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REPORT 




OF THK 



COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE 



FOR 



THE YEAR 1875 



I ^i»» I 



WASHINGTON: 

OOVEUNMENT FBINTING OFFICE. 

1876. 






CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Report of the Commissioueij Frederick Watts 7 

Report of the Statistician, J. R. Dodge 17 

Report of the Entomologist, Townend Glover 1 114 

Reportof the Chemist, William W. McMurtrie 141 

MiSCF.IXANEOUS rArERS— 

Catalogue of forest-trees of the United States, by George Vasey 151 

Microscopic observations, by Thomas Taylor 187 

The sheep and wool of the world, by J. R. Dodge 207 

Statistics of forestry 244 

Tests of Department seeds 359 

Popular varieties of fruits, by F.R.Elliott 368 

Improved Minnesota flour, by Norman Buck 388 

Potato-flour, or farina, by A. S. Maorea 390 

Alfalfa 394 

French mode of curing forage 397 

Dairy-record 408 

The short-horned breed of cattle, by Lewis F. Allen 416 

Ilog-cholera— intestinal fever in swine, by James Low 426 

Introduction of the alpaca 437 

History of our rural organizatious 437 

Progress of industrial education 469 

Farm facts and experiments .502 

Agricultural-experiment stations in Europe , 517 



M 



FULL -PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Plate. Pago. 

I. Michigan Agricultural College Frontispiece — 

II. Com and wheat production 40 

III. Area of wheat 42 

IV. Corn and wheat exports of iifty years 44 

V. Sugar-supply of twenty- five years 46 

VI. The cotton-crop of ten years 46 

YII. Product of corn, wheat, oats, and potatoes 48 

Vm. Immigration of seven years 48 

IX. Comparative area of puhlic-land States 49 

X. Effect of Paris green upon grdwing plant-s 145 

XI. Effect of arsenite of potassa upon growing plants •• 146 

XII. Effect of araen iate of potassa npon growing plants 147 

XIII. Effect of illuminating-gas npon growing plants 148 

XIY. Animal and vegetahle cellulose and starch 1^ 

XV. Blackknot 206 

XVI. Show-yard of live sheep '209 

XVn. Thaer'sElectoral-Escurialramof 1845 210 

XVIII. Kannenberg's Rambonillet-Negretti ram of 1873 212 

XIX. Border- Leicester ram 219 

XX. Cots wold ram of the Cirencester Agricultural College ^. . - 220 

XXI. Southdown rnm 221 

XXII. Hcompshire ram ;-.... 223 

XXm. Dorset ram .' 225 

XXIV. Eamhouillet ram of 1787 231 

XXV. Ramhouillet ram of 1873 232 

XXVI. Cotswold ram 238 

XXVII. Forest area of the United States 245 

XXVIII. Forest areaof Maine 249 

XXIX. Forest area of New Hampshire and Vermont 251 

XXX. Forest area of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, luid Connecticut 252 

XXXI. Forestarea of New York 255 

XXXII. Forest areaof New Jersey - 256 

XXXIII. Forest area of Pennsylvania , '258 

XXXIV. Forest area of Delaware and Maryland 261 

XXXV. Forestarea of Virginia 263 

XXXVI. Forest area of North Carolina and South Carolina 269 

XXXVn. Forest area of Georgia 275 

XXXVIII. Forest area of Florida 277 

XXXIX. Forest area of Alabama -. 279 

XL. Forest areaof Mississippi -. — 281 

XLI. Forest area of Louisiana - — — 283 

XLIL Forest area of Texas j — 287 

XLIII. Forest area of Arkansas - — .--- 290 

XLIV. Forest area of Tennessee 293 

XLV. Forest area of West Virginia ..- 296 

XLVI. Forest area of Kentucky ... — -. ... — 299 

XLVn. Forest area of Ohio , ^-...^ 303 



> ILLUSTRATIONS. 

XLVIIL Forest urea of Micbij^an and Wisconsin 30G 

XLIX. Forest area of Indiana 309 

L. Forest area of Illinois 313 

LI. Forest area of Minnesota 317 

LII. Forest area of Iowa 321 

IjIII. Forest area of Missouri 323 

LI V. Forest area of Kansas 325 

LV. Forest area of Nebraska 327 

LVI. Forest area of California and Nevada :»29 

LVII. Forest area of Orefjou 331 

LVIIL Group of Texas cattle 421 

LIX. Type of short-horn 422 

LX. Group of alpacas 437 

LXI. Agricultural College of Minnesota 493 



ODTLIKE ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Insects, (63 figures Heteroptera. 
Farina-mannfaotaTiDg maohmeiy, (2 Qgoies.) 
C*r9nQh mode of oming forage^ (8 flgnrci.) 



REPORT 



OF Tin: 



COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



DEPAIiTJIENT OF AGRICULTUnE, 

WashingtoHj Octolei' 2G, 1875. 

Sm : That branch of the industry of the country whrch is so largely 
committed to the care of this Department, presents a wide field for the 
exercise of learning and science, the ingenuity of practical experience, 
and the application of sound judgment ; and I am pleased to believe 
that all these are at this moment greatly stimulated by the manifestly 
valuable results of the practical operations of agriculture which are con- 
stantly attained by their aid. Farmers and planters now realize that 
there is something else in this important work beyond the mere drudg- 
ery of sowing, reaping, and curing. Men of science and learning have 
turned their attention to the subject, and have so plainly and interest- 
ingly illustrated the nature of plants, the purposes to which they may be 
applied, their cultivation and products, as well as the injurious insects 
which depredate upon them, as to make the subject intelligible to the 
plainest comprehension ; and it gives me great satisfaction to know 
that the work of this Department has kept pace with all the light which 
knowledge has cast upon the subject, and made it practically available 
to the agriculturists of the country. 

The Department has taken the utmost pains to keep itself informed of 
all improvements or new discoveries which affect the interests of the 
farmer, whether it be in the kind or quality of seed, the best mode of its 
cultivation, the implements best adapted to the purpose, and the quality 
of soil and condition of climate congenial to its growth } and in the 
distribution .of seeds the Department takes no risks as to the quality, 
always taking care that they shall be the very best of their kind, and 
adapting each to that locality where the product will be the most profit- 
able, impressing upon the minds of all to whom they are sent that their 
community will be benefited by the result of their experiments. A cor- 
respondence with all parts of the country gives me the assurance of the 
wonderfully beneficial results which have been attained by this distribu- 
tion of superior seeds. Farmers are now more than ever convinced that 
the success of their cro]>3 is in a great measure dependent upon the 
quality of the seed they sow. I do not hesitate to say that the crops of 
wheat and oats in this country have been increased many millions of 



8 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

bushels by rcasou of tbe qualities of seeds distributed by this Depart- 
ment. The occupation of the farmer necessarily isolates him from the 
sources of iuformation with regard to the progress and improvement 
which are always bein^ made in his business ; hence the inestimable 
value of the central point which this Department affords for the collec- 
tion of facts and seeds, and their periodical distribution to those who 
have no other opportunity of obtaining them. And when we consider 
how the hopes and interests, and, indeed, the prosperity of our country, 
are dependent upon the success of agriculture, it is not wonderful that 
Congress should exercise a guardian care over it. 

During the past year, a most destructive dispensation of grasshoppers 
was visited upon several of our Western States — ^IVIissouri, Minnesota, 
Kansas, and Nebraska, and, to some extent, Colorado and Dakota. In 
many places, the destruction of all vegetable life was total, threatening 
not only the existence of the population for the time being, but depriv- 
ing them of all hope of the means of planting for the next season, the 
possible result of which was the depopulation of the whole country thus 
afflicted. But Congress wisely interposed, and through the instrumen- 
tality of the Quartermaster's Department of the Army supplied the ab- 
solute necessities of the people, and through this Department made 
provision for a supply of seed for the coming year by an appropriation 
of 830,000. I cannot adequately express the idea of the benefit and 
encouragement which were thus bestowed upon a people who were al- 
most left without hope. A correspondent, in acknowledging the receipt 
of seed sent him, says : " The seed is most acceptable, for it relieves me 
from a state of hopelessness; but it cannot do me half as much good as 
it does to know that we have a Government that cares for her distressed 
people.'' 

The repeal of what is mistakenly called the "franking privilege" has 
materially disturbed the operations of this Department for the past 
three years. It is, in my judgment, one of the defects in the organiza- 
tion of our Government that the people are not sufficiently conversant 
and intimately connected with its political operations. The repeal of 
the law, which rendered it necessary for members of Congress to send, 
free of charge, through the mails, seeds, letters, and documents, while it 
relieves them from an onerous labor which it is their duty to perform, 
deprives the constituent of a knowledge of the operations of the Gov- 
ernment which he ought to have, and serves to alienate him in a measure 
from the institutions of his country. It takes from him the impression 
that he has a representative here who cares for his wants and necessi- 
ties. While this Department under existing laws has the right to " frank " 
seeds and documents, and has nothing more to desire on that point, I 
have constant occasion to know and appreciate the importance that the 
same duty should devolve upon the representative in Congress. As the 
law now is, the representative after the meeting of the next Congress 
wiH have no right to communicate with his constituent but at his own 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICDLTULE. 9 

expense. It is because the rigbt to frank does not belong to tbc repre- 
sentative that the reports of this Department have not been printed in 
the usual numbers for the last three years. If it be the pleasure of 
Congress to make the usual appropriation for the purchase and distri- 
bution of seeds and documents, and make no appropriation for their 
distribution by members of Gongresfii, then the present clerical force of 
this Department must be increased by at least six clerks. With the 
present force of the Department, the work could not be done ; nor with 
any force could it be so well done as by the representative, because of 
bis superior knowledge of the individuals to whom seeds and documents 
may be most profitably sent. In the interest of this Department, I trust 
that the annual appropriations for seeds may be continued ; that its 
annual reports may be fully published; and that the representative may 
be allowed to choose to whom they may be sent. 

There is, perhaps, no ^ne subject of agricultural production in which 
I have taken more interest than in that which relates to fibrous plants, 
especially ramie and jute. These have been brought into notice within 
the last four years through the influence of this Department; and now 
they are about to assume an importance which is only beginning to be 
known. Both these plants will grow successfully in all our Southern 
States, and especially in California. The impediment heretofore to their 
production has been the difficulty of separating the fiber from the gum- 
my principle and green covering of the plants. But this problem, it is 
believed, has been now solved by the invention of machinery which, by 
the aid of certain acids, separates the fiber perfectly and economically. 
The ramie is a native of India and China, where the work of separating 
the fiber is done by hand at a cost of $150 per ton. The ^atest patentee 
of a machine for separating the fiber claims that the cost of separating 
it will not exceed $30 per ton. It is a beautiful and lustrous staple, in 
strength and brilliancy almost equal to silk; in fact, most of the dress- 
goods made to imitate silk-fabrics are made in part of ramie, and its 
value now in England is about £75, or $375, per ton ; and it is said that 
in California 1,200 pounds of this fiber may be produced on one acre. If 
these anticipations be realized, of which there is now a reasonable hope, 
the country may anticipate the prosecution of a new, useful, and profit- 
able industry. Jute produces a fiber of a coarser quality, but admirably 
adapted to cordage and bagging, and, because of its length and strength, 
greatly superior to either flax or hemp. 

The Statistical Division of the Department has with industry and 
energy responded to the usual requirements of Congress, agricultural 
associations, and commercial boards, and to the necessities of interna- 
tional exchanges of agricultural statistics, in addition to current crop- 
reports and other local statistical investigation. The estimates, as a 
rule, have been strikingly verified, especially as to the principal crops 
of the older and more settled States. The resources of the Department 
have not been adequate to a full and accurate showing of the wonder- 



10 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

fully rapid progress of the new and more distant States and Territories. 
The estimate of the cotton-crop of 1874, 3,800,000 bales, which was 
declared ten months ago by commercial aathorities to be half a million 
bales too low, has been proved by the cotton-movements of the year to 
be within a few thousand bales of the actual crop. 

This division will prepare a series of outline-maps, diagrams, and 
charts, to illustrate the changes in production and the geographical dis- 
tribution of the principal crops, for the National Centennial Exhibition ; 
and the Statistician will present a statistical report of the agricultural 
progress of the past century. 

The attention of Congress is called to the proposed organization of 
this division as indicated in the schedule of annual estimates. This 
divisiQU of the Department has about five thousand regular, appointed 
correspondents. I know of no branch of the public service in which so 
much is accomplished with so small an expenditure. It is literally true 
that nine-tenths of the labor performed is gratuitous, that of our corre- 
spondents being entirely uncompensated, except by the reports of the 
Department and seeds sent them for experiment. 

The operations of the Horticultural Division of the Department consist 
largely in the propagation and distribution of economic plants. En- 
couraging returns are received relative to the growth and adaptability 
of the Chinese tea-plant over a very large area of this country. These 
indications tend to increase the probability that at no distant day it will 
be deemed expedient to attempt the cultivation of this plant as an article 
of commerce, and even now as an aid to domestic economy. The arbore- 
tum yearly increases in the number of plants and interest in their 
growth. Within the past year over two hundred species and varieties 
of willow have been set out in permanent locations. The character and 
grouping of the trees will yearly become more decided, and develop the 
landscape effect of the original design. Time is an essential element in 
this, which can only be partially accelerated by the varied operations of 
careful culture. 

The Chemical Division is doing much valuable work. The laboratory 
is in a good condition, and fairly stocked with chemicals and apparatus, 
and altogether in good working order. Investigations have been prose- 
cuted upon various subjects which pertain to the interests of agriculture, 
among which are: The proximate composition of two varieties of sugar- 
corn ; the influence of caustic magnesia in lime produced by calcination 
of magnesian limestone upon so-called lime-soils; the influence of arseni- 
cal compounds, when present in or applied to soils, upon vegetation; 
and the influence of illuminating-gas upon vegetation — all of which are 
practical subjects of great interest to the agriculturist. The analytical 
results of the first investigation will be found in the monthly report ot 
April of this year. That of the Analysis of magnesian limestone, and 
observations upon the action of lime produced from them upon certain 
lime-soils, prove quite satisfactorily that, while magnesian lime may be 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 11 

applied with impanity to clay-soils, it cannot be applied to other soils 
except in dry seasons, and that even then it is detrimental, from the fact 
that tbe action continues throagh more than one season. The investi- 
gation upon the influence of arsenical compounds proved of great interest 
from the fact that arsenic has been so extensively used throughout the 
country, in the form of Paris green, for the destruction of noxious and 
injurious insects. It is found that although arsenic seems to exercise a 
desiractive physiological influence upon the roots of plants with which 
it comes in contact, yet, after complete maturation, no trace of this ele- 
ment can be found within the tissues of the plant. Small quantities, 
however, may be applied to the soil without producing any physiological 
effect or deteriorating the growth of the plant. The investigation with 
regard to illuminating-gas results in the conclusion that two per cent, of 
it continually present in the atmosphere will produce the death of the 
plant. 

Inquiries are constantly made from all parts of the country on chem- 
ical subjects, most of them pertaining to agriculture, but many of them 
asking for analyses of minerals and other substances whicl) have no 
connection with it. The former are carefully attended to, while the 
^ Department uniformly declines to investigate any subject which is not 
of interest to the agriculturist. 

The general awakening of interest in agricultural subjects has induced 
aconsiderable correspondence with the Botanical Division. Information 
of a practical character respecting the nature, properties, and uses of 
different kinds of plants has been sought for by correspondents from all 
parts of the country, and the desired information has been communi- 
cated. The herbarium continues to be improved and enlarged to an 
extent which will require additional conveniences, first, by the purchase 
of a collection of over 400 species of marine algn^; secondly, by the 
purchase of a valuable collection of 1,500 species of Swedish plants; 
thirdly, by a collection of 300 species of European mosses, donated to 
the Smithsonian Institution, by Dr. August Gatlinger, of Nashville, 
Tenn.j and, fourthly, by several small but valuable contributions of 
American plants from various sources, especially that from the expedi- 
tion of Lieutenant Wheeler in 1874. 

During the year, quite extensive distributions of dupliciite plants 
have been made, chiefly as follows: To Massachusetts Agricultural 
College 5 Cornell University, New York 5 Michigan University ; Chicago 
Academy of Sciences ; Illinois Wesleyan University ; the Female Col- 
ege at Bordentown, N. J. ; the Steubenville Seminary, Steubeuville, 
Ohio; Monmouth Collegr, Warren County, Illinois; Swartmore College, 
Pennsylvania; Northwestern University, Evanston, 111.; Wesleyan Uni- 
versity, Middletowu, Conn.; Wellesley Female College, Wollesley, Mass.; 
Wheaton Female Seminary, Norton, Mass. 

This division has been making preparation to exhibit specimens of all 
the forest-trees of the country at the approaching Centennial. 



12 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

The corrcspondeuce with the Entomological Division has been mach 
increased during the past season, mainly by the wide-spread devastation 
of the grasshopper in the Western States and the rapid advance of the 
Colorado beetle in the East into new territory where the latter insect 
was before comparatively unknown. A fine series of beetles, butterflies, 
and wild bees has been added to the cabinet of entomology by Lieuten- 
ant Wheeler, through the Smithsonian Institution, collected west of the 
one hundredth parallel ; and other collections have been received. The 
work of making perfect fdc-similes of the fruits and vegetables of our 
country has steadily progressed ; and the value of the collection for the 
practical study of pomology is much appreciated. A catalogue of these 
models has been commenced, which will much facilitate their study. 

Preparation is being made in this division for a collection at the 
International Exhibition at Philadelphia^ which will embrace models of 
fruits and vegetables grown in the United States ; and a collection of 
grains, cereals, seeds, nuts, animal and vegetable fibers, and the manu- 
factures, such as wools, silks, ramie, cotton, flax, hemp, jute, &c. In 
the ornithological and natural-history collection it is proposed to show 
such of our native birds and animals as are peculiarly beneficial and 
injurious ; the different varieties of our gallinaceous birds in their true 
breeds, together with the new varieties recently introduced. In ento- 
mology, it is proposed to show a collection of beneficial and injurious 
insects, arranged together with a complete set of engravings of the 
most common destructive and useful insects of the country. 

The library of the Department has been more largely increased during 
the past year than in any that preceded it, by the purchase of a few 
valuable works, but more particularly by the contributions of foreign 
countries and societies. 

The Microscopic Division of the Department has been engaged during 
the past year principally in original investigations relating to animal 
and vegetable diseases of fungoid origin. Pear-tree and apple-tree blight 
has received special attention, and many microscopic observations 
have been made to ascertain whether the growth of parasitic fungi on 
plants is the cause or the result of the blight. Cranberry-rot, grape-rot, 
orange-tree blight, and hawthorn -blight have also been considered, and 
experiments made to ascertain their causes and discover remedies for 
their cure. It is believed that new facts have been developed from the 
investigation of these diseases which will lead to a more intelligent and 
successful treatment of them. 

Many of the grape-growers of New Jersey have suffered severely from 
the rot of the grape. All investigations on this subject have been con- 
fined to specimens sent to the Department, the results of which, when 
sufficiently advanced, are published in the monthly and annual reports 
of the Department. The orange-cultivators of Florida have suffered 
severely from a new form of disease, which blackens the surface of a 
large portion of the fruit, and blights the branches, causing them to 
decay. This subject will occupy the attention of the Microscopist. 



EEPORl OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTUKE. 13 

A large collection of American species of fungi of the order Agaricini 
has been made for the purpose of making known more generally the 
distinguishing characteristics of those which are edible and such as are 
poisonous. Since many thousand dollars are expended annually in the 
United States for the purchase of imported compounds of edible mnsh- 
roomsy it is deemed important to prepare and publish such information as 
may lead to a scientific cultivation of all the edible species in this country. 
Considerable time has been devoted to the collection of leading types 
of other families of parisitic fungi destructive to cultivated plants, several 
hundreds of which have been carefully and artistically drawn in natural 
.colors, the species having been fully identified and the names given by 
high authority in this country and Europe, and are intended for exhibi- 
tion at the approaching Centennial at Philadelphia, 

A series of experiments has also been conducted with special reference 
to antiferments, with the view of discovering the best methods of pre- 
serving specimen fruits and foliage in their natural colors, by which 
new and successful results have been obtained. 

The accompanying tabular statement shows the quantities and kind 
of seed distributed by the Department, under the general appropriation, 
from July 1, 1874, to June 30, 1875, inclusive ; also, the amount issued 
under the special appropriation " to the suflferers by grasshopper rav- 
ages ; all classed under their respective heads. 

The past year has been one of unusual activity in the Seed Division, 
and the work accomplished has been nearly double that of the previous 
year. To make a distribution of so large an amount of seeds in the 
proper season, was a work of considerable magnitude, and required the 
best efforts of every employ^ of this division, and which, I am pleased 
to say, was accomplished in a very satisfactory manner. The want of 
room to employ more force was a difficulty to be encountered, and the 
expedient resorted to under the circumstances was to add two hours to 
the working-time of each day during the months of February, March, 
and April, which was done with satisfactory results. All this extra 
work was caused by the special appropriation for the benefit of those 
States which suffered by the ravages of the grasshoppers. To furnish 
them with such seeds as were most needed was the desire of the Depart- 
ment; and it was soon ascertained, by the large number of letters re- 
ceived daily, that vegetable-seed was the kind most desired. Accord- 
ingly the Department made arrangements to procure large quantities of 
vegetable-seed of the be^t quality, and the kinds most desired and best 
suited for immediate use. And I take this opportunity to say that some 
of our seedsmen showed a very generous spirit by offering to furnish 
the Department, for this purpose, the very best quality of seeds at 
greatly-reduced rates, which was availed of. The manner in which these 
seeds were distributed was principally through members of Congress in 
their respective States, boards of relief, and individual application, 
thereby reaching all classes who were in want; and, as far as I know, 



14 KEPORT OF THE COMMlrf.SIONEK OP AGKICl.'LTURE. 

not one api)licant was ivl'aaecl out of tbc thousands who made applica- 
tion. 

It will be seen from the tabular statement, that, in addition to the 
large amount of vegetable seeds, other kinds have been distributed, such 
as wheat, oats, rye, corn, field-pease, sugar-beet, tobacco, &c. This does 
not, however, include the wheat bought by the Department and dis- 
tributed by the governor of Minnesota, which, if added to our distribu- 
tion, would increase it largely. The value of the vegetable seeds alone 
which were distributed to the grasshopper districts, at five cents a 
paper, (and that is a very low estimate,) would amount to over $36,000, 
showing conclusively that, by proper management and economy, the 
work was done more cheaply by the Government than it could have 
been done by individuals appointed for the purpose. Our general dis- 
tribution embraces all kinds of seeds of known or reputed value to the 
American agriculturists. These seeds have been selected, in this and 
other countries, with great care, and distributed through the various 
agencies adopted by the Department for that purpose. 

How far the Department has been successful in this respect it is only 
necessary to glance at the many reports received testifying to the good 
quality of the seeds. In nearly all cases they report that the Depart- 
ment seeds are far superior to the old varieties grown in their respective 
districts ; and these reports are not confined to any one section of country 
or to one class of seeds, but are from all parts of the United States and 
embrace all kinds of seeds, showing how much good can be and is being 
done through this Department. 

By referring to the tabular statement it will be seen that our general 
distribution has exceeded that of last year by over two hundred thousand 
packages, making the largest distribution in any one year since the 
organization of the Department. 

The great want of the seed division is moye room. During the 
past summer a structure has been erected which will give temi)orary 
relief in stowing away the grain and other seeds until needed for distri- 
bution. 

This division is working very hai*monionsly in all its branches. A 
regular account is kept of all seeds bought by the Department, from 
whom purchased, and the cost of the same, and all materials used. In 
the distribution everything is charged to its respective account kept for 
that purpose, and any information in regard to the kinds of seeds sent, 
to whom, &c., can be readily obtained. 



RBPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGEICULTUBE. 



15 



Tabular statement showing ihe qmniity and kind of need issued from the Department of 
Agriculture under the general appropriatioHy from July 1, 1874, to June 30, 1875, indu- 
Hive; dlsoj amount issued nndei' spcoial appropriation to the sufferers hjf grasshopper 
ravages. 



Deflcription oi seed. 



Vegetable papers . 

Flower do... 

Herbe do. . . 

Tree do. . . 

FIKLD-8EEDS. 

Wheat quarta. 

Oats do... 

Barley do. . . 

Rye 

Backwboat do. . . 

Com do... 

Pease do 

Clorer do 

Grass do 

Sugar-beet do — 

Mangel-warzel do — 

Rico do ... . 

Sorghum do — 

Tobacco papers.. 

Opiom poppy do. , . . 

Osage orange half pints. . 

Millet qoarta.. 

Broom-corn do — 

Rape half pints . . 

TEXTILES. 

Cotton quarta. . 

Jnte do 

Hemp do — 

Flax *. do ... . 

Ramie papers. . 

Grand total 



I 



278 

10 

28 



o 

G 
o 

1 
1 
3 
1 
3 
4 
3 
2 
I 
1 
G 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 



« S 

S i 
ii 



<^ 



234,165 

138,156 

G6 

141 



13, 1V2 

8,?3d 

1.802 

5,709 

110 

G44 

816 

1,790 

4,aG5 

872 

800 

34 

44 

47,028 

50 

3 

38 

10 

8 



1,193 

134 

69 
o 

144 



460, SSJ 



1 

-A 

to (O 



108,965 
215 



20 



22,2^ 

24,602 

2,334 



« 
1,122 
52 
1,190 
1,310 
2,272 
1,666 



I 



802 



166, 768 



3 Ȥ 
'-3 o 

CO o 
20 ** 



92,100 
20 



12,536 
7,988 
1,206 
4,642 
5,174 
1,986 



o 



4,322 
o 



30 



130,008 



o 

0) 

I 



514,839 

199,567 

100 

2,902 



4,903 

5,608 

865 

1,026 

544 

1, 130 

199 

1,516 

3,101 

194 

184 

16 

280 

6.379 

272 

24 

32 

14 

6 



1,074 

85 

1,700 

6 

312 



mm 



P4 

O Sr 

'O ST 

o 



703,989 



747, 186 



494 



312 

7,544 

318 

38 

78 
209 

37 

JGQ 

. C78 

119 

41 



159 
2,620 



26 



I 



717,025 



i,054,o:e 

337.960 

166 

3, 557 



53,683 

54,480 

6,585 

11, 415 

5,914 

5,391 

1, 104 

4,787 

13,676 

3,459 

2,691 

42 

489 

56,063 

322 

31 

70 

24 

14 



3,095 

219 

1,773 

8 
456 



2,221,532 



111 the fiscal division of the Department the books of accounts are 
kept with the utmost accuracy, exhibiting all its pecuniarj' transactions 
in the most minute detail. 

The following table exhibits in a condensed form the appropriations 
made by Congress for this Department, the disbursements, and the 



< /• 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



balance to be covered into the United States Treasury, for the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1875 : 



Title of appropriation. 



Salaries... 

CoHcctiDg statistics 

rurcliase and distribution of soods 

Furnitoro, cases, and repairs 

Experimental garden 

Hnsenm and lierbarium 

Laboratory 

Library 

Contingent expenses 

Improvement of groands 

Postage 

Printing and binding 

Publishing reports of 1872 and 1873 

Special distribution of seeds to sufferers from grasshopper 
ravages 

Total 



Amount ap* 
propriated. 



$77, 180 00 

1^, 000 CO 

G5, 000 00 

4,200 00 

8,000 00 

4,500 00 

1.300 00 

1.500 00 

12, 600 00 

16, 100 00 

52, 000 CO 

20.000 00 

50, 000 00 

30,000 00 



357, 380 00 



Amount dis- 
bursed. 



$77, 127 60 

12, 047 56 

64, 719 83 

4, 013 40 

8,000 00 

2, 434 31 

1,300 00 

1, 087 30 

10, 330 46 

16, 023 45 

42, 673 00 

16, 973 12 

49,561 91 

30,000 00 



Amount un- 
expended. 



$53 40 

2,052 44 

280 17 

186 60 



2,065 69 



412 70 

2, 269 51 

76 55 

9,227 00 

3,026 88 

438 09 



336,291 94 



21,088 06 



The amount to be covered into the Treasury will be slightly reduced 
by obligations incurred by the Department during the last fiscal year 
that are yet unsettled. 

My experience in the past four years teaches me that the people of the 
country estimate highly the beneficial influence which the operations of 
this Department exert upon its agricultural interests, and prompts me 
to say that any action which Congress may take to increase its useful- 
ness will be highly acceptable. I speak with the more confidence on this 
subject from the intimate and extensive correspondence of the Depart- 
ment, where there are received from two hundred to four thousand letters 
every day, the larger number being in those seasons when the distribu- 
tions are made of seeds and reports, the demand for the latter always 
exceeding our means to supply. 

Which is respectfully submitted by your obedient servant, 

PRED'K WATTS. 

To the President. 



REPORT OF THE STATISTICIAN. 

Sib : In presenting my eleventh annual report as Statistician of the 
Department of Agriculture, I deem it proper to refer to the organization 
and history of the branch of public service placed under my direction, 
for the purpose of showing what has been accomplished by the use of 
email means, as well as the inadequacy of the provision for work im- 
peratively demanded for the public welfare. 

This division was established in 1863, in the year following that of 
the organization of the Department, by the creation of the ofiSce of 
Statistician and the appropriation of $20,000 for purposes of statistical 
investigation and compilation. The position was filled by the appoint- 
ment of Lewis BoUman, of Indiana, as Statistician, who was charged 
with the collection of crop-reports and current general statistics, and 
with the editing of the monthly report, a publication designed to include 
the gist of current crop-returns and such other data as required prompt 
publicity. 

In 1866 the annual report was transferred to this division, and its editor, 
the undersigned, was appointed Statistician, and has since discharged 
the increased duties of this consolidation, establishing the division of 
statistics and of publication, which now combines with the crop-reporting 
system and general investigation the revision and issue of the reports 
and publications. 

The agricultural report of the Patent-Office, which was published a 
few years prior to 1847 in connection with the annual mechanical report, 
became at that date a separate publication, which was continued as an 
annual until the organization of the Department of Agriculture, the last 
issue being that of 1861, under the auspices of the agricultural division 
of the Patent-Office. The annual edition had been increased from a few 
thousand to two hundred thousand. The new (or Department) series, 
has had still larger issues, varying from 200,000 to 275,000 copies per 
annum, until the repeal of the franking privilege interfered with their 
distribution. The recent reports have not been published promptly, on 
account of the differing views of the Senate and House relative to their 
distribution, the House usually voting to order 200,000 to 300,000 copies 
for free delivery, and the Senate desiring to limit franking and inclining 
to the English plan of sale at cost of printing. 

It is susceptible of abundant proof that these volumes have greatly 
stimulated agricultural thought, encouraged the adoption of advanced 
processes, and excited a taste tor agricultural reading, especially in new 
and poor settlements, in which they have proved a pioneer in all that 
pertains to agricultural progress. They have even gone in advance of 
the issues of the agricultural press, and created a demand for rural liter- 
ature. They are more sought, according to the constant testimony of 
Congressmen, than any other public document, and are carefully hus- 
banded and distributed by member^ with farming constituencies, while 
members representing cities now very generally make exchanges further 
to accommodate the constituents of the rural districts. 

The function of the division of statistics is the collection of the cur- 
rent facts of agriculture in the United States and the compilation of 
such foreign statistics as may serve, by comparison and suggestion, to 
advance the interests of rural economy in this country. It involves an 
2 A 



18 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

organization of a corps of reporters, consisting of a chief and three as- 
sistants in each county, charged with the duty of responding monthly 
to systematic inquiries concerning the condition of growing crops, the 
area planted, rate of ultimate yield, the prevailing home-prices of prod- 
ucts, the condition and comparative numbers of &rm-animals, and 
other points of general interest. Circulars upon special subjects of local 
importance are occasionally sent ; and special informatian from individual 
reporters is often sought, generally with prompt and satisfactory results. 

These reporters are selected for their known intelligence and judg- 
ment, and the aid of agricultural societies, or, in their absence, of the 
Bepresentative in Congress, is invoked in their selection, if suitable per- 
sons are not known to the officers of the Department. They are selected 
with reference to fitness^ and their political views are usually unknown. 
Their duties are performed gratuitously, in a spirit of self-sacrifice for 
the public good, and with an ardent desire to co-operate with the De- 
partment for general as well as local progress in agriculture. They are 
undoubtedly more efficient than a force of mere stipendiaries, and are 
entitled to grateful recognition of their valuable services. It is a sub- 
ject of regret that the Department has been unable to supply its statis- 
tical corps promptly with the annual reports which they help to make 
and on which many of their comparisons are based. 

The translation and utilization of foreign statistical matter, and the 
preparation of original statistics for foreign exchange, are important 
features of the regular work of this division. The official statistics of 
States, of boards of trade, of railroads, of industrial associations, and 
all attainable data tending to illustrate production, distribution, and 
manufacture, are made available, so far as clerical facilities permit. 

The furnishing of statistical statements for committees and members 
of Congress, boards of trade, and agricultural editors and authors, in- 
creases materially the work of the division. Added to these duties, the 
Investigations required for original and practical papers for the monthly, 
annual, and special reports, the revision of matter prepared for publica- 
tion, the preparation of illustrations, &c., demand service for which a 
singularly meager appropriation is quite inadequate, though other divis- 
ions of the Department are laid under contribution for such clerical 
aid as can properly be spared. The smallest State appropriation in aid 
of agricultural investigation is rarely less than the largest provision 
made for agricultural statistics of this Department for thirty-eight States 
and ten Territories. That results of comparative importance are obtained 
can be only due to the remarkable facilities of the Department in its 
control of an intelligent and faithful body of statistical reporters, whose 
combined service, freely rendered, is tenfold greater than the clerical 
and other service paid from appropriations. 

More than nine-tenths of all this service is gratuitous. None of the 
ordinary work of the correspondent, who is often a farmer with a national 
reputation as a rural economist and man of broad views and general 
culture, is paid for; the work of the editor of the annual has been en- 
tirely unremunerated for ten years, and much of the matter for the 
several reports is furnished without ^ost. From $150,000 to $200,000 
per annum is thus made a gratuity to the Government by ruralists of 
public spirit, who wish to advance the interests of producers and con- 
sumers, and save both classes from the jaws of the sharks that thrive 
on false statements concerning crop-production. As these classes com- 
prise more than three-fourths of the people of the country, they have a 
right to demand protection of their interests. 

The farmers, as a class, have usually been, by reason of their isolation 



EEPOET OF THE 4 STATISTICIAN. 19 

and retiring demeanor, as well as from their habit of independence and 
aversion to asking even their rights of the Ctovernment, almost entirely 
disregarded in its annnal recognition of class interests. And yet those 
interests are, and must ever be, aided by legislation in some form and 
degree. Except in eras of spasmodic and violent economy, an appro- 
priation of five millions annually for rivers and harbors fails to excite 
a passing criticism ; and a subsidy of millions to foreign mail-steamers, 
ostensibly in aid of commerce, scarcely raises a ripple on the sea of 
journalism, except when diverted to individusd pockets. Oommerce has 
probably enjoyed the benefit of a thousand dollars for every dollar simi- 
larly appropriated in aid of agriculture. Even in the matter of statis- 
tical investigation a similar disproportion appears. With half the peo- 
ple engaged in agriculture, less space is occupied in the last census re- 
ports in the returns of agriculture than in those of manufactures, which 
occupy the labor of only half as many people ; and of 2,326 pages in 
those reports but 300 are occupied with agricoiture. A well-equipped 
bureau, with two or three score of workers, is provided, in the interest 
of commerce, for the presentation of customs statistics and coincident 
commercial matters ; and the Signal Service, in the interest of domestic 
and foreign commerce, with only a shadow of appearance of aid to agri- 
culture, may be richly worth the half-million or million that it costs. If 
these expenditures in original statistical record and investigation for 
the information of middlemen are legitimate and desirable, may not the 
dole of a paltry pittance, say $10,000, $15,000 per annum, for the pur- 
poses of record of and investigation in agricultural statistics be wisely 
and profitably increased f 

A more than Egyptian economy is required of this division the com- 
ing year ; in addition to the task of making bricks without straw, it is 
required to dispense with clay ; having not a dollar of allowance for 
collecting statistics, for investigation of any kind, or for drawings or 
engravings, or other material for reports, the entire appropriation being 
only $11,800, less than enough to pay the present clerical force abso- 
lutely required for routine work. It can. only collate and record data 
gathered absolutely without cost, and the appropriation for printing 
will be so far exhausted by December, 1876, as to require the discon- 
tinuance of the monthly at that date, unless further provision shall be 
made. 

CROP ESTIMATES FOR THE YEAR. 

The year 1875 was marked by a wonderful increase in the area of 
maize. The area of 41,036,900 acres, as estimated, was increased to 
44,841,000. The average yield of 1874 was very low, 20.7 bushels, and 
the price consequently very high, 64.7 cents per bushel. The incentive 
of price, and the teachings of bitter experience in the southern lack of 
a com supply, increased the breadth almost 10 per cent. The result is 
an unprecedented volume of production, the estimates of the year aggre- 
gating 1,321,000,000 bushels, fully 10 per cent, above the record of any 
previous year. The rate of yield was advanced to 29.4 bushels, while 
the price dropped to 42 cents. To an inexperienced observer it would 
seem a problematical statement that with an increase of nearljf 
500,000,000 bushels the aggregate value should be advanced only from 
$550,043,000 to $555^445,000, but it is exactly in accordance with former 
experience of the effect of large production upon value. An increase in 
quantity of 56 per cent, advanced the aggregate value but 1 per cent. 

The area of wheat was increased more than a million acres, but the 
average yield is reduced 1.3 bushels per acre, The aggregate quantity 



20 



KEPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE, 



appears to be less by about 16,000,000 bushels, while the aggregate value 
is about three and a half miUion dollars more than in 1874. 

Bye increased in quantity and area, the rate of yield being about the 
same. 

The oats-crop was large, estimated at 354,000,000 bushels against 
240,000,000 last year, the price naturally declining froin 52 to 36.5 cents, 
making the total value only about 3 per cent, more than that of the 
small crop of 1874. 

The crop of barley appears to have been increased from 32,000,000 to 
36^00,000 bushels, the value of the two crops being nearly equal. 

The potato-crop was extraordinary. Exclusive of sweet-potatoes the 
estimate is 166,000,000 bushels, the area increasing 200,000 acres, or 15 
per cent., and the yield advancing from 67 to 110 bushels per acre. The 
result was a price too low in many places to pay for cultivation and mar- 
keting, the total value being less for the large crop than for the small 
one, or 38.9 cents against 67.7. 

The cotton-crop increased about 20 per cent, the average price declin- 
ing from 14.5 to 12.8 cents, or 12 per cent, from the average price of the 
previous crop. 

A. — TahU shatoing the product of each prinapal crop of ike several States named, the yield 
per acre, the total acreage, the average price in each State, and the value of each crop for 
■ 1875. 



FrodacU. 



HAIKE. 

Indian com busbols. 

Wheat do... 

Rye do... 

Oats do.l. 

Barley do... 

Buckwheat do... 

Potatoes do... 

Tobaooo poucde. 

Hay * tons. 



Total. 



NEW IIAMrsniEE. 

Indian com bushels. 

Wheat do... 

Ryo do... 

Oats do... 

Barley do... 

Buckwheat do . . . 

Potatoes ,do... 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hay tons . 



Total. 



VEKMOST. 

Indian com bushels. 

Wheat do... 

Rye do... 

Oats do... 

Barley do . . . 

Buckwheat do... 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco pounds . 

Hay tons. 

Total 



»« 

e 






o» 



1,300,000 

282.000 

33,000 

2, 400, 000 
670,000 
410,000 

5. BIO, 000 



1,340,000 



1,650,000 

198, 000 

45,000 

1,175,000 

102,000 

95,000 

4,200,000 

4(30,000 

780,000 



1,720,000 

430,000 

78,000 

4, 560, 000 
116.000 
380,000 

5,650,000 
250,000 

1.010,000 






bfi 

2 






a 



30.5 
14 
16.7 
28 
21 

23.5 
107 



0.95 



42,622 
20, 142 
1,976 
85,714 
31,904 
17, 446 
54,299 



1,305,263 



1, 559, 366 



5 



38 
17 
18. 
3a6 
2.'>.1 
20 
133 
1,600 
0.95 



43, 421 

11,647 

2.432 

30,440 

4,063 

4,750 

31, 578 

287 

821,052 



I 



949, 070 



37 
17.5 
19 
39 
29.4 
21.3 
155 
1,500 
0.95 



46, 486 

24, 571 

4, 105 

116,923 

3,945 

17,840 

37,741 

166 

1, 063, 157 



1,314,934 



a o 

^1 : 

s§ \ 

C3 



$0 96 

1 64 

1 18 

56 

89 

170 

42 



10 85 



1 
1 



94 
64 
11 
57 
1 02 
78 
42 
15 
12 81 



1 
1 



94 
55 
01 
50 
91 
71 
33 
16 
10 30 



a 
.2 

r: 



•—I 

a 



O 



|1, 248, 000 

462, 480 

38.940 

1, 344, 000 

596, 300 

287,000 

2, 440, 200 



13, 454, 000 



19, 870, 920 



1, 551, 000 

324, 720 

49,950 

669, 750 

101, 040 

74, 100 

1,764,000 

69, 000 

9, 991, 800 



14, 59S. 300 



1, 610, 800 
060. 500 

7tf,780 

2, S»0, 000 
105, 560 
269, 800 

1,930,500 

40, 000 

10, 403, 000 



17, 390. 940 



BEPORT OP THE STATISTICIAN. 



21 



A. — Table shoicivg the product of each prindpal cropf <Jc,/or 1875 — Continned. 



Prodncts. 



MASSACHUSETTS. 

Jnd ian com busbels. 

Wheat do... 

Eye do.., 

Oats do... 

Barley do... 

Buckwheat do. . . 

Potatoes do... 

Tobaoco ponuds. 

Hay tons. 



Total. 



RHODE ISLAND. 

Indian oom bushels. 

Wheat do... 

Rye do... 

Oats do... 

Barley < do... 

Buckwheat do . . . 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hay tons. 



Total. 



coNjnscncuT. 

Indian oom bushels. 

Wheat do... 

Kyo do... 

Oats do... 

Barley do... 

Buckwheat do... 

Potatoes^ do... 

Tobacco ]K>nnds. 

Hay tons. 



Total. 



NEW TORK. 

Indian com bushels. 

Wheat do... 

Rye do 

Oats : do 

Barley do 

Buckwheat do... 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco ])Ounds.. 

Hay tons. 



Total. 



o 

P 






1,620,000 

36,500 

290,000 

760,000 

i:)0, 000 

50,000 

3, 500, 000 

H. 500, 000 

580,000 



290,000 



19,000 

140.000 

27,000 



690,000 
"'86,'66o' 



1, 775, 000 

39.500 

345,000 

1,090,000 

23,600 

135,000 

2,860.000 

9,900,000 

570,000 



19,750,000 
5,200,000 
2,450,000 

36,500,000 
7,800,000 
3, 750, 000 

35,000,000 
2,750,000 
4,900,000 



4» 



37 

16 

17 

36 

24.5 

11 

150 

1,350 

1 



27.5 



15 
30 
20 



130 
"'6.'95 



29 

16 

15 

28 

20 

17.5 

108 

1,500 

1.05 



so 

o 

^ P. 
«g 

a 

a 



43,783 
2,293 

17,058 

21,111 
5,306 
4.545 

2.3,333 

6,296 

580,000 



7a3, 725 



S fl 

S o 
.a-M 

u 

II 



eo 95 

1 37 

1 07 

61 

1,09 

62 

52 

19 

20 69 



10,545 



1,266 
4,666 
1,350 



5,307 
'84,*2i6' 



107, 344 



61,206 
2,468 

23.000 

38,928 
1,180 
7,714 

26, 481 

6,600 

542,857 



710, 434 



^'EW JERSEY. 

Indian com boshels. 

Wheat do... 

Ryo do... 

Oats do... 

Barley do... 

Buckwheat do... 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hay tons. 

Total 



0. 600, 000 

1, 900, 000 

475,000 

3,850,000 



360,000 
4,100,000 



490,000 



34 

8 

10 

32 

18 

16 

107 

800 

1.17 



41 
12 
12.7 
24 



17 

82 



580,882 
650,000 
245,000 

1,140,625 

433,333 

234.375 

327,102 

3,437 

4,188,034 



1 10 



1 20 

60 

1 00 



50 
'23*66' 



1 
1 

1 



00 
33 
10 
61 
1 12 
95 
56 
22 
21 75 



74 
1 31 
86 
44 
89 
67 
36 
11 
14 00 



7,802,788 



234,140 

158,333 

37,401 

160. 416 



21, 176 
50,000 



490,000 
1, 151, 472 



65 
1 36 

89 
48 



77 
54 



21 36 



o 

•.J 
e 

I 
3 

o 
H 



11,539,000 

50,005 

310,300 

463,600 

141, 700 

31,000 

1,820,000 

1, 615, 000 

12,116,200 



18, 086, 805 



319,000 



22,800 
84,000 
27,000 



345,000 

*i,"846,'666 



2,637,800 



1, 775, 000 

52,535 

379, 500 

664, 900 

26, 432 

128,250 

1,001,600 

2, 178, 000 

12. 397, 500 



19,203,717 



14, 615, 000 
0, 812, 000 
2, 107, 000 

16, 060, 000 
6, 942, 000 
2.512,500 

12,600,000 
302,500 

68,600,000 



130, 551,000 



6.240,000 

2, 581, 000 

422,750 

1, 848, 000 



277, 200 
2,214,(HX) 



10, 466, 400 
24, 052. 350 



22 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



A. — Table sJiotcing the product o/iack principal crop, ^Cffor 1875 — Continued. 



Prodacts. 



PKXX8YLVANIA- 

Indian com bnshels. 

Wheat do... 

Bye do... 

Oats do... 

Barley do... 

Backwheat do . . . 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco : pounds. 

Hay tons. 

Total , 



DELAWABE. 

Indian com bushels. 

Wheat do... 

Rye do... 

Oats do... 

Barley do... 

Baclnrheat do... 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco ponnds. 

Hay^.. tons. 



Total. 



IIABTLAKD. 

Indian com bushels. 

Wheat do... 

Bye do... 

Oats do... 

Barley do... 

Bnck-wheat do... 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hay tons. 



Total. 



YIBQINIA. 

Indian com..... bnshels. 

Wheat do... 

Bye do... 

Oats do... 

Barley do... 

Backwheat do... 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco ponnds. 

Hay tons. 



Total. 



KORTH CAROLINA. 

Indian com bushels. 

Wheat do... 

Bye do... 

Oats do... 

Barley do... 

Backwheat do... 

Potatoes do . . . 

Tobacco ponnds. 

Hay tons. 

Total 



O 



§ 



44, 000. 000 
15,900.000 

3. 100, 000 

32, 500, 000 

590,000 

2,320,000 
19,350,000 
16,000.000 

9,400,000 



3,267,000 

745,000 

11, 100 

430,000 



375,000 
"*36,'56o' 



14.200,000 

5, ICO. 000 

310,000 

3,050,000 



79.500 

1,350.000 

99; 000^ 000 

190,000 



91.333,000 

6,700,000 

545^000 

5^500,000 



90.600 

1.210,000 

57,000,000 

190.000 



^975,000 

3^050,000 

340,000 

3.950,000 



745^000 

14,750,000 

110,000 






40 
13.8 
13.4 
30 
23 
20 
06 
1,400 
1.10 



26 

las 

13.5 
91 



75 
"'i.'20 



30 
11 

19.3 
90 



93.3 
72 
675 
1 



99 

8 

9 

15 



17.5 
89 
630 
1.90 



15 

7.5 

9 
13 



£5 
500 

1.25 



at p 

®^ 
9 ei 

a 
p 



'A 



1, 100, 000 

1, 101, 449 

231. 343 

1, 083, 333 

22. COS 

116.000 

127,604 

11,428 

3, 181, 818 



5, 975, 583 



125. 653 

55. 185 

622 

20.476 



3,666 



30,416 



236,318 



473,333 

463,636 

25.203 

159,500 



3,111 

17,361 

32,592 

190, 000 



1.357,736 



969, 631 

837,500 

60.555 

366,666 



2.891 

14,756 

90,476 

158,333 



2,500.858 



1,485,000 

406,666 

37,777 

250,000 



.a . 
5 o 



$0 58 

1 2U 

85 

41 

1 02 

G9 

4i2 

10 

17 12 



57 

140 

95 

43 



72 



18 33 



55 
37 
77 
44 



61 
54 

oa3 

18 93 



54 
1 21 

78 
49 



67 
52 

oas 

16 53 



St 



o 
H 



$35,590,000 

19,608,000 

2.635.000 

13,325,000 

530,400 

1,600,800 

5,145,000 

1,600,000 

41,088,000 



111,052,200 



8,704 
29,500 
88,000 



2,305,707 



60 
24 

87 
5^ 



C7 
09.7 
13 51 



1,869.190 

1.043,000 

10,545 

184,900 



198^000 
669,'045 



3,967,680 



7,810,000 

6,477,000 

338,700 

1,349,000 



44.225 

• 675,000 

1,896.000 

3,596,700 



32,009,695 



11,519,890 

8,107,000 

425,100 

2,695,000 



33,909 

629,200 
4,845,000 
3, 140, 700 



31,395.722 



13.365,000 

3,762.000 

295,800 

1.8d5,000 



499,150 
1, 430. 750 
1. 376, 100 



92,633,800 



REPORT OF. THE STATISTICIAN. 



23 



A. — Table ehoxcing the product of each principal cropj 4-0., for 1875 — Continned. 



Prodncts. 



SOUTH CABOLIXA. 

Indiaiioani bnsbcls. 

Wheat do... 

Rye do... 

Oats do... 

Barley do... 

Backwheat do... 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hay tons. 



Total. 



GEOBOIA. 

Indian corn bushels. 

Wheat do... 

Bye do... 

Oats do... 

Barley do... 

Backwheat do... 

Potatoes do... 

Tohaoco... pounds. 

Hay tons. 



Total. 



* FLORIDA. 

Indian com bushels. 

Wheat do... 

Bye do... 

OaU do... 

Barley ....do... 

Buckwheat do. . . 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hay tons, 



Total. 



Indian com bushels. 

Wheat do... 



.do. 



Rye 

o«u do... 

Barley do... 

Buckwheat do... 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hay tons. 



Total. 



inssissiPFi. 

Indian com bushels. 

Wheat do... 



do. 



Rye 

Oata do... 

Barley do... 

Backwheat do... 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hay tons. 

Total 



i 

s 

p 



9,340,000 

750,000 

40,000 

858,000 



108,000 
'98,"506' 



90, 100. 000 

3,050,000 

190,000 

4, 100, 000 

15,000 



340,000 

1, 350, 000 

22,000 



9,150,000 



133,000 



450,000 



94,500,000 

1, 190. 000 

93,000 

840,000 



155,000 

175,000 

99,000 



93,990,000 

490,000 

15,500 

800,000 



240,000 
112,000 

92,000 



K 



tc 

It 
0) 



10.9 

7 

6.5 
12.5 



90 
.... 



10 
7.5 
6.7 

11 

13 • 



66 
550 
1.40 



10 



13 



750 



12.6 

as 

10.5 
14 



50 
465 
1.30 



18 
11 

11.8 
18.5 



flO 

u 

a 



'A 



005,889 

107. 142 

6,153 

66,640 



1,133 



29,500 



1, 111, 450 



•€ • 

5 © 

id 

o 



f 1 00 

1 70 

1 37 

86 



1 01 



90 50 



9, 010, 000 

406,666 

98.356 

372,727 

1,950 



5,000 

9,454 

15,714 



9, 849, 169 



915,000 



9,461 



600 



995,061 



1, 944, 444 

140,000 

2,095 

60,000 



3,100 

376 

16,999 



9,166,938 



1,290,000 

38,181 

1,313 

43,243 



75 
317 
1.50 



3,900 

353 

14,666 

1,390,956 



86 
1 50 
1 49 

89 

1 78 



1 90 
93.7 

17 68 



1 06 



1 05 



25 



75 
1 93 
1 59 

84 



1 99 

93 

19 43 



1 51 
1 49 

89 



97 r 

95 • 
17 00 i 



a 
o 

o 
H 



$9,940,000 

1,975k 000 

54,800 

737,880 



103,090 
'46i,'9S0 



11, 871, 950 



17,986,000 

4,575,000 

983,100 

3,649,000 

96,700 



406,000 
319,950 
388,900 



96,936,710 



9,399,000 



199,150 



119,500 



9,563,650 



18,375^000 

1,463,700 

33,440 

705,000 



189,100 

43,750 

497,460 



91,938,050 



16,718.400 

634,900 

99,010 

719»0QO 



939,300 

98.000 

374,000 

18,791,410 



24 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



A. — Table ehoicing the product of each principal cropj <Jc, /or 1875 — Contiuued. 



Prodnots. 



LOUIBXANJL. 

Indiftn com bashels. 

Wheat do... 

Bye do... 

Oats do... 

Barley do... 

Buckwheat do... 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hay tons. 



Total. 



TEXiS. 

Indian corn bushels. 

Wheat do... 

Bye do... 

Oats do... 

Barley *. do... 

Buckwheat do... 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hay tons. 



Total. 



AKKAZrSAS. 

Indian com bushels. 

Wheat do... 

Bye do... 

Oats do... 

Barley do... 

Buckwheat do... 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hay tons. 



Total. 



TENNE88EB. 

Indian com bushels. 

Wheat .- do... 

Bye do... 

Oats do... 

Barley do... 

Buckwheat do... 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hay tons. 



Total. 



WK8T VIBOmiA. 

Indian com bushels. 

Wheat do... 

Byo do... 

Oata do... 

Barley do... 

Buckwheat do... 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hay tons. 

Total 



rs 
o • 



7,920,000 



31,500 



70,000 
15,600 



31,000,000 
2,510,000 

52,000 
1,610,000 

70,000 



400,000 

135,000 

75,000 



19, 448, 000 

1,955,000 

62,000 

940,000 



270,000 

1,250,000 

21,600 



58,000,000 

13,130,000 

260,000 

4,820,000 

82,000 

105,000 

1, 100, 000 

35,000,000 

145,000 



10, 560, 000 

2,000,000 

265*000 

2,100,000 

48,000 

80,000 

1, 150, 000 

2,240,000 

230,000 






u 
< 



15.5 



14 



75 



1.50 



20 

18 

1S.1 

32 

30 



100 
650 
1.25 



30 
12.3 
13.7 
29 



101 
622 
1.40 



26.5 
8.5 
9.4 

18 

19 

16.8 

70 
075 
1.36 



29.1 
6.8 
11.5 
21 
15 
17 
110 
680 
1.20 



9i 

«> 
** Ji 

ei p 

(-• u 

^ u 
S 

'A 








A ' 




at a 


• 


c: 


c 


^♦- 


c 


Pi 


••^ 


». 


ti 


© - 


a 


'^ 


1 




■*.> 


« 





> 


H 



510, 967 



2,230 



933 



10,000 



524, 150 



$0 89 



1 10 



1 10 



10 25 



1, 550, 000 

139. 444 

2,872 

50,312 

2.333 



4,000 

207 

60,000 



1, 809, 168 



648,266 

158,943 

4,525 

32,413 



2,673 

1.520 

15,428 



83 
27 
10 
72 
95 



1 22 

25 

12 50 



52 
1 05 
1 03 

58 



79 

12.2 
16 30 



863, 768 



2, 188, 679 

1, 544, 705 

27,659 

267,777 

4,315 

6,250 

15, 714 

51, 852 

106, 617 



4, 213, 568 



362,880 

294, 117 

23, 04:i 

100, 000 

3,200 

4,705 

10,454 

3,294 

191, CG6 



993. 36r) 



41 

1 01 

89 

45 

80 

75 

50 

7.2 

16 24 



56 
1 38 
93 
42 
75 
82 
51 

10.5 
13 74 



$7,048,800 



34,650 



77,000 



243,750 



7, 404, 200 



25, 730, 000 
3, 187, 700 

57,300 
1,159,900 

66,500 



488,000 

33,750 

937,500 



31, 659, 850 



10, 112, 960 

2,052,750 

63.860 

545,200 



213,300 
152,500 
352, 080 



13, 492, 650 



23,780,000 

13, 261, 300 

231,400 

2,169,000 

65,600 

78,750 

616,000 

2,520,000 

2,354,800 



45, 076, 850 



5,913,600 

2,760,000 

246, 450 

882,000 

36,000 

65,600 

586,500 

235,200 

3, 160, 200 



13, 885. 5&0 



EEPOET OP THE STATISriCIAN. 



25 



A. — Tabic showing the product of cock principal crop, 4'^.,foT 1875-~Contiuue(l. 



Prodacts. 



KENTUCKY. 

Indian com bnshols . 

Wheat do... 

Rye do... 

Oats do... 

Barley do... 

Buckwheat do... 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hay tons- 



Total. 



OHIO. 

Indian com bnshels . 

Wheat do... 



Rye 



.do. 



Oats do... 

Barley do... 

Backwheat do... 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hay tons. 



Total 



MICHIGAN. 

Indian com bnshels. 

Wheat do... 

Rye do... 

Oats : do... 

Barley do... 

Bnckwheat do... 

Potatoes k do... 

Tobacco ponnds. 

Hay tons. 



Total, 



INDIANA. 

Indian com bushels.. 

Wheat do... 

Rye do... 

Oats .'. ^ do... 

Barley do... 

Bnckwhcat do... 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hay tons. 



Total, 



ILLINOIS. 

Indian com bnshels. 

Wheat do... 

Rye do... 

Oats do... 

Barley do... 

Buckwheat do... 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hay tons. 

Total 



13 

8 

o 

% . 
s 

a 



60.200,000 

7.960,000 

1,100.000 

6,200,000 

240, 000 



i.e.'io.ooo 

130, 000, 000 
275,000 



95,000.000 

17, 500. 000 

220,000 

23, 750, 000 

800,000 

370,000 

12,700,000 

13, 500, 000 

1,900,000 



23. 600, 000 

16, 870, 000 
275,000 

11,500,000 
960,000 
650,000 

10,625,000 



1,220,000 



95, 000, 000 

17,280,000 

330,000 

18, 000, 000 

440, 000 

170,000 

5. 450, 000 

12, 750, 000 

1.050,000 



280.000,000 

27,300,000 

2,600,000 

75.000,000 

2,900,000 

180,000 

15,200,000 

8,000,000 

3,050,000 



o 

O ee 

o 



33.3 

10 

11.7 

21 

20.5 



98 
630 
1.30 



34.5 
9.5 
10.5 
27.2 
18.5 
15 

103 

700 

/ 1.10 



33 
13.5 
14.1 
.35 
20.5 
18.7 
125 



1.20 



34 

9 

12 

29 

17 

19 

104 

500 

1.30 



34.3 

10.5 

10.5 

33 

25.6 

15 

128 

550 
1.37 



00 

B 

a 



^ 



1, 807, 807 
796,000 

94, 017 
295,238 

11, 707 



16.836 
206,349 
211,538 



3,439,492 



2,753.623 

1, 842. 105 

20.952 

873, 161 

43.243 

24,666 

123,300 

19.285 

1,727,282 



7, 427, 617 



715, 151 

1, 249. 629 

19,503 

328,571 
46,829 
34,759 
85,000 



1,016,868 



3, 496, 310 



2, 794. 117 

1, 920. 000 

27,500 

620, 689 

25.882 

8,947 

42,788 

25,500 

807,692 



6, 273, 115 



8,163,265 

2,600,000 

157, 572 

2,272,727 

113,281 

12,000 

118, 750 

14,545 

2,226,277 

15, 678, 417 



a 5 



s." 



la 



•0 41 

1 05 

91 

46 

90 



49 
06.6 
14 25 



1 



44 

09 
76 
36 
90 
62 
36 
06 
12 97 



61 
15 
86 
43 
92 
69 
31 



14 50 



39 
97 
75 
33 
88 
95 
M 
O.'i.S 
11 49 



34 
01 
61 
28 
70 
80 
32 
05.6 
9 73 



a 
o 

a 

a 

^-< 

OS 



o 



124,682,000 

8,358,000 

1,001,000 

2, 8.'»2, 000 

216,000 



808,500 
8, .'WO. 000 
3, 918, 750 



50, 416, 250 



41, 800, 000 

19, 075, 000 

167,200 

8,550,000 

720,000 

303,400 

4, .572, 000 

810,000 

24, 643, 000 



100, 640, 600 



14, 306, 000 

19, 400, 500 

236.500 

4, 945. 000 

883,200 

448,500 

3,293,750 



17,690.000 



61, 293, 450 



37.050,000 

16.761.600 

247,500 

5, 940, 000 

387,200 

161,500 

1,962,000 

701,250 

12,064,500 



75,275,550 



95,200,000 

24,843,000 

1,586,000 

21. 000, 000 

2,030,000 

144,000 

4,864,000 

448,000 

29, 676, 500 

179, 791, 500 



26 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 



A. — Table showing the product of each pnndpal crop, ^'Cyf^^ ^875 — Continued. 



Products. 



WISCONSIN. 

Ipdianoom buaLels. 

Wheat do... 

B^ye do... 

Oats do... 

Barley do... 

Buckwheat do. . . 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacoo pounds. 

Hay tons. 



Total. 



MINNSSOTA. 

Indian com bushels.. 

Wheat do..k. 

Rye do — 

Oats do... 

Barley do 

Buckwheat do 

Patatoes do 

Tobacco pounds.. 

Hay to^s.. 



s 



15,200,000 

25,200,000 

1. 340, 000 

26,CM)0>000 

2, 200. 000 

275, 000 

7, COO, 000 

2. 500, 000 

1, 420, 000 



Total. 



IOWA. 

Indian com bnsbels. 

Wheat do... 

Rye do... 

Oats do... 

Barley do... 

Buckwheat do . . . 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco pounds . 

Hay tons. 



7, 340, W50 

27, 200, 000 

150,000 

13, 000. 000 

1,120,000 

49,000 

4,500.000 



857,000 



Total. 



MISSOURI. 

Indian com bushels. 

Wheat do... 

Rye do... 

Oats do... 

Barley do... 

Buckwheat do... 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco T)onnds. 

Hay tons. 



Total. 



KAX8AS. 

Indian corn bushels. 

Wheat do... 



Rye. 



.do... 



Oats do... 

Barley do... 

Buckwheat do . . . 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacco f pounds. 

Hay tons. 

Total 



160,000,000 

29,800,000 

650,000 

28, 000, 000 

6. 300, 000 

160, 000 

8,700,000 



1,920.000 



u 

o 

P4 



Q (A 
fcXi 



t 



21 
14 

ms 

33.5 

31 

13 
105 
560 
1.35 



00 
U o 

B 

o 



723.809 

1,800,000 

81, 212 

6«),000 

70,967 

21,153 

72,380 

4,464 

1, 051, 85t 



4,505,836 



29.2 
17 

19.5 
35 
28 
15 
125 



1. 35 



35 
9.7 
18 
37.7 
22.3 
19.6 
110 



1.35 



251,369 

1, COO, 000 

7,G92 

371, 428 

40,000 

3,266 

36,000 



634, 814 



2, 944, 569 



4, 571, 428 

3, 072, 164 

36, 111 

742, 705 

282,511 

8,163 

79,090 



1,422,222 



128,000,000 

11, 160, 000 

600,000 

20,500,000 

450,000 

60,000 

6,300,000 

40.000,000 

700,000 



76, 700, 000 

12,700,000 

1,380,000 

9,530,000 

800,000 

240.000 

4,480.000 

275,000 

960,000 



3G.6 
9 

13.4 
31.6 
19 
17.4 
110 
850 
1.30 



40 

17 

17.5 

33 

21.8 

1&5 
112 
670 
1.35 



10, 214, 394 



(0 p 

SB 



$0 54 
01 
68 
33 
92 
79 
29 
06 
953 



42 

86 
59 
32 
76 
76 
29 



5 25 



27 
71 
27 
24 
53 
77 
24 



5 78 



n 
o 

a 

a 

-a 

> 

o 
H 



18,208.000 

22,933,000 

911,200 

8, 778, 000 

2,024,000 

217,250 

8,204,000 

150,000 

13, 532, 600 



58, 957, 050 



3.088,800 

S3, 383,000 

88,500 

4, 160, 000 

851,200 

37,240 

1,305,000 



4,499,250 



37, 415. 990 



43,200,000 

21,158.000 

175,500 

6,720,000 

3. 339, 000 

183,800 

2,088,000 



11,097,600 



3, 497, 267 

1, 240, 000 

44,770 

648,734 

23,684 

3,448 

£57,272 

47, 058 

538,461 



6, 100, 700 



1, 917, 500 

747, 058 

78,837 

288,787 

36,697 

12,972 

40,000 

410 

711, 111 



3, 833, 392 



28 
95 
68 
27 
94 
C5 
37 
05.7 
10 28 



23 

87 

51 

24 

57 

72 

27 

07.8 

04 



87,901,300 



35,840,000 

10, 602, 000 

408, OCO 

5,535,000 

423,000 

39,000 

2,331,000 

2,280,000 

7,196,000 



64,654,000 



17,641,000 

11,049,000 

703,800 

8,287.800 

456,000 

172,800 

1,209,600 

21,450 

2,918,400 



36, 459, 250 



REPORT OF THE STATISTICIAN. 



27 



A — Tabic shoicing the product of each principal crop, <f c, for 1875— Coutiuued. 



Products. 



Tn^lian com . . 


KEBRASKl. 


. ..linAfiAlft 


"Wheat 




.......do.. 


Bve 




....... do . 


Oats 




do.. 


F4trley 




... ....do.. 


Bnckwheal . . . 




... ....do.. 


Potatoes 




do.. 


Tobacoo 




. . . TMnndfi 


Hay 




tons 



Total. 



CALBrOBMIA. 

Indian com bushels. 

Wheat do... 

Rye do... 

Oats do... 

Barley do... 

Bnckwheat do... 

Potatoes do,.. 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hay tons. 



Total. 



OBEOON. 

Indian com ....bnsbels. 

Wheat ...do... 

Bye dQ... 

Oats do... 

Barley do... 

Buckwheat do... 

PoUtoee do... 

Tobacco pounds. 

Hay tons. 



Total 



KBVASA. 



Indian oora bnshels.. 

Wheat do.... 

Rye do 

Oats do.... 

Barley do.... 

Bnckwheat do.... 

Potatoes do 

Tobacco pounds . . 

Hay tons.. 



Total 



THE TSRSTTOBIEd. 

Indian com bushels. 

"Wheat do... 

?y« do... 

Oats do... 

Barley do... 

Buckwheat do. . - 

I^otatoee do... 

Tobacco pounds . 

B«y tons. 

Total 



^3 

O 








9 

o 



SS, 000. 000 

3, 400, COO 

50,000 

4, 375, GOO 
375,000 

85,000 
1, 950, 000 



350,000 



1,500,000 
33, SOO, 000 

75, 000 
2,100,000 
9,050,000 

35,000 
3,500,000 



690,000 



96,000 

4,500,000 

4,500 

3,450,000 

450,000 



845,000 

'is6,'ooo' 



15,000 
380,000 



85,000 
500,000 



210,000 

'*56,'o66' 



1. 500, 000 
3^200,000 



1,800,000 
720,000 



1, GOO, 000 

"'ico'ooo' 



g 



40 
9.8 
10 
35 
22.4 
21.5 
130 



'A 



700,000 

34G, 938 

3, 125 

125,000 

16, 741 

3,953 

15,000 



1.40 



250, 000 



1, 460, 757 



3G.3 

11 

17.5 

32 

18 . 
.25 
120 



1.40 



41,322 

2, 163. 636 

4,285 

65, 625 

502,777 

1,400 

29,166 



492, 857 



3, 301. 068 



26.5 
17.6 
19.5 
35 

27 



3,623 

2^5,681 

230 

70,000 

16,666 



13U 
""i.37' 



6,500 
'87,"50i' 



440,290 



29 

18 



30 

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2,361 
18, 867 



110 
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1,909 
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83,226 



26 
19.5 



51,693 
164, 102 



35 
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2,176.000 

26,000 

962,500 

168,750 

63,750 

370,500 



1,977,500 



10,645.000 



1, 605, 000 
28.064,000 

69.000 
1. 512, 000 
8.235,500 

52,500 
3,290,000 



11, 447, 100 



54.905.100 



87,360 

3,91.'>,000 

4,975 

1, 347, 500 

315,000 



642,900 
'i,"328,'406 



7,639,735 



16,300 
456,000 



03,900 
515,000 



199,500 
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2, 149, 600 



1.530,000 
3,900,000 



1,278,000 
720,000 



1.104,000 
"9,' 174,' 400 
10.006,400 



28 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 






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32 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



D. — Table shmving the ava'age cash value jyer acre of fai-m jyrodttcis for the year 1675. 



States. 



Maine... 

New Harapshiro 

Vermont 

Massaohnsetts . 
Kbode Island... 

Connecticnt 

New York 

New Jersey — 
Pennsylvania... 

Delaware 

Murland 

Virginia 

North Carolina. 
South Carolina . 

Georfna 

Florida 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Tennessee 

West Virginia.. 

Kentucky 

Ohio 

Michigan 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

Kansas 

Nebraska 

California 

Oregon 

Nevada 

The Territories. 



i 



$29 38 
35 72 

34 78 

35 15 

30 25 
29 00 

25 16 

26 65 

23 20 

14 82 

10 50 

11 88 
9 00 

10 20 

8 60 
10 80 

9 45 

12 96 

13 79 
16 60 

15 GO 

10 86 

16 29 
13 65 
15 18 
20 13 
13 26 

11 66 

11 34 

12 26 
9 45 

10 24 
9 20 
8 00 

38 84 

24 11 

31 32 
26 52 






$22 96 
27 88 
27 12 
21 92 



21 28 

10 48 

16 32 

17 80 

18 90 
13 97 

9 68 
9 30 

11 90 
11 25 



10 45 
16 61 



22 86 
12 91 

8 58 

9 38 
10 50 
10 35 
15 52 

8 73 

9 55 
12 74 
14 62 

6 88 
8 55 

14 79 
6 27 

12 98 

15 31 
21 60 
19 50 



o 



$19 70 
20 53 
19 19 
18 19 
18 00 
16 50 

8 60 
11 30 

11 39 

12 82 

9 47 



02 
83 
90 



9 98 



15 96 

16 75 



19 91 
14 11 

8 36 
10 69 
10 64 

7 98 
12 12 

9 00 

10 06 

11 22 
11 50 

4 86 
9 11 
892 

8 32 
16 10 
18 52 



O 



$15 68 
22 00 
19 50 
21 96 
18 00 
17 08 
14 08 

11 52 

12 30 
9 03 
8 80 
7 
7 



35 
54 



10 75 
9 79 

13 65 

11 76 
16 46 

15 40 
23 04 

16 82 
8 10 
8 82 



9 
9 



66 
79 



15 05 
9 57 
9 24 
12 70 
11 20 
9 04 
8 53 
7 92 
7 70 

23 04 
19 25 
26 64 

24 85 



o 






$18 69 

25 60 

26 75 
26 70 
£0 00 
22 40 
16 02 



23 46 



21 36 



28 50 



15 20 
11 25 
18 45 

16 65 
18 86 
14 06 

17 92 
28 52 
21 28 

11 81 

17 86 

12 42 
10 08 
16 38 

18 90 

27 29 

28 50 



is 
o 



$16 45 

15 60 

15 12 

6*82 



16 62 
10 72 
13 09 
13 80 



14 21 
11 72 



12 60 

13 94 



12 30 
12 90 
18 05 

12 00 

10 27 

11 40 

15 09 
11 31 

13 32 

16 12 
37 50 



«3 

o 



o 



$44 94 

55 86 
51 15 
7^ 00 
65 00 
60 48 
38 52 
44 28 
40 32 
54 00 
38 88 
42 64 

56 95 
90 90 
81 60 



61 00 
72 75 
82 50 
122 00 
79 79 

39 SO 
56 10 
48 03 
37 08 
37 75 
37 44 

40 96 
30 45 
36 25 
26 40 
40 70 
30 S4 
24 70 

112 80 
98 80 

104 50 
93 15 



o 

o 

C3 
O 

H 



$240 OO 
240 00 
256 50 



330 00 

88 00 



140 00 



56 02 
53 55 

48 50 



130 35 

187 50 

116 25 

79 25 



162 50 

100 28 

48 60 

71 40 

41 58 

42 00 



27 50 
30 80 
33 60 



48 45 
52 26 






$10 30 

12 16 

9 78 

20 89 

21 85 

22 83 
16 36 
21 36 
18 83 
21 99 

18 93 

19 83 
15 63 

20 50 
24 75 



25 25 
25 50 
24 37 

15 62 
22 S2 

22 08 

16 48 

18 52 
14 26 

17 40 

14 93 
13 33 

12 86 
7 08 
7 80 

13 36 

4 10 

5 11 

23 22 

15 16 
23 40 

19 02 



E. — Table shotcing ike average cask value lyer acre of ihe principal crops of the farm for the 

year 1875. 




Maine , 

Now HaiupshiTi) 

Vermont 

Massachusetts . . 
Bhodo Island . . . 

Connecticut 

Now York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania. . . 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

North Carolina . 
South Carolina.. 

Georgia 

Plorida 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 



$12 74 

15 37 
13 22 
25 70 
24 57 
27 03 
10 73 
20 88 
18 58 

16 79 
16 21 

12 55 
9 81 

10 08 
9 47 

11 39 
9 80 

13 46 

14 12 



Texas 

Arkansas 

Tennessee 

West Virginia . 

Kentucky 

Ohio 

Michigan 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

Kansas 

Nebraska 

California 

Oregon 

Nevada 

The Territories 



$17 49 

15 62 

10 69 

13 97 

14 65 
13 55 
17 53 

12 00 

11 46 

13 08 

12 70 

8 60 
10 50 

9 51 
7 28 

16 44 

17 35 
2.". 83 
«Ji 56 



EEPOET OP THE STATISTICIAN. 



33 



F. — A general suminury skoioing ike estimated quantities, number of acres, and aggregate 

value of the principal a'ops of the farm in 1875. 



Products. 



Indian com bnahels. 

Wheat do... 

Bye i do... 

Oats do... 

Barley do... 

Buckwheat do... 

Potatoea do,.. 



Total. 



Tobacoo ponnds,. 

flay tona-. 

Cotton bales.. 



Number of 
bushels, &c. 



1,321,069,000 

sac, fSe, 000 

17, T22, 100 

354, 317, 500 

30,908,600 

10, 083, 100 

166,877,000 



2, 199, 112. 300 



379, 347, 000 

27,873,600 

4,600,000 



Grand total , 123,243,262 



Number 
acres. 



:;t 



44,841,371 
26, 381, 512 

1,359,788 
11, 9J 5, 075 

1, 739, 902 
575,530 

1, 510, 041 



88, 373, 219 



559,049 
23,507,964 
10, 803. 030 



Value. 



1555, 445, 930 

204, 580, 990 

13, 631, 900 

129,499,930 

29. 952, 082 

7, 166, 267 

65, 019, 420 



1,095,296,519 



30, 342, 600 
342, 203, 445 
272,936,400 



1, 740, 778, 964 



G. — Table shotoing the average yield and cash value per acre, and price per hoBhel, pound, or 

Ion of farm' products for the year 1875. 



Products. 



Indian com bushels. 

Wheat do... 

'B^ye do... 

Oats do... 

Barley do... 

Buckwheat do... 

Potatoes do... 

Tobacoo pounds. 

Hay tons. 

Ck)tton pounds. 




20.4 -f 

11.0 + 

13.0 + 

29.7 + 

20.6 + 

17.5^ 

110.5 + 

678.5 + 

1.18+ 

1.98 



10 
1 



12 



42.0 + 

00.0 + 

76.9 + 

.3»).5 4- 

fcl. I -f 

71.0 + 

:w.9 -f 

08.0 - 

27 

12.76 






eiS 38 

11 16 
10 02 
10 86 
16 73 

12 45 
43 05 
54 27 
14 Xi 
25 26 



NUMBEES AND CONDITION OF FARMANIMALS. 

Diseases among cattle were limited in both range and intensity in 
1875. Winter meteorological conditions were more favorable for com- 
fort and health of domestic animals than nsnal in those sections in 
which protection is furnished only in part or not at all, and the measure of 
such care and attention was somewhat larger and more general than in 
former years. There was very general exemption from prevailing mala- 
dies in New England. In a lew counties in the Middle States appeared 
some forms of disease with something like epizootic force, and in the 
Soathem States a local prevalence of similar types of disease was at- 
tended with still greater mortality. 

In Berkshire, Massachusetts, in June, cattle imported into two or 
three towns from the West showed the presence of Texas fever, but 
confined to half a dozen herds. Sanitary measures, promptly taken, 
arrested the spread of the disease, while embargo and quarantine regu- 
lations stopped further importations. In Livingston, New York, 30 or 
40 western cattle, all of one herd, died of this ^sease, but native stock 
were entirely unaffected. Some western cattle died in Washington, 
Pennsylvania. A disease resembling Texas fever in some points is 
noted in Burke, North Carolipa, where, like other diseases, it is desig- 
nated by the unmeaning term murrain. This disease annually makes its 
appearance from the coast, traveling westward ; it has prevailed in this 
region for fifteen years, but its severity is less marked than formerly. 
The Texas fever is also noted in a few cases in Lorain, Ohio, and Scott. 
Illinois ; in the last-named instance the animals were all imported. 

3 A 



34 



EEPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 



Abortion is a serious evil in the dairy-regions. A general desire is 
expressed for a scientific investigation by this Department, to determine 
its causes and possible'means of prevention. Such an investigation is 
due to this great producing interest Cases are reported most numer- 
ously in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania ; and some have 
been noted in the South and West, and in Oalifomia. 

Pleuro-pneumonia for several years past has been more prevalent in 
Maryland than elsewhere. Several herds in Burlington County, New 
Jersey, have suffered from it. This disease has prevailed in milk-dairies, 
where large numbers are crowded together in filthy stables ; and there are 
complaints of the reprehensible practice of slaughtering and selling the 
meat on the appearance of the first symptoms of the disease. Ordinary 
lung-fever, resulting from exposure of cattle accustomed to warm sta- 
bles, is more genersd in its range, but does not spread by contact. 

The epizootic influenza of horses which prevaUed in the fall and win- 
ter of 1872-^73 re-appeared in the autumn of 1875 in nearly all tiie 
States; the symptoms, however, were mild, and the disease readily 
yielded to ordinary treatment. The mortality was also much less formi- 
dable than during the former visitation. In parts of the country where 
farm-horses are worked hard all winter, as in the lumbering districts, 
the disease left some permanent injuries in the form of heaves and other 
abnormal conditions. In some cases the symptoms were so like the 
common distemper as to be mistaken for it. 

Pneumonia was reported in a few cases, the most notable in Wash- 
ington, New York, and Lawrence, Pennsylvania. Blind-staggers is one 
of the most prevalent diseases, especially in the Southern States ; from 
this cause a loss of two hundred animals is reported in Cumberland, 
New Jersey, and nearly as many in Kent, Delaware. 

Diseases of sheep have not been especially numerous, yet foot-rot, rot, 
scab, grub in head, and other maladies, cause a great aggregate of loss. 

It is very probable that $100,000,000 represents scarcely more than the 
annual losses of farm-animals from disease and neglect, of whichhalf could 
undoubtedly be saved by efficient means of ^ure and prevention. Per- 
sistent and intelligent effort in scientific investigation, under Govern- 
ment patronage, ought to result in a saving of some millions of this an- 
nual loss to production. The proportion of these losses suffered by the 
pork-producing interest is enormously large, and their reduction is 
quite as much in the interest of public health as of public wealth. 

The estimates of numbers of farm-animals are all increased over those 
of January, 1875, except as to swine, which are reported less by exceed- 
ing two millions. The average value of stock-hogs in January was esti- 
mated at $6.80 in place of $5.34 the year previous. The average value 
of sheep is raised from $2.60 to $2.79. Cows, last year averaging $28.52, 
make an average of $28.89; and ^< other cattle'^ have advanced from 
$18.68 to $19.04. Horses and mules alone are lo^^^^r, the former rating 
at $64.96 instead of $68.01, and the latter $75.33 in place of $80. The 
estimates of numbers and value foot up as follows : 



HOFMS 

Mules 

Cows 

Other oftttle. 

Kheep 

Swine 



Total. 



Komber. 



9, 735, 300 
1. 414, 500 
11,085,400 
16,785,300 
35, 935, 300 
25,726,800 



Average 
price. 



164 96 

75 33 

28 89 

19 04 

2 60 

6 80 



Value. 



$632, 446, 085 
106, 505, 114 
320, 346, 728 
319, 623, 509 
93, 666, 318 
175, 070, 484 



1, 647, 719, 138 



EEPOET OF THE . STATISTICIAN. 



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REPOET OP THE STATIBTTCIAJJT, 37 

CENTENNIAL STATISTICS. 

All important wo#k of the closing portion of 1875 has been the prep- 
aration of .appropriate exhibits of this division at the Centennial Exhi- 
bition at Philadelphia. These exhibits are designed to present in com- 
pact form and logical arrangement, with such aids to interpretation as 
are afforded by color and mathematical delineation, some of the main 
facts which illustrate the progress of settlement, production, and rural 
improvement in the United States. With a national census giving only 
the estimated production of the principal crops once in ten years, and 
very few of the States making any attempt in the direction of agricul- 
tural statistics, the field of prompt and genersA agricultural inquiry is 
left almost entirely to the statistical division of the Department of Agri- 
culture. The rapid extension of cultivation in Western States and 
Territories and in the Pacific and Southwestern States, which causes 
changes in a single year that appear almost incredible, as for instance 
the increase of corn production in Kansas from 10,000,000 of bushels in 
1874 to 80,000,000 in 1875, renders the work of this division exceedingly 
active and difidcult. To gather the immense array of fragmentary data, 
and present for the Centennial a rounded and complete result in as many 
essentjal points as possible, much special statistical work was necessary, 
which nas been reduced to a minimum by the extremely limited appro- 
priation available for the service. The line of effort adopted included, 
first, statistical record, in album form, of the several great classes of 
agricultural facts, in plain text and with map, diagram, and pictorial 
illustrations,* designed to present briefly a more succinct summary than 
has ever been presented to the public, and more complete in the classes 
of facts selected for exposition ; second, a series of large outline maps 
illustrating the geographical distribution of crops and various results of 
original investigation ; third, a series of charts and diagrams, showing 
important facts in production and distribution, industrial education, ani 
political economy. 

MAPS. 

The large maps, representing the territory of the United States, are 
constructed from series of sixteen sheets, each set making an outline 
map 17 by 12 feet, as follows : 

1. Map showing in five degrees of density the comparative value of 
farm-lands in the United States. 

The Talues are thoBe of the last census, the division of area by groups .of counties, 
the first class including all area averaging less than $10 per aero ; the second, those 
counties averaging between $10 and $20; the third, those not exceeding $30; the fourth, 
not exceeding ^40 ; the fifth, those exceeding $40. The fifth tint is found mainly in 
the southern half of New England, in the Middle States, and in the Ohio Valley States, 
with a few patches of the deeper hue on the Upper Mississippi and a portion of the 
Missouri Valley. 

2. Map showing the respective rates of w.iges of farm-labor in the 
several States. 

This map is based upon an investigation made by the statistical division in 1874, 
which was the third of a series made at inter\'als of several yeara, all mutually cor- 
roborative in a singular degree. It shows the average rate of monthly wages without 
board in each State, by classes indicated by five tints of color. The classes are as fol- 
lows: Under $20: South Carolina, $12.84; North Carolina, $13.4G; Alabama, $13.60; 
Georgia, $14.40; Virginia, $14.84; Tennessee, $ir).20 ; Florida, $15.G0: Mississippi, $16.40; 
Kentucky, $1812; Louisiana, $18.40; Missouri, $19.40; Texas, §19.50. Under 825: 
Maryland, $20.02: Delaware, $20.33; Arkansas, 8*^0.50: West Virginia, §20.75; New 
Mexico, $22.75 ; Kansas, $23.20 ; Nebraska, $24 ; Ohio, $24.05 ; Indiana, .^24.20 ; Iowa, 
$24,35. Under $30 : Illinois, $25.20 ; Maine, $25.40 ; Wisconsin, $25.50 ; Pennsylvania, 



38 REPORT" OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AORICULTURE. 

825.89 ; Minnesota, §26.16 ; New York, $27.14 ; Michigan, |S8.22 ; Connecticut, $28.25; 
Now Hampshire, $28.57 ; Vermont, $29.67. Under 835 : Rhode Island, $30 ; Now Jersey, 
$30.71 ; Massachusetts, $31.87 ; Dakota. $32.50. Thirty-five dollars and over : Wash- 
ington, $35 ; Utah, 35.50 ; Oregon, $38.25 ; Colorado, $38.50 ; California, $44.50 ; Mon- 
tana, $45; Wyoming, $47.50. 

3. Map sbowiug in five degrees of density tbo proportion of woodlands 
to farm areas in the United States. 

This map is hased upon the census returns of farm- lands, and does not indicate forest 
areas in unappropriated public lands or in wild lands not in farms. It is divided into 
groups of counties in five classes, the first including all areas with less than 15 per 
cent, iu forest, the other classes divided respectively by 30, 45, and 60 per cent. 

4. Map*showing in five degrees of density the distribution of the sugar 
crops of the United States. 

The localities in which these crops are grown, viz, cane, sorghum, maple, and beet, 
are indicated by a specific color for each, and the degree of production attained la 
shown by three tints of each color. Counties yielding less than 100 hogsheads of cane- 
sugar are not counted as sugar-producing area : those yielding 100 to 500 are placed in 
the first class : those with a production of 1,000 to 5,000 in the second class ; and those 
with 5,000 and over iu the third. The cane district is seen to be very limited, confined 
mainly to a small section of Louisiana. Sorghum comes next in geographical position, 
including the Southern States, the southern borders of the Middle States, and including 
the great corn region of the interior. The range for three tints is 10,000 to 30^000 
gallons sirui) for the first; 30,000 to 60,000; and 50,000 and over. The maplo is utilized 
for saccharine production in a still more northern belt, ^ho range is 10,000 to 100,000 
pounds of sugar ; 100,000 to 500,000 ; 500,000 and over. Beet-sugar is produced as yet 
only in two places in California, Sacramento and Soquel, and to a limited extent in 
Freeport, 111. The experiment has been tried in other parts of Illinois and in Wiscon- 
sin, whence the business was removed to California. / 

5. Map showing in five degrees of density the distribution of textile 
fabrics in the United States. 

Counties producing less than 1,000 bales of cotton are not considered ; those yielding 
1,000 to 5,000 bales constitute the first class, those with 5,000 to 10,000 the second, and 
Uioso with 10,000 and over the third. The three classes of hemp counties are limited 
Respectively by the ranges of 50 to 600 tons, 500 to 1,000, and 1,000 and over. For flax- 
fiber the range is 100,000 to 500,000 pounds, 500,000 to 1,000,000, and over 1,000,000 pounds. 
For flax-seed, 1,000 to 5,000 bushels; 5,000 to 20,000; 20,000 and over. For wool, 
100,000 to 250,000 pounds ; 250,000 to 500,000 ; 500,000 pounds and over. 

G. Map showing the fruit area of the United States in proportion to 
areas in improved land, with indications of the principal regions pro- 
ducing the various standard fruits. 

This map is divided by States into four classes of tints. In the first or lowest class 
arc the Territories, Nevada, Minnesota, and Nebraska^ having less than 1 per cent, of 
improved land in fruit ; the second includes those having from 1 to 2 per cent., as the 
Northern Atlantic and Gulf Coast States — except Florida — the Northern New England 
states and Wisconsin j the third. New Tork, Pennsylvania, the Ohio Valley States, 
Tennessee, and the Pacific Coast States ; and the fourth, the Southern New England 
States, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Florida, Michigan, and "Wisconsin. 

SMALL MAPS. 

7. Showing the proportion of improved land to the farm area of each 
State and Territory. 

Tins map ilhistratcs, by density of color, the comparative extent of improved or 
cultivated areas iu the several States. In some of the Territories the proportion is so 
large as to excite surprise, simply because of the abundance of public lands available 
for pasturage or cultivation, and the fact that lands are not purchased until actually 
needed for use. In the center of large graziug-tracts land may be taken up for occu- 
pancy as a ranch, or grazier's headquarters, while ten times the surrounding public 
area is occupied without purchase or rent. 

There are five classes, the first including States under 30 per cent., viz, North Caro- 
lina, South Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Dakota, Colorado, New 
Mexico, Washington, Wyoming, The remaining classes are -^s follows: Second, be- 
tween 30 and 40 per cent. : Florida, Alabama, Minnesota, Mississippi, Tennessee, West 



KEPOBT OF THE STATISTICIAN. 39 

* 

Virginia, Kansas, Nebraska, Idaho ; 40 and nnder 50 per cent, : Maine. YiTginia, Ken* 
tncky, Missouri , Oregon, Nevada ; 50 and nnder 60 per cent. : Rhode Island, Lldiana, 
Michigan, Wisconsin, California ; over 60 per cent. : New Hampshire, Vermont, Massa- 
chusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, OMo^ 
Illinois, Iowa, Utah, Arizona, Montana. 

This chart also indicates the extent of several crop-belts, by a delineation of the line 
of northern limit respectively of sea-island cotton, upland cotton, sorghum, and win- 
ter-wheat. The line dividing spring wheat from winter is worthy of careful study, as 
it separates, tortuous as it api)ear8, within one or two parts in a hundred, the entire 

§ reduction of fall and spring sown grain. The line runs from near Boston through 
outheastem Massachusetts and Connecticut, curves round the Housatonio HillB, 
strikes the vicinity of Saratoga, and runs in a northwesterly direction to Lake Ontario ; 
thence including all our terntory east of Lake Michigan, traverses a small section of 
Southwestern Cidiana, strikes nearly west through the northern line of Missouri, 
crosses the Missouri at Saint Joseph, and gradually curves southward in Kansas as 
higher elevation is reached. The general direction from ocean to lakes is northwest, 
from lakes to the Rocky Mountains west-southwest. The hue of northern limit of 
sorghum, on the contrary, preserves with a degree of uniformity a northwestern course. 
The difierence is, sorehum is a summer crop, and its cultivation follows the summer 
isothermal line ; whue winter-wheat depencb not only on winter and spring climates, 
but to some extent on the nature of the soil and methods of cultivation. 

The sea-island-cotton line skirts the coast fh>m Charleston to Galveston ; and the up- 
land line runs fh>m Norfolk southwesterly, curving around the mountain-spurs of Up- 
per Georgia, cutting the northeastern section of Alabama, and thence sharply north- 
ward to include the Tennessee Valley and Western Tennessee, and all but the hill re- 
gion of Arkansas, and southwestwardly through a comer of the Indian Territory and 
Texas to the Rio Grande. 

Aocompanylng this chart is an estimate of the extent of cultivation of the principal 

crops, as follows : 

Acres. AorM. 

Area, in 1875,in cereal crops 87,000,000 

Of whichin maize 44,800,000 

Of which in wheat 26,400,000 

Area, in 1875, in hay-crops 23,500,000 

Area, in 1875, in cotton 10,750,000 

Area, in 1875, in orchards, vinos, andfinits 4,500,000 

Area, in 1875, in tobacco 560,000 

Total area in cultivation in 1875 133, 000,000 

The following statement of grand areas, in sqnare miles, is also given: 

Sqiuu% mllM. 

Area, including water-surface • 4,000,000 

Area of States and Territories 3,611,889 

Area of the thirteen original States 341,756 

Area of public-land States and Territories 2,867,185 

Area of pubUo land unsold in 1870 2,168,331 

Area of farm-lands in 1869 637,086 

Area of farm-lands improved 295,189 

Area of farm-lands in forest.. 248,922 

8. Showing the peculiarities of the agriculture of the Pacific coast 
region, and the local distribution and prominence of the principal crops. 

9. Small lithographic map, uniform in size with the diagrams and sta- 
tistical charts, showing the proportion of improved lands to farm areas. 

10. Similar to the above in chromo-lithograph, illustrating the prices 
of farm-labor in the several States. 

11. Map in chromo-lithograph, showing the distribution of fruit areas, 
and local prominence of principal fruits. 

12. Chromo-lithographic map, showing the distribution of milch-cows 
in the States and Territories, with local comparisons of average annual 
production. 

This map represents by five degrees of density the average annual product per cow 
in the several States. The first tint inclndlng those States in which the average prod- 
net is less than SOO gallons, is used for South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, 
Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Indian Territory ; the second, under 250 gal- 
lons, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Missouri, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, 
Washington, Idaho, Nevada, Utah ; the third, nnder 300 gallons, Delaware, Maryland, 



40 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



West yirginia, Kentucky, Kansas, Nebraska, Dakota, Oregon ; the fourth, under 375 
gallons, Maine, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Ulinois, Wiscon- 
sin, Minnesota. Iowa, California; the fifth, between 375 and 450 gallons, Vermont, 
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, Ohio, Michigan. The local dis- 
tribution is indicated by figures representing the number of cows to each hundred 
iiihabitants of the seyeral States, 

DIAORAMS. 

A tangible measure of nnmbers expressing quantities and areas of 
differing magnitude is found a necessity to many and a convenience to 
all in the illustration of the agricultural statistics of the country. In 
no branch cff the Centennial exhibits are the arts of coloring and mstthe- 
matical drawing more appropriate or more usefully employed than in the 
illustration of the abstract ideas of political economy and Statistic«;il 
science. The diagrams presented in this exhibit are as follows: 

13. Com and wheat production; average of the period 1870t-'74. 

This dia^am is designed to show'the abundance of our supplies of breadstufis, and 
especially tne immense production of maize, the great crop of the Unit^ States, supe- 
rior in money-value to any other, unless we add to the hay-crop the gross product uti- 
lized by farm animals. This diagram is also presented among the exhibits in chart 
form, 7 feet 6 inches in height and 4 feet 6 inches wide, on a scale of three-fourths of a 
million bushels to the square inch. It is a striking exhibit, especially to foreigners 
unfamiliar with the immensity of our cereal production, and the comparatiyely small 
proportion of the whole sent abroad, showing the exports in whole and manufactured 
form, seed used, and home consumption. It is an average of the five crops shice the 
census, not including that o£ 1875, which would have increased materially the com av- 
erage. The average product pf com, in excess of the export, is almost exactly 24 bush- 
els for this period; average area in cultivation, 37,699^803; the yield per acre, 26.3 
bushels. A little is imported from Canada, averaging 68,864 bushels. The averages 
are thus obtained from the yearly estimates : 



Toara. 


Prodnctiou. 


Consomptioa. 


Seed. 


Export. 




Com as meaL 


Com. 


1870...? 


Busheli. 
1,094,255,000 

991,808.000 
1,092,719,000 

932,274,000 

850, 148, 500 


BusheU, 
1,070,695,802 

994,807.278 
1,040,722,348 

883,222,450 

806,444,492 


Bushels. 

12,882,325 

11,363,712 

11,842,278 

13, 065, 716 

13,678,972 


Bushels. 
e5&,564 

i,235,eeo 

1,612,444 
1,551,228 
1.166,616 


BusheU. 
9, 826, 309 


1871 


34, 491, 650 


1872 


38.541,930 


1873 

1874 


34.434,606 
28,858,420 






Total 


4,961,294,500 


4, 745, 892; 370 


62,833,003 


6, 416, 212 


146, 152, 915 






Averasro 


992,258,900 


949, 178, 474 


12,566,601 


1,283,242 


29, 230, 583 







The average supply of wheat in excess of export is 5 bushels; area in cultivation 
(average for nve years) 21,386,709 ; yield per acre, 12.2 bushels. The imports of wheat 
have averaged 1,502,541 bushels, of which about three-tenths have been exported. 
The wheat figures are as follows : 



\^Afl.rit 


Prodnction. 


Consumption. 


Scod. 


Export. 


• 




Wheat. 


Wheat as 
flour. 


1870 

1871 


Bushels. 
235, 884, 700 
230.722,400 
249,997.100 
280,372,700 
308, 102, 700 


Bushels. 
154, 881, TW 
161,810.806 
166, 694, 847 
155, 735, 041 
197, 849, 555 


Bushels. 
28, 493, 886 
29, 915, 839 
31,287,538 
3:<,127,26l 
37, 450, 540 


Bushels. 

34,:)04,006 

26,423,080 

39,204.285 

71,009,928 

53. 047, 175 


Bushels. 
18, 269, 205 
12, 572, 675 


1872 


12.810.430 


1873 


80, 470, 470 


1874 


19, 755, 430 






Total, 

Average 


1,305,079.600 


836,911,952 


160,270.064 


224, 019, 374 


83,878,210 


261, 015, 020 


167, 382, 390 


32, 054, 013 


44, 803, 875 


16,775,640 



:^S 



EEPORT-OP-THE. STATISTICIAN. 



41 



14. The product of corn jyer capita. 

The nnmber of bushels produced in 1869 to each iuhabitaot is indicated by heavy 
porpendicnlor bars crossing horizontal lines which mark each five bushels of the scale. 
The frre&t disparity in the production of the 'several States is strikingly shown by the 
differing hcigut of these indices, only one of the New England States (Vermont) reach- 
ing the first lino of five bushels, and California, Oregon, and Nevada also fall below it. 
The Southern States vary from ten to twenty bushels, and those of the Ohio Valley 
from twenty-five to fifty-seven, Iowa standing in the highest rank. The figures on 
which the diagram are based are as follows : 



States. 



Population. 



Alabama 

Arkansaa 

California 

Connectdcnt .. 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana. ....... 

Iowa 

KanRaw 

Kentucky .... 

liOiiiaiuia 

Maine 

Maryland 

Masaaohnaetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota.... 
Missisaippi... 
Misaonri. , 



096,992 

484,471 

500,247 

537.454 

125, 015 

187, 748 

1, 184, 109 

2, 539, 891 

1,680,637 

1, 194, 020 

364,399 

1,331,011 

726, 915 

626,915 

780,894 

1,457,351 

1,184,059 

439,706 

827,922 

1,721,295 



Com. 



Busltels, 

16, 977, 948 

13,382,145 

1,221,222 

1, 570, 364 

3, OIU, 390 

2,225,056 

17, 646, 459 

129, 921, 395 

51, 094, 538 

68,935,065 

17,025,525 

50,091,006 

7,596,628 

1,089.888 

11,701,817 

1, 397, 807 

14,086,238 

4, 743, 117 

15, 637, 316 

66,034,075 



States. 



Kobraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina . 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania... 
Rhode Island . . . 
South Carolina. . 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

WeSt Virginia.. 
Wisconsin 



Population, j Com 



Total 38,115,641 



4. 
1. 
2, 

3, 



1, 

1, 
1. 



122,993 
42,491 
318, 300 
906.096 
382,759 
071,361 
665,260 
9a, 923 
521, 951 
217,353 
705,606 
258, 520 
818, 579 
330,551 
225, 163 
442, 014 
054, 670 



Bushels. 

4, TJG, 710 
9,660 

1, 277, 768 

6,745,384 
16, 462, 825 
18, 454, 215 
67, 501. 144 
72,133 
34, 702. 006 
311,957 

7,OT4,207 
41, 343, 614 
20, 554, 538 

1, 699, 882 
17, 649, 304 

8,197.865 
15,033,998 



759,826,214 



It will be remembered that thA was a year of verv deficient yield of corn. IHinois, 
which stands second in proportion to population, had less than two-thirds of a full 
crop. A diagram for 1875 would dififer very materially. Illinois and most' of the 
States west of the Mississippi would nearly or quite double the present rate per hoiuly 
and require several additional *' stories'' in the structure of the diagram. 

16. Product of wtieat per capita. 

This dia^^ram shows a still greater disproportion in the product of wheat, seventeen 
States failing to produce a fiul supply of the home demand. All of these are east of 
Ohio and south ot the Ohio River, and but four States in this large district are not re- 
quired to go beyond their boundaries for. bread, viz, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Mary- 
land, and Yircinia. The following is a statement of the crop of each State and tiie 
number of bushels to each inhabitant : 



States. 



Alabama ... 
Arkansas .. 
California.. 
Connecticnt 

Delaware 

Florida 

Geoi 



Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentncky 

Loaisisna 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mlssisdppi 



Wheat. 



Bvstuis. 

1,055,068 

741, rJ6 

16, 076, 702 

38.144 

896,477 



2,187,017 

30, 128, 405 

S7, 747, 222 

29, 435, 692 

2,391,198 

5,728,704 

9.906 

278,793 

5,774.503 

32,648 

16, 265, 7TJ 

18, 866, 073 

274, 479 



m 



1.05 

1.53 

29.76 

.07 

7.16 



1.79 

11.86 

ia51 

24.05 

6.56 

4.33 

.01. 

.44 

7.39 

.02. 

13.73 

4K.90 

.33 




Missoori 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New UamiMhire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina.. 

Ohio 

Orefiron 

Pennsylvania ... 

Hhode Island 

South Carolina . . 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

"West Virginia.. 
Wisconaiu 



Bushels. 

14, 315, 926 

2, 125, 086 

228,866 

193, 621 

2, 301. 433 

12, 178, 472 

2, 8E9. 879 

27. 882. 159 

2, 340. 746 

19, 672, 877 

784 

783, 610 

6, 188, 916 

415,112 

454,700 

7,398,787 

2,483,543 

25, 606, 344 



8.31 
17.28 

5.39 
.60 

2.54 

2.77 

2.66 
10.46 
25.75 

5.58 
.00.3 

1.11 

4.91 
..'30 

1.37 

6.03 

5.61 
24.28 



42 



REPOBT^^OP-THK^COMMISSIONEB OP AGEICULTURE. 



16. Area rf wheat, with proportion sown and drilled respectively. 

This figure is based on results of investigation by the statistical division. It omits 
the New England States, which prod ace little wheat, nearly all of which is sown 
broadcast. The wheat-area in New York is divided equally between the two methods. 
In New Jersey, Pennsylvanilb, Delaware, and Maryland the drill greatly predominates. 
In the Southern States the area is small, particularly in the cotton States, and the 
drill is comparatively unknown. North of the Ohio River, in the winter-wheat States, 
the drill is very generally usedj the proportion rising to 76 per cent, in Illinois. In the 
spring-wheat region there are several reasons for prominence of broadcasting. One 
comes from a prevalent practice of sowing wheat on the irregular surface of a corn- 
field without plowing ; another is found m the use of the combined cultivator and 
broadcast-seeder, which destroys many of the weeds that would otherwise bo left be- 
tween the drills. The gist of both of these reasons lies in the saving of labor by a 
compromise process, which is cheap though slovenly. The result of the investigation 
shows that 47 per cent, of the winter- wheat, and 30 of the spring, or 37 of both, repre- 
sent the proportion seeded by the drill. The improvement by drilling is made to aver- 
age 10 per cent. The average quantity of seed used for seeding winter- wheat is 1.35 
bushels per acre ; 1.24 for drilled, 1.44 for the sown. The details are as follows : 





• 

g 

U 


• 

rs 
% 
g 

1 


Increase of prod- 
uct by drilling. 


Seed per acre. 


States. 


Bnsbols in 
broadca.«it- 
ing. 


Bnsbols in 
drilling. 


NewXprk iw 

Now Jersev * 


Percent 
50 
45 
30 
• 26 
24 
62 
97 
99 
99 
99 
99 
98 
100 
96 
58 
92 
39 
49 
24 
49 
62 
55 
51 
98 
81 


Percent 

50 

55 

70 

74 

76 

3d 

3 

1 

1 

1 

1 

2 


Percent 
13 

6 
12 
10 

7 
12 


1.80 
1.95 
1.74 
1.75 
1.70 
1.44 
1.07 
1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
L25 
1.18 
1.10 
1.20 
1.53 
1.36 
1.57 
1.62 
1.52 
1.48 
1.52 
1.49 
1.56 
1.33 
1.50 


1.60 
1.60 


Penn^ylvftnift t 


1.49 


Delawaro 


1.50 


Mftrykind .........xx 


1.43 


Virginia 


1.21 


North OaroUiia 


.83 


South Carolina 




.70 


O^onria 




.90 


Alahama . ^ x.^..... .... .. 






MlBsisaippi 






Jt'A .••.■•-•.•..•..••••.•••••......••..•.•.•-..•••- 

Texas 




.90 








Tennessee 


4 
42 

8 
61 
51 
70 
51 
38 
45 
49 

2 
19 


10 
12 
10 
16 
9 
19 
15 
21 
16 
17 


1.10 


West Virginia 


1.33 


Kentncln^ 


Lll 


Ohio..... .• 


1.33 


Michiffan 


1.40 


minoS 


1.24 


Indiana 


1.21 


Missouri 


1.21 


Kansas 


1.23 


Nehraaka 


1.25 


California 




Oregon 


5 


LSI 







17. Corn and wheat exports of fifty years, 16:^5 to 1875. 

The light space on the right of the diagram represents the volume of wheat, the 
darker shade the flour in its equivalent of bushels of wheat. On the loft, corn in 
bushels is shown, and the darker stripe gives the equivalent of the coni-meal exports. 
It will bo seen that the first half of the period is credited with less than a filth of 
the wheat-exports ; and that the aggregate of the last quarter of the period is equal to 
the total shipment of the preceding three-quarters. A striking feature of the diagram 
is the remarkable increase in the export ot whole wheat. For many years scarcely an 
appreciable quantity, it increases slowly at first, rapidly after 18G0, and at the close ot 
1875 it nearly equaled the aggregate of wheat exports in the form of Hour. It is a 
striking fact, exhibited in this drawing, that the exports of unmanufactured wheat 
were greater in 1874 lAian in a period oi* thirty-five years from 18130 to 18(>0. In the 
same year the exports of flour were nearly equal to the aggregate exports of five years 
from 1825 to 1830. The expo&ts of com*in 1873 equaled the aggregate shipments to 
foreign countries for twenty-three years from 1825. The exports of corn-moal have not 
been increased in an equal degree. The following tables present the data required in 
the construction of this figure, barrels of flour and of corn-meal having been previously 
reduced to their equivalent in bushels of grain, stated for periods of five years nntd 
1870, and yearly for the next five years. 



44 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



Value of exixyris of wheat and flour. 



Year. 



18S0. 
183S. 

1840. 

1845. 

1850. 

1855. 

1860. 

18G5i 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

1874. 

1875. 



Wheat. 



Value. 



1112. 754 
737, 365 



850,119 
1, 817, 067 



2, 6G7, 186 
2, 900, 7fe5 



5, 567, 971 
12, 801, 093 



18, 369. 064 
21, 864, 762 



40, 233, 826 
53,343,918 



93,577,744 
178, 470, 444 



272,048,188 
117, 527, 424 



389, 575, 612 
45, 143. 424 



434,719,036 
38, 915, 060 



473, 634, 096 
51,452,254 



525, 086, 350 
101, 421, 459 



626,507,800 
59. 607, 863 



686, 115, 672 



Value. 



TTlour. 







$8L0, 119 


2,667,186 


5, 507, 971 


18, 369, 004 


40,233,fi26 


93, 577, 744 


272,048,188 


389, 575, 612 


434,719,036 


473, 634, 096 


525, 086, 350 


626, 507, 809 



686, 115, 672 



Valua 



|2'1, 708, 090 
29, 347, 649 



54, 055, 739 
27,231,952 



81, 287, f.91 
31, 056, 156 



112, 343, 647 
69, 375, 741 



181, 719, 588 
75, 775, 220 



257, 494, 808 
104, 368, 446 



361, e63f 254 
133, 356, 875 



495, 220, 129 
92, 071, 717 



587,291,846 
24,093,184 



611, 385, 030 
17, 955, 684 



629, 340, 714 
19, 381, 664 



648, 722, 378 
29,258,094 



677,980,472 
23,710,074 



701, 690, 546 



Value. 



$54, 055, 739 
81, 287, 091 
112, 343, 847 
181, 719, 588 
257, 494, 808 
361.863,254 
495, 820, 129 
537, 291, 846 
611,385,030 
629, 840, 714 
648, 722, 378 
677, 980, 472 
701, 690, 546 



Total Talue of 
wheat and 
flour. 



f24,820,644 
54.905,858 

83,954,877 

117,911,818 

200, 088, 652 

297,728,634 

455, 440, 998 

767,268,317 

976, 867. 458 

1, 046, 104, 066 

1, 102, 974, 810 

1,163,808,728 

1, 304, 488, 281 

1, 387, 806, 218 



Plate IV. 



^lion cto7^. 



1 1 1 1 1 • . ■' I r i 1 1 ■ I ; I 
III ■ 



: I : : : 







EAL 





87Z 



ACO M 300 M 2 



\ l>s. lB75 



;0M imCM (i^COM 13Q0M I400M 



♦ /, 



v.: 



46 



EEPOKT OF THE C0MMIS8I0NEB OF AOEICULTURE. 

I 

Value of exports of corn and com-meah 



Tear. 



1830. 
1835. 



1840. 
1845. 
1850. 
1855. 
1860. 
1865. 
1870. 
1871. 
1873. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 



Corn. 



Value. 



$0, 019, 92C 
1, 804, 711 



3, 824, C37 
873, 104 



4, 697, 741 
1, 755, 602 



6, 453, 343 
31,277,920 



37,731,263 
17, 712, 699 



55, 443, 962 
19, 789, 181 



75, 233, 143 
34,903,365 



110, 136, 508 
47, 143, 817 



157, 280, 325 
7, 458, 097 



164, 739, 322 
23, 984, 365 



188, 723, 687 
23, 794, 694 



212, 518, 381 
24, 769, 951 



237, 288, 332 
24, 456. 937 



261,745,269 



Value. 



$3, 824, 637 
4, 097,' 741' 
6,453, 343 



Com-meaL 



Value. 



12, 404, 371 
2, 731, 077 



5, 135, 448 
3, 471, 215 



8.606.663 
3, 037, 021 



37,'73i,'263 • 



; 11,643,664 
i 8,994,252 



55, 443, 962 
"75,* 233,143" 

iio' 136,508 
' 157,286,' 325 

1*64," 739,' 322 
'i88,'723,'687 
'2i2,'5i8,'38i 
"237,' 268,' 332 
'26i,'745,'269 



20,627,936 
4, 147, 318 



24, 775, 254 
4, 917, 515 



29, 692, 769 
5, 323, 270 



35.016,039 
7. 345, 448 



42, 361, 487 
951. 830 



43,313,317 
1. 214, 999 



44, 528, 316 
1, 474, 827 



46. 003, 143 
1, 529, 399 



47, 532. 542 
1.290,533 



48, 823, 075 



Value. 





$5, 135, 446 


8,606,663 


11, 643, 684 


20, 627, 936 


24, 775, 254 


29, €92, 769 


35, 016, 039 



42, 361, 487 
43,31 3,'3i7* 



44, 528, 316 



46,003,143 



47, 532, 542 
48,823. 075 



Total value of com and 
coru-mcal. 



$4. 424. 297 
4, 535, 788 



8, 960, 085 
4, 344, 319 



13, 304, 404 
4, 792, 623 



18,097,027 
40, 262, 172 



58, 359, 199 
21, 860, 017 



80, 219, 216 
24, 706, 696 



104, 925, 912 
40,226,635 



145, 152, 547 
54,488,265 



199, 641. 812 
8, 410, 827 



208, 052, 639 
25, 199, 364 



233,252,003 
25,269,521 



258,521,524 
26,299,350 



284, 820. 874 
95, 747, 470 



310, 568, 344 



$8, 960, 086 

13. 304, 404 

13, 097, 027 

58, 359, 199 

80, 219, 216 

104, 925, 913 

145,152,547 

199, 641, 813 

208. 052, 639 

233,252,063 

258, 531, 524 

284, 820, 874 

310, 568, 344 



18. Sugar-supply of twenty-five years, with a comparison of quanti- 
ties, native and foreign. 

This dia^^ram represents the annual production of Louisiana, together with the im- 
ports entering annually into consumption, by means of separate tints of color, on the 
scale of 200,(K)0,000 pounds per inch. It shows that in 1850 half the requisite supplies 
were produced in Louisiana ; now, from the vast increase in consumption and decrease 
in production, less than one-tenth of our wants are supplied at home. 

19. The cotton crop of ten years— effect of quantity upon value. 

The quantity and value of each crop are here placed in juxtaposition, in line exhibits 
of differing tints, one inch in length, indicating in one case a half-million bales, in the 
other $50,000,000. It shows that a very large crop fails to yield as much iBoney as a 
medium one; that when, for example, the quantity rose from 3,154,946 bales in 1869 to 
4,352,317 bales in 1870, the price declined from 23.G to 14.9 cents, so that th<i^rge crop 
brought $44,673,491 less than the medium crop preceding. The next year the crop de- 
clined to 2,974,351 bales, and the price rose to 19.3 cents. The high price of the first 
year was, of course, the result of the cotton-famine of the war-period. 

20. Average rate of yield of corn and wheat per acre. 

The estimates of area in certain crops and of average yield per acre, taken together for a 
period of several years, furnish means of obtaining a far truer idea of local rates of yield 
than the fluctuating averages of separate years. For instance, Ohio, a wheat-growing 
State of much prominence, has had an annual average yield of wheat of less than six 
bushels, and again an average of more than sixteen. These averages are not necessa- 
rily indices of fertility of soil, as Massachusetts, utterlyJnsignificant in corn-production, 
stands far higher than Illinois. Fertilizers and special culture give larger results per 



Plate V. 



1S54 



185; 
185; 

i8j 

185 

/8s 

185 

185 

186 

186 

i8ti 

18^ 

i8< 

i8( 

i< 

i< 

i\ 
i8j 

i8j 

i) 

i< 



Louisiana. 

242,881,150 
272,029,050 
370,224,100 
505,222,600 
398,630,250 
266,141,050 
85,072,400 
321,651,550 
416,640,400 
255,116,000 
263,071,700 
528,321,500 



7,668,200 
17,250,000 
47,150,000 

43*294,050 
96,894,400 

Joo>i53>5oo 
166,613,150 

H7i73o>iSo 
124,798,000 

102,922,700 

134,504,691 

4,913,980,591 



Total. 

443»90^>S72 
642,792,597 

815,663,455 
944,814,232 

792,610,363 

695*021,736 

597,638,166 

1,078,450,344 
853*994,264 
870,540,053 
9 '9*346,7 2 2 

1,251,620,551 
530,832,412 
498,846,005 
611,284,468 

594*330,143 
1,012,799,904 

870,526,017 
1,195,120,413 

1*309*847*^5 
1,306,202,065 

1^327,456,300 
1*565*760,616 

1*525*794,971 

1*705*193*954 

23*960,395*437 






Lfi;ht lines, i 
l)ark lines, i 



I ^ ' .• -; - 



/ 



Plate VI. 



QUANTITY. 

2,193,987 bales. 



VALUE. 



$440,728,108 ^ 43.2^. 



S66 



1867. 



rS68. 



1869. 



1870. 



1871. 



I«72. 



'573- 



1874. 



2,019,774 bales. 



$285,515,252 ^ 30.4^. 



2,593»993 bales. 



$234,004,108 ^ 19.4^. 



2,439)039 ^^^^^> X 

$285,806,590 'S) 25. 2^. 



3,154,940 bales. 



$346,223,774 ^ 23.6^. 



4,3521317 bales. 



$3oi>S5o»283 ® 14.9^:. 



2»974,3Si bales. 



$266,933,130 fa) 19.3^. 



3,930,508 bales 



$345,432,695 ^ 18.9.- 



4,170,388 bales. 



$300,580,715 'iO 15.5^. 



3^832, 99 1 bales. 



$269,133,463 "a) I5.K-. 



;A 




i 



EEPOET OP THE STATISTICIAN. 



47 



aero than tho richest soils. Illinois probably stands lower for this period of nine years 
than for any former period, having suffonid for several seasons of drought and other 
onpropitious meteorological conditions. Tho average yields of corn and wheat are as 
follows : 





Nerad*. 


§ 

o 


Ore^^n. 


»-* 

CI 

cr 

1 

• 


MMsachuMtts. 
Coxmeoticot. 
Yarmont 
Bliod« Island. 




. Minnesota. 


• 


f New Hampshire. 
TTansas 


Kew Jersey. 


** 


New York. 




California. 


13.7 to 13. 


Wisconsin. 

Michigan. 

Pennsylvania. 


P 


Maine. 




Tezae. 


to 

■ 
• 

11 

• 
a 


Nebraska. 
Iowa. 

• 

Missonii. 
[Illinois. 
[Ohio, 
r Indiana. 




Delaware. 
Maryland. 


r* 


Arkanaas. 




West Virginia. 


1 


'Kentucky. 


1.3 to 8.3. 


Mississippi. 

Louisiana. 

Florida. 


1 


Tirgini*. 


1 


Tennessee. 


7.7 to 8.0. 


North Carolina. 
Georgia. 


1 


Sonth Carolina. 



JO 



to 

6 

S* 

.— • 

«D 



• 



I-* 

to 

8 



IS 



r California. 
New Jersey. 
Yeimont 
Ohia 

New Hampshire. 
Pennsylvania. 
Massachosetts. 
Iowa. 
Nebraaka 

Minnesota. 

Indiana. 

New York. 

"Wisconsin. 

Conneeticat 

Nevada. 

Michigan. 

MissoozL 

Oregon* 

Illinois 

Maine. 

Kentucky. 

West Virginia. 

Rhode Island. 






B< 






Maryland. 

Tennessee. 

Texaa. 
f Virginia. 

Delaware. 

Louisiana. 

MissisaippL 
r North Carolina. 

Alabama. 

Georgia. 

Florida. 
.South Carolina. 



O 
O 

w 



21. Aggregate value of principal crops, being an average from 1866 
to 1874, inclusive. 

This diagram is a line-iUustration on the scale of 100.000,000 to the inch, which shows 
that com leads all our crops, hay next, (grass as pastnrago dot included,) and wheat 
and cotton are almost exactly eqnaL These averages are as foUows : 



48 



REPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER' OF AGRICULTURE. 



Corn..! 
Hay.. 
Wheat 
Cotton 
Oats.. 



1549,838,907 
343, 111, 450 
308,983.273 
308, 590, 811 
123, 867, 426 



Fotatoen... 
Tobacco ... 

Barley 

Rye 

Buckwheat 



$76, 35C, 914 
34, 439, 809 
23, 374, 788 
18, 695. 8S6 
12, 943, 912 



22. Aggregate product of corn, wheat, and potatoes — effect of quan- 
tity upon values. 

This diagram shows tho course of production through eight years. The scale is 
arranged to iUustrate quantities by lines representing one hundred, two hundred, up 
to thirteen hundred millions of bushels, and when used to iUustrate value the same 
lines mean fifty, one hundred, up to six hundred and fifty millions of dollars. T^racinff 
the line representing com, starting at less than nine hundred million bushels, it fiuls 
one hundred millions in 1869, and at 1870 and 1872, respectively, it nearly reaches 
eleven hundred millions. Then following the upper line, showing the value of corn, 
nearly $600,000,000 in 1866 — a rise in value attends a decline in quantity, and vice veraaf 
the only exception being in 1871, when the surplus of the preceding year made tho 
supply a very full one, while the great crop of 1872 struck with panic the corn-markets, 
and completely demoralized prices. The prices of corn are controlled almost exclu- 
sively by the quantity .produced, as the market cannot be *' cornoaed," and the export 
of 3 per cent, is scarcely a disturbinij element; in this instance, foreign demand does 
not nx the prevailing home-price. With wheat it is difterent, as the lines show, in some 
years prices continuing to rise with a rise in quantity, caused by poor crops in Europe. 

23. Wages of farm-labor — monthly rate, without board, 1866 and 1875. 

This diagram shows the monthly rate of each State, in both the years named, from 
the exhaustive investigations of tlie Department. The scale o^ line-illustrations is $10 
per inch. There is shown a decline in wages, except in some of the Southern States, 
where labor is becoming more efficient and valuable, and in Oregon, where a scarcity 
exists. The figures are as follows : 



States. 



Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachnsetts . 
Ilhode Island... 
Connoctioat .... 

New York 

New Jersey.... 
Pennsylvania... 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

North Carolina . 
Sonth Carolina . 

Georgia 

Florida 

Alabama 

MlBsissippi 



1866. 


1875. 


$27 00 


135 40 


33 74 


28 57 


3d 84 


29 67 


38 94 


31 87 


34 40 


30 00 


34 25 


28 25 


39 57 


27 14 


32 S7 


30 71 


89 91 


25 89 


24 93 


20 33 


20 36 


20 03 


14 82 


14 84 


13 46 


13 46 


12 00 


12 84 


15 51 


14 40 


18 00 


15 50 


13 40 


13 60 


16 72 

t 


16 40 



States. 




Lonisiana .... 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Tennessee 

West Virginia 
Kentncky.... 

Ohio 

Michigan 

•Indiana 

Illinois 

Wisconsin.... 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

Kansas....... 

Nebraska 

California 

Oregon 



^50 
19 00 

24 21 

19 00 

25 35 

20 23 
28 46 
31 26 

27 71 

28 54 
30^4 
31 65 
28 34 

26 75 
31 03 
38 37 
45 71 
35 75 



187Sw 



$18 40 
10 50 
20 SO 
15 SO 
20 75 

18 IS 
24 05 
28 23 

24 20 

25 20 

25 50 

26 16 
24 35 

19 40 

23 SO 

24 00 
44 50 
38 25 



24. Immigration of seven years, with a comparison of its soorces. 

In further illustration of the labor interests of the country, this diagram shows the 
sources of our supply of labor from other countries. The comparison is made upon the 
scale of 200,000 to the square inch. The total addition to the volume of our population, 
in this brief period, is 2,531,569 from immigration alone, nearly four-tentl^ of which 
has been received from Great Btitain, and almost as much from Germany. Though 
the entire world has made contributions, the States named on the diagram sent all but 
a small fraction of the volume. 

25« Comparative area of the public-land States. 

This diagram illnstrates the superficial area of each State by square figures, drawn 
to a scale of 25,000,000 acres per square inch. The proportion surveyed in 1874 is indi- 
cated by shading, as is also the area actually appropriated up to 1870, the date of the 
last official statement by the Land-Office of the lands sold or otherwise conveyed. 
These figures are as follows : 



Plate VII. 



1874. 



SCALE : 

Quantity of Com 
Valu€ " 

Quantity of Wheat 
Value " 

Quantity of Oats 
Value « 

Quantity of Potatoes- 
Value " " 



/ 



/ 



/ 



»««M 



•*•« 



"-^ 



•v. 



••I 



"**j 



•«*«- 



:n=^ 



650 mil. dols. 



1,300 



u 



bu. 



6o« mil. dols. 
1,200 " bu. 



550 mil. dols. 
i,ioo " bu. 



500 mil. dols. 
1,000 " bu. 



450 mil. dols. 
900 " bu. 



400 mil. dols. 
800 " bu. 



350 mil. dols. 
700 " bu. 



300 mil. dols. 
600 ** bu. 



250 miL dols. 
500 " bu. 

200 mil. dols. 
400 '' bu. 

150 mil. dols. 
300 " bu. 

100 mil. dols. 
200 " bu. 



50 miL dols. 
109 '' bu. 



( 






' '^- J 



Plate VIII. 



Aa 



N.AMERlCfi 
213. 958 




5- 




SWEDEN 

S 3.055 







I 

3 
4- 
5 



5 



9 



ff 



rlands 



d. 
■im 



ral 



12,973 
7,561 

7,370 
6,847 
5»oo5 

i,39<> 




CALIFORNIA. ^^4eo le?* 



MICHIGAN. 




EEPOET OF THE STATISTICIAN, 



SbitOB and Tonttoilea. 



I^£ol^ 



loTBiiitory .. 

Utah Tetrltory ... 
HioneaoU 



IdDEton TWTit 

ID XBnltorf ... 



UlcUnu... 
'WlHondn... 



lUnlMippt .. 
Ohio "'.'. 



1S,M 



prlBled. 



3,s3e,9n 



aa,4«,8M 

35,531,387 
es; 670^960 



26. Aggiegato value of farm aDimals — average from 1S66 to 1874, 
inclaslTe. 

This digram lepresoiits tbeso valnos lui follows: Cattle, (640,214,801; horscn, 
(600,782,233; males, (108,D33,2U3; sn-ine, (I4G,417,(>1I ; sheep, $94,491,942. 

CHABTS. 

27. Estimated production of cereals in 1S75. 



[The third oolDmn Inclodai rata, buloy. ryo. ud boobnheat, oitl 
proportion.) 


eiHutitnUnii by Cir tlio srealai 


Stotes. 


Corn. 


Wheat. 


AUeanuilB. 


Miino 


1,300,000 
1. (550,000 
1,730,000 

ilcsoiooo 
aw, 000 

1,775,000 

SS 

^^5;SSS 

1^ wo; 000 
i^lMlloOO 

si; 566; OOO 

53, SOT, 000 
7,020,000 

31,000,000 

19,448.000 
53.000,000 
10,500,000 

«o;aoo;ooo 

05^000,000 

^Z:Z 

390. 000. OOO 
tS.SDO,000 
7^340 000 

i.»;ooc;ooo 

138,000,000 


^3l.^«0 
3S:500 


BtuhtU. 

5.095,000 








lm\Z 






30,500 

^ 300,000 

15; 300, 000 
745; 000 

5,100,000 
s. 700, 000 

3,03^000 

750;000 

3,050,000 








m 185,000 






»s^Tja,50o 

34,l3e,600 
38,915.000 

mess: 000 




S^;;;;;;;;;;;:;;;-;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; 








i^ 373; 000 




1,190,000 

4S0,tXK) 










3,510000 

13; 130,000 
3.000.000 

n; soo; 000 

16,870,000 
17,380.000 

liE 

13,700,000 
3,400,000 

3J,-800,000 
4,500.000 

3.300,000 


3^343; 000 

BS,4(e.ooo 














53!sSd,000 






387, 960, 000 
70, 815, 000 
4a; 850, OOO 

is*, 910, 000 
160, rro, 000 






^SS^:;;;;:::::::::::::::;;:::::::;;;;;;:;::::;:;- 




m;^ESS 














7, 33), 000 






1,331,000.000 


sua. 130, 000 


3,032,305,300 





50 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



28. Number of farm auimals, (from estimates of 1875.) 



states. 



liaino 

New Hampshire 

VermoDt 

MaasachusetU.. 
Khodo Island . . . 

Connocticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania . . . 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Vlrciiiia 

North Carolina.. 
Soath Carolina . . 

Georgia 

Florida 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Tennessee 

West Virginia.. 

Kentucky 

Ohio 

Michigan 

Indiana 0... 

Illinois 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

Kansas 

Nebraska 

California 

Oregon 

Ne^Kla 

!(he Territories . 

.Total 



Horses. 



79,400 
47,000 
74,500 

104, 700 
14,700 
51,100 

079, 100 

115,700 

585,100 

19,600 

105, 500 
IIM, ^'00 
139, 700 

50, 900 
118,300 

10,700 
104, 400 

89,100 

76,300 
770, 400 
158, 900 
318,000 
111,900 
364, 700 
760, 800 
296, 900 
675, COO 
1,091,700 
35-2, K'O 
17-A 4«;o 
6fc5, fcOO 
581,500 

227, :joo 

67, 900 

209,300 

91,400 

ig, 900 

115, 100 



Mules. 



9, 735, 300 



18,500 
15,000 
26, 300 

4, COO 
11,000 
£9,800 
51,700 
44, 700 
96, 200 

9, ceo 

101.400 

96,100 

79,900 

110,700 

83,400 

101,900 

2,400 
85,000 
26,500 

3,800 

58, 400 

111,100 

5,200 

3,200 

37,000 

126, 200 

20, 700 

4,600 
19, 400 

3,700 

1,100 
2G, 000 



ililch'Cows. 



1, 414, 500 



164. 300 

98,200 
209,500 
140,300 

20, 400 

110,900 

1, 496, 300 

144,900 

837,000 

23, 000 
100, 700 
227, 000 
201,000 
159, 300 
265, 100 

66,800 
168,200 
174,600 

89,600 
500,100 
160,900 
225,700 
125,500 
244, 700 
809, 600 
361,100 
434. 900 
717, JrOO 
474, 000 
233, 500 
621, 800 
438, 200 
235, 700 

59, 700 
363, 800 

80, 900 

9, i>00 

290, 500 



Oxen and 

other cat- 
tle. 



11,085,400 



201,900 
118,000 
130, 500 
120,000 

16,000 
114,100 
663, 200 

83, 000 
70ct, 100 

31,700 
119,300 
:»7, 500 
313, 200 
186, 700 
400, 900 
363, 400 
327, 300 
307,100 
171,900 
2, 343, 700 
261, SOO 
323,700 
23.1, 200 
389, 600 
864, 900 
410,000 
773, 300 
1, 287, 000 
448. 900 
329, 500 
913, 200 
813, 800 
486,200 

80, 900 

1, 075, 000 

137,600 

46,700 
786, 000 



Sheep. 



16, 785, 300 



525,900 

210,400 

490, 500 

76, :joo 

25,300 

92, r,oo 

1, 936, 500 

125. 8C0 

1, 640. 500 

23,600 

141,200 

356,400 

2S3, 900 

142, 700 

371,200 

37,800 

165,900 

151,800 

6^,800 

1,691,400 

192, 400 

341,700 

544,500 

683,600 

4, 540, 600 

3, 450, 000 

1, 2.'i0, 000 

1,311.000 

1, 162, 800 

190,200 

1.063,900 

1, 284, 200 

123, 900 

48. IKX) 

6, 750, 000 

710,500 

20,900 

3, 049, 200 



Hogs. 



35, 935, 300 



58,800 

37,300 

51,600 

75.600 

16,300 

57.900 

568,700 

15:1,000 

875,000 

46,700 

233,500 

589,800 

758,300 

275,900 

1, 300, 700 

175, 4lK) 

755,900 

792,900 

222,600 

1,090,000 

901,200 

1,026,400 

248, 400 

1, 604, 300 
1,590,100 

459, 700 
2, 1.36, 000 

2, 640, 100 
540, 700 
213, 400 

3, 296, 200 

1, 874, 300 

246, 500 

80,900 

363, 300 

181,500 

5,200 

116,500 

25, 720, 800 



REPORT OF THE STATISTICIAN. 



51 



29. Value of horses and cows iii several States; average of the past 
Hve years. 



OS 

o 



r 

o 















'Now Jersey. 

MAMachpsettfl. 

Coonectiont. 

Bhode lalaud. 
( Neyada. 

CaliforDia. 

YGrmonl 

Now York. 

Poniuylvania. 

New Hampsbiro. 
.Maine. 
'Michigan. 

Ofalo. 

* 

Delaware. 
The Territoriea. 
Maryland. 
Nebraaka. 
Ulinoie. 
Indiana. 
Kentncky. 
.W«Ot Virginia. 
Oregon. 
Wisconsin. 
Iowa. 
Minnesota. 
Kansas. 
Virginia. 
Missonri. 
Louisiana. 
Sonth Carolina. 
Mississippi. 
Tennessee. 
Georgia. 
Alabama. 
'Arkansas. 
North Carolina. 
Florida. 
, Teras. 



o 

CD 



o 
o< 

8 



?■ 



8 



t 



S 



Now Jersey. 

Massachusetts. 

Bhode Island. 

Coxmecticut 

Floi:lda. 

'PeonsylTaaia. 

Georgia. 

Sout^ Carolina. 

Nev York. 

Vermont. 

Mississippi 

Maryland. 

i;iOiiisiana. 

Maina. 
S" •{ New Hampshire. 

North Carolina. 

Delaware. 

Aiabamai 

'Michigan. 

Virginia. 

Ohio. 

Tennessee. 

Wisconsin. 

Minnesota. 

Arkansas. 

Nebraska, 
f West Virginia. 

Indiana. 

Kentaoky. 

Iowa. 

niinoia. 
1^ rKansaa. 
^i Missouri. 
^ I The Territories, 
r Nevada. 

Oregon. 

California. 

• ■ 

Texas. 



5 






U1 



s 



o 



QQ 



52 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 



30. Indubtrial education. 



state. 



Alabama 

Arkau^as 

California 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georj^a 

lUinoia 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massaohnsotts. . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

MissouTl 

Kebraska 

Nevada 

Kew Hampshiro 

New. Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina . 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania... 
nhode Island . . . 
South Carolina. . 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

"West Virginia . 
Wisconsin 



Total 






27 

a 



24 

7 

17 

15 

t* 

6 

8 

5 

48 

14 

10 

11 

ID 

4 

14 

11 

30 

5 

11 

6 

12 

13 

2 

16 



7 

a; 

5 
14 



463 



o 
to 



83 

9 

85 

224 

42 



344 
131 

277 

237 
95 

115 
53 

391 

156 
9 
5 

142 
20 
29 
57 
73 
7 

100 
60 

148 
40 
20 
S3 



14 

423 

15 

17 



3,703 



Acres do- 
nated. 



240, 000 
150,000 
150, 000 
180,000 
90,000 
90.000 
270, 000 
480,000 
390,000 
240. 000 
90.000 
330,000 
SlOtUOO 
210,000 
810,000 
360,000 
240, 000 
120,000 
210,000 
330,000 
90,000 
90,000 
150, 000 
210,000 
990,000 
270,000 
630,000 
90,000 
780,000 
120,000 
180,000 
300,000 
180,000 
150,000 
300,000 
150,000 
249,000 



9,510,000 



Acres sold. 



03 a 



240, 000 

150. 000 

150, 000 

180,000 

90,000 

90,000 

£70, 000 

454, 500 

390, 000 

63, 025 

.57, 495 

330,000 

210, 000 

210,000 

210, 000 

300,000 

75,534 

CI. 997 

210,000 

1,571 



150, 000 
210, 000 
580, 800 
270,000 
630,000 
700 
780,000 
120, 000 
180,000 
300,000 
180,000 
150,000 
300,000 
150,000 
187, 597 



7, 996, 329 



200 
]()0 
20O 



Value of 
larin. 



$2, COO 
12, 000 



70 



70 
C2:j 
IB'I 

870 
415 

4;» 

370 



15,000 



2,500 
60,000 
GO, 000 
10,584 

3,000 
130,000 



270 
383 
676 
143 
310 
COO 
480 



163 

99 

200 



320 

36 

600 



116 
260 
800 



369 

25 

234 



13, 500 
37, 500 
10.149 
8 500 
5,100 
60,000 



Value of 
buildings. 



■=-5rTST»T— — 

$100, 000 
5,000 



225, 000 
50,000 



200,000 
200,000 

25, 000 
2:37, 000 

31,000 
120,000 

65,000 



15, on.') 

30, 0(»0 
40,000 



60,000 

103,500 

109, 500 

1,200 

100.000 

75, 000 



112, 000 

5, 000 

50,136 



9,000 
30,000 



39, 740 



50, 0(»0 

75, 000 

560,000 



6,000 
300.000 



35,000 
53,000 



89.000 

80,000 

164, 000 



Value 01 all 
property. 



$327,500 
300,000 
1, 087, 500 
614,000 
139, 000 
100, 134 
346,000 
866,308 
510,000 
968,899 
458,783 
311,000 
258,620 



210. 000 
1, 460, 027 
929, 699 
:J57,250 
229,515 



468,000 



240,000 

292,200 

2,651,998 



904,000 
939,000 
897,589 
56,000 
800,800 
397,190 
291,240 
416, 972 
491,448 
155,000 
359,204 



17,535,475 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES. 

In farther illustration of the statistics of industrial education, a series 
of engravings is presented, wood upon lithographic tint, of the principal 
.college buildings, in connection with special statistics of the institution 
represented. '*' •*" 

31. College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts, Hanover, K H. 

32. Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 

33. Agricultural College, Amherst, Mass. 

34. College of Agriculture, (Cornell University,) Ithaca, N. T. 

35. Agricultural aud Mechanical College, Columbus, Ohio. 

36. Industrial University, Urbana, 111. 

37. "Ashland," homestead of Henry Clay, regents' residence, Ken- 
tucky University, Lexington, Ky. 

38. College of Agriculture, Berkeley, Cal. 

39. Female College, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

40. College of Agriculture, Lincoln, Nebr. 

41. Industrial University, Fayetteville, Ark. 

42. College of Agriculture, Dahlonega, Ga. 

43. Agricultural and Normal Institute, Hampton, Va. 

Accompanying the exhibit of charts of statistics of farm animals are 
black and tint lithographs of animals deemed worthy to represent the 
principal breeds as types, with grades of some of the principal breeds, 
to show the effect of the cross upon common stock. 
• The second is the famous cow that brought, at auction, $40,600^ the 
last, the cow that gave 100 pounds of milk, daily, for thirty days. 



REPOKT OP THE STATISTICIAN. 63 

44. Shorthorn bull, (Bates,) Duke of Airdrie, (12,730.) 

45. Shorthorn cow, (Bates,) Duchess of Geneva. 

46. Shorthorn bull, (Booth,) Breastplate, (11,431.) 

47. Shorthorn grade steer. 

48. Devon bull, Huron. 

49. Jersey bull, King of Prairie. 

50. Dutch cow, Infrau. 

51. Ayrshire grade, " Old Creamer." 

52. Centennial Album of Agricultural Statistics, collecting in compact 
form all the above exhibits, except the large maps and charts. 

THE TOBACCO CEOP. 

A county thirty miles square probably contains an area equal to the 
present tobacco-field of the United States. \yTiile tobacco is grown in 
every State, only about one county in ten produces enough to make any 
account of in the commerce of tobacco-growing. There are a few more 
than two hundred counties that exceed the low limit of 100,000 pounds. 

Kentucky is now the first State in production, followed by Virginia, 
Missouri, Tennessee, Maryland, North Carolina, and Ohio. In these 
States t)ie production is very unequal in the diit'erent localities. 

The crop of 1874 was exceedingly poor ; it was accorded a " failure,'^ 
scarcely half a crop being obtained. The year 1875 witnessed a com- 
parative recovery, though the aggregate was not large. The estimate 
of this division, as reported elsewhere, is 379,347,000 pounds, grown on 
559,049 acres, (875 square miles,) and valued in home markets at 
$30,342,600. The increase in product over 1874 is quite general, and in 
many cases very large. In Virginia, Pittsylvania County returns 
6,000,000 pounds against 4,200,000 last year, and Mecklenburgh 4,000,000 
instead of 2,000,000. Several of the best tobacco counties in North 
Carolina report a large increase. Tennessee came nearer a total failure 
in 1874 than any other State, making the figures for 1875 appear very 
conspicuous. In Kentucky and Missouri there is also a large increase. 

The Connecticut Eiver crop in New Hampshire matured well, under 
tlie influence of a warm autumn, but suffered locally from frosts. The 
Hampden County (Massachusetts) yield might be considered average 
in quality, with pernaps a smaller percentage than usual of prime wrap- 
per-leaf, the result of the ravages of the cut- worm at the time of sotting. 
Hartford, the center of the Connecticut supply, made only a medium 
quality, resulting from unfavorable weather lor growing and curing. 
The crop of the Litchfield region is of low quality, from late setting and 
subsequent drought. The New York crop is light. 

In York, Pennsylvania, the leaf is large in size and of fiuo texture, 
though much of it is subject to a blemish caused by.iutervals of hot sun- 
shine in cloudy weather, causing the leaf to "fox." The crop is larger 
and finer than that of 1874. Except the " foxy" portion, it is equal to 
the stock of 1873, the finest ever produced in that region. Some of it 
was injured by being stripped in too damp a condition, making it too 
tender for wrappers. The price varies from 4 to 20 cents, the average 
being placed at 8 cents. The estimate for Lancaster County, 13,884,000 
pounds, grown on 9,280 acres, shows that the interest is not declining 
in the heart of Pennsylvania. The crop is worth about 62,500,000. 

The quality of the tobacco of Calvert, Maryland, is decidedly better 
than yiat of the previous crop. Seasonable rains caused luxuriant 
growtu and a fine texture of leaf. Good weather throughout the 
curing process produced a larger proportion of yellow and red quail- 



54 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

ties. The same caases, however, gave an unusnal proportion of 
" ground-leaf,'' so that fully one-sixth of the crop went to market in 
this form, and sold at very low prices. In Charles the quality is 
generally good, the leaf fine and silky, generally bright, but very light 
from excess of rain in Aygust, being forced up too rapidly to acquire 
body and weight. In Howard the season for planting and growth was 
propitious; in the later season growth was too rapid, producing a 
weaker leaf than usual. The Montgomery yield was of average quality. 

The quality in Prince George's County is above average, the principal 
defect being the " firing'^ of the ground-leaves from excessive rains. In 
some cases the ground-leaves were a third of the crop, selling ^n the fall 
at 3 to 9 cents per pound. In Saint Mary's a good quality was obtained, 
a little light in proportion to bulk. The" Frederick crop was an average 
in quality. 

A large increase of area was made in Albemarle, Virginia, in conse« 
quence of the small crop and high prices of 1874, which was reduced 
somewhat by frost in April. The season was subsequently favorable 
to leaf-growth, and a large crop was obtained of light and thin tobacco, 
deficient in the essentials of a " good, heavy, rich article." A large pro- 
portion of the crop of Botetourt is characterized as nondescript, due to 
several causes: 1st, early summer drought; 2d, the ripening andiiousing 
season too wet; 3d, the colored people entered more largely intokobacco 
growing last year than ever before in this county, many of them not 
having suitable land, others without proper facilities to cidtivate a crop, 
and others too indolent to give it that prompt and careful attention 
which is necessary to secure a good article. Our Brunswick correspond- 
ent is enthusiastic over the tobacco-lands of his vicinity, claiming the 
best shipping-tobacco in the United States — light-clay surface on red- 
clay subsoil. In Buckingham a wet summer reduced the average quality. 
In Campbell injury was caused by early frost. In Caroline a fair quality 
was obtained, yet a large portion of the crop went to market in too damp 
a condition. The prevalent cause of injury, too much rain in the grow- 
ing-season, rendered the Charlotte crop rather light. A medium grade 
was reached in Chesterfield ; the best on good lands, well manured and 
thoroughly cultivated ; the poorest injured by wet weather and green 
cutting. Early frosts in Floyd did not reduce the average of quality 
below medium. The heavier soils of Fluvanna, the river-bottoms, and 
heavy clays yielded a coarse article; the light soils produced a better 
gprade. A large increase of product was realized. The quality of the 
product of Franklin was reduced in consequence of the planting and 
poor cultivation, in many instances. It was of light and chaffy quality 
in Goochland, from excess of wet weather, and light, also, in Hanover. 
An unusually favorable season for ripening and curing made an excellent 
crop in Henry. In Lunenburgh the weather was unfavorable in August 
and also in December and January, and there was a lack of suitable 
barns and curing-houses for protection from the weather. There is a 
popular opinion here that the use of commercial fertilizers reduces the 
quality. The great number of small patches without facilities for curing 
causes a reduction of the average. An excellent quality was obtained in 
Mecklenburgh, especially on high lands, the lower situations being some- 
what too wet in August. The weather was too wet in Montgomery and 
too dry in i^ottoway. In Prince Edward the wet weather, at the usual 
period for cutting, continued, and made it necessary to cut much of it 
before full maturity. The quality of Danville tobacco is not quite up to 
the standard of last year, but is medium and the color good. In Pow- 
hatan the leaf was light from the excess of summer rains. Planters 



REPORT OP THE STATISTICIAN. 65 

hero generally concede that the crop of 1875 is from Hvq to ton times as 
great as in 1874, and that bat for excessive rains it would have been a 
third larger still. 

The efi'ect of excessive moistnre is seen very generally in the crop of 
North Carolina^ which has more light and chaffy material in it than 
usual. This is specially noticed in Person, Alamance, Caswell, Gran- 
ville, Orange, Stokes, Forsyth, and Surry. It is about an average in 
Guilford. Still there is some rich, waxy stock of good color; a fair pro- 
portion of a comparatively bright article, but little that is strictly fine, 
yellow tobacco. In some cases tobacco wanting in wax has a desirable 
color. In Oaswell there was considerable injury from the '' spot^' and 
," sore-shin," (rotting of the stock near the surface of the ground,) and 
less than half a crop was produced. Our correspondent in Alamance 
County regards the use of flues of brick or stone, covered with sheet- 
iron and making a circuit through the shed or barn, as less dangerous 
than the method of curing by coal. Wood is supplied from the outside, 
and the heat can easily be regulated. Sun-coring is deemed best for 
chewing-tobacco. 

The crop of Cuban tobacco grown in Gadsden County, Florida, is in- 
creasing in quantity. In 1870 the census reported 118,729 pounds. Last 
(spring our reporter returned 200,000, and this spring 350,000 poundsT 
for the crop of 1875, grown on 450 acres, an enlargement of 50 per cent, 
in the area planted. The quality is the best of any crop since 1865, 
attributed to the fact that experienced planters have resumed its culti- 
vation. It is claimed that the test of forty years' experience proves that 
deterioration is not produced in that soil and that climate, and the 
opinion is expressed that Florida tobacco should supersede the Cuban in 
cigars. 

The effect of wet weather is also seen in Tennessee in reducing the 
quality of this product ; and a further reason adduced is the inexperience 
of a multitude of beginners in the business. There is evident increase 
of care in handling. The necessity is felt of stamping or rolling and 
" brushing ^ heavily the seed-bed after seeding, to secure the retention 
of moisture during the period of March and April winds. 

Injury to quality has been very general in Kentucky, the plants being 
submerged in June and July, and subsequently exposed to great heat, 
parching and cracking the earth, and <^ firing'' the leaf, and resulting in 
an immature crop, deficient in gum and chaffy in texture. In some sec- 
tions there was too much rain in August. There is not so much loss in 
the color as in other qualities. There is much tobacco that is ^^frenched." 
Bad quality is attributed to bad handling, in Fulton Counfy. The leaf 
is short and the color dark in Pendleton. Medium or good quality is 
reported in Oldham, Metcalfe, and Livingston. Cutting and manufac- 
turing is reported bright in Muhlenburgh County. 

Wet weather had its influence in Ohio, and early frost caught a por- 
tion of it in immature condition. Along the Ohio Eiver considerable 
areas were entirely destroyed by floods, and in the interior many fields 
were similarly destroyed. The color, as well as the texture of the leaf, 
suffered injury quite generally. The Warren County crop is represent- 
ed as a total failure. In Noble, new land products are fine. A leaf of 
fair quality, though light, is reported in Morgan. In Adams County 
that grown on rolling land is fine, but the product of level lands is light 
and trashy. In Vinton there was much rain in the early part of the sea- 
son; the later months were very favorable, the plant ripened well, the 
leaf was thick and retained its gum, and the crop is claimed to be the 
best ever raised there. 



56 



REPORT OF THE nCHSBMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



The crop of Iiidmna sufCered from caases afTecting tobacco elsewhere. 
*^Frenching'' wasjsrery commoD^and the cutting was necessarily done 
in many instances before maturity, greatly deteriorating the quality. 

Quality is also lower in Illinois. In some localities increased atten- 
tion has been paid to this crop, and the area greatly enlarged — in party 
by new-comers from the Southern States. 

A marked increase in the area planted in Missouri is indicated, as the 
tables will show. There is much complaint of injury by wet weather 
and subsequent heat, and frequent mention of ^^ frenching,'' but less 
than in the States of the Ohio Eiver. Inexperience in housing and cur- 
ing has effected quality in Saint Charles, and the army-worm wrought 
some injury. Late planting, after the disappearance of grasshoppers, 
left the crop immature at the season for cutting in Eay County. In 
Franklin the injury was only from drought and frost. In Chariton, 
quality is generally good| also, in Randolph a favorable season was en- 
joyed; and the product of Howard was very good. In Howard County 
the season was favorable for planting; a large portion of the crop was 
set early; it was remarkable throughout the growing period: no annoy- 
ance by worms, no "ragged edges;" but little was frosted. The autumn 
was dry, and very favorable for taking care of the crop. These condi- 
tions caused quantity, quality, and color to be remarkably good. The 
season was so favorable that some portions of the crop were cured out- 
doors for want of house-room. 

The following census of the principal tobacco-yielding counties, for 
1875, will show where the crop is mainly produced. About one-fourth 
of the tobacco district is reported : 



"mmm 



States and oonntiea. 



PKNNSTLVAiaA. 

York 

LaDcaater 

Total 

MABTLAKD. 

Calvert 

Charles 

Howard. .*. 

HoDtgomeiy 

Prince George's 

Saint Mary's 

Frederick 

Total 

vinaniiA. 

Albemarle 

Bedford 

Botetourt 

Brunswick 

Bnckinffham 

Campbell 

Caroline 

Charlotte 

Chesterfield 

Dinwiddle 

Floyd 

Fluvanna 

Franklin 

Hanover 

Honry 

Lnnonburgh .' 





1 


i 


^6 




i 


, estima 
1875. 


r of ac 
1875. 


'I. 




«T-I 


BO ^ 


« d 


C*'^ 




•a 


•g^ 




S 


s 


§ 


§ 


5 


"C 


3 


^ 


Ph 


}Z5 




> 








Oenti. 




527,808 


1,275,000 


650 


9 


1114,750 


2,692,584 


13,-884, 000 


9,256 


5.5 


763,620 


3,220,392 


15,159,000 


10, 106 


5.7 


878, 370 


3.158,200 


3,350,000 


5,550 


7.5 


251,250 
157,500 


8,102,739 


2, 100, two 


3,000 


7.5 


182,980 


150,000 


250 


10 


15,000 


630,000 


800,000 


1,000 


12 


96,000 


3,665,054 


4,800,000 


7,500 


9 


432,000 


2, 522, 917 


3,000,000 


4,000 


8 


240, 000 


274,369 


332,000 














12,536,259 


14.532,000 


21,300 


&3 


1, 191, 750 


1,781,619 


3,000,000 


4,500 


7 


210,000 


1, 956, 157 


3,800,000 


5,066 


8 


304,000 


196,459 


650/1)00 


1,200 


6 


39.000 


1,121,480 


2, 592, 190 


2,500 


8 


201, 775 


809,937 


1,255,580 


2,550 


7 


87,890 


1, 761, 901 


1, 813, 800 


2,250 


7 


126,966 


417, 848 


400,000 


500 


6 


24,000 


1.964.736 


1, 600, 000 
900.000 




8 


128,000 


194,510 


500 


9 


18»000 


844,504 


495,000 


1,320 


8 


39,000 


157, 467 


360,000 


900 


12 


43,200 


894, 0£t 


1, 200, 000 


1,200 


10 


120,000 


1, 696, 549 


1,900,000 


4,000 


9 


171,000 


439,434 


329,574 


450 


6 


19.774 


1,129,617 


30,000,000 


5,000 


11 


330,000 


963,673 


775,000 


2,000 


G.5 


50,375 



REPORT OP THE STATISTICIAN. 



57 



States and counties. 



ViRGiNU— Continued. 

Mecklenburgh 

Mont^moiy 

Nottoway , 

Patrick 

Powhatan 

Pittsylvania 

Prince Edward , 

QoochUuad 

Total , 

KOBTn CAROLINA. 

Alamance 

Caswell , 

Fonytli 

GranTiUe 

Orange , , 

Person 

Stokes 

Guilford 

Suxry 

Total 

FLOBIDA. 

Gadsden 

KENTUCKY. 

Adair 

ADen , 

Ballard 

Boone 

Bracken 

Breokinridge , 

Callaway , 

Carroll 

Clinton 

Cumberland 

Daviess 

Edmonson 

Pulton - 

Gallatin 

Grayson 

Greon 

Harrison , 

Hart , 

Henry 

Hopldns , 

Kenton , 

Livingston , 

Logjeai. , 

Marion 

Marshall 

McLean ". 

Monroe: , 

Muhlenburgh 

Owen , 

Pendleton , 

Shelby 

Simpson , 

Taylor 

TJmon..... 

Flemine.... 

Metealre 

Oldham 

Meade 

Total 

TESITESBEE. 

Benton 

Cheatham 

Dickson 

Jackson 

Macon 



'S 




OS 

i 






3 


OS 







BO 

k 

«f-i 

1 


(SCO 

Or-I 

§ 


ca 

^.2 


a. 


i 

"3 


fit 


P^ 


^ 


£ 


> 








Cents. 




2, 1G6, 628 


4,000.000 


7,000 


6 


1240,000 


204, 747 


800,000 


1,230 


18 


144,000 


653,290 


914, 614 


1,400 


6 


54,876 


323,886 


1,001,658 


1,178 


10 


100,165 


541,430 


790,000 


700 


11 


86,900 


4,282,511 


6,000,000 


14,000 


10.5 


630,000 


060,700 


1,200,000 


2,400 


7.5 


90,000 


405,215 


726,000 


726 


6 


43,560 


25,868,327 


38, 733, 416 


62,500 


a5 


3,303,081 


155,570 


640, 0(A) 


1,600 


12 


76,800 


2,262,053 


1.750,000 


3. 500 


10 


175,000 


238,262 


1,000,000 


2,000 


10 


100,000 


2,134,228 


2,200,000 


4,400 


10 


220.t)00 


530,442 


1,005,000 


2,010 


9 


90,450 


1, 287, 150 


1,500.000 


3,080 


10 


150,000 


844,145 


900,000 


1,600 


8 


72,000 


177,782 


143,412 


370 


8 


11,472 


254,286 


747,000 


2,450 


8.5 


63, 495 


7, 823, 918 


9,885,412 


21, 010 


9.7 


959,217 


118,799 


350,000 


450 










1,231,665 


1,500,000 


3,000 


4 


60,000 


747,489 


750,000 


1,000 


6 


45,000 


2,863,455 


2,343,600 


3,255 


8i 


193,473 


279, 740 


560,000 


600 


6 


33,600 


4, 188. 039 


4,000,000 


6,666 


7 


280,000 


3,338,471 


3,250,000 


6.500 


7.5 


243,750 


1,924,502 


2,000,000 


2,500 


7 


140,000 


669, 875 


700,000 


850 


8 


56,000 


» 117,238 


225,000 


425 


6 


13,500 


1, 304, 366 


900,000 


1.650 


7 


63,£ib0 


6,273,067 


8,500,000 




7 


595; 000 
10,500 


414, 840 


150,000 


300 


7 


383,636 


500,000 


666 


n 


42.500 


157, 050 


225,000 


375 


16,313 


859,760 


1, 300, 000 


3,222 


5 


65.000 


1, 375, 001 


2, 000, 000 


2,750 


6.5 


130,000 


281, 704 


275, 000 


550 


9 


24,760 


2,315,212 


1, 120, 000 


1,600 


7 


78,400 


1, 375, 364 


800,000 


900 


7 


56,000 


3, 012, 053 


5, 000, 000 


8,333 


G 


300,000 


360,983 


500,000 


750 


7 


35,000 


1, 086, 578 


500,000 


250 


5 


25,000 


2, 707, 571 


4,656,000 


11,640 


Ci 


314.280 


132,293 


40,000 


100 


6 


2,400 


1, 416, 282 


1, 500. 000 


3.000 


6 


90,000 


2,262.037 


1,750,000 


8,750 


6^ 


113,750 


074,696 


600,000 


1.000 


5 


30.000 


1, 821, 988 


4,000,000 


6,000 


7 


280,000 


2,890,670 


3, 650, 000 u 
1,600,000^ 


7.300 


6 


219.000 


1, 651, 593 


2,500 


8 


128,000 


240,435 


145.000 


180 


7 


10,150 


1, 072, 401 


2,000,000 ' 


3,600 


6 


120,000 


1,209,830 


1.202,000 ! 


3,000 


4.5 


54.090 


2, 096, 260 


4,000,000 1 


8,000 


n 


290,000 


305, 954 


600,000 ! 


750 


7.5 


45,000 


1,310,381 


800,000 


500 


5 


40.000 


301,285 


400,000 


500 


5 


20,000 


539,000 


650,000 


100 


6 


39,000 


55,192,854 


64,691.600 


103, 062 


6.6 
6 


4, 302; 329 


412, 435 


800,000 


1,800 


48,000 


419,^5 


600,000 


1,000 


8 


48,000 


462,130 


750,000 


L.-iOO 


7.5 


50,250 


713, 578 


1,500,000 


3,000 


w. .J 


82,500 


950,768 


600,000 


750 


6 


36,000 



58 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 



StatcA and coantica 



Tens ESSEB— Continued. 



Ikfontgomery 
llobertson . . . 

Smith 

Samner 

pQtnam 

Wilaon 

'Weakley — 



Total 



Cabell.... 
KauawLa. 
Meroer... 
Konroe... 



WIST VIBGIXIA. 



Total. 



OHIO. 

Adams 

Belmont 

Brown 

Greene 

Qaemsey 

Monroe 

Montgomery 

Morgan 

Noble 

Preble 

Vinton , 

Wanen, (total failare) ... 



Total. 



Pike .... 

Bpenoer. 
Warrick 



DCDIAXA. 



Total. 



Hamilton... 
Johnson — 
Pnlaaki.... 

Saline 

White 

WilUamson. 
Xdwards... 



nxiNois. 



Total. 



Dane 
Book. 



WISCONSIN. 



Total. 



MISSOURI. 



Boone 

Chariton 

Franklin 

Howard 

Lincoln 

Montgomery . 

Oeage 

Randolph 

Raj 

Saint Charles. 

Saline 

Stoddard 

"Webster 



Total. 



o 

IB 

P 
« 

a 
o 



o 
« r 

o 

p. 



I 



so 
C3 

<v a 

B 

'A 




4, ssn, 

2, 103. 

2, 2r.o, 

90f>, 
131. 
332, 



378 
3-22 
202 
r)(58 

«:»c 

UOl 
590 



c, noo, 000 

2, 700, OCO 

3, CIO, COO 

337, 500 

KJo. 500 

iX)0,000 

3, 003, COO 



.^ 400 

4, M.') 

730 

20C 



Cents. 

ao 



5 

5.5 
7 
5. 5 



5, 148 ; 7. 5 



10,141,993 1 21,79-J,600 



13.-5. 
412, 

in. 

123, 



410 
'4f)9 

42r> 

221 



100, 000 
30C. 250 
140,000 
100,000 



24, 099 7. 2 



150 
245 ! 12 
185 . J2 
475 I 10 



788,529 



706,250 



1,055 ' 10.5 



102,473 

1, 480, 473 

2, C87, 743 

277,360 

474, 178 

2, 845. 525 

3, 9C3. IK) 

486, 125 

2, 304, 557 

330,987 

110, 739 



15, 06?, 348 



1, 119, 356 
3, 019, 970 
3, 611, 775 



7,751,101 



471, 860 
307, 013 
157, 000 

1,155,941 
135,045 

1,152,569 
133. 150 



3, 512, 598 



229,503 



o 
1, 

1, 



150,000 
039,518 
5.j0, OCO 
200,000 
450, 000 
400,000 
050,000 
900, 000 
500, 000 
290, 000 
144,000 



e, 273, 518 



240 

744 

056 

250 

800 

4,000 

3,200 

1.200 

1,500 

400 

144 



13 
5.5 
9 

4.5 
5.5 
5.5 



5i 
5.5 

5 



13,134 I 5 6 



1, 000, 000 
3,500,000 ' 
4, 000, 000 



1,500 

10,000 

8.000 



4.5 

6 

5 



8,500,000 



19, 500 5. 3 



600,000 

106,000 

00,000 

2,000,000 

150,000 
2, 400, 000 

120, 000 



5, 526, 000 



1,000 
280 
ISO 

4,000 
450 

4,800 
160 



5.5 

5 

8 

H 
5 

5$ 



10, 810 5. 6 



n 



645,508 j 2.210,000 



875,076 I 2,210,000 



149, 
2,993, 
783, 
7/^8, 
891, 
203, 
119, 
873, 
190, 
140, 
21.'), 
118, 
113, 



634 
9^1 
270 
1?2 
7-J7 
170 
617 
776 
355 
751 
475 
534 
102 



7, 017, .'■jb7 



1. .'iOO. 000 
12, 000, 000 

403, Ol'O 

1, 500, 000 

700, 000 

187, 500 

250, 000 

4, .''.00, 000 

bO. O'K) 

96. 000 

2. ,''>00, 000 
210, 000 
500, 009 



24, 4^6, 500 



1,929 
2,210 



4, 139 



2,145 

10, 000 

590 

2, .WO 

l,2«i() 
2(JS 
27.) 

5, COO 
133 
100 

2, 5ii0 
'r)0 



4 

6 



iC, 160 



5. 5 

9 

5 
10 
101 
10 

51 
34 

fi 

5 
10 






$578,500 

216,000 

181,800 

18,562 

11,585 

33,000 

270,270 



1, 580, 467 



5,000 
36,750 
16,800 
16,000 



74, 550 



18,000 
35, 173 
49,500 

9,000 
24,750 
132,000 
52,500 
47,250 
82,500 
12,335 

7,200 



470, 196 



45,000 
210,000 
200,000 



455,000 



33,000 
9.800 
4,800 

110,000 
7,500 

138.000 



303,100 



13'J,600 



132,600 



82,500 

COO. 000 

41,670 

7.'). COO 

70. 000 

19. 218 

2.'). 000 

2:U), 250 

2,800 

7.680 

137, ,500 

10,500 

50,000 



5.7 I 1,416,118 



*Almo8t a failare. 



REPORT OP THE STATISTICIAN. 



59 



FLOUR AND GEAIN MOVEMENTS. 

EXPORT TRADE. 

Daring tlio fiscal year ending June 30, 1875, our foreign exports of 
cereals and their immediate manufactures declined about 25 per cent, 
in quantity and 30 per cent, in aggregate value from the enormous fig- 
ures of 1874. Compared with 1873, however, the aggregates of 1875 
show an advance of 11 per cent, in quantity and 13 per cent, in declared 
value. The great increase in the exports of 1874 was caused by failures 
of European wheat-crops for two or three previous years. But the crop 
of 1874, in the British Islands and on the Continent, was of unusual 
abundance, greatly narrowing the demand for American wheat. This 
was shown by a decline in our exports almost from the beginning of the 
Aacal year of 1875. Our barley export declined over 70 per cent, in 
both quantity and value ; com and corn-meal, 17 per cent, in quantity 
and 13 per cent, in value ; wheat and wheat-flour, 20 per cent, in quan- 
tity and 36 per cent, in value ; oats, 38 per cent, in quantity and 24 per 
cent, in value ; rye and rye-flour, about 87 per cent, in both quantity 
and value. Every one of our cereals, except those inconsiderable articles 
classed as ^' other small grain and pulse " in the official reports, shows a 
greater or less decline. Bice, which is generally classed among bread- 
stufiGs, showed an export of 276,844 pounds, worth $19,806, in 1875, 
against 558,922 pounds, worth $27,075, in 1874, a reduction of 50 per 
cent, in quantity and over 26 per cent, in value. Bread and biscuit 
show a slight increase in quantity and about an equal decrease in value. 
Other preparations of breadstufEs for food show a small increase in value. 

The following table, compiled from official reports of the Treasury, 
shows the comparative export of our leading cereals, with their imme- 
diate manufactures, during the twelve fiscal years ending June 30, 1875: 



1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1971 
ISU. 
1873 
1874 
1875. 



QUAjmnsfl. 



o 



3, 537, 347 
9,604,543 
8,183,050 
1, 300, 106 
8,076,423 
8,431,673 
3. 463, 333 
3, 653, 841 
2, 514, 535 
8,568,086 
4, 094, 094 
3, 951, 086 



4i 



ButhOi. 

83, 681, 713 

9, 937, 199 

5,579,103 

6, 146, 411 

15,*940, 899 

17, 557, 836 

36, 564, 115 

34. 304, 906 

86, 483, 080 

39, 804, 985 

71, 039. 938 

D3, 047, 175 



w 



JButfuit. 
41, 468, 447 
82,959,869 
16, 494, 353 
12, 646, 941 
86, 323, 014 
89, 087, 201 
53. 900, 780 
52,574,111 
38, 995, 755 
52,014,715 
91,510.408 
72, 602, 605 



i 
6 



BiuhOs. 

4, 096, 684 

8, 812, 788 

13, 516, 651 

14. 889, 82:j 

11, 147, 490 

7, 047, 197 

1, 393, 115 

9, 826, \m 

39. 491, 050 

36, 541, 930 

34. 434, GOG 

88, 858, 420 



73 

a 

B 

t 

B 

o 
O 



Barreli. 
262, 357 
199.419 

2:n, 235 

2h4, 5i»<l 
330, 5()8 
301), 8<J7 
187,093 
211, Hll 

403. m 

3b7, «07 
291,051 



a 

P 
e8 



e 

8 



Btuhdi. 

5, 156, 118 

3, 610, 403 

14, 465, 591 

16,026.947 

12, 493, 583 

8. 286, 675 

2, 140, 487 

10, 673, 553 

40. 727, 010 

40, 154, 374 

35, 985, 834 

3C. 025, 036 



60 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



Tears. 



1864. 
1865. 
1866. 
1867, 
1868. 
1860. 
1870. 
1871, 
1878. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 



QUAKT1T1E& 



i 



StuJuU. 
305, 755 
318, 117 

1,S45,058 
825,895 
1S2,554 
481,871 
121,517 
147, 572 
362,975 
714, 072 
812,873 

504, no 



I? 



Busheli. 

66,482 
44,283 



9,810 

59,077 

255,490 

340,093 

86,891 

482,-410 

320,399 

91,078 



k 



BiuhOg. 
154,960 
132; 459 
417,127 
147,353 
501, d49 
49,501 
157,606 
49,674 
794,967 
562,021 

1,564,484 
207,100 



o 



Barrelt. 

6,999 

3,935 

13,304 

14,603 

10,592 

7,228 

6,974 

6,250 

6,287 

8.288 

59,820 

9,993 



o 

SI 



Buthdt. 
189,955 
152, 134 
463,647 
220,368 
554,309 
85,368 
192,476 
80,924 
826,403 
603,461 

1,863,564 
257,065 



S 

I 



Buihds. 
47, 186, 751 
27,084,797 
32,689,247 
29,720,151 
39,503.209 
38,600.192 
56,610,750 
63.816.253 
80,899,033 
93,969,032 
130, 493, 098 
103, 660, 554 



The preponderance of wheat in the above annual exports is especially 
remarkable. Inclnding flour reduced to its equivalent, it constituted the 
major part of the export of every year except 1867 and 1872. In 
1870, all other grains amounted to less than 5 per cent of the aggregate 
export. In 1874, the wheat and flour exports amounted to ninety-one 
and a half million bushels, or nearly three-fourths of the aggregate for 
the year. The wheat export has steadily increased within the last half 
decade. The exports of com have also risen to importance Tfithin the 
last few years. In 1872, corn and corn-meal constituted half the entire 
cereal export; being nearly 2,000,000 bushels greater than that of wheat. 
During the last five years, there has been an increasing demand for 
corn-meal for shipment abroad. Oats never entered largely into our 
foreign trade ; its maximum export was about a million and a quarter 
of bushels in 1866, and its minimum but one-tenth of that amount in 
1870. Barley and rye also show great fluctuations ; the latter rose from 
half a million bushels in 1873 to a million and a half in 1874, but fell to a 
quarter million in 1875. 

The exports of wheat and flour during the fiscal year 1864 amounted 
to nearly 24 per cent, of the estimated crop of the previous calendar 
year; in 1865, to 14.3 per cent.; in 1866, to 11.1 per cent.; in 1867, to 
8.32 per cent. ; in 1868, to 12.23 per cent; in 1869, to 13.72 per cent; in 
1870, to 20.72 per cent ; in 1871, to 22.28 per cent.; in 1872, to 16.82 per 
cent. ; in 1873, to 20.8 per cent. ; in 1874, to 32.54 per cent ; in 1875, to 
23.23 per cent. The proportion of flour to the whole wheat export had 
a wide range of variation. During 1864, the first year embraced in the 
above table, fiour constituted 42.89 per vent in quantity and 44.89 per 
cent, in value; it rose to the maximum, 66.18 per cent in quantity and 
70.11 per cent in value, in 1866; in 1874, it had fallen to 22.37 per cent 
in quantity and 22.39 per cent in value, but rose in 1875 to 27.13 pep 
cent in quantity and 28.46 per cent, in value. With some fluctuations 
there has been a general decline in the proportion of flour to wheat and 
flour exports during the last nine years. The cause of this is stated to 
be in the increased demand for raw material by British millers as the 
basis of an enlarged home manufacture. The average export value of 
flour ranged from $5.64 per barrel in 1864 to $10.06 per barrel in 1869; 
the latter half of the twelve years indicating a permanent dedine. The 
average value of raw wheat, with some fluctuations, fell from $1.95 per 
bushel in 1865, its maximum, to $1.12J in 1875, its minimum. Flour 



REPORT OF THE STATISTICIAN. 61 

and wheat averaged together ranged from $2.03 per bushel in 1865 to 
81.14 in 1875. 

Of corn and com-meal, the export during the fiscal year of 1864 
amounted to 1.3 per cent, of the estimated crop of the previous calendar 
yearj in 1865, to 0.7 per cent.; in 1866, to 2.5 per cent.; in 1867, to 2 
l>er cent.; in 1868, to U per cent.; in 1869, to 0.9 per cent; in 1870, to 
0.3 per cent. ; in 1871, to 1 per cent.; in 1872, to 3.6 per cent.; in 1873, 
to 3.7 per cent.; in 1874, to 3.0 per cent.; in 1875, to 3.5 per cent. The 
proportion of meal to the entire corn export has fluctuated; the maxi- 
mum, 34.9 per cent, in quantity and 42.1 per cent, in value, was in 
1870; the minimum, 3.3 per cent, in quantity and 4.8 per cent, in value, 
was in 1872; in 1875, it was but little above the minimum, being 3.8 
per cent, in quantity and 5 per cent, in value. This declining propor- 
tion results less from a falling-off in barrels of meal than from an increase 
in bushels of grain during the last five years. The average export value 
of the raw grain ranged from $1.30.8 per bushel in 1865 to $0.61.7 in 
1873; corn-meal varied fi'ora $7.47.1 per barrel in 1865 to $3.65.8 in 
1873; corn and meal together were highest ($1.43 per bushel) in 1864 
and lowest ($0.62.9 per bushel) in 1873. There was a partial reaction 
toward higher prices within the last ten fiscal years. 

In 1865 only did the export of oats reach half of 1 per cent*, of the pre- 
vious crop. The greatest average value ($0.87.3 per bushel) was in 
1863 and the smallest ($0.37.3) in 1874. The exports of barley range 
somewhat higher, somewhat exceeding 1 per cent, in 1870 ; but in most 
cases they fell below half of 1 per cent. 

The exports of rye, including rye-flour, present small bat fluctuating 
proportions of the previous crops, ranging from 0.4 per cent, in 1869 to 
12.33 per cent, in 1874. The percentage of flour to the whole rye ex- 
port was greatest in quantity (38 per cent.) in 1871 and greatest in 
value (49.67 per cent.) in 1869; the minimum (3.8 per cent, in quan- 
tity and 4.66 per cent in value) was in 1872. The average export 
value of rye-flour was greatest ($8.58.6 per barrel) in 1868 and least 
($5.12.2) in 1866; unmanufactured grain ranged from $1.66.9 per bushel 
in 1868 to $0.83 in 1873; the average export value of rye and rye-flour 
combined varied between $1.00.5 per bushel in 1872 and $1.29.2 in 1866. 

The export of barley reached IJ per cent, of the previous crop in the 
fiscal year of 1872, and was as low as 0.04 per cent, in 1867 and 1863 ; it 
lias mostly been below half of 1 per cent. During the fiscal years 1866 
and 1867, the export was too small for special mention. The average 
export value ranged from $1.30.3 per bushel in 1865 to $0.55 in 1870. 

DOMESTIC TRADE. 

Daring the calendar year 1875 our domestic trade in breadstuffs felt 
seriously the depression in the export trade. The receipts of flour and 
grain fell off 14,516,539 bushels at New York; 1,905,771, at Baltimore: 
1,307,490, at Cincinnati; 14,544,712, at Chicago; and 3,403,684, at Saint 
Louis. This general decline is attributed partly to the diminished for- 
eign demand, partly to our short wheat crop, and partly to the general 
depression in business that has subsisted ever since the monetary crisis 
of 1873. The depression in the eastward movement appears to have 
spent^ts force in the earlier part of the year. The annual report of the 
New York Produce Exchange states the decline of receipts of raw grain 
during the first nine months of 1875 at 19,118,513, compared with the 
same period of .1874; at the close of the year, the deficit had been re- 
duced 6,387,136 bushels, showing an increased movement during the 



62 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

last three months. Montreal during the nine months declined 646,373 
bushels, and the five other leading sea-ports — Portland, Boston, Phila- 
delphia, Baltimore, and New Orleans — ^increased 3,343,996 bushels, mak- 
ing the net decrease of the seven ports 16,421,503 bushels. During the 
same period, the receipts of the lake ports fell from 135,539,026 bushels 
to 107,078,154 bushels; a loss of 28,460,872, or nearly double the net 
decrease of the seven Atlantic ports. 

These facts show a marked change in the lines of transit from the 
West to the Atlantic seaboard. The facilities for handling grain at the 
lake ports have been considerably improved, and the steam- tonnage in- 
creased. In 1874, the increasing competition between rail and water 
routes caused the legislature of New York to reduce one-third the tolls 
upon the canals of that State. Canal freights were unprecedentedly low 
in 1875, trenching severely upon the profits of the carrier ; yet the east- 
ward shipments during the season of 1875 from Buffalo declined 6,855,882 
bushels, and those from Oswego 3,166,255 bushels, making an aggregate 
reduction compared with the season of 1874 of 10,022,137 bushels on 
the New York canals. 

A lively competition between several through;lines of railway caused 
a low schedule of freights duringthe year. The rolling-stock was greater 
in 1875 than in 1874, and kept in more continuous use. During a por- 
tion of the year, rail transportation was upon aft agreed schedule of rates, 
by which freight was charged $1 less per t6n to Baltimore and Phila- 
delphia than to New York, and to Boston $1 per ton more than to 
New York. Ocean freights at Baltimore and Philadelphia were 
not greatly different from those of New York, while those from 
Boston were somewhat less. After the opening of lake and canal 
navigation, freights by lake, canal, and river from Chicago to New York 
were from $3 to $3.17 per ton, not including transshipment charges at 
Buffalo. From Chicago to Montreal, including Welland and SaintLaw- 
rence Canal tolls, the charges were $3 to $3.08 per ton. Flour and grain 
were carried in large quantities by rail, from Saint Louis to New York, 
at $4.80 per ton, or 3^ mills per ton per mile. These facts show the 
ground of those changes which have marked the transportation move- 
ment during the past year. Water transportation has lost ground in 
competition with rail-transport, and the southern or central lines 
have attracted the lion's share of the business which the lakes and 
canals have lost. The advantage of direct shipment, without trans- 
shipment, from the primary grain market of the West to the sea- 
board is becoming better appreciated every year. In the move- 
ment of corn, it is found that the grain is far less disposed to injury 
from heating when loaded in bulk upon freight-cars than when stored 
in large bins 60 feet deep, or in the damp hold^ of lake vessels. Oats 
is liable to the same injuries ; hence shippers find it to their advantage 
to ship by rail, even if the cost of transportation be somewhat higher. 
The shorter southern lines bring the grain regions of the West nearer 
to tide- water, and transport at considerably lower rates than the lines 
terminating at New York and Boston. It is found also that the cost of 
winter rail transport is less along the southern lines than in the regions 
of frost and snow. These and oSier circumstances during the past year 
have caused the carrying-trade in cereals and other farm products to 
gravitate southward. But the work under contract for the enlargement 
of the Canadian canals will admit the passage of vessels of 150 per cent, 
greater tonnage, in which the grain of the Northwest may be shipped 
direct to European markets. This will, of course, cheapen transporta- 
tion, as large vessels can carry freight more cheaply than small ones. 



BEPOBT OF THE STATISTICIAN. 63 

This branch of the water carrying- trade may then recover its prestige ; 
but the New York canals, even with the entire abrogation of tolls, and 
the introduction of steam-power, cannot compete with rival routes un- 
less they be enlarged to admit of a much larger class of vessels. 

The supremacy of New York as a port of foreign shipment still con- 
tinues ; but other ports are gaining, while it is losing, both absolutely 
and relatively, in the marketing of cereal and other agricultural prod- 
ucts. During the past year, the tendencies of the carrying-trade have 
been unfavorable to the practical monopoly which New York has till 
lately held. Some of those tendencies appear to be settled and perma- 
nent, especially that which throws an increasing proportion of heavy 
transportation into the hands of railway-men. But while New York is 
thus losing its hold upon the export trade of the country, its consump- 
tive trade is rapidly increasing. 

The following r6sum6 of our leading markets will illustrate the Hour 
and grain movements of the last four years : 

NEW YOEK. 

« 

The total receipts at New York of wheat, corn, oats, rye, and barley, 
including flour and meal, during 1875, amounted to 91,685,890 bushels, 
a loss, compared with 1874, of 14,416,749 bushels, or 13.6 per cent.: the 
exports amounted to 49,976,097 bushels, a loss of 23,900,411 bushels, or 
32.4 per cent. About 57 per cent, of the receipts and 72 per cent, of the 
exports represented wheat and flour ; corn and corn-meal amounted to 
25 per cent, of the receipts, and 27 per cent of the exports. Wheat and 
flour receipts fell off nearly 13 per cent, and the exports nearly 22 per 
cent Of corn and corn-meal, the receipts declined 27 per cent, and the 
exports 50 per cent. Oats fell off 156,841 in an aggregate of 10,792,919 
bushels ; the export is small, nearly the whole of the receipts being re- 
quired for the consumption of the city and its environs. The receipts 
and exports of rye decreased, the former 49 per cent, and the latter 68 
per cent Barley alone, of the cereals, shows an increase in receipts, 
4,710,698 bushels, against 2,770,000 in 1874 ; the export is too insignifi- 
cant for mention. The stock of flour on hand at the close of the year 
amounted to 449,510 barrels^ against 277,439 in 1874, 269,751 in 1873, 
and 363,624 in 1872. Of wheat, the stocks on hand at the close of each 
of the last five years respectively were as follows : 1875, 6,371,296 
bushels; 1874, 4,600,711 bushels; 1873, 1,258,600 bushels; 1872, 
2,132,740 bushels. Of corn, the remnants were, at the close of 1876, 
691,690 bushels ; 1874, 1,146,408 bushels ; 1873, 1,272,500 bushels ; 1872, 
5,910,670 bushels. Of oats, 1875 left behind 1,321,587 bushels ; 1874, 
1,283,461 bushels ; 1873, 417,600 bushels ; 1872, 1,620,360 bushels. Of 
rye, the stock left over ai the close of 1875 was 115,907 bushels; 1874, 
114,899 bushels ; 1873, 14,630 bushels ; 1872, 96,240 bushels. Of barley, 
the stock on hand at the close of 1875 was 513,596 bushels ; 1874, 
661,051 ; 1873, 194,400 bushels ; 1872, 1,286,487 bushels. 



64 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



The movement of the grain trade at ISTew York for the last four years 
is summarized in the following: table: 



Products. 



Flour bbl 

Wheat bush 

Corn-moal bbl 

^om bush 

Flour and wheat, 
bush 

Co^ and meal, 
bosh 

Oats bash 

Kyo do. 

Barley do. 

Total 



1872. 



1873. 



lleccipts. 



3, 043, 907 
16, 238, 433 
178, 150 
40, 800, 939 



Exports. 



1,2051,792 
13, 299^0 
145. 530 
25, 652, 603 



Hecoipts. 



3, 546, 568 
35, 559, 870 
211, 591 
24. 576, 345 



31, 452, 963 

41, 513, 539 

12, 442, 127 

491, 851 

3, 964, 441 



89, 864, 926 



19, 313, 280 

26,234,723 
32,718 
633,355 
17,402 



46, 231, 478 



53, 292, 710 

25, 422, 709 

11, 235, 420 

995, 447 

2,444,206 



Exports. 



1, 655, 331 
27,801,829 
136, 084 
15, 416, 787 



36, 078, 484 

15, 961, 123 

49, 573 

1,060,140 

40,040 



Q3, 390, 492 53, 198, 360 



1874. 



Heceipts. 



4, 017, 207 

41,817,21:) 

178, 839 

SO, 329, 000 



61,903,150 

30. 044, 356 

10,792,919 

592,114 

2, 770, 000 



Exports. 



2, 462, 728 
33,541,740 
176,393 



26,447,80722,488,707 



1875. 



Receipts. 



3, 941, 331 
34,214,768 
131,885 



45, 855^ 380 53, 921, 423 35, 962, 028 



27,253,379'23,016,S47 
122, 528,10, 636, 078 



641, 6C1 
3,560 



301,544 
4, 710, 598 



106, 102, 639J73, 876, 508.91, 685, 890 



Exports. 



1, 953, 667 
^, 193, 693 
178,257 
13,05S,fi25 



13,668,553 
138,508 
206,898 
110 



49,976,097 



The quantity of flour, wheat, and corn actually consumed in New 
York and its vicinity very considerably increased during 1875. The 
excess of consumption over that of 1874 is estimated, by leading com- 
mercial authority, at 307,821 barrels of flour, 2,679,994 bushels of wheat, 
and 7,848,857 bushels of corn. As a home-distributing center, New 
York occupies a far less important position than in years past. The 
immense increase in the receipts of raw grain within the last twenty 
years has been mainly for foreign export. The receipts of flour in that 
period have actually declined. The increase of facilities of transporta- 
tion in the country has operated in favor of local manufacture, especially 
in the Eastern States. At the same time, the foreign demand has been 
directed to the raw material to sustain the milling interest of Europe. 
The mills in and around New York have also enlarged their operations, 
supplying a large portion of the demand formerly dependent upon west- 
em manufacture. The New York mills, having a better understanding 
of the requirements of foreign markets, especially of thQ tropical regions, 
have been enabled to absorb several branches of the export trade for- 
merly supplied by mills in the interior. 

During 1875, prices, at the beginning o'f each month, for superfine 
State and western flour ranged from $3.90 Q $4.30 per barrel in Feb- 
ruary to $5.10 ^ $5.50 in September and October, falling to $4.75 ^ 
$5 on the 1st of December; extra State opened at $4.75 ^ $5, rose to 
$5.85 ® $6.40 August 1, and fell back to $5.10 ^ $5.90 in December ; 
western and southern extras, from about the same lower limit, ranged 
from $2 ^ $3 higher. Wheat, No. 1 spring opened at $1.20 ^ $1.25 
per bushel January 1, fell to $1.16 ® $1.19 March 1, then rose to $1.45 
^ $1.47 August 1, and Anally receded to $1.35 ^ $1.39 December 1 ; 
No. 2 ranged from 5 to 18 cents lower ; western red and amber winter- 
wheat bore nearly the same prices, opening at $1.20 <S) $1.32 January 
1, and closing at $1.15 fS> $1.45 December 1, the maximum, $1.48 ^ $1.54, 
being August 1 ; western white ranged 5 to 10 cents higher, x. Corn 
opened at 80 ^ 97, rose to 01 ® 93J May 1, and fell to 73 ® 81 in 
June and July. Oats opened at 66 ^ 70 and closed December 1 at 41 
^51. 

BOSTON. 

The total receipts of grain, flour, and corn-meal during 1875 amounted 
to 18,273,539 bushels, an increase of 277,280 bushels, or 1.54 per cent. 



REPORT QP THE STATISTICIAN. 



65 



over 1874. The flour trade shows a falling-olF of 252,515 barrels, or 13 J 
per cent, in the receipts, and of 16,548 barrels, or 5.7 per cent, of the 
exports. The receipts of wheat declined 20 per cent, and the exports 
25 i>er cent. Of wheat and floar taken together, the receipts decreased 
15 per cent, and the exports 14 per cent. Of corn-meal, the receipts fell 
from 97,938 barrels to 84,103 barrels, and the exports from 76,277 bar- 
rels to 73,848 barrels ; but com unmanufactnred showed a remarkable 
increase, both in receipts and exports ; the former rose from 3,303,641 
bashels to 5,346,340 bushels, or 62 per cent., and the exports from 
380,254 bushels to 1,551,776 bushels, or 308 per cent. The receipts of 
oats fell off 6 per cent., and of rye 16 per cent. ; on the other hand, the 
receipts of barley increased 20 per cent. The receipts of oats, rye, and 
barley were absorbed by home consumption ; the export being too small 
for notice in commercial statistics. 

The damage done to the wheat-crop of 1875 is reflected in the char- 
acter of the flour-receipts, which haye sunk mostly to medium and low 
grades. Choice flour at the close of the year had become quite limited 
in supply, and high prices were anticipated for such grades during the 
coming year. The choice Saint Louis brands, so plent&ul in this market 
previously, showed light stocks, and the fancy spring-wheat brands o{ 
the Northwest were coming into more genersd use. Durmg the year, 
western superflnes ranged from $4 to $5.75 per barrel ; common extras 
from $4.50 to $6 ; Wisconsin and Minnesota extras, from $5 to $8 ; 
Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan white wheats, $5.50 to $7.50 : Illinois and 
Saint Louis white wheats, $5.75 to $9 ; fancy Minnesota, from $6.75 to 
$9.50. The stock of flour on hand at the close of the year was estimated 
at about 250,000 barrels. The price of corn closed at about 25 cents 
lower than at the end of 1874. The quality of the receipts up to Decem- 
ber 31 was unusually good. Of oats, the grades received were mostly 
quite ordinary, and the prices ruled 12 or 13 centfi lower than at the 
close of 1874, at which tune very few samples of No. 1 white had ap- 
peared in market. 

The grain movement of the last four years was as follows : 



Frodncta. 



Flour bbl. 

Wheat bush. 

Cora-meal bbl. 

Com bush. 

Wheat and flonr . . .do. . 

Cora and meal do. . 

Oats do.. 

Rye do.. 

Barlej do.. 

Total 



187S. 



BeceiptB. 



1, 586, 017 

403, 4S6 

91,538 

5, 090, 755 



8,332,511 

5, 456, 907 

2,725,641 

13,989 

539,038 



17,068,086 



Ej^ports. 



217,586 
151,860 
63,832 
1, 673, 769 



1,239,790 
1,929.097 



1873. 



Receipts. 



1,795,272 
880,747 
120,296 

3,558,363 



9, 857, 107 

4, 039, 547 

3, 663, 364 

33,335 

332,849 



17,926,202 



Exports. 



231, 361 

486,128 

84,926 

162,729 



1, 642, 933 
502,433 



1874. 



Receipts. 



1,890,487 

1,362,017 

97, 938 

3, 303, 641 



10, 814. 452 

3. 691, 793 

3,037,269 

34,273 

418,615 



17, 996, 402 



Exports. 



287,718 

1,062,366 

76,277 

380,254 



2,500.956 
685,362 



1875. 



Receipts. 



1,637,972 

1,035,109 

84,103 

5,346,340 



9,224,969 

5. 682, 752 

3,833,544 

28,878 

503,539 



Exports. 



271,170 

784,941 

73,848 

1,551,776 



2, 140, 791 
1, 847, 168 



18,273,683 



PHILADELPHIA. 



The flour and grain trade of Philadelphia shows an increase in all 
articles except corn, and, in some, a very large increase over the aggre- 
gates of 1874. The receipte of flour were 1,510,190 barrels, an increase 
of 7 per cent. ; of wheat, 5,950,800 bushels, an increase of nearly 9 per 
cent. ; of flour and wheat together, 13,501,750 bushels, an increase of 
8 per cent. : of corn, 5,950,800 bushels, a small decrease ; of oats, 
5 A 



66 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



4,820,400 bushels, a small increase ; of rye, 260,480 bushels, an increase 
oif 4 per cent, j of barley, 1,652, 700 bushels, an increase of 34 per cent. 
The receipts and shipments of the last four years were as follows : 



Prodacts. 



Flour., bbl. 

Wheat bnsfa. 

Wheat and floxir . . .do. . 
Com do.. 

\JtuM ■••■■■■>•• >.«.UO.. 

Bye do.. 

Barloy ...do.. 

Total 



1872. 



Beceipta. 



987, 450 
4, 160. 800 



Exports. 



113, 036 
412, 761 



9, 098, 050 

8, 137. 380 

5,830,400 

320,940 

730,380 



24, 117, 150 



977, 941 
3. 462, 473 



1873. 



Beceipta. 



094, 680 
4,372,800 



4002, 



9, 346, 200 
8,233, 
5,980,565 
322,600 
1,066,392 



24,049,157 



BzportB. 



142,386 
1, 938. 310 



Q 650, 240 
002; 368 



1874. 



Beceipta. 



1, 401, 700 
5,471,700 



12,480,200 

5,954,700 

4,705,000 

249, 091 

1,836,392 



24,625,383 



Exports. 



1875. 



Receipts. 



1, 510, 190 
5. 950, 800 



Exports. 



160,748 
3,302,054 



13, 501, 75014, 115, 794 



5, 950, 800 

4, b20, 400 

260,480 

1,652,700 



26, 196, 130 



4,601,586 
33,840 



BALTIMOBE. 

The flour and grain trade of Baltimore during 1875 receded from the 
advanced position it had attained during the previous year. The total 
receipts of wheat, (including flour,) corn, oats, and rye amounted to 
22,883,479 bushels, a loss of 1,815,771 bushels, or nearly 8 per cent. Of 
flour, the number of barrels received from the West was 1,019,364 against 
1,032,202 last year, but the city manufacture rose from 507,035 barrels 
in 1874 to 527,541 barrels in 1875. The receipts of wheat amounted to 
4,409,670 bui^els, a decline of 30 per cent. ; of flour and wheat together, 
the receipts fell off from 14,086,019 bushels in 1874 to 12,244,295 bushels 
in 1875, a loss of 13 per cent Com increased about 2 per cent., while 
oats declined nearly 13 per cent., and rye 37 per cent. The exports of 
flour fell ofif 4^ per cent.; of wheat, 42 per cent; of flour and wheat, 22 
per cent.; the export of corn increased 17 per cent. 

The wheat-crop of the regions immediately around Baltimore was 
unusually good; but that of the West, from which Baltimore had pre- 
viously drawn, was short in quantity and depreciated in quality, having 
been injured by rain while standing in the shock. For this reason the 
flour received from the West was of an inferior grade to that of 1874. 
Prices of western flour consequently ruled higher in the latter part of 
the year. Howard-street superfine flour opened at $4 ^ $4.50 per barrel 
January 1, and rose to $4.50<2)$5.50 August 15; in 1874, the varia- 
tion was between $4 Q $4.'50 December 1, and $5.50^$6.25 February 1. 
Western extra, during February and part of March, was quoted at $4.50 
^ $5, and rose to $5 ^ $5.75 during Uie autumn, with a slight decline 
at the close of the year. City Mills extra ranged from $6.25 ^ $6.50 in 
the spring months, to $7.75 ^ $8 in the middle of August. The prices 
of wheat ruled lower on the first day of each month than at the corre- 
sponding periods of 1874. Southern redranged from $1.10 ^ $1.48 per 
bushel, the highest being in August. Southern white corn opened at 
78 ^ 85 per bushel January 1, rose to 91 '2) 92 August 1, and fell to 55 <w 70 
December 1; the same grade in 1874 ranged from 70^ 78 in January, to 
$1 ^ $1.03 in October, with a subsequent decline to 80 ® 85 in December. 
Oats opened at G3 ® 65 January 1, rose to 72 © 83 June 1, and fell to 40 'S) 50 
December 1. During 1874 the prices ruled higher at the close of the year 
than at the beginning. Bye rose from 97 ^ $1 January 1, to $1.15 Q 
$1.17 May 1, and fell to 75 ^ 85 December 1. No exports of oats or rye 
are noted. 



REPORT OF THE STATISTICIAN. 



67 



Tho following figures show the grain /aovement of the last four years: 



PxoduoU. 



Flonr ;. bbl. 

Wheat boBh. 

jFloar and wheat. ..do. . 

Com do.. 

Oats ...... ........ do. - 

Bje do.. 

Total 



1872. 



Ileccli)t8. 



1, 175, 967 
2, 456, 100 



935|1 



465 5, 



8,335, 

9,045, 

1, 959, 161 

90,938 



19, 431, 499 



Ship- 
ments. 



282,553 
f8,025 



1, 500, 790 
>, 157, 235 



1873. 



Keceipta. 



1,313,612 359,566 
2.810,9171,158,097 



Ship- 
montfl. 



9, 373, 977 
8, 330, 449 
1, 255, 072 

100,519 



19,060,017 



2, 955, 927 
6; 003, 618 



1874. 



Ecooipts. 



Ship- 
monts. 



1, 539, 237 474, 758 
6, 389, 831 3, 556, 848 



14,086,019;5,930,638 
9, 355, 467 5, 950, 757 
1,139,216 



118, 548 



24,699,250 



1875. 


Keccipts. 


Ship- 
ments. 


1.546,905 
4, 409, 670 


453,000 
2, 064, 344 


12, 244, 295 

9, 567, 141 

907,514 

74,529 


4,3-^,344 
6, 980, 80-:^ 






22, 883, 479 





CINOINNATI, 

The statistics of the grain trade of Cincinnati are mostly derived 
from the annual reports of the Chamber of Commerce, and represent com- 
mercial years instead of calendar years. The report of 1875, closing 
August 31, shows but a small part of the movement of the crops last 
harvested. The flour trade shows a decline of 10 per cent, in receipts 
and of 14 per cent, in shipments. The local business increased^ while 
the quantity distributed to other points fell off greatly. The residue of 
receipts, after deducting shipments, was about 1,000 barrels greater in 
1875 than in 1874, showing an increase in home consumption. Ship- 
ments to the South and East fell off, but the loss was partially compen- 
sated by the opening-up of a new direct trade with Europe. The quan- 
tity of spring-flour marketed at this point was greater than during the 
previous year, having met with an increasing demand among the bakers. 
At times during the year, it commanded prices equal and even superior 
to those of analogous grades of winter-flour. The quality of all kinds 
marketed during the year was excellent, and better than for several 
years previous. This resulted from the excellence of the wheat-crop of 
1874 in regions tributary to the Cincinnati market, which enabled millers 
to produce a superior article of manufacture. Tho demand for the better 
grades has been increasing in the home trade, and was well sustained 
during the whole year, though prices showed a marked depression. 
Family flour averaged $5.43 per barrel against $6.60.4 tho previous 
year ; extra, $5.18.3 against $6.25.5. Tho increasing indications of a 
short wheat-crop, toward the close of the commercial year, produced a 
reaction until, in August, family flour was quotable at $7.50 <2) $7.75 
per barrel ; a decline is noted, however, during August. Tho annual 
average prices of superfine flour for nineteen commercial years were as 
follows: 1856-'57, $5.77 ; 1857-'58, $4; 1858-'59, $5.33 ; 1850-'60, $4.60; 
1860-'61, $4.45; 1861-'62, $4.08; 1862-'63, $5.03; 1863-'64, $6.30; 
1864-^65, $7.67; 1865-'66, $7.32; 1866-'67, $9.45; 1867-68, $0.18; 
186&-'69, $5.08 J; 1869-'70, $4.63 ; 1870-'71, $5 ; 1871-'72, $6.06; 1872-'73, 
$5.56J; 1873-'74, $5.061 ; 1874-'75, $4.41.7. During the last four years, 
familv flour averaged $7.37.2 in 1872, $7.46.8 in 1873, $6.60.4 in 1874, 
and $5.43 in 1875; and, during the same period, extra averaged $7.14.6 
in 1872, $7.15 in 1873, $6.25.5 in 1874, and $5.18.3 in 1875. 

The business in raw grain, in its general aggregates, varied in but 
a small degree from the previous year ; the falling-oft' in some depart- 
ments being largely compensated by the increase in tho others. The 
quantity distributed to other points was slightly diminished; many of 
the sections usually supplied from Cincinnati enjoying crops of unusual 



68 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

abundanco. Tho diraiuution from tbis cause, however, was counteracted to 
a great exteut by the low rates of freight to the seaboard, iuduciDg ship- 
ments which otherwise would not have been made. The facilities of 
distribution from Cincinnati have been enlarging year by year, and a 
steady purpose has been manifest to use these advantages in building 
up the distributing trade of the city. But, after all, it is sufficiently 
evident that the market is to be chiefly one of consumption. This imparts 
to the business a steadiness of demand, a freedom from speculative 
influences, a uniformity of prices, and an elastic trade which is more 
satisfactory than the extreme fluctuations of a great distributing market. 

Tlie wheat-crop of 1874 in the region dependent upon the Cincinnati 
market was tho best one harvested in ten years. It was well secured 
and of excellent quality. The market was well supplied during the course 
of the whole year. The receipts show a decline of 7 per cent., and amount 
to 1,135,388 bushels. The shipments, amounting to 600,622 bushels, 
fell off 35 i)er cent., leaving a residue for homo consumption nearly 
100,000 bushels greater than in 1874. During the larger part of the 
year, prices ruled very low. At the commencement, red winter ranged 
' from 80.90 to $1.05 per bushel, with a slow, but steady, appreciation 
duringthe fall and winter, being quoted early in February at $1.10® $1.14. 
The uncertainty as to the growing crop created some fluctuations, and tho 
settled indications of disaster, especially the continued heavy rains of 
summer through the Ohio Valley, raised the quotations, early in August, 
to $1.50 ^ $1.75 ; but the apprehensions of general failure of the crop 
having been dissipated by better information ; prices declined at the 
close of the year to $1.40 ^ $1.55. During 1875, the average of red 
wheat of all grades was $1.16.6 per bushel 5 during 1874, No. 2 averaged 
$1.73.9, and during 1873 $1.56.3; in 1872, No. 1 averaged $1.57.7, and 
during 1871 $1.27§. 

The corn trade shows an increase in receipts of nearly 7 per cent.; the 
shipments declined about 8 per cent. The market was well supplied 
throughout the year at prices remunerative to the farmer. The crop of 
1874 in quantity was not equal to [even the diminished yield of 1873; 
but this deficiency was largely compensated by the superior quality of 
the grain. The low rates of freight stimulated shipments to New York, 
but tho distributive trade to other points declined in volume. Prices 
ruled higher than in any year since 1870: prime mixed ear averaged 72^ 
cents compared with 60 cents in 1874 and 83J in 1870. Quotations rose 
from 70 fa> 71 cents at the commencement, or 8 'S) 9 cents higher than 
at the opening of the previous year, to 85 ^ 87 cents in September, 
1874, with a decline of 10 'S) 12 centos during October ; the subsequent 
fluctuations were quite limited. 

The oats market was well supplied throughout the year; tho crop of 
1874 having been abundant and of good quality and condition. The 
stock of old oats ran out earlier than usual, making a demand upon the 
incoming crop. The receipts amounted to 1,323,380 bushels against 
1,372,464 tho previous year. These aggregates do not include a very 
large amount brought into the city by wagons from the immediate 
neighborhood. The shipments were 193,242 bushels, a decline of 23,418 
bushels. The low rates of transportation caused an increased shipment 
to New York and Baltimore ; the exports to other points showing a con; 
siderable reduction. The supplies came mostly from Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, and Iowa. The demand was good, and imces were relatively 
higher than for any other grain except corn. Tho average quotation of 
No. 2 mixed oats was 59 cents per bushel against 48.2 the "previous year; 
the quotations opened at 44 ^ 46 ond advanced to 68 ta> 69 in May; 



REPORT OP THE STATISTICIAN. 



69 



tLey fell off soiuowbat in Jane, but rallied to their maximum, 70 <S> 
71, aboat the 1st of August, and finally closed at 58 fa> C2, The crop 
of 1875 was almost a total failure iu the immediate vicinity. 

The rye trade fell off 13 per cent, in receipts and ICJ per cent, in ship- 
ments. The supply was equal to the demand, and the grain of good 
quality. The average quotation of No. 2 was $1.05.8 per bushel against 
92.9 in 1874 and 75.8 in 1873. The quotations opened at 83 <a) ^^^ and 
advanced, with slight interruptions, to $1.23 (a> $1.25 in May, tlie maxi- 
mum of three years, but subsequently receded, closing at 87. The crop 
Of 1875 in regions depending upon this market was large, but consider- 
ably damaged by rain in harvest; supplies of good rye were not expected 
to be very large. 

The barley trade shows a small increase of receipts, with a decline in 
shipments. The market was well supplied. The crop of fall barley, 
raised mainly in the immediate vicinity, was large and of excellent 
quality, requiring but a small draught upon the spring crop. An in- 
creased receipt is noted from California in ships round Cape Horn to 
New York and thence by rail. Prices were somewhat below those of 
the previous year j the average price of Ko. 2 fall barley was $1.41 
per bushel against $1.51J the previous year. The fall crop of 1875 
was badly damaged by rain, and what was saved was of poor quality 
and condition. The spring crop will come into greater requisition than 
previously, and, fortunately, that of 1875 was, in the regions dependent 
on this market, generally good. 

The receipts and shipments of flour and grain at Cincinnati during 
the last four years were as follows : 



Products. 



Flomr bbl 

Wheat bnsh 

Flour and wheat ... do . 

Cora do. 

Oats...... .........do. 

Kye do. 

Bftrley do. 

Total 



187S. 



Keoeipts. 



582,930 
7t}2, 144 



Ship- 
ments. 



410,501 
323, 405 



3, 676, 794 % 375, 910 



1, 892, 8f)C 

1, IGO, 053 

357,309 

1, 177, 30C 



8, 264, 328 



240,632 

230,963 

110,464 

26,984 



2, 990, 953 



1873, 



Hooelpts. 



765, 469 

860,454 



4, 687, 799 
2, 259, 544 
1, 529, 979 
426.660 
1, 228, 245 



10,122,227 



Ship, 
meuta. 



560,829 
412, 722 



3,216,767 

324, 183 

324, 718 

61,577 

37,450 

3, 904, 701 



1874. 



Ileooipts. 



774, 91G 
1,221,170 



Ship- 
ments. 



551, 774 
7ty, 9y( 



5, 095, 7 56 
3,457,164 
1, 372. 404 
385, 934 
1, 084, 500 



3, 542, tH>U 

658,718 

210, G<;o 

117, 34<: 

90,688 



1875. 



Reoelpts. 



S]iip- 
ments. 



697, 578 473, 460 
1, i:r>,3Ss! 600,622 



4, 023, 278 2, 967, 929 



3, 695, 561 

1, 323, 3e0 

3:56,410 

1, 1U9, 693 



59.'), 915 

193, 242 

98.245 

82,723 



1 1, 395, 818 4, GiO, 275] 11 , 085, 322 3, 938, 047 



The cereal movement, as a whole, shows a decrease in the receipts of 
1,307,496 bushels, or 11 per cent., and in the shipments a decline of 
688,228 busbels, or about 14 per cent. The residue of receipts, after 
deducting shipments, was 6,150,275 bushels against 5,709,543 in 1874, 
an increase of 380,732 bushels, indicating a home consumption nearly 7 
per cent, greater than during the previous year. As a consumptive 
market, Cincinnati is enlarging its operations: as a distributing market, 
it shows some curtailment from last year's aggregates, which, however, 
is evidently but temporary, and due to the action of special circum- 
stances. 

omoAGo. 




70 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

186,968 ; in 1871, 327,739 ; in 1870, 443,967. The sLipments in 1875 
were 2,285,113 barrels ; in 1874, 2,306,676,- in 1873, 2,303,490; in 1872, 
1,361,328; in 1871, 1,287,574; in 1870, 1,705,977. The flonr market 
throagbont 1875 was dull and depressed, with a very precarious and 
unsatisfactory margin of profits. European purchasers directed their 
attention more exclusively to the pnrcbase of wheat to supply their own 
mills, thus lessening the amount of flour shipped from Chicago by for- 
eign parties. Many country mills hitherto sending their products to 
this market had opened a direct trade with the East and even with 
Europe. The short wheat-crop of 1875 still further reduced the flour 
movement, but the decline from all these causes was partly compensated 
by an increased home consumption. The western winter-wheat was 
inferior, and had a " ground smell" which rendered shippers suspicious of 
its keeping qualities. The same misgivings were felt in regard to the 
first receipts of the spring crop, part of which was secured in very 
indifferent order. But these suspicions were allayed by the improved 
character of later receipts. Fair to good shipping extras averaged 
$4.92 per barrel against $5.01 in 1874. Medium to choice samples of 
spring flour opened at $4.25 ® $5.25, and closed the year about 50 
cents higher, reaching $5.30 ^ $6.60 during the latter part of summer. 
Considerable fluctuations grew out of conflicting reports of the condi- 
tion of the growing wheat-crops. 

The receipts of wheat during 1876 amounted to 24,206,370 bushels; 
in 1874, 29,764,622; in 1873, 26,266,562; in 1872,12,724,141; in 1871, 
14,439,656; in 1870, 17,394,409. The shipments of 1875 were 23,184,349 
bushels; of 1874, 27,634.587; of 1873,24,455,657; of 1872, 12,160,046; 
of 1871, 12,905,449 ; of 1870, 16,432,585. Though the wheat movement 
shows lower aggregates in 1875, commercial authorities state that the 
amount actually handled in Chicago was greater than in any former 
year. An unusual proportion of the crop of 1875 was of very low grade ; 
durihg the first month after the new crop began to come in, only 39 per 
cent, reached No. 2, and, at the close of October, only 60 per cent, was 
above No. 3. The export demand was smaller than in 1875, and there 
was a notable absence of " comers" to disturb the market. The latter 
circumstance is attributed to the more stringent regulation of the Board 
of Trade. Outside '* fancy ^ operators, in unusual numbers, had diverted 
their attention from the stock market to the wheat market ; but their 
speculative enterprise netted no very encouraging results. In her rivalry 
with Milwaukee, Chicago has of late years gained almost the whole trade 
of Minnesota, but has lost half of that of Iowa and a fourth of that of 
Nebraska. Some discrepancies in the classification of wheat in the two 
cities are complained of; this difficulty can be met only by a more thorough 
and general classification, embracing the wheat markets of the whole 
country. The average price per bushel of No. 2 was $1.02J against 
$1.06J in 1874 and $1.17i in 1873. 

The receipts of com*' in 1875 were 28,341,150 bushels; in 1874, 
35,799,638 ; in 1873, 38,157,232 ; in 1872, 47,306,087 ; in 1871, 41,853,138 ; 
in 1870, 20,189,775. The shipments of 1875 were 26,443,884 bushels ; 
of 1874, 32,705,222 ; of 1873, 30,754,943 ; of 1872, 47,013,552 ; of 1871, 
36,716,030 ; of 1870, 17,777,377. The trade was very disappointing to all 
concerned, and especially to speculators. The average price was 63| 
cents per oushel against i^o cents in 1874, 37 cents* in 1873, and 38J in 
1872. The crop of the regions deiJendent upon the Chicago market was 
not of very high quality, giving but little inducement to the storage of 
laree supplies. 

The receipts of oats for 1875 were 12,916,428 bushels ; 1874, 13,901,235 j 



REPORT OF THE STATISTICIAN. 



71 



1873,17,888,724; 1872, 15,061,715; 1871, 14,789,414; 1870,10,472,078. 
The shipments of 1875 were 10,279,134 bushels ; 1874, 10,561,073 ; 1873, 
15,694,133; 1872, 12,255,537; 1871, 12,151,247; 1870, 8,607,835. The 
market of 1875 still felt the demoralizing effects of the " corners'' of the 
previous year. The crop of 1875 in regions dependent upon the Chicago 
market exceeded general expectations both in quantity and in quality. 
Prices averaged 47 cents per bushel against 46 in 1874, 28f in 1873, and 
29J in 1872. 

The receipts of rye amounted to 099,583 bushels, a decline of one- 
eighth; the shipments were 310,592 bushels, a fall of 7J per cent, from 
the previous year. The average price of No. 1 during the first seven 
months of 1875 was exactly $1 per bushel ; for the whole year it was 
88J. Only the poorer qualities of the late croi) have been thoroughly 
marketed,' aitd much of good quality still remains in first hands, though 
stocks are generally reported as light. 

The receipts of barley were 3,107,297 bushels, a decrease of 247,684 
bushels 5 the shipments were 1,868,206 bushels, a decrease of 536,332 
bushels. The light crop of 1874, and the consequent excess of demand, 
caused a large area to be SQwn in the Northwest, and a heavy yield is 
reported, but in many places damaged seriously by bad weather. The 
average price of No. 2 for the year was $1.26 per bushel. 

The flour and grain movement for the past four years is represented 
in the following table : 



Prodnoifl. 



Flonr bbl 

Wheat buah 

Flour and wheat, 

buah 

Com bash 

Oate do. 

Bye do. 

Barley do. 

Total 



1179. 



Beoeipts. 



1,632,014 
12, 724, 141 



20,384,811 

47,366,087 

15, 061, 715 

1, 199, 086 

5,251,750 



89, 192, 849 



Ship- 
ments. 



1, 361, 328 
12, 160, 046 



18,966,686 

47, 013, 552 

12, 255, 537 

776, mo 

5, 032, 30d 



84, 044, 888 



1873. 



Keceipta. 



2,487,376 2,303,490 
26,266,56234,455,657 



Ship, 
ments. 



1874. 



Kccoipts. 



2, 066, 679 
29, 764, 022 



38, 703, 442 35, 973, 107 43, 098, 017 

38, 157, 232 36, 734, 91;; 35, 799, C3ti 
17, 888, 724' 15, 094, 13313, 901, 235 



1,189,464| 960,613 
4,240,239; 3,306,041 



791, 182 
3, 354, 961 



100, 179, 101 92, 748, 837 96, 945, 053 



Ship, 
moots. 



2, 306, 576 
27, 634, 587 



39, 167, 467 

32, 705, 224 

10, 5(51, G73 

335, 07? 

2. 404, 53b 



85, 173, 979 



1675. 



Receipts. 



2, 625. 883 
34, 206, 370 



2. 285, 113 
23, 184, 349 



37, .335. 785 

28,341,150 

12, 916. 428 

699, 583 

3, 107, 297 



82,400,243 



Ship, 
menta. 



34,^9,914 

26,443,884 

10, 279, 134 

310,593 

1,888,206 



73, 511, 730 



MILWAUKEB. 

The receipts of flour at Milwaukee during 1875 amounted to 1,443,801 
barrels against 1,616,338 in 1874, 1,254,821 in 1873, 834,202 in 1872, 
796,782 in 1871, 824,799 in 1870, and 807,763 in 1869. The manufactures 
were 746,126 barrels in 1875, 735,481 in 1874, 634,102 in 1873, 560,206 in 
1872, 667,893 in 1871, 530,049 in 1870, and 481,511 in 1869. The total of 
receipts and manufactures was 2,189,927 in 1875, 2,351,819 in 1874, 
1,888,923 in 1873, 1,394,408 in 1872, 1,364,675 in 1871, 1,354,848 in 

1870, and 1,289,274 in 1869. The shipments were 2,163,346 in 1875, 
2,217,579 in 1874, 1,805,200 in 1873, 1,231,986 in 1872, 1,211,427 in 

1871, 1,225,941 in 1870, and 1,220,058 in 1869. The secretary of the 
Chamber of Commerce calls attention to the fact that the above figures 
represent only bona- fide receipts and shipments, and that the reprehensi- 
ble practice of adding the amount in transitu to other points has been 
repudiated in his statistical report. The milling business was generally 
unprofitable, although the scarcity of superior winter-wheat grades in 
the country created a great demand for fancy brands of spring-wheat 
flour, especially the patent springs, which have largely superseded the 



72 EEPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

winter- wheat brands in the cousampti ve markets. The falling-off in the 
receipts being greater than in the shipments left the market considera- 
bly bare, and considerable dullness resulted at times from the lack 
of material on which to operate. The commission business greatly 
declined on account of the system adopted by country millers, hitherto 
dependent upon the Milwaukee market, of sending traveling-agents to 
solicit orders for direct shipment to eastern markets. The commission 
merchants were almost daily in receipt of orders which they were unable 
to fill. The fluctuation in prices did not average more than $1.25 per 
barrel during the year. Spring extras opened in January at $4.20 ® 
$5 per barrel and closed at $4 ^ $5.40; the maximum, $5.25 <S) $6.75, 
continued through the greater part of August. Patent springs opened 
and closed at $6.50 fa> $8.25, having fallen during June and July to $5.50 
^ $7. Spring superfines rose from $3.25 ^ $3.75 to $4 ^ $5, but fell 
to their opening quotations. 

Of wheat unmanufactured, the receipts amounted to 27,878,727 
bushels in 1875, 25,628,143 in 1874, 28,457,937 in 1873, 13,618,959 in 
1872, 15,686,611 in 1871, 18,883,837 in 1870, and 17,745,238 in 1869. 
The shipments were 22,681,020 bushels in 1875, 22,255,380 in 1874, 
24,994,266 in 1873, 11,570,575 in 1872, 13,409,467 in 1871, 16,127,838 in 
1870, and 14,272,799 in 1869. The receipts of annual crops for the seven 
years were as follows : 1868, 16,028,296 bushels 5 1869, 19,880,437 ; 1870, 
15,957,061 ; 1871, 12,217,036 ; 1872, 20,294,501 ; 1873, 32,034,186 ; 1874, 
23,312,377. The receipts of the crop of 1875 to the close of the year 
amounted to 14,302,942 bushels. The amount manufactured into flour 
during 1875 was 3,357,567 bushels, an aggregate substantially the same 
as during the previous year. The aggregate receipts of 1875 prior to 
harvest were about 2,000,000 bushels less than during the same period 
of 1874; but, from harvest to the end of the year, the receipts were about 
4,000,000 bushels greater. The quality of the crop of 1875 received since 
harvest averages higher than the previous one. Of these receipts, 38.87 
per cent, graded as Ko. 1 against 21.5 per cent, during the same period 
of 1874. If the later receipts of the crop of 1875 exhibit the same tend- 
encies as its predecessor, the per cent, of No. 1 wheat will be much 
greater, as the poorer grades were first marketed and the better retained 
by the farmer. Of the eleven last crops, the largest proportion of No. 1 
wheat, 77 per cent., is shown by the crop of 1865; v^hereas that of 1866 
graded only 10.8 per cent, as No. 1 ; the crop of 1866 shows by far the 
largest per cent, of rejected wheat, 9.70 per cent. The aggregate sales 
of wheat on change during 1875 amounted to 193,270,000 bushels, aver- 
aging 629,000 bushels per day; this aggregate is 55,449,000 bushels 
greater than that of 1874. The heaviest monthly transactions, covering 
27,735,000 bushels, are reported in July. Since 1868, No. 2 spring- wheat 
has been the leading grade in this market ; it ruled very low during the 
fore part of the year and up to April, when it ran up to $1.05 per bushel, 
but fell below $1 till the middle of June, when it rose above $1 ; reaching 
its maximum, $1.16^ $1.34, in August, and falHng to $0.96 fS> $1.05t^ 
in December. This decline was. tiie result of a considerable visible 
supply at the close of the year. 

The consolidated receipts of wheat, and flour reduced to its equivalent 
in wheat, during 1875 were 35,097,732 bushels against 33,709,833 in 1874, 
34,732,042 in 1873, 17,789,969 in 1872, 19,070,521 in 1871, 23,007,832 in 
1870, and 21,784,053 in 1869. The shipments of 1875^ were 33,497,750 
bushels; of 1874,33,343,275: of 1873, 34,020,266; of 1872, 17,730,505; 
of 1871, 19,466,602; of 1870,' 22,257,543 ; of 1869, 20,373,089. 

During 1875, the receipts of corn amounted to 949,605 bushels against 



BEPOET OF THE STATISTICIAN. 73 

1,313,642 in 1874, 921,391 in 1873, 2,140,178 in 1872, 1,151,382 in 1871, 
435,318 in 1870, and 487,504 in 1869. The shipments were 226,985 bush- 
els in 1875, 556,563 in 1874, 197,920 in 1873, 1,601,412 in 1872, 419,133 in 
1871, 103,173 in 1870, and 93,806 in 1869. The receipts of this market 
are almost entirely for home consumption, chiefly for the manufacture of 
high-wines. Special efforts have been made of late years to increase the 
receipts; but, for lack of transportation and storage facilities, the supply 
has been but little beyond the needs of local consumption. Prices 
opened in January, 1875, at 63 cents per bushel, and closed in December 
at 48 cents, the minimum of the year; fluctuations were noted during 
the spring which raised the quotations to* a maximum of 74 cents in 
April. The trade has been quite irregular and artificial, in consequence 
of the stimulus employed to direct a larger supply to this market than 
would have naturally sought it. 

The receipts of oats during 1875 amounted to 1,643,132 bushels against 
1,403,889 in 1874, 1,763,058 in 1873, 1,597,726 in 1872, 1,121,950 in 1871, 
638,098 in 1870, and 722,949 in 1869. The shipments were 1,160,450 
bushels in 1875, 726,039 in 1874, 990,525 in 1873, 1,338,028 in 1872, 
772,929 in 1871, 210,187 in 1870, and 351,768 in 1869. During the first 
half* of 1875, prices ruled high, from 51 to 6I3 cents per bushel, greatly 
curtailing local consumption ; but, during the latter half of the year, there 
was a rapid declension to 31 cents the first week in December, with a 
slight subsequent reaction. These figures do not embrace local deliver- 
ies by farmers in the immediate vicinity, of which no statistics are 
accessible. 

The receipts of rye in 1875 amounted to 230,834 bushels against 
284,522 in 1874, 376,634 in 1873, 409,573 in 1872, 466,341 in 1871, 190,593 
in 1870, and 203,804 in 1869. The shipments of 1875 were 98,923 bush- 
els against 74,879 in 1874, 255,928 in 1873, 209,751 in 1872, 208,896 in 
1871, 62,494 in 1870, and 120,662 in 1869. The residue of receipts over 
shipments, with about an equal amount raised by neighboring farmers, 
was absorbed in the local consumption of the city. Prices opened at 
96^ cents per bushel, and rose to $1.18 on the first of May, falling to $1 
before harvest, with a subsequent decline to GS^ cents at the close of the 
year. 

During 1875, the receipts of barley were 1,286,535 bushels against 
1,083,472 in 1874, 1,209,474 in 1873, 1,447,078 in 1872, 874,070 in 1871, 
585,971 in 1870, and 247,499 in 1869. The shipment* were 867,970 in 
1875, 464,837 in 1874, 688,455 in 1873, 938,725 in 1872, 676,453 in 1871, 
469,325 in 1870, and 78,035 in 1869. The residue of receipts over ship- 
ments in 1875, with a large amount from farms near the city, including 
the best qualities of the market, was consumed by Milwaukee brewers, 
whose purchases for consumption during the year amounted to 767,815 
bushels. The receipts included 100,000 bushels from Canada, all of 
which were taken for home consumption. The shipments were all by 
rail. The prices of 1875 showed considerable steadiness; the extreme 
range being not over 40 cents per bushel. The highest price for Ko. 2 
barley was $1.36 per bushel, in May, and the lowest 94 cents, at the close 
of the year. 



74 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



The flour and grain movements at Milwaukee during tbe last four 
years were as follows : 



Products. 



Flour bbl 

Wheat .bush 

Floor and wheat, 

Imshels 

Com bash 

Oats do. 

Eyo do. 

Barlej do. 

Total 



187S. 



I^eiptfi. 



834.20*2 
13, G18, 959 



17, 789, 969 

2, 140, 178 

1, 597, 720 

409, 573 

1, 447, 078 



83, 384, 584 21, 818, 421 



Ship, 
mente. 



1873. 



1874. 



Kccoipts. 



1,231,986 1.254,821 , - ,.,_._ 

11, 5":0, 575 28, 457, 937 '24, 994, 2C6'2:), 628, 1 43 2',\ 235, 'M>0 'J7, ^iS, 727 22, 681, 020 



17, 730. 505 

1,001,412 

1, 338, 028 

209,751 

938, 725 



34, 732, 042 
921, 391 

1, 7c:}, 058 
376, 631 

1, 209, 474 



39 003, 599 



Sbip- 
ments. 



Kecoipts. 



1,805,200 1,016,33? 



Ship- 
ments. 



1875. 



Receipts. J^P;, 



2,217,57f>, 1,443,801 2,163,346 



I 



34, 020, 266 ai, 709, fm 33, 3 13. 275 :J5, 097, 732 33, 497, 750 



197, 920 
990, 525 
255, 928 
688,455 



36, 153, 094 



1, 313, 642 

l,403,8!--9 

2?J4. 52ii 

1, 083, 472 



37, 795, 028 



554], 563! . 949, 605; 226, 995 



we, 039 

74,879 

464, 837 



35, 165, 593 



1,643,132 1,160,450 
2:jO, 8:M 98, 923 
1, 280, 585 807, 970 



39, 207, 888 34, 852, 078 



SAINT LOUIS. 

The flour and grain trade of Saint Louis suffered a general decline 
during 1874, though one article, corn-meal, showed an increase in local 
production, with a decrease of receipts from other points. The receipts 
of flour from other points amounted to 1,300,381 barrels, a decrease of 
nearly 23 per cent, from the figures of the previous year. The amount 
manufactured was 1,424,821 barrels, a decline of 9 per cent. The total 
amouitt marketed, including imports and manufactures, was 2,725,202 
barrels, a loss of 17 per cent, from the figures of 1874. The shipments 
were 2,480,877, a decline of nearly 17 per cent. The amount taken for 
city consumption fell from 210,927 barrels in 1874 to 199,706 in 1875. 
The stock left over at the close of 1873 was 58,848 barrels ; 1874, 117,261 ; 
1875, 161,880. The inferior quality of the wheat-crop of 1875 in the 
regions around Saint Louis is attested by the fact that half of the new- 
crop arrivals during the year proved unsound upon inspection. The 
number of new brands on the market was somewhat surprising; but this 
fact indicated the difficulty of keeping up the standard of old brands. 
The most marked falling-off in receipts was from Southern Illinois. The 
decline in shipments was nearly equal eastward and southward ; but 
westward there was a small increase. It is remarkable that, while the 
rivjer shipments to the South fell off about 400,000 barrels, the rail 
shipments to the same quarter increased about 110,000 barrels. The 
trade with New England and the East was interfered with, to a consider- 
able extent, by the spring-wheat flour of other points, especially the 
patent springs. The large crop and low price of spring-wheat gave a 
temporary advantage to this new trade. 

Of twenty-seven mills operating in Saint Louis during 1875, twenty 
decreased their aggregate production by 291,396 barrels, while tlie other 
seven increased their product 143,015 barrels. The capital employed in 
this manufacture was $3,031,000, and the total flour and corn-meal 
product, together with the offal, was valued at $13,632,500 ; 589 employes 
received in wages $439,900. 

Besides the receipts and local manufactures, Saint Louis millers and 
dealers handled and shipped direct from country mills to distant markets 
a very considerable amount of flour. The following table shows the 



REPORT OP THE STATISTICIAN. 



75 



amount of this outside shipment for eight years, together with the city 
receipts and manufactures : 



Products. 



Received 

Manufactured » 

Shipped from other points. 

Total 



186a 



Barrels. 
805,836 
895, 154 
245, 824 



1, 946, 814 



1869. 



Barrels, 

1,310,553 

1, 068, 59-i 

297,860 



2,677,007 



1870. 



Barrels. 
1,491,636 



1871. 



BarreU. 



1872. 



Barrels. 



1,428, 408,1, 259, 933 



1, 351, 773 1, 507, Mf) 1, 294, 798 



407,5C1| 364,043 



440, C31 



3, 250, 9C0 3, 300, 366,2, 995, 362 



1873. 



1874. 



Barrels. 

1, 296, 457 

1, 420, 287 

3-24, iiDl 



1875. 



Barrels. Barrels. 

1, C83, 8Ue 1, 3(»0, 381 

1,573.2021,424,821 

228,789; 304,721 



3, 041, 635)3, 485, 889,3, 029, 923 



The direct shipments for the last five years were in the directions in- 
dicated in the following table: 



shipments. 



South by boat 
South by rail. 
East by rail... 
East by boat.. 
Westward.-... 
To local points 

Total... 



1871. 


1873. 


1873. 


1874. 


SarrOs. 

1, 451, 183 

304, 014 

888,124 

11, 466 

15, 946 

5,792 


Barrels, 

1,214,326 

302,904 

877,905 

5,369 

42,268 

4,268 


Barrels. 

1,200,045 

323, 078 

893, 761 

951 

16,799 

5,581 


Barrels. 

1, 186, 799 

533,077 

1, 223, 694 

8,918 

22,481 

6,791 


8,676,525 


S, 247, 040 


2,440,215 


B, 981, 760 



1875. 



Barrels. 

797,039 

643,641 

985,092 

21,383 

27,659 

6.063 

2, 480, 877 



The prices of family winter- wheat flour opened in January at $5.76® 
$0.25, and rose, with some fluctuations, to the maximum $7.50 $7.75 
about the beginning of August, and then sunk to $6.25 ® $6.50 at the 
close of the year. Spring extra rose from $4.20 ^ $4.30 at the begin- 
ning of the year to $6 in the beginning of August, and gradually sunk 
to $3.75 ^ $4.50 at the close of the year. 

The receipts of wheat were 7,064,265 bushels, a decline of 8 per cent 
from 1874. Of the receipts, 1,562,454 bushels were shipped to other 
points, a decline of nearly 20 per cent ; 772,866 bushels remained in 
store at the close of the year, and 5,785,099 bushels were ground by the 
city mills ; the latter item shows a decline from 1874 of about 4 por 
cent The annual receipts for eleven years were as follows : 1865, 
3,452,722 bushels; 1866, 4,410,305; 1867, 3,571,693; 1868, 4,353,591; 
1869, 6,736,464 ; 1870, 6,638,253 ; 1871, 7,311,910; 1872, 6,007,987 ; 1873, 
6,186,038 ; 1874, 8,255,221 ; 1876, 7,604,265. Ko. 2 red winter- wheat 
opened at $1.06 J per bushel and closed at $1.40J ; the maximum, $1^75, 
being about the beginning of October. The total receipts of wheat, in- 
cluding flour reduced to its equivalent in grain, was 13,566,170, a 
decline of 18 per cent from 1874. The decline was in the flrst half of 
the year ; the remaining half showing a positive increase. Baltimore 
and Richmond mills drew heavily on the Saint Louis market until ad- 
vancing prices and the poor quality of the last crop caused them to 
cease buying. Large supplies from Arkansas and Texas excited consid- 
erable attention. The crop in the southern portions of the country was 
not subjected to the storms which so seriously injured it in the North- 
west, and hence the receipts (rom the South west were of good quality and 
in greatly-increased quantity. 

The receipts of corn amounted to 0,710,263 bushels, a decline of 4 per 
cent from 1874. Of these receipts 3,523,974 were shipped, a falling-off 
of 15 per cent. ; 2,000,752 bushels were ground into meal, an increase of 
6 per cent ; 961,223 bushels were taken for city consumption, an increase 
of nearly 4 per cent. ; 412,598 bushels were left over at the end of the 



76 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

year against 188,281 the previous year. The receipts of corn for eleven 
years were as follows : 1865, 3,162,310 bushels ; 1866, 7,233,671 ; 1867, 
5,155,480; 1868, 2,800,277; 1869, 2,395,713,- 1870, 4,708,838; 1871, 
6,030,734 ; 1872, 9,479,387 ; 1873, 7,701,187 ; 1874, 6,991,677 ; 1875, 
6,710,263. No. 2 mixed corn was quoted at the beginning of the year, 
at 65f fa> 66 cents per bushel, rose to 77 cents at the beginning of April, 
and gradually fell to its minimum (39| <© 40J) at the close of the year. 

The receipts of corn-meal in 1875 amounted to 31,706 barrels, falling 
off 8 per cent, from 1874 ; the amount manufactured by the Saint Louis 
mills was 480,557 barrels, an increase of 6 per cent. ; the receipts and 
manufactures amounted to 512,263 barrels^ a net increase of about 5 per 
cent ; the exports amounted to 420,399 barrels, an increase of 4 per 
cent. ; kiln-dried corn-meal opened at $3.35 (a) $3.50 per barrel, and 
closed at $2.05 fa> $2.25; touching its maximum, $3.90, in June. 

The receipts of oats amounted to 5,006,850 bushels, a decline of 
nearly per cent, from 1874 ; 2,145,561 bushels were taken for city con- 
sumption, a decline of 6 per cent. ; 2,877,035 were shipped to other 
points, a decline of 7^ per cent. ; leaving on hand at the close of the 
year 89,078 bushels against 104,824 at the close of the previous year. 
The receipts of the last eleven years were as follows : 1865, 4,173,227 
bushels; 1866, 3,568,253; 1867, 3,445,388; 1868, 3,259,132; 1869, 
3,461,814; 1870, 4,519,510; 1871, 4,358,099; 1872, 5,467,800; 1873, 
5,359,853 ; 1874, 5,296,967 ; 1875, 5,006,850. No. 2 mixed oats opened 
in January at 57^ fa> 57g cents per bushel, and closed at 44 cents ; the 
maximum, 68 fS> 68^, was in the second week of April ; and the mini- 
mum, 32 ® 32f , was in November. While the receipts of the first six 
months fell behind the corresponding period of 1874 by 580,000 bushels, 
during the latter half of the year there was an increase of 290,000 bush- 
els. The receipts of the crop of 1875 were quite inferior to those of 1874. 

The receipts of rye amounted to 275,200 bushels, a decline of over 4J 
per cent, from 1874 ; 116,093 bushels were taken for consumption, fall- 
ing off 17 per cent. ; 134,960 bushels were shipped, a decline of 18 per 
cent; at the close of the year, 26,589 bushels were left over against 
2,442 bushels at the close of 1874. The seizure of many city distiUeries 
by the General Government for violation of the revenue-laws caused 
almost an entire cessation in the local demand, and consequently prices 
fell. Similar troubles in New Orleans caused the shipment to that port 
to fall off almost entirely ; but this loss was largely compensated by an 
increase in eastern shipments. The quantity of rye-flour manufactured 
was also decreased by 3,129 barrels, still further narrowing the demand 
for* the grain. No. 2, or prime rye, opened in January at $1 per bushel, 
and closed at 67 cents ; its maximum, $1.08, was in April, and its mini- 
mum, 60 cents, in the first week of December. The amount of rye-flour 
manufactured was 19,303 barrels against 21,432 in 1874, 19,472 in 1873, 
14,060 in 1872, 19,307 in 1871, and 8,558 in 1870. Prices opened at 
$5.75 (a> $6.25 per barrel, and closed at $4.50 (a> $4.75. The annual 
receipts of rye for eleven years were as follows : 1865, 217,568 bushels ; 
18C6, 375,417 ; 1867, 250,704 ; 1868, 367,961 ; 1869, 266,056 ; 1870, 
210,542; 1871, 374,336; 1872, 377,587; 1873, 356,580; 1874, 288,743; 
1875, 275,200. y 

The receipts of barley amounted to 171,337 bushels, or 17J per cent, 
less than in 1874 ; 1,007,512 bushels were consumed in the city, showing 
a decline of 11§ per cent, from the previous annual consumption ; 
140,330 bushels were shipped elsewhere, a decline of 35 per cent. The 
amount left over at the end of the year was 117,815 against 100,320 at 
the close of 1874. The receipts of barley for eleven years were as fol- 



EBPOBT OP THE STATISTICIAN. 77 

lows: 1S65, 8i6,230 bnshels ; 1866, 648,707; 1867, 705,215; 1868, 
634,501; 1869,757,600; 1870, 778,518; 1871, 870,217; 1872,1,263,480; 
1873, 1,158,615; 1874, 1,421^06; 1875, 1,171,337. The crops of the 
region marlioting at Saint Loais were poor, and tiie receipts embraced 
an anuBual percentage of nnsound and low-grade grain. The unsound 
grain had been used iu previous jears to a large extent by the distilleries ; 
but the practical closing of the whisky manufacture by prosecutions for 
violation of revenue-laws left no market for the refuse grades. The 
capital invested in brewing during the year was $3,144,310 ; hands 
employed, 624 ; aggregate of wages paid, $530,940; total !)roduot,380,054 
barrels, equal to 11,781,674 gallons, of an aggregate value of *4,003,315. 
Prices for barley opened at $1.40 ® $1.45 per bushel, and closed at 
$1.20 ® $1.25; the maximnm, $1.54, was paid about May 1, for choice 
California grain. 

The fiour and grain moTemonts of the past four years at Saint Louis 
wore as follows: 



ProdnoU. 


1B73. 


18T3. 


mi 


18,5. 


Saoelptft 


S!C. 


Ew-dpto. 


£E. 


KoooipH. 


rs. 


aBBipto. 


Ship- 


|Si-.:::- 


:i;^: 

...do.. 

...bbi. 


1.£S0,(1J3 
0|*7!t:387 

SI, am 


D18^4T7 
8,(09,739 

aM,B3e 


I.OTS,<5- 

8,185,038 

7, 701, 187 

3».aT8 


S, sou, OK 


l.«S3,e08 

8,a55,M; 


a. 081, 700 

1,93&841 

'.WW! 


1,300,381 

T.OHaes 

0,710,363 

3i;7oe 




"^bS^^ 


ia,3cn,B3s 
D.fl8<,sir. 

1.2ta,4S8 


...» 

B, 013, Ml 
3, <B7, Ml 

87,566 


7,8^,390 
1.H615 


13. Til, 361 
6,69.\8C0 

3,ais.!mi 
ia\s04 


io,e7tni 

1.191,406 


16. 81T, G41 

5, 7ft), 010 
3,0S7,e63 


14,106,170 

i.ni:33T 


13,966,108 

IK 

1461330 


bMhel... 

OBt» 

STw 

B«»r 


ii.me»l. 
'.biib'. 

...eo.. 

...do.. 


TdUI 


»,ll»,7« 


35. 878.536 


aT,«0.8Ttl 


34,0&<,«8a 


»,.„,« 


26,088,895 


ar. 396,644 


JS, 330, 733 



EEOAPITDLATION. 



The comparative receipts and shipments of ilour and grain at the 
foregoing points may bo tabulated as follows : 

Flour, barrels. 



Citiee. 


1672. 


1873. 


.874. 1 1875. ■ 


CAceipts 


Shlp- 
mem*. 


Eocolpla 


^!S.. 


^"'P'^-l i^nu. KoeoIPt^j S. 


Now Y tk 


.1,043,907 

'■S!S 

1, 175, 967 
9t%930 
1,532,014 

1, Sai, 033 


i,aoa,7!» 
aii^sur 

113. 03| 
410,50: 

i,3(ii.3a 

''S47|08l 


3, 541), 5H8 

i,S!i?5S 

765^469 
3,487,316 






B«lon 

gSSruv::;:;:-; 


ii 

^ 11 


Sfs.;::::::- 








' 



•CommoreialyeBraei 
IBocB Dot Include b 
1,294,798 barreJsi tn 187 
I BarrolH contain livo i 



1 manufacture, vthkh in 1871 aaonat«d t< 
1 1,430,387 luiTolB ; In 1874, to 1.581.(HKI barrc: 



1,994,798 banels ; Id IST3, to 



KUPOllT OF Tim C0MM18SI0NE11 OF AOHICULTUKE. 
Wheat, busliels. 



HewTorii.... 

Boston 

PfaUadelplila... 
Biltimore 

Chltago.. ...".". 



4iaTiil 
310,405 



4,37:^800 i,«i8,3ia 
s,8io,vit; i,isi,<nT 

800,434 413, 7n 

iB,!tai,5ci'S<,us,Ki 

»,tST.S3TS4.M4,aGe 
6,181,0381 I.SIO, — 

l^al», 



II. 7411 M, 214, WSX, 1»3,«S3 



.0 i.ia.'i.sHi toD,eBi 

31 »,»IS,aiO 33,184,349 

"u ii. 878, 7S7 aa, S8i, ow 

1 7,bM,3liSi 1,»».4U 
113,503,53* 



■ CommeicUl jrani. 

Wheat, including Jlour redwxd to bushels. 



CorTif bushels. 



New York 

l-hilndi'lpbiii!!! 



Saint Loals 



a, 053, 
1,673, 

„ »,1C3,473 

9,04^4e!l S,U]',!aS 



Eeceipl*. ^^^ ReoeipU. ^^t^ 



8,3X1,400 
8^330,44) 
!^a»,M4 
3d; is:, 333 



rja 3,303.641 

, ,368 5.954,7011 
f,003,ttl^ »,3,^5,-~ 



34 TS4, 943^3^ 7<», 638 3!t 705, : 
1D7,93M 1,313,04^ SX, 
S,C6a,91lU «, 091,977 4,148, 



Beoelpti- ^^^ 



3(0,354 i 

a,'95a,'7i 



8 3.ini5,5< 
138. 341, li 
3 349,61 
fl 8.710,31 



136.443,884 
3, 533,' 974 



REPORT OF THE STATISTICIAN. 

B>/c, bmhelt. 



Cltioa. 


lera. 


I87S. 


JS74. 


1871. 


EeMipU. 


Ship- 


R<-»lpt» 


8hir- 


RMBipU. 


Ship, 
mema. 


SeodpU 


i^^.. 




Si 

1,1S9.(WS 


833. Ma 


»3,«T 
100,511 

'■ii 


,.«,,J 


is 

I IB, MS 
™i,l§3 


<41.CB1 


SiiO, Am 

336! 411 

2M,S3J 
875, MB 


i»fl.soa 
























Tre'ew 




as 
■as 


6m<5 

310. SD3 

i3i;iTO 


Mjlwaake* 



Barlei/, buthel*. 



CitiM. 


.873. 


18T3. 


,m 


1875. 


Beodpti 


,l^£. 


B««pU 


Ship. 


Becelpt* 


X^ 


ll«l.iptl 


■SSfi. 




5^»175l 

1, Mr. Oil 
i,a<B.»8« 


n.« 


a,«J.a«i 

4, £10,331 


«,0W 


!HT70.00B 

4iB,ai5 


3.M0 


1710, SOB 
903.539 
1, KM. 700 
1,109,69: 

l,171.3a7 








Phlladelphl* 

gS^" 


31*; 55: 


"In'.iM 

3,306,041 

ss 

465,875 






i,oet,m 


90.68a 


i,mso« 

1461330 


Miloaokee 















.dU graing, including fiour reduced to bualieh. 



LIVE-STOCK MARKETS. 



MEW YORK. 



Live-stock operations daring 1875 were very uasatisfactory to dealers. 
The shock of the hnaacial pauic of 1873 had greatly disturbed this as 
well as other branches of tfade. ' The distress falling upon the labor- 
ing classes, who are generally the largest consumers of meat, crippled 
their capacity to purchase, and consequently limited their demand. 
Large uuinbers of people were out of employment, or earning wages 
too small to admit of the use of animal food to any extent. Some deal- 
ers, attempting to extend credit to these classes, suffered severe losses. 
This has increased the anxiety that has long been felt by intelligent 
dealers to bring the meat business to a cash basis, as this would admit 



80 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



of smaller margins both in baying and selling. Daring the last decade, 
each year has witnessed a large increase in animals marketed, bat the 
past year shows a loss in beeves and hogs and a small increase in sheep 
and calves. Had there been an average prosperity in commerce and 
industry, the increasing population would have required the usual in- 
crease in the meat supply. 

The receipts of different classes of farm animals for eight years past 
were as follows : 



Animals. 


lefirl. 


1869. 


1870. 


187L 


1872. 


1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


Bneros 

Cows 

Calves 

Sheep 

Swino 


£93, 101 

5,382 

82.035 

1, 400, 623 

976, 511 


325,761 

4,836 

93,984 

1, 479. 563 

901,308 


356,026 

5,050 

116, 457 

1, 463, 878 

899, 625 


380,934 
4,646 

121.937 
1,331.975 
1,334,492 


425,275 
5,089 

115,130 
1, 179, 518 
1, 922, 777 


442, 744 
4,701 

116, 015 
1,206,715 
1,958,389 


454,033 
3,676 

104, 719 
1,165,353 
1,774,228 


453.060 
5.034 

117,580 
1,228,530 
1,388,541 



Cattle. — ^The number of beeves marketed in 1875 was 453,060, a de- 
crease of 973 from 1874 ; of milch-cows, 5,034, an increase of 1,358 ; of 
calves, 117,580, an increase of 12,861. The range of prices of beeves 
at the close of the first week of each month of 1875, and the average 
price, were as follows : January, range, $7.75 ^ $12.75 per cental, average 
$11 5 February, range $7 fa> $13.50, average $10.50 ; March, $7.25® $13.25, 
average $11 ; April, $9 ® $13.25, average $11 ; May, $9.50 ^ $13.25, aver- 
age $11; June, $8.50® $13.60, average $12.; July, $6.50 ® $13.50, average 
$12 ; August, $6.50 ® $13.50, average $11.50 ; September, $7 ® $13.50, 
average $11 ; October, $7.50 ® $13.25, average $10.75: November, $7 'g) 
$13.25, average $10; December, $7.60 fS> $13, average $10.75. The aver- 
age of all grades during the year was $11. The range of prices per 
head of milch-cows at the beginning of each of the first nine months of 
1875 was as follows : January, $40 ® $80 : February, $45 ® $90 ; March, 
$40 /S) $80 ; April, $50 ® $75 ; May, $40 ® $70 ; June, $50 ® $90 ; July, $50 
® $108; August, $40 ® $100; September, $45 ® $75. Veal-calves touched 
their minimum, $4.50 per cental. In April and June, and their maximum, 
$10.50, in January and February. 

8heep. — The number of sheep marketed in 1875 was 1,228,530, an in- 
crease of 63,177 over 1874. The range of prices of all grades at the 
beginning of each month of 1875 was as follows : January, $6 ® $7.50 
per cental ; February, $5.50 ® $8 ; March, $5.37^® $7.75 ; April, $5.50 ^ 
$7.50; May,$5®$8; June, $5.25® $7; July, $4.25® $8.50; August, $4.25 
® $6.25 ; September, $4.50 ® $6.50 ; October, $5.25 ® $7.25 ; November, 
$4.75 ® $6 ; December, $4.50 ® $6.50. 

Sicine. — The number marketed in 1875 was 1,388,541, a decline of 
385,687 from the figures of 1874. Prices at the beginning of the year 
were $7.50® $8 per head, and about the same at the close; at the 
beginning of July they reached $9.25 ® $9.75. 

BTJPFALO. 

Eorses. — Receipts, 18,187 ; shipments, 14,581. 

Cattle. — Eeceipts, 613,530, an increase of 8,936 ; estimated aggregate 
value of receipts, $33,892,980 against $33,305,204 in 1874 and 
$26,880,056 in 1873 ; shipments in 1875, 493,574. 

Sheep. — Receipts, 841,000, a gain of 57,200 ; aggregate value of re- 
ceipts, $4,205,000 against $3,997,380 in 1874 and $4,003,700 in 1873 ; 
shipments, 722,800. 



REPORT OP THE STATISTICIAN. 



81 



Swine. — ^Beceipts, 1,067,300 against 1,431,800 in 1874^ aggregate value 
of receipts, $16,009,500 against $17,181,600 in 1874 and $16,625,qp0 in 
1873; shipments, 907,800. ^ -■*^ 

Summary.^^Aggr^dkte valae of cattle, sheep, and swine, $54,107,480 
against $54,482,184 in 1874 and $47,517,756 in 1873. 

BALTBIORE. 

Cattle. — ^The annual receipts of cattle for nine years were as follows : 
18^7, 55,713 head ; 1868, 75,891 ; 1869, 91,000 ; 1870, 89,021 ; 1871, 
8S^3S6 ; 1872, 92,292 ; 1873, 94,664 ; 1874, 130,946 ; 1875, 113,379. Of 
the receipts of 1865, 65,000 were taken by local butchers, 25,000 for 
stock in York and Ca^oll CouQties, and the residue shipped eastward. 
An approximate estimate gives the aggregate value of the receipts at 
$3,500,000. Prices per cental on the 15th of each month of 1875 were as 
follows: 



Montha. 


« 
Common to 
fair. 


Good to prime. 


Months. 


Common to 
fair. 


Good to prime. 




$3 00 to 93 75 
4 OOto 500 
300to 450 
3 75 to 5 00 
3 OOto 500 
400tO 500 


$4 87 to 17 00 
550to 7S5 
9 00 to 7 50 
5fi5to 737 
5 00 to 6 50 
SOOto 750 


July 


$3 50 to $5 00 
335 to 4 50 

2 50 to 4 75 

3 OOto 4 75 
S 00 to 4 75 
2 00 to 4 75 


15 00 to 17 40 
4 50 to 7 12 


"FAhmarv. .......... 


Atiffnit -.--.-,.. 


MATfth 


September 

October 


5 00 to 6 50 


Anril 


4 87 to 6 25 


)kfiy.„ -- 


November 


5 ffO to 6 50 


JniM ............... 


December......... 


4 87 to 6 50 






■ . \ • 



Beefprodnets — Butter.-^The receipts of butter during 1875 are esti- 
mated at 5,680,840 pounds. The brand known as ^^ Glades ^ butter was 
promptly disposed of, scarce a pound remaining unsold. The butter 
trade was on the whole quite satisfactory. Prime Glades opened at its 
maximum, 28 fS> 30 cents per pound, and closed at 24 fS) 28, reaching its 
minimum (17 Q 20) in April and May ^ prime near-by receipts opened 
at 26 Q 20, and closed at 27 ® 30, reaching as low as 16 ^ 19 in July ; 
prime western kept about the same course as that last named. Very 
few accumulations in the hands of dealers are noted during the year. 
Eastern factory cheese ranged from 11 to 16 J cents, and western factory 
about 1 cent lower. 

Swine. — ^The receipts of hogs for six years were as follows: 1870, 
300,000 head ;• 1871, 307,436 ; 1872, 400,874 ; 1873, 392,734 ; 1874, 357,647 ; 
1875, 277,496. Nearly all the receipts of 1875 were slaughtered for con- 
sumption in the city and its immediate neighborhood. The aggregate 
value has been estimated in round numbers at 4,000,000. The compara- 
tive prices per cental of live hogs on the 15th of each month of the past 
lour years were as follows : 



Months. 


1872. 


1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


.Tannary , , _. 


$6 00 to $7 25 
OSOto 7 26 
6 50to 7 25 
6 OOto 6 75 
5 50to 6 50 

5 75 to 6 25 
G OOto 6 50 

6 50 to 7 25 

7 25 to 7 50 
6 jOto 7 00 
5 75to 6 50 
5 00 to 5 50 


85 50 to 16 00 

6 25 to G 85 

7 OOto 7 75 
7 50to 8 50 
7 OOto 7 37 
6 25 to 7 25 

6 75 to 7 25 

7 25to 7 50 
6 75to 7 25 

6 OOto 7 00- 
525 to G 00 

7 OOto 7 50 


♦7 50 to $7 87 
7 37 to 8 75 
7 OOte 7 87 
7 50to 8 37 
7 OOto 8 00 

7 50to 8 25 
S.'iOto 9 25 

8 00 to 10 50 

8 00 to 10 50 

9 50 to 9 75 

8 25to 9 00 

9 OOto 9 50 


$9 25 to 19 75 


■pfthmftrv 


9 50 to 10 50 


Maych 


9 25 to 10 00 


April 


11 OOto 12 00 


Mtv 


10 00 to 11 50 


Jnne . ....^ - 


9 75 to 10 50 


Jnlv 


9 00 to 10 50 


Atiinut. 


10 25 to 11 25 


Sentomber. 


10 00 to 11 50 


October ..............*.... 


10 00 to 10 62 


X^ovfimher ................................... 


9 50«to 10 25 


l)eeeinb<>r ................................ 


9 OOto 9 75 




f r..jU-JIA 



6 A 



82 



REPORT OF TEUS COMMISSIONER OF AGBICULTURE. 



Swine products* — ^Of the western pork prodaot of ld74-'759 it is es- « 
timated that at least 140,000,000 pounds were distributed through the 
Baltimore market against 124,158,000 in 1874, 111,568,000 in 1873, and 
100,000,000 in 1872. Foreign exports fell ofif on account of high prices, 
but home consumption expanded to absorb all the old product before the 
season of 1875-'76 had opened. Baltimore still continues to be the great 
distributing point for the South. The export trade in lard has regularly 
fallen oft' in each of the last three years. The comparative exports of 
seven years were as follows: 1869, 1,864,140 pounds ; 1870,1,791,360: 
1871,4,876,760; 1872, 12,622,649; 1873, 11,596,004; 1874, 11,129,969; 
1875, 8,520,006. Prices of mess-pork ranged from $20 to $20.25 on the 
15th of January, and $21.50 in December ; maximum, $23.50 fa> $24, in 
October ; minimum, $19.50 (S> $19.75, in March. 

OINOINNATI. 

Cattle. — The receipts of the "commercial year'' ending August 31, 
1875, amounted to 227,450, an increase of 14 i)er cent, compared with 
the previous twelve months; shipments, 103,438, an increase of 30 per 
cent., showing a marked relative growth of the distributive trade of the 
city. The facilities for handling live stock have been greatly increased 
by the establishment of the "United Bailroads' Stock- Yards." The 
quality of the cattle marketed was not equal to that of the preceding 
twelve months. The grass of the cattle-regions dependent upon the 
Cincinnati market had been flooded with rain, and presented a rapid 
growth, but its defective nutrition was generally complained of. Inun- 
dations in a large portion of this area, by destroying immense quantities 
of stock-food, compelled the premature marketing of animals. Hence 
there was an unusual number of low grade on the market Texas cattle 
were brought up in increasing numbers and of improved character, and 
in many cases rivaled native stock. The short time now required for 
their transportation and the extension of railway-lines to the cattle-dis- 
tricts enable stockmen of the Southwest to place their animals on the 
market in excellent condition. The better class of the cattle received 
are for home consumption, and the lower grades constitute the staple of 
the distributing trade. The market enjoyed a good steady demand 
throughout the year. 

The annual receipts and shipments of all kinds of cattle, with the 
annual average price of prime beeves per cental, for eighteen commercial 
years, are given in the following table: 



CommercLol years. 



1857-'58 
1858-50 
18a9-'60 
1860>'0L 
1801>'63 
1868-^63 
1663-'64 
186«-'65 
lM5-'66 



V 

P4 



39,566 
43,100 
43,18S 
40,585 
37,004 
31, 915 
39, 15-2 
54, 424 
79,503 



5 

I 

•■p4 

C£2 



17, 115 
23,615 
20,593 
19,357 
23,467 
16,739 
14,903 
19, 070 
31,300 



9 

Is 



s 

V. as 
^ «> 

O U 



00,0 



$3 78 



4 

3 
3 
3 
3 
5 
7 
7 



88 
90 
30 
34 
96 
74 
45 
55 



ComxDcrcial years. 



ia66-'67 
1867-'68 
ld68-'69 
186ft-'70 
187a-'71 
1671-'72 
1873-'73 
1873-'74 
1874-'75 





ri 


4 


g 




n 


8 


5. 


s 


& 


91. 946 


43,070 


87,459 


43.315 


107, 813 


40,185 


107, 167 


54,681 


125,771 


53,278 


169, 855 


76,806 


149, 629 


53,365 


199,426 


79,551 


227.450 


103. 43d 



&■*• 



115 

« o,cejo 



♦7 874 
7 27 
5 
5 
5 
4 
4 
4 
4 



85 

OSwS 

734 

991^ 

28 

28 



BEPORT OF THE STATISTICIAN. 83 

The average weight of cattle weighed at the catt1c*yard3 daring the 
year was 944.63 pounds per head against 952.22 the previous year. The 
heaviest averages of 1876 were in February, March, and April, exceeding 
1,000 pounds^ the minimum, 681.34 pounds, was in May. 

Cattle prodticts — Butter. — The butter trade suffered some reaction dur- 
ing the last commercial year. The receipts had been greatly enlarged 
by the stimulus of the profitable trade of the previous twelve months, 
and the high prices continued after the opening of the last commercial 
year. So early as October, it became apparent that the market was being 
overstocked, and a decline of prices set in. which, however, only opei^ 
ated to induce enlarged operations by dealers in the hope of a speedy 
reaction. But the general weakening of prices tbroughoo't the country 
disappointed such hopes, and great losses were experienced by speculat- 
ors, some of whom were compelled to sell 15 or 20 cents per pound less 
than the purchase-price. Later in the year, prices somewhat improved. 
The receipts embraced 812 barrels and 65,910 firkins and kegs against 
416 barrels and 53,449 firkins and kegs the year before. The av^age 
annaal prices of choice Central Ohio during eighteen commercial years 
were as follows : Year ending August 31, 1858, 15 cents ; 1859, 19 cents ; 
1860, 14^ cents ^ 1861, 13}^ cents ; 1862, i2i cents ; 1863, 11^ cents ; 1864, 
29 cents ; 1865, 35 cents ; 1866, 36^ cents ; 1867, 26^ cents ; 1868, 361 
cents ; 1869, 32^ cents ; 1870, 28^ cents ; 1871, 24g cents ; 1872, 20.04 
cents; 1873, 23.2 cents; 1874, 27 cents; 1875, 25.33 cents. 

Oheesef^ihe receipts of cheese dnring the last commercial year 
amounted to 173,144 boxes, a falling-off of nearly 5 per cent, from the 
previous twelve months. The average annual quotations foT factory 
cheese for the last five commercial years were as follows : 1871, 13| cents 
per pound ; 1873, 14J cents ; 1873, 14^ cents ; 1874, 14J cents ; 1875, 14 
cents. For fifteen previous years, W^estem Beserve cheese averaged as 
follows: 1856, 9.7 cents; 1867, 10.1 cents; 1858, 8.1 cents; 1859, 8.2 
c^nts ; 1860, 8^ cents ; 1861, 7.8 cents ; 1862, 6.3 cents ; 1863, 10.4 cents ; 
1864, 14 cents ; 1865, 19| cents ; 1866, 19^ cents ; 1867, lU cents ; 1868, 
141 cents ; 1869, 16 J cents ; 1870, 17 cents. 

Tallow. — ^The supply was light^ 4he receipts being but 33,307 tierces, 
or 15 per cent, less than the preceding year ; the shipments were 3,804, 
a little over a third of the previous yeaj:'s shipments. The cattle slaugh- 
tered in the later portion of the year were in comparatively poor condi- 
tion and deficient in fat* The foregoing figures do not include the tallow 
produced in the city. The average quotations of the last three years 
were as follo^^s : 1873, 8.4 cents per pound ; 1874, 7.4 cents ; 1875, 8.5 
cents. Prices were quite steady and the fluctnations very limited dur- 
ing the year. 

Hides. — ^The receipts of 1875 were 177.525 pieces and 213,812 pounds 
against 161,192 pieces and 172,999 pounas the previous twelve months : 
shipments, 128,961 pieces and 102,720 pounds against 103,293 pieces ana 
86,238 pounds the previous year. Dry flint hides averaged 17 cents per 
pound against 18^ in 1874 and 20 in 1873. 

Sheep. — ^The receipts of sheep were 273)1039 an increase of 13J per 
cent, compared with the previous twelve months ; shipments, 172,007, 
an increase of 66 per cent. The increased yarding facilities have given 
rise to a great extension of the distributive trade of the city. Though the 
causes depressing the average quality of cattle operated to some ex- « 
tent upon the sheep marketed here, the quality of the receipts of 1875 
was nearly equal to that of the preceding year. The demand was fair. 
The average price of sheared sheep was $4.89 per cental gross against 



84 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



$4.50 the preceding year. The receipts and shipments of eighteen com< 
mercial years were as follows : 



Year. 


Beceipts. 


Shipments. 


Year. 


Receipts. 


Shipments. 


Year. 


Rcceip^ts. 


1 ' 
Shipments. 


1858 

1859 

1860 

1861 

1803 

1863 


17,896 
89,064 
85,069 
88,041 
87,453 
85,900 


4.363 
6. 035 
6,784 
6.000 
7.433 
4,745 


1864 

1805 

1866 

1867 

1868 

1869 

4 


35,833 
47,083 
73,839 
91,987 
73,097 
117, 548 


4.077 
5,815 
13,177 
34,058 
19.809 
31,353 


1670 

1871 

1878 

1873 

1874 

1875 


90,805 
134,893 
187, 533 
131,633 
S40, 161 
373,103 


35^581 
51,109 
68,541 
68,755 
101, 975 
172,007 



Sheep products — Wool. — The receipts of wool were 14,668 bales, aver- 
aging about 100 pounds each, a loss of 17^ per cent, compared with the 
trade of the previous year ; the shipments were 14,260 against 14,743 the 
previous year. Shipments to the East have increased, as the delaine, 
combing, and medium clothing wools here marketed are better adapted 
to eastern fabrics than to those of Cincinnati. On the other hand, the 
demand of western manufactures has not been so active. Ohio fleece- 
washed wools opened at 42 'S) 43 cents per pound, but by midsummer 
had declined to 38 'g) 40, and remained without material change* 
This was the reason why so large a proportion of the dip was left in the 
hands of the farmers. Kentucky wools, on the contrary, were early dis- 
l)osed of at 42 ^ 43 cents, and, when once in the hands of the dealers, 
fell to 40 <2) 42. Pulled weols are in but small supply, and declining 
each year. A larger proportion of wool is now marketed in the unwashed 
state. The receipts and shipments of twelve years were as follows: 



Year. 


Receipts. 


Shipments. 


Year. 


Heceipts. 


Sliipments. 


Year. 


Receipts. 


Shipments. 


1864 

1865 

1866 

1867 


14,005 
11.014 
17,099 
15,490 


13,913 
18,953 
15,670 
13,995 


1868 

1869 

1870 

1871 


11.851 
13,837 
11,971 
16,728 


18,461 
15.056 
15,655 
19,433 


1873 

1873 

1874 

1875 


11,063 

9,213 

17,733 

14,608 


12,177 
10,657 
14,743 
14,860 



The average weight of sheep weighed at the stock-yards was 81.04 
pounds per head against 80.93 x)onnds the preceding year. 

Swine. — The receipts of live hogs during the commercial year of 1875 
amounted to 920,889, a decline of 18 per cent, compared with the pre- 
ceding year ] the shipments were 149,264, a decline of 4S per cent. The 
receipts, shipments, and values of hogs in the market during the last six 
years were as follows : 



Year. 



Receipts. 



1889-'70 
187a-'71 
1871-'78 
18T3-'73 
1873-'74 
1874-'75 



484,894 

650,935 

l,0il5,885 

1,119,488 

1,121,707 

920,889 



Value of 
receipts. 



910,414,960 
18,825,546 
18, 188, 763 
14,563,191 
16. 659, 700 



Value per 
head. 



#16 00 
18 09 
10 90 
13 00 

Id 09 



ShipmentfL 



47,534 
03,171 
159,390 
265,385 
890,094 
149, S64 



Valu6\)f 
shipments. 



1994, T36 
8,013,899 
8.123.080 
.3,191,034 
8,350,908 



Value per 
head. 



f 16 00 

18 00 

6 00 

11 00 

15 75 



The year, though involving no disaster to the trade, was one of con- 
stant anxiety in regard to the final result. Operations opened for the 
packing-season in a slow reluctant way ) the impression being that the 
high prices of hogs would not warrant a heavy investment, but as the 
winter advanced there was no indication of a permanent decline. The 
opening quotation was $5.85 ® $6.75 per cental, which, at the close of 



REPORT OP THE STATISTICIAN. 



85 



February, had risen to $6 «S) $7.40 ; the average price for winter-pack- 
ing was $G.99.17 against $4.58.24 the preyions season. The money paid 
for the hogs alone was $10,511,807 against $7,477,947 the previoas y)3ar, 
or an excess of $3,043,960. The prfces of the cured pork at the close of 
the year were less than the previous year, leaving a very narrow margin 
for the packers. The latter were glad to escape serions disaster. 

The number of hogs winter-packed at Cincinnati during the last 
sixteen commercial years, with their average weight and yield of lard x>er 
head, were as follows : 



Years. 


Number packed. 


Average cost per 
. cental, grosa 


Arerage vreight 
l)cr head. 


Average yield of 




Not. 


Gross. 


All kinds. 


Leaf 

and trim- 

mings. 


1860 


434,499 
433,799 
474,467 
608,457 
370,623 
350,600 
354,079 
462,610 
366,831 
356,555 
337,330 
481, 560 
630,301 
626,305 
581,523 
560.164 




Poundg. 
189 
221.2 
224.68 
203 
188.92 
201.125 
23a 5B 
232.28 
210. 18 
214. 375 
226.33 

•239.07 
231.30 


• 
Pounds. 


Pounds. 


Pmtnds. 
23 


1861 








28.56 


1863 








29.28 


1883 




' 




25.91 


1864 V 








23.17 


1865 








24.2 


1866 








32.52 


1867 








30.5 


1868 








2.'>.18 


1869 








25wl7 


18T0 




r 
..........f - - -- 


27.125 


1871 




298.8 
289.2 
304.9 
280. 75 
278.25 

• 


42.62 

41.02 

45.67 

39.7 

41.77 


3i.2 


1872 

1873 


•4 36.4 

3 92.3 

4 5a2 
6 96.17 


29.6 


1874 






1875 













Of the number packed in 1875, 19,830 were butchers' hogs slaughtered 
for consumption, leaving 540,334, a decrease, compared with the previous 
yeaPs of 40,919. But as the average gross weight per head was less, the 
number packed was equivalent to only 535,517 of the standard of the 
previous year, showing a real decline of 45,736 hogs. The aggregate 
gross weight, not including butchers' hogs, was 150,346,488 pounds, a 
decrease of 12,841,527. The average gross weight per head was 278.25, 
a loss of 2.5 pounds. The aggregate yield of lard, not including butchers' 
hogs, was 22,571,799 pounds, a loss of 504,986 pounds. 

The average gross weight of 705,637 hogs received at the stock-yards 
was 255.14 pounds ; during the previous year, 773,780 hogs averaged 
248.34 pounds. 

Hog-products, — The product of barreled pork resulting from the opera- 
tions of the packing-season proper included 38,262 barrels of mess, 694 
of prime mess, 2,770 of clear, and 2,506 of rump ; the results of the 
previous season included 27,204 barrels of mess, 941 of prime mess, 75 
of clear, and 2,534 of rump. 

The total value of pork and bacon was $2,580,593 against $3,130,719 
in 1874, $3,731,375 in 1873, $3,682,575 in 1872, and $2,628,931 in 1871. 
The aggregate value of the shipments was $12,645,468 against $14,536^,289 
ill 1874, $15,536,289 in 1873, $12,981,151 in 1872, and $9,114,278 in 1871. 
Tne packages of pork being of various dimensions, it is not practicable 
to give the exact quantities marketed at this point. The same is true of 
lard, of which the total receipts of 1875 were valued at $1,622,255 
against $1,532,901 in 1874, $1,288,247 in 1873, $1,277,355 in 1872, and 
$1,557,989 in 1871. The shipments were valued at $4,403,346 against 
$4,062,932 in 1874, $3,'504,851 in 1873, $3,631,327 in 1872, and $5,563,564 
in 1872. 



86 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



CHICAGK). 



The tot)al vftlue of all kinds of live stock received during 1874 in the 
Cluc^ago market was $117,533,941^ an increase of nearly 14 percent 
over the values of 1874. Of this sum, $1^134,600 represented horses^ a 
loss of 35 per cent. 5 $40,042,150 the cattle-trade, a gain of 28 per cent. ; 
$08,401,925 the swiue^rade, an increase of 7 per cent. ; $1,895,266 the 
sheep-trade, an increase Of 39 per cent. 

Horses. — ^Tho monthly receipts and shipments of horses for the last 
three years were as follows : 



January •• 
February . 

March 

April , 

MAy 

tTtmo 

July 

AQgnst .... 
September 

Octobe': 

Kovomber . 
December , 



Total 



Months. 



1873. 



Bedeipts. 



097 
2,135 
4,853 
2,913 
2,066 
2,J37 

i,m 

1,073 

1,340 

779 

483 

840 



20,SS9 



Ship- 
ments. 



467 

1,978 

3,909 

2,801 

2,663 

3,276 

964 

1,008 

1,954 

609 

770 

SS7 



18,540 



1874. 



Beceipta. 



G88 

2,538 

3,836 

2,739 

1,603 

1,807 

804 

853 

838 

1,251 

423 

206 



17,588 



Ship- 
ments. 



604 

2,376 

3,690 

2,672 

1,607 

1,508 

839 

760 

&^ 

1,223 

256 

185 



16,606 



1875. 



Receipts. 



483 

1,222 

2,784 

2,083 

l,3t6 

1,150 

648 

416 

431 

293 

271 

172 



11,. 129 



Ship- 
ments. 



562 

1,141 

9^781 

1,835 

1.407 

1,096 

715 

414 

4iM 

323 

900 

151 



11, 109 



The value per capitals estimated Mmewhat lower in 1875 tha)i daring 
the two jii^evions years. 

Cattle, — ^The number of cattle received was 920,843, an increase of 
70,882 head, or 8 per cent, over 1874 ; the shipments were 696,534, an 
increase of y3,005, or nearly 12 per cent. The receipts and shipments of 
the last five years were as follows : 



Month*. 



Januiiry 

February 

Maroii 

April 

May 

Juno 

Ja4y 

August 

September 

October 

November 

Dcourober 

Totnl 



1871. 



oS 



f4 



I 

:a 

CO 



30, 708 

43,399: 

44, 752 

48, 144! 

59,217 

52,561 

50,041 

50,583 

53,175 

37.981 

42, 761 

29,805 



16,639 
28,782 
39, 578 
43.532 
49,455 
44,637 
39,754 
36, 007 
38.528 
98,759 
90.378 
21,393 



543,050 



401, 432 



1878. 



^ 

A 



P^ 



44,990 
41,067 
53,705 
58,393 
71,700 
63,449 
58,439 
64,463 
66,744 
64,957 
95,884 
40,799 



684, 610 



33,047 
36,146 
43, 170 
52,474 
67, 089 
52,335 
41,024 
47,211 
43, 179 
34,388 
32,468 
26,105 



509,490 



1873. 



i 

I 



50.590 
45.019 
63,836 
84, 249 
61,002 
85.380 
73,007 
67, 731 
65,394 
63,845 
37, 712 
4^,933 

761, 428 



a 
o 

I 

U2 



30,564 
35,509 
56,477 
68,^1 
60,261 
68,818 
54,505 
49,726 
44,301 
34,109 
23,351 
27,970 



1874* 



1875. 



S 

O 



59,436 
52,775 
72,542 
77,340 
77, 373 
89,274 
65, 118 
73,308 
73,761 
85,193 
65,530 
52,308 



574,181 843,966 



5 
a 

I 



44,771 
43,719 
59,935 
66,733 
72,993 
08,728 
48,299 
50,541 
45,854 
50,161 
37,643 
30,552 



622,929 



5 



64,951 
58,142 
80,149 
92,374 
80,736 
90,481 
65,471 
a'), 948 
82,495 
84,763 
72,00:) 
63,330 



920,843 



a 

Pi 



43,694 
44,113 
65,314 
82,888 
72, 170 
70,384 
52,624 
61,948 
55,294 
62,301 
42,462 
43,342 



606,534 



The increase of shipments being larger than that of receipts shows 
a comparative growth of the distributive trade of the city. A large 
])roportion of the receipts were shipped alive, and consequently a 
smaller pvoportioa were slaughtered for home consumption or for beef- 
packing lor export. The business of, 1875 was the largest ever done at 
any poiut on the world's surface. The receipts of April, 92,374, show 



REPORT OP THE STATISTICIAN. 87 

the largesfc monthly busiuess ever transacted. This euornioue accession 
of animals could not fail to overtax even th^ splendid facilities of the 
Chicago market and to absorb all the available space in thestock-.yards. 
It also made the market to run very slow, the ordinary demand being 
exceeded. The accessions of the spring months were mostly native 
steers, cows, &c., from the region immediately dependent upon Chicago. 
Large receipts came from Texas, with which State Chicago is strength- 
ening and multiplying her railway connections. The transportation of 
cattle from this region now requires but six days, causing but little 
decline of flesh and condition compared with the former system of 
transport. Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, Wyoming, and the Indian 
Territory also contributed largely to the receipts. The season was not 
one of profit to native feeders, prices having ruled lower than for several 
years previous. The fluctuations in prices also rendered the drovers' 
business somewhat precarious in its profits. The receipts of the first 
half of the year in quality compare favorably with former years, but 
there was a considerable falling-off in the last six months in this respect. 
Texas cattle, with a diminished supply, show a more desirable quality. 
The preparation of dressed beef for exportation is a growing business 
in Chicago; the points of shipment being generally the manufacturing 
towns of the East. The business' was also pursued at various points 
west of the Mississippi, and the carcasses marketed at Chicago interfered 
to some extent with the retail butcher trade of that city. Prices of live 
cattle during the last months of the year fell to a point which seemed 
inconsistent with any trade movement whatever. The year closed up in 
discouragement, with a bad outlook for the future, and many traders 
were contemplating other investments of their capital. This was in 
strong contrast with the close of 1874, when a strong market with active 
. demand and high prices were confidently predicted. Stock and feed- 
ing cattle opened at $3 <a> $4 per cental, and gradually rose to $5.50 
in the spring, but sank to about the opening quotations at the close of 
the year; common to choice cattle ranged from $2.90 fa> $7.50 down to 
$2.25 'S) $6.15. 

Cattle-products-^Beef.— The number of cattle packed during the last 
ten seasons was as follows: 1865-'66, 27,172; 1866-'C7, 25,996; 1867-'68, 
35,348; 1868-'69, 20,950; 1869-^70, 11,963; 1870-'71, 21,254; 1871-^72, 
UQ,080 ; 1872-^73, 16,755 ; 1873-74, 21,712 ; 1874-75, 41,192. Of bar- 
reled beef the receipts during 1875 amounted to 26,949 barrels against 
36,670 in 1874, 7,158 in 1873, 14,512 in 1872, 53,289 in 1871, 20,554 in 
1870, and 1,478 in 1869, showing a very irregular supply m)m other 
points ; the shipments amounted to 60,454 in 1875, 72,562 in 1874, 33,938 
in 1873, 39,911 in 1872, 89,452 in 1871, 65,369 in 1870, and 48,624 in 
1869, showing a considerable fluctuation in the distributive trade. 
Mess43eef ranged from $8 to $10 per barrel during the year, the higher 
prices being sustained during the latter half of the year ; extra mess 
ranged about $1 higher. 

2Vi.«ot<7.— Receipts, 3,269 tons against 3,374 in 1874 and 4,203 in 1873 ; 
shipments, 3,701 tons against 4,051 in 1874 and 5,787 in 1873. Prices 
opened at 8 'S) 8^ cents per pound and closed at 9 ; the maximum, 9^ fS> 
9|, being in the second week of October. 

Hides. — BeGeiptB, 62,309,872 pounds against 62,287,674 in 1874, 
36,886,241 in 1873, and 32,287,995 In 1872; shipments, 64,838,661 pounds 
against 48,780,931 in 1874, 30,725,408 in 1873, and 28,969,292 in 1872. 
The volume of trade shows some increase, but it is complained of as un- 
profitable. The demand was small for light hides, through the continued 
depression in leather manuitictures in tiie East ; but heavy Texas and 



88 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



Cherokee hides were in fair request for sole-leather. The direct export 
to Earope shows a marked increase. Prices of dry flint hides fell off 
regularly from 18 ^ 10 oents per pound at the opening to 15 cents at 
the close of the year ; dry salted from 16 ^ 17 to 12 cents ; green 
salted from 8^ ^ 9^ to 1\ cents ; green and stock averaged 8^ during 
the year. 

Butter and cheese. — Receipts of butter, 30,243,247 pounds against 
25,573,309 in 1874, 22,283,275 in 1873, and 14,574,777 in 1872 ; shipments, 
16,356,658 pounds against 16,295,253 in 1874, 12,851,303 in 1873, and 
11,497,537 in 1872. The receipts of cheese are estimated at 12,000,000 
pounds ; prices, during the first five months of 1875, averaged 16 cents 
per pound and 11 cents during the remainder of the year. ^ 

Slieep. — The receipts of sheep were 418,948 head, an increase of 80,293, 
or nearly 24 per cent. ; the shipments were 240,604, an increase of 60,049, 
or 36 per cent. The monthly receipts and shipments were as follows : 



Months. 



January 

Feb)ruary .... 

March 

April 

May 

Juno 

Jnly 

AngtiBt 

September . . . 

October 

NoTember ... 
December . . . 

Total.... 



1871. 


1872. 


1873. 


1874. 


1875. 




5 




• 


\ 


« 

4S 




00 




o3 




s 


«6 

.1.4 


i 


1 


a 


5 


a 
o 

S 




a 


s 




S 


.& 


Oi 


8 


Pi 


§ 




s 


£ 


& 


g 


s 


§ 


& 


S 


tA 


& 


35, 111 


17,576 


42,069 


83.235 


39,751 


20,787 


29,173 


15,631 


58,163 


41.898 


43.608 


25,512 


41,803 


35,348 


27,729 


34,728 


41,586 


87,545 


42,571 


27,934 


42,813 


89,321 


38,170 


29,495 


31,061 


83,020 


34,866 


36,630 


50,985 


36,702 


23,379 


13,064 


24,771 


17,328 


75,570 


12,798 


30,100 


19,833 


41,952 


30,359 


23,337 


8,557 


16,389 


5,945 


81,030 


8,653 


80,318 


11,319 


16,476 


6,006 


23,667 


6.496 


13,776 


3,493 


20,862 


5,506 


17,538 


5,501 


16,639 


3,328 


19,022 


5.214 
#917 


13, 819 


2,471 


17,697 


784 


16,035 


8,991 


12,636 


082 


25,471 


18.777 


3,937 


19,921 


1,152 


81,916 


6,879 


34,386 


9,371 


27,732 


7,264 


22,452 


5,623 


16,794 


1,975 


33,368 


6,768 


39,386 


9,340 


18,632 


4,397 


48,290 


7,349 


27,871 


5,472 


30.837 


11,657 


31,916 


16,731 


19, 144 


3,e9t 


24,343 


7,417 


18,506 


4,566 


30, 765 


14,229 


40,667 


80,4(28 


15, 737 


7,029 


25,553 


13,376 


17,043 


5,794 


46,353 


33,183 


54,382 


37,579 


316, 053 


fS5,004 


330,211 


145, 016 


333,234 


115,235 


338,655 


180. 555 


418, 948 


240,604 



The greater increase in shipments marks a corresponding increase of 
tlio distributing trade. Beceipts direct from Texas in double-decked 
cars are annually enlarging^ this and other improvements in transpor- 
tation secure the early delivery of animals in g«od condition. Prices 
did not show any great fluctuation. Common to choice sheep opened at 
$3 fS> $5.75 and closed at $4 ^ $5.25 ; reaching their maximum, $7.50, in 
April and May by gradual increase. 

Sheep jprodticts — Wool. — ^The receipts of wool were 49,476,091 pounds 
against 36,267,191 in 1874, 34,486,858 in 1873, and 28,181,509 in 1872; 
shipments, 51,895,832 pounds against 38,117,931 in 1874, 32,715,453 in 
1873, and 27,720,089 in 1872. The wool trade was dull and unsatisfactory, 
with prices lower than at any time since 1860. Prices of all sorts show 
a persistent gradual decline throughout the year; common to extra tub- 
washed from 48 Q 55 cents per pound to 40 <2) 53 ; common to fine 
fleece- washed, 42 48 to 38 ^ 43; unwashed, 30 ® 35 to 25 '^ 
33 at the close of the year. The increased use of coarser grades 
of wool in the fashionable fabrics of the day, prepared by improved 
methods, caused a neglect of finer grades, though these showed some 
reaction during the last three months. During the first four months 
there was an active demand by western manufacturers. One Chicago 
firm imported 50,000 pounds from Boston to meet this demand. The 
increased quantity of trans-Mississippi w«ol annually marketed at 
Chicago marks the improvement in methods and breeds in Kew Mexico, 



REPORT OP THE STATISTICIAN. 



89 



Colorado, California, and other wool-growing regions. The center of 
wool production is annually shifting westward, as is shown by the 
increasing proportion from the regions west of the Mississippi annually 
matketed at Chicago. 

Swine. — The receipts of swine were 3,912,110, a loss of 346,209, or nearly 
9 per cent.; the shipments amounted to 1,582,643, a decline of 744,718, or 
32 per cent! The monthly receipts anH shipments for five years wei'e as 
follows : 





1871. 


1879. 


1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


Months. 




a 
I 

'i 


• 

1 


t 

a 


1 


a 
B 

3 


P4 


c6 

■♦-» 

p 

1 

CO 


S 

.£* 

"Z 

508,347 
421, 833 
940,797 
959,569 
972,887 
999,051 
99U,137 
190, 788 
165, 919 
301,955 
491, 393 
470, 134 


s 


Jon 

Feb.... 

Mar 

Apr 

ifiy.... 
June.... 
July.... 
Aug.... 
Sept.... 

Oct 

Nov 

Dec 


300,697 
139,348 
97,^058 
71,632 
137,521 
197, 499 
165.831 
118,975 
164,749 
161, 919 
386,766 
456,831 


26,530 

47,794 

75,387 

63,086 

111,524 

166,513 

134,391 

98,187 

195,561 

131,370 

113, 643 

67,490 


361,935 
968^936 
170,785 
169, 149 
965,959 
£5i714 
919,030 
919, 406 
914, 798 
929,304 
373,963 
51^ 114 


78,377 
104,668 
144,909 
145, 151 
196, 451 
906,940 
172,934 
198, 077 
186. 010 
175, 241 
132,381 

95, 195 


561,245 
378,760 
971,696 
999,903 
961,361 
945, 860 
944,550 
934,145 
9^.519 
395,716 
616,301 
665,771 


95,937 
163,140 
994,194 
SW5,715 
917, 914 
189,586 
901,682 
188,776 
191,941 
19^569 
156,926 
146,577 


457,068 
303,341 
238,798 
311,945 
328,838 
310,072 
931, 416 
905, 904 
961,193 
350,812 
797,407 
531,705 


146, 435 
163,980 
202,317 
945,945 
965, 140 
938,390 
183,450 
147,355 
168,628 
942,350 
903,437 
119,928 


135,509 
197,532 
147, 778 
171, 505 
164,090 
165, 184 
157, 781 
111,378 
119, 181 
135,073 
94,428 
53,904 


Total. 


3,398,113 


1, 161, 40613, 959, 6231, 835, C34 


4,337,750 


9,197,557 


4,958,379 


2, 327, 361 


3, 919, 110 


1, 582, 643 



The average weight of hogs received during the year was 233| pounds 
against 218 pounds in 1874. The monthly average weight per head 
during the last four years is given as ibllows : ' 



Mentha. 



January .. 
February. 
March.... 

Anrll 

IkUy 

June 

July 

Auffust ... 
September 
October... 
I'fovember 
December. 



1872L 


1873. 


1874. 




289} 


9.'52; 


997} 


26*11^ 


21U 


2SU 


201} 


22Si 


213 


197} 


923 


9l7i 


199} 


997^ 


930 


906.7 


934 


93l| 


907.9 


938i 


935J 


SS* 


957^ 


241.6 


909^ 


964^ 


. 252 

967; 


991} 


279 


944 


983i 


970^ 


253i 



1875. 



961 

951 

217 

206i 

210 

918 

223 

922 

2:u) 

.239 
256^ 
275 



An increasing number of hogs from Texas and the Indian Territory 
is annually marketed at Chicago. This branch of the trade has been 
greatly extended by increased facilities of transportation, and especially 
the use of double-dedit cars. 

Smne products.. — ^The numbers of hogs packed at Chicago during tlie 
last six winter-seasons were as follows : 



Scasona 


Xumber 
packed. 


Average 

weight 

per head. 


Average 
vield of 
lard per 
head. 


Seasons. 


Number 
packed. 


Average 

weight 

per head. 


Average 
yield of 
lard per 
head. 


18e9-*70 


688,140 

919, 197 

1,285,936 


Pounds* 
904.75 
996.94 
232.54 


JPimndt, 
30.89 
37.13 
43.07 

t 


187S-'73 


1,456,650 
1,581,650 
1,781,896 


Pounds* 
936,25 
216. 47 
912.42 


Pounds. 
44.03 


1870-11 


1873-'74 


37.44 


1871-'79 


1874-'75 


37.30 









90 



RKPOET.OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



Porfc.— Receipts of 1875, 58,270 barrels ; of 1874, 40,381 ; of 1873, 
43,758; of 1872, 121,023; shipmeuts of 1875, 311,170 barrels; of 1874, 
233,704; of 1873, 191,144; of 1872, 208,664. The city product of the 
packingseasou of 1874-'75 was 261,675 barrels; of 1873-'74, 195,917; 
of 1872-'73, 102,986 ; of 1871-72, 152,012 ; of 1870-'71, 148,150 ; of 1809-'70, 
118,599. Mess-pork opened at 818.75 ^ $19 per barrel aud closed at 
$18.80 fa> $19.10 : maximum, $22.75 ^ $23.25, daring the second week in 
October; minimum, $17.70 '©$18, in the middle of January ; prices 
mostly above the range from the opening to the closing of the year. 

Xar<i.— Receipts, 21,763,720 pounds against 21,896,420 in 1874, 
26,674,425 in 1873, and 19,911,797 in 1872; shipments, 114,998,683 pounds 
against 81,893,387 in 1874, 89,847,680 in 1873, and 86,040,785 in 1872. 
The market was steady during the year, a formidable effort at ^'corner- 
ing " having failed, with considerable loss to its projectors. Steam-ren- 
dered lard opened at $13.15 ^ $13.60 per cental and closed at $12.10 (a> 
$12.20 ; maximum, $15.50 ^ $15.75, in April; minimum at the close of 
the year. 

Nummary. — The annual receipts of cattle, sheep, and swine during ten 
years were as follows : 



Yearft. 



1860 

1867 

1868 

1869 

1870 V 

1871 

1878 w 

18TJ 

1874 

1875 



Cattle. 



392,604 
387,650 
384,994 
403,102 
532,964 
543,050 
684,610 
761,488 
643^ 960 
990,843 



Sheep. 



209,490 
180,888 
870,875 
340,072 
349, 855 
316,053 
310,211 
333,934 
338,645 
418,948 



Swine. 



933,933 

1,606,680 
1, 706, 788 
1, 661, 869 
1, 693, 158 
3, 398, 113 
8,35^623 
4,337,750 
4,858,379 
3, 912, 110 



Total. 



1,535.257 
2,115.227 
2, 302; 181 
2,405,043 
2,575,977 
3, 240. 180 
4,946,909 
5, 390, 919 
5,440,990 
5.851,901 



SAINT LOUIS. 



Series and mules. — ^Thc receipts of horses and mules in Saint Louis 
during 1875 amounted to 27^616 against 27,175 the previous year^ the 
shipments amounted to 28,675 against 30,202 in 1874. The range of 
prices at the iSrst of each month of the last three years was as follows : 



Months. 



January ... 
Pebmary .. 

March 

April 

May 

Jnne 

July 

AugQHt .... 

Septoiober. 

October 

Norember , 
December. . 



1873. 



Horses. 



150 to $200 
50 to 200 
40 to 
40 to 
40 to 
40 to 
40 to 
40 to 
25 to 
40 to 



200 
925 
235 
23a 
225 
225 
175 
200 



Males. 



185 to 9900 

85 to 200 

86 to 
85 to 
85 to 
90 to 
90 to 
75 to 
65 to 
65 to 



175 
900 
900 
225 
825 
225 
175 
225 



1874. 



Horses. 



130 to $175 
30 to 165 
SD to 
30 to 
30 to 
40. to 
40 to 
40 to 
40 to 
40 to 
40 to 
40 to 



165 
165 
165 
170 
900 
900 
180 
170 
170 
170 



Moles. 



$60 to $900 
50 to 200 
50 to 950 
50 t^dOO 
50 to 200 
65 to 
70 to 
75 to 
75 to 
75 to 
75 to 
75 to 



900 
190 
200 
900 
200 
200 
200 



1875. 



Horses. 



$40 to $180 
40 to 180 
40 to 
40 to 
40 to 
40 to 
40 to 
40 to 
40 to 
40 to 
25 to 
20 to 



180 
180 
180 
180 
180 
180 
180 
200 
200 
200 



Moles. 



$75 to $900 
75 to 200 
75 to 
75 to 
75 to 
75 to 
to 



75 
75 to 
75 to 
85 to 
80 to 
80 to 



200 
900 
ISO 
200 
180 
900 
900 
900 
900 
200 



The trade was mostly with the South, and not very remunerative. 
Gatile.—iHiG receipts of cattle during 1875 were 335,742 head, a dedi 
7 per cent, from 1874 ; the shipinents amounted to 125,679 head. 



decline 
an 



REPORT OF THE STATISTICIAN. 



91 



increase of 9 per cent. The aggregate receipts and sbipments of the 
last eleven years were as follows : 



Years. 


Koceipts. 


Shipments. 


Year. 


Koceipts. 

134,565 

201, 423 

- 199,527 

263,404 


Shipments. 


Year. 

< 


Receipts. 


Shipments. 


1865 

1866 

1867 

1868 


94,307 
103,259 

74. 146 
115, 352 


52.133 
64^)47 
62,974 
79, 315 


1869 

1870 

1871 

1872 


96,626 

94, 477 

118,899 

115,904 


1873 

1874 

1875 


279, ens 

360,925 
3;«, 742 


86,434 
114, 913 
125, 679 



The folio wiug table shows the range of prices per cental at the begin- 
ning of each month of the last three years : 



Itonths. 



JanxiBty 

Febraary .4.... 

Maroh 

April 

Maj 

Jone 

July 

Anenst 

September 

October ■.... 

Kovember 

December 



1871. 



12 50 
3 50 
2 75 

2 75 

s m 

3 00 
2 00 

75 
25 
50 
25 
50 



to 16 25 
to 6 50 
6 50 
50 
6 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



60 
6 75 
00 
00 



75 
50 
CO 
75 



lars. 



|2S5 
SS3 
3 50 

3 SO 

4 37i 
2 50 



75 
75 
75 
85 
50 
37i 



6 
6 



to^ 50 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 



75 
75 
75 
6 50 
6 50 
6 50 
6 35 

5 75 
GOO 

6 00 
5 75 



1873. 



$1 50 




1874. 



|1 50 
50 
75 
00 
75 
00 
25 



1 
1 
8 
8 
2 
1 



8 00 



1 
1 
1 
1 



90 
75 
00 
75 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



$8 50 
6 85 
6 00 
6 85 
6 00 
6 85 
6 85 
600 
75 
75 
SO 



5 
5 



5 



75 






1875. 



IS 00 
2 00 



00 
75 
50 
50 
50 
50 
75 
8 00 
8 25 
8 25 



to 16 00 
to 6 00 
6 00 
685 
e 75 
6 75 
6 75 
6 75 
6 85 
6 85 

5 50 

6 12 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



The quality of the animals received was generally better than the 
previous year, especially Texas cattle.; the demand was steady and act- 
ive, shippers taking nearly two-tliirds of the receipts. i 

Cattle product^'^utter. — The receipts of butter embraced 110,074 pack- 
ages against 74,937 in 1874, 64,607 in 1873, and 51^259 in 1872. It is a 
matter of special regret that no definite quantity is represented in these 
figures ; the term packages being so indefinite as to have no statistical 
value whatever. The only general statement that may be made from 
these statistics is that the consumptive trade in butter is rapidly increas- 
ing. The shipments, not being of sufficient importance to note among 
the leading articles of export, indicate a very small distributive trade. 

Cheese,^^The receipts of cheese during 1875 amounted to 69,013 boxes 
against 80,579 in 1874, 58,790 in 1873, and 84,345 in 1872 ; the shipments 
by river Ad rail in 1876 amounted to 52,045 boxes. The range of prices 
of butter and cheese at the beginning of each month for the last five 
years was as follows : 



2Ionths. 



iTftnoary 

ii^bmary « 

March 

AptU 

May 

Jane 

July 

AUf^QSt 

September 

October 

November 

U^ember 



1871. 



S 



20 io!)3 
15 to 39 



f^ 



I5|tol6i 
t5{to84 



15 to 30115 t<r84 



15 to 30 
15 to SO 
12 to 20 
12 to 20 
14to20 



Id to 26 
17lo27 



l&ito23 
17 to82 
14) to 16 
12 to 80 
lOitoia 



14to2i.»4tol0 



m to 14 
14 tolsi 



1878. 



I 
I 



14tb20|i4itol5 



OentB. 
23 to 36 

lotoas 

19 to 37 

20 to 40 

15 to 85 

16 to 80 
i5tol9 
16 to 24 
16 to 30' 
20 to 33 
18 to 30 
20 to 29; 



Oentt* 




18|to8S 
17 to 19 
13 tol3i 

114 torn 

loS to 11 
I2I to 13^ 
Mitol5i 
15|tol6 
14} to 15 



1873. 






CenU. 
80 to 28 
90 to 88 
20 to 32 
25 to 35 
15 to 22 

15 to 22 
14 to 20 

16 to 24 

19 to 87 

20 to 30 
iBtO^ 
24 to 30 






-i^. 



15 
15 
15 
15 



15^87 



Httolo 
14|tol5 
15 to 16 

to 

tol5i 

to 

to 
lU^toU 
13 to 14 
13 to 14 
13|toMi 
13itol4 



ir»i 



1874. 



p 



Cents. 



187 to 37 
27 to 37 
to 34 
80 to 30 
20 to 30 
18 to 26 
20 to 28 
20 to 28 

25 to 3^ 

26 to 36 
36tO<36 



« 



.a 



Cents. 



25to32ll3itol4 
tol6J 



15 
15 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
13 
13 
13 



tol6|j 
to 18? 
tol8i 

toiel 

to 181 
tolSi 
to 18 
to 14 
tol3( 
to 13^; 



1875. 






CfiUi. 
85 to 33 
23 to 33 13 
23 to 33 



13 
18 to 33113 



15 to 28 

15 to 88 
14 to 28 

16 to 88 
feto26 
20 to 28 
20 to 30 



A 



CmU. 
13 torn 

tolSi 

torn 

tol3| 

torn 

to 13^ 
tol3( 

torn 

tOl3| 



13 
13 
13 
13 

13 



10 
12(tol4 



30to3013 tol4 



92 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



The grades of butter in the above table were from good to choice ; 
cheese quotations represent choice factory brands, either eastern or 
western. 

Hides. — The trade in hides has assumed vast proportions, and is con- 
stantly growing. During 1875, the receipts amounted to 19,851,947 
pounds, and the shipments to 32,457,805 pounds. The report of the 
Merchants' Kxchange quotes with approbation the estimate of a leading 
dealer, that tlie receipts of 1875, from outside the city, embraced 700,000 
pieces of dry and 500,000 pieces of green hides. The city butchers also 
marketed about 300,000 pieces, and the whole trade reached about 
$6,000,000 in value. 

m^.— Receipts in 1875, 125,079, an increase of 9 per cent, compared 
with the previous year. The monthly receipts of 1875 were as follows : 
January, 6,194; February, 5,846; March, 5,781; April, 12,161; Mav, 
9,642; June, 12,805; July, 10,566; August, 11,585 ; September, 19,872; 
October, 13,866 ; Kov§mber, 10,090 ; December, 9,272. The annual re- 
ceipts for the last eleven years were as follows : 1865, 52,133 ; 1866, 
64,047 ; 1867, 62,974 ; 1868, 79,315 ; 1869, 96,326 ; 1870, 94,477 ; 1871, 
118,899; 1872, 115,904; 1873, 86,370; 1874, 114,913; 1875, 125,679. 
The range of prices per cental on the first day of each month of the 
last three years will be found in the following table : 



Months. 


1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


J|intiAi*y , ,..,.i..i ^ » .xxia... X 1 


i 
94 CO Ift3 Trifnfts no 


12 25to|4 7.') 
2 25 to 4 75 


F^pbrnary ...^.a ... ,.. ^..x..-- 


3 00to|5SJ5 
3 OOto 5 25 
3 OOto 6 00 
3 50 to C 75 
3 OOto G 50 
350to 4 25 
4 25 


4 50 

500 

2 50 to 5 60 
4 25 to 6 10 
4 OOto 6 00 
2 50to 600 

2 50 to 6 00 

3 OOto 4 25 
S25to 4 25 
2 50 to 5 25 
2 25-to 4 75 


liArch..". 


S 50 to 5 00 


April 


4 OOto 6 95 


MAy 


3 75 to G 2r) 


Jane 


3 75 to 6 25 


July 


3 75to 25 


Aojciut 


3 75 to 6 25 


September 


390to 350 
S 90to 4 12i 
3 OOto 3 62} 
1 75to 4 25 


2 85 to 4 23 


October 


2 85 to 4 25 


Noyember 


3 00 to 4 75 


December 


2 75 to 4 90 


■■•^■«. 





Slieep'products — Wool. — The receipts of wool during 1875 amounted to 
4,249,307* pounds against 4,963,417 pounds in 1874 and 3,956,212 in 
1873 ; the shipments amounted to 3,756,518 pounds. The depression 
in woolen fabrics kept down prices, and crippled the wool tr^e during 
the whole year. 

Stcine. — ^The receipts of live hogs during 1875 amounted to 628,569, a 
decline of 44 per cent, from the previous year ; the shipments were 
126,729, a loss of 70 per cent. The receipts of the last eleven years were 
aa follows : 1805, 52,133 ; 1866, 64,047 ; 1867, 62,794 ; 1868, 79,315; 1869, 
96,626; 1870,94,477; 1871,118,899; 1872,115,904; 1873,86,434; 1874, 
114,913 ; 18Z5, 125,679. The shipments of the same years were as fol- 
lows : 1865, 17,869 ; 1866, 13,368 ; 1867, 28,627 ; 1868, 16,277 ; 1869, 
39,076; 1870, 17,166; 1871,113,913; 1872, 188,700; 1873, 224,873 ; 1874, 
453,710 ; 1875, 126,729. The shortened supply is attributed to the faU- 
ure of the corn-crop through large regions dependent upon the Saint 
Louis market. This caused packers to buy slaughtered hogs in other 
markets for packing at home. The range of prices at the beginnitig ot 
each month of the last three years was as follows : 



REPOET OF TpE STATISTICIAN. 



93 



*> J — ""' ' w - - 

Months. 


1873. 


1874. 

» 


1875. 


Jannarv ...............................•....•.>....... 


^ 30 to 13 70 

3 85 to 4 25 
485 to 5 00 

4 60 to 550 
4 95 to 5 35 
4 35 to 4 60 
d 90 to 4 25 
4 00 to 4 40 
4 00 to 4 50 

4 00 

3 70 to 4 25 
400 to 425 


$2 81 io 95 37^ 
4 90 to 5 65 

4 90 to 5 30 

5 00 to 5 25 
4 50 to 5 45 

4 80 to 5 00 

5 00 to 6 00 
5 50 to 7 25 
4 00 to 750 

4 50 to 7 25 
3 25 to 6 25 

5 50 to 7 50 


84 00 to ^6 90 


yebmarv- 


4 50 to 7 00 


^Aroh «...•.•.•.•••»..••••....».•••••••••.--••«••••■*• 


5 00 to 7 25 


Aiiril 


5 00 to 7 85 


•Mav 


8 00 


■TnnA -....J*. ..•«•••.«•.•••...•••••••••••.•••••. •••«.. 


* 6 eO to 8 00 


JuJv... ................. .............................. 


6 60 to 8 00 


Ancnjit. 


6 60 to 8 00 


Sentember...... ..T................ 


6 00 to 8 00 


October ..^. 


6 00 to 8 00 


Novemberl 


5 25 to 7 dS 


December ............................................ 


6 90 to 7 00 


1 





Stoine-producta. — ^The receipts of barreled pork during 1875 amounted 
to 46,547 barrels, a decline of 16 per cent, from 1874. This branch of 
trade shows a steady decline since 1871. The shipments amounted to 
95,503 barrels. Of bacon and cat meats, the receipts amounted to 
51,556,146 pounds, a decline of 548,234 pounds ; the shipments amounted 
to 105,809,598 pounds against 133,486,380 in 1574. Of lard, the receipts 
from outside the city were 6,732,320 pounds, against 6,877,560 in 1874, 
8,981,820 in 1873, and 11,288,890 in 1872 ; the shipments of 1875 were 
24,145,176 pounds ; of 1874, 27,112,270 ; of 1873, 37,156,810 pounds ; of 
1872, 33,943,860. 

The number of hogs winter-packed during the last fourteen seasons, 
with their average weight and yield of lard per head, were as follows : 



Tears. 


Number of hogs 
packed. 


t 

to 

> 


Average yield 
of lard. 


^ Years. 


Number of hogs 
packed. 


Average weight 


Average yield 
of lard. 


1861-63 


89.093 
178,750 
244^ 
191,^0 
123,335 
183.543 
237P60 


Pounds. 
5224.50 net... 


Founds. 


1868-'69 


231,937 
241,316 
305,600 
419,032 
538.000 
463,793 
462,846 


Pounds. 
189.27 net... 


Pounds. 


1^2-*63 


807.00 net... 




1800-*70 


190. 50 net. . . 




ld63-*64 


179.00 net... 




1870-'71 ;... 


21&00net... 




]d64-*65 


178. 50 net... 




l§71-*72 


363. 15 gross. 
260. 00 gross. 
861. 53 gross. 
240. 00 gross. 


35.17 


1865-'66 L.. 


208.91 net... 




1878-'73 


34.50 


1866-*67 


982.34 net... 




187»-'74 


34.18 


l!)67.'68...^... 


193.91 net.,. 




1874-'75 


30.00 







During the summer packing-season, from March 1 to November 1, 
1875, there were packed 102,424 hogs, averaging 220 pounds per head 
gross ; the summer-packing of 1874 embraced 159,962 hogs, averaging 
209 pounds gross ; 1873, 132,155 hogs, averaging 244.26 pounds gross ; 
1872, 98,720 hogs, averaging 233.63 pounds gross. In 1875, th^ city 
packers, employing a capital of $7,000,000, produced pork, bacon, and 
lard reaching in value $11,000,000. They control an amount of packing 
at points around the city embracing more than double the number of 
hogs packed in their city warehouses. It is estimated that the entire 
number of hogs cut by Saint Louis packers will fall little^ if any, short 
of a million. About half of this outside product is shipped to the city, 
the remainder being shipped directly to eastern markets. 



94 



REPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 



PORK-PAOKENG. 



PORK-PACKING IN THE WESTi 



WinterpacJcing, — From tUe record kept by the Ciuoinnati Price-Our- 
rout, it appears that the annual Du^ibers of hogs packed in the West 
during the last twcntv-sevcn seasons were as follows: 1849-'60, 
1,652,220; 1850-'51, 1,333,867 ; 1851-'52, 1,182,846; 1852-'53, 2,201,110 
1853-'54, 2,534,770; 1854-'55, 2,124,404; 1855-'56, 2,480,502; 186a-'57 
1,818,486 ; 1857-'58, 2,210,778 ; 1858-'50, 2,465,552 ; 1859-60, 2,350,822 
1860-'61, 2,155,702 ; 1861-'62, 2,893,666 ; 1862-'63, 4,069,520 ; 1863-'64 
3,261,105 ; 1864-'65, 2,422,779 ; 1865-'66, 1,785,955 ; 1866-.'67, 2,490,791 
1867^'68, 2,781,084; 1868-^69,2,499,873; 1869-'70, 2,635,312; 1870-^71 
3,696,261 ; 1871-'72, 4,831,658 ; 1872-^73, 5,400,394 ; l873-'74, 5,460,380 
1874-'76, 5,666,226 ; 1876^'76, 4,8A),185. 

The following table shows the number packed in the different States 
of the West and Northwest during the last four packing-seasons : 



mm 

States. 



Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Iowa 

Mlssonri 

Kansas 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Nebraska 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Michigan 

Miscellaneoas*. 



Total.... 
Increase. 
Decrease . 



187a.'t3. 



885,827 
610,966 

1,8H<{11 
385,417 
894,334 
40,885 
394,073 
34.550 
20,230 
323,456 
39,300 
49,306 
28,450 



5,400,394 



18T3-'74. 



906,804 
715,703 
1,887,338 
369,878 
746,366 
64,037 
333, M4 
32.700 
29,085 
257.859 
26,577 
71,549 
26,000 



5.466,200 
65,806 



-BTW 



1874-'75. 



870,971 
666,575 
8, 113. 845 
486,858 
•?07, 310 
49,536 
269,468 
20,950 
26,950 
308,068 
22,639 
62,836 
20,820 



^506,236 
100,026 



187J^'7a. 



819,602 

57»,43a 

1, 915, 830 

W. 74« 

556,143 

30,735 

217, 426 

18,750 

26,190 

263,748 

23,818 

53,837 

17,887 



4,880,135 
"S6,"69i 



* Inclading Pittslmrg]) and a few points in the Soathem States. 



The average net weight per head, the average yield of lard per bead^ 
and average cost per cental during the last four packing-seasons were 
as follows : % 



states. 



Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Iowa 

Missouri 

Kansas 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Kobraska 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Miohisan 

MisceUancons* 

General average 



Average net weight per 
head. 



Lbs. 
242. 51 

asa 

239.21 

229.55 

314. 12 

244. 

230. 

237. iSi 

246. 71 

225.84 

207. 11 

237.94 

237.94 



LkS. 

1233.49 



232. 43 



i 



25 207.8220a 80 

319. 02 

204. 67 
12>207. 01 



27 230. 



4 



189.74 



o 

S 



1^9- Lbt. 

21^73215.14 

310. 41 

213.76231.46 

198.67215.81 



315.85 



171. 63:233. 03 



18 280.64 
45 810. 89 

230.36 

214.65 

213.87 

200.42 

234. 02 

207!o4;i97.08'220.fl2 



212. 48 215. 80 
337. 46 248. 63 
193. 36,3ia 57 
209. dO 215. 92 
192.39,214.81 
234.372iK).70 



314. 97 



20Q.77 



217. 71 



Average yield of lard 
per head. 



Lbs. 

43.851 

99. m 

43.21 
37,44 
36.03 
37.50 
^.55J 
39.36 
39.70 
30.78 
31. 21 
38.95 
38.95 



40.08 



Lbs. 

39.04 

29.66 

31.83 

33.88 

33.84 

3&83 

30..W 

36.41 

34.50 

29.66 

34.16 

3a 26 

31.03 



35.02 






Lbs. 

30.66 

89.83 

36.66 

33.53 

80.19 

85.43 

31.63 

89.83 

86.88 

29.79 

29.20 

35.15 

28.27 



34.20 



i 



Lbs. 
36. 07 f 4 



Average cost per oentaL 






33.66 

36.85 

34. lU 

36.82 

37. 70 

31.00 

30.60 

39.01 

33.67 

31.8 

33.66 

33.12 



35.45 



82.50 
43.96 
67.10 
31.89 
6.1.30 
01.10 
73. 48| 
81.00 
70.00 
8e.00 
13. .'M) 
94.20 
94.20 



15 
5 
5 
5 
5 
4 
5 
5 
4 
5 
5 
5 



57.34 
29.63 
43.85 
19.03 
36.63 
77.58 
72.16 
6a 58 
64.17 
44. 4.'> 
72.23 
54.30 
8a 10 



4 65. 80 5 43. 15 



r- 

4 
6 



8 
8 

T 

8 
7 
8 
t 
7 
8 
8 
8 

e 



64.30 
14.96 
35.60 
87.58 
19.10 
59.00 
56.04 
88.90 
83.00 
67.51 
81.00 
15.88 
64.00 



8 33.63 



i 



f8 64 
8 81 
883 
8 84 
8 70 

7 66 

8 76 



73 
79 
05 
8 89 
8 66 
8 92 



8 83 



* Including Pittsburgh, Pa., and a few points in tho Southern States, 



REPORT OF THE STATISTICIAN. 



95 



The aggregate net weight, yield of lard, and cost per cental during the 
last fear packing-seasons were as follows : > 



Not wetght. . .pounds 
Yidaoflard. 



.do... 



Cwt.. 



187S-'73. 



Aggregate. 



1,297,519,283 
2J 6,645,385 

•58,375,148 



1878-'74. 



Aggregate. 



1,175,126,971 
191,444,035 

$63,827,021 



Docroaoei 



82,392,313 

25,401,350 

Increase^ 

15,451,873 



1874-'75. 



Aggregate. 



1,107,639,457 
190,3804)07 



Decrease. 



7,487,514 
1,063,428 
Inffreaae, 
$97,3381626^,511,805 



1875-'76. 



Aggregate. 



1,062,456,021 
173,016,580 

$93,692,382 



Decrease. 



105.183,436 
17,364,027 
Decrease^ 
$3,648,444 



The operations of the paoking-season lately closed show a decrease of 
12| per cent, in the number of hogs packed, per cent, in the aggregate 
weight, 9 per cent, in the aggregate lard prodnct, and 3.7 per cent, in 
the aggregate amount paid by packers. The increase in the average 
weight per head increased SJ per cent., the average yield of lard 3f per 
cent, and the average cost per cental nearly 6 per cent.; yet the great 
decline in the number of bogs packed has depressed the aggregate 
product and its value. It is remarkable that the aggregate weight dnd 
lard product have uniformly declined since the season of 1872-^73^ when 
the average weight and lard product per head were at their maximum; 
but in both these items the season just closed shows an improvement 
compared with that of two years previous. During the last season, 
Minnesota reports the largest average net weight per head, 248.63 
pounds, and Nebraska the largest larcf product per head, 39.01 pound^. 
The highest average price per cental, $9.05, was paid in Kentucky, and 
the lowest, 97.66, in Kansas. The high prices caused every marketable 
hog to be brought forward, and will reduce the stock hogs of the country. 
But for this stimulus the reduption ii;L the number packed would have 
been still greater. The average weight was reduced by the large num- 
ber of Ugbt hogs marketed dunng the closing period of the season. The 
returns embrace 61 new points, at which 51,095 hogs were packed. 
These, not making any figure in the reports of the previous year, indicate 
a still greater reduction in the aggregate pork product of tifie West^han 
is shown by the figures. The high prices al^o reduced the number 
pack^ by the farmers, who were particularly anxious to realize every 
doUar possible. The great decline in the pork product of the season 
lately closed is attributed by intelligent operators in part to the increased 
ravages of disease; but no reliable statistics show a loss from this cause 
sufficient to account for the very great decline in the last season's pork 
product, amounting to 15J per cent in the aggregate weight of hogs 
packed compared with the season of 1872-^73, and nearly 10 per cent in 
the aggregate number. 

As a result of -the operations of the last winter packing-season, a 
scaroity of hogs for summer operations was anticipated; but in many 
localities an increase in the number of breeding-sows was reported. 
Stock hogs in the spring of 1876 brought exceptionally high prices in 
different parts of the West. But whUe a decreased summer-packing 
may be expected iii 1876, the scarcity^of hogs and high prices canqpt fail 
to greatly stimulate swine-raising in the future. 

The average and aggregate weights and lard products of the last eleven 
packing-seaisons were as follows : 



96 



liGPOET OF THEICO^ISSIONEB OF AOBICULTUSE. 

iW" • I •■ -V* »• *• 



Seasons. 



1865-Y»6 , 

1866-'67 

ie67-'68 

1868-'69 

isRmto 

1870-'» 

1871-*TO 

1878-*73. 

18rj-'74 

1874-*W 

X875-'76 



01 



§1 






231.30 
332.14 
201.00 
306.75 
20&75 
230.14 
827.03 
333.43 
314.97 
809.77 
217. "U 



CO CI 
9 O 



P<wmb. 

413,091,391 

588.313,223 

558.997,884 

516.848.742 

543.315,444 

850,425.065 

1,099.783,385 

1,257,519.383 

1.175,126.971 

1, 167, 639. 457 

1,062,456,031 



o 



Pounds. 
41.53 
39.66 
29.00 
33.33 
31.84 
40.19 
38.54 
40.08 
35.02 
34.20 
35.45 



2 



Pounds. 

74. 152. 851 

98, 801, 376 

80.651,436 

80.829.337 

83,906.334 

148.513,317 

188.603,317 

316,845,385 

101.444,035 

100.380,607 

17^,016.580 



PACKING OF THE SIX PKINCIPAL WESTERN CITIES. 

The number of liogs packed daring the last foar winter packing-sea- 
sons at six leading points in the West, compared with the whole, were 
as follows : 



Packlngrpoints. 



Chicago...^ 

CiDcinnftU 

Saint Louis 

Indianapolis 

Milwaukee 

Louis villo 

Total for the aix oitiea 
Otlier points 

Grand total 

Per cent of tbe six cities. . . . 



1873-'73. 



1,435,079 
630.305 
538,000 
196^317 
303,500 
303; 346 



3.391,447 
3,008,947 



5,400,394 



63.68 



1873-74. 



1,520,804 
581,353 
463,793 
395,766 
894,054 
386,947 



3,383,017 
3,084.183 



5.466,300 



61.87 



1874-'75u 



1, 690. 348 
560.164 
4f3,2-l6 
278.339 
23G.596 
273,118 



3, 500, 811 
3,065.415 



5,566.236 



62.89 



1875-*76. 



1,593,065 
563.359 
329.805 
333,184 
323,147 
181,973 



3,313,683 
1.666,513 



4, 880, 135 



65.81 



Cincinnati is the only point that packed a larger number of hogs 
during the season lately closed than the previous one; but the aggregate 
of the six cities bears a larger proportion to the whole than in any pre- 
vious year. The average net weight and lard product per head during 
the last two seasons at these six cities were as follows : 



Packing-points. 



Chicago 

Cincinnati... 
Saint Lonis . . 
Indianapolis 
MilwauKoo . 
Lonisvillo... 



At tko eix cities 
At oilier points 



Average woi;;ht per 
bead. 



1874-'7o. 



Pounds. 
812. 43 
22a 60 
192.00 
196.00 
209.27 
808.56 



209.47 
210.27 



At alKpolnts. 



209.77 



1875-'76. 



Pounds. 
217. 32 
218. 95 
214.78 
201.00 
215.15 
209.83 



21.'). 13 
223.69 



217. 71 



Average yield of lard 
per head. 



1874-75. 



Powids. 
37.30 
41.77 
30.00 
29.50 
29.87 
3L15 



35.43 
32.21 



34.20 



1875-'76. 



Pounds. 
36.33 
37.80 
3G.56 
31.00 
32.40 
30.63 



35.47 
35.41 



35.45 



REPORT, OF THE . STATISTIOIAN. 



97 



The product of^barreled^pork at these six cities daring the last two 
winter packing-seasons Vas as follows : 



Packing-points. 



1874-';5. 



Mess. 



Chicago 

GindmiAti 

Saint Louis 

Indianapolis 

Z/misTiue 

>Iilwaxikee 

At the six points. 
Total product.... 



BarrtU. 

216,515 
38,262 
30,000 

Xono . . . 
17, 378 
25,050 



328,125 
452, 731 



Other. 



Barrels. 

45,160 
G.240 
7,000 
2,500 
1,555 

21, 187 



a3,642 
116, 737 



1875-'76. 



Hess. 



BarreU. 

200, 821 

30,735 

27,022 

None . y. 
15,089 
19, 794 



299,461 
397, 304 



Other. 



BarreU. 

35,609 

6,994 

5,777 

Kone. • 

> 856 

<: 13, 378 



.« 6-; 614 
110. 826 



Summer-packing, — The number of hogs packed in the West from March 
1 to November 1, 1874 and 1875, was as follows: 



Pacldng*points. 



Chicago 

Cincinnati . . 
Saint Lonis . 
Indianapolis 
Hilvan^ee . 



Total for five cities 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Canton, 111 

Charleston, 111 

Kansas City. Mo 

Detroit, Mich 

Other ]>oints 



Average weight per head pounds. 

Aggregate net weight do... 

Increase in nnmher 

Increase in weight pounds. 



1674. 



446,368 
136,153 
150,962 
204,426 
12,600 



950. 509 
117,130 
73, 839 
17,000 
10,000 
10,000 
12,900 



1,200,404 



164 
196,872,810 



1875. 



728,781 

118,783 

102, 424 

80,163 

3,632 



1, 041, 783 

106,304 

72,133 

7,000 



9,000 
16,404 



1,263,343 



177.32 

223, 845, 720 

» 61,889 

26, 972, 910 



Summer and winter packing. — The results of the operations of two 
years, ending March 1, 1876, were as follows : 





Nnmbcr of hogs packed. 


Weight of hogs packed. 


■ 


1874-'75. 


1875-'76. 


1874-'75. 


187S-'76. 


Stiinmer.nackiD !r ............................. 


1,200.444 
5» 566,^326 


1,262,343 
4,880,135 


Pounds. 
196,872,810 
1,167,639,457 


Pounds. 
223,845,7£0 
1,062,456,021 


W Inter-TiacViTiGr - 




Total 


6,766,670 


6, 142, 478 


1,364,512,267 


1. 286. 301. 741 






HftTTftAIIA. - ....T^..r...r.*. 




624,192 




m. 78,210,0iXJ 






AveRUTB not weifiht ner Lead. ................ 






201.65 


S00.41 











POEK-PACKIKa IN THE EAST. 



The amount of regular packing m the seaboard cities is so small that 
no attempt has been made in those citiesC to collect regular statistics. 

7 A 



98 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



The busiuess has nevor been organized, for the reason that the facilities 
afforded in the East are not such as to enable packers to compete with 
the West. Some fancy brands of barreled pork and bacon are produced, 
but only to meet a very limited and fastidious demand. It is estimated 
that not over 7,000 hogs were cut at Philadelphia during the winter 
packing-season lately closed, or about one-fourth of the number of the 
preceding season. Hogs were too scarce and prices too high to invite 
enterprise of this character. The business is on a small scale also at 
New York, Boston, and Baltimore. The number of hogs received at 
these four cities during the last two winter packing-seasons was as fol- 
lows: 



Cities. 



Botton 

NewTork... 
PhliadelphiA. 
Baltimore.... 



1874-'75. 1875-'76. 



Total 

Net decrease. 



248,949 
687.425 
117,260 
113,500 



1, 166, 134 



161,413 

490,901 

120,750 

94,328 



867,391 
298, 743 



Increase. 



3,490 



Decrease. 



87,537 
196, 524 



18,179 



.«: 



In the above figures, the receipts at Baltimore include only live hogs, 
and at the other cities slaughtered hogs. 
The receipts for the last two calendar years were as follows : 



Cities. 



1874. 



1875. 



Decrease. 



Boston 

New York... 
FhUadelphia 
Baltimore ... 

Total.. 



613, 874 
1, 877, 419 
41.0, 934 
357,547 



41S.657 

1, 443, 167 

325,677 

379,631 



3,268,774 



3,465,133 



197, 217 

434,833 

94,357 

77,916 



803.643 



At Albany, N. T., 44,238 hogs were packed during the last winter 
packing-season, a decline of 10,077 compared with the previous season. 
At Troy, 22,500 hogs were packed against 25,000 the previous season. 
At Albany, 8,324 hogs were packed during the summer of 1875. At 
Buffalo, during the last winter packing-season, the excess of receipts over 
shipments was 82,300, or 30,000 greater than during the previous season. 
The movement of hogs here is mostly by through-shipment, and the 
aggregates reported are based upon a rough estimate of 100 head per 
car. The excess of recei»)ts in the calendar year 1875 was 159,500^ in 
1874, 173,200; in 1873, 207,400; in 1872, 204,500; in 1871, 80,500. At 
Pittsburgh, Pa., during four months ending March 1, 1876, there were 
received at the East Liberty stock-yards 208,425 hogs, averaging 220.77 
pounds per head, gross; duriug the same months of 1874-'75, the re- 
ceipts amounted to 274,094 head, averaging 220.74 pounds. These hogs 
weixj mostly shipped eastward. 



POEK-PACKING ON THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 

At San Franci-sco, Cal., abont 90,000 hogs were packed during 1875 
against 230,(^00 in 1874. At Eureka, Humboldt County, 10,000 were 
pack(»d; at Nevada City, Placer County, 8,000; at other points, about 



EEPOBT OF THE STATISTICIAN. 



99 



62,000, making a total of about 170,000, against 390,000 iu 1874, a falling- 
off of 220,000. The California hogs are light ; the average weight per 
head at San Francisco being 124 pounds net in 1875 against 115 
pounds in 1874. A packer in Oregon estimates the number packed in 
that State at 20,000 j but other estimates greatly exceed this number. 
Oregon hogs are generally much heavier than those packed at San Fran- 
cisco. 

AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS. 

Statcmenl of the cxporta of agricultural produois of the Uvltcd Staiesj \cUh their immediate 
vM,n^facturc8, for Ihe iico Jiecal years ending June 30, 1874, and June 30, 1875, compiled 
from the reports of ihe Bureau of Statistics of the Treasury. 



Prodacts. 



Animals, living : 

Hogs uumbcr 

Homed cattle do.. 

Horses do.. 

Males do.. 

SbeeD do.. 

All other, and fowls do 

Animal matter : 

Bone-black, iTory-black, &o . . . .pounds. . 

Bones and bone-aast cwt.. 

Candles pounds.. 

Fors and fur-skins 

Glue pounds. . 

Hair, unmanufactured 

manufactures of 

Hides and skins other than fur. 

Leather and its manufactures : 

Morocco and other fine 

Kinds not specified pounds. . 

Boots and siioes pairs.. 

Saddlery and harness 

Other manufiMJtures 

Oil, lard '. gallons.. 

other animal do.... 

Proviflions: 

Bacon and hams pounds. . 

. Beef do.... 

Butter do 

Cheese do.... 

Condensed milk 

Eggs dozen.. 

liard pounds.. 

Pork do.... 

Preserved meats 

Soaps, perfumed and toilet 

all other pounds . . 

Tallow do 

Wax do.... 

Wool, raw and fleece dot... 

manufactures of do 




15,088.385 
243,500 



Total value of animals and animal m atter 

Breadstufi^ and their preparations : 

Barlov bushels.. 

Brcaa and biscuit pounds. . 

Com bushels.. 

Com-mcal barrels.. 

Oats bushels. . 

Bye do — 

Bye-flour barrels.. 

WhMt bushels.. 

Wheat-flour barre Is . . 

other small grains and pulse 

other preparations of bi'ead8taf& for food . 
Bice pounds.. 



252,577 
17,090 

347, 405, 405 

36,036,^ 

4, 3C7, 983 

90, 611, 077 



23,749 

205, 527, 471 

70, 482, 379 



9, 345. 358 

101.755,631 

342, 068 

319, 600 



Total Talue of breadstuff's, &c 



320,399 
11, 143, 439 
34, 434, 606 

387, 807 

812, sn 

1, 564, 484 

59,820 

71. 039, 928 

4, on, 094 



558,922 



Cotton and its manufactures : 

Sea-island pou nds . . 

Other, immanufactured do. . . . 



6, 426, 524' 
1. 352, 175, 779 



Value. 



$1,625,837 

1, 150, 857 

169,303 

174,125 

159, 735 

30,531 

58,121 

108, 440 

302,277 

3,334,365 

12,939 

394, 056 

33,257 

2, 560, 382 

232,884 

3, 940, 450 

383.417 

98, 132 
131,635 
203, 317 

17,285 

33, 383, 908 

2, 956, 676 

1, 092, 381 

11, 898, 995 

79,018 

5,239 

19, 308, 019 

5, 808, 712 

848, 246 

8,460 

051,282 

8. 135, 320 

113,800 

' 72, 169 



/ 



124, 099 



99, 007, 669 



210, 

676, 

24,709, 

1.529, 

383, 

1, 5(}e, 

38<^, 

101, 421, 

29,258, 

670, 

322, 

27, 



733 
197 
951 
399 
702 
362 
313 
459 
094 
146 
443 
075 



161, 225, 939 



1873. 



2, 114, 124 
209,109,456 



/Quantity. 



64, 979 

57, 211 

3,166 

2,776 

124,416 



1, 598, 868 

71, 376 

1,605,333 



131, 244 



24,154.193 
203,039 



146, 594 
12,136 

250,280,950 

48, 243, 251 

6. 360, 653 

101.010,553 



34, 119 

166, 859, 213 

56,152,241 


"'i6,"i66,566' 
(^5, 461,619 
353, 425 
178, 034 





91. 
11,720. 

28, 858, 
291, 
504, 
207, 

9, 

S3, 047, 

3, 951, 



078 
458 
420 
654 
770 
100 
993 
175 
086 



376, 844 



4, 439, 130 
1, 855. 979. 783 



w • •• 
Value. 



r739. 215 

1, 103, 085 

239,156 

,356,098 

/ 183; 898 

47, 448 

74,648 

132,246 

336.676 

4.306,434 

22,745 

429,598 

19,278 

4,729,725 

335,086 

6,386,397 

429, 375 

73,612 
199, 743 
147,384 

18,515 

28,611,930 

4, 197, 956 

1, 506, 764 

13, 659, 561 

123, 565 

8,743 

22, 900, 486 

5, 671, 495 

735, 112 

16,233 

077,159 

5,692,203 

96,958 

62,754 

152, 514 



104, 307, 685 



61, 347 

610,092 

24, 456, 937 

1, 290, ."133 

290, 5:J7 

204. 590 

54.9t}4 

59, 007, 863 

33, 710, 074 

604,214 

364,153 

19,806 



111, 475, 110 



1, 538, 769 
189, 099, 836 



100 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



Statvmatt of the exports of agricultural products of the United St^tcSf tfc— Continuod. 



Products. 



Cotton and its mannlActureB^Continixed. 

Coloopdgooas yards.. 

Unoolofed goods do.... 

Another 



IJotal yalne of cotton, &c. 

Wood and its products : 

Boards, planks, joista» &c. . 
Laths, palin/i^a, pickets, &o . 
Rles 



...•M feet., 
.thonsands.. 
p. .....do.... 



8hlng] 

Box-shooks 

Other staves and headings 

Hossheads and barrela» empty.. number.. 

▲iTother lumber..... 

Fireirood cords.. 

Hop. hoop, and telesraph poles 

Logs, masts, and other whole timber 

Timber, sawn or hewn cubic feet. . 

All other timber 

Household-ftimitnre 

'Wooden ware 

Other manufactures 

Ashes, pot and pearl pounds.. 

Bark for tanning 

Kosin* and turpentine barrels.. 

Spirits of turpentine gallons. . 

Tar and pitch barrels.. 



Total value of wood, &c. 



Miscellaneous vegetable matter: 

Brooms, brushes, &o 

Cordage, ropes, &o 



ids. 



„ . poun< 

Fruits, apples, green, ripe, or dried .... 

other, green, ripe, or dried 

preserved, in cans, dec 

Ginseng pounds.. 

Hay tons.. 

Hemp, unmanufactured owt.. 

cordage, cables, ^ do... 

other manu&ctures 

Hops pounds.. 

Liquors, alcoholic : 

Beer, ale, porter, cider, in bottles . doz . . 

in casks.gall8.. 

Spirits distilled from grain do. . . 

molasses., do... 
other materials, 

gallons 

Wine gallons.. 

Oil«cake pounds.. 

Oil, vegetable : 

Cotton-seed gallons.. 

Linseed do.... 

Essential or volatile 

Seeds, cotton.. pounds.. 

flax or lint ....••. .•■... .....do.... 

all other do 

Starch do — 

Sugar, brown do — 

refined ...« do — 

molasses gallons.. 

candy and confectionery 

Tobacco ana its manufactures : 

Leaf pounds.. 

Cigars thousands.. 

Snuff pounds- 
Other manufactures 

Togetables and their preparations : 

Onions bushels.. 

Pickles and sauces 

Potatoes -. bushels.. 

All other 

Vinegar gallons.. 

Total value of miscellaneous 



1874. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



4.625,180 
13.247.143 



170.348 



2,721 
•25* 209,048 



1,502,626 



9*29,342 

6, 784, 173 

71,920 



1,604,332 



400. 619 

4,889 

1,106 

16,239 



6,303,983 
286 



7,435,064 

163,090 

9,968,821 

2,447,905 



318,007,804 

2,458 

15,716 



34, 105 
"25," 348* 



288,481 
5, 386 I 
28,316 



117,358 

2,897 

99,135 

1,893.800 

451, 117 

20.548 

48. 141 

215,336,380 

782,067 
22,047 



668,781 

1. 681, 209 

745, 850 



214, 319, 420 



4,242,389 

22,382 

• 106, 291 

63,856 

6, 456, 391 

33,5, 777 

164, 131 

9,279 

1,028,584 

641,361 
4, 422. 160 

SOS, 943 
1, 882, 767 

210,350 
],5:)2,060 

110,766 

160, 670 
3,046,431 
2,758,933 

238,779 



27,675,300 



127,593 
242,923 
499,205 
211,308 
283.649 
448, 760 
111, 872 
8,901 
272,612 
861. 746 
27,973 

6,245 

33,357 

982,287 

168, 510 

13, 819 

45,534 

4,099,360 

372,327 

22,692 
151,430 

63,557 

900 

674, 457 

420,809 

16,172 

1,041,162 

569,97a 

30,593 

30,399,181 

24,473 

7,092 

2, 537, 782 

52,057 

20,784 

471, 332 

156.078 

8,122 



45,480,626 



1875. 



Quantity. 



7,593,723 
21, 224, 020 



213, 874 

0,777 

40,628 



202,879 



1,973 



13, 553, 714 



1, 726, C24 



937,5'22 

5, 599, 734 

54,905 



3,035,241 



497, 487 

7,183 

2,140 

11,133 



3,066,685 

I 

3,633 

61,661 

129,977 

414,564 

211 

44,978 

247,046,095 

417,387 
32,370 



3,316,113 
43 


7,387,362 

362,312 

23. 789, 838 

3, 575, 975 


223, 901, 093 
21,894 


47,695 


5SS,144 


16,345 



Value. 



939.061 

2,313,270 

819, 443 



194, 710, 401 



3,694,909 

22,535 

160,925 

471,042 

5,239,329 
450,085 
835,964 
6,023 
556,450 
572,801 

2,357,842 
366,973 

1,711,769 
342,813 

1,539,810 
115^622 
193,938 

2,774,419 

l.d24,544 
127,206 



22,876,923 



146,988 
391,165 

1,048,136 
960,534 
315,650 
658,926 
110, £23 
21,856 
171, 196 
706^260 

1,286,497 

7,600 

16,604 

113, 112 

210, 169 

634 

50.305 

5,138,300 

216,640 

30,689 

917,576 

63,128 

137 

1, 2S7, 750 

442,682 

31,093 

2,585,382 

1, 135, 992 

41,029 

25,241.549 

. 17,072 

7. 570 

2.578,279 

n.239 

18.H60 

609. 612 

169, 419 

4,753 



45,353,840 



REPORT OF THE STATISTICIAN. 



101 



KECAPITULATION. 





1871. 


1872. 


1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


Animals and animal matter . . . 
Breadstoib, tc 


Value, 

$47,010,312 
79, 519. 387 

221.885.245 
15, 820, 029 
33,069,081 


Value. 

$77, 060, 849 
85, 155,,aa3 

182, 988. 925 
21.425,068 
40,139,296 


Vahui. 

$99, 964. 943 

99,090,831 

830, 190, 597 

- 25,854,120 

37,660,376 


Vaiue, 

$99,607,069 

161,825.939 

214,319,420 

27, 675, 300 

45^486,628 


Value, 
$104,307,685 
111.475.110 


Cotton, &0.1 


194. 710. 401 


Wood,&o 


22. 876. 923 


'Xf{<WAilanfH>nii . . . ^ 


45.353.840 






Total agiicnltaral exports 

Total domestic ezporu 


397,304,054 
562, 518, 651 


406,760,661 
549,219.718 


492,760,867 
649,132,563 


548.314,954 
693,039,066 


478,723,959 
643, 004. 767 


Per oenL of agrlcaltnral exports 


70 


74 


70 


79 


74 



Fifty years ago, or from 1825 to 1830, the annual arerage of oar agri- 
cultural exports was $50,571,390. In 1874 they aggregated $548,314,954, 
or 79 per cent, of all our exports. This was an increase of a fraction 
less than tenfold. Gotton was then 55 per cent, of the whole ; in 1874 
bat 39 per cent., other agricultnral exports being now equivalent to 
nearly two-thirds of the total, instead of less than half. The exports of 
breadstuffs in 1874 were worth about six times as much as those of cot- 
ton a half century ago. The exports of forest products now are almost 
exactly the same as the cotton exports then ; yet that valuable^ staple, 
though constantly diminishing in relative importance, has enlarged its 
foreign supply more than sixfold during this period. 

Taking periods of five years each, there is found an increase in each 
successive period, except in that, ending in 1845, when there was a de- 
crease of nearly 10 per cent., following the great financial depression 
which convulsed and nearly overwhelmed all industries ; and in one 
other, the war period ending in 1865, when there was a decrease of 27 
per cent. The largest percentage of increase, 88 per cent./was in the 
period subsequent to the war, and the record of other periods is as fol- 
lows : That ending in 1835, 36 per cent. : 38 in 1840 : 38 again in 1850 : 
40 in 1855 ; 63 in 1860, and 32 in 1875. 

Taken in proportion to population, it is gratifying to note an increase 
in value of agricultural exports per capita, interrupted only in the two 
periods named, the value per head being respectively, in successive pe- 
riods, $4.22, $4.9^ $5.97, $4.66, $5.52, $6.66, $8.79, $5.63, $9.57. 



102 REPORT OF THE COMMTSSIONEU OF AGRICULTURE" 

MAKKET PRICES OF FARM 

Tlie following quoialions represent the state of the marl'et 



I'rotWcta 



SEW YORK. 

Fhmr, suitcrQiic, Stnto and 

wostoni bbl.. 

extra Stato do.. 

extra to cboloo 

western bbl.. 

common to fair 
Ronth'n extras. bl.. 
f;ood to cboico sonth- 

ern extras bl . 

Wheat, Ko. 1 spring;, .bnsh. 

^o.2 8prinff ...do. 

winter, rca, und 

western ...busb 

winter, amber, and 

weatem ...bnsh 

winter, white, and 

western ...bnsh. 

Hyn do.. 

Uttflcj* do. . 

Com do.. 

Oats do.. 

Kay, flrnt quality ton 

second quality ... do. . 

Beef, inc*s bbl. . 

extra mess do. . 

do., 
do., 
do.. 
lb.. 
do., 
do., 
do., 
do.. 



Jaunary. 



1 



14 00 
4 80 



to $4 SO 
to 5 65 



i 4 75 to 8 00 

I 

{ 4 90 to 5 65 

5 90 to 8 25 

ISO to 1S5 

4 1 11 to 1 17 

120 to 132 

120 to 132 



Pork, mess.... 

extra prime... 
prime roess . . . 

Lard ^.. 

Butter, western 

State dairy. . 
Cheese, State factory 
western fac'y 
SnsfAr, fair to prime rofln- 

ine lb.. 

Cotton, ordinary to good 

ordinary lb.. 

low middling to 
goodmid'ing.lb.. 

Tobacco, lugs do. . 

leaf do.. 

'Wool, American XXX and 

picklock lb.. 

Amur.XandXX.do. . 
Amer. combing .do. . 

pulled do.. 

California spring 

clip lb.. 

CaL lall clip do. . 

BOSTON. 

Flour, west'n superfinc.bl. . 
ccaimon extras. do., 
red wheats, good to 
fancy north w'n.bl . 
white wheats, good 
to fancy west'n.bl . 
southern family. do. 

Com. bnsh. 

Oats do.. 

Rye do.. 

Barley do.. 

llay, eastern and north- 
ern ton. 

choice western . . .do. . 

Boof, mesa bbl . . 

extra mess do. . 

family do.. 

Pork, prfano do.- 

moss do.. 

Lard lb 

Butter, New York and Ver- 
mont lb.. 

western do.. 

Cheese, New Tork and Ver- 
mont factory, lb.. 



130 

92 

140 

60 

C6 

14 00 

13 00 

950 

11 CO 

19 75 

17 00. 

19 00. 

13i 

18 

30 

14 

12 



137 
95 

ICO 
97 

n 

to 19 00 
to 14 00 
to 10 50 
to 12 50 
to 20 SO 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



to 
to 
to 
to 



Fubniary. j March. 



April. 



May. 



$3 90 
4 75 



to 14 30 
to 5 30 



4 05 to 8 00 

4 75 to 5 50 

565 to 800 

118 to 125 

109 to 112 

120 to 1271 

125 to 126 



127 to 
91 to 

Nominal. 
83 to 



32 
96 



65 

15 00 

13 00 

950 

10 50 



8ito 

llftto 

13Jto 
lO^to 
12} to 

53 to 

47 to 

51 to 

33 to 

25 to 
18 to 



4 00 
4 50 



5 25 



5 00 
50 
SO 
CO 
100 
120 

10 00 
2iJ00 
10 50. 
13 50. 
IGOO 
18 00. 
00 
14 



to 
to 



33 
42 
16 
15i 

'8J 

13J 

15 

134 

17 

C5 
57 
C5 
45 

37 
27 



4 50 

5 00 



to 

to 20 
to 14 
to 10 
to 12 

19 

15 00 to 15 
18 00 to 16 
132 to 
16 to • 
27 to 
14 to 
12 to 



14 25 
480 



to $4 75 
to 



25 



I 



$4 40 to 14 70 |$4 60 
4 65 to 5 40 j 5 05 



to $4 90 
to 550 



480 to 80014 95 to 5G0;5 05 to 825 
4 80 to 5 50 i 4 95 to 5 GO I 5 10 to 5 75 



555 to 8 
116 to 1 
109 to 1 



00 
19 
14i 



I 



122 to 127 
122 to 127 



I 




CO to 
52 'to 
57 to 
30 to 

30 to 
17 to 



644 

70 

00 

00 

50 

00 

75 

50 

25 

14 

30 

40 

ICi 

151 

ei 

141 

161 
13i 
17 

65 
57 
62 
45 

37 

27 



15 
13 

10 
19 
14 
16 



to 9 00 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



8 00 
800 
92 
72 
105 
160 



to 23 00 



25 to 1 
84 to 
05 to 1 
80 to 
65 to 
00 to20 
00 to 15 
50 to 10 
50 to 12 

75 

50 to 15 

00 

13* 

16 to 
22 to 
14^ to 
12} to 

71 to 

13ft to 

ISJto 
10 to 
12i to 

CO to 

52 to 

57 to 

20 to 

30 to 
17 to 



34 

94 

30 

84| 

70 

00 

00 

50 

00 



5 65 to 8 00 

122 to 128 

116 to 120 

125 to 129 

125 to 129 



00 



18 

14 

9 

10 

;2i 

16 
19 



29 to 
^0 to 
20 to 
85 to 
68 to 
00 to 
00 to 
50 to 
50 to 
75.... 



134 

100 

122 

67 

74 

23 00 

16 00 

10 50 

1200 



25 to 16 50 
25 

14| 



28 


14 


to 


40 


16 


to 


1G| 


14 


to 


ir^ 


12 


to 


8i 


7Jto 


15i 


14 


to 



17t 

13 

17 

65 
57 
62 
45 

37 

27 



4 00 
4 7? 



500 



to 
to 



4 no I 4 25 



500 



5 CO 



to 
to 



4 50 

5 25 



to 8 50 



1 



50 to 
50 to 
fc*.iito 
U7 to 
95 to 
20 to 



750 
800 
88 
70 
100 
195 



5 25 to 8P0 



15 00 to 23 00 



to 23 00 2100 to 22 00 2100 to 22 00 



• 

5 50 

50 

67 

70 

<J5 

120 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



8 50 
6 00 

74 
100 
195 



15 00 to 23 00 



to 17 00 



21 



to 21 50 
to 14^ 



10 50 
12 50 

16 00 

17 00 
12100 



32 
22 

13 



to 
to 



40 
37 



to 12 00 
to 14 UO 
to 17 00 
to 17 50 
to 21 50 



10 50. 



14^ to 14] 

27 to 36 
20 to 31 



...13 00 
to 17 00 
to IC 50 
to 20 50 
14i to 15 



16 00 
16 00 
20 00 



16ito 
lOito 
121 to 

58 to 

46 to 

55 to 

30 to 

25 to 
10 to 



24 
33 
16f 
151 

H 

15t 

174 
13i 
17 

60 
53 
58 
50 

35 
23 



5 20 to 8 25 
197 to 131 
119 to 123 

1 33 to 1 4i2 , 

I 

1 33 to 1 42 ! 



17 
12 

U 
10 

122 
16 
19 



40 to 
95.... 
28 to 
91 to 
73|to 
00 to 
00 to 
50 to 
50 to 
25.-.. 



145 



145 ; 

80 ih) 
13 00 
10 50 
1200 



4 25 

5 25 



to 4 50 
to 5 50 



50 to 8 00 



50 to 

75 to 
15i.... 

12 to 

15 to 
14 to 
12 to 

84 to 

13|t0 

151 to 

94 to 

124 to 

57 to 

48 to 

54 to 

30 to 

24 to 

16 to 



17 50 
SO 00 



17 
28 I 
164< 
154 

ei 

15j 

Hi 

13 

17 

G2 
S5 
63 

50 

34 

24 



4 50 to 4 75 

5 25 to 5 75 



550 



to 8 50 



75 to 
r;0 to 
60^ to 
70 to 
95 to 
00 to 



00 
00 
92 
75 
00 
40 



J 



14 CO to 21 00 



to 16 I 14 to , 1C4 



10 50. 
13 00. 

16 00 

17 00 
22 GO 



to 17 00 
to 17 50 
to 22 50 



14 to 15i 



23 to 34 IP to 26 
13 to 28 16 to 25 

144 to ^h\ 144 to ^^ 



6 00 
6 50 
92 
72 
120 
100 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



8 00 
800 
95 
77 
125 
140 



16 00 to S2 00 




13 00 to 18 00 
22 50 to 23 00 
16 to 164 



16 to 
15 to 



23 



144 to 1C4 



REPORT OF THE STATISTICIAN. 



103 



PKODdCTS FOR 1875. 

as nearly aa j}^ aciicabhy at the 'beginning of each manth. 



Juno. 



July. 



Auj^ist. 



$170 
4 95 



to $5 00 
to 5 50 



1^4 r>o 

5 00 



4 95 to 8 25 

5 00 to $90 

5 90 to 8 25 

I 12} to 1 W 

1 07 to 1 12i 

192 to 132 

1 22 to 1 3-2 



1 

1 



to 133 



25 

10 

Komina]. 

73 to 81 

09 to 75 
16 00 toSlOO 
liiOO to 14 00 
9 50 to 10 SO 
10 50 to 12 00 
20 70 to20 75 
15 37^ to 15 75 
18 75 



Ui $4 SO 
to 5 50 



€190 
5S5 



to $5 40 
.to 6 40 



September. 



5 00 lo 8 25 

5 00 to 9 00 

5 95 to 8 25 

1 2-i to 1 25 

1 15i to 1 21 

1 30 to 1 36 

130 to 13G 



31 to 
03 to 



140 
105 



mto 
14 to 
IG to 
10 to 
10 to 



14} 
24 

28 

12i 

12 



17 
13 
8 
10 
20 
IC 
19 



8ito 8i 
13} to 15) 



73 to 
G3 to 
00 to 
00 to 
00 to 
00 to 
70 to 
00 to 
00 to 
12J to 
16 to 
20 to 
K'l to 
9} to 



F2i 

Gb 

22 00 

14 (H) 

9 50 

10 75 

20 85 

1G50 

19 50 

14 

27 

30 

12i 
114 



5 85 to 8 50 
GOO to G75 

6 80 to 8 50 
145 to 147 
134Ho 142 

148 to 154 

148 to 154 



$4 85 to $5 50 

5 05 to 6 50 

5 65 to 8 50 

5 80 to 6 85 

GOO to 8 50 

1 44 to 1 45 

126 to 137 

144 to 148 

144 to 148 



15} to 

9ito 

li^to 

37 to 

50 to 

54 to 

30 to 



IT 

\f 

62 

55 

48 



23 to 35 
16 to 24 



425 
500 



to 
to 



75 



4 
550 



5 50 to 8 50 



635 

700 
82 

r.i 

1 15 

Nominal 



to 
to 
to 
to 



8 25 

8 50 

85 

78 



IGOO to2300 



10 50 
.13 00 



17 00 to 17 50 

2150 to22 00 

154 to 16 00 

15 to 26 
14 to 18 

10 to 124 



7} to 8i 
12510 144 



152 

100 

120 

81 

64 

19 00 

15 00 
8 00 

10 00 
2100 

16 00 
18 00 

123 
17 
22 
lOi 

H 



to 1 
to I 



58 
10 



to 
to 
to 24 

to 9 
to 10 
to 21 



89 
72 
00 

50 
75 
25 



to 19 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 



25 

13i 

24 

35 

12i 

114 



15 to 1C4 
13i 
17 



94 to 
VZi to 



55 to .CO 

50 to 53 

S4 to G3 

30 to 50 



23 to 
18 to 



4 00 
4 75 



to 
to 



34 

24 



4 no 

5 25 



5 00 to 8 00 



600 
50 

90 

62 

115 

Kominal 



to 
to 
to 
to 



8 00 

8 00 

91 

75 



16 00 to 22 00 



1050. 



16 50 to 17 00 

2100 to 21 50 

14 to 15 

18 to 27 

17 to 24 

10 to 194 



84 to 84 
121 to 13f 



144 to 

84 to 

11 to 

55 to 

50 to 

54 to 

30 to 



154 

11 

154 

GO 
52 
63 
52 



23 to 34 
IS to 24 



5 00 
5 75 



to 
to 



525 
625 



GOO to 9 00 



650 
7 00 

90 

67 

110 

Nominal 



to 
to 
to 
to 



9 00 

8 50 

93 

76 



16 00 to 22 00 



1000. 
1200. 
16 00 
1650 
2150 
14 



to 17 00 
to 17 00 
to 22 00 
to 15 



18 to 
16 to 



87 
88 



10 to 12 



146 

98 

105 

73 

40 

19 00 

16 00 

800 

10 00 

?0 90 

16 00 

19 25 

12} 

22 

23 

94 

8 



to 1 
to 1 



59 
00 



to 
to 
to 21 



8O4 

62 

00 



to 9 

toll 

to2l 

I0I6 

to 19 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 



50 
00 
00 
25 
50 

32 
TO 
lU 
104 



75 to 84 
124 to 125 



134 to 

8 to 

11 to 

50 to 

43 to 

55 to 

27 to 



1.1 J 

11 

154 

54 

43 
65 
4G 



22 to 32 
18 to 22 



5 25 
600 



to 
to 



550 
650 



6 25 to 9 00 



700 
750 

80 

47 

95 

Nominal 



to 
to 
to 
to 



9 25 
9 25 

86 
62 



17 00 to23 00 



1000. 
1200. 
17 00 
16 00 
22 00 



to 17 50 
to 17 00 
to 22 SO 



144 to 15 

90 to 30 

18 to 33 

9) to 114 



October. 



«510 
5 



■•r 

to 



tofsro 

to 6 60 



November. 



5 75 to 9 00 



1510 
560 



to 85 40 
to 6 30 



5 50 to 9 00 



5 85 to 7 00 I 5 65 to 7 00 

7 05 to 9 00 j 7 10 to 8 75 

1 3d to 1 41 I 1 36 to 1 43 

124 to 1314 138 to 134 

1 20 to 1 44 I 1 S3 to 1 45 



1 20 to 1 44 ! 1 83 to 1 45 



1 32 

90 

150 

074 

35 

15(0 

14 00 

850 

10 50 

22 00 

16 00 

19 50 

122 

19 

25 

10 

10 



to 1 65 1 



to 1 

to 

to 

to 20 

to 15 

to 10 

toll 

to 22 

tolC 

to 20 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 



55 

n 

54 
00 17 
00 14 
00 II 
50 12 
50 22 
50 16 
00 19 
14 ; 
34 i 
37 

1:^4 
124' 

I 



35 to 1 

75 to 

90 to 1 

70 to 

40 to 

0(1 to 31 

00 

50 to 12 

00 to 13 

75 to23 

00 to 16 

50 to80 
12f to 

18 to 

83 to 

74 to 

6 to 



50 

88 

13 

764 

50 

00 



00 

00 

00 

50 

00 

1341 

34 

36 

14 

1341 



7Jto 84| 74 to 8 



December. 



1475 to$500 

510 to 590 

510 to 9 00 

520 to 660 

6G5 to 875 

135 to 139 

124 to 128 

115 to 140 

115 to 140 



135 

87. 
87 
71 
41 
1800 
14 00 
1150 
1250 
2150 
16 00 
8000 
12 
18 
23 

? 



to' 148 

to Vis* 

to 76 
to 51 
to 82 00 
to 15 00 



to 22 50 
to 16 50 
to81S0 
to 181 
to 34 
to 36 
to 
to 



13 



104 to 12 



l2Jto 

7 to 

10 to 

50 to 

43 to 

55 to 

27 to 



l.'HI 

10 

14 

54 
48 
65 
40 



22 to 32 
18 to 22 



450 
550 



to 5 00 
to 6 00 



6 00 to 9 25 



6 75 

7 50 
74 
42 

100. 
110 



to 
to 
to 
to 



900 

900 

77 

56 



to 135 



17 00 to23 00 



1000. 
1200. 
17 00 
16 50 
22 50 



to 17 50 
to 17 00 
to22 75 



144 to 15 



20 to 
18 to 



33 
34 



104 to 134 



11} to 134 



134 to 
7 to 
04 to 

50 to 

43 to 

55 to 

27 to 



'J* 

13 

54 

48 
65 
46 



82 to 38 
17 to 83 



500 
550 



to 585 
to 600 



6 00 to 85 

6 50 to 9 00 

6 50 to 9 00 

79 to 83 

43 to 56 

95 to IQO 

100 to 130 

13 00 toa2 00 



10 00 
1100 
16 50 
16 00 
83 00 



to 11 00 
to 18 00 
to 17 00 
to 17 00 
to23 50 



134 to 14} 



22 to 
18 to 



33 
34 



104 to 134 



8 to 8| 

11 to 121 

12} to 13} 

7 to 9 

9ito 13 

48 to 57 

40 to 48 

SO to 68 

80 to 47 

80 to 33 

17 to S5 



450 
585 



to 
to 



4 75 
575 



575 to 875 



6 50 
750 
74 
41 
95 
90 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



875 
900 
80 
55 
100 
130 



1300 to2S00 



1150 
13 50 
1650 
1550 
8350 



tol700 
tolGOO 
to83 90 



132 to 14} 



88 to 
15 to 



34 
33 



104 to 13ft 



1D4 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 



MAEKET PEIOES OP FARM 

The following quotations rejpreaait the state of the market, as 



Prodncts. 



January. 



Fobraary. 



EosTOX~Con tinned. 

Cheese, wcsl'n l'.ictory..lb. 
Sngnr, Mr to gaod refin- 
ing lb.. 

Cotton, crdinnry to good 

ordinary lb.. 

low middliofr to 
good middling, 

pound 

Wool, Ohio and PennR^l- 

vania lb.. 

Michigan do.. 

other western . .do.. 

pulled do.. 

oomblugflecce. . do. . 
California do. . 

PHILADELPHIA. 

Flour, superfine bbl . . 

Pennaylyania extra 

to choice bbl.. 

western extra to 

choice bbl.. 

Wheat, white .bush. 

amber do.. 

red do.. 

x^ye •••••.•••....•••••• Qo . . 

Barley do.. 

Corn do.. 

Oats do.. 

Hay, baled, prime ton. 

baled, common to fair 

shipping ton. 

Beef, westom mesa . . .bbl. . 

extra mess do.. 

"Warthman'fl c i tjy 

family bbl.. 

Porl£,mess do.. 

prime mess do. . 

prime ..do.. 

Lard lb.. 

Butter, choice Middle 

State lb.. 

choice w estem . . do . . 
Cheese, New York facto- 
ry lb.. 

Ohio factory. . . do. . 
Sugar, fair to good refin- 
ing lb. 

Cotton, ordinary to good 

ordinary lb. 

low middling to 
good middling, lb. 
Wool, Ohio X and XX.. do. 

other western do. 

tub-washed do . 

pulled do. 

combing do. 

BALTIMOBB. 

Flour, superfine bbl . 

extra do. 

family and fancy . do . 

Wheat, red onsh. 

amber do.. 

white .........do.. 

Rye do.. 

Oats..... do.. 

Corn do.. 

Hay. Maryland and Penn- 
sylvania ton. 

Pork, mess bbl. 

extra primo do . 

Lard lb. 

Butter^ western do 



eoiS to $0 15i to 13Ho $0 IGj 



6} to 

mto 



63 
14 



14 to 15^ 



53 to 

50 to 

43 to 

40 to 



GO 
53 
52 
55 



7fto 
12itO 



15 



15 to ICi 



March. 



AprU. 



1014 to$016i$0 

I 

7fto n 

13|to 15^ 
151 to 17 



14 to$01G 
75 to 8i 
14 to 16 

le'i to 17} 



50 to 

47 to 

43 to 

25 to 

37 to 

15 to 



60 
53 
.'iS 
£5 
€5 
40 



3 75 to 400 3 50 to 4 00 



4 35 to 5 75 



425 



35 
25 
22 
00. 
60. 
80 
03 
20 00 



1 
1 
1 
1 
1 



to 
to 
to 
to 



712* 
140 
126 
123 



to 
to 
to 



19 00 to 
7 00 to 
800 to 



84 

69 

22 00 

20 00 
800 
9 00 



4 00 to 5 75 



450 
125 



to 5 75 
to 132 



115 

95. 

140 

77 

62 

12100 



to 118 



to 150 
to 79 
to 66 
to 22 00 



16 00 

20 00 to 20 SO 

18 00 

19 00 

13} to 18 

32 to 44 
30 to 32 



16 to 
15 to 

8ito 

into 

13|to 
52 to 



55 to 
43 to 
65 to 



00 
75 
50 
15 
15 
20 
97 
63 
78 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



161 
16 

H 
111 

14} 

58 

56 

62i 

53^ 

68 



450 
GOO 
850 



20 00 to 21 00 

7 00 to 8 00 

8 00 to 9 00 



16 00 

19 50 to 20 00 

17 50 to 18 00 
17 00 to 18 00 

13| to 18 

32 to 40 
28 to 31 



16 to 
15 to 

71 to 

12} to 

14} to 
52^ to 
33^ to 
CO to 
33 to 
60 to 



28 
35 
35 
00 
65 
85 



15 00 to 20 00 

20 50 

1700 

14*. 



18 to 35 



CO 
50 
00 
14 
20 
17 
95 
65 
7G 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



17 
164 

8i 

14J 

161 

57 

54 

621 

45 

65 



425 
650 
850 



21 
22 
25 
00 
69 
79 



16 00 to 21 00 
19 75 to 20 00 



13}... 
17 to 



50 to 

47 to 

45 to 

ji5 to 

38 to 

15 to 



CO 
53 
53 

55 
65 
40 



3 50 to 3 75 

4 00 to 5 75 



525 
125 



to 
to 



600 
131 



116 
95. 

140 
79 

2JF00 



to 120 



to 145 
to 81 
to 67 
to 22 00 



20 00 to 21 00 

7 00 to 8 00 

8 00 to 9 00 



16 00 

19 50 to 20 00 
18 50 to 19 00 

17 00 to 18 00 
135 to 174 

35 to 40 
26 to 30 



16 to 
15 to 

7Jto 



17 
16 

8 



13 to 141 



154 to 


Hi 


54 to 


56. 


49 to 


56 


54 to 


61 


46 to 


54 


58 to 


<>6 



400 to 

450 to 

7 00 to 

110 to 



110 to 

104 to 

65 to 

79 to 



423 
650 
800 
20 
25 
25 
05 
70 
62 



1 
.1 
1 
1 



19 00 
19 75. 



to 22 00 



52 


to 


54 


49 


to 


524 


43 


to 


56 


424 to 


66 


20 


to 


36 



May. 



$014 to $0164 
8} to 84 
14 to 15} 



3 50 to 4 00 



4 00 to 



5 75 



500 

132 

127 

ISO 

105. 

120 

63 
2100 



to 7 00 

to 137 

to 130 

to 128 



to 150 
to 84 
to 70 
to 22 J 



19 00 to 20 00 
700 to 800 
8 00 to 9 00 

16 00 

2150 

19 75 

16 50 to 17 00 
144 to 19 

23 to 20 
18 to 24 



16 to 
154 to 

71 to 

ISito 

16} to 
54 to 



17 
16 

84 
15} 

18 
544 



55 to 
33} to 



62 
50 



321 



144... 
17 to 






450 
5 00 
700 
123 
123 
125 
105 
66 
79 

20 00 
22 00. 
17 00. 
15 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



4 75 
650 

800 



34 
34 
35 

08 
TJ 
87 



to 24 00 



It 



to 154 
to 22 



16} to 


in! 


52 to 

4^4 to 


^ 


44 to 


49 


24 to 


574 


39 to 


70 


16 to 


S22 


3 75 to 


425 


4 25 to 


600 


5 50 to 


C25 


140 to 


150 


133 to 


136 


130 to 


134 


105 to 


108 


Nominal. I 


63 to 


90 


69 to 


77 


SSOO to2400 


20 00 to 22 00 


700 to 


800 


8 00 to 


900 


16 00 . 




33 50 to 23 00 


20 00 





16 50 to 17 00 1 


164 to 


104 



27 to 
27 to 

16 to 

15 to 

84 to 
13} to 

16 to 
51 to 

45 to 
54 to 
27 to 

46 to 



4 23 
500 
600 



30 
43 
44 
15 

68 
86} 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
io 
to 
to 
to 



30 
28 

17 
164 

8} 

154 

17} 

55 

53 

70 

47 

71 



4 75 
550 
850 



40 
44 

50 
17 
78 
93 



16 00 to 24 00 

33 00 

170O 

16} to 

11 to 



17 
20 



REPORT OF THE STATISTICIAN. 



105 



PRODUCTS FOE 1875. 

nearly as prcuiticablCf at Hie hcginning of each mon^A— Continued. 



June. 



July. 



SO 9 toSO m 



8 to 
134 to 



8i 
15i 



1 



$010 tb^lS 
T^to 8i 
13 to 14^ 



151 to 17 



50 


to 


57 


48 to 


45 


to 


52 


48 to 


45 


to 


50 


45 to 


25 


to 


M 


30 to 


€0 


to 


70 


41|to 


14 


to 


3G 


18 to 



15i to 16) 



4 25 to 4 50 

5 00 to 6 25 



STiO to 6 25 

135 to 142 

133 to 136 

130 to 134 

110 to 112 

Nominal 

PI to 84 

67 to 71 

24 00 to25 00 

22 00 to23 00 

7 00 to 8 00 

6 00 to 9 00 



78 
58 
123 00 



1600. 
20 5) 
17 50. 
15 00 
15 



to 21 00 



to 15 25 
to 18} 



95 to 29 

S3 to 28 



10 to 

11 to 

eito 

13] to 

16 to 
50 to 

45 

55 to 
38 to 
42 



12A 
121 

15J 

17* 
53 



57 
52 



450 
500 
575 
120 
134 
130 
114 
69 
73 



to 4 75 
to 5 75 
to 8 25 
to 132 
to 137 
to 138 
to 123 
75 
89 



to 
to 



SI 00 to24 00 

2150 

1700 

15|to 17 
13 to 27 



52 
51 
50 
54 
57 
38^ 



400 to 450 
4 25 to 6 00 



August. 



$0 9 to$011 



8ito 

mto 



85 
144 



September. 



October. 



$0 9 tolOU 
8 to 81 
12| to 144 



15 to 1641 14} to 153 



5 50 
135 
130 
126 
103 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



600 
140 
132 
130 
105 



to 81 
to 64 
to 25 00 



2000 to2200 

7 00 to 8 00 

8 00 to 9 00 



1600. 
20 75 
1750. 
1550. 
14 



to 20 50 



to 17i 



23 to 30 
17 to 22 



to 

9 to 

7|to 

12|to 

154 to 
50 to 
35 to 
50 to 
26 to 
52 to 



13 
11 

84 

141 

17 
54 
50 
61 
52 
62 



425 

500 

550 

110 

128 

115 

95 

63 

76 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



4 75 
550 
650 
1304 
132 
135 
100 
68 
87 



1900 to2C00 

2100 

1650 

"4 

13 to SO 



45 to 

43 to 

43 to 

20 to 

55 to 

14 to 



53 
47 
46 
50 
59 
38 



41 to 

43 to 

40 to 
25 to 

41 to 
12 to 



50 
45 
45 
50 
57 
87 



425 to 450 
4 50 to 6 50 



500 
140 



to 6 75 
to 145 



130 
105 



to 
to 



136 
110 



84 
58 
23 00 



to 87 
to 60 
to 25 00 



78 
43 
123 00 



2000 to2200 
700 

8 00 to 9 00 



12000 to2200 
700 

800 to 900 



1600 

2125 to 21 50 

17 50 

1500 tol550 
14| to 171 

24 to 35 
20 to S3 



1600 

2100 

1800 

1500 to 15 50 
131 to 17i 

26 to 39 
20 to 30. 



9 to 
10 to 

64 to 

114 to 

14} to 
50 to 
48 to 
50 to 
38 to 
52 to 



425 
525 
650 
SO 
40 
25 
93 
60 
83 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



12 

104 

Si 

13{ 

161 

52 

52 

58 

45 

65 



500 
600 
850 



40 
45 
40 
03 
C8 
93 



23 00 to28 00 
2175 to22 00 
10 00 to 16 25 
144 to 144 
IG to 22 



4 75 to 5 00 
525 to 700 



6 25 
150 



to 
to 



750 
163 



135 
90 



to 148 
to 95 



to 82 
to 74 
to25 00 



39 
23 00 



8 to 
7 to 

74 to 

114 to 

144 to 
45 to 
44 to 
50 to 
26 to 
58 to 



12 
101 

14« 



75 
75 
00 
15 
50 
20 
75 
40 
71 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



550 
6 75 
900 



48 
55 
50 
05 
53 
87 



25 00 to30 00 
22 00 to22 25 

1650 

144 to 14} 
18 to 25 



^10 tolOlSi 

72 to 84 

11 to 12} 

13 to 144 

44 to 49 
42 to 43 
40 

29 to 53 
37 to 60 
10 to ?7 

475 to 500 
5 00 to 7 00 



6 124 to 

140 to 

125 to 

90 to 

90 to 



7 50 
160 
142 
140 
92 



to 74 
to 55 
toSSOO 



20 00 to22 00 
7 0O to 8 00 
800 to 900 

1600 

S300 to2350 

8000 , 

16 50 tol7 00 
134 to 17 

28 to 33 

29 to 31 



11 to 

104 to 



\n 



154 


134 to 


47 


45 to 


48 


40 to 


58 


42 to 


45 


43 to 


6r, 


46 to 



71to 64 
11 to 134 



144 
51 

45 

58 

63 

65 



500 

5 75 

900 

140 

155 

140 

85 

52 

80 



425 
525 
600 



10 
45 
20 
80 
45 
63 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



2000 to2700 
23 00 to23 50 

1550 

144 to 17 
19 to liO 



NoTember. 



10 8 to|0132 
7} to 84 

114 to 124 

j 
134 to 14ii 



December. 



10 8 to|013 
64to 84 ' 
11 to 



424 to 
43 to 
42 to 
35 to 
38 to 
16 to 



50 

45 

43 

58 

62i 

36 



462} to 500 

4 75 to 6 75 

6 00 to 6 75 
1 45 to 1 55 
132 

1 00 to 1 40 
75 to 78 



73 
35 

23 00 



to 75 
to 48 
to25 00 



20 00 to22 00 

7 00 to 8 00 

8 00 to 9 00 

1600 , 

23 25 to 22 75 

18 «) 

16 00 tol7 00 
13} to 144 

28 to 38 
28 to 31 



12 to 

10 to 

7} to 

11 to 

134 to 
45 to 
40 to 
54 to 
38 to 
62 to 



450 

500 

5 75 

136 

150 

120 

80 

40 

63 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



144 
134 

13 

144 

47 

45 

60 

40 

64 



5 00 
5 50 
8 75 



48 
55 

50 
85 

48 
77 



19 00 to25 00 

23 50 

1650 

144 to 

26 to 



121 



14 

50 
45 

43 ... • 
15"to"*56' 
40 to 64 
15 to 35 



13 to 
424 to 



4$^ to 475 
475 to 650 



600 
145 



to 
to 



ISO 
86 



to 
to 



650 
1S3 
141 
140 

89 



74 
35 
2200 



to 75 
to 50 
to 24 00 



2000 toSSOO 
700 to 800 
800 to 900 



16 00 
2250 
1975 
1700 
13 



to 23 00 
to 20 00 
to 17 50 
to 17 



29 to 40 

28 to 31 

12 to 14 

10 to 134 

84 to 84 

10} to 12} 



13 to 


144 


48 to 


484 


43 to 


48 


42 to 


56 


37 to 


60 


46 to 


66 



425 

4 75 

525 

110 

145 

115 

75 

37 

57 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



450 

550 

875 

143 

150 

145 

85 

50 

714 



17 

38 



2000 to2600 

1950 to2250 

1675 to 17 00 

13} to 14 

SO to 30 



106 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AQRICULTURR 

MARKET PRICES OF FARM 

The following quotations represent the state of the markety as 



Producta 



January. 



BALTIMOEE—Contiuued. 

Butter, eastern lb. 

Chocso, woatern factory-do 
eastern factory do. 
* Sagar, fair to good refin- 
ing lb. 

ISew Orleans, gro- 
cery grades lb 

Tobacco, lugs do . 

common to medi- 

nm leaf lb. 

Cotton, ordinary to good 

ordinary lb. 

low middling to 
middling lb. 

CINCINNATI. 

Flonr, superfine bl 

extra do. 

family do 

Wheats winter, red. . .bush, 
hill, (amber)... do.. 

white do.. 

Ryo do.. 

Barley do.. 

Com do.. 

Oats do.. 

Hay, baled, No. 1 ton 

lower grades do. . 

Beef, plate bbl 

Pork,me8S do.. 

Lard lb.. 

Batter, choice do. . 

prime do.. 

Cheese, prime to ' choice 

factory lb. . 

Sngar, New Orleans, fair 

to good lb.. 

NowOrleans, prime 

to choice lb.. 

Tobacco, lugs V^.. 

leaf lb.. 

Cotton, ordinary to good 

ordinary lb.. 

low middling to 
good middling.lb. 
Wool, fleece, common to 

lino lb.. 

tub- washed do. . 

unwashed, cloth- 
ing lb.. 

unwashed, comb- 
ing lb.. 

pulled lb.. 

CUICAQO. 

Flour, choice winter, ex- 

tras bbl.. 

common to good win- 
ter extras ...bbl.. 
choice sprinpj ex- 
tras bbl.. 

patent eprinfrg. .do. . 

spring snperlincs bbl 

Wheat, No. 1 spritig .biish 

No. 2 spring... do.. 

No. 3 spring... do.. 

Ryo No. 2 do.. 

Barlov No. 2 do. . 

Corn No 2 do. . 

Oats No. 2 do.. 

Hay, timothy ton 

prairie do.. 

Beef, mess bbl.. 

extra mess do. . 

Pork, moss do.. 

prime mess do. . 

extra prime do. . 



$0 22 to $0 40 
14» to ISij 



February. 



March. 



April. 



1 

^6 22 to $0 35 l$0 22 to |0 35 i$0 16 to $0 25 



..I 



15 to 

7|to 

7ito 
6 to 

8 to 



13f to 



m 

H 

8i 
lU 

14i 
13i 
14 



75 
70 
90 
07 
12 
14 
09 
25 
70 
59 
20 00 
14 00 



3 
4 
4 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



to 1 
to 1 
to 1 
to 
to 

to 21 
to 19 



10 
90 
10 
10 
14 
22 
10 
48 
71 
C3 
00 
00 



19 00 
13i 
28 
24 



to 19 
to 
to 
to 



15 to 

8 to 

9ito 
19 to 
15 to 

lOito 

13 to 

43 to 

48 to 



25 
I4i 

30 
25 

15i 

9 

25 
37i 

12J 

14* 

47 
50 



57 
2100 
14 00 
14 00 
19 00 
131 
29 
26 



32 to 33 



35 to 
35 to 



38 
38 



5 25 to 6 50 
4 25 to 5 00 



4 40 
6 00 
3 00 
93i 
90i 
841 
98 
124 
61 
51} 

15 00 
1150 

8 25. 
925. 
19 05 

16 75 
14 00 



to 4 00 
to 10 00 
to 3 75 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



93i 
90) 



99 

28i 

62i 

5fif 



to 18 .'SO 
to 12 50 



to 19 12| 
to 17 00 
to 14 50 



14|to 
15 to 

7ito 

7* to 
8 to 

10 to 

14 to 

15 to 



15fc 
17 1 

12 I 
14J 
14* 
151 



14Ho 
15 to 



15|; 14i to 
17 15 to 



16 
17 



7} to 8 I 7| to Si 



6ito 
9} to 

12 to 



15gto 



4 00 
465 

5 00 
li8 
110 
114 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



125 to 



to 



25 
90 
00 
12 
16 
20 
10 
55 
68 
62 



3 
4 

4 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 



to 22 00 
to 19 00 
to 14 50 
to 19 25 
to 14i 
to 30 
to 28 



15|to 

7|to 

8ito 
12 to 
15 to 

lUto 

mto 

43 to 
49 to 



16 

81 

H 

15 

lit 

15i 

47 

.•i2 



32 to 33 



37 to 
36 to 



38 

38 



85 
65 
95 
07 
08 
14 
11 
15 
65 
59 
20 00 
14 00 
14 50 
18 50 

• H^ 
27 

24 



to 4 

to 4 

to 6 

to 1 

to 1 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 

to 21 
to 19 
to 15 
to 19 
to 
to 
to 



15* to 

7 J to 

8ito 
12 to 
15 to 

12ito 

14* to 

43 to 
49 to 



P* 
12 

14* 

14* 

16 

15 

85 

45 

09 

15 

SO 

12 

32 

66 

63 

00 

00 

00 

00 

14i 

28 

26 

16* 

81 

15 
40 

132 

151 

47 
no 



8ito 
8 to 

12 to 


16* to 



32 to 33 



37 to 
36 to 



38 
38 



9 
llj 

14 

15* 

16* 



10 
14 



00 to 

70 to 
00 to 
10 to 
13 to 
15 to 
12 to 
00 to 

71 to 
60 to 
00 to 
00 to 



4 25 

4 90 

6 40 

114 

118 

122 

1 15 

140 

72 

84 

2100 

18 00 



May 


1 


10 15 to $0 28 
14* to 16 
15 to 17 


81 to 


ea 


9* to 


14 


11 to 


14* 


14 to 


15 


15J .... 




5^ to 


5 50 



21 50 to 22 00 
14* to 15 
26 to 28 
23 to 25 



15 to 

8 to 

8* to 
£0 to 
25 to 

13 to 

15ito 

43 to 

49 to 



16 

8* 

8* 
25 
40 

14i 

16* 

47 
52 



32 to 33 



37 to 
36 to 



38 
33 



525 


to 


650 


525 


to 


650 


425 


io 


5 00 


4 25 


to 


5 00 


450 


to 


4 75 


4 25 


to 


450 


5 00 


to 


9 00 


5 00 


to 


9 00 


3 00 


to 


3 75 


3 00 


to 


3 90 






.. 94* 


90 


fi\ 


91 


88 


to 


90^ 


85* to 


86^ 
82j 


82* to 


83 


82 


to 


94 


to 


97 


98 


to 


99 


123ito 


128 


113 


to 


115 


648 to 


64j5 


64| 
53} 


to 


Mfi 


52g to 


523 


to 


56* 


15 50 


to 17 50 


17 00 


to 18 75 


950 


to 12 50 


13>50 


to 14 50 


8 25. 






8 25. 
925. 
18 20 






925.- - 






..... 1 
_ _ t 


18 40 


to 18 42* 


to 18224! 


16 00. 












13 25 y... 


... .. .. .J 



5 50 to 6 75 



4 50 to 



5 00 



5 
3 
1 



1 
1 



62* 
00 
50 
00 
94* 
91* 
00 
0*2 
68 
55* 
1700 
13 50 
825. 
925. 
2100 
18 00 
1500 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



CO 

00 

03 

96^ 

91* 

01 

07 

69 

58 



to 19 00 
to 16 50 



to 21 38* 
to 18 25 
to 15 25 



5 75 

6 00 
132 
135 
135 
120 
133 

73 

66 

20 00 

15 00 



6 00 



to 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 69 

to22 00 

to 18 00 



00 
35 
38 
40 
22 
60 
77 



22 00 to 22 50 
l.^* to 17 
27 to 30 
18 to 23 



13 to 

8* to 

9(to 
10 to 
15 to 

13* to 

15* to 

43 to 
43 to 



14 

8* 

9* 
12* 

SO 

141 

IC* 

4£ 
4ti 



30 to 32 



36 to 
35 te 



38 
36 



5 50 to 7 00 
5 00 to 5 25 



5 00 

6 00 
^75 



to 5 25 
to 9 00 
to 4 25 



09. 
04 
98 
09. 
30 
76 
62 
16 00 
8 50 

8 25. 

9 25. 
2125 
19 90. 
15 75. 



to 1 05* 
to 99* 



to 132 4 
to 76*' 
to 62.i, 
to 19 00 
tolSOO 



to 22 05 



REPORT OP THE STATISTICIAN. 



107 



PBODUOTS FOR 1875. 



'nearly as praoiicalU^ ai ike beginning of each month — Continued. 



4- 



Jnne. 



$018 to€0 28 
U to 12 
13 to 14 

8 1-16 to 8 5-lCi 



1014 to$0 23 
10 to 11 
IS to 13 



8 to 
12 to 



13 
141 



15| to Ifif 



480 

515 

550 

ISO 

185 

198 

115.. 

145 

63 
18 00 
15 00 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



5C5 
530 
700 
1S5 
130 
135 



to 155 
to 74 
to 67 
to 80 00 
to 17 00 



July. 



71 to 



8 



8 to 
13 to 



13 
14i 

...14 

14} to 15i 



Angtist. 



90 16 to$0S3 
11 to 13 
13 to 14 

8 I-IO to 8 5-16 

81 to 8i 
8 to 13 



iO 16 to $U 35 IC-O 20 to $0 35 



450 

500 

530 

117 

Itt 

125 

100. 

135 

67 

54 

15 00 

900 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



4 75 
525 
700 
123 
138 
130 



to 130 
to 68 
to 58 
to 16 00 
to 14 00 



13 to 



14 to 



14( 

m 

14* 



4 75 to 5 00 

5 90 to 615 
610 to 7 75 
100 to 150 



145 to 150 

95 to 110 

115 to 130 

71i to 74 

66 to 70 

1800 to2300 

9 00 to 14 00 



525 

600 

6 40 

125 

130 

130 

85. 

115 

70 

30 

23 00 

20 00 



September. 



October. 



10 to 

11 to 



11* 
13 



7ft to 8i 



Si to 
8 to 



8f 
11 



10 to 14 
13i 



14^ to 141 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



550 
625 
850 
150 
140 
140 



to 145 
to 75 
to 50 
to 24 00 
to 23 00 



11 to 13 
12} to 13^ 

7i to ei 



8ito II 
10 to 14 



12} to 13^ 



410 
525 
625 
110 



00 



•-'75 



to 

to d 

to 825 

to 142 



130 
60 
75 
60 
30 
20 00 
14 00 



150 
80 
145 
65 
48 
to 28 00 
to 18 00 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



November. 



December. 



10 26 toe0 35 $020 to$0 35 

12 to 131 12 to 13} 

13 to Ui 12 to 13} 



7} to 8 



6} to 
9 to 



9 

* 
11 

12* 

13 

4 00 to 4 25 

4 50 to 5 00 

5 40 to 6 25 
100 to 145 



123 to 



1 00 to 1 45 

73 to 80 

50 to 120 

45 to 63 

25 to 42 

16 00 to ID 00 

12 00 to 16 00 



8 3-16 to 8 7-16 



6} to 
9 to 



121 to 



9 
11 
.12 
121 



400 to 425 

450 to 500 

530 to 635 

115 to 145 



125 
55 
50 
47 
25 
1800 
1100 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



155 
80 

125 
65 
43 



tol700 



SO 00 to 30 50 

13} to 16} 

22 to 25 

18 to 33 

10} to n 

8}to 8| 

9} to 9} 

10} to 12} 

15 to 20 

12} to 14 

14} to 15} 

43 to 45 



2000 

H}to 
19 to 
16 to 

10 to 

8} to 

9} to 
25 to 
30 to 

111 to 

14 to 

40 to 



16 
22 

18 

11 

« 

30 
38} 

13 

15 

43 



20 50 to21 

13} to 

20 to 

18 to 

10 to 
8} to 



00 

15} 

84 

SO 

10} 



120 75 to2125 
12} to 15} 
28 to 31 
24 to 25 



22 25 
13} 
28 
22 



to 23 75 
to 14} 
to 35 
to 25 



10} to 



11 

.9} 



12 to 13 



2100 to 22 00 
12} to 13} 
26 to 30 
25 to 26 

13 to 14 

8} to 8| 



2075 to2300 
12} to 15 
27 to 28 
25 to 36 

121 to 13 
ei 



9}... 
19 to 
13 to 

into 

13} to 

40 to 



20 
30 

12} 

14} 

53 



9}... 
15 to 

28 to 



20 
30 



43 to 50 



7 
12 

10} 

12g 

38 
43 



to 
to 

to 

to 

to 
to 



15 

11* 
13} 

43 

4S 



15 to 
28 to 

10} to 

12} to 

38 to 
43 to 



i:o 
uo 

111 

13} 

43 

58 



15 to 
28 to 

10} to 

12 to 

38 to 
43 to 



20 
30 

11* 
12* 

43 

48 



30 to 31 



28 to 32 



28 to 38 



38 to 
35 to 



40 
38 



38 to 
33 to 



40 
38 



35 to 
33 to 



38 
38 



7 00 to 8 00 
6 00 to 6 75 



700 to 725 
5 50 to 6 50 



6 50 to 7 25 
6 00 to 6 50 



25 to 32 

34 to 38 
31 to 37 



650 to 7C0 
6 25 to 6 SO 



31 to 32 



28 to 30 



25 to 30 



34 
31 



to 
to 



38 
37 



31 to 
31 to 



38 
38 



37 to 
31 to 



38 
37 



6 50 to 7 50 
5 75 to C50 



7 00 to 8 00 
5 75 to 75 



5 00 

6 75 
350 

94} 
91 
88 . 
03 
20 
62} 
57} 
18 50 
12 00 
850 . 
950 . 
10 85 



to 5 25 

to ajDO 

to 400 

to 98} 

to 93 



1 
1 



75 to 
25 to 
50 to 
06 to 
02} to 
00.... 



550 
800 
3 75 
106i 
105 



1 
1 
1 



to 103 
to 123 
to 64 
to 58i 
to 21 00 
to 18 00 



to 20 00 



90 

103 

67 

52 

17 00 

9 00 

825 

9 25 

19 45 



to 91 



to 68 
to 52} 
to 20 00 
to 16 00 



15C0 tol585 



14 50 



550 
6 75 
3 75 
851 
23} 
16 
PO 
107} 
62 
52 
14 00 
900 
825 . 
925 . 
30 75 . 



to 6 
to 8 



t6 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 1 

to 

to 

to 19 

to 16 



00 

50 

12i 

26 

24i 

10} 

82 

OS 

m 

52i 

00 

50 



5 
6 
3 
1 
1 
1 



75 

75 

75 

22 

131 

07 

65 

110. 
613 
34 
16 00 
1150 

850. 

9 50 . 
120 .')0 



to 6 
to 8 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



50 

25 

25 

14i 

17 

81 



50 
75 
75 
10 
11 
99 



to 600 
to 8 50 
to 4 75 



5 50 

6 75 
3 75 



to 6 
to 8 
to 4 



00 
50 
50 



to 
to 

to 19 
to 15 



63} 

35 

50 

50 



to 20 



75 



10 

9 

iO 

22 



to 1 13 
to 102 
55.^ to 56 

02 to "163 
34 to 37} 

1600 

50 to 12 00 

00 

00 

75 



14 25 14 00 to 14 25 



10?3} 
94 
OS 
81 
51} 
31} 
14 00 
8 50 
10 00 . 
1100 . 
2100 
18 00 
14 00 



to 1 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 16 

toll 



13 

94} 

68} 

83i 

52 

31} 

00 

00 



to 21 
to 18 
to 14 



50 
25 
25 



artO to 7 50 

525 to 625 

525 to 5 75 
6 50 to 7 50 
300 to 400 

106} 

103 to 104 
86 to 87} 

68 

86 

47} to" 48} 

30} to 30} 

1200 to 1550 

700 to 1050 

9 75 to 10 00 

1075 to 11 00 

19 37} to 19 40 

17 50 to 17 75 

14 00 t^4 25 



108 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

MARKET PEICES OF FAKM 

The following quotations represeni the state of Hie market, as 



Prodact3. 



CniCACO— Continnod. 



Lard lb.. 

Butter, choice to fancy. do. . 
medinm toeood:do. . 
Cheese, good to pnine fac- 
tory lb.. 

Sugar, Kew Orleans, com> 

mon to choice lb.. 

Wool, tub-washed. .... do. . 
fleece, washed ..do.. 

unwashed do.. 

pulled do.. 

SAm LOUIS. 

Flour, winter, common to 

choice lb.. 

spring do.. 

Wheat, white, winter, bush, 
rea, winter. .. . do.. 

sX^f ing ..do.. 

Corn do.. 

Rye do.. 

Barley do.. 

Oats do.. 

Ilay, timothy ton . 

prairie do.. 

Beef, mess bbl.. 

Pork, mess do.. 

Lard lb.. 

butter, prime to choice 

dairy lb.. 

prime to choice 
country p'k'd.lb.. 
Cheese, Ohio factory. . . do. . 
N. Y. factory . . do . . 

Wool, tub-washed do. . 

fieece-waahcd. . .do. . 
unwashed do.. 

KEW OllLEANS. 

Flour, superfine bbl.. 

extra do.. 

choice to fancy .do.. 
Com, white and yel'w.bush. 

Oats • . . do. . 

Hay, choice ton. 

prime .' do.. 

Beef, Texas bbl. . 

western do.. 

Pulton market. i bbl . . 

Pork, mess bbl . . 

Lard lb.. 

Butter, choice Goslien.do.. 
choice western.do. . 
Cheese, choice western fac- 

toiy lb.. 

X. T. cream ... do. . 
Sugar, fair to folly fair . do. . 
prime to strictly 

prime lb.. 

clarified, white, and 

yellow lb.. 

Cotton, ordinary to good 

ordinary lb.. 

low middling to 
goodmid'ng.lb.. 

Tobacco, lu jjs do. . 

low leaf to medi- 
nm leaf ....lb.. 



January. 



00 13 MO 
30 to 
24 to 



37 
97 



14 to 15^ 



7 to 

45 to 

40 to 

27 to 

42 to 



400 

400 

83 

95 

85 

64 

90 

100 

55 

19 90 

12 00 

14 00 

19 25 

12 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



9 
57 
48 
36 
47 



5 50 



08 
06 
90 
74 
97 
50 
62 



to 22 00 
to 16 00 
to 1500 
to 19 75 
to 14 



30 to 33 



25 
13 
13 
50 
30 
29 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



29 



54 
52 
36 



5 00. 






5 23 

5 73 

90 

7:» 


to 
to 
to 
to 


5G2i 
6 75 
93 
73 


24 00 


1120.- 


1100 

lino. 


to 11 50 


20 00 to 21 00 
123 to 145 
43 


30 

1C 
18. 


to 
to 


32 
16i 



BAX PRA^'CIhCO. 

Flour, suiierflno bbl . , 

exn*A do.. 

llimilyand t:incy.do. . 



6) to 

7|to 

8Ato 

112 to 

143 to 



13^ 
17i 



3 00 

4 50. 
4 75 



to 4 30 



to 512i 



February. 



^ 13( to $0 13{ 
30 to 37 
23 to S6 

16 to 18 



7 to 

55 to 

46 to 

27 to 

42 to 



9 
57 
48 
37 
47 



4 CO 

400 

95 

95 

87 

60 

00 

10 

53 

19 00 

12 00 

14 00 

18 50 

12 



1 
1 



700 
5 50 
105 
108 
98 
70 
105 
155 
59 
to 22 00 
to 13 00 
to 15 00 
to 18 75 
to 14 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



30 to 33 



23 
13 
13 
50 
:i2 
28 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



25. 

131 

13J 

54 

52 

36 



26 
24 
10 

142 

n 

20 



75.... 
00 to 
75 to 
86 to 
71 to 
00 to 
00..., 
50 to 
00 to 
25 to 
50 to 

I3Jto 
38 to 
27 to 



5 75 

6 75 
88 
TJ 

27 00 



1150 

IGOO 

1150 

2112^ 

15 

40 

30 



March. 



April. 



10131 
30 
23 



5to$013i 
to 36 
to 25 



17 to 18 



7 
45 
40 
27 
42 



400 
400 
95 
95 
87 
62 
00 
10 
55 
19 00 

13 OO 

14 00 
18 50 

12 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



8« 
58 
50 
37 
47 



1 
1 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



700 

550 

105 

108 

98 

71 

105 

155 

60 



to 22 00 
to 13 00 
to 15 00 
to 18 75 
to 14 



105 
L04 
94 
63 
[02 
LOO 
60 
19 00 
12 00 
14 00 
120 .50 
12 



30 to 33 



23 
13 
13 
50 
32 
28 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



25 

13i 

13A 

54 

52 

36 



450. 

465 

550 

102^ 

71 

30 00 

2100 

10 00 

14 00 

1140 

19 00 

14 

35 

35 



to 5 
to 6 
to 1 
to 

to 31 
to 23 
toll 
to 16 
toll 
to 20 
to 
to 
to 



25 

25 

03 

73 

00 

OO 

50 

00 

50 

00' 

15 

38 

38 



16i... 

16^ to 

6&to 

74 to 

8ito 
12Ho 

mto 



17 



u 



13} 
I5i 



4 00 

4 75. 

5 12 



to 450 



to 



6 37S 



16 

61 to 



8 to 81 

92 to 10) 

13 to 14i 



IS to m 



4 00. 
4 23. 



5 00 



to 5 25 



8014Ho$014i 
25 to 31 
17 to 21 

16 to 18 



7ito 
49 to 
40 to 
27 to 
42 to 



9 
58 
52 
37 
47 



400 
400 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



700 
550 



14 
14 

98 
76 
06 
35 
69 



to 23 00 
to 13 00 
to 15 00 
to 21 00 
to 14 



30 to 33 



18 
13 
13 
53 
32 
28 



500 

5 37| 

600 

86 

74 

29 00 

24 00 

10 00 

14 00 

1140 

22 37^ 

14i 

30 

12 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



27 

13i 

13i 

55 

52 

36 



ito 


600 


to 


6 75 


to 


88 


to 


76 




. 



to 11 50 
to 16 00 
to 11 50 
to 23 00 
to 15ii 
to 32 
to 22 



15 to 
18 to 

7 to 

8 to 
9} to 

13f to 

15^ to 

9 to 



16 

8i 
101 

Uk 

16i 
lis 



12 to 14 



4 00 to 4 37^ 
4 50 to 4 80 
to 5 25 



500 



May. 



$0151 

25 to 31 
17 to SO 

16i to 17 



7ito 
45 to 
40 to 
27 to 
42 to 



9 
58 
50 
37 
47 



5 75 
5 40 



1 
1 
1 



1 
1 



30 

20 
00 
70 
03 

60 
19 00 

13 00 

14 00 
2100 

12 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



6 75 
600 
132 
140 
112 
64 
110 
137) 
68 
to 23 00 
to 15 00 
to 15 00 
to 22 00 
to 14 



27 to 28 



15 to 

13 to 

13 to 

53 to 

32 to 

28 to 



20 
13*1 

So 
52 
36 



5 25 to 

5 75 to 

6 50 to 
86 to 
Tikto 

26 00 #o 
24 00 
1100 
14 00 
1140 
23 00 

15 

3U 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



550 

6 37* 

725 

87 

75 

28 00 

24 50 

1150 

16 00 

1150 

23 25 

lOi 

33 



13 to 


20 




..16 


18 to 
8* to 


9 




9|to 


91 


13* to 


141 


14{to 
9 to 


16* 
12 


12 to 


Uk 


400 to 
4 50 to 
500 to 


435 
480 
550 



KEPORt OF THE STATISTICIAN. 



100 



PKODUCTS FOB 1875. 

nearly as praciicahle, at the beginning ofeadk month — Coutmucd. 



Jane. 



July. 



Angost- 



34 to 
18 to 



11 to 23 



10 14| to 13 1-6 to$13ft40 I3i to 90 13} 
30 20 to 23 23 to 28 
15 to 18 16 to 20 

10 to 11 10 to 11 



30 
23 



43 to 
25 to 



45 
34 



40 to 
38 to 
25 to 



53 
43 
33 



40 to 
38 to 
85 to 



53 
43 
33 



September. 



October. 



$012J... 
25 to 
18 to 



NoTombor. 



29 
21 



leo 13} to to 131 $012 1.6 



lOi to lU 



7f to 
40 to 
39 to 
26 to 



n 

53 
41 
33 



26 to 
18 to 



31 
23 



10 to lU 



7} to 
40 to 
40 to 
26 to 



9i 
53 
43 
33 



30 to :m 
20 to . 24 

Hi to 13 



;K)l*2i... 
25 to 
19 to 



7ft to 
44 to 
38 to 
25 to 



52 
44 
33 



December. 



"32 
23 



11 to 13 



G3 



74 to 
44 to 
38 to 44 
25 to 33 



61 



4 75 
450 



1 
1 



14 
95 
64 
03 
25 
60 
19 00 

13 00 

14 00 
2100 

13 



1 
1 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



7 75 
550 
133 
138 
107 
78 
110 
150 
68 
to 33 00 
to 15 00 
to 15 00 
to 23 00 
to 14 



87 to 38 



15 to 

13 to 

13 to 

53 to 

33 to 

28 to 



30 
13* 

J? 

53 
38 



585. 






5 37ft 
650 


to 
to 


625 

7 50 

..88 


78 


to 


TJ 


85 00 
JO 00 
1600. 


to 36 50 
to 11 50 


1150 
2100 
15 
33. 


to 13 50 
to 31 50 
to 16 


30 

8 
18. 


to 
to 


33 
i4 



8 to 
9|to 
91 to 

13 to 

14M0 

9 to 



9 

lOJ 
13J 

15i 
12 



13 to 14ft 



4 00 to 4 25 

4 50 to 4 75 

5 00 to 5 50 



4 75 

450 

125 

110 

95 

63 

85 

125 

53 

19 00 

1100 

14 00 

3100 

13 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



7 75 
50 
33 
32 
00 
73 
94 
50 
60 



435 
375 



1 
1 
1 



to 21 00 
to 13 00 
to 15 00 
to 23 00 
to 14 



80 
12 
03 
65 
85 
25 
53 

13 20 
10 00 

14 00 
20 00 

13 



io 

to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



750 
500 
138 
138 
ISO 
73 
103 
150 
60 
to 33 00 
to 13 00 
to 15 00 
to 31 00 
to 14 



435 

3 75 

38 

08 

05 

60 

73 

18 

29 

18 00 

700 

14 00 

30 50 

13 



S7 to 28 



27 to 88 



14 to 

13 to 

13 to 

53 to 

33 to 

28 to 



16 

13ft 

13i 

55 

52 

36 



16 to 

13 to 

13 to 

51 to 

37 to 

30 to 



SO 

53 
47 
38 



I 



4 50 to 4 63 

4 75 to 5 75 

600 to 700 

88 to 90 

66 to 66 

2600 

2500 

10 00 to 11 50 

1600 

1150 to 12 50 
3150 to3175 
14i to 15^ 
30 to 33 
23 to 84 



4 75 
563ft 
700 
86 
65 
26 00 
3300. 
10 00 
16 00. 
1100 
3350. 
14 
30 
30 



10 to 

17 to 

8ft to 

O^to 

92 to 

13ft to 

14ft to 
9 to 



12 

"ft 

9 

9J 

10ft 

13 

15J 
18 



12 to 14ft 



4 00 to 4 50 

4 75 to 4 80 

5 00 to 5 02ft 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



750 
500 
138 
146 
115 
70 
80 
130 
40 
to 31 00 
to 13 00 
to 15 00 
to 31 00 
to 15 



87 to 88 



18 to 

13 to 

13 to 

50 to 

37 to 

30 to 



33 

13ft 

13ft 

51 

47 

38 



00 
3 75 
130 
110 



to 750 

to 5 75 

to 160 

to 160 



53 

65 

100 

30 

16 00 

700 

14 00 

183 90 

13 



to 67 
to 71 
to 133 
to 46 
to 18 50 
to 050 
tol5 00 
to 33 85 
to 14 



87 to 88 



80 to 

10 to 

13 to 

44 to 

35 to 

27 to 



33 

lift 

13ft 

50 

38 

37 



4 00 to 6 75 



500 to 675 



110 
100 



to 
to 



135 

155 



110 
100 



to 
to 



120 
151 



46 

50 

55 

38 

16 50 

8 00 

14 00 

3160 



to G8 
to C8 
to 130 
to 43 
to 18 00 
to 10 50 
to 14 50 
to 33 00 



35 
54 

40 

28 

14 50 

800 

1400 

3160 



14ft to 14} 
28 to .10 



20 to 
13ft to 
13 to 
49 to 
47 to 
25 to 



25 
13ft 
14 
50 

35 




5 00 to 5 50 
600 to 650 

6 75 to 7 00 



4 50. 




1 
1 


4 75 

650 

73 

40 


to 
to 
to 
to 


625 

900 

78 

53 

24 OO 


2150. 




10 00 
1600. 


to 10 50 


1150 
23 75 

35. 
, 25. 

10 
14 

83 

9ft 


to 12 00 
to 24 50 
to 15} 






to 
to 
to 

to 


10ft 
16 

9ft 
91 



9} to 



535 to 550 
6 00 to 6 85 
6 50 to 7 00 



12ft to 
7\ta 



111 
13| 

lo' 



11 to 80 



5-00 to 5 25 
5 90 to 5 75 
600 to 650 



430 to 450 

4 75 to 5 75 

600 to 885 

75 to 85 

N3 to 54 

8700 

3300 to2500 
10 00 to 10 50 

1600 

1150 to 1300 
24 00 to24 37ft 
14ft to 15} 
33 to 35 
83 to 38 

13ft to 14ft 

16 

7 to 7ft 

8ft 

^to Oft 

Ill 

18| to 14} 

7 to 9 

Oft to 17 



4 50 to 
535 to 
600 to 



500 
573 
650 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 

^ 
to 



124 to 



47 

68 
115 

39 
16 50 
10 00 
M50 
8175 

13 



23 to 30 



80 to 

13 to 

13 to 

43 to 

38 to 

30 to 



25 
14 

14 
50 
43 

38 



435 

450 to 535 

563ftto 723 

54 to 60 

37 to 53 

3400 

3000 to3300 

iido'toiVco* 

1150 

3350 to8325 
13^ to 14| 
33 to 35 
23 to 35 



13..., 
14 to 

O^to 

7ito 

Sftto 

10^ to 

13ft to 
7 to 



15 
7 

7ft 

• 

lOi 

13ft 




9| to 14ft 



450 to 
535 to 
5 75 to 



500 
550 
685 



110 liEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

MARKET PRICES OP FARM 

TJwfoUoicinff quotations rcjyrcaeni the state of the marJxt, aa 



Products. 



SAif Fbaxcisco— Cont'd. 

Wheat, California .. contal. 

Oregon do.. 

Barley do. . 

Oats do.. 

Com do.. 

Har. Stato ton. 

Beef, mesa bbl.. 

family mess . . (bbl . . 
Pork, mesa bbl.. 

prime mess .. .do.. 

Lard lb.. 

Batter, overland do . . 

California do. . 

.Oregon do.. 

Cheese :do.. 

Wool, native do.. 

California do.. 

Oregon % do.. 



January. 



1140 

140 

120 

145 

130 

12 00 

800 

650 

*23 00 

17 50 

13 

25 

25 

SO 

124 

13 

15 

18 



to ei 60 

to 155 
to 150 
to 175 
to 145 
to 16 00 
to OOD 
to 8 00 
to 24 00 
to 20 00 
to 15 



to 


40 


to 


50 


to 


35 


to 


IG 


fo 


20 


to 


22 


to 


22 



February. 



$150 
150 
145 
160 
145 

12 00 
800 
650 

24 00 

rso 

13 

3D 

40 

30 

12| 

10 

15 

18 



tofl 
to 1 
to 1 
to 1 
to 1 
to 17 
to 8 
to 8 
to 25 
to 20 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



60 
CO 
70 
85 
55 
00 
50 
50 
00 
00 

16* 
40 

50 
35 
16 
20 
S3 
23 



March. 



lei 
1 
1 
1 
1 

9 

8 

6 

22 

17 



40 to 

50 to 

85 to 

60 to 

40 to 

00 to 

00 to 

50 to 

00 to 

50 to 

13 to 

S5 to 

30 to 

20 to 
12ito 

10 to 

15 to 

18 to 



April. 



ei60 

160 

150 

185 

160 

16 00 

900 

800 

23 00 

19 00 

]6i 

50 

25 

25 

16 

SO 

18 

S3 



$150 

150 

140 

153 

140 

10 00 

800 

650 

23 00 

17 50 

13 

90 

25 

20 

12* 
10 
15 
18 



totl 
to 1 
to 1 
to 1 
to 1 

ton 

to 9 
to 8 

tosa 

to 19 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 



70 

70 

60 

80 

60 

00 

00 

00 

00 

00 

17 

25* 

30 

23i 

16 

20 

S3 

S3 



May. 



$160 

160 

100 

2 10 

150 

12 00 

850 

650 

22 00 

16 50 

14 

20 

25 

20 

12* 
10 
15 
18 



to f 1 85 
to ISO 
to 175 
to 225 
to 160 
to 18 00 
to 50 
to 800 
to 23 00 
to 18 00 
to 16i 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



S5 

321 

23i 

16 

80 

85 

S5 



LIVE STOCK 



NEW TOBK. 

Cattle: 

Extra beeves cental . 

Good to prime do. . . .do. . 

Common to fair do ... do . . 

Texans do.. 

Milch-cows head. 

Veal-calves cental., 

Sheop do. . 

Swine do.. 

rniiiADELriiiA. 

Cattle : 

Primo beeves centaL 

Fair to good do.. 

Common do.. 

Sheep do.. 

Swioo do.. 

IIALTQIOIUS. , 
Cattle: 

Best beove^ cental . 

First-quality do.. 

Medium or good . . . .do. . 

Ordinary do.. 

General average of the 
market cental . 

Most of the sales do. . 

Milch-cows head . 

Sheep cental. 

Swine do.. 

CIXCINNATI. 

Cattle: 

Good to prime butchers' 
steers cental. 

Fair to medium do. . 

Common do.. 

Milch-cows head 

Veal-calves cental, j 

Sheep do. . j 

Swine do.. 

rnicAGO. ; 

Cattle: ! 

Extra ff rn do d st r crs, 1 ,300 
to l,r»j0 pouTidsfrntal. 
Choico boevos, 1,2^0 to 

1,450 ]wnn(ln cental. 

Ooo<l bfoves, 1, 100 to 1,350 
pounds cental . 



13 75 
1150 

9 bo 

850 

40 00 

700 

600 

750 



7 75 
000 
400 
5 00 
9 75 



550 



4 62. 
4 25 
30 CO 
2 25 

9 00 



4 75 
3 50 
250 
30 00 
3. 50 
400 
715 



6 50 



5 



to 



to 14 GO 
to 13 SO 
to 11 90 
to 10 50 
to 80 00 
to TO 50 
to 7 50 
to 800 



to 8 25 
to 7 50 
to 575 
to 8 00 
to 10 75 



712 



•=50 



to 

4 37 to & 

3 75 to 4 75 

3 00 to 3 75 



to 5 50 
to 45 00 
to 6 50 
to 9 75 



O AM' 



to 6 00 

to 4 50 

to 3 25 
to 50 00 

to 5 50 

to GOO 

to 7 65 



to 7 35 
to G25 
to 5 70 



13 00 
12 00 

850 
700 
45 00 
7 00 
550 



750 
525 

4 00 

5 75 
9 00 



525 
4 63 
350 
300 

4 63. 
4 00 
35 00 

4 50 
8 50 



4 75 
350 
250 

30 00 

5 .50 
400 
35 



to 13 SO 
to 13 75 
to 11 75 
to JO 75 
to 00 00 
to 10 00 
to 8 00 
None in 



to 8 00 
to 725 
to 5 00 
to 725 
to 10 50 



to 7 25 

to 5 25 

to 4 63 

to 3 50 



to 5 50 
to 50 00 
to 7 00 
to 9 00 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



75 



4.50 

325 

CO 00 

7 00 

6 00 

7 50 



13 00 to 
1175 to 
9 50 to 
7 25 to 
40 00 to 
7 50 to 
5 37* to 
market. 



13 75 
13 75 
1150 

850 
80 00 
10 50 

7 75 



7 75 
550 
400 
450 
1100 



4 85. 

4 00 

30 00 

4 50 

50 



5 e.'. 

4(!0 
'2 CO 

:woo 

6*2.') 
4 00 
6 15 



G 85 to 75 
5 GO to 6 00 
5 00 to 5 50 



025 
5 GO 



to 8 00 
to 735 
to 5 00 
to 750 
to 11 50 



5 25 to 7 CO 

4 50 to 5 85 

400 to 450 

3 35 to 4 00 



to 5 00 
to 50 00 
to 7 25 
to 10 25 



to 6 00 

to ."iOO 

to 3 25 
to 50 00 

to 7 50 

to GOO 

to 7 50 



to 6GS 
to 6 00 



13 50 to 14 00 
13 35 

10 75 to 13 00 

56*06 "to 75 66 
4 50 to 10 50 
550 to 750 

Few in market 



750 
625 
525 
450 
13 00 



625 



550. 
5 00 
30 00 
4 50 
U75 



550 

4 00 
2 75 

25 00 

5 50 
4 50 
650 



to 8 00 
to 725 
to 6 00 
to 7 75 
to 13 00 



to 7 30 

5 12 to 6 35 

462 to 519 

3 50 to 4 68 



to 6 00 
to 48 00 
to 8 00 
to 11 50 



6 25 



5 00 
75 



to 
to 

to 3 
to 55 00 

to 7 to 

to 6 00 

to 8 75 



6 40 to 6 90 
5P5 to 6 25 



13 25 to 13 75 
1175 to 13 00 
10 75 to 11 50 

Nominal 

40 00 to 70 00 
5.50 to 7 00 
500 to 800 
None for sade. 



800 
650 
450 
500 
1100 



6 37. 

600 
30 00 

4 50 
10 00 



600 
500 
3 75 
30 00 
550 
550 



to 8121 
to 7 75 
to 600 
to 800 
to 13 50 



6 75 to 7 50 
5 50 to 6 75 
500 to 550 
400 to 500 



to 700 
to 48 00 
to 7 50 
to 11 50 



to 6 50 
to 5 75 
to 4 75 
to 55 00 
to 7 00 
to 6 75 



6 30 to 6 75 

6 00 to cao 



5 00 to 5 50 i 5 50 to 5 75 ; 5 80 to C 00 



REPORT OF THE STATISTICIAN. 



Ill 



PKODUOTS FOR 1875. 

nearly a9 praciicahlej at the beginning of each month — Continaed. 



1 

Jnoo. 


July. 


Augost. 


September. 


October. 

1 


November. 


December. 


$160 to $175 


11 GC^ to $175 


#3 00 to$Cl9 


$3 00 


to $2 15 


$175 


to $2 10 


$185 to$S05 


$175 to $195 


] 60 to 1 75 


160 to 170 


2 00 to 210 


300 


to 315 


SOO 


to 310 


200 to 303 


175 to 195 


133 to 160 


140 to 160 


140 to 160 


140 


to 165 


130 


to 150 


135 to 150 


180 to 150 


1 90 to 8 25 


190 to 215 


175 to 2 35 


175 


to 3 05 


165 


to 200 


165 to 2 00 


165 to 205 


150 to 160 


140 to 155 


1 45 to 1 55 


140 


to 155 


130 


to ISO 


117) to 140 


122) to 135 


10 00 to 16 00 


1200 toSOOO 


12 50 to 17 50 


12 50 


to 18 00 


13 00 


to 19 00 


12 00 toSlOO 


1400 to2100 


850 to 950 


8 50 to 9 50 


8 50 to 9 50 


850 


to 9 00 


800 


to 10 00 


6 00 to 10 00. 


900 to 1000 


6 50 to 8 00 


650 to 800 


650 to 800 


750 


to 800 


750 


to 800 


8 00 to 10 00 


800 tolOOO 


SSOO to2300 


22 00 to 23 00 


22 00 to23 00 


23 00 


to 33 00 


34 00 


to 25 00 


32 00 toSSOO 


23 50 to24 00 


16 50 to 18 00 


16 50 tof7 00 


16 50 to 17 00 


16 50 


to 17 00 


16 50 


to 17 50 


17 00 toieoo 


1750 tol80O 


14 to 16) 


14 to 16 


15 to 16} 


15 


to 16) 


15 


to Iff) 


13) to 16 


13) to 16 


SO to 35 


20 to 25- 


20 to 27 


20 


to 32 


20 


to 27 


15 to 25 


18 to 85 


95 to 32^ 


SO to 35 


25 to 35 


30 


to 45 


30 


to 47) 


30 to 60 


30 to 60 


SO to S3i 


20 to 224 


20 to 22) 


20 


to 95 


20 


to 25 


20 to 25 


20 to 25 


121 to 15 


ISi to 15 


12) to 15 J 


m 


|to 15 


12) to 15 


12) to 15 


13) to 15 


10 to 15 


10 to 15 


13 to 15^ 


10 


to 15 


10 


to 15 


10 to 15 


10 to 13 


15 to 26 


15 to 27 


15 to 27 


15 


to 27 


15 


to 25 


15 to 25 


15 to 25 


18 to 26 


18 to 27 


15 to 35 


15 


to 37 


15 


to 25 


15 to 25 


20 to 85 



MAEKBTS. 



13 35 

J^SOO 

10 35 

900 

50 00 

450 

585 

Kone 



to 13 50 
to 13 00 
to 11 75 
to 12 25 
to 90 00 
to 825 
to 700 
for sole. 



800 
635 
500 
450 
1150 



637. 

5 75 
30 00 

400 
10 00 



5 75 
450 
3 50 
25 00 
400 
3 23 
7 30 



to 850 
to 800 
to 6 00 
to 5 75 
to 13 50 



635 to 750 
5 35 to 6 25 
4 75 to 5 50 
4 50 to 4 75 



to 700 
to 45 00 
to 550 
to 10 75 



to C50 

to 5 50 

to 400 
to 55 00 

to 6 00 

to 5 00 

to 7 50 



G40 to 6 60 
6 00 to 6 25 
5 75 to 5 00 



13 25 to 

12 35 to 

11 50 to 

7 00 to 

50 00 to 

500 to 

435 to 

925 to 



13 50 

13 00 

13 00 

10 75 

108 00 

750 

850 

75 



835. 
600 
400 
450 
1100 



to 800 
to 5 75 
to 600 
to 11 50 



6 00 to 7 25 

5 00 to 6 00 

4 50 to 5 00 

350 to 450 



600. 
550 
30 00 
400 
950 



to 6 50 
to 40 00 
to 5 00 
to 10 CO 



5 00 
350 

2 00 
30 00 

350 

3 50 

6 75 



to 5 75 

to 4 73 

to 3 25 
to 45 00 

to 4 50 

to 3 50 

to 7 20 



6GS)to 6 75 
5 00 to 6 37) 
5C5 to 5 75 



13 00 to 13 50 

12 00 to 12 75 

11 25 to 1175 

6 50 to 1150 

40 00 to 100 00 

6 00 to 10 00 

425to 685 



725 to 787 
600 

3 75 to 5 75 

4 50 to 6 00 
1125 toll 50 



5 72 to 712 

4 50 to 5 63 

3 75 to 4 50 

3 25 to 3 75 



5 50.... 

soo'to'eoo 

35 00 to42 00 

400 to 550 

10 25 no 11 00 



5 75 
425 
250 
10 00 
500 
325 
760 



to 6 00 

to 550 

to 4 00 
to 55 00 

to 650 

to 4 50 

to 7 90 



660 

6 00 to 6 30 
5 75 to 5 63 



13 00 

1150 

10 75 

725 

43 00 

700 

450 



7.'50 
5 75 
400 
4 00 
1150 



450. 

400 
^00 

400 
10 00 



500 
325 
225 
20 00 
450 
300 
650 



to 13 50 
to 12 75 
to 11 85 
to 9 50 
to 75 00 
tol$00 
to 650 
....8 37) 



to 8 00 
to 785 
to 550 
to 6 00 
to 12 50 



6 25 to 6 75 

4 75 to 6 25 

3 50 to 4 75 

2 75 to 3 50 



to 512 
to 42 00 
to 550 
to 11 50 



to 5 50 

lo 4 75 

to 3 25 
to 50 00 

to 6 50 

to 4 50 

to 8 40 



6 40 to 6 75 
5 75 t(T 25 
500 to SCO 



13 50 to 13 00 

13 35 to 13 50 

10 75 ton 00 

8 50 to 11 00 



1300 

11175 to 18 75 
8 00 toll SO 
650 to 850 



7 50 to 9 50 
5 85 to 7 25 

8 63) to 8 80 



7 62) to 8 00 
6 00 to 7 50 
4 00 to 5 50 
450 to 600 
12 00 to 14 00 



6 75 to 7 25 

4 75 to 5 75 

3 75 to 4 75 

3 50 to 3 75 



450. 
4 00 

'4*66 
10 50 



500 
3«3 
323 



to 500 

to 5*50 
to 11 75 



to 5 50 
to 4 75 
to 3 25 



5 50 
250 
600 



to 7 00 
to 4 75 
to 800 



02Q to 6 40 
5 20 to GOO 
4 80 to 5 25 



4 75 to 
866)... 



6 00 



700 
550 
350 
4 50 
1150 



412. 

350 
35 00 

4 CO 
10 50 



400 
3 00 
200 

30 06 
250 
3 25 

.6 75 



to 7 50 
to 6 75 
to 5 50 
to 600 
to 12 25 



5G2 to 612 

4 50 to 5 62 

4 00 to 4 50 

250 to 350 



to 4 75 
to 40 00 
to 550 
to 10 75 



to 550 
to 400 
to 3 00 
to 60 00 
to 7 00 



to 
to 



5 23 
7 60 



5 80 

4 75 to 5 20 



1273 to 13 50 

1150 to 1250 

850 toll25 

750 to 1050 



7 50 to 1000 
4 50 to 650 
7 50 to 7561 



700 
550 
400 
450 
1050 



to 762) 
to 6 75 
to 550 
to 600 
to 11 50 



613 to 6. 'SO 
512 to 612 
425 to 4 75 
300 to 425 



4 63 
425 



to 523 



4 00 to 5 25 
875 tolOOO 



4 75 to 525 

3 50 to 4 50 

2.'J0 to 325 

25 00 to5000 



323 to n.'H) 
X90 to 7 50 



, 640 

600 

400 to 540 



112 



REPORT or THK COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE 



LIVE STOCK 

TJie following quotaiiona represent the slate of the market ^ as 



Prodacta. 



I CHICAGO—Continuod. 

Cattle: 

Median], 1,150 to 1,350 
ponuds cental. 

Inferior natives do. . 

TexADB do.. 

Sheep do.. 

Swine do.. 

6.UNT LOUIS. 

Cattle: 

Good to choice native 
ateera cental. 

Common to fair na- 
tivea cental. 

Inferior to common . . do . . 

Texaos, fair to choiccdo . . 

Sheep do.. 

Swine do.. 

Hqarsee: 

Flags head. 

Plain do.. 

StreetKjar .do. . 

Heavy-dra«i}xbt do . . 

Good drivers do.. 

Extra do.. 

Males: 

14 to tli hands high Jiead. 

15 to 16 hand^liigh . .do. . 
Extra do.. 

NEW OBLEAX& 
CatUfti 

Texan be* v'8,choice.head . 

First quality do.. 

Second cfnalUy do.. 

Western cental^ 

Milch-cows head. 

Sheep do.. 

Swl&e do.. 



January, 



18 7.) 
400 
175 
300 
6S5 



to $5 25 
to 500 
to 400 
to 050 
to 72S 



February. 



$4 25 
225 
390 
3 75 
G2S 



to 14 75 
to 4 00 
to 525 
to 5 75 
to 7 40 



4 75 to 6 00 



32oto 
SOOto 
250to 
325to 
400to 



450 
350 

3 75 

4 to 
600 



40 00 to 75 00 

80 00 to 110 00 

75 00 to 125 00 

130 00 to 170 00 

100 00 to 150 001100 

175 00 to 180 00 



75 00 to 120 00 

120 oo to leaoo 

175 00 to 200 00 



4 75 to G 00 



3 25 to 
3 00 to 
2 50 to 
825 to 
450to 



450 
350 
350 
4 75 
7 00 
I 



March. 



$4 25 
2 25 
2 75 
350 
5 75 



to $4 75 
to 4 25 
to 5 75 
to 6 00 
to 730 



4 75 to 6 00 



335to 
200to 
2 50 to 
250to 
SOOto 



450 
350 
350 
500 
725 



40 00 to 75 00 

80 00 to 110 00 

75 00 to 125 00 
130 00 to 170 00 
00 to 150 00 
175 00 to 180 00 175 00 to 180 00 



40 00 to 75 00 

80 00 to 110 00 

75 00 to 125 00 

130 00 to 170 00 

100 OOKto 150 00 



75 00 to 
190 00 to 
175 00 to 



120 00 
180 00^120 

I 



40 00 to 46 00 

3000to 3600 

aOOOto 2500 

400to 600 

35 00 to 100 00 

3 00 to 5 00 

SOOto 750 



40 00to 

30 0$ to 

20 00to 

400to 

35 00to 

300to 

SOOto 



75 00 to 120 00 

00 
noo 



April. 



$5 03 
300 
250 
3 75 
7 10 



to $5 50 
to 5 00 
to 525 
to G50 
to 8^5 



3 50 to 
200 to 
175 to 

4 00 to 
SOOto 

40 00 to 

80 00 to 

75 00 to 

130 00 to 

100 00 to 

175 00 to 



4 75 
3 50 
400 

6 25 

7 25 

75 00 
110 00 
125 00 
170 00 



May. 



$■> 



5 50 
350 
300 
3 00 
700 



to $5 75 
to 5.')'. 
to 5 75 
to 6 50 
to 8 75 



SOOto 6 25 450 to 675 



325 
150 
200 
3 75 



to 
to 
to 
to 



4 75 

2 87i 

4ii5 

C25' 

.8 001 



40 00 

80 00 

75 00 

130 00 

15O00H00O0 

180 00!l75 00 



to 75 00! 
toUO^i 
to 125%) 
to 170 00' 
to 150 001 
to 180 00! 



to 180 00 
to200 00 



46 001 

36 001 

25 00 

650 

100 00 

500 

800 



40 00 

30 00 

20 00 

300 

35 00 

300 

500 



to 4600^ 

to 35 00 

to 85 00 

to 750 
to 100 00 

to 700^ 

to 850 



75 00 to 120 OOl 75 00 to 120 00 
120 00 to 180 00;i20 00 to 180 00 



175 00 to 200 00 



40 00 to 
30 00to 
80 00 to 

SOOto 
35 00 to 
'3 00to 

SOOto 



46 00 

35 00 

25 00 

750 

100 00 

700 

600 



175 00 to 180 00 



40 00 to 46 00! 

3000to 3500 

2000to 2500 
300to 750 

35 00 to 100 00 

3 00 to 7 OOl 

5 00 to 8 sol 

I 



REPORT OF THE STATISTICIAN. 



113 



MARKETS. 



nearly aapraciicable, at the heginning of each month — Coutiiiacd. 



Jane. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


Xoveraber. 


December. 


f5 25 to$5 60 
250 to 325 


$4 90 to $5 124 


$5 00 to$5 55 


94 25 to $5 00 
225 to 400 

2 25 to 3 75 

3 00 to 512} 
6 50 to 8 75 


$4 15 to $5 65 
175 to 3 75 

2 50 to 3 75 

3 50 to 5 00 
7 00 to 9 50 


$4 40 to $4 65 
2 55 to 4 05 

2 75 to 3 75 

3 00 to 5 00 
6 50 to 8 00 


$3 00 to $3 75 
2 50 to 3 00 


300 to 450 
3 50 to 5 75 
6 25 to 7 35 


230 to 2 70 
250to 425 
COO to 710 


315 to 4 40 
2 75 to 5 00 
5 75 to 8 00 


275 to 400 
300 to 450 
6 85 to 715 


4 50 to G 75 


4 50 to 6 75 


5 50 to C 75 


550to 625 


575 to 25 


5 25 to 5 50 


575to 612 


3 S3 to 4 75 
150 to 2 87i 
S50to 425 
3 75 to 6 25 
660to 800 


3 25^ to 4 75 
150 to 2 87A 

2 00 to 4 25 

3 75 to 6 25 
6 60 to 8 (H) 


3 25 to 4 75 

1 50 to 2 87 

2 50 to 4 25 

3 75 to G 25 
G 60 to 8 00 


325to 525 
2 50 to 3 00 
1 75 to 4 25 
285to 425 
600to 800 


4 00 to 5 75 

5 00 to 3 00 
2 50 to 4 40 
285 to 4 2^ 

6 00 to 8 00 


3 50 to 4 50 

2 25 to 3 5(1 

3 00 to 4 25 
3 00 to 4 75 
5 25 to 7 25 


350 to 400 
225 to 3 50 
2 40 to 4 25 
275to 490 
690to 700 


40 00 to 75 00 

80 00 to 110 00 

75 60 to 125 00 

130 00 to 170 00 

100 00 to 150 00 

175 00 to 180 00 


40 00 to 75 00 

80 00 to 110 00 

75 00 to 125 00 

130 00 to 170 00 

100 00 to 150 00 

175 00 to 180 00 


40 00 to 75 00 

80 00 to 110 00 

75 OO to 125 00 

130 00 to 170 00 

100 00 to 150 00 

175 00 to 180 00 


40 00 to 75 00 

80 00 to 110 00 

75 00 to 125 00 

130 00 to 170 00 

100 00 to 150 00 

175 00 to 180 00 


40 00 to 75 00 
80 00 to 110 00 
75 00 to 125 00 

100 00 

150 00 

200 00 


25 00 to 50 00 2000to 3000 

60 00 to 70 00 6000to 7500 

7500 to 125 00 7500to 12500 

115 00 to 125 00 115 00 to 125 00 

100 00 to 150 00 100 00 to 1S5 00 

175 00 to 200 00 175 00 to 200 00 


75 00 to 120 00 
ISO 00 to 180 00 
175 00 to 200 00 


75 00 to 120 00 
120 00 to 165 00 
160 00 to 180 00 


75 00 to 120 00 
120 00 to 180 00 
175 00 to 200 00 


75 00 to 120 00 
120 00 to 180 00 
175 00 to 200 00 


85 00 to 120 00 
120 00 to 180 00 
175 00 to 200 00 


8000tol2000 8000tol3000 
120 Od to 180 00130 00 to 170 00 
175 CO to 200 00 175 00 to 200 00 


1 

4000to 4600 
aOOOto 3500 
SOOOto 2500 
• SOOto 750 


40 00 to 46 00 
SOOOto 35 00 
20 00^ 25 00 


40 00 to 46 00 
30 00 to 35 00 
20 00 to 25 00 


40 00 to 46 00 
30 00 to 35 00 
SOOOto 25 00 


40 00 to 46 00 
3000to 3500 
20 00 to 25 00 


40 00 to 46 00 
30 00 to 35 00 
20 00 to 25 00 


4000to 4600 
3000to 3500 
SOOOto 2500 


35^00 to 100 00 


35 00 to 100 00 
300to 500 
5 00 to 10 00 


30 00 to 100 00 
2 00 to 5 00 
5 00 to 10 00 


35 00 to 100 00 
2 00 to 5 00 
5 00 to 10 00 


35 00 to 100 00 
200to 500 
8 00 to 1100 


90 00 


io'ootofliooo 


300to 700 
5 00 to 10 00 


2 00 to 6 00 
8 00 to 1100 


200to 660 
700tO 850 



8a 



114 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AaRICULTUEE. 

A largo proportiou of the work of this division has beeu, as usual, the 
preparation of statemeuts, from its records and such other sources as 
were available, for legislative or industrial bodies, and frequently for 
representative individuals in aid of labors in the interest of rural industry 
and the general weltare. 

In another portion of this volume will be found somewhat extended 
statistics of forestry, prepared under the direction of the head of this 
division, in part the result of one of its special investigations. 
Respectfully, 

J. R. DODGE, . 

Statistician. 
Hon. Fbedk. Watts. • • 



"1^ 



REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

HETEROPTEEA, OR PLANT-BUGS. 

The order of the Hemiptera (or half- winged insects) contains the plant- 
bugs, which are all furnished with a beak, or rostrum, for piercing animal 
and vegetable substances, and for sucking out their sap, or juices, ou 
which they principally exist. The larvee and pupae generally resemble 
the imago, or perfect insect, in form, and are mostly active in all the 
stages of their existence, from the egg to the full-grown insect. This 
order is divided into two suborders, viz, the Heteroptera and the Homop- 
tera. 

The Heteroptera, or true plant- bags, possess four wings, the upper 
pair being of a dissimilar texture, hence the name of Heteroptera^ 
from two Greek words signifying " dissimilar wings ; " the anterior part 
of the upper pair being coriaceous, or leathery, in texture, while the 
terminal portion is membranous. The upper pair of wings also are larger 
than thelowerpair, and partially overlap each other. Theunder wingsare 
membranous, and concealed beneath the upper wings when the insect 
is at rest. A common garden-squash-bng will give the farmer a very 
good idea of the general form and structure of a true heteropterous insect, 
or plant-bug, when fully developwed. The young are perfectly wingless 
in the pupa or nymph state. Having cast their skins, they acquire merely 
rudimentary wings, which are perfectly useless for the purpose of flying j 
and it is not until they are fully grown, and their skin has again been 
shed, that the insect acquires perfectly-formed wings, adapted for flight. 
Some of the bugs, however, never acquire wings at all, but remain apterous 
all their lives ; the common bed-bug being a good example. Insects of the 
order Hemiptera only can p-'operly be called * ' bugs," although in the United 
States, it is common to call almost all insects and creeping things 
indiscriminately ^' bngs,^' instead of using the proper names, beetles, 
grasshoppers, flies, &c., or insects, if spoken of in a more general sense. 
In Europe, the word " bug " is never used, except as applying to that 
disgusting little bloodthirsty nocturnal pest, the bed-bug ; and the term 
is generally avoided as much as possible in general conversation, as 
being connected with fllth and uncleanliness. 

The second suborder of the Hemiptera is called Homoptera^ also 
from two Greek words signifying "similar wings,"' as they possess 
four wings, all of which are of a similq^r texture, being entirely mem- 
branous, in many cases transparent, and often deflexed, or sloping 
downward like the roof of a house. The upper wings are longer 



. REPOBT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 115 

than the pair underneath, and do not lap over each other when the 
tngect is at rest. These insects are also famished \^ith a beak, or 
saoker, with which they pierce principally vegetable substances to suck 
the sap, and in this manner, when numerous, are ver^^ injurious to the 
tender shoots or leaves of plants or trees. The common Cicada, or harvest* 
fly, (incorrectly called the locust,) and which makes such a buzzing 
sound in the trees in late summer and autumn, is a good example of 
some of the insect^ of this suborder. The small leaf-hoppers, (incorrectly 
known as the thrips of the grape-vine,) the small swiftly-running plant- 
bugs, and the Aphides^ or plant-lice, belong also to the Somoptera, and 
are, most of them, more or less injurious, sucking the sap of plants, 
although at the same time some species are said to destroy other insects 
injurious to the crops< 

We will now, however, return to the suborder Heteraptet^a, or true 
X>lant-bugs. These insects are frequently very destructive to the crops, 
and destroy the plants by draining them of their sap ; at the same time, 
they appear to inject a peculiar liquid into the wound, which poisons 
the part injured, discolors the edges of the puncture, and eventually 
kills the leaf if the insects are very numerous, as shown by the dead 
foliage injured by the common squash-bug. Others of the suborder 
Heteroptera are beneficial to the farmer and gardener by destroying; 
other insects which prey upon the crops. They first kill their victims 
by piercing them With their powerful beaks; they then leisurely suck 
out their juices, and leave the empty skin of their prey as a proof of 
their voracious habits. It is, however, exceedingly difficult to distin- 
guish whether certain plant-bugs are more injurious or beneficial; many 
of the plant-suckers occasionally varying their vegetable diet by making 
a meal on the life juices of some unfortunate, weak, or injured brother, 
^hich fact is exemplified in the common squash-bug, which has hitherto 
been^considered as an exclusively vegetable-feeder, being twice taken 
in the very act of eagerly sucking out the juices of two of its relatives 
which had accidentally been disabled and crushed, but were still alive. 
A very good example of the injury done by this suborder of insects 
may be seen in the ravages committed by the chinch-bug, Micropus 
leucoptems, which is so abundant in some seasons in the more Western 
States, and does so much injury to the fields of grain ; but of this insect 
we will speak more hereafter in this paper. The wheel-bug, Frianotus 
eristatus, {Beduvhia novenarhis,) also mentioned in a subsequent article, 
is k very good example of the class of carnivorous bugs, as it kills and 
feeds upon almost every other insect it can overcome, and, even when 
young, destroys its own brethren hatched from the same bunch of eggs 
as itself. 

As it will be of very little interest to the farmer to explain the scien- 
tific classification -of the suborder Heteroptera, (plant-bugs,) we will 
here merely state that in the arrangement of the following groups or 
families we have partially followed the classification of Amyot and 
Serville, which, although somewhat antiquated, at the same time appears 
to us to be the most natural and easy for beginners, as their arrange- 
ment is formed entirely on certain marked peculiarities in the structure 
of the insect visible to the naked eye : for example, in the size and 
form of the scutel, (a somewhat triangular shield between the bases of 
the upper wings and adjoining the thorax ;) in the situation of the an- 
tenna*, or horns; the form and position of the beak; structure of the legs, 
if formed for walking or for swimming ; and the absence or presence of 
ocelli. Suffice it to state here that the two great primary divisions are, 
firstly, the bugs frequenting the land, {Oeocoriew ;) and, secondly, those 
frequenting or. living in waters, (SydrorUw.) 





116 RKPORT or THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

The first family of the land-bags is (listinguisbed by tbe great size of 
their scutel, or shield. These insects are generally of moderate or large 
* size, and have a long 4-jointed beak, or piercer, with elongated 5'jointed 
antenna). Among these we frequently find several plant-bugs, which 
present the appearance of small beetles, as the scutel covers most of their 
back, and the wings are almost entirely concealed by this covering as 
with a coat of mail. 

A good example of thi^ class is CorymeUmuiy which is a small, \ 
almost round, black bug, (Fig. 1,) is abundant on strawberries, raspber- 
ries, cherries, and almost all other soft fruits ; and when they are 
numerous they cause the stems of young fruit-trees to wither up 
and perish from their punctures. They are also said to injure 
i^^ig. !• grape-vines. 

The genus Tetyra is also distinguished by its very large scutellum, 
which covers the whole of its abdomen, leaving only the side of the wing- 
covers exposed. 

Tetyra bipunctata (Fig. 2) is a medium-sized, or rather 
large bug, of a brownish-gray color when dried, and is 
figured merely to show the size of the scutellum. 

The following plant-bugs, with large scutella, may be 
classed as some of those most destructive to the foliage 
and shoots of various plants and trees. 
Sirachia (Murgantia) Imtrioniclia^ (Fig. 3,) commonly 
Fig* 2, known as the harlequin cabbage-bug, irom its mottled, 
bright, and harlequin-like colors of black, striped and 
variegated with bright-red or orange, in all their stages, 
from the egg up to the adult insect, are very destructive to 
the cabbage-crop in the more Southern States. They also 
destroy turnips, mustard, and other cruciferous plants. The 
Department has this year received many letters of complaint 
from the Southern States, giving details of their ravages in 
the cabbage-gardens. The eggs we have arc oblong and 
very beautiful, being banded with dark-colored rings. These 
eggs are generally deposited in bunches of ten or twelve on the under 
side of the leaves. In March, in the far South, and in April, in the 
more Northern States, they are set in two rows, cemented together 
on the leaves, and only require four to six days to hatch out into 
larvaj, which, although very small, resemble the perfect insect, with 
the exception that they are wingless. Twelve to twenty-four days 
after the deposition of the eggs, the perfect insect is developed ; and 
there are two broods or more annually in the extreme Southern States. 
They are said to pass the winter as perfect insects under stones, moss, 
or bark, and therefore might probably be destroyed by making small 
heaps of dry old eorn-stalks or other inflammable materials in the neigh- 
borhood of the cabbage-gardens, under which the insects can creep as 
a shelter in very cold weather. These rubbish heaps should then be 
examined in autumn to see if many insects have taken refuge under 
them ; and the first severely cold morning a little fire applied to the sev- 
eral heaps of trash will entirely ilestroy all the bugs hidden away 
for the winter under them, and so many perfect insects be prevented 
from laying the foundation of the spring broods. This is done in Flor- 
ida with the cotton-stainer, or red bug, Dysdercus (Pyrrhocoris) suturellusj 
a somewhat similar bug, which does much injury to cotton. These 
fires, however, are made in Florida from the crushed trash of sugar- 
cane which is grown there. The sweet substance exuding from the crushed 
sugarrcancy as w€|][l as tbe shelter afibrded from the cold weather, causes 





REPORT - OF ^ THE . ENTOMOLOGIST. 117 

tliesti iusectB to collect together iu immeuse qttaiititicii beneath tho heups. 
These insects are said by Dr. Lincecntu to be very Dumerous and de- 
structive in Texas. The leaves puuctared by them immediately wilt as 
if from the effects of poison, and as many as 47,000 have been gathered 
in ono instance by hand. We have not as yet heard of injury being 
dune by them to any considerable extent in this neighborhood, althoagU 
isolated specimens are by no means nncommou. Nanseous washes, sucU 
as whale-oil soap, even if they did drive away the insects for a time, 
wonld render the cabbages unodiblo for mankind j and poisons such as 
Puris green, if taken by the insects, would certainly be most daugerous 
to the consumers, even if washed oS' with half a dozen waters. 
These insects, however, are said to be destroyed by LfptoglossuB phyllo- 
pm, (figured at "So. 12.) 

A large speckled gray tree-bug, resembling in color the bark of a 
tree, JBrockymena arborea, (Fig. i,] is not uncommon in 
Marj'lnnd ou trees, and was taken in Baltimore as late 
as December 10 in 1874 on the door-steps. It fe( 
ou the sap of trees, and hibernates under bark and 
logs iu Maryland. 

Xeaara hilaris (Bliapldga»t-er ttennaylvanietis ot Fitch) ■ 
(Fig. 5) is a lai-ge green tree-bug, which is found abund- 
antly in Marylaud, and feeds on the sap of trees. 
This insect is of a somevrbat flattened form, of a grass- 
green color, edged all round with a yellow line, inter- 
Topted at each joint with a small black spot. Besides 
feeding on the sap of forest-trees, it punctures the leaves 
of the grape-vine and hickory-trees. This insect differs 
from the R. pennsytvanicus of De Geer in having the 
posterior angles of the pronotum triangular instead of 
rounded ; and although iu general appearance and 
habits these two insects are almost identical, with the 
exception of tho angles of the pronotum, Pro£ P. G. 
Uhlcr, of Baltimore, says, "These two insects ore en- 
tirely se[>arate as speoies." In Europe, a closely-allied 
lihaphigaster tleposits its eggs near caeli other, but iievpr heaped up, 
and is found on the trunks of trees. Many of these land-bugs are 
especially provided with organs which exhale a scent more or less disa- 
greeable; and if, irritated or menaced with danger, the insect is sud- 
denly seized and placed in a vessel containing clear water, a number 
of small bubbles will bo seen to come from its body, rise to the surface, 
then burst, and give out tho disagreeable odor, which, however, in 
some species is rather pleasant in a small quantity, as it resembles some- 
what the scent of a ripe pear. 

Acantkosoma ncbjtlosa (Fig. C) is a medium-sized brownish- 
gi-ay plant-bug, feeding on the sap of trees and plants, and 
is here mcTitioned on the authority of Prof. P. H. Uhler as 
being the North American representative of the Euroxtean 
species Acantkosoma grisea, of which De Geer, in his me- 
moirs, gives a very interesting account ; wherein ho states 
that the females, accompanied by their respective broods, 
each consisting of from twenty to forty young ones, are found in Jnly, 
and that the mother conducts the young as a hen does her chickens, 
never leaving them, but assembling them together in a cluster. When 
restless, she beats her wings as if to protect them ; this is said to be 
done in order to protect them from the males, which otherwise would 
destroy them, (thus proving also the carnivorous propensities of these 



PiR. 5. 



Fift. (i. 




118 BBPORT OF THE - COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

insects.) In Lennis, it is oven stated that the mother is said absolutely 
to sit apon tbe eggs, as if to Iiatcli ttiem ; bat this fact is somewhat 
doubtfnl. Alore lately, howeyer, Donglas states that Mr. Parfit, of 
Exet«r, Sftye that he saw " the mother insect watching over and pro- 
tecting Uer young," and adds, " Indeed, I never saw such affection ex- 
hibi.tcd by any insect;" and as Acantkosoma lateralis of Say is said by 
Professor Uhler to be our American representative of this insect, there 
will be a very good opportunity for onr yonng entomologists to prove 
or disprove the mntemal solicitude of this insect by practical experi- 
ence. 
J^vschistm {Penfatoma)punctipe8 (Fig. 7) is a middle-sized plant-bug, of 
a brownish-gray color, which is common on this- 
tles, mnlleins, and other weeds, and lives on the 
sap of plants. Many species of Fmtatoma are 
insects of medinm or large size, found on shrubs 
, or trees, and live generally on the sap ; but they 
are also somewhat beneficial by transfixing cat- 
erpillars with their beaks to extract their juices, 
p. ' "^ and eventually killing them. Their eggs are 

** '■ usnally of an oval form, and attached by a glu- 

tinoos sabetance nt one end to leaves or branches, the other end 
being furnished with a cap or cover, which the yonng larvai burst off 
when they hat«h out. These larvas are also more convex and less 
flattened out than the adults. 
Podiswa cynieiis, (Fig, 8,) [Arma grandis of Dallas,) or the large tree- 
bag of Fitch, is of a .dull pale-yellowish or brown- 
ish color, and is very common in Maryland. It 
feeds on the sap of the apple, oak, and other trees. 
Dr. George R, Morton, of North Bass Island, Ohio, 
is said to have found one of these insects sucking 
the juices from a young Colorado potato-beetle, 
{Boryphora VA-lineata.) The insect is somewhat the 
shape of a pnmpkin-seed, and has a conspicuous 
sharp spine projecting outward on each side of the 
thorax. 
Fig. S. Another smaller species, Podisiis (Anna) ^hwsus, 

(Fig. 9,) or the spined tree-bug, a brownish or gray- 
ish plant-bug nearly the color of tree-bark, injures leaves 
of apple and other trees by sucking out the sap; but at the 
same time it is said to be very beneficial to tlie farmer or 
gardener by destroying tha Colorado potato-beetle. In- 
deed, this plant-bug is said by some to be one of the bitter- 
p. ^ est enemies of that insect, and therefore, although it may ' 
^' ■ ■ perhaps do some injury to ftuit-trees, it may be regarded 
as a public benefactor, and preserved from injury. The spined tree-bug 
is said also to destroy the American goo-soberrs^ saw- 
. fly {Prhtipltora grosmlariw of Walker) and other 
insects. 

StirctrKs diana, {ancliorago, Fab.,) (Fig- 10,) a beau- 
tifully-marked plant-bug of a purple black color, with 
red or orange ornamental marks on the thorax and 
Fig. 10. scntcl, was found in Maryland busily employed in 

killing and sucking out the juices of the larva of the 
squash-ladybird, (i:pila<!hna horealis,) and no doubt it destroys also 
■ any other soft-bodied larva it can overcome, and should be protecteii 
as a benefactor to the fdrmcr. 





EEPOBT^OF-THE^'EHTOHOtiOQIST, l"]^ 

iSWrc(ra«^»iftrta*tt«,snear relative, the gronnd-colorsof which areorange 
or yellow, with blact omamentationB, (Fig. 11,) ia very rap»- 
cioa3 and carnivorous, as it feeds almost eotirely on other in- 
sects, inclnding the Colorado potato-beetle. It destroys cater- 
pillars of the black a.sterias, swallow-tail butterfly, which are '' 
so injurions to parsley, parsnips, celery, &c., in our gardens, 
and probably also the social caterpillars in the web-nets, which Fig. 1 
disfigure our shade and fhiit trees. 

tbo second family of the Qeoooriste, or land-bugs, is that of the Suveri- 
comes, BO called becanse the antennie are inserted on the upper sicfe of 
the head above an ideal line drawn iivm the eyes to the orfgiQ of the 
labium. 

Soineof theinsectsof this family are said to be beneficial to the farmer 
by destroying other injurions insects, among which may be fllasBed iyep- 
tofjhisus phyllopus, (Anisosoelia albUrinctus,) 
(l<'ig. 13,) a red dish -brown or blackish bng, 
^ith a distinct dirty-white or yellowish . 
band across its wing-covers. It may easily 
be recognized by the singnlarly brtmd, fiat- ; 
tened, leaf-Iihe projections on its hind 
shanks. When yonug the insects are of a 
bright-red color. We have met with these 
insects frequently in Florida on the cotton- 
plants, and at first auspeeted them of suck- 
ing the sap from the yonng bolls; but, al- 
though we watched their actions diligently, ' pj jg^ 
we must say that we never saw them in 
the act of piercing the bolls in order to sack the aap, and only once 
caught them under auBpicious circumstances where a boll had been 
pierced in several places, and the sep was exuding Irom the rounds. 
Several of these insects were gathered togeth^i' very near the flowing 
sap ; tbey, however, dispersed as soon as they were (^served, and flew 
away immediately. Although we never saw them destroy other in- 
sects, yet a correspondent, Mr. E. J. Eorle, of Evergreen, S. C, in 
ISCd, in a letter sent to the Department of Agricnltnre, states that 
be had seen this insect (of which he sent a 
specimen) in the very act of destroying the 
cabbage-plaut-bug, before mentioned. 

The genus Acantbocephala [Rkinvcbus and 
Metapodivs, ayu.) is the largest and most 
powerfulIy-developedoftbeBeteropterainthis 
country, and is generally found in the Sonth- 
em States. The insects frequent cotton-fielda, 
bnt have never been detected in the act of 
piercing tbe cotton-bolls or of destroying other 
insects. 

Acantbocephala (Metapodiwa) femorata, (Fig. 
13,) so called from its swollen spiny thighs, 
is a large reddish-brown or blackish insect, 
quit« abundant in the Southern cotton-flelds. 
It is very slow in its motions, and appears to 
be fond of basking in the sun. The thighs ^„ 13. 

are strongly developed and spiny, especially 

on the nnder side, while the abanka have broad, thin, plate or leaf-like 
projections on their sides, which give these insects a very pecoUar ap- 
pearance. The. eggs are smooth, &hort, oval, and have been found 



120 



EEPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AOHICULTUEE. 



Arranged in beadtj liko a necklace, on the leaf of white piuc. The fall- 

grown insect is stated to injure cherries in the Western iStates by pupc- 

tnriug them with its beak and sucking out tbe juices ; thus proving it at 

least in one instance to be, a feeder on veg^tal^le 

substances. 

Acantlioc^lutla decUvk (Fig. 14) resembles the 
above- mentioned insect in general size and form, 
but differs materially in the shape of the thorax, 
which is much broader, and projecting outward 
and forward. Italso haastrong spiny hind thighs 
and tbo peculiar flattened plate-liko shanka. 
The natural history and habits of these insects 
have been very little studied ; but, of all ^1^ 
specimens taken in the Southern States, ^ 
never yet took one in the act of killing oth^r 
insects. 

Paehylis gtgas (Fig. 15) is her© figured as one 
of tbe largest and most gaudily-colored hete- 
Fig. 14. ropterons insects found in this country, and as 

yet appears to be essentially Southern 
and rather scarce. Its markings are of 
a bright-red orange on a black ground; 
the contrast between the two colors 
being very marked and distinct, ronder- 
iug the insect plainly visiblb at a great 
distance. 

Alydua enriHus, (Fig. 16,) 
a slender bug, with several 
sectionsof thenpperpartof 
the abdomen of a bright- 
red color when the wings 
are opened, "occnra in late 
summer and autumn, some- 



Pig. 10. 



times in great numbers, on 




the leaves, and c 



golden-rod and other herbaceous plants, 

growing near the edgesof woods, also on 

the Rhiis glabra or smooth 

W sumach.— (P. It, U.) Alydm 
ater (Fig. 17) is the female. 
One of tbe most destruc- 
tive plant- bugs in this 
family is the squasb-bng, 
Aiiam ti-istis, (Fig. 18,) (Co 
,,. ,„ revs and Gonocenis triatU 
'^' '' ot'someauthors.) The eggs 
fii* said TO bo round, flattened on the sides, and 
of a metallie-browQ color. They are deposited in 
little patches, fastened with a gummy substance t« 
the under side of the leaves of squashes and other 
Citcurbitacea.; in June and July, &c., until late 
autumn. These eggs are not deiwsited all at one 
time on the plants, bnt in successive broods during 
the whole season. The lorv®, pupie, and perfect 
insects, .iU being active, indiscriminately attack 
■~ them to wither up by sucking oat the sap nnd 



opparently poisoning the foliage. They moult their skinsseveral times 



KEPORT . OF - THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 121 

before attaiuing the winged or perfect state, and become more oval in 
form as they grow older; and, as there are successive broods during the 
whole summer, they do much injury to the squash and pumpkin vines. 
These insects sometimes collect in masses around the stem near the 
earth, and injure the plant itself by extracting the sap with their piercers. 
When handled or disturbed, they give out an odor somewhat similar to 
that of an overripe pear, but which is too powerful to be agreeable. 
The perfeet insects, late in the autumn or when cold weather begins, 
leave the plants, and hibernate, or pass the winter, under bark of trees, 
in moss, or in crevices in stone walls, and in old fences. In Maryland, 
they have been taken in midwinter in old, decayed stumps of trees, in 
a perfectly torpid state; but, when exposed to moderate heat, they soon 
regained their vitality. These insects have been reported by some 
farmers as beneficial by destroying the Colorado potato-beetle, {Dory- 
pha7^a decemlineata;) but this report improbably incorrect, and the bug 
reported as seen killing the Colorado potato-beetle was probably Podisus 
(Arma) spinosuSj or the bordered soldier-bug, before mentioned, and 
"Which is well known to feed on other insects, and somewhat resembles 
the squash-bug in form, size, and color, and, by the uninitiated, might 
readily be mistaken for it. We once, however, saw the mature squash- 
bugs busily engaged in sucking out the juices from the body of a young 
insect of their own species that had accidentally been crushed on a 
squash-leaf. For remedies see laat part of this article. 

A small plant-bug, Rhopaltis latetyiliSj (Fig. 19,) probably 
feeds on the sap of plants, as Mr. Walsh states that an 
insect allied to this is one of the commonest bugs near Bock 
Island, 111., and ruins the buds of the pear-tree. The antenme 
are clubbed at the end. 

Neides (Berytus) spinosus (Fig. 20) is a remarkably slender j^^ ^9. 
bug, with very long, slim, hair-like legs and antennse, and is *'' 
figured merely to show the singular form and structure of the insect. 
Another species, N. elegans of Europe, is taken about the roots and 
young stems of the rest-harrow, {Ononis arvensisi) and 
with regard to its habits Wedwood states that as the 
larvae and pup® were discovered in company with the 
imago, it appears evident this was its food-plant. Of 
N. tipulariaj another allied European species, Amyot 
states that it is found in humid, obscure places, climb- 
ing and crawling slowly on high plants; and Wolf found 
it common in sand at the roots of different plants. ^^^' ^^• 

The third family is that of the Infericoy-nes. These insects are 
distinguished by the antennie being inserted below an ideal line 
drawn from the eyes to the origin of the labrum, or below the middle 
of the side of the head. The third joint of the beak is longer than the 
fourth. 

In the Lygmides^ the antenna) are four-jointed ; the terminal joint not 
being thinner or forming a terminal club. They are gen- 
erally rather small or of moderate size, and several spe- 
cies are beautifully markecl; being black, variegated with 
bright crimson, red, orange, ©r yellow. They are mostly 
found on plants. 

I/ygatis turcicus (Fig. 21) is common in Maryland, and is 
of a black color, ornamented with bright red, and has been ^^S- ^^- . 
observed once or twice preying on the small caterpillars feeding on the 
AsclepiaSj or.milk^weed. 






122 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 





Fig. 22. 




Another species, Lygwus fasciatus^ (Fig. 22,) of an orange and black 
color, has also been found in great abundance in Maryland 
on flowers of the Asclepian in company with caterpillars of 
Euchetea egU^ a medium-sized moth, or miller, and it probably 
^^-j. feeds also upon them. 
y^^\. Lygcms bicni<ns^ (Fig. 23,^ a plant-bug of a bright-red and 
black color, with white edges on the elytra and thorax, waa 
taken under bark in winter, showing that this class of in- 
sects hibernates in the perfecjb state in sheltered situations. 
These three examples will suffice to show the general form 
of the genus Lygism in this country. 
Oplitlmlimcus^ig. 24) is figured merely to show the singularly 
broad head and projecting eyes of one genus of the Infericomes^ 
and so different from the rest. Most probably it is a plant- 
feeder. 

Nysius rapMmts (Fig, 25) is a small plant-bug of a brown- 
ish color when dried, injurious to radishes, mustard, grape, 
cabbage, potatoes, and cruciferous.plants. There are two or 
three broods annually in some of the States. The insect has 
a Very disagreeable smell, and sucks the sap of plants, caus- 
ing them to wilt. The leaves attacked show little rusty cir- 
cular specks, where the beak has been inserted, which form 
^ ^ little irregular holes' that look more as if csiused by a coleo- 
^^' pterous insect, the common flea-beetle. 
We now come to the most destructive insect of the whole family, th^ 
chiuchbug. 

The chinch-bug or Mormon louse of Walsh, Miet^apus {Bhy- 
parochromus devastator j) {Micropiis) {Blusns) leucopteruSj (Fig. 
2G,) is one of our most destructive insects to wheat, corn, 
&c., in some of the Western States, and has done considerable 
damage to the crops. The eggs, to the number of about 500, 
are laid in the ground about June, on or among the roots of 
plants; and the young larvce, which are of a bright-red color, 
are said to remain undergrouna some time after they are hatched, 
sucking the sap from the roots, and have been found in great 
abundance at the depth of an inch or more. The full-grown 
insects measure about one-twelfth of an inch in length, and are 
of a black color, with white wings, and may be known by the 
white fore or upper wings, contrasting with a black spot in the 
middle of the edge of the wing. 
According to Dr. Shimer, an entomologist who has devoted 
p. ^^ much time and labor in the special study of this insect, the 
^^' " * female occupies about twenty days in laying her eggs, which 
remain in the e^gg state fifteen days. The first brood matures from mid- 
July to mid-August, and the second brood hatches out late in summer. 
Although only two generations are usually produced in the course 
of one year in Illinois and the more Northern States, yet farther 
south ^-^here may be three broods. Some of the perfect insects con- 
tinue alive throughout the winter, concealed under brnsh>heaps, logs, 
bark, stones, moss, &c., and revive in the spring to deposit their eggs 
in the earth. One specimen was taken in Washington, buried in the 
ground at a depth of about one inch and a half, in midwinter, and 
.when first taken up appeared stiff and lifeless; but, after being placed 
in a warm room, it soon revived, and was as lively as ever. These 
insects in the larva, pupa, and perfect states attack and destroy 





REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 123 

almost every description of gArdeii-vegetables, grain, maize, herbs and 
other grasses, wheat, oats, potatoes, and even injure buds of the pear 
and other trees, x)referring jmncipally the most succulent parts, as the 
buds and terminal shoots, puncturing them with their beaks, sucking 
the sap, and api)arently poisoning the parts attached. In the summer 
of 18C5, according to Dr. Shimer, the progeny of the broods of the pre- 
ceding year were entirely swept oif by an epidemic disease, wtiich was 
doubtless produced by deficient light and electricity combined with the 
excessive humidity of the atrngsphere. 

This insect was named and described by Say, in 1831, as from Indiana, 
and in 1854 did considerable injury in Missouri. In hot, dry seasons, 
these insects are most destructive; but heavy rains destroy them. In 
tbo single State of Illinois, Dr. Shimer estimated the damage done in 
1864 to tbo wheat and- corn crops by the chinch-bug at over $73,000,000; 
and to give some idea of how these insects swarm in localities, it has been 
stated that in Ogle County, Illinois, as many as thirty to forty bushels 
a day were taken out of holes dug to entrap them, and the process was 
repented until only three or four bnshels could be shoveled out of the 
holes. 

It is probable that the normal state of this insect is to take wing in 
spring and summer, during their love season, but at other times they 
appear unwilling to use their wings at all; and it is said that there are 
two varieties, one with long and the other with short wings. It is also 
stated that this iuvsect is found in Canada, and is remarkable for 
having the wings only half as long as the abdomen. Chinch-bugs mul- 
tiply much faster in dry seasons ; wet weather being unfavorable to 
them. They are destroyed by several parasites, among which are several 
species of tedy-bugs, (CoccinellidcR.) 

The false chinch-bug, (Fig. 27,) an insect mentioned below, and 
which, in outward appearance, very much resembles the true 
chinch-bng, is said to kill it; two or three lace-wing flies 
are also said to destroy it. The common quail is stated 
to eat numbers of them, and therefore these birds should 
bo preserved as much as possible, by wheat-growers espec- 
ially, as the stomachs of some shot in wheat-fields were found pij/gy. 
to be filled with these destructive pests. The pseudo or false 
chinch-bug, or insidious flower-bug, above mentioned, has frequently 
been mistaken for the true chinch, as it resembles it somewhat in shape 
and size. It is found upon the same flowers and leaves, but the larvae are 
of a bright-orange color, and not of a vivid red, like those of the true 
chinch : and the perfect insect is also smaller, of a broader form, and 
markea in adifierent manner. It is probably highly beneficial by feeding 
on other insects. Two European species, A, mimitus and nemorum^ have 
been well known as preying on plant-lice. The perfect insects inhabit 
flowers, and the immature ones wander about in search of plant-lice, which 
they transfix with their sharp beaks, and suck out the juices. Our native 
species {Anthocoris {Triphleps) insuiiosm) most probably also feeds on 
the true chinch and the grape-leaf gall-louse, {Pemphigvs viHfoliw.) This 
insect is extremely common in Maryland on the ox-eye daisy, and not 
nnfrequently upon the fruit of raspberries and blackberries, and is one 
of the insects which produce such a disagreeable chinchy taste when 
taken into the mouth with the fruit. 

The plant-bugs in the fourth family, CecigeniWy are destitute of ocelli 
(hence named) and frequent plants, shrnbs, &c. 




124 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AQRICULTURE. 




Fig. 28. 




Fiff. 29. 



Lanjiis mccincUis (Fig. 28) is not a very nncoinuiou insect iu Mary- 
land, of a rusty-black color, with the borders of tbe upper 
wings edged with dull orange or yellow. We have found 
this insect hibernating under moss, stones, or bark, in mid- 
winter in Maryland, but have never yet caught it in the 
act of injuring plants, although it probably is a vegetable- 
feeder. 

Another plant-bug of this family, Di/sderctis (Pyrrliocoris) 
suturelhiSy (Fig. 29,) is the too well-known red bug, or cot- 
ton-stainer, of Florida, which some seasons does so much 

injury to the cotton fiber in the bolls of the 
plant, when in the field, by sucking out the 
sap from the boll and seed, and voiding an 
exorementitious matter over the opened 
bolls, which produces an indelible stain on 
the fiber and renders it unfit for market. 
The cotton-stainer, or red bug, is of a 
bright scarlet-crimson color, with a mark 
like a Saint Andrew's cross on its upper 
wings, and the rings of the abdomen are 
of a whitish or cream color. The young 
are also red or bright crimson, with black dots and whit^ rings; are 
very active and voracious. The eggs, to the number of 20 or 30, are 
deposited on the leaves or stalks of the cotton-plant, ( Oossypium.) -When 
young, the lar Vie gather together; but, when older, they separate, and 
spread themselves over the plant. The larvflB, pupae, and perfect insects 
all suck the sap from the plants and bolls, after puncturing them with 
their rostrnm, or beak; thus causing the young bolls to became diminu- 
tive and weak. The principal injury, however, is caused by the insects, 
after sucking the j uices of the seeds and bolls, voiding an excrementitioas 
yellowish liquid over the cotton, in the opening or open boll, which stains 
the pure white cotton fiber yellowish or reddish in si>ots ; and these stains, 
being indelible, very much depreciate the market- value of the cotton. 
It was thought at one time, from its beautiful red color, that this insect 
might be made useful in producing a brilUant red dyeing-material ; but 
Dr. Jackson, of Boston, to whom specimens were sent in order to test its 
coloring matter, wrote that "no red color could be extracted from them; 
but that a rich yellow or ochraceous yellow lake was made, which is 
readily fixed on woolen or silken fabrics, and that the coloring matter 
would also serve as a yellow basis for green or brown dyes." This insect 
has also been mentioned as staining cotton on Crooked Island, one of 
the Bahamas, so much as to render it of little or no value. These 
insects being in the habit of collecting together where there were 
splinters or fragments of sugar-cane on the ground, advantage was taken 
of this fact to draw them together by means of small chips of sugar- 
cane laid upon the earth near the plants, where they were at once de- 
stroyed by means of boiling water. They also collect around heaps of 
cotton-seed, where they may readily be destroyed at the commencement 
of cold weather. Small heaps of refuse trash, dried corn-stalks, or eape* 
cially of crushed sugar-cane, may be made in various parts of the plan- 
tation in the vicinity of the plants : under these, the insects take shelter 
from the cold ; and when a sufficient quantity of the bugs are thus drawn 
together, the various heaps may be fired, and the insects destroyed with 
the trash. A very cold morning, however, should be selected, and the 



REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 125 

fire matte before the insects have been tbawed into life and vigor by 
the heat of the sun ; and especially all dead trees, rotten stumps, and 
weeds in the vicinity of the field should be burned or otherwise destroyed, 
as they afford a comfortable shelter 'for all sorts of noxious insects, in 
which they can pass the winter in a semi-dormant condition. Crushed 
sagar-cane (bagasse) mixed with some poison, (say Paris green,) if im- 
bibed by these insects, would, no doubt, destroy many of them, but 
might also be taken by domestic poultry, or hogs. 

The fifth family, Bicelluli^ contains prlant-bugs having two basal cells 
in the membrane of the wing. The last joint of the antennae is ve^ 
fine and setiform. 

The group Capsides contains insects of active habits. Thefemales have 
ovipositors nearly half the length of their bodies, sopaewhat saber-shaped, 
and received in a slit on the under side of the abdomen. These small 
plant-bugs are very active, running and flying with agility. They fre 
qnent plants, trees, and fruits, upon the juices of which 
tbej appear almost exclusively to subsist. • Some of the 
species are especially fond of fruit, such as raspberries, 
which they suck with their rostrum and impart a very 
nauseous taste to the fruit. 

An exception to their general plant-feeding habits, 
however, is shown in one species, Campyloneura {Cap- 
sus) vittnpenniSj (Fig. 30,) or the glassy-winged soldier- 
bug of Eiley, which is said to be beneficial by destroying 
the leaf-hoppers of the vine-leaf, JSrythronetira vitisj 
(incorrectly called the thrips.) The insect is of a pale 
greenish-yellow, the head and thorax are tinged with pink, ^^ 

and the upper wings are transparent, with a rose-colored ®' 
cross. It lives also on the wild chicken-grape, and attains 
its full growth in August, and destroys small caterpillars by 
thrusting its beak in their body and sucking their juices, 
according to Professor Uhler, Most probably many other 
species of the <>Cap8ide8y hitherto considered as plant-feeders, 
also occasionally vary their diet by sucking out the juices of ^^* 
other insects. 

As the Capsides in general ar6 very injurious to vegetables, 
as well as numerous, we will give a few figures of them in order 
to give the student some general idea of their size and form. 

BestJienia (Oapstis) oanfratema (Fig. 31) is of a black color, 
with red thorax, and is somewhat common on weeds and low 
herbage. It is very active, either running swiftly away and 
hiding, or flying away when disturbed. 

Caiocoris {Capsus) bimaculatus (Fig. 32) is also a common .^^ 
insect of a green and brown color, and is very common in ''^' 
Maryland on weeds. 

Lyffua lineatU8 {Capsus and Phytocoris quadrivittatiis^) (Fig. 
33,) or the four-striped plant-bug, is a very common insect 
in Maryland, and is of a green or yellowish color, with 
four black lines on its wing-covers. The female, when dis- 
sected by Dr. Le Baron, was found to contain 14 to 24 oblong, ^ Fig. 33. 
cylindrical, flask-shaped eggs. Larvse, pupae, and perfect insects 
puncture leaves, abstract the sap, and produce a blighted appearance 
of the foliage of currants, parsnips, potatoes, mint, weigelia, dietzia, 
&c. ; sometimes causing them to wither up entirely. 






■o* 




126 REPOJIT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGEICyLTUEE. 

Cue of tbe most common small plant-bugs in Marylaud is Li/gm tvieo- 
laria {Capsus oblinmtus Say,) {Fig. 34,) or little lined x>lautr 
l»ug of Harris, This insect is of a black and biownisli yellow 
^ color, and is very common on almost all kinds of plants. 
' It appears in April, bnt is more abundant during the sam- 
, mer, when it injures plants by sucking their sap. The punc- 
tures made by them appear to be poisonous to vegetation. 
This insect injures pear-twigs, and the stalks of graiw-vines, 
t)otatoes, strawberries, fruit-trees, such as quinces, &c,, and 
is very fon<l of congregating on the ilowers of cabbage. It 

_ is stated to have injured the crops in Illinois very consider- 

ably. J)r, Le Baron says that it destroys the Colorado 
potato-bctitle, and the American Entomologist reports it as destroying 
the eggs of other insects as an oflset, to the great amount of damage it 
does to the crops. It has been found in the perfect state in winter. 

The sixth family, Ductirostri, contains plant-bugs, which, wheu at 
rest, have their beaks, or piercers, in a groove, or duct, under the body. 
The tirst group contains a singular, small, greenish insect, marked 
with brown, P/iJ/wflto (Syrds) erosa, (Fig. 3j,) having rap- 
torial, crooked, sickle-ahaped fore feet, with which it catches 
and holds its prey while it leisurely sncks out the juices. 
This insect stings severely : it lies in wait in flowers or 
among leaves, where, hidden from observation by the sim- 
ilarity of its color to the places it frequents, it seizes any 
unfortunate insects that may happen to alight near its hid- 
ing-place. One of these insects was taken in the very act of 
sncking out the juices of a small blue butterfly ; the bug 
itself being completely concealed among the petals of a rose, 
the butterfly only appearing in sight, which wasscized as a specimen and 
drawn out, with the bug still clinging to it-. iMany other bugs of the same 
species were afterward observed lying in wait in various Ilowers for any 
roving insects that might bo attracte<l to them. It is said to prey ou small 
bees and wasps, and also is beneficial by destroying plaut-lice, or Aphides. 
The group Tingidea are small, flattened, singularly-formed insects, 
living on various plants and trees, 

A good example of this group is Tingis juglandis, au insect found 
abundantly on tho butternut, birch, and willow, whore it pierces the 
leaves and sucks the sap. This insect resembles a flake of white troth; 
ita whole upper surface being composed of a net-work ef small cells. 
with an inflated egg-shaped protuberance like a small bladder ou the 
topof thehead and thorax. The wing-covers are square, with rounded 
corners. 
Tinijis arcuaiug (Fig. 3C) is distinguished by the arcuated edge of the 
hcmelytrn, or wing-covers, with brown 
bands. Tbcy live on tbo sap of plants aud 
trees, and one species closely related to it 
. was found on the quinee-uusbes in Mis- 
' sissippi and Florida, where the bushes 
were literally swarming with them in all 
stages, as larviB, pupse, and perfect insects, 
and some of the trees were very much 
],'j„ '3fl_ injured, if not totally destroyed by tbem. 

They were also very troublesome to man- 
kind by their stiugiug propensities. 






REPORT OF THE ENl'OMOLOGIST. 127 

Aradm americaniis^ (Fig. 37,) a small, flat, brown or blackish bug, is 
very common under bark of trees. 

Insects of the group Aradides have the beak longer than the 
head. The prothorax is widely expanded, and wing-covers are 
rounded at the base. The species are said to feed on minute fungi 
found under bark. Fig. 37. 

We now come to that pest of neat house-keepers and torment of weary 
travelers, the bed-bug, Aamthia leetulanaj {Cimex lecMaritis^) 
(Fig. 38.) Wedwood states, " It is generally asserted that this 
insect was brought over to England from America, whence it 
passed over to the continent of Europe, and that it was not 
known in England until 1670." Mouffet, however, mentions its 
having been seen in 1503. Leuuis states that they probably ^'^S-^^ 
originated in the East Indies, and says, '' It is a historical fact that they 
first appeared at Strasburg in the eleventh century," and that they were 
first imported into London in the bedsteads of the banished Huguenots. 
Verrill states that this insect is mentioned by Pliny, Aristophanes, Aris- 
totle, and other ancient writers ; and, although it was seen by Mouffet in 
1503 in England, it does not appear to have been common there until a 
century later. The eggs are white, oval, slightly narrowed at one end, 
aud terminated by a cap, which breaks off when the young escape. The 
young ones at first are very small, white, and transparent. It takes 
eleven weeks before they attain their full growth, and they are said 
to cast their skins several times before attaining maturity. It is 
probable, however, that the temperature and food have much influence 
in accelerating or delaying their final change into the full-grown imago, 
or perfect insect. The insects are gregarious in habits, and herd together 
in cracks and chinks, in corners of bedsteads, &c. Professor Verrili 
states they return constantly to the same hiding-places morning after 
morning, like birds returning to their roosts. These insects are very 
tenacious of life, and have been kept in hermetically-sealed glass bottles 
for more than a year without food, and were yet lively, and had a good 
appetite. Leunis mentions an instance where a female «bed-bug lived 
for six months in a tightly-closed box, which, when opened, was found 
to contain not only the mother, but also her numerous progeny of young 
bags, both mother and offspring being as transparent as glass from want 
of food. They hibernate in cracks and crevices of the walls, floor, or 
in furniture. Leunis states that the female lays about fifty eggs, and 
that the principal months ibr oviposition (in Europe) are March, May, 
July, and September; but that the September brood perish, aud only 
the fully-matured insects are able to survive the cold of winter. Their 
food consists of blood, and they are very troublesome to mankind. Bats, 
swallows, pigeons, domestic fowls, &c., are said to be very much infested 
by bed-bugs; probably, however, of different species from our common 
house bed-bug. These insects, although apterous, are said to have been 
seen with wings; but this probably is an error, as some other insects, 
Xylocoris do7ne8ticu8^ &c., &c., have been mistaken for them. They are 
likewise reported to have been found under bark of trees in the woods 
and fields; but Mr. Walsh has never found them in such situations, and 
thinks that a small beetle, Frametopia sexmaculataj (or Aradus^) has been 
mistaken for the bed-bug, as it inhabits such localities. Bed-bugs are 
destroyed by several other insects, such as cockroaches, (Blattidcey) and 
by other heteropterous insects, as Eeduvius personatus^ and probably by 
Pirates higuttatus and Gonorhinus {sanguiatiga) variegattis. 

The seventh family, Nudirosiri^ contains bugs having the beak or 
piercer naked or free, entirely disengaged, and not in any ^vfit^ as in the 




128 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER^OF AGRICULTURE. 

last familj\ The habits of most of them are raptorial, preying upou 
other insects, and as such they are generally beneticial to the farmer. 
Pirates bigutiatuSj (Fig. 39,) sometimes called the spotted corsair, is a 

large, slowly-moving bug of a blackish color, with legs, 
antennae, and markings on wing-covers of a dull orange 
color, with two spots oa the wing-covers, and is said to 
be carnivorous, destroying other insects, and probably 
destroys bed-bugs also, as one was found between the 
mattresses of a bug-infested bed, and the insect itself is 
closely allied to Beduvius persotuitusj mentioned below, 
which is known to feed upon bed-bugs. 

Eeduviuspersonatus (Fig, 40) is a brownish bug, not rare 
in Europe in houses, where it is generally found dead and 
hanging in spiders' webs. Burmeister says that the 
spiders do not seize it, as its puncture is very poisonous, 
but let it encumber their webs until it dies of hunger. 
Fig. 39. rjtjjQ insect is stated to exhale a disagreeable odor, some- 
thing like that of mice. It hibernates without faking any food, when 
its body becomes meager and flat; but, on the return of fine weather, it 

recovers from its lethargy, and commences to hunt for 
such insects as form its prey. The larvje and pupaj 
cover themselves with a mask or coating of dust and 
dirt even to the legs and antennse, and so disguise 
themselves as scarcely to be distinguished from the 
places they frequent, and prey upon the common bed- 
bugs. It is said that the larva is covered with a 
glutinous substance, to which the particles of dust 
adhere; and, when hunting for its prey, it moves in 
a very leisurely manner, so as not k) disturb them. 
Fig. 40. In regard to the covering of dust and dirt, already 

alluded to, M. BruUe says that a specimen shut up by him, which had 
undergone one of its moultings, during its imprisonment divested its 
old skin of itsH^oat of dust in order to reclothe itself again therewith. 
Douglas says it is found occasionally in dwellings and fowl-houses, and 
flies at night to lights in windows. An insect very similar to the larva 
as described was found in a discarded insect-box, but it unfortunately 
escaped before attaining the imago or perfect state. Another was also 
captiured in Washington, in midwinter, in 1876. 

The nine-pronged wheel-bug, or deviPs-horse, Prionotus cri&tatuSy (Be- 
duvitis novenarius,) is very common in Washington, and is very destruct- 
ive to insects 5 and as horticulturists are very apt to clear their trees in 
spring of eggs, cocoons, &;c., of insects, imagining that they are all injuri- 
ous to vegetation, it will be well to warn them that some species are 
beneficial, by destroying injurious insects, and their clusters of eggs 
should be preserved wherever found. Among these, a hexagonal mass 
of eggs will frequently be met with, cemented together with a species 
of gum or resin, which is said to be gathered from the tree by the female. 
This insect is commonly known in Maryland by the name of devil's-horse, 
or nine-pronged wheel-bug, Prionotus cri^tatus of Linn., or Beduvitis 
novenaritis of Bay, (Fig. 41.) These hexagonal masses of eggs are de- 
posited on the bark of trees, on fence-rails, under the eaves of out-build- 
ings, or wherever the female chances to be at the time of oviposition, to 
the number of 70 or more ; each egg, when separated from the mass, 
presenting the appearance of a somewhat square flask standing on its 
own bottom. The larvae when young are blood-red, with black marks, 
and do not resemble the adult insect, excepting ^'somewhat in form and 




KEPOHT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 129 

habits. The larvro, papie, and perfect iasects feed "pou all other iusects 
they can overcome, not eveu sparing their own brethi-en. When very 
yoang, they destroy great numbers of plant-lice, Aphides, and when older, 
they prey upon caterpillars, or indeed upon any other insect they can 
overpower. They kill their prey by inserting into it the proboscis, 
which ejects A most powerful poisonous liqnid into the wound. The 



Fig. 41. 

victim thus pierced dies in a very short time. They then leisurely suck 
the juices out, and drop the empty stin. The perfect wheel-bug is a 
large and very singular-looking insc«t, of very slow and deliberate mo- 
tions when undisturbed, and stealing up to its prey. It is of a gray color, 
and baa a high semicircular ridge or projection on the crest of its thorax, 
armed with nine perfectly-arranged teeth, or cog-like protuberances, lilie 
very short spokes or cogs of a wheel; henco the vulgar name of wlieel- 
bng. The young shed their skins several times before attaining their 
full size. As this insect is constiintly employed, from the moment it is 
hatched, in searching for and destroying noxious insects, it may be con- 
sidered a friend to the horticulturist and farmer. A.doKcn or so of these 
insects, placed near the nest of some of those caterpillars so destmctive 
to our fruit and forest trpes, will destroy almost every caterpillar in it in 
a short time, as they are exceedingly voracious, and each insect will 
destroy several caterpillars daily. Groat care must be taken, however, 
when'haudliug the adult insects, as they arc very apt to sting, or rather 
insert their string curved beaks into the naked ^csh, and the poisonous 
fluid ejected, when the wound is inflicted, is extremely powerful, and 
much more painful than tho sting of n, large wasp or hornet. One of 
these insects having stung the writer, the pain lasted for several hours, 
and was only alleviated by r.pplications of ammonia. Several days 
afterward the flesh immediately Run-onnding the puncture was so much 
poisoned that it sloughed off, leaving a small hole in tho injured thumb. 
A 




130 HEPOBT OP THE OOMMISSIONEE OF AaBlCULTUKE. 

Mclaiwlesiei (Pirates) picipcs, (Fig. 42,) a metliam-size<I black bug, is 

I * said by Walsii to be found underground, where no doubt it 

"""T^J ■ feeds on subterraDcau iusects. lu Maryland, it is found 
jH[ under stones, moes, logs of wood, &c., and is capable of 
t^jt[k\. iutlicting a severe wound with its rostrum, or piercer. It 
fwf\ feeds on other insects, and is alow iuid deliberate in its 
/ ^r \ motions. M. abdominalis is distinguished by its red abdo- 
Z V men, which generally shows on each side of the wing-covers. 

Fig- 42. Apiomcrus (Eeduvius) spiasi'pes, {Fig. 43,) a carnivorous 

plant-hug of abrown color, with light-yellowish markings, 
is known as a destroyer of iusects, and has also been re- 
' ported to the Department as killing honey-bees. These 
insects when in their search for prey are very slow and cau- 
tions in their movements, as if they were aware that any 
rapid or sudden motioo would frighten their victim away. 
Milyas [Harpactor) cinctus (Fig. 44) is a medium-sized 
raptorial bug, with a spine on each side of its thorax, 
Fig. ^3. i^jjj jg pf ^ yellowish- brown color, with mottled or banded 
legs. It is not rare in the neighborhood of "Washington. 
• It feeds upon aJl insects it can overcome, and is therefore 
very useful aa an inscct-deatroyer. It has been reported 
aa destroying the too well-known Colorado potato-beetle, 
Dorypbora decemlineata, and also the small caterpillars of 
Pij, 4^ the apple-worm, or Tortrix. 

Sinea multiapinosa, (Fig. 45,) so Darned from its prickly 
or spiny appearance, somewhat resembles the last-named 
insect in general appearance and habits. It is of a brown- 
ish color, and wanders about on plants and shrubs, seek 
ing what insecta it can overcome, and has also been re- 
ported as killing the larvse of the above-mentioned Colo- 
rado potato-beeUe. It also is very useful by destroying 
the Aphides, or plant-lice, and other insects. 

JSetrichodia crusiata, [Fig, 46,) a carnivorous plant- 
bug, of a black and scarlet or orange color, is somewhat 
. rare near the Maryland Agricultural College, and has the 
same habits and propensities aa the Betiuvius. It kills 
all the insecta it meets in it6 wanderings, and sucks out 
tbeir juices. 

Sammalocerus (Ifabis) furcts (Fig. 47) is a very large 
and powerful predatory plant-bug, of a black and orange 
or yellowish red, with the upper part of the wing-covets 
of a yellow color. It has much the same habits as 
. the nine-pronged wheel-bug, Prionotug crietatua. 
' Almost all the raptorial or predatory plant-bugs 
resemble the carnivorie, or cat-tribe, of the larger 
animals; being watchful, cautious, stealing slowly 
step by step upon their prey, and having strong 
blood-sucking propeusities. Ho doubt, they do i/aach. 
good by destroying iusects injurious to our crops. 

A large and jrowerful carnivorous plant-bug, also 
of a black and red or orange color, closely related to 
the last-named insect, is accused of suckiug the blood 
of mankind, and is generally known as the blood- 
sucking cone-nose, from the form of the anterior part 
Fi^. 47. of itg head, or the big bed-bug, and so called to dis- 

tiuguish it from ita smaller relative, the woU-known bed-bug. The 








Fig. 40. 



REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



131 




Fig. 48. 





Fig. 49, 

The perfect in- 



scientific name is Gonorhiirus {Sangmsvga) varicffatusy 
(Fig. 48.) This insect insinuates itself into beds in 
the Middle and Southern States, and sucks the blood 
of mankind, cansiug great pain and inflammation. It 
hibernates in the pnpa and perfect state, and is stated 
to feed not only on human blood, but also the in8^ct 
that causes the blood to flow, namely, the common bed- 
bug, {Acanthia lectidaria,) From its blood^sucking pro- 
pensities, there is very little doubt but what it also 
destroys insects. 

A much slighter-formed raptorial plant-bug, with 
longer and slimmer legs, and also of a black and 
red or orange color, called JSvagortis rtibidns^ (JFig. 
49,) preys upon other insects, and was found to be f 
very useful in destroying the myriads of plant-lice 
upon theorange-trees near Palatka, 
Fla, 

IHplodtis luridus {Exagortis viridis) 
(Fig. 50) is a slender insect, some- 
what related to the last-mentioned 
species, the larva of which is very 
common on fruit-trees. It is said to 
be wingless, and covered with ^ glu- „. ^n 
tinous substance, to which little '^' ** " 

pieces of dust and dirt are commonly seen to adhere, 
sect is winged, and said to destroy the plumcurculio, {Conotracheltts 
nenupliar.) 

Ploiaria vagabuiida (Fig. 51) is a very slender 
plant-bug. It has very short anterior leg8,^or 
rather arms, while the two posterior pairs are 
very long. When walking, it moves very slowly, 
with its fore legs (which are perhaps useful in 
climbing or to seize its prey) applied to its body, 
while the antenna) being bent at the extremity, 
which is rather thick, are made to rest upon the 
surface on which the insect moves, and to supply 
the place of fore legs. The insect is found on 
trees ; it vacillates or trembles, and balances itself 
continually like a TipuUtj or long-legged crane-fly. 
De Gcer says it is found in houses, and walks 
slowly but flies easily and quickly. Burmeister 
states that the larva covers itself with dust and 
lives on prey. In England, the insect lives in tbatph. 

Emesa loiufipes (breoi- 
pennis of Say) (Fig. 52) is* 
an exceedingly thin and 
.slender carnivorous plant- 
bug. * These insects feed 
on other insects, and re- 
t?enible the thinnest bits of 
sticks fastened together. 
Tkeautemuc are long and 
delicate. The fore legs 
are raptorial, with long, thin coxie, admirably adapted for seizing and 
holding their prey, which consists of other insects. The body is long and 
thin ; the wings are either wanting (in some species) or reach only to 




Fig. 51. 




Fig. 52. 



132 REPORT or THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

« 

near the middle of the abdomen. This iusect is very common iu some 
localities, inhabiting outhonses, where it generally is found motionless 
on the walls; when disturlj^edy it raises and lowers its body on its legs, 
at the same time moving forward. Professor Uhler states that this 
iusect within the last five years has appeared near Baltimore ou small 
pine-trees, and is now widely distributed in the country. The distin- 
gaishing featnre of this singnlar insect is the raptorial structure of the 
small fore legs, resembling those of the ManiidcVj or what are generally 
known in Maryland as rear-horses. 

The eighth family of the Heteroptei-a coutains those insects that row 
on the smrface of the water, hence the name Floteres, or rowers ; their 
four .hind feet being formed for gliding ou the surface of the water, and 
are sometimes erroneously called in Maryland water-boatmen, (sec 
Notonecta,) These insects are very active, and skim the surface of the 
water with great velocity. When gliding over streams and ponds, their 
hind feet act conjointly as a rudder, and the longer middle feet are used 
somewhat as oars, not dipped into, but merely brushing over, the surface. 
They feed on other insects, and in Europe the eggs are said to be de- 
stroyed by a species of Teleasj (Hy^nenoptera,) 

The insect of Gerris conformis (Fig. 53) 
was taken iu Maryland ou the surface 
of slowly-running water in the act of 
devouring a dead fly, which was floating 
on the surface. 

Oerris laciuftrw (Fig, 54) is a smaller 

species, also common iu Maryland on the 

surface of water, and alsofeeds on other 

insects. 

Fig. 53. ' The second section of the suborder 

Heteroptei^a^ UydrocorisWy contains only 
three families, viz: Family 1, (or 9,) Bigeinmi^ bugs 
having two ocelli; family 2, (or 10,) Fedirapti, water- 
bugs having raptorial fore legs for seizing and holding 
their prey; and family 3, (or 11,) Pcdfir<^m^, water-bugs 
having their posterior tarsi generally like oars, and 
formed for swimming and diving; the anterior feet 
Fig. 54. are nQt raptorial. 

Oalgulus octilatus (Fig. 55) is a rei)reseutativo of the group Galgtdidcs, 
^ f These insects have broad heads, with peduucled eyes; their 
|B l! antennae are four-jointed, but concealed beneath the eyes; the 

/flnV ocelli are present; the body is short, broad, and flattened, and 

/^^f\ *^® ^^S^ ^^® fermed for running. These insects, at the first 

Fi"". 55. glance? .resemble miniature .toads. They are probably preda- 

**" ' tory in habits, preying on other insects, aud appear to form a 

link between the aquatic and terrestrial species. 

Oalgulus oculatiis was taken in Maryland running ou the sand near a 

swift stream. One authority states that they feed on Uya terminaUsy 

(see in Orthoptera^) but this fact is somewhat dubious. 
Family 2, (or 1^,) Pediraptij contains two groups, Xazicoridcs and 

Kepides. 
Naucoris poeyi (Fig. 56) is a rather small, yellowish-brown water-bug, 
^'^- with two raptorial fore feet and four hind feet, which the 
insect uses for walking in the water and running, although they 
are not ciliated. These insects frequently leave the water dur- 
Fiff 56 ^°^ *^® ^^^^^ to scour round the country. The eggs are said 
^' •^^ to be glued to the blades of leaves or water-plants in April, and 

the bugs feed on all the insects they can capture when in the water. 






REPORT OP THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



133 




Group 2, A^c2>/<Ze«, contains water-bugs with depressed body, head small, 
eyes large and lateral, and the fore legs strongly raptorial ; the other 
two pairs being formed for creeping among the roots of aquatic plants, 
and the extremity of the body is furnished with two long and slender 
filaments. The eggs of these insects are deposited in the water ; they 
are said to bo oval in form, and surmounted by seven elongated fila- 
ments, which serve, whilst the egg is in the oviduct, to form a kind of 
cup for the reception of the next cggy but which are recurved when 
the egg is discharged. These insects are not lively, and drag them- 
selves along at the bottom of the water. When in a vase, they are 
carnivorous, not sparing even their own species. They seize their 
prey between the shank and the tarsi, which they fold under the 
thigh, and retain it in this manner while they suck out its juices. 
This insect living in the water is compelled to resort 
to the surface continually in order to obtain a fresh 
supply of air, which it does with the assistance of the 
two appendages at the extremity of its body, which con- 
duct the air to tlio two si)iracles at the side of the anus, 
(Westwood.) 

I^epa apiculwta^ or the water-scorpion, (Fig. 57,) is a 
good example of this group. It feeds upon other insects, 
and also most probably on small fishes. Kirby and 
Spence state that a Nepa, put into a basin of water 
with several young tadpoles, killed them all without 
attempting to eat them. It is therefore very evident 
that they will dfestroy young fish, and should be extirpated _. 
in or near any fish-breeding establishment. *^' 

Another singularly-formed, large, brownish-gray water-bug of the 
family Fedirapti is Banatra quadridenticulataj (Fig. 58.) The body is of an 
elongated form, with a double tube at the end for 
respiration; the eyes are prominent; the two fore 
legs are raptorial ; the four other legs are long and 
slender, and the prothorax is greatly elongated. 
These insects living in the water are compelled 
to come to the surface for air, which they obtain 
with the assistance of the before-mentioned two 
appendages placed at the end of the anus, 
(Westwood.) The eggs are longer than those 
of JVg>a, and furnished above with slender setae, 
or bristles. Eoesel states that these eggs are 
deposited at random in the water; but GeofFroy 
and Amyot state that they are introduced into 
the stalks or blades of aquatic plants, the elon- 
gated filaments alone being exposed. They are 
very voracious, feeding on other insects, aquatic 
larv®, and small lish. They fly from pond to 
pond in the evening or at night, especially when 
the waters begin to dry up. These insects are 
mostly found at the bottom of stagnant water, 
as they swim badly. Westwood mentions a 
European species which is said to carry, attached 
to their feet, very small grains of a lively-red 
color, which are surmised to bo the eggs of an 
aquatic mite. 




Fig. 58. 



Bclostania is one of the largest water-bugs belonging to the family 



Pcdirapti; some species 



measuring 



three to four and a half inches 



134 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGBICIILTUEE. 

!d leDgtli. They )ivc priacipatly in tlio ^vater, but como out occasiou- 
ally in tbe evening or at night, and take long fiiglits. The form of this 
insect is ellipticiil-ovar; tbe fore tarsi of the adult are two-jointed, witli 
a Binglc elaw ; the hinder are broad and flat. Their habits are preila- 
ceoiis, and they feed on aquatic larva), insects, young fish, and probably 
also on the llsh-(>gt>H. Tho IcniateH of gouie 
species, Seri)hvs (Zaitha) ililaiolus, &c., (Fig. SO,) 
carry their eggs ui)ou their backs, arranging 
tbem with gi^nvt eymmtitry in a single layer, 
(Westwood.) Other species dq>osit their sinootb 
cj'liudrical egga, \s'bicU are about the sixteeiitb 
, pai*! of an inch in length, in a mass of about 90 
\ eggs, under logs just at (but not above) the snr- 
fece of the water. These eggs are attached by 
the posterior end to a mass of silk guiu. They 
partially overlap each other, and the young es- 
cape by a roand lid. 
Belostoma americana (Fig. 00) is one of our 
Pig. OS. largest species, and feeds on aquatic insects and 

small fishes. A medium-sized g«ld-lieh iu tbe 
aqaariara of tbe Department was killed by one of these insects tbe first 
night it was introduced as a companion to 
the fish; tbns proving conclusively that 
they are injurious, and should therefore be 
destroyed when and wherever found in the 
neighborhood of fish-breeding estftblish- 
meuts. The perfect insects sometimes 
leave the ponds and fly to long distances 
and at a considerable height; one living 
specimen having been taken early iu the 
morning on the roof of a three and a half 
or four story building, wiiere it had flown 
during the night, and the nearest jjond 
was nearly a rjuarter of a mile distant. 
Family 3 («r 11) of the Hifdrocorisa;, or 
water-bugs, contains the PeiUrmii, or oar- 
footed water-bugs. In this family, tbe 
posterior tarsi are generally in the form of 
oars and the anterior feet arc not raptorial. 
There are two groups, Coiimdes and Noton- 
I ectiAes. In the Corfsiife (Amyot) the pro- 
thorax is large, and covers the mesothorax; 
tbe fore tarsi are single-jointed, flattened, 
aud strongly ciliated and imperfectly pre- 
hensile; the mid legs nrc slender, with 
Fig. CO. remarkably long and slender claws; the 

hind legs have the two tarsal joints very 
broad, ciliat«d, and adapted for swimming. Tbe insects frequent ixiols; 
their motions are rapid in water; they dive when disturbea, and seiz<; 
. hold of submerged objects with their middle pair of legs. 

y-=- They also fly well, but walk with difficulty. These in- 
sects aro frequently found at the surface of the water 
beneath the ice when frozeu. 

Corixa (Geof.) {Vorisa (Amyot) interrupta) (Fig. 61) is 
j-iK- ifi. j,q(^ Huoommou in pools of water at Fishkill Landing on 
ike Hudson, where they have been taken from nnder tbe ice in winter, 



REPORT OP THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 135 

and thawed out into life and activity, after being apparently frozen to 
death. This insect differs from the following (Notonecta) by swimming 
oa its belly and not on the back. When resting quietly on the water, 
tbe posterior feet are advanced forward (as in the figure) and pass the 
intermediate feet, so that what are really the posterior feet are apparently 
the anterior. This insect ordinarily suspends itself by its tail to the sur- 
Hace of the water; but, at the least movement, it precipitates itself quick- 
ly to the bottom, where it remains resting some time, clinging to a plant 
or stone with its long and slender middle legs. The insect walks with 
dififtculty upon the ground ; and, when in a globe or aqnarinm, and 
diving, the under part of their bodies appears silvery, which is caused by 
the air attaching itself and remaining clinging to the body underwater. 
They are said to exhale an offensive odor like that of a bed-bug, and 
are carnivorous, living on other insects. In Mexico, the Q>gQ^ of Gorixa 
feoiorata or mercenana are used as food. " The eggs of this insect are 
said to be gathered from water-plants, and are used as an article of 
food by the dwellers near the lakes where they abound. Tbe natives 
cultivate, in the lagoon of Ghalco, a sort of carex called ' toul6,' (or 
tul6,) on which the insects deposit their eggs very freely. This carex 
is made into bundles, which are removed to Lake Texcuco, and floated in * 
the water until covered with eggs.' The bundles are then taken out, 
dried, and beaten over a large cloth. The eggs, being then disengaged, 
are cleaned and pounded into flour." Of Corixa meremarm^ (vol. 1, p. 
367,) Say says, '^ Passing through the market in the city of Mexico, I 
obtained a few specimens from a quantity of at least a peck, exposed 
for sale by an Aztec woman, where they are made use of as food," (not 
specifying whether it was the eggs only, or the insects themselves.) 
Mons. Guerin Meneville presented some bottles filled with both the eggs 
and insects to the Department of Agriculture a few years ago. 

The group Notonectides contains some medium-sized water-bugs, with 
somewhat angularly roof-shaped bodies, uniform, and hair^" beneath ; the 
fore tarsi are three-jointed, and the hind legs very long and formed for 
Brimming and diving. These insects swim very rapidly with the back 
dqwnwaid, using their legs as oars; hence their common name of water- 
boatmen. The eggs are white and elongated, and are said by Boesel to 
heattaohed to the stems and leaves of aquatic plants, and are hatched 
ix^ ^bont fifteen days. These insects, living in water, are obliged to 
oomito the surface in order to obtain air. In doing this, the extremity 
of the^^dy is thrust out of water, whereby a supply of air is introduced 
beneath the wings and the upper surface of the abdomen, where it is 
retaineaby rows of hairs, with which the segments are dorsally fur- 
nished, (Vegt^vood.) When stJitionary on the surface of the water in still, 
hot wej^th^^ they are able, by a single stroke of their oar-like paddle- 
feet, (whicl are generally stretched out at full length,) to descend into 
the water ou^f sight ; in the water their motions are quick, but on the 
land they are-^arcely able to walk, and they fly well, their under Wings 
being excee^uiy delicate. Like the other water-bugs, they fly from 
pond to pond i«the«vening or at night. They are carnivorous, and it 
has been obser^d that insects attacked by them die very soon after 
being pierced wiq their beak 5 this is supposed to be in consequence of 
some poi^nous Iquid being injected into the wound. Indeed, their 
rostrum iS capable^f inflicting a severe puncture or wound in the hands 
of thoft' who talie htld of them without due care. In the Practical Ento^ 
moloi^s^^it is slatec that the insect punctures the skin, causing " a sort 
of 8*"8r j hut Mt Wilsh believes there is no poison-bag attached to the 
IHpTument. Wcjouiselves, however, who have felt all the disagreeable 



136 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULT^DRE. 

effects produced by their piercer, and also observed the almost install- 
taneons death of insects pierced by them, (as also mentioned by Amyot^) 
should think that a mere pancture could not produce the prolonged 
pain and subsequent inflammation we experience ; but that some liquid 
poisonous substance had been introduced into the wound. 
Notonecfa insulata^ (Fig. 62,) a reddish-brown water-bug, is a very com- 
mon insect in Maryland, and is found in pools and wet ditches, 
It feeds on aquatic larvn[) and insects, and possibly may alsc 
injure very small fish. 

Notonecta irrorata, (Fig. G3,) also of a brown color is said to 
be a very common form in Massachusetts. 
According to Ballat, two Mexican species deposit their eggs 
Fig. G2. on water-plants, where the Indians collect them and use them 
in the preparation of several articles of food. In the Popular Science 
Review (for 1875, January, p. 18,) it is said that " a no less curious 
article of food is the egg of an insect which inhabits the 
fresh waters of Mexico, and which is made into cakes under 
the name of Haoutle.^ This, however, most probably refers 
to the eggs of Corixa feniorata or C. mercenaria^ before nien- 
tioned, and not to a Notonectay as the specimens presented 
by Mens. Guerin Meneville to the Department of Agriculture 
Fig. 63. belonged undoutttedly to Corixa. However, as both Corixa 
and Notonecta have the same habits and inhabit the same ponds and 
lakes, some of the Notonectades may have been taken at the same time, 
and described as the insect producing the edible eggs. 





REMEDIES REPORTED TO BE SERVICEABLE IN DESTROY- 
ING INSECTS OP THE SiTBORDER HETEROPTBRA, OR 
PLANT-BUGS. 

A patient study in the open field of the natural history, habits, i^ 
stincts, and favorite food or haunts of the insects injurious to the cro^s 
is absolutely indispensable to the working naturalist who wishes to find 
out successful methods of destroying them, as it is only by knowing 
what substances are especially disagreeable to their taste or smell l^at 
we can drive them away, or by placing substances they are espec^Wy 
fond of in their haunts that we can allure them to destruction' A 
thorough knowledge of their habits and instincts will also t^ch us 
where to look for them, at what time, and on tvhat plai^^- For 
example, although Paris green is eaten by the larvje of the-^olorado 
potato-beetle when sprinkled on the outside of the leaf of ^^ potato, 
and proves certain death to millions of them, as the larvae r'Ssess jaws 
and eat the whole substance of the leaf, poison and all ; ye^ plant-bug 
on the same leaf would probably escape without injury ,*s insects of 
the suborder Heteroptera do not eat any of the leaf itse? (°^^ having 
jaws,) but merely pierce the outer Cuticle in order to reac^"® parenchy. 
ma, or inner substance, to suck the sap, and most prot^"^y "^t a parti- 
cle of the poison on the outside of the leaf would en^^ the piercer or 
sucker of the plant-bug. Again, the tobacco-fly, mA\ or »?hinx, by 
means of its very long, flexible trunk, or sucker, is e)^^*^^ ^^ ^ach the 
nectar at the bottom of the long tubular flowers of obscco and Tames- 
town weed, {Datura^) which it sucks during thd evening twiight. 
Advantage has been taken of this habit to drop pdsoi^ sirup or ii^y 
into these flowers, which being imbibed by the sphii« causes its ae*;^ 



REPORT OP THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 137 

in a short time, without giving it a chance to deposit its eggs. Yet the 
same remedj' in the same flowers would be of no use if applied to destroy 
moths of the cat-worms, {Agrotts, &c.,) as their trunks are much too 
shout to reach the poisoned liquid at the bottom of the long blossom of 
the tobacco-plant. 

It is also necessary for the nataralist to find out whetlier certain 
insects are beneficial to the farmer by killing other noxious insects 
or not, before wantonly taking their lives; as, although an insect 
may frequent a particular plant or tree, it is by no means certain 
that it feed« upon the plant, it irequently happening that the insect vis- 
its such plants merely for the sake of feeding upon other insects that 
are in the habit of injuring the pjant itself, or are attracted by its flow- 
ers. 

In the suborder Heteraptera^ however, it is very difficult to distin- 
guish friends from foes, or even to decide whether certain plant-bugl^ 
are more beneficial or injurious, as many of them at almost the same 
time are herbivorous and carnivorous, one minute sacking the sap of 
the i)lant itself, and the next minute draining the life jnices of some in- 
sect wliich feeds upon and destroys the same plant. If poison be used 
to destroy insects of this saborder, it should be in a liquid state, like 
very thin sirup, so that the insect can t^aky t into its stomach through 
the very narrow sucking-tube. A doubleriMt of cotton or gauze (as de- 
scribed in a former report) will be found exceedingly useful in capturing 
the agile Capsidce and other small nimble plant-bngs. The net is brushed 
lightly against and under the plants until a sufficient number of the 
noxious insects have been collected in the second net or bag, which can 
be emptied out into boiling water, or its contents otherwise destroyed. 
For the cabbage-bug, {Strachia JiistrionicM^) the squash- bug, (Anasa tm- 
ti8,)aud insects of the same habits, the same remedies here mentioned 
will 'answer. Hand-picking early in the morning, and before they have 
thawed out into life and activity, is always a sure and good, but slow, 
method. The females and bunches of eggs should be sought for early 
in the season, before the young bugs hatch out and spread over neigh- 
boring plants } and it must be remembered that anything which con- 
tributes to bring the plants forward rapidly, and promotes the vigor and 
luxuriance of their foliage, renders them less liable to succumb to the 
attacks of insects. A weak solution of good guano, or water drained 
from a cow-yard, or mixed with well-rotted manure, applied to the roots, is 
very invigorating to young plants, and causes rapid and healthy growtJi; 
but care should be taken not to make the mixture too strong, else it would 
probably do more injury than good. When plant-bags injure cabbage, 
squashes, &c., planted singly or in rows, it would be well to have the ground 
rough upon the hills or between the rows, and to lay loose shingles on it 
near the plants, under which the bugs will crawl at night, and where 
they may be found in the morning and killed. Small heaps of old 
trash, such aB corn-stalks, weeds, &;c., may be made here and there 
on the ground near the plants to be protected. These heaps should be 
examined frequently to see if the bags have taken refuge under them, 
either from the heat of the summer's sun, or from the cold of winter, and 
if they have done so, in sufficient numbers, when the brush is dry fire 
can easily be applied, and the trash and bugs destroyed together. The 
crushed stalks of sugar-cane and heaps of old refuse cotton-seeds 
have been used in this manner in Florida to destroy the red bug, or 
cotton-stainer, and found to be very useful, as these substances furnish 
the bugs, not only with shelter, but also with abundance of food. Large 
leaves of plants, cabbage, squash, &c., may be cut off the parent plants, 



138 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

and placed on uneven gi^ouud. These witiieiiug leaves form excellent 
traps for several plant-bugs. The leaves, however, should be oxaniined 
early in the morning, before the insects have been warmed by the heat 
of the sun, and escaped from their nocturnal shelter. ' Small wooden boxes 
covered with gauze are frequently used to protect very young plants 
from insects, until they have acquired size and strength to resist their 
attacks. An oblong four-cornered hole, about 12 (or more) inches in 
depth, and a little smaller than a pane of glass, (say 7 by 10 inches, or 
larger if required,) dug in the earth in a place where there is a sandy 
subsoil or good drainage, and then half filled up with good rich soil in 
which to plant a few seeds, and the hole then covered over with the 
glass, and loose earth heaped around the edges to exclude the air and 
insects, forms a very good miniature hotbed for encumbers, squashes, 
melons, &c., as likewise for striking cuttings of roaes, &c., if sand be 
employed instead of rich earth; and should the sun prove too powerful, a 
slight scattering of sand or loose soil over the glass will protect them. 
When the plants have grown some size, the glass can be removed, and 
the hole filled up to its former level. The glasses can afterward be 
gathered together and stored away in some outhonse in much less space 
and with less trouble than so many imwieldy wooden boxes. A mixture 
of one part of Peruvian gu^o with three parts of plaster or lime is said 
to be offensive to most insets: A strong decoction of quassia, or berries 
and leaves of the pride of Ghina tree, might drive plant-bugs away firom 
the plants. Paris green or hellebore sprinkled over the leaves, when 
moist with dew or rain, would doubtless destroy many larvsB of beetles 
and other insects having jaws, but probably would not have much effect 
on insects having suckers, as in the Heteropteray or plant-bugs, although 
they might make them avoid the plants. 

Sulphur, soot, wood-ashes, lime, and even dry road -dust, sprinkled 
over young plants, have, in some cases, proved beneficial in driving 
away insects; and paper, rags, or sawdust soaked in kerosene or carbolic 
acid and water are said to be so offensive to insects as to cause them to 
leave the plants. Soap-suds made from whale-oil, or cresylic soap, tobacco- 
water, &c., have also been highly recommended by some of our corre- 
spondents as being very disagreeable to the organs of smell, if not of 
taste, of many plant-bugs. As remedies for these insects, Dr. Harris 
recommends sprinkling with alkaline solutions, potash and water, decoc- 
tions of walnut-leaves, and perhaps a decoction of the leaves of the 
China-berry tree, might answer in the Southern States, as a correspond- 
ent in Georgia says that they have been used with very beneficial effect 
to drive away cut-worms. Most of the plant-bugs hibernate, or remain 
all winter, in a semi-torpid state, under bark of old trees, stones, moss, 
&c It would therefore be advisable, at the approach of spring, to bum 
all old stumps and dead or decaying wood, weeds, &o., near the garden. 
Old stone fences, piles of loose stones, hedge-rows of weeds and briers, 
and dead trees are the places where many of our plant-bugs and other 
noxious insects spend the winter, and whence they issue forth in spring 
to deposit their eggs. Innumerable larvie and pups of noxious insects 
are also found in the same places, waiting only for the warm weather to 
complete their changes. If tbese places are examined in midwinter, the 
entomolojrical student can procure a very good collection of specimens 
fur his cabinet, even when the ground is covered with ice and snow. 
Mr. Walsh, speaking of the CapsuSj a small nimble plant-bug, very 
numerous and destructive to the foliage of plants, says, "If my own 
trees w^inv. attacked I should go to work early in the* morning, while 



EEPORT OP THE ENTOMOLOaiST. 139 

they are dull and slaggisb, shake them off the trees od a cloth, and 
crush them between the finger and thumb.*' 

Turkeys^ fowls, ducks, insectivorous birds, and some small animals are 
also useful agents by destroying multitudes of injurious insects. Even 
common mice have been known to dig up and eat the larvae of the peach- 
tree borer in a grape-house, where the gardener had almost extirpated them 
as injuring: the roots of his vines, whereas the animals had made the holes 
merely to search for animal food, and had not touched the roots at all. 

Several of the remedies above mentioned under the cabbage-bug 
{Strctchia histrionicha) are also recommended to be used for several 
other heteropterous insects having somewhat similar habits, such as 
the plant-bugs injuring squashes, &c., Aiiasa tristis, Rliopalus laiei^alis^ 
KysitLs raphanvs^ and many others. The chinch-bug, Microptis {Rhy- 
pad'ochrcmua) leticopteruSy is exceedingly destructive in the grain-fields 
of the West, and many remedies have been recommended or suggested 
for their destruction, or to drive them away. Among the rest, lime is said 
to have been used with good effect when dusted ovef the plants when the 
insects first appear. Other farmers, however, assert that they have tised 
lime, and have derived no benefit from it. Burning the ground before 
plowing, or after the infested crops have been removed, has also been 
recommended : and all the chaff' and refuse remaining after winnowing 
grain ought likewise to be burned } and, as before mentioned, if small 
piles of refuse or trash be heaped up here and there in the fields, and 
after cold weather sets in, when these heaps are dry enough to burn, they 
are fired on a chilly morning, all the insects sheltering under them will 
be burned and destroyed ; and chinch-bugs are very apt to take shelter 
nnder such heaps from the inclemency of the weather. From other 
farmers we have received reports as to the efficacy of gas-lime in 
driving the insects away from growing crops; but they say nothing about 
the benefit or injury the plants themselves receive from such an applt- 
<sation. 

In a former volume^ Mr. Laughlin states that although he used lime 
with no effect whatever, yet the '^ application of salt to only one acre of 
wheat, in the proportion of one bushel to the acre, drove all the insects 
away and save<l his crop on that single acre, while the rest of ten acres 
planted was destroyed by chinch- bugs." .Salt, however, when applied too 
freely would be very apt tc^ injure the plants themselves. Mr. Laughlin 
also states that he was satisfied that if he had sown If bushels of rock- 
salt (not mord) to the acre, by the first of June, or 10 to 14 days sooner, 
be would have saved his whole crop, and at the same time he recom- 
mends a spoonful of salt to be put on each hill of maize. Some farmers 
at the West tried the experiment of sowing Hungarian grass with wheat 
and other grains, and state that their crop3 have been saved by the 
chinch-bugs preferring the tender grass, leaving the grain uninjured. 
Open ditches or trenches dug around the fields overrun with chinch-bugs 
have been highly recommended as preventing the migratidns of these 
insects from them to other uninfested fields in the immediate vicinity. 
These trenches should be dug a foot or more in depth, having a sloping 
side toward the infested field and a perfectly perpendicular side toward 
the field intended to be protected, so that the insects could readily crawl 
into the trench from the field already injured, and, not being able to 
crawl up the perpendicular side toward the uninjured field, would fall 
back into the trench, and could be destroyed by lime or gathered up and 
burned, but should by no means be only half killed and buried, as they 
juight revive and make their escape out of the earth. It would even be 
better if the i)rotectlng aide of the trench should slope somewhat inward, 



140 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

SO as to make its upper edge project a few inches over the trench, and 
then it would be almost impossible for any of the wingless larvje or pnpse 
to ascend and crawl into the neighboring fields. Fence boards set length- 
wise, with the ends close together, or even a little overlapping each other, 
and the lower edge sunk a little in the earth, so that the chinchbugs 
could not creep through the crevices made by the joining of the boards, 
or underneath, the upper edge being kept moist with coal-tar, will also 
prevent the migration of chinch-bugs from field to field. They are una- 
ble to cross the tarred line, and fall to the ground inside the fence. 

For bed-bugs, (Acanthia lectularia,) washing the bedsteads with boil- 
ing water mixed with salt or alum, corrosive sublimate and alcohol, lard 
and quicksilver, have been highly recommended, especially tfie corrosive 
sublimate; although, if the bedsteads are varnished, care ^ould be taken 
not to use any substance that will take off or discolor the polished sur- 
face, as we have known varnished bedsteads almost totally disfigured 
by the incautious use of some of these mixtures. Persian insect-pow- 
der (only when perfectly fresh) blown into the crevices with bellows 
made for that purpose will stupefy and destroy many; but the great 
remedy is cleanliness, and a constant care and vigilance every few days 
to examine all the crevices and joints, to make sure that none of the 
pests are hidden away, ^s these insects deposit their eggs in cracks 
in the floor, or walls, under carpets, in old furniture, and in all secret or 
dark places they can find, it is necessary that the application of all the 
remedies used shduld be very thorough, and perfect cleanliness should 
be preserved by frequent scalding and whitewashing when practicable. 

There are a few heteropterous insects that feed upon bed-bugs, men- 
tioned under the head of Acanthia lectularia in the former part of this 
work; but they are not numerous enough to do much good, and, besides 
that, some of them frequently also attack mankind, and, from their size 
and strength, inflict much more severe wounds than the bed-bugs them- 
selves. Many of the carnivorous Heteropteray Prionotm cristaUis and 
others, are able to inflict very severe wounds with their beaks or piercers, 
which they thrust into the flesh, at the same time ejecting a poisonous 
liquid into the wound. The pain from such stings, or punctures, may be 
very much alleviated by an application of liquid ammonia. 

In conclusion, we would again urge farmers to clear up all weedy 
fence-corners, remove all old heaps of loose jstones and rubbish, and to 
bum all trash, rotten stumps, and decaying wood, a« such places serve 
only as a shelter to all noxious insects dtring the winter, Snd fipom which 
they issue forth in spring to scatter themselves over the whole farm, 
and lay the eggs of the millions of injurious insects which in summer 
and autumn destroy the hopes of the husbandman, and are most gener- 
ally not observed until they have become too numerous to be destroyed 
without immense labor and toil. 

TOWlfEND GLOVBE, 

Entomotogist 

Hon. Feedk. Watts, 

Commissioner. 



REPORT OP THE CHEMIST 141 



REPORT OF THE CHEMIST. 

SiE : I have the honor herein to report the results of the work prose- 
cuted in the division under my charge subsequent to the publication of 
my report for last year. 

The work has been to a certain extent interfered with on account of 
the demands made upon our time by the enterprise of collecting material 
illustrating the utilization of agricultural and horticultural ])roducts for 
exhibition in the International Exhibition to be held in Philadelphia 
daring the present year. This has involved a large amount of corre- 
spondence and personal attention, and the work in .the laboratory has 
been correspondingly hindered. 

According to the rule adopted and carried out in previous years, the 
investigations in the laboratory- have been confined to matters involving 
a scientific principle not heretofore established, or to work having at 
once a scientific and practical value. In all cases in which applications 
for work have, on account of this rule, been rejected — ^that is, in which 
the matter presented has been one of mere curiosity, of personal specu- 
lation, or of limited practical value — we have endeavored to give such 
reply and such information as was warranted by the results of investi- 
gations of similar matters heretofore recorded, or by a general i)hysical 
or qualitative examination of specimens presented. We have objected 
to the prosecution of any inX^estigations similar to those already worked 
up in this Department the results of which have been embodied in our 
reports, excepting in cases in which it appeared necessary to confirm 
results previously obtained. In reply to questions involving principles 
similar to those already published, we have invariably referred our cor- 
respondents to the reports of the Department for previous years. 

Following the rule thus enunciated, we have prosecuted investigations 
upon the following subjects: 

1. The influence of caustic magnesia upon the vegetation of so-called 
lime soils. 

2. The proximate composition of two varieties of sugar-corn. 

3. The influence of arsenical compounds, when present in the soil, upon 
vegetation. 

4. The influence of illuminating-gas upon the aerial portions of plants. 

5. The percentage of morphine in a sample of opium x)roduced in 
Tennessee. 

G. The chemical composition of the mineral-matter of cranberries. 

7. The composition of certain cave-deposits found in tfie Southern 
States. 

8. The percentage of tannin contained in various tanning-materials. 
I submit the results of the above-mentioned investigations, except 

7 and 8, which are not yet complete. 

I also submit copies of correspondence on the subject of the so called 
l)oison-sQils of Texas. 

1. The influence of caustic ^na/piesia ivpon the vegetation of so-called lime 
sails, 

Mr. Abram McMurtrie, ofBelvidere,Warr<yi County^ New Jersey, has 
for many years past made use of the dark, steel-gray hmestone of that 
locality for agricultural purposes, and has repeatedly found that the 
lime4)roduced from it seemed in nearly every case to have a rather inju- 
rious effect, but was wholly unable to account for it. When the lime 
was placed out in open fields to slake, the spots occupied by the heaps, 



142 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

even when the lime was removed very carefully aud no appreciable quan- 
tity was left behind, remained perfectly barren for two or three subse- 
queut years. Very frequently, the crops to which the lime was applied 
showed indications of an injurious action in a very decided manner, aud 
this influence alw^iys appeared more marked in wet than in dry seasons. 
In fact, a wet season sometimes determined a complete loss of the whole 
crop, especially when it happened to follow immediately ui)on the appli- 
cation. Believing that a change in the kind of lime employed would at 
least occasion no loss, Mr. McMurtrie was induced to try a lime pro- 
duced from stone taken from a quarry three or four miles distant, and 
said to be particularly beneficial in its results. This limestone was of 
very light-gray color, somewhat resembling granite in appearance, and 
the lime produced from it, when .thrown out in heaps to slake, though 
rather dark at first, upon slaking changed to a light buff color. Its 
effects seemed to be almost directly opposite to those of the lime pre- 
viously employed; and the ditterence between the efi'ects being so decid- 
edly marked, it was considered of some importance to investigate the 
cause of (this action by means of chemical analysis. Samples of the lime- 
stone were therefore obtained and analyzed, with the following results: 
]S[o. 1 is a sample of that producing the beneficial effects. It was 
obtained from a vein running across the farms of Messrs. George Iladle 
and Philip Eaub, near Oxford, and has the following coinposition : 

Moisture 0.70 

Carbonate of limo ., 92. Gl 

Carboujvtoof magnesia '. 0.914 

Oxide of iron and alamina 2.06 

SiUca. 3.75 

100. 034 

No. 2 was obtained from the quarries of Mr. A. Depue Koseberry, 
near Bclvidere, and has the following composition : 

Moisture and organic matt^er 1.30 

Silica .X31 

Peroxide of iron and alumina 2.12 

Cai'bonateof lime 51.20 

Cai-bouateof magnesia 42.10 

Phosphorio acid trace. 

100.03 

No. 3 was taken from the quarries of Mr. E. J. Mackey, located very 
near the boundary of Belvidere. The analysis resulted as follows : 

Moisture and organic matter 1.40 

Silica 2.13 

Peroxide of irot aud alumina 0.82 

Carbonate of lime 56.80 

Carbonate of magnesia 38.31 

Phosphoric acid trace. 

99.46 

A glance at these analyses is sufficient to show that the deleterious 
eii'ectsof thelimo produced from the limestone from the quanies rep- 
resented by Nos. 2 and 3 are due to the high percentage of magnesia 
they contain, and that the bcnelicial effects of the other lime is due to 
the absence of this constituent. 

Many agricultural chemists acknowledged as authorities fail, in their 
writings upon the subject of mineral fertilizers, to note the fact of the 
injurious tictiou of caustic magnesia upon vegetation, aud in fact the only 
writer who seems to have recognized it is Sir Humi)hrey Davy,* wfto re- 

— ■ ■ ■ — - — — - — ■ _- — - ^ 

* Klemonts of Agricultural Chemistry, London, 1814. 



EEPORT OP THE CHEMIST. 143 

ports exi)eriments upon this subject made by himself, and others made 
previously b3' Mr. Tennant. He explains the injurious efi'ects upon the 
theory, since confirmed by experiment, that caustic magnesia in pres- 
ence of caustic lime absorbs carbonic acid very slowly, and that on this 
account remaining a long time in the soil in the caustic state it exerts the 
deleterious influence noticed in the limes mentioned above. The limes 
in question were applied to rather light sandy or gravelly soil : but ac- 
cording to Davy, the same lime might be applied to heavy soils, con- 
taining considerable quantity of organic matter, with decidedly good 
results, and that upon light soils, where pure lime is not obtainable, the 
magnesian limestone should be applied in small quantities. The caus- 
tic action of the magnesia may in such cases be very materially amelio-. 
rated by a tolerably heavy application of stable-manure. In the locality 
in New Jersey referred to, however, we would advise those farmers who 
have suffered the inconveniences and losses resulting from the use of 
magnesian limestones to employ the other, even though they may be sub- > 
jected to greater expense in the matter of transportation. 

It has been suggested that the magnesia combining with water and 
sihca forms a hydraulic cement in the soil, and that the injurious eftbcts 
are due to such a combination. 

This cannot, however, be considered a correct theory, since these 
magnesian limestones have been used upon clay soils and their applicar 
tiou to such soils has no deleterious effects. It would seem that the 
magnesia reacting upon the silicate of alumina forms a double silicate of 
alumina and magnesia, thus neutralizing its causticity, and that the 
injury consequent upon the application of magnesia lime to sandy or 
gravelly soils is to a large extent due to a deficiency of clay. 

2. 071 the proximate composition of two varieties of sugar-corn. 

The. difficulties accompanying the prosecution of proximate organic 
analysis of sugar-corn may have been considered sufficent cause for our 
failure to find ui)on record any reliable statement concerning its compo- 
sition ; but it appears to be a fact that chemists have thus far either 
avoided it or have failed to come in contact with it. When called upon 
a short time ago by Mr. T. Worthington, of Morrow, Warren County, 
Ohio, lor information concerning its composition and comparative value 
as a material for the mauufacture of alcoholic liquors, we found it neces- 
sary to resort to analysis to determine the facts, desired. 

The method employed in our analyses was essentially the same as that 
made use of in x>revious analyses of corn as published in the Annual Re- 
port of this Department for 1873 ; the only difference being a^light modi- 
fication in the separation and estimation of gum and dextrine. Methylic 
alcohol dissolves dextrine without attacking gum, and we therefore em- 
ployed it in their separation. 

For comparison, we have also made an analysis of a sample taken from 
a lot of corn held by this Department for distribution. There seems to 
be considerable diflercnce in the composition of these two samples; but 
this may naturally be expected, on account of the different qualities as- 
cribed to the several varieties of this kind of corn. ThesweTet taste is 
evidently due to the high percentage of dextrine it contains, and we 
should expect to find greater variation in the amount of this constituent 
than in that of the others, since it is so well known that some varieties of 
sugar-corn are much sweeter than others. However, further analyses 
will bo necessary to determine how far this variation extends. The 
analyses resulted as follows ; 



144 REPORT Ol' THE C0M3IIS8I0NER OF AGRICULTURE. 

No. 1 is a sample from Ohio. 

Air-ilriod. CalcuUted for 
dry Bttbataace. 

Moisture - 10.00 .... 

Oil 6.00 6.67 

Gum 7.25 8.06 

Dextrin 5.20 5.77 

Zeiu y 5.95 6.01 

Sugar 1.60 1.77 

Starch 50.56 56.17 

Albnmiuoids ^ 7.75 8.61 

Cellulose 4.24 4.72 

Ash « 1.45 1.6?J 

100. 00 100. 00 

No. 2 is a sample obtained in the Department : 

Air-dried. Calculated for 
dry substance. 

Moisture ' 6.40 .... 

Oil 7.30 7.7U 

Gum 6. 15 6. 5i? 

Dextrin 5.15 5.50 

Zein 5.25 5.61 

Sugar 1.65 1.76 

Starch 49.85 53.27 

Albuminoids 10.45 11.16 

CelluloBe ., 6.33 6.76 

jSah 1.47 1.57 

100. 00 100. 00 

With regard to its value for the manufacture of alcoholic liquors as 
compared with common field corn, little can be said in its favor. For 
comparison in this particular, I quote analyses published in a previous 
report. In this case, the results are calculated for dry substance : 

No.l. No. 2. 

Oil 5.67- 6.10 

Sugar 1.21 2.66 

Gum and dextrin 1.35 1.06 

Zein 2.17 1.58 

Starch 77.54 76.50 

Albuminoids 8.71 9.09 

Cellulose 1.89 1.(56 

Ash 1.46 1.35 

■ i_ 

100. 00 100. 00 

t 

Ko. 1 represents the composition of a yellow corn grown in Pennsyl- 
vania, and Ko. 2 that of a white corn from Maryland. 

These tables of analyses show that the sugar-corn cannot be recom- 
mended for the purposes suggested, since its contents of starch, gum, 
and dextrine amount to only 01 and 63 per cent., while those of the field 
corn reach about 72 per cent. With this fact, and its incapability of 
Xu:'oducing as large a crop as the field corn, against it, it is donbtfal 
whether sugar-corn will ever have any application other than that which 
it at present has, viz, for food in the green state. 

3. The influence of arsenical compounds^ when present i7i the soily upon 
vegetation, ^ 

In a previous report,* I took occasion to publish the results of some 

preliminary experiments, made principally to determine whether arsenic, 

when applied to plants in the form of Paris-green, for the destrucition of 

the Colorado i)otato-beetle, could, when transmitted to the soil, be ab- 
.- , , , 

* Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture for 1874. 



REPORT OF THE CHEMIST. 145 

sorbed and assimilated during growth, and at the same timo'I gave the 
results of experiments of others in the same direction. My own experi- 
ments having been of a somewhat unsatisfactory character, and those 
of others having furnished such extremely discordant results, I finally • 
determined to follow out the investigation about to be described to en- 
deavor to settle this question, together with others which subsequently 
arose. These subsequent questions were suggested by the fejixs enter- 
tained by some of our correspondents that, w^hen Paris-green was ap- 
plied to crops year after year, sufficient quantity might accumulate in the 
soil to poison it sufficiently to destroy its fertility and render it incapable 
of producing vegetation. 

My investigation was therefore made to determine — 

1st. If applied to the soil, can arsenic or arsenious acid be absorbed 
and assimilated in the economy of plant-growth f 

2d. If absorbed and assimilated, can it be taken, up in sufficient quan- 
tity ta become prejudicial or injurious to the health of consumers ? 

3d. If not taken up by the plant during growth, does it by its pres- 
ence in the soil exert a poisonous influence upon the plant itself? 

4th. If it exerts a poisonous influence upon the plant, to what extent 
may it exist in the soil before it becomes injurious *? 

The experiments were conducted as follows : 

Fifteen common flower-pots, of as nearly uniform size as possible, 
were selected, and each one filled with a measured quantity of good gar- 
den-soil. With the soil of each pot were then thoroughly intermixed 
quantities of Paris-green, ranging from 100 milligrams to 1 gram. Thus 
one pot contained 100 milligrams ^ that next to it contained 200 milli- 
grams 5 the next 300 ; and this quantity was increased until it finally 
reached 1 gram. In the other pots, the increase was made more rapid, 
and the other pots contained 2, 3, 4, and 5 grams respectively. After 
the soil had thus been carefully prepared, a given number of pease, all 
of which wore carefully selected, so as to secure as nearly as possible 
those of the same size and appearance, were planted in each pot. This 
experiment proved unsatisfacto];y, from the fact that on one night that 
X>ortion of the greenhouse in which the pots had been placed became 
too cold, and a large number of the seeds failed to germinate on this 
account. I therefore considered it of some importance to duplicate the 
exi)erimenft, and, without disturbing these further than to remove 
them to a warmer portion of the greenhouse, prepared in a sim- 
ilar manner, and with the same care, another series of pots. At 
this time, the question also arose, What would be the effect of 
arsenic in combination, as arsenite of potassa and arseniate of 
potassa? For the purpose of determining this, I prepared two 
other series of pots in the same manner as before, and placed them 
alongside the former. With these experiments, my results were extremely • 
sati^actory ; and when those plants which had grown well had reached 
the period of bloom, the three series of pots finally prepared were each 
placed by themselves in a convenient position and photographed, and 
from the photographs thus obtained the accompanying illustrations 
were, made. In these experiments, for the sake of comparison, one pot 
of soil was prepared without addition of any poisonous compound. 
Now, it is quite evident from these plates that the arsenical compounds 
in the soil did produce an injurious effect, and in some instances, in fact 
in the -majority of them, it was decidedly marked. In case of the Paris 
green, as shdwn on Plate 10, it is not noticed until the quantity present 
in the soil reaches 500 milligrams, and that in the other pots the size of 
the plants decreases regularly as the quantity of arsenical compound 

10 A 



146 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE 

present in'creases. The numbers on the pots in the different plates rep 
resent the quantities present in grams and tenths of grams. 
. In case of the arsenite of potassa, (Plate 11,) the effect seems to be 

* more immediate. This may be duo either to the greater solnbility of the 
compound or to a possibly larger quantity of arsenious acid. The 
potash compound seemed nearly pure, being crystallized, and the purity 
of the copper compound was not estimated. Yet in this case the effect 
does not seem decidedly marked until the quantity present reached 300 
milligrams. 

To the influence of arseniate of potassa the plants seemed to be more 
sensitive still ; for those in the pot containing but 100 milligrams seem 
to be affected. Yet even when 200 milligrams are present, the plants 
seem to thrive tolerably well. 

What, then, are the quantities of these compounds which may be ap- 
plied to the soil for the various purposes in practical agriculture before 
effecting any injurious results f The amount of soil in each of the pots 
employed in these experiments was 91.5 cubic inches. In case of the 
Paris-green, the limit is 500 milligrams for this quantity of soil, which 
is equivalent to 145.6 grams per cubic foot, Or 906.4: pounds per acre, 
calculating for a depth of one foot. The limit for arsenite of potassa, 
being 300 milligrams per 91.5 cubic inches, is about 540 pounds per 
acre. Though the plants seem to be affected by even a small quantity 
of arseniate of potash in the soil, I am nevertheless inclined to the opin- 
ion that this compound may be applied at the rate of 150 pounds per 
acre without any great injury to the crop. For practical purposes, how- 
ever, it is never necessary to apply in any case so large an amount. 

These results are confirmed by the water-culture experiments of Pro- 
fessor Freytag* in his investigations upon the influence of the sulphur- 
ous and metallic fumes of the Freiberg Metallurgical Works upon the 
vegetation of the surrounding fields. He found that plants were killed 
when placed in solutions containing ^^ P^^ ^^^^* arsenious acid, -^ per 
cent, sulphate of zinc, -^^ percent, sulphate of copper, -^^ per cenl). sul- 
phate of cobalt, y^5 per cent, sulphate of nickel, and I per cent, sulphate 
of iron. 

Mons. E. Heckel f states that 25 milligrams of arsenious acid, or the 
soluble arseniates in 90 grams of water, prevents germination and de- 
stroys the embryos of seeds. • 

I cannot, however, agree with Professor Freytag in the statement that 
the arsenious acid and the oxides of zinc and lead cannot bo injurious 
to vegetation on account of their property of forming insoluble com- 
pounds in the soil, since in some of my preliminary experiments pres- 
ence of such insoluble compounds as the arseniates of barium, strontium, 
and magnesium was sufiBcient to prevent germination. Again, in reports 

• upon the composition of certain mineral-waters of Germany, we notice 
statements of the presence of such insoluble compounds as arsenite of 
iron in solution. These facts argue against the possibility of accumula- 
tion of sufficient arsenic in the soil by regular applications of Paris-green 
in the quantities recommended for the destruction of the Colorado 
potato-beetle. When rotation of crops is observed, and application of 

'the poison cannot therefore take place upon the same plot more than 
once in three or four years, it is probable that each application, being 
acted upon by the natural solvents in the soil, will be removed by drain- 
age before another is made. And yet, even when annual applications 

^■7-^^^— ^^^-^— ^ ■ II-. ■^^^^— ■ ■ I- I ■ ■ ■ ■ I .1 . ■ ■ — — - - - _ ■ _ _ ■ _ - , ^ , ,_ m 

*Jahrbuch fiir Berg- unci Hlittenwesen, 1873. 
t Comptea reudos, t. Ixsx, 1173. 



Ky\ 



REPOET OP THE CHEMIST, 147 

are made, so much time must elapse before the limit could be attained 
tibat no injury need be feared &om this cause. 

Kow, can arsenic be absorbed and assimilated by the plant in the 

economy of growth ? My investigations give a negative reply. All of 

ihe plants grown, from the largest to the smallest, were examined by 

careful application of Marsh's test ; yet I failed in any case to detect t^e 

presence of arsenic. 

Before making the test, the organic matter of the plant was destroyed 
by boiling it in hydrochloric acid with addition of potassic chlorate, and 
the solution filtered. 

I also carelully examined potatoes which had been subjected to appli- 
cations of Paris-green, and which were furnished by Mr. George W. 
)ampbel], Delaware, Ohio, Mr. D. G. Bichmond, Sandusky, Ohio, and 
Mr. J. 8. Nixon, of Ghambersburgh, Pa., and failed in any case to detect 
the presence of arsenic. 

With these facts before us, and without considering what might be 
the result of a series of experiments continued through a number of 
years, we must conclude that plants have not the power to absorb and 
assimilate from the soil compounds of arsenic, and that though arsenical 
compounds exert an injurious influence upon vegetation, yet this is 
without effect until the quantity present reaches: for Paris-green, about 
900 pounds per acre ; for arsenite of potassa, about 400 pounds per acre ; 
for arseniate of potassa, about 150 pounds per acre. 

4. The influence of Uluminating-gas upon the aerial j)ortiom of plants. 

The subject of the influence of illuminating-gas upon vegetation has, 
until within the past year or two, been almost wholly neglected. In 
1873, some observations made in Berlin (Ding. Polyt. Jour., ccvi, 346) 
determined tbe fact that gas escaping from ths pipes exerted an inju- 
rious infldence upon the surrounding vegetation, with the roots ot 
which it came in contact, and careful experiment showed that this 
effect could be observed when so small a quantity as 25 cubic feet per 
diem was distributed through 144 square feet of soil to a depth of four 
feet. In fact, the plants whose roots permeated this quantity of soil, 
576 cubic feet, wore by such treatment killed in a short time, and it ap- 
peared that less time was required to produce this effect when the sur- 
face of the ground was closed and more compact. During the same 
year, J. Boehm (Chem. Centr., 1873, 755) made some experiments by 
passing coal-gas through the soil of i>ots containing varieties of fuchsia 
and salvia, and of the ten plants experimented upon seven died in four 
months. Further experiments convinced him of the fact that tlie plants 
were killed, not by the direct action of the gas upon the roots, but by 
poisoning tho soil. It seems, therefore, pretty well established that 
when cojil gas i>ermeates through the soil it has an injurious action upon 
the vegetation with which it may come in contact. My attention has, 
however, been attracted to a somewhat different action of the gas, which 
seems equally as destructive as that just described. Boehm found, in 
the course of his investigation, when cuttings of willow were placed in 
bottles containing a small quantitv of water, and otherwise filled with 
illuminatiug.gas, as the buds developed and the leaves began to appear 
the latter rapidly withered and died before reaching complete develop- 
ment. Now, this is the direction taken in my investigation. In 
Boehm's paper, he does not state the percentage of gas in the atmos- 
phere necessary to produce the effect described, and my object was 
therefore, if possible, to estimate the approximate quantity of gas re- 
quired to bring about siich results. The question arose out of a dispute 



148 KEPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

coneerniiig the destruction of an extensive stock of camellias in Philadel- 
phia, in which it was alleged that the loss was due to the escape of gas 
from the street-mains. It was shown that the main was broken ; that 
during the winter, the ground being frozen, there was no means of es- 
cape of the gas other than to work its way through the subsoil, and into 
ti;ie atmosphere through the ground of the intmor of the greenhouse. 
The distance between the main and the greenhouse is not stated, but it 
appears that trees growing between the former and the latter were com- 
pletely killed. It was to determine whether the result in dispute could 
be effected by the action of the gas. The plants were growing in pots 
placed upon stands, and it was therefore impossible that they should be 
injured through the medium of their roots. It was then to determine 
what might be the influence of the gas in question upon the aerial por- 
tions of plants that the investigation about to be described was insti- 
tuted. In order to secure such conditions that the plants might be con- 
fined in an atmosphere containing a given quantity of gas, and yet be 
provided with the requisite degree of light, heat, and moisture, the 
plants were placed in closed boxes, provided with glass sides, the 
joints of which were cemented with white lead. When all was secured, 
a tube of glass was introduced through the side of the box and con- 
nected with the stop-cock of a gasometer. The stop-cock of the gasome- 
ter was then opened, and the gas allowed to flow into the box, until the 
entire contents of the former were transferred to the latter. The whole 
was then allowed to stand until the following day, when the gasometer 
was again filled with gas taken from the pipes supplying the laboratory, 
and one-half the contents transferred to the box. On the next day, press 
of other duties called my attention away from this work entirely, and 
the box therefore received no gas. On the fourth day, however, one- 
half the contents of the gasometer were introduced, and another day 
allowed to intervene before another application. Gas was then introduced 
into the box on four occasions, so that the amounts transferred, allowing 
10 gallons for the capacity of the gasometer, were: February 24th, about 
10 gallons; 25th, about 5 gallons; 27th, about 5 gallons; March 1, about 
5 gallons. During this time, an occasional leaf, as well as one of the 
buds, fell from the plant, and on March 2, on opening the box to apply 
water to the plant, a slight jar caused a number of the leaves to fall. 
The plant was then carefully removed from the box, when a sharp shock 
caused nearly all the leaves to fall. The leaves which had fallen were 
then gathered about the base of the plant, the whole placed in a conven- 
ient position, and, together with the other plant, which had been sub- 
mitted to the same conditions excepting the treatment with gas, and 
which remained perfectly sound and healthy, was photographed. From 
the photograph thus obtained, the accompanying illustration was made. 
Now, what was the relative amount employed f The dimensions of the 
box were: horizontal cross-section, two feet square; height, four feet. 
Calculating from the data at hand, we find that the amount first intro- 
duced was equivalent to about 7.7 per cent, of the entire volume of the 
box, and that the quantity subsequently introduced, being ono-half this 
amount, was but 3.35 per cent Without making any allowances for 
escape of the gas by diffusion, which probably took place, reasoning 
from the fact that when the box was opened no odor of gas was percep- 
tible within the box, we find that after the first day the amount of gas 
did not exceed 4 per cent, of the volume of the box. It is, however, 
probable that the average quantity was much less than 3 per cent., and I 
am inclined to the opinion that if camellias or other plants be confineil 
in an atmosphere containing continually 1 to 2 per cent, of illuminating* 
gas, they must suffer, and ultimately be killed. 



EfFKCT (IK ILLIIMINATINO-OAS UPON GlIUW1^0 PLAMTS 






REPOKT OF THE QPEMIST. 149 

5. The perceritage of morphine in Oisample of opium 2)rodiiccd in Tennessee. 

The cultivation of poppy in this country for the production of 
opium does not seem to have received the attention it deserves. The 
efforts of this Department to arouse an interest in this particular by 
distribution of seeds of the best varieties to its more progressive corre- 
s|M)iHU»nrs, havo, however, been occasionally rewarded with reports of 
expel iiucuts ot iiii encouraging character, and wo take pleasure in pub- 
lishing the following notes of an experiment, furnished by Mr. Charles 
Patton, Germantown, Tenn. : 

I take great pleasure in reporthig the result of my experiment in making opium 
from the seeds of white poppy received early this spring from the Agricultural Depart- 
ment ; and, to substantiate in part my report, I have forwarded to the Department, by 
mail, a package containing the principul part of the opium produced, which you will 
please dispose of as suits your pleasure. 

Having no other guide upon the subject than the communication in the Agricultural 
Report tor 1870, one-tenth of an acre was measured ofi' to receive the seeds. The plot 
baa been cropped with turnips the previous ffdl, manured with sheep-droppings. On 
the 15th of April, the |;^und was plowed, haitowed, and dragged very fine, and tiie 
seed driUed in rows 18 inches apart. May 3, the band-cultivator was run between the 
rows, and the plants thinned to a stand, G to 9 inches between plants. The cultivator 
was run onco more on -the 24th of May. and this was aU the cultivation required. On 
the 15th of June, the plants oommencea blooming, and two days thereafter the first 
opium was gathered. The implement used for scarifying was the blade of my pen- 
Imife. One or two borizontal incisions around the capsule were in most cases sumdent 
to extract the opium. I find a greater losa of juice by tho up and down incision than 
firom the horizontal. An instrument making two or three cuts horizontally at one 
operation would prevent aU loss, as each would be able to sustain the weight of the 
liquid until hardened by exposure. By the present mode of extracting, I think not less 
than 10 to 12 per cent, of the opium is lost. The plants ceased blooming about tiie 
first of July, and on the 4th the crop was finished, making eighty-one days from the 
time of planting. 

.The sample sent by Mr. Patton was reserved for exhibition and analy- 
sis. It was of fine liomogeneoas texture when dry, of dark-brown color, 
and was perfectly free from seeds, stems, or other extraneous matters, 
and weighed nearly five ounces. 

The portion of the sample taken for analysis was found to contain : 

Pereent 

Moisture *.. .• .- 15^24 

Morphine 7.10 

Comparing this result with those obtained from analyses of other va- 
rieties of American opium, or even of foreign products, proves it to be of 
fair quality, and from its appearance it is better than the average opium 
found in the markets. 

It is about equal to good Egyptian and East Indian products.* 

6, TJie composition of the mineral matter of eranbeiTies. 

The following are the results of an analysis of the ash of a sample of 
dark-red cranberries from New Jersey : 

Moisture A 86.50 

Organic matter 13.26 

Inorganic matter 0.25 

100.00 

The inorganic matter contains: 

Insoluble silica 0.874 

Soluble silica 2.563 

Lime 2.710 

Magnesia 1 trace. 

Peroxide of iron.... : 1.25S 

■ ■ ■ ■ — .. ■ 

• Compare Report of this Department for 1873, p. 174. . 



150 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

Pbospboric acid 19.309 

Snlphnric acid 5.870 

Chlotino 1.260 

Potassa..: 50.683 

Soda 9.338 



00.860 



Correspondence relating to poisdn soils of TeuroA-.— J^uiiug iljt^ smumer 
of 1872, tho Department liad occasioD to investigate the cause of a prop- 
erty peculiar to certain soils of Texas and some of the neighboring States, 
and, from chemical analysis of a sample sent us, concluded it was do^ 
to a deficiency in underdrainage, a conclusion since supported by a letter 
from Mr. A. J. Graves, of that State. 

Our attention was again called to this matter by Mr. R. Q.Mills, who 
communicated a letter from Mr. W. T. M. Dickson, of which the follow- 
ing is an extract: 

Abont two years ago last month I, for warded to tbo Department of A^cnltnre, 
nnder iDstrnctions from tbo Commissioner of Agricnlture, four packages of mock soil, 
carefaDy labeled, wrapped, and mailed, for analysis. Tbo object of the analysis, aa 
explained in the accompanying letter, was to. ascertain the canse and remedy of that 
pecnliar propcrtv in onr soils which is fatal to cotton and most garden-vegetables, to 
oais-cParc and all onr cnltivated trees except tho peach and most of the hative trees. 
The cereals, however, wheat, corn, oats, barley, rye, &c., appear to be injured, but not 
destroyed by it. 

In the following extract from a communication addressed to Mr. Mills 
b^ the Commissioner, it will be seen that these conditions are precisely 
similar to those described in the report referred to: 

The difficulty existing in tho soils of Texas, referred to by your .correspondent, was 
fully discussed in tho Annual Kcport of this Department for 1872, and the deductions 
there mado have been fully corroborated by Mr. A. G. Graves, jr., of McKinney, Collins 
County, Texas. Tho position taken in the article in question, without personal exatn- 
iuation of tho locality, was, that the difficulty was due to a deficiency in underdrain- 
age; that the water of the subsoil was held in place, thus precluding the admission of 
oxygen to the soil, and preventing tlie decomposition of the organic matter, holding 
the mineral elements of plant-food in insoluble combinations, not capable of bteing 
absorbed and assimilated by the plants in growth. This will explain why cereals and 
other plants supplied with superficial roots are uninjured; they being able to derive 
tlittir nourishment from tho surface-Soif. But after plants having long tap-roots have 
reached that stage of development in which their roots penetrate the subsoil where 
this unfavorable condition exists, the subsoil, saturated to its fullest extent with stag- 
nant water, is unable to give up the nutriment it contains, an unhealthy condition for 
the plants exists, and they naturally die from starvation and bad treatment. 

Mr. Graves found, in preparing to set a fence through a piece of ground, where, from 
tho cause in question, a hedge of osan^e-orcaugc, or hois-d'arc, had become diseased and 
had died, that when holes were made to enter tho subsoil of that portion where the 
destruction had been greatest and most marked, water rose in them, filling them to the 
same level. The description of his experience as detailed in his letter is as follows : 

*' I had occasion to run a line of fence across one of these spots where an osage-orange 
hedge bad died out, a distance of about 50 yards. In boring post-holes tor fence to 
close this gap, it was necessary to bore one at each end, just outside of the spot. The 
grade of tho land was an inclination of abont one foot in thirty. It being rather wet, 
water rose in tho holes very quickly Jilong through the spot, decreasing in depth some- 
wliat near the ends, while in tho holes just outside the spot it scarcely ran in at all." 

This proves that where suoh a condition exists, tho line of division betwt^en the sar- 
faco-soil and subsoil is undulating, and the subsoil being of close texture, and impene- 
trable to water, uncfcrground ponds, if the term be allowable, are formed. When the 
roots of plants reach the level of the water and pass beneath it, destruction tAkes place. 

Anplication of lime, as recommended in the article referred to, will doubtless have a 
good effect as a remedy for this difficulty, but the best way of removing it efifectnally 
will probably bo found in underdrainage. From information we havo received, this 
may be somewhat diflicnlt in some localitips, and may, in some cases, be impracticable. 
It has been 8uggeHte<l that, since below this hard stratum of subsoil may be found a 
stratum of loose mind or gravel, it will be possible to remove the water from these spots 
by piercing holes through the hard subsoil to the loose stratum below, and making 
such openings about tlie center of each spot. Whether this will be practicable, coa 



FOREST-TREES OF THE UNITED STATES. 151 

be determined only by experiment. It wiU, however, bo wortli a trial. Should your 
correspondent undertake each experiment, it wonld afford ns great pleasaro to be 
advised of the resalt. If snccessfal, it will be of great valne to all planters in the vicinity 
of the month of the Mississippi. 

Oar failure to examine tbe samples of soils when, received was due to the fact that 
the^ were unaocompaoiod with a letter of instructions with regard to the locality from 
which they were taken, and the existing conditions. This is always indispensable in 
sach investigations. 

Other investigations are in progress, bat tbe results are incomplete, 
and mast consequently be reserved for a future report. 
Very respectfully, 

WM. MoMUBTBIE, 

Chemist 
Hon. Predk. Watts, 

Gommmioner, 



FOREST-TREES OF THE UNITED STATES. 

CENTENNIAL OOLLEOTION. 

Sir : The following list is a catalogue of the native and naturalized 
forest-trees of the United States which attain a height of 16 feet and 
upward. Descriptive notes of many species are appended. 

By an act of the last Congress an appropriation was made to enable 
the different Departments of the Government to participate in the Cen- 
tennial Exposition of 1876. In pursuance of this object, the Botanist of 
the Department of Agriculture undertook to make a collection to repre- 
sent the trees of the United States. The aim was to represent every 
important tree by botanical specimens of the leaves, flowers, and fruit, 
and also by sections of the trunk, showing the appearance of the bark 
and of the wood ; thus giving the completest possible view of every 
species. The great extent of our country and the immense variety of 
our arborescent vegetation made this of necessity a great undertaking. 
Well knowing that the chief value of such a collection would depend 
npon its scientific accuracy, arrangements were made to engage compe- 
tent persons in the different fields of labor. In some portions of tbe 
coantry, local botanist^ were employed to collect the trees of their par- 
ticular districts. But for the larger portion of the country it was neces* 
sary to employ traveling-agents, whose duty it was to explore a desig- 
nated section, ascertain the localities of the trees desired, collect the 
proper botanical specimens at the right season, and, having carefully 
noted the localities, to return at the end of the growing period and 
obtain sections of the trees. 

As collector for the Southern States, Mr. A. H. Curtiss, of Liberty, 
Va., a well-known botanist, was engaged. 

A large nnmber of the trees of the Middle States were obtained in 
the vicinity of Washington. Of these, thirty species were procured 
from a part of the General Washington estate at Mount Vernon, now. 
owned by Dr. E. P. Howland. 

The trees peculiar to the New England States were procured byJVIr. 
C. G. Pringle, of Charlotte, Vt. 

As collector for the Western States, Mr. John Wolf, of Canton, 111., 
was employed. In making the collection in Colorado, he was assisted 
by Mr. C. W. Derry, of Granite, Lake County, Colorado. 

The semi-tropical trees of Southern Florida were obtained by Dr. A. 



152 RKPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

W. Cbapmau, of Apalachicola, during a two months' cruise by schooner 
on the west coast, among the various keys and inlets, and far into the in- 
terior by the Galoosahatchee Eiver. Dr. Chapman is an old resident of 
Florida, author of the " Flora of the Southern States/' and better 
acquainted with the vegetation of that region than any other person. 

A portion of the trees of Texas were obtained by Dr. S. B. Buckley, 
of Austin, whose labors in developing the botany of that section are 
well known J and a portion were collected by Dr. F. G. Lindheimer, a 
veteran botanist, whose collections of Texas plants, made many years 
ago, enrich the principal herbaria of the country. 

In Utah, Mr. L. F. Ward, botanist of the survey of the Colorado 
Eiver by Messrs. Powell and Thompson, made the collection of the trees - 
of that region. 

The trees of the high sierras of California and Nevada were procured 
by Mr. J. G. Lemmon, of Sierra County, California. The magnificent 
conifers of that region are represented by large wedge-shaped sections 
of trees from 4 to 7 feet in diameter, the preparation of which cost a 
great amount of toil and expense. The immense trees had to be 
felled, and the desired sections removed by sawing and splitting with 
wedges until the portions were reduced to proper size. 

The trees of the Pacific slope in California were collected by Mr. G. 
E. Yasey, with valuable aid and assistance from Dr. A. Kellogg, of San 
Francisco, Dr. J. G. Cooper, and others. 

Dr. Edward Palmer made the collection for the southern portion of 
California, Arizona, and Southern Utah. 

Mr. A. J. Dufur, Centennial Commissioner for Oregon, collected the 
peculiar trees of that State. 

After the woods were received at Washington, they were taken to a 
mill and reduced to the uniform length of two feet ; then each section 
was divided by sawing longitudinally into two pieces, which were planed 
on the sawed surface, one arranged to show the outer or bark surface 
and the other to show the grain of the wood, its color, density, &c. 

The corresponding botanical specimens for each species are displayed 
in frames arranged in the immediate vicinity of the trees to which they 
belong. By this means, an intelligent view of the appearance and prop- 
erties of every species of the trees of the countrymay be obtained. 

Great difliculty was experienced in deciding upon the limitations of 
height and size which should characterize a tree. It is well known that 
certain plants which are only shrubs in some places become large trees 
in other places; sometimes the difference depending on climate and some- 
times on other circumstances. Thus, Magnolia glauca, or White Bay, 
grows and matures its flowers and fruit in some portions of Massachu- 
setts, where it attains only the size of a large shrub. It, however, 
steadily increases in size in situations farther south, until in G^rgia 
and Florida it attains the size of a large tree. In some places, the same 
plant appears as a shrub or a tree, under different circumstances, in 
closely contiguous localities. Dr. Chapman, who made the collection of 
the trees of South Florida, says: "I was much disappointed in the size 
'Ot most of the forest growth in that regioti. A peculiarity of these 
tropical trees is, that for miles they occur to you as mere shrubs, when 
at some other locality you find them lofty trees." As a general rule, I 
have not admitted into the collection any tree which does not, under 
favorable circumstances, attain a height of 20 feet and a diameter of 4 
inches. Yet, in a few cases, in order the more fully to illustrate a family,| 
a tree has been admitted which would fair below that standard. The 



F0RE8T-TREES OF THE UNITED STATES. 153 

accompauyiug catalogue enumerates about 400 sj^)ccies, the greater por- 
tion of which are represented by specimens in the collection. 

Some portions of the country have been so incompletely explored that 
oar knowledge of their vegetation is imperfect;. yet it is probable that 
this catalogue presents, with great accuracy, oar present knowledge of 
the trees of the United States. In two or threei instances only, foreign 
species have been admitted, because of their extensive naturalization in 
some sections. 

The two largest genera of trees are the oaks and the pines, of which 
we have about 30 species of each. Of coniferous trees, including the 
Pin£s, i'irs, Cedars, Larches, Cypress, Sequoias, &c., we have about 60 
species. The Eose family, including the Plums, Cherries, Thorns, &c., is 
represented by over 30 species. Of the order LeguminosWy or trees of the 
pod-beariog family, we have over 20, embracing the Locusts, Acacias, 
Bedbnds, Mesquits, &c. Of ericaceoos trees we have 8 species, includ- 
ing the Califomian Manzanita and Madrone trees, the Sorrel tree of the 
Southern States; and others. Of Maples we have 8; of Magnolias, 7; of 
Ash, 11; of Elms, G; of Walnuts and Hickorys, 13; of Poplars, 8; and 
of Birch, 6 species. 

The usual difficulty has been encountered of deciding as to the stand- 
ing of certain forms which some botanists regard as species and others 
as only varieties. In most well-marked cases, these are entered in the 
catalogue under distinct numbers, either as species or as varieties, as the 
evidences in the case seemed most convincing. * 

The range, or botanical region, of each species is indicated in a general 
manner, thus : Those trees which occur more or less extensively over the 
whole or the larger portion of the country east of the base of the Bocky 
Mountains or east of the Mississippi Biver arC) marked Eastern United 
States. This region is subdivided, by a line running eastward from the 
mouth of the Ohio Biver to the Atlantic, into two portions, one of which 
is called Northeastern United States, and the other Southeastern United 
States. Other localities are indicated as Southern States, ^w England 
States, Western States, Alleghany Mountains, &c. The western portion 
of the United States and Territories is marked in detached regions, as 
follows: Bocky Mountains of Colorado, or B«3cky Mountains of Colorado 
and Utah ; Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, Oregon, and Wash- 
ington Territory ; California; Southern California ; Arizona. The por- 
tion of the country adjoining the Mexican border is indicated by the 
locality Western Texas and westward. 

Certain portions of our country have not yet been sufficiently explored 
to determine accurately all the species of trees thereto belonging. This 
is the case with respect to the southern portion of Florida. Some spe- 
cies which at one time were thought to be indigenous in that region 
bave not been confirmed by any late investigations, and will probably 
liave to be erased from our. list. The same difficulty occurs with respect 
to some of the trees of the Bocky Mountains and the western coast, par- 
ticularly the Conifers and the Willows. 

In the short time allotted to making this collection, it has not been 
possible to obtain wood specimens of every species given in the catalogue. 
The number wanting, however, is but a small percentage of the whole. 

Among the good results growing out of this work, we may mention, 
first, that much information has been gained respecting species hitherto 
imperfectly known ; and, secondly, that four or five new species, or species 
before unknown to our fiora, have been obtained. These are mainly in 
South Florida, and include two exogens, viz, an Auona or Custard 



154 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

Apple, and a Chrysopbyllain or Star Apple; and one endogeu, a Palm 
of the genus Thrinax, 

I wish to record my smcere thanks to the Hon. F. Watts, Commissioner, 
and to Mr. William Saunders, Centennial Agent of the Department, for 
all pftssible assistance rendered in the prosecution of the work. 
Respectfully, 

> GEO. VASEY, 

Botanist. 
Hon. Fred. Watts, 

CommissioTier 



MAGNOLIAOE-E. 

No. 1. Magnolia grandiflora, L. — Evergreen Magnolia. — Sonthern States. 
A large and beautiful tree, with thick glossy evergreen leaves, and large 
white flowers, which are exceedingly fragrant. 

No. 2. Magnolia glauca, L. — Sweet Bay 5 White Bay. — Massachusetts 
southward. Northward, this is only a small tree or shrub ; but in the 
South it attains a large size, and the' leaves become evergreen. 

No. 3. Magnolia TJmhrella^ Lam. — Umbrella Tree. — Southern States ; 
Alleghany Mountains. ' 

No. 4. Magnolia acuminata^ L. — Cucumber Tree.— New York ; South 
and Wesf. This species has a greater range to the northward, where it 
sometimes attains a large size. 

No. 5. Magnolia cordata, Michx. — Yellow Otfcumber Tree. — Southern 
States. 

No. 6. Magnolia Fras^rly Walt. — Long-leaved Cncumber Tree. — South- 
ern States. 

No. 7. Magnolia macroi)liylla^ Michx. — Large-leaved Umbrella Tree. — 
Sonthern States. 

No. 8. LWiodendron tuUpifera, L. — ^Tulip Tree ; Yellow Poplar. — East- 
ern United States. One of the largest and most beautiful of North 
American trees. In the Western States, it attains an immense size. It 
is found principally in the rich bottomlands of the large rivers, where 
its wood is extensively employed for building purposes and for the man- 
ufacture of furniture. As an ornamental tree, it is hardly surpassed by 
any other ; its form being regular, its foliage peculiar and pleasing, and 
its abundant flowers, though not highly colore<l, are yet very beautiful, 

Anqnace^. 

No. 9. Anofia, — Custard Apple. — Southern Florida. Discovered by 
Dr. Chapman in South Florida. It grows 15 to 20 feet hipjh. The fruit 
is small and eatable when fully ripe. The species is undetermined. 

No. 10. Asiynina triloba^ Dunal. — Papaw. — From Pennsylvania south- 
ward. A small tree, very common in the Southern States, less freqnent 
at the North. It produces an oblong plilpy fruit about 4 inches long, 
which when ripe has a rich luscious taste. 

CAPPABlDACEiE. 

No. 11. Capparis Jamaicensis, Jacq. — Caper Tree. — South Florida. A 
shrub or small tree of South Florida, also growing in the West Indies. 
The true capers of commerce are the fruit of the Old World species. 



POREST-TEEES OP THE UNITED STATES. 155 

OANELLACEiE. 

No. 12. Canellaalha^ Swartz. — White Wood; Wild CiDnamon. — South 
Florida. A small tree in South Florida. In the West Indies, it is 
abundant, and called Wild Cinnamon and White Wood. The bark is 
aromatic and tonic, and is much employed in medicine. 

TAMAIHSCINEiE. 

No. 13. Fottquiera ^lendens, Eug. — Western Texas and Arizona. 
Grows in Western Texas, and thence westward to Southern Oalifoi^pia. 
In our borders, it is usually only a shrub j but in Mexico it grows 20 to 
30 feet high, and on account of its spiny branches is used for hedges 
and fences. 

GUTTIFERJE. 

No. 14. Clasiaflava. — South Florida. A West Indian tree, said to 
have been found in Florida, but not recently observed. 

. TBBNSTBOMIAOE-aS. 

No. 15. Gordonia La»ianthu8, L. — ^Loblolly Bay. — Southern States. A 
tree 30 to 50 feet high, growing in swamps near the sea-coast from North 
Carolina to Florida and Louisiana. The leaves are evergreen ; the flowers 
showy white, and sweet-seented. The bark is much employed in tan- 
ning, as a substitute for oak-bark. 

No. 16. Oordonia pubescenSj VH. — Mountain Bay. — Southern States. 
A small tree rarely over 30 feet high, found in Georgia and Florida, and 
quite rare. It,has been introduced into cultivation, and is hardy as far 
north as Philadelphia. When in bloom, it is beautiful, and it flowers 
continuously for two or three months. 

TiLIACEiE. 

The Tilias in Europe are called Lime trees, or Linn. Our species are 
commonly called Basswood. They are large trees, and have a wide 
range, being found probably in every State east of the Rocky Mountains. 
It is, however, not abundant, except in some localities. The wood is 
white and soft, and is employed to some extent in the manufacture of 
furniture, &c. 

No. 17. Tilia Americana^ L. — Basswood ; Linden. Eastern United 
States. 

No. 18. TUia heterophylla, Vent.— White Basswood. Eastern United 
States. 

No. 10. Tilia pnhescens, Ait. — W^hite basswood. Eastern United 
States. 

Zygophyllace^. 

No. 20. Chiaiacum sanctum^ L. — Lignum vitoe. — South Florida. A 
small tree, quite rare in South Florida, but common in the West Indies. 
It is very similar to, and has the same properties as the G. offieiriale of 
the West Indies, which furnishes the gum resin called guaiacum, which 
is a common stimulative aromatic medicine. The wood is much heavier 
than water. 



156 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

Zai^thoxylace^. 

No. 21. Zanthoxylum Americanum jMWl. — ^Prickly Ash; TootbacbeTree. 
— Northeastern United States. A sbrnb or small tree. Tlie bark is 
very hot and aromatic, and is somewhat used medicinally. 

No. 22. Zanthoxylum Carolinianum^ Lam. — Southern Prickly Ash. — 
Southern States. A small tree found from South Carolina to Florida 
and westward. The bark is aromatic and tonic. The young stems are 
spiny, and the old ones more or less covered with tubercles, which have 
developed from the spines. 

No. 23. Zanthoxylum Floridanunu Nutt — Satin Wood. — South Florida. 

No. 24. Zanthoxylum Pterota, H. B. K. — False Iron Wood ; Yellow 
Wood. — ^The Gulf States. A small shrubby tree occurring from Florida 
to Texas. The wood is yellow and close-grained. 

No. 25. Ptelea trifoliata^ L. — ^Hop-tree. — Eastern United States. This 
is seldom more than a tall shrub. The fruit, a wafer-like seed, grows in 
clusters, is a bitter tonic, and has been used as a substitute for hops. 

No. 26. Ptelea angtistifoUaj Benth. — ^Narrower-leaved than the preced- 
ing. — Rocky Mountains; Texas to California.. 

SlMARXTBIAOE^. 

No. 27. Simaruba glauca^ DO. — Quassia j Bitter- wood. — South Flor- 
ida. Found in South Florida by Dr. Blodgett. It occurs in the West 
Indies with another species, the Simaruba amara^ the bark of which is 
medicinal, and possesses the same properties as quassia. 

BUBSERACEwS:. 

No. 28. Bursera gummiferaj Jacq. — ^W^est India Birch; Gummo 
Limbo. — South Florida. The largest of South Florida ti'ees, abounding 
in gum. 

No. 29. AmyrisFloridana^^Mti. — Torch Wood. — South Florida. Mostly 
a shrub, but becoming a small evergreen and elegant tree. 

OLAOINEiE. 

No. 30. Ximenia Ame7*icaiia<, L. — Hog Plum. — South Florida. Mostly 
shrubby, but sometimes 20 feet high. It bears a drupe the size of a 
plum, which is yellow and pleasant-tasted. 

Meliace^. 

No. 31. Melia Azederach, L. — Pride of India; Bread Tree. — ^Natural- 
ized in Southern States. A native of Persia, but quite freely natural- 
ized in some parts of the South. It is there one of the commonest 
ornamental trees. The wood is of a reddish color, solid, durable, and 
taking a beautiful finish. 

Ilicike^. 

No. 32. Ilex opacaj, Ait.— Evergreen Holly. — Southern States. In fa- 
vorable localities, this tree attains a pretty large size, frequently 40 feet 
high, and 12 to 15 inches diameter. The wood is very heavy, compact, 
and fine-grained. It is employed in some parts of cabinet-work. It 
very closely resembles the European Holly. 

No. 33. Ilex Dahooii^ Walt. — Dahoon Holly. — Southern States. 

No. 34 IIcj: deeidtia, Walt. — Deciduous Holly. — Southern States. 

No. 35. Ilex monticolaj Gr. — Holly. — Southern States. 






b'05est-trees of the united states. 157 

Cblasteine^. 

Ni). 36. tkhcefferea frutesceiiSy Jacq. — Crab- wood ; False Box.— South 
Florida. A small tree of South Florida ; the wood is close and fine- 
gi-aiued, and is said to be exported from the West Indies as a kind of 
box- wood. 

No. 37. Euonymus occidentalism Nutt. — California Spindle Tree. — Oali- 

fornia« 

No. 38. EuonpnuB atropnrpureiiSj Jacq. — Waahoo. — Southern and 
Western States. 

Ehamnaoe^. 

Ko. 39. Frangula CaroUniana^ Gr. — Alder Buckthorn. — Virginia ana 
southward. 

No. 40. Frangula PursUana^ DC. — Oregon Buckthorn. — Western 
coast 

No. 41. Frangula • Oalifornica^ Gr. — California Coffee-tree. — ^Westem 
coast. This much resembles the JP. Garoliniana. In California, the ber- 
ries of this species have been employed to some extent as a substitute 
for coffee. Some persons recommend it; others have been made sick 
by its use. • 

No. 42. Ceanothus thyrsiftoriis, Esch. — California Lilac. — Western 
coast. One of the most showy shrubs or small trees of California. 

No. 43. Ceanothus divarkatus, Nutt. — California. 

No. 44. ZizyphtLS ohtusiflorusy Gr. — Texas Jujube- tree. — Texas and 
westward. 

No. 45. Scutiaferreaj Brong. — South Florida.* 

SAPINDACE-aS. 

No. 46. JBsculus glabra, Willd. — Ohio Buckeye. — ^Tennessee and West- 
ern States. This tree attains, in favorable situations, 20 to 30 feet 
height, and is much in use as an ornamental tree. It is not found wild 
east of the Alleghany Mountains; its favorable locality being the banks 
of the western rivers, in Ohio, Illinois, and Kentucky. The wood is 
hght, soft, and useless. The nuts are said to be poisonous to cattle 
eating them. 

No. 47. JEsculus flava, Ait-^S weet Buckeye. — Southern States. This 
tree prevails more to the southward than the Ohio Buckeye. It is 
abundant in the mountainous districts of North and South Carolina and 
Georgia. In favorable situations, it frequently attains a height of 50 to 
60 feet,' and the trunk a diameter of 2 t<> 3 feet. The flowers are of a 
light agreeable yellow and quite ornamental. The wood is soft and 
perishable. 

No. 48. JEJsculus Favia, L. — Red Buckeye. — Southern States. This 
species has nearly the same range as the preceding, but is usually only 
a shrub of 8 or 10 feet height^ sometimes, however, becoming a smell 
tree. 

No. 49. JEsctilus Galifornica, Nutt. — California Buckeye. — California. 
This is the only buckeye of the Pacific coast. It forms a low, spread- 
ing, bushy tree from 15 to 20 feet high. 

No. 60. Ungnadia speciosa, Endl. — Spanish Buckeye. — Texas and west- 
ward. This is a large shrub or small tree, a native of Texas and New 
Mexico. The chestnut-like fruits have an agreeable, swe6t taste, but 
are strongly emetic. The foliage resembles that of the hickory, {Carya.) 

No. 61. 8apindu8 marginatus^ Willd. — Soap Berry. — Southern States. 
This tree varies from 20 to 40 feet in height. It occurs along the coast 



158 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

in Georgia aud Florida, also in Arkansas and Texas. The berries are 
smaller than those of the next species, but, like that, the black hard nnts 
of the berries are sometimes strnng for beads and crosses. 

No. 52. Sapindus Saponaria, L. — White Wood. — South Florida. This 
species was found by Dr. Chapman in South Florida. In the West In- 
dies, the berries and the roots are used as a substitute for soap. The 
berries are also used to intoxicate fish. 

No. 53. Rypelate paniculataj Don. — Madeira Wood. — South Florida. 
A small tree found in South Florida. The wood is very like mahogaoy, 
and is highly valued. 

No. ."34. Acer sacchariyuim, Wang. — Sugar Maple ; Hard Maple. — East- 
gern United States. The well-known Sugar Maple, from the sap of which 
in the Northern States and in Canada large quantities of sugar and sirnp 
are made annually. It is one of the noblest of American trees, both for 
the value of its wood and the beauty of its form and foliage. It is much 
employed as an ornamental tree. 

No. 65. Acer saccharinnmj Wang., vfir. nigrum^ Gr. — Black Sugar 
Maple. — Eastern United States. This variety differs' little from the 
common form elcept in a darker wood. 

No. 56. Acer dasct/carpiim, Bhrh. — Silver-leaf Maple. — Eastern United 
States. One of the most beautiful of maples; much used as a shade- 
tree on account of its rapid growth and beautiful foliage. 

No. 57. Acer ruhrum^ L. — Red Maple. — Eastern United States. More 
compact in form and less rapid in growth than the preceding, but, like 
it, a favorite for street-planting and ornament. 

No. ^%. Acer Femisylvfinicum^ L. — Striped-bark Maple. — Northeastern 
United States. A small tree, the young bark with longitudinal stripes 
of green and black. Rare and little known outside of the Northeastern 
States. 

No. 59. Acer macrophylltim^ Pursh. — Oregon Maple. — California and 
Oregon. This occurs in the mountainous districts of California and 
Oregon. In Oregon, it attains a large size, and the wood abounds in that 
peculiarity of grain which is called Bird's-eye and Curled Maple. For 
cabinet purposes, it is thought to be equal to mahogany. 

No. 60. Acer eircinatum, Pursh. — ^Viue Maple. — Oregon and Washing- 
ton Territory. This species has a low and frequently reclining or pros- 
trate trunk, which sends forth branches, at first upright, then bending 
down to the ground, and forming almost impenetrable thickets. 

No. 61. Acer grandidentatum^'^utL — Great-toothed Maple. — California 
and Oregon. A small tree or shrub of the Rocky Mountains. 

No. 02. Xegundo aceroides, Moench. — Box Elder — Eastern • United 
States. This is a fine ornamental tree, of rapid growth, not commonly 
growing more than 20 to 30 feet high It is rare east of the Allegha- 
nies, but found along all the rivers of the West, reaching into Kansas, 
Missouri, aud Nebraska, aud even northward into Minnesota and the 
British possessions. The sap contains a large amount of sugar. The 
wood is fine and close-grained, and has been used in cabinet-work. 

!^o. (}o, Ndgundo Califormca^ T. & G. — California Box Eider. — Cali- 
fornia. This si)ccies is confined to the Pacific coast. It does not seem 
to differ greatly from the preceding species. 

No. 04. fStaphyleatrifoliata^ L. — Bladder Tree. — Easteni United States. 
A large shrub or small tree 10 to 15 feet high, with trifoliate leaves and 
peculiar 3-laljed bladdery pods. 

Anacaediace^. 

No. 05. Rhus fyphina, L.— Staghorn Sumac. — Eastern United States. 
The Sumacs are large shrubs or small trees mostly with pinnate leaves. 



FOBEST-TREES OF THE UNITED STATES. 159 

The leaves and young twigs are employed in tanning, and' are thought 
to be equal in strength to those of the Sicilian Sumac. 

No. 66, Rhus glabra^ L. — Smooth Sumac. — Eastern United States. 

No. 67. Rhus microphyllaj Eng. — SmalMeaved Sumac. — Texas and 
Southwest. • 

No. 68. Rhtis copallinaj L. — Dwarf Sumac. — Eastern United States. 

No. 69. Rhus Meiopium^ L. — Coral Sumac. — South Florida. This 
grows in South Florida, where it attains a height of 20 to 30 feet. It is 
-very poisonous. In the West Indies, it is called Mountain Manchineel 
and Burnwood. 

No. 70. Rhm venenata, DC. — Poison Sumac. — Eastern United States. 

No. 71. Rhus integrifolia^l^utt. — One-leaved Sumac. — South California. 
This species and the succeeding do not have pinnate leaves. They are 
found in Southern California. The red berries of this speciey are used 
by the Indians to make a cooling acid drink. 

No. 72. Rhus Laurina, Nutt. — Laurel Sumac. — South California. A 
low spreading tree, tuuch branched and very leafy, and exhaling to a 
considerable distance an aromatic odor. The flowers are somewhat 
showy, and the plant would be fine in cultivation. 

No. 73. Pistacia Mexicana, H. B. K. — Mexican Pistacia-treo. — ^Texas. 

No. 74. Schinus molle, L. — Pepper Tree. — Southwestern United States. 
Cultivated as an ornamental tree in California and in Mexico. It is prob-. 
ably introduced. The berries have the taste of black pepper. 

VlTAOB^. 

No. 75. Vitis cestivalisj Michx. — Summer Grape. — Eastern United 
States. 

No. 76. Vitis cordifoUaj Michx. — Winter or Frost Grape. — ^Eastern 
United States. 

LEGUMINOS-aE. 

No. 77. RobiniaPseudocaeiajJj. — ^Common Locust. — Pennsylvania and 
southward. Hardly found north of the fortieth degree of latitude ex- 
cept in cultivation. It is chiefly found in the AUeghanies and the mount- 
ainous parts of Kentucky and Tennessee. It is a beautiful tree, attain- 
ing a height of 50 feet and upward. The wood is hard, compact, and 
very durable, much used in sbip-buildin^. 

No. 78. Robinia vi^cosa. Vent. — Clammy Locust. — Virginia and south- 
ward. A smaller tree than the preceding, and much more rare, being 
confined to the mountains of Georgia and North Carolina. 

No. 79. RoMjiia Neo-Mexicana, Gray. — ^New Mexican LocuHt. — IS'ew 
Mexico and Arizona. A small tree, rarely exceeding 20 feet. Very 
thorny. Grows in stony ravines at the foot of mountains in New Mex- 
ico and Arizona. 

No. 80. Olneya tesota^ Gray. — ^Palo de Hierro. — ^New Mexico and Ari- 
zona. 

No. 81. Piscidia Erythrina, L. — Jamaica Dogwood. — South Florida. 
A tolerably large tree of South Florida ; also grows in the West Indies. 
Its blossoms resemble those of the Locust. The wood is heavy, coarse- 
grained, and durable. 

No. 82. Cladrastris tinctoriaj Eaf. — ^Yellow Wood. — Tennessee and. 
Kentucky. This is one of the handsomest flowering-trees of the Locust 
kind. It grows chiefly in the mountainous regions of Kentucky and 
Tennessee. The wood is yellow, and has been used in domestic dyeing. 



160 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

The tree rarely exceeds 40 feet in height and 1 foot in diameter. It is 
well worthy of cultivation. 

No. 83. iSophora affinis^ T. & G.— Texas and Southwest. 

No. 84:. SopJiora speciosaj Benth. — ^Texas and Southwest. Our two 
Sophoras are small trees of Texas and New Mexico, seldom over 6 inches 
in diameter. They produce an abundance of showy flowers very early 
in the season. The Sophora speciosa has evergreen leaves, and beautiful 
red beans, which are said to be poisonous. 

No. 85. Gijmnocladiis Canadensis^ Lam. — Kentucky Ooffee-tree. — ^East- 
ern United States. A tall, large, and handsome tree, rare in Western 
New York, Pennsylvania, and the States north of the Ohio River; more 
common in Kentucky and southwestward. The wood is very compact 
and close-fjraincd, and valuable for cabinet-work. The large beans of 
the pods have been used for coffee. 

No. S6. Oleditschia triacanthos^ L.— Honey Locust. — Eastern United 
States. This is a large and handsome tree ; the trunk and branches 
generally Ijeset with long and formidable spines, on which account it has 
been employed as a hedge-plant. The long pods contain a sweetish pulp, 
and have been used in fermenting a kind of beer, but are of no practical 
value. TIjc wood is heav^', and affords excellent fuel, but is not consid- 
ered durable as a timber. The tree is rare in the Atlantic States, but 
rather coromon west of the Alleghani^s,in Tennessee, Kentucky, and the 
tributaries of the Ohio and Mississippi. 

No. 87. Gleditschia monospermay Walt. — ^Water Locust. — Illinois and 
southward. This is a smaller tree than the preceding, growing in swamps 
iii the Southern States and in the vicinity of the Ohio Eiver. The pods 
are short, roundish, and only one-seeded. The tree is thorny, like the 
Honey Locust. 

No. 88. CercidiumfloridumyBenth. — Green-bark. — Western Texas and 
Arizona. This is the Palo Verdi of the Mexicans and the Green-barked 
Acacia of American travelers. The bark is smooth and green on the 
young trees. It is a small, wide-spreading tree, with many branches, 
rarely seen a foot through, and 20 to 30 feet high. 

No. 89. Parkinsonia aculeata^ L. — Jerusalem Thorn. — ^Western Texas 
and Arizona. Mostly a shrub ; quite ornamental, and frequent in culti- 
vation in the region bordering^on Mexico. 

No. 90. ParJcinsonia miorqpJiyllay Torr. — ^Western Texas and Arizona. 

No. 91. Cercis Canadensis j L.— Kedbud or Judas Tree. — ^Eastern Uni- 
ted States. The Eedbuds are small trees; very ornamental. This spe- 
cies is frequent east of the Mississippi. The next is found principally 
on the Pacific coast. 

No. 92. CJercis occidentalism Torr. — ^Western Bedbud. — Western United 
States. 

No. 93. Prosapis glandulosa, T. & G. — Mesquit. — ^Texas to California. 
A scrubby, small tree, seldoni more than 25 to 30 feet high 5 sometimes 
constituting extensive forests. It produces an abundance of bean-like 
pods, which contain a sweet pulp. Both beans and pulp are eaten by 
Indians and often by whites, but they are used chiefly as tbod for horses, 
which eat them with avidity. The wood is very hard and durable, dark 
brown, and resembles mahogany. Fences made of this timber are very 
durable. The wounded bark in spring exudies a gum of the same quality 
as gum arabic. 

No. 94. Stromhocarpus pvAescefiSj Gr. — Sorew-bean. — ^Texas and west- 
ward. This tree is very similar to the preceding, but of smaller size. 
The pods are two to three inches long, and twisted like a screw. They 



FOREST-TEEES OP THE UNITED STATES. . ^^^ 

are eateu by the Colorado Indians, powdered to a coarse meal, and made 
into a kind of bread. They ai:e also good food for horses. 

'So. 95. Leuccena retma^ Gr. — ^Texas and westward. 

No. 96. Acacia Famesianay Willd.^Texas and westward. 

No. 97. Piihecoldhium Unguis-Catiy Benth. — Oat's-claw. — South Flor- 
ida. In Soath Florida, mostly a shrab, rarely a small tree. The bark 
has medicinal properties. 

No. 98. Prunus Americana^ Marsh. — Wild Yellow or Eed Plum. — East 
ern United States. This is the common wild plum of the country east 
of the Eocky Mountains, from Mississippi to Minnesota. In the valley 
of the Mississippi, and particularly southwestward, the two next named 
species also occur. 

No. 99, Prunus rivularis, Scheele. — Wild Plum. — Mississippi Valley 
and westward. 

No. 100. Prunus Chicasa, Michx. — Chickasaw Plum. — Southeastern 
United States. 

No. 101. Prunus umbellatay Ell. — Small Wild Plum. — South Carolina 
and southward. A small purple or black plum, sour and bitter, growing 
from South Carolina to Florida. 

No. 102. Prunus PennsylvanicayJj. — ^Wild Eed Cherry. — ^Eastern United 
States. A small tree, or often a shrub, with sour, unpleasant fruit. 

No. 103. Prunus serotina,'EhTh, — Wild Black Cherry. — ^Eastern United 
States. A fine, large tfee, of wide range, frequent in the Northern and 
Western States, and along the Alleghany Mountains in the Southern 
States. The wood is compact, fine-grained, and highly esteemed for 
cabinet-work. The fruit is small, rather sweet and pleasant when fully 
ripe. 

No. 104. Prunus Virginiana, L. — Choke-cherry. — Eastern United 
States. 

No. 105. Prunus CaroUnianay Ait. — Mock Orange. — North Carolina 
and southward. A small tree with evergreen leaves, growing from North 
Carolina to Florida and in the Gulf States. It closely resembles the 
Cherry Laurel of Europe. It is a beautiful tree for cultivation, but prob- 
ably would not bear a northern climate. 

No. 106. Prunus dcniissaj Walp. — ^Eocky Mountain Choke-cherry. — 
Kocky Mountains and California. 

No. 107. Prunus Andersoniiy Gr. — Desert Plum. — California and Ne- 
vada. 

No. 108. Prunu^s ilicifoUa^ Nutt. — Holly-leaved Cherry. — California. 

No. 109. Prunus mollis^ Doug. — Oregon. This is the principal wild 
cherry of Oregon and the northwestern coast. It grows to the height 
of 20 to 30 feet. The fruit is astringent and unpleasant. 

No. IJO. KuttalUa cerasiformisj T. & G. — California. 

No. 111. Adenostoma s^arsiflora^ Torr. — Chimisell. — California. 

No. 112. Cercocarpus ledifoliusy Nutt. — ^Mountain Mahogany. — Eocky 
Mountains. A low, spreading tree, not usually over 10 to 15 feet high, 
but sometimes 40 feet high, and 2 J feet thick. The leaves are evergreen j 
the wood is a dark red, like mahogany, extremely compact and heavy./ 
It is frequent on the mountains of Utah, Nevada, and California. 

No. 113. Cercocarpus parvi/olius J Nutt. — Small Mountain Mahogany. — 
California. A much smaller tree or shrub than the preceding j the wood 
quite similar. 

No. 114, Pyrus coronariay L. — American Crab Ax)plc. — Eastern United 
States. The common wild crab apple of the United States, growing in 
glades an(J frequently forming extensive thickets. The fruit is variable, 

11 A 



162 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

but seldom palatable or serviceable. It is used, however, in ue\f por- 
tions of tbe country for preserves or for making cider. 

No. 115. Pyrus angvMifolia^ Ait. — Narrow-leavetl Crab. — ^Pennsylva- 
nia southward and westward. Perhaps only a variety of the preceding, 
with narrower leaves and rather smaller fruit. 

No. 116. Pyrus Americana^ DO.— American Mountain Ash. — ^Noi'th- 
eastern United States. A small tree growing in swamps and mountain 
woods, sparingly in the AUeghany Mountains, most common in New 
England and northward. It is frequently seen in cultivation, and much 
resembles the European Mountain Ash. The clusters* of bright-red 
berries are very ornan;iental, and remain on the tree until winter. 

No. 117. Pyrus rivulariSy Doug. — Oregon Crab Apple. — Oregon and 
Bocky Mountains. This is a small tree, ranging from California north- 
ward into Alaska. The firuit is of the size of a cherry, of an agreeable 
flavor, and used, particularly in Alaska, by the natives of the country 
for food. 

No. 118. Cratcegus spatJiulataj Michx.-r— Wild Thorn. — Virginia and 
southward. Of wild thorns, we have numerous species, most of which 
are smaU and shrubby. About twelve species and varieties of the country 
east of the Eocky Mountains may be counted as small trees, and two of 
the Eocky Mountains and western coast. 

No. 119. CratcdQUs optt/oKa, Michx. — ^Wild Thorn. — ^Virginia and south- 
ward. 

No. 120. Cratcegus cordata^ Ait. — ^Washington Thorn. — ^Virginia and 
southward. 

No. 121. Craicegus arborescenSy BIl. — ^Wild Thorn. — Southern States. 

No. 122. Cratcegus coccinea, L. — Scarlet-fruited Thorn. — Eastern Unit- 
ed States. 

No. 123. Cratcegus tomentosa^ L.~Black or Pear Thorn. — ^Eastern Unit- 
ed States. 

No. 124. Cratcegus toinentosa, L., var. punctataj Gr. — Black Thorn. — 
Eastern United States. 

No. 125. Cratcegus tomentosa^ L., var. mollis^ Gr. — Wild Thorn* — East- 
em United States. 

No. 126. Cratcegus Crus-galli, L. — Oockspur Thorn. — Eastern United 
States. 

No. 127. Crataegus cestivalis, T. & G. — Wild Hawthorn.— .Southern 
States. 

No. 128. Cratcegus flava^ Ait. — Summer Haw. — ^^^irginia and south- 
ward. 

No. 129. Crataegus glandulosayMichx, — Wild Hawthorn. — Virginia and 
southward. 

No. 130. Cratcegus rivulariSy Doug. — Western Hawthorn. — Eocky 
Mountains. 

No. 131. Crat<iegus sangxiinea^ Pallas. — Oregon Thorn. — Oregon. 

No. 132, Photinia arhutifoliay Lindl. — Laurel Hawthorn. — California. 
A beautiful evergreen shrub or small tree of the Pacific coast. It some- 
times attains the height of 20 or 25 feet and a thickness of trunk of 12 
or 15 inches. 

No. 133. Amel-anchier Ca^iadensiSy T. & G. — Service or June Berry. — 
Eastern United States. Usually a small tree, but sometimes becoming 
30 to 40 feet high, with a diameter of 10 or 12 inches. It is found mostly 
by the banks of mountain-streams. There are several varieties. 

No. 134. Amclanckier alnifoliu^yl^i\tt, — Service Berry. — Rocky Mount- 
ains. This is usually a shrub; in Oregon and Washington Territory, it 
is said to be a small tree, yielding abundance of berries, which ajo 
largely employed as food by the Indians. 



FOEEST-»TREES OF THE UNITED STATES. 163 

IlAMAMELACEJE. 

No. 135. Liquldamhar styraciftua^ L. — Sweet Gum or Bilistcrd. — Eastern 
United States. A largo and beautiful tree, with singular star-like leaves, 
somewhat reseinbling,tbe maple. It growsin tbe Atlantic States in ricb, 
low woods ; also in the Mississippi Valley, but not far north of the Ohio. 
The wood is compact and fine-grained, but not durable. It is a fluQ 
^ornamental tree, and deserving of cultivation. 

Ehizophobace^. 

No. 136. Rhizophara Mangle, L. — Eed Mangrove. — South Florida. 
Commonly a low, spreading tree in South Florida, also in Louisiana and 
on the coast of Texas. On the Thousand Islands, it attains a height of 
io to 60 feet. All the low keys along the coast are covered by this tree. 
It sends down roots from its germinating fruits, which take root upon 
reaching the earth, and thus forms an impenetrable thicket like tbe 
Banyan tree of India. 

COMBEBTAOEiE. 

No. 137. Conocarpus crcc^, Jacq. — White Button Wood. — ^lloridft. A 
small tree of the West Indies and South Florida. It furnishes almost 
tbe only fuel used in Sonth Florida, and extends north as far as Ancelote 
Keys. — (Dr. Chapman.) 

"So. 138. Laguncularia racemosa^ Ga^rt. — Black Button Wood. — South 
Florida. Found by Dr. Chapman in South Florida; a small tree 
eveiy where ; is a mere shrub, except among the Thoiisand Islands and 
north of Cape Sable, where it forms a large tree. 

MYETACB-aE, 

No. 139. Eugenia huxifolia^ Willd. — Iron Wood. — Sonth Florida. The 
Engenias are in Florida small trees, reaching 20 to 25 feet in height. 
They belong to the MyrUe family, and the flowers of some species are 
very fragrant. The wood is close-grained^ hard, and applicable to cabi« 
net-work. 

No. 140. Eugenia mmiticola, DC. — Iron Wood. — Sonch Florida. 

No. 141. Eugenia procera, Poir. — Iron Wood. — South Florida. 

No. 142. Eugenia dicliotoma, DC. — Stopper Wood. — South Florida. 

No. 143. Psiditim pyriformej L. — Guava. — South Florida. The Guava 
is a well-known fruit in the West Indies, where it is highly esteemed, and 
eaten either raw or formed into preserves. Dr. Chapman found the 
tree extensively naturalized at Tampa Bay, Florida. 

GACTAOEiE. 

No. 144. Cerexisgiganteusj Eng. — Tree Cactus. — Western Texas and Ari- 
zona. The specimens for this order are from Southern Arizona, where 
they are striking and characteristic features of the country. The Cereus 
giganteus grows 50 to GO feet in a straight column, and finally divides 
into several naked-looking branches. The wood of this and other large 
Cacti presents a singular net-work of fibers in distinct layers. 

No. 145. Cereus Thurheri, Eng.— Thurber's Cactus. — Western Texas 
and Arizona. 

No. 14G. Opuntia arhorcscens^ Eng. — ^Trcc Opuntia. — Western Tcxa^ 
find Arizona, 



164 report of the coaonssioner of agriculture. 

Abaliage^. 

Ko. 147. Aralia spinosa^ L. — Angelica Tree or Hercules's Club. — East- 
ern United States. 

GO^NACE^. 

• 

No. 148. Cornus florida^ L. — Flowering Dogwood. — Eastern United 
States. This is usually a small tree, butgoraetimes acquires a height of 
40 or 50 feet, and a diameter of trunk of IJ feet. It flowers in spring 
before the full development of the leaves, and then presents a beautifal 
appearance. It deserves to be more generally cultivated. 

No. 149. Cornus Nuttallii, And. — ^White Dogwood. — California ami 
Oregon. This species, which is confined to the Pacific coast, has rather 
larger flowers than the preceding, and is perhaps more showy. The 
wood of both is hard and valuable. Grows sometimes 50 or CO feet high. 

No. 150. Cornus pubescenSy Nutt. — Western Dogwood. — California and 
Oregon. This rarely becomes a small tree, 25 to 30 feet high, on the Pa- 
cific coast. We have five or six other species of dogwood which do not 
attain tree size. 

No. 151. Oarrya Fr€mo7itii, Torr. — Tassel-tree. — Oregon and Califor- 
nia. The Garryas are mostly shrubs, though under favorable circum- 
stances the Garrya elliptica gains a height of 20 to 30 feet. 

No. 152. Oarrya elliptica^ Lindl. — Satin Tassel-tree. — California. 

No. 163. Nyssa multiflora, Wang. — Black or Sour Gum ; Pepperidge. — 
Eastern United States. A middle-sized tree, growing from Massachu- 
setts to Illinois and southward. The fibers of the wood are so inter- 
woven that it is almost impossible to split it; hence it is used for wheel- 
hubs, rollers, and cylinders. — (Bryant.) It is quite ornamental in cul- 
tivation. 

No. 154. Nyssa aquatica, L. — ^Water Tupelo. — Southern States. This 
species grows in low wet ground, chiefly in the Southern States, but is 
found also in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. The wood is very tough, 
and has been used in the manufacture of wooden bowls, &c. 

No. 155. Nyssa unijtoray Walt. — ^Large Tupelo. — ^Virginia and south- 
ward. This is the largest tree of the genus. It is confined to the South- 
ern States, growing in swamps. It bears a dark-blue plum-like fruit 
nearly an inch long. Tlie wood is soft and extremely light. The roots, 
are also extremely light and soft, and have been used as a substitute for 
cork. The wood is only used to make bowls and trays. 

No. 156. Nyssa capitata, Walt. — Ogoechee Lime. — Southern United 
States. This species is found in swamps in Georgia and Florida and 
westward near the coast. It bears an oblong red plum-liko fruit, which 
is agreeably acid, and can be employed as^a substitute for the lemon. 
The tree is small and the wood without value. 

Capeifoliaceje. 

No. 157. Samhucus glaucaj Nutt. — California Elder. — California and 
Rocky Mountains. This species ot elder in California forms a low tree, 
sometimes 30 feet high, with a stem 2 feet in diameter. Indians and 
birds eat the berries. 

No. 158. Vibunium prmiifolium,"L, — Black Haw. — Eastern United 
States. The haws are small trees or large shrubs, with smooth glossy 
leaves and handsome flowers. They are worthy of cultivation. 

No. 159. Viburnum LentagOy L. — Sweet Viburnum or Shecpberry. — 
Eastern United States. 

No. 160. Viburnum obovaUtm, Walt. — Wild Haw. — ^Virginia and south- 
ward. 



FOREST-TREES OF THE UNITED STATES. 165 

BUBIAGEJS. 

No. 161. Ceylialantlius occidmtaliSj L., var. Californica. — ^Button-bush. 
— California. This is seldom more than a shrub; but in California it 
sometimes grows 25 to 30 feet high, with a trdnk 12 to 20 inches in diam- 
eter. 

No. 162. Ouettarda Blodgettiij Suttle. — South Florida. 

No. 163. Eandia climwfolia^ Chap. — Seven-years Apple. — South 
Florida. 

No. 164. Finckneya pubenSy Michx. — Georgia Bark. — South Carolina to 
Florida. A small tree in the lower districts of Georgia and in Florida, 
rarely exceeding the height of 25 feet and a diameter of inches. The 
bark is extremely bitter, and has been employed in the treatment of 
intermittent fevers. It is closely related botanically to the Cinchona, 
which furnishes the Peruvian bark of commerce. 

EEICACEiE. 

No. 165. Vacdiiium arhoreum^ Marshall. — ^Farkleberry. — ^Virginia and 
southward. A shrub or small tree sometimes 20 feet high, growing from 
Virginia and Southern Illinois southward. 

No. 166. Oxjjdendrum arboreunij DC. — Sourwood or Sorrel-tree. — 
Pennsylvania and southward. This tree grows chiefly in the mountain- 
ous districts of the Alleghanies from Pennsylvania southward. In fertile 
valleys, at the foot of the mountains, in North Carolina aud Tennessee, 
it attains a height of 50 feet. The common name sour-tree is derived 
from the acidity of its leaves. The flowers are white, and in spikes 5 
or 6 inches long. They are very ornamental, and begin to be produced 
when the tree is 5 or 6 feet high. 

No. 167. Kalmia laiifolia, L. — Calico-bush or Mountain Laurel. — ^Penn- 
sylvania and southward. A beautiful evergreen shrub, sometimes 
attaining the size of a small tiee. It is very ornamental and deserving 
of cultivation. 

No. 168. Rhododendron maximum, L. — Rose Bay or Great Laurel. — 
Pennsylvania and southward. Like the preceding, an evergreen shrub 
of great beauty. It has been much improved by cultivation. 

No. 169. Rhododendron Californicum^ Hook. — California Bhododen- 
dron. — Pacific coast. 

No. 170. Arbutus Menziesii, Pursh. — Madrone-tree. — California and 
Oregon. 

No. 171. Arbutus Texana. — This species or variety grows in Texas. It 
is mostly a large shrub ; sometimes, however, becoming 25 feet high 
and 8 or 10 inches in diameter. The leaves are smaller and the flowers 
less panicled than in the California species. The timber is said to be 
almost imperishable. 

No. 172. Arctostaphylos glauca^ Lindl. — Manzanita. — Oregon and Cali- 
fornia. There are several species of this genus on the western coast, 
mostly shrubs or small trees, which have been much confused. The 
specimen under this number is from Southern California, and has a large 
drupe-like fruit, with a consolidated nut. These berries are pleasant to 
the taste, aud much employed as food by the Indians of that region. 

No. 173. ArctostapkylostomentosajDovig, — ^Manzanita. — California and 
Eocky Mountains. 

No. 174. Arctosfa-phylos j^ungens^ H. B. K. — Manzanita. — California 
and Bocky Mountains. 



166 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

Styracaceje. 

No. 175. Halcsia diptcra^ L.— Snowdrop- tree. —Georgia aud Florida. 
The Snowdrop-trees are fouiul in the Boutliern States fix)m the Ohio 
River southward, near the Alleghanies, and on river-banks in Georgia 
aud Florida. They are usually smallish trees, but sometimes grow 40 
or 50 feet high, and 1^ to 2 feet in diameter. They are very desirable 
for ornamental trees, producing a profusion of white bell-shaped flowers, 
even when quite small. 

No. 17G. IlaUsia ietraptcra, L. — Silverbell-tree. — Virginia and South- 
ward. 

No. 177. StfDqjlocos tinctoria^ Uller. — Horse Sugar or Sweet-leaf. — ^^'ir- 
ginia and southward. A small tree with oblong evergreen leaves, and 
clustered racemes of squall white flowers. It grows in low, damp woods 
and pine barrens in North Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, and attains 
a height of 12 to 20 feet, with a diameter of 8 to 10 inches. It is one of 
the most beautiful trees of the southern forest.— (Nuttall.) 

Oyeillaceje. 

No. 178. Cyrilla racemifloray Walt. — Iron -wood. — ^North Carolina and 
southward. 

No. 179. CUftonia Ugtistrina^ Banks, — Buckwheat-tree. — Georgia aud 
southward. An elegant small tree, growing from 10 to 20 feet high, of 
about the same range as the preceding. It is evergreen, and exceed- 
ingly ornamental when in flower. After flowering, the tree presents a 
curious appearance, from the abundance of triangular winged capsules, 
resembling buckwheat, from which the tree receives its popular name, 

Ebekace^. 

No. 180. Diospyros Virginiaiia, L. — Persimmon. — Eastern United 
States. A well-known tree, most common in the Southern States, but 
growing as far north as New York. It grows from 30 to CO feet high, 
with a very hard flue-grained wood, which has been used for various 
purposes. It bears a plum-like fruit an inch or more in length, which 
when fully ripe is edible and palatable. 

No. 181. Diospyros Texana, Schul. — Black Persimmon. — ^Western 
Texas. This is called Sapote-pieto by the Mexicans and Black Persim- 
mon by the Americans. It is a shrub or middle-sized tree, often with a 
black, ebony-like core. The fruits are black, anil of the size of a cherry 
and larger, melting, and very sweet — (Dr. Lindheimer.) 

Sapotace^. 

No. 182. Sldcroxylon pallidum^ Spreuff. — Mastic— -South Florida. A 
middle-sized tree of South Florida called Mastic, probably from the 
production of a gum resembling mastic. 

No. 183. I>ipJiolis salicifoliay A. D C. — South Floridiu 

No. 184. Chrysophyllum micropUyllum^ Jacq. — Golden-leaf. — South 
Florida. A small tree of the West indies, found by Dr. Chapman last 
fall in South Florida. The leaves have a beautiful, golden, satin-like 
surface on the under side. 

No. 185. Mimusops Siebcri^ A. DO. — Naseberry. — South Florida., 
This is one of the trees called Naseberry in the West Indies. It is: 
common in South Florida, where it becomes a large tree. Dr. Ghapmau 



FOREST-TREES OF THE UNITED STATES. ,167 

invariably found the large trunks to be liollow. The fruit is delicious 
and highly flavored. 

No. 18G. Bumelia Irijcioidcs^ Gcert. — Iron-wood. — Kentucky and south- 
ward. The Bumelias are shrubs or small trees, of no special value. 

No. 187. Bumelia parvifolia, A. D G. — Iron- wood. — South Florida. 

Ko. 188. Bumelia lanuginosa, Pers. — Iron-wood. — Southern States. 

No. 189. Bumelia ienaxy Willd. — Iron- wood. — Southern States. 

No. 190. Bumelia reclinata, Vent. — Iron-wood. — Texas and westward. 

THEOPHBASTACE-ffi. 

No. 191, Jacquinia annularis^ L. — Currant-trees. — South Florida* A 
small tree of South Florida and the West Indies. The wood is curiously 
grained. 

MYRSINAOEiE. 

No. 192. Jfyrma FloridanafAj'DG. — South Florida. — Mostly a shrub, 
rarely a small tree. 

No. 193. Ardisia Piclceringii, T. & G. — South Florida. — ^Mostly a shrub, 
bat on the keys a small tree. It is an evergreen tree, with laurel-like 
leaves, and panicles of showy-white purple-tinged flowers. 

BlGNONIACE-aS. 

No. 194. Catalpa bignonioidesj Walt. — ^Catalpa. — Southern States* A 
tree well known in cultivation, and hardy as far north as latitude 41^. 
It is native in the Southern and Southwestern States and in Southern 
Illinois and Indiana. It attains a height of 50 or 60 feet, and a diameter 
of 1^ to 2 feet. The leaves are large, and the flowers showy, and when 
in bloom the tree is extremely ornamental. The wood is light, but of 
a fine texture, and capable of receiving a fine polish. It is said to be 
very durable. 

No. 105. Ghilop»i8 Ihiearis^ DC. — ^Texas and Arizona. Usually a 
sbrab, but sometimes attaining a height of 25 feet. It has long willow- 
like leaves, and is very ornamental when in flower. 

No. 196.' Tecoma radicanSn Juss. — Trumpet-vine. — Southern States. 
This beautiful woody vine sometimes acquires a woody trunk of a foot 
in diameter or more. 

VEEBENACE-aS. 

No. 197. Citharexylum viUosum, Jacq. — ^Fiddle-\rood. — South Florida. 
Barely a small tree, of no economic value.- 

No. 198. Avicennia toineniosa, Jacq. — Black Mangrove.— South Flor- 
ida. This and the next species are called Black Mangrove, observed by 
Dr. Chapman at Cedar Keys and the Thousand Islands* They are 
low evergreen trees, forming impenetrable thickets on the muddy shores 
of the sea. 

No. 199. Avicennia oblongifolia. Chap. — Black Mangrove. — South 
Florida. 

Ord^ BOBKAaiNACE^. 

No. 200. Cardia hullata^ L. — South Florida. 

No. 201. Ehretia Buerreria, L. — South Florida. 

No. 202. Ehretia elUptica. — Texas. — Mostly shrubby, but sometimes a 
tree 2 feet in diameter ; fruit an orange-yellow berry, of the size of a 
pea ; much liked by children and birds. Hio evergreen rough leaves 
are used to rub ani destroy eruptions of the skin. — (Dr. Lindheimer.) 



168 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

Oleaoejs. 

No. 203. Olea Americana^ L. — ^Devil-wood ; American Olive. — South- 
ern States. This is a small evergreen tree, with thick, leathery leaves, 
and small, white, fragrant flowers. It is related to the olive-tree of the 
eastern world, but its fruit has no value. It is impossible to split, and 
hence the vulgar name of Devil- wood. 

No. 204, Chionanihtis Virginwaj L. — Fringe-tree. — Middle and South- 
ern States. 

No.205. Fra^nus Americana^Jj. — White Ash. — Eastern United States. 
A large and valuable tree ranging over the eastern portion of the 
United States. The wood is tough and elastic, and much employed in 
various manufactures. It is a handsome and ornamental tree. 

No. 206. Fraxinus puhescenSj Lam. — ^Eed Ash. — Eastern United States. 
A smaller tree than the preceding, perhaps more common. The wood is 
said to be equally as valuable as that of the White Ash. 

No. 207. Fraxinm viridis, Michx. — Oreen Ash. — Western States. A 
middle-sized tree, of vigorous and rapid growth, and the wood has the 
same qualities as the preceding. 

No. 208. Fraxinus sambudfolm, Lam. — ^Black Ash. — Northern and 
Western States. A large tree, usually growing in moist soil, and hence 
often called Swamp Ash. The wood is more elastic than that of any 
other species. It splits easily into thin, narrow strips, which are used 
for making baskets and hoops for barrels. 

No. 209, Fraxinus quadrangulata^ Michx. — Blue Ash. — Western States. 
This species is not found in the Atlantic States. It is found from 
Ohio to Wisconsin and southward to Kentucky and Tennessee. It 
is a large tree, growing from 60 to 70 feet high, with a diameter of 
2 feet or more. The wood is quit« as valuable as that of the White 
Ash, and is said to be much more durable when exposed to the weather; 
hence its value for fence-rails, posts, &c. 

No. 210. Fraxinus plalycarpa, Michx. — Carolina Water Ash. — Southern 
States. This species grows in swamps or marshy banks of rivers. It is 
usually 25 or 30 feet high, but sometimes becomes a large tree. The 
wood is remarkably light and soft, and probably has no economic value. 

No. 211. Fraxinns Ciirtissij n. sp.? — Southern States. Mr. Curtiss 
found at Eufaula, Ala., a large ash with remarkably small fruit. This 
species is provisionally called F. Curtissi. It requires further investi- 
gation. 

No. 212. Fraxinus Oregfow^, Nutt. — Oregon Ash. — California and Ore- 
gon. The common ash of the Pacific coast. It grows 60 to 70 feet high. 
Is of equal value with the White Ash of the Eastern States. 

No. 213. Fraxinus dipetala, H. and A. — California Flowering Ash.— 
California and Oregon. 

No. 214. Fraximispistaciosfolia^ Torr. — Texas and westward. 

No. 215. Fraxinus anomalky Torr. — Single-leaf Ash. — Utah and Ari- 
zona. This ash is seldom more than a shrub 10 to 15 feet high, growing 
in ravines among the foot-hills of Southern Utah and Arizona. The 
leaves are simple, not pinnate, as in the other species. 

No. 210. Fraxinus coriacea, Watson. — Thick- leaved Ash. — Utah and 
Arizona. A smallish tree, with thick, leathery leaves, growing in South- 
ern Utah and Arizona. 

No. 217. Foresiiera acuminata^ Poir. — ^Southwestern States. — A large 
shrub or small tree, of no economic value. 

No. 218. Foresiiera ligustrinaj Poir. — Southern States. 



forest-trees op the united states. 169 

Nyctageniaceje. 

Xo. 219. Foisania oUusata, Swartz. — South Florida. A small tree of 
Florida and the West Indies. 

POLYGONACK^. 

No. 220. Coccoloha uvifera, Jacq. — Sea-side Grape. — South Florida. 
This and the following species are low and spreading trees, along the 
coast in Florida and the West Indies. It is remarkable for the grape- 
like clusters of pear-shaped purple berries, which have an agreeable 
subacid taste, and which are much employed. The wood is heavy, hard, 
and valuable for cabinet-work. 

1^0. 221. Coccoloha Fhridana^ Meisner. — Sea-side Grape. — South Flor- 
ida. 

Laubaoe^. 

No. 222. Persea CaroUnensis, N6es.^^Eed Bay. — Southern States. 
This species occurs from Southern Virginia to Florida and the G'ulf States. 
It is Ibund in the vicinity of swamps and swampy river-borders. In 
favorable situations, it grows to 50 or 60 feet high and 15 to 20 inches in 
diameter. The leaves are large, shining, and evergreen. The wood is 
of a beautiful rose-color, of a fine, compact grain, and finishes almost 
equal to mahogany. 

No. 223. Fersea Cateabyana, Chap. — Gatesby^s Bay. — South Florida. 

No. 224. Sassafras officinale^ N6es. — Sassafras. — ^Eastern United States. 
This tree is found over a large portion of the United States. It is usu- 
ally a small tree, but sometimes attains a large size. The wood is not 
very strong, but is fine-grained and durable. It is valuable for cabinet- 
work. The bark of the root has a spicy, aromatic taste, and has some 
reputation as a medicine. 

No. 225. Oreodaphne Californica, — California Myrtle. — California and 
Oregon. The California Laurel is a fine ornamental evergreen tree, grow- 
ing in open places from 50 to 60 feet high. In thick woods, it has been 
found shooting up to 100 or 120 feet. The leaves have a very pungent 
odor, which produces headache in some persons. The wood is very 
beautiful, and is used for fine cfibinet-work, 

ELEAGNAOEiE. 

♦No. 226. SJicpherdia argentea. — BuflFalo-berry. — Eocky Mountains. A 
large shrub or small tree, growing in thickets. on the banks of streams 
in the Rocky Mountain valleys. The scarlet berries have an agreeable 
taste, and are employed as food by the natives. 

EUPHORBIACE-ZE. 

No. 227. Hippomanc Mancinella, L. — Manchineel. — South Florida. 

No. 228. Stillingia sebifei^a^ Michx. — ^Tallow-tree. — Naturalized in the 
Southern States. The Tallow-tree is a native of China, but has become 
extensively naturalized in the East and West Indies, and also in sev- 
eral of the Southern States along the sea-coast. In its native country, 
its seeds and pods are bruised and then boiled, which causes a kind of 
tallow to rise to the surface. This tallow is much employed in making 
candles. 

No. 229. — Excoccaria Incidaj Swartz. — Poison-wood. — South Florida. 



170 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

1^0, 230. Drypetcs crocea, Poir. — A small tree of South Florida and the 
West Indies. The leaves are evergreen, and have muchthe flavor of tea. 
No. 231. Drypetcs glaxica^ Vahl. — South Florida. 

URTICACEiE. 

No. 232. Morxis ruhra^ L. — Eed Mulberry. — Eastern United States. 
The Red Mulberry is found throughout the greater part of the United 
States cast of the Mississippi, and also in some of the States west of 
that river. — (Bryant) It is commonly a smallish tree, sometimes, how- 
ever, attaining a large size. The berries are quite palatable, are eaten 
eagerly by birds, and also have a place in the markets as a second-rate 
fruit. ' The wood is strong, compact, and extremely durable. 

No. 233. Morns imrvi folia ^ Buck. — Small-leaved Mulberry. — Texas and 
westward. 

Ko. 234. Madura auraniiaca, Nutt. — Osage Orange. — Arkansas and 
Southwest. This tree, which is native in Arkansas and Texas, has been 
quitfe generally introduced over the country, chiefly from its extensive 
employment as a hedge-plant. The early French settlers called it Bois 
Warc^ or Bow-wood, from its use by the Indians for bows. The fruit is 
of the size aud color of a large orange, but is not edible. The wood is 
very hard, elastic, fine-grained, and durable. 

^0.235. Fious aiirea, Nutt. — Gum-tree: Wild Fig. — South Florida. 
There are many species of wild ^g in the West Indies, but this species 
of South Florida has not been identified with any of them. It is a large 
tree, full of milky juice, which forms a kind of India rubber, whence it 
is also called Gum-tree. The fruit is very small and insignificant. 

Ko. 230. Ficus pedunculata, Willd.— Wild Fig.— South Florida. This 
tree is also a native of the West Indies, and, like the Banyan of the 
West Indies, it sends downward aerial roots, which become fixed in the 
soil. The fruit is larger than the preceding, being the size of a large 
cherrv. 

3^0. 237, Ficus hrevifolia, Nutt.— Wild Fig.— South Florida. 

No. 238. Uhnus Americana^ L. — ^White Elm. — Ef)stern United States* 
One of our most common and valuable trees, very popular as a shade- 
tree on account of its graceful form. It is one of the largest of the 
deciduous trees of the United States, attaining sometimes the height of 
100 feet. The wood is employed for various purposes, but it is not con- 
sidered durable when exposed to the weather. 

No. 239. I7^WM«/ttZra, Michx. — Slippery Elm. — Eastern United States. 
This is usually a smaller tree than the White Elm. It is not as much 
esteemed as an ornamental tree. The wood, however, is said to be of 
better quality and more durable. The inner bark is very mucilaginous, 
and is in extensive use for medical and surgical purj)oses. 

No. 240. Ulmm racemosa^ Thomas. — Corky White Elm. — Northern 
States. This tree is limited to the northern portions of the United States, 
being found sparingly in New England, New York, and westward to 
northern Illinois and Wisconsin. It closely resembles the White Elm, 
but may be distinguished by the corky wings of the smaller branches, 
which cause them to look grotesque and rough. Dr. S. H. Wright, of 
Penn Yan, N. Y., says it grows as rapidly as the White Elm, and he 
thinks will become as large. He has seen some young trees over two feet 
in diameter. The wood is tougher and finer-grained than the White 
Elm. 

No. 241. UlmuB alata^ Michx.— Winged Elm. — Southern and Western 



t^OREST-TEEES OP THE tJNITED STATES. I7l 

States. This species does not grow in the Northern States except on 
the line of the Ohio River. It is a smallish tree, and has smaller leave^ 
than the other kinds. The branches have a broad and thin cork^' wing 
on Uie opposite sides. The wood is finer-grained and more compact 
tlian the White Elm. 

No. 242. Ulmus FloridnnUj Chap. — Florida Elm. — Florida. 

No. 243. Ulmns crass{foUa, Nntt — Thick-leaved Elin. — Texas and 
Southwest. 

No. 244. Flanera aquaticc^ Gmel. — Planer-tree, — Southern States. 
This tree is found in the Southern States and in Kentucjcv and Tennes- 
see. It is a tree of medium size, with foliage somewhat like that of the 
European Elm. It is not a common tree, and the wood is not known to 
be applied to any useful purpose. 

No. 245. Celtis occidentalism L, — Sugar or Hackberry. — Eastern United 
States. This tree is rare in the New England States, but rather common 
in the southern and western ones. There are several varieties, one of 
which is usually a low and straggling bush. In the Western States, it 
often becomes a lofty tree. It somewhat resembles the elm in foliage 
and the ash in bark. It produces a dryish kind of berry about the size 
of a pea. The wood is white, but is not considered durable. 

No. 24G. Celtis Mississippiensis, Bosc. — Mississippi Hackberry. — Mis- 
sissippi Valley. 

No- 247. Celtis reticulaia, Torr. — ^Net-leaved Hackberry. — Texas and 
Southwest. This is a western species, occuring in Texas and the Rocky 
Mountain region. It is a small tree, often a mere shrub. 

No. 248. Celtis pallida^ Torr. — Pale-leaved Hackberry. — Texas. 

Platanacbje. 

No. 249. PUxianus occidentalism L.— Sycamore ; Plane-tree. — Eastern 
United States. This is probably the largest deciduous tree in the United 
States. It occurs throughout the Eastern, Southern, and Western 
States, and extends beyond the Mississippi Eiver. In the rich bottom- 
lands of the western rivers, it sometimes attains the enormous circum- 
ference of 40 to 45 feet. It much resembles the Eutopean Plane-tree, 
and is thought to possess a richer foliage, and to afford a deeper shade. 
As a timber-tree it is of little value, as the wood is liable to warp, and 
decays early. 

No. 250. Pl<itunus raceniosa, Nutt. — California Sycamore. — California. 
This is the sycamore of the Pacilie coast, extending from Central Cali- 
fornia to Mexico. Although a large tree, it does not attain the size of 
the eastern species. The wood is said to be more valuable, receiving a 
good polish and being more durable. 

No. 251. Plaianus Wrigktianay S. W. — Wright's Sycamore. — ^Arizona 

JUGLANDACEJB, • 

No. 252. Juglans nigra^ L. — Black Walnut. — Eastern United States. 
This tree occurs in the Atlantic States, but attains its greatest perfection 
and abundance in the valleys of the Ohio and Mississippi. It has been 
so much in request for the timber that it is much less common than 
formerly. The wood is used for the inside finish of houses, for cabinet- 
work, for gun-stocks, and many other i)uri)oses. It produces a nut 
much like the English walnut, but of stronger oily flavor. They are 
greatly relished by many persons. 

No. 253. Juglans cineroay L. — Butternut; White Walnut. — ^Eastern 



172 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

United States. This is more limited in range than the preceding. In 
Pennsylvania, New York, and New England, it probably attains its 
greatest perfection. It is a smaller tree than the Black Walnut It is 
also found in the Western States. The wood is of a light-brown color, 
fine-grained, and easily worked. Although less valuable than the BLack 
Walnut, the wood is well adapted to many uses. The nuts are not as 
highly esteemed as those of the Black Walnut. 

No. 254. Juglans Californica, S. W. — California Walnut. — California. 
The California Walnut attains, in favorable situations, a height of 50 to 
75 feet, and a diameter of 2 to 3 feet. It does not seem to be abun- 
dant, and we know nothing respecting the value of its wood. It has 
recently been distinguished as a ditterent species from the walnut of 
Arizona and New Mexico. • 

No. 255. Juglans rupestrwy Eng. — Small Black Walnut. — Texas and 
Arizona. 

No. 25G. Cat-ya oUvmfomiis^ Nutt. — ^Pecan-nut. — Mississippi Valley. 
This tree grows in the valley of the Mississippi and its tributaries, on 
the Arkansas, the Missouri, the Illinois, the Wabash, and the Ohio, for 
some two hundred miles above its mouth. The wood is coarse-grained, 
heavy, and compact. It is a beautiful tree, with a straight and well- 
shaped trunk. The nut is well known in the markets, and is thought by 
some to be superior in flavor to any other nut known. 

No. 257, Carya alba, Nutt. — Shell-bark Hickory. — ^Eastern United 
States. This species becomes a lofty tree, 80 feet high, with a diameter 
sometimes of 2 feet. It is one of the most valuable of the hickories for 
timber and for fuel. It furnishes most of the hickory-nuts of commerce. 
They are pleasant-flavored and highly esteemed. On large trees, the 
bark shells ofl: in long narrow plates, whence the common name of the 
tree. The wood is heavy, elastic, and strong, and for handles of axes 
and agricultural implements, and many other uses, it is unequaled. 
There is little diflference in the quality and value of many of the different 
species of hickory. 

No. 258. Carya sulcata, Nutt. — Western Shell-bark. — ^Western States. 

No. 259. Carya tomentosa^ Nutt. — Mocker -Nut. — ^Eastern. United 
States. 

No. 2G0. Carya amara, Nutt. — Bitter-nut. — ^Eastern United States. 
This is a large tree, growing from 60 to 70 feet high. The timber is said 
to be iiiferior to the preceding species, and, the nuts are thin-shelled 
bitter, and worthless. 

No. 261. Carya porcina, Nutt. — Pig-nut Hickory. — Eastern United 
States. A large tree, with small pear-shaped fruit, the nuts bitterish 
and unpalatable. The wood is tough and valuable. 

No. 262. Carya mierocarpa, Nutt. — Small-fruited Hickory. — ^Eastern 
United States. 

No. 263. Carya myristicaformk, Michx.^— Nutmeg Hickory. — Southern 
States. This species ^-ows in swamps in the Southern States. The 
fruit resembles a nutmeg, whence the name of Nutmeg Hickory. It is 
somewhat like that of the Bitter-nut tree, but much thicker. 

No. 264. Carya aquatica, Nutt. — Swamp Hickory. — Southern States. 
A species growing in swamps in the Southern States, with astringent, 
bitter fruit, and brittle, worthless timber. 

CUPULIFER-ffiJ. 

• 

No. 265. Qucrem macrocarpa, Michx — Bur Oak Overcup Oak. — 
Western States This si)ecies is rare in the Eastern States, but com- 



FOREST-TREES OF THE UNITED STATES. 173 

mon in Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. It is a large tree, 
and when growing on low ground assumes a rounded and handsome 
form. It has very large acorns, which are usually deeply immersed in 
the cup; the border of the cup fringed with loose scales The wood is 
open and brittle as it occurs in the prairie country, but valuable for 
fuel. 

No. 2G6. Quercus alba^ L, — White Oak. — Eastern United States. This 
is one of the noblest, largest, and most useful oaks of this country. 
The wood is strong, compact, and durable, and is only second to that of 
the Live Oak. It is extensively employed in ship-building, in manu- 
I'acturiug, and for many purposes. 

JSo. 267. Quercus lyrata, Walt. — Southern Overcup Oak. — Southern 
States. This much resembles the Bur Oak, but is chiefly confined to 
the Southern States. 

No. 268. Quereus stellaia^ Wang. — Post Oak. — Eastern United States. 
This species grows mostly upon poor clay lands. It is a middle-sized 
tree ; the wood is yellowish, strong, fine-grained, and more durable than 
the White Oak. 

No. 269. Quereus hicolor^ Willd. — Swamp White Oak. — Eastern United 
States. 

No. 270. Qiwrcus Michau3>ii^ Nutt. — Michaux's Oak. — Southeastern 
United States. 

No. 271. Quei'em rrinusj L. — Chestnut Oak. — Eastern United States. 
Of this species there a/o several varieties. It is usually a large and lofty 
tree. Its timber is inferior to that of the White Oak in strength, but is 
still very valuable for many uses. 

No. 272. Quercus Frmus, L., var. nwnticolaj Michx. — Kock Chestnut 
Oak. — liJew England and Middle States. 

No. 273. Quercus Frinus, L., var. acuminata^ Michx. — ^Yellow Chestnut 
Oak. — [Northern and Western States. 

I«Jo. 274:. Quercus Fouglasiiy Hook; & Am. — Douglas's Oak. — IJocky 
Mountains and California. This and the next t^wo succeeding species 
are the California White Oaks, extending into Oregon and Columbia. 
They are probably of equal value with the eastern species. 

No. 275. Qiwrcus Garryana^ Hook. — Garry's Oak. — California and 
Oregon. 

No. 270. Quercus lobata^ N(ies. — California White Oak. — California. 

No. 277. Quercus undulata, Torr. — Eocky Mountain Oak.— rKocky 
Mountains. This is the common o«ak of the Kocky Mountains, usually 
small and scrubby, but sometimes forming a moderate- sized tree. It is 
very variable in the foliage. 

No. 278. Quercus deiisiflora, Hook. & Am. — California Tan-bark Oak. — 
California. This is an anomalous species of California, between an oak 
and a chestnut. In open ground, it is a beautiful, spreading, pyramidal 
tree, with a trunk sometimes 5 to 6 feet in diameter. Among the forest- 
trees, it rises to 100 feet or more in height. 

No. 270. Quercus agrifolia^ Nees. — California Field Oak, — California. 
This is commonly known in California as Evergreen Oak. It grows- 
usually in open grounds, with a wide, spreading, apple-tree-like top. It 
is usually a small tree, sometimes a juero shrub, and occasionally be- 
coming 40 or 50 feet high. 

No. 280. Quercus clirijsolepiSj Liebm. — Canon Live Oak. — California. 
An evergreen oak, growing in rocky caiions and on mountain-sides. It 
is sometimes shrubby; sometimes like the last, becoming 40 or 50 feet 
high. It furnishes the hardest oak-wood of the Pacific coast, and is 
used in making ox-bows, ax-haudles, &c. 



174 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

No. 281. Quercus ohlongi/olia^ Torr. — Oblong-leaved Oak. — Arizona and 
California. 

No. 283. Querctis Umoryi, Torr. — Emory's Oak. — Arizona. 

No. 283. Quercus hypoleuca^ Eng. — New Mexican Oak. — Arizona. 

No. 284. Quercus Durandii, Buckly. — Durand's Oak. — Texas. This 
species approaches the Post Oak in general characters. The leaves are 
variable, being sometimes lobed, and sometimes entire. 

No. 285. Quercm PheUos^ L. — Willow- Oak. — Southern States. This 
species is confined to the States bordering the Atlantic and the Gulf ; 
not, however, extending into the New England States. It is remarkable 
for its narrow, willow-shaped leaves. The wood is strong, but coarse- 
grained, and not durable. 

No. 286. Quercus virensj Aifc. — Live Oak. — Southern States. This is 
the famous Live Oak. It grows from Southern Virginia to Florida and 
westward in the vicinity of the sea-coast. The wood is more esteemed 
for ship-building than any other. It is evergreen, and is a large tree, 
with spreading branches. 

No. 287. Quercus dnerea^ Michx. — Upland Willow Oak. — Southern 
States. A small tree, growing in sandy pine-barrens from North Caro- 
lina to Florida. It is evergreen, with leaves like the Willow Oak, but 
thicker,. and downy on the under surface. 

No. 288. Quercm imhricaria^ Michx. — Shingle Oak. — Eastern United 
States. A middle-sized tree, reaching to 60 or 60 feet high, and with a 
diameter of 1^ to 2 feet. It grows principally, in open situations, from 
New Jersey to Illinois and southward. Its foliage is handsome, resem- 
bling that of the Laurel. The wood is coarsegrained, and not durable. 

No. 289. Quercus aquatica, Catesb. — Water Oak.— Southern States. 
A middle- sized tree, of the Southern States, growing on the borders of 
swamps. The leaves are perennial, of variable form, but always broadest 
at the upper portion and tapering to a point at the base. 

No. 290. Quercus laurifolia^ Michx. — Water Oak. — Southern States. 

No. 291. Quercus nigra^ L. — Black Jack. — Eastern United States. A 
small, scrubby tree, growing usually in iwor clay soil. It is found in 
New Jersey, Maryland, and southward, as also in some of the Western 
States. The wood furnishes a good fuel, but is too coarse-gi^ained and 
perishable for anj^ use in the arts. 

No. 202. Qiurcus falcata, Michx. — Spanish Oak. — Eastern United 
States. A large tree, attaining 80 feet or more in height, and sometimes 
4 feet in diameter. It has about the same range as the Black Jack, 
not being found in New England nor in the northern part of the West- 
ern States. The wood is not valuable except for fuel. 

No. 293. Quercus Cateshaeiy Michx, — Turkey Oak. — Southern States. 
A small tree, with foliage much like the preceding. It is found in 
Florida, Georgia, and North and South Carojina. The wood is good 
fuel, but of no value as timber. 

No. 294. Quercus rubra^ L. — Red Oak.-r-Eastern United States. This 
is one of the largest oaks of our country, and is diffused over all the 
eastern portion of the United States, but more especially to the north- 
ward. It is a beautiful tree, with reddish, coarse-grained wood, which 
is little used in the arts except for barrel staves. 

No. 295. Quercus coccineaj Wang. — Scarlet Oak. — Eastern Uuitexl 
States. The Scarlet and Quercitron Oaks do not differ much in their 
characters, and, indeed, are considered but as varieties of one species. 
They form large and handsome trees, and the bark furnishes a yellow 
dye which is used in the arts, 



FOEEST-TREES OP THE UNITED STATES. 175 

No. 206. Quercus tinctoria, Bart. — Quercitron Oak. — Eastern United 
States. 

So. 297. QuerciispahistriSy Ba Eoi. — Pin Oak. — Eastern United States. 
A rather smaller tree than the preceding. The leaves are small, smooth, 
of a pleasant green color, very similar to those of the Scarlet Oak. The 
wood is stronger and more darable than that species. It is chiefly 
limited to the Northern States. 

No. 298. Quercus Sanomensis, Benth — California Oak. — California. 
This species of California is nearly related to the Quercus rubra of the 
Eastern States. It grows in mountainous districts, and forms a pretty 
large tree. 

Ko. 299. Quercus WislizerviijjyO. — California Live Oak. — California. 
A smallish tree of California, with bright-green persistent leaves, some- 
times called Live Oak. 

No. 300. Qt&ercus dumosa^ Nutt. — ^Dwarf Oak.-rCalifomia. This is a 
common dwarf oak in Southern California. 

No. 301. Quercus ^eticulata^ H.B. K. — Dwarf Oak. — Southern' Arizona. 

No. 302. Castanea vesca^ L., var. Aniericanaj Gr. — American Chestnut — 
Bastem United States. One of the noblest trees of American forests. 
It occurs (rom Massachusetts to Michigan, and in the mountainous dis- 
tricts of Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Tennessee, but not on the prairie 
regions of the Western States. The wood is strong, elastic, and durable^ 
and is largely employed in the manufacture of furniture and for the 
inside finish of railroad-cars and steamboats. The nuts are very sweet 
and palatable, and always command a good price in the markets. 

No.303. Oasianeapumilay Michx. — Ghincapin. — Southern States. This 
may be called a dwarf chestnut, growing from New Jersey and Pennsyl- 
vania to Florida. Northward it is only a large shrub, but in South 
Carolina and Florida it becomes a tree of 30 to 40 feet high and 12 to 
16 inches diameter. The wood equals that of the chestnut, but the 
nuts, although generally eaten by children, are not comparable to those 
of the former. 

No. 304. Castanopsis ckrys&phylla, — California Chestnut. — California. 
A tree of Oregon and California, becoming 60 to 100 feet high and 2 to 
3 feet diameter. The bur is scarcely one-third as large as in the com- 
mon chestnut, with shorter prickles. The shell of the nut is almost as 
large as the filbert. 

No. 305. Castanopsis chrysophyllaj var. pumila. — California Chincapiu. 
— California. This is mostly a shrab growing on open mountain-sides, 
and is sometimes called California Chincapin. 

No. 306. Fagus ferruginea^ Ait. — Beech. — ^Eastern United States. The 
Beech is one of our loftiest trees, sometimes reaching the height of 100 
feet It grows from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. It is wanting in 
the prairie districts of the West. The wood is hard, fine-grained, and 
compact. It is largely used for shoe-lasts and handles of tools. It is 
also employed in the frame-work of buildings. The wood is in great 
repute^as fuel. The nuts have a delicious flavor, but are too small to 
make them of much economic importance. 

No. 307. Carpinns Americana, Michx. — Blue Beech. — Eastern United 
States. A small tree 15 to 20 feet high. The wood is white, compact, 
and fine-grained. 

No. 308. Ostrya Yirginica, Willd. — Hop Hornbeam ; Iron wood. — East- 
ern United States. The Irouwood is a small tree, but sometimes grows 
to a height of 40 feet. The wood is heavy and fine-grained, and is used 
for mallets, wedges, levers, &c. ' Its growth is very slow. 

No. 309. Corylus rostrata, var. Oalifomica. — California. 



176 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

Myricace^. 

No. 310. Myrica cerifera, L. — ^BaVberry 5 Wax Myrtle. — Eastern Unit- 
ed States. A shnib or small tree growing near the sea-coast The berries 
are coated with a waxy secretion, which is .sometimes utilized in the 
domestic manufactare of candles and also in medicinal nnguents. 

No. 311. Myrica inodora^ Bart. — Florida Bayberry. — ^Florida. 

No. 312. Myrica Calif arnica^ Cham. — California Bayberry or Myrtle. — 
California. This species sometimes attains a height of 40 feet, with a 
trunk 2 feet in diameter. It grows on thp Pacific coast, from Pnget 
Sound to Mexico. 

Betulack^. 

• No. 313. Bettda alba, vslt, popuUfoliaj Spach. — American White Birch. 
— Northern and Northeastern United States. A small and slender grace- 
ful tree, 15 to 25 feet high, growing from Maine to Pennsylvania, and 
sparsely on the great lakes. « 

No. 314. Betula papyracea, Ait. — Canoe Birch; Paper Birch. — North- 
ern and Northeastern United States. A large and handsome tree, grow- 
ing to the height of 70 feet, and with a diameter of 3 feet. It is limited 
to the northern portions of the country, ranging from Maine to Wiscon- 
sin on the northern border, and extending far northward into Canada. 
It has a brilliant white bark, from which Indians and traders construct 
canoes. The thin, external sheet of the bark forms the basis of a great 
variety of Indian fancy-work. 

No. 315. Betula 2t«<ea,Michx. — Yellow Birch. — Northern and Northeast- 
ern United States. This is a beautiful large tree, growing in moist 
woods on our northern border. The wood is strong, fine-grained, and 
makes handsome furniture. 

No. 316. Betula lenta, L. — Cherry Birch ; Black Birch. — ^Northern and 
Northeastern United States. This, like the preceding, is a large tree, 
chiefly of our northern borders, but extending also along the Alleghany 
region southward. The bark and twigs are highly aromatic. The wood 
is of a rosy hue, fine-grained, and valuable for cabinet-work and for 
timber. 

No. 317. Betula nigra^ L. — Eiver Birch j Red Birch. — Eastern United 
States. This becomes a largo tree in favorable situations. It is found 
along the banks of rivers from Eastern Massachusetts southward to 
Florida, and westward to Kentucky, Illinois, and Iowa. The wood is 
similar te that of the preceding. 

No. 318. Betula occidentalism Hook. — Western Birch. — Rocky Mount- 
ains. This species is a small tree, rarely over 25 feet high and 6 inches 
in diameter. It is found in the Rocky Mountains, along streams; iu 
Colorado, Utah, &c. 

No. 319. A?n«sincana,Willd. — Speckled Alder. — ^Northeastern United 
States. A shrub, or small tree, growing along streams in New England, 
New York, and northward. Of no particular value. 

Ne. 320. Almis rhomhifolia, Nutt. — California Alder. — California. 

No. 321. Abius Oregona, Nutt. — Oregon Alder. — California and Ore- 
gon. On the Pacific coast, in California and Oregon. Often becoming 
a large tree, GO to 80 feet high, with a trunk 2 feet in diameter. 

Salicaoe^. 

No. 322. Salix nigra, Marshall. — Black Willow. — Eastern United 
States. This is almost the only willow of the eastern portion of the 



FOEEST-TREES OP THE UNITED STATES. 177 

continent which attains a tree size. It grows from 20 to 30 feet hi^b, 
with a thick black bark. On the Pacific coast are several species which 
become tree willows. 

Ko. 323. Salix nigra^ var. PursJiiana. — Willow. — ^Texas. 

No. 324. Salix longifolia^ MnhL, var. — California Long-leaved Willow. 
— Galifomia. 

No. 325. Salix Wrightiana^ And. — ^Wright's Willow ^Texas. 

No. 326. Salix lusiolepis^ Benth. — ^Willow. — Oalilbrnia. 

No. 327. Salix lucicUij Hook., var. — California Shining Willow. — Cal- 
ifornia, 

No. 323. Populus tremnloides, Michx, — American Aspen. — ^Eastern 
United States and Eocky Mountains. A small tree of the northern 
border and Canada, also fonnd on mountain-sides through the Kocky 
Mountains. 

No. 329. Populus grandidentata^ Michx. — Great- toothed Aspen. — 
Eastern United States. This is a larger tree than the preceding, common 
in the Northern States, and extending southward along the Alleghany 
Mountains. It much resembles the European Silver Poplar. 

No. 330. Popuhts mo7iiUfera^ Ait. — Cottonwood. — ^Eastern United 
States and Eocky Mountains. This and the next species of cottonwoods 
have a wide range throughout most parts of the United States. Some 
botanists consider them to be but forms of one species. They are large, 
rapidly-growing trees, particularly abundant in the prairie regions and 
western river-banks, extending even to the Pacific Ocean. The wood is 
light and soft, much employed in some of the AVestern States for build- 
ing purposes, and for inside work of houses, under the name of White- 
wood and Cottonwood. 

No. 331. Poptilns angulata^ Ait.— Cottonwood. — Southern States. 

No. 332. Populus heterophyllay L. — Swamp Cottonwood. — ^Eastern 
United States. This species prevails in the Southern States, but extends 
northward as far as Delaware and Southern Illinois. It is a large tree, 
growing chiefly in swampy woods, and little valued. 

No. 333. Populus balsamifera, L. — Balsam Poplar. — ^Northern and 
Western United States. This species grows mostly in northern latitudes, 
being found in New England and Northern New York, also in the 
Kocky Mountains. It is a large tree ; a variety of it is in cultivation. 

No. 334. Populus angustifolia^ James. — Willow-leaved Cottonwood. — 
Rocky Mountains. This is now considered to be a variety of the pre- 
ceding. It is found principally along streams in the Bocky Mountains, 
where it is called Cottonwood, sometimes Willow-leaved Cottonwood. 

No. 336. Popuhts irichocarxya, Torr. — Cottonwood. — California. 

CoNiPEB-ai:. 

No. 336. Pinus BanJcsiana^ Lamb. — Banks's Pine ; Scrub Pine. — ^Wis- 
consin to New England. This species is found from the northern . 
parts of the United States nearly to the Arctic Ocean, and from Labra- ' 
dor to the Saskatchawan. In Wisconsin it becomes a middle-sized tree, 
and is used for timber when the trees are found of sufficient size. 

No. 337. Pinus contorta^ Dougl. — ^Twisted pine. — Bocky Mountains. 
This tree is found in the Bocky Mountains from Colorado to Oregon. 
It differs widely in regard to size in different localities. Near the Paci- 
fic coast it is often low and scrubby, bearing cones at 5 feet high. In 
Colorado it is found at an altitude of 7,000 feet, and attains a height of 
50 feet 

No. 338. Pinus contorta, Doug., var. BolanderL — Bolander's Pine. — 

12 A 



178 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

Califoniia. This variety in the Sierra Nevada Mountaiusat an altitude 
of 5,000 to 9,000 feet attains a height of 150 to 200 feet. It is variously 
called Tamarack, Twisted Pine, or Black Pine. 

No. 339. Pinus inopa, Ait. — Jersey Pine ; Scrub Pine. — Eastern United 
States. A straggling tree 15 to 40 feet high, with spreading or drooping 
branches. It abounds in New Jersey, Maryland, and Virginia, also on 
the rocky hills bordering the Ohio in Kentucky, Southern Illinois, and 
Indiana. The wood is of little value. 

No. 340. Pinus mitiSj Michx. — Yellow Pine. — Eastern United States, 
chiefly south. This is a handsome tree, growing from New England to 
Wisconsin, and sparingly in Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, and south 
ward to Florida. The timber is very valuable, commanding a higher 
price even than the white pine. 

No. 341. Pinus clausa, Ohap. — Florida. A small tree found by Dr, 
Chapman at Apalachicola, related to Pinvs inops. 

No.342. Pi7iu8 glabra^WBlt. — Spruce Pine. — South Carolina and south- 
ward. A tree 40 to 60 feet high, with smoothish bark and soft white 
wood, branching from near the ground. Hesembles P.mitis; grows 
from South Carolina to Florida. 

No. 343. Pinus resinosa^ Ait. — ^Red Pine. — Massachusetts to Wiscon- 
sin. A tree 50 to 80 feet high, with reddish bark, growing from Penn- 
sylvania northward through Canada and Nova Scotia, also in Wisconsin 
and Michigan. The wood is compact, strong, and durable, and for some 
uses is preferable to the white pine. It is also an excellent ornamental 
tree. ' 

No. 344. Pinus Ulliottiij Eng. — Elliott's Pine. — South Carolina and 
southward. 

No. 345. Pinus pungens, Michx, — Table Mountain Pine. — This species 
grows on the Alleghany Mountains from Pennsylvania southward ; 
abundant in some parts of Virginia and North Carolina. A tree of 40 
or 50 feet height, and of very vigorous and rapid growth. 

No. 346. Pinus muricata, Don. — Bishop's Pine, — (California. A small 
tree 30 to 40 feet high ; grows near the coast north and south of San 
Francisco, and in other localities in that State. 

No. 347. Pinus edulisy Eng. — Piiion Nut Pine. — Eocky Mountains. 
A low tree with a spreading habit, growing in Colorado and Utah, and 
in New Mexico, Arizona, and Southern California. It is universally 
known by the Mexican name of Piiion. It has an edible nut, which is 
much used as food by the Indians, and the wood is rich in resin, making 
it excellent fuel. 

No. 348. Pinu^ monophylla^ Torr. — Nut Pine. — Sierra Nevada Mount- 
ains. This species is almost limited to the eastern slope of the Sierra 
Nevada Mountains, at altitudes of 2,000 to 6,000 feet. It is a small tree 
of 20 to 40 feet height. The seeds are eagerly collected for food by the 
Washoe and other Indians. The wood is excellent fuel. 

No 349. Pinus Parryana^ Eng. — Nut Pine. — Near the Mexican border 
southwest. 

No 350. Pinus ponderosa, Dougl. — Yellow Pine. — ^Rocky Mountains. 
A very variable pine ; several of its extreme forms have been consid- 
ered different species. ltO(x;ursiu Colorado, Utah, and the Black Hills 
of Wyouiing. It is remarkable for its heavy wood, which makes excel- 
lent lumber. It is generally called Yellow Pine. 

No. 351. Pinus ponderosa, Doug., var. Benthamiana^ Hart. — Sai)py 
Pine. — California. This variety grows in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, 
in damp valleys, and near streams. It is generally slender ami t;ill, 



FOREST-TREES OF THE UNITED STATES. 179 

with low limbs, black bark, and sappy, tough wood. Used for build- 
ing-timber, flooring, &c. It has several names, as Swamp Pine, Sappy 
Pine, Black Pine, and Bull Pine. 

No. 352. Pinus ponderosa, Doug,, var. Jeffrey^i^ Balf. — Jeffrey's Pine. — 
California. This variety also grows on tlie Sierra Nevada Mountains, 
and on the Coast Kange of (California. It often attains a height of 170 
to 250 feet and a diameter of G to 10 feet. It differs much in tlic quality of 
the wood, but is used for all the purposes of other kinds. It is remark- 
able for the comparatively large size of its cones. It is called Yellow 
Pine, Pitch Pine, and Truckee Pine. 

No. 353. Piniis auHtralis, Michx. — Long-leaved Pine. — South Carolina 
and southward. A lofty tree, growing in the pine-barrens of the South- 
ern States, attaining a" height of 75 to 100 feet. Next to the White 
Pine, this is perhaps the most valuable of the genus. The timber plays 
an important part in shipbuilding, is extensively used as a flooring, and 
in house-building. The chief value of this species is for the turpentine, 
tar, pitch, and rosin which it supplies, and of which immense quantities 
are exported in addition to the home supply. 

No. 354. rintis Coultevi^ Doug. — Coulter's Pine. — California. A large 
tree of California, from 80 to 100 feet in height, with large, spreading 
branches, and a trunk 3 or 4 feet in diameter. The cones are heavier 
than those of any other of the family, being frequently 1 foot long and 
6 inches diameter, and weighing from 4 to 6 pounds. The large, nut- 
like .seeds contained in the cones aref nutritious, and used as an article of 
food by the Indians. 

No. 355. Finns Sahiniana, Doug. — Hard-nut Pine; Sabine's Pino. — 
, California. Grows on the foothills of the Coast Range and on the west- 
ern foo^hills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. It is not very 
abundant, and is limited by the altitude of 4,000 feet. It grows from 
40 to 100 feet high. The cones are large and heavy, and fall of oily, 
nutritious nuts, which are used by the Indians. The timber is fit only 
for fuel. It is called Digger Pine, Foothill Pine, Gray-leaved Pine, &c. 

No. 350. Pinus Torreyana, Parry. — ^Torrey's Pine. — California. A spe- 
cies of Southern California, resembling the preceding, but smaller. The 
nots are thick-shelled, but nutritious, and used as food by the Indians. 

No. 357. Pinus insignis^ Dougl. — Montferoy Pine.— California. Grows 
along the coast south of San Francisco. Some old 'trees near Monterey 
are 70 or 80 feet high. It is quite an ornamental species, and is in fre- 
quent cultivation in California. 

No. 358. Pinus radiata, Doii. — Calitbrnia. 

No. 359. Pi7ius tuherculata^ Don. — Pricklyconed Pine. — California. 
A small tree seldom attaining a greater height than 30 to 40 feet, with 
a trunk of 8 or 10 inches diameter. It grows on the Coast Hills south of 
San Francisco, and in other places in the State. 

No. 360. Pinus rigid<i, Miller.— Pitch Pine.— Eastern United States. 
A medium-sized tree from 30 to 70 feet high, with dark, rugged-looking 
bark, and hard, resinous wood. The wood is knotty, and of little value 
for lumber, but gives an intense heat in burning on account of the quan- 
tity of resin which it contains. 

No. 3C1. Pimis sei'Otinaj Michx. — Pond Pine. — Southern States. This 
is closely related to the preceding, and is by some considered only a 
variety of it. It grows on the borders of ponds and swamps from Flor- 
ida to North Carolina. 

No. 362. Pimts Tccda, L— Loblolly ; Oldfield Pine.-^Southeru States. 
A species confined to the Atlantic States, growing' mostly in damp or in 
light, barren soil, frequently taking possession of old and neglected 



180 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

fields. It is variable ia height, sometimes risiiipc to 70 or 100 feet high. 
The timber is said to be valuable, though less so than that of P. atistralis. 

No. 363. Finns arUtata^ l^ng« — Prickly-coned Pine. — Rocky Mount- 
ains. This species was first found in Colorado near Pike's Peak, but it 
is now considered to be sj^nouymous with the next. 

Ko. 364. Pinus Balfouriana^ Jeffrey. — Balfour's Pine. — Eocky Mount- 
ains. The specimen is from Southern Utah, and grows on high, bar- 
ren, sandstone mountains : it grows about 50 to GO feet high. The tree 
is distinguished by its long branches, which are heavy, causing the ends 
to hang down. The tree is compact in appearance and of very dark-green 
color. It is thought by some that the tree of Oregon, which has been 
described under this name, is a different species. 

No. 365. Finns flexilis, James. — Bull Pine. — Eocky Mountains. This 
is the prevailing pine of the East Humboldt Mountains, Nevada, and 
frequent in the Wasatch, It also grows in Colorado and on the San 
Francisco Mountains of Arizona. In the Wasatch Mountains it is found 
at high altitudes on limestone ledges, and has a branched and knotty 
habit, rendering it unfit for lumber. It is called by the inhabitants 
Bull Pine. It is a middle-sized tree, usually 30 to 50 feet high, but re- 
corded by Fendler as 60 to 80 feet high near Santa Fe. 

No. 366. Finus alMcaulis^ Eng. — ^White-barked Pine. — Eocky Mount- 
ains. This species, although closely related to the preceding, is believed 
to be different. It grows only at extreme altitudes. It grows on the 
Cascade Mountains of Oregon, on • alpine peaks in the Sierra Nevada 
Mountains, and on high mountains in Idaho and Montana. The name 
is suggested by the color of the bark of the tree, which Dr. Engelman 
says is as white as milk. 

No. 367. Fimis Lambertianay Doug. — Sugar Pine. — Sierra Nevada 
Mountains. Found sparsely growing on the Sierras of California, 
through their extent, at altitudes of from 4,000 to 10,000 feet. It is often 
150 to 220 feet high, with a diameter of 8 to 14 feet. It is highly 
prized and eagerly sought by lumbermen for all articles of building- 
lumber, and is fast being exhausted. It is called Sugar Pine from the 
sweet resin which exudes from partially-burned trees. It is also called 
Mammoth Pine and Shake Pine. It has enormous cones. 

No. 368. Finns monticolay Dougl. — Soft Pine; Little Sugar Pine. — 
California. Grows sparsely on the high Sierras, at altitudes of 7,000 to 
11,000 feet. It sometimes attains a height of 150 to 200 feet, with a 
diameter of 5 to 7 feet. It resembles the Sugar Pine, but with whitish, 
much furrowed, bark and smaller cones. ' The timber is similar to that 
of White Pine, but is seldom used, because the trees are so inaccessible. 

No. 369. Finns strohns^ L. — ^White Pine ; Weymouth Pine. — ^Eastern 
United States. An old, well-known, and useful tree, extending from 
Canada to Virginia, but plentiful in New England, New York, and 
Pennsylvania. It is a large tree, becoming 100 to 150 feet high. It is 
the source of much of the lumber brought from the Northern States. It 
is not only very valuable on account of its wood, but is one of the finest 
ornamental conifers. 

No. 370. Finns ChiJmalina, Eng. — Southern Arizona and Northern 
Mexico. 

No. 371. Abies alba, Michx. — ^White Spruce. — ^New England and AHe- 
ghany Mountains. A small tree, native of the northern portion of the 
United States and Canada, extending northward to the extreme con- 
fines of vegetation. It grows from 20 to 30 feet high, according to soil 
and latitude. It is frequent in cultivation, and is considered a handsome 
tree. 



FOREST-TREES OF TUE UNITED STATES. 181 

No. 372. Abies niffrajVoiv. — BLick Spruce. — New Englaucl and Alle- 
ghany Mountains. This tree has much the same range as the preceding, 
occasionally being found farther south on the Alleghanies. -In favor- 
able situations, it forms quite a large tree, about 75 feet high, tail and 
straight. The wood is light, elastic, and strong, and valuable for many 
purposes. 

No. 373. Abies Canailensis, Michx. — Hemlock. — New England to Wis- 
consin. A well-known tree of the Northern States, extending north- 
ward to Hudson's Bay, and southward along the mountains to North 
Carolina. It is one of the roost graceful of spruces, with a light and 
spreading spray, frequently branching almost to the ground. The wood 
is coarse-grained, but is used in great quantities for rough work. The 
"bark is very extensively employed in tanning. 

No, 374. Abies Mertensiana^ Lind. — ^Western Hemlock. — California 
and Oregon. This tree closely resembles the A. Canadensis. It grows 
from 100 to 150 feet high, and forms a roundish, conical head. The 
timber is said to be sofb and white, and difficult to split. 

No. 375. Abies Williamsoni, New. — ^Williamson's Spruce. — California 
and Oregon. Orows on the Sierras of California and on the Cascade 
Mountains of Oregon, on high peaks of 8,000 to 12,000 feet altitude. A 
very graceful tree, attaining a height of 150 feet. The wood is of excel- 
lent quality, but is too rare and inaccessible to be much known. 

No. 376. AUes JDottglasiij Lind. — ^Douglas's Spruce. — Rocky Mount- 
ains. This species grows through the Bocky Mountain region from 
Colorado to Nootka Sound. On the Pacific coast, it sometimes attains 
the immense size of ^00 to 300 feet in height, and a diameter of trunk ot 
8 to 15 feet. Its timber composes the great lumber wealth of Oregon 
and Washington Territory. The wood is soft and easily worked, much 
prized for masts, spars, and plank for ship-building, tmd is equally val- 
uable for other building purposes. A tree cut by Mr. A. J. Dufur was 
G feet 4 inches in diameter 30 feet from the base, and 321 feet long. 

No. 377. Abies Douglam^ var. mcLcrocarpa^ Torr. — Large -coned 
Spruce. — Southern California. This was collected many years ago on 
the mountains east of San Diego, Cal.; in 1874 sent to the Department 
of Agriculture by Mr. F. M. Bing, of San Bernardino, CaL: and collected 
last sumlner by Dr. Palmer at San Felipe Canon, east of San Diego. It 
has cones four or five times the size of DovgJasiij and will probably be 
confirmed as a new species. 

No. 378. Abies Menziesii^ Dougl. — Menzies's Spruce. — Rocky Mount- 
ains. This species has a wid6 range in the Bocky Mountains from Col- 
orado and Utah to Oregon and Sitka. It grows mostly at high alti- 
tudes, 7,000 to 9,000 feet. " In Utah," Mr. Ward says, '< it is easily dis- 
tinguishedfrom the other firs by the dense masses of its long, pendant, 
dark-brown cones at the top of 'the tree,* which frequently pbscure the 
foliage. The wood is fine-grained and white, and would be valuable for 
timber but for the numerous slight curves in the trunk, which render it 
impossible to obtain saw-logs of any great length. In some places it is 
incorrectly called balsam, in others it is distinguished as spruce." Mr. 
Dufur, of Oregon, gives a somewhat different account of the tree as 
growing there. He says : '* It grows along the tide-lands and about 
the mouth of the Columbia Biver, and is seldom found at an elevation of 
more than 500 feet. The young trees make a beautiful evergreen of 
pyramidal form. The large trees grow from 150 to 200 feet high, and 
from 2 to 6 feetiu diameter. The wood is soft, white, and free, much 
l)rized for lumber," 

No. 379. Abies Ungelmaniii, Parry. — Engelmann's Spruce. — Bocky 



182 REPORT O^ THE COMallSStONEE Ol? AGRlCULTtTRfi. 

Mouutains. This species is found on the liiglier parts of the Kocky 
MoQutains, from Kew Mexico to the headwaters of the Columbia and 
Missouri-Kivers. In Colorado, it occupies a belt between 8,000 and 12,000 
feet, reaching its fullest development between 9,000 and 10,000 feet. On 
the highest summits, it beconjes a prostrate shrub. Mr. Ward, writing 
of the tree in Utah, says : " Between 9,000 and 10,000 feet* altitude, it 
becomes a large and noble tree, and is of the greatest value for himber, 
taking the place in ^hat region of the White Pino of the Eastern States, 
and is alone known by that name among lumbermen. The wood is 
white, very light, and easily worked, and at the same time durable." 
Botanically, it is difficult to distinguish it from some forms of A. Menziesii. 

No. 380. Abies baUamea^ Marshall. — Balsam. — New England to Wis- 
consin. This species grows in cold, damp woods and swamps, from New 
England to Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and northward. It is also a native 
of Canada and Nova Scotia. It generally grows about 20 to 40 feet 
high. It is a very popular ornamental tree. "A very aromatic liquid 
resin is obtained from this tree by incisions made in the bark, and is 
called Canada Balsam." 

No. 381. AMes sub-alpina, Eng. — Sub-alpine Balsam. — Rocky Mount- 
ains. This is one of the tallest and handsomest firs of the Bocky 
Mountains, often attaining a height of 80 or 90 feet ; perfectly straight^ 
and without limbs for a great distance. The wood is white, soft, and of 
little value for lumber. It is known among the lumbermen of the 
Wasatch Mountains as White Balsam, or Pumpkin-tree. Its nearest 
affinity is to A. baUamea of the Eastern States. It reaches to great alti- 
tudes, being sometimes found near the timber-line,. It has often been 
collected, and generally referred to A. (jrandisj the incorrectness of which 
has been but lately pointed out by i)r. Engelmann, who has proposed 
for it the name given above. — (Ward.) 

No. 382. Abies grandis, Lind.— White Silver Fir. — California and Ore- 
gon. This name is hero applied to the tree of the Pacific coast. " In 
Oregon," Mr. Dufur says, " it grows on the low, moist land, along the 
small streams emptying into the Columbia Biver. Is seldom found at an 
elevation of more than 500 feet, and never on sandy or gravelly ridges. 
It attains a size of from 2 to 4 feet in diameter, and 200 feet in height. 
It has a light-colored, thin, smooth bark. It is a rapid growei*, and the 
timber decays correspondingly fast when exposed to the wet. The wood 
is white, free, and soft, but too light and brittle for general building 
purposes. It is used extensively by the settlers for clapboards, boxes, 
and cooperage." 

No. 383. Abies concoJor^ Eng. — White Silver Fir. — ^Bocky Mountains. 
In the Wasatch Mountains in Utah this tree is very valuable for lumber, 
and is called Black Balsam. It is there a large tree, sometimes 3 or 4 
feet in diameter and 40 to 50 feet high. The wood is tough and coarse- 
grained, adapting it for building purposes and all substantial uses. It 
ranges from 8,000 to 9,000 feet in altitude. — ( Wanl.) In Southern Dtah, 
it is sometimes called Black Gum. 

No. 384. Abies amabilis^ Doiigl. — lied Silver Fir. — California and 
Oregon. Mr, Lemmon states, " On the Sierra Nevada Mountains, it 
forms dense, scattered groves, at altitudes of 7,000 to 10,000 feet. 
The largest trees are 250 feet high and G to 10 feet in diameter. A truly 
beautiful and niaguificent tree, sometimes called the Queen of the For- 
est." Mr. Dui'ur snys it is found extensively along the western slope of 
the Casdacio Mountains, on sandy, gravelly, rocky, and dry elevations. 
Its usual isize is from 150 to 200 feet in height, ann from 1 to 4 feet in 
diameter. Xhe wood is rather coarse, but elastic, strong, and hard. It 



FOREST-TREES OP THE UNITED STATES, 183 

is used extensively for coarse building i)urpo8es, and also for masts and 
spars for sbip-buildiug. The wood has a peculiar red color, and spikes, 
nails, and bolts bold firra, and never corrode in the timber. 

1^0. 385. Alnes Fraserlj Pursh. — Fraser's Balsam. — Alleghany Mount- 
ains. This species inhabits the highest parts of the Alleghanies, in 
North Carolina. It is said to be a small tree, ranging from 20 to 50 
feet in height. The cones resemble those of A, nohilis in miniature. 

1^0. 386. Abies nobilis. Lind. — The Noble Fir.-— Oregon. This is one 
of the magnificent conifers of our country. It is a majestic tree, forming 
vast forests on the n)ouutains of Northern California and Oregon. The 
Indians give it the name of Big Tree. The timber is said to be of ex- 
cellent quality. It is nearly related to A, Fraseri, but has cones five 
times as large. 

No. 387. Ahies hracteata^ Hook. — Bracted-coued Spruce. — Oregon. 
This species grows on the higher mountains of Oregon. It was also 
found by Dr. Coulter in Southern California. It is little known. The 
cones are very curious and remarkable, being handsomely fringed by 
long leaf-like bracts, entirely different from those of any other species. 

No. 388. Lari^ Americana^ Michx. — American Larch.*— New England 
to Wisconsin. This species is seldom found so far south as Virginia; 
its favorite localities being the New England States, Northern New 
York, westward to Wisconsin, and northward to Canada. In Canada, 
it is called Hackmatack ; in some portions of New England and New 
Jersey, Tamarack. The quality of the wood is representi'd as being 
superior to any kind of pine or spruce. 

No. 389. Larix Lyallii^ Pari. — Lyall's Larch. — Oregon. 

No. 390. Larix oocideiitaliSj Nutt. — Western Larch. — Oregon. Mr. 
Dufur says tuis species is found abundantly in the Blue Mountains in 
Eastern Oregon j also well up in the Cascade and Coast Kange , but sel- 
dom at aii elevation of less than 3^000 leet. It is often louud 250 feet 
high, and attains a diameter of 5 feet, frequently being found liOO feet to 
the first limb. The timber is virv strong and iJnmbhs I'vw to split, 
and used fur all kinds of lencing and coarM* bujidir:^. 

No. 391. Torreya taxifolia, Arn, — Yew leaved 'iorrexa. — Fi<aida. A 
small tree from *Ji) to 40 teet high, tountl on the east biink of the Apa- 
lachicola Kiver in Florida. Ir is called by the inhabitants IStmking Yew, 
from the unpleasant odor of the bruised leaves. The genus was named 
in honor ot Dr. John Torrey, the late eujiueut botanist ol New Y'ork. 
it is consiilered to be a very ornamental evergre,en in cultivation. 

No. 392. Torreya CaH/ornicn^ Torr. — California Nutmeg tree. — Cali- 
fornia. This species grows near the coast in California. It sometimes 
attains the height of 00 feet, with a ti;uuk 4 feet in diameter, but is 
usuaiiy a round-headed, small, compact tree, 20 to 40 ieet high. The 
timber is said to he heavy and fine grained. It is, like the preceding,, 
called the Stinking Yew, from the unpleasant odorot the bruised leaves. 
Tlio s(»eds have a rugose and mottled appearance, resembling a nutmeg, 
whence the name. 

No. 393. Taxus hrevifolia, Nutt— Short-leaved Yew. — California and 
Oregon. A tree of California and Orgon, varying much in height in 
diffvreut localities. Dr. Newberry saw it forming an upright tree 50 to 
7o feet in height and 2 to 3 feet in diameter. Mr. Dufur says it is found 
on the lowlands of Willamette Valley, is of slow growth, and seldom 
attains a height of 12 to 20 feet and a diameter of a foot. It is very 
scarce in all parts of Oregon. The small, red berries remain on the tree 
till late in the fall, and are used for food by the Indians. The wood is 



\ 



184 REPORT OP THE COMMISSION-gR OF AGRICULTURE. 

very hard and durable, is capable of receiving a fine polish, and is much 
prized for its fine grain, durability, and beauty. 

No. 394. Taxus Floridana^ Nutt. — Florida Yew. — Florida. This spe- 
cies, so far as is known, is confined to a very limited field on the Apa- 
lachicola lliver in Florida. It is a small tree, from 10 to 20 feet high. 

No. 395. Thvja occidentalis, L. — American Arbor Vitoc. — New England 
to Wisconsin. This tree is well known in cultivation, but in a native state 
is rarely found south of New York. In Canada and along the lakes, it 
is known as the White Cedar, which is the name given in New Jersey 
to the Cupres8U8 thyoides. The Arbor Vitje grows 25 to 50 feet high, 
forming a handsome, conical tree. The wood is light and soft^ but 
durable, and is considerably used for building purposes. It is frequently 
employed as a hedge-plant and as an ornamental tree. 

No. 396. TJiuja gigantea^ Nutt. — Giant Arbor Vitae. — Oregon and 
Northwest coast. This tree is found in the greatest perfection on the 
western slope of the Cascade and Coast Eanges in Oregon and Wash- 
ington Territory, at an altitude of from 500 to 1,000 feet. It attains not 
unfrequently the enormous size of from 10 to 15 feet diameter and 200 
feet in height. / The timber is very soft, smooth, and durable. It makes 
the finest sash, doors, moldings, &c., and all kinds of building-lumber. 
The young trees are beautiful ornamental evergreens, and make a hand- 
some hedge. 

No. 397. Thuja plicata, Don. — Nee's Arbor VitflB. — Pacific coast. 

No. 398. ^Cupreasus thyoideSj L. — White Cedar. — ^Middle and South- 
ern States. This tree is found in swamps chiefly in the Atlantic States 
from Massachusetts to Florida. It has also been found near the Great 
Lakes. The tree rarely exceeds 70 or 80 feet in height, with a straight, 
tapering trunk. The wood is light, fine-grained, exceedingly durable, 
and easily worked. In New Jersey, it is largely made into shingles. 

No. 399. Cupressus macrocarpaj Hart. — Monterey Cypress. — California. 
This is found in the vicinity of Monterey, Cal., where it grows 50 to 
60 feet high, with a diameter sometimes of 3 to 4 feet. It is one of 
the finest cypresses known. 

No. 400. Gupregsns NiitkantiSj Hook. — Nootka Cypress. — Oregon and 
the Northwest coast. This grows at Vancouver's Island and near 
Nootka Sound. It is a tall tree of 80 to 100 feet high. The timber is 
white, soft, and valuable. 

No. 401. Cupressus Laicsonia7iajMuvraY. — Lawson's Cypress. — Mount- 
ains of Northern California. 

No. 402. C2ipressusMacNabian€i,MuTTHy. — ^McNab's Cypress. — Mount- 
ains of California and Oregon. 

No. 403. Ta<vodium distichwn^ Rich. — Bald Cypress. — Southern States. 
This tree is found in all the Southern States, extending into Delaware 
. and into Southern Illinois. In rich, alluvial bottoms, it frequently grows 
to the height of 120 feet. The roots often form large conical excrescences, 
called " cypress knees," which rise above the surface of the soil to the 
height of 2 to 4 feet. The wood is fine-grained, soft, elastic, strong, and 
exceedingly durable. Large quantities are made into shingles, and mar- 
keted at the North. Its foliage is delicate and beautiful, but is dropped 
during the winter. 

No. 404. Sequoia scmpervirens^ End. — Redwood. — California. This is 
the mammoth tree of the coast of California, second only to the next 
species. It lises to the height of 200 to 300 feet, and sometimes with a 
circumference of 60 feet. The wood is dark red, rather light and brittle, 
but exceedingly durable, and makes valuable lumber. 

No. 405. Seqima gigantea^ Torr. — ^Giant Redwood. — California. This is 
the mammoth or big tree of California, growing in several groves on the 



FOREST-TREES OF THE UNITED STATES. 185 

western slopes of the Sierra ifevada Mountains, at an altitude of 5,000 
to 9,000 feet. Tbo largest trees are over 300 feet high, and over 30 feet 
in diameter. 

^o. 40G. Libocedrus decurrenSj Torr. — Bastard Cedar. — California.* 
This is sometimes called Red Cedar, or Post Cedar. It grows in the 
Sierras of California, at elevations of from 3,000 to 7,000 feet. It is a 
handsome tree, of low, conical form, tapering fast ; 4 to feet diameter 
at base 5 but only abtut 100 feet high. The wood is light and strong, 
and makes excellent cabinet-work, boxes, &c. 

Ko. 407. Juniperus Virginiana^ L. — Bed Cedar. — ^Eastern United 
States. This^is the Eed Cedsir of the eastern portion of the United 
States. It grows to the height of 30 or 40 feet, generally with a compact 
conical form. The timber is exceedingly valuable, being light, fine- 
grained, compact, and durable. The heart- wood is of a handsome dark- 
red color. It is used for a great variety of ornamental work, and for 
fence-posts is almost imperishable. 

If 0. 408. Juniperus VirginianajVax.Bermudiana. — ^Pencil Cedar; Florida 
Cedar. — Coast of Florida. This variety, or species, as it is regarded by 
some, grows on the western coast of Florida. The wood is softer and 
freer from knots than the common form, and the pencil-manufacturers 
obtiiin their cedar wood from this source. 

No. 409. Juniperus Virginiaiia^ var. montcma. — ^Bocky Mountain Red 
Cedar. — Rocky Mountains. A form or variety of Eed Cedar found in 
Colorado and Utah. ^< In the Wasatch Mountains, Eastern Utah, this 
tree grows along the canons containing water throughout the year, and 
not in dry places. Its form is there quite different from the Red Cedar 
in the East, being taller and with a looser and less symmetrical top. The 
people there say that the wood is not durable, and do not use it for fence- 
posts, &c., as is done with the eastern variety." 

No. 410. Juniperus occidentalism Hook. — Western Cedar. — ^Rocky 
Mountains, California, and Oregon. This is undoubtedly the cedar 
named by Dr. Hooker J. occident^lis. It grows on the east side of the 
Cascade Mountains in Oregon and also in California. It is of slow 
growth, seldom attaining more than a foot in diameter and 30 feet in 
height. The wood is nearly all white, and harder than the Red Cedar. 

No. 411. Juniperus occidentalism var. Texana. — ^Rock Cedar. — ^Texas and 
westward. This forms extensive woods on rocky soil in Western Texas. 
The trunk is sometimes over one foot in diameter, yearly rings eccentric. 
It branches low, and forms almost impenetrable thickets. It is common 
fuel and fencing timber in Western Texas. — (Lindheimer.) 

No. 412. Juniperus CalifornicuSy Carr.— Sweet-fruited Juniper. — South- 
ern California. A cedar growing from San Felipe Caiion, in the Cuya- 
maca Mountains, Southern California, into Arizona and Mexico. It is 
a dwarf ta'ee, and is very prolific of berries, which are as large as large 
peas, of a somewhat resinous but sweet taste. The Indians consume 
large quantities of them for food. The seeds are large, smooth, and 
free, one or two in each berry. 

No. 413. Juniperus Califomictcsm var. Utahejise. — Western Red Cedar. — 
Utah and California. This is the i)revailing Cedar of the Wasatch 
IVIountciins, and ranging into Nevada and Southern California. In East- 
ern and Central Utah, this tree covers the slopes and foot-hills at from 
5,000 to 7,000 feet altitude. It is low and spreading at the base, with a 
dense pyramidal top, light-green foliage, and large rather woody berries, 
not so nutritious as those of the preceding kind. The wood is ex- 
tremely durable, and used for fence-posts. In Southern Utah, the berries 
are eaten by the Indians. The bark was formerly used by them in 
manufacturing many articles- of clothing. 



186 report of the commissioner of agriculture. 

Palmacejs. 

No. 411. Sahal Palme'do^ li. & S. — Cabbage Palmetto. — Coast of !N'orth 
Carolina and southward. The well-known Palmetto-tree of the South- 
ern {States, from North Carolinato Florida. It grows in sandy soil 
along the coast, with a stem from 20 to 40 feet high. The leaves are 5 
to 8 feet long. '^In the Southern States, the wood of this tree, though 
extremely porous, is preferred to any other for wharves,'' and when con- 
stantly under water is almost imperishable, but, when exposed to be 
alternately wet and dry in the flowing and ebbing of the tide, it decays 
as rapidly as other wood. 

No. 415. Brahea edulis. Wad. — Guadalupe Palm. — Guadalupe Island. 
Guadalupe Island is off the coast of Lower California, 200 miles from 
San Diego. It is about twenty-six miles long by ten wide. It is owned 
by a chartered American company for the raising of Angora goats. On 
the island there is a palm-forest, of this species, of several thousand 
acres in extent. They grow from 12 to 20 feet high, and have a diame- 
ter of trunk of 8 to 15 inches. The fniit is about the size of a plum, 
hanging in clusters, like grapes, 2 feet long, weighing from 30 to 40 
pounds, growing from ©ne to four bunches to a tree. The fruit is eagerly 
eaten by goats. 

No. 410. Pritchardiafilamentosa^, Wend. — California Palm. — Southern 
California. This palm has be^n in cultivation to some extent for several 
years, both in Buroi>e and in this country, under the name of Brahea 
filamentosa. It has recently been decided to belong to a different genus, 
{Pritchardia,) It grows on rocky caiions near San Felipe, some tsevonty- 
live miles northeast of San Diego, California. It grows to the height 
of 60 feet. The fruit is small, (as large as peas,) black, aijd pulpy. 
Though containing little nourishment, they are used as food by the 
Indians. 

No. 417. Tlirinax parmflora^ Sw. — Silver Palmetto. — South Florida. 
This palm was touud last tall by Dr. Chapman in South Florida. The 
stem is rarely 6 inches in diameter, yet they attain a height of 30 to 40 
feet. **lt occurs first at Cape Eomans and is found sparingly on the 
mainland southward. It is more common on the keys, but I never 
heard ot it before.'' — (Chapman.) The wood is quite dense; the berries 
white. 

No. 418. Yticca hrevifolki, Eng. — Desert Yucca. — Arizona and So!ith- 
crn Utah. This singular tree grows in the deserts of Arizona and South- 
ern Utah. It is trom 10 to 20 feet high, with a trunk sometimes 10 or 
12 inches in diameter. It is fibrous in all parts, so that th<3^ wlioie plant 
may be converted to paper. 

Noi 419. Yucca TrecuUana^ Carr. — Spanish Bayonet. — Western Texas 
and westward. Sometimes with a stem over 1 foot diameter and 50 
feet high, branching only near the summit, every branch bears a thyrsus 
of dowers 3 to 4 feet high, each consisting of several hundred white 
fleshy flowers, shining like porcelain. The fruit is edible, resembling t*he 
papaw. The leaves are 2 to 4 feet long, deei)ly channeled, and pointed 
by a sharp thorn. — (Dr. Lindheimer.) 



MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS. 187 



MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS. 

By Thomas Taylor, MicnoscopisT. 

CELLULOSE AND STARCH. 

It has been decided by liigb aatbority that Bacterium* consists priu- 
cipally of vegetable ccllalose,t because, when sabjected to a boiling 
solntion of tbe alkalies, it remains andissolved. Wben rod-bacterium 
(Bacteritim termo) is treated with a tincture of iodine, its interior struct- 
ure is changed from its natural transparent whiteness to an amber-color, ^ 
which indicates the presence of protoplasm within its outer elongated 
cell. It is popularly supposed that any object composed principally of 
vegetable fiber must necessarily bedevoid of animal life, and that, although 
many microscopic germs exhibit animal motions in water, they may, 
notwithstanding, be purely vegetable ; but it has been demonstrated 
that parts of certain animals, as the mantle of the Tunicata^ consist of 
cellulose. It may therefore bo reasonable to expect, as a necessary con- 
sequence, the presence of analogous substances in them, such as animal 
starch, glycogen,! and chitine, § which are convertible into one another. 

* One of tbe earliest organisms appenriog in decaying and pntrefying animal and 
vegetable eolations. 

tCellal oso is tho characteristic tissao of the vegetable kingdom. It forms tbe fan- 
damental layer of all vegetublo cell-walls. The yonng parts of plants consist chiefly of 
cellnlose; it exists in a tolerably pure state in the pith of the elder- tree. — (Johnston.) 
More recently, according to De'Luca, it is fonnd in the skin of the silk-worm and of 
6crpent>s. Bdchamp says that it io found in tho vibrating corpuscles of the silk- worm. 
Lowig and Kolliker have recognized cellulose.iu the cartilaginous capsule of the simple 
AsoidKBf in the leathery mantles of the Cynthics and the outer tube of the Salpcp, 

Chemical properties of cellulose. — When cellulose is treated with oil of vitriol, concen- 
trated hydrochloric acid, or a concentrated aqueous solution of chloride of zinc, it yields 
products which are converted into glucose when their aqueous solution is boiled with 
water. Glucose is likewise produced in the docomposilion of liguosulphato of lead, 
ami by the oction of alkalies on pyroxyline. But it is doubtful also whether this sugar 
should bo regarded as doxtro glucose. According to Bdchamp, (N.Ann. Chim.Phys., 
48, 502,) it yields, when treated with alcohol, two sorts of crystals, one sort having the 
hardness of cane-sugar, tho other resembling dcxtro-glucose. 

The skin of tho silk-worm and the matter which remains in the cocoons, when the 
buttei flics escape, are capable of yielding a substance isomeric with cellulose, which 
may bo converted inU) glucose. When the caterpillars are boiled for several hours 
with strong hydrochloric aci<l, and this treatment is repeated three times with tho resi- 
due, and the residue is washed with strong potash-lye, then with water, and dried 
between 100° and 110-^, a white, light substance, nearly free from nitrogen, is obtained, 
which gradually difFuses in oil of vitriol, forming a colorless gummy liquid. This solu- 
tion added iu small quantities to boiling water, and boiled for an hour or two, yields 
fermentable sugar, which reacts like glucose with common -salt and potassio-cupric 
tartrate. — (Dc Luea, Comptes rendna, 53, 102.) 

'tOlycogen, a term generally applied to animal starch, so-called, disfcovcred by Vir- 
chow, who found it in degenerated liver and spleen ; also in diseased kidneys, braiu- 
grsninlations, and concr< tions of the prostate gland. Ho says such tissues assume a 
reddish-brown or more rarely a dirty-brown violet color when treated with tincture 
of iodine. When treated with oil of vitriol and iodine in succession, they acquire a 
gfeen color, changing to a dirty violet or sometimes blue. — (Gmelin's Chemistry, vol. 
xviii, p. r»31.) 

$ Chitine resembles cellulose. It is supposed by some to be nitrogenous; it forms 
the elytra and integuments of insects and the carapaces of Crustacea. It may bo ob- 
tained by exbansting the wing-cases of cockchafers successively with water, alcohol, 
ether, ac^etic acid, and boiling alkalies. The final residue retains completely the form 
of the wing-cases. Fr^my prepares chitine by treating the tegumentary skeleton of a 
crnstaccous animal with cold dilute hydrochloric acid, to remove calcareous salts; 
woBhing with distilled water; boiling for several hours iu a solution of potash, which 



188 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

Such is found to bo tho case, ia some respects, in tbe vegetable king- 
dom ; and since vegetable structure has been found in the mollusk al- 
luded lo, it may be presumed to be present in the higher forms of life, 
as in tho vertebrates, includiDg man ; and as nature does nothing in 
vain, the presence of cellulose in apimals would imply that it has some 
function to perform for which it is peculiarly fitted in their vital econ- 
omy. 

That the consideration of animal and vegetable pathology comes 
strictly within the scope of agricultural investigation is demonstrated 
by the ravages of the rinderpest, horse-influenza, and numerous vege- 
table-blights, the cause or causes of which have so frequently eluded the 
skill of the most scientific specialists of America and Europe. As long, 
therefore, as scientific men remain unacquainted with any of the constit- 
uents of animals and vegetables, so long will they be unable to treat 
animal or vegetable maladies upon strictly scientific principles. Not 

removes adhering albamiooas substaQces, and has no action upon chitine ; again wa8h*> 
in<; with distilled water, and purifying the residue with alcohol and ether. 

When chitine from tho carapace of the crab is boiled for several hours with dilute 
fiulphuric acid, only the softer membranes are attacked, while the more solid integu- 
ments become loose and soft, and form, after pressing and washing with water, a mass 
having almost the consistence of starch. The acid liquid supersaturated with lime, 
and then neutralized with sulphuric acid, yields neither tyrosine nor leucine, but con- 
tains ammonia with amorphous sugar, as it precipitates cuprous oxide abundantly from 
an alkaline solution of cuprio oxide.-^Staideler.) BerthoUet (Ann. Ch. Phys. [3] Ivi, 
149) likewise obtained sugar from chitine, prepared from the integuments of lobsters, 
crabs, and cantharides, by macerating it in strong sulphuric acid till it was dissolved, 
dropping the solution into one hundred times its volume of boiling water, boiling for 
an hour, saturating with chalk, &c. 

The above-mentioned pasty residue is colored brown-red by iodine, like unaltered 
chitine, and, by prolonged boiling with sulphuric acid, yields an additional quantity of 
sugar, while the undissolved portion always contains nitrogen. The same substance, 
after removal of the acid, forms with water a turbid emulsion, which takes a long 
time to clarify, and dries up by spontaneous evaporation to a soft, skin-like membrane, 
which exhibits, with iodine- water, the same reactions as the original chitine. (Stu- 
deler.) 

The composition of chitine is determined by the following analyses: 

1>?S'Mr ^'«--'^"' ScMossberRcr. Stiidelcr. ^'^.g^l^Jlj- 

Carbon 46.G4 40.73 4G.G4 4Cu:\2 46.35 

Hydrogen 6.60 CfiD 6.60 6.65 6.44 

Nitrogen 6.56 6.49 6.56 6,14 G.Ol 

Oxygen 40.20 40.19 40.20 40.89 41.20 

Fr^my found in clutine 43.35 carbon, 6.65 hydrogen, and no nitrogen ; whence he re- 
gards chitine as isomeric with cellulose, (44.4 C, 0.2 H, and 49.4 O.) Gerhard t regarded 
Frdmy's result* as more nearly correct than those of the German chemists, because 
chitine yields by dry distillation nearly acetic acid and pnipyreumatio oil, without any 
ammonia, and the products of its putrefaction under water are ditiei*eut from those of 
most nitrogenous substances. But the analyses above given exhibit a closeness of 
agreement which could scarcely bo cxx^ected if the substances operated upon had been 
impure. 

»Stadeler regards chitine as a glucosidc, CTI'^NO^, which is resolved by boiling wifh 
acids into glucose and lactamide, (or alanine or sarcosine:) 

C9H»-N0« + 2ir-0 = C«H^-06 -f C^H^VO^. 

If this decomposition really takes place, lactic acid should likewise be obtained as a 
product of the transformation of the lactamide or alanine ; but the presence of lactic 
acid among tho products has not yet been demonstrated. Stiidcler also suggests that 
chitine, at least ra Ct'usiacea, may be formed by the union of lactate of ammonium 
with gum, and elimination of wator : 

[C8H^03,II,NH^ -f C«H"^0"' =^ C^ID^NO^ -j- 211*0,] 
Acid lactate of Gum. Chitine. 

ammonium. 

Since ho has found gum in tho juices of crabs and other Crustacea, the presence of 
actio acid in tho gastric juice of the lower animals is by no means iini>robable. 



MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS. 189 

only should \vc cudeavor to discover all the coiistitucDts of their organs, 
and their relations to each other, but should also take into account those 
of the ever-active elements which surround them, as the temperature 
and humidity of the atmosphere, the effect of light and shade, climate, 
altitude, and geographical condition, as these .are of the utmost impor- 
tance in the investigation of every form of organic disease. If it can 
be shown that cellulose exists in all.the important organs of the higher 
animals, the necessity of a more careful examination of its uses will be- 
come appnrent ; and such examinations may result in the discovery of 
new relations between animal and vegetable structure, while It may also 
necessitate a revision of received opinions as to the boundary-line be- 
tween animal and vegetable life. 

In consideration of the foregoing views, I have made a series of inves- 
tigations with animal substances, commencing with the eggs of insects, 
the eggs of fowls, milk, cerumen, (ear-wax,) the flesh and blood of vari- 
ous animals, including man, and have found in them in every instance 
cellulose and animal starch, and in some cases capillary vessels, of a' 
translucent red color, containing liquid starch, colored blue from the 
iodine used during my, experiments. The following statement embraces 
the results of some of these experiments. 

If about a cubic inch of liver, spleen, heart, brain, or muscle of the 
higher animals bo immersed in two fluid-ounces of caustic potash about 
twenty -four hours, at a temperature of about 80<^ Fahrenheit, it will dis- 
solve completely. On the addition of acetic acid in excess, the potash 
will be neutralized, and a flocculent precipitate will fall, which, by ordi- 
nary filtration, may be separated from the liquid. Eemove the iiltrant 
by means of a sable-hair pencil, taking care not to remove any of the 
fiber of the paper with the animal matter. Place a small portion of the 
filtrant on a capsule, and add to it a drop of concentrated sulphuric acid, 
followed by one of tbe tincture of iodine. Then place a portion of the 
composition on a microscopic slide, covering it with a disk in the usual 
manner, and examine it with a power of about 100 diameters. Under 
these conditions, blue granules and structural cellulose will sometimes 
be seen, combined with amber-colored albuminous matter. Frequently 
cellulose, although present, is not seen ; but by subjecting the composi- 
tion to friction, and adding a little more sulphuric acid and iodine, well- 
defined blue-colored structural forms become apparent. 

The structure and chemical behavior o^animal-starch granules, which 
are sometimes observed, differ in some respects from those of potato- 
starch ; the latter are at once dissolved by caustic potash and concen- 
trated nitric and sulphuric acids, but animal starch is not so easily dis- 
solved. As a general rule, the latter resists for a considerable time thQ 
solvent action of these powerful chemicals. In form, animal starch fre- 
quently resembles potato-starch. The granules of the former are found, 
however, to be sometimes as large as the .004th of an inch in their 
shorter diameter by about .007th of an inch in their longer, while many 
of them are as small as the thousandth of an inch in their longest diame- 
ter, or even less. Animal-starch granules, when compressed, will fre- 
quently burst, and the liquid contents coagulate at once in the presence 
of sulphuric acid. I have found, during my investigations, hollow 
starch-ffranules intensely blue, from which their liquid starch had been 
expelled by pressure. Blue-colored starch and cellulose structures 
sometimes appear of a green color in consequence of being covered with 
amber-colored albuminous matter. On the application of water and 
friction, the latter may be removed, when a deep-blue structure will be- 
come apparent. 



190 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

Cellulose and starch in plants and animals. — As cellulose and 
starch have ver3- important relations to man and the lower animals as 
food-constituents, and in other respects, I have deemed it advisable to 
con tin ne my investigations on these substances. 

1, Fig. 1 represents a fiber of cotton in its natural condition; 2, a 
fiber subjected to the action of strong sulphuric acid ; 3, a fiber on which 
was first placed a drop of a strong amber-colored solution of tincture of 
iodine, followed by a drop of commercial muriatic acid, and immediately 
afterward by a drop of concentrated sulpburic acid. In consequence of 
the combinations of the sulphuric acid with the water of the muriatic, 
the liquid boils two or three seconds, and by this chemical action the 
cellulose or cotton fibers are quickly changed in their structure and 
chemical composition. When viewed under a power of about 100 diame- 
ters, the fibers will be found to have been reduced to a starchy condi- 
tion, and in many cases will appear in the form of disks or beads of 
a ' well-defined blue color ; 4 represents a fiber of flax in its natural 
condition ; 5, when treated with concentrated sulphuric acid ; 6 and 7, 
when acted on by the tincture of iodine and acids, as described in the 
case of cotton fibers. Membraneous cellulose and also amorphous may 
be stained blue in the same manner, but they retain their original forms. 
To illustrate this, saturate a few grains of bleached flax in commercial 
muriatic acid, then add, by degrees, concentrated sulphuric acid, and 
stir the mixture with a glass rod until the mass becomes pulpy or par- 
tially dissolved ; then add to it an excess of water, and let it stand for 
several hours to allow the cellulose to precipitate, after which decant 
the clear water. This process of adding water or washing must be re- 
peated several times, or until the solution has no acid taste, when the 
pulp will be ready for future experiment. If a portion of the pulp be 
viewed by a power of about 100 diameters, it will be seen to consist 
mostly of amylaceous precipitated matter, (amorphous,) void of organic 
structure, combined with partially-dissolved flax fibers. If it be ground 
wuth a glass spatula, and viewed again, it will be seen that the only 
change effected is the reduction of the size of the particles of flax, no 
starch like bodies being observable ; but if there now be added to it one 
drop of the tincture of iodine, one of muriatic and one of sulphuric acid, 
blue globular and starch-like bodies will be formed from the undissolved 
flax. That portion of the flax fiber. which was rendered soluble in the 
acids, and precipitated on the addition of pure water, is amorphous cel- 
lulose, and remains structureless. If the pulp so treated be ground 
again with a spatula while combined with these solvent acids, a much 
greater variety of these globular bodies will appear, llotatiou and a 
solvent solution are all that is necessary in this case to produce these 
artificial starch-like granules in abundance. It will be observed that 
these amylaceous granules are formed from two distinct causes. The 
first mentioned results from the expansion of the disks described, and 
the second from the action of the soluble acids, assisted by the rotation 
of the partially-dissolved flax particles. 

The spiral cellulose vessels of the ovaries of the blossoms of fruit 
and tender leaves of the beech are stained purple and sometimes pale 
blue ; but those of fruit-tubers and matured Ibliage are stained brown. 
The first is of the amylaceous, the second of the woody type. The 
larger proportion of the cellulose structure of the nutritious fruits, foli- 
age, and grasses is easily converted into starch, and ultimately into 
sugar, by chemical means, and by animals when used as food, and are 
known as carbohydrates. The mycelium of microscopic fungi consists, 
for the most part, of cellulose; and, although the fungi are very low 



Efg-1- 




Akimal iKD Vecrtable Cellulose tm> Starch. 



MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS. 191 

forms of plant-life, they are not only the principal formers of some of 
the organic acids, as tho^ acetic, but they grow to maturity in them; 
while the woody cellulose of the higher plants dissolves in the acetic 
ferments and becomes food for the cryptogams. Some varieties of myce- 
lium take the blue stain by iodine and sulphuric acid, while other kinds 
are turned of an amber-color by the same tests. 

When gun-cotton, a nitro-cellulose body, is treated very frequently 
with the iodine and acid tests, as described in the experiments with 
cotton and flax, it becomes yellow or amber-colored ; and when the fine 
sawdust of box-wood is similarly treated, it appears, when viewed 
under the microscope, of three colors, amber, green, and blue : but the 
latter color appears in very small quantities. Chitine, the cellulose of 
insects, is stained yellow, and is supposed by some chemists to be com- 
bined with nitrogen. Color cannot be relied on wholly as a test for 
cellulose, since it assumes so many colors under treatment with iodine 
and acid. The following colors are frequently observed when treating 
cellulose and starch with iodine and sulphuric acid: Purple, bluish- 
purple, green, yellow, amber, reddish-amber, pale-blue, deep-blue, and a 
translucent amylaceous white. When starch is acted on by sulphuric 
acid alone, it dissolves, and is partially carbonized. 

In making investigations on animal tissues, viscera, and blood, I have 
endeavored to ascertain the condition of the cellulose in them, whether 
it is tubular, membraneous, or amorphous. If a portion of brain is 
bruised, and combined with iodine and the acids mentioned, so as to 
produce the boiling heat, amber, purple, and blue colored forms are 
frequently seen, particularly so when the brain of a herring is used in 
the experiment. Crystalline plates are frequently seen in the brain of 
a calf, and are without color until subjected to the action of iodine and 
sulphuric acid, when they become blue. These plates are known to be 
cholesterine. In ray experiments on the heart, liver, muscles, &c., of 
the higher animals, I never fail to detect structural cellulose in them. 
8, 9, and 10 represent some of the forms found under chemical action ; 
1, Fig. 2, is similar; 2 and 3 and the other forms of this plate are pro- 
duced from 1 by using extra acid, and sometimes by slight friction. In 
animal tissues and viscera, a great variety of cellulose and tubular forms 
may be detected in various stages of color, which are not represented by 
the cuts. To be successful in tl^ese experiments, a great deal of perse- 
verance is necessary, as the animal cellulose is well protected by the 
other substances present, which Irequently resist the tests applied until 
they are repeated several times. Fresh animal tissues, viscera, &c., 
should bo used in making preliminary examinations. 

Since writing the foregoing, I have made some new experiments on 
human arterial blood taken directly, from an artery, and also on the 
mixed blood of a fowl. In each ciise, well-defined amylaceous matter 
has been detected. 

The fresh blood of a fowl was whisked •with a fork to separate the 
fibrine from the liquid portion. The fibrine was next dissolved in dilute 
caustic potash, to which was added acetic acid until the precipitate 
ceased to form ; a portion of it will ultimately float on the top ; remove a 
portion of it bv means of a clean gltiss rod, and place it on a microscopic 
slide; add to it one drop of transparent solution of tincture of iodine, 
followed immediately by one dropol concentrated muriatic or nitric acid; 
then examine it caretully under a power of about 150 diameters lor 
starch; if it is present, it will appear in granules of a blue or purple 
color. At this stiige t)f the process, these chemicals will not convert 
amylaceous cellulose into starch, even if present. To the same mixture. 



192 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

provided muriatic acid and iodine only have been used, add one drop of 
concentrated sulphuric acid; place a glassdisk over the contents, and blue 
amylaceous matter in various forms will probably be found; but should 
there be an entire absence of blue color, and opaque brown particles ap- 
pear, remove the disk and apply the chemicals again as before. Should 
too much sulphuric acid be employed, the whole coloring mass will be 
dissolved. The amylaceous matter present at the same time appears, 
when superfluous sulphuric acid is used, in white transliicent bodies, 
dissolving in streaks ; but the proper admixture of iodine Isolution with 
muriatic and sulphuric acid will give the desired results. Many experi- 
ments will need to be made by microscopists before sufficientexpertness 
and satisfactory results can be obtained. That portion of the blood 
which remains after the fibrine has been removed from it has been ex- 
amined for starch granules, but none were found ; when tested for amy- 
laceous cellulose, a trace of it appeared. I conclude, as a result of hun- 
dreds of experiments, that amylaceous cellulose is combined with the 
fibrine of the blood, arterial and venous, and may be detected in even a 
minute portion of it, in the manner described. 

NilTic acid and tincture of iodine will detect starch in very minute 
particles when muriatic acid and iodine would fail. But nitric acid can- 
not be employed to advantage with sulphuric acid and iodine tincture 
when the object is to detect cellulose only. 

Hydrated cellulose. — It has long been remarked that, under the 
influence of acids, cellulose becomes extremely friable. Paper bleached 
with a too large excess of chloride of lime, and linen submitted to the 
action of sulphurous acid, which transforms itself into sulphuric acid, 
may, by the least pressure, be reduced to powder. M. Girard, after 
a series of elaborate experiments, concludes that this transforma 
tion is duo to the fixation of an equivalent of water by the cellu 
lose, and he has produced the hydrate synthetically. It is a white 
substance, very easily pulverized^ M. Girard considers that this hydra- 
tion of cellulose plays an important part in the economy of nature, 
and that the production of rotten wood, of ulmine, and ulmic acid is 
always preceded by that of the newly-discovered hydrate. 

Schafier, (Ann. Ch. Fharm., clx., 312,) from his analyses of the man- 
tles of the PyrosoTnidcdj SalpidcD, and Fhallusia mamillariSj finds that 
the cellulose, or tunicine, * derived from them is identical with 
vegetable cellulose. The mantles, after being boiled in a Papin's 
digester to remove chondrin, were treated with dilute hydrochloric 
acid to remove the inorganic constituents. These consisted of calcium 
sulphate, sodium sulphate, and traces of iron, calcium carbonate, and 
calcium phosphate. The mantles were then boiled for several days in a 
saturated solution of caustic potash, and subsequently washed with 
alcohol and water. The mantles so treated retained their original form, 
but had become transparent like glass, but not horny, as Berthollet 
found in Cynthia papUlata. .The substance thus obtained is quite free 
from nitrogen, and contains 44.09 per cent, carbon, 6.30 hydrogen, and 
49.61 oxygen. 

With iodine and sulphuric acid it gives a violet color like vegetable cel- 
lulose. It is soluble in ammonio-cupnc oxide, from which it is precipitated 
like cellulose by acids. The precipitate is soluble in dilute hydrochloric 
acid, and gives the cellulose reaction with iodine and zinc chloride. It 
is converted into sugar by prolonged heating with dilute sulphuric acid 
in closed tubes. Like vegetable cellulose, it is converted into pyroxyline 
by the action of fuming nitric acid. The mantles so converted into 
pyroxyline retain their form, but are very brittle. They are soluble in 



MICROSCOPIC OBSEBVATIONS. 193 

ether, which, on evaporation, leaves a film like tbe ordinary collodion 
film. These reactions leave little doubt of the complete identity of 
animal and vegetable cellalose. 

CRANBERRY ROT AND SCALD, 

It has been suggested by several correspondents of this Department 
that an application of lime to the decaying vegetable matter composing 
cranberry bog-lands would increase fermentation rather than prevent the 
evil, and that the application of some other substance would probably 
prove more suitable for the purposes required. The action of Ihne on 
cranberry land differs materially from its action on farming land in 
general. Cranberry lands vary exceedingly in their conditions. I have 
found, for example, in New Jersey undecomposed peat-bogs six feet 
thick, charged with sulphureted hydrogen and organic acids. On such 
soil, cranberry- vines grow vigorously, and become heavily matted. The 
bloom is plentiful and the fruit grows in profusion, but under continual 
high temperature and drought fermentation is induced in the berries, 
and the cranberry '^rof succeeds. On the other hand, I have found a 
cranberry plantation having a soil of well-decomposed peaty matter six 
feet thick, and free from all disagreeable odor. ' Other conditions were 
also favorable to high culture, such as a plentiful supply x)f cool water, 
and cool breezes during hot weather. 

Other plantations presented conditions entirely different from these. 
At Pemberton the cranberry-vines are planted mostly in black sand, a 
soil composed of pure white sand and a small portion of peaty matter, 
amounting to only 2 J per cent, of the latter. This soil, when sufllciently 
moist and subjected to a proper temperature, is quite favorable to cran- 
berry growth, and proves veiy profitable; but during long droughts 
and high temperature the berries, even gn this soil, also rot. In the ab- 
sence of moisture, the roots fail to sustain the organic functions of the 
berry, and it becomes subject to the same kind of decay and rot that 
are observed when a healthy berry is removed from a healty vine and 
subjected to high heat of the sun. This fact is well understood by cran- 
berry-growers. The soil which accumulates in old mill-ponds differs 
irom the foregoing. It is composed mostly of decomposed leaves, moss, 
and similar substances, being a well-decomposed vegetable sediment, 
most of which had probably fermented in the forest before it was washed 
by rains into the ponds. By draining the water from these ponds grad- 
ually, the sediment consolidates into the condition of humus matter. 
Sometimes large trees in a state of fermentation are found in the 
bottom of mill-ponds, and bad soil and rotting berries have always been 
found in their immediate neighborhood. Pure sand, in some cases, has 
been used successfully in cranberry-culture when irrigated with cool and 
running peaty water: and so also clayey sand, but with indifferent 
success. In one case I found a condition of soil differing from all these. 
It consisted of " black sand," or " savanna," as it is sometimes called, 
and had on its surface about three inches of a heavy, undecomposed, 
fermenting peat, which had been spread over it by artificial means. 
Lastly, cranberry-land sometimes consists of a thin layer of well-decom- 
posed peat, six to eight inches in depth, but rendered uSeless by being 
charged with back-water from adjacent fermenting bog-land. 

In the use of lime, under such conditions, science and common sense 
must be exercised. In tbe first place, a bog consisting of six feet of fer- 
menting muck, with a poor supply of pure running water, cannot be 
easily brought into the condition of pure humus matter by the use of 

13 A 



191: RKPOUT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

forty bushels of liiuc to tho acre. This amount will prove beneficial, 
and if the foUowiuix season should have favorable climatic conditions, 
and .'uklitional applications should be made, more satisfactory results 
may be expected from its use than would occur without it; but if a 
long drought and high temperature should follow, the value of the lime 
would not be appreciable ; and yet the same amount applied to a thin 
layer of fermenting peat, with a proper supply of water, would give 
marked and valuable resalts. The application of lime to well-decomposed 
peaty matter or humus will not cause fermentation, but simply oxidation, 
producing a class of organic acids highly beneficial to plant-growth, 
being always combined witti more or less ammonia. The application 
of caustic lime or carbonate of lime, especially the former, to savanna 
laud, may generally be considered as injurious to it in the absence of a 
liberal supply of water charged with soluble humus matter ; because 
the lime, whether caustic or otherwise, will soon destroy by oxidatioa 
the small percentage of vegetable matter contained in it. The savanna 
lands of the Cranberry Park Company, at Atsion, N. J., have a 
bountiful supply of i)eaty water at command, and the sour portions may 
be safely treated with lime in any form, while the savanna-lands, near 
Pemberton, in the same State, require very different treatment. All 
the land in that neighborhood which I examined was in a healthy con- 
dition, and free from sour acid odors; but some mode of irrigation will 
be required to keep the soil moist during long droughts. The applica- 
tion of sulphate of lime, (land-piaster,) which absorbs water from the 
atmosphere, would be more favorable for such land. 

It is acknowledged that the savanna lands have a great tendency to 
be impoverished quickly under cultivation. I would recommend the 
adoption of the following mode of ameliorating such land : Take any 
quantity of heavy peat-muck, and make a compost of it with quick- 
lime, turning it over frequently, and allowing the full action of the at- 
mosphere on it. Frost will tend to pulverize it, while high temperature 
will favor fermentation, destroying its albuminoids. The lime will neu- 
tralize its tannic acid, and allow the proteine compounds preserved by 
it to pass through the stages of decomposition, converting the vegeta- 
ble mass into humus matter. Any excess of lime will combine with the 
acetic and other organic acids present, neutralizing them. The whole 
mass, when dry, should be pounded or reduced by a rolling-machine to 
the form of powder, and spread over the surface of the savanna lands. 
Such a course should have been taken to improVe one of the extensive 
plantations near Tom's Eiver, alluded to in my previous report. 

There is much evidence to show that the roots of the cranberry-vine 
succeed best when planted.in loose, porous soil. While traveling over 
the highly-cultivated plantation of Joseph C. Ilinchman, esq., he pointed 
out a number of barren spots and strips of land, which in former years 
had proved as well adapted to the growth of the vine as any other part 
of his land. Mr. Hinchman stated that persons who rere employed in 
picking the berries would frequently draw heavy boxes over the vines, 
and in this way compact the sand or soil around the roots. In other 
cases, they would form in groups, and sit on the cranberry- vines when 
taking their meals. In all such places the vines ceased to grow thriftily. 
Mr. Paniel E. Gowdy also remarked that he could not account for the 
comparative barrenness of the land on the edges of his artificial water- 
courses. He said that formerly the vines grew in profusion on them, 
yielding fine crops of berries. On comparing the edges of the water- 
courses, artificial and natural, of Mr. Hinchman with those of Mr. 
Gowdy, a marked contrast appeared. On Mr. Hinchman's plantation, 



MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS. 195 

theproliisiou of vines and fruit growing on the margins of the stream 
was quite remarkable. On the banks of his principal stream, the run- 
ners often extended from one to two yards in length, and were fre- 
quently seen floating" on the surface of the stream, and bearing an 
abundance of ruby-colored fruit. When we take into consideration the 
fact that hundreds of persons pass over all the cranberry lauds during 
the picking-season, it need not be surprising should a diminution of the 
cranberry-crop occur from this cause. While making an examination of 
the cranberry-plantation of Joseph J. White, near JPemberton, N. J., I 
failed to detect the odor of sulphureted hydrogen in the cultivated soil, 
but under the trodden paths I found it in abundance. In this fact we 
have at once a proof of the value of a porous soil, which will not only 
allow its deleterious gases to escape into the atmosphere, but will also 
permit the atmospheric air to penetrate freely to the roots of the grow- 
ing vines. 

In company with a committee, I visited the cranberry-plantations of 
John Webb, of Jackson Township, Ocean County, who was doubtless 
the first cultivator of cranberries in New Jersey. Mr. Webb commenced 
his experiments about the year 1843, although having no practical 
knowledge on the subject, but relying wholly on such information as he 
gained from newspapers coming occasionally into his hands. Living as 
he did in an isolated place, a few miles from Cassville, with no capital, 
he was embarrassed with many difficulties ; still he persevered with his 
rude experiments, studying, as it were, instmctively the habits of the 
cranberry-plant, until success crowned his labors. On our arrival we 
found that he had just completed the plowing of his cranberry-bog. His 
plan consisted in throwing up light furrows of vines, one on the other, 
without allowing them to cover one another. I believe that Mr. Webb's 
plau would prove very successful if applied to some of the plantations 
I have described, as in the case of barrenness, and when polluted with 
fermenting matter and sulphureted hydrogen. Bog lands covered with 
clayey sand would be much improved by commingling it with the peat 
soil, and in this way removing the clayey sand from the immediate roots 
of the vines. In such cases, of course, the vines should be resanded 
with coarse, sharp, clean sand. 

Several members of the New Jersey Cranberry Association have 
expressed, by letters to this Department, a desire to know whether the 
color of the water on cranberry-plantations can be safely relied on as a 
test of the quality of peat-bottoms. Mr. James Fenwick, of New Lis- 
bon, one of the most noted cranberry-growers of the State, writes to the 
Commissioner of Agriculture as follows : 

I fear it may be thought by some that the st^itement which I made at the Cranberry 
Growers* Association that the water in my bog was highly colored, and yet for twenty 
yeare I had never had any rot, was designed to disparage the opinion of the Microscop- 
ist of the Department of Agriculture in regard to that disease; but it was not so 
intended. The association appeared to have the impression that colored water is 
the cause of the rot; an old idea started by some one who bad white water on his 
plantation, to the in^iry of those who had colored water. I wish to say that the 
tabors of the Microscopist in this investigation have been fully appreciated liy me, and 
that personally I am thankful to the Department for thorn ; but believing that the 
cause of the rot in cranberries in our pine region is generally owing to drought and 
high temperature, or flooding with heated or dead water, I am not disposed to change 
niy views in this respect, and am still of opinion that his idea as to the cause of 
the rot in Dr. Merriman's bog is correct, and that we are indebted to hira for it. Ilis 
recommendation to keep the water near the surface in irrigation is reasouable, because 
in drought poisonous substances, eonsisting of sulphureted hydrogen and organic acids, 
rise from below, and injure the plants. He has advised the use of lime. 

Professor Mapes and many others have recommended lime slacked with salt, which sub- 
stances produce, in the presence of decaying organic matters furnishing carbonic acid^ 



1D6 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

chloride of calcium nnd carbonate of soda in a cLoap form. Would not thcso substances 
be better tban lime alone t And^ in case of irrigation, would not a slow passage of water 
through the soil bo preferable to flooding ? Thus, suppose two ditches be made two 
rods apart; let the water be kept in them at a proper height to keep the ground moist, 
say one foot from the sui*face ; put another parallel ditch between them for a feeder, 
and keep the water up to the surface of the soil ; then there will be a motion of water 
through the soil toward the ditches on either side. In my judgment, this would .be a 
great ioiprovement on the present practice. It would supply moisture to the soil and 
have a tendency to carry oil' poisonous gases. 

If Mr. Fenwick will review tny papers published iu the Department 
Mouthly Eeports for October, 1874, and January and October, 1875, he 
will find that my views, in the cases cited, agree with his as regards the 
causes which operate to produce cranberry-rot. I also consider that his 
views relating to drainage and liming are worthy of experiment, and I 
hope that he will assist in giving an early trial of them, and report the 
results to this Department. 

The color of water on bog-land cannot be' relied on as a test of tlve 
quality of peat-muck, inasmuch as color may be derived from a variety 
of causes. Bicarbonate of iron is soluble in water, producing a brown 
color. The coloring-matter of peat is also very soluble in solutions of 
soda, potash, and ammonia, forming deep, brown-colored solutions, and 
the salts of these alkalies have also a slightly soluble effect ; while with 
caustic lime the coloring-matter is precipitated, giving colorless solu- 
tions, but the presence of sulphureted hydrogen in the soil will gen- 
erally indicate when fermentation is in progress. 

XJlmio compounds, or peaty matter. — ^The composition of peat or 
mold varies with the nature of the plants which produce it. Plants 
containing tannin give an acid mold, while those which have no tannin 
form a mild mold more favorable to cultivation. The organic principles 
which are found in mold are nlmic acid, free or combined; in the latter 
case forming soluble ulmates, which are absorbed by plants during 
vegetation, and a black subsfance soluble in water, and called extract 
of mold, to which humus owes its color. 

Although extract of mold is soluble in water, it should not be con- 
founded with ulmic acid. It acts, during vegetation, by aiding in rap- 
idly heating the soil which contains it, by absorbing moisture, by 
appropriating the elements of the atmosphere and of manures to form 
ammoniacal compounds, the nitrogen of which is easily assimilated by 
plants ; and, finally, by giving rise to carbonic acid, which is dissolv-ed by 
water. 

In this condition, carbonic acid favors the earliest development of 
plants before the growth of the leaves. It dissolves the otherwise insol- 
uble phosphates, and converts the insoluble earthy carbonates into solu- 
ble bicarbonates, thus enabling them to furnish to plants the lime and 
magnesia which they need. 

Braconnet was the first to observe that in treating wood with potash 
a black acid, comparable to humus, was formed, which he called ulmic 
acid. M. Chevreul also found that under the influence of the alkali the 
oxygen of the air is rapidly absorbed. Certain trees, and especially 
elms, exude a brown liquid, which, according to the observations of 
Vauquelin and Klaproth, is an ulmate of potash and ammonia. The 
action of potash upon wood has been examined by M. Peligot. It results 
from the observations of this chemist that when a mixture of sawdust 
and potash is heated to about 300^, water, hydrogen, oily products, and 
wood-spirit are disengaged, besides which carbonate, oxalate, formiate, 
and ulmate of potash are formed. Ulmic acid thus obtained will bo 
yellow if the temperature at vfhich the reaction takes i)lace is not too 



MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS. 197 

high ; but >vbeu the mixture is heated without precaution the acid is 
bkck. The final result of the decomposition of woody material by 
potash is carbon; and if the temperature were sufliciently high, hydrate of 
potash, acting as an oxidizing agent, might even cause the combustion 
of the carbon, in which case hydrogen would be disengaged. The yel- 
low acid has been called lignUumic axsid ; the black acid, called lignulmio 
aoidj forms with bases salts which have the general formula M O, C^' 

Lignulmic acid is brown, almost black; it is insoluble in water, 1)nt 
. dissolves in concentrated sulphuric acid. It is soluble in alcohol^ with 
alkalies it forms salts of a deep-brown color, which are uncrystalhzable. 
The other lignulmates are insoluble, and may be obtained by double 
decomposition. M. Malogati obtained a black crystallized acid by heat- 
ing on the water-bath for several hours a solution of sugar containing 
a small quantity of nitric acid. 

M. Mulder has published a work on these black acids, of the principal 
results of which the following is q, summary : 

When a solution of 22 parts of sugar and 1 of sulphuric acid in 40 
parts of water is heated to about 80^, a brown deposit is soon formed, 
which M. Mulder considers an ulmate of ulmine. This substance, treated 
with potash, yields ulmate of potash, and leaves a deposit of ulmine, the 
composition of which is C" H^^ O". Ulmate of potash treated with 
hydrochloric acid gives a brown, flaky precipitate of ulmic acid, which, 
being dried at 195o, is found to have the formula C*° H" O". 

When the mixture of sugar, water, and sulphuric acid is heated in a 
vacuum instead of under atmospheric pressure, a new compound is 
formed, which M. Mulder calls humate of humine. By acting upon 
this substance with a dilute solution of potash, he separated the neutral 
body humine, which has for its formula C^^ H^* O**. Humine is evidently 
derived from ulmine by oxidation, one equivalent of hydrogen having 
been taken from ulmine and replaced in humine by one equivalent of 
oxygen. Anhydrous humic acid has for its formula C** H^* O". 

Under the influence of an excess of acid, the preceding substances are 
changed into a black compound, insoluble in alkalies, the formula of 
which is C** H" O^ 

The compounds above described, treated with a current of chlorine in 
the presence of water, form a chloridized acid, which is represented by 
the formula C^ H" CI &^ H O, which M. Mulder named chlorohumic acid. 
Humate of ammonia, treated with chlorine, yields a compound still more 
highly chloridized, having the formula C" H*^ CP O". 

According to M. Mulder, the black acids which are found in peat^ 
in rotten moss^ and in arable soils^ are identical with ulmic and humic 
acids, which, in those circumstances, are combined with variable quan- 
tities of ammonia. 

•M. Mulder extracted from mold two acids in particular, crenic (C** H*^ 
O^*') acid and apocrenic (G^ H^^ O^*) acid, which had been discovered 
by Berzelius in the waters of Porta in Sweden, and in the ochreous 
deposits which furnish ferruginous waters. 

Tobacco which lias undergone fermentation for eighteen months, that 
• used for making snufl", for example, contains a considerable quantity of 
a black acid, which has not as yet been sufficiently studied, but which 
strongly resembles humic and ulmic acids in many of its properties. 

We see then, to sum up, that these black substances result from the 
decomposition of neutral substances under the influence of acids and 
alkalies, or by the action of the air or heat. They may be neutral or acid. 
They frequently contain hydrogen and oxygen in the proportion in 



w 



198 KEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

whicli tliose cleuicuts iiuito to form water. Those of them which com- 
bine with bases are to be considered as very feeble acids, which always 
form, with alkaline bases, colored and uncrystallizable salts. These 
acids, in their general properties, present a certain analogy to the resins. 

By acting on glucose with ammonia, either at 10(P and at the ordi- 
nary pressure, or in closed tubes and at different temperatures, M. P. 
Thenard obtained brown substances soluble in water and in alkaline 
solutions, which contain at least 10 per cent, nitrogen. 

Dextrine, gum, starch, and cotton treated with ammonia gave M. 
Schiltzenberger analogous results. Thus gum, heated with ammonia in 
a closed tube for forty-eight hours, gave a residue containing from 2.6 
per cent, to 3 per cent, nitrogen. Dextrine, heated under the same con- 
ditions for one hundred and sixty-eight hours, gave a substance which 
contained 11.5 per cent, nitrogen. — (Pelnze and Fremy.) 

As the successful cultivation of the cranberry depends much on the 
condition of the peaty matters of the bog-land used, it is imperative 
on those who desire to become successful growers to make themselves 
thoroughly acquainted with the chemical properties of peat<. Many sup- 
pose that it is necessary to have the roots of the cranberry -plant im- 
bedded in peat, losing sight of the fact that soluble and colorless fertil- 
izing compounds are formed from the decomposition of woody or peaty 
matters which are easily conveyed through sand to the roots. 

From the numerous experiments and observations I have made, I am 
convinced that the roots are injured by direct contact with decompos- 
ing or even well-decomposed i)eat. Fresh, moist peat, pressed on litmus 
paper, gives at once the reaction of an acid, even when a solution of the 
same will scarcely indicate its presence. Roots growing in peat have 
always a blackened color, although well washed, indicating the presence 
of an oxidizing agent; but when growing in clear sand over peat-bottoms 
or in gray moss, they are of a whitish or pale-yellowish color, indicating 
the absence of acid, and also showing a healthy growth. 

Some specimens of native peat, analyzed in the laboratory of the 
Department, have given a larger percentage of ammonia than some of 
commercial poudrette; and it is probable that the ammonia, disengaged 
from well-decomposed peat, existed in the form of a salt, and not as 
nitrogen in an albuminoid. In the form of a soluble salt, it would come 
in contact with the roots by the capillary action of the sand. It is in 
this way that peat-bottoms have their value under sand. A microscopic 
examination of the dark-coloring matter found on the roots, after all the 
mechanical coloring matters had been removed, showed that their sur- 
face was chemically changed, that is, carbonized. 

In accordance with instructions of the Commissioner of Agriculture, 
I attended the annual meeting of the Kew Jersey Cranberry Associa- 
tion, which met at the Tom's River, N^ew Jersey, on the 9th of Septem- 
ber last. It was composed of a large and highly intelligent* class of gen- 
tlemen, nearly all of whom are engaged directly in cranberry culture. 
The subject which principally engaged the attention of the members 
was the cranberry-rot and its remedy. The effects of manuring, irrigat- 
ing, salting, sulphuring, liming with gypsum and caustic lime, sanding, 
and the use of phosphates, were all discussed, aiMl various opinions ex- 
pressed as to their respective merits. 

The secretary of the society, Mr. A. J. Rider, stated that he had tried 
guano, phosphates, lime, plaster, salt, and sand, all of which had proved 
beneficial, with the exception of salt. The methods of application have 
much to do with the substances employed. Weak solutions of mann- 
rial compounds will prove of more value, when frequently applied, than 



MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS. 199 

tliose highly concentrated. Mr. D. 11. Gowdy said that he had used 
no fertilizer until the present year, when he spread GOO pounds of 
guano on five [teres of bog-land, but discontinued the use because he 
noticed tKat the vines were dying where the buckets containing the 
guano had been placed. Mr. Gowdy thought that he should piijk 1,000 
bushels this year wher<3 he obtained only 193 last year. Several mem- 
bers stated that the application of plaster, phosphates, guano, and lime 
has proved to be of great value in increasing the growth of new roots 
and vines, but that it is conceded by all intelligent cranberry-growers 
that an application of sand every four years to the extent of at least one 
inch in depth is much better. The object of sanding should not be mis- 
understood. It is simply to increase the growth of rootlets, branches, 
and leaves. It th^efore increases the necessity for the application of 
available plant-food, which should be experimentally and intelligently 
applied. 

It has been shown by an analysis made in the laboratory of this De- 
partment (see page 125, Monthly Eeport for February and March, 1875) 
that the cranberry contains insoluble silicates, lime, magnesia, peroxide 
of iron, phosphoric and sulphuric acids, chlorine, potassa, and soda. The 
new roots absorb these substances from the earth, and the leaves elabo- 
rate them into the proper food for the growth of the berries. 

Since making my investigations on the cranberry plantations of New 
Jersey and Cape Cod, I am convinced that the scald and rot, so-called, 
of the berry may arise from dissimilar causes, although chemically con- 
sidered they are practically the same, viz, the conversion of their starch 
into grape-sugar, a fermentable substance forming a nidus for the growth 
of fungi. All fruits have a tendency to decay more or less while grow- 
ing under unfavorable conditions, not only before but after they are con- 
siderably advanced in size, and especially while they contain their mini- 
mum of starch. In this condition, particularly during rainy seasons, the 
fruit contains its greatest percentage of gum, organic acids, and water. 
The fruit, under these conditions and high temperature, frequently fer- 
ments or rots. In such cases, I have always been able to detect the my- 
celium of fungi within the berries. In the early stages of the rot, the 
mycelium appears first on the inner surface of the skin, ^hen a por- 
tion of the rotting pulp is viewed under a power of about 300 diameters, 
its numerous ramifications are easily seen. I have frequently shown 
this fact to the cranberry-growers by the use of the microscope. 

At the request cf this Department, Mr. A. J. Rider, in August last, 
forwarded Sixteen samples of peaty matter taken from healthy and un- 
healthy cranberry plantations of New Jersey. One-half of the samples 
consisted of sub-soil ; the others of top-soil. Twelve were from the un- 
healthy and four from the healthy bogs. Solutions of all were made in 
pure water, and allowed to remain in a room at a temperature of about 
750 Fahrenheit for twelve days to settle and give time for fermentation, 
the object being to ascertain the presence of albuminoids in the solution, 
or solids present. The healthy specimens were taken from the bogs of 
the Bev. Isaac Todd and Mr. Newman, whose plantations are noted for 
their healthy condition, and on which rot has not been known for the 
last ten years. These gave perfectly pure solutions. The peaty mat- 
ters of these bogs are composed chiefly of small twigs and leaves, and 
are well rotted. Their solutions are colorless, and no infusorial or fun- 
goid scum appears on their sui-face. A specimen solution of Mr. Todd's 
peat has been in my possession over twelve mouths. It contains about 
half a pound of peat to a pint of water, but has given no indications of 
mold on its surface during all this period, while a solution of peat from 



200 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

an iiuliealtby bog standing: by the side of it during tbo samotime re- 
mained biglily colored, and a tbick scum appeared on its surface. Tbis 
scam was comi)oscd of inliisorial and fungoid mycelium and spores. 
The twelve solutions from tbe unbealtby bog-peat were moro'or less col- 
ored, some of them being tbickisb and soluble. These exhibited slight 
fermentation after standing twelve days. In fifteen days swarms of in- 
fnsoria appeared in the surface-scum when viewed by the microscope. 

In my first report, published in the monthly for October, 1874, J 
showed that the principal cause of cranberry-rot is improper cultiva- 
tion. In many casQS, the vines have been planted in fermenting peat- 
soil. But it has also been shown that high temperatures and great 
drought produce the same results, as was the case near Pemberton last 
year. There are many seeming contradictions as to the cause of cran- 
berry-rot, and some growers have lost all confidence in human judgment 
on the subject, and are disposed to leave the cultivation of the cran- 
berry to nature. The following will illustrate some of the principal 
facts which have led to great confusion of ideas among growers: H has 
a bog always covered with water ; his berries never rot. B, his brother, 
1^^ planted a bog, similar as to quantity of water, with vines selected 
from the plantation of H. After copious rains and hot suns, the berries 
of B rot while those of 11 remain in jjerfect condition, although grow- 
ing apparently under the same general conditions. This seems inex- 
plicable. But the bog of H is surrounded by high bluffs which pour 
out a never-ceasing supply of comparatively cold water. The roots are 
kept always cool, but not too cold for growth. The fruit is longer in 
maturing than that of some of the neighboring plantations difierently 
situated: but the berries of H ultimately become fully matured, very 
firm, and highly charged with starch. B has no high bluff's to supply 
him with cool water. On the contrary, his bog lies in an open plain, 
subject to the effects of a scorching- sun. The temperature of the water 
becomes too high for healthy growth, and his berries consequently suc- 
cumb to these unfavorable conditions. 

There is conclusive evidence that matured berries will grow only on 
matured vines. It is the experience of all growers that the berries of 
vines two or three years old, however large and beautiful, are not good 
keepers ; while the same vines when they become aged, under ordinarily 
favorable circumstances, will produce good- keeping fruit. As a general 
rule, it is found that the old healthy bogs produce the most reliable 
fruit. 

When at Pemberton last year, I expressed the opinion that the cran- 
berries growing in that neighborhood rotted from drought and high 
temperature. Nearly all of the soil in that district seemed to be free from 
bad odors 5 but, under converse conditions this year, rot of the berry 
occurred on the sjime plantations. One of the most intelligent growers 
of Pemberton informed me that the rot commenced immediately after 
the heavy rains of August. 

The cranberry-plant is very hardy ; its leaves are glossy, and strongly 
resist climatic changes. Its wood has a solid texture, and withstands 
very cold weather, although it may be killed by a severe frost. The 
roots, when planted in pure sand, or when growing in gray moss, have 
a translucent, whitish appearance, and are not easily broken. Unhealthy 
roots are of a dark-brown or blackish color, and may be ground into a 
pulp between the fingers. The blossoms and berries are, however, very 
much subject to blight or rot. When we take into consideration the 
large amount of water contained in the best varieties of the cranberry, 
it need not be surprising that inferior kinds should succumb under even 



MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS. 201 

slightly uufavorablo conditions. The following are the results of an 
analysis, made at the Department, of a dark-colored and hardy variety 
of the cranberry, taken from the plantation of Messrs. C. G. and E. W. 
Crane, of New Jersey, known as the Cape Cod Early Black-Bell : 

Moisture 86.50 

Organic matter 13.^ 

Inorganic matter 0.25 

The tuber of the common potato, which is very succulent, has only 
74 per cent, of water, and with that amount is very liable to ferment 
when subjected to a moist atmosphere followed by high temperature. 

When the cranberry is well formed, firm in texture, and ripening, 
sudden changes of conditious should be avoided, so as to prevent a 
renewalof root and wood growth when it is desirable to bring the berry 
to maturity. 

The following letter from Mr. Bishop, one of the most noted cranberry- 
growers of New Jersey, will be read with pleasure by all interested in 

cranberry culture : 

* 

Sm : In answer to your inquiries in regard to the cranJ>crry-rot on my plantations 
this season yX would pay that on the largo one caUed Oxycoccns, visited last year by 
Mr. Thomas Taylor, Mjcroscopist of your Department, I shall have a larger, perhaps 
much larger, crop of very fine fniit than I had the year ho visited it. 1 have found 
soft berries on several small spoto of the plantation, but not in snlBcicnt quantity to 
cause any serious fears of permanent jnjury. We had never noticed or thought any- 
thing about soft berries at Manahawkin until last seacon ; but the great interest now 
felt in this matter has caused us to inquire carefully into the past history of wild and 
cultivated bogs in our vicinity. We have recalled to memory two or three small spots 
of bog on this plantation which produced a few quarts each of soft firuit severol yeai*3 
since^ yet on those spots we have had fine fruit continually since that time. 

Mr. Charles Hinchman, of Taunton, was here about the first of the month, while I 
was absent. His experience is large, and his Judgment so good, that I always listen 
with interest to what he says about cranberry-culture. When he saw some berries on 
young vines growing on the hot dry sand which covered tlie peat, he said that the soilt- 
ness of the berries was not occasioned by the causes which usually produce the " rot,'' 
but was the result of the intense heat of the sun. On all my finest-producing beds of 
old vines, which have yielded hard fruit for years past, I remember that the vines when 
young produce soft berries, but after they became well matured and matted — say, when 
four or five years old — the fruit yielded was of good quality, and has continued to be so 
to the present time. 

While I cannot help feeling that the Microscopist has found the main cause of the 
"rot," I am still forced to believe that much of the soft fruit found on very young vines 
is the result of the very hot rays of the sun and moisture, independent of fermentation 
of imperfectly-drained bog-bottoms.* We are harvesting at present a very fine crop of 
cranberries. The fruit is larger, more highly colored, and more abundant than that of 
last year, despite the most unfavorable season for their cultivation that we have ever 
known. Cranberries taken from the vines, and left for two or three days on the black 

Seat along the ditches, would, in a short time, become throughly baked like apples that 
ave been cooked in an oven. 

Mr. A. J. Bider, secretary of the New Jersey Cranberry.Association, 
and an experienced cranberry-grower, writes to the Cemmissioner of 
Agricoltnre as follows : 

Dear Sm : I subjoin a few facts, drawn from experience and obser^'^ation, concerning 
the insect-enemies common to the cranberry. Those with which we have had speoial 
experience oro the grasshopper, cricket, vine-worm, and berry-worm. We have suc- 
ceeded in destroying these worms by thorough flooding. On a portion of the park 
cranberry lowlands, they at one time became very numerous in spite of the ordinary 
winter-flooding; but by removing the water ond exposing the lands for a few weeks to 
the rays of the sun in April, and then again submerging them, the worms were com- 
pletely destroyed. When water is not at command for flooding, we think they may be 

* This statement is doubtless true. There la probably a larger proportion of water 
in the vines and berries of young vines than there is in those of matured vines and 
berries of the latter. 'In grape-culture, it is believed that the grapes are not matured 
until the branches toe matured : ripe wood makes ripe fniit. 



202 REPOKT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

controlled by uifibt-fires oa the borders of the bogs at tbe period when the moth is 
ont. Many iiiotlm :iro destroyed by the flaoieSf but more p.re attracted away from the 
plan tat iou'^by the light, and do not lind their way back. 

Grasshoppers and cricltets have given us the most trouble. Their eggs, being imper- 
vious to water, cannot bo dcstroycn by winter-flooding. If they could be submorgea at 
the period of hatching:, wo have no doiibt that they would succumb ; but as the hatchiu^^ 
occurs at a j^eriod v.* hen the, vines arc in bloom and setting with fruit, flowing cannot 
be employed wii liont loss of tho crop. Poultry of all kiilds we have found very benefi- 
cial in Keeping tho grasshoppers in subjection ; but wo have found noonimal sufficiently 
shai-p-eyed to capture 1 ho hiding cricket cxct^pt tho Guinea fowl. Both the grasshopper 
and tho cricket are fearfully destructive, as the former attacks the berry when very 
small, and tho latter eats only the seeds at the time of ripening. 

If you can give us any assistance by way of remedy for these pests, we shall be greatly 
obliged. 

In the Third Annual Report of tbe New Jersey State Board of Agri- 
culture for 1875, page C6, the following statement appears : 

Thus far, the efforts of the New Jersey Cranberry Association to discover a remedy 
for the rot have been unsuccessful. Liming has not appeared to be in any degree 
effective. Both in regard to the malady and in the cure, or preventives suggested, 
there is a very wido range of opinion, based upon observation of localities having very 
great differences of conditions. 

It is doubtless true that the Cranberry Assooiation has fajled to dis- 
cover a remedy for the rot of the cranberry, and that among its members 
there is some difference of opinion as to its cause and cure. But it has 
been publicly acknowledged by the association that peaty fermentation 
of cranberry-bogs had never been considered a cause of cranberry -rot 
until it was demonstrated by the investigations of the Microscopist of 
this Department; and the leading cultivators of the cranberry in New 
Jersey have acknowledged by letter, from time to time, to the Gommis- 
'sioner of Agriculture the great benefit of his labors to the State of New 
Jersey; and, furthermore, at a late annual meeting of the association, 
the president stated that the investigations made by him (the Micro- 
scopist) would save hundreds of thousands of dollars to the cranberry- 
growers of the State. All this is wholly overlooked by tho writer. 

But *' liming [he says] has not appeared to be in any degree effective.'' 
The fact is that liming has never been ikorougldy tested. This statement 
may bo rather startling to some cranberry-growers, as it is well known 
that Dr. Merrman has used forty bushels of lime to the acre, and others 
have probably done as much. This leads to the question, For what pur- 
pose was the application of lime recommended f Lime may be employed 
to prevent the decay of wood and other organic substanceB, or it may 
be employed for their decomposition. We have esamples of the first in 
ships and wooden structures used in tbe transportation of burned lime. 
In these cases, tbe lime is in excess of the organic matters, and the 
moisture of tbe wood is absorbed by the lime, and all the proximate 
principles of tho wood are, in consequence, preserved; but if the con- 
ditions are reverse<l, and water and organic fibers are in excess of the 
newly-burned lime, the woody fibers will decay. Lime may be employed 
to reduce vegetable substances, to correct acid in tie soil, for the solu- 
tion of silica, or for tbe decomposition of salts of iron. The sulphate 
of iron is often found in peaty soils, in which case the lime would com- 
bine with the acid, forming sulphate of lime, and oxide of iron would 
be precipitated. But the main use of lime, as recommended to the 
cranberry- growers, is to correct the acid condition of the peaty soil. 
Had they, after a trial of one or two years, reported that the acidity of 
tbe soil bad been corrected, yet without practical results, such a report 
would supply a good basis for criticism ; but the cranberry-growers have 
made no such practical examination of the soil since the lime was 
applied, and they are not therefore prepared to make an intelligent 



MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS. 203 

report on tho subject. All that is asserted is that the berries on the 
newly-laid-out wet bogs rot as much os ever, while those on the superior 
old bogs do not. 

The value of lime to wet cranberry-land can only be ascertained by 
continued experiment, and a careful observation of results. 

The bad condition of the bog-lands was discovered by digging up tho 
subsoil, by its taste and smell, by chemical analysis, and by its compari- 
sou with soil known to produce uniformly healthy fruit. Some soils 
have been found so bad as to be practically irreclaimable. As has been 
stated heretofore, the composition of cranberry-land varies very much 
in New Jersey, not only as to its composition, but as to the quantity and 
quality of its peaty matter. It varies in thickness from 3 inches to 6 
feet. It is obvious that if forty bushels of lime are necessary to bring 
into proper cultivation 3 inches of bad soil, it would take 160 bushels 
for a bad soil 12 inches thick. 

But it has been found that an uncultivated bog near the plantation of 
Mr. N. H. Bishop, Manahawkin, N. J., which was 6 feet thick, was nearly 
devoid of sulphureted hydrogen odor and acid condition ^ and, with 
the bountiful supply of water at command, irrigation and sanding would 
supply all the elements necessary to successful cultivation. 

The black sand of the cranberry-lands of New Jersey contains about 
2J per cent, of vegetable matter. Where this is present, no lime l^hould 
be used ; but irrigation is always necessary. Th« report of the New 
Jersey State Board of Agriculture for 1875, page 28, gives an analysis 
of nine varieties of soil of that State, consisting of gneiss, magnesian 
slate, red shale, marl, soil of drift of South Jersey, soil of alluvium, 
sea-border, and soil of the tide-marshes. The organic matter contained 
in these soils is respectively 6.89, 5.62, 6.12, 7.46, 12.56, 1.90, 1.61, 4.14, 
7.45 per cent. 

But the soil of the cranberry-bogs on which lime has been applied at 
tho rate of forty bushels to the acre is composed wholly of vegetable 
matter. In the same report, i)age 63, appears the following statement 
of an experiment made with lime by David Petit, esq., Salem, N. J. : 

About twenty-five years ago, I had afield of the out-croppinpj of the middle green-sand 
marl-bed covered Trim Pennsylvania slacked lime, one hundred bnshels to tho acre, be- 
fore seeding with wheat. I was advised not to do so, that it wonld injare the crop, for 
lime applied directly to the wheat-crop would prevent its ripening, and cause it to 
mst. But the land beinpj of a dark color, and early, the crop was good, without rust, 
and I had a good stand ol young grass; but the next year the action of the lime with 
or upon the marl (although it was the poor out-cropping) was strong on the young 
clover, gave it such an impetus in growth that it shot up above tho timothy, then fell 
and smothered it out long before mowing-timo. It is stated by William G. Woodnutt, 
page 54, that he used nine hundred bnshels on one-third of an acre, for a compost for low 
meadow, to great advantage. He saj's : " Nine hundred bnshels on one- third of an acre 
will make nearly seventeen bushels to the rod, which wiU cover tho land an inch deep. 
If the land was plowed six inches deep, it would mako the compost ono-sovcnth lime. 
The result of tho compost when applied to the meadow was very satisfactory .'' 

The president of the West Jersey Agricultural and Horticultural Asso- 
ciation, Salem County, page 55, says: 

Our farmers are using lime freely. * * Tho quantity used per acre is from forty 
to sixty bushels of slacked lime. » * * Many use it thus : The strips of land where 
the lime lay in rows were plowed, lime and sod, under together. No result here till 
after years. In fact, its use seemed narrowed down to this : get the lime ou. 

Mr. William Statesir, esq., of Freehold, page 56, writes that he uses 
seventy-five bushels to the acre with advantage. 

Wo have evidence that, in the Connecticut River Valley, from two 
hundred to three hundred bushels to the acre have been used to ad- 
vantage. In this valley, doubtless, a large amount of organic matter is 
deposited yearly, and in this case a larger amount of lime may bo profit- 



204 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

ably used. In the iiiuo cases of auaylsis giveu^ tlie organic matter in the 
respective soils varies from l.DO to 12.60 per cent; the whole giving au 
average of about 5.84 per cent. The farmers use from forty to one hun- 
dred bushels to the acre with advantage. Now the cranberry-bogs will 
average probably eighteen inches of soil composed almost wholly of 
organic matter. If, then, seventy-iivc bushels are required to the acre, 
containing 5.84 (say C) per cent, of organic matter, how much should a 
cranberry-grower use whose peaty soil contains 75 per cent, f It would 
require 937^ bushels to the acre to equal that used by the New Jersey 
farmer; but, as a large portion of t*he soluble lime would be washed 
away annually by irrigation, one thousand bushels per acre would 
scarcely equal the farmer's application of forty or fifty bushels. 

But, fortunately, these calculations do not apply to all cranberry-lands, 
since some require little or no lime; and, as stated in a former report on 
this subject, the use of lime in some cases would be injurious. Irriga- 
tion and heavy sanding are all that is required in many cases for im- 
provement of soil and correction of acid. Each cultivator must be the 
judge as to the quantity of lime and irrigation required, guided by the 
condition of the roots of the vines and state of the soil. 

The investigations made by the Department of Agriculture will lead 
in all probability to better selections of land for this culture in the 
future; and in this way hundreds of thousands of dollars may be saved 
to the cultivators Of cranberries in the United States. 

Mr. H. A. Green, of Atco, K J., June 5, 1876, forwards to this De- 
partment several sheets of natural paper which grows on his cranberry- 
bogs. This paper consists wholly of the mycelium (spawn) of a ferment- 
ing fungus, demonstrating that the peaty matter of his bog needs lim- 
ing and irrigation ; and no stronger proof could be advanced in favor 
of the expressed views of the Department in relation to cranberry -rot, 
and the value of its investigations, than the growth of these matted 
sheets on the flooded bogs. 

We again recommend sanding, lime, and irrigation as the best means 
of improving cranberry bog-land. 

It has long been observed that some varieties of cranberries are re- 
markably good keepers, while others rot quicklj'^ ; and especially is the 
latter the case with the berries of young vines, although all the varie- 
ties of cranberry- vines prove very hardy as regards high and low tem- 
perature. An analysis made by a careful and able chemist would prob- 
ably demonstrate a great diversity in the proportion of the earthy 
matters in the vines and berries of even the best varieties. 

The long keeping of fruits doubtless depends, in some degree, on the 
assimilation of earthy salts during the process of growth. 

In support of the conclusion that lime acts as a direct food of our 
crops, is the fact that it is generally found in the ash of our cultivated 
plants, and that the earth, when absent or present in very small pro- 
portions in our soils, is beneficially added to them as a manure. The 
amount of lime present in the ash of various plants was some time^ince 
determined by Professor Way.* 

In 100 parts of the ash of the following plants, he found — 

Of tho grain of the creopLiig wheat C.76 

Of the Btraw and chaff : 7.46 

Of the grain of chevalier barley 1.48 

Of the grain of potato-oats 1.31 

Of thochaif of oats 8.65 

Of the grain of rye 2.61 

• Jmimal of the Royal Agricultural Society, vols. 7 and 9. 



MICROSCOPIC OBSEEVATIONS. 205 

It is noticeable that the amount of lime present in the ash of various 
specimens of wheat was the most c<insiderable — 8.21 per cent, in some 
Hoptoun wheat grown on siliceous sand, and that in another specimen 
of the same wheat grown on a chalk soil, the ash only contained 1.83 
per cent, of lime.* 

In the ash of various green crops, Professor Way found, in ICO parts, 
the following amo<int of lime : t 

Parts. 

Rod-clover hay 1^5. 02 

White-clovor hay 26.^2 

Sainfoin, (in flower) 24.30 

Sainfoin, (ineeod) 29.67 

Italian lye-grass, (in flower) 9.95 

Italian rye-grass, (in seed) 12.29 

Flower of hope, (mean of three specimenaO 19.33 

The amount of lime in the red and white clover did not vary in differ- 
ent specimens grown on siliceous or clay soils. It would have been rea- 
sonable to expect a large proportion of lime in the sainfoin, which flour- 
ishes best in a calcareous soil. The specimen, however, analyzed by 
Professor Way was grown " on a light gravelly loam, with a subsoil of 
gravel above chalky clay." 

In a ton of the ordinary roots and legumes (the entire plant) Profes- 
sor Way found the following amount of lime : f 

Ponnda. 

Turnip J 3.70 

Mangold 0.87 

Carrot 8.24 

Kohl-rabi, (bulb) 10.20 

Kohl-rabi, (leaves) 30.31 

Pease 2.28 

Pea-straw, (2,989 pounds) 86.80 

Beans 2.75 

Bean-straw, (2,270 pounds) 22.25 

So that, as the professor remarks of the roots, 20 tons of bulbs and 4 
tons of tops will require of lime — 

Pounds. 

Tomips 90 

Mangolds 21 

Carrots 197 

The ash of the various natural grasses was found by Professor Way 
to contain from 14.94 per cent, (the Phletim pratense) to 3.94 (the Alopc- 
curus pratensis ;) in that of the artificial grasses he found from 45.95 
per cent, (the Medicago sativa) to 13.40, (in the Achillea milltfolwnem.)^ 

It is noticeable that the amount of lime present in a plant varies con- 
siderably in its difl'erent portions. Thus, the ash of the Kohlrabi con- 
tains 10.20 per cent, in that of the bulb, but 30.31 in the ash of the 
leaves. The ash of the root of the carrot yielded 5.64 per cent, of lime, 
that of the leaves 24.04. The ash from the flowers of the hop 9.59 per 
cent., that from the leaves 30.73 per cent., that irom the vine 23.71* The 
ash of the potato analyzed by Professor Way contained in that of the 
tuber 4.50 \)er cent., in that of the haulm 29.8(). 

It is true that it is not as pnre lime that the earth is found in plants ; 
it is in combination with various acids, or chiefly as carbonate, phos- 
phate, or sulphate of lime. 

The action of lime when applied to soils abounding in inert, organic 
matter, like the peaty, is not only to furnish a supply of lime to the plants 
which tenant such soils, but caustic limetends to bringany dead vegetable 



» 



Jonrnal of the Royal Agricnltiiral Society, vol. 7, p. (K)i}. 
t lb., vol. 9, p. 139. t lb., vol. 8, p. 199. $ lb., vol. 2, p. 534. 



20G REPORT OF TUB COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

matters wbicb Ihey contain into a state of decomposition, so as to render 
them more soluble in water, and so more available as food for growing 
plants. It is in this way that we account for the success of the mixture 
of lime with the scrapings of ditches, collections of weeds, pond-mud, 
&c. This compound, after allowing it to remain in a heap for two or 
three months, I have alwaj^s found to be a very useful manure. 

In South Wales lime is extensivel.v used, especially when the stone 
from which it is obtained is plentiful ; but even where it has to be fetched 
twenty to thirty miles it is yet used in smaller applications. The ordi- 
nary .amount employed varies with its price, from 60 to 250 bushels per 
acre. 

BLACKlOs^OT. 

In the bulletin of the Bussey Institution for 1870, page 449, the fol- 
lowing appears : Tlie best, and, so far as we know, the only correct, 
statement of the etiology of the black-knot was made by Mr. C. H. Peck, 
who, as wo have already remarked, was the first to describe the conidial 
state of the fungus. He also first showed, definitely, when the ascos- 
pores ripened, and correctly reasoned that the knot was caused by the 
Sphccria morbosa^ and that the fungus on plums and cherries was the 
same. 

In a letter written by Mr. C. H. Peck, dated Febiiiary IG, 1874, and 
addressed to Dr. Vasey, Botanist of this Department, the following par- 
agraph appears : 

Mr. Taylor, Microscopist of your Department, iu his .irticle on black-knot, has de- 
monstrated one fact of which I am glad, though I fear bo has done it unwittingly. 
His Fig. 6 shows conclusively the connection between the Cladosporium and the spbseria; 
a connection wbicb I have long suspected, and to wbicb I refer in my papers on this 
subject. 

And in a letter addressed to Mr. Taylor, dated Albany, March 9, 1874, 
Mr. Peck says : 

I am much interested in your investigations of the black-knot, and thank you for 
your favor of the 6th instant. 

The chief part of the excrescence is, without doubt, made up of the tissues of the 
host-plant, as shown by your specimens, and this unusual development of the tissues 
roust have been a cause, which, I believe, should be sought in the irrigating or stimu- 
lating influence of the mycelium of the fungus. This need not necessarily permeate 
the whole mass, for it is well known that the egg of an insect, deposited in the tissues 
of plants, sometimes causes an excrescence very many times larger than itself. Mr. 
Vasey kindly sent me the Report of the Department of Agriculture for January,^ and I 
was glad to see that your Figs. 5 and 6 show the actual connection between the Clado- 
sporium and flooci, * ^ * a connection which I had long suspected, hut had never 
actually detected. 

These flood often bear sporc-liko bodies, which, in such like cases of dimorphism, 
disappear by the time the true spores are perfected. Doubtless the specimen you fig- 
ure was young or, for some reason, sterile. 

Yon will find the real spores of the sphsoria in sacks, included in the perithccia. 

Fig. represents a typical specimen of a parithecium of black-knot. 
XJ the sack which contains the sporidia* T. These sacks (ascit) con- 
tain eight sporidia. When the perithecia are submitted to the action 
of nitro-muriatic acid they become translucent, and their cellular struct- 
ure is seen as represented. 

* Sporidia reproductive cells produced within the asci. 
t Asci are sacks contained within the perithcoL 



PLATE XV. 

6 



Black-kkot 

Of thePlDm uid Cherry tre«a lSplurTiamt/rtiota,Sc\i\rtia\al, 



g- 



THE SHEEP AND WOOL OF THE WORLD. 207 



THE SHEEP AND WOOL OF THE AVORLD * 

By J. R. Dodge. 
INTRODUCTION. 

ProGB£SS of the CENTUKY in SHEEP-ltAISING J EFFECT OF* CIRCUAISTANCES IN MOD- 
IFYING breeds; Growth of demand for wool and of supply. 

• 

1. The sheep, first amoDg animals to be domesticated for the service 
of nomadic man, is ot eqnal utility to the human race under the highest 
civilization ; and /the record of progress in that civilization in thti past 
century marks a similar stride of improvement in the laces of sheep. 
The flocks of a hundred years ago would be discarded to-day, even by 
the sheep-masters of the South Ameiican savannat^ or Australian hills, 
as practically worthless. They yielded a fleece smaller and of inferior 
quality,' with less meat ; were comparatively scrawny and ungainly in 
appearance, with long legs snited to a nimble search for food; and they 
required a longer period for growth and development. The change has 
been one in harmony with the practical aspects of recent general prog- 
ress by which the fleece has acquired evenness, the fiber adaptation to 
the popular want, the carcass a larger proportion of profitable meat, 
with growth and maturity quickened to enable the nimble sixpence to 
surpass the slow shilling in the race for profit in meat-production. 

Such is the record of sheep-husbandry in this country. It is the same 
in Europe and in other parts of the world where the enterprise of the 
European race has assumed the control of wool-production ; and there 
is little furnished to the manufacturers of Europe and America that is 
not yielded to the care and capital of the European race. An examina- 
tion of the wool-bearing animals of the temporary show at Vienna, and 
of the still more extensive collections of wool at the great exhibition, 
illustrates the same phases of improvement which have characterized 
wool- growing in this country. 

2. Yet there are great difliBrences in the minor details of this improve- 
ment that are suggestive and instructive, illustrating the necessity of 
adaptation to all surrounding circumstances. These diflerencos not 
only constitute national peculiarities in sheep-breeding, but require the 
careful (Attention of the individual breeder who would make the most 
of his situation. In observing the methods of sheep-husbandry in difl'er- 
ent countries, and the quality and style of different breeds of sheep, 
the most obvious thought suggested is the governing force of circum- 
stances, of climate, soil, status of agriculture, and local demand for meat 
or wool, in forming the prevailing style of sheep, whether of grade or 
pure breed. The deduction is naturally made that the type of sheep 
found in any given locality is, therefore, the animal best suited to that 
region. Such a conclusion should be adopted very cautiously and with 
many limitations ; otherwise progress would be impossible. The f:ict 
that modification, change for the better generally, is plainly seen in 
nearly every distinctive kind of sheep found in the civilized and pro- 
gressive countries of the globe, to obtain meat of a better (luality, or 
more in proportion to feed consumed, or wool either in larger quantity 
or better adapted to the changing requirements of manufacture, should 

*A report to the Secretary of State as hoDorary commissioner to the Vienna Interna- 
tional Exposition, and to the Commissioner of Agriculture as (statistical commissioner. 



it 



208 KEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

be (Iccmod conglusive of the necessity of keeping abreast of the chang- 
ing conditions of sheep-hnsbandry. In a new country like ours, the 
sheep of which all owe their origin to flocl^s of foreign conntries, it is 
necessary not to look for guidance to the sheep accidentally brought 
into a particular section, but to the circumstances of soil and situation, 
of climate and culture, which affect production and profit. Yet we must 
not go to the other extreme and condemn as erroneous the practice of 
particular countries, differing from our own methods, which are usually 
in the main the best for those countries under existing circumstances. 

3. With the progress in manufactures tending to variety and cheap- 
ness, the increase of steam-carriage facilities throughout the world, and 
the advance in the wages of the various industries, there has been a 
constant and rapid enlargement of the demand for wool. In this coun- 
try the value of woolens manufactured has advanced from $4,413,068 in 
1820 to $155,405,358 in 1870. In England, in addition to the home- 
grown product, the foreign wool-supply has increased &om 8,609,368 
pounds in the first year of this century to 342,986,862 pounds in 1874. 
Indeed, the factory-system may almost be deemed the growth of the 
past century. During this period, the clothing of the masses in civil- 
ized countries has ceased to be the province of home manufacture and 
the product of hand-looms, and has been left to organized effort, aggre- 
gated capital, and improved machinery. Seventy years ago, two-thmls 
of the British imports of wool were from Spain, and nearly all the re- 
mainder from Portugal : now two-thirds of the importation is from the 
Australian antipodes ; but the Spanish supremacy of those days com- 
pares with the Australian superiority of the present as six miUions of 
pounds with two hundred and twenty-five millions ; and the total im- 
portation is nearly forty times that of the beginning of the century. The 
advance in the British consumption has been wonderful, yet the exports 
of wools, yarns, and other manufactures of wool have shown a great in- 
crease, amounting in ^declared valuation to £9,387,455 in 1816, and to 
£39,122,086 in 1872. 



CHAPTBE 1. 

THE INTERNATIONAL SHOW OF SHEEP. 

Extent A^'o character of EXHiBrrs; Plan of yakd; Prbdominancb of Meeudtoss; 
Number of entries frou various countries; Tendency to mutton-production ; 
British entries: German entries; Characteristics and grade of Merinoes; 
Austrian Exniuns op Merinoes and Cotswold Merinoes; Hungarian sheep; 
Russian shei:?. 

4. In connection witli the International Exhibition at Vienna, a tem- 
porary show of domestic animals of all nations was projected, to con- 
tinue from the 31st of May to the 9th of Juno inclusive. The coantries 
nearest the place of exhibition naturally contributed most liberally, and 
Austria, on account both of proximity and direct interest in l^e success 
of the efibrt, made the largest contributions. Hungary, as a branch of 
the Austrian Empire, x)romptly assumed the second position. The 
Empire of Francis Joseph actually supplied nearly six-tenths of the 
sheep, five-sixths^ of the cattle, and above six-tenths of the swine, 
Hungary alone sending nearly half of the latter class. The number of 
sheep entered for exhibition was 1,504, contributed as follows: By Aus- 
tria, 467; Hungary, 431; Germany, 377; England, 135; France, 69: 
Italy, 22; Russia, 3. Russia iiad only a single entry in each clasS; and 



THE SHEEP AND WOOL OF THE WORLD. 209 

America \yas unrepresented, as were Asia, Africa, and Australasia. 
This feature of the great international show was extremely interesting to 
the farmer and the naturalist, and especially to the woolen manufacturer. 

5. The display afforded an opportunity of comparing European breeds, 
such as few of the visitors had ever before enjoyed. The arrangement 
of the animals was systematic in the plan, which is presented in the 
accompanying diagram, (PL XVI,) but confused and unsatisfactory in 
its actual execution, making the work of the judges slow and difficult. 

G. The Merino families of sheep greatly predominated, as they do in 
all countries in which wool rather than mutton is the aim of the breeder. 
England, with a dense population to feed, and lands of liigh price, sent 
only long and middle wools. Germany contributed mainly Merinoes, 
thorough-bred and cross-bred, pure bloods and the ameliorated *Uand- 
sheep-' of the country, with a fair proportion of the various breeds of 
EngUsh mutton-sheep. France sent only the Eambouillet Merino, which 
is Sie nearest approach to the meat-producing types of Great Britain 
yet attained by the wool-yielding race of Spain. Italy was represented 
only by the Bergamask sheep, an ungainly race, bearing a medium wool, 
and characterized by long legs, long and pendulous ears, and white face 
and fleece. There were no living representatives of South America, 
Afirica, or Australia, but the wool from those countries in the expositipn 
was nearly all of the Merino type. 

7. The predominance of Merinoes of the various families was very 
marked among continental exhibitors. Of the 377 animals from Ger- 
many, 291 were of this blood; 27 were Southdowns; 26 Oxfordshires; 
8 Shxopshires; and the remainder Suabian, Franken, and '^Haides- 
Bucke." A still larger number of Merinoes, though not averaging so 
high in purity of blood and other points of excellence, are found in the 
Austrian contribution — ^not less than 322 being entitled to this distinct- 
ive name from the predominance of Spanish blood. The Southdowns 
appeared to hold the next place in public estimation, having 68 Austrian 
representatives, with a strong strain of Down blood in no less than 25 
placed in the Merino class, and Gotswold-Downs, Southdown-Paduaner, 
and Sonthdown-Birki. The Zackel race and '^Gadegast" sheep com- 
plete the list of 467 animals entered. Hungary presented 322 Merinoes 
and grades in a list of 431, the black Siebenbnrger, the Wallachian, 
Zackel, Zigara, and other natives, constituting the remainder. 

8. While this predominance of a single race is so evident, it is true 
that a tendency has been felt for years, growing stronger yearly, tow- 
ard a larger infusion of English blood, and a greater comparative im- 
portance to meat-production ; and the result of this exhibition, most of 
the English representatives being distributed for breeding purposes, 
yvi31 be a manifest strengthening of this tendency. The improvement 
of Merinoes, so marked in the last twenty years, has been in the direc- 
tion of larger yet more compact frames, enlarged flesh-taking capacity, 
and earlier maturity, with a coarser but heavier and more profitable 
fleece. Not less active than in the United States, for a generation past, 
has been the effort to mold the original flocks to suit the changed de- 
mands of the woolen manufacture and the pressing requirement for 
meat. The examination in detail of the material of the exhibition of 
the several countries will illustrate these aspects of sheep-breeding in 
Eu'tope. 

9. Englato). — ^The Southdowns take the lead in point of numbers, with 
4i) animals; 20 from the flock of Lord Sondes, Elmham Hall, Norfolk; 
and as many from the Merton flock of Lord Wfllsingham. The former 
represented a flock of 1,200 pure-bred Sussex Downs, founded in 1823, 

14 A 



210 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. v 

anil distiDguishcd for symmetry and thridiness. Tbey wero sold to ^o 
to Hungary, Galicia, North Germany, and Ihissia. The latter, from a 
flock of world-wide renown, were sold to the Archduke Albrecbt for his 
estates in Austria; to Count Fries, Ozernahora, Moravia: Baron Mag- 
nus, Dresha, Saxony ; and to breeders in Russia. The Elmham Hall 
raras yiehl fleeces of 8 to 10 pounds, and those of Mt»rton Farm are quite 
as heavy. 

The Cotswolds numbered 26 in three entries. Those from the Agricul- 
tural College Farm, Cirencester, Gloucestershire, 113 in number, ref)rc- 
senting a flock of 200 ewes and 00 rams and ISO tattening-sheep, illus- 
trated well the especial aims of breeding at the college-farm, viz, a 
heavy fleece, depth of flesh, and great hardiness. The fleeces weigh 
from 13 to 20 pounds. The rams are in great request for cross-breeding 
with Southdowns, Hampshires, and mountain-sheep, to give length to 
the fiber and weight to the fleece. There wero also eight from Mr. T. 
Beale Brown, Salperton Park, Gloucestershire; and six from Thomas 
Fulcher, Elmhall, iforfolk. 

There were 13 tine Hampshire Downs from Messrs. Eobert and John 
Russell, of Kent, producing fleeces averaging pounds, and 10 long- 
wools yielding an average of 15 pounds. From Lord Chesham's flock 
of 350 Shropshires, in Bucks, came nine representatives, with 12-pound 
fleeces. Two fine Oxfordshire rams, bred by Mr. John Treadwell, Bucks, 
valued at £20 each, represented a flock of 700, of which the ram-fleeces 
usually weigh 18 pounds. There were some fine sheep from Lincolnshire, 
. improved by crossing, for the production of long, lustrous combing wool, 
with fleeces weighing from 15 to 20 pounds. 

The English section of the exhibition attracted much attention and 
ready purchasers. Seven of the Shropshires of Lord Chesham, 6 ewes 
and 1 ram, went to the estate of Baron de Rothschild, at VVitcham, for 
j£100. Two rams of the same flock were taken by the Due de Coigny at 
£iO each. The Hampshire Downs and Kentish Lougwools, of the Messrs. 
Russell, were scattered through Prussia, Austria, Hungary, and Russia. 
The Lincolns, of the Messrs, Dndding, were all sold, some bringing £40 
each, to Germany, Hungary, and Italy. 

10. Germany. — TheMerinoes of Germany have beeu greatly modified 
in later years by crossing, so that it might be impossible to find a flock 
with the precise characteristics of twenty years ago. though bearing 
the same name. The Electoral, Negretti, and Rambouillet are mingled 
according to the whim or judgment of the breeder, the better to suit 
his views of the demands of the market for wool or meat, and the result 
is the loss of the distinctive character of the originals. It might be 
impossible to find at the present day a counterpart of the Saxon ram of 
the Electoral-Escurial blood, an engraving of which (PL XVII) is repro- 
duced here from the United States Agricultural Report of 1847, as 
drawn from nature by Charles L. Fleischmann, esq. The spindle legs 
have been shortened, the flat ribs rounded, the bald head covered, and 
the very fine super-Electoral fleece has been displaced by longer, coarser, 
and more abundant wool, which brings more money at a slightly re- 
duced price per pound. This was the prize-ram of Von Thaef's flock, 
one of the best and most highly improved in Germany. The wool was 
of excessive fineness, very short in staple, though not of full length 
when the drawing was made in August. The folds and wrinkles so 
fashonable since, were even then deemed desirable as indicative of a 
large proportion of fleece to live weight ; indeed, we are told that the 
Spanish shepherds were wont to kill the tight-skinned lambs of the 



THE SHEEP AND WOOL OP THE WORLD. 211 

best flocks, fearing their influence in producing light and thin fleeces. 
Nor would it be easy to find the Kegretti typo of those days. 

11. The Merino of the present day, whatever its name, is a producer 
of a good quality of cloth-wool, is compactly and strongly built, with a 
head of good breadth and medium length, a short, full neck, a straight 
back, round barrel, and good breadth of shoulders and rump. The pres- 
ent flocks represent usually the grades of wool between the Prima and 
Electa, of the following scale of degrees of fineness, viz : (1) Prima, (2) 
Supcr-Prima, (3) Electa, (4) Super-Electa, (5) Super- Super-Electa. In' 
Saxony seven degrees have been recognized, an additional "super" is 
employed, while -'Secunda'' comes in below Prima. The heads, belly, 
and feet of approved types are well covered, and evenness of fleece 
is deemed an important consideration. The wool is of medium length 
and fineness, nearly uniform upon all i)arts of the body, the fiber closely 
set, and the " closure -' of stubble as nearly perfect as possible to pro- 
tect the fleece from dirt. 

12. A brief reference to the prominent breeding-flocks represented in 
the exhibition will indicate the status and tendency of wool-breeding in 
Germany. Among the best Merinoes exhibited, though bearing fleeces 
remarkable for weight rather than fineness of liber, were those of the 
flock of Herr Robert Gadegast, of Thai Oschatz, Saxony, which includes 
1,000 animals kept as breeding stock, the males yielding fleeces of 8 to 
10 pounds, the females clips of 4 to 5 pounds of close and even fiber, 
good felting property, with abundant yolk. 

The old flock of Herr R. Holtz, Saatel, Barth, Prussia, which has 
been in course of improvement for more than half a century, and now 
numbers 1,500 large sheep, good feeders, yielding a long fiber suitable 
for carding, was well represented. Washed fleeces average about 7 
pounds. This flock sprang from Kliphausen in Saxony, and in 1813 was 
transferred to Mecklenburg, and in 1817 to Pomerania. 

Herr 0. von Levetzow, Koppelow, Mecklenburg, from his flock of 800, 
founded by the Count of Halm-Remplin, contributed sheep of Spanish 
origin, with ewe fleeces of 6 to 9 pounds of fine wood. 

Among the stock noted for fineness of wool, the flock of Herr Rudolf 
Mens, Jordansmuhl, Silesia, presented fleeces of exceptional fineness 
weighing about 3J pounds. Herr Alfred von Radzinski-Rudno, of 
Lipton, showed Electoral shee|j of Prussian Silesia, from a noble flock 
of 1,000, bearing fleeces of superior fineness, with an average weight of 
3 pounds. 

Herr Ludwig Schroder, Buckholz, Brandenburg, Prussia, exhibited 
specimens of a carding-wool flock of full-bred Merinoes, originally ob- 
tained from France. 

A Silesian flock of 200 founded eixty years ago upon the stock of 
Prince Lichnowsky, and afterward crossed with Negretti rams, was 
represented by the entry of Count Arthur Prinzenstein, Hoschutz. An 
excellent quality of cloth-wool, weighing about 5 pounds per head, is the 
result of breeding on this estate. 

A notable flock, at times including 1,100 pure-bred sheep, owned by 
Herr Adolf Heinrich Steiger, Lentewitz, Meissen, Saxony, was represent- 
ed by eight fine animals. It has been bred for more than thirty years, 
without any admixture of blood, with reference to fineness, elasticity, 
and evenness of fiber. The original stock was imported from Spain by 
Prince Reuss in the beginning of the present century. The rams shear 
12 to 14 pounds ; the ewes, 5 to 6 pounds. 

An Electoral flock numbering 800, owned by Herr Wilhelm von Fon- 
taine, Upper Silesia, was represented by animals of large size, bearing 



^l^i KEPORT OF THE COMBIISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

llceecs of lino cloth-wool weighing 8 pouiuls. Auother large flock of 
Electorals, modilied by Negretti blood, which has been in course oi 
improvement for forty years with reference to perfection in evenness and 
iinencss, was represented in the entry of Herr Freiherr von der Ketten- 
burg, who keeps 1,000 in Schwetziu and GOO in Motgendorf. The clip of 
ewes averages from 4 to 5 pounds. The Electoral flock of 1,200 of Count 
Edward Oppersdorf, of more recent origin, yields fleeces weighing 5 
pounds. 

Specimens of a flock of 700 Electorals, springing from the Lehman 
breeding-fold, were exhibited by Herr 6. von Wiedbach, of Culm, 
Prussia, bearing fleeces averaging 5 pounds. 

Negretti flocks of considerable note were represented in the entries of 
Herr Robert Lehman, of Nitsche, Alt-Boyen, Posen; Count Kwilecki, 
of Oporowo ; and Count Michynski, Posen. The Lehman flock of 500 
ewes took high honors at the English and French expositions, and evi- 
dently has not lost prestige. Its fleeces average 5J pounds. It was 
founded forty years ago with stock selected from the finest Negretti 
flocks of Mecklenburg, Silesia, and Moravia, and has since been fortified 
with the best attainable strains of pure Xegretti blood. The Kwilecki 
fleeces are Sitill heavier, averaging G pounds. 

Among the breeders of Eambouillet Negrettis, Herman Kannenberg, 
Gerbin, Prussia, is prominent. This flock exhibited great evenness and 
elasticity of fleece, with fiber 2 j inches in length upon ewes and 3 inches 
upon the rams. Plate XVIII gives a good illustration of the style of this 
flock. The sire of this ram sheared 27 pounds of unwashed wool, which 
weighed 17 pounds after washing in hot water. The average weight of 
fleeces of the full-grown animals of this flock of GOO is 6^ pounds. 

A fine flock of COO Southdowns from the best English stock was rep- 
resented in the entry of Baron Freiherr von Magnus, of Dresha, Saxony. 
Herr F. Neide, of Seschwitz, exhibited some specimens of a new breed- 
ing-fold of 400 ; and Herr George von Schoenermark presented selec- 
tions from his flock, derived from Lord Walsingham's celebrated Merton 
Southdown stock. Herr G. Stahlschmidt, of Ganena, near Halle, Prus- 
sia, also exhibited representatives of a flock for fattening purposes, de- 
rived from the English stock of Lord Walsingham, Sir W. Throckmor- 
ton, and Messrs. Jonas and Henry Webb. Weight of fleeces, 8 to 10 
X>ounds. 

A flock of Oxfordshire Downs was shown by Herr Ernst Botcher, of 
Gross-Lafferde, Hanover, with fleeces averaging from 7 to 8 pounds. 
This breed was also exhibited by Herr A. W. Brauer, Skludzewo, West 
Prussia, who presented specimens of an Oxfordshire-Merino cross, with 
white logs and faces, and bodies much larger than their fine- wool pro- 
genitors, and a fleece intermediate in its characteristics. Herr A. W. 
Schon, of Brcstan, Prussia, entered specimens of his flock, originated 
with the design of furnishing full-bred Shropshires, for obtaining cross- 
breeds for fattening purposes. As might naturally be expected, flocks 
of comparatively recent origin, with unaccustomed management, feed, 
and climate, did not quite equal the appearance of the show-animals of 
Great Britain, which have represented the pride and gl«ry of sheep- 
breeding of the fast-anchored isle. In this fact there is no proof of the 
necessity of deterioration in the removal of mutton-sheep to German 
pastures. 

Among the native races were specimens of a small, active sheep, with 
horns and short tails, black faces, long wool of a brown color and heavy 
fiber, with a subcoat of fine down, exhibited by Herr H. Sprengel, of 
Schillcrslage, Bnrordorf, Hanover. They were catalogued as silver-^ay 



THE SHEEP AND WOOL OP THE WORLD. 213 

heath-sheep, (Haideschnucke,) from LuuebergCommou, on the north- 
eastern section of Hanover, south of the Elbe, and are easily kept and 
quite useful in cropping the scant herbage of those wild areas which are 
now being gradually brought under subjection of the plow. They may 
be considered a German counterpart of the Black-faces df the hill dis- 
tricts of England and Scotland. Perhaps the most appropriately-named 
natives, or original sheep of the countrj^, are those exhibited by Herr 
Philip Volcker, of Annweiler, Pfalz, Bavaria. They were characterized 
by a good degree of symmetry, a fleece of medium quality, white horns, 
white legs, and. black faces. 

13. AusTKiA. — The Austrian section of the exhibition was first in 
point of numbers,, and represented some of the largest flocks of Europe, 
mostly Merinoes. That of Herr Karl Eitter von Baratta, of Budischau, 
Moravia, numbers 3,000 head, bearing a fine, even, silky fleece, that of 
owes weighing 2^ to 3 pounds. A fine flock of about 600 Silesian 
Merinoes owned by Count Pranz von Bellegarde, and founded by Baron 
Torkbeim, of Moravia, produces wool of Electoral grade, averaging 3 
pounds per fleece. Herr Herzog von Coburg-Gotha exhibited specimens 
of his flock of 1,800 in Walterskirchen, and one of 1,600 in Durnkrut, 
Lower Austria. The flock of 1,200 pure bloods of Prince Liechtenstein, 
Feldsburg, Lower Austria, is a very old one and very useful in fur- 
nishing rams for the improvement of flocks of that portion of the empire. 
Count Thun-Hohenstein, of Peruc, Bohemia, from his highly improved 
flock of 1,800, exhibited specimens bearing average fleeces of 4 pounds 
of wool of super-electa and electa quality, such as obtained premiums 
at the London and Paris Expositions. Baron Albert Freiherr von 
E^lein, of Hennersdorf, Austrian Silesia, president of the Keltscban 
Sugar Company, showed his superior flock of Electorals, which has 
been bred pure since the flrst importation from Spain, 1770, up to 1865, 
at which date two rams from the Oschatz breeding-fold gave greater 
compactness and solidity to the body. 

A fine flock of 800 combing-wool Merinoes was represented by the 
entry of Prince Schaumberg-Lippe, Eatiboritz, Bohemia. These fleeces 
are very heavy, averaging 14 pounds of wool, which loses 58 per cent, 
in washing, and the fiber is of unusual length in Merino fleeces. 

A very noted Moravian flock of 3,000, that of Josef Maria and Emma 
Aresin, of Partschendorf and Erbcedlnitz, Standing, Moravia, was rep- 
resented by 13 fine specimens of original Kegrettis. The fleece must 
be deemed heavy, as the average of both sheeip and lambs together is 
3J pounds after washing in warm water, of so fine a quality as to com- 
mand an equivalent of a dollar per pound. They are in high favor 
among sheep-breeders of the Prussian states, Poland, Eussia, Austra- 
lia, and South America. 

Several entries by Prince Schwarzenberg and his son, of Bohemia, 
represented two Negrotti breeding-flocks of 1,000 each, in the domains 
of Frauenberg and Postelberg, which are used to improve the sheep 
of their estates in Bohemia and Hungary, numbering 25,000 or more, 
scattered over a territory of half a million acres. The writer had 
the pleasure of seeing the home-flocks at Wittingau in Bohemia, during 
the progress of the exhibition. The object sought in breeding is a 
fine, strong, marketable wool, and it has been obtained so fully as to 
secure first-class awards at national and other exhibitions, and satisfac- 
tory prices in the market. « 

A flock of 2,500 Electoral-Negrettis, bearing a fine elastic wool of 
comparatively heavy weight, the fleeces of ewes weighing 4 to 5 pounds 
and those of rams 7 to 8, was exhibited by Count Wallis, of Kollescho- 



214 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

witz, Bohemia. Some of ibe best rams of this flock were offered at GOO 
florins, or $300, each. A very g:ood ^egretti flock, owned by Connt 
August Fries, Ozernahora, Moravia, was represented by ewes offered 
for sale at 100 to 200 florins, and rams at 500 to COO florins. Another 
Negretti flock of 3,500, bred for abundant wool of much flneness and 
elasticity, was exhibited by Count Heinrich Dauu, of Skalitz, Mora\ia 
An entry by Count Monnich-Larisch represented an Electoral -Negretti 
flock of 12,500, established half a century ago at Freystadt, Austrian 
Silesia. Several other flocks of considerable celebrity were represented 
at the show very similar in character to those above mentioned. The 
iNegretti appears to be the favorite Merino family among Austrian wool- 
growers. 

14. The Merino element is so prominent in Austria that the growing 
necessity for better mutton is beginning to be'met rather by cross-breeds 
than mutton sheep of full blood. The Cotswold-Merinoes on exhibition 
commanded much attention. They are without horns, have the white 
faces of Cotswolds and the pink noses of Merinoes. They are of good 
size, with a girth of nearly 6 feet over the wool. The fleeces at eleven 
months showed flber 4^ inches long, much longer than the Eambouillet; 
finer than that of the Cotswold, with much of its luster, and a fair degree 
of the curl of the Merino, without its dirt and grease. 

The union of Cotswold and Merino blood in the Keltschan Sugar Com- 
pany's estate in Moravia has been more satisfactory in its results than 
any contemporary experience in cross-breeding. The change was effected 
by the use of imported Cotswold rams. The largo area occupied, exceed- 
ing 6,000 acres, is hilly, and the pastures are covered with fruit-trees, 
suggesting sheep as the stock most appropriate to be kept. The old 
flock of fine wools was not profitable, the culls being almost worthless 
for mutton, upon which the rich beet-pulp was practically thrown away 
in an attempt to fatten them. The experiment was successful above 
expectation; the cross-breeds were thrifty, early attaining maturity, 
becoming fat at ten or twelve months old. After weaning, the lambs 
are fed with beet-pulp, hay, a little rape-seed cake, and oats, until a sup- 
ply of mown clover is attainable, and later are pushed forward with 
mangolds. With such a course of feeding they weigh 140 pounds or 
more at twelve to fourteen months, and have brought at market an 
equivalent of 7 cents per pound live weight, or $10 per head. After 
the first cross, it has been found best to breed in-and-in by selection from 
the same flock. A second flock was constituted with reference to very 
large size and great hardiness, by selecting large native ewes from the 
Carpathian Mountains, (Zackels,) and also Merinoes of unusual size 
and coupling with rams of any breed having requisite size and consti- 
tution. The offspring of these selected sheep were paired with Cots- 
wold males from England, and their progeny in-bred without further 
crossing. The result is the Keltschan sheep exhibited by the sugar- 
company, a large animal, an average wether weighing fully 170 pounds 
at fourteen months and 225 at eighteen. This company also has a 
Southdown flock, and a cross-bred or a Southdown-Merino flock, the 
latter well adapted to medium lands, but surpassed by the Cotswold- 
Merinoes for rich lands, and by the heavy Keltschan sheep for profit as 
pul[)-eaters and flesh-makers. The weight of fleeces of the Cotswold 
cross is fully 4 pound?, and of the others 3 pounds. 

The Archduke Albrecht of Teschen^ Austrian Silesia, exhibited sam 
pies of his pure Southdowus, and of his flock of 250 Southdown-Meri- 
noes, and G50 Southdown-Dirki half-breeds. The fleece is middle fine 
and salable. 



THE SHEEP AND WOOL OP THE WORLD, 215 

An exhibition of improved Zackels made by Baron Jacob Eamaszkan, 
Galicia, justly attracted much attention. They produce fleeces weigh- 
ing from 6 to 18 pounds of wool of better quality than the ordinary 
samples of this breed, and command a rental of $1.50 or more per head 
for their milk during the season. 

16. Hungary. The Hungarian section comprised the largest number 
of animals, mostly Merinoes of Kegretti or Electoral blood, though there 
was a single entry of pure Rambouillets. The English breeds were ab- 
sent, except as amalgamated with the Transylvanian Zackel, of which 
cross there were representations from the flocks of Baron Banfl'y, of 
Klauseuburg, and Count Emerich Miko, of the same locality, and also 
of those of Joseph Zeyk and Ladislaus Tisza. This cross, having the 
same base on one side as in the successful Keltschan amalgamation, 
proves to be a positive acquisition. The wool is greatly improved, be- 
ing longer, finer, more lustrous, and the fleece is of far greater weight, 
and the flesh loses its strong flavor and is laid on with much greater 
rapidity. As milkers, a point for which the original Zackels are distin- 
guished, they lose something by the Lincoln cross. 

The Zackels are in many respects a valuable race. They are large, 
hardy enough to endure Hungarian winters without shelter, and yield 
an income annually of about 93 per head, derived in about equal pro- 
portions from wool, Iambs, and milk, the latter producing about 15 
pounds of cheese. There are black sheep and white in every flock, and 
in many flocks the black are preferred, the skin of their lambs being 
more valuable, though the wool of white sheep commands a higher price. 
The leg is short, and, for so large an animal, it is moderately flne- boned ; 
and the wool is long and coarse, usnally bringing an equivalent of 11 to 
12 cents per pound. 

Aniong other natives exhibited were Waltachian sheep of a migratory 
habit, living on the plains in winter and in the mountains in summer. 
They are large, of a reddish-brown color, hornless, and long-legged. 
Their owners go with them, and, accompanied by their families, live in 
the open air during the warm season and dwell in comfortable houses 
of wood as their winter-quarters. 

The Merinoes exhibited were numerous, representing many and large 
flocks, one of them consisting of 25,000, and several wei'e distinguished 
by wool of great fineness. They are bred for wool with very little re- 
gard to flesh. Evidently there is a tendency to change in this respect, 
in the direction of increase of weight and value of the fleece, 

16. EussiA. There was but a single entry of three Merinoes from 
Bnssia. 



CHAPTER II. 

RECENT IMPROVEMENTS AND PRESENT STATUS OF SHEEP-HUSBANDRY. 
Causes Of DEVErx)PMKNT of European breeds. Gkeat Britain : PjiooRKSs of 

WOOL MA^'UFACTUKKS AND COMMERCE; OF SnEEP-CUI.TURK ; ClaSSIFICATIOX OF 

Britisii breeds; Leicester siieep; Bordeh-Leicesters ; Cotswolds; Lin- 
COLNS; RoMNEY-MvRsn sheep; Southdowxs; Shropshire Downs; IIampsoire 
AND Oxford Downs; Exmoor sheep; Dorsets; Welsh mountain sheep; 
Cheviots; Black-faced sheep; Roscommon shekp. Franck: Statistics; Dis- 
tribution OF BREEDS ; Cross-breedinq ; Rambouillet stock ; iJiHcicDi no-estab- 
lishments; French methods, Austria-Hungary: Statistics; methods. Ger- 
many: Introduction of the Svj^isji race; Statistics; Saxon. Prussian, 
silesian, and bavarian shkep-cultture. russia : statistics and breeds. 

17. There are few of the rnces of sheep extant in Europe a century 
ago that have not felt the modifying effect of recent progres-s in mnnu- 
factnres. The extension and gradual perfecting of woolen macbiuery 



216 RKPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

made a demand at first for wool of finer quality, vhicli was met by 
the dispersion and propagation of the Spanish fine-wool sheep, and 
by the amelioration of longer and coarser native wools through cross- 
breeding with the Merino type. By such means fibers too fine and val- 
uable for carpets and coarse cloths, and too long for card-wool machin- 
ery, became abundant, in quantity far exceeding that yielded by fine- wool 
sheep of pure blood. This stimulated iuveutiou in the direction of fancy 
worsteds and combing-wool fabrics of aR kinds. 

Again, increasing population in the most opulent districts demanded 
more and better meat-supplies ; and breeding, with reference to enlarge- 
ment and improvemei^t of carcass and to rapid fattening by greater con- 
sumption of feeding material, gave greater weight and length of fleece, 
requiring the aid of invention and eSbrt to utilize such wools and popu- 
larize the fabrics made from them. In this way has arisen to public 
prominence a long line of coarse but strong and serviceable goods, 
which in their turn command the favor of fashion, and often hold well 
their popular position. A portion of these mutton-breeds, and especially 
the lambs, possess a singular glossiness of fiber, a silkiness and tenacity 
that render them peculiarly suitable for lustrous fabrics of ladies' wear; 
and these have encouraged the extension of so-called lama and alpaca 
goods, and all sorts of gauzy and glossy stuffs so irresistible to feminine 
humanity in shopping excursions. 

Such causes have operated and co-operated to produce the present 
styles of goods made of wool, and to shape the frame and covering of 
the animal that yields it. They account fully for the changes in the 
modes of manufacture, the modification of the ovine breeds, and even 
the vagaries of fashion, in clothing-fabrics ; for, despotic as is the sway 
of fashion, it is itself full often the creature of inevitable necessity — the 
mother of invention, both of modes and machines. 

Observation of the various breeds exhibited at the international 
show of 1873 at Vienna, and inspection of European wools at the exhi- 
bition, render more vivid the impression of universal modification and 
general improvement, for the best practical results, which the student 
of agriculture receives from the current record of progress in rural econ- 
omy of the Old World, A brief reference to the prominent breeds of 
European sheep, with a glance at their history, will further illustrate 
the practical aspects of this subject, and may possibly prove the most 
Utilitarian method of treatment of this report. First among the nations 
for radical and profitable results of improvement of sheep stands — 

18. Great Britain. — The first year of the present century found 
British manufactures of wool depending for their meager foreign sup- 
plies upon Spain and Portugal. Of the 8,609,368 pounds imported dur- 
ing that year, those countries sent, respectively, 6,062,824 and 1,731,934 
pounds. Germany contributed 412,394 pounds, and the Netherlands 
141,739 i>ounds. The remaining contributions were fragmentary and of 
small importance. The aggr^ate quantity imported annually has now- 
reached 361,133,165 i)ounds — more than forty times the receipts of sev- 
enty-five years ago. 

A glance at the manufactured goods reveals the remarkable change 
in modes of manufacture and style of fabric. In 1820 the value of ex-, 
ports of wools and manufactures of wool was £5,989,622. The largest 
item was cloths, £2,477,043, with smaller amounts for coatings and 
kerseymeres; while there were of woolen and worsted stuffs, £1,782,835; 
£282,860 for flannels ; £185,956 for blankets, and £117,073 for carpets- 
These were not only the days of small things, Ibut the worsteds, all sorts 
of combing-wool fabrics, and carpets, were items particularly smaU. 



THE SHEEP AND WOOL OF THE WORLD. 217 

Fifty-two years later these exports reached the sum of £32,383,273, of 
which worsted stuffs were valued at £20,905,163, and cloths, formerly 
constituting the bulk of the exportation, only £0,991,718. These facts, 
together with the ever present necessity of enlarged meat-supplies, fur- 
nish the key to the changes which have taken place in British sheep- 
hnsbundr^'. 

19. This change is briefly indicated. As the shorthorn type has as a 
model given direction even to the improvement of other breeds of Brit- 
ish cattle, so has the ruling idea in that improvement dominated in the 
modification of the original breeds of sheep, as illustrated in the creation 
of the present Leicester type, and in a less decree in the changes in all 
the other breeds. More meat, of a better quality, in a shorter time, has 
been the maxim of British sheep-breeders. 

The official returns of Great Britain show that tbe farm-areas there 
carry an unparalleled amount of live stock. The latest figures for 
England, for 1874, represent an area of 32,597,398 acres, of which only 
24,008,368 are in crops of all sorts, grass, and bare fallow, carrying 
19,859,758 sheep, besides 4,305,540 cattle, 1,007,398 horses, and other 
live stock. 

Lincoln County, with 1,629,011 sheep, has 237,621 acres in green 
crops, 164,047 in grasses and clover in rotation, and 416,869 in perma- 
nent pasture. Here is aJ[)out the same area in roots and hay as in pas- 
ture, and twice as many sheep as total acres, with 212,800 cattle and 
some other stock. 

The returns from Scotland covered 19,496,132 acres, of which only 
4,579,821 are utilized in grass and other crops, and yet the sheep num- 
ber 7,389,487, In one county, Argyle, tiiere are 1,061,873, and only 
87,568 acres in pasture and forage, divided into 12,095 acres of green 
crops, 18,946 of grasses in rotation, and only 56,527 in permanent pas- 
ture. Were mountain-lands included, there are more than half as many 
sheep as acres returned. 

20. The British breeds are most naturally divided according to alti- 
tudes and fertility of their habitat. The large breeds, white, hornless, 
and bearing long wool with small felting property, occupy the rich allu- 
vial districts, the lands reclaimed from the sea, and the highly culti- 
vated and very productive farm-areas. These are the Leicester, Lin- 
coln, liomney-Marsh, Cotswold, the few remaining of the Devonshire 
Notts, the Eoscommon, and similar Irish sheep. Next should be classed 
the sheep of the chalk-downs, the commons, and forests, suited to a dr^ 
and temperate climate. There are the Downs of several families, per 
haps now to be taken as breeds, the Dorsats and their congeners, the 
pink-nosed JSomersets. They produce a short felting-wool, suited to in- 
ferior grades of goods. The Ryeland, formerly found in the western 
counties, and esteemed for producing the finest cloth-wool of England, 
is now almost extinct. The third general division comprises the mount- 
ain breeds, first the Cheviots of the hills of the North of England and 
borders of Scotland j the Black-face of the central chain of mountains 
and moors northward from Derbyshire to the mountains of Scotland ^ 
and two varieties of Welsh mountain-sheep, and the Kerry and other 
mountain-breeds of Ireland. There are many local remnants of the 
ancient stock allied to the above, but there are none worthy of special 
mention. 

The weight of fleece of British shee[) averages about 5 pounds. 
The Lincolns may be placed at 8 pounds, the Cotswolds nearly the same, 
the Leicesters at 7, the Downs at 4, the Cheviots at 3, the BlaCk-faces 
at 2J, and the Welsh at 2. The Leicesters are most numerous, exceed- 



218 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONKR OP AGRlCITLTirRE. 

iug one-third of all ; tbo Downs onft-sixtli, the Black-faces nearly as 
many, Cheviots oiieeij^lith, k'jiving about one-fifth lor other breeds. 
The heavy breeds of eighty years ago, modified mainly by the Leicester, 
now fnrnish lighter lleecc^s. For instance, the Lincoln, as reported by 
Hon. Eobert K. Livingston, then yielded 11 ponnds; theTeeswater and 
Cotswold, pounds. These are, of course, average weights, as rams as 
well as pampered ewes and wethers, greatly exceed the average. The 
weight of carcass exceeds by 20 per cent, the weight of imported mutton, 
and averages 60 pounds; by some estimates, 65 pounds. A brief refer- 
ence to this improvement, with the characteristic points and present 
status of the principal breeds, will indicate more fully the progress of 
the century in sheep-husbandry. 

21. Leicesters. — The Leicestershire sheep, in the beginning of the Bake- 
well era of improvement, were known by their names, the old Leicesters, 
the new Leicesters, or Dishleys, (the latter from Bakewell's place of resi- 
dence,) and the forest-sheep. The Dishley experiment commenced in 
1755, and was continued so successfully that the rams of their famous 
flock ultimately commanded $15,000 as hire for the season, giving an 
impetus to the imi)rovement which was perpetuated by the i^ermanence 
and desirability of the results achieved, until the breed assumed a posi- 
tion which has been maintained to the present time. 

The orjginal Leicester upon which Bakewell commenced his experi- 
ment was an animal of large frame, with heavy bono and coarse-grained 
meat, a flat-sided carcass, and legs large and rough. It was a slow 
feeder and necessarily late in reaching maturity, weighing at two or 
three years old 100 to 120 pounds. Seeing the necessity of obtaining, 
in addition to the fleece, the largest possible increase of flesh in propor- 
tion to the food consumed, in the shortest period of time, he bred by 
selection most persistently and skillfully for these objects. With these 
aims always in view, he chose with rare judgment, yet with a broad 
latitude as to breed or family, such animals as would approximate his 
ideal of compactness and symmetry, refinement of bone, a reduction of 
the proportion of unprofitable part^, and higher capacity for rapid con- 
version of food to flesh. After securing this result by animals of char- 
acteristics so widely differing from those of the original stock, he found 
necessary a rigid adhesion to the practice of in-and-in breeding to keep 
the advantage gained, until a fixedness of type had been secured which 
should impress itself surely and indelibly upon any race which might be 
selected for improvement. 

In accomplishing results of such practical value, with all possible caro 
to retain the sound constitution and great hardiness of the old stock, 
there was perhaps inevitably induced a comi)arative delicacy, a reduc- 
tion in size, a decrease in x>rolificacy and excellence as nurses. These 
defects have demanded the wisest judgment in the infusion of fresh 
strains of blood, by which the stamina of the race has been fortified, and 
its popularity maintained until the present day, to such a degree that 
the Leicester blood is far more widely diflused than that of any other 
breed, even modifying essentally all the long- wool races, and to some ex- 
tent the nionntain-breeds, and some families of the short-wool Downs. 

22. The tine typo of this breed, as understood by Youatt, is thus 
described : 

Tlio head should be honiloss, lon<;, snuill. tapering toward the muzzle, and project- 
ing horizontally forward. The eyes i)romiuent, but with a qniet exx)ression. The eai's 
thin, rather lonfj, and directed backward. The neck full and broad nt its base, where 
it proceeds from the chest, so that thoro is, with the slightest possible elovatioii, one 



. .• '^ 



THE SHEEP AND WOOL OP THE WORLD. 219 

coniiiined Iiorizontal lino from tho rump to the poll. Tho breast broa<l and ronnd, and 
no uneven or angalar formation where the shoulders join either neck or the buck ; par- 
ticularly no rfeing of the withers or hollow behind tho situation of these bones. Tho 
arm fleshy through its whole extent, and even down to the knee. Tho honns of tho 
leg small, standing wide apart; no looseness of skin about them, and coin():irativcly 
bare of wool. The chest and barrel at once deep and round, thc3 ribs forming a con- 
siderable arch from the spine, so as in some cases, and especially when the unimal is in 
good condition, to make the apparent width of the chest even greater than the deplli. 
The barrel ribbed well home; no irregularity of line on the back or belly, but on the 
sides; the carcass very gradually diminishing in width toward the rump. Tho fjuar- 
tei*8 long and full, and, as with the fore legs, the muscles extending down to the hock ; 
tho thighs also wide and full. The logs ol a moderate length ; the pelt also moderately 
thin, but sotib and elastiC; and covered with a good quantity of white wool. 

Tbo Leicester requires less food in proportion to weight than auy oilier 
race. They are mostly sold early in the summer or early autumn after 
their first year, many wethers at twelve to fifteen months weighing 20 
to 25 pounds per quarter; and at two years they attain the weight of 30 
to 37 pounds. The fleeces are valuable as fine combing- wool, and, if 
well grown, weigh from 7 to 8 pounds each. 

23. The earliest record of this breed in the United States is a men- 
tion by Custis of the Bakewell ewes on the estate of Washington, from 
which, through a cross by a Persian ram, was derived the somewhat 
famous Arlington long-wooled sheep. The influence of this and other 
long-wool flocks of Virginia gave a popularity to the English races 
which has continued to the present day, though the preference at pres- 
ent appears to be given to the Merinoes, especially sfnce the war asd 
its accompanying destitution and lack of thrift. Kentucky also gives a 
preference to tho Leicester, as a fit companion to the short-horn bullock 
npon the blue-grass pastures. They are to be found in small numbers 
in the Middle and Ohio Valley States, generally in a semi-degenerate 
state, not bred up to the modern standard of the perfect Leicester in his 
English home. Mr. Samuel Campbell, of New York Mills, N. Y., has 
imported several first-class specimens, and a few years since had a two- 
yeaf-old that weighed 300 pounds. 

The mutton of Leicesters is too fat to suit American taste, yet that of 
grades is quite palatable, though coarse-grained, with too much outside 
fat. Even in England meat of animals two years old is less vahiable 
than that of lambs or shearlings ^ and the price is always materially 
lower than mutton of Southdowns and the mountain-races. 

24. Border-Leicesters, — More than a century ago some of the sheep- 
folds of the border were re-enforced by Leicestershire sheep of established 
repute. Early in the present century representatives of the Dishley 
stud began a contribution to the improvement, which has been contin- 
ued until they have won a distinct position in the show-yanVand in 
popular esteem. The characteristics of this breed, as given by Mr. John 
Wilson, are extraordinary aptitude to fatten and early maturity. He 
says : 

The most marked feature in their structure is tho smallness of their heads and of 
their hones generally, as contrasted with their weight of carcass. They are clean in 
tho jaws, witli a full eye, thin ears, and placid countenance. Their backs are straight, 
bi*oad, and flat ; the ribs arched, tho belly carried very light, so that they present nearly 
as straight a line below as above ; tho chest is wide, the skin very mellow, and cov- 
ered with a beautiful fleece of long, soft wool, which weighs, on tho average, from six 
to seven pounds. On good soils, and under careful treatment, these sheep are currently 
brought to weigh from eighteen to twenty pounds a quarter at fourteen months old, at 
which ago they are now generally slaughtered. At this age their flesh is tender and 
jnicy, but wlieu carried or. until they are older and heavier, fat accumulates so unduly 
jn proportion to the lean meat as to detract from its palatableuess and market-value. 

25. Tho rain represented in the accompanying engraving, (PI. XIX, 
which is produced from a photograph received from the Agricultural 



220 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

Gazette, of Loudon)* is from the Mertoun flock of Lord Pol worth, in Ber- 
wickshire. This flock contains nnsurpassed specimens of this breed. 
Two ewes once exhibited at the Highland show measured 4 feet 9 inches 
in girth 3 and a shearling (which means yearling) ram at the same 
show measured 5 feet 1 inch, and 45 inches in length from the back of 
the head to the tail. This flock was established by Mr. Scott, grand- 
father of Lord PSlworth, and has been steadily progressing in excel- 
lence. The engraving does not indicate a pampered sheep, intended 
only for the show-yard; but the straight and broad back, the wide chest 
brought well forward, the well-sprung ribs and long quarters, the full 
and square rump, all bespeak an animal compact and symmetrical — a 
meat-maker of the highest order. 

26. Cotstcolds, — ^This is one of the largest English breeds, though the 
improved race is smaller than the originals, on account of the influence 
of the Leicester element in its amelioration. As a breed it is of great 
antiquity. It has gained in fleece and form, and comes to maturity 
earlier ; is more prolific than the Leicester, and has greater strength of 
constitution ; is often fattened at fourteen months, yielding fifteen to 
twenty pounds per quarter, and twenty to |hirty if kept till two years 
old. The fleece is G to S inches in length, and sometimes much longer ; 
is strong, somewhat coarse, of good color, and yields a heavy fleece. 
The mutton is superior to that of the Leicester, with a smaller propor- 
tion of fat, andj the sheep are also supeiior to that popular breed in 
weight of wool, size, hardiness, and vitality. They are possessed of 
good figure, have a large head, well set on, a broad chest, a well-rounded 
barrel, and a straight back. They are often used for crossing upon other 
breeds, and for obtaining earlier market-lambs, both in this country and 
in Europe. They are more widely disseminated in this country than 
any other long- wool, and preserve well the popularity which they have 
attained here. Some imported sheep of this breed have borne fleeces 
in this country of eighteen pounds. 

27. Lincolns, — The old Liucolns, of the fertile meadows of Lower Lin- 
colnshire, were remarkable beyond any contemporary breed for coarse 
and heavy forms and length of wool, the fleeces weighing ten to twelve 
pounds. They were hornless, with largo limbs, hollow flanks, anxl flat 
sides. They shared with the Komney -Marsh sheep the alluvial and fen 
districts, consumed largely their rank pasturage, and fattened slowly. 
When the fame of Bakewell at Dishley was rising to its zenith, recourse 
was had to his improved Leicesters for improvement in the flesh-taking 
property, and this course of crossing was pursued to the close of the 
eighteenth century, and indeed to the present time, as found necessary, 
for the purpose of securing a better form and earlier maturity without 
losing wholly their peculiarities of size and length of fiber. 

For at least a quarter of a century a sharp contest was waged between 
the supporters of the old and the new, the former fearing the loss of 
hardiness and local adaptation, as well as its unrivaled peculiarities of 
fleece, while the latter were quite willing to risk any or all of these re- 
sults in the belief that more mutton and wool and money could be real- 
ized upon each acre of area than with the modified Lincolns. And the 
latter ultimately prevailed, and verified the correctness of their theory. 

The efiect of this change upon the wool has been to make it shorter 
and finer, and to diminish somewhat its softness of fiber. It is a ques- 
tion \Yhether the peculiar quality of the wool could have been retained in 
larger degree without essential injury to its meat-producing quality. 

*To tbe same source shonld bo credited photographs of the other engravings of 
English lAieep. 



THE SHEEP AND WOOL OF THE WORLD. 221 

This district still produces the largest sheep of Great Britain, with 
fleeces superior iu weight aud value to any other. They are not equal 
in earliness of maturity to the Leicesters, but they areprofi table, and 
suitable to the rich lands they occupy, wethers frequently attaining the 
enormous weight of fifty to sixty pounds per quarter. 

28. Romney-Marsh, — There is another breed of English sheep inhabit- 
iugtherich alluvialsoilof Kent known as the Romney-Marsh sheep, \vhich 
pertinaciously retains its distinctive features, though modified and im- 
proved by recent breeding. It is a large sheep, not very symmetrical in 
form, having narrow fore quarters and flat sides, and coarse bone and mus- 
cle. It has a white face, a long and thick head, and a tuft of wool on 
the forehead. The wool is of more value than the mutton, perhaps, 
(but would not be profitable without it,) being long, fine, and lustrous, 
and in demand at good prices for export to Flanders and to France, for 
the manufacture of " cloth of gold"' and similar fabrics. Other breeds 
have been introduced upon the marshes, but cannot maintain them- 
selves in competition with the Eomneys. The country is flat, open to 
the east, and very bleak, yet these sheep live through the winter in the 
open fields, and have little protection or supplied food. The ewes are 
comparatively prolific, about 30 per cent, of doubles being expected in 
reproduction. The lambs come late after the severity of the winter is 
over. With a good course of turnip-feeding after the first wintering they 
can be brought to seventeen pipunds, sometimes to eighteen pounds, per 
quarter, yet they are more frequently kept over a second winterl They 
are not very early in maturing, and grass is the mam reliance lor growth 
if not for fattening. There are cattle on the farms, but sheep greatly 
X>redominate and furnish the principal profits. 

The pasture-lands of the marsh difier greatly in productiveness. There 
axe *' feeding-lands," keeping two or three ewes in winter and twice as 
many in summer; and the *' fattening-lands" keep four or five sheep per 
acre. The hardiness of this breed and its adaptation to the locality is 

indicated in the following from ttie London Field: 

• 

We remember passing through a portion of the marsh during winter, aud being 
strnck with two things — the exceeding greenness of the grass, and the number of big, 
robust-looking owes, which rather crowded than dotted the plain. A keen east wind 

f)enetrated our bones, despite our Ulster, yet the sheep minded it not a bit ; and we 
earned, to our great surprise, that, save in deep snow or prolonged frost, they fended 
for themselves, and then only got a mouthful ot hay. No wonder that they hold their 
own ; they were on their native ground, and not to be disturbed. There are still large 
graziers who object to using hay, even when the ground is covered with snow, pre- 
ferring the sheep to scratch down to the grass. In former times it was but too com- 
mon for the ewes to bo left entirely unprotected during the lambing-season, aud great 
were tho losses in times of severe frost. Now the ewes are placed in a sheltered iuclos- 
ure near the homestead, or a temporary ewe-pen is erected wherein tho ewes lie at 
nights, supplied with hay and a few turnips, if they can be spared, and where the lamb 
is sheltered for the first few days of its existence, care being taken not to render it deli- 
cate by too much protection. 

20. 8outMoicns, — The original Sussex or Southdowns have probably 
the purest blood, free from admixture during the long period which 
covers the rise and development of tho British wool-manufacture and 
the increase of meat-production, of any race of British sheep. Their 
improvement has been long-continued and is still continuing, apparently 
without the necessity of recurrence to any foreign blood for amelioration 
of a single objectionable point. While they have been greatly improved, 
progress has invariably been in the direction indicated in the distant 
past, and not by radical and violent changes. It has been carried on, 
there is little reason to doubt, solely by selection, there being little, if 
any, positive evidence that tho Leicester or other blood has aided in the 



222 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

amelioration. In the production of Harapsbire and Shropshire an<l other 
breeds bearinpf the Down name, it is well known that other blood has 
been effectively used 5 but it should be remembered that these families, 
or rather breeds, are not really improved Downs, but have come from 
seloctcd individuals of other hardy primitive breeds, molded into a modi- 
fication of the Southdown type by large and repeated infusion of that 
blood, witli occasional dashes of Leicester to give greater size and apti- 
tude tor fattening. The changes effected in the true South (or Sussex) 
Downs have been mainly these : Speckled faces have been changed to a. 
nnil'onn tint of brown or fawn color, sometimes almost a gray 5 the fore- 
head and cheeks have been partially covered with wool ; a greater sym- 
metry of form has been obtained; a larger size and greater fattening 
aptitude. The liock of Lord Walsingham exhibits some deviation from 
the Sussex type, having somewhat greater length and a decided devel- 
opment of the fore quarter, giving greater weight at the expense of 
somewhat reduced value to the butcher. They are splendid animals, 
and have been largely sought by continental xmrchasers, though disap- 
proved by many breeders of pure Southdowns. 

By reason of its purity the Southdown, perhaps, has stamped its pecu- 
liarities upon its crossbred offspring more certainly and strongly than 
any other of the English breeds ; and for this reason, together with its 
hardiness and the unsurpassed quality of its mutton, it is deemed of 
greater practical value in its crosses than in its pure-bre(i Hocks. But 
for the fact that quantity and quickness in lamb-production are of more 
pecuniary value than superior quality, it would far surpass the Leicester 
in its prevalent use for crossbred early lambs. 

30. It is now about one hundred years since Mr. EUman, of Glynde, 
Sussex, sought a more symmetrical and profitable form, and a superior 
flesh and fat producing habit, without injury to constitution or fecun- 
dity ; and he pursued his object slowly, cautiously, with a judgment, 
patience, zesJ, and intelligent iiberality that insured success. The light 
lore quarters, narrow chests, and long necks and limbs, were totally 
changed. This Is the description given by Mr. Ellman, himself, to his 
improved sheep : 

The head sniaU and librnlesB ; tho face speckled or gray, and neither too lone nor too 
short; tho lips thin, and the ^pace between the nose anil the eyes narrow; the under 
jaw, or chap, fmo and thin ; tho ears tolerably wido and well covered with wool, and 
the forehead also, and tho whole space between the ears well protected by it as a de- 
fense against the fly ; the eye full and bright, but not prominent ; the nect of medium 
length, thin toward the head, but enlarging toward the shoulders, where ii should bo 
broad and high, and 6trai<;ht in its whole course above and below. The breast should 
be wide, deep, and projecting forward between tho forelegs, indicating a good consti- 
tution, and a disposition to thrive. Corresponding with tSis, the shoulders should l>e 
on a level with the back, and not too wide above ; they should bow outward from th© 
top to tho breast, indicating a sprinn^ing rib beneath and leaving room for it, the ribs 
comin*? out horizontally from the spine, and extending far backward, and the last rib 
)irojecting more than the others; the back flat from the shoulders to the setting on of 
tho tail ; the loin broad and flat ; tho rump long and broad, and the tail set on higli, 
and nearly on a level with the spine ; tho nips wido, and the space between them and 
tho last.rib on cither side as narrow as possible, and the ribs, generally speaking, pre- 
senting a circular form like a barrel ; the belly as straight as the back ; tho legs neither 
too long nor too short ; the fore legs straight from the breast to the foot, not bending 



siHJcklod or dark color. The belly well defended with wool, and the wool coming down 
before and behind to the knee and to the hock ; the wool short, close, curled, and tine, 
and free from 8i)iry projecting fibers. 

31. Shropshircs.-^' Another %T2iucli of the Down family, in which 
amalgamation has brought valuable compensations for departure from 



THE SHEEP AND WOOL OF THE WORLD. 223 

the true Sussex type, is the Shropshire sheep. It is fouDded od the 
ancient Longmynds of Shropshire, and the occupants of Cannock Chase, 
in Straffordshire, heath-sheep, which were noticeable for unusual size 
and thrift, thus described by Plymley in 1803: "There is a breed of 
sheep on the Lougmynd with horns and black faces that seem an indig- 
enous sort ; they are nimble, hardy, and weigh near 10 pounds per 
quarter when fatted. The fleeces upon the average may yield 2 J pounds, 
of which one-half pound will be the breechens, or coarse wool, and is 
sold distinct from the rest. The farmers of the hill-country seem to 
think the greatest advantage they derive from the access of foreign 
stock is from the cross of the Southdown with the Longmynd sheep ; 
the produce they state to be as hardy and to bite as close as the Long- 
mynd sheep, and the weight of the carcass is increased.'' These sheep 
were small of frame and light of fleece, compared with the Southdown. 
About this time the Southdown cross became quite popular. The same 
course of improvement has continued, directed toward an increase of 
size and development of feeding capacity. While it has proved success- 
ful, it has not been under the predominant control of one directing 
mind, and a slight want of unity in the work of the principal breeders 
has been manifest, tending to wider divergence under unskillful breeders. 
Some of the principal improvers, after employing the Southdown to 
straighten the si)ine of the coarse originals, and give them oblique 
shoulders and well-sprung ribs, found it necessary to infuse a Leicester 
strain to shorten the back and chine and give fattening aptitifde; after 
which a course of close breeding was necessary to fix these characteris- 
tics. Others sought more slowly, and with comparatively doubtful 
result, to obtain similar or equally desirable qualities by selection alone. 

The resultant lack of uniformity for a long time kept the Shropshires 
from being recognized as a distinct breed ; yet the enterprise and intel- 
ligence which continued the improvement, by judicious selection from 
the best flock, succeeded in winning the recognition of the Royal Agri- 
cultural Society in 1860, since which date the entries at the great shows 
have been numerous, and the animals shown increasinglj^ popular. 
Lord Chesham, who exhibited at Vienna, is one of the most successful 
of the present breexlers of Shropshires. 

This breed is now of larger size than the Southdown, with longer 
face of uniform dark tint, a full and spirited eye, spreading ears of 
good size, and a forehead rather flat and well wooled. They are very 
prolific, the ewes generally bringing doubles if well cared for,'and, what 
is better still, the mothers are amply able to bring up the lambs in good 
condition. They excel the Southdown in yield both of mutton and 
wool. They scarcely attain the weight of the Hampshires, but reach 
maturity earlier, and have less bone and ofl'al. Their fleece-weight is 
generally from 5 to 7 pounds. The meat is like the Southdowns in 
fineness of texture, the presence of fat in the tissues, and richness of 
color. At twelve or fifteen months they will sgmetimes reach 20 pQ^unds 
per quarter. They bear close folding well, are found hardy in moist 
climates, and will endure a wide range of soils and feeding. 

32. Hampshirps. — ^This family of Downs, unlike the Sussex, is founded 
through skillful breeding. It was effected in harmony with the idea 
of more meat in a shorter period of time — the same which origi- 
nated the Leicester and the Shorthorn — by admirers of the Southdown 
style, who saw in. the size and the early maturity of the Wiltshire 
horned sheep and the Berkshire Nott, qualities forming an admirable 
foundation for a breed upon which the fine form and superior quality of 
flesh of the Down could be ingrafted. It is worthy of notice that a breed 



224 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

which has long displaced the original Sussex Down and other breeds 
in Berkshire, Hants, Wilts, and Dorset, has been made what it is, in 
the hands of skillful breed!ers, by the blood of the finest specimens of 
the race which they now dominate in all this section. This change is 
a natural result of the inclosure of the commons, the introduction of 
artificial manures, and the production of such crops as turnips, rape, 
vetches, trifolium, rye, and Italian rye-grass. This is one of the facts 
with which the history of British sheep-husbandry teems, illustrating 
the necessity of change in breeds, with changed conditions of production 
or consumption. It is estimated that the weight, both of mutton and 
wool, has been increased in this region 50 per cent. 

The statistics of 10,000 Hampshires for three successive years showed 
the average yield of lambs to be 91 per cent., the mortality of ewes 5J 
per cent., and of tegs 3 per cent., per annum. The wool is of fine qual- 
ity, but short staple, averaging 4^ pounds per fleece. The best speci- 
mens of these sheep may be found at the Overton and Weyhill fairs, ii 
Hampshire, and the Britford and Wilton fairs, in AViltshire. At the 
latter, February lambs realize 558. to 728. per head; the finest thus com- 
manding an equivalent of about $18 in gold for butchering. The wether- 
lambs are now usually sold in the latter part of summer or early autumn, 
and the ewes are kept three years for breeding. The period of service 
of rams is from August 1 to the middle of September. 

The ewes are usually kept on turnips and hay during the wiuter, the 
hay being cut into chaff with a portion of straw, and sometimes seasoned 
with a little malt-dust, bran or cake. The lambs go out on turniiis, if 
the weather is fine, in a few days after they are dropped, though many 
farmers keep them penned for two or three weeks. After April 1 they 
leave their diet of turnips and hay, and go to the water-meadows by day, 
and are folded at night on Italian rye-grass, winter-barley, or trifolium, 
the wether-lambs getting a little cake or corn. On farms that have no 
water-meadows a larger supply of late swedes is secured, and the lambs 
are kept upon winter-growing grasses and forage-plants until the vetches 
are in bloom. Early in May they are weaned, when it is common to 
pasture in clover by day and fold on vetches by night. When the vet- 
ches are consumed, the sale lambs are supplied i*ape and cabbages and 
the ewe-lambs follow to consume what the wethers leave. Thus man- 
aged, the lambs attain great size and command high prices. Formerly 
they were largely sold, from July to September, to go to Kent and Sur- 
rey, and other points near London, to be fattened for tbe markets of 
that city. They are now so good that they are sold for immediate con- 
sumption. It is deemed proper to give somewhat in detail the mode of 
management in fat-lamb growing, not only to show the practice em- 
ployed with this particular breed, but to call renewed attention to the 
necessity of high feeding in this business, and illustrate again the con- 
stant variation in feeding and management to meet the requirements of 
changed or differing circumstances. 

33. Oxford Downs, — ^This breed is produced by a successful course of 
cTOSs-breeding of Ootswolds with Hampshire ewes, a dash of Southdown 
blood being used occasionally to perfect the cross. It Is an animal char- 
acterized by great hardiness of constitution, good size, heavy fleece, 
facility of fattening, and excellent mutton. It yields a desirable quality 
of thick and heavy wool, weighing about 7 pounds per fleece. Mr. 
Spooner has called it the most successful attempt at cross-breeding ever 
made in England. It has been claimed by some to be the best rent- 
paying breed in the country. 

34. Exnioor Slieep, — In the mountainous section of Somerset are found 



.;'^ 



THE SHEEP AND WOOL OF THE WORLD. 225 

the Exmoor sheep, a horned breed, so hardy that a few days' burial iu 
a snow-drift is said to be not too severe a test of their endurance. They 
have long been remarked for their drum-like roundness of form, though 
they are becoming square under the recent efforts of breeders. They 
are larger and in all respects better than the Welsh mountain-sheep, 
good feeding bringing them up to 18 and 20 pounds per quarter, and in 
some cases to 24 pounds. At 18 months they can be maide to weigh 15 
to 20 pounds p6r quarter. The Welsh, the Scotch black-face, the Che- 
viot have been tried upon the Somerset hills, but most farmers have 
gone back to the improved Exmoor. They have white faces, legs, and 
fleeces ; the wool close set and now increased in weight from 3 pounds 
np to 4 pounds. Their mutton is of excellent quality. The lambs come 
in March and April, and are weaned at midsammer. After being turned 
upon the hills they are brought in at shearing and weaning time, when 
the lambs are separated and kept for some weeks in inclosnres for the 
purpose. The drafted ewes are often purchased for lamb-breeding, as 
they are prolific mothers and good nurses. 

These sheep, though the denizens of mountains, have habits quite un- 
like the Welsh, and are at home in the fertile valleys which intersect 
the range of 1,000 to 1,500 feet elevation. Hill-side cultivation and catch- 
water meadows are concomitants of their habitat. Where the commons 
can be inclosed, and the rotations and crops of the low countries adopted, 
it is found in the event of such changed conditions that a Leicester cross 
affords the best profit ; otherwise, the pure Exmoor gives the best sat- 
isfaction. In such facts we see the reason for, and indeed the necessity 
of, the very breeds of sheep so common in a given district, which may 
be all unlike a popular and paying race in an adjoining section. 

35. The Dorsets. — ^A very ancient race of sheep is found in the county 
of Dorset, which formerly included a large tract of countxy. It has 
some resemblance to the Merino in form, but none in other respects. In 
1749 they were described by Ellis as having "white fleeces, white and 
short legs, broad loins, and fine curled wool." They still havrf white 
legs and faces, and show some increase in length of limb and in weight 
of fleece, which averages about four pounds of fine w6ol without sufli- 
cient softness for goods of first quality. Its great distinguishing peculi- 
arities, which prevent its extinction as a breed, are its early breeding 
and fecundity, rendering it popular for early lambs, dropped in October, 
and fit for table at Christmas. There is a paying demand for them 
raised as house-lambs for the Loudon market. Either Leicester or South- 
down rams, preferably the latter, are generally employed, making the 
lambs a Dorset cross. Some have attributed their peculiarities to an 
origin in a warm climate ; others to the comparative mildness of climate, 
a calcareous soil, and to the abundance of thyme and aromatic plants 
in the herbage. 

These sheep are hardy, fold well, subsist on scanty pasturage, and 
wethers at three years old furnish mutton weighing 18 pounds per quar- 
ter. While their range has been reduced by the predominance of the 
modern Leicesters and Southdowns, they maintain a better footing in 
the county of Somerset than in Dorset itself, exhibiting here slight dif- 
ference in type, especially showing a pink-colored nose like the Merino, 
and often called the pink-nosed Somerset. They have also somewhat 
greater length of wool, larger lambs, and mutton heavier per quarter. 

Other varieties of the Dorset group, inhabiting the older commons of 
the south and west of England, are nearly extinct, though traces of them 
may still be found. One variety, inhabiting the isle of Portland, still 
exists in a state of pbrity. They are small, gentle, of good form, with 

16 A 



226 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

a tinge of dau on the face and legs. Their wool is of medium fineness, 
weighing two pounds per fleece. The wethers often produce mutton 
weighing ten pounds per quarter. 

36. Welsh mountain-tiheep. — ^The Welsh is another mountain-breed, in- 
digenous, and still onmodifled in the higher elevations, while they are the 
basis of the more cultivated flocks inhabiting the more productive val- 
leys. They are small, weighing as store-sheep about seven pounds per 
quarter. The head is small and well set up ; the poll cleKn, except some* 
times a tuft upon the forehead ; the females generally hornless } the 
fiBbces unusually white, with occasional instances of gray, speckled, or 
rusty brown. They are narrow-chested, low-shouldered, high-rumped, 
long-tailed, active in movement, having little regard for fences or 
hedges, hardy and thrifty with scanty herbage. The wool is fine, 
though not very even in quality ) fleeces weighing about two pounds. 
They are not prolific, as one lamb is enough for a mother to care for in 
mountain-pastures, but are good nurses, and are sought for on that ac- 
count for breeding fat lambs from Leicester or Down crosses. 

In the winter, just before the lambing-season, the ewes are brought 
down from the mountain-wilds and supplied with small quantities of hay 
or oats; if the latter, sheaf-oats are used, as the little Welsh sheep would 
not know what to do with clear grain. Lambs kept in the flock are 
shorn in July or August ; aod after weaning, the mothers are milked 
for a month or two, and butter is made, or the milk is used to improve 
skim-cheese. 

They are too wild for ordinary farm economy of the lowlands, a new 
lot brought home disappearing in all directions if allowed the opportu- 
nity to scatter, and sometimes found on the roofs of neighboring cot- 
tages. Cheviots or other breeds do not thrive in their mountain-home, 
rendering it probable that they will not be superseded, though they 
may be modified. 

37. Cheviots. — As the Black-faces monopolize the higher mountain- 
lands, *the Cheviots occupy the lower elevations, the hills of the border 
counties between England and Scotland. They have been systemati- 
cally improved by the use of carefully-selected rams of Lincolnshire, be- 
fore the day of the improved Lincoln race. It has been claimed that 
the Leicester blood produced the improvement, but the hardiness of the 
breed and the testimony of the breeders tend to invalidate the opinion. 
They were formerly light in bone and wool, of scraggy frame, but with a 
constitution wonderfully hardy. 

Draining of lands, provision of shelter, and a greater abundance, 
both of summer and winter food, have aided the efibrts of the breeder, 
and the result has been one of the most useful and profitable of known 
breeds of sheep. Ko animal has contributed so much to the prosperity 
of the Scottish border and hill farms as the Cheviot sheep. Their mutton 
ranks very high in Smithfield market, and some people give it a prefer- 
ence over the game-flavored mutton of the Black-face. 

These sheep obtain their name from a range of hills running through 
the border counties of England and Scotland. The original improver 
of greatest repute is William Robson, of Bilford, who commenced his op- 
erations a century ago, and his flock became the nucleus of the ram-sup- 
ply of all that region for many years. They are deemed useful for 
crossing with border Leicesters. 

Ewes have their first lambs in April, at two years old, and are sold as 
culls at five or six, being ret)laced by ewe-lambs. They are sold for pro- 
ducing a crop of half Leicester lambs. A practice has grown up among 
the hill-farms of sending the young wethers to winter on the gra8S-lan48 



i 



THB SHEEP AND WOOL OF THE WORLD. 22? 

of tI)o arable farms, of which they have the ontruii from October to 
April. The cost of this Aviutering varies iroin 7 to 9 shillings per head. 
The main markets are Milrose and Lockeshire for lambs, and Falkirk 
for ewes and wethers, and Inverness in July, where sales arc made "by 
character." 

The fleece is taken off late, rarely before July, and is in constant de- 
mand for the manufacture of the goods known as tweeds. It is a mid- 
dle wool, of better quality than formerly, differing somewhat with dif- 
fering circumstances, being of superior quality when grown from dry, 
sweet herbage. 

38. Black-face, — The breed of British sheep kept to the greatest age, 
and fed almost exclusively upon the natural growth of permanent pas- 
tures, and the management of which, therefore, bears the nearest anal- 
ogy to our own practice in sheep-husbandry, is that generally known as 
the Sooteh Black-face. It has the widebt range of any of the British 
breeds. It is found, and has been for centuries — so long a period that 
doubts exist whether they are aboriginal or an importation during the 
Norman conquest or the Norwegian occupation of the Western Isles — 
upon nearly all the mountain-lands of Great Britain, including much of 
the area of Scotland, the mountain-chain extending through the north 
midland connties of England, and the heath and moor lands both in 
Bngland and Scotland. They are a hardy race, whose place could not 
be occupied by any of the more improved breeds, enduring, to an almost 
incredible extent, both cold and hunger, and getting a fair subsistence 
beneath the drifts of winter, thriving where the pampered long- wools 
wonld starve. Nor are they like the Merinoes. Their wool is of inferior 
qnality, hairy, uneven, used for carpets and coarse cloths, and weighs 
about three pounds per fleece. The average three-year old wether 
yields twenty -eight pounds per quarter, deem^ unequaled by epicurean 
taste in quality of meat and richness of gravy. The ewes are kept for 
five years, and are then drafted without distinction, while the wethers 
are fnlhgrown and fat on good grass-lands at three; but they are now 
generally sold for fattening on turnips in the low countries. 

Thus the slowest of breeds in maturing is made to subserve the pur- 
poses of meat-production, and increase the proilts of sheep-husbandry 
conducted under apparently unfavorable auspices. As in Texas and 
Colorado in this country, no inclosures separate the flocks. Each has 
its owner's mark, which is invariably purchased by a succeeding tenant<. 
These marks are known to the shepherds, and every strange sheep is 
returned promptly to its owner. They are usually branded on the horn, 
some flocks upon the nose, and others are known by ear-marks. On 
some farms a small quantity of coarse hay is savedMn summer, and in 
seasons of storm, or great severity of weather, are fed from the stack. 
On some farms a low-lying field, with some shelter, is provided for the 
first week; but, as a rule, the ** hoggs," as they are called, are sent to 
the arable or dairy farms of the lowlands, where they have the run of 
the stubbles and old pastures. From 5 to 6 shillings each are paid for 
their winter-pasturage of six months. They are especially valued for 
crossing with the Leicesters, their progeny at twelve months yielding, if 
well managed, 18 pounds per quarter, and a fleece of 7 or 8 pounds. A 
second cross is not so successful. A ewe that has dropped a Leicester 
lamb is called a "milled'' ewe, and is held at a reduced valuation; if a 
second time, a "double-milled" ewe, with further deterioration. This 
results from the extra size of the lamb, tending to organic derangement 
in the ewe. 



228 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

39. Boscommons. — Gonnanght has been for a loDg period the principal 
sheep-breeding section of Ireland, and the source of supplies furnished 
to the great Ballinasloe fair for the graziers of all other parts of the 
green isle. Gulley described the original stock of Gonnaught as the 
most awkward and ungainly sheep to be found in the kingdom, with 
nothing to recommend them but their siae. '^ These sheep are supported 
by very long, thick, crooked, gray legs ; their heads long and ugly, with 
large, lagging ears, gray faces, and eyes sunk : necks long, and set on 
below the shoulders ; breasts narrow and short, hollow before and behind 
the shoulders ; flatsided, with high, narrow, herring-backs, hind quarters 
drooping, and tail set low ; in short, they are almost in every respect 
contrary to what I apprehend a well-formed sheep should be ; and it is 
to be lamented that more attention has not been paid to the breeding of 
useful stock in an island so fruitful in pasturage as Ireland." 

The spirit of improvement reached this district; the smuggling of 
English animals, the importation of which was strictly prohibited, be- 
gat a desire for superior style and more satisfactory returns. At lengtti 
the restriction was removed, and their improvement was vigorously con- 
ducted, the first means employed being a Leicester cross, by which the 
form was improved and the wool lost much of its coarseness. When it 
assumed the distinctive and fixed peculiarities of a new breed, it took the 
name of the Eoscommon sheep. The breeders manifested much judg- 
ment in perfecting its points and skill in selecting the individuals by 
which it was accomplished. For the past generation the progress made 
has been remarkable, compelling the Boy al Agricultural Society and the 
Boyal Dublin Society, which for a long time admitted them in a mixed 
class to their shows, to recognize them as a distinct breed of long-wools, 
The following statement of their present status is made by Mr. B. O. 
Pringle, editor of the Irish Farmer's Gazette : 

• 

The old Connanglit breed of sheep were never fattened until they were three or four 
years old, when they made great weig^hts, but the mutton was coarse. In consequence 
of the improvement which has been made in the breed, shearling wedders are now often 
sold fat to the butcher, making from 25 pounds to over 30 pounds per quarter ; but, as 
a general rule, the Roscommon graziers hold them over until they are thiity months old, 
at which age they are generally sold in fiaUinasloe fair, at prices varying from three to 
four guineas each, to Leinster graziers, by whom the sheep are kept until they are about 
three years old, when they make from 36 pounds and upward per quarter. Draft ewes, 
fed after being cast for breeding, weigh from 34 pounds to 40 pounds per quarter, and 
the* quality of the mutton is unexceptionable. It must be understood that the Bos- 
common sheep are, in general, reared entirely upon grass, with the help of some hay 
during winter. Turnii)-feeding does not, as in Great Britaiu, form a material point in 
sheep-farming as conducted in Roscommon, there being only one acre to turnips grown 
in that country to each 109 acres of area. These sheep, from first to last, are for the 
most part reared and fattened without seeing a turnip. In all cases where turnip- 
feeding is pursued, the Roscommon sheep prove that early maturity, along with heavy 
weights, has become one of their characteristics ; so tbat if turnip-growing were extended 
in the west of Ireland, it is only reasonable to believe that Gonnanght would produce 
much larger supplies of sheep than is done at present. With the pressure of the meat- 
market which now exists, this is, therefore, a point which deserves to be seriously con- 
sidered. 

The fleece is soft, deep-grown, rich wool, the first weighing 8 to 10 
pounds. Some old ewos have borne fleeces of M to 16 pounds ] and the 
fleece of the prize-ram, " Prince Arthur," 24 pounds. 

40. Feance. Sheep-husbandry in France has had a constant if not a 
rapid growth in the past century. The numbers were ten and a half 
millions in 1789. Twenty-three years after Chaptal estimated the total 
at thirteen and a half millions, yielding 1,718,049 pounds of fine wool, 
1,672,199 pounds of medium, and 70,208,926 pounds of coarse wool. In 



THE SHEEP AND WOOL OP THE WORLD. 229 

1867 flocks had increased to thirty millions, but in 1872, after the war, 
they nambered less than twenty-flve millions.* 

From sach an exhibit il is plain that the Merino race had sixty years 
ago made little impression upon the flocks of the country, which were 
indigenous, bearing a fleece of coarse wool. At present the Merino and 
its grades comprise about two* thirds of the sheep of France. 

The largest flopks are found in the mountainous areas of the southwest 
and of the center, and the distribution and numbers throughout the 
regional districts into which the country is divided are presented as fol- 
lows, with the popiUation of each, according to statistics presented at 
Vienna in 1873 : 

Population. Number of sbeop. 

Region of the north 2,729,806 3,560,410 

Region of the northeast 2,966,404 1,325,222 

Region of the southeast 3,&32,780 1,793,128 

Region of the south 3,478,974 3,320,304 

Region of the southwest 5,162,245 5,144,554 

Region of the west 4,869,743 1,670,858 

Region of the center mountains 3,095,193 5,148,043 

Region of the center plains 2,729,860 3,106,443 

Region of the northwest 6,278,114 4,344,815 

35,143,185 29,413,783 

These figures are ofiKcial^ from the census taken prior to the war, and 
prior to the reduction indicated in a former paragragh. The population 
is returned at 36,102,921. 

The regions in which- there was more than one sheep for every unit of 
population, according to the above table, were the north, mountains of 
the center, and plains of the center. The southwest nearly equaled in 
numbers the aggregate df populatioh. 

41. The Merinoes are quite generally distributed, but are most numer- 
ous in the hilly districts of the east, from Belgium to the Mediterranean. 
In the region of the southeast they nearly usurp the pasture-range, a 
large proportion being grades founded upon native races, but grown 
mainly for wool. In the plains of Crau, in the western part of the 
department of Benches du Rhone, a level, dry, and rocky region, this 
breed abounds. Here are found the Transhumantes or traveling sheep, 
which feed upon the winter-herbage of dry plains and spend the sum- 
mer-months upon the elevated slopes of neighboring mountains, after the 
manner of sheep-husbandry in Spain — a practice in this country only 
known in the Eocky Mountains, and especially in the Sierra* Kevada 
range in California. The metis-Merinoes, valued for meat-production as 
well as wool, are mostly in the northern areas of France, quite numer- 
ous north and east of Paris. The Dishley (or Leicester) cross is also 
abundant in the Plaines du Kord. Merinoes are spread through Des 
Plaines du Centre, and here are found Solognots, Berrichons, and Bour- 
bonnaises, either pure or crossed with SouSidowns or Carmoises. The 
Barbarine breed, of African origin, is found in the hot plains of the 
south. The region of the southwest has among its native races the 
sheep known as Larzac, Boussillon, Lauragnaise, Landaise, and Beaur- 

*At die '' Conconrs " at Saute Menehould, September 19, 1875, it was stated by M. 
FoDsard, president of the central committee of the department of Marne, upon the 
authority of M. Dacbaleaa and M. Henz6, inspector-general of agriculture, that the 
number of sbcep in Franco was reduced from 30,386,2b3 bead in 186G to 24,707,496 iu 
1872^ a loss of 5,678,787 in six years. M. Dncbalean bad attributed this loss to tbe 
dechne in prices of wool, but M. Ponsard, while admitting tbe operation of this cause, 
attributed a portion of the loss to tbe absurd law which allows the municipal coun- 
cils to prescribe the number of bead per hectare which each farmer is permitted to 
keep, a prerogative which had been grossly abused. 



230 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

naise. In portions of this district the Sontbdown is popular. The 
Merino wools of France, particularly those of Beauce, Chatillon, and 
Sautcrne, like those of Spain, have a remarkably strong fiber. Brie and 
Chatillon combine in a high degree strength and softness. 

A fleece remarkable for its brilliancy, fineness, and softness, a comb- 
ing- wood peculiar and valuable, is supplied by the IMauchamp, a cross- 
breed deriving its fineness from the Merino, distinguished as much for 
its ugliness of form as lor its richness of fleece. An accidental result 
of breeding was seized upon by M. Graux, and, by will and persever- 
ance, developed into a well-characterized and permanent breed. Its 
form, originally far from perfect, has attained a good degree of sym- 
metry. 

The type of the flock of Naz, created by M. Girod, of Ain, and M, 
Perrault, of Jotemps, is deemed perfect as a wool-producer, yielding a 
fiber finer than that of the best Electoral. 

42. The economic and agricultural conditions of France arc evidently 
becoming more favorable to the raising of mutton-sheep. The extension 
of forage-plant culture, the establishment of rural industries furnishing 
refuse matter for feeding animals, the use of horses in agricultural 
labor from the improvement of neighborhood roads, and the ability of 
the masses to consume meats at higher prices, are circumstances which 
tend to the dissemination of the English T)reeds. The influence of the 
Paris Exposition was important in calling more general attention to the 
models in mutton-making. As might naturally be expected, it has been 
found that the Anglicizing of French stock is greatly preferred to the 
attempted naturalization and extensive breeding of English flocks. In 
Anglo French cross-breeds is found satisfactory meat-production as 
well as desirable fleeces, and they lare better suited to the soil, climate, 
economic conditions, and local demands of the country they inhabit. 
Southdown crosses upon the native breeds, in the central departments, 
.bear a strong resemblance to English breeds, and differ very essentially 
from the Southdown and Merino cross in the department of Seine- 
Inferienre, which approximate the heavy, soft fleeces of the Dishley 
Merinoes, though still presenting something of the brown tinge of the 
paternal race. The Dishley (or Leicester) cross with the. Merino is 
more general and popular. It exhibits distinct traces of English blood 
in small and hornless head, amplitude of barrel, and lightness of bone ; 
and resembles the French ewes in a body better wooled, with a softer 
and thicker fleece. The preferences of different breeders are shown in 
the greater prominence given respectively to the English and French 
types : in one case illustrated by great size and fine conformation, and in 
the otuer by afine and soft fleece, covering well the head and limbls. And 
these preferences are not mere whims or accidental opinions, but are 
usually exercised in subordination to sound reason and the dictates of 
controlling circumstances. 

43. As elsewhere throughout the world, the more productive plains 
and valleys furnish specimens approximating to the mutton-breeds; the 
more elevated plateaus, the less highly cultivated and valuable lands, 
aiX5 represented by animals valuable more esp<?teially for their wool, 
approaching manifestly the Merino type. 

It must be acknowledged that the Merino has assumed the first place 
in the sheei)-husbandry of Prance, it has in less than a century nearly 
exterminated the native breeds in large districts, by the constantly 
progressing modification of form and fleece of the ancient sheep of the 
country. 

Perhaps there has been more diversity of views among improvers 



THE SHEEP AST) WOOL OP THE WORLD. 



231 



than in the United States, where the fashion of a few eminent breeders 
becomes the furor of all engaged in wool-growing, as when the style of 
excessive grease and unbounded skin-corrugations, "wrinkles" that put 
money in the purse without rendering an equivalent, commands the fol- 
lowing of the craft throughout the country. There has been evidently 
more originality and independence in the efforts of masters of the prin- 
cipal breeding-flocks of France. 

44. The government establishment at Bambouillet exercised a marked 
influence in its departure from the established ideas of fine-wool breed- 
ing. At the first it aimed greatly to increase the size and symmetry of 
the frame and the weight of the fleece ; afterward the example of En- 
gland was emulated to a degree never attempted by breeders of Merinoes 
in any countrj^, in striving to increase the feeding capacity and fatten- 
ing capabilities, and to render the offal less in proportion to weight of 
meat. In doing this, the original fineness of the wool, which has been 
the peculiar characteristic of this breed, was sacrificed, but not the value 
of the fleece, which became very heavy, with a combing-fiber of great 
length and high utility. The accompanying illustrations (PI. XXIV and 
XXV) of an original Bambouillet of 1787 and of the improved sheep of 
to-day, engraved from drawings prepared under the direction of the 
French minister of agriculture and commerce, show more plainly than 
any amount of verbal description the wonderful change which has been 
effected. 

The national bergerie of Bambouillet was established in 1786, at the 
farm of that name, in the department of Seineet-Oise, the property of 
Louis XVI, who obtained from the King of Spain permission to import 
Merino sheep, and placed 364 selected animals of that breed upon the 
estate and ordered the erection of suitable buildings for an imperial 
breeding-establishment. The manager. Count Angivillers, neglected at 
first to provide shelter for the flock, but found it necessary subsequently 
to add sheep-sheds to the building-accommodation of the place. An- 
other importation was again made in 1800. 

The descendants of these animals have acquired qualities widely dif- 
fering from the characteristics of their ancesters of even twenty-five 
years ago. Under the vigilance and care of Tessler and Bourgeois, not 
only has the breed been kept pure, but it has received a grand and pecu- 
liar development, which has given it a world-wide reputation and caused 
a demand from Merino breeders of America and Australia, as well as of 
tiie central nations of Europe. The total value of sheep sold fromi this 
establishment from 1797 to 1872 was 3,472,343 francs, averaging 45,«8S 
fimncs per annum. The number and prices are as follows : 



Average prioea. 



4,309 rams 

3,581 ewes 

S,0S5 II11tttOB*8hMp.. 

131,165 kilograms xrool 



1797 to 1834. 



46S.16£ 

183. e3£ 

S7.73f. 

4.39£ 



1835 to 1896. 



3ML541 

6&39£ 

fi4.731 

&901 



l8S4tol6TgL 



699. 94 1. 

39&e6f. 

37.6411 

8.38t: 



The establishment also has, at a distance of two kilometers from the 
farm, a flock of Mauchamp Merinoes, a race with a silkv wool, which M. 
Graux in 1828 found in a flock of Merinoes. This subrace has many 
points of relation to the breed imported in 1786. 



232 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AaRICULTURB. 

The bergerie of EamboaiUot is under the direction of M. Bemardin, 
former pupil of the Agronomic Lastitnte of Yersailles. 

45. Other breeding-establishments have built upon different models, 
though the principal flocks can be classed in two categories^ one includ- 
ing those in which the wool is the ruUng object, the other those in which 
the meat has perhaps equal prominence. A very small head, cylindrical 
trunk and light skeleton, and increased proportion of flesh characterize 
certain flocks ; but larger numbers still seek rams of corrugated skin 
and heavily- wooled extremities. In this class there are few that aim to 
produce a fiber of extra fineness, and perhaps still fewer that do not 
obtain fleeces of increased size grown upon animals of greater weight. 
In this respect France is only yielding to the tendencies of the age in 
woolen fabrication, and complying with the conditions of successful 
agriculture in a populous country of comparatively high-priced lands. 
Still, there are evidences that France is yet able to produce wools of the 
first grade of fineness. 

The national bergerie of Haut-Tingry (Pas-de-Calais) was created in 
1843, at Montcarvel, in the same department, and removed to its pres- 
ent location in 1859. Its object is to bre^ Dishleys and the cross-breed 
known as Dishley Merinoes ; many fine flocks of the latter are found in 
the northwest and upon the plains of the north. 

The establishment at Haut-Tingry embraces 190 hectares (469.5 acres) 
of arable land and nataral prairies. At the close of 1872 it had 179 
Dishley rams and 249 Dishley-Menno rams. The animals and fleeces 
are annually sold at public auction. The following are the average 
prices (from 1843 to 1869) at which sheep and wool were sold, first at 
Montcarvel and then at Haut-Tingry : 



Bams 

Ewes 

Breoding-oaimals, (anlmanx de reforme) 
Wool, per kilogram 



MontcarveL 



874. 30 f. 

175. 00 f. 

S9.98f. 

S.68£ 



I 
Hant-Tingry. 



341. 16 f . 

56. oof. 

34.50f. 

S-lOt 



The higher prices of rams indicate the importance of the crosses that 
have been effected between the Dishley and the Merino breeds. The 
establishment at Haut-Tingry, since 1858, has embraced a school of 
shepherds. The Haut-Tingry establishment is under the direction of M. 
Guidon, former pupil of Grignon. 

The cross-breeds, formed by the use of Merino rams in the native 
flocks of Brie, Bargnndy, Champagne, Provence, Boussillon, and other 
districts, are among the most profitable sheep of France. They are 
called metis-Merinoes, or simply metis. The best bear fleeces scarcely 
less valuable than full-bred Merinoes, and in form and figure equal the 
Dishley Merinoes. They appear to be improving, acquiring a fixity of 
type that promises the establishment of a permanent breed. This per- 
manence is already attested by the fact that such flocks, dating back to 
the beginning of the century, are now improving rather than degenerat- 
ing. A few years have sufficed to create an enhancement of national 
wealth which would have required centuries to produce by selection and 
regimen alone. 

46. The degree of aptitude for fattening attained by metis-Merinos, 
the Dishley crossbreed, and even fine-wool sheep of full blood, as seen 
in all recent French exhibitions, is very remarkable. It is claimed that 



THE SHEEP AND WOOL OP THE WORLD. 233 

they liave equaled the English Southdown and Leicester in fatness and 
in earliness of maturing, some of these animals at eighteen months 
showing thirty teeth, while others of three years had only five. 

^t a recent exhibition at Paris the heaviest Merinoes weighed 84 kilo- 
gram)^; some of the best Southdowns averaged 69 at ten and one-half 
months; several Dishleys 60, at twelve and one-half; those of the Cots- 
wold- Berrichon cross at the same age, 68; Southdown-Berrichons 44, at 
eleven months ; and Dishley Merinoes 80, at eighteen months. Merinoes 
weighing 185 pounds will be deemed heavy representatives of the largest 
of that family. 

47. The ancient and unimproved sheep of France are of less economic 
importance. They are found under various local names, as Berrichons, 
Bretons, Barbarines^ (from Barbary,) Limosins, Poitevins, Solognots, 
etc.; in regions not highly improved or productive of abundant forage- 
crops. Where improvement of lands begins, and higher culture is coming 
in vogue, these ancient sheep give immediate sign of going into retiracy, 
as surely as the red man -of America recedes before the advance of the 
white race. The increase of f^eeding-material renders necessary the in- 
troduction of a breed for which a profit can bo derived in feeding; and 
the receipt of a substantial return for forage consumed begets a desire 
for the extension of the flock ; and so these conditions aet and re-act 
upon each other, as is so often observed in this country, in Great Britain, 
and elsewhere, producing modifications of farm animals as well as of 
farm economy generally. 

48. When a higher culture has been adopted, and the ability to pro- 
duce better mutton achieved, the cultivator finds it a slow process to 
change the character of his nock by the influence of regimen and selec- 
tion of animals for coupling, and prefers to adopt the surer and more 
rapid means of amelioration afforded by cross-breeding, which produces 
positive and immediate results. This accounts for the wholesale produc- 
tion of cross-breeds in certain districts in France. It is the attainment 
of fortune by intermarriage and resulting inheritance rather than by a 
life-time accumulation of small savings — a plan that works more satis- 
factorily with the ovine race than with the human. 

The benefit of crossing is here still more positively recognized in the 
improvement of wool, which is thought to yield more slowly to the influ- 
ence of regimen than size and weight, and tendency to fatten. 

While the value of these results is so evident, it has been a matter for 
surprise that the unimproved sheep are so numerous. One reason is 
seen in the fact of the immense number of small proprietors, who depre- 
cate change, and still consume their fleeces in domestic manufactures, 
using the same rude machineiy, and giving the same negligent care to 
their animals, without reflecting that improved animals give a larger 
fleece in proportion to weight, and wool of better quality, and that such 
substitution would give their needed home supplies and a surplus for 
sale, without increasing the number of their flocks. 

49. Upon a review of French sheep-husbandry, the candid observer 
must admit that intelligent flock-masters have in the main been wise in 
their refusal to sacrifice wool to meat, and attempt to vie with England 
in a course of breeding which is compulsory in that climate, choosing 
instead to produce a class of wool for which the peculiar character of 
their manufactures makes a strong^ demand. The extending nso of 
combing-wools, not the coarse fiber of great length produced by the 
mutton-breeds, but that having much of the fineness of Merino wool, 
with a material increase in length, has greaMy stimulated the steady 
progress observed in this direction, and the increase of forage supplies 



234 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



has Lad ite sliare in such modification of the Merino. Breeders have 
demonstrated, perhaps more successfully than in any other nation, that 
improvement in intriusic value of fleece and increase in meat production 
may keep pace with each other. Tbe climate, soil, and agronomic c<y2di- 
tious of this country have permitted this result. 

50. Austria-Hungary. At the time of the dispersion of Spanish sheep 
through the principal sheep-walks of Europe, Austria was prompt to 
share the boon of fine wool. In 1775 the Empress Maria Theresa im- 
ported into Hungary 300 Merinoes, and located them at the imperial 
fami of Meropail. A school of shepherds was establish*ed, other impor- 
tations were made, and the numbers of the new race increased and the 
modification, in some sections extinction, of the native races resulted. 

The number of sheep of all kinds in Austria proper is between five 
and six millions ; in Hungary, fifteen millions. In Hungary proper the 
number exceeds that of the population, a large proportion is of Merino 
blood, and the wool is remarkable for great softness and firmness, and 
cotton-like touch and aspect, not equalin strength to the German, and 
suited only to the light tissues. The great plains, so like our own west- 
ern prairies, rich with abundant and enduring elements of fertility, fur- 
nish the best sheep-walks of Europe, in which thebusinessof fine wools 
can be profitably carried on so long as it can exist in any portion of tJie 
continent. The wool of GaJicia and of the archduchy of Austria is very 
similar, though not of equal fineness, the inferior grades having more 
hairy fiber. Moravia furnishes an excellent cloth-wool, coarser than the 
Hungarian. Those of Austrian Silesia approach the wools of Prussiaa 
Silesia in strength of fiber, with an approximation to the tenuity of tho 
Hungarian. That of Bohemia is strong and hard, not very symmetrical^ 
and especially adapted to combing purposes. A large proportion of 
Austrian superfine wools are used for cloth ^ fine wools a^e employed in 
both processes ; medium mainly for combing, and some of tbe common 
wools of greater length are substituted for English long combing- wools 
and used in certain manufactures, and another class of it goes into low- 
priced cloth. M. Louis Moll, of France, makes the following classifica- 
tion of the wools of the Austrian Empire, produced in 1866, which will 
substantially indicate the quantity and styles at present grown : 



Hon^Ary 

Bohemift 

HoTATia 

SUesi* 

GaUcia 

Otber provinces 

Total 



Saperflne. 



Pounds. 

1,234,800 

942,550 

131,275 

187,425 



1,786,050 



Fine. 



Poundt, 
6,174,000 
1,883,200 
749,700 
496,135 
749,700 
243,550 



10,264,275 



Medinm and 
ordinazy. 



Pctmdt, 

34,006,000 

1,853,900 

749,700 

496.135 

1,934,600 

1,234,800 



90,263,635 



Common. 



P(mnd«. 
1,334,800 



1,652,200 



3.087,000 



TotaL 



Poundi. 

33,330,600 
3.046^950 
1,690,675 
1,179,675 
3,836,700 
1,477,350 



45,400,950 



51. According to the Hungarian census of 1870, Hungary had 
15,077,000 sheep, an increase in thirteen years of S3 per cent, while 
horses increased only 3 per cent., cattle declined 6 per cent., and swine 
in a less degree. In Middle and Ldwer Hungary there are districts hav- 
ing as many as 5,000 to 0,000 sh^ep per square mile. In Hungary proper 
the number per square mile was 3,197, and 1,072 for every 1,000 inhabit- 
ants. In Siebenbergen tho number waa 1,928 to each square mile; in 



THE SHEEP AND WOOL OF THE WORLD. 235 

Oroatia and Slavoniii, 1,010 ; aud in tlic Military Bouudary, 1,073. This 
region is the great sheep-walk of Europe. The export of wool in 1S70 
was 277,784 tons, worth 25,545,502 gulden, or more than 812,000,000 in 
gold. 

The Hocks of Hungary are n)ainl3^ Merinoes, a few native sheep still, 
remaining, and several flocks of native aheep crossbred with South- 
downs. The lands are becoming more valuable, arable culture is en- 
croj:ching on the meadows, and supplies of forage are made necessary. 
Lucerne is found valuable both for summer and winter feeding. Eed 
clover and sanfoin do not thrive on the dry plains. The French process 
of !naklug " sour-hay'' by fermentation is practiced considerably, both 
with maize and grass, the trenches being 4 feet by or 8, and the forage 
compactly laid and covered with a foot of earth. It is common to keep 
the best flocks under cover at night and at midday in summer, and day 
und night in winter. They are not folded upon turnips as in England. 

The lambing occurs at two seasons, April and May, and August and 
September, the ewes being carefully sheltered. The ewes are good 
nurses, of only moderate quality as milkers. The shearing is done in 
jMay, by women, in shearing-houses. In washing they are dipped a few 
times, then made to sweat to soften thedirt, after which they are washed 
and made to swim in clean water; in warm washing, with soap, a simi- 
lar course is pursued, ending with cold water. Spring-lambs are washed 
i n August. Breeding-ewes are sometimes.fed with mangel-wurzel pulped 
with hay and straw. Store-sheep are rarely ever so fed. Culls are gen- 
erally sold at low prices ; in some cases they are fed and sold fat to 
butchers. Corn and oil cake are fed occasionally to rams. 

The Hungarian Merino is horned in both sexes, the head well covered 
with wool. It is smaller than the French and Prussian, especially the 
Bambonillets, of which type few are found in Hungary. 

52. Germany. The introduction of Spanish sheep into Germany 
commenced before the close of the last century, and actively continued 
during the first years of the present, has given great prominence to 
wool-growing industry, and has been the prime instrumentality in estab- 
lishing the present high reputation of German woolens. Soon German 
wools began a sharp competition in the English market with the fine 
wools of Spain, and in a few years more almost drove Spanish fleece 
from English roanufactones. Thocourse of this contest affords a striking 
illustration of the rapidity and extent of the improvement in the hands 
of the industrious and patient German fiock-masters. The imports of 
Great Britain derived from these countries were as follows, for the dates 
named: 



Gormany 

StMdn and Portngal. 



ISOO. 



1814. 



1827. 



4S1, 850 I 3. 595. 14C j S2, 007, 198 
7, 799, 7a8 | 9, £84, 991 | 4, 349, 643 



53. At the beginning of the improvement, and for a generation after- 
ward, extreme fineness of wool was the constant and principal aim in 
breeding. It was carried so to excess that the constitutional vigor of 
the fine/st flocks was much impaired, and the light weight of fleeces was 
scarcely compensated by the highest prices paid lor wool. Increasing 
commercial facilities and activities, the growing competition of South 
American and the British colonies, increase of iKipuiation demanding 
enlarged meat-supplies, conspired to reduce the price of fine wool, and 



236 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

to bring about a revolution in sbeep-brceding. In populous regions, 
areas of bigb culture, wool became subsidiary to mutton, a change ef- 
fected by crossing Merino or native sheep with the Southdown or with 
the other Down families or with the Leicester. *Iu districts of sparse 
population and low culture, and consequent low prices of mutton, the 
wool interest has retained its prominence, and by producing a fino grade 
of medium wool in heavy fleeces, with some attention to the flesh-mak- 
ing quality of the flock, the business has been quite remunerative. 

The Merino race and its grades now constitute about half of the flocks 
of the German Empire. As divided by reliable local authority, there 
are 14,000,000 Merinoes, 7,000,000 English breeds and their crosses, and 
8,000,000 native sheep, making in all 29,000,000. The annual wool-pro- 
duction is estimated at 125,000,000 pouuds. 

54. The mutton-interest is seen to have attained large proportions, 
and the tendency is still toward meat-production and large fleeces of 
medium fineness. It has required many years and bitter experience to 
produce this change. A comparison of prices at Berlin and Breslau, for 
forty-one years, illustrates the approximation in prices of fine and coarse 
wool that has taken place throughout the world, and renders plain the 
reason for enforcement of the policy that now rules in sheep-breeding: 





1830. 


1840. 


1850. 


1860. 


1870. 


1871. 


Berlin 


EXTRA FIXK WOOL. 


110 
150 

76 

97 

63 

77 

46 
42 


115 
125 

78 
85 

53 
65 

38 
52 


110 

140 

85 
110 

62 
80 

42 
65 


103 
118 

91 

106 

79 
94 

60 
71 


"ioi' 

63 
86 

S3 

07 

45 
54 


69 


Breslan - 


106 


Berlin 


FIXB WOOL. 


59 


BrcAlAU -- - 


90 


Berlin 


MEDIUM WOOL. 


56 


BroslAU - 


71 


Berlin 


COAPmSE WOOL. 


49 


Brealan , 


57 







This is similar to the course of the market in Pesth, Hungary, from 
1843 to 18Z2, during which period extra fine wool increased in price 14.8 
per cent'f fine 25.7, medium 46, and ordinary CO per cent. 

55. Saxony was the scene of the earlier triumphs of breeding in the 
production of wool of a fineness not suri)assed in the world. The Elec- 
tor of Saxony, at the close of the seven years' war, in 1765, is said to 
have obtained from the King of Spain 100 Merino rams and 200 ewes, 
from the best Spanish flocks. He kept a portion on his own farms, near « 
Dresden, and distributed the remainder through his dominion. Fine 
flocks are yet found there, though the force of circumstances has com- 
pelled a modification of fleece and form. The Electoral type predom- 
inates in Saxony, though for twenty-five years there has been a gradual 
departure from the extreme fineness by which the fame of Saxony wool 
was originally gained. 

In few countries, if in any, has the business of sheep-breeding been so 
systematic as in Saxony. The best flocks have been under the manage- 
ment of educated agriculturists, either proprietors or employed flock- 
masters. Eams are selected with great care, and if the proprietor dis- 
trusts his own judgment, he employs an expert to make the selection. 
The most complete order is enjoined in ail respects ; stables are ample 
and cleanly 5 their temperature regulatod by thermometers 5 fodder abun- 



THE SHEEP AND WOOL OF THE WORLD. 237 

% 

dant and well kept. The lambs come in summer rather than iu winter, 
and to this fact is attribated much of the reputation of Silesian sheep 
for hardiness and healthfulness. 

56. Prussian Silesia Jias been almost equally distinguished for success- 
ful wool-growing. Following in the footsteps of Saxony, obtaining fine 
stock from.that neighbor country rather than by original importations 
from Spain, the same preference for fineness of fiber naturally ruled the 
selection of breeding-stock, and the result was an early and wide-spread 
celebrity for wool of great fineness and value, and a profitable demand 
for thorough-bred rams for improvement of the flocks of European and 
more distant countries, including Australia and America. Though never 
so famous for ^< high-fine ''fleeces as Saxony, Silesia has won the distinc- 
tion of a more active and extensive demand for breeding-rams, by reason 
of their heavier fleeces and greater vitality. The departure from the 
Electoral type, characterized by its short and fine fiber, small size, and 
delicacy of organization, dates from the time when England began to 
forsake Germany for her own colonies in her search for wools. At this 
discovery a panic ensued, flocks were diminished, the short-sighted left 
the business, and the shrewd and far-seeing proceeded to Inaugurate a 
radical change in the course of breeding by which sheep of larger size 
and greater vigor, yielding heavier fleeces of longer and coarser fiber, 
were substituted for the modified Electorals which had been bred from 
Saxon originals. Circumstances were favorable; the climate was mod- 
erate, the grasses nutritious, the surface dry and uudulating, and flocks 
were therefore in full health and vigor, favorable to continued improve- 
ment, which progressed in the direction of comparative softness aud 
elasticity of flber, while size, constitution, and weight of fleece were 
maintained in a high degree. A wise care was exercised toward the 
improvement of pastures, the selection of food-plants most desirable for 
sheep, and ample provision for equal and constant food-supplies through- 
out the year, as experience taught the necessity of such care to uniform- 
ity and abundance of the fiber. 

The Silesian flocks of the present time, of Merino blood, are tending 
still farther from the Electoral type, once so popular, toward a more 
compact frame and heavier fleece. It is beginning to be acknowledged, 
in the very strongholds of fine wools, that no country of dense population 
and high prices of lands can afford to limit its aim in sheep-breeding to 
the i)roduction of wool alone. 

57. Bavaria, which has not been regarded as a sheep-raising country 
of much note, is bestowing more attention upon this interest Valu- 
able flocks may now be found in the Suabian and Keuburg districts, 
and in the three Frankish provinces, Upper Pfalz, and in the Pfalz. 
The Merino race has been represented here for three-fourths of a cen- 
tu^y, yet a considerable proportion are Zaupels and other native breeds. 
Improvement has of late been rife, but cross-bred animals are sought 
rather than Merinoes, such as are well developed, thrifty, easy to 
fatten, producing acceptable mutton and a medium grade of wool. The 
Zaupels have a coarse, long wool, suitable for smooth stuffs of coarse 
texture, and available for flannels and yarns. They fatten easily, and 
their meat is of good quality. They are small, weighing only 40 to 50 
pounds. 

Stjrrian sheep, descendants of the Bergamask race, have been brought 
from the Styrian and Carinthian Mountains, in the course of trade with 
Upper and Lower Bavaria, and have spread to the Danube Eiver, and 
through the valley of the Iser. They are heavier than the German 
sheep, with loug heads, pendulous ears, and long legs. They are hardy, 



238 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

9 

fatten readily, but their meat is coarse and bones large, and as wool- 
bearers tbey are inferior to the Gorman sheep. The mountain-sheep of 
Upper Bavaria and Algau are related to the Styrian, but are smaller, 
with coarser wool. 

Some of the larger estates still adhere to Merino flocks of the Electoral 
type, of small size, weighing only 48 to 50 pounds, live weight. 
' In Neubnrg are flocks of very fine cross-bred sheep, mature wethers 
weighing 95 to 110 pounds, and ewes 75 to 80 pounds, and yielding wool 
2^ to 3^ inches long, (secunda and tt>'tia grades,) useful both as a cloth- 
wool and combing- wool. The coarse German cross-breds (Rauhbastcr) 
are mostly found on smaller estates, especially near Bamberg and in the 
Main Valley. The ewes weigh 85 to 05 pounds, the wethers 110 .to 120 
pounds. The fleeces average 3 to 4 J pounds, of tertia and quarta grades. 
The true German sheep, or " land-sheep," unimproved, are scattered 
through the Frankish provinces and Upper Pfal2. 

Only one of the government Merino breeding-folds now remains on the 
public estate at Schleisheim, though individual sheep-raisers have 
established valuable flocks for breading purposes, both of Merinoes 
and Bouthdowns. The Schleisheim flock has been in existence since 
1802. 

Throughout Germany the tendency exists, modified variously by the 
circumstances briefly touched upon in this chapter, toward the produo-~ 
tion of more and better mutton in connection with such supplies of 
wool as the required modification of breeding and feeding naturally 
produces. 

58. EussiA. — The immense areas of natural pasturage in Russia are 
capable of sustaining vast numbers of sheep, which have been increas- 
ing constantly, until the aggregate probably reaches 50,000,000, the 
number reported in 1870 being 48,132,000. The Merinoes comprise only 
about one-fifth of the whole number. The Electoral was established in 
some sections, especially in Polish provinces, but the Negretti gives 
better satisfaction and now predominates. The Russian Kegretti is 
claimed to excel the Merino of any other name or country in hardiness. 
The immense flocks of the great plains become hardy by the '^survival 
of the fittest " in the encounter of the elements and sharp competition 
for the means of subsistence. 

There are flocks of immense size in Russia. One at Novo-Yoroutsovka 
numbers 30,000 Merinoes, 600 Montaguardo sheep, besides 1,000 Angora 
goats. ■ Another is reported of 50,000. 



CHAPTER III. 

INCREASE OF PRODUCTION AND MANUFACTURE. 

IXCIIEASK OF WOOL-GUOWING IN TIIK UNITED STATES; GREAT PROGRESS IN MANU- 
FACTURE ; The wool-product of the worij). 

59. As has been brieflj' shown in the preceding chapter, the develop- 
ment of the factory system of woolen industry throughout the world 
has been, in very large proportion, the result of the enterprise of the 
past hundred years. Prior to that time the woolen clothing of all 
countries was largely the product ol home industry. At theprescnt 
date home manufacture of woolens is a comparatively small industry in 
any portion of the world, especially in the more cultivated and progres- 
sive countries. 

With the first settlers of the wilds of America came selections from 



4» 



THE SHEEP AND WOOL OP THE WORLD. 



239 



the domestic animals of Europe, but tbo numbers were small up to the 
dose of the seventeenth century, about which time the impulse to 
improve the grade and increase the quantity of wool, which so interested 
the bucolic mind of England; and Germany, and France, began to be 
felt in the United Stat-es, and importations of Spanish Merinoes were 
made b}- enthusiastic breeders. The farmers were generally slow to see 
the advantage of the improvement, yet flocks increased, a better quality 
of wool Btimiilated manufacture, and at the commencement of the war 
with Great Britain, which was inaugurated in part to cripple the grow- 
ing manufactures of the colony, and thus demonstrate the peculiarly 
British idea of freedom of trade, (which means the freedom of home- 
trade and the destruction of colonial manufacture,) the wool-product 
was rapidly increasing and manufactures were extending and prospering, 
amounting in 1810 to the value of $25,608,788. 

• 60. At the close of that war, with manufacturing prostmte and im- 
portations excessive, this industry had a bare existence ; and in 1820 the 
value of its products was only $4,413,068. Its rate of increase since has 
been variable, as tariff legislation has fluctuated. In 1830 the total 
was $14,628,166; in 1840, $20,696,999; in 1850, $43,207,546, reaching 
$61,894,986 m 1860. But the great advance of this interest, its mag- 
niflcent achievement in new styles and superior qualities of goods, has 
been since that date. In 1870 the total value of all products was 
$1659406,358. The numbers of establishments, of cards, and of hands 
employed are given in detail for the several States : 



I ■ I" . ■ ! 



—J r- 



StatM and Teiritorlea. 



Alabama 

Arkanwan 

California 

ConneoticQt 

Delaware 

District of Colombia 

Florida 

Qeoreia 

Dlin^ 

Indiana. - •• 

Iowa 

Kanaaa 

Kentucky 

LoalafiVDa 

"If^tnA ,. 

Maryland 

Kassachnsetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Miasiaeippi 

Miaaonri 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oref^on 

Pennsylvania 

Bhode Island 

Sonth Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Vest Virginia 

Wisconsin 



Total. 



Sstablisbmonts. 



1870. 



14 

13 

5 

108 
11 



1 

46 

109 

175 

85 

9 

125 
3 

107 
31 

185 
54 
10 
11 

156 

77 

S9 

1 

S52 
52 

223 
9 

457 
65 
15 

148 
20 
15 
65 
68 
74 
04 

2,891 



1880. 



6 



1 

84 
4 



11 
21 
79 
12 



37 
1 
26 
27 
134 
16 



1850. 



149 
8 
1 



3 
16 
33 

1 



25 



36 

33 

119 

15 



4 

11 
51 
35 



140 
7 

115 
1 

270 

57 

1 

1 
o 



46 
45 



15 
1,260 



1 

61 
41 



249 

1 

130 



380 
45 



4 
1 



72 

121 



9 
1,559 



Hands employed. 



1870. 



41 
31 

659 
7,297 

399 



1 

563 

1,TJ6 

2,469 

1,088 

. 91 

C83 

29 

3,0-12 

327 

20,550 

667 

146 

116 

718 

3,750 

1,094 

20 

8, 812 

249 

2,243 

179 

12,764 

6,363 

53 

428 

100 

106 

1,870 

278 

316 

775 

80,053 



1800. 



198 



60 

3,767 

114 



383 
162 
533 
120 



437 

60 

1.027 

381 

12,969 

126 



935 

70 

1,518 

835 



4,220 

253 

728 

30 

6,089 

4,229 

92 

10 

43 



2,073 
494 



105 
41,360 



1850. 



5,488 

140 

2 



78 
178 
246 

7 



318 

624 

362 

11, 130 

129 



25 
2,127 

898 



6,674 

30 

1,201 



5, 726 
1,758 



17 
8 



1,393 

G68 



25 
39,252 



No. of sots of 
cards. 



1870. 



24 


14 


17 




46 


6 


660 


365 


30 


8 


1 




72 


30 


250 


37 


3-16 


112 


19U 


13 


24 





208 
12 

331 

tiO 

1,367 

116 
19 
17 

258 

:i5i 
81 

1 

845 

78 

334 

21 

1,317 

474 

25 

177 

29 

19 

175 

116 

132 

134 

8,336 



1860. 



83 
4 
80 
44 
821 
14 



13 
15 

146 
61 



324 

23 

173 

4 

483 

253 

10 

1 

4 



09 
50 



19 
3,209 



240 



KEPOET OF TBE COMMISSIOHBB Of 4GBICULTUEE. 



To supply material for this rapid growth, the home prodnction of wool 
has beeo iosafficieiit. The censue-retams of sheep and wool are as fol- 
lows: 

KiuuboT otabeep. Poondi of wooL 

1850 21,723,220 52,516,959 

1B60 22,471,275 CO, 264,913 

1870 .■. 28,477, Ml 100,102,387 

Those figures are not complete, as they only give an approximation 
of the nnmber of sheep actnally on &Tms at the date of the retail, and 
the amount of wool is still less complete, as the retnms of fleeces of 
sheep fllanghtered in cities are not given. The real number of sheep in 
1870 was not less than 3i,000,000, and the quantity of wool estimated 
by the writer at that date was 135,000,000, which was not too high, and 
was probably somewhat less than the actual product. The present 
number, not less than 33,000,000, are estimated to produce, without 
inclndiug the additional fiecccs of those slaughtered within the past 
year, 155,000,000 pounds. 

In addition to the domestic product, the annual receipts of wool from 
foreign countries since 1860, with the value of woolens imported, are as 
follows : 



Ybw. 


Woolent. 




wool. 




Vfllno. 


riunds. 


VaJuo. 


Cuntaixr 




l«,eS4,3H 

"'11 

IS,' Ml 
I^SIS 

as 

li 

at,im 

18, B« 


.16,000,000 

a,fji,iiw 

73. St, hot 
Ba 394,104 

S Ik 299 

'lis 

54,903,051 


8I,3!H 

III 

Si 

Ba.6» 

431350 

33!R3S 
so! 306 
GO. 101 

































































The average importation of wools was, therefore, about 57,000,000 
pounds for the war period, 43,000,000 for the subsequent five years, and 
74,000,000 for the last five years. The average cost for the period of teii 
years was $7,950,546 per annum ; since, $15,149,710. 

These supplies arc obtained maiuly from South America, England, 
Australia, and Sooth Africa, in proportions as follows : 



Y..„. 


Great BriUln. 


PmiuU. 
3,0tW.357 

ei-iiigTS 

1.1.117.900 
8,313.168 
1,454,811 

'^^'^ 

SS;!S 

14,fS«,810 


- 


publlo. 


Unicnuj. 




]«,00e,963 
n.0».133 

'Si 

e,7iS,8!» 

Sobs; 399 

H, 140, ao7 
15,S93 IW 
*>: 3501449 


PaumU. 

183, e:o 

118,234 

WB.SK 
814,110 
407,085 


23,951,500 

.S:SSS 
'5SS 

B. 349,059 
B.K«,«37 


PmoMl.. 




IKieis 










asSS:^ 












si:^ 




10, 1»7 
15. us: 548 

i; 903; 611 










wn 


n. 110, ail 







THE SHEEP AND WOOL OF THE WORLD. 



241 



The increase of the average price in recent yea^s, as seen in a former 
table, is esplained by the large proportion, as shown above, obtained 
from Great Britain and her colonies, producing wool of better quality and 
higher price than that of South America, 

The average supply since 1870 may properly be placed at 224,000,000 
pounds, of which two-thirds* is home-grown 5 but the nominal third of 
tlie foreign is mostly unwashed merino and low-grade carpet- wool, con- 
stituting not more than one-fourth of the value of our wool-supply. 

Nor is this the whole extent of our woolen manufacture. There is a 
large amount of shoddy, mungo, and other material, as well as cotton 
and other vegetable fiber, that is used to adulterate and extend the 
production of woolens. Of these, the recent imports of shoddy are as 
follows : 



Years. 



18C2 

ISC) 

1864 

1865 

1860 

1867 

rem 

1869 

1870 

Total 

Average 

Average for tho i)ast five years 



Founds. 



(5, 291, 077 

7,867,601 

8,i:<i,391 

4, 863, 064 

7, 147, 108 

5, 220, 296 

556,414 

832,283 

512,792 



41, 434, 02G 



4, 602, 669 
1, 831, 436 



Value. 



$442,376 

581,234 

621, 514 

410, 395 

589, 490 

518, 479 

49, 649 

68,103 

55.009 



3; 336, 249 



370,694 
163,964 



Price per 
pound. 



Cents. 
7 

7.3 
7.6 
8.4 
8.2 
9.9 
8.9 
8.1 
10.7 



8 
6.9 



(>1. The record of our importation of woolen goods should also be 
I)resented. Going back to 1820, and dividing the values of imports by 
decades, we have the following result for fifty-five years : 



Ten years endiag 1830 . 
Ten yean ending 1840 . 
Ten years ending 1850 . 
Ton years ending 1860 . 
Ten years ending 1870 . 
Five years ending 1875. 



Total in fifly-fivo years 



Aggregate. 



$86,182,110 
129, 336, 258 
109, 023, 553 
282, €82, 830 
320. 340. 346 
r, 976, 988 



Annual aver 
age. 



$d. 618, 211 
12, 933, 625 
10,903,355 
23.268,383 
32, 034, 034 
23, 797, 698 



1, 105, 542, 084 



21,191,674 



It is a suggestive and gratifying fact, that while the value of our manu- 
factures is about four times as great as in 1850, the average of imports 
of woolens of the past five years ($33,797,698) exceeds but little that of 
the entire period of fifty-five years, ($21,191,674,) beginning with the 
very infancy of this beneficent industry. It is particularly noteworthy 
that our imports since 1870 are less by several millions annually than 
for tho period between 1850 and 1860, notwithstanding the immense in- 
crease in the consumption of woolen goods. 

C2. The necessities of the Government for revenue, and the happy 
agreement of producers of wool and makers of cloth, have conspired to 
give a stability to customs-legislation for a period comparatively long, 
and a profit to both manufacturers and wool-growers, and at the same 
time lower prices to consumers of ^roolen goods than could be possible 
in the cloth-famine resultiug from consumption without production in 
the United States. If how the interests of mere carriers, who desire 
larger profits for handling goods than manufacturers expect for mahing 
them, are not again made paramount, the future of the woolen manufac- 

16 A 



242 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 



ture will soon be secure ; new triumphs of inveutioii will be gainetl, 
every variety of fabric will be produced in this couutry, and all clasfiea 
will thrive equally, except that importers of woolens will fail 'to realize 
their thousands with greater ease than the wool grower now obtains his 
hard-earned dollars. 

It is not proposed to enter into details of wool-growing in this country, 
to describe its breeds, report the progress of improvement, or indicate 
the probable direction of future efforts of sheep-breeders. It is suf- 
ficient here to say that the American Merino fs still the sheep of the 
country, with a distinctive character of its own, and a higher value for 
our uses than its most noted congeners abroad ; that sheep-husbandry 
is increasing, not east of the Missouri, but manifestly in the continental 
area of nutritious pasturage beyond, and that the production of early 
lambs and fat mutton, with the increase of the numbers of easily-fat- 
tening breeds, is making slow but sure progress in the more populous 
and highly-cultivated districts. 

63. Wool-product of the /World.— In conclusion, I will attempt 
to give, from examination of official records of wool-production, and from 
comparison of estimates of experts where iio official data are found, or 
where such records are several years in arrears, an approximate idea of 
the amount of wool produced in the world, and also tiie numbers of 
sheep of all kinds that are domesticated and kept for the production of 
wool. In this investigation the incompleteness and tardiness of official 
enumerations, and the evident lack of public appreciation of the value 
of statistics^ is painfully apparent 5 and yet the enumeration of domes- 
tic animals is among the ^simplest and most practicable of accomplish- 
ment of all census-work. In the more advanced and intelligent com- 
munities, these records are nearest complete. The official returns of 
sheep rarely if ever exceed the true numbers 5 it is often the case tliat 
they underestimate them. It is believed that in this country the census- 
aggregates approximate closely the real numbers, except in Texas, Cali- 
fornia, and in some border States, in which large flocks are kept in sit- 
uations remote from the view of assesi^ors. The census of Great Britain 
is probably quite accurate, and that of the central countries of Europe 
measurably so. The latest available official publications of the num- 
bers of sheep in European countries, some of them eight to ten years in 
arrears of the present date, are given as follows : 



Coun tries. 



Great Britain 

Irelaod 

Kiissia 

Sweden 

Norway 

Denmark 

Prussia 

Wurteiuburg 

Bavaria . . 

Saxouy 

HoUaud 



Date. 



1874 
1H74 
1670 
1872 
1865 
1871 
1873 
ISTJ 
1873 
1867 
1S72 



Shoep and 
lambs. 



30, .113, 914 

4, 437, 613 

48, 133, 000 

1, 650, 644 

1, 710, 000 

1, 842, 481 

19, 624, 758 

577. 290 

1, 342, 100 

304, 087 

855, 205 



Conntrics. 



Belf^iim 

FtODCO 

Portngal 

Spain 

Italy 

Austria, (proper) 

Xlunpiry 

Switzerland 

Greece 



Total. 



Date. 



1866 
1872 
1S70 
1865 
1867 
1871 
1871 
1866 
1807 



Sheop and 
lamlM. 



586,097 

24. 589, d47 

2, 706, 777 

22, 054, 967 

11,040,339 

5, 026, 393 

15, 076, 997 

447. 001 

2,539,538 



194, eCT, 003 



Next to the European flocks in numbers and in alliance of blood nnd 
])roi)rietary interest are those of Australia, which here includes alf 
Briti«Ii colonies in that antipodal region. The increase of sheep has 



186S all these colonies, except Queensland and Tasmania, have increased 
their flocks, some of them very heavily, averaging in the table below 



THE SHEEP AND WOOL OP THE WORLD. 



243 



about 17 per cent, notwithstanding the decrease in the two nanuHl. It 
is really more, probably at least 20 per cent., as the latest New ZcaUind 
figares are those of 1871, some of the others of 1873, and souio of 1^71. 
The retnrns are as follows, beinp: the latest extant at the respective 
dates of publication, 18G8 and 1874: 



-^ 



Colonics. 



Now &)ath TValos : 

Vlctona t 

Boctth Aastralia 

West Aastralia , 

QueeQslAnd v 

Tasmania ^. 

NewZeoland 



Total 



lecd. 



13,909,574 
9.Kja,81l 
4, 477, 445 
«)!», 756 
8, 921, 784 
1,740.914 
6.409,910 



47, 504, 103 



ISV4. 



10, 02S,<»0 

11,3-^060 

5,CW,410 

74 % 336 

r, G87, 901 
l,4f>l>,7W 
9. 700, C29 



55. 49C, 007 



In Asia the investigation rests necessarily upon more obscure data, 
and the more moderate estimates are excepted. The estimate, 350,000,000 
pounds, covers the entire area of Asia, consisting mainly of the wool of 
Asiatic Eussia, Turkey, Persia, and India, as large portions of China 
and Japan are said to be substantially non-producing. It is less by 30 
per cent, than some current estimates, and believed to be more consist- 
ent with a conserv^ative and judicious view of the probabilities. 

There has been a recent increase in the production of the Cape of 
Good Hope, and the estimate is certainly not too high, in fact scarcely 
more than the actual shipments for the past two or three years. As to 
South America, it is difficult to find in any markets, or in home con- 
sumption, the quantity sometimes attributed to this quarter of the globe. 

After careful analysis of recent and former statistics the following 
estimate is prel^ented both of sheep and wool : 



Coao tries. 



Europo: 

Great Britain*.... 
German £mpih> . . 
Austria-Hungary. 

Snssia 

Tr^oe 

Spain 

Portugal 

Italy 

Turkey 

Oreeco 

Switzerland 

Denmark 

Holland 

Belgium , 

Sweden 

Norway 



Total 



America : 

UhJted S.tato8 

Canada , 

South Amerioa and Mexico. 



Tolnl 



Asia 



Africa: 

iN'ortbom 

Capo of Good Hope. 



Total 
Australia . . 



Grand total. 



Number Of 


PouudH of 


sheep. 


wool. 


35, 000, 000 


218,000,000 


20, 000, 000 


125, 000^000 


21, OCO, COO 


60, 000, 000 


50, 000, 000 


138,009.000 


20, 000, 000 


124, 000, 000 


22, 000. 000 


09, 000, 000 


2<750, 000 


11,000,000 


11,000,000 


3d, 000, COO 


15, 000, 000 


37, 500, 000 


2,600,000 


7, 500, 000 


550,000 


2, qoo, 000 


1, 900, 000 


8,000,000 


00:«, 000 


4, 500. 000 


600,000 


3, 500, 000 


1, 700, 000 


6, 000, 000 


1, 750, 000 


6,2X1,000 


221, 750, 000 


858, 750, 000 


30, 000, 000 


185. COO, 000 


2,ooo;ooo 


8.000,000 


56,000,000 


174, COO, 000 


06, 000. 000 


3C7, 000, 000 


175, 000, 000 


350, boO.'OOO 


20.*000, 000 


45, 000, 000 


12. 000, 000 


51,000,000 


32, 000, 000 


OG, OCO, 000 


60, 000, 003 


255, 000, 000 


58 1, 750, 000 


1,926,750,000 



244 UEPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

The estimate of Great Britain is based upon 43 pounds of wool i)er 
fleece, with 52,000,000 pounds for wool of slieep batcbered during the 
year. The number thus disposed of is usually reckoned atthreo-eighths 
of the standing numbers of the flocks. Tu the German Empire the aver- 
age is placed at 3g pounds, with 6,000,000 fleeces of 3 pounds from 
slaughtered sheep. Hungarian fleeces are lighter, and in Austria- 
Hungary the extra fleeces arc assumed to bring the average nearly to 3 
pounds for each sheep. France produces heavier sheep and fleeces than 
the German States, more mutton-sheep, with a larger proportion annu- 
ally slaughtered, making 124,000,000 pounds for standing flocks of 
26,000,000 sheep a reasonable estimate. The South American fleeces 
are variable, but the average is much lower than in South Africa or 
Australia, and the sheep of Asia cannot be safely estimated to yield 
more than 2 pounds each. 

There are some sheep in the islands of the Paciflc, rendering the total 
estimate of 2,000,000,000 pounds very probable, and the number of sheep 
of the world 600,OOQ,000 in round numbers. 



STATISTICS OF FORESTRY. 

FoFestry has excited much attention in the United States in recent 
years, in consequence of the rapid deforesting of large areas, and the 
ezpre^ion of fears of a timber famine at no distant day. That the great 
wlute-pine forests are being rapidly despoiled of their original growth, 
and that inroads are being made upon the heavy timber of the Sierra 
slopes and deep valleys, there can be no question ; and yet, there is 
much that is sensational and extravagant^ in the views of alarmists on 
this subject. The pine forests are only culled, and are left to produce 
supplies for another generation; the western slopes of the Sierras are 
prolific of new growths in plaee of the old, and, except in the vicinity of 
the Central Paciflc Eoad, are almost untonched by the woodman's ax, as 
also are the immense forests of Washington Territory and Oregon. 
More than half the entire area of the South is woodland, and the re- 
quirements of its present population, year by year', dp not equal half the 
annual increase by growth. A large portion of the present consump- 
tion is sheer waste in clearing lands for agricultural purposes. Were 
the more than 200,000,000 acres of woodland in the South cut off at 
once, the annual growth upon the denuded area would be little less than 
200.000,000 cords of wood per annum. Yet it is true that the heavy 
timber of ^^ original" growths is gradually disappearfng. 

As population increases, and manufacturing operations are extended, 
timber will, of course, become scarcer, and consequently dearer, render- 
ing remunerative judicious effort and expenditure in forest-culture. 
But our people will ultimately learn that we can produce our wood and 
timber supplies as surely and profitably, though not with so frequent 
harvests, as we can grow our grain or meat supply. 

It is not our purpose to discuss the general subject of forestry here, 
but to collate the records of this and otner Departments of the Govern- 
ment upon forest statistics, with current experimental dataT from other 
sources, to supply the want of investigators for the math facts of forest- 
growing. 

In the first place, it is proper to inquire how our forest-area compares 



hi 



a 




] 
] 






1 1 


3 


1 i 

1 1 

i 1 


i 


1 -' 

i 


s" 


■< 

s 1 

S 1 


5 

il 

ll 



'-'^ 



STATISTICS OF FORESTRY. 



245 



with that of other coiiutries. The first and only attempt to separate 
UDimproved farm-lands of the census into " woodlands'' and " other un- 
improved land" was made in 1870, General Walker consenting to strain 
the old law a little by such enlargement of the schedule, at the urgent 
request of the statistician of this Department. It is certainly one of the 
easiest returns to make in all the agricultural schedules, as every man 
knows the area of his woodland far better than he can estimate the 
quantity of crops grown the previous year and already consumed, with- 
out measuring. Whil^ some portions of the farm -areas are doubtless 
unreported in the several States, making the land in farms appear less 
than it actually is, there is no reason why the proportion of such class 
should not be given with approximate accuracy. The area reported in 
woodland is, therefore, not in excess of the actual area. 

But a large proportion of the areaof several of the States is notin farms 
— even in one of the Kew England States the farm-area is little more 
than a fourth of the surface of the State — therefore a large addition to 
census figures will be necessary in estimates of aggregate areas. 

According to the census-returns, 39 per cent, of farms in the several 
States — exdusive of Territories — is in woodland. Taking into coiisid- 
eration the entire area of States, water-surface, cities, highways, &c., 
the estimate of the statistical division of this Department is 29 ; includ- 
ing all the Territories, 25 per cent. This places the United States be- 
low Norway, Sweden, Eussia, and Germany, and above all other Euro- 
pean states, in the proportion of forests. The German writer, Eeutzsh, 
gives the following figures : 




Norway 

SwtMlen 

Kassia 

Germany... 
Belgium.... 

Franco 

Switzerland 



CO 
60 
'SO. 90 

UuVJ 
15 



24. 61 

8.53 
4.26 
0.G63 
0. 18G 
0. 376 
0.396 



Sardinia 

INaplea 

Holland , 

Spain 

Denmark . . . . . 
Great liritain 
I'ortuffal 





i 


Acres per head 
of population. 




12.29 
9.43 
7.10 
.'». 52 
5.50 
5 
4.40 


0.233 




0.13d 




0.12 




0.291 




0.22 




0.1 




0.1€3 







The accompanying diagram will illustrate the proportion of forest 
area of farmlands in the several states, the figures in the white portion 
of the squares representing the farm-area in acres, and those in the 
shaded portion the proportion of that area in forest, in each State re- 
spectively. In some of the States the farm-lands 'comprise nearly the 
entire area, exclusive of lakes and streams; in others, those riiore 
recently settled, and also some of the original thirteen, the unoccupied 
or wild lands constitute a considerable proportion of the whole area. 
Thus Maine, has 5,835,058 acres in farms, while her area includes 
22,400,000 acres of land and water. In the table following, an estimate 
of the forest area, outside of that belonging to farms, is added to the 
total acreage of farm woodlands, to make the estimated total area in 
forest. In estimating the proportion in woodland, the water-surface on 
lakes and streams, the prairie, the ledges and other wastes incapable 
of producing trees, must bo taken into consideration. After canvassing 
the facts alTecting this proportion in the several States of the area 
exclusive of farms, one-half was assumed to be in forest in Maine, New 
Hami>shire, Vermont, Pennsylvania, IMaryland, Kentucky, Missouri, 



246 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 



Michigan, Florida 5 six- tenths were taken for Arkansas, Virginia, West 
Virginia, and Lauisiana: seven- tenths for Korth Carolina, South Caro- 
lina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Tennessee; one-third was tal^en 
for Massachasetts, ^ew York, and New Jersey; one-fourth for Texas and 
Oregon; one-sixth for Wisconsin and Minnesota ; one-eighth for Iowa; 
one-tenth for Rhode Island, Connecticut, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois; one- 
twelfth for Calirornia; one-twentieth for Kansas, Nebraska, and Nevada.* 
The proportion assumed respectively for the Territories is : Washington, 
33 per cent.; Montana, 16; Idaho, 16; Utah, 10; Wyoming and Indian, 8; 
New Mexico and Arizona, 6; Dakota, 3. The result of adding this out- 
side forest to that of the farm-lands is given in the following table, 
which shows the percentage of forest area of States and Territories 
(second column) in comparison with the census percentage, which in- 
cludes only the official enumeration of farms : 



StatoB. 



Maine 

KeTT Hampsbire 

YermoDt 

HaMachpaetts 

Bhode liland 

Connectiont 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvauia 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

North Carolina 

Soath Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas ^. 

Arkansas Pi. 

Tennosaoe 

West Virginia 

Stentncky 

Ohio 

Michigan 



■81 



38.1 

29 

30<^ 

S&8 

a3.7 

81.4 

35.5 

S4 

31.9 

28 

31.8 

45.7 

no. 6 

53.2 

54.6 

60 

56 

60.6 

56.9 

41.6 

51.4 

55 

51.1 

4a 9 

31.7 

40.7 






46.9 
37.2 
36.5 
39. 3 
24.2 
21.3 
87.6 
38.1 
:«.9 
29.2 
3a4 
49.4 
64.2 
60.6 
60.2 
50.6 
63.5 

26.7 

58 

59.9 

54.9 

49.1 

28.4 

47.1 



States. 



lodiana ... 
lUinois.... 
Wisconsin. 
MianesotA. 

Iowa 

Missouri .. 
Kansas . . . . 
Nebraska . 
California . 

Oregon 

Nevada . . . 



TERRITOBIES. 



Colorado .... 

Utah 

New Mexico. 
Washington. 

Dakota 

Montana 

Idaho 

Arizona 

Wyoming . . . 

Indian 

Alaska 



9 

li 



39.6 

19.6 
29. 3 
tX).6 
1&2 
41.3 
11.2 
10.3 

4.1 
31.8 

6.4 



II 



3.5 
0.1 
12.7 
44.8 
7.4 
0.8 
9.6 



0.8 



»4.8 
16.9 

sa9 

17.1 

14.1 

45.4 

5.6 

5.3 

7.9 

23.3 

5 



10 

10 

6 

33 

3 

16 

15 

6 

8 

6 

90 



The census percentage is increased in some States, and diminished in 
others, according to circumstances. In Maine scarcely more than ono- 
fourth of the area is in farms ) the remaining land being covered, gen- 
erally, with forest growths, though culled of Talnable timber, increases the 
census percentage from 38.1 to 46.9, and the increase woi^ld bo much 
greater (than the estifbated proportion of pne-half ) but for the remarkable 
extent of water-surface in addition to barren ledges and other wastes, 
Ehode Island, on the contrary, has 502,308 acres in farms, of its 835,840 — so 
large a proportion of the whole that nine-tenths of the remainder, 333,532 
acres, are assumed to be water, rock, roads, &c., thus reducing the per- 
centage of total area in forest from 33.7 to 24.2, New York has nearly 
two-thirds of its area in fai ms, and so much water throughout the State, 
especially the lakes of the western and northern sections, that only one- 
third of its 7,189,190 acres in farms is assumed to be in forest. Florida, 
though having less than one-tenth of its area in farms, has so large a 
proportion of water area that it is not deemed safe to estimate more than 

W »^^^^^■■ w^i ■■■ i^an* ■ ■- IJ-- _- - |_ I J 111. ■■ _ ___Bll_ m 

* Thia estimate has been strikingly vcriiictl in Kansas, tbo Stuto ccnsnfl inakiug the 
actual area in forest five per cent, of the surface, or *' ono-tweutietb," 



STATISTICS OF FORESTRY. 



247 



balf the unoccnpied surface in woods, which reduces the census percent- 
age 60 to 50.6. Ohio has it« available area nearly all occupied by farms, 
and its percentage is therefore reduced from 31.7 to 28.4. The amended 
percentage, if the estimates are accurate, must be the true proportion 
for the entire State, and it is undoubtedly nearer the actual percentage 
than the figures representing only farm-lands. 

The following table presents a statement of the area in farms, that 
outside of farms, the total area, and the forest acreage in farms alone 
and in the entire area of each State and Territory : 



Statea and Territories. 



STATES. 



Haino 

Hfew Hampahire. 

Termont 

Haaaaohusetta . . 
Rboda Island.... 

Connecticut 

KewYork 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania ... 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virgima 

Korth Carolina.. 
South Carolina . . 

Georgia 

Florida 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Ixniisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Tennessee 

West Virginia . . 

Kontncky 

Ohio 

Michigan 

Indiana 

nilDois 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Mipsonri 

Kansas 

Nebraska 

Cftlifomia 

Oregon 

Nevada 



Total of Stales 



TEnrjTORIES. 



Colorado 

Utah 

New Mexico. 
Washington . 

Dakota 

Montana 

Idaho 

Arizona 

Wyoming ... 

Indian 

Alaska 



No. acres in 
farnia. 



Total of Territories . 



5, 838, 058 

3, 605. 994 

4,538,804 

2,730,283 
502,308 

3, 364, 416 
22,190,810 

2,089,511 
17,994,200 

1,052,322 

4, 512, 579 
18,145,911 
19, 835, 410 
12, 105. 280 
23,647,941 

2,373,541 
14,961.178 
13, 121, 113 

7, 025, 617 
18, 396, 523 

7, 597, 296 
19,581,214 

8, 52% 394 
18, Cedl 106 
21,712,420 
10, 019, 142 
18,119,648 
25, 882, 861 
11, 715, 3.21 

6, 483, 826 
15; 541. 793 
21, 707, 220 

5, 656, 879 

2, 073, 781 
11, 427, 105 

2, 389, 252 
208. 510 



405, 2'20, 7C0 



No. acres not 
in farms. 



16, 561, 942 

2,333,906 

2, 006, 876 

2, 261, 771 

333,532 

675,584 

7, 889, 190 

2,335.269 

11, 445. 800 

304,478 

2.606,781 

6, 399, 369 

12.615.150 

9, 654. 720 

13, 472. 059 

35. 557, 979 

17. 500, !K)2 

17. 058, 727 

19. 435, G23 

157,191,317 

25, 809. 424 

9, C02, 786 

6, 191, 606 

5, 455, 094 

3. )r64, 540 

26. 109. 498 

3,518,112 

9, 579. 5.39 

22, 790. 039 

46, 970, 012 

19, 687, 007 

20,116.780 

46, 386, Gil 

46, 563. 019 

109, 5a0, 735 

58, 586, 108 

71, 529, 090 



No. acres in 
total area. 



Grand total. 



320,340 

148, 361 

833, 549 

649, 139 

302,376 

139,537 

77, 139 

21,807 

4,341 



2. 496, 595 



407, 723, 364 



8G9. 932, 271 



06, 
53, 
76, 
44. 
96, 
91, 

72, 

02, 

44, 

369, 



559, 654 
9 in, 682 
7.'?i,091 
147, i:21 
293, 752 
877. 103 
151,021 
884, 433 
040, 7-27 
154, 210 
529. 600 



1, 033, 889, 324 



l,903,ffi>l,505 



ac, 400, 000 

5,939,300 

6,535.680 

4,992,000 

835,840 

3,040,000 

30, 080, 000 

5, 324, 800 

99,440.000 

1,356,800 

7, 119, 360 

84, 545, 280 

32, 450, 560 

21. 760, 000 

37, 120, 000 

37, 931, 520 

32,462,080 

30, 179, 840 

26, 461, 440 

175, 587, 840 

M, 406, 720 

29, 184. 000 

14, 7-20, 000 

24,115,200 

25, 576, 960 

36, 128, 640 

21, a37, 760 

3,5, 46i, 400 

34, 511, 360 

r'3, 459, 840 

35, 228, bOO 

41,824.000 

52. 043. 520 

48, 036, 8<i0 

120, 947, 840 

CO. 975, 360 

71, 737, 600 



1,275,159,040 



06, 860, 000 

54, 065. 04S 
77, 5(:8, 640 
44.7<J6, 100 
y6, 596, 128 
92,010,640 

55. 228. IGO 
7-2, 9; 6, 240 
62,645.068 
44, l.')4, 240 

369, 529, 600 



1, 0:K;, 385, 919 



No. acres of 
woodland 
in farms. 



Estimated to- 
tal area in 
woodland. 



2, 224, 740 

1,047,090 

1,:K6,934 

706, 714 

169.399 

577. 333 

5, 679, 870 

718.335 

5, 740. 864 

295, 162 

1, 435. 988 

8, 294, 734 

12,026,894 

6. 443. 851 
12, 928, 084 

1. 425, 786 
8, 380, :J32 
7. 959, 384 
4, 003, 170 

7, 662, 294, 
3, 910, 325 

10, 771, 396 
4. 361, 405 
9,134,658 

6, P83, 575 
4, OK), 146 

7, Ibt), 334 
5.0»il,578 
3, 437, 442 
1, 336. 299 
2, 524, 703 
8. 965, 229 

635, 419 
213, 374 
477, 880 
761, 001 
13,415 



158, 867, 227 



11,504 

215 

10<i,28:} 

291,206 

22,605 

1.198 

7,476 



35 



440. 522 



2,311,544,959 



159, 307, 7 49 



10,505,711 

2, 213, 693 

2, 390, 372 

1.460.619 

202.752 

644, 891 

8, 309. 600 

1, 496, 764 

11, 463, 764 

396.654 

2, 739, 378 

12. 134. 355 

20. 857. 499 

13.202.155 

22, 358. 525 

19. 204, 775 

20, 030. 963 

19. 900, 492 

15, 664. 543 

46, 960, 123 

19,390,579 

17. 493, 346 

8, 089, 368 

11, 802, 205 

7, 270, 029 

17. 134, e95 

7, 541, 145 

6, 019, 531 

7,236,781 

9, 165. 634 

4, 985, 668 

19, 023, 619 

2. 954, 751 

2,541,524 

9. 604. 607 

15, 407, .528 

3, 589, 869 



402, 048. 717 



6. 667, 469 
5, 3D1, 883 
4,710,388 

14, 859. 722 
2,911,417 

14, 701, 534 
8, 2S0, 129 
4. 37;?, 0G5 
.'>, 01 1,293 
3, 532, Xm 
110,^8,860 



lei, '2?8, 119 



583,340,^36 



• Taking into consideration only tbe farmlands, the proportion of wood- 
lands is smallest in California, being 4.1 per cent. In order, respectively, 
follow Nevada, 6 A per cent.; Nebraska, 10.2; Kansas, 11.2; Iowa, 1G.2; 



248 REPOKT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE, 

Illinois, 19.6. The proportion increases, State by State, from the Pacific 
coast eastward to Indiana, (39.6 per cent.;) and then comes the dovasta- 
tion of the ax, which reduces the percentage of Ohio, a region originally 
forest with the exception of small patches of prairie mainly about the 
head-waters of the Miami, to 31.7 per cent. Pennsylvania has about 
the same proportion, or 31.9, and New Jersey 24 per cent. 

There are only two other Western States that have percentages be- 
tween 20 and 30, viz, Minnesota, 20.6 ; Wisconsin, 29.3. The Eastern 
States (besides New Jersey) which come within the same limits, are Con- 
necticut, 24.4; New York, 26.5; Massachusetts, 25.8; Delaware, 2S'j 
New Hampshire, 29 ; Vermont, 30.6. Those having between 30 and 40 
per cent, of this farm area in forest are : Pennsylvania, Indiana, named 
above; Oregon, 31.8; Maryland, 31.8 ; Bhode Island, 33.7 ; Maine, 38.1. 
The States having between four and five tenths of their farm-lands in 
forest are three : Michigan^ 40.7; Texas, (the eastern jwrtion generally 
wooded,) 41.6 ; Virginia, 4o.7. The soiTthern belt is the most heavily 
wooded portion of the country, all the States, with the exception of Vir- 
ginia and Texas, having more than half of their farm-areas in woodland, 
and a larger portion still if the wooded wild lands should be counted in 
with the farm-lands. The proportion in the occupied or farm areas is as 
follows: West Virginia, 51.1; Arkansas, 51.4; South Carolina, 53.2; 
Georgia, 54.6 ; Tennessee, 55 ; Alabama, 5G ; Florida, 60 ; North Caro- 
lina and Mississippi, each 60.6 per cent. 

Th« Territories have only a very small portion of their respective 
areas in farms. Here and there a small survey has been made near 
some town, along some stream, or in the neighborhood of mining opera- 
tions. The areas in wood are mainly among the mountains, the most 
heavily wooded on northern sloi)es and in the gorges protected from 
the winds ; the proportion given for farm-lands is therefore, in all prob- 
ability, less thau the real portion for the entire area of a Territory, not- 
withstanding the fact that available woodlands in surveyed tracts are 
rapidly taken up by farmers. Utah^ one-tenth of one per cent. ; Mon- 
tana and Wyoming, eight-tenths of one per cent. ; Colorado, 3.5 ; Da- 
kota, 7.4 ; Idaho, 9.6 ; New Mexico, 12.7 ; Washington, 44.8. 

Most of the States, in their several counties, exhibit great diversity 
in the abundance of their wood and timber supplies. In the new States 
it is due to the existence of prairies, or treeless plains, traversed by 
streams shaded by a line of forest, which characterize the surface of all 
or of a portion of a State ; in the oMer States it is simply the result of 
settlement and cultivation, in the destruction of forests by clearing land 
for farms, for supplies of wood for fuel, in obtaining timber for building, 
and for the various uses of mechanism. East of the Alleghanies almost 
the entire surface of the land was originally in forest. On the very sum- 
mit of the Alleghanies are comparatively large tracts of level meadows or 
mountain prairies, known as " glades,'^ which are found in undrained 
soils not suited to the growth of trees, though this mountain-chain is 
generally wooded on slope and summit, with an arborescent growth, 
original and undisturbed, various and vigorous as could be dfesired. 
West of the mountains, through West Virginia, Ohio, and Kentucky, 
there was little else than forest in the times of the aborigines ; and 
in Northeastern, Southern, and Southwestern Indiana, a wooded sur- 
face was the prevailing characteristic, and even now it is a favorite 
resort for obtaining black walnuts and poplars of enormous size, and 
great boldfe of oaks, fit for the masts of many a " man-of-war,'' The 
South was, and is, a wooded region, with very few and small prairies 
in the valley of the Mississippi, and none really worth mentioning, 



PLATE XXVIII. 




Maikb. 



N 



STATISTICS OF FORESTRY. 249 

until Central Texas is reached. In Northern Missouri are extensive 
prairies, but almost half t^ie area of the State is now covered with for- 
est, notwithstanding the extensive clearing of farm-lands during more 
than fifty years since its settlement ; and^more than half the surface of 
Arkansas and Louisiana, both west of tlie Mississippi, is now covered 
with wood. Meteorological records show that the lines of equal moistr 
nre in this section run northeast and southwest, through Western 
Kansas, Eastern Nebraska, Iowa, and Wisconsin ; the records of the 
rain-fall of any given period correspond on that line, rather than with a 
line through Kansas and Missouri ; so the rains of Central Nebraska 
and Minnesota, in point of time and quantity, correspond more nearly 
than those of Nebraska and Iowa. As might naturally be expected, we 
find the forest boundary from Texas to Illinois, beyond whid& the prai- 
ries stretch westward, rupning in a general direction corresponding with 
the lines of equal rain-fall. As a result, (though the lack of trees farther 
west cannot be attributed to insufScient rain-fall alone,) we find plains 
predominating in Western Texas, in nearly all of the Indian Territory, 
in a strip of Western and nearly all of Northern Missouri, in a large 
portion of Illinois, and in Western and Northern Indiana, nearly to 
Lake Erie. Southern Illinois has an average proportion of forest. 

EEOENT OFFICIAL INVESTIGATION. 

The statistical correspondents of this Department have recently made 
returns in response to an official circular, relative to local resources 
in wood and timber, the species most abundant, condition of forests, 
rate of growth, home prices of wood and lumber, and other practical 
points. These statements have been generally well considered, and 
though occasional erroneous estimates may have been made, they con- 
tain a mass of information more accurate and complete than is else- 
where obtainable, the substance of which is presented with as little 
change of form as is consistent with a decent tegard for brevity. 

In connection with these notes are presented the census figures for 
tfio forest-area in farms, with outline maps, showing in plain figures the 
percentage of such area for each county. 

These returns indicate an active utilization of forest-products in New 
England and in the Middle States. In all this section, where there is 
found the most limited water-power sufficient to work effective machin- 
ery, are located mills and shops for working up all kinds and sizes 
of both soft and hard wood. In many localities these little manu- 
factories afford a market, at a price which, while it enhances fire- 
wood, keeps ii^ advance of it for every variety of tree that has ob- 
tained the diameter of a hoop-jwle, or walking-stick, and every part 
that is large enough to make a spool, dowel, match, shoe-peg, or 
pulp for paper. The principal varieties which prevail to a greater or 
less extent in these States are white and yellow pine, hemlock, spruce, 
fir, tamarack or hackmatack, oak, birch, ash, and walnut of all kinds, 
except that black walnut is scarcely found east of the Hudson ; vari- 
eties of beech, maple, and poplar, and basswood or linden. The un- 
cnlled, primeval white-pine' forests, which once covered large portions 
of the New England States, are now chiefly confined to tracts in 
Aroostook and the northern parts of adjoining counties in Maine. 

MAn>E. — ^The pine timber has been shipped fi:om the northern half of 
Penobscot until there is not enough left for home consumption. In the 
home-market, clear pine lumber is $20 to $30 per M ; hemlock, $8 to $10; 
bass, $15 ; spruce, $15 to $20 ; cedar shingles, $2.50 to $3.50. Wood» 



250 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 



land averages iu value $12.50, and in yield 20 cords per acre. In Frank- 
lin^ large tracts of timber are yet left, and while the best woodland 
yields 40 cords per acre, the average is about 2o. In Sagadahoc and 
Jlancock the average yield of woodland is 30 cords per acre; in the 
former, the average cash value of forests is $50 per acre, and the best 
pine-lauds yield 30 M of lumber per acre; in the latter, the moisture of 
the climate favors a rapid growth, yielding 25 to 30 cords per acre every 
twenty-five years. The second growth is principally soft wood, and finds 
a ready market at the lime-kilns at 83 to $5 per cord. York and Cum- 
herland report an average yield of 40 cords per acre. In York, it is 
claimed that although the first, and in many instances the second, crop 
of white pine has been cut ofif, yet there are more acres of the same now 
growing than in any other county of the State.^ The quantity has been 
increasing for the last thirty years. It is estimated that a forest of fifty 
years' growth averages 40 M, and is worth $250 i>er acre ; of seventy 
years, 70 M per acre, worth $500 on the stump. Young pines, started 
within ten years, cover thousands of acres. About half the forest-land 
is young growth. Hard wood, iu market, brings $4 per cord. In Cum- 
berland, the average value of forests, reckoned as woodland, is 880 ^^er 
acre, or $2 per cord on the stump ; timber-land, $120 per acre. Poplar 
is used extensively for staves and paper-pulp, and birch and maple for 
lasts, shoe-pegs, bobbins, spools, etc. The forests in Lincoln are almost 
entirely second growth, and valued at an average of 812 per acre. The 
northern half of Oxford is still little else than forest, and mostly original 
growth, consisting principally of pine and spruce. The southern por- 
tion is reported as more than half covered with forests, principally of 
second growth, consisting largely of poplar, white birch, ash, and maple. 
The poplar and white birch, useid for salt-boxes, staves, paper-pulp, 
spools, clothes-pins, etc., mcII for $1 per cord, standing. The census-re- 
turns of forest-area in farms, by counties, is as follows : 



Cotmtiefl. 



Androscoggin 

Aroostook 

Comberland . . 

Franklin 

Hancock 

Kenebcc 

Knox 

Lincolh 

Oxford 



Acres. 


Per cent 


68, 17-2 


27.7 


277, 013 


64.7 


135,917 


33.1 


ir.9, 954 


41.0 


73, 913 


•tf.6 


134, 993 


29.2 


39, Ma 


20.8 


66,057 


30.1 


271, 2C4 


45.5 ! 

1 



Coantiea. 



Penobscot . . . 
Piscataquis . 
Sagadoboc . . . 

Somerset 

Waldo 

Wa8biu;;tou. 
York........ 



Acres. 


Per cent 


243, 661 


37.2 


130, 105 


A6.\ 


31, -570 


26.9 


241,046 


41.4 


122, 874 


31.6 


89,717 


34.3 


13H, 343 


32:6 



Total 2,224,740 



38.1 



New Hampshire. — The average yield of woodland pcrjcre in Belknap 
is estimated at 20 cords, Carroll and Cheshire at 30, aua Sullivan at 40. 
In Carroll the old growth of pine has become scarce, selling at $20 per 
M, while hemlock sells at 85. On the stump wood is worth $1 per cord 
in Belknap; pine timber, BS per M. The best forests in Snllivan yield GO 
cords per acre, mostly hard wood, worth standing 81 per cord, and 25 
M of soft lumber. On the stump hemlock timber is worth $2.50 per !VI ; 
spruce, $5. A large proportion of the forests in Cheshire are second 
growth. Wood iu market is worth $4 to 80 i>or cord. While rock muplo 
brings QG per cord Ibr wood, it brings $8 forchair-stufi', and poplar the 
same for paper-manufacture. Many acres of spruce forest in Grafton 
are valued at 81,000 per acre, and mnny of hemlock at $500. Large 
tracts of birch, for peg- wood, and of poplar ibr ])aper-pulp, sell at an aver- 
age of 820 per acre. It is estimated that the forests of the county 
average in value 650 per acre, and that the annual growth fully equals 



PLATE XXIX. 




New Hampshire and Vermont. 



1^ \ 



STATISTICS OP POKBSTRY. 



251 



the consumptiou. Many old farms, once cultivated, are now forsaken 
and growing up to w6od and timber. The official record* of area reads : 



Coanties. 



Belknap 

Cairoll 

Cb^hiro 

Coos .• 

Grafton 

Hillsboroagh 



Acres. 


Per cent 


53, 544 


25.3 


151, 104 


33.7 


72,073 


81.1 


112,539 


47.1 


230.300 


32.7 


92,084 


83.1 



Coantios. 




Mcrrimnck . . 
]tockin;;hani 
Strafford .... 
Snlllvan 

Total.... 



1M,211 
9Y, 105 
40, 739 
64,332 



1, 047, 090 



Per cent 



8G.8 
27.2 
SI. 4 
S&.3 



89.0 



Veemont. — From the forests in Franldin the pine has been mainly 
called out, but hemlock still abounds. The lumber is worth $8 to $10 
per M, and the bark $6 to $6 per cord. Basswood and ash lumber bring 
$10 to $20 per Ikf. Spruce is used largely for manufacturing butter-tubs, 
many of which are shipped West. On nearly all the farms are orchards 
of sugar-maple, ranging from 100 to 1,000 trees. These orchards are 
often held at a higher value than other land covered with hard-wood 
tinoiber, or land under cultivation. The forests yield 25 to 50 cords of 
-wood per acre, worth in market $3 to 84 per cord. It is thought that 
the demands of the railroads will soon result in a scarcity of wood and 
timber, unless measures be taken to encourage a new growth. The for- 
ests in Chittenden are principally second growth. There are some large 
tracts of cedar. Hemlock bark is plentiful and in demand. ^ In Essex much 
of the original forest is left. It is estimated that some tracts of hemlock 
and spruce yield 75 M per acre, while the average for the forests is 25 
to 30 M, and the wood of some forests 200 cords. The forests in Orleans 
are nearly all of the original growth. The hills are covered chiefly with 
hard wood, which in some instances is nearly all sugar-maple, the trees 
being 1 to 2i feet in diameter and 60 to 120 feet high. Land having 50 to 
100 trees for'tapping is worth as much ascleared land, $15 to $25 per acre. 
Tracts on which red birch, beech, or ash are in excess will yield 50 cords 
per acre. From about 10 acres, 09 cords of bark were recently peeled, 
which sold at $7 per cord. Cedar posts, for fences, sell for C to 7 cents 
each 5 cedar rails, 7 to 8 cents. Spruce is largely manufactured into 
clapboards and butter-tubs, the latter being shipped West by the car- 
load. A chair-factory uses several thousand birch and maple logs. 
Though lumber is being constantly cut to order for New England cities, 
there is no scarcity, and at present prices money is made slowly in work- 
ing it up. About 50 per cei>t. of the forest lands in Lamoille produce 
chiefly soft timber. These lauds sell at $5 to $20 per acre, according to 
location and value of soil. This timber is sold in logs at tiie mills at $6 
to $7 per M. The other half is made up principally of hard- wood varie- 
ties, among which the most valuable is the sugar-maple, from which 
large quantities of sugar arc made, and sold at 10 to 15 cents per pound. 
Maple-orchards sell at $100 to $200 per acre. Ash lumber sells at $15 
to 830 per M. All kinds of timber, except sugar-maple, are being cut 
off to an alarming extent, though bringing the owner scarcely anything 
except low wages lor cutting and hauling. Eailroads and manufacturing 
establishmAits are fast stripping Caledonia of trniber. Except, on the 
mountains, good wpodland sells for $100 per acre. There is a large area 
covered with sugar-maple, which is the most valuable, except a few 
scattered lote of white pine. At the railroad-stations, pine lumber is 

■ ^^■~- ■ — ■^-— !■■■_!■ ■■■■■ BWIII -■■■»■■ 1 ^,m^ m ^^^^^ i i— » . ■ ■ m mm mwi. ■■■■■■ .■! ■! tt ,^^^^— ^^^— — I^B^^*^^ 

"•In all of tlic subseqneufc tables of area interspersed in this record of local statistics 
the figures must be held to mean only farm area, and not to include tracts of wild 
laud.s not connected with any caltivated lands. 



252 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 



worth $10 to $<10 per M ; hemlock, $10 5 spruce, 813 ; maple, $12 to $24 ; 
birch, $15 to $30. 



Counties. 



Addison 

iUinoini^tou 
('aledouin .. 
CMtittendeu . 

Essex 

FranJElin ... 
Grand I^lo . 
Lamoille ... 



Acres. I Per cent. 



If 8, 990 
V.l, 079 

Ui, OCl 
CI, 970 

112,794 

«,889 

81, 54-2 



I 



I 



27.4 
3-2.0 
34.0 

49.1 
2&3 
1&9 
4a 3 



Counties. 



Oranji^e 

Orleans 

Rutland 

Wa8hinj;ton. 
Windham ... 
AVindsor .... 



Total. 



Acrea. 



107, 051 
157. 449 
1 to. 238 
118,403 
123,888 
130^057 



1,386,934 



Percent. 



26.9 
44.4 
27.2 
33.9 
S8.5 
24. 6 



30.6 



Massachusetts. — lu Berhshire scarcely a vestige of the original 
forest is left, even on the mountain-tops, owing to the demands of man- 
ufactories and railroads. ^N^early all lumber for boding is now brought 
from Michigan,»Northein Vermont, and Cannula. An immense sum is 
thus expended for timber, which, it is claimed, with proper attention 
conld be produced at home, and that with advantage to agriculture. It 
is stated that in the hill-towns farms can be bought for $8 to $10 i)er 
acre, with wood enough now growing to pay for them at 50 cents per 
cord. In Dukes^ most of the timber, principally oak, has been cut 0% 
but there is considerable forest yielding wood at the rate of 15 to 25 
cords per acre, which is worth $5 per cord in the woods. Some atten- 
tion has been given to raising northern pines, with promising results. 
A lot from seed sown on light wasteland some twenty years tigo would 
now yield 20 cords per acre. Since the introduction of coal into BHstoly 
the forest-area has increased 15 to 25 per cent. Pine, oak, and white 
birch are the principal kinds. The best growths of pine are worth $200 
per acre. The logs are largejj^ sawed into " box-boards," 4 to 6 feet in 
length, the refuse of the same being sawed into staves for nail-kegs. In 
a few instances old fields have been set out with pine plants of two or 
three years' growth, some of which have now attained a height of 30 to 
40 feet. Thus far, in most cases, the results have proved the investment 
judicious. Suffolk reports only about 50 acres in woodland, and that of 
very small growth. 



Counties. 



Bamstablo 
liorkshiro . 

Bristol 

Dukes 

Kssex 

Franklin .. 
ITanipdcn . 
llampHliiro 



Acres. 



1."), nci 
93, 14U 
72, K'.l 
2, 842 
3(7, 3G I 
C7,2(30 
59,247 
55,580 



Per cent. 


P<J.C 


24.1 


44.0 


15.9 


22.1 


20.5 


20.3 


18.9 



Counties. 



Middlesex. 
Nantucket 
Norfolk ... 
Plymouth . 
Suffolk..., 
Worcester. 

Total. 



Acres. 



79, 131 

1(58,000 

40.508 

57,838 

379.000 

125,848 



700, 714 



Per cent. 



28.5 
l.G 

37.0 

49.1 
8.8 

22L1 



25. 8 



llHODE Island. — There arc about 200 acres of forest in Bristol on 
which the oak and walnut timber is worth, standirfg, $75 per acre. 
Wood, standing, is worth $4 per cord. In WccsMngion the forests yield 
about 30 cords per aero, worth, standing, $1 to $2 per cord. 



Counties. 



Bristol 1,809 

Kent 3C,92I 

Nowijort 7,980 

ProvMence l 72,539 



Acres. 



Per cent 



14.8 
41.3 
13.2 
37.9 



Counties. 



Acres. 



Wa8hin«;ton . 
Total.., 



50, 150 



Per cent. 



sa.."* 



109,399 






PLATE XXX. 




( 



STATISTICS OF FORESTRY. 



253 



OoNNECTicuT.r— Witbiu the last ten years the heaviest forests in Wind- 
ham have been cut. A few tracts are left which will yield 50 to 75 cords 
per acre, worth 81 to $1.50 per cord, but most of the forest area is 
sprout-land, aud laud too rocky or sterile to cultivate. From the latter 
a crop of white birches and alders is taken, for wood, once in twenty- 
five or thirty years. On about one-fourth of the forest-area pines and 
chestnut grow, and so rapidly that-in twenty to thirty years they will 
make boards 12 to 18 inches wide. The average annual growth of wood 
per acre is estimated at one cord. Land on which timber is growing 
thriftily increases in market-value every year. New London reports 
that timber is being cut faster than it gTows, and estimates the yield at 
the following extravagant rates: Chestnut tracts, 90 M per acre, worth 
$25 per M; chestnut-shingles, $4.75 per thousand; railroad-ties^ 40 cents 
each: oak tracts, 55 to GO M per acre, worth $35 per M; hemlock, GO 
M, worth $15 per M; hickory, 40 M, worth $28 per M; ash and maple, 
30 M, worth $e5 per M; white-pine, 25 M, worth $30 per M. The use 
of wood for fuel is diminishing in Hartford Conntu, coal taking its place 
on the farms as well as in the cities. The price per cord is $6 to $8, and 
the average yield of the forests 30 cords per acre. Chestnut, besides 
famishing valuable lumber, is almost exclusively used for fences, rail- 
road-ties, and telegraph-posts. In Litchfield^ where very little of the 
first growth remains, and where the forests of second growth include all 
varieties growing iu that latitude, chestnut is the most abundant. Iron- 
furnaces have been in operation in the county more than a century, and 
to supply them with charcoal the hills and mountains have been re- 
peatedly stripi>ed of their coverings. After the forests are cut, most 
kinds sprout vigorously from the stump, and others spring up from the 
seed; so that, if the cattle are excluded, the forest is soon renewed. 
Sprout-land, kept for the growth of wood, has proved remunerative, 
yielding every twenty-five years a crop of 25 cords per acre, worth ^2 
l)er cord standing. But the consumption of wood is diminishing, owing 
to the introduction of coal, and, as from other causes the amount of 
land under cultivation has decreased, the report Jtffirms that there is 
more wood iu the county and State now than twenty-five years ago: 



Coantics. 



Fairfield... 
Hartford ... 
Litchfield .. 
Middlesex.. 
New Haven 



Acres. 



50,374 
8d,5S5 
101, G5G 
53; 454 
04,975 



Per cent 



18.4 

23.7' 

S2.4 

3S.8 

83.0 



Connties. 



Acres. 



Kew London 

TolUnd 

Wiudbam ... 



66,584 
57, 471 
74,094 



Total 577,333 



Percent 



S5.9 
26.9 



24.4 



New Yoek. — The forests in Schuyler are second growth. The aver- 
age value of timber-lands is $50 per acre. The average yield, 50 cords, 
worth standing 50 cents per cord. The yield per acre 'in Dtctcliess is 30 
cords, valued in the tree at $2 per cord. About one-third of the forests 
in Greene consists of second-growth timbey. The mountains were origi- 
nally covered with a heavy growth of hemlock, which was cut for the 
bark, the logs being left to decay. Spruce lumber is now worth $18 to 
820 per M. The average yield of wood is 30 cords per acre. Richmond 
is being rapidly stripped of its best timber, but has yet many small lots 
of oak and hickory of the finest quality. From a tract of 25 acres, 
bought two years ago for $130 per acre, were cut 50 cords of wood per 
acre and enough lumber to justify the putting up of a steam saw-mill at 
a cost of $2,500. This is reported as a fair specimen of the best-timbered 



254 EEPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

lands. The average yield of the uncut forests in Wayne is 40 to 60 
cords per acre. About 10 percent, of what is reckoued as forest-area is 
in the condition of "slashings," and there is a prevailing disposition to 
devote such land to a new growth. The best forests within five miles of 
villages are worth §80 per acre ; I'arther back, $G0 to $40. Forests have 
receded in value fully 20 i)er cent, in five years. In Columbia the for- 
ests, all second growth, average 25 cords per acre, worth standing $2 
per cord. Pine lumber is worth $20 to $30 per M; hickory, $40; other 
kinds, about $30. Though millions of oak and pine, rafted down tho 
lakes and shipped via the Erie Canal to New York, have left tho forests 
of Seneca badly scarred, y«t much valuable timber remains. Where 
maple, bass, and elm prevail, 100 coi'ds per acre have frequently been 
cut. In Suffolk the forests are mainly of pine and oak. Tho best yield 
75 cords per acre. An instance is given of a tract on which the saino 
man has cradled rye, and subsequently cut off three crops of wood. 
White oak and hickory, seasoned, are worth $50 to $80 per M; chestnut 
ties and posts, 50 cents each : rails, 12x3ents. White cedar finds a mar- 
ket for boat-building. Standing wood is worth $1 to $2.80 per c<Jrd. 
In Chautauqua but little forest is left in its original state. Within twenty- 
years thousands of acres have been cut for the railroads, and the re- 
mainder greatly injured by raging fires in dry seasons. The price of 
forests, for the timber alone, ranges from $25 to $100, according to loca- 
tion and kind. There are small lots of pine-forest in Fulton, valued at 
$300 per acre, and in the northern section some heavy mixed forests, 
ranging in value from $5 to $100 per acre, according to accessibility. 
More care is being taken of the forests remaining in Genesee, but the 
growth does not yet equal tho consumption. The original growth of 
hemlock in Delaicare has been nearly all cut off for tho Philadelphia mar- 
ket. This is followed by a second growth of chestnut, oak, birch, beech, 
poplar, etc. From the sngar-maple in the county over 700,000 pounds 
of sugar are manufactured annually. I\rany chestnut-ties are grown, 
worth, at the railroad, 50 cents each. The best forests yield over 50 
cords per acre. The railroads use chiefly coal, and its use for fuel is in- 
creasing. j\Iuch standing wood can be bought for 25 cents per cord, the 
value being less than ten years ago. The forests in Onondaga are chiefly 
in small lots on farms for home use. The largest timberlot is a swamj) 
of black ash. Coal is chiefly used for steam and house-warming, and 
pine-lumber is imported from Michigan and Canada. Complaint is made 
that many kinds of forest-trees are dying, and especially linden or bass. 
Of the forest-trees growing in Yates^ GO per cent, are oak and 25 per 
cent, elm, the remaining 15 per cent. bein.g made up of all varieties. A 
few small plantations of yellow-locust have been sot out, and have 
grown well, though the borer has ini'ured them badly. One plantation of 
larches is on trial, and gives promise of success. At least 90 per cent, 
of the forests have been t;ut over, and the present growth is only fit for 
wood, yielding an average of 25 cords per acre, worth, standing, $1 per 
cord. In Washington nearly all the accessible original timber has been 
cut off; yet there are some groves of hemlock, valued at $500 per acre; 
of pine, at $1,000; and of oak and chestnut at fabulous prices. The 
average yield of wood is GO cords per acre ; 100 to 125 cords per acre are 
not unfrequent, and occasional lots yield 200. Except in localities diffi- 
cult of access, hard wood sells on the stump at $2.50 to §3 per cord. 
The forests are mostlj^ cleared out of Livingston. Fence-timber is becom- 
ing scarce, and many of the farmers are now burning coal. It is held 
that one-eighth of the land now under cultivation pl:6nted in forests for 
windbreaks and fuel would largely increase tho agricultural resources 



PLATE XXXI. 




^ . 




STATISTICS OP FORESTRY. 255 

and valae of the county, lir Wyoming, timber-land is worth 25 percent, 
more than improved, or $80 to $ ioo per acre. Mai>le and beech, in about 
parts, constitute 80 per cent, of the forests; hemlock, 8 per cent.; and 
bass, 7. Maple and beech also constitnte the larger part iu Madison^ 
where standing wood ia not w^orth over 30 cents per cord, and '' body- 
maple'' not over $2 in market. But hemlock-bark brings $6 to $8 per 
cord, and lumber $12 to $10 per M. Cleared land is worth at least as 
much alter the timber and wood are removed as before. Schoharie re- 
ports that the forests are being exhausted very fast. The best are of 
oak, and are worth $150 per acre. The average yield of wood is 30 to 
50 cords per acre, worth $3 standing. Many of the forests remaining 
in Allegany arc cleared of timber, the most valuable of which was 
white pine, varieties of oak, hickory, and hemlock. Pineluuiber is now 
worth about $20 per M ; oak, $16 ; ash, much more, largo quantities be- 
ing shipped to Europe. Tanneries, w^orking up 500 to 1,000 hides daily, 
make a market for large quantities of hemlock-bark. In ilf(??w*oe, land 
is reported as too valuable for farming and horticulture to admit of 
profitable forest-growing. The original forests yield about 05 cords of 
wood per aere ; .worth, standing, about $3.25. Montgomery has now no 
timber for export. The best forests of beech, maple, &c., yield about 90 
cords i)er acre ; worth, on the stump, $2 per cord. There is but little 
valuable timber left in Niagara; all lumber for finishing, and much for 
fencing, is brought from Michigan and Canada. Much of the woodland 
is worth $100 per acre, and the farmers are using coal largely. The 
unculled forests would average 50 cords of wood per acre. In Caita- 
raugus^ land principally covered with pine is worth 830 to $100 per acre; 
with hemlock, $20 to $50; with beech and maple, $10. Oak is manu- 
factured into staves for barrels and firkins, and considerable is exported. 
The most valuable forests in Chenango were of pine, which has mostly 
disappeared. Chestnut and oak are the next in value. Recently a lot 
of chestnut-timber was sold lor railroad-ties at $80 per acre. The aver- 
age value of standing wood is $20 per acre. The forests in the northern 
part of Ontario are principally of oak, hickory, bass, elm, ash, aud beech, 
and worth $50 to $100 per acre ; in the southern part, of pine, hemlock, 
and chestnpt, and average in value $50 to $75. J\Iauy young trees on 
the hills are cut for hoop-poles. The report states that young timber, 
which would add annually 10 per cent, to its value by growth, is being 
wantonly destroyed, leaving the hills bleak, sun-burnt, and impover- 
ished, ^nc, which formerly produced largo quantities of white oak, 
now imports much from the West and Canada. Its primeval forests 
also abounded in black vralnut, which had no extra value until the Erie 
Canal was finished, in 1825 ; but since then it has steadily risen, until it 
is now worth $40 per M, and is almost gone. Elm, for barrels and cheese- 
boxes, is worth, standing, $3.50, aud bass, for tops and bottoms, $7 i)er 
M. White ash, in logs at the mill, brings $12 to $14 per M. Timber 
is becoming scarce, and many are setting out forest-trees. The 
chestnut is being grown in nurseries for timber as well as fruit. Tlic 
native elm will grow in most kinds of soil, and outgrows almost all other 
trees. From about 1825, the price of wood gradually increased until 
within ten or twelve years, when it was worth at Buftalo $6 to $10 per 
cord. Since then, owing to the increasing use of coal, it has receded, 
until the range is now $4 to $8. Many tracts iu Otsego, after the timber 
is cut off, are kept for successive crops of hop poles; a crop attains 
the proper growth in about ten years, and an acre will olteu yield 2,000, 
worth, standing, $20 to $30 per thousand. Good timber-land is v»'orth 
$50 per acre, and at that rate the wood-product will pay for it, leaving 



256 



KEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



tlio cleared laud for not profit. According to the State census of 1875, 
there were in Broome 124,549 acres in forest, embracing all northern 
varieties of timber and wood. Pine and white- wood lumber sell for $25 
per M ; oak, ash, and ^herry, 830 ; hemlock-bark, $6 per cord. 



Counties. 



Albany 

Allesauy — 

Broomo 

Cattaraugus. 

Cayuga 

Chautauqua. 
Chemung — 
Chenango ... 

Clinton 

Columbia 

Cortland 

Delaware.... 

Dutchess 

Brie 

Essex 

Franldiu 

Fulton 

Genesee 

Greene 

Hamilton 

Horldmer ... 
Jefferson — 

Kings 

IjeyfiB 

Liyingston .. 

Madlsou 

Monroe 

Montgomery 
New York. . . 

Niagara 

Oneida 



Acres. 



54.802 

214,278 

118, 103 

274, 373 

G8,492 

177,840 

08,071 

119, 410 

99,037 

50,660 

75,044 

75,732 

293,957 

117,963 

150,847 

114,362 

107,869 

44,284 

90,404 

73,947 

80,644 

129.862 

459 

154,679 

69,880 

71,042 

36,996 

29,765 

69 

44,937 

126,234 



1- 

Per cent 


1 
17.5 


31). 2 


31.7 


42.0 


1G.5 


23.5 


bO.7 


22.3 


27.8 


13.5 


24.4 


16.4 


38.9 


21.3 


33.0 


34.5 


40.9 


15.8 


S6.6 


75.3 


21.1 


lao 


3.8 


35.6 


ia8 


1&2 


9.3 


12.2 


5.5 


14.8 


19.3 



Counties. 



Onondaga 

Ontario 

Orange 

Orleans 

Oawcgo 

Otsego 

Putnam 

Queens 

Rensselaer 

Bichmond 

Bockland 

Saratoga 

Schenectady — 

Schoharie 

Schuyler 

Seneca 

Steuben 

Saint Lawrence 

Soliblk 

Sullivan 

Tioga 

Tompkins 

Ulster 

Warren 

Washington.... 

Wayne 

Westchester ... 

Wyoming 

Yates 

Total 



Acres. ■ Per cent. 



60, 

C7, 
0-2, 
31, 

lie. 

143, 

34. 

28, 

54, 

3, 

18, 

87, 

IB, 

93, 

41. 

24, 

264, 

278, 

158, 

143, 

88, 

57, 

175. 

136, 

103, 

CO, 
78. 
36. 



4T8 
958 
300 
364 

4':24 

817 
766 
466 
493 
379 
523 
575 

200 
259 
531 
729 
507 
768 
902 
582 
039 
556 
545 
783 
410 
7M 
007 
362 



5,679,870 



13.8 

16.9 

22.0 

14.0 

24.8 

tSl.7 

27.3 

18.4 

15.1 

10.3 

32.9 

21.3 

14.7 

24.9 

21.9 

12.6 

34. » 

28.2 

49. G 

36.4 

31. r» 

20.1 

38. 1 

39.3 

29.2 

14.8 

20. 

21.5 

18. a 



25.5 



New Jersey. — The forests in Salem are principally second growth, 
of oak and chestnut; the latter used chiefly for fences, and the former 
for lamher and fuel. The several railroads through Euctkon^ and the 
two more now in process of construction, have used up nearly all the 
white oak and chestnut, and left less than 500 acres in forests of any 
kind, except the evergreens planted by a few parties, chiefly for beauti- 
fying their grounds. Wood for fuel sells for $6 to $8 per cord, and 
hickory, for spokes, for $12 to $15. The forests in Camden are nearly 
all of second growth. The few acres of white and black oak and chest- 
nut of first growth are valued at about $300 per acre; second growth, 
about 830 ; first-growth cedar, $G00 to $800 ; second growth, $25 to 
$75, and there is a laFge area ; also of second-growth pines, which are 
used for box-boards and other rough work. In Warren^ three lots were 
recently sold from which the wood had all been cut off seventy years pre- 
vious. One, the size not reported, one-third rock-oak, and the remain- 
der black oak and chestnut, sold for $100 per acre ; a second, of 50 acres, 
principally chestnut, for $180 ; and a third, of 12 a<jres, for $170. The 
first and second was for the timber alone ; the third included the land. 
The bark of black oak is worth $10 per cord. As evidence that the 
oftener chestnut is cut the more the growth is multiplied, it is stated 
that the sprouts from one stump produced 60 railroad ties, worth 50 cents 
each. The few forests in Mei'cer are rapidly decreasing. The farmers 
consider land from which timber is cut off too valuable for cultivation to 
let another crop grow up again ; though chestnut is excepted, owing to 
its rapid growth. Oak and hickory predominate in the northern part, 
where two steam saw-mills manufacture large quantities into felloes, 
which are shipped to California. Standing white-oak timber is worth 



STATISTICS OP FORESTRY. 



257 



$15 to 20 per M ; chestnut rails, $15 per hundred ; hickory spokes, $25 
to $30 per M. 



Counties. 



Atlantic 

IJerjicn 

Ijuriin;;ton . 

Camdeu 

('apo May.. 
(>umborlaD(l 

Kssex 

OlouccBtcr . 
Hudson .... 
Hunterdon . 

Mercer 

Middlesex.. 



Acres. 


Per cent 


02, 506 


C5.S 


•A 719 


24.4 


G7,022 


25.0 


34,805 


30.7 


IG, lf>0 


•68.0 


41,269 


29.3 


6, 221 


lao 


14, 830 


11.9 


316 


11.5 


32,105 


12.2 


12,032 


9.3 


24, 450 


15.5 



Monmouth 
Morris .... 

Ocean 

Fassoio.... 

Salom 

Somerset . . 
Sussex .... 

Union 

Warren . . . 

Totui. 



36,882 


73,009 


52,245 


48,636 


22,696 


14,507 


07, 6T3 


7,485 


27.758 


718,335 



Per cent. 



18.1 
21.0 
40.3 
90.8 
12.7 
8.3 
29.2 
S0.1 
14.3 

24.0 



Pennsylvania. — The forests in Bradford are a mixture of hemlock, 
oak, chestnut, maple, beech, etc. Hemlock-lumber is worth about $8 
per M. The central and southeastern portions of Sullivan are covered 
-with dense primeval forests. Immense tracts are reported as covered 
with hemlock as fine as the world produces. These are intersected by 
ridge of hard wood, from which the timber has been largely cut off for 
the market, though the stock loft will last for many years. For the last 
ten or fifteen years hemlock has been extensively destroyed for the bark. 
In many sections, the hemlock will yield 50 M to 75 M of manufactured 
lumber 'pev acre. In Fiilton^ twenty-five years ago, the best of mountain- 
forest could be bought at 50 cents to $1 per acre; now it will brmg $15 
to $25 per acre. The most valuable timber on the mountains is chest- 
nut, chestnut-oak, and yellow pine. Four very large steam-tanneries 
are very destnictive on the chestnut-oak for the immense quantities of 
bark they consume. Mountain-land from which the pine and chestnut 
oak are cut oli', in twenty to twenty-five years, will have a fine growth 
of chestnut fit for rails. A forest of large yellow pine, with a mixture of 
oak, chestnut, hickory, etc., was cut off from a lot twenty-five years 
ago. On it yellow pines grew up very thickly. Kecently, after leaving 
some of the best standing, 50 cords of lime-kiln wood per acre have been 
cut from it. Nine-tenths of the land in McKean is in forests, though the 
valuable timber in them, such as pine, cherry, ash, and poplar, is nearly 
gone. Half the remaining timber is hemlock. About one-half the sur- 
face of Mifflin is occupied with broken land and mountains, on which 
are growing large quantities of chestnut, valuable for fencing, &c. 
Bedford contains about 12 acres of forest to one of cultivation. The 
mountains and high ridges are abundantly covered with white and yel- 
low pine, rock oak, and chestnut. Tracts of chestnut readily yield 3,000 
to 4,000 rails, for fencing, per acre, worth $5 per hundred. The low- 
lands abound with mammoth white oak, 8 to 12 feet in circumference, 
and knotless for 40 to GO feet from the base; not of much value for the 
want of a market. From one locust-tree, recently cut, were, made 183 
No. 1 fencing-posts, worth 40 cents each. Chestnut grows so rapidly 
that in about sixteen years after the first cutting the land will reproduce 
an equal yield. About one-half the area of Fayette is mountainous, and 
fully one-half in forests or wild land. After making allowance for rocky 
and sterile parts, there remain about 190,000 acres of valuable timber- 
land. Of this, 20,000 acres will average 30 M of lumber per acre, worth 
on the stump $4 per M, and 40 cords of wood, worth 12j^ cents per cord. 
Colur/ibia reports 139,449 acres of " unseated or forest lands.'^* Parts are 



17 A 



^ Lands not inclnded iaixinns. 



258 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

well timbered, bat other parts are inoantains barren of timber. The 
average value is placed at $12 per acre. Hemlock, sawed, is worth $10 
to $10 per M; hemlock shingles, $6 per M. White oak, sawed into 
scantlings for cars, brings $20 to $30 per M. Chestnut briugs $15 to $25 
per M. Half the area of Somerset is in forests, but perhaps more than half 
the original timber in them has been used or sold off. Locust is found 
in considerable quantities. While at least two-thirds the area of Clin- 
ton is reckoned as forest-land, a large percentage consists of mountains 
bnrned over, with little or no timber left. Most of the other, which was 
well timbered, has been denuded by the ax of the lumberman, bat some 
valuable tracts of white pine have been reserved. It is believed that if 
some way could be devised to protect the timber growing in the mount- 
ains from fire, it would, in a few years, yield an inexhaustible supx)Iy 
at much less expense than forest-calture. In Laiorence one-half the 
growing timber is oak. Table-lands will cut 20 to 25 M, worth at the 
mills $15 to $20 per M. Cord wood will about pay for catting and hauling 
on the line of the railroad, but not elsewhere. Sycamore is plenty along 
the rivers and creeks, and is coming into market for staves and headings 
for nail-kegs. It is worth, standing, $1.50 to $2 per cord. The timber 
in Butler is chiefly white oak, reserved for borne use on the small farms, 
into which the county is cut up. Fear the railroad, from land being 
cleared for farming, a few thousand dollars^ worth of ties are sold, but 
the amount realized is but a sms^ fraction of what is paid out for lumber 
imported for buildings and fences. In Montour^ coal is chiefly used for 
fuel, and there is very little demand for cord wood. Most of the forests 
have had the valuable timber culled out. The forests in Cumberland aver- 
age in value of products about $50 per acre. But choice timber, such as 
white oak, walnut, and poplar, average much higher. Some tracts 
would bring $100 per acre for the lumber and the cooper-stuff. A 
quantity of white oak is exported for ship-building. From the forests in 
Westmoreland the timber has been pretty fteely culled. Oak, hickory, 
and chestnut are the leading kinds. Timber-lands are rapidly appre- 
ciating in value, and much less subjected to waste than formerly. The 
planting of locust, maple, horse-chestnut, and other trees, on farms and 
by the wayside is now quite common. One-seventh of JErie is still in 
primitive forest, and some good tiraberremains. AVhite ash, being rapidly 
worked up, sells in the log at $10 per M. Wood is worth $1 per cord in 
the tree. On a four-hundredacre lot of beech and maple forest, an 
average acre was worked up for a test, and the yield measured 53^ cords. 
The value of timber-land equals that of the best improved land. In 
Wayne^ one sixth of the land remains in' forest of beech, maple, and 
birch, worth $5 to $15 per acre ) but little pine left, and hard wood is 
being much used for timber. Hemlock is valuable for the bark, used 
in this county, as well as lumber. The principal forest-timber in Pike 
is of white and pitch pine, chestnut, hemlock, and oak of all varieties. 
The average yield is 50 M per acre, valued at $10 j^er M. The yield 
of cord-wood per acre is heavy, valued at 50 cents per cord. In 
the southern part of Northampton^ the forests are principally of oak and 
hickory, and the value of the best, for the timber alone, is $100 per acre, 
and, in some cases, even $200 per acre is refused ; but the average value 
is $76 to $100. Wood, in the cord, is worth about $5 ; hickory, $6.50 to 
$7. Timber is becoming scarcer every year. Paying debts and legacies 
by selling the timber on farms has been going on so long that farms of 
100 acres average not more than 4 to 10 acres, and three out of five 
have none. Chestnut-rails are worth, on the ground, $12 i>er hundred. 
Walnut and pine are becoming scarce in Ferry ^ but there are hirge 



PLATE XXXllI. 

c 



O 

93 

H 

> 

> 



'A 

?! 
V 

< 
> 



I I 
I 




STATISTICS OF FORESTRY. 259 

qaantities of cliestuut and chestnat-oak. Tracts of cbestnutrforest will 
make 3,000 rails per acre, worth, in the tree, $30 per M. The forests on 
the monntains, in which chestnut-oak prevails, are worth, in the tree, lor 
bark, wood, and timber, about $12.60 per acre. The forests on low- 
lands, having white oak and other tongh timbers, are very valuable. 
According to the latest statistica, Lycoming contains 110,689 acres in 
forests. It is estimated that they indnde white pine equivalent to 
100,000 M, worth, in the tree, $5 per M ; hemlock, 500,000 M, worth $2 
per H ; hard-wood timber of different kinds, 200,000 M, worth $2 per 
M. After removing the timber, there would be left 25 cords per acre of 
woody worth, iu the tree, 60 cents per cord — ^making the growth average 
$32. One-sixth the area of Smquehanfta is in forests. Bock-maple is 
the leading kind. The maximum yield per acre is estimated at 400 
cords; the minimum, 25; average, 100; worth, standing, 25 cents per 
cord. In the tree, hemlock is worth, for the lumber, $1 per M, and for 
the bark, $2 per cord ; linden, ash, oak, pine, chestnut, walnut, and but- 
ternut, $10 per M. The timber has been already cut out from 40,000 of 
the 80,000 acres* of forest iu Union, The fires, every year or two. injure 
the growth on about 20,000 acres Rowing up to chestnut Aboui 20,000 
acres will average 12 M of lumber per acre ; 30,000 will average 20 cords 
of wood per acre. Forest County is well timbered, 50 per cent, of the 
area being covered with -hemlock, 20 per cent, with hard wood, and 10 
per cent, with pine, leaving 20 per cent, under cultivation. The yield 
of lumber in the hemlock forests is placed at 40 M per acre. About 27 
parts out of 28 in the area of Ullc is covered with forest ; mostly a dense 
growth or white pine, hemlock, and the various kinds of deciduous 
wood. There are at least 200,000 acres of hemlock, yielding per acre an 
average of 10 cords of bark and about 18 M of lumber. The value of 
lumber in the tree is at present nominal ; of bark for tanning, 25 cents 
per cord. Of the 250,000 acres in Cameronj only about 6,600 are im- 
proved. The amount and value of forest-products is estimated as fol« 
lows : Pine (white and yellow) and oak timber, 600,000 M of lumber, 
worth, in the tree, $3 per M; hemlock, 800,000 M, worth $1.50 per M: 
2,000,000 cords of wood, 50 cents per cord ; 20,000 M of chestnut ana 
hickory, $4 per M. Forest fires have been very destructive. From 
Tioga, 90 per cent, of the pine and oak and 50 per cent, of the hemlock 
have been cut off. There are reported yet remaining at least 200,000 
acres in forest, much of which is thickly covered with a young- growth 
of oak and hickory. The average value of the timber and wood is 
placed at $8 per acre. The forests of Cambria average in value $12 to 
$15 per acre. A large amount of small timber is used in the mines for 
props, ties, &c., and young growth yields for this purpose $20 to $25 per 
acre. In Lancaster, good timber-forests sell as high as $300 per acre, 
the land not included. Locust is planted to some extent along the 
fences on farms, and is considered very valuable. The best forests in 
Chester sell for $125 to $200 per acre, exclusive of the land. Hickory 
wood in 1*e tree is worth $3.50 per cord ; other hard wood, $3 ; oak tim- 
ber, $10 per M ; chestnut rails, 11 feet long, 3 to 5 cents per rail. The 
forests are mainly made up of oak, hickory, and chestnut. The tifhber 
lands in Lauphin are generally mountainous. On the ridges, chestnut, 
valuable for rails, abounds ; such forests sell at $10 to $50 per acre, and, 
in addition to the chestnut, average 25 cords of oak, hickory, and other 
wood per acre. The wood is worth, in the tree, 50 cents per cord. But 
one-tenth the area of Washitigton is forest-land. Three-fourths of this 
i^ covered with white, black, and red oak, and one- fifth with maple and 

*Incladmg "unseated'' foieata. 



260 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



locast^ in equal quantities. The average value of standing timber is $60 
per acre, or at the mill, sawed, $250 per acre. There is a home-market 
lor all the lumber. Very little wood is used for fuel. In the southwest 
part of Indiana County the timber is pretty much used up ; the other 
parts are well timbered with pine, spruce, hemlock, chestnut, chestnut- 
oak, &G. Pine land is worth $50 to $150 per acre ; other timber-land aver- 
ages $30 per acre. Not much wood used for fuel. Millions of staves and 
railroad-ties are manufactured. The consumption of timber for the next 
fifteen years, at the rate for the last fifteen, would use up all the surplus 
in the county. The forests in Yarh are chiefly of white and rock oak, 
hickory, and chestnut; average 35 cords per acre, and net $50 per acre. 
The forest-land in Clearfield is estimated at 614,000 acres, averaging 75 
cords i)er acre, worth, on the stump, 50 cents per cord. These forests 
include all the leading varieties of timber. 



Counties. 



Adams 

AUeghouy 

Armstroug 

Boavcr 

Bodford 

Berks ,. 

Blair 

Bradford 

Backs 

Butlor 

Cambria 

Cameron 

Carbon 

Centre 

Chester 

Clarion 

Clearfield 

Clinton 

Colombia 

Crawford 

Camberland 

Dauphin 

Delaware 

Elk 

Erie 

Fayette 

Forest 

Franklin 

Fulton 

Greene 

Huntingdon 

Indiana 

Joflbrson . .*. 

Juniata .^ 



Acres. 


Pot cent 


5G,133 


20.5 


89,050 


2:i.O 


181, 75() 


34.0 


71,849 


28.8 


109. 5G9 


48.8 


70,933 


15.0 


41, 607 


27.5 


304,092 


34.5 


:i9, 814 


lao 


157,247 


36.4 


133,979 


^3 


61, 8L6 


88.3 


28,499 


43.8 


89,129 


36.7 


63,161 


14.0 


05,394 


34.8 


129,536 


47.4 


40,994 


32.1 


66,245 


32.2 


184, 436 


35.0 


33,909 


11,7 


67,788 


24.7 


10,105 


lao 


28,606 


63.7 


126, 427 


30.4 


136,027 


35.7 


29,039 


60.3 


75, 448 


21.0 


87,564 


42.7 


106,720 


31.5 


179, 107 


4a 


159, 181 


37.1 


107, 425 


44.7 


65,929 


40.1 



Counties. 



Lancaster 

Lawrence , 

Lebanon 

Lehigh 

Lnzeme 

Lycoming 

MoKean 

Mercer 

Miffin 

Monroe 

Montgomery .... 

Montour 

Northampton . . . . 
Northnmoerland 

Perry 

Philadelphia.... 

Pike 

Potter 

SchuylkUl 

Snyder 

Somerset 

SuUivan 

Susquehanna — 

Tioga 

Union 

Venango 

Warren 

Washington 

Wayne 

Westmoreland .. 

Wyoming 

York 

Total 




](Li 
4C< 



65,413 

49,500 

38,981 

32,367 

127, 610 

110,689 

48,177 

105,289 

5i959 

65.470 

c« 310 

,019 

!955 

,089 

10a,240 

2,117 

88,065 

87,329 

60,876 

44,070 

237, 229 

57,059 

148, 789 

148.153 

18,324 

90,167 

131,214 

113,404 

138,892 

139, 316 

57,840 

100, 139 



5, 740, 864 



Per cent 



13.1 
24.4 
21.3 
14.6 
34.6 
36.0 
61.0 
26.9 
34.6 
33w4 
7.8 
S3.9 

ao 

23.8 
41.1 
5.2 
76.0 
51.9 
33.0 
31.9 
47.0 
53.8 
33.7 
41.8 
9a3 
4a4 
60.1 
21.6 
50.9 
2a6 
36.1 

la 7 



3L9 



Delaware. — The best timber has long since disappeared fronj Neto 
Castle. '^Well-set" woodland is worth $75 to 8125 per acre for the 
wood-product alone. About 10 per cent of the area is in forest, princi- 
pally oak, poplar, and maple, mainly reserved for fence-timber, which is 
very difficult to obtain. About one-third the area of Kent is in forest, 
mainly confined to the lowlands not suitable for cultivation. The 
white oak, unsurpassed in value for ship-building, is becoming scarce. 
The smaller oaks are cut for railroad-ties aud piles. Well-set second- 
growth woodland yields 30 to 40 cords per acre, worth, standing, $1 per 
acre. 



Counties. 



Kent 

Now Castlo 
Sussex 

Total, 




Per C€nt. 



21.0 
lk2.3 
40^3 



2a 



PLATE XXXIV. 




< 
pi 

< 






STATISTICS OP FORESTRY. 261 

Maryland. — Withiu a few years a large number of saw-mills have 
used up the best part of the forests in Charles; but there is a large 
quantity of pine suitable for scantlings and fuel, averaging about 35 
cords per acre. The upland oak and poplar are reported as very supe- 
rior in quality, of slow growth, hard and tough. Baltimore county re- 
ports 96,000 acres in forest, but most of it stripped of its valuable tim- 
ber. It is estimated that it would require 800,000 trees to line the 
highways of the county with trees two rods apart. This does not in- 
clude the many thousands that might be set with advantage along the 
railroads, and as shade-trees in other places. Dorchester is well tim- 
bered. Pine-land yields 30 to 40 cords per acre, wood of the first qual- 
ity, worth in the tree $1 to $1.50percord, or $2.25to$2.50 at the numerous 
landings on the navigable waters. Very valuaj}le white-oak ship-timber 
abounds ; also, the black-gum tree, suitable for hubs, of which large 
quantities are shipped ; and the sweet-gum tree, from which peach-bas- 
kets are largely manufactured in the county. Harford is well wooded, and 
the forests are much better cared for than formerly. Goal is used for 
fuel on most of the farms. Good forests cut 40 to 60 cords of wood per 
acre, worth $2.50 in the woods. Ghestnut-rails, used almost exclusively 
for fences, are worth $60 to $75 per thousand ; posts, $120 to $140 per 
thousand. The stumps are generally protected from cattle, and the 
sprouts attain a size suitable for cutting in about twenty years. Chest- 
nut and white-oak ties are worth, delivered, 55 cents each. A carriage- 
factory in the county, and demands for shipping, have thinned the hick- 
ory until it is worth about $50 per M. Poplar, ash, oak, walnut, etc;, are 
worth $30 per M at the mill. It is estimated that about five-twelfths of 
the area in Montgomery is covered with forest, 67 per cent, of which is 
original growth, and 33 per cent, second growth, mostly pine. The area 
of old forests is slowly decreasing, but it is thought that the consump- 
tion of the growing pines does not equal the growth. The primitive 
forests are principally of oak, hickory, poplar, chestnut, and black gum. 
Land in forest is not generally valued as high as that under cultivation. 
Not more than 10 per cent of the area of Cecil is in forest, and that 
mostly in the northern part. A large tract, from which the first growth 
was cut to supply the furnaces, has now a second growth of thrifty 
young timber. Good timber-land is worth $40 per acre. In Wicomico^ 
the most plentiful and remunerative forest-trees are the several varie- 
ties of pine. . They spring up on worn-out land and grow quickly, yield- 
ing a large crop of wood and timber in sixteen to twenty years. It is 
estimated that the annual growth of pines on such land nets 10 per cent, 
on the investment ; in one instance, the actual result of eighteen years' 
growth was 17 per cent, profit per annum. Forests of primeval growth 
sell at $30 to $60 per acre, according to location. Half the forest in 
Caroline is pine. The average yield of wood is 30 cords per acre, worth, 
in the tree, $1.50. In good timber-forest, the standing timber is worth 
$100 per acre. White-oak lumber sells for $20 per M. About one-third 
the area of Prince Oeorg^s is in forest, principally on farms, and is well 
cared for. These forests are chiefly made up of oak, chestnut, and pop- 
lar. Not more than one-twentieth of Frederick is now covered with for- 
est-growth. Some black-walnut timber goes to the cities, large quanti- 
ties of white oak, hickory, ash, and poplar are worked up in home 
manufactories. Large quantities of wood are turned into charcoal for 
the furnaces in the county. Forest-area decreases at the rate of 1,000 
acres annually. Some tracts sell for $80 per acre, but mountainous 
tracts, difficult of access, for 81 per acre. One-half the area of Worcester 
is yet in forest, mostly pine ; average net value of the product, $12 per 



262 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



acre ; yield of wood, 30 cords per acre. Immense qnantitiefi of pine in 
boards and wood^ marketed in the lar^e cities, and largo amounts of 
white oak sold for shix>building. In Calvert large areas are covered 
with chestnut, and for each tree cat several sprouts start &om the 
Btump^ which often in twenty years make good timber. There are also 
Isirge tracts of oak, and others of pine. 



Conntles. 



AUdgbany ... 

Aduo Aruudel 

BoJdtinore .... 

CalTert 

Carollno 

CArroll 

Cecil 

CharlcH 

Dorchetter . . . 

Frederick .... 

iHarford 

^fiotranl 



Acres. 



1:9,146 
C7,4S3 
96,996 
38»168 
00,758 
9^310 
4«i,868 
60,158 
56,819 
73.228 
33,945 
00,139 



1 


Per oeoL ' 


5a9 


31.0 


29.3 


33.1 


35,5 


21.0 


22.1 


39.3 


40.0 


20.1 


25.1 


89.1 

1 



Coimtiea. 



Kent 

Montgomery . . . 
Prince George's 
Qaeen Aune.... 
.Saint Hary'a ... 

Somerset 

Talbot 

WasbisKton 

Wioomioo 

Worcester 

Total 



Acre.H. 



1,435,988 



Per coat 



31,464 


17.9 


66,666 


26.2 


61,887 


30.5 


4i^345 


SL5 


83,436 


42.8 


59, 399 


47.8 


40, 108 


2(.4 


40, 761 


18.0 


88,119 


47. S 


95, 615 


44.7 



aL8 



The Sotjtheen Belt. — It has been seen that in the Eastern and 
Middle States mechanical and manufacturing industries are so multi- 
form and so diffused that forest-products of all kinds and qualities find 
a local market at remunerative prices. In the cotton and tobacco 
States, owing to a general absence of such industries, there are vast 
quantities of timber of almost all useful varieties, and of the highest 
excellence^ which are of little or no present value to the owners, beciEiuse 
the manufacturing establishments which consume forest-products are so 
distant that the cost of transportation equals or exceeds the price in 
market. Beyond a quite limited use for building, and the demand for 
fences and railroad-ties, there is scarcely any home-market. A peculi- 
arity of the foresMands in these States is a vast extent of second- 
growth, mostly pine, covering soil worn out by exhaustive cultivation, 
and abandoned. Included in the primeval forests yet remaining are 
extended tracts of yellow and pitch pine, and immense swamps of 
cypress and cedar, varieties of oak, including live oak in the Gulf 
States ; hickory, walnut, cherry, poplar, gum, and chestnut are among 
the valuable kinds generally diffused. In several localities chestnut, 
for some undiscovered reason, appears to be dying out. 

Virginia. — A large area of Northumberland is in pine-forests. An- 
nually 25,000 cords of wood are stripped, but the pines grow rapidly 
and the area is increasing. Land cut over in 1842-^43 now yields 70 
cords per acre. Within live years, over 250,000 raihx)ad-ties have been 
shipped from the county, averaging, on the shore, 57 cents per tie. 
At least one-half of Chesterfield is yet heavily wooded with a growth of 
young oak and pine, which, at a distance of three to five miles from the rail- 
road, can be bought at $5 to $10 per acre. Settlers from the North and 
West are fast talking advantage of these low prices. In Highland^ white 
and yelloiiv pine and white oak are abundant. Lumber of the former, at 
the mills, is worth $12.50 per M ; of the latter, $20 ; pitch pine, $10. In 
the highlands, chestnut-oak (the bark is worth $5 per cord) and chestnut 
abound. The latter brings $30 per M. Not less than 1,000 bushels 
of chestnuts per annum are expoirted, averaging $2 per bushel. Hie 
best forests in Orayson yield 100 to 200 cords per acre. Oak is the 
most abundant timber. There are in Campbell about 150,000 acres in 
forest. Much of it excellent pine-timber, yielding 10 M feet of lumber per 
aci«, worth, in market, $12 to $18 per M. There are also large quantities of 



PLATE XXXV 







iaitt 




STATISTICS OF FORESTRY. 263 

oak, chestnut, and maple, and very extensive tracts of old fields ou 
which pines are growing rapidly. But the timber is rapidly disappear- 
ing before steam saw-mills. In Wartoiek^ there are about 10,000 acres 
in pine, 6,000 being second growth, and 10,000 more in mixed forests of 
oak, gum, beech, maple, etc. Since the war, mo&t of the timber has been 
cut out from the forests in Prinoess Anne, reducing their average value 
to $10 per acre. The average yield of wood is 40 cords per acrje, 
mostly pine, and worth 25 cents per cord. About half the area in 
Lunenburgh is covered with a second growth of pine of all sizes. This 
kind of forest-area is extending, owing to the prevalent style of cultiva- 
tion. For the same reason, the area of about one-eighth of original oak 
forest is decreasing. These original forests yield 100 or more cords of 
oak wood and 5 to 10 M of pine-lumber per ofcre. Theoriginalforests in 
Frince Edward^ exclusive of the pine, poplar, and hickory timber, yield 
25 to 50 cords of wood per acre, worth, standing, 30 to 50 cents per 
cord; "old-field'^ pine-forest, 20 to 50 cords, worth, delivered, $1.50 to 
$2.25 per cord. Pine-lumber, standing, $5 per M ; white oak, $6 ; walnut, 
poplar, sycamore, and birch, for cabinet-work, sawed, $20 to $40. Page 
has abundant forests, principally of white and chestnut oak, chestnut, 
hickory, pine, and poplar. The county is likely to abound in good 
timber until there is a railroad through it. In Pittsylvaana timber-land 
has decreased SO to 40 per cent, since 1870. The wood cut from it is 
disposed of at a nominal price^ the main purpose being to get new land 
far tobacco and other crops. Yellow-pine lumber is worth $10 to $16. 
In Miaabeth City standing hard wood is valued at $125 per acre, 
and the average product is 75 cords; the average product of lum- 
ber per acre is 10 M. The principal kinds are yellow pine, red 
and white oak, and cypress. There are about 20,000 acres in forest, 
10,000 of which is in primitive condition or irreclaimable swamps. Bin- 
toiddie has 14,750 acres of original oak and pine forest, the timber of 
which, standing, is worth about $10 per acr^. There are about 186,864 
acres of second-growth pine. Forests in Pulaski yield from 50 to 200 
cords of wood per acre, worth, standing, 50 cents per cord. The pre- 
vailing kinds are oak and pine, worth, at the mill, $15 per M. Walnut 
lumber is scarce, and brings $40 per M. An agent has recently been 
paying a very high price for it in the log to ship to Liverpool. The larger 
part of the timlx^r in. Smyth is oak and poi^ar, with considerable black 
walnut. A large portion of the area is still covered by the virgin forest, 
wdl timbered on the low lands ; not as well in the mountain slopes. A 
good business has been done in working the best wliite oak into pipe- 
staves for shipment to Norfolk. In many instances the chestnut*oak is 
cut for the bark, and the timber left to decay. Timber-lands vary 
in value from $3 to $25 per acre. In Boanoke the. best timber is so 
remote from rail that to haul it does not pay. Since the war the 
indiscriminate destruction of forest for miles back from the railroad, 
for wood, has been highly disadvantageous. About 20 per cent, of the 
land in Frederick is timbered, mostly with oak, valued at $25 per acre. 
In Caroline^ 25 per cent, of the area is in forest, of which not over 5 
per cent, is fit for timber. The average yield is 20 cords per acre, and 
the value per acre $3 to $0. About 67 per cent, of the land in Powhatan 
is covered with forests of oak and pine, Including much excellent 
pine timber and a large extent of old-field pine. The yield is 20 cords 
per acre, and the value of standing pine wood 35 cents per cord. 
From 17 to 20 per cent, of the area in Clarke is in forest, only a small 
portion of which is heavily timbered. TKe average of wood per acre is 
40 to 50 cords. The timber Includes some black walnut, and white oak, 



264 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

which is of the toughest and best quality. From 33 to 50 per cent, of 
the lands in EappahannocJc are in forests, largely on the mountains. The 
mountain land, with the timber on it, sells at §3 to $G per acre. Large 
quantities of chestnut-oak bark are used in the county for tanning, oue 
company.using annually 2,500 cords, at $6 per cord. The forests in Scott 
include white and yellow poplar and all kinds of oak. White oak pre- 
dominates. Chestnut is abundant in the mountains, and among other 
kinds black walnut is found. The yield of wood per acre is estimated at 
near 100 cords. Halifax reports about lli),000 acres in original forest, 
40,000 partly cut, and 70,000 in old-field pines of all stages of growth. 
Many parts are heavily timbered with pine, oak, hickory, poplar, and 
other kinds. Along the railroad, oak is being extensively manufactured 
into staves. The average Value of standing timber is $2.50 per M. Old- 
field pines of forty years' growth in some instances yield more cords per 
acre than th^ adjacent original forest. In Primce William^ 50 per cent, 
of the surface is timber and bush land. Below the Occoquan, 70 per 
cent, is pitch-pine, yielding 30 cords per acre. The other varieties are 
black walnut, oaks, chestnut, etc. In Gloucester^ the forests are partly 
of pine, mixed with oak and chestnut, but the best are of pine alone, 
yielding 25 to 35 cords per acre, worth, in the tree, 75 cents to $1 per 
cord. The county has eight steam saw-mills, varying in capacity from 
3,000 to 6,000 feet per day. The average value of lumber at the mills is 
$12 per M; oak ties, standing, 50 cents each^ wood, on the shores, $3 
per cord. Exclusive of those employed in cutting* and hauling logs to 
the mills, there are at least 1,200 persons occupied in catting ties, ship- 
timber, and wood, and therefore the forests are rapidly decreasing. In 
Fluva/n/na^ much yellow pine of superior quality still remains, but it is too 
far from market to be profitably cut at present prices. In Sussex^ there 
are three grades of forest, original, second-growth, and old-field pines. 
The first covers 10 per cent, of the area, including swamps, in which 
much of the most valuable timber is found. The best pine-forests will 
cut per acre 20 M of heart-plank, worth $12 to $15 per M. As evidence 
of the abundance of pine it is stated that all the dwellings in the county, 
except three, are built of it. The abounding old-field pines yield an aver- 
age of 20 cords per acre. These lands can be bought for less than $5 
per a&re, and the wood cut and hauled will net 50 cents per cord. Large 
quantities of lumber are shipped via Norfolk to northern cities. A con- 
siderable number of northern capitalists have located in the county and 
are doing a lucrative lumber-business; thus giving an impetus to the 
real-estate market. The forests in Madison are original , principally of oak, 
hickory, chestnut, walnut, and pine, and old-field pine. The oak growth 
averages 50 cords per acre ; pine, 25 to 30 ; chestnut-rails are delivered at 
$4 to $6 per hundred ; shingles, at $2.50 to $2.75 per M. Pine-lumber 
is in demand at $10 to $15 per M ; chestnut-oak is very abundant on 
the mountains, but only utilized for the bark, which is delivered at $5 
per cord 5 walnut-lumber brings $20 to $40 per M. Nelson reports one- 
half the area as in original forest, and one-eighth of the remainder in 
old-field pines. Of the latter, that of thirty years' standing is now very 
valuable, averaging 40 cords per acre, netting $50 to $75. The original 
forests average 70 cords per acre. Pine, poplar, and white-oak lumber 
is worth, at the mills, $10 per M. Chestnut is most valued for rails 
and shingles. Notwithstanding the great destruction of the forests in 
Orange during the war, timber of oak, chestnut, and locust still abounds. 
The products of the best forests are valued at $25 to $37.50 per acre. 
Since the war, much has be3n cut into lumber by steam-mills, and 
shipped. In King and Qneen^ wood of all kinds is being cut for the 



f 



STATISTICS OF FORESTRY. 265 

market Pine of original growth averages about 40 cords per acre, 
worth, standing, 50 cents to $2 per cord, according to proximity to the 
river. White oak for ship-timber sells for $G to 810 per M 5 staves from red 
and white oak, for the Baltimore market, ibr $15 to $25 per M ; rail>road- 
ties, at the vessel, for $40 to $60 per one hundred. From pine-timber land 
$50 per acre is realized. Two-thirds of the area of Janies City is in for- 
est ; consisting of pine, oak, chestnut, and cypress, with a sprinkling of 
other kinds. The pine is the most valuable, and is being rapidly cut 
Into wood, shipped to New York, and plank shipped to Baltimore. 
Lumbermen have utilized, for staves and ship- timber, pretty much all the 
oak bordering upon the York, the James, and the Chickahominy. The 
destruction of forests by both armies during the war was very grea.t in 
Henrico, hut it still furnishes annually for Eichmond fuel and lumber, 
amounting in value to $40,000 to $60,000. The principal timbers for 
market growing in Middlesex ave oak, hickory, walnut, chestnut, cypress, 
and pine. Oak-forests average 40, and the best reach 60, tons per acre, 
and sell readily at $3 per ton on the stump. The yield of chestnut, 
which grows with great luxuriance, (a new crop replacing that cut in 
twenty years,) is better than that of oak. Pine-forest yields 40 cords 
per acre, worth, on the stump, 50 cents per cord. Cypress, growing in 
dense forests on the marshes of the Piankatank, is very valuable for 
shingles, and in many instances nets $100 per acre on the stump. There 
is in Lee more forest than cleared land, yielding 40 to 50 cords per acre, 
worth, standing, when it can be sold, 16 to 25 cents per cord. But there 
is little external market for either wood or lumber, from lack of trans- 
portation. Half the area in Accomack is in forest, principally yellow pine. 
About half of that is untouched, and will average 50 cords per acre. 
There are also large quantities of oaks and gum, with less of other va- 
rieties. Half the area of Greenville is also in forest, 25 per cent, of 
which jrields 200 cords per acre. Its timber is mostly second-growth 
pine, though forests of original pine are yet extensive. Parts of the 
county produce black walnut and hickory in abundance. Fine oaks for 
timber are being recklessly cut for fuel. The price per acre is but little 
more than that of Government land. Spottsylvania has 60 per cent, of 
its area in forests, of which 10 per cent, is timbered land, valued at $20 
per acre, and 50 per cent, land that will average 15 cords of wood per 
acre, worth 25 cents per cord, standing. Tho forests of Tazewell con- 
tain black walnut, poplar, white oak, and sugar-maple in abundance, 
antl of very large size, but worth very little to the owners, owing to a 
want of mills and transportation. One-third the area of MecklenburgJi is 
in original forest, and another third in old-field pines. The former con- 
sists mainly of oak, hickory, poplar, and pine; and in the latter many 
trees large enough for timber, and some are set so thickly that one can 
scarcely work his way through. It is alleged that the more thoroughly 
the land is exhausted the more quickly and thickly the pines come up. 
It is estimated that 25 per cent, of the area of Fairfax, not including the 
old-field pines, is in forests, averaging 40 cords per acre, one-half of 
which is timber, including a large amount of yellow pine, and of oak 
suitable for ship-building. Tracts of forest, and many farms with more 
forest than needed for home use, arQ in the market at $10 to $20 per 
acre. The forests in Henry average 50 cords per acre, while the heaviest 
yield 100. One-third of the area is in forest, and timber of all kinds is 
abundant. Chestnut has been dying out for years, and there are fears 
that it will become extinct. The forests of Northampton are mostly of 
pine, interspersed with oak. The best will cut 50 cords per acre, the 
average being 30 ; standing wood is worth $1 per cord. In New Kenty 



266 



KEPORT OF TIIE COMMISSIONEE OP AGRICULTURE. 



fjie pine-timber aud wood near the river have been mainly cut for the 
liorthern market, but five miles back are extensive pine-forests that yield 
30 to 50 cords per acre. Buclianan abounds in forests heavily timbered 
with hard woodsy among which the oaks, poplar, and chestnut are prom- 
inent. These forests, remote from rafting streams, can be bought at 
50 cents to 81 per acre. 



Coantics. 



Accomack 

Albemarlo 

Alexandria 

Allegbany 

Amelia 

Amhorat 

Appomattos: 

Angnsta 

Bath 

Bedford 

Bland 

Bototourt 

Branawick 

Baokanan 

Backingbam 

Campbell 

CaroliBo 

Carroll 

CharleuCity 

Charlotte 

CheeterfJeld 

Clarke 

Craig 

Cnlpepor 

Cumberland 

Dinwiddle 

Elizabeth City . . 

Essex 

Fairfield 

Faaqnier 

Floyd 

Flavanna 

Franklin 

Frederick 

GilcA 

(rloucestcr 

Goochland 

Grayson......... 

Greene 

Greenville 

Balilax 

Hanover 

Henrico 

Henry 

Hijihland 

I«le of Wight . . , 

James City 

King and 'Queen. 
Xing George .... 
King William... 
Loncaater 



i.cree. 


Per cent. 


li, 774 


44.7 


1&),0SI 


38.8 


55» 


6.8 


87,013 


78.7 


78,628 


39.9 


96,182 


41.7 


7«,948 


39.9 


157, 251 


39.2 


134, 155 


77.0 


131, 480 


36.1 


86,146 


74.1 


75,055 


48.1 


193,083 


70.4 


158,511 


50.7 


130,045 


46.5 


100,700 


41.4 


136, 110 


70.2 


51, 737 


M.8 


85. 810 


. 33.4 


103,651 


51.5 


85,343 


25.4 


63,839 


70.1 


02,358 


S6.5 


56^444 


3a5 


85,433 


36.8 


14,043 


4a 9 


63,291 


40.5 


83,048 


40.2 


104,296 


25w6 


93,TC8 


57.7 


57,683 


40.1 


174,671 


52L5 


75,603 


36.0 


18,758 


15.0 


49,400 


46.3 


02,512 


31.5 


119, 543 


61.3 


38,518 


46.9 


77,913 


50.9 


129,324 


37.7 


100,523 


42.1 


57, 922 


46.3 


86,888 


4a 8 


116, 766 


6«.5 


87,110 


5:1.5 


28,530 


61.7 


65,683 


42.5 


38,837 


3a3 


57, 919 


35.4 


36,562 


50.3 



Countica. 



Leo 

Londoun 

Louisa 

Luncnbnrgh 

Mqdison. ........ 

MatthoTTs 

Itfecklonburgh .. 

Middlesex 

Montgomery.... 

Nansemond 

Nolaon 

New Kent 

Norfolk 

Northamptom . . . 
Northnmuerland 

Nottoway 

Orange 

Pago 

Patrick 

Pittsylvania 

Powhatan 

Prince Edward . . 
Prince G eorge . . . 
Princess Anne . . 
Prince William.. 

Palaski 

Kappahannock . . 

Biohmond 

Roanoko 

Bockbrhlge 

Kockingham .... 

Rnsaell 

Scott 

Shenandoah 

Smyth 

Sonthampton 

Spottsylvanla . . . 

Stafford 

Snrry 

Sussex 

TazewoU 

Warren 

Warwick 

WsahingtoD 

WeatmoreUdd . . 

Wiae 

Wythe 

York 

Total 



Acres. 


Percent. 


110, 877 


52.1 


67,246 


24.3 


101, 120 


39.7 


00, 101 


2r^7 


81,763 


49.7 


18,312 


41.3 


127,125 


3ai 


27,472 


4a 5 


113, 368 


55.2 


106, 161 


05.2 


109,766 


45.6 


41, 758 


53.5 


49,288 


47.3 


35^:)64 


33.1 


48, 081 


46.5 


75,056 


51.9 


67,805 


39.0 


4t<,901 


46.4 


160,906 

294,568 


69.7 


49.1 


50,025 


43.2 


54,214 


28.9 


48,344 


44.9 


52,127 


51.7 


53,658 


3&1 


110. 604 


64.3 


42, 695 


33.6 


49, 971 


4a 8 


74,788 


45.6 


110,252 


51.6 


129,687 


4L2 


132,301 


64.0 


1.^)8, 004 


6ai 


81,063 


40.4 


87,138 


59.9 


105, a57 


57.3 


68,652 


40.3 


72,166 


54.9 


60. 428 


59.7 


97, 876 


33.2 


154, 914 


7a 9 


40,778 


42.0 


20,369 


62:5 


178, 014 


33.6 


41,724 


39.0 


3,533 


•1.0 


149,301 


61.0 


21, 919 


50.1 


e, 294, 734 


45.7 



North Oaeolina. — Except the valley of the French Broad Eiver, 
averaging about one mile in width, the area of Transylvania is mainly 
mountainous and covered with forest. Black walnut and cherry are 
among all other varieties of the climate. These forests can be bought 
at about $2 per acre, with a most healthy climate, water-power unsur- 
passed, and a railroad reaching the valley now under contract. In 
Orangey varieties of oak abound, with a mixture of other valuable kinds. 
The abandoned fields produce a new growth of pine in a few years, and 
it appears to restore the worn-out laud. They are the main souroe of 
coal for the smiths and for curing tobacco. Forests some distance from 
town, heavily wooded with pine, oak, and hickory, sell for $15 to $16 
per acre. Wood brings, in the towns, $2 to $3 per cord. Haytcood re- 



STATISTICS OP FORESTRY. 25.7 

r 

ports 80 per cent, of the area in forest, a great portion being mountain- 
oug. With few exceptions, heavy forests cover the mountains to the 
very top. In many instances timber is considered a, nuisance and every 
means for its destruction resorted to — " even to piling it in huge piles 
and burning it' to ashes.^ In Gaswelly the average yield of forests per 
acre is reported at 200 cords. Pine and oak predominate largely. The 
old-field pines become large enough for ordinary building purposes in 
about twenty years. The forests in Surry, averaging more than 75 per 
Cent, of the area, and yielding 40 cords per acre, contain yellow pine, 
oaks, black and white walnut, and other valuable timbers, but, owing 
to a want of railroad facilities, do not sell at more than $1 per acre. 
Large tracts of forest yet remain in Duplin^ at a distance from the rail- 
road, in which the most valuable timber is the long-leaf pine, yielding 
10 M per acre. There are immense quantities of cypress, whit« oak, ash , 
andxN)plar in the swamps. Yancey , a mountainous county, reports vast 
quantities of very tall and heavy timber; including locusts, 2 to 3 feet 
in diameter^ sycamore, 5 to 7 feet 5 sugar-maple, 3 to 4 feet; yellow 
poplar, 6 to 8 feet; also, plenty of buckeye-pine, spruce, and mahogany 
or mountain birch. In Beaufort^ fully 80 per cent, of the land-area is 
covered with forests, one-half of which is of original growth. On the 
uplands, they consist mostly of the long and the short-stem pine, and on 
the lowland, of cypress, oaks, maple, ash, gum, etc. There are many 
saw^mills in the county occupied in sawing lumber for the northern and 
West India markets, to which, also, many millions of cypress gdiingles 
are annually shipped, yet it is estimated that at the present rate the 
timber will long continue unexhausted. Lumber at the mills sells 
at $4 to $4.50 per M. The forests in Caldwell abound in the osJes, 
hickory, chestnut, white and yellow pine, and poplar. They arc worth 
from $1 to $10 per acre, according to accessibility. Wood sells in the 
towns at $1 to $1.50 per cord; in rural districts, at 60 to 75 cents. 
Watatiffa claims as heavy white-pine forests as grow in the United States, 
and heavy deciduous forests of valuable timber. Kot less than 83 
per cent, of the area in Burhe is reported in primitive forest, much of it 
heavily timbered, with a mixture of the most valuable varieties. Wood, 
in market, is $1.50 per cord. Timbered lands lying three or four miles 
from'town command $1 to $5 per acre. Alamance contains 00,000 acres 
in original forest, besides a vast amount of land covered with second 
growti[i in different stages. Land worn out and abandoned as worthless 
has been restored to its original fertility (it is claimed) by a growth of 
pine, much of which now affords suitable timber for building. Owing 
to the growth of pines, there is now more woodland in the county than 
at the close of the war. The average yield is 35 cords per acre. In- 
cluding thd old-field pines, 75 per cent, of the area of If^ash is in for- 
est. Among the timbers in the original forest the most valuable is the 
yellow pin^ More than half the area of Pasquotank is covered with 
timber, among which pine is most abundant. Thousands of acres are 
covered with long-leaf pine of original growth, ranging from 2 to 6 feet 
in diameter, and mostly heart. Oypress is of a still larger growth, but 
not quite so plentiful. The county being very favorably situated as to 
faeilities for getting timber to saw-mills and lumber to market, a large 
and lucrative lumlKsr-business is steadily carried on. Half the area of 
Lincoln is in forest; oak, pine, and hickory predominating. The origi- 
nal forest-chestnut is rapidly failing. Carteret reports 5,000 acres in 
dense cedar forest^ and the same number in oak, both being worth $25 
p^ acre, but to be bad at a lower rate ; 4,000 or 5,000 in ash and other 
swamp* woods ; but tilie greater portion of the forest*area in yellow pine. 
In Person^ 33 per cent, of the land is heavily timbered with original 



268 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

growtli, chiefly heart-pine, oak, hickory, and walnut. Pine-lamber, at 
the mill, is worth $10 per M ; oak, $20 5 and walnut, $25. The forest- 
lands are being rapidly cleared up for the purpose of growing fine yel- 
low tobacco, the timber being usually burned on the land. Wayne esti- 
mates an area of 170,005 acres in forest, of which 132,800 are in pine, 
and 33,200 in oak, ash, gum, and cypress ; average yield, 50 cords per 
acre, worth, standing, 50 cents per cord. Mitcliell has abundant forests 
of chestnut, oak, poplar, hickory, locust, and white pine. Half the area 
of 8t6k€8 is covered with original forests, principally yellow pine, hickory,' 
oak, poplar, and chestnut. As these forest-lands make the finest yel- 
low tobacco, vast quantities of valuable timber are annually destroyed 
by belting, burning in log-heaps, &c. The report represents that good 
soil and cheap timber, fine water-power, iron, coal, lime, and ^marble, 
and a near prospect of a railroad through the county, afford an inviting 
opening to enterprising capitalists. The forest-lands of Henderson aver- 
age 50 cords of wood per acre. Among the timbers, the most valuable 
are black walnut, worth, in lumber, $40 per M ; cherry, $30 ; ash, $25. 
Pine, poplar, and hickory are^very abundant, and sell at $10 to $15 per 
M. About 07 per cent, of the area of Moore is covered with long-leaf 
yellow pine, much of which affords lumber not excelled in quality. In 
the northwest portion of the county are deciduous forests, yielding 40 
cords per acre. Not more than 17 per cent, of the area is in cleared land. 
Pine-land, valuable only for the timber near the railroads, sells for $2 
to $3 per acre ; more remote, $1 to $2. Hickory -lumber sells for $40 
per M ; poplar, $15 to $20 ; ash, $35. In Lenoir the oak has been mostly 
used up, and the pine-forests, from which turpentine was formerly manu- 
factured on an extensive scale, are now principally used for mill-tim- 
ber, fence-rails, and fuel. For these purposes the supply is ample. 
Only about 33 percent, of the land in Alexatider is improved. The 
forests are principally of oak, pine, and hickory, and in the larger 
part the oaks and pine are very heavy. In many localities tim- 
ber can be had for the cutting. Pamlico reports itself one vast for- 
est. Quantities of shingles from cypress ^and juniper are shipped 
selling at $2.50 to $4 per M. Pine and poplar are the only kinds 
sawed into lumber. Pine, in stocks at the mill, sells at $10 to $25 ; pop- 
lar, at about double that price. Other varieties are given away. Oaks 
constitute over half of the forests of Rowan. The principal other kinds 
are pine and hickory. Standing wood is worth 75 cents per cord, within 
two miles of the railroad ] more remote, it is worthless, and huge quantities 
are rolled into heaps and burned. The yield is 25 to 50 cords per acre. 
The forests of Madison are reported as abounding in magnificent timber 
of all varieties common to the latitude — among the more valuable, black- 
walnut, butternut, and cherry. White pine and poplar seem inexhausti- 
ble ; trees of the latter being 5 feet in diameter, and of the former 2 to 
4 feet, and 150 feet high. Chestnut and locust of the finest (Quality are 
also superabundant. Frequently these forests of magnificent timber are 
worth $10 to $12 less than nothing per acre— that is, the owners pay at 
that rate for removing them from the land for cultivation. Large tracts 
of forests lying on the ridges in Polk are owned by a northern company, 
and held at $2 per acre. They are known as " speculation lands,^ and 
not regarded as very productive. In Qa^Um^ it is still not uncommon in 
clearing land to kill a part of the timber by girdling, and cut and bum 
the remainder on the ground. Many of the old fields are densely cov- 
ered with pines of thirty to forty years' growth. More than 67 per cent, 
of the area in Eandolph is yet in forests, which, with a railroad through 
the county, would be very valuable. The northern part is principally 
timbered w^ith oak and hickory, and the middle belt with pine and oak. 



PLATE XXXVI. 







< 
'J 



r 



< 
< 



< 



c 
4. 



• ■■ \ 



STATISTICS OF FOEESTBY. 



269 



la the western part of the latter are mauy saw-mills, some run by water 
and others by steam, cutting up large quantities of pine-lumber, which 
is shipped on the North Oarolina Bailroad. The price paid for timber 
on the stump by mill-owners is $1 per M. The southern portion is more 
heavily timbered than either of the others, chiefly in pine, but in some 
localities there is a heavy growth of oak. In Oates^ the forests abound 
in pine-timber, worth about $4 per acre ; and the swamps in cypress and 
juniper, which, with shipping facilities, would be valuable. The forests 
of OluroJcee include a mixture of all woods common to the climate, 
among which oaks, hickory, chestnut, poplar, and pines are most promi- 
nent. Among the other kinds are black- walnut and cherry. The yield 
of the best forests is estimated at 100 cords per acre, worth, on the 
stump, i to 1 cent per cord. Forest-lands lying back and on the mount- 
ains sell at 25 cents to $1 per acre. In the forests of Willcesy pine is the 
most valuable timber, worth $G per M ; after that, the oaks, hickory, 
locust, poplar, etc. The average yield of wood, 40 cords per acre. Olay 
reports that 80 per cent, of the area is in forests that will average 200 
or more cords per acre, including all the valuable varieties of timber. 
About 67 per cent, of Onslow is in forest, principally of long-leaf pine. In 
Tyrrely also, pine forests abound, with cypress, juniper, gum, oak, etc. 
Davidson has a large area in forests, which include all the Varieties 
of oak, hickory, pine, poplar, birch, walnut, and chestnut. Anson reports, 
besides the oaks, immense quantities of yellow-pine all valuable for 
timber. 



Conntics. 



Al^unanoe.... 
Alexander ... 
AUeghAny.... 

Anaon 

Aahe 

Beaafort 

Bertio 

Bladen 

BmnBwiok . . . 
Boncombe.... 

Burke 

Cftbarroe 

Caldwell 

Camden 

Cartwet 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham .... 
Cherokee..... 

Chowan 

Clay 

gleveland.... 
oInmbuB .... 

CraTen 

Cumberland., 
Currituck — 

Dare 

Davidflon.... 

Davie , 

Duplin 

Edgecombe. . . 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gotes 

GranTllIo.... 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood. — 
Henderson . . 

Hertford 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 




77,701 

04,450 

86,135 

7tl,392 

150,237 

S26.102 

106,850 

967,881 

250,6a26 

320.370 

120, 113 

65,081 

151,827 

1*7,735 

51,836 

64,878 

27,700 

304, 466 

131, 010 

44,170 

65,108 

106, 010 

33,864 

265,673 

337,640 

53,546 

3,012 

133,017 

40, 576 

310, 577 

133,850 

03,640 

111, 874 

1U3, 455 

09,438 

116, 4Ki 

87, 153 

105,670 

304, 841 

163, 400 

83,545 1 

123,106 ! 

110,063 

35.028 

116,077 

308.343 



Percent 



34.8 
74.1 
65.4 
35.4 
72.5 
84.7 
6&7 
85.8 
01.7 
73.7 
73.0 
37.4 
71.0 
37.3 
63.1 
38.8 
31.7 
48.<6 
50.6 
54.3 
76.8 
40.6 
&1 
63.3 
85.3 
52.7 
46.0 
41.8 
3D. 5 
76.3 
53.4 
44.9 
46.9 
52.2 
04.7 
31.1 
59.0 
31.8 
55.9 
79.3 
00. 5 
73.1 
6(5.7 

4a 8 

43.9 
80.3 



Counties. 



Johnston 

Jones 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

■Mecklenburgh 

MitcheU 

Montgomery .. 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover. 
Northampton . 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pasquotank . . . 
Perquimans... 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Bandolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham .. 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Stanley 

Stokes 

Surry 

Transylvania.. 

Tyrrel 

TTnion 

Wake 

Warren 

Washinpton... 

Watauga 

Way no 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 



Total. 





•- H" 


Acres. 


Percent 




i,^. 




rr ■■ 


361, 614 


66.1 


82, .160 


73.2 


05,026 


54.1 


70,400 


47.8 


289. !573 


85.8 


121, 368. 


78.7 


168,603 


73.1 


37,630 


46.7 


105, 253 


39.0 


74,329 


80.1 


146, 245 


61.1 


265,704 


7.3.4 


146, 560 


09.8 


270,050 


7a 1 


132,115 


47.9 


157, 705 


80.1 


04, 104 


37.0 


37,66,3 


44.4 


65,653 


53.3 


74, 752 


33.8 


100, 271 


63.9 


68,420 


80.3 


289,540 


67.0 


249, 804 


75.8 


313, 600 


70.8 


130,565 


45. 5 


92,363 


35.9 


134, 351 


64.3 


323,430 


76.8 


114,000 


(>6.3 


124,593 


64.0 


1.">.359 


74.1 


87, 605 


85.3 


42, 144 


50.1 


ini, 847 


58.8 


183,347 


46.1 


139, 070 


47.7 


51. 450 


(J8.4 


117,251 


8U.4 


170, 157 


(j;j.o 


209.009 


67.0 


98. 07a 


60.6 


94. 010 


49.7 


70,942 


77.0 


12, 026, 894 


60.6 


■•■'K' ^-'v-*.-' 





270 REPORT OF TftE C0MMIS8I0KER OP AGRICULTURE, 

South Carolina. — In Greenville companies with steam saw-mills 
purchase forests at $10 x>er acre, saw the oak into fencing and' railroad 
timber, and the pine into lumber, the latter selling at $12.50 per M, and 
then offer the land for farming at $10 per acre. Steam saw-mills, which 
have multiplied within two or three years, saw up all the lumber that can 
be obtained near the first location, and then remove to a new one. lUie 
demand for tan-bark, which is gathered in quantities, is increasing. 
Over 500,000 acres in Lexington are in forest, three-fourths of which tun^ 
covered with yellow pine of the best quality. The remaining foarth 
contains short-leaf pine, cedar, and juniper, with varieties of the hard* 
wood timbers of great intrinsic value. The pine-lands average per 
acre about 7 M of lumber, worth $10 per M, and 15 cords of wood, from 
the tops, worth $1.50 per cord delivered along the railroad travers- 
ing IJie county, and there will be left an equal value in smaller trees 
suitable for rails and wood. Lar^e quantities of pine-timber, hewn and 
sawed, are rafted down Edisto Biver to Charleston m^ket. The best 
of shingles are delivered at the railroad at $3 to $4. Water-power is 
abundant and cheap. Several thousand acres have been boxed for tur- 
pentine, which is supposed to yield a handsome profit to those engaged 
in the manufacture. Clarendon has 60,000 acres in Santee Swamp, be- 
sides several inland swamps of less extent, ail heavily timbered witii 
cypress, oaks, sweet-gum, with some pine, etc This timber as now 
situated is of little market value. The forests on the uplands are chiefly 
of yellow pine, three-fourths of which are boxed for turpentine, yielding 
an average of $1.50 per acre. This does not destroy the trees, though 
it lessens their value for timber. There is a large extent of old-field pines. 
About half the area of Spartatiburgh is in original forest, and one-fourth 
in old-field pines, varying in diameter fix)m 1 to 18 inches. Of the original 
forest-land, a large tract is covered with a dense growth of scrub-oak, on 
another hard pine predominates* and on a third, oaks and hickory from 
1 to 3 feet in diameter. Forest^land near towns or the railroad may be 
bought at prices which the net profit on the forest cnt off will repay, 
varying from $3 to $30 per acre. Of the area of JS'etidberry^ 50 per cent 
is in old-field pines and cedars, and about 5 per cent, in original forest. 
Under the new growth the old fields "recuperate rapidly." A few per- 
sons yet living remember when there were but two cedar trees within 
an area thirty miles in diameter, on all the worn-out lands of which they 
are now growing thickly. On the uncleared land in WiUiamsburghy 
except along the margins of streams and the raihroad^ the original forests 
remain untouched. The most abondant is of pitch-pme of two varieties, 
and, it is claimed, will yield as much valuable lumber per acre as anj 
woodland in the world. There are also lowland forests of cypress, 
hickory, ash, poplar, and oaks. Barnwell reports 75 per cent of the 
area in forest, and 75 per cent, of that in yellow pine, oak predominate 
ing in the other fourth. Along the streams is a heavy growth of oak, 
hickory, and cypress. The oak Is beinghewed into squarelogs and rafted 
to sea-ports. In Beaufort^ on the Sea Islands, and along the shore, a 
heavy growth of oak and live-oak borders all the river margins and the 
sea-coast The swamps are covered with black and white cypress, 
shingles from which are known to have lasted seventy years. But 
the larger area of the county is covered with a heavy forest of i^ellow 
and pitch pine, now being extensively utilized for lumber and turpen- 
tine manufacture. Forests of yellow and short-leaf pine cover abont 
half the area of Colleton. The former yield per acre about 1,500 feet of 
thebest of timber ; the latter are principally utilized in the manufactureof 
turpentine, tar and rosin. Other forests are composed of oak, hickory, 



STATISTICS OF FORESTRY. 



271 



cypress, otc. In Rieldandy theforests are pine, yieldingSO cords per acre or 
making 40 to 50 gallons of tarpentine i>cr acre. Delivered at the railroad 
wood is worth $2 percord ; lumber, $10per M. In Fairfield the forests ai» 
oak and hickory, interspersed with pine, estimated to yield 35 cords ptjr 
acre. The chief growth on the uplands in Oeorgetoum is yellow piae 
used for manufacturing turpentine^ milMnmber, fuel, and staves for rice- 
tierces and rosin-barrels. The supply for turpentine will soon bo nx- 
haasted* In the swamps, the chief timber is cypress. The consumptrion 
has been large in the manufacture of shingles for home use and export, 
and for which there is a steady market- value. Besides the manufacture 
in the swamps by hand, in which the waste of timber is great, a mill in 
the town of Georgetown turns out immense quantities from logs floated 
from the swamps during freshets. Oak, ash, gum, hickory, etc., abound 
in the swamps 5 but, in order to make the timber of much valuf3y ma- 
chinery must come to the material and skilled liibor must be imported. 



Coontica. 



AblMTUle.. 

Andenioii .. 

BattiweU.... 

Beanlbrt ... 

Gliarleston . 

Cluwter ..... 

Ckesterfield 

ClMvadon.., 

CoUQton.... 

Darlington. 

EdgeOeld... 

i^lrfield .... 

Georgetown 

QT«eiiTlUe.. 

Horrv 

Kensbaw 

LsDcaster ... 



^crea. 


Percent. 


1!80,608 


24«2 


128, 447 


31.8 


715,164 


63.4 


341,567 


02.4 


388,830 


64.1 


59.908 


do. 3 


238,139 


69.3 


186,086 


61.7 


437,992 


7&6 


214. 904 


S6.S 


287,640 


3&9 


88,268 


24.5 


159. 814 


81.0 


137,540 


47.1, 


281.210 


Ta.7 


158,876 


61.9 


68^561 


39.9 



Cqaniieai 




LanreojA. 

Lexington 

MarioQ. ....... 

Karlborough .. 

l/ewberry 

Oww© 

Oruvgeburgli . . 

Pickens 

Bieblaad 

Sp.irtan1)nr£;li. . 

Sumter 

JCTnion 

'WilHamsburgli 
York 

Total 



64,319 
309.815 
350,192 
156, 279 

48,285 
164,304 
299,690 
125^619 
127,579 
133,014 
160,549 

54,611 
319,949 
105,734 



6,443,851 



Peroont. 



19.0 
81.7 

ee.6 

6SL1 
Id. 9 
79i0 
62.0 
SO. 4 
54.1 
20.5 
S&3 
17.9 
81.^ 
34.:0 



53.3 



'K *. - 



Geobc^ia. — ^Abont 42 per cent, of the area of Terrell is in forest, mostly 
valuable yellow, heart-pine timber. The estimated average yield in 
wood is 75 eords per acre. Hhis forest-land can now be bought very 
cheap. In Effingham^ the forests of yellow and pitch pine are extensive, 
and in the swamps there is much valuable oak. Forest-land is worth 
$1 to $10 per acre. About 50 per cent, of the area in Jaokson is in orig- 
inal forest and 10 per cent, in old-field pine. In the former, pine, oak, 
hickory, chestnut, and poplar trtos are abundant, with other kinds 
interspersed. The original and old-field forests average, in wood, 20 cords 
per acre. The forests of Hovston are about one-half of oak and hickory, 
the other half being of long-leaf pine. They average, in wood, 25 cords 
I)er acre. About one-half of Fayette is in original forest, in whicdi 
oaks, hickory, chestnut, pine, and ash abound. The average price, 
including thQ land, is about $9 per acre. Chatham reports 75 per cent, 
of the area in forests, heavily timbered with pine, live-oak, cypress, 
hickory-, gam, etc., and not salable at more than $6 to $10 per acre. In 
Elbert 50 per cent, of the area is in original forest, with an indefinite 
extent of old-field pine. The forests are a mixture of almost all kinds, 
but chestnut, during the last twenty years, has nearly died out. The 
estimated average yield in wood of the pine-forests in Seriven is 100 
cords per acre. The swamps contain timber of the oaks, ash, hickory, 
w^ilnut, cypress, etc. The forests in Sumter are of three grades: the 
ii'2>^and, principally of oak and hickory; the pine forests, averaging 100 
^(^mber-trees per acre; and the swamp, abounding in white oak, gum, 
poplar, etc. The upland yields an average of 30 cords per acre; the 



272 EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

swamps, 40. The forests of Carroll abound in pine, the oaks, and hick- 
ory. Pine-timber sells to the lumbermen at an average of $3 per acre, 
and nets them an average of $6. But a small portion of the land is 
raider cultivation. A railroad recently built to the center of the county 
Ims sux)plied a previous lack of transportation, and now a large number 
of steam saw-mills are in active operation. The forests contained a 
larj'^e quantity of chestnut, which began to die about ten years ago, and 
now scarcely a tree is left. Even the bushes are nearly all dead, though 
no insect or worm, or other cause afiecting them, has been discovered. 
About 60 per cent, of the area in Forsyth is in original forest, principally 
piue» oaks, and chestnut— all fine timber. Forests cover 75 per cent 
of the area in Eaily in which pine, the oaks, hickory, poplar, and gum 
are the prevailing timbers. Pine-lumber is dull of sale at $10 per M. 
^^ Pine-trees of good size sell at 30 cents per tree within one mile of a 
saw-mill.-' Until within a few years, chestnut abounded, but now nearly 
every tree is dead or dying. The return from Uarly estimates that there 
aro 100,000 acres covered with yellow pine, and 65,000 with the oaks, 
ash, magnolia, gum, etc. There are sJso large quantities of cypress. 
Johnson reports 75 per cent, of the area, or 172,800 acres, in pine-forest, 
which' would average 15 M per acre, and yet leave timber on the land 
for fencing. There is a market for only a very small portion, at $10 per 
M. There are, in addition, about 8,000 acres in mixed forest of oak, ash, 
and poplar. In Camden^ there are 80,000 acres in pine-forest, averaging 
3 M of lumber per acre. Near water for floating the logs, it is valued, 
standing, at $2 per M. There are about 12,000 acres in live-oak, one- 
half being on Cumberland Island, and 3,500 acres in cypress, both aver- 
aging 4 M per acre. It is estimated that annually 12,000 to 14,000 M 
(about half coming from Charlton County) are sawed in the county, 
two-thirds of which go to foreign markets. The entire area of Pierce 
was originally heavily timbered with yellow pine, about one-third of 
which has been sawed up. Timbered lands claimed to be the best iu 
the State sell at $1 to $1.50 per acre, and the land, with the wood on it, 
after the timber has been removed, at 50 cents. In JDatcson, 15 per cent, 
of the area is yet in original growth, in which pine is most abundant, 
chestnut next, and the oaks, hickory, black and white gum, and other 
kinds, more thinly interspersed. The estimated average in wood is 
40 cords per acre. Pulaski reports that- 83 per cent, if not more, of 
its area is primitive forest. The long-leaf pine is being cut out along 
the water-courses, floated into the river, and rafted to Darien, the great 
lumber-market. Saw-mills also are built along the line of the rail- 
road, which passes through forests heavily timbered with pine, and by 
which the sawed lumber reaches market On the Ocmulgee Eiver are 
forests of heavy oak and cypress. The estimate of forest-yield is from 
50 to 100 cords per acre. The mountain-forests in Oordoii, largely of 
oak, and valuable for the bark, yield about 35 cords per acre, used prin* 
cipally for coal. The best forests, timbered with oak, pine, hickory, 
and poplar, average 50 cords per acre. Wood, standing, is woith 65 
cents per cord. Hitherto there has been a reckless waste of the most 
valuable timbers, burnt in the fields. In Stewart, the uncleared lands 
are heavily timbered. Pine is most abundant, and next to that oak. 
There is a large extent of old-field pines. The forests iu ^Yhite abound 
in valuable oak and red-pine timber. Hard-wood timbers are also 
plenty. The present market- value is small, owing to a lack of facilities 
for transportation. The upland forests in JDooly are chiefly yellow and 
white pine, producing, per acre, 5 M of good heart-lumber, and selling at 
50 cents to $1 per acre. As worked up by 8 saw-mills, it sells for home 



STATISTICS OF FORESTRY. 273 

use at $10 to $12.60 per M. No facilities for shipping. Tlie swamp-laud 
heavily timbered with cypress, noted for size and height. Oak, hick- 
ory, and other kinds can be bought for $1 per acre. Marion reports 
53,586 acres in forest disconnected with farms, a portion ot'it good soil, 
with valuable timber, and a railroad passing through, and yet selling 
at 50 cents to $3 per acre. The forest-lands that are connected with 
farms are worth $10 to $15 per acre. In Bartow, 67 per cent, of the area 
is in forests of oak, hickory, chestnut, black walnut, and yellow pine. 
As tested by iron manufacturers, the average yield of wood per acre is 
40 cords. In Dodge, 67 per cent, of the area is in forests of piteh-pine, 
hickory, oak, gum, etc., averaging, per acre, 7 M of lumber, and selling 
in market at $8 to $12 per M, which gives the lumbermen a profit of 
$2 to $4 per M. In Richmond, the sandy portion, being 95 per cent, 
of the timbered area, is covered with pine, black oak, and hickory; 
river-land, with a dense growth of cypress. Lumber from long-leaf 
pine, the quality equal to the best in the United States, is worth, at the 
mill, $13 per M. Well-timbered laud, near the railroad, is worth $10 to 
$25 i)er acre ; remote, will scarcely command $3. In Warrta, not more 
than 10 per cent, of the area is in original forest, and ]ierhaps 5 per cent, 
in second growth. The forests in Broolcs are principally stocks with 
pine-timber, claimed to be as fine as the world produces, averaging fifty 
timber-trees per acre. The hummock-lands, near the water-courses, are 
timbered with oak, hickory, poplar, magnolia, cypress, etc. It is em- 
phatically a coiuity of valuable forests, but as yet not opened to market. 
Fulton claims over 100 varieties of timber, among which the most 
valuable are walnut, poplar, and pine. Within twelve months, over 
500 cords of old-field pine-wood have been taken &om a field of 20 
a<^res turned out twenty -five years ago. One-foucth the area of Schley 
is covered with long-leaf pine, one-half of which is fit to convert into 
planks, and the other into timber for buildings, fences, &c. The sal- 
able value per acre is $5. The forests in Walton are of oak, hickory, 
and pine, yielding from 25 to 100 cords per acre. Chestnut has all 
died. Most of the lands are taking on a very heavy growth of old- 
fieRl pine, and in a few years will be more heavily timbered than 
the original forests. One-half the southern portion of MoDuffle is 
covered with original forest of yellow pine, poplar, maple, and sweet 
and black gum, with a heavy undergrowth of bla^k and post oak. 
About 5 j}eT cent, of the northern half is covered with original forest 
of oaks, hickory, and black walnut. These forest are vaJueid at $40 to 
$50 per acre, and some lots of pine, converted into lumber and cord- 
wood, are known to have yielded as high as $100 per acre. JJaXbot, 
once heavily wooded, is now a very sparsely-timbered county; but| 
except for fencing and on the line of the railroad, timber lias no value. 
The original forest in Morgan was of beautiful oaks, hickory, and otlier 
hard woods. ^' This was.largely cut down and -lY^asted during the cotton 
mania.'' The abandoned fields are now covered with old-field pine in 
different stages of growth. Meriwetlier is reported as abounding in all 
kinds of timber, and the quantity constantly tncreasing, owing to title 
large area of old-field pines. Lincoln contains about 30,000 acres in 
forests of oaks, hickory, and pine ^ 5,000 in long-le«if pine, wortih $2 to 
$3 per acre, and 25,000. in daks and hickory, worth $3 to $7. In Mac- 
intosh, besides extensive swamps of cypress and white oak^ pine forests 
occupy 67 per cent, of the area, yielding an average of 1,000 feet of tim- 
ber for shipping, and 40 cords of wood per acre. On all the sea inlands, 
live-oak suitable for naval purposes is found. The yellow-pine forests in 
Montgomery are estimated, by an experienced lumberman, to yietd^ per 

18 A 



274 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

acre, 10 M of incrcbantable lumber, worth, iu tbe markets at Darieu and 
Brunawick, $7.50. to $15 per M ; and, in addition to this, a large quantity 
of smaller trees. It claims to be the best timbered in yellow pine of any 
region on the continent. In Bcibunj a mountainous county, the average 
market- value of the foresMands is placed at $2 per acre. The principal 
timbers are the oaks, pine, poplar, chestnut, black locust, and black 
walnut. Lumpkin reports 90 per cent, of its area iu forests of the same 
kinds, and ranging in price from 25 cents to $10 per acre. The best 
quality of sawed lumber, delivered at Dahlonega, is worth $12.50 to' $15 
per M. In Whitfield^ 75 per cent, of the area is covered with similar 
forests, (except that black walnut is not specified,) estimated to average 
in wood 200 cords p©r acre. Sawed lumber brings $10 to $12.50 per M; 
wood, standing, not more than two or three miles from town, 40 to 50 
cents per cord. From that point, the price recedes until it passes beyond 
the less than nothing point so far that owners will pay $10 per acre to 
have the forest removed. In Liberty^ 75 per cent, or more of the area is 
in forest, principally of pine. Pines are being cut and shipped to foreign 
markets ; also boxed for turpentine and rosin. Tiie latter business, com- 
menced within the year, promises to be enlarged. The cypress, white 
oak, live-oak, and other varieties of timber, with the old-field pines, make 
" timber enough to stand the pressure of civilization and population for 
five hundred years, if not for countless ages.''* In Pike^ the main forests 
are of pine, oh the mountains, running through the southern part, from por- 
tions of which as much as $50 per acre is realized for lumber taken off, 
besides leaving a smaller growth sufficient for fencing, &c. There are 
also many tracts heavily timbered with the finest white oak, hickory, pop- 
lar, gum, etc. The forests in Jefferson are chiefly of valuable pine, from 
which large quantities of lumber are shipped to domestic and foreign 
ports. Along the water-courses are forests ; white oak, hickory, cypress, 
elm, and poplar. On the uplands, in Troupj the forests are of oak and 
hickory, with some yellow- pine and poplar, averaging, in wood, 35 cords 
per acre. Sawed lumber, of poplar, sells at $20 per M ; of pine, $ 10 per M. 
The growth on the lowland is of white and willow oak, hickory, gum, and 
ash. Sawed oak is worth $15 per M ; gum, $30; ash, $25 ; wood, deliv- 
ered, $2.50 per cord. Randolph reports a large area in forest, princii)ally 
pine, oak, and hickory, used only for fuel and fencing. More than half 
the area of Franklin is in original forest, in which are large quantities 
of pine, poplar, hickory, and walnut, with a sprinkling of other kinds. 
One-half the area of Owinnett is covered with dense, original forest, of 
pitch-pine, oaks, and other timbers, and one third of the other half 
with old-field pine. The best pine-tracts yield 100 to 150 timber-trees 
per acre, which, when near enough to a saw-mill, sell at 50 to 75 cents 
per tree; and, after removing these, other timber is left which would be 
worth as much more if there were any market. Heard reports very ex- 
tensive forests of pine-timber ; almost valueless for the want of trans- 
porting facilities. Calhoun^ 110,000 acres in forest, mostly of pine, 
yielding, per acre, 20 M of lumber and 40 cords of wood ; but valueless 
from inaccessibility to market. In ,the forests of Upson, pine largely 
predominates in the northerB, and white oak, hickory, and poplar in the 
middle and southern portions, with almost every other kind interspersed. 
Sawed pine sells for $12.50 per M. Over half the area is in original 
forest, and not a foot of lumber of any kind shipped out of the county. 
About three-eighths of the surface of Taliaferro is in forest. To this 
is to be added the old-field pines, rich in resin, which,, in twenty years 

* Note. — ^Thia depends on the degree of civilization and the numbers of population. 



PLATE XXXVri. 



00. 




71.7 



BARTOW 
54.Z 



OOJ 



PICKEM 

7e.s 



"tOWMl 7 RABUH.' 



^e^l 



POLK 
5B.4 



/ 



5ej 



10 s^ 

I? 






I 30.1 r^ "**A OPSt 



30.1 

[UARRIS. 
29.2 



eSATAflD^HEE. 






.BALOMIN 






^ 



•TENART. 

3a7 



eui: 



e/.9 A ^ nAaTN /*V' 

- 93.0/ eaaX 






.1 



8 



CiUJ^OUN. 

GO.O 




DOOLY^ 



[071 EAPLY. 



BAKER. 



DECATUR. 
65.6 



lAMIN. 
00.0 



BERRIEN. 

coLQurrA ^^-^ 

72.9 



^^//\ ^''•^ 



THOMAS. 
648 



5 8».8 



SficHOL^ 
,27.9 



f*^ 



I I 



I 

i 



K>BB8T ARBA OF GEORGIA. 






ii-i, 



il 



STATISTICS OP FORESTRY. 



275 



from the time the old field was turued out, will yield 50 cords per 
acre. About one-third the area of HnncocJc is in forcsr, oue-half of 
which is in primitive oak, hickory, and long-leaf pine; the other half 
in second-growth short-leaf pine. The original forests yield, in woodj 
20 to 30 cords per. acre, wortli, in market, $2.o0 to $4 per cord. About 
20 per cent, of the area in Harris is in original forest, a mixture of all 
the prevailing kinds, and 40 per cent, in old-field pine. Pine sells for 
$10 per M ; oak and other deciduous timber is higher. Land yielding 
5 to 6 M per acre of good lumber sells at $1 to $8 per acre. As to 
lumber and water privileges, it is claimed that no county hae better ad- 
vantages for manufactories of all kinds. The estimated area in Ogle- 
thorpe is 8 to 10 per cent, in original forest, and 50 per cent, in old- 
field pine. The original forests include very valuable timber of different 
kinds, and are valued at an average of $20 per acre ; the second growth, 
at $5 to $10. Wilkes has but little original forest. Sawed pine, for 
home consumption, sells for $10 to $15 per M. Floyd reports 75 i>er 
cent, of its area in forest, averaging 40 cords, in wood, per acre ; mostly 
pine and oak. Near furnaces, towns, or railroads, standing wood is 
worth 10 cents per cord. The forests on lowlands are much heavier, 
averaging 100 cords per acre. Sixty varieties of wood have been found 
on one farm. Murray reports 80 per cent, of the area in native forest, 
containing a great variety of timber ; pine, poplar, and the oaks, includ- 
ing live-oak, being prominent. Bade returned for taxation in 1875 
25,119 acres in original forests of oak, hickory, elm, poplar, chestnut, 
and pine, with the usual sprinkling of other varieties. These lands, 
con{aiuiug iron, coal, and lime, as well as timber, are worth, in market, 
an average of $5 per acre. 



Coanties. 




AppUng 

liaker 

Baldwin 

Banks 

Barlow 

Berrien 

Bibb 

Brooks 

Bryan 

Bollock 

Bnrko 

Batts 

Colboan 

Camden 

CoDipboll 

Carroll 

Catoosa 

Charlton •- 

Chatbam 

Chattahoocbo 

Chatooga 

Cherokoo 

Clarko ....... 

Clay 

Clayton 

Clinch 

Cobb 

Cofllo 

Colquitt 

Columbia 

Coweta 

Crawford., i.. 

Dado 

Dawson 

Decatur 

DoKalb 

Dooly 



Donghei^py 



271,385 
69, 921 
2S,779 
85,677 

136, 322 

147, 685 
71, 851 

155, 198 

113,230 

41:2, 3S5 

159, 8:jo 
42, IGl 
84,255 

106, 773 
82,464 

104, 851 
48,922 
98, 109 
94, 412 
52, 55'i 
94, 837 

120, 676 
37, 648 
06,922 
30,775 

123, 618 
69, 780 

226,065 
fiO.766 
C5, 804 
94, 155 
66,521 
560 

103,263 

184, 342 
68, 800 

117, 725 
76,488 

116,954 



Per cent 



76.0 
50.5 

25.8 

74.9 
«u o 

65. ,6 
52.8 
71.7 
79.8 
91.3 
47.0 
36.6 
60.0 
80.2 
61.0 
58.9 
62.0 
8.9.0 
73.5 
43.9 
69.6 
69.3 
21.8 
50.5 
43.8 
91.8 
56.1 
95u0 
72.9 
29.4 
39.8 
43.0 
0.7 
78.7 
65.6 
43.3 
63.4 
42.2 
67.9 



Coanties. 



Per cent 



Echols 

Effingham . , 

Elbert 

Emanuel . . . 

Fannin 

Fayette — 

Floyd 

Forsyth 

Franklin ... 

Falton 

Gilmer 

Glaascock .. 

Glynn 

Gordon 

Greene 

Gwinnett... 
Uaborsbam. 

Hall 

Hancock ... 
Haralson . . . 

Harris 

Hart 

Heard 

Henry 

Houston — 

Irwin 

Jackson.... 

Jasper 

Jefterson . . . 
Johnson — 

Jones 

Laurens 

Leo 

Liberty .... 

Lincoln 

Lowndes ... 
Lumpkin . . . 

Macon 

Madison.... 




lG,03i 

174, 478 
53, 345 
41,&-1 
87, 513 
61,750 

150, 0.-r'a 
33,417 

108, 5<;6 

37,998 

250 

45, 142 

59, 403 

125, 884 
37, 54)6 

1]4,.')08 
19,887 

146, 582 
63, 625 
57,617 
87,251 
82, 446 

1 l.'i, 793 
98, M53 

130, 125 



102, 961 
4«, 712 

i:», .347 
48, 964 
54, 254 

247, 093 I 
82,385 ! 

358, TJ9 
30, 341 

204, 563 
74,325 
95, 093 
27,450 



27.9 
89.9 
26.2 

9.0 
81.8 
50.7 
63.1 
53.3 
59. 2 
55.2 

0.1 

77.3 
71.7 
20.6 
46.5 
46. B 
74.4 
2& 5 
58.6 
29.2 
68.6 
61.7 
48.2 
43.8 



48. 5 
19.4 
54.9 
69.4 
?.P. 4 
72.4 
50.0 
80.6 
22.2 
62.1 

7a 2 

50.6 
40.2 



27G 



REPOUT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGKlCULTUliK. 



Coiiritioa. 



Acrca. 



Per cent. 



Countic'8. 



Acres. 



Marion 

Maclutosh .. 
Jlodwothcr . 

Miller 

Milton 

Mitchell 

Monroe 

MontKomory 

Morgau 

Murray 

INtasGogeo . . . 

Newton 

Oglotliorpe . . 
ranlding.... 

Pickens 

Pierce 

Pike 

Polk 

Pulaski 

Putnam 

Quitman .... 

Kabnn 

Randolph ... 
Kichmond... 

Schley 

Secriven ... , 
Spalding .... 
Ste^cart ..... 



8.\ 4:»r) 


50.1 


r,i, ?,:\7 


09. 1 


►x5, Qri'i 


^5.1 


P.S, 270 


69. 5 


'.it*, 893 


52.7 


W, Gi)2 


5a 1 


f)4, C99 


20.7 


278, 187 


93.0 


i>(), 050 


17.1 


8J<. 939 


71.6 


44, 116 


36.3 


89,350 


41.2 


122, 505 


54.0 


C9, 524 


65.8 


91,471 


7a 3 


101, 243 


91.3 


7C, 957 


45.1 


50, 431 


56.4 


168,040 


61.6 


33,029 


17.5 


57; 341 


57. 2 


128,018 


88.2 


112,467 


5.'\9 


43,800 


54.0 


50,557 


4a 1 


197,512 


7a 6 


4,654 


7.2 


107, 649 


39.7 



Sumter 

Talbot 

Taliaferro... 

Tatuall 

Taylor 

Telfair 

Terrell 

Tbomaa 

Towns 

Troup , 

Twiggs 

Union 

TJpBon 

Walker 

"Walton 

Ware 

"Warren 

"Washington , 

"Wayne 

Wobstet.... 

"White 

Whitileld ... 

"Wilcox 

"Wilkes 

"Wilkinson .. 
"Worth 



Total. 



120,001 
82.846 
15, 170 

266, 096 

108, 928 

232,832 
78,605 

204,797 
36,220 
71,877 

113,574 

133,963 
53, 701 

114,772 
67, 318 

267, 093 
43,299 

275,632 
84, 916 
45,415 
77,438 
93,125 

113, 875 
39,452 
73,194 

107, 757 



12, 928, 081 



Per cent 



50.5 
3a 7 
15.4 
5a 3 
67.9 
9J.4 
56.8 
64.9 
57. a 
30.1 
44.5 
85.6 
51.1 
61. 3 
35.3 
97.7 
21.4 
60.9 
52.8 
47.3 
63.1 
67.6 
82.2 
117 
40.0 
7a 1 



"^ 



■■■T- 



Florida. — The timber-forests in Santa Rosa are mainly pine ; aver- 
age per acre 1 M, worth $8 to $10 per M. Forests of oak, cypress, 
gum, &c., border the rivers and creeks. In Orange, yellow and pitch 
pine are the only timber-trees, averaging 2J M of clear lumj^er per 
acre. Yellow pine of fine quality abounds on the uplands in La Fayette; 
on the hummocks, red cedar, hickory, cypress, etc. The county is about 
one hundred miles by forty, and one-third of the area heavily timbered 
hummock. Eed cedar and pine logs are now being cut and shipped to 
Cedar Keys. There are 100 acres in forests of hickory, oak, and other 
hard woods to 1 under cultivation. One-third of the forests in Liberty 
are of yellow pine, on high ground, and two-thirds are of the kinds 
growing on hummock, river, and swamp lands. There is at present no 
demand, and, consequently, no price for lumber. Kassau is a timber 
county, principally covered with yellow pine, averaging about 5 LJ per 
acEC, worth, in the stick, $8 to $10 per M, and sawed, $15 to $18. 
Jackson and Holmes report immense forests of pine and mixed timbers 
of great intrinsic but of scarcely any market value for the want of 
accessible markets. Forest-land in Jackson sells at $1.25 to $3 per 
acre. Futnam, with but*a small part cleared, is heavily timbered with 
like forests ; also Clay, in which 97 per cent, of the timbered land is 
pine, averaging, per acre, 1^ M of lumber, worth, standing, 25 cents per M, 
and 15 cords of wood, worth 1 cent per cord. The mixed forests include 
live-oak. Suicannee reports the yield at 60 M of sawed lumber, or 200 cords 
of wood. The prevailing kind in the mixture is long-leaf yellow pine. 
There are some fine groves of live-oak. In Madison, 25 per cent, of the area 
is covered with timber, of oak, hickory, &c., and 50 per centwith the best 
of pine. The land and timber can be bought at $1 to $5 per acre. 
Hamilton claims forests equal to any in the State. In Leon, 90 per cent, 
of the land suitable for cultivation has been cleared, but some fine for- 
ests of yellow pine-are left. 



PLATE XXXVIII. 



STATISTICS OP POKESTKY 



277 



Counties. 



Alocliua , 

liakcr , 

Bratlfoitl 

Brevaril 

(vulhonu 

Clay.., 

Columbia 

Duval , 

Eaconrbia .,-... 

Franklin 

Gadsden 

Hamilton 

Hernando ... 
HiUsbtfroagh 
Holmes... !r.. 

Jackson 

Jefferson 

La Fayette.. 

Leon 

Lory 



Acrci». ■ Per cent. 



Couutlca. 



14G, 

B, 
.TJ, 

IJ. 
7, 

17, 
97, 
87, 

2, 
135, 

32, 
21, 
10, 

81.. 
19; 

81, 

11. 



77G 
4j3 

302 

004 
084 
CS5 
376 
23G 
736 
218 
485 
9S2 
62G 
1G8 
C98 
634 
•311 
325 
359 



G2.3 
71.1 

57.8 

Gas 

40.4 

8:j.2 

74.4 

90iG 
85.2 
92.0 
G7.1 
59.7 
77.7 
77.6 
05.0 
3.7 
49.8 
73.5 
47.7 
6G.9 



Liberty . 
Madison . 
Manatco 
Marion . . 
Monroe.. 
Naasan.. 



Orange 



Polk 

Putnam 

Santa Kosa . 
Saint Johns 

Sumtor 

Suwannee . . 

Taylor 

Volusih. 

"Wakulla... 
Walton 



AVa&hiDj;^u . 



Total. 



Acri'd. i PiTctu*;. 



2G. 845 


84.3 


72, b'JO 


.05.2 


3. iifO 


'if.l 


175, S32 


54.8 


400 


Kt. I 


39. 4C0 


87. 7 


22, '218 


82.'4 


2H, 705 


65. 


30. 364 


75. 7 


4, 821 


73.2 


1, feU2 


10.1 


31,528 


G6.2 


35,453 


73.3 


10, '645 


74.8 


15, 390 


80.1 


35, 435 


70.9 


18,260 


C9.3 



1, 425, 7& 



C0.0 



Alabama. — About 17 per cent, of CalJioun is heavily timbered, prin- 
ciitolly with long-leaf pine, yielding 25 to 75'cords, in wdbd, per acre, 
worth, in the forest, 20 cents per cord. The nsaal Variety of oak and 
oftier^deciduous woods grow along the creeks. Be KoHh^has tery little 
pine, the fotests being a mixture of hard- wood -^rietiest The mountains 
and ridges are mostly covered with untouclfea original forests, though 
large quantities of chestnut-oak are being cut for the bark; about 33 per 
cent, of the area in the valleys is coVered with culled forest. Jackson 
estimates the products of forests at 50 cords per acre. The maxi- 
mum circumference of welhproportioned poplars is 45 fCet 5 feet 
from the ground. Blount reports over 400,000 acres in forest, 
averaging 1 M of lumber and 40 cords of wood per acre. Some acres 
would yield 20 M of Idmber and 100 cords of wood. The forests of Win- 
s^Uj abounding in almost all varieties of hard and soft timber, are val- 
ued at an average of $1.25 per acre. Franklin also has vast quantities 
of superior cedar and piufe timber, as well as all varieties of oak, 
etc., and chestnut, of little value at present. On the other hand, 
the second county north of Franklin, Lauderdale^ half covered 
with like forests, values the wood and timber bordering the Ten- 
nessee River, a highway to market, at $100 per acre. Several steam- 
mills in the pine forests are forking up lumber for shipment, in large 
quantities. The opinion tlmt, owing to rapid reproduction, the suppJy 
is inexhaustible, is enforced by the statement tfiat fands cut off thirty 
years ago are now covered with 'immense forei^ts of timber large enough 
for all practical purposes." About 90 per cent, of Randolph^ or 518,000 
acres, is in forests, heavily timbered with all th'e varieties common to the 
State, valued at $1 to $25 per acre. Vast quantities are annually rolled 
into heaps and burned. Clay estimates that abont 75 per cent, of the 
area is in forest, 50 per cent, of which is thickly timbered with oak, 
hickory, and poplar, while in some tracts pine is almost the exclusive 
growth. Maren/jo has much red cedar, worth, standing, at least $20 per 
acre. Along the Black Warrior Eiver are oak forests, yielding 50 cords 
per acre, but of little money-value at present. The southern half of 
Hale has only wood enough for its own supply, bu^ most of the northern 
half is btill covered with forests, chiefly of pine aitd oak. The average 
yield of forests in Qreene is placed at 15 cords per acre, worth, in the 
tree, 40 cents per cord. The swamps are timbered with oak of superior 
quality. Though there is easy access to Mobile, no flimber is. manufac- 
tured for market. In BuUotkj there are not less than 10,000 acres in 



278 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

swamps, stocked with a heavy growth of very valuable timber — ash, 
cypress, tall white oak, and hickory. The uplands are well timbereu 
with the usual varieties. Merchants and planing-mills pay at the rate 
of $2.25 per cord for timber, whieli is the price of wood. The swamps 
average 175 cords and the uplands 35 to 40 per acre, the average for the 
whole county being placed by mill men at 85. Among the forests arc 
tracts of excellent pine timber. It is claimed that the county ofi'ers 
strong inducements to manufactories which consume lumber, there 
being no lack of railroad facilities. Coffee is well supplied with all 
kinds of timber grown in the South. Pine forests, unsurpassed in quan- 
tity and quality, are now being cut, hewn into square logs, or sawed 
parallel, and rafted to Pensacola, where ah average of 15 cents per cubic 
foot is obtained. Barbour has tracts of pine-forests very heavily tim- 
bered, and extensive swamps covered with the usual varieties ; within 
an area around Clayton, having a radius of six miles, are over 25 saw- 
mills in successful operation. In the prairie portion of Perry, wood is 
comparatively scarce, and worth $4 per cord ; 50 per cent, of the remain- 
ing portion is covered with heavy primeval forests of mixed timbers. 
Pine-lumber sells at Marion at $25 per M, and wood at $2 to $3 per 
* cord, and yet $5 to $15 per acre is paid for removing the wood and tim- 
ber from land for cultivation. There are large tracts of pine-forests 
on public lands within fifteen to twenty miles of Marion, In Oonecuhj 
50 per cent, of the area, or 262,115 acres, is in forest. One-fourth of this 
is primeval, of which 60 per cent, is pine } another fourth is old-field 
pine. The pine is being extensively manufactured into square and 
sawed timber and rafted to Pensacola, where it brings 8 to 30 cents per 
cubic foot. The wood has no value except on the railroad, where it sells 
at $1.50 per cord. Timber-laud sells at $1 to $5 per acre. About 50 
per cent, of the area in Montgomery is covered with forests, in the south- 
ern part, of long-leaf pine, yielding per acre 5 M oi the fisst class of mer- 
chantable lumber. Swamps densely stocked with all the varieties com- 
mon in the South occupy 5 jyet cent, of the area. These timbered lands, 
averaging at least thirty good timber-trees per acre, some of them lying 
along the Mobile and Montgomery Railroad, can be bought at $3 to $8 
per acre. Covington is heavily timbered, the principal kind being pitch 
pine, very large and valuable. In the swamps and along the rivers are 
heavy forests of mixed timber. It is estimated that out of the 806,400 
acres, about 691,000 are in forests, yielding equal to the best. Lumber- 
ing in hewn and sawed timber, rafted down the rivers to Escambia H^y, 
for the European market, has been the principal business in the county 
for the last ten years. The quantity man^ifactured iu 1S75 is estimated 
at 1,908,000 cubic feet, valued at $190,000; which, owing to depression 
in demand and prices, was littlei more than half the quantity in 1873. 
About 75 per cent, of Crenshaw is covered with forests, principally long- 
leaf pine, which would be very valuable with means for getting it to 
market. There are extensive swamps and other tracts covered with 
heavy forests of mixed timber. The original forests have been mostly 
cut otT in Dallas. The second growth on old fields is of pine, sassafras, 
persimmon, honey-locust, etc. Tliere is no market value for forest, except 
near Selma, w^here standing wood is worth 50 cents per cord. In 
Lowndes, the lowlands and sandy uplands, the latter being 50 per cent, 
of the area, are well timbered with mixed forests. Some pine is sold for 
fuel along the railroad, and some oak transported to the sea-coast for 
shix)-building. With these exceptions, the forests have little market- 
value. Lands iu forest are worth $5 to $20 per acre. The north sec- 
tion of Butler was originally densely timbered with oak and hickory, and 
though much has been cleared olT, an abundance is left ; white oaks 



PLATE XXXIX, 




Alabama. 



t^s 



STATISTICS OP FOBESTRY. 



279 



and poplars 5 to 6 feet in diameter. The south half is principally a pine 
forest, and abounds in saw-mills. Many spars are cut, some 80 feet in 
length. Standing trees, suitable for these, sell at $5 to $10 each. 
Square-hewn cedar, delivered at the railroad, sells at 30 cents per cubic 
foot ; white oak and pine, 15 cents. Nearly 80 per cent, of the area of 
Choctato is covered with long-leaf and short- leaf yellow pine, with nearly 
alivarietiesofoak and gum, some walnut, and large quantities of cypress. 
^' These forests, vast in area and quantity, would be of immense value 
with capital and enterprise to develop thetfi." Clarke^ boundad by navi- 
gable water on all sides except the northeast, abounds with many 
kinds of valuable timber, such as cypress, cedar, white oak, hickory, 
and, exceeding all, yellow pine, unsurpassed in value. All kinds sell 
at low rates. Marion reports 660,000 acres of land, of which about 
200,000 have been purchased from the Government, and 76,000 acres 
cleared. The most valuable kinds are pine, oak, and chestnut. Timber 
is of scarcely any value, not being exported in any form. 



Counties. 



Antanga 

Baker i 

Baldwin 

Barbom* 

Bibb 

Blonnt 

BoUock 

Butler 

Calhoun 

Chambers 

Oheirokee 

Choctaw 

Clarke 

Clay 

Clebumo 

Coffee 

Colbert 

Coneb uh 

Coosa ....A 

Covington 

Crenshaw 

Dale 

Dallaa 

DeKftlb 

Elmore 

Escambia 

Etowah 

Fayetto 

Franklin 

Geneva 

Greene 

Hale 

Henry 

cTackson 



Acrea. 


Per cent 


139, to3 


sas 


108,578 


72.8 


T7,487 


93.1 


76,361 


19.0 


63,931 


60.1 


93,652 


38.4 


117,423 


41.5 


112,385 


55.8 


125,071 


59.1 


128, 314 


39.0 


117,983 


63.6 


220,329 


71.9 


310,898 


83.4 


121,856 


76.4 


117,855 


71.9 


80,199 


4a 1 


108,875 


59.2 


56,977 


51.0 


199,799 


73.9 


65,203 


81.9 


131, 262 


63.8 


163,156 


65.2 


193, 366 


46.0 


67,457 


59.5 


233,684 


74.6 


49,222 


86.0 


124, 545 


75.1 


221, 489 


84.3 


169, 902 


79.7 


81, 899 


86.5 


109,650 


44.7 


142,083 


45.8 


211, 183 


65.0 


179, 640 


66.9 



Counties. 




Jefferson 

LauderdaJe... 
Lawrence .... 

Lee 

Limestone.... 

Lowndes 

Macon 

Madison 

Marengo 

Marion 

Marshall 

Mobile 

Monroo 

Montgomery . 

Morgan 

Perry 

Pickens 

Pike 

Randolph 

Kusaeir. 

Sanford 

Shelby 

Saint Clhir... 

Sumter 

Talladega ...» 
Tallapoosa . . . 
Tuscaloosa ... 

Walker 

Washington.. 

Wilcox 

Winston 

Total.... 



186,813 

157, 143 

24,528 

105.122 

116,165 

105,699 

116,379 

100,390 

176, 197 

34,734 

75,593 

94,2OT 

224,282 

90,692 

79,896 

82,186 

199. 525 

902,379 

184,2^ 

93,934 

224,381 

138, 544 

72,010 

138, 424 

118,821 

155. 551 

238,371 

75 

40, 315 

178,325 

103, 936 



8,380,332 



Peroont 



73.4 
6L8 
7.9 
35.0 
48.7 
37.7 
47.1 
40.3 
47.7 
30.1 
55.8 
85.9 
7a 6 
23.2 
32.4 
3a 6 
72.9 
64.9 
73.4 
33.9 
81.8 
70.5 
52.7 

4a 7 
sai 

56.7 
74.0 



to 
1 
8&3 



66.0 



Mississippi. — In Clarice, the forests are principally of pines and oaks. 
Carroll reports 80 per cent, of the area uncleared. On the hilMands 
are principally oaks, pine, and hickory, while the dense forests of very 
large and tall trees on the Yazoo and Big Black Rivers have also large 
quantities of gum, poplar, and cypress. In Warren^ forest-lands in the 
valleys of the Mississippi, Yazoo, and Big Black Eivers are valued at 
$10 per acre. The forests in Ferry are mostly on the uplands, and of 
pitch and yellow pine. Pine-timber is being cut and rafted to mills on 
the coast, where it sells at $5 to $6 per M feet, and is mostly shipped to 
foreign ports. Forest-lands sell at 50 to 75 cents per acre. Jones is 
reported as "one dense forest of pine, except on the small streams, 
where oak, liickory, and gum abound.'' The pine forests average 12 M 
per acre, worth $6 per M at the mill. Four-fifths of the pine-lands are 
public. In the center of Wilkinson there are about 130,000 acres in 
forest, called " the pine woods," the larger part being long-leaf yellow 



280 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

pine, but abounding also iu sliort-leaf x>iQO and oaks. Much of this 
belongs still to the United States. It yields from 100 to 400 cords per 
acre, and can be bought for $1.25 to $8 per acre. There are 70,000 acres 
in swamp forests of mixed timber, yielding 50 to 300 cords per acre, 
and selling at $5 to $50 per acre. In addition, there is a belt of forest 
across the soathem end of the county, about 211,000 acres, made up of 
all varieties of trees known to the climate, including six of magnolia. 
Much of the timber is represented as unsurpassed in magnitude and per- 
fection, yielding 100 to 500 cords per acre^and selling at-$2 to $25 per acre. 
" Land uncultivated, but protected for a few years, becomes covered with a 
dense, rapid growth of timber of many kinds.'' In Lauderdale^ 80 per cent, 
of the area is estimated as in forest. Four-fifths of this is in pine. Within 
two miles of the railroad, standing wood is worth 50 to 75 cents per cord ; 
farther back, it is of no value. Nearly one-third the area of Holmes is 
covered with heavy swamp forests. Some lots of cypress of 5 to 10 acres 
yield 100 to 500 M of lumber, worth $23 to $30 per M. These forests ^ell 
for $6 to 10 per acre. In Jefferson^ the forests are of mixed timber, and at 
present have little or no money value. Timber grows with such thrift 
that old fields, fenced in, will, in ten ye£b^, be retimbered for all farming 
purposes. Le Flore reports 80 per cent, of its area in native forests of 
mixed timber,* averaging 40 cords per acre. Ranlcin reports 75 per cent, 
iu wood, amounting to about 450,000 acres, heavily tiipbered. The 
leading variety is pine, large tracts of which, still owned by the Gov- 
ernment, yield 10 to 25 M of lumber per acre. In De Soto, the forests 
on the bottom-lands yield 50, and on the hills 35, cords of wood per acre, 
worth on- the railroad $3 per cord. White oak and hickory timber are 
found in large quantities. Bolivar is reported as one dense forest, with 
a few clearings, including immense quantities of cypress, Cottonwood, 
ash, the gums, and all the oaks, except live-oak. About 80 per cent, 
of the area of Washington is yet covered with a dense growth, chiefly 
of hard woods and cypress. The trees are from 3 to 5 feet in diameter. 
Gum-trees predominate. The average yield is 65 to 70 cords per acre. 
In Winstmij the forests on the ridges are mostly of pine, oak, and chest- 
nut ; on the bottoms, gums, beech, and maple. Timbered land yields 20 
to 30 cords, and sells at 50 cents to $3 per acre. Owners often give the 
timber for clearing it off*. In Yalahuslia, forests on the hills yield 25 to 
30, and on bottoms 35 to 40 cords per acre ; in the eastern section, they 
are chiefly of pine. Wood over two miles from the railroad will not pay 
for hauling. The best forests in Keniper yield 50 to 100 cords per acre. 
They are not utilized, except for home use and for wood along the line of 
thiB railroad, where it sells at $2 per cord^ The usual varieties of forest 
timber are abundant in Oreene^ large amounts of which are being cut and 
rafted down the Pascagoula River. Jaclcson reports that 90 per cent, 
of the area is timbered with pitch-pine, averaging about GO trees, equal 
to 36 M of lumber per acre. Forest-lands sell at $1 to $5 per acre, ac- 
cording to location. The forests in Pilce are mixed, yielding 40 to 60 
cords per acre, worth, standing, $1.25, or $2.50 to $3 delivered. In La 
Fayette the hills are covered with oaks, some chestnut and hickory being 
interspersed, averaging about 30 cords pel* acre. The bottom-lands, 
estimated to yield 100 cords per acre, are timbered with magnificent 
white oak, gum, and hickory, with occasional cypress brakes. Growth 
i& so rapid that forests cut oft* will be restored in twenty years. " The 
cost of transportation prevents export, and though there is plenty 
of the best of timber for manufacturing wagons, farming-utensils, &c., 
all these are now imported from the West." In Grenada, a large portion 
of the valley of the Yalabusha, twenty-five miles long, and varying from 



PLATE XL. 




Mississippi 



/v'w^ 



STATISTICS OF FORESTRY. 



281 



three-fourths to one-half mile in width, is covered with thieklj'-set timber 
and large-sized oaks, poplar, hickory, and white gum, with some long- 
leaf pine ; another valley, about fifteen miles long and from one-half to 
one mile wide, is covered with like forests. These lands command $8 
to $10 per acre. All other parts of the county are abundantly supplied 
with timber and wood for home use. Lowndes is divided nearly in the 
middle by the Tombfgbee. About 20 per cent, of the area on the west is 
covered with hard- wood timbers, yielding 150 cords per acre ) about 50 
per cent, on the east with pine, oak, hickory, walnut, elm, and cypress, 
yielding 100 cords per acre. Pine and cypress lumber are worth $15 per 
M. Hancock reports that nearly the whole area is one immense forest, 
including 210,000 acres in pitch'pine and 11,000 acres in oak. The pine 
averages 4^ M of lumber, or 200 cords of wood, per acre ) the oak, 85 
cords of wood, "or 25 to 60 large live-oak knees." The pine-land is 
worth, for cord- wood, $C, or, for charcoal, $5, per acrej the oak, for ship- 
timber, $75 to $250 per acre. In Smithy the forests — a mixture of pine 
and the usual varieties of hard wood=— arverage 25 cords per acre. The 
forests are also mixed in LeCy where the best pine-lumber sells for $10 
per M. Walnut and cherry are higher. Forest-lands sell at $1 to $10 
per acre, accorcUng to quality of soil, that being the chief consideration. 
In Netcton^ about 50 per cent, of the timber is pine, 25 per cent, of the 
area being covered with dense forests of yellow pine of superior quality. 
l*he value is merely nominal. It is estimated that the pine and sweet-gum 
in the county, converted into lumber, would supply the city of New York 
for several years. Tunica claims, at least, 50,000 acres of cypress. Near 
the Mississippi Cottonwood predominates, yielding 50 to 200 cords per 
acre. Hickory, tvalnut, oak, and coflfee-bean are among the other varie- 
ties, all now valueless, for the want o£ enterprising capital. In Adams^ 
an old county, only about 10 per cent, of the area remains in forest, and 
from that the' best timber has been cut. 



.Counties. 



Acres. 



A<lamB 

AlcOrn 

Amite. ^.... 

Attala 

Bolivar 

Calhoun «. . . . 

Carroll 

Chickasaw . 
Choctaw .'.. 
Claiborne .. 

Clark 

Coahoma . . . 

Copiah 

Covington . . 
DeSoto .... 
Franklin . . . 

Greeuo 

Grenada 

Hancock ... 
Harrison . . . 

Hinds 

Holmes 

Issaquena . . 
Itawamba . . 

Jackson 

Jasper 

Jenerson . . . 

Jones 

Kemper 

La Fajetto . 
Landerdalo. 
Lawrence .. 

Leake 

Lee 



107, 093 

9ri, 447 
21S, 181 
117, 941 

67,583 
178,590 
233,^ 
163,977 
2(>5, 485 
100, 65p 

31,458 

58,026 
2--J2, 419 

94, 919 
209, 933 
155, 531 

53,234 

115, 095 

10 

3.213 

168, 470 

143, 257 

42,68& 
154, 982 

51, 758 
161, 669 
113, 038 

75,935 
141,850 
245, 674 

72,420 
101,625 
116,373 
143, 913 



Per cent 



34.4 

65.2 I 

71.1 

39.1 

63.0 

70.7 

62.3 

61.8 

75.3 

37.7 

66.3 

64.1 

64.6 

81.4 

50.0 

71.2 

92.1 

66.0 



74.9 
45.3 

sao 

53.3 
63.8 
96.8 
68.1 
51.6 
62.8 
71.3 
70.1 
62.0 
72.7 
66.6 

61.6 y 



Counties. 



Lincoln 

Lowndes 

Madison 

Marion 

Marshall .... 

Monroe 

Neshoba 

Kewton .'.... 

Noxubee 

Oktibbeha... 

Panola 

Perry 

Pike 

Pontotoc .... 

Prentiss 

Kankin 

Scott 

Simpson 

Smith 

Sunflower . . . 
Tallahatchoe 

Tippah 

Tishomingo . 

Tunica 

Warren 

Washington. 

Wayne 

Wilkinson... 

Winston 

Yalabnsha .. 
Yazoo 

Total... 



Acres. 



127, 035 
119, 206 
162, 232 

80)220 
234,371 
152, 915 
159.616 
145, 093 
143, 999 

90,973 

152,668 

6,308 

13,407 
161, 986 
105, 624 
174, 616 
106, 484 

77,875 
103,233 

81, 455 
107,394 
244,206 
129,860 

49,906 
109, 528 
118,318 

3;],768 
110, 120 
128,319 
101> 778 
209, 438 



Per cent 



75. 9 
44.1 
4.1.1 
70.7 
62.2 
55.3 
82.1 

47.1 
49.8 
56.4 
8.1 
22.5 
68.5 
69.3 
75.4 
70.9 
75.3 
76.7 
71. G 
70. G 
59.1 
78.7 
73.1 
40.4 
50.0 
73.3 
5C. 8 
76. 2 
63.7 
GO. 6 



7, II59, 3S4 



60.6 



282 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

Louisiana. — Large portions of the pari^esof West Baton Rouge, Iber- 
ville, Assumption, La Fourche, Terre Bonne, Saint Mary's, Iberia, Saint 
Martin, and Saint Landry constitute wbat is known as the great cypress 
swamp. It is all below the high-water line of the Mississippi River, 
protected from overflow by levees. In the inundation of 1874 the high 
est lands in it were 4 feet, while the tide- water lands were 14 feet under 
water. It is estimated that if these timber-lands, now comparatively 
vQilueless, could be protected by sufficient levees, enough land would 
be redeemed to make 1,000 sugar-plantations, each capable of producing 
annually crops averaging in value $10,000, or a total of $10,000,000. 
The eastern part of Iberiu is covered with a thick growth of cypress of 
the iiuest quality, with live oak and other swamp varieties Intermingled. 
On the margins of all the streams are heavy growths of hard- wood tim- 
ber, including live and water oak. In the swamps of Saint Mary^Sy the 
cypress trees are very dose, and grow to the height of 80 or 90 feet, pro- 
ducing three hundred dollars' Woi^th of lumber to the acre. Othei^ swamp 
varieties, including live-oak, are interspersed. The forests on the high 
lands are of sweet- gum, hickory, liveoak and other oaks. In Conco^diaj 
cypress-timber is worth $8 per M in the log, or $20 sawed. Large quan- 
tities of Cottonwood are being cut and sold to the steamboats, at $1.50 
to $2 on the river bank. There is also a heavy growth of ash, which 
sells, delivered, at $2 to $2.50 per cord. Bed River is heavily timbered; 
on the uplands with pine and oaks, on the lowlands with cypress, ash, 
and Cottonwood. Cypress-lumber sells at $20 per M ; pine, at $15 ] ash- 
wood, on the river bank, at $2 per cord. In Madison^ the forests are all 
on the lowest lands. They are heavily timbered with ash, hackb^rry, and 
gum, with brakes or swamps of cypress. They are not valued above 
$2 per acre. The forests in Carroll are of the same character, and not 
utilized at present except for fire- wood, though the timber is of great 
intrinsic value. There are in FraJiJcUn 450,000 acres in forests, averaging 
40 cords per acre. They include all varieties of oak, except live oak, 
ash, hickory, gum, pecan, and short-leaf pine. Owing to lack of trans- 
portation, both timber and wood are only of nominal value. Avoyelles 
contains about 300,000 acres of forest, in which the oaks, except live- 
oak, prevail ; about 100,000 acres in cypress, 50,000 in magnolia, and 
as many more in hickory. Cypress-lands sell at $2 to $25 per acre. 
Ea^t Baton Rouge reports that 75 per cent, of the area is in forest. The 
bottoms are timbered with the usual swamp varieties ; the uplands, with 
magnolia, sweet bay, black walnut, the oaks, etc. ; and the sandy lands, 
in the northeast, with pine. Morehouse reports 402,963 acres in forest 
of which 11,700 are in cypress, worth $"12 per acre ; 130,000 in pine, $15 
per acre, and about 33,000 in oak, $10 per acre. The remainder, suit- 
able for wood only, averages 22 cords per acre. The northern half of 
Bienville is densely covered with forests of pine, mixed with oak and 
other hard-wood timbers. In the southern half, the forests are almost 
exclusively of long-leaf pine. The only forests in Cameron are a few 
islands of live oak and some tracts of pine and cypress in the northern 
part. In Caddo, the forests are of oaks and yellow pine, and valued at 
$5 per acre. East Feliciana reports 75 per cent, of its area in forests of 
pine and oak, with other varieties intermixed. The estimated yield is 
100 to 150 cords per acre. The forests in JacJcson yield all the common 
varieties of timber, excellent in quality, but of little available value, for 
want of market. 



PLATE XLI. 




i 



< 
< 

CO 

D 
O 
h4 



I 

I 



u 



V 



STATJajICi? PP POPESTRY. 



283 



\ 

Coontios. 

# 

. » 

Ascension 

JLssurcptlon 

Avoyelles 

Bienville 

Bossier 

Caddo 

Calcasieu ' 

Caldwell 

Cameron 

Carroll 

Catahoula 

Claiborne 

Con cordia 

DeSoto 

East Baton Kongo 

East Feliciana 

Franklin 

Grant 

Iberia 

Iberville 

Jackson 

Jefferson 

La Fayette 

La Foareho 

Livingstone 

Madison 

Morehouse 

ISfatchitoches 



Acres. 



40,718 

52,854 

• 67,952 

180,274 

114, 579 

86,647 

9,247 

61,295 

8,538 

71, 815 

128,772 

323,256 

137,663 

206,445 

100,084 

•84,765 

43,586 

36,409 

25,324 

40,755 

143,105 

12,434 

11,732 

60,390 

72,342 

39,695 

82,559^ 

187,107 



Percent 



50.3 
56.0 
54.8 
74.3 
59.4 
4a 
55.5 
79.0 
72.0 
54.5 
71.0 
71.0 
61. 2 
65.2 
64.7 
46.5 
60.4 
54.1 
31.3 
23.0 
75.8 
16.1 
10.2 
53.2 
63.7 
45.1 
G^.l 
G6.2 



Counties. 

\ [^ 

Orleans 

Ouchita 

Plaquemines 

Point Coupee 

Bapides 

Richland 

Sabine 

Saint Bernard 

Saint Charles 

Saint Helena 

Saint James 

Saint John the Baptist 

Saint Landry 

Saint Mar tin 

Saint Mary's 

Saint Tamman^ 

Tangipahoa 

Tensas 

Terre Bonne 

Union 

Vermillion 

Washinfrton 

West Baton Bouge 

West Feliciana 

Winn 

Total 



Acres. 



3,120 
70,880 
15, 813 
48,556 

145,913 
66,026 
51, 214 
10, 591 
16, 734 

115, 810 
59, 762 
23,274 

141, 449 
32,646 
61,890 
22,083 
90,769 

132,721 
64,913 

165, 616 
3,758 
71,404 
25,369 
62,637 
69,881 



4, 003, 170 



Pcrcei 



21.5 
6U.3 
11.7 
39.2 
64.5 
79.2 
75.0 
34.3 
44.0 
76.6 
57.3 
44.9 
45.2 
31.2 
47.8 
91.7 
82.7 
56.6 
49.7 
6^8 
' 6.3 
85.9 
45.8 
51.8 
74.9 



56.9 



Texas. — The honey mesquite {Algarolia glunduhsa) holds a very 
prominent place in the forest-growth of Texas. This is a short, spread- 
ing tree, shaped like an apple-tree, varying in size* from a small shrub 
to a trunk 18 inches in diameter, It is of the leguminous family, bear- 
ing pods which are "about 9 or 10 inches long, and contain about a 
dozen beans, surrounded by a sweet pulp, as in the honey locust. Both 
food and pulp are eaten by the Indians, and often by white men j but 
they are useful chiefly as food for horses.'^ It is reported that fences 
made of this timber, in Southern Texas, '^have been- known to st^nd in 
a perfect state of preservation more Jhan fifty years.'' It is allied to 
llgnum-vltWy and resembles it in hardness and durability. It produces 
a gum resembling, or equivalent to, gum arable. It is said also to have 
vaUie for tanning purposes. Next to mesquite, if not before it, in extent, 
are the oaks, in all varieties. Intermingled with these are the walnut 
family, ash, elm, and other deciduous trees indigenous to oak-producing 
soils." The hois d^arc, or osage orange, is found in large quantities, and 
in some sections pine, cedar, and cottonwood. Jasper reports its area 
eighty miles by twenty-five, and " one unbroken forest, except where 
farms are fenced. There are multiplied thousands of acres of pine 
forests, as fine, perhaps, as can be found on the continent, but at pres- 
ent of a mere nominal market-value." These forest-lands, yielding all 
varieties of timber known to the climate, sell at $1 to §5 per acre. 
Kaufman is well timbered. The forests include cedar and a large area 
of osage orange, which sells at $10 per acre; other timber lands, at S2 
to S5. Hardin returns 07 per cent, of the area covered with a dense 
forest of pines, ranging from 1 to 3 feet in diameter and 60 to 100 in 
height. There are also forests of white oak, magnolia, hickory, and 
other hard woods. Forest-tracts of any size can be bought for $1 per 
acre. Houston reports 192,000 acres of good pine-forest, worth an aver- 
age of $1 per acre ; 128,000 acres in oaks, $2 per acre ; and about 192,000 
acres of mixed timber. About one-third the area of Bandera is covered 
with mesquite shrubs, yielding 2 cords of wood per acre; another third, 
in the mountain valleys, with the usual forest-timbers, worth $2 per 
acre. Gillespie reports about 07 per cent, of the area yet in forest, yield- 



284 REPORT/ OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

• 

ing 30 cords per acre. The oaks are most prominent. K^r reports that 
'* in this mountain region the growth of forest -trees generally is rapidly 
increasing, owing to the fact that fires, which formerly were of almost 
annual occurrence, have of late years ceased, in consequence ot the in- 
crease in stock'cattle, horses, and sheep, which, running at large, lieep 
the grass edten off short." The whole area of Tyler^ except the small 
part cultivated, is heavily timbered with Very large trees, including pine 
and the oaks. No demand for lumber or wood beyond home use. Na- 
cogdoches is reported as one of the best timbered counties in Eastern 
Texas; but forests ^of pine and other valuable timbers sell at $2 to $5 
per acre. About 33 per cent, of Bandera is timbered. Live-oaks and 
the other oaks are most prominent. At the heads of the streams are 
large brakes of cedar* and, along the banks, cypress. Austin reports 
that, owing to the Immense waste of timber caused by the system of 
fencing, there is alrea(ly a scarcity, and consequently the price of tim- 
ber lands is rising. The minimum is $5 per acre, but in some* sections 
it ranges from $25 to $40. Only 20 per cent, of WilUumson is timbered, 
the remainder being prairie. In the western section is a large area of 
mountain cedar, and on the streams large tracts of cottonwood, oak, 
black walnut, etc. Timbered land sells at about $10 per acre j prai- 
rie, at $3 to $10, according to degree of improvement. In Bexar, 
nearly all the timber Valuable for building and for rails is used 
up. Cedar-land is worth $10 to $12 pey acre, and rails $4 per 
hundred in the brake. On ffrairies which have not been burned oyer 
for several years, a thick growth of mesquite is thriving, and promising 
a supply of posts and rails in a few yeans. About 67 per cent, of the 
area of Burleson is in forests of hard wood, yielding 75 to 100 cords per 
acre. Until within a few years, hogs have been reared and fattened on 
acorns and slaughtered in the woods, " grown to the weight of 200 to 
300 pounds, without trouble to their owners beyond ear-marking, and 
without any feed grown by man's labor." Btit frosts in March have 
killed the acorns for several years, making it necessary to raise pork on 
corn. Tit2i8 reports 80 per cent.*of the area well timbered, and G7 per 
cent, lieavili-i— mainly with oaks and other hard woods. The average 
yield is 35 cords, and the value of the forest-land $3 per acre. In Bur- 
net tlio mountain-cedar is the most valuable timber. A cedar-brake, 
well timbered, soils at $13 per acre; good postoak forest sells at $5 to 
$10. EusJc is heavily timbered \vith pine, the oaks, hickory, etc. Many 
mills are furnishing "lumber at the mill at $12.50 per M., and shingles 
at $3 per M. Forost-lauds sell at $5 to $10 per acre. When cleared, the 
soil produces good corn, cotton, oats, rye, and all kinds of fruit. Qoliad 
is well diversitied with timber-laud and prairie. Among the most val- 
uable kinds are live and other oaks, pecan, elm, and ash. HendersonA^ 
poorly timbered, except in the swamps and river-bottoms. The pine is 
about all cut off. Folk reports about 07 per cent, of the area covered 
with forests of the finest timbers known in the South. Pine pre- 
dominates largely, but oaks of all varieties abound. Timber as yet is 
of no market-value. Mills are too scarce to supply the home demand. 
The average yield, at the lowest estimate, is 200 cords per acre. In 
sections of i?a^f>'r)p cedar is abundant; rails sell at $5 to $6 per hiln- 
dred. Ot* the vast forests of pine, all that is suitable for lumber has 
been sawed up, and forests of young pitie are now growing. Pine-lum- 
ber sells at $25 to $30 per M. "Millions of acres" of post-oak are 
reported, yielding 10 to 20 cords per acre. But though ome of the best 
timbered counties iu Western Texas, the forests are of little value, 
owing to lack of transportation. About 25 i)er cent, of the area of 



STATISTICS OF FORESTEY. 285 

Kendall is iu forests. Lauds covered with live-oak, or l)lack-jack, sell 
at $1.50 per acre ; post-oak of cedar, $2 i>er acre. Post-oak rails, 9 
feet loDg, sell at $4 per 100 j cedar, 8Q^ Pecan-forests are reserved 
for the fruit. TTpshur reports that pitto constitutes one-half iXs forest- 
growth, covering an area of 256,000 acres ; sells at $2.50 to $5 per acre. 
Some of it averages 300 cords per acre. Wood, at the railroad, sells for 
$2.50 per cord, but most of the pine is sawed into lumber and shipped 
by rail to the prairie country. White oak is the next most valuable 
variety, and covers an area of about 64,000 a<5res. Large quantities of 
pine and oak are found in all parts of CheroJcee. The pine, sawed into 
lumber, is sbippeii by rail to the western counties, and the tops are 
converted into charcoal, used in smelting iron-ore, with which the county 
abounds. Several wagon-shops in the CQunty make a market for the 
oak. Not the least important is the mast which the immense forests of 
oak, of different varieties, furnish for fattening swine. Eed Biverj be- 
tween Red and Sulphur Kivers, is thirty miles wide. The middle belt, 
ten miles wide, is prairie, with timber-b^ts of the same width on each 
side. The mixed forests include the whole family of oaks, cotton wood, 
os^ge-orange, hickory, pine, etc. Seven or eight ^team saw-mills are 
supplying western counties with lumber. The osage-orange, very val- 
uable for carriage manufacture, is of large and rapid growth. The bot- 
toms are very heavily timbered. The average value of forest-lands is 
$3 per acre. About 75 per cent, of the area.of Harrison is in wild hand, 
all timbered. The oaks and hickory are found in all parts and pine in 
most. Dense forests of burr and white oak cover large tracts alpng the 
Sabine. Farmers along the Texas and Pacific Bailroad are selling 
standing wood at 75 cents per cord, which contractors sell to the rail- 
road at $2.50. In the southwest section are immense forests of pine, 
which steam saw-mills are now working up. The lumber sells at $15 
to $20 per M. The railroad company has extensive machine-shops at 
the county-seat, and have their lumber for freight-cars and coach-cars 
sawed at the adjacent mills. In Smith, there is a good supply of hard- 
wood forests, and pine is abundant in some sections. The p;rice per 
acre ranges from 60 cents to $5. The principal growths in Angelina are 
long and short leaf pine, all varieties of oak, and sweet and black gum. ^ 
On the bottoms, among other varieties, black walnut abounds^ also,* 
mulberry and magnolia. Forest-land, producing pine in quantity and 
quality equj^l to any in the country, is reported at 50 cents to, $1.50 per 
acre, with plenty of water-power at hand, and scarcely any expense for 
roads far hauling. About 67 per cent, of the aresi of Atascosa is covered 
with hard- wood forests, among which live and other oaks are most 
prominent. Fannin reports 211,000 acres of forest land^ of which 
76,800 acres are near Eed Biver, the upland being covered with post- 
oak, and the bottoms with red oak, black walDut, hickory, £yid ash. 
Among the varieties adjacent to the smaller streams is abundant osage- 
orange, very valualde for both timber and fruit, the boards briuging 
$50 to $70 per M. The average value of timber-land is $3.25 per acre, 
yielding probabjy on an average 20 cords per acre. Timber on the |;>lack 
lands is increasing. Some places that were prairie twenty years ago 
are now covered with a growth of hybberry, elm, and osage orange 6 
to 10 inches in diameter. The only timber of any special value in Nuecps 
is the mesquite. It is spreading and growing rapidly. A large ter4- 
tory, open a few years ago, is now a dense forest pf mesquite. Hunt is 
a prairie coubty, ^rgely dependent on eastern counties for buildiqg sTud 
fencing material. The oi^y ^uabje tiqjxyr i| the ({sagoxgrauge, ski|;t- 
ing the streams. Bosque has 'timber in great abundancc'^nd variety. 



286 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 

Tbo burr-oak, red and black cedar, and'walDnt are tbe.most valiiabJc, 
followed by the other oaks, black and white ash, pecan, etc. Wood and 
timber are increasing all over the prairies, wherever the grass has been 
kept down so as to prevent fires. Our correspondent says : *• In 1857 
I bought G40 acres of prairie land in this county. Grass was growing 
all over it as high as my shoulders, with a few scattering live-oak^ 
To-day all the land not in cultivation is heavily, set with trees." Llano 
reports G7 per cent, of the area well timbered with oak, elm, walnut, 
pecan, and, on the mountains, cedar. About 33 per cent, of Coryell is 
covered with similar woods, cedar excepted. Average value of tim- 
bered lands, §5 per acre. The timber is only fit for fence-rails and 
frames. Falls returns about 288,000 acres of timbered land, of which 
80,000 are of postoak, worth $2 to 85 per acre } 12,800 in hickory, $3 
to $6 ; as much more in cedar, worth $10 per acre for the timber alone ; 
and 32,000 acres in mesqnite, $1 to $2.50 per acre. Bottom-lands, of 
superior value, with elm, ash, and cottonwood, $10 to $20 i)er acre. 
About 50 per cent, of the lands in Fayette are covered with the pre- 
vailing kinds of hard woods, and valued at 50 cents to $8 per acre. 
The average price of wood, $3 per cord. The forest-area in Orayson is 
estimated at 102,000 acres, the best portions yielding not less than 100 
cords per acre. Among the more valuable varieties are black walnut 
and osage oiange. Timber, which was on the increase previous to the 
advent of railroads is now on the decrease. About one-fourth of the 
lands in EavarrOj or 100,000 acres, is wooded, at the rate of 25 cords 
per acre ; and the average value $6.50 per acre. Some lands timbered 
with cedar command $20 per acre. Among the various hard woods in 
Victoria are the honey -locust, osage orange, and six varieties of oak. 
There is a large per cent, of the pecan, which is a source of considerable 
revenue. The bottom-land forests yield 40 cords per acre ; the upland, 
20. The Waxahatchie, or Wadatchie, is spreading rapidly over the 
prairies, and afibrds good fuel. The mesquite is also gaining'a foot-hold 
since the fires have been stopped. This wood receives a high degree of 
polish, and is the best hub-timber known. It does not shrink, and a 
band put on it in a perfectly green state will remain in the same position 
for years. About 25 per cent, of the area of Washington is in timber, 
principally the oaks and ash. In sections of the county are quantities 
of live-oak. The cedar-timber was soon used up by saw-mills, and pine 
is all imported from Eastern Texas. Cooke reports fully one-third of its 
area, or about 150,000 acres, in forest, principally of the oaks, pecan, 
elm, and cottonwood. Forests of oak, ash, elm, and hickory cover 
about 25 per cent, of the lands in Fort BcncL " The great storm of 
September last blew down more than half of the timber of the county, 
nearly all of which will rot and be a total loss.'' Half the area of La- 
mar is prairie, and the other half, 288,000 acres, is in forest, heavily- 
wooded ; the heavier-timbered land, yielding 100 cords, sells at $5 per 
acre. In Boicie^ one-eighth of the forest is pine, with the oaks intermin- 
gled 5 the remainder, on the bottoms of Red and Sulphur Rivers, 
abounds in ash, hickory, walnut, white oak, etc. Lavaca comprises 
about nine hundred and fifty square miles, rather less than half of which 
is in forest. The sources of the JLiavaca and Kavidad, spreading out 
like the leaves of a fan in the northern part, are thinly fringed with 
forest, which increases in density as the streams converge into the 
lower valley, a broad bottom-land covered with forest. Among the 
most valuable kinds is live-oak. About 50 per cent, of Colorado is 
well wooded ; the upland with post-oak, live-oak, hickory, and pecan ; 
all used to good advantage at shop^ in the county for making wagons, 



STATISTICS OF F0EE8TEY. 



287 



carts, and farujing implemeuts. The bottoms are covered with heavy 
forests of live and other oaks, ash, and walnut. The walnut, much used 
in furniture, is susceptible of a very fine polish, and considered supe- 
rior to more northern walnut. The nut ^f the pecan is gathered in 
great quantities and shipped to northern markets. About 10 per cent, 
of the area of Collin^ principally creek and river bottoms, is timber- 
lajid. A considerable portion of the growth is osage orange, " believed 
to be the most durable timber on this continent.'' Its seed is being 
shipped in large quantities to many parts of the country, to be planted 
for hedges. Of the area of Saysj 25 per cent, is in forest. Juniper-ce- 
dar is the most valuable, bringing $5 per acre. Wood, delivered, is 
w^orth $3 per cord. Lampasas has been settled twenty years, and there 
has been an increase rather than a diminution of forest-growth. The 
mesquite, valuable for tanning purposes, and from which a gum exudes 
the same as, or similar to, the gum-arabic of commerce, is so pervading 
and rapid in growth, that denuded tracts will be covered \yith a dense 
growth of it in five to ten years. The forests contain all the usual hard 
woods.^ About 33 per cent of the laud in Dallas is in forests, valued at 
$5 per acre. Among all varieties common to the State, osage orange 
and cedar are the most valuable. 



Coantio9. 



Anderson . 
Angelina.. 
Atascosa . . 
Aastin — 
Bandera . . . 
Bastrop ... 

Beo 

Bell 

Bexar 

Blanco .... 
Bosque.... 
Bo^^... 
Brazoria .. 
Brazos .... 

Brown 

Burleson . . 
Bnmot — 
Caldwell.. 
Calbonn... 
Cameron . . 
Chambers . 
Cherokee.. 
Coleman .. 

Collin 

Colorado .. 

Comal.. 

Comanche . 

Cooke 

Coryell 

Dallas 

Davis 

Demmit... 

Dentou 

DeWitt... 

Dnval 

Eastland . . 

Ellis 

El Paso . . , 
Ensinal ... 

Erath 

FaUs 

Fannin.... 
Fayette . . . 
Fort Bond. 
Freestone . 

Frio 

Galveston . 
Gillespie .. 
Goliacl.... 
Gonzales . . 
Grayson... 



Acres. 



Per cent 



10, 614 

93,800 

57, 165 

111, 126 

800 

4,193 



5G,682 

7,129 

820 

32,777 

104,392 

107, 562 

5,955 



76, 450 
21,488 
55, 041 
610 
29, 445 

0,056 
376 

1,300 
81,731 
80,896 

5,255 



57, 282 
22,386 
56, 057 
182, 001 
180 
33, 054 
67,733 



29,859 



850 

19, 157 

32,224 

60 

126, 455 

79, 312 

24,187 

5,112 



20,240 
14, 124 
17,553 
50.'>16 



43.9 
86.7 
91.4 
37.8 
6.7 
1.7 



31.3 

6.0 

1.7 

29.0 

82.2 

41.9 

4.6 



45.9 

21.7 

44.1 

26.2 

8.7 

6.9 

0.9 

74.2 

29.1 

55.6 

4.5 



51.4 
23.1 
21.8 
77.0 
20.3 
36.2 

;«.8 



17.3 



19.4 
32.7 
30.4 



36.0 
52.0 
12.4 
89.3 



45.2 

3S.6 

d.6 

29.8 



Counties. 



Grimes 

Guadalupe . . . 

Hamilton 

Hardin 

Harris 

Harrison 

Hays 

Henderson . . . 

Hidalgo 

Hill 

Hood 

Hopkins 

Houston 

Hnnt 

Jack 

Jackson 

Jasper 

Jefferson 

Johnson 

Karnes 

Kaufman . — 
Kendall.!.... 

Kerr 

Kimball 

Kinney 

Lamar 

Lampasas .... 

La Salle 

Lavaca 

Leon 

Liberty . 

Limestone — 

Live Oak 

Llano 

Madison 

Marion 

Hason 

Matagorda .. 
Maverick — 
McCuUoch . . 
McLennan ... 
McHuUen... 

Medina 

Menard 

Milam 

Montague.... 

Montgomery 

Nacogdoches 

Navoxro 

Newton 

«NuoceB 



Acres. 



397, 

67, 

6, 

2, 

55, 

119, 

2, 

36, 

38, 

H, 

132, 



025 
734 
012 
450 
871 
409 
357 
507 
568 
401 
536 
157 ! 



Percent 



100, 

2, 

36, 

164, 

4S, 

42, 

1. 

5, 

3, 



920 
475 
736 
456 
575 
123 
851 
451 
435 
383 



144, 



208 
434 



(> 



1«>, 

85, 

1. 

2:j, 

12. 

132, 
85, 

r.4. 



764 
309 
868 
299 
024 
93:j 
309 
017 
l.'iO 
763 



15. 



305 
577 
210 



67, 

.25. 

191, 

1G4, 
97, 
88, 

217, 



700 
372 
817 
722 
477 
0'^ 
623 
200 



75.3 

42.1 

39.9 

9.8 

36.8 

56.4 

8.7 

0.2 

25.4 

32.3 

25.7 

56.1 



42.8 

B4.3 

49.1 

87.2 

2.3 

45.4 

85.0 

1.8 

8.8 

7.6 



70.5 
0.8 



0.8 

8]. 8 

rj.6 

0.4 
40.7 

:r7.!» 

75.0 

73.4 

0.7 

50.5 



e. 1 

22. 9 



8.2 
45.8 
89.5 
73.0 
40.9 
29.6 
89.3 
34.3 



288 



REPOIW OF THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 



Coautios. 



Acres. 



I 



Oranprc 

Tunola 

J*ark«T 

Polk 

llctl Kiver 

I{t€uRio 

llobcrtsou 

]lUHk 

Sabine , 

San Augustine 
San Patricio... 

Sun Saba 

Shackelford ... 

Shelby 

Smith 

Starr 

Stephen 

Tarrant 

Titua 

Travis 



fi, 248 
'2:»\ 12.> 

Ki.ms 

1K»,8I7 
2:>-l, 0>7 

71, IIGO 

2.\'>, 397 

J;n,734 

(5. 1(17 

ir., aro 

3,303 



Per cent 



47.8 
60.2 
5a4 
84.7 
70.3 
25.1 
6.5.9 
74.2 
84,5 
2.7 
29.5 
10.7 



Coanties. 



259, 442 

500 

1, 170 

HG,435 

217, 123 

27, 846 



75.8 
5.8 
53.7 
51.0 
61.9 
14.4 



Trinity 

Tyler 

Upshar 

Uvaldo 

TanZant.... 

r Victoria 

Walker 

Washincton. 

Webb 

"Wharton . . . . 
Williamson.. 

Wilson 

Wise 

Wood 

Young 

Zapata 

Zavala 



Total. 



Acres. 


Per cent 


G3, 414 


76. G 


139, 670 


72.5 


120,733 


41.2 


119,232 


7a 7 


22.255 


22.4 


85, 763 


59.9 


141, 185 


44.4 


2,685 


22.7 


40,997 


50.1 


81,128 


46.5 


27,850 


46.8 


13,211 


52.1 


121, 698 


74.3 


500 


62.*8 


142,362 


40.9 


150 


9.6 


7,662,294 


41.6 



Arkansas. — The forest-lands in this State dififer from those of Texas 
chiefly in yiehiiug no mesquite, less of osage orange, and more of pine 
and gum. Dallas has scarcely an uncleared acre not covered with val- 
uable timber of i)ine, oak, and hickory. In Dorsey, 75 per cent, of the 
area is "covered with as fine timber as the world produces.'^ The pine- 
forests average 15 to 20 M of fine-lumber per acre, "besides an immense 
amount of wood." The swamps along the Saline Eiver are covered with 
a magnificent growth of hickory, cypress, gum, and walnut, which can 
be rafted to New Orleans. It is anticipated that the timber in the county 
will be worth millions when railroads in progress are completed. The 
forests in Craighead include all common varieties, and it is estimated 
that they cannot be exhausted within this generation or the next. The 
soil is reported good, and the forest-land cheap. In Fulto7i, as farms 
are beiyg opened, fires on the prairies diminish, and the destruction of 
woods from that cause becomes less and less annually. Lands imked 
of timber a few years ago are now covered with a fine growth of hickory 
and oak, and notwithstanding there has been much timber cut for farm 
])urposes, there is now much more in the county than ten years ago. 
Craicford was originally all timbered. Among the usual varieties the 
oaks predominate; yellow locust, mulberry, and osage orange grow iu 
less quantities. Oak-lumber, delivered, sells at $18 per M. Saint Fran- 
cis reports 67 per cent, of the land covered with fine timber of oak, pop- 
lar, ash, cypress, and hickory. Along the Saint Francis Eiver are largo 
quantities of cotton-wood. In Ashley, the pine-forests will yield 20 to 25 
M of lumber, and the forests of hard wood 60 to 200 cords of wood, per 
acre. The value is nomiual owing to lack of transportation. Marion 
is well timbered with pine-forests, interspersed with the oaks. Sevier 
claims the finest pine-forests in the State, and on the river-bottoms large 
forests of the very best timber of oaks, walnut, cherry, and cypress. 
Latcrence reports the uncultivated portion one solid forest, including the 
prevailing hard-\yood timbers and cypress, all of the finest quality. 
There is no export traffic, and considerable quantities of lumber are 
destroyed annually in clearing land for cultivation. Cross abounds in 
timber, varying in kinds and qualities, much of which is destroyed in 
clearing land. Of the area in Monroe, 80 per cent., being over 300,000 
acres, is in mixed forests. The white-oak, hickory, and pine timber 
would be exceedingly valuable with market facilities. Cypress abounds, 
and more or less is shipped to New Orleans. Lumber, at the mills, com- 
mands $20 per M. Less than 5 per cent, of Montgomery is in cultivation, 
and all the remainder is heavily timbered. The larger part still belongs 



STATISTICS OF FORESTRY. 289 

to the United States. The oaks predominate, with pine, walnut, hickory, 
etc. Yell is heavily timbered ; on the bottoms with oak, sweet-gao^, 
and cotton-wood ; on the ridges and mountain-lands, with yellow and 
pitch pine, large and tall. Large quantities of pine, ash, and walnut 
are floated down the Arkansas to Little Eock, and some to Kew Orleans. 
The yield on the bottoms varies from 160 to 220 cords per acre. The 
quantities of white oak, hickory, and ash, of the finest quality for car- 
riage and other manufactures, are alleged to be inexhaustible. The 
report states, " If there is anything in which this part of the United 
States excels all other parts, it is the variety, quantity, and quality of 
its timber.'^ Many oak and cotton- wood trees are found 6 and 6 feet in 
diameter. Boone reports 75 per cent, of its land in forest, and one-third 
of this yellow pine of the best quality, belonging to the Government. 
Pine-lumber, at the mill, is worth $12.50 per M. The remaining forest is 
principally of black-jack and hickory, and yields 15 to 20 cords per acre. 
In Independence^ pine is scarce and inferior, and the lumber worth $25 
per M. Wood, on the river-banks, is worth $2.50 per cord ; but timber, 
other than pine, is not held in any value, and in buying and selling land 
by the acre often only the cultivated is cointed, the timber-land — s