, and although the year has been one in which the increased 
cost pf nearly every necessary of life has greatl}'- reduced the normal 
savings of all earning classes, returns indicate that the Indians have 
continued the purchase of War Savings Stamps until their total in- 
vestments therein now exceed $1,000,000. 

INDIAN SERVICE THBIFT CAMPAIGN, 1919. 

To superintendents: 

"For age and want save while you may, 
No morning sun lasts the whole day.'* — Franklin. 

I wish to urge very special cooperation throughout the Indian Service this year with 
the Government's plan of continuing the sale of War Savings Stamps. I know of no 
way that we can better serve our country and ourselves, now that the call to arms is 
ended. There are great reconstructive expenses that no patriot would evade. No 
greater privilege ever came to the rank and file of our people than these investments of 
small savings on the easy terms provided. They should teach us the individual thrift 
we have long needed. They should create among the masses of our many millions the 
habits of forethought that would fashion us into a traditionally provident people. The 
opportunities coming to an uncrowded population amidst incomparable gifts of nature 
have saved us thus far from the dangers of lavish li\dng. But there must come a re- 
vision of past standards of personal economy. We shall have to know more about 
saving. We can not afford to have students of foreign conditions sayiog that the 
average French peasant would amass a fortune out of the back-door waste of the 
average American family. If we get nothing from this war but the saving habit, it 
will be worth more than the billions expended. 

*'If you would know the value of money, go and try to borrow some. " — Franklin, 

But the thing I now urge upon every Indian Service employee is to bring home to 
the Indians, especially the young and middle aged, the immediate and lasting benefit 
of savings made with a right purpose. This practice must have a worthy aim as its 
economic virtue, and when boys and girls are thus properly started their little income 



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16 COMAHSSIOISrER OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 

investments commit them concretely to that aim and by repetition develop the ele- 
ments of manly and womanly character. Our lives on this earth are inseparable from 
material things. The way we handle and the use we make of physical or tangible 
property enters laigely into the fabric of industrial and social well-being and gives 
stability to civilization. Our young Indians should get the meaning and worth of 
this truth. They should be aided to see the importance of money as a measure of 
values, as a means to high attainments and to personal independence. I have found 
no better barometer of a boy*s successful future than his disposition to save his earn- 
ings rather than to spend them foolishly. The ambition to accumulate leads, through 
the feeling of personal ownership, to thoughtful judgment, good conduct, and habits 
of safe economy. Contentment with mere well-doing is destructive of energy and 
frequently invites dissijmtion. A growing ownership of property strengthens the boy, 
dignifies the man, and awakens like purposes in others. The fact that a man more 
than exists, that he owns a home and has a share in the material welfare of his com- 
munity, intensifies his interest in public affairs, increases his feeling of responsibility, 
magnifies his concern not only for his own fireside but for his country and his country- 
men. 

"Without industry and frugality nothing will do and with them everything." — 
Franilin. 

I feel most earnestly that our new policy to hasten the competency of the Indian 
for the management of his own affairs correlates intimately with the Thrift Stamp move- 
ment, and I desire an active and constant endeavor to convince the Indians that 
whatever may be their choice, the day is coming as rapidly as we can bring it when 
their relation as dependents and wards of the Government will cease, and that they 
can make no better preparation for that time and do themselves no greater credit or 
honor than to begin now a faithful and rigid 8a\'ing system, such as the purchase of 
these stamps affords. I should like the Indian atmosphere to be surcharged with the 
idea that they must eventually, and not remotely, stand on their own feet, make their 
own way, pay taxes, and feed, clothe, and educate themselves the same as the white 
man. To this end, there should be no failure to furnish the simple lessons of all experi- 
ence that to provide for the future is the arisen tial law of intelligent life; that when 
times are good and conditions favorable provision must be made for misfortune or 
sickness or bad times; that in fruitful days a store must be laid by against possible 
adversity and want. We should see that the Indian gets the true meaning of thrift; 
that it is not a 8a\dng of money alone and for itself; that it does not foster avarice or 
greed, but means the wise use instead of the abuse of money; that thrift of the right 
sort tries to make the most and best of labor and its product; that it is the spirit of 
order, attention to details, and carefulness in all our daily affairs; and that industrious 
earning and saving becomes the best source of all capital which provides opportunity 
and prosperity to the rapidly increasing number of w^e workers. 

'^He that hath a trade hath an estate, and he that hath a calling hath an office of 
profit and honor. " — Franklin. 

It seems especially appropriate that the 1919 Savings Stamp show6 the picture of 
Benjamin Franklin, who is so generally known as our coim try's most distinguished 
apostle of thrift in its best sense; who learned a trade and supported himself by it; who 
was a saver of time and knowledge and all that builds up true manliness; who 
worked for character as much as wages and whose breadth of thrift earned him 
prosperity, the confidence of men, public recognition, and statesmanship within and 
beyond his own nation. I feel that our work among the Indians and particularly in 
all the schools may now be turned to a very practical advantage by the example of 
this great man who loaned from his private funds to the Government in its days of 
early stress; who tau^t us that there are no better tests of c(»nmon sense and sound 
judgment than the making, saving, and spending of money; that to make money 



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CWMMISSiONSK OF INI»AN AFFAIBS. 17 

honestly and industriously, to save it Ydthout being sordid, and to spend it with- 
out waste or -extravagance are fundamental in character building and will bring to any 
young man or woman a useful education of great value. 

I a^ you, tiMrefore, to posh tiie sale of these stamps vigiHously as an educational 
and econoDiic matter no less than a patriotic <Hie, aad to do everytitiing piactici^le 
to get Tndians, young and old, in the way of eamiug money and saving some part ol 
it for tfaxilt investment, and that you discourage ca^ng such stamps prior to ma- 
turity, except in the case of extreme need. 

Herewith are inclosed instructions as to the method of accounting for stamp pur- 
thases, the funds that may be used therefor, and the reports you will be expected 
to make to this office. 

Sincerely yours, Cato Sbixs, Commimoner. 

EDUCATION. 

Last year I presented at some length certain basic principles in- 
volved in educating the Indian, mentioning the purposes of the tenta- 
tive course of study, and giving an outline of the methods adopted 
and believed to be especially applicable to the education of the Indian 
pupils. 

Under this theory and system of education the Indian schools, 
although not always fulfilling the ideals ot our curriculum; have main- 
tained their usual standards remarkably w^ against unavoidable 
odds that prevailed during Uie closing months of the war and have 
continued since the armistice in a steadily increasing cost of supplies 
and operation that made economy a paramoimt necessity. 

It may not be widely understood that the Government Indian 
boarding schoc^, in many respects, is in a class by itself. It provides 
for those in attendance lodging, subsistence, clothing, medical atten- 
tion, and transportation, as well as academic and industrial instruc- 
tion. For the last fiscal year the law permitted an expenditure of 
$200 per pupil, except that wh^e the attendance was less than 100, a 
per capita expense of $225 was provided for. Formerly the maximum 
expense authorized was ev^i less, though perhaps not more restrict- 
ive of good results, if the wide difference in the cost of all supplies be 
considered. Discerning observers have comm^nited in terms of sur- 
prise that an Indian boarding school can accomplish work of the scope 
outlined within the cost limit stated above, for it is generally known 
that industrial schools for other than Indian stud^its expend ap- 
proximately twioe as much, or more, per pu{Hl; and this will hold 
true witli r^erence to the more liberal provision fortunately made for 
the oomingyear, which allows $225 per capita for Indian schools hav- 
ing an attendance of 200 or more, and $250 per pupil for the schools of 
less than 200. Thus, whatever deficiencies appear in Indian educa- 
l«m, <H* whatever failure to accompli^ the fullest results, must be 
charged rather to insufficient provision of monej^ tlian to other 
CMiuses. An instance of adverse conditions is exemplified in the vast 
amoimt of daily routine work which must be done in an Indian school 



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16 COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 

of whatever size or capacity. It has not always been possible to em- 
ploy sufficient labor to perform this institutional work, much of which 
is without value as instruction, but it has been done by Indian pupils 
who have thus given more of their time to it th^n is consistent with 
the best educational results. Of course, much of the work is of value 
to them for training and experience when properly correlated with 
systematic class instruction. This is true in connection with the 
shops, repair work about the plant, the labor devoted to agricultural 
activities, and for those duties of the girls which concern cooking, sew- 
ing, or housekeeping. 

Notwithstanding the limitations mentioned, I am expecting for 
the coming year a more stable and effective organization in our 
instruction service, and a resimiption of conditions that will place 
the schools upon a more workable basis, and I have lately brought 
to the attention of all superintendents and school workers matters 
of special importance with a view of strengthening educational 
activities. 

A RADICAL DEPARTURE AS TO ENROLLMENT. — The WOrk which 

the Indian Bureau has undertaken during the past half century 
toward the civilization and education of the various Indian tribes 
has brought encouraging results, especially within recent years. 
There has been a rapidly increasing number of those who speak and 
use the English language, who have adopted citizen's apparel, are 
in customary daily intercourse with their white neighbors, and are 
breaking away from tribal ties. An admixture of blood has occurred 
to such an extent that many Indians are hardly distinguishable 
from whites, and there has been in the Government schools too 
many of this class who properly belong to State public schools, 
although their number has of late been materially diminished. 
Again, the public school of the State is the place for the children of 
those Indians who have been released from guardianship. The 
combined capacity of Government schools is not sufficient for all 
and the real Indian should be given the preference as to educational 
opportunity. 

In order to eliminate those toward whom the Government's duty 
has been fulfilled and who with the assistance of the States should 
now depend upon their own resources, and to reserve the privileges 
of the Indian Schools for children of a greater degree of Indian 
blood who are still wards and without advantages, I have believed 
it wise and expedient to prescribe certain amendments to the Indian 
school rules. 

These amendments define the classes which should be eliminated 
from Government schools. Although they bear date of July 29, 
and of course concern the future more than the past, they are given 
in full as follows: 



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OCOCMKSIONEB OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 19 

July 29> 1919. 



. Tbe rttleslor tiiriiidiaB 8cbo<^ service, approved July 14, 1913, are hereby amended 
by adding th^eto, following paragraph 9, page 4, the following proviaions: 

* ' 9a. There shall not be enrolled in Government nonreservation schools any Indian 
children who are not under Federal supervision, without prior authority from the 
Commissioner of Indian Afifoira. 

" 96. There shall not be enrolled in any Indian reservation boarding or day schools 
any Indian children not under Federal supervision, except such as are entitled to 
share in the benefits of treaty or trust funds from which the school is maintained 
without prior authority from tiie Commissioner of Indian Aftairs. 

''9c. Except as to reservation schools supported from tribal funds or under specific 
treaty stipulations, Indian pupib who have ample financial resoiurces or whose parents 
have such resources sufficient for the payment of all or part of the expenses of the 
pupib' education, whether or not the parents are wards of the Government, shall 
be required to pay their transportation, and all or part of the actual cost of their support 
and education, not to exceed |200 a year, or at the rate of |20 a month or a fraction of 
a year. Superintendents will enforce this regulation. 

''9(/. All pupils above the sixth grade entering a vocational school shall be en* 
rolled for four years or for a sufficient term to complete the vocational course provided 
by the school. 

*'9«. Pupils thus enrolled for the vocational course shall be permitted to return 
home for vacation once only during such term of enrollment, at their own expense 
ordinarily unless in exceptional cases the supointendent finds it just or advisable to 
pay their transportation; otherwise the pupils shall remain at the school during the 
vacation months, or, if allowed to depart, shall pay a charge of |25 per month for each 
month's absence, imless in especially meritorious cases the superintendent shall 
grant not to exceed 30 days leave.'' 

The scope and purpose of the amendments were explained in a 
letter of instructions accompanying the same, which appears below: 

July 29, 1919. 
To all superintendents: 

The accompanying amendments to the school rules restricting enrollment of pupils 
to those who are under Federal supervision demand more than passing notice. For 
several yeard attempts have been made to eliminate from the Indian schools pupils 
whose parents are citizens, particularly those possessing only a small degree of Indian 
blood. Notwithstanding past efforts in this respect, there are still enrolled in many 
of our Indian schools a laige number of near-whites. In many cases, these pupila 
live in towns or in communities where there are at least average public school facili- 
ties. The justification usually given for the enrollment of such pupils in Government 
Indian schools is that they wish to have the benefit of the vocational training offered 
or that the iMurents'are poor and in need of assistance. Superintendents frequently 
accepted such explanation as satisfactory, provided the applicant possessed as much 
as one-fourth Indian blood. Superintendents of nonreservation schools contend that 
they must rely on the statements made by the reservation superintendent as to eligi- 
bility of the pupil, but sometimes pupils are first enrolled and the justification for 
their enrollment supplied at a later date. This is particularly true as respects the 
enrollment of pupib who are not living under the juriadiction of a superintendent or 
agency. Greater .care must be exercised in this matter in the future than has been 
practiced in the past. 

In order to carry out the requirements of these rules, there must be the closest co- 
operation between the superintendents of reservations and superintendents of non- 
reeerv9ti(Mi schools. Reservation superintendents should not approve applications 



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20 OOiCMISSIOirSB OF INDIAK AFFAIRS. 

of pupils anleas they have definite information regarding them and have satisfied 
themselves that without Government assistance the pupil would be deprived ot 
school privileges. It is not a sofficient justification that a child would be better o£f 
in a Government school or that it would be desirable for such child to have vocational 
training^ but the question should be ''Does such Indian boy or girl have the same 
school privileges in the community in wluch he or she lives that other children enjoy? " 
If they do there can be no real justification for the enrollment of such boy or girl in 
a Government school, except possibly in rare instances where other factors enter 
which m^ht justify waiving the rules. Furthermore, where the Indian children 
are entitled under State law to attend its public schools, it should be first ascertained 
whether there are good and sufficient reasons for their not so attending, before they 
are received in a Government school. 

In all such cases the applications should be first forwarded to my office, accompanied 
by a full statement of the hcts, and the applicant should not be admitted to the school 
until the approved application has been returned to you. It may be necessary to 
make exception for full bloods or in case of some special classes of Indians who are 
technically nonwards and citizens, but who are, nevertheless, practically under 
govenmiental supervision, as, for instance, the E^astem Cherokees of North Carolina, 
or the Ohoctaws of Mississippi. 

The children of Indians who have received their patents in fee to their allotments 
are to be excluded from enrollment in a Grovemment school supported from gratuity 
approprLations unless in a given case the Indian child should be a Federal ward, 
irrespective of the status of the parents. You are directed to accept hereafter no 
Indian pupil of the classes indicated, and to take steps to eliminate such pupils from 
your present enrollment at the end of the school year or at the end of the definite term 
of enrollment of each such pupil. If doubt exists as to the status of any pupil or any 
applicant, such case accompanied by all attendant facts and information must be pre- 
sented to me for a decision. Responsibility for elimination from the schools of non- 
ward citizen Indian children rests upon the superintendent. Inspection officials 
are hereby instructed to make, at each school they \nisit, careful investigation of the 
eligibility of the pupils enrolled and report to me all violations of the school rules and 
of these instructions. Superintendents who negligently permit or approve the en- 
rollment of ineligible pupils in Government Indian schools will be held personally 
responsible. It follows, therefore, that the utmost care must hereafter be exercised, 
both by the reservation superintendent and by the nonreservation superintendent, 
in order effectively to enforce these rules. 

Frequently pupils in the provocational grades have been transferred at Government 
expense to schools located at great distances from their homes when the only justifi- 
cation for such transfer was the wish of the pupil or parent, or the desire of an employee 
to take a trip as escort at Government expense. This practice must be discontinued. 
No pupil will hereafter be transferred to a distant school or accepted for enrollment in 
a nonreservation school until he has completed the highest grade in the reservation 
school, except in cases where the reservation school is overcrowded, and then as a rule 
such pupil should be sent to the nonreservation school nearest his home. Specific 
authority must be obtained for any deviation from this rule and only in very special 
cases will authority be granted to pay transportation of pupils in the provocational 
grades to other than nonreservation schools nearest their homes. 

I wish to again impress upon superintendents, and particularly upon reservation 
superintendents, the importance of giving special attention to the matter of requiring 
Indians who are financially able to do eo to contribute more toward defraying the ex- 
penses of the education of their children. Where parents or pupils have sufficient 
incomes of their own, they must hereafter be required to bear all or a part of the cost 
of their education. More and more Indians must be taught and required to rely on 
their own resources and to depend less and less upon the Government. 



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OOMMISSIONEB OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. SI 

The purpose of this circular and the amendments herewith should be nukde 
generally Imown both to pupils in schools and to their parents and guardians. I re- 
gard this as an important matter and in direct line with the declaration of p<^cy, 
promuigaled Ajnil 17, 1917. 

In this connection I will further invite your attention to sections 246 and 247 ol 
existing school rules. These requirements as to attendance of Indian children in 
public schools must be complied with in all cases where Indian children have reason- 
able access thereto and where such children may be received without valid objection 
from the public-echool authorities, whether or not upon payment of tuition. As to 
Indian childien not nnd^ Federal supervision, you should exercise your influence 
and give your assistance whenev^ opportunity affords toward the rec^tion of such 
children by the State public schools. 

An acknowledgment of this circular and the amendments should be made at this 
time, but I wish a full report on or bef(»'e October 30, advising me just what steps you 
have taken, are taking, and the effect of these new rules on the enrollment of pupils 
in your school, as wdl as the results secured in gifting parents and pupils to contribute 
toward the expense of the pupils' education and support. 

Cato SsiiLS, Commimoner. 

Portly following the annoimceznent of the amended rales as above 
given, the Washington (D. C.) Post made editorial comment as 
follows: 

A PBOOBSSSIVE POUCY. 

The progressive i>olicy adopted by liie Interior Department with respect to the In- 
dians has been further emj^iasized by orders recently issued by Cato Sells, Commis- 
sioner of Indian Aftaiis, and calculated to place the Indians upon a plane of independ- 
ence and self-reliance. It is proposed to remove all restrictions upon all lands owned 
by or allotted to members of the Five Civilized Tribes of Oklahoma of one-half Indian 
blood, and the Commissioner of Indian Affairs has ordered that a complete list of all 
members <^ those tribes 21 yeais of i^ or over be compiled. While the Government 
will exercise a careful watch over these people, yet they are to have charge of their 
own lands with a greater degree of freedom than ever before. 

Amendments also have been made to the rules govemiog the Indian school service 
for the purpose of preserving these institutions for the sole benefit of the Indian chil* 
dren who are under Federal control and of debarring children whose parents are fully 
able to jMDvide for their education. At nonres^rvation schools no Indian children 
are to be enrolled who are not under Federal supervision, and at Indian reservation 
boarding or day schools no children ^lall be enrolled who are not entitled to diare in 
the benefits of treaty or trust funds from which the school is maintained. Where pu- 
pils or their parents have ample resources they must pay transportation of children 
sent to school and must pay $200 a year tuition and board. 

The reasons for these amendments to the rules are obvious. Schools supported 
from tribal funds are tar the benefit of children of those tribes, and should not be used 
by others. Schools maintained at Government exp^ase are for Indian childr^i who 
have not the privilege of public schools and whose parents are not financially able to 
pay for their education. There is no reason why an Indian who possesses valuable 
lands, possibly yielding him a handsome income, or who enjoys an income from 
other sources diould have his diildren educated in vocational training at Government 
expense, with the Government even paying the child 'is railroad toe to and from 
school. 

Conunissioner Sells, whose administration of the Indian Bureau has been highly 
successful, has in these matters given further evidence of his ability to fairly and 
justly look after tiie Nation's wards. 



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22 GOMMISSIONEB OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 

Enrollment in public schools. — ^For the past three or four 
years, the wisdom of encouraging attendance of Indian children in 
State public schools by payment of tuition for them has been strongly 
emphasized and Congress has made specific appropriations for such 
purpose. There has been a steady increase in the number of children 
accepted by the public schools and in the number of contracts made 
for the payment of tuition. There seems to have been no prejudice 
against the Indian as such by the white members of the school dis- 
trict in most localities, and such feeling as has existed against this 
coeducation of the Indians with the whites is rapidly disappearing. 

It is my intention to push actively the policy of reserving the Indian 
schools for children who are not provided with adequate free school 
facilities and to pay tuition for those who have access to public 
schools but whose parents are wards of the Government. Under- 
lying this purpose is the firm conviction that the great common 
school system of our coimtry so wisely planned in colonial times is of 
vital value to our free institutions and should establish the elemen- 
tary principles of our citizenship. The statistics essential to military 
conscription startlingly revealed the need of greater mass enlighten- 
ment and the special need of a uniform language. More potent than 
any other constructive force in our civilization is, or should be, the 
free public schools as a nursery of one American speech and of the 
simpler but fundamental lessons of civic virtue, social piu-ity, and 
moral integrity. The hope of our Democracy, now set up as a model 
for the world, lies in the successful teaching of these things to all 
classes and ra;ces of our polyglot population by a system of instruc- 
tion such as the State public schools make possible. I hold, therefore, 
that the Indian child can have no better fortune than to enter these 
schools and become a learner of the knowledge and an absorber 
of the influences that tend to make us a unified people in all great 
purposes and ideals. Moreover, an important benefit to Indian chil- 
dren in the public schools will be the operation of compulsory attend- 
ance laws which with a single exception prevail in some form in all of 
the States. As a rule the Indian child will not fall behind the prog- 
ress of the white pupil imder regulations affecting both alike, but 
the parent of the former is apt to be too lenient in requiring regular 
attendance at school. Practically all States of the Indian coimtry 
have compulsory laws covering the full school year which are, of 
course, applicable to citizen Indians, and I should strongly favor such 
l^islation as would extend their control over children who are wards 
enrolled in public schools. 

Closing op certain boarding schools. — In carrying out the poli- 
cies which have heretofore been indicated and which are in part em- 
bodied in the amendments to the school rules previously explained, it 
has been found advisable to discontinue certain boarding schools 



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COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AEFAIBS. 23 

and to use the funds to better advantage elsewhere. In Wisconsin, 
the Oneida Indians have reached a stage of advancement which seemed 
to justify the withdrawal of Federal school privileges and therefore 
the Oneida boarding school has been closed. Public schools will in 
the future provide lai^ely for the children and it may be anticipated 
that additional public school districts will be organized. At Sisseton, 
S. Dak., public schools are numerous and easily accessible to these 
children. The community has become settled and developed and 
the boarding school there, being no longer necessary , was discontinued 
within the year. 

For substantially the same reasons the Nevada boarding school, 
Nevada, and the Umatilla boarding school, Oregon, have been aban- 
doned. A day school will be conducted at the Nevada School plant 
for those children of the immediate neighborhood, and at Umatilla two 
day schools have been provided for those who cannot attend the pubhc 
schools. The Martin Kenel School at Standing Bock, N. Dak., has 
been discontinued because it was expensive to operate, the plant 
was not in good condition, and all of the pupils could be accommo- 
dated at the Standing Bock Agency boarding schools. 

Under the amended school rules the end of the fiscal year virtually 
marked the close of the Yankton boarding school. South Dakota, and 
in Oklahoma of the Ponca, the Otoe, and the Shawnee boarding 
schools, the conditions as to citizenship and the accessibility of 
public schools being such as reasonably to justify this action. 

It should be said that in all the jurisdictions where schools are 
thus discontinued special attention will be given to any exceptional 
cases and their enrollment in other Grovernment schools effected; 
also Indian students of some degree of achievement who are ambi- 
tious for further advancement will be considered for admission to 
nonreservation schools. 

These educational readjustments are in line with the settled policy 
of securing pubUc school instruction for the Indian children 
whenever practicable, of requiring citizen and other Indians of 
sufficient resources to share in the cost of education, and of extend- 
ing needed school facilities to those less fortunately situated. In 
the far Southwest are still many Indian children for whom no school- 
ing is provided and among them are many of the poorer classes. The 
claims of these are most urgent and public fimds which can be re- 
leased with no injustice elsewhere should be used as far as applicable 
to discharge the Government's obligations to the many who are still 
its wards and are as helpless as they are deserving. 

CoNSTEUOTiON. — ^Tho abnormally high cost of labor and material 
necessarily impeded construction work in the service during the past 
fiscal year, and considerably reduced the volume of both open mar- 
ket and contract projects, but few awards being made for the latter, 

140923'*— JNT 1919— VOL 2 3 



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24 GOMMISSIONSB OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 

as the bids submitted for them were ahnost inTariably much iu excess 
of the funds appropriated or apportioned. As a return of the cost of 
labor and material to the prewar status, or even close to it, can 
hardly be expected in the near future, it is the intention to carry on 
the construction projects as far as possible in the open market, for 
the results obtained by that method during the past year have been 
satisfactory. A practical and important demonstration of this appears 
in the construction of the Ute Mountain boarding school, Colorado, 
consisting of 10 buildings, with a central power, heating and electric 
lighting plant, and water and sewer system. It is expected to com- 
plete the school within the year at a saving of 40 per cent over con- 
tract work. 

The field personnel. — I have previously reported the serious 
loss to the field force of this biireau by transfer to direct or associated 
war work. The epidemic of last fall further disturbed the r^ular- 
ity of the service, so that it became extremely difficult to maintain 
throughout the year well organized conditions, and inexperienced, 
temporary help became a necessity in many jurisdictions. However 
the results under this unavoidable handicap have been generally all 
that could be expected. I have had frequent occasion to appreciate the 
loyality of very many employees whose qualifications and efficiency 
were attracted to other more remunerative employment, but who 
remained at their posts and even assumed other responsibihties in 
the genuinely patriotic spirit demanded by the period of extreme emer- 
gency. I am impressed that as a class the Indian Service employees 
are not adequately paid when qualifications and the character of the 
work performed are compared with other Government and outside 
employees. I should be glad to go further than available appro- 
priations permit in rewarding the faithful and often self-sacrificing 
service of my coworkers. 

Indian fairs. — One of the most helpful means of stimulating the 
agricultural enthusiasm of the Indians has been the Indian fair held 
each year on most of the reservations, at which the Indians exhibit 
their farm products, live stock, etc., in competition with each other, 
suitable prizes being awarded on the best exhibits. Certificates of 
merit, over the signature of the Commissioner and under the official 
seal of the Indian Office, are also given in deserving cases. These 
fairs are generally managed by the Indians themselves, through the 
medium of organized fair associations with Indian officers, under the 
supervision of the superintendent, which gives them practical ex- 
perience in business organization and management. 

An important feature of such fairs is ''the baby show,'' where the 
Indian motiiers bring their little ones ''in best bib uid tucker," cash 
prizes and certificates being given the winners. 



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COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 26 

Indian exhibits were also shown at county and State fairs, in con- 
formity with the practice inaugurated several years ago, on a lai^er 
scale tixan formerly, with continued good results, many prizes being 
awarded the Indians in open competition with other exhibitors. 
Their success along this line portends the final abolishment of the 
strictly Indian fairs on the reservations, and universal participation 
by the Indians in the State and county fairs on the same basis as the 
whites. 

Indian ehplotment. — From his war experience the Indian has 
gained a wider vision of life, which has quickened his thought, opened 
his eyes to opportunity, and stimulated him to action, and many 
Indian soldiers have thus found work through the exercise of their 
enei^tic initiative. Indian youths have been working in this 
country on motors for Army trucks, tractors, and airplanes, and in 
France as repair men on motor-driven vehicles, and a number from 
overseas have returned to the factories for electrical engineering and 
other kinds of mechanical activities. Applications for automobile 
factory work are coming in steadily, and all worthy Indians so dis- 
posed are given a chance to become skilled mechanics in this way. 

In that section of the Arkansas Valley between Rocky Ford, Colo., 
and Garden City, Eans., Indian students from seven schools in the 
Southwest worked in the sugar-beet fields and factories, over 400 
students being thus engaged from the middle of May until the last 
of December. In the evenings ihey enjoyed athletic activities, base- 
ball, and band concerts, besides being supplied with magazines and 
other reading matter. Progress was impeded by the outbreak of 
Spanish influenza in the camps, three-fourths of the boys being in 
the hospital at different times with this malady. 

Many Indians found lucrative employment in the cotton fields of 
Arizona, particularly the Papago, who do the best work with Egyp- 
tian cotton. 

Many Indian girls were employed in clerical work, and as cooks, 
teachers, and housekeepers in schools, and others as nurses in Army 
hospitals in this country, besides three in France with the Red 
Cross. 

The extent and the variety of the work in which the Indians have 
been engaged, and the fact that many from remote districts who have 
never before shown such interest have asked for employment, presage 
economic stabihty and progress. 

HEALTH. 

If the figures of the epidemic of Spanish influenza could be deleted 
from the statistical tables and the sorrows of that visitation effaced 
from memory, the health record of the Indians of the United States 
for the fiscal year 1919 could be written as normal, notwithstanding 



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26 COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 

the fact that the facilities of the service were greatly impaired by 
war conditions. The corps of physicians which at the time of the 
signing of the armistice was scarcely one-third of its normal numeri- 
cal strength, has been imdergoing rehabilitation, and at the close of 
the period covered by this report it was gradually approaching its 
full complement. The nursing corps is still greatly depleted and 
many positions are being filled temporarily by practical nurses. 

During the period of the war on some reservations physicians 
were required to take over the work of two or three other medical 
districts; in certain localities no medical service could be maintained 
other than the supplying of simple remedies. 

To relieve the situation incidental to the shortage of physicians 
and nurses the Civil Service Commission waived the maximum age 
limits and changed the form of examinations from assembled to 
nonassembled. Through this courtesy and by aid of employees 
who were willing to perform extra duty it was possible to preserve 
in some form the integrity of the diflFerent health services even at 
the most remote stations. 

During the epidemic of Spanish influenza a plan of cooperation 
was effected between the Public Health Service and the Bureau of 
Indian Affairs, by which the emergency was well mot, and I desire 
to expresss appreciation for the timely assistance rendered by the 
Surgeon General. 

The Chilocco School was a notable example of the efficient control 
of the influenza epidemic, not a single case having developed among 
the more than 500 Indian students and large corps of employees. 

While every employee of the Indian Service, by virtue of his posi- 
tion and duties, is concerned with health, which is not secondary to 
any other activity, those designated as health supervisors, special 
physicians, special nurses, agency and school physicians, general 
nurses, field matrons, and field dentists, are charged with the prin- 
cipal duties and responsibilities pertaining to the physical welfare of 
the Indian people. 

The health supervisors visit the various reservations and schools 
for the piupose of advising with the other health employees and 
gathering information for the office; special physicians are employed 
primarily to combat trachoma, but it is required that they shall be 
qualified specialists in diseases of the ear, nose and throat, as well as 
in diseases of the eye. In addition, they must be prepared to act as 
epidemologists, for they are frequently detailed to take chaise of 
local epidemics of dangerous communicable diseases. Special 
nurses are attached to the service of sfpecial physicians. Agency 
and school physicians, whether employed under contract or regular 
appointment, perform the duties indicated by their designations^ 
and general nurses are nursei^ employed at the various schools and 



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OOMMISSIONBR OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. . 27 

hospitals throughout the service. Field matrons have a multi- 
plicity of duties. ImproTement of home, educational, moral, sani- 
tary, environmental, and social conditions among the Indians is to 
be r^arded as the primary object of their work. Though it is the 
duty of every employee of the service, regardless of his position, to 
do everything possible to contribute to such improvement, both by 
effort and by example, the field matron, whose duties bring her into 
the closest relationship with the family, especially the mothers and 
daughters of the home circle, is particularly charged with the respon- 
sibility of developing higher standards of living, of inculcating the 
desire for progress and of evolving plans to make the home more 
attractive. Field matrons are assigned a leading part in the or- 
ganized effort to save the babies and keep them well, and they also 
act as field nurses in combating tuberculosis, trachoma, and other 
diseases. 

The traveling field dentists are among the most useful employees 
of the service. Their professional aid at the schools and reserva- 
tions largely promote conditions among the pupils and adult Indians 
now generally regarded as definitely essentid to bodily health. 

The faciUties for the treatment of the sick have increased with the 
progress of medicine. From the primitive dispensary clinics of 
early days there have developed the hospitals and sanatoria of the 
present, with their laboratories and special equipment. The guess 
methods of diagnosis have given place to scientific tests, and the 
former occasional word of admonition on health has been superseded 
by graded instruction in hygiene and physical culture which extends 
through all grades as outlined by the course of study. The hope of 
the Indian — his development, physically, and industrially — ^lies in 
his educational opportunity. Since sanitation is a compulsory subject 
of the curriculum of instruction, in the course of time the principles 
taught will blend with the daily life and conduct of the people and 
exert a transforming influence upon their future. 

With the addition of trachoma as an exception, although this 
disease also prevails among white people, the health problems as 
they occur among the Indians are the same as those that pertain to 
rural communities throughout the country, and the needs are the 
same — ^better housing conditions, greater industrial prosperityi 
better water supplies, and all the factors of protection that make for 
health and longevity. Our efforts cover the whole range of sanitary 
and medical prevision and aid, beginning with prenatal care and 
extending on through life to the care of the aged and finally to the 
burial of the dead. While each duty is important, I would, so far as 
practicable, emphasize as the most important those things which 
prevent disease by increasing the resistance of the body cells through 
proper nutrition and well ordered living, thus making it possible for 



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28 COMMISSIONER OF IKDIAN AFFAIBS. 

one, who may not have escaped infecting organisms, through the 
strategy of knowledge and the tactics of hygiene, to find protection 
in the defenses of nature. 

So,, believing proper nutrition to be one of the principal armaments 
of preventive medicine, I have sought to encourage and prbmote 
Indian industry in general and Indian farming in particular; I have 
tried to make agriculture and thrift the pillars of a health arch of 
which the keystone shall be sanitary education. Poverty and 
disease are handmaids of destruction and despair and any health 
poUcy designed to affect a race must make provisions to over- 
come these conditions and offer to the people prosperity and hope, 
encouragement and comfort 

I have purposely avoided including comparisons in this report, 
for on account of effects of the epidemic of Spanish influenza 
they would be of very little value in studying the general conditions 
of health. Statistical figures appear in the various tables under 
appropriate headings, and those pertaining to the epidemic will be 
incorporated in the reports of the United States Public Health 
Service and in the bulletins of the Bureau of the Census. 

In general it may be said that apart from the invasion of the 
Indian population by the great pandemic, the year covered by this 
report showed progress in health matters; the number of hospitals 
was slightly increased, the field matron service and the medical 
corps strengthened 

I have very definite plans for the expansion of the health service 
for the next fiscal year, subject to Congressional appropriations. 
As will be recalled, two health drives operated in the Five Civilized 
Tribes during the months of July, August, September, October, and 
November of 1917. One of the drives was carried on among the 
Cherokees and the other among the Choctaws. 

From my knowledge of the health conditions of the Indians of 
that jurisdiction, gained from reports and observations, and from 
a study of the statistics of those drives, I am convinced that a per- 
manent health organization of sufficient proportions to extend its 
influence to every restricted Indian of that superin tendency is needed. 
The immediate purpose of those campaigns was to improve the very 
bad conditions, and instructions were given to those engaged in the 
work to give their first attention to home betterment; to sanitation 
and ventilation; and to hygienic relations bearing upon the pre- 
vention of tuberculosis and other communicable diseases. 

Now that the war is over, I intend to renew my request to Congress 
for the funds to complete and make effective these preliminary cam- 
paigns for health betterment among the Choctaws and Chickasaws. 

With a view to restoring and strength^iing our health work, and 
especially the service of field matrons, I issued near the close of the 



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COMMISSIOII^EB OF IKDIAK AFFAIBS. 29 

year an appeal to all employees, in the hope that the sentiment and 
views expressed would, mider more promising facilities, lead to better 
organization and corresponding results. This letter follows: 

June 18, 1919. 
To tuperintendenUf phyndanSf field matrons^ and other employees: 

In the Indian Service it is never untimely to preach the gospel of health, but it is 
especially opportune to do so now when all that enters into theinspiring word^'American- 
ization '' summons us to great action. Thou^ the thunders of world strife are stilled 
we shall not complete our victory untD we put into the arts and activities of peace the 
high purpose and patriotism that gave our best lives and billions of treasure for freedom 
and justice to all mankind. Our nation henceforth must rest on a citizenship that will 
prove the efficacy of the ideals we fought for, and for which the Indians touched elbows 
with the white man on all the heights of heroism. This proof must appear in the unity, 
the intelligence, the freedom of opportunity, and the mass progress of our people. We 
are thus called by the triumphs of war to win the equally renowned victories of peace 
which can be fully told only by coming historians, but which in a sentence means the 
development of an American people of one language, one love of liberty, one loyalty to 
law and justice. 

In this exalted task, we of the Indian Service have a definite part. It is not only oui 
duty to see how many Indians are among the five and a half millions in the United 
States who can not read or write any language, or the 3,000,000 over school age who can 
not speak English, or the one-fourth of our drafted Army who could not read their 
orders or write home in English, or the 6,000,000 of underweight children in the 
United States, but we must overcome these conditions so far as they exist on the 
reservations, and first of all we must have a vital and physical basis to build on. 
Our fundamental and best work must be in the saving of life and in making life 
healthy. The monument we build to Indian soldiers, living or dead, should be in the 
lives of those remaining under our care. 

The progress of every people is primarily conditioned upon corporal efficiency. The 
greatest attainments of civilization do not spring from enfeebled flesh and blood. 

I have often emphaazed the thought early in my administration, and now give it 
earnest reiteration that it is our chief duty to protect the Indian's health and to save 
him from premature death . It is of first importance that we reestablish the health and 
constitution of the Indian childroi. Education and protection of property must not be 
neglected, but everything is secondary to the basic condition which makes for the per- 
petuation of the race. 

We have had some splendid succeans in the direction of improved health and vigor 
among Indian babies, as shown by competitive tests. We have increased all our 
faciUtieB for medical treatment and nursing. We have recently seen a steady gain in 
birth rate and decreasing death rate. We have accomplished much betterment in 
home life. But these and other gratifying results must serve chiefly to stimulate our 
efforts and to improve our organization for greater achievement. We released many 
from our health service for the emergent needs of war, but we are restoring them 
or filling their places, and shall widen their work. 

I feel that we are at the dayspnng of a new and glorioiis era in all that pertains to 
health and the vital possibilitieB of a great people, and axe ready as never before to 
respond undentandingly to the great Teacher's promise: ''I came that ye might have 
life and that ye might have it more abundantly.'' The abundant life must come 
through physical, as well as mental and spiritual health. As we emerge from the forces 
of havoc and death, the impelling thought and aspiration of the hour are reconstructive, 
renewing, expansive. There is an eagerness to look forward, to move upward, to 
rastoce and heal. The swift advances in the science o£ suigery and medicine, the 



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30 COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 

quickened humanities of world-wide relief, have bequeathed to us an inspiration 
to cure and prevent disease, to build up and make strong, and unless we act upon it. 
we are disloyal to the war's greatest spiritual triumph. We must be instant to gra^p 
the miraculous things done to prevent disease in vast bodies of men. We must 
appropriate and practically apply the marvelous reduction of war deaths from infec- 
tious conditions. We must practice scrupulously the object lessons given by military 
camps in all matters of health precautions which have so successfully maneuvered 
against communicable disease through the common essentials of water, air, food, 
clothing, sewage, exercise, and inoculation. Typhoid and many germ diseases are 
no longer more destructive than the enemy's guns and gas. These are n^ligible 
foes through persistent sanitation and other prevention practicable for every com- 
munity. We have learned that military morale is chiefly another name for health, 
for the healthy are seldom downhearted or deficient in courage. 

Morale is a good watchword under which to rally all our service personnel, all our 
pupils, all our returned students, and progressive Indians for a new drive against dis- 
ease of every description. Health is almost wholly a matter of education, of oiganiza- 
tion, of cooperative enthusiasm. The health leagues started in many schools should 
become nation-wide. Hygienic living costs little beyond such actual necessities as 
food, clothing, water, air, fuel, shelter, work, play. Never before has there been 
such full and reliable guidance to good health as comes now from the PubUc 
Health Service, the State boards of health, and the copious literature on right living 
from medical and trustworthy sources. To-day there would be no wit or logic in the 
eloquent agnostic's suggestion for improving the Almighty's plan by making good 
health catching instead of disease, because the contagion of good health is a fact, and is 
being demonstrated wherever intelligent effort correlates with nature. 

1 do not see how our service can be anywhere but in the vanguard of this great health 
movement which has awakened such serious interest, and to be there our Indian 
schools must reorganize for more effective results. Many of our school periodicals con- 
tain in nearly every issue the essential rules for practical hygiene and sanitation. 
What we probably need is a more systematic plan for creating interest in, and the per- 
formance of, what we know ought to be done. The element of a proper incentive is 
very important with children until practice develops habit, or the joy of health be- 
comes a conscious reward of obedience to instruction. I also regard as of special 
value such supervision of exercise or athletics as will bring individual benefits to all 
pupils. The competitive game is a great and wholesome thing, under right control, 
but every pupil should get into it. All should be actors, and not mostly spectators. 
But enveloping all our efforts, should be the stirring influence of a health atmosphere, 
even breezy in its expression of the zeal and confidence of every employee that health 
must come first and that everybody must have it. I can not believe that many forms of 
disease can stand against such cooperation inspired by the Superintendent, counseled 
by the physician, administered by the faithful nurses and matrons, and assisted by the 
encouragement and sympathy of all. 

In this appeal, I have somewhat especially in mind the duties of field matrons and 
desire to awaken a revival of interest in their work which is so needful to all health 
and home weltoe on the reservations, and to secure for it the support its importance 
demands. 

We must continue more resolutely our contest against disease and insanitation in 
the family life of adult Indians. Emphasis is given to my earlier declaration, that 
every Indian hospital bed not necessarily occupied by a siifferer from disease or injury 
should be available for the mother in childbirth. No baby should be bom in the 
midst of infectious conditions. There must be no neglect of any woman approaching 
the sacred period of motherhood, and in all this work of home uplift and purification 
the responsibility rests heavily upon the field matron, who under the direction of the 
superintendent is entitled to his sincerest aid and council. 



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COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 31 

The pontion of field matron is much more than a job. It is an opportunity for serv- 
ice to others; an opportunity for self -sacrifice in the interest of humanity; and for the 
exercise of the highest attributes of mind and soul in a preeminent cause. The posi- 
tion should be filled only by women who have the desire and the aptitude to teach 
the things that influence human lives for good and fill them with higher aspirations. 

No woman should seek or hold the position of field matron who is not endowed with 
physical strength, with strong moral and mental force, and with the real missionary 
spirit — a spirit of helpfulness that finds expression in a fervent desire to better the 
condition of a worthy race that is struggling upward to a realm of higher life, for with- 
out these qualifications, the duties will be uncongenial and success can not be attained . 
The material remuneration is not lai^ge and the discouragements and adversities are 
mauy. The rewards are chiefly In the sacrifices. 

WhOe A^aried circumstances and conditions are responsible to a great extent for 
failure, success depends, in a large measure, upon the field matron herself; upon her 
spirit of helpfulness and sacrifice; upon her fitness for her calling; and upon her moral 
force. 

A field matron, to be successful, must have a profound personal interest in the In- 
dian people and an abiding faith in their possibilities and in the ultimate success of 
her work. She must la1x>r for the general welfare of all, r^;ardless of their attitude^ 
their status, their character, their reputation, or their condition. If any distinction 
is made, it should be in favor of those who are farthest down in the scale of life, be- 
cause their needs are the greatest. 

Because of the great importance I attach to the mission of the field matron, 1 am 
inclosing herewith a more specific outline of her responsibilities and duties and shall 
expect every such employee to acknowledge the receipt thereof. 

Cato Sells, Commissioner, 

SUPPRESSION OF THE LIQUOR TRAFFIC. 

The task of suppressing the liquor traffic among Indians is one 
which requires constant watchfuLiess, vigilance, and resourcefulness, 
in the apprehension and prosecution of offenders. This branch of 
our service is kept moving all the time to protect our Indians from 
the evils resulting from the use of liquor, and while substantial prog- 
ress has been made during the past year, the liquor forces continue 
to violate the law wherever it seems possible to acquire huge profits^ 
taking great chances and becoming desperate and dangerous when 
interfered with. 

The year has been an active one notwithstanding the war restric- 
tions imposed upon the manufacture and sale of liquors. There 
were 1,516 new cases instituted during the year; 2,135 cases disposed 
of; 33,924 gallons of various kinds of intoxicating liquors seized and 
destroyed; and 112 automobiles engaged in the illegal trafficlibeled 
and sold for $42,869. Fines were assessed in the amount of $82,460. 
Operations during the fiscal year covered 27 different States and in- 
clude prosecutions for violations of State, Federal, and municipal 
laws. 

The legislation contained in the act of May 25, 1918, making posses^ 
sion of intoxicating liquor within Indian country an offense waa 



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32 COMMISSIONEB OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 

strengthened by the following provision contained in the act of June 
30, 1919: 

Provided, That on and after July 1, 1919, posseasion by a person of intoxicating 
liquors in the Indian country or where the introduction is or was prohibited by treaty 
or Federal statute shall be an offense and punished in accordance with the provisions 
of the acts of July 23, 1892 (Twenty-seventh Statutes at Large, p. 260), and January 
30, 1897 (Twenty-ninth Statutes at Large, p. 506). 

The act of June 30 also provided for a continuation of the protec- 
tion of the Nez Perce Indians by extending for ten years the pro- 
visions of Article IX of the agreement with said Indians dated May 
1, 1893. 

In my last report I referred to the necessity of invoking the author- 
ity of section 2087 which provides that no annuities or moneys or 
goods shall be paid or distributed to Indians while they are under the 
influence of intoxicating liquor, nor while there are good and sufficient 
reasons for those whose duty it may be to make such payments or 
distribution to believe that there is any species of intoxicating liquor 
within convenient reach of the Indians. The lesson has been a good 
one, so that there was no occasion during the year again to invoke 
its provision. 

Several complaints reached me to the effect that a Minnesota 
concern was shipping California grapes to consumers in Minnesota 
territory for use in making grape juice and that Indian Service liquor 
suppression officers were destroying imfermented grape juice in large 
quantities. On investigation it was discovered that many carloads 
of California grapes were being shipped into the territory covered by 
the Indian treaty containing the prohibition against intoxicating 
liquors, but that they were not being used for making "grape juice" 
in the ordinary sense of the word. Thousands of gallons of wine in 
the various stages of the making were destroyed, but where grapes 
were legitimately being used for ordinary unfermented grape juice, 
no action was taken against any person. 

Indicative of the benefits to the La Pointe Indians by reason of the 
city of Ashland, Wis., going dry, beginning with July 1, 1918, the local 
press of that city printed a statement showing the arrests for the 
last six wet months (January to June, inclusive, 1918) were 1,366, 
while the total arrests in the first six months under the dry law (July 
1 to Dec. 31, 1918) were 236. It ia also said that the arrests in May 
(374) and June (347), 1918, dropped to 36 in July and grew less 
thereafter. 

FARMING. 

It seemed to me qtute clear that post-war conditions would require 
a continuance of increased production in all farming activities, in 
order to satisfy the pressing demands of many foreign countries for 



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COMMISSIONER OF INDIAK AFFAIBS. 33 

the necessaries of life^ and to supply domestic consumption with as 
Uttle soaring of prices as possible. liVith a yiew, therefore, to main* 
taining vigorously the previous year's agricultural campaign, I sent 
on January 25, 1919, to all superintendents the following letter of 
instructions: 

Our fanning operstionB last year were laigely saccesBfnl. We fulfilled the dogan: 
*'Food will win the war.'' Now that the war is won, we find that food is eaKntial 
to peace. The vaet areas ravaged by the enemy will not soon be notmally productive. 
Much of northern France is a picture of devastation. Russian agriculture is under 
the bll^t of bolshevism. Expert statisticians declare that the world, outside of the 
United States, wUl need 15,000,000 tons of foodstufis above present supplies to cairy 
it to the next crop. Whatever shall be written into international pacts or covenants, 
we face the old truth that peace and starvation are not friendly partners; that famine 
breeds disorder and insurrection. It is generally conceded that aid for underfed 
populations is an acute and alarming need, and it behooves this great country of ours 
which turned the world's forl<»n hope into victory, to help supply the markets of 
hungry millions who were not responsible for their misfortune. It should be ours 
to lead in making secure the arts of peace in a world emancipated from the lust of war. 
Our soldiers from the battle front have set us this task, and I urge you to cany as an 
inspiration to every employee and to all Indians the fact that we are ai. the entrance 
of a new industrial era which wiU demand not only greater and more varied domestic 
supplies but vastly larger exports thiem ever before. 

Therefore, last year's campaign, good as it was, must be renewed and stimulated to 
greater results. Preparation for the seed time can not begin too early. Forethought 
should be the watchword of every farmer and gardener. War gardens have oon« 
vinced us of the necessity for peace gardens. Last year thousands of families supplied 
their tables chiefly from their gardens, had better health, and released more non- 
perishable supplies for shipment. No man, Indian or white, is justified in buying 
vegetables if he has land that will produce them. The root cellar should be reckoned 
as indispensable. I desire that our schools everywhere give increased attention to 
gardening, canning, drjong, and the proper storing of vegetables as a dietary and eco- 
nomic gain. Some schools have thus taken a long step toward self-support. Others 
can do equally well. All Indians on allotments should be especially uiged to have 
gardens and get in the way of tising more v^etables as food. Wherever potatoes can 
be grown there should be little need for shipping them in. In these small, as well as 
the larger agricultural activities, you can hardly overdo efforts to have the Indians 
look ahead for the next season's tillage and harvest by timely preparation. The 
tendency of hand-to-mouth living is thus largely overcome. 

In the more extensive lines of farming you should give prompt attention this year 
to the considerable area of agricultural land still unused on many of the reservations 
and have the Indians, themselves, briiig it under cultivation, so far as available facili- 
ties, funds, and good business judgment will justify. If there is a balance they can 
not handle, it should be leased to the best advantage under existing laws and r^^a* 
tions. For Indians desiring to farm , but are not properly equipped to do so, the matter 
of seeds and implements should be given careful and active attention, so that supplies 
may be on hand when needed. It is preferable, of course, for the Indians to purdiase 
their own seed and implements from individual funds when available, but if not, the 
supplies may be furnished in return for labor, or in the case of seed, to be returned in 
kind at harvest, provided you have applicable and available funds in your allotment 
which you care to utilize therefor, as it is unlikely that any additional allotments can 
' be made for this purpose. In previous years it has been customary to furnish consider- 
able supplies of this nature on the reimbursable plan, either from the regular re- 



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34 COMMISSIONER OF Il^TDIAN AFFAIRS. 

imbursable appropriation or from tribal funds subject to expenditure in this manner. 
However, there is a very small balance in the regular reimbursable appropriation 
which will be entirely insufficient to permit the purchase of seed and implements: 
therefrom on the same scale as in previous years, although if you have any unhypothe- 
cated balance in your allotments of tribal funds available for support and civilization 
purposes within the limitation imposed by the Indian act for the current fiscal year, 
such as ' 'Indian moneys, proceeds of labor, Indians' support, 1919,'' it can be utilized 
for the purchase of seed and implements for Indians on the reimbursable plan if not 
required for other necessary purposes. I especially desire that you move early and 
definitely in these very essential preparatory matters and keep continually before tho 
Indians the necessity of complete readiness for spring work and for bumper results. 

The replies indicate a full recognition of their responsibility along 
this line on the part of the superintendents, employees, and the 
Indians, and a considerable increase in crop acreage on many of the 
reservations over that cultivated during the war. There are quoted 
below extracts from several reports, which will serve to show the 
attitude of our field service and something of the results it is hoped 
to accomplish. 

La^t year we cultivated every foot of available land . We raised an excellent garden ,. 
liad quantities of early vegetables for canning, and our large root cellar was filled to the 
brim with winter vegetables. From an acre of alfalfa five tons of excellent hay was 
raised, and about one hundred bushels of com from two and one-half acres of thin land. 

Our farmers are now arranging to secure seed oats and potatoes. Gardens are now 
being ploughed and ground is being prepared for seeding oats. Prospects for a large 
wheat crop are excellent. Many reports reaching this oflSce indicate that our restricted 
Indians are showing unusual interest in preparing for aggressive farm work. Con- 
siderable new ground is being cleared, the soil is full of moisture, and the season is in 
many respects opening under very favorable conditions. 

The matter of having every available foot of agricultural land within this jurisdic-^ 
tion placed in cultivation has been kept in mind, and it is believed that the increase 
for the coming season over last season is approximately 8 per cent. Every allotment 
suitable for agricultural purposes has either been leased or is being farmed by the 
Indians themselves. 

An effort has been made to induce each family to have a garden, with very satis- 
factory results. An increase of about 200 per cent was made two years ago, which was 
maintained the past year. The coming year will probably make an equally good 
showing, although the demand for labor and high wages paid has taken many of our 
Indians from their home work. 

We began our farm operations last fall as soon as the crops were removed. We have 
prepared and have ready as much of the land as was possible and we are still continuing 
the preparation. We saved from our crops last year seed com, seed wheat, and other 
seeds and have already invited bids and placed orders for those required and not raised 
for the coming season. We will have a larger acreage this year than last and believe 
the production will be greater per acre. 

The necessary steps have already been taken under this jurisdiction in the way 
of securing seeds for the Indians of this reservation to be used in connection with their 
farming operations. We are also endeavoring to secure a goodly supply of various: 
kinds of garden seeds for issue to Indians to interest and encourage them in raising a 
Iflige amount of vegetables for their own consumption. Everything in our power ia 
being done to have all raw lands subdued and placed undercultivation during the 



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COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 35 

coming farming season . Everything is being done to make th e coming season a greater 
success than the last. 

We shall have a larger acreage this year than last; practically every Indian family 
has a garden, and many of them will raise considerable quantities of garden stuff if we 
have an average season. 

During the fiscal year 1918, $4 ,200 was expended for irr^ular labor in connection with 
argicultural activities, placing in cultivation over four hundred acres, more than half 
of which was unfenced and in sagebrush in the early spring. From that acreage 55,000 
pounds of oats, 64,000 pounds of wheat, 20,000 pounds of corn, 40 tons of potatoes, 10 
tons of sugar and stock beets, 500 tons of straw and forage, and lajrge quantities of cab- 
bage, onions, turnips, and rutabagas were harvested. Additional areas were cleared 
of sagebrush, 60 acres seeded to winter wheat, and approximately 100 acres is ready 
for spring seeding, all of which puts us in better shape for early spring activities. 

Our Indians are actively engaged in preparations for a larger acreage than last year. 
More of them will put out gardens than before. The ^t that one of their number 
raised a garden last year that was pronounced the best in the county, and which car- 
ried off first premiums at Nevada State Fair, has had a wide-reaching effect. 

While it is too early to give complete figures as to results, prelimi- 
nary reports and estimates justify the belief that there will be sub- 
stantial increases over the previous year. It is my hope to maintain 
the high standard of war period accomplishment in order that the 
industrial progress of the Indians may continue imabated under the 
impetus thus given it. That there is substantial basis for this hope 
is foimd in the fact that, while the patriotic enthusiasm for increased 
production may be less active now than during the war, there are 
definite signs that many of the Indians are acquiring the ''habit" of 
sustained industry, which will give permanence to their progress 
along successful lines. 

A most encouraging element in the situation is the fact that the use 
of agricultural machinery, modern improved methods, etc., is con- 
stantly growing among the Indians, with consequent better and 
more remunerative returns in crop production. This has been in- 
creasingly reflected in improved homes, live stock, and the acquisition 
by the Indians of the varied appurtenances of civilization to a greater 
extent than formerly. 

Hailstorms on the Crow Reservation, in Montana, and grasshopper 
outbreaks on the Southern Ute Reservation, in Colorado, and the 
Moapa River Reservation, in Nevada, did considerable damage to 
crops during the year. While, of course, the hailstorms can not be 
controlled, remedial measures have been taken, which it is hoped 
will result in the complete eradication of the grasshoppers ai^d the 
prevention of serious ravages in the future. 

Experimentation. — Systematic experimentation work has felt the 
disturbance of normal conditions more than some other lines and was 
confined to the cooperative farms at Sacaton, on the Pima Reserva- 
tion, in Arizona, and the date farm at Palm Springs, imder the Malki 
jurisdiction, in California. 



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. 86 COICMISSIOKEB OF INDIAN AF7AIBS. 

Cotton experiments have as hitherto constituted the principal feature 
on the Sacaton farm. Pure strains of the now famous 'Tima" va- 
riety, which was originated on this farm, are maintained, and experi- 
ments for the development of new types still higher in value are in prog- 
ress. Demonstrations to determine the best time for planting and 
the most profitable spacing are in progress. High-grade Pima seed 
has been furnished the Indian farmers of the reservation, and per- 
sonal advice in the planting and management of their crops has re- 
suited in fields which compare well with those of the best white farm- 
ers in the Salt River Valley. 

A simple planter attachment devised by the station superintendent 
has enabled the Indians to secure a greatly improved stand of cotton 
plants. 

The development of an improved variety of Bermuda onions, begun 
some time ago, has been continued, and a field of seed onions of the 
past season has demonstrated the value of a seed-growing industry 
for the reservation. 

Several years ago land was selected for an addition to the farm, to 
be used largely for seed production purposes. Work on this addition 
during the year has been necessarily of a developmental character, 
as the raw mesa land must be brought into proper tilth and supplied 
with humus before the best results can be obtained. The quantity 
and quality of the water supplied by the new wells drilled on this 
farm are most gratifying, and the pumping plants have been brought 
to the highest state of efficiency. The new land has responded to 
cultivation in a very satisfactory manner, and the growth of im- 
proved varieties of alfalfa, grain sorghums, and wheat gives promise 
tiiat the purposes of the farm will be fully met sooner than was at 
first expected. 

The date and olive work has profited much by the transfer from the 
cold ni^t air of the river bottom land of the station to this new loca- 
tion. The growth and offshoot production of the date palms is much 
more rapid in the warmer situation. An offshoot propagation house 
has given splendid results in rooting shoots, which wUl be later dis- 
tributed to the more progressive Indians. 

Peach and plum trees and other deciduous fruits have started with 
excellent growth under irrigation from the alkali-free water of the 
new wells. 

CooPEBATivB EXTENSION WORK. — ^Tho States Relation Serv- 
ice of the United States Department of Agricultiu'e, in cooperation 
with the various State agricultiural colleges, has an effective organi- 
zation for the dissemination of agricultural information among the 
people of the different States, under the provisions of the Smith- 
Lever law. The Indiana receive the benefits of this work on prac- 



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COMMISSIOKSB OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. S7 

tically the same basis as the whites, and it has been a {Mrommeiit 
factor in the promotion of the welfare and progress of the Indians 
along agricultural lines. 

STOCK RAISING. 

TTie Indians have made continued progress in the live-stock industry 
during the past year, even bey(md expectation^ in view of severe 
drought which prevailed in the southwest for the past three years and 
is now affecting live-stock interests in Wyoming and Montana. 

These conditions have become so threatening that it is necessary 
to materially reduce the number of stock in the tribal herds and 
belonging to the Indians on the various reservations in those States. 
Some shipments to market have already been made and plans are in 
progress to reduce the stock to such number as can be carried 
through next winter on the available supply of feed without danger of 
serious loss. 

The Indians of the Navajo Reservations have suffered considerable 
losses of sheep in consequence of drought and the hard winters fol- 
lowing. Investigation at the various wool markets indicated that 
the improvement in the grade of the wool shipped by these Indians 
was gratifying, but that better methods of shearing and handling the 
same would result in a hi^er price. A campaign has, therefore, 
been started with the view of having the Indians properly prepare 
their wool for market next season, and for assisting them in the 
further development of their live-stock interests. 

The purchase of first-dass bulls by Altaha R. 14, an Indian of the 
Fort Apache Indian Reservation referred to in last year's report, has 
demonstrated to the Indians the benefit they will derive from raising 
first-class animals, and the council has unanimously requested that 
the bulls needed to improve their stock be purchased and placed on 
the range, or that a project be estabUshed to produce such animals 
on their reservation. 

In addition to the natural increase of stock on the various res- 
ervations, there have been purchased during the past year a total of 
approximately 3,200 cows and heifers, and 450 steers. 

The suppression of contagious diseases among the live stock of the 
Indians has progressed satisfactorily and on several of the reserva- 
tions in Montana and North and South Dakota, dourine eradication ' 
work has been completed and the ranges are reported to be free of 
animals infected with disease. 

The movement for ridding the Indian ranges ot wild horses is being 
carried on energetically, but the lack of a market or a satisfactory 
method of disposing of such animals has somewhat retarded this 
work. 

The interest that a large part of the Indians are taking in raising 
five stock ^ows Ihat they appreciate the benefits accruing to them 



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38 COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAISS. 

from greater activity in such industry, and this example is stimulat- 
ing many others to improve the grade of their stock and their methods 
of caring for it. 

IRRIGATION. 

Irrigation on Indian reservations played no unimportant part in 
the production of foodstuffs during the war period. The Indians 
responded nohly to the call for greater production and materially 
increased the acreage cultivated and the yield per acre. 

A good deal of the allotted irrigable land on various reservations 
belongs to minors and adults who, on account of age or other physical 
disabilities, are tmable to properly cultivate their entire holdings. 
Such lands havo been leased, xmder favorable terms, to the mutual 
advantage of the Indian lessors, the white lessees, and the community 
at large, including, of course, the reservation on which such land 
may be located. 

The cost of construction, operation, and maintenance on irrigation 
projects has increased proportionately with the constantly rising cost 
of labor and material. On the other hand, much saving has resulted 
from the use of machinery such as dredges, drag-line excavators, 
ditch-cleaning machines, etc. Wherever machinery of. this kind 
could be employed, it has been used to great advantage, not only in 
the actual saving of dollars and cents but in the increased quantity 
and quality of the work performed, with less hire of actual labor, 
thus relieving to some small extent the demand on Hlq labor 
market. On the Yakima Reservation, Wash., more than 800,000 
cubic yards of earth were removed at a cost of less than 11 cents per 
yard. Many miles of canals and ditches were cleaned while water 
was flowing therein at a time when it was practically impossible to 
procure men and teams with which to do the work. 

The severe drought conditions that have prevailed throughout 
the West generally during the past three years demonstrate forcibly 
the need for irrigation. Without irrigation on many of the reser- 
vations in Arizona, Idaho, Wyoming, Montana, and Utah, great 
distress would have resulted among the Indians. 

Yakima. — ^The largest expenditures and Ukewise greatest returns 
have been on the Yakima Reservation, Wash. The work done 
consisted principally of extending canals, laterals, and drainage 
ditches, the building of check and turnout gates, drops, bridges, etc. 
Just as rapidly as the sj^tem was extended new land was put under 
ciiltivation. This project yielded over $7,000,000 worth of crops 
last year and, with the increased acreage, it is expected that the 
gross yield will approximate $9,000,000 during the current calendar 
year. 

Fort Hall. — ^The Fort Hall Reservation, Idaho, lies in the re- 
cently drought-stricken district. With the storage facilities here* 



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OOMMISSIOHEB OF INDIAN AFFAIB8. 39 

tofore provided; however, this project will go through the season 
without detriment to our irrigation activities. Projects belonging 
to private parties in this locality are suffering greatly owing to a 
lack of storage. During the past year this project produced 
$890,000 worth of crops and it is expected that this amount will 
be greatly exceeded during the present year. The project at this 
point has not been completed and before all thevlndian land can 
be supplied with water a considerable sum must be expended to 
enlarge and extend the present system. White land owners above 
this project have been using it, at times, as a convenience by dump- 
ing waste and surplus waters into one of the Gk>vemment canak. 
Considerable annoyance and expense have resulted from this during 
the several years last past. The recent drought condition has elimi- 
nated this difficulty for the present year at least, but it will probably 
give us trouble until some adjustment is reached. The Depart- 
ment of Justice is now investigating the matter with a view of taking 
appropriate steps to relieve the situation. 

Uintah. — ^The Uintah project in northeastern Utah suffered 
greatly from the prevailing drought. We have no storage facilities 
here but must depend on the natural run-off which, at times, and 
especially during drought seasons, is far from sufficient. Ditches 
and lands in white ownership are located above the Indian lands and 
in past years considerable damage to the interests of the Indians 
has resulted from the whites taking and using the available water. 
Proceedings were instituted by the Department of Justice in behalf 
of the Indians and under a temporary order of the court this abuse- 
has been corrected to a large extent. Final decree has not yet been . 
entered, but it is confidently expected that the Indians will be fully 
protected when the decree is made. 

Wind River. — ^The Wind River Reservation, Wyo., is also in the 
drought belt. Rapid strides have been made in the development of 
irrigable lands on this reservation during the past two years, but 
further progress is temporarily checked at least until the natural 
flow increases or storage is provided. The snowfall in the mountains 
during the past winter, which fiu*nishes the water supply, was very 
slight and the streams began to fail early iA the irrigating season. 
Absence of rainfall later in the season created a serious shortage and , 
the crops undoubtedly will be curtailed to a considerable extent. 
Ebcperiences of this kind furnish forcible lessons in the eoonomical.use 
of water and, in the end, may prove of great benefit to the project 
at large. During the past year about $400,000 worth of crops were 
raised here. Results for the present year are not yet known and in 
view of the drought conditions the aggregate yield may be substan- 
tially reduced. 

140923*— INT 1919— VOL 2 4 



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40 QOMMISSIQNBB OF INDIAN AFFAIB& 

' C&ow, Mont. — A Itfge amount of land was plac^ under eulti- 
vation on this project during the past year, principally under the 
''dry-farming'' method. The irrigated areas only will yield prc^t- 
aJbly^ however, as tho drou^t has been particularly disastrous in 
this locality. The streams here are now carrying lees water than 
oyer before known, either to Indians or whites. Heretofore flood 
waters from the Big Horn River have proven ample for all require- 
ments, but in June of this yetu: it became necessary to construct a 
temporary dam across this stream in order to divert sufficient water 
for irrigation purposes. Increased irrigation activities adjacent to 
this reservation and the development of additional areas by the 
Indian Service, the Redama^ion Service, and private parties, will 
necessitate the construction of a permanent diversion dam for the 
Big Horn project. This should be done in the near future. The* 
Oow Reservaticm is chiefly adapted to stock raising. Whether it is 
suitable for even limited fanning operaticms, without irrigation, 
remains to be proven, but with the present drou^t confronting us 
the Indians would have been in an exceedingly critical position if it 
were not for the produce yielded by the irrigated areas. 

FoET Bblknap, Moxt. — Practically all the farming done on this 
reservation is being conducted by the Indians. The present and 
recent high prices of farm products have stimulated greater and more 
economical use of the irrigation facilities. Additional areas are being 
cultivated and better farming methods used. 

Mission Rbservations, Southbkn California. — ^The irrigable 
areas on these small mission reservations are exceedingly limited and 
in many instances offer opportunity for the Indians to make only a 
bare living. Accordingly, the reservations are used chiefly as a base 
of operation, the Indians maintaining homes there and raising a part 
of their sustenance ; seekiog work elsewhere for the remainder. These 
Indians will be found in trusted positions all over-southern California, 
and the fact that they at least have homes to which they can return 
makes them more independent, and doubtless has much to do with 
their stability and trustworthiness. 

Colorado River. — In order to determine the feasibility of a large 
gravity irrigation project on this reservation, a force of engineers and 
assistants has been engaged in making siunreys, plans, and estimates. 
The work has been much handicapped by the shortage of man power 
but it is being continued with the expectation that a full report will 
be ready for presentation to Congress at its next session. 

Oila River. — Efforts were made to obtain satisfactory proposals 
for the construction of a dam across the Gila River near the agency at 
Sacaton. Advertisements were issued on two occasions during the 
year, but no response to the first advertisement was received, and to 
the second, only one bid. This was so high that it was rejected. As 



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COMMISSIONEB OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 41 

^[m appropriation was based on estimates made several years e^o, 
when labor and material were much lower, additional appropriations 
are necessary before the work can be undertaken. 

The act of May 18, 1916, carries an appropriation for the construc- 
tion of a diversion dam across the Gila Biver above the town of 
Florence, Ari2., but stipulates that the project should be imdertaken 
qnly in the event that it shall be found feasible and that a satisfactory 
adjustment of the conflicting claims to water between the Indians and 
the whites could be reached. Negotiations were promptly begun, 
but much valuable time lost because representatives of white land 
owners in the vaUey insisted on a division of the available waters that 
was manifestly unfair to the Indians. On my repeated and earnest 
insistence that the rights of the Indians must be fully recognized and 
protected an agreement was finally reached under which the project 
will be limited to 62,000 acres, of which 35,000 acres are to be Indian 
land. In determining which particular tracts of land in white owner- 
ship that are tq come into the project, aggregating 27,000 acres, re- 
gard is to be had to the areas previously cultivated, those having es- 
tablished water rights recognized by court decree,' and any other fac- 
tors deemed material. Representatives of this bureau went into the 
field with instructions to obtain individual contracts from claimants 
of land in private ownership within certain boundaries indicated by 
engineers as being the feasible, economical exterior limits of the proj- 
ect. This resulted in obtaining contracts covering something over 
80,000 acres, included in which are between 12,000 and 13,000 acres 
claiming vested water rights. These facts are all to be considered in 
designating the 27,000 acres in white ownership that are finally to bo 
included in the area to be served. It is expected that these designa- 
tions wiH be made shortly, thus paving the way for the project to be 
declared feasible, as required by law. Plans and specifications of the 
dam have been prepared and it is hoped that actual construction can 
be imdertaken in the near future. 

Pap AGO WELLS. — Additional wells have been installed and the old 
ones operated, thus enabling these deserving IncUans to use larger 
grazing areas and attain greater success and industrial advancement. 
Without weUs for stock watering purposes these Indians were unable 
to increase their holdings. While then* leservation is compara- 
tively large yet the rainfall is scant and the pasturage indifferent. 
Stock raising is the chief industry and practically the only means of 
support for the Indians, except such as can be obtained outside by 
actual day labor. 

Navajo and Hopi of Arizona and New Mexico. — These In- 
dians have a large area of practically desert land. Irrigation is being 
rapidly developed in the few places possible. The predominant in- 
dustry, however, is raising live stock, and there are now nearly a 



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42 CbMMISSIONEB OF ISTUlAHf ATfAOfS'. 

million sheep and goats on this reservation. To obtain food and 
water for this stock is no small problem, and available fmids have 
been spent in sinking and equipping new wells. The Navajo coimtry, 
as well as that occupied by the Papago, presents a problem some- 
what peculiar. Large areas covered with forage more or less scant 
cannot be used for pasture, owing to the distance to water for drink- 
ing purposes^ there being but few living streams or springs in this 
entire country. Wherever underground water can be developed by 
small and frequently deep wells, it means the utilization of forage 
that otherwise woidd be wasted. The Indians eagerly avail them- 
selves of these additional facilities and frequently, when a new well is 
nearing completion, their herds of sheep, goats, and cattle may be 
foimd awaiting the expected water supply. Additional funds are 
urgently needed for further development in this most worthy cause. 
Thousands of acres affording reasonably good pasturage could be 
profitably utilized if water can be made available for stock watering 
purposes. The Indians themselves would not only thus be greatly 
benefited, but it would add in no small degree to our meat supply. 

Pueblo. — ^Aid has been extended to the Pueblo of New Mexico 
with their small and ancient irrigation projects. Sanitation in their 
villages has been improved in some instances by the installation of 
domestic water supply, drainage and sewage systems. 

FORESTRY. 

The signing of the armistice with Germany brought an abrupt close 
to the preparations for the production of airplane material on a 
lai^e scale on the Quinaielt and Siletz Indian Reservations. The dis- 
charge of men in engineer units in America and the return^ of men 
from overseas in the early months of 1919, has facilitated a gradual 
reorganization of the forestry branch of the service. The great increase 
in sedaries in private employment has made it difficult to obtain and 
hold competent men. However, plans have been perfected for 
effective timber cutting operations, and in the spring of 1920 the 
work on valuation surveys will be resumed. 

No extensive timber cruising was undertaken diuring the year. 
A small party made a careful examination of the timber on allot- 
ments of the Siletz Reservation in order to determine the best 
methods of selling the timber. The scattered location of the allot- 
ments on that ^reservation and the release of government control 
over many allotments has made it difficult to effect advantageous 
timber sales. Conditions are not favorable for an offering of timber 
at this time, but the service is now in possession of the information 
required for future offerings. Throughout the year a cruiser was 
engaged in a valuation of the timber and land of public land allot- 
ments under the jurisdiction of the Greenville Indian School in 



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OOUMISSIONEB OF USTDIAN AFFAHKa 43 

northern Califomia. This examination established the fact that 
there had been trespass on a niunber of these allotments, and afforded 
the service a basis for the settlement of the trespass claims and the 
sale of a large number of allotments on advantageous terms. 

The larger timber sales of the year were the eastern division unit 
on the Tulalip Reservation consisting of 65,000,000 feet, the Omak 
unit of 25,000,000 feet on the Colville Reservation, the Stinking 
Lake unit of 25,000,000 on the Jicarilla Reservation, and the North- 
em Spring Creek unit of 26,000,000 on the Klamath Reservation. 
A sole of 6^600,000 feet known as the Big Bend unit on the Klamath 
was^ made late in the year, and the Camas Creek unit of 24,000,000 
feet on the Flathead Reservation was advertised for the receipt of 
bids on July 15, 1919. Minor sales of alloted timber were made on 
the Coeur d'Alene, Flathead, Fort Lapwai, Leech Lake, Nett Lake, 
and Skokomish Reseivations. Extensive lumbering operations were 
conducted under former sales on the Bad River, Flathead, Jicarillai 
E^amath, L'Anse, and Lao Courte Oreille Reservations. On the Win- 
chester unit on the Nez Perce Reservation which was sold in Jtme, 
1918, operations were begun within four months. The Apache Lum- 
ber Co. has been engaged in erecting a large mill within the area pur- 
chased by it on the Fort Apache Reservation in 1917. The rail- 
road from Holbrook, Ariz., to the mill location has been completed, 
and it is expected that the mill will begin operation on a large scale 
in the autunm of 1919. Preparations have been made by the Deer 
Park Lumber Co. to begin cutting in the autunm of 1919 on the 
lai^e Chamokane unit on the Spokane Reservation purchased by it 
in July, 1918. Logging operations have been conducted during the 
year on the Ford unit on the Spokane Reservation. Approxi- 
mately 30,000,000 feet have been cut imder the contract of the In- 
ternational Lumber Co. on the Red Lake Reservation, practically 
all of which was within the area that was severely burned in the 
spring of 1917. Only about 500,000 feet of the timber burned on 
the point between the Red Lakes in 1917 remain uncut, the timber 
most injured by fire having been cut during the logging season of 
1917-18 and 1918-19, and delivered to the agency sawmill for manu- 
facture. Detailed information as to the amount of timber out on 
each reservation will be found in the forestry portion of the statist 
tical appendix to this report. 

liOAD AND BRIDGE WORK. 

Good roads in the industrial welfare and progress of the Indians are 
of equal importance as among the whites. A more intelligent and 
comprehensive system of layixig out and maintaining highways on 
the reservations is being developed under the Congressional appro- 
priations available for this purpose, and as the Lidians are more 



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44 OOMMISSIONEE OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 

and more appreciating these essentials of modern economical de- 
velopment, greater progress is anticipated. 

Specific apjl^opriations by Congress for road and bridge work were 
available during the year as follows: 
Roads: 

Arizona (Kfidbab) .>, $6,715 

Galifoniia (Hoopa Valley) 10,000 

Minnesota (Cass Lake) 4, 000 

New Mexico (Navajo) 25, 000 

Waahington (Taholah) 22,600 

Wyoming (Shoabone) 25,000 

Total : 93,215 

Bridges:' 

New Mexico (Navajo) 4,000 

North Carolina (Cherokee) 8,000 

Total 12,000 

Some of these appropriations for road and bridge work are made 
reimbursable from tribal funds of the Indians which may hereafter 
be deposited in the United States Treasury, while others provide 
that the money shall be available only on condition that the coimty 
or State furnish a fixed part of the amount to be expended. Indian 
labor is largely employed for road work, with the exception of the 
necessary experienced supervision for which white foreman must be 
used. 

ALLOTMENTS, 

Allotment work on the Gila River Reservation in Arizona was 
continued. During the year ended June 30, 1919, 1,213 selections 
were made. These selections comprise both irrigable and nonirri- 
gable lands. About 600 Indians are yet to be allotted on this 
reservation. 

Two hundred and seventy allotments were made on the UmatUla 
Reservation in Oregon, of 80 acres each, under authority of the act of 
March 2, 1917 (39 Stat. L., 969-986). There are about 113 Indians 
yet to be alloted. 

Reallotments have been made through changes in, and exchanges of, 
allotments under the acts of October 19, 1888 (25 Stat. L., 611-612), 
and March 3, 1909 (35 Stat. L., 781-784), on various reservations. 
It is estimated that the number approved during the year will ap- 
proximate about 1,000. 

ALLOTMENTS IN NATIONAL FORESTS. 

Allotments were made and approved to 16 Indians in various 
National Forests, comprising a total of approximately 1,200 acres, 
under seotioii 31 of the aot of June 25, 1910 (36 Stat. L., 855-859). 



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GOHMISSIOKEB OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 45 

PUBLIC DOMAIN ALLOTMENTS. 

A total of 315 allotments were made and approved covering land 
on the public domain in various States. These allotments comprise 
an area of 46,207 acres, and were made tmder section 4 of the act of 
February 8, 1887 (24 Stat. L., 388), as amended. A list of the 
reservations, number of allotments approved during the year, and 
the number made in the field and not yet approved, will be found in 
Table 26. 

APPRAISEMENT AND REAPPRAISEMENT OF SURPLUS 
RESERVATION LANDS. 

During the fiscal year many applications for appraisement and 
reappraisement of surplus reservation areas subject to homestead dis- 
position have been handled, imder authority of the act of June 6, 
1912 (37 Stat. L., 125). 

EXTENSION OF TRUST PERIOD. 

The period of trust was extended by order of the President on 
allotments made to the Iowa Indians in Kansas and Nebraska; to 
the Eickapoo Indians in Oklahoma; to the Indians of the Hoopa 
Valley Reservation in California; and to the Indians of various 
ribes residing on the public domain, wherein the period of trust 
would otherwise have expired during the calendar year 1919. The 
period of trust was also extended on the land patented to the Capitan 
Grande Band of Mission Indians in California. 

SALES OF INDIAN LAND. 

During the fiscal year, 970 pieces of Indian land involving an area 
of 115,367 acres have been sold for $2,803,232, an average of $25.65 
per acre. This is the highest average price ever received from the 
sale of Indian land. The average price last year was $22 per acre. 

LEASING. 

The policy of leasing surplus agricultural land on the reservations, 
beyond that which the Indians themselves can cultivate to advantage, 
was continued during the year >vith good results, and contributed 
materially to the increased food production made necessary by war 
time demands. Perhaps the most conspicuous achievement along 
this line was the practical completion of the campaign to save the 
water rights on the Uintah and Ouray Reservation, in Utah, in- 
augurated in 1915. At that time, there were approximately 80,000 
acres of irrigable allotted land on that reservation, with only 250 
able-bodied male Indians, 199 of whom were cultivating 7,138 acres 



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46 COMMfSSHMffiR OF -fNDIAN AFFAIRS. 

of land. Under the State law whieh Congress had made appliea ble, 
beneficial use had to be made of the wat^ by June and July of this 
year, in default of whioh the right to use it would be lost to the 
Indians. Without water the land is practically worthless, but imder 
irrigation it is immensely productive. As it was a physical impos- 
sibility for the Indians themselves to bring all this land under 
cultivation and thus save the water rights thereto, it was decided 
to supplement their efforts by leasing the smrplus land to outsiders 
on liberal terms, the primary consideration being beneficial use of 
the water in the production of crops. One of our best field men 
was placed in charge of the reservation, and under his direction 
the campaign has been pursued aggressively until the present time, 
with the result that practically all the available land for which water 
could be supplied has been placed in cultivation and the watei: rights 
saved to the Indians. 

FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES. 

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1919, the business trans- 
actions of the Five Civilized Tribes involved the handling of a total 
sum of $32,486,805.55. 

To date of Jime 30, 1919, 3,578,934.38 acres of tribal lands have 
been sold for $20,376,096.27, being $4,536,108.67 more than the 
appraised value and averaging $5.69 per acre. Of this total amount 
3,458,071 acres of the imallotted land in the Choctaw and Chicka- 
saw Nations sold for $19,775,436.08; in the Cherokee Nation 50,955 
acres sold for $172,007.19; in the Creek Nation 65,645 acres sold for 
$382,211.63; in the Seminole Nation 4,263 acres sold for $40,441.37, 
From October 9 to October 17, 1918, a sale of the unallotted land 
in the Choctaw, Chickasaw,' and Creek Nations, consisting of 250 
tracts with an area of 9,110.21 acres, sold for $109,001.03, averaging 
$11.96 per acre. 

The coal and asphalt mineral deposits in the Choctaw and Chicka- 
saw Nations were offered for sale at public auction to the highest 
bidder at McAlester, Okla., on December 11, 12, 13, and 14, 1918, 
and 54 tracts containing 42,103 acres sold for $1,363,645.17, leaving 
463 tracts containing 399,004 acres appraised at $13,198,901.56. The 
Creek council house and square at Okmulgee, Okla., have been sold 
to the city of Okmulgee by the Creek Tribe for $100,000, which has 
been paid in full and deed has been executed and delivered. 



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COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 47 

The estimated value of unsold tribal property in the Choctaw and 
Chickasaw Nations is as follows: 

Tribal schools and improvements $106, 000 

2,280 town lots 45,000 

Unsold land, including timber land and surface of the segregated coal and 

asphalt land 60,000 

Amount uncollected from sale of coal and asphalt minerals 066, 479 

Amount uncollected* from lands sold 3, 34S, 446 

Coal and asphalt mineral deposits 13, 174, 796 

Total 17,689,720 

The estimated value of unsold tribal property in the Creek Nation 
is as follows: 

124 town lots, Muskogee, Tulsa and Lee $100, 000 

3 boarding schools, Nuyaka, Eulaulaand Sapulpa 69,000 

Unsold land 3,200 

Total 172,200 

The estimated value of unsold tribal property in the Seminole 
Nation is as follows: 

Emahaka Mission. School, 320 acres $16,000 

Mekusukey Academy, 320 acres 22,400 

Unsold 1,660 

Total 38,900 

Only one tract of 10 acres of tribal land in Ottawa Coimty, Cherokee 
Nation, remains unsold and was reoffered for sale on July 24, 1919, 

During the fiscal year a competency commission has visited the 
members of the Creek Tribe of Indians at their homos to ascertain 
who are competent and capable of handling all business transactions 
affecting their allotted lands without departmental assistance. 
During 1919 restrictions on 57,003.28 acres of allotted land were 
removed, 38,606 being conditional removals and sold under super- 
vision for $580,728.16. 

During the year there were constructed for individual Indians 
by the field force, houses, bams, improvements, and equipments 
purchased at a cost of $338,816.78; live stock was purchased for 
$87,474.65 with other miscellaneous articles to the total value of 
$1,110,618.53. 

The amount of money disbursed to individual Indians this year 
from land sales, equalization, royalties and per capita payments 
amounts to $7,812,331.44, an increase of more than $3,000,000 over 
the total for last year. 

Special emphasis has been laid upon agriculture and stock raising 
putting under cultivation additional acreage, and the Indian farmer 
has responded even beyond expectations. As farmers, knitters, 
nurses, soldiers^ purchasers of war securities, and sacrificers for the 



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48 OOHMISSIOKEB OF INDIAK AFFAIBS. 

I 

common cause in the war, the Indians of the Five Civilized Tribes 
did their full part. They measured up to duty and dangei;. None 
did more. 

liberty loan bonds of the five issues were purchased from re- 
stricted individual Indian funds to an amount of $10,264,000, and 
war saving stamps to the amount of 9832,769.20, making a grand 
total of $11,096,769.20. All the bonds were registered and issued 
in the name of the Secretary of the Interior as trustee for the Indian 
named in the bond and were deposited with the United States Treas- 
urer, Washington, D. C, for safekeeping. The largest Indian pur- 
chasers of liberty loan bonds were Creek Indians named Jackson 
Bamett, who purchased $1,096,750; Jeanetta Richard, now Bam^tt, 
who purchased $414,250; Susan Bacon, who purchased $357,000; 
MoU^e Davis, who purchased $330,000; Sandy Fox, who purchased 
$325,000; and Maley Fier estate, which purchased $313,000. 

It is estimated that more than 4,000 Indians of the Five Civilized 
Tribes entered the military and naval service of the United States 
and that over 200 made the supreme sacrifice. Instances of the 
greatest heroism have been noted and many distinctions were con- 
ferred upon individual Indians for valiant service of which a record 
has been kept in the office of the superintendent for the Five Civilized 
Tribes. Indians in the military service, especially full bloods, have 
received great benefit from their experiences in the training camps 
and overseas. The war has been a liberal education to them, broad- 
ening their views of life and inspiring in them new ambitions and 
higher ideals. 

Regabding taxation of lands pubchas£d with bestbicted 
FUNDS. — ^The United States Circuit Court of Appeals, eighth cir- 
cuit, in the case of The United States v. Law (250 Fed., 218) held 
that the Secretary of the Interior could by the purchase of new lands 
for an allottee reimpose upon the newly acquired lands taken on the 
Camey-Lacher form of deed the same restrictions that were imposed 
on the allotted lands from which the funds arose, and that the lands 
so purchased were impressed with restrictions as to alienation, but 
the question whether such lands so purchased were exempt from 
taxation was not passed on by the court, leaving that question now 
undecided by any Federal court. However, the Supreme Court of 
Oklahoma in the recent case of Ella Jones v. C. S. Whitlow, as 
county treasurer of Mcintosh County, Okla., in passing upon the 
question whether lands theretofore taxable, purchased with royalty 
fmids, are exempt from State taxation by reason of a clause in the 
deed making the lands inalienable, held that such lands were not so 
exempt in language as follows: 

Lands, theretolare taxable, purchased from private owners, urith royalties accraing to 
afall-blood Croak Indian from her restricted allotment, aro not exempt from State tax- 



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G01ClCISSIOSrE» OF IHDIAir AFFAIBS. 49 

atum by a clause in the deeds iioia the grantor making the lands inalienable without 
the consent of the Secretary of the Interior. 

Unless this decision is reversed it must follow that all lands pur- 
chased with royalty funds must bear their proportion of State, 
county and other taxes, the same as unrestricted lands, and the same 
has been held to apply to lands purchased with restricted mon^y. 
The Department of Justioe has been requested to direct that suit be 
brought in the Federal court at Muskogi^i Okla., having in view a 
final determinaiion of this taxation question. 

Toons RiLSY CASE. — ^The Tootie Riley case, decided May 19, 1919, 
by the United States Siipreme Court, involved the question of what 
interest a Cherokee bom since March 4, 1906, had in the homestead 
alletment of the deceased ancestor under section 9 of the act of May 
27, 1908 (35 Stat., 312), under which it was held that the minor child 
is entitled to the use of the ]i^yalties; i. e., the interest or ineome 
which may be obtained by properly investing them during a period 
not beyond April 26, 1931, leaving the principal, like the land, to go 
to the heirs in general on the termination of her^special right. 

Eastman Riohabd case* — ^The Eastman Richard case, decided 
June 2, 1919, by the United States Supreme Court, involved the 
question whether a full-blood Creek heir, the father, inherited the 
lands of his son, a full-blood minor, free from all restrictions, tmdex 
Bection9of theactof May27,1908 (35 Stat., 312). The United States 
Supreme Court held that land covered by the lease on the allotted land 
of the son and inherited by the father was then and woidd remain 
restricted land until April 26, 1931, and the royalties accruing there- 
from were still under the supervision of the Secretary of the Interior 
imless prior to that time the heir, vrith the approval of the proper 
probate court, conveyed his interests therein to another and that the 
authority of the Secretary to supervise the collection, care, and dis< 
bursement of the royalties, had not terminated; that the leasing of 
such inherited full-blood lands is subject to the supervisoiy author- 
ity of the Secretary during the time such lands remain restricted. 

PROBATE WORK IN OKLAHOMA. 

The probate organization felt the disturbance of war conditions. 
Three probate attorneys joined the colors, and for several months if 
was impossible to secure a sufficient number of stenographers. How- 
ever, normal activities again prevailed following the first of the cal- 
endar year, and a large volume of business was accomplished. 

Formerly when probate attorneys represented the xmrestricted as 
well as the restricted Indians, as provided in section 6 of the act of 
May 27, 1908 (35 Stat. L., 312), the work was greater than could be 
handled with facility by the 20 ofiScials of this class. In the Indian 
appropriation act of May 25, 1918, Congress reduced the number of 



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50 CGMMISSIONBB OF INDIAN AFTAIBS. ' 

cases over which the probate attorneys have jurisdiction^ limiting 
their duties to probate matters affecting restricted allottees or their 
heirs. The result of this legislation has been that the individual 
eases are receiving better and more effective attention, although it is 
to be r^retted that the unrestricted minor and incompetent Indians 
can not longer receive the aid and influence of the Government. 

Since July 15, 1914, the courts of Oklahoma, in so far as probate 
matters are concerned, have been governed by rules of procedure 
adopted by the justices of the supreme court of that State. Under- 
these rules, the procedure was simple and uniform and excellent re-^ 
suits were obtained. Their binding force had been established in 
the case of Freeling v. Kight, (152 Pac., 362). During its last ses- 
sion, the Oklahoma L^islature passed an act, approved April 4, 
1919, abrogating these rules and authorizing and requiring each 
county judge to promulgate rules governing the procedure in his* 
court. If this act goes unchallenged, and each of the 40 counties, 
comprising the Five Civilized Tribes has a different set of rules, much 
confusion will result and the probate organization will have been 
dealt a heavy blow. It is believed that the act is unconstitutional, as 
under section 2, article 7, of the constitution of Oklahoma, the su- 
preme court has a general superintending control over all inferior 
courts, and this control should include the authority to prescribe 
rules of procedure for those coxirts. Steps will soon be taken to 
test the constitutionality of the act. 

Of the 232 civil actions instituted by the probate attorneys and 
finally determined, one case decided by the Supreme Court of Okla- 
homa, that of Hickory et al. v. Campbell et al. (182 Pac., 233), may 
well be mentioned as showing the character and importance of some 
of the litigation imdertaken by them. The court held that the power 
conferred by Congress on the representatives of this department, in 
^s case the probate attorney, to appeal from a judgment affecting 
the rights of minor allottees was superior to that conferred on a 
guardian, and where there was a conflict the power of the probate 
attorney must jM^vail; that an appeal bond was not necessary be- 
cause not required by any act of Congress; that the district court 
must bear evidence as to whether or not it is to the best interest of 
restricted minors to seU their inherited land, and that the testimony 
of a minor heir approaching majority that she did not desire her in- 
terest to be sold, which was contrary to the position taken by her 
guardian, is worthy of consideration and should be of great weight 
with the court in exercising its discretion. Several vexing questions 
were thus disposed of, the contention of the probate icttorney as t<o 
each being sustained. 

Two attorneys who resigned to enter the Army were reinstated in 
the probate service, when mustered out, one of whom was detailed to 



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coHMissioiTsit OF nrmAN affaxbsv 51 

• 
look after probate matters among the Qioetaws of Mississippi. 

Thww Twdmnfiiiad^becR'eiiroBediii Oklahoma^ reeeiving allotments 
there, and had later'rettimed to their old homes in Mississippi. The 
probate attorney went into every case affecting Mississippi Choc-< 
taws pending in that State, over which he had jurisdiction. Many 
cases were in bad condition. Guardians had failed to account for 
funds received in behalf of their Indian wards, some had neglected to 
file annual and final reports, and a few had died with no attempt hav- 
ing been made on the part of their administrators to make final ac- 
counting and conclude the guardianships. All of the cases were re- 
placed in good condition, either by closing them satisfactorily where 
the minors had become of age, or by having new guardians appointed 
under sufficient bond. 

The following summary will give some idea of the quantity and 
distinctive features of the work of the probate attorneys: 

Regular cases in which attorney appeared 7, 024 

Civil actions instituted. 270 

Amount involved in^sueh civil actions 268, 63S 

Civil actions finally determined 232 

Criminal actions instituted 13 

Criminal actions finally determined 11 

New bond filed 1,724 

Amount covered by such new bonds 739, 51* 

Guardian removed or discharged 883 

Conservation of funds: 

(a) Bank deposit $746,274 

(6) Investments $360, 050 

Amount saved to minors and others $537,825 

'Inheiited land sales 969 

Minor allotments sales 212, 

Citations issued 3,899 , 

Quit-claim deeds obtained 70 

Official letters and reports 35, 481 

Conferences with allottees and others (approximately) 44, 373 

Leases drafted by probate attorneys 683 

Other leases passed^ upon by probate attorneys - 767 

Appraisements secured from Government ^ippraisers 1,259 

PROBATING ESTATES OF DECEASED INDIANS AND 
APPROVAL OF WILLS, 

The probating of the estates of deceased Indians and approval 
of wills, under the provisions of the act of June 25, 1910 (36 Stat. L., 
855);. as amended by the act of February 14, 1913 (37 Stat. L,, 678), 
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1919, progressed satisfactorily , 
Rtttaithstanding numerous separations and changes, due to stress of 
war, in the clerical force, both in Washington and the field. During 
the year 2,414 cases were finally disposed of. 



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52 OOMMISSIokKt OF INDIAN AFFAIB& 

One thousand eight hundred and eighty-seven of these estates 
were those on which trust patents had issued, 176 restricted foe 
patents; 51 personal property , and 97 inherited interests. A fee 
of $15 is collected in each of these cases. 

One hundred and eighteen will cases were received, 58 of which 
were approved, 17 disapproved, and 40 filed without action. Three 
were canceled. 

Fifteen examiners of inheritance were engaged in holding hearings 
on 26 reservations and on the public domain. 

In addition to the above, 2,914 miscellaneous cases pertaining to 
the probate work were disposed of and 6,009 letters written. 

OSAQE OIL AND QAS LEASES. 

On November 9, 1918, March 6, 1919, and June 6, 1919, there 
were sold at public auction at Pawhuska, Okla., certain Osage 
Indian lands for lease for oil-mining purposes aggregating 95,337 
acres for a bonus consideration of $10,299,900, in addition to stipu- 
lated royalties, an average of about $101 an acre. 

The lands leased for oil consisted of 160-acre tracts adjoining 
production and scattered tracts selected with a view of opening up 
new pools of oil. Leases covering these tracts are for a period of 
five years, and as long thereafter as oil is found in paying quantities, 
provided that such term shall not extend beyond the date the title 
to the minerals remains in the Osage Ti-ibe. The oil leases provide 
for a royalty in addition to the bonus paid of 16f per cent, except 
when weUs on a quarter-section tract or fractional part of a quarter 
section are sufficient to average 100 or more barrels per well per 
day, the royalty on oil is 20 per cent. Tte royalty on gas is 16§ 
per cent based on a value of 18 cents per 1,000 cubic feet for gas 
at the well, which is equivalent to 3 cents per 1,000 cubic feet. 

The Osage Reservation imder which oil and gas is reserved to 
the tribe until 1931, unless otherwise provided for by Congress, 
comprises approximately 1,500,000 acres, of which 680,000 acres on 
the east side were leased for oil imder a blanket lease authorized by 
Congress which expired March 16, 1916. New leases have been made, 
covering about 1,126,528 acres for gas, and 403,000 for oil not in- 
61uding about 39,000 sold for lease for oil and 319,000 acres sold for 
lease for gas on June 6, 1919. The oil leases aggr^ating about 
403,000 acres are included in the lands leased for gas. 

On Jxme 30, 1919, there were 124 wells being drilled, 4,442 pro- 
ducing oil wells, 468 producing gas wells, and 1,930 dry and aban- 
doned wells. The gross production of oil from July 1, 1918, to June 
30, 1919, amounted to 12,138,086 barrels, of whidh the Osage Tribe 
received 2,043,458 barrels. The total receipts of the Osage Tribe 
from oil and gas leases during the fiscal year amounted to approxi- 



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OCOCMISSIONBR OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 53 

mately $11,000,000, which does not include unpaid bonus still due. 
The total amount accruing to the tribe from oil and gas during the 
year amounted to approximately $17,000,000. 

The price obtained by oil operators for oil durihg the past year 
has been $2.25 per barrel at the well. In some instances a premium 
of from 5 cents to 80 cents per barrel has been paid for oil purchased 
by local refineries. 

OIL AND QAS IN THE FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES IN 

OKLAHOMA. 

There were under lease for oil and gas mining purposes in the Five 
Civilized Tribes 717,594 acres. Leases were filed during the year 
covering 187,217.90 acres. Royalties on production during the year 
amounted to $3,416, 805.10,and advance royalties, annual rentals, 
and bonus amounted to $657,180.12, a total revenue from oil and 
gas leases of $4,073^985.22. The total production on restricted land 
amounted to 10,180,862 barrels of oil. 

During the year 493 wells were drilled, of which 307 were produc- 
ing wells, 57 producing gas wells, and 129 drj' holes. \ 

METALLIFEROUS MINERALS. 

Section 26 of the Indian appropriation act approved Jime 30, 1919 
(Public, No. 3), authorizes the mining of metalliferous minerals on 
unallotted lands of Indian reservations within the States of Arizona, 
California, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Washing- 
ton, and Wyoming, under regulations to be prescribed by the Secre- 
tary of the Interior. ' 

A draft of regulations has been prepared to put this provision into 
effect. In the meantime instructions have been issued to the super- 
intendents in chaise of Indian reservations not to permit anyone to 
go on the reservations for the purpose of prospecting. 

OIL AND QAS-OUTSIDE THE FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES 

AND OSAQE NATION. 

• 
Oil and gas leases on restricted Indian lands under the jurisdiction 
of the Kiowa Agency have been in great demand. These leases are 
sold at ffublic auction to the highest and best bidder. During the 
fiscal year 24,449 acres were leased for a bonus consideration of 
$748,145, an average of about $31 an acre, which is unusually good 
for a comparatively new field. The total revenue to the Indians on 
the Eiowa Reservation from oil and gas during the year amounted to 
about $800,000. The work of development on this reservation is 
progressing satisfactorily, 3 producing oil weUs and 1 gas well 
were brought in, and 13 wells were in the course of drilling. 



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S4 COMMISSIOITEB OF TSmAK ATFAIBS. 

On June 30, 1919, there were 37,732 acres of restricted Indian 
land eovefed with oil and gas mining leases on the Otoe Reservation. 
Of this acreage 1,790 acres were leased during the past fiscal year. 
The total revenue received hy the Otoe Indians from oil and gas 
mining leases during the period from July 1, 1918, to June 30, 1919, 
was $50,589.48. 

There has been considerable activity in the oil and gas mining 
industry on the Pawnee and Ponca Reservations, wherQ a number 
of producing wells were })rought in and the incomes of the Indians 
have been substantially increased. 

QUAPAW AGENCY. 

Affairs at this agency hare assumed extensive proportions during 
the last year by reason of the unprecedented growth of the lead and 
zinc mining industry, the establishment of several towns and cities to 
acconmiodate the mining population, and the various enterprises 
that have sprung up in connection therewith. So rapid has been 
the development that the business of the agency for a single month 
now equals its annual volume in the recent past. The exact popu- 
lation of the mining district is unknown, but it is said that 50,000 
persons located in the north half of Ottawa County between 1916 
and 1918, the major portion of whom are still living therein. The 
heavy work of this jurisdiction has made it necessary for the super- 
intendent to maintain a branch office at Miami, Okla., in order 
to supervise the mining operations, to prepare income-tax data, and 
to attend to the sale of lands for town-site purposes, which is now one 
of the most pressing matters before his office. Of very great im- 
portance also is the proposed sale for road-building purposes of the 
chat piles, commonly called tailings, composed of pulverized refuse 
rock from the mines. There are thousands of tons of this material 
available for roads, and the proposition of fumishiag the chat for 
use in the construction of highways, which are beiag built in many 
of the States under joint Federal and State control, has been 
taken up ii^ a preliminary way with the Department of Agri- 
culture. This agency has developed in a brief time from a simple 
rural and school proposition into a great business factor controlling 
the largest deposit of lead and zinc known in any one place here or 
abroad. In fact, the Miami-Picher district probably produces over 
one-half of the output of the whole United States. 

REIMBURSABLE FUNDS. 

The use of reimbursable funds during the year has been somewhat 
restricted, due to the fact that only $150,000 was appropriated. The 
ameunt available was expended to the best advantage possible for 



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COMMISSIOKEB OF IISTDIAN AFFAIBS. 55 

the benefit of the Indians, in the purchase of seeds, implements, and 
other articles to aid them in their agricultural and other industrial 
pursuits. 

The matter of making collections due under reimbursable a^ee- 
ments is being given careful attention. Where the Indian has money 
to his credit and is able to pay, the superintendent has authority to 
insist on payment, while in other cases where the accoimt is delin- 
quent and the Indian is without means, an extension of time is granted, 
additional credit being extended in some cases where it is necessary 
to enable the Indian to put in a crop. Collections have been good, and 
at several agencies the number of accounts has been reduced materi- 
ally. The beneficiaries have been enabled to get a start and in many 
instances no longer require assistance from reimbiursable ftmds. 
Forty per cent of the amoimt expended for individuals Indians has 
been repaid. The balance must not be considered delinquent as it 
is payable in installments which are not due. The tribal herds 
established from funds of this character in previous years have proven 
profitable, and are of themselves a guaranty of payment. It is the 
intention to eventually place this stock among the individual Indians, 
which can be done at a less price under this plan than would be 
possible if stock were to be purchased for them in the open market. 

New regulations governing the handling of reimbursable funds 
were promulgated during the year, and a new system of reimburs- 
able accounting installed. A special supervisor is now visiting the 
different reservations, going over reimbursable matters with the 
superintendents, with special reference to the use being made of 
these funds and their collections. 

INDIVIDUAL INDIAN MONEYS. 

In furtherance of the plan adopted several years ago under the 
* 'Declaration of policy" referred to in previous reports, having in 
view the gradual emancipation of the Indians from governmental 
control, the disbursement of individual Indian funds belonging to 
both adults and minors has been governed by more liberal princi- 
ples. Competency for this purpose was determined on a less strin- 
gent basis, and if an adult Indian was reasonably competent he was given 
unrestricted control of his funds, which affords him experience in 
the management of his own affairs along practical business lines. 

The fimds of minors have been authorized for their own benefit, 
such as the development of their allotments, and medical treatment, 
the purchase of stock (marked with the minor's brand), special 
schooling, etc. In some cases upon being appointed l^al guardian 
and furnishing sufficient bond, the minor's funds were turned over 
140923**— INT 1919— VOL 2 5 



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56 GOHJiCISSIOirEB OF IKDIAK AFFAIB8. 

to the parent, who thereby became responsible to the coxintj court 
for its proper expenditure- 

During the past fiscal year over $10,000,000 individual Indian 
funds were eitW paid directly to the Indians or expended for their 
benefit, with encouraging results in most cases. 

ANNUITY AND PER CAPITA PAYMENTS. 

In conf<M*0iity with the policy inai^^ated several yeais ago, 
direct cash annuity and per capita payment during the year have 
been confined to those inquired by law to be made in this manner, 
in all othw eaaea the money being deposited in bank to the credit of 
the participants, subject to expenditure undw the individual In- 
dian money regulations. The principal distribution during the 
year was that of $200,000 among tLd Indians of the Uintah and Ouray 
jurisdiction, in Utah, from funds appropriated by Congress out of 
the $3,000,000 '^Ute judgment fund'' on deposit in the United 
Stotes Treasury to the credit of these Indians, a substantial pro- 
portion of wfaudi was used in getting water on the Indian allotments 
under the plan approved by the department in 1915, with the view 
of saving the water rights, as explained elsewhere in this report. 

SEQREQATION OF TRIBAL FUNDS, 

Section 28 of the act of May 25, 1918 (40 Stat. L., 591), authorized 
the segregation of tribal funds, under certain conditions, as follows: 

That the Secretaj>' of the Interior be, and he is hereby, authorized, under such 
rules and regulations as he may prescribe, to withdraw from the United States 
Treasury and segregate the common, or comranmty fluids at any Indian tribe which 
are, or may hereafter be, held in trust by the United States, and which are suscep- 
tible of segregation, so m to credit an equal share to each ajul every recognized 
member of the tribe except those whose pro rata shares have already been with- 
dzawn under existing law. « * « Provided, however. That the funds of any tribe 
shall not be scigrcgated until the finid roUs of eaid tribe are complete: And provided 
further. That the foregoing flhall not i^ply to the funds of the Five Civilized Tribes, 
or the Osage Tribe of Indians, in the State of Oklahoma, but the funds of such tribes 
and individual numbers thereof shall be deposited in the banks of Oklahoma or in 
the United States Treasury and may be secured by the deposit of United States bonds. 

Particular attention is invited to the proviso, which reads: 

That the funds of any tribe shall not be segregated until the final rolls of said tribe 
are complete. 

As there was then no authority of law for closing the rolls on many 
of the reservations, the above proviso had the effect of nullifying the 
authority conferred in the main portion of the item; therefore, it 
was necessary to obtain legislative authority to close the rolls, bef<M*e 
further action could be taken ¥dth respect to the segregation of 
tribal funds. This authority is embodied in the Indian appiopria- 



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GOMMISSIONEB OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 57 

tion act for the fiscal year 1920 (Public, No. 3, 66th Cong.)y and 
reads as follows: 

That the Secretary of the Interior is hereby authcxized, wherever in his discredon 
such action would be for the beet interest of the Indians, to cause a finiil roll to be 
made of the membership of any Indian tribe; such rolls shall contain the ages and 
qoMitnin of Indian blood, when approved by the said Secretary, are hereby declared 
toeoBfltitute the legal membeiBhip of the respective tribes for the purpose of segregating 
the tnbal funds as provided in section 28 of the Indian appropriation act approved 
May 25, 1918 (Fortieth Statutes at Lai^, pp. 591 and 592), and shall be conclusive 
both as to ages and quantum of Indian blood: Provided^ That the forgoing shall not 
api^y to the Five Civilized Tribes, or to the Osage Tribe of Indians, or to the Chipj)ewa 
Indians of Minnesota, or the Menominee Indiuas of Wisconsin. 

PtiTsuant thereto, steps have been taken lookmg toward the prep- 
aration of final rolls on several of the reservations, which, when 
approved, will furnish the basis for the segregation of the tribal 
funds of the Indians residing thereon. It is also expected that this 
action will likewise bo taken on a number of other reservations during 
the^coming year. 

INDIANS IN NEW YORK, 

About 5,000 Indians, descendants of various tribes fonuiOTly com- 
prising the Iroquois League, still remain in New York. They own 
seven '^reservations'' aggregating something over 80,000 acres, 
scattered from Long Island on the east to Lake Erie on the west 
and from the Canadian border on the north to the Pennsylvania 
line on the south. Unusual problems frequently arise in connection 
with the affairs of these people, superinduced largely by the mooted 
question of jurisdiction. State or Federal, over them. Heretofore 
tibe jurisdiction exercised by the State has been quite extensive. It 
has maintained some 33 schools for the education of Indian youth; 
has constructed and maintained highways through the reservations; 
has provided agents to supervise their internal affairs; has, in a 
measure, looked after their physical welfare and has endeavored to 
exercise limited police powers over them. Supervision by the 
Federal Government has been confined largely to the fulfillment of 
certain early treaty obligations, such as the distribution per capita 
of small annuities, including a few yards of gingham and sheeting. 
One physician located at Gowanda, N, Y., and one special 
agent located at Salamanca, N. Y., are the only two local Federal 
employees directly concerned in the administration of affairs relating 
to the New York Indians. 

Complicated legal questions frequently arise involving land titles 
within these reservations and as the "title" to each reservation rests 
on an entirely different basis the several reservations present individ- 
ual problems peculiar within themselves. Recent court decisions 



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58 COMMISSIOKEB OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 

have but tended to strengthen the opinion previously entertained 
here that the State is without power to deal with the tribal property 
rights of these people, particularly those relating to their land mat- 
ters; Congress alone having the power to do this. 

The peculiar status of these people leads but to the conclusion 
that they are practically the wards of both the Nation and the State. 
A conference was held at Syracuse, N. Y., on March 6 and 7 of this 
year for the purpose of considering the New York Indian problem 
and working out some effective solution of the various difficulties 
connected with their affairs. This conference was composed lai^ely 
of State officials, representatives from the various Indian tribes, 
independent philanthropic associations, friends of the Indians, and 
others interested in their welfare. This residted in a request on the 
governor of the State that the matter be placed before the State 
l^slative assembly. Later that body authorized the appointment 
of a conunission from the State to take up with Congress and de- 
partments of the Federal Government the question of jurisdiction 
over these Indians and the exercise of administrative control over 
their affairs. The commission not yet having visited this city, just 
what action will flow from this remains to be seen. 

THE SEMINOLES OF FLORIDA. 

An Indian Service field man of wide experience, whose degree of 
Indian blood gives him a fortunate approach to the character and 
needs of this isolated band, has given faithfid study and labor to 
their interests during the year, and his work is showing encouraging 
results. The principal difficulty to be overcome is the inherited an- 
tagonism of the Indians toward the Government. Under a policy 
of sympathetic and kindly treatment, they are gradually changing 
and have begun to realize the good intentions of the Government, 
and to take advantage of the opportxmities extended in their behalf. 

Besides 100,000 acres set aside for them by the State, these Indians 
own approximately 26,000 acres of land, part of it purchased for them 
by the Federal Government and the remainder set aside by Executive 
order. A station is being established on a tract of land set aside for 
them by the Government, about 75 miles southeast of Fort Myers, 
Fla., as the nucleus of an industrial center. The Indians, w^ho live in 
small bands scattered over a wide area of swampy land, will be of- 
fered day labor at reasonable wages and thus encouraged to contrib- 
ute in a self-helpful way to the development of a conununity having 
demonstration and other industrial advantages. The tract is now 
being fenced to provide, among other purposes, an inclosure for a 
small herd of cattle the purchase of which is under consideration, so 
that whenever an Indian shows sufficient individual enterprise, he 
win be sold a few head of such stock on the reimbursable plan; later 



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COMMISSIONEB OF IJn)IAK AFFAIRS. 59 

it is proposed to make the same arrangement for the sale of hogs. 
The Indians who have hitherto been averse to educational overtures, 
will thus be drawn by regular association at the industrial center 
into frequent contact with the Government's influence and guidance, 
and this should awaken their confidence and lead them to accept the 
benefits of schooling for their children which it is desired to furnish 
at an early date. The health and sanitary conditions among these 
Indians, as elsewhere, are of primary importance in developing their 
industrial and economic progress, and, therefore, an exhaustive 
health survey among the Seminoles by one of the most experienced 
physicians in the service is under way with the view of working 
out a practical and comprehensive program for their advancement. 
When this «hall have been accomplished the way will be opened for 
the eflFective prosecution of work for their welfare along other lines, 

ALABAMA INDIANS IN TEXAS. 

In conformity with the purpose announced in my last annual 
report of extending a helping hand to these and other ''forgotten 
Indians," in order that they shall have greater opportunities toward 
civilization. Congress appropriated $5,000 for the construction of a 
school building for this particular tribe, which is now in course of 
construction and wiU be completed in time for the next school year. 
This buUding will accommodate all of the children of school age in 
this band. 

HOMELESS INDIANS IN CALIFORNIA. 

The condition of Indians not on reservations in the State of Cali- 
fornia has given this office great concern during the past few years. 
Conflicting reports as to their health, poverty, and moral conditions 
have been received, and to secure dependable information concern- 
ing these conditions two inspecting officers have been detailed to 
make a thorough survey and study of the homeless nonreservation 
California Indians and their needs. 

During the coin^e of their study of conditions the inspectors are 
required to give specific information as follows: 

1. The names of all homelees nonreservation Indians, age, marital condition, family; 
locality where living, tribe, degree of Indian blood, and number of children of school 
age in each isanily. 

2. The land situation near each group of Indians, general character of soil, etc., and 
approximate selling price. 

3. Attitude, of whites in the neighborhood of each group of Indians, especially 
whether Indian children are admitted or welcomed in white schools, whether any 
effort is made by State and county school authorities to get these children into white 
Echools. 

4. Your opinion, and reasons therefor, as to wisdom of the Government providing 
schools in localities where Indians are sufficiently grouped to afford an average attend* 



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60 GOMMISSIOSTfiB OF INJXiAX AFFAIB&. 

ance. Would such Bchook be practicablCi or should the education of such Indian 
children he undertaken by the State. 

5. The general health conditions of each group of Indians, sanitary modes of Hving, 
hmr medical attentJon is now dMaised, and Bhonld the Govonakent undertake to 
fumuh sach aid; if eo, how, and appfoxiiaate cost. Conki there be coo^ieEation on 
this important subject. 

6. M^e a numerical summary of the results of your survey, giving number of non- 
reservation Indians, degree of Indian blood, and nimiber of children in each county. 

When completed this survey will enable both the Indian Office 
and Congress to understand the needs and requirements of these 
Indians. 

Out of the appropriation available during the fiscal year for the 
purchase of land for landless Indians in California homes have been 
purchased for certain of these Indians at an expense of approxi- 
mately $16,000. Contracts for the sale of these lands have been con- 
summated and possession will be given at an early date. 

PAPAQO LAND LITIQATION. 

There is pending at this time in the Supreme Court of the District 
of Columbia a case which is regarded as one brought to test the va- 
lidity of 16 purported quit-claim deeds attempting to convey to 
one Robert F. Hunter, late of Washington, D. C., a one-half undi- 
vided interest in 16 tracts of land alleged to represent the ''lands and 
grants'' of certain Papago Indian villages located in Pima County, 
Ariz., and now embraced in the Papago Indian Reservation created 
by Executive order of February 1, 1917. The lands in which the 
interest is attempted to be conveyed aggregate approximately 2,600- 
000 acres. The deeds in question purport execution in 1880 by cer- 
tain Papago Indian chiefs, 10 of such deeds being recorded in 1914 
and the remaining 6 in 1919. The pending action was originally 
brought in the Sui)reme Court of the District of Columbia in January, 
1915, in the name of the ''Pueblo of Santa Rosa," the title of the 
case being "The Pueblo of Santa Rosa, plaintiff, v. Franklin Knight 
Lane, Secretary of the Interior, and Clay Tallman, Commissioner of 
the General Land Office, defendants." The action is in the nature of 
an injunction proceeding brought for the purpose of restraining the 
pefendants from interfering in any manner with certain "lands and 
grants" alleged to be owned by the purported "Pueblo" named as 
plaintiff. Tlie particular tract of land set out in the bill of complaint 
as being the property of "The Pueblo of Santa Rosa" is identical 
with that described in one of the deeds mentioned above. 

On April 25, 1916, the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia 
dismissed the action above named. Upon an appeal to the Court of 
Appeals of the District of Columbia, that court, without giving the 
Government an opportunity to answer the original bill of complaint, 
handed down an opinion on April 27, 1917, reversing the action of 



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COMMISSIOKEB OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 61 

the court below and entered an order restraining the Government 
cfficers named as defendants from interfering with the property rights 
of the plaintiff. Upon appeal to the Supreme Court of the Uuited 
States that court handed down an opinion on March 3, 1919, re- 
versing the decrees of both courts below and remanding the case to 
the court of the first instance with directions to afford the defendants 
an opportunity to answer the orginal bill of complaint. The case 
having been reinstated on the docket of the Supreme Court of the 
District of Columbia^ the Government filed its answer on June 7, 
1919, and the case now awaits liearing in that court. 

It is the contention of the Government in its answer that this suit 
was brought without the knowledge or consent of the Papago Indians; 
that it was brought by attorneys representing Robert M. Martin of 
Lfos Angeles, Calif., who, in 1911, purchased a three-fourths interest 
from Robert F. Hunter in what rights may be held by him in 10 of 
the 16 deeds to Indian land mentioned; that said Martin represents 
interests antagonistic to the Papago Indians. 

In this suit is involved questions of title to practically all the 
land embraced within the limits of the present Papago Indian Reser- 
vatiouj and its successful prosecution is of vital interest to the 
Papago of that coxmtry. For this reason a special supervisor of 
this office has for the past year been engaged in a thorough investi- 
gation of the entire situation and in assisting tho Department of 
Justice. 

LEQISLATION, 

Congress passed the Indian appropriation act on June 30, 1919, 
appropriating $14^75,494.94 for the usual expenses for the Indian 
Service. Among the items of especial interest are the following: 

For the suppression of the traffic in intoxicating liquors among 
Indians, $100,000. 

The annual per capita cost for schools is limited to not exceed 
$225 unless the attendance numbered less than 200 pupils^ in which 
case the per capita expenditure of not to exceed $250 may be 
authorized. The number of pupils in any school entitled to the per 
capita allowance hereby provided for shall be based upon average 
attendance, determined by dividing the total daily attendance by 
tiie number of days the school is in session. 

The Bum of $50,000 is appropriated for improving springs, drilling 
weHs, and otherwise developing and conserving water for the use of 
stock, and for the purpose of increasing the available grazing range 
(m unallotted lands on Indian reservations. 

Authority is granted to cause a final roll to be made of the member- 
ship of any Indian tribe, such rolls, when approved, to constitute the 
legal membership of the respective tribes. 



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62 COMMISSlONfiR OF INDIA2T AFFAIBS. 

All of the provisions of the act for the relief of Indians occupying 
raiht)ad lands in Arizona, New Mexico, or California, approved 
March 4, 1913 (37 Stat. L., 1007), as extended by the act of April 
11, 1916 (39 Stat. L., 48), are extended for a period of one year from 
and after the 4th day of March, 1919. 

Where restricted Indians are in possession or control of live stock 
purchased for or issued to them by the Government, or the increase 
therefrom, such stock shall not be sold, transferred, mortgaged, or 
otherwise disposed of, except with the consent in writing of the 
superintendent or other officer in charge of the tribe to which the 
owner or possessor of the live stock belongs, and all transactions in 
violation of this provision shall be void. 

Twenty thousand dollars is appropriated for relief of distress 
among the Seminole Indians in Florida. 

Sixty thousand dollars is appropriated from the tribal funds of 
the Chippewa Indians of Minnesota, to be expended in the erection 
or purchase of homes for Chippewa Indians whose homes were 
destroyed by forest fires. 

Twenty thousand dollars is appropriated from the tribal funds of 
the Chippewa Indians of Minnesota to be expended for the con- 
struction and repair of roads on the Chippewa and ceded Indian 
reservations in the State of Minnesota. 

Ten thousand dollars is appropriated from the funds on deposit 
to the credit of the Red Lake Band of Indians in the State of Minne- 
sota, to be expended in the construction of roads and bridges on 
the Red Lake Reservation. 

Sixty thousand dollars is appropriated for the purpose of paying 
the amounts assessed against tribal and allotted lands of the Indian 
reservations of Minnesota on account of benefit accruing to said 
lands by reason of the construction of a drainage ditch or ditches 
under the laws of Minnesota. 

Three hxmdred and seventy five thousand dollars is appropriated 
for the Flathead irrigation project; $100,000 is appropriated for 
the Fort Peck irrigation project, and $50,000 is appropriated for the 
Blackfeet irrigation project, all in Montana. 

The act of March 1, 1907 (34 Stat. L,, 1015-1035), a;^ relates to 
the disposal of surplus unallotted lands within the Blackfeet Indian 
Reservation in Montana, is repealed and authority is granted to 
make allotments under existing laws within the said Blackfeet 
Reservation to any Indians of said tribe not heretofore allotted, 
living six months after the approval of this act and thereafter to 
prorate all unallotted and otherwise imreserved lands among the 
Indians who have been allotted or may be entitled to rights within 
said reservation. 



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COMMISSIOKEB OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 63 

Twei^y five thousand dollars is appropriated for road and bridge 
construction on the Mescalero Reservation in New Mexico. 

Thirty-five thousand dollars is authorized for expenses in connec- 
tion witii oil and gas production in the Osage Reservation, Okla. 

A per capita payment not to exceed $200 to the Choctaw and 
Chickasaw Tribes of Indians of Oklahoma, is provided for. 

The unsold and forfeited tracts of coal and asphalt deposits in 
the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations are to be reoffered for sale 
between September 15, 1919, and November 16, 1919. 

Claims against the Creek and Seminole Nations, including claims 
to unpaid per capita and equalization money, must be filed not 
later than one year from June 30, 1919. 

A per capita payment of not to exceed $25 to the Rosebud Sioux 
Indians is authorized and $25,000 of the tribal funds of the Rosebud 
Sioux Indians is authorized for the piirchase of cattle. 

The sum. of $12,000 is authorized to aid the public schools in 
Uintah and Duchesne Counties, Utah. 

The sum of $500,000 is appropriated for the Wapato irrigation 
project, Yakima Reservation, Wash. 

The siun of $75,000 is appropriated for beginning the construc- 
tion of the irrigation system on Indian land adjacent to Toppenish 
and Simcoe Creeks, Yakima Reservation, Wash. 

The sum of $2,509,895 is appropriated from the trust funds of the 
several tribes for their support and civilization. 

Authority is granted for the leasing of certain portions of Indian 
reservations for the mining of metalliferous minerals. 

Hereafter no public lands of the United States shall be withdrawn 
by Executive order, proclamation, or otherwise, for or as an Indian 
reservation except by act of Congress. 

COURT DECISIONS, 

There were a number of decisions affecting Indian matters, ren- 
dered by the Supreme Court of the United States the past year. 
Some of the most important were: 

Gabe E. Parker v. Tootle BUey^ a minor, et al. — Where an allottee, 
a fuU-blood Creek Indian, died November, 1908, leaving a husband 
and two children, one of the children bom after March 4, 1906, in 
the settlement of conflicting claims of the heirs to royalties collected 
and accruing imder an oil and gas lease for her homestead, this 
question arose: 

Did the approval of the oil and gas lease by the Secretary remove 
the restrictions and thereby immediately vest the royalties accruing 
imder the lease in the heirs, or were the royalties to be held under 
Departmental supervision, for the benefit of the minor bom subse- 



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64 ooMivrTssiQJsrjat of indun affaibs. 

queatly to March 4, 1906, under section 9 of the a€t of May 27, 1908^ 
until 1931, the «nd of the restriction period. Court held 'restric- 
tions not removed, but that the rojidties descended to the heizs in 
the aaz&e maimer as the homestead and that the nanor bom subse- 
quently to March 4, 1906, was entitled for her support to the exclu- 
sive use of the entire homestead until April 26, 1931; thni is to say, 
the interest or income which might be obtained by properly invest- 
ing same during said period, namely, until April 26, 1931, leaving 
the principal, like the homestead, to go to the heirs at the end of 
that time. 

Untied States v« Suda Reynolds. — ^The question presented was, 
whether the trust period began to run from the date of the aj^roval 
of the schedule of allotment or from the date of the trust patent. 
The court, speaking through Justice Pitaiey, said, '^ While the matter 
s not free from doubt, we have reached the conclusion that by the 
better construction the period begins and dates from the issuance of 
the patent and not from the approval of the schedule." 

Seufert Bros. v. Z7. S. Trustee et dL. — ^The question at issue was 
whether the treaty of June 9, 1855, with the Yakima Tribe of In- 
dians, ceding to the United States lands occupied by them on the 
north aide of the Colmnbia River, in the Territory of Washington, 
and reserving to the Indians the right of taking fish at all usual and 
accustomed fishing places in common with citizens of the Territory, 
gave them the right to fish in the country of another tribe on the 
south or Oregon side of the river. 

Held that, they had the right to fish in conmion with citizens of 
the United States at the usual and accustomed fishing places on the 
south bank or shore of the Columbia Biver. 

Kenny v. Miles. — The court held that where an Osage Indian 
died, without the restrictions having been removed from his lands, 
a partition by the heirs (where the heirs were Indians) was of no 
effect imtil approved by the Secretary of the Interior. 

PURCHASE AND TRANSPORTATION OF SUPPLIES, 

Purchases covered about ^e same line of goods as heretofore, the 
usual standard of quality being maintained with a lessening in quan- 
tity in some directions in an effort to economize to ofibet the stcttuiily 
increasiog cost. Particular care was exercised, however, to see that 
food supplies, clothiug, fuel, and other necessities w^e amply ^*o- 
vided. In some classes of goods, particularly where production was 
below normal ot the tonnage exported large, it was rather difiScnlt 
at times to obtain the necessary quantities. However, practical^ 
all of our requirements ultimately ware filled. As long as the x^- 
ulations of ^le United States Food and Fuel AdministratiQas, together 
with those of the War Industries Board and other controlling 



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OOMSCISSIOKEB OF INDIAK AFFAIBS. 65 

organizations were in effect, they were strictly complied with 
in the Indian Service. Since the creation in the War Department 
of the director of sales office, the Indian Office has closely cooperated 
with it through its surplus property division. For a short time after 
the cessation of war acti\dties; there seemed to be a lessening demand 
on the outside for certain lines of supplies, which had a tendency to 
increase the interest in Government business, including our own, but 
this covered only a short period, after which the reverse applied. 
As a result, competition was not as keen as we would have liked it to 
be. Prices generally have been high, but it is believed those obtained 
compared favorably with purchases made elsewhere under similar 
conditions. The service has not felt any serious effects during the 
year through car shortage or freight congestion. Supplies moved reg- 
ularly and in good order. Where in the very few instances it was 
necessary to take special measures to secure equipment, the United 
States Railroad Administration aided us promptly and in every way 
practicable. An energetic effort was put forth during the year to 
use up all surplus property in the service, and as a result considerable 
saving was made. 

THE INDIAN EXHIBIT AT THE INTERIOR DEPARTMENT 

EXPOSITION. 

The Indian exhibit at the Interior Department Exposition held in 
this city May 19-31, 1919, consisted of enlarged photographs showing 
the educational and industrial progress of the Indians; how they 
helped to win the war by service in the Army and Navy, the pur- 
chase of Liberty bonds. Red Cross work, and food production. Spec- 
imens of native Indian handicraft, such as beadwork, hand embroid- 
ered garments, artistic designs in laces and bags and various similar 
articles made by Indian pupils were shown; also canned and pre- 
served fruits and vegetables, and many interesting products of the 
domestic science and art classes and the mechanic art shops of the 
Indian schools. 

CONCLUSION. 

The pm-pose underlying the creation of this bureau is the prepara- 
tion of Indians by education along industrial, moral, and civic lines 
for assuming the duties, responsibilities, and privileges of American 
citizens. This year's record shows a notable advance toward the 
accomplishment of this object. 

Your continuous sympatJietic cooperation is much appreciated. 
Very respectfully, 

Cato Sells, 
Commissioner. 
The Seobetabt of the Intebiob. 



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STATISTICAL TABLES.* 

Table 1. — Comparative sialement of work and/orce in Office of Indian Affairs since 1899, 



law., 

1900.. 
1901., 
1902., 
1903. 
1904., 
1905. 
1900. 
1907.. 
1908. 
1909. 
1910. 
1911. 
1913., 
1913. 
1»14. 
1915., 

mo. 
m?., 

1918.. 
1919.. 





J 


Employees. 




Total 


Increase 






numbor 


(+)or 




i 


em- 


decrease 




r 


ployed in 


(-)ovec 






Indian 


IM'eoed- 




- 


Office. 


ingyear. 






Percent, 


59,707 




101 




02,601 


+ 4.84 


115 


+ 13.86 


67,376 


+ 7.62 


119 


+ 3.48 


79,237 


+ 17.60 


132 


+ia93 


79,115 


+ .22 


131 


- .75 


86,588 


+ 9.03 


142 


+ &30 


96,322 


+13.55 


149 


+ 4.93 


106,533 


+ 8.35 


145 


-2.68 


117,556 


+ia34 


160 


+ia34 


152,995 


+30.14 


179 


+ 11.87 


176,765 


+15.53 


189 


+ 5.58 


194,241 


+ 9.88 


203 


+ 7.40 


197,637 


+ 1.74 


227 


+11.82 


222,187 


+12.37 


224 


- 1.32 


275,463 


+23.97 


237 


+ 6w80 


280,744 


+ 1.92 


245 


+ 3.37 


208,240 


+ 6.23 


260 


+ 0.12 


284,106 


- 1.70 


260 




281,618 


- .91 


262 


+ ,77 


242,938 


-13.73 


260 


- .76 


347,676 


+ 1.05 


260 







Percent. 

Increase in work, 1919, over 1899 314.82 

Increase in lorce, 1919, over 1899 157.43 

Table 2. — Indian population of the United States, exclusive of Alashiy June SO, 1919, 

{Figures compiled from reports of Indian school superintendents, supplemented by information firom 1910 
census for localities in which no Indian Office representative is located.] 

Grand total 333, 702 

Five Civilized Tribes, including freedmen and intermanied whites 101, 506 

By blood 75,519 

By intermarriage 2, 582 

Freedmen 23, 405 

Exclusive of Five Civilized Tribes 232,196 

1 Exclusive of Five Civilized Tribes in Oklahoma and scattered Indians under Government jurisdiction 
except where indicated. 

67 



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68 



COMMISSIONER OF INDIAK AFFAIBS. 



Table 2. — Indian population of the United States, exclusive of Alaska, June ^ 

i9i9— Continued. 



INDIAN POPULATION BY STATES AND TERRTTOBIES. 



Alabama 909 

Arizona 42, 346 

Arkansas 460 

California 16,215 

Colorado 821 

Connecticut 152 

Delaware 5 

District of Columbia 68 

Florida 573 

Geoigia 95 

Idaho 4,066 

Illinois 188 

Indiana 279 

Iowa 358 

Kansas 1,441 

Kentucky 234 

Louisiana 780 

Maine 892 

Maryland 55 

Massachusetts 688 

Michigan 7,512 

Minnesota 12, 447 

MissiflBippi 1,253 

Missouri 313 



Montana 

Nebraska 

Nerada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma * 

Oregon 

Ehode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washin^n 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



12,138 

2,448 

5,840 

34 

168 

20, 581 

6,460 

8,235 

8,891 

127 

119, 101 

6,607 

284 

331 

22, 829 

216 

702 

3,048 

26 

539 

10,988 

36 

10, 211 

1,712 





Total 


Male. 


Female. 


Minors. 


AdoltS. 


Full 
blood. 


Mixed blood. 


States, superintendencles and 
tribes. 


More 
than 
half. 


Half 

or 

less. 


Total populatioii *. 


383,702 


n06,l06 


"104,225 


>96,651 


•112,682 


164,783 


46,170 


76,481 




Alabama: Not nndftr agnnt 


4909 
42,346 
















AilTmnn ^ . . 


20,895 


21,431 


20,995 


21,351 


42,021 


262 


63 






Camp Verda Sdiool-Mohave 


436 
1,141 

2,466 
176 
105 

1,441 


226 
629 

67 
704 


210 

512 

1,252 

79 

48 

737 


169 
413 

76 
47 
776 


267 

728 

1,243 
100 
58 
665 


419 
1,061 

2,358 
176 
105 

1,441 


17 
18 
108 




Colorado Biver Agency— Mo- 

l>av»€lMm«lii]iBVl 

Fort Apache Soiiool— WUto 


<2 


HavBSupai ScBool^-Havasupai . . 
Kaibab A«noy— Kaibab P^ute. 
Leupp S<£ool-'Na'vaibo..... ..... 
















Moqui School 


4,000 


2,086 


1,916 


1,886 


2,114 


4,000 


1 








Mnqiif (Hopi)- . 


2,158 
i;842 


1,143 


1,015 
'900 


986 
900 


1,172 
942 


2,158 
i;842 






Navaho... 










_. .^ 


Navi^o School— Navaho. 


11,280 


5,365 


5,015 


6,595 


4,685 


11,189 


90 


Pima School,.. .... 


6,260 


3,081 


3 1T9 


3,000 


3,260 


6,260 


1 








Maricopa (Oila River) 

Pima (Gila River) 

Gila Bend Reservation— 
Pana^o... 


276 
4,224 

1,760 


134 
2,080 

867 


142 
2,144 

893 


136 
2,017 

847 


140 
2,207 

913 


276 
4,224 

1,700 






1 




' 


Halt River School.. 


1,274 


670 604 


560 


714 


1,274 


1 




1 


Mf^il^^^^pa.... 


96 
231 
947 


46 50 
126 105 
498 449 


41 

80 

439 


55 

151 
508 


96 
231 
947 


1 


Mohave-A'oaRhA. . . 


I 


Pimft 


: T : ::: 








' — 



^ Includes 23,405 freedmen and 2,582 intermarried whites. 

> Correct as reported by superintendents. 

8 Exclusive of Five Civilized Tribes, and Indians not under agent . 

* 1010 census. 



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COttHJSSXOSEK OF htdiajt aefaibs. 



6d 



Table 2. — JrM^um population of the UnUed States^ exclusive of Alaata, Jttne SO, 

1919 — Oontiimed. 





Total 


Male. 


Fenude. 


MfalQCS. 


Adults. 


Pull 
blood. 


Mixed blood. 


tribes. 


Miofe 

than 
half. 


Half 

or 

less. 




2,515 


1,322 


1,193 


1,160 


1,865 


2,496 


20 








AxMcSm...... 


2,441 
74 


1,« 


1,167 
86 


1,119 
81 


1,^ 


2,421 


20 




fi£E?v«::::::::::::;:::;:;:; 












4,4«6 
'427 


^'iil 


2,158 
214 


2,158 
176 


^'L^ 


^Sl 






Truxton CaBoo Sohool— Wa&{mi 


9 




Western Nav^ School 


6,3§0 


2,990 


8,440 


2,771 


8,689 


6,360 












Moqui(Hopi) 


270 

5,915 

'176 

1460 

16,215 


147 

2,700 

73 


128 
8,215 

loa 


152 

2,545 

74 


118 

8,870 

101 


270 

5,915 

176 






Na?aho..^.. :....:.. 






Patato 






AJkansas: Not undOT agant 






Califaniia 


8,219 


7,996 


6,576 


10,640 


11,172 


8,296 


1 748 






BiAopSchooL 


1,518 


725 


793 


372 


1.146 


1,223 


187 


106 






Moaehe.. 


SO 

1.^ 


80 
645 
50 


20 
783 

40 


l» 


1,146 


1,223 


187 






108 


Shodiooi.. 




* 




CanpoBdMiol 


229 


115 


114 


80 


149 


203 


25 


\ 






lasslan Indiazis Kt Campo . . . 
Ciiyapatpe 


139 

10 

4 

10 

66 


79 

4 

2 

3 

27 


00 
6 
2 

7 
88 


49 

1 

1 

4 

25 


90 

8 
6 

41 


127 
10 
8 
9 
54 


12 




iMuna 


1 

1 
11 




La^osta 




Vffnzantfn. . 


1 







Difiger Afeney— Diseer 


280 


143 


• 187 


96 


185 


40 


280 


10 






Fort BidirBli School 


719 


839 


880 


287 


482 


707 


8 


' — ^ 






Pkmr..«« 


5 
206 
508 


3 
119 
217 


2 
87 
291 


2 
92 

143 


3 
114 
865 


2 
206 

soo 


8" 


3 


Fume... 


PitBivw. 








Fart Yuma Sohool 


968 


619 


449 


3S7 


881 


933 


81 


A 






Cooopah 


140 
888 


74 
446 


66 
383 


67 
380 


^ 


140 
793 






Yuma X. 


81 


4 






G«ee&vU]« Bkihool 


8,924 


1,488 


1,488 


1,027 


1,897 


1,456 


876 


1,088 






693 
2,281 


369 
1,119 


324 
1,112 


277 
750 


416 
1,481 


840 
1,116 


171 
205 


183 
911 






Hoopa VaUey School 


1,712 


849 


863 


710 


993 


1,088 


666 


06 






Bear River 


28 
118 
141 
807 
578 
340 


19 

62 
74 

153 


9 

66 

67 

264 

200 
187 


14 
65 

62 
223 
286 
189 


14 
63 
89 
284 
342 
201 


20 
98 
101 
230 
370 
243 


8 
20 
40 
254 
208 
26 




EelRi-ver 




CreaeentCity 




Hupa 


**28 


Klamath 




Lower XJamath 


72 






Ifalki School 


628 


844 


284 


286 


402 


610 


82 


86 






ICisslan Indians at Augus- 


22 
29 

122 
9 

246 
50 
57 
93 


13 
16 

74 
7 
132 
26 
28 
48 


9 
13 
48 

2 
114 
24 
29 
45 


6 

7 

88 

4 

106 
10 
14 
41 


16 
22 
84 
6 
140 
40 
43 
52 


21 
28 

115 
9 

137 
50 
57 
93 


2* 


1 


Cabazon. 


1 


MartiBei 


5 


Miasian Creek 




Morenim 


80 


79 


PalniSprincs 




SanMMueC 






Torres 








=r. 


== 



1 1910 census. 



> Estimated. 



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70 



COMMISSIONEB OV INDIAN AFFAIBS. 



Table 2,— Indian population of the United StateSf exclusive of AUuia, June SQ^ 

19iS— Continued. 





Total 


Male. 


Female. 


Minora. 


Adults. 


Full 
blood. 


Mixed blood. 


States, saperinteiidencies and 


More 
than 
half. 


Half 

or 
less. 


CallfonUa-Gontlniied. 

Pala School 


1,0M 


587 


517 


373 


681 


884 


160 


10 






Mision Indians at Fala 

r'.anitftn Orand«. , - . 


ao8 

143 

240 

57 

216 

141 

4 
45 

1,842 


99 
77 
130 
25 
109 
• 71 
1 
25 

931 


100 

66 
110 

82 
107 

70 
3 

20 

Oil 


75 
60 
90 
20 
55 
49 
2 
22 

796 


133 

83 
150 

87 
161 

02 
2 

23 

1,046 


161 
126 
234 

56 
176 

89 
1 

41 

1660 


37 
17 
6 
1 

40 

52 

3 

4 

« 1,042 


10 


La'JoUa . 




Pauma 




Pechanga 




Rlnoanl'. 





flan Pftimiia] r.r-, 





nyatian , . ^ , - 




Bound' Valley Sohool-Con- 
flow. TTlde and oth^T^- - . 


1140 






BobolM School 


896 


494 


402 


313 


583 


664 


185 


47 






Mission Indians at Soboba. . . 
rAhiiiiVi , 


126 
124 
35 
110 
105 
60 
71 
175 


67 
64 
18 
66 

111 
35 
37 
96 


50 
60 
17 
44 
64 
25 
34 
70 


37 
34 
12 
41 
79 
10 
24 
76 


80 
00 
23 
60 
116 
50 


111 

117 
35 

110 
96 
60 
3 

132 


15 
7 




Tnflja 




LoaCovotfiS 






MesaG'rande 


53 


46 


Santa Rosa 




Santa Ynez. 


68 
42 




VoVaiTl.. 


1 






Tola Rivar School 


445 


235 


210 


200 


245 


431 


14 








TaleRivtf 


158 
151 
136 


93 
76 
66 


65 
75 
70 


200 


245 


431 


14 




Aabenry 




R^irm^igh , . ^ . 






_^__ 


Scattered tribes— Digser-under 
special agent, Reno, Nev 

\AHunu ^ I. . . i ... -.i . ...■ 


13,000 
821 


1,500 
427 


1,500 
394 


750 
409 


2,250 
412 


2,400 
803 


450 


150 
18 






andlioacheUte 

and Woac^e lTt« . . 


341 

480 

M52 
«6 

«68 
573 
»»5 

4,066 


166 
261 


175 
219 


154 
255 


187 
225 


328 
480 


i 18 

1 


Connecticut: Not under agent 

Delaware: Not under agent 

District of Columbia: Not under 
agent 



























1 


Florida: Seminole 


334 


289 


260 


313 


557 


3 


13 






Idaho 


2,024 


2,042 


1,532 


2,534 


3,206 


500 


360 






Coeur d' Alene School 


818 


402 


416 


314 


504 


626 


97 


05 






Coeur d' Alene 


610 
82 
126 


300 
44 

58 


310 
38 
68 


33 
43 


372 
49 
83 


418 
82 
126 


97 


05 


Kalispel 




Kootenai 








Fort TTftP Ro>inn| 


1,759 


895 


864 


639 


1,120 


1,495 


208 


56 






Rnnnocii' 


347 
1.363 


191 
680 


156 
683 


} 619 


1.091 


1,446 


208 




Shoshoni 


56 






Skn 11 Valley 


49 
1,489 

M8S 

«279 

358 

d. 


24 
727 


25 
762 


20 
579 


29 
910 


49 
1,085 


' " 


Fort Lap wai School: Nes Perce.. 
Illinois: Not under agent 


195 


«• 


Indiana: Not under agent— Miami 
and AthATR _ . , , . 












1 


Iowa: Sac and Fox School— Sac and 
Fox 


180 


169 


124 
a 1010 C 


234 
ensus. 


358 


i_ . 


1 Estimate 







Digitized by 



Google 



COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 



71 



Table 2. — Indian population of the United States, exclusive of Alaska, June SO, 

i9J9— Continued. 





Totol 


Male. 


Female. 


Minors. 


Adults. 


Full 
blood. 


Mixed blood. 


States, superintendCDcies and 
tribes. 


More 
than 
half. 


Hair 

or 

less. 


Kanffiw,.. 


1,441 


750 


691 


779 


662 


718 ! 349 


374 






Kickapoo School 


660 


336 


324 


358 


302 


203 1 211 


246 






Iowa 


335 
236 
89 


166 
125 
45 


160 
111 
44 


186 
134 
38 


149 
102 
51 


12 1 77 
180 i 66 
11 78 


246 


Kickapoo 




Sac and Fox 








Potavatomi Agency— Prairie 
Band of Potawatomi 


781 

1234 
1780 
1892 
155 
1688 
7,512 


414 


367 


421 


360 


515 ' 138 


128 


Kentucky: Not under agent 




Loolriana: Not under agent 




* ■ 




i 




l^ne: Not under agent 

















Uflryland: Not under acent 
















Hassachnsetts: Not under agent 

















Michigan 


563 


532 


514 


581 


155 


445 


495 






Mackinac Agency — L'Anse, 

Bands of Chippewa 

Not luider agent— Scattered 
Chippewa, Ottawa, Potawat- 
omi and others 


1,095 

6,417 
12,447 


563 


532 


514 


581 


155 


445 


495 


Minnfffota 


6,209 


6,238 


6,448 


5,999 


4,034 


4,579 


3,834 






Fond du Lac School— Chippewa. 
Grand Portage School— Chip- 


1,074 
340 


557 
143 


517 
197 


545 
157 


529 
183 


77 
8 


565 
146 


432 
186 






l^eech Lake School 


1,738 


889 


849 


748 


■"■•990- 


968 


691 


79 






Cass and WInibigoshish 

Leech Lake 


493 
773 

472 


269 
387 

233 


224 
386 

239 


748 


990 


968 


691 


79 


White Oak Point (Miw.) 
Chippewa 






Hett Lake School— Chippewa 
(BoiaFort) ..TT. 


590 


277 


313 


287 


303 


356 


170 


65 






Pipestone School 


407 


215 


192 


192 


215 


199 


151 


57 






Mdewakanton Sioux 

Birch Cooley-Sioax 


303 
104 


161 
54 


142 
50 


M40 
52 


S163 
62 


192 
7 


89 
62 


22 
35 


Red Lake School— Red Lake 
Chippewa 


1,504 


757 


747 


784 


720 


752 


376 


376 






White Earth School 


6,794 


3,371 


3,423 


3,735 


3,059 


1,676 


2,480 


2,639 




White Earth (Ml«w.) Chip- 
pewa 


2,680 
1)273 
881 
459 
283 
451 
284 
305 
114 
64 

11,253 
1313 

12,138 


1,328 
609 
439 
227 
138 
245 
131 
149 
68 
37 


1,352 
664 
442 
232 
145 
206 
153 
156 
46 
27 


3,735 


3,059 


1,675 


2,480 




Mifle Lac (removal) 




Otter Tail Pillager 




Gull Lake (Miss.) 




Mllle Lac (nonremoval) 

Pembinar-Piilager 


2,639 


Leech Lake Pillager 

White Oak Point (Miss.).... 

Fond du Lac (removal) 

Cass and Winibigoshish 

Mississippi: Not imder agrait 


















Montana ... ... 


6,204 


5,934 


5,733 


6,405 


6,427 


3,071 


2.640 






Blackfeet School— Blackfeet 

Crow Agency— (>ow 

Flathead Sdiool-Confederated 
Flathead 


2,883 
1,707 

2,452 


1,468 
860 

1,2,30 


1,415 
847 

1,202 


1.481 
774 

1,040 


1,402 
933 

1,412 


1,182 
1,232 

62d 


M5.3 
270 

518 


546 
205 

1,308 







140923^- 



1 1910 census. 
-int191»— vol2- 



s Estimated. 



Digitized by 



Google 



72 



COMMISSIONEU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 



Table 2. — Indian population of the United Slates, cxcluMve of Alaska, June 30^ 

1919— Continued. 





Total 


Male. 


Female. 


Minors. 


Adults. 


Full 
blood. 


Mixed blood. 


tribes. 


More 
than 
half. 


naif 

or 
less. 


Montana— Continued. 

Fort Belknap School 


1,198 


641 


557 


599 


599 


786 


t 
529, 


83 






Asshiiboin 


628 

570 


340 
331 


288 
289 


} 599 


599 


786 


1 
329 i 






^ 






Fort Peck Sdtool 


2,031 


1,049 


9S3 


1,021 


1,010 


1,053 


537 


411 








1,259 
772 


es9 

390 


600 
382 


} 1,021 


1,010 


1,053 


537 




YAnktftn 


441 






Rocky Boy's Agency— Rocky 
Roy Paiwi 


451 

1,416 
2,448 


233 

703 
1,297 


218 
713 


207 
fill 


244 

805 
1,243 


2S9 
1.289 
1,946 


192 
70 

200 




Tongue River School— Nortliera 
Cheyenne , 


57 


Nebraska 


1,151 1 1,205 


302 






Omaha School— Omaha 

Winnebago School— Winnebago . 

Nevada 


1,380 
1,068 

5,840 


719 
578 

2,931 


661 ; 702 
490 , 503 

2,909; 1,767 


678 
565 

4,073 


1,072 
874 

5,122 


05 
105 

563 


213 

89 

155 






Falcon School 


405 


2CH 


201 J 102 


903 


384 


19 


2 






Paiute at Fallon 


205 

no 


153 
61 


142 67 
59 85 


228 

75 


286 
98 


7 
12 


2 


Lovelooks 








Fort KcBcrmitt School— Paiute. 
Moapa River School— Paiute .... 
Nevada School — Pahite 


323 
111 
526 


' 165 
59 
243 


158 ' 122 
52 40 
283 ; 190 


201 

71 

336 


309 

10* 
522 


14 

i' 


3 








800 


, 417 


383 1 mT 


653 


72? 


76 








Paiute 


491 
309 


251 
! 166 

343 


240 1 ^ - 


553 


724 


76 




Paiute (Mason Valley) 


143 


i ^' 




Western Shoshone School 


675 


316 


359 


675 















Hop! 


1 
288 
386 


1 ii3' 

1 190 


1 ! 

135 1 316 
196 if 


359 


675 






Paiute 




Shoshoni ,... . . 


450 










3,000 


' 1,500 


1,500 750 


~2^^ 


2,400 


150 




Paiute 


1,400 

1,000 

600 

«S4 

. «168 

20,581 


700 
SOO 
300 


700 1 

600 > 750 

300 jl 


2,260 


2,400 


450 




Shoshoni 


150 


Waaho 


New ITampshlre: Not under a^ent. . 




New Jorsey : Not under agent 






1 






New Mexico 


10,465 


10,11G 1 10,232 


10,349 
348 


20,113 
602 
M0~ 


382 

r 

22 


86 




Jicarilla SchooI-JIcarilla Apache 


eo3 


1 332 


271 


1 255 




Mescalero School 


613 


{ 299 


314 


11 






Mescalero Apache 


421 
192 


1 195 
j 104 


226 
88 


177 
88 


244 

104 


388 
192 


22 


11 


Fort Sill Apache (removal) . . 


Pueblo Bonito School— Navaho. 


2,275 


1,000 


1,275 


1,136 


1,139 


2,275 
8,290 







Pueblo Dav Schools 


8,724 


4,555 


4,169 


3,860 


4,864 


"Tso" 


75 




Navaho 


309 
8,355 


172 

4,383 


107 
3,972 


143 

3,717^ 

3,925 


226 

4,638 

2,025 
1,025 


309 
7,921 

6,550 
5^816 






Pueblo 


359 


• • • • • - • 






San Juan School— Navaho 


6,550 
1,816 


! 3,295 
984 


3,255 





Zuni School— Pueblo 


832 ! 791 







1 Estimated; does not include 5,000 Indians, scattered tribea; see Calllonfta, Qffeaovilte and 
• 1910 



Digitized by 



Google 



COMHlSSIOHEIt OF I2fDIA2f AFFAIBS. 



73 



Table 2. — IndiMxn poptUatian of the Uniled States exclusive of Alasla, June SO, 

7919— Continued. 





Total 


Male. 


tanate. 


Mtoos. 


Adnlts. 


Pull 
Mood. 


Mixed blood. 


StaUs, saperintendencks md 
tribes. 


More 
than 
half. 


HaU 

or 

less. 


New Yoric 


6,«0 


3,182 


2,ffl8 


2,512 


3,588 






6,168 








New Yoi^ A^BBcy 


«,!« 


3,182 


2,918 


2,512 


3,588 






6,100 








CftTusa 


185 
257 

a» 

946 

39 

39 

9D0 

1380 

8,235 


88 
134 
321 
494 
721 
286 

8D6 
204 
15 
10 
109 


99 
IB 

2U 
452 
678 
97 

807 
UB 
15 

10 
iOO 


65 

81 
189 
415 
518 
194 

810 

lis 


190 

176 
371 
531 
881 
329 

803 

252 

15 

to 

100 






185 


SSS : 






257 


f^fv^dten ■■ ■ 






560 


Sflnecm "Alleamy) 






946 


Sonca OattaraustB) 

« Seneca TuHewmda) 






1,899 
523 






St. Beejs (BOt a part of Six 
Natimis) 






1,613 


Tmcarora' 






367 


llontai* 


30 








20 








200 










Nerth Caraiina 


1,258 


1,141 


1,300 


1,099 


965 


709 


674 






CberokM School— EastamChero- 
kee 


2,399 

«5;8» 

8,891 


1,2S8 


1,141 


1,399 


1,099 


965 


706 


674 


NiiitiindfT agent 




Kor^nnkn^ 


4,894 


4,887 


4,415 


4,476 


3,859 


1,255 


3,777 




FartBertboldSdiool 


1,176 


568 


a» 


858 


618 


832 


310 


34 






Arikara 


4m 

965 


196 
254 

138 


2U 
250 
127 


m 

240 
127 


216 
254 
138 


255 
368 

209 


144 
121 

45 


8 


Orosreatre 


15 




11 






Fort TQtten SchoGl-Sisseton. 
Wafapetan, and Cnthead 

Sioux) w 

BUuidtDK Bock School — Sionx. . . 
TtotiaMoontata Scbool-Cmp- 

pewa...... 


979 
8,«7 

3,309 

«127 

U9,I01 


£11 
1,729 

1,676 


468 
1,098 

1,033 


482 

1,517 

1.858 


497 
1,910 

1,451 


570 
^302 

155 


270 

675 


188 
450 

3,154 


diio: Not iiader agoot 


aklBhoraa 


8,849 


8,749 


8,790 


8,805 


34,650 


15,147 


45,899 


CantminMfit School 


733 


992 


841 


318 


415 


059 


18 


60 






Arapaho 


ao4 

529 


UO 
282 


94 

247 


88 

SO 


119 

390 


191 
466 


3 
15 


8 


Ctiejwino L . . 


48 






Cheytiiiieaxid Arapabo School. . . 


1,905 


419 


889 


613 


008 


850 


141 


214 


Arapaho 


«8 
717 


251 

365 


237 
352 


513 


692 


850 


141 




CbeyfMUM 


214 






Kiova Agfwry 


4,574 


2,272 


2,802 


2,360 


2,214 


2,800 


1,900 


874 






Apache 


M9 
1,619 
1,566 

•'IS 


81 
895 
760 
568 

49 


88 
814 
797 
566 

37 


2,380 


2,214 


2,300 


1,900 




n^wmf^ 




Kiowa 

l¥idtfU and affiliated bands . 
Apache (Geranlnio's Band) . 


374 


Osage School— Osage 

Otoe School— Oto and liissoori. . 


2,1M 
529 

7»7 


1,111 
276 
964 


863 


962 
294 
863 


1,172 
235 
364 


780 
485 
505 


1,374 

13 


119 


PmraflrTiTOl 


1,072 


896 


536 


046 


426 


403 


438 


231 






itrw (Kansas) , 


361 
064 
47 


187 
328 
23 


174 
338 
24 


238 
891 
23 


129 
273 
24 


08 
266 
?9 


32 

896 

8 


231 






ToTikAVfl , , 









Sac and Fox fchool 


678 


326 


352 


358 


329 


387 


149 


142 






Iowa 


78 

no 


32 
294 


46 

306 


27 
331 


51 
289 


42 

34S 


80 

118 




Sac and Fox 


142 







1 1910 census minus 250 

'1910 census. 

• Included with mixed, 



Montauk, Poospataak, and 
, more than hall. 



Digitized by 



Google 



74 



GOMMiSSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 



Table 2, — Indian population of the United States^ excltaite^of AUaha, June SOj 

i9i9— Continued . 





Total 
^ktion. 


Male. 


Famale. 


Mincn. 


Adults. 


Foil 
blood. 


Mixed blood. 


states, superintendencies and 
trilMs. 


Moie 

than 
half. 


Half 

or 

less. 


Okiahoma— Continaed« 


742 


371 


371 


310 


432 


684 


58 








Arapaho. 


132 
610 


61 
310 


71 
300 


60 
2S0 


72 
360 


102 
582 


30 1 


Cbeyeime.. 


28; 


Seneca 


2,158 


1,048 


1,110 


1,228 


930 


109 


524 1 1,525 






Kastem Shawnee 


160 
40 
272 
331 
481 
481 
393 

3,0C3 


72 
18 
147 
161 
237 
232 
181 


88 
22 
125 
170 
244 
249 
212 


95 
26 
175 
186 
289 
227 
230 


66 
14 
97 
145 
192 
254 
163 


3 

74* 

14 

is" 


62 95 


Modoc> 


40 «n) 


Ottawa 


U ^^261 


Quapaw 


31 226 


Seneca . 


281 
25 
74 


186 


Wyandot 


456 


Peoria-Miami (citizen) »..., 


301 


Shawnee S<Aool 


1,534 


1,489 


1,418 


1,605 


624 


138 


2.261 






Absentee Shawnee 


540 

2,288 

195 


281 

1,148 

106 


259 

1,140 

90 


261 


279 

1,203 

123 


437 
""i87* 


83 i 20 


C^tiJf4»i1 PotH^fttOTnl ..,.,,, 


47 ^ 2,241 


Hexican Kickapoo 


8 ; 




1 


Total, western Oklahoma. 


17,595 


8,846 


8.749 


8,790 


8,806 


7,876 


4,754 ; 4,965 


Five Civilired Tribes 


101,506 










26,774 


10,383 ! 40,934 


Cherokee Nation 


41,824 


■ 









8,708 


4,778 


23,424 














Byblood 


36,432 

286 

187 

4,919 


I 








^703 


1 


By intermarriage 

Delaware^ 


4,778 ! 23,424 


1 








Freedmen 


1 














.. _ . 1 


Chickasiiw Nailpn. ... . 


10,9t)6 










1,515 


966 ! 3,823 












Byblood 


5,650 

645 

4,662 


I 








1.515 


966 1 3,823 


By intermarriage. 

Krcedmen . - 


/ 




















,. . . .«« 


Choctaw Nation 


26,828 










8,444 


2,473 j 9.882 












Byblood 


17,488 
1,651 
1,(]60 
6,029 










8,444 


[ 


By intermarriage 

Mississippi Choctaw 

Freedmen 


2,473 9,882 

1 










Creek Nation . 


18,761 










6,868 


1,698 3,386 












Byblood 


11,952 
6,809 










6,858 


1,696 3,396 


Freedm^'n . ■, - ^ - r - 
























Seminole Nation 


3,127 


1 






1,254 


478 \ 400 












Byblood 


2,141 
986 

6,607 










1,254 


478 1 400 


Freedmen. . ^ 












Oregon 


3,218 


3,389 


2,547 


4,oeo 


3,736 


1 457 1 1 414 






Klamath School— Klamath Mo- 
doc, Paiote, and Pit River.. . . 
RoseDurg * 


1,154 


5bO 


594 


520 


634 


818 


C5 271 










4(.2 


b96 


318 




SiletxSchool 


1,158 


594 


5L4 


415 L AQFi 






.— u 


Siletz^-Confederated Siletz. 
Grande Ronde— Grande 
Ronde 


434 
335 

389 


220 
173 

201 


214 

102 

188 


191 
154 

117 


243 

181 

272 


204 
100 

14 


215 
200 

65 


15 
35 


Foiuth Section Allottees- 
Various tri»>es on Dublic 
domain in western Oregon. 


375 


Umatilla School— Cayuse, Uma- 
tilla, and Walla Walhi. . . . 


1,167 


540 


627 


495 


672 


604 


498 



1 Incladed with mixed, more than half. 

> 1918 report. 

s 1916 report. 

f I>i80ontinued May 15, 1918; under Green\ille, Reno, Siletz, Warm Springs, and scatteivd. 



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Google 



COMMISSiONEB OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 



75 



Table 2. — Indian populaticn of the United States, exclusive of Alashiy June 20 j 

1919— Continued. 





Total 


Male. 


Female. 


Mmors. 


Adults. 


Full 
blood. 


MLxcd blood. 


SUtes, sDperintehdencies and 
tribes. 


More 
than 
half. 


Half 

or 

loss. 


OracoD— Continued. 


928 


424 


504 


320 


r08 


896 


32 








Warm Springs— Wasco, Te- 
nino, and Paiute 


822 
73 
33 


375 
135 
»14 


447 

>38 
119 


285 
»24 
Ul 


537 
>49 
122 


790 
73 
33 


32 




Public domain — Bums 




Public domain— THe Dalles. 












Scattered Indians formerly un- 
der Roseburg, on public do- 

mMn » 


2,200 
«284 

«33i 
22,829 


1,100 


1,100 


750 


1,450 


1,100 


880 


220 


Rbode Island: Not under agent 

South Carcdina: Not under agent— 
Catowba, Cherokee, Oneida, and 
others. 


















Sooth Dakota. 


11,323 


11,506 


10,846 


11,963 


12,693 


5,987 


4,149 






Cheyenne River School— Black- 

and'Two Kettle ^ioux ! . 

Crow Creek Schoo^Lower 

Yanktonia Sioux 

Flandreau School— Flandreau 

Sloui 


2,772 

954 

283 

515 
7,218 
5,366 

2,304 


1,326 

450 

152 

267 
3,619 
2,t90 

1,182 


1,440 

504 

131 

248 
3,509 
2,676 

1,122 


1,239 

994 

106 

256 
3,294 
2,788 

1,126 


1,533 

560 

177 

259 

3,924 

2,628 

1,178 


1,644 

690 

175 

249 
4,630 
13,096 

»704 


471 

216 

100 

99 
1,270 
> 1,551 

»1,200 


C57 
48 
8 


Lower Brule School— Lower 
Brule Sioux.' 


167 


Pine Ridge School— Oglala Sioux 
Rosebud School— Rosebud Sioux 
Sisseton School-Slsseton and 
Wah peton Sioux 


1,318 
^719 

MOO 






Yftnkt^m s<!bool . r . . . 


3,417 


1,C37 


1,780 


1,693 


1,724 


1,505 


1,080 


832 






Yanktim Sioox 


1,927 

1,152 

338 

<216 

702 


917 
567 
153 


1,010 
585 
185 


1,006 
473 
214 


921 

679 
124 


911 
500 
94 


689 
303 
138 


377 


Santee Sioux 


349 


Ponea. 


106 


Tennessee: Not under agent. 




Texas: Not under agent 












.. 




















Alabama add CoosfaAtta. 


»206 
M96 
3,048 
















KoosaU, Seminole, Isleta, and 
others. 
















Utah. 


808 


829 


605 


987 


1,506 


82 


44 






Goshnte Agency 


397 


190 


207 


155 


242 


384 




13 






Ooshute 


152 
31 
16 
32 
35 
14 

117 


76 
16 

7 
14 
17 

9 
51 


76 
15 
. 9 
18 
18 
5 
66 


155 
53 


242 
72 


384 






Cedar City 




Yfidlfvn Pf«Ve 




Kanosh 


13 






Warm Creek 




WMhAlrie. 








ShiTwits School— Painte. 


125 


58 


b7 


125 












Uintah and Ouray Agency 


1,110 


555 


5.')5 


487 


623 


997 


82 


81 


Uinta Ute 


435 
406 
269 

1,416 

«26 
«539 

10,968 


210 
203 
142 


225 
203 
127 


. 487 


623 


997 


82 




Uncompahgre Ute 


31 


White River Ute. 








Not under agent— Paiute and 
others 
















Vermont: Not under agent 
















Vtrgmia: Not under agent 
















Washington... . . 


5,385 


5,603 


4,671 


6,317 


6,883 


2,365 


1 740 






ColviHe School — Confederated 
Cohille 


2,518 


1,243 


1,275 


1,101 


1,417 


1,398 


4C0 


660 







i Estimated. 



* 1910 census. 



t Inspector's report , 1918. 



Digitized by 



Google 



76 



COMMISSIOXEB OF IKDIAN AFFAIBS. 



Table 2. — Indian population of the United Slates, exclusive of Alaska, June SO, 

1919 — Continued . 





Total 
fir. 


Male. 


Female. 


• 
Minors 


! 

AdtiHs. 


FuU 
Mood. 


Mixed blood. 


tiibes. 


Km 

than 
half. 


Half 

or 
less. 


WashiMton-Contlnucd. 

Oiisnman School 


2,ia 


1,<I88 


1,060 


964 


1,164 


,« 


S36 


231 






Chehalis 


lao 

182 
80 

202 
79 


64 
79 
tt 
99 

46 


56 
103 

37 
103 

S3 


54 
82 

18 
94 
36 


66 
100 

62 
108 

43 


91 
144 

49 
127 

70 


6 

2S 
21 
75 

9 


23 


Mi)oVl«72\ftorr . . 


13 


Nisquam :. 


10 


fl1n^Yiai(ffh. 




^qnaxon I.slan<d . 








Umttached 


1,485 


757 


728 


TOO 


785 


900 


400 


185 






Cowliti 


490 
£39 
152 
804 


240 

290 

75 

152 


250 
249 

77 
152 


1700 


«785 


1900 


1400 








PuyaUap 


> 185 


Various other Indians. 




Neili BayfichooL 


€69 


352 


317 


276 


393 


584 


20 


66 






Hoh 


46 
409 

10 
204 


25 

216 

106 


21 

193 
5 

98 


15 
187 

74" 


31 
222 

10 
130 


46 
336 

10 
192 






Makoh 


20 


53 


Oictte 




Quileote 




12 






Spokane School 


€17 


291 


336 


264 


353 


341 


75 


201 






rhf»«ro|fth 


11 
606 

782 


6 
285 


5 
321 


•310 


11 
842 


U 
330 






SpnlnMt. ... 


75 


301 






Taholah Sdiool ... 


377 


405 


472 


353 


230 


199 






Qoeets Birer Restrvation. . . 


48 


20 


28 


8 


46 


43 


5 




Qnilflutff 


15 
SS 


4 

16 


11 
17 


2 
6 


13 
27 


13 
30 


2 
3 




Qn|n«l«n . 








Qtrinaielt Reservation: Qui- 


754 


357 


377 


302 


432 


3W 


225 


199 


* * 




']VMip4rhi>^ .... 


1,321 


€64 


657 


624 


697 


851 


436 


M 






liUaunl 

flwInoiBish . 


516 
204 
219 

382 


259 
106 
108 

191 


257 
98 
Ul 

191 


256 

106 
98 

164 


260 
96 
121 

218 


297 

84 
192 

278 


901 

106 
36 

101 


IS 

15 
1 


Tulalip (remnants of many 
tdbes and bands). . .riTTT. . 


3 






Yoldma Sdiool— Cflnfederated 
yAinma. 


2,983 

■86 

10,211 


1,378 


1.563 


1,118 


1,821 


1,975 


608 


880 


West Viislnia: Not under agent 

Wisconsin 




5,a5 


4,906 


4,586 


5,675 


2,688 


5,852 


2,171 




Grand Rapids Agency— Potawa- 
tomi and Winnebago 


1,233 
i;296 


807 
688 


686 
664 


555 

497 


678 
799 


1,219 
213 


9 
876 


5 


Hi^yward School— Cmppewa 


207 


Keshcna School 


:^339 


1,3« 


1,091 


1,115 


1,224 


895 


897 


1,047 




Menominee 


1,713 
606 


938 
815 


800 
291 


841 
274 


892 

332 


395 


907 


441 
1606 










Lac du Flambeau School— Chip- 
pewa. 


754 
3S0 

1,082 
2680 

527 

1,712 


SS2 
»1 

581 

279 

867 


40B 
149 

580 

1,276 

218 

845 


288 

156 

469 

1,231 

231 

766, 


466 
200 

618 

946 


461 
8S0 

48 

2 

1,171 


172 


121 


Laona Agency— Potawatoml. . . . 

La Pointe S<£ool-dippewa at 

Bad River .:. 




802 
116 


672 


Oneida Sdtiool— Ondda 




Red Clifl School— Chippewa 

Wvominfir. 


119 
44 






Sho8h(»ic Agency 


1,712 


867 


S45 


766 


946 


1,171 


116 


425 






iirai^*. . 


851 

861 


486 

441 


485 

420 


ss| 


467 
479 


714 
4S7 


68 

48 


09 


SiuiYimnt 


356 







n9i0( 



•Now 



Digitized by 



Google 



OOMiaSSIONBE OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 



77 



Tabub 3. — AUoUed myd unedlotted Indian$ €Bnd those holding trust and fee patents, June 

SO. 1919. 





Number 

of 
Indians. 


Allotted. 






Total 
aUotted. 


Holding 
trustor 
restricted 

fee 
patents. 


receive 
Infeefc 

Part of 
allot- 
ment. 


irho have 
d patents 

IT— 

Entire 
allot- 
ment. 


Unal- 
lotted. 


Total, 1919 


887,174 
889,755 
309,409 
312,664 
809,911 
307 891 
300,784 

286,328 
247,522 
230,437 


178,237 
178,084 
179,374 
184,865 
183 288 
180,605 
170 444 
177 626 
»4,215 
64,858 
15,168 


61,506 
64,098 
67,972 
72,508 
68,960 
69,944 
85,762 
70,478 
88;i82 


3,381 
3,503 
3,405 
3,492 
2,623 
1643 
1,420 
i;926 


111,350 
110,403 
107,907 
108,865 

103,262 
108,843 
176:883 


130,887 


1918 


131,661 
130,035 


1917 


1916 


135,547 


1915 


126,379 


1914 


134,797 
121,233 
120,876 


1818 


1912 


1911 


130,780 


1901 






1890 


















* 


Arlxma . . ,--,... . . 


42,346 


6,761 


6,763 






35,583 










Hfkmn VfTflA 


436 

1,141 

2466 

178 

185 

1,441 

4000 

11288 

6260 

1 274 

2,615 

427 

6,360 

16,216 










436 


GoloTMio RiTcr .. . 


1,141 


1,141 








Fort AparJie .- . 






2,466 


Havasapai 










'l76 


Kaibsb. 










105 


LeuDD 










1,441 


MoM :;:......:.:.:::::::. .:.:::::. 










4,000 
11,280 


Navalo 










Pima - 


*'^ 


725 






1,448 


8altSlT«r 






549 


Ran Carlos . . .- r - ...... r . . 






2,515 


8eUs 


85 


85 






4880 








427 


Western Navi^ 










6,360 


Gallf^irnla 


3,639 


8,595 


2 


43 


12,576 




Bishop 


1,518 
'229 
280 
719 
96B 

8,824 

1,712 
628 

1,054 

445 

8,000 

821 


236 


229 




7 


^'S* 
^ 


CSampo ........^r 




]>lgMr.' 


23 

198 

670 

606 

1,206 


22 
199 
670 
598 
1,184 






FortBidwell 






520 


TflrtYnna 






398 






13 
21 


2,318 


Hoooa Valley 




607 


noo^vauey. 




628 


vSr. .............../. . ..:...:.. 


186 
4S3 


185 
451 






869 


Booad Valley 


8 




1,389 


Bob<>ba 




896 


ToleBlw 


68 


62 




1 


382 


Soattered tribes— special agent, Reno, 




3,000 
704 


Ooloniilo 


117 






117 











fimitlMffii TTte 


341 
480 

573 

4,006 


117 






117 


224 


TTtvMwintrf" . 






480 


Florida: f»flinliio*p. . 


t 






573 


T4ahQ 


2,718 


2,421 


40 


257 


1,348 






Cofflird'Almie 


818 

1,769 
1,488 

358 

1,441 


465 

1,496 

757 


357 

1,447 
617 




106 
49 
100 


353 


Fort Hall 




263 


Fort Lapwai 


40 


733 


Iowa: Bftc and To* . - . - 


358 


ir^»Hif» 


677 


494 


19 


164 


764 






iri^lrvqiAn 


660 
781 

1,095 


274 
403 

73 


165 
329 

73 


13 


96 
68 


386 


Pota^ratomi 


378 


MIcUgan: Mackinac 


1,022 



1 Includes foe patents for part of their allotment. 



Digitized by 



Google 



78 



COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 



Table 3 .— ^ Hotted and unallotted Indiana and thou holding trust and fee patents, Juni 

$0, 79^9— Continued. 





Number 

of 
Indians. 


Allotted. 




States and superintendendes. 


Total 
alk>tted. 


Holding 
trustor 
resUlcted 

fee 
patents. 


Indians who have 
in fee for— 


Unal- 
lotted. 




Part of 
altot- 
ment. 


Entire 
altot- 
ment. 




Mlniu^ntft , 


12,447 


4,825 


3,541 


563 


721 


7,622 






F<md dn l4KJ 


1,074 
340 

1,738 
590 
407 

1,504 

ft, 794 

12,138 


284 
141 
914 
253 
31 


244 
85 
726 
196 
31 


10 

1 
9 


30 
55 
179 
57 


790 


Grand Portaw 


199 


I^eechLake 


824 


Nett Lake 


337 


Pipestone 




^76 


lU^Lake 






1,504 


White Earth 


3,202 
7,032 


2,259 
5,665 


543 
143 


400 
1,224 


3,592 


Montana 


5,106 






. Blnckfect 


2,883 
1,707 
2,452 
1 198 
2,031 
451 
1,416 

2,448 


2,230 
1,178 
1,766 


1,740 
1,051 
1,265 




490 
123 
483 


653 


Crow 


4 
17 


529 


Flathead 


687 


Fort Bfllknap 


1,198 


FoFt Peck 


1,869 


1,609 


122 


128 


172 


Rockv Bov's Acency 


451 


Tongue River 










1,416 


Nebraska 


896 


365 


71 


460 


1,552 






Omaha 


1,380 
i;068 

5,840 


556 
340 

1,322 


221 
144 

1,215 


51 
20 


284 
176 

107 


824 


Wi^n^bago 


728 


Nevada 


4,518 








Fallon 


406 
323 
111 
526 
800 
675 
3,000 

20,581 


269 
69 
101 


269 
69 






136 


Fort MpT^rmltt , _ - 






254 


Moapa River 




101 


10 


Nevada 






528 


Walker River 


273 


273 






527 


Western Shoshone 






675 


Reno, special awint * . . . . 


610 
446 


604 
446 




6' 


2,390 
20,135 


New Mexico 












Jicarilla 


603 
613 
2,275 
8,724 
6,550 
1,816 

6,100 

2,399 

8,891 


446 


446 






157 


Mescalero 






613 


Pueblo Bonito 










2,275 


Pueblo Day Schools 










8,724 


Ran Juan. .. , . 










6,550 


Znni , . , 




1 




1,816 


New York: New York Agency 










6,100 


North Carolina: Cherokee 










2,399 


North Dakota 


7,074 


5,989 


264 


871 


1,817 






Fort Berthold 


3,427 
3,309 


885 

407 

3,103 

2,679 


818 

317 

2,959 

1,845 


19 
90 
79 
76 


48 


291 


FortTotten 


572 


Standing Rock 


65 

758 


324 


Turtle Mountain 


630 



1 Does not include 3,000 Indians, scattered tribes in California. 



Digitized by 



Google 



COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 



79 



Table 3. — Allotted and unallotted Indians and those holding trust and fee patentSy June 

SOy iPiP— Continued. 





Number 

of 
Indians. 


Alk)tted. 






Total 
alk>tted. 


Holding 
trust or 
restricted 

fee 
patents. 


Indians who have 
received patents 
infeafor-- 


Unal- 
k>tted. 




Partof 
alk>tr 
ment. 


III 




Oklahoma 


116,380 


110,001 


6,330 


888 


102,783 


6,379 








733 

10l',506 

4,574 

2,154 

529 

727 

1,072 

678 

742 

M,725 

•735 

6,607 


338 

600 

101,506 

2,923 

1,755 

282 

289 

619 

225 

366 

745 

353 

1,915 


416 

233 
127 
273 
84 
307 
402 
185 

1,495 


10 
17 


48 

167 

101,506 

150 


396 


Cheyenne^ and Arspabo 


605 


Five Civilized Tribes 




Kiowa 




is 

>490 
18 
32 
196 
17 
15 
8 
70 

21 


1,651 


Oftaffe 


399 


otof::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::. 


31 
130 
150 
124 

44 
335 

98 

399 


247 


Pawnee . 


438 


Ponca. 


453 


Sac and Fox ...- 


453 


Seger 


376 


Seneca 


980 


Sbawnee 


383 


Ofi^on ... T . n - - - 


4,693 






Klamath , 


1,154 

1,158 

1,167 

928 

2,200 

22,491 


751 
227 
420 
517 


652 
157 
173 
513 


8 
14 

4 


96 

56 

243 


408 


fillctz 


931 


Vmatilla 


747 


Warm Springs 


411 


Scattered Indians, formerly ander 
Roseburg, on public domain 

South Dakota 




2,200 
5,441 


17,050 


13,694 


1,280 


2,067 




Cheyenne River 


2,773 

964 

283 

515 

7,218 

5,366 

2,304 

1,927 

i;i52 

1,632 


2,703 
954 


2,460 
863 


76 
6 


167 
85 


69 


(^ow Creek 




Fhuidr<4m 


383 


Lower Brule 


456 
6,195 
5,016 
664 
772 
290 

597 


382 

5,169 

4,358 

161 

210 

91 

590 


10 
604 
106 
276 
197 

14 

3 


64 
422 
552 
227 
365 
185 

4 


69 


Pine Ridge 


1,023 
350 


Rosebud 




1,640 
1.155 


Yankton 


Santee 


sS 


Utah 


1.085 






Gcshute 


397 

125 

1,110 

10,988 












Shivwits 










125 


Uintah and Ouray 


597 
6,783 


500 
6,008 


3 

67 


4 
708 


513 


Washingtbn 


4,205 




Colville 


2,518 

2,148 

669 

617 

782 

1,321 

2,933 

9,605 


2,423 
159 
276 
465 
486 
166 

2,808 

3,090 


2,158 
150 
276 
371 
447 
152 

2,454 

1,750 




265 
6 


96 


<^iRhman ........-, 


3 


1,9^ 
393 


NeahBay . . ,-, 


Rpok^kne. .'. . ! - - 


2 


93 

39 

14 

292 

1,334 


153 


T^holffti 


296 


TnMfp 




1,155 


YftkiA 


62 
6 


125 


'Wiscxmsin 


6,515 






Orand Rapids 


1,233 

1 296 

1,733 

754 

350 

1,082 

2,630 

527 

1,712 


1 






1,233 
787 


Bay ward * 


509 


382 




127 


Keshena 




1,733 


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27 


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1,082 

1,021 

126 

1,219 


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57 

92 




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i,669 
401 


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5 


493 







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> Indians who have not received certiUcates of competency. 

« Indians who have received certificates o f competency . 

* Does not include Peoria-Miami (citixen) and Modoc Indians. 

• Does not include citizen Potawatomi. 



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COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, 
Table 5. — Area of Indian lands June 30 ^ 1019, 



States ADd reservations. 



Number 

of 

allotments. 



Area in acres. 



Allotted. Unallotted. Total 



Grand total. 



224,915 



36,086,100 



35,550,705 72,545,00« 



Total reJ«ervations 

Total public domain. 



Arizona. 



Camp McDowell (Salt River) . . 

Cooopeh 

Colorado River 

Fort Apache 

Fort Mojave (Colorado River) . 

Gila Bend (Hma) 

Gila River (Pima). 



Havasu paiiSuppai) 
Ilualapai (Truxton ( 
KaibabT. 



Canon) . 



Moqui(Hopi).. 

Navajo (See New Mexico and Utah) . 

Papago 

Papeso ( San Xavier, now Sells) 

Salt River 

San Carlos 



210,876 
8,039 



California. 



Rlshop 

Bishop (Paiute) 

Digger , 

lloopa Valley 

Mission— 

AguaCaliente(Malki).. 

Agustine(Malki) 

Cabaion (Maiki) 

CahuiUa(Soboba) 

Campo 

Capitan Grande (Pala). 



f„"5i:fi5i^"^'"^- 



. . oboba).. 

Laguna (Campo) 

La Posta (Campo) 

Los Coyotes (Soboba) 

Manzanita (Campo) 

Martinez (Malkl) 

Mesa Grande (Soboba) 

Mission Creek ( Malkl) 

Morongo (Malki) 

Pala 

Pechanga or Temecula (Pala) . 
Potrero or La Jolla ( Pala). . 
RamonaC 



Rincon(rala).. 

San Manuel (Malki).... 

San Pasqual (Pala) 

Santa Rosa (Soboba) 

Santa Yncz (Soboba) . . . 
Santa Ysabel (Soboba).. 
Soboba. 



Syquan(Pa]a). 
Ton 



Torres (Malki). 

Tuolumne 

Twenty-nine Palms (Malki). 

Rmmd Valley 

Tule River 

Yuma ( Fort Yuma) 



Colorado. 



VU (Ute Monntain and Southern Ute) . 
Absentee Wyandot 



Florida: Seminole. 
Idaho 



Coeurd'Alene 

Fort Hall 

Lapwai (Nez Perce). 



35,831,060 
1,155,040 



35,550,705 | 71,390,855 
I 1,155,049 



1,707 



G12 



00 



201 
804 



2,503 



fiSO I 



177 
85 



372 



371 

1 



4,377 



81,720 



18,571,285 



G,110 



0,600 



41,606 
24,404 



82,172 



24,971 

400 

234,580 

1,681,920 

31,328 

10,231 

371,422 

518 

730,940 

138,240 

2,472,320 

8,774,397 

2,129,114 

114,348 

22,316 

1,834,240 

434,946 



29,091 



1,396 
1,299 



270 



42,106 
"8,6i6 
72,731 



80 

75,806 

530 

99,051 

7,205 

616 

1,280 

18,880 

1,640 

15,080 

4,080 

760 

320 

3,679 

21,520 

19,680 

1,280 

4,400 

1,920 

11,060 

3,084 

3,896 

8,329 

560 

2,554 

653 

2,200 

2,560 

120 

15,042 

5,461 

370 

20,800 

34 

480 



48,551 
31,376 

396,143 



72,051 
80 



396,143 



628,098 



638 I 104,077 
1,803 345,209 

1,876 i 178,812 



23,542 

54,841 



18,653,014 



24,971 

400 

340,699 

1,681,920 

31,328 

10,231 

871,422 

618 

730,940 

138,240 

2,472,^320 

8,783,997 

2,120,114 

155,954 

46,720 

1,834,240 

517^18 



21,263 
33,578 



80 

75,806 

530 

128,142 

7,205 

016 

1,280 

18,880 

1,640 

.15,080 

4,080 

760 

320 

8,679 

21,520 

19,080 

1,280 

4,400 

1,920 

11,009 

4,480 

5,196 

8,329 

500 

2,554 

653 

2,200 

2,560 

120 

15,042 

5,461 

640 

20,800 

34 

480 

42,106 

48,551 

30,386 

468,874 



468,794 
80 

28,542 

682,930 



104,0n 
366 472 
212,390 



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COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 
Table 5. — Area of Indian lands June 30, 1919 — Continued. 



87 



States and reservaticna. 



Iowa: Sac and Fox . 
Kansas 



Chippewa and Munscc ( Potawatrnji) . 

Iowa (Klckapoo) 

Kickapoo 

rolawatomi 

Sac and Fox (Kickapooj 



Michigan. 



Isabella 

L'Anse 

Ontonagon., 



Minncsotii. 



Bois Fort (Nctt Lake) 

Deer Creek (Nett Lake; 

Fond du Lac 

Grand Portage 

Leech Lake 

Mdcwakanton ( Birch Coclcy ; 

Red Lake 

Vermilion Lake 

TVhite F-arth 

White Oak Point and Chippc.va (I^t-cch Lake)... 



Number 

of 

allotment 55. 



Montana. 



Blackfeet 

Crow 

Fort Belknap 

Fort Peck 

Jocko ( Flathead) 

Northern Cheyenne (Tongue Kiver; . 
Rocky Boy's Agency 



NcVraska. 



Omaha 

Ponca(Santec) 

San tee (Niobrara). 
Sioux (additional;. 
"Winnebago 



Nefvada. 



Duck Valley (Western Shoshone). 

Moapa River 

Paiute (Fallon). 



Pyramid Lake (Nevada). 

Walker River 

Winnemucca 



New Mexico. 



Jicarilla Apache 

Mescalero Apache 

Navajo (see Arizona and Utah; . 
Pueblo— 

Acoma (Albuquerque) 

Cochiti 

Isleta (Albuquerque) 

Jemez 

Laguna (Albuquerque) 

Laguna withdrawals « 

Nambe 

PIcuris 

Pqjoaque 

San Dia (Albuquerque) 

San Juan 

San Felipe (Albuquerque) . . 

Santa Ana (Albuquerque). . 

Santa aara 

San 1 Domingo 



3,079 



100 
143 
351 
2,363 
122 

2,648 



1,^3 

669 
38 

8,360 



712 
4 
£96 
804 
631 
135 



Area in acres. 



Allotted. Unallotted. Total, 



272,519 



4,195 

11,709 

27,t>91 

220,785 

8,079 

153,227 



98,395 

52,201 

2,631 

954,715 



56,782 
296 
36,846 
24,191 
48,520 
12,582 



5,158 I 

826 I 



710,765 
64,733 



10,353 ; 2,510,000 



2,656 : 
2,800 ' 



889,199 
542,183 



2,4<i9 I 
2,428 I 



S.'iO,210 
228,408 



4,037 



353,424 



l,4fi0 
168 
850 



130,fi42 
27,236 
73,261 



1,559, 
979 ! 



» 122,295 
14,133 



117 I 

366 I 



605 
3,650 



I 



2,800 I 



9,878 
673,175 



796 
'2,064* 



1 



353,812 
"3i9,*363 



3,251 



191 



191 



553,798 



543,528 

i,a«« 

9,190 



3,543,673 



604,188 

1,771,030 

622,917 



489, .500 
50,038 

6,118 



4,380 



640 
1,098 

721,477 



321,920 
523 
990 

322,000 

75,204 

840 

4,024,049 



407,300 

474,240 

1,980,637 

95,792 
24,256 
110,080 
42,359 
101,511 
150,000 
13,586 
17,461 
13,520 
24,187 
17,545 
34,767 
17,361 
49,369 
92,398 



3,251 
272,519 



4,195 

11,769 

27,091 

220,785 

8,079 

153,418 



98,581 

52,206 

2,631 

1,598,513 



56,782 
296 
3\S46 
24,191 
48,520 
12,582 

543,528 
1,080 

719,955 
64,733 

6,053,673 



1,493,387 
2,313,213 
622,917 
»i0,210 
228,408 
489,500 
56,038 

359,542 



135,022 

27,236 

73,251 

640 

1 123,393 

735,610 



321,920 

1,128 

4,640 

322,000 

85,082 

840 

4,667,224 



761,112 

474,240 

2,300,000 

95,792 
24,256 
110,080 
42,359 
101,511 
150,000 
13,580 
17,461 
13,520 
24,187 
17,545 
34,767 
17,361 
49.369 
92,398 



1 Includes 12,348 acres purchased from Omaha Indians 
140923°— INT 1919— VOL 2 7 



9 Executive orders 1910 and 1917. 



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88 GOMMISSIO^EB OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 

Tablb 5. — Area of Indian lands June SO, 1919 — Continued. 



States and reservations. 



Number 

of 

allotments. 



Area in acres. 



Allotted. Unallotted. 



Total. 



New Mexioo— Continued. 
Pueblo— Continued. 

Sla 

Sanlldelanso 

Taos 

Tesuque 

Zuni 



New York. 



Allegany 

Cattaraugus. . 
Oil Spring.... 

Oneida , 

Onondaga..., 

St. Regis 

Tonawanda. 
Tuscarora. . . , 



North Carolina: Qualla. . 



North Dakota.. 



Devils lAke (Fort Totten) . 

FortBerthold 

Standing Rock 

Turtle Mountain 



Oklahoma.. 



Cherokee 

Chickasaw 

Choctaw 

Creek 

Seminole 

Cherokee Outlet 

Cheyenne and Arapaho 

lowaKSac and Fox) 

Kansa (Saw and Ponca) 

Kickapoo (Shawnee) 

Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache . 

Modoc (Seneca) 

Oakland (Ponca) 

Osage 

Otoe 

Ottawa (Seneca) 

Pawnee 

Peoila(Seneca 

Ponca 

Potawatomi (Shawnee) 

Quapaw (Seneca) 

Sac and Fox 



Shawnee 

Wichita (Kiowa) 

Wyandotte (Seneca) . 



Oregon.. 



Grande Ronde (Siletz) . 

Klamath 

SUetz 

TTmatUla 

Warm Springs 



Soath Dakota.. 



Cheyenne River 

Crow Creek and Old Winnebago . 

Lake Traverse (Sisseton) 

Lower Brule 

Pine Ridge. 

Rosebud 

Yankton 



17,615 
17,293 
17,361 
17,471 
288,040 

87,677 



30,469 

21,680 

640 

350 

6,100 

14,640 

7,549 

6,249 

63,211 



8,380 



2,005,320 



100,000 



1,189 

2,165 

4,700 

326 

116,701 



137,381 

435,706 

1,388,411 

43,820 

19,548,748 



100,000 



6,841 



40, 193 

10,955 

26,723 

18,710 

3,118 

62 

3,331 

108 

247 

280 

3,451 

68 

73 

2,230 

514 

160 

820 

218 

782 

2,109 

248 

548 

435 

117 

957 

244 

4,254 



4,346,223 

3,800,190 

4,291,036 

2,997,114 

359,535 

4,949 

528,789 

8,605 

99,644 

22,650 

547,236 

3,966 

11,456 

1,465,350 

128,351 

12,995 

112,701 

43,334 

100,745 

291,736 

56,245 

87,684 

41,813 

12,745 

152,714 

20,942 

508,817 



10 

10 

5,992 

320 

122 



387 



1,209,180 



269 
1,352 

551 
1,115 

967 

27,476 



32,983 
208,439 
44,450 
82,644 
140,292 

6,276,502 



812,547 



74,130 
322,512 

403,074 



3,686 
1 460 
2,006 
869 
8,257 
8,585 
2,613 



992,681 
272,560 
306,838 
202,631 
2,363,813 
1,887,716 
268,263 



218, 140 



23,960 

161,566 



17,515 
17,293 
17,361 
17,471 
288,040 

87,677 



90,469 
21,680 
640 
350 
6,100 
14,640 
7,540 
6,249 

63,211 



2,105,320 



137,381 

535,706 

1,388,411 

43,820 

19,555,580 



4,346,233 

3,800,200 

4,297,028 

2,997,434 

359,657 

4,949 

528,789 

8,605 

99,644 

22,650 

547,236 

3,966 

11,456 

1,465,850 

128,351 

12.905 

112; 701 

43,334 

101,132 

201,736 

56,245 

87,684 

41,813 

12,745 

152,714 

20,942 

1,718,006 



32,983 
1,020,986 
44,459 
156,774 
462,804 

6,679,576 



1,210,830 
272,560 
306,838 
225,991 
2,525,378 
1,867,716 
268,283 



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COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 
Table 5. — Area of Indian lands June SO^ 1919 — Continued. 



89 



States and reservations. 



Utah.. 



Goshute and Deep Creek 

Navajo (see Ariiona and New Mexico) . 

Paiute(NavBjo) 

Shivwita 

Sknll Valley 

Uintah Valley 

Uncompahgre. 



Washington.. 



Chehalls (CashnHm) 

Colombia (ColyiUe) 

Ckrtvine 

Hoh River (Neah Bay) . 
Kallspel (Coeur d'Alene). 

Lnmmi (Tolallp) 

Makah (Neah Bay) 

liuckleshoot (Gnsfaman) . , 

Nisqaalli (Coshman) 

OMtte( Neah Bay) 

Port Madison (Tulalip) . . 



FnyaUup (Cnsbman). . 
Qulleate(NeahBay).. 
Qi]inaielt(Taho]ah).. 



Shoalwater (Cosiunan) 

Skokomisb (Cushman) 

Snohomish (Tulalip) 

Spokane 

Sqoaxoo Island (Coshman). 

Swinomish (Tulalip) 

Yakima 



Wisconsin.. 



Lac C^urte Oreille ( Hay ward) 

Lac du Flambeau 

La Pointe (Bad River) 

Menominee (Keshiena) 

Oneida. 

Rod Cliff 

Stockbrldge and Munsee ( Keshena) . 



Wyomdng: Wind River (Shoshone).. 



Diminished. 
Ceded. 



Poblic «i«iitiain . 



Number 

of 

allotments. 



1,367 



777 
590 

9,963 



36 

35 

2,921 



Area in acros. 



Allotted. Unallotted. 



111,947 



39,620 
72,327 

1,019,559 



3,799 
22,618 
333,275 



109 
373 



30 



51 
167 



134 
164 
628 
23 

71 
4,488 

4,967 



881 

600 

1,610 



1,504 
205 
167 

2,397 



2,029 



8,039 



12,561 
3,728 
3,491 
4,717 



7,219 
17,463 



54,990 



7,803 

22,166 

64,9&1 

1,491 

7,359 

451,922 

319,186 



68,910 
45,756 
115,968 



1,529,360 



34,500 

600,000 

600,000 

26,880 

18,640 

249,340 



1,699,327 



1,009,100 

640 

4,629 



19,312 



640 

65 



837 

168,553 

335 



3:^ 
82,488 



412,404 
270,574 



65,466 I 
14,166 

8,920 ; 

245,058 



540 

24,424 

13,930 

231,680 



211,040 
84,018 

1,156,049 



1,857,228 



587,029 
1,270,199 



Total. 



1,641,307 



34,500 
600,000 
600,000 

26.880 

18,640 
288,960 

72,327 

2,718,880 



3,799 

22,618 

1,342,375 

640 

4,629 

12,561 

23,040 

3,491 

4,717 

640 

7,284 

17,463 

837 

223,513 

335 

7,803 

22,490 

147,442 

1,4m 

7,359 

864,3'26 

589,760 



69,4o0 
70,180 
129,888 
231,680 
65,466 
14,166 
8,920 

2,102,286 



798,069 
1,304,217 

1,155,049 



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90 COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 

Table 4. — General data for each Indian rescn^ation to June SO, 1910. 



Name of resen-ation and 
tril)e. 



Area (unal- 
lotted). 



Treaties, laws, or other authorities eljting to 
reserves. 



ARIZONA. 

Camp McDowell 

(Under Salt River School.) 
Tribe: Mohave Apache. 

(>ocopah 

Colorado River > 

(Under Colorado River 
(School.) 
Tribes: Cheraehiicvi, Ka- 
wia, Cocopa,* Mohave. 



Port Apache 

(Under Fort Apache School.) 

Tribes: Chilion, Chirica- 

hiia, Coyotero, Mira- 

breflo, and Mogollon 

Apache. 

Fort Mojave 

(Under Fort Mojave School.) 
Tribe: Apache. 

Gila Bend 

(Under Pima School.) 
Tribe: Papago. 

Gila River 

(Under Pima School.) 
Tribes: Maricopa and 
Pima. 

Bavasupai (Supai) 

(Under Havasupai School.) 
Tribe: Havasupai. 

Hopi(Moqui) 

(Under if oqui School.) 
Tribe: Hopi (Moqui) and 
Navajo. 

Kaihab 

(Under Kaibab School.) 
Tribes: Kaibab and San 
Juan Paiute. 

Navajo * 

(Under Leupp, Navajo, 
Western Navaio, San 
Juan, and Pueblo Boni- 
to Schools.) 
Tribe: Navajo. 



Acrt$. 
24,971 



400 
«» 234, 580 



M, 681, 920 

31,328 

•10,231 

» 371,422 

•51S 
2,472,320 

138,240 

11,887,793 



Papago 

(Under Son Xavier School.) 
Tribe: Papago. 



Salt River 

(Under Salt River School.) 
Tribes: Maricopa and 
Pima. 

Under San* Carlos Schooi.) 
Tribes: A rivaipa, Chilion, 
Chiricahua, Coyotero, 
Mirobrefio, Mogollon, 
Mohave, Pinal, San Car- 
los, Tonto, and Yuma 
Apache. 



2,443,462 

22,317 
M,834,240 



Executive order, Sept. 15, 1903: act of Apr. 21, 1904, vol. 38, 
p. 211. (See Ann. Rept. 1905, p. 98.) 

Executive order, Sept. 27, 1917, school reserve. 

Act of Mar. 3, 1865, vol. 13, p. 559; Exceulive orders, Nov. 22, 
1873, Nov. 16, 1874, and May 15, 1876. (See sec. 25, Indian 
appropriation act, approved Apr. 21, 1904, vol. 33, p. 224.) 
Act Apr. 30, 1908 (35 Stat., 77); act Apr. 4, 1910 (36 Stat., 
273); act Mar. 3, 1911 (30 Stat.. 1063): act Aug. 24, 1912 (37 
Stat., 523); Executive order, Nov. 22, 1915. 616 Indians 
allotted 6,160 acres. 

Executive orders, Nov. 9, 1871, Julv 21, 1874, Apr. 27, 1870, 
Jan. 28 and Mar. 31, 1877; a< t of Feb. 20, 1S93, vol. 27, p. 469; 
aprecineiit made Feb. 25, 189G, approved by act of June 10, 
1896, vol. 29, p. 3o8. (See act of June 7, 1897, vol. 30, p. 64.) 

Executive orders. Dec. 1, 1910. and Feb. 2, 1011. Sec. 11, act 
June 25, 1910 (36 Stat., a>.>-8,').s). (See 18379-1910.) Area 
oriKinal military rcicrvaiion, 14,000 acres. 

Executive orders, Dec. 12, 1J>82, and Jan. 17, 1909. (See 4106, 
1909.) 

Act of Feb. 28, ls:o. vol. 11, p. 401: Executive orders, Aug. 31, 
1870, Jan. 10, KS79, June 14, 1S79, May 5, 18S2, and Nov. 15, 
lSvS.3; Mar. 22, Mav 8, July 31, 1911; D<'c. 16. 1911; June 2, 
1U13; Aug. 27, 1914; Mar. 18. 1915, and July 19. 1915. 

Executive ordcrj;, June 8 and Nov. 23, 18S0, and Mar. 31, 1882. 



Exocutivc orOrr. Doc. 10, 1SS2. 
L., 1021.) (See 4X00- 1910.) 



Act of Mar. 1, 1907 (34 Stat. 



Sorretary's "withdrawal, Oct. 15, 
Executive order, June 11, 1913. 



1907. (See 73684-1907.) 



Treaty of June 1, 1868, vol. 15, p. 007, and Executive orders, 
Oct. 29, 1878, Jan. 6, ISSO, two of May 17, 1884, and Nov. 19, 
1892. l,760,COa acres in Arizona and 907,680 acres in Utah 
were added to this reservation by Executive order of May 
17, 1884, and 46,080 acres in New Mexico restored to public 
domain, but again reserved by Executive orders, Apr. 24, 
1886. Jan. 8, 1900, and Nov. 14, 1901. By Executive orders 
of Mar. 10 and May 15, 1905, 01,523 acres were added to res- 
ervation and by Executive order of Nov. 9, 1907, as amended 
by Executive order of Jan. 28, 1908, 2,972,160 acres were 
Q dded . 2.064 Indians have been allot tod 328,963 acres under 
the act of Feb. 8, 1887 (24 Stats., 388), as amended. By 
Executive orders of Dec. 30, 1908, and Jan. 16. 1911, the sur- 
plus lands, appro?ciniately 1,641, ISO acre^, in that part of the 
extension in New Mexico restored to the public domain. 
(See 35 Stat. L.. 457 and 787.) (Sec 1277-9.) Ac t of May 27, 
1902 (32 Stat., 264), and Mar. 3, 1913 (37 Stat., 1007). R. R. 
exchanges. Executive orders May 24, 1911, Feb. 17, 1912, 
(2), Feb. 10, 1913 (2), May 6, 1913, Dec. 1, 1913, Julv 23, 
1914, and Feb. 19, 1915. Also 94,000 acres set aside tempo- 
rarily for allotment by Executive order. May 7, 1917. 

Executive order, July 1, 1874, and act of Aug. 5, 1882, vol. 22, 
p. 291. 41,606 acres allotted to 291 Indians, and 14 acres 
reserved for school site, the residue, 27,563 acres, unallotted. 
(See letter book 208, p. 408.) Executive orders, June 16, 
1911, and May 28, Sept. 2, Oct. 8, and Dec. 5, 1912, Oct. 27, 
1914, Jan. 14, 1916, and Fob. 1. 1917. 

Executive orders, June 14, 1879, and Oct. 20 1910; Sept. 28 and 
Oct. 23, 1911. (See 26731-1910.) (See Senate Doc. 90, 58th 
Cong., 2d sess.) 804 Indians allotted 24,403 acres under 
general allotment act. 

Executive orders, Nov. 9, 1871, Dec. 14, 1872, Aug. 5, 1873, 
July 21, 1874, Apr. 27 and Oct. 30, 1876, Jan. 26 and Mar. 31, 
1877; act of Feb. 20, 1893, vol. 27. p. 469; agreement made 
Peb. 25, 1896, approved by act of June 10, 1896, vol. 29, p. 
358. (For fuller text aeo Misc. Indian Doc., vol. 39, p. 
35910.) (See act of June 7, 1897, vol. 30, p. 64; act of Mar. 2. 
1901, vol. 31, p. 952.) Executive order of Dec. 22, 1902. 



» Partly in California. 

* Outboundarics surveyed. 

» Surveyed. 



* Not on reservation. 
» Partly in New Mexico. 



(See Table 5.) 



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COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 91 

Table 6. — General data for each Indian reservatioji to June SO, 75)75— Continued. 



Name of reservation and 
tribe. 




AiuzoKA— continued. 

Watopai 

(Under Tnxxton Caflon 
School.) 
Tribe; Walapai. 

Total 

CALIFORNIA. 

Camp or Fort Independence.. 

Cold Spring's 

Colony or Nevada 

Bigger 

(Under a farmer.) 
Tribe: Digger. 

Fort Bid well 

Ouidiville band 

Hoopa Valley 

(under Hoopa Valley 
School.) 
Tribes: Himsatung, Hu- 
pa, Klamath River, 
Miskiit, Redwood, 
Baiaz, Bermalton, and 
Tishtanatan. 

Mission (28 reserves) 

(Under Martinez, Soboba, 
Pechanga. Malki, 
Campo and Volcan 
Schools.) 
Tribes: Diegucno, Kawia, 
San Luis Rev, Serranos, 
and Tcmecuk. 



Chuckekansies. 

Los Coyotes 

Morongo.. ..... 



Paiute. 



Pala 

(Formerly Warner's Ranch 
Indians.) 



Round Valley , 

(Under Round Valley 
School.) 
Tribes: Clear Lake, Con- 
cow, Little Lake, No- 
melaki, Pit River. Pot- 
ter Valley, Reawood 
Wailaki,andYuki. 



Tula River 

(Under Tule River School. 
Tribes: Kawia,^ Kings 
River, Moache, Teh on, 
Tule, and Wichumni.» 

Yuma , 

(Under Fort Yuma School.) 
Tribe: Yuma- Apache. 



Total. 



Treaties, laws, or otlier authorities relating to 
reserves. 



Acres. 
730,949 I Executive orders, Jan. 4, 1883. Dec. 22, 1S9S, May 14, 1900^ 



21,884,682 



360 

160 

75 

370 



320 

ICO 

i« 99,001 



181,844 



100 
3,840 



» 75,800 



48,551 



30,949 



441,646 



June 2, 1911, May 29, 1912, and July 18, 1913. 



Executive orders, Oct. 28, 1915, and Apr. 29, 1916. 

Executive order, Nov. 10, 1914. 

Executive order, May 6, 1913. 

Act of Mar. 3, 1893 (27 Stats., 612), provides for purchase of 
330 acres; not allotted. 40 acres were reserved by order 
of the Secretary of the Interior, Oct. 28, 1908, for Digger 
Indians. (See 46507-1907, 71861-1908, 39245-1909.) 

Executive order, Aug. 8, 1917, school reserve. 

Secretary 's withdrawal for wood lot. ( See 22266-1909.) 

Act of Apr. 8, 1864, vol. 13, p. 39; Executive orders, June 23, 
1876^ and Oct. 16, 1891. There have been allotted to 6» 
Indians 29,143.38 acres, reserved to 3 villages 68.74 acres, 
and opened to settlement under act of June 17, 1892 (27 
Stats., p. 52), 15,096.11 acres of land (formerly Klamath 
River Reservation). 



and opened to settlement under act of June 17, 1892 ( 
" ' '^' .11 acres of land (formerly Klame 

(Letter book 263, p. 96; 382, p. 480- 
383, p. 170.) 

Executive orders, Jan. 31, 1870, Dec. 27, 1875, May 15, 1876, 
May 3, Aug. 25, Sept. 29, 1877, Jan. 17, 1880, Mar. 2, Mar. 9, 
1881, Jime 27, July 24. 1882, Feb. 5, Jure 19, 1883, Jan. Kw 
Mar. 22, 1886, Jan. 29, Mar. 14, 1887. and May 6, 1889. 270.24 
acres allotted to 17 Indians and for chmch and cemetery 
purposes on Syquan Reserve (letter book 303, p. 297), and 
1,299.47 acres allotted to 85 Temccula Indians, 2.70 acres 
reserved for school purposes (letter book 351, p. 312). Ex- 
ecutive order, Dec. 29, 1891 . Proclaraati ns of Pre"ident of 
Apr. 16, 1901, vol. 32, p. 1970, and May 23, 1902, vol. 32, p. 
2005; actof Feb. 11, 1903, vol. 32, p. 822. 174,C36.f3 acres pat- 
ented bv the Go\ emment to various bands under acts of 
Jan. 12, 1891 (26 Stat. L., 712). and Mar. 1. 1907 (34 Stat. L., 
1015-1022). (See misc. tract book 36, and President's proo- 
lamatijn, Aug. 31, 1915.) See Ex. Ords. Aug. 16, 1917; Jan. 
26, 1918, extending trust periods 10 years. 

Executive orders, Apr. 24, 1912, and Aug. 14, 1914. 

Executive order, Apr. 13, 1914. 

Proclamation of Nov. 12, 1913, partly canceling Executive' 
order withdrawal. 

Executive orders. Mar. 11, 1S12, May 9, 1S12, Sept. 7, 1912, 
Sept. 16, 1912, Feb. 14, 1913, and July 22, 1915. 

119.99 acres allotted to 15 Indians (le tter book 303, p. 57). 162 
altotmentsc' ' ^ " • — ^^^--- 



under authority cf acts of Jan. 12, 1891 (26 Stat. L., 712), and 
Mar. 1, 1907 (34 Stat. L., 1022), and bought under act of May 
8, 1902 (32 Stat. L.. 257). See authority 7971 and letter book 
580, p. 1 13. Deed recorded in Miscelkneous Record Book 
No. 5, p. 193. 

Acts of Apr. 8, 1864, vol. 13, p. 39, and Mar. 3, 1873, vol. 17, 
p. 634; Executive orders, Mar. 30, 1870, Apr. 8, 1873, May 
18, 1875, and July 26, 1876; act of Oct. 1, 1890. vol. 26, p. 658. 
42,105.56 acres allotted to 1,084 Indians, 1,110 acres reserved 
for school and agency purposes (72068-1907, letter books 
2fe8, p. 17, and 395. p. 260). (See act of Feb. 8, 1905, pro- 
viding for a reduction of area of reservation, vol. 33, p. 706.) 
36,692.23 acres additional allotmenf^ made to 619 Indians 
and 740 acres reserved for school purposes. 

Executive orders, Jan. 9 and Oct. 3, 1873, and Aug. 3, 1878. 



Executive order, Jan. 9, 1884; agreement, Dec. 4, 1898, rati- 
fied by act of Aug. 15, 1894, vol. 28. p. 332. (See sec. 25, In- 
dian appropriation act. approved Apr. 21, 1904. voL 33, 
?. 224.) 7,756.54 acres irrigable land opened under act of 
une 17, 1902 (32 Stats., 388), act Mar. 3, 1911 (36 Stats., 
1063). 6,110 acres aU^ttcd to 811 Indians. 



1 Outboundarles surveyed. 
• Partly surveyed. 
» Partfy in tfevada. 



* Not on reservations. 
6 Partly in New Mexico. 



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92 COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 

Table 6. — General data for each Indian reservation to June SO, i9 29— Continued. 



Name of reservation and 
tribe. 



tJtei 



(Under Navalo Springs 
and Southern Ute 
Schools.) 
Tribes: Capote. Moache, 
and Wimlnucno Ute. 



Total. 



Seminole 

(Under special agent.) 



Treaties, laws, or other authorities relating to 
reser\*es. 



306,143 I 



« 28, 741 



Total. 



CoeurD'Alone 

(Under Cocur d'Alene 

AgencyO 

Tribes: Coeur d'Alene. 

Kutcnai,* Pend 

d' Oreille,* and Spokan. 



Fort Hall 

(Under Fort Hall School) 
Trit>es: Bannock and 
Shoshonl. 



Li»wai 

( u nder Fort Lapwai School ) 
Trilie: Ncz Perce. 



Lemhi. 



Total. 



28,741 



> 21,983 



34,190 



55,453 



Treaties of Oct. 7. 1863, toI. 13, p. 673, and Mar. 2, 1868, vol. 
15, p. 619, act of Apr. 29, 1874, vol. 18, p. 36; Executive or- 
ders, Nov. 22, 1875, Aug. 17, 1876, Feb. 7, 1879, and Aug. 4, 
1882, and act of (^up-ess approved June 15, 1880, vol. 21, 
p. 199, and July 28, 1®2, vol 22, p. 178, May 14, 1884, vol. 23, 
P. 22, Aug. 15, 1894. vol 28, p. 337, Feb. 20, 1S95, vol 28, p. 
677. 7^651 acres allotted to 371 Indians and 360 acres re- 
served B>r use of (Government (letter book 321, p. 86); dso 
7,36a32 acres albtted to 39 Indians (letter book Si, p. 395). 
^079 acres opened to settlement by President's proclama- 
tion dated Apr. 13, 1899 (31 Stats., 1947). The residue, 
375,960 acres, retained as a reservation for the Wiminudio 
Utes. Act Juno 30, 1913 (38 Stat.. 82), exchange of f ' 
with Indians. Executive order, Nov. 12, 1915. 



Acts Au 

June 

BCar. 

Apr. 4; 1910 (36 Stat.,' 274)/ 23,061.f2 acres' purchased for 
Seminole Indians In Florida under acts mentioned (see 
Annual Report for 1900, p. 101). 3.680 acres reserved by 
Executive order of June 28, 1911. (See 20617-1909.) 



Executive orders June 14, 1867, and Nov. 8, 1873; agree- 
ments made Mar. 26, 1SS7, and Sept. 9, 1889, and confirmed 
in Indian appropriation act approved Mar. 3, 1891, vol 
26, pp. 1026, 1029. Agreement, Feb. 7, 18M, ratified by 
act of Aug. 15. 18(M, vol 28, p. 322. 63S Indians have been 
allotted 101,077 acres and 1,906.99 acres have been reserved 
for agency, school, and church purposes and for mill sites. 
(See 86950-1908, and acts of June 21, 1906 (34 Stat. L., 
325-355), Mar. 3, 1891 (26 Stat. L., 1026-1029), Aug. 15, 1894 
(28 Stat. L., 322), Mar. 27, 1908 (35 Stat. L., 66), Apr. 3(1 
1909 (35 Stat L., 78). President's proclamation issued 
May 22, 1909, opening 224,210 acres surplus lands to settle- 
ment. (37 L. D.. 698.) 

Treaty of July 3, 1868, vol 15, p. 673; Executive orders, June 
14, 1867, and July 30, 1869; agreement with Indians made 
July 18, 1881, and approved by Congress July 3, 1882, vol 
22, p. 148; agreement of May 27, ias7, ratified by acts of 
Sept. 1, 1888, vol 25, p. 4o2, Feb. 23, 1889, vol 25, p. €87, 
and Mar. 3, 1891, vol 26, p. 1011. Agreement made Feb. 5, 
1898, ratified by act of June 6. 1900, vol 31, p. 672, ceding 
416.000 acres, of which 6,298.72 acres have been allotted to 
79 Indians (see letter book 527, p. 478); remainder of coded 
tract opened by settlement June 17, 1902 (President's proc- 
lamation of May 7, 1902, vol 32, p. 1997), act of Mar. 30, 1904, 
vol 33, p. 153, act of Mar. 3, 1911 (36 Stat., 1064); 1,863 allot- 
ments, covering 338,909 acres, approved Oct. 28, 1914 
(37106-13). 

Treaty of June 9, 1863, vol 14, p. 647; agreement, May 1, 1898, 
ratified by act of Aue. 15, 1894, vol 28, p. 326. 178,812 acres 
allotted to 1,876 Indians, 2,170.47 acres reset ved for agency, 
school, mission, and cemetery purposes, and 32,020 acres of 
timberland reserved for the tribe; the remainder restored 
to public settlement, (l^resident's proclamation, Nov. 8, 
1896, 29 Stats., 873.) 

Unratified treaty of Sept. 24, 1868| and Executive order. Feb. 
12, 1875; agreement of May 14, 1880, ratified by act of Feb. 
23, 1 889, vol 25, p. 687. (See 34 Stat. L., 335, and agreement 
executed Dec. 28, 1905, appro\-ed by President Jan. 27, 
1906.) Act of June 21, 190A (34 Stat, 334), about 64,000 
acres opened in 1909. (See 36809-1900. ) 



1 Partly in Now Mexico. 



•Surveyed. 



» Not on reservation. 



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COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 93 

Table 6.— General data for each Indian reservation to June SO^ 1019 — Continued. 



Name of reservation and 
trltw. 



IOWA. 



Sauk and Fbx 

(Under Sac and Fox 

Tribes: Potawatomi. Sank 
and Fox of the Missis- 
sippi, and Winnebago. 



Total. 



KANSAS. 



Chippewa and Munsec 

(Under Potawatomi SchooL ) 
Tribes: Chippewa and 
Munsee. 



lowai 

(Under Kickapoo School.) 
Tribe: Iowa. 



Kickapoo 

(Under Klolcapoo School.) 
Tribe: Kickapoo. 



Potawatomi , 

(Under Potawatomi School.) 
Tribe: Prairie Band of 
Potawatomi. 



Sauk and Fox» ... 

(Under Kickai>oo School.) 
Tribe: Sauk and Fox of 
the Missouri. 



Total.. 



MICmOAN. 



Isabellas 

Tribe: Chippewa of Sagi-- 
n&w. Swan Creek, and 
Black River. 

L'Anse 

(UjiderspccialagentO 
Tribe: X'Anse apd Vieux 
Desert Bands of Chip- 
pewa of I<ake Superior. 

Ontomigon 

(Under special agent.) 
Tribe: Ontonagon Band 
of Chippewa of Lake 
Superior. 
Ottawa and Chippewa 



Total 

MINNBSOTA. 



BoisFort 

(Under Nett Lake School.) 
Tribe: Bols Fort Chip- 
pewa. 



1 In Kansas and Nebraska. 



Area (unal- 
lotted). 



Acres. 
3,480 



3,480 



Treaties, laws, or other authorities relating to 
reserves. 



191 



191 



By purchase. (See act of Mar. 2, 1867, vol. 14, p. 507. ) Deeds 
1857, 1865, 1867, 1868, 1869, 1876, 1880, 1883, im, 1888, June, 
July, and Oct., 1892-1896. (See act of Feb. 13, 1891, vol. 26, 
p. 749.) (See Ann. Repts., 1891, p. 681; 1896, p. 81.) Deeds 
recorded, voL 6. (See 95856-1901) 



Treatv of July 16, 1859, vol. 12. p. 1105. 4.195.31 acres albttod 
to 100 Indis^; the residue. 200 acres, allotted for missionaiy 
and school purposes. Patents issued to allottees; balance 
of allotments sold and proceeds paid to heirs. (See ninth 
section of act of June 7, 1897, vol. 30, p. 92; L. B., 332, 
p. 63.) 

Treaties of May 17, 1854, vol. 10, p. 1069, and of Mar. 6, 1861, 
vol. 12, p. 1171. Il,f68.77 acres of land allotted to 143 
Indians; 162 acres reserved for school and cemetery pur- 
poses. (Letter book 266, p. 86.) Acts Mar. 3, 1885 (2 
Stat., 352), and Jan. 26, 1887 (24 Stat., 367). 

Treaty of June 28, 1862, vol . 13, p . 623 . 27,691 .27 acre^ allotted 
to 351 Indians; 245 acres reserved for church and school; 
theresidue, 398.87 acres, unallotted (letter \)o6ks 304, p. 480, 




p. 531. 220,785 acres allotted to 2,363 Indians; 319 acres 
reserved for school and agency, and 1 acre for church. 
(Acts of Feb. 28, 1899, vol^, p. 909, and Mar. 3, 1903, vol. 
32, p. 1007.) 980 acres surplus tribal land sold under act 
Feb. 28, 1899. Executive order Nov. 12, 1917, extending 
trust period 10 years^ except in 11 cases. 



Treaties of May 18, 18o4, vol. 10, p. 1074, and of Mar. 6, 1881, 
* 12, p. 1171; acts of June 10, 1872, vol. 17, p. 391, and 
Aug. 15, 1878, vol. 19, p. 208. 2,843.97 acres in Kansas, 
4,194.33 acres in Nebraska, aggregating 7,038.30 acres, allot- 



vol. 12, p. 1171; acts of June 1 
Au " ' "" 

ted to 84 Indians, and under act June 21, 1906 (34 Stats., 
324-349), 960.91 acres were allotted to 37 Indians, leaving 57 
acres unallotted. (Letter books 233, p. 361; 383, p. 37; and 
512, p. 110.) 



Executive order, Maor 14, 1855; treaties of Aug. 2, 1853, vol. 
11. p. 633, and of Oct. 18, 1864, vol. 14, p. 657. 9S,395 acres 
allotted to 1,943 Indians. 

Treaty of Sept. 30, 1854, vol . 10, p. 1109. 52,121 acres allotted 
to 668 Indians. Payment for lands in sec. lC,see 93879- 
1907. Unappropriated tracts, see 10293-1915. 

Sixth clause, second article, treaty of Sept. 30, 1854, vol. 10, 
p. 1109: Executive order, Sept. 25, 1S55. 2,561.35 acres 
allotted to 35 Indians. 

Treaty July 31, 1S55. (11 Stet., 621.) 120,470 acres allotted 
to 1,S18 Indians. 



acres feserv-ed for agency, etc., pivposes. (L. B. 350.382): 
residue, 51,863 acres, opened to public settlement. 

s Agency abolished June 30, 1889. 



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94 CCMMISSIONES OF iNDlAN AFFAIRS. 

Table 6. — General data for each Indian reservation to June 30, 79/!?— Continued. 



Name of reservation and 
tribe. 



Area (unal- 
lotted). 



Treaties, laws, or other authorities relating to 
reserves. 



iiiNNESoTA— continued. 



Peer Creek , 

(LTnd«»r Neit Lake School.) 
Tribe: Bols Fort Chip- 
pewa. 



Fond du Lac 

( Under Fond du Lac School.) 
Tribe: Fond du Lac Band 
of Chippewa of Lake 
Superior. 



Grand Portage (P igeon 
Kivcr) . 
(Under Orand Portage 
agency.) 
TriW): Cirand Portage 
iJand of Chippewa of 
l^ake Superior. 
Leech I^ke 



( Under Leech Lake Agency . ) 

Tribes: Cass Lake^^Pil- 

lager. and Lake wini- 

bigosnish Bands of 

Chippewa. 



Mdewakanton 

( Under Bircli Cooley School .) 
Tribe: Mdewakanton 
Sioux . 



MillcLac 

(Under White Earth 
School.) 
Tribe: Mille T>ac and 
Snake River Bands of 
Chippewa. 



Red Lnke 

(Under Hod Lake School.) 
Tribe: Red Lake and 
l^embina Cliipi^ewa. 



Lake 



Vermilion Lake 

(Under Vermilion 
School.) 
Tribe: Bois Fort Chip- 
pewa. 

White Earth 

(Under White T.arth School.) 
Tribes: Chippewa of the 
Mississippi, Pembina, 
and ril lager Chippewa. 



White Oak Point and Chip- 
pewa. 
(Under l^eech Lake Agency.) 
Tribes: lAke Winibigo- 
shish and Pillager 
Bands of Chippewa and 
White Oak Point Band 
of Mississippi Chip- 
pewa. 



Total. 



Acret. 



543,528 



>1,0S0 



0,190 



553,798 



Executive order, June 30, 1SS3; act of Jan . 14, 18^, vol. 25. p. 
642. (See H . Ex. Doc. No. 247. .Slst Cong., 1st sess., p. 63.) 
295.55 acres allotted to 4 Indians; residue, 22,744 acres, 
opened to public settlement. (Executive order of Dec. 
21, 1858. ) 

Treaty of Sept. 30, 1854, vol. 10. p. 1109; act of May 26, 1872. 
vol. 17, p . 190. 37,121 acres allotted to 593 Indians; act oi 
Jan. 14, 1880, vol . 25, p. 642 . (See H. Ex . Doc. No . 247, 51st 
Cong., 1st sess., p . 60.) The residue, 76,837 acres, restored 
to settlement. Agreement of Nov. 21, 1889. (See act of 
Jan. 14, 1889. vol. 25, p. 642.) Act June 30, 1913 (Public 
No. 4), and Executive order, Mar. 4, 1915. 

Treaty of Sept. 30, 1854, vol. 10, p. 1109; act of Jan. 14, 1889, 
vol. 25, p. 642. (See II. Ex. Doc. No. 247, 51st Cong., 1st 
sess. , p . 59.) 24,191.31 acres allotted to 804 Indians; 208.24 
acres reserved for agency and wood purposes: residue, 
16,041.97 acres, opened to public settlement. £xecutive 
order. Mar. 21, m7, setting aside two small unsurveyed 
islands for reservation purposes. 

Treaty of Feb. 22, 1855, vol. 10, p. 1165; Executive orders, 
Nov. 4, 1873, and May 26, 1874; act of Jan. 14, lSS9 , vol. 25, 
p. 642. (See li. Ex. Doc. No. 247. 51st Cong., 1st sess., p. 
49.) 48|446 acres allotted to 630 Indians and 321.60 acres 
reser\-ed for agency and school purposes . (Act of June 27, 
1902, vol. 32, p. 402.) Minnesota National Forest act, May 
23, 1908 (35 Stat., 268). Executive order Feb. 16, 1911. 

By purchase. (See acts of July 4, 1884, Mar. 3, 1885, May 15, 
1S86, June 29, 1&S8 (25 Stat., 228); Mar. 2, 1889 (25 Stat.. 932), 
and Aug. 19. 1890 (26 Stat. , 349). 339.70 acres deeded to 47 
Indians; 12,242.76 acres allotted to 88 Indians and held in 
trust by t^e United States; 8.90 acres reserved for school. 
(See Ann. Rpt., 1891, pp. Ill and 179, and schedule ap- 
proved Nov. 21, 1904.) Act Mar . 4 , 1917 (39 Stat. L., 1195). 

Treatlesof Feb.22, 1855, vol. 10, p. 1165 ,and article 12,of May 
7, 1864, vol. 13, pp. 603, 695; act of Jan. 14, 1889, vol. 25, p. 
6't2. (See II. Ex. Doc. No. 247, 51st (ong.. 1st sess., p. 4r».) 
Joint resolution (No. 5), Dec. 19, 1S^3, vol. 28, p. 5<6, and 
joint resolution (No. 40) approved Mav 17, 1898, vol. 30, p. 
«45. (See Ann. Kept. 1890, pp. 38-43.) Purchase of land 
act of Aug. 1, 1914 (38 Stat., 591). 

Treaty of Oct. 2, 1863, vol. 13. p. 667; act ol Jan. 14, 1889, vol. 
2.5, p. 642. (See agreement July 8, lSi-9, II. Ex. Doc. No. 
247, 51st Cong., 1st sess., pp. 27 and 32), and Executive 
order, Nov. 21, 1892. Act of Mar. 3, 1903, vol. 32, p. 1009, 
and act of Feb. 20, 1904, ratifying agreement made Mar. 10, 
1902, vol. 33, p. 46, for sale of 256,152 acres. Act of Feb. 8, 
iga^i, vol.33, p. 708, granting 320 acres as right of way for the 
Minneapolis, Rod Lake & Manitoba Ry. Co. Executive 
order, Feb. 16, 1911. 

E.xecutive order, Dec. 20, 1881, act of Jan. 14, 1889, vol. 25, 
p. 642. 



Treaty of ^lar. 19, 1867, vol. 16, p. 719; Executive orders. 
Mar. IS, 1879, and July 13, 1883, act of Jan. 14, 1889, vol. 25, 
p. 642. (See agreement July 29, 1889, H. Ex. Doc. No. 247, 
51st Cong., 1st sess., pp. 34 and 36.) Under act of Jan. 14, 
1889 (25 Stat., 642), 428,401.05 acres have been allotted to 
5,152 Indians, and 1,899.61 acres reserved for tigency, school, 
and religious purposes, and under act of Apr. 28, 1904 (33 
Stat., 539), 246,95d.l3 acres have been allotted to 2,816 Mis- 
sissippi and Otter Tail Pillager ( hippewa, being aaditional 
allotments to a part of the allottees under act of Jan. 14, 
1889, leaving unallotted and unreserved 9,190 acres. Act 
June 21, 1906 (34 Stet., 353). 

Treaties of Feb. 22, 1855. vol. 10, p. 1165, and of Mar. 19, 1867, 
vol. 16, p. 719; Executive orders, Oct. 29, 1873, and Mav 28, 
1874; act of Jan. 14, 1889, vol. 25, p. 742. (See 11. Ex. boc. 
No. 247, 51st Cong., 1st sess., pp. 42, 49.) 64,732 acres 
allotted to 826 Indians; the residue opened to public settle- 
ment; 240 acres reserved for bell park. (See 289-1908.) 



> Outboundaries surveyed. 



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COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, 95 

Table (>,— General data/or each Indian nservation to June 30, 7.9/9— Continued. 



2;ame of ro«ervQtion and 
tribe. 



UONTANA. 



Blackfeft 

(Under Blackfeet School.) 
Tribes: Blackfeet, Blood, 
and Piegan. 



Crow 

(lender Crow School.) 
TTi!:>es: Mountain and 
River Crow. 



Fort Belknap , 

(Under Fort Belknap 
School.) 
Tribes: (?ro8 ventre and 
Assiniboin. 



Fort Peck 

( Under Fort Peck School.} 
Tribes: Assiniboin, Bnil4 
Bantee, Teton, Hunk- 

Sapa, and Yanktonai 
iouz. 



Flatbcttd 

(Under Flathead School.) 
Tribes: Bitter Root. Car- 
los Band, Flathead, 
Kntenai, Lower Kalis- 
pel, and Fend d'Oreille. 



Northern Cheyenne 

(Under Tongue River 
School.) 
Tribe: Northern Chey- 
enne. 



Area (unal- 
lotted). 



Acres. 
C04,K26 



» 1,771,630 



• 622,017 



'489,500 



Treaties, lav.'s, or other aulhoritlcs relating to 
reserves. 



Treaty of Oct. 17, 1S55, vol. 11, p. 657; unratified treaties of 
July 18, 1S«6, and of July 13 and 15 and Sept. 1, 1868: Exec- 
utive orders, July 5, 1S73, and Aug. 19, 1S74; act of Apr. iL 
1874, vol. 18, p. 2S; Executive orders, Apr. 13, 1875, ana 
July 13, 1880, and agreement made Feb. 11, 18S7, approved 
by Congress May 1, 1888, vol. 25, p. 129; agreement made 
Sept. 26, 1895, approved by act oi Jime 10, 1896, vol. 29, 



p. 353: act of Feb. 27, 1905, confirming grant of 356.11 acres 
of land and 120 acres of unsurvoycd land. (See vol. 33, 
p.MG.) Act of Mar..l, 1907 (34 Stats., 1085). 2,656 Indians 



See vol. 33, 

;,656 Indians 

44,240.07 acres timber reserved. 



allotted SSt].979 acres 
(See 4021-1913.) 

Treaty of May 7, 1868, vol. 15, p. 649; ayrreement made Juno 
12, 1S80, and approved by Conpress Apr. 11, 1882, vol. 22, 
p. 42, and aRreemcnt mado Aug. 22, 1881, approved by 
Congress July 10, 1882, vol. 22, p. 157; Executive ortiers, 
Oct. 20, 1875, Mar. 8, 1876, Pec. 7. 1886; agreement made 
I>oc. 8, 1890; ratified and confirmed in Indian appropriation 
act approved Mar. 3, 1891, vol. 26, pp. 1039-1010; agreement 
made Aug. 27, 1892. (fr'ee Ann. Kept., 1802, p. 748; also 
I'resident s proclamation, On. 15, 1892, vol. 27, p. 1084. 
Act of Apr. 27, 1904, vol. 33, p. 3.')2, to amend and ratify 
eprecment of Aur. 14, 1809. Under act of Feb. 8, 1887 (24 
Stat., 388), and act Feb. 28, 1891 (26 Stat., 790, and Execu- 
tive order, Jime 8, 1901 (modifying Executive order of 
Mar. 25, lOOi), 482,.'>S4 acres have been allotted to 2,453 
Indians, and 1,822.61 acres reserved for administration, 
clmrch, and cemetery puri>oses, leaving unallotted and 
unreserved 1,832,109 acres: 14,711.96 acres on coded part 
have been allotted to 81 Indians. (Fee I-. B. 743. p. 50; 
852, p. 160, and 956, p. 416.) 37 Indians (Schedule A) have 
been allotted 7,429.55 acres under acts of Apr. 11, 1882 (22 
Stat., 42), Feb. 8, 1887 (24 Stat., 388), and amendments 
thereto, rresident's proclamation, May 24, 1906 (34 Stat.» 
32(X)). 

Treaty of Oct. 17, 18,55, vol. 11, p. 657; unratified treaties of 
July 18 1866, and of July 13 and 15 and Sept. 1, 1868; Execu- 
tive orders, July 5. 1873, and Aug. 19, 1874; act of Apr. 15. 
1874, vol. 18, p. 2»; Executive orders, Apr. 13, 1875, and 
July 13, 1880, and agreement made Jan. 21, 1887, approved 
by Congress May 1, 1888, vol. 25, p. 124; agreement made 
Oct. 9, 1895, approved by act of Jwie 10, 1896, vol. 29, p. 350. 

Treaty of Oct. if, 1855, vol. 11, p. 657; unratified treaties of 
July 18, 1866, and of July 13 and 15 and of Sept. 1, 1868; 
Executive orders, July 5, 1873, and Aue. 19, 1874, act of 
Apr. 15. 1874, vol. 18, p. 28; Executive orders, Apr. 13, 1875, 
and Julv 13. 1880; and agreement made Dec. 28, 1886, ap- 
proved by Congress May 1. 1888, vol. 25, p. 113, act May 30, 
1008 (35 Stat., 558). 2,032 Indians allotted 724,695.77 acres; 
1,225,S49 acres surplus land opened to settlement and entry 
by President's proclamation July 25, 1913. (See 42 L. D.. 
26-1.) 1,082.84 acres reserx^ed for town site, religious, and 
administrative purposes. Act Aug. 1, 1914 (38 Stat. 593), 
allotments to children. 126,054 acres allotted to 438 chil- 
dren, approved Nov. 13, 1917. Act Feb. 26, 1917 (Pub. 
355). Sale to Great Nortliem R. R., and President's 
proclamation Mar. 21, 1917, rel. homestead entries on 
lands classified as coeL 

Treaty of July 16, 1855, vol. 12, p. 975. Under acts of Apr. 23, 
1904 (33 Stats., 302), Feb. 8, 1887 (24 Stats., 388), and Feb. 
28^ 1891 (26 Stats., 794), 2,431 Indians have been allotted 
227,113 acres, and under act of Apr. 23, 1904, 2,521.70 acres 
have been reserved for tribal uses, and under act of Apr. 23, 
1904, as amended by act of Mar. 3, 1905 (33 Stats., 1049-1080), 
6,774.92 acres have been reserved for agency purposes, 
18,521.35 acres reserved for BLsoo Range under acts or May 
23, 1908 (35 Stat. L., 267), and Mar. 4, 1909 (35 Stats., 927). 
See 51019-1906. May 72, 1909, proclamation issued by 
President opening surplus lands. Act Mar. 3. 1909 (35 
Stats., 795). 45,714 acres reserved for power and reser\^oir 
sites, act Apr. 12, 1910 (36 Stats., 863). Executive order 
Jan. 14, 1913. Act June 25, 1910 (36 Stat., 863). 

Executive orders. Nov. 26, 1884, and Mar. 19, 1900, act of 
Mar. 3, 1903, vol. 32, p. 1000. 



» Outboundaries surveyed; partly sur^-eyed. 



'Surveyed. 



■ Partly surveyed. 



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96 COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 

Table 6. — General data for each Indian reservation to June SO, 1919 — Continued. 



Name of reser\'ation and , Area (imal- 
tribe. lotted). 



Treaties, laws, or other authorities relating to 



montjlna— <K>ntinued. 
Rocky Boy's Agency 



Total 

NEBRASKA. 



Niobrant 

(Under Yanktoo School, 
8. Dak.) 
Tribe: Santee Sionz. 



Omaha 

(Under Omaha Agency.) 
Tribe: Omaha. 



Ponca 

(Under Yankton School, 
8. Dak.) 
Tribe: Ponca. 



dge School.) 
Sioux. 



Sioux (additional). 

(Under Pine Ridi 

Tribe: OglalaS 

Winnebago 

(Under Winnebago Agency.) 
Tribe: Winnebago. 



Total 

NEVADA. 

Duck Valley 

(Under western Shoshone 
SchooU 
Tribes: Palute and West- 
em Shoshoni. 

Moapa River 

( Under Moapa River School .) 
Tribes: Chemehuevi, Kai- 
bab, Pawipit, Paiute, 
and Shivwits. 

Paiute 

(Under Fallon School.) 



Paiute and Shoshone scattered 
bands. 



Pyramid Lake 

(Under Nevada School.) 
Tribe: Paiute. 



Summit Lake, Paiute and 
Shoshone. 



Acrei. 
66,038 



3,544,311 



4,420 



GIO 



1,098 



6,158 



1321,820 
523 

960 

280 
322,000 

5,025 



Part of Fort Assinniboine abandoned military reservation. 
Reserved by act Sept. 7, 1916 (39 Stat., 739), amending act 
of Feb. 11, 1915 (38 Stat., 807). 



A( 



T] 



Ti 



160 acres reserved and occupied by agency and schooi 
buildings. (See letter book 205, p. 339: also, President's 
proclamation, Oct. 23, 1890, vol. 26, p. 1559.) 
Executive order, Jan. 24, 1882. 

Act of Feb. 21, 1863, vol. 12. p. 658; treaty of Mar. 8, 1865, vol. 
14, p. en; act of June 22, 1874, vol. 18, p. 170; deed from 
Omaha Indians, dated July 31, 1874. (See vol. 6, Indian 
deeds, p. 215.) 122.374.20 acres aUotted to 1,559 Indians; 
480 acres reserved for agency, etc.; 610.10 acres sold; act 
July 4, 1888; the residue, 1,096 acres, unallotted: act May 
6, 1910 (36 Stat., 348), taxation. 



Executive orders, Apr. 16, 1877, May 4, 1886, and July 1, 1910. 



Executive orders, Mar. 12, 1873, and Feb. 12, 1874; act of Mar. 
13, 1875, vol. 18. p. 445; selection approved by Secretary of 
the Interior, July 3, 1875; Executive orders of June 28, 1875, 
July 3, 1875, July 31, 1903, Oct. 28. 1912, and Nov. 26, 1912. 
604.52 acres of irrigable land allotted to 117 Indians under 
general allotment act. 

7i sections (4,640 acres) reser\'ed under second form with- 
drawal, reclamation act. June 17, 1902 (32 Stats., 388), for 
reallotment to Indians: 3,730 acres have been allotted to 360 
Paiute Indians and 10 acres reserved for school purposes 
(see 76062-1907); 960 acres unallotted and unreserved. 

Executive order, Sept. 16, 1912. settingaside 120 acres for allot- 
ment purposes; 160 acres adaed by Executive order Feb. 8, 
1913. 

Executive order, Mar. 23, 1874; act July 1, 1896 (30 Stats., 
594). (See sec. 26, Indian appropriation act approved 
Apr. 21, 1904, vol. 33, p. 225.) Executive order Sept. 4, 
1913, creating bird reserve oat of Anaho Island. 

Executive order, Jan. 14, 1913; withdrawing from settlement 
for use of Paiute-Shoshone 5,025.96 acres. 



> Surveyed; partly in Idaho. 



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COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 97 

Table 6. — General data for each Indian reservation to June 30, 7^^/:)— Continued. 



Name of reservatioii and 
tribe. 



Area (unal- 
lotted). 



NEVADA— continued. 



Walker River 

(Under Walker River 

School.) 
Tribe: Palute. 



Whmemuocaand Battle Moun- 
tain Bands of Shoshone. 



Total 

NEW MEXICO. 



Jicarilla Apache 

(Under Jicarilla School.) 
Tribe: Jicarilla Apache. 



Mescalero Apache 

(Under Mescalero School.) 
Tribes: Mescalero and 
Mimbref&o Apache. 
Navajo 



Pueblo: 
(Under Santa Fe and Albu- 
queraue Schools.) 
Tribe: Pueblo— 

Jemez 

Acoma 

SanJuan. 

Picuris 

San Felipe 

CochiU 

Santo Domingo 

Santa Clara ' ! *. *.*.* '.'.'..'.'.'. 

Tesuque 

San Ildefonso 

Pojoaque 

Sia. 

SanDia 

Islete 

Nambe 

T^ fl gTpr> a 

Laguna withdrawals 

Santa Ana 

Santa Ana or El Ranch- 
ito. 

Zufd 

(Under Zufii School.) 
Tribe: Zufii Pueblo. 



Acret. 
75,204 



840 



726,752 



Total. 



NEW YORK. 



Allegany , 

(Under New York Agency.) 
Tribes: Oncmdaga and 
Seneca. 
Cattaraugus. 



(Under New York Agencv.) 
Tribes: Cayuga, Ononda- 
g^and 

OilSinlxur 

(UnderNew York Agency.) 



Tribe: Seneca. 



407,300 

474,240 
49,244 



59 
92 
45 
61 
67 
56 
96 
61 
69 
71 
93 
20 
•15 
87 

1 60 

>86 

I ill 

100 
61 
45 

1288,040 



2,097,601 



« 30, 469 



•21,680 



*«40 



Treaties, laiys, or other authorities relating to 
reseres. 



Executive order. Mar. 19, 1874; joint resolution of June 19, 
1908, vol. 32, p. 744; act of May 27, 1902 (32 Stats., pp. 245, 
260); act of Mar. 3, 1903, vol. 32, pp. 982-997; act of Jime 21, 
1906, vol. 34, p. 325; proclamation of President, Sept. 2& 
1906. opening ceded part to settlement. It contained 
268,005.84 acres. Allotted to 496 Indians, 9,878 acres; po- 
ser%cd for agency and school, 80 acres; reserved lor cemetery, 
40 acres; reserved for grazing, 37,848.29 acres; reserved for 
timber, 3,355.62 acres; reserved for church purposes, 160 
acres. (L. B., 885, p. 187.) 34,000 acres added to leseno 
by Executive order Mar. 15, 1918. 

Executive order, Jime 18, 1917. setting aside 840 acres of 
public domain for 2 bands of homeless Indians. 



Executive orders, Mar. 25, 1874, July 18, 1876, Sept. 21, 1880, 
May 15, 1884, and Feb. 11, 1887; 129.3L3.35 acres allotted to 
845 Indians and 280.44 acres roscr^ ed for mission, school, 
and agency purposes. (L. D. 335, p. 323.) Executive 
orders of Nov. 11, 1907, and Jan. 2S, 1908. The above- 
mentioned 845 allotments have been canceled; reallotments 
have been made under the act of Mar. 1, 1907 (34 Stat L., 
1413). (See 54513-1909.) (Allotments to 797 Indians 
covering 354,294 acres approved Aug. 28, 1900.) 

ExecuUve orders, May 29, 1873. Feb. 2, 1874, Oct. 20, 1875, 
May 19, 1882, and Mar. 24, 1883. (See 25961, 48680. 75169, 
7540»-ld06, and 14203, 26542-1909 and Senate bUI 5602, 
60th Cong., 1st sess.) 

Executive order, Jan. 15, 1917, setting aside 49,244 acres for 
Navajo and other Indians. 



Confirmed by United States patents in 1864, under old Span- 
ish grants; acts of Dec. 22, 1858, vol. 11, p. 374, and June 21, 
1860, vol. 12, p. 71. (See General Land Office Report for 
1876, p. 242 and for 1880, p. 658.) See Executive orders of 
Juno 13 and Sept. 4, 1902, setting apart additional lands for 
San Felipe and Nambe Pueblos, and Executive order of 
July 29, 1905. setting apart additional lands for Santa Clara 
Pueblo. (See 6O80(V-1905. ) Approximately 32,000 acres 
added. Area original Santa Clara Pueblo, 17,368.52. 
Executive orders, Dec. 19, 1906, Sept. 1, 1911, and Oct. 4, 
1915. withdrawing 23,900 acres for Jemez Indians. Area of 
original Spanish grant, 17,510 acres. Executive order, 
July 1, 1910, 28,800 acres. Area of Pueblo proper, 125,225. 
(See 56714-1910.) Total area Pueblos, including Zufli and 
Executive order res'n, 1,008,346. Resurveys 33149-14. 

Executive order. Mar. 21, 1917, setting aside acres 

for Indians of Laguna Pueblo. 



Executive orders. Mar. 16, 1877, May 1, 1883, and Mar 3. 1885. 
Irrigable lands surveyed. (Area of original Spanish grant, 
17,581.25 acres.) Approximately 73,000 acres added to 
Pueblo by Executive order of Nov. 30, 1917. 



Treaties of Sept. 15, 1797, vol. 7, p. 601, and of May 20, 1842, 
vol. 7, p. 587. 



Treaties of Sept. 15, 1797, vol. 7, p. 601; Jime 30, 1802, vol. 7; 

p. 70, and of May 20, 1842, ''^ol 7, r — '" * 

1877, p. 164.) 



p. 70, and of May 20, 1842, '«^oi 7, p. 587. (See Ann. Rept.' 



> Oatbouiidaries 8iUT«yed. 



By arrangement with the State of New York. (See Ann. 
Kept., 1877, p. 166.) Seneca agreement of Jan. 3, 1899, 
ratmed by act of Feb. 20, 1893, vol 27, p. 470; act of Juno 7, 
1897, vol. 30, p. 89. 

» Partly surveyed. 



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98 COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 

Table 6. — General data for each Indian reservation to June 30 j 1910 — Continued. 



Name of reservation and 
tril)e. 



Area (unal- 
lotted). 



Treaties, laws, or other authorities relating to 
reserves. 



NEW YORK— continued. 

Oneida 

(Under New York Agency.) 
Tribo: Oneida. 

Onondaga 

(Under New York Agency.) 
Tribes: Oneida, Ononda- 
ga, and St. Regis. 

St. Reels 

(Under New York Agency.) 
Tribe: St. Regis. 

Tonawanda 

(Under Now York Aeency.) 
Tribes: Cayuga and Tona- 
wanda Bands of Seneca. 

Tuscarora 

(Under New York Agency.) 
Tribes: Onondaga and 
Tuscarora. 



Acres. 
»350 



6,100 



14,640 



« 7,549 



6,249 



Treaty of Nov. 11, 1794, vol. 7, p. 44, and arrangement with 
the State of New York. (See Ann. Rept., 1877, p. 168.) 



Total. 



87.677 



NORTH CAROLINA. 

Qualla boundary and other 
lands. 
(Under Eastern Cherokee 
School.) 
Tribe: Eastern Band of 
Cherokee. 



«48, 
«lo. 



000 
211 



Total. 



03,211 



NORTH DAKOTA. 

Devils T.akc ■ 

(Under FortTotten School.) 
Tribes: Assiniboin, Cut- 
head, Santoe, Sisseton, 
Yankton, and Wahpe- 
ton Sioux. 



Fort Berth old 

(Under Fort Berth old 
School.) 
Tribes: Arikara, Oros- 
ventre, and Mandan. 



100,000 



Standing Rock 

(Under Standing Rock 
School.) 
Tribes: Blackfeet, Hunk- 
papa, Upiw and Lower 
Vanktonai Sioux. 



» Partly surveyed. 



Da 



Treatv of May 13, 1796, vol. 7, p. 55. (See Ann. Rept., 1877, 
p. l6s.) They hold aoout 24,250 acres in Canada. 

Treaties of Sept. 15, 1797, vol. 7, p. 601, and Nov. 5, 1857, 
vol. 12, p. 991; purchased by the Indians and held in trust 
by the comptroller of New York* deed dated Feb. 14, 1862. 
(Sec also Ann. Rept, 1877, p. 165.) 

Treaty of Jan. 15. 1838, vol. 7, p. 551, and arranpcment (grant 
and purchase) between the Indians and the Holland Land 
Co. (Sec Ann. Rept., 1877, p. 107.) 



Hcl( 
fo 
te 
ot 



18 
ai 

IE 

p. 
ar 
D 



Treaty of Feb. 19, 1867. vol. 15, p. 505, agreement Sept. 20, 
1872; confirmed in Indian appropriation act approvea June 
22, 1874, vol. 18, p. 167. (See pp. 328-337, Oomp. Indian 
Laws.) 137,381 acres allotted to 1,189 Indians; 727.83 acres 
reserved for church and 193.61 acres reserved for Govern- 
ment purposes. Act of Apr. 27, 1904, vol. 33, p. 319, to 
amend and ratify agreement made Nov. 2, 1901. Presi- 
dent s proclamation of June 2, 1904 vol. 33, p. 2368. Tnu^t 
period extended 10 years. Executive order, Feb. 11, 1918. 

Unratified agreement of Sept. 17, 1851, and July 27, 1866 (see 
Laws relating to Indian Affairs, Department of Interior, 
1S83), pp. 317 and 322; E xecutive orders^ Apr. 12 1870, July 
13, 1K80, and June 17, 1892; agreement Dec. 14, 18S6, ratified 
by act of Mar. 3. 1891, vol. 26, p. 1032. (See Pres. proc. 
Mav 20, 1891, vol. 27, p. 979.) 229,634.91 acres allotted to 
1,379 Indians (see letter book 445, p. 311.) Under acts of 
Mar. 1, 1907 (34 Stat, L.,1042) and Jime 1,1910 (36 Stat. L.. 
455) , 532 al lot tments , aggregating 35,687 acres , were approved 
Aug. 15, 1910; 579 allotments, aggregating 112,544 acres, were 
approved Apr. 5, 1912; and f87 allotments, aggregating 
206,154 acres, were approved Nov. 29, 1915. (Sec 61502-1910, 
proclamation June 29, 1911 (40 L. D., 151), 227,504 acres 
open; see H. J. Res. Apr. 3. 1912 (37 Stat. L., 631). and 
proclamation of Sept. 17, 1915, opening surface Of lands 
classified as coal to nomestcad entry, authorized by act of 
Aug. 3, 1914 (38 Stat. L., 681). 

Treaty of Apr. 29, 1868, vol. 15, p. 635, and Executive orders 
Jan. 11-Mar. 16, 1875. and Nov. 28, 1876. Agreement rati- 
fied by act of Feb. 28, 1877, vol. 19, p, 254, and Executive 
orders Aue. 9, 1879, and Mar. 20, 1884 (1.520,640 acres in 
South Dakota); unratified agreement of Oct. 17, 1882. 
(For modification see sundry civil appropriation act ap- 

E roved Mar. 3, 1883, vol. 22, p. 624; for text see Misc. Indian 
►oc., vol. 14, p. 305.) Act of Congress of Apr. 30, 1888, vol. 
25, p. 94, not accepted. Act of Congress, Mar. 2. 1889, vol. 
25, p. 888. President's proclamation of Feb. 10, 1890, vol. 26, 

g. 1554. Under acts Mar. 2, 1889, supra, Mar. 1, 1907 (34 
tat. L., 1Q41 ), May 29, 1908 (35 Stat. L., 451-460), and Feb. 
14, 1913 (37 Stat. L. 675), 4 717 Indians have been allotted 
1 ,388,612 acres. Under President's proclamation of Aug. 19, 
1909 (36 Stat. L. , 2500), 1 ,061 ,500 acres were opened to settle- 
ment. Remainder of lands opened to settlement by proc- 
lamation Mar. 15, 1915, as authorised by act Feb. 14, 1913 
(37SUt.L.,675,680). 

• Surveyed. 



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COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 99 

Table G. — General dcia/or each Indian rcs^riation to June SO, 1910— Continued. 



Name otnctrvaikm and 

tribe. 



Area (unal- 
lotted). 



Treaties, lawF, or other authorities relating to 
reserves. 



KOBTB DAKOTA— continued. 



Turtle Mountain 

(Under Turtle Mountain 
Agency.) 
Tribe: I'embina Chippewa. 



ACT(S. 



Total 

OKLAHOMA. 



100.000 



Anficbe* 
(Under Kiowa' Schooi.'j 



Cherokee 

(Under superintcntlent Five 
Civilized Tribes.) 



Cherokee Out!ct, 




Chevenne and Arapaho 

(Under Cheyenne and Arap- 
aho, Cantonment, and 
Sc^er Sohoois) 
Tribes: Southern Arapaho 
and Nothem and 
Southern Cheyenne. 



Chickasaw 

(Under superintendent Five 
Civiiiwjtf Tribes, Musko- 
gee, Okla.) 



Choctaw 

(Under superintendent 
CivUiKed Tribes, Mi 
gee Okla.) 



Five 
Musko- 



Oeek. 



(Under superintendent Five 
Civillred Tribes, Mu5ko- 
gea» Okla.) 



10 



5,fb2 



320 



Executive orders. Dec. 21, 1S82, Mar. 29 and June 3, 1884. 
Agreement made Oct. 2, 1892, amended by Indian appro* 
prlation act approved and ratified Apr. 21, 1004, vol. 33, 
p. 194. 43,820 acres allotted to 320 Indians and 186 acres 
reserved for church and school purposes under the above- 
named act. Allotments to 2,601 members of this band on 
public domain aggregating 300,817.^ acres have been 
approved. 



I 



rormeriv Foit Sill. (See Executive order Feb. 26, 1897.) 
Act Mar. 3, 1001 (:^1 Stat., 1173): act June 28, 1902 (32 Stat., 
4r.7). Kx. Doc. Xo. 117, 49th Cong., 2d sess., act An». 24, 
1912 (37 Stat., 534V, act June 30. 1913 (38 Stat.. 02>. Lands 
to be purchnse<l for those members of thl.s band, some 80 in 
number, who electcfl to remain in Oklahoma. 

Treat V with Western Cherokoesat city of Washington, May 6, 
1S2S(7 Stat.,311),nsamendo<l by thetrcatyat Fort Gibson 
of Feb. 14. 1S33 (7 Stat., 414V, referred to in treity with 
Cherokees at New Fchota, Ua., Dec. 29, 1835 (7 Stat., 478); 
July 19, l^'Mi (14 Stat., 799), as supplemented bv treaty of 
Apr. 27, isr^ (Ifi Stat., 727). Acrcement of Ju y 1, 19«.)2 (32 
Stat., 7lH». Approximately. 41,824 Cherokees, inciuding 
4,91© freedmen, were allotted an averaj^e of llO acres. 40 
ocres of which wes a homestead to be nontaxable, v hi'e 
held by the oririnal allottee. Total acreage allotted 
4.316.223; sold, 60,y55; remaining unsold, 10. 

Agfeement of Dec. 19, 1891; ratified sec. 10 bv act of Mar. 3, 
1893 (27 Stat.. 640), unoccupied part of Cherokee Outlet. 
not faieluded in Territory of Oklahoma (26 SUt., 81). 6^ 
Indians allotted 4.949.45 acres under act of Mar. 3, 1893. 

r.xerutive order, Aug. 10, IS'39; unratified agreement with 
Wichita, Caddo, and others, Oct. 19, 1872. (See Ann. 
Rept., 1872, p. 101.) Executive orders of Apr. 18, 1882, 
and Jan. 17, 18S3, relative to Fort Supply Military Reserve 
(relinquished for disposal under act of Congress of Ju'y 5, 
1S94, by authority of ExeciUive order of Nov. 5, 1814; see 
(JcneralLanjl oHice Report, 1899. p. loS). Executive on! cr 
of Julv 17, 18S3, relative to Fort Reno Military Reserve. 
Agreement made October, 1890, and ratified and confirmed 
in Indian appropriation act approve<l Mar. 3, 18'Jl, vol. 26, 
pp. 1022-102^. 528,789 acres allotted to 3,331 Indians; 
^1,828.55 acres for (Jklahoma school lands; 32,34?.t3 acres 
reserved for military, agency, mission, etc., purposes; the 
residue, 3,500.562.06 acres, opened to settemcnt. (See 
Pres. proc. Apr. 12, 1892, vol. 27. p. 1018.) Executive order, 
July 12, 1S95. President's pnx; amatlon of Atig. 12, 1903, 
vol. 33. p. 2317. Act of June 17, 1910 (3'^ Stat. . 533), 57.C37.10. 
Executive order, Dec. 29, 1915, setting aside 40 acres for 
agency and school purposes. 

Troatv of June 22, 1855, vol. 11, p. 611; agreement of Apr. 23, 
189/, ratified by act of Juno 28. 1898, vol. 30, p. 5t'5; act cf 
July 1, 1902, vol. 32, p. 641, ratifying agreement of Mar. 21, 
1902; act of Apr. 21, 1904, vol. 33, p. 209; act of Apr. 28, 1904, 
vol. 33, p. 544. 10.966 Indians havo been allotted 3,800,190 
acres; sold, 870,255: remaining tmsMd, 10 acres. 

Treaty of June 22, 1855. vol. 11, p. 611. Same as Chickasaw. 
Approximately 2A,828 Indians nave been allotted 4,291.036 
acres; sold, 2,587,817 acres; unsold, 6,992 acres. There 
remain unsold also the coal and asphalt deposits ^vithin 
the scgrei*ated coal and asphalt area of tlic Choctaw and 
Chickasaw Nations. 

Treaties of Feb. 14, 1883, vol. 7, p. 417, and Jime 14. 1866, 
vol. 14, p. 785, and the deficiency approprlaticn act of Aug. 5^ 
1882, vol. 22. p. 265. (See Ann. Rept. 1882, p. u V.) Agree- 
ment of Jan. 19, 1889, ratified by the act of War. 1. ias9. 
vol. 25. p. 757; President's proclamation, Mar. 23, 1880, vol. 

26, p. 1644: agreement of Sept. 27, 1897, ratified by act of 
June 28, 1898, vol. 30, p. 514; agreement of Mar. 8, 1900, 
ratified by act of Mar. 1, 1901, vol. 31, p. 861; President's 
proclamation of June 25, 1901, vol. 32, p. 1971; supplemental 
agreement of June 30, 1902, vol. 32, p. 500; President's proc- 
lamation of Aug. 8, 1902, vol. 32, p. 2021. (See act of May 

27, 1902, vol. 32, p. 258; act of Apr. 21. 1904, vol. 33, p. 204.^ 
Approximately 1^,761 Indians have been allotted 2,907,114 
acres; sold, 65,645 acres; remaining unsold, 320 acres. 



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100 COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 

Table 6. — General data for each Indian reservation to June 30 j 1919 — Continued. 



Name of reservation and 
tribe. 



Area (unal- 
lotted). 



Treaties, laws, or other authorities relating to 
reserves. 



OKLAHOMA— continued. 



Iowa 

(Under Sac and Fox School.) 
Tribes: Iowa and Ton 
kawa. 



Kansa or Kaw 

(Under Ponca School.) 
Tribe: Kansa or Kaw. 



Kickapoo 

(Under Shawnee School.) 
Tribe: Mexican Kickapoo. 



Kiowa and (}omanchc 

(Under Kiowa Agency.) 
Tribes: Apache, Coman- 
che, Delaware, and 
Kiowa. 



Fort Sill Apaches 

(Under Kiowa School.) 



Modoc 

(Under Seneca School.) 
Tribe: Modoc. 



Oakland 

(Under Ponca School.) 
Tribes: Tonkawa and 
Lipan. 



Acres. 



Executive order, Aug. 15, 1883; agreement May 20. 1890, rati- 
fled by act of Feb. 13, 1891, vol. 26, p. 753. 8,606 acres 
allotted to 108 Indians; 20 acres held in common for church, 
school, etc.; the residue opened to settlement. Proclama- 
tion of President Sept. 18, 1891, vol. 27, p. 989. (See Ann. 
Rent. 1891, p. 677, and letter book 222, p. fcl.) 

Act of June 5, 1872, vol. 17, p. 228. 260 acres reserved for ceme- 
tery, school, and town site. Remainder, 99,644 acres, 
allotted to 247 Indians; act of July 1, 1902, vol. 32, p. 636, 
ratifying agreement, not dated. Act Mar. 3, 1909. (35 Stat., 
778.) 

Executive order, Aug. 15, 1883; agreement June 21, 1891; rati- 
fied by act of Mar. 3, 1893, vol. 27, p. 557. 22,650 acres 
alk>tted to 280 Indians; 479.72 acres reserved for missk>n, 
agency, and school purposes; residue opened to settlement 
by proclamation of the President May 18, 1895, vol. 29, p. 
8&; act of Mar. 3, 1903, vol. 32, p. 1001. June 21, 1906. (34 
SUt., 362.) 

Treaty of Oct. 21, 1867, vol. 15, pp. 581 and 588; agreement 
made Oct. 6, 1892; ratified by act of June 6. 1900, vol. 31, 
p. 676, ceding 2,488,893 acres, of which 445,000 acres have 
been aUottedto 3,444 Indians; 11,972 acres reserved for 



>^V^^1 _^1S^ 






Chief 6eronimo's Band. 6,149 acres of inherited Kiowa, 
Comanche, and Apache lands were purdiased by the 
United States for reallotment to 81 Indians and 3 whites 
of this band, who elected to remain in Oklahoma. (187 
ot the band removed to Mpscaloro. See Ann. Rcpt. 1913.) 
These lands were purchased under the acts of June 25, 
1910 (36 Stat.. 855), Aug. 24. 1912 (37 Stat., 534), appro- 
priating $200,000; June 30, 1913 (38 Stat.. 94), appropriattog 
llOO.OOO; and Aue. 1, 1914 (38 Stat., 5S7). See Executive 
order Feb. 29, 1897, act Mar. 3, 1901 (31 Stat., 1173); act 
June 28, 1902 (32 Stat., 467); Ex. Doc. No. 117, 49th Cong., 
?dsess. 

Agreement with Eastern Shawnees made June 23. 1874 (see 
Ann. Rept. 1882, p. 271), and confirmed in Indian appro- 
priation act approved Mar. 8, 1875, vol. IS. p. 447. Dands 
all allotted— 3,966 acres allotted to 68 Indians, 8 acres re- 
served for church and cemetery purposes, 2 acres Ibr school, 
and 24 acres for timber. (Letter book 220, p. 102.) Act 
Mar. 3, 1909. (36 Stat., 752.) Ex. order Sept. 14, 1916, ex- 
tending trust period 10 years with exception of 12 allottees. 

Act of May 27, 1878, vol. 20, p. 84. (See Ann. Rept. for 1882, 
p. Lxn.) (Sec deed dated June 14, 18S3, from Cherokee, 
vol. 6, Indian Deeds, p. 476.) (See deed from Ne* Perce, 
May 22, 1885, vol. 6, fcidian Deeds, p. 604.) 11 456 acres 
allotted to 73 Indians; 160.50 acres reserved fOr Government 
and school purposes. The residue, 79.276.60 acres, opened 
to settlement. (Letter book 257, p. 240.) Agreement made 
Oct. 21, 1891, ratified bv Indian appropriation act approved 
3klar.3, 1893,vol.27,p.'644. (For text, see Ann. Rept., 1893, 

g. 524.) Trust period extended 10 years on 27 allotments, 
xecuUvo order, May 24, 1918. 



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COMMISSIONEB OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 101 

Table 6. — General data for each Indian reservation f ) Jimc SO, 1919 — Continued. 



Name of reservation and 
tribe. 



1 Area (iinal- 
I lotted). . 



Treaties, laws, or other authorities relating to 
reserves. 



OKLAOOMA— continued. 



Osage 

TTi 



(Under Osage School.) 
Tribes: Great and Litt!c 
Osage. 



Otoe 

(Under Otoe School.) 
Tribes: Oto and Missouri. 



Ottawa 

(Under Seneca School.) 
Tribe: Ottawa of Blanch- 
ards Fork and Roche 
de 13oouf. 

Pawnee 

(Under Pawnee School.) 
Tribe: Pawnee. 



Acres. 



Peoria 

(Under Seneea Sehool.) 
Tribes: Kaskaskla. Miami, 
Peori^i. Piankashaw, 
and \\ cy. 

Ponca 

(Under Ponca School.) 
Tribe: Ponca. 



I^otawatomi 

(Under Shawnee School.) 
Tribes: Absentee Shaw- 
nee and citizen Pota- 
watomi. 



Quapaw 

(Under Seneca School.) 
Tribe: Quapaw. 



1387 



.Vrlicle 16, Cherokee treaty of Julv 19, 1S66. vol. 14, p. 804; 
order of Secretary of the interior, Mar. 27, 1871; act of June 
5, 1872, vol. 17, p. 228. (See deed dated June 14, 1S83. from 
Cherokee, vol. 6, Indian Deeds, p. 482.) (See act of June 28, 
1906 (JW Stat., 539) , act of Mar. 3, 1909 (35 Stat., 787), and 
Public Resolution No. 51, approved Feb. 2S, 1909.) 2.230 
Indians have been allotted 1.065.134.31 acres (3 selections). 
Since July 1, 1909, these 2,230 Indians have Dccn allotted 
1,465,350 acres from surplus lands, and 5,178.53 acres have 
been reserved for church, to^oi-sitc, and railroad purposes. 
Act .Mar. 3, 1909 (35 Stat.. 778). Act Apr. 18, 1912 (37 Stat., 
86), and Executtveorrler Jimel, 1914. rates ofrovaltv on oil. 

Act of Mar. 3, ISSl, vol. 21. p. 381; order of the becretarv of 
the Interior. June 25, 1881 . (See deed dated June 1 4, 1883, 
from Cherokee, vol. 6, Indian Deeds, p. 479. Under acts 
of Feb. 8, 1887 (24 Stats., 388), Feb. 28, 1801 (26 Stats., 794), 
and Apr. 21, 1904 (33 Stats., 189), 128,251 acres were allotted 
to 514 Indians (885 allotments— see letter book 929, p. 326), 
720 acres were reserved for agency, school, church, and cora- 
etery purposes, and 640 acres set aside for tribal uses. Also 
act June 22. 1910 (36 Stats., 680-581). 

Treaty of Feb. 23, 1867, vol. 15, p. 513; 12,995 acres were 
allotted to 160 Indians; 557.95 acres were authorized to be 
sold by act of Mar. 3, 1891 (vol. 26, p. 9^). The residue, 
1,587.25 acres sold. Letter book 229, p. 1 15, and act Mar. 3, 
1909 (36 Stat., 752). 

Act of Apr. 10. 1876, vol. 19, p. 29. Of this, 230,014 acres are 
Cherokee and 53,006 acres are Creek lands. (See deed dated 
June 14, 1883, from Cherokee, vol. 6, Indian Deeds, p. 470.) 
112,701 acres allotted to 820 Indians; 840 acres were reserved 
for school, agency, and cemetery purposes; the residue, 
169,320 acres, opened to settlement. (Letter books 261, 
p. 388, and 263. p. 5.) Agreement made Nov. 23, 1S92, 
ratified by act of Mar. 3, 1893, vol. 27, p. 644. (For text see 
Ann. Rept., 1893, p. 526.) Tnist period extended 10 years. 
Executive order. Mar. 2. 1918. 

Treaty of Feb. 23, 1867, vol. 15, p. 513. 43,334 acres allotted 
to 218 Indians. The residue, 6,313.27 acres, sold under act 
of May 27, 1902 (32 Stats., 245). 

Acts of Aug. 15, 1876, vol. 19, p. 192; Mar. 3. 1877, vol. 19, p. 
287; May 27, 1878, vol. 20, p. 76; and Mar. 3, 1881, vol. 21, p. 
422. (See deed dated June 14, 1883, from Cherokee, vol. 6, 
Indian Deeds, p. 473.) There have been allotted to 782 
Indians 100,734 acres, and reserved for agency, school, mis- 
sion, and cemetery purposes 523.56 acres, leaving unallotted 
and unreserved 387 acres. (Letter books 302, p. 311, and 



813, p. 401.) Indian appropriation act approved Apr. 21, 
1904, vol. 33, p. 217. (See 38067-1915.) 
Treaty of Feb. 27, 1867, vol. 15, p. 531; act of May 23. 1872, vol- 



17, p. 159. (222,716 acres are Creek ceded lands; 365,851 
acres are Seminole lauds.) Agreements with citizen Pot- 
awatomi June 25 and absentee Shawnees June 26, 1890, 
ratified and confirmed in the Indian appropriation act of 
Mar. 3, 1891, vol. 26, pp. 1016-1021. 215,fe)9.42 acres allotted 
to 1,490 Potawatoim, and 70,791.47 acres allotted to 563 
absentee Shawnees, and 510.63 acres reserved for Govern- 
ment purposes; the residue opened to settlement by tho 
President's proclamation of Sept. 18, 1891, vol. 27, p. 98J. 
(See letter book 222, p. 442, 444, and Ann. Rept. for 1891, 
p. 677.) Executive order Nov. 24, 1916, and Jan. 15, 1917, 
extending trust period 10 years with exception of 15 ab- 
sentee Shawnees, 85 citizen Potawatomi. 
Treaties of May 13, 1833, vol. 7, p. 424, and of Feb. 23, 18»)7, 
vol. 15, p. 513. 56,245.21 acres allotted to 248 Indians, 400 
acres reserved for school and 40 acres for church purpose ?. 
(Letter book 335, p. 326.) Agreement of Mar. 23. 1893, 
ratified in Indian appropriation act approved Mar. 2, 1895, 
vol. 28, p. 907. Agreement of Jan. 2, 1899, ratified in liidian 
appropriation act approved Mar. 3, 1901, vol. 31, p. 1067. 
Act of Mar. 3, 1903, vol. 32, p. 997. 

^ Sur^''eyed. 



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102 COMMISSIOlfnSR OF INDIAN APFAIRS. 

Table 6. — General data for each Indian reservation to June 30, 1919 — Continued. 



Name of r^ervation and 

tribe. 



OKLAHOMA— contizmcd. 



Sauk and Fox 

( Under Sac and Fox School.) 

Tribes: Ottawa. 8auk,ana 

Fox of the Mississippi. 



Seminole 

(Under superintendent Five 
a\iUzcd Tribes, Musko- 
gee, Okla.) 



Seneca 

(Under Seneca School.) 
Tribes: Seneca, Eastern 
Shawnee, Wyandot, I'e- 
oria, etc. 



Shawnee 

(Under Seneca School.) 
Tribes: Seneca, Absentee 
Shawnee, Mexican 
Kickapoo. 



Wichita.. 



(Under Kiowa Agency.) 
Tribes: loni. Caddo, Co- 
manche. Delaware, To- 
wakoni Waco, and 
Wichita. 



Wyandot 

(Under Seneca School.) 
Tribe: Wyandot. 



Area (unal- 
lotted). 



Acres. 



122 



Total 

OREGON. 



i>,841 



Grande Rondo 

(Under Siletz Agency.) 
Tribes: Kalapuya, Clack- 
amas, Cow Creek, Lak- 
miut, Marys River. Mo- 
lala, Nestucca, Rogue 
River, Santiam, Shasta, 
Turn water, Umpqua, 
Wapato, and Yamhill. 

Klamath 

(Under Klamath School.) 
Tribes: Klamath, Modoc. 
Paiute, Pit River, Wal- 

gipe. and Yahooskin 
and of Snale (Sbo- 

ShODi). 



Treaties, laws, or other authorities relating to 
resenes. 



Treaty of Feb. 18, 1867, vol. 15, 
1890; ratified by act of Feb. 13, J 
acres allotted to 548 Indians, 



K 495; a;;reement June 12, 
II, vol. 20, p. 749. 87,C83.46 
and 800 acres reserved for 



school and agency purposes; ihe residue opened to settle- 
ment by the President's proclamation Sept. 18, 1891, vol. 



27, p. 



(^^ letter book 222, p. 169, and Ann. Kept, 
for 1891, p. 677.) Trust period extended for 10 years oy 
Executive order of Mar. 27, 1896; again by Executive order 
of Aug. 28, 1906; again by Executive order of Aug. 1, 1916, 
with exception of 55 allottees. 
Treaties of Mar. 21, 1836, vol. 14, p. 755. (See Oeek agree- 
ment of Feb. 14, 1881, Ann. Kept. 1882, p. 54, and deO- 
cioncy act of Aug. 5, 1882, vol. 22, p. 2G5.) Agreement of 
Mar. 16, 1889. (See Indian appropriation act approved 
Mar. 2, 1889.) Agreement recorded in the treatv book, vol. 



3, p. 35; agreement made Doc. 16, 1897, ratinod by the act 
of July 1, 1898, vol. 30, p. 667; agreement of Oct. 7, 1899, rati- 
fied by act of June 2, 1900, vol. 31, p. 250. Approximately 



3,127 Indians have been allotted 305,852 acres; sold, 4,263 
acres; remaining unsold, 122 acres. 
Treaties of Feb. 28, 1831, vol. 7, p. 348; of Dec. 29, 1832, vol. 
7. p. 411, and of Feb. 23, 18G7, vol. 15, p. 513. 41,813 acres 
allotted to 435 Indians; 104.22 acres reserved for Govern- 
ment, church, and school purposes. Agreement of Dec. % 

1901, ratified by act of May 27, 1902, vol. 32, p. 202; Execu- 
tive order Feb. 15, 1916, extending trust period for 10 yars, 
with exception of 4<l allottees. 

Treaties of July 20, 1831, vol. 7, p. 351; of Doc. 29, 1832, vol. 
7, p. 411; of Feb. 23, 1867, vol 15, p. 513. and agreement 
with Modocs, made June 23, 1874 (see Ann. Rept., 1882. 
p. 271), confirmed by Congress in Indian appropriation act 
approved Mar. 3. 1875, vol. 18, p. 447. 12,745 acres allotted 
to 117 Indians; 86 acres reserved for agency purposes (letter 
books 208, p. 2G6, and 233, p. 207); the residue, 2,543 acres, 
sold (agreement of Dec. 2, 1901, ratified by act of May 27, 

1902, vol. 32, p. 262). 

(See treaty of^July 4. 1806, with Delawares, art. 4, vol. 14, 
p. 794.) Unratified agreement, Oct. 19, 1872. (See Ann. 
Kept., 1872, p. 101.) Agreement made June 4. 1891, rati- 
fied by act of Mar. 2, 1895, vol. 28, p. 895. 152,714 acres 
allotted to 957 Indians; 4,151 acres reserved for agency, 
school, religious, and other purposes. The residue, 5S6,46s 
acres, opened to settlement (letter book 490, p. 90.) Presi- 
dent's proclamation of July 4, 1901, vol. 32, p. 1975. 

Unoccupied Chickasaw and Choctaw leased lands west of 
the North Fork of the Red River. Act of May 4, 1896^ 
vol. 29, p. 113. President's proclamation. Mar. 16, 1896, 
vol. 29, p. 878. Act of Jime 6, 1900 (31 Stat., 680). 

Treaty of Feb. 23, 1867, vol. 15, p. 513. 20.942 acres allotted 
to 244 Indians, 16 acres to churches, etc^ leaving 534.72 
acres unallotted (letter book 228, p. 332.) Unallotted land 
sold, act Mar. 3. 1909 (35 Stat., 752). Act Apr. 28, 1904 (33 
Stat., 519), allotments on public domain to absentee 
Wyandot. 



Treaties of Jan. 22, 1855, vol. 10, p. 1143, and of Dec. 21, 1855, 
vol. 12, p. 982; Executive order June 30, 1857. 440 acres 
reserved for Government use and 32,983 acres allotted to 
260 Indians. (See letter book 210, p. 328.) Act of Apr. 28. 
1904, vol. 33, p. 567. amending and ratifying agreement of 
June 27. 1901 (33 L. D., 580). Executive order Apr. 29. 
1916, extending trust period 10 years with exception of 66 
allottees. 

1812,547 Treaty of Oct. 14, 1864, vol. 16, p. 707. Act June 10, 1896 (29 
Stat., 321). Act of May 27, 1902 (32 Stat., 260). 208,439 
acres allotted to 1,352 Indians; 6,094.77 acres reserved far 
agency, school, and church purposes. Indian appropria- 
tion act approved Apr. 21, 1904, vol. 33, p. 202; act of 
Mar. 3, 1905, vol. 33, p. 1033, and act of June 21, 1906 (34 
Stat., 367). (See act of Mar. 3, 1909 (35 Stat., L. 752), 
removal of Modocs in Oklahoma to Klamath and allot- 
ments thereto. Boundary dispute (see 9681-1011). 

1 Outboundaries surveyed. 



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COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN ATFAIES. 



103 



Table 6. — General data for each Indian reservation to June 30, 1919 — Continued. 



Name of reservation and 
tribe. 



Area (unal- 
lotted). I 



Treaties, laws, or other authorities relating to 
rescr\e8. 



OREOON— continued. 

BUetx 

(Under Siletz Agency.) 
Tribes: Alsea, Coquillo, 
Kusau, Kwatami, 
Rogue River. Skoton, 
Shasta, Saiustkea, 8iu- 
slaw, Tututni, UmiHiua, 
and 13 others. 



Umatilla 

(Under UmaUlla School.) 
Tribes: Cavnse. Umatilla, 
and WallawaJla. 



Warm Si 
(Under Warm Springs 
School.) 

Tribes: Des Chntes, John 
Day, Paiute, Teneino. 
Warm Springs, and 
Wasco. 



Total., 



SOUTH DAKOTA. 

Crow Creek and Old Winne- 
bago. 
(Under Crow Creek School.) 
Tribes: Lower Yanktonai, 
Lower Brule, Minicon- 
Jou, and Two Kettle 
Sioux. 



Lake Traverse 

(Under Sisseton School.) 



Tribes: Sisseton and W ah- 
peton Sioux. 



Cheyenne River , 

(Under Cheyenne Kiver 
School.) 
Tribes: Blackfeet, Mini- 
oonjou. Sans Arcs, and 
Two Kettle Sioux. 



Lower Brule 

(Under Lower Brule School.) 

Tribes: Lower Bruie and 

Lower Yanktonai Sioux . 



Acres. 



1 74,032 



1322,275 



1,208,854 



219,206 



123,360 



140923**— INT 1919— VOL 2- 



Tr 



Tr 



Order of department, July 1, 1863 (see Ann. Rept^ 1S63, p. 
318); treaty of Apr. 29, 1868. vol. 15, p. 635, and Executive 
order, Feb. 27, 1885 (see Preddent'sproclamation of Apr. 17, 
1S85, annulling Executi\'e order of Feb. 27, 18S5; Ann. Kept., 
1885, p. 51); act of Mar. 2, 1889, vol. 25, p. 888; President's 
proclamation, Feb. 10. 1890, vol. 26, p. 1554. There have 
been allotted to 1,461 Indians 272,720 acres, and reserved 
for agency, school, and religious pruposes 1,076.90 acres. 

Tr<»ty of Fob. 19, 1867, vol. 15, p. SOo; agreement, Sept. 20. 
1872; conflrmed in Indian appropriation act approved 
June 22, 1874, vol. 18, p. 167. (See pp. 328-337, Comp. In- 
dian Laws.) Agreement, Dec. 12, 1889, ratified by act of 
Mar. 3. 1891, vol. 26, pp. 1035-1038. 308,838 acres allotted 
to 2,00o Indians, 32,840.25 acres reserved for State school pur- 
poses, 1,347.01 acres for church and agency purposes; the 
residue, 674,678.40 acres, opened to settlement. (See 
President's proclamation, Apr. 11, 1892, vol. 27, p. 1017.) 
Trust perioa extended 10 years, Executiv'e order of Apr. 16, 
1914. 



Treaty of Apr. 29, 1868, vol. 15, p. 635, and Executive orders, 
Jon. 11, Mar. 16, and May 20, 1875, and Nov. 28, 1876; agree- 
ment ratified by act of Feb. 28, 1877. vol. 19. p. 254, and 



Executive orders. Aug. 9, 1879, and Mar. 20. ife*. Unrati- 
fied agreement of Oct. 17, 1882. (For modification see sun- 
dry civil appropriation act approved Mar. 3, 1883, vol. 22. 
p. 624, for text see Misc. Indian Doc., vol. 14, p. 305.) Act 
of Apr. 30, 1888, vol. 25, p. 94, not accepted. Act of Mar. 2, 

1889, vol. 25, p. 888. President's proclamation of Feb. 10, 

1890, vol. 26, p. 1554. (See act of Feb. 20. 1896, vol. 29, p. 10.) 
President's proclamations of Feb. 7, 1903, vol. 82, p. 2035, 
and Mar. 80. 1904, vol. 33, p. 2340. 1,052,320.99 acres have 
been allotted to 3,880 Indians. (SeeL.B.828,p.32I.) Act 
of May 29, 1908 (3^ Stat . L., 460) . Under President's procla- 
mation of Aug. 19,1909 (36 Stat., 2500) . 1,158,010 acres wore 
opened to settlement, leaving unallotted and unreserved 
219,206 acres. 

Treaty of Apr. 29, 1868, vol. 15, p. 635, and Executive orders 
Jan. 11, Mar. 10, and May 20, 1875, and Nov. 28, 1876; agree- 
ment ratified by act of Feb. 28, 1877. vol. 19, p. 254, and 
Executive orders, Aug. 9, 1879, and Mar. 20, 1884. Unrati- 
fied agreement of Oct. 17, 1882. (For modification see sun- 
dry civil appropriation act approved Mar. 3, 1883. vol. 22, 
p. 624: for text see Misc. Indian Docs., vol. 14, p. 305). Aci 
of Apr. 30, 1888, vol. 25, p. 94, not accepted. Act of Mar. 2, 

1889, vol. 25, p. 888. President's proclamation of Feb. 10, 

1890, vol.26, p. 1554. (Seeact of Feb. 20, 1896, vol. 29, p. 10.) 
Agreement made Mar. 1, 1898, ratified by act of Mar. 3, 1889, 
vol. 30, p. 1362, ceding 120,000 acres to the United States. 
202,992 acres allotted to 869 Indians, and 964.06 acres re- 
served for agency, school, and religious purposes, leaving 
unallotted and unreserved 24,000 acres. (See letter book 
498. p. 336.) (See act of Apr. 21, 1906, 34 Stats., 124 and 
1048, and President's proclamations of Aug. 12, 1907, and 
Sept. 24, 1913.) (Superintendent's report June 11, 1918 
|50,160-18J). 

> Surveyed. 

—8 



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104 COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 

Table 6. — General data for each Indian reservation to June SO, 1919 — Oontmued. 



Name of resen-ation and 
tribe. 



SOUTH DAKOTA— continued. 



Area (unal- 
lotted). 



Pine Ridge 

(UnderPiQe Ridge Agency.) 
Tribes Brule Sioux, 
Nor^bern Cbeyenne, 
and Ogalalla Sioux. 



Roeebud 

(Under Rosebud Scbool.) 
Tribes: Loafer, Minioon- 
lou, Nortbem Oglalla, 
Two Kettle, Upper 
Brule, and washashe 
Sioux. 



Yankton 

(Under Yankton Scbool.) 
Tribe: Yankton Sioux. 



Total.. 



Goshute and scattering bands 

Paiutes 

Cedar City and Indian Peak 
Bands. 

Panguitcb 

Shivurits 



Acres. 
161,565 



404,131 



34,500 
7,000 



> 26, 880 



Treaties, laws, or other authorities relating to 
reserves. 



President's proclamation. May 16, 1895, vol. 29, p. 865.^ 
Executive order Apr. 20, 1916, extending trust period 10 
years, with exception of 162 allottees. 



Executive order. Mar. 23, 1914. 

Executive order, Aug. 2, 1915, reserving approximately 7,000 
acres for use of Cedar City and Indian Peak Bands of 
Paiutes. 

136.52 acres in Garfield County, Utah, purchased Nov. 1. 1908. 

About 1 township in Washington County, Utah, withdrawn 
by departmental order based on office recommendation of 
Sept. 28, 1891 (L. B., 223, p. 270). Rights of squatters in 
withdrawal purchased by United States. (See also act of 
Mar. 3, 1891. 26 Stat., L., 980-1005.) Executive order Apr. 
21, 1916, withdrawing 26,880 acres as Shebit or Shivwits 
Reservation. 

lUnsurveyed. 



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C01£MISSI01T£R OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 



105 



Table 6. — General data for each Indian reservation to June 80 ^ 1919 — Continued. 



Name of reservation and ; Area (unal- 



tribe. 



lotted). 



Treaties, laws, or other authorities relating to 
reserves. 



UTAH— continued . 
SkullVaUey 



Acres . 
18,640 

Uintah Valley ' 1 249,340 

(Under Uintah ana Ouray 

TriMs: Oosiate, Payant, 
Uinta, Yampa, Grand 
River Unoompahgre, 
and White River Ute. 



UnoompahKre 

(Under Uintah and Ouray 
Agency.) 
Trlhe: Tabequacho Ute. 



Total 

VASHOrOTOX. 



330,300 



ChflliaUs.., 



(Under Coshman School.) I 
Tribes: Chinook (Tsinuk), 
Clatsop, and Chehalis. i 



Cohimbia 

(Under ColvlUe Behool.) 
lYibe: Cohimbia (Hoses 
Band). 



ColviUe 

(Under Colville Agency.) 
Trtbes: Coeur d'Alene, 



Oraule, Sanpoa, and 
Spoloui. 



Hoh River 

(Under Neah Bay School.) 
Tribe: Hoh. 

Kalispel 

(Under Coeor d'Alene 
Agency, Idaho.) 

Klikltot..... 

(Ncnreservation; Warm 
SiHings, Oreg.) 

Lummi 

(Under Tulalip School.) 
Tribes; Dwamish, Etak- 
mur, Lummi, Snoho- 
mish, Sukwamishi and 
Swiwtimish.) 

Makah 

(Under Neah Bay School.) 
Tnbes: Makah and Qui- 
leute. 



> 10,312 



1 Partly surveyed. 



Reserved by Executive orders of Jan. 17, 1912, Sept. 7, 1917, 
and Feb. 18. 1918. 

Bxecative orders, Oct. 3, 1861; act of June 18, 1878 (20 Stats. 
165); acts of liay 5, 1864. vd. 13, p. 03, and May 24, 1888, 
vol. 25, p. 157; Joint resointion of June 19, 1902, vol. 32, p. 
744; act of Mar. 3, 1903, vol. 32, p. 997: Indian appropriation 
act approved Apr. 21. 1904, vol. 33, p. 907; Proident's 
proclamations of July 14, 1905, setting aside 1,010,000 acres 
as a forest reserve, 2,100 acres as town sites. 1.004,285 acres 
opened to homestead entry, 2,140 acres in mining claims: 
nnder act May 37, 1902 (32 G»ats., 263), 99,407 acres allotted 
to 1J284 Indians, and 60,160 acres nnder redamation, the 
residue, 179,194.66 acres, unallotted and mureserved. (See 
letter book 75, p. 308.) Exeeative order, Aug. 19, 1912, re- 
storing lands of Fort Duchesne Military Reservation to the 
supervision of Interior Department. 

Executive order, Jan. 5, 1882. (See act of June 15, 1880, rati- 
fying the agreement of Mar. 6, 1880, vol. 31, p. 199.) 12,540 
acres allotted to 83 Indians, remainder of reser vation re- 
stored to public domain, act of June 7, 1897, vol. 30, p. 62. 
(Letter book 403, p. 115.) Joint resolution of June 19, 1902, 
vol. 32, p. 744. 



Order of the Secretary of the Interior, July 8, 1864; Executive 
order, Oct. 1, 1886. 471 acres set aside for school purposes. 
The residue, 3,753.63 acres, restored to the public domain 
for Indian homestead entry. 36 Indians made homestead 
selections, covering all the land. (See letter book 152, p. 
201, and 153. p. 4&T 

Executive orders. Apr. 19, 1879, Mar. 6 , 1880, and Feb. S3, 
1883. (See Indian appropriation act of Julv 4, 1884, vol.23, 
p. 79.) Agreement made Julv 7, 1883, ratified by act of 
July 4, 1884, vol. 23, p. 79. Executive order May 1, 1886; 
Executive order of Mar. 9, 1894; department orders of 
Apr. 11, 1894, and Apr. 20, 1894, and Executive order of 
Jan. 19. 1896. 26,218 acres allotted to 35 Indians (see 
Executive older ofMay 21, 1886, and act of Mar. 8, 1906, 34 
Stats., 55). 

Executive orders, Apr. 9 and July 2, 1872: agreement made 
July 7. 1883, ratified by act of July 4, 1884, vol. 23. p. 79. 
Act of July 1, 1892, vol. 27, p. 62. (See acts of Feb. 20, 
1896, vol. 29. p. 9, and July 1, 1898, vol. 30, p. 593.) 51,6^ 
acres in north half allotted to 060 Indians (see letter book 
428, p. 100); remainder of north half, estimated at 1,440,268 
acres, opened to settlement Oct. 10, 1900 (see proclamation 
of the president, dated Apr. 10, 1900, 31 Stats., p. 1963). 
240 acres have been reserved for town sites. 2,750.82 acres 
temporailly withdrawn for town sites. 333,275 acres al- 
lotted to 2,921 Indians. The residue, 1,009,100 acres (esti- 
mated), unallotted. Act of Feb. 7, 1903. vol. 32, d. 803. 
Allotments made under act of Mar. 22, 1906 (34 Stat. L., 80), 
and act of June 25, 1910 (36 Stat. , 863). President's procla- 
mation, <H)ening reservation dated B(ay 3, 1916 (39 Stat., p. 
58 of procctmations), act Aug. 31, 1016 (39 Stat., 672). 

Executive order, Sept. 11, 18OT. 

Executive order, Mar. 23, 1914. 



townships in Gilliam County, Wash., set aside for allotment 
selection by about 200 Indians under sec. 4, act Feb. 8, 1887 
(24 Stat., 388). as amended. (See 80088-1912.) 

Treaty of Point Elliott, Jan. 22, 1855, vol. 12, p. 927; Executive 
order, Nov. 22, 1873. Allotted 12,560.94 acres to 109 Indians; 
school conducted on 2-acre tract purchased from John 
Martin. 



Treaty of Neah Bay, Jan. 31, 1855, vol. 12, p. 939; Executive 
orders, Oct. 26, 1872, Jan. 2 and Oct. ?1, 1873. 3,727 acres 
allotted to 373 Indians. (See letter book 960, 228 and 37679, 
1907.) 

* Outboundaries surveyed. 



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106 COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 

Table 6. — General data for each Indian reservation to June SOy 1919 — Continued. 



Nome of reservation and 
tribe. 



Treaties, laws, or other antborities relating to 
reserves. 



WASHiNQTON— continued. 



Muckleshoot 

(Under Cushnum School.) 
Tribe: Muckleehoot. 

Nisqualli 

(under Chishman School.) 
Tribes: Muckleshoot, 



Acres. 



Nisqualli, Puyallup, 
Skwawksnamish, Stall- 
akoom, and 5 others. 

O-ette 

(Under Neah Bay School.) 
Tribe: Ozette. 

Port Madison 

(Under TulaUp School.) 
Tribes: DwamiA, Etak- 
mur, Lummi, Snoho- 
mish, Sukwamish, and 
SwiwEimish. 

Puyallup 

(Under Cushman School.) 
Tribes: Muckleshoot, 
Nisqualli, Puyallup, 
Skwawksnamish, Stail- 
akoom, and 5 others. 




Quilente 

(Under Noah Bay School.) 
Tnbe: Quileute. 
Quinaielt 

(Under Cushman School.) 
Tribes: Quo! tso and Quin- 
aielt. 



Shoalwater 

(Under Cushman School.) 
Tribes: Shoalwater and 
Chehalis. 

Skokomish 

(Under Cushman School.) 
Tribes: Clallam, Skoko- 
mish, and Twana. 



SnohomiFh or Tulalip 

(Under TulaUp School.) 
Tribes: Dwamish, Etak- 
mur, Lummi, Snoho- 
mish, Sukwamish, and 
Swiwamish. 

Spokane 

(Under Spokane Agency.) 
Tribe: Spokan. 



Squaxon Island (Klahchemln) 
(Under Cushman School.) 
Tribes: Nisqualli, Puyal- 
lup. Skwawksnamish, 
Stailakoom, and 5others. 

Swinomish ( Perrys Island) 

(Under Tulalip SchooL) 
Tribes: Dwami^, Etak- 
mur, Lummi, Snoho> 
mish, Sukwemoish, and 
Swiwamish. 



Executive orders, Jan. 20. 1857, and Apr. 0, 1S74. 44 Indians 
have been allotted 3,532.72 acres. 

Treaty of Medicine Creek, Dec. 28, 1854, vol. 10, p. 1132; Exec- 
utive order, Jan. 20, 1857. Land all allotted. 4,718 acres to 
30 Indians. 



Executive order, Apr. 2, 1893. 



Treaty of Point Elliott, Jan. 22. 1855, vol. 12, p. S27: order of 
the Secretary of the Interior, Oct. 21, IfM. 7,219 acres 
allotted to 51' Indians; the residue, 65 acres, unallotted. 



Treaty of Medicine Creek, Dec. 26, 1854, vol. 10, p. 11S2: Ex- 
ecutive orders, Jan. 20, 1857, and Sept. 6, 1873. 17,463 
acres allotted to 167 Indians. Agreement made Nov. 21, 
1876, ratified bv act of Feb. 20, 1893, vol. 27, p. 464. (For 
text see annual report 1893, p. 518. ) The residue. 599 acres 
laid out as an addition to the city of Taooma. has been sold, 
with the exception of 39.79 acres reserved for school, and 
19. 13 acres for church and cemetery purposes, under acts of 
Mar. 3, 1893 (27 Stat., 633, June 7, 1897; 30 Stats., 62), and 
act of June 21, 1906 (34 Stats., 377). 

Executive order, Feb. 19, 1889. 

Treaties of Olympia, July 1, 1855, and Jan. 25, 1850, vol. 12, 

SI. 971 ; Executive order, Nov. 4, 1873. Under acts of Feb. 
, 1887 (24 Stats., 388). and Feb. 28, 1891 (26 Stats., 794). 690 
Indians have been allotted 54,989.80 acres and 456.56 have 
been reserved for agencv, lighthouse, and other purposes, 
leaving unallotted and unreserved 168,553 acres. Act Mar. 
4,1911 (36 Stat., 1545). 
» 335 Executive order, Sept. 22, 1866, 55,535-7-1909. 



I 



Treatv of Point No Point, Jan. 26, 1855, vol. 12, p. 933; Ex- 
ecutive order, Feb. 25, 1874. Allotted in treaty reserve 
4,990 acres; residue, none. (See L. B., 895, p. 268.) Allot- 
ted in Executive order addition, known as the Fisher ad- 
dition, 814 acres; residue, none. (L. B., 895, p. 285.) 62 
allotments. 

Treaty of Point Elliott, Jan. 22, 1855, vol. 12, p. 927; Execu- 
tive order, Dec. 23, 1873. 22,166 acres allotted to 164 In- 
dians. 



Executive order, Jan. 18, 1881. Agreement made Mar. 18, 
1887, ritificl by Indian appropriation act approved July 
13, 1892, vol. 27, p. 139. (For text see Ann. Rept^ 1892, 
p. 743. ) Joint resolution of Congress of June 19, 1902, vol. 
33, p. 744. Under act of May 29, 1908 (35 Stat. L., 458), 
approximately 628 Indians have been allotted 65,114 acres, 
and 1,247.30 acres set aside for diurch, school, agencv, and 
town-site purposes. By proclamation of May 22, 1900, the 
President opened the surplus lands to settlement. 5,781 
acres classified as agricultural land, 82,647.50 acres classi- 
fied as timt)or reserved for tribal use. 

Treatv of Medicine CYeek, Doc. 26. 1854, vol. 10, p. 1132; land 
aii allotted, 1,494.15 acres, to 23 Indians. 



Treaty of Point Elliott, Jan. 22, 18c5, vol. 12, p. 927; Execu- 
tive order, Sept. 9, 1873. Allotted, i,359 acres to 71 Indians; 
reserved for scliool, 89.80 acres. 



» Surveyed. 



* OutbOQsdaries surveyed. 



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Google 



COMMISSIONER OF IlfDIAN AFFAIRS. 107 

Table 6. — General data for rack Indian reserration to June SOy i9i^— Continued. 



Name of mervatioii and 
tribe. 



Area (unal- 
lotted). 



Treaties, laws, or other authorities relating to 
reserxes. 



WASHWOTOw—continned. 



Yakima. 

(Under Yakima School) 
Tribes: Klikitat, PiOoos. 
Toraish, Waaoo^ and 



Acres. 
M12,404 



Total. 



1,600.166 



Lac Court OrelUe 

(Under Hayward School.) 
Tribe: Lac Qoxut Oreille 
Band of Chippewa of 
Lake Superior. 

Lac du Flambeau 

(Under Lac du Flambeau 
School.) 
Tribe: Lac du Flambeau 
Band of Chippewa of 
Lake Superior. 

La Pointe (Bad River).. 



(Under La Pointe Agency.) 
Tribe: La Pointe Bond 
of (Chippewa of Lake 
Superior. 



Potawatomi. 

RedCUff. 

(Under Rod Cliff Agency.) 
Tribe: La Pointe Band 
(Buflalo (Hiief) of Chip- 
pewa of Lake Superior. 



Ifanomlnee 

(Under Eeshena SchooL) 
Tribe: lienominee. 

Oneida 

(Under Oneida SchooL) 
Tribe: Oneida. 



Stockbrldce 

(Under Keshena SchooL) 
Tribes: Stockbridge and 
Monsee. 



Total 

> Partly sorvejmL 



•540 



24,424 



13,030 



« 231, 680 
151 



270,725 



Treaty of Walla Walla, June 0. 1855, vol. 12, p. 051. Agree- 
ment made Jan. 13, 1885,ratificd by Indian approprfaUion 
act approved Mar. 3, 1803. vol. 27. p. 631. (For text see 
ML<;c. Indian Docs., voL 41, p. 227; see also Ann. Rept, 
18S3, pp. 520-521, and S. Ex. Docs. No. 21, 40th Cjng., 1st 
s(ss., and No. 45, 50th Cong.. 1st sess.) Exccuti\'e order. 
Nov. 28, 1802. Agreement, Jan. 8, 1804, ratified by act of 
Aug. 15, 1804, voL 28, p. 320. 206,407 acres aUotted t3 3,137 
Indians, and 1,000.24 acres reserved for agency, church, and 
school purposes. (See letter books 354, p. 410: 416, p. 263, 
and m, p. 243.) Act of Dec 21. 1004 (33 Stats., 605), recog> 
nizing claim of Indians to 303,837 acres add! tional land, sub- 
ject to the right of bsna fide settlors orpurohasors, acquired 



0262-14.) 



Treaty of Sept. 30. 1854, voL 10, p. 1100; lands withdrawn by 
Cieneral Land Office, Nov. 26. 1860, Apr. 4, 1865. (Bee re- 
port by Secretary of the Interior, Mar. 1, 18f3. ) Act of May 
20, 1872, voL 17, p. 100. 68,511 acres all Jttod to 872 Indians. 
Act of Feb. 8. 1903, voL 32, p. 705. (See 06927-1015.) 

Treaty of Sept. 30, 1864, voL 10, p. 1100, lanod selected by 
Indians. (See report of Supt. Thompson, Nov. 14, 18G3, 
and report to Secretary of the Interior, June 22, 1866. Doi> 
partment order of June 26, 1866. Act of May 20, 1872. 
voL 17. p. 100. 45,756 acres allotted to 600 Indiana; act of 
Feb. 3, 1003 (32 Stats., 705), leaving unallotted 24,424 
acres. 

Treaty of Sept. 30. 1854, voL 10, p. 1100. 368.01 acres patented 
under art. 10; 105.71 acres fishing ground. 115J)6b acres al- 
lotted to 1,61 Indians. (See letter to General Land O fHce, 
Sept. 17, 1850, and letter book 381, p. 40.) Acts of Feb. 
11, 1001 (31 Stats., 766), Mar. 2, 1907 (34 Stats., 1217). and 
Aug. 1, 1014 (38 Stats., 582-605), leaving unallotted and 
tmreser\'ed school and swamp lands, 13,930 acres. 

Act June 30, 1013 (38 Stats., 7M02). which authorized the 
purchase of land in Wisconsin and Michigan fur $1 £0,000. 

Treaty of Sept. 30, 1854, voL 10, p. 1100; Executive order, 
Feb. 21, 1856. (See Indian Offlcelettors of Sept. 3. 1856, and 
Mav 25, 1863, and General Land Office letter of May 27, 
1863. See Executive orders. See report of Supt. Thomp- 
son. Mav 7, 1863. Lands withdrawn by General I^and 
Olnce May 8 and June 3, 1868.) 2,535.01 acres allotted 
to 35 Indians under treaty; of the residue 11,566.00 acres 
were aUotted to 160 Indians under Joint resolution of Feb. 
20. 1895, voL 28, p. 070, and 4ai0 acres were reserved for 
school purposes. 

Treaties of Oct. 18, 1848. voL 0, p. 052; of May 12, 1854, voL 
10. p. 1064, Feb. 11, 1856^ voL 11, p. 670, and May 18, 1016 
(30 fetats^ 123-153). 

Treaty of Feb. 3, 1838, voL 7, p. 566. 66,428.13 acres allotted 
to 1,502 Indians; remainder, 84.06 acres, reserved for school 
purposes. 6 double aU^tments canceled a>ntainiiig 151 
acres (see 5013-1012). Trust period on 35 allotments ex- 
tended 10 years; Executive order, May 24. 1918. 

Treaties of Nov. 24, 1848, vol. 0, p. 136; Feb. 5, 1856, vol. 11, 
p. 663, and of Feb. 11, 1856, vol. 11, p. 670; act of Feb. 6, 
1871, vol. 16, p. 404. (For area, see act of June 22. 1874, vol. 
18, p. 174.) 167 Indians allotted 8,920 acres. Patents in 
fee. act June 21, 1006 (34 Stats., 382). Act of Mar. 3, 1M3 
(27 Stat., 744). 



'Surveyed* 



• Ontbomidaries surveyed. 



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Google 



108 GOMMISSIOKEB OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 

Table 6. — Cttneral data for each Indian reservation to June SO, 79/9— Continued. 



Name of reservation and 
tribe. 



WYOMINO. 



Wind River 

(Under Shoshono SchooL) 
Tribes: Northern Arapano 
and Eastern Band of 
Shoahoni. 



Total 

Grand total. 



Area (unal- 
lotted). 



Acres. 
1584,040 



1,270,199 



1,855,139 



35,760,060 



Treaties, laws, or other authorities relating to 
reserves. 



Treaty of July 3, 1868, vol. 15. p. 673; acts of June 22, 1874, voL 
18, p. 166, and Dec. 1£, 1874. vol. 18, p. 281; Executive order 
May 21, 1887. Agreement made Apr. 21, 1896, amended 
and accepted by act of June 7, 1866 (vol 30, p. 93); amend- 
ment accepted oy Indians Jmy 10^ 1897. (See Land Div. 
letter boofc 350, p. 468.) Act of Mar. 3, 1905, ratiiying and 
amending agreement with Indians of Apr. 21, 1904. (See 
voL 33, p. 1016.) President's proclamation June 2, 1906, 
opening ceded part to settlement. It contained 1.472,844.15 
acres. rSee letter book 866, p. 157.) Reserved for Mail 
Gamp, 120 acres; reserved for Mail (^amp Park, 40 acres; 
reserved for bridge purposes, 40 acres. Subject t3 disposi- 
tion under Preadent's proclamation, 1,438,633.66 acres. 
2M,822 acres were allotted to 2,401 Indians, and 1,792,05 
acres were reser^'ed for agency, school, church, and ceme- 
tery purposes, under acts of Feb. 8, 1887 (24 Stats., 388), 
as amended by act of Feb. 28, 1891 (26 Stats., 794), and 
treaty of July 3. 1868 (15 Stats., 673), lea\'ine unidiotted 
and unreserved 884,940acre8. Act of Aug. 21, 1914 (39 Stat., 
£11), mining, oil, and gas lands. 

Coded. 



1 Partly surveyed. 

Table 7. — Lande set apart during fiscal year ended June SO, 1919, for temporary use and 
occupancy by mission organizations. 



States and reservations. 


Organiiation. i Act and citation. fJjSn. 


Acre- 
age. 


Totftl 


f 


111.64 




1 


Policy... 




Ariaona: Navajo— 

Chin T^ee 


Board of Home Missionsof the Presby- 
terian Church in the United States 
of America. 

St. Paul's Catholic Mission 

Board of Home Missionsof the Presby- 
terian Church in the United States 
States of America. 

Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions 




»inn 


Montana: 

Fort Belknap 

Fort Peck 


May 'so," '1908 (35' 

Stat., 568). 


I 

...do ; 2.50 

...do 


Tongue River 

North Dakota: Standing 
Rock. 


...do 


21.14 
51.00 


Domestic and Foreign Missionary So- 
ciety of the Protestant Bpiaoopal 
Church in the United Stetes of 
America. 


Feb. 14, 1913 (37 
Stat.,67&^6). 


...do 


40.00 



Digitized by 



Google 



COUfillSSIOKEB OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 



109 



Table 8. — Patents in fee issued to mission organizations during fiscal year ended June 

SO, 1919. 



SUtes and resorvattons. 


Organization. 


Act. 


Citation. ^^ 


Total 








644.94 




1 


36 Stat., 814... 


North Dakota: Fort 
Totten. 


Bureau of CathoUc Indian Missions. . . 
do 


Mar. 3, 1909.. 


153.85 
80.00 


Oregon: Warm Springs. 
Sonth Dakota: Pine 


Board of Home Misstons of the Presby- 
terian Church in the United States 
of America. 

Women's General Missionary Society 
of the United Presbyterian Churdh 
of North America. 

Domestic and Foreign Missionary 
Society of the ProteSant Episcopal 
Chnid^ in the United l3^tes of 
America. 

1 


Mar. 3, 1909... 

do 

do 


35 Stat., 811... 

do 

do 


325.00 

6.09 

80.00 


Ridge. 









Table 9. — Indians engaged in industries other than farming and stock raising during 
fiscal year ended June SO, 1919, 



States and superintendendes. 



Industry. 



Nimiber 
engaged. 



Value of 
products. 



Total, 1919.. 
1918.. 
1917.. 
1916.. 
1915.. 
1914.. 
1913.. 
1912.. 
1911.. 
1900.. 
1890.. 



Arizona 

Camp Verdo. 



Total 

Colorado River. 



Total. 



Havasupai.. 

Kalbab 

Leupp 



Total. 
Moqui. . 



Total. 
Nav^o. 

Total. 



Basket making.. 
Woodcutting.... 



Basket making.. 

Beadwork 

Woodcutthig.... 



Basket making.... 

do 

Blanket weaving.. 
Others 



Basket making.... 
Blanket weaving. , 

Pottery 

Woodcutting , 

Others 



Blanket weaving. , 
Others 



20,636 
26,433 
26,657 
26,056 
27,927 
22,968 
24,490 
22,564 
21,235 



81,642,135 

1,080,369 

1,316,112 

1,206,826 

1.177,600 

1, 194, 185 

1.316.298 

1.211,335 

847.456 

177, 169 

131,374 



8,732 


447,863 


45 
' 6 


675 
210 


51 


885 


20 
75 
120 


600 
1.500 
18,000 


215 


20,000 


39 
20 
365 
100 


525 

150 

20,000 

4,500 


465 


24,600 


75 

250 

25 

135 

2,130 


2,000 

26,000 

1,200 

1.185 

59,615 


2,515 


90.000 


600 
85 


135,000 
8,800 


685 


143,800 



^Estimated. 



Digitized by 



Google 



110 



COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 



Table 9. — Indians enoaged in industries other than farming and stock raising during 
fiscal year ended June SO, i9iP—- Continued. 



states and superint^ndencies. 



Arixona— Continued . 
Fima 



Total 

Salt River. 



Total 

San Carlos. 



Total. 
Sells*.-., 



Total 

Truxton Canon. , 



Total 

Western Navajo. 



Total. 

California... 

Bishop. 



Total 

I>lgger 

Fort Bid well. 



Total 

Fort Yuma.. 



Total.... 
Greenville. 



Total 

Hoopa Valley. 



Industry. 



Basket making i 

Pottery 1 

Woodcutting.... 



Basket making.. 

Pottery 

Woodcutting.... 



Basket making.. 

Bead work 

Woodcutting 



Basket making.. 
Woodcutting.... 
Others 



Basket making.. 
Woodcutting.... 
Others 



Basket making.... 

Blanket weaving. , 
Woodcutting...... 

Others 



Basket making.. 
Woodcutting.... 



Basket making.. 



....do 

Beadwork..... 
Woodcutting , 
Others 



Beadwork 

Pottery 

Woodcutting.. 



Baket making.. 

Fishing 

Woodcutting... 
Others 



Basket making.. 

Fishing 

Woodcutting.... 
Others 



Number 



Value of 
products. 



Total ! 

Malki Woodcutting 

» 1918 report. « Formerly San Xavier. 



1,050 
200 
350 



1,600 



54 

5 

123 



182 



200 
50 
200 



450 ; 



750 i 
400 
50 



1.200 I 



30 j 
30 I 
100 



160 



75 
900 

50 
125 



1,150 
1,623 



$10,500 
350 



10,850 



975 

48 

7,380 



8,403 



800 

150 

14,000 



14,950 



15,000 

45.000 

1,500 



61,500 



300 
3,000 
5,000 



8,300 



500 

60,000 

2,000 

1,500 



64,000 
147,318 



25 
30 


175 
3,000 


55 


3,175 


4 


100 



100 

; 50 

150 
' 50 


2,000 
1,250 
10,000 
1,700 


350 


14,950 


1 25 


1,200 

1,000 

500 


51 


2,700 


30 
100 
100 
500 


1,000 

3,000 

5,000 

100,000 


730 


103,000 


75 

100 

20 

10 


1,000 

500 

1,600 

5.000 


205 


8,100 


10 


1.000 



Digitized by 



Google 



COMMISSIONEB OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 



Ill 



Table 9. — Indians engaged in industriu other than farming and stock raising during 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1919 — Continued. 



States and superintendencies. 


Industry. 


Number 
engaged. 


Vahieof 
products. 


CalilomJa— Continaed. 

Pala t 




46 

32 

2 

15 


$700 




T*ace making 


463 




Potteiy 


1ft 




Woodcutting 


l,4dB 






Total 


95 


2.673 




Basket making 


Solwba 


32 
1 
20 
24 
2 


1,186 




Beadvork 


'a 




Lace making 


1,475 
1 965 




Woodcutting 




Others 7. 


'60 








Total 


79 


4,708 




Basket making 


Tule River 


24 
20 


192 




Woodcutting 


720 








Total 


44 

30 

257 


912 


Colorado: SoathemUte 


Beadwork 


500 


Idabo 




33,050 




Beadwork 


Cocurd'Alcne 


8 
1 


200 




Woodcutting 


10,000 
7; 100 




Others 






Total 


40 


17,300 




Basket making 1 


Fort Hall 


20 
45 
150 


200 




Beadwork * 


600 




Others 


14,700 








Total 


215 


15,500 




Wnodt^uttinff ... . 




Fort Lapwai 


2 

70 


250 


Iowa 


1,850 




Beadwork* « 




Sac and Fo* t-.... 


25 
45 

2 

2«0 


250 




Others 


1,600 
3,000 
35,870 


Kansas: PotAwfttnm! - . ^ ........ r t ....... . 


dn-. 


Michigan 




Basket maklnc 




Mackinac. ....... ^ . 


10 

75 

5 

200 

2,479 


70 




Fishing 


20,000 




Woodcutting 


800 




Others 


15,000 


Minnesota 




125,891 




Basket making 




Grand Portage 


5 
21 
38 


75 




Fishing 


10,000 
4,140 




Others 








Total 


64 


14,215 




Beadwork 




Leech Lake 


100 

400 

25 

50 

1600 


2,000 




Fishing 


7,000 
420 




Lace inakinE 




Woodcuttinc 


5,000 
27,500 




Others 








Total 


1,175 


41,920 




Others 




Nett J^ke 


112 
120 

'?? 

8 


3,850 

i,"ooo 

10,872 
7 87ft 


Red Lake 


Beadwork 




Fishing 




Woodcutting 




thers 


290 








Total 


333 


20,046 









1 Estimated. 



> Overestimated last year. 



Digitized by 



Google 



112 COMMISSIONEB OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 

Table 9. — Indians enaaged in indtutriu other t?ian farming and stock raiting during 
fiscal year ended Jun£ SO, 1919 — Continued. 



States and superintendendes. 



Minnesota— Contlnaed. 
Whit© Earth 



Total. 
Montana... 



Blackfeet. 
Crow 



Flathead. 



Total 

Fort Belknap. 



Total.... 
Fort Peck. 



Total 

Rocky Boy's Agency. 



Total 

Tongue River. 



Total. 
Nebraska. . . 



Omaha 

Winnebago. 



Nevada 

FortMcDermitt. 



Total 

Moapa River. 



Total.. 
Nevada. 



Total 

Walker River. 



Industry. 



Basket making.. 

Beadwork 

Laoe making... 

Fishing 

Woodcutting.... 
Others 



Woodcutting.. 
Others 



Beadwork.... 

Woodcutting.. 
Others 



Woodcutting.. 
Others 



Beadwork 

Woodcutting 1. 
Others 



Beadwork.... 
Woodcutting- 
Others 



Beadwork 1... 

Woodcutting.. 



Others. 
....do.. 



Woodcutting.. 
Others 



Basket making.. 
Woodcutting.... 
Others 



Basket making.. 

Beadwork 

Fishing 



Basket making.. 

Beadwork 

Fishing 

Woodcutting.... 

Total 

Western Shoshone I Basket making.. 

1 Estimated. 



Number 



50 
100 

10 
400 
200 

35 



Value of 
products. 



7«5 . 

603 ' 



30 : 

4 



$100 

3,000 

200 

5,000 

10,000 

27,560 



45,869 
47,450 



9,000 
3,000 



< 50 

20 

4 


3,000 
7,000 
4; 000 


74 

1 


14,000 


1 15 
\ 150 


350 
3,160 


I 165 

1 


3,510 


1 25 
30 
60 


2,500 
1,500 
10,000 


! 115 


14,000 


' 52 
17 
16 


960 

1,340 

450 


1 85 


2,750 


«5 

35 


390 
800 


i ;^ 


1 ion 



. 


10,380 


10 

404 


115,580 
13,800 

8,450 


10 
20 


1,125 
175 



30 1 1,300 


' 15 

3 

20 


200 
85 
100 


38 


385 


1 30 
30 
50 


400 

250 

2,500 


110 


3,150 



100 
50 
50 
6 


1,110 
105 

1,600 
500 


206 


3,315 


20 


300 



Digitized by 



Google 



COMMISSIONKB OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 



113 



Tabus 9. — Indiana 



led in industriez other than farming and stock raising during 
I yeat ended June 30 , /Pi9— -Continued. 



States and superintendende}. 



NeirMexioo.. 
Jlcarilla.. 



Total.... 
Mescalero.. 



Total 

Pueblo Bonito.. 



Total 

Pueblo Day Scbools. 



Total... 
San Jaan. 



Total. 
Zunl 



Industry 



Basket making ^ 

Beadwork 

Woodcutting.... 
Othera 



Basket making.. 

Beadwork 

Woodcutting.... 
Others 



Blanket weaving i 

Woodcutting 

Others 



Basket making.... 

Beadwork 

Blanket weaving. . 

Pottery 

Woodcutting 

Others 



Blanket weaving.. 
Others 



Beadwork 

Blanket weaving. . 

Pottery 

Woodcutting 



Total 

North Dakota |. 

Standing Bock ! Beadwork. 



Woodcutting.. 
Others 



I 



Total 

Turtle Koontain i Woodcutting.. 

Oklahoma ' 

Cantonment Beadwork 

I 

Kiowa. ! Woodcutting! 

Others 



Total. 



Otoe I Others 

Pawnee. ! do 

Soger ' Beadwork.. 



Oregon 

Klamath. 



Total. 



Basket making.. 
Woodcutting... 



Sfletx. I Basket making.. 

I Woodcutting.... 
Others 



Total. 



Number ■ Value of 
engaged, products. 



6,264 


1837,180 


35 

ao 

4 
19 


600 

200 

300 

1,850 


88 


2,850 


40 
30 
40 
15 


1,000 
600 
150 

150 


125 


1,800 


> 800 

60 

340 


180,000 
1,000 
19,400 


1,200 


200,400 



•si 

820 

22 I 
84 i 



2,000 1 
600 1 



2,600 I 



200 j 
410 ' 



35 



lErttmated. 



sKo record. 



'Unknown. 



125 

600 

505 

8,680 

i;740 

6 785 



091 I 17,080 



100,000 

5,000 



105,000 



SO 


300 


10 


100 


ISO 


750 


50 


8,000 



9,150 
2,800 



50 
10 1 
50 


200 

100 

2, SCO 


110 


2,800 


300 

462 


22,435 


200! 


(') 


30 
5 


3,300 
3; 160 



6,660 



72 

1 
154 

548 


10,000 

6,775 

39,155 


175 
60 


4,375 
22,550 


235 


26,925 


10 
8 
20 


180 

600 

1,600 


38 


2,380 



Digitized by 



Google 



114 



COMMISSIONEE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 



Table 9. — Indians encaged in industries other than farming and stock raising during 
fiscal year ended June SO, 1919 — Continued. 



States and superlntendencies. 



Industry. 



Number 
engaged. 



Value of 
products. 



Oregon— Continued. 
Un " 



JmatiUa. 



Total 

Warm Springs.. 



Total.... 
South Dakota. 



Cheyenne Rlvtf . 
Crow Creek 



Flandreau. 



Total 

Lower Brule.. 



Total 

Pine Ridge. 



Total. 



Utah 

Shivwits,. 



Total 

Uintah and Ouray.. 



Total.. 
Washington. 

Colville.. 



Total... 
Cushman. 



Total.... 
Neah Bay . 



Total-., 
Spokane. 
Taholah. 



Beadwork 

Woodcutting.. 



Beadwork 

Woodcutting.. 
Others 



Beadwork., 
....do 



do.. 

Others. 



Beadwork 

Woodcutting.. 



Beadwork 

Woodcutting.. 
Others 



Basket making.. 
Woodcutting.... 



Basket making.. 
Beadwork 



Basket making.. 

Beadwork 

Woodcutting.... 
Others 



Basket making.. 

Fishing 

Woodcutting.... 
Others 



Basket making.. 

Fishing.... 

Others 



Woodcutting.... 

Basket making., 

Fishing 

Woodcutting.... 
Others 



Total. 
Tulalip. 

Total. 



Basket making.. 

Fishing 

Woodcutting.... 
Others 



I 
1 Estimated. 



25 



100 



175 
972 



38 



297 
409 
137 



843 
6S 



35 



33 I 
1.434 i 



343 



2") 



74 
95 . 
33 ■ 

22| 



224 



20 I 
57 
18 
10 



IM 



$1,750 
2,400 



4,160 



500 
4,200 
1,000 



5,700 
60,446 



100 
300 



UOO 
1900 



1,000 



100 
210 



310 



4,376 

8,860 

45,500 



58,730 
1,450 



150 
600 



750 



200 
500 



700 
178,625 



400 

480 

16,000 

22,480 



! 161 


39,360 


! 55 

i ^» 

! 23 


832 

1,230 

400 

21,000 


i 106 


23,462 


! 135 
1 112 


» 6,900 

128,800 

19,900 



55,600 



2,400 



2,450 

20,900 

l,3.'i6 

600 



25,306 



160 

20,230 

3,107 

1,500 



24,flfl7 



Digitized by 



Google 



COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 



115 



TABI.E 9. — Indians engafid in industries other than farming and stock raising during 
fiscal year ended June SO, 1919 — Continued. 





Industry. 


Number 
engaged. 


Value of 
products. 


VaViinii ■. ........ 


'R^<iFV4^t ma^nff I . ... 


50 
300 
100 

20 


$400 
1,600 
1,000 
4,600 




Beadworki 




Pirfilng ... 










Total 


470 
2,918 


7,500 
126,222 


WbconsiQ 






^asV et laaMng ,. 


Orand Rapids 


60 

8 



15 

480 


2,400 
45 




Readwork ........:;. 




Fijjhfng 


1,870 
1 100 




Woodcutting 




Others 


35,000 






Total 


572 


40.415 




Beadwork 


Hayrvard , 


60 
500 

75 
600 


800 




Fishing 


1,000 
5,000 




Woodcutting 




Others :. 


4,350 






Total 


1,236 1 11,150 




W<WMlAiittin<r. . 


Kefihena. 


25 1 4,272 
100 1 2,500 










Total 


125 


6,772 




BasVet maHng. 


Lac da Flambeau 


150 
300 
100 
100 
120 


2,000 

3,000 

14,200 

10.000 




Beadwork.... r. 




Fishing 




Woodcutting 




Othera 


720 








Total 


770 


19,920 




Basket making. 


LaPointe 


5 OJM 




Beadwork 


9 

1 

7 

12 


350 




Fishing 


2,250 
6,000 
16,800 




Woodcutting 




Others 








T»tal 


34 


V* 650 




BftsVflt mftVing 1 




Ondda 


50 
75 

1 


^000 

(•) 




T-ace making « . . . 




Others 






Total 


126 


3.000 




T^ace making . 


Red Cliff 


3 
20 
10 
23 


40 




Fishing 


9,000 
to 000 




Woodcutting 




ot^s: . : : 


275 








Total 


56 


19,315 
8.200 


IVyonitng , 






Woodcutting 


Shoshone 


16 
40 


1,200 
2,000 




Others 







RECAPITULATION. 



Total. 



Grand total... 



Basket making. . . , 

Beadwork 

Blanket weaving. . 

FishLog 

Lace wift ir iTig 

Pottery 

Woodcutting 

Others 



3,884 
2,806 
4,926 
2,327 
165 
1,208 
3,700 
7,620 



63,055 
40,453 
521, 150 
150,952 
5,596 
12,043 
291,225 
567,659 



26,636 I 1,642,135 



> Estimated. 



» No report. 

Digitized by 



Google 



116 



COIAMISSIOHBB OF IJnMLkK AFFAIBS. 



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Digitized by 



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COMMISSION£B OF IKDUIT AFFAIBS. 



117 



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Digitized by 



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118 



COMMISSIOlfER OF INDIAN^ AFFAIRS. 









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OOMMISSIOlSrSB OF DfDUlf AFFAIBS. 



121 



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COMMISSIONEB OF Il(n>IA2T AFFAIBS. 



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COMMISSIONER OF IKDIAK AFFAIBS.- 



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130 



COBIMISSIONEK OF IWDIAN AFFAIBS. 



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Si 

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8$g§ I 
8 §■• ^ 






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S SS§9g3§i§ 



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COMMISSMmSB OF INDIAIT AVFAQtS.^ 



131 






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s¥g«8" 



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ss 



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3" I 



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Si i 
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csissfsg I 



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Pi 



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II 
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132 GOMMISSIO^^ OF nSTDIAN AFFAIBS. 

Tablb IZ^-^Employment of Indians during fiscal year ended June SO, 1919, 



states aad saperin- 
tcndoDoifls. 



Total em 
ployed. 



Num- 
ber. 



Earn- 
ings. 



Indians employed by United 
States Indian SeiTloe. 



Recular em- 
ployees. 



Num- 
ber. 



Sam- 



IrreKular 
ployea 



loyees. 



Num-> Eam- 
ber. ! ings. 



Employed by private parties. 



Adults. 



Num- 
ber. 



Barn- 



Minors or 
outing pupils. 



Num- 
ber. 



Xaroh 
iags. 



Total, 1019. 
1918. 
1917.. 
1916:. 
1915. 
1914. 
1918. 
1912. 
1911. 
1900. 



3?'2»?: 



Arizona. 



34,932 
85,946 
3S,6ffl 
23,440 
32,798 
22,421 
11,781 
2,901 

5,906 



,599,190 
3,199,850 
2,506,967 
2,878.877 
2,904,3Sg 
2,127,403 
2,065,1M 
1.940,414 
1,861,680 
' 958,573 

688,160 



2,26811, 

2,579 1, 

2,137 

2,115 

2,538 

3,319 

2,271 

2,516 

1,996 

2,094 



194, 

003, 
979, 



89011; 

316 11, 
78312,831 



,607 
,947 



1455,990 11, OOSJIl, 
--^—10,220! 1, 



01313, 



96018, 



940, 

810, 

762,264 

732, 

687,099 

749,148 



922,786^14,587 

,968 

J, 218 

12,590 

526^12,420 

6,582 



409,636 
383,873 
427,689 
414,422 
505,402 
414,706 
432,470 
582.919 



144,346 



2,748j 75,211 



8,215 
«,992 
6,899 
5,553 
6,585 
5,113 
3,204 

= 
M73 



Camp Verde 

Colorado River... 

FortApaeiM 

FertMbJsnPB 

Havasupat 

Kalbab 

Leupp 

Moqui. 

Navajo. 

Phoeoilz 

Pima. 

Salt River........ 

San Carlos. 

Sells^ 

Tnizton Canon.. 
Western Navajo.. 



IS 

186 

1,485 

89 

55i 

761 

172, 

206' 

370 

285 

59 

513 

668 

1,889; 

46 

337 



33,270 

78.045 

89,615 

4,318 

4,399 

4,107 

19,553 

18,166 

89,458 

27,087 

23,649 

45,882 

41,318 

287,368 

4,367 

37,558 



California. 



3,42a 511,664 



4 
11] 

3 

1 

19 
38 
67 
21 
39 

9 
43 
13 

5 
16 

109 



Bisliop. 

Campo 

Dtasr 

FwtBtdwBll.. 
FortTuma — 

OraenviUe 

Hoops Valley. 
Main..... . 

Paia.. 



Round Valley^ 

flberman Insiitate . 

Sobdba. 

Tula River 



Colorado. 



30 

57, 

55. 

450 

579 

512' 

526: 

283 

370! 

33 

2731 

238 

113' 

I 

116 



4,615 

7,075 
31,870 
30,600 
83,324 
183,460 
48,093 
41,6351 
43,743 

3,661 
26,275 
52,452 

8,861 

9,755 



Southern Ute. 
Utol 



Florida: Seminole.. 
Idaho 



Ooenrd'Alens... 

Fort Hall 

FortLapwai 

Iowa: Bac and Fox.. 

Kansas 



Haskell Institute.. 
Klokapoo 




1,560 
7,430 
16,664 
3,730 
1,320 
340 

^'\^ 

13,608 

83,869 

10,630 

19,350 

2,760 

12,118 

4,452 

3,000 

6,106 



1,400 



19 

49 

113 

167 

802 

109 

30 

33 

300 

37 

41 

119 



48,460 448 



1, 
1,500 



2, 
23,551 



119 
119 



191 
1,002 
6,550 
4,558 
6,289 
1,021 
4,290 
1,372 
13,000 
5,O«0 
1,367 
4,100 

28,883 



459 
825 



154 
2,374 



55 



929,166 
620,002 
009,035 
882,784 
838,218 
689,517 
778,117 
673,289 
691,672 
177,169 

436,979 



1,365 
2,486 
2,259 
2,254 
3,281 
2,350 
2,647 
2,875 

9n 



$109,a4 
106,896 
153,866 
145,168 
121,686 
121,444 
116, OBT 
102,129 



(•) 
2r,J 



855 31,714 



31,710 
66,920 



2,888 

2,235 

750 



17 
82* 



1 
155 



39,200 

16,200 

352,376 



24,700 
378»620 



1,900 
K^ 
3, 
14, 
3,708 
4,248 
2,460 
5,300 
4,956! 
860 

4,920! 



3,700! 
8,634 
4,280 
7,966 
27 
1,250 
201 



540 
301 



4,255 lOl 



75 
20i 



2,855 
1,400 



26i; 11,206 



257 



450 
10,766 



396 



54 

55i 
350 
444 
410 
250 
267 
2U 



208 
96 



5,575 
81,870 
18,000 
67,880 
108,550 
32,900 
87,900 
37,005 



30' 

I. 

*r 



45,740 
8,366 

580 



580 



185 



3,306 
16,000 



16,000 



.1. 



1 Does not molade about 10,000 Indians enlisted In tin Amy aad Navy. 
t Included vlth adults by private parties. 
< No data available. 
* Formerly San Xavisr. 



730 
3,335 



15,3 



12 2,500 

soj's.'soo 

*48" 2,656 
497j 57,751 



22! 3,190 



70 

35 



7,000 



70 21,090 



8,000 
210 



264) 30.975 
15| 1.216 



79' 2,807 



79 2,807 



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OOMKISSIONER OF INDUJS AFFAIBS. ISS 

'Fable IZ.^^EmplaymeTU of Indians during JUcal ytar ended June SO, 1919 — Continued. 





Total em- 


Btates Indian Service. 


Emptoyed by private parties. 


fttntegindniperlii- 
trndeootes. 


ptoyed. 


Besulareni' 
ployeea. 


IrrcKular en- 
pOoyees. 


Adults. 


Minors or 
outing pupils. 


/ 


Num- 
ber. 


taS" 


Nmn- 
ber. 


Bam- 
ittgs. 


Num- 
ber. 


Sam- 
inga. 


Num- 


Earn- 
ings. 


Num- 
ber. 


Earn- 
tngs. 


Mh^Minini T. 


21 


$8,897 


18 


18,780 


3 


8117 




















U«4>k-f|^flA , 


4 
17 

905 


837 

8,050 

173,310 


1 

17 

157 


720 
8,080 

76,256 


3 


117 










Mount PlMsant . 










lifniiMfrtA 


472 


28,584 


269 


868,140 


7 


$330 






Fond dii I>M.» .. 


9 
80 

170 
69 
24 

817 
76 

160 

1,224 


3,800 

12,401 
8,880 

56,822 
6,968 

26,016 

888,522 


9 
6 

82 
6 
7 

45 
6 

46 

192 


JSS 
3,610 

15,808 
2880 
3,580 

19428 
4,54Q 

23,080 

95,081 














Grand Porta^B 


11 
4 


7i 

971 


63 

134 

45 

6 

21 


9,180 
30,400 
8,500 
£080 
15,980 










NBttl^akft..... 


18' 1.021 






PtpeBtone ........... 


4 

251 

70 

lU 

651 


420 

21,414 

2,428 

?966 

27,861 


7 


330 


RSilaika 




Vamlllon Lcko 






WhitoRarth 


881 


0) 
216,080 






M^HitAim 












B^^^4^1rfffit ..,..,., 


138 
128 
234 
86 
105 
105 
433 

63 


112,608 
21,7B7 
66,791 
90,606 
38,139 
45,411 
33,180 

15,776 


88 
40 
14 
25 
87 
2 
36 

30 


21,528 

6,048 
12 906 
18,999 
384 
20,008 

16,188 






100 

14 
88 
82 


91,080 

5,340 
17,010 
48,650 






Oow 


83 
73 
47 
80 
21 
397 

33 


6,511 
1748 
2358 
2200 
1,377 
18,172 

688 


0) 


0) 


Flstfaead 




Fort Belknap 

Fort Pe^... 










N«»?TW?ini 




























Ofinoft. 


14 
4 

45 

1,354 


7,360 
2,16Q 
6,286 

218,188 


14 

4 
12 

63 


7,850 
2.160 
5,628 

22,083 














nmalm 














Winnebago 


83 
195 


688 
7,443 


1,096 


0) 
188,212 


0) 
10 




Nevada 


500 






Carson . . 


112 
213 
102 
84 
10 
420 
203 
210 

1,872 


19,381 
34 52(1 
29,952 
5968 
3,4M 
95)440 
13,971 
15^492 

250,089 


16 

4 
3 
3 
10 


8,100 

2; 040 

780 

562 

3,444 


21 

18 

4 

40 


3,150 

'290 

113 

1,096 


75 
191 
95 
41 


8,122 
32 190 
29,060 

4)400 






Fallon 






Fort MoDtfmltt.. 






ICoi^ River 

Nevada... 










Reno, special agent.. 
Walker KiTflT 


20 
22 

70 

695 


440 

847 

1,558 

35,334 


«4D0 

176 
118 

708 


s 95, 000 
10 700 
8,750 

113,998 






5 
12 

207 


2,424 
90,208 






Western Shoshone. . 
New Mexico 


10 

• 262 


500 
10,499 






nSX^I"^::::::: 


178 
310 
267 

817 

476 

147 

yl42 

29 

422 

1,768 


10,745 
47,159 
18 426 
8963 
91,177 
51^288 
11,572 
10;789 

203 
66,836 
85,128 


12 
86 
29 
17 
45 
42 
13 
13 


6,700 
16 700 

19,664 

12 604 

6w9e0 

6; 600 


7d 

169 

202 

3 

24 
160 

20 

27 

29 

96 

1,609 


971 

16,206 

1902 

308 

232 

14,382 

^487 

849 

203 
2.936 
15,998 






96 


4,074 


105 
2^ 


14,261 
1,924 




Mesealero. . . 






Pueblo Benito 


25 


1,300 


Pueblo Day flchool.. 
Pan Juan... 


227 


71,281 
23,252 




27 
114 


1,000 


Santa Fe 


4.125 


Ziini 


102 


3,290 




New York: New York 
AnnfTV .... 






Notb Carolina: ChernkM 


14 

158 


6,300 
69,130 


310 


57,600 






North Dakota... . 
















Pisran'ok . . . . 


7 

77 
41 

12 


8,880 

ir,448 

18,442 

41,027 

9391 

6940 


7 
23 

r* 

19 
12 


3,880 
10,096 

11 oao 

29 819 
7478 
5,940 














Fort Berthold . 


54 

17 


1,350 

i;822 

• 11,208 

1^918 










FortTotten 










Standing Rook 

Tunie MOfmtaivi , . . 


0) 


0) 










Wahpeton 











1 No data. 



> Estimated. 



> 1918 report. 



Digitized by 



Google 



134 COMMISSIONER OF IKDIAK AFFAIRS* 

Table 13. — Employment of Indiana during fiscal year ended June SO, i9i>— Continued^ 





Total em- 


Indianstfmployed by United 


Emptoyed by private parties. 


States and superixir 


pteyed. 


Recular em- 
ployees. 


Irreeular em- 
ployees. 


-Vdults. 


Minors or 
ootittg pupils. 




Num- 
ber: 


Barn- 

mgs. 


Num- 
ber. 


Kam- 
-ings. 


Norn, 
ber. 


Earn- 
ings. 


Num. 
ber. 


Earn- 
ings. 


Num- 
ber. 


Earn- 
ings. 


^Vifthfmm 


738 


9104,507 


281 


S170,344 


364 


$6,600 


56 


8A,flao 


37 


tl,643 




^antomneiit. .. . 


61 

30 
292 

1 
90 
75 
24 

3 
12 
54 
13 
15 


4,661 

7,780 
13,268 

.500 

74,080 
24 320 
10,800 
1740 
8610 
10043 
8,160 

tJioo 


6 

19 
10 

1 
90 
50 
24 
3 

16 


3,040 

7,520 
I0;i80 

500 

74,989 

23,120 

19,800 

1 740 

5,610 

7 340 

6,060 

7;i00 


15 

11 
241 


411 

260 
1,543 


40 


1,300 






CheyemieaiidArap- 
aao 






CWIoooo. 






. 32 


1,540 


Choetaw-Chlekaaaw 






Five GiviUaed Tribes 








i: 




Kiowa 


25 


1,200 










Osaite 










Otoe! 














Pawnee 






3 
13 


2,720 






Seg^ 


25 
2 


883 
1,200 






8eneea.... . 






Shawnee 




, 












1 




Total Weetem Ok- 
lahoma 


670 


181,865 


263 


167,899 


319 


5,506 


56 


1 
6 920 1 fi2 


1,540 






5 


Five avillaed Tribe 
8ehools..^i 


68 


12,642 


18 


11,445 


45 


1,094 






103 










8cbool»--8aper. 
vleor 


4 

14 

12 
12 

8 

13 

3 

2 

308 


4,450 

2,131 

090 
1,290 

22 

1,264 

995 

1,500 

57,774 


4 

3 

2 
1 


4,450 

1,885 

865 
900 








I... 




Armstrong Acad' 
emy 


6 

10 
11 

8 

9 

1 


143 

125 
390 

22 

130 

275 






5 


103 


Cherokee 
Training 

Jones Academy.. 

liekusukey 
Academy..... 

Nuyaka board- 
ing.. 
















1 




4 

2 
2 
60 


1,125 

720 

1,500 

44,676 




1 




Tusk ah cm a 
Academy 

WheelockAcad- 
emv . 










• 




Oregon. . 


329 


13,096 




;: 1.-... 












in^iniAth'^ 


225 
42 
6 
40 
85 

2,796 


22,010 

2,620 
8,662 
11)320 

285,672 


18 
17 
6 
11 
17 

310 


14,000 
10 020 
2,620 
7 424 
9,712 

136,265 


207 
25 


8,010 
2)222 


0) 


(0 j 0) 


0) 


Salem. 




Siletz 








I7mftt111a 


29 
68 

1,594 


1,258 
1,606 

41,800 








Warm Springs 

South Dakota 










858 


106,107 


'25 


1,600 






Cheyenne River 

Crow Creek 


372 

70 

61 

1 

130 
50 

822 

26 

1,155 

65 

26 

9C1 


22,215 
14 460 
11,796 
500 
21,874 

2 028 
85,061 

5 348 
100 787 

616 

io;i87 

128,877 


44 

27 
15 

1 
12 

5 
105 

8 
70 
13 
19 

23 


17,228 

13,268 

- 8,540 

'500 

5,844 

2420 
42,240 

4 850 
22 540 

8,755 
10,080 

10,364 


828 
52 
21 


4,987 
1,192 
1,756 


0) 


0) 










Flandreaa 






25 


1,500 


Hope* 








Lower Bniie !....... 

Pierre 


94 
54 

233 
18 

735 
52 
7 

573 


1,630 

'508 

5,214 

'498 

26,0*7 

861 

107 

15,613 


24 


14,400 










PineRid^e 


484 


38,507 






Ranid Citv 






Rosebud 


350 


53,200 






Sisseton 






Yankton 






. 




Utah 


365 


102,900 










Ooshiite .... 


381 
110 
461 


103,830 
6 267 
18,780 


1 

2 

20 


540 

324 

9,500 


35 
97 
441 


1,290 
5043 
9280 


346 
20 


102,000 
'900 


1 


Shivwits 


1 


Uintah and Ouray.. 


i ;.. 



1 No data. 



s Formerly Springfield. 



Digitized by 



Google 



COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 135 

Table 13. — Employment of Indians during fiscal year ended June 30 ^ 1919 — Continued. 





Total em- 


Indians employed by 
States IndJanSvv 


United 
ice. 

alarem- 
►yees. 




8tat«6 and superin- 


ploywl. 


Regular em- 
ployees. 


'"?E 


Adults. 


Minora or 
outing pupils. 




Num- 
ber. 


Earn- 
ings. 


Niim- 
ber. 


Earn- 
ings. 


Num- 
ber. 


Earn- 
ings. 


Num- 
ber. 


Earn- 
ings. 


Num- 
ber. 


Earn- 
ings. 




867 


1134,249 


93 


^,504 


320 


S10,475 


454 


$78,270 












Colvillo.^ 


224 
195 

14 
124 

29 
189 

92 

2,428 


13,776 
65,560 

4,847 
13 397 

5,024 
28 562 
13,063 

325,758 


19 
11 

9 
11 

9 
16 
18 

99 


8,208 
5,260 
4 760 
3,948 
4,704 
7,620 
11,004 

51,873 


205 


5,568 










Cuahman 


184 


50,300 






NeahBay 


5 
27 


87 
799 






»P"fc«»»^. , , 


86 
20 
164 

0) 

1,502 


320 
.19,000 

0) 

155,460 






l^iholah 






TuWip 


9 
74 

734 


1,942 
2,079 

115,755 






Vftkim^ 


(0 
93 


S2,670 


Wlnxmsin 




Grand Rapids 

Hayward 


360 
572 
603 
132 

36 
456 

15 

245 

9 

280 


15,785 

38 726 

126,303 

14 908 

2,646 
62,767 

7 320 
63,560 

3; 744 

30,182 










349 
459 


14,385 
27,950 


11 
50 


1 400 


18 
33 
16 

1 
5 
15 

4 
7 

29 


8,726 
16,683 
10,104 
720 
2,760 
7 320 
2,040 
3,520 

14,050 


45 
570 
116 


1,100 

109,620 

4,804 


950 


KeRhena 




Lac du FlamlMau . . . 










Laona 


35 
450 


1,926 
50; 000 






LaPointe 


1 


7 






Oneida 






R«d Cliff 






209 


61,200 


82 


320 


Tomah 


2 
251 


224 
16,132 




Wyoming: Shoshone 



















140&23" 



^ No data. 
-INT 1919— VOL 2 10 



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Table 18. — Location^ capacity, enrollmenL and attendance^ etc., of schools durinj fiscal 

year ended June SO, 1919, 



Superintendendes and names of 
schools. 


Capac- 


Total 
enroll- 
ment. 


Averaee 
enroll- 
ment. 


Average 
attend- 
ance. 


Class of school. 


Grand total... 


32,84S 


31,868 


27,244 


20,492 








Arlcona 


6,608 


5,377 


4,780 


3.874 








Camp Verde superlntendcncy . . . 


GO 


U 


54 


46 




Camp Verde. 


30 
30 


25 

S9 


22 
32 


19 

27 


Day. 
T>o. 


Clarfadale..; 






Colorado River 


so" 


99 


84 


y^ 


Reservation boarding. 




Fort Apache superintendency . . . 


472 


445 


430 


339 




Fort Apache..... 


300 
42 
50 
40 
20 

20 


255 
83 
36 
88 

41 

42 


249 
32 
34 
37 
41 

37 


189 
29 
21 

31 
3S 

31 


Do. 


Canon ....... i. x , 


Day 
Do. 


Cibeoae 


East Fork 


Do. 


Cibecue 


Mission day; Fvangcllqil 
Lutheran. 
Do. 


East Fork 






Fort Mohave 


200 
35 
22 


158 
29 
17 


148 
27 
15 


13<^ 
25' 
12 


Nonrescrvatlon boardtne. 
Day. 
Do. 


Havasapal 


Kaibab 






Ijeupp superintendency 


183 


106 


94 


69 








Ijeupp. 


m 

20 


97 
9 


85 
9 


60 
9 


Reservation boarding. 
Mission boarding; Evan- 
geUcal Lutberan. 


Tolcnaco 




Moqui superintendency 


374 


453 


426 


404 








Chimopovy. 


50 
72 
80 
100 
72 


42 
129 

67 
143 

75 


41 
12? 

64 
127 

72 


40 

117 
58 

117 
72 


Day. 
Do. 


HotevlUe-Blcabi 


Oraibl 


Do. 


Polaoca 


Do. 


Second Mesa 


Da 






Navajo superintendency 


1,076 


942 


847 


654 








Navulp 


350 
166 
230 
25 
60 
3,5 
40 

150 


314 
1«0 
42 
22 

24 
48 
87 

245 


286 
130 
24 
20 
18 
46 
78 

245 


214 
94 
19 
13 
10 
44 
fS 

195 

S2Z 


Keservatioa boarding. 
Do. 


ChinLee 


Tohatchi 


Do. 


Cornfields 


Day. 
Do. 


T^iHThplri 


flluiAdo 


Mission day; Presbyterian. 
Mfesion boarding: Christian 

Reformed. 
Mission boardiu?; Catholic 


Rehoboth 


St. Michael's 






Phoenix 


700 


839 


699 


Nonrcservation boarding. 




Pima superintendency 


834 


892 


788 


650 








Pfmi^ 


218 
36 
40 
40 
40 
30 
40 
40 
40 
40 

235 
35 


378 
35 
46 
22 
18 
29 
22 
40 
31 
47 

300 
24 


381 

32 
3S 
22 
17 
IS 
22 
35 
23 
35 
295 
20 


167 
23 
31 
20 
14 
10 
15 
32 
14 
25 

289 
10 


Reservation boordlnc. 
Day. 
Do. 


Blaclcwater 


CasaBlanca 


CWu Chulschu 


Do. 


Corklebur 


Do. 


Gila Bond 


Do. 


Gila Crossing 

Maricopa 


Do. 
Do. 


Quajote 


Do. 


Santan 


Do. 


St. John's 


Mission boarding; CalhoUc. 


St. Ann's (Guadalupe) 


Mission day; Catholic. 


Salt River superintendency 


lo8 


95 


02 


73 




Camp McDowclU 


40 
30 
88 








Day. 
Do. 


Lehl 


32 
68 


30 
62 


20 
53 


Salt River 


Do. 







1 Not in operstioa. 



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COMMISSIONER OF INDIAK AFFAIBS. 



157 



Table IS. — Location, capacity, enrollment, and attendance, etc., of schools during Jiscai 
year ended June SO, 1919 — Continued. 



schoola. 


X" 


Total 
enroll- 
ment. 


Average 
enroll- 
ment. 


Average 
attend- 
ance. 


Class of school. 


Arizona— Contlnaed. 

San Carlos siiperlntcn^Iency 


3S1 


469 


397 


300 




Bylas 


40 
216 
100 

25 


63 
263 
118 

35 


53 
216 
99 
30 


44 
148 
89 
25 


Day. 


Rico Station 


Reservation bofirdim;. 
Day. 

Miaskm day; Evangelical 
Lutheran. 


San Carlos 


Rice 




Sells superlntcndency 


520 


463 


399* 


363 








BanXaTier 


155 
30 
90 
35 
40 
90 

ao 

20 
20 
130 


122 
11 
23 
36 
35 
21 
32 
21 
29 

133 


99 
9 
15 
25 
22 
21 
28 
21 
29 
130 


89 
7 
U 
16 
18 
21 
24 
31 
27 
129 


Day. 
Do. 


Santa Rosa 


SeUs 


Do. 


Tacson 


Do. 


Vamorl 


Do. 


Loardes 


Mission day; Catholic. 
Do. 


St. Anthony's 


San Miguel 


Do. 




Do. 


Tucson 


Mission boarding: Presby- 
terian. 




Trnxton Canon 


140 


90 


84 


60 


Reservation boarding. 




Western Navajo 


373 


213 


196 


156 




306 
30 
35 

l,«8 


164 


154 


115 


Do. 


Marsh P«.<is> 


Do. 


Koencopi 


49 
1,847 


42 
1,547 


41 
1,099 


Day. 


CaMf"mi*ir .. , 






Bishop superintendency 


140 


81 


68 


56 








Bishop 


60 
30 
20 
30 


34 
20 
12 
15 


28 
17 
10 
13 


22 
15 
8 
11 


Do. 


BlKPme 


Do. 


Ixiaependence 


Do. 


Pine Creek 


Do. 






CtimTW) 


30 

08 


16 
82 


14 

77 


13 
64 


Do. 


FortBidwell 


Nonreservation boarding. 




Fort Yuma superintendency 


260 


197 


182 


134 




Fort Yuma 


ISO 
40 
40 


157 

n 

27 


147 

8 
27 


100 
8 
26 


Reservation boarding. 
Day. 
Do. 


Cooopoh 


Va«iMrva"py 






Greenville 


90 
166 


147 
148 


116 
100 


92 

,09 


Nonreservation boarding. 
Reservation boarding. 


Hoopa Valley 




MaOJ superintendency-«t.Boni- 
face 


100 


34 


34 


15 


Mission boaixUng: CftthoUo. 




Pals superintendency 


08 


60 


54 


42 








Pala 


30 
24 
30 
14 


27 
7 
14 
12 


23 
7 

14 
10 


19 
6 
9 

a 


Day 
Do. 


Capitan Grande 


iA"oiia..?zv...... :::::::: 


Do! 


Rincon 


Do. 






Bound VaUoy superintendency.. 


111 


81 


73 


42 




PinolivlUe 


25 
16 
30 
40 


22 
12 
22 
26 


20 
11 
19 
23 


9 
7 
13 
13 


Do. 


Potter Valley 


d5 


TTppAr T^^k© 


Do 


vSKia.. ..:;:::::::::::::::: 


Do. 






Rhennan Institute , 


700 


879 


733 


505 








60 


40 


34 


30 








Mesa Grande 


30 
30 


15 
25 


15 
19 


15 
15 


Day 
Da 


Vok«n 







^ Not in operation. 



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158 



COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFATRS. 



Table 18. — LoccUion, capacity ^ enrollment^ and attendance^ etc.^ of schools during Ji$eal 
year ended June SO^ 7Pi5— Continued. 



schools. 


Gapac- 


Total 
enroll- 
ment. 


Average 
enroll- 
ment. 


Average 
attend- 
ance. 


Class of school. 


Gallfomia— Continued. 

Tule River superintendency 


86 


82 


C2 


47 


Day. 
Do 


Auberrv 


32 
24 
SO 
105 


33 
33 
16 
76 


22 
25 
15 
57 


15 
19 
13 
34 


B urrough 


Do. 


Tule River... 


Do. 


Colorado 








Southern Ute niperintcndency . . 


SO 


76 


57 


34 




8oiithem Ute 


50 
30 


55 
21 


37 
20 


18 
16 


Reservation botfding. 
Day. 


.Mien 




rte Mountain > 


25 
610 








Do. 


Idaho 


375 


342 


243 








Coeur d'AIene superintendency.. 


140 


86 


78 


65 




Kalispel 


30 
30 
80 


18 
22 
46 


14 
18 
46 


12 
15 
38 


Do 


Kootenai 


Do. 


DeSmet 


Mission boarding; Catholic 




Fort HaU superintendency 


270 


105 


80 


50 




Fort Han 


200 
20 
30 
20 


67 

8 

20 

10 


47 
8 
15 
10 


24 

5 
12 
9 


Reservation boarding. 
Dav. 


Skull Valle V 


Good Shepherd 


Mission boarding; EpiseopaL 
Mission day; Presb>%^teii. 


Presbyterian Mission 


Fort Lapwai superintendency. . . 


200 


184 


184 


128 




Sanatorium and school 

StJoseidi's 


100 
100 

150 


109 
75 

139 


109 
75 

133 


72 

56 

89 


Boarding. 

Mission V)oarding; Catholic. 


Iowa 






Sac and Fox superintendency . . . 


150 


139 


133 


89 




Sanatorium and school 

Fox 


80 
40 
30 

g21 


83 
25 
31 

1,221 


83 
22 

28 

1,002 


58 
14 
17 

775 


Boarding. 
Day. 
Do. 


Mesquakie 








- 


Haskell 


750 
71 


1,130 
91 


916 
86 


711 
64 


Nonreserration liaiinlif 


Kickapoo 


Reservation boarding. ^ 






Michigan 


702 


575 


528 


449 








Mackinac superintendency 


352 


183 


172 


160 




Baraga (Holy Name) 

Harbor Springs (Holy Child- 
hood). 


152 
200 


60 
114 


64 
108 


53 

107 


Mission boarding and day; 

Catholic. 
Mission boarding; Catholic. 


Mo!int ■Plca'^ant .... x ..... x x . x . 


350 
1,320 


392 
1.300 


356 
1,137 


289 

832 

18 


Nonreservation boarding. 


Mlnnc^sot A 








Fond du Lac suxwrlntendency. . . 


60 


£0 


27 




NettLake 


60 
20 


.30 
11 


27 
10 


18 


Tiar. 


Cirand Portage ... 


7 i *Do- 








Loech Lake superintendency 


130 


139 


120 


68 


Cass Lake 


40 
90 


fl 

79 


54 
66 


34 
34 


Reservation boarding. 


Leech Lake 


Do. 






Pipestone superintendency 


248 


218 


190 


154 




Pipestone 


212 
36 


193 
25 


170 
20 


139 


Nonreservation boardlne. 


Birch Cooley 


15 Dav. 









1 Not in opeiatloQ. 



Digitized by 



Google 



C0MMISSI02TEB OF INDIA27 AFFAIRS. 



159 



Table 18. — Location, capacity ^ enrollment, and attendance, etc, of schools during fiscal 
year ended June SO, 1919 — Continued. 



• schools. 


"^ 


Total 
enroll- 
ment. 


Averase 
enroll- 
ment. 


Average 

attend- 
ance. 


Class of adiool. 


Minnceota— Continued. 

Red Lake superintendency 


23S 


249 


235 


168 




Red Lake 


75 
S3 
70 


93 
82 
74 


84 
80 
71 


58 
57 
53 


Reservation boarding. 
Do. 


Cross l4ike 


St. Mary's 


Contract Mission boardii«; 

Catholic. 
Reservation boarding. 




Vermilion Lake 


110 


137 


128 


99 




White Earth superintendency. . . 


523 


516 


427 


318 




WhlteEarth 


250 
30 
53 
£0 
30 

130 

40 


252 
33 
38 
28 
33 

132 

12 


202 
26 
34 
20 
30 

115 

9 


M8 
21 
26 
15 
21 
97 

4 


Do. 


Beaulieu 


Do. 


Pine Point 


RoandLake 


Do! 


Twin Lake 


Do. 


6t. BenedicVs 


Contract Mission boarding; 
Catholic 


MIsfYitmiprl f rh^M^^ws) , 






Union 


40 
1,833 


13 
1,501 


9 
1,324 


4 
1,040 


Day. . r 


Montana ,. 






Bteckfeet saperintendency 


349 


265 


233 


179 




Blackieet 


144 
30 
30 

145 


127 
23 
25 
90 


103 
20 
19 
90 


72 
15 
16 
76 




Heart Butte 


Day. 


Old Agency Dav 


Do. 


Holy Family 


Mission boarding; Catholio. 








442 


338 


296 


242 








Crow 


100 
47 
30 

50 

35 

25 

125 
30 


87 
50 
27 

29 
27 

14 
80 
24 


75 
48 
27 

29 
27 

12 
55 

22 


50 
38 
25 

26 
23 

12 

54 
14 




Prynr Ct^}^ 


Do. 


Black Lodge 


Mission day; Baptist. 
Mission dav; Ameiioan MIs- 

M^ISraa^^allc. 


Lodge Grass 


Reno 


6t. Ami's 


BanXavIer 


Mission boarding; Catholic. 


Wyola. 


Mi^ day; Baptbt. 






Flathead superintendency r St. Ig- 
natius 


300 


190 


190 


164 


Mission boarding; Gatholie. 


Fort Belknap superintendency . . 


251 


231 


194 


154 




Fort Belknap 


51 
40 
160 


97 
35 
99 


82 
27 
S5 


60 
20 
74 


Reservation boarding. 


Lodge Pole 


Day. 


St. Paul's 


Miarion boarding; Catliolic. 






Fort Peck superintendency 


250 


235 


213 


159 




Fort Peck 


120 

ao 

80 
30 
43 


125 
21 
23 
12 
54 


117 
17 
19 
10 
50 


87 
12 
12 
7 
41 


Reservation boarding. 


No. 1 


Do. 


No. 2 


No. 3 


Do. 


Wolf Point 


Mission boarding and day; 
Presbyterian. 




Rocky Boy's agency 


25 


26 


19 


17 


Day. 






Tongue River superintendency.. 


216 


216 


181 


125 




Tongue River 


69 
47 
40 
CO 


87 
49 
35 
45 


72 
39 
30 
40 


50 
26 
21 

28 


Reservation boarding. 
Day. 
Do. 


Birney 


I^funedef^r 


St. Lohre's. 


Contract Mission boarding; 
Catholic. 





Digitized by 



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160 



GOMMISSIONEB OF IKDIAK AFFAIRS. 



Table 18. — Loaition, capacity, enroUmerU, and attendance, etc., of schools during fiscal 
year ended June SO, 1919 — Continued. 



Saperintendencies and names of 
schools. 


^ 


Total 
enroll- 
ment. 


Average 
enroll- 
ment. 


Average 
attend- 
ance. 


Class of school. 


Nebraska 


607 


655 


550 


393 








Genoa 


400 


447 


354 


233 


Nonrcservation boarding. 


Winnebago supertntendency 


2or 


208 


106 


iSo" 




All Saint's 


25 
122 

60 

720 


42 
86 
80 

664 


30 
86 
80 

575 


25 

65 
70 

487 


Mission day: Episcopal. 


St, Aupistln^ ,., 


Mission boarding; CathoUc. 


WfnneMBO Misslf»p,. ....... 


Mission boarding: Dutch Re- 


Nevada 


formed. 


Carson 


336 


371 


326 


ST 


Nonrcservation boarding. 


Fallon suDerintendeocv 


65~ 


55 


46 


36 


• 






Fallon 


40 
25 


37 
18 


32 

14 

34 
14 

52 


24 

12 

tT 

11 
37 


Day. 


Lovelocks 


Do. 






Fort McDennit t 


80 
20 

90" 


44 

17 

66" 


Do. 


Moapa River 


Do. 


Nevada supertntendency 




Nevada 


70 
20 


63 
13 


41 
11 


27 

10 


Do. 


Wadsworth 


Do. 


Walker River 


60 
69 


27 


25 

78 


22 

67 


Do, 






Western Shoshone superlntend- 
ency 


84 




Western Shoshone No. 1 

Western Shoshone No. 2 

New Mexico 


35 
34 

2,967 

400 
108 
100 


33 

51 

3,314 

435 

67 
126 


31 
47 

2,960 

407 
69 
120 


26 

41 

2,325 

320 
47 
81 


Do. 
Do. 


Albaaaeraue 


Nonrcservation boarding. 


Jicarilla 


Reservation boarding. 


Mescalero 


Do. 


Pueblo Bonito supcrintendency. 


210" 


211 


183 


145 




Pueblo Ronlto 


180 
30 

1,341 


103 

18 

1,328 


168 
15 

1,201 


133 
12 


Do. 


Pinodale 


Pay. 


Pueblo Day supcrintendency. . . . 


9S4 




Albuquerque— 

Aoomita 


32 
30 
120 
84 

38 
38 
60 
20 
CO 
28 
125 

28 
120 
24 
40 

^ 
40 

50 

30 

70 

34 

250 

230 


22 
20 

126 
50 
33 
23 
75 
42 
50 
35 

104 

41 

90 
20 
14 
50 
66 
91 
20 
77 
5 
265 

313 


20 
IH 

lis 

43 
2S 
23 
72 
35 
49 
32 
100 

34 

80 
20 
14 
61 
53 
78 
17 
01 
5 
260 

273 


IS 
15 
102 
37 

24 
IS 
64 
26 
37 
25 
92 

30 

% 

13 
46 
44 
56 
13 
40 
5 
200 

215 


Do. 


Encinn' ...... 


Do. 


Isleta 


Do. 


liAfuna^ , 


Do. 


Mc^Jarty's 


Do. 


Mesita.. 


Do. 


Paruate 


Do. 


Paraje 


Do. 


SanFeJjpe 


Do.' 


Seama 


Do. 


Bernalillo 


Mission boarding; Catholic. 


Santa Fe— 

Cochitl 


Day. 


Jemez 


Do. 


Plcuris 


Do. 


San Ildpfonso 


Do 


Ban Juftn , 


Do. 


Santa Clara 


Do. 


Santa Pominso 


Do. 


Sia 


Do 


Taos 


Do. 


Jemez 


^fission day. 


St. Catherine's 


Mission boarding; Catholic. , 


San Juan supcrintendency 




San Juan ■. 


150 
80 


211 
102 


189 
84 


148 
67 


Reservation boarding. 


Toadiena 


Do. 



Digitized by 



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OOIOCISSIOKBB OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 



161 



Table 18. — Xooctfion, capacity, enroUmeni, and aUeridance, etc, of tdkooU dxvrinj Jacai 
year ended Juru SO, 1919 — Continned. 



Snperintendencles and names of 
gchoob. 


"^ 


Total 
enroll- 
ment. 


Arerafe 
enroll- 
ment. 


Average 
attend- 
ance. 


Class of sdMtf. 


New Mexko-Cantinoed. 

SantA Fe 


350 


501 


413 


2S4 


Nonreserratlon boardini;. 






Zuni qiinftHnfandffnfV- . ...... ^ ^ - 


228 


333 


304 


249 








Zuni .,, r -. ,.,,^^..^ 


80 
US 
30 

310 


IM 
175 
30 

307 


119 
156 

20 

324 


79 
14? 

190 


Reserration board Inr*. 


Ziinl ,.... 


nay. 




Mission day; Chrislian Re. 


North CaiDHna 


formed. 


Cherokee sapeilntendency 


iio" 


W 


324 


190 




Cherofcee 


100 
40 
40 
80 
40 

1,435 


257 
28 
39 
22 
21 

1,590 


229 
25 
31 
20 
19 

1,222 


142 

13 
18 
8 
9 

851 


Reservation boanUng. 


Big Cove.. 


Day. 


B^town 


Da 


Little Snowbird 


Da 


Snowbird Gap 


Da 


North Dakota 








Bismarck 


80 


«5 


94 


43 










154 


114 


106 


89 




No.2 


30 
30 
75 
13 


20 
22 
43 

29 


18 
21 
40 

27 


11 
19 
37 
22 


^V 


No.3 


FortBerthold 


Mission boardiog; Catholic. 
Mission boarding; Congrega* 






ticmal. "' ^ " 


FortTotten 


323 


459 


337 


258 


K^^i^ervRtion boardlog- 








518 


493 


354 


252 




Standing Rock 


202 
100 
40 
40 
30 
40 
50 
10 


283 
68 

30 
38 
19 
23 
57 
5 


164 
52 
18 
30 

17 
18 
50 
5 


125 
26 
18 
16 
13 
10 
44 
5 


Da 


Martin Koael 


Da 


Wnllbflftd 


Day. 
Do. 


^^mnon Ball 


Grand Wver 


Do. 


Little Oak Creek 


Do. 


St. Elisabeth's 


Mission boarding: EpIsoopaL 
Mission boarding. 


Standing Rock Mission 


wacf 


160 


188 


146 


80 








Nal 


40 
30 
30 
30 
30 


25 
33 

59 
51 
20 


21 

30 
41 
37 
17 


13 
16 
20 
22 



^^bo. 


Na2 


Na8 


Do 


No.4 


Da 


No.5 


Do! 






Wahpeton 


200 
4,100 


241 
4,610 


165 
3,830 


129 
2,689 


^fonre5er^'atiQfl boarding. 


OftMhf^nqi ^.^ 








Canfconmen* 


90 
150 
500 


93 
208 
673 


82 
197 
528 


58 
140 
363 


Reservation boarding. 


Cheyenne ftTid Afapi^ho 


Do. 


Chlfoooo fTT. 


^onresen'a* ion boarding. 






Kiowa superintendency 


613 


609 


623 


446 










110 
160 
155 
188 


155 
166 
193 
185 


143 
154 
163 
163 


95 
117 
110 
124 


Reservation boarding 


Fort Sill 


Do. 


Rainy Mmin tain . 


Da 


Riyeralde ., 


Da 


Osage superintendency 


190 


148 


113 


50 








Osage ....^.....^.^.^ 


115 

75 


127 
21 


98 
15 


41 
9 


Do. 


strrx»u!s's 


Contract Mission boarding; 




Catholic. 


Otoe 


80 
100 

go 


77 
102 
104 


69 
91 
01 


51 
64 

59 




Pawnee 


bo. 


PoBoa. - 


Da 







Digitized by 



Google 



162 



COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIR&. 



Table 18. — Location^ capacity ^ enrollment^ and atteridanee, ete.^ of tcbooh during fiicti 
year ended June SO, iPi 9— Continued. 



Bnperlstendendra and names of 
schools. 


^r 


Total 
enroll- 
ment. 


enroll- 
ment. 


attend- 
ance. 


Class of school. 


Oklaboma-Continiied. 

Seger 8up«rin tendency 


144 


103 


94 


72 








8eeer 


79 
65 


86 
17 


78 
16 


59 

13 


Reservation boarding. 
Day. 


Red Moon 






Beoaeca superintendency 


150 


218 


201 


154 








Seneca.. L«.... 

St. Mary's 


100 
50 


165 
53 


156 
45 


117 
37 


Reservation boarding. 
Contract Mission boaxdlng; 
Catholic. ^' 




Shawnee supermtendency 


310 


280 


223 


161 




Shawnee. 


110 

UOO 

100 


172 
50 

58 


137 
34 
52 


80 
30 
51 


Reservation boarding. 


Sacred Heart (St. Benedict's) 
. Sacred Heart. (St. Mary'8)... 


Mission boarding; Catbolla 
Do. 


Total Western! Oklahoma. 


2,417 


2,705 


2,312 


1,618 




rive Civilized Tribes 


1,092 


1,906 


1,518 


1,071 








Clierokee Nation; Cherokee 
Orphan. School 


100 


156 


129 


83 


Trfhfti hoarding. 






Creek Nation 


327 


400 


343 


212 








Euchee.... 


100 
112 
115 


150 
131 
110 


122 
117 
104 


66 
79 
67 


Do. 


^nfanla.. ,... , . .. 


Do. 


Nuyaka 


Do. 






Chickasaw Nation 


115 


134 


111 


70 








Bloomfield 


80 
35 


90 
44 


79 
32 


42 
28 


Do. 


El Meta Bond College... 


Contract; State InstituUon. 


Clkoctaw Nation 


630 


715 


539 


374 








Armstrong Male Acad> 
emy. 

Tuskaboma Academy . . . 

Wheelock Academy 

OM n^MKila^d ..... .... 


100 

100 
110 
100 
80 

40 


140 

143 
137 
132 
99 

64 


90 

106 
112 
100 
82 

49 


50 

68 
72 
60 

78 

46 


Tribal boarding. 

Do. 
Contract Mission boarding; 


St. Agnes Mission 


Presbyterian. 
Contract Mission boarding; 


CUckasaw and Choctaw Na- 
tion 


460 


349 


285 


267 




Murray School of Agri- 
culture. 

Oklahoma Presbyterian 
College. 

St. Agnes Academy 

St. Elisabeth's 


150 

50 

160 

70 
30 


58 

52 

147 

67 
25 


50 

45 

111 

59 
20 


48 

40 

102 

58 
19 


Contract; State instituUon. 

Contract Mtasion boaiding; 

Presbyterian. 
Contract Mission; boarding; 

Catholic 
Do. 


St. Joseph's 


Do. 






Seminole Nation; Mekusukey 
Oregon 


100 
1,265 


151 
1,241 


111 
994 


65 
803 


Tribal boarding. 






Klamath superintendency 


202 


139 


100 


83 




Klamath 


112 
30 
30 
30 


100 
19 
5 
15 


70 
13 

4 
13 


63 
7 
3 

10 


Reservation boarding. 


Modoc Point 


Day. 


No.2 


Do. 


No.3 


Do. 






Salem 


650 


823 


663 


563 


Nonreservatlon boarding. 






Umatilla superintendency 


283 


129 


109 


91 




Umatilla 


63 
40 
150 


23 
29 
77 


21 
23 
65 


17 
15 

59 


Day. 


Tiitiiilla 


Do. 


St. Andrew's (Kate Drexel). . 


Mission boarding; Catholic. 



1 1918 report. 



Digitized by 



Google 



eOWl«SSI02TEB OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 



163 



T*BLB 18:— Location, capacity, enndlment^ and atiendmta, etc,, of schools during fiscal 
yeeareridted June SO, 1919 — Continued. 



Sapcriiiteiideiides and names of 
schools. 



Capacs 
iiy. 



Total 
enroll- 
ment. 



Averaffe 
enrolT- 



Average 
attena- 



Class of school. 



OrMMi— GoBtinned. 

Wann Springs soperintendency 

Warm Springs 

Slmnasho 

Sooth Dakota 

Cheyenne River 

Crow Creek saperlntendency . . . 

Crow Creek 

Immaculate Conception 

Ffamdreaa 

Hope (formerly Springfield) .... 

Lower Brule 

Pierre 

Pine Ridge superintendency . . . . 

Pine Ridge 

No.l 

No. 4 

No. 5 

No.O 

No.7 

No. 9 

No. 10 

No. 12 

No. 13 

No. 15 

No. 16 

No.17 

No. 18 

No. 19 

No. 20 

No. 21 

No. 22 

No. 28 

No. 24 

No. 25 

'No.^ 

No. 27 

No. 28 

No. 29 

No. 80 

Holy Rosary 

Rapid City 

Rosehod superintendency 

Rosebud 

Blackpipe 

Com Creek 

Cut Heat 

He-Dog's Camp 

Iroowood 

Little Crow's Camp 

Milk's Camp 

Oak Creek 

Pine Creek 

Rosehud 

Spring Creek 

Uroer Cut Meat 

wS&lwlnd Soldier 

White Lake 

Wood 

St. Mary's 

St. Francis's 



130 



100 



3,963 

"lio 



157 



360 
60 
100 
250 



1,165 



210 
25 
30 
30 
30 
33 
30 
33 
30 
24 
24 
36 
30 
33 
30 
24 
30 
27 
30 
33 
30 
30 
20 
23 
30 
20 

240 



300 
978 



150 



122 



121 
29 

3,082 



103 
19 

3,062 

102 



173 



114 
59 



391 
78 
61 

263 



1,015 



250 
23 
19 
42 
' 23 
23 
29 
19 
13 
14 
19 
35 
27 
21 
25 
18 
18 
16 
17 
25 
17 
23 
17 
16 
13 
14 

239 



237 
942 



200 


227 


210 


20 


17 


17 


40 


16 


13 


24 


17 


14 


27 


19 


14 


24 


12 


10 


26 


21 


21 


29 


21 


18 


26 


22 


17 


25 


20 


16 


25 


19 


14 


26 


12 


12 


21 


19 


16 


26 


24 


20 


19 


13 


10 


25 


11 


11 


70 


56 


53 


325 


zia 


320 



149 



66 
13 
196 



871 



236 
20 
15 
35 
22 
17 
27 
18 
12 
13 
16 
29 
24 
19 
23 
16 
16 
14 
9 

20 
13 
19 
16 
15 
12 
14 

181 



213 



66 



2,151 



71 



238 
48 
87 

134 



558 



149 
13 
9 
20 
12 
9 
14 
12 
6 
6 
10 
10 
13 
11 
12 
10 
8 
5 
4 
10 
6 
10 
10 
8 
7 
8 
166 



151 
"595 



147 
13 

9 
10 
10 

8 
15 
12 
12 
11 
10 
10 
11 
14 

8 

10 

50 

235 



Reservation boarding. 
Day. 



Reservation boarding. 



Do. 
Contract mission boaidlae 
CaUiolic. 

NonxBservatlon boarding. 

Reservation boardinc. 
Nonreservaticn boarding. 



Reservation boarding. 
Day. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do, 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Contract Mission boaidtng: 
Catholic. 

Nonreservaticn boarding. 



Reservation boarding. 
Day. 

Do. 

Do. • 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do, 
Missionboarding; EpiscopaL 
Contract Mission boarding; 
CathoUc. 



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COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAOS. 



Table 18, — Locatum^ capacity , enrollmenl, and attendancey dc^ of sdhooU ditring fiaeai 
year ended June SO, 1919 — Go&tinued. 





^ 


Total 
onroll- 
ment. 


emvtl- 
mont. 


Average 
ance. 


Class of kAmwI. 


Booth Dakota^^Continued. 

Sisseton superlntendency 


173 


141 


83 


62 




Rtsmton 


133 

40 


123 

18 


76 
13 


51 
11 


^Reservation ^oardiBf . 


Bo 


Day. 






Yaiikton superlntendency 


240 


228 


198 


155 




Yaaktoa 

Bantee Normal Traimng 

Utah 


115 
126 

137 


93 
135 

128 


S3 
115 

1D6 


56 
99 

69 


Reservation t)»arding. 
Mission boazdlng And day; 
ConeresatLonaL 






Goshatei 


30 
40 
67 

1,472 








"•'do. 


ShlTWits 


22 

106 

1,224 


18 

88. 

1,007 


15 
54 

716 


Uintah 


Reservation boan^ing. 


WasMngton .,.,--,-- - . . 








ColviHft8»i)eiiiiteadency 


800 


151 


125 


100 




No.l 

No. 3 


25 
30 
30 
25 
M 
200 


11 
45 
27 
12 
24 
32 


9 
28 
20 
12 
24 
32 


6 
22 
14 
10 
22 
26 


Day. 
Do, 


No. 4 


Do. 


No. 9 


Do. 


Sacred Heart 


KfjRfJtffitKfOF^ing; CiithoHc. 


St. Mary's 


Do. 








505 


•45 


fil8 


347 




Cushman 


350 
30 
30 
25 
70 


S28 
20 
18 


413 
17 
16 


261 
12 
14 


NonreservatSon 1>oacding. 


r!h«hfiu.<f 


Day. 


Jamesto^ini -,--,.-,,..-,. t-,- 


Do. 


Port Qamble * 


Do. 


St. Qeorge 


79 


72 


70 








Neah Bay superinteaideiicy 


120 


81 


63 


50 




NeahBay 


60 
60 


49 
32 


40 
29 


25 

25 


Do. 


Quileute 






Spokane superinteiietency 


90 


49 


33 


34 




No.l 


33 
32 
25 


17 
19 
13 


14 
16 
9 


13 

14 
7 


Do. 


No. 2 


Do! 


No. 8 


Do. 






Taholah superlnteDdtency 


76 


34 


27 


23 




Taholah 


36 

40 


34 


27 


23 


Do. 


Queets River 1 


Do. 










Tolalip sttperlntondency 


250 


177 


168 


132 




Tulalip 


180 
40 
30 


177 


168 


132 


Reservation ^oai4iag. 


LTiinini* 


"*»£•». 


8 winomlsh * 













Yakima 


131 
2,327 


87 
1,655 


61 
1,472 


1,168 


ReservatuHi bearding. 


Wisconsin 








Hayward saperintendency 


305 


336 


280 


204 




Hayward 

LaCourteOreUle 


231 
74 


278 
58 


228 
52 


161 
43 


NonreaervatianbBarainp. 
I>ay, 






Keshena superlntendency 


5S0 


473 


441 


361 




Keshena 


170 

60 

220 

120 


149 
15 

216 

93 


135 

14 
203 

89 


76 

11 

187 

77 


Reservmtion boapdins. 


Neppit 


Day. 


St.Jk)seph's 


Contract ndssion boardins: 


f% Anthcny'A 


CathoUe. 
Mission day; Catholic. 







1 Not in operation. 



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OOKMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 



165 



Table 18. — Locatirm, oajMcity, tnraUment,ttndaUeruktnee^ etc., ofsdtools during fiscal 
year ended June SO, 1919 — Continued. 



SapOTteteadeDcies and names of 
schools. 


^r 


Total 
enroll- 
ment. 


ennd^ 
ment. 


AT«n«e 

attttd- 

ance. 


Class of school. 


Wfsooosin— GomiBned. 

Lftc do Fi^ipimiii 


160 


187 


146 


137 


Reservation boarding. 






La Pointa aapsrintandencj 


690 


85 


85 


75 




Odanah lOnioii 


190 
200 


60 
25 


60 
25 


50 
25 


Mission day; Catholic. 


8t. ICary's Miasion 


Mission l>oardin«; Catholic. 








190 


196 


188 


116 








Oneida 


140 
25 
25 


160 
18 
18 


152 
18 
18 


61 
17 

18 


Reaervation boarding. 
Mission day; AdTttDSst. 
Mission day; Ei^aoopal. 


Adv«nllst Miaslan 


TTohf^ Ml»h?n , 






Red Cliff soperintBBdeney 


117 


56 


52 


44 




HedCSiff 


52 
65 


34 

22 


30 
22 


22 
22 


Day. 


Bayflold (Holy Family) 


Mission boarding; CathoUc 


Tomah , . . 


275 
400 


322 
315 


280 
283 


231 
221 




Wyoming 








Shoshone sapeiintendeney 


400 


315 


283 


221 




^hoffhone 


135 
25 
120 

20 

100 


197 
18 
106 

20 
64 


86 
U 

19 
62 


«1 
U 

77 

16 
56 




Arapaho. 


Oonlzact mission boaidinr. 
CathoUe. 

Contract mission boarding; 
Protestant Episcopal. 


St. Stephen's 


Phos^oiM^ Mi5!?ion , 


St. Michael's 





Table 19. --School gtcaMce for 4S years. ^ 
INDIAN SCHOOLS AND AVERA<9£ ATTENDANCE FROM 1877 TO 1919. 





Boarding schools. 


Day schools.^ 


Total. 


Year. 


Nmnber. 


Awage 
attendance. 


Number. 


Ayerage 


Nomber. 


AT«g> 


1877 


48 

49 

53 

60 

114 

140 

157 

153 

187 

158 

156 

M70 

>168 

S166 

•100 

M62 

•160 

•161 

•157 




102 
119 
107 
109 
86 
106 
125 
154 
145 
227 
227 
3«2 
230 
233 
228 
238 
284 
223 
216 




190 
168 
159 
169 

200 
246 
282 
307 
312 
385 
383 
412 
398 
399 
388 
400 
394 
384 
373 


3 SBR 


1878 






4 44B 


1879 






1880 






4:6S 

8148 
12,883 
18,188 
21^568 
35,456 
24 945 


1865 


6,201 
9865 
15,061 
17,708 
21,812 
20,106 
18,774 
20 1173 
20,007 
20 858 
20,702 

«ao^«3 

«20,S68 
< 19, 385 
•16,109 


1,942 
2^367 
?127 
3^860 
3,643 
4889 
4,673 
5366 
5,223 
5269 
5,426 
5; 220 
4,925 
4; 437 
4 383 


1800 


1885 


1900 


1905 


1910 


1911 


23,' 647 
26 281 
25830 
26 127 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1015 


26' 128 


1916 


«25|303 
^25,294 
< 23, 832 


1917 


1918 


1919 


•20,492 





* For other rears, sec 1913 report. 

> Indian cbjidren la public schools under contract ore Included in the average attendance, but tho schools 
are not included in the number of schools. 

* Includes Five Tribes* boerdlnff schools. 

« The decrease In attendance Is due to a difltorent method of compotatioo. Fomnrly the arerage attend- 
ance was the average of three-quarters having the greatest atteoaanoe. Att a udan co faaa been oeminled 
on a bo^ of 10 months, Including September, when the atteadaDoe is always •mill. 

* Attflodanoe has been computed <m a basis of 865 days. 



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166 



COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIHS. 



Table 19. — School statistics/or 43 years — Continued. 

APPROPBI ATIONa MABE FOR SCHOOLS BY THE GOVERNMENT SINCE 1876. 



Year. 


^Tr'^'n 


1877 


I 

i; 


ml 


1878 


100 ' 


1879 


100 i 


1880 


00 


1881 


ml 


1882 


00 


1883 


00 


1884 


00 


1885 


00 


1886 


65 


1887 


15 


1888 


16' 


1889 


15 ' 


1890 


68 


1891 


70 


1892 


50 


1893 


12 


1894 


97 


1895 i 


05 


1896 


15 


1897 


66 i 


1898 


71 1 


1899 


90 t 







» Decrease. 

s Includes $400,000 for Indian school and airency buildings. 

* Includes $440,000 for Indian school and agency buildings. 

* Includes $430,000 for Indian school and agency buildings. 

* Includes $300,000 for Indian school build&gs, Sioux Reservations, North and South Dakota. 

* Includes $350,000 for Indian school and agency buildings. 
' Includes $335,000 for Indian school and agency buildings. 

Table 20. — Demonstration farms j fiscal year ended June SOy 1919, 



States and 


Acre- 
age. 


Value. 


Value 
of tools 

and 
imple- 
ments. 


Employees 
engaged. 


Value of products. 


superintendencics. 


^;2-| Wages. 


R-Jscd. 3^i. 


Sol<i- hSd. 


Grand total 


1 

1 435 KM AFJi 


$3,587 

252 
252 


32 1 $5,291 
6 ' 01 


$2,454 $514 


$1,940 




90" 
90 


450 
450 




' 


Arizona 


33 
33 


33 
33 






Kalbab 


6 


91 






Pima* 






California; Carono. -, , - 


3 
200 
48 
638 

410 
40 
6 


120 
3,270 
1,200 
7,656 

41,000 
400 
360 








281 


281 






Idaho: Fort Hall* 












Montana: Blackfeet' 


25 
875 














North Dakota: Fcrt Berthold 


14 


3,800 


1,940 






l,94u 


Oklahoma: Cheyenne and 
Aranaho * 






Oreffon^ Klamnth .... 


2,435 


2 
10 


1,200 
200 


200 


200 






Utan: Shivwits 












1 



» See next table. 



• Only items reported. 



Table 21. — Experimentation farms, fiscal year ended June 30, 1919, 



States and 


Acre- 
age. 


Value. 


Value 
of tools 

and 
imple- 
ments. 


Employees 
engaged. 


Value of products. 


supcrintendencies. 


Num- 
ber. 


Wages. Raised. ^-^ 


Sold. 


On 
hand. 


Grand total 


67 


$7,075 


$824 9 1 $3,600 j $5,243 


$435 


$4,608 


$200 


Arizona: Pima 


55 

1 
10 

1 


5,500 

50 

1,500 

25 


824 9 1 3,600 | 5,243 


435 


4,606 


200 






New Mexico* Saii Jiiati i 


1 








North Dakota: Standing 
Rocki 




1 








IVvomincr* RhnchnmeS 




1 . 
















1 









» Only items reported. 



* Not reported. 



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COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 



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176 



COMHISSIOITER OF mVUK AFFAIB& 



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COMMISSIOKEB OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 



177 



Tablb 26. — AHotments approved by the department during the fiscal year ended June SO, 

1919 y and made in the field. 



states and tribes or reservations. 


Approved by 
department. 


Made in the 
field. 




Number. 


Acreage. 


Number. 


Acreage. 


Total 


782 


125,615 


428 


65,992 






Arfxona , 


40 


4,573 


12 


1 745 






Colorado River 


9 
31 

21 

1 
383 


90 
4,483 

1,605 

100 

65,206 






PnMlff domain 


12 
3 


1,745 
360 


rviffitirpi^: P^hUe domain. 


MmneRota: White Earth , 




If ont^n^^ T , - , ....,,.... 












Oow., 


349 
3 
31 

5 

222 

3 


60,914 

960 

3,332 

651 

35,456 

380 






Fort Peck 






Public domain - . r 






Nevada: Public dommn. , . 






New Me3ti<«* P"bHc rfomftip , 


76 
2 


11,702 
480 


North Dakota 






Rtandine RocV. 






1 
1 

126 

209 


320 


Public domain (Turtle Mountain) 


3 

1 
99 


360 

160 

16,544 


160 


Oregon: Trift.TnA.th , 


18,239 
33,466 


South Dakota 




CbeyenT^e Hlver. 






169 
40 


27,308 
6,158 


Crow^Seek...;.: I 






Lower Brule .- 


1 
98 

2 

3 

2 


640 
15,904 

320 

430 

160 




Rosebud 






Utah: Public domain 






Washington: Ctdville 






Wisconsin: La Pointe (Bad River) 














467 
315 


79,4(W 
46,207 


336 
92 


flS? 


Total Dublic domain 







Digitizechby 



Google 



178 COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 

Table 27. — Sales of Indians^ allotted lands during fiscal year ended June SO, 1919. 





Noncompetent sales.» 


Inhented-land sales.' 


States and superlnlendencies. 


Num- 
ber of 
tracts. 


Acreage. 


Proceeds. 


Num- 
ber of 
tracts. 


Acres. 


Proceeds. 


Grand total 


5,120 


572,910.92 


*9, 942, 571. 14 


9,945 


1,217,032.14 


S20, 181,668.34 




Total, 1919 


463 
662 
588 
583 
422 
529 
208 
324 
494 
520 
235 
92 


57,947.00 
74,126.00 
69,849.00 
54,958.62 
34,429.09 
45,526.31 
20,778.80 
34,391.11 
56,197.98 
82,655.80 
34,060.33 
7,990.88 


1,224,823.00 

1,541,178.00 

1,040,202.00 

969,611.24 

584,724.56 

779,526.14 

407,315.56 

568,880.75 

978,588.27 

1,245,639.96 

442, 762. 85 

159,318.81 


507 
438 
655 
324 
393 
418 
109 
392 
638 
873 
753 
768 
820 
643 
978 

1,236 

(») 


57,450.00 
49,216.00 
75,892.00 
35,762.25 
68,245.45 
45,241.99 
10,797.94 
43 652.27 
79,665.66 

129,359.61 

102,708.00 
91,302.57 

106,359.25 
64,447.67 
90,214.97 

122,222.52 
44,493.99 


1,580,309.00 
1 17A URR, nn 


1918 


1917 


1,54 
69 


1916 


1915 


71 


1914 


77 


1913 


28 


1912 


88 


1911* 


1.50 


1910* 


1 95 


1909 < 


1,32 
1,30 
1 24 


190S 


1907 


1906 








98 


1905 








1,39 


1904 








2.05 


1903 








lb 












California: Hoopa Valley 

Colorado: Southern Ute 


1 
15 
10 


39 

2,375 

380 


1,500 
10,262 
24.902 


1 

15 
31 


15 
2,440 
2,827 


450 

12 244 


Idaho 


135,482 






Coeur d*Alene 






4 

1 

26 

6 


542 

80 

2,205 

443 


22,606 

6,250 

106,626 

22 516 


Fort Hall 


2 

8 

13 


100 
280 

660 


S.K'iO 
19,052 

46,249 


FortLapwai 


Kansas 






Kickapoo 


10 
3 

9 


460 
200 

482 


37,913 
8,336 

7,230 


6 


443 


22,516 


Potawatomi 


MinnfiKOt^. „ 


7 


301 


9 %SiA 






Fond du Lac 


1 


40 


252 




i 


Leech Lake 


6 

1 

54 


221 
80 

5,762 


1 H44 


White Earth 


8 
28 


442 
3,030 


6,978 
49,485 


'740 




78 400 






Crow 


10 
12 
6 

43 


760 

870 

1,400 

2,725 


17,595 
18, 181 
13,709 

303,659 


46 
6 
2 

66 


4,982 
460 
320 

4,493 


58,739 
14,830 
4 930 


Flathead 


Fort Peck 


Net^nvskf^.. ,. 


377,440 




Omaha. 


25 
6 
12 

71 


1,549 
576 
600 

10,997 


232, 767 
19.030 
5i;862 

111,116 


29 
3 
34 

45 


1,974 

'345 

2,174 

3,948 


176,138 

11,587 

189,781 

64,0)^ 


Sant«e 


tVippebneo .... 


North Dakota. 




FortBerthold 


1 
22 
40 

8 


160 
1,357 
8,440 
1,040 


2,388 
34,678 
65,070 

8,980 








Fort Totten 


41 
3 

1 


2,900 

968 

80 


57,384 

6,214 

500 


Standing Rock 


Turtle Mountain 



» Under act of Mar. 1, 1907 (34 Stat. L., 1015-1018), modified by acts of May 29, 1908 (35 Stet. L., 444) 
June 25. 1910 (36 Stat. L., 855-856), and Feb. 14. 1913 (37 Stat. L.,678-«79). 

s Under act of May 27, 1902 (32 Stat. L.. 245-275), modified by act« of May 8, 1906 (34 Stat. L., 182). May 29 
1908 (35 Stet. L., 444), June 'k, 1910 (36 SUt. L„ 855-8.56). and Feb. 14, 1913 (37 SUt. L., 678-679). 

* Includes sales of lands of Kaw. Osage, and Five Civilised Tribes. 

< Includes sales of Five avUized Tribes. 

» Unknown. 



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COMMISSIONEB OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 



179 



Table 27. — Sales of Indians* allotted lands during fiscal year ended June 30, 1919 — 

Continued. 





Noneompetent sales. 


Inherited-land sales. 


States and superintexidciicies. 


Num. 
berof 
tracts. 


Acreage. * Proceeds. 

1 


Num- 
ber of 

tracts. 


Acres. 


Proceeds. 


Oklahoma 


92 


10,625 


$261,392 


88 


10,860 


S320,608 






Cantonment 








3 
17 
25 


482 

2,194 
4,188 


8,404 
6^606 
114, m 


Cheyenne and Arapaho 

Kiowa 


16 
10 
10 
23 
8 
13 
2 
2 
8 


1,842 
833 
4,679 
1,498 
348 
640 
118 
280 
387 


51,512 
26,931 
49,000 
42,386 
10,709 
37,349 
3,430 
9,975 
30,100 


Osage 


Otoe 


9 
15 
2 
3 

8 
2 

4 

16 


984 
1,155 
160 
245 
968 
84 
400 

1,T98 


25,215 
46,447 
T033 


Pawnee 


Ponca 


Sac and Fox 


14995 

34,340 

925 


6«er 


Seneca 


Shawnee 


5,530 
46,910 




5 


572 


9,396 


^ •• 


iriAinftt^. , , . 


5 


572 


9,396 


10 
6 

145 


1,458 
340 

22,064 


14,501 
32,400 

467,781 


Vmatilla.. . 


South Dakota 


136 


24,021 


350,515 




Cheyenne River 


12 
6 
33 
46 
15 
24 

16 

12 


3,685 
880 
8,282 
8,727 
1,0S2 
1,395 

960 

487 


27,828 
16,374 
46,381 
147,178 
41,693 
71,061 

15,481 

16,688 


7 
17 
16 
20 
19 
66 

8 

17 


1,585 
3,113 
6.257 
3,810 
2,162 
5,137 

492 

1,200 


8,550 
31,281 


Crow Creek 


Pine Ridge 


47, 506 


Rosebud 


61733 
74,510 
24^187 

10,231 

28,320 


Sisseton 


Yankton 


Utah: Uintah and Ouray 

Washington 




Cdvflle 


1 
3 
1 
7 

5 


80 
43 
121 
243 

264 


1,251 

830 

2,400 

12,207 

11,152 


9 


480 


960 


CrYShman 




fkxAane 








\^lr|Tnii. 


8 


720 


27,360 












La Pointe, 


3 
2 

7 


242 
22 

330 


15, W 
952 

5,796 








Oneida 








Wyoming: Shoshone 


8 


807 


13,131 





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180 



COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 



Tadle 2S.—Pate7Us in fee issued under act of May 8, 1906 {34 Stat. L., 182), as modified 
by acts of May 29, 1908 (35 Stat. L., 444)y and June 25, 1910 {36 Stat. L., 855). 





Patents hi fee issued from May 8, 1906, 
to June 30, 1919. 


Applications for patents in fee 
during fiscal year ended Juno 
30, 1919. 


States and superintcnd- 
encies. 


Original allotments. 


Inherited land. 


Re- 
ceived. 


De- 
nied. 


Approved. 




ber '^^ roagc. 


Num- 
ber. 


Acreage. 


Num- 
ber. 


Acreage. 


Total 


22,157 


2.676,678.49 


3,019 


328,645.45 


4,714 


346 


4,368 


553,376 






Arizona: San Xavier. 


1 

452 


<0.00 
27,340.13 


1 
6 


12.40 
308.87 










California 


428 


1 


427 




25,790 






Bishop 


2 

1 

1 

226 

222 

2 

421 


280.00 

40.00 

80.00 

15,367.13 

11,573.00 

640.00 

54,648.86 














Fort Bidweli 






1 





1 


40 


Greenville 








Hoopa Valley 

Round Valley 

Colotado: Southern Ute. 


5 

1 


298.87 

laoo 


210 
217 

2 

96 


i' 

19 


210 
216 

2 

77 


14,342 
11,408 

640 


Idaho 


69 


4,872.18 


8,482 






Coeurd'AIene 

Fort TTftTl 


184 
75 
162 

359 


29,086.97 
12,484.94 
13,076.96 

26,483.53 


8 


1,267.65 


20 

8 

68 

84 


6 
2 
11 

7 


14 
6 
57 

77 


2,154 
1,081 
5,247 


Fort Lapwai 


61 
94 


3, $04. 53 
7,815.79 


Kan.^s ..... 


5,653 








. 201 
158 

33 
4,202 


12,646.14 
13,837.39 

2,063.28 
340,097.58 


52 
42 

4 
47 


4,492.30 
3,323.49 

202.24 
3,335.15 


56 
28 

4 

406 


5 
2 

17 


51 
26 

4 
388 


3,205 


l*otftvatonDi. .... 


2,448 


Michigan: Mackinac and 
Mount Fleasant 


160 
35,138 




Fond du Lac.... 


88 

37 

269 

42 

»3,766 

2,220 


6,215.50 
2,747.32 
24,923.87 
3,474.89 
302,706.00 

483, 29a 23 


7 

7 

24 

9 


36a 00 

56a 00 

1,708.65 

706.50 


51 
18 

122 
21 

193 

ftiQ 


4 

1 
12 

31 


47 
17 

110 
21 

103 

828 


3,478 
1,078 

12,018 
1606 

16,866 

191,587 


axand Portage 

Leech Lake 


NettLake 


White Earth 


MfmtanA... . 


377 


48,419.88 






Blackleet '. 


862 
191 
758 
409 

1,278 


269,149.35 
34,649.30 
66,98&03 

112,503.55 

85,168.30 


2 

214 
72 
89 

563 


254.62 
26,355.37 
5,680.89 
16, 120. 00 


424 
80 
246 

100 


i' 

22 

8 

42 


424 
88 

224 
92 

152 


133, 2n 
15,135 
19,900 
23,281 

10,032 


Cfow 


Flathead 


Fort Peck 


^eb^aska . .. 


50,838.76 1 194 




Omaha. ...,.,,. 


720 

26 

309 

223 

12 


45,752.94 
3,365.06 
23,865.80 
12,184.56 

840.00 


212 


26,811.00 


137 


22 


115 


7,703 


Ponca 


Santee 


272 
79 


19,213.00 
4,814.76 


18 
39 

9 


7 
13 


11 
26 

9 


1,017 
1,312 

480 


W«nTi^l>f»£0 , 


Nevada 












3 
2 

7 

1,809 


36a 00 
320.00 
16a 00 

348,988.00 














Reno 






2 

7 

281 


22 


2 

7 

259 


320 


Walker River 






160 


North Dakota 


209 


33,600.47 


47,868 




FortBerthold 

FortTotten 


122 

101 

541 

1,045 


30,355.90 

9,449.80 

165,566.85 

143,615.45 


8 
40 
53 
108 


844.00 
3,190.67 
10,182.21 
19,383.59 


53 
30 
59 
139 


13' 

9 


63 
17 
59 
130 


12,790 
1,777 
13,728 
19,573 


Standing Rock 

TurtteMountaln 



1 Restrictions removed under act June 21, 1906 (34 Stat. L., 353). 



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coif MISSIONEB OF US^DIAK AFFAIBS. 



181 



Table 28. —Patenta in foe issued under act of May 8, 1906 (34 Stat, L.^ 182), as modified 
by acts of Hay 29, 1908 (SS Stat. L., 4U)f cmd June 25, 1910 {36 StaL L,, ^55)--Contd. 





Patents in fee Issued from May 8, 1906, 
to June 80, 1919. 


Applications for patents in fee 
during fiscal year ended June 
30, 1910. 


States and superintcnd- 
endee. 


Original allotments. 


Inherited land. 


Re- 
coived. 


De- 
nied. 


Approved. 




Num- 
ber. 


Acreage. 


Mum- 
ber. 


Acreage. 


Num- 
ber. 


Acreage. 


OlrlAlinTviA 


3,671 


336,940.94 


466 


49,246.50 


341 


41 


300 


40,090 




CheyeimouKl Arapa- 
ho 


50 

514 
245 
176 
177 
294 
264 
47 
1,154 
741 

672 


8,610.88 

60,414.98 
36,245.14 
16,83L38 
20,922.31 
26,40SL01 
29,734.03 
4,757.77 
68,756.08 
64,176.46 

66,10L71 


30 

27 
34 
20 
58 
38 
43 
2 
180 
35 

101 


4,572.66 

4,066.49 
3,837.86 
2,738.15 
5,641.58 
4,443.36 
5,286.00 
560.00 
12, 429. 46 
5,670.91 

9,219.66 


6 

20 
28 
28 
21 
40 
70 
4 

26 
80 

202 


2 

6 
3 

4* 

17 
5 

2' 

2 

13 


4 

14 
25 
28 
17 
32 
65 
4 

24 
87 

189 


720 

2,484 
6,661 
4,047 
2,625 
4,326 


KIOWB 


Otoe 


Pawnee 


Ponca 


f^rAnd Fox .X 


7,621 
400 


Seger 




1,945 


Shawnee 


9,241 


OiegoQ 


20,485 




mAm^th 


148 

19 

166 

334 

5 

4,114 


24,214.27 

2,754.09 

15,779.74 

22,673.61 

680.00 

709,415.04 


5 
10 
19 
62 

5 

452 


802.72 
1,511.29 
1,608.76 
4,446.80 

760.00 

78,408.32 


43 


3 


40 


5,960 


Rosobure 


Buete._..::::: 


142 

17 


3 

7 


139 
10 


13,676 
8tl 


Umatilla 






Boath Dakota 


1,000 


138 


052 


106,694 




Clieyenne River 

Crow Creek 


588 
160 
158 
1,297 
699 
259 
953 

46 

1,021 


166,442.84 
24,602.28 
36,886.23 
215,878.52 
143,115.25 
26,031.72 
06,36&20 

8,070.00 

03,30L00 


46 
85 
7 
164 
93 
14 
43 


9,261.88 
14,004. 45 

1,069.92 
32,972.29 
16,194.64 

1,434.14 

8,571.12 


220 
56 

45 
411 
158 

56 
149 

41 

417 


40 
3 

6' 

69 
13 
9 

1 

6 


180 
53 
45 

406 
84 
44 

140 

40 
411 


45,538 
8,020 


Lower Brule 


9.487 


Pine Ridge 


12.156 


Rosebttd 


14,448 




40C0 


Yfpi^ton 


13,020 


Utah: Uintah and Ouray . 
Washingtfvi, , 


2,622 
38,472 


316 


24,505.61 




ColvlUe 


389 
9 

107 
46 
39 

431 

1,641 


40,830.30 
1,008.00 

10,647.50 
3,530.00 
4,208.36 

32,00L«3 

77,315.82 


5 
3 

1 

3 

1 

302 

. 279 


480.00 
153.00 
8a 00 
34a 00 
163.85 
28,387.78 

15,528.07 


165 
2 
17 
5 
21 
207 

206 


3* 

2 
1 

7 


165 
2 
14 
3 
20 
207 

198 


17,706 
273 


C!*»hTnAn .... 


Spokane... . 


1,337 
2J0 


liholah 


Tnlalip 


2,163 


Yakima- . 


16,663 


Wlscmsin. .. ^ . 


13,197 






Hayward 


143 
22 

160 

1,250 

65 

1 

171 
32 


11,031.04 

1,667.14 

12,206.22 

48,372.12 

3,059.30 

80.00 

17,185.06 

3, 77a 00 


13 

7 

37 

221 

1 


1,04a 00 

588.10 

3,150.85 

10,719.12 

80.00 


81 
8 
39 
56 
20 
1 

34 

22 


5 

i* 

1 

1 


1 

39 

55 

19 

1 

33 

22 


5,036 


Lac du Flambeau.... 
1a Pomtfi. 


633 
2,930 


Oneida 


2,370 


Red Cliff 


1,230 


Tomah... 


80 


Wyoming: Shoshone 

Public domain 


36 


2,241.65 


3,10B 
2,878 











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182 



COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 



Table 28. — Patents in fee issued under act of May 5, 1906 (S4 Stat. L., 182), as modified 
by acts of May 29, 1908 {S5 Stat. X., 444) and June 25, 1910 (36 Stat. L., ^55)— Contd. 

SUMMARY OF PATENTS IN FEE ISSL'ED. UNDER ACT OF MAY 8, 1906. 





Applica- 
tions ap- 
proved. 


AcreaKe 
approved. 


1907 


889 

1,987 

1,166 

955 

1,011 

344 

520 

1,148 

940 

934 

2,203 

4.379 

4,368 


92,132.50 
153, 991. 78 


1908. 


1909 


133,331.79 


1910. . . 


99,339. 10 


1911 


115,575w37 
45,529.49 


1912 . . . .... .... 


1913 


67,477.40 
152 406.44 


1914 


1915 

1916 


124,114.86 
130, 980. 43 


1917 


266, 44a 00 
704,209.00 


1918 


1919.. .... 


553,376.00 




Total... . . . 


20,844 .2. 637. 963. 2S 









Table 29. — Removals of restrictions. 



Fiscal year. 



Quapaw (Seneca), 
Okla.» 



Five Civiliied Tribes.* 



Number. Acreage. Number. Acreage. 



Aggregate. 



30,506.82 



12,294 



858,264.32 



1919. 
1918. 
1917. 
1916. 
1915. 
1914. 
1913. 
1912., 
1911. 
1910. 
1909. 



44 

24 
20 
30 
25 
72 
37 
53 
68 
215 



2,820.42 
960.00 
916.88 
1,401.45 
1,095.28 
3,889.35 
1,930.00 
8,218.28 
4,104.91 
10,170.25 



839 

1,532 

1,438 

697 

786 

1,106 

056 

652 

063 

1,470 

1,865 



57,002.28 
141,524.30 
155,403.17 
42,10360 
60,077-88 
81,034.73 
60,532.64 
45,075.51 
84,679.34 
88,070.34 
52 761.00 



» Act of Mar. 3, 1909 (35 Stet. L., 751). 

3 Act of May 27, 1908 (35 Sut. L., 312); by departmental approval. 

Note.— Act of Congress dated May 27, 1008 (35 Stat. L., 312), removing restrictions from all lands of inter- 
married whites, freedmen, and Indians of less than half Indian blood, and from all lands except homesteads 
of Indians havmg halX or more than half and less than three-quarters Indian blood, oi)erat6d to remove 
restrictions from the lands oX 70,000 Indians, who held 8,000,000 acres. 



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COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 



183 



Table 30. — CeriificaUs of competency issued during fiscal year ended June SO, 1919 y under 
act of June 25, 1910 {S6 Stat. L., 855), to Indians holding fee patents with restrictions 
as to alienation. 



Indians to whom Issued. 



Aggregate 

1919 

1918 

1917: 

1916 

1916 

1914 

1913 

1912 

1911 

Fort Hall, Idaho 

Mount Pleasant, Ifich. 
Grand Portage, Mhrn. . 

Fond du Lac. Minn 

Ha7ward.Wis 

Lac du Flambeau, Wis. 
LaPointe,Wls,.....-.. 



Number. 



627 



Acreage. 



45,890 



7,491 
7,628 
4,440 
9,042 
6,616 
8,961 
1 600 
1,917 
3,810 



1,061 
160 

1,078 
800 
800 
633 

2,980 



Table 31. — Certificates of competency issued to Kaw and Osage Indians. 



Fiscal year. 


Kaw.» 


Osage.> 


Number. : Acreage. 


Number. 


Acreage. 


Acerecate 


79 ^ 21,104 


648 


209,050 




1919 


10 1,600 
10 1,600 
7 1,120 


49 
17 
21 
• 4 
12 
4 

23 
22 
84 
203 
19 


23,705 
8,830 

10395 
1,900 
6.880 


1918 


1917 


1916 


1915 


6 1 800 
12 1,904 
1 400 
1 480 



1914 


1 960 


1913 


10 800 
10.800 


1912 


1911 


41 100 


1910 


1 


143 670 
9,310 


1900 


20 1 8,000 
6 1 2,400 
6 2,400 
1 400 

1 


1908 




1907 






1906 













1 Act July 1, 1902 (32 Stat. L., 636). 
140923*— INT 191&— VOL 2 — 



> Act June 28, 1906 (34 Stat. L., 639). 



-13 



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184 



COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIB& 






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186 COMMISSIOlirER OF IITOIAN AFFAIBS. 

Table 33. — Bmldings, ete,^ compUUd during the fiscal year ended June SO, 1919. 



state and suporintendencies. 



Improvement. 



Cost. 



Total. 



Arizona: 

Camp Verde 

Sella (Vamori and Santa 
Rosa). 

Sells 

Navi^o 

Colorado: 

Southern Ute 

Do 

Do 

Uto Mountain 

Do 

Idaho: 

Fort Lapval 

Do... 

Michigan: 

Mount Pksasant 

Montana: 

Fort Belknap 

Do 

Do 

Nebraska: 

Genoa 

Nevada: 

Western Shoshone 

New Mexico: 

San Juan 

Do 

Navi^Jo (Tohatchi) 

Do'*!;;!!'!!!!!;'!!!!! 

Pueblo Bonito 

Zuni 

North Dakota: 

Turtle Mountain 

Oklahoma: 

Bloomfleld 

Tishomingo 

Ponca 

Cherokee O. T. School 

Euchee 

Do 

Oregon: 

Umatilla (Tutuilla) 

South Dakota: 

Flandreau 

Do 

Pierre 

Rosebud 

Pine Ridge 

Wisconsin: 

Lacdu Flambeau 



Water and sewer systems . 
Outhouses 



Repairs to buildings 

Addition to water system . 



Electric lighting plant . . . 

Employees' cottajse 

Adoitian to power house . 
Water and sewer system . 
Timber truss bridge 



Employees' cottage , 

Heating plant for cottage . 

Dairy bam 



Flour mill 

Repairing dairy bam 

Schoolhouae and cottage . . 

Two employees' cottages . 

Day schools (1 and 2) 



Repair to hospital 

One steel bridge 

Frame dormitory 

Remodeling old dormitory 

Repairs to school buildings 

Addition to boiler house and boiler setting. 
Flour mill 



Improvements to heating plant . 



laundry and heatilng plant 

Two dormitories 

Salt Fork bridge 

Lavatory annexes, girls' dormitory. 

Dining hall 

Rebuilding bam 



Day school and outhouses. 



Water tank 

Improvements to water system. 
Silo. 



Repairs to day school . . . . 
Remodeling schoolhouse . 



Employees' quarters No. 112. 



t32S,404.6B 



3,500.00 
805.90 

1,536.40 
16,0 



4,866.00 
5,O0QlOO 
2,800.60 
40,818.78 

io,ooaoo 

3,506^00 
638.55 

8,000.00 

3,O0Ol56 
1,400.00 
4,816.00 

5,251.40 

4,ooaoo 

000.00 

25,172100 

46,ooaoo 

5,119.80 
<40a00 
2,817.00 
2,960.00 

44Z00 

10,938.00 
64,800.00 
5,966.67 
4,403.90 
1,865.80 
2,000.00 

4,381.80 

1,313.17 
1,091.26 
1,080.00 
1,896.49 
2,700.00 

9,780.00 



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COMMISSIONEB OF INDIAN AFFAIKS. 



187 



Table 34. — BuUdings, etc., under construeiion or contract during fiscal year ended June 

SO, 1919. 




Arizona: 

Colorado River 

Fort Apache 

Do!7r. 

Phoenix 

Pima 

San Carlos 

Sells 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Western Xavajo 

Califomia: 

Fort Yuma (Cocopah day 
school). 

Fort Yuma 

Oreenville 

Sherman 

Do 

Colorado: 

Southern Ute 

Do 

Ute Mountain 



Montana: 

Crow 

Fort Belknap 

Flathead 

Do 

Tongue River .• 

Tongue River (Lame Deer 
day school). 
Nebraska: 

Genoa 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Omaha 

Nevada: 

Carson 

Do 

North Carolina: 

Cherokee 

New Mexico: 

Albuquerque 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Jicarilla 

NavaJo 

Pueblo Bonito 

Do 

SanJuan 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Tohatchi 

North Dakota: 

Bismarck 

WahDeton 

Fort Totten '.V.V.' WW.V.W 



Employees' cottage 

Rebuilding boys' dormitory 

Girls' lavatory annex 

Repairing oottaees 

Transformer ana pnmphouse 

Repairs to Black River Bridge 

Hospital 

Electric lighting plant 

Stocknuurs cotu^e 

Repairs to clerks' and superintendent's oottages . 

Garage 

Bam 



Repairing suspension bridge. Tanners Crossing . 
Day school building 



Water system 

Water improvements, buildings, etc 

Screen porches, addition to girls' building., 
Ojmmasium.... 



Electric lighting plant 

Employees' cottage, heating system, and addition to laundry . 

Power nouse, mess hall, boyr dormitory, girls' dormitory, 

hospital, employees' cottage, soho o lbouse, electriolightixiig. 

Improvements agency heating plant 

Heating system, superintendent's cottage 

Employees' quarters 

Warehouse 

Dairy bam 

Schoolhouse 



Two cottages 

Addition to hospital . . 
Employees' quarters. 

Water tank 

Heating plant 



Improving heating plant. . 
Addition girls' dormitory . 



Assembly hall and gymnasium. 



Mess hall addition 

Commissary 

Repairs to ofEU^ 

Cottage 

New roof on schoolhouse 

Addition to warehouse 

Employees' cottage 

Gallup Mesa Verde Highway 

MesshallNo.33 

Addition to schoolhouse 

Farmington Bridge 

Plumbing installation four cottages 

Labor and additional material for hospital . 

Lavatory annexes 

Toedlena water system 

Toadlena lavatory annexes 

Extension sewer 



Remodeling dormitories . 

Two cottages 

Industrial cottage 

Heating plant 



io,ooaoo 

42,263.81 
4,000.00 

05a 00 

3,028.63 
2,804.00 

25,ooaoo 

4,024.79 
3,609.53 

66a 30 
1,113.17 
1,588.03 

762.13 

4,ooaoo 

1,027.40 
1,463.34 

3,5oaoo 

4,50a00 

8,ooaoo 

4,895.00 

5,ooaoo 

122,784.00 



1,673.85 

629.46 

4,585.48 

1,823.68 

3, oca 00 
i,2oaoo 



i,5oaoo 

2,500.00 
7,120.00 
5,40a00 



i,5oaoo 
i8,ooaoo 

4,ooaoo 

13, 06a 00 
3,117.60 
1,719.60 
4,000.00 
813.17 
3,811.85 
1,800.00 

25,ooaoo 

67,620.00 

29,000.00 
600.00 

7,ooaoo 

5,200.00 

5,500.00 

2,500.00 

495.00 

894.00 

7,ooaoo 
i5,ooaoo 



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188 



COMMISSIONEft OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 



Tablb 34. — Buildings f etc, under conMtntdtitn or eantrad during fi$c«l year ended June 

SO, 1919—GoB.tinued. 



State and superintend enries. - 



Improvement . 



OIcIiImmba: 

Cbarokee, O. T. School.... 

Do t 

Do ! 

EufuUa j 

Jones Kale Academy ' 

Eowa ! 

Kekusoky Academy 



Electric lighting... 

ShopbulkUng 

Dairy barn 

Laundry buOding. 
Bam. 



Shawnee 

Do 

Do 

TiAomingo 

Wheelock Academy. 

Do .^Ttr^. 

jQamath 



Do.. 

Do 

Salem 

Sooth Dakota: 

Oaaton Asylum. . . 
Flandreau 

Do 

PineRMge 

Do 

Pierre 

Rosebud 

Do 

Sisseton 

Do 

Do 

Wisconsin: 

Lac du Flambeau. 

Do 



Police oottafie 

Electric Uehting plant 

Deico electric lUhting plant 

Three cottages 

Heating plant 

Repairs sewer and toilets 

LaTatecy annexes and acceen perehes. 

Two donuttories 

Boiler, pipe and fittings, return trap . . 
Balance equipment 



Office builtting 

\ Indianhomes 

I Employees' quarters. 

Addition to hospital . 



Shoshone 

Wsstem Shoshone . 



Painting various buildings. 

Rcfuair and equipment oTshep boiMsikg . 

Reiaodeliiig heating system 

Riwindeling acadeiBic building 

Eleetcic lifting plant 

BoUer stock and aetting 

Two lavatory annexes 

Frame cottage 



A mount o( 
authority 

to JimeM, 
1919. 



4,n7.09 
4W.i2 

tuaoo 

800.00 
4.«B.00 
4,«00l00 
2,072.00 
1,38a 00 



Rw^p iw y ia a * qoarteES 

Hot-air heating systena 

Boiler stock, breecfaings, and iapcxrv-eaent to heating system. 
Physicians' cottage 

Hospital 

Employees' quarters No. 101 



05,000100 

4,ooaoo 

1,496.00 
4,Slf.0» 

i,4es.oo 
8,ooaoo 

3,7X8.71 

2,301.00 
6,500.00 

o,jiiiLai 
i,sss.oo 

4,SO0lO0 
14,503.00 
7,400.00 

4,ui.«a 

3,M0.55 
S,iOK.80 

aoaoo 

«,O56.00 
4,000.00 

7,SiBr.S 
1,700.00 



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COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 



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194 COMMISSIONER OF IlimiAN AFFAIBS. . 

Table 36. — Distribution of Government property valtuitions June SO, 1919. 



States and supcrin- 
tendencies. 



Total 
value. 



General 
adminis- 
tration. 



Health. 



Allot- 
ting. 



Irrigation. 



Farming. 



Forestry. 



School. 



Grand total. 
Arizona 



Camp Verde 

Colorado River... 

Fort Apache 

Fort Mojave 

Havasupai 

Kaibab 

Leupp 

Moqul 

Navajo 

Phoenix 

Pima 

Salt River 

San Carlos 

Sells 

TruxtoD Canon.. 
Western Navajo., 



California.. 

Bishop. 
Campo., 



I>lgger. 

Fort Bfdwell.... 

Fort Yuma 

Greenville 

Hoopa Vallcv . . - 

Malfi. 

Pala 

Round Valley... 
Sherman Insti- 
tute 

Soboba 

Tule River 



Colorado. 



Southern Ute... 
Ute Mountain... 

Florida: Seminoles. . 

Idaho 



Coeurd'Alene... 

Fort Hall 

Fort Lapwai 



Iowa: Sac and Fox.. 
TT ^n^'^ 



$42,139,647 



$3,2S8,311 



$1,664,543 



$13,862 



$19,235,505 



$1,741,531 



$1,111,865 



$15,064,530 



3,174,801 



385,796 



205,412 



1,805 



2,557 



163,241 



34,894 



2,291,004 



45,755 

111,995 

376,911 

114,564 

6,825 

6,885 

112.205 

201,063 

619, 430 

1629,532 

263,676 

47,348 

'268,394 

104,485 

125,414 

140,299 

1,093,657 



27,718 

8,035 

68,758 

1,060 

2,755 

1,812 

10,975 

38,347 

64, 101 



23,855 
22,216 
80,224 
26,116 
7,136 
2,700 

51, 144 



825 

5,000 

11,870 

6,189 

240 

70 

7,500 

33,027 

43 517 

106,450 

28,730 

825 

10,385 

25,000 

8,684 

5,600 

61,526 



9,733 



8,611 
1,560 



19,548 



550 
■595 



1,465 
*i,692 



3,628 
6,790 
13,310 



3,096 



750 



89,786 



125 I 48,461 



24,075 
16,558 
11,240 
27,950 

90,546 



12,250 



4,568 



33,137 

11,793 

10,345 

101,367 

107,750 

74,143 

117,574 

15,624 

65,614 

85,607 

412,359 
42,009 
15,066 

111,350 



760 
2,285 
10,345 



100 
200 



125 



240 
1,050 



200 
7,889 
12,294 
10,010 
3,650 



2,000 

4,000 

5,105 

22,360 

210 
1,620 

550 

24,472 
900 



1,900 
41,486 



1,125 
1,900 



GO, 403 I 1, 139 



75 
2,175 



Haskelllnstitute 

Kickapoo 

Potawatomi 



95,508 
16,842 

2,306 

483,977 



47,831 I. 
12,G32 I 

G54 '. 

ST), 568 



1,139; 



2,175 



64,713 
287, 201 
132,060 

.«^,578 

6S7, 446 



50,582 
34,986 



102,754 i 



40,450 



9,300 



1,320 . 

15,850 |. 
85,564 I. 

83,450 ' 

25.315 . 



40,450 



4,260 
500 

66,498 
11,773 



1,925 
2,405 



228 I 



1,652 
33,709 



1,180 

27,179 

5,350 



1,118 I 
"i,666 ! 



164,891 ' 



588,843 
84,593 
14,010 

Michigan ' 2*7,578 



9,300 
1,241 



Mackinac 

. Mount Pleasant. 



.! 



2,522 
215,056 



Miimesota ! 937,965 



1,241 
133,919 



25,038 ' 157,878 

277 1 1 7,013 t 



11,515 



458 



11,515 I 

I 
95,388 ) 



458 



Fond du Lac 

Grand Portage.. 

Leech Lake 

NettLake 

Pipestone (Birch 

Coolev) 

Red Lake 

Vermilion Lake. , 
White Earth.... 



34,979 

8,986 

144,909 

39, .508 

234,709 

158,820 

81,377 

234,697 



5,615 

8,882 

41,174 

4,200 



25,121 



7,077 
275 

6,815 
27,648 



21, 528 

52,'626' *28,'449 
Value of buildings overestimated last year. 



80 



271 I 



1,854 



7,248 
24,000 I 



> Includes Rice Station. 



17,712 

80,227 
275,735 

96,714 
2,270 
5,00s 

68,087 
122,919 
403,719 
521,062 
170,556 

24,807 
141,400 

86,611 

96,854 
104,040 

842,297 



81,912 

6,256 



96,667 

108,750 

66,636 

79,166 

1,220 

8,286 

78,502 

321,860 
26,671 
13,457 

47,678 



45,502 
2,071 



I 
2,118. 219,378 

10,513 
106,739 
40,126 

6,123 

487.940 



405,927 
77,303 
4, 710 

234,364 



823 
233,641 

1,934 I 31,519 \ 675,225 



4,160 

104 

96,658 

31,762 

227,894 
100,542 
57,377 
153,728 



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COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 195 

Table 36. — Distribution of ChvernmerU property valuations June 30 , 1919 — Contiiiued. 



States and superln- 
tendencies. 


Total 
value. 


General 
tration. 


Health. 


Allot- 
ting. 


Irrigation. 


Farming. 


FoPBStry. 


School. 


Montana 


$1,482,406 


$372,728 


$69,075 


$740 


$24R X5 


ti.^ «2i» 


$24,637 


$012,836 






Rtackfeet 


173,300 
278,118 
368,496 
366.357 
145,456 

12,041 
148; 639 

656,772 


30,836 
100,306 
91,235 
78,220 
41,142 

7,546 
23,444 

67,694 


23,417 
20,850 
3,000 
3,800 
15,310 

98 
2,600 

47,486 






6,665 
46 700 

6,996 
44 700 
12,965 

2,673 
34,677 

40,625 


2,025 

475 

14,937 

3,000 


110,467 

110,787 

674 

236,637 

75,278 

1 725 


Crow 






Flathead 

Fort Belknap.... 
Fort Peck 


■""746' 


» 246, 765 


Rocky Boy's 

Tongue River 

Nebraska 






1,460 


4,100 


401,067 










Genoa 


899,397 
48.060 
109,325 

531,745 




10,330 










889,067 


<^mftha. 


7,525 
60,160 

116,618 






40,526 




Winnebago 

Nevada 


87,i56 
45,087 








12,000 
801,060 




6,176 


63,906 








Carson 


227,784 
18,362 
21,886 
>6 481 
74,637 


1,796 


19,857 






38,127 




168 004 


FaUon 








18 363 
11030 

6281 
67,387 

7,047 

23,043 


Fort MoDermitt.. 


4,260 


3,000 
SO 




26 
160 


3,676 




If oapa River 




Nevada 


7.1S0 






Walker River.... 


28,764 ; 6) 876 

116,164 56,696 

38,887 38,862 

1,762,790 93,464 


1,665 

20,580 

35 

114,313 




6,000 


7,287 
14 936 




Western Sho- 
shone 




Reno, special 
Bffent. . ........ 








New Mexico 


260 


11,476 


101,376 


23,065 


1,406,848 




Albuanorque 


369,302 10.949 


11,833 
22,187 
21,706 
3,500 

16,353 

36 190 

3258 

9;288 

675 

3,080 
70.837 










357,630 
88,315 


176,638 
168 886 
168,640 

148,716 
304,346 
260,224 
155,033 


36,040 
26,376 






21,229 
16,061 
9,240 

11,760 
16,970 


8,966 
10,660 


Mescalero 






94,086 
« 166.660 


Pueblo Bonito.. . 


250 




Pueblo Day 
Schools 


11,100 
8,750 






109,612 


Ran Juan,... . 







3,300 


249,135 
346,960 


SantaFe. 







Zunl 


250 




11,476 


26,126 


150 


107,745 


New York: New 
York Agency 

North Carolina: Che- 
rokee 


710 135 


178,433 
1.113.867 










.. 4,360 


171,168 
784,902 


North Dakota 


1 00.744 


313 




60,981 












Bismarck. 


78,312 
'91,240 
242,736 
371,625 

98,836 
236,119 

3,610,643 




1 








78,313 

7946 

224,606 

283,926 

29,956 


Fort Berthold.. 


60,172 

7,479 

70,200 

41,086 

5; 808 

258,068 


2,180 
6,638 
31,175 
16 779 
20,065 

17a 740 


313 




20,630 
4,010 

30,326 
6,016 




FortTotten 






Standing Rock... 
Tl^rtle Mnnntf^iii . 




■ 










Wahpeton 

Oklahoma.... 








210,240 
2,802,713 


75 




285,938 












f'antonment . . 


168,381 

421,060 
865,179 

78,585 

51,968 
600,710 
224,520 

72 874 
128,604 

87,717 

54 766 
196,767 

31,245 
113,698 


6,000 1 800 
23,940! 20.050 


76 




94,325 
88,787 




7,181 
288,288 


Cheyenne and 
Arapaho.... 






Chilooco 




4,600 
78,586 








850,679 


Choctaw-Chlckar 
saw Sanatorium 











Five Civilized 
Tribes.... 


51,968 






i ! 


Kiowa 


42,950 
40,340 


60,825 
1,215 






77,324 
1,G00 


... 


419,611 
181 365 

72,874 
104,061 

89,617 

39,470 
177,697 

30,495 
107,388 


Osage 








Otoe !.... 








Pawnee 


23,766 
27,950 
13 986 
15,127 


757 

250 

1,304 

3,202 

750 






1 


Ponca. 






j 


Sac and Fox.. 










Seger 






741 




Seneca 








Shawnee 


6,310 
















1 




Total . 


3 086 074 ' 2.S2 343 1 167.747 1 75 




262,757 




2,408,162 















==^ 



1 1918 report. 



•No data. 



s Overestimated lost year. 



4 As reported. 



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196 OOMliCISSIOlirBE OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 

Table 36. — Distribution of GU>verTuneni property vahmtiori^ .hme 30^ 1911* — Continued. 



States and superiii- 


Total 
value. 


General 
adminftB- 


Health. 


Allot- 
ting. 


bngatioa. 


Farming. 


FoTOfitry, 


School. 


tendencies. 


tration. 




Oklaboma-Coatd. 
FiTe Civiiked 
Tribes Sdiools. 


8534,469 


85,725 


81,602 




883,181 




$494,061 










Armstrong 

Academy... 

Bloomfi^d 


54,662 
65,426 

82,147 

53,626 

50,221 
82,066 
A3.flS7 














54,662 

•6,426 

82,147 














Cherokee 
Orphan 
School 














E u c h 6 e 
Boarding 
ftehool.. 


5,146 


28 
1,914 






19,681 
3,500 




28,776 

45,707 
32,068 
62.963 


E alau 1 a 
Boarding 
School 








Jones Male 
Academy... 

Meknsukey 
Aoaduny. . 










579 


406 
60 










Nuyak a 

Boarding 

School 42.385 










43,325 
89,855 
40 142 


TuskiAoma 
Academy.. 

Wh««look 
Academy.. 

Oregon 


139,855 
40,142 
770,014 


























21,283 


27,435 




810,009 


102,166 


835,400 


573,730 






K^UutiMh 


l«8,860 
S85Q,188 


6,775 


2,588 

20,200 

1,860 




10,009 


11.685 


28,060 


109,310 
389,938 
8,545 
47,632 
78,306 

1,595,600 


Salem 




Slletz... 


7,401 
3,182 
3,925 

696,900 




1 


350 


ITmatllla. is8 4<ift 






87,631 
2,900 

381,584 


Warm Springs.. . . 
South Dakota 


99,925 
8,219,204 


2,795 
318,809 






12,000 

189,132 


8880 


28,629 


Canton Asylum.. 
CaieyeBBe River.. 
Crow Creek 


158,064 
468,871 
127 674 
336,309 
38,043 
131,002 
306,557 

|i 

78 488 
128,248 
866,613 




158,084 
42,713 
17667 
6; 803 












196,349 

29,199 

8,543 






99,901 
18,000 
871472 




124 908 








62 808 
238,481 
38.043 


Flandrean 








Hopes 

Lower Brule.. . .. 








59,524 


5,854 
7 184 

22,247 
5540 

48800 

460 

4,057 

8,484 






8,850'^ 
52 393 
36 022 
62,602 
241760 




56,774 
219' 480 


Pierre 


380 


26,500 
'129 




Pine Ridge 

R»PWOity 

Rosebud. . 


216,485 
3 540 

107 558 
19,643 
56,130 

170,163 


•189,067 


865,043 

278;486 
58! 890 
86,463 
S3; 909 






75 


eisgeCoa 






Yankton. . . 






1,584 




Utah."™".:::::::: 




47,607 


6,380 






Qoshute. 


4,570 
11,120 

• 250,92S 

1,118,088 














4,570 
8,966 


Smvwits. . . . 




2,155 
6,329 

68,762 










Uintah and 
Ouiav 


170, 168 
286,529 




47,697 




6,360 
41,384 


20,374 




47,643 


673,715 








ColvlUe 


•164,811 

877^628 

15 722 

V186 716 


70,754 
2448 
11,162 
T 136 078 
12! 289 


5,193 
12; 780 






36,658 


81,884 


20,372 

382 426 

4560 

16 298 

7 065 

l«l'606 


CuHhman 






NeahBay 

fliwkaoe 




1 




"•as 




1 




iSSSSi. 


on lai 




j 




Tulallp t ai!948 

Yakima 126,079 


30,218 i 8,479 
23,600 1 2,200 




1 


1,646 




1 10,986 


7,906 , 8i;389 



1 1918 report. 

* Land ovorestlmftted last year. 
» Formerly Springfield. 

* Includes forest reserve. 



* Inorease due to supplies on hand and imiscenanoou.s property. 

• Decrease due to decriased stock valaa. 

7 Decrease due to decreased valuation oM Spokane Sanatortoaa. 



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GOMMISSIONBB OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 197 

Table 96. — DUtribuiion ofG^vemmeni properUf vcliMiCion Jvne SO, 2319 — Gontinaed. 



Btat«8 and superin- 
teadents. 


Total 
valne. 


General 
adninis. 
traUon. 


Health. 


AUol- 
ment. 


Irrigation. 


Farming. 


Forestry. 


School. 


WL*wons1n.^. , 


81,471,462 : MS lAfi 


$29,312 


9609 




331,506 


8986,690 


8619,188 










Grand Rapids 


1,573 

15,478 

88^388 

113,394 

1,196 

9982 

60,888 

3,670 

- 211,094 

438,668 


1,578 
4^882 
47,987 

745 
8,679 














HaTward. 


6,070 
13,423 

296 
360 
383 

sao 

4,890 
19,900 






29,196 


50 
605,290 


133,580 
130718 
109,908 


Kfldwna 






Lac da Flambeau 








^•9/^^m 










LaPolnte 


909 




220 


SO 




Oneida 




68,428 
329 


Red Cliff 


440 






2,090 


300 








206,234 
181,819 




153,968 




988,760 


5,650 


18,500 


State totals 


23,334,933 


3,239,512 


1,694,543 


4,378 


807,574 


1,741,531 


1,111,865 


15,084,539 


HisoeUaneoas 


18,804,714 


67,799 




8,984 


18,727,931 
















Wanhouses 


12,884 

1699 
18,984 

18,737,981 
94,168 


■2,884 
■ 689 














Liquor suppires- 














A]]ott*ng servioe.. 




18,994 










Irrigation service 
(Soat) 






18,727,931 








Indian office 


64,369 



























I Ldist year's rq^oft. 



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198 



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OOMMISSIOKER OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 



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200 



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COMMISSIOKEB OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 



201 









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202 



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8. 



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COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 



203 



Table 38. — Sihool and agency employees in Indian Service, for fiaoal year ended June 

SO, 1919, 



States and superintendenoles. 



Total. 



Em- 
ployees. 



Indi- 
ans. 



Non- 
Indl- 



Salaries. 



Male. 



Num- 
ber. 



Salary. 



Female. 



Num- 
ber. 



Salary. 



Grand total 

Totalschools 

Total agondes 

Arizona 

Camp V'erde schools 

Colorado River School. . 
Colorado River Agency . 

Fort Apache schools 

Fort Apache Aeency 

Fort Mojave School 

Havasupei Schocd 

KaibabBchool 

Leupp School 

Leupp Aeency 

Moquisdnools 

Moqui Agency 

Navalo schools 

Navajo Agency 

Phosnix School 

Pima School 

Pima Agency 

Rice Station School 

Salt River schools 

Salt River Agency 

San Carlos School 

San Carlos Agency 

Sells schools 

Sells Agency 

Truxton Canon School. . 
Truxton Canon Agency . 
Western Navaioschods. 
Western Navajo Agency 

California 

Bishop schools 

Bishop Agency 

Campo School 

Digger Agency 

Fort Bidwell School.... 
Fort Bidwell Agency . . . 

Fort Yuma schools 

Fort Yuma Agency 

QreenvUk School 

Hoopa Valley School 

Hoopa Valley Agency. . . 

MalfiSchorf. 

ICalki Agency 

Pala schools 

PalaAeBncy 

Round V alley schools . . . 
Round Valley Agency . . 

Sherman Institute 

Soboba schools 

Soboba Agency 

Tule River schools 

Colorado 

Southern tTte schools . . . 
Southern Ute Agency . . . 
Ute ICountain School. . . 
Ute ICountain Agency . . 

Florida: Seminole 

Idaho 

Coeur d'Alene schools . . . 
Cocur d'Alene Agency . . 

Fort Hallschools 

Fort Hall Agency 

Fort Lapwai School 

Fort Lapwai Agency 



5,267 



2,742 
2,525 

720 



2,263 

907 
1,356 



3,004 

1,835 
1,109 



$3,685,986 

1,962,754 
1,703,232 



3,220 {$2,439,876 

973,487 
1,466,389 



2,047 $1,246,110 



1,578 
469 



8 
8 
18 
34 
44 
18 
5 
6 
12 
19 
41 
31 
67 
49 
79 
43 
45 
24 
6 
14 
12 
41 
13 
20 
13 
7 
23 
20 

301 



106 



391 



478,395 



430 



906,104 



4 

2 

9 

13 

22 

7 

3 

1 

6 

13 

21 

15 

34 

33 

21 

13 

26 

8 

2 

7 

5 

80 

1 

12 
4 
1 

10 

109 



4 
6 
9 
21 
22 
11 
2 
5 
6 
6 
20 
16 
33 
16 
58 
30 
19 
16 
4 
7 
7 
11 
12 
8 
9 
6 
17 
10 

192 



5,060 
6,660 
14,440 
21,866 
30,844 
12,160 
3,620 
3,880 
8,420 
11,068 
24,240 
20,393 
41,930 
29,148 
58,500 
28,325 
31,648 
15,780 
4,165 
8,620 
7,270 
26,728 
8,540 
11,532 
9,330 
5,840 
16,460 
11,928 

196,599 



5 

3 

14 

15 

42 

6 

3 

3 

4 

18 

16 

22 

19 

44 

33 

19 

37 

12 

2 

13 

2 

38 
5 
17 
4 
5 
11 
18 

182 



6,240 
3,780 
4,450 
1,720 
9,180 
4,560 
14,860 
5,660 
14,780 
11,050 
18,408 
1,400 
7,868 
5,860 
7,968 
6,440 
6,240 
47,260 
3,840 
9,336 
7,099 

32,950 



8,140 
10,960 

2,690 
11,160 

41,100 

79,842 



3,540 
12, 174 
14,120 
15,128 
X,640 
14,240 



3,400 
3,420 
10,780 
11,720 
29,701 
4,880 
2,600 
2,380 
3,803 
10,368 
11,390 
15,683 
15,360 
26,148 
27,680 
16,805 
25,108 
7,740 
2,170 
8,020 
1,900 
23,908 
5,120 
9,612 
3,840 
4,520 
9,680 
10,368 

128,949 



4,320 
3,060 
2,900 
1,000 
4,800 
4,560 
5,920 
4,340 
9,500 
5,610 

15,108 
1,400 
6,568 
2,040 
7,248 
4,220 
5,460 

23,190 
3,240 
9,338 
4,229 

24,700 



4,660 
8,620 
1,700 
9,720 

4,100 

59,722 



2,520 
10,734 

8,000 
14,128 
11,060 
13,280 



290 



3 
5 
4 

19 
2 

12 
2 
3 
8 
1 

25 
9 

48 
5 

46 

24 
8 

12 
4 
1 

10 
3 
8 
3 
9 
2 

12 
2 

119 



7| 
15 1 



900,267 
33ft, 843 



170,291 



1,660 
3,240 
3,660 

10,146 
1,140 
7,280 
1,020 
1,500 
4,620 
720 

12,850 
4,710 

26,570 
3,000 

30,820 

11,520 
6,540 
8,020 
1,995 
600 
5,370 
2,820 
3,420 
1,920 
5,490 
1,320 
6,780 
1,560 

69,050 



1,920 
720 

1,550 
720 

4,380 



8,940 
1,320 
5,280 
5,440 
3,300 



1,300 
2,920 

720 
2,220 

780 
24,070 

600 



3,470 
8,250 



3,480 

2,340 

990 

1,440 



32 I 23,120 



1,020 
1,440 
6,120 
1,000 
9,580 
960 



Digitized by 



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204 



COMMISSIONER OF INDIAK AFFAIRS. 



Table 38. — School cmd agency employees in Indian Service, for fiscal year ended June 

SOf 19X9-—<jOutismed, 





Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


SUtes and superintendencies. 


Em- 
ployees. 

24 
86 


Indi- 
ans. 


Non- 
Indl- 
ans. 


Salaries. 


Num- 
ber. 


Salary. 


Num- 
ber. 


SaUry. 


Iowa: Sac and Fox Sanatoiinm . . 
Kansas 


9 
23 


15 
63 


$16,310 
69,780 


13 
49 


116,370 
36,190 


U 
37 


35,940 
33,590 






Haskelllnstitute 


68 
16 
2 

43 


11 
12 

18 


57 

4 
2 

25 


57,170 
10,670 
1,940 

29,890 


39 
8 
2 

21 


28,140 
6,110 
1,940 

17,060 


29 

8 


29,030 


Kickapoo School 


4; 560 


Potawatomi Agency ... 




Michigan 


22 


12.830 






Mackinac Agency 


5 
38 

267 


1 
17 

157 


4 
21 

110 


4,920 
24,970 

173,525 


4 
17 

164 


4,200 
12,860 

113,635 


1 
21 

103 


720 


Mount Pleasant School. , 


12,110 
59,870 






^ Cass Lake School 


9 

1 
14 

8 
12 
40 

2 
10 
26 
25 
35 
15 
41 
29 

1 

360 


6 

9' 

6 
5 
21 
1 
5 
7 
18 
27 
6 
26 
20 

192 


3 

1 
5 
2 
7 

19 
1 
5 

19 
7 
8 
9 

15 
9 

I 

168 


1,600 

8,960 

5,000 

8,500 

29,794 

1,020 

5,160 

17^630 

14,970 

23,251 

9,840 

24,630 

18,720 

720 

249,965 


4 
1 
8 
5 
5 
37 


2,680 
1,600 
5,700 

3 330 

4 680 
27,794 


5 


2,040 


Fond du Lac schools 




Fond du Lao Agency 

Leech LakeSchoo! '.'.'.'.'.'. 


6 
3 
7 
3 
2 
1 

14 
14 
8 
7 
26 
7 

1 

95 


3,200 
1,670 
?,820 




2,000 


Nett Lake School.. 


1,020 




9 
12 
11 
27 

8 
15 
22 


4,560 
9,570 
8,040 

18,381 
5,020 
8,940 

13,380 


600 


Pipestone School^ 


8,060 


Red Lake schools 


6990 




4; 620 


VeimlUon Lake School 

White Earth schools 


4,820 
15,600 


White Earth Agency 


5,340 


Mississippi: Union Day School... 
Montana ... ^ 


720 


265 


188,861 


61,104 






Blackfeet schools 


20 
49 
21 
59 

2 
89 
13 
34 
21 
39 

6 
17 
40 

79 


10 
28 
5 
85 

""u 

5 
20 

9 
28 

2 
11 
25 

30 


10 
21 
16 
24 

2 
25 

8 
14 
12 
11 

4 

6 
15 

49 


11,780 
81,588 
15,180 
39,966 

3,200 
32,279 

9,100 
22,906 
14 104 
85,428 

3,804 
12,540 
28.098 

58,390 


7 
39 

8 
52 

2 
32 

6 
31 

7 
36 

6 

4 
35 

39 


5,040 
24,368 

7,060 
34,996 

3 200 
26,319 

5 380 
20,388 

6,560 
23,328 

3,804 

4,500 
23,958 

31,700 


13 
10 
18 

7 


6,740 


Blackfeet Agency 


7 223 


Crow schools 


8 100 


Crow Agency 


5,020 


Flathead School 






7 
7 
3 
14 
3 


5,960 


Fort Belknap schools 

Fort Belknap Agency 

Fort Peck achoofe.... 


3730 
2520 
7 544 


Fort Peck Agency 


2,100 


Rocky Boy's Agency 

Tongue River Agency 

Nebraska 




13 
5 

40 


8,040 
4,140 

26,690 






Ctonoa School 


42 
10 
27 

132 


14 
4 
12 

53 


28 
6 
15 

79 


29,470 
8,300 
20,620 

83,759 


17 
7 
15 

72 


13,740 
6,680 
11,280 

51,544 


25 
3 
12 

60 


15,730 


Omaha School 


1,620 


Winnebago School 


9,340 


Nevada 


32,215 






Carson School 


44 

12 
7 

4 
7 
6 

12 
2 
4 

11 
6 

17 

434 


16 
4 

3' 

3 
3 
7 

5" 

2 
10 

207 


28 
8 
7 

1 
4 
3 
5 
2 
4 
6 
4 
7 

227 


29,180 
6945 
4,945 
1,509 
3,732 
3,940 
6^464 
2,120 
3,250 
6,044 
4 280 

10,470 

281,725 


15 
8 

4 
3 
4 
2 

10 
1 
2 

10 
2 

11 

250 


13,780 
5,000 
3,265 
789 
2,062 
1,900 
5,144 
1 400 
2,000 
6 224 
2,100 
7,890 

177,979 


29 
4 

3 
1 
3 

4 
2 
1 
2 
1 
4 
6 

1T8 


15,400 


Fallon schools 


1945 


Fort McDermitt School 

Fort McDermitt Agency 

Moapa River School. 

Nevada schools 


720 
1,680 

2,040 


Nevada Agency 


i;320 


Reno Agency .1 


720 


Walker River School 


1,250 


Walker River Agency 

Western Shoshone schools. .. . 
Western Shoshone Agency. . . 


'720 
2,160 
2;580 

108,746 






Albuquerque School 


43 
16 
52 
12 
39 


12 
7 

29 
6 

23 


31 
9 

23 
6 

16 


31,020 
11,600 
33,410 
8,220 
23,900 


22 
6 

46 
8 

33 


17,490 
5,900 

30,210 
5 296 

19060 


21 
10 
6 

4 
6 


13,530 


JicarUlft School 


5,600 


Jicarilla Agency 


3 200 


Mescalero Schou 


2,924 


Mescfttoro Agency 


3;840 



Digitized by 



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€X>HM3SSION£B OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 



205 



Table 38. — Sthool and agerusy emplojfeeB in Indian Service, for fitcal year ended June 

30 y 1919 — Contmued. 



States and superintendences. 



Em 
ployees. 



New Mexico— Continued. 

Pueblo Bonito sohoola 

Pueblo Bcoitc Agency 

Pueblo Day Schools 

Pueblo Day Schools agency. . . 

Ban Juan schools 

San Joan Agency 

Santa Fe School 

Zuni schools 

Zuni Agency 

New York Agency 

North Carolina 

Cherokee schools 

Cherokee Agency 

North Dakota 

s 

y 

Oklahoma 

Cantonment School 

Cantonment Agency 

Cheyenne aiKl Arapaho 

Scliool 

Cheyenne and Arapaho 

Agency 

Chilooco School 

C hocta w - Chickasaw Banita- 

rhzm 

Kiowa schools 

Kiowa A|^ncy 

Osago School 

Osage Agency 

Otoe School 

Otoe Agency 

Pawnee School 

Pawnee A gency 

Seger schools 

Seger Aeency 

Seneca Be hool 

Seneca Agency 

Shawnee School 

Shawnee Agency 

Five Civilised Tribes Agency 

Five Civilized Tribes schools. 

Schools-Supervisor 

Armstrong Academy. ... 
Bloomflela Seminary — 

Cherokee Training 

Euchee Boarding 

Euftiula Boarding 

Jones Acaddkny 

Ifekusukey Academy. . . 

Nuyaka Boarding 

Tuskahoma Academy.. . 
Wheelock Academy 



TotaL 



Indi. 
ans. 



268 



13 
6 
32 
41 
11 
40 
66 
9 
33 
24 

926 



14 
72 
M 
27 
46 
12 

7 
16 
11 
17 
17 
17 
10 
20 

8 
280 

160 



150 



7 

1 
22 
19 

6 
21 
58 

1 

18 
12 

2SL 



Non- 
Indl- 



22 



104 



6 
4 

10 
22 
6 
10 
12 
8 
6 
12 

644 



8 
30 

13 
56 
30 
16 
38 
11 

6 
10 

8 
11 

7 
11 

5 
10 

3 
199 



Salaries. 



$16,100 
12,620 
31,329 
30,&24 
16,710 
20,264 
26,160 
13,048 
8,920 

2,290 

28,000 



18,940 
4,060 

156,900 



8,880 

4,100 
19, M8 
24,360 

7,440 
25,076 
33,568 

5,780 
U,748 
16,420 

781,480 



7,800 
9,840 

12,080 

14,160 
42,480 

9,500 
46,040 
42,966 
21,150 
04,190 

8,080 

4,800 
U,360 

8,950 
10 700 

9,740 
12,470 

8,660 
12,580 

5,040 
308,483 



110,362 



14,220 
U,190 
9,210 
9,750 
9,277 
9,135 
9,720 
9,630 
9,496 
9,360 
9,375 



Male. 



Num* 
ber. 



166 



6 

2 
29 
16 

9 
14 
54 

6 
19 
13 

522 



47 
10 

36 
4 
6 
7 
9 
6 

14 
9 
3 
7 
7 
196 



53 



Salary. 



36,520 
9,860 
7,635 

22,584 
9,060 

18,944 

12,800 
6,740 
6,880 

1,650 

14,420 



11,080 
3,340 

103,939 



6,300 
2,750 
16,848 
10,440 
6^060 
ir,586 
27,588 
4,680 
9,428 
9,360 

503,871 



4,080 
9;840 

6,340 

10,780 
25,140 

4,560 

r^ 

10,760 
56,290 
3,300 
4,060 
6,290 
7,330 
4,820 
8,060 
7,400 
6,860 
5,660 
4,440 
215,952 



45,320 



8,950 
5,580 
720 
2,100 
4,570 
1,060 
0,900 
6,940 
6,280 
3,120 
1,140 



Female. 



Num- 
ber. 



16 



97 



7 
3 
3 

26 
2 

20 

11 
4 
4 

11 

406 

7 



Salary. 



5 

28 

8 
41 

17 

17 
9 
8 
1 
9 
2 

U 
3 

.8 
7 

13 
1 

91 

Too 



88,580 

2,700 
28! 694 
7^940 
7^660 
1,320 

^S2 
7,308 

2,040 

600 

8,580 



7,860 

720 

82,901 



3,580 

1 350 

2 700 
13,910 

1 380 
18,401 
6 000 
1 200 
2,820 
7,060 

277,660 



5,740 

3,880 
17,340 

4,940 

21,794 

964S 

10,390 

7 900 

4,780 

720 

5,070 

1,620 

6,880 

1,680 

5,070 

2,800 

7 020 

600 

92,630 

66,042 



5,270 
6,670 
8,490 
7 650 
4,707 
8,066 
2,820 
3,600 
4,215 
6,240 
8,235 



Digitized by 



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206 



COMMISSIONER OP INDIAN AFFAIRS. 



Table ZS.-School and agency employee in Indian Service, for fiscal pear ended June 

SO, 79id— Continued. 



States and superlntendendes. 



Total. 



Em- I Indl- 
ployees.| ana. 



Non- 
Indi- 



Salaiies. 



Male. 



Num- 
ber. 



Salary. 



Female. 



Num- 
ber. 



Salary. 



Oregon 

Klamath schools 

Klamath Agency 

Salem School 

Siletz schools 

Umatilla School 

Umatilla Agency 

Warm Springs schools 

Warm Springs Agency — 

South Dakota 

Canton Asylum 

Cheyenne River schools. . . 
Cheyenne River Agency. . 

Crow Creek School 

Crow Creek Agency 

Flandreau School 

Hope School 

Lower Brule School 

Lower Brule Agency 

Pierre School 

Fine Ridge schools 

Pine Ridge Agency 

Rapid City School. 

Rosebud schools 

Rosebud Agency 

Sisseton schools 

Sisseton Agency 

Yankton School 

Yankton A graicy 

Utoh.... 

Qoshute School 

Shivwlts School 

Uintah and Ouray School . . 
Uintah and Ouray Agency 

Washington 

Col viUe schools 

Colville Agency 

Cushman schools 

Cuahman Agencv..... 

Neah Bay schools 

Neah Bay Agency 

Spokane schools 

l^olahSciiool 

Tulalip schools 

Tulalip Agency 

Yakima. School 

Yakima Agency 

Wisconsin 

Grand Rapids School 

Hayward schools 

Hayward Agency 

Keshena schools 

Keshena A gency 

Lac du Flambeau School.. 
Lac du Flambeau Agency. 
I.aona Agency 
La Pointe ScL 
Oneida School 
Red Cliil School.. 
Red Cliff Agency. 
Tomah School... 

Wyoming 

Shoshone schools. 
Shoshone Agency 



194 



20 
46 
55 
10 
5 
16 
17 
25 

680 



26 



13 
32 
42 
9 
11 
18 
25 
78 
102 
33 
65 
80 
21 
13 
15 
19 

00 

6 

6 

12 

36 

231 



11 

86 

37 

7 

7 

4 

7 

23 

13 

23 

20 

14 

29 

206 



09 



125 



1153,106 



123 



1107,806 



2 
16 
17 
6 
2 
9 
7 
10 

319 



18 

30 

38 

4 

3 

7 

10 

15 

361 



13,850 
43,380 
39,510 
9,090 
4,500 
15,104 
10,740 
16,932 

411,786 



8,280 
37,140 
18,340 

7,470 

2,340 
12,644 

6,700 
14,392 

271,392 



29 



26 
14 
20 
8 
10 
27 
8 
8 
9 
20 
55 
20 
25 
57 
18 
16 
5 
6 
10 

37 
5 

4 
9 
19 

138 



15,630 
14 790 
31,668 

9,200 
19,788 
29,090 

6,120 

8,380 
11,964 
17^380 
48,400 
49,256 
21,610 
41,080 
40,280 
14,330 

9,960 
10,060 
12,860 

42,144 
3,480 
3,244 
9,700 

25,720 

105,543 



12 
8 
50 

25 
19 
2 
6 
17 
10 
33 
96 
12 
22 
66 
12 
10 
8 
14 

44 
4 
5 
3 

32 

146 



9,380 
5600 
27^108 
5,840 
15,106 
16,260 
900 
5,700 
11,064 
7^920 
27^966 
44,810 
10,000 
18,190 
31,900 
9,550 
7^440 
6,220 
8,840 

33,164 
2,880 
2,744 
4 300 

23,240 

119,153 



5 
14 

4 

15 
12 

7 
18 

100 



8,850 

30,448 

28,080 

5,260 

4,370 

1 740 

4,560 

14 688 

9,444 

1/500 

7,699 

9,990 

23,324 

144,322 



6 
31 
19 
7 
4 
3 
4 
20 
12 
8 
3 
5 
24 

120 



6,690 
25,808 
16,84() 
5,260 
2,420 
1,020 
3,660 
12,988 
8,844 
7^780 
- 4,229 
4 650 
19,064 

93,842 



4,340 
18,450 
5,040 
14,606 
21,458 
12,580 
8,004 
5,620 
13,610 
14,070 
2,375 
4,980 
19,190 

47,525 



16 



14,560 
32,965 



4,340 
10,220 
4,380 
9,060 
16,798 
6,040 
5,844 
3,940 
12,890 
6,730 
1,400 
4 200 
7,940 

38,205 



7,880 
30,325 



71 



11 
6 

34 
2 
3 
3 
8 
4 

253 



12 



145,800 



5,570 
6,240 
21,170 
1,020 
2,100 
2,460 
4,040 
2,510 

140,304 



0,250 
7,190 
4,560 
3,860 
4,680 

12,770 
5,220 
2,680 
900 
9,400 

20,484 
4,440 

11,520 

22,800 
8,380 
4,780 
2,520 
3,840 
4)020 

8,980 
600 
500 

5,400 
2,480 

46,390 



1,760 
4,640 
11,240 



1,980 

720 

90O 

1,70 

h)0 

9,810 

3,470 

5,340 

4,260 

50,480 



8,230 

660 

5,545 

4,660 

6,540 

2,160 

1,680 

720 

7,340 

975 

720 

11,250 

9,320 



6,680 
2,640 



Digitized by 



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COMMISSIOKEB OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 
Table 39. — MUcellaneout field employees, June 30 , 1919. 



207 



Designation. 



Field inoestigating and iupnviaing force. 

Total 

Inspection 

Supervisors of schools 

Special supervisan 

Liquor 

Constnictian 

Health 

Industries: 

Fanning 

Employment 

Livestock 

Forestrv: 

Field supervising oilicers 

Menominee 

Special agents 

Attorney for Pueblo Indians 

Traveling audit ors 

Field irrigatUm tcrvke. 
Total 

Chief inspector 

Superintendents of irrigatian 

Arisona 

Pima 

Salt River 

Califomia: Miscellaneous work 

Idaho: Port Hall 

Montana: Billings 

New Mexico: Albuquerque 

South Dakota: Pine Ridge 

Utah 

Salt Lake 

Uintah. 

Washington: Yakima 

Wyoming: Shoshone 

Field allotment tervice. 
Total 

Special alloting agent 

Arisona: 

Leupp 

Na^o 

Pima 

Califomia: Hoopa Valley 

Montana: Crow 

North Dakota: Turtle Mountain 

Oregon : U matilla 

South Dakota: Pine Ridge 

Heirthip ttork. 

Examiners , 

1 $10 a day when actually employed. 



Total. 



Num- 
ber. 



128 



a06 



Salary. 



1207,280 



18,500 
17,400 
26,700 
31,930 
14,500 
32,500 

5,400 
3,700 

0) 

18,850 
21,080 
8,020 
1,500 
7,200 



283.730 



4,000 
17,250 

4,500 



?'SS2 
1,200 

74,320 

15,780 

18,940 

24,900 

1,800 

40,100 



15,100 
24,940 




720 
1,800 
1,080 

4,030 

450 

900 

5,960 

2,100 



Chief offloer. 



Num- 
ber. 



16 



Salary. 



Others. 



Num- 
ber. 



Salary. 



$35,400 112 $171,880 



3,500 
3,000 



2,500 

3,666 

3,600 
2,000 

0) 

3,500 
1,800 
3,800 
1,500 
7,200 



26,500 



15,000 
14,400 
26,700 
29,430 
14,500 
29,500 

1,800 
1,700 



15,350 
19,280 
4,220 



4,000 
2,500 

2,700 



1,500 
1,200 

2,000 

1,800 

1,800 

2,000 

1,800 

3,800 




1,800 
1,800 



2,160 



193 257,230 



14,750 
1,800 



1,800 



72,320 
13,980 
17,140 



16 ' 22,960 



30 I 36,300 



10 i 13,360 
20 22,940 



61,310 IK 32,800 37 

> $8 a day when actually employed. 



50,680 
18,300 

12,180 



720 

"i'wo 

2,230 

450 

900 

3,800 

2,100 

29,010 



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208 COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 

Table 39. — MiscellaneoiLS field employees, June.iO, 1919 — Continued. 





Designation. 


T 


otal. 
Salary. 


Chief officer. 


Others. 




Num- 
ber. 


Num- 
ber. 


salary, ^^n- 

J 


Salary. 




Probate work. 


22 
38 


$55,000 
37,210 


22 
3 


135,000 
6,200 




Total 


Warelwwet. 


35 


t31,010 








Chlflwo 


20 
6 

12 


20,990 
6,995 
9.235 


I 
I 
I 


2,200 
2,000 
2,000 


19 
5 
11 


18,790 


0tfi FrtUK^flco. . ... 


4,90K 


fit. Louis 


7,225 











Tablb 40. — Recapitnlation of all Luiian Service employees. 



De^tignation. 




Salarie!:. 



ToUl 

School 

AgM ioy 

Fl^duivastlgating and supervising force 

Irrlgationservlce 

ADotmentservioe 

Heirship work 

Probate work 

Warehouses 

Indian Office employees, exclusive of commissioner and assistant commissioner 



$4,6A8,196 



1,962,754 

1,7Q3,2:<2 

297,280 

283,730 

17.940 

61,810 

55,000 

37,210 

339.240 



> School and agency includes 2,263 Indians earning 11,104.620. 

Table 41. — Commissioner's account for fiscal year en^ed June .10, 1019. 

(Checks, draft't, and other instruments of exchange, drawn to the order of the commissioner, are reooived 
in the office as deposits with bids for tribal leasing prlvilegA^, guaranties for right of way acroRs Indian 
lands, and for various other purposes. For such receipts the commissioner renders monthly accounts 
as required by sec. 3622, Rev. Suts.} 

Onhand July 1,1918 $21. 67a 28 

Received: 

July, 1918 |2."i,301.W 

August, 1918 19,.'533,52 

September. 1918. 2,237.08 

October, 1918 1.103.40 

November, 1918 23,476.97 

December, 1918 225. 36 

January, 1919 loa 15 

February, 1919 54,960.80 

]Carch,1919 40. 463. SO 

AprU,1919 1.735,30 

May,1919 63.608.86 

June, 1919 1.211.43 

233.933.55 

Total on hand and received 255,603.83 

Disbursed and deposited: 

July, 1918 IS. 181. 15 

August, 1918 29.555.37 

September. 1018 2.816. a«i 

October, 1918 3. 147. IS 

November, 1918 6,788.53 

December, 1918 20,890.24 

January, 1919 590.65 

February, 1919 317.66 

March, 1919 6.540.88 

AprU,1919 83,663.62 

May, 1919 73.238.12 

June, 1919 4.440.51 

2.10, 169. 96 

Balance on hand June 30, 1919 5,433.87 



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CXmMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 



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210 



COMMISSIONEB OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 



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COMMISSIONER OF Il^DIAN AFFAIBS. 



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COMMISSIONEB OF INDIAN AFFAIBS. 213 

Tabls 44. — Pro rata ahares of tribal fundi aeitled during fiscal year ended June 30, 1919. 



states and superlntendencies. 



Total 

Idaho: Coeurd'Alene. 
loiwa: Sac and Fox.... 



Kliskapoo. ... 
Potawatoml... 



Mantaaa: Flathead 

Nebraska: Santee 

Now York: Now York 

North Dakota: Standing Rock. 
Oklahoma. 



CanUmmait 

Caie jemie and Arapaho . 
Decv....*. .............. 

Ktowai 



Do« 

OM«e 

Otoe 

Pawnee 

PoDoa. 

Sao and Fox. 



Oregon.. 



Umatilla. . . 
Douth Dakota. 



ChB] 



'S??. 



River ». 



CrowGnek.. 
Lower Brule. 
Pine Ridge... 



Yankton. 



Wj 



Tribes. 



Coeur d'Alene.. 
Sac and Fox. . . 



KJokapoo 

Potawatomi., 



Confederated Flathead. 

Ponca 

Tonawanda (Seneca). . . 
Skmx 



Cheyenne and Arapaho 

do 

do 

Apache. Kiowa, and Co- 
manche. 

do 

Osage 

Oto and Missouri 

Pawnee 

Ponca 

Sac and Fox 



Klamath.. 
UmatiUa.. 



Skmx 

do 

do 

do. 

do 

do 

Sisseton and Wahpeton. 
Sioux 



Menominee.. 



Indians 
paid. 



2,M7 



16 



96 
1,194 



12 
197 

II 
151 

284 
69 
136 
315 
9 
20 

79 



I?! 

1,186 I 



share. P***- 



S339.96 I 
1,(W7.75 ' 



567.34 
186.27 I 

107.28 

65.68 

154.75 

145.40 



202.32 
2B9.35 
289.35 
291.59 

692.64 
3,819.76 
63a 29 
416.60 
47.83 
967. 2S 



1S7.66 
205.61 



75 
43 
80 
1 
96 
436 
151 



58 , 



111.28 
218.14 
166.87 
138.81 
112.33 
US. 60 
232.56 
210.50 

102.65 



9996^838.03 



12,579.26 
12,813.09 
9,760.93 



6,240.79 
3,520.14 

25,532.64 

131.36 

2,476.00 

13,966.40 

704,424.14 



3,607.87 
57,001.96 

3,182.85 
44,081.35 

196,709.76 
163,610.67 

85,719.70 

130,884.30 

430.47 

19,345. 13 

15,381.67 



9,007.74 
6,373.03 

193,817.74 



8,346.00 
10,070.03 
13,269.68 
138.81 
10,783.68 
61,710.40 
35,117.65 
63,781.50 

5,963.70 



iSperoeot. 



*4p6ro6iit« 



S3 per cent. 



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214 GOMMISSIOHER OF INDIAN APFAIBS. 

Table 45. — Volume of business in Indian warehousesy fiscal year ended June SO, 1919. 



Freig;ht shipments. 



Warehouses. 



Number. 



Chicago 91,646 

San Francisco 42, 220 

fit. Louis I 19,146 



Total 153,012 



Weight. 



Value. 



Pounds, 

111,199,478 $1,119,963.73 

5,166,716 I 293,000.64 

1 1,799,887 I 341,965.49 



18,166,061 1,754,929.86 



Express shipments. 



Number. 



710 
51 
208 



Weight. Value. 



Poundt. 

27,544 

1,089 

5,099 



969 



33,732 



$8,836.58 

432.66 

1,907.98 



11,17«.61 



Warehouses. 



Packages mailed. 



Number. 



Weight. 



Value. 



Percentage of increase or de- 
crease of totals over prsYioos 
year. 



Number. 



Weight. VahM. 



Chicago 

fian Francisco. . 
Bt. Louis 



4,346 

436 

2,265 



Poundt. 
14,719 
918 
5,854 



$19,052.75 

983.78 

4,835.53 



Per cent. 
>30.2 
S20.4 
a 32. 4 



Percent. Percent. 
S25.5! *1.85 
S29.9 I a 29.3 
M1.6 ' M7.S 



Total.. 



7,047 



21,491 24,872.06 >23.6 >28.7 aS.SS 



Chicago. San Francisco. St. I>ouis. 



Total. 



Total number of shipments (packages) . 

Total weight (pounds) 

Total value 



96,702 

11,241,741 

$1,147,853.06 



42,707 

5,168,723 

$294,416.47 



21,619 

1,810,840 

$348,709.00 



161, on 

$l,790,97ia 



1 Exclusive of coal, which was not handled through the warehouse. > Increase. * Decrease. 
Table 46. — Expense at warehouses, fiscal year ended June SO, 1919. 





Rent. 


Light 
and fuel. 


Employees 

and in- 
spection of 
supplies. 


ifiscel- 
laneous. 




Warehouses. 


Total. 1 Per cent. 

1 


Per cent, 
1918. 


Chic^o 


$4,800.00 
2,400.00 
2,368.33 


$360.70 

13.06 

396.23 


$18,272.88 
7,470.64 
13,843.02 


$4,119.83 
1,472.10 
1,825.57 


$27,562.41 
11,355.79 
18,433.15 


2.40 
3.85 
5.29 


2.38 


Ban imtnclsco 


2.M 


Bt. Louis 


3.66 






Total 


9,568.33 


778.98 


39,586.54 


7,417.50 


57,351.35 
52,837.61 


3.20 
2.68 




Total. 1918 














flavinir nvpr 1918 


1 






4,513.74 








1 











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REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN 
COMMISSIONERS 



140923°— INT 1910— VOL 2 15 ^^^ 



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BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 



Mebbill E. Gates, Washington, D. C. ; appointed June 27, 1884. . 
George Vaux, Jr., Philadelphia, Pa. ; appointed November 27, 1906. 
Wakeen K. Moosehead, Andover, Mass.; appointed December 19, 1908. 
Samuel A. Eliot, Boston, Mass. ; appointed November 27, 1909. 
Frank Knox, Manchester, N. H. ; appointed May 2, 1911. 
William H. Ketcham, Washington, D. C. ; appointed December 3, 1912. 
Daniel Smiley, Mohonk Lake, N. Y. ; appointed December 17, 1912. 
Isidore C Dockweiler. Los Angeles, Calif. ; appointed December 22, 1913. 
Malcolm McDowell, Chicago, 111. ; appointed May 23, 1917. 
Hugh L. Scott, Princeton, N. J. ; appointed February 25, 1919. 

George Vaux, Jr., Chairman, 

Malcolm McDowell, Secretary. 
216 



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FIFTIETH AiNNCAL REPORT BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1919. 



Septe3iber 1, 1919. 

Sir: We beg leave to submit herewith the Fiftieth Annual Report 
of the United States Board of Indian Commissioners for the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1919, with certain recommendations and observa- 
tions for your consideration. 

During the year members of the board visited and inspected over 
30 reservations, schools, and other branches of the Indian Bureau, 
and their reports on conditions among the Indians and of perplex- 
ing and serious problems confronting the Indian Office and its field 
forces were transmitted to you from time to time. Among the reser- 
vations and schools visited by board members were the following: 

Sac and Fox Agency, Iowa. 

Wind River Reservation. Wyo. 

Crow, Tongue River, Fort Bellcnap, Blackfeet, and Flathead Res^er vat ions, 
Mont 

Sliawnee Agency, Okla. 

Schools and Iiospitals among the Choctaws, Cliickasaws, Chorokeos, Crt^ks, and 
Seminoles in Oklahoma. 

Papago, Moqui, Navajo, and Western Navajo Reservations, Ariz. 

San Juan, Pueblo Bonito, Zuni, and Pueblo Day Scliools Agencies, N. Mex. 

Eastern Cherokee Reservation, N. C. 

Seminole Agency, Fla. 

Kickapoo and Potawatomi Agencies, Kans. 

Nonreservation schools: Phoenix, at Phoenix, Ariz.; Santa Fe. at Santa Fe, 
N. Mex. ; Albuquerque, at Albuquerque, N. ^lex. ; Haskell Institute, at Law- 
rence, Kans. ; Mount Pleasant, at 3iIount Pleasant, Mich. 

BOABD'S SEMICENTENNIAL. 

We may be pardoned for calling your attention to the fact that 
this, its Fiftieth Annual Report, marks the semicentennial of the 
Board of Indian Commissioners, which was created under an act of 
Congress by President Grant in 1869. During the 50 years which 
span the board's existence the Indians have advanced alonff the lines 
of civilization to a remarkable degree. When it is considered that 
the administration of Indian affairs, from the beginning, has been 
changed, more or less, every few years; that the Indians, from the 
time they were made wards of the Government, have suffered much 
from the Government's shifting policies ; that organized exploitation 
and individual graft have roDbed, harassed, and, in some cases, 
utterly ruined them (and this is not our unsupported statement for 
Secretaries of the Interior, Commissioners of Indian Affairs, Mem- 
bers of Congress, Army oflScers, missionaries, Indian superintendents, 

217 



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218 REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

and Indian Office inspectors, for years, have gone on record in this 
matter) ; that they have been the victims of much Federal official 
inefficiency, of harmful congressional legislation, of white man 
prejudice, of race antagonism, of white man lust and greed, it is 
little short of the marvelous that they have attained that degree of 
civilization which is theirs to-day. 

Thousands of Indians have become full citizens of their home 
States and the United States, and a large proportion have proved 
themselves capable of l)earing citizenship responsibilities and of 
properly using citizensliip privileges. There are thousands more of 
these native Americans who undoubtedly are ready to-day for citi- 
zenship, and every proper effort should be put forth to make them 
full citizens. 

There are thousands of Indians, however, who have not advanced 
far enough to warrant the withdrawal of the Nation's guardianship, 
and it is these Indians in whom the board is peculiarly interested 
and for whom it will go as far as it may go in cooperation with you, 
the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Congress, and any public or 
private body to accelerate the progress of such Indians toward the 
realization of the hope and the consummation of the plans of all 
disinterested friends of the* Indian — in full American citizenship for 
all Indians. 

LAW AND OBDEB. 

It is entirely in this spirit of helpfulness that the board again puts 
forward for consideration, as one of the outstanding needs of the 
time in the administration of Indian affairs, the enactment of Fed- 
oral legislation which will subject Indians and other persons on 
Indian reservations to State marriage, health, educational, and crimi- 
nal law?. In its last annual report the board stressed the alarming 
increase of unrestrained immorality among a large number of In- 
dians. The field work of its members during the year has strength- 
ened the board's conviction that the enforcement of law and moral 
order on reservations is an immediate necessity, and that unless this 
urgent need is promptly met by Federal legislation, with adequate 
means for admmistratron, much of the constructive work of the 
Indian Office and missionaries will be greatly impaired if not entirely 
destroyed. 

Years ago, before the Indians began to discard the blanket and 
moc<*asin for the more convenient clothing of the white man, the two 
races were so far apart that Indian marriages and divorces were 
i-egarded as customs of an alien people. But vear by year the two 
races have been coming closer and closer toget'her. Indian reserva- 
tions no longer are isolated areas on the wild frontier. Instead, with 
few exceptions, they are important communities in sections thickly 
settled by white people. Thousands of Indian children attend public 
schools with white children; and Indians and their white neighbors 
now have much to do with each other in almost every phase or com- 
munity and family life. We have knowledge of no reservation where 
the Indians are so remote from white centers of population, so back- 
ward in civilization, that we can be justified in condoning open im- 
moral practices simply by regarding them as unmoral tribal customs. 
The points of contact between Indians and whites are too many and 



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BEPOBT OF BOARD OF IXDIAN COMMISSIONEBS. 219 

too intimate to further sanction what is practically open adultery 
within Indian reservations. 

And yet that is exactly what the Government is sanctioning to- 
day, for the department has ruled that in cases of noncitizen Indians, 
living in tribal relations, mere separation for the purpose of termi- 
nating the marriage relations constitutes a tribal divorce and is 
recognized as valid whether the marriage was by Indian custom or 
legal ceremony. This ruling was made by the department on a case 
submitted by the Indian Office in connection with the probate of an 
Indian estate^ and was justified by the total lack of congressional 
legislation relating to such cases. 

In a letter under date of January 15, 1919, to the Hon. Charles D. 
Carter, then chairman of the House Committee on Indian Affairs, in 
connection with a measure designed to put a stop to tribal marriages 
and divorces, you presented the situation aptly and convincingly as 
follows: 

Many reports of superintendents anil investijmting officials ami others show 
an urgent need of legislation to regulate the marriage relations of the Indians 
and to remeily tlie existing prevalent social evils therein enunierateil. For 
many years the Government has tolerated conditions because of the Indiana 
being uncivilized, and it was not believed expetlient to thrust upon them too 
soon the laws and principles of our Nation with reference to these matters. 
But conditions have changed. Indian Service officials, Indian-school teachers, 
church missionaries, and others have been teaching the Indians — old and 
young — for years, so that most «>f the present generation are aware of the fact 
that they are expected to adopt the habits and customs of civilization in regard 
to marriage, etc. ' 

Comparatively little trouble is now ext)erienced with the older generation 
of Indians, as they are generally settled in their marital relations. The greatest 
difficulty is now experienced with certain Indians who know what is expectetl 
of them, but who also know that the present laws are inadequate to punish 
them, and who willfully commit many acts which come within the list of 
generally acknowledged crimes named in said draft, thereby wronging others, 
exerting a demoralizing influence, and retarding the advancement of the civili- 
zation of their race. Many of this class of men cohabit with an Indian girl 
for a short time, then leave her for another, and so on, as it suits their capri- 
cious desirea Until remedial legislation has been secured it seems the race 
will be dragged down by immorality and degenerateness, and their industrial, 
economic, and moral progress postponed and even set back. 

For many years Indian-custom marriage and divorce among Indians has been 
recognized, but tliis special privilege should now be abolished and the Indian 
placed on the same footing in this respect as other persons to whom the law now 
applies, both ignorant and well informed, educateil and unetlucated. While this 
proposed legislation provides for the abolishment of the Indian-custom mar- 
riage and divorce, it also protects the interests of those who have in good 
faith consummated such marriage prior to the passage of the act. 

The determination of the heirs of Indians has been complicated because ot 
the difficulty resulting from Indians marrying and being divorced by Indian 
custom. The sooner this special privilege is abolished, the sooner will this diffi- 
culty be diminished. 

It is believeil that the proposed legislation is urgently needed for the welfare 
of the Indians and the suppression of immorality, and it is respectfully sug- 
gested and recommen<led that the proposed legislation be enacted into law 
during the present session of Congress, if practicable. 

A draft of a bill whose provisions, if enacted into law, would 
enable the Indian Office through its reservation executives to prosecute 
offenders, both white and Indians, against the moral laws in reserva- 
tions, was prepared by the board and submitted for your considera- 
tion, and you approved its principles and general provisions. Sub- 
sequently bills of like import were introduced in Congress and there 



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220 REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

now are before the Senate and House committees measures designed 
to spread the State marriage, health, educational, and criminal Taws 
over reservations. We earnestly suggest that every proper means be 
employed to secure the enactment of legislation which will carry into 
effect the recommendations contained in your letter quoted above. 

HEBOIC INDIAN SERVICE EMPLOYEES. 

The influenza epidemic of 1918 and 1919 which attacked over 24 
per cent of the Indian population, resulting in over 6,000 deaths with 
a mortality of about 9 per cent of the number of cases, showed the 
stuff of which many superintendents and others of the field staff of 
the Indian Office wei-e made. From every reservation and school 
have come reports of devotion to duty, amounting in some cases to 
heroism. But because of the stirring and exciting events of the war 
these cases have attracted but little attention. So far as statistics 
are available there seems to have been but little difference between 
the white and Indian populations in the percentage of cases and 
deaths. It would have caused no comment if Indians, living as most 
of them do under insanitary conditions and in most reservations 
remote from medical attention, should have shown a much higher 
percentage of fatality than the whites. 

That they did not undoubtedly is due in a large degree to the 
self-secrificinff, energetic, and effective efforts of the Indian Office 
force in the field. Indian Service doctors, superintendents, super- 
visors, teachers, matrons, clerks, and other reservation employees 
were out in the field night and day caring for the sick and burying 
the dead; and all of them heartily and harmoniously cooperatea 
with the United States Public Health Service and the State and 
county health officials. 

Notw^ithstanding the heroic work of the medical staff and the low 
rate of mortality among the Indians the epidemic emphasized the 
fact that the medical division of the Indian Service is in no wise ade- 
quate for the needs of the Indians. In our last annual report refer- 
ence was made to the medical service of the Indian Bureau, and it 
was strongly suggested that after the war the medical service should 
be reorganized. 

In 1912 Congress appropriated $10,000 to enable the United States 
Public Health Service to make a thorough examination as to the 
prevalence of tuberculosis, trachoma, smallpox, and other contagious 
and infectious diseases among the Indians of the United States. 
The report of Surgeon GeneralBlue of the Public Health Service, in 
compliance with the provisions of this appropriation, was trans- 
mitted to the Senate and was published as Senate Document No. 1038 
of the Sixtj'-second Congress, third session, and referred to the Senate 
Committee on Indian Affairs. 

MEDICAL SEBVICE BEOB0ANIZATION. 

The report contains, among other things, recominendations for the 
reorganization of the medical service of the Indian Office, among 
which were the following: 

Medical officers should be the sanitary officers of their jurisdictions In fact 
as well as in name. Their written order should be enforced by agency super- 



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BEPOBT OF BOARD OF Iin)IA17 COMMISSIOXEBS. 221 

intendents, and in case of nonenforcement ajrcncy suiH^rintendents should be 
required to report the same to the central authority, stating the reason. 

Medical officers of reservations should be under the supervision and control 
of a distinctly medical bureau. They should be held strictly accountable to 
such bureau for the administration of medical and sanitary matters on reser- 
vations, and tlie character of their work should be controlUnl by frequent 
inspection. 

The occurrence of cases of sickness and deaths on Indian reservations should 
be made a matter of permanent record. A transcript of the records of cases of 
sickness should be transmitted regularly to the Surpeon General of the I'nite^l 
States Public Health Service, and reports of outbreaks of certain specilieti 
diseases, such as plague, smallpox, and scarlet fever, should be made by 
telegraph to this official, whose duty it is, under law, to ke^p the State and 
local health authorities and the country at large informed of the prevalence of 
sickness and the occurrence of epidemics. 

The physicians to the Indians should be so organized as to insure adequate 
medical and sanitary supervision on reservations and at Iwarding schools. 
Only competent men should receive appointment and the compensation should 
be sufficient to retain their services. Unqualified men should not be retained. 
In medical and sanitary matters the authority of the medical officers should be, 
in large measure, independent of agency superintendents, and there should be 
lodged in a central bureau plenary powers in respect to all me<llcal and sani- 
tary matters among the Indians. 

We find that the situation and conditions, so far as the medical 
branch of the Indian Service is concerned, have not been improved 
since this report of the Public Health Service was published in 1913. 
It is true the Great War, which took from the service many of its 
best men, is largely responsible for the unsatisfactory situation in 
which the medical service finds itself; but there are other contribu- 
tory causes, such as low salaries and uninviting living conditions. 
We are of the opinion there can be little real improvement until 
the entire Indian medical service is reorganized. 

We believe that all reservation physicians, nurses, hospitals, sana- 
toria, and specialists should be under the charge and direction of the 
United States Public Health Service, and that all Indian Service 
physicians should be public-health officers and independent of reser- 
vation superintendents; that the entering salaries of reservation 
physicians, which are altogether too low, should be made large 
enough to attract good men to the service; that every reservation 
physician should have enough automobiles for himself and nurses to 
properly cover his field; and that the nurses should be qualified in 
all respects and be paid salaries commensurate with their duties and 
responsibilities. 

A good tactful doctor can do more in less time toward making 
full-blood Indians receptive to the educational efforts of superin- 
tendents and teachers than any other person on a reservation, for he 
not only cures disease, binds up wounds, and betters sanitary con- 
ditions in Indian homes but he undermines the influence of In- 
dian medicine men, and thus solves one of the most perplexing fac- 
tors in the Indian problems. Commenting on the work of the Indian 
agency physicians the report of the Pubfic Health Service, referred 
to above, says: 

The physicians conducting the work on many of the reservations see no 
encouragement, their life is isolated, their pay small, their chance of promotion 
less, and their authority to attaclf the real problem limited. Under such con- 
ditions it would be surprising if any, except the genius, undertook to overcome 
the obstacles; [and] the medical branch of the Office of Indian Affairs is 
hampered in curing and preventing diseases (a) because of insufficient author* 
ity In medical and sanitary matters; {b) because of existing obstacles, such as 



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222 REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

racial characteristics, present economic status of the Indians, and varying 
physical conditions on reservations; (c) because of inadequate compensation, 
absence of reasonable expectation of promotion, lack of esprit de corps, and co- 
ordinated organization. 

EFFECT OF LOW SALABIES. 

Inadegnate compensation for the field force of the Indian Service 
is lowering the standard of its personnel. The war took from the 
service a number of capable and efficient employees who either entered 
the military service or secured employment at much higher salaries 
and with better living conditions. A large proportion of the field force 
is of the class known as " temporary employees," and there is small 
hope of securing efficient permanent employees unless the service is 
made more attractive. The average pay of the field employee is al- 
together too low ; it always has been too low. The increased cost of 
living is as serious a problem on reservations as it is in large cities. 
On most reservations employees are remote from centers of white 
population with few, if any, of the opportunities for social pleasures : 
on many reservations there is no opportunity for the children of 
white employees to attend public schools. In snort, living conditions 
are far from attractive. 

There seems to be an impression that any kind of a man or woman 
is good enough to act as the Government's agent in looking after the 
affairs of the Indians and educating Indian children. Again and 
again the charge has been made that the employees of the Indian 
Service are inefficient and not worth the salaries they receive. We 
can testify from personal observation that while there are a number 
of men and w^omen in the service who are not qualified for the work 
intrusted to them, there are many more who are of high character 
and who are conscientious, earnest, and efficient executives, clerks, 
and instructors, and who, notwithstanding low salaries, isolated 
homes, and discouraging conditions, are enthusiastic in their pur- 
pose and efforts to help their Indian charges along the road toward 
self-help, education, and civilization. 

A substantial increase in the salaries of Indian Service employees 
in Washington and the field not only is amply justified by economic 
conditions, but is necessary to hold together the Indian Office and 
field forces. The flat bonus of $240 a year, granted by Congress to 
Federal emploj^ees of certain classes, does not meet the situation, for 
it is regarded as a temporary expedient. The Indian Service men 
and women should have the assurance of a permanent increase in 
their compensation ; they deserve it, and we can see no sound argu- 
ment against giving it to them. 

Therefore, we recommend that the Congress be urged to give im- 
mediate consideration to the low salaries paid Indian Service em-, 
ployees, to the end that a substantial increase in their compensation 
be granted. 

NAVAJO INDIANS. 

The nonreservation Xavajo Indians who live and, in common with 
white stockmen, occupy the public domain and railroad sections con- , 
tiguous to the Navajo, Moqui, Leupp, and Zuni Reservations in 
Arizona and New Mexico are threatened with economic disaster. 
Some 6,000 men^ women, and children, who were born within this 
area, as were their ancestors, are facing practical eviction, and, unless 



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BEPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS, 223 

immediate consideration leading to a quick decision is given the dire 
necessities of these self-supporting Navajo Indians, the Government 
of the United States in a few years must answer to another indict- 
ment for shameful neglect of a worthy people who never have asked 
for gratuities. This is not a new '^problem"; it is not a recent 
development, nor is it a novel situation. The files of Congress, the 
Department of the Interior, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and the 
Board of Indian Commissioners are burdened with petitions, re- 
ports, reconunendations, letters, and telegrams from superintendents 
of reservations, inspectors, supervisors, and other Government offi- 
cials, from missionaries, Indian traders, and white business men, 
urging, demanding, and praying for the Government to help these 
Indians toward the permanent occupancy of enough land to maintain 
them and give them at least a chance to make more than a bare living. 
A few years ago you undertook to help this people by exchanging 
railroad lands within this area for other lands with tlie purpose of 
creating an Executive order reservation. But Congress, by estop- 

ging the enlargements of reservations in New Mexico and Arizona by 
Ixecutive order, made it impossible for you to proceed further in the 
exchanging of railroad sections; and as all the railroad, the odd num- 
bered, sections in this area are practically controlled by white les- 
sees and owners, the Indians are being crowded out. It now seems 
to be a question of only a few years when these Indians will be classed 
with other homeless, landless Indians a charge on the State or Gov- 
ernment, or both. There is not enough unoccupied land in the sev- 
eral Navajo Reservations to maintain the Indians now in them. 

It seems to be agreed by those who recently have investigated the 
condition of these Indians, that if they can be helped to lease grazing 
lands for a time they later will be able not only to lease but buy 
sufficient lands for their flocks and herds. As a step in this direction 
it would be well to " block " the two classes of land, public and rail- 
road, so that each class will form a solid township or half township; 
in short, to so rearrange the public domain-railroad land checker- 
board that grazing units will be all of one class of land instead of 
being alternating sections of public and railroad lands. After the 
two classes of sections have been "blocked" we are confident that 
congressional action and departmental regulations can work out a 
practical plan for the ultimate ownership by the Navajo Indians of 
sufficient grazing lands for their needs, which would carry with it 
citizenship for the Indians, who then would become taxpayers. The 
fact that the Indians are nontaxpayers is an important part of this 
problem, for the citizens of New Mexico and Arizona are emphati- 
cally opposed to increasing the present large nontaxpaying land areas 
in those States. 

We earnestly recommend your early consideration of this matter 
which vitally affects several thousands of men, women, and children 
whom the Congress has placed in your care and under your super- 
vision. 

INDIAIT LABOB IN ABIZONA. 

One of the most interesting developments in Indian progress is 
observed in Arizona where the long staple cotton fields are giving 
employment to a large number of Papago, Pima, and Maricopa 
Indians. Papago and Apache Indians also are wor&ing in the cop- 
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224 REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAK COMMISSIOlirEBS. 

per mines and refineries, and Indians of all tribes are competing^ 
with the Mexicans as common laborers on railroads and in sawmills. 

The cotton industry promises to make such a decided change in 
the conditions of the Papago, Pima, and Maricopa Indians that it 
behooves the Government to take cognizance of this probability. 
Over 1,000 Papago Indians left their homes last year to work in the 
cotton fields for several months. Approximately 300 families were 
represented in this body of cotton pickers. A cursory investigation 
oi the situation which is developing in Arizona fails to disclose, as 
yetj any injurious effect on the Indians by reason of this change in 
their industrial life. Generally speaking the employers are fair 
with their Indian employees, paying them good wages and endeavor- 
ing to provide decent living accommodations for them. There are 
some exceptions to this rule; but in the main, the employment of the 
Indians in the cotton and alfalfa fields, mines, refineries, and saw- 
mills has been an advantage to the Indians. 

If this new industrial condition of the Indians becomes perma- 
nent, and if the employment of Indians by white men increases, it 
is quite probable there will have to be a readjustment in the ad- 
ministration of Indian affairs in Arizona so far as relates to the 
education of Indian children and the living conditions and reserva- 
tion life of the Indians. Thus far, the employing class in Arizona 
seems to take a modem and progressive view of this situation ; and 
we are confident that this is due largely to the earnest efforts of 
the Hon. Edward E. Aj^er, who, when a member of this board, 
took it upon himself, for several years, to secure the helpful atten-' 
tion of leading employers in Arizona in behalf of the Indians. 

In a report to tne board on Indian labor in Arizona, Mr. Ayer 
said, in part : 

I am advised by those in touch with the cotton situation that the various 
cotton growers' associations will guarantee the Indians good wages and fair 
treatment What our Indians need most is to be taught to work:. There are 
nearly 50,000 Indians in Arizona and a very small percentage of them do any 
useful worlc. It seems to me that this opportunity for obtaining remunerative 
labor for a large body of Indians of that section, at work which they can do, 
and with good pay, should be given prompt and favorable attention. 

To accomplish this, in my judgment, a man should be detailed from the In- 
dian I>epartment to have charge of all Indians at work in the valley (Gila 
and Salt River) ; that is to look after their interests; to see that they have 
proper tents, water, fuel, and other conveniences, as well as proper pay and to 
advise them * ♦ ♦ this man should be sent there Immediately to familiarize 
liimself with conditions. lie should put himself in communication with the 
different Indian agents in Arizona. * * * The man to oversee this work 
should spend the other seven months of the year among the different tribes 
of Arizona, New Mexico, and eastern California advocating the work and 
arranging for the coming season. 

We beg to suggest that Mr. Ayer's recommendation be favorably 
considered by the Indian Office tor we are strongly of the opinion 
there is danger of harmful conditions springing from this new field 
of Indian industry unless the Indians are protected and their in- 
terests conserA^ed. The Indian Office has a number of men eminently 
qualified to do the work outlined by Mr. Ayer. 

PUBCHASE OF SUPPLIES. 

The board was represented at the letting of contracts for Indian 
supplies in St* Louis and Chicago during June. Abnormal market 
conditions, due to the war, affected prices and bids, making it rather 



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REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAI^ COMMISSIONERS. 225 

difficult for the Purchasing Division of the Indian Office to award 
contracts. A simificant feature of the annual lettings is the fact 
that few new bidders enter the competition for Indian Service sup- 

Elies although the office notifies ot the bidding large numbers of 
rms, in the trades and industries which might be interested, and 
wide j)ublicity is secured through advertising. 

While war conditions have had something to do in the last two 
years toward keeping down the number of new bidders, there is little 
doubt the main cause is the delays in making payment of invoices. 
These delays are common to all Government departments. The 
Indian Office is as prompt as any of them, but we are of the opinion 
that if contractors for Indian Service supplies were paid so promptly 
that the Government would secure the advantage of cash discounts, 
not only would there be more bidders and, therefore, more compe- 
tition which would bring more and lower bids but there would be a 
substantial saving in the form of discount for cash payments. 

To pay bills thus promptly it would be necessary to have ample 
funds in the hands of the special disbursing officers at the Indian 
warehouses where most of the supplies are assembled, inspected, and 
shipped to reservations and schools. As it is now each reservation or 
school has its disbursing a^ent to whom are allotted funds to pay for 
the supplies brought for his unit. The Indian Office can not use the 
funds allotted the Chilocco School, for instance, to pay for supplies 
bought for the Haskell Institute. Therefore it is necessary that the 
supplies for a particular unit must be received by that unit before . 
the bill is paid. As there are many reservations and schools remote 
from railroads, requiring long hauls over rough roads, very often 
there are long and unavoidable delays in the payment of bills for 
supplies. These delays discourage bidders, especially new bidders 
who are successful in getting contracts, and the result is that everjO 
year finds the business of selling supplies to the Indian Service going 
to the same people. 

Last year the Indian Office submitted to the House Indian Com-' 
mittee an item for the Indian bill, reading as follows : 

For initial payment for goods and suppUes purchased for the Indian Serv- 
ice, $500,000 or so much thereof as may be necessary to be Immediately available 
and to be reimbursed, by transfer through accounts of disbursing officers or 
otherwise, from appropriations and funds which are applicable for the various 
agencies, schools, and projects to wlilch the goods and supplies are subsequently 
distributed: Provided^ That the sum so reimbursed may be reexpended under 
the same conditions in payment for other purcliases made during the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1920. 

We beg to recommend that an effort be made to secure a reim- 
bursable appropriation for the purchase of supplies in the next In- 
dian bill, tor we are satisfied it is a good business proposition. 

INSPECTIONS AND SUK.VEYS. 

We beg to invite your attention to the following summary of in- 
spections, surveys, and recommendations made by members of this 
board: 

Navajo Indians in Arizona and New Mexico (filed Mar. 7, 1919, 
and supplemental report filed June 2, 1919), by Commissioner 
McDowell, who recommended a rearrangement oJ the public domain 



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226 REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

and railroad land sections contiguous to the Santa Fe Eailroad 
right of way in Arizona and Xew Mexico, so that each class of land 
shall be blocked in townships or half townships where such rearrange- 
ment is possible, keeping in mind the ultimate securing of the public 
domain east and south of the Navajo, Moqui, and Leupp Reservations 
for the permanent use of the nonreservation Navajo Indians; that 
provision be made to furnish school facilities for ever}' Navajo child; 
that enlarged appropriations be made for the construction and main- 
tenance of stock wells, the drilling of artesian wells, and the develop- 
ment of agricultural lands in the r^^avajo and Hopi countries; that at 
least two townships of railroad lands be leased for the use of the non- 
i^.servation Navajos under the jurisdiction of the Zuni superinten- 
dency, New Mexico, (See Appendix A.) 

Sac and Fox Sanitarium and Fox Eeservation, Iowa (filed Apr. 
1, 1919), bv Commissioner Ketcham, who recommended that the im- 
moral conc\itions existing on the reservation should be remedied by 
extending the laws of the State of Iowa over the reservation under 
the jurisdiction of the Federal courts. (See Appendix B.) 
^ Crow, Flathead, and Blackfeet Reservations, Mont, (filed Apr. 
1 and 19, 1919), by Commissioner Ketcham, who recommended that 
the Crow Reservation be kept intact for some years, and that all 
'children born since the allotment roll was closed be allotted before 
any disposition is made of any of the Crow land; that on the Flat- 
head Reservation a contract doctor be employed in the Poison dis- 
trict, a sawmill be built at Poison, a flour and feed mill be placed 
on the reservation, and Indian parents be consulted when making 
land leases of minors' property; that on the Blackfeet Reservation 
improvements be made in the plants of the Cut Bank and Heart 
Butte schools and Blackfoot Sanitarium and that a white man be 
appointed chief of police. (See Appendices C, D, and E.) 
- Tongue River Reservation, Mont, (filed Apr. 7, 1919), by Com- 
missioner Ketcham, who recommended that an appropriation be 
made to purchase 5,000 head of cattle to stock the reservation to its 
full capacity to take the place of the surplus Indian horses that are 
being sold ; that the Government day schools be discontinued and 
the boarding schools on the reservation be enlarged to accommodate 
all the children of the tribe not able to attend the public schools; 
that improvements be made in the plant of the Busby Boarding 
School; that a hospital be establishea at Lame Deer; that the In- 
dian medicine practices be suppressed and law and order be im- 
proved on the reservation. (See Appendix F.) 

Fort Belknap Reservation, IMont. (filed Apr. 19, 1919), b^ Com- 
missioner Ketcham, who reconmiended that an appropriation of 
about $7,500 be made to build two flumes, a dam and a head gate 
in connection with the irrigation ditch at Big Warm Spring Creek 
in order to water 1,200 acres of hay land, needed to supply winter 
feed for the reservation cattle ; that another physician be placed in 
the Hayes district ; that a cottage be erected and other improvements 
be made at tlie reservation boarding school at Fort Belknap. (See 
Appendix G.) 

Wind River Reservation, Wyo. (filed Apr. 19, 1919), bv Com- 
missioner Ketcham, who recommended that the day scliool at 
Arapaho be discontinued and the water supply for the St. Michael's 
Episcopalian school be made more sanitary. _ (See Appendix H.) 



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REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 227 

Mount Pleasant School, Mount Pleasant, Mich, (filed Apr. 1 
and May 27, 1919), by Commissioners Ketcham and Eliot. Both 
Commissioners Eliot and Ketcham recommended the restoration of 
the four-year vocational course at the school, and Commissioner 
Eliot recommended an appropriation of $25,000 for a new heat and 
power plant. (See Appendices I and J.) 

Shawnee Agency, Okij^. (filed Apr. 19, 1919), by Commissioner 
Ketcham, who recommended that the competency of the Mexican 
Kickapoo Indians be determined by the department in ample time 
before the expiration of the trust periods of 443 of their allotments 
in 1919 and 1920, so that an Executive order may be issued at the 
dates of the expiration extending the trust periods of those Kicka- 
poos found to be incompetent to handle their own affairs ; that the 
claims of the Potawatomi Indians against the Government be settled 
as speedily as possible. (See Appendix K.) 

Seminole Agency, Fla. (filed Apr. 16, 1919), by Commissioner 
Eliot, who recommended that, after the extent of the grazing area of 
the Government reservation has been determined, a herd of 200 cows 
be purchased and placed on the reservation and bred up, and then 
that the Indians be encouraged to acquire small herds of their own. 
Commissioner Eliot favors the cession of the Florida State Indian 
Reservation to the United States Government, and recommended 
that the Indian Bureau refrain from too much supervision and from 
futile attempts to control these Indians. (See Appendix L.) 

Eastern Cherokee Reservation, N. C. (filed May 27, 1919), by 
Commissioner Eliot, who recommended that the corporation known 
as the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians of North Carolina sell the 
lands it owns in Cherokee County and 3,000 acres south of the rail- 
road at Ela and, with the proceeds added to the tribal fimds, buy 
off the claims of the so-called "white Indians," so that the tribal rolls 
could be cleared up and substantiated ; that the corporation should 
then deed all the remaining lands to the Government and dissolve 
as a corporation and the Government should then allot the lands in 
severalty and maintain the present reservation-school system, using 
the unallotted lands as the source of a sinking fund for the cost or 
maintenance. It was further recommended that the Indians form a 
corporation for the erection and running of a canning factory. 
Commissioner Eliot also recommended the purchase of additional 
land for the school farm, the erection of a domestic science cottage, 
a dormitorj^ for small boys, and an additional ward for the reser- 
vation hospital. (See Appendix M.) 

Papago Indians, Ariz, (filed May 31, 1919), by Commissioner Mc- 
Dowell, who recommended that the building of the hospital at Sells 
be started as soon as possible ; that a boarding school of 250 capacity 
be erected on the reservation, and also three more day schools : that 
eight more deep-well pumping plants be installed for live stocK and 
domestic purposes; that improved living quarters be furnished the 
irrigation employees at San Xavier ; that an active campaign to eradi- 
cate trachoma among the Indians be started soon. (See Appendix 

ZuNi Reservation, K Mex. (filed May 28, 1919), by Commissioner 

McDowell, who recommended that a new boarding-school building 

and girls dormitory be erected at Blackrock, a new day school at 

, Zuni, and also cottages for the superintendent, physician, field 



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228 EEPOBT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONEBS, 

matron, and other employees. Commissioner McDowell also recom- 
mended an early exchange of railroad lands within the recent ex- 
tension of the reservation. (See Appendix O.) 

The Pueblo Indians of New Mexico (filed June 28, 1919), by 
Commissioner Vaux, who recommended that the Albuquerque day 
schools superintendency be divided into two jurisdictions, with super- 
iiitendenls located at Albuquerque and Espanola, N. Mex. ; that steps 
be taken to improve the Government day schools and quarters for 
employees at the various pueblos, and that day schools be built at 
Banchitos, on the Santa Ana grant ; at Sia, at Chical on the Isleta 
grant; a new school erected at Acomita, on the A coma grant, and in- 
creased school facilities at Santo Domingo, Encinal, Siama, and 
Picuris ; that greater authority be granted Indian Service officials to 
compel school attendance; that the Acoma-Laguna irrfgation ditch 
along the San Jose River be cemented to prevent seepage, and two 
storage reservoirs be built for irrigation purposes at the Taos pueblo ; 
that a gasoline engine, thrashing machine, and small mill be fur- 
nished each pueblo; that bridges be built across the Rio Grande 
on the Cochiti grant near the Santo Domingo boundary, across 
the Rio Grande connecting Santa Clara and San Ildefonso, and 
across the Jemez River near the villages of Sia and Jemez; that all 
of the pueblos be fenced; that some sort of an agreement be made 
with the Forest Service so that Indians can obtain, with less diffi- 
culty, timber and firewood from adjacent forest reserves. Specific 
recommendations respecting various pueblos are contained in the full 
report, which appears as an appendix of the board's report. (See 
Appendix P.) 

Schools Among the Five^ Civiljzed Tribes of Okiahoma (filed 
June 28, 1919), by Commissioner Ketcham, who recommended that 
the tribal schools among the Five Civilized Tribes be continued, pos- 
sibly for 10 years; that Congress provide for higher education in the 
white schools of higher learning, either in the State in which the In- 
dians live or elsewhere, for such children of the Five Civilized Tribes 
as have exhausted their local opportunities and have the desire and 
requisite talent to continue their studies ; that all the Five Civilized 
Tribe schools be equipped with eight grades and some of them be 
made high schools, including one each of the Choctaw male and fe- 
male academies; that Congress enact legislation which will insure 
ample educational funds for the schools of the Choctaws and Chicka- 
saws for a period of 10 years, and in the case of the Choctaws a pro- 
vision be made for a fund for educational purposes in excess of the 
amount expended on the Choctaw schools for the scholastic year 
ended June 30, 1905 ; that Congress enact legislation to conserve the 
remaining tribal moneys of the Creeks and Seminoles as educational 
funds, and to increase them, if possible, by whatever tribal properties 
there may yet remain to be disposed oi and by whatever outstanding 
claims these tribes may have ; that section 41 of the act of March 1, 
1901, be amended by Congress to permit the Secretary of the Interior 
to make oil and gas leases on Creek lands. Specific recommendations 
in regard to 19 tribal and contract schools among the Five Civilized 
Tribes are contained in the full report as filed which appears as one 
of the appendices of the board's report. (See Appendix Q.) 

Health CoNorriONs in Oklahoma (filed June 23, 1919), by Com- 
missioner Ketcham. (See Appendix R.) 



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REPORT OF BOARD OF INDLAJS" COMMISSIONERS. 229 

Liquor Suppression Office, Den\er, Colo, (filed April 9, 1919), 
by Commissioner Ketcham. (See Appendix S.) 

MEETINGS. 

The board held four meetings during the year; a special meeting 
at Newcastle, X. H., July 25-27, 1918 ; the regular semiannual meet- 
ing at Lake Mohonk, N. i ., October 23-25, 1918 ; the annual meeting 
at Washington, January 28-30, 1919; and a special meeting at 
Albuquerque and Santa t'e, N. Mex., April 16-18, 1919. 

At the annual meeting Commissioner George Vaux, jr., of Phila- 
delphia, Pa., was reelected chairman of the board, and Commissioner 
Malcolm McDowell, of Chicago, 111., was reelected secretary, both 
for the ensuing year. 

Mr. Edward E. Ayer, of Chicago, who was appointed a member of 
the board in 1912, resigned on January 29, 1919. Maj. Gen. Hugh L. 
Scott, United States Army, retired, was appointed a member of the 
commission by the President on February 25, 1919, to succeed former 
Commissioner Ayer. 

Faithfully yours, 

George Vaux, jr.. Chairman, 
Merrill E. Gates, 
Warrex K. Moorehead, 
Samuel A. Eliot, 
Frank Knox, 
iWiLLiAM H. Ketcham, 
Daniel Smiley, 
Isidore B. Dockweiler, 
Malcolm McDoa\^ll, 
Hugh L. Scott. 
To the Secretary of the Interior. 



APPENDIX A. 

BEPOBT ON" THE NAVAJO INDIANS OF ARIZONA AND NEW MEXICO, 

by halcolx hcdowell. 

February 15, 1919. 

Sir: I haye the honor of submitting herewith a report of condi- 
tions in the Nayajo country of northeast Arizona and northwest New 
Mexico. My inyestigation began September 13 and ended October 
10, 1918, during which I trayeled more than 800 miles through the 
Pueblo Bonito, Nayajo, Moqui, and Western Navajo Reseryations. 
As the Navajo country embraces some 22,000 square miles^ the 
topography of which is so wild and rough that traveling is difficult, 
it would be a physical impossibility to cover the entire area within 
the four weeks I spent in that country, therefore it will be necessary 
for me to make another trip to round out my work. 

The Navajo countrj', lying in three States, includes the superin- 
tendencies of Pueblo Bonito in New Mexico, the Navajo and San 
Juan in Arizona and New Mexico, the Moqui, Western Navajo, and 
Leupp in Arizona, and about 600,000 acres in the southern part of 



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230 REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

Utah. It embraces parts of San Juan and McKinley Counties in 
New Mexico, the Navajo and Apache Counties in Arizona, part of 
Coconino County in Arizona, and the southern part of San Juan 
County in Utah. 

For the purpose of administration the Navajo country is divided 
into the superintendencies I have mentioned, but all this area, with 
a population of over 32,000 Navaios, may properly be handled for 
the purpose of a survey as a single unit. This great area includes 
vast stretches of practically worthlci^s desert lands, millions of acres 
covered by mountain ranges and cut and slashed by canyons, dry 
washes, and valleys; but a large proportion of the land, semiarid 
though it be, is rough grazing land which is used by the Navajo 
Indians for raising their sheep, goats, horses, and cattle. The 
Navajo country is the largest undeveloped area of land under the 
supervision of the Indian Office and is peopled by the largest tribe 
of American Indians. Although I traveled hundreds of miles 
through this country I saw but small parts of it and I doubt if the 
supermtendent of any Navajo Reservation, excluding Leupp, has 
seen or ever will see all the land under his supervision. ^ ^ • 

The Navajos are shepherds; sheep is the economic basis of Navajo 
life. The sheep must be moved to find grass and water and to adjust 
the flocks to seasonal changes. Because of necessity the Navajo 
families Jive wide apart from each other. Their hogans, as they 
call their beehive-shaped habitations of lo^, branches, stones, and 
dirt, are located with reference to convenient access to water and 
wood. Each family has two or more hogans which are used for 
summer and winter and as the demand for gi*ass and water for their 
sheep compels them to move from place to place they occupy during 
the year their several hogans. , 

This family isolation, together with the nomadic habit of the 
Navajos and the difficulty in traveling over the country caused by 
mountains, canyons, quick sands, and precipitous bluffs which edge 
high mesas, have made it well-nigh impossible to take an accurate 
census of the entire Navajo people. 

In 1915, under the supervision of Father Weber, Superior of the 
Franciscan Fathers at St. Michaels, Ariz., an accurate, scientifically 
planned census of the Navajo Reservation, whose seat of government 
is at Fort Defiance, Ariz., was made. This census was so compre- 
hensive and complete that it offers a sound basis for estimating 
the entire population of the Navajo country. The best authorities 
agree there are over 32,000 Navajo Indians in that pai-t of the 
Lnited States and that between 7.000 and 9.000 are children of 
school age. 

The Navajos are a prolific race ; I found children in almost every 
hogan and families with four and five children are common. There 
is ever}' evidence that the Navajos, who are over 95 per cent full 
bloods, are increasing in population to a degree which indicates 
that within a generation their country will not be able to sustain 
them unless the water snpply for stock and domestic purposes is 
increased. Water is the prime essential for the economic and social 
development of the Navajo people. ^ 

The irrigation division of the Indian Office has done the seem- 
ingly impossible in the development of underfiround water for stock* 
and domestic Durposes; the Imes of wells which were sunk 6 to 8 



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REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 231 

miles apart were equipped with pumps operated by windmills, and 
the numerous " seeps " which have been cfeveloped into real springs 
bear testmiony to tiie achievements, accomplished under remarkably 
adverse conditions, of the staff of the irrigation division. The In- 
dians have a saying '' where water is there is no grass, where grass 
is there is no w^ater." This epigram states the case completely for 
there are great areas of erass land in which there is no water for 
stock and there are good springs so far remote from grass lands 
that they are useless so far as the sheep are concerned. 

The irrigation division w-ith its wells has brought water to water- 
less grass areas and thus has greatly increased the range and this 
increased grazing area makes it possible for more Indians to live 
and sustain themselves in the Navajo country. I doubt if any money 
appropriated for Indians by Congress has reached the high efficiency 
or the few thousand dollars appropriated for developing the water 
supply in the Xavajo county. ^ 

There are soKiething like" 14,000,000 acres of land, of all kinds, 
that have an ec( nomic value in this country. Of this acreage 51,000 
acres are classed as agricultural (an eastern farmer would call al- 
most all of such land w^orthless) and the Indians farm less than 
25,000 acres but use all of the 13,800,000 acres of grazing land for 
their flocks which aggi-egate nearly 1,300.000 sheep and goats; their 
herd of scrub ponies numbering 80,000 and their cattle which total 
about 38,000 head. ' An agricultural survey of this country has never 
been made; the estimate of 51,000 acres of agricultural land is 
based on the known area which might be irrigated. Undoubtedly 
there are large tracts of soil which need only water to make them 
productive but such lands lie so far from the present available water 
sources that the cost to irrigate them is prohibitive. ^ "• 
- I found three problems pressing for solution, land, school, and 
water. The land problem involves over 100 townships in the public 
domain east and south of the Xavajo, Moqui, and Leupp Reserva- 
tions. These townships are occupied and, in common with white 
stockmen, used by some 6,000 nonreservation Xavajo Indians. The 
solution of the land problem calls for congressional legislation and 
negotiation between the Department of the Interior and the rail- 
road companies. The water and school problems affect the whole 
Indian population. The water supply can be increased through 
larger appropriations, and a school census and new school policy 
are necessary to arrive at a satisfactory solution of the school 
problem. 

The Santa Fe Railroad skirts the southern edge of this country, 
and for 50 miles on each side of its right of wav the public domain 
is a checkerboard, for the odd-number sections belong to the Santa 
Fe and Frisco Railroad Cos.. and the even-number sections are the 
pul)lic domain. Almost all of the nonreservation or public domain 
Navajos live north of the Santa Fe right of way. The railroad 
lands in the Xavajo country have been sold or leased. Indians have 
leased some of the townships. The railroads not only have the legal 
right to sell their lands, but such sales would be in line with the best 
business practices, for the railroads have been paying taxes on these 
lands for years. The Santa Fe Railroad for a number of years re- 
fused to sell its lands because it hoped that some w^ay would be 
140923°— INT 1910— VOL 2 16 



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232 REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIA]^ COMMISSIONERS. 

opened which would allow the Indians to acquire the railroad sec- 
tions, but, apparently, the Santa Fe Railroad has come to the con- 
clusion the Government can not or will not develop a practical 
method by which the railroad lands can be secured for the Indians, 
and such lands now are offered for sale. If the railroad sells the rail- 
road sections to white cattlemen the Navajo Indians, now occupying 
and using the lands, practically will be evicted, and the land problem 
will cease to trouble the Government, for it will be transformed into 
an ordinary problem of caring for several thousand destitute men, 
women, and children. 

The public domain to the east and south of the reservation is occu- 

Eied, as I have said, by some 6,000 nonreservation Navajo Indians, 
everal thousand Indian allotments of 160 acres each have been se- 
lected, but the allotments have not been approved, nor have any trust 
patents been issued to the Indians. A few of the white men have 
homesteaded. The white homesteads are of 640 acres each, four 
times the size of an Indian allotment. Every useable square foot of 
all the public domain area under consideration is grazed by sheep, 
goats, horses, and cattle; there is not an idle acre in the countrj^, ex- 
cept desert and rock-clad lands which are of no use and can not be 
used for any purpose. 

The 6,000 nonreservation Navajos on the public domain were bom 
on the land, as were their ancestors; in every respect, except actual 
ownership, it is their land, but not an Indian owns a foot of it. Al- 
though they do not live on reservations and, therefore, are nonre- 
servation Indians they belong to the Navajo tribe and retain their 
tribal relations. Although they are nonreservation Indians, receiv- 
ing nothing from .the Government in the shape of money or land, 
they are wards of the Government, for the Government has assumed 
supervision over them. The Pueblo Bonito jurisdiction is entirely 
on the public domain; the agency seat is at Crownpoint, N. Mex., 
where a reservation boarding school is located. This jurisdiction is 
called a reservation, but actually it is an agency. 

These Indians are self-supporting — ^they get no money or rations 
from the Government — ^they neither ask nor want anything from the 
Government. Like all Navajo Indians they are herdsmen, each 
family owning sheep, gpats, horses, and some cattle. The !Pueblo 
Bonito Indians are typical Navajos and conditions on the Pueblo 
Bonito jurisdiction are typical of a very large part of the whole 
Navajo country. This jurisdiction covers an area, approximately, 
of 60 by 50 miles and 60 of the 100 townships under consideration are 
in the Pueblo Bonito area. Thirty-three townships (that is the rail- 
road lands in 33 townships) are leased to white men and 7 to Indians 
who pay from $230 to $280 rental for a township a year. There are 
but 34 white homesteaders in this area. According to the best infor- 
mation obtainable about 90 sections of railroad lands have been sold. 

In all the Pueblo Bonito jurisdiction there is not one living stream 
of water. There are 9 artesian wells, the largest of which is on a 
white man's land and is fenced off so that the Indians can not use 
the water. There are about 20 stock wells equipped with windmills, 
6 shallow lakes (mere drainage ponds) which, with the exception 
of one, are dry most of the year, and a number of so-called springs 
which are really "seeps" from^ which the water oozes out from the 
sand, and that spring is considered an important source of water 



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REPOBT OF BOABD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 233 

supply if a gallon of water can be collected from it inside of five 
minutes. 

TMiite stockmen figure that 640 acres, a square mile, will support 
from 10 to 20 steers or from 20 to 60 sheep, depending upon the 
season. For two yeare there has been an abnormal drought and a 
number of white lessees have moved their cattle from the ranges in 
this countrj'. All the range is overgrazed and white men and Indians 
agree that it will take several years of good grass seasons and careful 
grazing to renew the range. 

It is quite certain if it had not been for the drought and the effect 
of war on labor and man power much, if not all, of this public 
domain would now be under the complete control of white men and 
the Indians would have been evicted simply because they would not 
have been able to compete with the white stockmen. By leasing and 
buying railroad sections, homesteading and leasing State school sec- 
tions, a white man can control a grazing unit which would give him 
the absolute monopoly of from one to three townships. If this 
railroad land is sold it will be sold to white men and there will be a 
reversal of economic conditions for a few white stockmen and their 
white employees will take the place of 6,000 producing and pur- 
chasing Indians ; and instead of ^,000 Indian customers the stores at 
Gallup, Holbrook, Thoreau, Winslow, and other railroad centers, 
will have but a mere handful of cow boys arid stock bosses ; instead 
of 6,000 men, women, and children buying food, clotliing, supplies, 
and even some of the smaller luxuries, there will be several thousand 
Navajo men, women, and children to be cared for by the State or 
Government or both. 

The effect of this reversal of economic conditions upon the towns 
along the railroad would be serious to local merchants and the in- 
crease of live-stock shipments over the railroad would not amount to 
much. This is the opinion I found among a number of business men 
who formerly opposed doing anything which might tend to secure 
the public domain for the use of the nonreservation Navajo Indians. 

Tlie citizens of Arizona and New Mexico are outspoken in their 
opposition to any increase of the present great area of nontaxpaying 
lands in those States by the extension of Indian reservations or the 
making of new. ones. 'When it is considered about 36,500 square 
miles of New Mexico and Arizona are Indian lands, which do not 
pay taxes ; that the total area of both States is around 336,000 square 
miles; that enormous forest areas are set apart in National Forest 
Beserves; that thousands of acres are in national monuments and 
tens of thousands of acres are still public domain, it is small wonder 
the texpaying citizens of the two States are opposed to giving more 
land to nontaxpaying Indians. 

This public sentiment must be taken into account in any attempt 
to secure the public domain for the permanent use of the Indians. 
It was this sentiment which stopped the efforts of the Government 
to exchange some of the railroad lands for lands in other parts of the 
country and to turn these railroad lands over to the Indians by cov- 
ering them with an Executive order. As a basic proposition, 
on which to build up plans to secure lands to the public-do- 
main Navajos, the payment of taxes by the Indians must be con- 
sidered. I am strongly of the opinion from my talks with the 



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234 BEPORT OF BOABD OF INDIAN COMMTSSIOXEES. 

nonreservation Xavajos that most of them will willingly pay taxes if 
they are given that confidence in their future which comes with the 
assurance of permanent land occupancy. 

As I have shown, public-domam sections and railroad sections 
alternate, forming a checkerboard. This arrangement, made in the 
early days of railroad land grants, was a wise and far-sighted pre- 
caution of the Government, designed to prevent the railroads from 
withholding large blocks of good agricultural lands from settle- 
ment for rature i)rofit. In those days little thought was given to 
the arid and semiarid lands in Arizona and New Mexico, useful 
only for rough grazing and usable only in large units. In Arizona 
and New Mexico men do not talk of grazing land in terms of sections 
or acres ; about the smallest unit or rough grazing land they con- 
sider is a township of 23,000 acres. In the east, where 40 acres of 
good land are enough for a profitable farm, it was well that sec- 
tions should be regarded as large units, but 640 acres, a square mile, 
of Arizona and New Mexico public domain are not enough to feed 
more than 16 steer or 75 to 80 sheep. It is not agricultural land, for 
there is no water for irrigation. It only can be used for rough graz- 
ing and much of it can not be used for even that. The checkerboard- 
ing of this land is an embarrassment to the development of the coun- 
try, an unfair arrangement, and no longer can be justified. It is 
unsound economically and no one can offer a valid reason for the 
continuance of the system. 

This is the way representatives and business men of that country 
are talking to-day. They are seriously considering the urging of 
legislation which will enable the Secretary of the Interior to negoti- 
ate with the railroads and other parties m interest for rearranging 
the public domain on each side of the Santa Fe Bailroad in Arizona 
and New Mexico, so that all the Government lands will be blocked 
in solid townships or parts of townships and all the railroad sections 
likewise. The idea is not new ; it has been brought to Washington 
several times but the white people of Arizona and New Mexico could 
not get together on the proposition. It lacked influential local back- 
ing. Public sentiment favoring what is known as "blocking" the 
land is increasing and the time seems ripe for bringing this matter 
to the attention of tlie Department of the Interior and Congress in 
tho interest, not only of the Indians, but the white people. 

It might be asketf " in what way would blocking the public domain 
and railroad lands benefit the nonreservation Indians?^' It must be 
borno in niind that the white people who are bejrinning to favor this 
proposition are not considering the Indians at all ; they have in mind 
all of the railroad land-grant belt contiguous to the Santa Fe right of 
way in both States, Arizona and New Mexico. The Navajo Indians 
occupy only about 100 townships in this belt, a relatively small area.' 
If the proposed rearrangement of the public and railroad sections 
went no further than merely blocking the land the Indians would 
be but little better off than they now are. It is probable there would 
bo less friction with white stockmen but their future would be as un- 
certain as it now is. 

To benefit the Indians through this proffered plan it would be 
necessary to secure the public domain for their permanent use and 
this only caft be done through appropriate legislation and depart- 



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REPORT OF BOARD OF IXDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 235 

mental action. The consolidation of each class of land under con- 
sideration unquestionably would have the effect of making the rail- 
road lands more attractive to purchasers and lessees but, at the same 
time, it would put the public domain sections in better arrangement 
to carry out any practical plan for securing such land for the use 
ol the Indians, Of course there are difficulties in the way of any pur- 
pose to make the Indians actual owners of the land, which is now 
public domain, but those who are interested in the proposed rear- 
rangement of sections for the benefit of the Indians are strongly of 
the opinion that Congress and the Department of the Interior would 
be able to work out some practical sclieme looking to Indian owner- 
ship of the public domain land in the 100 townships involved in this 
proposition, an ownership which would carry with it the full respon- 
sibilities and obligations of a landowning citizen. 

Supt. S. F. Stacher, of the Pueblo Bonito school and agency, has 
under his charge several thousand nonreservation Indians, and 60 
of the 100 townships are in his jurisdiction. For years he has labored 
earnestly and continually to secure the public domain or railroad 
lands for the permanent use of his charges. When efforts to exchange 
the Santa Fe Railroad sections in his jurisdiction for lands else- 
where were stopped by the provision in the 1918 Indian act which 
prohibited the extension of any Indian reservation in New Mexico 
and Arizona except by congressional action, Mr. Stacher put for- 
ward the proposition to block the railroad and public-domain lands 
preliminary to securing an adequate acreage for the permanent use 
of the Indians. 

Some of the white stockmen and business men in that section saw 
the advantage to them of such an arrangement, and I found a num- 
ber of indications of a growing public sentiment in favor of the 
proposition. Father Weber, of St. Michaels, Ariz., and Supt. Peter 
Paquette of the Navajo Reservation are in favor of the proposed 
rearrangement of the public domain checkerboard. In Albuquerque 
I talked with a number of leading men who are interested in stock 
raising and the development of the country, and in every case found 
them favorable to the proposed plan which I have outlined above. 

According to the latest figures available and which are contained 
in the report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1918, the total population of the Navajo Indian 
country, exclusive of 2,285 Hopi in the Moqui Reservation and 288 
Hopi and 190 Paiutes in the Western Navajo Reservation, is 30,772, 
of which 16,000 are minors. There is nothing in the report to indi- 
cate if the Navajo Indians in the southern part of San Juan County, 
Utah, are included in the figures of the Western Navajo Reservation. 
The proportion of minors to the total population appears to be abnor- 
mally large, but everywhere I went I saw many children around the 
hogans. Undoubtedly the Navajos are a prolific race and rapidly in- 
creasing in population. 

The commissioner's report shows that in the six superintendencies 
of the Navajo country there are 9,613 children eligible for school 
and that only 2,089 attend, leaving 7,524 children who are not attend- 
ing school. The total school capacity of the reservation boarding, 
mission boarding, reservation day, and mission day schools is only 
2,072. The Navajo school children in the Moqui Reservation have no 



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236 REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

school facilities at all, for the reservation boarding school at Keams 
Canon was discontinued a few years ago because the buildings were 
unsafe and the five day schools in that superintendency are only for 
the Hopi, at least only the Hopi Indians attend. 

This, then, is the school situation in the Navajo country; 7,524 
children of school age and eligible for school can not go to school 
because there are no schools for them to attend. This condition has 
been presented to Congress and the Indian OflBce for many years and 
every year it is growing worse. 

I have shown that because of economic conditions the Navajo In- 
dians can not live in villages or towns ; that their homes are scattered 
and wide apart from each other and the topographical character of 
the country makes traveling a difficult matter. These conditions make 
day schools practically impossible. x\n experiment was made with 
two day schools and it was a failure. The Navajos want their chil- 
dren educated and the only way that seems to be at all practical for 
educating the children is to build and maintain a number of reser- 
vation boarding schools. 

There should be no hesitancy whatever in Congress appropriating 
money for one boarding school, at least, in the Black Mesa district 
of the Moqui Reservation. The several hundred school children in 
this district have not even a chance to go to school. They can not 
attend the Hopi day schools whicli are miles from them and besides 
the old racial antagonisms simply make it impossible for the Navajo 
and Hopi children to attend the same school. This was attempted 
when the reservation boarding school at Keams Canon was in opera- 
tion with very unsatisfactory results. 

Congress appropriates $100,000 a year for " fulfilling treaties with 
Navajo Indians for schools in Arizona." For the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1918, the Indian Office expended $68,623.52 from this ap- 
propriation of which $7,583.28 went for construction of buildings; 
§1,630.13 went for repairs of buildings, and $58,950.56 was expended 
on the water system of the Navajo school, a dormitory at Tohachi 
boarding school and some building at the Pueblo Bonito school. 

With an education denied 7,524 children because there is not a 
school desk in the entire Navajo country for one of them, this treaty 
appropriation of $100,000 for Navajo schools is simply pitiful. These 
children are entitled to an education ; they are of a race which in time 
will become an important part of our citizenship. The time is com- 
ing when the Navajo Indians will be voters, and seven-ninths of 
their children to-day are barred from school. 

I can not place too much emphasis upon the immediate necessity 
of the Government taking hold of this problem with the earnest in- 
tention of arriving at a quick solution. I feel positive that if a com- 
mission of Senators and Representatives of the United States Con- 
gress were to visit this reservation its members would return to Wash- 
ington to urge legislation, backed by sufficient appropriation, to im- 
mediately build nonreservation boarding schools to give these 7,524 
schoolless Navajo children an education, the lack of which is a shame 
and disgrace to the American people who are the guardians of these 
Indians and therefore responsible for this unjustifiable and inexcus- 
able breach of trust. 

More water is the prime necessity in the economic development 
of the Navajo and Hopi Indians; more water for domestic and stock 



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REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 237 

purposes. While the Xavajo country is not ahsohite desert, it prob- 
ably is one of the driest parts of the United States. The scanty 
rainfall is distributed very irregularly throughout the year. The 
climatic and soil conditions of this immense area make it Avell-nrgh 
impossible for the average white man to realize a livelihood in it, but 
the Indians, for generations, not only have lived here but have ii> 
cre:ised in jwpulation. Some, it is true, barely exist, but most of 
them seem to be in fair circumstances and there are a few who might 
be called "well off." Although the rainfall is very scanty, it is 
enough to start grass and other vegetation and even bring them to 
maturity in most parts of this country, providing fair to good gra:> 
ing for. a few months. 

It is the water supply and not the feed primarily which goes to 
make this a grazing country. Wliere water and grass together are 
available the land is gi'azed; where there is grass and no water (and 
there are large areas in this condition) the grass is useless; where 
there is water and no grass (and there are district's of many square 
miles in area in this country where there is no grass near water) 
the water can only be used for domestic purposes and for the needs 
of travelers. Large portions of this country haA-e no natural water 
whatever except occasional seeps or water holes, which furnish water 
for a short time after the melting snows in the spring or storms 
at other times and then become dust dry. It is the quantity and dis- 
tribution of water that set the limit for the size of the flocks and 
herds in the Navajo country. 

Before leaving Washington on this survey I talked over the Navajo 
matters with Commissioner Sells and Assistant Commissioner Meritt. 
Both laid special emphasis on the question of the water supply for 
that country. It was suggested I get in touch with the Irrigation 
Division of the Indian Office and I called on Mr. W. M. Keed, chief 
en^neer of that division. Mr. Reed not only gave me a great deal 
of information but made a number of suggestions which proved to 
be most valuable and helpful. On my way West I stopped at 
Albuquerque and called on Mr. H. F. Robinson, superintendent of 
irrigation of district No. 5, which comprises the States of Colorado 
and New Mexico, northern Arizona, and a small part of Utah. • 

He told me for the past seven or eight years the Indian irrigation 
service has been trying to increase the water supply of the Navajo 
and Hopi Indians both for stock and domestic purposes. He said : 

The water supply for a prazlng country involves not a few large supplies 
but many small ones ; that it is not necessary to increase the supply at points 
where water exists but to try to develop it at other points where there is graz- 
ing and no water. In considering the development of water at places it must 
be borne in mind that too great a quantity at any one place, when there is 
a scarcity at others, will naturally cause that part of the range to be over- 
stocked; and as at no place is the grass very luxurious there is great danger 
of entirely destroying aU of the feed near the water by overgrazing it. 

Stock raising, especially the raising of sheep on these reservations, has 
proved the salvation of the Indians. They are natural herdsmen and for 
a number of years their flocks have increased to about the maximum figure 
that natural water would supply, although the limit of grazing has not nearly 
been reached. The natural increase of the floclcs would reach a maximum 
quantity, then there would be a season of drought and the mortality would 
be very great, reducing the flocks to the number that could exist on the di- 
minished water supply. 

The work that we had been doing under the name of underground water 
development consists of deep well drilling (on weUs over 300 feet deep) which 

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238 REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

has been for the purpose of exploring for or developing artesian flows; shal- 
low well drilling (for wells less than 300 feet) in the Navajo and Hopl coun- 
try; well maintenance and the development of springs and water holes. For 
a couple of years we were exploring for water at depths of more than 1,000 
feet under the direction of the Geological Survey and it was demonstrated 
that artesian water could not be found in the Hopi country, but it was found 
in the eastern part of the Navajo Ueservation north of Gallup. 

The past year, with its extreme drought, has demonstrated to both the In- 
dians and the service the great value of this underground water development. 
I have been familiar with the Navajo country since 1904 and this has been the 
driest season during these years. All of the water holes have dried up, a few 
supposedly permanent lakes have no water, and many of the springs and seeps 
Irnve failed. There is one lake in the Chin Lee Valley which has never been 
known to go dry to my knowledge, but it has been absolutely dry this year. 
Were it not for the wells we have put down in the vicinity of that lake much 
live stock would have been lost already. In a report from Foreman Womack 
he makes a statement that " had It not been for the wells already put down a 
large number of the Navajo and Hopis would have been out of the stock busi- 
ness eight months ago." 

By a happy and fortunate coincidence I met, at Gallup, Mr. Alex- 
ander H. Womack, who has direct charge of the work of the In- 
dian Service Irrigation Division in the Xayajo, Moqui, Western 
Navajo, and San Juan Reservations. He was just starting on a tour 
of inspection and took me with him. I do not suppose any man, 
excepting perhaps Prof. H. E. Gregory, knows more about the 
Navajo country than Mr. Womack does, for his duties require him 
to cover the entire district and the character of his work brings him 
in intimate contact with the Indians, who told me he was one of their 
best friends. 

With him I traveled over 700 miles and wherever I went found 
unmistakable evidences of the fact, as stated by Mr. Kobinson, that 
the stock wells, drilled and installed by the Irrigation Division, not 
only had saved the Indians from great stock losses during these last 
two years of drought but, in many cases, they had saved them from 
actual destitution. ^ 

The Indians told men they could not have pulled through the 
second summer of the drought had it not been for the irrigation 
service wells, and every missionary, Indian trader. Government em- 
ployee, and white stocKman with whom I talked declared that these 
stock wells not only had saved the situation for the Indians by 
supplying the precious water in areas where the springs had dried 
up but had opened up new pastures in districts where before the 
range could not be used because of lack of water. 

The Indian Service Irrigation Division has put down about 125 
shallow wells for stock purposes. The standard equipment for each 
well consists of a windmill on a steel tower with a galvanized iron 
tank and watering troughs. These wells are strung along valleys 
and are from 6 to 8 miles apart. Every new well put down adds 
from 12 to IG miles to the travel distance of the service men who 
go from Avell to well to oil the machinery and make such repairs 
and adjustments as are necessary for operation and maintenance. It 
thus will be seen that every new w^ell installed necessarily adds to 
the expense of maintenance, and this fact has apparently been over- 
looked by the congressional committees in making the appropriations 
for water development in the Navajo country, because practically the 
same appropriation is made each year. 



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KBPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 239 

i 

Tyiien I saw the well-driving machinery which was used by the 
Irrigation Division in the Navajo country I really was amazed at 
the amount of work the service had accomplished, because the rigs 
were old and of a type not designed for driving wells in that kind 
of country. The policy of the irrigation service in sinking many 
shallow wells, equipped with windmill-driven pumps only for the 
purpose of watering stock, has proved to be the best policy. At the 
same time there seems to be sound reason for attempting to develop 
tho artesian water in certain parts of that country for irrigation 
purposes and I asked Mr. Robinson to prepare a short statement 
for me on this subject. Later he handed me the following: 

As you are familiar with the needs of the Indians and the proposed explora- 
tion for artesian water for the purpose of irrigation it is not necessary to go 
into any details of this part of the subject. 

The point you wished nie to cover is, in my opinion, the possibility of secur- 
ing artesian water and then, following that, an estimate of tlie cost of putting 
down one test well. 

It is possible that at any place south of the Hopl villages artesian water 
may be found. The geological formation is su<'h thnt water that falls 
throughout the Black Mountain country may be carried under impervious 
strata to the south, and by piercing a hole through this material may rise 
sufficiently high to make a flowing well. This is the opinion of Prof. Herbert 
E. Gregory after a careful reconnaissance of the entire country. In his report 
entitled "The Navajo Country," published as Water Supply Paper 380, on 
page 182, he gives the geologic formation of this section in which he thinks 
that artesian water is likely to be struck, and that the well sunk at Keams 
Canon, while it gave negative results and demonstrates the unreliability of the 
Dakota sandstone as a water carrier of prominence in this area, he does not 
think that it means water may not be found in other parts of this area ; for 
he says on page 175, "Because of the variable nature of the Dakota the 
Keams Canon well does not furnish conclusive evidence that similar wells at 
First Mesa, Second Mesa, Oraibi, and intervening points will be unsuccessful." 

Of course, the sinking of such a well would be entirely experimental, and if 
such a well is put down it should not be less than 2,000 feet in depth, unless 
artesian water is secured at a lesser depth. To do this we would have to 
purchase a drilling rig with a capacity of at least 2,000 to 2.500 feet. We 
could put in a portable rig which would be available for work at other points, 
or we could build a wooden tower and put in an engine and boiler with a 
bull wheel and walking beam, but such an outfit could not be moved to another 
point without being entirely rebuilt. 

The price of all machinery has increased so greatly that I am unable to give 
you any accurate figures without first securing them from the makers of these 
rigs, but from data secured lately I believe a portable rig such as I mention 
would cost, complete with all tools, cable, etc., not less than $5,500 and perhaps 
$7,000. Such a rig would have about a 25-horsepower boiler, locomotive type, 
and engine about the same rate<l horsepower, with approximately 10 by 10 
cylinders and equippetl with tools for drilling a hole of 12, 10, 8^, 6^, and 5 
inches in diameter, for it would be necessary to begin with a 12-inch hole at 
the surface and put down the size hole as far as the formation would allow, 
then of course to the next smaller size, and it is probable that at the depth 
of 200 feet we would get down to 5-inch casing. 

All well casing has increased In price at least 100 per cent, and it may be 
difficult to get it at any price.' It Is estimated that a well 2,000 feet deep 
would cost not less than $15,000. 

With a new rig and everything working in the best manner we should be 
able to do rapid work at a minimum cost, considering the market. We have 
an old well rig putting down deep wells, and it cost us, owing to difficult 
drilling and the fact that the rig would not work anywhere nearly as efficient 
as a new one, $12,000 to put down well No. 113, which is 1,050 feet deep. 
This well Is located about 40 miles north of Gallup. 

In the estimated cost of the rig it is probable that the wooden tower rig 
with the equipment could be put in for $1,000 to $1,500 less than the portable rig. 



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240 KEPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

There are several small irrigation projects in the country, notably 
the Marsh Pass and the Ganado projects, both of which are prac- 
tically complete, and together they will enable the Indians to farm 
something like 3,000 acres of land. In addition to these projects is 
the Wepo Wash project in the Hopi country. 

All of the agricultural lands of the Hopi Indians consist of the 
sandy-bottom lands along the three main washes that run between 
their mesa. The best single area they have is what is known as the 
Wepo or Second Mesa Wash. This wash, heretofore, has had no de- 
fined channel for a number of miles and in this flat, watered by the 
occasional floods, are extensive cornfields. 

Several years ago the valley conmienced to cut up with narrow 
deep channels commencing at its junction with the First Mesa Wash. 
These channels are gradually cutting back through the fields, and 
some of their best fields have already been destroyed, and if some- 
thing is not done soon the rest of this area will be rendered value- 
less. A study has been made of the situation and a method of con- 
trolling the flood waters coming down and preventing further ero- 
sion has been worked out. The original suggestions for this work 
came from Foreman Womack and, while some of the details have 
been modified considerably, any credit for the successful working 
out of the plan is due to him. 

The plan 'in brief is to spread out the flood waters coming down 
this valley and prevent their flowing in any defined channel, and to 
try and build up by silting the channels that have already been 
formed. This will be done by first a rock and brush dam in the 
channel at a point where it is very shallow, throwing the water out 
onto the floor of the valley where it will first be guided away from 
the stream channel by means of earthen dikes, and its distribution 
and control by means of what might be termed a porous dam. 

This S3'stem works on a theory that the water, when it comes down 
the stream, will carry with it not only bowlders and sand but floating 
debris. As the latter strikes the porous dam it clogs to a certain 
degree the wire netting of which this dam is constructed, this of 
course retarding the water to a certain extent. The water naturally 
backs up and within a few minutes there is quite a pond behind the 
dam. As the water continues to carry debris down the stream the 
blocking becomes more complete and the nonflowing material, as it is 
being carried down the stream, naturally comes to a stop when it 
strikes the comparatively still water and sinks to the bottom of the 
upper end of the pond. This operation shows that the floating de- 
bris is checked by the dam itself, while the heavier material has filled 
practically all of the basin before it comes in contact with the dam, 
or rather the floating material behind the dam. 

These dams will be placed at intervals, depending upon the slope of 
the land, and will be so built that the top of one dam is at the eleva- 
tion of the bottom of the one above it. The accumulation of the 
material between these points will form level steps upon which the 
crops can be grown, and the water of the stream will be spread over 
such a wide area that it will not run with any depth across this land, 
hence will not wash or injure growing crops, in addition to these 
light dams, gates will be placed in the dikes that are constructed to 
assist in the distribution ox the water and the irrigation of lands lying 
between the dikes and the stream itself. 



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REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 241 

The original plan was to reclaim something over 1,000 acres of 
land at an estimated cost of $7,700, but the last report submitted 
(which has been approved) will cover about one-third of the area, it 
being thought that it might be wise to .see this part complete and 
tested that any errors in construction might be remedied before fur- 
ther work is done. To complete the part covered in this last report 
Superintendent of Construction Post estimates $2,125, but Mr. Rob- 
inson has asked that $3,000, or so much as may be necessary, be 
authorized owing to constant changing costs or material and in- 
creased cost of labor. 

I have gone into the details of the water problem to emphasize the 
fact that Congress, simply by enlarging appropriations to an ade- 
quate amount for the water supply of the Navajo Indians, can bring 
about a large increase, almost immediately, of the grazing areas in 
the Navajo country, thus opening up more territory to meet the in- 
sistent demands of a growing population and also, in all probability, 
developing new agricultural areas for the Hopi Indians. There are 
no tribal, economic, administrative, or legislative complications to 
settle; no new policies to formulate and try out. The men and ma- 
chinery are on the gi'ound, the work is going on ; all that is needed 
is more money for construction and maintenance of shallow stock 
wells in the Navajo and Ilopi countries and for drilling one deep 
well south of the Hopi villages to ascertain if artesian water can be 
developed in that section. One flowing well in the country south of 
the Hopi villages would do more to hasten the civilization of the 
Hopi Indians than years of effort under present conditions for the 
flowing water, irrigating acres of land which need only water to 
make it very productive, would bring the Hopi Indians down from 
their high rock mesas to the new farm lands made by the artesian 
well, and this would be such a radical change in their living condi- 
tions that it would be a long step forward on the i*oad to progi-ess. 

RECOMMENDATIONS. 

As this is a report of progress and not a final report I have only 
the following general recommendations to suggest : 

That the board stand ready to aid the white citizens of northern 
New Mexico and Arizona to secure appropriate legislation and de- 
partmental action to bring about a rearrangement of the public do- 
main and railroad sections contiguous to the Santa Fe Railroad right 
of way in both States, so that each class of land shall be blocked in 
townships or half townships, where such rearrangement is possible, 
keeping in mind the securing of the public domain east and south of 
the Navajo, Moqui, and Leupp Reservations for the permanent use 
of the nonreservation Navajo Indians. 

That a persistent and insistent campaign be conducted to provide 
enough school facilities to furnish every Navajo boy and girl an 
education. 

That the underground water development in the Navajo and Hopi 
countries by the Irrigation Division of the Indian Service be given 
special attention by the Indian Office and Congress to the end that 
enlarged appropriations shall be made for tne construction and 
maintenance of shallow stock wells, the drilling of artesian wells, 



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242 REPOBT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

arul the development of agricultural lands in accordance with the 
plans and purposes of the Irrigation Division. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Malcolm McDowell, 
Merriber^ Board of Indian Commisnoners 
Hon. George Vaux, Jr., 

Chairman^ Board of Indian Commissioners, 



supplemental befobt on the navajo indians, by malcoiim 

McDowell. 

Mat 17, 1919. 

Sir: When I was investigating the conditions of the nonreserva- 
tion Navajo Indians who live on the public domain in northwestern 
New Mexico and northeastern Arizona in October of 1918, I was 
prevented hj lack of time from visiting the Navajos who live on the 
public domain east of the Zuni Reservation. During my visit to the 
Zuni, in May, 1919, I took advantage of the opportunity to visit the 
Navajos who are under the jurisdiction of Sunt. Bauman of the Zuni 
Reservation and found these nonreservation Indians in a deplorable 
condition. I desire, therefore, to offer this as a supplemental report 
to my report on the Navajo Indians filed with the Secretary of the 
Interior. 

Unless measures for their immediate relief are taken about 500 
Navajo Indians who live on the public domain and railroad lands 
cast of Ramah, N. Mex., a Mormon town just cast of the Zuni Reser- 
vation, will become destitute. Their flocks of sheep are decreasing; 
their range is becoming smaller each year; they and their white 
neighbors can not occupy and use the same land under present con- 
ditions. The railroad lands practically are all leased and each year 
finds the Indians closer to pauj>erism. 

The Indian Office report estimates there are 230 Navajo Indians 
under the Zuni Reservation. White stockmen and Indian traders 
say there are over 600. Whatever the actual number is, these Indians 
are in desperate circumstances. By placing these Indians under the 
jurisdiction of the Zuni superintendency the Government has as- 
sumed guardianship of them, and so far as I can learn that is about 
all the Ofovemment has done for this band. If the guardian does not 
come to the aid of its Navajo wards promptly there will be another 
black mark scored up against the American people for breach of 
trust and neglect of plain duty. 

I will admit the problem is somewhat difficult of solution, but this 
difficulty should be no bar to an immediate effort to save these In- 
dians from, ruination. They can be made self-supporting and a 
creditable part of New Mexico's population if an intelligent plan for 
their redemption is adopted and put into effort. It seems to me the 
emergency can be met by leasing the railroad lands of a couple of 
townships. This would give the Indians the use of something like 
44,000 acres of grazing land and would tide them over. This would 
cost something Tike $600. 

I can do no better in presenting the condition of these Indians 
than to quote statements made to me by Supt. R. J. Bauman of the 
Zuni Reservation and Mr. Evon Z. Vogt, a ranchman whose home is 



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EEPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS, 243 

near Hamah, N. Mex., and who has lived among these Indians for a 
number of years. I asked Mr. Bauman to secure for me some figures 
which would indicate the number of sheep which a nonreservation 
Navajo family should have to provide a frugal living for it. He said : 

Economic conditions of the Navajo Indians livinjj on the public domain in 
Arizona and Netv Mexico are such that it is a phjsical impossibility for them 
to exist on an allotment of 160 acres per capita. 

The average family consists of four people. Practically the only means for a 
liveUhoo<l in this section is that of sheep raising. To provide a frugal living 
each fannly should have a bunch of 500 head of sheep. Under favorable con- 
ditions the sale of wool, pelts, and increase of the herd should bring a gross 
income of approximately $725 a year from such a herd. Local stockmen esti- 
mate that to provide grazing for one sheep 8 acres are necessary. To provide 
grazing for 500 sheep 4,000 acres are necessary, a section of land, 640 acres, 
for each 80 head of sheep. Cattle or ponies eat more than twice as much as 
sheep, thus requiring at least 20 acres grazing for each. Allowing that each 
family has 15 head of horses and cattle would require an additional 300 acres. 
Thus, to provide a bare living for a Navajo family, 4,300 acres are needed, or 
for each person, 1.075 acres. 

Approximately 230 Navajo Indians under the Zunl jurisdiction have their 
homes south and east of the eastern boundary of the Zunl Indian Reservation 
and south of the town of Uamah, N. Mex. These are styled the Ramah Band 
of Navajos. \ These Indians and their forefathers made their homes on this 
land and the land round about Ramah long before a white man ever saw this 
part of the country. The white men have come in and settled up the Ramah 
Valley, crowding the Indiahs on to the barren lands to the south, and now the 
cattle companies and others are taking possession of all this area last men- 
tioned, even to grazing over the little quarter sections of land on which the 
Indians have filed allotment applications. This is bringing the Indians face 
to face with want and privation. 

Mr. Evon Z. Vogt is a graduate of the University of Chicago; in 
that city he was a practical sociologist doing welfare work, when a 
student, in connection with the activities of the University of 
Chicago Settlement in the stockyards district. He said : 

It looks to me as if the time had come for a show-down in regard to the 
Navajo Indians living near this place. I have been living here among them for 
four years and am familiar with the conditions here for about 10 years. The 
Government has not done a thing to help these Indians along the road to better 
living, prosperity, or citizenship. 

They are living under the same squalid conditions as they were years ago. 
They know nothing of cleanliness, sanitation, or education. Not a family 
among over 500 Navajos lives in a house. They live and cook on the ground 
in their huts or hogans under the dirtiest conditions. Tuberculosis is increasing 
yearly in a climate that should cure them. The closest school for them is over 
GO miles away, and the children are growing up in absolute ignorance and filth. 
I employ a good many of them in connection with my sheep business, and I 
have to sterilize the boys' heads in lunibing camps before it is safe to have them 
in camp. 

They had, when I first knew them, about 12.000 head of sheep which f urnisheil 
them much food and wool for making blankets and selling for needed provisions. 
Four years ago, according to the word of the C»overnment stockman at Black- 
rock, they owned 10,000 head of sheep at dipping time. Last year they had only 
7,000 head of sheep all told. It will be seen that they are fast approaching a 
state of poverty. Many families have so few sheep it does not pay to care for 
them and others have none at all. The Co jo outfit and Petaga have the most 
sheep at present, but Cojo is running behind fast. 

These sheep are Important not only to them, but to the nation as well and 
something must be done at once to provide them v/lth range and supervision. 
At present they have only their allotments to graze on and the public domain 
which the taxpaying white man, like myself and other stockmen, claim a right 
to for grazing purposes. We have had i3everal conferences about and with the 
Indians concerning the trespassing of their sheep on land we own and lease, 
but the department has never done anything about the matter. They are left 
to themselves and are slowly being crowde<l out. 



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244 REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

We ranchmen do not think the Government is treating the Navajo right or 
his white neighbors either. They are allowed to get along as best they can. 
If their sheep die of starvation or inbreed year after year no one seems to care. 
They are allowed to trespass on the rest of ns to such an extent that sometimes 
our stock die as a result of their sheep eating us out. » 

One year they ate out the grass from the land I own and pay taxes on to such 
an extent that I was forced to move my cattle 25 miles away and rent water 
and pasture from November to May so as to save my stock. At that time the 
Navajos had been told that they had the right to go over other peoples* lands 
with their sheep. They used this advice and simply grazed out the country. 
A great deal of land has been homesteaded ; all the land that can be leased has 
been leased by American ranchmen, so that these Indians now find themselves 
on the verge of range starvation. Nothing shows this better than the decreasing 
number of their flocks. 

Now they are good Indians. I have employed them for four years and they 
are not bad people. They want to advance, they desire better sheep and more 
sheep. They would like to see their children clean and educated. They would 
like a little advice how to plant their com and build their fences. I think it 
is a shame that they are allowed to flounder around the way they do without 
care, direction, or supervision, meanwhile imposing on the rest of us, not in- 
tentionally, but because they can not help it. 

I asked Jesse Johnson, who was raised here and speaks the Navajo language 
well and knows every family within a radius of 25 miles of this place, for some 
figures about them. lie said : " There are 500 Navajos hereabouts, 200 children 
who ought to be in school, and they own now 7,000 sheep and 1,000 horses.'* 
Mr. Johnson has been until lately stockman at Blackrock and says that there 
is no question about these people getting i)oorer and poorer every year. 

We would like to see the Government get busy and do something about this. 
Give them a school, a doctor, a farmer, a stockman, a place to graze tlieir 
sheep, and in the name of conservation shoot their infernal ponies which get 
more inbred every year. Meantime the Indians use not one-fifth of what they 
own and their ponies tramp out and eat off more range than any other animal 
that grazes. 

I am a friend to these Indians. They work for me, they come to me daily 
for advice. I give them medicines, seed, and what help I can. I claim to know 
the conditions thoroughly and can prove anything I say about them. 

Take it from me, thoy will be beggars in five years imless something is done 
in a constructive way for their benefit. 

I thought once they could be moved back to the reservation. But they were 
born here, like it here, and would fight rather than move. The conclusion I 
have come to is that a school and agency and a range should be secured for 
them at once. 

EespectfuUy submitted, 

Malcolm McDowell, 
Member^ Board of Indian Commissioners, 



APPENDIX B. 

REPOBT ON THE SAC AND FOX SANATORITJM: AND THE FOX BESEH- 
VATION, IOWA, BY WILLIAM H. KETCHAM. 

November 1, 1918. 
Sir : On Augiist 20, 1918, I visited the Sac and Fox Sanatorium 
and the Fox Reservation, located near Toledo, Iowa. The sana- 
torium was originally a boarding school for the children of the 
Musquakie (Fox) Indians whose reservation is only a few miles 
away, but, as it was found impossible either to persuade or coerce 
the parents to patronize the school, pupils were gathered in from 
other tribes. In 1913, the school was converted into a sanatorium 
for Indian tubercular patients. 



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REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 245 

The sanatorium J under the able and fatherly management of Dr. 
Eobert L. Russell, superintendent and physician, is in good order. 
Conditions are ideal so far as circumstances permit. XJnf ortunate- 
ly, it too often happens that patients are brought into the sanatorium 
in an advanced stage of disease, when it is too late to effect a cure. 

The segregating of tubercular Indians and the devising of some 
means of bringing patients into sanatoria before the disease has 
made it impossible to help them are questions that demand immediate 
and careful study. 

Dr. Russell has a difficult problem in the Indians of the reserva- 
tion. The Musquakie hold fee-simple patents for their reservation, 
the first tract having been bought by the band July 13, 1857. Other 
tracts of land from time to time have been purchased, until to-day 
the reservation comprises about 3,300 acres. 

It has been the intention of the Indians from the beginning to ad- 
here strictly to their tribal customs. For the most part they have 
been opposed to education, to the white man's method of life and to 
his laws. The patent in fee tenure of their reservation and the legal 
advice they have secured at times have rendered it very difficult lor 
the Indian Office to advance them in civilization. It is said that con- 
tinuous efforts of missionaries for not less than 35 years have been 
practically barren of results. 

However, despite their stubborn adherence to Indian customs, the 
Musquakie are oeing unconsciously influenced by environment and 
are making some substantial progi-ess. Two day schools have been 
established on the reservation which, at the present time, are well at- 
tended. Some few children have gone to nonreservation schools and 
four of the tribe enlisted in the war, two of whom have seen service 
in France. A few have built houses and all are beginning to modify 
their dress somewhat in conformity to the customs of the whites 
around them. 

With an eye to profit, they have instituted an annual celebration, 
called a powwow, to which they invite the whites. They entertain 
themselves and their guests by Indian dances, and this mingling of 
Indian and white has an influence hoih for good and for evil! They 
are taking some interest in agriculture and are beginning to make a 
showing at the county fair. They seem to specialize on beans, of 
which tliey cultivate many varieties ; corn and small grain are, how- 
ever, the principal crops. At the time of my visit they were very 
much discouraged, as their fields had been flooded from an overflow 
of the Iowa River. 

The Musquakie are particularly fortunate in having a physician 
for their superintendent, as the superintendent, by virtue of his work 
among them as a physician, comes in very close touch with them and 
acquires an influence he otherwise would not have. For this reason, 
the superstitious medicine practices of former days are gradually 
breaking down. 

"RTiile it is true the Musquakie are making considerable progress, 
it is also true that the moral conditions prevailing among them 
are unspeakable, and this state of things can be remedied only by 
well-denned laws. If the laws of the State of Iowa can be extendecl 
over the reservation and executed by Federal courts, the superin- 
tendent will have some foundation on which to base his work, and 



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246 REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

the progress of the band in the next 10 years, no doubt, will be very 
marked. This will be the case with all other tribes if a like founda- 
tion of law can be supplied as a groundwork for their civilization. 

In this connection, the following letter from the superintendent 
will be found instructive: 

Sac and Fox SANATonruM, 
Toledo, Iowa, September 25, 1918. 
Rev. Wm. H. Ketcham, 

1S26 New York Avenue, NW,, Wa8hin{iton, D. C. 

Mt Deab Father Ketcham : In accordance with the promise made you on 
yonr recent visit here I make the following statement covering certain matters 
concerning these Indians, the correction of which will, in my judgment, have a 
great civilizing influence upon them. 

In the old days law and order on the reservation was maintained to the 
satlsfftction of the tribe by certain laws made and enforced by the council. At 
present, however, it seems that the tribal council has lost its influence and that 
the influence of the white man has not As yet had its proper effect. These Indians 
are, in fact, in the transitional stage, during which the younger element are 
growing up unrestrained by the older members of the tribe and In defiance of 
the white man's laws. 

With the exception of seven serious crimes provided for by the United States 
Statutes these Indians are immune to the law when committing crimes on the 
reservation. The Indian Office regulations, of course, cover most of such crimes, 
but their enforcement necessitates the employment of an Indian Judge and the 
maintenance of a jail on the reservation, and we have never yet been able to 
persuade an Indian to accept the position of judge, nor have we been finan- 
cially able to maintain a jail. 

All kinds of petty crimes are committed on our reservation, the culprits going 
unpunished. These include housebreaking, petty thievery, drunkenness, gam- 
bling, wife beating, and others too numerous to mention, the worst feature of 
the whole thing being that our men and women are thoroughly cognizant of 
the limitations of the law and commit crimes deliberately, secure in the knowl- 
edge that they will go unpunished. I make the statement unhestltatlngly that 
no Indian girl in this tribe has ever reached the age of 14 years without being 
seduced, Indian parents having submitted their children to such treatment for 
years without protest, fearing injury at the hands of the perpetrators. 

Probably the most disgraceful feature of the whole situation is that in regard 
to marital relations as maintained by our Indians. In so far as I can discover 
the old customs regarding marriages have become obsolete and no new cus- 
toms have developed in their- places. These Indians are married one day and 
divorced the next without any ceremony whatever and without either party 
securing the consent of parent or guardian. Many children of such marriages 
are suffering for the want of parental care. Frequently children of very tender 
years marry in spite of protest of parents, who realize fully the harm in such 
unions but who do not have the moral courage or the support of law to prevent 
such unions. We have numbers of cases in which men and women have been 
married and divorced many times, one instance in particular being a young man 
who was married and divorced five times before he was 21 years old. Another 
woman yet under 30 years has had children by three different men and is 
married to a fourth, and only yesterday we asked the local board to induct into 
the Army an intermarried citizen Indian who deserted a woman and child after 
telling her that he was not legally married to her. Mothers of Illegitimate 
children have absolutely no redress and are compelled to bear the burdens of 
their shame alone. 

This disgraceful state of affairs should be corrected by all means and the 
laws of the State of Iowa made to cover these Indians or new laws enacted by 
Congress especially for them. Personally, I believe that the criminal code of 
this State could be made to apply to them more easily than could the enactment 
of new laws. They are in a measure familiar with the laws of the State — 
evidenced by the fact that they do not break them while off the resen^atlon — 
and could comply with them without any hardship being effected. 

For this reservation some provision should be made allowing the superin- 
tendent to sit as a court for minor offenses, such offenses, for instance, as 
a mayor and justice of the peace handle here, otherwise minor offenses would 
have to be tried in Federal court 50 miles away, proceedings which would be 



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REPOBT OF BOARD OF IKDIAK COMMISSIOKEBS. 247 

veiy expensive. The more important crimes could be tried in n regular Federal 
court 

In the event of such laws being secured provision should also have to be made 
for the incarceration of our prisoners in the Tnma County jail and a payment 
to the sheriff fees for their care. Federal court prisoners, of course, could be 
cared for as heretofore. 

Indian police should, if a new law is passed, be clothed with all authority 
afforded other officers of the law, and at the same time superintendents should 
be empowered to employ white officers in cases where Indian police fail in their 
duty, one or two instances of which have come to our notice 

In this connection a truancy law, similar to that enforced in this State, which 
requires the attendance of children between the ages of 6 and 16 should be en- 
acted. Such a law would be welcomed by us and would, I am sure, be well 
received by the majority of the Indians who desire their children to have the 
benefits of our schools, but who do not have the moral courage to force their 
older ones in schools. 

Even at this late date there are a few children on this reservation who have 
never been to school and who have remained out without any reasonable justi- 
tication for doing so. In these cases we have been compelled to withhold an- 
nuity moneys, sometimes I am afraid working a hardship on parents or other 
members of the family. 

Nothing, Father, pleases us at tlds agency more than the knowledge that 
there is some prospect of securing legislation so necessary for the good of this 
people. Nothing will hurry them through the transitional stage quicker than 
good laws intelligently enforced. This is not a bad people ; they are very care- 
ful not to break the laws of the State off the reservation, and it is seldom that 
we ever have a complaint from outside sources ; they will obey any law made 
Cor their protection on the reservation and the older members of the tribe, I 
am sure, would cooperate in their enforcement. The mere placing of laws relat- 
ing to them on the statute books will have a good effect and prevent many of 
tlie petty crimes which are committed almost daily at present. 

With best wishes for the success of your endeavor, I remain, 
Very truly yours, 

R. L. RussEL, Supei'intendent, 

Respectfully submitted, 

WlIXIAM H. IVETCHAM, 

Memherj Board of Indian C orwndsaioneTH. 

Hon. G£ORO£ Vaux, Jr., 

Chairman^ Board of Indian, Commissioners, 



APPENDIX C. 

KEFOBT ON THE CBOW INDIAN BESEBVATION, MONT., B7 WIL- 
LIAM H. KBTCHAM. 

November 1, 1918. 
Sir : My visit, August 22-26, 1918, to the Crow Reservation was in 
the nature of a follow-up to the visit in September and October, 1917, 
of Commissioner McDowell, who has made a comprehensive report 
on Crow conditions. In line with Commissioner McDowell's recom- 
mendation that a liberal leasing policy should be put into effect to 
the end that all the Crow lands should be cultivated, I find several 
large leases have since been made, the first of which was with the 
Sheridan Sugar Co., for something like 3,600 acres of land under 
ditch, which, at the time of my visit, were being busily cultivated. 
This company was securing additional leases which were being ap- 
proved from time to tinie. It is certain that by the close of this 
year they will have nearly 6,000 acres ; probably they will have more. 
140923*— INT 1919— VOL 2 17 



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248 BEPOBT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONfifiS. 

These leases, guaranteed bonded propositions, which run for 10 years 
on irrigated tracts, provide for tne building of improvements on the 
land, and the payment of a cash rental in addition. Frcwn the sugar- 
beet leases the Indian derives $3.10 per acre on unimproved land 
under ditch, $5 per acre on improved land under ditch, and $1 per 
acre from dry farming or grazing lands. 

The largest farming proposition undertaken is that of the Mon- 
tana Farming Corporation, which contemplates putting over 75,000 
acres of lana under cultivation. A large amount of plowing ma- 
chinery and extensive plowing were in evidence on the Fort Custer 
flat near the town of Hardin, The corporation has written leases 
on 12,000 acres under the Big Horn ditch, and proposes to lease 
what is known as the Fort Smith flat, a nonirrigated tract of about 
6,000 acres, on the upper Big Horn. It has made surveys both in 
the Pryor district and on the land just west of the Big Horn, known 
as "grazing district Xo. 3," but just what acreage it will take up 
in these districts had not yet been determined. The Montana Farm- 
ing Corporation has abundance of capital for the conduct of its 
business, which it intends to enlarge as fast as men and machinery 
can be secured. This year it is engaged in wheat growing only, 
but plans in future to cultivate beans also. The lease of the Mon- 
tana Farming Corporation is a straight crop rental lease. At its 
termination the corporation is to turn back tne irrigated land with 
25 per cent seeded m alfalfa. Its leases on irrigate lands are for 
10 years, and, on dry lands, for 5 years, with a dause automatically 
renewing the lease if legislation is secured which will permit. 

On August 29 a lease was entered into on 16 sections with Willis M. 
Spear, of Sheridan, Wye, on the same terms as the leases of the 
Montana Farming Corporation. The Spear lease on the southeastern 
portion of the reservation is a dry-farming proposition. In addi- 
tion to the foregoing there is a large number of small leases scat- 
tered over the reservation that have been written with individual 
farmers. .Some of these farmers are old lessees, but many new ones 
have come in. While in the early spring there was lana available 
for such lessees in almost every locality on the reservation, by the 
close of August it was difficult to find tracts to suit all comers. 

The aim is to get all the farming land under cultivation, and I 
am assured that continuous effort will be made to this end. Last 
spring advertisements were run in various newspapers calling atten- 
tion to the lands available for lease on the Crow Reservation. The 
policy, which will be strictly adhered to, is to provide for all small 
farmers who, in good faith, make application for land. At the same 
time care is exercised to reserve for every Indian not only land suf- 
ficient for his own immediate use but ample for him in case he should 
wish to enlarge his farming operations. 

It will be seen that in the time of the country's need, in fact, of the 
world's need, for food, especially for sugar and wheat, the Crow 
Reservation was found to be a most valuable asset in the country's 
food-producing capacitv. In fact, the closed Indian reservations 
have been able to contribute very materially to the most needed com- 
modities of war time, no less necessarv in peace times, to wit, beef, 
flour, and sugar ; and I am convinced that ir for no other reason than 
for the producing of these commodities on a large scale, it would be 



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REPOBT OF BOARD OF INDIAK GOMMISSIOISTEBS. 249 

wise policy to preserve the Crow and certain other Indian reserva- 
.tions intact for many years to come. 

Many allotments have been made this year to correct some old 
errors m the allotment roll, and an effort is being made to effect a 
number of changes in these allotments so that allotments covering 
land that has value for farming or grazing purposes will be sub- 
stituted for those that now cover land which is worthless. 

I earnestly recommend that all children born since the allotment 
roll was closed be allotted before any disposition is made of any of 
the Crow lands. It is evident these children have tribal rights equal 
to any other members of the tribe. While there is plenty of land 
they should be given allotments, and legislation to this effect should 
be enacted without putting the tribe to the necessity of petitioning 
for it or of sending delegations to Washington. 

B«spectfully submitted, 

William: H. KetchaMi 
Member^ Board of Indian Commissioners. 

Hon. Georgs Vauz, Jr., 

Chairman, Board of Indian Comanissioners. 



APPENDIX D. 

BEPOBT OF THE FLATHEAD XXmiAX BESEBVATIOIT, MOITT., B7 
WILLIAM H. XETCHAK. 

Oki^vhoma Citt, Okla., January i, 1919, 

Sir : I spent September 20-24 on the Flathead Reservation, Mont. 
I visted the Kutenai out from Poison: the towns of Ronan and St. 
Ignatius ; and the agency at Dixon. At St. Ignatius I held a coim- 
cil with the Indians. As the Flathead Reservation has been allotted, 
the problems of the reservation are largely administrative and as 
numerous as the population, even more so since every Indian has 
several problems of nis own, each of which claims the attention of 
the superintendent. The superintendent, Mr. Theodore Sharp, has 
no enviable position. 

There is no Government school or any other Government insti- 
tution in the Flathead country. The Flathead children attend the 
Catholic mission boarding schools at St. Ignatius, the public schools, 
and nonreservation schools. 

I was requested to recommend that a contract doctor be employed 
for the Indians out from Poison; that a sawmill be installed at 
Poison; and that a flour and feed mill be put up at a convenient 
point on the reservation. After having given these matters considera- 
tion. I hereby make the recommendations. 

Tne agent has been authorized to lease lands of minors without 
the consent of or without consulting parents, and at times makes 
use of this authority. I recommend, however, the Indian Office 
insist that parents be consulted in matters of this kind. The In- 
dians are in training for full citizenship and independent manage- 
ment of their individual affairs, and the policy of consulting them 
about their own and their children's affairs is imperative if they are 
ever to become competent. I can not understand the logic of a course 



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250 REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

that declares some Indians competent, insists all must be made com- 
petent, and at the same time permits these same Indians to be ban-* 
died as so many fence rails. 

The major part of the complaints brought to my attention have 
been taken up, some with the local superintendent, others with the 
Indian Office, and do not constitute matter germane to this report. 

I suggest that in " closing out " the affairs of the Flathead people 
every possible precaution be taken to the end that the best interests 
of the Indians may be insured in so far as is possible. It is by no 
means improbable that the Flatheads at no distant date may be a 
" terrible example " of the effect of allotment and individualization 
on Indian tribes. 

There has been a great deal of lawlessness among the Flathead 
people since the opening of their reservation. Prior to that time 
they bore a very good reputation and the majority regarded inarriajge 
as sacred. Xo sooner had the reservation been opened and the white 
people had settled among them than they began to disregard the 
marriage tie and quite generally gave themselves over to drunken- 
ness and debauchery. The present superintendent has made a record 
in his efforts to suppress liquor. There is no mistaking the fact, 
however, that the Flatheads of to-day compared with the Flatheads 
of 20 years ago are in a deplorable condition. 

In closing it is impossible to omit to note, as well as it is difficult to 
understand, the fact that although the only Indian schools on the 
reservation, the mission schools of St. Ignatius, with very nearly 
200 Indian pupils, are only a short distance from the agency, the su- 
perintendent during the one and one-half years of his incumbency 
has never as yet visited them. 

Respectfully submitted, 

WiiJ^iAM H. Ketcham, 
Mcmhci\ Board of Indian Commissioners, 

Hon. George Vaux, Jr., 

Chairman , Board of Indian Commissioners. 



APPENDIX E. 

BEFOBT ON THE BLACKFEET INDIAN BESEBVATION, 3C0NT., BT 
WILLIAM H. KETCHAM. 

Oklahoma City, Okla., 

January i, 1919. 
Sir : My visit to the Blackf eet Reservation, Mont., September 16- 
19, 1918, was a ** follow up " to the visit of Commissioner McDowell, 
September, 1917. As Commissioner McDowell has made an ex- 
haustive report on Blackfeet conditions I shall touch only on such 
acute questions as demand speedy remedial action. The new super- 
intendent, Mr. H. O. Power, was appointed during the time I was 
on the reservation. I visited the Cut Bank Government Boarding 
School; the day school at Heart Butte; Holy Family, the Catholic 
Mission School ; the tuberculosis sanitorium at Blackfoot ; and held 
councils with the Indians at Browning and Heart Butte. Most of 



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REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 251 

the questions brought up by the Indians related to matters of ad- 
ministration, some of which were adjusted during my stay on the 
reservation and others later, after my return to Washin^on. 

Cut Bank School. — The Cut Bank School is not in first-class 
condition. In addition to the present force there should be an as- 
sistant farmer or helper of some kind. A carpenter shop, which 
should be of brick, a combined shed and repair shop, and a cow 
bam are needed. An appropriation of $5,000 was available for the 
cow barn, but the lowest bid on the bam was $10,000. 

As for the Heart Butte Day School, slight repairs are needed. In 
places patches of plaster have fallen from the schoolroom walls. The 
workshop is too small and should be enlarged. Mr. Burnley, the 
farmer, is willing to do the work if material is furnished him for 
making additional room. One of the imperative needs of Heart 
Butte IS a well. Although Commissioner McDowell called attention 
to this matter, the drinking water is still " taken from a creek below a 
cattle- feeding lot." There are no police quarters at Heart Butte, al- 
though such quarters are needed and should be provided at once. A 
physician should be located at this point. 

T?ie Blackfeet JSanitorium. — I found no patients in tlie sanitorium 
as the sick had been permitted to go home for the Fourth of July and 
had not returned. There were only five patients at the time of their 
dismissal. The employees at the sanitorium, five in number, appeared 
to be earnest and competent, but it was evident the institution is not 
popular with the Indians. Several alterations and repairs are 
needed which I am told have been recommended a number of times, 
to no avail. The children's toilets, which at no time have ever been 
in use, should be repaired. The children have to go out doors in all 
kinds of weather, and the outside toilets are in a miserable shape and 
these also should be repaired. Storm windows should be provided 
for all windows and a malodorous cesspool immediately in front of 
the building should be removed to a reasonable distance. 

L(MJD and order, — ^What I most desire to call attention to is the 
lawless condition of the reservation. The Indians in their councils 
and people generally whom I met casually all complained that there 
is indiscriminate marriage on the reservation, that there is at all 
times a great deal of whisky drinking and drunkenness and espe- 
cially during the fair at Browning, at which time, if reports be true, 
the disorder is such that I would advise the fairs oe discontinued, as 
to all appearances they generate strife and debauch the people in- 
stead ox answering any useful purpose. The chief of police is quite 
generally held responsible for the prevailing disorders. It was 
claimed ne was giving bad example by his own personal conduct, that 
while he was seeking to get a divorce from his wife he was cohabiting 
with another woman, and affidavits to that effect were placed in my 
hands. It was charged also that he connived at the introduction of 
whisky on the reservation. Further charges were made to the effect 
that he arrested people, sentenced, fined, and imprisoned them with- 
out judicial process, and that he extorted money and personal prop- 
erty from Indians. While it would seem incredible that any super- 
intendent would permit a chief of police for so long a time to pur- 
sue such a law-defying and scandalous course, to perpetrate such 
high-handed extortion, and wreak private vengeance according to his 



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252 REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

will on the Blackfeet people generally, the charges made were so nu- 
merous and so earnestly pressed that it became evident something was 
radically wrong. When I called the attention of the new superin- 
tendent to the matter he stated that this man was the only one who 
could be relied on to discharge the duties of chief of police. I sug- 
gested if that was the case some arrangement ought to be made 
whereby a reliable white man could be retained in that position. 
Without delay I placed all this information before t^e Indian Office. 

I most earnestly recommend that a white man be employed as 
chief of police on the Blackfeet Reservation, and I urge this recom- 
mendation generally for all Indian reservations where Indians can 
not be relied on to enforce law and order. The Blackfeet Reserva- 
tion is another proof positive of the imperative need of immediate 
le^slation such as that recommended by the Board of Indian Com- 
missioners for establishing and enforcing well-defined law on Indian 
reservations. 

Respectfully submitted, 

WiLUAM H, KrrcHAM, 
Member^ Board of Indian Oammu^ioners, 

Hon. GiBOBGE Vaux, Jr., 

Chairman^ Boara of Indian Commissioners. 



APPENDIX F, 

USFOBT ON THE TONaTTB BIVER BESBBVATIOK, MONT., BT WTL- 

IiIAM H. KETCHAX. 

Oklahoma Crrr, Okla., January i, 1919, 
Sir: I visited the Tongue River Reservation, Mont., Au^st 26- 
September 6, 1918. This reservation for the Cheyenne — ^Northern 
Cheyenne — is situated in the southeastern portion of Montana, just 
east of the Crow Reservation. The reservation is about 80 by 25 
miles and contains, according to official reports, 489,500 acres, all 
of which are unallotted. T^e Tongue River Keservation is well 
situated and the climate is salubrious. The Indian population at 
the present time is given as 1,470. 

SESOCTRCES. 

The resources of the reservation are grazing, timber, agriculture, 
and ooal. 

Coal. — ^There is an abundance of soft coal, but the quality is not 
very good ; the supply is ample for reservation purposes, and if there 
were railroad facilities some revenue could be realized from it. It 
is thought that when a greater depth has been explored a better grade 
of ooal may be discovered. 

Agriculture. — The superintendent, John A. Buntin, estimate that 
about 2 per cent of the reservation lands are adapted to agriculture, 
particularly to wheat growing. A fair yield of small grain can be 
produced on many parts of the reservation without irrigation. 

Supt. Buntin has made a particularly good record as a fanner. 
He mgan operations on the divide in an effort, which has proved 



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B£POBT OF BOABD OF INDIAN OOMMISSIOKEBS. 253 

eutirely successful, to conviuce the Indians that not only wh^at, oats, 
and hay but com and potatoes and all kinds of garden products can 
be grown in abundance on what had hitherto I^n considered non- 
productive soil. At the beginning of the spring of 1915 there were 
only 1,200 acres of plowed land on the reservation. Mr. Buntin con- 
vinced the Indians oy ocular demonstration of the agricultural value 
of certain portions of the reservation and encouraged them to in- 
crease their farming activities. They were responsive and broke out 
about 2,000 acres of sod. Authority was obtained from the Indian 
Office to construct a flour and feed mill which has a capacity for 
turning out 50 barrels of flour in 24 hours. The mill was erected at 
a cost of $10,000. In 1915 the Indians raised enough wheat to pro- 
vide themselves with seed and a sufficient quantity of flour for the use 
of the entire reservation. Since then they have steadihr increased 
their fanning until now 5,730 acres are in cultivation. Wiiile in 1914 
the total value of crops raised did not exceed $8,000 to $10,000, it is 
estimated that this year the Indians have raised farm products as 
follows; 

Wheat. 35,000 bushels $«5,000 

Oats. 25,000 buaUels 1S,000 

Hay, 1,800 tons 20,000 

Garden products, com, and potatoes 5,000 

Total 108.000 

About 250 Indians are now farming for themselves. There are 
others who engage in agriculture but have no definite places of their 
own. All the valuable farming lands in the valleys have been taken. 
There is considerable land on the high divide lying between the Rose- 
bud and Tongue Rivers, averaging about three-fourths of a mile in 
width and 80 in length. This tract of land is about 1,000 feet above 
the average valley land. In order to determine the agricultural 
possibilities of this high tract an experimental farm was opened up 
on it 11 miles from the agency on the road to Bimey Farm station. 
During the last few years the yields on this tract nave been very 
good. 

A number of the Indians who have not had a sufficient quantity of 
agricultural lands have been convinced that this high tract of land 
is equally as productive as the valleys. As an inducement, and in 
order to make it convenient for Indians who could be persuaded to 
farm on the hi^h divide, the superintendent fenced in approximately 
400 acres and invited the Indians who live in the Ashland district to 
come and summer plow small tracts on this piece of land to be seeded 
to winter wheat. He likewise fenced in a tract of approximately 300 
acres for a community farm for Indians living on Tongue River in 
the Bimey district and invited Indians to come to this tract and farm 
as much as they desired. Twenty-four Indians began farming 
operations on this tract and have plowed land to be seeded in winter 
wheat. It is estimated that to provide the Indians with sufficient 
seed and wheat to be ground in flour for a full ration about 13,000 
bushels per annum are required. This year the Indians have raised 
more than twice this amount. Each Indian who has raised a suf- 
ficient quantity of wheat is required to save enough seed for him- 
self andf to place as lar^ a quantity as possible in the agency flour 
mill to be ground into flour. There are a number of full-blood In- 



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254 REPORT OF BOARD OF IXDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

dians who have had flour ground f Win wheat they have raised which 
has been in the mill since 1915. A number prefer to leave their flour 
in the mill and call for it in quantities of from 50 to 100 pounds when 
they need it, giving as a reason that if they should take the entire 
quantity home their neighbors would endeavor to borrow it and they 
would run out before the close of the year. 

For one who has known the Northern Cheyenne and their disin- 
clination to adjust themselves to any kind of steady labor, the 
achievement of Supt. Buntin in the development of agriculture 
on the Tongue River Reservation would seem to be not oifly unsur- 
passed but unequalled in the development of agriculture among any 
tribe of Indians in the United States. 

Good alfalfa is grown on the reservation. Where there is irriga- 
tion three crops can be counted on and this is sometimes true of non- 
irrigated alfalfa lands. Xot less than 2,500 tons of hay (all kinds 
of hay) were put up on the reservation in 1917. 

Timher. — There is plenty of timber for all needs of the reserva- 
tion. One sawmill is in operation. This mill should be properly 
equipped and so conducted that all the needs of the agency ana the 
Indians can be supplied promptly which at present is not the case. 

Stock raising. — The Tongue River Reservation is particularly 
adapted to stock raising, 98 per cent being available for this pur- 
pose. It is well watered, the divide provides shelter for the cattle in 
winter, and grass is abundant. Experts declare that it is one of the 
best ranges ii not the very best range in the country. It is estimated 
that the reservation coulcl maintain 25,000 head of cattle. 

In the southwestern portion of the reservation a pasture has been 
leased to C. M. Tainter of New York, which it is estimated contains 
90,000 acres. The lessee has fenced off this pasture and pays graz- 
ing fees on 5,000 head of cattle annually in the sum of $31,250. C. M. 
Tainter, in company with other parties, has been leasing pasturage 
on the reservation since 1910. ^ In 1913 he obtained a personal lease 
at $3.45 per head with no stipulation as to fencing. His present 
lease, which is a revocable permit, began June 1, 1918, to run for 
three years with a preference right option for three years more under 
the terms of the present lease. He pays $4.25 per head per annum 
and has put up 40 miles of fence at an estimated cost of $7,000. 
A. C. Stohr, the Indian trader at Lame Deer, holds a permit to run 
40 head of stock on the reservation. He has about one section of 
pasture land. These two leases are the only private leases on the 
reservation. The Tainter lease, like most private leases on Indian 
reservations, is a constant source of irritation to the Indians. It is 
one of their stock grievances. Naturalljr, friction is engendered be- 
cause of the proximity of the tribal, mdividual, and lease cattle. 
Charges are made that the cowboys of the individual lessee put the 
lessee^ brand on Indian cattle and that they encroach on the indi- 
vidual and tribal herds in various other ways. This is a complaint 
one hears on most of the reservations where private leasing obtains, 
and, to the casual observer, the thought occurs that it would be 
better to make no such private leases but to stock up the various 
reservations adapted to grazing exclusively with Indian cattle — ^tribal 
or individual or both. There is no doubt but such a policy would 
obviate a world of dissatisfaction and bickering. It is contended, 



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BEPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 255 

however, that the leasing to private individuals on most reservations 
serves a useful purpose for the reason that it provides an object 
lesson on stock raising to the Indians and that, furthermore, since 
the department can not at once stock all the reservations to their ca- 
pacity it is good policy to utilize the full pasturage by making pri- 
vate leases as in this way a very considerable annual revenue accrues 
to the Indians. 

The Northern Cheyenne at present own about 6,000 head of indi- 
vidual cattle, although there are many of the tribe who have no 
cattle at all. The individual cattle are hj no means sufficiently 
numerous to use the grass which the reservation produces. In addi- 
tion to the individual cattle there is a tribal herd which was started 
in the summer of 1915 with 500 head of Herefords. In the sum- 
mer of 1917, 500 additional head of 1-year-old southern Herefords 
were purchased. Forty-five bulls were purchased as a part of the 
tribal herd, which is now^ estimated at 1,500. 

At the time of my visit, there were about 7,000 Indian horses on 
the reservation averaging in weight from 700 to 1,100 pounds. It 
was decided that at least 5,000 of these should be disposed of and the 
remainder, which will be needed, should be bred up. I have received 
word that early in October Z. F. Miller, of Oklahoma, liad purchased 
and shipped south 500 head of ponies and that he had returned to 
the reservation for 10 or 12 car loads more. The Indians were re- 
ceiving an average of $20 a head for these ponies. There were on 
the Tongue River Reservation individual catttle, 6^000 ; tribal cattle, 
1,500; permit cattle for the summer, 7,000; Indian horses, 7,000: 
total head of horses and cattle, 21,500. Stockmen contend that twc 
horses will destroy as much grass as three head of cattle and if this 
contention be correct 3,500 could be added to the above total, which 
would bring it up to 25,000 — ^the estimated capacity of the reser- 
vation. 

I would recommend that the tribal cattle be increased as the Indian 
horses are sold off so as to stock the reservation to its capacity, care 
being taken, however, not to overstock it, as this would be a grave 
mistake. As much as 100,000 acres lying on the Tongue River slope 
have been reserved for winter use, and an effort has been made to 
keep all the cattle off of the winter pasture during the summer. A 
fence divides the summer and the winter range. I went over the 
winter pasture and found it covered with a fine coat of grass. The 
superintendent informed me that as about the same num&r of stock 
had been run on the reservation for the past three years, he was con- 
fident he was safe in saying that the reservation under normal con- 
ditions will maintain 25,000 head, which would mean an annual in- 
come to the Indians of approximately $500,000. This divided up 
among the Indians would give each man, woman, and child about 
$340, which would easily make a living for them. I recommend that 
an appropriation be made which will enable the superintendent to 
acquire 5,000 additional head of cattle, which he may purchase in his 
discretion to replace the Indian horses as he disposes of them. 

It will be seen that the Tongue River Reservation with its health- 
ful climate and abundance of water, with its coal, its timber, its 
agricultural land, and especially its stock-raising capabilities, is ideal 
for Indians, With plenty of beef and flour and all other essential 



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256 REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

accessories the Cheyennes, if properly encouraged, kept under firm 
discipline, and not" too hurriedly rushed into allotment and con- 
ditions unnatural to them, will develop into self-supporting and 
self-respecting citizens. There is no neea that they should die off or 
that they should be a menace to the citizenshij) around them. Give 
them time to grow out of present conditions into more ideal ones. 
What they need most is patience, encouragement, and strong disci- 
pline. 

Edwat{on.—Tl\e educational situation on the Tongue Eiver Beser- 
vation may be sununed up as follows: 

Children eligible for school, 266. 





Qnottdlty- 


Bnnrtl- 


attSid^ 
ance. 


Tongue RIvor Boarding School, Busby,,,, 


60 

40 


73 
S5 
40 
M 

21 


47 


8t. fable's Misffioin fioho"! fboardlnff). AAhland.... ,. 


23 


Bi™y Day 6ch5S.„ !^..V?^^^^ 


23 


Lame Deer Day School , 


23 


Inline Doer pu6Uo school . , ,,.. 


17 








Total 


216 


202 


133 







It would seem that the school capacity is inadequate and the aver- 
age attendance and even the enrollment very poor. As for the 
Cheyenne, it would be better for the Indian Office to dificontinue the 
day schools and to make it possible for the boarding schools to ac- 
commodate all the children of the tribe. The Indian children at- 
tending the public school at Lame Deer are for the most part mixed- 
bloods whose parents live convenient to the school. It will be good 
5olicy to encourage parents so located to patronize the public school, 
'he distinctively Indian day school at Lame Deer is a different 
proposition entirely. The superintendent and every one else I talked 
with believe that tne day school at Bimey and the one at Lame Deer 
are of very questionable advantage to the tribe. The day school does 
not remove the children far enough awa^ from the influences of 
Cheyenne home life and the worst feature is that during the winter 
months, the Indians who live at a distance, in order to send their 
children to day schools, camp around those schools in insanitary and 
poorly ventilated tents. Here, as among the Crow, these temporary 
colonies around the day schools become nests of vice and work great 
injury to old and young alike. 

Tm B'uahy Boarding School. — ^The Busby Boarding School to all 
appearances must have reached its low-water mark during the fiscal 
year 1918. At the time of my visit the plant looked as if it had been 
wrecked by a cyclone. I do not know who had been in charge up to 
. that time, but no Indian or white person had a good word to say 
of it. It had been the custom to light the school buildings witn 
acetylene and there had been two explosions. One occurred about 
three years ago, and although no one was injured the gas building 
was destroyed, the lights blown out of the main building, a number 
of children were in danger from the explosion, and the sdiool had 
to be closed in February. In the winter of 1917, another explosion 
occurred which killed the engineer and destroyed the lighting plant; 
and kerosene lights had to be used for the rest of the year. The new 



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BBPOBT OF BOABD OF INDIAK COMMISSIONBBS. 257 

principal, Mr. Chauncy L. Merriaiu, at the time of my visit, was 
busily enga^ied bringing order out of chaos and getting the school 
in readiness for the year's work. To all appearances, with the 
proper backing, Mr. Merriam will be able to make a creditable show- 
ing, but there is much to be done before the school will be on a sub- 
^antial footing. The principal wants to put in electric lights, the 
cost of which he says will not be so great as for acetylene. He is of 
the opinion that an automatic starter (Delco system) would be pref- 
erable. He wants a good Case or Rumley tractor for the farm. 

The school has plenty of land. With a tractor, 100 acres of wheat 
could be put in every spring, and as 20 bushels an acre is a safe esti- 
mate on wheat in that section, $3,000 on wheat should be cleared each 
year. A gang plow also is neeaed. A machine shed is needed for 
the farm implements. The present horse bam is badly dilapidated 
and could be used for makin^f a shed for the machinery. There is 

Slenty of lumber at hand with which a horse bam could be put up. 
'hree hay barns 30 by 40 are needed. At present 75 tons of alfalfa 
are in the dairy bam (which, by the way, is very complete and the 
best building of the school plant), but about 140 tons will be stacked 
outside which will be the occasion of a great deal of loss. At present 
there are about 60 acres in alfalfa, about 30 more will be put in in 
the spring, and three cuttings are counted on. Fifteen acres of the 
present alfalfa will be broken up and put into wheat, because grass 
is setting the better of it. The acreage will be CTadually increased 
eadi year until a sufficient acreage is put in. At least this is Mr. 
Merriam's plan. The school has an abundance of water. There is 
coal in abimdance on the school grounds and it would not cost more 
than $1 to $2 per ton, including the salary of the coal miner, for a 
lighting system run by steam. The present fooilec is at least 30 
years old and new bouers and a new boiler house are needed. I 
recommend these various improvement for the Busby school 

Mission school. — ^The Mission school in the Ashland district, con- 
ducted bv the Ursuline Nuns, is the oldest educational institution 
among the Cheyenne. The greater portion of the plant was de- 
stroyed by fire and at present the school is being carried on under 
very unsatisfactory conditions. A new building, with modern up-to- 
date conveniences, probably will be put up. 

Very few Cheyenne childrwi have been sent to nonreservation 
schools and those who have been sent have not proved of any par- 
ticular benefit to the tribe after their return. 

I suggested to the superintendent that it might be ffood policy, 
when ti^ Cheyenne come for rations, to require each Indian to have 
a ticket from me school showing just what the attendance of his child 
or children had been for the previous month and that the rations be 
issued in proportion to school attendance. Mr. Buntin said he would 
carry out this suggestion. Compulsory education is practically a 
necessity among me Chevenne, but before anything of the kind is 
attempted suitable schools should be provided and should be con- 
ducted in such a manner that no Inaian could have a reasonable 
ground for keeping his child out of school. 

Irrigation^ — The largest irrigation ditch is in the Bimey district. 
It is 7.8 miles in length and h^ been built at a total cost to date of 
$143,000. At present it furnishes water for about 700 acres of land. 



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258 REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

There are on the reservation, all told, 13 irrigation ditches, 12 of 
them being small. During a council with the Indians held at Bimey 
complaint was made that the irrigation ditch is not cared for, but 
the agency officials explained to me that irrigation will not be a 
feature of the reservation. 

Homing, — The superintendent pointed out that there has been 
within recent years a great deal of improvement in house building. 
He stated that at present there are only five families in tepees; that 
of the 485 permanent houses about 110 are sanitary; and that dur- 
ing the past three years about 40 new houses had been completed. I 
visited several homes and these appeared to be sanitary, comfort- 
able, and well kept. 

Health, — ^Provision is made for two physicians, one located at 
Lame Deer and one at Birney, and three field matrons. At the time 
of my visit there were only one physician and two field matrons. 
There is much tuberculosis on the reservation, A hospital at Lame 
Deer is needed, as is some law by which medicine men and medicine 
women can be restrained from taking control of the sick. From the 
official records it appears that for the fiscal year 1917 the deaths on 
the reservation materially outnumbered the births and since my 
visit the influenza has swept over the reservation with many 
fatalities. 

Disorders, — The prevailing disorders on the reservation are cattle 
killing, gambling, peyote eating, and the immorality of the medi- 
cine lodge. Cattle killing is on the decrease and gambling is de- 
creasing somewhat, but peyote eating is on the increase, and about 
one-fourth of the tribe now use it. A returned student is a lead- 
ing spirit in the propagating of the peyote craze. I am told that 
among the Cheyenne the eating of jjeyote is not confiiied to their 
SfO-calTed religious observances, but is used indiscriminately as a 
medicine and as a drug; that it is found in the j)ockets of the chil- 
dren in the schools and that apparently no restriction is placed on 
its use. Even if there were no foundation in fact for the charges 
of intemperance and immorality connected with the peyote "cult," 
and if there were no injurious physical effects resulting from it, it is, 
nevertheless, one of the most serious obstacles in the way of the 
Indian's onward progress, as it segregates those who use it into an 
exclusive, nonprogressive clique, crystallizes them as a separate In- 
dian unit, distinct in every way, religiously, morally, and socially, 
from the whites. 

The medicine men and medicine women of the Cheyenne are the 
l)ane of the tribe. It is generally asserted that they cause a great 
many deaths by their manner of treating diseases. Indian memcine 
practices more than anything else, excepting the peyote, stand in 
the way of the progress of the people. The medicine men and medi- 
(ine women, whose practices are cruel and immoral in the highest 
degree, exercise an autocratic power over the sick, oftentimes de- 
spite the protests of close relatives. It is charged, apparently on 
the very best of authority, that the candidate for becoming a medi- 
cine man not only gives a feast but gives presents, such as horses, 
to the medicine man who is to teach him, and that, moreover, he 
gives his wife for a time to his instructor. The newly made medi- 
cine man becomes proficient through dreams by means of which 



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RBPOBT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 259 

Tarioiis spirits instruct him. Formerly he became proficient also 
through fasting and selftorture. While he may indulge in this at 
present, there is no positive testimony to this effect. The wife of the 
candidate who is learning the medicine becomes a medicine woman 
through her part of the ceremony, which consists of illicit relations 
with the medicine man who is giving the instructions. Many of 
the young Indians who have come out of the schools would gladly 
give up these hideous practices but they , are coerced into them. A 
very efficient matron who worked on the Tongue River Reservation 
for some time makes this statement. 

In my district there were perhaps 500 Indians and I can count 75 medi- 
cine men and medicine women. There are some of these that claim they possess 
the power to suck various things out ot the flesh of the patient. While I was 
there, one claimed to suck a bone a woman had swallowed from her side. 
Another sucked a rock from a woman*s foot. A young man who has been to 
Fort Shaw and to Carlisle, told me in all candor that one time a spirit struck 
him and he could not walk, and then an old medicine woman sucked a thorn 
from his side and he was all right. He said *' Indians know about spirits but 
white folks don't know." I believe there are many of the young people who 
would like to break away from these old customs but they are bound hand and 
foot, as it were, with grave clothes. A number of young people have told me 
these things but have always said " You must not tell that I told you." 

There are two things at the foundation of the medicine practices among the 
Cheyennes. The four sacred arrows kept by a high priest in Oklahoma and the 
sacred bufFalo hat kept by one Woundedeye in Montana on the Upper Rosebud 
above Busby, these are the things which really give power to their medicines. 
If these could be gotten from them the whole thing would be crushed. Every 
year the Northern Cheyenne make pilgrimages to Oklahoma to attend the sun 
dance and arrow ceremony. 

Some of them said after the epidemic that the reason for it was that they 
were not faithful to their old ceremonies and that they were going back to the 
keeping of them more faithfully. 

To illustrate the hold that the sacred medicines have on the people: Once 
during my stay at Lame Deer, Mr. Buntin sent a policeman after Davla 
Woundedeye, the son of the keeper of the sacretl buffalo hat. He failed to 
bring him. Finally four policemen were sent after him but they did not bring 
him. I think in a week or so he finally came of his own accord. The police 
were afraid to touch him, so I was told, because he belonged to the family of 
the keeper of the sacred buffalo hat. 

If I have written anything that can be used toward makin;? for bettor condi- 
tions for these people you are welcome to use it. 

By all means these medicine practices should be broken up. 

Law and order. — ^The superintendents for the Tongue River Reser- 
vation have always been handicapped and at a great disadvantage 
because of their isolated situation and of the lack of support ac- 
corded them in the enforcing of order. The Cheyenne are a proud, 
self-willed people, unsubdued in spirit. They are not inclined to be 
obedient when obedience is not to their liking and they would not 
hesitate under certain circumstances, either singly or collectively, 
to resort to violence. ^ The superintendent, feebly supported by very 
uncertain Indian policemen, is at the mercy of these Indians and 
even the present superintendent has had to defend himself against 
jviolence by main stren^h. The situation is rendered completely 
hopeless for want of a suitable jail. Either a detachment of soldiers 
should be stationed on the reservation until the ordinary require- 
ments of decency are enforced and life and property made secure, or 
the^ Indian Office should provide the reservation" with a reliable 
white man as chief of police. In consideration of these conditions 
I am inclined not to criticize the superintendent but to commiserate 



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260 BBPOBT OF BOABD OF INDIAN GOMMISSIONEBS. 

with him in his iiiiDossible task of controlling the j)eyote craze, of 
suppressing the medicine practices, and of maintaining moral con- 
ditions at a decent standard. With all odds against him, he is mak- 
ing a success of the reservation industrially and this of course means 
a great deal to the people, but there can be no true progress, no 
matter what the industrial conditions may be, while education lags 
and morals retrograde. 

The Tongue River Reservation furnishes another argument for the 
enactment by Congress of the **Law and order" provision, pro- 
posed by the Board of Indian Commissioners, extending State, edu- 
cational, health, marriage, and criminal laws over reservations as a 
Federal code to be enforced by Federal courts. When this basic 
legislation has been accomplished, then and not until then will the 
Indian make any genuine progress. 

Mission 'mjot^.— The Catnolic Church has been engaged in mission 
and educational work on the Tongue River Reservation since 1882 
or 1883. The first missionaries made a study of the language and 
won the good will of a fraction of the tribe, but conditions were so 
unsatisfactory that they left the field. The Ursuline Nuns have con- 
tinued the scnool work without interruption up to the present day 
and the chaplains of the school have ministered to the religious 
wants of the Indians. 

In 1904 the Mennonites came among the Northern Cheyenne, and 
to-day have chapels at Lame Deer, Busby, Bimey, and Ashland. 
The Mennonites are very proficient in the language and give a jgood 
deal of attention to the children of the Government schools. Official 
statistics of religious affiliation on the reservation are as follows: 
Catholics 365, lifennonites 117. 

I held councils with the Indians at Lame Deer, Bimey, and Ash- 
land. Many of their difficulties were adjusted by the superintendent, 
and a number he could not handle were later aajusted by the Indian 
Office. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Wm. H. E[etcham, 
Member^ Board of Irulian Commissioners. 

Hon. George Vadx, Jr., 

Chairman^ Board of Indian Commissioners, 



APPENDIX G. 

BEPORT OJSr THE 70BT BEIiXNAP INDIAK BEBEBVATION, MONT., 
BT WILLIAM H. KBTCHAM. 

Oklahoma Cnr, Okl/l., January J, 1919. 
Sir: September 10-14, 1918, I visited the Fort Belknap Reser- 
vation, Mont., the agency, agency school, St. PauPs Mission School, 
Lodge Pole Day School ; in company with Supt. Symons and Special 
Supervisor Charles E. Coe, attended the Assmiboin fair and held a 
council with the Assiniboin Indians on the fair grounds ; also visited 
the Grosventre fair at Hayes and held a council with the Grosventre. 
At the time of my visit, ^upt. Charles D. Munro was just going out, 
having been transferred to Winnebago, Nebr., and Supt. A. H. 
Symons was just entering upon his duties as Mr. Munro's successor. 



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RBPOBT OF BOARD OF INDUlST COMMISSIONEBS. 261 

The Fort Belknap Seservation is located in the extreme northern 
portion of Montana and comprises about 622,917 acres of land, all 
unallotted. Although the Indian fairs gave evidence of agricultural 
activities on the part of the Indians and were creditable, the Fort 
Belknap Reservation is rather adapted to grazing than to agricul- 
ture. A new flour and feed mill has been put up at Hayes which 
should prove very serviceable for the Indians. I recommend that the 
operation of the mill and the thrashing should be without cost to 
the Indians, as they are as yet tyros in affriculture. The reservation 
is an excellent horse country, but I am intormed horse raising to-day 
on a large scale is not profitable because of the decrease in the de- 
mand for horses. The temperature reaches a very low point in 
winter, which is as severe nere as in any portion of the United 
States. Accordinjs to Indian Office report, there are oidy about 
9,000 acres of arable land, of which only 4,500 acres are cultivated 
by Indians; there are 613,917 acres of grazing land, of which 284,217 
acres are grazed by Indian stock, the remainder being grazed by 
lease stock. The Assiniboin number 638 and the Grosventre 570. 

LIVE-STOCK INDUSTKY. 

The big problem on the Fort Belknap Reservation is the live- 
stock industry. Winter feeding is exceedingly expensive and pre- 
sents a very serious question. At the time of my visit there were 
being baled and freighted 500 tons of hay at a cost of $15 per ton, a 
total cost of $7,500. It has been suggested that the cattle industry 
at Fort Belknap can be operated at considerable less expense for 
wintering by domg a little ditch work at Biff Warm Spring Creek. 
Already 4 miles of ditch are nearly completed, but two flumes 
and a dam and head gate are needed. This system would water 
1,200 acres of hay land. It appears it would cost not nearl3^ $7,500, 
the above noted outlay for hay, to put the Big Warm Spring unit 
in condition to produce all the hay needed to winter the tribal 
cattle. This suggestion may be the clue to the solution of the winter 
feeding problem. There is on the reservation a comparatively small 
area in the Little Bockies where cattle can find pasturaj^e during 
the winter. According to official reports Indian cattle, individual 
and tribal, number 5,205. Although the Indians complained that 
their tribal herd, numbering at present 2,160, does not increase 
as it should, I was told that Uiere are approximately 1,200 cows and 
that, as there would be close to 1,000 calves, the increase would seem 
to be satisfactory. It is thought that instead of building up a tribal 
herd it will be better policy to utilize the reservation for fattening 
steers, purchasinfi^ 1 and 2 year olds for the purpose, and selling 
the 2-year-olds after two years and the 1-year-olds after three years. 
This policy will be put into effect gradually. 

The Matador Land & Cattle Co. is the one large lessee on the Fort 
Belknap Reservation. It had a five-year lease, which expired and 
was renewed June 1, 1918. The Indians complained that the Matador 
company was granted a new lease without competition at $4 per head. 
They were of the opinion that if there had been competition in the 
bidmng they could nave obtained at least $5 a head. In justification 
of the renewal of this lease without competitive bidding, the Indian 



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262 REPORT OF BOARD OF I27DIA:N C0MMISSI02!7£BS. 

Office holds that, under prevailing conditions, it was a good business 
proposition to release to the Matador people at $4 per head, and 
states that because of special charges for summer grazing the amount 
received will be about $4.18. 

The Indians further complained that the Matador people^ in put- 
ting up their drift fence, have inclosed more of the reservation tnan 
they are entitled to. They claim the fence should be moved back 6 
miles. I was told that the Matador people control two-thirds of the 
reservation, but I did not verify this statement. 

Here, as on other reservations where there are tribal stock and 
lease stock, the Indians make many complaints. They claim that 
calves are allowed to run a long time without branding, with the re- 
sult that a great many are lost. 

I do not feel competent to make a recommendation in regard to 
the live-stock (luestion on the Fort Belknap Reservation. Ck)mmis- 
sioner Sells, Live Stock Inspector H. F. Long, and the local superin- 
tendent, A. H. Symons, are making a very careful study of the sit- 
uation, and they no doubt will work out a feasible policy for the 
reservation. 

Irrigation. — ^There are some questions relating to irrigation on the 
reservation, but I do not feel any suggestions are advisable at this 
time in regard to this matter, which is now under careful considera- 
tion. 

Poverty. — At times there seems to be a good deal of want on the 
reservation. The Indians in their speeches all referred to the crop 
failure and voiced apprehension as to the coming winter and the 
starvation and suffering and death it would bring, particularly to 
the old and infirm. They all asked for their lease money. I believe, 
however, that Supt. Symons is a man who will take personal interest 
in the individual Indian and do not doubt but he will find a way of 
meeting their necessities and of applying a remedy for matters not 
entirely incurable. 

Tleaith, — I did not hear of much disease, but the reservation should 
have another physician. At the time of my visit, there was only one 
physician, who was located l^t the agency and who had to attend the 
entire reservation. There should be a second physician located at 
Hayes. In the winter it will be difficult even for two physicians to 
attend all the sick, as the distances are great and the snow and cold 
make long trips at times impossible. 

Missions. — A large portion of the Indians of this reservation are 
Christians and their spiritual needs are cared for by two Catholic 
and two Protestant missionaries. Peyote has not as yet been intro- 
duced among these people and it is to be hoped they may escape this 
plague. Official statistics place the Catholics at 900 and the Protest- 
ants at 100, which leaves only 208 who do not profess Christianity. 

Education. — ^There are on the reservation 825 children eligible for 
attendance at school. There is a day school at Lodge Pole with a ca- 
pacity for 40, a Government boarding school at the agency with ac- 
commodations for 51, and a Catholic mission boarding school near 
Hayes with a capacity for 160. The Lodge Pole Day School ap- 
peaVed to be in a satisfactory condition, "llie same was true of the 
mission school, which has a very good plant but not by any means a 
full attendance. At Lodge Pole a new school building and cottage 
have just been completed. 



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REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 263 

The i-eservation boarding school at Foi-t Belknap was in every way 
in a deplorable condition. For lack of room one of the teachers was 
teaching in the poorly lighted and poorly ventilated basement. 
There is an imperative need for a cottage that can accommodate at 
least two families. The superintendent suggested that certain unused 
day-school buildings about 10 miles distant be moved to the agency 
and fitted up as cottages. As these buildings have scarcely ever been 
used, and as dajr schools, except at a center of population such as 
Lodge Pole, are impracticable on the Fort Belknap Reservation be- 
cause of its scattered population and long and severe winters, there 
is no reason why the superintendent's suggestion should not be car- 
ried out. Either this should be done or new cottages should be put 
up. The entire agency school plant should have a thorough going 
over, and I recommend that an ample allowance for this purpose be 
made. 

Law and order. — ^As the Indians of this reservation are largely 
amenable to religious restraints, the enactment bv Congress of the law 
and order measure recommended by the Boara of Indian Commis- 
sioners will effectively put an end to such caases of disorder as now 
exist and which are due solely to the absence of positive law on the 
i^eservation. 

Respectfully submitted, 

WiLLJAM H. Ketch AM, 
Memher^ Board of Indian Commissioners. 

Hon. George Vaux, Jr., 

Chairman^ Board of Indian Commissioners. 



APPENDIX H. 

BEPOBT ON THE WIND BIVEB INDIAN BESEBVATION, WYC, BY 
WII.LIAM H. KETCHAJC. 

Oklahoma Citt, Okla., January i, 1919. 

Sir : I visited the Wind River Reservation, Wyo., September 25-30, 
1918, Of this beautiful reservation 246,058 acres have been allotted. 

Agricvlttire. — ^The reservation has, according to official reports, 
77,996 acres of allotted and 75,700 acres of unallotted agricultural 
lands. The land when irrigated is excellent for agriculture, and 
there are on the reservation 24 miles of main and 290 miles of lateral 
ditches, with 1,201 allotments under ditch, while 1,350 Indians have 
the benefit of irrigation. Splendid wheat, oats, alfalfa, and potatoes, 
and all kinds of vegetables are grown in abundance. There were three 
thrashers in operation on the reservation, which has a flour and feed 
mill and produces a surplus of flour. 

Live stock. — ^As for grazing lands, according to official reports* 
there are on the reservation 169,284 allotted ana 1,508,406 unallottea 
acres, of which 393,234 acres are grazed by Indian stock, all kinds 
included, valued at $898,116. 

[ A fine herd of 12,869 head of cattle has been built up. At the 

time of my visit, large numbers of cattle had come down from the 

mountains and were overrunning the cultivated section of the reser- 

' vation. They filled the lanes and were breaking through wire fences 

140923^— INT 1919~voL 2 18 



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264 fi£POST OF BOARD OF INDUIf OOMMISSIOSrEBS. 

and eating up quantities of wheat valuable at any time, but esoecially 
at that time when the Nation stood in such need of wheat. This de- 
stroying of the wheat was likewise most disocMiraging to the Indians 
whose crops suffered* 

Timber, — The total estimated stumpage value of timber on the 
x^eservation is $756,038. There is a sawmill but the timber is scarce 
and difficult of access. 

Coai. — ^There is an abundance of soft coaL 

Labor.— ThA reservation furnishes plenty of work: Timber and ^ 
coal hauling^ work on roads, work on irrigation projects. Wages 
are good. With an abundance of beef, flour, and vegetables and 
plenty of work and good wages, the Indians of the Wind River 
Beservation have no cause for complaint, and present a vivid con- ^ 
trast to many Indians in other sections of the country. 

Two tribes, the Shoshoni, 843, and the Arapaho, 853, in numb^,' 
make a total population of 1,696 residing on the reservation. Un- 
fortunately these tribes do not get along well together; the Shoshoni 
regard the Arapaho as intruders, while the Arapaho want a super- 
intendency of their own. Even in the schools the children of the two 
tribes scarcely mingle at all socially. 

I visited the agency ; the Episcopal Boarding School for Shoshoni 

firls; the Shoshoni Uovernment Boarding School; St. Michaels, the 
ipiscopal Boarding School for Arapaho; the Government Day 
School at Arapaho ; and St. Stephen's, the Catholic Boarding School 
for Arapaho. 

I found the Wind Eiver Eeservation in splendid condition in com- 
parison with what I had known it to be some 18 years ago. In re- 
cent ;^ears the Indians have made a vast deal of progress, particu- 
larly in an industrial way- The praise of former Supt. Joseph H. 
Norris was on all lips. He must nave put in a very energetic term 
from the evidences he has left after him. Among other things, he 
constructed good roads and gave his personal attention to the indi- 
vidual Indian. The present superintendent, Mr. E. A. Hutchin- 
son, in entering upon his work must, I think, have found a very 
well organized and highly developed reservation, and Indians pre- 
pared tor a distinct move forward under lus administration, 
although periiaps he found them a little bit "spoiled" by the big 
heartedness of "Joe" Norris. With the right kind of support from 
the Indian Office, Supt Hutchinson should meet with gratifying 
success. 

Heaith. — ^I did not hear of much disease on the reservation. The 
superintendent is having a very commodious and^ well-appointed 
hospital made out of one of the substantial old buildings of the Fort 
Washakie barracks. 

Education. — With a limited amount of improvements and slightly 
increased capacity, the schools of the reservation will afford ample 
facilities for the education of the 475 children who are eligible for 
school attendance. The Episcopal School for Shoshoni gir£ affords 
refined, homelike surrounding for a limited number of girls; St. 
Stephen's mission school is most highly spoken of by the Indians 
and by everyone on the reservation and in that section of the 
country; the comparatively new Episcopal School for Arapaho, St. 
Michael's, is enlarging its plant and putdng up some very fine and 



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BBPOBT OF BOABD OF INDIAN COMUISSIONEBS. 265 

substantial buildings. This school is run on unique lines. Thesuper- 
intendent explained to me that it was the intention of the institu* 
tion to develop the children along tribal lines. The school does 
not insist on the discarding of Indian dress, language or customs, 
but seeks, so it was explained to me, to give the Indian an educa- 
tion, while at the same time he is permitted to retain his Indian 
customs so long as he ma^ desire to do so. This program has called 
forth a great deal of criticism and opposition from various quar- 
ters. It seems, however, to have the approval of the Episcopal 
Church authorities of Wyoming, and it will be interesting to obr 
serve the results of this unique experiment. The superintendent 
of St. Michael's complained to me that the sewage of tne Shoshoni 
Government School empties into the creek (or ditch) above St. 
Michael's School and has contaminated the water supply of St. 
Michael's and of the Indians living in the immediate vicinity. In 
speaking to Supt. Hutchison, I found him of the opinion that the 
contamination comes from the reclamation camp wnich is located 
still farther up. However, it matters not where the source of con- 
tamination may be, -this insanitary condition should be corrected 
without delay. 

The day school at Arapaho has a very small attendance and it 
was the unanimous opinion of every one, including the superin- 
tendent, that it is a very expensive institution, not justified by needs 
or results, and should be discontinued. I recommend that it be dis- 
continued. The children of the reservation are doing exceedingly 
well in the boarding schools and probably it will be better, particu- 
larly so far as the Arapaho are concerned, to wait some years before 
adopting the day-school system. These Indians are still closely 
wedded to old Indian ideals of life and for this reason the children 
will advance more rapidly in the boarding schools. As the parents 
are close at hand and continually visit the boarding schools, they, 
too, will acquire a great deal of useful information by this contact. 

It is very important that the Shoshoni Government Boarding 
School be made as efficient as possible; it has been running down of 
late years. A new principal has been appointed who brings efficiency 
and energy to his work and he should be sustained in his efforts to 
build up the school. At the time of my visit, school seats and desks 
and gins' uniforms were needed. There was no principal teacher 
and there was evident need for some young, energetic workers about 
the school. The school also should be visited by an eye specialist; 
many of the children need glasses. 

Law and order.— On this reservation a white man is employed as 
chief of police. I am informed that the present chief is very effi- 
cient and I am confident that the policy oi employing a white man 
is a good one. I have elsewhere recommended that this policy be 
followed on the Tongue River, Blackfeet, and Coeur d' Alene Reser- 
vations. The superintendent told me that the salary of the chief of 
police is paid out of the fund "proceeds of Indian labor " and that 
he is in reality a special officer lor the suppression of whisky. Tlie 
Wind River Reservation appears to have much better order than 
many other Indian reservations and the white chief of police prob- 
ably accounts for this condition. Nevertheless there are disorders 
which can never be remedied completely until Congress provides 



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266 REPORT OF BOARD OF II^DIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

suitable laws for Indian reservations. There is a good deal of 
gambling among the Indians, and shortly before my arrival the 
chief of police had been shot and painfully wounded while in the 
discharge of his dut^. 
Respectfully submitted, 

WlLMAM H. KeTCHAM, 

Mcrriber^ Board of Indian Commissioners. 

Hon. George Vaux, Jr., 

Chairmun^ Board of Indian Commissioners, 



APPENDIX I. 

BEPOBT ON THE MOUNT PLEASANT INDIAN SCHOOL^ MOUNT 
PLEASANT, MICH., B7 WILLIAM H. KETCHAM. 

November 1, 1918. 

Sir : I visited the Mount Pleasant ScliooL Mount Pleasant, Mich., 
October 12, 1918. This school in everjr way appears to be in a satis- 
factory condition. Despite financial limitations induced by war con- 
ditions, all buildings were found to be in good repair. Neatness and 
the best of order were in evidence everywhere. Of all the Indian 
schools I have visited, it has the best reputation for morals. It has 
a fine war record in every way and is well represented in France on 
the battle front. 

It received only 17 of the Carlisle pupils when the institution was 
closed. It has accommodations for 350 pupils and 860 pupils in 
actual attendance, a good many of whom are very small children 
who could remain at home for several years to advantage. Formerly 
the school had a four-year vocational course which later was cut 
down to a two-year course. Since the closing* of Carlisle, the Haskell 
Institute, Lawrence, Kans.« is crowded ana several of the Mount 
Pleasant pupils sent down there to complete their vocational courses 
have been placed in private families in cities where they attend high 
school. Hence their vocational training is thrown to the winds. 
These children have attended high school in Mount Pleasant. Those 
who have been interested in them for years in the Mount Pleasant 
School feel keen disappointment that their vocational courses have 
been interrupted. 

It is bad policy to send children from so far north as Michigan, 
Wisconsin, and Sfinnesota down to Lawrence, Kans., or Chilocco, 
Okla. This move southward can not result in any good, physically or 
otherwise, to the children. Since the closing of Carlisle, there should 
be a school in one of the extreme Northern States with a four-year 
vocational course and no school could be more favorably situated for 
this purpose than Mount Pleasant. 

A very fine dairy bam was in course of construction which will 
be completed at a remarkably low figure, considering present prices. 
It will oe one of the most complete, well equipped, up-to-date bams 
in that section of Michigan, having stalls for 24 cows and pens for 
calves, cows, and bulls. As the Mount Pleasant country is decidedly 
a dairy country, this barn is a valuable investment. 



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BEPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 267 

Commissioner Knox visited this school in 1916 and recommended 
the purchase of additional land for pasturage and agricultural pur- 
poses. At that time the school had a farm of 320 acres. Since then, 
ne^tiations have been practically completed for the acquiring of 120 
additional acres. The orchards are excellent. The power house is 
equipped Tvith steam and a dynamo for electricity. It will be seen 
that in dairying, farming, horticulture, and mechanics the children 
have ample opportunities for vocational training. With but little 
additional expense, with probably one more teacher in the academic 
department, the four-year vocational course could be carried out as 
well in Mount Pleasant as in most any other school in the Indian 
service. I strongly recommend the four-year vocational course for 
the Mount Pleasant School. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Wm. H. Ketcham, 
Meiriber^ Board of Indmn Commissioners. 

Hon. George Vaux, Jr., 

CTuiinnan^ Board of Indian Corrvmissioners. 



APPENDIX J. 

BEPOBT ON THE MOtTNT PLEASAKT INBIAIT SCHOOL, MOUNT 
PLEASANT, MICH., BT SAMUEL A. ELIOT. 

Boston, Mass., March »6^ 1919. 
To the Chair3iax of the Board of Indian Commissioners. 

Sib : I beg to submit the following report upon the Mount Pleas- 
ant Indian School. 

First I desire to reaffirm nrv confidence in the wisdom of the 
board in recommending at its October meeting that the four years' 
vocational course be reestablished at the school. The plant is ade- 
quate, competent teachers are as available as at any other school, 
and there seems to be no reason why the boys and girls who may 
wish to secure a more complete education should have to be trans- 
ferred to Haskell or Chilocco. Authority should be given and pro- 
vision made for giving two more years of vocational and industrial 
training at Mount Pleasant, thus avoiding the expenses of transfer, 
the unnecessary separation of the children from their families and 
natural environment, and the physical risks due to change of cli- 
matic conditions. The Michigan Indians are altogether likely to 
continue to live in that State. Their children should receive their 
education there. 

I take this opportunity to again express my astonishment at the 
measure of success to^ which many of the Indian school superintend- 
ents attain in providing for the children under their care m accord- 
ance with the present law limiting the per capita expense to $200 a 
year. ^ What other schools in this country are providing for in- 
struction, board, lodging, clothing, and transportation at any such 
rate ? Under existing conditions and in view of the cost of all sup- 
plies the figure is absurdly inadequate. The superintendents are too 
often obliged to conduct their schools, as things now are, under 



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268 BEPO&T OF BOABD OF INDIAN COKMISSIONEBS. 

most hampering and even humiliating conditions. If there are weak* 
nesses and faults in the schools^ it is more owing to the parsimony 
of Congress than to any lack of industry or skill on the part of those 
who directly administer school affairs. 

The plant at Mount Pleasant is reasonably ^>od, but certain im* 
provements ought to be promptly provided. The primary need is 
lor a new heat and power plant. The boilers are worn out and have 
been patched to the limit of tlieir endurance. It looked to me as 
if the school might have to close at any time because the boilers 
might lie down on the job. A new power plant should be built on 
the newly acquired land across the road to the east of the 
school buildings. This will not only provide for safetv but it will 
also make for economy. At present all the coal has to be hauled by 
team from the railroad, but oy building the plant across the road 
a spur track can be run in and the cogQ transferred directly from 
the car to the coal pocket. This site will also make for the comfort 
of the entire school population. The prevailing wind in central 
Michigan is from the southwest. The present power plant is so 
placed that the smoke blows directly over and through the school- 
houses and dormitories. Building the new plant across the road 
will mean that the smoke will go liarmlessly down the river valley. 
The superintendent has been assured by the Indian Office that con- 
sideration will be given to this need ana provision presumably made 
in the Indian bill of 1921, This seems an unnecessary and somewhat 
reckless delay. Disaster may occur at any moment at Mount Pleasant. 
Urgent representations should be made to the congressional com- 
mittee to secure an api)ropriation of $25,000 in the Indian bill, 
which will be under consideration at the special session of Congress. 

The new gymnasium at Mount Pleasant is a great help to the work 
of the schooL The dairy bam, which is nearly completed, is also an 
excellent structure. The domestic science cottage, well designed and 
well built, is doing an admirable service. The electric pump gives 
security to the water supply. Even if the boilers break down the 
pump can be continued oy the use of the city electric power. The 
superintendent has been skillful in improving the grounds and lay- 
ing concrete walks. The whole plant presente a pleasant and agree* 
able appearance. 

The completion of the dairy bam should be followed by the re- 
moval of the old bam to the end or side of the new bam, where the 
buildings can be set at right angles and a courtyard thus formed for 
the stock The present bam is altogether too near the dormitories. 
I commend the suggestion that plans should be formulated to build 
a new hospital across the road and then make over the present hos- 
pital so as to provide a dormitory for the smaller girls. 

The boys and girls of this school find ready employment near their 
homes at good wages. With the restoration of the lour years' voca- 
tional course this school can be depended upon to help make the new 
generation of Michigan Indians into self-respecting and self-reliant 
citizens. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Samuel A. Eliot, 
Member^ Board of Indian Commissioners. 



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BBP^rr OF BOABB OF IN1HAK GOMlOSSIOinSBS. 269 

APPENDIX K. 

JtSPOBT OS ZHB SKAWV2E rETDIAJT SUPSBINTSHDENCT, OXUL, 
BY WIUAK H. KETCHAM. 

Okulhojca Cmr, Okia., January i, iP7P. 

SiK : I visited the Shawnee Snperintendency, Okla., on October 7, 
had a conference with the superintendent, Ira C. Deaver, and super- 
intendencj officials, Tisited the school and met a delegation of 
Potawatomi Indians and a delegation of Shawnee; althou^ invited 
to council, the Kickapoo did not appear. This snperintendency is 
for three tribes, to wit, Absentee Shawnee, 538 ; Citizen Potawatomi, 
2,288; Mexican Eackapoo, 212. All are allotted, and hence the ques- 
tions of the superintendencj are mostly administrative. 

PotawatomL — The Potawatomi were chiefly concerned about vari- 
ous claims which they think they have against the Government. 
Their specification of these claims was very indistinct, and to my 
mind it appeared in a number of instances they misunderstood the 
language of the treaties. J. G. Lydic, an attorney of Shawnee, has 
a contract, approved by the department, for the determining of these 
claims. The Indians contend, nowever, that he is inactive, and they 
want a new attorney. Certainly it would be well if a<kion were 
taken on these and other Indian claims which would bring about a 
final decision one way or the other. The policy of permitting Indian 
claims, eitiier real or imaginary, to lie undetermined has the effect 
of keeping the Indians in constant expectation of receiving funds 
and invites their exnloitation by attorneys who in manv instances 
make a specialty of delving into vague Indian claims. It all Indian 
claims could be taken up and disposed of finally a great step for- 
ward for the Indian's progress and his peace of mind would be made. 
The affairs of the Potawatomi are practically clased, but they will 
never realize this so long as a positive pronounoem^it has not been 
made, and for this reason I recommend tiiat an attorney be appointed 
and approved hj the department who will pursue their cLaims to a 
final determination. 

Shaarnee. — I conferred with Little Jim and representatives of his 
particular band of Shawnee. Little Jim claims that tiiie Shawnee 
have property in Mexico and he and others believe that it would be 
better for the Shawnee to remove to Mexico, where they may live the 
Indian life and keep up their traditions. It would appear that some 
of the Shawnee desire to follow the course pursued by certain of the 
Kickapoo who some ^ears since removed to Mexico. I was unable 
to determine, from Little Jim's statement, whether this desire to go 
to Mexico originated with the Shawnee or whether they had been 
persuaded into the idea. 

A ^rave complication has arisen which affects the title of a number 
of Shawnee allotments. A schedule of these particular allotments, 
dated August 7, 1891, was approved by the Secretary of the Interior, 
September 6, 1891, and deposited in the General Land Office, Feb- 
ruary 6, 1892, on which date trust patents were issued to the allottees. 
Sometime before the 25-year trust period had expired, the superin- 
tendent for the Shawnee, believing that a number of the Indians in- 
volved in this schedule were incompetent, endeavored to have the 



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270 REPORT OF BOARD OF IXDIAX COMMISSIONERS. 

Indian Office secure an extension of the trust i)eriod bv the President 
for 10 years. There was some delay in the issuing of this order which 
seems to have been occasioned by a delay in the determining of the 
competency of certain of the Indians in question, and the order by 
the President was issued only on November 24, 1916. There aro 
certain parties who contend that the trust period began September 
0, 1891, the date of the approval of the allotments by the Secretary 
of the Interior, and expired 25 years thereafter, to wit, September 6, 
1916, and that in conseauence tlie Executive order issued on Novem- 
ber 24, 1916, is null and void. Acting on this theory they are buy- 
ing the lands of the Indians at ridiculously small prices and taking 
deeds thereto. A former employee of the Indian Office, Washing- 
ton, D. C, now residing in the town of Shawnee, is said to be par- 
ticularly active in these purchases. The Government contends that 
the trust period began February 6, 1892, the date on which the trust 
patents wei'e issued, and that it expired 25 years thereafter, to wit, 
February 6, 1917, and that consequently the Executive order of 
November 24, 1916, is valid. 

This contention was tested in the District Court for the Western 
District of Oklahoma and that court held with the Government; 
but the United States Circuit Court of Appeals reversed the de- 
cision of the district court. The Solicitor General, on behalf of 
the United States, then filed a petition for a writ of certiorari in 
the Supreme Court of the United States. .This writ has been 
granted, and the superintendent and the Indians involved are await- 
mg the final decision with much anxiety. 

The Mexican Kickapoo. — The superintendent evinced much con- 
cern in regard to the following situation: The trust period on 280 
Kickapoo allotments in Oklahoma will expire not later than October 
5, 1919, and on 163 allotments not later than July 14, 1920, twenty- 
five years from the date of the issuance of patents.^ Prior to the 
expiration of the trust period the competency of restricted Kickapoo 
Indians in question will be investigated as a basis for determining 
just which allottees are competent and should be released from 
governmental guardianship and for just which allottees the trust 
period should be extended. It is important that this work of de- 
termining competency be completed in ample time so that the Ex- 
ecutive order may te issued on such a date that no question can 
arise relating to these Kickapoo allotments such as has arisen in 
regard to the Shawnee allotments above mentioned. This is a very 
important question and the department should pursue a course 
which will obviate any occasion for litigation in regard to these 
Kickapoo allotments. 

Shawnee school. — ^The school, which has a capacity of 110 pupils, ' 
was in good order and some of the departments were excellent. 
The superintendent, because of war conditions, was endeavoring to 
make necessary repairs, alterations, and additions without calling 
on the Indian Office for an extra allowance, which was very com- 
mendable on his part. 

Respectfully submitted, 

WiixiAM H. Ketcham, 
Memher^ Board of Indian Commissioners, 

Hon. George Vaitx, Jr., 

Chairman^ Board of Indian Commissioners, 



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BEPOBT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 271 

APPENDIX L. 

BEPOBT ON THE SEKINOLE INDIANS OP PLOBIDA. BY SAKUEL A« 

ELIOT. 

Boston, Mass., March 15. 1919. 

The Chairman, Board of Indian Commissioners. 

Sir: In pursuance of your instructions I have visited southern 
Florida and given consideration to the affairs of the Seminole In- 
dians. 

I may say at once that I have not seen any Indians. Most of them 
live in the recesses of the swamps many miles from civilization. 
They are exceedingly shy and elusive and have very little command 
of any language but their own. It would have taken me a fortnight 
to have penetrated the wildernesses where they live, and had I suc- 
ceeded in discovering any Indians I could have had very little com- 
munication with them. On the eastern coast, southwest of Stuart, 
there is a community known as Indiantown, or as the Cow Creek 
Band, and there are two or three Indian camps adjacent to the win- 
ter resorts, but these people evidently go to the neighborhood of 
Miami or Fort Lauderdale largely for show purposes and do not 
represent the condition and spirit of the tribe. The members of the 
congressional committee who investigated Seminole affairs in 1917 
found the camps abandoned and were able to secure testimony from 
only two young Indians. 

I have conferred with the superintendent at Fort Myers and with 
a considerable number of traders, guides, and hunters who have had 
some contact with the Seminoles. 1 have also conferred with officers 
and members of the Society of the Friends of the Seminoles and with 
the officials in charge of missionary interests. 

It is not necessary, for the purpose of this report, to go into a long 
history of the Seminole situation or to tell how these people came to 
be driven into the tangled swamps and everglades of southern 
Florida. Enough that they have been living there for some three 
generations, supporting themselves by hunting, fishing, and primi- 
tive agriculture. 

How many Seminoles there are in Florida no one knows. The 
statistics of the Indian Office indicate a population of 585. That is, 
however, purely an estimate and I have not been able to form any 
opinion as to its accuracy. Some of the hunters with whom I talked 
were sure there were not more than 25 or 80 families in all the vast 
wilderness. Others say vaguely and generally that there are about 
600 Indians living in the cypress swamps or on the edges of the 
drowned prairies known ns the Everglades. The other statistics 
about Seminole property and earnings and the like, given in the An- 
nual Report of tne Commissioners oflndian Affairs, are also, for the 
most part, jesses. The Indians live in small detached camps or 
isolated family groups and are continually moving. It is practically 
impossible to secure any accurate information about them. Occa- 
sionally a hunter will bring his pelts out to market at Fort M^ers 
or Miami* or to some trader's store, but his English is very limited, 
and if he knows much or anything about bis nei^bors he will not tell. 



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272 REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN CX>MlCISSIOK£BS. 

The Episcopalians and Baptists have more than once attempted 
to establish missions among these people but without any success. 
The Seminole has been so badly treated, and has inherited so poor 
an opinion of white men generally that he has very little use for 
the white man's religion or the white man's civilization. In his 
experience the white man's way is the way of treachery, avarice, 
and cruelty. He has always been self-supporting after his own 
fashion and his limited needs are sufficiently supplied. •Save for 
his gun, his ammunition, and a few bolts of cotton cloth, he has 
practically no need of contact with white folks. It is understood 
that when white people appear in the spongy lands and winding 
lagoons that make up the Seminole domain the Indians silently 
disappear. 

Under these conditions the work and functions of an Indian super- 
intendent are particularly embarrassing. He must patiently en- 
deavor to establish confidence and to win these reticent, suspicious, 
elusive Indians to trust him. This is necessarily a very slow pro- 
cess, for the Indians live far apart in a wilderness of great extent, 
exceedingly difficult to penetrate. The interior basin of southern 
Florida is a kind of shallow sea in which rise thousands of low 
islands or hammocks, some covered with a forest growth and more 
bj a tangle of shrubs and vines and palmetto scrub. The Indians 
live for a few months, or perhaps a year or two, on one of tiiese 
islets and then drift to another. They must be dealt with almost 
one at a time. The barrier of language remains almost unsurmount- 
able. I could discover only one man fit to be an interpreter. He is 
the son of a trader who has had considerable contact with the In- 
dians and he now is in the Government employ. It is idle to ur^ 
that schools should be established for these people, because no chil- 
dren could now be secured for such schools unless they were kid- 
napped. It is supposed to be part of the tribal law for the Indians 
to have as little contact as possible with white people. 

These facts account for the small apparent progress made by the 
Indian Bureau and its representatives during the last 50 years.' My 
own impression is that a good deal of needless and rather sentimental 
interest has been wasted on these people. They are not asking for 
help. They are living harmless lives and taking care of themselves. 
They represent, indecS, a very primitive kind of existence, but I do 
not discover any reason why the United States Government should 
insist that they must live in frame houses or wear so-called citizens' 
dress or eat canned goods. I think that even if these things were re- 
quired of them they would find means of evading the requirements. 

The United States Government holds in trust for these people some 
24,000 acres divided into a number of separate tracts. The largest 
tract, southwest of Lake Okeechobee on tne edge of the Everglades, 
contains some 17,000 acres and is generally spoken of as the Seminole 
Reservation. On the eastern coast, back of Stuart, is a tract of some 
3,000 acres. The rest is in small parcels. Most of these areas are 
practically under water in the wet season and only the occasional 
little islands or " hammocks " are possible for farming. 

The State of Florida has set aside in Monroe County a tract con- 
taining some 98,000 acres for the use of the Seminoles. I have not 
found any one who has actually been over this territory. I have 



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BBPOBT OF BOABD OF INDIAN GOMMISSIONEBS. 273 

' interviewed persons who have seen it from the waterways of the gulf 
side. Their testimony is to the effect that as far as the eye can reach 
the tract seems to consist of mangrove swamps. It is probable that 
in so large an area there are some islands of real land, but whether 
this tract will ever be of any use as a dwelling place for the Seminoles 
is still problematical. 

Superintendent Brandon is doing his best with a very difficult 
situation. He at first established an agency at Miami but after re- 
maining there six months decided that the best way to get into the 
Seminole country was from Fort Myers. He has been very assiduous 
in getting acauainted with the Indians, and has lived so much in the 
swamps that nis health is now quite seriously impaired. He plans to 

Eadually develop something of a community center on the large tract 
town as the Seminole Reservation. He has had the tract surveyed 
and correct lines run, and he is now oreparing to fence. The wire is 
in storage at Fort Myers, and the Indians, or as many of them as are 
ready to work, are cutting the posts. A house is being constructed for 
the superintendent on a dry place on the reservation. This is not a 
frame nouse^ but an Indian house, consisting of posts with a palmetto 
thatch. This shelter will be used by the superintendent on his ex- 
cursions to the reservation, and also as a kind of community house, 
where he can confer with the Indians. 

The next step is to get a little trading store open at the same loca- 
tion so that it will become natural for the Indians to come in to do 
their trading, and to confer with the superintendent. In course of 
time a school and hospital may be developed, but nothing of that kind 
can wisely be provided for some years to come. The road to the 
reservation has now been put into fairly good condition as far as 
Immokalee, where there is the highest point of dry land and a small 
settlement, and for the rest of the way it is passable in dry seasons. 
When the fencing has been completed it may be possible to develop 
[ a small cattle-raising industry on the reservation. The cattle I saw 
I in southern Florida were poor and thin. The forage is evidently 
' very meager. Nevertheless, these cattle are acclimated, and I sug- 
gest that 200 cows might be purchased and placed on the reservation 
and then bred to bulls imported from a healthier stock. It should, 
, however, first be determined whether there is enough grazing land 
on the reservation to sustain even a small herd. The Indians might 
then be encouraged to acquire small herds of their own, distinguished 
by an individual brand. This may provide an industry for the 
Indians and facilitate the gradual transfer of their means of liveli- 
hood from hunting to a more permanent source of supply. For the 
present it is probaole that the Indians can continue to sustain them- 
selves as they have for generations past, but the time is not far off 
when the game will be exhausted and the Everglades more or less 
drained, and the Indians will be obliged to adapt themselves to a 
different mode of life. It is therefore probably wise to begin to build 
up a cattle industry if it troves to be possible tor cattle to live on the 
reservation. 

It is understood that a bill is. to be introduced into the Florida 
Legislature providing for the cession to the United States Govern- 
ment of the State tract held for the Indians. AVhatever are the 
motives behind the bill, it is obvious that the welfare of the Indians 



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274 REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

Trill be promoted by its passage, for it ^ill bring all the tracts held 
in trust for the Indians under the single control of the Federal 
Government, and if the State reservation has any value it can in due 
time be developed as a possible home for Indian families. 

In my judgment the worst peril now threatening the Seminoles 
is that of increasing contact with the whites. Left to themselves they 
are doing pretty well, after the ways of a very primitive people. 
They are proud, honest, independent, and healthy. The superin- 
tendent is handling things wisely, but it is to be feared that senti- 
mental people may, in their endeavor to uplift these primitive folk,, 
impair their physical and moral vigor. Already tnere are some 
signs of the unhealthy paternalism which has robbed so many In- 
dians of individuality and initiative. I can see no reason why the 
United States Government should, for example, pay a dentist's bill 
for a Seminole Indian. That robs him of his self-respect, for he i» 
perfectly able to work and earn for himself the amount or that bilL 
I do think that the superintendent did right when, during the in- 
fluenza epidemic of the last winter, he brought five Indians out of 
the swamp to the hospital at Fort Myers and gave them medical 
attention. That was an act of plain humanity and did not unduly 
pauperize the Indians. I believe that the Government should, as a 
rule, refrain from too much supervision and from futile attempts to 
control these Indians. It will not help them to oflfer them free trans- 
portation on a Government steamboat. Let them, as far as possible^ 
pole along in their own canoes. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Samuel A. Eliot, 
Member^ Board of Indian Commissioners. 



APPENDIX M. 

BEFOBT ON THE EASTEBN CHEBOKEE BESEBVATION, N. C, B7 

SAMUEL A« ELIOT. 

Boston, Mass., March 26^ 1919. 
The Chairman of the Board of Indian Commissioners, 

Sir : In accordance with your instructions I have visited the reser- 
vation and school of the Eastern Cherokees and beg to report as fol- 
lows: 

I am glad to be able to report that most of the recommendations 

for the improvement of the school plant, contained in Commissioner 

McDowell's report of January, 1917, have been carried out. Too 

much praise can not be given to the efficiency and economy with 

j which Supt. Henderson has introduced these improvements. Six 

\ neat and adeouate cottages for employees have been built since Com- 

\ missioner McDowell's visit. A doctor has been provided and carries 

' on an enlarging work in the well-equipped hospital. A new assembly 

, hall, with a ^mnasium in the basement, is now in course of erection. 

I The industrial building for the boys, recommended by Commissioner 

j McDowell, is planned and the material ordered. It will be built in 

J the coming spring and summer. There is still urgent need of a new 

t horse bam, for the old structure is fast rotting away. 



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REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 275 

Two improvements that have been recommended and approved 
need to be pushed to completion. 

(1) It is understood that an appropriation of $8,000 for the con- 
struction of a bridge over the Ocono Lufty River, just below the 
school, is provided for in the Indian bill, which will presumably be 
enacted at the special session of Congress. The ford is not passable 
at periods of high water or when the river is blocked with ice. Dur- 
ing the severe winter of 1918 the school was for some time cut off 
from its fuel supplies, which are brought up on the lumber railroad 
across the river. 

(2) There is still urgent need of additional land for the school 
farm. The Government is now renting certain adjacent lands, but 
they should be promptly acquired and title taken by the Government. 
Additional land should also be secured on the hillside above the 
school, whence the water supply comes. Several Indian families are 
now living on that hillside and the purity of the school water supply 
is imperiled. It is understood that the Department of Justice has 
ruled that the Indians can not sell their lands or improvements except 
to Indians. Tliis decision has stopped these necessary adjustments. 
The validity of the decision should promptly be tested. 

In addition to Commissioner McDowell s recommendations for im- 
provements at and about the school I feel the need of — 

(1) A domestic-science cottage, where the girls can receive training 
in household work. 

(2) A separate dormitory for the little boys. They are now very 
much crowded in one room of the boys' dormitorjr. 

(3) An additional ward for the hospital, to provide for maternity 
cases. The Indian women are increasingly utilizing the facilities of 
the hospital and the skill of the physician. 

(4) As at all schools, in a rainy or muddy country, there is need 
of more concrete walks. 

It is probable that all of these needs can be taken care of in the 
next two years.^ Supt. Henderson is very careful and thrifty in 
ordering his building material and in utilizing available labor. 

The Eastern Cherokees are a healthy and self-supporting people. 
They are much, freer from disease than most Indian communities 
and they have very little access to liquor. Their moral standards 
are good and they are fairly industrious. Most of theih live in log 
cabins, but the cabins are clean and well kept and sufficiently fur- 
nished. There are a few frame houses on the reservation and a 
good many prosperous-looking farms and gardens. There is little or 
no real destitution. The standards of comfort are as good, if not 
better, than those of the neighboring white mountaineers. There 
are nine Baptist churches and one Methodist church on the reserva- 
tion, all with Indian preachers. All of the Indians wear citizen's 
clothes. Most of them both speak and write English and a good 
many have traveled more or less. 

These Indians are citizens of the State of North Carolina and are 
subject to State laws. They vote or can vote if they want to ; they 
pay taxes; they work on the public roads; they carry the ordinary 
responsibilities and privileges of citizenship. 

There exists, however, a curious duplication of jurisdiction. While 
the Indians are citizens of the State the agency and school are admin- 
istered by a Federal officer. The Federal superintendent also handles 



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276 REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

the individual moneys of the members of the tribe, and the tribal 
funds can not be checked out without his consent. On the other 
hand, he has no control over the movements of the Indians, who, as 
free citizens, can come and go as they will. He has no jpolice author- 
ity, and the enforcement or the laws and prosecution lor crime is in 
the control of the StJtte authorities. In the hands of a superintend- 
ent less trusted or less discreet than Mr. Henderson these somewhat 
complicated adjustments might work badly. 

The largest and most immediate problem confronting the Eastern 
Cherokees concerns the settlement of these conflicting jurisdictions 
and the elimination of the curious arrangement by which the lands 
of the Eastern Cherokees are owned and administered. The titles to 
these lands are held, not by the Grovemment, but by a corporation 
known as the Eastern Band, of Cherokee Indians of North Carolina. 
This corporation owns lands in four different counties in the moun- 
tain region of North Carolina. The reservation proi)er, known as the 
Qualla Boundary, is located in Jackson and Swain counties, and 
contains something more than 50,000 acres. In Cherokee and Graham 
Counties there are a number of isolated tracts with a total area of 
some 9,000 acres. 

A few Indians live on these tracts but the majority live on the 
Qualla Boundary, holding their lands as tenants in common. This 
curious situation has the effect of discouraging the Indians from 
making any substantial improvements, building modern houses or 
adopting improved methods of farming. 

Tne situation is still further complicated by the fact that several 
hundred men and women, called by the Cherokees " white Indians," 
and who do not live on the reservation, claim to be members of the 
tribe and appear to possess some right to a share of any land and 
funds the tribe may own. The tribe now owns a fund amounting to 
$140,000, representing the proceeds of sales of land and timber in 
former years. 

After a careful study of this situation I am prepared to recommend 
the following course of action : 

(1) Let the corporation sell the tracts in Cherokee County, the 
3,000 acres south of the railroad at Ela, or such part of these lands 
as may be necessary, and with the proceeds, added to the existing 
tribal fund, buy off all of the claims of the " white Indians " so that 
the tribal rolls can be cleared up and substantiated. 

(2) Then let the corporation deed all of its remaining lands to the 
Government and dissolve as a corporation. 

(8) Then let the Government, through the agency of an impar- 
tial commission, allot the lands of the Qualla Boundaries to the In- 
dians in severalty, giving each Indian a due share of arable, grazing, 
and timber land. 

(4) Let the Government continue for the present, or for a fixed 
term of years, its responsibility for the schools and maintain the 
boarding school in complete efficiency, taking as a kind of sinking 
fund for the partial or complete payment of the cost of maintenance, 
the unallotted and unsold lands. The State of North Carolina, in 
lieu of its immunity from educational expenditures, should agree to 
remit taxes upon these lands. 

(5) Let there be established, under Government initiative, and if 
necessary with Government aid, a corporation to be composed of com-J 



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BSFOttT OF BOABB OF IKDIAK 001CMISSI0iraB& 277 

potent Indians, together with the superintendent, the school farmer 
and a few other interested white men, which shall boild and conduct 
a canning factory near the anncy. This would provide an indus- 
trial center, encourage the In£an8 to raise fruit and vegetables, and 
it could readily be made a good investment. 

In his report o£ January, 1917, Commissioner McDowell pointed 
€>nt the possibilities of a canning factory. The Indians are already 
decidedly iid^rested in agricultural developments. The agricultural 
fairs held in recent years have been very suocessfuL The soil and 
climate are well adapted to the raising of warden truck and orchard 
Iruit and Hiere is a good and ready maraet for vecetables, fruit, 
and poultry products. Apple, plum, and cherry orchards flourish, 
and great Quantities of berries grow wild on tlie hill& A canning 
factory could evidently be kept in operation most of the year. U 
could probably supply nearly all the vegetables and small fruits 
needed by the Indian schools all over the country. 

The arguments that can be brought against this way of disposing 
of the land problem are sufficiently obvious. 

(1) It win be argued that things are well enough as they are and 
need not be disturbed. That is the argument of laziness. It will 
certainly be easiest to let thin^ drift along. It is true that tilings 
are in pretty good sb^pe on this reservation, but they will never be 
any better until the desire of the Indians for allotment is gratified. 
The present conditions distinctly discourage progress. Where a de- 
sire for tihie possession of personal property exists among Indians it 
certainly ought to be encourac^ed. 

(2) It will be pointed out mat if the lands are allotted they ought 
to be held under a Government trusteeship for a term of years, so as 
to prevent injudicious selling on the part of the Indians. That sug- 
gestion will further have the advocacy of certain Indians, who per- 
ceive that if the allotments are restricted they will be relieved of the 

Sayment of taxes. On the other hand, such an arrangement will 
eprive the Indians of their rights as citizens and put them in the 
re^ricted class. That would be a step backward rather than for- 
ward. I am clearly of the opinion that these Indians should be 
thrown more upon their own rei^onsibility. 

(3) It will be held that if the lands are allotted without restric- 
tion or trusteeship the less competent Indians will promptly sell their 
allotments and a class of undesirable white people may acquire rights 
on the reservation and imperil the welfare of tneir Indian neighboi*s. 
The plan I propose will doubtless mean that some of the less compe- 
tent Indians will suffer loss through their own folly or thriftlesoiess 
and it will mean that some new perils will have to be encounterad 
Such risks attend every advance. The alternative is to stand still 
or go backward. This plan of action will encourage initiative, make 
possible permanent improvements in lands and buildings, continue 
the present educational privileges without undue expense, provide 
for industrial occupation, and gradually fit the Indians to take their 

! places in a democratic State in full partnership with their white 
f fellow citizens. 

Bes^ctfuUy submitted, 

Samuel A. Euot, 
Member^ Board of Indian Commissioners. 



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278 REPOKT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

APPENDIX N. 

BEPOBT ON THE PAP AGO INDIANS, ARIZONA, BY MAIiCOLM 

KcDOWELL. 

Sells Indian School, Ariz., April 8^ 1919. 

Sir : Following is my report on the Papago Indians of southern 
Arizona. The survey of conditions on the reservation began on my 
arrival at Sells (formerly Indian Oasis), the agencj headquarter^ 
March 15, 1919, and continued until April 8. Durmg that time 1 
visited all parts of the superintendency and held several councils 
with the Indians. 

The headquarters of the agency had been moved from San Xavier 
to Sells, 50 miles southwest, but a few weeks previous to my visit* 
This change brings the superintendent and physician to the center 
of the Indian population. The moving of the agency to Sells was in 
line with recommendations repeatedly made bv Commissioner Eliot 
and former Commissioner Ayer and is highly satisfactory to the 
Indians. 

The new agency plant occupies a little plateau at the foot of a hill 
and is on the main road from Tucson to Ajo and near the converging 
point of the principal roads to the north, west, and south wWch 
lead to the bulk of the Indians. The buildings, of adobe, are well 
constructed and of pleasing architecture. They include the office of 
the superintendent, liis home, a day school, homes for the physician, 
clerk, stockman, and other employees, a warehouse, shop, and like 
buildings. A small electric plant furnishes light. Water is ob- 
tained from a well, equipped with a gasoline engine, and is piped to 
the houses and school. A site has been selected for a hospital, and, 
it is believed, sufficient water can be developed to meet all require- 
ments, although when I was there the water problem was a source of 
much anxiety. 

Supt. Thomas H. McCormick is rapidly becoming acquainted with 
his Indians and the reservation. He has been in charge but little 
over a year. The Papagoes told me Mr. McCormick was a "good 
man" and they seemed to like him and his ways. I was much 
pleased wuth the friendly atmosphere of the agency and the kindly 
spirit which seemed to animate Mr. McCormick and his staff. 

My investigation of conditions on the reservation lead me to 
offer several recommendations and suggestions with the full realiza- 
tion that their adoption would call lor a considerable expenditure 
of money. But they are in line with the reservation equipment and 
development program of Commissioner Sells, who worked against 
great odds in having this large area set apart for the nomadic 
?apago Indians and who, therefore, is more^ than ordinarily inter- 
ested in those fine Indians. My recommendations are : 

(1) The building of the hospital at Sells should begin as soon 
as possible and be pushed to completion. 

(2) A boarding school, with a capacity, at least, for 250 students 
should be built on the reservation as soon as an appropriation for 
that purpose can be secured. This school should be equipped and 
organized to give the Papago children the kind of an academic, in-* 
dustrial, and agricultural education best suited to Papago condi-! 
tions and environments. 



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REPORT OF BOARD OF I2TDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 279 

(8) Three more day schools should be built and put to work 
quickly. 

!4) Sells should be connected with Tucson by a telephone line. 
5) A trachoma specialist, with enough assistants to conduct an 
aggressive campaign, should be detailed to the Papago Beservation, 
with orders to eramcate trachoma from the jurisdiction. 

(6) Deep-well pumping plants should be installed at Big Fields, 
Tecolote. nalfway between San Miguel and Topowa, Iron Pipe, 
Burros r^ond, Ventana, Black Butte, and in the Pacinimo Valley for 
live stock and domestic uses. 

(7) Decent and comfortable living quarters should be provided 
for the Irrigation Division employees at San Xavier and other 
points. 

f (8) Some method should be devised, in line with a progressive 
policy of helping the Indians to help themselves, to supplv the 
Indians with enough good bulls, stallions, and jacks to enable the 
Papagoes to improve their live stock; to supply each village with 
scrapers to encourage the Indians to build more " charcos " or stor- 
age ponds for water for their stock and to help individual Indians 
get doors, shingles, corrugated iron roofing, ana other building ma- 
terial for the improvement of their homes. 

■ ^ As justification for the above recommendations I offer the f oUow- 
ingnarrative report of my survey: 

The Papago country lies in Pima and Pinal Counties, Ariz., with 
its southern boundary resting on the United States-Mexico inter- 
national line. Most of the land set aside for the Papago Indians is 
in Pima County and is under the jurisdiction of Supt. McCormick, 
of the Papago Beservation. The Indians and land in Pinal County 
to the north are under the supervision of Mr. William F. Haywood, 
superintendent of the Pima Indian Beservation, with headquarters 
at Sacaton, on the Gila Biver. The Papago country extends from 
Tucson to Ajo, 136 miles to the west, and from the Mexican line to 
the Pima Beservation, 100 miles to the north. A number of Papa- 
goes live just across the line in Mexico and in the northern part the 
Papagoes and Pimas are close neighbors. They say that in the 
"long ago" the Pimas and Papagoes were the same tribe. 

The Papago Beservation, which is that part of the Papago 
country under the jurisdiction of Mr. McCormick, with a popular 
tion approximating 5,000 and an area around two and three-quar- 
ter millions of acres, lies in two parts ; the old San Xavier Beserva- 
tion near Tucson, with an area of 7 by 15 miles, which is occupied 
and used by the agricultural Papagoes, and the "desert" reserve 
which, up to a few vears ago, was public domain land and which 
is occupied and used for grazing cattle by about 4,500 of the so- 
called "nomadic" Papagoes. 

At San Xavier about 1,500 acres of good farm land are irrigated 
and every acre under ditch is cultivated by the industrious Indians. 
All of this irrigated land is allotted. The "nomadic" Papagoes 
" dry farm " about 16,000 acres in the Papago desert, in small pat^es. 
" Dry " perfectly describes the character or the farming — it is doubt- 
ful if agriculture is adventured under more adverse conditions than 
obtain in this land. With a persistence which years of repeated dis- 
appointment have failed to discourage, the desert Indians continue 

14O023*— TNT 1919— vol, 2 19 



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280 BEPOST OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONEBS. 

to force the arid land to yi^d wheat, com, beans, melons, and other 
produce. These Indians are called "nomadic" because when their 
" charcos " or artificial ponds become dry they move to the mountains, 
where there is more water and better grass. In the spring they return 
to the flat country to prepare their farms for the summer rains, up<»i 
which they depend not only for their crops but for the water supply , 
which is caught and stored in the " charcos." 

The original Papago Reservation at San Xavier, named after the 
old Spanish mission which was founded there about 225 years ago, 
was set aside for the Indians by Executive orders in 1874 and 1882. 
In February, 1917, the desert public domain which now is included 
in the Papago Reservation was set aside for the nomadic Papagoes. ' 
To meet the public demand for an easement for a road from Tucson ] 
to Ajo, which is the center of an important copper-mining industry, " 
a strip about 6 miles in width was not included in the Executive j 
order and a number of townships occupied and used by the Santa ' 
Sosa ranch also were excluded. These exceptions divided the desert 
reserve into three parts — ^thus the Papago Reservation is composed of 
four sections, the principal and largest abutting on the Mexican ', 
boundary. 

This f apago country^ is called a " desert." In the sense that the* 
natural water supply is almost nothing, that there are no living 
streams in it, that water holes are infrequent, and far apart, it is a - 
desert. But at all times of the year the desert vegetation grows pro- ^ 
fusely; the country is covered with cactus, greasewood, mesquite, 
pala-verde, weeds, shrubs, and flowers peculiar to semiarid lands, 
and after the summer rains, the six weeks' grass clothes the ground.] 
It then is difficult to realize that it is a waterless land — a desert. 

Mountain ranges, running generally north and south, with cross' 
spurs, break the reservation into well-defined valleys. The Baboqui- ' 
vari Range, with its principal peak rising 7,740 feet, lies to the east 
of the desert reserve, and the western limit is marked by the Ajo 
Range. The Coyote, Comobabi, Santa Rosa, Artesa, Mesquite, and 
Quijotoa Ranges lie between the Baboquivari and Ajo Ranges. 
Many of the mountains are mineralized and well plastered with min- 
ing claims. There are about 10 small producing mines which ship 
high-grade gold, silver, copper, and lead ores to Tucson by wagon — • 
long hauls which give a number of Indians fair wages occasionally. 
A niunber of prospectors continually search the mountains toe 
mineral indications. At present the Quijotoa Mountains are the 
favorite hunting grounds of the prospector. The hope of the miner 
and prospector is that a railroad will be built across the reservation 
whicn will give them an outlet for their low-grade ores. They claim 
such a railroad wiU develop copper mines equal to the Ajo mines. 

When the reservation was created by Executive order there were 
many mines and claims in the mountains and the right to prospect, 
file claims^ and mine for metalliferous metals was not taken away. 
When a mining claim by due process becomes patented land tJtie iT 
acres in the grant are taken out of the reservation. Before the reser- 
vation was made there were a number of Indian trading stores located 
on patented lands which, of course, were not included in the Executive 
order. Hence there is this interesting situation : Traders who deal 
with Indians within an Indian reservation who are exempt from the 
rules and regulations required of licensed Indian traders. There is 



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BBPOBS CMP KkASXk Of INDiAK GOMMISSIOSEIkS. 281 

bu4 o&e licensed trader ou the reservaticm. Supt. McCormick and the 
Indians told me the traders generallj were fair in their dealings with 
the Indians. 

The Papago Indians live in villages, of which there are nearly a 
hundred^ each eoBxposed of from 4 to 30 houses^ Villages are located 
with reference to the lay of the land and the character of the soil. 
Water for stock and do&oestic purposes is the prime requisite, and a 
"charco'' for the impounding ox surface water is part or every 
village. The ^i^ineerin^ instinct of these desert people is remark- 
able. With unerring precision they select a site for the artificial pond« 
build dikes and ditcnes to trap the water and lead it to the " charco," 
which may cover several acres. 

The same en^neering instinct leads them to select farm areas in 
the fiats to which the aurf aoe water^ deposited by rains^ is directed 
by dikes and ditches, to th& end that each farm snail receive a good 
soaking at least once a year. The dikes,, dams, canals, and ditches 
are constructed in accordance with the best modern hydraulic and 
irrigating engineering practices^ and these practices were emplOTed 
by the ancestors of the present desert denizens centuries ago. One 
of the engineers of the irrigation division of the Indian Service told 
me that Sie Papagoes had nothing to learn from white men in the 
conservation of surface water.. 

Each village is a little government of itself. One of its men is 
elected or selected by common ccsisent as headman for his village. 
Leadership qualities generally guide his nei^bors in selecting the 
headman. His authority seems to rest entirely upon personality. 
If he is a natural leader, a masterful man, he exercises considerable 
authority. If not^ he acts merely as: a counselor, adviser,^ and peace- 
maker,^ and his authority is limited by the willingness of his people 
to follow his suggestions or decisions. Thus tha Papagoes are a 
people divided into little self-governing communities. There do 
not seem to be any tribal relations of an organized character. There 
certainly is no tribal chief and the older Indiana say there never was 
one. Okx^asioiially a strong personality becomes the principal man 
of the tribe, but he is neither an elected or hereditary chief. One 
village by reason of the a^gressiv^aess or progressiveness of its 
people may dominate a section of the country and consequently its 
headman becomes the principal man or leading citiz^i of that 
section* 

In the southern part of the reservation, adjacent to the Mexican 
bne^ tihe Indians are more advanced, more progressive,, more alert, 
and quicker to take hold of new things than the Indiai^ in other 
parts of the reserve. There are more houses with corrugated-iron or 
shingle roofs, with two or three rooms, with wood floors, with 
windows and porches, in the southern part. There are seen more 
stoves, beds^ sewing machines, scrubbing boards, better stock, and 
more road improvements. The Indians of the south are building 
miles of straight roads whose lines were run without instruments 
with amazing accuracy. 

They are a courteous people, these Papagoes, kindly and well dis- 
posed toward white men. History proves they never were at war 
with the white men, but rather that they, with the Pimas, ever 
were ready to aid their white friends against other Indian tribes. 
There is but little difference in looks, dress, houses^ mode of living, 



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282 BEFOfiT OF BOABD OF INDIAN OOMMISSIONEBS. 

and speech between the Papagoes and Pimas, though the Papa^oes 
are desert and the Punas are rirer Indians, Cleanliness is a tribal 
virtue. I traveled hundreds of miles, going- from village to village, 
and was welcomed into many homes, and a airty, slovenly house was 
a rare exception. Supt. McCormick and Dr. Anderson, the agency 
physician, directed my attention to an interesting fact — the chudren 
whose parents had gone to some Indian school were better dressed 
and generally neater in their appearance than were the children 
whose parente had never attended a school, and though most of the 
houses and premises were clean and neat those of the "returned 
students" always were. I did not see an untidy "returned student" 
home. 

In all villages the family wash, on the clothesline, was a common 
sight. Bearinff in mind that thousands of Papagoes carry water at 
some periods of the year from wells or " charcos ''miles distant from 
their homes, that water is the most precious thing in the desert, the 
cleanliness of the Indians is remarkahle. White women told me that 
Papago women can wash clothes white in muddy water. All Papa- 
goes wear the clothing of white people, adorned, of course, with col- 
ored ribbons and Indian jewelry. There are no " blanket " Indians 
on the reserve. No Papago receives rations from the Government; 
the tribe has no funds in the hands of the Treasurer of the United 
States, and therefore there are no pro rata payments eked out to en- ^ 
courage indolence. Only 91 Indians, almost all of whom live on* 
the irrigated San Xavier Reserve, have been allotted and have re- 
ceived trust patents. There is no tribal herd, no tribal forest or tribal 
gas, oil, or mineral lands. 

The Papagoes are an unspoiled people, independent, self-reliant, 
capable of rapid advancement, intelligent, moral, quickly responsive 
to friendly advances, willing to learn new methods. They are re- 
liable and preferred workmen, and if the tribe is helpfully aided in 
education, water, health, and live-stock improvement and subjected 
to the minimum of Government jurisdiction and supervision and that 
only of the helpful kind, there is little question that within a genera- 
tion the Papago Indians will be self-supporting citizens of the U nited 
States and Arizona, respected by their white neighbors and a most 
valuable national asset. 

Because until recently over 85 per cent of the Papagoes lived on 
the public domain and were therefore nonreservation Indians, the 
figures representing population are but approximations. Supt. Mc- 
Cormick is taking a census of all the villages and accurate popula- 
tion totals will be available after June 30, 1919. But the estimated 
population of 6,237 is practically correct. The Indians are divided 
into about 1,500 families, all living in permanent houses of adobe 
construction. There are no shacks, tepees, or wickiups on the reserve 
excepting what are put up occasionally for temporary use. The 
Indians have two homes; those in the villages in the flat country near 
their fields and " charcos," and those on the higher elevations, the 
mountains and foothills^ to which they go when water gives out in 
the flats. The rainfall is greater in the mountains and nigh plains, 
the grass and browsing plants are thicker, but the soil is not so well 
adapted to agriculture. . J i* . 

^Vhen the dry season is on, the plains villages are deserted. For 
two years there has been an abnormal drought, worse in the northern 



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KBPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAK COMMISSIONERS. 283 

part of the reservation. Santa Bosa, 40 miles north of Sells, is one 
of the largest of the villages, but tiie drought caused complete crop 
failure and dried up all the stored water, and the Santa Bosa Indians 
were forced to find work in the mines and cotton fields. When T was 
there in the early part of April only seven children were in the day 
school. The rest were with their parents in Ajo, where the fathers 
worked in the copper mines or in the cotton fields of the Gila and 
Salt Biver Valleys to the north.- We passed through many of these 
deserted villages whose people had moved to the mountains, talcing 
their cattle with them. 

The Papago Tribe is practically 100 per cent full blood. It is 
estimated that only about 10 per cent understand and speak English, 
but many of the Indians speak Spanish or, rather, Mexican. A 
number, now many is not known, live in Mexico. Cattle from the 
reservation cross the line and stray far into the neighboring Be- 
public, and the Indians go into Mexico to "round-up" their cattle 
and ponies. So far as the Papago Indians are concerned there is no 
international line; they pass back and forth freely without pass- 
ports, border permits, or interference. Attempts were made by 
German propagandists in Mexico to incite the Papagoes against th'ei 
United States but without success, for the Indians are loyal to this 
country. A number of young Papagoes enlisted in the Army and 
served with distinct credit. 

For more than two centuries the Franciscan Fathers have main- 
tained missions in the Papago country and it is estimated that over 
four-fifths of the tribe are Catholic j the balance are Presbyterians, 
for that church has been active in mission work in this field. Three 
Presbyterian and 6 Catholic missionaries attend to the religious 
welfare of the Indians. There are 5 Presbyterian and 11 Catholic 
churches on the reservation and the church bodies maintain 5 Catholic 
and 1 Presbyterian day school for the Indian children. Near Tucson 
is a large, well-equipped, and effectively administered Presbj^erian 
boarding school for Indians. 

Generally speaking, I found health conditions were good. Tuber- 
culosis is present but not prevalent, for these Indians work and sleep 
much in the open air, and Arizona's dry air is justly famous for its 
beneficial effect upon the tubercular afflicted. Trachoma, however, is 
on the increase. Several hundred Indians have this eye-destroying 
malady and the Indians told me the " eye sickness " is rapidly mak- 
ing headway. Last year there were two physicians attached to the 
reservation, Dr. C. O*. Anderson and Dr. S. B. Norris. The latter re- 
cently entered the Immigration Service, so there is but one physician 
to attend to 6,000 men, women, and children scattered over thousands 
of square miles. 

Dr. Anderson is enthusiastic in his work, but neither he nor any 
other doctor can possibly attend to all the sick and injured on this 
large reservation, much less devote the time which is necessary to 
fight the spread of trachoma. If an active campaign against trachoma 
is started soon and prosecuted vigorously trachoma can be eradicated 
in this country and hundreds of as fine Indians as there are in the 
United States will be saved from total blindness. To procrastinate in 
this matter will allow trachoma to become so prevalent that it will 
be almost impossible to do more than alleviate tne evil. A competent 
• trachoma specialist, with enough ^Ued aid to conduct a vigorous 



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284 BEFOAS OB BOASa> CNF INBiAK CQM.U3S&/&JSSBB. 

eampaiga against trachcmaa^ should be sent to the Papago Reserva- 
tkni ¥ery soon* 

Commissianfiir Sola's reservatioii eqaipmeni program includes the 
building of a hospital at Sella. The commissioner very wisely refused 
to go ahead with construction until it was certain the water supply 
at Sella would be ample for all agency and hospital needs. While 
there la some doubt that the agency well can furnish ^lough water 
for all needs, there seema to be bo« doubt one or two more wells will 
brinff in the required water. Excepting Dr. Anderson's office and lit* 
tie dispensary^ there is nothing approaching a hospital nearer thsui 
Tucson^ 65 miles frc»n Sells and mc»:e than a hundred miles from 
some yillagea. The situation calls for the building of the hospital as 
soon aa possible. The Indiana at San Xavier are but 11 miles from 
Tucson, with a first^laas hard road between the. two places, and Tuc- 
son phyifflcana are called upon to care for emergency cases at San 
Xavier. 

Many of the young girls of San Xavier work as domestics in Tuc- \ 
am and are much more exposed to tuberculosis than are their slaters 
in the desert^ for many eastern people seek the tuberculosis cure in , 
TuGscm. Thia probably accounta &r the greater proportion of tuber- ' 
colosia among the San Xavier Indians, although Mrs. Woodruff, the 
field matron who is kept in Tucson to look after the Papago girls who 
work there, is careful not to send the girls into white homes where 
^^ health se^rs " are taken in. 

One of the best arguments supporting the board^s repeated recom- [ 
mendationa that the field matron s^vice be raised to a higher stand- 
ard and made more effective is found in the work done in Tucson 
by Mrs. Woodruff. Her little cottage, which is centrally located, 
is the clubhouse for the Papago girls. It is a combination employ- 
loent agency, recreation center, rest room, information bureau, first 
aid for troubled girls, and emergency loaging house. This modest 
establishment, in charge of a sympathetic, conscientious, and moth- 
erly woman, is an influence for good which has won the respect and 
cordial cooperation of the white women of Tucson. It is ]ust such 
C(Hnmunity centers which ought to be placed in reservations. 
Through them the women of i& tribes could and would be reached 
and led to improve their homes and better their living conditions, 
and I am firmly of the opini(m that the sooner the Indian women 
are energized by a progressive influence the sooner the Indian 
problem will be satisfactorily solved. And Indian women can only 
be readied through other women. 

The latest available figures show there are over 1,200 cliildren eli- 
gible for school attendance on the reservation; that only 563 at-, 
tended school last year and 690 did not. The total school capacity 
on the reservation and in the Government day school and Presby- 
terian boarding school at Tucson is only 522, or 41 less than the 
total number of children who attended school. A number of chil*' 
dren were sent to nonreservation boarding schools. It will be seen,* 
then, that 55 per cent of the children who could go to school did not, 
and that the total seating capacity of all schooS is but 41 per cent 
of the number of possibk school children* Thia sad condition cer-1 
tainly does not offer a promising future to the young Papagoes. 

The educational poverty of the Papagoes is apparent to anyone 
who goes over the reservation. To meet^ in a day^s ride, with a 



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BBPOBX OS BaiJU> OF I27DIAN GOMMISSIOKEBS. 285 

jQumat Indian i^bo can speak Eaglish is an event. One day we 
teslea over 20 children of grammar-school age aiKl found but two 
who could worrr through more than a few English words. The 
Indians realize their lack of education. They are asking for schools. 
They want a boarding school on the reservation. They are thor- 
oughly alive to their great need of an education. They seem to 
understand — to thoroughly understand — that from now on they and 
their white neighbors are going to have much more to do with each 
other; that they have entered into the white man's industrial life 
and are badly handicapped because so few of them can speak the 
white man's language and read the white man's printed pag^es. An 
elderly Indian, through an interpreter, told me he had just re- 
turned from Phoenix, where his 18-year-old boy is attending the 
Indian school and he was ashamed to find his large son in a class 
with little boys. He added, he felt condemned because he had not 
sent his son to a school when he was a little boy so that now he 
could be in a class with boys and girls of his own age and size. 

The desire of the Papagoes in the southern part of the reservation 
to "get ahead " was indicated by the request of some of the older 
Indians who asked Mr. Wells^ the day-school teacher at Vamori, to 
open a ni^ht school for them. There is absolutely no chance for the 
children m the desert to attend district schools. TTie Government 
maintains five days schools on the reservation and one in Tucson, and 
there are six mission day schools. There should be three more Gov- 
ernment day schools established. 

• But above all, there should be built, as soon as an appropriation 
can be secured, a reservation boarding school having a capacity for 
260 children, at least. It coi^ld be located at Sells, Fresnal, or San 
Xavier, preferably at Fresnal or Sells, the water supply to be the de- 
ciding factor as to location. I attended three conferences with the 
Indians at San Xavier, San Miguel, and Sells, and at each one the 
Indians brought forward as one of iJieir strong desires a reservation 
boarding school. 

At San Miguel the ^)eakers said the most important thing the 
Government could do to help the Indians would be to build a reser- 
vation boarding school to teach the children the principles of modern 
dry farming, stock raising, and the trades and industries suitable 
for that country and peopfe. One of the Indians said : 

We know the value of an education, but we do not want to s«id our children 
to distant schools. It is true they learn a great deal at distant schools and 
come back to us with a good knowledge of certain trades which might be useful 
elsewhere, but is of no value here. Many of them get sick and some contract 
tuberculosis, for they are used to our dry air, and the moist air of the distant 
schools gives them the consumption, and they give it to us. We want to start 
our children in our little day schools, and th&a. send them to a boarding school 
on our reservation. 

Another said: 

I have grandchildren growing up and want to send them to school but not to 
a distant school. We would like you to go back to Washington and ask them, for 
us, to build a good, big boarding school for the Papago children. 

The headman of the village said : 

We are aU in favor of a boarding school. I myself am very much in favor of 
one. I think it ought to be built at Indiaa Oasis, which is the most central 
place. We know we are ignorant. We want to learn. We want our children 
to grow np so they can stand side by side with their white friends and to do 



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286 KEPORT OF BOABD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS, 

that they must get the kind of an education the white children get If the Gov- 
ernment really wants to help iis to help ourselves and to push ourselves along 
in the white man's road it ought to build a large boarding school on this reser- 
vation and there would be no trouble in filling it and keeping it filled, for we 
want our children to get the white children's schooling. 

There were a number of sjpeeches along the same lines. 

With the exception of the irrigated farm lands of the San Xavier 
district, the Papago Reservation is a cattle grazing and browsing 
country. Live stock now is and ever will be the mainstay of the 
nomadic Papagoes, who constitute fully 90 per cent of the tribe- 
White cattlemen say that Indians only can succeed as cattle raisers 
in the Papago desert ; that white men never have and never can learn 
the Indian trick of raising cattle without water. The history of 
cattle raising in that section bears out this statement, for a number 
of whit« men have failed in their live-stock enterprises where the 
Indians manage to " pull through " a series of droughts with their 
cattle. 

Notwithstanding that live stock is the Papago's principal industry, 
agriculture makes more than a respectable showing considering the 
arid character of the country. When the controversy over the Gov- 
ernment's expressed purj)ose to set aside what is now the reservation 
for the Indians was waging at Tucson, opponents of the reservation 
proposition declared the Government was giving away to Indians, 
who would not use them, millions of acres of the best agricultural 
land in the State. The objector had some basis for part of his 
assertion, for there are, undoubtedly, tens of thousands of acres of 
land which could be made to yield abundant crops if water in suffi- 
cient quantities could be placed on the land. But without water 
the dry soil can and does raise nothing but its native desert vegeta- 
tion and shrubbery. This vegetation, however, is what keeps the 
cattle alive between grass seasons. The summer rains start the " six 
weeks' grass," which cures on the ground and is fine feed. When it 
is grazed off, the cattle start to browsing on cactus, mesquite, various 
kinds of shrubs, and weeds. When all the water gives out in the 
fiats, the Indians and their cattle seek the mountain regions. 

In the higher levels the rainfall is heavier, the grass and browsing 
stuff more abundant, the underground water lies nearer the surface, 
so that wells are shallower; but the soil is thinner and of poorer 
quality, the ground is broken and stony, so it is necessary for the In- 
dians to go to the fiats for their little farms. These are located 
with reference to natural draininge so that the surface water de- 
posited by rains can be trapped by dikes and dams and led to the 
selected farm areas through ditches, if necessary. In this way the 
little patches of farm land are thoroughly soaked, if the rainfall is 
heavy enough. As soon as the soil is dry enough to work, it is pre- 
pared and planted. If the rainfall comes at the right time and in . 
sufficient quantities a fair crop of corn, beans, squash, etc., is secured. 

Every tall some winter wheat is sown and about once every three 
years a crop is made. Nevertheless the Papago Indians plant winter 
wheat with a persistent hope which is remarkable. The rainy season 
begins about the middle of July and rains fall through August and 
into September. Another wet spell begins in Octol^r, with inter- 
mittent rains up to April. The annual rainfall averages about 10 
inches only. The winter wheat is started in November and, if every- 



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BBPORT OF BOABD OP INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 287 

thing is favorable, harvesting begins about the middle of May. 
Generally, in the last of June and durinjg July and August, com and 
beans are planted. It is possible to raise two crops in one year on 
the same land. 

Squash is one of the principal food products raised by the desert 
people, and pumpkin and watermelons also are important truck pro- 
ductions. The squash and pumpkin are cut in strips and dried. 
Pink beans are a staple crop, and the Santa Eosa Indians took the 
first prize for pink (frijole) beans at the Arizona State Fair. The 
little "dry" farms cultivated by the nomadic Papagoes total some 
16,000 acres. Last year the rain fall was abnormally light, yet these 
arid-land agriculturalists, ever fighting the desert, which is always 
seeking its own, succeeded in forcing the desert to yield 300,000 
pounds of com, 1,800,000 pounds of beans, and about $25,000 in 
value of pumpkins, squash, watermelons, and other garden truck. 
The irrigation farmers of the San Xavier district produced 10,000 
bushels of wheat, 250 tons of barley hay (barley is raised almost en- 
tirely for hay), and about $5,000 worth of miscellaneous garden 
stuff. The desert Indians had but little winter wheat because of lack 
of rain. 

Almost a quarter of a million dollars worth of cattle were sold by 
the Indians last year — ^their own cattle, raised, branded, and handled 
entirely by themselves. The Government stockman himself is an 
Indian. It is estimated that the aggregate cattle holdings of the 
nomadic Papagoes are 30,000 head. It is not known just what the 
range capacity of the reservation is, but white cattlemen say that in 
gooa grass vears the reserve ought to feed 50^000 if not 60,000 head 
of live stock. Had it not been for the pumping plants installed by 
the Indian Service in the last few years the Indians would have lost 
a large percentage of their stock. All the cattle we saw on the range 
were thin, but I was told that considering the series of dry seasons, 
the cattle were in pretty fair condition and would fatten quickly 
when the rains came. 

Over 3,000 Indians are stockmen; that is, they depend solely on 
cattle raising as their means of livelihood. A few of them own 
over 1,000 head each; quite a number own over 500 head each. 
About 500 Indians, most of whom live in the San Xavier district, 
carry live stock as a " side line," depending for their living on irri- 
gated farms, on cutting and selling firewood to Tucson people, 
freighting, and casual unskilled labor. 

The Indian cattle is poor stock ; almost all of it is scrub stuff. 
Little if any effort has been made to improve the stock. Until re- 
cently the Papagoes were well content with their little, thin, scrubby 
steers, but now they want better stock, and one of the most effective 
aids the Government could give the Indians would be a hundred or. 
more Hereford bulls and a few good stallions and jacks. There are 
thousands of useless ponies running the range, and Supt. McCor- 
mick has started a campaign to get rid of them, for one Indian pony 
eats as much feed as two steers and drinks three times as much water 
as one. 

The eagerness of the Papagoes to " get ahead," as they express it, 
is indicated by the two organizations which were effected when I 
was on the reservation. The San Xavier farmers, under the guidance 
of Mr. Phillipson, the agency farmer, formed a water users°associa- 



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£gg B£POBX Q^ B(MkBI> Off VBHIAJS COMMiaSX0KSB& 

tkm wiMMse mirposft is to eooip^anite m tbe impro^emfifiyt of thcdr luada^ 
to refitdct tbe use of water, mod to hold monthly meetings to leam 
improved methods of cukivatioii and soil treatment fron professors 
of the Arizona Agricultural College. The nomadic Pafiagoes, at the 
sogsestioiL of Sopt. McComiieky lanned a live-stock associatioa to 
WOTK together for the uphuildiDiiir of their herds and the sale of their 
eattk. The Papago desert is an open range. No white men's cattle, 
escejp^in^ a lew stravs^ &ed on iL P&pago cattle stray across the 
line into Mexico^ and Mexican cattle drift into the reservation^ hut 
the round-ups separate the foreign &om the Indian cattle, and the 
strays are returned to their owner& The wire for a fence, 50 m3es 
in length, al<mg the international boundary line, has been bought by 
the Government, and the Indiana have volunteered to cut and pot in 
the required 26^400 fence posts and string the barb wire. Tms 50- 
mile fence will be of great benefit to the Indians, fcnr it will do much 
to keep their cattle from drifting into Mexico. i 

The desert yields food products which supplement the farm crops. * 
The beans of the mc^uite are drieA and ground into a kind of meaL ' 
The fruit of the choilla, a cactus is gathered when young, boiled and • 
dried. Sirup is made from the fruit of the sahaura, the giant cactus, 
and by adding water and permitting fermentation, tiswin, an intoxi- 
cant, is made by some of the Papagoes living in the north. The 
mescal cactus is cut, roasted in the ground a number of hours, then 
chopped up fine and baked into a cake which, when dried, is good 
for food a number of months. ITie tuberous roots of the " saya ^ are 
dng up and eaten raw or fried like potatoes. The seed of the sahuara 
is good chicken feed, and most Papago families keep some poultry. 

In addition to the $143,000 worth of farm products and $250,000 
of cattle produced by the^ tribe, over a thousand Indians earned 
$241,600 in wages working in the cotton fields, mines, on ranches and 
as domestics in Tucson and Ajo. About $15i)00 was the value of the 
baskets made and sold by 750 women, and 400 men cut and sold 
$45,000 worth of firewood and 50 Indians made $1,500 worth of hair 
rope, rawhide rope, and pottery. Over 2,000 Indians — ^heads of 
families and young men and women. — support themselves; no able- 
bodied Papago shirks work or asks alms; not one receives a gratuity 
from the Grovernment such as rations, clothing, or money save the 
little children who attend the day schools; they get a light luncheon 
at Government expense. 

The Irrigation Division of the Indian Service, with its usual zeal 
and enthusiasm, is doing particularly effective work for the Pajjago 
Indians. In recent years it has installed 18 wells, with power-driven 
pumps, in the Papago country. Five of the wells furnish the water 
tor the irrigation of 1,260 acres of land in the San Xavier district, 
every acre of which is farmed by the Indians, and 13 pumps in the 
desert are used entirely for stock and domestic purposes except those 
at Chui-chui and Ak-chin which furnish water for small irrigation 
projects. The San Xavier pumps total 163 horsepower and lift 7,000 
gallons of water a minute. Two of these pumps get their water from 
the Santa Cruz Kiver and three from wells near the river. 

The San Xavier irri^tion works include 25 miles of main and 
lateral canals, all of which were dug by the Indians and are main- 
tained by them without expense to the Govenunent. The pumping 
engines use distillate for fuel, which costs^ laid down, 16^ cents a 



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BBPOBT OF BOABD OF U7DIAK COMKISSIONEBS^ 289 

gallon, and when all the pumps are running 24 hours a day they con- 
same 400 gallons of distillate. The maximum pumping (24 hours a 
day) is done frcmi April 1 to May 15 and again from July 15 to 
August 15. 

The San Xavier farm lands lie along the Santa Cruz Siver, which 
is a typical Arizona stream — at times a swollen flood, racing bank- 
full, but generally a shallow, uncertain stream meandering between 
high banks. The pumps have been installed within the last seven 
years. Before that the Indians took water from the river by means 
of a brush dam and irrigated about 200 acres. But the river cut 
down its channel so that brush diversion dams no longer were usable 
and the present system was adopted. 

Congress appropriates $16,000 a ^^ear to operate the San Xavier 
pumps alone. Tnis makes the irrigation of those lands an ex- 
pensive propositicm. It is the opinion of many that if the pumps 
were driven by the electric current from the Tucson central station 
the operating expenses would be materially reduced. There cer- 
tainly would be a substantial reduction in the pay roll of the pump 
men, for it would cut down the reauired number from 10 to 2 or 3. 
These pump men are Indians ana receive but $1.50 a day of 12 
hours. As soon as one of them becomes more or less proficient in 
handling a pump he quits for a better paying job. Thus there is a 
continual change in pump men going on and this makes for expensive 
operation. Unless the cuiectric system is installed the wages of the 
pump men ^ould be increased; the lob should be made more at- 
tractive so as to hold a man who has been made a good pump man 
through the process of a practical education at Government expense. 

No two San Xavier pumping plants are alike ; I was told that all 
were secondhand machines when they were bou^t. Consequently 
each pumping plant must have its special crew, for but few Indians 
are far enough along the white man's road to master the intricacies 
of four diflFerent makes of gasoline engines. The Indian on pump No. 
1, for instance, can not be shifted to pump No. 7 in a case of emer- 
gency, for he has been taught to operate pump No. 1 only. If a 
part of one pump breaks, a like part from another pump can not be 
used temporarily, because all pumping engines are different from 
each other. 

I can not exactly figure out where economy was effected by buying 
for one common irrigation system five different kinds or second- 
hand pumping engines instead of installing a uniform pumping 
system, for unquestionably the result is a largely increasea operat- 
ing expense. The redeeming feature, however, is that the variety of 
equipment is ^ving a number of Papago Indians something more 
than a theoretical knowledge oi the internal arrangements of several 
makes of pumping devices, for shutdowns for repairs occur and the 
Indian pump students find an exquisite pleasure in dissecting the 
•engine to find out what is the matter with it* This gives him a 
practical knowledge of machinery and teaches him to use tools, and 
a number of Indians have become pretty good mechanics and engi- 
neers because of the five dissociated pumpmg plants at San Xavier. 

In the desert the plants are called deep wells, because all of them 
go down several hundred feet. The well at Fresnal is 595 feet to 
water; that at Topowa, 500 feet; at Vamori^ 680 feet; at Molonitas, 
350 feet and the water comes out hot. In all there are 13 deep wells, 



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890 BEPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

from which the power pumps lift from 9 to 75 gallons of water a 
minute for cattle to drink and for domestic uses. The horsepower of 
the deep-well pumps ranges from 4 to 50. At Ak-chin tne three 
wells, each with a 50-horsepower pump, lift 1,100, 950, and 750 gal- 
lons of water a minute for irrigation as well as for stock. The deep- 
well plants are at Fresnal, Topowa, Vamori, San Mi^el, Molonitos, 
Santa Eosa, Anegam, Quajote, Komolih, Jackrabbit, Cockleburr, 
Chui-chui, and Ak-chin. The well at Sells was installed by the Irri- 
gation Service, but has been turned over to the agency. To make one 
round of wells inspection requires a trip of 402 miles. I am of the 
opinion that more deep wells would open up large areas for stock 
raising, and would suggest that pumping plants be installed at Big 
Field, Tecolote, at a point halfway between San Miffuel and Topowa, 
Iron Pipe, Burros Pond, Ventana, Black Butte, and in the Pacinimo. 

Indian labor, in one capacity or another, is used at every well. 
There are only five white men in the service on this reservation. Out- 
side of San Aavier and Sells every pump is in charge of an Indian 
resident engineer and the San Xavier pump men are Indians. In- 
dians are used in all construction work as helpers and mechanics. In 
all there are 25 Indians regularly employed in the pumping service. 
Mr. Henry J. Brett, the assistant engineer of the irrigation division 
in this district, and his four assistants on the Papago Reservation, 
Stationary Engineers N. C. Huggins at San Xavier, Earl T. Knight, 
whose headquarters are at Topowa, John Pyeatt at Chui-chui, and 
John Sutherland at Ak-chin, do more than mereljr look after pumps. 
In addition to their official duties they are making mechanics and 
engineers out of Papago Indians and they are as enthusiastic and 
effective in that voluntary service as they are in the development of 
underground water supplies and installing pumping machinery. In 
this they have the active cooperation ana encouragement of Super- 
vising Engineer Herbert V. Clotts, whose headquarters are at Los 
Angeles, Calif. 

The Irrigation Division "camp" at San Xavier can not be too 
strongly condemned. It simply is a humiliating disgrace to the 
service. The so-called "tent houses" which were put up several 
years ago for the temporary use of construction gangs have become 
the permanent homes of the irrigation men and their families. To 
force Government employees to live in such habitations is beyond ex- 
planation and excuse. The summer temperature at San Xavier goes 
up to 110° and above, and the weather-beaten, ragged, patched half- 
canvas half-board shacks, without any conveniences whatever, 
would be rejected by Mexican railroad workmen. The removal of 
the agency to Sells has given the irrigation people the use of some 
rooms in a house vacated by the agency employees, but they are 
liable to be moved from them any time, for the houses belono^ to the 
agency and are for the agency people. There should be no delay in 
making satisfactory arrangements which will give the men and their 
families of the Irrigation Division decent, comfortable living 
quarters. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Malcol:^! McDowklt^, 
Memher^ Board of Indian Commissioners. 

Hon. George VArx, Jr., 

Chairman^ Board of Indian Commissioners, 



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REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 291 

APPENDIX O. 

BEFOBT OP THE ZVSl INDIAN SESEBVATION, N. HEX., BY MAL- 
COLM McDowell. 

May 15, 1919. 

Sir: The Zuni Indians, in western New Mexico, are buying and 
using more modem agricultural implements, sewing machines, beds, 
waffons, stoves, and automobiles. More Zuni farmers are adopting 
modern methods of irrigation farming, planting fruit trees, and in- 
creasing their dry-farming acreage ; most of the adobe houses in Zuni, 
the principal pueblo, now have windows set in their thick walls; 
many of the younger women have discarded the typical pueblo cos- 
tume for the dress of their white sisters; and the principal trading 
store in the reservation carries a stock of groceries, drjr goods, hard- 
ware, and general merchandise equal to the stock carried by an up- 
to-date store in a prosperous white community. 

Such are some of the surface indications of the progress the Zuiii 
Indians are making which I caught during my visit to the Zuiii 
Reservation the first week of May, 1919. These Pueblo Indians, with 
a two years' supplv of water for over 5,000 acres of irrigated land 
stored in the Blackrock Dam and with every prospect of abundant 
3'ields this year, are, seemingly, well content. Two of their principal 
officers sent the following message to " Waisinton " : " The Ashiwis 
(Zuni) are happy. All we want is larger crops and we think the 
coming harvests will be very good." 

Supt Robert J. Bauman met me at Gallup, April 30, and the next 
day took me over a very rou^h road to Blackrock, the agency head- 
quarters of the Zuni Reservation, 45 miles, hj road, south of Gallup. 
During my six days on the reservation we visited all parts of the Zuni 
Valley excepting the Nutrias district in the extreme north. Everv- 
where we found the Zuni working in their fields or with their flocks 
of sheep and goats. Nowhere were there any idle able-bodied men. 

The Indians live in four pueblos; Zuni, Ojo Caliente, Pescado, 
which is in two villages, and Nutrias. Zuni is the largest pueblo, 
and most of the Indians come there from the outlying villages for the 
winter. Blackrock, the agency seat, is 4 miles north of Zuni, and is 
the site of the reservation boarding school and the dam and storage 
reservoir where a supply of water is maintained for irrigation pur- 
poses. 

The Zuni Indians are making good progress in many ways, and 
are beginninff to break away from some of the tribal traditions and 
customs which heretofore have made them a somewhat difficult people 
to help take up progressive ideas and modern agricultural practices. 
The time seems to he opportune for making stronger eflPorts to help 
them to help themselves forward on the road to civilization, and this 
effort can be made most effective by increasing school facilities and 
encouraging the doctor and field matron by bettering their living con- 
ditions. Therefore I recommend : 

(1) A new schoolhouse with sufficient classrooms and an assembly 
hall at Blackrock. The old dormitorv building, which is occupied 
by 73 boys and 42 girls, contains not only the dining room and kitchen 
but the classrooms and reading room. There are three small class- 
rooms and the dining room, which is used for the assembly hall, is 



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292 REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COICMISSIONRBS. 

too small for all the children and employees. Several of the em- 
ployees have their quarters in this building. 

(2) A dormitory for girls. 

(3) Cottages for the superintendent, carpenter, engineer, and 
blacksmith. 

(4) The building of the new day school at Zuni, to accommodate 
250 children, for which plans have been drawn. 

(5) A better house for the agency physician, who now lives in a 
little adobe house entirely inadeauate tor the home of so important a 
person as a physician responsible for the health of so large a com- 
munity. 

(6) A home for the field matron, which should be large enough to 
serve as a community center for the Zuni. 

(7) The early exchange of railroad lands within the recent ex- 
tension of the Zuni Reservation. This affects about five townships. 

Prior to 1902 the Zuni Indians were under the supervision of 
the agent of the Pueblo Indians in Albuquerque. A day-school 
teacher and field matron were detailed to Zuni, but the Zuni Indians 
for years received little attention from the Government. Their 
country, however, was the favorite hunting ground of the ethnologist 
and archaeologist for the ruins of ancient jjueblos and cliffs dwell- 
ings abound in the Zuni Valley and the Zuni were steadfast in their 
adherance to their ancient religion, superstitions, dances, belief in 
witches, signs and omens, and in their refusal to change even a 
detail of their old-time form of government and clan organizations. 

In 1902 the Zuni Reservation was instituted and a bonded super- 
intendent sent to the Indians. That was but 17 years ago and the 
superintendent's wagon was the only vehicle with spoked wheels in 
the reservation. The Indians used the hoe and the plow made from 
the forked limb of a tree. Their only wheeled vehicle was a cart with 
clumsy wooden disks hewed from planks. A few sewing machines 
which the first field matron had induced some of the Indians to buy, 
a few iron plows and a few harrows represented the Zuni advance 
in the use of the white man's farm and household appliances. Men 
and women accused of witchcraft were tried, condemned, and exe- 
cuted by order of the Zuni government, and this happened only IT 
years ago. 

Only three superintendents have been in charge at Zuni during 
the 17 years of the reservation's existence and all proved to be good, 
conscientious, efficient superintendents. This is their record, and the 
result of their administrations is apparent to anyone who rides 
through the reserve and sees the Indians using modern plows, cul- 
tivators, harrows, seeders, disk plows and harrows, wagons, and 
automobiles. Supt. Bauman told me that in the 8 years of his 
superintendency tne number of agricultural implements alone, bought 
by the Indians, had increased 10 times over the number on the reser- 
vation when he was inducted into his office. * 

In matters of the Zuni religion, which embraces priestcraft, dances, 
and ceremonials and directly influences almost every detail of indi- 
vidual, family, and community life, these interesting Indians are 
reactionaries. They stiU are pajgans notwithstanding the years of 
missionary efforts of the Catholic, Presbyterian, and Christian Re- 
formed Churches. The rain priests continue to nominate and domi-^ 



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BEPOBT OF BOABD OF VSVIAJS GOMMISSIOigTEBS. 293 

nate the tribal civic officials; they are the real governors so far as 
tribal affairs are concerned. 

But the Blackrock Dam, with its square mile of stored water back 
of it^ sufficient for the irrigation of 5,000 acres of Zuni farm land for 
two years, is exerting a prc^ressiye influence which the^ Indians 
themselves are beginning to recognize. One of the most significant 
indications of the economic and social changes which this reservoir of 
water is quietly effecting is the movement of families awa^ from the 
pueblo of Zuni to permanent homes nearer the irrigated &rm lands. 

This radical departure from living conditions which have re- 
mained unchanged for centuries — excepting those occasions when the 
Spanish and Indian enemy invaders forced the^ Zuni to flee to the 
mountains — ^is clearly due to the confidence^ which the Zuni ^^pose 
in the dam and storage reservoir as a certain water supply. Tney, 
at last, seem to be coming to the realization that prayer dances, in- 
cantations, and ceremonials for rain no longer are absolutely neces- 
sary to bring the precious water to their plowed fields. That, in time, 
this changing state of mind will weaken the influence of the rain 
priests and bring about other changes in the line of progress is 
almost a certainty. 

The Zuni are a conservative people. They can be led much faster 
than they can be driven. They are slow to take up new things, to 
attempt novel experiments, to get out of ruts. Time, patience, and 
tact are required to lead them from their time-honored ways and 
customs. Fortunately there are a few exceptional men who, natu- 
rally, are progressive and have more courage than their fellow tribes- 
men. Supt. %auman induced them to adopt some of the modem 
methods of irrigation farming and their success developed imitators 
who also were successful. 

For instance, the Zuni used to throw manure into arroyos and 
washes to aid in checking erosion. Supt. Bauman, for some time, 
could get no Indian to spread the manure over his field. At length 
he i)ersuaded a few to do so.^ The almost immediate evidence of the 
fertilizing value of manure was so convincing that other Zuni spread 
manure over their fields and now the practice is conmion. The 
agency farm had been manured every year, but the Indians seem to 
think they could not do what the wmte men did ; it required experi- 
mentation by Zuni farmers to convince the Indians the white man's 
use of manure as a fertilizer instead of a water check was the better. 

The Zuni are an agricultural and pastoral people. Over 600 farm 
for themselves and about 500 raise live stock as a livelihood, while 
some 700 own more or less cattle and sheep. The farmers last year 
raised 1,200,000 pounds of wheat, 100,000 pounds of oats, 1,000,000 
pounds of com, 250^000 pounds of beans, 80 tons of alfalfa, and 
800,000 pounds of miscellaneous product such as squash, pumpkins, 
melons, and garden truck. Tlie live-stock census showed the Indians 
owned 41,000 sheep, 6,000 goats, 700 cows and heifers, 150 steers, 
500 burros, 400 horses (most of them Indian ponies), 450 mares, 50 
bulls, 20 ponjr and 12 large stallions^ 150 hogs and pigs, and a large 
number of chickens. There is no tribal herd, no lan(£ are leased to 
outsiders, no rations or gratuitous funds are distributed, for all 
the Indians are self-supporting and every able-bodied man and 



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294 BEPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

woman works. Instead of leasing their reservation grazing land 
to outsiders, the Zuni go outside their reservation to rent land for 
the grazing of their own cattle and sheep. No Zuni has an allotm^it. 

Last year the Zuni farmers put 2.000 acres in wheat, 150 in oats, 
1,800 in corn, 500 in beans, 60 m alialfa, and about 1,500 in miscel- 
laneous garden truck. They use about 260,000 acres for grazing 
within the reservation and rent several townships outside. 

The 1918 census taken by the superintendent reports a total popu- 
lation of 1,815, divided into 730 lamilies, all living in houses. Of 
the 546 children eligible for school 122 were students at the Zuni 
Boarding School at Blackrock, 149 at the day school at Zuni, and 27 
at the mission school conducted in the pueblo of Zuni by the Christian 
Eeform missionary. A total of 298 cnildren attended school on tho 
reservation and 20 children were in attendance at the nonreservation 
boarding school, leaving 228 children who did not attend school. 
The total capacity of all schools on the reservation is 228. 

The Indian Office has adopted plans for a new day school in the 
pueblo of Zuni to accommodate 250, which would take care of 100 
of the children who are not in school. The plans which the Indian 
Office has in mind for improving and enlarging the day school at 
Zuni provide for buildings, playgrounds, wardens, bathing facilities, 
and other improvements which should make the school a most effec- 
tive force in hastening the progress of the Indians. If the Indian 
Office would build a home for the field matron, with sufficient room 
for a little community center where the field matron could get in 
touch with the women of the tribe, I feel certain her sphere of in- 
fluence would be greatly increased. She now lives in a small, rented 
building. 

The doctor's house is not at all suitable for a white man's home. 
The Government physician at Zuni is in competition with a cult of 
medicine men who have back of them the religion, supersition, and 
tradition of centuries. He has a most difficult position. It certainly 
is not too much to ask that he be decently housed and given adequate 
dispensary facilities. 

1 he reservation boarding school at Blackrock is an old building 
which is used for a dormitory, dining room, kitchen, classroom, reacC 
ing room, assembly hall, and quarters for several agency employees. 
In bad weather there is no place for the children except the crowded 
rooms in this building. The situation can be relieved if a school 
building with an assembly hall and reading rooms would be con- 
structed, and by taking the classrooms out of the dormitory the school 
capacity would be increased. A girls' dormitory also should be built. It 
is much needed. The superintendent is living in an old cottage, one of 
the first buildings that were erected at BlacUock. A number of mar- 
ried employees are in the little mess building. There is ample room 
at Blackrock for cottages for the superintendent, carpenter, engineer, 
and blacksmith. The flour mill, with a daily capacity of 25 barrels 
of flour, has just been completed, and there is no place for the miller 
and his wife to live. Cottages for employees are a real necessity. 

Some of the women of the tribe are looking forward with consider- 
able impatience for the new flour mill to begin operation. A large 
part of their time is taken up grinding wheat and com into flour and 
meal for family use in the Zuni mill. This consists of two stones, 
one a slab which has been made concave by dint of much rubbing, on 



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BEPORT OF BOARD OF IKDIAK COMMISSIONERS. 295 

which the corn or wheat is spread. The other is a hand stone of the 
size and shape of a rolling-pin, with which the women crush the com 
and grain into flour or meal. There seems little doubt that the women 
will have their grain ground in the Government mill, and thus an- 
other of the ijicturesaue Zuni institutions will give way to modern 
methods. This may be sad news to scientists, artists, and writers 
with whom the Zuni have been favorite subjects and topics, but it 
marks a decided advance toward civilization of these backward In- 
dians. 

The Blackrock storage reservoir, which has become one of the most 
important factors in the civilization of these Indians, has back of it 
606 s<)uare miles of watershed. This is practically the Zuni Valley 
with its branches, of which the Nutrias V alley and Horsehead Can- 
yon are the principal. Most of the reservoir supply comes from the 
Zuni, Nutrias^ ana Horsehead Valleys. The dam which was built 
by the Irrigation Division of the Indian Service is 870 feet long with 
a spillway 200 feet wide. The dam is of rugged construction and a 
fine piece of work, built of stone from a quarry near by. Its exposed 
portion stands 70 feet high, but it is 110 feet from the crest to the 
bottom of core wall. The reservoir covers 620 acres, and it had a 
supply of water, when I was there, sufficient to irrigate all of the 
land m the project for two years. The average elevation of the irri- 
gable area is 6,300 feet and of the watershed 7,500 feet. The aver- 
age annual rainfall on the watershed is 12 inches and on the irrigable 
area 8 inches, and the temperature ranges from 24^ below zero to 
100° above. 

The total area of land under the Blackrock project is 7,120 acres, 
and 10 miles of main ditches and 80 of lateral ditches now irrigate 
5,500 acres. This is one of the most successful of the irrigation proj- 
ects in the Indian Service, and a comparatively small expenditure 
of money will put several thousand more acres of land under irriga- 
tion. The reservoir is menaced by silt deposited by the flood water, 
but the dam can be raised several feet, so there is little cause for ap- 
prehension that silt will fill up the reservoir for a number of years. 
The Indians are successful dry farmers and raise considerable com 
outside of the irri/^ted area. The women have gardens on the bank 
of the Zuni River, in the pueblo of Zuni, which are miniatures of their 
husbands' irrigated farms, and an astonishingly large amount of 
garden truck is raised in these little patches. 

In many ways the Zuni Indians have changed but little since the 
Spaniards under Francisco Coronado, in 1540, entered that country 
and forced the Indians to take refuge on Taaiy alone (Com Moun- 
tain), which continues to be the center of old Zuni ceremonial and 
religions rites. This picturesque mountain stands near Blackrock. 
The land is divided among the Zuni by mutual agreement and com- 
munal consent. A family " owns " by right of selection, occupancy, 
and use, and this right passes within the tribe as if the lands were 
owned in fee simple. Houses have the same character of ownership. 
If the irrigated lands there are allotted, this system of holding prop- 
erty will complicate matters unless the allotment is made by some 
one who is quite familiar with the Zuni land matters. The Zuni gov- 
emment is hierarchical ; four religious groups dominate the tribal gov- 
ernment. The principal group is the Ashiwani, the rain priests, who 
nominate the governor and his four assistants and tiie lieutenant gov- 
140923*— iNTlOl^— vol2 20 

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296 REPORT OF BOARD OP INDIAN COMMISSIONBRS. 

emor and his four assistants. The Ashiwani claim they have no part 
in civic affairs, but their influence is so strong they actually are the 
governors. Naturally the rain priests are reactionary and the Zuni 
will advance on the road to civihzation more rapidlv when the power 
of the rain priests weaken. The cane which Presiaent Lincoln gave 
to the governor of each of the pueblos in New Mexico is the staff of 
office of the governor of Zuni. 

The greater part of the marriages within the tribe is tribal. Of 
49 marriages last year 46 were tribal and 10 of the 12 divorces or 
separations were tribal. I was told that as far as morality is con- 
cerned the Zuni were moral according to their own standards. The 
tribe is somewhat off the beaten track of transcontinental travel and 
is not visited by many tourists, nor do the Zuni Indians come in con- 
tact with many white men. Their nearest neighbors are Mormons 
who live in the little village of Bamah, 25 miles east of Blackrock, 
just outside of the reservation. 

There are two Christian Reformed Church missionaries at Zuni, 
and they conduct a very jgood day school and a Younff Men's Chris- 
tian Association room. There is but one church building, the Chris- 
tian Eeformed at Zuni, on the reservation. A Catholic missionary 
from Gallup visits these Indians occasionally. Years ago the Cath- 
olic fathers maintained a mission in the Zuni country; they were 
followed by the Presbyterians and then the Christian Reformed 
Church. I was told that the net result of all of these missionary 
efforts was two church members at present. 

The tribe is divided into about 15 clans and a number of fra- 
ternities. Each clan and fraternity has dances, and in the late fall 
of the year a week is given over to the annual festival called the 
Shalako, which from all accounts is a much more pretentious and 
important celebration than the Hopi snake dance. For a time there 
seemed to be less dancing, but within recent years the dancing has 
increased, and I was told this was because some of the returned 
students became quite active in the clans and fraternities and revived 
some of the dances. Supt. Bauman told me he did not think the 
dances interfered with the work of the Indians and that most of 
them attracted but little attention. The Shalako dance, however, 
brings to the pueblo a larffe number of spectators from outside. 
It is interesting to know that no Mexicans are permitted in the 
pueblo the first day of this dance. 

The houses of these Indians are typical pueblo homes, built of 
adobe. Some of the houses have as many as eight rooms; most of 
them have windows. Sewing machines and beds are seen in many 
houses. Some of the homes of the richer Indians are rather expen- 
sively furnished, with the floors covered with Navajo and fur rugs. 
The women make pottery from the black claj which they get on 
Com Mountain and on the mesas near Ojo Caliente and Pescado. 
They weave some blankets and dresses, but most of the rugs are 
Navajo and most of the short narrow ^irts worn by Zuni women 
are made by the Hopi Indians. 

The Zuni Indians seem to be in good health. There is some tuber- 
culosis and trachoma, but the percentage of the Indians so afflicted 
is small. These Indians have a well-fed look. They eat beef, mut- 
ton, pork, chicken, com, wheat, beans, squash, watermelon, canta- 
loupe, and other garden truck. The old mission fathers years ago 



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BEPOBT OF BOARD OF INDIAN GOMMISSIONEBS. 29T 

planted peach trees on the slopes of Com Mountain and when the 
peaches are ripe the whole tribe moves to the mountain to gather 
and dry the peaches, for the Zuni are strong on conservation of food 
products. Tney are adepts in drying squash, beans, and other prod- 
ucts, and every family keeps a year's supply of com on hand. 

In 1917 approximately 73,000 acres were added to the Zuni Reser- 
vation by Executive order, increasing its area to 288,000 acres. In 
this extension are a number of sections of railroad land. Negotia- 
tions for the exchange of these lands are pending, but the war 
checked the negotiations and it is highly desirable, now that the war 
is over, that the exchange of these railroad lands should be carried 
forward as rapidlv as possible. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Malcolm McDowell, 
Memher^ Board of Indi/in Convmdssioners. 

Hon. George Vaux, Jr., 

Chairman^ Board of Indio/n Com/mdssioners, 



APPENDIX P. 

BEPOBT OK THE FTTEBIiO INDIANS OF NBW MBXICO, BY aEOBOB 

VAUX, JB. 

Brtn Mawk, Pa. 

June 28^ 1919. 
The Board of Indian Commissioners. 

Gentlemen : In accordance with your request, made at the annual 
meeting of the board held in January last, that I should continue 
my investigations among the Pueblo Indians in New Mexico, I have 
the honor to report that I devoted nearly five weeks to this subject 
in April and May last, covering the period both before and after the 
sessions of the board held in New Mexico on April 16-18. My report, 
however, covers nothing with regard to Zuni, as I was not there, but 
is devoted entirely to the Pueblos under the jurisdiction of the super- 
intendent at Albuquerque, N. Mex. Most happily Commissioner 
Ketcham was able so to arrange his plans as to accompany me in 
almost all the visiting that I did after the meeting of the board. I 
believe that the recommendations of this report are fully concurred 
in by him. At least at some of the points visited, where problems 
were very serious, there was great advantage in having two com- 
missioners present. 

In all there are 17 of these pueblos. Each of these comprises one 
recognised village, and, in addition, there are 2 dependent villages at 
Acoma, 6 at Laguna, and 1 at Isleta^ and 1 at Santa Ana. I was at 
all of tne main pueblos except Picuns and at all of the other villages 
except four. In addition I was at Pajuaque, which has been aban- 
doned comparatively recently, most of the Indians having gone to 
live at Nambe. 

At each of the pueblos that I visited, except San Felipe, there were 
conferences held to which the more important Indians were invited. 
At all of these the governors were present as well as the other officers 
and principales of the pueblos, and in addition a very considerable 
number of the leading men. We had full discussions of their needs, 



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298 BEPORT OF BOARD OF IKDIAN OOMMIBSIOiniBS. 

and they made to us numerous representations concerning them. The 
prospects for the future were also discussed. In this report and the 
recommendations which I shall make, the results of these interview.s 
are embodied. In all of these conferences we were most cordially 
received except at Santo Domingo, where there is a strong reactionary 
spirit and the Indians are absolutely unwilling to cooperate with the 
efforts of the Government to improve their conditions. 

The pueblos are very much scattered. The most northern is Taos, 
which IS about 150 miles in an air line north of Albuquerque, while 
Acoma, the one farthest to the southwest, is about 75 miles in that 
direction. Geographically the pueblos may be arranged according 
to their location in four main groups: 
Northern : 

Taos. 

Picuris. 
Central : 

Tesuque. 

Nambe. 

Pajuaque (discimtinued). 

San Ildefonso. 

Santa Clara. 

San Juan. 
South Central: 

Jeniez. 

Sia. 

Santa Ana. 

Cochiti. 

Santo Domingo. 

San Felipe. 

Sandia. 
Southern : 

Isleta. 

Laguna. 

Acoma. 
The pueblos vary very much in size as w.ell as in the advancement 
of the people and their desire to be progressive. They speak several 
different languages, although they come near to having a common 
tongue in the Spanish. About one-half of these Indians speak no 
English, although this condition is improving, and I thought I saw 
indications of advancement in the two years that had elapsed since 
I last visited some of them. 

As a matter of administration, probably the outstiinding feature 
which was the most noticeable was the absolute impracticabilitv of a 
superintendent located at Albuquerque having charge of all of these 
different villages giving proper attention to them. It is impossible 
for any man, no matter how competent he is, to do justice to such a 
task — for one reason if for no other, that the distances to be covered 
are so great that no one can possibly visit the various localities with 
any degree of regularity. For example, to reach Taos and return is 
a three-day trip from Albuquerque, and an additional day is required 
if any time is to be allotted to the Indians there; while a visit to 
Picuris, which is adjacent to Taos, would require two days more. 
Taos is some 30 miles from the nearest point on the railroad, over not 
very good roads, and Picuris is much farther. Its inaccessibility is 



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BBPOBT OF BOARD OF INDIAN GOMMISSIONEBS. 299 

shown by the fact that when I was at Taos the last week in April I 
could get no conveyance whatever to take me to Picuris because the 
roads were considered impassable owing to heavy rains and snow in 
the mountains which would have to be crossed in order to reach it. 
The average elevation of the Picuris grant is about 7,000 feet above 
sea level. Again, to reach Jemez and Sia, which are but 7 miles 
apart, requires a two-day trip by motor from Albuquerque. Nambe 
would require a day trip bv motor from either Santa Fe or Espanola. 

After considering carefully these points, I would most strongly 
urge that this jurisdiction be divided and a new superintendency be 
created with headquarters at Espanola, to which should be attached 
the seven pueblos which I have classified above as the northern and 
central groups. San Juan, Santa Clara, and San Ildefonso are 
all within a very few miles of this point, while Nambe and Tesuque 
can easily be reached from there by motor and the railroad which 
runs from Santa Fe north continues through Espanola on to Taos 
Junction, the railroad point for both Taos and Picuris. A superintend- 
ent at this point would be conveniently located so as to be reached by 
all of these Indians, and it would be possible for him to ffive the 
I>ersonid supervision to them which they require and which is en- 
tirely out of the question when the superintendency headquarters 
are so very far removed as Albuquerque. To my mind Espanola 
is a more available point to locate such a superintendency than 
Santa Fe. 

I have no sympathy with the idea that the duties of a superin- 
tendent are prmcipally to sit in his office and make himself familiar 
with multitudinous and ever-changing reffulations, but rather that he 
should be so situated that he can come in daily touch with the Indians 
who are under him, become personally acquainted with them and 
their problems, in order that he may advise them helpfully at every 
turn of their careers. This does not mean to baby tnem or belittle 
their own efforts, but it does mean that they shall have the advice 
and assistance which the Government has promised them and which 
in too many instances it is failing to give. In most cases this failure 
does not arise from lack of capacity or willingness on the part of 
superintendents, but because their attention is required to be given 
so much to office affairs that the human side of the question must 
necessarily be entirely subordinated. No administration of Indian 
affairs can be a success which views the problems from the end of 
the office organization in Washington. That organization is essential, 
but is merdy a means to an end, and Washington must view the 
problems through the eye-end of a telescope and not through the 
big end, or else Indian administration will be largely a failure. 
There are probably as many or more complex problems arising 
among the Pueblos as among any other of the Indians that we have. 
This IS because of the ^eat diversity that there is among them and 
their unique legal position arising from the variety of ways in which 
their lands are held — Spanish grants, purchases by the Indians 
themselves, Executive order reservations, and perhaps some others — 
bringing up a diversity of questions which require the utmost skill 
ond patience in their adjustment. As before stated, it is impossible 
for any one man to do what ought to be done in the wide territory 
that is covered by all these different pueblos. 



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800 HEPORT OF BOABD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONEBS. 

Much that might be done to mitigate the present situation has not 
been brought afa^ut. A comparatiTely small outlay of money would 
make it possible to very much improve some of tiie existing short- 
comings. One of them would be telephone communication by which 
all of the pueblos could be reached. This would be a matter of great 
convenience to everyone concerned and is really essential. For ex- 
ample, take a matter of health. At the present time the physician 
who is employed by the Government for all of the pueblos classed 
in the central group has his office at Espanola. The only way in 
which he can be secured for an emergency call is to send a messenger 
to his office to fetch him, and as n<xie of these Indians have motors 
it means for someone to go by horse anywhere from 7 to 30 miles to 
get the physician. The situation needs but to be stated for anyone to 
appreciate its importance. 

Another very great improvement could be made by increasing the 
efficiency of the automobiles belonging to the service. I saw scarcely 
any Government motors in New Mexico that were suitable for the 
work which is demanded of them as they are lacking in the power 
that is requisite successfully to negotiate the hills, sandy roaas and 
fords of the rivers which have to be crossed not infrequently at 
flood stage. 

I^EGAL STATUS. 

Probably the most serious question affecting the Pueblos at tlie 
present time is that respecting their legal status. When New Mexico 
was admitted as a State, the enabling act provided that Congress by 
appropriate legislation might give the United States courts exclusive 
jurisdiction over all matters relating to the Pueblos. No such legis- 
lation has ever been enacted, and there has been a diversity of view 
and practice as to whether or not the State courts have any jurisdic- 
tion where the Pueblos are parties, either in a quasi corporate ca- 
pacity or as individuals. There can be no doubt but that the best 
interests of the Indians demand that the United States courts should 
have exclusive jurisdiction over them and their affairs. All experi- 
ence has proven the improbability of their securing justice and fair 
play at the hands of State tribunals where their interests may be 
opposed to those of white citizens whose influence in the body politic 
is naturally vastly greater than that of the Indians. The same imder- 
lying principle is seen wherever there is contact between a dominant 
race and one not so far advanced. It is merely what is generally 
called human nature, and like many other similar traits must be ac- 
cepted as a fact and dealt with accordingly. No one thing could do 
more at the present time for the Indians of the country as a whole 
and for the Pueblos in particular than te have their status definitely 
and finally determined, and if, as in the case of the Pueblos in New 
Mexico, a simple law were to be passed by Congress giving the United 
States courts jurisdiction, much confusion would immediately be 
avoided, the chances of justice being done to the Indian would be 
infinitely increased, and at the same time all proper rights of their 
white neighbors would also be fully protected. 

At the present time there is pending and undecided in the United 
States court in New Mexico a controversy which will go far toward 
deciding the jurisdiction of Federal tribunals under existng law. It 
relates to very complicated questions arising out of the pueblo prac- 



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SEPOBT OF BOABD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONEBS. 301 

tice and procedure from prehistoric times as modified by progress 
toward civilization. The case to which I allude is that involving 
the custody of the title deeds and official canes of the governor of the 
pueblo of San Juan. The deeds comprise the Spanish and Mexican 
grants, etc., while the canes, which are really the insignia of the 
office of the governor, were presented to the pueblo, one bv the Span- 
iards, and the other by President Lincoln. Their custoay is passed 
on from governor to governor as that official changes. 

The regular officers of the pueblo are elected every year, usually 
not far from the 1st of January. I say elected, for that is apparently 
nominally the method of selectmg the governors and his associates. As 
a matter of fact the process is much more complicated and far less 
democratic Originally in each of the pueblos there were certain of- 
ficers known as caciques. Of these there are usually two, the ascend- 
ency of one being during the winter and that of the other during the 
summer. These men are the personification of all that is pagan, con- 
servative, and reactionary in the life of the pueblo. They are different 
from the so-called medicine men, but apparently have much of the 
same occult and degrading influence of those officials. Just prior to 
the time of the election, these two caciques meet and agree upon who 
is to be the governor, and their selection is then chosen by the people. 
It wiU thus be seen that the caciques are of very great power and 
influence in the pueblo, as they practically hold in their hands the 
final authority with regard to all appointments. 

Since 1913, in the pueblo of San Juan, there have been rival 
claimants to the position of governor and other offices. It is ex- 
ceedingly difficult to discover the exact cause of the split and the 
reasons why it has lasted so long. The trouble originated about 
1913, at the time when it was contended that the United States 
courts had no further jurisdiction over the Pueblos. This gave the 
opportunity for persons who had designs upon the real estate and 
other property oi this pueblo to use their influence among certain 
of the Indians to cause them to be disaffected, and, with the assist- 
ance of the various means that are employed by such people, such 
as the surreptitious introduction of liquor and other similar pro- 
ceedings, to create a situation of thorough demoralization wnich 
must cause much uneasiness to all true friends of the Indians. 
There are doubtless influences working at the present time at San 
Juan, highly selfish in their character, the intent of which is con- 
tinually to widen the breach between the two factions and to make 
it impossible to reconcile their differences. Some of these men are 
land speculators, while others are not openly engaged in that line 
of business. 

Boughly speaking, about one-third of tlie Indians are those who 
acknowledge the original form of government, and are docile and 
friendly to the administration of the Indian Bureau, and who stated 
openly in the protracted meetings which we held that it was their de- 
sire to conform to all of the wishes of the United States authorities. 
The other party comprises about two-thirds of the Indians, includ- 
ing those wno are inclmed to defy all authority, and who are desirous 
of so managing the affairs of the Pueblo as to speedily squander what 
little property it has left. I was informed on what seemed to be in- 
dubitable authority, of two or more deeds for Pueblo lands that had 
been prepared for signature by the San Juan officials in the event of 



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302 BBPORT 07 BOARD OF INDLU7 COMMISSIOKEB& 

this latter party being successful, and which were in the hands of the 
ackuowledged agent of speculators awaiting a determination of the 
controversy now pending, as to which of the rival governors is prop- 
erly entitled to that office. These deeds were to cover lawyers^fees, 
etc., and should this suit be determined adversely to the contention of 
the Government officials, the conveyances would be made. 

The present status of the dispute is that the majority party had 
brought proceedings in the State courts to secure process to place 
them in power. This has been contested by the minority party who 
placed the deeds and canes above mentioned in the custody of Supt. 
Lonergan for safe-keeping. The State court ordered him to produce 
these documents to it, which he declined to do under advice of coun- 
sel, and was committed for contempt of court. The United States 
court immediately intervened and the q[uestion of jurisdiction is now 
pending before tne latter. It is most smcerely to be hoped that this 
decision will be in favor of the contention of the United States Gov- 
ernment, and that the claims of the State authorities will be denied. 

It can readily be seen that so vital a controversy among the In- 
dians themselves must seriously interfere with all matters of admin- 
istration in the pueblo. When Supt. Lonergan inherited this fight 
from his predecessor he had upon his hands many very difficult prob- 
lems which it involved. After very careful investigation, and hear- 
ing much from a great many people, Indians and others, I am con- 
vinced that Supt. Lonergan's action has been for the very best inter- 
ests of the Indians and is calculated to be helpful to them, and that 
he should be supported in it in every way. although his course has nat- 
urally resulted m much antagonism to nim, not only by the party 
amon^ the Indians whom he has felt that he must oppose but also 
by white men, some of them living in the pueblo, whose schemes were 
not advanced by this position of the superintendent The Indians 
complain seriously that their superintendent has been guilty of fa- 
voritism in the distribution of seeds, implements, etc. In the meeting 
where they were questioned on this subject the majority party de- 
nied that they had received from the Government any articles of the 
sorts above named, although when individuals were asked the defi- 
nite question they admitted that the broad statement was not correct. 
Afterwards from the office at Albuquerque I secured statistics made 
up from the receipts on file there from the Indians, and found that 
11 of this partjr had received such articles during the past three years 
as compared with 19 of the other party. For this seeming discrimi- 
nation there were two reasons. In the first place, the majority party, 
being in opposition to the policy of the Groyernment, largely declined 
to asK for or receive any of the articles which were being distributed 
from the office, whereas their opponents, not being contumacious, 
were willing to accept the assistance which the Government was offer- 
ing to all alike. In the second place, the governor who was acknowl- 
edged by the office belonged to the other party. Many articles were 
issued to him in his official capacity, and such being the case the ma- 
jority declined to have anything to do with them. It seemed to me 
that the charges of favoritism were very effectively answered and dis- 
proved. It is im^ssible to force assistance on those who absolutely 
decline to receive it. 

The results of this lon^ drawn-out controversy can be seen in the 
vUlage itself, where outsiders are getting more and more foothold, 



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BBPORT OF BOABD OF INDIAN OOMMISSIONEBS. 303 

taking advantage of the lack of harmony among the Indians, and 
where the work of the pueblo is suffering seriously because of the 
clash of authority between the rival governors and their associates. 
Irrigation ditches ai^ not kept up, the usual sanitary measures in the 
village are not being looked after, and generally conditions are most 
imsanitary. Petty offenses of all sorts go unpimished and the only 

Ersons to gain uiything by it are those who are willing to see the 
dians de^royed. 

My belief is strong that a part at least of all of this trouble might 
have been avoided had the organization of the superintendency been 
such that it was geographically possible for these Indians to be 
under the very frequent eye of their superintendent. San Juan is 
less than 10 miles from Espanola, and were there a superintendent 
of tact and firmness located there, having charge of the Pueblos in 
this part of New Mexico, I believe that with the frequent personal 
contact that would have been possible a verjr lar^ part of this dif- 
ficulty could have been averted. The one train a day from Santa Fe 
to Chamita, the railroad town for San Juan, leaves Santa Fe about 
the middle of the morning, reaching Chamita in the early after- 
noon, while the returning train the next day under present railroad 
schedules does not connect with the train out of Santa Fe for Albu- 
quer(]ue, so that to attend to business at San Juan which might 
reauire but an hour would involve nearly three days of time from 
Albuquerque. The impossibility of this situation from the stand- 
point of effective administration is evident. 

I have emphasized the conditions at San Juan because I believe 
that there is likelihood that they may be repeated in several other 

Eueblos. Unfortunate as these conditions are, they would appear to 
e somewhat akin to growing pains, very disagreeable while they 
last, fraught with many dangers, and yet they are symptoms of 
progress and if rightly understood and properly handled will lead 
to no serious permanent disadvantage. With the increase of educa- 
tion, more and more the powers of the caciques will wane, and edu- 
cated men with ideals for their people will be the dominant influence 
in the pueblos. That this is no dream is shown by the situation at 
Laguna, admittedly the most advanced and best governed of any of 
these Indian villages. Here the men of influence are those who have 
received an education, who know something of the white man's 
civilization and who have aspirations that their people may profit 
by all that is best that the white man has to offer. Several of 
these men were educated at Carlisle, and if that great institution had 
done nothing else than produce them, its existence would be justified. 
Be it noted also that at Laguna there is no cacique to interfere 
with the progress of the people. In several of the other pueblos 
also, either there is no cacique at the moment or else there seems 
no line of succession for that office, and it can not be long before 
the same sort of influences that have prevailed at Laguna will 
make themselves felt in these other localities. In some of the 
other pueblos also there are men who have been educated and who 
have ideals, who are only waiting the right time to turn their backs 
entirely upon the pagan past and embrace the advantages, which 
during their school years, they have seen might be the possession of 
their people. These men need encouragement. Thw need alvice. 
Perhaps sometimes they might need restraining. Their superin- 



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304 REPOBT OF BOABD OF INDIAK OOMMISSIOKEBB. 

tendent is the one man above all others who should be so situated as 
to be able to afford them the disinterested assistance which the^ need. 

Closely connected with this problem of legal status is that involv- 
ing the land holdings of all the pueblos. It is a sorrowful problem 
which has to be met everywhere except^ possibly, at Taos, that 
through encroachments by whites and Mexicans their original pueblo 
grants, made to them by the Spanish Crown and further secured by 
the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, have been so reduced that in 
many places the land that is left is barely sufficient to afford them a 
living. This robbery has gone on ever since the American ascend- 
ancy and is going on to-day. There was not a pueblo that I visited 
where emphasis was not laid by the people upon the fact that they 
are day by day becominff poorer through being robbed of their land 
and of the water which alone can make their land available for 
agricultural purposes. With but one exception, it would seem as 
though the amount of land now under cultivation by the pueblos re- 
spectively has materially decreased during the past few years, and 
this, in face of the fact of the encouragement given to the Indians 
by the Indian Office and the introduction of much improved ma- 
chinery and farming methods. 

I well remember my first visit to the Pueblos, now over 30 years 
ago, when their plows were merely sharp-pointed sticte dragged by 
oxen. Upon the present visit I could not hear of one of these old 
implements, although I was anxious to secure such as a relic. Yet 
in face of advancement of this material sort, the results of farming 
seem to be decreasing, as above stated, because of the loss of land 
and of the water to put upon it. This is no imaginary situation. At 
Laguna, this year, there have been brought in by railroad 25 carloads 
of hay, 30,000 pounds of com, and 30,000 pounds of oats to meet the 
deficiency in crops — ^this at a village where there are 1,800 people 
ready and willing to work, and who could easily double their present 
cultivated area of about 700 or 800 acres if they had the land and 
the water to put on it. And controversies now pending in the courts 
would, if successful, deprive them of a material portion of what they 
are now cultivating. 

Some control of the squatters who are stealing the land and water 
of these Indians is absolutely essential if they are not to become 
paupers. Their livelihood comes from agriculture and sheep and 
stocK raising, and every day they are suffering at the hands of their 
neighbors, who seem not to allow a single 24 hours to pass by with- 
out pressing the Indians back somewhere a little farther. To remedy 
this situation among the Pueblos, immediate, continuous, and disin- 
terested legal action is essential. It is a satisfaction to know that 
after nearly 10 months of inactivity and because there was no one 
appointed to the position of attorney for the Pueblos, in January 
of this year Mr. Richard H. Hanna, of Albuquerque, was appointed 
to that position. Judge Hanna is a man of parts, who has been on 
the supreme court bench in the State of New Mexico and was for a 
time chief justice of that court. 

I had the privilege of discussing with him many of the legal prob- 
lems involved in these trespass cases, and I feel an assured hope that 
brighter days are dawning for the Pueblos, and with the legal action 
which Judge Hanna is about instituting, many of the wrongs which 
have been done to them run a good chance or being righted. As a 



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BEPOBT OF BOABD OF DfTDIAK OOICMXSSIONBBS. 305 

necessary preliminary to the bringing of the hundreds of suits in- 
volved, for several years past surveys of the various pueblos have 
been made, showing not only the lines of the grants, but also the lo- 
cation of all the squatters who have trespassed upon them. This 
work is now practically, if not entirely, completed, and the surveys 
will form the bases oi the necessarjr legal proceM^ings. So much 
time has elapsed that it is hopeless, in many instances, that justice 
may now be done to the Indians and their stolen lands recovered. 
There are, however, hosts of cases where adverse titles have not 
ripened and where it will be possible to recover for the Indians 
lands that are essential to their very life. I can not too strongly 
urge that Judge Hanna may be anorded every support possible 
which may Iook toward the speedy prosecution of these cases and 
their final adjudication. 

One very serious practical situation in connection with these land 
questions might very easily be improved if the recommendations 
which I emphasized two jears ago had been followed out. I refer 
to the importance of fencing the whole of the pueblo grants and re- 
servations. In almost every pueblo this matter was referred to in our 
conferences, and all of the Indians appeared to be eager to cut the 
posts and erect the fences if the Government will provide them the 
necessary wire for the purpose. I can not urge too strongly the im- 
portance of the Indian Bureau taking this matter up with activity 
and, if there are no funds available for the purpose, endeavoring to 
secure a congressional appropriation. The total amoimt of wire re- 
quired for aU the pueblos would be about 9,000 rolls. This will in- 
volve the outlav of a good deal of money, but its great importance to 
the Indians will fully justify it. At the present time the lines of the 
various grants, and reservations are not marked in such a way as to 
be plainly visible, and the result is that a squatter can very properly 
state that he was not aware that he was encroaching on Indian lands, 
as there was nothing so to indicate. I believe that this is a most im- 
portant step in the protection of the Pueblos' land rights and is a 
necessary precaution in connection with the bringing of the suits 
against squatters. 

THE SCHOOL SITUATION. 

Theoretically the Pueblos are well supplied with schools. In ad- 
dition to the two excellent boarding schools, one at Santa Fe and the 
other at Albuquerque, each of which is under a separate superin- 
tendent, there are 19 day schools which are under the Pueblo Day 
Schools Agency, the headquarters of which is located at Albuquerque. 

I visited both of the boarding schools and found their general 
condition admirable, but did not go into so detailed an investigation 
as to make it profitable to indulge in separate reports respecting 
them. The new land purchased for the Albuquerque School is of very 
great advantage to it, although Supt. Perry is of opinion that still 
greater facilities for farming are desirable. In this 1 agree with him 
and feel that if an additional plot of land which he desires to buy 
could be secured at a reasonable price, it would be a very great ad- 
vantage to the school to purchase it. 

At Santa Fe some additional buildings are very much needed. 
Supt. De Huff has several plans in mind which will supply a suit- 
able hospital and some other badly needed facilities. 



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306 BEPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN POMMISSIOHEBS. 

Besides these Government schools, there are in addition the board- 
ing schools at Santa Fe and at Bernalillo under the care of Catholic 
sisters, both of which I visited and found them in creditable condi- 
tion and doing excellent work. 

I was most mterested, however, in the day schools run by the Gov- 
ernment or under its immediate authority in the various pueblos 
themselves. As above stated, there are 19 of these schools with a 
total enrollment of 834 children. A number of the schools are quite 
insufficient for the requirements and steps should be taken to im- 
prove the conditions at once. Four of the schools are in rented 
buildings which are not at all suitable and there is also crying need 
for decent employees' quarters at several of the villages. A number 
of the field matrons are housed in ramshackle buildings which are a 
disgrace to the Indian Bureau. The equipment in these houses is 
sadly lacking also. The only wonder is that any self-respecting 
woman would endure such surroundings as are required. I believe 
that if a responsible official from Washington were to take the 
trouble to visit some of the pueblos where I was, he, too, would be 
incensed at these conditions. It is very easy to see Santa Fe and 
Albuquerque, and perhaps spend a few hours in motoring between 
these two points, stopping en route for a hasty visit at one or more of 
the pueblos near to which the road goes. Such an inspection is 
nearly useless, and gives but little idea of the conditions that exist, 
under which employees of the United States Government are ex- 
pected to give unstinted service to our Indian wards. It is not to be 
wondered that unrest and dissatisfaction are rife, and that many of 
the best people are leaving the service. They are devoting their 
lives to the work, often for ridiculously small pay. They should and 
must have decent treatment at the hands of their employer, the 
Government of the United States. 

Possibly the most important school situation is that at Santa Ana. 
Conditions here are peculiar. The pueblo is situated in a very in- 
accessible location on the left bank oi the Jemez River, which is very 
difficult to cross at that point, so that to reach it from Albuquerque 
requires an all-day trip oy motor and wagon. Part of the distance 
there is no road at all but a mere winding, shifting track largely 
over sand dunes. The whole region is more or less inundated with 
drifting sand. According to local tradition, many years ago the 
pueblo was located on the right side of the river, out the sand be- 
came so bad that site was abandoned and the present one occupied. 
This statement, however, does not appear to be capable of being sup- 
ported historically, the change in location having resulted from the 
conditions following the Pueblo Rebellion of 1680. In any event, 
the present location is a most unfortunate one. When I was there 
the village was suffering from two serious causes of damage. The 
Jemez River was rapidly undercutting in such a way as to seriously 
menace the houses along one side of one of the principal streets, while 
the drifting sand was olowing into the village ana blockading the 
streets, being in some places almost as high as the tops of the front 
doors and the first-floor windows. Fearing the complete destruction 
of their town from these two causes, during a large part of the year 
most of the Indians live at what is known as Ranchitos. This is the 
name they give to their farms which are located on the rich bottom 
land along the eastern side of the Rio Grande. 



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REPORT OP BOARD OF IITOIAN CX>MMISSIOKBBS 307 

The direct distance from their pueblo is not very great, probably not 
over a dozen or 15 miles, but lack of roads and bridges make the trip 
a difficult one. Accordingly, when the growing season comes, most 
of the Indians move to Ranchitos, but a few being left behind to take 
care of the village until such time as the majority of the population 
return widi the coming of the winter season. I am convinced that it 
would be of very ^reat advantage for these Indians to locate per- 
manently at Ranchitos. Their fields are capable of being well irri- 
gated, tne [>eople themselves are desirous of making progress, and 
any proper influence that can be brought to bear upon them to give 
up the old location should be availed of. At the present time the 
strongest influence that could be invoked would be the erection of a 
schoomouse at Ranchitos, for there is no day school provided for any 
of these Indians. Those that are in school are mostly in the boarding 
school which is conducted by the Sisters at Bernalillo. Some years 
ago a site for a schoolhouse was secured at Ranchitos, and a well sunk 
preliminary to building. No further steps, however, have been taken 
with regard to it, and I would urge most strongly that the plan for 
a school there be pushed with vigor, and a suitable schoolhouse and 
quarters for Government employees be erected. There are about 44 
children of school age and ample provision should be made for them. 
They want to go to school, and should certainly be afforded the oppor- 
tunity. If the schoolhouse should be built the general feeling was 
that the people would locate permanently on or near their farms and 
that the old pueblo would before long be abandoned entirely. Senti- 
mentally possibly there are reasons against this, but when the best 
good of a couple of hundred Santa Ana people is in the balance, there 
can be no doubt as to what is the proper course to pursue. 

Another place where a somewhat similar situation exists is at 
Acomita. The present enrollment of the school there is only 19, 
while there are supposed to be upward of 150 children of school age 
for whom no provision is made. The school is now conducted in a 
rented building, both inadequate and unsuitable for its purpose. A 
modem school building should be erected here with ample capacity 
for the Acoma people. The town of Acoma is located shout 20 miles 
in an air line south from Acomita, the latter point being on the 
main line of the Santa Fe Railroad. There is a growing tendency 
on the part of the Indians to abandon Acoma and live in more 
accessible places. Part of the reason for this is that in the vicinity 
of Acoma there is very little land that is capable of being irrigated, 
whereas in the valley of the San Jose River, where Acomita is sit- 
uated, there is a supply of water which if properly conserved will 
prove ample for present requirements. The Acoma people are very 
backward, in fact, almost resentful of anything being done to assist 
them. So long as there is the opportunity for them to remain in 
isolation at the penal of Acoma, where almost anyone can safely be 
hidden and escape from the influence of law and authority, there 
is an opportunity for them to evade their duties and responsioilities 
which can not but prove a most unfortunate influence upon them. 
Much as Acoma appeals to me, as it must to anyone having the least 
regard for history and sentiment, I believe that to minimize its im- 
portance is an important step in the progress of these people. Ample 
permanent school facilities at Acomita will tend to emphasize the 
importance of settlement there. Proper pressure will get more and 



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308 REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAK COMMISSIONERS. 

more of the children in the schools, and the progress of all of the 
people of this pueblo will be greatly enhanced. 

At Santo Domingo a schoolhouse was built several years ago and 
at that school there is now an enrollment of 61, which is about 
equal to the capacity of the building. There are believed to be 250 
children at Santo Domingo, so that it is evident that the educational 
facilities are far short of what they should be. Just at the moment, 
owing to the conditions arising from registration at the time of the 
draft, there is an unusual hold upon the Santo Domingo people, 
who, with the exception of those at San Felipe, are the least ad- 
vanced of any of the Pueblos. Every influence that can be used to 
improve them should be employed, and increased school facilities 
at this time are among the most important of these influences. Supt. 
Lonergan has been alert to this, but it is impossible to expand the 
school with its present facilities, 

I was also intormed that new schoolhouses are very important at 
Encinal, where there is an enrollment of 16 out of 52 children of 
school age; at Siama^ where there is an enrollment of 30 out of 
75 children; and at Picuris, where there is an enrollment of 20 out 
of 46. I did not have the opportunity, however, of investigating 
these situations at first hand. 

I would further recommend the importance of a new schoolhouse 
at Sia. Here is located one of the old sheet-iron buildings which is 
cold in winter and intolerably hot all the rest of the year. In the 
New Mexican climate it is douttful whether any improvement can be 
made as respects building construction oyer the adobe, the original 
material used by the Indians from prehistoric times. Where it is 
adopted, however, the sorrowful experience of the schoolhouse at 
Isleta should not be repeated. That building, completed a few years 
ago, is now fast falling into ruins, and when I was at Isleta it had 
to be closed because it was unsafe. This grew out of certain 
faults in construction which did not provide for proper ventilation, 
where the joist of the first floor came close to the ground, and also 
from certain skimping in the building. Adobe properly laid and 
protected with a coat of plaster is almost indestructible. If, however, 
the water is allowed to get in, the walls will rapidly melt and the 
whole building go to ruin in a very short time. It is therefore of the 
utmost importance that the contractors who construct such buildings 
should be Doth competent and conscientious in order that the work 
may be well and permanently constructed. The conditions in the 
Southwest are different from those in most of the rest of the country, 
and architects who design and supervise the erection of buildings 
there should have sufficient knowledge of th^ changing conditions 
and be themselves sufficiently adaptable to circumstances to enable 
them to conform to the requirements. He who has never been out- 
. side of Washington is not qualified for such work. 

Another point at which it would be desirable for some school 
facilities to be provided is Chical, a settlement on the east side 
of the Rio Grande, about 3 miles from Isleta. Twentv families 
live there permanently. The distance is too far for cnildren to 
walk back and forth to school. The tendency appears to be for 
more and more of the Indians to live near this point permanently, 
as much of their best agricultural land is located there. Proper 
school facilities certainly should be afforded. 



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KEPORT OF BOABD OF rSTDIAN OOMMISSIONEBS. 309 

COMPULSORT EDUCATION. 

Among the Pueblos, as also amon^ many other Indians, the neces- 
sity of a proper compulsory education law is very evident. There 
are but few of our modem white communities that are without such 
a provision, and the reasons which justify it among the whites are 
doubly strong among the Indians. 

The law and order measure in which Commissioner Ketcham of 
our board is taking so much interest would provide appropriate 
l^islation to secure this desirable end; it seems evident that fur- 
ther congressional enactment is necessary. The pi-esent acts of 
Congress provide that the Secretary of the Interior may withhold ra- 
tions, etc., from Indian parents or guardians who refuse or neglect to 
keep the children under their care in school and also that the Com- 
missioner of Indian Affairs, subject to the direction of the Secre- 
tary of the Interior, may make such rules and regulations as will 
secure the attendance of Indian children of suitable age and health 
at schools. 

Whether the fullest advantage has been taKen of tliis authority I 
have not been able to find out, but it is certain that some means much 
more drastic than any heretofore employed should be evoked speedily I 
to secure better school attendance. That a little pressure will often • 
do this is evident from the situation at Santo Domingo where Supt. I 
Lonergan was able to use conditions arising out of the refusal of the 
Indians to register for the draft to increase school attendance. This ' 
I think fairly shows what might be done if Congress would pass a | 
bill giving the Secretary of the Interior full authority, and if, there- 
under, proper and reasonable regulations should be'adopted which | 
would provide punishments similar to those which are m force in' 
most well regulated white communities at the present time. We all 
accept the correctness of the view that right education is the solution 
of the Indian problem. It is obvious that all the usual means adopted 
to reach the solution in that way should be put into effect imme- 
diately. 

IRRIGATION. 

As respects the material advancement of the Pueblos nothing is 
more important than the projects for improving their water supply. 
Much work has been done on this by the Irrigation Service of the 
Indian Bureau and while the amount of money spent at several of the 
pueblos is considerable, satisfaction can be taken in the assurance 
that the work has been well and economically done and the results 
have amply justified the outlay. 

The Indians of the Southwest were our first irrigation engineers 
and their ability in constructing their own diversion dams, ditches, 
etc., is remarkable. Some of their work shows a precision in connec- 
tion with grades, levels, etc., that might well be thought imposvsible 
without the use of modem high-grade scientific instruments. The 
demands for water at the present time, however, have increased tre- 
mendously and the white men and Mexicans are pretty sure to. get 
more than their full share of what is available. Hence it is, if they 
are to successfully compete in the struggle for life, that the Indians 
must be assisted and more comprehensive modern methods of storage 



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810 BEPORT OF BOABD OF n^DIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

and distribution adopted. The work of the Irrigation Service has 
comprised studying needs and possibilities, making accurate surveys, 
designing dams, reservoirs, etc., as well as their construction, the 
installing of head gates and other controlling devices and the 
building of ditches and flumes as well as advising the Indians as 
to improved methods of distributing the water over their lands. In 
addition, many wells have been bored to supply water for domestic 
purposes in the villages and at remoter points for stock, and many 
of these are equipped with windmills and tanks. 

All of this has involved an infinite amount of detail, both in study 
and in actual construction, and much credit therefor is due Mr. H. 
F. Robinson, the supervising engineer in charge, and his corps of able 
assistants. A ffood deal of attention has also been given to protective 
work, especially along the Rio Grande, which has an unfortunate 
tendency at times to mvade the best farming land by cutting out 
the banks and washing the fields away. In the first instance many 
of the Indians did not appreciate the value of having this phase 
of the situation attended to scientifically, but a little practical ex- 
perience has proven to them how much better the white men's meth- 
ods are than their own crude attempts, and many of them are now 
eager for advice and help in accordance with approved engineering 
practices. 

Notwithstanding all of the work that has been done already by the 
Irrigation Service, there is still room for very much more, and there 
are m the office plans for a number of different projects, small indeed 
as compared witli the great ones which the Government has. launched, 
but of most vital importance to niunerous Indians. There appears 
to be no diversity of sentiment as to their necessity. The principal 
question involved is that of money and if sufficient appropriations 
can be secured much can be accomplished for the permanent advance- 
ment of the people in many of the pueblos. The two most important 
projects which require immediate attention and involve a consider- 
able outlay I shall refer to very briefly. 

At the present time there is a good deal of friction between the 
Laguna people and the Acoma people owing to the distribution of 
the water on lands adjacent to the San Jose Kiver. The main ditch 
takes its supply from the river toward the western boundary of the 
Acoma grant and runs down parallel to the river for a number of 
miles, passing from the Acoma grant on to that of the Lagunas. 
The complaint is made by the latter that their neighbors above waste 
the water, with the result there is not sufficient to meet their proper 
requirements and to provide the amount to which they are legally en- 
titled. 

Mr. Robinson has plans which appear to be sound, as a matter of 
law, by which this dispute can be adjusted without much difficulty ; 
but even so, the amount of water is not large and the loss from 
evaporation and seepage is very great. The obvious way of meeting 
the situation is for the main ditch to be cemented through its entire 
length. If this yioce of construction work could be undertaken and 
the ditch run on a somewhat higher level than where it now is in 
part of its course, not only would the water be conserved and the 
supply be sufficient for land now under cultivation but, also, it 
would be possible to get under ditch additional land which is very 
much needed. In 1917 the Acomas cultivated over 716 acres along 



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BEPORT OF BOARD OF IKDIAK COMJCISSIONEBS. 311 

the San Jose Eiver, producing crops valued at nearly $24,000. The 
Lagunas have about an equal amount under cultivation. 

The other important project is the construction of the two large 
storage reservoirs at Taos. About three- fourths of the lower of these 
reservoirs would be on the Pueblo grant and the balance on the 
Carson forest reserve, while the second or upper reservoir would be 
located entirely on that reserve. The site is a very satisfactory one 
for such a development and it is very important ttiat these Indians 
should have a larger supply of water. There has recently been de- 
cided in their favor a suit by which they have recovered approxi- 
mately 6,000 acres of land which had been claimed adversely to 
them and a very material increase in the amount of water, which they 
have at their command, is essential to their well being. In addition 
to these two large projects, there are numerous smaller ones, from the 
boring of a well to the development of the underground flow of a 
river, the details of all of which are receiving attention at the hands 
of the Irrigation Service. It does not seem to be necessary to go 
into them in detail here. Some of them are referred to in another 
part of this report. 



In almost every one of the pueblos requests were made by the 
people that they might be supplied with a suitable gasoline engine, 
thrashing machine, flour mill, and frequently with a simple wood- 
sawing outfit. The importance of the Government supplying proper 
machinery of this sort is evident upon a consideration of the con- 
ditions. The cost will probably approximate $1,500 to $2,000 for each 
pueblo so equipped. The practical return to the Indians, however, 
would be very great. At tne present time there are some thrashing 
outfits. Usually, however, wnere such exist they are owned by 
private parties whose charges for their use are very high and, fre- 
quently, the Indians are not able to secure any accommcSation from 
them at the time of the year when their services are most needed, 
because, frequently, the owners are white men and the Indians are 
only looked after after everybody else has been amply provided for. 
In thrashing, usually the method of antiquity is still employed. The 
reaped stalks of grain are thrown upon a piece of ground which has 
been beaten hard, and then the ponies, or other animals, are driven 
around over it until the grain is trodden out. The method is, of course, 
wasteful and the grain winnowed in the wind is full of all sorts of 
filth and other foreign matter. The Indians who have been edu- 
cated in the Government schools appreciate how disgustingly un- 
sanitary is this situation and are clamoring insistently for improved 
methods. 

Grinding is still done by hand by the women, employing the same 
method that was in vogue when the whites first visited the country. 
A modem mill, such as those with which many farms are equipped, 
would provide a substitute for this laborious work and will at the 
same time produce a meal or flour which will make much better 
bread. 

Some of the villages where considerable hay is raised desire also 
the equipment of a baling machine. The same engine will be avail- 
140923*— INT 1919— VOL 2 21 



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312 BEPOBT OF BOABD OF IKDIAK COMMISSIOK£BS. 

able for all of this maehinery. If this equipment is to be pur- 
chased, care should be exercised that there is either some competent 
Indian or, preferably a Government farmer, who shall be responsible 
for its care and use. A moderate charge might be made to indi- 
viduals sufficient to pay for the upkeep and probably for the neces- 
sary repairs. It is not practical, however, in the present status of 
most oi these Indians, for such machinery to be purchased on a reim- 
bursable appropriation. The Indians are too poor to be able to pay 
back the cost within any term of years which could be considered. 

WOOD AND TIMBER. 

To within a comparatively short time there was what appeared 
to be an unlimited supply of firewood and timber available tov the 
use of the Indians in New Mexico. With the establishment of the 
national forests, many of which adjoin pueblo grants, conditions have 
changed and the Forest Service has interfered with the Indians secyr- 
ing flieir necessary supplies of these esswitial articles in regions to 
which they have bleen going from time immemorial. This is leading 
to serious friction, particularly latterly when, as stated to me, pay- 
ments have been exacted by the Forest Service which have seemed 
excessive and to which the Indians seriously object, as they do 
also to the annoyance of securing permits, from time to time, to 
cut a little dead and down wood tor fuel or to get out a few fence 
posts. Doubtless the Forest Service is entirely justified in its atti- 
tude, but at the same time it would seem as though some sort of an 
understanding might be arrived at between the Indian Bureau and 
the Forest Service by which the present method could be made more 
simple for the Indians and the charges waived in their case. 

Certainly this would remove a good deal of friction, especially in 
cases where forest reserves have Iteen located so as to include lands 
to which the Indians claim they have absolute title but where for 
some reason, actual or imaginary, it has been held that they have 
lost their rights. If the Government is to retain its influence, all 
sorts of petty annoyances must be removed and such questions as 
this, as they arise, must be treated practically and not with extreme 
technicality. 

STOCK. 

The need of improved stock was often apparent. Too frequently 
the Indian has allowed his desire for ponies to completely run away 
with him, and much valuable pasturage is being destroyed by herds 
of comparatively worliiless creatures who eat up and destroy much 
more forage than would an equal number of really .^ood cattle. If 
the number of ponies could be materially reduced (they might be 
shot if no other method of getting rid of them can be found), and 
their places on the range taken by cattle, the economic situation might 
be very much improved. At a number of the pueblos there is a strong 
demand for stalKons and white-faced bulls in order that the quality 
of their live stock might be improved. 

There seems to be good reason why the Pueblos should be encour- 
aged in the raising of sheep. Much of their range is very well suited 
for this industry, and a number of them are pursuing it with success. 
In order that tneir efforts may be intelligent, and produce the most 



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BSPOBX OF BOABD OV INDIAN CX)M:MISSI0N£B& 313 

satisfactory results thej should receive constant advice as to the best 
breeds in which to specialize, and also more systematic methods of dis- 
posing of the wool should be adopted. It is encouraging to note that 
the importance of this has been recognized by the Indian Bureau, and 
that an appointment has been made recently of a man who is to de- 
vote more or less of his time to this subject. A well-<]ualified ad- 
viser who could supervise the sales of wool as well as give other ad- 
vice to which I have above referred could doubtless secure for the 
Indians much higher prices than they have been receiving in the 
past for this product Heretofore too frequently the sales have been 
made in a more or less haphazard way dj the people themselves 
without any proper classification and gradmg of the wool with the 
necessary result that the prices were very much lower than would 
have be^ the case had ormnary business methods been adopted. To 
secure the best results, it is necessary that an experienced man should 
be employed who could devote his time to this highly technical line 
of work. 

In a number of places also there is a demand for fruit trees. It is 
interesting to see tiie remains still of the peach and other fruits that 
were introduced by the Spaniards in comparatively early times. 
Many of the pueblos are located in excellent fruit regions, and there 
would appear to be no reason why fruit raising should not be an 
important pursuit 

BRIDGES. 

One of the important requirements in New Mexico at the present 
time not onlv for the Indians, but for the white people as well, is a 

greater number of brid£;es across the rivers and also improved roads, 
very where this is evident 

Through the energetic efforts of Commissioner William H. 
Ketcham, a few years ago Congress appropriated money for two 
bridges across the Eio Grande, one at San Felipe and the other 
at Ideta. Each of these structures is invaluable to the pueblo near 
which it is located, and is a constant reniinder of the material out- 
come of the sort of interest in the Indians to further which the 
Board of Indian Commissioners was created and which justifies its 
activities. Both of these bridges are in need of repairs, and immedi- 
ate steps should be taken to have them repainted and also to have 
new floors laid. The latter repair is particularly needed at the 
Isieta bridge, where the Indians nave found it necessary to chink the 
cracks between the floor boards with small stones in order to prevent 
the sheep from getting their feet caught and breaking their legs. If 
these two matters, painting and new floors, are loc^ced after with 
promptness, much heavier expenses will be avoided a little later if 
the bridges are to be preserved from destruction. 

The approach to Cochiti is at present not direct and the temporary 
bridge which is being used is several miles above the village. It is 
quite unstable and liable to be washed away by high water at most 
any time. A new bridge should be provided at once, the proper 
location for it being farther south than Cochiti pueblo and about on 
the line where that grant abuts the grant of Santo Domingo. This 
site would place the bridge in such a position as to be available by 
the Santo Domingo Indians also in reaching their fields which are 



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314 REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAIT COMMISSIONERS. 

on the western side of the Eio Grande. At the present time it 
is necessary for them to make a round trip from 20 to 30 miles 
each time they go to their farms so located, whereas the proposed 
location would reduce this distance to not more than one-fourth of 
what it is at present. This bridge would also be a convenience to 
others than the Indians, as it would be near to the town of Pena 
Blanca, and it is probable that some cooperation can be secured with 
the State authorities in connection with its cost and maintenance. 

Another important bridge across the Eio Grande would, roughly 
speaking, connect Santa Clara and San Ildefonso. Its proper 
site would probably be just below the Black Mesa. It would afford 
access to Indian lands on both sides of the river from the two 

Eueblos, respectively, which are now very difficult to approach. This 
ridge also would be a great public improvement, and a little en- 
deavor would doubtless secure State assistance in its construction. 
There is a great deal of local demand for it. 

The villages of Jemez and Sia are both located on the Jemez River. 
This stream is exceedingly treacherous, as bad quicksands develop 
with great rapidity in its bed, makingcrossing at all times difficult 
and at some times very dangerous. The only available bridge at 
the present time is at San Ysidro. This bridge is not well located, 
although it is about midway between the two pueblos. The difficul- 
ties of constructing another bridge across the Jemez Eiver are con- 
siderable but not insurmountable. In order to meet certain local 
conditions it seemed to be thought that if the Government were to 
erect a bridge not far from Sia, which would be of very great value 
to the Sia people, owing to its advantage to the general public the 
county authorities would remove the present bridge from San Ysidro 
farther north so as to be much more convenient for the .Jemez people. 
This plan would probably result in an improvement which would be 
mutually advantageous. The people at Sia are very much opposed 
to having the bridge located anywhere else than immediately at their 
village. From the engineering standpoint, however, it is stated that 
such a location is not a wise one, though doubtless it would be much 
more convenient to the Indians living there. 

CARE OF PROPERTY SUPPLIED BY THE GOVERNMENT. 

An important matter for all the Pueblo Indians to appreciate is 
their own responsibility toward property which may have been 
supplied to them by the Government. As a case in point, in one 
of the towns where the Government had driven a well and supplied 
a pump, complaint was made to me that they were short of water 
because the handle of the pump had become broken and hence it 
was useless. No one seemed to have had the enterprise to purchase 
a new handle, which at the nearest market would have cost perhaps 
75 cents, and thereby put the pump in good order. Everyone was 
waiting for the Government to do this. It would seem to me that 
some systematic means should be employed of impressing upon the 
Indians the necessity of their being responsible for the care of such 
appliances after the Government has provided them. The person 
who is probably closest in touch with them in such matters would 
be the farmer, and if he should be an energetic man who was alive 
to his trust and responsibility, with a little tact he could easily see 



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REPORT OF BOARD OF INDUN COMMISSIONERS. 315 

that matters of this kind were attended to speedily by the Indians 
themselves. Excellent and civilizing lessons might be taught in this 
way. 

THE OLD CHURCHES. 

There is one sentimental matter as to which there is probably 
nothing which can be done by the United States authorities and yet 
it must appeal very strongly to anyone who is interested in the his- 
tory of the Pueblos, and who is desirous of preserving all of their 
inheritance which is of value. I refer to the condition of a number 
of the old mission churches which are among the most interesting 
of the relics of the past still existing.* A number of these are in need 
of repairs and unless something is done in the near future the build- 
ings will be very seriously damaged if they are not entirely reduced 
to ruins. While it is not probable that the exact history of any of 
them is known, yet there are several that approach 200 years in age 
or even more than that. The Indians are very proud of them and 
guard them most zealously, and in fact often dispute with the 
authorities of the church as to their real ownership, as they claim 
that they are tribal properties over which the church has little actual 
control. At the same time the Indians are unable, through lack of 
financial means, to have made the repairs which are essential. to the 
preservation of these really noble monuments. There are some la- 
mentable instances where money has been secured from outside 
sources and the churches repaired in style entirely out of keeping 
with their original architecture, the effects being in some cases 
almost grotesque. I believe it is well worth while to consider whether 
it may not be possible to find some means by which these church 
edifices can be put into good repair in keeping with their original 
style without in anywise doing violence to the feelings of anybody. 

In saying this, however, I do not wish it to be supposed that 1 have 
any sympathy with the extreme sentimentalitjr of certain classes in 
our community who would do nothing to civilize the Indian, because 
we should thereby take away from him a certain veneer of unwashed 
picturesqueness which appeals to the artistic temperament. During 
the period that I was in Albuquerque one of the newspapers there 
published an attack upon the Board of Indian Commissioners and 
its work, contending tnat our interests were to take away from the 
Indian all of his contribution to the fine arts and give him nothing 
but a commonplace and squalid civilization in its stead. In this ar- 
ticle the contention was made that Indian music is equal to the best 
of that of some of the world's ^eatest composers. There is doubtless 
much that is very appealing m certain directions that can be seen 
among the Pueblo Indians, and while we should be ready, as Dr. G. 
Stanley Hall has ur^ed in one of his addresses, to accept and retain 
all that is good in all civilization, on the other hand, if we are to be 
true to the light that has been given us we must supply all dependent 
peoples what is highest and best in our civilization. If by tnat con- 
tact it comes to be that they wear their hair neatly trimmed and the 
ordinary clothing such as we adopt rather than blankets, while they 
may not serve so well as artists' models, who can doubt that in the 
long run that they and we, too, are better off? 

With the number of these pueblos and the great diversity of con- 
ditions existing at the different ones, it would be possible to elaborate 



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816 REPOBT OF BOABD OF INDlSiK COMMISSIONfiBS. 

this report to a very much greater extent than is desirable. Accord- 
ing to recent figures, the total population was 8,271, of whom 7,827 
were full bloods. About one-half speak English and all wear citi- 
zens' clothing. The estimated gross acreage of their lands is nearly 
600,000^ acres, while their property aggregated a total value of about 
$6,000,000 ; $1,800,000 of this is individual and the rest tribal. Their 
Uve stock is valued at upward of $1,250,000. It is estimated that 335 
are suffering from tuberculosis and that nearly 1,000 have trachoma. 
Health problems are therefore serious, and it is sincerely to be hoped 
tiiat it may now be possible to secure more medical attention for them 
since the demand made by the war has ceased. I shall not, however, 
venture further into details, but submit herewith summaries in which 
the recommendations already made are stated in connection with 
each of the pueblos, and also some matters not referred to in this 
main report out which are more specific in their character, are re- 
ferred to in detail. 

■ 

ACOMA. 

The principal grievance of these people at the present time re- 
pects the loss of a considerable part of their original grant which 
was made to them by the Spanish Crown in 1689. There appear to 
have been some sales by them and a confusion of locations which 
have seriously reduced the amount of their land and bring the line 
on their southern border to within about 200 yards of the penal of 
Acoma. There seems to be considerable hardship in this situation, 
but they have been decided against twice by the surveyor general. 
The Indians have certain inaccurate information as to where their 
lines should run, growing out of the fact that they have confused the 
boundaries of the old San Estaban Mission with the boundaries of 
their grant. This has been explained to them but they either will not 
or can not understand the situation. 

I have been informed that the decision of the surveyor general was 
against the weight of the evidence presented to him. If there is 
any way by which this matter could be opened up again and the de- 
cision reviewed and some method foimd by which the lost land could 
bo restored to the Pueblos, it would be a very great advantage. 

There was explained to these Indians by Supt. Lonergan when I 
was there the importance of their securing and registering cattle 
brands in order to assist in the apprehending of stock thieves. Tlie 
Acomas should be supplied with a cattle rider, at a probable expense 
of about $1,500 per annum, who could protect their stock from such 
depredations. 

cocHm. 

There is much difficulty here from the encroachments of the Rio 
Grande, which is cutting seriously into the fields. The people are 
dependent on farming for their living and have themselves done 
considerable work on making dikes, etc., in which they have been 
materially assisted by Mr. ROTinson and the Irrigation Service peo- 
ple. There are many beavers here which are cutting down the con- 
tonwood trees along the river, thus tending to destroy what nature 

^ Probably this Ugare is misleadlnff and does not take into consideration the numerous 
losses through trespassers and squatters. 



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IXEiPOET OF BOABD OF INDIAN GOHMISSIONERS. 317 

has supplied to hold the banks toother. If they were to have a high 
line ditch on each side of the nver a very considerable amount of 
their land might be cultivated where now they have no water. 

Some of these people have traded in turquoise in the Navajo coun- 
try, but recently this has been interfered with by the superintendent 
there. I did not go into the merits of this controversy, but it would 
seem as though there should be no standing regulation which would 
prevent any legitimate line of business. 

An unusual complaint was made a^inst the Government school 
here. The Cochiti people are very anxious to have all their children 
educated. The teacher has no facilities for taking care of small 
babies and some parents did not like it because they could not be 
received at school. 

ISUSTA. 

The road through the plaza is a great disadvantage and very dan- 
gerous owing to the rapid rate of speed at which motors are fre- 
quently driven. I personally observed this. The Indians should be 
encouraged in their endeavors to get this road relocated at a point 
that would pass around the edge of the village. They have done some 
work with regard to this. 

Land north of the village which was fertile some 20 or 25 years 
ago is now water-logged so that it can no longer be used for agri- 
cultural purposes. Various reasons are alleged to account for this 
and possibly the real cause is a combination of all of them. These 
include increased irrigation of lands above, the excess water drain- 
ing down into the Indian land ; the raising of the river by the deposit 
of silt; the confining of the river by certain dikes to protect the rail- 
road; the flood system of irrigation used in the valley; the discharge 
of an irrigation "system used by the Mexicans farther to the north. 
In any event, whatever the cause, some method of draining this land 
should be adopted. 

The necessity of more water for stock and of water for domestic 
purposes in the land which has recently been fenced and used for 
dry farming is urged by the Isletas. The plan of drilling wells about 
every three miles for these purposes was suggested. If this is prac- 
tical the request is an emmently proper one. It is possible that 
spring water from the Manzano Mountains might be piped on to 
some parts of the eastern tract to better advantage than to bore wells. 

The complaint was made that the intakes to the irrigation ditches 
on the east side of the river clog with silt very often. If this is not 
due to some defect in their construction it is a condition which the 
Indians should mejBt themselves. The river is heavily loaded with silt 
and the probabilities are that the condition is one which is incident to 
the character of the water. 

The necessity of a school at Chical or of a bus to transport the 
children to the school at Isleta has been referred to in the main re- 
port, the distance being too great for them to walk. The suggestion 
of a bus is made upon the supposition that the bureau will have the 
school at Isleta immediately put into habitable condition. 

All the Indians at Isleta are Boman Catholics and they made the 
request that in selecting teachers to have charge of their schools Uiose 
of that faith be chosen. As a reason for this they state that the ez- 



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318 KEPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

ample set by the teacliers to the children respecting church attendance 
would be very helpful. 

JEMEZ. 

Jemez requires more irrigable land. A new ditch on the village-side 
of the Jemez Kiver at a higher level would enable the Indians to 
brin^ under cultivation a great deal of good agricultural land which 
now is not available. They also need help in the diking work along 
the river to prevent its further encroachments as well as a head gate 
on the westerly side of the river. I would raise the query whether it 
might be possible to develop for some of their requirements the under- 
ground flow of the Rio Chaquito. Wells in this region have not been 
successful, and water for domestic purposes is scarce. 

Their crops are good but sell for very low prices, while supplies are 
very expensive. The principal reason for this is the poor character 
of the roads. Conditions will be improved if the recommendations 
in the main report respecting bridges across the Jemez River should 
bo carried out. 

It is interesting to note, in passing, that these Indians formerly 
made a great deal of wine. Some of their old vineyards are still to be 
seen. A number of years ago the making of wine was stopped, and 
since then they have improved very materially. 

LAGITNA. 

Tlie general irrigation situation affecting Laguna and its subsidi- 
ary villages has been dwelt upon at len^h in the report. These 
people are anxious for a dam to be constructed in the Rio San Jose, 
just south of the railroad tracks and near Laguna station. It is 
doubtful whether this is practicable, as the expense would be dis- 
proportionate to the amount of land that can be reached. This, how- 
ever, is a matter for investigation. At Mesita there is a great need 
for a good supply of water for domestic use. Two windmills were 
suggested. At the present time water has to be hauled 6 miles for 
all the household purposes, making a round trip of 12 miles. The 
diversion dam at tnis point also is m bad shape. 

At Paguate some recent work has been done on the storage reser- 
voir and head gate which should be a very great improvement to the 
conditions, although the reservoir is very small. The Irrigation 
Service is about making an investigation as to whether there is not 
a better site for a dam farther up the stream. There are many fine 
fields near Paguate, most of which are included in the controversy 
with the Mexicans over title to the land, and it is to be hoped that 
everything possible will be done to secure a favorable outcome of that 
conturoversy. 

The people suffer a great deal from their cattle being stolen. If 
there could be an inspector of pelts or a cattle rider appointed much 
of this might be prevented. 

Some .years ago the Government spent about $12,000, out of an 
original limit of $17,000, for the erection and equipment of the sani- 
torium at Laguna. It is used largely for tubercular patients who are 
sent there from many reservations, some of them as far off as Wyo- 
ming or Montana. The equipment is very poor and should be 



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REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 319 

speedily improved. One of the greatest needs is the installation of 
modern laundry machinery as to which there should be no delay. In 
view of the number of the Laguna people and the way in which they 
are scattered in several villages another doctor should be supplied. 

The Lagima people are very anxious to have a general permit to 
cut timber on Mount Taylor. They now have to get a special per- 
mit for each time they need logs. This matter is referred to in the 
general section of this report 

NAMBE. 

The Nambe people appear to be getting along fairly well, although 
they are suffering keenly from an insufficient supply of water as 
a result of a court decision. Steps might be taken to develop the 
underground flow at this point. 

There is also much encroachment, largely by Mexicans, both on 
the agricultural land and on the range. These matters will doubt- 
less receive the attention of the attorney for the pueblos. 

There are about 26 children at Nambe, but no school facilities 
whatever. A schoolhouse should be provided for them. (See main 
report.) 

There should be a i^oliceman at Nambe. 

SAN ILDEFONSO. 

The importance of a bridge over the Rio Grande near this pueblo 
has Already been dwelt upon. The San Ildefonso Indians have 
suffered very great losses through squatters on their land, possibly 
more than any other of the pueolos. At the present time mey are 
much harassed by trespassing cattle, etc., and should have one or 
two policemen to look after all such matters. 

They also are very short as respects wood and timber. To the 
west there is a forest reserve from which, it would seem, that there 
might be some provision made for them. 

A very interesting water situation has been developed here by 
the conserving of the underground flow of the Rio Pajuaque, which 
flows by gravity out of the reservoir sunk in the bed of the river. 
If the grades are such as to make it possible, I would suggest that 
this excellent supply be conveyed by a pipe to the center of the vil- 
lage for domestic use. It is much superior to the well water now 
relied upon. 

SANTA CLARA. 

The most important matter which is at present disturbing the Santa 
Clara Indians is that of their so-called second Spanish grant. This 
covers certain land which they purchased in 1793 from Juan de To- 
foya. This grant the Indians claim was supposed to cover about 
90,000 acres of land, most or all of which is now included in the 
Jemez Forest. The case has been before the Court of Private Land 
Claims and decided adversely to their contention. This appears to 
have been partly upon the ground that their grantor did not have 
good title, and, also, partly possibly on the construction of the mean- 



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820 REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

ing of certain expressions contained in the grant. In any event, there 
can be no doubt but what the Indians made a purchase and paid cash, 
and, for a long time, occupied the land, and it seems as though it were 
a very small matter on the part of the United States Government for 
it to take this large tract as a public forest without any redress being 
afforded. The Indians naturally feel very bitter with regard to it, 
and it is a subject which will undoubtedly cause more friction. 

Another land difficulty is that of the overlapping of the so-called 
Baca location, and still another the Smith sale of a part of the 
original grant from the Spanish Crown in 1689. In this latter case 
the Indians gave a deed which they thought was for a right of way 
only, and this was stretched until it came to include a very large 
amount of the agricultural land .lying near the Rio Grande. Prob- 
ably it is too late now to reclaim any of this, and yet it would seem 
there ought to be some possible way of righting this injustice. 

Generally they need more water for purposes of irrigation. 

Between Santa Clara pueblo and the town of Espanola has ffrown 
up the Mexican settlement of Guachipangi. This is undoubtedly on 
wliat was originally Indian land, and the suits that are to be brought 
by Judge Hanna may determine that some of it can be recovered for 
the Pueblos. The water for this vicinity comes from the Rio Santa 
Clara, and under present conditions the Mexicans get water tiiree 
days a week and the Pueblos get it four days ; but the Mexicans are 
getting more and more land under cultivation year by year, and tak- 
mg more water, with the result that the Santa Clara people are grad- 
ually being squeezed out. This situation needs decisive action at once 
in order to secure to the Indians what there may be left to them. 

The Santa Clara people had another complaint which was different 
from any that we heard elsewhere. On their grant are included the 
Puya Cliffs, one of the best known of all of the prehistoric ruins of 
New Mexico. The tradition is that the inhabitants of these old cliff 
dwellings were the ancestors of the Santa Clara people and they 
strongly object to their ancient cemeteries being disturbed and the 
graves disinterred by relic hunters. They wish all work of this sort 
to be discontinued and the ruins to be preserved as a memorial to 
their ancestors. Thejr suggested visitors might be charged a small 
fee under the supervision of the Indian policemen, which would 
create a fund for some good purpose in the pueblo. 

While the desire of archaeologists to discover what they can re- 
specting the life and customs of the past is praiseworthy, there do 
seem to be considerations of decency involved which would make it 
wise not to disturb these ancient dwelling places without proper 
regard for those who are living. There surely are none of us who 
contemplate with satisfaction the desecration or any of the cemeteries 
in whicn we are to-day burying our relatives or where our forefathers 
have been interred, and we certainly should accord to the Santa Clara 
people the same sort of consideration in this respect which we should 
wisn to receive ourselves. 

I take it that a little tact on the part of those who have wished 
to make the excavations would have avoided all criticism, and it 
seems to me the crux of the situation has been that the Indians are 
convinced that the graves of their ancestors are being exploited for 
the pecuniary advantage of those who have made the excavations. 



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BBPOBT OF BOABD OF INDIAN GOMMISSIOKKBS. 321 

This certainly should stop. Some method can doubtless be devised 
which would be acceptable to tiie Indians and yet provide any proper 
scientific opportunity which might be desirable. 

SAN JUAN. 

San Juan presents peculiar difficulties owing to the internal dis- 
sensions whicn have been referred to at large earlier in this reporc. 
Undoubtedly the people are suffering from need of more land that 
can be put under irrigation, and from serious trespass by Mexicans 
and others. If a new ditch were to be constructed on a high level, it 
would make available a very considerable amount of land which is 
now desert. The employment of two policemen to look after tres- 
passing and the cutting of wood on the reservation would be most 
desirable. At the present time there is a scarcity of timber, yet the 
Mexicans cut the cottonwood trees along the river which is a great 
disadvantage as it allows the banks to be cut out more readily at 
times of high water. The Indians themselves, at the same time, are 
very short of fuel and also timber for construction purposes. The 
trespassing of the Mexicans should be stopped and there should be 
granted to the San Juan people more comprehensive privileges as 
respects getting their necessary supplies from the adjacent forest 
reserve. 

SANTO DOMINGO. 

The Santo Domingo Pueblos are very unwilling to do anything 
looking toward progress and say they will not accept anything from 
the Government. Evidently some one has been poisoning their minds 
and they are convinced that should the Government do anything for 
them it will make them subject to taxation in a way which they are 
not able to bear at the present time. Notwithstanding their opposi- 
tion, as recommended above, there should be a bridge across the Rio 
Grande, the best location of which probably being at the upper edge 
of their grant. 

The one serious complaint they made was that they are compelled 
to pay the United States Forest Service for wood and timber, which 
seems unfair. 

They do not care to have the Government farmer with them, but 
his innuence is doubtless on the right side and if a thrashing machine 
and mill are supplied here his presence would be necessary. 

SAN FELIPE. 

Because I was at San Felipe on a fete day it was not possible to 
have a meeting with the governor and principales. I talked with a 
number of people, however. It is interesting to note that in the past 
seven years these Indians have nearly doubfed the area of land they 
have under cultivation. They should be furnished with the usual 
equipment of agricultural machinery recommended for the other 
Pueblos and some one should be detailed to this point to take care 
of it. As recommended above, the bridge over the Eio Grande needs 
painting and a new floor. 

There is one serious difficulty in matters of administration at San 
Felipe which may apply also to other pueblos. Every individual 



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822 BEPOBT OF BOABD OF INDIAN GOMMISSIOKEBSw 

has two names, his Indian and his Christian name. Frequently 
they do not know their own Christian names or those of their parents. 
It can readily be seen how this leads to confusion. 

SIA. 

Sia is quite inaccessible and is not often visited bv anyone outside 
of the Government employees whose business actuallv compels them 
to go there. There is a shortage of tillable land, that on the east 
side of the Jemez Eiver having more alkali in it and therefore being 
much less desirable than that on the -west side. As above recom- 
mended, there should be a bridge near here crossing the river. The 
ford is exceedingly treacherous and the day I was there the gov- 
ernor of the pueblo nearly lost his life in trymg to find a way that I 
could get across the river on my return to Albuquerque. 

This pueblo has nearly 350 head of stock. The range is very poor 
and the Indians need more pasturage, especially to Qie west, xhe 
situation is complicated by the fact that the alternate sections are rail- 
road land. If these railroad sections could be consolidated, as has 
been suggested among the Navajo, it would be much to the advan- 
tage of everyone. A number of the Indians find there is not sufficient 
land left for them in their own grant and for a good naany years 
have been occupying other lands that are on the public domain. 
Steps should be taken at once by which they could file for homesteads 
in order that their rig:hts might be protected. 

There should be an irrigation ditxjh on the west side of the river. 

The domestic water supply is very poor and should be improved. 

This would seem to me a good region to further interest the In- 
dians in the cultivation of fruit, especially apples, peaches, and 
pears. To supply them with some fruit trees would be desirable. 

TAOS. 

The water situation at Taos has been considered elsewhere. It is 
the most important matter at the present time. It is important to 
these people that they have a competent farmer to have charge of the 
thrashing outfit, gristmill, and sawmill which ought to be supplied 
them. Two policemen should be appointed to look after stock and 
trespassing and who also could act as attendance officers for the 
school. At the present time the Indians hire their thrashing done. 
Harvest comes early in September and they frequently have snow 
by the middle of that month. 

The Forest Service is charging the school at this point 50 cents a 
cord for green firewood. This appears to be outrageous. 

Taos was the one pueblo I visited where I heard anything of 
peyote. It has been recently introduced, and in a year the number of 
users has increased from about 14 to some 30 or 35, mostly young 
men. They hold regular peyote services once a week, but use the 
bean at other times, and also, as I was informed, administer it to the 
sick. This is an indication of the spread of this insidious practice 
and shows the importance of the legislation heretofore urged to 
control it. 

There is much opposition in the pueblo to one of their number 
who does not wish to dress in the regular Pueblo clothing, but haa 
adopted the garb of the white men. His life has been made very 



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BEFQBT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COM MISSIOISTEBS. 323 

wretched by the petty persecutions to which he has been subjected. 
It seems to be another indication of the desire of the younger men 
to break away from the old tribal custcmis, a subject which has been 
treated more at large elsewhere. The authority of the pueblo officials 
is also involved. 

It is quite probable that the influence of the Artist Colony, as it 
is known, can also be traced here. The picturesque Indian of the 
blanket makes a good model, while the Americanized farmer, plow- 
ing or reaping in his field, is not so available for that purpose. While 
I would not be considered as charging that the artists intentionally 
interfere with the progress of the Indians, there can be no doubt 
that they are not sympathetic toward any movements which tend to 
alter abioriginal conditions. Probably the Taos people themselves 
realize this as well as anybody, for they do not hesitate to state, 
when they get confidential, that they find the " easy money " that thej 
can make for acting as models very attractive. In the final analysis 
probably this is the crux of the situation. 

Bulls and stallions should be provided at Taos. 

TESUQUE. 

There is no school at Tesuque, most of the children attending St. 
Catherine's Boarding School at Santa Fe, but a few miles distance. 
Tesuque Indians^ are much harassed by trespassing and stealing of 
water ; each year a little more is taken from them. They seem to be 
unable to protect themselves. They need range land for cattle, which 
might be arranged for on the forest reserve to the east. 
Respectfully submitted, 

George Vaux, Jr., 
Member^ Board of Indian Commissioners. 



APPENDIX Q. 

FIVE cn 

H. KETCI 

June 1, 1919. 



BEPOBT OK* THE SCHOOLS AHONQ THE FIVE CIVILIZEB TBIBES 
OF OKLAHOMA, BY WILLL^H H. KETCHAM. 



Hon. George Vaux, Jr., 

Chairman^ Board of Indian Com/missioners. 

Sir: Having been authorized by the Board of Indian Commis- 
sioners to visit the schools of the Five Civilized Tribes of Oklahoma, 
to make personal observations as to the local educational facilities 
available to the children of these tribes and to submit recommenda- 
tions concerning the same, I have the honor to report as follows : 

The question of adequate educational facilities for the children of 
the Five Civilized Tribes, to wit, the Cherokees, Choctaws, Chicka- 
saws, Mui^ogees or Creeks, and Seminoles, is one that demands im- 
mediate consideration. 

Section 10 of the act of April 26, 1906 (34 Stat, 187, 140), author- 
ized and directed the Secretary of the Interior to assume control and 
direction of the schools of the Five Civilized Tribes and to conduct 
such schools "until such time as a public-school system shall have 
been established under Territorial or State government, and proper 
provision made therevrnder for the education of the Indian chUdren 
of said tribes^ It also authorized him to set aside a sufficient amount 



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824 BBPC^T OF BOABD OF INDIAK COlClCISSIOHfiBS. 

of any funds in the Treasury of the United States belonging to said 
tribes to defray all the necessary expenses of said schools, '' using, 
however, only such portion of said runds of each tribe as may te 
requisite for the schools of that tribe, not exceeding in any one year 
for the respective tribes the amowtt expended for the scholastic year 
ending June thirtieth^ nineteen hundred and five.'^ 

As proper provision under State government for tlie education of 
the children of said tribes has not vet been made, and can not be made 
for several years, tlie schools of these tribes would be secure but for 
the fact that in the closing out of tribal affairs there appears to be 
no effort to conserve even for a time sufficient tribal educational funds 
for maintaining the few remaining institutions in which the Five 
Tribes hitherto Jiave educated, and still educate, many of their chil- 
dren. 

As for the Cherokees, they no longer have an educational fund and 
the one tribal school still maintained for them is supported by a 
direct appropriation from the Treasury of the United States. There 
may be question as to whether Congress will be willing to pursue a 
like policy in regard to the schools of the other tribes, in view of the 
fact that they still have educational funds for the conservation of 
which provision could be made. This is particularly true of the Choc- 
taws and Chickasaws, whose coal royalties now support their schools, 
and legislation could be enacted that would insure tiiem tribal educa- 
tional funds for so lonff a time as the schools may be necessary. 

Formerly the schools of each of the Five Civilized Tribes were 
more numerous by far than they are to-day. 

The Five Tribes schools at no time have been under civil service, 
although at present a number of the employees are from the civil 
service. Those in charge of the schools do not agree as to whether 
civil service or the existing status is more desirable. It is said that 
unhampered by civil service it is easier to obtain capable employees 
who are acquainted with the country and the people, and hence are 
more efficient. Others contend that under civil service it would not 
be so difficult as it is now to retain employees, and that under existing 
conditions it is impossible at times to nnd trained workers for the 
frequent vacancies that are made by the resignation of employees who 
feci no obligation to consult anybody's convenience but their own. 
I believe, however, the majority prefer the existing status. 

The schools of the Five Tribes which are stfll maintained and 
certain information concerning them are set out in the following 
tables : 

Table L — Tribal schools. 



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BBPQBT OF BOABD OF INDIAN GOMMISSIONEBS. 325 

Table II. — Tribal contract schools. 



Tribe. 


School. 


Location. 


Grades. 


Contract. 




ChoctAW 


trial 8ohool(Presbyterian).i 

8t . Agnes School (Catholic) . . . 

Murray State School of Agri- 
culture (Stote institution). 

Oklahoma Presbyterian Col- 
lege for Girls ( Presbyterian) . 

St. Agaes Academy, Girls' 

St. A^es Academy. Boys* 
Department (CathoUc). 

St. Elisabeth's School (Cath- 
oUc). 

St . Joseph's School (CathoUc). . 

El Meta Bond CoUege (private 
insUtution). 


3i miles fh>m 
Hugo. 

AnUers 

Tishomingo.:. 

Durant 

Ardmore 

do 

PuroelL 

Chickasha..... 

Mlnco 


8 

8 
12 

12 

12 

8 

12 

12 

12 


80 


Boys and girls. 
Do. 


Do 


45 


Choctaw and 
Chickasaw. 
Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 


50 Choctaw; 50 

Chickasaw. 
25 Choctaw; 25 

Chickasaw. 
50 ChocUw; 60 

Chickasaw. 
35 Choctaw; 50 

Chickasaw. 
30 Choctaw; 30 

Chickasaw. 
15 Choctaw; 10 

Chickasaw. 
12 Chootew; 35 

Chickasaw. 


Do. 
Girls. 

Do. 
Boys. 
Girls. 
Boys and girls. 

Do. 









i Under Presbyterian auspices. 

I visited Jones Male Academy, January 2, 1919; Tuskahoma Fe- 
male Academy, January 4 ; St. A^es School, January 5 ; Oklahoma 
Presbyterian College for Girls, January 6; Armstrong Male Acad- 
emy, January 7 ; Wheelock Female Academy, January 9 ; Old Good- 
land Indian Industrial School, January 10; St. Agnes Academy, 
January 11-13; Bloomfield Seminary, January 14; Murray State 
School of Agriculture, January 16 ; St. Elizabeth's School, January 
16-17; St. Joseph's School, January 18; El Meta Bond College, Janu- 
ary 18: Eufaula Boardng School, May 18; Cherokee Orphan Train- 
ing Scnool, May 19; Euchee Boarding School, May 20-21; Niiyaka 
Boarding School, Mav 21-22 ; Mekusukey Academy, May 25-26. 

On May 24 I conferred with Mr. A. S. Wyly, supervisor. Five 
Civilized Tribes schools, and Mr. Calvin Ballard, day-school super- 
intendent. Five Civilized Tribes. 

Hon. William F. Semple, principal chief of the Choctaw Tribe 
of Indians, accompanied me to the Tuskahoma Female Academy, 
St. Agnes School, and the Oklahoma Presbyterian College for Girls. 
Mr. Jules Schevitz, secretary of the Oklahoma Tuberculosis Asso- 
ciation, accompanied me to the following institutions : Jones Male 
Academy, Tuskahoma Female Academy, St. Agnes School, Eufaula 
Boarding School, Cherokee Orphan Training School, and Euchee 
Boarding School. In each school he addressed the student body 
on fundamental health topics and interested both pupils and faculty 
in the health crusade now being inaugurated among the school chil- 
dren of Oklahoma. 

I was impressed by the good judgment of the Indians of a past 
day exercised in selecting sites for their schools. They invariably 
chose the "beauty spots" of the sections in which the schools are 
located. 

All but three of the schools made a most favorable impression on 
me. Changes that recently have been made of superintendents prob- 
ably will improve conditions in two of these. It remains to be seen 
if it will not require a change of superintendent to cure the ills of the 
third school. 

I believe there should be a good stockman in each of the national 
schools, particularly the boys' schools. Successful stock raising, 
farming, and fruit culture would go a long way to support these insti- 
tutions. 



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326 REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

In every instance I recommend for the schools the various improve- 
ments that ai*e classed under the head of " needs." These recommen- 
dations, however, are predicated solely on the assumption that the 
schools are to be continued for a number of years. If the schools are 
to be discontinued after one or two years, to make any improvements 
will be nothing but a waste of money. 

J ones Male Academy. — The supermtendent of this school advocates 
the addition of the high-school course, which, he says, would insure 
more Choctaw boys making the 12 grades. At present they are in- 
clined to give up their studies after they have completed the eighth 
grade. He has improved the school farm and believes it would be 
possible to provide very materially for the support of the school 
through the development of the farm. I am informed the tribal 
officials of the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations have recommended 
that sufficient land be set aside from segregated coal and asphalt lands 
to make up a tract of 640 acres for Jones Academy. This is something 
that should be done, as the school at present has only 160 acres. 
Needs: A separate school building should be erected and the old 
buildings should be put in good repair. 

Tuskahoma FerrKde Acmemy.—ThQ superintendent of this insti- 
tution advocated the raising of the grades of the school from 8 to 12. 
The school building was destroyed by fire and the insurance money 
on this building was put into the tribal fund. I suggest, if it 
be practicable, that this money be used toward putting up a new 
building. Needs: A new school building; a 10-room cottage; a cow 
shed. 

Armstrong Male Academy is the oldest of the national schools, hav- 
ing been founded in 1856. Mr. Edward A. Porter, special supervisor 
in charge at the time of my visit, was giving particular attention 
to the industrial features of the school. He showed me some fine 
hogs and a herd of Holstein cattle. Needs : New equipment, as the 
furniture is much worn and dilapidated; steam heat; up-to-dato 
machinery; recreation rooms for the large and small boys; a silo; 
new toilets ; the light plant should be enlarged. 

Wheelock FetnaLe Acaderryy, — Miss Minta R. Foreman, a Chero- 
kee, superintendent of Wheelock, is making a fine record. Although 
this is one of the oldest of the Choctaw schools and the buildings are 
all of frame, they are in better condition than most of the modera 
buildings of the other schools. Neatness and cleanliness were every- 
where in evidence. There are only 40 acres in the school plat proper, 
although there are 130 acres of hay land some distance from the 
school. The dairy bam and all buildings are in first-class condition. 
Needs: A new furnace; another school building; cottage for em- 
ployees; a truck; the superintendent has asked for money to enlarge 
the warehouse and kitchen and make the upper story of the building 
a dormitory for small girls; as the country around is low and very 
muddy at certain seasons of the year, it is very important that a good 
road be made into Millerton. 

Section 10 of the act of April 26, 1906 (34 Stat., 137, 140J, limits 
the Secretary of the Interior, in his expenditures of any funds in the 
Treasury of the United States belonging to the Five Civilized Tribes 
for the maintenance of the schools of these tribes, to an amount of 
said funds of each tribe " not exceeding in any one year for the re- 
apective tribes the amount expended for the scholastic year ending 



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REPORT OF BOARD OT INDIAl? COMMISSIOl^rERS. 327 

Jime thirtieth^ nineteen hundred and five.^^ As in the course of time 
it has been necessary to put up new buildings, to replace some that 
have been burned or properly to carry on the work of the respective 
schools, the amount expended for the maintenance of the schools of 
certain tribes for the scholastic year ending June 80, 1905, has 
proved to be insufficient, and this ts particularly true of the Choctam 
schools, 

I, therefore, urge that Congress make provision for the use of such 
an amount of Choctaw funds over and above the amount expended 
on the Choctaw schools for the scholastic year ending June 30, 1905, 
as the Secretary of the Interior may find it necessary to expend for 
the efficient conduct of the Choctaw schools. 

Bloomfield Seminary. — ^Miss M. Eleanor Allen, the very efficient 
superintendent of this school^ has made a marvelous improvement in 
the appearance of the old building that was purchased for the insti- 
tution. To carry out her plans, there are the following needs : An 
annex, which would cost $5,000, to each of the two small dormi- 
tories ; a building that would provide space for dining room, kitchen, 
employees' room, and a suite of rooms adjoining the dining room 
for domestic science work, the cost of which would be about $25,000; 
a dairy barn ; more land^ as the school has only 2 acres, which is in- 
sufficient. With these improvements, the Bloomfield school plant 
would be ideal. 

Miss Allen advocates a school matron for the Chickasaws, whose 
duty it will be to visit the homes of the Indians and induce them to 
send their children to school. 

While in all the schools there are many Choctaw pupils, it is re- 
markable how few Chickasaws, particularly full bloods, are to be 
found. Even on the assumption that a large number of the Chicka- 
saw children, particularly part bloods, and possibly a goodly number 
of full bloods, are in the public schools, it is evident that a great 
many fuU-blood Chickasaws are not attending school. 

Several superintendents spoke in very high terms of the former 
school representative for the Choctaw Nation, Mr. Henry F. Cooper. 
They lauded his energy and interest in his work and commented on his 
success in bringing back runaways and in persuading parents to send 
their children to school. One superintendent said " he literally beat 
the bushes " to round up the children for school. 

St. Agnes School. — ^This school, conducted by the Sisters of Divine 
Providence, has an average attendance of 46 P^PJls — ^boys and girls. 
It was found to be neat, clean, and homelike. The Sisters have ad- 
mitted a comparatively large number of small boys. 

O'klahoma Presbyterian CoUege for Oirls. — ^This college is well 
equipped, has substantial buildings, and offers opportunity for high- 
scnool work. It also has a commercial course. Indian and white 
girls attend together. Dr. W. B. Morrison, the superintendent, is a 
scholar and a school man. 

Old Ooodlamd Indian Industrial /S<7A<?{>Z.— The superintendent of 
this school. Rev. Silas Bacon, and the principal, Mr. Hampton 
Kanyaubbee, are full-blood Choctaws. The school presented a very 
neat appearance. The pupils are mostly full bloods. The new hos- 
pital building is commodious. This school owes its continuance to 

140923**— INT 1919— VOL 2 22 



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828 BEPORT OF BOARD OF IKDIAN GOMMISSIONEBS. 

the devotion of Bev. Mr. Bacon, who for years has put into it his 
personal resources. The principal, althou^ a young man, seems to 
be imbued with a like spirit of devotion, xhe Old Goodland school 
serves a very useful purpose, especially for full bloods, and the 
Presbyterian church authorities will make no mistake in being gen- 
erous in their allowances to it. 

St. Agnes Academy, Girls' Department, is conducted by the Sisters 
of Mercy, whose work is well Known and appreciated throughout 
the Choctaw and particularly the Chickasaw country. 

St.' Agnes Academy, Boys' Department, under the direction of 
Bev. James J. Wallrapp, is popular and well patronized. 

St EUzdbetKs School, conducted by the Sisters of St. Francis, 
is one of the oldest educational institutions in the Chickasaw country. 
From the beginning it has done particularly good work. In addi- 
tion to the high-school course, it offers opportunity for a two years' 
commercial course. 

St. Joseph^s School, conducted by the Sisters of St. Francis, has 
only a small number or Indian pupils, but it affords, in a limited way, 
accommodation for Choctaws and Chickasaws in the vicinity of 
Chickasha who desire to educate their children in this school. In 
addition to the high-sdiool course, it also offers the advantages of a 
commercial course. 

El Meta Bond CoUege is a private school, having been founded 
some 29 years ago by Mrs. Meta Chestnut-Sager. This good lady has 
devoted ner life to the institution, which owes its existence and the 
results it has accomplished solely to her determination. She points 
with pride to several of her former pupils who have " made good " 
in the truest sense of the word. 

Murranf State School of Agriculture is well equipped. Under the 
present superintendent^ B. M. McCool, it cives eviaence of efficiency 
and genuine work and offers exceptional ad vant^es for Choctaw 
and Chickasaw pupils. Through the efforts of Hon. William H. 
Murray, who at the time r^resented the fourth congressional dis- 
trict of Oklahoma, in the Indian appropriation act approved March 
2, 1917« $50,000 was^ appropriated oy Congress out of Chickasaw 
funds tor two dormitories, one for boys and one for girls, at this 
school, ^^ for the accommodation of Chickasaw children, and, in the 
discretion of the Secretary of the Interior, for any other pupils at- 
tending said school.'' Later, in the Indian appropriation act ap- 
pro vecT May 25, 1918, Congress appropriated an additional $15,000 
for this purpose. At the time of my visit, these dormitories were 
nearing completion. They were of brick, well arranged and of 
good architectural design. Title in fee to the sites on which these 
dormitories have been built has been conveyed by the town of Tisho- 
mingo to the Chickasaw Tribe in compliance with the act of Congress 
of March 2, 1917, which provides ^^ Tiiat this appropriation shaU be- 
come available after the said city of Tishomingo shall have donated 
and conveyed by fee simple title to said tribe suitable and necessary 
sites upon which same are to be constructed." 

Cherokee Orphan Training School. — This school seems to have de- 
teriorated within the last years. The present superintendent is im- 
proving conditions as best he can under existing circumstances. He 
is handicapped because of the difficulty of maintaining a full force 
of employees. He contends that the school should be made an 



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BfiPOBT OJT BOARD OF IKDUN OOHMISSION^BS. 329 

eight-ffrade school, and in this I agree with him. Needs : The school 
h^ only 180 acres of land, and should have more, and there are two 
10-acre tracts near by, which could be purchased, one for $650 and 
the other for about ^6x>; a new dormitcary (this has been provided 
for in the Indian appropriation act, May 25, 1918, out of the funds, 
which it is estimated will be sufficient, that will remain to the credit 
of the Cherokee Tribe after all claims against the tribe have been 
adjudicated, December 25, 1919, being fixed as time limit for final 
settlement) ; a gymnasium should be built and the present assembly 
hall converted into two classrooms; there should be a new employees' 
lodge which would have room in Uie basement for dining room and 
kitdien, and the present dining room and kitchen should be turned 
into a play room ; a position should be created that will combine the 
duties of dair^an and gardener, and another that will combine the 
duties of assistant cook and dining-room matron; an additional 
teacher should be appointed, so that the disciplinarian will not have 
to teach, as is the case at present. 

At the present time the children of the Cherokee Tribe are seek- 
ing entrance into nonreservation and other Indian schools, where 
they can not have the same home advantages thev formerly enjoyed. 
In fact, the Indian school at Wyandotte in the Quapaw Superinten- 
dency is being continued largely for Cherokee pupils. 

Until recently, the Cherokee school has issued a periodical in 
English .and Cherokee, but the publication is now discontinued, and 
I am told there is only one person living who is able to set up the 
Chen^ee type. If this be true, provision should be made at once 
for training several capable CheitMcee-^peakinA^ young men to set up 
the Cherokee type so that the printing of the Language rendered im- 
mortal by Sequoyah may not become a lost art. 

Evftmia Boarding School. — ^The superintendent, Mrs. Gertrude C. 
Melton, has made this school a most excellent institution in every 
detail. I recommend that the capacity of the school be increased so 
that it may accommodate 150 pupils, and that provision be made to 
maintain and chapercm at least 12 girls while they are making the 
high-school course in the Eufaula High School, which is near the 
Indian school and be reached over a cement walk. A little planning 
and a few additions would make room for the 150 pupils and the 
two or three additional employees who would be required for the 
increased number. It would be an easy matter to add a second story 
to the employees' new lodge and fit it up for housing the extras. 
Both the sujjerintendent and Mr. Wyly, the supervisor, are heartily 
in accord with this rec<Mnmendation. Needs: More land; a base- 
ment for v^tables, which would cost about $300; new fire escapes, 
iar which $700 would suffice. 

Fuchee Boarding SchooL — ^The Euchee Tribe is distinct from the 
Creek Tribe but a ccmstituent part of the Creek Nation, and many 
of the pupils of the Euchee ScIkhjI are of the Creek Tribe. I recom- 
mend that it be made an eight-grade school, and that provision be 
made for a stipulated number of children, who will remain at the 
school after the eighth grade and pursue the high-school course in the 
new city high school, which is being built just outside the Euchee 
School fnxHmds. Supervisor Wyly concurs in this recommendation. 
Needs: a. new storeroom should be built and the present storeroom 
so altered that it may serve to ^arge the laundry; an addition 



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330 REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAK COMMISSIOKSBS* 

should be made to the manual training shop ; a teacher of agriculture 
is needed ; several of the buildings are in a poor state of repair, and 
the necessary repairs, painting, screening, and overhauling of plumb- 
ing will require an outlay of approximately $3,500. 

The Nuyaka Boarding School is the cleanest, neatest boy school I 
have ever visited. The pupils are healthy, happy, bright, mterested, 
and responsive and give evidence of efficient training and supervision. 
They reflect much credit on the young superintendent, a Cherokee, 
Mr. Jack Brown. This school should be made an eight-grade school. 
Needs: A lighting system is needed (the Delco system would cost 
about $l,500j ; a dairy barn (a suitable one for this school could be 
put up for $4,000) ; from 40 to 80 additional acres of land, as the 
school has only 40 acres; a motor truck — ^the long distance to rail- 
road stations, 12 to 16 miles, makes this a necessity ; because of the 
long distance from the railroad, there should be a resident doctor at 
the school, or at least a nurse. 

I recommend, moreover, that the present salaries for the Nuyaka 
School be increased so as to correspond with the salaries paid in 
the other schools. All salaries in the Indian Service are lower than 
they should be, and I can not see why a discrimination should be 
made in this matter prejudicial to so excellent an institution as the 
Nuyaka School. 

Mekusukey Academy is the sole remaining school for Seminole 
boys and girls, and I recommend that it be made an eight-grade 
school. Needs: A dairy and horse bam (the school bam burned 
and $1,000 insurance was turned into the tribal fund; if it can be 
done, I suggest that this money be used toward putting up the new 
building; I also suggest that if $3,000, class 4 money, deposited in 
bank, is available, it be used for the same purpose) ; a lighting sys- 
tem, for which $1,200 probably would suffice; a fire escape for a new 
dormitory occupied by 20 girls; a modern laundry; a separate school 
building; an assistant farmer; an additional employee who might 
be termed a nurse-matron (a professional nurse is not desired lor 
the reason that a nonprofessional nurse could be secured for a lower 
salary and could be detailed to other work) ; a motor truck. 

Dr. W. S. Stevens recently has been detailed by the Indian Office 
for professional work among the Seminoles. He has been remark* 
ably successful in the operations he has performed and in the cures 
he has effected, both as regards trachoma and other diseases. The 
Seminoles are much pleased and are loud in their praise of the 
doctor. 

At Supervisor Wyly's suggestion, I recommend that Dr. Stevens 
be detailed from now until September for work, where it is most 
needed, among adult members oi the Five Civilized Tribes, and after 
the opening of school in September that he be detailed to take up 
work in the schools; also that his itenerary be so arranged that he 
may at intervals follow up the work he has already done. He is con- 
vinced that follow-up visits would result in a great amount of good. 

In recommending that Mekusukey Academy be made an eight- 
grade school, as it was originally, I call attention to the fact that 
when the seventh and eighth grades were abolished it was on the sup- 
pjosition that pupils, on the completion of the sixth grade, would con- 
tinue their studies in Chilocco or other nonreservation Indian 
schools. The significant fact is, so the superintendent, Mr. Swengel, 



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BBPOBT OF BOABD OP INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 331 

states, that not one Seminole child has ever gone from Mekusukey to 
any other school. With the possible exception of the Cherokee Or- 
phan Training School, this is quite generally the case as regards the 
pupils of theTive Tribe schools, and furnishes a very strong argu- 
ment in favor of equipping all the Five Tribe schools with the eight 
grades^ of making some of them high schools, and, where it is feasible, 
of utilizing others, such as Eufaula and Sapulpa, as homes for chil- 
dren who will pursue their studies in near-by high schools. The 
Choctaws and Chickasaw national schools all are equipped with 
eight grades and the children of these tribes have high-school oppor- 
tunities in the contract schools at Durant, Tishomingo, Ardmore, 
Purcell, Chickasha, and Minco; and they are admitted to Chilocco 
and Haskell Institute an^} other nonreservation Indian schools. How- 
ever, because of the fact that they should have every opportunity the 
Grovernment can give them, and because as a rule when they complete 
the eighth grade m the national schools they almost invariably con- 
sider their education finished and quit school entirely, I recommend 
that one of the Choctaw male academies and one of the Choctaw female 
academies be made twelve-grade schools. This would give the Choc- 
taw and Chickasaw children fairly good high-school opportunities. 

The raising of the schools at Park Hill, Sapulpa, Wuyaka, and 
Mekusukey to eight-grade schools would prevent the going out of 
school after the completion of the sixth grade of so many Cnerokee, 
Creek, Euchee, and Seminole children, while the providing of fa- 
cilities for Indian children in the high schools of tlufaula and Sa- 
I>ulpa would materially enlarge the scope of opportunity for educa- 
tion for Creek and Euchee children. 

I am particularly in favor, whenever it is possible, of Indian chil- 
dren, under proper supervision, attending high schools with the 
whites. This is an advantage enjoyed by Choctaw and Chickasaw 
children who are attending high school in the Choctaw and Chicka- 
saw contract schools, and similar advantages would be offered Creek 
and Euchee children if the above recommendations in reference to 
the high schools of Eufaula and Sapulpa are carried out. 

It can not be repeated too frequently that the majority of the 
children of the Five Tribes quit school after they have finished the 
grade (sixth or eighth, as the case may be) in their local tribal 
schools. As for the full bloods who seek further advantages, they, 
for the most part, go to nonreservation schools which at best are 
Indian colonies. The contact they get with the whites in these schools 
is effected by means of the " outing system," through which the boys 
and girls are hired out to work in white families. I protest against 
this system, because it does not afford proper contact with whites for 
Indian children and it has serious disadvantages, especially for girls. 
I do not understand how the outing system can be justified, and I 
wonder how those who hire out the children of Indian parents would 
feel if the^ United States Government would hire out their children 
to do menial or other work among any people, particularly the peo- 
ple of another race. The outing system is un-American and repellant, 
notwithstanding all the arguments, utilitarian and otherwise, urged 
in its favor. 

It is true the Indian child should receive industrial training and 
should be taught and required to work, but this can be done in the 
school itself. It is unfortunate, however, that in the nonreservation 



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332 BEPOBT OF BOABD OF INDIAN GOMMISSIOKBBS. 

school, while the child can be tausht to work, it can not enjoy 

1>roper contact with the whites. I^Tertheless, for the present at 
east, the nonreservation school is necessary for a large number of 
Indian children, and so long as it is necessary it should offer full 
opportunity for academic and industrial tramin^. On the other 
hand, while contact with the whites is necessary, it is a mistake to 
cont^d that the most effective way of civilizing the Indians is to 
put the Indian child, at an early age, into the public school along 
with the whites. Tliis theory is &ing proved false in the Five 
Civilized Trib^ where large numbers of rull-blood Indian children 
are now^ominally or in fact, attending the common schools of the 
State. The fuU-blood Indian child m the public school is usually 
at a serious disadvantage, which results lar^y from race antipathy, 
the Indian's inability to sj^k English, his irregular attendance at 
school, and his actual or imagined untidiness. Either the teacher 
will not give the requisite special attention to the Indian diild that 
the child absolutely requires, or she can not do so if she would and 
at the same time do justice to her pupils generally. 

The tribal schools that still survive among the Five Tribes are 
necessary and will be necessary for some years for the full-blood 
children, as it is in these sdiools, and in them alone, they can receive 
that special, patient attention and specific instruction which will en- 
able them to acquire an adequate knowledge of the Ei^lish lang^uage 
and habits of health and cleanliness; to be cured of diseases, such as 
trachoma, with which many are affected ; to be taught to appreciate 
the advantage of an education and the necessity of striving for it. 
It is the tribal school that is best calculated to accomplish these things 
for the Indian child, who, after bein^ thus equipped, after having 
made the eight fi;rades of the tribal sdiool, can successfully contend 
with and pit^tably associate with the white child, and not oe an em- 
barrassment to any teacher nor a detriment to snj schooL He can 
associate with the whites, with advantage, in the high school, where 
his contact with them will be profitable to him. 

I further recommend that Congress make provision for higher edu- 
cation in white schools for higher learning, either of the State in 
which they live or in other States, for such children of the Five 
Tribes as nave exhausted their local opportunities and have the desire 
and requisite talent to continue their studies. The Indians of the 
Five Tribes have h&WL accustomed to opportunities of this sort, which 
explains the noticeable advancement many of them in the past have 
made. It is this fact in large measure that accounts for the leaders 
they have furnished not only their respective tribes but the new State 
of Oklahoma. 

From the latest available report of A. S. Wyly, supervisor of 
schools, Five Civilized Tribes, I quote the following statistics : 
Total number of children of scbool age of tbe Five Tribes 25,612 

Total number of tbese chUdren enrolled in the pubUc schools of Okla- 
homa (in aid of which the Congress annually makes an appropria- 
tion, which is now being diminished year by year, and which for the 
fiscal year ending Jane 90, 1919, was $250,000) 13,869 

Enrolled in the tribal boarding schools 1,347 

Enrolled In the contract achoaU 585 

Enrolled in nonreservation Indian schools 837 

Total 21,838 

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B8FOBT OF BOABD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 833 

which leaves approximately 4,000 children unaccounted for. On the 
liberal assumption that there may be 1,000 children in other schools 
of whom the supervisor has no record, it is safe to say that not less 
than 3,000 children are attending no school at all. If the tribal and 
contract schools were abolished this number would be increased 
approximately by 2,000, so that there would at least be 5,000 children 
out of school. It is scarcely reasonable to suppose that the State of 
Oklahoma can or will make adequate provision for these 5,000 chil- 
dren (mostly full bloods), and it ccm, not make adequate provision 
for the proper education of this number of Indian children needing 
special care and training. I have this on the explicit statement of 
Mr. R. H. Wilson, State superintendent of ijublic instruction. On 
the other hand, with all the educational facilities the Government 
has provided for the Lidian children of all the tribes of the United 
States, there are at tlie present time, according to the official statistics 
of the Indian Office, as many as 22,972 Inman children for whom 
there are no educational facilities. According to the authority 
quoted, the capacity of the schools (including capacity in public 
schools) is 63,324. and the children enrolled in schools p including 
those in public scnools but not reported ''.) is 63,476, so that eligible 
Ijidian children not in school number 22,972, or more than 25 per 
cent of a total school population of 90,555. 

Hence it will be seen that it is necessary to continue the tribal 
schools of the Five Civilized Tribes for a number of years — ^I would 
surest 10 years. 

i shall not dwell on the unsatisfactory results as a rule, particu- 
larly as r^rds full bloods, realized by the attendance of me 18,869 
Indian children in tlid common schools of eastern Oklahoma. While 
statistics indicate conditions are improving, the official reports show 
that many of these children do not attend school except for a few 
days during the term. I do not know how long C!ongress will be will- 
ing to contmue its aid to the common schools of Oklahoma for the 
benefit of these Indisui children, and I do not know how lon^ it will 
be before adequate provision will have been made for the eaucation 
of the 22,972 Indian children of the entire United States who at pres- 
ent have no school f apilities. I do not know whether Congress will 
be willing to supi)ort the trU>al schools of the Chickasaws, Choctaws, 
Creeks, and Seminoles, after these ta:ibes shall have dissipated all 
their tribal moneys. As yet, these particular tribes have educational 
funds, but unless decided measures are taken at once these funds will 
soon be paid out per capita and passed over to the white man. 

It would be a very easy matter for tiie Choctaws and Chickasaws 
to make ample provision for tiieir schools for 10 years, and they 
would lose nothing by so doin^, but rather would gain, because at the 
end of the 10-year period their funds would not all have been dissi- 

Sited and there would be a considerable amount remaining to be 
vided out per capita, which the individual Indian of that day 
would be more than glsul to receive. 

I have spoken on this subject with a good many representative 
Choctaws and Chickasaws and all, without exception, have admitted 
the necessity for some sudi provision, while several have offered 
su^estions as to the methods by which Uiis provision might be made. 

I therefore recommend that Congress enact such legislation as will 
insure ample educational funds for the schools of the Choctaws and 
Chickasaws for a period of 10 years. 



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334 REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

It will be far more difficult to conserve sufficient tribal funds for 
the schools of the Seminoles and the Creeks, and especially for the 
latter in view of the per capita payment authorized by the Indian 
act just passed, which leaves to the credit of the Creeks the small 
sum of $150,000. Any further per capita payments to the Creeks 
and the Seminoles will completely eat up their tribal schools. These 
payments, as Hon. G. W. Grayson, principal chief of the Creek 
Tribe of Indians, remarked to me, amount to comparatively little to 
the individual Indian, who often spends his share within a few days 
after he receives it, wnile the total amount would mean a great deal 
to the children, as it would conserve to them for years to come their 
present educational facilities. The individual Indian seems to think 
only of himself and of the present moment, and clamors for the pay- 
ment; but it is his white neighbor, particularly the merchant, who 
clamors louder still and who stimulates the Indian's desire to re- 
ceive the payment because it is he who in a short time will have the 
Indian's payment in his own pocket. It is a pity that human beings, 
that the Indian children, should be sacrificed for the small momen- 
tary advantage that accrues to the adult Indian and white from these 
payments. 

I earnestly recommend that Congress enact legislation to conserve 
the remaining tribal moneys of the Creeks and Seminoles as educa- 
tional funds, and to increase them, if possible, by whatever odds and 
ends of tribal properties there may yet perchance remain to be dis- 
posed of and by whatever outstanding claims they may still have. 
For the Creeks, in particular, funds miffht possibly be secured by 
leasing some of the school properties at oapulpa and at Nuyaka for 
oil purposes. The Sapulpa property lies directly in the oil belt. 

At present the leasing of lands of the Creek Indians for oil pur- 

S3ses would be illegal because of the fact that section 41 of the Atoka 
greement, act of March 1, 1901 (31 Stat., 861), specifically provides 
that the provision in section 13 of the act of June 28, 1898 (30 Stat, 
495), authorizing the Secretary of the Interior to make oil and gas 
leases among the Five Civilized Tribes " shall not apply to or in any 
manner affect the land or other property of said (Creek) tribe, or h& 
in force in the Creek Nation." In view of this legislation, it is im- 
perative, in order that additional funds be secured for the Creek 
schools, legislation should be enacted to amend section 41 of the act 
of March 1, 1901 so as to permit the Secretary of the Interior to 
make oil and gas leases on Creek lands, and I earnestly recommend 
such legislation. 

It is a fact worthy of note that the schools supported by tribal 
moneys are more satisfactory to the Indians than those supported 
by United States funds for the reason, I presume, that in the man- 
agement of these schools more attention is paid to the reasonable 
demands of the Indian people. This fact is impressed on one by 
comparing the one remaining school of the Cherokees with the 
schools of the Creeks, Choctaws. Chickasaws, and Seminoles; and 
it is a fact that should appeal with force to the Indian parent. 
Prominent Cherokees have admitted to me it was unfortunate that 
the Cherokees did not conserve an educational fund and that they 
gave up their academies which had accomplished so much in former 
years for the Cherokee people. The " white Cherokee " has been able 
to care for himself, but no one can see the full-blood Cherokee 



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BEPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAK COMMISSIONERS. 885 

children in the schools or visit the fiiU-blood Cherokee Indians in 
their homes without noting the deterioration that is going on among 
them ; without noting the ravages which disease, particulariy tuber- 
culosis, is making among them. The condition of manv of the Chero- 
kees of eastern Oklahoma is pathetic, and particularly so when we 
consider the history of the Cnei-okee people, the remarkable things 
many of their number have accomplished, the present high standing 
of the mixed-blood element, and the superior characteristics which 
have been accredited to this very remarkable tribe of Indians. 

Only a few years ago the Cherokees would have scorned gratuity 
from the United States Government and they prided themselves on 
their superiority over the reservation Indians. To-day they are 
seeking admission into any kind of school on equal footing with the 
most nonprogressive tribe, and their one remaming educational in- 
stitution is supported not by them, but by the United States Govern- 
ment. Let the other tribes need the lesson ! 

I think it opportune to remark that for one who, like myself, has 
known these Indians when they were self-ffoveming peoples, when 
the full blood was respected and courted because of his power to 
assert himself in tribal matters, it is with a sense of extreme regret 
one notes the falling spirits of the full blood and the loss of stand- 
ing which even many mixed bloods are beginning to suffer in their 
respective communities. While the organic law of Oklahoma classes 
Indians as whites, conditions in the State demonstrate that race 
feeling can not be controlled by legislation. 

I have had conferences with the governor of Oklahoma, Hon. 
J. B. A. Robertson; R. H. Wilson, State superintendent of 'public 
instruction ; A. S. Wyly, supervisor of schools, Five Civilized Tribes; 
and Hon. G. W. Grayson, principal chief of the Creek Tribe of In- 
dians, and find these gentlemen in accord with the recommendations 
herein set out. 

Respectfully submitted, 

WiLMAM H. KeTCHAM, 

Memher^ Board of Indian Commissioners. 



APPENDIX R. 

BrEPOBT ON HEALTH CONDITIONS IN OKLAHOMA, BY WILLIAM H. 

KETCHAM. 

Jnne 16, 1919. 

Hon. George Vaux, Jr., 

Chairman Board of Indian Commissioners. 
Sir: On Januarjr 3, 1919, accompanied by Hon. William F. 
Semple, principal chief of the Choctaw Tribe of Indians, and Mr. 
Jules igchevitz, secretary of the Oklahoma Tuberculosis Association, 
I visited the Choctaw-Chickasaw Sanatorium, Talihina. I found 
everything in good order. Dr. Van Cleave, the superintendent, is 
devoted to his work and is doing the best he can under the circum- 
stances and with the funds at his disposal. He told me that cot- 
tages are planned for the older patients. The building of these cot- 
tages would be decidedly a step forward. I have recommended them 
several times and I also have recommended that some Choctaw or 
Chickasaw Indian who speaks the language well be appointed as an 
official of some sort at the sanatorium. I know this must be done 



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336 BEPORT OF BOABD OF IKDIAN COMKISSIONEBS, 

sooner or later, because it is necessary if the sanatorium is to serve 
a useful purpose for the Choctaws and Chickasaws, and it is better 
that it should be done sooner than later. Despite Dr. Van Cleave's 
earnest efforts, the sanatorium is not popular with the Choctaws 
and Chickasaws. Some sort of campaign should be carried on in 
its behalf among the Indian people and the Indians must be made 
to feel that it is their institution and that they are dulv represented in 
it officially. There should be several matrons working constantly 
among the Choctaw and Chickasaw people, making known the ad- 
vantages of the sanatorium, and persuading those suffering from 
tuberculosis to avail themselves of these advantages. 

In visiting the Choctaw and Chickasaw schools I discovered that 
the pamphlets on health that with no little labor and with c^msider- 
able expense were translated into the Choctaw language and printed 
have not been sent to the schools as I understood was the intention 
of the Indian Office. It was thought it would be good for the schools 
to be made centers for the distribution of these pamphlets so thev 
might reach the Choctaw-speaking people through the pupils. Wiui 
the exception, however, of some or the contract schools, the school 
authorities knew nothing whatever about these health pamphlets. 
I can not discover that any one of the recommendations that have 
been made and reiterated in regard to a campaign of education among 
the Indians on the subject of tuberculosis has l^n carried out. This 
bespeaks neither earnestness nor systematic effort, both of which are 
necessary if the sanatorium is to be a success and if health condi- 
tions are to be improved among the Choctaws and Chickasaws. 

Except for the excellent work that has been done recently among 
the Seminoles by Dr. W. S. Stevens of the Indian Service, tJie 
Oklahoma Tuberculosis Association se^ns to be the only agency at 
present that is trying to do anything for the health of the Indians 
of the Five Civilized Tribes, 'fliis association has made various sug- 
gestions and offers of cooperation to the United States Indian author- 
ities, but it seems to have met with little or no response. 

The survey that was made during the short-lived health drive did 
not take in more than one-half the Choctaw and Cherokee families, 
and the information obtained has quietly been laid awav for what 
purpose is not evident. The Indian Office urges lack of funds as its 
reason for having interrupted the health drive and for not pushing 
health work among the Indians of the Five Civilized Tribes, It is 
evident that Congress should make an ample appropriation for this 
purpose. 

It is extremely unpleasant to hear the conviction quite generally 
expressed that a g^reat humanitarian movement such as the Oklahoma 
Indian health drive has not in fact been undertaken seriously nor 
for the motives announced. 

I am annually reiterating recommendations in reference to^ health 
conditions prevailing among the Five Tribes and shall continue so 
to do. The Board of Indian Commissioners must maintain a clear 
record on this subject. 

I also visited the Cherokee country in Mav, 1919, and am persuaded 
that a sanatorium for the treatment of tuberculosis should be built 
and maintained for the Cherokees. This is one of the things that a 
sense of humanity and justice must sooner or later force on the 
United States (Government I have discussed the question with the 



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REPORT OF BOARD OF INDIAN CX)MMISSIONERS. 837 

governor of Oklahoma, and with the State commissioner of health, 
Dr. A. R. Lewis, and both are in accord with me on this subject. 
They are fully awake to the necessity of providing remedial health 
measures for the Indians of the State, and are ready at any moment 
to lend whatever assistance they can to whatever effort the Federal 
Government may make in this regard. 
RespectfuUy submitted, Wiluam H. Ketcham, 

Member^ Board of Indian Com/miasionera, 



APPENDIX S. 

B.EFOBT ON LIQUOB STTPPBESSIOK OFFICE, INDIAN SERVICE, DEN- 
VEB, COLO., BY WILLIAU H. KETCHAM. 

OkijAHOma Cmr, Okla., January 1^ 1919. 
Sir: On October 1, 1918, 1 visited the office of Mr. Henry L. Lar- 
son, chief special officer, liquor suppression, Indian Service, Denver, 
Colo. No oepartment of the Indian Service is doing more beneficial 
and effective work than the liquor suppression under Mr. Larson, as 
I discovered in looking over the records of his office. The following 
items for the fiscal year 1918 will give some idea of the manner in 
which Mr. Larson and his deputies are doing their share for the bet- 
terment of conditions among the Indians: 

Fines 151 

Sentences (suspended) 41 

Sentences to the penitentiary 52 

Sentences to jail 749 

Total convictions 993 

Fines assessed against offenders, which include only part of con- 
fiscated wagons and automobiles, aggregated $120,007. 

The States in which the greatest niunber of arrests were made 
and convictions obtained were Oklahoma and Minnesota, with Okla- 
homa well in the lead, which does not make a good showing for the 
efficacy of its "bone-dry" law. It is a fact, however, that in 12 of the 
prohibition States there is a gradual, steady decrease in the viola- 
tions of the liquor laws. 

The seizure of liquor during the fiscal year 1918 totaled 36,564 
gallons. 

In these statistics no note is taken of cases pending nor of the 
many activities involved in the prosecution of the work. The scope 
of these activities may be inferred from the fact that 2,100 new cases 
were instituted and 1,522 were disposed of during the year. 

I venture to suggest that few departments of the Government can 
make a better showing as to effective work. 

I wish to commend in a special manner the efficient efforts recently 

initiated by this department on the Blackfeet Reservation, Mont., 

and on the Couer d' Alene Reservation, Idaho, for the ferreting out 

and the prosecuting of law breakers. 

Respectfully submitted, -rn- tt tr 

^ "^ ' William H. Ketcham, 

Member^ Board of Indian Corrmdssionera. 

Hon, George Vaux, Jr., 

Chairman^ Board of Indian Cow/missionfira. 



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REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT FOR THE 
FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES 



339 



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REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT FOR THE FIVE CIVILIZED 
TRIBES OF OKLAHOMA. 



Depabtmekt of thb Interior, 
United States Indian Serviob, 
OmoE OF Superintendent, Five Civilized Tribes, 

• MusJcogeey OUa., Jtdy 2S^ 1919. 
Sm : There is transmitted herewith my annual report for the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1919, accompanied by the annual reports of the 
supervisor of Indian schools for the Five Civilized Tribes aad the 
rmning trustees of the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations. 

introduction. 

Notwithstanding the interruption by war conditions and exigencies 
of the routine work incident to administering the tribal and individual 
affairs of the Five Civilized Tribes under laws and relations in force, 
definite and substantial progress has been made dunng the fiscal year 
1919. No additional l^islation seams necessary to terminate Chero- 
kee tribal affairs. 

The coal and asphalt minerals in the Choctaw and Chickasaw Na- 
tions imder the act of February 8, 1918, were offered for sale last 
December. There were 54 tracts, containing 42,103 acres, sold for 
$1,363,645.17, ieavii^ 463 tracts, containing 399,004 acres, appraised 
at $13,198,901.56. Only 13,509 acres of tribal lands, 2,404 town lots, 
and 12 building^ remain to oe sold. The coal and asphalt, and prac- 
tically all remaining tribal propertv, except school buildings, will be 
reoffered for sale next fall. The last parcel of 10 acres of land in 
the Cherokee Nation is advertised to sell Julv 24, 1919. 

Especial emphasis has been laid upon agriculture and stock raising, 

{mtting under cultivation additional aoreage, building and equipping 
arm homes among the reslaicted Indians, lliey nave responded 
even beyond expectations, and gratifying process has been made. 
It is encouraging to know that many are tindihg themselves under 
the changed ana more intensively competitive conditions, and by 
their efforts are maintaining themselves m j^ater comfort and con- 
venience. One fuU-blood Cidian, i^BalW pnmitive in his life, raised, 
kUled, and properly cured 19 hogs, sufficient meat for his family for 
the year, and some to sell. He sent me a ham. I have never eaten 
a more deUcious meat, not excepting the famous Virginia liuniry. 
I take more pride and see far greater nope in such examples of indi- 
vidual effort and accomplishment, entirely unostentatious, than in 
the vast fortunes because of oil and gas. To my mind, when man 
is willing to get between the plow handles or to do the thing at hand 
cheerfully, he ia safdy on the road to success. 

As farmers, knitters, nurses, soldiffls, purchasers of war securities, 
and sacrificers for the common cause in the war, the Indians of the 

341 



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842 



FIVE CrVIIilZED TRIBES OP OKLAHOMA. 



Five Gvilized Tribes did their full part. They measured up to duty 
and danger. None did more. 

It is impossible to report in detail the innumerable responsibilities 
and necessary activities of this office, but a general outline foUoTTS. 

LAND DIVISION. 

All tribal land of the Five Civilized Tribes has been allotted or sold 
except 152,934 acres. 

Table A shows the enrollment of the Five Civilized Tribes, cor- 
rected to date. 

Table B shows the status of enrollment, allotment, and sale of 
unallotted land to June 30, 1919. 

Table A. 





Restricted dass. 


Unrestricted class. 




Nation. 


Full 
bloods. 


Mixed, 
three- 
fourths 
or more. 


One-half 
to three- 
fourths. 


TotaL 


Less 
than one- 
half, in. 
duding 

mter- 
mamed 
whites. 


Freed- 
men. 


Total. 


Grand 
totaL 


Chickasaw 


1,515 
7,087 
1 367 
8,703 
6 85S 
i;254 


258 
709 
90 
1,803 
541 
133 


708 

2,975 

1,157 

345 


2,481 
9,440 
1 477 
13,481 
8,566 
i;732 


3,823 
9,699 

183 
23,424 
8,396 

409 


4,662 
6;029 

"4,"9i9' 

6,809 

986 


8,485 
16,728 
183 
28,843 
10,206 

1,395 


10,968 


Choctaw 


25 168 


Mississippi Choctaw 

Cherokee 


1,660 
41894 


Creek 


18,761 


Seminole. 


8)127 






TotaL 


26,774 


3,534 


6,859 


1 37, 167 


40,934 


23,405 


64,339 


101,606 







1 This indicates the total number of citizens of the restricted class whose names appear on the approved 
roll. The approximate number of restricted dtlxens who have had the restrictions removed from their 
entire allotments by the Secretary of the Interior and by death is 14,731, leaving 22,436 restricted Indians 
June 80, 1919. 

Table B. — Status of allotment and enrollment work and sale of unallotted lands on 

June SO, 1919. 





Enrolled 
dtizens 
entitled 
to allot- 
ment. 


Re- 
stricted 

June 30, 
1919. 


Aver- 
age^ 
area of 

allot- 
ments.! 


Area 

of 
home- 
steads.! 


Area. 


Re- 
served.* 


AUotted 

to June 80, 

1919. 


Unallotted.! 


Tribes. 


Bold to 

June 30, 

1919. 


Area 

unsold. 


Choctaw 

Chickasaw... 
Cherokee.... 

Creek 

Seminole.... 


26,828 
10 966 
41824 
18,761 
3; 127 


6,076 
1:452 
7,875 
6,756 
1,276 


Acre: 
320 
820 
110 
160 
120 


Acres, 
160 
160 
40 
40 
40 


Acres. 
6,968,048 
4,707,908 

8)07«;095 
'866; 862 


Acres. 
68,208 
87,448 
22 880 
16,016 
i;932 


Acres. 
4,291,086 
8,800,190 
4,846,223 
2,997 114 
859,636 


Aere». 

« 2,587,817 

870 255 

• 50,955 

05,645 

4,268 


Acr^s, 

10 
820 
128 


Total 


101,606 


22,436 






19,525,966 


146,479 


15,794,098 


3,578,036 


6,454 











> Not including Choctaw and Chickasaw freedman whoso allotments average 40 acres each, all of whidi 

> Reserved from allotments for town sites, railroad rights of way, coal and asphalt segregation, diurches, 
schools, cemetenes, etc. ^ , . . ,^, ^ 

« Indudins timberlands and segregated coal and asphalt lands. . . ^ 

4 This totS does not indude 167 acres contained in Roebuck Lake and 193 acres contained In Grassy 

Lake,Choctaw Nation, which were sold for 8320aad8lW.27.re«pootivcly. ,^, ^„^^,, ^ ,, . 
» This total does not Indudo 22 J acres eontalnod in Big Lake, wluch was sold for 83,842.17, and an island 

in the Arkansas River contaming 21 75 acres, whidi was sold for 8650. 



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PIVB CIVIUZED TRIBfeS OF 0KLAH6MA. 34S 

CHCKJTAW AND CHICKASAW NATIONS. 

The total acreage of the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations is 
11,660,951 acres, of which 6,953,048 acres are contained in the 
Choctaw Nation and 4,707,903 acres in the Chickasaw Nation. 
There has been allotted in these two nations a total of 8,091,226 
acres, leaving 3,569,725 acres of unallotted land of which 3,458,071 
acres have been sold; 105,651 acres reserved for town sites, coal and 
asphalt segregation, and other purposes, and 6,003 acres remaining 
unsold. 

Puring the year there were delivered 3 church and school deeds^ 
19 town-lot deeds, and 41 homestead and allotment deeds to Choc- 
taw and Chickasaw citizens. There are 1,279 undelivered patents. 

Estimated value of unsold tribal property. 

Tribal schools and improvements $105, 000 

2,280 town lots 45, OOO 

Unsold land, including timberland and surface of the segregated coal and 

asphalt land 60, 000 

Amount uncollected from sale of coal and asphalt minerals 056, 479 

Amount uncollected from lands sold 3, 348, 445 

Coal and asphalt mineral deposits 13, 174, 795 

Total 17,689,720 

UNFINISHED BUSINESS. 

Disposition of 6,003 acres of unallotted land, 4,546 acres reserved 
by coal and asphalt lessees and 29,638 acres of the surface of the 
s^egated coal and asphalt land mining lessees have made appli* 
cation to purdiase under the act of Congress of February 8, 1918^ 
which applications are still pending wilJi the department; also 399,004 
acres of the coal and asphalt mineral deposits underlining the entire 
segregated coal and asphalt area; 5 acres including improvements 
reserved for the Choctaw council house; 824 acres including im- 
provements reserved for 6 boarding schools; 2,280 vacant and for- 
feited town lots; collection of balance due on land sales, and sale of 
remaining coal and asphalt minerals, and preparing and delivering 
deeds thereto; disposition of all tracts of unallotted land that mav be 
forfeited by reason of nonpayment of principal and interest, ana de- 
livery of 1,279 deeds. 

CHEROKEE NATION. 

This nation contains 4,420,068 acres of land of which 4,346,223 
acres have been allotted, 50,955 acres sold, 22,880 acres reserved 
for town sites and other purposes, and 10 acres unsold. All the tribal 
lands and property of this nation have been disposed of excepting 10 
acres of land in Ottawa County which has been offered for sale twice 
at public sale and once at private sale, and is advertised for sale July 
24, 1919. There have been delivered during the year 28 patents, 
leaving undelivered 728. 

UNPINI8HED BUSINESS. . 

Disposition of 10 acres of land and the completion of per capita 
payments, settlement of claims against the nation and delivery of 
728 deeds, 

140923**— INT 1910— VOL 2 23 

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344 FI¥B dVIUZED TSIBE& OF OKLAHOMA. 

Regnlations governing the filing, determining, and settlement of 
all claims against the Oierokee Nation under die provisions of the 
act of Congress of May 25, 1918 (Public, No. 159, 65th C!ong.)» were 
api>roved bj the Secretary of the Interior February 18, 1919, and 
notice that all such claims must be filed on or before May 25, 1919, 
as provided by said act, were published in one newspaper of general 
circulation published at the county seat of each county in said na- 
tion, and printed posters ^ving sunilar notice were posted in the 
poet offices and other conspicuous places in said nation; thus aU per- 
sons having claims against said nation were given ample time and 
opportunity to file same before May 25, 1919. No claims have been 
filed at this office, except a few claims for per capita payments. AU 
other claims were filed with the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. 

CBSEK NATION. 

This nation contains 3,079,095 acres, of which 16,016 acres were 
reserved for town sites and other purposes; 2,997,114 acres allotted 
to its members: 65,645 acres sold and 320 acres unsold. 

Untold tribal property and esHmaied value, 

124toiwiilo«0. Muskogee, Tulsa, and Lee 1100,000 

3 boarding 8choo]B,Nuyaka,.£uiaula, and Sapolpa. ^ 69,000 

Unsold land 3,200 

Total 172,200 

UNHNISHBD BUSINESS. 

Disposition of 320 acres of unallotted land in litigation, remaining 
tribal propertv, completion of equalization of allotments, investiga- 
tion ot allegea duplicate and fraudulent enrollments, detennination 
of suits to recover valuable oil and gas lands, and the delivery of 
590 deeds. 

SEMIKOLE NATION. 

This nation contains 365,852 acres of land, of which 359,535 
acres have been allotted; 1,932 acres reserved; 4,263 acres sold, and 
122 acres unsold. 

Unsold tribal property and estimated value, 

Emahaka Mission School, 320 acres 115,000 

Mekumikey Academy, 320 acres 22,400 

Unsold 1,500 

Total 38,900 

The Emahaka School has been abandoned and litigation affecting 
the ownen^p of the school building determined. This property has 
been appraised and will be sold at an early date. 

UNFINISHED BUSINESS. 

Disposition of 122 acres unallotted land^ 120 acres of which being 
in litigation, remaining tribal property, distribution of tribal funds 
to members of the tribe, and <klivery of 400 deeds to allottees. 



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FIVB CPnUZED TBIBBS OF OKIAHOMA. 



345 



AUCTION aALB OF UNALLOTTED TIMBEB AND 8UBFACE OF THE SEOKE- 
OATED COAL AND ASPHALT LANDSi 

The fiist sale of unallotted land in the Five Tribes was held on 
November 21, 1910. Since then, there have been sold 43,211 tracts 
containing 3,578,936 acres for $20,376,096.27 being S4,536,108.67 . 
more ^an the appraised value, and averaging S5.69 per acre. 

During the year, there has been held one auction sale of unallotted 
land in we Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Creek Nations. From October 
9 to October 17, 1918, there were offered in the Choctaw and Chicka- 
saw Nations 187 tracts of the surface of the se^egated coal and asphalt 
lands suitable for town-site purposes containmg 878 acres of wnich, 
164 tracts containing 796 acres were sold for $21 ,172.73 ; 61 tracts of the 
surface of the segregated coal and asphalt lands classified as agricul- 
tural and grazing containing 5,702 acres of which 59 tracts containing 
5,616 acres were sold for $61,612.85; 61 tracts of timberland con- 
taining 8,159 acres, of which 20 tracts containing 2,324 acres were 
sold for $18,802.32, and 6 tracts of unallotted land containing 340 
acres, all of which were sold for $7,047.37; abo 1 tract of unidfotted 
land in the Creek Nation containing 32.50 acres, which was sold for 
$365.63. 

Immediately following are tables C, D, E, F, O, and H, showing 
status of sale of tribal lands in the Five Civilized Tribes. 

Table C. — Sale of vnalloUed land wiOuyul minvnum price, Choctaw and Chickataw 

NationM, 







IRegulations of July 18, 1918.) 










LandolEBred. 


Land sold. 


Land unsold. 


Cotuity. 


Number 
of tracts. 


Area In 
aoes. 


Number 
of tracts. 


Area In 
acres. 


Sale price. 


peraoe. 


Number 
of tracts. 


Areain 
acies. 


Grady 


2 

1 
1 
2 

1 


140.00 
10.00 
10.00 

180.00 

82.00 


2 

1 
1 
2 

1 


140.00 

laoo 

10 00 
180.00 

82.50 


$582.50 

105.00 

210.00 

6,17Ql00 

365.63 


84.00 
laso 

21.00 
34.27 

11.22 


None. 
None. 
None. 

Ntfte. 

None. 


None. 


Murray 


None. 


QfirVIn 


None. 


CoaL 


None. 


CBEEK KATION. 

Hughes 


Nono. 






Total 


7 


873.60 


7 


372. 2iO 


7,413.13 


19.00 


None. 


None. 



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346 



ITVE CIVILIZED TBIBES OF OKLAHOMA. 



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FIVE QPnUJiZED. TBJBBB OF OKLiASOSCA. 



3^ 



There have been sold to date 3;458,071 acres of unallotted land in 
the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations for $19,775;436.08; 50,955 acres, 
in the Cherokee Nation for $178,007.19; 65,645 acres in the Creek 
Nation for $382,211.63; 4,263 acres in the Seminole Nation for 
$40,441.37, making a total of 3,578,934.38 acres sold for a total of 
$20,376,096.27 to June 30, 1919. 

Proper record of payment of principal and interest has been made, 
necessitating 34,000 entries and preparing and mailing 30,000 
receipts andnotices. 

The following shows the payments of principal and interest: 

Principal $1,241,932.95 

Interest 202,781.74 

Total 1,444,714.69 

SUOement of patenU prepared for purduuerM of unaUoUed lands in the Five Civilized 

Tribes. 



Nation. 


Prevloasly 
reported. 


1919 


Total. 


(Ihnetsv (|n<^ r!hlclK»W>v ..,»J... ... . 


21,456 

972 
81 


2 


25,743 

1,521 

975 


dwfokee 


Creek. 


fl«i«ilii5>lif , 


33 






Total 


23,977 


4,2» 


28,27i 





SALE OF MISCELLANEOUS TRIBAL LAND. 

By departmental authority of June 24, 1919, the offer of the city of 
Okmulgee, Greek Nation, Okla., to purchase the Creek National 
Council Building and block of land on which same is located in said^ 
city for $100,000, the appraised value thereof, was accepted. 

tinder the provisions oi section 18 of the Indian appropriation act, 
approved May 25, 1918 (Public, No. 159, 65th Cong.), 11,699.52 acres 
of land in McCurtain County were purchased by the State of Okla- 
homa for a game preserve for $71,718.05. Full payment has been 
made therefor and deed covering same issued. 

By departmental authority of October 22, 1918, and June 12, 1919 
one tract of land in Nowata County, Cherokee Nation, containing 20 
acres was sold for $262, and one tract of land contaiiiing 111.11 acres 
located in Muskogee County, Cherokee Nation, was sold for $555.55. 
Ten small tracts of land in the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations here- 
tofore reserved from allotment and sale for railroad right of way pur- 
poses and abandoned, containing a total of 55.17 acres, were sola for 
$705.70, or an average of $12.79 per acre. 

APPRAISEMENT OF COAL AND ASPHALT MINERAL DEPOSITS IN THE^ 
CaaOCTAW and CHICKASAW nations, under THE ACT OP CONGRESS. 
OP FEB. 8, 1918 (public, NO. 98, 65TH CONGRESS). 

Under the provisions of said act of Congress, Gabe E. Parker, 
Superintendent for the Five Civilized Tribes; J. George Wright, 
Suj^erintendent of the Osa^e Agency; and Dr. J. J. Rutledge, of the 
Umted States Bureau of Ifines, were appointed to appraise the coal 



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350 



FIVE CIVILIZED TBIBES OF OKLAHOMA. 



and asphalt mineral deposits in the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations. 
The appraisements were approved August 28, 1918, by the Secretary 
of the Interior. 

The following statement shows the appraisement by districts of the 
leased and unleased coal and asphalt aeposits in the Choctaw and 
Chickasaw Nations. 

Coal deposits. 



District. 


Acreage. 


Appraisement. 


Unleased tracts: 

McAlester 


60,483.20 
44,354.10 
25,392.45 
64,615.45 
78,736.71 
53,734.49 


11,494,882.30 
1,476,223.10 
981,744.35 
2,067,002.48 
2,850,796.95 
1,434,234.75 


Wilburton 


Stigler 


Howe-Poteau 


McCurtain-Massoy ,.... 


Lehigh- A rdmore 




Total 


327,316.40 


10,324,883.98 




Leased tracts: 

UcAlester 


54,347.40 
10,871.35 
None. 
10,587.23 
n,0Q2.58 
21,542.00 


1,708,414.79 
781.527.19 


Wilburton 


Stigler 


None. 


Howe-Pot«ui 


366,219.95 
532,882.82 
747,112.05 


MeCurtaln-Massey 

T^high- Ardmore 




Total 


108,950.74 


4,136,156.80 




Grand total 


436,267.14 


14,461,04a 73 





Asphalt deposits. 



Recapitulation, 



District. 


Acreage. 


Appraisement. 


Unleased tracts: Choctaw Nation 


960 
3,880 


$9,6oaoo 

67,80a00 


Leased tracts: Chickasaw Nation 






Total 


4,840 


77,400t00 







Acreage. 


Appraisement. 


TTnlewwd tracts, coal 


327,316.40 

108,050.74 

96a 00 

3,88a 00 


810,324,883.93 


Leased tracts, coal 


4,136,156.80 


TTpififm^ trfipt^ a<n>^alt. . . . .... , . 


9,6oaoo 


Lw^rt trflAta, ftsphftit . , 


67,80a00 






Grand total 


441,107.14 


14, 538, 44a 73 







SALE OF COAL AND ASPHALT MINERAL DEPOSITS IN THE CHOCTAW AND 

CHICKASAW NATIONS. 

On September 24, 1918, the Secretary of the Interior approvd 
regulations to govern the sale of the coal and asphalt deposits ux the 
se^egated mineral area in the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations, 
OHa., under the provisions of the act of Congress of February 8, 1918, 
and directed that such coal and asphalt deposits be offered for sale 
at public auction to the highest bidder at McAlester, Okla.^ December 
11, 12, 13, and 14, 1918. In accordance therewith descnptive lists, 
circulars, posters, and maps were prepared for general distribution 



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FIVE CIVIIIZBD TRIBES OF OKLAHOMA. 



351 



to prospective bidders. The sale was widely advertised in numerous 
newspapers published throughout the country, and posters, circxdars, 
and descriptive lists were mailed to persons interested in the sale. 
Railroads operating in Oklahoma cooperated with the department in 
advertising the sale. 

The sale was held at McAlester on the dates mentioned. The 
attendance was small, and very little interest was taken therein 
except by coal and asphalt lessees; only two or three persons outside 
of Oklahoma were present, and only six tracts were purchased by 
companies or individuals not interested as lessees of said coal and 
asphalt deposits. There were oflFered 517 tracts containing 441.107.14 
acres, of which 54 tracts containing 42,103 acres were sold foi 
$1,363,645.17. All of the purchasers made the required 20 per cent 
payment on the date of the sale except the purchaser of one tmleased 
tract which was sold for $21 and paid for in full. The total amoimt 
collected at the sale as the 20 per cent payment was $272,741.82. 

Of the 54 tracts sold, 37 are leased coal tracts containing 32.222.49 
acres and were sold to the lessees for $1,078,543.62; 1 tract oi leased 
asphalt mineral containing 960 acres was sold to the lessee for 
$14,400, and 16 unleased coal tracts containing 8,921 acres were sold 
for $270,641.25, being $24,109 more than the appraisement. The 
average minimum price per acre of the unleased tracts sold is $27.63. 
and tne average sale price obtained therefor at the sale is $30.33. All 
of the leased tracts and 9 of the unleased tracts were sold at the 
appraised value. 

Statement showing purchasers of coal and asphalt deposits, total acreage purchased, averags 
price per acre, and excess over average minimum price per acre received. 

LEASED COAL AND ASPHALT. 



Purchaser. 



Total 
acreage. 



Avenge 
price 

paid per 
acre. 



Excess 

over 

avenge 

price per 
acre. 



Choctaw, Oklahoma & Gnlf R. R. Co. . 

J. E. Layden and Owen McHugh 

Qaines Oneek Coal Co 

Gentnl Coal and Lumber Co 

Pierce Coal Co , 

Kali-InlaCoalCo 

Edwards. Rea, trustee 

Keystone Coal & Mining Co 

Folsom-Monis Coal Co 

Whitaker Brodnax (asphalt) 



17,782.08 

40 

160 

1,920 

40 

630 

1,43ft. 54 

340 

9,872.97 

960 



928.67 
40.00 
56.00 
42.50 
4a 00 
34.00 

.58.00 
47.00 
35.75 
15.00 



None. 
None. 
None. 
None. 
None. 
None. 
None. 
None. 
None. 
None. 



UNLEASED COAL AND ASPHALT. 



Choctaw, Oklahoma & Oulf R. R. Co.. 

C.E.Kimhall 

MUbv-Dow Coal & Mining Co 

W.P.Mullen 

Southern Fuel Co 

Adamsoo Coal Co 

R.H.Halligan 

O.L.Blackrord 



Peter Harris.. 

n. D. Branson and M. R. H. Taylor.. 
D.E.Nettteblade 



330 


$49.00 


1.845.27 


25.00 


2,401.10 


29.30 


482 


15.00 


780 


30.00 


1,660.78 


28.88 


46a 90 


1.00 


960 


60.00 


40 


102.00 


40 


45.00 


20 


LOS 



SO. 09 

2.50 

3.57 

None; 

None. 

a6( 

None 

None. 

62.00 

None. 

.06 



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352 FIVE CIVIUZED TRIBES OF OKI.AHOMA. 

AFFEAISEMSNT OF LAND AND IHPROYEMBIITS OIC TiDB SaCOCBQATKD 
COAL AND ASPHALT LANDS IN THE CHOCTAW AND CBICKAaAW 
NATIONS BSSBRVED FOB MININO FCJBP08ES. 

Under the act of Congress approved February 8, 1918, providing 
for the sale of the coal and asphalt deposits in the segregated minenu 
land in the Oioctaw and Chickasaw I^ations, OUa., coal and asphalt 
lessees were given the preferential right^- provided the same should 
be exercised within 90 days after the approval of the completion of 
the* appraisement of the minerals as therein provided, to purchase 
at the appraised value any or all of the surface of the lands lying 
within the leases held by them and heretofore reserved by ordcor (» 
tiie Secretary. 

When the surface of the land was appraised under the actof Febru- 
ary 19. 1912, all improvements located thereon belonging to private 
individuals were appraised, but no appraisement was made of im- 
provements belongmg to mining companies. Practically all of the 
land thus appraised excepting land reserved for mining companies 
has heretofore been sold at alarge increase over the appraisement. 
The leases made with the mining companies provide that imi>rove- 
ments erected thereon by them, except engines, tools, and machineiy, 
shall revert to the owners upon the termination of the lease. 

While the act of Congress above referred to gives the coaa com- 

{>ame8 the preferential right to purchase any or all of the reserved 
and within their leases at the appraisement, it was not considered 
that it was intended to give them the preferential right to purchase 
such lands at the 1912 appraisement. 

The land, having ennanced materiaUv in value since the 1912 
appraisement, it was deemed unjust to tne Choctaw and Chickasaw 
citizens to permit mining companies to purchase the surface of the 
land at the old appraisement, and steps were taken to have same 
reanpraised. 

By departmental authority of August 29, 1918, three appraisers 
were appointed to appraise tne surface of the land held by coal and 
asphalt lessees for mining purposes, and to appraise the equity of the 
Choctaw and Chickasaw Tribes in the buiklings and improvements 
erected thereon by mining lessees, and improvements located thereon 
belonging to private individuids erected prior to February 19, 1912. 
The appraisers completed their work on October 31, 1918, and on 
November 7, 1918, their report, accompanied with schedides of 
appraisement of said lands and improvements, were submitted to the 
department. 

APPLICATIONS OF LESSEES TO PUBOHASE THE SXHEtFAOE OF THE SEGBE- 
GATED OGAL AND ASPHALT LANDS IN THE CHOCTAW AND CHICKASAW 
NATIONS BESEBVED FOB MININO COMPANIES. 

* On November 20, 1918, this office was authorized by telegram from 
the department, to sell the surface of the segregated coal and asphalt 
lands theretofore set aside for the use of the mineral lessees at the 
appraised value as made under the act of February 19, 1912. Coal 
leasees were immediatel v notified thereof by telegram. In accordance 
therewith, practicallv all of such lessees made application to purchase 
the 29,637 acres of tne surface reserved by them for mining purposes 



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FIVE CIVILIZED. TRIBES. OF OKLAHOMA. 353 

under the 1&12 aDpraisement On November 26, 1918, the Secretary, 
of the Interior aavised this office by wire, as follows: 

Have approved this day equity of Choctaw and Ghickaaaw Tribes in improvements 
erected on the surface of me segregated coal land area Choctaw Nation, which shall be 
the true value thereof on sale of surface to mining lessees on terms as provided in 
section 2 of the act of February 8, 1918. 

Said leasees were immediately notified of the approval of the 
appraisement of the equity of the tribes in said improvements and 
requested to remit the necessary additional amount required to cover 
same. Some of the lessees protested against paying for improve^ 
ments erected by them, ana several paid the additional amount 
required under protest. 

Applications were made by 44 coal and asphalt lessees operating 104 ^ 
leases to purchase 29,637.81 acres for S358;358.81 for the land, and 
$62,976 for the improvements. 

BECOBDINO OF DEEDS AND OTHER INSTBUMENTS. 

The following statement shows the progress of recording deeds and 
other instruments durii^ the year ended June 30, 1919: 

Creek homestead and allotment deeds :...;.;.... 2* 

Oieiokee homefltead and allotment deeds : . . 2 

Choctaw-Chickasaw homestead and allotment deeds ^ '4 

Seminole homestead uid allotment deeds , _ 2 

Church and school deeds 3 

Cemetery deeds "2 

Unallotted land deeds, Choctaw-Chickasaw 4, 499 

Miscellaneous deeds 4, 

Total...... : -.......: 4,518 

RENTAL OF THE fiUBFACE OF THE SEGREGATED COAL AND ASPHALl^; 

LANDS. 

During the year, there has been collected as rental from occupants 
of the unsola surface of the segregated coal and asphalt lands. 
$1,297.50. Aa practically all of tke surface of the segregated coal 
and asphalt lands not reserved for mining purposes has been sold, and 
mining companies have made application to purchiEtse the surface of 
the lands reserved by them for mining purposes, which applications 
have not been approved, no special effort nas been made to collect 
rentals from occupants tnereof. As soon, however, as these applica- 
tions are acted upon, so that it can be aetermined what portion of 
this land is subject to rental by the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations, 
special efforts will be made to collect rental from persons found to be 
using any of the unsold land during the year 1919. 

TOWN SITES. 

Hiere has been received $693.25 in payment for town lots in the 
Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations and $3,205.25 in settlement for cer- 
tain lots in Muskogee, Creek Nation, which were involved in suit, 
making the total amount received during the year $3,898.50. Twenty- 
three final payments were made for town lots in the Choctaw and 



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354 



FIVE CIVIUZED TRIBES OF OKLAHOMA; 



Chickasaw Nations, including five town lots in Tuttle, Chickasaw 
Nation, involved in the compromise settlement with E. Dowden and 
others, and deeds thereto have been issued to the purchasers. 

Tovms mrveyed and platted. 



Nations. 


Number 
of towns. 


Acreage. 


Creek 


26 
54 
98 
130 

1 


10,«89.10 

9,831.47 

21,lia77 

23,707.82 

03&OO 


Cherokee 


Choctaw , _ . „ X . ... ...... 


ChickAffAw .... 


^minolex . 






Total 


k)9 


65,772.18 







The following statement shows the amounts received to June 30, 
1919, as payment on town lots: 



When received. 



Creek. 



Cherokee. 



Choctaw and 
Chickasaw. 



Total. 



Prior to July 1,1918. 
Fiscal year, 1919 



Total.. 



$738,642.10 
3,205.25 



$773,297.40 



93,031,004.74 
693.25 



741,847.35 



773,297.40 



3,031,787.99 



64,543,064.24 
3,806.50 



4,546,982.74 



Unsold town lots, 

Choctaw Nation: 

Vacant lots 1, 448 

Forfeited town lots 45 

Reserved for coal lessees 787 

Creek Nation: 

Forfeited town lots 7 

Ix)ts recovered by suit 117 



Total 2,404 

Several suits are still pending in the United States District Court 
to recover lots in the Creek Nation allied to have been fraudulently 
scheduled. 

CERTIFIED COPIES. 

There have been prepared 18,132 certified copies of the records on 
file in this division lor which was received $20,696.65. 

ILLEGAL CONVETANCES OP ALLOTTED LAND. 

Under the provisions of the act of Congress approved May 27, 1908 
(32 Stat.^ 312), there have been instituted heretofore in the United 
States District Court for the Eastern District of Oldahoma, 27,517 
suits to clear the title of allied ill^al conveyances of allotted Indian 
land. Of all the suits thus instituted, 24,571 had been disposed of 
prior to July 1, 1918. During the year 2,010 additional suits were 
^ disposed of, leaving 936 still pending. 



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FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES OF OKLAHOMA. 



355 



TRIBAL BEOORDS. 

Section 13 of the act of Congress approved May 27, 1908, (35 Stat.. 
312), provides that all tribal records of the Five Civilized Tribes shall 
be placed in the custody or control of the Secretary of the Interior. 
The Superintendent for the Five Civilized Tribes was designated as 
custodian of these records by the Secretary and same are on file in 
his office at Muskogee^ Okla. These records are not only valuable 
from a historical standpoint, but to the gener^ public who desire to 
examine same and obtain certified copies mereof . Only a few indexes 
were made thereof and the papers and files are not numbered. It is, 
therefore, very difficidt to locate same. 

The Oklahoma State Historical Society is seeking to become custo- 
dian of these records, but the separation of such as are not required 
for public legal use from those which are indispensable will require 
mucn time and work and entail considerable expense. I, therefore, 
renew my recommendation that Congress be asked to a}>propriate a 
sufficient sum to be used in employing the necessary clerical force to 
assemble them imder appropriate heads, prepare indexes thereof, 
pay for binding such of the records as may be required and to pur- 
chase the necessary file cases, index books, and stationery. 

TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS AND ATTORNEYS. 

During the fiscal vear ended June 30, 1919, tribal warrants were 
drawn as shown below for salaries and expenses of tribal officers, 
attorneys, and other expenses of the tribal governments of the 
Creek, Choctaw, and ChicKasaw Nations. 

Warrants issued during the fiscal year ended June SO, 1919, 

Total paid. 

Creek Nation $12,828.32 

Choctaw Nation 17,281.80 

Chickasaw Nation 17,069.16 

Tribal officials and attomejs for the Five Civilized Tribes were 
paid from tribal funds authorized by Congress as follows: 

TRIBAL OFFICERS OF CREEK NATION. 



Name. 


Title. 


Address. 


Salary 
per 

annnm- 


0. W. OraysoB 


1>Hnf.ipAl chlAf .. 


Enfan'a, OWa .. . .... 


12,000 
6,000 
l,fiOD 


James C. Davis 


Tribarattdmey 


Mnnii^oee^, Okla. . ... 


Kula/. Branson 


Tribal secretary 


dor..'... 








TRIBAL OFFICERS OF CHOCTAW NATION. 


William F. Semple 


Principal chief 


PnrRnt. Okla. 


1,000 
4,000 
5,000 
1,200 


Bessie Frandsoo 


Trib^'secretary 


do 


William R. Mcintosh. 


IffTTing trq^t^^e 


MoAl«rt4^T, Okla 


Walter J. Tarnball 


Tribal'attomey 


Purant, o'kia. 


T^lAif. A<iAni<i. 


Stenographer..^^ . 


do.'. 








TRIBAL OFFICERS OF CHICKASAW NATION. 


Doaglas H.Johnston 




Emet, Okla 


13,000 
1,000 


Taidfe Johnston 


Tribal secretary 


Mflh^im, Ol^lft . . . 


^^^atf man Johnson . . . 


Tribal interpre'tor 


TI«homi«go, Okla 


800 


7. HAipp Witlii ..... 


Mining tr^Rl^.. 


Klneston. Okla ... 


4,000 
5,000 


RefordBond 


Tribarsttomey 


ChJcKasha, Okla 







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356 



FIYB OIVn^ZBD TRI^S OF OKlA&Olkki 



The tribal officers of all nations are allowed their traveling and 
necessary expenses when aw^ from home while on official busmess, 
except tue mining trustees of the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations. 

Ilie Cherokee and Seminole Nations had no tribal attom^|rs for 
the fiscal year 1919| and all l^al matters affecting restricted Lidians 
and otiier citizens of those nations were attended to by the'United 
States {HTobate attorneys. 

CBBEK ENBOIXMENT OABDS. 

The names of 18,761 enr«^ed citizens and freedmen of the Creek 
Nation are listed, on 9,016 census cards, practically all of vMcb were 
made! in 1899, 1900, 1901 , and 1902^ except the cards of newborns and 
minors enrolled under the acts of Congress of March 3, 1905, and 
April 26, 1906. These cards show the names and roll numbers of the 
enrollees, their ages and degree of blood, the names of their parents, 
and the names of the tribal towns to which they belong, and are very 
valuable for identification purposes. Duplicates were made of the 
Choctaw, Chickasaw. Cherokee, and Seminole census cards, but 
none were made of tne Creek cards. All of the Creek census cards 
have been in constant use for from 12 to 20 jeaxs, and as a reisult 
thereof ) many of them are ahnost illegible. It is important tiiat t^ese 
cai'ds be preserved and it is, therefore, recommenaed that Congress 
be requested to appropriate' $5,000 for such purpose, to be usra in 
making duplicates thereof, and binding same m book form. 

FIELD DIVISION. 

More than half the employees of this superintendency are located 
in the field at places away from Muskogee, as field cleris, assistants, 
probate attorneys, farmers^ and Indian police. The 40 counties 
m eastern Oklahoma are divided into the following field districts: 



Distriet 
No. 


Location of Held office. 


Coaatfcs. 


1 


daremore 


Rogers, Nowata, Craig, and Mayes west of Grand River. 
IXettware and MayeB oast of Grand Rtver and Ottawa xrost cf 

Grand River. 
Creek, Tulsa, Washington. 
Okmnlgee, Okfbskee. 


2. 




3 


Sapulpa 


4 




5 


Yvukoe^ff 


Muskogee west of .\rkan8as River, Wagoner and Mcintosh. 
CheioisM, Muskogee east of ArkaoMf R^. 


a. 


TahtomiAli 


7 


flanSw!:!::;;:::::::;::;:;; 


8 


Fotfltto. 


9 


MeAlester. 


Latimer, Pittsbiirg. 


10 


n^Mmrvillff 


Hnrikss.' 


11 


Atoka. 


Poi&otoey CoaL Atoka. 
MeClaixi, Garvin, Moiray. \ 
Giady, Stephens, JefltasoiL > 


12 


Pan^sVallfly.. . . 


13 


nhifibfuhft. ' 


14 


ArAtnnrm 


rartflr' Iffmt, Marritoli. 


15^ 


Pnrant.. . ..3x...^ .x . . 


Johnnon, Bryan. 


11 


HnfiD 


Chootaw, Ptnibniataha. 


17 


idabei::;:..::::::::::::::.. 


MoOvtain. 


IS 


Wewoka 


Seminole. 









Indians of the Five Civilized Tribes continued to displav the true 
spirit of Americanism. The;^ have not hesitated to perform their 
fuD duty as citizens and i>atriots. They have cooperated earnestly 
in every worthy enterprise to promote community, State, and 
national interests and have contributed their full share to the winning 



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FIVE CIVIUZED TRIBES OF OKU^HOMA. 357 

of the World War. From restricted funds alone, they bought 
$10,264,000 Liberty and Victory bonds and $832,769.20 war savings 
stamps. It is estimated that more than 4,000 entered the military ■ 
and naval service and that over 200 made the supreme sacrifice. 
Instances of the greatest heroism have been numerous and many 
distinctions won by them. 

The following are a few of the many instances coming to my 
knowledge illustrative of the heroic qualities displayed by Indian 
soldiers of the Five Tribes: 

Raymond Roae, a Cherokee, joined the marines when only 17 yeais of aee; was 
wounded a number of times, and for heroic conduct at Chateau Thierry wean ue cord 
of the Lwion of Honor. 

8erftt. Alfred G. Bailey, also a Cherdkee, wliil^ in action near Moulins, France, 
on JijUy 15, 1918, killed two Gennan machine Q;unners and captured another and 
his gun, for which he was awarded the distinguiBhed-service cross, and a few days 
later was himself killed in battle. 

Lieut. Bland Breeding, a Creek, and his little command, surrounded by an over-, 
whelming number of the enemy, gietve a renuurkable account of themselves and died, 
fighting, to the last man. 

James Green, full-blood Creek, made a brilliant record for hecjric service, winning 
several decorations. 

Pvt. Joseph Oklahombi and Corpl. Nicholas E. Brown, both full-blood Choctaws, . 
were awarded the FVench croix de guerre. The citation issued to Pvt. Oklahombi 
under order of the marshal, commander in chief of the French Armies of the East, . 
Petain, is as follows: "Under a violent barraee, dashed to the attack of an enemy posi- 
tion, covering about 210 yards through barbed-wire entanglements. He^nuhed on 
macnine-gun nests, captminff 171 pnsonen. He stormed a strongly held position . 
containing more than 50 machine guns and a number of trench mortars. Turned the 
captured guns on the enem^ and neld the said positLon fur four days, in spite of a 
constant bairage of large projectiles and of gas shells. Crossed ' No man's land ' manv 
times to ^ infonnation concerning the enemy and to assist his wounded comrades/' 

Corpl. Brown was killed in battle. 

Odis Leader, another Choctaw, was wounded several times, cited for bravery, and 
selected by the French Ciovenunent as the model original American soldier, an 4iil 
painting of whom is to hang upon the widls of the French Federal Building, whero , 
will be displayed types of all the allied races. 

A majority of the Indians of the Five Civilized Tribes who were in 
military service have been discharged, and reports indicate that 
most of them have returned to their former occupations. When 
assistance has been necessary in securing emplovment for them, 
field em^oyees and this office have made special enort to be helpful. 
It is plunly evident that Indians in military service, especially full 
bloods, have received great benefit from their experiences m the train- 
ing camps and overseas. To many of them the war has been a 
liberal education, broadening their views of life and inspiring in them 
new ambitions and higher ideals. 

The following statement shows individual Indian funds disbursed 
under the immediate supervision of the field employees, and to a 
considerable extent summarizes the work performed by the field 
force: 

Butmem tramacted hyfiddfareef fi$eal year 1919. 

Permanent impneyemeikia 1338, 816. 78 

liveBlock 87,474.65 

Imidements, harness, etc 90, 967. 27 

Furniture 44,061.73 

Caslu groceries, feed, physician, drugs, etc 307,733.11 

Land and other investments 95, 932. 28 

Miscellaneous 146,632.71 

Total 1,110,61&53 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



368 FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES OF OKLAHOMA. 

The following statement shows the amount of money disbursed to 
individual Indians, including amount expended under supervision 
and disbursements made by check direct to allottees on advice of 
field clerks: 

Land sale, equalization and restricted per capita payment accounts. . $862. 308. 36 

Royalties 1,950,02^08 

Per capita payments (approximately) 5, 000, 000. 00 

Total 7,812,331.44 

The above total shows an increase of more than $3,000,000 over 
the total for last year. AH disbursements included in this amount 
were made either directly under the supervision of the field clerks, 
probate attorneys, and superintendent of construction, or upon their 
recommendations. 

Government restrictions and high prices of materials limited build- 
ing operations, only such as were aosolutely necessary being done. 
Due to the rapid advance in prices it has been difficult and sometimes 
impossible to erect adequate buildings for Indians who have only 
limited funds. Quite a number of good houses and other improve- 
ments, however, nave been completed and others are in course of 
erection. 

INDUSTRIAL WORK — GOVERNMENT FARMERS. 

Due to the severe drought of last year, feed and seed were very 
scarce and expensive. Funds for the purchase of seeds for Indians on 
the reimbursable plan were very limited and only a few of the more 
needy communities could be given assistance. Indian farmers Gen- 
erally, however, succeeded in securing seed supplies, and reports snow 
that they have again increased their cultivated acreage. Some dis- 
tricts report several thousand acres of new land having been placed 
in cultivation by restricted Indians. Wheat, oats, potatoes, hay, 
and fruits have yielded well and prospects for other crops are very 
promising. 

Stock and poultry raising are receiving a laiger share of attention 
from the Indians than ever before, and it is unusual to find an Indian 
family without a good garden. Many Indian women are very pro- 
ficient in canning and drying fruits and vegetables. 

At fairs held during the autumn, 1918, although they had been 
confronted with perhaps the most adverse crop conditions this State 
had experienced, Indian farmers had many creditable exhibits and 
secured a number of prizes in direct competition with white exhib- 
itors. At the Muskogee free State fair a Creek Indian, James Childers, 
won one first and one second prize. He was also awarded 4 first and 
2 second prizes at the Tulsa County fair, and 1 third, 2 second, and 
4 first prizes at the Broken Arrow district fair, making a total of 
13 prizes, the largest number reported as having been awarded any 
Incnan. At county and district fairs held during the. year Indians 
of the Five Civilized Tribes won 38 first, 12 second, and 3 third prizes. 

The Oklahoma Legislature has appropriated $50,000 for a per- 
manent a^icultural and Indian exhibits building at Muskogee. This 
building is now in course of erection and will be ready for occupancy 
during the free State fair to be held from September 29 to October 
4, 1919. 



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FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES OF OKLAHOMA. 859 

SPECIAL INSPECTIONS. 

During the year 12 arrests were made upon complaints filed by 
special inspectors. Of the persons arrested seven were chained with 
criminal conspiracy and obtaining money under false pretenses in 
connection with the sale of Indian lands. These defendants are now 
awaiting trial in the district court. Of the five remaining, one charged 
with forgery is now in jaU awaiting the action of the Federal grand 
jury; one chaiged with presenting a false claim against tibe Govern- 
ment is now serving two and a half years in the Federal penitentiary 
at Leavenworth; one arrested for onbezzlement of funds oelonging to 
a restricted Indian will be prosecuted in the State court; one Anny 
officer chafed with adultery with a restricted Indmn minor was 
court-martialed and sentaiced to Fort Leavenworth, and one Army 
officer chaiged with assault on the person of the same minor received 
a dishonorable dischaige from the Army. In addition to the above 
the special inspector is now assisting the Post Office Department in 
securing evidence against approximately 15 persons who are charged 
with f oiging Government checks. 

Specifu investigations in two civil cases have resulted in suit being 
instituted in the Federal court to recover the real and persond prop- 
erty of the Indian owners. In several other cases property has been 
recovered without resorting to .the courts. 

In one instance a fake m e-insurance company had secured from 
several fuU-blood Indians Liberty bonds, war savings stainpS; and 
money to the amount of approximately $6^000 in exchange for their 
worimess stock. In another instance Indian lessors had been de- 
frauded out of $2,000 bv the agent of an oil company holding leases 
on their lands. In botn of the above-cited cases this property was 
recovered and returned to the Indians through the instrumentality of 
the special inspector. In addition several nead of live stock liave 
been recovered and returned to Indians for whom they were pur- 
chased. Several other miscellaneous investigations of importance 
have been made, including complaints against three postmasters for 
the manner in which they were handling Indian man. These cases 
have been referred to the Post Office Department for appropriate 
action. In one of these cases the governor revoked the notarial 
commission of the postmaster upon the recommendation of the special 
inspector because of irregularities in the use of his seal on a deed 
executed by a full-blood Indian. 

RESTRICTIONS DIVISION. 

Under the act of Congress approved May 27, 1908 (35 Stat., p. 
312), the Secretary of the Interior is authorized to remove the 
restriction against alienation from any restricted allotment, wholly 
or in part. 

During the year a competency commission has visited the mem- 
bers of the CSreek Tribe of Indians. Removals approved on the 
recommendation of the competency commission and removals 
handled in the usual manner are as follows: 

Ck>nditioiia], land sold 575 

Unconditional, on recommendation of this office 123 

Unconditional, on recommendation of competency oommimion 141 

Total removals ^ 839 

14O023*— INT 1919— VOL 2 24 



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FTK&^CIVIUZSX). l!B»B&^P 0K£.4HOiCJL. 



The act of Googrees ap^oved May 27, 1908 (35 Stat., p. 312), 
authorizes restricted Incuans to lease their surplus aUotments for 
anicttltural and crazing purposes for not to exceed five jeaiB, and 
their homestead dlotments not to exceed one year, without depart- 
mental aj>proyal. Such leases are commonlj Known as commercial 
leases. Leases, in order to be valid for periods longer than fiye and 
one year, respectiTely, must be approved bj the Secretary of the 
Interior. Many restricted Indians, under this law, lease their lands 
for inadequate considarations, and the department frequently finds 
itself unable to render assistance and estopped from proliectmg the 
interest of the Indian. Instead of encouraging the Indian to live 
upon his allotment, this law results in his beipg overreached in too . 
many instances and in perpetuating an undesirable lease systaQOL in 
eastern Oklahoma, detnmental alike to the Indian and to the com- 
munity in which he resides. 

It is the general rule that surplus allotments adapted to tillage 
are covered by agricultural leases with unexpired terms, vuyins from 
one to five years. These leases lower the sale value. I^uxmasers 
can not afford to pay the full viJue for tracts where valid leases 
preclude possession for a term of years. Frequently the entire 
rental for the term of the lease is paid m full. Only in rare mstances 
do the Indians receive adequate rentals. 

During the year 891 new applications were received and filed, and 
160 apphcations which had been previously denied or dismissed were 
reinstated, making a total of 1,041 cases. There were advertised 
for sale under conditional orders 693 tracts of land, on 382 of which 
bids were received and accepted. The amount of the accepted bids 
was $406,910^2. 

Since the act of Congress of May 27, 1908, became effective, there 
have been filed 17,045 applications for removal of restrictions, and 
ihe following tables show the action thereon, the acreage from which 
the restriction on aUenation has been conditionally and uncon- 
ditionally removed, also removals for school sites under the act of 
Congress approved May 29, 1908. 

Staha of restriction cases for period ending June 30, 1919^ 





Pgndtng. 


ApfROVBd. 


fiMI^I^. 


Denied. 


Dle- 

mlaeed. 




NstlOB. 


Condi- 
tional. 


Uncon- 
ditional. 


School 
site. 


Total. 


Choctaw. 


28 
12 
16 

m 

33 

1 


2,817 

961 

480 
96 


^'S2 
67S 

1,838 

464 

61 
21 


77 
10 
41 
47 
6 
4 


228 
80 

142 
64 

80 

6 


449 
160 
868 
866 

as 


826 
220 
703 
480 

S 


5,905 
1,666 

^681 
664 
180 


CMMrfomW 


^erokee 

Cmk 




■ »-w .- 




Total.... 


280 


7,320 


4,527 


104 


480 


1.882 


2,344 


17,015 







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FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBfiB OF OKLAHOMA. 



861 



Acreage from vMck restrieHans have been removed by the Secretary of the IiUerior, aete of 

May t7 and 29y 1908. 



Nation. 


CondltloDal 
(land sold). 


Unoondltlanal. 


Sohooldte. 


Totol. 


Choctav 


249,006.72 
871471.71 

104»09a39 

4^642.31 

89,23L16 

<402.23 


178,283.11 
80,'739.94 
8^834.20 
26; 461. 92 


Iia67 
3&50 
42.85 
6a 00 

it 17 


427.840.40 


ChlokMair , 


11&2S0.15 


OlMfTOkm 


18K907.44 


CxMk 


7&154.28 


fOninippi.nhnrti'*'. . 


^608.20 
6,166.99 


ftnntiMMfJ ^ -----...-------- 1 


. •■ .... .. .. 




Total 


482,783.52 


375,480.80 


261.09 


858,526.41 







Conditional removal of resirietione, edles Tnade under departmental eupervieion to June 

SO, 1919. 





To Tone 30, 1918. 


For fiscal year ending June 30, 1919L 


Ni^oh. 


Area (acres). 


Average 

price 
per acre. 


Amount 
received. 


Area 

(BOW). 


Average 

price 
per acre. 


Amoimt 
received. 


Choctaw. 


267,274.07 
35,245.62 
92 060.36 

118,915.37 
8,627.60 


88.45 
12.85 
10; 74 
17.78 
14.49 


82,250,511.11 

435,327.59 

988, 909. 84 

2,114,806.68 

62,663.88 


20,756.57 
2,214.57 

li;979.48 

2844.33 

812.06 


812.06 
17.98 
18.49 
36.69 
30.92 


8250,118.88 
39,827.60 
161 600.91 
104,076.50 
22^110.97 


Chiokifm V ...... ^ . 


Cherokee 


Creek 


Binnfnolft 




Total 


517,132.01 


11.31 


5,851,119.10 


38,606.00 


15.04 


580,728.16 





Allotted land from which restrictions have been removed to June SO, 1919, 





Acros. 




Nation. 


Act of July 
1,1902. 


Act of Apr. 
21,1904. 


tion oilaw, 
Ai«.8,1907. 


Act of Kay 
27,1908. 


Act of 


Town site 

r«movals, 

act Mar. 

8>1908. 


TotaL 


Choctaw 


229,600 
207,700 


317,400 
299 000 
313,600 
649 480 
44,000 






115 
38 
43 
60 
15 


8,515 
1187 
3,086 
6:849 


4.043.278 


Chickasaw. 




3,240 471 


Cherokee 


""364;686' 


8^617846 
^106,279 


Creek. 


73,110 


ft-SinAi; 


308,006 












Total 


610,410 


1,623,880 


864,680 


10,697,661 


361 


14,667 


13,110,879 



Removal of restrictions by the Secretary of the Interior, Five Civilized Tribes, 





ActoflCay27,1006. 


ActoflCay»,1006. 




Fiscal year. 


Number 
of tracts. 


Acreage. 


Number 
of tracts. 


Acreage. 


Total. 


1909. 


1,865 

652 
966 

1,106 
786 
697 

1,438 

^^ 


52,761.00 
88,070.34 
84;679.34 
45,076.51 
60,682.64 
81084.72 
60,077.83 
42;i08.60 
156,408.17 
]4i;6ai.30 
671002.28 


9 
41 
18 
27 
• 27 
16 
16 

6 
14 

1 

1 


12.50 
66.64 
96.00 
24.42 
64.61 
26.60 
26.67 

^-s 

2.00 
LOO 


84,706.34 
46,009.08 
60.687.25 


1910. 


191L 


1912. 


1913. 


1914 


81,061.22 
80^108.00 
42,110.28 
16r,428-30 
141:625.80 
ff7;e08.98 


1916. 


1915. 


1917 


1918. 


19liL 




Total 


12,294 


858,264.32 


174 


261.09 


868,626.41 





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362 ¥TVE CinUZEir TRIBBS OF OKUIHOMA. 

Comparative statement of sales consummated under eondUumal removah. 



Fiscal year ended June 30. 


Tracts 
sold. 


Acres sold. 


Consldflration 
reoelTed. 


1909 


150 
629 
871 
604 
735 
984 
634 
560 
580 
714 
575 


10,924.21 
58,192.76 
67,790.47 
88; 277. 89 
61,817.89 
66 104.88 
41,531.52 
88^017.66 
8^775.62 
S745.69 
88,606.00 


8149,42120 

674^720.71 
816,088.60 
802,406.86 
686,04180 
2^820.96 
800,42121 
4071669.96 
680,801.64 


1910. 


I91L 


1912. 


1913. 


1914 


1915. 


1916 


1917 


1918. 


19WL 


860,728.16 




Total 


6,826 


482,788.52 


5,284,686.28 





SUUus of cases ofeonditumal removals June SO, 1919. 
Authorized: 

Oases where land partly or all sold e, 826 

Pendjns sales 77 

Cases where land remains unsold 245 

Cases where land withdrawn irom sale on account of clouded title, request 
of allottees, or on account of long time leases 172 

Total 7,320 

The following tables show the status of inherited land deeds: 

Status of inherited land cases for fiscal year ended June SOy 1919. 

Number of cases filed : 

Approved 674 

Disapproved 9 

Dismissed 347 

Pending in this office or returned to field clerks 278 

Pending in department 10 



ToUl 1,318 





Pending in— 




Disap- 
proved. 


Diamiflsed, 




Nation. 


Agency. 


Depart- 
meot. 


Total. 


CShoctaw 


46 
12 
28 
175 
12 
5 


3 


141 
87 
83 

388 
19 
6 


2 


121 
16 
60 

133 
13 
4 


813 


(ThichMNiw 


65 


cSsokSr...:::..::.:;:::.;;:. 


2 

4 




ITS 


Cr«ek 


6 

1 


706 


Mlssiasippi Choctaw 


45 


SST^fiJ, ^""^•*'^; 


1 


16 


.. ... ........ . 






Total 


278 


10 


674 


9 


347 


1,318 







LEASE DIVISION. 

The following tables show the status of leases heretofore filed with 
this o£B.ce: 

LEASES FILED. 

Oil and MS 38,962 

Coal and asphalt 509 

Miscellaneous 310 

Agiicidtural 3, 368 

Total 43,149 



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FIVE CIVIUZED TRIBES OF OKLAHOMA. 863 

DISFOBinON OF LEASES FILED. 

Approved and in effect: 

Oil and gas 5,871 

Coal and asphalt 104 

Miscellaneous 100 

Agricultuial 1,748 

Total 7,823 

Sunendered or canceled by the department: 

OUandcas 17,173 

Goal and asphalt 156 

Miscellaneous 55 

Agricultural 155 

Total 17,539 

Canceled bv agreement: 

Oil and gas 226 

Coal and asphalt 4 

Total 230 

Expired: 

Oil and gas 721 

Coal and asphalt 15 

Miscellaneous 16 

Agricultural 319 

Total 1,071 

Removed from departmental supervision after approval: 

Oil and gas 5,174 

Coal and asphalt 84 

Miscellaneous 13 

Agricultural 191 

Total 5,462 

Withdrawn or disapproved by department: 

Oil and gas 8,096 

Coal andasphalt 101 

Miscellaneous 104 

Agricultural 792 

Total 9,093 

Clmceled for failure to refile: 

Oil and gas 537 

Coal and asphalt 39 

Miscellaneous 12 

Agricultural 23 

Total 611 

Returned to lessee, no jurisdiction: 

Oil and gas 146 

Coal and asphalt 5 

Miscellaneous 7 

Agricultural 43 

Total 201 



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S64 FIYB CIVILIZED TBIBfiS OF OKLAHOMA. 

Pending at department: 

Oil and gu 221 

Coal and asphalt 

Ififlcellaneotis 

Agricultural 

Total 221 

Priding in this office: 

Oil and gas 797 

Coal and asphalt 1 

Miscellaneous 3 

Agricultural 97 

Total 898 

Total leasee filed • 43,149 

Pending in this office June 30, 1918 266 

Filed during year ended June 30, 1919 : 2,213 

Total 2,479 

Leases forwarded for approval or disapproval 1, 573 

Leases returned to lessee, no jurisdiction 8 

Leases pending in this office June 30, 1919 898 

Total 2,479 

A88I02^MENT8. 

Assignments pending June 30, 1918 161 

Ass^nments filed during year ended June 30, 1919 886 

Total 1,047 

Assignments forwarded to the department and acted upon by the superin- 
tendent 804 

Assignments dismissed 36 

Total 840 

Assignments pending Jime 30, 1919 207 

Total 1,047 

During the year there were received approximately 18,000 personal 
affidavits of stockholders, showing their interests in corporations 
holding oil and gas leases covering lands of the Five CiviUzed Tribes. 
The general public seems to be investing more largely in oil stocks; 
the stock of practicaUy all of the laiger corporations holding leases 
in the Five Civiliized Iribes is on the market and some of the newer 
companies seem to be organized principally for the purpose of selling 
stock. Under these conditions^ the owneiship of stock is constantly 
chaining, causing new affidavits to be filed, and necessitating an 
examination of the stockholders' cards in connection with prac- 
tically every lease or assignment foiwarded for departmental con- 
sideration. 

Very little interest has been displayed in coal and asphalt leases, 
or miscellaneous mineral leases, only a few of this class of leases hav- 
ing been filed during the year. 

Notwithstanding the fact that special effort has been made to 
induce the Indians to advise with the field clerks before entering 
into any contract affecting their allotments, and to make all leases 



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rmB CS^LEZBD TB^BBl of OKTiAHOMA. 36& 

on their lands subject to dq>artmentaL approval, a lees number of 
agricultural and grazing leases were received than duriqg the pre- 
ceding year. Many conflicting agricultural leases are received, in 
many instances requiring personal investigations. 

In a number of cases wnere allottees complained that their lands 
were being held for a grosslv inadeauate rental, investigation dis- 
closed that the lands were neld under commercial leases. Where 
the lease was found to be invalid, the lessee has been notified to vacate 
ike premises, and in a few instances the lessee has, upon receipt of 
such notice, secured and filed a departmental lease at an increased 
rental. Where the lessees refused to do this, and failed to vacate 
the premises, the matter has been referred to the probate attorney 
forproper action. 

Fewer assignments were filed than during the preceding vear, but 
of those filed a great number were not properly completedf, making 
it impossible to submit them for departmental consideration and 
action. 

On July 1, 1918, there were pending in this ofiice 10 stipulations 
proposing to modify and extend terms of approved leases, and 30 
such stipulations were filed during the year. Thirty stipulations 
were forwarded for departmental action, and 10 are pending here at 
this time. 

PIPE LINES. 

Easements for pipe lines, telephfme and telecraph lines, pump stations, and tank sites 

far fisoci year. 

Applications filed prior to July 1, 1918 348 

Applications filed during fiscal year ended June 30, 1919 22 

Total 370 

Applications approved or withdrawn prior to July 1, 1S18 294 

Applications approved during fiscal vear ended Jime 30, 1919 20 

Applications withdrawn during fiscal year ended June 30^ 1919 7 

Applications pending in this office awaiting additional information from appli- 
cants 12 

Applications pending in this office awaiting opinions of allottees in re assessment 

of damages 7 

Applications pending in this office awaiting inspection of lines and assessment of 

aamages 24 

Applications filed during fiscal year: 

For pipe-Hne rights of way 17 

For telephone and telegraph line rights of way 2 

For pump-station sites 3 

While the number of applications filed during the year is less than 
that of the precedmg year^et some of the lines are long lines con- 
necting the Gushing and Healdton fields with the State of Texas, 
and are of considerable importance in increasing competition in the 
purchase of available oil. The shorter lines connect producing fields 
with trunk lines, refineries, or markets for natural gas, and are always 
of material value in increasing the maiketing facilities for both oil and 
natural gas. 

SEQBEQATED COAL LAND LEASES. 

On June 30, 1914, there were in force under the act of June 28, 
1898 (30 Stat., 495), 109 segregated coal leases, covering 99,800 
acres. The act of March 4, 1913 (37 Stat. L., 1007), authorized the 



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366 FIVE CIVILIZED TBIBES OF OKLAHOMA. 

Secretary of the Interior to lease additional acreage^ not to exceed 
640 acres, adjoining leases which were being operated in good faith 
on the date of the act, where the additional acreage is necessary for 
the operation of the mine. Applications filed under this act are 
investigated, and if the facts warrant and the Secretary approves, a 
lease covering the land applied for is executed, subject to the approval 
of the Secretary of the Interior. 

Disposition ofappHeatumsJUed/or addiiiondl acreage under act of Mar, 4, 19 IS. 

ApplicfttLonfl approved by Secretary of the Interior 31 

ApplicatioDs withdrawn 4 

A pplicatioiia denied 16 

Total 61 

On March 19, 1919, the department held that in view of the act 
of February 8, 1918, providii^ for the sale of the coal and asphalt 
de]K>sits, it would be inadvisable to continue leasing segregated coal 
lands, since which date all applicants have been advised of this 
ruling and of the next sale. 

During the year leases of the following lessees were canceled: 

St. Louis-Galveston Coal & Mining Co., lease No. 1. 

Phoenix Coal Co. 

Pocahontas Coal Co. 

Denison Coal Co. 

Rentals for agriculture and grazing tribal lands. 

Tracts tribal land rented : 

Choctaw-Chickasaw Nations, segregated land 114 

Creek Nation 19 

Seminole Nation 1 

Total 134 

A statement of the amounts received from this source appears 
imder the head of ** Royalty." 

ROYALTY DIVISION. 

In the royalty division are kept the accounts of individual lessors 
and lessees showing receipts from lessees and disbursements to 
lessors. Advance royalty and annual rental are paid on nonproducing 
leases directly to this office by lessees, while royalty on producing 
leases is remitted by pipe line companies unaer division orders 
approved by this office. 

Open accounts and classifications* 

Open accounts, June 30, 1919 10, 618 

Producing accouilts, June 30^ 1919 1,336 

Nonproducing accounts 6, 159 

Agricultural accounts 1, 361 

Leases canceled (bond held) 244 

Tribal coal lease accounts 129 

Tentative leasee 53 

Pij)e line accounts 883 

Miscellaneous accoun^is 63 

Total... 10,228 

Decrease 390 



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FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES 0^ OKLAHOMA. 367 

Leases, cancelkUions, and claims. 

Leases canceled, in whole or in part 1, 302 

Leases canceled, delinquent 244 

Leases canceled, delinquent |>recedlng year 130 

Percentage of delinquency this year 19. 3 

Percentage of delinquency preceding year 8. 7 

Total claims arising during fiscal year unpaid $11, 955. 98 

Old claims 10,698.17 

Total unpaid claims, June 30, 1919 22, 654. 15 

Of this amount there is due from — 

Equitable Surety Co. (now liquidatiDg) $4, 536. 51 

New Endmd Equitable Surety Co 230l00 

lUinois Surety Co. (receivership) 1«383.50 

No bond (all agricultural) 1,032.50 

Personal surety 3, 51^66 

Total old claims. I,.... , 10,698.17 

New claims 11,965.98 

Total claims 22, 654. 15 

The judgment against the Federal Union Surety Co. for claims 
pending since 1908 and 1909 has been paid in full. 

INCOME TAX. 

Three hundred and seventy-five cases of possible claims against 
restricted Indians for income tax were investigated and o? this 
number income tax was paid for 261, the amount paid being 
$407,408.95. 

GROSS PRODUCTION TAX. 

In accordance with the decision of the United States Supreme 
Court the State of Oklahoma was required to refund all gross produc- 
tion tax paid by lessees on production from restricted departmental 
leases. 6n demand of the State auditor over 1,000 certificates 
showing production on restricted land were prepared for use of 
lessees m securing refunds. 

CASING HEAD GAS. 

The manufacture of gasoline from casing head gas produced from 
restricted Indian lands and the correspondence and records have 
required practically the entire time of one special clerk and stenog- 
rapher. The increased revenue resulting from a close check on rates 
used as a basis for remittances and from notices to delinquent lessees 
amoxmted during the year to more than 130,000. 

NINE MONTHS DRILLING REQIHREMENT. 

On January 21, 1919, the Secretary rescinded the order requiring 
lessees to develop leases within nine months from date of approvid 
so far as it pertained to new leases. There were about 575 leases 
containing this reauirement. This office has recommended tJiat the 
requirement to drill in nine months be waived in all cases. 



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368 



FI¥E CIVIUZED^ TBIBES OF OKL.AHOMA. 



Miscellaneoua. 

Vouchers paid during the year 24, 292 

Diviaon orders approved IM 

Pieces of mail received 1S,02I 

Receipts and dUbiirsements, oU, gas, and other individual royloHes from 1904 to 1919, 



Fiscal year. 


Heoeipts. 


Disbuisements. 


Fiscal year. 


Receipts. 


Disbursements. 


1904 


$1,300.00 

01,634.40 

323,555.40 

775,489.15 

1,692,627.55 

1,813,460.28 

1,420,804.07 

1,365,826.52 

1,134,432.34 




1013 


$1,496,179.31 
2,060,826.14. 
l|95^065.87 
3,996,426.68 
4 441,645.53 
4,676,628.16 
4,523,522.95 


$1,201,362.09 
1,520,198.32 
1,196,223.72 
1,286,216.91 
2,377,180.58 
7,637 771.20 
5,810,873.21 


1906 


$61,031.38 
330,279.01 
670,347.45 
1,685,675.26 
1,802,803.20 
1,301,508.00 
1,101,007.18 
1,128,864.06 


lOU ^.. 

1915 


1906 


1907 


1916 


1908 


1917 


1909 


1918 


1910 


1919 


1911. 


TotaL 


1912 


31,7(6,501.74 


28,506,301.56 





Goal leases acquired under act of June 28, 1898 105 

Acreage embraced,' including additional tracts i 101, 942. 66 

Coal leases acquired under act of Mar. 4, 1913 18 

Acreage embraced 7,861.23 

Number of asphalt leases 5 

Tons of coal mined during fiscal year 3, 055, 016 

Tons of coal mined during preceaing year 3, 227, 595 

Advance royalty and ro^ty on production during fiscal year $231, 969. 45 

Advance royalty and royalty on production during preceding year. . $276, 186. 82 
Advance royalty paid on asphalt leases $2, 000. 00 

CASHIER'S DIVISION. 

Collections of tribal moneys have fallen off nearly $2,000,000 as 
compared with the previous fiscal year, due to the decreasing num- 
ber of tracts of land sold and to the several successive crop failures 
in Oklahoma, which necessitated numerous extensions of payments. 

The per capita payments previously authorized were continued 
and new payments made under act of May 25, 1918, of $200 per 
capita to the Choctaws and Chickasaws, of $100 per capita to the 
Seminoles, and of a payment to equalize allotments to the members 
of the Creek Nation up to the amount of $860. These payments 
have been made as follows: 



Nation. 


Amount 

per 
capita. 


Number 
paid. 


Amount. 


Authorljed. Paid. 


Chootow .... 


$200 
200 

100 


20, 7» 
6,304 
3 127 

14,184 


$4,lfll».»0.00 

1,200,800.00 

812700.00 

1,900,000.00 


$3, 7«, 004. 87 

1,192 801.06 

296.770.98 


ChlduSAw 


Seminole 


Owk ffquattntifiii . . . . 


l,394;i44.04 






Total 






7,723,800.00 


6,675,811.65 









About 10 per cent of the total amount paid was transferred to 
individual Indian money accounts, the balance being paid direct to 
Indians. 

To make these payments it was necessary to withdraw from Okla- 
homa banks $626,160.22 of tribal moneys, as the amounts available 
in the United States IVeasury were insufficient. Further withdrawals 
will have to be made in the near future for new per capita payments, 



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PIYE OIVILUSBD TBIBBS OF OKI«^HOMA» 36& 

and these withdrawals will be, at least^artly replaced with individual 
Indian moneys of the Five Civilized Iribes. ^ *" 

There is a total amount of individual moneys on deposit in 142 
National and 32 State banks in Oklahoma^ aggregating $5,966,223.28. 
These banks are paying from 3 to 4} per cent mterest^ the largest 
part of this nioney bringing 4 per cent interest since January 1, 1919. 
By this increase in the interest rate, we were enabled to credit interest 
for the six-month period ending June 30, 1919, to about 11,000 
individual Indian accounts at the rate of 3| per cent per annum. \ 

While the war savings stamps purchased for our restricted Indians 
are bein^ carried in the accounts of the cashier at their cash value, the 
Liberty loan bonds of all issues, in the amount of $10,264,000, are 
all registered in the name of the Secretary of the Interior as trustee 
for the 290 individual subscribers, and are deposited for safe-keeping 
with the Treasurer of the United States. 

The financial statement in detail follows: 

Receipt*. 
Tribal collections: 

^Choctaw-Ghickaaav Nations — Choctaw. ChJokuMr. 

Coal and asphalt royalties $165,341.55 $55,113.83 

Rental on tribal lands 1,319.44 439.81 

Sale of unallotted lands 393, 653. 86 131, 217. 97 

Sale of timberlands 665,862.24 221,95106 

Sale of surface or segregated coal 

and asphalt lands 248,970.10 82,990.02 

Side of improvements on tribal 

lands 3,423.86 1,14L29 

Sale of town lots 2,827.34 942.45 

Sale of town-site maps 5.99 4.50 

Pipe-line damages 108.18 36.06 

Telephone-line damages 90.75 30.25 

Interest on deferrea payment, 

Bloomfield Academy. 183.26 61.09 

1,481,786.57 493,931.33 

$1, 975, 717. 90 

Greek Nation — Cnek. 

Rental on tribal lands 465.75 

Sale of unallotted lands 12,01L06 

Sale of town-sitemaps 1. 85 

Sale of improvements 8.25 

12 486. 91 

Cherokee Nation — 

Sale of unallotted lands 722. 00 

Sale of improvements 12. 50 

Sale of town-site maps 1. 50 

736. 00 

Total tribal collections 1,988,940.81 

Individual Indian moneys: 

Royalty accounts — Misoellaneoos. 

Royalties on production $3, 416, 805. 10 

Advance ro^ty and bonus 657, 180. 12 

Interest on investments 255,863. 52 

Interest on bank accounts 130, 405. 05 

Redeposits 63,269.16 

4,623,522.96 



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370 FIVE CIVrLJZED TRIBES OF OKLAHOMA. 

Individual Indian moneys — Continued. 

Other individual Indian moneys — Kisoellaneoos. 

Proceeds from land sales $457, 559. 97 

Transfers from tribal payments 648,951.02 

Redepodts and other sources 108, 494. 48 

Interest 61,869.90 

$1, 276, 875. 37 

War savings stamps purchases 315, 420. 40 

Increase in value of war savings stamps 21,181.50 

336,60L90 

Total individual Indian moneys 6,137,000.22 

Miscellaneous moneys: 

Sale of town-site maps $32. 00 

Sale of property at Collins Institute 852.05 

Rentals at Collins Institute 24.00 

Sale of lease blanks 2,931.25 

Sale of certified copies and State maps 4, 354. 25 

Sale of certified copies under section 8, act of Apr. 

26,1906 23,687.26 

Sale of junk 7. 28 

Filing fees, oil and gas leases, assignments and 

stipulations 13, 362. 00 

Pipe line inspection fees 38. 50 

Interest on special deposits 28, 276. 51 

Advertising fees on allotted lands 5, 362. 25 

Overpayment on advance, royalty 4, 783. 95 

Refun<u and reimbursements, appropriations 6, 083. 64 

Board, etc., Euchee Boarding School..... 207 71 

Total miscellaneous moneys 90,002. 65 

Total 8,215,943.68 

Received by Treasury warrants on requisition 7,255^ 352. 80 

Received tnbal funds from banks 626» 160. 22 

Total receipts 16,097,456.70 

Balance carried over from previous year: 

Congressional appropriations $98, 270. 96 

Tribal funds 1,314,999.07 

Miscellaneous moneys 8, 340. 58 

Individual Indian moneys 5, 869, 196. 68 

Outstanding liabilities 1, 456. 42 

War savings stamps held for individual Indians 506, 488. 20 

7,793,75L91 

Grand total 23,891,208.61 

Dubursementi, 

CONGRESSIONAL APPROPRIATIONS. 

Administration of affairs. Five Civilized Tribes, Okla- 
homa, 1918: 

Salaries of regular employees $106. 67 

Traveling expenses 3, 327. 62 

Office rents 194.25 

Sundry purchases and expenses 472. 76 

$4,10L30 

Administration of affairs, Five Civilized Tribes, Oklar 

homa, 1919: 

Salaries of regular employees 132, 232. 46 

Traveling expenses .' 26, 512. 87 

Office rents of field clerks 4,85&51 

Sundry purchases and expenses 18,007.39 

]j81feU.28 



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FIYB OiynJZED TRIBES OF OKLAHOMA. 

Industrial work and care of timber, 1918: 

Traveling expenses $17. 40 

Industrial work and care of timber. 1919: 

Salaries of reg:ular employees, larmeiB 11,001.95 . 

Traveling expenses of fanners 4, 732. 26 

Sundry piurcnases and expenses 422. 14 

Probate attorneys, Five Civilized Tribes, 1918: 

Salaries of regular employees 230. 27 

Traveling expenses 904. 87 

Offiee rents 6a 75 

Sundry purchases and expenses 163.72 

Legal expenses 23. 20 

Probate attcaneys, Five Civilized Tribes, 1919: 

Salaries of regular employees 69, 372. 23 

Salaries of temporary employees 496. 67 

Traveling expenses 5, 383. 28 

Office rents 3,782.49 

Sundry purchases and expenses 2, OIL 68 

Legal expenses 570. 21 

Oil and gas inspectcniB, Five Civilized Tribes, 1919: 
May 16 to June 30, 1919. 

Salaries of regular employees 942. 09 

Traveling expenses 178. 51 

Sundry purcnases and expenses 3L 35 

Indian schools, Five Civilized Tribes, 1918: 

Payments for aid of district schools in eastern Okla- 
homa 80,17a 97 

Sundry expenses . 1L40 

Indian schools. Five Civilized Tribes, 1919: 

Salaries of regular employees 8, 784. 67 

Salaries of temporary employees 217.00 

Traveling expenses 97L 65 

Sundry exp^ises 274. 49 

Payments m aid of district sehools^ in eastern Okla- 
homa 178,020.24 

Pay of Indian police, 1918: 

Salaries of regular employees ^.^.^ 90.00 

Pity of Indian police, 1919: 

Salaries of regular employees 7, 289. 00 

Miscellaneous purchases •'.••• 427. 06 

Relieving distress and prevention of disease among In- 
dians, 1919: 
Relief of sick and indigent Indians 62. 70 

Increased compensation, Indian Service, 1918 la 75 

Increased compensation, Indian Service, 1919 23, 025. 00 

Industry among Indians, 1917-18: 

Purchase of seeds for distribution to Indians 1, 132. 58 

Industry among Indians, 1918-19: 

Purchase or seeds for distribution to Indians 4, 639. 84 

Cherokee Orphan Training School, Five Civilized 
Tribes, 1919: 
Salaries of r^^ular employees 4ia 83 



371 



«17.40 



16»156L35 



1,385.81 



81,616.56 



1,15L95 



80, 19a 37 



188, 26a 05 
30.00 

7,7iaoe 

62.70 

ia75 

23,025.00 

1,132.58 

4,639.84 

416.83 



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87S' FIVS OIVIIiI2SD TBIBBS OF OKLAHOMA. 

General expenses, Indian Service, 1919 (competency 
commission): 

Puchase of one Ford car.. $584.05 

— 1684.05 

Total disbuieed from copgressional appropriations 592, 119. 85 

r.. 
TRIBAL FUNDS. 

Tribal officers, salaries and expenses 22, 284. 81 

Tribal attorneys, under contract, salaries and expenses. 24, 804. 93 
Refunds and expenses, account sale of tribal lands and 

coal and asphalt deposits S9, 708.24 

Ejqpenses per capita and equalization paym^its 82, 068. 45 

Per capita payments 5,673,92L13 

Payments an lieu of allotments 1, 425, 722. 73 

Expenses and repaixs of tribal schools and other tribal 

property 13,406.53 

Total disbursed from tribal funds 7, 231, 934. 82 

INDIVIDUAL INDIAN AND HISCBLLANEOUS HONEYS. 

Lease royalties: 

Paid to Indians $1,950,023.08 

Purchase of Liberty loan bonds 2,762,000.00 

Purchase of war savings stamps » 95,037.40 

Income tax i>aid 403,812.73 

5,210,87^21 

Other Individual Indian moneys: 

Paid to Indians 863,245.37 

Purchase of Liberty loan bonds .. 23, 850.00 

Purchase of war savings stamps 220,383.00 

1,107,47&37 

Overpayments on advanced royalties 5, 952. 42 

Miscellaneous funds: 

Ccirtified copies, section 8. 

Salaries of regfular employees 15, 120. 61 

Salaries of temporary employees ««.»^-. 1, 558. 84 

Purchase of supplies ana sundry expenses 2, 485. 97 



19,165.42 
Indian moneys, proceeds of labor, Five Civilized Tribes: 

Salaries of regular employees 29,086.83 

Salaries of temporary employees 350.84 

Traveling expenses 2, 107.76 

Refunds 277.44 

Sundry purchases and expenses 7, 146.59 

38, 969. 46 

Indian moneys, proceeds of labor, Five Civilized Tribes, 

advertising: Advertising of allotted Indian land sides 1, 578. 65 

Expenses, pipe-line inspection 38. 50 

Inotan moneys, proceeas of labor, Collins Institute: Ex- 
pense of thrashing grain 273 . 39 

War savings stamps held for Indiaxis: 

Converted 41,195.00 

Delivered to Indians 2, 544. 50 

43, 739. 50 



Total individual Indian and miscellaneous moneys G, 428, 068. 92 

Total disbursements 14, 252, 103. 59 



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FIVE dVnJZED TBIBBS OF OKUUXOMA. 878 

RECAPITULATION OF DI8BUS8BMENTB. 

I apjiropriatioiifl: 

*l]»eiMral office, Five Civilised THbee 9102, 424. 59 

Field servioBy appnisen, fannen, police, oil inspec- 
tion, etc 137,817.64 

School supervision and aid to district schools 268,875.25 

Ptobate work and legal expenses 83,002.37 

»502, 119. 85 

Tribal funds: 

Indian tribal officers and attorneys, and expenses. . . 47, 089. 74 

Expenses tribal schools 13,090.39 

Tribal payments and other expenses 7, 171, 734.69 

7,231,914.82 

Individual Indian moneys paid to Indians 8, 217, 081. 18 

Government war securities purchased for Indians 8, 101, 270. 40 

Miscellaneous payments ana expenses 109, 717. 34 

6,428,068.02 

Total actual disbursements 14,252,103.50 

Deposited Indian moneys to credit Five Civilized Tribes, 1, 988, 941. 81 

Deposited account sale of Government property 32. 00 

Deposited to xeunbone tribal funds 2,074.27 

Deposited to redmbune apiM*opriatians 4, 763. 73 

Deposited to reimburse sund^ receipts 842. 01 

Deposited unexpended balances 86, 297. 90 

Deposited miscellaneous funds 54, 293. 54 

2,137,245.26 

Balances on hand June 30^ 1919: 

Congressional apinopnations 70, 339. 23 

Tribalfunds 958,699.19 

Miscellaneous moneys 6, 177. 18 

Individuallndian moneys 5,665,205.64 

Outstanding liabilities 1,456.42 

War savings stamps held for individual Indians 799, 982. 10 

Total balances 7,501,859.76 

Grand total 23,891,208.61 

NoTB.— The amoont of money on hand June 30, 1919, pending audit, aggregates 
1863,693.51. 

Andlyna of diabvrgements of tribal fundg. 



GhoeUw. 



CbarokMu 



GnA. 



TotaL 



tuXwbocUBBtploytM 

Ezp«Da8B of per e^>iUi and 

Rapain to triSu property 
and P«yIiib tax. 

Expfloan aoooimt sale of 
tribal lands 

Ezp«na8B aooount sale of 
eoal and asphalt deposits . 

ReAinds aoooimt tribal land 
■alo and payment for laa- 
provements 

Tribal offieen and axpcBMs . 

Tribal attonioya and «z- 

Paymenta' in 'lieo of 'allot-' 

msBtB 

Per capita xMymoDts 

TotaL 



t2,873.86 
13,503.41 
W.68 
17,486.48 
7,07«.»7 



5,347.27 
10,1M.07 

7,083.30 



12,413.18 
4,331.35 



6,773.22 
2,S73.16 



1,749.14 
9,981.06 

7,147.30 



6,0a7.1O 
4,094,640.89 h,258, 833.24 



86,813.09 

13,856.96 

336w61 



835,038.41 
ni,368.35 



8,303.79 

10,634.58 

1,894,149.04 



8003.87 
1,976.73 



6iai8 
833,179.16 



813,000.88 

32,068.45 

8iai4 

33,980.70 

9,450.13 



6,996.41 
23,384.81 

34,804.98 

1,435^723.78 
6,673,981.13 



4,163,986.07 1,387,441.44 



37,896.70 1,436,878.63 



336,766.93 



7,231,914.83 



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874 FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES OF OKLAHOMA. 

MAIL DIVISION. 

The mail division handled 814,722 items of mail as compared with 
864;935 during the fiscal year 1918, classified as follows: 

Incoming: 

Departmental letters , 6, 403 

Miscellaneous letters 106, 564 

Stamped but unnumbered vouchers, applications, etc., approxi- 
mately : 275,000 

Total 387,967 

Outgoing: 

D^fMutmeatal letten 8, 150 

Miflcellaneoiig Icttea 168,605 

CiiciilazB, form letten, etc., approximately 250, 000 

Total 426,756 

Grand total : 814,722 

In addition to the above, there were mailed not less than 175,000 
advertisements of allotted and unallotted land and coal and asphalt 
mineral deposits, the grand total aggregating a little less than 
1,000,000 items. 

UNITED STATES OIL INSPECTOR. 

OIL AND GAS OPEBATIONS. 

One of the outstanding features in a r6sum6 of field operations 
in the production of oil and gas within the area of the Five Civilized 
Tribes during the past fisc^ year has been the inauguration of a 
systematic and thorough search for a new pool of oil. This activity 
has manifested itself principallv during the last four months of the 
year. It has been brought about prunarily by the discovery of 
oil and the development of imoortant fields in the north central 
Texas region from Kanger to BurKbumett, Tex., on the Red River. 

Southwestern Oklahoma, on the edge of the CShickasaw Nation, 
was the first section to feel the influence of this movement, and 
from this point it has spread northeastward through the several 
nations of the Five Civilized Tribes. Lai^e blocks of acreage have 
been taken up in many places and test wells have been started in 
these areas, r^ardless oi the fact that former tests in the general 
territory have been failures. Haphazard methods, formerly prevalent 
to a large extent^ in selecting prospective areas in which to drill test 
wells have been entirely discarded, and it is possible that the applica- 
tion of the best scientific knowledge in the search for a new pool of 
oil in southwestern Oklahoma may be rewarded by a discovery of 
some importance. 

A tabulation of development operations within the State, including 
the area of the Five Civilized Tribes and the Osa^e Nation, during 
the past fiscal year, shows 8,429 wells drilled, resulting in 6,386 pro- 
ducing oil wells, 776 producing gas wells, and 2,268 dry holes. 

A (uose estimate of the production of oil in the various fields in 
the Five CivUized Tribes as of June 30, 1919, is as follows: 



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FIVE CTVnjZED TBIBES OF OKLAHOMA. 



375 



, Fourth 

quarter, 

District. 1918 

(barrels 

; dally). 


Fourth 
quarter, ; 

1919 i District, 
(barrels 

daUy). 1 


Fourth 
quarter, 

1918 
(barrels 
daUy). 


Fourth 
quarter, 

1919 
(barrels 
daUy). 


Choro\-ee deep sand : 

Bird Creek 5,000 


5,800 

4,600 

300 

950 

250 

3,820 

1,190 

1,210 

225 

41,227 

4,950 
3,750 
2,360 
13,250 


j Creek Nation— Continued, 
llamillon Switch 


290 
325 
400 
170 

2,700 
250 

6,050 
700 
250 

1,450 

1,650 

625 

52,205 


5,000 
530 


Bartlesville ; 5,900 


1 Henryetta 


Collinsvllle^Vera ' 500 


KellyviUe 


300 


Copan-Wann 1,500 


Lost City and Red Fork.. 
Morris... 


804 


II(^ooter ISO 


2,540 
425 


Cherokee shallow: 


* MuskcKee 


Nowata 2,800 

Delaware ( 1,150 


Mouncfs-Beggs 


8,600 
600 




Chelsea , 1,500 


Schulter 


400 


Inola ' 135 

C\i5hiTii:-fihaTnro<;l: ... . ' 4S, 50O 


JIaskell-Stone Bluff 

Tiger F lals 


1,320 
4,000 

7se 


Creek Nation: 1 


Allen : 


BaldHill 6,680 


H«iM<on-Fov, 


33,784 


Bixbr-I^eonnrd 7 fiOO 


Total production 


Bovnton-Cole 4,600 

CApfnn Pool ... ' 14^4^10 


167, 710 


125,282 







PRICES OF CRUDE OIL. 



The general market price of midcontinent crude oil of $2.25 per 
barrel £as not changea throughout the past fiscal year The only 
reduction made in price applied to Healdton crude oil, which was 
reduced on February 21, 1919, from $1.45 to $1.20 per barrel. The 
fact that this oil is inferior to the bulk of the production in the Okla- 
homa fields, and further, that there was considerable new production 
of high-grade oil developed in the north Texas fields, principally in 
Burkburnett, accounted for this reduction. 



NEW POOLS. 

There hare been no new pools of oil of importance discovered in 
the Five Civilized Tribes during the past fiscal year. Several semi- 
promising areas have been opened up by the drilling in of test wells, 
namely, Comanche, HoldenviUe, and Hewitt, Okla. 

Comanche. — On December 23, 1918, a test well, with a capacity of 
approximatelv 25 barrels daily, was competed in the vicinity of 
Comanche, Okla., in sec. 19, T. 2 S., R. 7 W. Since that time, two 
other producing wells, with a total daily capacity of about 75 barrels, 
have been completed. The sand is found at a depth of about 1,500 
feet. No pipe-line facilities have as yet been extended to the 
territory, as the outlook at present would hardly justify the con- 
struction of a line. It is believed, however, that with careful pros- 
pecting work a pool of oil will be uncovered in this tbwnship. 

HoiaenviUe. — ^A gas well, with an estimated capacity of 20,000,000 
cubic feet daily, was completed on February 6, 1919, at a depth of 
1,850 feet, in the southeast corner of the Sw. i of SE. i of sec. 18, 
T. 8 N., K. 10 E. This test is located about 8i miles northeast of 
HoldenviUe. In drilling the well, an additional flow of gas, estimated 
at 5,000,000 cubic feet daily, was encountered at a depth of 850 feet. 
The presence of these two gas sands at the depths specified has 
attracted the attention of oil producers^ resulting in the taking up 
of a number of leases in this general territory, witn the prospect that 
several other test wells will be drilled within the next six months. 



140023''— i.NT 1919— VOL 2- 



-25 



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376 



nVE CIVILIZED TRIBES OF OKLAHOMA. 



Hewitt, — On May 31, 1919, a test well with a credited capacity of 
over 300 barrels daily, was completed at a depth of 2,110 feet in the 
northeast corner of the N W. 1 of NW . J of N W. i of sec. 27, T. 4 S. , R. 2 W. 
approximately 3 J miles due east of the edge of the southeastern 
extension of the Healdton oil field. The steady daily production of 
this well since it was brought in gives every indication that there is 
a pool of oil in this locality 

OTHER DISTRICTS. 

In the district west and southwest of Beggs, Okla., located close to 
the center of the intersection of townships 15 north, 11 and 12 east, 
and 14 north, 11 and 12 east, a number of good producing wells have 
been completed in a lower producing sand than has hitherto been 
explored in this territory. Completions, ranging in capacity of from 
500 to 1,000 barrels per day, are not uncommon and nave caused a 
complete revision of the former estimate of the oil and gas possibili- 
ties of this territory. 

Ohnnlgee. — Several test wells drilled in the vicinity of Okmulgee 
have encountered a producing oil sand at a depth of approximately 
2,900 feet. The wells average from 200 to 500 barrels each. The 
product is the best grade of oil. This sand is at least 250 feet deeper 
than the deepest producer in the Okmulgee district. It is believed 
that these discoveries will lead to systematic prospecting over the 
entire producing area of this field in order to determine the probable 
extent of this deeper pay sand. 

The monthly leasing record shows acreage upon which leases were 
executed, initial bonus paid, and additional bonus required during 
the last fiscal year, as follows: 



Month. 



Acres. 



Initial 
bonus paid. 



Additional 

bonus 
required. 



July 

August 

September.. 

October 

November.. 
December. . 

January 

February. . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 



Total. 



4,219.46 

4,682.51 

2,268.14 

3,409.83 

1,904.39 

3,239.70 

4,944.47 

14,175.20 

»,887.23 

46,836.52 

41,587.08 

34,285.49 



$7,278.64 

6,179.38 

2,948.37 

7, 110. 10 

1,174-22 

4,096.50 

9,005.40 

19,309.93 

30, 137. 21 

52,894.51 

64.737.87 

90,065.07 



191,420.02 



284,937.18 



52,953.00 

664.61 

455.00 

270.00 

1,480.00 

683.00 

2,000.00 

7,102.00 

7,863.00 

8,019.89 

15,634.56 

30,921.61 



78,046.67 



There was a phenomenal increase in the number of acres of land 
leased during the last five months of this year. A large proportion 
of this acreage is located in outside territory, having been taken up 
in blocl^ along with much larger areas of commercial land by com- 

Sanies with the purpose in view of drilling a test well on same. Such 
istricts may be generally specified as Tahlequah, Stigler, Webbers 
Falls, Yeager, Holdenville, and Comanche. These various localities 
give a good indication of the general distribution of this leasing 
activity. 



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FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES OF OKLAHOMA. 



377 



PIPE LINES. 



There has not been any particular activity in new pip© line con- 
struction to serve any of the fields in the Five Civilized Tiibes. The 
building of laterals from systems already in operation to serve new 
wells has not been extensive. 

The principal activity in pipe line construction has been the exten- 
sion of trunt lines from Oklahoma fields to tap the north central 
Texas development. 

The Prairie Oil & Gas Co. has finished an 8-inch line from Cushing, 
Okla., to Ranger, Tex. This new line, with the one completed last 
year, gives the company two 8-inch lines connecting its Oklahoma 
production with the Texas field. 

The Sinclair Pipe Line Co. has extended its main line from Cushing 
and Healdton to Ranger, Tex., and contemplates running same to 
the Gulf of Mexico. 

The Cosden Oil & Gas Co. is building an 8-inch line from Yale and 
Tulsa, Okla., to the Ranger field, a distance of approximately 275 
miles. 

The number of wells served by purchasing pipe lines and inde- 
pendent agencies taking oil in the Cushing and Healdton fields, and 
the average daily production, separated as to departmental and com- 
mercial acreage, according to the latest information gathered by this 
office, are as follows: 





Departmental. 


Commercial. 


Purchaser or pipe line company. 


Estimated 
a^e^age 

daily pro- 
duction. 


Number 
of wells. 


Estimated 
avera4;e 

dally pro- 
duction. 


Number 
of wells. 


Cnshing field 


Barrels. 
11,837 
4,648 


966 
851 


BttTTdS. 

29,390 
29, 136 


1,728 


Healdton field 


1,3S1 







STORAGE OF OIL. 

Cuthing field. 

A close estimate of the total amount of storage oil in the Cushing 
field and the owners thereof, as of June 30, 1919, is as follows: 





Tanks. 


Amount. 






standard group: 

Carter Oil Co 


234 

156 
53 


1 

10,326,658 

6,011,636 

25,000 


Miscellaneous refinery group— 
Conttnued. 

The Texas Co 


97 
9 


- 


Prairie Oil & Gas Co... 


3,280,195 
79, livS 


Standard of Indiana 

Magnolia Petroleum Co 


Pierce Oil CorporaUons. . . . 
Total 




203 


3,628,818 


Tntal 


448 1 16,384,216 


Independent Interests: 

Roxana Petroleum Co 

Silurian Oil Co 




11 
1 




Miscellaneous refinery proop: 
Sinclair Oil & Gas Co.. . . 


25 
20 
11 
10 
24 
6 
1 


45,200 
None. 
7,211 
18,346 
198,678 
None. 
None. 


258,814 
13, 121 


Cosden Pipe Line Co 

Gulf Pipe Line Co 


Total 




12 


271,935 


Indlahoma Refining Co. . . . 
C. B. Shaffer 


Miscellaneous storage 






200,000 


International Refinery—... 
Webster ReflnCTy 


Grand total 






663 


20,484,969 









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FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES OF OKLAHOMA, 



A comparison of the amounts of oil on hand,, owned by the groups 
specified above, as between June 30, 1918, and the same date, 1919, 
is herewith presented: 



Owners. 



Standard group „ 

Miscellaneous refinery group 

Independent Interests 

Miscellaneous storage 

Decrease in total storage in Gushing field . 



Storare. 



June 30, 1918. June 30, 1919. 



24,077,385 

5,528,721 

120,850 

300,000 



16,384,326 

3,628,818 

271,935 

200,000 



Decrease. 



7,683,059 

1,890,903 

151,085 

100,000 

9,541,877 



The Carter Oil Co. and Prairie Oil & Gas Co. of the Standard group 
have been moving their surplus oil at the rate of from 200,000 to 
§00,000 barrels per month, and it is assumed that this oil is being 
used in their refineries in Indiana and New Jersey. 

The Standard of Indiana and the MagnoUa Petroleum Co. have 
practically exhausted their storage. 

In the miscellaneous refinery group there has been a decrease in 
storage of approximately 1,900,000 barrels during the yeai. The 
Texas Co., which had the largest storage m this group, nas moved 
over 1,000,000 barrels during this peiiod. 

The estimated total amount of storage oil in the Healdton field, 
and the owners thereof, as of June 30, 1919, is as follows: 



Owners. 



Ardmore Production & Re- 
fining Co 

Bull Head Oil Co 

Carter Oil Co 

Cobden Fuel Co 

Chickasaw Refining Co 

Empire Pipe Line 

Cilmer OirCo 

Hamon & Colcord 

Imperial RefinMg Co.^ 

Roxana Petroleum Co.* , 

Rockland Oil Co,i 

Magnolia Petroleum Co 



Tanks. 


Amount. 


2 


None. 


1 


None. 


57 


2,790,000 


8 


315,000 


1 


None. 


3 


131,000 


5 


159,000 


1 


None. 


1 


53,000 


3 


53,000 ; 


3 


91,000 


63 


3,339,000 j 



Owners. 



I., 



Pierce- Fordyoe 

Pure Oil Pipe Line.... 
Roxana Petroleum Co. 
Saddle River Oil Co... 
Sinclair-OulfOUCo.... 

Texas Co 

Terminal Refining Co. 
Westheimer & Daube. 



Tanks. Amoost. 



Total storage 

Total storage, June 30, 1918. 



209 



Decrease. . 



5,000 
ri,000 
None. 

190,000 
5,000 

498,000 
5,000 
8,000 



7,647,000 
11,110,364 



3,463,264 



* Leased by and oil owned by Empire Pipe Line. 

Thesa figures show a decrease in storage of 31.17 per cent in 
Healdton crude oil for the fiscal year 1919. 

FIRE LOSSES. 

Fire losses during the past fiscal year on tank farms and leases, 
both commercial and departmental, in the Gushing and Healdton 
fields, as reported to this office, were as follows: 

Barrels. 

Gushing field 24, 250 

Healdton field 55, 200 

CASING-HEAD GAS. 

The records of all producing oil and gas mining leases under the 
supervision of this office have been exanuned with tne view of investi- 
gating conditions rdating to the sale or utilization of casing-head 



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FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES OF OKLAHOMA. 



379 



{;as and the royalty returns therefrom. A complete file of such 
eases, separatea into districts and classified under lessees, both as 
to those who axe using their own gas in the manufacture of casing- 
head gasoline and those who are selling to outside parties, has been 
made m order to systematize the testing work. 

The wide distribution of departments leases, the small amount of 
casing-head gas produced on many of them, the fact that in most 
instances there is a larger percentage of conamercial than depart- 
mental leases in every group of properties connected with any plant, 
and that the connections, pipmg arrangements, and location oi 
vacuum stations have not always been installed with the greatest 
efficiency of operation in view